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Full text of "1794. History of Muskingum County, Ohio, with illustrations and biographical sketches of prominent men and pioneers"

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The History department 

Dafe Due 


'luinirlSfiPffi'Xi Ohio, 


3 1924 028 848 673 


The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 






Illustrations and Biographical Sketches 





Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by 
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 

Author and Compilers Preface, 

In presenting the record concerning the former inhabitants of this country, the term 
aboriginal has been avoided, and the distinctive appellations, Mound-Builders and Ameri- 
•cah Indians, chosen instead, for reason obvious to the intelligent reader. 

Alexander W. Bradford ["American Antiquities," 1841] was pleased to speak of the 
former inhabitants of our country as the Bed Race, and to say that antiquarian writings 
have so often been exposed to the charge of being replete with improbable conjectures 
and conclusions, which vanish at the touch of sober reason, that this interesting class of 
historical investigations seldom receives the perusal of the plain-thinking portion of the 
public. For this reason, the first portion of his valuable work, with but few exceptions, 
is strictly confined to a description of the Ancient American monuments, pursuing, in as 
faithful a manner as was consistent with proper brevity, the language of his authorities, 
thus aflfording the reader an opportunity to form his own conclusions. This course, so 
manifestly fair, has been adopted by the compiler of this work ; . and yet, with all due 
respect to Mr.. Bradford, the writer dissents from his opinion when he says: "In relation 
to the question of origin, no predisposition in favor of the result to which I. have arrived 
has influenced the investigation ; for, biased at the outset strongly towards the theory of 
a migration by Behring's Straits, it was only at a later stage of the examination, and 
after a long struggle, that I was forced to abandon this idea, with what reason others may 
determine." In this disagreement the compiler is sustained by the authors quoted in the 
■chapter on the Mound-Builders. 

The late Elijah H. Church kindly placed his gleanings in historic data and personal 
reminiscences at the disposal of the compiler, a generous act that his friends and com- 
munity will duly appreciate. 

To the members of the press for the free use of their files, aflfording a large amount of 
valuable data, grateful acknowledgments are made; and it is believed that they, who 
know so well the difficulty of obtaining reliable information, and deserve so much from 
community for their pains — they who are so often censured for the caste of their papers, 
while yet the faithful mirrors of the doings of the world in which they move — will have 
a feeling of generous charity for the failures that may appear. That such will be found, 
no one is more conscious, and no one could more sincerely regret, than the writer. 


To the county and city officials, members of the bar, the medical profession, teachers^ 
and last, though by no means least, the pastors of the numerous churches, for most cordial 
co-operation, sincerest thanks are again tendered. 

To the pioneers in the various townships, for generous aid in obtaining reliable data,, 
acknowledgments are also made. 

With the consciousness of having endeavored to do my whole duty in the compilation, 

of this work, it is now submitted. 





In this volume every line of the author's copy has been printed; and though sub-^ 
scribers may think the work is small, they should bear in mind that the paper, though 
thin, is strong and of excellent quality, and that every page is a full and honest page, no 
" stuffing" to get a large work being allowed. 

Every endeavor was made by the author and compiler to get a correct and com- 
plete history of the county. That this has been done, any one who has had any ex- 
perience in, or who has carefully examined such works, cannot for a moment doubt. It 
is the most exhaustive and complete in detail of any similar work the publisher has issued 
and it should be well and liberally received by the people of Muskingum county. 


Columbus, Ohio, December, 1882. PUBLISHER 


CHAPTER I. — The Mound Builders — The Brush Creek Mound and its Disclosures.... 10-26 

n. — The American Indians — In Ohio and the Muskingum Valley...; 26-43 

III. — Political History — Legislation and Officers of the Law — Court Houses 

and Jails 43-66 

IV. — Zanesville — As a Trading Post — Ebenezer Zane — Indian Trail — Zane's 
Patent — Zane, McCulloch, Putnam,i_Dr. Mathews, Whipple, Jona Daven- 
port, Isaac Zane, John Mclntire, King Louis Phillipe — Fourth of July 
1800 — Zanesville Incorporated — Boys and Girls of i82oi-2i — Dam — 
Land Office — Revenue — Street Railways — Industries ofiBBi, etc., etc. 66-99 

V- — Town Plat OF Zanesville — Described 99-109 

VI. — United States Mail — In Zanestown in 1794 and Zanesville in 188 1 109-113 

VII. — Boats and Boating 113-115 

VIII. — Burying Grounds 115 

IX.— Schools — The First School — The First Public School Building — Semi- 
nary — Academy — Mclntire School — School Law — Board of Education — 
First Graded School — Graded System Completed — First Superinten- 
dent — First Lady Principal — Teachers— Superintendent's Report — At- 
tendance for the Last Ten Years — Cost of the Schools for the Last Ten 
Years — Regulations — Boundaries of Districts — Directors from 1838 to 
1881 , inclusive. Parochial Schools — St. Columbia's Academy — German 

Lutheran School. Zanesville Business College 116-140 

X. — Physicians and Medical Societies 141 

XI. — Putnam — The Town of Springfield — Putnam Hill Park — First Store — 
First Physician— First Child Born— Post Office— M. E. Church— Black- 
smiths — Deaths — Tanneries — Taverns — Banks — Name of Town Chang- 
ed — Manufacturing Company — Woolen Mills — Potteries — Oil Mill — 
Societies — Foundry — Village Incorporated — Glass Works — Bucket Fac- 
tory — Loan and Savings Association — Classical Institute — Annexation 
to Zanesville — "ClifFwood" — Merchants, Mechanics and Professional 

Men of Springfield — Reminiscences — Natchez.. 143-157 ■ 

XII. — EccLESiASTicAN HisTORY — Embracing twenty-two Religious Organiza- 
tions within the limits of Zanesville 157-187 

XIII. — Secret Societies — The Masonic Fraternity and Directory — Odd Fellows' 
Fraternity and their Benevolent Association — Grand United Order of 
Odd Fellows (Colored) — Druids — Independent Order of Red Men — 
Knights of Pythias — B'Nai Berith — Kesher Shel Barsel — Knights of 

Honor — Royal Arcanum — Patriotic Order Sons of America 187-204 

XIV- — The Press — The Weekly Advocate— The Zanesville Courier— The Daily 
Democrat — The Daily Era — The Zanesville Post — The Zanesville Sig- 
nal—The City Times— The Daily Morning Times— The Dresden 
Chronicle — New Concord Enterprise — Universal Sorrow, when President 

Garfield Died 205-216 

XV. — Water Works 216 

XVI. — Banks and Banking 217 

XVII. — Fire Department 220-225 

CHAP. XVIII. — Societies — The Ohio Bible Society — Temperance — Emancipation — St. 
Nicholas— Old Settlers— Y. M. C. A.— Building— Woman's Benevo- 
lent — St. Joseph's 225-239 

XIX. — Library 240 

XX. — Telegraph and Telephone 241 

XXI. — Elections — Since the Adoption of the Present City Charter 242 

XXII. — Music — " Mess Johnson " and his Viol — First Reed and String Band — 
Harmonic Band — Mechanics' Band — Atwood's Brass Band — Bauer's 
Band — Heck's Band and Orchestra — Organs and Pianos — Vocal 
Music — H. D. Munson — Music in the Public Schools — Harmonic 


Society — Music Store — Professors Lilenthall, Walberg, Machold, 
Miller, Strachauer, Meising, Rowe and Luse. Musical Societies — 
Concordia, Mannerchor, Frohsinn, Harmonic, German Singing So- 
ciety — Choral Association — The Mendelssohn Glee Club 

XXIII. — Fine Art — In Zanesville 

XXIV.— The Opera House 

XXV. — Eleemosynary Institutions — Muskingum County Infirmary — John 
Mclntire's Will — Muskingum County Children's Home — John Mc-In- 

tire Children's Home 

XXVI. — Muskingum Improvement 

XXVIL— Railroads 

XXVIII. — Agricultural AND Horticultural Societies 

XXIX. — Geological Report of Muskingum County — A. B.Andrews 

XXX. — Military History of Muskingum County 

XXXI. — The Muskingum Mission 













Muskingum 1797 

Newton i797 

Harrison 1798 

Jefferson and Cass 1799 

Madison 1800 

Salt Creek 1800 

Washington 1801 371 

Adams 1801 377 

Perry 1802 380 

Springfield 1802 383 

Wayne 1802 392 




Licking 1802 

Hopewell 1803 

Union . 



.From 1803 to 1806 415 




Blue Rock 1805 

Rich Hill 1805 

Meigs 1807 

Highland 1808 451 

Monroe , 1810 

Salem 1810 

Brush Creek i8jo 

Clay 1812 

Jackson 1815 



Church, E. H 

Foley, G. W 

Spangler, B. F 

Amos, W. L 

Larzelere, J. R 

Court House 

Jewett, H.J 

Buckingham, A 

Schultz's Opera House 

Wiles, L. & Son 

Shinnick Block 

Glessner & Gilbert 

Spangler & Finley 

American Encaustic Tile Co. 

Clark, S.W 

Sturtevant & Martin 

High School 

Werner, H. C 

Mitchell & Stults 

Herdman, Harris & Co 

Farquhar, O. C 

Putnam Female Seminary . . . . 

Epply, William 

Allen, J. B 

Frank, L. & Son 

Grant, Alexander 

Bailey & Porter 

Graham, W. H. & Co 





















Spencer, E 240 

County Infirmary 252 

Mclntyre Children's Home 252 

Stevens, W 256 

Schoene, H 264 

Allen & Munson 272 

Merkle, A 280 

Ungemach & Stern 280 

Blandy, B. A 288 

Dodd, J. H 296 

England Bros 304 

Jacobs, C. & Co 304 

Hermann, J. J 320 

Griffith & Wedge 328 

Lemert, L. J. & Son 352 

Rambo, L. & Co 352 

Barron, O. W 360 

Rambo Bros 368 

Adams, J. L. & Co 368' 

Lemert & Brammer 376 

Hewitt, Samuel 384 

Muskingum College 420 

Speer, A. & Son 424 

Wilkins, H. H 424 

The Times 432 

The Signal 440 

The Weekly Visitor 448 









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History of Muskingum County, Ohio. 






A. y. Conani, A. M., Member of the St. Louis 
Academy of Science, and of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancetnent of Science. P. 13 : 
" Many centuries ago, the inhabitants of Amer- 
ica, who were the authors of the great works in 
the Mississippi Valley, were driven south by an 
army of savage warriors from the north. After 
many hundred years, a messenger returned from 
the exiled tribes, with the alarming news that a 
terrible beast had landed on their shores, who 
was carrying desolation wherever he went, with 
thunder and fire. Nothing could stay his pro- 
gress, and no doubt he would travel over the 
land in his fury. 

" It is conjectured that this beast of thunder and 
fire referred to the Spanish invasion of Mexico. 
The Tuscaroras, according to the account pub- 
lished by Mr. David Cusick in 1827 (quoted by 
Prof. Rafinesque), had a well-arranged system 
of chronology, dating back nearly three thousand 
years. Their traditions locate their original 
home north of the great lakes. In process of 
time, some of their people migrated to the river 
Kanawag (S"t. Lawrence). After many years, a 
foreign people came by the sea, and settled south 
of the lakes. Then follow long accounts of wars, 
and fierce invasions by nations from the north, 
led by confederate kings and a renowned hero 
named Galatan. Many years again elapse, and 
the king of the confederacy pays a visit to a 
mighty potentate whose seat of empire is called 
the Golden City, situated south of the lakes ; and 
so on, down to the year 1143, when the traditions 

p. 14: "No one can examine these traditions 
without. being convinced that they have some 
great historic' facts for their basis, however in- 
credulous he maybe as to the correctness of their 
dates, or their pretentions to so high antiquity.'' 

p. 16-17: "The traditions concerning these 
works (mounds) are, in substance, that they were 
constructed by a people who were accustomed to 

burn their dead, and were only partially occu- 
pied. Each family formed a circle sacred to its 
own use. When a member died, the body was 
placed in the family circle, and burned to ashes. 
A thin covering of earth was then sprinkled over 
the whole. This process was repeated as often 
as a death occurred, until theinclosure was filled. 
The ring was then raised about two feet, and 
again was ready for further use. As each addi- 
tional elevation would of necessity be less in 
diameter than the preceding, in the end a conical 
mound would be the result." * * " While it 
is no doubt true that the mound builders were an 
agricultural people, it is quite reasonable ;to sup- 
pose, from the fact that their most extensive 
works are found upon the shores of lake's and 
banks of rivers, that fish formed no inconsidera- 
ble item in their bill of fare. A strong proof 
that they were here, many centuries ago." 

Idem, p. 50: Decayed Skeleton. — "At the 
depth of about two feet the first skeleton was 
reached, lying upon- its back, with head towards 
the east. All the small bones were thoroughly 
decayed. About six feet north of this, another 
skeleton was disclosed, evidently buried in a 
sitting posture. This was so much decomposed 
that only a few of the thicker portions of the skull 
could be secured. Near this was also found the 
skeleton of a very aged female, the skull in a 
better state of preservation. In companionship 
with these was a flint spear-head of the rudest 
pattern, as were all the implements of stone — 
which were not numerous — which the deposit 
contained. With the exception of the rude spear- 
head, their presence seemed to have been acci- 
dental, and this also may have been so. Among 
the most interesting relics were articles of bone, 
such as awls, scrapers,' and the like, and occa- 
sionally one made from the inner surface of a 
shell, with a sharp edge. [These disclosures 
were found in Pulaski county, in one of the many 
famous saltpetre caves so often mentioned in the 
early annals of the State (of Missouri), with which 
the Gasconade abounds. The opening is in the 
face of a perpendicular limestone bluff", which ex- 
tends along the river for many miles.] And it is 
worthy of note that saltpetre can't save bones 

Idem, p. 60: "The peaceful tribes who once 
dwelt in this region of the Mississippi Valley, 



upon either shore, found no quarries of stone of 
easy cleavage, or which could be wrought with 
their simple tools for the erection of their edifices. 
Doubtless, wood was the only material at their 
commaiid, or, possibly, sun-dried brick. The 
dust oi their temples is gone with that of their 
builders ; their altars are crumbled, the sacred 
fire is extinguished, which the sun shall never- 
more re-kindle. But the proud monument of 
their national solemnities still rears its majestic 
form in the midst of a vast alluvial plain of 
exhaustless fertility, a grand memorial of days 
more ancient than the last migration of the Aztec 
race to the plains of Anahuac, who found there 
the same structures, which they appropriated and 
by which they perpetuated the worship of the 
land of their fathers as well as that of the people 
whom they subjugated. It is not unreasonable 
to suppose that when, from its elevated summit, 
the smoke of the yearly sacrifice ascended in 
one vast column heavenward, from the great 
work above described, that it was the signal for 
simultaneous sacrifices from lesser altars through- 
out the whole length of the great plain, in the 
centre of which it stands, and that the people 
upon the Missouri shore responded with answer- 
ing first from those high places which once stood 
upon the western bank of the river, but are now 

*' Here we may well believe was the holy city, 
to which the tribes made annual pilgrimages to 
celebrate the national feasts and sacrifices. But 
not here alone ; for in this vast homogeneous 
race, one in arts and worship, had the same 
high and hoty places, though of less imposing 
magnitude, in the valley of the Ohio, in Alabama 
and Mississippi." 

P. 67-8: "From an interesting account of 
certain mounds in Utah, communicated by Mr. 
Amaza Potter to the 'Eureka Sentinel,' of Ne- 
vada, as copied by the ' Western Review of Sci- 
ence and Industry,' I make the following ex- 
tracts : 

" ' The mounds are situated on what is known 
as the Payson farm, and are six in number, cov- 
ing about twenty acres of ground. They^ are 
from ten to eighteen feet in height, and from five 
hundred to one thousand feet in circumference.' 

" The explorations divulged no hidden treas- 
ure so far, but have proved to us that there once 
undoxibtedly existed here a more enlightened 
race of human beings than that of the Indians 
who inhabited this country, ands chesrordwoe 
have'been traced back hundreds of years.' 

"'While engaged in excavating one of the 
larger mounds, we discovered the feet of a large 
skeleton, and carefully removing the hardened 
earth which was embedded, we succeeded in 
unearthing a large skeleton without injury. The 
human frame-work measured six feet six inches 
in length, and, from appearances, it was un- 
doubtedly that of a male. In the right hand 
was a large iron or steel weapon, which had 
been buried with the body, but which crumbled 
to pieces on handling. Near the skeleton was 
also found pieces of cedar wood, cut in various 

fantastic shapes, and in a state of perfect pre- 
servation ; the carving showing that the people 
of this unknown race were acquainted with the 
use of edged tools. We also found a large 
stone pipe, the stem of which was inserted be- 
tween the teeth of the skeleton. The bowl of 
the pipe weighs five ounces, and is made of sand- 
stone, and the aperture for tobacco had the 
appearance of having been drilled out.' 

" ' We found another skeleton near that of the 
above-mentioned, which was not quite as large, 
and must be that of a woman. There was a 
nea'ly carved tombstone near the head of this 
skeleton. Close by, the floor was covered with 
a hard cement, to all appearances a part of the 
solid rock, which, after patient labor and ex- 
haustive work, we succeeded in penetrating, and 
found it was the corner of a box, similarly con- 
structed, in which we lound about three pints of 
wheat kernels, most of which was dissolved when 
brought in contact with the air. A few of the 
kernels found in the center of the heap looked 
bright, and retained their freshness on being 
exposed. These were carefully preserved, and 
last spring planted and grew nicely. We raised 
four and a half pounds of heads from these 
grains. The wheat is unlike any other raised 
in this country, and produces a large yield. It 
is the club variety ; the heads are ver\' long, and 
hold very large grains.' 

" ' We find houses in all the mounds, the 
rooms of which are as perfect as the day they 
were built. All the apartments are nicely plas- 
tered, some white, others in red color. Crockery 
ware, cooking utensils, vases — many of a pattern 
similar to the present age — are also found. Upon 
one large stone jug or vase can be traced a per- 
fect delineation of the mountains near here for a 
distance of twenty miles. We have several mill- 
stones used for grinding corn, and plentv of 
charred corn-cobs, with kernels not unlike what 
we know as yellow dent corn. We judge, from 
our observations, that those ancient dwellers of 
our country followed agriculture for a livelihood, 
and had many of the arts and sciences known to 
us, as we found molds made of clav for casting 
different implements, needles made of deer-horns, 
and lasts made of stone, and which were in good 
shape. We also found man^- trinkets, such as 
white stone beads and marbles, as good as made 
now ; also, small squares of polished stones 
resembling dominoes, but for what use intended, 
wo cannot determine.' 

" The above account we see no reason to dis- 
credit, and can only wish that the examinations 
had been more thorough, and the account more 
explicit as to the dimensions of rooms and other 
details. From what is stated, however, we con- 
clude that the authors of these works could not 
have belonged to the present Indian race, but 
were undoubtedly of the mound-building people 
of the Mississippi Valley." 

Many pages of interesting data might be ad- 
ded from Mr. Conant's great work, but the limit 
of this paper will not permit. That his opinions 
are entitled to great respect no intelligent reader 



can doubt. His own vast store of information 
from observation has been added the wisdom o 
Garcillaso De La Vega, Prof. Refinesque, Dan- 
iel Willson, L.L. D., Alexander W. Bradford, 
J. W. Foster, Edward L. Clark, Wm. Pidgeon, 
Prof. G. C. Swallow, Sir John Lubbock, M. L. 
Figuier, M. Marlot, John Evans, Lewis C. Beck, 
H. M. Brackenridge, James Adair and others. 
So that while the names of tribes or individuals 
may not be given, it is safe to accept the opinion 
given by Mr, Conant in the fifth chapter o 
"Vanished Races:" "Notwithstanding the va- 
riety of form presented in tlie multitudinous 
structures throughout the continent of North 
America, the comparison of many of the most 
prominent characteristics makes it reasonably 
certain that one people were the authors of them 
all. . . . It seems highly probable that there 
were two slowly moving streams of migration 
from the north ; the most important one on the 
east of the Mississippi, the other through the ter- 
ritories lying west of the river. The southward 
movement of a vast people seems to have been 
arrested in the valley of the Ohio for a long pe- 
riod of time. Otherwise the fact can hardly be 
accounted for that here occur the most stupen- 
dous monuments of their industry and skill, and 
also the most striking evidences of the stability 
and repose of their national life. Here the 
mound builders reached the highest stage of civ- 
ilization they ever attained this side of Central 
America and Mexico. The movement upon the 
western side of the river, while it had its source 
in the one great fountain-head at the north, does 
not seem to have been so well defined in all its 
characteristics, notwithstanding the fact that the 
population in Missouri at one time was as great, 
and, we have reason to think, greater than in 
Ohio. The cause may have been that they never 
enjoyed a season of repose and exemption from 
war to such a degree as to render it possible for 
them to devote the time and concentrate their 
energies upon their internal affaii's to the extent 
which resulted in the more advanced civilization 
of the eastern tribes. There seems to have been 
one prevaiHng system of religion among them 
all, which was based upon the worship of heav- 
enly bodies. This remark applies not only to 
the people of North America, but to the ancient 
inhabitants of the southern continent as well. 
The temple mounks in both, though built of dif- 
ferent materials, are the same in form and pur- 
pose. . . . Manj^ able writers upon Ameri- 
can Antiquities have given much attention to the 
numerous class of works which have usually been 
denominated sacrificial mounds. . . . To 
my own mind the evidences are almost conclu- 
sive that these should be denominated Cremation 
Mounds ; and that up to a certain period this was 
the usual, perhaps, universal, method of dispos- 
ing of the remains of departed friends. The size 
of the mound would then indicate the rank of 
him whose body was thus consumed therein. 
Upon no other hypothesis can we account for the 
earth being heaped upon the so-called altars 
while the fires were yet burning, leaving some 

portions of wood yet unconsumed. The latter 
custom seems to have been the one universally 
practiced by the mound-builders of Missouri. 

Should the idea here advanced be substantiated 
by future investigation, that cremation was once 
the prevailing custom, and that at some period it 
was discontinued and mound buried adopted in 
its place, then it would seem altogether probable 
that Southeastern Missouri was peopled at some 
time subsequent to that event, and therefoi-e the 
works so abundant there are more recent than 
those of the Ohio Valley. 

John T. Short, in the North Americans of An- 
tiquity, p. 130: "It is quite certain the cranies 
of the Northwest Mounds, as compared with 
those of the Mississippi region, clearly point to 
the fact of relationship with Asia. Strong reas- 
ons for supposing a remote intercourse between 
Asia and the Pacific Coast." Idem, p. 147: 
"No claim has been advanced, we believe, which 
advocates an actual Egyptian colonization* of the 
New World, but strong arguments have been 
used to show that the architecture and sculpture 
of Central America and Mexico have been influ- 
enced from Egypt, if not directly attributable to 
Egyptian artisans." Mr. Bancroft remarks : 
"The customs, manner of life, and physical ap- 
pearance of the natives on both sides of the 
Straits are identical, as a multitude of witnesses 
testify." Again: "If the original population of 
this continent were not Japanese,- at least a con- 
siderable infusion of Japanese blood into the orig- 
inal stock has taken place." Idem, p. 154: 
"The only remaining theory, and probably the 
most important of all, because of its purel}^ scien- 
tific character, which presents itself for our con- 
sideration is that which not only considers the 
civilization of Ancient America to have been in- 
digenous, but also claims the inhabitants them- 
selves to have been autoch-thonic ; in a word , the 
process of evolution, or in some other way, the 
first Americans were either developed from a 
lower order in the animal kingdom, or were 
created on the soil of this continent. As the lat- 
ter involves the denial of the unity of the race, it 
requires proof before we can consider it." P. 
187 : "We have every reason to believe that the 
men of the mounds were capable of executing in 
sculptures reliable representations of animate ob- 
jects. The perfection of the stone carvings, as 
well as the terra cotta moulded figures of animals 
and birds obtained from the mounds, have ex- 
cited the wonder and admiration of their discov- 
erers. Against the Ethnic Unity : Indians there- 
fore not Mound-Builders." P. 190: "Probably 
one of the most incontrovertible arguments 
against American Ethnic Unity is that which 
rests upon the unparalleled diversity of language 
which meets the philologist everj^where. The 
actual number of American languages and dia- 
lects is as yet unascertained, but is estimated at 
thirteen hundred ; six hundred of which Mr. 
Bancroft has classified in his third volume of 
'The Native Races of the Pacific States.' " 

Idem, p. 195 : "We call attention to the words 
of the distinguished Prof. Haeckel, in his "His- 



tory of Creation," which are as follows : 'Prob- 
abl}' America was first peopled from Northeast- 
ern Asia by the same tribe of Mongols from 
whom the Polar men (Hyperboreans and Esqui- 
maux) have also branched. This tribe spread first 
in North America, and from thence migrated over 
the isthmus of Central America down to South 
America, at the extreme south of which the 
species degenerated very much by adaptation to 
the unfavorable conditions of existence. But it 
is also posssible that Mongols and Polynesians 
emigrated from the west and mixed with the 
former tribe. In any case the aborigines of 
America came over from the old world, and did 
not, as some suppose, in any way originate out 
of American apes. Catarhine, or narrow-nosed 
apes, never at any period existed in America.' 
The same argument holds good if it be ascer- 
tained that both man and apes developed from a 
common ancestor. With these authoritative ut- 
terances from the most celebrated representatives 
of the development school, we shall rest the fan- 
ciful hypothesis of the autoch-thonic origin of the 
ancient American population." 

P. 232 : "It is common to look upon the Tol- 
tecs and Aztecs as the first inhabitants of Mex- 
ico. Such a conclusion is erroneous, since they 
were preceded in Central Southern America and 
even in Anahuac by people of different extrac- 
tion from themselves, and by scattering tribes of 
their own linguistic family — the Nahua. And 
all the early writers refer to them in terms which 
indicate that they were disposed to accept the 
existence of a race of giants as a fact !" 

P. 234: "The tribes which figured conspicu- 
ously in Mexico prior to the Toltecs, and not re- 
lated to the Nahuas, were the Miztecs and Zapo- 
tecs, whose language was not Maya, as some 
have supposed." P. 234: "Their civilization," 
says Bancroft, "in Oajaca, rivalled that of the 

J. P. MacLean, p. 131 : "Indians have no tra- 
ditions concerning them, and know nothing about 
this people." P. 135: '■'■The decayed Condition 
of the Skeleton. — In nearly every case the skel- 
eton has been found in such a state of decay as 
to forbid an intelligent examination. Probably 
not over half a dozen have been recovered in a 
condition suitable for restoration. This is all the 
more remarkable from the fact that the earth 
around them has invariably been found wonder- 
felly compact and dry. The locality, the method 
of burial, the earth impervious to water, all tend 
to the preservation of the body. Well preserved 
skeletons have been taken from the tumuli of 
Europe, known to have been deposited there not 
less than 2,000 years ago. The mode of burial 
was not better adapted for the preservation of the 
body than that of the mound-builders. Yet the 
latter were exhumed in a decomposed and 
crumbling condition. From this consideration 
alone a greater antiquity must be assigned to 
them than to the burrows of Europe. This 
point has been lost sight of by some modern stu- 

From the Chautauqua Librar}- of English His- 

tory and Literature, chapter i. Britons and Ro- 
mans. I. British Period: from date unknown 
to 55 B. C. : "The earliest inhabitants of Britain. 
In days long past, while the children of Israel, 
perhaps, were groaning in bondage and Moses 
was yet unknown, a non-Arj^an people, pursued 
by want or driven by war, settled in England. 
The Island was then a desolate waste of marsh 
land and forest. The bear and the wolf roamed 
through the thick woods, and the beaver built in 
the reeky fens, a wild and worthless land and a 
wretched race ; for they passed away, leaving 
little more mark of their presence than did the 
herds that pastured near their low huts." 

History has preserved no record of these ear- 
liest inhabitants of England. Only some rude 
burial mounds, in instruments of flint and bone, 
which are now and then turned up to the spade, 
are left to tell us about them. But from the evi- 
dence gleaned from these remains it seems cer- 
tain that generation after generation came and 
went before they were dispossessed by men of 
another race. Some knowledge they acquired 
during these long years; for, "beginning with 
heavy bones for hammers and sharp bones for 
knives, they gradually came to manufacture 
stone instruments and to work in horn ; they har- 
pooned the whale, and fought on more than 
equal terms with the wild beasts of the forest. 
But before they had attained higher progress 
they were surprised by invaders, strangers, men 
with better arms, who slew them or drove them 
into the hills." [See Pearson's History of Eng- 
land, chap. I.J 

In Freeman's History of England we read : 
"The Celtic occupation of Britain. The people 
who succeeded these rude tribes were members 
of the Aryan race, which has given to the world 
its best civilization. They were called Celts, 
and were divided into two classes : the Gaelic, 
still represented b}- the Celts of Ireland, and the 
Scotch Highlands, and the Cymric, represented 
by the Celts or Whales and Cornwall. We do not 
know when the Celtic people came to England, 
which they called Britain, but there is scarcely 
an English village that has not some mark of 
their presence which carries us back an almost 
indefinite time in the history of the world." 

According to Dr. Everett W. Fish, in the 
"Egyptian Pyramids'": "Stone inscriptions 
were the earliest types of written language. In 
word presentation, though not in morphology, 
they resemble the Chinese syllabicism : certain 
forms became associated with certain ideas, 
sometimes relative, sometimes cognate, and 
henceforth were used to represent them. In the 
course of years the idea-character became con- 
tracted to a word or syllable. The early Aryan 
or Semitic types of picture writing were distin- 
guished by a predominence of vowel elements ; 
the Coptic by nearly an absence of vowels and 
preponderance of consonants. But some time 
during this thousand years vowels appear in such 
quantity as to indicate a new element in stone 
literature. Also the co-relation between the age, 
characters and personal attributes of the Cheops 





of Herodotus in the Suphis of Manettro — the 
fourth Memphian and the sixth Egyptian dynas- 
ties — points unmistakably in the direction that 
all these finger marks of the period do, viz : that 
at or just before the Memphian conquest of 
Thebes, all Egypt was invaded by a more intel- 
lectual people ; that they left their marks on the 
monumental history and the facial and cranical 
angles, and on the national character of the hith- 
erto Hindoo, and Hamitic, occupants of the val- 
ley. Their life channel may be traced in its one 
grand tradition — its origin from Menes. Its 
Mf;nes came from Menu of India, and it went, 
T,ooo years later, into Attic Theotechony as 
Minos. There is also one channel in which a 
search among traditions of the invading race is 
confined : that is, the stream of Theosophy older 
than Menu, Sabeism or the perpetual fires of 
Iran : the monotheism of the race kindred to the 
Abrahamic, of whom Melchi-Zedek is the earliest 
Pontiff King ! If the philosophy of this singular 
history teaches us of the invasion of the Shepherd 
Kings at this time, it also teaches that they were 
subsequently repelled, though not conquered." 

"There is a widespread belief that the ancient 
Egyptians were a highly developed race intel- 
lectually, yet it is an error as far as it refers to 
the pre-Ptolemaic period. In astronomy, math- 
ematics, chemistry, art, economics, literature, 
painting, sculpture, perspective, etc., they were 
singularly and persistently backward ; no aixh 
relieves the severe angular structures. The sun 
moved around from east to west in its risings. Its 
figures came from Arabia. Its letters changed 
not from sound-pictures. Its tomb paintings 
were daubs." 

Mrs. Dr. Fish argues the improbability of the 
Egyptians designing the Great Pyramid: "77^6 
Stone Logos. — The most remarkable develop- 
ment of the Great Pyramid in its relation to that 
religion which has descended to us through the 
Abrahamic race. ... It must give not a 
little weight to the history of those races de- 
scended from Shem, but out of the Abrahamic 
succession ; for, no doubt, the Captitorim, the 
Canaanites in general, and the races under Mel- 
chizedek, were part of the original monotheists. 
The peculiar history of the Pyramid's erection ; 
its freedom from idolatrous hieroglyphs, pi-esent 
in every other tomb and temple in Egypt, and its 
marvelous problems — almost if not quite prophetic 
— also should be taken into account. . . . 
The prophetic nature of the chronology, con- 
tained in the passages, representing events in 
the history of the Hebrew race, is strong indica- 
tion of a theistic design on the part of the builder. 
The peculiar prominence of the 'Sacred Cubit' 
is also worthy of notice, especially as this cubit 
(25 Pyramid inches) was not in use either by the 
Egyptians or Hebrews as a people. It was given 
of God, as witnessed by Ezekiel, chap, xl, v. 5, 
and consisted of a 'cubit and a hand breadth.' 
Again, Isaiah, chap. 19, verses 19-20: 'In that 
day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the 
midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar in the 
border thereof to the Lord. 

'And it shall be for a sign and a witness unto 
the Lord of hosts in the land of Egypt ; for thej' 
shall cry unto the Lord because of the oppressors, 
and he shall sendthem.a Savior, and a great one, 
and he shall deliver them.' " 

"Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid," by 
Piazzi Smyth, F.R. S.E., F.R. A.S., Astrono- 
mer Royal for Scotland. — Inasmuch as one of 
the symbols in the insci-iption is found over the 
one and sole original entrance passage inito the 
great pyramid, the compiler feels not only aston- 
ished that that symbol is only found on the pyr- 
amids, but constrained to cite the learned author 
concerning the Great Pyramid in several par- 
ticulars : 

" The ancient pyramids of Egypt form some- 
what of a long, clustering group of gigantic 
monuments, extending chiefly over about a de- 
gree of latitude; beginning in the north, at the 
head of the triangular-shaped land of Lower 
Egypt, and stretching thence southward along 
the western side of the Nile. 

Within that nearly meridian distance one trav- 
eler claims to have noted forty-five ; another says 
sixty-seven ; and another still, leaving Egypt 
altogether, and ascending the river as far as 
Merve Noori, and Barkal, in Ethiopia, men- 
tions one hundred and thirty as existing there. 
But they are mediaeval, rather than ancient, 
small instead of large, and with very little about 
them, either in form or material, to remind of 
the more typical early examples entirely in stone, 
or those I'eally mathematically shaped old pyra- 
mids, which, though few in number, are what 
have made the world-wide fame of their land's 
architecture from before the beginning of his- 
tory." _ 

" With many of the smaller and later pyramids 
there is little doubt about their objects ; for, built 
by the Egyptians as sepulchres for the great 
Egyptian dead, such dead — both Pharaohs and 
their relatives — were buried in them, and with 
all the written particulars, pictorial accompani- 
ments, and idolatrous adornments of that too 
graphic religion, which the fictile nation on the 
Nile ever delighted in. But as we approach, 
ascending the stream of ancient time, in an}^ 
careful chronological survey of pyramidal struc- 
tures, to the Great Pyramid, Egyptian emblems 
are gradually left behind ; and in and throughout 
that mighty builded mass, which all history and 
all tradition, both ancient and modern, agree in 
representing as the first in point of date of the 
whole Jeezeh, and even the whole Egyptian 
group, the earliest stone building also positively 
known to have been erected in any country, we 
find in all its finished parts not a vestige of 
heathenism, nor the smallest indulgence in anj^- 
thing approaching to idolatry ; no Egyptology of 
any kind, properly so called, and not even the 
most distant allusion to Sabaism and its worship 
of sun, or moon, or any of the starry host of 

" I have specified finished -parts, because in 
certain unfinished, interminal portions of the con- 
structive masonrv of the Great Pvramid discov- 



ered by Colonel Howard Vyse in 1837, there are 
some rude Egyptian markings for- a temporary 
mechanical purpose ; and I also except, as a 
matter of course, any inscriptions inflicted on the 
same pyramid by modern travelers, even though 
they have attempted, like the Prussian savants 
of 1848, A. D., to cut their names in their own 
slight ideas of the ancient hieroglyphics of the 
old Egyptian idolators. But with these simple 
exceptions, we can most positively say that both 
exterior and interior are absolutely free from all 
engraved or sculptured work, as well as from 
everything relating to idolatry or erring man's 
theotechnic devices. From all these hieratic 
emblems, therefore, which from first to last have 
utterly overlaid every Egyptian temple proper, 
as well as all Egypt's obelisks, sphinxes, statues, 
tombs, and whatever other monuments they (the 
Egyptians) did build up at any known historical 
and Pharaonic epoch in connection with their 
peculiar, and, alas ! degrading religion. 

"Was the Great Pyramid, then, erected be- 
fore the invention of hieroglyphics, and previous 
to the birth of the false Egyptian religion ? No ! 
for these, both history, tradition, and recent ex- 
ploratory discoveries, testified to by many trav- 
elers and antiquaries, are perfectly in accord, 
and assure us that the Egyptian nation was 
established, was powerful, and its spiritually vile 
hieratic system largely developed, though not 
arrived at its full proportions at the time of the 
erection of the Great Pyramid ; that that struc- 
ture was even raised by the labor of the Egyptian 
population ; but under some remarkable com- 
pulsion and constraint, which prevented them 
from putting their unmistakable and accustomed 
decorations on the finished building ; and espec- 
ially from identifying it in any manner, direct or 
indirect, with their impure and even bestial form 
of worship. 

"According to Manetho, Herodotus, and other 
ancient authorities, the Egyptians hated, and 
yet implicitly obeyed, the power that made them 
work on the Great Pyramid ; and when that 
power was again relaxed or removed, though 
they still hated its name to such a degree as to 
forbear from even mentioning it, except by a 
peculiar circumlocution, yet, with involuntary 
bending to the sway of a really superior intelli- 
gence once amongst them, they took to imitating, 
as well as they could, though without any under- 
standing, for a fewof the more ordinary mechan- 
ical features of that great work on which they 
had been so long employed ; and they even re- 
joiced for a time to adapt them, so far as they 
could be adapted, to their own favorite ends and 
congenial occupations. 

" Hence the numerous ' quasi,' copies for sep- 
ulchral purposes, of the Great Pyramid, which 
are now to be observed, further south along that 
western bank of the Nile ; always betraying, 
though, on close examination, the most profound 
ignorance of their noble model's chiefest internal 
features, as well as of all its niceties of propor- 
tion and exactness of measurement ; and such 
mere failures are never found, even then, at any 

very great number of miles away from the site j 
nor any great number of years behind the date 
of the colossal parent work. 

The full architectural idea, indeed, of the 
one grand primeval monument, though expen- 
sively copied during a few centuries, 3'et never 
wholly or permanently took the fancy of the 
Egyptians. It Aad some suitabilities to their 
favorite employment of lasting sepulture, and its 
accompanying rites ; so they tried what they 
knew of it for that purpose. But it did not ad- 
duction of their unwieldy 'sacred' animals, nor 
bulls, nor crocodiles, nor the multitudes of abject 
mit of their troops of priests nor the easy intro- 
worshippers, with the facility of their own tem- 
ples ; and so, on the whole, they preferred 
them. Those more opened and columned, as 
well as sculptured and inscribed structures, ac- 
cordingly, of their own entire elaboration, are 
the only ones which we now find to have held, 
from their first invention, and uninterrupted reign 
through all the course of ancient and mediaeval 
Egyptian history ; and to reflect themselves con- 
tinuously in the placid Nile, from one end of the 
long drawn Hamitic land to the other. They 
therefore are, architecturally, Egypt. Thebes^, 
too, with its hundred adorned Pylon tem)<le- 
gates, and statues of false gods, is intensely 
Egypt. But the Great Pyramid is, in its origin 
and nature, something perfectly different. 

Under whose direction, then, and for what 
purpose, was the Great Py^ramid built? Whence 
did so foreign an idea to Egypt comer Who 
was the mysterious carrier of it to that land, and 
under what sort of special compunction was it 
that, in his day, the Egyptians labored in a cause 
which they appreciated not, and gave their un- 
rivaled mechanical skill for an end which they 
did not at the time undei-stand, and which they 
never even came to understand, much less to 
like, in all their subsequent national ages ? [ Win- 
chell tells us it was Cheops, 3400 vears B.C. J 

This has been, indeed, a mysterv of myster- 
ies, but may 3et prove fruitful, iii the present 
advancing stage of knowledge, to inquire into 
further ; for though theories without number 
have been tried and failed in, by ancient Greeks, 
and mediaeval Arabians, by French, English, 
Germans, and Americans, their failures pardy 
pave for us the road by which we must set out. 
Pave it poorly, perhaps, for their whole result 
has, up to the present time, been little more than 
this : that the authors of those attempts are either 
found to be repeating idle tales, told them by 
those who knew no more about the subject than 
themselves ; or skipping all the really crucial 
points of application for their theories which 
they shovild have attended to ; or, finally, like- 
some of the best and ablest men who have given 
themselves to tlie question, fairly admitting that 
they were entirely beaten. 

Hence the exclusive notion of temples to the 
sun and moon, or for sacred fire, or h6ly water, 
or burial places, and nothing but burial places, 
of kings, or granaries for Joseph, or astronom- 
ical observatories, or defenses to Egypt against 



being invaded by the sands of the African desert, 
or places of resort for mankind in a setond del- 
uge, or of safety when the heavens should fall, 
have been for a long time past proved untenable ; 
and the Great Pyramid stands out now far more 
clearly than it did in the time of Herodotus (no 
less than 2400 yeai's ago), as both a prehistoric 
monument, and yet rivaling the best things of 
modern times in its eminently grand and pure 
conception ; and which, though in Egypt, is yet 
not of Egypt, and whose true and full explana- 
tion is still to come. 

Under these circumstances it is that a new 
idea, based not on ancient hieroglyphics, pro- 
fane learning, Egyptian literature, or modern 
•^SyP'-'^^'^Sy springing therefrom, but on new 
scientific measures of the actual facts of ancient 
masonic construction in number, weight and 
measure, was recently given to the world by the 
late Mr. John Taylor, of London, in a book pub- 
lished in 1859. -^^ ^^'^ ^'^^ visited the Pyramid 
. himself, but had been, for thirty years previously, 
collecting and comparing all the published 
accounts, and especially all the better certified 
mensurations (for some were certainly poor, 
indeed), ofthose who had been there ; and while 
so engaged, gradually and quite spontaneously, 
(a:s he described to me by letter), the new theory 
opened out before him. Though mainly a rigid 
induction from tangible facts of scientific bearing 
and character, Mr. Taylor's result was undoubt- 
edly assisted by means of the mental and spirit- 
ual point of view from whence he commenced 
his researches, and which is, in the main, sim- 
ply this : 

That, whereas, other writers have generally 
esteemed that the unknown existency who di- 
rected the building of the Great Pyramid (and to 
whom the Egyptians, in their traditions and for 
ages afterwards, gave an immoral and even 
abominable character), must, therefore, have 
been very bad, indeed, so that the world at large, 
from that time to this, has ever been fond of 
standing on, kicking and insulting that dead 
lion whom they really knew nothing of — he (Mr. 
John Taylor), seeing how religiously bad the 
idol-serving Egyptians themselves were, was led 
tQ conclude that those they hated (and could 
never sufficiently abuse) might perhaps have 
been pre-eminently good, or were, at all events, 
of a different religious faith from the land of 
Ham. Then i-emembering, with mulah's mutan- 
dis, what Christ himself says respecting the sus- 
picion to be attached, when all the world speaks 
well of any one, Mr. Taylor followed up this 
idea by what the Old Testament does record 
touching the most vital .and distinguishing part 
of the Israelitish religion, and which is therein 
described, some centuries after the building of 
the Great Pyramid, as notoriously an ' abomina- 
tion to the Egyptians.;' and combining with this 
certain unmistakable historical facts, he success- 
fully deduced sound Christian reasons for believ- 
ing that the directors of the building— or rather 
the authors of its design — and those who con- 
trolled the actual builders of the Great Pyramid, 

were by no means Egyptians, but the chosen 
race, descendants of Shem, in the line of, 
though preceding Abraham, so early, indeed, as 
to be closer to Noah than to Abraham — men, at 
all events, who had been enabled, b}' Divine 
favor, to appreciate the appointed idea as to the 
necessity of a sacrifice and atonement for the 
sins of man by the Flood and the act of a Divine 
Mediator — an idea coeval with the contest be- 
tween Abel and Cain, and which descended 
through the Flood to certain predestined fam- 
ilies of mankind, but which idea no one of Egyp- 
tian born would ever contemplate with a mo- 
ment's patience ; for every ancient Egyptian, 
from first to last, and every Pharaoh of them 
more especially, was a genuine Cainite in 
thought, act and feeling to the verjr back bone ; 
confident of, and possessing nothing so much, or 
so constantly, as his own perfect righteousness,, 
and absolute fi-eedom by his own innate purity 
trom every kind of sin. 

On this- ground it was that Mr. Taylor took 
his stand, and after disobeying the world's long- 
formed public opinion of passively obedient 
accord with profane Egyptian tradition, and set- 
ting at nought the most time-honored prejudices 
of polite society sO far as to give a full, fair and 
impartial examination to the whole case from the 
beginning, announced that he had discovered, in 
some of the arrangements and measures of the 
Great Pyramid — when coirected for injuries of 
intervening time — cei'tain scientific I'esults, which 
speak of much more than, or rather something 
quite different from, any human intelligence. 
For, besides coming forth suddenly in the pi-im- 
eval history of its own day, without any child- 
hood, or known preparation, the actual facts at 
the Great Pyramid, in the shape of builded proofs 
of an exact numerical knowledge of the grander 
cosmical phenomena, of both earth and heavens, 
not only rise above, and far above, the extremely 
limited, and almost infantine knowledge of sci- 
ence humanly attained to by any of the Gentile 
nations of 4000, 3000, 2000 — nay, 1000 — yeai's 
ago, but they are also, in whatever of the phys- 
ical secrets of Natui-e they chiefly appl}- to, essen- 
tially above the best knowledge of man in our 
own time as well. 

This is, indeed, a startling assertion, if true; 
but, from its subject, admits of the completest and 
most positive refutation, if untrue. For the exact 
science of the present day, compared with that 
of only a few hundred years ago, is a marvel 
of development, and is capable of giving out no 
uncertain sound, both in asserting itself, and 
stating not only the fact, but the order and time 
of the invention of the practical means necessary 
to the minutest steps of all separate discoveries 
yet made. Much more, then, can it speak with 
positiveness when comparing its own present 
extended knowledge against the little that was 
known to man by his own efforts, and by his 
school methods, in those early epochs, before 
accurate and numerical physical science had 
begun, or could have begun, to be seriously cul- 
tivated at all ; that is, in the truly primeval day 


when the Great Pyramid was built, finished, 
sealed up, and left as we see it now, dilapidations 
only excepted." 

To fully comprehend. the force of Mr. Tay- 
lor's argument, it will be necessary to read care- 
fully Mr. Smyth's great work, in which he sub- 
stantiates Mr. Taylor in the most scientific man- 
ner. Let this be kept in remembrance. 

In Pre-Historic Nations, by John D. Bald- 
win, A. M., we read, p. 12 : " In Tuscany and 
in Egypt, in India and in China, and in the 
South-sea Islands and both Americas, we behold 
evidences of a civilization, which, in some in- 
stances, had run its course anterior to the age of 

P. 40: "The Greek race settled around the 
^gean Sea, in Asia Minor, Thrace, Macedo- 
nia, Messaly, Epirus, and throughout the Gre- 
cian peninsula. The Greek race then consisted 
of groups of tribes or families also closely re- 
lated in origin and language, probably as the 
Scandni avian groups in Northwestern Europe. 
They inherited the culture of their predecessors, 
the Phoenicians, or Cushites, andthePelasgians, 
who in more ancient times, established the ora- 
cle of Dodona, made Thrace eminent as a seat 
of civilization and science, established enlight- 
ened communities in Asia Minor, and carried 
their influence into the Grecian peninsula itself." 
P. 92: "A S3':stem of picture writing, which 
aimed at the communication of ideas through 
rude representation of natural objects, belonged 
not only to the tribes' who descended the Nile 
from Ethiopia, but to those also who, perhaps, 
diverging from the same focus passed eastward 
to the valley of Euphrates." P. 93 : " The 
ruins of Egypt are covered with hieroglyphics, 
the perlected Egyptian style of appearing on the 
oldest monuments. There are not less than six 
styles of cuniform writing ; that found in the 
Chaldean ruins, seeming to be the oldest. There 
is nothing to show how many forms of hiero- 
glyphical writing came into use before this style 
was perfected in Upper Egypt, and was super- 
seded elsewhere by Alphabets." 

The immigration doubted, p. 135 : " Some 
writers, in discussing what Herodotus says of 
the Phojnicians, have discredited an immigra- 
tion as impossible. They have assumed and 
supposed everybody else would admit, as a mat- 
ter of course, that all men were ignorant bar- 
barians " at that remote period," destitute of 
the arts of civilized life. "That remote per- 
iod," they are quite sure, was not far from the 
dreary " Stone Age " in the unwritten history 
of Western Asia, when the noblest naval struc- 
ture was a loose raft of logs, and hunting and 
fishing with the rudest stone and bone imple- 
ments the most serious undertaking of the peo- 
ple. The confident critics who raised this ob- 
jection are not so numerous now. Those who 
believe there never was any civilization worth 
taking much account of previous to the time of 
the Greeks are liable to such magnificent flights 
in the dark. 

Idem, p. 205 : " Rawlinson, speaking of 

the Cushite character and language ol the old 
Chaldeans, says :" " It can be proved from the 
inscriptions of the country that between the date 
of the first establishment of a Chaldean King- 
dom to the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, the lan- 
guage of lower Mesopotamia underwent an en- 
tire change." "The Cushite tongue disap- 
peared, and the Aramiac took its place. The 
influence of this Semitizing transformation pro- 
ceeded westward, encountering effective resist- 
ance only where it reached established communi- 
ties by tJFie Aryans." 

P. 402: "The Chinese and Japanese do not' 
give us any myths ; they tell us what they have 
actually known for many centuries. The Welsh 
prince, Madog, about the year 11 70, A. D., was 
just as certain of the existence of America when 
"he sailed away westward, going south of Ire- 
land," to find a land of refuge from the civil war 
of his countrymen. Having made preparations 
for a settlement he returned to Wales, secured a 
large company that filled ten ships, then sailed 
away again and never returned." In 1660, Rev. 
Morgan Jones, a Welsh clergyman, seeking to 
go by land from South Cai-olina to Roanoke, 
was captured by the Tuscarawas Indians. He 
declares that his life was spared because he 
spoke Welsh, which some of the Indians under- 
stood ; that he was able to converse with them 
in Welsh ; that he remained with them four 
months, sometimes preaching to them in Welsh. 
North Carolina was once settled by Welsh. 

Henry R. Schoolcraft, L. L. D. " Informa- 
tion respecting the History, Condition and Pros- 
pects of the Indian tribes of the United States." 
Published by authority of Congress, March 3d, 
1847. Vol. I, p. 17.- "Considered in ever}- 
point of view, the Indian appears to be an old — 
a very old stock. Nothing that we have in the 
shape of books is ancient enough to recall the 
period of his origin." 

P. 21 : " The Aztecs were not aborogines, or 
first inhabitants. The Aztecs made offerings to 
the sun, upon the highest teocalli, and sung 
hymns to it. Sacrifice was supplied alone by 
the Priesthood, and was the foundation of their 

P. 31 : " The disciples of Zoraster, says He- 
rodotus, rejected the use of temples, of alters, 
and statues." 

P. 36 : " Many have supposed that the Orien- 
tal arts and knowledge were transfered to this 
continent at early epochs, and have beheld evi- 
dence of this in the ruins of temples, teocalli and 
other structures and vestiges of ancient art, 
scattered over the country. We shall know 
more of this when we come to find and decipher 
the inscriptions." 

P. 40: "It was an early thought that the 
manners and customs of the tribes savored of 
tlie Mongolic or Samoidean type. The tribes of 
the East Indies, embracing much of the gen- 
eric type — physical and moral." 

P. 71 : The whole of the western and north- 
western antiquities of the highest class, em- 
bracing every monument of the kind north of 






— 1 




Utah and the country north of Gila, to which 
the Poltec and Aztec civilizations probably 
reached, may be viewed together by the anti- 
quarian as forming the second type of American 
antique civilization. That this type was a trans- 
ferred Americo-Shemitic character, appears prob- 
able from renewed inquries on the languages." 

P. 114: "The inscription on the Assonet or 
Dighton Rock :" "On this we observe the spots 
represented by small holes, signifying so many 
moons, in which case they are numerals, or, ac- 
cording to the situation, are prepositions, and 
then have such significance as harmonizes with 
the other symbols." 

P. 343 : The mode of communicating ideas by 
the use of symbols of some sort, and with a 
more or less degree of perfection, was an early 
and a common trait in the human race. Alpha- 
betic characters, it is thought, wei^e known in 
Asia about 3317 years before the discovery of 
America. We must assign much of the prior 
era of the world to picture-writing and hiero- 

P. 346: "It is supposed the mode of hiero- 
glyphic writing was not laid aside until the third 
century, A. D. An earlier opinion generally 
affirnjs that the enchorial characters had ceased 
to be employed after the Persian conquest ot 
Cambysses, in 525, B.C. If the Egyptians, on 
the invasion of the French, were found to have 
substituted the Arabic alphabet in place of the 
phonetic hier.oglyphic, and installed Mahomet's 
system in place of the ibis, the calf and the cat, 
they bad completely forgotten the event of this 
mutilation of their literature, or that the phonetic 
symbols had ever been employed by them. The 
discovery was made by Europeans, and made 
alone by the perpetuating power of the Greek 
and Roman alphebet." 

P. 347 : The Rosetta Stone. [See Denou's 
Description of Egypt.] This fragment, which 
I examined in the British Museum in 1842, was 
dug up on the banks of the Nile by the Fi'ench, 
in erecting a fort, in 1799. It was a sculptured 
mass of black basalt, bearing the lingual inscrip- 
tions in the hieroglyphic, the demotic, and the 
ancieiit Greek characters. Copies of it were 
multiplied and spread before the scientific minds 
of England and the continent, for about twenty 
years before the respective inscriptions were 
satisfactorily read. It would transcend my pur- 
pose to give the details of the history of its in- 
terpretation ; but as it has furnished the key to 
the subsequent discoveries, and serves to denote 
the patience with which labors of this kind are 
to be met, a brief notice of the subject will be 
added. The Greek inscription, which is the 
lowermost in position, and like the others imper- 
fect, was the first made out by the labors of Dr. 
Heyne, of Germany, Professor Parson, of Lon- 
don, and by the members of the French Insti- 
tute. They, at the same time, demonstrated it 
to be a translation. 

The chief attention of the enquirers was di- 
rected to the middle inscription, which is the 
most entire, and consists of the demotic or en- 

choral character. The first advance was made 
by DeLacy, in 1802, who found, in the groups 
of proper names, those of Ptolemy, Arsinoe, 
and others. This was more satisfactorily dem- 
onstrated by Dr. Young, in 1814, when he pub- 
lished the result of his labors on the demotic 
text. These labors were further extended, and 
brought forward in separate papers, published 
by him in 18 18 and 18 19, in which he is believed 
to have shed the earliest beam of true light on 
the mode of annotation. He was not able, how- 
ever, to apply his principles fully, or at leasr 
without error, from an opinion that a syl- 
labic principle pervaded the system. He car- 
ried his interpretations, however, much beyond 
the deciphering of the proper names. It was 
the idea of this compound character of the pho- 
netic hieroglyJ)hics that proved the onlj- bar to 
his full and complete success ; an opinion to 
which he adhered in 1823, in a paper in which 
he maintains that the Egyptians did not make 
use of an alphabet to represent elementary 
sounds and their connection, prior to to the era of 
the Grecian and Roman domination. Champol- 
lion, the younger, himself entertained very 
much the same opinion, so far, at least, as re- 
lates to the phonetic signs, in 1812. In 1814, in 
his "Egypt under the Pharaohs," he first ex- 
presses a diffei-ent opinion, and throws out the 
hope that, " sounds of language and the expres- 
sions of thought," would yet be disclosed under 
the garb of "material pictures." This was, 
indeed, the germ in the thought-work of the real 
discovery, which he announced to the Royal 
Academy of Belle Letters, at Paris, in Septem- 
ber, 1822. By this discovery, of which Dr. 
Young claims priority in determining the first 
nine symbols, a new link is added in the com- 
munication of thought by signs, which connects 
picture and alphabet wriiing. Phonetic hiero- 
glyphics, as thus disclosed, consist of symbols 
representing sounds of first letters of words. 
These symbols have the peculiarity, and are 
restricted to this precise use : that while they 
depict the ideas of whole objects, as birds, etc., 
they represent only the alphabetic value of the 
initial letter of the name ot these objects. Thus 
the picture may, to give an example in English, 
denote a man, an ox, an eagle, or a lotus ; but 
their alphabetical value, if these be the words 
inscribed on a column, would be, respectively, 
the letters M. O. E. L. These are the phonetic 
signs or equivalents for the words. It is evident 
that an inscription could thus be made with con- 
siderable precision, but not unerring exactitude, 
and it is by the discovery of this key that so 
much light has been, within late years, evolved 
from the Egyptian monuments. 

P. 348. "The next step taken by Quatremere, 
who proved the present Coptic to be identical 
with the, ancient Egyptian. To find this lan- 
guage then,recorded in the hieroglyphics, was the 
great object. It is here that the younger Cham- 
pollion exercised his power of definition and 
comparison. By the preconception of a pho- 


netic hieroglyphical alphabet, as above denoted, 
he had grasped the truth, which yet lay con- 
cealed, and he labored at it until he verified his 
conceptions. It is thus that a theory gives energy 
to research ; nor is their much hope of success 
without one, in the investigation of the unknown. 
. The discoveries of Dr. Young, and 
the injudicious criticisms and wholesale praises 
of the British press, (particularly the London 
Qiiarterly) of his papers on the hieroglyphic 
literature of Egypt, were calculated to arouse in 
France and Germany a double feeling of rivalry. 
It was not only a question between the respec- 
tive archaeological merits of Dr. Young and M. 
Champollion ; it was also a question of national 
pride between England, France and Germany. 
And, for the first time in their fierce and san- 
guinarj' history, hieroglyphics were the missives 
used. Victory decided in favor of Champollion, 
as displayed in the triumphs of <the pure phonetic 
method elucidated in his "Precis du systeme 
hieroglyphiques des anciens Egyptiens," pub- 
ished in 1824. 

It is a striking feature in hieroglyphical phon- 
etic writing, and the great cause of imprecision, 
that its signs are multiform, often arbitrary, and 
must be constantly interpreted, not only with an 
entire familiarity with the language of the people 
employing them, but with their customs, habits, 
arts, manners and history. All who have studied 
the Egyptian hieroglyphic literature have expe- 
rienced this P. 349: "There is a 

manifest tendency at the present day to over-es- 
timate the civilization, learning and philosophy 
of the Egyptians and Persians in these depart- 
ments, chiefly from hieroglyphic and pictorial 
records. If I mistake not, we are in some dan- 
ger of falling into 'this error on this side of the 
water in relation to the character of the ancient 
Mexican civilization. The impulsive glow of* 
one of our most chaste and eloquent historians 
gives this natural tendency to our conceptions. 
The Aztec semi-civilization was an industrial 
civilization : the giving up of hunting and rov- 
ing for agriculture and fixed dwellings. But we 
must not mistake it. They built teocalli, tem- 
ples, palaces and gardens ; but the people lived 
in mere huts. They are still debased. Woman 
was dreadfully so. The mind of the Aztecs, 
while the hand had obtained skill and industry, 
was still barbaric. The horrific character of 
their religion made it impossible it should be 
otherwise. Civilization had but little affected 
the intellect, the morals not at all. They com- 
memorated events by the striking system of pic- 
ture writing ; but there is strong reason to sus- 
pect, since examining the principles of the North 
American system, as practiced by our Medas 
and Jossakeeds, that the Mexican manuscripts 
were also constructed on the mnemonic princi- 
ple, and always owed much of their value and 
precision to the memory of the trained writers 
and painters. 

' 'American Antiquities and Researches into the 
Origin and History of the Red Race," by Alex- 
ander W. Bradford. P. 17: "Many of the 

tumuli formed of earth, and occasionally 01 
stones, are of Indian origin, and they may gen- 
erally be distinguished by their inferior dimen- 
sions and isolated situations." P. 22 : "The an- 
cient remains of the United States bear evident 
marks of being the production of a people ele- 
vated far above the savage state. Many of 
them indicate great elegance of taste, and a 
high degree of dexterous workmanship and me- 
chanical skill in their construction ; others be- 
token the existence of a decided form of religious 
worship ; while the size and extent of the earthen 
fortifications and mounds domonstrate the former 
existence of populous nations, capable of execut- 
ing works of enormous dimensions, requiring 
perseverance, time and combination of labor for 
their erection." Idem, p. 22: "An earthen 
vessel found at Nashville, Tennessee, twenty 
feet below the surface, is described as being cir- 
cular, with a flat bottom rounding upwards, and 
terminating at the summit in the figure of a fe- 
male head. The features and face are Asiatic, 
the head is covered by a conical cap, and the 
ears are large, extending as low as the chin." 
P. 32 : The skeletons are mostly decayed, or in 
such fragments as to render it somewhat difficult 
to ascertain their size and position." P. 52 : 
"Many ancient tumuli consist of earth, and others 
of stone, the composition depending upon natural 
facilities for obtaining either material ; some of 
these mounds were thirty-six feet in diameter, 
but only three feet in height. They are mani- 
festly of the same character with others found on 
the Muskingum river, which are unquestionably 
ancient." P. 53-4: "At Cincinnati a mound 
eight feet high, sixty feet broad and six hundred 
and twenty feet long ! One of the first accounts, 
written in 1794, describes the mound as raised 
upon the margin of the second bank of the Ohio 
river, eight feet in height and with a base of 
about one hundred and twenty bv sixty. Upon 
its surface were found stumps of oak trees seven 
feet in diameter. The articles which were found 
were near a body interred in a horizontal posi- 
tion, and with the head towards the setting sun. 
The instruments of stone were smoothly and 
regularly cut, and of great hardness. The cop- 
per was well wrought, and the carved bones were 
not human remains." 

"Transactions of American Phil. Soc," vol. iv, 
p. 178: "These, beside articles of jasper, crj-^s- 
tal, coal, also beads, lead, copper, and mica 
plates, marine shells of the genus buccinum, cut 
into domestic utensils, and the sculptured repre- 
sentation of the head of a voracious bird ; while, 
as in the mounds before described, human bones 
appeared, some enclosed in coffins of stone, but 
all imbedded in ashes and charcoal, the unfailing 
sign of the burning of the deceased." P. 60: 
" Their identity of origin. — The general charac- 
ter of all these remains indicates an origin from 
the same nation, or from branches of the same 
people." P. 376: "The Hermaic books pre- 
served in the Egyptian temples like those of the 
Aztecs, contained the outlines of their astrology, 
astronomy, their rituals, the histories of their 



mythology, and all, indeed, that was known of 
the arts and sciences, which were in the posses- 
sion of the priests alone. The Mexican manu- 
script painting possessed many of the attributes 
of real hieroglyphical writing. It did not con- 
sist of merely mimetic images, such as are often 
found on the Egyptian tombs, but it was fettered 
bv prescribed forms : nearly all its elements had 
a'fixed meaning, and had thus become, to an ex- 
tent, conventional signs. The numbers to twenty 
were were represented by dots or points. There 
is reason to suspect that the number ten was in- 
dicated by a straight line, twenty by a flag, four 
hundred by a feather ; day, night, midnight, the 
year, the century, the heavens, air, earth and 
water were all denoted by symbolic characters. 
The figures for the names of cities, and the as- 
tronomical representations of the i;ames of the 
months were also real symbols, which suggested 
the sounds of those names upon bieingseen. In- 
deed, the usual picture writing of the Mexicans 
resembles that found upon the clothing of the 
Egyptian mummies, and was of a mixed charac- 
ter. But beyond all this, there are traces of real 
phonetic hieroglyphics in those signs which ap- 
pear upon the monument above the heads of the 
gods, which, like the Egyptian hieroglyphics of 
the names of the gods, were enclosed in an ob- 
long rectangle. The characters of the Codex 
Mexicanus at Dresden suggest the existence, of 
even a complete system of phonetic hiero- 

Studies of Antiquities as the Commentary of 
Historical Learning, by T. Pownall, London. 
Printed by J. Dodsley, in "Pall-Mall," 1782. 
P. 192 : Whoever examines the specimen of 
picture writing, as practiced among the Egyp- 
tians, and commonly called hieroglyphics, and 
comes fairly and soberly to the reading of them, 
without preconceived notions of their mysterious 
meaning, and takes them as he finds them, mere 
pictures of birds, beasts, fish, reptiles, and 
insects ; portraits of the limbs, members, and 
various parts of the human body ; also of the 
human body itself in various attitudes of rest and 
action ; drafts of various instruments, tools, 
weapons, ensigns, numerals and measures ; also 
characters of elementary writing mixed with 
them ; he, I say, that examines these pictures, 
will perceive, a:t first view, that they relate merely 
to human affairs ; that they are either historical 
memorials, or registered tables of the state of 
the provinces ; of their lands, people, forces, 
produce and revenues, or calendars of their 
seasons, etc., expressed by symbolic characters, 
determined in their form by law, from the earli- 
est use of them. What I here say of the Egyp- 
tian picture writing, I can assert literally as a fact 
of the Mexican picture writing, which is in three 
parts : i. Historical Records. 11. Register 
Tables, in. (Economical Regulations. 

" They draw (says Diodorus, going on with 
the same account) a hawk, for instance, a croci- 
dile, or a serpent, parts and members of the 
human body. The hawk, as supposed to be the 
swiftest of all birds, is made the symbol of 

velocity. The sense, then, is transferred by these 
written metaphors, to everything which has any 
reference to velocity, nearly as well as if it was 
spoken in direct terms. The crocidile is made 
the symbol of everything which is evil. The eye 
represents watchful guard, and justice. 
The drawing the right hand open with the fin- 
gers extended, signifies the supply of human life ; 
the left hand closed signifies care and custody of 
the goods of life. Shakespeare uses the same 
metaphor : 

' He had an eye for pity, and a hand 
Open as day, for melting charity.' 

"The like reasoning does in like manner trans- 
late from the portraits of all other parts of the 
body, and from all species of instruments, tools 
and weapons, etc." 

P. 195 : Again, as the mouth is that part by 
which speech is effected, lineal portraits of the 
mouth, in the various forms it takes in enuncia- 
tion, are used to make the various elements of 
speech, which characters I call oral. As the 
first mode of numeration with all people is the 
fingers, so we find a system of numeral charac- 
ters expressly formed on this idea. But they 
had other methods also of numeration, speci- 
mens of which are found in every hieroglyphic 
inscription. It is not only true that the Egyp- 
tians used elementary writing, but they had two 
sorts of these elements. Those which took their 
form and character from the mouth — oral. 

P. 19 : The others, which I conceive to be the 
secret cypher, I have, for distinction sake, deter- 
mined to call the Ogmian (the secret writing of 
the Druids) was so called. God, the supreme 
Being, is pictured by the only two following 
symbols, invariably the same : First, by a winged 
globe, or circle, signifying infinity, unity, activ- 
ity, and omnipresence ; secondly, a globe or cir- 
cle, through which a serpent, the symbol of life, is 
passant, signifying the creative and plastic mani- 
festation of the first cause, animating and gov- 
erning the material world. 

P. 197 : Plato, in his second dialogue on laws, 
explains on this point : "These types and fig- 
ures, be they such as they are, and whatever 
they are, they are formed on a basis of an insti- 
tution of the government of Eg5'^pt, which directs 
that no sculptor, painter, or statuary shall ren- 
der any idea of improvement, or on any pre- 
tense whatever presume to innovate in these 
determined forms, or to introduce any other than 
the constitutional ones of his country. Hence 
it is, as you observe, that those forms and figures 
which were formed or painted hundreds of ages 
past, be they what they may, are exactly the 
forms and figures, neither better nor worse, 
which are sculptured and painted at thisday." 
Plato de Lezibus, lib. 11. p. 789. 

Idem, p. 206-7-8: Clemens Alexandrinus, 
who must have understood this matter, living on 
the spot, gives an explicit account of it in the 
fifth book of his Stromata, of which I venture to 
give the following translation: "Those who 
receive their education amongst the Egyptians 



learn in the first place the method of the Egyp- 
tian elementary writing, or letters, which is 
called the Epistolary writing ; secondly, the 
Sacerdotal, which the hierographists, the priest- 
scribes use ; lastly, as the perfecting of this part 
of education, the hieroglyphics. This consists of 
two methods ; the one is written by elements in 
direct terms ; the other is symbolic. The sym- 
bolic may again be divided into two kinds ; the 
first as a picture or direct portrait of the matter 
or thing intended to be described ; the second is 
written by metaphorical representations. This is 
sometimes allegorized by enigmas." If my 
translation be just, it describes the fact as it will be 
found to have existed. It describes, first, the 
generical distinctions ; the writing by elements 
or letters, and the picture writing, and next the 
three species of each genus. First, the writing 
for common business (the demotic, as Herodo- 
tus calls it), next, the court-hand, that which the 
Sacerdotal scribes used; and lastly, that which 
was used in the sacred engraved inscriptions, 
which is so often, to this day, on the obelisques 
and other public records. The first, the sym- 
bolic, was applied in actual portraits of the thing 
described ; the second used, as Plato expresses 
it, metaphors for descriptions ; the third, which 
allegorized these pictvires and enigmas, which 
the original writers, ne susficate guidem scnet. 
I have already explained, as the mere physiolo- 
gic commentaries, the divine romances of the 
learned priests." 

The reader will recall the language of Mr. 
Schoolcraft : " The Aztecs were not aborigines, 
or first inhabitants." And " It was an early 
thought that the manners and customs of the 
tribes savored of the Mongolic or Samoiden 
type. The tribes of the East Indies — embracing 
much of the generic type and moral. The whole 
of the western and northwestern antiquities of 
the highest class, embracing every monument 
of the kind north of Utah, and the country north 
of the Gila, to which the Lottec and Aztec civil- 
izations probably reached, may be viewed to- 
gether by the antiquarian as forming the second 
type of American Antique civilization — that this 
type was a transferred Americo-Shemitic charac- 
ter, appears probable from renewed inquiries on 
the languages." 

These views are corroborated by the other 
writers, as set forth in these quotations, and by 
Alexander Winchell, L.L.D., Professor of Geol- 
ogy and Palasntology in the University of Mich- 
igan. In his work " Pre-Adamites," p. 52, chap. 
vi., he groups the races in three divisions, 
according to prevailing color. Ethnologists rely 
on color to only a limited extent, and at most 
account it but one among many physical and 
linguistic considerations, regarded as throwing 
light on racial distinctions and affiliations. Yet 
color shows a strange and persistent independ- 
ence of the physical environment. 

A chromatic classification, moreover, will be 
most convenient for the present purpose. 

Conspectus of Types: I. White Race (Med- 
iterranean), or the Blushing Race. 

1 . Blonde Family (Japheitites, Aryans, or Indo- 


2. Brunette Family (Semites). 

3. Sun-burnt Family (Hamites). 

II. Brown Races: (i.) Mongoloid Race- 
(Tartar, Turanian). 

1. Malay Family. 

2. Maylayo-Chinese Family. 

3. Chinese Family. 

'4. Japanese Family (including Coreans). 

5. Altaic Family. 

6. Behring's Family. 

7. American Family. 
(2.) Dravidean Race. 

1. Dekkanese Family. 

2. Cingalese Family. 

3. Menda Family (Jungle Tribes, or Primitive 


This tabulation is continued in the Black 
Races, but enough is given to certify that the 
aborigines of America date back to the first 
division of the Brown Races, viz. : the Mongoloid 
race, having passed through peculiar changes, 
chiefly climatic, known as the Malay Family, 
Malayo-Chinese, Japanese, Altaic, Behrings,, 
and lastly, the American, or, what seems most 
probable, a tribe from this stock found its way 
via Behrings Strait to this continent. 

They were of the Brunette Family, whom the 
ancient Egyptians styled "yellow;"' but this is 
a better designation of some of the Mongoloid 
families. The birth-right Jews, in all countries, 
and the Arabs, are the best examples of this fam- 
ily. This is no insignificant aid to our compre- 
hension of their intellectual status, and harmon- 
izes with the implied belief of the majority of the 
writers on this subject that they were an intellec- 
tual people, and doubtless as well informed as 
any below the white race, if we may even ex- 
cept this. 

Mr. Winchell adds: "The Mongoloids, or 
Turanians, are the most numerous, and bv far 
the most widely dispersed of all the i-aces. 
[These are facts which seem to possess much 
significance.] They are characterized by long, 
straight, black hair, which is cylindrical in sec- 
tion, b}' nearly a complete absence of beard and 
hair on the body, by a dark-colored skin, vary- 
ing from a loathor-like yellow to deep brown, or 
sometimes tending to red, and by prominent 
cheek bones, generally accompanied b}' oblique 
setting of the eyes. * * * The true Mon- 
gols, also called Tartars, stretch in their numer- 
ous tribes from the eastern part of the desert of 
Gobi, north to Lake Baikal, and westward as far 
as Kalmucks, to European Russia. The Turks, 
of which the Uighars, Osmanlis, Yakats, Tuixo- 
mans and Kirghis are the principal branches, 
are spread over the wide region from the Altai 
Mountains, through Turkistan to the Caspian 
Sea, and in isolated tribes through the Caucasus 
to Hungary and European Turkey. The 
Eui-opean Turks have lost most of their ^Mongol- 
oid characters by long admixture with the Aryan 
stock, but their languages preserve distinctly the 
evidences of their Mongoloid origin." 



Idem, p. 66: " The American family of Mon- 
goloids embraces all the aboriginal population of 
both continents, except the Behrings tribes. All 
researches hitherto have failed to establish the 
■existence of more than one race, whether among 
the anciently half civilized or the hunting tribes, 
and have only resulted in the conviction that an 
American race of men, as distinct from Mongol- 
oids, is only a prepossession arising from their 
continual isolation and remoteness from their 
Asiatic kinsmen, when contemplated across the 
Atlantic by European ethnologists. The phys- 
ical affinities of the American Indian, especially 
in view of the connecting types of the Haidahs 
(a tribe of Tlinkites), the Alents, the Helmes, 
the Coreans, and Japanese, are sufficiently close 
to convince any unprejudiced student that all the 
populations of America have been derived from 
the Asiatic continent." 

Thus we have passed in review the opinions 
•of the authors who have written most concisely, 
as well as from the best known data concerning 
the peculiar people called the Mound Builders ; 
.and after presenting the report of the Historical 
Association organized in Brush Creek township, 
Muskingum county, Ohio, for the purpose of 
securing . the most reliable and complete data 
■concerning that township, to be incorporated in 
the history of this county, it will doubtless ap- 
pear to others, as it has to the writer, that this 
resume has rendei"ed intelligible the existence of 
the Mound Builder remains in Ohio, and enabled 
us to interpret the inscription on the stone found 
in the mound in Brush Creek township : 

" Brush Creek Township, 
March 3, 1880. 
"To Z)r. y. T. Ever hart, A.M., Historian: 

" Dear Sir : On December i, 1879, we assem- 
bled with a large number of people for the pur- 
pose of excavating into and examining the con- 
tents of an ancient mound, located on the farm 
of Mr. J. M. Baughman, in Brush creek town- 
ship, Muskingum county, Ohio. 

"The mound is situated on the sumrhit of a 
hill, rising 152 feet above the bed of the stream 
called Brush creek. It is about 64 feet in width 
by about 90 feet in length, having an altitude of 
II feet 3 inches; is nearly flat on top. On the 
mound were found the stumps of sixteen trees, 
ranging in size from 8 inches to 2^ feet in 

We began the investigations by digging a 
trench four feet wide from the east side. When 
the depth of eight feet had been reached, we 
found a human skeleton, deeply charred, inclose 
proximitj;^ to a stake six feet in length and four 
inches in thickness, also deeply charred, and 
;Standing in an upright position. We found the 
■cranium, vertebrae, pelvis and metacarpal bones 
near, while the femurs and tibula extended hori- 
zontally from the stake. At this juncture work 
was abandoned, on account of the lateness of the 
hour, until Monday, December 8th, when it was 
resumed by opening the mound from the north- 
west. When at the depth of seven and a half 

feet in the north trench, came upon two enormous 
skeletons, male and female, lying one above the 
other, faces together, and heads toward the west. 
The male, by actual measurement, proved to be 
nine feet six inches ; the female eight feet nine 
inches in length. At about the same depth in 
the west trench we found two more skeletons, 
lying two feet apart, faces upward, and heads to 
the east. These, it is believed, were fully as 
large as those already measured, but the condi- 
tion in which they were found rendered exact 
measurement impossible. On December 22dwe 
began digging at the southeast portion of the 
mound, and had not proceeded more than three 
feet when we discovered an altar, built of sand- 
rock. The altar was six feet in width and twelve 
feet in length, and was filled with clay, and of 
about the same shape that the mound originally 
was. On the top, which was composed of two 
flat flag-rocks, forming an area of about two feet 
in width and six in length, was found wood-ashes 
and charcoal to the amount of five or six bush- 
els. Immediately behind, or west of the altar, 
were found three skeletons, deeply charred, and 
covered with ashes, lying faces upward, heads 
toward the south, measuring, respectively : 
eight feet ten, nine feet two, and nine feet four 
inches in length. In another grave a female 
skeleton eight feet long, and a male skeleton nine 
feet four inches long — the female lowermost, and 
the face downward, and the male on top, face 
upward, behind the site of the altar. Alter pro- 
ceeding about tour feet, we found, within three 
feet of the top of the mound, and five feet above 
the natural surface, a coffin or burial case, made 
of a peculiar kind of yellow clay, the like of 
which we have not found in the township ; con- 
sequently, we believe it was brought from a dis- 
tance. Within the casket were confined the re- 
mains of a female eight feet in length, an infant 
three and a half feet in length, the skull of which 
was scarcely thicker than the blade of an ordi- 
nary case-knife. The skull of the female would 
average in thickness about one-eighth of an 
inch, nieasured eighteen and three-fourth inches 
from the supra-orbital ridge to the external occi- 
pital protuberance ; was remarkably smooth ; 
perfectly formed. Within the enclosure was a 
figure or image of an infant but sixteen inches 
in length, made of the yellow clay of which the 
casket was formed ; also, a roll of peculiar black 
substance encased in the yellow clay, twelve 
inches in length by four inches in diameter, 
which crumbled to dust when exposed to 
the air. 

We also found what appears to have been the 
handle and part of the side of a huge vase ; it was 
nicely glazed, almost black in color, and burned 
ve'ry hard. From within a few inches of the 
coffin was taken a sand-rock, having a surface 
of twelve by fourteen inches (which had also 
passed through the fire), upon which were en- 
graved the following described hieroglyphics :" 
[Here a space was left in the note-book for the 
representation of the inscription found upon the 
stone ; but, for the sake of a true representation, 



we determined to have photographs made, and 
make one a part of this report.] 

Proceeding north about four feet from where 
we found the coffin, and within six inches of the 
top of the mound, we discovered a huge skeleton 
lying on its face, with the head toward the west. 
Mr. J. M. Baughman came upon this one acci- 
dentally, and, as it fell to pieces, he thinks no 
one could tell how long it was, but those who saw 
it unanimously declared it to be the largest of 
any yet discovered. 

We have found eleven human skeletons in all, 
seven of which have been subjected to fire ; and, 
what is remarkable, we have not found a tooth 
in all the excavations. 

The above report contains nothing but facts 
briefly told, and knowing that the public has 
been humbugged and imposed upon by archaeol- 
ogists, we wish to fortify our own statements by 
giving the following testimonial : 

We, the undersigned citizens of Brush Creek 
township, having been present and taken part in 
the above excavations, do certify that the state. 
ments herewith set forth are true and correct, 
and in no particular has the writer deviated from 
the facts in the case. 

[Signed.] Thomas D. Showers, 

John Worstall, 
Marshall Cooper, 
J. M. Baughman, . 
S. S. Baughman, 
John E. McCoy." 

" The State of Ohio, Muskingum county, ss: 

William T. Lewis, being first by me duly 
sworn, deposeth and saith : -I began work on 
the Smith Gallerjr on September 2d, 1879, ^"^^ 
continued to work there until June 14, 1880 ; and 
that between December 20, 1879, '^^'^ January 
10, 1880, I photographed for Dr. J. F. Everhart 
an engraved stone, said to have been exhumed 
from a mound in Brush Creek Township, and 
that I have this day identified the negative that I 
then took, in the Gallery No. loi. Main street, 
Zanesville, Ohio ; that when I was about to print 
the picture for Dr. Everhart I assured him I 
could, by retouching the negative, make the 
characters on the stone appear plainer, and that 
Dr. Everhart objected, saying he wanted nothing 
more or less than an exact copy of the stone, with- 
out any alterations whatever, and that I am pre- 
pared to identify the stone from whicli the nega- 
tive referred to was taken, and that there was no 
sign of any recent engraving or marking on the 
engraved side of the stone. 

W. T. Lewis. 
Sworn to before me and subscribed in my 
presence this i6th day of March, A. D. 1881. 
Wm. H. Cunningham, Jr., " 
Notary Public in and for said county and State." 

The reader will observe in the Report the ab- 
sence of gcientific precautions, and perhaps the 
scientist who expects to find things in a scientific 
way may censure us for this, but when it is re- 
membered that the object in this, as in every ef- 

fort in exploring hidden things, is to read the 
facts discovered, without the shackles of theory, 
it will be conceded that this could not have been 
accomplished better than by leaving the explor- 
ation to those who had no theoretic knowledge 
on the subject. 

And that whatever the inscription might mean 
remained for development by research, as no 
tyro could decipher characters as old as these 
have been found to be, and the inscription had 
not yet been viewed by an archaelogist, or one 
acquainted with the characters. 

Having the Report, and having seen the 
mound, measured it, counted the stumps thei-eon, 
inspected the graves and nearly all of their con- 
tents, and having the inscribed stone, I under- 
took to collate the opinions of not only the best 
known writers on the subject, but to gather wis- 
dom from the savants in America, England and 
the Canadas, to whom photographs and a brief 
account of the contents of the mound were sent. 
Many of these expressed themselves greatly in- 
terested, particularly in the inscription, and 
promised to give it their most earnest attention, 
and kindly intimated their views concerning 
some of the characters ; but generally urged the 
propriety of exercising great precautipn in ex- 
huming and measuring the skeletons, which, by 
the way, were measured /;/ sitti. 

Finally, I was urged by officers of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science 
to appear at their next annual meeting in Boston, 
Massachusetts, in August, 1880, with the tablet, 
and a paper on the subject. At that meeting I 
read a paper on "The Mound Builders," sub- 
stantially the same as this, and exhibited a speci- 
men of the clay that composed the coffin or 
casket ; specimens of the bones contained in the 
casket, showing their decayed condition, and the 
tablet. The latter, particularly . was examined 
by many with great scrutiny and pronounced a 
vei-itable mound builder relic of ancient make. 

The outHne of history- here given is believed 
to be sustained by the fuller text of the authors 
quoted, and the interpretation of the inscription 
is possibly the only legitimate rendering with the 
light we now have. 

The stone was found in a reclining position, 
with its dorsal aspect uppermost, and into which 
Mr. J. M. Baughman stuck the point of his coal 
pick, as stated by him and confirmed bv the well- 
known marks of" that instrument in their original 
freshness in the stone. It was but partially 
cleaned when brought to the writer, and was 
•then cleansed with water and a brush, and was 
photographed without manipulation, and the 
pictures were printed without retouching the 

The position of the stone indicated that it had 
once been erected with the parallel lines perpen- 
dicular. Observing the angle marks, however, 
and remembering that "angle stones" were 
found upon the Great Pyramid, and that they 
were placed wikh the vertex of the angle upper- 
most, the writer postured the stone accoi'dingly, 
and recognizing certain of the characters as- 



Greek, and that, according to many writers, 
characters of ideation have been postured differ- 
ently in different ages, evidenced especially in 
Webster's Dictionary of the English Language, 
1879. P- 1762: Chart of "Ancient Alphabets," 
it was deemed legitimate to adopt the same 

The first left hand character between the upper 
parallel lines is Alpha, the second is Omega, the 
third a spot, a numeral, the next a sceptre with a 
numeral above, the next numerals of order, the 
next a serpent — symbol of life-spirit, the next the 
sign of addition, the next Delta, the next the 
ligatured Greek sign of the infinitive ; the cavity 
between the upper and lower rows of characters 
is to be grouped with those below the lower row, 
and represents sun, moon and stars, or heavenly 
bodies ; the first left hand character in the lower 
row represents a seal or stamp in use the third 
century B. C. [See Dr. Julius Eutings' table of 
Semitic characters, in outlines of Hebrew Gram- 
mar, by Gustavus Bickell, D. D.,, Leipzig.] 
The next is another form of the serpent, asso- 
ciated with a numeral, the next the ligatured 
character repeated, the next numerals of order, 
the last the angle marks, corresponding with the 
"angle stones." 

The discovery that " Alpha and Omega " are 
the first two characters of the inscription was as 
startling as it is true. And the connection with 
the Great Pyramid, as indicated by the corre- 
sponding signs, " the angle stones," found only 
on the Pyramids, and upon this grave stone, as 
far as now known, began to loom up, and Mr. 
Smyth's three keys for the opening of the Great 
Pyramid seemed to have a bearing upon this 
inscription ; so that they are here quoted for the 
benefit of the reader. "Key first: The key ot 
pure mathematics." "Key the second: The 
key of applied mathematics — of astronomical 
and physical science." "Key the third: The 
key of positive human history, — past, present, 
and future, as supplied in some of its leading 
points and chief religious connections by Divine 
Revelation to certain chosen and inspired men 
of the Hebrew race through ancient and mediae- 
val times ; but now to be found, by all the. world, 
collected in the Old and New Testaments." 

There is no twisting, no forcing needed in 
using any of these keys ; and, least of all, is any 
alteration of them required for this particular 

Here, then, is " a new departure;" — not de- 
vised, but substantiated by the Astronomer 
Royal, of Scotland. And, in order to combine 
the mode of interpretation indicated by reference 
to the Old and New Testaments, so clearly 
shown to be the way, with the indications by the 
authors adduced, a brief resume will be found 

Mr. Conant certifies that the mounds were 
constructed by a people who burned their dead ; 
a race homogenous in arts and worship ; and he 
gives an account of a neatly carved tombstone 
found near the head of a skeleton in the meund 
on the Payson farm in Utah ; and of an un- 

known kind of wheat found in the same enclos- 
ure ; and plastered houses in those mounds. 

Mr. Short has strong reasons for supposing" a 
remote intercourse between Asia and the Pacific 
coast ; and recites the Historian Bancroft's state- 
ment, that "the natives on both sides of- Beh- 
ring's Straits are identical in physical appear- 
ance ;" and Mr. Short denies the autoch-thonic 
origin of the aborigines ; and cites Prof. Haeckel 
as having the same views on this subject. 

MacLean gives an account of skeletons taken 
from the tumulli of Europe known to have been 
there not less than 2,000 yeai's, and still well 
preserved, while those we find are so decayed as 
to prevent examination, other than measuring 
in situ. 

Dr. Fish, the Egyptologist, states that stone 
inscriptions were the earliest types of written 
language in Egypt and elsewhere ; that the 
forms of ideation were sometimes relative and 
sometimes cognate, and then became contracted 
into a word or syllable ; that the channel of re- 
search has been the Theosophy older than 
Menu, Sabeism or the fires of Iran ; the mono- 
theism of the race kindred to the Abrahamic, of 
whom Melchi-Zedek is the oldest pontiff' king ; 
the prophetic nature of the chronology in events 
in the history of the Hebrew race a strong indi- 
cation of a theistic design on the part of the 
builder; the "sacred cubit" — especially the 
cubit of 25 Pyramid inches — not in use b}' the 
Egyptians or Hebrews, but given, as witnessed 
by Ezekiel xl. 5. And again, in an able article 
on the Rosicrucians : "In the most ancient times 
there was an intellectuality which sui"passes 
modern conception ; that it la)' in the possession 
of a few with whom it perished, that it was not 
obtained by the slow process of experience ; that 
it was mostly mathematical and geometric, and 
finally that an arcana of the caballa may possi- 
bly have been an element which led to prophecy. 

Piazzi Sm3'-th discovers to us "The King's 
Chamber," " The Queen's Chamber," with one 
angle stone over the entrance of each, and on 
the outside of the Great Pyramid two angle 
stones at the north entrance, and as Cheops and 
his wife, or Queen, were to have been buried 
there, and these symbols have been found to be 
the only signs therein and thereon, the interpre- 
tation is that two distinguished persons wei-e 
entombed thei"e. This', with the use. of three 
angel stones in Abooseir, Middle Pyr., lat. 
29.54; Abooseir, G. Pyr., lat. 29.54; under like 
circumstances, in the absence of any other sym- 
bol expressive of the fact that three distinguished 
persons were entombed there, corroborates the 
interpretations ; he also confirms Mr. Taylor's 
opinion, that he had " discovered in some of the 
measurements of the Great Pyramid, certain 
scientific results which speak more than, or 
rather quite different irom any human intelli- 
gence." Baldwin — Pre-Historic Nations — finds 
evidence of civilization in both Americas older 
than Homer. 

Schoolcraft says that " nothing we have in the 
shape of books is ancient enough to recall the 



period of his (the aborigines) origin ; he gives a 
description of the Rosetta stone, with its tri-lin- 
gual inscription, hieroglyphic, demotic and 
ancient Greek. 

Bradford, American Antiquities: "The an- 
cient remains of the United States were the pro- 
duction of a people elevated far above the sav- 
age state ; that in this country " the numbers to 
twenty were represented by dots or points ; 
and astronomical symbols and phonetic hiero- 
glyphs" were used. Pownall's Antiquities de- 
scribes the Mexican picture writing in three 
parts ; speaks of the winged globe as the sign 
of infinity ; the sign of the serpent a symbol of 
life, the spirit, and other signs, all of which were 
protected by Egyptian edict. 

Winchell, in Pre- Adamites, classes the Mon- 
goloid race at the head of the Brown Races, 
and determines the 6th sub-division to be the 
Behring family, and the 7th the American fam- 
ily, and settles the " vexed question," as to who 
built the Great Pyramid, by showing that Cheops 
was the builder, and his son, Merhet, was Prince 
and Priest in the Fourth Dynasty, 3400 B. C, 
and that portraits of his Dynasty reveal the ex- 
istence of a Semitic type ; that, according to 
Lepsius, the Egyptian and Semitic types of the 
Mediteranean race were extant at the time [See 
pp. 204-s]. 

The inscription on the tablet taken from the 
mound in Brush Creek Township is composed 
of three different forms of ideation, which are 
made out to be Demotic or Enchorial, Hiero- 
glyphic and Greek. The Demotic, according 
to Herodotus, had ceased to be used 525 B. C. ; 
the Hieroglyphics had ceased to be used about 
the third century, A. D., and Greek characters 
were then used as ideations. The inscrijition, 
therefore, must d^te back to the time when one 
of these classes ceased to be used, which was 
425 B. C. 

That the mounds embraced in our contempla- 
tion are rude imitations of the Pyramids, for the 
same purposes, is certainly probable. And as 
will be seen in the report on the disclosures of 
the mound in Brush Creek Township, there 
were three graves distinguished from ever}' 
other, and as the inscription upon the stone taken 
from that mound included three angle marks, 
our belief in the antiquity of the mound and its 
contents is made stronger and stronger until we 
doubt no more. 

The difficulty, however, is in formulating these 
ideations, and necessitated the citation of the 
authorities quoted in this chapter, and as their 
views were condensed, the difficulty is scarcely 
diminishdd until the discovery that Alpha and 
Omega were the first two characters in the 
inscription was made. This harmonized with 
evidence of the writers in favor of a theastic de- 
sign on the part of the builder of the Great 
Pyramid, and brought to our aid the learned 
Piazzi Smyth's "Third Key," again harmoniz- 
ing with the history of the Egyptian Dynasties, 
which shows that they had a Priesthood ; and, 
ergo, the formulation we have adopted, and the 

first of which is found in "the Revelation of St. 
John the divine," chapter i, verse 8. 

The repetition will be found of common occur- 
rence in almost every variety of expression in 
those days, and has not altogether disappeared 
at this day. 

The astronomical formulation, interpreting the 
characters not found within the parallel lines, is 
found in the first verse of the XIX Psalm, and is 
associated with the angle stone marks, which, if 
they have any signification, may be interpreted : 
distinguished persons, servants of Deity, worthy 
of the great respect shown in the entombment ; 
these angle stones are only found upon the Great 
Pyramid, and other Pyramids in Egypt, and in 
numbers corresponding to the numbers buried 
within. From the foregoing we reach the fol- 
lowing translation : 

/ am the Alpha and the Omega, saith the 
Lord God, which is and which was, and which is 
to come, the Almighty ; giving first, -power on 
earth; secondly, the spirit, added from heaven 
without ending. 

" The heavens declare the glory of God,''"' as a 
seal of His -power to bless, first, with life, and 
forever, these servants. 

This chapter was written in 1880, and a paper 
prepared from it was read before the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, at 
the session held in Boston, Mass., in August, of 
that year ; and the paper was earnestly solicited 
for publication by the officers of the Association, 
but was reserved for the history of this county. 

January 2d, 1882, I received from Daniel G. 
Brinton, M. D., Secretary of the American Phil- 
osophical Society, Vice President of the Numis- 
matic and Antiquarian Societj-, of Philadelphia, 
Member of the American Antiquarian Society, 
of the Historical SocietJ^ of Penna. etc., etc. 
Author of "The Myths of the New Worid," 
" The Religious Sentiment," etc.. etc., "The 
names of the Gods in the Kiche myths, in Cen- 
tral America," with compliments of the Author. 
This is a very able paper, and was read by Dr. 
Brinton before the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, November 4, 1881, and from which the 
following extracts are taken. They will doubt- 
less strengthen the foundation for the interpreta- 
tion given to the Brush Creek Tablet : 

" The following remarkable invocation to Hur- 
akan, which is one of the finest in the Popol Vuh, 
premising, according to the same authority, that 
Hurakan is equivalent to All Powerful : 

1. Acarroc, Atoob a gih, at Hurakan, at u 
Qiix cah, ulen I 

Hail, beauty of the dav, thou Hurakan, thou 
(its) Heart, the Sky, the Earth ! 

2. At yaol rech ganal-raxal, at pu yaol mial, 
qahol I 

Thou giver (of) our prosperity, thou, and giver 
(of) datighters, sons ! 

3. Cha tziloh, cha maquih uloc a raxal, a 
ganal : 

Make firm, extend hither thy glory, thy great- 
ness : 

4. Cha yatah, u qazsic, vinakiric val nu qahol : 


There is, perhaps, no more difi&cult task for the 
biographer than to portray the traits of a "life well 
spent," so as to fully represent its meritoriousness, 
and gain the approbation of those who knew the 
subject best, even when that life has been one of 
ofiSoial and public character, with well defined 
boundaries in the spheres in which it has moved. 
And this difl&culty is increased when the subject 
has not filled any such positions, but modestly 
guided his bark " adown the stream of life," not 
even keeping a record of his stopping places. 

Mr. Church was as remarkable for his self-abne- 
gation as for his fidelity to his duty (however 
small it may have seemed), and his charity toward 
the erring and the needy. It would, therefore, have 
come with a better grace for some one of his life- 
long friends to tell the story of his life, that seems 
to the stranger-historian a part of the woof and warp 
of Zanesvilte's history; but after this great lapse of 
time, since his demise, they have shirked the op- 
portunity of doing justice to the memory of their 
friend, and will have to be content with such a 
tribute as the brief notes at our command permit. 

His father, Joseph Church, with his wife and 
several young children, came from Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania, to Zanesville, in the spring of 1807. 
The subject of this sketch was born in a log cabin, 
on the north side of Main street, above Seventh; he 
attended "old Mother Gofif's school" in 1812-13; 
Arthur Reed's, on Cyprus alley and Seventh (where 
the Richard's Block stands) ; William McCormick 

and Marcus Metcalf had him for a pupil. He 
learned his letters ofif a paddle— letters pasted on 
one side and a-b-ab's on the other; the course of 
instruction ended without graduation. When he 
was near through the rudiments, the teacher solilo- 
quized [with Milton :] 

"I will bring thee where thou shaltquit 
Those rudiments, and see before thine eyes 
The monarchies of earth.'' 

October 15, 1815, Joseph Church and wife, who 
had recently united with the Presbyterian Church 
by the confession of their faith, took their children, 
including Elijah, to the church, and, with many 
others, they received the outward sign of invisible 
grace in the rite of baptism, administered by the 
Rev. James Culbertson, of whom Mr. E. H. Church 
always loved to speak in the highest praise. 

At the age of fifteen Elijah engaged with his 
father to learn the shoemaking, and " worked at the 
bench " about three years, attending school during 
the winter months. He then apprenticed himself 
to William Janes, a bricklayer, and became a good 
workman, and worked at that trade fifty years. 

Such is the brief record at command; the barren- 
ness, however, is relieved by the peculiar interest 
he took in the growth of his native town, and the 
pains he was at to preserve the personal reminiscen- 
ces of the pioneers ; his aflFection glowed as he un- 
folded their good deeds. His own genial manner im- 
pressed the writer so that he often thought him a 

type of a race that seems almost extinct, but that 
was given to hospitality, and afforded the enjoy- 
ment of security from suspicion, amid friends that 
were true, under every trial, who sought to add to 
the comfort and enjoyment of their kind. This 
was a favorite thought with Mr. Church ; his was 
a warm and generous nature. So that it seems a 
reality to think we hear a well known friend of the 
family say, — Aye, my boy, kiss your mother, kiss 
her again; fondle your sweet sister; pass your lit- 
tle hand through the gray locks of your father ; 
love them tenderly while you can ! Make your 
good nights linger, with the words of your soul-love 
oft repeated to father, mother, sister, brother, 
though these loves shall die. 

" Full swells the deep pure fountain of young life, 
When on the heart and from the heart we took 
Our first and sweetest nurture ; when the wife, 
Blest into mother, in the innocent look, 
Or even the piping cry of lips that brook 
No pain and small suspense, a joy perceives 
Man knows not, when from out its cradled nook 
She sees her little bud put forth its leaves." 

And so we find him fond of home and the loved 
ones there ; and at the fireside telling o'er and o'er 
the events of the past — full of interest, for he kept 
a journal of passing events that extended over 
thirty years, noting many things it seems surpris- 
ing he should have taken an interest in — the death 
■of individuals, the work of churches, the unset- 
tling of an old pastor, and the calling of a new one; 
the election of church officers; the change of fami- 
lies in churches ; the change in county ofiicials ; but 
we forbear, adding only what you know so well, that 
he communicated through the press what he knew 
concerning the early history of Zanesville, in over 
eighty articles. He died March 22d, 1880; died as 
the spring dies into summer ; as the summer 
ripens into fall; as the leaves die, to spring forth 
into newness of life on the other shore. God was 
merciful to him, and he was gathered to his fathers, 
without terror. 

At the time of his death the living children 
were John, George, Hattie, and Annie; Hattie is 
Mrs. John L. Clemens, of "Clemens & Son;" 
Annie is Mrs. Vincent Ferguson. 

He was the oldest native born citizen in Zanes- 
ville at the time of his death, and, by his death, 
the chain, that binds us to the infant days of the 
city he loved so well, is shortened. One after an- 
. other, these much loved fathers are passing away, 
and it will not be long until the stranger may ask 
of us, as the Prophet of Israel, "Your fathers, where 
are they ? " 

The Odd Fellows' Fraternity took the following 
notice of the death of Elijah H. Church : 

A feeling of sincere sadness pervaded the proceed- 
ings of the Directors of Odd Fellow's Hall Associa- 
tion, at their monthly meeting, held on the evening 
of April 6th, and expressions of ge-nuine sorrow fell 
from every one present, at the vacant chair of their 
late associate, Elijah H. Church. This chair Mr. 
Church has occupied for over twenty years, never 
missing a meeting, unless prevented by illness, 
or absence from the city. When first elected to the 
Board, the affairs of the Association were in a dis- 
astrously embarrassed condition. Besides heavy 
mortgages on the building, on which interest had 
accumulated, there was a large floating debt, and 
nothing but the personal security of two or three 
of the Directors saved the property from the ham- 
mer of the Sheriff. Mr. Church lived to see this 
valuable property entirely freed from every in- 
cumbrance, and its stock, whenever any was offered 
for sale, bringing double its face value in the mar- 
ket. Towards this success, the prudent counsels, 
economy, perseverance and personal labor of 
Elijah Church, essentially contributed. On ad- 
journment, the following resolutions were ordered 
to be recorded on the minutes of the Association, 
published in the city papers, and a copy given to 
the family of the deceased : 

"Resolved, That in the death of our old friend 
and associate, E. H. Church, the Board of Direc- 
tors of Odd Fellows' Hall Association has lost a 
valuable member, to whose judgment, punctu- 
ality, encouraging advice, and unwearying energyi 
the stockholders are largely indebted. 

'^Resolved, That the Order of Odd Fellows, to which 
Elijah H. Church was so long and affectionately 
attached, has lost a faithful brother whose long life 
and upright walk and conversation were an emin- 
ent example of the principles inculcated by the 
Order and embodied in its motto of " Friendship, 
Love and Truth." 

"Resolved, That Zanesville has lost one of her 
oldest and worthiest citizens ; one possessing a re- 
markable love for the memories of its pioneer 
founders, and for the relics of the olden times, and 
one whose honesty, sterling integrity, fidelity to 
every duty, and attachment to his friends, de- 
servedly gained for him the respect and honor of 
the whole community. 

"Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with his 
bereaved family in the irreparable loss which they 
have sustained, and that we will long keep his 
many virtues and upright qualities of head and 
heart green in our remembrance. 

"Joseph Crosby, Treasurer." 



Give their life, (their) increase to my descend- 
ants i 

5. Chi pog-tah, chi vinakir-tah, tzukul ave, 
cool ave. 

That they may beget, may increase nurses for 
thee, guards for ':hee : 

6. Ziquy ave pa be, pa hoc, pa beya, pa xivan 
xe che, xe caam. 

Who shall invoke thee in the roads, in the 
paths, in the water-ways, in the gorges, under 
the trees, under the bushes. 

7. Cha yaa qui mial, qui qahol : 
Give to them daughters, to them sons. 

8. Ma-ta habi it-tzap, yanquexo : 
Let there not be disgrace, misfortune. 

9. Ma-ta choc qaxtokonel chiquih, chi qui 

That not comes the deceiver behind them, be- 
fore their face. 

10. Me pahic, me zokotahic ; me hoxomic, 
me gatonic. 

May they not fall, may they not stumble ; may 
they not hurt their feet, may they not suffer 

11. Me kahic requem be, rahzic be. 

May they not fall in the low road, in the high 

12. Ma-ta-habi pak, toxcom chiquih, chi qui 

Let there not be a stumbling block, a scourge 
behind, before their face. 

13. Que a yatah pa raxa be, pa raxa hoc ; 
Give them (to be) in a green road, in a green 

path ; 

14. Ma-ta-habi quil, qui tzap a cuil, av 

Let there not be to them evil, to them misfor- 
tune (from) thy locks, thy hair. 

15. Utz-tah qui qoheic tzukul ave, cool ave, cha 
chi, cha vach. 

Fortunate to them (be) existence, nurses 
thine, guardians thine, before thy mouth, before 
thy face. 

16. At u Qux cah, at u Qux ulen, at pizom 
Gagal ! at puch Tohil ! 

■ Thou its heart the sky, thou its heart the earth, 
thou veiled Majesty ! thou and Tohil. 

17. At puch Tohil, Avilix, Hacavitz, pam cah, 
x\ pam ulen, cah tzak, cah xucut. 

Thou and Tohil, Avilix, Hacavitz, body (of 
the) sky, its body the earth (with its) four sides, 
four corners. 

18. Xa-ta-zak, xa-ta-amag, u pam cha chi, 
cha vach, at Qabaiul I 

So long as light, so long as time (be) its body 
before thy mouth, before thy face, tliou God !" 

By the same author : " There is another invo- 
cation in the Popol Vuh, containing some other 
names of Deity, a literal translation of which I 
shall give, after Brasseur : 

" Hail ! O Creator, Maker ! who sees and hears 
"us! Do not leave us; do not desert us. O 
*' Qabauil, in the sky, on earth, soul of the sky, 
" soul of the earth. Give us children, posterity, 
" [as long as] the sun goes, and the light. Let 
" the seed grow, the light come. Many green 

" paths, green roads, give us ; in peace, in white 
" peace, be the tribe ; in welfare, in white wel- 
" fare, be the tribe ; give us, then, happy life and 
"existence. O Hurakan, Chipi-cakulha, Raxa- 
"cakulha, Chipi-nanauac, Raxa-nanauac, Voc, 
" Hunaphu, Tepen, Gucumatz, Alom, Qaholom, 
' ' Xpiyacoc, Xmucane — Grandmother of the Sun, 
" Grandmother of Light ; let the seed grow, the 
"light come." (P. 210.) 

" Such was the prayer which, according to 
" Kiche traditions, their early ancestors ad- 
" dressed to the divinities, in those far-off years 
' ' when they dwelt in the distant Orient, in the fer- 
" tile land of Paxil and Cayala, before they had 
"yet gone to Tulan to receive the tribal and fam- 
"ily gods which they adored in later days. 

" Such is the testimony which these rude na- 
tives bear through the witness of their language . 
to the source and power of knowledge ; and such 
was the impression it made upon their untutored 
minds that even to this day, after more than 
three hundred years of Christian teaching, it is 
not the mild Judean Virgin, nor the severe 
Christian God, who is their highest deity, but it 
is the Wise Naoh, the Spirit of Knowledge, the 
Genius of Reason, who in secret receives their 
prayers as "the greatest of all the gods. They 
have also other divinities whose worship has con- 
stantly been retained in spite of all the efforts of 
the missionaries." 

And March 26th, 1882, received a publication 
from the same painstaking and reliable author 
(Daniel G. Brinton, M. D.), "The Books of 
Chilan Balam, the Prophetic and Historic Re- 
cords of the Mayas of Yucatan, from which the 
following extracts (which the archaeological stu- 
dent will highly prize) are taken : 

"Civilization in Ancient America rose to its 
highest level among the Mayas of Yucatan. 
Not to speak of the architectural monuments 
which still remain to to attest this, we have the 
evidence of the earlist missionaries to the fact 
that they alone, of all the natives of the New 
World, possessed a literature written in "Letters 
and characters," preserved in volumes neatly 
bound, the paper manufactured from the bark of 
a tree sized with a durable white varnish. 

A few of these books still remain, preserved 
to us by accident in the great European libraries ; 
but most of them were destroyed by the monks. 
Their contents were found to relate chiefly to 
the pagan ritual, to traditions of the heathen 
times, to astrological superstitions, and the like. 
Hence, they were considered deleterious, and 
were burned wherever discovered. 

This annihilation of their sacred books affected 
the natives most keenly, as we are pointedly in- 
formed by Bishop Landa, himself one of the 
most ruthless of vandals in this respect. But al- 
ready some of the more intelligent had learned 
the Spanish alphabet, and the missionaries had 
added a sufficient number of signs to it to express 
with tolerable accuracy the phonetics of the Maya 
tongue. [This last clause is italicized by the 
compiler.] Relying on these memories, and, no 
doubt, aided by some manuscripts secretly pre- 



served, many natives set to work to write out in 
this new alphabet the contents of their ancient 
records. Much was added which had been 
brouglit in by Europeans, and much omitted 
which had become unintelligible or obsolete since 
the Conquest ; while, of course, -the different 
writers, varying in skill and knowledge, pro- 
duced works of very various merit. 

I come now to the contents of these curious 
works. What they contain may conveniently 
be classified under four headings : 

Astrological and prophetic matters. 

Ancient chronology and history. 

Medical recipes and directions. 

Later history and Christian teachings. 

The last mentioned consist of translations of 
"the "Doctrina," Bible stories, narratives of events 
after the Conquest, etc., which I shall dismiss as 
of least interest. 

The astrology appears partly to be reminis- 
cences of that of their ancient heathendom, 
partly that borrowed from the European almanacs 
of the century 1550-1650. These, as is well 
known, were crammed with predictions and 
divinations. A careful analysis, based on a com- 
parison with the Spanish almanacs of that time 
would d.bubtless reveal how much was taken 
from them, and it would be fair to presume that 
the remainder was a survival of ancient native 

But there' are not wanting actual prophecies of 
a much more striking character. These were 
attributed to the ancient priests and to a date 
long preceding ihe advent of Christianity. 
Some of them have been printed in translations 
in the "Historias" of Lizana and Cozolludo, and 
some of the originals were published by the late 
Abbe Crasseur de Bourbourg, in the second vol- 
ume of the reports of the "Mission Scientifique 
au Mexique et dans TAmerique Centrale." Their 
authenticity has been met with considerable 
skepticism' by Waitz and others, particularly as 
they seem to predict the arrival of the Christians 
from the East and the introduction of the worship 
of the cross. 

It appears to me that this incredulity is un- 
called for. ......' 

Another value they have in' common with all 
the rest of the text of these books, and it is one 
which will be properly appreciated bj- any stu- 
dent of languages. They are, by common con- 
sent of all competent authorities, the genuine 
productions of native minds, cast in the idiomatic 
forms of the native tongue by those born to its 
use. No matter how fluent a foreigner becomes 
in a language not his own, he can never vise it as 
does one who has been familiar with it from 
childhood. This general maxim is tenfold true 
when we apply it to Europeans learning an Amer- 
ican language. The flow of thought, as exhib- 
ited in these two linguistic families, is in such 
different directions that no amount of practice 
can render one equally accurate in both. Hence 
the importance of studying a tongue as it is em- 
ployed by the natives, and hence the very high 

estimate I place on these "Books of Chilan Ba- 
1am" as linguistic material, an estimate much 
increased by the great rarity of independent 
composition in their own tongues by members of 
the native races of this continent. 



















Logan's speech — eloquent defense of 

cresap by luther martin the fall of 

cornstalk fort henry- — heroic conduct 

of miss jane mckee elliot and girty, the 

despotic white savages the peace chief, 











When this continent first became known to the 
European nations it was regarded as a solitary 
and unbroken wilderness. No axe had telled a 
tree nor plowshare broken its soil that they 
knew of. Here and there, however, they found 
a few wigwams of the red man, with patches 
of maize, beans, and squashes, cultivated by 
their squaws and children. The men, as now, 
spent their time in hunting or war. The gen- 
eral appearance of the country was that of a 
vast uncultivated domain, promising great fertil- 
ity and luxuriance. 

The country from the Mississippi to the Atlan- 
tic, from the Carolinas to Hudson's Baj-, was 
divided between two great families of tribes, dis- 
tinguished by a radical difference of language. 
These were" called, respectively, Algonquins 



(original people), and Aguanoschioni (united 
people). The latter became known as the Iro- 
quois, Mengwe, and Five Nations. At the 
period when the whites first became acquainted 
with this territory, the Iroquois proper extended 
through central New York, from the Hudson 
river to the Genesee, and comprised five dis- 
tinct nations confederated together, which, be- 
ginning on the east, were known as Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. 
West of them were the Hurons, the Neutral Na- 
tion, and the Fries ; on the south were the An- 
dastes, on the Susquehanna, and the Delawares 
on the river which bears their name ; on the east 
the various Algonquin tribes. 

In a letter written by Captain Joseph Brant, 
the noted Indian warrior, to Colonel Timothy 
Pickering, relating to the Iroquois claim to the 
northern part of Pennsylvania, and dated at 
Niagara, December 30, 1794, he says: "The 
whole Five nations have an equal right, one with 
another, the country having been obtained by 
their joint exertions in war with a powerful na- 
tion formerly living, southward of Buffalo Creek, 
called Fries, and another nation, then living at 
Tioga Point, so that by our success all the coun- 
try between that and the Mississippi became the 
joint property of the Five Nations. All other 
nations inhabiting this great tract of country 
were allowed to settle by the Five Nations." 

The Indians who claimed the country ascrib- 
ing boundaries, however well acquainted with 
it as a haunt, have left us no map vvorthy of the 
name, and yet they have indicated boundaries 
with names of such significance as to settle the 
belief that they were familliar with the country. 

The earliest approach to maps of the middle 
colonies came to Mrs. P. Mathiret, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, from her grandfather, formerly of Phila- 
delphia, subsequently of Nova Scotia ; it was 
"published according to an Act of Parliament, 
by Lewis Evans, June 23, 1755, and sold by R. 
Dodsley, in Pall Mall, London." But we have 
only a description of the map. The heading is 
as follows : 

"A general map of the Middle British Colo- 
nies in America, viz : Virginia, Maryland, Del- 
aware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, 
Conneticut and Rhode Island — of iVquanishuon- 
ig}', the country of the confederate Indians, com- 
prising Aquanishuongy proper, their place of resi- 
dence ; Ohio Thuxsoxrentie. their deer hunting 
country ; Couxsaxrage and Skaniadrade, their 
beaver hunting country, of the lakes Erie, On- 
tario, and Champlain, and a p;irt of New France, 
wherein is also shown the ancient and present 
seats of the Indian nations." The "deer hunt- 
ing " country was in northern Ohio and Michi- 
gan ; the "beaver hunting " country in Canada 
and northern New York. " The Confederates, 
July 19, 1 701, at Albany, surrendered their 
beaver hunting country to the English, to be de- 
fended for them by said Confederates, their heii's 
and successors forever. And the same was con- 
firmed September 14,' 1728, when the Senecas, 
Cayugas and Onondagas surrendered their hab- 

itations from Cuyahoga to Oswego, and sixty 
miles inland to the same for the same use." 

" The Confederates, formerly five, now seven 
nations, called by the French Iroquois, consist 
of, 1st, the Conungues or Mohawks: 2d, the 
Onaguts ; 3d, the Onondagoes ; 4th, Cuyugaes ; 
5th, Chemanoes, or Cenecas ; 6th, Tuscaroras ; 
7th, Sississagoes." In a circular form around 
the West end of Lake Erie the following words 
are written : ' ' These posts were by the Confed- 
erates allotted for the Wyandots when they were 
lately admitted into their league." 

Across the- head waters of the Wabash is the 
following sentence: "The Western league or 
Welinis, corruptly called Illinois bj^ the French, 
consisting of Tawixtawix, Mineamis, Pian- 
kashas, Wawiaxtas, Piquas and Kuskiekis were 
seated till lately on the Illinois river and posts» 
adjacent, but are all except, the last now moved 
to the Ohio and its branches, by the express 
leave of the confederates about 164 years ago." 
The Miami river is called the Mineamic, Niagara 
Falls the "Oxniagara," Wheeling creek -'Weel- 
ing" creek, Scioto "Sioto," and the country 
south of the Ohio river, as well as north, is called 

From the foregoing narration it is manifest 
that the aboriginal history pertaining to this 
county necessarily embraces the history included 
in the confederacy. The Iroquois and Delawares 
each have a tradition of an early eastward emi- 
gration from regions west of the Mississippi to 
the places where they were found by the 
Europeans. The period of our later Indian liis- 
tory finds that wave returning towards the set- 
ting sun. It is therefore a period of commotion 
among tribes easily excited. 

In 1748, Thomas Lee, with twelve other Vir- 
ginians, among whom were Lawrence and 
Augustine Washington, brothers of George 
Washington, and also Mr. Hanburv, of London, 
formed an association which was called the 
"Ohio Company," and petitioned the King for a 
grant of lands beyond the mountains. This pe- 
tition was approved by the monarch, and the 
government of Virginia was ordered to grant the 
petitioners half a million of acres within the 
bounds. of that colony, beyond the Alleghanies, 
two thousand of which were to be located at 
once. This portion was to be held ten j'ears free 
of quit rent, provided the company would ptit 
there one hundred families within seven years, 
and build a fort sufficient to protect the settle- 
ment, all of which the compan)' proposed, and 
prepared to do so at once, and sent to London 
for a cargo suited to the Indian trade, which was 
to come out so as to arrive in November, 1749. 
This grant was to be taken principally on the 
south side of the Ohio river, between the Monon- 
gahela and Kanawha rivers. 

In the autumn of 1750, the agents of the Ohio 
Company employed Christopher Gist, aland sur- 
veyor and familiar with the woods, to e.vplore 
their contemplated possessions. He kept a jour- 
nal of his proceedings, from which we extract the 
following: "A journal of Christopher Gist's 



journey, began from Colonel Cresap's, at the old 
town on the Potomac river, Maryland, October 
31, 1750, continued down the Ohio within fifteen 
miles of the falls thereof, and from thence to 
Roanoke river in North Carolina, where he ar- 
rived in May, 1751." Mr. Neville B. Craig, as 
shown Jn "The Olden Time," thinks that Gist 
ascended the Juniata after crossing the Potomac, 
and descended the Kiskeminitas to the Alle- 
ghany, which he crossed about four miles above 
Pittsburgh and passed on to the Ohio. From 
the mouth of Beaver creek he passed over to the 
Tuscarawas or Muskingum river, called by him 
and the Indians Elk Eye creek, striking it on the 
5th of December, or thirty-five days after leav- 
ing the Potomac, at a point about fifty miles 
above the present town of Coshocton, probably 
» within the county of Stark. On the 7th he 
crossed over the Elk Eye to a small village of 
Ottawas, who were in the interest of the Fi'ench. 
On the 14th of December he reached an Indian 
town a few miles above the mouth of White- 
woman's creek, called Muskingum, inhabited by 
Wyandots, who, he says, were half ot them at- 
tached to the French and half to the English. 
"When we came in sight of it we perceived 
English colors hoisted on the King's house and 
at George Croghan's. Upon inquiring the reason 
I was informed that the French had lately taken 
several English traders, and that Mr. Croghan 
had ordered all the white men to come into town, 
and had sent expresses to the traders of the lower 
towns, and among the Piquatiners, and that the 
Indians had sent to their people to come into 
council about it." 

From this passage it is evident that the Penn- 
sylvania traders had traversed the Indian vil- 
lages and had obtained the good will of their in- 
habitants in a considerable degree. George 
Croghan was apparently at the head of a trading 
party, and he and Andrew Montour accompanied 
Gist on his further exploration. The latter, who 
acted as an interpreter and was influential among 
the Delawares and Shawanese, was the son of 
the famous Canadian half-breed, Catharine Mon- 
tour, whose residence was at the head of Seneca 
Lake, in New York. 

Heckewelder, in his History of Indian Nations 
(p. 77), says that the Cochnewago Indians were a 
remnant of the Mohicans of New England, who 
fled to the shores of the St. Lawrence, where 
they incorporated with the Iroquois and became 
a mixed race : a number of the Mohicans from 
Connecticut emigrated to Ohio in 1762, and their 
chief was "Mohican John." 

Indian Trails. — An interesting appendix to 
Hutchins' History of Bouquets' expedition gives 
five diflferent routes from Fort Pitt through the 
Ohio wilderness. The first route, which was 
N. N.W., after striking the Big Beaver at a 
place called Kuskeeskees Town, forty seven 
miles from Fort Pitt, ascended the east' branch 
fifteen miles to Shaningo, and twelve miles to 
Pematuning, thence westward thirty-two miles 
to Mahoning on the east branchof Beaver (prob- 
ably Youngstown), thence ten miles up said 


branch (Mahoning river) to Salt Lick (near the 
junction of Meander and Mosquito creeks, in 
Weathersfield township, Trumbull county) ; 
thence thirty-two miles to the Cuyahoga river, 
just south of Ravenna, and ten miles down the 
Cuyahoga to Ottawa town (Cuyahoga Falls). 
The distance from Fort Pitt by the above route 
was one hundred and fifty-six miles. 

The second route, W. N.W., was twenty-five 
miles to the mouth of Big Beaver, ninety-one 
miles to Tuscaroras (the junction of Sandy and 
Tuscaroras creeks at the south line of Stark 
county), fifty to Mohican John's, near Jerome- 
ville, on the east line of Ashland county ; forty- 
six to Junandot (Castalia, or the source of Cold 
creek, in Erie county) ; four to Sandusky, at the 
mouth of Cold creek, twenty-four to Jungqu-un- 
duneh (Fremont, on the Sandusky river). The 
distance from Sandusky to Fort Pitt was two 
hundred and sixteen miles, from Fort Pitt to 
Sandusky river two hundred and forty miles. 

The third route, W. S.W., was one hundred 
and twenty-eight miles to the forks of the Musk- 
ingum (at Coshocton) ; six to Bullets Town (on 
the Muskingum — Virginia township) ; ten to 
Waukatamike (near Dresden, Muskingum 
county) ; twenty-seven to King Beaver's Town 
(near the sources of the Hockhocking) ; forty to 
the lower Shawanese Town (on the Scioto river) ; 
twenty to Salt Town (near the source of the 
Scioto ; thence one hundred and ninety miles 
northeast to Fort Miamis (now Fort Wayne, In- 
diana, on the Maumee river). The distance 
from Fort Pitt to Miamis being 426 miles. 

The fourth route, down the Ohio, was twenty- 
seven miles to the mouth of Big Beaver, twelve 
to Little Beaver, ten to Yellow Creek, eighteen 
to Two Creeks (just below Wellsburg, on the 
Virginia side), six to Wheeling, twelve to Pipe 
Hill (near to Pipe Creek), thirty to Long Reach 
(where the Ohio River is withoufabend for a 
considerable distance), eighteen to the foot of 
Reach (near Newport), thirty to the mouth of 
the Muskingum, twelve to Little Kanawha 
River, thirteen to the mouth of Hocking River, 
forty to the mouth of Letarts Creek (opposite 
Letart township, Meigs county), thirty-three to 
Kiskemenetas (an Indian village otherwise called 
"Old Town,'" Gallatin county), eight to the 
mouth of Big Kanawha (or New River), forty to 
Big Sandy, forty to Scioto River, thirty to Big 
Salt Lick River (Brush Creek, Adams county), 
twenty to an island opposite Manchester (Adams 
county), fiftj'-five to Little Miami, thirty to Big 
Miami (or Rocky River), twenty to Big Bones 
(so called from the bones of an elephant found 
there), fifty-five to Kentucky River, fifty to the 
falls of the Ohio River, one hundred and thirty- 
one to the Wabash River, sixty to Cherokee 
(Tennessee) River), and forty to Mississippi. 
Total from Fort Pitt, 840 miles. 


The Virginians were very sensible that some 
form of assent by the Ohio Indians to their settle- 



ment in the territory was indispensable. Great 
efforts were, therefore, made to procure it, and at 
length representatives of the Western tribes were 
assembled at Logstown, seventeen miles below 
Pittsburgh, on the 9th of June, 1752. This was 
a favorable moment for the designs of the Eng- 
lish colonists, since the savages, even. to the, 
remote Twight-wees, were then inimical to the 
French, and favorably disposed towards the Eng- 
lish ; but the Virginia Commissioners — Messrs. 
Fry, Lomax, and Patton — had no easy task. 
They produced the Lancaster treaty, and insisted 
on the right of the Crown, under its grant, to sell 
the Western lands ; but " No," the chiefs said, 
' ' they had not heard of an.y sale west of the 
' Warriors' road,' which ran at the foot of the 
Alleghany ridge." The Commissioners then 
offered goods for a ratification of the Lancaster 
treaty ; spoke of the proposed settlement by the 
Ohio Company, and used their persuasions to 
secure the land wanted. Upon the nth of June 
the Indians' replied. They recognized the treaty 
■of Lancaster, and the authority of the Six Na- 
tions to make'it, but denied that they had any 
knowledge of the Western lands being conveyed 
to the English by said deed ; and declined, upon 
the whole, having anything to do with the treaty 
-of 1744. They were willing to give special per- 
mission to erect a fort at the fork of the Ohio, 
' ' as the French have already struck the Twight- 
wees," but the Virginians wanted much more ; 
and, finally, by the influence of Montour, the in- 
terpreter, who was probably bribed, the Indians 
united, on the 13th of June, in signing a deed 
confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, 
and consenting to a settlement southeast of the 

The dissatisfaction of the Ohio savages with 
the proceedings at Logstown is very apparent 
from the fact that in September, 1753, WiUiam 
Fairfax met their deputies at Winchester, 
Virginia, where he concluded a treaty, with the 
particulars of which we are unacquainted, but on 
which, it is stated was an indorsement that " he 
had not dared to mention to them either the Lan- 
caster or Logstown treaty ; a sad commentary 
upon the modes taken to obtain the grants." 

All attempts to secure any practical results 
from those treaties were postponed by the out- 
break and continuance-of hostilities, and it was 
not until after the pacification of 1765 that the 
occupation of the lands west of the Alleghanies, 
otherwise than by the Indians, was agitated in 
any considerable degree. 

The Royal proclamation of October 7, 1763, 
forbade all private settlement or purchase of 
lands west of the Alleghanies ; but as soon as 
peace was restored by ' the treaty of German 
Flats, settlers crossed the mountains, and took 
possession of lands in Western Virginia, and 
along the Monongahela. The Indians remon- 
strated ; the authorities issued proclamations 
warning off intruders ; orders were forwarded by 
General Gage to the gan-ison of Fort Pitt to dis- 
lodge the settlers at Red Stone, but all was inef- 
fectual. The adventurous spirits of the frontier 

were not alone in their designs upon the wilder- 
ness. The old Ohio Company sought a perfec- 
tion of their grant ; the Virginia volunteers of 
1754, who had enlisted under a proclamation 
offering liberal bounties of lands, were also clam- 
orous ; individual grants were urged. Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson was ambitious of being the Gov- 
ernor of an armed colony south of the Ohio, 
upon the model proposed by Franklin in 1754, 
and the plan of another company, led by Thomas 
Walpole, a London banker of eminence, was 
submitted to the English Ministry. 

Notwithstanding such a fevqj of land specu- 
lation, it was still felt that a better muniment of 
title was requisite than the obsolete pretensions 
of Lancaster and Logstown ; and General Gage, 
having represented very emphatically the grow- 
ing irritation of the Indians, Sir William John- 
son was instructed to negotiate another treaty. 
Notice was given the ■\7arious colonial govern- 
ments, to the Six Nations, the Delawares and 
the Shawanesei and a Congress was appointed to 
meet at Fort Stanwix (now Rome, New York). 
It assembled on the 24th of October, 1768, and 
was attended by representatives from New Jer- 
sey, Virginia, and Pennsylvania ; by Sir William 
and his deputies ; by the agents ol those traders 
who had suffered in the war of 1763, and by- 
deputies from all the Six Nations, the Delawares 
and the Shawanese. The first point to be set- 
tled was the boundary line, which was to deter- 
mine the Indian lands of the west from that time 
forward ; and this line the Indians, upon the ist 
of November, stated should begin on the Ohio, 
at the mouth of the Cherokee (or Tennessee) 
River ; thence up the Ohio and Allegheny to 
Kittaning ; thence across to the Susquehanna, 
etc., whereby the whole country south of the 
Ohio and Allegheny, to -which the Six Nations 
had any claitn, was transfeiTed to the British. 
One deed for a part of this land was made on the 
3d of November to William Trent, attorney for 
twenty-two traders, whose goods had been de- 
stroyed by the Indians in 1763. The tract con- 
veyed by this was between the Kenawha and 
Monongahela, and was by the traders named 
Indiana. Two days afterwards a deed for the 
remaining Western lands was made to the King, 
and the price agreed on paid down. There were 
also given two deeds in Pennsylvania — one to 
Croghan, and the other to the proprietaries of 
that Colony. These deeds were made upon the 
express agreement that no claim should ever be 
based upon previous treaties — those of Lancaster, 
Logstown, etc — and they ■Cvere signed by the 
Chiefs of the Six Nations, for themselves, their 
allies and defendants, the Shawanese, Delawares, 
Mingoes of Ohio, and others ; but the Shawanese 
and Delaware deputies present did not sign 

The fact that such an extent of country was 
ceded voluntarily — ^not after a war, not by hard 
persuasion, but at once, and willingly, satisfies 
us that the whole aftair had been previously set- 
tled with the New York savages, and that the 
Ohio Indians had no voice in the matter. The 



efforts to organize an immense land company, 
which shoujd include the old Ohio Company, 
and the more I'ecent Walpole scheme, besides 
recognizing the bounties of the Virginia volun- 
teers, were apparently successful by the royal 
sanction of August 14, 1774, but previously there 
were immense private appropriations of the i-e- 
gion south of the Ohio. Prominent among those 
interested in such speculations was George Wash- 
ington. He had patents for 32,373 acres — 9,157 
on the Ohio, between the Kanawhas, with a river 
front of thirteen and a half miles ; 23,216 acres 
on the great Ke»awha, with a river front of forty 
miles. Besides these lands, he owned fitteen 
miles below Wheeling (587 acres), with 
a front of two and a half miles. He considered 
the land worth $3.33 per acre. [Sparks' Wash- 
ington, XII, 264-317.] 

General Washington, after reciting his im- 
pressions in favor this fegion, says: "The In- 
dians who reside upon the Ohio — the upper parts 
of it at least — are composed of Shawanese, Del- 
awares, and some of the Mingoes, who, getting 
but little part of the consideration that was given 
for the lands eastward of the Ohio, view the set- 
tlements of the people upon this river with an 
uneasy and jealous eye, and do not scruple to 
say that they must be compensated for their right, 
if the people settle thereon, notwithstanding the 
cession ot the Six Nations. On the other hand, 
the people of Virginia and elsewhere are explor- 
ing and marking all the lands that are valuable, 
not only on the Red Stone and other waters on 
the Monongahela, but along the Ohio as low as 
the Little Kanawha, and by the next summer I sup- 
pose they will get to the Great Kanawha at least." 

At a conference with the Ohio tribes, held by 
George Croghan, at Pittsburgh, in May, 1768, 
Nimwha, one of the Shawanese chiefs, who sub- 
mitted so reluctantly to the army of Boquet, thus 
expressed himself: 

"We desired you not to go down this river in 
the way of the warriors belonging to the foolish 
nations to the westward ; and told you that the 
waters of this river, a great way below this place, 
were colored with blood ; you did not pay any 
regard to this, but asked us to accompany you in 
going down, which we did, but felt the smart of 
our rashness, and with difficulty returned to our 
friends (alluding adroitly to Croghan's unluck)' 
capture at the mouth of the Wabash in 1765). 
We see you now about making batteaus, and we 
make no doubt you intend to go down the river 
again, which we now tell you is disagreeable to 
all nations of Indiahs, and now again desire you 
to sit still at this place. 

"They are also uneasy to see you think your- 
selves masters of this country, because you have 
taken it from the French, who, you know, had 
no right to it, as it is the property of the Indians. 
We often hear that you intend to fight with the 
French again ; if you do, we desire you will re- 
move your quarrel out of the country, and carry 
it over the great waters, where you used to fight, 
and where we shall neither see or know anvthinof 
of it." ^ ^ 

The peaceful Delawares met the encroaching 
upon their hunting grounds by slowly retiring 
before the advancing column of emigration, con- 
centrating their villages more and more within 
their wilderness home, north of the Ohio, until 
in 1774 the smothered flame of hostility, which 
had been long kindled among the Shawanese, 
burst forth. 

The wanton murder of Logan's family imme- 
diately leagued the bands of Mingoes, or Senecas, 
with their neighbors on the Scioto in the work of 
vengeance. The result of this uprising, and 
account of Dunmore's expedition in a general 
way, are recited in several histories of the United 
States with minuteness ; but as this outbreak, and 
the ensuing bloody struggle, hinged on the re- 
venge for Logan's loss, and yet was in reality the 
slogan that called the red man to the defense of 
his home and all that was dear to him, the 
reader will pardon a recital here of that which 
may be familiar :• 

"As Dunmore approached the Scioto, the In- 
dians besought him to send an interpreter. John 
Gibson was sent by Lord Dunmore. He has 
stated, in an affidavit annexed to "Jefferson's 
Notes," that on his arrival at the towns, Logan, 
the Indian, came to where the deponent 
was sitting with the Cornstalk and the other 
chiefs of the Shawanese, and asked him to walk 
out with him. They went out into a copse of 
wood, where they sat down, when Logan, after 
shedding abundance of tears, delivered to him 
the speech related by Mr. Jefferson in his "notes 
on the State of Virginia ;" that he, the deponent, 
told him that it was not Colonel Cresap who had 
murdered his relations, and although his son, 
Captain Michael Cresap, was with the party that 
killed a Shawanese chief and other Indians, yet 
he was not present when his relations were 
killed at Baker's, near the mouth of Yellow 
Creek, on the Ohio : that this deponent, on his 
return to camp, delivered the speech to Lord 
Dunmore, and that the murders perpetrated as 
above were considered as ultimately the cause of 
the war of 1774, commonly called "Cresap's 

Of this speech, or message, there are besides 
that of Jefferson, two versions, at least: one con- 
tained in a letter from Williamsburgh, Virginia, 
dated Februarj^ 4, I775.' and preserved in the 
American Archives; volume i, p. 1020, and an- 
other, which was published in New York, on the 
1 6th of February (same year), as an extract 
from Virginia. Jefferson adopted the latter. 
Probably Gibson noted down the expressions of 
Logan, as vittered by him in his simple English, 
and on his return to Lord Dunmore's camp, the 
officers, in taking copies, may have modified an 
occasional expression. The different versions 
are presnted for comparison : 

Logan's speech. 

WiLLiAMSBUiiGH, February 4, 1775. 
"I appeal to any white man to say that he ever 
entered Logan's cabin but I gave him meat ; that 
he ever came naked but I clothed him. 



"In the course of the last war, Logan remained 
in his cabin an advocate for peace. I had such 
an affection for the white people that I was 
pointed at by the rest of my nation. I should 
have ever lived with them, had it not been for 
Colonel Cresap, who, last year, cutoff in cold 
blood all the relations of Logan, not sparmg wo- 
men and children. There runs not a drop of my 
blood in the veins of any human creature. This 
called on me for revenge. I have sought it, I 
have killed many, and fully glutted my revenge. 
I am glad that there is no prospect of peace on 
account of the nation ; but I beg you will not 
entertain a thought that anything I have said 
proceeds from fear ; Logan disdains the thought. 
He will not turn on his heel to save his life. 
Who is thei^e to mourn for Logan? No one." 

That dated New York, February 16, 1775, is 
so very similar that it is omitted ; another, credited 
to Jefferson, in 1781-2, is given: 

" I appeal to any white man to say if he ever 
entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave 
him not meat ; if he ever came cold and naked, 
and he clothed him not. During the course of 
the last long and bloody war Logan remained 
in his cabin an advocate for peace. Such was 
my love for the whites that my countrymen 
pointed as they passed and said, ' Logan is the 
friend of the white men.' I had even thought 
to have lived with you, but for the injuries of 
one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in 
cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the re- 
lations of Logan, not even sparing my women 
and children. There runs not a drop of Tny 
blood in the veins of any living creature. This 
called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I 
have killed many. I have fully glutted my 
vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the 
beams of peace, but do not harbor a thought 
that mine is the joy of fear. He will not turn 
on his. heel to save his life. Logan never felt 
fear. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not 
one." Of this production Mr. Jefferson says : 

" I may challenge the whole orations of De- 
mosthenes and Cicero, and of any more emi- 
nent orator, if Europe has produced any more 
eminent, to produce a single passage superior to 
the speech of Logan, a Mingo chief, to Lord 
Dunmore, when Governor of Virginia." Else- 
where he styles it " a morsel of eloquence." 
Logan knew no more what pleasure was. It is 
said that he was sitting with his blanket over 
his head before a camp fire, when an Indian who 
had taken some offense stole behind him and 
buried his tomahawk in his brains. Many 
years elapsed, the speech became more and 
more widely circulated, it was extensively read 
and admired, and became the theme of recita- 
tion in public exhibitions along with the most 
eloquent passages of ancient and modern poets 
and orators. At length, in 1797, Luther Mar- 
tin, a very able lawyer, son-in-law of Michael 
Cresap, in obedience to the injunction of a re- 
lative, as he alleged, and perhaps in some meas- 
ure under the influence of political feelings, ad- 
dressed the following letter to Mr. Fennel, a 

public declaimer, through the Philadelphia Ga- 
zette, edited by William Cobbet : 

''■'■Mr. Fennel: — By the late Philadelphia pa- 
pers I observe, sir, that in your 'readings and 
recitations, moral, critical and entertaining,' 
among your other selections you have introduced 
the story of Logan, the Mingo Chief. In doing 
this I am satisfied you are not actuated by a de- 
sire to wound the feelings of a respectable fam- 
ily in the United States, or by a wish to give a 
greater publicity to a groundless calumny. You 
found that story and speech in Jefferson's Notes 
on Virginia ; you found it related with such an 
air of authenticity that it cannot be surprising 
that you should not suspect it to be a fiction. 
But, sir, philosophers are pretty much the same, 
from old Shandy, who in support of a system, 
sacrificed his aunt Dinah, to DeWarville and 
Condorcet, who for the same purpose would 
have sacrificed a woi^ld. 

" Mr. Jefferson is a philosopher ; he, too, had his 
hypothesis to establish, or, what is much the 
same thing, he had the hypothesis of Buffon to 
ovei-throw. When we see him employed in 
weighing the rats and mice of the two worlds, to 
prove that those of the New were not exceeded 
by those of the Old world, then to establish that 
the body of the American savage is not inferior 
in form or in vigor to the body of an European, 
we find him examining minutely everj^ part of 
their frame, and hear him declare that, though 
the wrist and the head of the former are smaller 
than those parts of the latter, yet, hs organes 
de la generation nc sont -plus foibles on -plus 
■petils, and that he hath not only as many hairs 
on his body, but that the same parts which are 
productive of hair in one, if left to themselves, 
are equally productive of hair in the other ; 
when we see him so zealous to establish an equal- 
ity in such trifles, and to prove the body of the 
savage to be formed on the same modula with 
the Homo sapiens Eurofous how much more 
solicitous maj' we suppose him to have been to 
prove that the mind of this savage was also 
formed on the same modula. 

"Than the man whom he has calumniated, he 
could scarcely have selected a finer example to 
establish the position that the human race in the 
Western world are not belittled in body or 
mind, but that unfortunately the man was not 
born in America. 

"For the want of better materials he was obliged 
to make use of such as came to his hands, and 
we may reasonably conclude, whatever story or 
speech he could pick up, calculated to destroy 
the hypothesis of Buffon, or establish his own, 
especially in so important a point, instead of be- 
ing scrutinized minutely, would be welcomed 
with avidity. And great and respectable as the 
authority of Mr. Jefferson may be thought, or 
may be in reality, I have no hesitation to declare 
that from an examination of the subject, I am 
convinced the charge exhibited by him against 
Colonel Cresap is not founded in truth ; and, also, 
that no such specimen of Indian orator}^ was 
ever exhibited. 



" That some of Logan's family were killed by 
the Americans I do not doubt ; whether they fell 
the victims of justice, of mistake, or of cruelty, 
rests with those by whom they fell. But in their 
death. Colonel Cresap, or any of his family, had 
no share, and in support of this assertion I am 
ready to enter the lists with the author of Notes 
on Virginia. 

" No man who really knew the late Colonel 
Cresap, could have believed the tale. He was 
too brave to be perfidious or cruel. He was a 
man of undaunted resolution ; a man of whom 
it might be said, with as much propriety as I be- 
lieve was ever said of man, ' That he knew not 

"It was to savages, employed bj' the French 
Nation (before it became our very good friend 
and ally) to ravage the frontiers and butcher the 
peaceful inhabitants, that he and his family were 

"But, perhaps, it was from this fact, that Mr. 
Jeflerson considered himself authorized to say 
' Colonel Cresap was infamous for the many 
murders he had committed on the much injured 
Indians.' And lest some future philosopher, in 
some future notes on Virginia, might be tempted 
to call him also 'infamous for his many murders 
of the much injured' Britains, may, perhaps, 
have been his motive for flying with such precip- 
itation from the seat of his government, not many 
years since, when the British invaded the State. 

"As to Logan, lightly would I tread over the 
grave even of the untutoi-ed savage, but justice 
obliges me to say, I am well assured that the 
Logan of the wilderaess — the real Logan of na- 
ture — had but little, if any, more likeness to the 
fictitious Logan of Jefferson's Notes than the 
brutified Caftre of Africa to the enhghtened phil- 
osopher of Monticello. 

"In what wilderness Mr. Jeff'erson culled this 
fair flower of aboriginal eloquence, whether he 
has preserved it in the same state in which he 
found it, or, by transplanting it into a more genial 
soil, and exposing it to a kinder sun, he has given 
it the embellishments of cultivation, I know not. 

"There are many philosophers so very fond of 
representing savage nature in the most amiable 
and most exalted point of view, that we feel our- 
selves less surprised when we see them become 
savages themselves. To some one of this class 
of philosophers, I doubt not, it owes its existence. 
Yet, but for Mr. Jefferson, 'it would have breathed 
its poisons in the desert air.' Whatever was the 
soil in which it first sprung up, it soon would 
have withered and died unnoticed or forgotten, 
had not he preserved it in his collection. From 
thence the authors of the Annual Register have 
given their readers a drawing as large as nature. 
The Rev. Mr. Morse, in his geography, and Mr. 
Lendrum, in his History of the American Revo- 
lution, have followed their example, and you, 
sir, are now increasing its celebrity by exhibit- 
ing it to thronging spectators, with all its color- 
ing, retouched and heightened by the glowing 
pencil of a master. 

"Do you ask me how I am interested in this 

subject? I answer, the daughter of Michael 
Cresap.was the mother of my children. I am 
influenced by another motive not less powerful. 
My lamented and worthy relation, who died on 
the expedition against the western insurgents, 
bequeathed to me as a sacred trust, what, had he 
Hved, he intended to have performed himself, to 
rescue his family from unmerited opprobrium. 

"Do you ask me why I have so long neglected 
this duty ? I answer, because for a long time 
past every feeling of my mind has been too much 
engrossed by the solicitude, though an unavail- 
ing solicitude, of preserving the valuable life of 
one of that family, to attend to any objects which 
could bear postponement. The shock is now 
past. I begin to recall my scattered thoughts to 
other subjects, and finding the story of Logan in 
the catalogue of your readings, it instantly 
brought me to the recollection of a duty, which I 
have hastened thus far to fulfill. 

"And now, sir, to conclude, I arrogate to my- 
self no authority of prohibiting the story and 
speech of Logan from being continued in your 
readings and recitations : this I submit to your 
sentiments of propriety and justice ; but from 
these sentiments I certainly have a right to ex- 
pect that, on its conclusion, you will inform your 
readers it is at best but the ingenious fiction of 
some philosophic brain, and when hereafter you 
oblige your audience with that story and speech, 
that with the poison you will dispense the anti- 
dote, by reading them this letter, also oblige 
yoyr humble servant, 

Luther Martin. 

March 29, 1797. 

[From Olden Time, vol. 2, No. 1847.] 

The reader cannot fail to notice that the his- 
torian of these pages reproduces the evidence on 
both sides of this "vexed question," submitted 
by Mr. Martin, adding the speech of Logan by 
William Robinson, whom Logan saved from be- 
ing burned alive. He stated that abovit three 
daj^s after this Logan brought him a piece of 
paper and told him he must write a letter for 
him, which he meant to carry and leave in some 
house where he should kill somebody ; that he 
made ink with gunpowder and then proceeded 
to write bj- his direction, addressing Captain 
Michael Cresap in it, and that the purport of it 
was "wh}' had he killed my people?" etc. The 
following is his letter : 

Captain Cresap : 

"What did you kill my people on Yellow 
Creek for?' The white people killed my kin at 
Conestoga, a great while ago, and I thought 
nothing of that, but you killed my kin again on 
Yellow Creek, and took my cousin prisoner. 
Then I thought I must kill too, and I have been 
three times to war since ; but the Indians are not 
angry, only myself. Capt. John Logan. 

July 2ist, 1774." 

The conflict in opinion brought to view in the 
narration of the matter represented, is more in 




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rhetoric than fact. The delicacy of the task un- 
dertaken by Mr. Luther Martin doubtless had 
something to do with his delaj'^ in regard to it, 
but in candor we feel constrained to allude to the 
inconsistency in his charging Mr. Jefferson with 
any degree of negligence in scrutinizing min- 
utely not only the letter, but the attending cir- 
cumstances, for, according to Mr. Martin, Mr. 
Jefferson was a philosopher, and so given to in- 
vestigation, even to minutae, that "we see him 
employed in weighing the rats and mice of the 
two worlds to prove that those of the new were 
not exceeded by those of the old world," and 
while the effort of Mr. Martin is in many re- 
spects commendable, it is remarkable that the 
officers who heard the speech read to Lord Dun- 
more should be so harmonious in reproducing it 
in letters to their friends, and that Logan's grief 
should be avenged by so many noted chiefs in 
the Indian war that ensued, if Logan was such 
an unimportant person. The Confederacy, as 
we shall see further on, did not so regard him. 

The revolutionary annals of Ohio have many 
dark stains. The massacre of the heroic Corn- 
stalk, like that of Logan's family, became the 
frviitful slogan for revenge with the red man. 
Cornstalk, after the treaty of 1774 with Dunmore, 
had been the steadfast friend of neutrality among 
the beligerent whites. Accompanied by Red 
Hawk, the Shawnee orator, at the council held 
by Colonel Boquet (on a friendly visit to the fort 
at Point Pleasant, in 1764), he communicated 
the hostile disposition among the Ohio tribes, 
and expressed his sorrow that the Shawnee na- 
tion, except himself and his tribe, were de- 
termined to espouse the British side, and his ap- 
prehension that he and his people would be 
compelled to go with the stream unless the Long 
Knives could protect him. 

Upon receiving this information, the com- 
mander of the garrison. Captain Arbuckle, seized 
upon Cornstalk and his companions as hostages 
for the peaceful conduct of his nation, and set 
about availing himself of his suggestions. Dur- 
ing his captivity Cornstalk held frequent con- 
versations with the officers, and took pleasure in 
describing to them the geography of the West, 
then little known. One afternoon, while engaged 
in drawing on the floor a map. of Missouri, he 
heard a voice from the forest, which he I'ecog- 
nized as that of his son Ellenipsico, a young 
warrior whose courage and address were almost 
as celebrated as his father. Ellenipsico entered 
the fort and embraced his father most affection- 
ately, having been uneasy at his absence and 
come hither in search of him. The day after 
his arrival two men, Hamilton and Gilmore, 
belonging to the fort, crossed the Kanawha, in- 
tending to hunt in the woods. On their return 
from hunting, some Indians, who had come to 
view the position of the Point, concealed them- 
selves near the mouth of the river, and while 
the men were passing killed Gilmore. Colonel 
Stewart was standing on the opposite bank of 
the river at the time, and expressed his surprise 
that a gun had been fired so near the fort in 

violation of orders. Hamilton ran down the 
bank, crying out that Gilmore was killed. Cap- 
tain Hall commanded Gilmore's Company. His 
men leaped into a canoe and hastened to the 
relief of Hamilton. They brought the body of 
Gilmore, weltering in blood (his head scalped), 
across the river. The canoe had scarcely reached 
the shore when the cry was raised, " Kill the red 
dogs in the fort !" Captain Hall placed himself 
in front of his soldiers as they ascended the 
river bank, pale with rage, carrying their loaded 
fire-locks in their hands. Colonel Stewart and 
Captain Arbuckle exerted themselves in vain to 
dissuade the men, exasperated to madness by 
the spectacle of Gilmore's corpse, from the cruel 
deed which they contemplated. They cocked 
their guns, threatening those gentlemen with 
instant death if they did not desist, and rushed 
into the fort. 

The intoKpreter's wife, who had been a captive 
among the Indians and felt an affection for them, 
ran to their cabin and informed them that Hall's 
soldiers were advancing with the intention of 
taking their lives, because they believed that 
the Indians who had killed Gilmore had come 
with Cornstalk's son the preceding day. This 
the young man solemnly denied, declaring that 
he had come alone, with the sole object of seek- 
ing his father. When the soldiers came within 
hearing the young warrior appeared agitated. 
Cornstalk encouraged him to meet his fate com- 
posedly, and said to him, "My sqn, the Great 
Spirit has sent you here that we may die to- 
gether." He turned to meet his murderers the 
next instant, and receiving seven bullets in his 
body he expired without a groan. 

When Cornstalk had fallen, Ellenipsico con- 
tinued to sit still and passive. He met death 
with the utmost calmness. The Red Hawk 
made an attempt to climb the chimney, but fell 
by the fire of some of Hall's men. His atrocious 
murder was dearly expiated. The Shawnees 
were thenceforth the foremost in excursions upon 
the frontier. At the close of 1777 only three 
settlements existed in the interior of Kentucky — 
Harrodsburg, Bonnesborough, and Logan's. It 
was a year of siege, struggle, and suffering. 
The narrative of these times teems with horrors, 
in which the strife for supremacy was shared 
about equally between the white and red man, 
and was noted for deeds of daring unsurpassed 
in the annals of warfare. An instance of fem- 
inine heroism is worthy of being reproduced as we 
find it in the "American Pioneer," vol. 2, p. 309 : 

" Fort Henry stood upon the bank of the Ohio, 
about a quarter of a mile above the mouth of 
Wheeling creek. Between it and the steep river 
hill, on the east, were thirty log huts, which the 
Indians occupied and challenged the garrison to 
surrender. Colonel Shepherd refused and the 
attack commenced. From sunrise until noon 
the fire on both sides was constant, when that, of 
the assailants slackened. Within the fort the 
only alarm was want of powder, and then it was 
remembered that a keg was concealed in the 
house of Ebenezer Zane, some sixty yards dis- 



tant. It was determined to make an effort to ob- 
tain it, and the question 'Who will go?' was 
proposed. At this crisis a young woman, sister 
of Ebenezer and Silas Zane, came forward and 
desired to be premitted to go. This proposition 
seemed so extravagant that it was refused, but 
she renewed it with earnestness, replying that 
the danger was the identical reason that induced 
her to offer, for the garrison was very weak and 
no soldier's life should be placed in jeopardy, 
and if she were to fall her loss would not be felt. 
Her petition was finally granted and the gate 
opened for her to pass out. This attracted the 
attention of several Indians who were straggling 
through the village. Their eyes were upon her 
as she crossed the open space to reach her 
brother's house ; but whether they were siezed 
with a feeling of clemency, or believing that a 
woman's life was not worth a load of gunpowder, 
cannot be explained ; suffice it, they* permitted 
her to pass without molestation. 'When she re- 
appeared, however, with the powder in her 
arms,, suspecting the character of the burden, 
they fired at her as she swiftly glided toward the 
gate, but their balls few wide of their mark, and 
the brave Elizabeth Zane reached the foi-t in 
safety with her prize, and won a glorious name 
in history. 

"The assault was resumed with fierceness and 
continued until evening. Soon after nightfall a 
party of Indians advanced toward the gate of 
the fort, within sixty yards, with an improvised 
canon, made of a hollow maple log, bound round 
with chains obtained from a blacksmith shop, and 
supposing it sufficiently strpng, heavily charged 
it with powder, and then filled it to the muzzle 
with pieces of stone and slugs of iron. When 
the match was applied it burst into many pieces, 
and although it had no effect upon the fort, killed 
and wounded a number of Indians. A loud yell 
went up at this disastrous failure, and they dis- 
persed. The fort was soon after reinforced, and 
the Indians abandoned the siege. The tribes 
represented were principally Wyandots, Mingoes 
and Shawnese. Their loss was near one hun- 
dred ; that of the Americans, twenty-six killed 
and four wounded." 

During the winter of 1777-8, Alexander Mc- 
Kee, Matthew Elliott and Simon Girty, desperate 
white savages, active partisans of Great Britain 
up to the close of that century, made their ap- 
pearance in the Muskingum towns and repre- 
sented that the English were completely victori- 
ous ; the American armies cut to pieces ; General 
Washington killed ; there was no more Congress ; 
the English had hung some of them, and taken 
the rest to England to hang them ; that there 
were a few thousands of Americans who had 
escaped, and were embodying themselves on 
this side of the mountains for the purpose of 
killing all the Indians in this country, even wo- 
-men and children ; and much more of the same 

The peace chief. White Eyes, saw with much 
concern that the majority of his nation seemed 
to believe this report, and that they, with Captain 

Pipe (who always lent a willing ear to the Brit- 
ish, and was manifestly not the friend of White 
Eyes, being his rival), the latter called a general 
council of the nation, in which, when assembled, 
he proposed to delay hostilities against the 
Americans ten days, in order to be satisfied of 
the truth of the report. Whereupon Captain 
Pipe declared "every man an enemy to the 
nation who would throw an obstacle in the way 
that might prevent taking up arms against the 
American people." White Eyes once more as- 
sembled the men, and told them "that if they 
meant in earnest to go out, as some were pre- 
paring to do, they should not go without him. 
He had taken peace measures in order to save 
the nation from utter destruction ; but if they 
believed he was wrong, and gave more credit to 
vagabond fugitives, whom he knew to be such, 
than himself, who was best acquainted with the 
real state of things ; if they had determined to 
follow their advice and go out against the Amer- 
icans, he would go out with them ; but not like 
the hunter, who sets the dogs on the animal to 
be beaten with his paws while he keeps at a safe 
distance. No ! he would himself lead them on, 
place himself in the front, and be the first who 
should fall. They only had to determine what 
they meant to do, for his own mind was fully 
made up not to survive the nation ; and he would 
not spend the remainder of a miserable life be- 
wailing the total destruction of a brave people 
who deserved a better fate." The ten days' 
delay asked for by White Eyes were granted, 
and as the time had nearly expired without re- 
ceiving any other intelligence, some had already 
shaved their heads preparatory to putting on the 
war paint, when Heckewelder. the Moravian 
Missionary, made his appearance among them 
and gave them the intelligence of the surren- 
der of Burgoyne and the discomfiture of the 
British, which led to the recognition of Ameri- 
can independence b}- France, and impressed 
England with the fact that they had lost their 
colonies. Whereupon Captain White Eyes, in 
a long address, took particular notice of the 
good disposition of the American people towards 
the Indians, observing that they had never yet 
called on them to light the English, knowing 
that wars were destructive to nations : and that 
the Americans had from the beginning of the 
war to the present advised the Indians to remain 
quiet and not take vip the hatchet against either 
side. A newspaper containing an account of 
the capitulation of General Burgoyne's army be- 
ing handed to him by Heckewelder, White Eyes 
held the paper unfolded in both hands, so that 
all could have a view of it, and said : " See, mv 
friends and relatives, this document contains 
great events ; not the song of a bird, but truth." 
Then stepping up to Heckewelder he gave him 
his hand, saying: "You are welcome to us, 
brother ! " and every one present immediately 
followed his example. And it is fair to conclude 
that had it not been for the persistent friendship 
of White Eyes and the timely arrival of Hecke- 
welder with the glad tidings, the spring of 1778 



would have inevitably found the Indian allies of 
Great Britain with the Delawares and other 
Indians of the Ohio. 

The Indians were the occupants of the terri- 
tory on either side of the Ohio and Alleghanj"- 
when the Europeans first visited those regions. 
Their history and institutions have a weird yet 
fascinating interest, and in the language of 
Washington's early friend Tanacharison, or 
Guyasutha, and the venerable Cornplanter, we 
will trace the genius of the government of the 
people now fast disappearing, once the powerful 
occupants of the country we now occupy. 


This expedition was designed at first to co- 
operate with General Sullivan in his well-known 
and successful march into the territory of the 
Six Nations by way of the Susquehanna river, 
but for the reasons assigned in the annexed let- 
ter from General Washington, the plan of co- 
operation was abandoned. 

The campaign of Sullivan was well conducted 
and highly successful in the destruction of Indian 
towns, fields of corn, and other means of sub- 
sistence, and thus contributed to embarrass all 
the future operations of Butler and Brandt, and 
other English tories, with their Indian allies, 
against our more eastern and northern frontier. 
It commenced in August, 1779, and terminated 
in October, and of course was almost simultane- 
ous with Broadhed's expedition up the Alle- 
ghany : 

' ' Headquarters , 

"Middle Brook, 21st April, 1779. 
"Dear Sir: — Since my last letter, and upon 
further consideration of the subject, I have relin- 
quished the idea of attempting a co-operation 
between the troops at Fort Pirt, and the bodies 
moving from other quarters, against the Six Na- 
tions. The difficulty of providing supplies in 
time, a want of satisfactory information of the 
route and nature of the country up the Allegha- 
ny, and between that and the Indian settlements, 
and consequently the uncertainty of being able 
to co-operate to advantage, and the hazard which 
the smaller party might run for want of co-oper- 
ation, are principal motives for declining. The 
danger to which the frontier would be exposed 
by drawing ofC troops from their present position, 
from the incursions of the more western tribes, 
is an additional though a less powerful reason. 
The post at Tuscarawas is, therefore, to be pre- 
served, if, under full consideration of circum- 
stances, it is adjudged a post of importance, and 
can be maintained without running too great a 
risk — and the troops in general under your com- 
mand disposed in the manner best calculated to 
cover and protect the country on a defensive plan. 
"As it is my wish, however, as soon as it may 
be in our power, to chastise the Western savages 
by an expedition into their country, you will em- 
ploy yourself in the meantime in making prepar- 
ations, and forming magazines of provisions for 

the purpose. If the expedition against the Six 
Nations is successfully ended, a part of the 
troops employed in this will probably be sent, in 
conjunction with those under you, to carry on 
another that way. You will endeavor to obtain 
in the meantime and transmit me, every kind of 
intelligence, which will be necessary to direct 
our operations, as precise, full and authentic as 
possible. Among other points you will try to 
ascertain the most favorable season for an enter- 
prise against Detroit. The frozen season, in the 
opinion of most, is the only one in which any 
capital stroke can be given, as the enemy can 
derive no benefit from their shipping, which 
must either be destroyed or fall into our hands. 
I am, &c., George Washington. 

"Col. Brodhead." 


The speech of Doonyontat, the Wyandot Chief, 
to Maghingive Keesuch (the Indian name for 
Colonel Brodhead) : 

"Brother — Listen to me. Brother, it pains 
me to see you with tears in your eyes. I know it is 
the fault of the English. Brother, I wipe away all 
those tears, and smooth down your hair, which 
the English and the folly of my young men has 
ruffled. Now, my brother, I have wiped away 
all the stains from your clothes, and smoothed 
them where my young men had ruffled them, so 
that you may now put on your hat and sit with 
that ease and composure which you would desire. 

[Four strings of white wampum.] 

Brother, listen to the Huron chiefs. Brother, 
I see you all bloody by the English and my 
young men. I now wipe away all those stains 
and make you clean. Brother, I see your heart 
twisted, and neck and throat turned to the one 
side, with the grief and vexation which my j-oung 
men have caused, all which disagreeable sensa- 
tions I now remove and restore you to your for- 
mer tranquility, so that now you maj^ breathe with 
ease, and enjoy the benefit of your food and 
nourishment. Brother, your ears appear to be 
stopped, so that you cannot listen to your brothers 
when they talk friendship. That deafness I now 
remove, and all stoppage from jour ears, that 
you may listen to the friendly speeches of your 
brothers, and that they may sink deep into your 

[Seven strings of white wampum.] 

Brother, listen to me. When I look around 
me, I see the bones of our nephews lie scattered 
and unburied. Brother, I gather up the bones 
of our young men on both sides in disptite, with- 
out any distinction of party. Brother, I have 
now gathered up all the bones of our relations on 
both sides, and will bury them in a large, deep 
grave, and smooth it over so that there shall not 
be the least sign of bones, or anything to raise 
grief or anger in our minds hereafter. Brother, 
I have now buried the bones of all our and your 
relations very deep. You very well know that 
thei^e are some of your flesh and blood in our 



hands as prisoners ; I assure you that you shall 
see them all safe and well. 

[Eight strings of white wampum.] 

Brother, I now look up to where our Maker is, 
and think there is still some darkness over our 
heads, so that God can hardly see us, on account 
of the evil doings of the King over the great 
waters. All these thick clouds, which have 
raised on account of that bad King, I now en- 
tirely remove, that God may look and see our 
treaty of friendship, and be a witness to the 
truth and sincerity of our intentions. 

[Four strings of white wampum.] 

Brother, as God puts all our hearts right^ I 
now give thanks to God Almighty, to the chief 
men of the Americans, to my old father the King 
of France, and to you, brother, that we can now 
talk on more friendly terms, and speak our senti- 
ments without interruption. 

[Four strings of black and white wampum.] 

Brother, you knew me before you saw me that 
I had not drawn away my hand from yours. I 
sent word last year by Captain White Eyes. 
Brother, I look up to Heaven and call God Al- 
mighty to witness to the truth of what I say, and 
that it really comes from my heart. Brother, I 
now tell you that I have forever thrown oft" my 
father, the English, and will never give him any 
assistance ; and there are some among all the 
nations that think the same things that I do, and 
I wish they would all think so. 

Brother, T cannot answer for all the nations, as 
I don't know all their thoughts, and will speak 
only what I am sure of. Brother, listen to me. 
I love all the nations, and hate none, and when 
I return home they shall all hear what you say, 
and what is done between us. Brother, I have 
just now told you that I loved all the nations, and 
I see you raising the hatchet against my young 
brothers, the Shawanese. I beg you to stop a 
little while, as he has never yet heard me ; and 
when he has heard me, if he does not choose to 
think as we do, I will tell you of it immediately. 
Brother, I intend to speak roughly to my younger 
brother, and tell him not to listen to the English, 
but throw them oft", and listen to me, and then 
he may live as I do. 

Brother, I thank you for leaving the fortress 
at Tuscarawas, and I am convinced by that you 
have taken pity on us and want to make us your 
friends. Brother, I now take a firm hold of your 
hand, and beg that you will take pity upon other 
nations who are m}^ friends, and if any of them 
should incline to take hold of your hand I re- 
quest that you would comply and receive them 
into friendship. 

[A black belt of eleven I'ows.] 
■ Brother, listen. I tell you to be cautious, as I 
think you intend to strike the man near to where 
I sit, not to go the nighest way to where he is, 
lest you frighten the owners of the lands, who are 
living through the country between this and that 
place. Brother, you now listen to me, and one 
favor I beg of you is that when you drive away 
your enemies you will allow me - to continue in 
possession of my property, which, if you grant, 

will rejoice me. Brother, I would advise you, 
when you strike the man. near where I sit, to go 
by water, as it will be the easiest and best way. 
Brother, if you intend to strike, one way is to go 
up the Alleghany and by Prisquille ; another way 
is to go down this river and up the Wabash. 
Brother, the reason why I mentioned the road 
up the river is, that there will be no danger of 
your being discovered until you are close upon 
them, but on the road down the river you will be 
spied. Brother, now I have told you the way to 
Prisquille, and that is the boundary between us 
and your enemies ; if you go by Wabash your 
friends will not be surprised. Brother, you 
must not think that what I have said is only my 
own thoughts, but the opinion of all the Huron 
chiefs, and I speak in behalf of them all. If you 
grant what favors I have asked you, all our 
friends and relations will be thankful and glad as 
far as they can hear all around. Brother, the 
reason why I have pointed out these two roads is 
that when we hear you are in one of them we 
will know your intentions without further notice, 
and the Huron chiefs desired me particularly to 
mention it that they may meet you in your walk, 
and tell you what they have done, who are your 
enemies and who are your friends, and in their 
name I request a pair of colors to show that we 
have joined in friendship. 

t Fourteen strings of black wampum.] 
Jrothers, the chiefs desire me to tell you that 
they have sent Montour before to tell you their 
intentions, and they leave him to go with you, 
and understand one another by his means." 

" Headquarters, 

"Pittsburgh, Sept. 19, 1779. 
'•'■ Maghingivekesuch to Doonyontat, hrinci-pal 
Chief of the Wyandot^ : — Brother, yesterdav I 
had the pleasure to hear you speak, but when I 
had heard all, and when you had taken no no- 
tice of what I mentioned to you before against 
the English, I could not tell you what to think. 
Brother, the chiefs of the Wyandots have lived 
too long with the English to see things as they 
ought to do. They must have expected when 
they were counseling that the chief they sent to 
this council fire would find the Americans asleep, 
but the sun, which the Great Spirit has set to 
light this island, discovers to me they are much 

[Four strings of black and white wampum.] 
Brother, I will tell you why they are mistaken : 
they have taught that it was an easy matter to 
satisfy us, after doing all the mischief they could. 
They must have heard that the English were get- 
ting weaker, and the Americans stronger, and 
that a few flattering words would, with giving up 
our prisoners, secure their lives, the lives of their 
women and children, and their lands, and the 
wicked Shawanese, who have so often imbrued 
their hands in the blood of the Americans, and 
that in my military operations they had a right to 
mark out the road I should march on. 

[Six strings of black and white wampum.] 
Brother, I, however, thank j'ou for wiping 



away the blood and burying the bones of our 
young men, and for casting off that bad Father, 
the King of Britain, over the great lake. 
[Three strings of white wampum.] 
Brother, I left the fort at Tuscarawas because 
it gave uneasiness to several of the Indian na- 
tions, which I pitied, and promised to save, if 
they would do what was right before God, and I 
still intend to do it. But I have said they must 
do what is right, and they must send some of 
their great men to me to i-emain as hostages until 
they have complied with their terms. If this is 
not done all words will be considered as wind. 
And though I love peace, and could wish to save 
the lives of my countrymen of this island, I am 
not afraid of war. 

[Four strings of black wampum.] 

Brother, I will now tell you what I conceive to 
be right, and I w?ll leave it to the world to judge 
of it : I think the nation you mention, and wish 
me to receive into friendship, ought to send hos- 
tages to me, as I said befoi-e, until they have 
killed and taken from the English and their al- 
lies, as they have killed and taken from the 
Americans, and return whatever they have stolen 
from their brothers, together with their flesh and 
blood, and on every occasion join us against our 
enemies. Upon these terms, which are just, 
they and their posterity may live in peace, and 
enjoy their property without disturbance from 
their brethren of this island, so long as the sun 
shines or the waters run. 

[A black belt — rows.] 

Brother, I have now spoken from my heart. 
•I am a wai'rior as well as a counsellor. My 
words are few, but what I say I will perform. 
And I must tell you that if the nations will not 
do justice, they will not be able, after the Eng- 
lish are driven from this island, to enjoy peace 
and property. 

[Four strings of black wampum.] 

Brother, when I go to war I will take my choice 
of roads. If I meet my friends, I shall be glad 
to s^e them ; and if I meet my enemies, I shall 
be ready to fight them. Brother, you told me 
you had not yet spoken to the Shawanese. You 
likewise say that you had not yet let slip my 
mind, if so, why did you not speak to them? 
They have heard their grandfathers, the Dela- 
wares, and they have heard me. I sent them a 
good talk, but they threw it into the fire. Now, 
biother, I must tell you that I cannot now pre- 
vent the Shawanese being struck by Colonel 
Clark. I hear he has gone against them, and 
will strike them before I can send to call him 
back. But if the Shawanese do what is- right, 
as I have told you, they shall enjoy peace and 
property. This belt confirms my word. 

[A white and black belt, rows.] 

Concereing these communications. Colonel 
Daniel Brodhead, commanding "W. D.," to Hon. 
Timothy Pickering, Esq., President of the Board 
of War, dated Pittsburgh, September 23d, 1779, 
says : "I enclose you talks of the Delawares, 
Wyandots, and the Maquichees tribes of Shaw- 
nees ; and I flatter myself that there is a great 

share of sincerity in their present professions. 
Since my last this frontier has enjoyed perfect 
tranquillity, but the new settlements at Kentucky 
have suffered greatly." It will be seen, there- 
fore, that the Indians roamed at will over the 
region from Pittsburgh to Kentucky, and depre- 
dated the settlements in that State. 

These . stipulations, however, had to be en- 
forced by not only an iron will on the part of the 
commanders of troops, but a self-sacrificing 
spirit on the part of the troops never before 
equaled, as will be seen by remembering that 
amid all the dangers and difficulties incident to 
war with the Indians, but the additional mortifi- 
cation of a depreciated currency, their finances 
were very low. "Continental money" seemed 
of so doubtful a surety that it rapidly depreciat- 
ed, and it behooved them to sustain it if possible. 
This difficulty was increased by the very effort 
to inspire confidence, by issuing large amounts 
that every claim might be at least nominally 
met ; and it will not be out of place at this time 
to pi-esent an extract showing in a brief manner 
to what straits our patriot fathers were reduced. 
That man knows but little of the merits of the 
heroes and sages of the American Revolution 
who is disposed to sit down contented with a 
mere knowledge of desperate battles, defeats 
and victories, blQodshed and death, occurring 
during that time. The orderly books and pri- 
vate correspondence of Washington and his fel- 
low-soldiers illustrate that there was as much 
heroism and power of endurance shown in en- 
countering vexatious details as in planning sieges 
and fighting battles. Nothing was well ordered 
or arranged in the affairs of the continent. The 
forms of State administrations were equally de- 
fective. In Pennsylvania this was eminently the 

Among the measures of false policy to which 
the legislators of the Revolution very naturally 
resorted were those embargoes, commercial re- 
strictions of all sorts, tender laws, and limita- 
tions of prices. The last were most habitually 
relied on, and were certainly, in their effects, 
most pernicious. It was a prevalent delusion, 
affecting alike Congress, the State Assemblies, 
and the mass of the people, that the only mode 
of appreciating the paper currency was to pre- 
scribe a strict limitation of prices, and in spite of 
its invincible worthlessness to force a given value 
on a depreciated and fast depreciating paper 

In October, 1778, Washington wrote to one of 
his friends : ' ' Want of virtue is infinitely more 
to be dreaded than the whole force of Great 
Britain, assisted as they are by Hessian, Indian, 
and Negro allies ; for certain I am that unless 
extortion, forestalling, and other practices which 
have ci'ept in and become exceeding prevalent 
and injurious to the common cause, can meet 
with proper checks, we must inevitably sink un- 
der such a load of accumulated oppression. To 
make and extort money in every shape that can 
be devised, and at the same time to deny its 
value, seems to have become a mere business 



and an epidemical disease, calling for the inter- 
position of every good man and body of men." 
(Sparks' Washington, vol. i, p. 91.) 

"We are sorry to hear that some persons are 
so slightly informed of their own interests as to 
suppose that it is advantageous to them to sell 
the produce of their farms at enormous prices, 
when a little reflection might convince them that 
it is injurious to their interests and the general 
welfare. If they expect thereby to purchase im- 
ported goods cheaper, they will be egregiously 
disappointed ; for the merchants, who know they 
cannot obtain returns in gold, silver, or bills of 
exchange, but their vessels, if loaded at all, 
must be loaded with produce, will raise the price 
of what they have to sell in proportion to the 
price of what they have to buy, and consequent- 
ly the landholder can purchase no more foreign 
goods for the same quantity of his produce than 
he could before." (Journals, 1779, p. 225.) 

In this tone did Congress address a people 
highly inflamed. The progress of things was 
rapid and natural. On the next day (February 
27, 1777,) a large town meeting was held in the 
State House Yard, at which Daniel Roberdean 
presided. His speech on taking the chair was 
highly inflammatory, the burden of it being that 
monopolizers were grinding down the people by 
heavy taxes in the form of high prices ; that the 
disease of monopoly had its origin in Philadel- 
phia ; that the only way to make mone}' good 
was forcibly to reduce the prices of goods and 
provisions. The response to this appeal was the 
adoption of a series of resolutions asserting the 
right of the people to inquire into and punish 
abuses aside from the law ; a determination " not 
to be eaten up by monopolizers and forestallers," 
demanding that all excess of price beyond that 
which was paid on the ist of May last past 
should be taken off; and finally organizing two 
committees, one to inquire into certain alleged 
abuses, and the other a permanent one, whose 
duty it was to ascertain prices at certain past 
days, to which thereafter all dealings were to 
conform. The prices of the 1st of May were to 
be the prices till the ist of July, after which they 
were to be reduced to the standard of the ist of 
April. Not only did every township and county 
in Pennsylvania organize its committee of prices, 
but neighboring and distant States followed in 
the train of mistaken policy. The following 
table was published by authority, June 16^ 1779 : 



Coffee, per R) £.0 15 Per Hi. 

Chocolate, per lb 117 6 " 

Bohea tea, per lb 4 10 " .., 

Common green tea 5 10 " 

Best Hyson 18 00 " .., 

WestlndiaKum, pergal 6 05 
Country Eum, " 4 10 

French Eum, " 4 10 

Muscovada sugar, from 

£70 to'£95per cwt.... 
Loaf sugar, from £2 02 

to £2 10 per ft 


From 15s to 20s 
per lb 

From 47s 6d to 
52s 6d per R). 

..£0 16 
.. 2 00 
.. 4 15 
... 7 10 
..20 00 
... 6 li 6 
.. 4 15 
... 4 15 

42 6 

12 6 




,150s Od 

150s Od 
180s Od 
, 20s Od 
1.50s Od 



French Indigo, per lb. £26 15 Peril) 

Carolina Indigo, " ... 2 00 " -^ 

Black Pepper, " ... 1 17 6 " ■• 

Cotton from 40s to 55s... " From 45s to 60 

Hemp " 

Candles 14 00 6 " 

Best hard soap 10 00 6 " 

Butter " 

Blooming bar iron, per 

ton £500 Per cwt, £28 

Eefined bar iron, per ton 


Nail rod iron, per ton 


Sheet iron per lb 12 

best Dintle sole leather, 

per lb 

Neats' leather, by the 


A calfskin that will cut 

four pair of shoes 

Best bootlegs, per pair.. 

Harness leather, per lb.. * 

Bridle leather, per side... 

Boots per pair from £37 

to £40 

M^i's best leather shoes 

from 135s to 150s .... 
Women's shoes 120s 

Bv the advise of the Schuylers there was now 
(1757) on the Mohawk river a Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, the importance of which 
charge began to be fully understood. He was 
regularly appointed and paid by the Govern- 
ment. This was the celebrated Sir William 
Johnson. He held the office so difficult both to 
define and execute. It might be said, that he 
was the tribune of the Five Nations ; their claims 
he asserted, their rights he protected, and over 
their minds he possessed a greater swaj- than 
any other individual had ever attained : he was 
calculated to win and retain the affections of a 
brave people, possessing, in common with them- 
selves, many of those peculiarities of mind and 
manners that distinguished them from others. 
He was superintendent to the warriors of the 
upper and lower castle of the Iroquois Indians, 
and in the presence of Lt. Butler, of Rvitherford's 
Company, Capt. Matthew Farral, Lt. John But- 
ler, and Daniel and Clause, and Peter Wraxal, 
secretaries of Indian affairs, and Wm. Printer 
and Jacob. Clement, interpreters, addressed them 
as follows : 

" Afv brcthroi of both castles of the Anics: — I 
wipe away all tears from your eyes and clear 
your throat, that you may hear and speak with- 
out constraint. I rejoice to see you, and salute 
you with all m}' heart. 

[Gives a string of wampum. J 

I desire to conform to what I demanded of 
you in a letter which I wrote to j^ou from New 
York as soon as I returned from Virginia, 
wherein I prayed all your chiefs and warriors to 
wait my coining home, to hear news, and be in- 
formed of the orders which I have received from 
his excellency, General Braddock (the great 
warrior), whom the King, our common father, 
has sent to this country, with a great number of 
troops, of great, great guns, and other imple- 



ments of war, to protect you as well as his sub- 
jects upon this continent, and defend you against 
all usurpations and insults of the French. 

I have been to wait upon this great man, along 
with the Governors of Boston, New York, Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland ; we had, also, there the 
Governor of Virginia, and another great man, 
who, in this part of the world, commands all the 
men of war belonging to the King. In ithe great 
council many important affairs have been delib- 
erated, among which the interest and safety of 
our" brethren, the Six Nations, and their allies, 
•■were considered with great attention. 

My brethren, the tree which you and the rest 
of the Six Nations have so often and earnestly 
desired that it should be replanted, is grown by 
such a mighty hand that its roots penetrate 
into the bottom of the earth, and its branches are 
a refreshing shade to cover you and your allies ; 
as I am to acquaint you that, agreeable to the in- 
structions which the King, your father, has 
given to General Braddock, I am nominated to 
be alone superintendent over all the affairs that 
shall concern you and your allies in this part of 
the world ; I invite you and your brethren, the 
Six United Nations, and your allies, to assemble 
under this tree, where you may freely open your 
hearts and heal your wounds, and at the same 
time I transport the shade of that fire which was 
in Albany, and rekindle the fire, of council and 
friendship in this place ; I shall make it of such 
wood as shall produce the greatest light and 
greatest heat. I hope it will be serviceable and 
conformable to all those who shall come to light 
their pipes at it ; and that the sparkling and 
flaming coals thereof will burn all those who are 
or shall be its enemies. I hope that you and all 
your brethren would be glad to increase tHe 
lustre and splendor of this fire, in minding and 
keeping it always up, applying yourselves to it 
with that diligence and zeal as may derive a 
blessing from it, not only upon you, but upon all 
your posterity. To obtain and ascertain that 
salutary end, it is absolutely necessary that you 
extinguish all the fires kindled by means of de- 
ceit and fraud .and not natural, which light, 
but to deceive and destroy you and yours. 

[A belt.] 

My brethren, by this belt of wampum, I 
cleanse the council chamber, to the end that 
there be nothing offensive therein, and I hope 
that you will take care that no evil spirits creep 
in among us, that nothing may interupt our har- 

[Gives a string of wampum.] 

My brethren, I am concerned to see, at my re- 
turn, that many of the two villages desire to go 
to Canada. I should be much surprised that 
you, who have been our most faithful friends and 
nearest neighbors, would, upon any occasion, 
show your desire to be deceived by the wicked 
artifices of the French, who are so well known, 
and of whom you have had such fatal experience, 
especially when that restless and perfidious na- 
tion breaks the most solemn treaties and violates 
all the obligations of honor and justice ; this 

would be the most surprising thing in the world. 
But I hope that what I have been told upon that 
subject has no foundation. I desire and insist 
that none of you, upon any pretense whatsoever, 
have any correspondence with the French, nor 
receive any of their emisaries, nor go to Canada 
without my knowledge and approbation. 

[Upon this condition I give you a belt.] 

I intend immediately to call j'-our other breth- 
ren of the Six Nations to this present fire. I 
hope that you'll come here along wath them. I 
shall deliver a speech of his excellency. General 
Braddock, accompanied with presents for )'ou, 
which the Great King, your father, has sent by 
that warrior." 

After some moments of consultation between 
them, Abraham, one of the chiefs of the upper 
village, got up and spoke thus for the two : 

" My brother, you have called us to let us know 
the tidings you have brought with you, and we 
have understood all that yovx have said ; we defer 
until the Six Nations are all assembled here to 
give an exact account of all affairs, 
y [Gives a string of wampum.] 

My brother, we thank you for being so willing 
to wipe the tears from our eyes and to cleanse 
our throats and this floor. We do as much with 
this string of wampum. 

[Gives a string of wampum.] 

My brother, to complj^ with your request we 
have met together, and with great attention 
heard all you have said ; we thank you for jour 
kind information ; we are charmed to see 3'ou 
again once more, and greet }'0u with this string 
of wampum. 

[They give it.] 

My brother, we have often represented to our 
father, the great King, that the tree advanced ; we 
are very glad that our father has complied with 
our demand, and thank him for it most sincerely ; 
we have had the greatest satisfaction to have all 
that you have said concerning that tree, we sin- 
cerely wish that it may continue such as you de- 
scribe in your speech, and we are very sensible 
of all you said upon the subject. 

My brother, you have told us that the tree 
which shaded us is now replanted here ; you 
made it the shade of Albany, and you have re- 
kindled here the fire of prudence and friendship, 
which must be made of good, everlasting wood, 
so that it shall be 'always clear, and give com- 
fortable and salutary heat to all that will 
approach it as friends, whilst it shall bui'n and 
inflame against its enemies ; our first fathers had 
kindled this fire first at Onontague and carried 
the small coals of it to rekindle another at the 
habitation of Quider (Indian for Albany). The 
fire never burnt clear and was almost 
extinguished ; we are very well satisfied to hear 
that you have rekindled it. 

My brother, you have invited us all and our 
brethren, the "Six United Nations and their 
allies, to come and sit under that tree you spoke 
of, there to light our pipes at the fire of prudence, 
and that we and they should endeavor to pre- 
serve it we don't doubt but that tlie\- would be 



glad to see it, but we must delay until all the 
nations be assembled here in a body for to 
answer that article of your speech. 

My brotl*er, we thank you for having cleansed 
this council chamber and for removing all that 
might be offensive therein, you may assure your- 
self, that we will do all that we can to answer 
your intention and aA'oid all that might tend to 
trouble or disturb our mutual harmony. 

My brother, you have told us that you have 
been informed that some of us were going to the 
French, and you put us in mind of their conduct 
towards our ancestors, whom we remember very 
well, for their bones are false and deceitful ; they 
have given us very fine words and their letters 
were sweet, but their hearts were full of poison 
for us ; you know ovu" affairs, my brother, as well 
as we, and the rest of the Six Nations are jealous 
of us, because we used the hajchet last against 
the French. Shall we now be accounted false and 
deceitful? no, you may be assured, that we will 
not go to Canada upon any request of the 
French, because we are not so much in their 
friendship ; also, my brother, do not believe all 
the reports that may be brought to you upon that 

My brother, we thank you at once for all you 
have told us ; we have already said that it was 
necessary the Six Nations were assembled here 
to give a positive answer ; we thank you for the 
invitation you gave us to come here with the 
rest of our brethren ; we will not fail to meet 
them here." 

The Chief Mohawk (Anies) of the upper 
village having requested to have a conference 
with Colonel Johnson, in the presence of the 
Secretary of Indian Affairs and the two inter- 
preters, Abraham spoke in the name of the 
Chief, and said : 

My brother, when you were at New York 
you told us that our chiefs and warriors should 
rest on their mats, and wait until your return, 
which we have done ; and why should we 
not, seeing we have at all times appeared ready 
to oblige you? And we are the more, since you 
tell us that you are a tree planted in order to 
put us under your shade, and we don't doubt but 
that our brethren of the other five Nations are 
all disposed to obey you. 

My brother, it is very true that we have been 
always obedient and obliging-to you, and seeing 
you told us that you would have us rest in the 
cabin, our young men being ready to go hunt- 
ing, being detained by your orders, have 
nothing to subsist on, they have begged our 
chiefs to represent their condition to you ; they 
want everything, not having been a hunting, and 
to pray you to give them some powder and shot, 
to kill some game for their subsistence, as it will 
be some time before the arrival of the other five 
Nations, and all of us receive the presents sent 
us by the King, our father ; whilst we wait, we 
pray you to give us what is purely necessary 
for us. 

My brother, as we foresee the hard seasons 
are approaching, we renew the prayers to you we 

often made to the safety of our wives and chil- 
dren ; we hope you will actually execute." 

COLONEL Johnson's ansv^^er. 

"Brethren — I am perfectly convinced oi 
your good disposition for me and of your com- 
plaisance at all times to listen to my words, and 
to do what I demand of you ; it is that which has 
engaged me to take your affairs in my consider- 
ation ; the fresh proofs you give me of your 
friendship and regard toward me, will enable 
me to serve your interests more effectually and 
to my satisfaction. I am sensible I have done* 
you great hurt, as also to your young men, for 
detaining them at the time upon their mats, 
wherefore I readily grant you what you require 
of me, and will give you powder and bullets. 

Before I left New York I represented before 
your brother, the Governor, the necessity of 
building a safe retreat for your families, and I 
have the pleasure to acquaint you that he hath 
given me full power to do it, and the workmen 
shall go about it as soon as possible." 

[Signed.] Johnson. 

May 17. 

These speeches are from Craig's Olden Time, 
pages 244-5-6 and 7 — the year is not given. 
This apparently peaceful disposition of things is 
followed -up by a course not in harmony with it ; 
instance, a letter written by Sir William Johnson 
to different Governors concerning the plan of 
the expedition against the fort at Crown Point, 
which is as follows : 

New York, May 5th, 1755. 
"As I am nominated the Commander-in-Chief 
of the Colonies' forces, with regard to the expe- 
dition proposed against Crown Point, I think it 
my duty to endeavor all I can to remove the ob- 
stacles that might come in the wav of the pres- 
ent service, and prevent everything that might 
not tend to the success of this undertaking. As 
a train of artillery is so essentially necessarj' 
that nothing can be done without it, and the 
Eastern Colonies are to provide it, I don't doubt 
of your doing all in your power to hasten things 
on that head, that our march may not be de- 
layed, and that we may not tarry longer at Al- 
bany than is necessary, which might confirm the 
enemy in the suspicion of an attack, if he should 
unfortunately have knowledge of it. L much 
fear I shall want proper persons to manage the 
train of artillery, wherefore, if you have in your 
province any persons capable of being an engi- 
neer or bombardier, or any other fit person to 
manage a train of artillery, I desire you would 
engage them into the service according to the 
knowledge you may have of their capacity. 
You must know, also, we want a great number 
of boats for transporting the troops, besides 
those that are necessary for the train of artillery, 
ammunition, and baggage. Every batteau must 
carry five men. We have already those which 
this Government was to provide for us. As I 
imagine the other Colonies are to get those bat- 
teaus (which they are to furnish) built either 


Dh. J. R. Larzelere, the second son of Joseph 
and Harriett Larzelere, was born September 16th, 
1826, in the town of Bristol, Bucks county, Penn- 
sylvania a beautiful little city on the shore of 
the historic Delaware river, twenty miles above 
Philadelphia. His parents came to Muskingum 
county about 1829, and settled in Springfield 
township, five miles west of the then town of 
Zanesville, where the family continued to live 
for ten years, when his father purchased and 
removed his family to what was then known as 
the Bernard Van Horn farm. About 1854 Joseph 
Larzelere bought and again removed his family 
to the old Esquire Whipple farm, where he died 
in the fall of 1877. 

When eighteen years old the subject of this 
sketch decided to abandon agricultural pursuits 
and become a follower of Esculapius. After four 
years of study he graduated at the Jefferson Med- 

ical College, Philadelphia, in 1852, and soon after 
located in Adelphi, Ross county, Ohio, where he 
remained two years in the practice of medicine, 
when he removed to the village of Putnam (now 
the Ninth ward in Zanesville). 

The Doctor married Eliza A., daughter of Ber- 
nard Wortman, October 17th, 1854. This union 
was blessed with four children, Edward D., Charles 
M., Ella E., and Joseph B. January 30th, 1868, 
he married Annie E. Palmer, daughter of J. T. 
and R, Palmer, of Putnam, and Edna Dascum, 
Charles T. and Gordon P. have been added to the 
family. And now, after a successful career in the 
practice of medicine for thirty years, the Doctor 
and his happy family have the pleasure of con- 
trasting the struggles of "ye pioneer" in days 
long gone by, with the friendships and comforts 
with which they are surrounded. 



here or in the Jerseys, I look upon it as a thing 
impossible to build a sufficient number in time 
unless they send us workmen to help us." 

I am, etc., William Johnson. 

"I, the subscriber, one of the Superior Council 
of Qiiebec, do certify that I have translated, etc., 


A proclamation directed by order of Charles 
Lawrence, Esq., Governor of Acadia, to the 
French inhabitants of the neighborhood of the 
isthmus and the banks of the river St. John : 


By order of his Excellency Charles Lawrence, 
Esquire, Lieutenant Governor, and Commander- 
in-Chief of the province of Nova Scotia, or 
Acadia, etc. : 


" Zb the inhabitants and others, the natives of 
Chignecto., Bay Vert, Tintamar, Chiboudie, 
River St. John and their de-pendencies , and to all 
others who have not as yet submitted themselves : — 
Forasmuch as the greatest part of the inhabitants 
of the places aforesaid and others have not as 
yet submitted themselves to the King of Great 
Britain [This is i^emarkable, how it came to pass 
that ever since the treaty of Utrecht it never en- 
tered into their minds to require this silbmission.] 
but on the contrary have behaved themselves in 
a manner contrary to all order and loyalty with 
regard to their own sovereign ; 

These are, therefore, to order them to repair 
immediately to my camp to submit themselves, 
bringing with them all their arms, muskets, 
swords, pistols, and every other instrument of 
war ; in disobedience whereof they shall be 
treated as rebels. 

Given at our camp of Chignecto this 13th day 
of May, 1755." 

[Signed] Robert Monckton. 

A collection of papers tending to vindicate the 
conduct of the Court of France, in answer to the 
observations sent by the English Ministry to the 
several courts of Europe. 

Part II, No. I (Craig's Olden Time), p. 251. — 
A memorial delivered by the Duke de. Mire- 
poix to Sir Thomas Robinson, January 15th, 
1755, which is as follows : 

"As an immediate prevention of the conse- 
quences which may arise from the unexpected 
difference in the several colonies of North Amer- 
ica and the hostilities which attended them is a 
matter of the utmost importance, the King pro- 
poses to his Britannic Majesty that, previous to 
an inquiry into the foundation and circumstances 
of this dispute, positive orders should be sent to 
our respective governors to forbid their engaging 
from henceforth in any new enterprise, or com- 
mitting any acts of violence ; on the contrary, to 
enjoin them without delay to establish matters in 
the same situation with respect to the territory 
of Ohio, or La Belle Riviere, in which they were, 
or ought to have been, before the last war ; and 

that the respective pretensions should be amica- 
bly submitted to tjie commission appointed at 
Paris, to the end that the differences between 
the two courts may be terminated by a speedy 

The King is likewise desirous, in order to re- 
move every uneasy impression, and to make his 
subjects perfectly happy in the enjoyment of the 
inestimable blessings of peace, that his Britannic 
Majesty would be open and explicit with regard 
to the cause and destination of the armament 
last raised in England. 

The King has too great confidence in the up- 
rightness of his Britannic Majesty's intentions 
not to expect that he will give his free and ready 
concurrence to propositions so conducive to the 
public tranquillity and a good harmony between 
our two courts." 

[Signed]. Duke de Mirepqix. 

Number 2. — The answer to the foregoing 
memorial, delivered by order of the English Court 
to the Duke de Mirepoix, January 22d, 1755, is 
as follows : 

" The King has beheld with concern the unex- 
pected difference in North America, and the 
hostilities with which they have been accompa- 
nied. His Majesty is equally desirous, with the 
Most Christian King, to put an end to them, de- 
manding nothing but what is founded on treaties 
and is agreeable to the just rights and posses- 
sions of his crown and the- protection of his 
subjects in that part of the world. 

The King is of opinion that the proposal com- 
municated by his excellency, the Duke de Mire- 
poix, is not express as to that matter ; neverthe- 
less, to manifest his desire of maintaining the 
most perfect peace, union and harmony with his 
most Christian Majesty, and to the end that mat- 
ters may be re-established on an equitable foot- 
ing, his Majesty proposes that the possession of 
the country along the river Ohio, or Belle Riv- 
iere, should be restored to the same condition as 
it was in at the conclusion of the treaty of 
Utrecht, and according to the stipulations made 
in the same treaty, as it has been renewed by 
that of Aix-la-Chapelle ; and, moreover, that 
the other possessions in North America be re- 
stored to the same condition in which they were 
at the conclusion of the said treaty of Utrecht, 
and agreeable to the cessions and stipulations 
made by that treaty. And then his Majesty will 
be able to treat of the method of instructing the 
respective Governors, to restrain them from en- 
gaging henceforward in any new enterprises, or 
committing any hostilities ; and the pretension, 
on both sides, may then be submitted to be speed- 
ily and finally discussed and amicably adjusted 
between the two courts. 

Such are the sentiments of his Majesty ; the de- 
fense of his rights and possessions, and the pro- 
tection of his subjects, have been his sole motives 
for sending an armament into North America, 
which he professes to have done without an in- 
tention to injure any power that exists, or to en- 
gage in anything that has a tendency to violate 



the general peace. To be convinced of this, the 
nature and extent of that armanaent need only to 
be considered, and the King does not doubt that 
his Most Christian Majesty, according to the 
well known uprightness of his intentions, will be 
as open and explicit, with respect to his great 
naval preparations at Brest and Toulon." 
[Signed.] T. Robinson. 

Numbers three and four are of similar tenor, 
with the exception that article two, in number 
four, declares : 

" The subjects of their most Christain and Brit- 
anic Majesties shall evacuate the country between 
the river Ohio and the mountains which bound 
Virginia, and shall severally retire, viz : The 
French beyond the said river Ohio, and the 
English on this side the mountains, so that all 
the territories which lies betw'een the said river 
and mountains shall be looked upon as neutral 
during the continuance of the present conven- 
tion ; and all grants, if any there be, which have 
been made by either of the two nations on said 
territory, shall be considered as null and void." 

And article four, which reads : 

" Agreeable to the ninth article of the treaty of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, all things shall be restored to 
the same condition in North America, in which 
they were or ought to have been, since the treaty 
of Utrecht; in consequence of which all forts, 
which have been built by either nation since that 
era, shall be destroyed, as well upon the said ter- 
ritory of Ohio, as in every other part of North 
America which is in dispute between the two na- 

Number five is of a similar character to those 
cited, with an enumeration of propositions from 
each side, without arriving at a settlement. 

In number seven the French diplomate, M. 
Rouille, to the Duke de Mirepoix, the 27th of 
March, 1755, sums up the matter by saying that 
"the King will make no scruple of communica- 
ting to the King of England duplicates of the or- 
ders and instructions which his Majesty shall 
send to his Governrneri't and commanders, if his 
Majesty will on his part act with the same can- 
dor and confidence towards the King. What 
we propose in this respect is so consistent with all 
the rules of equity and moderation that we do 
not conceive it will or can be rejected, if the 
desire of peace is as real and sincere at London 
as it is at Versailles." 

Number 7. — Answer delivered by the Court 
of London to the Duke de Mirepoix, the 5th 
of April, 1755. The summing up of this is ex- 
pressed in these lines: "The Court of London 
finds the same difficulties in this proposal which 
presented themselves at the beginning of the ne- 
gotiation, and cannot think it by any means fa- 
vorable to reconciliation." 

Numbers 8, 9, 10 and 1 1 ai-e remarkable chiefly 
for diplomatic dodging and bantering on the part 
of the two Kings. 

Number 12. — Memorial of the Duke de Mire- 
poix to the the Ministry of London, May 14th, 

The differences between the Courts of France 
and England, concerning America, have four 
objects in view : ist. The limits of Acadia ; 2d, 
The hmits of Canada; 3d, The course and ter- 
ritory of Ohio ; 4th,. The islands of St. Lucia, 
St. Vincent, Dominica, and Tobago. We pass 
on to the 3d article, "Concerning the course and 
territory of Ohio." 

It is evident and incontestable from the princi- 
ples of justice, mutual convenience and security, 
as well as from tides and records, that the Ohio 
ought to be a part of the possessions of France. 
The English have not any settlements on that 
river; an.d when the British Ministry asserted 
that the heads of that river were full of ancient 
settlements of their nation, they too readily gave 
credit to false relations. The French have ever 
looked upon that river as belonging to Canada, 
and it is essentially necessary to them for the 
communication of Canetda with Louisiana. They 
have frequented it at all times, and with forces. 
It was also by that river that the detachment of 
troops passed, who were sent to Louisiana about 
the year 1739, on account of the war with the 

If there had been any English settlements on 
the river at that time, or if it had been a part of 
the British Colonies, would the French have been 
permitted to go down the river's whole length, or 
would not the Court of London at least made 
some complaints? But then there was as yet no 
talk of the new pretensions, which have since 
risen without proof, title, or any sort of founda- 
tion. It is true, that within these late years some 
English traders passed the mountains of Vir- 
ginia, and ventured to carry on a fur trade with 
the Indians on the Ohio. The French Governors 
of Canada contented themselves at first with ac- 
quainting them that they were within the terri- 
tory of France, and enjoined them not to return, 
that they were within the territory of France, 
and enjoined them not to i-eturn there, imder 
penalty of having their effects seized and being 
made prisoners. The traders, however, returned, 
their goods were confiscated and sold, and they 
were personally arrested, taken to Quebec, and 
from thence to France, where they were thrown 
into prison at Rochelle. No reclaim or complaint 
was made by the Court of London ; they were 
looked upon as contraband traders, whom their 
avarice had exposed to the hazards of an illicit 

After having thus firmly established the right 
and possession of the French on the river and 
territory of the Ohio, it ought to be considered 
as a very convincing proof of their love of peace, 
that they are most ready and willing to stipulate 
that all territor}^ between the Ohio and the moun- 
tains which bound Virginia shall remain neutral, 
and that all the commerce in, or passage through 
the same, shall be prohibited as well to the 
French as the English. There were four points 
brought in question in memorial number xiii : 
The limits of Acadia, the Hmits of Canada, the 
course and territory of the Ohio, and the islands 
St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Dpffiinica and Tabago. 



The third, the territory of Ohio, is the only one 
demanding our -attention, and reads as follows : 

"Notwithstanding all that is advanced upon 
this article, the Court of Great Britain cannot 
admit that France has the least title to the river 
Ohio and the territory in question ; even that of 
possession, neither can nor ought to be alleged 
on this point, since France cannot pretend to 
have had any before the treaty of Aix la Cha- 
pelle, nor since, unless it be some forts unjustly 
erected in the last place, upon lands which evi- 
dently belong to the Five Nations, or which they 
have transferred to the Crown of Great Britain, 
or its subjects, which may be proved from trea- 
ties and the most authentic acts. 

"The title which France seems most to insist 
upon, is the use made of this for communication 
between Canada and Louisiana, but, in lact, 
they have never made any use of it, unless it 
was occasionally or secretly, and, as perhaps 
might have happened in so vast a region, in such 
a manner as not to be taken notice of, which, 
however, cannot give them the least shadow of 

"The rivers Miami and Oubache only have 
been used for some years, as a communication 
between Canada and Louisiana ; not that Great 
Britain can admit that France has any right to 
these rivers, much less still to a passage, so near 
as they are to the river Ohio. As to the use they 
made of this last river, on account of the war 
with the Chickasaws, the allies and friends of 
Great Britain did not even make a formal com- 
plaint of it ; it will not follow that violence com- 
mitted at a certain nice and critical conjuncture, 
should serve as a foundation for new encroach- 
ments. This is much the same with the rash 
and inconsiderate measures taken by a Governor 
of a remote colony, who prohibited the English 
from passing the mountains of Virginia, under 
penalty of having their goods seized and being 
made prisoners. The manner in which the Court 
of Great Britain complains of such like proceed- 
ings has been sufficiently manifested, in the 
memorial, although this was never delivered to 
the Court of France, as reported by the late Earl 
of Albemarle as being delivered March 7th, 1752. 
What the Court of Great Britain asserts and in- 
sists upon, is that the five Iroquois nations, ac- 
knowledged by France to be the subjects of 
Great Britain, are either originally, or by right 
of conquest, the lawful proprietors of the terri- 
tory of Ohio in question. And as that part of 
the territory, which those people have ceded and 
transferred to the British nation, (which must be 
acknowledged to be the most lawful and equita- 
ble manner of acquiring it), they claim it as their 
property, which they have not ceased to cultivate 
twenty years and more, and upon several parts of 
which they have formed settlements from the 
very sources of Ohio, as far as Pickhac- Villains, 
which is the center of the territory between Ohio 
and Oubache. But, notwithstanding these facts 
are so clear and evident, the Court of Great 
Britain, for the sake of peace, and the preserva- 
tion of a good understanding between the two 

Courts, have proposed, in order to prevent all 
future disputes, to leave that tract of land in 
those parts neutral and uncultivated, which has 
already been declared to the Court of France, 
and Great Britain is ready to adjust and limit the 
precise extent of it, by an amicable negotiation. 
[Signed.] "T. Robinson." 

Statutes of Ohio (S. P. Chase), vol. I, "Prelim- 
inary Sketch," p. 15, reads as follows : 

"In May, 1785, soon after the ratification of 
the treaty concluded at Fort Mcintosh, with the 
Wyandots, Delawares, Chippewas and Ottawas, 
the United States acquired the title to all lands 
lying east', west and south of a line drawn from 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga, up that river to the 
Tuscarawas portage, and to the Tuscarawas 
above Port Lawrence ; thence to Loramies ; 
thence with the river to Lake Erie. The terri- 
tory thus ceded included about three-fourths of 
the State of Ohio." 

The United States, therefore, by treaty, hav- 
ing acquired the ownership to so much of the 
State of Ohio, her citizens began to go to and 
possess the land, and defend their right thereto ; • 
and the fortunes of war closed the scene, as 
between the Colonies and Great Britain, in favor 
of American sovereignty. 
















The first acts of Territorial Legislation were 
passed at Marietta, then the only American 
settlement northwest of the Ohio. The Govern- 
or and Judges did not strictly confine themselves 
within the limits of their legislative authority, 
as prescribed by the ordinance (1787). When 
they could not find laws of the original States 
suited to the condition of the country, they sup- 
plied the want by enactments of their own. 
The earliest laws, from 1788 to 1795, were all 
thus enacted. (From Chase's Statutes, p. 25). 
In the year 1789 the first Congress passed an 
act recognizing the binding force of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, and adopting its provisions to the 
Federal Constitution. The act provided that the 
communications directed in the ordinance to be 
made to Congress or its officers, by the Govern- 



or, should thenceforth be made to the President, 
and that the authority to appoint, with the 
consent of the Senate and commissioned officers, 
before that time appointed and commissioned by 
Congress, should likewise be rested in that 
officer. In 1792 Congress passed another act 
giving to the Governors and Judges authority to 
repeal, at their discretion, the laws made by 
them ; and enabling a single Judge of the Gen- 
eral Court, in the absence of his brethren, to hold 
the terms. 

At this time the Judges appointed by the Na- 
tional Executive constituted the Supreme Court 
of the Territory. They were commissioned 
during good behavior, and their judiciarl jurisdic- 
tion extended over the whole region northwest 
of Ohio. The court thus constituted was fixed 
at no certain place, and its process, civil and 
criminal, was returnable whei^soever it might be 
in the l^'erritory. Inferior to this court were the 
county courts of Common Pleas and the general 
Quarter Sessions of the peace. The former con- 
sisted of any number of Judges, not less than 
three nor more than seven, and had a general 
common law jurisdiction, concurrent with the 
respective counties, with that of justices for 
each county, to be determined by the Governor ; 
who were required to hold three terms in ever}^ 
year, and had a limited criminal jurisdiction. 
Single Judges of the Common Pleas and single 
justices of the Qiiarter Sessions were also clothed 
with certain civil and criminal powers to be ex- 
ercised out of court. Besides these courts, 
each county had a Judge of Probate, clothed 
with the ordinary jurisdiction of a Probate 

Such was the original constitution of courts 
and distribution of judicial power in the north- 
western territory. The expenses of the system 
were defrayed in part by the national govern- 
ment and in part by assessments upon the 
counties, but principally by fees which were 
payable to every officer concerned in the admin- 
istration of jtistice, from the Judges of the Gen- 
eral Court downward. 

In 1795 the Governor and Judges undertook to. 
revise Territorial laws and to establish a com- 
plete system of statutory jurisprudence by adop- 
tion from the laws of the original States, in 
strict conformity to the provisions of the ordi- 
nance. For this purpose they assembled at 
Cincinnati in June and continued in session until 
the latter part of August. The judiciary system 
underwent some changes. The General Court 
was tjxed at Cincinnati and Marietta, and a 
Circuit established, with power to try, in the sev- 
eral counties, issues in fact depending before 
the Superior tribunal, where alone causes could 
be finally decided. Orphans' Courts, too, were 
established, with jurisdiction analogous to but 
more extensive than that of a Judge of Probate. 
Laws were also adopted to regulate judgments 
and executions, for the limitation of actions, for 
the distribution of intestate estates, and for many 

other general purposes The other 

laws of 1795 were principally derived from the | 

statute book of Pennsylvania. From this time 
to the organization of the Territorial Legislature, 
in 1799, there were no acts of legislation, except 
ten laws adopted by the Secretary and Judges in 

1798 Befoi-e the end of the year 

1798 the northwestern territory contained a pop- 
ulation of five thousand free male inhabitants of 
full age and eight organized counties. 

The people were now entitled under the ordi- 
nance to a change in the form of their govern- 
ment. That instrument provided that, upon 
giving proof to the Governor, that there were 
five thousand free males of full ages in the terri- 
tory, the people should be authorized to elect 
representatives to a Territorial Legislature. 
This privilege was, however, confined to free- 
holders, in fee simple, of fifty acres within the 
district. No others were entitled to vote, and 
only freeholders, in fee simple, of two hundred 
acres within the district, were eligible as repre- 
sentatives. When chosen, the House of Repre- 
sentatives were to assemble in convention and 
nominate ten freeholders of five hundred acres, 
of whom the President, under the constitution, 
was to appoint five, who were to constitute the 
legislative council. Representatives were to 
serve two and five years. The two houses were 
to constitute a Territorial Legislature, with power 
to make any laws not repugnant to the National 
Constitution or to the ordinance of 1787. The 
Judges were thenceforth to be confined to purely 
judicial functions, the Governor to retain his 
appointing power, his general executive authori- 
ty, and to have an absolute negative upon all 

legislative acts Representatives 

were according^ elected, who assembled at Cin- 
cinnati in pursuance of the Governor's proclama- 
tion, and nominated ten persons for councilmen. 
Of these, five was selected by the President, and 
the sixteenth day of September, 1799, was ap- 
pointed for the first meeting of the Territorial 

Legislature Governor St. Clair 

then addressed the Legislature. He commenced 
by expressing his gratification that the laws, by 
which the people were to be governed, "were 
thenceforth to proceed from the peoplei's repre- 
sentatives ; but, at the same time stated his 
entire conviction that the system which had 
been superceded was wisely adopted to the orig- 
inal circumstances of the Territory. 

He called the attention ol the Legislature to 
the laws which have been enacted b}' the Gov- 
ernor and Judges ; observed that doubts had 
been expressed from the bench as to their validity, 
and advised that they should be repealed and 
their place supplied by others, or confirmed by a 
law for that purpose. Efficient revenue and 
militia systems were likewise recommended. 
He suggested the expediency of a memorial to 
Congress, praying that the fee of section sixteen, 
reserved by the ordinance of 1785, for the use of 
schools, and section twenty-nine, reserved in the 
contracts with the Ohio Compan}' and John 
Cleves Symmes, for religious purposes, might be 
vested in trustees, with power to dispose of them 
in such manner as might best secure the fulfill- 



ment of the beneyolent intentions of the national 
Legislature. To this address each house i-e- 
turned a cordial and respectful answer, assuring 
the Governor of their general concuiTence in his 
views, and of their readiness to co-operate with 
him, strenuously, for the ad^jancement of the 

common good An act was passed 

to confirm and give force to those laws enacted 
by the Governor and judges, whose validity had 
been doubted. 


Met at Cincinnati, September i6th, 1799, ^^^ '^^~ 
journed the 19th of December following. An 
address was voted to the President of the United 
States, expressing the entire confidence of the 
Legislature in the wisdom and purity of his ad- 
ministration, and their warm attachment to the 
American Constitution and Government. 

Within a few months after the close of this 
session, Connecticut ceded to the United States 
her claim of jurisdiction over the eastern part of 
the territory ;"upon which the President conveyed 
by patent, the fee of the soil to the Governor of 
the State, for the use of grantees and purchasers 
claiming under her. The same Congress which 
made this final arrangement with Connecticut, 
passed an act dividing the northwestern territory 
into two Govei-nments, by a line drawn from the 
mouth of the Kentucky to Fort Recovery, and 
thence northward to the territorial line. East of 
this line, the Government, already established, 
was continued, while west of it, 'another, sub- 
stantially , similar, was established. This act 
fixed .the seat of the eastern Government at 
Chillicothe ; subject, however, to be removed at 
the pleasure of the Legislature. 

At Chillicothe, therefoi'e, thfe second session of 
the Territorial Legislature was held. This was 
a shorter session than the preceding, and the 
Legislature was less important. ... At 
this session, the project of changing the bound- 
aries prescribed by the ordinance for the States 
to be erected within the territory began to be the 
theme of convei^sation. 

On the twenty-third of November, 1801, a new 
Legislature convened, and this project was re- 
sumed. The object was to so change the bound- 
aries that the eastern State, when formed, should 
be bounded on the west by^ the Scioto river, and 
a line drawn from the intersection of that river 
with the Indian boundary to the western ex- 
tremity of the' Connecticut reserve ; the middle 
State, by a line running from the intersection of 
the Ohio with the western boundary of George 
Rogers Clark's grant to the head of the Chicago, 
and by that river to Lake Michigan, to the terri- 
torial line and the western State by the Missis- 

The Constitutional Convention assembled at 
Chillicothe on the first day of November, 1802. 
. . . The formation of the Constitution was 
the work of a little more than three weeks. On 
the twenty-seventh day of November it was or- 
dered to be engrossed, and on the twenty-ninth 
was ratified and signed by the members of the 

Convention. It was never referred to the people 
for their appi'obation, but became the fundamen- 
tal law of the State by the act of the Corivention 

I/oTiJ Crime was Punished in '•'■Ye Olden 
Time." — The Territorial form of Government 
was even more rigid than that which succeeded 
it under the State organization, although the 
former was not immediately set aside for a new 
code. We can but note that the legislative 
enactments were calculated to strike terror into 
the heart of the oflfender, and that probably such 
laws could not be passed even in a Territory at 
this day. 

The First Lavj for Whiffing, as a penalty 
for crime, was made by Governor St. Clair and 
Judges Parsons and Varnum, at Marietta, Sep- 
tember 6th, 1787, entitled, "A law respecting 
crimes and punishments." Section 11 of the 
law provides that when three or more persons, 
constituting a mob, commits unlawful acts, and 
failing to disperse when ordered to do so, each 
offender, upon conviction, "shall be fined in a 
sum not exceeding three hundred dollars, and be 
whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes, and 
find security for good behavior for a term not ex-, 
ceeding one year. " For a second offense, the 
whipping was to be repeated, as well as the fine 
and security, and the offender was committed 
until the sentence be fully performed. 

For breaking into a house, store, shop, or 
vessel, in the night season, with the intention of 
stealing, the penalty was thirty-nine stripes and 
security for good behavior ; in default of securi- 
ty, imprisonment not exceeding three years. If 
articles be stolen by said burglars, a fine of treble 
the amount of their value was to be inflicted, 
one-third of the amount to go to the Territory, 
the remaining two-thirds to the party injured. 
If, in the perpetration of the crime, the burglars 
" shall commit or attempt to commit any person- 
al abuse, force, or violence, or shall be so armed 
with any dangerous weapon or weapons as 
cleai-ly to indicate a violent intention, he, she, or 
they so oflending, upon conviction thereof, shall 
moreover forfeit all his, h*, or their estate, real 
and personal, to the Territory, out of which the 
party injured shall be recompensed as aforesaid, 
and the offenders shall also be committed to any 
jail in the Territory for a term not exceeding 
forty years. Accordingly, in those days there 
was a whipping-post. Every coui"t-house in 
Ohio was i-equired to have its yard decorated 
with a whipping-post, a pillory, and with stocks, 
and each and all of the " cruel and unusual pun- 
ishment" for which the court-house yard orna- 
ments were to be used was inflicted by the sen- 
tence of the law on persons adjudged guilty of 
crimes now lightly punished. 

Sitting in the -pillory after -whipping. — For 
perjury, or refusing to be sworn to a fact, or de- 
nying it, knowing it to be true, the penalty was 
a fine of sixty dollars, "or be whipped not ex- 
ceeding thirty-nine stripes, and shall moreover 
be set in the pillory for a space of time not ex- 
ceeding two hours." For forgery, besides being 



compelled to pay double the amount he sought 
to defraud, one-half to the party injured, he was 
to sit in the pillory for a space not exceeding 
three hours. For a'rson, or aiding in the com- 
mission of the crime, the penalty was whipping 
to the extent of "thirty-nine stripes, put in the 
pillory, and there be continued not exceeding 
the space of two hours, confined in the jail not 
exceeding the space of three years, and forfeit 
all his, her, or their estate, real or personal, to 
the Territory, out of which real estate, if suffi- 
cient, shall be paid to the party injured his full 
damage. And in case death should ensue from 
such burning, the offender or offenders, on con- 
viction, shall suffer the pains of death." 

To make children and servants dutiful. — If any 
child or servant, contrary to his bounden duty, 
shall presume to strike his parent or master, 
upon complaint and convictioff befoi^e two jus- 
tices of the peace, the offender shall be whipped 
not exceeding ten stripes. 

Selling into slavery not exceeding seven years. 
— For larceny, for the first offense, the restitution 
of two-fold value of the thing stolen, or if they 
be not recovered, " whipped not exceeding thir- 
ty-nine lashes." In case the offender hath not 
property, real or personal, wherewith to satisfy . 
the sentence of the court, it shall be lawful for 
the sherift, by direction of the court, to bind 
such person to labor, for a term not exceeding 
seven years, to any suitable person who will dis- 
charge such sentence." 

In the stocks for tearing down hand-bills. — On 
the 22d of June, 1791, the Governor and Judges, 
then and after using Cincinnati as the Capital 
of the Territory, enacted a law punishing the 
malicious tearing down or destroying in whole 
or in part any copy or transcript of a law of the 
Territory or of the United States, or any official 
proclamation of the Governor or President, with 
fine, which, if not paid, would send the offender 
to the stocks for three hours. 

After thus providing for the punishment of 
crime by placing the offender in the stocks, or 
tying him up to the whipping-post and lashing 
his bare back with a ftiwhide, it probably occur- 
red to the Governor and Judges, as the lawmak- 
ers of the Territory, that the laws thus far enact- 
ed had made no sufficient provision to carry the 
whipping and stocks into immediate effect, and 
hence, on the 21st of August, 1792, a law was 
passed the title of which is as follows : 

"An act directing the building and establish- 
ing of a court-house, jail, pillory, whipping-post, 
and stocks in every county." 

The body of the law makes provision for the 
erection of the buildings named, with the orna- 
ments of "pillory, whipping-posts, and so many 
stocks as may be convenient for the punishment 
of offenders," etc. The same day the above law 
was passed another law was enacted, entitled 
"An act for the better regulation of prisons," the 
first section of which provides that in civil or 
quitam action, through the insufficiency of the 
prison, or the negligence of the sheriff' or jailor, 
the prisoner escapes, the sheriff is made liable 

for the debt. If the escape was consequent on 
the weakness or insufficiency of the jail, the 
Court of Common Pleas had power to assess the 
damages to the plaintiff on the county in the full 
sum for which the escaped prisoner was incar- 
cerated, which amount had to be raised by taxa- 
tion, to be paid to the sheriff to indemnify him. 

"The frauds that were practiced on the coun- 
ties, under this law, by collusion between plain- 
tiffs and defendants, when no debts were really 
due, and when defendants were utterly insolvent, 
became so apparent and oppressive that this sec- 
tion was repealed. "—[See Ohio Reports, p. 358-] 

Legislative enactments, however defective in 
form, have ever been intended to secure the ends 
of justice ; hence the law maxim, actus legis nulli 
facit injuriam. That there were errors in leg- 
islation is possibly true, but non omnis error 
stultitia est dicenda:" And it is even now held 
that "bad grammar does not vitiate the deed." 
The science of law, though among the noblest of 
sciences, is not wholly devoid of imperfections, 
and the members of the profession are not all 


The facts in regard to this "vexed question" 
are compiled from the able paper on the 
"Admission of Ohio into the Union, by I. W. 
Andrews, President of Marietta College," as re- 
produced in the "Annual Report of the Secre- 
tary of State to the Governor of Ohio, for the 
year 1879." 

Of all the twenty-five States that have been 
admitted into the Union since the National life 
began, on thfe fourth of July, 1776, Ohio is the 
only one in regard to whose date of admission 
there is any question. When a State has en- 
tered the last quarter of its first century, it would 
seem that .both the year and the day when its 
State life began should be definiteh' known. 
The doubt in the case of Ohio shows itself by the 
various dates found in historical and other works 
from 1803 to the present time. 

Among the dates found in different works, are 
these : April 28, April 30, June 30, and Novem- 
ber 29, 1802 ; the winter of 1802-3, February 19, 
March i and March 3, 1803. The first is given 
in "Harris's Tour," published in 1805. The 
heading of the second part of the book is "State 
of Ohio Admitted into the Union by an Act of 
Congress, April 28,1802." The second is found 
in a note in the United States Statutes at Large, 
volume I, p. 2. The third date, June 30, ap- 
pears in the Report of the Ninth Census, volume 
^•' P- 575- The fourth date, November 29, 1802, 
in W. Hickey's edition of the Constitution. The 
fifth, February 19, 1803, is given by Caleb At- 
water in his history of Ohio, published in 1838. 
Mr.E. D. Mansfield gives the same in his Polit- 
ical Manual, and so Mr. G. W. Paschal in his 
Annotated Constitution. In. Hildreth's History 
of the United States we read : "Just as the ses- 
sion closed the new State of Ohio took upon 
itself the exercise of self-Government, under a 
Constitution framed the preceding autumn." 



Walker, in his History of Athens County, says : 
"Congress assented to the proposed modification, 
by act of March 3, 1803, thus completing the 
compact, and accepting Ohio as a State." We 
have here the seventh date. 

For the first and third of the dates above given 
— April 28th and June 30, 1802 — I knovvofno 
reason that can be assigned. Certainly no act 
relating to Ohio was passed April 28th, and on 
the 30th of June Congress was not session, hav- 
ing adjourned on the 3d Monday of December. 
The second date, April 30th, 1802, was that of 
the passage by Congress of "an act to enable 
the people of the eastern division of the Territory 
northwest of the river Ohio, to form a Constitu- 
tion and State Government, and for the admis- 
sion of such State , into the Union, on an equal 
footing with the original States, and for other 
purposes." November 29, 1802, was the day on 
which the Convention that framed the Constitu- 
tion adjourned. The enabling act of Congress 
appointed the second Tuesday of October as the 
day for the election of delegates to the Conven- 
tion ; the first Monday in November as the day 
for the Convention to meet. The election was 
held and the Convention assembled on the day 
specified. The Constitution was not submitted 
to the people, and the final adjournment of the 
Convention is held by some to be the time of the 
State's admission into the Union. The 19th of 
February, 1803, is the date of an act of Congress to 
"provide for the due execution of the laws of the 
United States within the State of Ohio." It was 
the first act of Congress which, in anyway, rec- 
ognized the State, and, as there was no formal 
act of admission, this act of recognition is re- 
garded as the virtual act by which the State was 

The first of March, 1803, was the time when 
the first General Assembly met in accordance 
with the provisions of the Constitution. Perhaps 
the historian, Hildreth, did not intend to desig- 
nate this as the exact date when Ohio was ad- 
mitted, but to indicate that the machinery of the 
State Government was put in operation. The 
language of Mr. Chase, in the historical sketch 
contained in the first volume of his Statutes of 
Ohio, is somewhat similar to that of Mr. Walker, 
but is not sufficiently definite to warrant us in 
saying that he regarded March 3rd as the exact 
date of the admission of Ohio. 

An enabling act was passed April 30, 1802. 
The people, in accordance with it, elected dele- 
gates, the Convention was held, and a Constitu- 
tion was formed. After the adjournment, the 
Constitution was laid before Congress, as also 
certain propositions relating to lands within the 
State. A committee was appointed in each 
House, to whom the papers were referred. The 
action in the Senate was as follows : 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to 
' inquire whether any, and, if any, what legisla- 
tive measure may be necessary for admitting the 
State of Ohio into the Union, or for extending to 
that State the laws of the United States ; and. 

Ordered, That Messrs. Breckenridge, Morris 

and Anderson be the committee, and that the 
letter signed T. Worthington, given for the State 
of Ohio, laid before the Senate this morning, to- 
gether with a copy of the Constitution of such 
State, be referred to the same committee to con- 
sider and report thereon." 

This committee was appointed on the 7th of 
January, 1803, and on the 19th they made the 
following report : 

That the people of the eastern division of the 
territory northwest of the river Ohio, in pursu- 
ance of an act 'of Congress, passed on the 30th 
day of April, 1802, entitled, "An act to enable 
the people of the eastern division of the territory 
northwest of the river Ohio to form a Constitution 
and State Government, and for the admission of 
such State into the Union, on an equal footing 
with the original States, and for other purposes," 
did, on the 29th day of November, 1802, form 
for themselves a Constitution and State Govern- 
ment. That the said Constitution Bnd Govern- 
ment so formed is republican, and in conformity 
to the principles contained in the articles of the 
ordinance made on the 13th day of July, 1787, 
for the government of said Territory ; and that 
it is now necessary to establish a District Court 
within said State to carry into complete effect the 
laws of the United States within the same." 

On the 2 1st of January the Senate considered 
the report and directed the committee to bring in 
a bill. A bill was reported on the 27th, which 
was read and ordered to the second reading. 
The next day it was read the second time. On 
the 31st the Senate resumed the second reading 
of the bill, and, an amendment "having been of- 
fered, "it was agreed that the further considera- 
tion of the bill, together with the proposed amend- 
ment, should be the order of the day for Thurs- 
day, the 3rd of February." On the 4th of Feb- 
ruary the bill was passed to a third reading, and 
on the 7th it was read the third time and passed. 
The House of Representatives having received 
the bill from the Senate, it was read twice on the 
8th of February and referred to a committee. 
On the 1 2th it was discussed in Committee of the 
Whole, reported to the House, then read the 
third time and passed. It was approved on the 
19th. This being the first act of Congress which 
recognized the new State, ir is regarded as the 
true date of admission. In the collection of 
Charters and Constitutions, compiled by order 01 
the United States Senate, and printed in 1877, 
the Constitution of a State follows the enabling 
act, and then comes the act of admission. In the 
case of Ohio, there having been no act of formal 
admission, the Constitution, of 1802 is followed 
by this act of February 19, 1803, under the head- 
ing, "Act recognizing the State of Ohio, 1803." 
This act thus takes the place, in the volume of 
Charters and Constitutions, of a formal act of ad- 
mission ; and a stranger, consulting the work to 
ascertain the times when the several States came 
into the Union, would necessarily infer that the 
date of Ohio was February 19th, 1803. The 
question of date of admission in the case of Ohio 
is between November 29, 1802, and February 



19th, 1803. The first is the day of adjournment 
of the Convention that formed the Constitution, 
and the second is the day when was passed the 
first act of Congress in any way recognizing the 
State. In the case of every other State Congress 
has either passed a distinct and definite act of ad- 
mission, dating .from the day of enactment or 
from a future day named, or has provided for an 
admission on the issue of a proclamation by the 
President. Ohio, then, forms a case by itself, 
belonging to neither of these classes. Those 
who hold that November 29, 1802, is the proper 
date lay stress upon the language of the enabling 
act of April 30, 1802, and upon the words of the 
preamble to the act of February 19, 1803. Let 
us examine these two points. 

The language of the enabling act is as follows : 

"Be it enacted, etc.. That the inhabitants of 
the eastern division of the territory northwest of 
the river Ohio be, and they are hereby authorized 
to form for themselves a Constitution and State 
government, and to assume such name as they 
shall deem proper, and the said State, when 
toi^med. shall be admitted into the Union upon 
the same footing with the original States in all 
respects whatever." 

' This language is not peculiar to the enabling 
act of Ohio ; it is in substance the language of 
every enabling act passed by Congress from 1802 
to the present time. Those of Indiana and Illi- 
nois, formed from the same Northwest Territory, 
contain the identical words, except the names, 
found in, that for Ohio. The act for Indiana 
was passed April 19, 18 16, and its Constitution 
was formed June 29 ; but the resolution of ad- 
mission was passed December 1 1 of the same 
year. If Ohio became a State, on the formation 
of a Constitution, by virtue of the language of 
the enabling act, why did not Indiana? If Ohio 
was a State in the Union from the 29th of No- 
vember, 1802, was not Indiana a State from the 
29th of June, 1816? And was not the resolution 
of Congress of December nth, 1816, admitting 
Indiana into the Union, wholly useless? 

Let us now examine the language of the pre- 
amble to the act of February 19, 1803 : 

"Whereas, The people of the eastern division 
of the territory northwest of the river Ohio did, 
on the 29th day of November, 1802, form for 
themselves a Constitution and State govern- 
ment, and did give to the said State the name of 
the 'State of Oiiio,' in pursuance of an act of 
Congress entitled, 'An act to enable the people 
of the eastern division of the terril()r\- northwest 
of the river Ohio to form a Constitution and State 
government, and for the admission into the 
Uhion on an equal footing with the original 
States, and for other purposes,' whereby the said 
State has become one of the United States of 
America ; in order, therefore,- to provide for the 
due execution of the laws of the United States 
within the said State of Ohio, be it enacted, etc." 

Stress is sometimes laid upon the words of the 
preamble of the act of February 19, 1803, 
"Whereby the State has become' one of the 
United States of America." It will be noted 

that the language differs in tense from that res- 
pecting the formation of a Constitution : "Where- 
as, the people did form a Constitution on the 29th 
day of November, 1802, etc., whereby the State 
has become one of the United States." Had it 
been affirmed that the State did become one of 
the United States on the 29th of November, the 
question before us would have been different from 
what it is now. The language is that it has be- 
come — has now become a member of the Union. 

The Constitution was iormed at a given time ; 
it had been submitted to Congress for examina- 
tion ; that examination had been made, and the 
Senate committee reported that the several steps 
had been properly taken. The laws of the Uni- 
ted States could not be extended over Ohio till 
it should be recognized in some form. That 
recognition was placed in the preamble. It was 
a virtual declaration that the Constitution was 
republican and in conformity with the ordinance, 
and therefore there was no objection to regard- 
ing it as a State. The language of the resolu- 
tion of the Senate of the 7th of January, when 
it instructed its committee "to inquire whether 
any, and, if any, what legislative measure may 
be necessary for admitting the State of Ohio into 
the Union," would seem to be conclusive against 
the supposition that the formation of a Constitu- 
tion made the State a member ot the Union. If 
that action by the Convention was sufficient, un- 
der the enabling act of Congress, to introduce 
the new State into the Union, then the resolution 
of the Senate of the 7th of January was uncalled 
for. Whether the steps taken by the people of 
the territory, with reference to admission, had 
been properly taken or not, was a question which 
had not yet been answered. When Congress 
should be satisfied in regard to that, then the 
date of admisfion might be settled. Congress 
had the power, perhaps, to make its action retro- 
active, though it has never done so in the case of 
a State ; or it might put the time of admission 
on some day in the future, as in the case of Ver- 
mont and Louisiana ; or it might make the day 
of enactment the day of admission, as is the 
usual case. 

In view of all the facts, we seem to be shut up 
to the conclusion that the State of Ohio was not 
admitted into the Union on the 29th day of No- 
vember, 1802, when the Constitutton was formed, 
but on the 19th day of February, 1803, when 
Ohio was first recognized as a State by Congress. 
It has already been stated that, in the Charters 
and Constitutions compiled under an order of the 
United States Senate, this act of the 19th of 
February, under the title, "An act recognizing 
the State of Ohio, 1803," occupies the same 
place in the arrangement of the work which is 
given in other States to the act of admission. 

It is proper to state, also, that I made inquiry 
at the State Department, at Washington, and 
received the following memorandum : 

"Enabling act of Congress for formation 01 
the State of Ohio was approved April 30, 1802." 
[See Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 173.] 

" 'An act to provide for the due examination 



of the laws of the United States within the State 
of Ohio,' was approved February 19, 1803. By 
this act Ohio was admitted into the Union.'" — 
[Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 201.] 

We may infer, then, that the Department of 
State of the General Government recognizes the 
nineteenth of February, 1803, as the date of the 
admission of Ohio into the Union. 

On the first day of March, 1803, the General 
Assembly convened at Chillicothe. Their first 
case, of course, was to adapt the statute law of 
the territory to the new state of things introduced 
by the Constitution. With this view several 
laws were passed. The State courts were or- 
ganized, their jurisdiction defined, and their 
practice, in some degree, regulated. * * * 


[Chase's Statutes of Ohio, vol. Ill, p. 2,101, 
chap. ccc,xlix]. An act to establish the coun- 
ty of Muskingum. 

Section i. Be it enacted, etc.. That so 
much of the counties of Washington and Fair- 
field as comes within the following boundaries, 
be and the same is hereby erected into a separate 
and distinct county, which shall be known by the 
name of Muskingum, to wit: beginning at the 
northwest corner of the ninth township, in the 
ninth range of the United States military lands, 
thence with the western boundary line of said 
range, south to the southern boundary line of 
said military lines, thence with the same west to 
the western boundary line of the fifteenth range 
of public lands, thence with the said line south 
to the southwest . corner of the sixteenth town- 
ship of the fifteenth range, thence eastwardly to 
the south boundary of the sixteenth township 
till it intersects the west boundary of the twelfth 
range, thence with the sectional lines east to the 
western boundary line to the seventh range, 
thence with the same north to the northeast cor- 
ner of the military tract, thence with the north 
boundary line of the tenth township in the first and 
second ranges of said military lands, west until 
intersected by the Indian boundary lirie, thence 
with same westwardly to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 2. That from and after the the first day 
of March next, said county shall be vested with 
all the powers, privileges and immunities of a 
separate and distinct county ; Provided, always, 
that all actions and suits which may be pending 
on the said first day of March next, shall be pros- 
ecuted and carried into final judgment and execu- 
tion, and all taxes, fees, fines and forfeitures, 
which shall then be due, shall be collected in the 
same manner as if this act had never been passed. 

Sec. 3. That the temporary seat of justice 
of said county, shall be at the town of Zanes- 
ville, until the permanent seat shall be fixed ac- 
cording to law. 

Sec. 4. This act shall commence and be in 
force from and after the first day cf March 
next. Elias Langham, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Nathaniel Massie, 
January 7, 1804. Speaker of the Senate. 

The transition from Territory to State, and the 
subdivision of the State into counties for judicial 
purposes, as we have seen, necessitated changes 
in the law adapting them to the new order of 
government. This began at Chillicothe in 1803, 
and it was found necessary to revise the law still 
further ; accordingly, at the session of the Legisla- 
ture of 1809-10, the laws were a second time re- 
vised. Seven years had now elapsed since the 
first session of the Legislature, and the question 
was agitated whether a new and general election 
of Judges ought to take place. On the one 
side it was contended that the original appoint- 
ments were for the term of seven years, and that 
those who had been elected to fill a vacancy 
were elected for the term of seven years and en- 
titled to hold office for that time, unless consti- 
tutionally removed. In support of this con- 
struction, the law regulating commissions was 
cited, and it was shown that the constant 
practice had hitherto been to commission every 
newly elected Judge for the full term. A reso- 
lution, however, was adopted, adopting the first 
construction and extending its principles to the 
offices of Auditor, Secretary and Treasurer of 
State. This resolution, in effect, declared all 
judicial offices vacant, and the Legislature pro- 
ceeded to elect. Judges of the Supreme Court 
and of the different courts of Common Pleas. 
* * * * TYye same Legislature reduced the 
number of Judges of the Supreme Court, which 
had beeen increased to four in 1809, to three. 
The effect of this act was to depi-ive the Judge, 
who had been duly elected and commissioned in 
1809, of his seat upon the bench. 

These acts of the Legislature produced much 
confusion in the judiciarj'. Most of the Judges 
thought the construction of the constitution er- 
roneous, and some refused to acknowledge its 
obligation. Some who held unreprieved com- 
missions and had been again elected, refused to 
accept their new commissions and claimed their 
seats by virtue of the old. These claims occa- 
sioned divisions in the several courts, by which 
the administration of justice was delayed, and 
often prevented. The Legislature, however, did 
not retrace their steps, and, in time, acquiescence 
in the revolution was produced — became gen- 
eral ; but the construction then given to the con- 
stitution has never since been acted on. 

JVDICIAL system of OHIO. 

Ohio had borrowed a judicial system from 
Pennsylvania, and grouping several counties 
in "a circuit," assigned to it one President 
Judge. He was required to be a lawyer, 
and was elected by the State Legislature. 
That body also chose from amongst the 
electors of each county three citizens, not law- 
yers, and called them Associate Judges. The 
President and two Associates made a quorum. 
In the absence of the President, the three Asso- 
ciates could sit as a court. Special sessions 
could be held as often as needed by the Associ- 
ates, and they disposed of the great body of the 
ordinary work now done in probate courts. 




The State, in 1804, embraced three circuits. 
The second contained Adams, Fairfield, Frank- 
lin, Gallia, Muskingum, Ross, and Scioto coun- 
ties, and the 25th of April was by law named for 
the beginning of the first term of Common Pleas 
Court in Muskingum county, being the third 
Monday in the month. Common Pleas Judges 
were appointed by the Legislature for the term 
of seven years or during good behavior. [See 
Constitution of 1802, Art. 3, S 8.] This was 
changed to five years by the Constitution of 1852, 
Art. 4, § 10. 

The Supreme Court consisted of three Judges, 
and was required to hold one term each year in 
each county, and the said third Monday, April 
25th, 1804, was fixed for the beginning of the 
first term, but no record of such a session has 
been found. Muskingum was transferred to the 
Third circuit by the act of February 22, 1805. 
This circuit was composed of Belmont, Colum- 
biana, Jefferson, Trumbull, and Washington 

Common Pleas Court. — The only account of 
the inauguration of this court is given in the old 
record entitled "Judgments" (in the Clerk's 
office), and appears on a space left blank be- 
tween pages 133 and 134, which probably occur- 
red by turning two leaves instead of one. It 
seems to be in the handwriting of Abel Lewis. 
This view is sustained by the fact that Mr. Lewis 
was then Clerk of our courts. The record reads 
as follows : 

"At a special court held on the day of 

-, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 

hundred and four, at the house of David Harvey, 
Esquire, in ZanesviUe, in and for the county of 
Muskingum, it being the first court held in said 
county. Present, the Honorable Willis Silliman, 
Esquire, Pi-esident ; and Jesse Fulton and David 
Harvey, Esquires, his associate Judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas of said county. Ap- 
pointed Abel Lewis Clerk fro tern, of said court, 
who gave bond and was sworn into the oflice 
aforesaid by the said Honorable Willis Silliman, 
Esquire, according to law and the Constitution 
of the State of Ohio." 

Calvin Pease became the first President Judge. 
Although he had been some years on the bench, 
he was only twenty-seven years old ; a New 
Englander, sharp, energetic, and witty. He re- 
sided in Trumbull county, and " administered 
the law to all the inhabitants of the State east of 
the Muskingum river," and performed his duties 
"with much ability and integrity." He ceased 
to hold this office at the close of 1807, but be- 
came one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the State in 1816, and at the same time John 
McLean (who for so many years adorned the 
bench of the highest national 'court) was chosen 
a member of the same court. 

The first petit jury in Muskingum Common 
Pleas Court was composed as follows : 

I. William Montgomery; 2. Isaac Prior; 3. 
John Reasoner ; 4. Joseph Neff"; 5. Thomas Cor- 
dray ; 6. David Herron ; 7. William Dusenberry ; 
8. William Reasoner ; 9. Daniel Campbell ; 10. 

Joseph Stolts; 11. David Enslow. The twelfth 
man did not appear. The record is not signed, 
so that who presided at this court does not ap- 
pear ; it was probably Judge Belt, who resided 
near or west of the Scioto, as the most populous 
part of his circuit was Ross county, which had 
a large influence in the Legislature by which he 
must have been elected. 


Abel Lewis, from 1805 to i8i2. 
John C. Stockton, 1812 to 1817. 
Daniel Chambers, 1817 to 1821. 
John Peters, fro tern., 182 1. 
Ezekiel T. Cox, 182 1 to 1828. 
John Wilson, Jr., 1828 to 1834. 
Ezekiel T. Cox, 1834 to 1852. 


Abel Lewis, 1804 to 1812. 

John C. Stockton, 1812 to 1817. 

David Chambers, 1817 to 1821. 

John Peters, fro tern., 182 1. 

Ezekiel T. Cox, 182 1 to 1828. 

John Wilson, Jr., 1828 to 1834. 

Ezekiel T. Cox, 1834 to 1841. 

George W. Manypenny, 1841 to 1846. 

Anthony Wilkins, 1846 to 1852. 

Charles C. Russell, (resigned) 1852 to 1864. 

John Hoopes, 1864 to 1867. 

Gemmill Arthur, (resigned) 1867 to 1870. 

George W. Blocksom, _^r(? tern., 1870. 

Edgar W. Allen, 1870 to 1873. 

Frederick W. Geiger, 1873 to 1879. 

Howard Aston, (incumbent) 1879. 


Lewis Cass, 1804 to 1812, 

Samuel Herri ck, 181 2 to 18 18. 

John C. Stockton, 1818 to 1820. 

Richard Stillwell, 1820 to 1837. 

Wilhs Buel, (April) 1837 to 1839. 

Cautiqus C. Covey, (April to November) 1839. 

Napoleon A. Guille, 1839 to 185 1. 

WiUiam H. Ball, (resigned in April) 1851 to 


John O'Neill, 1S53 to 1856. 

John C. Hazlett,'i856 to 1861. 

John llavncs, 1861 to 1864. 

Lymiui J. Jackson, 1864 to 1866. 

Moses M. Granger (January to December) 

Albert W. Train, 1866 to 1868. 

Milton I. Southard, (resigned) 1868 to 1872. 

Daniel B. Gary, 1872 to 1874. 

Albion Andrews, 1874 to 1878. 

John R. Stonesipher, 1878 to 1880. 

Fenton Bagley, (incumbent) 1880-1882. 


Willis Silliman, April term, 1804. 
Levin Belt, June 6, 1804 to 1805. 
Robert F. Slaughter, March term, 1805. 
Calvin Pease, August term, 1805. 
Samuel Huntington, October 3d, 1805. 



[It is claimed that Calvin Pease served until 

William Wilson, 1808 to 1822. 

Alexander Harper, 1822 to 1836. 

Con-ington W. Searle, 1836 to 1846. 

Richard Stillwell, 1847 to 1851, (Oct. 17.) 

Corrington W. Searle, from Oct. 17, 185 1, to 
Feb. 9, 1852. 

Richard Stillwell, from 1852 to Sept. 16, 1854. 

John E. Hanna, Sept. 16, 1854, to Oct. 20, 

Charles C. Convers, Oct. 20, 1854, to Oct. 
19. 1855. 

Corrington W. Searle, Oct. 19, 1855, to Oct. 
,25, 1856. 

LuciusP. Marsh, Oct. 25,1856, to Feb. 9, 1862. 

Ezra E. Evans, Feb. 9, 1862, to Dec. 10, 1866. 

Moses M. Granger, Dec. 10, 1866, to Oct. 9, 

Frederick W. Wood, August 13, 1869, to 
Aug. 3, 1874. 

William H. Frazier, Oct. 9, 1871, to Aug. 3, 

Lucius P. Marsh, Aug., 1874. 

Wm. H. Ball, Nov, 19, 1878. 

Wm. H. Frazier, Oct. 10, 1876. 

The following is a list of Associate Judges, 
Common Pleas Court, and who were permitted 
to engage in any other business during their term 
of office : 

David Harvey, William Wells, John Campbell, 
commissioned in February, 1804. 

The resignation of William Wells, before tak- 
ing his seat, created a vacancy which was filled 
by the appointment of Jesse Fulton, March 15, 

1804. Dalvid Harvey resigned June 19, 1804, 
and on the 29th of that month Richard McBride 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. John Camp- 
bell resigned Dec. 4, 1804, and Dec. 13, 1804, 
Giles Hempstead was appointed. February 7, 

1805, the Legislature elected Jesse Fulton, Rich- 
ard McBride and Seth Carhart. 

David Harvey, Feb. 17, 1804, to June 17, 1804, 

Wm. Wells, Feb. 18, 1804, to Feb. 25, 1804. 

John Campbell, Feb. 20, 1804, to Dec. 4, 1804. 

Jesse Fulton, March 15, 1804, to 1805. 

Richard McBride, 1804-1813. 

Giles Hempstead, 1804-1805. 

Seth Carhart, 1805, did not accept. 

WilHam Mitchell, 1805-1815. 

David Findlay, 1813-1820. 

Stephen C. Smith ,1815-1818. 

Daniel Stillwell, 1815-1822. 

Robert Mitchell, 1818-1833. 

John Reynolds, 1820- 182 2. 

Robert McConnell, 1822-1827. 

David Young, 1822-1823. 

Thomas Ijams, 1823-1830. 

Edwin Putnam, 1827-1842. 

Mathew McElhuneey, 1830-1837. 

WiUiam Blocksom, 1833-1840. 

James JeffrieSj 1837-1844. 

William Cooper, 1840-1847. 

Jacob P. Springer, 1842-1852. 

Horatio.J. Cox, 1844-1852. 

William Reed, 1847-1852. 

The office 01 Associate Judge was abolished 
by the Constitution in 185 1, and much of the 
business formerly transacted by the Common 
Pleas Court was transferred, by the Constitution 
of 1852, to the Probate Court, which was organ- 
ized under this Constitution. 


The following is a list of the Probate Judges 
from the beginning to the present : 

Mahlon Sims, 1852 to 1858, two terms. 

Wm. T. Mason, 1858 to 1864, two terms. 

R. W. P. Muse, 1864 to 1870, two terms. 

Henry L. Korte, 1870 to 1873, one term. 

Reuben H. Morgan, 1873 to 1875, one term, 

Henry L. Korte, 1875 to 1876, unexpired term. 

Henry L. Korte, 1876 to 1879, one term. 

Henry L. Korte, 1879 ^° i^^^- 


Our first court was held in David Harvey's 
tavern, situate on the southwest corner of Third 
and Main streets, in Zanesville. Court was sub- 
sequently held in a two-story log house on Sixth 
street (West Side), about one hundred feet south 
of Main street. The building was owned by one 
James Herron. 

The first court house was a frame structure 
•20x55, two stones high. The lower story was 
used for the jailer's residence, the upper story for 
court and other purposes. The jail was built ad- 
joining, of hewed logs, squared and lined with 
three inch plank. The'lower story was for crim- 
inals, the upper for debtors. The court house 
and jail were under one roof. The contract for 
building was let to Henry Ford, for the sum of 
$480, January 25, 1808. The Commissioners 
signing the contract were Henry Newell, Jacob 
Goihber and Daniel Stillwell — the latter protest- 
ing against paying such an extravagant price for 
a public building. Benjamin Tupper, Clerk, also 
signed the contract. Ford's securities were Dr. 
Increase Mathews, Peter Speck and John 
Levens. These buildings were burned down 
April 3d, 1814, by a fugitive slave from Ken- 
tucky ; being confined in the jail he attempted to 
burn the lock off the door, but the fire became 
unmanageable, the buildings burned, and the ne- 
gro was taken out almost suffocated. The citi- 
zens were very indignant, and some would have 
thrust the fellow back and burned him, but he 

"As early as' 1807-8 the subject of the removal 
of the capital 'was agitated, and at the session of 
1808-9 ^^^ Muskingum delegation in the General 
Assembly, reinforced by a committee of the citi- 
zens of Zanesville, headed by John Mclntire, 
petitioned the Legislature to remove the capital 
to Zanesville, setting forth that the county of 
Muskingum would, at its own expense, furnish 
suitable buildings for the Legislature and State 
offices, and received assurances that if they would 
do this a law granting their wishes would be 
passed making Zanesville the "temporary capi- 
tal." Our people believed that the Capital once 



here would remain. Public spirited citizens 
loaned the money, and the county built what has 
been so well known among us as "Old 1809." 


During the summer of 1809 the main build- 
ing, which was intended for the Legislature, 
was put up, but not finished. The contract was 
awarded April loth, 1809, to Joseph Munro, 
Daniel Convers, John Williamson and James 
Hampson for $7,500, to be completed by Decem- 
ber I, 18 ID. James Hampson was appointed 
Superintendent. The County Commissioners is- 
sued six $1,000 bonds and one $1,500 bond ; the 
first payable three months after the contract was 
awarded, the remainder to be paid quarterly, 
$1,000 each payment until the $6,000 were paid, 
and the balance of $1,500 iq six months after 
that. These bond^ were signed by John Mcln- 
tire, Jeffrey Price, Hugh Hazlett, Wyllis Silli- 
man, Robert Fulton and others. The contract 
was "sold" by William Reynolds at public sale. 
The Commissioners were William Newell, Jacob 
Gomber and Daniel Stillwell. Benjamin Tup- 
per. Clerk of the Court, signed the contract on 
the part of the county. 

The offices for Secretary of State and State 
Treasurer . — The contract for building these of- 
fices was awarded to James Hampson and Joseph 
Cairens for $920 ; the specifications — for a brick 
building 28x24 and ten feet high, walls fourteen 
inches thick, fire-proof vault, for Treasurer's of- 
fice. The contract was let April loth, and to be 
finished December ioth,i8io. The money, as 
in the foregoing case, was furnished by citizens. 
In this case they formed a stock company, and 
were incorporated and called "The Court House 
and County Office Stock Company." The shares 
were fifty dollars each. John Mclntire was 
President and Robert Fulton Treasurer. The 
money borrowed by the Commissioners was not 
repaid until 1823, 

Notwithstanding these efforts of the county 
and town, although the Legislature assembled 
here early in December, 1809, it was not until 
the 19th day of February, 1810, that the act was 
passed locating the seat of Government at Zanes- 
ville, as will be seen by the following : 

[Ohio Laws, vol. 8, p. 220, chap, i.viii.] — 
"An act fixing the temporary seat of Govern- 
ment at Zanesville : 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General As- 
sembly of the State of Ohio, That the seat of 
Government be, and the same is' hereby fixed, 
and shall remain at Zanesville until otherwise 
provided by law. 

This act shall take effect and be in force from 
and after the first day of October next." 
Edward Tiffin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Duncan McArthur, 
Feb. 19, 1810. Speaker of the Senate. 

But the hope of Zanesville and Muskingum, 
that "once here it would remain," was not even 

allowed more than a day's existence, for an act 
was passed next day, February 20, 1810, [See 
Chase's Statutes, vol. i, p. 699,] providing for 
the election by the Legislature, by ballot, of five 
commissioners, whose duty it should be to locale 
the permanent Capital, in a place "not more than 
forty miles from what may be deemed the com- 
mon center of the State, to be ascertained by 
Mansfield's map." And these commissioners 
were ordered to meet at Franklinton, on Sep- 
tember 1st, 1810. Thus it was known that one 
month before Zanesville could be even the tem- 
porary Capital, the duty of selecting the spot for 
the permanent Capital would probably be com- 
pleted, and that Zanesville could not be that spot ; 
for the central point of an east and west line 
across Ohio, passing through Zanesville, is the 
west line of Licking county, a point forty-two 
miles distant, at the very least, from our city — 
while the fact that the geographical center of the 
State being north of that line, increased the dis- 
tance and left no room for hope unless the second 
act could be repealed. 

The county and town were pledged, however ; 
their honor was involved — and in fulfillment of 
their pledge, the court house was completed 
in the summer of 1810; and, also, a smaller 
building for the use of the Secretary- of State 
and State Treasurer. The latter stood just 
north of the west door of the present court 
house. By direction of the Legislature all its 
books, papers, etc., were committed to George 
Jackson, John Mclntire, Wyllis Silliman, Rob- 
ert-McConnel, and David J. Marple, for transpor- 
tation from Chillicothe to Zanesville. 

On the 3d of December 1810, the first session 
of the Ninth General Assembly was held in 
Zanesville ; they met in "old 1809," and chose 
Epward Tiffin Speaker of the House and 
Thomas Kirk Speaker of the Senate. The 
House occupied the room so long used by our 
Court of Common Pleas ; the Senate sat in the 
larger room in the second story, afterwards 
known as "the old Senate Chamber." 

The tenth session of the General Assemby 
was begun in Zanesville, December 2d, 181 1. At 
this session a proposition was made, conditioned 
on the removal of the seat of government for the 
State Capital to a ascertain locality more central, 
which will be found embodied in the following 
act, taken from Chase's Statutes, page 776, 
chapter cclxiii : 

"An act fixing and establishing the permanent 
and temporary seats of government. [Ohio 
Laws, chapters 172 and 237.] 

Section i. Be it enacted, etc.. That the 
proposals made to this Legislature by Alexander 
McLaughlin, John Kerr, Lyne Starling, and 
James Johnston (to lay out a town on their 
lands, situate on the east bank of the Scioto 
river, opposite Franklinton, in the county of 
Franklin, and parts of half sections number 
nine, ten, eleven, twenty-five and twenty-six, 
for the purpose of having the permanent seat of 
government thereon established ; also to convey 



to this State a square often acres and a lot of 
ten acres, and to erect a State House, such of- 
fices and penitentiary as shall be directed by the 
Legislature), are hereby accepted, and the same 
and their penal bond annexed thereto, dated the 
tenth day day of February, one thousand eight 
hundred and twelve, conditioned for their faith- 
ful performance of said proposals, shall be valid 
to all intents and purposes, and shall remain in 
the office of the Treasurer of State, there to be 
kept for the use of the State. 

Sec. 2. That the seat of government of this 
State be, and the same is hereby fixed and per- 
manently established on the land aforesaid, and 
the Legislature shall commence their sessions 
thereat on the first Monday of December, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventeen, and 
there continue until the first Monday in Ma}', 
one thousand eight hundred and forty, and from 

thence until otherwise provided by law. 


Sec. 5. That said McLaughlin, Kerr, Star- 
ling and Johnston shall on or before the first day 
of July next ensuing, at their own expense, cause 
the town aforesaid to be laid out and a plat of 
the same recorded in the Recorder's office in 
Franklin county, distinguishing thereon the 
square and lot by them conveyed to the State ; 
and they shall, moreover, transmit a certified copy 
thereof to the next Legislature for their inspec- 

Sec. 6. That from and after the first day of 
May next, Chillicothe shall be the temporary 
seat of government until otherwise provided by 
law. Passed February 14, 1812." 

Zanesville's last Legislature did what it could 
to supply a designation, inasmuch as the spot 
opposite Franklinton, proposed by the petitioners 
named in the foregoing act as the site for the 
State Capital had no name; Resolved, "That 
the town to be laid out at the high bank on the 
east side of the Scioto river, opposite the town 
of Franklinton, for the permanent seat of gov- 
ernment of this State, shall be known and desig- 
nated by the name of "Columbus." 

From October i, 1810 to May i, 1812, one 
year and seven months, Zanesville flourished as 
the State Capital and then resumed the modest 
dignities of the county seat. While the Legisla- 
ture was here the courts sat in the frame build- 
ing of 1808 ; after the Capital returned to Chilli- 
cothe the "State House" became the "County 
Court House," and served as such until Septem- 
ber, 1874, when it gave way for the present ele- 
gant structure. 

In accordance with sundry acts of the Legis- 
lature, ranging from 1869 to 1872, the County 
Commissioners exercised the power thus vested 
in them and advertised for bids for building the 
new court house. September 3d, 1874, the' 
bids were opened, ten of which were' for the en- 
tire work, and sundry bids for "particular kinds 
of work. [See Commissioners' Journal, March 
I, 1873, p. 87.] September 4th, 1874, the com- 
missioners let the contract for the entire work to 

T. B. Townsend for $221, 657 — the lowest bid. 
The architect's estimate was $240,205.67. Mr. 
Townsend gave bond for $100,000, with J. Bur- 
gess and G. W. Townsend as sureties for the 
performance of the contract within 24 months 
from November i, 1874. As might have been 
expected, the details in specifications in a work 
of this kind could not be made perfect — where 
expectations had been so raised — the people hav- 
ing been made to think of metropolitan appear- 
ances — having the Capital located here, could 
not easily descend to the consideration of an 
order of architecture other than of State House 
proportions. And yet, notwithstanding the dis- 
appointment in regard to this matter, and the in- 
creased expenditure to complete the new court 
house amounting to $1,403.02, the elegance and 
substantial character of the building abundantly 
compensate for the outlay. 

The County Commissioners leased to the 
Zanesville Atheneum, the land joining "the old 
1809" on the east, for library purposes for the 
term of "one thousand years," and, therefore, 
when their successors determined the site of the 
present court house it was found necessary to 
compromise with the representatives of the Athe- 
neum. This was amicably arranged, the county 
paying the representatives of the Zanesville 
Atheneum the sum of six thousand five hundred 
and seventy-five dollars, in consideration of 
which t|ie ground occupied by the Atheneum 
was vacated and the possession released to the 

Lots 5, 6, 7 and 8, in square 12, plat of Zanes- 
ville, recorded on page 28, Book A, are "appro- 
propriated to other public uses," by which is 
meant county purposes — the county having oc- 
cupied them since the appropriation — except a 
fraction of sixty feet square, being the northwest 
corner of said tract, which the city was permit- 
ted to erect buildings upon ; and which the county 
rented of the city for some years, and when the 
County Commissioners decided to take posses- 
sion of the lots bounded on the north by Fountain 
Alley, south by Main street, west by Fourth 
street, and east by Court Alley, for a public 
square, the sum of eight thousand dollars was 
given to the city to quitclaim their right, title 
and interest to all and singular — the appurten- 
ances and buildings situated on said northwest 
corner of said tract. The record referred to 
does not exhibit John Mclntire's act of appro- 
priation, but it is so construed — since the plat 
containing the lots enumerated was recorded in 
Washington county April 29, 1802 ; and the 
right of the county to possess the lots as afore- 
said has not been disputed. 

The dedication of the new court house took 
place on the first of May, 1877, with appropriate 
ceremonies and addresses by distinguished citi- 
and as the members of the bar who par- 

zens ; 

ticipated are amongst the the most honored and 
honorable of the profession, their contributions 
on that occasion have been assigned to the bar 
record proper, which is greatly enhanced in 
interest thereby. 




The first Muskingum county jail, constructed 
of logs in 1806-7, continued in use until a new 
one, with the sheriff's residence attached, was 
completed and turned over to the County Com- 
missioners January i, 1824. This was a brick 
building 46x40, two stories high. The walls of 
that portion containing cells were twenty-two 
inches thick ; that of the sheriff's residence 
eighteen-inch walls. The upper story of the jail 
was for debtors, and the lower story for crimi- 
nals. The contract in those days for such build- 
ings ■vyere let by vendue or auction ; the sale of 
this contract took place August 12, 1822, and 
was bid in by J.ames Hampson, through his act- 
ing agent, Simeon Wright. Tne price agreed 
upon was $5,599; and the conditions, that the 
building should be completed b^ January i , 1824. 
Mr. John Bui-well was the first sheriff to occupy 
the new building. On the night of the i6th of 
March, 1824, five prisoners escaped. Mr. Bur- 
well offered a reward of $15.00 for the return of 
the prisoners and their hopples. One of them 
repented and returned to the prison, and gave 
information respecting the tools which had been 
handed into them to enable them to make their 
escape. The hopples were found on Putnam 
Hill and returned. 

In 1845 John Goshen, Robert Boggs and 
Littleton Moore, County Commissioners, found 
the old brick jail too insecure to hold prisoners. 
They advertised for bids for the construction of 
a new jail to be built of stone, to be laid in regu- 
lar courses, with sixteen cells for prisoners, con- 
structed in two tiers. The contract was let April 
15th, 1845, and finished in October, 1846. It 
was awarded to Hugh Madden for $7,975. 
This jail gave way to the present building, which 
stands farther east, and was let to Mr. T. B. 
Townsend and Mr. M. Clements. The former 
to construct all but the inside iron work, and re- 
ceive $8,500. [See Commissioners Joui-nal, 
1874, pags 102.] The latterto construct the in- 
side iron work and to receive $16,527. [See 
Commissioners Journal, 1875, page 193.] The 
total cost of the present jail being $25,027. 

The Whiffing host. — -The first stood on a 
small mound near the jail built in 1806. The 
last of these ornaments to decorate the court 
house yard was in vogue as late as 181 1. April 
II, of this year, the County Commissioners in- 
structed Jacob Crooks, Sheriff', to build a whip- 
ping post upon the small Indian mound alluded 
to at the southeast corner of the old log jail. 
This mound was subsequently removed, when, a 
skeleton, some flint arrow heads and a stone 
hatchet were found. The bones crumbled on 
being exposed to the air. 

The Dedication of the New Court House. — A 
memorable event in the history of "old Mus- 
kingum" afforded an opportunity to review the 
past, consider the present and forecast the future, 
and we but utter a common sentiment in saying 
that the efforts put forth on that occasion were 
creditable alike to the heads and hearts of those 

who participated. The ceremonies of the dedi- 
cation were held in the courtroom. May i, 1877, 
and in exemplification of what has been said, 
portions of the several addresses are reproduced. 

Mr. E. E. Fillmore said : "The year 1.874 saw 
the venerable structure, which for moi^e than two 
generations had afforded room for our courts, 
demolished. Immediately after was laid the 
foundation of this building ; and now, in this 
year of our Lord, 1877, the long hoped for noble 
structure is finished ; a credit to our city ; a credit 
to Muskingum county, and the State of Ohio, — 
and to-day we have met for the purpose of dedi- 
cating this temple of justice to the uses for which 
it was designed." 

The County Commissioners then; by Frank H. 
Southard, made presentation of the building to 
the people of the county. He closed a very neat 
speech with these words : "In the name, then, 
and on behalf of our Commissioners, Mr. O'Neill, 
I now tender to the bar and public, through you 
as their representative, this structure, and pray 
its acceptance." 

This was responded to by Hon. John O'Neill, 
in accepting the building on behalf of the bar 
and public. Address of Mr. O'Neill, in part, 
was as follows : 

"As the President of the Bar Association, and 
at their request, it is at once my privilege and 
pleasure to respond to the address in which you 
have been pleased, on behalf of the County Com- 
missioners of old Muskingum, to present in such 
elegant and flattering terms their compliments 
and these magnificent halls of justice to the courts 
and bar of Muskingum. The members of the 
Muskingum bar, with whom I have had the for- 
tune and the honor of associating for more than 
a quarter of a centmy, have not improperly, per- 
haps, imposed upon me the duty of accepting 
this splendid present, and of tendering appropri- 
ate thanks to the Commissioners and the good 
people of the county for the erection of the 
superb and commodious edifice which we this 
day dedicate to public uses. 

Human language can but feeblj^ express the 
sentiments of pride and satisfaction our associa- 
tion feel in contemplating this new arena of our 
future combats, or the thanks they most cordially 
extend,, through me, to the Commissioners and to 
the people for that generous spirit of liberality 
which has given to Muskingum county a court 
house worthy of her wealth and charact-er, and 
not beneath the dignity and fame which her bar 
at one time, at least, possessed. 

Like the Phoenix from its ashes, this magnifi- 
cent temple rises above the ruins of its predeces- 
sor, which seemed to grow more venerable in 
decay and dearer to memory as it vanished from 
our view. The State House of Ohio, in the days 
of her young renown, and in after years the the- 
atre in which the intellectual gladiators of the 
profession grappled each other and struggled for 
the victors wreath on bloodless fields ; the old 
court house of Muskingum county bears memo- 
ries sacred as those that cluster around the an- 
cient fields of military fame. Here, in humbler 



apartments than these proud halls in which we 
delight to-day, the Casss, the Sillimans, the 
Culbertsons, the Herricks, the Harpers, the 
Stanberys, the Stillwells, the Converses, the 
Searles and the Goddards, went down in defeat 
or rose in triumph with the vicissitudes of foren- 
sic warfare. With the memory of their intellect- 
ual conflicts will be forever associated the mental 
photograph of the old court house that witnessed 
these marvelous "battles of the giants." 

The people of Muskingum county have shown, 
by the erection of this magnificent structure, that 
they are not behind their contemporaries in the 
appliances of civilized life, nor in the culture, 
taste and love of order which mark the develop- 
ment and pi^ogress of civilized man. 

Whatever may be said derogatory to the pro- 
fession of the law, and we willingly concede and 
regret its imperfections, it must ever be regarded 
as a responsible, arduous, honorable, glorious 
calling. Its members have ever stood forth the 
champions of liberty, the terror of tyrants, the 
advocates of truth, the props of Governments, 
the refuge of the weak and the shield of inno- 
cence. As the intellectual is superior to the 
brute force in man, so is the legal guild of a na- 
tion more powerful than her bannered armies. 
Genuine civil liberty can exist in no land where 
the soldier out ranks the lawyer — where the 
laurels of Caesar do. not yeld to the tongue of 

Let us by incessant industry and devotion to 
duty continue to maintain the integrity, the dig- 
nity and the honor of our profession. Let us 
shrink, as we would shun contagion, from every 
unworthy and dishonest practice that would tend 
to degrade our grand and noble calling. Let no 
act of ours put a stain upon the escutcheon of 
the Muskingum County Bar or cast a shadow 
athwart the fair fame our predecessors at this 
bar have transmitted to us to guard and defend. 
So shall we win the respect and admiration of 
all honorable men and leave to those who shall 
come after us the legacy of a good example arid 
untarnished honor." 

Hon. M. M. Granger said: ["Muskingum 
County ; its Courts and Bar."] "The year 1876 
has accustomed us to inquiry touching the occur- 
rences of one hundred years ago. 

In the spring of 1777, as you all know, the 
British Ministry were hastening the preparation 
for the invasion of New York trom Canada by 
'the army of Burgoyne, and Washington was 
planning how to assemble north of Albany a force 
sufficient to defeat that invasion. The minds of 
the England and America of that day were in- 
tent upon Lake Champlain and the sources of 
the Hudson. Few white men then knew of the 
existence of our river Muskingum. The outer 
edge of the English settlements touched no foot 
of Ohio soil. A rude fort stood at Wheeling ; a 
more military work at Pittsburgh commanded 
the junction of the Alleghany and Monongehela 
rivers, but these outposts were separated, by 
many miles of forest and mountain, from what 
could be called the settled districts. Neither our 

city, or county, nor our State, existed one hundred 
years ago. So far as this portion of the earth 
then possessed any political limits or organiza- 
tion it formed a part of the province of Canada, 
which, according to the "Quebec Act," passed 
by the English Parliament in October, 1774, in- 
cluded all the territory north of the Ohio and 
east of the Mississippi, as well as what is now 
the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. It is 
popularly supposed that what is now Ohio be- 
longed to Virginia and was ceded by her to the 
United States. I believe, however, that an ex- 
amination of title will result in a conviction that 
Virginia had no valid title to any land north of 
the Ohio river, except such little as resulted from 
the assent of the United States to Virginia's 
"reservation" of the tract lying between the 
rivers Scioto and Little Miami, known as "The 
Virginia Military District." 

In 1758 Queen Elizabeth gave the first 
English patent for land in America to Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert, who upon establishing a planta- 
tion within six years from the date of the patent, 
was to own sole jurisdiction over the territory 
embraced within six hundred miles of said plan- 
tation. Gilbert failed to establish any settlement, 
although he tried to do so in what is now Nova 

And the first English State paper applicable to 
our Ohio and Muskingum history was a 'proc- 
lamation issued soon after this treaty, by which 
' all the country beyond the Alleghanies' was 
shut against emigrants, "from fear that remote 
colonies would claim the independence which 
their position would favor ;" as wrote Lord Bar- 
rington : "The country to the westward of our 
frontiers, quite to the Mississippi, was intended 
to be for the Indians to hunt in and inhabit." 

The 'Qubec Act,' before referred to, passed 
in October, 1774, eleven years after England 
first owned "northwest of the Ohio," as I have 
said, made the Ohio the southern boundary 01 
Canada. By the treaty of 1783 England ceded 
to the United States all the land south of the 
lakes and east of the Mississippi, and thus, prior 
to Virginia's deed of cession, our nation was the 
lawful owner of every foot of land on our side ot 
the Ohio river. Like a prudent farmer, how- 
ever, the United States, finding that Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut and Virginia claimed title to 
parts, or the whole of it, (and the claims of the 
New England States were every whit as valid as 
that of Virginia), while other States also made 
claims, took deeds of cession from all, and thus 
"quieted her title." 

Ohio and the northwest were won for the na- 
tion by national armies commanded by Wash- 
ington and his generals and by the diplomacy 01 
Franklin and Adams, supported by the patriot 
people of the United States. On July 13, 1787, 
the Continental Congress passed an ordinance 
for the government of the territory northwest 01 
the Ohio. This contained the celebrated prohi- 
bition of slavery which formed the foundation 01 
the policy of freedom. On August 7, 1789, the 
first Congress, under the constitution, substanti- 



ally re-enacted the ordinance of 1787, and organ- 
ized ' The Northwest Territory,' which was 
governed for thirteen years by Arthur St. Clair, 
an emigrant from Scotland, who had served as 
a general officer through our Revolutionary war. 
By act of April 30, 1802, a State organization, 
embracing what is now Ohio, was authorized and 
became a State on November 29, 1802. The 
State of Ohio, when admitted to the Union, con- 
tained only nine organized counties. Of these 
five, Trumbull, Jefferson, Belmont, Fairfield and 
Washington, embraced nearly all of the State 
east of the Scioto i^iver, while the other four, 
Adams, Ross, Clermont and Hamilton, included 
all of the State south of the Indian line and west 
of the Scioto, as well as a strip along the eastern 
bank of that river. The Indian line, to which I 
have referred, ran from the Tuscarawas river, at 
the point where the south line of Stark county 
crosses that stream, southwesterly along the 
north line of Knox county, making one straight 
course from the Tuscarawas to a point near the 
northeast corner of Darke county. The land 
north of the Indian line and west of the Cuyaho- 
ga, and nearly all of what is now Michigan, was 
'Wayne county,' but the inhabited part being 
north of our State line the original Wayne be- 
came a county of Michigan, and alter 1810 Ohio 
created a county of that new name. Our county 
then possessed extended limits. Beginning on 
the Indian line, at what is now tlie northeast 
corner of Knox county our west line ran along 
the east line of what are now Knox and Licking 
to the western edge of the elbow in our township 
of Hopewell, thence south through Perry county 
to the southwest corner of Clayton township. 
This point is north of the C. & M. V'. Railway, not 
far east of Wolf's Station or Junction City. 
There our south line began and ran due east 
across Morgan county, keeping about three miles 
south of our present line and on through Noble 
county to the northeast corner of Jeflerson town- 
ship, in that county. This point is about ten miles 
southeast from Caldwell. There our east line 
began and ran north to the noitheast corner of 
what is now Tuscarawas county. What is now 
the north line of Tuscarawas, and so much of the 
Indian line as crossed Holmes county, composed 
our northern boundaiy. Thus Muskingum 
county was about sixty miles long from north to 
south and about fifty-five miles wide, and con- 
tained nearly twenty-seven thousand square 

By a law taking effect March 15, 1808, Tus- 
carawas county was created ; by another, on 
March i, 1810, Guernsey county was constituted 
and our width reduced to twenty-five miles, the 
same as now. By another law, taking effect 
March i, 1810, Coshocton county was marked 
off, but remained "attached" to Muskingum un- 
til April I, 181 1. Only one other change in our 
boundaries was made — by laws taking effect 
March i, 18 18, creating Perry and Morgan." 

Judge Granger then recites what has been 
given above concerning the circuits and the first 
term of the Common Pleas Court, and that the 

earliest writ that went out from that court over 
the signature of Abel Lewis, Clerh pro iem.,-wa.s 
dated June 6, 1804 — a capias ad respondendum — . 
at the suit of Samuel Courier, husbandman, 
carter, versus James Sprague. Wyllys Silliman 
was attorney for plaintiff, and Philemon Beech- 
er, of Lancaster, appeared for the defense. The 
action was in slander ; damages claimed, $500, 
the slander charged being the use of the words, 
"You are a thief, and I can prove it." The 
declaration was in the old, verbose form. Ver- 
dict for plaintiff; damages, $3. This verdict 
was rendered in November, 1804, and, so far as 
the records show, was the first one in the county. 
Lawyer Silliman evidently was displeased with 
his client, for on November 20 — same month — 
he sued out another capias as attorney for James 
Sprague, from whom he had just recovered $3, 
and arrested his former client, Samuel Courier, 
husbandman, carter, in a suit for $100 debt. 
Lewis Cass defended this suit, and at the August 
term, 1805, obtained a verdict, and James 
Sprague had to pay the costs. 

1804 TO 1881. 

In presenting this chapter, the historian ac- 
knowledges having derived much valuable in- 
formation from the able paper on this subject by 
Hon. M. M. Granger, which, considering the 
demands upon his time, will ever be a great 
credit to his head as well as heart. And, also, 
acknowledges the fidelity of Wm. H. Cunning- 
ham, Jr., in searching among court records and 
documents, from whence the names not given by 
Judge Granger were obtained. Where more 
than one name appears the same year, they are 
given alphabetically ; and where absolute cer- 
tainty as to the time of admission was impossi- 
ble, the date given is that of their first appear- 
ance in the Common Pleas Court as attorney : 
1804. Philemon Beecher, of Lancaster, 'was 
member of Congress in 1823-9; Commis- 
sioner of the road from Lancaster to 
Zanesville February 4, 1807 ; Incorpora- 
tor of the Zanesville and Lancaster Turn- 
pike, December 25, 1816 ; Representative 
from Fairfield county in 1803, 1805, 6, 7, 8 ; 
member of Congress from Fairfield coun- 
ty in 1817-19, '23, and '25. He had an 
exte nsive practice in Zanesville. 

Lewis Cass was Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1804 to '12; member of the State 
Legislature in 1806 ; Colonel of the 38th 
Ohio in the war of 1812; promoted to 
Major General in 1813 ; Governor of the 
Territory of Michigan, Minister to 
France, United States Senator from Mich- 
igan, Secretary of State, United States 
Secretary of War in 1831. He was a son 
of Jonathan Cass, who moved to Ohio in 
1799, ^"'^ ^"^ ^^°7 "^^s appointed State 
Marshal by President Harrison. 

William W. Irwin, of Lancaster, was 
member of Congress from Fairfield in 
1829-33; incorporator of Zanesville and 


■Z'A/V£SV/ LLC. 0»/.0. 



1804. Lancaster Turnpike, December 25, 1816; 
Ohio Representative from Fairfield in 
1806-7 ; Judge of the Supreme Court in 
1816 ; Ohio Representative in the 24th 
General Assembly ; also, in the 25th and 

Wyllys Silliman, born in Strattford, Ct., 
October 8, 1777 ; edited a Federal newspa- 
per in Western Virginia in 1800 ; married 
Deborah Webster Cass, daughter of Major 
Cass, atWakatomika, near Dresden, Ohio, 
January 14, 1802 ; in 1803 chosen Presi- 
dent Judge of Common Pleas Court, and 
sat at the April term, 1804, in Muskingum 
county ; Register of the General Land 
Office in 1805 ; Commissioner of the road 
from Zanesville to the forks of the Mus- 
kingum February 4, 1807 ; helped move 
State papers from ChilHcothe to Zanes- 
ville in 18 10; Incorporator of Zanesville 
and Lancaster Turnpike Co...,jDecember 
25, 1816, and of Zanesville and Cam- 
bridge Turnpike Co. January 27, 1817 ; 
Representative in Ohio Legislature 1828 ; 
Solicitor for the United States Treasury, 
appointed by President Jackson. In 1836 
removed to Cleveland, but subsequentlv 
returned to Zanesville, where he died at 
the residence of his son-in-law, Charles 
C. Gilbert, November 13, 1842. Two 
of his sons came to the bar — George 
Wyllys practiced here several years, and 
subsequently died returning from Europe ; 
and Oscar, who removed to Missouri and 
afterwards to California. 

William Woodbridge, of Washington 
county, was Ohio Representative from 
Washington county in 1808, and State 
Senator to loth and nth General Assem- 
bly from Washington county in 181 1-12. 

1805. Samuel Herrick, born in America, Duch- 
ess county. New York, April 14, 1779, 
came to the bar June 4, 1805 ; was Prose- 
cuting Attorney of Guernsey county ' in 
1810; United States District Attorney the 
same year and in 1829 ; succeeded General 
Cass as Prosecuting Attorney of this 
county in 1.81 2, retaining all these offices ; 
was Prosecuting Attorney for Licking 
county in 1814, and during the same year 
was Brigadier General of the 4th Brigade, 
3d Division, Ohio Militia ; member of 
Congress from this District from March, 
1817, to March, 1821. He lived at " Hill 
Top," his farm, about two miles Southeast 
of Zanesville, until his death, about the 
first of March, 1852. Two of his grand- 
sons, Edward H. and Charles A., served 
as officers of volunteers in the War of the 
Rebellion. Edward came to the bar and 
located at Kansas City, Mo. 

Elijah B. Mervin was Ohio Representa- 
tive from Fairfield in 1808. 
Matthew Backus. 
Samuel Spregg. 
Samuel W. Culbertson, born in Pennsyl- 


1809. vania, was an Incorporator of the Zanes- 
ville and Cambridge Turnpike Co. Jan- 
uary 17, 1813 ; died of apoplexy in June, 

1810. Ebenezer Granger, elder brother of the 
father of Hon. M. M. Granger, was born 
in Suffield, Conn., July 6, 1781 ; studied 
under Gideon Granger, Postmaster Gen- 
eral ; July 31, 1815, married Eliza Sea- 
man, sister of the half-blood to Henry 
Stanbery ; after an active practice of ten 
years died September 17, 1822. To him 
was assigned the duty of composing the 
epitaph of John Mclntire. It was in- 
scribed on the plain stone that first mark- 
ed the grave, and reads as follows : "Sa- 
cred to the memory of John Mclntire, who 

. departed this life July 29, 1815, aged fifty- 
six years. He was born at Alexandria, 
Virginia ; laid out the town of Zanesville 
in 1800, of which he was the patron and 
father. He was a member of the Con- 
vention which formed the Constitution of 
Ohio. A kind husband, an obliging 
neighbor, punctual in his engagements, 
of liberal mind and benevolent disposi- 
tion, his death was sincerely lamented." 

1812. Alexander Harper: Born in Ireland, 
February 5, 1786 ; died December i, i860 ; , 
was a representative in the Ohio Legis 
lature in 1820-21, and resigned, when 
William Blocksom was appointed to fill 
the vacancy ; was President Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas from 1822 to 
1836; member of Congress from 1837 to 
1839, ^"^ fro'n ^^43 t° '47» and from 1851 

1814. E. B. Mervin. Luke Walpole was County 
Commissioner from April to September, 

181 7. Appleton Downer: Member of the Ohio 
Legislature in 1831. 

Charles B. Goddard : Born in Plainfield, 
Conn. ; his father was Calvin Goddard, 
a Judge of the Supreme Court of that 
State. Charles B. came to Ohio in 1817, 
and was admitted to the bar in Gallipolis. 
Settling in Zanesville, he married Harriet 
Munro Convers, daughter of Daniel Con- 
vers, July 6, 1820 ; was representative in 
the Ohio Legislature in 1838-9, and State 
Senator from 1845 to '48, and Speaker in 
1847-8 ; was Major General of Ohio Mili- 
tia, Trustee of Mclntire School Fund, 
President of the Zanesville Canal and 
Manufacturing Company, and one of the 
first directors of the Zanesville Atheneum. 
John C. Stockton was Clerk of the Su- 
preme and Common Pleas Courts of this 
county in 181 2-17, Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1818 to '20, and representative in the 
Ohio Legislature in 1827. 

1818. Truman Beecher. 

Thomas Ewing, ("Old Tom"), of Lan- 
caster : State Senator in the 29th General 




1818. Arius Nye removed to Marietta and was 
President Judge of Common Pleas Court, 
Washington county ; representative from 

. Washington county in 1827, '28, '30, 32, 
and 1840, being Senator in the 30th Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

1819. John Doland, (Harper & Doland), re- 
moved to Somerset, Perry county, in 1824. 

1819. Richard Stillwell was Prosecuting Attot- 
ney from 1820 to '37 ; one of the first di- 
rectors of the Atheneum ; Presiden' Judge 
of the Common Pleas Court from 1847 to 
'51 ; Judge February 19, '52, to Septem- 
ber 16, '54 ; a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1850-51 ; resumed 
the practice of law in 1854 "^'^^^ John C. 
Hazlett, his son-in-law. He was born in 
Bucks county, Penn., September 2, 1797, 
and died in Zanesvilte February 2, 1862. 

1820. William A. Adams : One of the first 
directors of Zanesville Atheneum in 1827 ; 
Master Commissioner October 23, 1834 > 
left Zanesville in 1847, and died in Cov- 
ington, Kentucky, in 1879. ^^ ^^^ ^ 
skillful taxidermist, and by nature an 
artist of rare ability, as evidenced by a 
picture of Sir William Blackstone, painted 
on ordinary plastering in a frame house in 
Newark about 45 years ago. Judge Searl 
preserved this painting and it hangs in 
Hon. John O'Neill's office. 

William Carhart. 

Charles C. Gilbert married the daughter 
of Wyllys Silliman ; died November 18, 

Isaac Parish was representative in the 
36th General Assembly, from Guernsey 
county, in 1837 ; member of Congress 
from the same district from 1839 to 1845. 
William Stanbery, long a resident of 
Newark, an elder brother of the half blood 
of Henry Stanbery, was Attorney Gen- 
eral of the United States ; a member of 
the Ohio Senate (from Licking county) in 
1824 arid 1825. 

1 82 1. Peter Odlin removed. to Dayton ; was rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly, from 
Perry county, in 1830; was representative 
of Montgomery county in 1862-4, and 
Senator from the same district in 1870. 
John B. Orton, in 1831-2, was State Sen- 
ator from Perry and Morgan counties. 

1822. David Spangler removed to Coshocton 
county, and was member of Congress in 

1823. James M. Bell, of Guernsey county, was 
a member of the General Assembly in 
1826, '7 % '9, and '30, and Speaker dur- 
ing the last session, and member of Con- 
gress in 1823. 

Corrington W.Searle ;born in Wyoming 
Valley, Penn. ; read law with Wyllys Sil- 
liman ; was President Judge of Court of 
Common Pleas from 1836 to 1847, and 
from 185 1 to 1852, inclusive; Judge from 
October 19, '55 to October 25, '56; was a 

resident of Newark when elected Judge, 
and then moved hither. He died Decem- 
ber I, 1865. 
Benjamin Reeve. 
1825. Leonidas L. Hamline was also a Bishop 
of the M. E. Church in 1844. 
George James. 

Joshua Mathiot ; a member of Congress 
from 1841-3. He married a daughter of 
Samuel Culbertson, and moved to Newark 
in 1835. where he died in 1849. 
Henry Stanbery was Attorney General of 
Ohio from 1846 to '52, and Attorney Gen- 
eral of the United States from 1866 to 
1868 ; died in Cincinnati, O., in 1881. 
Noah H. Swayne, of Coshocton, was rep- 
resentative in the 28th General Assembly, 
from Guernsey county, in 1829, and ap- 
pointed Associate Judge of the United 
States Supreme Court in 1862. 

1827. ,AJexander S. B. Culbertson: Ohio rep- 

resentative in 1827. 

Hocking H. Hunter, of Lancaster, was 
elected Judge of the Supreme Court, but 
resigned before taking his seat. 

1828. John H. Keith: Representative in the 
Ohio Legislature in 1832-3, and Speaker 
of the House at the 32d session, 

George Wyllys Silliman was examined 
December 19, but was not admitted to the 
bar until the 22d, on account of his age. 
William R. Putnam, of Marietta. 
George W. Jackson, William P. Moore- 
head, John R. Mulvaney, and John T. 

George H. Flood was Minister to the 
Texan Republic ; Clerk of the House of 
Representatives in 1832, '3, '6; Ohio rep- 
resentative for Licking county in 1838-9. 

Charles Stetson. 
Charles C. Convers, son of Daniel Con- 
vers : Born in Zanesville July 26, 1810 ; 
studied imder C. B. Goddard (brother-in- 
law) ; admitted in 1831 or '2 ; of the firm 
of Goddard & Convers ; was State Sena- 
tor in 1849-50, and Speaker in 1850 ; Judge 
of Common Pleas Court October 20, 1854, 
to October 19, 1855 ; died September 10, 
1833. George Nelson ; Virtuton Rich. . 

Washington Van Hamm was Judge of 
Common Pleas Court, at Cincinnati, from 
1857 to 1862. 

Wyllys Buell was Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1837 to 1839. 

C. R. Hendee ; Joseph Morehead (the 
latter was associated with the "Muskingum 
Messenger" in 1837). 

Isaac Parish. 
1835. Edmund C. Cusack. 

John Evans. 

J. E. Hanna, of Morgan county, was 
born in Westmoreland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, Dec. 19, 1805 ; moved to Harrison 
county 1815 ; read law in '23 ; admitted at 
New Philadelphia, September 27, 1825 ; 






located at McConnellsville in '26 ; was 
President Judge of the Common Pleas 
Court in 1840, and Judge Sept. 16, '54, to 
Oct. 20, '54, and Representative in the 
37th General Assembly from Morgan 

C. R. Hendee. 

Elijah Hay ward was Judge of the Su- 
preme Court, Hamilton county, Ohio, in 
1830 to 1845, and resigned February i6th 
of that year ; was Representative in Ohio 
Legislature in 1827-8; in 185 1 was State 

William Kennon was member of Con- 
gress from Belmont county, and W. K., 
Jr., filled the same office in 1847. 
Josiah Lovell ; J. McMahan. 

1836. James Boyle. 
Matthew Gaston. 

Napoleon A. Guille was Prosecuting At- 
torney from 1839 t° 1851, and in 1881 the 
oldest practitioner at the bar. 

Cornelius Moore was Ohio Representa- 
tive from Guernsey county in 1849. 

CydnorB. Thompkins, was Member of 
Congress from Morgan county from 1857 
to 1861. 

1837. John Dillon. 
Welles Hawes. 
WilHam T. McKibben. 

James R. Stanbery was State Senator 
from Licking county in 1864, 
W. D. Wilson. 

1838. W. W. Backus. 

Cautious C. Covey was Prosecuting At- 
torney from April to November, 1839, ^^'^ 
when, in 185 1, Edwin Conner received 
the certificate of election as Senator from 
Washington and Morgan counties. Covey 
contested the election and the seat was 
awarded to him. He was killed by the 
explosion of the steamer " Buckeye 
Belle," near Beverly, November 10, 1852. 
John W. Foster. 
I. B. B. Hale. 
Andrew R. Jackson. 
G. B. Smythe. 

Royal T.Spr ague, afterwards Chief Jus- 
tice of Supreme Court of California. 

Philadelphus Van Trump was member 
of Congress from Fairfield county in 1867 
to 1873. 

Samuel Chapman, one of the editors of 
"Citizens Press," in i860. 

1839. Camp. 

C. A. Harper. 

James M. Love ; became U. S. District 
Judge in Iowa. 
Charles Matthews. 
Chauncey A. Pardey. 

1840. W. B. Bascom. 

Nathan Evans was Member of Congress 
from 1847 to '51. 
S. D. King. 
James Parker. 
Charles Whittlesey. 

1841. W. B.Abbott. 

Franklin Gale was Master Commissioner, 
appointed November 18, 1846, viceT. M. 

James Henderson, State Senator in 1839- 

J. B. Humrickhouse. 
P. S. Slevin. 
William Spencer. 

Hugh J. Jewett was State Senator in 
1854-5 ; member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1868-9 ; member of Congress 
from Franklin County District in 1868-9 
and 1873-5 ; President and Receiver of 
the Erie Railway Company in 1870. 

1842. Henry Beard : Deputy Clerk Court Com- 
mon Pleas Nov. 2, 1842 ; 1845 to '48 editor 
of Zanesville Aurora. 

Thomas Drake : Master Commissioner 
Nov. 30, 1842, tor three years ; reappoint- 
ed Nov. 18, 1845, and resigned November 
18, 1846. 
John Ferguson. 
J. B. Longley. 

George W. Manypenny was Clerk of 
Common Pleas 1841-1846 ; member of 
Board of Public Works (Democratic) 
1850 ; resigned in 1853 ; appointed Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs in 1880. 
Cooper K. Watson : member of Congress, 
Seneca District, 1855 ; Judge of Common 
Pleas, Sandusky County District, 1876 ; 
member of Constitutional Convention 


1843. Joseph White. 

Howard Copland. 

David H. Lyman was editor of the "Ohio 

Republican," November 11, 1845, and 

changed the name to the "Courier" ; 

March 31, 1846, issued a tri-weekly, and 

June 21, '46 a daily "Courier." 

Thomas W. Peacock, April 13, i860, 

became editor of the "Aurora." 

John Percy ; Charles R. Rhodes. 

John R. Taylor. 

Augustus P. Blocksom. 

1844. Ezra B. Eastman : October 30, '50, ap- 
pointed Master Commissioner for three 

John O'Neill was Prosecuting Attorney 
1853 to 1856, and Member of Congress 
from 1863 to 1865. 

Frederick A. Seborn : Taught Public 
School from 1841-44 ; County School 
Examiner from 1847 to 1857 ; Justice of 
the Peace from 1849 to '52 ; re-elected ; 
served till '53, when he moved out of the 
township, and thus vacated his commis- 
sion ; was licensed local preacher in 1847 ; 
ordained Elder in the M. E. Church in 
1856 ; Secretary of Muskingum Agricul- 
tural Society from 1859 ^o 1869. 

1845. Theodore Convers ; Edmund Brush. 
Daniel Convers Goddard : Appointed 
Master Commissioner for three years, No- 
vember 28, 1845. 








185 1. 


James R. Harper ; R. Hickman. 
T. J. Maginnis : State Senator in 1864-5 ; 
died 1881. 
Rowland D. Noble. 
T. Cleveland. 
Samuel Cochran. 

Eli A. Spencer: State Senator in 1856-7. 
William H. Ball was editor of the Zanes- 
ville Courier in 1850; Prosecuting Attor- 
ney in 185 1-3, and resigned ; was Colonel 
of the I22d Ohio; resigned February 3, 
1865 ; commission as Brigadier by Brevet 
dates Oct. 19, 1864 ! member of the Legis- 
lature in 1872 ; Judge of Court of Common 
Pleas August 3, 1879. 
E. A. Bratton. 
Alfred Brown. 

J. M. Buel : The latter was associated 
withW. H. Ball et al. editing the Courier 
in 1850. 

W. H. Bascom ; Solomon A. Lewis. 
Lucius P. Marsh was Judge of Common 
Pleas Oct. 25, 1856, to Feb. 9, 1862, and 
from August 3. '74, to August 2, '79. 
Frederick W. Wood, of McConnellsville, 
was Judge of Common Pleas August 3, 
'69, to August 3, '74. 

Samuel S. Cox, born inZanesville Oct. i, 
1824 ; appointed Deputy Clerk of Common 
Pleas at the age of fourteen ; graduated 
at Brown University in 1846 ; appeared at 
the bar in 1849 '■> member of Congress 
from Columbus District 1857 to 1865 ; 
member of Congress from New York 
187 1 ; re-elected in 1880. 
A. O. WagstafF, partner in the Zanesville 
"Aurora" Nov. 12, '39, one year. 
Jerome Buckingham ; Thomas J. Taylor. 
William W. Johnson, Judge of Common 
Pleas, Lawrence County District, 1858 to 
1867 ; Judge on Supreme Court Commis- 
sion 1872, Judge of Supreme Court Oct. 

Moses M. Granger : 14th, May 1861, Cap- 
tain 1 8th U. S. Infantry, resigned June 
21, 1862; loth September, 1862, Major 
i22d O. V. I. ; 1st May, 1863, Lieutenant 
Colonel O. V. I. ; 19th Oct., 1864, Brevet 
Col. U. S. Infantry; i6th Dec, 1864, re- 
signed as Lieutenant Colonel ; April 15th, 
1865, City Solicitor Zanesville; August 
15th, 1866, resigned; January i, 1866, 
Prosecuting Attorney of Muskingum 
county ; Dec. loth, 1866, resigned ; Dec. 
loth, 1866, Judge of Common Pleas Court 
to fill vacancy; Feb. 9th, 1867, J"dge 
Common Pleas Court, full term ; Oct. 9th, 
1871, resigned; Oct. 22d, 1872, Reporter 
Supreme Court ; resigned Feb. 17th, 1874. 
Johji C. Hazlett was Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1856 to 1861 ; Captain in the war of 
the Rebellion, 1861. 

Robert W. P. Muse was editor of the 
Zanesville "Aurora" in 1853 ; Captain in 
Union army 1861 ; Probate Judge from 
1864 to 1870. 







John P. Ross, Hiram Skinner; Abner 
Starkey and Charles K. Wright. 
R. D. Chalfant. 

John Haynes was Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1861 to 1864. 

John Q^ Lane, appointed Colonel of the 
97th Ohio, Sept. 2, 1862 ; mustered out 
with his regiment June 12, 1865 ; his 
Brevet Brigadier 'General's commission 
dates March 13, 1865. 
Homer Thrall. 
John H. Ash; J. Belford. 
Alexander S. Cox was Deputy Clerk Oct. 
31, 1848. 

Robert H. Gilmore, John D. Martin, 
James A. Parker and Seth Weldy. 
Mordecai Bartley, Henry C. Brown, 
Daniel D. T. Convers, J. Delafield Du- 
Bois, W. C. Gaston. 

Charles C. Goddard, born March 26, 
1836 ; admitted to the bar April 15, 1857 ; 
graduated Havard Law School, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., July 1861 ; appointed Capt. 
17th U. S. Infantry Sept. 20, 1861 ; re- 
signed May 26, 1864 ; appointed Colonel 
and aid-de-camp on staff of Gov. T. L. 
Young, January, 187 1 ; (has the finest law 
library in the city;) U. S. Commissioner. 
Ezra E. Evans, Judge of Common Pleas 
Court in '62-66. 
Thomas Potts, not in practice. 
John A. Blair, Colonel of the 13th Ohio 
in 1848 ; in 1852 was one of the Zanes- 
ville incorporators of C. W. & Z. R. R. 
and one of its Directoi-s, and a Director of 
the Central Ohio R. R.. and in 1856-8 a 
member of the Legislature. 
W. W. Badger. 

Daniel B. Gary was Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1872 to 1874. 
Josiah Given. 

Wm. D. Hamilton, Capt. 32d Ohio in 
1861 ; Col. 9th Ohio, and ffl^de Brevet 
Brigadier "for gallant and meritorious' 
services rendered during the campaign 
ending in the surrender of the insurgent 
armies of Johnston and Lee. 
Wm. R. Henderson, Post Master at Dres- 
den in 1880 ; not in practice. 
Peleg Bunker. 

Daniel B. Linn was editor of the Zanes- 
ville"Signar'in 1864-5 ;State Senator from 
1866-70 ; member of the State Board of 
Eqiialization in 1871. 
Gilbert D. Munson, Wm. Hall, W. L. 

Edward Ball was Sheriff" from 1839 t° '43 ! 
Representative in Ohio Legislature in 
1845-9, '68 and '70 ; editor of Zanesville 
'"Courier" Oct. '49 ; member of Congress 
from 1853 to 1857. 

Stephen A. Guthrie, Registrar in Bank- 
ruptcy ; incumbent. 

Albert W. Train, Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1866 to 1868. 



1861. JohnW. Beall. 
John G. Chandler. 

Wm.'Ewing, editor of the "Aurora" from 
July 9, '63 to Feb. 4, '64. 
George Randall. 

1862. Solon Fisk ; John G. Madden. 
Benjamin Power, of Morgan county, here 
in '72, now in Dresden. 

1863. Wm. A. E. Rhodes, here in 1873. 
James T. Irvine, editor of "Signal" ; mem- 
ber of City Council in 1881. 

Milton I. Southa,rd, Prosecuting Attorney 
from 1868 to '72 ; member of Congress 
from 1873 to 1879. 

1864. Alfred E. Fillmore. 

Lyman J. Jackson was Prosecuting Attor- 
ney from 1864 to 1866 ; member of the 
Commission on the Constitution from 
Perry county in 1873, and Senator from 
this District in 1879-80. 
William Okey. 

1865. Fenton Bagley, Prosecuting Attorney in 
I 880- I. 

Chas. W. Chandler. 
John W. King. 
James E. Palmer. 

1866. Edgar W. Allen was Clerk of Common 
Pleas Court in 1870-3. 

Andrew L. Pierce, not in practice. 
Geo. L. Phillips. 

W. W. Pyle, editor of the "Times." 
Frank H. Southard, appointed Commis- 
sioner of the Muskingum County R'y Co. 
in 188 1. 

1867. Charles A. Beard. 
Albion J. Andrews. 

1868. Johri B. Sheppard, member of the Legis- 
lature in 1874-5 ; Allen Miller. 
Alexander Van Hamm ; C. R. Barclay. 

1869. B. M. Dilley, Charles Durban, John Ma- 
son, Chas. E. Randall. 

1870. Wm. C. Blocksom, (son of Augustus P.) 
City Solicitor in 187^-9 ; Mayor of Zanes- 
ville in 1879-80. 

Reuben Morgan was Probate Judge in 
1873-5 ; resigned March 24, 1875. 

187 1. John R. Stonesipher was Prosecuting 
Attorney in 1878-80. 

1872. Orlando C. Marsh, (son of Lucius P.) 
appointed Deputy Auditor Nov., 1880. 
George E. Porter. 

Lileston F. Spangler, Secretary Mus- 
kingum Agricultural Society. 
A, H. Stillwell. 
Charles M. Vandenbark. 

1873. Herman F. Achauer, member of the Leg- 
islature in 1877-8. 

Henry A. Axline, Assistant Adjutant 
General in 1 880-1. 

Charles H. Blair ; Eugene J. Brown. 
, Henry L. Korte, Probate Judge in 18^0-3 ; 
appointed March 24, 1875 to fill vacancy 
vice Morgan ; elected in 1876 ; re-elected 
in 1878. 
William A. Taylor, not in practice. 

1874. Joseph W. Garside. 

1874. Henry Clay Van Voorhis. 
i'875. Henry S. Crozier. 

John Hollingsworth. 

Robert N. C. Wilson. 

Frank B. Williamson, the only colored 

member of the bar. 

1876. Joshua T. Crew. 
Robert H. McFarland. 
Frederick S. Gates. 

Charles F. Waller ; died soon after being 

1877. WiUiamV. Cox. 
John W. Martin. 
Henry S. Moody. 

Henry R. Stanbery, City Solicitor in 

John M. Stout, Ohio Representative from 
Monroe county in 1858-60, not in prac- 

1878. "Alf" H. Evans. 
James B. Cox. 

John A. Green, City Clerk in 1880-1. 
Frank M. Ford. 
Arthur J. Sheppard. 
Edward C. Wortman. 

1879. Andrew F. Armstrong, now in Iowa. 
Levi Edward Dodd. 

Norwood S. Chandler. 

Wm. H. Cunningham, Jr., City Solicitor 

in 1881. 

Wm. J. Finley. 

George C. Thompson. 

1880. Frank A. Durban. 
Thomas J. McDermott. 
Arthur C. Israel. 

1881. Wm. H. Johnson. 
A. A. Frazier. 


Ohio has had three Constitutional Conventions. 
Muskingum county was, in 1802, a part of Wash- 
ington county. John Mclntire was one of the 
delegates who sat in the convention that year, 
representing Washington county, while his resi- 
dence was here. 

Those who represented Muskingum county in 
the other two conventions were : 
1850-1. David Chambers and Richard Still- 
1873-4. Charles C. Russell and Daniel Van 


[The districts have been changed each ten 

1803-1813 — Jeremiah Morrow. 
1813-1817 — James Caldwell. 
1817-1821 — Samuel Herrick. 
1821-1823 — David Chambers. 
1823-1829 — Philemon Beecher. 
i829-i833^William W. Irvin. 
1 833-1 835— Robert Mitchell. 
1837-1839 — Alex. -Harper. 
1839- 1 84 1 — Jonathan Taylor. 
1841-1843 — Joshua Mathoit. 



1843-1847 — Alex. Harper. 
1847-185 1 — Nathan Evans. 
1851-1853 — Alex. Harper. 
1853-1857— Edward Ball. 
1857-1861— C. B. Thompkins. 
1861-1863— Wm. P. Cutler. 
1863-1865— John O'Neill. 
1865-1869-^Columbus Delano. 
1869-1873 — George W. Morgan. 
1873-1879-^MiIton I. Southard. 
1879-1883— Gibson Atherton. 


We have been represented in the Senate of 
the Ohio Legislature by the following gentle- 
men ; 

Joseph Buell and Hallem Hempsted in 1805 ; 
district composed of Athens, Gallia, Washington 
and Muskingum counties. * 

Hallem ■ Hempsted and Leonard Jewett in 
1806 ; district same. 

Leonard Jewett and John Sharp in 1807, dis- 
trict same 

Robert McConnell in 1808-9, Muskingum and 
Tuscarawas counties. 

Robert McConnel in 1810-11, Muskingum 
and Tuscarawas counties. 

Robert McConnell in 1812-14, Muskingum 

Ebenezer Buckingham in 1815-16, Musking- 
um county. 

George Jackson in 1817-18, Muskingum 

Samuel Sullivan in 1819, Muskingum county, 

John Matthews in 1820, Muskingum county. 

Thomas Ijams in 1821-2, Muskingum county. 

Ebenezer Buckingham in 1823-4, Muskingum 

Wyllys Silliman in 1825-6, Muskingum 

John Hamm in 1827-9, Muskingum county, 

James Ragnet in 1830, Muskingum county. 

Ezekiel S. Cox in 183 1-2, Muskingum county. 

Thomas Anderson in 1833-4, Muskingum 

Samuel J. Cox in 1835-8, Muskingum county. 

James Henderson in 1839-42, Muskingum 

David Chambers in 1843-4, Muskingum 

Chas. B. Goddard in 1845-1-8, Muskingum 

Chas. C. Convers in 1849-50, Muskingum 

William E. Finck in 1862-3, Muskingum and 
Perry counties. 

Hugh J. Jewett, 1854-5. 

Eli A. Spencer in 1856-7, Muskingum county. 

Ezekiel Vanatain 1858-9, Muskingum county. 

Chas. W. Potwin in 1860-1, Muskingum 

William E. Finck in 1852-3, Muskingum 

Thos J. Maginnis, 1864-5, Muskingum county. 

Daniel B. Linn in 1866-9, Muskingum county. 

William H. Holden in 1870-3, Muskingum 

Elias Ellis in 1874-7, Muskingum county. 

Lyman J. Jackson in 1878, Muskingum 


1805. Elijah Hatch, James Clark, James E. 
Phelps, district composed of Athens, 
Gallia, Muskingum and Washington 

806. Levi Barker, Lewis Cass,William H. ; 

district same. 

807. Joseph Palmer and John Matthews, dis- 
trict same. 

808. David J. Marple and James Clark, dis- 
trict Muskingum and Tuscarawas coun- 

809. David J. Marple and George Jackson, 
district Muskingum and Tuscarawas 

810. George Jackson and David J. Marple; 
Muskingum, Tuscarawas and Guernsey 

811. George Jackson and William Frame, 
Muskingum, Tuscarawas and Guernsey 

812. John Hamm and Stephen Smith, Mus- 
kingum county. 

813. Steven C. Smith and Joseph K. McCune, 
Muskingum county. 

814. David Chambers and Stephen C. Smith, 
Muskingum county. 

815. Robert Mitchell and Josepk K. McCune, 
Muskingum county. 

816. Robert Mitchell and Robert McConnell, 
Muskingum county. 

817. Christian Spangler and Thomas Nisbet, 
Muskingum county. 

818. James Hampson and John Reynolds, 
Muskingum county. 

819. John Reynolds and. Robert McConnell, 
Muskingum county. 

820. Alexander Harper and Robert K. Mc- 
Cune, Muskingum county. 

82 1 . Alexander Harper and William H . Moore, 
Muskingum county. 

822. William H. Moore and Nathan C. Find- 
lay, Muskingum county. 

823. John C. Stockton and Joseph K. MCcune, 
Muskingum county. 

824. Thomas L. Pierce and Thorhas Flood, 
Muskingum county. 

825. Thomas L. Pierce and James Hampson, 
Muskingum county. 

826. Thomas Flood and James Hampson, Mus- 
kingum county. 

827. James Hampson and John C. Stockton, 
Muskingum county. 

828. Wyllys Silliman and David Chambers, 
Muskingum county. 

829. Littleton Adams and James Ragnet, Mus- 
kingum county. 



1830. Thomas Maxfield and Littleton Adams, 
I Muskingum county. 

183 1 . Appleton Downer and David Peairs, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1832. William Cooper and John H. Keith, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1833. John H. Keith and William Cooper, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1834. Aaron Robinson and W. H. Moore, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1835. Aaron Robinson and W. H. Moore, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1836. David Chambers, Muskingum, county. 

1837. David Chambers and David K. McCune, 
Muskingum county. 

1838. David Chambers and Charles B. Goddard, 
Muskingum county. 

1839. Abraham Pollock and George W. Adams, 
Muskingum county. 

1840. Abraham Pollock and John Watkins, 
Muskingum county. 

1841. David Chambers and Charles Bowen, 
Muskingum county. 

1842. David Chambers and Charles Bowen, 

1843. Joseph Fisher and Davis Johns, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1844. Davis Johns, Muskingum county. 

1845. Edward Ball and John Trimble, Mus- 
kingum county. 

1846. John Trimble, Muskingum county. 

1847. A. L. B. Culbertson and Abel Randall. 
Muskingum county. 

1848. Abel Raadall, Muskingum county. 

1849. Edward Ball, Muskingum county. 

1850. William Morgan, Muskingum county. 
1852. William Morgan and William C. Filler. 
1854. John Metcalf and Samuel McCann. 
1856. John A. Blair and John Crooks. 

1858. John A. Blair and Lewis Frazee. 

i860. Daniel Van Voorhis, EHsha Trimble, and 

Townsend Gore. 
1862. Thadeus A. Reamy and Jacob Glessner. 
1864. James Ga,llogly and Elijah Little. 
1866. A. W. Shipley and Perry; Wiles. 
1868. Edward Ball and H. J. Jewett. 
1870. Edward Ball and Elias Ellis. 
1872. William H. Ball and Elias ElHs. 
1874. James A. Moorehead and John B. Shep- 

1876. Harvey L. Cogsil and Lamech Rambo.. 
1878. Herman F. Achauer. 
1880. Robert Price. 

The following is a list of county officers, from 
the beginning : 


The office of County Auditor was created by 
an act of the General Assembly, passed Febru- 
ary 8, 1820. It grew out of the office of Clerk 
to the Board of County Commissioners. Its 
duties have since been continuously multiplied 
and enlarged, under successive acts of the Leg- 
islature, until they are now peculiarly numerous, 
difficult, and complicated. The names of the 
several County Auditors are as follows : 

John Burwell, from March, 1821, to October, 

1823, when he resigned to take the office of 

John W. Spry, from October, 1823, to March, 
1845 ; nearly twenty-two years. 

Richard L Peach, from March, 1845, to March, 

Imri Richards, from March, 1855, to March, 


Bernard Van Home, from March, 1857, to 

March, 1859. 

Jesse Atwell, from March, 1859, to March, 

Gemmill Arthur, from March, 1861, to March, 

Caleb D. Caldwell, from March, 1865 ; died 
September 6, 187 1. 

Imri Richards, from September, 1871, to No- 
vember, 1871. 

Andrew P. Stults, from November, 1871, to 
November, 1875. 

James T. Irvine, from November, 1875, to 
November, 1880. 

Samuel Oldham, November 1880 — present in- 


Jacob Crooks, from June, 1807, to June, i8ri. 

W. Scott, from June, 1811, to June, 1812. 

Robert Mitchell, from June, 1812, to June, 

James Vickers, from June, 1813, to June, 1817. 

William Craig, from June, 1817, to June 1818. 

John Russell, from June, 1818, to June, 1820. 

William Hunter, from June, 1820, to June, 

Daniel Brush, from June, 1822, to June, 1825. 

John Houck, from June, 1825, to June, 1826. 

Silas Robinson, from June, 1826, to June, 1827. 

The office was then abolished. 


On the evidence of our oldest inhabitant, 
Stephen Reeve, Esq., who leased school land of 
them in 1804, our first County Commissioners 
were William Montgomery, Joseph F. Munro, 
and Christian Spangler. The records show : 

Isaac Evans, to December, 1807. 

Robert Speer, to December, 1807. 

William Whitten, to December, 1808. 

to December, 1809. 

William Newell, - 

Jacob Gomber, from December, 1867, to De- 
cember, 1809. 

Daniel Stillwell, from December, 1808, to De- 
cember, 181 1. 

Thomas Nisbet, from December, 1809, to De- 
cember, 181 2. 

George Reeve, from April, 18 10, to Decem- 
ber, 1810. 

John Willey, from December, 1810, to April, 
1814 (died). 

Benjamin Spry, from December, 1811, to Sep- 
tember, 1814. 

William H. Moore, from December, 181 2, to 
December, 1818. 

Luke Walpole, from April 1814, to September, 



James L. Fleming, from December, 1814, to 
October, 1819. 

William Hunter, from December, 1814, to No- 
vember, 1817. 

Simeon Sims, from November, 181 7, to No- 
vember, 1820. 

Thomas Flood, from December, 1818, to No- 
vember, 1820. 

John Robertson, from October, 1819, to De- 
cember, 1825. 

Jared Brush, from November, 1820, to Decem- 
ber, 1824. 

James JeiFries, from March, 1821, to Decem- 
ber, 1821. 

Israel Robinson, from December, i82i,to De- 
cember, 1826. 

John Handle, from December, 1824, to De- 
cember, 1830. 

Joseph Springer, from December, 1825, to De- 
cember, 1827. 

Absalom Roberts, from December, 1826, to 
December, 1829. 

William Hamilton, from December, 1827, to 
November, 1831. 

Isaac Helmick, from December, 1829, to No- 
vember, 1 83 1. 

Israel Robinson, from December, 1830, to No- 
vember, 1839. 

Samuel McCann, from November, 183 1, to 
November, 1834. 

Lyle Fulton, from November, 183 1 , to October, 

John Adams, from November, 1834, ^o ^^^ 
death in 1837. 

Samuel McCann, December, 1837, to Octo- 
ber, 1838. 

John Thompson, from October, 1838, to De- 
cember, 1841. 

Beverly Lemert, from December, 1838, tc Oc- 
tober, 1840. 

John Goshen, from December, 1839, ^o ^^- 
cember, 1845. 

Robert Boggs, from October, 1840, to Decem- 
ber, 1843. 

Littleton Moore, from December, 1841, to No- 
vember, 1844. 

Joshua Bennett, from December, 1843, to De- 
cember, 1846. 

Henry Wheeler, from November, 1844, to De- 
cember, 1847. 

Mahlon Sims, from December, 1845, to Octo- 
ber, 185 1. 

Stephen Reeve, from December, 1846, to De- 
cember, 1852. 

William Johnson, from December, 1847, to 
November, 1850. 

James Carnes, from November, 1850, to No- 
vember, 1853. 

Joseph R. Thomas, from October, 185 1, to De- 
cember, 1857. 

Leviris M. Pierson, from December, 1852, to 
December, 1855. 

Samuel Clark, from November, 1853, to De- 
cember, 1856. 

Abel Randall, from December, 1855, to De- 
cember, 1858. 

Jonathan Swank, from December, 1856, to 
November, 1859. 

Hugh Madden, from Decembe, 1857, to No- 
vember, i860. 

John Baughman, from December, 1858, to 
December, 1861. 

E. E. Fillmore, frort November, 1859, ^o No- 
vember, 1862. 

William T. Tanner, from November, i860, to 
February, 1864. 

George W. Slater, from December, 1861, to 
December, 1867. 

William Pringle, from November, 1862, to 
December 1865. 

E. E. Fillmore from February, 1864, to De- 
cember, 1869. 

J. B. Milhous, from December, 1865, to De- 
cember, 1868. 

E. L. Lemert, from December, 1867, to De- 
cember, 1870. 

Robert Silvey, from December, 1868, to De- 
cember, 1871. 

Austin Berry, from December, 1868, resigned 
February, 1870. 

WilHam Hall, from February, 1870, resigned 
December, i874_. 

Daniel Hattan, from January, 1871, to Decem- 
ber, 1872. 

Leonard N. Stump, from December, 187 1, to 
December, 1874. 

John Sims, from December, 1872, to Decem- 
ber, 1878. 

Thomas Griffith, from December, 1874, to De- 
cember, 1877. 

Leonard N. Stump, from December, 1874, ^o 
December 1875. 

William T. Tanner, from December, 1875, to 
December, 1879. 

Jefferson Van Home, from December, 1877, to 
December, 1880. 

Howard Copland, from December, 1878, to 
December, 1881. 

John Crooks, from December, 1879, to De- 
cember, 1882. 

March, 17, 1880, Jefferson Van Home resigned 
and Harvey Darlinton was appointed in his 


Elijah Beall, to December, 1808. 

Benjamin Tupper, from December, 1808, to 
December, 181 1. 

Robert Mitchell, from December, 181 1 , to June 

William Craig, from June, 1812, to September, 

George Reynolds, from September, 1814, to 
January, 1815. 

James Perry, from February, 1815, to Feb- 
ruary, 1812 (when the office was abolished.) 


It seems that conve_yances of land lying in 
Muskingum continued to be recorded in the office 
of the Washington County Recorder until April 
17, 1806. From 1806 to 1 831, the Recorder was 




appointed by the Court of Common Pleas, and, 
as the list shows, the clerk of the court was 
usually the Recorder. The list is as follows : 

Abel Lewis, April 17, 1805, to February 
13, 1810. 

George Reeve, February 23, 1810, to April, 

David Chambers, April, 1817, to November, 

John Peters, November, 1820, to November 
22, 1821. 

Ezekiel T. Cox, November 22, 1821, to Octo- 
ber, 1830. 

In 1829 a law for the election of a Recorder by 
the people was passed, but it did not affect the 
terms of those then in office. Mr. Cox's term 
expired early in 1831, but the commissioners of 
the county, under said law, appointed him to 
serve until after the election of that year. At 
that election Anthony Wilkins was chosen. 

Anthony Wilkins, October, 1831, to October. 

Wm. T. McKibben, October, 1840, to Sep- 
tember, 1841. He died. 

Imri Richards, September, 1841, to Novem- 
ber, 1 841. 

John Hilliard, November, 1841, to January, 

Joseph P. Huston, January, 185 1, to January, 

Horatio W. Chandler, January, 1854, to Jan- 
uary, 1857. 

George W. Ritze, January, 1857, to October, 
i860. He died. 

Ephraim P. Abbott, October, i860, to Octo- 
ber 1 86 1. 

John J. Ingalls, October, 1861, to January 

Jesse H. Mitchell, January, 1868, to January, 

William H. Cunningham, January, 1871, to 
January, 1877. 

David Zimmer, January, 1877, to January, 


George Beymer, 1804, 1808. 
Jacob Crooks, 1808, 181 2. 
John Reynolds, 1812, 1816. 
Charles Roberts, 1816, 1819. 
James H^mpson, 1819, 1823. 
John Burwell, 1823, 1827. 
John Stanton, 1827, 1829. 
Daniel Brush, 1829, 1833. 
Asa R. Cassidy, 1833, 1837. 
Zachariah Adams, 1837, 1839. 
Edward Ball, 1839, 1843. 
John Dillon, 1843, 1847. ♦ 

Carson Porter, 1847, 1850. (Died in office.) 
.;,, Benjamin F. Leslie, 1850, 1854. 
Joseph Richey, 1854, 1856. 
James C. Wolf, 1856, 1858. 
Penrod Bateman, 1858, i860. 
James C. Wolf, i860, 1864. (Died in office.) 
John Quigley (Coroner and Acting Sheriff) , 
1864, 1865. 

Benjamin F. Leslie, 1865, 1869. 

Benson Loyd, 1869, 1873. 

William Ruth, 1873, 1877, 

Orrin Ballon, 1877. 

Orrin Ballou, 1879. 

Sheriff Ballou's term expired January, 1881. 

William Hunter, elected second Tuesday of 
October, 1880, term expires first Monday in 
January, 1883. 


Levi Whipple, from 1804, to . 

Chas. Roberts, from 1814, to 1817. 

John Roberts, from 181 7, to 1827. 

Chas. Roberts, from 181 7, to 1833. 

Wm. L. Beavers, from 1833, to 1839. 

James Boyle, from 1839, ^^ ^^845- 

Joseph Fisher, from 1845, to 1854. 

Joseph J. Hennon, from 1854, to 1857. 

John Smyth, from 1857, to i860. 

Mark Lowdan, from i860, to 1861 ; resigned. 

John W. Roberts, from 1861 , to 1864 ; resigned. 

Joseph Fisher, from 1865, to 1868. 

James P. -Eagan, from 1868, to 1871. 

Joseph Fisher, from 1871, to 18/4. 

James P; Eagan, from 1874, *° ^^IT- 

William Dunn, from 1877, to lOio. 

Fred Howell, from 1880, incumbent. 


John Burwell in 1834. 

Matthew McElhiney in 1840. 

In 1846 this work passed to the County As- 
sessors, a list of whom, by the same aiithor 
(James T. Irvine), is as follows : 

Daniel Brush, from 1825, to 1827. 

Lewis Ijams, from 1827, to 1830. 

WiUi am Ellis, from 1830, to 1832. 

Joseph Springer, from 1832, to 1834. 

Matthias Spangler, from 1834, ^^ ^^35. 

Jesse S. Manly, from 1835, -to 1839. 

Joseph P. Huston, from 1839 > ^^^ office was 
then abolished. 


William Montgomery, from 
June, 1807. 

1805, to 

Joseph F. Munro, from June, 1807, to June, 
Benjamin Sloan, from June, 1810, to June, 

Christian Spangler, from October, 1813, to 

June, 1818. 

Samuel Sullivan, from June, 1818, to October, 

Thomas Moorehead, from October, 18 19, to 

June, 1827. 

John Roberts, from June, 1827, to June, 1830 
John Burwell, from Jnne, 1830, to June, 1832 
John Roberts, from June, 1832, to June, 1834 
Daniel Brush, from June, 183^, to June, 1836 
John Roberts, from June, 1836, to June, 1838 
John Russell, from June, 1838, to June, 1844 
Benjamin F. Leslie, from June 1844, to June 

Adam Peters, from June, 1846, to June, 1850. 




John Dillon, from June, 1850, to June, 1854. 

Isaac Stiers, from June, 1854, to June, 1856. 

Benjamin Adams, from June, 1856; died Sep- 
tember, 1857. 

John Dillon, from September, 1857, to June, 

William Lynn, from June, 1858 ; died Sep- 
tember, 1862. 

J. B. H. Bratshaw, from September, 1862 ; 
resigned March, 1864. 

John Dillon, from March, 1864, to September, 

Joseph T. Gorsuch, from September, 1866, to 
September, 1868. 

John M. Lane, from September, 1868, to Sep- 
tember, 1872. 

Robert Lilvey, from September, 1872, to Sep- 
tember, 1876. 

George W. Allen, from 'September, 1876, to 
September, 1880. 

Frederick C. Dietz, from September, 1880. 


Levi Whipple, from 1804 to 181 1. 
Luke Walpole, from 181 1 to 1815. 
Charles Roberts from 1815 to 1717. 
Samuel Thompson, from 1817 to 1821. 
Wm. H. Moore, from 1821 to 1822. 
Jacob Crooks, from 1823 to 1824. 
Samuel Thompson, from 1824 to 1828, 
Samuel Parker, from 1828 to 1832. 
William Twaddle, from 1832 to 1834. 
Samuel Parker, from 1834 to I838. 
Richard Collum,' from 1838 to 1840. 
Samuel Gates, 1840 to 1843. 
WilHam Flanagan, from 1843 to 1846. 
John W. White, from 1846 to 1848. 
James Caldwell, from 1848 to 1850. 
Elijah Brown, from 1850 to 1852. 
John Quigley, from 1852, to 1854. 
John Bratton, from 1854 to 1856. 
John Quigley,' from 1856 to 1868. 
John D. Bonnett, from 1868 to 1874. 
Anderson Evans, 1874 to 1876. 
Daniel Smith, 1876 to 1880. 
Daniel Morgan, from 1880. Incumbent. 


[The County Poor House was completed in 
the year 1840.] 

Isaac Dillon, from June, 1840, to June, 1841. 

Jno. Slaughter, from June, 1840, to June, 1841. 

Daniel Brush, from Jnne, 1840, to June, 1841. 

John Peters, from June, i84i,to June, 1846; 

John Roberts, from June, 1841, to December, 

William Camp, from June, 1841, to June, 1846 ; 

Edwin Burlingame, from December, 1842, to 
June, 1846 ; resigned. 

Austin Berry, from June, 1846, to November, 


Lawson Wiles, from June, 1846, to November, 

John Vandenbask, from June, 1846, to No- 
vember, 1849. 

James Helmick, from November, 1847, to No- 
vember, 1853. 

Robert J. Smith, from November, 1849, to No- 
vember, 1852. 

Robert Lee, from November, 1852, to March, 
1858, resigned, 

Joseph Larzalere, from November, 1853, to 
November, 1856. 

Joseph Mattingly, from November, 1856, to 
November, 1859. 

Wm. T. Tanner, from November, 1857, to 
November, i860. 

Joseph R. Thomas, from March, 1858, to No- 
vember, 1858. 

William Shaffer, from November, 1858, to No- 
vember, 1864. 

David Sidle, from November, 1859, to No- 
vember, 1862. 

Isaac Van Home, from November, i860, to 
November, 1863. 

John L. Taylor, from November, 1862, to No- 
vember, 1865. 

William Lee, from November, 1863, to No- 
vember, 1866. 

James Warner, from November, 1864, to No- 
vember, 1867. 

Waldo B. Gutlirie, from November, 1865, 
died September 18, 1866. 

William Lee, from November, 1866, to No- 
vember, 1868. 

Isaac C. Story, from November, 1866, to No- 
vember, 1869. 

Patrick Brennan, from November, 1867, to 
November, 1873. 

John L. Taylor, from November, 1868, to No- 
vember, 187 1. 

M. V. B. Mitchell, from November, 1869, to 
November, 1872. 

Wm. T. Tanner, from November, 187 1, to 
November, 1874. 

John W. Marshall, from November, 1872, to 
November, 1875. 

Peter L. Burgoon, from November, 1873, to 
November, 1876. 

Patrick C. Ryan, from November, 1874, to 
November, 1880. 

Robert Slack, from November, 1875, to No- 
vember, 1881. 

John W. Marshall, from November, 1876, to 
November, 1879. 

Geo. A. Gardner, from November, 1879, to 
November, 1882. 

Addison Palmer, from November, 1880, to 
November, 1883. 





















"From the river came the warriors, 
Clean and washed from all their war-paint; 
On the banks their war clubs buried, 
Buried all their warlike weapons, 
Gitche Manito, the mighty. 
The Great Spirit, the Creator, 
Smiled upon his helpless children. 

And in silence all the warriors 
I Broke the red stone of the quarry. 

Smoothed and finished it into Peace Pipes, 
Broke the long reeds by the river. 
Decked them with their brightest feathers. 
And departed each one homeward. 
While the Master of Life ascending, 
Through the opening of cloud curtains, 
Through the door-way of the Heavens, 
Vanithed from before their faces, 
In the smoke that rolled around them. 
The jPukwana of the Peace Pipe ! " 

And they shared their treasures of the hills 
and valleys", the rich furs and robe skins of the 
Valley of "Moos-king-dom," with their brothers, 
the pale faces, whom they welcomed with their 
peace pipe, with their wampum belts and treas- 
ures ; bade them build their wigwam near their 
much loved "Elks Eye," and bring them cloth- 
ing, beads and trinkets and the treasures known 
to white men. The invitation was accepted, 
and a trading post was established in 1794, by 
Joseph F. Moore, Herman Blannerhasset and 
Dudley Wood, of Marietta, who built their cabin 
about where the office of the Pataskala Mills 
now Stands, and kept the usual supply of goods 
for "Indian trade," which they exchanged for 
furs and other skins, and also paid them money. 
Detroit was headquarters for the fur trade, and 
thither they sent their skins, via. Marietta and 
Pittsburgh by canoes and pirogues, to Sandusky 
bv pack animals and thence to Detroit by ship. 
The superior quality of the furs and robes from 
the moos-king-dom region soon attracted atten- 
tion, and another highway leading through it 
w^as soon determined upon. On the 17th of 
May, 1796, Congress passed an act authorizing 
Ebenezer Zane to make out a road from Wheel- 
ing, Virginia, to Limestone, (now Maysville, 
Ky.,) on the Ohio river, crossing the rivers at 
Zanesville, Lancaster and Chillicothe, and in 

1797, Zane, with his brother, Jonathan, and his 
brother-in-law, John Mclntire, proceeded to cut 
out the road, which consisted in removing the 
trees anc^ smaller growth, and blazing the route. 
They were assisted by John Green, William 
McCulloch, Ebenezer Ryan and others. John 
Green had charge of the pack horses. John 
Mclntire being a shoemaker and not accustomed 
to ■ the use of the axe, was selected to 
keep the party in game, of which there was 
abundance over the entire route. They en- 
countered no Indians, but had to guard against 
wolves at night, which was easily done, how- 
ever, by keeping a bright fire burning. 

The route they chose was near the old Indian 
trail. Arriving at Salt creek, they surveyed' 
down that stream as far as what has since been 
known as Duncan's Falls, but decided to return 
and cross the Muskingum river at the mouth of 
the Licking river, deeming the possibilities for 
water power better at this point, but stopping 
three miles east, near where the Shaffer meeting 
house stands, (on the Adamsville road) they 
surveyed down the east branch of Mill run, near 
the Indian trail, crossed the run near the bridge 
by the old blast furnace, traveled south as far as 
the head of Lehew's hollow, and then southwest 
to what is now Market street. They returned 
to the point near the Shaffer meeting house and 
proceeded in a southwest course until they ar- 
rived in the neighborhood of what has since 
been known as the Evans and Irvin place, (on 
the National Road,) and thence proceeded to 
Mill run, up Mill run hill south, and then nearly 
due west, and down the steep hill where the 
Machine House now stands, known as the 
Cochran Hill. They crossed over to what is 
known as Silliman street, between Dr. Brown's 
late residence and the German Catholic church, 
and down main street and crossed the Mus- 
kingum river at the south side of Licking island, 
which was where the pier of the Y bridge now 
stands. They then passed over Chapman's run, 
southeast of the stone quarry, through the 
Springer farm, and on the southwest over what 
has since been known as "the Maysville pike." 

The old Indian trail crossed the river at the 
foot of Market street (at the head of the upper 
falls, about where the first dam. was built), to 
what became West Zanesville ; over the Licking 
Island to the South Ward, and up Chapman's 
Run, through what is known as the Fair Grounds, 
to the "Maysville Pike." This Indian trail 
coursed from Wheeling to this place, on through 
Chillicothe, to the Ohio river. 

For opening this road Ebenezer Zane received 
the lands described in the following patent : 

Department of the Interior ; ') 

General Land Office, > 
Washington, D. C, April 24th, 1880. ) 
I, J. A. Williamson, Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, do hereby certify that the 
annexed copy is a true and literal exemplificatior 
of a land patent, issued to Ebenezer Zane, on 



first and escaped to the woods. John Mclntire 
expressed his opinion that it would be difficult to 
find him, and offered $ 1 50 for him, which the 
master accepted and released his claim on him. 
He no doubt fully repaid Mr. Mclntire, as he 
lived with him as a faithful servant many years. 
At the time of taking charge of the ferry his 
home was on River street, in West Zanesville, 
and he died there in 1840. He was good natured, 
" a fair performer on the violin," and a great 
favorite, being ever on the alert for a frolic. 
The humor and cunning of this negro is aptly 
illustrated in connection with his marriage, the 
certificate of which is here given, premising 
that the 'Squire agreed to marry Black Mess and 
Ann Thompson, like white folks, for which he 
should receive one dollar : 

"I do certify that 'Mess Johnson,' a black 
man, and Ann Thompson, a black woman, was 
married before me the eighth of November, 

[Signed.] Samuel Thompson, J. P." 

The ceremony was performed in John Mcln- 
tire's house, where Black Mess was living at the 
time. When the 'Squire had made " the twain 
one flesh " according to law, he asked for his re- 
ward. The newly made husband informed him 
that when he (the 'Squire) had kissed the bride, 
as he was accustomed . to do when marrying 
white folks, the dollar should be forth coming ! 
'Squire Thompson gracefully declined, saying 
that he did not want Mess' dollar. 

In the spring of 1798, Elias Hughes, with his 
wife and twelve children, accompanied by his 
nephew, John Ratliff, with his wife and four 
children, came "to the mouth of the Licken," 
and built their cabins on the north bank, where 
they resided about a year-, and removed twenty 
miles upthat river, where Mr. Hughes died in 
1843, being about the age of ninety years. 

The pioneers who found their way into the 
beautiful valley of the Muskingum, now so 
widely known, were men of nerve and rare 
sagacity, familiar with the red men of the forest 
at home, and in no wise inclined to under-value 
their judgement in selecting the domain over 
which it would be most profitable for them to 
roam ; and knowing that "the northwest country' ' 
was a great hunting ground, their eyes were 
naturally turned to that country as the " land of 
promise." This will be apparent when we re- 
call their home surroundings, which the follow- 
ing extract will serve to show : 

"October 29th, i73i,Jona Davenport made 
affidavit at Philadelphia,. Pa., that a French 
agent had, every spring, for several years past, 
come down to the Shawanee settlement at Alle- 
ghany, and consulted with the Indians there. 
James Le Tort made a similar affidavit at the 
same time. Attached to the affidavits is a mem- 
orandum "of the number of Indians. Among 
them are " three Shawanee towns on Conumach 
creek, forty-five families, 200 men.' Next to 
this is the item. ' Asswikales, fifty families. 

lately from South Carolina to the Potowmack, 
and from thence thither.' — [Penn. Archives, 
Vol. I, pp. 299, 300.] 

Thus we see, also, that Indians traveled over 
all that country. r- 

Now Isaac Zane was born on the south 
branch of the Potowmack, in Virginia, in 1753, 
and it is safe to conclude that his kindred were 
well acquainted with Asswikales. Indeed the 
sequel of his first and doubtless providential de- 
termination, was to accomplish a happy mar- 
riage, and cement the bonds of peace, then be- 
ginning to prevail — between the Indian and pale 
taces. A treaty to this effect having been en- 
tered into by the great Shawanee nation, of 
which the Asswikales were a part, and the Con- 
gress of the United States. The storms of 
anger -had ceased, the council fires- were burn- 
ing brightly, and intercourse between the 
two races was pacific. Isaac Zane was at 
that impressionable age when the gentle god- 
dess comes with her divinest allurements, and 
he said : 

"As unto the bow thfi cord is, 
So unto man is woman, 
Though she bends him, yet she follows, 
Useless each without the other ! 

And when he found himself in the presence of 
the great chief of the Asswikales, who knew so 
much about the people, who was rich in love of 
hunting grounds, in the region of the Elk's Eye, 
and richer still in having a comely daughter, he 
reminded him of all the past, and asked to be 
his son, saying : 

"After many years of warfare, 
Many years of strife and bloodshed, 
There is peace between us, O, Asswikales, 
Between the Shawnee and pale faces, 
Give me as my wife this maiden, 
Minnehaha, Laughing Water," 
Loveliest of lovely women ! 

"And the ancient arrow maker 
Paused a moment ere he answered, 
Smoked a little while in silence. 
Looked at Isaac proudly, 
Fondly looked at Laughing Water, 
And made answer very gravely : 

"Yes, if Minnehaha wishes ; 
Let your heart speak, Minnehaha!" 
And the lovely Laughing Water 
Seemed more lovely, as she stood there. 
Neither willing nor reluctant, 
As she went to the brave Isaac, 
Softly took her seat beside him, 
While she said, and blushed to say it, 

"I will follow you, n\y husband !" 
« -s * « ® 

From the sky the sun benignant 
Looked upon them through the branches, 
Saying to them, "O, my children. 
Love is like sunshine, hate is shadow. 
Life is checkered shade and sunshine, 
Eule by Love, O, happy Isaac !" 



And it came to psss that the Great Spirit gave 
this happy pair a comely daughter: 

Comely in her form and litheness, 
' ■ , Filled was her mind with brightness, 
i ' . Versed in all the great traditions, 

• ■ j 1 f II »' And of singers, the most elysian ; 
Men were joyous at the sound 
Of the rich melodies of her voice, 
Until one day as they found, 
She was a white man's choice, 
And to him had welcome given. 
Then their joy was turned to anguish, 
And their very souls were riven, 
For without her they must languish ; 
But they breathed an invocation 
Of blessing on each nation, 
In her so fully blended ; 
And their fervent prayer ascended, 
And will ascend forever, 
To bless the singer and her lover. 

This comely maiden became the wife of Wil- 
liam McCulloch, who, having found an eden in 
this charming, valley was soon enjoying the 
sunshine of her love. By the margin of the 
waters, where the Muskingum gently glides, 
there was built their cabin home. And there on 
the 7th of April night, 1798, their son, Noah 
Zane McCulloch, was born, and was probably 
the first white child born within the limits of 
what is now Muskingum county. The cabin 
was built on the spot where the canal waters 
traverse the south side of Main street. 

The trading post was now rapidly growing 
into the likeness of a white settlement and ac- 
quiring the modes of civilization, and as such 
was called Westbourne, and was on the west 
side of the river, within the boundaries of the 
Eighth Ward, as now designated. October 27, 
1798, the Postmaster General recognized the 
right of the citizens to mail facilities, and by 
contract authorized the transporting of mail to 
and from this point, and at the same time 
changed the name to Zanestown — in compliment 
of Mr. Zane. The following year Messrs. Zane 
and McCulloch laid out the town into squares 
and lots. Henry Crooks came about this time 
and resided with McCulloch. He built his 
cabin during the winter of 1798-9, just where is 
not now known, only that it was within the 
boundaries of what is known as the Seventh 
Ward. Mrs. Crooks was the only white woman 
this side of Lancaster. Mr. Crooks' brother 
Andrew and wife, and sons George M. and 
Jacob, and daughter Nancy, joined them soon af- 
ter. They were followed by John Bland, Henry 

Smith and Priest, who brought their 

families with them from "the Kenawha coun- 

In 1799 John Mclntire built a cabin in a beauti- 
ful maple grove situated on the site since known 
as the southwest corner of Second and Market 
streets. His sagacity prompted him to build a 
large house, for the double purpose of having a 
comfortable home and keeping an inn, the want 
of the latter having been felt on more than one 

occasion. Although a one-story house, it com- 
manded a fine view of the falls and ^;he upper 
ford. According to Mrs. Charles G. Goddard 
(good authority), "John Mclntire cut down the 
trees and hewed nearly all of the logs, shaped 
saplings into rafters, split scantling for door and 
window frames, etc. The window glass (the 
first used here) was brought from Wheeling, Va. 
The house was not finished until the spring of 
1800, and was quite a mansion for those days. 
It is due to Mr. Mclntire and lady to say that 
their accommodations, though in a log cabin, 
were such as to render their house to the travel- 
lers a home." — [Howe's Historical Notes of 

Louis Phillippe, a noted King of France, was 
once a guest with the Mclntires. Hon. Lewis 
Cass, in "Camp and Court of Louis Phillippe," 
thus alludes to it: "At Zanesville, the party 
found the comfortable cabin of Mr. John Mcln- 
tire, and whose house was a favorite place of 
rest and refreshment for all travelers, who, at 
this early period, were compelled to transverse 
that part of the country. And if these pages 
should chance ' to meet the eyes of any of those 
who, like the writer, hav^ passed many a pleas- 
ant hour under the roof of this uneducated, but 
truly worthy and respectable man, he trusts they 
will unite in this tribute to his memory." The 
King's visit was probably made in 1802. 

According to Silas Johnson, long a servant of 
John Mclntire, "John Mclntire was born in 
Alexandria, Virginia, in October, 1759, and 
married Sarah M. Zane, in Wheeling, Virginia, 
in December, 1789. He was a little below me- 
dium height, rathet fleshy, full-faced, rather high 
forehead, had blue eyes, rather lightish brown 
hair, wore no beard and weighed between 150 
and 160 pounds ; was of a pleasant disposition 
except when insulted, when he would instantly 
knock the offender down, and go off" about his 
business. His word was as good as his bond." 
He died in his stone house, corner of Fountain 
alley and Second street, July 29th, 1815. His 
remains repose in the old grave yard at the head 
of Main street. 

Mrs. Mclntire was a resolute woman, of good 
practical sense, and like her husband was quick 
to resent an insult, and intolerant of what she 
deemed wrong. Standing in her door one day, 
looking over the foi-d at the head of the falls, 
she saw two Indians, one a great tall fellow, car- 
rying his bow and arrow, the other his squaw, a 
small woman, carrying her papoose and cook- 
ing utensils, struggling along with difficulty 
against the current, as they waded across. The 
sight made her angry, and when the Indian 
came up and asked her for something to eat, she 
took a stick and whipped him, saying, "Begone, 
you lazy dog." With an ugh ! he went away, 
when she gave the squaw and her papoose a 
hearty meal. 

At another time when there was to be Method- 
ist preaching in the court house, and owing to 
some feud between the janitor of the court house 
and the M. E. Church, the doors were not opened 



in time, Mrs. Mclntire became indignant and or- 
dered "Black Mess" to bring an ax, and it 
needed no more persuasion to induce the janitor 
to hurry up with the keys. Some one havmg in- 
formed Mr. Mclntire what was going on, he was 
told to "go back; Sally will make her way 

Mrs. Mclntire was also a very kind woman, 
and spent much time visiting the sick and visit- 
ing and encouraging the settlers and administer- 
ing to their wants. There were "always good 
things in Aunty Mclntire's larder to eat and to 
drink, and herbs and roots for medicine when 
wanted, a bountiful suppljr of which she furnished 
to the needy." 

Mr. Mclntire's daughter, and only child, was 
born June 3d, 1800. She was sent to Phila- 
delphia to school, where she graduated, and was 
to have been married to an Irish Lord about the 
time she died, which was December 15th, 1820. 

Mrs. Mclntire, nee Sarah M. Zane, daughter 
of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Zane, was born in 
Wheeling, Virginia, February 22, 1773, was 
married to John Mclntire as stated, and again 
married to David Young, August 15th, 1816. 
She died in Zanesville, March 8th, 1854. -^ 
short time prior to her demise she' gave to her 
faithful servant, Silas Johnson (colored), her 
large family Bible. 

On the 31st of July, 1857, at the request of 
General Charles B. Goddard, President of the 
Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing Company, 
and Adam Peters, Vice President, William Cul- 
bertson took the noted Mclntire cabin down, it 
having stood more than half a century — until the 
winters' storms and summers' scorching heat.had 
rendered it unfit for habitation. He was requested 
also to preserve one of the rafters and keep it in 
his possession until he received a wi"itten order 
from the proper authorities to deliver it up. 
These two gentlemen had contemplated erecting 
a Mclntire High School building in the near fu- 
ture from funds belonging to the Mclntire estate, 
and intended to place this rafter from the old 
cabin in the building, with a suitable inscription 
as a memento that might remind the children of 
their benefactor, of his industry and benevolence. 

At the meeting of the Directors of the Zanes- 
ville Canal and Manufacturing Company, held 
January 6th, 1880, the following resolutions were 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the committee on the build- 
ing of the Mclntire Children's Home, be and 
they are hereby instructed to introduce into the 
finish of the walls of some suitable room of the 
new building, one or more of the timbers of John 
Mclntire's log cabin, preserved by William Cul- 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Board are 
hereby extended to William Culbertson for his 
* care in the preservation of the timbers, and he is 
hereby authorized to make such use of said tim- 
bers, as are not required by said committee for 
said purpose, as he may see fit. 

D. C. Converse, 


On the 8th of January, 1880, Mr. William 
Culbertson received the following letter : 

Zanesville, Jan. 8, 1880. 
William Culbertson, Esq.: 

Dear Sir — Herewith I hand you cop-!" >i res- 
olutions passed by the Board of Direct „ . of the 
Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing Company. 

D. C. Converse, 


This stick of timber, which has been preserved 
by Mr. Culbertson for almost twenty-three years, 
will be confided to the care of the Directors 01 
the Canal and Manufacturing Company, to be 
placed by them in the Mclntire Children's 
Home. Nothing could be more appropriate. 
The Mclntire Children's Home will be the pride 
of the city and county — will be an enduring 
monument to those who struggled year after year 
to give a comfortable home, warm clothing and 
suitable food to the unfortunate waifs of society. 

That kind, charitable lady, who wiped the 
tears from the cheeks of the orphans, has a mon- 
ument in the hearts of the poor more valuable 
by far, and more enduring than the monuments 
built of marble and granite, even could stone be 
piled upon stone, until the pinnacle reached high 
above the clouds of heaven. 

[Other particulars concerning John Mclntire 
and his estate will be found in another part of 
this work.] 

In the fall of 1799 came John Green, (after- 
terwards known as "General Green"), and 
made his home with Wm. McCuUoch during the 
winter, spending his time hunting deer and bear, 
the most of which he prepared for future use. 
In April following, he moved his family thither 
from Wheeling, Va., accompanied by Abraham 
McCulloch. They had each a four horse team 
and wagon, probably the first teams brought 
here. General Green brought with him a pair 
of hand mill stones for grinding corn. This 
primitive mill, when in working order, had a 
pole adjusted to the ceiling of the building, and 
the other end through the upper stone, which 
was turned by one hand and the corn supplied 
by the other. He allowed his neighbors to use 
it, much to their convenience. Mr. Green's 
house was a story and a half double cabin, with 
a porch in front and spacious hall through the 
middle. It stood about the head of Main street, 
and opposite Silliman street of the present time. 
Here the first patriotic demonstration that was 
made in all this region took place, in the cele- 
brating of the fourth of July, 1800, and ever aftei 
"Green's Tavern" was a noted place. Men 
came to the celebration with their wives and 
children, from twenty miles away, to join in the 
festivities. Orators "almost too full for utter- 
were there, and did ample justice to the 
Joseph F. Monroe read the Declara- 
tion of Independence. So great was the throng 
that a bower was erected for table accommoda- 
tion, and they fared sumptuously. During "the 
feast of reason and flow of soal," eloquent toasts 
were read, and duly honored with the social 





glass. And when they had made an end of 
feasting, Thomas Dowden and "Black Mess" 
brough fourth their instruments and beguiled 
them with music, while old and young swayed 
to and fro in the mazes of the dance, which con- 
tinued until the next day. It is said that Mrs. 
Mclntire lead the dance, and that the ladies fur- 
nished the tables. Henry Crooks (the ferryman) 
furnished roast pig, which was deemed indispen- 

About the month of October, 1799, came also 
John and George Mathews, from Wheel- 
ing, Va., and built a mill for grinding corn. It 
was constructed on board a boat, composed of 
two large canvas, with a water wheel between, 
and was anchored at the foot of the Fall, near 
where the lower bridge now stands, and on the 
east side of the river, and depended on the cur- 
rent, (which was swift,) for pQwer. It was well 
patronized by people from all parts of the valley. 
This mill was carried down tlie river by a freshet 
and lodged in Duncan's Falls, but was rescued 
and brought back, and continued in service 
three years, when it gave place to a "tub mill," 
with one run of stone, located at Moxahala, and 
was followed by another at the mouth of Joe's 
run. A part of this last mill may be seen dur- 
ing low water to this day. 

In the spring of 1800 another accession to the 
population was made by the arrival of Martin 
Luther Loud Slagor and William Well. Slagor 
erected his cabin on the site now the northwest 
corner of Sixth and Main' streets, intending to 
keep tavern, but rented it to Thomas Corderey, 
who kept tavern in it for several years. Mr. 
Slagor purchased a small tract of land that has 
since been knows as "Slagor run," and there was 
started the first garden, farm and dairy. Mrs. 
Slagor sold milk, and has been kown to excuse 
the superabundance of the watery element in 
that fluid by saying she supposed "the cows had 
been wading the creek ! " 

Mr. Ingalls built his cabin near John Mcln- 
tire's, and, considering the ordinance of Con- 
gress, in pursuance 'of the "ratification of the 
treaty concluded at Fort Mcintosh (with the 
Delawares, Chippewas and Ottawas, by which 
the United States acquired the title of those 
tribes to all lands lying east and west and south 
of a line drawn from the mouth of the Cuyahoga, 
up that river to the Tuscarawas portage. and to 
the Tuscarawas above Fort Lawrence, thence to 
the Maumee, and thence with that river to Lake 
Erie," being about three-fourths of the State of 
Ohio, and including all this region ; which trea- 
ty was ratified in May, 1785 ; the aforesaid or- 
dinance provided that "the land was to be di- 
vided into townships of six miles square by lines 
running north and south, and intersected by 
other lines at right angles. These townships 
were to be divided into sections, each containing 
one square mile or six hundred and forty acres, 
and each range was to be numbered from south 
to north, commencing on the Ohio river ; the 
ranges were to be distinguished by progressive 
numbers westward, the first resting upon the 

western boundary of Pennsylvania as a base 
line, which prevented many settlers from becom- 
ing possessors of the land because of their ina- 
bility to purchase the minimum quantity named, 
viz. : 640 acres), he entered into the business of 
purchasing such tracts for the settlers by associ- 
ating them and sub-dividing the tracts according 
to the stipulations made between them. He was 
therefore the first land agent and seems to have 
conducted the business so as to win the confi- 
dence of the Government as well as the settler, 
as he was subsequently appointed collector of 
taxes on lands owned by non-residents. By 
act of Congress, dated February 1805, proviso 
was made whereby settlers might enter tracts of 
smaller sub-division, such as half and quarter 
sections. [See Revised Statutes of the U. S., 
section 2,396, p. 442.] 

In 1800 or 1801, perhaps in the early part of 
the winter, John Houck came to Zanestown and 
began to do tailoring. In 1804 he was elected 
constable ; in 1806 was appointed Deputy 
SheiifF. He was probably the first tailor in the 

Early in the spring of 1861 Dr. Increase Ma- 
thews and his brother John started a store in a 
cabin situated on what is now the northwest 
corner of Main and Third streets. This was the 
first store of the kind on the east side of the river. 
Our informant humorously lists their supply of 
merchandise as follows : "These two men kept 
a stock of brandy and buttons, needles and nut- 
megs, sugar and saleratus, iron and ink, calico 
and cai-ds, rope and rum, pins and physic, pow- 
der and bear traps, blisters and blueing, etc." 
This stock of physic was probably denominated 
a "Drug Store". In 1803 the merchandise was 
moved south of the river into what has since been 
called Putnam, and was located at what is now 
108 Muskingum Avenue. Probably soon after 
or shortly before opening this store' Dr. Mat- 
hews visited Marietta to attend a sale of Gov- 
ernment land, intent on purchasing the section, 
or part, in which is now the ninth ward. John, 
Mclntire also started for the same place on the 
same errand at the same time, although neither 
acquainted the other with the object of his visit. 
The first night they camped in the woods ; at the 
close of the second da}- they arrived in the town 
of Marietta. Here they separated. Dr. Mathews 
proceeded up Washington street to the house ot 
his uncle. General Rums Putnam, who then had 
charge of the land office. Mr. Mclntire found 
his way to the hotel. At General Putnam's 
Dr. Mathews met a cousin, Mr. Levi Whipple ; 
during the conversation that ensued. General 
Putnam said : "You boys ought to purchase the 
land, and if necessary, I will aid you in making 
the first payment." The next day the land was 
put up for sale and the bidding between Mcln- 
tire and Dr. Mathews was very spirited. At 
length Mclntire, not doubting that he would 
make sure, of the purchase, bid four dollars per 
acre. Dr. Mathews immediately bid four dol- 
lars and twenty-five cents, and as there was no 
higher bid the land was struck off to him. 


From a work entitled "The Buckingham Family, 
or the Descendants of Thomas Buckingham," one of 
the first settlers of Milford, Connecticut, (compiled 
at the request of William A. Buckingham, of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, by Rev. F. W. Chapman, A.M., 
author of " The Chapman Family," etc., etc., etc. 
Hartford, Connecticut : Press of Case, Lockwood & 
Brainard, 1872) the following compilation is derived: 

Alvah Buckingham, son of Ebenezer and Esther 
(Bradley) Buckingham, was born at Ballston 
Springs, New York, March 20, 1791. In 1794 his 
parents removed to Cooperstown, New York. In- 
1797 his elder brothers, Stephen and Ebenezer, left 
home to see the wild west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains and Ohio river. In the fall of 1799 they re- 
turned with such glowing accounts of this new 
land that their parents, with their numerous 
children, except two married daughters, left Coop- 
erstown for the western wilderness. They located 
at first at a point between the Whitewoman and 
Tuscarawas, two streams forming the Muskingum 
river, near their confluence. This was almost the 
first settlement; made in that region, and was about 
two miles above the present town of Coshocton. 
The nearest white settlement was Zanesville, some 
thirty miles south, on the Muskingum river. 

While the elder members of the family traded 
with the Indians for furs, robes, etc., the younger 
ones joined in their sports and learned their 
strange language. And this was- never eiitirely 
forgotten, as fifty years later counting in the Indian 
tongue was a source of great entertainment to a de- 
lighted circle of little auditors. Their amusements 
were "throwing the tomahawk," " shooting with 
bow and arrow," " tossing up chips for old Indians 
to fire at," (in which they were very expert), and 
other athletic sports. In the spring of 1802, find- 
ing this location unhealthy, the family removed to 
Carthage township, in the southeastern part of 
Athens county, Ohio, on the Hock Hocking river. 
Here the subject of this article, Alvah Buckingham, 
had the inestimable privilege of attending school; 
though it was four miles distant from his home to 
the school house, he walked thereto daily. Out of 
school he assisted on the farm or indulged in hunt, 
ing. This latter was his favorite passtime, as at 
that early date game was plenty. The woods were 
infested with bear, deer, panther, raccoon, opossum, 
and wild turkey. Near the farm was quite a cele- 
brated deer lick, where, on moonlight nights, he 
was accustomed to station his watch, and many a 
victim rewarded his unerring rifle. It was in one 
of these lonely watches that his quickness of 
thought and rapidity of action saved his life, and 
brought down a huge panther, poised just above 
him, and ready for the spring. 

At the a?e of seventeen he met with a severe ac- 
cident. Hunting in the woods one day, his horse 
became frightened, reared and fell back on his 
rider. Stunned by the fall, he yet recovered to find 
his right leg broken both above and below the 
knee, himself distant from the nearest house, which 
was his own home, over three miles away, and no 
aid for his rescue but his own mother wit. With 
a courageous spirit, and by dint of crawling on his 
two hands and one knee, he reached the river, 
which, fortunately, was low enough to enable him 
to cross, holding his mouth just above the water, 
and thus reached home just as his sinking strength 
gave way. The limb was splintered as best could 
be in a country home, but a weary years' confine- 
ment was the result, and, ever after, a slight lame- 

In 1804, the older brother, Ebenezer Bucking- 
ham, moved to Putnam, opposite Zanesville, Ohio, 
and, to assist him in business, Alvah followed in 
1810, leaving his parents still at the Hocking farm. 
In 1813, g^tephen, an older brother, died, and Alvah 
was called upon to take charge of his business, 
which he did for two years In April, 1816, Solo- 
mon Sturgesand himself, having married sisters — 
the Misses Hale, of Glastonbury, Connecticut — 
formed a mercantile partnership, one fourth each, 
with their older brother, Ebenezer Buckingham, 
under the firm name of E. Buckingham & Co., a 
firm widely known in their then pioneer life. 
Ebenezer married Eunice Hale, of Glastonbury, 
Connecticut, and, returning to the West, brought 
the two sisters-in-law, Anna and Lucy Hale, the 
whole party crossing the Alleghany Mountains on 
horseback, as at that time there were no roads for 
carriages or wagons. In 1S18 Anna Hale returned 
to her Eastern home, but, as it proved, only for a 
time. As leader in the church choir, she sat in her 
accustomed place on the last Sunday of September, 
1819, in the old church at Glastonbury. Glancing 
below, her eyes met the well known figure of her 
Western friend.- An interview, a hurried proposal, 
and a hurried marriage on the following Sabbath 
evening, left our young couple free to start on their 
homeward westward route, and on horseback again, 
as in her previous trip, the wife of Alvah Bucking- 
ham was escorted to her pioneer home. Returning 
to Putnam, they purchased, on the banks of the 
Muskingum river, a very modest homestead of one 
room; and there, in 1820, set up their household 
goods. In 1821, they built a two story brick house, 
to which they subsequently added, in 1834, a more 
commodious addition. This was the old homestead 
in which all their children were born, and is now 
occupied by their youngest son, James Bucking- 


In October, 1824, Ebenezer Buckingham, Sr., the 
father of Alvah, died, at the old farm house in 
Carthage, Athens county, and his wife, Esther, 
then removed to the home of her son, Ebenezer, Jr., 
in Putnam, where she died June 25th, 1827. In 
August, 1832, the firm of E. Buckingham, Jr., & 
Co., was dissolved by the sudden and painful death 
of Ebenezer Buckingham, and the business was 
continued under the new firm name of "A. Buck- 
ingham & Co.," and, the following year, another 
brother, Milton, was induced to give up the old 
farm at Carthage and join the firm, taking one-half 
of Alvah's share; while at the same time Solomon 
Sturges, Alvah's partner, persuaded his brother, 
Hezekiah, to remove from Fairfield, Connecticut, 
and share in his share. 

At this time there was a great need felt of good 
schools, and in 1835, a charter for a seminary was 
recorded, to be called the Putnam Classical Insti- 
tute, to be located in Putnam. Mrs. Eunice Hale 
Buckingham, wife of Ebenezer, Alvah Bucking- 
ham, Solomon Sturges, Julius C. Guthrie, and 
Austin A. Guthrie, furnished the funds, and the 
seminary was established, which, through all its 
vicissitudes of time, still continues worthy of pat- 

It 1843, Milton Buckingham removed to Spring- 
field, Ohio, and Alvah could thus admit his oldest 
son, Benjamin, to a partnership. In 1845, the firm 
name of A. Buckingham & Co. was dissolved, and 
a new firm name (.Buckingham & Sturges) estab- 
lished, composed of Benjamin H. Buckingham and 
William Sturges, the two oldest sons of the two 
former partners. In 1850, R. P. Burlingame, a 
friend, was sent to Chicago, Illinois, to open up a 
lumber trade there, the funds being furnished by 
Alvah Buckingham. The next, year the two built 
the first grain elevator in the city of Chicago. It 
was built of wood, holding some 75jO00 bushels of 
grain— at that time a great wonder. It was called 
the Fulton Elevator. In 1851, Alvah Buckingham 
established branch houses in New York City and 
Toledo, Ohio, for his two oldest sons, Benjamin and 
Philo, buying the Pehdleton Elevator, the first one 
built in Toledo. They soon built a sefeond elevator, 
and here, in the press and excitement of a too ex- 
tended business, Philo, the second son, lost his 
health and died quite suddenly, April 6th, 1853, in 
the homestead at Putnam. 

In 1854, Alvah Buckingham sold a third interest 
in his Chicago Fulton Elevator to his partner, 
Solomon Sturges, and shortly after they concluded 
a contract with the Illinois Central Railroad to do 
all their grain warehousing business for ten years. 
In 1856, they built and opened the two large ware- 
houses called "A" and "B," in the city of Chicago, 
holding some 800,000 bushels of grain, the marvels 
of the day. After this date of 1855, Alvah Buck- 
ingham spent most of his time in Chicago, and 

three years later moved his family there. His 
Sldest son, Benjamin, removed to Chicago also, but 
died in 1864, at Madison, New Jersey, while on a 
visit to his father-in-law, Mr. John S. Potwin. 
Benjamin Buckingham was singularly sincere and 
just in his dealings with man ; of great Christian 
purity and behavior, a man of unblemished char- 
acter and fine financial knowledge and ability. 
Philo, the second son, many will recall with mel- 
ancholy pleasure. He was a large hearted, gen- 
erous man ; had a full faith, too great, in human 
nature; generous to a fault; fond of outdoor life, 
agriculture and stock raising being his special de- 
light. The surviving brother, James, seems to have 
combined the qualities of both his brothers in 
business and occupation. 

In April, 1865, Mr. Alvah Buckingham removed 
to New York City, where, with his daughters, he 
resided at No. 18 East Twelfth street, until his 
death. His daughter, Julia A., had married the 
Hon. Samuel S. Cox, of Ohio, and the other 
daughter, Elizabeth, had married John A. Harden- 
bargh, of New York. In the spring of 1866, hav- 
ing occasion to locate some lands in the West, Alvah 
Buckingham took his youngest son, James, as a 
companion, and traveled through Indiana, Illinois, 
Missouri, and Kansas; and though much of this was 
accomplished in a spring wagon, over rough roads, 
and at the age of seventy-five, it was without any 
apparent fatigue. 

In the spring of 1867, he made a second pilgrim- 
age to the West, this time traveling through Iowa 
and Nebraska, and passing over the line of the 
Pacific Railroad as far as it was then finished. He 
was ambitious to be on the first train through to 
the Pacific Ocean; but this anticipation was not to 
be realized. 

The summer of 1867 was spent with his family 
and two daughters, Mrs. Cox and Mrs. Hardenbargh, 
at Saratoga, ending in a most pleasurable trip to the 
White Mountains. Returning to his New York 
home, his wife was taken sick with pneumonia, 
and died September 24th, 1867, and her remains 
were taken to their first home, Putnam, Ohio. In 
a week Mr. Buckingham was stricken down, and 
eleven days after his remains reposed by the side of 
his wife, in Woodlawn Cemetery, Putnam, Ohio. 
He died October 4th, 1867. 

Mr. Alvah Buckingham was distinguished as a 
conscientious man, courteous, just, business-like, 
and although economic, was a speculative merchant. 
He had also a rare genius for building bridges, 
elevators, and houses. He was an affectionate 
husband and indulgent father. He married Anna 
Hale, of Glastonbury, Connecticut, October 3d, 
1819, who died September 24th, 1867, at No. 13 
East Twelfth street, New York. Their children 
were Benjamin Hale, Philo, Elizabeth, Julia Ann, 
James, and Elizabeth (the second.) 



"Business meant business,"' the Di*. said, to 
whom the event became one of the pleasant 
reminiscences of his life. He associated with 
him Levi Whipple, who, together with General 
Putnam, who afterwards became a partner. 
They were the original proprietors of the "town 
of Springfield," named from the spring known 
as "Lovers' Fountain," which sends its silver 
purling stream down the rocky bank of yonder 
hill that now so proudly overlooks the city, and 
whose summit is adorned by "Putnam Park." 
The town was subsequently named Putnam, af- 
ter General Rufus Putnam. (See Rev. Addison 
Kingsbury's "History Resume"). In 1801 Levi 
Whipple built his cabin at the mouth of the Lick- 
ing, and about the 25th of October of that year 
moved his family into it. He followed survey- 
ing until 1804 when he engaged in the milling 
business. He was the first Justice of the Peace 
elected in Springfield ; was subsequently Coro- 
ner and then acting Sheriff". During this year 
Robert Whipple built his cabin in Putnam, 
and in December, 1801, Joseph F. Monroe com- 
pleted a two-story log house on the site known 
as the southeast corner of Second and Main 
streets, the first two-story log house built in 
Zanestown. And during this year Isaac Zane 
built a log cabin on the site now known as 98 
West Main street. This cabin was completed 
about Christmas and, as usual, was dedicated 
with a dance, "Black Mess" furnishing the 

According to E. H. Church, Ebenezer Buck- 
ingham, Sen., came in 1801, or perhaps i8oo-. 
He was a bricklayer and stone mason by trade, 
a conscientious Christian and gentleman. He 
became a State Senator, was one of the first 
Fund Commissioners of Ohio after the adoption of 
the canal policy 1825, and was, in his public 
career, of great value to the State. He con- 
ducted his large business interests on the Put- 
nam side of the river. When the turbid waters 
of the Muskingum closed over Ebenezer Buck- 
ingham the half completed career of an honest 
heart ceased to beat ; a heroic pioneer's life went 
out ; an incbiTuptible legislator and unimpeach- 
able public officer ceased to be." 

Early in the spring of 1802, came Jeffrey Price, 
with a young daughter. They boarded with 
John Mclntire. Price kept a store in a log 
cabin on the site now known as the southeast 
corner of Fountain alley and Fifth street. He 
sold out to John Mathews, and in 1806 became 
postmaster at Zanestown. And about this time 
came. James Herron, and began to make brick, 
the first work of the kind in Zanestown. His 
brother, David, a hatter, came soon after, and 
James associated with . him in that business. 
About this time came Jacob Funk, a blacksmith. 
His shop was on the site now the northeast cor- 
ner of Main street and Court Alley. And in 
the spring of 1803 Christian Spangler, black- 
smith, came, and built a shop, on the site now 
the northwest corner of Main street and Sewer 
alley. At the time of the formation of Mus- 
kingum county he was elected a member of the 

Board of County Commissioners. He was sub- 
sequently a Justice of the Peace, and then Coun- 
ty Treasurer. 

In 1804 came Spencer Lehew, Peter Mills, 

Paul Hahn, and Creighton. Lehew built 

his cabin where Colonel Goddard's office now is. 
Mills built his cabin, and kept a general store, a 
little west of the market-house. Hahn built a 
one and a half story double cabin on the site 
novv the northwest corner of Fourth and Canal 
streets ; it was used as a place for amusements. 

General Lewis -Cass located in Zanestown in 
1804, and was soon after elected to the Legisla- 
ture, where he distinguished himself by his ef- 
forts to arrest the progress of the celebrated ex- 
pedition of Aaron Burr. He was appointed 
Marshal of Ohio, by President Jackson, in 1807, 
and afterwards served as Prosecuting Attorney 
of Muskingum county. In order to repel Indian 
aggressions he entered the Army, and in 181 2 
raised the Third Ohio Regiment, which he com- 
manded. He subsequently was made a Major 
General, and in 18 13 became Governor of the 
territory of Michigan, and continued in that posi- 
tion until called to the War Department by Gen- 
eral Jackson, in 1831. From 1836 to 1842 he 
was Minister to France, and afterward was twice 
elected to the United States Senate, and subse- 
quently was Secretary of State of the United 

In 1804 Samuel Thompson kept grocery on 
the southeast corner of Main and Fifth streets, 
and continued the business a number of years. 

Samuel Goff", wife, and three children, came 
in 1805, from Philadelphia, and built his cabin. 
a hewed, double log house, where Jones & Ab- 
bott's foundry is. He was a stonemason, and a 
decided acquisition to the builders. The same 
year Samuel Frazey came to Zanestown. He 
was the first to engage in harness making. He 
built the first brick house, which was his dwell- 
ing and shop. 

In 1804 came also Elijah Ross and Peter Mills. 
Mr. Ross prospected through the Muskingum 
and Miami Valleys, and returned to Zanesville. 
He was a gunsmith, and the first in this section 
to engage in the business. His dwelling and 
shop was built on what is now the northeast cor- 
ner of Locust Alley and Second street. In 1812 
he was drafted into the United States military 
service, and detailed to remain at home and re- 
pair guns and accoutrements for soldiers. In 
1 8 16 he sold his property and removed to West 
Zanesville, where he carried on the business of 
a gunsmith until 1823, when he returned to the 
east side of the river, and lived for some years 
on South Sixth street, and subsequently on Main, 
above Seventh. He bored his own gun barrels, 
and made the first blowpipes for blowing glass, 
and sometimes helped the glass-blowers, being 
"a handy man at anything." George Hahn, 
Grant Scott, Neil Wilkins, and "Lem" Owens, 
were among the Zanesville boys who served ap- 
prenticeship with him. Lem Owens was the 
noted "Colonel Pluck" of the Fantasticals, else- 
where described. 




Mr. Ross was fond of fox hunting, and seemed 
never happier than when following his hounds 
over the Muskingum hills. He was of a genial 
nature, and a total abstainer from intoxicants. 
He was the father of twelve children : "Betsy," 
Theodore, "A. C," Ann, Margaret, George, 
James, Ruth, Jane, Thomas, Harriet, and Elvira. 

Mr. Ross was of Scotch descent. Fle married 
Mary (commonly called "Polly") Coffman. 
They came from Washington, Pa. Elijah Ross 
died November 30, 1864, in the 79th year of his 
age, universally respected for his industry and 

James Culbertson airrived in the spring of 1805. 
Being a hatter, he pursued that calling. His 
was the second hat shop in the now promising 
town. His place of business was where the 
southwest corner of Fifth and Market streets now 
is. There he continued until he died, Septem- 
ber 3, 1836, in the 57th year of his age. In this 
year also came Noyce Stone, a carpenter. He 
was' appointed Deputy Sheriff and Jailer in 1816 ; 
also, Samuel Goff and wife, from England. 
Mrs. Goff', having been well educated in Eng-. 
land, taught school. They had three children : 
Thomas, William^ and Betsy. 

Among the more prominent settlers in 1805 
were: Daniel Stilwell, who, with his wife and 
five children, came from Bucks county, Pa. 
His daughter Anna married John C. Stogden, 
March 31, 181 1 ; his son John married Anna M. 
Adams, September 26, "1844 ; his other daughter 

became a Mrs. Smith. Daniel Stilwell 

and a granddaughterwere drowned in attempt- 
ing to cross the river in a buggy in 1846 ; their 
bodies were not recovered for several days. 

Isaac Van Home, Senr., came in company 
with his uncle Gen. Isaac Van Home, from 
Bucks county. Pa. Mr. Van Home was a car- 
penter. In 1 8 10 he built a two storv frame 
house on what is the northeast corner of Potter 
alley and Main street. July 11, 1811, he mar- 
ried Patience Hanson. He died September 12, 
1824, leaving five daughters and one son. 

William Craig, a carpenter, came the same 
year ; purchased a lot at the crossing of Fourth 
and Market streets, and there built a hewed log 
house. In 1806 he was elected Justice of the 
Peace, and in 1814 was elected Mayor of the 
town. He was a candidate for Governor of 
Ohio in i8i4,and, though defeated, received the 
appellation of " Governor " Craig. In 1817 the 
County Commissioners apppointed him collector 
of taxes. Governor Craig gave bond in the 
sum of $8,354.08 ; his sureties were James Mc- 
Guire, James Hampson, James lierron and 
Jacob Linder. He collected the taxes and ran 
away with the money. I'he Commissioners 
brought suit against his bondsmen for something 
over two thdusand dollars. Jas. McGuire was 
corripelled to sell nearly all his property, making 
him almost a bankrupt. James Linder had to 
sell his farm and stock ; he was entirely broken 
up. Hampson and Herron paid their quota 
without much inconvenience. The Governor 
left his wife behind when he departed, but she 

followed him ; they settled in St. Louis, Missouri. 

Dui-ing this year also came Elijah Hart, hav- 
ing a letter of introduction from his old friend 
Jeremiah Morrow to his friend Wyllys Silliman, 
Register of the Land Office at Jamestown, re- 
questing his aid in selecting a farm in the vicin- 
ity. Mr. Silliman gave him a letter to Joseph 
Vernon, who owned a large and valuable tract 
of land in Washington township, afterwards 
owned by Moses Robertson. Mr. Hart selected 
the farm to the northeast of this tract, and in 
November, 1806, returned with wife and children, 
four sons and five daughters. Arriving in 
Jamestown, he rented a cabin near the. foot of 
Main street, opposite Daniel Convers, from 
Robert Spear. Mr. Hart died March 17, 1807. 

Gen. Isaac Van Home (whose ancestors were 
from Holland), came from Bucks county, Pa. 
In 1806 he purchased a lot where the Zane House 
stands, and upon it built a two story frame house 
which was used as a hotel. In 1807 he erected 
another frame house on the northwest corner of 
Main and Fourth streets, which was known for 
many years as the Wickham Hotel. Gen. Van 
Home served through the Revolutionary war, 
was acquainted with Gen. Washington, a friend 
of LaFayette, and met them in Masonic convo- 
cations. While in Philadelphia he received a 
portrait of Gen. LaFayette. He died in Zanes- 
ville, Feb. 2, 1834, in the 82d year of his age. 

David J.' Marpole, from Bucks county, Pa., a 
carpenter, took much interest in the welfare of 
his adopted home. Was a member of the town 
council, and for three years, closing with 1810, 
represented Muskingum and Guernsey counties 
in the Legislature. In 1819 he was cashier of 
the old Muskingum Bank ; appropriated money 
to his private use, and gave up his property to 
satisfy the deficit, turning it over to Ebenezer 
Buckingham, president of the bank ; but not 
being sufficient, his bondsmen had to make up 
the remaining sum. In 1822 Mr. Marpole built 
a trading boat and left tor Texas with a load of 
produce. He never returned ; probably died 

Col. George Jackson came from Clarksburgh, 
Va. ; he was elected to the Legislature in 1809-10, 
and 1817-18 as a State Senator. Among his 
children by his first wife were George W. Jack- 
son, William, and a daughter (who became the 
wife of Return J. Meigs, Ohio's Governor in 
181 2). His second wife was Mrs. Armisted 
Adams (married November 16, 1814), by whom 
he had one son and thi-ee daughters. Jackson 
bought a frame house that stood where the Ma- 
sonic Temple now is. He died in 1829. 

Gen. Samuel Herrick, lawyer, in 1809 built a 
substantial frame dwelling on the southwest cor- 
ner of Third and Fountain alley, where he re- 
sided a number of years, and removed to his 
farm in Wayne township, but practiced his pro- 
fession in the city, going in and out as occasion 
required. In 1810 he was elected by the Demo- 
cratic party to the General Assembly. And the 
same year Governor Huntington appointed him 
collector of taxes for Muskingum and five other 



counties. In 1830 he resigned a public office, 
gave up his profession, was baptized into the 
Baptist Church by Rev. George Sedgwick ; he 
sold his farm and removed to the city and lived 
on the corner of Orchard and Underwood streets, 
when he died, March i, 1852, in the 74th year of 
his age. 

William Langley, cooper, and Richard Brook- 
over lived with their families in a cabin in the 
rear of the Zane House ; built a log cabin one 
and a half stories high on the northeast corner 
of Fountain alley and Second street, and fol- 
lowed his trade of coopering there for many 
years. Subsequently he built on the northeast 
corner of Fountain alley and Fifth street. Mr. 
Langley had four daughters and six sons. 

Richard Brookover's cabin was in Fountain 
alley, in the rear of the present "Courier" office. 
In 1806 he moved into a cabin on the site now 
occupied by Jones & Abbott's foundry ; thence 
to a log house on the site of the " Regulator" 

James Herron, James McGuire and Wm. 
Stinson, influenced by Robert Taylor, came 
soon after. McGuire moved from town to his 
farm on the Marietta road, and opened a coal 
bank. Stinson engaged in freighting, and died 
in 1838. 

Joseph Beard, a calico printer, native of Eng- 
land, came from Marietta. His son, Wm. H., 
became Private Secretary to Governor Meigs ; 
who, when appointed Postmaster General, took 
young Beard with him to Washington and gave 
him an important position. While there he mar- 
ried Harriet B. Weston. At the close of the 
war with Great Britian he was chosen to convey 
the glad tidings to Gen. Harrison, then in com- 
mand of the Army of the West, with headquar- 
ters at Chilhcothe, then the capital of the State. 
In 182 1 he had the contract for carrying the 
mail between Zanesville and Lancaster. In 
1833 he retired to a farm, but died in Zanesville 
December 8, 1870, m the 87th year of his age. 
Mrs. Beard died February 4, 1869. They had 
lived together fifty-four years. 

Hugh and Isaac Hazlett : Hugh was born in 
Ireland, and while a mere lad came to America 
with his parents. After his arrival in Zanesville 
he engaged in merchandising, but subsequently 
removed to Newark, Ohio ; he returned, however, 
to Zanesville in 1838 and re-embarked in mer- 
chandising, and also engaged in the manufacture 
of white lead, which he conducted for a number 
of years. He died October 9th, 1868, aged 84 

Isaac Hazlett also engaged in the mercantile 
business. At one time there were three Robert 
Hazletts — Hugh's son, Robert the elder, who 
was known as Captain "Bob," being Captain of 
"The Warren Green's," and his son Robert. 
Hugh's son was locally called "Black Bob," be- 
cause he had such black hair. Captain Hazlett 
died in i860. 

Hugh and Isaac Hazlett were in partnership 
in the mercantile business on the southwesf corner 
of Fountain alley and Fifth street, and continued 

there until 1808. They did the largest business 
of any of the merchants of that day. 

William Montgomery came in 1806. Daniel 
and Allen McLain built a house for him, the first 
frame house built in Zanesville, but where located 
we cannot tell. 

In the summer of this year came Samuel Chap- 
man — from Marietta — induced by Benjamin Tup- 
per, for whom he built a frame dwelling and 
store on Front street — the property now owned 
by Dr. Nye. This was the secondl frame house 
completed in Zanestown. 

John Alter, Sr., arrived in 1806. He was a 
chair-maker, wheelwright and painter, and just 
the man to find a welcome in a new settlement ; 
whereupon a number of prominent citizens 
agreed to furnish him a comfortable house, with 
fuel and provisions free for one year, as an in- 
ducement to settle here. The offer was accepted, 
and he moved into a log house about where Main 
and First streets intersect on the north. In ad- 
dition to chair-making, he also made spinning 
wheels ; this latter branch soon became so im- 
portant that William Calhoun opened up on Sev- 
enth street in the same line. In 181 2 he joined 
the army. He left his business in charge of Pe- 
ter Bowermaster, who afterwards took his place 
in the army and Mr. Alter returned to Zansville 
cured of his desire for military glory. He died 
in Zanesville, September 20, 1879. 

During this year also came Thomas Wickham, 
carpenter, from Wheeling, with a sick wife and 
several children. He built in West Zanesville, 
from stone taken from the bed of the river, just 
below the present railroad bridge. He subse- 
quently kept hotel on the site now the northwest 
cornei" of Main and Second streets. In 1817 he 
rebuilt a portion of the upper bridge that had 
fallen into the river. He subsequently purchased 
a farm near Irville and there built a distillery and 
made peach brandy for a living. 

In 1806 came also Peter Roberts, wife, six 
sons and a daughter, all grown. They lived on 
the hill, near the old gi'ave yard^ and then re- 
moved to the corner of Eighth and Main. His 
son Nathan "followed the river." 

During this year John L. Cochran, Jacob 
Houck and Frederick Houck came. Cochran, 
being a carpenter and a young man, easily found 
a footing ; and when he was found to be upright 
he was made Market Master, Collector of Taxes 
and a Councilman. 

Jacob Houck was a stonemason and a brick- 
layer, and superintended the building of the "old 
1809" court house. He was a portly man, and 
old citizens remember with . pleasure "his philo- 
sophic look, as he lighted his pipe by means of a 
sun glass." His family consisted of two daugh- 
ters and three sons. Jacob Houck died in 1816. 

Frederick Houck, his brother, was also a 
stonemason. In winter he turned his attention 
to the manufacture of gloves, breeches and vests 
of buckskin, and employed quite a number of 
his neighbor's daughters in making them. 

In 1807 came Dr. Robert Mitchell and built his 
cabin on the site of now No. 48 South Fitth street. 



In 1808 came William Launder, Samuel GofF, 
William Burnham and James Taylor. Launder 
built a two-story log house on the site now occu- 
pied bv Mr. E. S. Keene's handsome brick resi- 
dence. Mr. Goff built a hewed log house, where 
we are not informed by Mr. Church ; he gave 
much attention to flower culture and gardening, 
and had the first hive of bees in Zanesville. 
Burnham settled in that part of this new settle- 
ment known as Springfield, and kept "Burn- 
ham's Tavern" until 181 1, when he removed to 
a frame building on the northwest corner of Main 
and Second streets, owned by General Isaac 
Van Home, and opened tavern with the sign of 
"The Golden Ram" ; i-emained there until 1813, 
when he removed to the southeast corner of Main 
and Fourth streets into "the old Harvey Tav- 
ern." He died in the autumn of 1820, leaving a 
large family, and was buried \Vith Masonic hon- 
ors from the residence of Seth Adams, on Second 

During 1808 also John Alter, Sr., erected 
a two-story log house upon a lot purchased from 
Dr. Robert Mitchell for one dozen cane-seated 
chairs, valued at seventy-five dollars. An old 
settler remarked that "chairs were chairs in those 
days." John Alter, Jr., was born in this house 
before the doors and windows were put in. 

During this year James Linn built his cabin on 
the site now known as No. 41 South Sixth street. 

In 1809 came Alexander McLaughlin, from 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and built a brick house 
on the northeast corner of Sixth and Market 
streets, at the time the finest residence in all this 
region. In 181 2 he sold this property to General 
Isaac Van Home, hence its name. In 1819 he 
removed to Chillicothe, and after a few years re- 
turned and had much to do with getting the Cap- 
ital removed from Zanesville to its present loca- 
tion. He once owned the land on which it is 
situated. His family consisted of two sons and 
two daughters. 

James Hampson, of Berkeley county, Virginia, 
being awarded the contract for building the "old 
1809" court house, brought a small force with 
him, arriving the loth of April, 1809, his family 
following in June, and they became permanent 
citizens. Mr. Hampson was subsequently Col- 
lector of United States Revenue for the Zanes- 
ville District. In 1818 he was elected to the 
Legislature, in 1819 was Sheriff, and in 1825 
again a member of tlie Legislature. His family 
consisted of his wife Sarah, born in Berkeley 
county, Virginia, and six children. He died m 
Zanesville, March 26, 1843. 

John S. Parkinson came in 1810, and moved 
his family into a log house on the northeast 
corner of Fountain alley and Third street. Dur- 
ing the war of 18 12 he began transporting com- 
missary stores, and finally entered the army. At 
the close of the war Captain Parkinson bought a 
farm about two miles southeast of the city. In 
1820 he made brick for the Northup warehouse ; 
in 1828 he was one of the Ohio Canal contractors, 
and, subsequently, for many years a Justice of the 
Peace in Wayne township. He died in 187 1. 


Section i. Be it enacted by the General As- 
sembly of the State of Ohio, that all that part of 
the town of Zanes.ville, in the county of Mus- 
kingum, included in the original plat thereoi, 
now on record in the county of Washington, to- 
gether with all the additional lots since added 
thereto on the east side of the river Muskingum, 
and now on record in the county of Muskingum, 
be, and the same is hereby erected into a town 
corporate, and shall henceforth be known and 
distinguished by the name of the "Borough of 
Zanesville," subject, however, to such alterations 
and regulations as the Legislature may from time 
to. time think proper to make." 

The remaining twelve sections of this act pro- 
vide for the election of officers ; the judges of 
election to be elected viva voce ; the oath and 
manner of conducting the election ; the corpora- 
tion may sue and be sued ;rmay have a common 
seal ; the trustees may fill vacancies and make 
by-Laws. ; provided, no laws shall ever be 
made by them subjecting cattle or hogs not be- 
longing to the inhabitants of said Borough to be 
taken up and sold for coming within the bounds 
of said corporation. The Trustees were author- 
ized to lay a tax, provided the "tax so laid in 
any one year shall not exceed one half per cent, 
on the value thereof," and provides that the 
Town Marshall shall be the collector, and pay 
over to the Treasurer all sums of money levied 
for the use of said Borough, within three months 
from the time of receiving the duplicate thereof, 
and the Treasurer's receipt shall be his voucher 
upon settlement with the Mayor, Recorder and 
Trustees ; the manner of collecting tax ; the 
Marshall and Treasurer's bond : appeal allowed 
to court ; the regulation of imprisonment. This 
act was signed by John Pollock, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, and Othniel Looker, 
Speaker of the Senate, and bears date January 
21, 1814. Januarj)- 16, 1S18, an act was passed 
d,efining the limits of Zanesville. This descrip- 
tion will be found in the record entitled "the 
Town Plat of Zanesville and the siibsequent ad- 
ditions thereto and subdivisions of lots." 

At the earnest solicitation of some old settlers, 
we give the following list of the boys and girls 
of 1820 and 1821, revised by L. P. Bailey: 

TiiK Boys. — Isaac Dillon, James and Henry 
Granger, Robert Hazlett, James V. Cushing, 
Jno. and William Latimore, Thomas Planner, 
Caleb Johnson, Nathaniel and Charles Wilson, 
Gordius, Pascal and Samuel Hall, David Spang- 
ler, Charles Hill. Jno. Bliss, Charles Cleveland, 
Benjamin Reeve, C. B. Goddard, Chas. Gilbert, 
Richard Stilwell, Bernard Van Home, Wm. 
Carhart, Franklin Van Home, Jefferson Van 
Home, Henry Orndorff, Ezekiel T. Cox, Horatio 
Cox, James Ragnet, Dillon Brooks, Gilbert 
McFadden, Samuel Richmond, Leonard P. 
Bailey, Erasmus Downer, Thomas, William, 
Georg6 and Charles Adams, John, Jacob, Adam 
and Martin Peters, Dickinson, Thos. 



Hughes, Peter Mills, Jr., Thomas Shepherd, 
Thomas Goft", Isaiah Miller, John Huntington, 
Michael Diilty, Robert Campbell, Samuel 
Campbell, Wm. Thompson, James Doster Paul 
Hahn, Jesse Roberts, Jno. K. Barret, Geo. W. 
O'Harra, Jonas, Henry and Edward Stanbery, 
Wm. Harris, Isaac and Jno. Sockman, Jno. 
Harrison, Geo. Menely, Geo. Hahn, Lucius 
Dubois, R. S. Bostwick, Joseph Springer, 

Thomas Miller, Bradley, Zerieth Fulton, 

George and Septimus Parker, Noah Z. Mercer, 
Joseph Thrap, Thomas Mart, (Dr.) Burnham, 
Joseph .Chambers, John Rogers, Benjamin 
Wheeler, Franklin Putnam, George L. Clapp, 
Joseph R. Thomas, Geo. Worts, Jesse and Jno. 
Dare, Harvey, Robert and Jonas Saffbrd, George 
White, Wm. Snashall, Solomon Sturges, Wm. 
Hadley, Milton B. and. Zattoo Custing, Cyrus 
Meriam, Austin Guthire, Brainard Spencer, Ira 
Belknap, Washington Haver, Peter Miser, 
Samtiel Glass, James Goshen, James Mathews, 
Samuel Russell, John Harrison and George 

The Girls. — Harriet, Sophia and Augusta 
Convers, Amelia Mclntire, Caroline Calhoun, 
Lizzie and Marian Mart, Ann and Susan Sulli- 
van, Harriet Hampson, — '■ Wilson, Elizabeth 

and Ann Shepherd, Harriet and Ann Walpole, 
Harriet Wesley, Rosanna Perry, Mary Pelham, 
Matilda Strayer, Sarah Ann Waglum, Ellen 
Worden, Theresa Carhar.t, Kesiah Dillon, Eliza 
Price, Betsy Doster, Lavinia Hahn, Mary Hahn, 
Sarah, Eliza and Charlotte Spangler, "Kitty" 
Helton, Eliza Peters, Margaret and Mary Ann 
Thompson, Catharine and Elizabeth Harkins, 
Eliza Culbertson, Frances Strickland, Sarah and 
Patience Van Horn, Maria and Ann Chambei-s, 
Jane and Mary Flood, Caroline Reeve, Mary 
and Minerva Herrick, Melvina Mitchell, Louisa 
and Matilda Moorehead, Lucinda Molsberry, 
Louisa and Deborah Silliman, Emily Cum- 
mings, Jane Putnam, Lucy Reed, Lucy Bell, 
Eliza Dare, Melissa, Abigail and Sarah 
Mathews, Amanda and Eliza Buckingham, 

Abigail and Catharine Tupper, Glass, 

-Marvin, Sarah Fairlamb, Nancy Stick- 

ney, Jerusha Hale, Mary Pardy, Mary Gould 
and Mary A. Sloan. 

The foregoing recitals concerning the early 
settlers of Zanesville have been gleaned from 
notes resulting from repeated interviews with 
them or their descendants, by Mr. E. H. Church, 
and however barren they may seem to those who 
have no memories awakened by them, it is but 
simple justice to say that they are a noble monu- 
ment to the painstaking and adherence to truth 
that characterized Mr. Church. And as the 
years go by, and history again repeats itself, 
whoever will undertake a similar task will at 
least fed constrained to join in this tribute to his 
■memory. There are those now living, possibly, 
who will take these texts and from them utter 
sermons of instruction, but it was not the good 
fortune of Mr. Church or the writer of these 
pages to disco-i^er Jhem. We hear them say- 
ing : 

" We are gathered here together in the light of happy years, 
To relume our lives with the memories of the hardy pioneers ; 
We, the children they have nurtured ; we, the children they 

have blest, 
In the valley, by the river, where their holy ashes rest; 
In the valley their afflictions and their blood have sanctified ; 
By the river, golden-storied with their worth and virtues 


These were the foundation stones of which 
"the City of Natural Advantages" may well be 
proud. That they each bore an important part 
in the fabrication of the present high state of 
prosperity, and the social ties, termed good 
society, will more fully appear as we trace their 
evolutions. For covenience in this exhibit, we 
have arranged the industries in alphabetic order. 

Bakeries. — The first to meet the demand for 
bread in this region were Mre. Samuel Parker, 
Mrs. Christian Spangler, and Mrs. Hillier, in 
1807. They baked bread and cakes in "dutch 
ovens," and sold the bread at a "fip" {6i cts.) 
per pound, and cakes at a "bit" (12^ cts.) per 
dozen. The following year one L. Hatman 
opened a "bake- shop" on the site now occupied 
by Blocksom's drug store. Lewis Verden bought 
Hatman out and added the manufacture of candy , 
and after some years sold out to Smith & Nefley, 
who in turn sold to Henry Willey. Such were 
the beginnings of this business in Zanesville. 

Book-Binders. — In 1816 J. Skinner & Co. 
started the first book-bindery. In 18 17 they sold 
the establishment to A. S. Pennington & Co., 
who sold it back to J. Skinner & Co. in 1819. 

Previous to 1822, the proprietors of the "Mus- 
kingum Messenger" inaugurated a bindery. 
May 22d, . 1822, the business passed into the 
hands of Ezekiel T. Cox & Co. 

Sullivan & Parsons' Book-Bindery was 
established in 1865, by Captain Hugh Dunn, a 
practical book-binder, who began in a small, 
brick building that occupied a part of the ground 
now the sight of the Court House, fronting near- 
ly opposite the Atheneum as now situated. This 
building was afterwards enlarged to two stories, 
and known as "14 North Fourth street." He 
subsequently added a "job office," and soon 
gained a liberal patronage, printing letter-heads, 
bill-heads, and statements, chiefly. In 1869 
Mr. E. R. Sullivan was admitted to partnership, 
and the establishment was conducted by Dunn 
& Sullivan. In 1870 Mr. Dunn retired and was 
succeeded by Henry Brown, and the business 
was done by Sullivan & Brown. The establish- 
ment had to vacate their old stand in 1873, to 
make room for the new Court House, and they 
then occupied No. 87 Star Block. The working 
department was divided and under special man- 
agement from 1869 to 1874 — ^^^ book-bindery 
under management of Mr. H. H. Barker and 
the job printing under Mr. Hiram Mercer, both 
skilled workmen. 

In 1875 ^^^ '^'^^l change was effected, when 
Henry Brown retired and was succeeded by 
Henry Parsons, a practical printer, formerly of 



the "Courier" office. In October they moved into 
Maginnis Block, and purchased the frame build- 
in the rear formei'ly occupied by F. Abel, which 
is occupied with engine, presses, etc. 

In 1876 the bindery passed under the control 
of Robert Campbell, a skilled workman, and 
the job printing under the management of Henry 
Parsons, with Mr. Sullivan as manager of the 
general business, including the "Times" printing 
establishment, with which it is connected. 

Sandel's Bindery, and Book and Job Print- 
ing Establishment. — L. D. Sandel started his 
job printing office at No. 101 Main street in 1870, 
and moved to his present location, No. I'ji North 
Fourth street, in June, 1876, having purchased 
the property ; and soon after he purchased the 
machinery and tools for a first-class bindery — a 
Hickock ruling machine, pageing machine, table 
shears, two presses, and improved tools. 

The printing press is run by a Baxter engine, 
and the job office is supplied with full fonts of 
modern type, borders, cuts, and fancy orna- 
ments. The force employed averages six per- 
sons, including the proprietor. His work has 
been for parties in adjoining counties and out of 
the State, as well as for generous patrons at 

The Courier Book-Bindery was established 
April 1st, 1880. It is fitted up with the latest 
improved machinery for manufacturing all kinds 
of blank books, binding magazines, journals, 
etc., and is superintended by J. D. Rea, former- 
ly of Dayton, Ohio, one of the most competent 
book-binders in the State. This establishment 
is located in a part of the "Courier" office. No. 32 
Opera Block, and was inaugurated by the enter- 
prising managers of the "Courier" Newspaper 
and Job Printing House, now too well known to 
need commendation. 

Brewers. — The first brewery in Zanesville 
was by a Philadelphian, whose name has not 
found a record or lodgment in anybody's mem- 
ory, but was purchased by one George Painter 
in 1807. It was located on the site now the 
northwest corner of South and Fifth streets. 
Painter continued to brew thereuntil 1811, when 
he sold to Jacob Young, who continued the busi- 
ness until 1815, when he abandoned the business. 
In 1813, about the 17th of November, William 
Marshall opened a brewery in a frame building 
on the site occupied by Power House, No. 3. 
James Boyd was his brewer, and made about 
thirty barrels per week. In 181 5 Barton & Mc- 
Gowan bought the concern and turned it into a 
distillery. In 1816 Joseph Lattimore built a 
brewery on the site occupied now by Miller & 
Company, pork packers. Caleb Johnson was 
the brewer. In 1829 Ballentine & Son bought 
the property and continued the business until 
1835, when the concern was converted into a 
flour mill. In 1835 C. F. Hass built what was 
known as the American House Brewery, and 
operated it until 1841 . At the death of Mr. Hass, 
about 1850, John Classman bought the property 
and continued the business three years ; it was 
then sold to WilHam Fox. In 1843 Christian F. 

Achauer built, near the head of Main street. 
This brewery had a capacity of three thousand 
barrels per annum. 

In 1854 Rev. George F. Goebel and Conrad 
Fischer built a small brewery on the northeast 
corner of Spring and High streets. They 
brewed about two hundred and fifty barrels an- 
nually. In 1856 Mr. Fischer withdrew and 
Goebel sold the property to Kirsner & Horn, 
who continued it until 1865, when the property 
was sold to John A. Bremer & Co. 

In 1855 Edward Didas began to brew in a 
small way. In 1856 Conrad Fischer went into 
the business again. In 1874 the firm of Fischer 
Brothers made 2,373 barrels of beer. In i860 
Sebastian Bohn began brewing ; in 1879 ^^ ^'^^'^ 
117 barrels of beer. In 1865 the partnership 01 
Horn & Co. — consisting of Adolph Horn, Frank 
Kirsner, Adolph and Edward Merkle — was 
formed, and in 1869 the Merkle brothers bought 
out their partners and have since done business 
under the name of Merkle Brothers, and in 1876 
they brewed 3,407 barrels of beer. 

Bridges. — An act of the Legislature, session 
of 181 2, authorized Levi Whipple and others to 
erect a toll bridge over the Muskingum river, 
and provided for the location, which was about 
the same as the present Putnam bridge. The 
charter was for ninety-nine years. Mr. Whip- 
ple associated with him Ebenezer Buckingham, 
Benjamin Tupper and. Dr. Increase Mathews, 
and at once began to construct the bridge, which 
was completed in 18 13. This was not a covered 
bridge, and the piers, though the same that now 
support the Putnam bridge, were not carried up 
to their present height by eight feet. In the 
lapse of four or five years the superstructure fell 
down, and it was rebuilt about i8i8ori8i9by 
"Father Goshen," on his own plan. May 27th, 
1845, at night, this bridge was burned. The 
loss was estimated at about fifteen thousand dol- 
lars. The work of rebuilding was commenced 
immediately. Mr. C.,P. Buckingham (now of 
Chicago)' informs us that he had the piers fin- 
ished as they now are, and the superstructure 
built on the same general plan as the upper 
bridge. The Main street bridge was built soon 
after the Putnam bridge. Jacob Houck built 
the stone pier under the forks, which was com- 
pleted in 18 13. The woodwork was finished in 
1814. Samuel Parker was toll-keeper until a 
portion of the east end of the bridge fell into the 
river in 1818. Mr. C. P. Buckingham informs 
us that it was the crumbling of one of the piers 
on which the new superstructure rested tempo- 
rarily until the "new pier close to it could be 
built up and take the load," that caused the 
bridge to fall. Mr. E. H. Church furnished the 
following on this subject: "August 21, 1832, 
a great freshet had drawn a large number of 
people to the bridge, apprehending danger of its 
being carried away ; and, strange to relate, with 
this danger staring them in the face, many were 
on the bridge, when suddenly about three hun- 
dred feet of the east end of the bridge fell into 
the swollen torrent ; among those who went 



down into the angry tide were Ebenezer Buck- 
ingham and Jacob Boyd. Mr. Buckingham's 
body was recovered a few days after, about four 
miles below the city, by a Mr. Bliss, who received 
the reward of five hundred dollars offered by the 
family. It is not known whether Mr. Boyd's 
body was recovered or not. The bridge was 
repaired soon after, and th^ bridges were subse- 
quently made free bridges through the agency of 
Edward Ball and others. 

The Fifth street bridge was built by the Smith 
Bridge Co., Toledo, O., in 1878 ; the stone work 
was done by Thomas B. Townsend. The total 
cost was twenty-one thousand dollars. 

Burying Cases. — As late as 1802 these were 
made of bark, peeled from trees of the proper 
size to inclose the body ; were lined with leaves 
and dry grass and bound together with withes or 
sometimes with cords. 

In 1802 the first coffin was made of boards ; it 
was for Dr. Increase Mathews' first wife ; the 
second was made soon after for "Gracy," daugh- 
ter of Andrew Crooks. They were made by 
Richard McBride. The first hearse seen— here 
was owned by John P. Stevens and Henry Mus- 
sellman — it was without trimming or lining. 

In 1837 the first regular undertaker, Louis 
Brenholtz, offered his services. He had a fine 
hearse built by William Shultz. The first ready- 
made coffins were kept by James Cherry, of 

The "King of Terrors" has since made his 
havoc more general, and mankind, becoming 
more familiar with the inevitable, have demanded 
that the habiliments for the dead be kept in read- 
iness. To say that this demand has been met 
in all its requirements is to repeat a familiar 
story ; and to attempt a description of these 
things would be as futile as to detail the minu- 
tige of the fashions — for fashion has entered this 
arena with its inexorable laws. 

In 1867 Edmund N. Hatcher commenced un- 
dertaking, and in 1873 took his son into partner- 
ship, and soon after joined John H. Crooks in 
the manufacture of coffins ; they were also deal- 
ers in undertakers' supplies. This partnership 
was dissolved January ist, 1877, and the parties 
severally went into business for themselves. In 
1878 Mr. E. N. Hatcher became the author and 
publisher of the "Funeral Guide," a very useful 
work, "giving the minutest detail of the whole 
funeral obsequies." 

In 1869 Jonathan Hatcher, I. G. Hatcher and 
Jesse F. Hather, under the firm name of Jonathan 
Hatcher & Sons, erected the frame building now 
occupied by them. [A part of this building was 
built by S. S. Mann & Jacob Smith about 1854.] 
Here they commenced the first coffin manufac- 
tory in Zanesville. The material, chiefly poplar 
and black walnut, was purchased in W. Virginia, 
and the pine from the pineries of the North. This 
firm continued until 1872, when it was changed 
to J. Hatcher «& Co., and in 1879 was changed 
and incorporated as a stock company, called the 
Zanesville Coffin Company, with a capital of 
fifty thousand dollars, and the following officers :, 

President, Jonathan Hatcher ; Secretary and 
Treasurer, Jesse F. Hatcher. Board of Direc- 
tors : Jonathan Hatcher, I. G. Hatcher, and Jesse 
F. Hatcher. They use water power furnished by 
the Improved Muskingum Water Power System. 
They require one traveling agent, and the 
amount of goods sold annually has reached fifty 
thousand dollars. Seven thousand coffins, besides 
robes, are manufactured yearly. Their office is 
at 108 Main street. 

In 1 87 1 Henry Sneerer began undertaking in 
the Maginnis Block (North Fifth street), and in 
1873 sold out to John H. Crooks, who continued 
the business at that place until April, 1879, when 
he removed to 38 North Fifth street and con- 
tinues the business, supplying and manufactur- 

Carpenters. — A Mr. Lewis and a Mr. Smith 
arrived in Zanestown May 10, 1801, and were 
employed by John Mclntire at carpentering. In 
the spring o"f 1805 John Van Home, in company 
with his uncle, Isaac VanHorne (the General), 
arrived, and soon after John began working at 
his trade. He built a hewed log house on Pine 
street, in the Seventh Ward, which was subse- 
quently weather-boarded and painted white, a 
new occurrence for those days, as it was there- 
after known as " the White House . ' ' During this 
year also Wm. Craig was engaged at carpen- 
tering. In 1806 he was elected Justice of the 
Peace. He built a hewed log house for himself 
on the northwest corner of Market and Fourth 
streets. He was associated with Thomas More- 
head in building the first M. E. Church in 1813. 
During 1805 J. Marpole, of Bucks county. Pa., 
came to Zanestown, but abandoned his trade for 
politics. Noyce Stone came soon alter, and he, 
too, "went into politics." 

Daniel and Allen McLain came May 2d, 
1806; "their first work was on Wm. Mont- 
gomery's tavern," the first frame house built in 
Zanestown. They also did the wood work on a 
brick house built in Zanestown. They also did 
the wood work on a brick house built the same 
year for Monroe and Convers on the southeast 
corner of Main and Fifth streets. This was the 
first brick house built in Zanestown. 

John A. Cochran arrived in the spring of 
1806, and was employed by General Green to 
erect a frame dwelling at the head of Fountain 

Samuel Chapman came in the summer of this 
year and built a frame house for Benjamin Tup- 
per. This is thought to have been the second 
frame building erected in Zanestown. 

Richard Brookover worked at his trade dur- 
ing this year. His family lived with Wm. 
Langley, in a cabin which stood in Fountain al- 
ley in . the rear of the Courier office as now lo- 
cated. Here his daughter, Increase, was born. 

June 8th, 1808, Gilbert Blue and his young 
bride arrived from Pittsburg, Pa. In 1820 he 
erected a frame dwelling for Rev. David Young, 
on the southwest corner of Second and Main 
sti-eets. In 1824 he built a three-story frame for 
a hotel for Fulton & Parker on the site now oc- 



cupied by the "Clarendon" ; and in 1845-6 
he and Robert Hazlett built the steamer "Put- 

Joseph Hocking came in 1808 ; during the 
winter of 1809-10 he surperintended the carpenter 
work on the residence of Alexander M. Laugh- 
lin, corner of Sixth and Market streets. 

Captain James Hampson was in Zanestown in 
1801, but did not locate here until June, 1809, 
when he became one of the contractors for the 
erection of the State House. He was subse- 
quentl}' well known as a contractor. 

William Blocksom came in 1809 and was asso- 
ciated with James Hampson in building the State 
House. In 18 17 he formed a partnership 

with Mr. Fracker, and they built many 


James Millis came in 1820 ; his first work was 
on the Northrup warehouse at' the foot of Filth 
street. In 1822 he built for himself a two-story 
brick dwelling on the southeast corner of Sixth 
and Marietta streets. In 1828-9 he built the 
first brick M. E. Church (Rev. Nathan Emory, 
pastor), and did the carpenter woi-k on the sec- 
ond M. E. Church in 1842- Mr. Millis was 
ninety-five years old January 30, 1880, and oc- 
cupied the house No. 96 South Sixth street, 
built by him in 1822. 

Carpet Weavers. — The first person to en- 
gage in carpet weaving, in 1812, had a room 
on" the northeast corner of Fourth and Spruce 
streets. In 1818 James Covington was doing 
carpet weaving one and a half miles west of 

In 1818 Moses Dillon built woolen mills at the 
mouth of the Licking river and put in a patent 
loom for making all wool ingrain carpets and 
coverlets. The style of those goods was known 
as the "Rose and Thistle" pattern. One of 
those carpets was presented as a wedding gift 
to Mrs. Dr. Washington Morehead, March 21st, 
1830, and seems to have been a very notable 
event, as mention is made of it in several places 
in old chronicles. 

Ci-ocK Makers. — Richard and George 
Reeve, Sr., were engaged in this and the jewel- 
ry business as early as 1809. Their place of 
business was on Third street near the site now 
occupied by Jones & Abbott's foundry. They 
made the old time tall case clock, to stand on 
the floor — one for Dr. Increase Mathews, one 
for John Mclntire, and one for L. P. Bailey. 
The latter is in good preservation and bids fair 
to last a century. About 1815 the firm removed 
to what is now No. 92 Main street, and were 
subsequently succeeded by Harry S afford and 
Charles Dickinson. During this year Francis 
Cleveland and John Bliss were in the business 
on Main street opposite the court house. Mr. 
Charles Hill was in their employ and subse- 
quently formed a partnership with Mr. A. C. 
Ross in the jewelry and watch making busi- 
ness. They were, also, superior copper plate 
engravers, and made many of the "shin-plaster" 

Cotton Factory. — In 1829 Jeremiah Dare 
built a machine shop in the upper story 
of his woolen factory, having sent to 
Baltimore, • Maryland, for skilled work- 
men — Elias Ebert, Benjamin J. Wood, George 

Martin, Shipley and John Pardington — 

and constructed the machinery for a cotton fac- 
tory which was built,in the building now used 
by Duval & Co., northeast corner of Third and 
Market streets. Mr. Dare and his son John D. 
Dare operated this mill until 1832, when they 
turned the lower story into a machine shop, 
where they made cotton and wool manufacturing 
machinery. They made cotton yarn and bat- 
ting. Cotton yarn was legal tender hereabouts 
in those days. Their store was in a one-story 
frame building that stood on the northwest cor- 
ner of Third and Main streets, the site now oc- 
cupied by Joseph Crosby's grocery store. Dur- 
ing the month of December, 1846, a subscription 
was taken among the business men for the pur- 
pose of establishing a cotton mill on a larger 
scale, and a company known as the Zanesville 
Cotton Mill was inaugurated with the following 
stockholders : 

John A. Adams, George A. Jones, Wm. GaH- 
gher, Nathan Gattrell, Stephen R. Hosmer, 
Adam Peters, James L. Cox, Samuel Cox, E. 
E. Filmore, David H. Lyman, J. V. Cushing 
and Daniel Convers, subscribing, together, four- 
teen thousand dollars, and Richard HufF sub- 
scribing seven thousand dollars ; a total of twen- 
ty-one thousand dollars. 

The company organized by electing the fol- 
lowing officers : President, John A. Adams ; 
Secretary, David H. Lyman ; General Superin- 
tendent, Richard HufF. 

The first month's work reported, beginning 
January loth, 1847, and ending February 6th, 
1847, was as follows: 

Yarns, pounds of, 6,409 : batting, pounds of, 
2,115 ; made on 500 spindles. Mr. Huft^ informs 
us that he could start the cotton at the picker 
and in three hours have it ready for sale. 

In 1854 Mr. Galigher built a large cotton mill 
on the southwest corner of Underwood and Zane 
streets, and manufactured sheeting, batting and 
yarns, continuing in the business until his 
death, February 17, i860. The mill was subse- 
quently sold to Mr. E. Mathews. The machin- 
ery was purchased by Richard Hufl", a skilled 
workman, and superintendent of the Zanesville 
Cotton Mill. Mr. N. White superintended for 
Mr. Galigher, and was well skilled in the busi- 

The date of sale of the Zanesville Cotton 
Mill does not appear from the records at our ser- 
vice, but under the subsequent management it 
appears that " the purchasers met at the office 
of George James, in June, 1855, and George 
James acted as chairman, and William Taylor 
as secretary." " The capital stock, for the 
present, is fixed at the same, twenty thousand 
dollars, to be divided into shares of five hundred 
dollars each ; each stockholder to be allowed 


In 1837 Lawson Wiles, the present senior member of the 
house, settled at Zanesville. He was born in Frederick county, 
Maryland, July 3, 1814. During the spring of 1815 the family 
removed to Springfield township, Muskingum county. Here 
were passed the days of boyhood and youth, receiving the ben- 
efits of a practical education. In his •seventeenth year he 
began life as a teacher in one of the subscription schools. 
From 1831 to 1837 during the winter season he officiated as a 
teacher, and in the summer profitably eajployed his time upon 
a farm. In 1837 Mr. Wiles made a purchase of a small stock 
of groceries, and began in business in what is now the Ninth 
ward. This store was located on the Main street at that time, 
and a removal was subsequently made to a larger store, oppo- 
site the old Market House, on the corner of Putnam avenue 
and Madison street. The business grew steadily from that 

SONS, Zanesville, Ohio. 

time until the present. 8. L. and C. C. Wiles, who were edu- 
cated to business pursuits from their earliest years, were 
admitted to partnership in 1870. The new firm, abandoning 
their old business quarters in Putnam street, moved to what is 
commonly termed Zanesville, and embarked in an exclusive 
wholesale and retail dry goods trade at No. 93 Main street, 
where a. prosperous trade was transacted up to 1871. That 
year they occupied the old building on the present site of the 
new brick. This structure was completed in 1876. It is three 
stories in height, one hundred and eight feet deep, and twenty 
feet wide. It is undeniably the best adapted for the purpose 
for which it is intended of any similar establishment in the 
city. All goods are purchased at a low figure, imported and 
otherwise, principally for cash, and purchasers are assured of 
low prices and reliable goods. 

THE SHINNICK BLOCK, Mam Street, Zanesville. 

In 1839 W. M. Shinnick, the senior member of the firm of 
Shinnick & Sullivan, first settled in Zanesville. For a period 
of years he was engaged in the manufacture of rope, in connec- 
tion with his brother, who had previously moved to the town. 
In 1848 he embarked in the stove and house-furnishing trade, 
in which he has since remained. To Mr. Shinnick is due the 
credit of Zanesville having one of the largest stove foundries 
in the State. It was projected in 1865 and completed in 1869, 
at an estimated cost of $75,000. This is to-day, and has been 
from the start, one of the soundest institutions of the West. 
In 1880 John C. Sullivan was admitted to partnership in the 
stove and house-furnishing department of Mr. Shinnick's ex- 
tensive business. In March of 1882, the firm began the erec- 
tion of a new building, where ample storage capacity could be 

secured, due to the vast proportions their trade was assuming. 
The Shinnick Block was completed at the close of the summer 
of 1882, and is one of the finest business blocks in the city. It 
was erected at a large cost; is three stories in height, with a 
front of seventy-five feet, and is ninety-five feet in depth. The 
store was opened to the public September 5th, 1882. The third 
floor IS intended for a public hall. It is well ventilated, well 
lighted, contains twenty-five large windows, and is one of the 
public halls in the city. It was leased by the Knights of 
Labor, prior to the erection of the building, and is elegantly 
furnished. Mr. Shinnick is Vice President of the First Na- 
tional Bank. He also holds a prominent position in the 
Masonic fraternity. 



one vote for each share of stock paid up." The 
following is a list of the shareholders : 

Biizil Burton, eight shares of $500 $4,000 

Jes^5e Duvitll, eiKht shares of $5U0 4 000 

S. R. Hosiner, four shares of $500 2,000 

Wm. Galigher, four slmre^^ of $500 2,000 

.1. A. Adams, four sli^res of $500 2,000 

Samuel Clark fom- shares of $500 2,000 

George James, four shares of $00 2,000 

.J. Galigher, !wo shares of $500 1,000 

Ailam Peters, two sliares < f $500 1,000 

Total, forty shares $20,000 

The Star Cotton Mii-ls Company gave a 
deed of trust to W. A. Graham and C. W . Pot- 
win, which was foreclosed and the property 
sold to Hoover and Allison, the present proprie- 
tors, February 27, 1879. R. A. Kelly, general 
manager, and General Artemus Schofield super- 
intendent. The cotton is shipped from Mem- 
phis and Nashville, Tenn., and other choice 
markets in the South. The appliances for pre- 
paring the cotton for working into the products 
of the mill are among the best ; the mill contains 
eighteen cards and two thousand spindles. The 
products of the mills are 50D pounds carpet 
woof, 300 pounds of rope, in various sizes, 250 
pounds seamless bags and 400 pounds wrapping 
twine, per day ; and the firm employ seventy-five 
hands ; the monthly pay-roll is about $ i .400. 
This industry has had many a struggle since its 
inception, but, judging from the business now 
done, success is crowning the enterprise. It is 
among the most important of the many manu- 
facturing establishments in Zanesville. 

Dams. — About 1810, Isaac Zane, son of Jona- 
than Zane, yielding to the advice of his father, 
built the first dam at Zanesville. The tradition 
is that the elder Zane promised his son a half in- 
terest in the dam if he would build it. To com- 
plete the work, Isaac had to borrow two thous- 
and dollars, to secure which he mortgaged a 
thirty acre tract of land, owned by him. When 
the dam was completed, the old gentleman came 
over from Wheeling, on horseback, and sold the 
dam to Moses Dillon and Sons, put the money 
into his saddle-bags and returned to Wheeling, 
leaving his son two thousand dollars in debt! 
and no interest in the dam. The effect of this 
act, if the story is true, was to build another 
damn, in the minds of those who sympathized 
with young Zane. The former was called " the 
Licking Dam," and the latter was prefixed with 
an invocation to Deity. 

The next dam was provided for by charter, as 
follows : 

"Charter granted John Mclntire and his as- 
sociates, to erect a dam above the Licking, at 
a point nearly opposite Market street. 
"The said dam to commence at an abutment 
made in the river, two chains from the east bank 
of said river, in circular form, to an abutment 
on the west bank of said river. The said dam 
not to exceed a level of five feet at the abutment 
in the rjygr ; and build a slope of thirty feet wide, 

one .inch fall to every foot in length. The said 
John Mclntire and associates shall, at all times, 
keep the slope in good repair for the passage of 
rafts. From the abutment in the river, near the 
eastern bank, he shall erect a wing dam, par- 
allel with the bank of the river, the wing dam to 
extend from the abutment to a point of rocks op- 
posite to the terminus of an alley, which passes 
by the house of said Mclntire (Fountain alley) ; 
the said John Mclntire and associates shall con- 
struct good and sufficient locks for boats ascend- 
ing and descending the river ; the locks to be 
not less than twenty-five feet wide, and not less 
than ninety feet long ; to keep said locks in good 
repair, and keep a person to lock the crafts 
through, without delay, and free of expense to 
the owners of the crafts. John Mclntire and 
associates to be granted the permission to cut the 
canal one chain and fifty links, below the lower 
( Putnam )bridge ; the water to pass into the river 
through locks built of good cut sandstone, 
twenty-five feet wide and ninety feet long ; to be 
granted the privilege of collecting toll at these 
locks when constructed, at the rate of twenty- 
five cents per ton for every boat or water craft ; 
crafts with a capacity of less than a ton, six 
cents for every hundred weight ; every empty 
porogue, or canoe, twenty-five cents. John Mc- 
lntire and associates to pay all expenses tor 
keeping the locks in repair ; the dam and canal 
to be completed within six j-ears after the pas- 
sage of this act. 

Mathias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House. 
Thomas Kirker, 
President of the Senate. 
Passed Feb. 21, 1812." 

DisTiLi^ERiEs. — The first distillery was built 
on Mill run, near Zanestown, in 1808, by Spen- 
cer Lahew. 

In 1813, Barton and McGowan had a distillery 
on the site now occupied by Power House, No. 3. 

In 1815, Valentine Best paid a tax of $566.79 
for manufacturing whisky. Spencer Lahew 
paid a tax of $159.20 ; Joseph Sheets paid a tax 
of $550.40 ; and John Sidell paid a tax of 
$332.27. The location of the latter two is 

Express Companies. — The first business of 
this kind, in Zanesville, was the "Pony Ex- 
press," inaugurated by the Postoffice Depart- 
ment at Washington, D. C, in 1836, to carry 
important mail and other light matter. This ex- 
.press passed through this city to Columbus, and 
made the trip between the two places in five 
hours. The distance was estimated at fifty-four 
miles. Mr. A. B. Dumm was one of the ex- 
press riders from Zanesville to Columbus. Dur- 
ing this year, D.Tallmadge started and ran "mail 
stage lines between Zanesville (Ohio) and Mays- 
ville (Kentucky). The Bainbridge and Cincin- 
nati, Lancaster and Columbus Pilot line, of four- 
horse post coaches, leaves Zanesville every 
morning at 8 o'clock, running through Lancas- 
ter, Chillicothe and Bainbridge, to Maysville, 



(Kentucky), connecting at Bainbridge with this 
line to Cincinnati, through Maysville in 36 hours, 
or to Cincinnati in 48 hours. For seats in Zanes- 
ville, apply at the office of Neil, Moore & Co.'s 
General Stage Office, National House." 

Prior to 1846, James D. Burr, Charles E. 

Brown, and Himple, were running a daily 

stage line over the National road, between 
Wheeling and Zanesville ; and during this year 
they began a regular express business, in con- 
nection with Cass & Co.'s Ohio River Express. 
Henry Orundorf was the first Zanesville agent. 
He had his office in the old stage tavern. This 
express business fell into the hands of the Adams 
Express Company, in July, 1854. '^^^ present 
officer and assistants of this company, are : 
Thomas Brown, agent; Thomas Scott, bill 
clerk, and John Scott, driver. Office, 15 North 
Fourth street. The American 'Expregs Company 
opened their office April ist, 1852. A. C. Ross, 
then a jeweler, acted as their first agent, at a 
salary of fifty dollars per annum. 

The B. & O. Express Company opened their 
office in Zanesville, September 12th, 1871. Their 
present officers are : J. C. Gerwick, agent ; 
Frank Schultz, clerk. Office, Main street, next 
to Deposit Bank. 

File Manufactory. — In 1854, Henr}^ Rockel 
inaugurated this industry, and still continues the 
business, having made it a success. 

Founders and Machinists. — In 1819, Thos. 
L. Pierce started a foundry on the site now owned 
by Jacob Smith & Co. In 1827, Richmond and 
Robert Bostwick purchased the business. In 
1832, John A. Adams and Benjamin Wheeler be- 
came their successors. In 1839, *^hey built on the 
site now occupied by Jones & Abbott, and con- 
tinued the business until 1848, when the firm 
changed to Gilbert & Wheeler, who continued 
the business until 1863, when Sullivan & Herd- 
man became proprietors. In 1866, Charles H. 
Jones was admitted to the firm, and in 1871 
Charles H. Abbott became a partner, and the 
firm name was changed to Jones & Abbott, who 
continue the business on an extensive scale. 

In 1826, William Blocksom and John T. 
Fracker built a foundry in Fountain alley, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh streets, where they 
conducted a general foundry business until the 
fall of 1833, when Mr. Fracker withdrew, and 
was succeeded by George Wand, A. P. Block- 
som, (son of William Blocksom), and Henry 
Blandy, who did business under the name of 
Blocksom, Blandy & Co., and soon after leased 
the Dillon's Falls Furnace and Forge, for two 
years, when they did business under the name 
of Dillon, Blandy & Co., and in 1835 this firm 
dissolved. In 1838, Henry Blandy, William 
Blocksom, aud his sons, G. W. and A. P. 
formed a partnership, and operated under the 
name of Blocksom, Blandy & Co., and contin- 
ued the business until 1840, when Mr. Blandy 
withdrew and formed the firm of H. and F. 
Blandy, who prepared for a large business, and 
in 1866 employed three hundred and twenty 

men, and did business amounting to seven hun- 
dred and eighty thousand dollars. Their busi- 
ness has been constantly increasing and is now 
very large. 

In 1830, John D. Dare andElias Ebert began 
to do business, under the name of Dare & Ebei't, 
and built the first steam engine made in Zanes- 
ville. In 1832, this firm became Dare, Whitaker 
& Co., and continued the business until 1837, 
when Ebert and Whitaker withdrew and built a 
new shop, on the corner of Sixth and Main 
streets, where they operated until 1840, and the'n 
built the shops now occupied by Griffith & 
Wedge, on South Fifth street. This establish- 
ment passed into the hands of Griffith & Wedge 
about 1856, and they continue to do business 
there, with very greatly enlarged buildings and 

In 1839, John T. Fracker and his son, John T., 
built a small foundry, on the southwest corner pf 
Locust alley and Sixth street, where they made 
small castings, chiefly. In 1850 this firm changed 
to John T. Fracker & Bro., and in 1852 to John 
T. Fracker, Jr., who continued the business un- 
til 1870. 

In 185 1, the firm of Douglas, Smith & Co. 
was formed, and carried on the foundry business 
until the breaking out of the War of the Rebel- 
lion, and was then changed to Douglas Brothers, 
but failed soon after. 

January ist, 1866, William M. Shinnick, 
Daniel Hatton, George D. Gibbons, and William 
J. Woodside, entered into partnership, under the 
name of Shinnick, Hatton & Co., for the pur- 
pose of doing foundry business, and occupied 
the old Blocksom foundry, on Fountain alley, 
which they enlarged. In 1870 this firm name 
was changed to Shinnick, Woodside & Gibbons. 
The establishment is known as the Union Foun- 

Iron Furnaces. — In 1818, Abraham Wood 
and Elias Eber.t, under the firm name of Wood 
& Ebert, started a blast furnace at the mouth of 
Simms' creek, where they made pig iron for a 
few years ; much of thfs was used in T. L. 
Pierce's foundry, and by the Reeves' in their 
nail and bar iron works. The business was 
closed in 1822. 

In 1830, Jeremiah Dare was engaged in the 
manufacture of castings, machinery, etc. From 
this small beginning, sprung the great works of 
Duvall & Co., northeast corner of Third and 
Market streets. 

In 1848, John Newell, W. T. Davis, John J. 
James, John H. Jones, Benjamin Louth, and 
William James, under the firm name of Newell, 
Davis, James & Co., with a capital of $20,000, 
was organized. The company passed through 
various vicissitudes until July 3d, 1857, when it 
was incorporated as the Ohio Iron Company, 
with a capital of $75,000. The directory, at the 
time of organization, consisted of Henry Blandy, 
President, C. W. Potwin, Secretary, Samuel 
Baird, Treasurer, E. B, Greene and E. E. Fil- 



The present officers are : President, James 
Herdman ; Secretary and Treasurer, Oliver Ong ; 
Superintendent, W. P. Brown ; Directors, James 
Herdman, M. Churchill, W. A. Graham, Thos. 
Griffith, F. J. L. Blandy, Alex. Grant and T. 
W. Gattrell. 

In 1859, the Zanesville Furnace Company was 
organized, with the following membership : Na- 
than Gattrell, George A. Jones, William Fox, 
Joseph Black, John C. English, Samuel Baird, 
Charles W. Potwin, and Duston H. Willard. 

The capital was divided into shares of $1,000 
each. They manufactured pig iron. The bus- 
iness was purchased by the Ohio Iron Com- 
pany, in 1862. The present officers of the Ohio 
Iron Company are: President, M. Churchill; 
Secretary and Treasurer, C. W. Greene. 

Zanesville Gaslight Company. — The in- 
flammable aeriform fluid was first evolved from 
coal by Dr. Clayton, in 1739. Its application to 
the purposes of illumination was first tried by 
Mr. Murdock in, Cornwall, in 1792. The first 
display of gaslights was made at Boulton & 
Watts' foundry, in Birmingham, England, on 
the occasion of the rejoicings for peace in 
1802. Gas was permanently used, to the exclu- 
sion of lamps and candles, at the cotton mills of 
Phillips and Lee^ in Manchester, in 1805. The 
streets of New York, (the first in the United 
States), were first lighted with gas in the winter 
of 1823-4. The first gas used in Zanesville, 
Ohio, was in November, 1849, ^^^ Zanesville 
Gaslight Company having been incorporated 
and built in the early part of the same year. 

The capital stock of this company — $50,000 — 
is held by about forty persons. From the time 
the works were built until 1867, one gasometer, 
or holder, was sufficient ; during that year an- 
other was built, and in 1880 a third was added. 

From 1849 to 1852, John Graves was the Su- 
perintendent, and from that year until 1865 A. J. 
Printz held that position, since which time his 
son, Eugene Printz, has filled the office. In 1865, 
the company charged $4.18 per thousand feet for 
gas ; in 1880 it was reduced to $2.00 per thous- 
and feet. In 1880 the number of consumei's 
amounted to 900, and the number of street lamps 
lighted 400, requiring about twenty miles of pipe, 
two miles of which was laid that year. 

The Directors and officers are elected by the 
stockholders annually. In 1881 they were as 
follows : • 

A. C. Ross, H. Stanbery, Dr. C- C- Hildreth, 
M. M. Granger, D. C. Convers, Dii-ectors. 

The Directors at once met and elected the fol- 
lowing officers : A. C. Ross, President ; Alex. 
Grant, Treasurer ; A. Guille, Secretary ; Eugene 
Printz, Superintendent. 

The works are located on Sixth street, between 
Center and Howard streets. 

Glass. — The oldest specimen of glass bearing 
anything like a date, is a little molded lion's head, 
bearing the name of an Egyptian King of the 
eleventh dynasty. It is in the Slade collection 
of the British Museum. This djmasty may be 

placed about 2000 B. C. Glass was not only 
made but made with skill at that time, which 
shows that the art was nothing new. The inven- 
tion of glazing pottery with a film, or varnish, of 
glass is so old that among the fragments which 
bear inscriptions of the early Egyptian mon- 
archy, are heads, probably of the first dynasty. 
Of later glass, there are numerous examples, such 
as a head found at Thebes, which has the name 
of Queen Hatasoo of the eighteenth dynasty. Of 
the same period, are vases and goblets and many 
fragments. It cannot be doubted that the story 
of Pliny, which assigns the credit of the inven- 
tion to the Phoenicians, is so far true, that these 
adventurous merchants brought specimens to 
other countries from Egypt. 

The first glass works in Zanesville was duly 
chartered by the Legislature, May 13, 18 15, with 
a capital fixed at $50,000. [See book D., p. 
631, Muskingum County Records.] The works 
were known as the "White Glass Works," and 
were located on the site that is now the south- 
west corner of Third and Market streets. Some 
of the first shareholders were Isaac Van Home, 
Samuel Sullivan, Samuel Hen-ick, Rees Cad- 
walader, David J. Marpole, John Hamm, and 
Ebenezer Buckingham. Samuel Sullivan was 
President of the company, and John Hamm, 
Secretary. Edmund Jones was Acting Superin- 
tendent. Elijah Ross made the blow pipes. 
Mr. Ross was the father of our worthy towns- 
man, A. C. Ross. 

In 1816, James Taylor and Alexander Culbert- 
son built a window glass house on a site opposite 
the first canal locks, a little south of Slagor run. 
Mr. Culbertson operated there until 1823, when 
he died, after which Arnold Lippet, Thomas 
Murdock and Joseph Cassel operated the estab- 
lishment, successively. 

In 1820, Thomas Mark leased and operated 
the "White Glass Works." At the expiration of 
two years, the works passed into the hands of 
Rev. Joseph Shepherd, Charles Bostwick and 
James Ci'osby, and they continued the business 
until 1835, when Mr. Bostwick withdrew ; three 
years later, Mr. Shepherd retired, and Mr. 
Crosby continued the business alone until 1839, 
when he closed the works. 

About 1842, George W. Kearns, Joseph Burns, 
W. F. Spence, Thomas Reynolds, George 
Wendt and Samuel Turner, practical glass- 
blowers from Pittsburg, paid Mr. Crosby five 
hundred dollars each and began operating the 
works. They gave employment to about forty 
men. In 1844, Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Wendt 
sold their interest to the remaining partners ; in 
1846, Messrs. Turner and Spence disposed of 
their interest. Subsequently, Arnold Lippet 
obtained an interest in the works. In 1848, Mr. 
Burgess withdrew, leaving Mr. Lippet alone — 
he abandoned the works — and, after operating 
the Cassel Window Glass Works as a bottle 
works for a short time, retired from the glass 

In 1849, Messrs. Kearns, Burns and John W. 
Carter built the first bottle factor^ in Putnam. 



Noah Kearns, R. N. Dunlap and Jacob Stimley 
have had an interest in these works at different 
periods. The business was discontinued in 1877. 

In i860, G. W. Kearns, Noah Kearns and 
Joseph Burns rented, and soon after purchased, 
the Flint Glass House, built in 1852 by Wm. C. 
Cassel and Wm. Galligher, at the foot of Main 
street, In 1863, they built a new establishment — 
using the old one for a warehouse. The new works 
were operated in 1880 by Kearns, Herdman and 
Gorsuch. In 1864 Mr. Burns died, and his heirs 
withdrew their interest from the works. G. W. 
and Noah Kearns then built their glass house 
on the southwest corner of Main and First 
streets, and manufactured window glass exclus- 
ively. They ran both factories until 1868, when 
they were joined by James Herdman and Joseph 
T. Gorsuch ; in 1874, Wm. T- Gray became a 
member of the firm; in 1877, G. W. Kearns 
withdrew and built the Seventh Ward Bottle 
House, which is in successful operation. 

For the data of Zanesville glass works, we are 
indebted to Messrs. G. W. Kearns, S. P. Bailey 
and William Bay, of Zanesville, and J. B. H. 
Bratshaw, of Detroit, formerly of this city. 

Hatters. — 1800— The beautiful hat and fur 
stores which adorn Zanesville, in our day, had 
their origin in a log shanty, in what is now the 
Seventh Ward, in 1806. A Mr. Molesberry 
began the manufacture of hats. He was the first 
hatter in Zanestown. James Jennings, hatter, 
came in 1801, and also located in "Natchez," 
now known as the Seventh Ward. 

In 1803, David Herron came and built a log 
house, and in partnership with his brother 
James (who made the first brick in Zanesville), 
carried on the hatter's business for many years. 

1805. — Mr. James Culbertson, the hatter, 
engaged in the manufacture of wool hats, -and 
caps from the skin of muskrat, coon and other 
fur-bearing animals, which were then plentiful 
in the countiy. Mr. Culbertson's shop was loca- 
ted on the southwest corner of Fifth and Market 
streets. In this shop was made the first silk hat 
manufactured in this city. 

1812. — Among the first to engage extensively 
in the manufacture of felt hats, was Richard 
Galagher, at shop southwest corner of Fifth 
street and Locust alley. Here he carried on the 
business until 1832 ; he died at Louisville, Ky., 
while on his way home from a trading trip down 
the river. 

1817. — Walter McKinney openedxa hat store 
at what is now 1 7 1 Main street, Zanesville. This 
lot was then occupied by a small brick store. 

James Dutro opened a hat and fur store in 
1820, in an old frame building, which then occu- 
pied 202 Main street. 

Other early hatters here were Mr. Mathew 
Ferguson, 1820, and J. B. Allen, 1827. 

Land Office. — In the year 1800, Wyllys Silli- 
man was appointed Register, and General Isaac 
Van Vorne Receiver of the Land Office located 
at Zanestown. 

The following was found in the "Muskingum 
Messenger" of July 27, 1814: 

"Land Office at Zanestown. — July ist, 
1814. Whereas, it is provided by the 5th section 
of an act of Congress passed on the loth day of 
May, 1800, entitled "An Act to amend an Act 
providing tor the sale of the lands of the United 
States, in the territory northwest of the Ohio, 
and above the mouth of the Kentucky river,' 
as follows, viz : 'If any tract shall not be com- 
pletely paid for within one year after the date of 
the last payment, the tract shall be advertised 
for sale by the Register 01 the Land Office 
within whose district it may lie, in at least five 
of the most public places in the said district, for 
at least twenty days before the day of the sale ; 
and he shall sell the same at vendue, during the 
session of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the 
county in which the Land Office is kept, for a 
pi'ice not less than the whole arrears due thereon, 
with the expenses of sale,' the surplus, if any, 
shall be returned to the original purchaser or to 
his legal representatives ; but if the sum due, 
with interest, be not bidden and paid, then the 
land shall revert to. the United States, and all 
monies paid therefor shall be forfeited, and the 
Register of the Land Office may proceed to dis- 
pose of the same to any purchaser, as in the 
case of other lands at private sale. 

In fursnance whereof. Public notice is hereby 
given, that the following tracts not being com- 
pletely paid for, and one year having elapsed 
since the last installment became due, the said 
tracts will be exposed for sale at public vendue, 
during the sitting of the Court,' on Monday, 
August 29th, at 10 o'clock a. m. Those tracts 
not sold may be entered next morning at 5 

If the owner, or owners, of any tract of land, 
or any person in his or her behalf, shall pay the 
purchase money, interest and costs, prior to the 
day designated for sale, no sale of such tract 
shall take place : 

Peter Sprinkle, se. qr. sec. 12, T. 3 R. 3. 

Thos. Knowles, mv. qr. sec, 8, T. i R. 3. 

Wm. Gibson, s\v. qr. sec. 22, T. 4 R. 3. 

Wm. Claypool. ne. qr. sec. 24, T. 3 R. 9. 

Wm. Robinson, ne. qr. sec. 13, T. 4 R. 6. 
same ne. qr. sec. 8, T. 4 R. 6. 

same ne. qr. sec. 3, T. 4 R. 6. 

Wyllys Silliman, 
Register Land Office." 

LivKRY Stable. — This is one of the necessities 
in every community, and yet seldom mentioned as 
such. The transition from village to city life, 
however, is demonstrated by the inauguration of 
the convenience of the livery stable, and the 
oldest inhabitant invariably recognizes this as a 
land mark and an important feature of the past. 

From the Zanesville "Express," of September 
30th, 1818, the following was obtained : 

'■'■Livery Stable. — Horses, wagons, gigs and 
apparatus constituting a livery establishment, 
kept, to let, exchange, or sell, at'the stable in rear 
of the Zanesville Coffee House, where travelers 



and 3thers may be accommodated with the op- 
portunity to barter, buy or sell any of the ap- 
purtenances common to the establishment, as 
their circumstances may dictate." 

James M. Prescott & Co." 
This was the lirst establishment of the kind, as 
far as we have any record. 

Marble Works. — Prior to 181 2, Rev. Joseph 
Shepherd was engaged in making tombstones, 
on North Fifth street, near Market street. At 
that time no marble was imported, and tomb 
stones were made of sand stone, and sometimes, 
though rarely, from lime stone. Preacher Shep- 
herd worked during the week days at this busi- 
ness and preached on Sundays. The inscrip- 
tions on such stones yielded to the wintry blasts 
and scorching rays ot summer sun, and many, 
now to be seen in the City Cemetery, are as 
black as before they were cut. 

In 1847, S. G. McBride bought out this busi- 
ness and continued it for some years. Such 
were the pioneers who opened the way for the 
present mammoth establishments ; whose rooms 
are adorned with rarest marbles and enduring 
granites, cut and shaped in significant beauty. 
Indeed, monumental architecture is now one of 
the fine arts. 

Market House. — At a meeting of the Town 
Council, June 5, 1814, the expediency of erect- 
ing a public Market House was considered, and 
thereupon application was made to the County 
Commissioners for permission to erect a house 
for this purpose. The site chosen was known as 
the Public Square, the same now occupied by 
the court house and jail. The petition was not 
granted, and the Council decided to erect the 
building on Market street, east of Court alley, 
now occupied by the market house, and 
built a frame structure, fronting thirty-five feet 
on Market street and having a depth of forty- 
three feet. The contract was let to John L. and 
James Cochran, for one hundred and fifty dollars, 
and after its completion John L. Cochran was 
appointed Market Master, for which he was al- 
lowed fifty dollars per annum. He was also 
Town Marshal, with a compensation of one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars per annum. 

As might be inferred, this market house was a 
frail structure, for none other could be built for 
the price, and it proved to be too slight to bear 
up the snow that fell on the roof, as on the 24th 
of January, 1863, it came down with a crash, 
killing, maiming, wounding and bi-uising many. 
From the "Courier" of that date, we learn that 
Mrs.. Mary A. Gary, wife ofD. B. Gary, attorney, 
then in the army, Mrs. Nelson, of the Third 
ward, Mrs. Smith, of South Sixth street, Chris- 
tian Riedel, a baker, on Market street, were 
killed ; and Mr. Achauer, David Edwards, John 
Stevens, Wm. Taylor, H. McCall, Mr. Stotts, 
John O'Harra, Thomas Durban, Policeman, Joe 
Johnson, Mrs. Carlow, George Miller and Mrs. 
Miller, were wounded and bruised ; Amos Risley, 
John Beck and twenty others were bruised and 
otherwise injured. 

Stone Masons. — In the fall of 1799, David 
Beam came to the new settlement. He built the 
stone chimney for John Mclntire's log cabin. 
In December, 1801, he built the stone chimney 
for J. F. Monroe's log house, on the southeast 
corner of Second and Main streets. 

Ebenezer Buckingham, Sr., arrived in the 
latter part of the year 1800. There is, however, 
no record of his early work. 

Samuel GofF and family came in 1805. He 
was a brick and stone mason, and built chim- 

In 1805, Jacob Houck was one of the masons 
and became noted as a skilled woi-kman, and in 
1809 worked upon the old State House. 

Thomas Goff learned the trade with Jacob 
and worked at it in 1812-13, and his son, Wil- 
liam, became a bricklayer, but became partly 
insane from a blow on the head. "Billy Goft" 
was well known. Other masons of that period 
were Daniel Holton, Elijah H. Church and John 
P. Coulton. Mr. Church learned his trade with 
the latter. e. h. c. 

Brick. — First made in 1802, by James Herron, 
brother of David, the hatter. In the following 
year, he made another kiln of bricks, Mr. Brazilla 
Rice, a New Englander, superintending the 
making and burning, on the ground at the head 
of Main street — the same ground now being oc- 
cupied by the wagon and blacksmith shop bfelow 
'Squire Herschy's residence. Afterwards, Mr. 
Brazilla Rice made several kiln of brick at the 
head of Marietta street. 

Joseph Whitney burned brick in 1803, some- 
where in the region now known as the seventh 

John Lee had a brick yard near North Under- 
wood street ; he burned the brick used in the 
"old 1809 Court House." 

Captain James S. Parkinson was an extensive 
brick manufacturer from about 1810, and later; 
his kilns were on his farm, two and a half miles 
southeast of Zanesville, on the Marietta road. 

Matches. — Perhaps no industry apparently 
so small has made such strides as this. It is 
within the memory of the living that half a cen- 
tury ago, fire was obtained by many by rubbing 
dry pieces of wood together, and but a few years 
later by the flint and steel. These began to be 
superseded by the lucifer match, imported from 
England about 1833. 

In 1834, Wm. G. Thompson, of the firm of 
Hoge & Thompson, Zanesville, analyzed the 
material upon some lucifer matches that they 
had imported from England, and after some ex- 
perimenting produced a match equally as good 
and began the manufacture of matches at No. 
82 Market street, and in a short time gave em- 
ployment to about twenty-five girls in dipping 
matches. These were put up in boxes contain- 
ing one hundred and sold at twenty-five cents 
per package. Almost the first matches they 
made were sent to New York city, on an oi-der, 
from which it may be inferred that no matches 
were made there. It is claimed that the first 



friction, or lucifer, matches produced , in the 
United States were made in Zanesville. 

Mills. — [Data largely obtained by E. H. 
Church.] From Marietta records it appears that 
in 1798 a mill for making flour was erected on 
Wolf Creek, about one mile above the mouth, 
by Colonel Robert Oliver, Major Hatffield White 
and Captain John Dodge, and it is said this was 
the first mill building in Ohio. The second was 
begun soon after by Enoch Shepherd, Colonel 
Ebenezer Sproat and Thomas Stanley, and lo- 
cated on Duck Creek, but "the Indian war" 
arid the floods of 1790 interrupted its opera- 

In 1798, a floating mill was built five miles up 
the Muskingum river by Captain Jonathan 
Duval, which, according to Dr. S. P. Hildreth, 
"for §ome years did nearly all the grinding for 
the inhabitants on the Ohio and Muskingum for 
fifty miles above and below the mill." — ["Pioneer 
History of the Ohio Valley," p. 442, 1848]. 

In 1799 John Mathews built a floating mill, 
which was anchored. at the point of rocks, then 
on the west side of the river, close to where 'the 
Putnam Bridge' now is. 

^'In the fall of 1801, the Springfield Company 
built a wing dam on the second falls, leaving the 
Zanesville shore open for boats to pass, and 
then built a grist and saw mill. The contract 
was let December 9th of that year to John Sharp, 
for $200 cash and three gills of whisky daily un- 
til the job was completed. 

The first large grist mill in this part of the 
country was the Moxahala mill, completed in 
1803 or 1804 by John Mathews. It was located 
at the falls of Jonathan's Creek, about a mile and 
a half below the mouth of that stream. People 
came from twenty-five and thirty miles -around 
to this mill. 

In 1806, John Mclntire built a mill-race 
(north of Hatcher & Co.'s coffin factory) and a 
saw mill. Daniel McLain and David Urie dug 
the race, which filled with sand every time the 
river was up, so that the mill was not a success. 

In 1831, Samuel Frazey built a grist mill on 
'Flat Run' ; his brother-in-law, John Morrow, 
had charge of the run for a number of years and 
made first rate flour, several hundred barrels of 
which were sent to New Orleans by boats. The 
mill was about a mile from where the run emp- 
tied into the river and subsequently failed for 
want of water. 

1816. — During this year, a company was 
formed composed of Colonel Andrew Jackson, 
Nathan Finley, Jeremiah Dare, Daniel Convers, 
Jeffrey Price, James Taylor, Thomas L. Pierce, 
Samuel Thompson, Christian Spangler and 
Alex. Adair, under the firm name of Jackson & 
Co., to build a mill. This firm erected what 
was known as Jackson & Co's mill, on the west 
side of the Muskingum, just north of the mouth 
of the Licking river. It contained two run of 
stone for grinding wheat and one run for mak- 
ing corn meal ; a saw mill and a linseed oil mill 
were subsequently attached. The oil mill was 

operated by Richard Fairlamb. The mill was 
in a three-story frame building built by Robert 
Fulton,. Isaac Hazlett and Daniel Convers. In 
1840-41 the mill was torn down. 

In 181 7 The Jackson Company Mill was built 
— located on the west side of Muskingum river, 
just north of the mouth of the Licking river — 
about forty feet from the old dam , and received 
its power through a small race— using what they 
called a reaction water-wheel — which was prob- 
ably a turbine wheel. The company was corii- 
posed of Colonel Andrew Jackson, Natha:n Find- 
ley. Isaac Hazlett, Jeremiah Dare, Daniel Con- 
vers, Jeftry Price, James Taylor, Thomas L. 
Pierce, Samuel Thompson, Christian Spangler, 
and Alex. Adair. Jackson operated the riiill un- 
til near the time of his death, 1836. About the 
time this mill was in operation, and in the same 
mill, was a linseed oil mill, operated by Richard 

In 1818 and 1819 the Granger mill was built 
by James Granger, (father of Hon. M. M. 
Granger), on a site near the head of the canal 
and the old dam, just north of the Cassel mill. 
The building was 80x50, three stories, and had 
four irun of stone, and a capacity of one hundred 
barrels per day. An addition of 99x30 and two 
stories was added in 1822, and two more run of 
stone. Many farmers came sixty and seveiity 
miles to mill, and sold their wheat for twenty-five 
cents per bushel, to get money to pay for their 
land ; this was the only market in southeastern 
Ohio. The Granger mill burned down, August 

?, 1829, and was not rebuilt. About this time, 
saac Dillon built a saw mill at the mouth of the 
Licking, north side, and subsequently a flour 
mill, just above the bridge, near the old dam, 
and leased the latter to several operators. This 
mill was carried away by high water in 1830, 
and in 1839 the saw mill was rebuilt, and in 1840 
partially burned ; in 1843 it was rented to John 
Deavers, who operated it till 1845, when it was 
rented to Francis Cassidy and Robert Lee. and 
was subsequently sold to Mr. L. Cassidy, who 
operated it until 1847, when it was sold to James 
Miller, and he operated it until it was washed 
away in i860. Mr. J. Miller immediately erected 
a steam mill on the west side of the Muskingum 
river, at the foot of Mclntire avenue. This is 
now the only saw mill in Zanesville. 

In 1825 George and Richard Reeve built their 
flouring mill at the east end of the Main street 
bridge, south side ; it had six run of stone and 
was operated until 1830, when Richard withdrew 
and was succeeded by George Reeve. Jr., son of 
one of the builders, who operated the mill for a 
number of years and became involved — a 
Wheeling bank aided them with money — taking 
a mortgage on the property which was forclosed 
in 1848, and the mill was idle until Juty, 1851, 
when Wm. Sturges, James McConnell and 
Chas. Blandy, under the firm name of McCon- 
nell & Blandy, bought the property for $18,000; 
the mill was remodeled and its capacity increased 
to 400 barrels per twenty-four hours. The mill 
was sold to Wm. Galigher in the spring of 1855 



for $2i,cxx), and operated until the death of Mr. 
Galigher in i860, when Charles Galigher as- 
sumed the management until 1864 when the 
property was again involved. The mill was 
next operated by C. T. Aston in the interest of 
the mortgagees. About this time the State Board 
of Public Works seized the mill for arrears in 
water rent and leased the premises for thirty 
years to Ball & Cassidy, who subsequently 
transferred their lease to Paul H. Kemerer 
(about 1870). 

In 1828-9 Isaac Dillon built the Pataskala mill 
and operated it until 1835, when he sold it to 
Moses Dillon, who, in turn, sold it to Solomon 
and William Sturges. The mill was built on the 
bank of the Licking. Mr. Dillon also erected a 
saw mill, woolen mill and flax seed oil mill. 
This woolen mill made the first figured woolen 
carpet in this part of Ohio. In 1855 , '^he mill was 
sold to William Beaumont; in i860 the north 
abutment of the dam gave away and these mills 
were greatly damaged. The oil mill was moved 
down the Muskingum liver and located next to 
Pratt's mill. The dam and mills were repaired 
by Mr. Beaumont. In 1868 a part of the dam 
washed out again, whereupon Mr. Beaumont 
built a new dam at a cost of $2,502. In 1872 
the mill was completely overhauled and repaired 
and two turbine water wheels replaced the old 
reaction wheels. About the time Mr. Beaumont 
had his mill completed, he died, January 19th, 
1873. The .mill was then operated by Mrs. 
William Beaumont. In 1828 the Cassel mill was 
built by Cushing, Martin and Pierce. In 1843 
one-half the mill passed to the ownership of Wil- 
liam C. Cassel, who, in 1852-3, made a brick 
addition to the mill, and about this time the en- 
tire ownership passed to him and he operated the 
mills for a quarter of a century, when, in 1873, 
he left it by will to his wife who caused it to be 
operated until 1875 when she leased it to Picker- 
ing, Grant & Co., who introduced some modern 
machinery and ran the mills until November ist, 
1J81, when their lease expired and Mr. Cassel 
resumed control as per the following notice : 

"Cassel & Co. — The undersigned, owner of 
the well known mills so long carried on by Wil- 
liam C. Cassel, will continue the manufacture 
and sale ol flour, corn meal, buckwheat flour, 
mill feed, etc., under the old style of 'Cassel & 
Co.' She has engaged George H. Stewart, 
Esq., to act as her General Agent, and Captain 
Charles Grant as Mill Manager and Superin- 
tendent. Lydia Cassel." 

'< 1 830— Nash & Co. had a steam saw mill in 
operation near the north end of Third street 
bridge. Later this mill was owned and oper- 
ated by Messrs Hughes & Spurck until it was 
torn down. 

1832 — Jesse Dare and Alfred Printz built a 
two-story steam saw mill, a little north of Nash & 
Co.'s mill, in 1832 ; a peculiarity of this mill was 
that the engine was placed in the upper story of 
the building. The mill was in operation up to 
The Balentine & Clark mill was built in 18 17 

for a brewery, and in 1835 was converted into a 
flour mill and run as such for two years, after 
which time it stood idle until 1842, when Wil- 
liam Beaumont rented it for one year. About 
1845, it was converted into a white lead works, 
which were short lived. The building was burnt 
in the spring of 1853." 

1840. — Mr. Richard Fairlamb erected a flour- 
ing mill in 1840, using a part of the timber with 
which the old Jackson & Co. mill had been built. 
In this mill were also used the great French 
buhr stones, that were brought from Philadelphia 
in 1816 for the old Jackson mifl. These stones 
were said to have been six feet in diameter, and 
to have cost $8 per hundred pounds for trans- 
portation from place of purchase to Zanesville. 
The total freight bill is reported to have been 
$900. In 1841 Mr. Fairlamb added a saw-mill 
and a linseed oil mill to the flouring mill, and 
operated the whole until 1843, when Michael 
Dulty bought the property and run the mill until 
1850. John S. Piatt then purchased the proper- 
ty, and he finally transferred it to Mr. Drosie. 

1866. — Daniel Applegate bought the City 
Flouring Mill. 

1878. — Josiah B. Allen put in operation the 
Pearl Mills. 

In 1866, Daniel Applegate built the City Mill ,a 
brick structure running west from Potter Alley 
to Third strieet, where it has a frontage with two 
stores (Ward's and Clerhent's). The mill has 
six run of stone, with a capacity of 150 barrels 
per 24 hours, making only merchant flour ; no 
grist work done. 

In 1878, the Pearl Mifli formerly City Power 
House No. I, built in 1844; the property was 
repaired and one story added by Josiah Allen in 
1878, and the machinery and five run of stone 
put in, at a cost of $10,000. The capacity is 100 
barrels per 24 hours. The greater part of the 
flour made in this mill finds an Eastern market. 
It is exclusively a wheat flour mill. 

Interesting Facts in Flour Making. — The 
miller of to-day must not only be a machinist, 
comprehending the specific purpose of each 
piece of machinery, but, with the skill ot a man- 
ufacturer, he must be able to repair any defect 
or loss by wear that may occur, and thus keep 
the mill in running order. In this connection, 
he must unite that practical application of chem- 
istry that regulates the movements of the ma- 
chinery so as to secure the best flour. 

The form and composition of a single grain of 
wheat must be understood, in order to discrim- 
inate between the different grades and separate 
them for the different qualities of flour ; some 
parts of the wheat being only fit for feed, while 
others yield the highest grade of flour. 

These qualifications are made absolutely neces- 
sary by the inventor of the machinery, who has 
specially adapted each part to a work compre- 
hended in what has been said as the qualification 
of a miller. ' For example : Before the introduc- 
tion of the "New Process" of making flour, it 
was thought to be only necessary to clean the 
wheat reasonably well, grind it fine, and also 



make as few middlings as possible ; separate the 
flour, middlings, and bran, by bolting, re-grind 
the middlings, together with all the. impurities, 
such as fine bran, germ of the wheat, dust and 
fuzz from the crease in the wheat grain and its 
fuzz ends — the whole ground up, making a low 
grade of flour ; and consequently the wheat life 
was killed by too close grinding, and poor, 
heavy, soggy bread was the inevitable result. 
The exceeding fine grinding destroyed the cells 
in the wheat, thus taking awa}' its raising ele- 
ment, or quahty. The value of the "New Pro- 
cess" becomes more apparent when it is known 
that by studying the grain of wheat, the best 
flour is included in the middlings, which, in the 
old way of grinding, was made into the lowest 
grade of flour, because mixed with the impurities 
described above. 

To purify the middlings, therefore, invited in- 
ventive talent of the highest order, since the ma- 
chine must act mechanically and chemically, so 
to speak ; and, as a result, a multitude of de- 
vices involving these principles have been given 
to the miller-world, from which he must choose. 
And, it is needless to say, involving the most 
subtle power of analysis in order to determine 
the most perfect adaptation to the purpose intend- 
ed. Among these are : the blast or suction of 
wind from a revolving fan, and the size of mesh 
in the bolting-cloth, which separates the fine 
particles of bran, fluff", and other impurities, 
from the middlings, leaving them sharp — resem- 
bling pure white sand. From the middlings 
thus purified, the flour so much prized by all who 
have used what is known as Patent flour, is 
made — grinding it with buhrs and bolting 
through fine cloth. The -use of the Purifier is a 
change for the better, by allowing the miller to 
grind higher, as he terms it, or with the stones 
at a greater distance apart, without fear of losing 
in yield and increasing the ratio of low grade 
flour ; thus avoiding the danger of sometimes 
getting a little too close in grinding, which would 
destroy the cells in the wheat and, of necessit}^ 
result in soggy bread, as stated. And it is found 
that the higher the grinding the larger the quan- 
tum of middlings, of which the highest grade of 
Patent flour is made ; and the flour from the first 
bolting (wheat flour, or clear flour) is more gran- 
ular, whiter, and better. But this high grinding 
produces a heavy bran, leaving too large a quan- 
tity of flour adhering to the bran, and hence the 
necessity of a machine to get it off" in good shape 
for flour. Some grind the bran over on buhrs, 
others use machines for knocking or threshing ; 
but the most successful machine at present seems 
to be the sharp, corrugated roller, so arranged 
that one roller goes faster than the other, and the 
wheat, passing between the corrugations, is 
cleaned by the mode of applying the friction. 
For fvirther particulars, "The American Miller" 
and other publicatioirs furnish details. "The 
Brush Scourer," a superior machine, is also 
used. But this article is not intended to be a 
cyclopedia, and we pass on. 

The wheat heater — used to warm the wheat to 

a temperature that is known to facilitate grinding 
into good flour, in cold weather — is used by 
many mills. A little reflection will show the 
wisdom of this, as frozen wheat will not grind to 
the same advantage as unfrozen grain. 

The speed in running is an important factor 
in the manufacture of good flour. Formerly it 
was thought necessary to run four-foot stones 
from i8o to 210 revolutions per minute, and 
grind from 12 to 18 bushels of wheat per hour; 
now the mills that have the best reputation only 
run from 120 to 135 revolutions per minute and 
only grind from four to six bushels to the run of 
stone, thus avoiding undue heating of the chops, 
and leaving the flour, when bolted, free from 
injury by over-heating, and with all the life pe- 
culiar to healthy, perfect grain, and therefore af- 
fording the highest grade of healthy bread-food. 

Nail Makers. — The first man in Zanesville 
to make a business of manufacturing nails was 
John Hough, who opened his shop at the foot of 
Main street in 1814. e. h. c. 

The Zanesville "Express and Republican 
Standard," of December 8th, 1819, contained the 
following : 

" R. & G. Reeve inform the public that 
their Rolling Mill and Nail Factory are in oper- 
ation (located at the east end of the upper 
bridge), and that they have an assortment of 
rolled iron and nails, which they will sell as low 
and on as good terms as they can be purchased 
in the Western country." 

Richard Reeve and George Reeve, Sr., con- 
structed a rude machine for the manufacture of 
cut nails, which was operated by horse power. 
This establishment was located on the south side 
of Main, near Sixth street, until 1819, when the 
machinery was removed to the corner of Main 
and River streets, where water power was used. 
This machine was similar to those now in use, 
but was not adapted to heading, which was done 
by hand. The iron used proved too brittle to 
work to advantage, and the business was aban- 
doned in 1825-6. E. H. c. 

Paper Manufacture in 1828. — Ezekiel T. 
Cox and Simeon Wright began the manufacture 
of paper in Zanesville in the fall of this year. 
Their mill was at the north end of seventh street. 
For many years this mill was the leading indus- 
try in Zanesville, and its products found a ready 
sale throughout the State. 

In 1830, Simeon Wright sold his interest in 
the mill above mentioned to James L. Cox, 
when the firm name became " E. T. &J.L. 
Cox," and they continued the business until 
May I, 1836, when the mill was destroyed by 
fire. A brick building was immediately erected, 
however, on the old site, and the business con- 
tinued under the following management, viz : 
Horatio J. Cox and Jonas L. Cox, the firm name 
being H. J. Cox & Co., who continued the busi- 
ness for twenty-one years, and then made an 
assignment to David Hull. The property passed 
into the hands of George Richtine & Co. : the 
company being George Richtine, Charles R. 

Paper Mill of GLESSNER & GILBERT, Zanesville, Ohio. 

In 1828, Ezekiel T. Cox and Simeon Wright, 
who were at that period operating a saw mill at 
the north end of Seventh street, in Zanesville, 
conceived the idea of establishing a paper mill in 
connection with their lumber mill, and proceeded 
at once to put their plans into execution by the 
erection of a wooden structure for this purpose, 
which was operated by the same power that pro- 
pelled their saw mill. This was the initial or 
pioneer manufacturing industry of any note in 
the town of Zanesville, and was the second paper 
mill established in Ohio. Its machinery was sim- 
ple, and the process crude, of converting rags into 
printing and writing papers, the sheets being 
formed by hand in a slow and tedious manner, in 
accordance with the primitive processes in use in 
those early times. This rude paper mill became a 
power in this Western country, its product finding 
a ready market throughout Central Ohio and in 
the Northwest, and in the Western Territories, 
until these had outgrown its power to supply the 
demand for paper, and for years, even to dates run- 
ning not very far back into the past, this paper 
mill was identified with Zanesville as its leading 
landmark, in the minds of Western people scat- 
tered over a vast extent of territory. 

The changes that this mill has since undergone 
in proprietorship are accurately noted on pages 88 
and 89, to which the reader is referred. 

In the early period of telegraphy the process of 
taking off messages was by passing narrow strips 
of soft white paper through an instrument that 
registered the words communicated by perforations 
on this paper. It was evident that the consump- 
tion of this paper must be large, but the process 

of supplying it was a slow, simple and tedious 
operation, performed by hand. A mechanic, who 
commenced employment in the Zanesville Paper 
Mill in 1838, and is still with it as its Superin- 
tendent, conceived the idea that this telegraph 
paper could be made and cut by machinery, and 
he soon successfully worked out a method of accom- 
plishing this with perfect accuracy, and rapidly 
enough to supply the entire demand. His inven- 
tion immediately met a great want in telegraphy, 
and there soon grew up a large demand, not only 
in this country but in Europe, and wherever the 
teregraph had strung its wires. It was made in 
rolls of six to seven inches diameter, and cut in 
strips of one inch in width, and formed a large, im- 
portant and profitable element in the business 
of this mill for many years, as it was the only 
place where it was manufactured. The inventor, 
C. R. Hubbell, never patented his process, and 
numberless mills in the country experimented to 
copy or improve his method, but never succeeded. 
It has had its day, however, and has gradually 
gone into disuse. 

For more than half a century the busy wheels 
of this paper mill have responded day and night 
continuously to the demands upon it. It fur- 
nishes employment, directly and indirectly, to 
many persons and families, and its work seems to 
be but fairly begun. It was identified with the 
first dawn of the prosperity of Zanesville, and its 
usefulness and prosperity will continue to be iden- 
tical with the solid growth of its favored locality, 
and years will yet pass before its mission is 



Hubbell, Thomas Hubbell and William Nutt, 
This firm conducted the business about one year, 
when Thomas Hubbell and William Nutt with- 
drew, and the business was continued by the re- 
maining partners until April i, 1859, when C. ^* 
Hubbell sold his interest to James M. Leonard, 
and soon after this property was conveyed to 
Mrs. E. M. Gox, and the firm name became 
Elizabeth M. Cox & Co., and was managed by 
James L. Cox, her husband. 

In 1869, Mrs. Cox sold a half interest to John 
Gilbert, and the firm name became Cox & Gil- 
bert, and so continued until November i, 1868, 
'when Jacob Glessner, John Gilbert and Terry 
became the owners of the mill, and shortly 
alter this Glessner & Gilbert purchased the. in- 
terest of Mr. Terry, and made valuable improve- 
ments. They continue to own and manage the 
establishment, and have won an enviable reputa- 
tion for their products, far and near. 

Mathews' Paper Mill. — The original pur- 
pose of the present building was a cotton fac- 
tory ; it did not succeed, and after standing idle 
for a number of years was sold by the_^ Sheriff", 
about 1865, to Edward Mathews, who associated 
with him George Rishtine, for the purpose of 
paper making. Mathews & Co. removed the 
old machinery and placed apparatus and mach- 
inery for the manufacture of paper, and made 
sundry improvements and additions to the prem- 
ises, at a cost of about twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars. Other additions, amounting to about fif- 
teen thousand dollars, have been made since that 

The firm of Mathews & Co. dissolved in 1876, 
since which time the business has been con- 
dvicted by E. Mathews, proprietor, Mr. George 
Rishtine, who has managed the business from 
the beginning, being retained in that capacity. 

The mill began by making coarse wrapping 
paper and tea paper. Printing paper ahd man- 
ilia paper are the kinds now made, amounting 
in all to four thousand pounds daily. The 
amount of business done annually is about sixty 
thousand dollars. The monthly pay-roll is about 
one thousand dollars. 

The mill is on the southwest corner of Zane 
and Underwood streets. 

Early Painters. — E. H. Church was of the 
opinion that Wesley Alwine, who came in 1828, 
was the first to engage in painting for a busi- 
ness. He was " a genius in his way," and con- 
sidered a fine workman. Merrick Barr came 
soon after and opened his shop in Putnam. Dan- 
iel McCarty (who prided himself in being one of 
the F. F. Vs., in spite of his name), worked for 
Barr, and they were fond of saying that their 
customers were "the old Yankees," meaning 
the Buckinghams, Sturges, Whipple, Putnam, 
Dr. Robert Saffbrd and Major Horace Nye. 

McCarty opened a shop in Zanesville proper 
in 1853, and subsequently engaged in merchan- 

PoTTBHYr—- Samuel Sullivan, of Philadelphia, 

Pa., came to Zanestown in the spring of 1808, 
and lived in a cabin adjoining Gen. Van Home's 
farm house, on the northeast corner of Main and 
Third streets, and began the manufacture of red- 
ware ; he built a moderate sized kiln and made 
plates, cups and saucers, besides other house- 
hold articles. He was a sober, industi-ious man, 
born in the State of Delaware, April 10, 1772; 
he died on his farm in Falls township, October 
^5) 1853. In 1840, Bernard Howson, John Hal- 
lam, George Wheaton and two other experienced 
pottei-s, originally from Staffordshire, England, 
came to Zanesville and engaged in the manu- 
facture of potter's wares. In the spring of 1846, 
John Howson (brother of Beimard) joined the 
company, and this firm continued until 1852, 
when John Howson and his son Bernard became - 
sole owners. This pottery, from the last date up 
to 1863, did an annual business of $8,000. In 
1863, John Howson died, and the business was 
continued by his son Bernard. About this time, 
the general business was making ink bottles. In 
1874 the establishment was leased by Fisher and 
Lansing, of New York City, for the maufacture 
of fioor tiling. 

In 1849, George Pyatt, from Staffordshire, 
England, came to Zanesville and began the 
maniifacture of Rockingham and yellow stone- 
ware. In 185 1 , Mr. Pyatt and Christopher Goetz 
formed a partnership, which continued two years, 
when Pyatt removed to Cincinnati, where he 
started, one after another, about all of the early 
potteries of that city. In 1859, ^^'^ Pyatt and 
three other Englishmen removed to Kaolin, Mo., 
and there operated in the manufacture of white 
ware until the breaking out of the war, when 
Pyatt returned to Cincinnati, and in 1863 he re- 
turned to Zanesville and engaged with Mr. How- 
son until 1866, when he began business for him- 
self. In 1878, he had enlarged his capacities for 
business by a ten horse power engine, boiler and 
suitable machinery, but died March 15, 1879. 
The business has been conducted by his son, J. 
G. Pyatt, since that time. They are known as 
the Tremont Pottery, and turn out about $2,000 
worth of pottery annually. 

In 1868, N. K. Smith began the manufacture 
of pottery, and, with the aid of seven men, turns 
out about seventy-five gallons of ware. 

In 1874, Duncan Hamelback built a pottery in 
the Ninth Ward ; his establishment riianufactures 
jugs, jars, churns, etc. 

In 1878, Calvin Bumbaugh bought a pottery in 
the Ninth Ward, known as the " Star Pottery," 
built in 1873 by Alfred Wilber ; seven men are 
employed there, and they turn out about eighty- 
five thousand gallons of ware annually. 

Revenue, Internal. — Mr. John Reynolds, 
principal Assessor for the Fifth District of Ohio, 
appointed his Deputies May 2d, 1815, for that 
year. For Washington county, Colern C. Bar- 
ton ; Muskingum county, James Victors, then 
living in West Zanesville ; Guernsey county. Dr. 
E. Lee ; Coshocton county, Lewis Vail ; Tusca- 
rawas county, Robert F. Capis. This Internal 




Revenue tax, was for tax on distilleries, licenses 
for merchants in retailing dry goods and liquors, 
and hotel-keepers, and for stamps for various 
purposes. Congress, at every session, would 
add to or modify the duty. The assessment for 
direct tax was on houses and lots, farms, car- 
riages and harness, mills, furnaces, gold and 
silver watches, the value of slaves held, etc. 
There were several slaves held to Ohio at that 
time, that were taxed as other property. 

I will give a list of some of the principal citi- 
zens living in this district that were assessed for 
internal revenue, for the year 1815 : Alexander 
Dair, merchant, $11.43; David Anson, shoe- 
maker, $6.23 ; William Burham, hotel keeper, 
$36.46 ; E. Buckingham, Jr. , merchant, $25 .87-^^ ; 
A. Buckingham & Co., merchants, $21.87-^; 
Valentine Best, distillery, $566.79; Gilbert Blue, 
merchant, $36.40 ; Daniel Converse, merchant, 
$53.00; William Conwell, $4.00; Joseph 
Church, shoemaker, $18.75 ! James Culbertson, 
tanner, $23.71 ; Alexander Culbertson, $10.19; 
Daniel Crist, tobacconist, $12.40; D. & J. 
Chambers, merchants, $37.50; Conwell & Reed, 
merchants, $22.50 ; Solomon Deffenbaugh, 
shoemaker, $3.43 ; John Dillon, iron manufac- 
turer, $50.30; Moses Dillon, $29.12; Nathan 
C. Findley, merchant, $51.46; Thomas Flood, 
hotel keeper, $21.87 ! Robert Fulton, merchant, 
$44:37 ; Samuel Frazey, merchant, $22.97 ; 
Timothy Gaylord, shoemaker, $2.36 ; Oliver & 
Ebenezer Granger, merchants, $22.50; George 
Gurty, $5.50; Richard Galigher, hatter, $12.87 : 
Paul Hahn, hotel keeper, $21.87 ! Isaac Hazlett, 
merchant, $31.99; Frederick Houck, $2.61; 
Samuel Herrick, $1. 00 ; John Hall, saddler, 
$10.66; Joseph Hull, saddler, $4.32; George 
Jackson, $6.19; John Levins, merchant, $21.87 ! 
Spencer Lahew, distiller, $159.20; Alexander 
McLaughlin, merchant, $15.00: Increase 
Mathews, merchant, $14.58 ; Robert Mitchell, 
$21.87 ; J. R. Munson, $10.75; Moses Moore- 
head, tanner, $21.63; Joseph F. Munroe, 
$15.00 ; Walter McKinney, hatter, $22.27 ; I & 
A.Nye, $6.87; Harris, Nye & Co., $6.87; 
Thomas L. Pierce, merchant, $33.32 ; Jeffrey 
Price, merchant, $42.94; Manning Putnam, 
$12.26 ; General Rufus Putnam, $2.00 ; William 
Pelham, $22.50; Harris Reed, $7.00; R. & G. 
Reeves, merchants, $37.50; Nathan Roberts, 
hotel keeper, $22.00; Christian Spangler, mer- 
chant, $36.45 ; Wyllys Silliman, $8.00; Jonas 
Stansberry, $4.00 ; Joseph Robertson, $10.24; 
Skinners: Chambers, book binders, $95.42; 
Joseph Sheets, distiller, $550.40 ; John C. Stock- 
ton, merchant, $22.50; Stewart Speer, $4.58; 
John Sidell, distiller, $332.72 ; Robert Spear, 
$15.00; Samuel Thompson, merchant, $36.46; 
James Taylor, $40.46; David Vandarbarrick, 
$15.00.; Luke Walpole, merchant, $21.87; 
Thomas Wickham, hotel keeper, $44.37 ; Dudley 
Woodbridge, merchant, $75.96 ; Jesse Young, 
hotel keeper, $17.50; WilHam Young, 83 cents. 

The number of persons assessed and collected 
from for the internal revenue of this (Fifth) dis- 
trict, in 1815, was 308. 

Rope Walks. — October oth, 181 1, James 
Keller engaged in the manufacture of cordage, 
twines and rope. On the i8th of December, 
1818, A. P. Westbrook entered into the same 
business, but on a much larger scale. We find 
the following in the Zanesville "Express," of 
January 13, 1819: 

'•'■Rofe Factory. — The subscriber has com- 
menced the manufacture of cordage of all kinds, 
and will keep constantly on hand, cables, well 
ropes, bed cords, plough lines, clothes lines, 
sacking lacings, twines, carpet chain, fishing, 
chalk and trout lines. N. B. — Highest price 
paid for hemp delivered at my place, next door 
to J. S. Dungan's hotel. Main street. 

A. P. Westbrook." 

In 1832, Abbott & Crain had a small rope 
walk, about where the canal now runs, between 
First and Second streets. 

In 1833, Abraham Arter, from Hagerstown, 
Md., began the manufacture of rope on the site 
No. 61 Main street. Hemp was then the only 
material used, and was brought chiefly from 
Maysville, Ky., at a cost of about sixty dollars 
per ton. The price ranged as high as two hun- 
dred dollars per ton during the Southern rebel- 
lion. Mr. Arter continued the business until 

In 1835, George L. Shinnick and John R. 
Howard began the business of rope making, on 
the site now the northwest corner of Main and 
Second streets, and continued until 1838, when 
they dissolved partnership, and Mr. Shinnick 
started his business on Howard, between Fifth 
and Sixth streets, and did a heavj' business, 
often shipping twenty-five tons of manufactured 
goods per month. 

Salt Works. — 181 7 — Capt. James Hampson 
had a salt well and furnace at the mouth of Mill 
run. The well was bored during that year ; 
Samuel Clark (now living on North 5th street), 
an energetic boy, helped to bore the well. Capt. 
Hampson operated the furnace in 1820, and for 
five or six years later. e. h. c. 

December 25, 1817, Thomas L. Pierce adver- 
tised as follows : 

"Salt. The subscriber will sell Monopoly 
salt, of the verj- best quality, at a less price than 
E. Buckingham & Co., the apple and goose 
quill merchants of Putnam." [Salt was selling 
at $2 per bushel.] 

In 1818, Thomas L. Pierce and G. A. Hall 
dug a salt well on the edge of the Mclntire saw 
mill race, near the south end of Second street, but 
the water proved too weak to make salt to profit. 
Several years afterward, Messrs. Lattimore & 
Worthington built a bath house over the well, 
and also kept a saloon in the building, but that 
business was abandoned. 

In 1819, Alexander Culbertson sunk a salt 
well at the place where the lower canal locks 
now are. This well was three hundred feet 
deep. He made use of a hollow tree, about three 
feet in diameter and ten feet long, for a reservoir, 
which gave rise to the name it went by, "the Salt 


Gum." The kettles used in boiling were made 
at the foundry of Thomas L. Pierce, who ob- 
tained the iron from Dillon's Falls. Mr. Cul- 
bertson did not make a very large quantity of 
salt any year, but kept the works in operation 
until his death. The price of salt at the works 
ranged from $1.32 to $1.35 per bushel. 

In 1820-22, John Dillon sunk a well eleven 
hundred feet deep, a little below the Culbeitson 
well, but this proved too weak to be profitable. 

About this time, Mr. Nathan C. Finley dug a 
salt well on the bank of the river, below Blue's 
tanyard, and manufactured salt there for a few 
years. Finding that the business failed to pay 
expenses, operations were suspended. Nearly 
opposite to this well, at the hollow gum, on the 
south side of the run which empties into the 
Muskingum at this point, another well was dug 
by Daniel Prouty and Merriam, but never went 
into operation. It was afterward owned by Mr. 
John Dillon. 

In tho»e days, many persons endeavored to go 
into the manufacture of salt. The Pierce well, 
four miles above town, afterwards owned by 
Nathaniel Wilson ; the Herrick, Crom, Jackson 
and Chambers wells. Several of these manu- 
factured salt for a few years, and then abandoned 
the enterprise. e. h. c. 

The "Express," of January 13, 1819, has the 
following : 

"Salt. — At $1.50 per bushel, at Ayres Salt 
Works, eight miles below Zanesville, oh the 
Muskingum river. We are now making thirty 
bushels a day, and when our new kettles are in 
operation (which we are now putting in), we 
shall make eighty bushels per day. 

All persons that have to cross the river for*salt 
at our works shall be ferried free of expense. 

Jacob Ayres & Co." 

No branch of manufacture on the Muskingum 
river has suffered more than the salt business. 
How many salt works there have been in the 
Muskingum Valley, between Zanesville and 
Marietta, can not now be stated, perhaps not 
less than fifteen. Of the eight that remain, al- 
though they have lost money, their owners 
have' hung on, persisting in getting a little 
salt to the market. And while the salt trade 
seems the last to be affected by the improved 
condition of business generally, the time of pros- 
perity is evidently near at hand. 

Shoemakers. — 1800. — The first son of Crispin 
who made his appearance in Zanesville, was a 

Mr. Smith, in the fall of 1800. In 1802, 

John Cain, shoemaker, resolved to try his fortune 
in the new settlement. "In those days" shoe- 
makers went fi-om house to house and repaired 
old shoes and made new ones, taking part of 
their pay in board. This was facetiously styled 
"whipping the cat." 

In-the fall of 1807, Joseph Church arrived from 
Bucks county. Pa. He was a boot and shoe- 
maker, boot making being the more scientific 
branch of the trade. He worked for Levi Chap- 
man, who owned the first tanyard started in this 

section. (This had been put in operation in 
1802.) Mr. Church opened a boot and shoe 
shop — the first in the town — in the spring of 1808, 
and in September, of that year, married Miss 
Sarah Hart. The ceremony was performed at 
Robert Taylor's hotel, a log building that stood 
on the northwest corner of Main and Sixth 
streets, known also as Herron's corner. There 
being no minister stationed here at that time, the 
knot was tied by 'Squire Samuel Thompson. 
He died in 1863, in his 8ist year, and his wife 
died in 1871, in her 83d year. 

April 3d, 1808, a solitary horseman, from 
Fayette county, Pa., arrived in Zanestown, and 
sojourned at Paul Hahn's tavern, near the lower 
ferry. The stranger was Solomon Deffenbaugh, 
a son of Crispin. He opened shop, the second 
of the kind, and nothing more is told of him but 
that "during the war of '12, he made shoes for 
thg soldiers, many of whom never returned, 
and he counted this labor lost." He died on his 
farm near Zanesville, December 11, 1869, in the 
84th year of his age, and his wife followed to 
the same bourne, April 18, 1872, aged 81. 

During this year, also, came Timothy Gay- 
lord and worked at his trade. 

In 1 801, David Anson joined the settlement. 
His cabin was built on the site now known as 68 
Main street, and served as his residence and 
shop. He was a leader and fond of exhibiting 
his muscle. In 1814, he succeeded in getting the 
craft to adopt the following scale of prices : 

"Boot and Shoemakers' Prices, established 
April 19, 1814: Fair top Cossack boots, $14; 
plain Cossack boots, $12 ; Wellington boots, $8 ; 
footing boots, $4.87 ; fixing and bottoming boots, 
$4.50 ; bottoming old boots, $3.00 ; ladies laced 
boots, $4.50 ; ladies broad boots, $3.00." 

This bill of prices was signed by Joseph Church, 
Timothy Gaylord, David Anson and Solomon 
Deffenbaugh, bosses. 

In 1816, William and Aaron Kirk, John Bur- 
well and William Luch were added to the craft, 
and in 1817 James Martin made known his in- 
tentions of "following the last." Henry Ford, 
Peter Gi-eaves, William Love, William Twaddle, 
James Milton, Jacob Walters, Henry Vincell, 
John Thompson, Thomas Hillier, Zacharias and 
Elijah Taylor, Jacob Stout, Elias Pike, William 
Forgraves, George Maneeley and S. S. Mann 
were subsequently numbered with the craft, but 
whether this proved to be the Mecca they had 
sought, we are not informed. 

Soap. — Daniel Prouty began the manufacture 
of soap and candles in Zanesville in i8iij'0n the 
river bank between Fifth and Sixth streets. In 
18 15 the works were purchased by N. & C. Wil- 
son. This fii"m continued to do business until 
1847, when the concern passed into the hands of 
Hiram Rogers and Dr. A. H. Brown. In 1848 
Theodore Con vers bought the interest of Rogers, 
and the firm became Brown & Convers. In 1849, 
Mr. Brown transferred his interest to Mr. Con- 
vers, who continued the works until 1853, when 
William Shultz bought the establishment for sev- 



en thousand dollars. The capacity of the works 
at this time was about one hundred and fifty 
thousand pounds per annum. He operated the 
business until 1866, when his son, Robert D. 
Shultz, and his nephew, John Hoge, succeeded 
him in the management, and the firm became 
"Shultz & Co." These young men were ambi- 
tious to increase their business, and their name 
is not now confined to a local reputation. Their 
average yearly production is about five hundred 
thousand dollars. 

In i8i5,Eber Merriam was engaged in the 
manufacture of soap. In 1818, a stock company 
was formed, and known as the Muskingum 
Manufacturing Company, of which company 
Mr. Merriam held two hundred and fifty shares, 
and George Abbott, Ephraim Abbott, and Na- 
thaniel Wilson, a like amount. They manufac- 
tured soap and pearl-ash. Their works were 
first at the foot of Market street, and, later, at 
the foot of Fifth street. 

In 1838, David Hahn, a German soap-boiler, 
engaged with N. Wilsoji & Co., to manage the 
soap business for them-, and continued in their 
employ and with their successors until 1863, 
when he began business for himself. 

Street Railroads. — Zanesville Street Rail- 
road Company — The charter was granted by the 
General Assembly of the State of Ohio, August 
9th, 1875, to Josiah Burgess, Thomas B. Town- 
send, Edward T., Burgess, George W. Town- 
send, and Francis M. Townsend — incorporators, 
stockholders, and proprietors. 

The following were the first oflicers elected : 
Josiah Burgess, President ; William. C. Towns- 
end, Secretary ; Thomas B. Townsend, Treas- 
urer. These oflicers have been retained to this 
day. September 7th, 1865, the City Council, by 
ordinance, opened the road, conveying by this 
act the right of way over the route selected. 
December 4th, 1875, the road was opened for 
travel, the' company having built three miles of 
track in eighty-seven days. 

The Mclntirc Street Railway Company — 
Was chartered in December, 1875. The incor- 
porators were : Josiah Burgess, Thomas B. 
Townsend, William C. Townsend, George W. 
Townsend, W. T. Gray, William T. Maher, and 
Thomas Lindsey, who were also incorporators, 
stockholders, and proprietors, with a capital of 

At a meeting of the stockholders, March 17, 
1876, it was ordered thai this i-oad be built ; 
however, before it was completed, it was pur- 
chased by the Zanesville Street Railway Com- 
pany, thus consolidating the two roads. 

In 1877 ^^^ road was extended from the south 
end of Putnam Avenue to the Fair Grounds, a 
distance of three-quarters of a mile ; thus ac- 
commodating those attending the fairs, tilso pic- 

The companj' requires from fifty to sixt^- ani- 
mals, which are chiefly mules, and they consume 
about 115 tons of hay and 4,000 bushels of corn 

The cars were made by J. G. Brill & Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa., at an average cost of five 
hundred dollars each. 

There are two roads, the longest one leading 
from the Ohio Iron Works, through the city 
proper and over the Putnam bridge, through 
Putnam, to the Fair Grounds, a distance of three 
and three-quarters miles. The other extends' 
from Mclntire Terrace, West Zanesville, over 
the Main street bridge, eastward, on Main street, 
thence southwest to the Tile Works on Marietta 
street, a distance of two and one-quarter miles. 

The total amount of capital stock is $50,000. 

SuRVEVOiiS — 1879. — ]^^^ Mathews was in the 
employ of the Government, as a surveyor, in 
1786. From 1799 to 1803, he and Ebenezer 
Buckingham surveyed many of the townships in 
Muskingum, Coshocton, and other counties, into 
sections, quarter-sections, and 80-acre lots. 

Tanners — 1802. — Reuben Jennings started the 
first tanyard in Zanestown, in 1802. In 1804 he 
sold out to Levi Chapman. Moses Moorehead 
and Joseph Robertson opened their tannery, in 
the vicinity of town, December 24, 1806, and 
continued in the business until 1814, when Mr. 
Moorehead purchased his partner's interest and 
conducted the business himself until April 24, 
1832, when he sold out to his brother, Thomas 
Moorehead, for $10,000 cash. At the death of 
Joseph Robertson, in 1844, the property was di- 
vided by order of Court, and one-half given to 
the Robertson heirs, the balance to Thomas 
Moorehead. The valuation of the whole was 
$8,000. This Mr. Moorehead continued the 
business until 1857, and sold out to his sons, 
Washington and William C, for $2,000. In 
April of that year, the property passed into the 
hands of George Kurtz, for the consideration of 
$1,500. In 1859, Jacob F. Greul and Christo- 
pher BishofT bought the business for thirteen hun- 
dred dollars, and operated the yard until 1866, 
when it was sold for building lots. 

James Culbertson (hatter) came to Zanestown 
in 1805, and in 1809 sunk about fiftv-five vats, 
and did an extensive business until his death, 
which occurred in 1822 or "3, when the business 
was conducted by his sons, Samuel and Alexan- 
der. The yard was located on the northeast 
corner ot Fifth and Market streets. He lived 
on the north side of the Square until 1819, when 
Jolin Wilson built a two-story brick residence 
for him, \\hich is now a part of the Ameri- 
can Mouse. In 1834-5 the stock was purchased 
b\' Doster & Darlinton, and the land sold for city 
lots by Mrs. Culbertson and sons. e. h. c. 

Doster & Darlinton opened a tanyard, in the 
spring of 1830, on the south side of "the Old 
National Road," near its junction with the "Old 
Wheeling Road," on a tract of seven acres 01 
land bought of Geo. Reeve. It was the largest 
tannery in Eastern Ohio, having one hundred 
vats, and doing a business of from forty to fifty 
thousand dollars annuall)-. They operated until 
1844, when they closed out and sold the land in 
town lots. 

■Zanesvili.c, Ohio, March, 18S3. 

"la n d is the 


BpniBfflriTIhlcy— Ztrcavlllo'fl teal enUle mon, 
Troualy/nruG Ibclrniiitb tinpravcil pupci o^iu 
^■Ung MNful pnmni— S'lurconQcICDCc, (oo— 
llnrlc«sirtlhcyiiDjlouB(oproiiiplly ecrvo joili 
^JrioCLiRTEiilDB (n r™r(slak, copilanlhuTo they, 
Xclt.vWhxhpm-totiiXjfliasc, orp'rops imao owayj 
Xrcrcourtcona, xllalflo andllb«nl inclined, 
KCflcTj'— irillbig' to GTOCt jon— Ihla Unn yoanlll flndi 

irfjnnrt— ttcr'ja'Gipnrienccd atlorncrs nt IflW, 
JCflTiM'Jatliliigln counBOl, anil read}' (o draw 
3leca3,pli)lriielior[lt]udcvD(d<rF a-daw, 

linre-^racflred wen— bolJi Oiplr pmn^j-Tmia 
IirlhepopHl lie "basin ena Ihcy'roairTTtnBon > 
Sar^cu arDthcyiniinaiitba public to reno. 
JI^QQInenuliloraQdiiaQar to BeconDhctr nenS ■ 
Xich, or hour Jmtnoaaro us Uio clock; 
ToavULUndono 0(J>oUi,lirtbt0f«r*IIaaieB1ock, 




-_, ewiifyinKTccoptTon. accorSea. (6 Bw 

ronncrrnumbctr oObe JBuLLETlf, I&j 
5c tbcr^illr'the.'rn crease in, cfurinsi- 
nesa, Int^gcly intJUccd.Tbylhisinelhoiof.piminE' 
Iheisime^beforttlie pablLq^ani ihR demand o( 
our clicnls and paltonsfor anotheirissne. have 
cmboldeiicd. uS 10 BRainL'prEs.ent ifae. Khal 
EsTATE.JJuLLETiprfotheconsideratioaor IhosQ 
who want to bnf ocselLrcol ilstate. 

Wc acknowledee a. reasonable. ptiBe .in. .Ifra 
wjcccss of our veniurej, alid, haVe^ llicreforc, 
endeavoted. ia lliia. issue to rnoro tbaa please 
curTricnds, Bni^willi. ihis-in "ricwTfe- hava 

rdl espcciaL attention: to tlie fine engva^ 

■'-Thefcidingmnlltr wc Jiavc endeavored lo 
Tender aa inlcrcscim; a»-po«ihIc, while making 
iLbcar'upon our parliciiITrline of business. 

The list of property heroin adycrlkcd is ilie 
Tnont enlensivc ever offered Jn this scclion ol 
the Slate, ind embrace? every charnclcr of 
propt)'!)' ihal may be ulasiilied under the name 
of Seal Esialc. From the small building lot, 
v/ortb one hundred dollars, "said on lonR 
lime and easy payments," lo the splendid lesi- 
dcnce worlll thousands of dollars, or the grand, 
farm of hundreds of acres, we pre^cnr a line 
■of real properly from which all reasonabla 
Ijuyers can make selccliona according to their 
t3.stes and ability. 

WSite: we have been reasonably rewarded, in 


:, for Jhe 

a the 

it year. 

lave aUo ,h3d knowing thai we have been enabled to 
aid many worthy fimilic5, who have .hitherto 
.known only the tenant house and the monthly 
■visit of the landlord, to occupy homes of their 
own. "Home, Sweet Home" is doubly dear 

to Those who before haye known no home Ihey 
could call theirxiwn. While, wilh great phi- 
lanthroiiist?:, we Jiavc Jiot been able to give 
homes to worthy ones, tvc have endeavored, by 
jointing out ihs wny and aiding Ihem by 
methodi of tiut own, to .help men win for 
■themselves homca; nnd, if Ir, doing Ihie, our 
:names araldndly rcmcmbered^in, family circles 
■madtj happier byour cITorls, wc feel that 

work i»5 not B ec IT b1 together selfish. 




11 Si >'", r'^.-'V',. '•M' 






In 1830, Gilbert Blue sunk vats and commenced 
the tanning' business, on his own land, on the 
Marietta road. The business was conducted by 
his son Curran, who subsequently opened a new 
yard on the River road, a short distance below 
the city; this was about 1847. He carried on 
business successfully for himself until 1876. In 
1841, Gilbert Blue retired from the ministry 
and re-enteired the business arena. 

N. G. Abbott and Charles Abbott formed a 
copartnership in 1844, and erected a tannery 
with twenty-four vats. This yard was near the 
Muskingum river, and j«st south of the old Rope 
Walk. Mr. Upton Downs conducted the busi- 
ness for them. Their specialty was tanning 
sheep skins ; (which they could do in twenty- 
four hours !) They bought sheep, killed them 
and rendei"ed all but "the hams into tallow for 
candles, most of which was sold at home. The 
hams were cured and sold in Boston, New 
Orleans and England. The skins were sold 
in Cincinnati and St. Louis. The wool was 
sold in Boston. They continued in this business 
until 1849, when the business was closed and the 
land passed into the hands of Harvey Darlinton. 

Tavkrns and Hotels. — In the reign of 
Edward III. only three taverns were allowed 
in London, England — one in Chepe, one in Wal- 
broke, and the other in Lombard street. "The 
Boar's Head" (tavern) existed in the reign of 
Henry IV., and was the rendezvous of Prince 
Henry and his dissolute companions. Shak- 
speare mentions it. as the residence of Mrs. 
Quickly : "And is not my hostess of the tavern 
a most sweet wench?" Of little less antiquity is 
the White Hart, Bishop's gate, established in 

Our ancestors inaugurated taverns in this 
country, after the fashion of those in England re- 
ferred to ; and although they were " restricted in 
London," in this country it became every man's 
privilege to keep tavern who deemed it expedi- 
ent. At the tavern, news of almost any kind 
could be had ; hither men resoi-ted to chat on 
whatever interested them ; and while it was a 
common thing for liquor to be sold at the Amer- 
ican tavern, they were more noted for innocent 
pastime, the diffusion of rumors, and now and 
then a rare bit of eloquent opinion as to how the 
affairs of State or the Nation ought to be con- 
ducted, than as places of debauch. 

As we have seen in rehearsing the doings of 
the first settlers, John Mclntire built a cabin, and, 
purposely, large enough "to keep tavern ;" this 
was in 1799, and on the site now known as the 
southwest corner of Second and Market streets. 
Hon. Lewis Cass, in his "Camp and Court of 
Louis Phillipe," has made this tavern famous in 
history, an account of which will be found else- 
where in this work. 

^^ Green's Tavern. " — Built during the winter of 
i^^g — a story and a half double cabin, with a 
Spacious hall through the middle, stood about at 
the head of Main street, opposite SiUiman street. 

There the first Fouth of July celebration in 
this region was held, in the year 1800. 

'■'■Cordery's Tavern.'" — Built by Slagor, was 
on the site now the northwest corner of Sixth 
and Main streets. 

In 1800, came David Harvey, from Frederick, 
Md., purchased the lot now the southeast corner 
of Third and Main streets, and built a two- 
story hewed log house thereon, and in the fall 
of that year "opened tavern." Harvey assumed 
to keep a "first-class house." He purchased 
the right of way from his house to. the ferry 
and the ford, in a direct line, which wa:s diag- 
onally across the intervening squares — and at 
the ford and ferry which was at the foot of Fifth 
street, he had signs pointing to "Harvey's Tav- 
ern." This* road was called "Harvey's bridle 
path." As will be seen elsewhere, the first ses- 
sion of court was held at Harvey's Tavern ; and 
the first plastering done in Zanestown was in 
Harvey's bar room, by James Lindsey, in 
1804. Harvey died at the age of 71, March 19, 

In 1805, Robert Taylor opened tavern on the 
southwest corner of Main and Sixth streets, and 
remained there two years, when he removed to a 
frame house on a portion of the ground now 
occupied by the Clarendon Hotel, with the sign 
of the "Orange Tree." Here the Legislature 
in 1810-12 made headquarters. 

In 1804, Paul Hahn built a cabin on the corner 
of what is Fourth and Canal streets and opened 
tavern. ■ 

In 1805, William Montgomery built a frame 
house on the northeast corner of Main and Sixth 
streets, in which Nathaniel Roberts opened tav- 
ern in 1806, with the sign of "Rising Sun.'" Mr. 
C. Pratt purchased this property in 1808 and put 
up a sign "Red Lion ;" in 1816 this place was 
kept by Thomas Flood, with the sign "General 
Washington." This was specially the head- 
quarters for Virginians and "Democratic Repub- 

In 1806, General Isaac Van Home purchased 
the ground on the northeast corner of Main and 
Fifth streets and erected a two-story house, 
which was afterward known as the "Wickham 
Hotel ;" this building was subsequently removed 
to the southwest corner of Main and Fourth 
streets, and continued to be known as above. In 
1818, John S. Dugan erected a three-story brick, 
on the southwest corner of Main and Fifth streets, 
and kept hotel ; this house was subsequently 
known as the National Hotel, kept by Harry 

"His faie was fair to look upon, it never wore a soowl, 
He loved to Srlice the juicy roast aud carve tlie tender 

fowl ; 
His sausages from Hagerstown, witli cream and apple 

Proveil he knew liow to keep the best hotel in 0-hi-o." 

In 1806, in Springfield (afterward known as 
Putnam) .Robert I. Oilman and John Levins 
built a three-story brick hotel, on the site now 



occupied by Mr. C. E. Munsons's residence ; 
the second floor was a dancing hall and concert 
room. William Burnham was the first "land- 
lord," and kept the house until 1811, when he 
removed to the southwest corner of Second and 
Main streets — a frame building owned by Gen. 
Isaac Van Home, and there kept tavern with 
the sign of the "Merino Ram." 

In 1806, Benoni Pearce kept the hotel built by 
Gen. Van Home, on the northeast comer of 
Fifth and Main streets, the site now occupied 
by the Zane House. He was succeeded in 1806 
by James Reeve, who had the sign of the 
" Western Star," and kept there until 1814. 

The " Green Tree," on the southeast corner 
of Fourth and Main streets, was kept by John 
S. Dugan in 1817. This house had some highly 
honored guests ; President Monroe, accompanied 
by Gen. Lewis Cass ; Gen. Brown, Commander- 
in-chief of the U. S. Army, and Gen. McComb, 
with. their body guard, consisting of two men in 
livery, were quartered there when passing 
through this then " great and beautiful north- 
west country ! " At this house, in 1820, an en- 
tertainment for the benefit of the Greeks, who 
were in rebellion against the Turks, was given ; 
and here, "Julia Dean," the afterwards popular 
actress, made her debut. 

The following is a petition for the license of 
tavern keepers, store keepers, and ferries : "To 
the Honorable, the Associate Judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas, for the county of Mus- 
kingum, in the State of Ohio, for the August 
term 1807." 

" We, the undersigned, your petitioners, re- 
siding in said countj^ do recommend Peter 
Speck, Benoni Pearce, Jacob Good, Andrew 
Moon, John Gardner, Charles Williams, Paul 
Hahn, Michael Hoffman, Thomas Knowles, 
George Heap and Thomas Ward as fit and 
proper persons to keep public houses of enter- 
tainment, at their respective places in Zanesville 
and Muskingum county, and are of the opinion 
that a license may be granted them. 

" We also recommend David Peter, Jeffrey 
Price and Increase Mathews as fit and proper 
persons to keep stores for the sale of foi'eign 
merchandise in Muskingum county. 

" We also recommend Rufus Putnam and 
others, and John Mclntire, to keep ferry, as for- 
merly at Zanesville. August 20, 1807. (Signed) 
William Newell, Levi Whipple, Samuel Beach, 
Alex. McCoy, B. Buckingham, Increase Math- 
ews, A. Briggs, Benjamin Tupper, David Stick- 
ney, E. Buckingham, John Leavins, John Lehew, 
Abel Lewis, Robt. Taylor, John Heckewelder, 
David Peter, Peter Guests, John Knisely, Phillip 
Minnick, John Ziegler, Abram Mosser, George 
Pease, John Newton, John Henry, Thomas Roe, 
David I. Marple, Isaac Hazlett, James Taylor, 
John Mathews, William Montgomery, John 
Gardner, Christian Spangler, Henry Crooks, 
David Vandenbark and Daniel Convers." 

At the Court of Associate Judges, held in 
Zanesville, Ohio, August 29, 1807, was granted 
the following licenses, to wit: 

" Peter Speck, Benoni Pearce, Andrew Moon, 
Jacob Good, Charles Williams, Paul Hahn, 
Michael Hoffman, Thomas Knowles and Thom- 
as Ward — Taverns. 

"David Peter, Jeffrey Price and Increase 
Mathews — Stores. 

' ' Rufus Putnam and John Mclntire — Ferries ; 
each having paid the required fee of fifty cents." 

In 181 7, John S. Dugan bought the " Green 
Tree Tavern," and changed the sign to 
" Dugan's Hotel." 

In 1823, Mr. Frazey erected the hotel on north 
Fourth street, now kno^n as the Kirk House. 

In 1842-43 Dr. Hamm contracted with James 
Ramage to remove the Taylor tavern, and erect 
a brick building for hotel purposes. Mr. Ram- 
age did the wood work and E. H. Church the 
stone and brick work. "Joe " Stacy kept the 
house, and it was known as " Stacy's Hotel," 
and as it changed hands it became the " Wins- 
low House," "Mclntire House," " Mills House," 
and finally was taken away and the present 
magnificent building, " The Clarendon," was 
erected in 1877. E. H. Church, the skillful and 
faithful mechanic, superintended the stone and 
brick work. 

St. Lawrence Hotel, southwest comer of 
Main and Fourth streets, was erected in 1859 
by Dr. Alfred Merrick, but was used for public 
offices until 1872, when it was leased to J. T. 
Brown, who kept it as a private boarding house 
until 1873, when it was enlarged and fitted up 
for a Hotel. Dr. Merrick died in August of that 
year, and in 1874 ^^^ son, Charles E. Merrick, 
and his father's administrator, Allen Miller, fur- 
nished the house and leased it to Capt. Joseph 
McVey, long and favorably known in this valley. 
The Capt. named the house " St. Lawrence," 
in compliment to Mrs. C. E. Men-ick, nee Law- 
rence. Chas. E. and Mrs. Merrick were the 
first guests when the house was opened. The 
hotel has passed through the management of 
the following persons : Capt. McVey, David 
B. Roush, " Lou." B. Cook, C. C. Gibson and 
is now in the management of Wm. M. Bisant. 
Capt. McVey has been identified with the hotel, 
with but a short intermission, from the beginning, 
and is now a veteran hotel, keeper, retained in 
that service. 

The American Encaustic Tiling Company, 
LIMITED. — The manufacture of tiling for floors 
and hearths is now very ornamental and in gen- 
eral use. The industry was inaugerated in this 
county by Messrs. Fisher and Lahsihg, of New 
York, who, in 1874, engaged Mr. F. H. Hall, a 
native of Muskingum, to experiment with the 
clay and select a location, with the view of es- 
tablishing works here. He rented an old pot- 
tery on Hughes street, near the canal, and with 
a small force and machinery sufficient to make the 
test, procured clay from the hills south of the 
Marietta road, and found it good in two varie- 
ties, one burning red, and the other buff, and as 
other colors could be made by the desired pig- 
ments, it was determined to go on and inauger- 



ate the business in a permanent manner. In 
1876, Gilbert Elliott succeeded Mr. Hall as man- 
ager, and continued in that capacity until March 
I, 1879, when he was succeeded by Martin Lipe, 
and George A. Stanbery as general superintend- 
ent, and on the twentieth of the same month the 
present company was formed. 

Their present buildings were erected in 1878, 
and include five large kilns. The total cost 
was thirty-five thousand dollars. The import- 
ance of this industry is constantly developing, as 
the clay is abundant and the product both beau- 
tiful and durable, and supplies a want heretofore 
met only by Staffordshire, England, from whence 
it was imported, being brought as ship ballast. 
The American tile is far more beautiful in every 
respect, and clay arid coal being so abundant, 
tiling is now afforded at lower rates than the 

Tin and Copper Smiths. — ^John Dulty, Sen., 
from Wheeling, Va., started his son George in 
this business in 1809. About the first work he 
did, was to make the ball for the top of the cupola 
of "old 1809," court house. George returned to 
Wheeling and was succeeded by his brother 
John, in 18 11, and he returned to Wheeling soon 
after and remained until after the close of the- 
war of 181 2, when he returned and continued 
the business alone until 1826, when his brother 
Michael joined him. In 1830, they built a two 
story brick store, where Benijett's jewelry place 
now is, and did a wholesale and retail business. 
They sold the first cook stove, out of a store in 
this county, in 1826. In 1843, Michael with- 
drew. In 1850, he bought the concern of his 
brother, and continued the business until the fall 
of 1854, then sold to J. L. Thacker. Mr. Dulty 
purchased the place formerly owned by Hon. 
Seth Adams, on River road, and there planted a 

The First Tobacconist. — In the spring of 
181 7, Mr. J. L. Cochran engaged in the business 
of a tobacconist in Mud Hollow, on Main street, 
between Sixth street and Sewer alley, on the 
ground now occupied by property owned by C. 
Geis. He manufactured cigars, chewing and 
smoking tobacco for a great many years. His 
sign was a negro about three feet high, called 
Congo. In one hand the little black fellow held 
a bunch of cigars, in the other a box of snuff. 
The young chap was not flesh and bone, but 
wood. Wesley Alwine gave him the ebony tint. 

Mr. Cochran was the first man who entered 
into the business of a tobacconist in Zanesville, 
in all its branches. 

Daniel Christ was one of the tobacconists in 
an early day. His residence was on the site af- 
terwards owned by McMitchell & Henry Bimple, 
on Fourth .street, and his shop was by the side of 
his dwelling. His sign read, "Daniel Christ, 
Tobacconist." The boys all knew that shop, 
and used to delight to sing out his name and 
business. About 1827 or '28, Mr. Christ and 
Parson Shide got on a spree together, and though 
much attached to each other, they got into a dis- 

pute, which some wags managed to have settled 
according to the southern code, and so they 
agreed to fight a. duel with horse pistols — pistols 
well known to the old settlers. They are seldom 
seen now. At Galigher's, in those early times, 
there were chaps who always took delight in 
pushing forward anything which would afford 
innocent sport. So arrangements were made to 
have the matter of honor settled immediately,. in 
the third story of Galigher's store I'oom, The 
weapons, as before mentioned, were horse pistols 
— a very formidable weapon, and the distance 
twenty paces. Jimsey Culbertson and Nev 
Thompson were the seconds, Billy Galligherthe 

In addition to the seconds, several intimate 
friends of the principals were present. The 
principals were in earnest. With them it was 
a matter of honor, which might result in the death 
of one or both. It was a serious matter. And 
yet it was an affair of honor, and if a man kills 
his nearest and dearest friend, his honor must be 
maintained unsullied. One gentleman heed- 
lessly had made some remark during the dispute 
which seemed to impugn the honor of his friend 
and comrade. The gentleman, in a gentlemanly 
way, demaded a retraction on the spot. The 
other gentleman not meaning to impugn the 
honor of any one, and not believing that any re- 
mark he had made could be so construed, his 
honor would not permit him to retract. In fact 
he had nothing to retract. Friends interested by 
the friends only made matters worse. And to 
the regret of principals and their friends, it was 
found that it was necessary to prepare coffee and 
pistols for two. The gentlemen had nerve. 
They marched up boldly to the third story, their 
seconds, carrying the horse pistols, accompany- 
ing them. 

In silence, twenty paces were measured off. 
The parson, during these proceedings, thinking 
derhaps that his last day upon earth had prob- 
ably come, made a beautiful prayer. The 
seconds, in whispers, addressed each other. 
Everything was still and quiet, and the proceed- 
ings partook veiy much of the character of a 
funeral. The gentlemen were stationed twenty 
paces from each other, back to back. The horse 
pistols, each loaded with powder and a light 
paper wad, were placed in their hands by the 
seconds. And now came: "One,'" "Two," 
"Fire!" at which command Mr. Christ, in his 
eagerness to whirl around first and get in the 
first fire upon the Parson, accidently shot his 
pistol off in turning. The Parson, now seeing 
his opponent at his mercy, became magnanimous 
and fired his pistol towards the ceiling. And 
thus this affair of honor was settled satisfactorily 
to both parties, without bloodshed. 

Edge Tools. — In 1817, Thomas Adams, 
James Crosby and Thomas L. Pierce established 
an edge tool manufactory in West Zanesville. 
They made scythes, sickles, axes etc. Their 
wares were said to be equal to the best EngHsh 
make, but owing to local prejudice, were not 



salable at home. They, therefore, adopted the 
ruse of sending them to Pittsburg, where they 
were branded "Pittsburg Manufacturing Com- 
pany," and reshipped to Zanesville and other 
western towns and sold readily at good prices ; 
but such additional expense rendered the busi- 
ness unprofitable, and it was ultimately aban- 
doned, about 1848. 

''' Auger Making. — The subscriber informs 
the public that he has taken the shop adjoining 
the old glass works, opposite the pottery of Judge 
SuUivan, in Zanesville, where he will carry on 
the business of auger making in all its branches. 
The articles will be made of the best materials, 
and all orders will be promptly attended to. — 
["Muskingum Messenger," January 28, 1818.] 

John Mackey." 

In 1819, William McCurdy engaged in the 
manufacture of edge tools, augefs, hoes, etc. His 
establishment was on the corner of Fountain 
alley and Fifth street. He subsequently sold 
out to William Langle3^ 

Wagon Makers. — William Schutz came from 
Winchester, Virginia, and opened a wagon shop 
in 1832, and continued the business with success 
until 1849. He made coaches for the Ohio Stage 
Company, and tradition informs us they rode as 
easy as the famous " Concord," of later times. 

There were others who repaired wagons, but 
none to excel in the manufacture, as now. 

July 28, 1873, the Brown Manufacturing Com- 
pany was incorporated, under the management 
of a Board of Directors, the first of whom were 
Peter Black, W. A. Graham, F. J. L. Blandy, 
Colonel M. Churchill, James Herdman, Thomas 
Griffith and William P. Brown. 

The first officers , elected were Peter Black, 
President ; Oliver C. Ong, Secretary and Wm. 
P. Brown, Superintendent. 

The works were burned in the month of June, 
1880, and immediately rebuilt. 

The authorized capital, $300,000; paid up 
capital, $100,000. 

The company manufacture about $150,000 
worth of wagons, agricultural implements, etc., 
annually ; the average monthly pay roll is $4,000. 

Wool Carding. — The Putnam Manufactur- 
ing Company, about June 20th, 1816, put in op- 
eration three wool carding machines, at their fac- 
tory in Putnam, two for carding common ;ind 
one for carding merino wool. "These machines 
were made under the superintendence of Mr. 
Hopkins, and equal to, if not surpassing any in 
the United States." The company announced 
themselves ready to receive wool at their factory, 
which was at the west end of the lower bridge, 
and which, they said, "must be bought in sheets 
or blankets, having been picked clean of sticks, 
burs, etc. ; one pound of clean grease, hog's lard 
or fresh butter, must be put in every eight pounds 
of common wool ; every twelve pounds of merino 
wool must have one pint of sweet oil put into it. 
If the owner of the wool can not conveniently 
procure sweet oil, it will be furnished by the 
company at his expense. If the common wool 

is prepared as above stated, and the merino wool 
as stated below, the Superintendent engages to 
pay for the wool, if the owner shall not receive 
good rolls. 

The price for carding will be as follows : 

For common wool .'....10c per pound. 

For one-half or one- fourth blood merino 

wool ]2Je " " 

For three-fourths or full blood wool 15c " " 

Jeremiah Dare. 

Method of Preparing Merino Wool — Wash 
it in a mixture of three parts water and one 
part chamber lye, in which put a small quantity 
of hard soap ; heat it slowly until it comes near 
to boiling, stir well during the process, then 
rinse it well in a basket,to keep it from matting ; 
when dry, you may put in your oil, etc. — ["Mus- 
kingum County Messenger]. J. D." 

Putnam, June 20, 1816. 

Woolen Mills. — Jeremiah Dare first oper- 
ated a small mill that stood on the site occupied 
by the woolen mill on Main street, near the 
bridge, which was described as "just below the 
Granger mill." It was leased of J. R. Thomas. 
In 1822, he took his son Jesse in with him, and 
they operated until April, 1838, when his son, 
"Thomas J., purchased a half interest, and in af- 
ter years came to own the whole. In Novem- 
ber, 1840, this mill was burned with its contents, 
but was rebuilt by Jeremiah Dare, and nearly 
ready for operation by April, 1841. 

The new and improved machinery and in- 
creased capacity enabled the operator to do a 
much larger business. Thomas J. Dare died 
January 22, 1865, and after this time Jeremiah 
Z., Thomas J., Jr., and Lewis Dare conductdU 
the business until December, 1878, when the 
mill was closed. 

Isaac Dillon's woolen factory was built before 
1817, as appears from his advertisement in the 
Zanesville "Express" in October of that year, in 
which it is stated that "George Brooke has taken 
the clothing works at the mouth of Licking 
creek. West Zanesville, the property of Isaac 
Dillon, to full, dye and dress woolen goods." 
Added to this, was "a carding mill, builtin 1821 
or 2 ; the buildings extended to the side of the 
bridge, were two-stories high, with a basement 
used for a store. Moses Wheeler, Moses Dillon 
and Clement Brooks were clerks for Mr. Dillon. 
Their foreman was Mr. R. Taylor, from Rhode 

Island ; their weaver was Locherage, 

from Ireland. They manufactured broadcloth, 
satinet, flannel and blankets. In 1827, they pur- 
chased a loom for making figured carpets. Their 
first carpet was an ingrain, all wool, with the 
rose and thistle in the figure, large and hand- 
some, and sold to Mrs. Dr. Washington More- 
head, of Zanesville, and'regarded as very fine. 
Mr. Dillon was an enterprising man and a de- 
cided acquisition to the community. Mr. 
William Johnson leased the wool carding ma- 
chine of Mr. Dillon, May 12, 1819, as also ap- 
pears from the Zanesville "Express," but the 
duration of the lease is not stated. 


Thg pioneer establishment for the manufacture of Encaus- 
tic Tile is that which is novr widely Icnown by the above title. 
It is an Incorporated company, the principal interest being 
owned in New Yorlc. The works are quite extensive, and are 
located on Marietta street, Zanesville. They were built at a 
large outlay of money. The machinery was built to order, 
and is of the most practical pattern. The employes are eighty 
in number, the majority of whom are skilled workmen. 
Shipments are made from Maine to Oregon, and from San 
Francisco to New York. These goods are also sold to the 

European market. The manufactured Tile is beautifully col- 
ored, and made from new designs. 

The officers of the Company are B. Fletcher, President; 
George E. Lansing, Treasurer ; Wm. G. Flammer, Secretary, 
and George A. Stanberry, Superintendent of works. Among 
the many notable public buildings fitted up by this enterpris- 
ing company may be mentioned the Exchange Hotel, at Col- 
umbus, Ohio ; the Court House, Indianapolis, Indiana, and 
the Schultz Opera House, of Zanesville. 

Office corner of Underwood and Kelley Streets, Zanesville. 

About fifty years ago Mr. Samuel Clark opened a Lumber 
Yard at the west end of Market street, where he continued in 
business over thirty years, when he formed a. partnership with 
.Tames Herdman, under the firm name of Clark & Herdman, 
and remained in that business relation until January 4, 1873, 
at which time he disposed of his interest in the firm. On 
March 4, 1873, Samuel W. Clark, a son of Samuel Clark, and 
who had been a clerk for Clark & Herdman for several years, 
started a lumber office on the corner of Underwood and Tarrier 
streets, remaining in that place for more than six years. In 
July of 1879 he removed his office to the corner of Underwood 
and Kelley streets, where he still continues, and now has in his 
warehouses more than four times his original stock of dressed 
lumber. He has also increased his yard room, and now occu- 

pies ground on the north side of Price street, and on the corner 
of Howard and Fifth streets. He keeps constantly on hand a 
large stock of Oak, Fine and Poplar Lumber, Bash, Doors, etc. 
Has Pine Shingles under shed and in warehouses. Pine and 
Oak Flooring, Pine and Poplar Siding, Cornice, Base Boards, 
Door Jambs, Casings, etc., ripped and ready for immediate use. 
He makes Mantels, Doors, Window Frames, glazes Sash, and 
has large and small framing timber. He also sells Builders' 
Hardware, Fire Fronts, Spouting, Pickets, etc. In fact, aims 
to give persons desirous of building a complete outfit. Per- 
sons who anticipate building houses, barns, or do repairing 
work, are cordially invited to call and examine his stock. He 
is confident that he can make it to their interest to deal with 




It is gratifying to know thac so enlightened a 
body as "Ohio's Editors" have found "the City 
of Natural Advantages" all that they anticipated, 
and more, and that they could so heartily ex- 
press the encomiums uttered while here, and 
make Zanesville industries the theme of gratula- 
tion and emulation in the columns of the papers 
over which thej^ preside. Especially, as "the 
programme arranged by the committee for that 
department, for the entertainment of "Ohio's 
Editors," comprised only the most prominent ; 
anticipating that even such a list must prove too 
long for the time at their disposal. The pro- 
gramme was followed, however, and with a de- 
gree of interest rarely equaled and never sur- 
passed. It is deemed a proper closing of 
the recital of the foregoing pages, to give a class- 
ified list and directory of the industries of Zanes- 
ville for the above year :, 

Art and Arhsts — 

Barton, J. P., portrait painter, 128 Main. 
Craig, Charles, portrait painter, 104 Main. 


Lauck, 61 Main. 
Rich, 13 N. 5th and loi Main. 
Sturgeon, 200 Main. 
Sedgwick, 133 Main. 
Starke, s.e.c. 3d and Main. 

A wn ing-Maker — 

Mylius, Gust., 25 Maginnis Block. 

Bakeries — 

Barton, Martha, s.e.c 8th and Harvey. 
Blankenbuhler, J., city bakery, 36 N. 7th. 
Bloomer & Bell, 163 Main. 
Ehrman, Fred., 45 Main. 
Gizax, Chas., 231 Main. 
Hiller, Anthony R., 107 Marietta. 
Johnston, R. R., 173 N. 7th. 
Petit & Strait, s.e.c. Orchard and Under- 
Snell, Wm.., n.e.c. 7th and Elm. 
Stolzenbach, C, 135 Main. 

Bell and Brass Foundry — 

Dockray, Chas., 73 N. 4th. 

Book-Binders — 

Elliott & Co., 177 Main. 
Sandel, L. D., i7iN. 4th. • 
Sullivan & Parsons, Maginnis Block. 
"Courier" office. 

Bracket Manufacturers — 

Herdman, Harris & Co., 39 Market. 

Brewers — 

Achauer, C. F., s.s. Main, e. of 9th. 

Bohn, Sebastian, s.w.c. Spurck and Mari- 

Benner, J. A. & Co., cor. Spring and High. 

Fisher Bros., 29 Monroe. 

Merkle Bros., e.s. Glass House, s. of 

Brick Manufacturers — 

Harris, W. B. & Bros., b. Marietta road 
and old Wheeling road, near the corpora- 
tion line, 3d ward. 

Hunter, Wm., s. of Marietta road, 3d ward. 

Townsend, T. B., 201 Main. 
Broom-Handles and Brooms — 

Shinnick, Wm. M., Jr., 68 Main. 
Brush Manufacturer — 

Seaman, John D., 23 N. 5th, 2d floor. 

Cabinet-Makers [Skilled Workmen] — 

Bailey, W. H., 42 N. 3d st. 

Harris, D. A., s.e. cor. 6th and Main. 
Candle Manufacturers — 

Hahn, David, 93 Marietta. 

Shultz & Co., n.w.c. 7th and Canal. 
Carriage Manufacturers — 

Christ, J. L., s.s. Marietta, b. 7th and 8th. 

Doudna, J., 190 Putnam ave. 

Fortune, F. W., 75 S. Sth. 

Gebele, Sebastian, w.s. Amelia, b. Lee and 
• Hoffman Bros., s.s. Main, b. 8th and gth. 

Holbrook, John, s.e.c. Market and 3d. 

Mader Bros., junction Main and Market. 

Moore, Wilson C, s.e.c. Market and 3d. 

Palmer, Davis, 62 W. Main, 7th ward. 

Schubach & Co., s.s. Main, b. Sth and 9th. 

Smith, J. & Co., b. 2d and 3d, near Putnam 
Coffin Manufacturers — 

Hatcher, J. & Co., canal bank, opp. ist. 
Coppersmiths — 

Foi-d, Wm. D., Fountain alley, b. 7th and 

McCormick, G. W., 53 Main. 
Cotton Manufacturers — 

Hooven & Allison, n.e.c. 6th and Marietta. 
Cultivator Mamfacturers — 

Brown Manufacturing Co., s.w.c. Under- 
wood and R.R. 
File Manufacturers — 

Blandy, H. &F., s.w.c. 3d and Market. 

Roekel, Henry, 225 Main. 
Fire-Brick — 

Stultz & Guthrie, n.w.c. 5th and Canal. 
Flouring Mills — 

Allen, Josiah B., 29 Main ; mill, canal bank, 
foot of 3d. 

Applegate, D., 15 S. 3d. 

"Cassel Mills," (Pickering, Grant & Co.), 
foot of Main. 

"West Side Mill," (Drone & Co.), e.s. Riv- 
er St., near R.R. bridge. 

"Pataskala Mills," 16 W. Main. 
Furniture Manufacturers — 

Abel, Fred, 25 N. sth. 

Burrough & Co., 67 Main. 

Gary Brothers & Silvey, 78 Main. 

Miller, Thomas, e.s. Hall ave., third house 
north of Spring. 

Mull, Geo. P., s.e.c. 6th and Main. 

Rarick, John T., 207 Main. 

Vogel, Ferdinand C, 80 Market. 




Glass Manufacturers — 

Kearns, Herdman & Gorsuch, s,e.c. Main 
and ist. 

Glue Manufacturer — 

Arndt, Herman, s.s. Main, b. Luck and 
Ridge avenues. 

Iron Foundries — 

Duvair & Co., n.e.c. Market and 3d. 

Griffith & Wedge, 93 S. Sth. 

RatlifF& Cunningham, s.e.c. Moxahala ave. 

and Jefferson. 
Ready, Wm., e.s. River, opp. Mclntire ave. 

Last Manufacturers — 

Smith, J. & Co., b. 2d and 3d, near Putnam 

Marble Works — 

McBride, S. G., cor. South and 3d. 
Mitchell, M. V., 245 Main. 
Mitchell & Stultz, s.w.c. Market and 4th. 
Townsend, W. C, 5 Main. 

Mattress Manufacturer — 

Mylius, Gust., 25 N. 5th. 

Mill Machinery — 

Blandy, H. & F., s.w.c. 3d and Market. 
Duvall & Co., n.e.c. Market and 3d. 

Mining Machinery — 

Griffith & Wedge, 93 S. 5th. 
Pa^er Bag Manufacturers — 

Elliott & Co., 177 Main. 
Pa^er Box Manufacturer — 

Brenholts, Chas. J., n.w.c. 6th and South. 
Pafer Mills — 

Glessner & Gilbert, 307 N. 7th. 

Mathews, Edward, s.w.c. Underwood and 

Pattern-Makers — 

Bailey, W. H., 42 N. 3d. 

Harris, D. A., s.e.c. 6th and Main. 
Planing Mills — 

Drake, Thomas, n e.c. Lee and Amelia. 

Guthrie & Coulter, cor. Jefferson and Mus- 
kingum avenue. 

Hall, William & Son, 44 N. 3d. 

Herdman, Harris & Co., 39 Market. 
Plow Manufacturers — 

Brown Manufacturing Co., s.w.c. Under- 
wood and Railroad. 

Huff, E. S. & Son, 66 W. Main, 7th ward. 

Jones & Abbott, 41 S. 3d. 

Shinnick, Woodside & Gibbons, Fountain 
alley, east of 7th. 
Potteries — 

Bumbaugh, Calvin, e.s. Muskingum ave., 
b. Harrison and Pierce. 

Hamelback, Duncan, n.e.c. Muskingum 
ave. and Pierce. 

Hopkins & Pickerel, e.s. Muskingum ave., 
b. Madison and Van Buren. 

Smith, Nathan K., w.s. Muskingum ave., 
south of Pierce. 

Wilbur, Henry M., e.s. Muskingum ave., 
b. Van Buren and Harrison. 

Saddle- Tree Manufacturer — 

Fortune, F. W., 75 S. 5th. 
Saddle and Harness Manufacturers — 

Akerly, George G., 195 Main. 

Haver, Edward B., 79 Main. 

Haver, Samuel C, Jr., 159 Putnam ave. 

Hawxhurst, H. R., Market alley, b. 4th 
and 5th. 

Lenon, Thomas, 199 .Putnam ave. 

Mylius, Henry, 223 Main. 

Power, P. O., 39 W. Main, 7th ward. 

Sarchet, Thomas B., 60 Main. 

Waters, Sampson, 41 Main. 

Sash, Doors, and Blinds [Manufacturers] — 

Clark, Samuel W., n.w.c. Kelly and Under- 

Curtis, James P. & Co., e.s. Sth, b. Main 
and South. 

Drake, Thomas, n.e.c. Lee and Amelia. 

Guthrie & Coulter, s.w.c. Muskingum ave. 
and Jefferson, and N. 3d, near Main. 

Hall, William & Son, 44 N. 2d. 

Herdman, Harris & Co., 39 Market. 

Saw Manufacturers — 

Blandy, H. & F., s.w.c. 3d and Market. 

Sawmill Btiilders — 

Blandy H. & F., s.w.c. 3d and Market. 
Duvall & Co., n.e.c. Market and 3d. 
Griffith & Wedge, 93 S. 5th. 

Scale Manufacturer— 

Widney, Alexander, 245 Main. 

Soa^ Manufacturers — 

Hahn, David, 93 Marietta. 

Shultz & Co., n.w.c. 7th and Canal. 

Steamboat Engines — 

Griffith & Wedge, 93 S.5th. 

Steam Engine Builders — 

Blandy, H. & F., s.w.c. Market and 3d. 
Duvall & Co., n.e.c. Market and 3d. 
Griffith & Wedge, 93 S. Sth. 
Stove Manufacturers — 

Jones & Abbott, 41 S. 3d. 
Shinnick, Woodside & Gibbons, Fountain 
alley, east of 7th. 
Tanners — 

Greul, Bischoff & Bro., w.s. River road, 
south of Hughes. 
Taxidcniiisl — 

Krause, Herman C, 12 S. 4th. 
Tile Manufacturers — 

American Encaustic Tiling Co., Crawford 
street, sovith of Marietta road. 
Undertakers, Etc. — 

Hatcher, J. & Co., canal bank, opp. ist. 
Wagon Manifacturers — 

Brown Manufacturing Co., s.w.c. Under- 
wood and Railroad. 
Christ, J. L., s.s. Marietta, b. 7th and Sth. 
Coon, George W., 3 W. Main, 7th ward. 
Doudna, J., 190 Putnam ave. 
Gebele, Sebastian, w.s. Amelia, b. Lee and 

History of muskingum county, ohio. 


Wagon Manufacturers — Continued : 

Goelz, Peter, w.s. Hall ave., near Malinda. 

Hoffman Bros., s.s. Main, b. 8th and 9th. 

Lang, Felix, 18 Spvirck. 

Long, Joseph, rear Ohio Iron Co. 

Maier, John, s.s. Marietta, b. 7th and 8th. 

Moore, Wilson C, s.e.c. 3d and Market. 

Schiele, Joseph, w.s. 7th, b. Center and 

Schubach & Co., s.s. Main, b. 8th and 9th. 
Smith, Isaac C, s.s. Marietta, b. 7th and 8th. 
Smith, J. & Co., b. 2d and 3d, near Putnam 

Smith, S. B. & Son, s.s. Pierce, b. Putnam 

and Woodlawn avenues. 

Watches and Jewelry — 

Bonnet, John M., 156 Main (E. Skeene, 
master-workman and engraver). 

Hube, Edward, 108 Main. 

Leeper, Edward S., 185 Underwood. 

Mershon, Ralph S., Clarendon block (R. 
S. Mershon, master- workman and en- 

Moore, Charles L., 5 N. 5th. 

Watts, Arthur H., 35 N. 5th. 

Woolen Mill— 

Zanesville Woolen Manufacturing Co. ; mill, 
store, and office, at the south end of the 
3d street bridge. 




Compiled by W. H. CUNNINGHAM, Jb. 

Ebenezer Zane and Elizabeth his wife, on the 
nineteenth day of December, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred, for the consideration of 
^e hundred dollars, conveyed to Jonathan Zane 
aiid-J^hn Mclntire, " a certain tract or parcel of 
land, containing six hundred and forty acres, 
lying, and being, in the said county of Wash- 
ington, in the northwest territory, on the Mus- 
kingum river, and bounded as followeth, viz : 
Beginning at the northwest corner at a post where 
a white oak, thirty inches in diameter, bears 
south twenty-one degrees, east twenty-three 
links distant, and an elm, six inches diameter, 
bears north eighty degrees, east twenty-two 
links distant, thence runs east ninety chains, 
to a post where a butternut tree, sixteen inches 
diameter, bears north ten degrees, east seven 
links distant, and one other butternut, fourteen 
inches diameter, bears south fifty degrees, east 
twenty-five links distant, thence south eighty 
chains, to a dogwood sapling, where a hickory, 
twenty-four inches diameter, bears north ten de- 
grees, east fourteen links distant, and another 
hickory, eight inches diameter, bears south six- 
teen degrees, west twenty-six links distant ; 
thence, west ninety chains, to a post, where a 

white oak, eight inches diameter, bears north 
sixty-four degrees, east twenty-four links dis- 
tant, and an elm, fourteen inches diameter, 
bears south ten degrees, west six links, thence 
north eighty chains, to the place of beginning." 

This being the "Zane grant," so called. The 
nature of the bearing trees at the southeast cor- 
ner would generally indicate that the land at 
what is now the corner of Seventh and South 
streets was rather low, perhaps a "hickory flat." 
The "dogwood sapling" stood at that corner 
for -many years, being carefully preserved as 
one ot the most important trees in the vicinity. 
Jonathan Zane and John Mclntire proceeded to 
lay out a town, and on the 28th day of April, 
1802, the Plat of the Town of Zanesville was 
filed for record. The town was laid out in the 
southeast corner to the Zane grant, and extended 
to within a short distance of the Muskingum 
river on the west. ,The east line was the west 
line of Seventh street, being forty-nine and a 
half feet west of the east line of the grant. The 
south line was the north line of South street, 
being thirty-three feet north of the south line 
of the Zane grant. The north line was the 
south line of North street. 

The town, as laid out, consisted of nineteen 
squares, of sixteen lots each, except square one, 
which had six lots ; square two, containing four 
lots ; square three, with eight lots and two frac- 
tions ; square four, containing twelve lots, and 
square five, containing fourteen lots and a frac- 
tion. There was also a tier of lots unnumbered 
and lying west of square seven, and extending 
from Second street to the river, and from Mar- 
ket street to North street. 

Lots eight and sixteen in the thirteenth square, 
were by the plat appropriated for a Market 
house, and lots five, six, seven and eight in the 
twelfth square, (the Court house lot) "for other 
public uses." 

The first lot sold was sold to Noah Zane, he pay- 
ing thirty dollars for lot one in square two, it being 
the first lot on the north side of Main street, east 
of the canal. The deed is dated May 31, 1802. 

John Dillon, as Master Commissioner, by 
order of Court, on the ninth day of January, A. 
D. 1849, subdivided a part of lots 3 and 4, in 
square 2, into four lots, but the property is now 
conveyed as parts of the original lots, no atten- 
tion being paid to the subdivision. 

John R. Howard, owning parts of lots 10, 11, 
12, in the fourth square, subdivided them on Jan- 
uary 25, 1842, making five lots, leaving a small 
private alley back of the lots fronting Main 

James Taylor, owning lots 7 and 8 in the fifth 
square, subdivided them into fifteen lots, six 
fronting Main street, three fronting Third street, 
and the others lying back. This plat was re- 
corded December 26, 1826, but bears no other 
date. May 9, 1834, these lots being then owned 
by James Taylor, Peter Printz and S. P. Bailey, 
a partition was made between them, Taylor 
receiving a lot on the corner of Main street 
and Beech alley. Printz receiving a lot on the 



corner of Main and Third streets, and one front- 
ing Third, and Bailey taking a lot fronting 
Third street, lying south of a ten foot alley, run- 
ning from third street to Beech alley. Taylor, 
on the 9th day of November, 1836, subdivided 
his portion into three lots, fronting Main street, 
a four foot alley, and one lot corner of Beech 
alley and the ten foot alley. 

Amasa Van Home, as Executor, by order of 
the Court, subdivided the east halves of lots 5, 
6, 7 and 8, making five lots, which are known 
as being in Van Home's subdivision, in the sixth 
square. This subdivision was made May 4, 

For many years, an alley running diagonally 
through the eighth square, from South street to 
Third street, had been used as a public highway. 
In May, 1853, Daniel Applegate and Benjamin 
Wheeler presented a petition to.the City Council, 
representing that they were the owners of all the 
land adjoining said alley, from Potter's alley to 
Third street, and asking that that portion of the 
alley should be vacated, alleging, as the princi- 
pal reason, that it hindered the improvement of 
that part of the city. Accordingly on the i6th 
day of May, 1853, the Council, upon the recom- 
mendation of a committee appointed for the pur- 
pose, declared vacated that portion of the diag- 
onal alley in the eighth square lying between 
Potter's alley and Third street. 

Gordius A. Hall, on the 15th day of Novem- 
ber, 1833, subdivided lots seven and eight in the 
eighth square, making seven lots and two alleys. 

Alexander McLaughlin, (sometime between 
May and October, 1809,) subdivided lots nine, 
ten and eleven, in the eighth square, making 
five lots and a ten foot .alley. This plat is very 
imperfect, there being no date to the plat or to 
the record, and no signature or acknowledge- 
ment to the plat. 

WilHam C. Kirker, April 22, 1833, subdivided 
lot sixteen in the ninth square into five lots front- 
ing on Main street, leaving a narrow alley in the 
rear of them ; and on December 17, 1850, B. F.* 
Leslie, as Sheriff", by order of the Court, sub- 
divided seventy-nine and a half feet off the west 
side of Kirker's subdivision into four lots. 

James Taylor, August 7, 1840, subdivided the 
east parts of lots one and. two, in square eleven, 
into three lots, and January 9, 1849, John Dillon, 
as Master Commissioner, divided lots one and 
two of this subdivision into two lots. James 
Taylor, on August 7, 1840, divided fifty feet off 
the south side of lot number four in the eleventh 
sauare into four lots, but did not number them. 

David J. Marple subdivided lots nine, ten, 
eleven and twelve in the eleventh square into 
ten lots, five fronting on Main street and five 
fronting Fifth street. There is also included a 
reservation of ten feet wide, lying south of the 
Main street lots, and now used as a private alley. 
There is no date to this plat, and neither signa- 
ture nor acknowledgement. It was recorded 
January 22, 1822. It is frequently called the 
"Bank subdivision." 

Sheriff B. F. Leslie, by order of the court, on 

December 17, 1850, subdivided the south half of 
lot seven and lot eight, in the fourteenth square, 
into seven lots. 

James Taylor, August 7, 1840, divided lot 13 
in square 14, into three lots, which he did not 

Samuel Clark and John M. James, March 26, 
1872, subdivided lot one, in square fifteen, into 
four lots. 

Wm. A. Adams, Master Commissioner, by 
order of Court, December 1,1836, divided lots 
five, six, seven and eight in square sixteen into 
nine lots. This subdivision is sometimes called 
"Chancery Subdivision," but is more generally 
known as "Culbertson's Subdivision." 

Thomas Drake and Edward S. Garner, March 
26, 1866, subdivided lots one, two and three in 
the seventeenth square into eight lots. 

John Stevens, January 4, 1869, subdivided the 
east halves of lots nine, ten and eleven and part 
of the west half of lot eleven in square seventeen 
into five lots. 

Sheriff Carson Porter, by order of Court, April 
3, 1849, subdivided a part of lots six, seven and 
eight m square eighteen into three lots. 

Shortly after the town of Zanesville was laid 
out, Messrs. Zane and Mclntire aparted the res- 
idue of Zane's Grant. That portion immediately 
adjoining the town on the north and extending 
from Seventh street to the river, became the 
property of John Mclntire, and the part north of 
it, lying between a line drawn from Elm street 
west and the river, was conve3ed to Zane. 

March 21, 1855, the administrators of the es- 
tate of John Mclntire laid out that portion of this 
part of Zane's Grant which lies between Seventh 
and Third streets. The subdivision was called 
the "Northern Addition," containing fifty-six 
lots. The streets and alleys were made to cor- 
respond with the streets and alleys in the original 
town. The square bounded bv Sixth, North, 
Fifth and Center streets, containing a little more 
than two acres, was dedicated for school pur- 

September 24, 1862, Mclntire's administra- 
tors laid out "Northern Addition No. 2," em- 
bracing the land between Third street and Beech 
alley and North street and the railroad, into nine 
lots, numbered consecutively from fifty-seven to 
sixty-fi\(,\ both inclusive, and an alley 16^ feet 

The Zane tract lying north, consisting of 
twenty-three and a half acres, in a triangular 
form, was purchased by David J. Marple, and 
was, by him, July 21, 1810, divided into seven 
lots of from two and a half to about four acres in 
size. These lots have always been designated 
as out lots in 'Marple's River Bottom." 

Daniel Brush, as proprietor, July 3, 1843, sub- 
divided outlot one, Marple's river bottom, calling 
it "Howard's sub-division," by which name' it 
has since been known. He laid out six lots, 
fronting on the south side of Water street ; four 
lots front Court street, which sti'eet he made 
thirty-three fe|| wide ; and one lot fronting the 
east side of Fourth street, leaving a small trian- 



gular piece west of Fourth street. The land ly- 
ing on the river bank north of Water street he 
divided into five lots, calling them "River Bank 

Hall's second addition was made by John 
Hall, June 15, 1838, being part of river bottom 
lot No. 3, and consists of four fractional lots ly- 
ing between Howard's sub-division and Fifth 
street, and four lots fronting the east side of 
Fifth street. 

John Hall's third addition, also part of out-lot 
three, is a lot thirty-seven feet square, on the west 
side of Fifth street, and one lot 37x132 feet 
fronting the east side of Fifth street. It was 
made June 2, 1842. 

John Hall's fourth addition, made July 31, 
1848, is another part of outlot three, and consists 
of six lots fronting* Seventh street on the west 
side and running back to Sewer alley. 

Robert Mitchell's addition is a sub-division of 
part of outlot four, made May 24, 1839, ^^^ 
consists of three ' fractional lots fronting the west 
side of Fifth street, six lots fronting the east side 
of Sixth street and one lot fronting the west side 
of Seventh street. 

G. A. Jones' addition is also a part of outlot 
four, consisting of six lots fronting the west side 
of Sixth street, south of what is known as the 
"old Rope Walk lot." The plat is dated Febru- 
ary, 18, 1850. • 

John R. Howard, January 8, 1836, sub-divided 
a part of outlot five, which sub-division was called 
by the name of "Howard street lots." Two lots 
front Fifth street, north of Howard ; thirteen lots 
front the north side of Howard street ; three lots 
front Seventh street ; a large lot,, running from 
Fifth street nearly to Seventh street on the south 
of Howard street, is called the rope walk lot. It 
has since been cut up, by reason of Sixth street 
and the alleys being extended north to Howard 
street ; the east end of Howard street is the shape 
of an arc of a circle, the center point of which, in 
the original plat, was north of the street, but the 
Common Pleas Court at the April term, 1837, 
upon petition of John R. Howard, changed it so 
the center of the circle would fall south of the 

Pafer Mill Addition. — This addition was made 
April I, 1861, and was formed hj a sub-division 
of Marple's outlofs six and seven, made by 
James L. Cox, George Rishtine, C. R. Hubbell 
and Elizabeth M. Cox: Two large lots (Nos. 
one and two) and three small lots, front the west 
side of Seventh street ; twelve lots front the 
south side and five lots front the north side of 
Zane street. 

Cox's sub-division of lots nineteen, twenty, 
twenty-one and twenty-two in the paper mill ad- 
dition by J. L. Cox, April I, 1816. Five lots 
fronting north side of Zane street and one lot 
fronting the railroad. 

The Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing 
Company, November 15, 1836, laid out the land 
lying between Second street and the river, and 
north of Market, into eleven lots, three of which 
were not numbered. 


In the partition of their property, between 
Mclntire and Zane, all that part of West Zanes- 
ville lying east of Blue avenue was deeded to 
Mclntire and that west to Zane. 

John Mclntire, March 23, 1809, laid out a tier 
of lots fronting the west side of River street, 
which were numbered on the recorded plat from 
one to twenty inclusive. Several years after- 
wards it was discovered that the lots had been 
deeded as if in squares of eight lots to the square, 
while there were no squares designated on the 
recorded plat. This led to a great confusion in 
the conveyances, which was remedied by a 
special act of the Legislature passed March 2, 
1838 (Local Laws 1838, p. 156), which declared 
that the recorded plat should govern. 

The administrators of John Mclntire, March 
12, 1861, laid out tVvelve lots north of lot twenty, 
fronting the west side of River street, which were 
numbered from twenty-one to thirty-two, both 
inclusive. Mclntire's administrators, June 17, 
1865, laid out "River addition to West Zanes- 
ville," consisting of eight lots between River 
street and the river, running southerly from 
Mclntire avenue. 

Mclntire's administrators, July 19, 1863, made 
another addition to West Zanesville, consisting 
of eighty-one lots, numbered from thirty-three to 
one hundred and thirteen, both inclusive. This 
addition is bounded north by Mclntire avenue, 
east by Peters' alley, south by Lee street, west 
by Blue avenue, and includes "Mclntire Park," 
containing twelve and fifty-two one-hundredths 

Philip Sunkel, February 4, 1870, sub-divided 
lot ninety-nine, making eight lots fronting north 
side of Keen street, with an alley sixteen and 
one-half feet wide north, and leaving a strip three 
and one-half feet wide extending along the en- 
tire length of the lot. 

Jacob Gunther, September 6, 1875, sub-di- 
vided lots ninety-five and ninety-six, making three 
lots running from Keen street to Jackson street. 

Peter Schreck and Gottlieb Schoeller, January 
I, 1869, sub-divided lot 102, making six lots 
fronting Park street, six lots north and six lots 
south of Grant street and six lots fronting Keen 

James Tui-ner, September 30, 1869, sub- 
divided lot 103, making five lots fronting north- 
east side of Keen street, five lots fronting south 
side of a thirty-six foot street, and a large lot, 
number eleven, fronting Park street. March i, 
1875, he sub-divided the lot number eleven, 
making six lots fronting the narrow cross street, 
numbered from eleven to sixteen, and a large 
lot, number seventeen, fronting Park street. 
March 14, 1876, he sub-divided the lot number 
seventeen, making five lots, numbered from sev- 
enteen to twenty-one, all fronting the south side 
of Park street. 

Abraham Laird, August 11, 1869, subdivided 
lot 108, making six lots on the east side of Ful- 
ton street. 



Albert Vetter, March 6, 1871, subdivided lot 
109 into four lots fronting Park street and three 
lots fronting Amelia street. 

The administrators of John Mclntire, May 18, 
1855, laid out what they designated "Mclntire 
Terrace," consisting of forty-one lots bounded 
on the north by Adair avenue, on the east by the 
Dresden road, now Maple avenue, south by 
Mclntire avenue, and west by Blue avenue. 

William Fox, April 26, 1872, subdivided lots i 
and 3 into eight lots fronting the west side of the 
Dresden road, and six lots fronting the north side 
of Mclntii^e avenue. 

Austin Berry, April 17, 1872, subdivided lots 
39, 40, and 41, into four lots fronting the Dres- 
den road and eight lots fronting Adair avenue. 

Mclntire's administrators, July 29, 1863, sub- 
divided the land bounded north by the Zane 
grant line, east by the Zane grant line and the 
river, south by Mclntire avenue, and west by the 
Dresden road, into fourteen lots, numbered from 
42 to 54, both inclusive, which they designated 
as "Mclntire Terrace No. 2." 

Edward Ball, September 25, 1871, subdivided 
lot No. 2 into nineteen lots fronting the west side 
of River street, ten lots fronting Adair, avenue, 
eight lots fronting the Dresden road, two lots 
fronting a cross street, and two large lots east of 
the tier fronting the Dresden road. 

William Tallant, Jesse Keen, Robert Lee, 
George W. Manypenny, and Hugh J. Jewett, 
June 17, 185 1, subdivided that portion of Zane's 
grant lying south of Keen street, west of Blue 
avenue, and north and east of the Licking river, 
excepting what had been sold to the Central 
Ohio Railroad Company, making twenty-five 
squares, with the requisite number of streets and 
alleys. This subdivision is designated the "West- 
ern addition to Zanesville." 

George W. Manypenny, Jesse Keen, Hugh J.,^ 
Jewett, and William Tallant, July 18, 1855, ^^' 
divided that part of the Zane grant bounded 
north by the grant line, east by Blue avenue, 
south by Keen street, and west by Licking river, 
making thirteen town-lots fronting Keen street, 
and eighteen outlets. This they called "Mt. 
Auburn addition to Zanesville." 

Ephraim C. Beckwith, May 6, 1868, subdi- 
vided lots 12 and 17 into eight lots fronting Keen 
street, twelve lots fronting State street, and ten 
lots fronting Mt. Auburn street; and, July 10, 
1872, subdivided lots 22, 23, 26, 27, and 30, of 
his former subdivision, into eight lots fronting a 
cross street, and twenty-six lots fronting Mt. 
Auburn street. 

Robert Lee, September 25, 1868, subdivided 
lots 13 and 16, and parts of lots 14 and 15, into 
five lots fronting "Stone Quarry alley," which 
he made forty feet wide, and sixteen lots fronting 
what he designated "High street." 

John P. Stephens, November 29, 1868, subdi- 
vided lot 18 into seven lots fronting Keen street, 
and eight lots fronting State street. 

That part of the Seventh ward included in 
Zane's grant, Isaac Dillon, October 18, 1830, 
laid out as "South Zanesville;" consisting of 

twenty-three lots, lying between the National 
road on the north and the Zane grant line, now 
Muskingum avenue, on the south, and from the 
river on the east to a north and south line eighty 
feet west of the intersection of Pine street and 
the National road. 

David Young, March 24, 1830, laid out what 
he styled "Olympus," it being ten lots extend- 
ing from the National road south to Zane's line, 
and running eastwardly from "Chap's Run," 
being a little west of South Zanesville. Septem- 
ber 22, 1837, he laid out an addition of eight lots 
between Luck and Ridge avenues, and the Na- 
tional road and Zane's line. A plat of both ad- 
ditions, called a corrected plat, was subsequently 
recorded, but it bears no date, signature, or ac- 

John H. Sullivan made Kis first addition to 
Zanesville, consisting of thirteen lots fronting 
the north side of the National road, twelve lots 
fronting Spring street, and four lots fronting 
Chapman street, December 6, 1852 ; and his sec- 
ond addition, consisting of eight lots fronting the 
north side of the National road, nine lots front- 
ing Young street, and ten lots fronting Pear 
street, July 9, 1862. 

What is known as SafFord's second addition, 
was laid out by J. Price Safford, February 11, 
1873, and consists of seventeen lots, between the 
National road and Licking river, "east of State 

C. C. Russell's subdivision of the Safford farm 
was made March 4, 1876, and embraces forty- 
three lots in Zanesville and seventy-three lots in 
Springfield township, lying southwesterly of the 
National road. The land is a part of Zane's 
grant, and parts of sections one and two, in 
township sixteen, of range fourteen. 

"Riverside," by Mary J. Porter, August 17, 
1876, consists of thirty lots, most of them outside 
of the city, lying between the National road and 
Licking i-iver. The land is part of Zane's grant, 
and part of the fourth quai-ter of Township i , in 
Range 8, United States military land. 


The United States granted to Robert Under- 
wood the third quarter of the first township, in 
the eighth range of United States military lands, 
containing 3,817 acres. In the southwest corner 
of this tract, Underwood laid out a tier of eight 
lots of five acres each, extending from Seventh 
to Underwood streets, and from a short distance 
north of Market street to the river, and another 
tier of five lots of ten acres each east of Under- 
wood street and west of Downer street. A street 
was laid out east of these lots running north from 
Market street, a little west of where Blocksom 
street intersects Market, to the river, at a point on 
the lands now owned b3'the Ohio IronCompanj^ 
All of this street except a part about ten chains 
long, east of Rathbone's northeast addition, is 
now fenced in, and houses are built on part of it. 

David Harvey, January 30, 1808, sub-divided 
lots one and two, making a tier often lots, 66 by 



132 feet, beginning about fifty feet north of Mar- 
ket street, and running north along Seventh 
street, and eight large lots back. This is called 
"Harvey's North Meadow." 

Of apart of the eight outlots, Charles C. Gil- 
bert, July 30, 1829, laid out "Gilbert's Addition," 
consisting of four lots fronting the west side of 
Underwood street, and eight lots fronting what is 
now known as Orchard street. 

Henry J. Rownd, August 4, 1869, laid out 
"Rownd's Addition," immediately west of Gil- 
bert's, and being also a part of Harvey's outlots, 
consisting of three lots north of, and four lots 
south of Orchard street. 

Samuel C. Abbott, July 9, 1849, subdivided 
the north tier of Harvey's outlots, making sixteen 
lots north, and sixteen lots south of Gilbert street. 

Bernard VanHorne, March 22, 1839, sub-divid- 
ed Underwood's outlot three, making eight lots 
front the west side of Underwood street, twelve 
lots the north side of, and twelve lots the south 
side of Center street, and eight lots the east side 
of Seventh street. 

Alexander Culbertson, May 8, 1818, sub-di- 
vided outlot four, into sixteen lots fronting the 
north side, and sixteen lots fronting the south side 
of Elm street. 

John Farrier, February 9, 1827, sub-divided 
the north part of outlot four, making two lots 
front Underwood street, twelve lots front the 
south side of Farrier street, and two lots fronting 
Seventh street. The plat says this is part of Un- 
derwood's outlot six, when in fact it is part of 
lot four. This is sometimes erroneously called 
Hamline and Farrier's Addition. 

L. L. Hamline, June 12, 1830, sub-divided the 
south part of outlot five, making two lots fronting 
on Underwood street, two lots fronting on Sev- 
enth street, and twelve lots fronting on the south 
side of Kelly street. This plat says that it is a 
subdivision of outlot six, when in fact it is a part 
of outlot five. It is called. Hamline's first addi- 

Hamline's Second Addition : L. L. Hamline, 
June 4, 1832, part of outlot five, although plat 
says part of lot six. Four lots front Seventh 
street, four front Underwood street, and twelve 
on each side of Kelly street. 

Cassell's Addition : W. C. Cassell and Wil- 
liam Galigher, June 21, 1849. South one-half 
of outlot six ; four lots front Underwood street, four 
front Seventh street, and twelve front the south 
side of Zane street. An alley laid out by them, 
called West alley, was vacated by the City Coun- 
cil, March 12, 1866. 

Michael Kennedy's sub-division of lots sixteen, 
seventeen, eighteen and nineteen, in Cassell's 
addition, December 6, 1876. Four lots front 
Seventh street, and two front Zane street, num- 
bered sixteen to twenty-one, both inclusive. 

Charles R. Rhode's, addition, sub-division of 
north one-half of outlot six, June 20, 1849. Four 
lots front Underwood, four front Seventh, and 
twelve front the north side of Zane street. 

James M. Linnard's sub-division of one acre 
in the southwest corner of outlot seven, three lots ; 

two front Seventh street, and one back ; Septem- 
ber 19, 1861. 

John T. Shryock's addition, subdivision of 
southeast corner of outlot seven ; three front Un- 
derwood street, and six lots front Price street ; 
January 6, 1868. 

Black and Graham's addition, sub-division of 
parts of outlots seven and eight, by W. A. 
Graham and the heirs of Peter Black, May 20, 
1880. Thirty-one lots, bounded north by the 
lands of the Brown Manufacturing Company, 
east by Underwood street, south by Price street 
and Lark alley, and west by Seventh street. 

Thompson's addition, sub-division of part of 
outlot nine, and lands south, by Samuel Thomp- 
son, October 25, 1832. Two lots front Under- 
wood street, and thirteen front Orchard and 
Branch street, west side, running southeasterly 
to the National road. Market street extension 
takes parts of lots numbers ten, eleven, twelve 
and thirteen. 

Blocksom's addition, sub-division of part of 
outlot nine, in Underwood's, and lots one and 
four in Marple's sub-division of the John Van 
Home tract, by William Blocksom, about April, 
i860. Three lots front Branch street, eleven 
front the north side of Market street, six lie be- 
tween Market street and National road, fronting 
both, four front Blocksom street, and one fronts 
Eastman street. 

There is no date, signature, acknowledge- 
ments or title to this plat. 

A parcel of ground lying west of lot one, and 
between Branch and Eastman streets, is general- 
ly designated as Blocksom's outlot ten, which is er- 
roneous, it being part of Underwood's outlot nine. 

Blocksom's subdivision of lot one, in Block- 
som's addition. A. P. Blocksom, May 11, 1874 ' 
five lots running from Branch street extended, 
north to Eastman street. 

Rathbone's northeast addition, subdivision ol 
the north part of outlot nine and the south part 
of outlot ten, by Juliette Downer, May 16, 1839. 
Nineteen lots front Underwood street and twelve 
each side of Elm street extended. A large lot is 
marked "reservation." 

Downer's subdivision of the "reservation" in 
Rathbone's northeast addition, by E. M. Downer, 
Master Commissioner, June 6, 1856 : Fourteen 
lots numbered from forty-four to fifty-seven, both 

Brush and Convers' first addition, subdivision 
of parts of outlots ten, eleven and twelve and 
part of the third quarter of the first township in 
the seventh range United States military land, 
by Daniel Brush and Charles C. Convei-s, July 
17, 1849. Eight lots front Underwood street, 
four front Spring street, south side, four north 
and two south side Gardner street, twelve Mun- 
roe street, east side, seventeen east side Adams- 
ville Road, seven east side High street. A 
peculiarity of this plat is that the streets are not 
dedicated absolutely, but as easements merely. 

Jonathan Swank's subdivision of lot forty-seven, 
June 3, 1858, six lots fronting the east side of 
the Adamsville Road. 



Hamline's third addition, subdivision of parts 
of Underwood's outlets No's, eleven, twelve and 
thirteen, and part of the third quarter, township 
one, range seven, by L. L. Hamline, December 
24, 1841, seven squares. Square one: Four 
lots front Spring street, four east side Under- 
wood street, four west side Munroe street and 
four east side Munroe street. Square two : Four 
lots east side Underwood, four west side Munroe. 
Square three : Four east side Munroe and four 
west side Adamsville Road. Square four: 
Seven lots west side Munroe and two east side 
Underwood. Large lot marked "Thomas 
Hillier." Square five: Four lots east side 
Munroe, two front a ci-oss street, five south side 
Fernanda street, two west side Adamsville 
Road. Square six : Four lots west side Mun- 
roe, seven north side Fernanda and seven south 
side Malinda street. Square seven : nine lots 
north of Malinda street, now thrown together 
and occupied by the Ohio Iron Company. 

Ward's Addition of lots one and four, and 
large lot marked "Thomas Hillier," in the fourth 
square; Hudson C. Ward, July 11, 1874. 
Eleven lots fronting Underwood street, east side. 

Subdivisions of lands in the third quarter of 
township one, range seven, lying east of Under- 
wood's lots and north of Market streets . 

David J. Marple, July 21, 1819, subdivided a 
farm of about 100 acres, called the "Montgomery 
Place," being land now owned by Wm. Fox, 
the heirs of Henry Blandy and othei"s, into eigh- 
teen lots of from five to seven acres each, but 
none of this land is now conveyed by the num- 
ber of the lot. 

Eastman's addition, being subdivision of land 
bounded north by Eastman street and south by 
the military line, adjoining Marple's subdivision 
of the Van Home tract in the east, and Iving a 
little west of Hamline avenue, was made by the 
executors of Henry Eastman, deceased, October 
4, 1873 . Seven lots front south side Eastman 
street and fifteen front "LaFayette Place." 

Vansant's addition, fronting the north side of 
the National Road, was laid out by Eliza J. 
Vansant, August- 14, 1873, and vacated by the 
Court of Common Pleas, 1879. 

William I. McBride's addition, (August 28, 
1874,) ^ying south of the National Road, outside 
the city limits, consists of nineteen lots fronting 
a street running north and south. 

Iron Addition, by Ohio Iron Company, 
August 30, 1870, twenty-one lots fronting 
Malinda street and northwest side of Adamsville 
Road, and fourteen lots fronting Iron sti'eet. 

"Muskingum Mining Company's subdivision 
of that part of the Sam Brown farm lying south 
of the Adamsville Road," July 30, 1852 ; twenty- 
one lots of irregular shape and size. 

"Muskingum Mining Company's subdivision 
of that part of the Sam Brown farm lying north 
of the Adamsville Road," April 30, 1853 ; thirty 
lots, irregular in size and shape. 

Lyman Little's subdivision of lots four, eleven 
and twenty-four of the Muskingum Mining Com- 
pany's subdivision of lands south of the Adams- 

ville Road, June i, 1853 ; tier of twelve lots front- 
ing a street running south from the road. 

Silvas Porter's subdivision of lot twenty-five of 
Muskingum Mining Company's subdivision, 
south of Adamsville Road, April 30, 1869; four- 
teen lots front street running north and south, 
and eight lots lie back of these. 

Mary Bingham's subdivision of lots six and 
seven, of Muskingum Mining Company's sub- 
division, south of Adamsville Road, August 19, 
1870 ; three lots front road, three front an un- 
named cross street and five front John street. 

Mineral addition, part of Muskingum Mining 
Company's subdivision, north of road and land 
adjoining, by A. M. Huston and others, Septem- 
ber 23, 1873 ; ninety-two lots fronting various 

Walnut Hill, lying north of Mineral addition 
and outside of the city, consisting of seven lots, 
was laid out by the same parties, at the same 

Richard Dixon's subdivision of lands lying 
southwest of Muskingum Mining Company's 
lands, December 18, 1865 ; twenty-six lots, irreg- 
ular in size and shape. 

Lyman Little's subdivision of part of the R. P. 
Robinson tract, August 23, 1854 ; fourteen lots 
lying west of Mill Run road and fronting the 
north side of a street running between the Fifth 
and Sixth wards. 

Cox's addition, subdivision of tract of about 
eight acres, lying east of Reservoir No. 3, 
by J. D. Devin, Receiver, January 11, 1876; 
twenty-two lots. 

Ezra E. Evans's addition, October i, 1873, 
thirty three lots fronting the River road, east 
side, northeasterly from Power House No. 3. 

Lands south of military line, west of Seventh 
street and south of South street. 

Section one, township sixteen, range fourteen, 
was granted by the United States to Mathews, 
Whipple and Putnam. A corner of this section 
lies northeast of the river, which John Mclntire 
claimed, he being the owner of the section ad- 
joining. Mclntire's claim was contested for 
many years, and it was finally decided by Con- 
gress against him. Meanwhile, by a plat which 
bears no date, signature or acknowledgement, 
he laid out Mclntire's southeast addition, con- 
sisting of square twenty, between Third and 
Fourth streets, south of South street, eight lots ; 
sqiiare twenty-one, between Fourth and Fifth 
streets, thirteen lots ; and square twenty-two, be- 
tween Fifth street and Sewer alley, nine lots. 

After the decision against Mclntire, the title to 
that part of his southeast addition lying west of a 
line a few feet west of Fifth street, came to 
Putnam, Mathews and Whipple, and from them 
to John Dillon, Isaac Dillon, William Blocksom, 
Henry Northup and James Hampson, who, De- 
cember 15, 1820, sub-divided it, making two 
squares, but numbering the lots consecutively 
from one to twenty inclusive. This left a narrow 
strip west of Fifth street, which was the east end 
of the lots laid out by Mclntire, and which was 
conveyed by the number, as given by him. 


















Another portion of this land, lying between 
Water street and the river, was, December 15, 
1820, subdivided by John and Isaac Dillon and 
James Hampson into eighteen lots, running from 
Water street to the river. These lots are now 
in the canal and tow-path. 

John Dillon, May 13, 1836, subdivided the 
east part of square twenty, making four lots 
front the west side ofFourth street, and six lots 
front Water street. 

May 16, 1844, Dillon subdivided the west 
part of square twenty-one into five lots fronting 
South street, west of Court alley, and two lots 
fronting Water street. 

April 14, 1845, he laid out a small triangular 
lot fronting the west side of Third street, at the 
north end of the bridge, and three lots west of 
the bridge on the tow-path. 

George Reeves, April 1830, subdivided what 
was designated as lot nine in the plat made by 
Dillon and others in the twenty-first square, 
making three lots front Water street and one 
front Fifth street, which he numbered twenty-one, 
twentj'-two, twenty-thi^ee and twenty-four. 

Josiah Copland, January i, 1864, siibdivided 
these lots and also lot twenty, but made no ma- 
terial change. 

Charles C. Goddard, May 28, i860, subdi- 
vided lot nine, square twenty-two, into three lots, 
but no attention is now paid to this sub- 

John Mclntire, March 27, 181 1, added lots 
numbers eleven to seventeen, fronting Sixth 
street, to the twentj'^-second square. 

The executors of Mclntire, June 11, 1817, laid 
out eighteen lots and two fractional lots, between 
Sixth and Seventh streets, south of South street, 
entitled "Mclntire's southeast addition, twenty- 
third square." 

May 28, 1834, the executors of Mclntire re- 
surveyed squares twenty-two and twenty-three, 
and added fi^'e lots to square twenty-two, making 
twenty-two lots in that square, and added two 
large lots, which were not numbered, to square 
twenty-three, lying south of Marietta street. 


"John Mclntire's northeast addition," in the 
twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh squares, April 
21, 1815: Nine lots on each side of Market 
street, running east from Seventh street, square 
twenty-seven, covers part of Harvey's north ad- 

Addition to'square twenty-six, by executors of 
Mclntire, May 10, 1817 : Lots number nineteen 
to twenty-nine, inclusive, lying east and south of 
first tier of lots. Parts of lots nineteen and twen- 
ty are now in Underwood street. Lot nineteen 
fronts Market street, the others Fountain alley. 

Hall's first addition, being subdivision by John 
Hall, May 10, 1824, of lots ten, eleven, twelve, 
thirteen, twenty-six, twenty-seven, twenty-eight 
and twenty-nine in squaretwenty-six. Four lots 
front south side Market street and four front 
north side Fountain alley ,with an alley between. 

Marple's east addition, David j. Marple. 
February 20, 1817 : Eight lots fronting east sidi 
Market street and extending from a point a 
short distance north of Market street, south 
across that street to where the old Wheeling was 
formerly. Lot three is covered by Market 
street extended, and the plat appears to have 
been vacated by common consent. 

Daniel Convers east addition ; no date, signa- 
ture, or acknowledgement to plat : Eight lots 
north of National road, just east of its intersec- 
tion with Fountain, and a strip lying between 
lots and road, which is now conveyed with the 

John Galigher's addition, March i, 1876, sub- 
division of lot one, Convers' east addition, and a 
portion of the old Wheeling road : One lot front 
National road and four lots front east side Un- 
derwood street. 

Thompson's addition (which see) extends 
south to the National road, adjoining Convers' on 
the east and Blocksom's addition on the west. 

D. J. Marples subdivision of the Van Home 
tract : Four outlots of from four to five and one- 
fourth acres each, extending from the old Wheel- 
ing road to Eastman street. [No date, signature 
or acknowledgement.] Blocksom's addition (q, 
V.) covers parts of lots one and four. 

John L. Cochran's first addition in outlet, 
number two : Eight lots front north side 
Market street extended, October i, 1829. 

John L. Cochran's second addition in outlot 
two : Eight lots numbered from nine to sixteen, 
inclusive, south of National road, and point at 
intersection of Market street and National road, 
April iQ, 1841. 

Mt. Pleasant addition, by Messrs. Shinnick, 
Mercer, and Hopkins, subdivision of part of Van 
Home's outlot two : Nine lots front the north 
side of the old Wheeling road, and three large 
lots He back on top of the hill, April 3, 1851. 

Moore's east addition, Dr. Robert Moore, 
January 24, 1828 : Fourteen lots front north side 
of Market street extended, running west from a 
point east of Hamline avenue, and nine lots lying 
south of Market street and north of the National 
road. Lot fifteen, being a triangular lot west of 
Hamline avenue, is appropriated by the plat for 
public uses. 

Lyman Litde's addition, March 10, 185 1 ; 
part of northwest quarter of section four, town- 
ship twelve, range thirteen : Six lots front 
National road, five east side and five west side 
McOwen street, and six on old Wheeling road. 

Fox & Johnston's addition (William Fox and 
Alex. Johnston), March 20, 1874, part of section 
four : Four lots front National road, lot one be- 
ing in the city, the other outside. 

Mclntire's east addition, John Mclntire, May 
12, 1868 : Beginning at corner of Fountain al- 
ley and Seventh street, running east along Foun- 
tain alley, National road, and old Wheeling road 
to Green lane ; south on Green lane to Marietta 
road ; west on Marietta road and Hughes street 
to Seventh street ; north on east line of Seventh 
street to beginning : Ten inlots front north side 




of Main street, and ten, south side of Main 
street. A strip of ground lies between the north 
tier of lots and Fountain alley, which is some- 
times conveyed as of the lots, and sometimes by 
the metes and bounds. TheJ'Tanyard lot" is 
a lot with a narrow front on Seventh street, ex- 
tending eastwardly, including the High School 
and Graveyard lots, and fronting on the National 
road. Lots three and four, of ten acres each, 
front Seventh street, running east. Lot five, of 
eight and one-half acres, fronts Seventh street, 
running east along Marietta street to where the 
Marietta road turns south. Lot six, fronts Sev- 
enth street, and extends east between Marietta 
and Hughes streets to the road joining them. Lot 
seven, ten acres, fronts the National and old 
Wheeling roads, a small portion lying north of 
the latter. Lot eight, ten acres, fronts a lane 
running from the old Wheeling to the Marietta 
roads. Lot nine, ten acres, fronts the Marietta 
road. Lots ten aiid thirteen front the old Wheel- 
ing road ; lots twelve and fifteen, the Marietta 
road, and lots eleven and fourteen lie between 

Dr. John Hamm's subdivision of lots one and 
two: Lots one, two, three and four front north 
side of Main street, and lots number one, two, 
three four and five, front east side of Seventh 

Charles C. Gilbert's subdivision of lots nine 
and ten, in Green's east addition, and land lying 
north, June 15, 1829 : Six lots fronting the west- 
erly side of the National road, at the head of 
Main street. (Lots one to twelve, in Mclntire's 
east addition, are frequently designated as being 
ing in Green's east addition, and, sometimes, as 
in the twenty-fourth square.) 

Thomas Hughes' subdivision of inlots eleven 
and twelve, March 29, 1837 : Lots one, two and 
three front south side Main street, and lots four, 
five and six, east side Seventh street; Eighth 
street covers lot fourteen, and Ninth street, lot 

Wyllys Silliman's addition, being a subdivision 
of part of outlot one, or the "Tanyard lot," 
April 28, 1830 : Ten lots front south side Silli- 
man street, and five north side, leaving a large 
lot called the "Reserve," lying between Silliman 
street and the National road. 

C. C. Goddard's subdivision of lots eleven 
and twelve, in Silliman's addition, lots one, two 
and three, extending from National road to Sil- 
liman street, July 24, 1866. 

C. F. Achauer's subdivision of lots sex'cn, 
eight, nine and ten, in Silliman's addition. May 
14, 1873 : Seven lots extending from Silliman 
street, south to Main street. 

The strip marked "Tanyard lot," extending 
from Seventh to Ninth street, and also that lying 
east of the old grave yard, is conveyed by metes 
and bounds. 

David Harvey's south meadow, on Seventh 

street, January 30, 1808 : Fourteen lots fronting 

east side of Seventh street, oft" the west ends of 

■ Mclntire's outlets, numbers three, four and five. 

These lots are not now conveyed by numbers, 

but by metes and bounds, as is also the property 
out of the same outlots fronting Eight and Ninth 

Chancery addition, by John D. Hay, executor 
of David Harvey, deceased, Rachel Timberlake, 
Henry H. Timberlake, and Elizabeth Johnson^ 
September 25, 1835: The plat says that it is 
pai-t of outlot four and five in the Harvey's addi- 
tion ; in fact, Mclntire's outlots four and five. 

Lots one to eight, front east side Seventh street ; 
nine, ten and eleven, north side Mai-ietta street ; 
lot eleven covering lot one, in Harveys's south 
meadow, on Marietta street ; lots twelve to twen- 
ty-four front west side Eighth street ; twenty-five 
to thirty-seven, east side of Eighth street ; thirty- 
eight to fifty, west side of Ninth street ; fitty-one 
to seventy-seven, south side of Harvey street ; 
seventy-two to ninety-two, north side of Harvey 
street. Lots seventy-three to ninety-two, and 
two outlots, are now included in the grounds 
attached to the reservoir. 

David Harvey's south meadow, on Ma- 
rietta street, February 28, 1810: Eighteen lots 
on north side of Marietta street ; lot oiie, is in- 
cluded in Chancery addition ; lot two is occupied 
as Eighth street ; lot eighteen is included in lots 
one and two Drake's addition, (q. v.), part of 
Mclntire's outlot five. 

George Roe's addition, part of outlot six, and 
land south, December 28, 1832 : Lots one to 
seven front south side of Marietta street ; lots 
eleven, twelve, thirteen and fourteen, front Ninth 
street; eight, nine and ten, front Half street ; 
fifteen to twenty-six front north side of Hughes 
street ; twenty-seven to thirty-nine, south side of 
Hughes street. 

J. Foster's subdivision of lots twenty-two, 
twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty -five and twen- 
ty-six, in Roe's addition ; J. W. Foster, Master 
Commissioner, November 27, 1839: Four lots 
front Seventh street, east side, and three front 
Hughes street, north side. 

Wm. Galigher's subdivision of lots fifteen and 
sixteen. Roe's addition, November 14, 1843 : 
Three lots front Ninth street. 

Hughes & Spurck's addition, by Thomas 
Hughes and George Spurck, July 10, 1838 : Sub- 
division of east part of Mclntire's outlot number 
six, cast of, and adjoining Roe's addition ; twelve 
lots front south side of Marietta street ; four front 
a half street running east and west ; four front 
Hughes street, north side ; four front Spurck 
street, east side, and four, west side; four east, 
and four west side of Stillwell street. 

Charles Hill's addition, subdivision of part of 
Mclntire's -outlot 7, June 7, 1852 : Nine lots 
front north side of Main street, extended, and 
nineteen south side. Lots 38 to 47, inclu- 
sive, front north side, and 57 to 66 front south 
side. Summit street. Lots 29 to 37, inclusive, 
and 48 to 56, inclusive, that part of Summit 
street lying between these lots and the alley 
west of them, were vacated June 4, 1866. 

Thomas B. Townsend's subdivision of part of 
Mclntire's outlot 8, March 17, 1871 : Lots i to 
12, inclusive, front south side of Harvey street, 



extended, and lots 13 to 30, inclusive, front 
north side. 

Thomas B. Townsend's second addition, sub- 
division of another part of said outlot 8, April 12, 
1872 : Lots I to 9 front south side of a thirty- 
three-foot street, lots 10 to 14 front south side of 
South street, extended, and lots 21 to 25, north 
side South street. Lots 17 to 20, front east side 
Hill street. 

Alexander Harper's addition, being a subdi- 
vision of Mclntire's outlot 10, made December 

14, 1853, was vacated by Common Pleas Court, 
February 24, 1859. 

Charles C. Russell's, addition, subdivision of 
Mclntire's outlot 10, December 18, 1875 : Thir- 
teen lots front south side of old Wheeling road 
and Main street, extended, and two large lots 
back, fronting McOwen street ; also, a triangu- 
lar piece, lying between Main street and the old 
Wheeling road, and a strip six feet wide off the 
east side of the lot. 

Lot II has never been subdivided. 

Richard Adams' first addition, subdivision of 
parts of outlots 9 and 1 2 : Twelve lots north and 
twelve south, of Marietta street, now covered by 
Raddin's addition. 

Hughes & Spurck's second addition, subdivi- 
sion part of outlot 9, and is platted as an exten- 
sion of Harvey's south meadow, on Marietta 
street, the lots being numbered from 18 to 33, 
inclusive, and leaves a strip, forty-nine and one- 
half feet wide, north of the lots. November 2, 

Thomas M. Drake's addition, being subdivi- 
sion of lot 18, in Harvey's south meadow, and 
of Hughes & Spurck's second addition ; hence, 
part of Mclntire's outlots 5 and 9 ; June 8, 1854 ■ 
Twenty lots front north side Marietta sti-eet, and 
eighteen front a half street, north, running east 
and west. 

Richard Adams' second addition, part of out- 
lots 5 and 9, September 2, 1841 : Six lots, lying 
east of a street running from Marietta street to 
Marietta road, now covered by Raddin's addition. 

Richard Adams' southeast addition, part of 
outlot 9, June 14, 1846 : Now covered by Rad- 
din's addition. 

Raddin's addition; by Daniel Brush, execu- 
tor of Benjamin Raddin, deceased ; June 8, 1854 ; 
covering Adams' first, second, and southeast 
addition, and other parts of outlots 5, 9, and 12 : 
Square one: Lots i, 2, and 3, front west side, 
and lots 12, 13, and 14, east side, of Mclntire's 
lane ; lots 4 to 11, north side Marietta street, ex- 
tended. Square two : Lots i to 17, front south 
side Marietta street. Squa're three : Lots" i to 7 
front street running from Marietta street to Ma- 
rietta road ; lots 8 to 11, north side Marietta 
road ; lots 12, 13, and 14, a cross street, and lots 

15, 16, and 17, occupied by "Stemler" school. 
building, front south side Marietta street. 

Howson & Crotzer's addition ; by Bernard 
Howson and Jacob Crotzer, May 26, 1868 : Part 
of Mclntire's outlots 9 and 12. Lots i to 22 run 
from Marietta road, north, to Lippitt street, and 
lots 23 to 42 front north side of Lippitt street. 

John S. Parkinson's addition, March 18, 1837 = 
Part of outlot 12. Thirteen lots, running from 
Marietta road, north, to Lippitt street. 

Arnold Lippitt's addition, July 23, 1844: Part 
of outlot 12. Twelve lots front north side Lip- 
pitt street, and lots 13 to 17 front north side 
Moore street ; also, a triangular strip, lying be- 
tween this and Parkinson's addition. 

Margery Fell's addition. May 9, 1876: Part 
of outlot 13. Lots I to 6 front south side old 
Wheeling road, and 7 to 12 front street running 
east and west. Outlots 14 and 15 have been 
platted, but no lots have been sold by the propri- 
etors, and the plats have never been recorded. 

Ballentine & Clark's addition ; part of section 
five, township twelve, range thirteen, immedi- 
ately south of, and adjoining, Roe's addition, 
and north of Slago run ; by John Ballentine and 
Adam Clark, August 15, 1841 : Lots i to 5 front 
River road ; 6 and 7 front a back street, which 
runs north and south ; 8 to 1 1 front a street run- 
ning east and west; 12, 13, and 14, front the 
south side of Hughes street. 

W. H. Ball's subdivision of an eight-acre 
tract, in section six, township twelve, range thir- 
teen, December 12, 1859: Nine lots, fronting 
the south side of the Marietta road, a short dis- 
tance east of its junction with Marietta street. 

W. H. Ball's subdivision of the residue of an 
eight-acre tract. May 10, i860, consists of four 
large lots, immediately south of the foregoing. 

John Dillon's subdivision of part of the east 
fraction of section six, township twelve, range 
thirteen, April 23, 1844: Fourteen lots, varying 
in size from 65-100 to 6 60-100 acres, fronting 
River road, and running east. 

J. C. Howard's outlots, part of section 6. No 
date : Nine lots fronting, and east of, River 
road, south of Dillon's subdivision, in size i 
50-100 to II 50-100 aci'es. 

Christopher Coyle's subdivision of parts of Dil- 
lon's and Howard's subdivision, February 13, 
1876 : Seven lots, irregular in size and shape. 

James McGuire's subdivision of parts of sec- 
tions 5 and 7, township I2,range i3,made by order 
of the Court of Common Pleas, April 6 and 7, 
1840: Lots I to 10 front, south side of Chand- 
lersville road ; 11, 12 and 13 north side; 14, 15 
and 16 south side Mai'ietta road; 17, 18 and 19 
west side of road running south from Chandlers- 
ville road, and large lot unnumbered lying be- 
tween the two roads. 

Best's subdivision of parts of sections four and 
five, township twelve, range thirteen, by the 
executors of Valentine Best, deceased, July 22, 
181 7 : Lots I, 2, 3 and 4 front the north side of 
the Marietta I'oad, 5 fronts east side Green Lane, 
6 and 7 front south side old Wheeling road. 
Lots 2, 3 and 4 have been cut up into small lots, 
which are sold by metes and bounds, no plat 
having been made of them. 

Ninth ward, and that part of the Seventh ward 
lying south of Zane's Gi'ant line, being part of 
the west fractions of sections five and six in 
township twelve, and range thirteen, and part of 



sections one and twelve in township sixteen of 
range fourteen. 

The town of Springfield w^as laid out July 27, 
1801, by Rufus Putnam, Increase Mathews and 
Levi Whipple : Lots i to 7 front south side 
Muskingum avenue, Seventh ward, beginning 
at Luck avenue, and east to Pine street ; 8 and 
9 front east side Pine street ; 10 to 17 front south 
side Putnam Hi)l Commons ; 18 and 19 front 
west side Woodlawn avenue, at its intersection 
with Muskingum avenue ; 20 to 147 lie between 
Woodlawn and Muskingum avenues and Pierce 
street. The land lying between Muskingum 
avenue and low water mark of the river is some- 
times conveyed by metes and bounds, and some- 
times as river bank lot lying opposite lot No. — , 
in Putnam. Outlots are of about five acres each ; 
I to 14 front west side River street ; 15 to 45 lie 
between Pine street, Seventh ward and Wood- 
land avenue, Ninth ward. A tract of eleven and 
one-half acres is by the plot dedicated for public 
buildings and the use of religious societies, the 
part not so used to remain as a "Perpetual Com- 
mons." It is now known as Putnam Hill Park. 
The land lying between the park and the river 
was reserved for mill purposes. 

Edwin Putnam's addition, March 6, 181 7 : 
Lots A, B, C, D and E front south side Mus- 
kingum avenue, just west of its intersection by 
Woodlawn avenue ; lots F, G and H lie back of 
these, and are partly occupied by the C. & M. 
V. Railroad Companjr. 

"Safford's addition to Putnam," subdivision of 
inlot 7 and outlet i, in Putnam, by the heirs of 
Patience V. H. Saffbrd, May 24, 1869: Lots i 
to 6 front west side Pine street ; 7 north side 
Vine street ; 8 south side Muskingum avenue ; 9 
to 23 south side Vine street ; 24 to 28 east side 
Luck avenue ; 29 to 33 west side of a cross 
street, west of school building ; 34 to 43 are oc- 
cupied for school purposes ; 44 to 48 front west 
side Pine street. 

"Alexander S. Sullivan's addition to Put- 
nam," subdivision of outlot 2 in Putnam, May 9, 
1867 : Lots I to 8 front Luck avenue, east side ; 
9 to 16 west side, and 17 to 24 east side of a 
cross street ; 25 to 32 west side of another cross 
street ; 23 to 40 west side Pine street. 

There was a subdivision made many years ago 
of part of outlot 15, into 8 lots, but no plat of the 
subdivision was ever made, and no name given 
to it, although the lots are sometimes conveyed 
by number. 

Cliflfwood, subdivision of house lots 12, 13, 14, 
15, 16 and 17, and outlots 17 and 20, in Putnam, 
and of land lying between lot 17 and the rail- 
road, by Eli B. Beckwith and George W. How- 
ard, August 12, 1867 : Sixty-four lots of irreg- 
ular size and shape, bounded north by "Putnam 
Hill Park," east by the C. & M. V. Railroad 
Company's land, south by Putnam street, west 
by Pine street and outlot 15. 

Central sub-division in Cliffwood, by John R. 
Stonesipher, April 20, 1874 ! subdivision of lots 
47 and 48 into 6 lots fronting Cliffwood avenue and 
Mound street. 

James Buckingham and Charles W. Potwin's 
addition to Putnam, subdivision of outlots 26 and 
32, and part of oudots 22, 27, 28, 33 and 38, 
March 5, 1869: Lots i to 7 front east side of 
Whipple street ; 8 to 19 east side of Summit street ; 
20 to 26 west side Summit street ; 27 to 36 east 
side Whipple street ; 38 to 52 west side Whipple 
street, and 53 to 67 east side Mathews street. 

Luke Walpole's addition to Putnam, sub- 
di\ision of part of outlot 28, November 24, 1821. 
Six lots fronting west side Woodlawn avenue, 
opposite Madison street. 

James and Catharine Emery's addition to Put- 
nam, being subdivision of outlot 37, October 4, 
1833. Lots I, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17 and 20 
front west side Whipple street, and 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 
II, 14, 15, 18 and 19 east side Mathews street. 

James I. Cherry's subdivision of the west half 
ofoudotNo. 40, September 22, 1853. Lots i, 
2, 3 front Cooper Mill road, north side ; 4 to 8 
front east side Pine street. 

Millwood, by the heirs of Ira Belknap,- De- 
cember 19, 1803, being part of section one in 
township sixteen of range fourteen. Lots i to 8 
front the south side of the Old Lancaster Road, 
now Ridge avenue ; 9 to 20 east side, and 21 to 
30 west side, of. Grant street ; 31 to 39 east side, 
and 40 to 46 west side, of Meade street. 

Samuel G. McBride's addition to Millwood, 
March 9, 1870; part of the same section, lying 
southwest of Millwood, and a little distance south 
of Ridge avenue. Lots i to 9 front the east side, 
and 10 to 18 the west side, of McBride street. 

Chapman's addition, being subdivision by 
Samuel Chapman, executor of Levi Chapman, 
deceased, of a part of section one, lying between 
the south line of Zane's Grant and Ridge avenue ; 
made Januaiy 13, 1873. Lots i to 20 front the 
north side of Ridge avenue; 21 is a triangular 
lot, fronting three alleys : 22 to 29 front the west 
side, and 30 to 40 the east side of Meade street ; 
41 to 50 the west side, and 51 to 58 the east side 
of Belknap street, or Grant street extended ; 59 
to 64 the west side, and 65 to 68 the east side of 
Chapman street. 

FarnulTi's and others" addition to Putnam ; 
Ephraim Farnum, Gilkey Morton and John 
Irvin, Mux 4, 1S40. Lots i, 2 and 3 front west 
side Putnam avenue, south of Pierce street. 

Henry Jones' addition to Putnam ; subdivision 
of land immediatel}- south of the oi-iginal town, 
September 15, iSt>b. Lots i to 4 front west side, 
and 5 to S east side Moxahala avenue ; 9 to 1 2 
the west side, and 13 to 16 the east side Mus- 
kingum avenue. 

Georgetown ; by Samuel Atkinson, April 17, 
1872 ; subdivision of a tract of land south of Put- 
nam. Lots I to 10 front east side of Putnam 
avenue, and 11 to 20 west side Moxahala avenue ; 
21, 22, 24 and 25 front west side Putnam a\'enue, 
and 23 east side Maysville Turnpike. 

Lands lying outside of, but adjoining, the city. 

The first five squares in Taylor's addition, be- 
ing part of the west fraction of quarter township 
three, in township one, of range seven, east of 
the Dresden road and north of Adair avenue. 



Square one, lots i to 5 front east side Dresden 
road ; 6 to 12 north side Adair avenue ; 13 to 19 
south side Thurman street. Square two, lots 1 to 

5 east side Dresden road ; 6 to 11 north side 
Thurman street ; 12 to 17 south side O'Neill street. 
Square three, lots i to 5 east side Dresden road ; 

6 to II south side O'Neill street; 12 to 17 south 
side Sheridan street. Squares four and five were 
changed July 14, 1879, ^J the proprietor, so that 
the lots front as follows : Square four, lots i to 
4 front east side Dresden road ; 5 to 10 front 
north side Sheridan street; 11 to 14 south side 
Ruth street. Square five, lots i to 4 front 
Dresden road east side ; 5 to 8 north side Ruth 
street; 9 and 10 east of McMechan street: 11 
north side Pear street; 12 to 15 front on an 
alley, the line running with lots in Taylor's sec- 
ond addition to Van Home avenue. Laid out 
by John Boggs and Alfred Ball, Executors of 
Jane T. Boggs, deceased, December 9, 1873. 

Taylor's second addition of inlots and outlots, 
by^ohn Boggs and Alfred Ball, executor of Jane 
T. Boggs, deceased, June 8, 1877. Square one, 
lots I to 8 front west side Bluft" street ; 9 to 11 
south side O'Neill street ; 12 to 14 north side, 
and 15 and 16 south side Thurman street, and 
17 north side Adair avenue. Square two, lots i 
to 4 west side Bluff street ; 5 to 9 north side 
O'Neill street ; 10 to 15 south side Sheridan 
street. Square three, lots i, 2 and 15 to 17, west 
side Bluff street ; 3 to 9 north side Sheridan 
street ; 10 and 12 to 14 north side Oak street ; 11 
south side Pearl street ; 18 to 28 south side Van 
Home avenue ; 20 east side Dresden road. 
Square four, i to 6 west side River street ; 7 to 
12 east side Bluff street. Square five, i to 8 
west side River street ; 9 to 16 east side Bluff 
street. Square six, i tog west side River street ; 
10 to IS east side Bluff street. Outlots i to 5, of 
3.48 to 4.81 acres, front east side River road. 
Outlots 6 to 14, of from 5.53 to 7.45 acres each, 
run from Hill street to the Muskingum river. 
Both of these additions are subdivisions of a 
tract of land formerly owned by Captain James 
Taylor, lying immediately north of the Zane 

Woodside, by Paul H. Kaemmerer, February 
24, 1876 ; subdivision of part of the fourth quarter 
of township one, in range eight, of United States 
military land, lying a short distance north of 
Zane's grant. Lots i to 12 front north side 
Locust avenue ; 13 to 25 south side Walnut 
street ; 26, 29,30, 48, 49, 63, 64 and 72 west side 
Orchard street; 27, 28, 31, 49, 50, 62, 65 and 73 
east side Kaemmerer avenue ; 32, 51, 61, 66, 69, 
70, 74 west side Kaemmerer avenue ; 33 to 39 
north side Walnut street ; 41 to 46 south side 
Wood street ; 40, 57, 58, 77 and 78 east side 
Adams street ; 5, 2, 60, 67, 71 and 75 east side 
Limestone street ; 53 to 56 north side Wood 
street ; 59 and 76 west side Limestone street ; 79 
south side Locust avenue. 

Pursuant to a law passed May 7, 1878, (O. L. 
75-134), the administrators of John Mclntire be- 
ing then the owners, July 2, 1878, applied to the 
Cornmissioners of the county for the annexation 

of lots 32, 33, 34, 35, 44, 45 and 46, and the 

alley between them, to the city of Zanesville ; 

they all lying in one tract of about eight acres, 

and all within one half mile of the city. The 

petition was granted. 

* * * * * 

I hereby certify that the foregoing abstract 
was carefully compiled from official records and 
documents, and that it is correct, and for the 
History of Muskingum County, by J. F. Ever- 
hart & Co. Wm. H. Cunningham, 

Attorney at law. 

This is the original draft by Mr. Cunningham. 





General Postoffice, ) 

Philadelphia, Pa., May 24, 1794. ) 

Dear Sir : It is proposed to attempt the car- 
riage of a mail from Pittsburgh to Wheeling, by 
land, and thence by water to Limestone : from 
Limestone by a new road on the southern side 
of the Ohio to the mouth of Licking, opposite to 
Fort Washington, where it will crossover. From 
Limestone, the mail will be carried through the 
State of Kentucky. The Post road through the 
wilderness, in this case, is to be discontinued. I 
have given directions to have three boats con- 
structed for the purpose, to be formed in the best 
manner for ease and expedition in pushing up 
stream, to be managed by five hands each. I 
hope they will be running sometime in June. 
Marietta will be a station for the boats to stop at 
as they pass, and doubtless it will be convenient 
to have a Postoffice there. Herewith I send a 
packet, addressed to you, to be put into the hands 
of the person you judge most suitable for Post- 
master. He will see the forms in which the busi- 
ness is to be transacted, with which he should 
make himself acquainted. The law now sent 
will expire in a few days ; it is substantially the 
same as the new law as to the regulations. The 
latter will be forwarded when prepared. The per- 
son you designate for Postmaster should be care- 
ful and trusty, and there will be an advantage in 
one where residence will be near the landing 
place for mail boats. The advantages of a regu- 
lar mail will be so great to your settlement, I am 
sure you will omit nothing to secure them. 

I am with respect and esteem, dear sir, your 
most obedient servant, 

Timothy Pickering. 

P. S. — I suppose a postoffice may be eligible 
at Gallipolis, for which reason I send you a sec- 
ond packet addressed to you, to be disposed 01 
as you think best. You will be so good as to 
favor me with an answer as soon as possible. 

General Rufus Putnam, Marietta. 

Marietta, June 9, 1794. 
Dear Sir: Your favor of the 24th ult., with 



the packets referred to, has come to hand. I have 
engaged Mr. Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., to un- 
dertake the business ot Postmaster at this place, he 
is a gentleman of probity, is Attorney for the 
United States in this county, and keeps his office 
within a few yards of where the boats will natur- 
ally land, both on account of convenience and 
security. With respect to Gallipolis, I am not 
so well acquainted there as to fix on any one with- 
out some further information, which I expect to 
obtain in a few days. 

I am your most obedient servant and friend, 

RuFus Putnam. 

This Contract, made the twenty-seventh day 
of October, in the year one thousand seven hun- 
dred and ninety-eight, between Daniel Con- 
vers, of the one part, and the Postmaster Gen- 
eral of the United States of America, of the 
other part, witnesseth : That the said parties 
have mutually convenanted as follows, that 
is to say : The said Daniel Convers coven- 
ants with the said Postmaster General : 

1. To carry the mail of the United States, or 
cause it to be carried, from Marietta, in the north- 
west Territory, to Zanetown, on the Muskingum 
river, and from Zanetown to Marietta, once a 
week, at the rate of ninety dollars for every quar- 
ter of a year during the continuance of this con- 

2. That the rhail shall be delivered at said 
postoffice, in the said route, at the times specified 
in the schedule hereto annexed, on penalty of 
one dollar for each hour which shall elapse be- 
tween any time so fixed and the time of the mail's 
actual arrival, to be deducted from the pay of 
said Daniel, unless he shall make it appear to the 
satisfaction of the said Postmaster General, that 
the delay was unavoidable. 

[Sections 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, refer to various details.] 

8. That the said Daniel will enter into bond, 
with two sufficient sureties, in the sum of one 
thousand dollars, etc. 

9. That upon reasonable complaints against 
any carrier of the said mail, for negligence or 
misbehavior, such carrier shall be forthwith dis- 
charged. That when the mail goes by a stage 
wagon, it shall be invariably carried within the 
body of it ; and when it stops at night, it shall be 
put in a secure place, and there locked-up. 

And the said Postmaster General covenants 
with the said Daniel to provide portmanteaus and 
bags necessary, etc., etc., and to pay the said 
Daniel for the carriage thereof as aforesaid, at 
the rate afore mentioned, quarterly, in the months 
of April, July, October and January, the penal- 
ties for failure (if any) being first deducted. 

And it is mutually covenanted and agreed by 
the said parties, that this contract shall commence 
on the first day of November next, and continue 
in force until the thirtieth day of September, in- 
clusive, in the year one thousand and eight hun- 

In Witness Whereof, They have hereto inter- 
changeably set their hands and seals, the day 
and 3'ear first above written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence oi 
Samuel Elbert and D. Loring. 

Joseph Habersham, 
Daniel Convers. Postmaster General. 

Postoffice Department, \ 

Office of the First P. M. General, > 
Washington, D. C, Feb. 2, 1880. ) 
W. S Harlan, Postmaster , Zanesville, O. : 

Sir: — Your communication of January 29, 
1880, in which you ask for the date of the 
appointment of all the Postmasters who have 
served at the Zanesville Postoffice, Ohio, has 
been received at this Department. Please find 
the following in answer to your inquiry, as found 
recorded on the books of this Department. ^ Re- 
spectfully, James H. Marr, 

For 1st Assistant Postmaster General. 


William McCulloch, appointed Postmaster, 
January i, 1801. 

David Harvey, appointed Postmaster, July i, 

C. Spangler, appointed Postmaster, April i, 

Abel Lewis, appointed Postmaster, April i, 

Jeffrey Price, appointed Postmaster, January 
I, 1806. 

William Pelham, appointed Postmaster, July 
I, 1818. 

S. Sullivan, appointed Postmaster, Octoberi3, 
1825. - 

Samuel J. Cox, appointed Postmaster, July 24, 

William Blocksom, appointed Postmaster, 
May 6, 1834. 

A. R. Cassidy, appointed Postmaster, April i, 

Israel Hoge, appointed Postmaster, February 
3, 1841. 


Isaac Dillon, appointed Postmaster,May 2,1849. 
John B. Roberts, appointed Postmaster, April 
29, 1853. 

P. Bateman, appointed Postmaster, March 28, 

W. C. Moorehead, appointed Postmaster, Jan- 
uary 9, 1863. 

*J. J. Douglas, appointed Postmaster, Novem- 
ber 9, 1866. 

W. C. Moorehead, appointed Postmaster, No- 
vember 17, 1866. 

J. J. Douglas, appointed Postmaster, March 
28, 1867. 

Col. J. J. Douglas, appointed Postmaster, 
March 30, 187 1. 

William S. Harlan, appointed Postmaster, 
March 3, 1879. 

Moved to present location, August 26, 1872, in 
Maginnis' Block, southwest corner of Fountain 
alley and Fifth street. 

*His appointment was withdrawn by the President, An- 
drew Johnson, and the name of William Moorehead sent in 
and confirmed. Harlan. 



y. F. Ever hart, A.M., Historian: 

Sir — Your communication of the 3d inst., in 
which you ask for the date of the establishment 
of the Postoffices of Putnam and West Zanesville, 
and the names of the different Postmasters who 
have served at each office to present date, has 
been received at this Department. By reference 
to the books of this office, the following is found, 
which please find in answer to the inquiry 
above. Respectfully, 

James H. Marr. 
For First Assistant Postmaster General. 

Muskingum — Established June 27, 1838 : John 
W. P. Lane, Postmaster. Discontinued Febru- 
ary 16, 1843. 

West Zanesville — Established January 14, 
1852 ; Joseph S. Parke, Postmaster. 

March 7, '54, W. Wimmer, Postmaster. 

January 29, '57, James Miller, Postmaster. 

September 23, '61, W. W. Wimmer, Post- 

October, 20, ''66, D. Dugan, Postmaster. 

March 19, '69, L. M. Reamy, Postmaster. 

November 4, '72, A. C. Brown, Postmaster. 

Putnam — Established January 30, 1817, Hen- 
ry Saiford, Postmaster. 

June 19, '29, John Herron, Postmaster. 

November, 24, '31, D. M. Sellers, Postmaster. 

March 26, '33, Samuel Glass, Postmaster. 

March 25, '43, Jas. T. Cherry, Postmaster. 

July 25, '46, Jeremiah Elder, Postmaster. 

February 8, '49, John Goshen, Postmaster. 

May 29,' '49, Wm. H. Moore,* Postmaster. 

April 26, '53, John Goshen, Postmaster. 

August 8, '53, Jeremiah Elder, Postmaster. 

March 31, '60, W. Stonesipher, Postmaster. 

May 4, '61, Jas. Finlayson, Postmaster. 

September 23, '63, Francis R. Potts, Post- 

August 30, '66, Daniel Dugan, Postmaster. 

October 20, '66, John Dixon, Postmaster. 

November 27, '66, Francis R. Potts, Post- 

July 8, '72, Samuel Large, Postmaster. 

July 27, '75, Eliza A. Large, Postmistress. 

March 5, '79, Chas. Parsons, Postmaster. 

A Postoffice notice, taken from the Zanesville 
"Express," August 14, 1817, is as follows: 

The Mails. — The eastern and western mails 
are now carried through this State in stage 
coaches. The eastern mail arrives on Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays, at 11 o'clock a. m. 
The western mail arrives on Mondays, Wednes- 
days and Fridays, at i o'clock p. m. Thus far 
they have performed well, and there can be no 
doubt of the practicability of carrying the mails 
in this manner, especially . if the people on the 
route will exert themselves to improve the 

The Money Order Department : [Page 188, 
Sec. 958]. Design of Congress in establishing 
money order system. The following is the con- 
struction given by the late Attorney General 
(Williams) to the Statute creating the money 
order system. 

Congress designed to give money orders in 
some respects, the character of ordinary negoti- 
able instruments, to the end that they might be 
received with full credit, and their usefulness, in 
a business point of view, be promoted. 

The Statute does not contemplate that the re- 
mitter of the money order shall be at liberty to 
revoke it and demand back his money against 
the will of the payee after it comes into the pos- 
session of the latter ; to enable the former to ob- 
tain a payment of funds deposited, he must 
produce the money order. 

The payee of the money order, upon comply- 
ing with the requirements of the law and the reg- 
ulations of the Postoffice, is entitled to payment 
of the money on demand, and the remitter of the 
money order cannot, previous to its being paid, 
by any notice that he may give to the Postoffice 
at which it is payable, forbid the payment there- 
of to the payee. — [Postal Laws and Regula- 

"Postoffice Department, \ 

Money Order Office, > 

Washington, Oct. 21, 1864. ) 

Sir — I have this day sent you by mail, a 
package containing two books of money order 
and advice forms, numbered i to 500, also blanks, 
for special advices. Please acknowledge the 
receipt of the same. The amount of money or- 
der funds which you will be allowed to retain in 
your hands as a reserve (see section 49 of the in- 
structions), has been fixed at $300. This sum, 
you will, immediately upon commencing the 
money order business, transfer from the "Post- 
age" to the "Money Order" account, and enter 
in your cash book, as directed in sections 37 and 
38 of the instructions, and also in your first 
weekly statement. 

The first of November has been fixed as the date 
on which the money order system is to be put into 
operation — simultaneously at all designated of- 
fices, and you are required'to be in readiness to 
commence this business at that time. 

It is earnestlv requested, with a view to expe- 
dite business, "that the letters "M. O. B.," 
should be legibly written on every envelope sent 
from your • office containing money order ad- 
vices. Respectfully, 

; C. F. McDonald, 

W. C. Moorehead, Esq. 

Postmaster, Zanesville, Ohio. 

With this addition to the labor and responsi- 
bility of the Postmaster at Zanesville, came the 
requirement of surety for the faithful performance 
of the duties and trust. [Vide, page 199, sec- 
tion 964]. New bonds required at the Postoffices 
made money order offices. 

Postmasters whose Postoffices are designated 
as Money Order Postoffices are required, before 
commencing the money order business, to give 
a new bond to the Government, with at least two 
sureties, which is conditioned for the faithful 
performance of the duties and obligations im- 



posed upon them by the laws relating to postal, 
as well as to the money order business. 

The money order system was inaugurated in 
the Zanesville Postoffice, November i, 1864. 
The following comparative statement of the 
business of the first year, and for 1880, taken 
from the books kept by the officer in charge, ex- 
hibits the growth and importance of this branch 
of the postal service : 


Amount of orders issued $ 5,357 4H 

Fees received therefor .55 00 

Orders paid 5,562 50 

Aggregate $ 10,974 96 

Number of orders issued 416 

Average amount per order $ 12 87 

Average amount per month 446 45 

Average amount per month paid 463 54 


Amount of orders issued $ 66,378 52 

Fees received therefor 750 30 

Orders paid 72,175 99 

Aggregate $139,304 81 

Number of orders issued 6,610 

Average amount for order $' 10 84 

Average amount for month .. 5,531 54 

Average amount per month paid 6,114 66 

A statement is rendered to the Department 
every week. 

When orders are presented for payment in ex- 
cess of amount of cash on hand, the Postmaster 
is authorized to make a draft on the Postmaster 
at New York city, where a fund is kept to his 
credit by orders of the Postmaster General ; and 
when this" fund (of $2,000), is nearly exhausted, 
the local Postmaster asks the Postmaster Gener- 
al for a new credit to be placed with the Post- 
master at New York city ; and under no circum- 
stances is the Postmaster permitted to use 
general postal funds for money order purposes 
and vice versa. 

Provision has been made to keep the Govern- 
ment funds in constant use, so that no large 
balance is idle. A "reserve" of $250 is allowed 
the Zanesville Postmaster, as the money order 
business fluctuates. If the amount of cash on 
hand exceeds the amount of unpaid orders 
drawn on his office for the two weeks last past, 
he remits the excess to the Postmaster at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, when a certificate of deposit' is issued 
in duplicate by the Postmaster at Cincinnati. 
The original is sent to the Department at Wash- 
ington, and the duplicate is sent to this office, 
where it is retained. 

The receipts of the Zanesville postoffice — 
"postal account proper" — including the sale of 
waste paper, stamps, cards, and envelopes, for 
the year 1880, amounted to $21,272.96; the ex- 
penditures, including salaries, $6,556.50. The 
net income amounted to $14,716.46. 

Depository. — Paragraph second, section sev- 
enty-six, page 52, Postal Laws and Regulations, 
defines : Depositing postoffices, such as are di- 
rected to deposit, at some designated point, their 
surplus funds, quarterly, or oftener. 

Paragraph third — Depository and draft offices : 
Those which are directed to retain their own 
funds, the surplus funds of depositing postoffices, 
and funds received by collection, drafts on hand, 
to meet drafts drawn by the Third Assistant 
Postmaster General and countersigned by the 

This was a slow, and complicated, system ; 
accordingly, August 3, 1880, the following order 
was issued, amendatory to the Regulations : 

"Postoffice Department, ) 

"Washington, D. C. ^ 
[Order No. 33.] 

"To secure uniformity of postal revenues, and 
to enable the Auditor of the Treasury of this 
Department to promptly settle the accounts of 
postmasters and contractors, as well as to keep 
intelligent control of the several annual appro- 
priations, covering the transportation of the 
mails, a task which, he states, is now practically 
impossible ; it is — 

"Ordered, That the system of collecting quar- 
terly balances in the hands of postmasters, by 
what are known as collection orders, be discon- 
tinued, and the depository system, described in 
section seveoty-six, of Postal Regulations, be 
substituted. All postmasters, therefore, at what 
are now known as collection offices, will, here- 
after, unless specially instructed otherwise, de- 
posit their surplus postal funds with such depos- 
itories, and in such manner as may be directed 
by the Third Assistant Postmaster General, who 
will see that this order is carried into effect at 

In c'ompliance with the foregoing order, the 
Postoffices in the lollowing counties deposit at the 
Zanesville Postoffice, viz. : Belmont, Coshocton, 
Guernsey, Monroe, Morgan, Muskingum, No- 
ble, Perry, and Washington. The number of 
Postoffices thus depositing is 337. The average 
amount deposited here, is, in round numbers, 
$11,000 per quarter, or $44,000 per year. Each 
depositor receives an original, and duplicate, 
certificate of deposit. The original is transmit- 
ted to the Department, and the duplicate is re- 
tained by the depositor. Under no circum- 
stances is money sent to the Department. Con- 
tractors and Postmasters are paid by means of 
drafts drawn on the Depositary , by the Third As- 
sistant Postmaster General, and verified by the 
Auditor of the Treasury. 


The amount of revenue required under section 
307, page 94, being "not less than twenty thous- 
and dollars," was not reached until the early 
part of 1880. June 30th, of that year, the rev- 
enue of the Postoffice of this city exceeded that 
sum $2,000, whereupon, application having been 
made, asking for free delivery at Zanesville, the 
following order was issued : 

"Postoffice Department, ) 
"Washington, D. C, August 10, 1880. \ 
"Ordered : Discontinuance of the Postoffice at 
West Zanesville and Putnam, in the city of 


Sturtevant & Martin, Zanesville, Ohio. 

The foregoing carefully prepared engraving af- 
fords unmistakable and gratifying evidence of 
what may be — and has been — accomplished by 
shrewd business capacity, enterprise and indom- 
itable perseverance. Some four years ago, Mr. H. 
Sturtevant and Mr. John Martin associated in the 
retail dry goods business in Zanesville, where they 
soon won a prosperous business. Nor was their 
happy conception of introducing the famous 
"Boston One Price Cash System" of trading by 
any means a less favorable introduction for them. 
Equal to any emergency, the then new firm 
strikingly demonstrated, by timely improvements, 
extension of premises, and other features of enter- 
prise, that none were better mated (commercially) 
to keep fully apace with even the most approving 
smiles of Dame Fortune. From the humble com- 
plement of some half a dozen assistants at the out- 
set, to handle a trade of about $50,000 the first 
year, that force is now quadrupled, and a business 
done of at least S150,000 annually. 

Down to the present spring they have held a 
position on the corner of Fourth and Main streets, 
in the City Hall buildings, but having exhausted 
every available foot of space therein, they have 
now also secured the extensive double stores on 
the corner of Third and Main streets, in the 
Star block, being one hun<]red and twenty-eight 
feet long by fifty feet wide, and sixteen feet high, 
with equal basement facilities. Here, as will be 
seen, the departments are classified — the conven- 
iences for patrons are replete, and system is 
supreme, even to the adoption of Lampson's in- 
genious cash system, and other equally commend- 
able acquisitions. 

Of this mammoth and replete dry goods estab- 
lishment this engraving is a faithful representa- 
tion, and a striking compliment to the trade of 
the county as found to-day. 

In addition to their flourishing dry goods busi- 
ness, something over twelve months ago they 
opened, as a branch, a first class clothing store, 
for the finest grades of ready-made clothing and 
gent's furnishing goods, submitting a stock of 
unsurpassed excellence, quantum and attractive- 
ness, which soon gained equal prestige in public 
estimation with their familiar dry goods house. 
This branch of their business is conducted dis- 
tinct, and has been transferred to their old dry 
goods stand, giving them a floorage of sixty by 
forty feet, and presenting a commodious, light 
and prominent clothing house, without a 
compeer out side of the largest metropolitan 

In view of the foregoing, it is therefore safe to 
say, that notwithstanding the popular remark 
that "Zanesville is one of Ohio's old steady-going 
towns," there are those within her borders at least 
capable of making business interesting to patrons 
and decidedly lucrative to themselves. 

Messrs. Sturtevant & Martin, by their integrity, 
efficiency, zeal, and urbanity, have made their 
mark in the commercial arena, while their fru- 
gality and judicious enterprise has justly earned 
a leading distinction and worthy patronage for 
the "Boston One-Price Stores" that it is to be 
hoped will long perpetuate their fair name and 



Zanesville, Ohio, and established, the Free De- 
livery System, at Zanesville Postoffice, with two 
regular carriers, at $850 per annum, each, and 
two auxiliary carriers, at $400 per annum, each ; 
allowed, the postmaster $200 per annum, each, 
for the hire of two horses, to be used by the aux- 
iliary carriers.. This order to take effect on the 
1st day of October, 1880. 

[Signed.] D. M. Key. 

"Postmaster General." 

The number of letter-carriers was found inad- 
equate, and so represented to the Department, 
and thereupon the following letter was indited : 
J 'Postoffice Department, 
"Washington, D. C, August 14, 1880. 
" W. S. Harlan, Postmaster, Zanesville, Ohio: 
"Sir: — -You are hereby authorized to nomi- 
nate to this office, for appointment, thi-ee, fuff, 
letter-carriers, at $850 each, per annum, instead 
of two ; also, two auxiliaries, as heretofore au- 
thorized. The authority to hire two horses, at 
an expense of $200 each, is hereby revoked. 
Very respectfully, 

"James H. Marr, 
"For First Assistant Postmaster General." 
The free delivery was inaugurated October i , 

Tlie number of pieces of mail matter delivered by the 

carriers, during the iirst three months, was 186,132 

The number of pieces collected from street boxes 80,653 

The total number of pieces handltd 266,785 

The postal business is enormously enlarged by 
the exchange correspondence with foreign coun- 

Page 231, section 1102, of the Laws and Reg- 
ulations quoted, is as follows : The Convention 
of Paris, Universal Postal Union, concluded be- 
tween Germany, the Argentine Republic, Aus- 
tria, Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, and 
the Danish Colonies, Egypt, Spain, and the 
Spanish Colonies, the United States of North 
America, France and the French Colonies, 
Great Britain, and certain British Colonies, 
British India, Canada, Greece, Italy and Japan, 
Luxembourg, Mexico, Montenegro, Norway, the 
Netherlands and the Netherland Colonies, Peru, 
Persia, Portugal and the Portuguese Colonies, 
Roumania, Russia, Servia, Salvator, Switzer- 
land, Turkey. 

The plenipotentiaries of the governments of the 
countries above enumerated, being assembled in 
Congress at Paris, by virtue of Article XVIII of 
the Treaty constituting the General Postal Union, 
concluded at Berne, on the 9th of October, 1874, 
have, by mutual agreement, and subject to rati- 
fication, revised the said Treaty, conformably to 
the following stipulation : 

Article I. The countries between which the 
present convention is concluded, as well as 
those which may join it hereafter, form, under 
the title of "Universal Postal Union," a single 
postal territory, for the reciprocal exchange of 
correspondence between their Postoffices. 

Thq International Bureau of the Universal 


Postal Union has made many regulations, in or- 
der to secure the object desired, and thereby 
greatly increased the labors of every post official 
in the countries embraced in the arrangement. 
Thus, when it is realized that our postal system 
is extended over such vast territories — its expen- 
ditures will dwindle into insignificance — while 
the labors performed by the employes are in- 
creased beyond any other class receiving the 
same compensation. * * * * *^ 

We, the undersigned, having carefully exam- 
ined the foregoing recital of postal affairs, here- 
by certify that they are correct. 

W. S. Harlan, Postmaster. 
Gus A. Wynakin, Assistant Postmaster. 

Robert F. Smart succeeded Gus A. Wynakin, 
as Assistant Postmaster, August 9, 1881. 



Boating, for pleasure or profit, has always 
been a very enjoyable mode of travel. In "ye • 
olden time" it was often enlivened by romantic 
adventure. It has attractions to many who 
would dream life away, that no other mode of 
transit offers. Our beloved poet, Longfellow, 
has graciously told us of the materials and mode 
of boat building by the aborigines. Hiawatha 
exclaims : 

"Give me of your bark, O birch tree! 
Of your yellow bark, O birch tree ! 
Growing by the rushing river, 
Tall and stately in the Valley ! 
I a light canoe will build me. 
Build a swift cheeman for sailing. 
That shall float upon the river. 
Like a yellow leaf in autumn. 
Like a yellow water lily !" 

And how with boughs of cedar they made ribs 
to strengthen and hold it shapely, and bound 
them together with the fibrous roots of the larch 
tree, and with the balm of the fir tree closed the 
seams, that water could not enter, and with the 
quills of the hedge-hog made a necklace and a 
girdle for their beauty. 

"And two stars to deck her bosom." 

And how they dragged the dead trees from 
the rivers and made "a pathway for the people !" 

The successors of that ancient people took 
heed of their boats of birch bark, and other boats 
of pine trees, and being unskilled in working 
bark, imitated the ruder boat which white men 
called "a dug-out," and built them boats called 
"flat boats," and other boats called "keel 
boats ;" and in after years, when boat building 
became the art necessary for commerce, the ma- 
jestic steam boat usurped the water courses. 
And not a few navigators have made to them- 
selves an enviable name for skill and intrepidity, 
in the management of boats. Many, it is true, 
have acted well their part and passed from the 
theatre of their deeds, unhonored and unsung ; 
and again, some have made this a step to higher 



life, as for example President James A. Garfield, 
who once served on the tow-path ! 


About 1822, Richard Reeves built a small 
boat, which was known as "Dicky Reeves' first 
steam boat ;" it, however, was propelled by horse 
power. Mr. Reeves subsequently built the boats 
that were called "Faith," and "Charity." 

In 1829, Captain Wm. Scales built a keel 
boat which he named "The Rifleman of Zanes- 
ville ;" these boats ran between Zanesville and 
Pittsburgh, making the trip each way in from 
four to six weeks." 

The "Hope," a flat bottomed boat, with a 
wheel at the stern, was the first boat on the Mus- 
kingum river that was propelled by steam ; it 
was built by Richard Reeves in 1827-8. The 
engine was made at the Richmond and Bost- 
wick foundry, by Mr. Nicholson, a machinist 
from Pittsburgh. Mr. Reeves also built the 
"Walhonding," a twenty ton boat intended for 
low water on the Ohio ; and in 1828 he launched 
the "Mary Ann," a fifty ton boat, commanded 
by Captain Nicholson. She made her trial trip 
to Coshocton, was successfully floated over the 
dam, and, on that account, was called "Sam 
Patch." James Sprague owned this boat. 

The "Zanesville," was built in 1833, by Cap- 
tain Wm. Scales and John Alter, Jr.. Her 
machinery was constructed and placed by 
Messrs. Dare and Ebert. This was "a stern 
wheeler. Wm. Scales, Captain. 

The "Tuscarora," was built in 1835, by the 
same parties. 

The "Muskingum," Frank Cogswell Captain, 
was built in Zanesville in 1845, by the Bishop 
Brothers ; the machinery by Ebert and Whitaker. 

The "Belle Zane" was built a short time pre- 
vious, and intended for the trade between Zanes- 
ville and New Orleans. During the night of 
January 8th, 1845, twelve miles below the mouth 
of White river, in the Mississippi, she struck a 
snag and sunk. Out of ninety passengers, only 
fifty escaped drowning, and a number of those 
who reached the shore froze to death. Munroe 
Ayers was Captain and David Hahn engineer of 
the ill-fated boat — they survived. 

The "Moxahala" was built during 1845 ; and 

the "Putnam," about that time — the latter by 

Blue and Robert Hazlett ("Black Bob"), at the 
foot of Second street, just below the Second 
street M. E. Church, and launched in the canal. 
It was a hundred and fifty ton boat. The 
machinery was made by Ebert and Loudan. 

The "Zanesville," (the second by this name) 
was built in 1846, by Perry Smith. 

The "Jenny Lind" was built at McBride's 
ship yard, (located where the new power house 
of the city water works now stands), for M. W. 
Graham & Co. Ebert and Loudan made the 
machinery. Chas Gallagher was Captain. 

The "Phil Dodridge" was built by Bishop & 
Co., in 1848-9. The machinery by Ebert and 

The "Independence," the largest and most 
powerful side wheel steamer of that date — 1850 
— was constructed for Beaumont and Hollings- 
worth. Geo. W. Graham was Captain. 

The "Buckeye Belle" was built in 1850, and 
blown up at Beverly Locks in 1852, when thirty- 
two persons perished. 

The "Ohio" was built in 1853, for the trade 
between Zanesville and Dresden. 

The "Julia Dean" was built at Marietta, about 
the same time, and brought to Zanesville for her 
machinery, which was furnished by Ebert & 

The "Del Norte," a stern wheeler, was built 
at Zanesville, and made her first trip in 1852 
or '53. 

The "Daniel Convers" was launched in 1853, 
and "Emma Graham" in 1855. 

The Geo. B. Reeves, White Cloud, Rainbow 
and Live Oak were also in the trade, according 
to Mr. EHas Ebert, to whom we are indebted for 
the foregoing data ; and from a journal kept by 
Mr. "Milt" C. McLaughHn the 'following addi- 
tional names have been obtained, omitting such 
as were named by Mr. Ebert : 

The Arroline, AHce, Arrow, U. S. Aid, Aus- 
tin, Monongahala Bell, Bell, Buck, Ben Bolt, 
Best, Bowen, Brooks, Barnard, Kate Cassel, Car- 
oline, Comet, Clarion, Mingo Chief, Hail Colum- 
bia, Cheviot, St. Cloud, Prairie City, J. M. 
Camden, Combs, Lizzie Cassel, Dime, Brown 
Dick, Dresden, Defiance, Mary D. Devol, En- 
terprise, Empress, Elk, Falcon, Freighter, Free- 
dom, Fox, Emma Graham No. 2, J. B. Gordon, 
Loyal Hannah, Hope, Helen Marr, Silver 
Heels, Tom Hackry, Hubble, Heatherington, 
Itaka, Ida, Julia No. i and 2, Ludlow, Lowell, 
R. H. Lindsey, Malta No. i and 2, Mclntire, 
Martin, Mink No. i and 2, McCormick, Mc- 
Connell, Newark, N3rmph, Octarara, Oella, 
Ohioan, Obenchain Ohio No. 3, Pacific, Petona, 
Patton, Potwin, Progi^ess, Powell, Rufus Put- 
nam, Pilgrim, Pinta, Relief, Sechler, Swallow, 
Swan, Speer, Thompson, Union, Mviskingum 
Valley, Virogna, Jim Walt, Wild Wood and 
Zanesville Packet. 

Prominent steamboat men of the Muskingum 
river; deceased : 

Captains — Wm. Scales, Absalom Boyd,Wni. 
Boyd, Wm. Bowen, Frank Cogswell and 
George W. Graham. 

Retired Captains — Munroe Ayers, Joseph 
McVey, David Pittman, David Brown and Ed- 
ward Martin. 

Engineers Deceased — Sylvester Ebert, D- 
Hahn, G. Printz, D. Muncy, J. Sylvester and 
George West. 

Retired Engineers — J. C. Bevis, Joseph How- 
land, Edward Nash, J. Brown, J. Hahn, T. 
Sloan and John Munch. 

The steamboats now in the Zanesville tirade are 
as follows : 

"Gen. H. F. Devol," J. R. Martin, Captain; 
Noah Kincaid and J. Van Law, Clerks. 

"Lizzie Casse'J," Wm. Davis, Captain; L. 
McGrew and Lewis Myrick, Clerks. 



"Mink," C. C. Morgan, Captain; "Bart" 
Roney, Clerk. 


"Obenchain,"7\.. Bailey, Captain ; NefF, 


"Indianola," James Helmick, Captain. 

"Come and See Me," Stephen Sprague, Cap- 



" There is a reaper whose name is Death, 
And, with his sickle keen, 
He reaps the bearded grain at a breath, 
And the flowers that grow between." 

The first burying-ground in Zanesville was 
where the Gas Works now are — on North Sixth 
street. It was laid out in the year 1800. 

The second graveyard, was where the Cooper 
Mill road now intersects Woodlawn avenue. In 
1802, Dr. Increase Mathews donated this tract, 
containing two and one-half acres, to the village 
of Putnam, for a burying-ground. The first 
person buried there was Mrs. Mathews, consort 
of Dr. Increase Mathews ; this event took place 
in June, 1802. These grounds now form a part 
of "Woodlawn Cemetery." 

The graveyard at the head of Main street was 
probably opened as early as 1807. A Mr. Elijah 
Hart was buried there, in March, of that year. 
John Mclntire's tomb is all that remains distin- 
guished as such to mark this burial-ground. 
The fragments of gravestones, scattered around, 
are sad mementoes of the forgotten and neglected 
dead — the heroes and honored of long ago. 
Perhaps a thrill of grateful remembrance may 
enter the bosoms of the City Fathers and induce 
them to take better care of this place ; it would 
seem to be their duty, for as early as 1816 the 
town of Zanesville took charge of this Cemetery. 

Zanesville City Cemetery was laid out in 
1835, ^^^ bodies were removed from other 
grounds to it. The original tract contained a 
little less than seven and one-half acres, pur- 
chased of Richard Stillwell, March 5th, 1835-, 
for $476.00. It is located about one mile east of 
the Court House, on the north side of the Na- 
tional road. The first addition to this cemetery 
was made by the city of Zanesville, April i, 
1852, in the purchase from Captain Joseph 
Moorehead of a fraction over two acres, for the 
sum of $600.00 ; and, on the same day, a further 
addition of a little more than five acres, pur- 
chased from J. V. Cushing, for $1,560.00. [See 
Muskingum county Records of Deeds, Book P, 
.p. 337, and Record of Deeds, Book 21, pp. 317, 
322.] The next addition, April 13, 1852, by 
purchase of six and one-third acres from R. P. 
Robinson, for $ i ,270.00 ; [See Record of Deeds, 
Book 21, p. 365]; and again, March 11, 187.5, 
by purchase of two acres from Wm. W. Miner, 
for $2,000.00 ; [See Record of Deeds, Book 62, 
P- 3373 ) ^^^ again, March 6, 1878, about twen- 
ty acres, from Henry Blandy, for $6,000.00. 
[See Record of Deeds, Book 66, p. 619.] 

The first interment in the City Cemetery, was 
that of Sarah Ann, wife of Jacob Stout; she 
was buried Sunday, October 24th, 1835. "^^^ 
second was Lot Barr ; the third, Mr. James 
Durban, father of Thomas Durban. 

In 1869, the control of the City Cemetery 
passed from the City Council to a Board of Trus- 

The Trustees in 1880 were : John M. Bonnet, 
Thomas Lindsay, and J. W. Conrade. 

W^ooDLAWN Cemetery. — In 1850, Charles C. 
Convers obtained a charter for an association 
known as "The Proprietors of Woodlawn Cem- 
etery ;" in anticipation of which, C. C. Convers 
and A. A. Guthrie purchased from Dr. Increase 
Mathews the east end of the north half of the 
southwest quarter of section twelve, Springfield 
township sixteen, ranges thirteen and fourteen, 
embracing fifty-five and one-half acres, more or 
less (see Record of Deeds, book 20, p. 14), 
for which was paid $4,358.00. 

On the 5th of August, following the purchase, 
Charles C. Convers, Charles B. Goddard, Rich- 
ard Stillwell, Isaac Dillon, Solomon Sturges, 
Corrington W. Searle, Hugh J. Jewett, Ebenezer 
Buckingham, Albert A. Guthrie, Alvah Buck- 
ingham, Henry Blandy, Daniel Applegate, 
George James, Daniel Brush, William Galligher, 
Allen Metcalf, Ezra B. Eastman, and George 
N. Guthrie, having each paid fifty 'dollars for a 
first-class lot, met pursuant to notice, at the of- 
fice of C. C. Convers, in Zanesville, and organ- 
ized the society, and elected officers, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the charter, resulting 
as follows : 

President, A. A. Guthrie ; Treasurer, D. Ap- 
plegate ; Secretary, Charles C. Russell. 

Directors : Richard Stillwell, Charles B. God- 
dard, Charles C. Convers, H. J. Jewett, Henry 
Blandy, E. Buckingham, and A. A. Guthrie. 

The Board then confirmed the purchase of the 
tract of land heretofore specified, on the terms 
stated. The terms of purchase were, $1,000 
down and the balance as follows : $1,000, paya- 
ble November i, 1853 ; $1,000, payable Novem- 
ber I, 1854; and $1,000, payable November i, 
1855, and the balance payable November i, 1856, 
the several notes bearing interest. 

The improvement of the grounds began in 
1852, under the personal direction of the Presi- 
dent, who laid them out. He designed the ave- 
nues and walks, and it is but just to say that he 
not only preserved the natal beauty, but added 
greatly thereto, and also devised harmonious 
adornments, rendering it a place of peculiar at- 

In 1853, the cemetery was publicly dedicated. 
Among the exercises, was an address by the 
President, A. A. Guthrie, that, on account of its 
beauty and appropriateness, was printed in pam- 
phlet form. 

In 1880, the officers-were as follows: 

President, C. W. Potwin ; Secretary and 
Treasurer, James Buckingham. 

Directors : Daniel Applegate, Moses M. Gran- 



ger, Alexander Grant, Edmund J. Brush, and 
James R. Peabody. 

Roman Catholic Cemetery. — The first 
graveyard used by this denomination was on the 
rear of the lot now occupied by St. Thomas' 
Church, on Fifth street. The first person buried 
on this ground was John S. Dugan, who was ac- 
cidentally killed March ii, 1825. It has been 
claimed that three persons, named Nicholas, 
Tudor, and Pratt, who were Quakers, were 
buried here, in 1815, and that this was "the 
Qiiaker graveyard;" this, however, is all we 
know, and is not certified. When St. Thomas' 
Church was erected, the dead were removed to 
the present Cemetery, on the National road, 
about a mile east of the Court House. The site 
was purchased for the church, by Bishop John 
B. Purcell, of Cincinnati, of Richard Stilwell, 
for $i6o. It contains a fracBon less than two 
acres. The purchase was made August 14, 
1835. [^^^ Record of Deeds, Book Q^, p. 30.] 

The Cemetery was dedicated by Bishop Pur- 
cell. It is under the conti^ol of the Parish Priest 
of St. Thomas' Church. 










ERS superintendent's REPORT 1876, '77, 







SCHOOLS — ST. Columbia's academy — german 

lutheran school zanesville business 


For data concerning the early schools, we are 
indebted to _ Mr. E. M. Church, wliose zeal 
and fidelity in gleaning reminiscenccK of early 
times merit great praise. From his notes, we 
learn that the first school was in West Zanesville 
(now the Eighth ward), in the summer of 1800. 
At that time the largest part of the settlement 
was on that side of the river, and. contained 
nearly all of the children of school age. The 
teacher was David Harris, and the school was lo- 
cated near the east end of Lee street, on the river 
bank. There were in all about twenty-five or 
thirty pupils in attendance. John Green and 
sister, James Cordry and brother, and one other, 
were all who belonged on the east side of the 
river. George M. Crooks and cousin, were all 

who attended from South Zanesville (Seventh 
Ward). Henry Crooks (father of George M.), 
had an Indian living with him who took his 
children over the Island to school and brought 
them home again. The children from the east 
side of the river waded the stream most of the 
time, and crossed in a boat when the water was 
up. The first school on the east side of the river 
was taught in a cabin on Second street, between 
Main street and Fountain alley — the property 
was afterwards owned by the Casgill's. The 
name of the teacher was Joseph Jennings ; the 
attendance was not large. James Cordry, 
brother and sister, attended this school in 1802. 
The next school was on Putnam Hill, in the spring 
of 1804, and was taught by Daniel Dimmick. 

In 1805, Samuel Herrick, a young lawyer, 
came to Zanesville ; there were not more than 
thirty-five buildings in the town, and all cabins, 
except two or three hewed log houses, with 
shingle roofs and stone chimneys ; and not more 
than a hundred and twenty-five inhabitants. A 
school teacher was wanted, however, and Mr. 
Herrick, having but little business in his profes- 
sion (there being two other lawyers, Wyllis Sil- 
liman and Lewis Cass, in town), accepted the 
position. The citizens erected a log school house 
-on the lot now occupied by the Market street 
school building. It was a primitive structure, 
having only an earth floor, with one log cut out 
for a window ; over this opening was pasted 
greased white paper, which kept out the winds, 
and yet admitted the light. The benches were 
made of logs, split in two, with four legs. The 
desks were of common boards, fastened along 
the walls. In the center was the stump of a tree, 
which served as a "dunce block," where mis- 
chievous boys were placed as a punishment. 
This was the first public school building erected 
in Zanestown. John Mclntire donated the lot to 
the town for school purposes. The school taught 
by Samuel Herrick in this building, was attended 
by Richard Stilwell, Eliza Price, Harriet Con- 
vers, Amelia Mclntire, Hattie Taylor, Mary 
Vickers, James Cordry, Isaac Spaiigler, Mar- 
garet and. William Thompson, David Spangler, 
Sarah and Jeflerson \'an Home, and others. The 
information in regard to this school was obtained 
from Mrs. Charles B. Goddard and Mrs. John S. 
Cochran, a few \ears before their death. 
'J'hey were pupils in the first school, taught by 
Samuel Herrick. 

Charles Roberts (youngest son of James Rob- 
erts), taught school in the old school house on 
Putnam Hill in 1808 ; he afterwards taught in 
Coshocton and, at a later period, again in Zanes- 
ville ; he was an honest and enterprising citizen 
and highly respected ; he was noted for sociabili- 
ty and the pleasure he took in entertaining, 
friends. He died June 26, 1854, '" the seventy- 
second year of his age. His father and mother 
died in Zanesville in 1813 or 1814. 

In 1808, the citizens of Springfield raised 
money by subscription and built the large ;' Stone 
Academy" in the southeastern part of the town. 
A two-story house, with a hall and two large 



rooms, located on a fine large lot. It was built 
for a State House, to induce the Legislature to 
come to Springfield, and in case of failure in 
this it was deemed suitable for an academy or 
church purposes. 

A custom of early school teachers : They had 
a rule that, if a girl did any thing wrong, she 
might get any of the boys to go her bail — i. e., 
if she tailed to be perfectly good for a week or 
iwo, the boy was to be punished in her stead — 
just as the master ordered, and in case of pun- 
ishment, one boy was made to hold the other 
while the master lammed him, and the girl never 
forfeited her bail. — [From memories of school 
days, by E. H. Church]. 

Mr. Church, when seven or eight years old, 
attended a school taught by a Mr. Black, in a log 
cabin, on the site now occupied by the Kirk 
House ; and soon after, in 181 1, a school taught 
by "old mother GofF," and remembei^ed being 
struck by her while trying- to learn his "A B 
Ab's !" This school house was on the corner of 
Spruce alley and Main street. 

In 1808, or 1809, one Patterson, brother-in-law 
to Charles and John Roberts, taught school in the 
same room formeiiy used by Mr. Black. And 
in 1810, '11 and '12 Richard Kearns taught on 
the northeast corner of Sixth and North streets ; 
he died in 1813. Rev. William Jones, Presbyte- 
rian minister, taught in the old frame Court 
House in 1810-11, and taught some of the higher 
branches, including Latin and Greek. 

In 1810, in the corner room of Frazey Tavern, 
on the corner of Sixth street and Locust alley, 
Jonathan Hobby, John W. Spiy, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Colerick, established a " Seminary for 
Young Ladies." 

In 1812, '13 and '14, Arthur Reed taught in a 
house on the corner of Fountain alley and 
Seventh street. 

In 1817, David Hall, as appears by his adver- 
tisement in the Zanesville "Express," October 
2, 1817, opened a school for young gentlemen 
and ladies. This school was in " a large and 
convenient room in the Academy in Putnam." 
Instructions in the various branches of English 
education. Price of tuition, three dollars per 
quarter ; application to be made to the subscriber 
at the Putriam hotel. 

"September 4, 1817. — Education, — Stephen 
Devol (from Troy, New York,) has taken and 
fitted up a commodious room in Frazey's brick 
house, for the reception of youth and children of 
both sexes, in the several branches of literature 
common in an English school." — [Zanesville 
"Express," September 14, 1817]. 

"Schools. — Zanesville, 1818. — Jonathan Hob- 
by respectfully informs the public that he has 
lately opened a school in Zanesville, in a com- 
modious room in Mr. Frazey's large bi"ick (situ- 
ate a few rods south of the clerk's office), where 
due attention will b^ paid to the education and 
instruction of all who may may be entrusted to 
his care. — [Zanesville "Express," March 7, 
1818]. J. Hobby." 

"Mrs. M. Colerick's Young Ladies" Semin- 
ary," in the brick building on the southwest cor- 
ner of Market and Fourth streets. The terms of 
tuition are as follows : 

"Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Grammar, 
Geography, Tambour and Embroidery, Cotton 
Work, Fringe and Netting, Plain Sewing and 
Marking, $4 per quarter. 

"Second Class — Orthography, Reading and 
Writing, Plain Sewing, Marking, Fringe and 
Netting, $3 per quarter. 

" Small children (boys and girls) will form 
the Third Class for Orthography, Reading, etc., 
$2.50 per quarter. 

"Parents and guardians may rest assured that 
every attention will be paid to their morals and 
manners. — [Zanesville " Express," October 28, 
1818.] Mrs. M. Colerick." 

"School. — A Card. — The subscriber, having 
taken the lower part of the brick house, in Put- 
nam, belonging to Dr. C. Conant, i-espectfully 
informs the inhabitants of Zanesville and Putnam 
that he intends opening a Seminary, on Monday, 
the 7th inst., for improvement in Reading, Writ- 
ing, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Geography, 
Mensuration, Guaging, Surveying, and Naviga- 
tion, with the Mathematics generally, and the 
Classics, if required. The public may rest as- 
sured that the morals, as well as the intellectual 
improvement, of those confided to .his charge 
shall receive his individual attention. (Here fol- 
lows terms, ranging from $3 to $5.) — [Zanesville 
"Express," Nov. 3, 1819.] F. Fowler." 

John W. Spry, who was afterwards for many 
years County Auditor, taught a school in Fra- 
zey's brick house, on the corner of Locust alley 
and Sixth street, in 1819, and afterwards in 1823- 
24, in the old Harvey tavern, on the corner of 
Third and Main streets. 

"Female Education. — Mr. and Mrs. Stein- 
hauer, from Bethlehem, Pa., beg leave to inform 
their friends, and the public, that they intend to 
open a school for the instruction of young ladies, 
in Zanesville, towards the end of August, upon a 
similar plan with the justl}- celebrated establish- 
ment at Bethlehem, Pa. 

"Mr. S., being a member of the church of the 
" Unitas Fratrum," (more generally known by 
the name of Moravians) is thoroughly acquaint- 
ed with their approved mode of conducting their 
schools ; the more so, as he has himself been en- 
gaged for many years in teaching, in one of their 
most respectable academies, in England. Parents 
and guardians who are disposed to entrust Mr. 
and Mrs. Steinhauer with the important charge 
of educating their children, may rest assured 
that the strictest attention will be paid to their 
morals, and no efforts be wanting to insure their 
comfort, and to promote their advancement in 
every branch of their studies. 

Teems: — Boarding, (per quarter).. $30 00 

Washing " 4 00 

Entrance " 6 00 

(The course of instruction, as usual, but speci- 
fied.) — [Zanesville "Express, "July 30, 1819.] 
"Mr. & Mrs. Steinhauer." 



"Zanesville Academy. — For the information 
of those who are unacquainted with the 
terms upon which scholars are received in- 
to this institution, it is deemed necessa- 
ry by the Trustees to state that the price 
for tuition is Three Dollars per quarter, with an 
addition of fifty cents per scholar for contingent 
expenses, in said Academy ; no scholar will be 
received for a shorter term than three months. 
The school at present taught in the Academy, is 
under the conduct of Mr. William C. Pope, who 
is well qualified to instruct in the different 
branches usually taught in English Seminaries. 
His plan of instruction, which is perspicuous and 
rational, merits the approbation of his friends, 
and the public patronage. — [" Messenger," May 
I, 1824.] Robert Mitchell, 


James Perry taught in a two story log house, 
on Market street, where Robinson's machine 
works now stand. 

Rev. George Sedgwick taught a "Seminary 
for Young Ladies," in a house which stood on 
the river bank, below the lower bridge. This 
was from 1822 to 1824. 

At the time the town of Zanesville was laid out, 
the proprietors, Jonathan Zane and John Mcln- 
tire, set apart and appointed the west halves of 
lots fifteen and sixteen, in the tenth square, for 
the use of schools. In 1818, after the death of 
John Mclntire, Jonathan Zane, the surviving pro- 
prietor, executed a deed for these grounds to 
Daniel Convers and others, authorizing them to 
enter upon, and take possession of the same for 
school purposes. Soon after this, Daniel Con- 
vers, associating with himself about thirty others, 
organized a sort of joint stock company, for the 
purpose of erecting a school house on the ground 
thus secured by them. The number of shares, 
which was limited to fifty-three, at twenty-five 
dollars each, were all taken, and with the funds 
so raised, the first and second stories of the Old 
Market Street Academy were built. The third 
story was added by Amity Lodge, of the Masonic 
Fraternity, and used by them as a place of meet- 
ing. The building was completed, and the first 
school opened in it, in February, 1822. By the 
articles of association, each stockholder was en- 
titled to send one pupil for each shai-e of stock 
owned by him. The school was maintained un- 
der this organization for a number of years. 
During a portion of its history, two departments 
of learning were taught. The first teacher em- 
ployed in this school, was Ezekiel liildreth. 
William Pope, Jonathan Hobby, Allen Cadwall- 
ader and others, were his successors. After the 
public schools of the town began to assume an 
organized form, this building was rented for a 
number of years, for school purposes, by the 
Board of Education, and, in 1858, it was finally 
re-leased to the city by the survivors and repre- 
sentatives of the stockholders, and by Amity 

The McIntire School. John Mclntire, as 
will be seen in his will, expressly declared that 

" the President and Directors of said company, 
(The Zanesville Canal arid Manufacturing Com- 
pany) are annually to appropriate all the profits, 
rents, and issues of my- stock, as aforesaid, (see 
will), and all of my estate, of whatever kind the 
same may be, for the use and support of a "Poor 
School," which they are to establish in the town 
of Zanesville, for the use of the poor children ol 
said town. The children who are to be the ob- 
jects of this institution, are to be fixed upon by 
the President and Directors of said company. 
This bequest to be absolutely void, in case my 
daughter Amelia, before described, should leave 
an heir, or heirs, of her body." 

Amelia Mclntire died without issue, and, con- 
sequently, the income of the estate accrued to 
the town of Zanesville, for the purpose named by 
the testator. 

The "Mclntire Academy," as it was known, 
was built by the" executors under the foregoing 
will, and was first occupied for school purposes 
about 1836. The first Principal of this school, 
was John M. Howe, who had, for sometime pre- 
viously, conducted a private seminary in a build- 
ing on the corner of North and Seventh streets, 
known as Howe's "Seminary." He was assist- 
ed by A. E. Howe and George Miller, and sub- 
sequently, by Thomas H. Patrick. Mr. Howe 
remained as Principal of this school some ten or 
twelve years. The school was one of high or- 
der ; Latin and Greek, and other branches of 
higher education, being taught in it. The high- 
est, or classical department, was taught by Mr. 
Howe in person, the lower departments, by his 

Mr. Howe was sui;ceeded by Mr. Theodore 
D. Martindale, who was assisted by Mr. T. H. 
Patrick and two female assistants. Mr. Martin- 
dale was succeeded bj- Mr. Joseph Davidson, 
who was assisted by about the same corps of 

Mr. Davidson was succeeded by Mr. T. H. 
Patrick, who remained as Principal of the 
school until 1856, when the graded school system 
having been fullj' organized, it was thought by 
the Mclntire executors, as well as others inter- 
ested, that the purposes of the testator would best 
be carried out by placing the school under the 
control of the Board of Education, and causing 
it to be merged in the general graded system of 
the city. Accordingly, an arrangement was 
made between the Mclntire Trustees and the 
Board of Education that "the school house was 
to be put in thorough repair, and furnished with 
furniture similar to that in the other school build- 
ings of the city. The school to be organized 
and conducted under the rules and regulations 
adopted by the Board of Education, and to be 
under the control of the Superintendent of the 
City Schools. 

"The expenses of repairs, furniture, salaries of 
teachers, together with all incidentals necessary 
to the conduct of the school, to be paid by the 
Mclntire Trustees ; the Mclntire Trustees re- 
serving to themselves the right of visitorial su- 




'Prior to the first of April, 1839, ^^^ Public 
Schools of Zanesville were conducted under the 
general school laws of the State, and were of the 
same ungraded character as the schools of the 
rural districts. 

The general State school law (that passed 
March 7, 1838,) was not considered adapted to 
the wants of the town in the expenditure of funds 
for school purposes, especially so in consequence 
of the existence of the Mclntire school fund, 
which rendered the situation of Zanesville, in 
that regard, peculiar. 

On the 29th day of December, 1838, a meet- 
ing was held in what is known as the Senate 
Chamber, pursuant to a notice from the School 
Directors of Zanesville district, (Ezekiel T. Cox, 
Uriah Parke and Henry Eastman), a committee 
was appointed to draft a bill adapted to the edu- 
cational wants and interests of the town of Zanes- 
ville ; while another committee was appointed to 
circulate petitions to the Legislature, for the 
"Support and Better Regulation of the Schools 
of the Town of Zanesville," of which law the 
following are among the provisions : 

Section i . * * * . It shall be the duty of 
the Town Council of the town of Zanesville, on 
or before the first of April next, to hold an elec- 
tion, at the Court House, in said town, for the 
election by ballot of six School Directors for said 
town, to serve as follows : Two to serve until 
the third Tuesday in September, 1839 ! ^"^° ^° 
serve until the third Tuesday in September, 1840 ; 
and two to serve until the third Tuesday in Sep- 
tember, 1841 ; and annually afterwards, on the 
third Tuesday in September, two directors, as 
aforesaid, shall be elected to serve for the period 
of three years, and until their successors are 
elected and qualified. All vacancies by death, 
resignation, or otherwise, to be filled by appoint- 
ment of the Council * * * until the next 

Provided, that none but free-holders, house- 
holders and heads of families shall vote. 

"Sec 3. It shall be the duty of said Board, on 
or before the first day of May next, to determine 
the location of a site, or sites, for a school house, 
or school houses, having in view the possibility 
of purchase on reasonable terms, and they shall 
determine the number and description of build- 
ings necessary for school purposes in said town, 
and report the same in writing to the Council. 

"Sec. 4. That thereupon it shall be the duty 
of said Council, at the expense of said town, to 
purchase said site, or sites, and cause to be 
erected thereon, under the supervision of said 
Board, such school building, or school buildings, 
as may be described in said report. * * * 

"Sec. 6. Provided that, as soon as the neces- 
sary buildings were erected, it should be the 
duty of the Board of Education to employ teach- 
ers, make rules and regulations for the schools, 
and to keep the schools in constant operation, 
except during reasonable vacations, to be by 
them established — and, when the public money 

was insufficient, to supply the deficiency by a 
tax levied upon the parents and guardians of 
pupils attending, in proportion to the time of 
their attendance, and to exempt from such tax 
such parents or gurdians as, in the opinion of the 
Board, were unable to pay it, and were not en- 
titled to send to the Mclntire School. 

' ' Sec . 7 , Made it the duty of the Board of Edu- 
cation to report annually to the Town Council the 
receipts and expenditures of all moneys coming 
into their hands for school purposes. 

Sec 9, Made it the duty of the Board of Edu- 
cation to make a yearly estimate of the probable 
expense of repairs, for fuel and furniture, and 
the Council to provide for the same by a tax 
levied for that purpose. 

Sec II, Made it the duty of the Council to 
appoint three suitable persons to act as a Board 
of School Examiners, whose duty it was to ex- 
amine applicants for teachers' positions, to ex- 
amine the schools, and to report semi-annually 
to the Council." 

On the first day of April, 1839, an election 
was held at the Court House, and the following 
named gentlemen were elected as members of 
the first Board of Education, under the foregoing 
law : 

Hugh Reed, to serve till the third Tuesday in 
September, 1839. 

George W. Manypenny, to serve till the third 
Tuesday in September, 1839. 

Allen Cadwallader, to serve till the third Tues- 
day in September, 1840. 

Charles G. Wilson, to serve till the third Tues- 
day in September, 1840. 

Richard Stillwell, to serve till the third Tues- 
day in September, 1841. 

John A. Turner, to serve till the third Tues- 
day in September, 1841. 

This Board organized April 6th, by electing 
Richard Stillwell President, John A. Turner, 
Secretary and Charles G. Wilson, Treasurer. 

The first Board of Examiners appointed by 
the Council consisted of Rev. James Culbertson, 
Rev. William A. Smallwood and Wyllys Buell. 
During the same year, (1839), "^^ Board of 
Education selected sites for the school buildings, 
but put the schools in operation in rented build- 
ings, as follows : 

James Barton's room, corner of Market and 
Fifth streets. 

Mrs. Barton's room. Fifth street, between Mar- 
ket and South. 

Mr. Spaulding's school house. Sixth street, 
near Marietta. 

Old Methodist Church, between Fifth and Sec- 
ond streets. 

First floor of old Academy, on Market street. 
Room in basement of Market street Baptist 

Second floor of old Academy, on Market 

Mr. N. Harris' school room, on Third street. 

In September of this year, Messrs. Reed and 

Manypenny were re-elected as members of the 

Board of Education. February 15, 1840, the 



Board of Education recommended to the Council 
the erection of a school house in the northwest part 
of the old graveyard, and submitted plans and 
specifications for the same. The Council adopt- 
ed the recommendation of the Board, and imme- 
diately advertised for bids for the erection of the 
building. On the 12th of March, 1840, the con- 
tract was awarded to James Ramage, at $3,750. 

On the 28th day of March, 1840, the Council 
rented again all the rooms previously occupied 
by the schools, except Mr. J. Barton's, and rent- 
ed three additional rooms, namely : One of 
Colonel John Hall, one of Mr. Stratton, and an- 
other in the basement of the Market Street Bap- 
tist Church. 

In July, 1840, Allen Cadwallader resigned, and 
Uriah Parke was appointed a member of the 
Board of Education in his stead. In September 
of the same year, Uriah Parke and C. G. Wilson 
were re-elected, and H. J. Cox appointed in 
place of Dr. Turner, deceased. October, 1840, 
Rev. Amos Bartholomew was appointed Exam- 
iner, vice Buell. On the 6th day of November, 
1840, the new school house on the hill being 
ready for occupation, the following rented rooms 
were vacated, and the schools transferred to the 
new building : John Hall's Old Methodist 
Church, two rooms in the basement of the Mar- 
ket Street Baptist Church, and Mr. Stratton's. 
Mrs. Barton's room had been previously vacated, 
and the school transferred to Nathaniel Wilson's 
room, corner of Fifth and South streets. On the 
27th of November, 1841, Richard Stillwell re- 
signed, and Jesse Keene was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Board of Education in his stead. On 
the 9th day of December, 1841, the Council pur- 
chased of John Howe the building on the corner 
of Seventh and North streets, known as "Howe's 
Seminary," together with the lease of the grounds 
upon which it was located, for the sum of $1,500. 
This buildingwas repaired and improved, and 
ready for occupation on the first of April, 1842. 
With the occupation of this building, begins the 
history of the graded school system of Zanes- 


In September, 1842, the following system of 
organization was adopted and went into imme- 
diate operation : 

1. "The Zanesville public schools shall be di- 
vided into the Male Seminary, and the Female 
Seminary. [The former to occupy the new 
school house on the hill, and the latter, the 
"Howe Seminary," on Seventh street.] 

2. "Each division shall be divided into a 
Junior and Senior department. In the Junior 
department, shall be taught Spelling, Reading, 
and the elements of Arithmetic and Geography, 
and the scholars shall be allowed to attend les- 
sons in Singing and Writing. All the higher 
branches studied shall be taught in the Senior 
departments, with such continuation of the studies 
pursued in the Junior departments as may be 

3. "Theres hall be a principal in each de- 

partment, who shall have such assistants as may 
be necessary. There shall also be a teacher« of 
writing and vocal music. . 

4. "The teacher of Writing arid Music shall 
occupy the room at each building appropriated 
to his use, and the scholars shall attend his in- 
struction in such classes, and under such ar- 
rangements as he, with the sanction of the Board 
of Education, shall think proper. His services 
shall be divided between the Seminaries, as their 
wants may require. 

5. "The Principal of the Senior Department 
of the Male Seminary, shall be General Superin- 
tendent of that school, and as such shall receive 
all applicants and assign them to their proper 
departments ; and whenever the departments are 
brought together for an examination, or for 
other purposes, he shall have the direction, and 
shall decide all questions of general arrange- 
ment. He shall exercise a general supervision, 
and see that the rules of the school are duly en- 
forced, and neatness and good order observed 
throughout. Any one feeling aggrieved by his 
action, may appeal to the Directors. 

6. "The teacher of Writing and Music shall 
be General Superintendent of the Female School, 
and as such shall discharge all the duties per- 
taining to the Superintendent of the Seminary. 
He shall reside in the building, and protect it 
and the premises from injury. 

7. "There shall be a Curator of the Male 
Seminary, who shall reside in the building and 
have charge of it, for the purpose of protection. 
He shall also have charge of the Cabinet and 
apparatus, under regulations to be hereafter de- 

Fifteen other sections follow, defining more 
minutely the duties of teachers, officers, and pu- 
pils ; but the foregoing are deemed sufficient to 
indicate the "character of the system organized at 
the time. The school year consisted of four 
quarters, of twelve weeks each. The income 
from taxation, under the general and special 
school laws then in force, not being sufficient to 
maintain the schools, tuition at the rate of one 
dollar per quai'ter in the Junior departments, 
and one dollar and a half in the Senior depart- 
ments, was charged for each pupil residing with-/ 
in the borough, and not entitled to attend the' 
Mclntire School. Pupils entitled to attend the 
Mclntire School, or residing without the bor- 
ough, were charged three dollars per quarter in 
Junior departments, and four dollars in Senior 
departments. The Board of Education, to whom 
this organization of the schools is due, consisted 
of Messrs. Charles G. Wilson, Uriah Parke, 
Horatio J. Cox, Hugh Reed, George W. Many- 
penny, and Jesse Keene. 

The testimony of the Board of Education, 
upon his retirement therefrom some years subse- 
quently, to the efficiency of Mr. Parke's services, 
would indicate that, in the judgment of his asso- 
ciates, much of the credit of the efficiency of the 
school system was due to him. He is still re- 
membered in this community, for his earnest de- 
votion to the cause of popular educE^tion, 

HIGH SCHOOL, Zanesville, Ohio. 



The Board of Examiners at this time (Septem- 
ber, 1842), consisted of Rev. James Culbertson, 
Rev. W. A. Smallwood, and Dr. Thomas M. 
Drake — Dr. Drake having been appointed in 
July, of this year, in place of Rev. Amos Bar- 

On the 20th of September, 1842, Mark Low- 
dan and Adam Peters were elected members of 
the Board of Education, in place of Messrs. 
Reed and Manypenny, and on the 26th, Colonel 
John W. Foster was appointed, in place of Jesse 

In April, 1843, E. E. Fillmore was appointed 
a member of the Board of Education, in place 
of John W. Foster, resigned, and in September 
of the same year was elected to the same office. 

On the 7th of April, 1845, the residence of 
Uriah Parke, then Secretary of the Board of Ed- 
ucation, was destroyed by fire, and with it all 
the records and papers belonging to the Board. 
The foregoing facts are gathered from the min- 
utes of the Town Council, and from a brief ab- 
stract of the history of the schools, prepared 
from memory by Mr. Parke, and recorded in 
June, 1845, in the records of the Board. 

In June, 1845, the following corps of teachers 
was in the employ of the Board, at the salaries 
named : 

George W. Batchelder, Principal of Male 
Seminary, salary $600 per annum ; Samuel C. 
Mendenhall, Assistant, Senior Department, sal- 
ary $240; N. A. Gray, Principal of Junior De- 
partment, salary $350 ; James H. Thompson, 
Asssistant, Junior Department, salary $240 ; 
William D. Chase, Second-Assistant, Junior De- 
partment, salary $150; Jesse P. Hatch, Princi- 
pal of Female seminary, and teacher of Writing 
and Musiq in both schools, salary $400 ; Miss 
Adaline Parker, Principal, Senior Department, 
salary $300 ; Miss Isabel Cary, Assistant, Senior 
Department, salary $175 ; Miss J. Williams, 
Principal, Junior Department, salary $i26o ; Miss 
Amanda Charlott, Assistant, Junior Department, 
salary $96 ; Miss Martha Hatch, Second-Assist- 
ant, Junior Department, salary $96. 

N. A. Gray resided in the Male Seminary 
building, and'j. P. Hatch in the Female Semi- 
nary building, rent and fuel free. 

The number of pupils enrolled, and in attend- 
ance, in June, 1845, was as follows : 

Male Seminary, Senior Department, enrolled 67 

" " ' " " attendance 60 

" Junior " enrolled 154 

« " " " attendance...; 139 

Female " Senior " enrolled 89 

" " " " attendance 65 

" " Junior " enrolled 157 

" " attendance 120 

Total, in both Schools, enrolled 467 

Total, in both Schools, attendance 384 

The following was the course of study, au- 
thorized by the Board : 

Spelling — ^Sanders' Spelling Book. 
Reading— .Pjerr^pont's Introduction and Na- 


tional Reader, Sanders' Reader, and the Scrip' 

Geography — Smith's. 

Gramm ar — Smith's . 

Arithmetic — Emerson's Mental and Parke's 

Algebra— B alley ' s . 

History — Goodrich's First, Second and Third 
Books, and Weem's Washington. 

Music — Mason's Sacred Harp. 

Philosopy — Comstock' s . 

Surveying — Gummere's. 

Geometry — Playfair's Euclid. 

Latin — Andrews and Stoddard's Grammar, 
Andrews' Reader, and Virgil. 

Greek — Anthon's Grammar, First Lessons and 

On the i6th of September, 1845, Gottlieb Nat- 
tinger and Leonard P Bailey were elected mem- 
bers of the Board of Education, in place of Adam 
Peters and Mark Lowdan. 

Subsequent changes in the Board of Educa- 
tion are given in the roll of the Board, appended 
te this sketch. 

"In July, 1847, Mr. Batchelder resigned his 
position as Principal of the Male Seminary, and 
Mr. Mendenhall, that of First Assistant in the 
same. On accepting the resignation of these 
gentlemen, the Board of Education bore hearty 
and unanimous testimony of their efficiency and 
success as teachers, and added emphasis to that 
testimony by their subsequent re-employment in 
the schools. 

Mr. Orlando L. Castle was elected to succeed 
Mr. Batchelder, and Mr. William D. Urquhart 
to succeed Mr. Mendenhall. In October, 1847, 
Mr. Urquhart was succeeded by Mr. William A. 

In April, 1848, Mr. Hatch resigned his posi- 
tion as Principal of the Female Seminary and 
teacher of writing and singing. As a temporary 
arrangement. Miss Adaline Parker was made 
Principal of the Female Seminary, and Mr. O. 
L. Castle took charge of the writing and singing 
in the Male Seminary. In July, 1848. Mr. N. 
A. Gray resigned his position in the Male Semi- 
nary, and Mr. S. C. Mendenhall was elected to 
fill his place. Mr. L. P. Marsh, then of Dela- 
ware, Ohio, was elected teacher of writing and 
singing, and entered upon the discharge of his 
duties January 3, 1849. His salary was at the 
rate of $400 per annum. In February, 1849, 
Mr. J. H. Thompson, then assistant teacher in 
the Male Seminary, was made Principal of the 
Female Seminary, at a salary of $500 per an- 
num, with dwelling and fuel free. 

In April, 1849, the length of the school year 
was fixed at four quarters, of eleven weeks 

On the 26th of March, 1850, Mr. O. L. Castle, 
Principal of the Male Seminary, resigned, and 
Mr. Marsh was made Acting Principal till June, 
1850, when Mr. George W. Batchelder was 
elected to that position, at a salary of $800 per 



In September, 1850, the corps of teachers con- 
sisted of Mr. Batchelder, as Principal of the 
Male Seminary, with four assistant teachers. 
Mr. Thompson, was Principal of the Female 
Seminary, with four assistant teachers, and Mr. 
Marsh as teacher of writing and singing in both 
schools. The average enrollment of pupils, at 
this time, was about five hundred. 

In October, 1850, Mr. Marsh resigned, and 
Captain Hatch was again employed as teacher of 
writing and singing. 


No important change was made in the organi- 
zation of the schools till February, 1852, when 
Mr. Batchelder was made Superintendent of all 
the schools. His salary was fixed at $1 ,000, and 
he was assisted by twelve subordinate teachers. 

In May, 1852, the Female Seminary was de- 
stroyed by fire and its schools transferred to the 
basement of the Seventh' street M. E. Church 
and the Market Street Academy. 

In June of this year, the Board of Education 
took action .looking, to the provision of additional 
and more, suitable accommodations for the 
schools. A committee was appointed to select 
sites for four ward schools and a high school. 

In April 1853, the lots on which were built the 
Third and Fourth Ward buildings were selected, 
and Mr. Batchelder was sent to Cleveland, San- 
dusky and Columbus to inspect the school build- 
ings of those cities, with a view to advising the 
Board in their adoption of plans, and application 
was made to the Council for funds to purchase 
the lots selected, to erect two ward schools, and 
to make alterations and repairs on the High 
School building, so as to fit it for the use of a 
High School. The Council promptly responded 
to this call, authorized the issue of twenty-five 
thousand dollars of school bonds for the use of 
the Board, and advertised for bids for the erec- 
tion of two ward buildings. In July, 1853, the 
contract for the erection of the Third and Fourth 
Ward buildings was awarded to Jonathan Swank, 
at ^7,645 for each building, exclusive of the stone 
work. Mr. John M. James was employed to 
superintend the erection of the buildings. 

In the spring of 1853, the first school for the 
education of colored children was established. 
Under the laws in force at that time, this school 
was controlled by a separate board of directors, 
elected by colored people, and sustained by taxes 
levied upon property of colored citizens. 

In October, 1854, ^'"- Batchelder resigned his 
office of Superintendent. Very much credit is 
due Mr. Batchelder for his labors in behalf of 
the better organization of our' public schools. 
He earnestly advocated before the Board of Ed- 
ucation and before the City Council, the advan- 
tages of the graded system over that of the 
mixed schools, as they then existed, and gave 
impetus and direction to the preliminary efforts 
that were made to build up in our city a system 
of public instruction that should be creditable in 
its character and remunerative in its results. 

The Graded System Completed. — In April, 
1855, the new school buildings were completed,, 
and the organization of the graded system began 
to assume tangible shape. Mr. Almon Samson 
had been elected Superintendent, and Mr. 
Charles W. Chandler, Principal of the High 

The following departments were organized, 
and courses of study adopted : \ 

The Primary Department, embracing the first 
three years of the course. 

The Secondary Department, embracing the 
second three years. 

The Senior Department, embracing the third 
three years. 

The High School Department, embracing 
three courses of study, of two years, four years 
and five years respectively. 

During the school year, ending July 3d, 1857,- 
there were sustained by the Board: One high 
school, two senior schools, five secondary schools, 
ten primary schools, one unclassified school, and 
one colored school. The whole number of 
teachers was thirty-one. 

The enumeration of white youth, of school 
age, in this year, was 2,857, of whom 289 were 
under six years of age — leaving 2,568 entitled to 
attend the public schools. The whole number 
of pupils enrolled in the white schools was 1,500, 
leaving i ,068 entitled to admission who did not 
enter school at all. 

The average enrollment and attendance in the 
several departments were as follows: 

EnroUmenl. Attendance. 

In High School 78 75 

Senior 85 83 

Secondary 265 252 

Primary 612 ' 585 

In his report to the citizens of ZanesviHe, at 
the close of this school year, (July, 1857), Mr. 
Bigelow, then President of the Board of Educa- 
tion, says: "We. (the Board), have endeav- 
ored to secure the most competent teachers in 
every department ; adopted the most approved 
methods of teachiiTg : provided the necessary 
appliances, and sought, by a rigid conformity to 
the regulations, to make the internal working of 
the schools in every way successful." 

M. I). Leg(;ett, Superintendent. — At the 
close of this school year, (July, 1857), Mr. Sam- 
son resigned his position as Superintendent, 
having filled that office a little over two years, 
and having, with the co-operation of the Board 
of Education, fully established the graded sys- 
tem of schools, and witnessed its entrance upon 
a career of popularity and usefulness. Mr. M. 
D. Leggett was elected to succeed Mr. Samson, 
at a salary of $1,200 per annum. In his first re- 
port to the Board, made August 3, 1858, Mr. 
Leggett thus justly compliments the work of his 
predecessor: "In taking charge of the schools 
at the beginning of the last school year, I found 
a classification of scholars, and a course of study, 
which, in their adapta,tion to th^ wa,uts of children, 


1 23 

their simplicity, their system, and thoroughness, 
could hardly be equaled by any other system of 
, schools with which I was acquainted. This 
classification of courses of study is constantly 
becoming more and more popular with the 
patrons of the schools. * * * * 

I think there are in the city very few patrons 
of our schools who would be willing to have any 
material ailteratibn made, either in the course of 
study or classification." 

Mr. Leggett remained in charge of the schools 
till Jamiary, 1862, when he resigned his office 
to accept the appointment of Colonel of the 78th 
Regiinent, O. V. I. 

' The condition of the schools at the close of the 
year 1859-60, is indicated by the following sta- 
tistics, taken from Superintendent Leggett' s an- 
nual report for that year : 

The number of schools sustained during the 
year were as follows : 

High School 1 

Senior Schools ' 2 

Secondary Schools..... 6 

Primary Schools '. 12 

Bural School 1 

German School 1 

Colored School 1 



III which were employed the following number 
of teachers : 

Male Teachers 

Female Teachers. 


Total 38 

In addition to the above, two night schools 
were .sustained from the first of November to the 
first of March, in which were eniployed four 
teachers, two male and two female. 
■ The following is the table of enrollment and 
attendance in the several departments : 

High School...., 
iSenior Schools 
Secondary Schools. 


Primary Schools.' 932 

Kural Schools 

German School 

Colored School.. 

Night School 

Total . 





37 ' 





The following was the schedule of salaries. 

Superintendent of Instruction $1,600 

Principal of High School 1,000 

Principals of Districts 600 

Senior, Secondary and Primary Teachers 300 

Senior, Secondary and Primary Assistants 240 

Assistants in High School $450 to 600 

Superintendent Leggett's resignation was ac- 
cepted January 7, 1862, and Mr. C. W. Chand- 
ler, iPrincipal of the High School, was elected to 
superintend the educational department, at a 
salary of $1,000, and Mr. A. Fletcher, President 
of the Board, was employed as financial agent; 

salary, $300. This arrangement was continued 
through the next school year, but the exigencies 
of the times having made it the duty of the 
Board of Education to exercise the strictest 
economy, a reduction of the salaries of superin- 
tendent, principals and teachers was made, of 
from ten to twenty per cent. 


As a further measure of economy, at the close 
of this school year, the office of Superintendent 
was suspended. 

During the period through which this suspen- 
sion of the office of Superintendent was con- 
tinued, no very full statistics of the schools were 
kept. From the report of the President of the 
Board, made in August, 1865, the following facts, 
relating to the condition of the schools for that 
year, are derived : 

Number of pupils enrolled in all the schools 2,110 

Ayerage daily attendance 1,289 

There were employed seven male and twenty- 
eight female teachers. The arrangement with 
the Mclntire trustees, by which they paid all ex- 
penses of the Mclntire school, had now continued 
for nine years, and a new arrangement was en- 
tered into with them, under a contract author- 
ized by a special act oi the Legislature. This 
act enabled the Mclntire trustees to con- 
tract with the Board of Education far the tuition 
of the " poor children " who would be entitled to 
the benefit of the Mclntire fund under.the will of 
Mr. Mclntire, and to pay to the Board of Educa- 
tion such sum from the income of that estate as 
in their judgment might be right and proper as 
an equivalent for such tuition. Under this con- 
tract, the Board has annually received from the 
Mclntire trustees the sum of $8,000, and in ad- 
dition to that, from $500 to $800 per year to 
furnish books and clothing to destitute children. 

At the close of the school year, in June, 1865, 
Mr. C. W. Chandler, who had been Principal of 
the High School since its establishment, inT855, 
with the exception of one year in which he filled 
the office of Superintendent, resigned his position, 
and Mr. A. T. Wiles, who had been, for the 
three years previous. Principal of .the. schools 
of the Second District, was elected to that posi- 
tion, at a salary of $1,000 per annum. 

The First Lady Principal. — The Pritici- 
palship of the Third District, made vacant in 
June, 1865, by the promotion of Mr. Wiles to 
the Principalship of the High School, was filled 
by the election of Miss Maria Parsons, who had 
been for several years teacher of the senior 
school in that district. This was the first in- 
stance in the history of the Zanesville schools in 
which a lady was placed in the responsible posi- 
tion of Principal, and the innovation was re- 
garded by many earnest friends of the public 
schools with serious distrust. At the close of 
the school year, however, the Board of Educa- 
tion was so well satisfied with the i-esult of its ex- 
periment that they applied the same policy to the 
other two districts. 



A. J. Wiles, Superintendent. — No further 
change was made in the organization or man- 
agement of the schools until the close of the 
years 1869-70, when the office of Superintend- 
ent of Instruction was restored, and Mr. A. T. 
Wiles, who had served five years as Principal of 
the High School, was elected to that office, at a 
salary of $1,500 per annum, and Miss Margaret 
Stultz, who had served for five years as assistant 
■ in the High School, was made Principal of the 
same, at a salary of $1,000 per annum. 

At the beginning of the school year, 1869-70, 
the new school building on Marietta street, 
known as the "Stemler" building, was com- 
pleted and ready for occupation by the schools. 
Later in the year, the Council purchased the 
Presbyterian'Mission Sunday School building,on 
Monroe street, and the Board opened in it a sec- 
ondary school. • 

The schools were all now accommodated in 
buildings owned by the city, except the three 
schools in the rooms rented of the Masonic Hall 

In the summer of 1870, School District No. 9, 
of Springfield township, including the un-incor- 
porated village known as South Zanesville, was 
annexed to the city. The Board of Education 
assumed control of the two schools of that dis- 
trict, and attached them, for the time being, to 
the Third District of the city schools. In No- 
vember of this year, the village of West Zanes- 
ville was annexed to the city, adding four more 
schools to the number already under control of 
the Board. The teachers formerly in charge of 
these schools were all re-employed by the city 
Board of Education, and their salaries adjusted 
to the schedule in force in the other city schools. 
The schools of the Seventh and Eighth wards 
were constituted the Fourth District, and placed 
under the Principalship of Mr. David Harris, 
who had been for many years teacher and Prin- 
cipal of the West Zanesville schools. 

In 1871, Orlando C. Marsh was First Assistant 
of the High School, and Principal of the same 
in 1871-72. 

In May, 1872, the incorporated village of 
Putnam was annexed to the city, constituting the 
Ninth ward. The Board of Education assumed 
only a nominal control of the schools of this 
ward until the close of the school year, deeming 
it best for their interest to make no attempt at 
that time to adjust them to the system of the 
other schools. By this annexation, seven schools 
were added to the city school system. By the 
three annexations just named, the area of the 
city, and its population,were increased about one- 
third, and the number of schools and teachers in 
about the same ratio — the number of teachers 
prior to these annexations being forty-five, and 
immediately subsequent thereto, sixty. 

During the year 1873, the City Council — at 
the request of the Board of Education — erected 
a commodious and substantial brick school 
house, containing six rooms, in the Sixth ward, 
one in the Seventh ward, containing four school 
rooms, and an addition to the Eighth ward 

school building, containing two school rooms. 
The cost of these three improvements, with the 
grounds upon which they were placed, was 
about $30,000. 

The School Funds. — Prior to 1839, the pub- 
lic schools of Zanesville were operated under the 
general school laws of the State. The first gen- 
eral school law was enacted by the General As- 
sembly of 1824-25. It provided for the election 
of three directors for each school district, and 
for a levy for school purposes of one-half a mill 
on the dollar of taxable property. This law was 
amended- in 1829 so as to authorize County Com- 
missioners to. levy a school tax of three-fourths 
of a mill. In 1836, the County Commissioners 
were authorized to levy one and a half mills, and 
in 1838 two mills. In 1839, ^^^ County Com- 
missioners were -authorized to reduce the school 
levy to one mill. 

The special law for "The support and better 
regulation of the schools of the town of Zanes- 
ville," passed in 1839, ni^de no provision for a 
levy by the Board of Education of a tax for 
school purposes, but provided that the Town 
Council should, upon requisition by the Board 
pf Education, appropriate annually a sufficient 
amount of funds to defray the contingent ex- 
penses of the schools, for rent, fuel, repairs, &c. 
The tuition fund was still raised under the pro- 
visions of the general law. 

The funds so obtained were not suflicient to 
meet the requirements of the schools, and the 
deficiency was made up by tuition fees, varying 
in amount in different years. 

There were, at this time, two school districts in 
Zanesville township, outside the corporate limits 
of the town, that shared equally with the borough 
in the funds arising from taxation. In 1848, the 
Board of Education of the town secured an 
amendment to the law, whereby the taxable 
property of the borough was made returnable 
separate and apart from that in the township, 
outside the borough. 

In 1849, ^ ^^"^ w^^ enacted by the general As- 
sembly for the "Support and better regulation of 
public schools in cities and towns," the twelfth 
section of which authorized Boards of Education 
to determine the amount of tax to be levied for 
all school purposes, except the purchase of sites 
and the erection of buildings, provided that such 
tax should not exceed four mills upon the dollar 
of taxable property. 

In 185 1, this section was, by special act, made 
applicable to the city of Zanesville. This last 
enactment relieved the City Council of the duty 
of providing for the contingent expenses of the 
schools, leaving with that body only the duty of 
purchasing sites and erecting buildings. Under 
the special law of 1839, modified by the several 
amendments named above, the schools of Zanes- 
ville were conducted until the enactment of the 
present general school law. 

Besides the amendments directly affecting the 
law under which the schools of Zanesville were 
conducted, it was further modified by provisions 



contained in the City Charter, and subsequently 
by those of the municipal code, as well as by 
amendments of the general school law of the 
State. These acts and amendments were so 
conflicting and contradictory, and so inconsist- 
ent with the original Zanesville school law of 1839, 
that it became a very difficult matter to deter- 
mine what were the legal rights and duties of the 
Board of Education, and to what extent the pow- 
ers of the City Council extended to the educa- 
tional department of the city, and led to much 
embarrassment in the relations of these two 
bodies. These embarrassments have been re- 
moved by the provisions of the general school 
law of 1873, which vests the title of all property 
formerly held by the City Council for school 
purposes, in the Board of Education, and 
authorizes the Board of Education to provide tor 
tuitional and contingent expenses by the levy of 
a tax not exceeding seven mills on the dollar of 
taxable property, and, if necessary, to borrow 
money upon bonds for the purchase of sites and 
the erection of buildings. 

In addition to the funds arising from taxation, 
the Board of Education i-eceived from the Trus- 
tees of the Mclntire estate, from' 1856 to 1865, a 
sum sufficient to pay the expenses of the schools 
taught in the Mclntire building, since which time 
they have received annually, from the same 
source, the sum of eight thousand dollars, up to 
the close of the school year, July ist, 1880. And 
the administrators have contributed funds for 
clothing, etc., for the indigent children, amount- 
ing to from five hundred to eight hundred dollars 
per annum. The last contribution for this pur- 
pose, for 1880, amounted to twelve hundred 


High School — W. D. Lash, A.M., Principal. 
Corner Main and Ninth streets — Mary C. 
Moorehead, Assistant ; Rose A. Kerner, Assist- 
ant ; Z. M. Chandler, Teacher Commercial De- 

District No. 1 — Miss Selene R. Chandler, 

Fourth Ward Building, Centre street, between 
Seventh and Underwood — Senior School No. i, 
Miss Roberta M. Hoge, teacher; Secondary 
No. I, Mary J. Greaves, teacher ; Secondary No. 
2, Clara Rishtine, teacher; Secondary No. 8, 
Florence O. Baldwin, teacher ; Primary No., i, 
Florence J. Cole, teacher,- Primary No. 2, 
Eliza J. Harris, teacher. 

Sixth Ward Building, Monroe street — Sec- 
ondary School No. 12, Miss Florence McDill, 
teacher; Primary No. 3, P. R. Stultz, teacher; 
Primary No. 9, Elizabeth Griffiths, teacher ; 
Primary No. 12, Ella Nutt, teacher; Primary 
No. 23, Sarah Throckmorton, teacher. 

Rural Building, Adamsville Road — Second- 
ary School No. 10, Miss Lizzie H. Johns, 
teacher; Primary No. 7, Hattie B. Johns, 

Dymond Building, Underwood street — Ger- 

man-English School No. 4, Christine Arend, 

District No. 2. — Mrs. M. G. Hills, Principal. 

Third Ward Building, corner of Seventh and 
Harvey streets. — Senior School No. 2, Miss 
Helen Printz, teacher ; Secondary No. 3, Mary 
McMulkin, teacher ; Secondary No. 4, Mrs. 
Leila C. Gibbs, teacher ; Secondary No. 9, Miss 
Amanda A. Hilliard, teacher ; Primary No. 4, 
Edith E. Hahn, teacher ; Primary No. 5, Mary 
C. Shinnick, teacher. 

Stemler Building, head of Marietta street. — 
Primary School No. 6, Miss Sophronia L. 
Stevens, teacher ; Primary No. 13, Maggie Green, 
teacher;. Primary, No. 15, Ella C. Atkinson, 

Colored School Building, South Ninth street. 
—Colored School, No. i, Mr. M. N. Brown, 
teacher ; Colored School, No. 2, Miss Minnie A. 
Self, teacher. 

District No. 3 — Miss Fannie Burns, Prin- 

Mclntire Building, Corner of Filth and North 
streets. — Senior School No. 3, Miss Lillie E. 
Shinnick, teacher ; Secondary No. 6, Hattie W. 
Guille, teacher; Secondary No. 5, Mary J. Hil- 
liard, teacher; Secondary No. 7, Maggie M. 
Parsons, teacher ; Secondary No. 11, Annie Du- 
tro, teacher. 

Masonic Building, corner of Fourth and Mar- 
ket streets. — Primary School No. 8, Miss Liz- 
zie McFadden, teacher ; Primary No. 10, Mary 
Parsons, teacher; Primary No. 11, Alice V. 
Drone, teacher.; German and English School 
No. I, Mr. J. J. Bodner, teacher; German and 
English School No. 2, Miss Lucretia J. Stultz, 
teacher ; German and English School No. 3, La- 
vina Printz, teacher. 

District No. 4 — Mr. David Harris, Principal. 

Moore Building. — Senior No. 4, and Sec. 14, 
Miss Frank C. Thompson, teacher; Secondary 
Sec. 15, Hannah M. Parsons, teacher; Second- 
ary Sec. 16, Anna Gilded, teacher ; Primary 
Sec. 17, Lizzie Fenstemaker, teacher; Primary 
Sec. 18, Kate Buchanan, teacher ; Primary Sec. 
24, Emma T. Gurley, teacher. 

Hose Building. — Primary School No. 19, Mrs. 
C. J. Ward, teacher. 

Seventh Ward Building. — Secondary School 
No. 13, Miss Sue M. Allen, teacher : Secondary 
No. 19, Miss Charlotte W. Launder, teacher ; 
Primary, No. 25, Miss Lizzie Patrick, teacher; 
Primary, No. 26, Miss Mary A. Gallogly, 

District No. 5. — Miss Missouri Stonesipher, 

Madison street Building, between Putnam and 
Moxahala avenue. — Senior School No. 5, Miss 
S. A. Wilson, teacher; Secondary, No. 17, 
Miss Mary Nesbaum, teacher; Secondary No. 
18, Miss Mary N. White, teacher ; Primary No. 
20, Miss Julia Brelsford, teacher. 



Woodlawn Avenue Building — Primarj'^ School 
No. 21, Miss Augusta Ely, teacher; Primary 
No. 22, Miss Kate S. Wiles, teacher. 

Colored School Building, Cooper Mill road. — 
Colored School No. 3, Mr. James A. Guy, 

Moxahala avenue. — Colored School No. 4, 
MissMattie Carter, teacher. 

Special Teachers. — Music, Elizabeth Stukz, 
Lizzie Roper ; Penmanship, Jacob Schwartz. 


High School. — W. D. Lash, A.M., Principal. 

' Corner Main and Ninth streets. — Z. M. Chan- 
dler,' assistant; Mary C. .Moorehead, assistant; 
Rose A. Keriier, assistant. 

District No. i. — Miss Selknk R. Chandler, 

Fourth Ward Building, Centre street, between 
Seventh and Underwood. — Senior School, No. i, 
Miss Clara Rishtine, teacher ; Secondary No. 

1, Lucretia J. Stultz, teacher; Secondary, No. 

2, Florence A. McDill, teacher ; Primary, No. i, 
Alice Searle, teacher ; Pi-imary No. 2, Florence 
J. Cole, teacher ; Primary No. 3, Eliza J. Har- 
ris, teacher. 

Sixth Ward Building, Monroe street. — Sec- 
ondary School No. 3, Miss Mary J. Hilliard, 
teacher; Primary No. 4, Philena R. StUltz, 
teacher; Primary No. 5, Elizabeth Griffiths, 
teacher; Primary No. 6, Ella Nuft, teacher. 

Rural Building, Adamsville road. — Secondary 
School No. 4, Miss Lizzie H. Johns, teacher ; 
Primary, No. 7, HattieB. Johns, teacher. 

District No. 2. — Mrs. M.G. Hills, Principal. 

Third Ward Building, corner of Seventh and 
Harvey streets^— Seijior School, No. 2, Miss Hel- 
en Printz, teacher ; Secondary, No. 5, Miss Hat- 
tie W.- Guille, teacher ; Secondary, No. 6, Miss 
Amanda Hilliard, teacher ; Primary, No. 8, Miss 
iEdith E. Hahn, teacher ; Primary, No. 9, Miss 
Mary C. Shinniek, teacher. 

Stemler Building, head of Marietta street — 
Primary, No. 10, Miss Sarah Throckmorton, 
teacher; Primary, No. 11,' Miss Charlotte CHne, 
teacher ; Primary, No. 12, Miss Ella C. Atkin- 
son, teacher. 

Colored School Building, South Ninth street — 
Colored School, No. i, Mr. M. N. Brown, 
teacher; No. 2, Miss Minnie A. Self, teacher. 

District No. 3— Miss Fannie Burns, Principal. 

: Mclntire Building, corner of Fifth and North 
streets— Senior School:, No. 3, Miss Lillie E. 
Shinniek, teacher; Secondary, No. 7, Miss An- 
na Dutro, teacher; Secondary, N9. 8, Miss Al- 
ice V; Drone, teacher; Primary, No. 13, Miss 
Lizzie McFadden, teacher ; Primary, No. 14, 
Miss Belle Brooks, teacher. 

Masonic Building, corner of Fourth and Mar- 
ket streets — Prirriary School, No. 15, Miss Mary 
Parsons, teacher. German and English School, 
No. I, Mr. J. J. Bodner, teacher; No. 2, Miss 
Edith Geiger, teacher ; No. 3, Mrs. Emma Artz- 

man, teacher; No. 4, Mrs. Christine Arend, 

District No. 4 — Mr. David Harris., Principal. 

Moore Building — Senior School, No. .4, Miss 
Sarah Wilson, teacher ; Secondary , No. 9, 
Miss Hannah M. Parsons, teacher ; Secondary, 
No. 10, Miss Anna Gildea, teacher ; Primary, 
No. 16, Miss Barbette Bailey, teacher ; Primary, 
No. 17, Miss Kate Buchanan, .teacher ; Primary, 
No. 18, Miss. Emma T. Gurley, teacher. 

Jackson Street Building — Primary School, No. 
19, Mrs. C. J. Ward, teacher. 

Seventh Ward Building — Secondary School, 
No. 1 1 , Miss Sue M. Allen, teacher ;, Secondary, 
No. 12, Miss Charlotte W. Launder, teacher; 
Primary, No. 20, Miss Lizzie Patrick, teacher ; 
Primary, No. 21, Miss Mary A. Gallogly, 

District No. 5 — Miss Missourl Stonesipher, 

Madison Street Building, between Putnam. and 
Moxahala avenues — Senior School, No. 5, Miss 
Mary McMulkjn, teacher ; Seconda:ry, No. 13, 
Miss Mary Nesbaum, teacher ; Secondary, No. 
14, Mrs. Letitia Howard, teacher; Pi-imary,.No. 
22, Miss Julia E. Brelsford, teacher. 

Woodlawn Avenue Building — -Primary School, 
No. 23, Miss Kate Thomas, teacher; Primary, 
No. 24, Miss Lizzie Roper, teacher. 

Colored School Building, Cooper Mill Roa'd — 
Colored School, No. 3, Mr. James A. Guy, 

Moxahala Avenue — Colored School, No., 4, 
Miss Mattie Carter, teacher. 

Special Teachers— Teacher of Penmanship, 
Jacob Schwartz ; Teacher of Drawing, Miss 
Gertrude L. Stone.. 

The Superintendent, A. T. Wiles, in his An- 
nual Report for the School Year ending August 
31st, 1876, sets forth the following : . 

In addition to the above, there was received 
from the Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing 
Company, $1,000.00, which was expended in the 
purchase of books and clothing for indigent pu- 

To ascertain what our Public Schools actualty 
cost the citizens of Zanesville,' it is necessaty to 
note the following facts : 

1st. That there was received from the Mcln- 
tire estate the sum of $8,000.00. 

2d. That there was received from the State 
Common School Fund, including the Irreducible 
School Fund, the sura of $9,095.56, while there 
was paid by the city, into the State Common 
School Fund, $7,406.44, leaving a balance- of 
$1,689.12 received by the city more than, was 
paid. . ■ 

3d. That there was received from tuition.fees 
of non-resident pupils, the sum of $635, which, 
as the instruction of these pupil's enters into, the 
cost of the schools as given in the above state- 
ment, should be taken as an abatement of that 



• 4th. That there was received from rent of the 
dwelling on the Madison Street School lot, the 
sum of $70. 

These sums amount, in the aggregate, to $10,- 
394.12, which, deducted from the $51,666.40, 
leaves $41,272.28, as the actual amount paid by 
the citizens of Zanesville, for school purposes, 
during the year covered by this report. 

It should be noted, also, that there was erected 
and paid for, during the year, a new school- 
house in the Eighth ward, costing $5,785.18. If 
this amount, also, be deducted, there remains the 
sum of $35,487.10, as the amount actually, paid 
for the ordinary running expenses of the schools 
for the year. 


By the Census of 1870, the population was as 
follows : 

Zanesville (old city) 10,011 

Putnam (now Ninth ward) 2,050 

West Zanesville (now Eighth ward)..... 1,744 

South Zanesville (jiow Seventh ward), estim,ated 600 

Total 14,405 

In September, 1873, the census of the city was 
taken by order of the City Council, showing the 
population to be as follows : 

Zanesville (old city) , 11,367 

Ninth ward... 1,756 

Eighth ward 2,041 

SeVenth-ward 1,182 

Total 16,346 

The verage number of pupils 
was as follows : 

, Enrolled. E 

In the High School 41 

In the Senior Schools (exclusive 

of Principals) 43 

In the Secondary and Primary 

Schools 51 

In the German-English. Schools.. 51 

In the Colored School 51 

In all the Schools 50 

to the teacher 


. Attending. 














Cost of tuition (exclusive of supervision and 
special teachers) on the whole number enrolled 
was as follows : 

In the High School : $ 23 50 

In the Senior Schools 20 99 

In the Secondary and Primary Schools 8 71 

In the German-English Schools 10 59 

In the Colored Schools 10 79 

In all the Schools, including supervision and special 

teachers , 17 93 


The entire cost of the schools for the year cov- 
ered by this report (exclusive of the cost of the 
new building in the Eighth ward), was $1,877.18 
less than the preceding year, and $7,088.98 less 
than it was two years before. More recent ac- 
tion of the Board will probably effect a further 
reduction of the cost of the schools for the cur- 
rent year, of about $4,000. 

The whole number of teachers in charge of 
school rooms last year, was fifty-eight, with an 
average daily attendance of thirty-six pupils to 
the teacher. If, by consolidation, this number 
could have been increased to forty, the number 
of teachers required would have been fifty-three. 
If it could have been increased to forty-five, the 
number of teachers required would have been 
forty-seven. The Board has already moved in 
this direction toward economy, but the move- 
ment should be carried still farther. A compar- 
ison of the cost of the schools in this and other 
cities, shows that the cost of instruction here is 
made proportionately greater, from this cause, 
rather than from excessive salaries paid to teach- 

No measure of economy is wise, which is cal- 
culated to impair the efficiency of the schools. 
Cheap schools are not, necessarily, the best 
schools. It is, therefore, to the interior workings 
of our schools, that I would call the attention 
of the Board, and of the community. Visit and 
examine them. Point out the defects, wherever 
you find them, and, by your counsel, assist those 
in charge in correcting them. 


Enumeration of youth of school age, 6 to 21 years 

Total enrollment, 6 to 21 years of age 

Per cent, of enrollment on enumeration.,. 

Enumeration, over 16 years of age 

" between 6 and 16 years ofjage 

Number enrolled over 16 years of age 

" " between 6 and 16 years of age 

Per cent, of enrollment on enumeraotion, 6 to 16 years.. 

Average number belonging, (St. Louis Eule) 

" daily attendance ; 

Per cent, of average attendance on number belonging.... 

" « " " " total enrollment 

" " '• " " " enumeration.,.. 





































































































superintendent's annual report — 1877-78. 

To the Board of Education of the City of Zanes- 

ville, Ohio: 

Gentlemen : — I submit the following, as the 
Statistical Report of the Zanesville Public 
Schools, for the year ending August 31, 1878: 

Total enumeration of youth, September, 1876 5,411 

" " " " 1877 5,439 

This shows an increase in the school popula- 
tion of the city of 28. 


In the High School , 4 

In the Senior School* 5 

In the Primary and Secondary Schools 40 

In the German-English School 4 

In the Colored Schools 4 

Special Teachers, — Writing, 1 ; Drawing 1; Total 2 

Principals of Districts '. 5 




Whole number of different pupils enrolled : 

In the High School 140 

In the Senior Schools 307 

In the Primary and Secondary Schools 2152 

In the German-English Schools 203 

In the Colored Schools 206 

Total enrollment 8008 

Percent, of enrollment on enumeration 55 

Average number of pupils belonging : 

In the High School Ill 

In the Senior Schools 247 

In the Primary and Secondary Schools 1657 

In the German-English Schools 177 

In the Colored Schools 142 

Total 2334 

Average daily attendance : 

•In the High School 104 

In the Senior Schools 230 

In the Primary and Secondary Schools 1602 

In the German-English Schools 165 

In the Colored Schools 134 

Total 2235 

Per cent, of average daily attendance on total 

In the high School 74.2 

In the Senior Schools • 74.9 

In the Primary and Secondary Schools 7'l.7 

In the German-English Schools 81.2 

In the Colored Schools 65.6 

In all the schools 74.3 

Per cent, of average daily attendance on the 
average number belonging. 

In the High School 93.7 

In the Senior Schools 93.1 

In the Primary and Secondary Schools 96.6 

In the Colored Schools 94.3 

In all the Schools 95.7 

Per cent, of attendance on enumeration 42.9 

Number of pupils withdrawn 698 

Per cent, of pupils withdrawn 23 

Number cases of tardiness 1475 

Number cases of corporal punishment 292 

The average number of pupils to the teacher 
are as follows : 

JEJnroUed. Belonging. 

In the High School 47 37 35 

In the Senior Schools 61 49 46 

In the Primary and Secondary 
Schools 54 

In the German - English 

Schools 56 

In the Colored Schools 52 

In all the Schools 54 






For Tuition $34 154 25 

For Contingent Expenses 9 246 35 

Total Cost $43 400 60 

Cost per pupil for tuition, (exclusive of super- 
vision and special teachers). 

On the nwmber Enrolled. Belonging. Attending. 

High School $23 31 $29 27 $31 25 

Senior Schools 18 U 22 51 24 18 

Primary and Secondary 

Schools 8 13 10 56 10 92 

German-English Schools.... 10 22 11 72 12 57 

Colored Schools 10 67 14 78 15 67 

Cost per pupil for tuition, including surper- 
vision and special teachers : 

On the number Enrolled. Belonging. Attending. 

All the Schools-. $11 35 $14 36 $15 28 

Cost for pupils for contingent expenses, on the 
number : 

Enrolled. Belonging. Attending. 

All the Schools $3 07 $3 91 $4 14 

Total cost per pupil on the number : 

Enrolled. Belonging. Attending. 
All the Schools $14 42 $18 54 $19 42 

Superintendent's Annual Report — 1878-79. 

To the Board of Education of the City oj 

Zanesville, Ohio : 

Gentlemen — I herewith submit my first an- 
nual report of the schools under your charge, 
being the report for the school year ending 
August 31, 1879: 

The school enumeration taken in September, 

1878, was 5,497. That taken in September, 

1879, was 5,571. This shows an increase of 72 
in the school population of the city. 

The number enumerated between the ages of 
6 and 16, was 3,728; the number between 16 
and 21 years of age, was 1,769. 

The following shows the number of schools 
and teachers : 

No. Schools. No. Teachers. 

High School 1 5 

Senior Schools 5 5 

Secondary Schools 17 17 

Primary Schools 25 25 

German-English Schools 4 4 

Colored Schools 5 3 

Principals of Districts 5 

Special Teachers (Musicl, Drawing 1, 

Writing 1.) 3 




INTERIOR OF THE STORE OF H. C. WERNER, Main Street, Zanesville. 

Henry C. Werner is the eldest son of the late 
Hartman Werner, who landed in the cit}- of Balti- 
more in 1842, a poor, friendless boy, with but limited 
means, as reckoned by dollars and cents. Imbued 
with a desire to better his condition, he soon found 
himself in Wheeling, West Virginia. Not satisfied 
with the opportunities there presented, he contin- 
ued his journey to Zanesville, and opened a ."shoe 
shop here soon after, commencing business on a 
cash capital of less than one dollar. He worked 
industriously at his trade, squaring his dealings 
with the public by the unswerving laws of simple 
honesty. By this course, in which he ever had the 
sympathy and assistance of his wife, in a few years 
he accumulated sufiBcient money to purchase prop- 
erty on Main street. About the year 1860, he added 
to his stock, goods from Eastern manufacturers, and 
gradually the business grew until Werner's Shoe 
Store took on the proportions of a leading commer- 
cial enterprise. 

In 1876, the two sons, Henry C. and Frederick 
A., were admitted to a partnership, and this con- 
tinued until the death of the father, in June follow- 
ing. The firm then became H. & F. Werner, and 
the two brothers continued the development so 
auspiciously begun by their honored father, until 

the house now ranks as one of the most stable and 
enterpri.eine in the State of Ohio. On the 1st of 
January, 1882. Henry C. Werner succeeded to the 
ownership, his brother's impaired health compel- 
ling him to seek another climate. 

The magnificent store now occupied by Henry 
C. Werner. No. 133 Main street, first door east of 
the Court House, is one of the model wholesale and 
retail emporiums of Eastern Ohio. The room has 
a frontage of twenty-one feet, and extends back 
one hundred and seventeen feet, the entire depth 
of the Central Block, of which it forms a part. 
Every variety and style of boots, shoes, slippers, 
brogans, I'low-shoe." — in a word, everything known 
to the domain of boot and shoe manufacture, is 
shown in bound! profusion. The great salesroom 
is admirably arranged for the personal comfort of 
customers — carpeted, mirrored au'l supplied with 
easy chairs, all in the height of elegance. At the 
rear, on an elevated platform, is the office; on the 
second floor are the shoemakers, for '"mending" 
and "repairing" is a part of the business. The 
large basement is full of reserve stock to be drawn 
upon as necessity may require. The business of 
the house, wholesale and retail, exceeds $100,000 



The total enrollment last year was 3,008. This 
year it is 3,103, being a gain of 95 pupils. 
There is an increase of 36 in the high school, 97 
in the primary and secondary schools, and 14 in 
the colored schools ; and a decrease of 39 in the 
senior schools, and 13 in the German-English 

The per cent, of enrollment on the enumera- 
tion was, for 1877-78, 55. For the present year, 
it is 56.4. 

The average daily attendance is 2,172, being 
only 70 per cent of the number enrolled, and 90 
per cent, of the number belonging. This is not 
a good showing, being less than for several 

The following shows the per cent, of attend- 
ance for the last nine years, on the number en- 
rolled and the number belonging : 

Years. Enrolled. Belonging. 

1870-71 67 94 

1871-72 70 94 

1872-73 71 93 

1873-74 73 94 

1874-75 71 93 

1875-76 72 92 

1876-77 71 93 

1877-78 74 95 

1878-79 70 90 

The prevalence of diptheria in certain parts of 
the city, was the principal cause of the low per 
cent of attendance. This affected more especi- 
ally, the primary and secondary grades. 

The attendance in the colored schools is very 
poor, being only 57 per cent of the enrollment. 

The following table shows the number of 
pupils permanently withdrawn during the year, 
and the number I'emaining at the close of the 
year : 

No. with- No. re- Per cent. No. cases of 
dravm. maining. withdr'n. tardiness. 

High School 43 133 24 223 

Senior School 79 189 29 73 

Primary and Secondary 

School 646 1603 28 827 

German-English Schools. 42 148 22 182 

Colored Schools 106 114 48 132 

Total 916 2187 



Of the 220 pupils enrolled in the colored 
schools, 48 per cent, were withdrawn. 

Number of cases of corporal punishment 178 

Number of schools in which one case occurred 7 

Number of schools in which no case occurred 24 

The following shows the cost for pupils for 
tuition (exclusive of supervision and special 
teachers) on number enrolled, number belong- 
ing, and number attending : 

Enrolled. Belonging. Attending. 

High School $2100 $25 51 $2713 

Senior School 20 75 24 72 26 73 

Primary and Second ary 

Schools 8 37 10 74 12 06 

German-English Schools... 10 92 13 65 14 82 

Colored Schools 12 83 18 61 19 72 

The cost per pupil for tuition, including cost 

of supervision and special teachers, for contin- 
gent expenses, and total cost per pupil, will be 
seen from the following : 

In all the schools, on number. 

Enrolled. Belonging. Attending. 

For Tuition $12 06 $15 51 $17 24 

For Contingent Expenses... 3 87 4 97 5 53 

Total cost per pupil $15 93 $20 48 $22 77 

The expense attending the opening of a 
colored high school, the employment of a special 
teacher of music, and other additional teaching 
force, cause an increase in the expenditures for 
tuition over that of last year, to the amount of 

There is also an increase in the amount ex- 
pended for contingent expenses. 

The total increase in the amount expended for 
schools, is $4,066.72. 

Respectfully submitted, 
W. D. Lash, Superintendent. 

superintendent's annual report, 1879-80. 

To the Board of Education of the City of 

Zanesville, Ohio: 

Gentlemen — I respectfully submit the follow- 
ing report of our public schools for the year 
ending August 31, 1880: 

According to the census of 1880, the popula- 
tion of the city is 18,237. 

The school enumeration, taken September, 
1879, ^^^ 5'57i- That taken September, 1880, 
is 5,782. This shows an increase of 211 in the 
school population of the city : 

Number of different pupils enrolled during the year 3,144 

Average monthly enrollment 2,521 

Average number belonging 2,486 

Average daily attendance 2,283 

Number of class teachers 61 

Number of teachers not in charge of rooms 1 

Number of principals 6 

Number of special teachers 2 

Whole number of teachers 70 

Per cent, of enrollment on enumeration 56.4 

Per cent of attendance on enrollment 69.4 

Per cent of attendance on number belonging 92 

Local levy for school purposes 3.8 mills. 

In reviewing the work of our schools for the 
last year, it is gratifying to be able to report some 
progress. Our schools have increased in num- 
ber, as to both pupils and teachers. There has 
been improvement in the attendance, in the dis- 
cipline, in the character, and in the mode of in- 
struction. In general, teachers of all grades 
have labored with a zeal and diligence that are 
in every sense commendable. With rare excep- 
tions, teachers have been devoted to their work, 
and the results of their labor have been quite 
satisfactory. In some cases the success attained 
has not been commensurate with the labor, owing 
to the inexperience of teachers, or their want of 
adaptation to the work. The want of the proper 
co-operation on the part of parents with the 
teachers, in some instances has not tended to 
produce good results, the pupils being allowed 



to absent themselves from school without any 
reasonable excuse. 


During the school year just closed, I made 
725 official visits to the school, including schools 
of all grades, giving attention to their organiza- 
tion, to the discipline, to the instructions, and to 
all matters pertaining to the curriculum of the 

The course of study and the work of each grade 
have been made subjects of careful study. Some 
changes have been made in the course of study, 
which, it is believed, will be productive of good 

The principals of the different school districts 
have given close and careful attention to the 
schools under their immediate control, having 
made, during the year, 1,453 visits to them. 
One hundred and eight visits^ were made by the 
members of the Board of Education. 

It is a matter of regret that the pati'ons of the 
schools do not visit them oftener. Their interest, 
manifested by their frequent visits, would great- 
ly encourage both teachers and pupils. 

As parents and teachers are both directly in- 
terested in the education of the pupils, there 
should exist between them the proper under- 
standing in all matters pertaining to the school. 

It is hoped that parents will show their inter- 
est by more frequent visits. 


The per cent, of attendance on the average 
number belonging, is 92. In this item, I am able 
to report an improvement on last year, the per 
cent, for last year being 90. 


There were 348 cases of truancy reported dur- 
ing the year. This is a subject in which all per- 
sons are interested. The evils of truancy, idle- 
ness, and youthful vagrancy, are not felt in the 
school room only ; they are widespread, and af- 
fect all grades of society. 

On this subject, allow me to quote the following 
remarks of J. M. B. Sill, of Detroit: 

"This matter demands immediate attention by 
all friends of education, and of good order. 
Reckless and vicious boys, truants from school, 
infest the streets in many quarters of the city, en- 
ticing from better surroundings, those otherwise 
well disposed, and forming, in eflect, organiza- 
tions for the training of future criminals and 
pests to society. Unless some, means can be de- 
vised to bring such persons under better influ- 
ences, the good effect of all our efforts in the di- 
rection of free education will be largely neutral- 
ized and lost. This element is one whose 
growth is, from the nature of things, cumulative 
to an unfortunate extent, each addition to its 
strength increasing in a fearful ratio its power 
for harm. Cannot something be done to limit its 
harmful influence, and its dangerous growth? 

"The census enumerators were instructed to 
make a careful record of all persons of school age 
who attend any school other than the public 
schools of our city, and of those engaged as help, 
or are in business. They i-eport 481 who attend 

some other school than our public schools, and 
981 who are engaged as help or are in business. 
Our reports show that 3,144 are enrolled in our 
schools, thus leaving about 1,000 persons of 
school age accounted for, either as pupils attend- 
ing any school, or as persons engaged in any 
employment. All of this number are not va- 
grants. But a large per cent, of the number may 
be classed as such. Do we need a compulsoiy 
law that will be "operative?" 


Six regular examinations are held during the 
year, one at the middle of each term, and one at 
the close of each term. The examinations at the 
close of the term cover the work of the term. A 
record of these examinations is kept, and helps 
to form the data upon which the pupil is promot- 
ed. The annual examination, held in June, is on 
the year's work. In determining the pupil's fit- 
ness for promotion, more stress is placed upon 
this examination. The Superintendent, assisted 
by the principals, prepares the examination 
questions, and grades the papers. These papers 
are generally veiy neatly prepared by the pupils, 
after a form with which they are familiar. Neat- 
ness in their preparation in all cases is insisted 

Promotions are made annually, and, although 
this plan is open to objection, it is believed to woi-k 
the best in a city like ours. It is true, that the 
pupil who fails to gain his promotion may lose a 
year's time, and, in some instances, lose his in- 
terest and drop out of school. Such cases, how- 
ever, are not of frequent occurrence. Perhaps 
as many pupils leave school from being over- 
worked, or from being promoted when not pre- 
pared for promotion, as do from failure of promo- 
tion. Being unable to do the work of the higher 
grade, discouragement overtakes them, and they 
give up altogether. 

There are various causes of failure of promo- 
tion. Some are physically unable to do the work 
of their grade. The school work which such pu- 
pils are required to do should be verj- light. 
Their health being the first consideration, their 
failures to make the higher grades should be re- 
garded as blessings. Some pupils are mentally 
unable to do the work, their minds not being 
sufficiently matured to comprehend the studies 
pursued in the grade. These are greatly bene- 
fited by the review. 

Failures arise from indifference to school work 
on the part of pupils, and, in spite of all the encoui- 
agement and assistance given them, habitual 
truants fail. Irregularitj- in attendance during 
the different terms causes a large percentage 01 
the failures. Every absence from school lessens 
the probabilities of promotion. The most ti'ival 
excuses are sufficient to keep some children from 
school. Many of the excuses presented are 
worthless as excuses. They are accepted by the 
teachers, the explanation of what is a "satisfac- 
tory excuse" as intended in the rule of the Board 
on this subject, never having been very clearly 
understood by them. It is hoped that parents 
will not keep their children from school except 



when it is positively unavoidable, and that they 
will send written excuses to that effect. 


The character of the work done by pupils and 
teachers during the school year, may be ascer- 
tained, to a great extent, from the condition of 
the schools at the close of the year. If they have 
been earnest and faithful, their work will be 
manifest in the progress they have made in their 
studies. I am sure that a review of the work of the 
past year will show progress in the studies taught 
and improvement in the methods of instruction. 

In the teaching of Reading there is improve- 
ment. The course has been so shortened that 
more time may be given to the subject matter of 
the lessons read, and that supplementary reading 
matter may be introduced. The object not only 
to make good readers of our pupils in the or- 
dinary acceptation of the term, but to develop in 
them a love of reading, to acquaint theen with 
good authors, and to direct them, as far as is pos- 
sible, in the selection of good reading matter. 

In the Senior B grade, no Reader is used. In 
its place a book of selections from our best Amer- 
ican authors is in daily use. Some attention is 
given to the life of the author, but the selections 
from his writings are made subjects of careful 
study. While oral reading is not discontinued, 
special attention is given to the study of the lan- 
guage of the selections, to learning how to read, 
and how to comprehend what is being read. 

It is hoped that the methods introduced will re- 
sult in making better general readers of our pu- 
pils, and in inducing them to read and to love the 
literature of good authors, rather than the trashy 
matter offered them at the common news-stands. 


Closely related to the study of Reading, is that 
of Language and Composition. We are aiming 
to teach the pupils of the lower grades language 
proper, rather than technical grammar. Lan- 
guage being of little value. unless it can be used 
readily, our course is arranged to give pupils 
practical lessons in its use, both in oral and in 
written work. In addition to the regular lessons 
from the book used in these grades, the every 
day reading lesson is made a language lesson, 
so far as the time will allow. In fact it is our aim 
to make the entire school work contribute direct- 
ly to clearness of thought and accuracy of ex- 
pression. In the higher grades, attention is 
given to the study of analysis and technical gram- 
mar. The development of the sentence, and 
construction exercises in the use of subject and 
predicate, and their immediate modifications, ac- 
company the work in the study of etymology. 
We endeavor to establish amicable relations be- 
tween these studies and the practical study of 
composition, by regular exercises in written work. 


The progress made in the study of Writing 
and Drawing, and in Music, under the super- 
vision of special teachers, is as satisfactory as caii 
be expected, owing to the limited time given them 
Four lessons per week, of 25 minutes each, are 
given to Writing, 3 to Drawing, and 3 to Music. 

An inspection of our schools will show that 
very marked progress is being made in the 
study of Music. Pupils are not only learning 
to sing, but are learning to read music at sight, 
with great readiness. 


Our High School is well patronized, the enroll- 
ment for the year i878-'79 being 176 and that for 
the year i879-'8o 173. The per cent, of daily at- 
tendance for i878-'79, 93 ; for 1879-80, 94. 

Our tables show that the attendance dur- 
ing the last tei^m of the school year is lower than for 
the other two terms. Many boys leave the school 
to engage in various employments. Forty-six pu- 
pils were permanently withdrawn. The induce- 
ments to leave school and "go into business" are 
very great, and, to many, irresistible. 

If the educated man makes the better citizen, 
if, in consequence of his education, he is better 
prepared to fulfill the purposes of life, it is certain- 
ly a loss to a community to have its boys and 
girls forego the advantages for higher education, 
which our High Schools afford. 

In June, 1879, nboys and 17 girls graduated 
from our High School, and in June, 1880, 10 
boys and 24 girls received diplomas, besides a 
number who completed the book-keeping course, 
receiving certificates to that effect. 

Two years ago, a colored High School was or- 
ganized, for the benefit of those of our colored pu- 
pils who might desire to pursue the higher 
branches of study. The courses of study, adopt- 
ed for the white High School, were adopted for 
this school. Eight pupils are now pursuing the 
English course, doing the same work and taking 
the same test examinations that are taken by the 
corresponding classes in the white High School. 
It is hoped that the number of pupils, will be 
largely increased. 

The proper apparatus, and better accommoda- 
tions, are needed, and, doubtless, will be furnish- 
ed whenever the number in attendance will justi- 
fy the Board in doing so. 


The attention of the Board is called to our 
course of study, to the amount of work required 
of the pupils, and to the time given to that work. 

The following are the studies of the Secondary 
schools ; Reading, Spelling, Written Arithme- 
tic, Mental Arithmetic, Language, Geography, 
Music, Writing and Drawing, nine in all. To 
the three special studies, the time of two recita- 
tions is given, thus reducing the number of reci- 
tations to eight each day; Allowing ten minutes 
for roll call, ten minutes for the interchange of 
classes, and fortj'' minutes for the two recesses, 
as required by the rule, there remain five hours, 
or 300 minutes for study and recitation, or 37 
minutes in which to study and recite each lesson. 

This is little time enough for any one of the 
studies ; for the greater number, the time is en- 
tirely too short. Some of these lessons cannot 
be prepared in the 37 minutes ; neither can they 
be properly recited in less than that time. The 
result is either an imperfectly pi'epared lesson, or 
one imperfectly recited. Experience proves that, 



in the attempt to do both, neither is well done. 
The result is poor scholarship. Thorough work 
is impossible. The course embraces many 
studies and much work in each. Too much is re- 
quired of our pupils in the time given in the 
course of study. There are three remedies : 

1. Lessen the work to be done by omitting 
something from a part, or all of the studies, or by 
dropping one or more of them altogether. 

2. Add one year to the present course, mak- 
ing it a course of nine years. 

3. Shorten the work of the present course, and 
establish an intermediate grade, between the 
present senior grades and the first year of the 
High School course. 

Pupils enter the High School too young. Their 
minds are not sufficiently mature to comprehend 
the subjects taught there. Were they to receive 
one more year's drill before taking up the work 
of the High School course, th'ey would be much 
better prepared in every sense, to do that work 
thoroughly. They would leave the school better 
scholars, and better prepared to enter upon any 
professional course of study, or to engage in any 
employment. Many pupils, for various reasons, 
have "outgrown" the senior grades of our schools, 
but are not prepared to enter the High School. 

The result is, they are becoming men and women 
without that educational training to be derived 
from attendance upon our schools. An interme- 
diate grade, as recommended, could give such 
pupils an opportunity for continuing their studies, 
or fit them for the High School proper. Very little 
expense would attend the establishment of such 
a school. 


The total cost of the schools for the year just 
closed, was $44,605.01, being $4,862.31 less than 
for the year i878-'79. There was a reduction in 
the expenditures, both for tutition and for contin- 
gent expenses. 

The cost per pupil was $19.51, on the average 
daily attendance ; $3.24 less than it was last year. 

In conclusion, I desire to acknowledge the offi- 
cial and personal assistance and courtesy tender- 
ed me by the members of the Board, and all with 
whom I have had official relations. My thanks 
are due the teachers, for the kind and cheerful 
manner in which they have aided me and per- 
formed the work assigned to thern. I hope the 
same support and confidence may be continued 
during the school year upon which we have just 
entered. Respectfully submitted, 

W. D. Lash, Sup't. 


Enumeration of youth between 6 and 21 years 

Toial enrollment, 6 to 21 years of age 

Per cent, of enrollment on enumeration 

Enumeration of youth over 16 years of age 

Enumeration of youth between 6 and 16 years 

Number enrolled over 16 years 

Number enrolled between 6 and 16 years 

J'er ct. of enrollment on enumeration between 6 and 16.. 

Average number belonging 

Average daily attendance 

Per ct. of average attendance on number belonging 

Per ct. of average attendance on total enrollment 

Per ct. of average attendance on inumeration 





I 10 






































T— ( 





I— I 









































































































. 72 


































$38,171 62 
15,598 58 




i,i4,3ill lO 
K,:l!l7 92 

if42,747 92 





Contingent Expenses 

S27,970 01 
10,840 24 

$25,583 14 
7,238 57 

$37,392 Si 
13,127 70 

$39,074 00 
9,484 40 

$48,558 40 

$38,250 00 
7.744 55 

$45,894 55 

S3J,154 00 
0,246 35 

$43,400 35 

«37,448 03 
12,018 09 

$4 ',467 32 

$34,372 51 
10,232 50 

Total Cost 

«.-i8,810 25 

$32,821 71 

$50,520 54 

$63,770 20 

Jll,605 01 


1870-71 . 










$12 09 
IB 7,5 
17 85 

$11 IS 

15 07 

16 02 

$13 87 

17 35 

18 25 

$12 77 

16 51 

17 59 

$12 76 
16 76 
18 09 

$12 95 
16 70 
18 06 

$11 59 

15 14 

16 33 

$1 1 .35 
15 41 
15 28 

$12 06 
14 85 
17 24 

$10 93 
13 09 
15 03 

Average Monthly Enrollment 

" Daily Attendance ... 












Total Enrollment 

Average Enrollment 

" Attendance 

So U 
6 22 
6 08 

$3 20 
4 26 
4 53 

$4 69 
6 12 
6 59 

$5 25 

6 79 

7 24 

$3 10 
4 08 
4 39 

$2 63 
3 38 
3 68 

$2 83 
3 711 
3 99 

$3 07 
J 60 
4 14 

$3 87 

4 75 

5 53 

$3 25 

3 89 

4 48 












Totiil Enrollment 

Average Enrollment 

" Attendance 

817 23 
22 97 
24 53 

$14 33 

19 33 

20 55 

$18 06 

23 47 

24 86 

$18 02 

23 30 

24 83 

$15 86 
20 84 
22 48 

$15 58 

20 08 

21 72 

$14 42 
18 84 
20 32 

$14 42 
16 91 
19 41 

$15 91 
19 60 

22 77 

$14 18 
16 99 
19 SI 



From the foregoing extracts, it will be seen 
that the Zanesville public schools of to-day are 
eminently adapted to their purpose. The march 
of improvement has been onward from the begin- 
ning. A review of the School Boards, found at 
the close of this article, will reveal to the student 
of our past and present history that the members 
have been selected, with but few exceptions, for 
their special adaptation to the work committed 
to them ; and it will be a proud satisfaction to 
find that each has done what he could for the 
cause of education. It is owing to this fact that 
the present worthy Superintendent has been able 
to make the grand showing found in his report 
for the school years ending August 31, 1878, 
August 31, 1879, ^"*^ August 31, 1880. • The effi- 
ciency of the Board of Education will be more 
apparent, perhaps, when their mode of pro- 
cedure is stated, and as it cannot be condensed 
to advantage, it is added in full, with some of 
the other important data in the report. 


1. Organization — The Board shall meet 
on the third Monday in April, in each year, and 
after the members elect have been duly qualified, 
organize by the election of a President and 

The President shall appoint the following 
standing committees : 

1. A Committee on Claims. 

2. on Discipline. 

3. on Supplies. 

4. on Course of study and Text 


5. on Buildings and Repairs. 

6. on Teachers. 

7. on Sites. 

8. on Furniture. 

9. on Boundaries. 

10. on High School. 

11. on German Schools. 

12. on Law. 

13. on Rules and Regulations. 

14. on Salaries and Expenses. 

15. on Music. 

2. Regular Meeting — The regular meet- 
ings of the Board of Education shall be held on 
alternate Monday evenings during the year, be- 
ginning with the second Monday after organiza- 

At each meeting the Board shall be called to 
order at the hour fixed by resolution, and the 
Clerk shall record the names of the members 

3. Order of Business — At regular meet- 
ings, the business shall be disposed of in the 
following order : 

1. Reading and approval of the minutes of 
previous meeting. 

2. Report of the Clerk on the state of ac- 

3. Report of the Superintendent on condition 
of schools. 

4. Reports of Standing Committees. 

5. Repoi-ts of Special Committees. 

6. Consideration of accounts. 

7. Communications received and acted upon. 

8. Miscellaneous business. 

And such order shall not be departed from ex- 
cept by the consent of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 

4. Committees shall report on any matter re- 
ferred to them at the regular meeting next suc- 
ceeding such reference ; but further time may be 
allowed by the Board. 

5. Claims against the Board maybe presented 
at any regular meeting, and shall lie over till the 
next regular meeting ; and no account or bill 
shall be paid until after the same shall have been 
examined and approved by the Committee on 

6. The Board will not be responsible for the 
payment of any debts contracted on their ac- 
count, or for the fulfilling of any contracts for 
supplies or repairs, except those made by the 
proper committee. 

7. Specials meetings of the Board may be 
called by the President, or any two members, 
but no business shall be transacted at any such 
meeting except that for which it was called. 

The government of the Board shall be ac- 
cording to Cushing's Manual, so far as it may be 
applicable to a body of this kind. 

THE superintendent. 

A Superintendent of Instruction shall be 
elected at the close of each school year, whose 
duty it shall be : 

1. To visit each of the schools of the city as 
often as may be practicable or necessary, giving 
attention to its organization, discipline and in- 
struction, directing the teachers, from time to 
time, to make such changes, not contrary to 
adopted rules, as shall seem best calculated to 
give greater efficiency to the school. 

To carefully observe the government, mode of 
instruction and general conduct of each teacher ; 
and whenever he shall doubt his or her efficiency 
or fitness, to repoi^t the same promptly and plain- 
ly to the Board of Education. 

2. To hold meetings of all the teachers, once 
in four weeks, on Saturdays, from 9 to 12 o'clock 
a. m., for the purpose of giving instructions or 
direction to the teachers in relation to the dis- 
charge of their duties, assigning to the princi- 
pals and special teachers such duties in connec- 
tion therewith as he may deem necessary to 
secure the object of such meetings. 

3. To hear and decide all cases of discipline 
which may be referred to him by the principals ; 
which decision shall be binding upon teacher 
and pupil, unless reversed, upon appeal, by the 
Committee on Discipline or the Board of Educa- 

4. To devise a system of blanks for registers 
and reports, have charge of their distribution to 
teachers and return by them, and prescribe to 
teachers rules for keeping them. 

5. To see that the regulations of the schools 



are uniformly and faithfully observed and exe- 
cuted in all the departments of the schools, that 
registers are kept and reports made by the 
teachers with care, neatness and uniformity. 

6. To report in writing at the end of each 
term, or whenever required by the Board, giving 
a detailed statement of the condition and pros- 
pects of the schools, and recommending such 
measures for their improvement as he may deem 
advisable, and to make an annual report as soon 
as practicable after the close of the school 

7. To furnish to the Clerk of the Board such 
statistics relating to the membership, attendance 
and instruction of the schools, as may be re- 
quired for his annual report to the State School 

8. To conduct all examinations of pupils for 
promotion from one grade of the schools to an- 
other, and to examine and grant cards of ad- 
mission to all applicants who have not before 
been members of the schools. 

9. To inform the Board of any supplies or re- 
pairs that may be needed. 

10. To keep himself and the Board informed 
in regard to the school systems of other cities, 
their plans of organization, modes of govern- 
ment, methods of instruction, and such other 
matters as may assist the Board to legislate 
wisely for the highest interests of the schools, 
and, for this purpose, to effect the best possible 
arrangement for a permanent exchange of re- 
ports between this and other School Boards. 

] I. To fill, with the concurrence of the Com- 
mittee on Teachers, all vacancies occasioned by 
the temporary illness or necessary absence of 
teachers, and to make other temporary arrange- 
ments relative to the schools, which he may 
deem proper, and report the same to the Board 
at its first subsequent meeting. 

12. To keep regular office hours each day of 
the week, except Sunday, giving due notice 
thereof to the teachers and the public. 


1. The principals shall be in attendance at 
their respective school buildings at twenty min- 
utes before the time for opening school for each 
half day's session, shall have a general super- 
vision of the grounds, buildings, and appurte- 
nances of the schools, and shall be held respon- 
sible for the neatness and cleanliness of the 
premises, and whenever any repairs are neces- 
sary, shall give notice thereof to the Superin- 

2. They shall have supervision of the pupils 
during the recesses and other times of relaxation, 
calling upon the teachers for any assistance and 
assigning to them any duties in relation thereto 
that may be necessary in order to secure the 
proper deportment of the pupils at such times. 

3. They shall keep a general register, in 
which they shall record the name, name of par- 
ent or guardian, age and residence of each pu- 
pil in their respective districts, and shall make 
out at the close of the school year a consolidated 

repoi-t of all the schools in their respective dis- 
tricts, according to the blanks furnished by the 
State School Commissioner. 

4. They shall visit the schools of their respec- 
tive districts as often as their duties may permit, 
see that the directions of the Superintendent and 
the regulations of the Board are faithfully ob- 
served, and in every way possible co-operate 
with the Superintendent in advising the teachers 
as to the best methods of government and in- 
structing their schools ; and shall report to him 
any delinquencies or failures on the part of 

5. They shall assist the Superintendent in con- 
ducting the examination of pupils for promotion 
from one 'grade of the schools to another. 

6. They shall each, within one week after the 
commencement of each term, furnish the Su- 
perintendent with a programme of the daily ex- 
ercises in all the schools under their charge. 

7. They shall hold district teachers' meetings 
as often as once in two weeks, for the purpose 
of conferring with their teachers on an}' matters 
coming under their jurisdiction as principals. 

8. They shall be governed by all the rules of 
Section IV, so far as they are applicable to them 
as teachers. 


1 . No person shall be allowed to enter upon 
the duties of a permanent teacher in any of the 
public schools, who shall not first have passed a 
satisfactory examination and received a certifi- 
cate thereof from the Board of Examiners. 

2. The teachers of the public schools shall be 
elected by the Board of Education, annually, 
before the close of the schools for the summer 
vacation, and shall hold their positions for one 
year, unless sooner removed by the Board. 
Provided, that the marriage of anj^ female teacher 
while in the employ- of the Board, shall be con- 
sidered equivalent to a resignation. 

The Committee on Teachers shall report their 
nominations for the ensuing year at the last reg- 
ular meeting in Ma} ,, which report shall lie over 
for two weeks. 

3. It shall be the diit}- of the teachers to make 
themselves familiar with all the school regula- 
tions, and to co-operate with the Board in such 
measures as will best secin-e their observance. 

4. Pvuch teacher is required to have a copy of 
the regulations at all times in his or her school 
room, and to read to the scholars, at least once 
each term, so much of the same as will give 
them a just understanding of the rules by which 
they are to be governed. 

5. Teachers shall have the immediate care of 
their respective school rooms, and be held re- 
sponsible for the preservation of all furniture and 
apparatus thereto belonging ; they shall also co- 
operate with the Principal in securing good order 
and neatness in the halls and about the school 

6. Teachers shall pay careful attention to the 
warming and ventilating of their school rooms. 
They shall ventilate their school rooms by low- 



ering the upper sashes (except in warm, sum- 
mer weather, when the windows may also be 
opened from .below,) taking special care, how- 
ever, that children be not allowed to sit in cur- 
rents of cold air. At recess the teacher shall in 
all cases see that a proper supply of fresh air is 
admitted into the room. 

7. Teachers shall be in attendance at their re- 
spective school rooms, and open the same, for 
the reception of pupils, at least twenty minutes 
before the opening of each half day's session. 
They shall report their own tardiness to their re- 
spective principals, and to the Superintendent, 
stating the number of minutes so lost. 

Any teacher who, from sickness, or other suf- 
ficient cause, shall be detained from his or her 
school, shall send notice of such detention to the 
office of the Superintendent, at least one hour 
before the time for opening school. 

8. Teachers shall attend the meetings provided 
for in Section II, Rule 2, any special meetings 
called by the Superintendent, and no excuse for 
absence therefrom will be allowed, other than 
would justify absence from a regular ses- 
sion of the schools. 

9. The Superintendent may, at his discretion, 
grant permission to any teacher to visit any of 
the public schools of the city for the purpose of 
observing the modes of instruction and discip- 
line pursued therein. 

***** * * 

And other judicious requirements, that for ob- 
vious reasons are not given in this chapter. 


1. All unmarried youth, of proper age, not 
connected with the schools, may be admitted on 
the first day of each month, but at no other time, 
unless for special and satisfactory reasons ; pro- 
vided, that no such pupil shall be admitted at 
any time without a card of admmission, signed 
by the Superintendent, and if the pupil be a non- 
resident, endorsed by the President of the Board. 

2. Non-residents may be admitted by paying 
to the President of the Board, by the term, in ad- 
vance, tuition at the following rates : Primaiy 
Schools, 30 cents per week ; Secondary Schools, 
37I cents per week ; Senior Schools, 45 cents 
per week ; High School, 60 cents per week. 

3. No pupil shall be received, or continued in 
school, known to be affected with a contagious 
or infectious disease, or coming from a family 
where such disease prevails ; and no pupil shall 
be admitted who does not exhibit to his teacher 
satisfactory evidence of having been vaccin- 

4. Pupils absent for more than three days at 
the beginning of a term, will not be considered 
members of the school, nor will their seats be 
retained for them, unless they notify the teacher 
of their intention to return, and render satisfac- 
tory excuse for their absence. 

5. To secure their continuance in school, pu- 
pils are required to attend school regularly and 
punctually, to conform to all the rules of the 
school, to be obedient and respectful to their 

teachers, kind and courteous to their schoolmates, 
studious in preparing their lessons, and attentive 
in reciting them, to observe good order and pro- 
priety of deportment, to refrain, entirely, from 
the use of profane language, to be neat and clean 
in person, and to abstain from the use of tobacco, 
in any form, while on or about the school prem- 

6. Pupils, in case of absence, or tardiness, 
shall render to the teacher a satisfactory excuse, 
which the teacher may require to be presented 
in writing, signed by the parent or guardian. 

7. Any pupil who has been absent three suc- 
cessive days, and has not notified his teacher of 
the cause of such absence, and of his intention 
to return, shall be considei^ed as withdrawn from 
school, and shall not be re-admitted without a 
card of admission from the Superintendent. 

8. Any pupil, who, from irregularity of at- 
tendance, or want of industry, has fallen behind 
his class, may be transferred, at the discretion of 
the Principal, to one of lower grade. 

9. Any pupil who shall injure or deface the 
school buildings, furniture, fences, or out-houses, 
shall be required to repair such injury or de- 

10. Pupils shall not be allowed to attend the 
examinations of other schools, without the con- 
sent of the Superintendent. 

1 1 . No pupil shall be allowed to leave school 
before the close of school hours, except at the 
written request of the parent or guardian, or for 
some urgent reason, of which the teacher shall 
be the judge. 

12. Pupils shall not be allowed to assemble 
about the school premises at unreasonabl-e hours, 
before the commencement of school, nor to re- 
main after the dismissal of the same. 

13. Pupils shall not be allowed to climb upon 
the fences, trees, or out-buildings, belonging to 
the schools, nor to sit in the windows of the 
school rooms or halls. 

14. Any pupil who is disobedient to the rules 
of the schools, or has been guilty of any gross 
immorality, or has absented himself from any 
examination, shall be referred to the Superin- 

15. Pupils whose depoi^tment has been such 
that their teachers cannot sign their certificates 
of good character, may be promoted on trial, by 
the Superintendent. 

16. All pupils must be promptly furnished 
with the books and stationery necessary for their 
school work. 

17. Any pupil who shall biding, or bear, fire- 
arms, of any description, upon any of the school 
premises, shall be immediately referred to the 
Superintendent, and by him suspended from 


1. The High, German, and Colored, School 
Districts, embrace the city of Zanesville. 

2. The First District includes all that part of 
the city lying north of Market street, and east of 
Cypress alley. Pupils living within these bounds 



shall attend the Mclntire Schools, Nos. 4, 5,6, 
and 7. 

It is especially provided, that pupils living with- 
in the following bounds, viz. : North of Mill Run, 
to Fox's slaughter house, thence, across said 
run, taking in a few families which are on the 
south side of it, under the hill, shall attend Mc- 
lntire School No. 6. 

3. The Second District includes all that part 
of the city lying south of Market street, and east 
of Sewer alley. The pupils living within these 
bounds shall attend the schools in the Third 
Ward and Stemler buildings. 

4. The Third District includes all that part 
of the city lying west of Cypress alley, and north 
of Market street to Sewer alley, and west of 
Sewer alley to the river. Pupils living within 
tTiese bounds, shall attend the Mclntire Schools, 
Nos. I, 2, and 3. ' 

5. The Fourth District includes the Seventh 
and Eighth wards. Pupils living within these 
bounds shall attend the schools of the Seventh 
and Eighth wards, so far as the classification of 
those schools will admit. 

6. The Fifth District includes the Ninth ward. 
Pupils living in this District shall attend the 
schools of this ward. 

7. If, at any time, the school rooms of any 
of these disti'icts cannot accommodate all the 
pupils within their limits, the Principal of such dis- 
tricts shall refer those thus thrown out, to the Su- 
perintendent, who shall provide for them, at his 
discretion, in the schools of adjoining districts. 

8. The Superintendent is authorized to grant 
permits to pupils in one district, to attend school 
in another, when there are good reasons for the 


1. The school year shall consist of three terms 
(the first of sixteen weeks ; the second and third 
of twelve weeks,) commencing on the last Mon- 
day in August or the first Monday in Septem- 
ber, and continuing regularly from that time, 
except a vacation of two weeks, including the 
Christmas holidays, and a vacation of one week, 
including the first day of April. 

2. All holidays shall be the twenty-second day 
of February, and all thanksgiving and fast days 
authorized by the State and General Govern- 

3. The daily sessions of the schools shall be 
from 9 o'clock, a. m., to 12 o'clock, M., and 
from i^ o'clock, p. m. to 4^ o'clock, p. m., in all 
the schools except those of the Primary A grade, 
which shall be dismissed one hour earlier, both 
forenoon and afternoon. 

4. There shall be a recess of twenty minutes 
in both forenoon and afternoon sessions, and no 
school shall be dismissed before the time fixed 
in rule 3 of this section, in consequence of the 
omission of the recess. 

5. No school shall have its exercises suspended 
in order to permit the teacher or pupils to attend 
any public procession, meeting, spectacle, 
lecture, painting or exhibition, without the con- 

sent of the Board of Education, obtained through 
the Superintendent. 

6. No text-book shall be used in any of the 
schools which is not included in the list adopted 
by the Board, and assigned in the course of 

7. The public examinations of the schools 
shall be in the month of March, within the last 
two weeks preceding the April vacation ; and 
examinations for promotion in the last half term 
of the school year. 

8. Parents or guardians feeling aggrieved 
may apply to the Principal or the Superintendent 
for redress ; but in no case will they be permitted 
to seek satisfaction from the teachers at their 
school rooms in such a way as to embarrass them 
in the discharge of their duties. 

9. The Board of Education will not entertain 
anv complaint against a teacher, unless the same 
shall have been first made to the Superintendent, 
nor then, unless it be presented in writing and 
signed by at least one responsible person. 


1 . The pupils of the High School must com- 
plete their course of study before being permitted 
to graduate, and their diplomas shall be signed 
by their Principal and the President and Clerk 
of the Board of Education. 

2. Privilege of partial attendance upon the 
High School course may be granted by the Su- 
perintendent in cases wherein circumstances 
may seem to him to justify such action. 


Any of the foregoing Rules and Regulations 
may be amended or repealed by a vote of a 
majority of the members of the Board, at any 
regular meeting, after two weeks' notice. 


High School — W. D. Lash, Superintendent. 
Corner Main and Ninth streets — C. R. Long, 
A. M. Principal, Miss Mary C. Moorehead, As- 
sistant ; Senior School, Miss Rose A. Kerner, 
teacher ; Junior B School, Alice B. Garside, 
teacher ; Junior A School and Business Course, 
Z. M. Chandler, teacher. 

District No. i. — Miss Selene R. Chandler, 

Fourth Ward Building, Center street — Senior 
School No. I, Miss Clara Rishtine, teacher; 
Secondary No. i, Florence A. McDill, teacher; 
Secondary No. 2, Lucretia J. Stultz, teacher; 
Secondary No. 3, Mary C. Shinnick, teacher; 
Primary No. i, Maggie McCarty, teacher; 
Primary No. 2, Eliza J. Harris, teacher. 

Sixth Ward Building, Monroe street — Sec- 
ondary School No. 4, Miss Mary J. Hilliard, 
teacher; Primary No. 3, Philena R. Stultz, 
teacher ; Primary No. 4, Elizabeth Griffiths, 
teacher; Primary No. 5, Ella Nutt, teacher; 
Primary No. 6, Bell Brooks, teacher ; German- 
English No. 2, Rosa Metzendorf, teacher. 

Rural Bull ding, Adamsville Road — Second- 

Factory and Yards of HERDMAN, HARRIS & CO., Zanesville, Ohio. 

Marble W^orks of MITCHELL & STULTS, Zanesville, O. 

In 1828 Mr. M. C. Mitchell settled at Zanesville, 
anji in 1857 established a marble yard on the 
northeast corner of Market and Fourth streets. 
He had but little capital save energy, honesty and 
an indomitable will. The business steadily pros- 
pered, and about 1863 caused him to purchase 
ninety-seven feet on Fourth street, and one hun- 
dred and thirty-two feet on Market street. On 
the latter site he erected a substantial business 
building, and on the former a well finished and 
durable' residence. He had been importing Scotch 

granite, which for a tinie won its way so largely 
in popular favor. In January, 1876, Mr. Mitchell 
admitted to partnership Mr. A. P. Stults, who has 
contributed much to the popularity of the enter- 
prise. Messrs Mitchell & Stults transact a busi- 
ness that will compare very favorably with any 
similar concern in Central Ohio. At their yards 
may be found a full and complete stock of foreign 
and domestic marble, Scotch and American granite 



ary School No. 5, Miss Lizzie H. Johns, teacher ; 
Primary No. 7, Hattie B. Johns, teacher ; Sec- 
andary No. 6, Eva Peairs, teacher. 

District No. 2 — Mrs. M. G. Hills, Principal. 

Third Ward Building, corner of Seventh and 
Harvey streets. — Senior School No. 2, Miss 
Helen Printz, teacher; Secondary No. 7, 
Amanda HilHard, teacher ; Secondary No. 8, 
Sarah A. Wilson, teacher ; Secondary No. 9, 
Ella C. Atkinson, teacher ; Primary No. 8, Susie 
Williams, teacher ; Primary No. 9, Edith E. 
Hahn, teacher. 

Stemler Building, head of Marietta street. — 
Primary School No. 10,' Miss Mary Dare, 
teacher; Primary No. 11, Charlotte Cline, 
teacher; German-English No. 3, Mr. Chas. J. 
Deiterly, teacher. 

Colored School Building, South Ninth street — 
Colored High School, Chas. S. Harrison, Prin- 
cipal ; Colored School No. I, Miss Minnie A. 
Self,, teacher : Colored School No. 2, R. P. 
Harper, teacher. 

District No. 3 — ^^iss Fannie Burns, Principal. 

Mclntire Building, corner Fifth and North 
streets — Senior School No. 3, Miss Lillie E. Shin-, 
nick, teacher ; Secondary No. 10, Anna Dutro, 
teacher; Secondary No. 11, Sarah Throckmor- 
ton, teacher; Secondary No. 12, Alice V. Drone, 
teacher; Primary No. 12, Alice Sear), teacher ; 
Primary No. 13, Lizzie McFadden, teacher. 

. Market street building, between Third and 
Fourth streets. — Primary School No. 14, Miss 
Mary A. Gallogly, teacher; German-English 
No. 1, Mr. A. Berlinger, teacher; German- 
English No. 4, Mrs, L. P; Bodner, teacher. 
DisTiticT No. 4 — Mr. David Harris, Principal. 

Moore Building. — Senior School No. 4, Miss 
Kate Buchanan, teacher ; Secondary School No. 
13, Emma Gurley, teacher; Secondary School 
No. 14, Mary Joselyn, teacher ; Secondary 
School, No. 15, Anna Gildea, teacher; Primary 
No. 15, Lillie White, teacher; Primary No. i'6, 
Barbette Baily, teacher. 

Jackson street building. — Primary School No. 
17, Miss Nellie Baird, teacher ; Primary No. 18, 
Mrs. C. J. Ward, teacher. 

Seventh Ward Building — Secondary School 
No. 16, Miss Sue M. Allen, teacher ; Secondary 
No. 17, Charlotte W. Launder, teacher; .Prima- 
ry No. 19, Carrie Granger, teacher ; Primary No. 
20, Lizzie Patrick, teacher; Primary No. 21, 
Miss Hannah M. Parsons, teacher. 

Colored School Building", Pearl street. — Col- 
ored School No. 5, Miss Eva Gviy, teacher. 

District No. 5 — Miss Missouri Stonesipher, 

Madison street building, between Putnam and 
Moxahala avenues. — Senior School No. 5, Miss 
Mary McMulkin, -teacher; Secondary No. 18, 
Mary Nesbaum, teacher: Secondary No. 19, 
Mary Parsons, teacher ; Secondary No. 20, Mrs. 
Letitia Howard, teacher; Primary No. 22, Miss 
Julia E. Brelsford, teacher. 

Woodlawn Avenue Building — Primary School 


No. 23, Miss Kate Thomas, teacher; Primary 
No. 24, Lizzie Roper, teacher. 

Colored School Building, Moxahala avenue — 
Colored School No. 3, Mr. James A. Guy, 
teacher ; Colored School No. 4, Miss Rose C. 
Clinton, teacher. 

Special Teachers. — Teacher of Drawing and 
Penmanship, Jacob Schwartz; teacher of Music, 
J. D. Luse. 


ENGLISH course. 

M'rsi J^ear. —First Term — ^Algebra, Physiology, 

United States History.* 
Second Term — Algebra, Natural History, 

Third Term — Algebra, Botany, flhetoric* 
Second Tear. — First Term; — Gepmetry, Natural 

Philospphjs* General Hiistory. 
Second Term— Geometry, Chemistry,* Asii' 

Third Term — Geometry, Chemistry,* Civil 

Third Tear. — First Term — Tingonometry, Phy- 
sical Geography and Geology, Intellectual 

Second Term — Arithmetic, English Graim- 

mar, English Literature. 
Third Term — Arithmetic, English Grammar, 

English Literature. 


First Tear. — First Term — Algebra^ Unite^d States 
History,* Latin (Grammar a,nd Lessons.) 

Second Term— Algebra, Rhetoric,* Latin 
(Grammar and Legsons.) ' . 

Third Term^Algebra, Rhetoric,* Latin 
(Grarrimar and Lessons.) 
Second Tear.-^First Term — Geometry, General 
History, Latin (Ceesar.) ,1, ' 

Second Term — Geometry, Natural History, 
Latin (Caesar.). 

Third Term^ — Geometry, Bptany,. History, 
Latin (Cicero.) . ^ . ■, 

Third Tear. — First Term — Trigonometry, Nat- 
ural Philosophy,* Latin (Cicero.) 

Second Term — Astronomy,, Chemistry,* 
Latin (Virgil.) 

Third Term — Civil Government,. Chemistry, 
Latin (Virgil.) 
Fourth Tear.— First Term — Physiology, Phy- 
sical Geography and Geology, Intellectual 

Second Term — Arithmetic, English Gram.- 
mar, English Litera,ture. 

Third Term — Arithmetic, English Grarhmar, 
English Literature. 

business course. 

First Tear. — First Term — Arithmetic, Physi- 
ology, Book-Keeping. 

Second Term — Arithmetic, English Gram- 
mar, Book-Keeping. 

Third Term — Arithmetic, English Grammar, 

*Twent7 weeks eacli. 



Second Tear. — First Term — Algebra, Natural 
Philosophy,* Book-Keeping. 

Second Term — Algebra, Rhetoric,* Book- 

Third Term— Algebra, Rhetoric,* Book- 


First Tear. — First Term — Arithmetic, Physiol- 
ogy, Book-Keeping. 
Second Term — Arithmetic, English Gram- 
mar, Book-Keeping. 
Third Term — Arithmetic, English Gram- 
mar, Book-Keeping. 
Second 2e«r.— First Term— Algebra, Natural 
Philosophy,* Book-Keeping. 
Second Term — Algebra, Rhetoric,* Book- 
Third Term— Algebra, , Rhetoric,* Civil 
"^hird Tear. — First Term — Geometry, Physical 
Geography and Geology, Political Econ- 
Second Term — Geometry, Chemistry,* As- 
Third Term — Geometry, Chemistry,* Re- 
Exercises in Composition and Declamation 
required throughout each course. 


1838-39.— Uriah Parke, Ezekiel T. Cox, Hen- 
ry Eastman. 

1839-40. — Richard Stillwell, President ; John 
A. Turner, Secretary ; Charles G. Wilson, Treas- 
urer ; Hugh Reed, George W. Manypenny, Al- 
len Cadwalader. 

1840-41. — Richard Stillwell, President ; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary ; Charles G. Wilson, Treas- 
urer ; Hugh Reed, George W. Manypenny, 
Horatio J. Cox. 

1841-42. — George W. Manypenny, President ; 
Uriah Parke, Secretary ;' Charles G. Wilson, 
Treasurer ; Hugh Reed, Horatio J. Cox, Jesse 

1842-43. — Horatio J. Cox, President; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary ; Charles G. Wilson, Treas- 
urer ; Mark Lowdan, Adam Peters, John W. 
Foster. - 

1843-44. — Horatio J. Cox, President; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary ; Charles G. Wilson, Treas- 
urer ; Mark Lowdan, Adam Peters, E. E. Fill- 

1844-45. — Horatio J. Cox, President; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary ; Charles G. Wilson, Treas- 
urer ; Mark Lowdan, Adam Peters, E. E. Fill- 

1845-46. — Horatio J. Cox, President; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary ; Charles G. Wilson, Treas- 
urer ; E. E. Fillmore, Leonard P. Bailey, Gott- 
leib Nattinger. 

1846-47. — Horatio J Cox, President; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary ; Nelson W. Graham, Treas- 
urer ; E. E. Fillmore, Leonard P. Bailey, Gott- 
leib Nattinger. 

*Twenty weeks each. 

1847-48.— E. E. Fillmore, President; Uriah 
Parke, Secretary; N.W.Graham, Treasurer; 
Leonard P. Bailey, Gottlieb Nattinger, George 
Fr acker. 

1848-49.— E. E. Fillmore, President ; N. W. 
Graham, Secretary; L. P. Bailey, Alexander 
-Sullivan, William Schultz, Henry Blandy ; H.. 
J. Cox, Treasurer. 

1849-50. — E. E. Fillmore, Pre.sident ; Alex. 
Sullivan, Secretary ; L. P. Bailey, George A. 
Jones, George B. Reeve, William Schultz; H. 
J. Cox, Treasurer. 

1850-51. — E. E. Fillmore, President; Alex. 
Sullivan, Secretary ; George A. Jones, L. P. 
Bailey, James L. Cox, George L. Shinnick ; H. 
J. Cox, Treasurer. 

1851-52. — E. E. Fillmore, President; Alex. 
Sullivan, Secretary ; L. P. Bailey, George A. 
Jones, George L. Shinnick, Jacob Glessner ; H. 
J. Cox, Treasurer. 

1852-53. — E. E. Eillmore, President; Alex. 
Sullivan, Secretary; L. P. Bailey, James. L. 
Cox, Jacob Glessner, George L. Shinnick ; H. 
J. Cox, Treasurer; G. W. Batchelder, Superin- 

1853-54. — James L. Cox, President; Alex. 
Sullivan, Secretary ; George L. Shinnick, Ja- 
cob Glessner, Michael Dulty, John M. James ; 
H.J. Cox, Treasurer; G. W. Batchelder, Su- 

1854-55. — Jacob Glessner, President; L. H. 
Bigelow, Secretary ; Michael Dulty, John T. 
Fracker, James F. Adams, Bernard Van Home ; 
H.J. Cox, Treasurer; G. W. Batchelder, Su- 

1855-56. — L. H. Bigelow, President; L. P. 
Marsh, Secretary ; John T. Fracker, James F. 
Adams, WilHam Schultz, William M. Shinnick ; 
H.J. Cox, Treasurer; Almon Samson, Super- 

1856-57, — L. H. Bigelow, President; James 
F. Adams, Secretary ; William Schultz, Wm. 
M. Shinnick, J. T. Fracker, A. C. Ross ; H. J. 
Cox, Treasurer ; Almon Samson, Superintend- 

1857-58. — L. H. Bigelow, President ; John F. 
Adams, Secretary ; A. C. Ross, Wm. M. Shin- 
nick, D. D. Yarmett, Adams Fletcher; Moses 
Dillon, Treasurer; M. D. Leggett, Superintend- 

1858-59.— A. C. Ross, President ; A. P. Block- 
som. Secretary ; D. D. Yarmett, Wm. M. Shin- 
nick, Adams Fletcher, W.A.Graham; Moses 
Dillon, Treasurer ; M. D. Leggett, Superintend- 

1859-60. — Adams Fletcher, President ; A. P. 
Blocksom, Secretary; Wm. M. Shinnick, D. D. 
Yarmett, W. A. Graham, Alfred Ball; Moses 
Dillon, Treasurer ; M. D. Leggett, Superintend- 

1860-61. — Adams Fletcher, President ;A .P. 
Blocksom, Secretary ; W. A. Graham, Wm. M. 
Shinnick, A. Ball, F. A. Thompson ; Moses Dil- 
lon, Treasurer ; M. D. Leggett, Superintendent. 

1861-62. — Adams Fletcher, President; A. P. 
Blocksom, Secretary; Wm. M, Shinnick, A. 



Ball, F. A. Thompson, Thomas Lindsay ; Moses 
Dillon, Treasurer ; M. D. Leggett, Superintend- 

1862-63, — Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary ; A. P. Blocksofti, William 
M. Shinnick, Thomas Lindsay, M. C. Mitchell ; 
Moses Dillon, Treasurer ; C. W. Chandler, Su- 

1863-64. — Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary ; A. P. Blocksom, William 
M. Shinnick, Thomas Lindsay, M. C. Mitchell ; 
A. H. Brown, Treasurer ; A. Fletcher, Finan- 
cial Agent. ' 

1864-65.— Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary ; William M. Shinnick, 
Thomas Lindsay, M. C. Mitchell, John R. Price ; 
A. H. Brown, Treasurer; A. Fletcher, Finan- 
cial Agent. 

1865-66. — Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary ; TMiomas Lindsay, J. R. 
Price, C. C. Russell, William M. Herriott ; A. 
H. Brown, Treasurer ; A. Fletcher, Financial 

1866-67. — Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary ; Thomas Lindsay, J. R. 
Price, C. C. Russell, W. M. Herriott ; W. A. 
Graham, Treasurer ; A. Fletcher, Financial 

1867-68. — Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary; J. R. Price, C. C. 
Russell, W. M. Herriott, M. C. Mitchell ; W. A. 
Graham, Treasurer ; A. Fletcher, Financial 

1868-69. — Adams Fletcher, President ; F. A. 
Thompson, Secretary; J. R. Price, C. C. 
Russell, M. C. Mitchell George W. Gheen, 
George W. Griffee, Theobald Stemler ; W. A. 
Graham, Treasurer; A. Fletcher, Financial 

1869-70. — Adams Fletcher, President ; C. C. 
Russell, Secretary ; J. R. Price, M. C. Mitchell, 
George W. Griffee, Theo. Stemler, F. A. Victor, 
J. W. Conrade; W. A. Graham, Treasurer: A. 
Fletcher, Financial Agent. 

1870-71. — Adams Fletcher, President; C. C. 
Russell, Secretary ; Geo. W. Griffee, Theo. 
Stemler, F. A. Victor, J. W. Conrade, Wm. H. 
Hurd, Isaac Piersol ; J, R. Slack, Treasurer ; A. 
Fletcher, Financial Agent ; A. T. Wiles, Super- 

1871-72.— Geo. W. Griffee, President; C. C. 
Russell, Secretary; J. W. Conrade, W. H. 
Hurd, Isaac Piersol, Richard Hocking, William 
Lilienthal, Jesse Atwell, S. Jacobs Moore, Wil- 
liam Geiger ; W. M. Shinnick, Treasurer ; A. 
T. Wiles, Superintendent. 

1872-73. — Geo. W. Griffee, President; Wm. 
H. Hurd, Secretary ; Isaac Piersol, Richard 
Hocking, Wm. Lilienthal, C. W. Chandler, 
Jesse Atwell, S. Jacobs Moore, C. C. Russell, 
Matthew Calhoon, J. V. Smeltzer ; W. M. Shin- 
nick, Treasurer ; A. T. Wiles, Superintendent. 

1873-74. — George W. Griffee, President ; W. 
H. Hurd, Secretary ; C. C. Russell, Richard 
Hocking, William Lilienthal, Jesse Atwell, 
Matthew Calhoon, J. V. Smeltzer, Henry 

Shrimpton, Daniel Dugan, J.C. Gillespie ;W. 
M. Shinnick, Treasurer ; A. T. Wiles, Superin- 

1874-75. — George W. Griffee, President ;W. 
H. Hurd, Treasurer ; Richard Hocking, Matthew 
Calhoon, J. V. Smeltzer, Henry Shrimpton, 
Daniel Dugan, Andrew L. Pierce, J. C. 
Gillespie ; A. T. Wiles, Superintendent and 

1875-76. — James C. Gillespie, President ; W. 
H. Hurd, Treasurer; Richard Hocking, George 
W. Griffee, William Lilienthal, Jame$ A. Cox, 
Henry Shrimpton, Daniel Dugan, A. L. Pierce; 
A. T. Wiles, Superintendent and Clerk. 

1876-77. — James C. Gillespie, President ; Alva 
T. Wiles, Clerk and Superintendent ; James A. 
Cox, Eugene Printz, Wm. Lilienthal, Alfred 
Ball, Martin V. Mitchell, A. L. Pierce, John L. 
Turner, Orlando C. Marsh, Joseph Crosby, 
John W. King ; Chas. C. Goddard, Treasurer*. 

1877-78. — Eugene Printz, President ; James 
A. Cox, Clerk ; James C. Gillespie, Treasurer ; 
Jacob Crotzer, William Lilienthal, Alfred Ball, 
Martin V. Mitchell, Homer C. White, John L. 
Turner, -Orlando C. Marsh, Joseph Crosby, 
John W. King ; Alva T. Wiles, Superintendent. 


First Ward — James A. Cox, term expired, 
April, 1879. 

Second Ward — Wm. M. .Shinnick, Jr., term 
expired, April, 1880. 

Third Ward — Jacob Crotzer, term expired, 
April, 1879. 

Fourth Ward — Chas. J. Brenholtz, term ex- 
pired, April, 1880. 

Fifth Ward — Alfred Ball, term expired, April, 

Sixth Ward— Martin V. Mitchell, term ex- 
pired, April, 1880. 

Seventh Ward — Homer C. White, term ex- 
pired, April; 1879. 

Eighth Ward — John L. Turner, term expired, 
April, 1880. 

Ninth Ward — James C. Gillespie, term ex- 
pired, April, 1879. 

President, Martin V. Mitchell ; Clerk, James A. 
Cox ; Treasurer, Jacob Crotzer ; Superintendent 
of Instruction, Alva T. Wiles. 

Board of Examiners — Orlando C. Marsh, 
term expired. May, 1879; Joseph Crosby, term 
expired. May, 1881 ; John W. King, term ex- 
pired. May, 1880. 


First Ward — James A. Cox, term expired 
April, 1 88 1. 

Second Ward — WiUiam M. Shinnick, Jr., 
term expired, April, 1880. 

Third Ward — Jacob Crotzer, term expired, 
April, 1881. 

Fourth Ward — Charles J. Brenholts, term. ex- 
pired, April, 1880. 

Fifth Ward — George R. Humphreys, term ex 
pired, April, 1881. 

Sixth Ward— Martin V. Mitchell, term ex- 
pired, April, 1880. 



Seventh Ward — H. D. Munson, Sr., term ex- 
pired, April, 1 88 1. 

Eighth Ward — ^John L. Turner, term expired, 
April, 1880. 

Ninth Ward — James C. Gillespie, term ex- 
pired, April, tSSi. 

President, Charles J. Brenholts ; Clerk, James 
A. Cox ; Treasurer, Jacob Crotzer ; Superintend- 
ent of Insti-uction, W. D. Lash. 

Board of Exfiminers — Orlando C. Marsh, 
tei-m expired. May, 1882; Joseph Crosby, term 
expired, May,i88i ; John W. King, term expired, 
May, 1880. 


First Ward — ^James A. Cox, term expired, 
April, 1881. 

Second Ward — William M. Shinnick, Jr., 
term expired, April, 1882. <■ 

'Third Ward — George J. Crotzer, term expired, 
April, 1881. 

Fourth Ward. — William Lilienthal, term ex- 
pired, April, 1882. 

Fifth Ward — ^George R. Humphreys, term ex- 
pired, April, 1881. 

Sixth Ward — Martin V. Mitchell, term ex- 
pired, April, 1882. . 

Seventh Ward — H. D. Munson, term expired, 
April, 1 88 1. 

Eighth Ward — John L. Turner, term expii;es, 
April, 1882. 

Ninth Ward — ^James C. Gillespie, term ex- 
pired, April, 1 88 1. 

President, WilHam M. Shinnick ; Clerk, W. 
D. Lash ; Treasurer, G. J. Crotzer ; Superin- 
tendent of Instruction, W. D. Lash. 

Board of Examiners Orlando C. Marsh, term 
expired. May, 1882 ; Joseph Crosby, term ex- 
pired. May; 1881 ; William D. Lash, term ex- 
pires, Ma}^ 1883." 


This was opened in 1842, in a small frame 
building, on the site of the presentbrick structure, 
and servfed its purpose uiitil 1870, when it gave 
wayfoi-the commodious building now occupied ; 
this school building cost between $7,000 and 

The school is under the supervision ,of the 
Parish Priest, and taught by Sisters of the Order 
of St. Francis. The attendance is about 240; 
Capacity of the school building is about 250. The 
school is sustained chiefly by subscription. 

The following Priests, officiating at the church, 
have been also in charge of the school : Father's 
Gallinger, -Otto ]3orgess, Henry Rensen, M. 
Deselears, M. Herzog, William Deters, J. C. 
Kramer, J. W. Brummer, A. Berger, F.J. Goetz, 
G.,Uhlinger, A. Berger, the second time, A. 
Hechinger, John J. Rauck, J. G. Nordmeyer, 
and, in the spring of 1869, the present incum- 
bent. Rev. Magnus Eppink. 

German and English are taught in the school. 

ST. Columbia's academy. 
TJiis school was organized in 1856. The 

building, a commodious brick structure, oc- 
cupies the southwest corner of Fifth and North 
streets, and, until 1873, was a day and board- 
ing school foiyoung ladies. In 1863, the build- 
ing was partially consumed by fire, and im- 
mediately rebuilt. From the time of its discon- 
tinuance as a day and boarding school, it has 
been known as St. Thomas' Parochial School, 
yet it retains the first name. 

The school, like all parochial schools, is under 
the supervision of the Parish Priest. The teach- 
ers, from the beginning, have been of the Order 
of Dominican Nuns. 

This is a graded school, and Music and French 
are included in the curriculum. The average 
attendance is about 275. 

The following members of the Order of Priest- 
hood, have superintended the school: L. C. 
Eagan, C. V. Edhn, P. C. Coll, and the present 
Parish Priest, Rev. J. A. Bokel. 


The first record of an effort to organize a school 
of this denomination, was made by Chas. Dieterl)-, 
about i860. He was succeeded by Schumann, 
who died, and the school was discontinued until 
1866, when a Mr. Diersen, re-opened ; but the 
effort was not an entii-e success until 1871, when 
E. H. Dress became the Principal. During this 
year, the present substantial brick school house 
was erected, at a cost of about 1 2, 000. One as- 
sistant teacher has been employed, from the date 
of organization under Mr. Dress. 

The school is controlled bv a Board of Educa- 
tion, consisting of three members of the church, 
and elected b};^ the congregation. The Board in 
i88o: John Bonnet, Jr., A. H. Stern, and John 
Riehl. The pastor of the church is ex-officio 
President of the Board of Education, although 
not elected to that office. 

The school is supported bj- subscription. The 
average attendance is about 100. The exercises 
are conducted in German and English ; the fore- 
noons in the former, and the afternoons in the 
latter language. 


This institution was opened April, 1866, by J. 
C. Sinall and J. J. Dinsmore, under the tiarne of 
"Small's Business College;" it continued unc^er 
their management fur two years, at which time, 
J. W. Roll and F. M.'Choquill became proprie- 
tors, under the firm name of Roll and Choquill : the 
name was changed by them to that of "Zanes- 
ville Business Collqge," and so continued, to the 
present. , April, 1876, F. M. Choquill became 
sole proprietor, and conducted the business, with 
the assistance of H. B. Parsons, till 1880, when 
H. B. Parsons became associate principal and 

During the past fourteen years, over two thou- 
sand students have been enrolled, and many of 
the young men who have beeii connected with it, 
now hold first-class positions in the largest bank- 
ing and commercial houses of the country-. , 

Orlando C. Faeqtjhak, M. D., Physician and Surgeon, 
"was born near Salem, Columbiana county, Ohio, March 4th, 
1835. His parents were of Scotch descent, and in religious 
faith belonged to the Society of Friends, or Quakers. He 
was educated primarily in the village school of Putnam 
(now the Ninth ward of the city of Zanesville), under the 
instructions of Professor Z. M. Chandler. The first move- 
ment made after leaving school was a trip down the Mus- 
kingum and the Ohio rivers, on a trading flat boat. About 
two years were thus spent in the Western waters and trib- 
utaries, at the expiration of which time he returned home 
and devoted himself, after due consideration, to the study 
of medicine and surgery. 

After remaining as a student three years in the office of 
his father, Dr. E. A. Farquhar, Sr., he attended lectures at 
the Medical College of Ohio, at Cincinnati, daring 1857 and 
1858. Upon quitting this institution the practice of med- 
icine was begun at Putnam, in partnership with his father, 
and continued until 1875, when the firm was dissolved by 
mutual consent, Dr. O. C. Farquhar retiring. In 1872 he 
graduated at the University of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Up to the present time, 1882, he has devoted his time to the 
investigation and cure of special diseases. He devotes his 
whole time to the treatment of chronic diseases only, in 
which line he has won an enviable reputation by reason of 
the many cures that he has performed where a cure seemed 
almost beyond the skill of any physician. His practice 
extends to nearly every county of the State, and he is 
consulted by persons living in nearly every State of the 

He always takes a lively interest in literary and polit- 
ical matters. Is a frequent contributor to several scientific, 
medical, and pharmaceutical journals, and is a welcome 

contributor to the columns of the several newspapers of 
Zanesville. For several years past he has taJjen an active 
interest in municipal political proceedings. For six 
years he was a valued member of the Board of Educa- 
tion, was snbsequently a member of the village Council of 
Putnam, and became prominent as an able advocate of 
the annexation of Putnam to the city of Zanesville — an. 
event which was brought about in a great measure through 
his earnest and well directed labors. After the accomplish- 
ment and ratification of that annexation, the members of 
the dominant party elected him on the Republican ticket 
to represent them in the City Council for two years. After 
the expiration of his first term he has been continued as 
a member of the City Council to the present, with the 
exception of one year. During his long service as a 
member of the Council he has been presiding officer three 
terms successively, and during the fierceness of political 
debate, when excitement ran high, his decisions were char- 
acterized with deliberation and fairness. He conceived 
the idea of beginning the City Parks, and at once gave 
his conceptions shape, and planted out the trees on Putnam 
Hill, known at this time as Putnam Hill Park. So devoted 
was he to the development of this park that the newspapers 
of the day dubbed him the " Daddy of the Park." 

During the exciting times of what was known as the Tem- 
perance Crusade, he had the moral courage to write an 
ordinance, and work for the repeal of the prohibitory ordi- 
nance which was then in force. He thought by so doing he 
was materially lessening the evils resulting from the strin- 
gency of the prohibitory ordinance. 

He was married April 2d, 1856, to Elizabeth Jane Irvine, 
who died in 1859. June 7th, 1860, he was again married to 
Mary L. Eansom, of Coshocton, Ohio, who still lives. 





Increase Mathews was the first regular physi- 
cian to locate in Zanestown. He came in 1801, 
and began his profession ; but, as the settlement 
was yet in its infancy, and the pioneers were a 
hardy set, he could not depend on the practice 
of medicine, alone, for his support, and, there- 
fore, engaged in merchandising, including in his 
stock svich drugs as were most likely to be need- 
ed. This was "the first drug store in all this 

In those days the physician was known to 
ride twenty-five or thirty miles to visit a patient. 
Dr. Mathews would visit patients in his immedi- 
a,te neighborhood, and furnish medicine, at thir- 
ty-seven and a half cents a visit ! 

.In the spring, of 1805, Dr. Richard Hillier ar- 
rived in Zanestown, and began the practice of 
his profession. He had been a Surgeon in the 
English Army. He remained here until 1809, 
when he removed to "Beech Bottom," fifteen 
miles from Mount -Vernon, where he died, March 
10, 1815. 

In 1807, Dr. Robert Mitchell and wife arrived. 
He purchased a lot on the southwest corner of 
Fifth street and Locust alley, and built thereon a 
two-story log hoixse. i He was also a politician, 
and, as a JeffersQnian, was elected to the Town 
Council ; also Brigadier General' of the Third 
Division of the Ohio State Militia, in 1822, and 
served several years. He died, November 13, 
1848, aged 70; his wife died March 4, 1864, 
aged 76. 

Dr.' John Hamm; a native of the State of Del- 
aware:, and educated in that State, studied with 
Dr. Rush, of Philadelphia, Pa., and graduated 
in that city. He came to Ohio in 1808, and set- 
tled, first, in Chillicothe, and on the 4th of July, 
1809, was the orator of the day ; came to Zanes- 
town soon after, and subsequently mangled Eliza, 
the fourth daughter of General Van Jlorne. 
probably no man in' Ohio of that day, except 
General Lewis Cass, had such a succession of de- 
sirable officid positions. In 1812, he was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature and a Presidential elector. 
In i8i3j he became Surgeon of the 27th United 
States Infantry, and succeeded General Cass as 
Marshall of Ohio, a responsible and dangerous 
position. In 1827, he was State Senator, and 
again in 1829. In 1830, he was appointed Charge 
de Affairs to the Republic of Child, by President 
Jackson, and concluded the first treaty with that 
Government. He returned to his home and kin- 
dred, in Zanesville, and died May 22d, 1861, in 
the 85th year of his age. His widow died April 
20, 1868". They had eight children, one of 
whom became the wife of W. A. Graham, one 
the w,ife of Peter Black, and one the wife of Al- 
exander Van Hamm. The daughter not men- 
itonecl, died, in girlhood ; the eldest son, Wash- 
ington Van, Hamm, died in Chicago, 111., in 
1872. , 

Dr. Dudley W. Rhodes, was also President 
of the Bank of Zanesville ; he came to Zanesville 

in the summer of 1814. He was a native of Ston- 
ington, Connecticut, and studied medicine in the 
city of Hartford. His first engagement in his 
profession was an Army Surgeon, which, how- 
ever, he soon relinquished, for private practice. 
He died in Zanesville, Saturday, October 16, 
1840, and at a meeting of the physicians of that 
city and vicinity, held at the residence of Dr. 
Moorehead, October 19, resolutions were passed, 
as follo'vs'^s : 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty to re- 
move from among us, and from the sphere of 
usefulness, our late friend and brother practition- 
er. Dr. p. W. Rhodes: 

Resolved, That we view with deep regret this 
dispensation of Divine Providence ; ' therefore, 
in as much as it has borne from us one who has, 
for many years, stood so deservedly high in his 
profession, and who has been most indefatigable 
in his exertions to alleviate the sufferings of his 
fellow-men : 

Resolved, That, in the death of Dr. Rhodes, 
this community has sustained a loss which will 
be most sincerely felt by those who, in the hour of 
their affliction, have so long i-elied upon his skill 
and judgment : 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with his 
bereaved family, in their painful and melancholy 
loss : 

Resolved, That, in testimony of our regard 
for the deceased, we wear crape on the left arm 
for thirty days : 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be 
presented by Dr. Moorehead to the family of the 
deceased, and that they also be published in the 
papersof the town : 

Resolved, That we adjourn to meet at the late 
residence of Dr. Rhodes, at the hour appointed 
for his funeral, and that we attend the same in a 
body. Robert Mitchell, Chairman. 

Charles C. Hildreth, Secretary. 

In 1814, Dr. J. Fowler was a practicing physi- 
cian in Putnam ; and in 1816, Dr. Moore was 
here, and gained some notoriety by introducing 
vaccination, which some physicians opposed. 

In 1817, Drs. John J. Brice, Ebenezer Atwa- 
ter, Calvin Conant, G. B. Maxfield, and Samuel 
Moulton, were among the physicians. And in 
1822, Dr. Isaac Spangler (who studied with Dr. 
Hamm) was associated with Dr. Robert Mitch- 
ell. During tliis year, Wm. Clark, E. S. Phelps, 
Adam Gage, Benjamin Wait, Nathaniel Wait, 
Noah Harris, Robert Moore, David Pardy, Syl- 
vanus Seeley, Timothy Burr, Adam Gage, and 
Elmas Wheaton, were admitted to practice med- 
icine, upon examination under the State law.. 

The diversity of opinion on important subjects 
in the profession of Medicine, was such that, for 
the sake of harmony, and also for the purpose of 
having a recognized standard of authority, or, 
better still, a guaranty of qualification, an act 
was passed by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio authorizing the formation of medical 
societies, and empowering the incorporator^ to 
require the members of such bodies to be gradu- 



ates of accredited medical schools, pursuant to 
which, the first medical society was organized, 
as hereinafter set forth : 


The First Society. — February 26th, 1824, the 
following act was passed by the Legislature of 
the State of Ohio: "An act to Incorporate 
Medical Societies for the purpose of Regulating 
the Practice of Physic and Surgery in this 

To carry out the object of this act, a consider- 
able number of physicians from the Fifteenth 
Medical District, then composed of the counties 
of Muskingum, Morgan, Coshocton, Guernsey, 
Licking ajid Knox, assembled at the Court 
House, in Zanesville, May 25, 1824, (the time 
appointed by law,) and organized themselves 
into a Medical Society. The following were the 
first officers : John Hamm, M. D. President; 
John B. Brice, M. D., Vice President; Thomas 
Flanner, M. D., Secretary ; Robert Mitchell, M. 
D., Treasurer. 

The medical examiners elected at this meeting 
wereDoctors Calvin Conant, Wm. S. Richards, 
Thomas Flanner, Wm. Clarke and Dudley 
W. Rhodes. 

A committee was appointed to draft by-laws 
for the government of the society. They re- 
ported in accordance with instructions, and the 
by-laws were adopted, but a copy cannot now 
be found. About this time, Percival H. Pardee 
and Joel S. Thrall, of Putnam, presented them- 
selves for examination before the censors, and 
were duly licensed to practice physic and surgery 
in the State of Ohio. 

The foUpwing gentlemen were appointed by 
the President to deliver Medical dissertations at 
the semi-annual meeting, to be held the first 
Tuesday in November, 1824, viz : 

Doctors Spellman, SafFord and Thompson. 

It was made the duty of the President at each 
annual meeting to deliver an address, and to 
recommend a question for discussion at the semi- 
annual meetings. 

The next regular meeting was announced to 
be held in Zanesville, the first Tuesday in No- 
vember, 1824. 

The following is a list of the members at the 
date of organization : John Hamm, John B. 
Brice, Thomas Flanner, Robert Mitchell, Dudley 
W. Rhodes, Calvin Conant, Robert SafFord. 
Wm. S. Richards, Elisha G. Lee, Alfred c! 
Thompson, Elmas Wheaton, Benjamin Webb, 
Wm. Clarke, Francis Fowler, Samuel Bald- 
ridge, Harry Fassett, Sylvester Spellman, 
Samuel Martin, Samuel A. Baker, John Bald- 
ridge, David McGary, James Kell, Isaac 
Spangler, Jesse Morris, David A. Bines, John 
B. Cooley and Nathan Webb. 

This society continued to exist until Decem- 
ber 12, 1842, when the Muskingum County 
Medical Society was formed, by the physicians 
of the county of Muskingum, at a meeting held 
on {hat day at the Eagle Hotel, in Zanesville, at 
which Dr. Helmick presided, and Dr. J. G. F. 

Holston was Secretary. He also offered the 
following resolution, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That we constitute ourselves into a 
medical society, to be called the Muskingum 
County Medical Society, by signing our names 
to this resolution. The following gentlemen 
signed their names, viz : 

James Helmick, Robert Mitchell, John B. 
Erwin, John Watkins, Jonathan Axline, John 
R. Wetmore, Robert Marshall, John G. F. 
Holston, Washington Moorehead, E. Dillon, J. 
H. McCall, D. G. Campbell, James Shaw, W. 
E. Ide and Charles C. Hildreth. 

The following committee on a constitution for 
the society, was appointed : Dr's. Robert 
Mitchell, John Watkins and J. G. F. Holston, 
with instructions to report on the first Tuesday 
in January, 1843, "at which time the society shall 
hold its first regular meeting, notice of which 
will be given in the public "prints." 

The next meeting was held January loth, 
1843, at the Eagle Hotel, in Zanesville, when 
the following officers were elected : 

President, Robert SafFord, M. D. ; Vice Pres- 
ident, John Watkins, M. D. ; Secretary, Chas. 
C. Hildreth, M. D. ; Treasurer, James Helmick, 
M. D. ; Librarian, J. G. F-Holston, (Sr.,) M. D. 

The Constitution of the "Muskingum County 
Medical Society." 

Article ist. This society sh^ll be known by 
the name of the "Muskingum County Medical 

Art. 2d. The objects of this society shall be 
the advancement of the interests of the profes- 
sion ; the promotion of harmony and good feel- 
ing, and the elevation of the standard of medical 
attainment among its members. 

Art. 3d. The officers of the society shall be 
one President, one Vice President, one Secre- 
tary,, one Treasurer, one Librarian and five 
censors,, ^11 of whom shall be elected at the an- 
nual -n^eting in May, except the censors, who 
shall receive their appointment directly by the 

Art. 4th. This society shall be composed of 
members, both senior, and junior. Senior mem- 
bers, being regular practitioners of medicine, who, 
until the next annual meeting, may be admitted 
to membership, by signing this constitution. 
After which time they must gain their admission 
through the board of censors. Junior members 
shall be students of medicine of the senior mem- 
bers, and shall not be allowed the privilege of 
voting, speaking, or holding office. 

Art. 5th. The society, during its sessions, 
shall be governed by parliamentary usages. 

Art. oth. The society shall hold its annual 
meeting on the first Tuesday in May, at 10 
o'clock. A- M., in Zanesville, at which time its 
officers shall be elected for the ensuing year ; 
also a semi-annual meeting in November ; also 
monthly meetings in Zanesville, on the first 
Tuesday of every month, for the report of cases, 
the reading of essays, and the discussion of med- 
ical or surgical questions. 



Art. 6. The President shall direct the order 
of exercises for the meeting next ensuing', and 
shall have power to select a memljer to read an 
essay upon any medical or surgical subject, that 
he may deem appropriate. 

Art. 7. Every senior member of the society 
shall sign this constitution, which signature shall 
be considered equivalent on his part to being 
governed by it. 

The following were the signers to this consti- 
tution : 

R. Stafford, J. B. Erwin, Charles Dickinson, 
David Pierce, John M- Green, E. Dillon, James 
Little, Lyman Little, David Ferbrache, Robert 
Mitchell, Thomas J. Redgrave, Thomas J. Haz- 
lett, J. H. McCall, I. N. McMillen, John Wat- 
kins, Edward S. Bell, James Shaw, John G. F. 
Holston, James Helmick, Washington Moore- 
head, A. Z. Knight, W. E. Ide, J. S. Reasoner, 
Charles C. Hildreth, James Crawford, D. G. 
Campbell, J. R. Wetmore, W. H. Vickers, John 
F. Cunningham, Z. F. Young and Charles Grant. 

The full set of officers, elected in 1865, were : 
President, Z. C. McElroy ; Vice President, A. 
Ball ; Treasurer, Charles C. Hildreth ; Secretary, 
T. A. Reamy. 

For some time after its organization the so- 
ciety met at the residence of some one of its mem- 
bers ; subsequently in the City Council Cham- 

In 1874, t'^^ society was merged into the pres- 
ent Zanesville Academy of Medicine. Incorpor- 
ated in 1875, and reincorporated in 1878. 

The charter empowers the Academy to issue 
certificates of qualification to practice medicine, 
equivalent to a diploma from a regular medical 
school, and to charge therefor, including the ex- 
amination, a fee of $25.00. 

To be eligible for membership one must be a 
practicing physician in good standing, and sub- 
scribe for one share of stock, paying five dollars, 
and an annual assessment of one dollar. 

The society has in the Treasury $1,800 and a 
library of 500 volumes of standard medical works. 

The membership numbers one hundred. They 
meet in the Athenaeum building. 

The officers for 1880 were : President, L. M. 
Reamy; Vice President, C. H. Evans; Secre- 
tary, J. F. Kennedy ; Treasurer, D. C. Peters. 

Trustees: *James Gallogly, H. Culbertson, 
A. Ball, J. R. Larzelere, J. S. Haldeman, J. T. 
Davis, and S. Allen. 

The Society, among other rules, adopted "the 
Code of Ethics of the American Medical Asso- 

The following list embraces the regular physi- 
cians engaged in the practice of their profession 
in Zanesville. The regularly graduated practic- 
ing physicians in Zanesville are : 

Allopathic— C. C. Hildreth, Z. C. McElroy, 
A. Ball, W. H. Holden, J. S. Haldeman, A. E. 
Bell, L. M. Reamy, C. H. Evans, J. R. Larzelere, 
H. S. Nye, J. Jordan, J. G. F. Holston, W. C. 
Lenhart, J. T. Davis, A. C. Oatley, Seth Al- 


len, T. J. Barton, J. F. Kennedy, D. C. Peters, 
and Mrs. A. M. Johnson. 

Homeopathic. — S. F. Edgar, W. E. Atwell, 
George W. Mitchell. 

Eclectic. — E. A. Farquhar and sons, and O. 
C. Farquhar. 






death's doings TANNERIES TAVERNS 












The town of Springfield was laid out before 
the township in which it is situated was organ- 
ized. For beauty of situation it is not surpassed 
by any other on the Muskingum river. Nature 
has evidently been gracious in her adaptation for 
pleasant homes, and the wants of commerce are 
easily met, both by rail and water. The curva- 
ture jaf the river, westward and then northward, 
as it traverses the northern boundary of the 
town, renders the current on the east, where the 
stream courses south, very nearly a slack water, 
greatly facilitating boating for freight and pas- 
senger purposes. 

The highland that originally formed the west- 
ern boundary of the village, and subsequently 
made a part of the town, known as " Putnam 
Hill," lends an increased charm to the view; its 
graceful slopes, dotted o'er with forest trees, at 
once beautiful and comforting in their cooling 
shade, suggest thoughts of paradise. 

Dr. Increase Mathews and Levi Whipple laid 
out the town in 1802, and by their personal in- 
fluence began at once to draw hither whatever of 
industry, art, culture and music were necessary 
to constitute a prosperous community. The se- 
quel shows the wisdom of their course, and they 
had the gratification of living to see their expec- 
tations verified. 

The name was suggested by the well known 
spring that gushes out of the highland, since 
known as "Putnam Hill." This headland has 
long been known as commanding the finest view 
of " the Blue Muskingum" of any point in this 



region, on which account it became the resort 
for "whoso loveth the beautiful :" 

"To him, who, in the light of Nature, holds 
Communion with her visilile forms, she speaks 
A various language ; for his gayer hours 
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile, 
And eloquence of beauty ; and she glides 
Into his darker musings with a mild 
And gentle sympathy, that steals away 
Their sharpness, ere he is aware." 

As might be expected, this charming spot al- 
lured those who were inclined to love each other, 
by the mystic power of " sparkling water," and 
" fairy moonlight," and so the spring was 
christened, as it were, " Lover's Fountain," and 
those who loved in former days hold pleasant 
memories thereof. Which, moreover, are to be 
perpetuated, and the scenes of "auld lang syne" 
made possible in the enjoyment of " Putnam 
Hill Park." 

July 27, 1801, Rufus Putnam, Levi Whipple 
and Dr. Increase Mathews, assigned, appropri- 
ated and made over to the town of Springfield, 
(now the Ninth ward of Zanesville) " for the 
purpose of erecting such public buildings there- 
on as may be wanted for the. use of the town, or 
any religious society established in it, or for the 
county or State, the eleven and one-half acres, 
now known as ' Putnam Hill Park ' ; which tract, 
or so much of it as shall not be occupied by 
public buildings of the description aforesaid, 
shall remain a perpetual commonage." [See 
Book " A," page 8, Muskingum County 
Records] . 

The park has recently been substantially and 
neatly fented, and ornamented with young trees. 
And with the addition of suitable seats, flower 
beds arid fountains, will become, if possible, a 
still more popular resort. 'Tis a beautiful site. 

The First Store in the village was opened 
on the site now known as No. 99, Muskingufn 
avenue, by Dr. Increase Mathews, in 1803.' He 
kept a general stock of merchandise, including 
drugs and medicines. This store was originally 
started on the northwest corner of Main and 
Third streets, by Dr. Mathews and his brother 
John, in 1801. 

. The First Physician. — Dr. Increase Ma- 
thews, who, as we have seen, was one of the 
original proprietors of Springfield, was the first 
physician. And, as such, his duties were often 
very arduous, he having to go manv miles to 
visit patients. It was reasonable, thei'efore, for 
him to invite another to share the burden ; ac- 
cordingly, when Dr. Jesse Chandler came, in 
1804, he soon acquired a very extensive practice, 
which he continued to enjoy up to the time of his 
death, which occurred suddenly in the winter of 
1814-15. At this time, eleven other prominent 
citizens are said to have died, all suddenly, and 
near the same time, of what was called " the 
cold plague." Terror spread over the commu- 
nity on account of the great mortality, and the 
probable spread of the disease. 

Other physicians followed, locating in Spring- 
field or vicinity, and, as nearly as can now be 
ascertained, in the following order. They .were : 
Drs. Smith, Reed, Conant, Robert S afford, Dil- 
lon, Brown, E. A. Farquhar, J. B. Erwin, J. R. 
Larzelere . and O. C. Farquhar. Others have 
been accounted for in the "Medical Record," of 

The First Child Born in Springfield town- 
ship is supposed to have been Warner Whipple, 
in 1803. 

The Postoffice. — Prior to 1803, the inhab- 
itants of the village of Springfield, and the region 
south. and west, obtained their mail matter at the 
office in Zanestown. The Post-Master General, 
however, was induced to grant an increase in 
mail facilities, and established a postoffice in the 
village of Springfield, in the early part of this 
year, and appointed Dr. Increase Matthews as 
Post-Master. This, doubtless, was a compliment 
and satisfaction, and aided their reputation, inso- 
much that it is said the population was increased 
soon after by other than natural causes. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — The first 
circuit that included this place embraced Frank- 
lin, Mansfield, Lancaster, the Hog-Run settle- 
ment (in Licking count}) and the Walmsly neigh- 
borhood, in Coshocton county, and was organ- 
ized in 1803, by Rev. Asa Shinn. It belonged 
to the Pittsburgh District of the Baltimore Con- 
ference, and was denominated "the HockhoCk- 
ing circuit." 

The society was organized in Springfield, in 
1806, by Rev. John Meeks. The first members 
were : John Goshen and family, Samuel Chap- 
man and family, William H. Moore and family, 
Jesse Smith, J. Mervin, Merriam Putnam, Win- 
throp Robinson and Benjamin Robinson. They 
constituted the first class, of which John Goshen 
and M. Putnam were the leaders. 

Soon after the society was organized, a frame 
church was built on the lot donated by Levi 
Whipple, for church purposes, and on which the 
society built a brick church in 1830, which was 
taken down about 1868, to make room for the 
present commodious church, on the east side of 
Moxahala avenue. This church is further de- 
scribed in the chapter on churches, as the Moxa- 
hala Avenue M. E. Church. 

Blacksmiths. — This class of industiy had 
hitherto been conducted in Zanestown. About 
the year 1803, Peter Miser came to the village of 
Springfield and opened shop, and between that 
date and 1805 he was followed by Philip Munch 
and John Balthis. Where these two sons of Vul- 
can had their shops, cannot now be determined. 

Death's Doings. — The first death in Spring- 
field was the wife of Dr. Increase Mathews. The 
second was Grace Crooks, daughter of- Andrew 
Crooks. They occurred in 1804. 

First Orchards. — John Matthews, Abraham 
Leaven and Levi Whipple planted orchards about 
the same time, 1804, and John Springer and 
Adam France, in 1806. 








Tanneries. — The first tannery in Springfield 
was erected by I. Newell, in the year 1805. Sub- 
sequent tanners were : Horace Nye, Levi Chap- 
man, '■ Tanner, Peleg Mason, Jacob Reese, 

William Reese and A. M. Ewing. 

Tannery by Horace Nye. — A lett^er from his 
father, Ichabod Nye, dated "Marietta, 5th Octo- 
ber, 1821," informs him as follows: "And have 
agreed with Atnercy Keys, a young man, who 
came from the State of Maine this summer, for 
three months, to currey and work in the tanyard, 
as you may want, for the sum of fourteen dollars 
per month, boarding and washing. 

"I do not expect that he will turn off the work 
so fast as some currers that practice that buisness 
alltogather, but I have examined him relative to 
the mode & manner of his practice in that buis- 
ness, & like his ideas verry well. I think he will 
do the work better for countrey use than the 
Southern or Philadel'a currers. They, maney of 
them, shave their Leather too thin, more especially 
the shoulder & the back parts. 

"He will undoubtedly show you all that he can 
in the business, & I have given him my ideas & 
mode of work generally, which he will be better 
able to tell you than I could communicate by writ- 
ing, in making blacking. I have given him my 
mode, which I think he will be able to do, & 
which is quite essential in the business. Black- 
ing that will rub off" of leather is a great damage 
to the credit of it. The composition is Lampblack 
& Oil, with a little soap (say aboute ^ poin) to 
two Gallons of the Blacking (when all the mate- 
rials are added togeather) Surred well togeather 
to this the strong decoxtion of Sewmach (if you 
have it), mixed with the coperas, Yellow Oake 
Bark or Logwood, this stured all togeather, and 
the latter putt in lastt, to the Oil & Lampblack. 
This Liquid blacking will be proportuned as you 
find it best sutes when you spread it on the leath- 
er, probebley about as much as of the Oil part. 

"In setting the edges on your knives it will be 
best to rub them with a short bevel & turne the 
edges well over, or turned in rather more than 
what Carrell used to work them, especially when 
you first begin to practice and in whitening they 
must be more so, than in shaving weat leather, 
and then turne the wire edge a little out, in this 
way you will shave smoother & safer from jump- 
ing or bounding of the knife, &c., &c. 
"In haste, I remain your father, 

"Ichabod Nye." 

Horace Nye had his tannery on the side hill, 
just west of the Round House, i.e., about the 
southwest end of Adams street, and obtained 
water from a spring at that place, which afforded 
an ample supply for his vats, some twelve or fif- 
teen in number. 

Chapman's tannery, in "Chap's Run:" Levi 
Chapman had a tannery about where the bridge 
abutments were built, and near this he had his 
"bark house," in about 1820. 

The First Tavern in the Village of 
Springfield. — "Burnham's Hotel," or tavern, 
was the first public house in the town of Spring- 

field. The building was of three stories, one of 
stone and two of brick, which accounts for the 
discrepancy in the accounts of it, some calling it 
"a two-story brick," and others "a three-story 
building." It was built in 1806, by John Leav- 
ens and Benjamin S. Gilmore, and was some- 
times called "Leavens' Tavern," although he 
never occupied it. It stood on the southwest cor- 
ner of Muskingum and Putnam avenues, as now 
designated. This was the first "brick tavern" in 
this section of country, and was called "the best 
hotel west of the Alleghany Mountains ;" and it 
is said that great effort was made to make it such. 
Mr. Burnham kept this house until 1811, when 
he removed to Gen. Van Home's tavern, on the 
southwest corner of Second and Main streets, in 

The First Bank. — Muskingum Bank was 
chartered in 1813, and located on the southwest 
corner of Muskingum and Putnam avenues. Gen. 
Isaac Van Home was the first President, and D. 
J. Marple the first Cashier. 

The shares were five dollars each. 

After a few years, some discouraging circum- 
stances created a want of confidence in the en- 
terprise, and the Bank suspended. In 1829, or 
1830, the Bank reorganized and elected Ebenezer 
Buckingham President, and Solomon Sturgess 
Cashier, and continued to do business until 1846, 
when it wound up its business. The last officers 
were Alvah Buckingham, President, and B. H. 
Buckingham, Cashier. 

Springfield Changed to Putnam. — "An 
act to change the name of Springfield, in the 
County of Muskingum. Whereas, It is repre- 
sented to this General Assembly that inconven- 
iences do arise to the inhabitants of Springfield, 
in the County of Muskingum, in consequence of 
there being two towns of the same name within 
the State, by which letters and packages are oc- 
casioned frequently to be miscarried ; now, there- 
fore, Beit enacted by the General Assembly of 
the State of Ohio, that the name of the town of 
Springfield, in the County of Muskingum, be and 
the same is hereby changed, and thus the said 
town shall henceforth be known and distinguished 
by the name of the town of Putnam ; provided 
that this change shall in no case be so construed 
as to aftect the right and title of property granted 
in or to said town of Springfield." 

This act was passed January 20th, 1814. 

It is proper to add in this connection that Gen. 
Rufus Putnam had, by his generous activity in 
all things relating to the welfare of the community, 
greatly endeared himself to the people, so that 
his name was given to the settlement as a well- 
earned compliment, and the prominent citizens 
purposely met at General Putnam's residence, to 
show him this appreciation. 

An account of this meeting was published in the 
"Muskingum Register,'' October 27th, 1813. 

Putnam Manufacturing Company. — This 
company was organized November 23, 18 15, for 
the manufacture of cotton. It was chartered, 
and had a capital stock of $5,000, with authority 




to increase, by assessment on the stockholders, 
to the amount of $100,000. The shares were held 
at $500 each. 

The Trustees were : Ebenezer Buckingham, 
Jr., Stephen C. Smith, and Levi Whipple. 

The stockholders were Ebenezer Buckingham, 
who held three shares ; Stephen C. Smith, one 
share ; Moses Smith (by his attorney, Stephen 
C. Smith), one share ; Whipple & Putnam, two 
shares ; Levi Whipple, two shares ; Edwin Put- 
nam, two shares ; N. C. Findley, one share ; H. 
Nye, and Amos Nye, one share ; Jeremiah 
Dare, one share. 

This company located their factory between 
the Whipple Mill and the west end of the lower 
bridge, and agreed to give Messrs. Whipple & 
Putnam the profits on two shares of stock for the 
water privilege. After this cotton factory, had 
been in operation a few years, it was sold to Jo- 
seph R. Thomas, who changed the machinery 
for such as was adapted to the manufacture of 
wool, carding, spinning, weaving and fulling. 
This factory was burned down when the bridge 
was destroyed by fire, in 1845. Mr. Thomas 
built the woolen factory that is now standing on 
the bank of the river, below the present woolen 
mill in 1848, and in 1870 sold it and the build- 
ing, formerly known as the Whipple mill, to the 
Zanesville Woolen Manufacturing Company, 
which is chartered, and has a capital stock of 

Woolen Mills. — In 1815, Whipple and Put- 
nam inaugurated a woolen mill, also called 
"Clothing Works." Samuel H. Raymonton was 
clothier, or superintendent, which position he 
held two years. The mill was then leased to 
George E. Clapp, (October 2, 1817,) who speaks 
of it as a "Cloth Dressing and Dyeing Works." 
October 18, 1818, Mr. Clapp announces in the 
Zanesville "Express" that he is still operating 
the mills of Whipple & Putnam, at the east end 
of Putnam bridge. The mill was afterwards 
sold to J. R. Thomas, and not long after was 

Potteries — The first pottery was inaugurated 
by Solomon Purdy, west of Putnam avenue, be- 
tween Jefferson and Madison streets, in 1820. 
Red and yellow ware, bowls, plates and dishes 
were made there. 

Thomas Wilbur started a pottery about four 
miles west of Zanesville, on the Cooper Mill 
road, in 1824, and manufactured stone ware. 
The establishment had a capacity of 80,000 gal- 
lons per annum. 

Rich's Pottery — Prosper Rich started a pot- 
tery about three miles west of Zanesville, in 1827, 
(on the Cooper Mill road) and manufactured 
stoneware. This establishment had a capacity 
of 80,000 gallons per annum. 

There are other potteries, of which the date of 
starting, however, cannot be given, viz. : 

The Mout's pottery, two and a half miles from 
the city, on the Cooper Mill road. 

That of Mr. J. Boddeen, on Flint Ridge road, 
one mile from the city. 

Samuel Havens, at "Hubbtown," four miles 
from the city, on the Flint Ridge road. 

Joseph Bell, _ formerly of the William Brown 
shop, five miles from the city, on the Flint Ridge 
road. They have an avefage capacity of 80,000 
gallons per annum. The price per gallon is gen- 
erally four and a half cents. 

At the time of the annexation of Putnam to 
Zanesville, Putnam had five potteries, viz. : H. 
M. Wilbur, two ; J. C. Wilbur, one ; J. B. Wil- 
liams, one, and John Scott, one. They had an 
average capacity of 80,000 gallons per annum 
each, and the estimated value of the ware was 
four and a half cents per gallon. 

Oil Mill. — In the year 1828, John Goshen 
erected an oil mill on the lot adjoining the Moxa- 
hala avenue Church, on the north. It is pre- 
sumed this was a linseed oil mill, as castor beans 
had not been grown in any section convenient to 
that mill at that time. Samuel Atkinson was the 
superintendent. In 1838, the mill was sold to 
Messrs. Russell & Cutler, who changed it into a 
fiouring mill. 


Temperance Society. — The first was organ- 
ized at a public meeting, for that purpose, No- 
vember 15, 1830, at which Edward Putnam was 
Chairman, and W. H. Moore, Secretary. 

The oflBcers'were : John Goshen, President; 
Edward Putnam, Vice President ; A. A. Guthrie, 
Secretary ; S. Chapman, Treasui-er. W. H. 
Moore, Horace Nye, Thomas Wilbur, William 
Hadley, and A. Joselyn, Directors. 

The prominent members were earnest, devoted 
Christian men, and exercised a great influence 
in the community. It was well organized, and 
its officers were noted for the prompt performance 
of their duties. In December, 1850, it number- 
ed 813 members. The last officers were elected 
November 15, 1852, and were: H. Saffbrd, 
President; S. Seamans, Vice President ; Lawson 
Wiles, Secretary ; S. Mervin, Treasurer ; and the 
following Board of Directors : Valentine Best, 
L. B. Ball, J. B, Erwin, R. N. Dunlap, and J. 
R. Thomas. 

Many of the members of this Society were also 
members of the Sons of Temperance, and did 
not think it worth while to keep up both organi- 
zations. The latter was organized April 28, 
1848. They applied for, and obtained, a charter 
under a general act of the Legislature. 

F. R. Potts, Lawson Wiles, and J. B. Erwin, 
were elected Trustees, and Z. M. Chandler, 

Emancipation Society. — On Monday even- 
ing, June 24th, 1833, Levi Whipple, A. G. 
Allen, Thomas Gurney, M. B. Cushing and H. 
C. Howells, met at the residence of the latter, 
(which is still standing on the northeast corner 
of Van Buren street and Woodlawn avenue,) to 
discuss the subject of slavery and oppression, 
with a view to attempt the organization of a 
society "on the broad principle of total emanci- 
pation, as soon as possible." After the discus- 
sion, it was agreed that each iodiyidual present 



\ \ \ \ \ 

should invite his friends to another meeting, 
which was appointed to be held on the following 
Saturday evening, at the office of Mr. Whipple, 
which stood on what is now Muskingum avenue, 
and between the present residences of Mr. A. 
C. Ross and Mr. William R. Hazlett. This was 
with a view to the formation of a Society "for 
the promotion of Freedom and Universal 
Rights," and a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Whipple, Howells and Allen, was appointed to 
draft a constitution to be submitted for adoption 
to those who should assemble. 

At the meeting, there were present : Levi 
Whipple, Chairman ; John Goshen, Thomas 
Gurney, Horace Nye, H. C. Howells, M. B. 
Gushing, John Quigley, Charles Matthews, 
William Joiner and A. G. Allen, who acted as 
Secretary. The committee previously appointed, 
presented a constitution which was adopted, and 
signed .by all save Mr. Goshen and Mr. 

The first public meeting was held July 4th, 
1833, in the Zanesville Presbyterian Church, 
when, after discussion, the constitution was 
amended, and the name of the organization 
changed to the "Muskingum County Emancipa- 
tion Society to promote the Abolition of Slavery 
and of Oppressive Laws." This constitution, 
though not numerously signed in the city, re- 
ceived the signatures of two hundred and twenty 
persons in various parts of the county, within a 
short time. 

October 26th, 1833, the monthly concert of 
prayer for the abolition of slavery was estab- 
lished, and held at first in the Stone Academy, 
and for many years thereafter in the basement of 
the Presbyterian Church, in Putnam, on the last 
Monday evening o£ every month. 

A Bible class for colored adults was formed, 
and subsequently a colored Sabbath School, the 
classes in which afterward entered the Sabbath 
School, and remained till, gradually, the colored 
people organized schools of their own. 

In the winter of 1834, petitions were signed 
here, and forwarded to the Legislature of the 
State, praying for the amelioration of the condi- 
tion of its colored population ; particularly, that 
they might be permitted to give testimony in the 
courts, and allowed to participate in the benefits 
of the school fund — and to Congress, asking for 
the immediate abolition of slavery in the District 
of Columbia, and of the slave trade between the 
United States. 

Previously, however, the friends of coloniza- 
tion had forme* a society, and though the line 
of separation between them and the friends of 
immediate emancipation soon began to widen, 
and opposition arose, yet they all united, in the 
winter of 1835, in numerously signed petitions, 
both to the Legislature of the State and to Con- 
gress, renewing the requests made by friends of 
emancipation the winter previous. 

About this time, Jacob Stout, a member ot the 
society, was fined fifty dollars for employing a 
colored man, one Mark Turner, and taking ex- 
ceptions to this decision, the society employed 

Messrs. Goddard and Convers in his defense. 

A State convention was appointed to be held 
here, April 22d, 1835, ^^^ during the March 
previous, Mr. Theodore D. Weld, afterwards 
distinguished as an abolition speaker, came, by 
invitation, to lecture. His meetings created great 
opposition and excitement, and under date of 
April II, 1835, t'^e records of the society show 
that a committee was appointed to confer with 
Richard Stillwell, Esq., (afterwards Judge Still- 
well), then Prosecuting Attorney of this county, 
in relation to the disturbance of these meetings, 
with a view to secure means for their prevention. 
During the convention, bands of riotous persons, 
encouraged by more respectable but more guilty 
men, crossed the river, disturbed its sessions, 
defaced the Academy where they were held, in- 
sulted ladies who had been in attendance, and 
succeeded in breaking up the convention. They 
threatened to burn the dwellings of Major Nye, 
Mr. Howells and Mr. A. A. Guthire, which for 
some time had to be guarded by their friends, 
there being here no municipal government. 

The feeling of hostility against the friends of 
emancipation had at length, in some degree, 
subsided, when the State Anti-Slavery Society 
again assembled here in convention, the last of 
May, 1839. The announcement of the contem- 
plated meeting, however, kindled anew the 
slumbering fires of passion, and there were is- 
sued various inflammatory documents, and among 
them a hand-bill captioned the "Resurrection of 
Abolitionists in Putnam." It was filled with the 
bitterest invectives, and was calculated to excite 
the worst passions of the human heart. It had 
its legitimate and intended effect. Evil minded 
persons began to prowl around the village during 
the stillness of the convention, and on the night 
of its adjournment fired the barn of Adam 
France, because he had stabled the horses of 
delegates, and the succeeding night burne^ the 
barn of Mr. Whipple for the same reason. ' One 
of the rioters, Mike Casey, was arrested and 
convicted I but, while being taken to jail,' was 
rescued on the lower bridge by an armed, band 
of his associates, and taken in triumph to Z^es- 
ville. The appearance of this party and'their 
report of proceedings, caused the crowd already 
gathered, to rush down Third street and through 
the bridge, threatening to burn the village. At 
the western end of the bridge, however, they 
encountered the Mayor of Putnam, Mr. Z. M. 
Chandler, with an armed police, and were 
warned that if they attempted to advance furtheir 
it would be at their peril. After parleying a 
while, they slowly retreated, with bitter curses 
on the abolition town! This assault led, at the 
instance of Mr. R. N. Dunlap, to the organiza- 
tion of the "Putnam Greys," a military company 
which, under the drill of Capt. Jesse P. Hatch, 
a graduate of Capt. Partridge's Military School 
at Norwich, Vermont, became one of the finest 
miHtary companies in the State, and was for 
years an institution of this place. 

To the credit of those living in Putnam, who 
diflfered from the emancipationists on the slavery 



question, it should be said that they were a unit 
with them in defending the village. Nor should 
they be regarded as pro-slavery men. But they 
differed widely from thlase who advocaced imme- 
diate emancipation as the best and safest way of 
removing the overgrown, threatening and abom- 
inable system of American servitude. • 

Foundry. — In 1835, Lawson Henry and Jacob 
Anderson built a foundry, on Moxahala avenue, 
just north of the Oil Mill. They manufactured 
all kinds of hollow-ware. In 1845, butt-hinges 
were manufactured in this building, also ; in- 
cluding plows. The foundry is still in' operation, 
and is now owned by Pierce Ratliff. 

The Village of Putnam was incorporated in 
1835, and the first meeting of the Council was 
held July 4th of that year. The following were 
their first officers : 

William H. Moore, Mayor. 

William C. Ely, Recorder. 

John Goshen, Samuel Ashmore, John Balthis, 
Edwin Putnam, and Joseph R. Thomas, Trus- 

Julius C. Guthrie, Street Commissioner. 

David Munch, Treasurer. 
, Benjamin Graham, Marshall and Collector. 

The officers elected in 187 1, the last preceding 
the annexation to the city of Zanesville, were : 

Dr. J. Erwin, Mayor. 

W. E. Guthrie, R^ecorder. 

Dr. O. C. Farquhar, Isaac Stiers, A. J. Jos- 
selyn, Pierce Ratliff", and J. W. Carter, Trustees. 

Glass Works. — This establishment was built 
in 1845, on the southeast corner of Muskingum 
avenue and Harrison street. It is operated by 
Carter, Burns & Kearns. They manufacture 
fruit-jars, principall}^ 

"Bucket Factory." — This establishment was 
built, between the river and the foundry, in 1845, 
by John Buckingham, William Buckingham, 
and George N. Guthrie. This establishment 
was built for a saw and planing mill, but, for 
some unaccountable reason, was called "Bucket 
Factory." It is owned and operated by George 
N. Guthrie. 

Putnam Building, Loan, and Savings Asso- 
ciation. — This association was incorporated 
March 2d, 1869. The incorporators were : Hen- 
ry Jones, Perry Miles, C. D. Caldwell, J. Ran- 
dall, J. Buckingham, and J. B. Williams. Hen- 
ry Jones was elected President and W. E. Guth- 
i"ie Secretary. 

The capital stated was $200,000. The shares 
were $100 each. 

The Putnam Classical, Institute, — This 
institution, now known as " Putnam Female 
male Seminary," is located in that part of the 
city of Zanesville formerly known as "the village 
of Putnam." The institution owes its inception 
to Miss Sarah Sturges Buckingham, afterwards 
wife of Rev. George Beecher. Returning from 
school in Hartford, she felt the great need of bet- 
ter educational advantages for the young ladies 
of her native place and its vicinity, and through 

her labors and liberality a girls' school was in- 
auguarated, in 1835, in the building known as 
"the Stone Academy," and now the residence 
of Mrs. Robins. A Miss Mather, governess in 
Mrs. Buckingham's family, was placed in charge 
of the school, the interest in which grew, until 
a; plan was matui-ed for the seminary, which 
was incorporated by the following act : 

"An act to incorporate the Trustees of the Put- 
nam Classical Institute — 

"Whereas, certain individuals in the town of 
Putnam, in the county of Muskingum, for the 
purpose of advancing the cause of education, 
have associated themselves together,' and organ- 
ized a Board of Trustees ; and whereas, an act 
of incorporation would greatly facilitate the ob- 
ject they have in view ; therefore, Be it enacted 
by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio : 

"Section ist. That WilHam H. Beecher, 
Levi Whipple, Alvah Buckingham, Julius C. 
Guthrie, Solomon Sturges, and Albert A. Guth- 
rie, and their successors, be, and they are here- 
by declared to be, a body corporate and politic, 
with perpetual succession, to be known and dis- 
tinguished by the name and style of the "Trus- 
tees of the Putnam Classical Institute." 

"Sec. 2d. That the said Trustees, by their 
corporate name aforesaid, shall be competent to 
sue and be sued, plead, and be impleaded, de- 
fend and be defended, in all courts of law or 
equity ; may have a common seal, and alter the 
same at any time ; and may fill all vacancies in 
their own body which may occur by death or 
otherwise, and may add to their number at dis- 

"Sec. 3d. That the said Trustees (a majori- 
ty of whom shall constitute a Board) shall have 
power to appoint a President, Secretary and 
Treasurer, and such other officers and agents as 
they may deem necessary, and the said other of- 
ficers may or may not be of their own number ; 
and the said Trustees may ordain and establish 
such laws, rules, and i-egulations for the govern- 
ment of said corporation as thej' may deem pro- 
per ; provided, that the same be not inconsistent 
with the Constitution of the laws of the United 
States and of this State. 

"Sec. 4th. That the Trustees, in their corpo- 
rate capacit}', and their successors in office, shall 
be capable of — in law — receiving and acquiring^ 
either by purchase, devise, gift, bequest, or oth- 
erwise, property, real, personal, or mixed ; to be 
used, improved, expended, or conveyed, for the 
benefit of said Institute, provided, that such 
property shall be held and used ©nty for literary 
purposes ; provided further, that any future Leg- 
islatiu-e shall have power to alter, amend, or re- 
peal this act, provided such alteration, repeal, or 
amendment, shall not affect the title to any es- 
tate, real or personal, acquired or conveyed un- 
der its provisions, or diverted to any other use 
than originally intended. 

"William Medill, 
"Speaker ^^-o tcni. House of Representatives. 
"Elijah Vance, 

Feb. 29th, 1836. "Speaker of Senate." 



Under the new dispensation, Miss L. A. Em- 
erson, of Newburyport, Massachusetts, was em- 
ployed as Principal, in October, 1835, with Miss 
Mather and Miss Sarah S. Buckingham as as- 
sistants. Miss Daniels, as teacher of Music, and 
old Mr. Hobbie for occasional lessons in French. 
The" school was opened in the "Stone Acad- 
emy," with fifteen scholars. Thefollowing year 
it was removed to the basement of the Presby- 
terian Church, which had just been completed, 
and measures were taken to provide for an insti- 
tute building. Mrs. Eunice Buckingham, con- 
tributed ten thousand dollars for this purpose, 
and to this generous gift, Mr. Solomon Sturges 
and Alva Buckingham added five thousand dol- 
lars each, and a piece of ground, "being a 
part of lot 'No. 27, in the town of Putnam, which 
is butted and bounded as follows, to-wit : Begin-' 
ning at the northeast corner of outlot 22, from 
thence, run southwardly in the line of Fourth 
street, one hundred and sixty-seven feet, to the 
northeast corner of the Presbyterian meeting 
house lot ; thence westwardly, at right angles 
with Fourth street, three hundred and eighty- 
six feet, to a point or corner ; thence northward- 
ly, parallel to Fourth street, to the north boundary 
of said lot 27 ; thence east in the line of lots 22 
and 27, three hundred and eightj^-six feet, to the 
place of beginning, estimated to contain one 
acre, eighty-eight hundredths (i. 88-100), be the 
same more or less." The said purchase, for the 
lot described, from Levi Whipple to Putnam 
Classical Institute, for "the sum of four hundred 
dollars." Deed dated February 11, 1837, enter- 
ed for record March 28, 1838 ; recorded March 
29, 1838, in Record of Deeds, Book "U," pages 
27 and 28. 

The work of erecting and furnishing the Sem- 
inary building was pushed forward with great 
energy, and completed and occupied in the au- 
tumn of 1838. It is a brick edifice, one hundred 
and ten feet long, forty-five feet wide, and three 
stories high, and contains double parlors, office, 
dining room, kitchen, school hall, library, reci- 
tation and music rooms, with grates ; the building 
is lighted with gas, and substantially furnished. 
The back building, containing the gymnasium, 
bath rooms and laundries, was erected by a 
member of the Board of Trustees, in 1855. The 
present roof, (a mansard) was put on by C. W. 
Potwin and James Buckingham, in 18^8, at an 
expense of eight thousand dollars. The build- 
ing is near the back part of the grounds, which 
are well kept, and shaded by beautiful trees. 
The lawn affords ample room for pleasant recre- 
ation, and is an ornament to the locality. 

In addition to the ten thousand dollars given 
toward the building, Mrs. Eunice Buckingham 
left by her will an additional bequest. [See the 
following extract from her will.] Mrs. Eunice' 
Buckingham died in March, 1843, and left in her 
will, as follows: 

"I give and bequeath unto my executors., here- 
inafter named, and to the survivors and survivor 
of them, and to each such person or persons as 
such survivor of them, may in manner hereinaf- 

ter provided designate, and appoint successor or 
successors in this behalf, the following sums of 
money, in trust, for the uses and purposes here- 
inafter mentioned, and expressly declared, and 
for no other. That is to say : 

First — The sum of ten thousand dollars, in 
trust, to invest the same in such stocks, proper- 
ty, securities, and other investments as they at 
the time of investing the same may deem safe 
and beneficial, and all or any of such invest- 
ments, again and again, from time to time, and 
at any time, to alter and change, and the same 
to reinvest in the same manner as herein above 
provided for the investment thereof; and all div- 
idends, interest, income, and proceeds thereof, 
which may be received by them, after deducting 
the expenses of investing, reinvesting and man- 
aging the said fund, to pay over semi-annually, 
on the first days of January and July in each 
and every year, unto my daughters, Sarah S. 
Beecher, wife of George Beecher, Catharine B. 
Convers, wife of Charles C. Convers, and Mar- 
tha Buckingham, (notwithstanding the cover- 
ture of them, or any of them) the survivors and 
survivor of them, and to each such persons or 
person as the survivor of them maj'. (notwith- 
standing coverture) by last will and testament, 
or by any writing in nature of a last will and tes- 
tament, (which she is hereby authorized to 
make) designate, or appoint as her successor or 
successors, herein to be by my said daughters, 
the survivors and survivor of them, and her 
successors or successor aforesaid, appropriated 
and applied in such manner as they may think 
proper, to and for the educatio# and support at 
the Putnam Female Classical Institute, or else- 
where, of such females desirous of obtaining 
an education as they may deem worthy and 
proper objects of this bequest ; who shall always 
be designated and elected by my said daughters, 
the survivors and survivor of them, and her suc- 
cessors and successor, aforesaid. 

"Provided, however, that if my said daughters, 
the survivors and survivor of them, and her suc- 
cessors and successor as aforesaid, shall not de- 
mand for the purposes aforesaid of the said exec^ 
utors, the survivors or survivor of them, or his 
successors or successor, as aforesaid, any semi- 
annual dividend, with interest, income and pro- 
ceeds within the period of three months next .af- 
ter the same shall have become payable to them, 
as above provided, then, my said executors, the 
survivors or survivor of them, his successors or 
successor aforesaid, shall pay at any time after 
the aforesaid period of three months, over, on 
demand to the Treasurer for the time being of 
The Putnam Classical Institute, any such semi- 
annual payments, so remaining uncalled for by 
mj' said daughters, the survivors- or survivor of 
them, or their successors or successor aforesaid, 
for the aforesaid period of three months ; to be 
by the Trustees of said Putnam Classical Insti- 
tute appropriated and applied to the payment of 
the teachers employed by them for such Institute, 
or at the election of my said daughters, the sur- 
vivors or survivor of them, her successors or sue- 



cesser aforesaid, to be appropriated and applied 
for the purchase of such apparatus, books, etc., 
for the use of such Institute as my said daughters, 
the survivors or survivor of them, or their suc- 
cessors or successor aforesaid may order or 
direct, or for making such alterations or improve- 
ments in and upon the buildings and grounds of 
the said Institute as my said daughters, the survi- 
vors or survivor of them, or her successors or 
successor aforesaid may order or direct ; and I do 
hereby expressly declare that the foregoing be- 
quest for the benefit of the said Putnam Classical 
Institute as herein before provided, is upon the 
express condition that the visitorial power over 
such Putnam Classical Institute, in its fullest ex- 
tent, shall always be vested and remain in my 
said daughters, the survivors or survivor of them, 
and her successors and successor aforesaid, and 
that the foregoing bequest to«my said daughters, 
the survivors or survivor of them, and her suc- 
cessors or successor aforesaid, for the education 
and support of such females as aforesaid, is upon 
the express condition that the designation and 
selection of the said females to be educated and 
supported as aforesaid, and the manner of edu- 
cating and supporting them, and everything else 
whatsoever, which may in anywise relate to the 
appropriation and disposition of the said divi- 
dends, interest, income and proceeds for the 
education and support of such females as afore- 
said, shall be forever exclusively vested and re- 
main in my said daughters, the survivors or sur- 
vivor of them, her successors or successor afore- 
said; who shall not be in anywise restrained or 
controlled by,. or*required under any pretence 
whatsoever to account to, or before any person 
or persons, or any Tribunal, Legislature, Judi- 
cial or otherwise. I do order and declare that all 
receipts signed by any one of my said daughters, 
or of their successors aforesaid, for any of the 
dividends, interest, income and proceeds afore- 
said, shall always be good and sufficient 
vouchers, and acquittances in this behalf, for 
my said executors, the survivors or survivor of 
them, and his successors or successor aforesaid, 
and it shall not be: necessary for all of my said 
daughters or their successors or successor afore- 
said, to join in such receipts, and I do further 
order and declare that the receipts of the Treas- 
urer for the time being of the said Putnam Class- 
ical Institute, or any one of the Trustees thereof, 
for any of the said dividents, interest, income 
and proceeds, not paid over to my said daughters, 
the survivors or survivor of them, or her succes- 
sor or successors, afoi-esaid, shall be good and 
sufficient vouchers and acquittances in this be- 
half for any said executors, the survivors and 
survivor of them, and his successors and succes- 
sor, aforesaid. * * * • * * 

"And I hereby authorize and empower my 
said executors, the survivors or survivor of them, 
if they, or he, shall see proper to do so, at any 
time, to transfer and pay over to the said Trus- 
tees of the Putnam Classical Institute, the afore- 
said principal sum of ten thousand dollars, 
either before or after the investment thereof as 

aforesaid, to be by the said Trustees of the Put- 
nam Classical Institute, managed in manner 
hereinbefore pointed out and held in trust for 
the same uses, trusts and purposes thereinbefore 
mentioned and declared, and charged upon the 
same, and for no other use, trust, or purpose." 

A portion of the interest of this endowment 
fund has been ^ased by her heirs each year since 
1846 or 1847 in obtaining and sustaining the 
"Buckingham Library," which now comprises 
over 3,000 volumes, and is located in a suitable 
room in the Institute building, and to which has 
been added a valuable geological cabinet, pre- 
sented by Colonel John W. Foster, at one time 
State Geologist of Ohio. The library and cabi- 
nent are for the benefit of the school, free of 
charge, and the citizens have access thereto for 
*a small fee. The school is furnished with chem- 
ical and philosophical apparatus, microscopes, 
planetarium, and a large collection of maps and 

The Course of Study embraces a prepar- 
atory, academic and collegiate department, the 
latter including Latin. Special attention has 
been given to the arrangement and preparation 
for accomplishing the curriculum, concerning 
which the Principal, D. J. Evans, A.M., tersely 
says : "A ready command and accurate use of 
the mother tongue is the greatest intellectual 
benefit of education, and should be kept in mind 
in preparing men and women for active life ;" 
and, concerning French and German: "The 
literature of these languages combines the deep- 
est philosophy and the highest culture of the 
modern world, and a knowledge of them is in- 
valuable in giving depth to our language, breadth 
to our views and polish to our education. The 
course of Latin is of such extent as we deem 
necessary to good education, and aids to acquire 
the mastery of the English language." The en- 
tire course may be accomplished in the three 
years assigned. Of music, he says: "An ex- 
tensive course has been laid down and will be 
followed. The teacher possesses superior quali- 
fications — both a thorough knowledge of the art 
and a rare aptness to teach." 

Our readers will not be surprised that the Prin- 
cipal of this school should give prominence to 
music, when the}' recall thenamesof Bach, Han- 
del, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Weber, 
Rossini, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schuman, and 
the grand army of composers that have clustered 
about these masters, and note with what majestic 
power they have swayed the world. These are 
classic names, indeed, spoken with rapture akin 
to reveretice by every intelligent discerner of 
"the concordof sweet sounds." Hence we infer 
much when we learn that "an extensive course 
has been laid down and will be followed." For 
there is no fathoming Bach. A lifetime would 
not suffice to unearth all that he has left, and to 
understand it thoroughly. This, however, should 
not deter the lover of music from making an early 
acquaintance with the great master ; and to those 
who would do so, here is the advice of one far 
more capable of giving it than the present writer. 



Herr Pauer says : "I would advise all students 
to begin with the six small preludes, and after- 
ward to take the inventions for two parts. When 
the mechanical difficulties of these delicious little 
duets have been conquered, the fifteen sympho- 
nies for three parts may be attempted. The six 
French suites should come next, and after these 
the six duet sonatas for clavecin and violin, or 
those for clavecin and flute may be taken. Next 
I would recommend the six great English suites, 
and the charming partitas, the Italian concerto, 
the different toceatas. Only after such prepara- 
tion should the student begin the forty-eight pre- 
ludes and figures called 'The Well-tempered 
Clavecin.' " And, if such be the opinion of one 
of Germany's gifted sons, what shall we say of 
Handel ? Like a sweet refrain, the opinion comes : 
Of all those glorious names inscribed on the roll 
of Master Musicians, not one perhaps is more re- 
vered, or is more familiar to the people, either by 
his name or his works, than this great man, who 
has immortalized his name with the most grand 
narratives of Holy Writ. Nearly two hundred 
years have rolled by since he penned his heav- 
enly melodies, and yet they always come to our 
ears as fresh and welcome as spring flowers. 
What a preacher and poet ! What thousands of 
hearts must have been turned by his tone-preach- 
ing ! Where is the prelate who can move our 
souls as they are moved by Handel's "Mes- 

But the plan of this work will not permit more 
than the graceful presentation of historic truth 
pertaining to the country, and so we forbear any- 
thing more than a glimpse at the subject. Suf- 
fice it that no extensive course in music will de- 
serve the name, unless it embrace some knowl- 
edge of those authors. 

The present teacher of music, Miss Emeretta 
Comstock, will doubtless lead her pupils through 
many selections from these inspired authors. 

The original Board of Trustees, with 'the ex- 
ception of the Rev. William Beecher (who is the 
only one now living), served as Trustees as long 
as they lived. The. Re v. Addison Kingsbury, 
who succeeded Mr. Beecher. as President of the 
Board of Trustees, served nearly forty years, and 
Mr. A. A. Guthrie, as its Secretary and Treas- 
urer, signed every diploma given, from its be- 
ginning until his death, in 1874. '^^^ vacancies 
that have occurred in the Board of Trustees have 
been filled from among the most prominent gen- 
tlemen of the city, the controlling influence being 
given to the representatives of those who founded 
the institution. 

Until the fall of i860, the affairs of the Institute 
were under the direct management of the Trus- 
tees,_ who employed teachers, paid salaries and 
bills, made up deficiencies, and generally aided 
the school. Since that time, they have given the 
use of the building and premises, without charge, 
and the entire control of the school, to the princi- 
pal teacher, the Board of Trustees retaining the 
powers vested in it, except duties devolving on 
the Principal as such, which are defined. 

At the discretion of the Board of Trustees, a 

portion of the Buckingham fund is used to pay 
the expenses of young ladies who could not oth- 
erwise avail themselves of the advantages of the 
school, and several, each year, have been thus 

Lectures on History, Science or General Lit- 
erature are given every year, in addition to the 
regular course of instruction. 

The present Board of Trustees is composed of 
Rev. George F. Moore, President ; C. W. Pot- 
win, L. Wiles, F. J. L. Blandy, Hon. H. J. 
Jewett, J. Buckingham, and Rev. A. Kings- 
bury, D. D. 


1836-39. — Principal, Miss L. A. Emerson ; 
Assistifnts, from 1836 to '37: Miss Mather, Miss 
S. Buckingham, Miss Daniels, Mrs. Clark, Mr. 
Hobbie, arid Prof. F. Timmel, and for 1837-8-9, 
Mrs. S. A. McFarland and Miss Frances Dana, 

1839-40. — Principals : Misses E. and H. Lang- 
don ; Assistants: Miss Eliz^ V. Safford, Miss 
Anna Gillett, and Herr F. Timmel. 

1840-43. — Principal, Miss Lucy P. Tappan ; 
Assistants: Misses Walkinson, Marion, Harriet 
Darling, Harriette A. Lockwood, and Prof. Fer- 
dinand Timmel. 

1843-45. — Principal, Miss Marion A. Hawkes ; 
Assistants : Misses Susan F. Hawkes, Harriette 
A. Lockwood, H. Jane Atwood, and Prof. Tim- 

1845-46. — Principal, General C. P. Bucking- 
ham ; Assistants : Mrs. Buckingham, Misses 

Susan F. Hawkes, Williams, Perking, 

Hartley, and Prof. Timmel. 

1846-51. — Principal, Miss Mary Cone; As- 
sistants : Misses Margaret A. Bailey, Mary ]. 
Sanborn, Mrs. Ann Ward, Prof^ Timmel, Miss 
Caroline S. Humphrey, Mr. H. D. Munson, 
Misses Amanda A. Hodgman, Alice S. Cone, 
Agnes W. Beecher, Millard M. Slaughter, Mary 
S. Guthrie. 

1851-54. — Principal, Miss C. Augusta Gregg ; 
Assistants : Misses Margaret A. Bailey, Agnes 
W. Beecher, Julia Thompson, Mary H. Harris, 
L. M. Clark, M. W. Benton, Prof. Timmel, 
Misses M. L. Kellogg, J. A. Thompson, M. S. 
Wheeler, L. Hinkle, M. Hartwell, J. A. Cutter, 
F. O. Goodale, J. Stanwood, M. L. Waters, J. 
A. Colburn, M. Crane, and C. L. Dudley. 

1854-58. — Principal, Miss Maria L. Hubbard ; 
Assistants : Misses Abby N. Smith, Harriette E. 
Howard, Annie C. Mayhew, Amanda A. True, 
Mary Buckingham, Anna P. Clarke, Mary P. 
Hastings, Prof. Timmel ; Misses Estelle Ditson, 
Caroline E. Hosmer, Caroline L. Dudley, Sarah 
R. Hubbard, Edith D. Mathews, Abby F. Hub- 
bard, Martha R. Cutter, Caroline D. L. Kress, 
Julia M. Howard, Mary P. Beach, Maria Par- 
sons, Elizabeth Fulton, Mary C. Thompson. 

1858-59. — Principal, Miss Martha Eastman ; 
Assistants: Misses Clementine M. Courrier, 
Hannah Noble, Adeline Sargent, Caroline D. L. 
Kress, Elizabeth Fulton, Harriet Minott, M. An- 
nette Strong, Clara E, Palmer. 



1859-60. — Principal, Miss Mary A. Strong; 
Assistants : Misses Clara E. Palmer, Helen No- 
ble, Helen M. Richards, Maria Parsons, Caro- 
line D. L. Kress, Lavinia B. Dibble. 

1860-61. — Principal, Franklin Wood, A.M.; 
Assistants: James C. Beekman, A.B., Misses 
Hannah Noble, Maria A. Parsons, Sarah D. 
McMillan, Cordelia J. Fletcher, Emily Larimore. 

1861-65. — Principal, Mrs. E. A. Porter; As- 
sistants : Misses Anna Mast, K. M. Richards, 
S. Leonard, Harriet Sessions, Alma Leonard, 
Mary B, Putnam ; Mr. John Metcalf, Librarian. 

1865-66.— Miss Edith Mathews had a day 
school in the Seminary. 

1866-75. — Principal, Miss S. L. Chapman ; 
Assistants: Misses F. Caldwell, M. R. Wil- 
liams, J. A. Williams, Kate Derby, M'lfc Mar- 
chaud. Misses L. M. Bigelow, F. S. Nye, J. M. 
Gray, A. M. Stillwell, B..C..Graves, Julia Wyt- 
tenbach, Mrs. Everett, Misses Caroline A. Far- 
ley, J. A. Tenney, Anna Price, Julia M. Gray, 
H. Thompson, J. A. Huntington, M'lle A. Ra- 
gazzi, S. J. Turner, M. A. Pollock, M. D. East- 
man, C. Townsend, M'lle M. Sixte, E. M. Berx- 
ton, M. E. Brooks, M. E. Swazey, M'lle D. B. 
eigne, E. V. Eastman, P. Burns. 

1875-76. — Principal, Rev. Ebenezer Bucking- 
ham, D.D. ; Assistants: Mrs. E. N. Bucking- 
ham, Misses Laura Buckingham, Sarah M. 
Barrows, Rev. W. P. Shrom, Misses Mary G. 
Fulton, Caroline A. Farley, Marion M. Imrie, 
•and Madam M. Maimon. 

1876-80. — Principal, Mrs. J. Baldwin Ackley ; 
Associate, Miss M. H. Baldwin ; Assistants : 
Prof. Charles H. Dixon, A.M., Misses Virginia 
L. Stevens, Anna M. Sykes, Marion M.. Imrie, 
Madam M. J. Mettke, Misses Edna Kinnear, L. 
J. Vorhis, Mary S. Dunlap, Sarah Lewis, Sarah 
E. Rollo, Mrs. Mary Cowles, Madam Bade 
Garcia, Rev. A. R. Levy, Miss A. Thompson, 
Mrs. C. D. Lyons, Mrs. L. G. Shrom, Prof. E. 
De Beaumont. 

1880. — Principal, D. Evans, A.M. ; Assistants : 
B. C. Davis, Mrs. B. C. Davis, Misses M. M. 
Fleming, Sarah E. Rollo, and Mary S. Dunlap ; 
and, in 1881, Miss Rollo was succeeded by Miss 
Emeretta Comstock. 


The list up to 1844 is very imperfect, and it is 
now impossible to arrange them in classes ; the 
names obtained, known to have graduated prior 
to that time, are as follows : 

Catharine P. Buckingham, Martha H. Buck- 
ingham, Mary Mathews, Frances Dana, Abigail 
Browning, Sarah Van Beusen, Emily Mold, 
Melissa Stone, Achsah Cherry, Caroline Elliot, 
Hannah Justis, Charlotte B. Parker, Lucy M. 
Whipple, Jane Becket, Lillie Gould. 

Class of 1844. — Luanna Brush, Sarah C. 
Fracker, Sarah M. Goddard, Caroline E. Hale, 
Lucretia Mason, Harriet E. Jewett, Catharine T. 
Miser, Martha A. Seymour, Sarah Sturgis, 

Class of 1845. — Jane Gould, Sarah H. Hall, 
Elizabeth N. Horr (Buckingham), Susan C. 
Hoyt, Maria E. Miller. 

Class of 1846.— Esther S. Guthrie (Silvey), 
Maria Hopkins, Clara D. T^amb. 

Class of 1847. — Alice S. Cone (Brush), Eliza- 
beth G. Goddard, Isabella F. Howard. 

Class of 1848. — Julia A. Buckingham (Cox), 
Mary S. Guthrie (Fulton). 

Class of 1849. — Alice C. Goddard, Sarah J. 
Smith, Amanda B. Sturges (Bond). 

Class of 1850. — Agnes W. Beecher (Allen), 
Mary S. Gilbert (Van Home). 

Class of 1 85 1. —Kate J. Gilbert. 

Class of 1852. — Mary L. Bailey, Amelia 
Guthrie (King), Lizzie A. King, Mary M. Ran- 

Class of 1853. — Mercy Adams, Virginia E. 
Copeland, Josephine E. Tishburn, Rose A. 
Hahn, Lucretia V. Hosmer, Margaret Patton, 
Martha Rankin, Betty A. SafFord, Romaine M. 

Class of 1854. — Caroline M. Belknap, Lizzie 
Hinkle, Sallie Peters, Eliza V. Safford. 

Class of 1855. — Mary P. Barker, Amanda T. 
Buckingham, Indiana S. Copeland, Mary E. 
Haver (Kingsbur}'), Caroline Haver (Wor thing- 
ton), Edith D. Matthews (Canby), Lucy Munch, 
Mary C. Nye. 

Class of 1856. — Mary Allen, Anna Blandy, 
Anna B. Cram, Esther E. Dulty, Frances L. 
Sherwood, Amanda A. True. 

Class of 1857. — Margaret D. Allen, Maria J. 
Banks, Sarah F. Bowers, Ella F. Chapman, 
Caroline DeWar, Harriet A. Dinsmore, Hannah 
Galigher, Annie Haines, Maria Parsons, Julia 
A. Peabody, Cornelia J. Robins. 

Class of 1858. — Harriet A. Culbertson (Fill- 
more), Ellen A. Duncan, Mary C. Duncan, 
Mary E. Glessner, Caroline Jones (Wiles), Ju- 
lietta R. Palmer, Kate Sturges, Louise A. Tur- 

Class of 1859. — Virginia J. Ball, Lucy J. Ben- 
nett, Fidelia A. Brainerd, Margaret J. Cassiday, 
Anna Ellis, Lavinia C. Folger, Harriet B. 
James, Anna P. Jennings, Elizabeth a Kear- 

Class of i86o. — Elizabeth S. Fenstermaker, 
Anna Leslie, Mary. A. Merrick, Sarah E. Ship- 
man (Kingsbury), Mary C. Thompson. 

Class of 1861. — Kate B. Convers, Cordelia J. 
Fletcher, Sidney S. Matthiot, Jane E. Parsons, 
Elmira Scott, Kate R. Thomas. 

Class of 1862. — Ella A.Allen (Munson), An- 
na S. Bradshaw, Anna M. Manly, Clara B. 
Printz, Judith D. Peabody (Brush), Lizzie B. 
Ross, Sue A. Stillwell. 

Class of 1863. — Mary J. Brown, Julia A. 
Clarke, Mary E. Chapman, Augusta Haver, 
Hattie N. Lowe, Isadora Merrick, Fannie S. 
Nye, Hannah A. Parsons, Ellen R. Peabody. 

Class of 1864. — Alice Brown, Mary S. Dun- 
lap, Marjr C. Guthrie, Anna L. Price, Susie 
Thompson, Eliza VanHorne. 

Class of 1865. — Sallie Gillis, Lizzie Gillespie, 
Mary Springer, Jennie Ewarson, Rebecca 
Campbell (Farquhar). 

Class of 1866. — Josephine C. Stinger, Helen 
M. Thompson. 






















Class of 1868 — Ella S. Brown, Laura Ful- 
ton, Julia M. Gray, Clara D. Guthrie (Clark), 
Rachel H. Huston, Lulu S. Potwin (Munson), 
Rose B. Sterret, Julia E. Wiles. 

Class of 1869. — -Mary D. Eastman, Minerva 
T. Nye, Mary J. Roe." 

Class ol 1870.— Kate M. Ashbaugh, Mattie 
Taylor, Helen M. Twaddle. In Music, Vir- 
ginia C. Darlington. 

Class of 187 1. — Edith Eastman, Mary Gali- 
gher, Edith S. Hahn, L. Eva Holt (Gilbert), 
Mary M. Leggelt, Carrie E. Townsend (Lyon). 
In Music, Carrie E. Townsend. 

Class of 1872. — Lizzie S. Beaumont. 

Class of 1873.— Lizzie M. Cox, Mary F. 
Linn, Mary E. Munson, Cora Potwin (Ellis). 

Class of 1874. — Carrie M. Beaumont, Con- 
stance G. DuBois, Ella D. Sedgewick (Taylor). 

Class of 1875. — Sophia Adams, MaryE. Rob- 
ertson, Augusta Thompson", Clara S. Town- 

Class of 1876. — Elsie W. Buckingham, Cora 
B. Black, Anna V. Culbertson, JessieA. Gless- 
ner, Fannie L. Russell, Ida A. Townsend. 

Class of 1877. — Mary H. Buckingham, Mary 
E. Reese (Baker). 

Class of 1878. — Anna M. Granger, Lucy R. 
Hazlett, Ella Richards. 

Class of 1879. — Anna G. Arthur, Amy S. 
Blandy, Kate C. Galigher, Cora M. Hubbell, 
Mary J. McBride, Etta W. Pillsbury. 

Class of 1880. — Lizzie Ayers-, Dora Black, 
Katie Little, Cora Manly, Jennie Richards, Hat- 
tie Townsend. 

Class of 1881. — Emma Blandy, Anna Brown, 
Nellie Buckingham, LilHan Chappelear, Mame 
Conrade, Ada Galligher, Allie S. Gillespie, 
Belle Gi-anger, Bessie Hoge, Bessie Hutchinson, 
Bertie Leutz, Linnie Mason, Lillie R. S afford. 

The City Council ot Zanesville applied to the 
County Commissioners for the privilege of an- 
nexing certain territory to that city. February 
28, 1870, an ordinance was passed by the City 
Council of Zanesville, applying to the County 
Commissioners for the annexation of certain con- 
tiguous territory ; this ordinance described, by 
metes and bounds, south Zanesville, with all- its 
additions. The County Commissioners met 
May 18, 1870, for the purpose of considering the 
act of Council, and granted their request. 

June I, 1870, a transcript of the proceedings of 
said County Commissioners was filed with the 
City Council, that being their next regular meet- 
ing. August I, 1870, the City Council created 
the Seventh Ward of the city of Zanesville out 
of the territory above described. 

Putnam Annexed to Zanesville. — At a 
meeting of the City Council of Zanesville, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1872, an ordinance was passed annex- 
ing the town of Putnam to the city of Zanesville, 
and said ordinance, being submitted to the peo- 
ple on the first Monday of April, 1872, was ap- 
proved by a majority of their votes being cast in 

favor of it. 

At a meeting of the City Council, held April 22, 

1872, an ordinance was passed accepting the 
town of Putnam as an addition to the city of 
Zanesville ; and on the 6th of May, following, 
an ordinance was passed, constituting the said' 
annexed territory the Ninth Ward of the city 
of Zanesville. 

"Cliffwood," and that portion of Putnam south 
of it, was included in this annexation, as was also 
that portion to the west line, and north of Mus-- 
kingum avenue, being the north line of said cor- 


The following exhibit will be found more ex- 
tensive in kind than Western villages can gener- 
ally show, and eloquently sets forth the induce- 
ments to settle in the community. The list be- 
gins with the first merchant and first professional 
man in Springfield. Some of these have succes- 
sors at this day. The writer would willingly in- 
dulge in reminiscenses concerning these, in or- 
der to gratify a legitimate curiosity on the part 
of the reader, and his own fondness for story-tell- 
ing, and thus perpetuate their prominent traits of 
character and influence in society, but feels con- 
strained to do just as well as their posterity, who 
have not been careful to preserve these, even in 
a legendary form. So that it behooves the pres- 
ent generation to take warning, that it may be 
truly said — he lived. 

No drop of that clear stream its way shall miss 
To thy sire's heart, replenishing its source 
With life, as the soul rejoins the universe. 
Nor fail to fill the heart of the scion coming 
With a loving«and ambitious longing, 
A treasure ai the holiest memory — 
Though his head be ne'er so hoary. 

The list is given in the order in which the rep- 
resentatives are believed to have appeared, only 
following in the various classes : 

Dr. Increase Matthews, merchant and phy- 

General Merchants — Buckingham & Sturges, 
Burlingame & Silvey, Philip Munch, M. B. Cush- 
ing. Wills & Thomas, Spear & Helmick, J. R. 
Thomas & Co., J. C. Guthrie, Smith & Shon- 
man, A. A. Guthrie, WilHam Large, Elder & 
McCoy, McCoy & Lodge, Seaman, Hiner & 
McKnight, Samuel Atkinson, McCoy Brothers, 
L. & P. Wiles, W. F. McCoy, J. R. Thomas, 
William Munch and J. C. Gillespie. 

Hardware — S. C. Hoover, Thomas Berkshire. 

Jeweler — Henry Safford. 

Tailors — ^John LaFerry, Samuel Ashmore, 
William Berkshire , Rogers . 

Saddle and Harness Makers — Manning Put- 
nam, Adolphus Chandler, S. C. Haver, Z. M. 
Chandler, John Frederickson. 

Druggists —V>x . Mathews, E. Dillon, Joseph 

Cabinet Makers— ]a.mes Sloan, Harry Gray, 
Jesse Smith, Jr., Gray & Large, Eli Nesbaum, 
John Drake. 




Tinsmiths — V. Best, Best & Haver, Thomas 

Shoe and Boot Makers — ^John Russell, John 
Waples, Benjamin Graham, Andrew Alexander, 
D. Harden, Keen. 

Tanners — Horace Nye, Levi Chapman, 

Tanner, Peleg Mason, Jacob Reese, Wm. Reese, 
A. M. Ewing, George Reese. 

Millwrights — John Goshen, John 'Gold, John 
Conwell, Thomas Wiles, Henry Goshen, James 
Goshen, John Goshen, Jr. 

7«'»5r«s-i— Leavens Ballentine, John Brock, 
Adam Fronts. 

Physicians — Drs. Mathews, Jesse Chandler, 
Smith, Reed, Conant, Robert 

Saiford, E. Dillon, Brown, E. A. Farquhar, 

J. B. Erwin, J. R. Larzelere, 0. C. Farquhar. 

Coolers Ross, James, Martin Jor- 
dan, Wallace. 

Blacksmiths— ^'■X\2iVa Miser, John Miser, Pe- 
ter Miser, Philip Munch, John Balthis, Henry 
Eli, Levi Clark, Stephen C. Smith. 

Wagon and Carriage Makers — Abram Josse- 
lyn, Ambrose Josselyn, Joshua Sites, LeviClark. 

Gunsmiths — John Glass, Jonathan Brelsford, 
Morgan Heaton, Samuel Glass. 

Carpenters — ^John Goshen. John Gold, Samuel 
Chapman, John Conwell, Benjamin King, Jer- 
emiah Dare, M. Crane, Joseph Collins, Henry 
Goshen, James Goshen, John Goshen, Jr., James 
Alexander, John Clark, Calvin Thompson. 

Wheelwrights — Daniel Stickney. Bernard 
Monroe, Eli Green, Charles AUwine, Bernard 

Hatters — Benjamin Rickets, John Kirk, John 

Stone and Brick Masons— ld\\n Holcomb, Ben- 
jamin Tuttle,^John Randal. 

Brick Makers — Samuel Simmons, Wm. Sim- 
mons, Samuel Simmons, Jr., Samuel Luck, Jas, 

Millers^&s. Campbell, Wm. Perry, Benja- 
min Samville, Joshua Buchanan, John Diamond, 
William Lewis. 


The following extracts are from a historical Re- 
sume, by Rev. Addison Kingsbury, supplement- 
ed by other friends, of those M'ho "bore the heat 
and burden of the day," and serve to show those 
traits of character that insure success wherever 
found. . They are 

"Footprints that perhaps another, 
Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, 
^ Seeing, shall take heart again." 

. Albert Austin Guthrie was born in Newbury, 
Washington county, Ohio, January 9th, 1803. 
When a lad of thirteen he came to Putnam, and 

was, for a time, a clerk, and afterwards a partner 
of his elder brother, Julius C. Guthrie. In the 
then state of society, the temptation was very 
strong to spend his earnings with youthful asso- 
ciates in amusement and dissipation, but con- 
vinced of the ruinous tendency of such a course, 
with characteristic decision, he shut himself up 
in his own room and spent the hours, which oth- 
ers worse than wasted, in studying the best Eng- 
lish classics he could obtain, The evenings were 
to him of priceless value. They broadened his 
mind, cultured his taste, and laid a foundation 
for future usefulness. * * He belonged 
to the party of progress, by whatever name it 
might be called. From its veiy commencement, 
he took an active part in the temperance reform, 
and was the first in this city to abandon the then 
universal practice of "treating" customers. He 
was also among the earliest and most ardent ad- 
vocates of immediate emancipation, when almost 
the entire sentiment of the community on the sla- 
very question was against him. * * * He 
was an efficient and successful anti-slavery lec- 
turer, in this and adjoining counties, its advocate 
in Presbytery and Synod, and, in the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church at Cleve-. 
land, in 1857, he made an impromptu speech, 
which was one of the most effective in that mem- 
orable body. * * He was a model Sab- 
bath-School Superintendent, and the school was 
for many years a model Sabbath-School. * * 
He was one of the original Trustees of the "Put- 
nam Ladies' Seminary," and for many years 
their secretary and financial agent. He was one 
of the originators of "Woodlawn Cemetery," and 
the first President of the Association, and a large 
part of the work of laying out and adorning that 
beautiful resting place for the dead is due to his 
skill and taste. He delivered the address of its 
dedication, in 1853. In domestic and social re- 
lations, Mr. Guthrie was eminently qualified to 
receive and give pleasure. The Austin Guthrie 
of 1873 was the Austin Guthrie of 1833, un- 
changed in all, except matured piety. 

Then there was Major Nye, the man of mili- 
tary bearing and iron will, into whose vocabulary 
the word "can't" never entered; — a soldier, 
every inch of him — whose greatest victory, how- 
ever, was not the victory of arms, but of habits ; 
whose love of personal liberty was not more 
deep than his sympathy for those in bonds, and 
under whose stern exterior thei-e throbbed a 
heart of Christian kindness and inflexible integ- 
rity, that would have braved the dungeon or the 
stake in defense of truth, and the inaHenable 
rights of man. His early life was coeval with 
the first settlement of this State, and the history 
and experience of its tragic scenes, its patient 
toils and heroic sufferings, were familiar to him 
as household words. He was born at Chester- 
field, Mass., June 8th, 1786, and died February 
15th, 1859. 

Dr. Increase Mathews was the original pur- 
chaser and one of the founders of Springfield, and 
whom the Sabbath a^lways found in the house of 
God, and whose libera^! qoritributions were freely 



given to the various objects of Christian benevo- 
lence abroad, as well as for the support of the 
institutions of religion at home. He established 
the first drug store, and was for several years the 
only physician in the Muskingum Valley ; a man 
of strict integrity, great simplicity and purity of 
character, and a "gentleman of the old school." 
He was born in Braintree, Mass., December 
22nd, 1772, and died June 6th, 1856. 

Alvah Buckingham was born at Ballston 
Springs. New York," March 20th, 1791, and 
with his parents and several brothers and sisters, 
came to Ohio in the early part of the year 1800. 
He came to this place in 1812, to assist his brother, 
Ebenezer, and with him subsequently engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, in which, while he was emi- 
nently successful, he acquired an enviable repu- 
tation for integrity. He possessed a clear, pen- 
etrating mind, and his judgment was rarely at 
fault. He was a member of the building com- 
mittee of the Putnam Presbyterian Church, and 
of the Ladies Seminary, and of the Presbyterian 
manse, as well as one of their founders. I'he 
erection of the latter was superintended by him 
and was aided by him in subscriptions. He was 
not a professor, though a liberal supporter of the 
Gospel and a regular attendant at the house of 
God, a constant reader of the Bible, a good citi- 
zen and steadfast friend, an affectionate husband 
and indulgent father. 

Solomon Sturges, a native of Fairfield, Conn., 
was born April 21 , 1796. At the age of fourteen he 
came by sea to Georgetown, D. C., and while the 
vessel was unloading, Mr. Williams, coming on 
board, took a fancy to young Sturges and he 
entered into his employ as a clerk. (Among his 
associates were : W. W; Corcoran, of Washing- 
ton City, and George Peabody, known till his 
death as the American Banker, of London. 
All of whom were then poor, but started in life, 
determined to become million-aires, and through 
the Divine power, reached the goal of their am- 
bition.) In 1814, at the invitation of Mr. Buck- 
ingham, Mr. Sturges came to Putnam, and in 
1816, in connection with Ebenezer Buckingham 
and Alvah Buckingham, (the three having 
married sisters,) formed a partnership, under the 
firm name of "E. Buckingham, Jr., & Co.", and 
in the old building, still standing on the bank of 
. the Muskingum river, at the junction of Mus- 
kingum and Putnam avenues, did a large mer- 
cantile business. ***** 

Mr. Sturges was a man of great simplicity and 
transparency of character. What he thought 
he utterd ; what he felt he manifested unequiv- 
ocally. He was a. generous neighbor, an upright 
and worthy citizen, and a true self-sacrificing 
patriot. He equipped, at his own expense, a 
company of soldiers, named for him^. "The 
Sturges Rifles," and kept them in the field for 
the support of the cause of tte Government m 
the late war. He was, among the very first to 
invest in Government securities, taking a hun- 
dred thousand dollars, before theU. S. loan was 
popular at home. He was one of the founders 
and Trustees of the Ladies Seminary. And to 

the institutions of religion he gave a liberal 
support, and was a punctual attendant at the house 
of God. He contributed cheerfully to the vari- 
ous objects of Christian benevolence, and to the 
American Colonization Society in particular. 
After a course of remarkable activity and untir- 
ing energy, he came back from his lifes' work, 
to the bosom of his family, and, tenderly nursed 
by his daughters, died, October 14, 1864, and 
by his sons was borne to his burial. 

JuHus C. Guthrie, cut off suddenly in the 
vigor of manhood, was a successful merchant, 
highly esteemed ; a man of noble bearing, of 
warm and generous heart, of tender religious 
sensibility, a constant attendant and an interested 
listener and worshiper in the sancturary. He 
was born near Belpre, Washington county, O., 
April 26, 1 792,- -the first white person born in 
that part of the N. W. Territory— now State of 
Ohio. He died deeply lamented, July 25, 1849, 
aged 57 years. 

"Dr. Robert Safford, "the beloved physician," 
in whom we all confided, whom to know was to 
honor and esteem ; a constant reader and ad- 
mirer of the Bible ; a man of profound humility, 
who wept at the love of Jesus, and delighted in 
pointing others to the Hght of life, and bearing 
them on the wings of prayer to the very foot of 
the mercy-seat, died on July 6th, 1854, aged 
60 years. "These with others, both living and 
dead, were the men who composed the congre- 
gation when this church was first organized. 
Were the women in the enterprise less worthy? 

First, as being eldest in years, was Mrs. 
Betsey Mathews, a woman of quiet, matronly 
dignity, of great excellence and worth, of few 
words, but well chosen, a prudent wife, a kind 
and discreet mother, a Christian of exemplary 
and intelligent piety. * * She was 

born September 28, 1775, and died May 3,4852. 

Near her in friendship and neighborhood, was ■ 
Mrs. Eliza Whipple, more social but less in- 
tellectual, of a warm and generous nature, al- 
ways ready to help forward every good cause, 
and finding her own happiness in making others 
happy. She was one of the eariiest residents of 
the place, and from her first consecration _ to 
Christ maintained a uniform, consistent Christian 

Of a more quiet but cheerful temper, was her 
sister, Mrs. Patience Leavens. Her devotion to 
the interests of the church here and in her later 
home, was unwavering and most intense. She 
made the very atmosphere of her home redolent 
with her christian zeal, and all who entered 
could but breathe in the influence of her devout 
and heavenly spirit. She was truly a mother 
in Israel. 

Mrs. Eunice Buckingham deserves a most 
honored place. She was born in Glastenbury, 
Conn., October 22d, 1792, and in August,_i8i6,. 
newly married, with her husband and sisters, 
crossed the Allegheny Mountains on horseback, 
there being then no roads for carriages or 
wagons. Suddenly widowed in 1832 by a 
dreadful casualty, she met the shock with 



Christian fortitude and submission, and brought 
to her new position and increased responsibilities 
an unwavering purpose and a conscientious 
fidelity worthy of all praise. As the sole head 
of her family, she ruled her household well, 
though her children were held by a silken 
thread. She was dignified, yet unassuming, 
generous, yet unostentatious, her piety gradually 
maturing to the end, and bringing not merely a 
peaceful, but triumphant death. * * * 

Besides paying one-half of the expense of rear- 
ing the Seminary building, she left $io;ooo for 
its endowment, the interest of which is to be ap- 
propriated for purposes of female education per- 
petually, un(Jer the direction of her daughters, 
and their successors; $i,ooo, the interest of 
which should be contributed to the pastor's sup- 
port till his salary reached $800 ; $1,500 toward 
the erection of the manse ; $1^000 to the Ameri- 
can Bible Society ; $1,000 to the American Board 
of Comnjissioners of Foreign Missions; $1,000 
to the American Home Missionary Society ; $1,- 
000 for the cause of emancipation, and $500 to 
the American Tract Society. She died Febi'u- 
ary 28, 1843. 

Nor should her sisters, Mrs. Ann Bucking- 
ham and Mrs. Lucy Slurges, be omitted from 
these brief sketches, both of whom were "hon- 
orable women" and exemplary Christians. Mrs. 
Buckingham was a fine example of conscientious 
fidelity in all the duties and relations of life. The 
heart of her husband trusted in her, and her pru- 
dence and skill, with her habits of industry and 
economy, relieved him of all anxiety. Her chil- 
dren rise up and all call her blessed. 

Mrs. Sturges was of a more retiring disposi- 
tion, unpretending, discreet and lovely, and a 
sincere and faithful disciple, adorning the doc- 
trine of God, her Savior, in all "things ; a most 
devoted wife and mother, active in duty and 
heroic in suffering, a steadfast friend and peace 
maker, a generous patron of the Sabbath School, 
furnishing most of the means for the erection of 
the hall -in which it now meets, and the benefac- 
tress of her pastor. She was born in Glasten- 
bury. Conn., May 22,1800, and died July 25,1850. 

Not less worthy of note was Mrs. Maria A. 
Sturges, a decided, active, devoted Christian ; 
the first to see and lament any declension of the 
church, and the first to rejoice in the returning 
influence of the spirit, and to welcome the Sa- 
vior back to His deserted fold ; thoroughly edu- 
cated, retiring, yet energetic ; ready to make 
sacrifices, and to use her facile and gifted pen, 
as she often did, in the cause of sufiering hu- 
manity and of practical godliness. With all her 
amiability, she was yet a very positive character. 
By her intelligence and fervent piety, she had a 
marked influence, especially with regard to the 
culture and early conversion of children, and 
did more than any other member in forming 
and giving character to the Maternal Associa- 
tion, of which she was the efficient and honored 
Secretary. Her sudden death, in the midst of 
life, was deeply mourned. She died in Decem- 
ber, 1842. 

Mrs. Parmelia Guthrie was a woman who 
embodied, in a high degree, many of the traits 
of the good woman of inspiration ; the same ac- 
tivity and energy characterized her house ; the 
same prudence and discretion in her speech and 
behavior ; the same law of kindness, which kept 
her from speaking evil, and disposed her to put 
on it the best construction an action would bear ; 
the same benevolence, which made her feel she 
was a debtor to do unwearied acts of kindness to 
every one who came under 'her roof, or sojourn- 
ed in her famlily ; the same fear of the Lord, 
leading her to a prompt obedience, not only to 
an unwavering trust in Christ and the most fervent 
desires that her children might all be embraced 
in the bonds of the everlasting covenant. She 
was a faithful daughter, wife, and mother, amid 
the toils and privations of pioneer fife, of which 
she has left an honorable record. She was born 
in Cooperstown, New York, August 20, 1799, 
and died March 14, 1863. 

Mrs. Lucinda Nye, another of the "honorable 
women" of this church, was born in Newburg, 
Orange County, New York, April 22, 1791, and 
removed, with her father's family to this vicini- 
ty, in October, 1819. Soon after she came to 
this place, in the family of Mr. J. C. Guthrie, she 
supported herself by her needle, and subse- 
quendy by teaching. In the "Stone Academy," 
she had a school of some twenty-five or thirty 
scholars, in whom she became deeply interested, 
and whom she followed with her counsels and 
prayers, and nearly all of whom became the sub- 
jects of diviiie grace. Soon after coming here, 
she united with the Presbyterian Church, of 
Zanesville and Springfield, and at the time of 
the formation of this church, was one of its effi- 
cient members. Mrs. Nye was a woman of 
great vitality and energy of character, a pattern 
of industi-y, and a lover of nature and art. Some 
specimens of her handiwork were the wonder 
and admiration of the beholder. * * * 

Her faith was a very distinct apprehension of 
things unseen, as well as a personal trust in the 
Savior and a reliance on his promises. This 
kept her cheerful and hopeful to the end, and 
gave fervency and importunity to her prayers, 
led her to the house of God, and to her closet, 
and to the female prayer meeting, which was 
held at her house for a number of years. April 
9, 1874, disease, "gende," "not tardy," intro- 
duced her spirit to the joy of her Lord, and we 
laid the earthly tabernacle 

"Beneath the turf she had often ti'od " 

Besides these worthies now named, others 
equally deserving, might be mentioned ; but I 
have said enough to show that in its organization 
this congregation possessed more than an ordin- 
ary amount of activity, and sanctified talent. 

Dr. Reed lived in a house below Judge Put- 
nam's, and which yet stands as a monument of 
the ancient town. 

Levi Whipple, a sterling man, engaged with 
Judge Putnam in milHng. He had several sons, 



Warner, Franklin and Wells ; they engaged in 
trade in the West. 

Harry SafFord, "the Postmaster General of 
the village," was an earnest, positive, but genial, 
humorous and cordial man. The soul of any en- 
terprise in which he took part, and the life of 
any company he was in. He married the daugh- 
ter of General Isaac VanHorne, a leading pio- 
neer of Zanesville. His own family was of Eng- 
lish stock, through the Yankee blood of New 

He was the foremost in every cause for the 
benefit of his town, and his fellow-men. He 
was a member of the First Presbyterian Church, 
and a warm friend of its pastor. Dr. James Cul- 

The Reformers of the day found in him a de- 
cided and active support. He espoused the 
cause of temperance from its birth, and was ever 
a zealous advocate, and example. The African 
had no warmer friend. Negro slavery was to 
him an abomination. 

The Colonization Society, the prime source of 
the final extinction of slavery, was long sustained 
in this community by his active interest and la- 
bors. For years he was its efficient Secretary. 

In politics he was a thorough Whig and Pro- 
tectionist ; well informed on all the questions of 
the day, taking his gospel from the New York 
"Tribune" and Horace Greely — his friends and 

The Sunday School, however, was his chosen 
field. He was never so much in his element as . 
in organizing and pushing a Sunday School, 
planting some of the first schools ever started in 
Muskingum county. Many are the persons who 
have come to his children to say that Harry Saf- 
ford was the man who picked them off the street 
and gave them a start in life, from his Sunday 

In educational matters he took an early and 
permanent place ; himself, in early life, a teach- 
er, and well read in all matters pertaining thereto ; 
with a special delight in poetry, of which he 
would repeat large portions from the best authors, 
ever catching the inspiration of him who wrote : 

"To thee, whose temple is all space, 
Whose altar, earth, sea, and skies ! 
One chorus, let all being raise ! 
All nature's incense rise ! " 

He gave his sons more than a "liberal educa- 
tion ; he gave them what the best colleges of the 
land could give. Dr. James M. Safford, after a 
course at Yale, was appointed State Geologist 
of Tennessee, and made an elaborate and schol- 
arly report of the geology of that State. He 
subsequently became Professor of Chemistry in 
the Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennes- 
see.. Rev. J. P, SafFord, D.D., after a course of 
study at Boston, and Princeton, was ordained to 
the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, and set- 
tled at Frankfort, Kentucky. He was afterwards 
appointed District Secretary of Missions for Ohio 
and Indiana, and filled that position to the entire 
satisfaction of Zanesville Presbytery, being re- 

peatedly re-elected, and occupied that office at 
the time of his death, which occurred at his resi- 
dence, in Zanesville, July 10, 1881, and which 
was as peaceful and serene as if he was sleeping. 
He leaves five children, two sons and three 
daughters ; two brothers. Rev. James M. Saf- 
ford, of Tennessee, and Isaac SafFord, of Cali- 
fornia, and two sisters, Mrs. Triplet and Mrs. 
Barney, of Coshocton, Ohio. 

Early settlers, having the profits of the chase 
in view, and hearing the good report concerning 
the "Northwest Country," were eager to settle 
in this region. Henry Crooks, from Martins- 
burgh, Virginia, came in 1797, and settled near 
the mouth of the Licking river, on the hillside, 
about the north end of Pine stseet, as now des- 
ignated. He was engaged with Jonathan Zane 
and John Mclntire, in operating a ferry across 
the Muskingum river, assisted by William Mc- 
Cullough, who had settled on the east side of 
the river. [The ferry consisted of two canoes, 
fastened side by side.] In 1798, Andrew Crooks 
came, and settled on the west side of the river, 
near the ferry landing, but subsequently re- 
moved to the east side of the river. During this 
year, George Mathews came, and built a cabin 
on the hill now called "Putnam Hill. 

Town of Natchez. — Proprietorship seemed 
contagious in those days. The success of Zanes- 
town and Springfield, while yet in swaddling 
clothes, was not without its effect. And, as 
there was no legal hindrance to the creation of 
another Paradise, tradition informs us, that in 
1806, General Isaac Van Home laid out the 
town of Natchez. The boundaries were about 
as follows : On tiie east, by a line west of the 
Muskingum river, beginning not far from the 
Main street bridge, taking in a part of the Pine 
Street Hill, and extending near the intersection 
of the National road and the Licking river, and 
having that stream for its northern boundary, 
and the Muskingum for its eastern boundary. 
This boundary included the "house built by 
Plenry Crook, in 1797, on the north side of the 
bluff near the north end of Pine street," and he 
thus became the first settler in the town of Natch- 
ez. The second house was built by General 
Isaac Van Home. Isaac Zane built a house on 
the site now occupied by Thomas Drake, be- 
tween Spring and Young streets. In this house 
"the accustomed dance of the good- old colony 
times," was kept up during the entire week be- 
tween Christmas and New Year following its 
















The churches of Zanesville have maintained 
a steady growth, and, notwithstanding the de- 
nomitlational differences, will be found to have 
the Spirit of thie Master pervading them, as any 
one hiay observe who becomes even slightly ac- 
quainted with their workings. They appear in 
this" chapter in the order of* their organization, 
as follows : 



Before the year 1800, there was no preacher 
here — and we have no means of knowing who 
were members. In that year, the Western Con- 
ference, which included all of the territory west 
of the Alleghany Mountains, sent John Stone- 
man to the work on the Muskingum and Hock- 
ing rivers. His field of labor was some three 
hundred miles wide. He was followed, in 1801, 
by J. P. Chenowort, who was succeeded, in 1802, 
by N. B. Mills, and he, in 1803, bv William 

In 1804, the Ohio District of the Western Con- 
ference was formed, with William Burk as Pre- 
siding Elder, and George Askins was appointed 
to the work in this part of the State. [Rev. 
John Goshen held the first Love-Feast ever held 
in Zanesville, in 1805 ; among the prominent 
Methodists of that time, were: "Mother Goff," 
Samuel Parker and wife, and Mrs. Dr. HilHer 
— ^according to E. H. Church.] Mr. Askins was 
followed by James Quinn and John Meek. They 
were succeeded, in 1806, by Luther Tajj^lor ; 
and, in 1807, came that man of wonderful life — 
Peter Cartwright. In 1808, there is a doubt as 
to who labored in this field, but it is believed 
that Isaac Quinn and William Patterson were 
here. In 1809, the Muskingum District was 
formed, out of part of the Ohio District, and 
James Quinn was appointed Presiding Elder, 
and James Watts and Ralph Lotspeed were ap- 
pointed to our part of the District. In 1810, 
William Sale was Presiding Elder, with no 
change made in the preachers. The following 
year, came John Stronge and Jacob Mills. In 

181 2, James B. Finley was appointed, and this 
was thought a promising field. 

Our present Ohio Conference was formed in 

1813, including the Muskingum District, and in 

it we first find the name of Zanesville as an ap- 
pointment, which is as follows : 

John Clingan, 
William Dixon, 
Joseph Kinkead, 
"William Knox, 
f John Waterman, 
\ Thomas Carr, 
( John Tivis, 
\ Samuel Glaze, 
/ Thomas A. Morris, 
I Charles Elliott, 

, -„. T ^, „. ^ f Thomas A. Morris, 

1820 Jonathan Stamper, | g^^.j q. Brockemier, 

Year. Presiding Elders. 

1813 ..David Young, 

1814 " 

1815 " 

1816 Jacob Young, 

1817 « 



1821 Charles Waddle, 

1822 Jacob Young, 

f James Hooper, 
1 Archibald McElroy, 
) Leroy Swormstead, 
\ Moses M. Hinkle. 

The next year the Zanesville station and the 
Zanesville circuit were constituted distinct, sep- 
arate appointments, in the Lancaster District, 
with Jacob Young as its Presiding Elder, and 
John P. Durbin sent to Zanesville as its first 
Methodist Episcopal preacher, during its first 
year as a station, fifty-seven years ago. A mem- 
orable space of shining years — freighted with 
"showers of mercy," and spiritual harvests, dur- 
ing which the membership has grown to one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-three. How 
long the roll on this shore, and how many names 
are written in the Book of Life on the other 
shore ? 

Year. Presiding Elders. Preachers. 

1824 Jacob Young, L. Swormstead, 

1825 " James Quinn, 

1826 " David Young, 

1827 David Young, Joseph Carper, 

1828 :.... " W.B.Christie, 

1829 " Nathan Emery, 


1831 L. Swormstead, Absalom D. Fox. 

The next year, Putnam was first made a 
preaching place, and James Gibruth and Abner 
Goft' appointed there. In 1832, L. Swormstead 
was Presiding Elder, and Zanesville had J. M. 
Trimble. In 1833, the Zanesville District of the 
Ohio Conference was first formed, and the ap- 
pointments were as follows : 

J. M. Trimble, 
Absalom D. Fox, 
David Whitcomb, 

Year. Presiding Elders. 

1833 L. Swormstead, 


1835 J. Faree, 

1S36 D. Young, 

/ David Whitcomb, 

James Courtney, 
" William Simmons, 

" William H. Lawder, 

Kobert O. Spencer, William H. Lawder. 

« J Uriah Heath, 

I John W. Stone, 
II 5 Uriah Heath, 

} W. R. Davis, 
<i < W. J. Ellsworth, 

< J. F. Conway, 

1«43 J. B. Finley, | fos.'i'^^rrman, 

I William Young, 
( J. A. Waterman. 






The next year, the society of Seventh Street 
was formed from the Second Street Chmxh, by 
geographical lines, and the church whose record 
we have been tracing was thenceforth known as 
Second Street Church. 

Year. Presiding Elders. Preachers. 

1845 J. B. Finley, George E. Crum. 

1846 J.M.Jamison, » 

1847 " M.Dustin. 

1848 " " 

1849 Jacob Young, Asbury Lowery. 

1850 " 

1851 " E.M. Boring. 

1852 J. M. Trimble, J. W. White. 


1854 " J. A. Bruner. 

1855 " " 

1856 J. W.White, Ansel Broolcs. 


1858 " J. A. Frazier. 

1859 " " 

1860 J. A. Frazier, Benjamin St. J. Fry. 

.1861 " J. A. Creighton. 

1862 " " 

1863 " H.K. Foster. 

1864 D. D. Mather, " 

1865 " D.H.Moore. 

1866 T.H. Phillips, " 

This year the South Street Mission Church 
was established, with A. H. Windsor, preacher 
in charge. 

Year. Presiding Elders. Preachers. 

1867 T. H. Phillips, D. H. Moore. 

1868 William Porter, Thomas E. Taylor. 

1869 " 

1870 " Isaac Crook. 

1871 " " 

1872 L.Cunningham, 

1873 " J. W. Peters. 

1874 " 


1876 M. T. Harvey, O. J. Nave. 

1877 " « 

1878 " James Hill. 

1879 « " 

1880 James Hill, »W. M. Mullenix. 

In the beginning they worshiped and held 
prayer meetings in the Court House. Several 
buildings have been built upon the church lot, 
according to the memory of some who can re- 
call the beginning of this "sheepfold," and it is 
much to be regretted that we have no picture of 
our first humble church home. 

The first church was commenced in 1813. It 
was a one-story frame, forty by sixty feet, with 
gable end toward Second street, with two doors 
in that end, each opening into an aisle. In 
the center, between the aisles, was a partition ; 
the men sat on one side, and the women on the 
other. It had, for a long time, no floor, because 
the builders, Thomas Moorehead and William 
Craig, were unable to get seasoned lumber to 

*Transferred from the Kentucky Conference, and appointed 
to this Qharge, October 9th, by Bishop Peck ; came to his field 
of labor, November 15tb, 1880, 

finigh it up with. This was borne with patiently, 
as many hours had been spent happily by our 
fathers and mothers in log cabins, with earthen 
floors. The lumber for the floor was ricked up 
in the west end of the building, to season, and on 
it a four-legged sewing stand served as a pulpit ; 
behind it was the preacher's unpainted, but well 
seasoned, wooden chair. The people sat on the 
flat upper surface of the sills of the building. 
There were four large hewed posts in the rbom, 
to support the ceiling and roof. Gilbert Blue fin- 
ished up the inside of the house the next spring, 
and Jas. Gurley, brother of our much esteemed L. 
B. Gurley, presented the society with two chande- 
liers, which were swung on pulleys from the .ceil- 
ing. The doors were huiigby strap hingeg, and 
opened b}'^ wrought iron thumb latches. : ' This 
building continued in use until 1830, when the 
second house was erected, which was of brick, 
and stood in front of the old frame. James Millis 
took an active part in its erection. The cliurch 
was one-story high, and had a regular old-fash- 
ioned meeting-house look. Four windows on 
the north side, and four on the south, and. two in 
the west end, with the- pulpit between ; and, 
though very plain, was comfortable. Fr9m, its 
pulpit, from 1830 to i860, eloquent, aye, thrilling 
sermons, were uttered, which so stirred the mem- 
bers that Methodism took a stirong hold, and 
grew rapidly in the city. 

The present house (which is the third) was 
built in i860. During the time of its erection, 
the congregation occupied the old church (Rad- 
ical) on South street, the present A. M. E. 
Church. The plan was obtained by a commit- 
tee, appointed for the purpose, in Washington 
City. It is commodious, and in good taste, a 
credit to the 'committee, and a very satisfactory 
church, with very neat and comfortable sittings, 
and has now a very fine pipe organ. The fol- 
lowing are the title papers by which the property 
is held : The first record is found February 2d, 
1814, Record "D," p. 314, and is as follows : 

"Jonathan Zane and Hannah, his wife ; 
John McIntire and Sarah, his wife ; 
To Christian Spangler, 
'Samuel Frazey, 
Jesse Miller, 
James Vickers, 
Joseph Haw^kins, 
John Spry, 
Barney Monroe, 

Trustees, and their successors. 
"Consideration, .$100.00, specie. Lot 8 rods 
east and west, and 8 rods north and south, and 
being lot No. 8, in square No. 3, in the present 
plat of the city of Zanesville." 
Date, February 2d, 1814. 

The deed contains, among other provisions, 
the following : Said Trustees shall erect there- 
on a house of worship, for the use of the mem- 
bers of the M. E. Church, in the United States 
of Amei^ica, according to the rules and discipline 
which from time to time, shall be adopted by the 
General Conference, Also, the trustees shall 



forever permit such ministers and preacher^ be- 
longing to said church as are authorized by the 
General Conference and the Annual Conference 
to preach and expound God's holy word therein. 
And in further trust that the board shall be kept 
up to seven members. And further, that if, at 
any time, any Trustee advances any money on 
account of said premises, the board is authorized 
to mortgage the premises, and to sell them, on 
giving notice to the preacher in charge, if the 
money is not repaid in one year from such notice. 
Should any sale be made under such circum- 
stances, the surplus shall be deposited in the 
hands of the Stewards of the society, to be dis- 
posed of by the next Annual Conference for the 
best interests of this society. The deed is a gen- 
eral warranty in form, but, while Zane and wife 
are named in it in every place as grantors, their 
names are not subscribed, teut those of Mclntire 
and wife are, and the presumption is that Zane 
and wife disposed of their interest in the real es- 
tate to John Mclntire, between the date of writ- 
ing and the date of executing said deed. The 
witnesses were William Craig and Amelia 
Mclntire. Craig was the Justice of the Peace 
who took the acknowledgement. The following 
is a provision by Rev. David Young, for erecting 
a church on this ground. The will bears date 
October 3d, 1857, and was admitted to probate 
in Muskingum county, Ohio, November 13, 1858. 
He gave his books to the Trustees of this 
church, to hold in trust for the benefit of the 
ministers in charge; he gave $12,000 to the 
Trustees, to be immediately expended in the 
erection, (on the ground described in the deed 
by Zane and wife and Mclntire and wife,) of a 
good, substantial, neat house of worship, having 
a basement story, entered above ground, for the 
use and occupancy of the M. E. Church, by the 
ministers and members, according to the disci- 
pline, usages and regulations thereof. The seats 
in said house of worship to be forever free ; and 
any departure from this requisition, as to free 
seats, shall work a forfeiture of the whole of said 
sum of $12,000. And the trustees in office at the 
time of the occurrence of any such forfeiture, shall 
be individually liable torefund tohis hei-rs at law 
the whole of said $12,000. It was furthermore 
provided, that if any additional sum over said 
$12,000 be needed to build said church, that it 
should be raised, on bonds, so that no debt should 
be on the house at its dedication. And further 
provided, that if Daniel Brush should be alive at 
the time this church was to be built, that he should 
design the form and proportions of the house. 

He appointed as executors : Daniel Brush, 
John Dillon, Jr., Natnah Guttrell, John Taylor, 
Jr., and Austin Berry. 

We append some incidents of interest, con- 
nected with revivals, prayer meetings, class 
meetings, and some of the members of the 
church. The following, relative to the revival 
during the ministration of Rev. D. H. Moore, 
is from Rev. Geo. W. Barnes. 

The church had some strong and true men 
and women, who cordially received their young 

and handsome pastor, and assured him of their 
hearty co-operation. He was vigorous, ambi- 
tious and devoted, full of tact and practical sense. 
He saw a great work to be done, and felt that 
under God he must succeed. He entered upon 
a series of meetings, which at first were small. 
His watchful eye detected the interest manifested 
by a young man, and he invited seekers to the 
altar. Eternal interests hung upon the decisions 
of that moment. George Burns led the way, 
and knelt as a seeker. James Baird and John 
Frazur soon followed, not by pre-arrangement, 
for they were strangers to each other. That three 
young men should go forward at the first invita- 
tion, was a matter of astonishment that electrified 
the church. The pastor read the signs, and 
carried the meeting into the audience room, 
where no prayer meeting had ever been held, 
and for three months, day and night, old Second 
Street never has a more orderly, well sustained, 
successful revival. John Rogers, the old black- 
smith, the Moses of the church, slow in speech 
and meek, was at the altar to welcome and lead 
them to the Savior, whom he knew so well. 
And Samuel Wiles, with his charming voice and 
mind well stored with scripture, a courtly chris- 
tian gentleman, whose kindly heart, was overflow- 
ing with sympathy, helped many a young man in- 
to the kingdom. We recall the names of some 
who have answered to their names on the other 
shore: Francis Cassiday, Samuel J. Cox, Daniel 
Brush, Father Flowers, and Alexander Sullivan. 

Nearly 200 souls were converted in this meet- 
ing, and many of them are useful members of 
the church to-day. Two of them are members 
of the Ohio Conference. A number have died, 
triumphant in the faith. 

The first class meeting was held in a cabin, 
built on the ground where Jones & Abbot's foun- 
dry (on Third street) now stands. This was in 
1808, and was led by Father John Goshen. 
These class meetings were seasons of soul re- 
freshing. Prayer meetings were held in that 
cabin, and these "means of grace" have been 
fruitful to the church from that day to this. The 
present is only a multiplication of participants, 
however zealous the members ; and the church 
holds the memory of those pioneer efforts in 
grateful remembrance. 

The following is a list of the members on the 
4th day of May, 1823, as recorded by Rev. John 
P. Durban, the pastor : 

Samuel Parker, Betsy Bird, Mary Janes, Pol- 
ly Miller, Hanna Arley, Lucinda Malsburg, 
Mary Davis, Nancy McCann, Maria Stone, 
Mary Lane, Louisa Miller, Alice Mast, Char- 
lotte Spangler, Martha Day, Ann Parker, Cath- 
arine Wilson, Margaret Barber, Lyda Harper, 
Rebecca Riley, Gilbert McFadden, Thomas 
Lehue, Joseph Wilson, William Luck, John El- 
bertson, Joseph Storer, William Mackey, Isaac 
Wilson, John Houck, Joseph Chapman, Michael 
Dutro, Samuel Storer, Joseph Wilson, Jacob 
Johnson, George Girty, William Langly, James 
Millis, Levi Wilson, Alexander Martin, William 
Cook, George Storer, Nancy Dutro, Rhoda 



Bailey, Nancy Parker, Margaret Harvey, Cath- 
arine Lehue, Ann Smith, EHzabeth Lander, 
Barbara Philby, Elizabeth Lander, Patience 
Skinner, Ann Gibo, Mary Deeble, Rebecca 
Westbrook, Harriet Burgess, Harriet John- 
son, Mary Harvey, Fannie Parker, Chris- 
tian Olive, Elizabeth Gibo, Williarft Kirk, Han- 
nah Kirk, Jane Cooper, Ann Parker, Sophia 
McMillen,, Betsy Leslie, Sarah Hahn, Ann 
Chambers, Eliza Mast, Elizabeth Spangler, 
Lucy Chapman, Elizabeth Twaddle, Martha 
Blandford, Margaret Langley, Mazey Sockman, 
Joanna Smith, Elizabeth Elberson, Judith Brooke, 
Susan Langley, Elizabeth MilHs, Henry Nash, 
Jeremiah L. Illeslie, Nicholas Blandford, Henry 
McMilland, Luke G. Crossland, John Cannon, 
Septimus Parker, James Leslie, Rezin Hopper, 
David Browning, Matthew Ferguson, Moses D. 
Brooke, William Leslie, Clement Brooke, Elijah 
Taylor, George Hahn, John A. Willey, W. L. 
Chapman, Thomas Leslie, Christian Spangler, 
Nancy Jackson, Hannah Kirk, Elizabeth Stew- 
art, Hannah Barrett, Lois Chapman, Ann 
Mackay, Mary Cockrell, Elizabeth Langley, 
Elizabeth Hilton, Nancy Conly, Eliza Dare, Re- 
beccfi Taylor, Nancy Willey, Mary McFarland, 
Eliza Chapman, Catharine Gii'ty, Edith 
Dillon, Martha Marple, Isaac W. Tharp, 
Aaron Kirk, Thomas Miller, Jane Linn, 
Levi Chapman, Joseph Storer, Henry 
Olive, Abraham W. Westbrook, Charles 
Lander, Joel Chapman, Peter M. Purdy, James 
Wheeler, Samuel Frazey, James Taylor, Rees 
Willis, John Phipps, William Allen, Gilbert Blue, 
Elizabeth Blue, Sarah M. Young, Rachel Moore- 
head, Nancy Blocksom, Martha Reed, Mary 
Martin, John Butler, Ann Butler, Jane Dutro, 
Sarah Spangler, Sarah A. Nash, EHzabeth N. 
Norris, Mary Ann Hazlett, Eliza Brooke, Mary 
Smeltzer, Eliza Smith, Minerva Westlake, 
Thomas Moorehead, Maria Sum, Elizabeth Sum, 
Sarah Morris, Drusilla Tharp, Sophia Houk, 
Ann Goff, Hettie Frazey, Martha GofF, Sarah 
Lesley, Catharine Miller, Mary Ferguson, Ann 
Spangler, Jane McFadden, Dorcas Anson, 
Mary Reed, Elizabeth Allen, Sue Brush, Ann 
Randall, Louisa Patrick, Danie] Brush, Mary 
Young, James S. Fletcher, WilHam Fletcher, 
Peggy Fletcher, Rachel Fletcher, Catharine 
Fletcher, Jane Philly, Isabella Cunningham, 
Mary Harris, Lienor Killen, Mary Pardy, John 
A. Willey, Nancy Willey, Mary Willey, John 
Snow, Elizabeth Snow, Hannah Cox, Hannah 
Brook, Triffy Younger, Cornelius Woodruff, 
Peggy Woodruff, Hettie Dwyer, Jonathan Brels- 
ford, Eliza Brelsford, Mary Wilson, John W. 
Spry, Jane Spry, Minerva Zane, Rachel Luck, 
Hester Alexander, Elizabeth Sockman, Henry 
Wilson, Amanda Wilson, Huldah Wilson, 
Zadoc Hall, Charles Bailey, Phebe Bailey, 
George Golden, Rebecca Richardson, A. Flem- 
ing, Lydia Fleming, Jacob Mittinger, Rachel 
Young, Ellen Wood, Edward W. Christie, Wil- 
liam Armstrong, Ann Armstrong, Lienor W. 
Quinn, Joseph Winters, Alexander Smith, EHza- 
beth Smith, CorneHa Howard, Wesley Turner, 

Sarah Flemming, Richard Hocking, Lucinda 
Hocking, Jeptha Noah, Elizabeth Willey, Mary 
Fletcher, Mary Bateman, Nancy Winecoop, 
William Flemming, Elizabeth Beemon, Elizabeth 
Vanzant, Mary Beard, Nancy Wilson, Maria 
Lawrence, Mary Harvey, Rebecca Beck, Olcutt 
White, Etta White, James Henderson, John 
Carter, Mary Carter and Catharine McFadden. 

The parable of the sower is aptly illustrated in 
the retrospect of this church : — "Some seeds fell 
by the way-side," etc; "some fell upon stony 
places ;" "some fell among thorns ;" "but others 
fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit ; 
some a hundred fold, some sixty fold, and some 
thirty fold." Pursuing this thought, we gather 
from tradition, that under Rev. Nathan Emery, 
in 1829, Rev. J. M. Trimble, in 1833, Rev. M. 
Dustin,in 1847, Rev. John White, in 1852, Rev. 
D. H. Moore, in 1867, Rev. Isaac Crook, in 
1870, Rev. O. J. Nave, in 1876, and Rev. 
James Hill, in 1878, large accessions to the 
church, and great awakening occurred. Much 
of this seed falling into good ground. 

In 1875, this church was incorporated under 
the State laws of Ohio, and its present Board of 
Trustees authoi'ized. They are as follows : 

John W. King, President ; Dr. W. E. AtweH, 
Secretary ; G. B. Perkins, Dr. W. H. Lenhart, 
Lawson Wiles, Jacob Smith, Allen E. Twaddle 
and W. A. Weller. 

The church property, including the parsonage, 
is valued, according to the minutes, at $23,00x3. 


The inception of this church was resultant from 
the coalition of the Congregational and Presby- 
terian churches. The latter was known as the 
United Presbyterian Church of Zanesville and 
Springfield. Dr. Kingsbury, in his resyme of the 
Putnam Presbyterian Church, in which effort he 
undertook to preserve the unity of the record, in- 
forms us that, "unfortunatel}' the record of this 
church, and also the early record of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Zanesville and Springfield, 
are lost," and he was compelled to obtain what 
he could from witnesses still on the stage of ac- 
tion. The present pastor of the First Presbyte- 
rian Church, in his septennial sermon, reviewing 
the history of the church, had the same difficulty 
to contend with, and, doubtless, some points of 
interest are lost. 

In 1807, or 1808, the Rev. John Wright, for 
many years pastor of the Presbyterian Church of 
Lancaster, Ohio, passed through this city, and 
was induced to remain over Sabbath. There be- 
ing seven Presbyterians here, he assembled them 
in "Taylor's tavern," (which stood where the 
Clarendon now stands), and preached to them, 
also administered the Lord's Supper, probably 
the first time this kind of service was held here. 
These persons, Moses Boggs and wife, James 
Perry and wife, James Richey and wife, and 
Robert Culbertson, subsequently became partic- 
ipants in the organization of a church. Mr. 
Wright narrated this incident to Elder L. P. 
Bailey, years afterward. 


1 62 


The official statement concerning the organi- 
zation, in the minutes of the Presbytery of Lan- 
caster, November, 1809, meeting held in Salem, 
Washington countj^, Ohio, recites that, "William 
Jones, a licentiate of the Ohio Presbytery, was 
received. A call for Mr. Jones, from the united 
congregations of Zanesville and Springfield, be- 
- ing read and put into his hands, he declared his 
acceptance thereof." The record also shows that 
he was installed on the 26th of December, follow- 
ing. These services were held on the Putnam 
side of the river. The sermon was preached by 
Rev. Samuel P. Robbins, of Marietta, Ohio, from 
First Corinthians, 2 : 12. Rev. Jacob Lindsley, 
of Athens, presided and delivered, the charge. 
The Elders of the new church were Benjamin 
Sloan, Moses Boggs and John Thompson. A 
retrospective digression shows that, in 1807, a 
Congregational chmxh was organized at the res- 
idence of Colonel Benjamin Tupper, in Putnam, 
and, not being able to support a regular pastor, 
united with the church on this side of the river, 
and constituted the "United Presbyterian Church 
of Zanesville and Springfield." Among the 
members from Springfield were. Colonel Tupper, 
Dr. Increase Mathews, and their families, Levi 
Whipple and Ebenezer Buckingham and wife. 
General Isaac Van Home took an active part in 
the church ; was an active Elder from 1827 until 
1834, the time of his death. 

August 26th, 181 2, the Presbytery was asked 
to dissolve the pastoral relation, that Mr. Jones 
might accept a call to Circleville, Ohio. At the 
same meeting, a call was presented for the pas- 
toral sei'vices of Rev. James Culbertson, licensed 
to preach the year previous by the Presbytery of 
Carlisle, Pennsvlvania, and sent west on a mis- 
sionary tour. Mr. Culbertson accepted the call, 
and his ordination took place at Zanesville, De- 
cember 23d, 1812, and he was installed pastor of 
the United Congregations of Zanesville and 
Springfield. Mr. John Wright preached the ser- 
mon, and James Scott presided, and gave the 
charge. James Culbertson was born and raised 
in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, near Cham- 
bersburg ; received his academic education at 
Jefl^erson College, Pennsylvania, entering at an 
early age, and there, dm^ing a revival, he re- 
ceived a Christian hope. His theological studies 
were directed by Rev. Dr. King, of Mercers- 
burg, and Rev. Dr'. Merron, of Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, and he was licensed to preach April 1 1 , 
181 1. He performed the duties of pastor in 
Zanesville until the summer of 1844, when ^^ on 
account of failing health, he recommended the 
church to call an assistant, which was done. In 
August, of that year, they called Rev. Simeon 
Brown, pastor of the Presbyterian church in 
Fredericktown, Knox county, Ohio, and he en- 
tered upon his work in the same month, but was 
not installed until the 7th of May, 1845. Mr. 
Brown recognized, in his Eldership, not an orna- 
mental office, but helpers, shepherds, whose duty 
it was to care for the flock, as overseers. With 
Mr. Brown originated the Board of Deacons, and 
the following persons were elected Deacons, Aug- 

ust 1 6th, 1845: Samuel C. Haver, Edwin Burl- 
ingame, Robert P. Rob?nson, Wfilliam Winter 
and J. B. Allen. 

Mr. Brown, in addition to his ministerial duties, 
gave much attention to wi'iting for newspapers and 
was also an editor. While pastor of the church 
in Fredericktown, he published the "Calvanistic 
Monitor," (this was, at the time, the only "old 
school" paper published in Ohio), in which the 
Rev. William Dunla.p, of Marion, Ohio, was as- 
sociate editor. This paper subsequently became 
"the Presbyterian of the West," published first at 
'Springfield, and then at Cincinnati. After his 
settlement here, he began to publish "the Col- 
porteur," having withdrawn from the Presbytery. 
This was continued until January 8th, 1848, when 
the "Family Quarto" appeared, which he edited 
until June 28, 1850. In July, of the same year, 
he resigned his pastorate to take the agency of 
the Board of Publication of the Northwestern 
States, but subsequently became pastor of a Con- 
gregational church, and has passed "over the 

Mr. Culbertson preached but one sermon after 
Mr. Brown became assistant, which he preached 
in November, 1844, although he was alwayS able 
to attend public worship. Until within a few 
weeks of his death he was able to officiate at mar- 
riages, baptisms, and the Lord's Supper. He 
offered the closing prayer of the service the last 
Sabbath but one previous to his death. He was 
taken with paralysis, at a neighbor's, and died 
eight days after, aged sixty-one years and four 
months. And ever and anon comes, like a sweet 
refrain, those beautiful words : 

"Thou art gone to the grave, but 'twere wrong to deplore thee, 
When God was thy ransom, thy guardian, thy guide; 
He gave thee, and took thee, and soon will restore thee, 
Where death hath no sting, since the Savior hath died." 

At the time Mr. Culbertson became the pastor 
of this church it had thirty-two members. The 
roll was kept by Mr. Culbertson from the organ- 
ization to the 13th of October, 1844, and shows 
the dates of adinission, beginning with Moses 
Boggs and wife, James Percy and wife, Robert 
Culbertson and Catliarine Mitchell. The first 
persons* recei\ed by Mr. Culbertson were Louis 
and Mrs. Nye, bv examination, and the last 
name recorded as received by him is Eumelius 
Cook, which, however, is written in another hand. 

The services during the early history of the 
church were held in private houses, subsequently 
in " Burnam's Tavern," and the old log jail, 
and sometimes in a small frame building on 
Putnam Hill, and during summer in barns and 
groves. They felt somewhat permanently settled 
when worshiping in the coui't house and "the 
Stone Academ}s" after they were built. The 
congregation met alternately at these two latter 
places, crossing the river in boats. Once during 
service in the court house, the building was 
struck by lightning, and several persons were 
greatly stunned but not seriously injured. 

In 181 7, they found a pleasant and commodious 



home in a two-story brick church, erected on el- 
evated ground on the northeast corner of South 
and Fourth streets. This church was built by 
the sale of pews, a deed being given for the 
ground occupied by the pew ; thus the pew was 
private property, and rented or sold as an}- other 
real estate. The church was dedicated August 
28th, 181 7. The exercises were performed by 
Rev. James Baird, of Newark. The first ser- 
mon preached in the new church by the pastor 
after the dedication was on the 31st of August, 
from Hebrews IX, 28. President James Monroe 
and suite being in the city, attended public 
worship on that day, and at the close of the 
service the President complimented Mr. Cul- 
bertson for his manner of conducting the ex- 

In those days, church music was sustained 
by stringed insti'uments, and tradition has it 
that on a certain Sabbath, Mr. Culbertsoh 
being absent, a Scotch covenanter occupied 
the pulpit, and, on seeing the bass viol, was 
offended, and expressed his disapprobation by 
announcing, "We will fiddle and sing the I02d 

The organ in this church was probably the 
first used in a Presbyterian church in the United 
States, and some incidents connected with its 
introduction may not be uninteresting. It was 
obtained from L. P. Bailey. He came to Zanes- 
ville in 1820, and began the manufacture and 
sale of organs. He was an Elder in the church 
from 1837 until the organization of the Second 
Presbyterian church, of which he became a mem- 
ber, and still holds the office of Elder. In 1827, 
he made the organ in question for a party who 
failed to take it. Some members of the Putnam 
church suggested that it be put in the gallery of 
the church and used to aid the singing. Many 
on this side, also, were in favor of this, some in- 
fluential persons who were not membei's being in 
sympathy with the movement ; others, however, 
were in doubt, and could not consent to so rash a 
movement. The pastor was advised with repeat- 
edly, and said he had no personal objection ; that 
he was fond of the tones of the organ, especially 
the lower bass notes, but said if there was any 
good old woman who objected to its use, it 
must not be put there ; he expressed great 
fear on the subject, lest it might be the occasion 
of pain. 

The agitation was kept up. A Mr. Wilson 
offered to make such changes in the gallery as 
were necessary to admit the instrument, which 
was eleven feet high, seven feet fr^nt and four 
feet deep. The changes being made, the organ 
was set up. • On the following Sabbath, there it 
stood, silent ; many looked in blank astonish- 
ment at this intrusion ; little was said, however. 
On the second Sabbath it was played during the 
gathering of the Sunday school children, but 
immediately closed when the church service 
proper began. A week or two later, it was 
heard as the congregation were dispesring after 
the morning services were ended; the people 

stopped, looked, and wondered. The organist 

" Struck one chord of music, 

Like the sound of a great Amen ; 
It quieted pain and sorrow, 

Like love overcoming strife ; 
It seemed the harmonious echo, 
From our discordant life." 

Several weeks went by^ however, before its 
melodious tones were incorporated with the 
Psalms and Hymns, the people forgetting that 
in the long-ago " they praised Him with stringed 
instruments and organs." 

Rev. James Culbertson remained pastor of 
this church from the time of his ordination until 
his death, which occurred February 23, 1847. 
His first sermon in Zanesville was preached the 
second Sabbath in August, 1812, from Cor. Ill, 
2 ; his last, from Matt. XXIV, 13. In those 
days a singular precaution was thrown around 
the communion service. At the preparatory 
service, on the day before and on the morning of 
communion day, tokens, consisting of a flattened 
circular piece of lead, about the size of a silver 
dime, with the letters 'L. C stamped on one side, 
were distributed to those who expected to take 
part in the service. These tokens were taken up 
on Sabbath morning after the communicant was 
seated at the table. No one could receive the 
token from the Elders whose conduct did not be- 
come a Christian, and no one could receive the 
communion without having received the token ; 
yet, large numbers were added to the church on 
these occasions. From this church was formed 
that at Newton, in 1829, the Putnam Presby- 
terian church, in 1834, ^^'^ ^^^ Second Presby- 
terian church, in 1852. It is, therefore, the mother 
church of this denomination in this county, and 
looks with pride on the growth and prosperity of 
each of them, saying : 

" Oh Shepherd, who leadest our souls to thee, 
From the desert and rocky steep, 
Thy rod and thy staff in the shadow we see, 
And thou wilt our little ones keep !" 

The walls of the old church had begun to give 
way, and the town had grown so rapidly to the 
north and east after the organization of the 
church on the other side of the river, that it was 
deemed best to build in a more central part of 
the town. The Church purchased the lot now 
occupied by the Second Church building, and 
this was given in exchange for the lot now oc- 
cupied by this church. The building was erected 
at a cost of between $14,000 and $15,000. At 
the time of building, it was agreed that the 
pews should be free, and except two brief 
periods — when the'pevvs were rented — the agree- 
ment was kept ; they are free now. 

The dedication of the church took place on 
the fourth Sabbath of December, 1841. The 
pastor was assisted on this occasion by Rev. Mr. 
Wylie, of Newark, and Rev. Dr. Hoge, of Co- 
lumbus. The latter preached the sermon. 



The pulpit of this church was vacant for about 
six months after the resignation of Mr. Brown, 
when the Rev. Moses A. Hoge was called. He 
began his work here on the 26th of June, 185 1. 

Mr. Hoge was the son of the Rev. Dr. Hoge, 
many years Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Columbus, Ohio ; was born and raised 
in Columbus, graduated in the autumn of 1838, 
from the University of Ohio ; subsequently 
taught sign language in the institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb, in Columbus ; spent the winter 
of '44 and '45 at Princeton Theological Seminary ; 
was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Co- 
lumbus the year previous ; ordained and installed 
over the church of Athens, Ohio, June 4, 1846. 
He continued his pastorate in this church until 
the organization of the Second Presbyterian 
Church of this city. The two churches, how- 
ever, continued to worship together during the 
following winter. At the request of the new 
church, and with the consent of the old. Rev. 
Mr. Hoge was set apai-t by the Presbytery as the 
pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, of 

The Rev. James M. Piatt was called to the 
pastorate of this church, and entered upon his 
work July 24th, 1853. He was ordained by the 
Presbytery, October 19th, of the same year. The 
venerable Father Wylie, of Newark, preached 
the sermon, and made the ordination prayer, 
and Rev. M. A. Hoge delivered the charge to 
both pastor and people. 

Mr. Piatt was born in Athens, Bradford 
county, Pennsylvania, December 31, 1826 ; his 
father was Rev. Isaac Watts Piatt. James en- 
tered the University of New York in the fall of 
1843, and completed his . academic studies in 
1847. He entered Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary in 1850, and completed his theological 
course in April, 1853, and was licensed by the 
Presbytery of New York. 

The name of Rev. James M. Piatt became 
familiar, not only to every household of his 
church, but to many not of his communion. 
His picture hangs on many a wall, and his face, 
says Rev. W. P. Shrom, "is as familiar as that 
of a much loved friend." His pastorate con- 
tinued until April, 1867. He was subsequentl}' 
called to fill the pulpit in Bath, New York. 

The Rev. George II. Webster was called, and 
came to fill the vacant pulpit October 5th, 1867. 
During Mr. Webster's pastorate, the old mode 
of church subscription and the tedious work of 
collecting was abolished, and the present en- 
velope system introduced, and the first steps 
taken toward the purchase of a parsonage, which 
was completed in the spring of 1873. Mr. 
Webster was thoroughly informed on literary 
and scientific subjects. He resigned his pastorate 
to take charge of the Seminary for Ladies, at 
Granville, Ohio. 

Rev. W. P. Shrom, the present pastor, re- 
ceived the unanimous call of the church Novem- 
ber 9th 1872, and entered on his work in December 
following ; he was received by the Presbytery of 
Zanesville April 8th, 1873, and installed April 

14th. The Rev. J. P. Safford, D.D., presided 
— Rev. George H. Webster,- the former pastor, 
preached the sermon, from John, chapter XII, 
verse 32. Rev. AddiSon Kingsbury, D.D., gave 
the charge to the pastor, and Dr. Safford 
to the people. The installation prayer was 
made by Rev. T. K. Davis, of Wooster, Ohio — 
all in the presence of a large audience. 

Wm. P. Shrom was born November 2d, 1840, 
in Carlisle, Cumberland county, Pennsylvania. 
When a mere child, his parents removed to Illi- 
nois, where they sojourned about a year, and re- 
solved to make their home in Ohio, and settled 
on a farm a little north of Columbus, in Franklin 
county. It was here he grew up ; here, busied 
with the duties of farm-life, like every farmer's 
son, we hear him preaching his first sermon in 
soliloquy : 

The bubbling brook doth leap when I come by, 

Because my feet find measure with its call ; 
The birds know when the friend they love is nigh, 

For I'm known to them, great and small. 
The flower that on the hillside grows, 

Expects me there when spring its bloom has given, 
And many a tree and bush my wandering knows, 

And e'en the clouds and silent stars of heaven ; 
For he who with his Maker walks aright 

Shall be their lord, as Adam was before; 
He'll catch each sound with new delight, 

Each object wear the dress it wore ; 
And he, as when erect in soul he stood, 

Hear from his Father's lips that all is good. 

One and twenty years passed before the op- 
portunity presented itself for him to enter upon 
a classical course of study. Otterbein Univer- 
sity, Franklin county, was his Alma Mater, in 
1868. The course of study, it will be seen, car- 
ried him over the period of the Nation's peril, 
and in consequence of the Rebellion, his studies 
were postponed when the cry "we're coming 
Father Abraham, with a hundred thousand 
more !" was heard. His first service was with 
the 5th Indiana Cavalry. The second, as a 
Lieutenant in Company B, of the 178th Ohio. He 
was afterwards three years a student at the The- 
ological Seminary, of Allegheny City, Pennsyl- 
vania, licensed to preach by the conference of 
the United Brethren in Christ, in 1870, and or- 
dained a minister by the same conference in 187 1. 
He began to preach in Westmoreland county, 
Pennsylvania, and ere he had fully entered on 
the work of the ministry, Lebanon Valley Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania, said to him: "Come over 
and help us," and he accepted the chair of mental 
and moral ^ience. Not willing to abandon the 
ministry, however, he accepted the .position but 
one year, and became a supply to J:he Presby- 
terian Church in Asftland during the pastor's 
absence in Europe. 

Sunday School. — The advent of the Sunday 
School, marks an era in the life of the Church. 
Agencies and influences, hitherto unknown and 
unsuspected, were thereby brought into activity, 
by which the Church was enabled to reach out 



beyond her Christian households, and take by 
the hand multikides of people, at their most im- 
pressible age, and make them her true and con- 
stant friends. 

The early methods of the Sunday School, con- 
trasted with those of our day, would no doubt 
seem crude and unsatisfactory. There was. the 
absence of books and papers ; and we seem to 
hear a lingering echo of untutored voices, un- 
aided by musical instruments, singing, with a 
melancholy wail, such hymns as "Broad is the 
Road that Leads to Death," etc., and we ask 
ourselves : What was the charm to bring those 
learners thither, while Nature, with her won- 
, derful resources, beckoned them to game and 
fish, fruit and flowers, and the songs of birds — 
in God's first temple? Questioning Philosophy 
cannot discern it. But it was there, gleaming 
through sympathetic eyes — the potent charm of 
a Christian heart. Then, as now, words of ten- 
derness were the magic power. 

We said fhere were no books — there was but 
one, but they studied it. Perhaps there is no 
great advantage in the multiplicity of text books 
and commentaries of our day, as the great book 
is well-nigh lost sight of. 

According to the late E. H. ^Church, who was 
one of the first pupils, the first Sunday School 
in Eastern Ohio was organized in "the old Court 
House" — at that time used by the Presbyterians, 
as a place of worship — in the year 1816, by 
Mathew Finley, Joseph Church, F. Moorehead, 
and Mr. Dale. It was a union of all Protestant 
denominations. The school was more thor- 
oughly organized in 1817, when some fifteen 
ladies canvassed the town, for scholars. In 
1819, it was removed to the new Presbyterian 
Church, at the corner of Fourth and South 
streets, and was, thenceforward, a school of the 

. The present officers and teachers are : J. M. 
Brunsoh, Superintendent; Webster Dumm, As- 
sistant Superintendent ; James R. Peabody, 
Treasurer ; Charles E. Coffman, Secretary. 

The number of teachers 18 

The number of scholars 258 

The number of scholars in infant class 50 

Total number scholars and teachers 326 


Church. — ^The records were in the building on 
the southwest corner of Main street and Putnam 
avenue, in the custody of Isaac Stires, at the 
time of the fire that destroyed that building, in 
the Spring of 1872, and thus the history of the 
church is largely traditional. We learn that this 
was one of the oldest churches organized in this 
section of Ohio — and yet, cannot fix the date of 
erecting the first building ; however, the lot on 
which the church was built, was donated by 
"Levi Whipple and wife, Eliza Whipple," on 
November 23, 1815, on the one part, "and Wil- 
liam H. Moore, John Goshen, James Vickers, 
John LafFery,John Russell, Barnabas Munroe,and 
Benjamin Rickets, Trustees, for and in consider- 

ation of the love and respect for religion, and a 
desire to promote religious institutions, believing 
it an appointed means for the welfare and pros- 
perity of the Christian Church on earth, and 
with a sincere desire to promote pure piety in 
every denomination of Christians, have given, 
granted, aliened, released, confirmed, and con- 
veyed," to the Trustees above named, ""for the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in the town of Put- 
nam, and vicinity." The size of the lot being 
twenty-five one-hundredths of an acre, and the 
north half of lot number sixty-eight. It is pre- 
sumed that the first church on this lot was erect- 
ed within a year after the lot was given, as the 
building was a one-story frame, forty by forty 
feet. Some years afterward, this wooden struc- 
ture was removed, and a one-story brick church 
erected in its place. While this house was un- 
der construction, the congregation held religious 
services in the old oil mill, j:hat stood. immediate- 
ly north of the church site. In 1867, the brick 
building mentioned was superseded by a com- 
modious two-story edifice, forty-five by seventy- 
three feet. Rev. I. W. Stanley was pastor at 
this time. As other churches were organized, 
this congregation diminished, until, by increase 
of population, it again became the centre of sup- 
ply — for people are govei'ned by convenience in 
church-going. The church is again meeting the 
wants of the community, and the increasing 
numbers greatly encourage the workers in the 

The names of the pastors who have served this 
church, are : Trimble, Spahn, McCabe ("Chap- 
lain"), Gurley, Sours, Fee, Merrill, Stanley, 
Wakefield, Monroe, Holcomb, Fellows, Porter, 
Jamison, Dickson, Hickson, S. D. Hutsinpiller, 
and J. H. Creighton. 

The officers of the church are: Trustees: J. 
R. Thomas, James Curtis, Theodore Thompson, 
P. P. Wilbur, and I. Leasure ; the Stewards : 
Stephen E. Stockdale, Benjamin Fenn, John 
Parshall, and James P. Curtis ; the Treasurer : 
J. R. Thompson ; Recording Steward, Stephen 
E. Stockdale ; District Steward, J. P. Curtis. 

The first Sunday' School, in connection with 
this church, was organized about 1830, under 
Jonathan Brelsford, Superintendent ; and, al- 
though subjected to some trials, has never sus- 
pended. It is now in a flourishing condition. 
The officers are : Superintendent, Joseph R. 
Thomas, assisted by James Curtis. Sherman 
Adamson is Secretary ; Lillie McDonald, Treas- 
urer ; Fred Curtis and Florence Drake, Libra- 


St. James' Protestant Episcopal Church. 
— St. James' parish is the oldest Episcopal 
Church organization in the "Diocese of south- 
eastern Ohio," (which includes the southern 
half of the State,) and with, perhaps, only a sin- 
gle exception, it is the oldest in the whole State. 
It was organized "at a meeting held pursuant 
to public notice, in the Court House, in Zanes- 
ville, on the 17th day of October, in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and 



sixteen." At this meeting, Horace Reed, M. 
D., presided, and John Gordon, Esq., acted as 
Secretary. "A vote being taken, it was unan- 
imously agreed that a chuixh be founded, and 
that it shall be known as St. James' Church, 
Zanesville, Ohio." The Rev. Joseph Doddridge, 
M.D., was thereupon elected Rector of the 
parish, and the following gentlemen were chosen 
as officers for the ensuing year : Wardens — 
Horace Reed, M.D., and Seth Adams. Ves- 
trymen — ^Jeffi"y Price, Moses Moorehead, E. B. 
Merwin and Calvin Conant. Treasurer, A. 
Harper ; Lay Reader, Samuel Burnham, M.D. 

The parish was incorporated by an act of the 
Legislature of Ohio, passed the 31st day of Jan- 
uary, 1833. The corporators were the wardens 
and vestry, then in office ; but their names are 
not given in the records of the parish. The act 
of incorporation bears the signatures of David T. 
Disney, Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, and Samuel R. Miller, Speaker of the 

The public religious services of the parish seem 
to have been held at first in the Court House ; 
but in themonth of June, in 1817, and for some 
time thereafter, the services were held in the 
Methodist church, which was kindly loaned for 
the purpose. It was not till the year 1831, that 
the congregation were able to worship in a build- 
ing of their own. On the 17th of July, of that 
3^ear, the first church edifice was consecrated. 
It stood on the southeast corner of South and 
Sixth streets — the site of the present Eng- 
lish Lutheran Church. It was built of brick, 
and was very small and plain. In 1835, this 
building having become too small for the congre- 
gation, was enlarged to nearly double its orig- 
al size ; it was sold in 1841, as a preliminary to 
the erection of a new edifice. 

From 1841 to 1843, the public services were 
held in the Senate Chamber of the Court House. 
The present elegant and substantial gothic edi- 
fice, built of finished sand stone, was begun in 
1 84 1, the corner stone being laid on "St. John 
Baptist's Day," June 24th. It was finished in a 
temporary manner, and first used for public wor- 
ship on Easter Day, 1843. In 1853, both the 
basement and the audience chamber wer6 com- 
fortably and beautifully completed. The "In- 
strument of Donation" was executed by James 
Crosby, Senior Warden, and E. E. Fillmore, 
Clerk, and was dated August 26, 1854. '^^^ 
church was consecrated on the 7th of September 
following, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Charles P. 
Mcllvaine, D.D. 

At the time of the consecration, the church 
tower was unfinished, and remained so for about 
twenty-four years, being finished in 1878, at 
which time a bell (weighing upwards' of 2,000 
pounds) was placed in the tower ; this fine bell 
was the gift of Mrs. C. W. Chandler, of Ger- 
mantown. Pa., and formerly a member of this 
parish. The stained glass windows were dona- 
ted a few years before the completion of the tow- 
er, by the late James R. Cooper. The organ, 
now in use, was purchased in 185 1. As nearly 

as can be ascertained, the total cost of the church 
was about $20,000. 

The handsome and commodious rectory of the 
parish, on North Fourth street, was purchased in 

The succession of Rectors of the parish, as 
given in the records, is as follows : Rev. Joseph 
Doddridge, M.D., who served from the organiza- 
tion, October 17, 1816, to 1818 ; Rev. Intrepid 
Morse, from 1818, to January, 1822; Rev. Phil- 
ander Chase, Jr., from June, 1822, to January, 
1823 ; Rev. Joseph Doddridge, M.D., from No- 
vember, 1824, to June, 1826; (Rev. Mr. Langs- 
ton officiated during part of the year 1826.) Rev. 
Amos G. Baldwin, from December, 1826, to some ^ 
time in 183 1 ; Rev. John P. Robinson, froni ' 
September, 1831, to April, 1832; Rev. William 
Suddards, from February, 1834, to 1835 ; Rev. 
William A. Smallwood, D.D., from July, 1835, 
to March, 1853 ; Rev. George W. DuBois, from 
September, 1853, to January, 1856; Rev. J. W. 
Claxton, assistant minister, from Jul^^, 1855, to 
January, 1856 — Rector from January, 1856, to 
March, 1857 ; Rev. George W. DuBois, from 
March, 1857, to May, 1857 ; Rev. Thomas G. 
Addison, from May, 1857, to October, 1859; 
Rev. William A. Newbold, from November, 
1859, t° some time' in 1863 ; Rev. John M. Lea- 
vitt, from 1863 to. 1866. The present Rector, 
Rev. J. Fohl, D.D., took charge of the parish in 
April, 1866. 

At the various times when the rectorship of 
the parish was vacant, the public services were 
conducted by Lay "Readers. For thirty-one 
years, (from 1825 to 1856) James Crosby acted 
as Lay Reader. Mr. Crosby also held the office 
of Senior Warden from 1832 to the time of his 
death, in 1858, and his name is held "in grate- 
ful remembrance" for his constant interest m the 
parish, and his unwearied effiarts to promote its 

The parish Sunday School was organized in 
1834, ^^^ ever since has been carried on without 
interruption, and generally with much efficiency 
and success. The number in attendance in Feb- 
ruary, 1880, was about one hundred and forty 
scholars, and eighteen officers and teachers. 
There is also a Mission Sunday School connec- 
nected with this parish, numbering about two 
hundred scholars, and fifteen officers and teach- 
ers . The nurnber of communicants connected with 
the parish when it was organized is not known ; in 
1819, the number was twenty-two ; in 1831, the 
number was thirty ; in 1840, it was ninety ; in 
1842, only eighty-seven ; in 1850, it was one 
hundred and twenty-five i in i860, one hundred 
and ninety-three ; in 1870, it had two hundred 
and forty-five. Death and removals made the 
number smaller during the next ten years ; the 
number reported by the Rector in 1869, was two 
hundred and twenty-eight. 

In March, 1817, five months after the organ- 
ization of the parish, a Parochial Missionary So- 
ciety was formed, and ever since then the parish 
has taken an active interest in Mission work. 

The contributions to Diocese, Domestic and 



Foreign Missi-ons, have always been large, in 
proportion to the financial ability of the parish. 

On Sunday, Febi'uary 28, 1819, the Rt. Rev. 
Philander Chase, D.D.j ofTiciated, delivering his 
first sermon in the Diocese after his consecra- 
tion as Bishop. 

On Saturday, November 24, 1838, the Rt. 
Rev. Charles P. Mcllvane, D.D., began his 
ministry and work as Bishop of Ohio, by officiat- 
ng in this parish. 

On Sunday, October 28, 1859, the Rt. Rev. 
G. T. Bedell, D.D., entered upon his work as 
assistant Bishop of Ohio, by officiating in this 

On Thursday, May 13, 1875, the Rt. Rev. 
Thomas A. Jaggar, D.D., began his work as 
Bishop of Southern Ohio, by officiating in St. 
James' Church, Zanesville. 

The Apostolic rite of Confirmation was admin- 
istered for the first time in this pai-ish. May 23d, 
1819, by Bishop Chase. The services were 
held, by request, in the Presbyterian meeting- 
house, on the corner of Fourth and South streets. 
Twenty-five persons were confirmed. 

In the year 1825, the Convention of the Dio- 
cese met in this parish, for the first time. 

In the year 1834, the first ordination service ever 
held in this parish took place, Mr. Suddards (af- 
terwards Rector) being ordained to the Deacon- 

The seal of the parish, chosen by the vestry, 
January 7th, 1851, was "the head side- of a 
dime." On the 7th of September, 1854, it was 
changed to "the head side of the American 
quarter dollar, for 1854," '^^^ this order is still 
in force. 

The officers of the parish are as follows : Rec- 
tor, Rev. J. T. Ohl, D.D. ; Senior Warden, E. 
E. Fillmore ; Junior Warden, W. R. Hazlett ; 
Vestrymen, M. M. Granger, George F. Russell, 
George M, Jewett, F. J. L. Blandy, George W. 
Hazlett, George C. Townsend, and George D. 
Gibbons ; Secretary, George M. Jewett ; Treas- 
urer, George F. Russell. Superintendent of 
Sunday School, G. W. Hazlett; Superintendent 
of Mission Sunday School, Robert Fulton. Pres- 
ident of Ladies' Missionary Society, Mrs. John 
Hazlett ; Vice-President, Mrs. C. G. Dillon ; 
Secretary, Miss Anna Jones ; Treasurer, Mrs. 
G. F. Russell. 

Rev. Dr. f. F. Ohl i-esigned his pastorate, in 
order to take a position in Kenyon College ; his 
resignation took efl^ect the last Sunday in Au- 
gust, 1880. Thereupon, the Parish called the 
Rev. I. McK. Pittenger, from Cleveland, Ohio, 
where he had been an assistant at St. Paul's, in 
charge of St. Luke's and Grace Church, New-' 
burg. Mr. Pittenger is a recent accession from 
the Presbyterians, and comes with the reputa- 
tion of a successful ministry. He entered on 
his rectorship at Zanesville, on Christmas Day, 

Lutheran Church. — The inception of this 
church may be traced back to Nicholas Border 
and his wife, Elizabeth, who came to Zanesville 
in 1803. They brought with them the seed of 

the faith, which has grown into the present flour- 
ishing tree. In the course of human events, the 
infant daughter they brought with them became 
the wife of John Bowman, who came in 1817. 
Following him, came Jacob Reese, Sr., and his 
wife, George Clapper and wife, Michael Sock- 
man and wife, Solomon Myers and wife, Chris- 
topher Spangler, Peter Sockman and wife, 
and, as their hearts went out in words of Chris- 
tian love, they met with one accoi'd at each 
others' houses, for worship. Mrs. Susannah 
Bowman, the oldest, living, of the compan}' 
which formed the circle alluded to, remembers 
attending the first of those "cottage meetings," 
at the house of a Mr. Schmeltzer, on the corner 
of Fourth and South streets. 

In those days, evangelists traveled over this re- 
gion, scattering seed-thoughts of faith. Among 
them were Weiser, Foster, and Andrew Hinkle, 
whose visits were irregular. The first house of 
worship built by this denomination, was a small, 
frame structure, erected in 1818, on the northeast 
corner of Seventh and South streets, and which 
contained a pipe organ, made by L. P. Bailey, 
a skilled workman, then, as now, held in high 
esteem. In 1820, the little fiock selected Rev. 
Samuel Kaemmerer as their pastor, and elected 
John Alter and Peter Sockman as Elders, Jacob 
Bowman and Jacob Brock as Deacons, John 
Bowman and Jacob Mercer as Trustees, and 
John Bowman as Treasurer. Alsout this time, 
Jacob Mercer and wife, Mrs. Hannah Smith, 
Miss Sarah Border, and Daniel and Solomon Bor- 
der, were added to the church. The pastor's 
wife, and daughter (Mi-s. Elizabeth Conway), 
and another daughter (Mrs. Susan Cole), and 
Charlotte, Charles, and Paul Kaemmerer, and 
Walter Kelly and wife, were also members of the 

The services of this church, during eighteen 
years, were conducted in German and English ; 
the former in the morning, and the latter in the 
afternoon. As their numbers increased, the 
English-speaking poi-tion, preferring to have 
services in the forenoon as well, determined to 
reorganize and form a new church. 

St. John's English Evangelical LuiHERAN 
Church, the society embracing the English- 
speaking members, was organized in 1839, with 
the following officers : 

George Clapper, Solomon Deffenbaugh, and 
John Bowman, Trustees ; Jacob Reese and John 
Alter, Sr., Elders ; J. J. Brock and Abraham 
Arter, Wardens ; William Schultz, Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

Members — Nicholas Border and wife, Jacob 
Reese and wife, John Alter and wife, Peter Sock- 
man and wife, Isabella. Ream, John Bowman 
and wife, Philip Munch and wife, J. J. Brock 
and wife, Solomon Deffenbaugh, Edney Man- 
ley, Margaret Leutz, Mary Mercer, Solomon 
Reese, Solomon Culp, Fi-ances J. Mooney, Ja- 
cob Livingood, Catharine Ritz, Mary Ann 
Wright, J. K. Wright, and about twenty-five 

Rev. A. Bartholomew became the pastor, and 



served until 1843. His successors have been : 
Rev. Stephen A. Mealy, Rev. W. C. Houar 
(Rev. A. Bartholomew, recalled in 1848), Rev. 
.A. Bosserman, who was dismissed for his uni- 
versalism ; Rev. A. J. Weddell ; from 1856 to 
1869, no settled pastor; Rev. M. C. Horine, 
Rev. W. P. Ruthrauf, and the present incum- 
bent, who began his service in 1876. 

This congregation purchased from St. James' 
Episcopal Church, a building vacated by them, 
situate on the northwest corner of Sixth and 
South streets, for three thousand dollars, which 
they re-dedicated on the 2d of December, 1841, 
Rev. A. Bartholomew officiating. 

In 1878, the congregation erected their present 
church edifice, on the southeast corner of Sixth 
and South streets, and subsequently built an ad- 
dition for Sunday School and other purposes, the 
entire cost amounting to $7^500. These build- 
ings were erected on the same site as that pur- 
chased from St. James' congregation. 

The Sunday School was organized at an early 
day, but no i-ecords of special interest are avail- 
able. There are seven teachers and fifty pupils ; 
it has a library of 150 Volumes The Superinten- 
dent is H. W. Elson, assisted by A. F. Baker. 
The Treasurer and Secretary is H. Jacob Baker : 
Librarians, Samuel Elson and Miss Edith Snider. 
The Pastor, Rev. F. Richards. Deacons : 
John Bowman, John H. Brooks, H. J. Baker, 
Volney Day, J. G. Shalteis, George W. W. 
Walter, and W. H. Deffenbaugh. 

The oldest member of the church is Mrs. John 
Bowman, nee Border, who is in a good state of 
preservation, and delights to read her Bible, an 
old German edition, printed in I7i9- 

The Lutheran Churches here, and in Ohio, are 
subject to the English District Synod of Ohio, in 
connection with the General Council of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America. 

The following is the action of the Church 
Council of the St. John's English Evangelical 
Lutheran Church on the death of Mr. John 

Whereas, God has taken out of our midst 
our brother officer, Mr. John Bowman ; there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved, That we bow in humble submis- 
sion to the Divine will, and acknowledge the 
hand of Him who doeth all things well, m this 
our bereavement. 

Resolved, That we bear our testimony to the 
worth of our deceased brother, to his generous 
benevolence in all our church enterprises, to his 
consistent Christian life, to his regularity in the 
Divine worship, to his conscientiousness in the 
discharge of the duties of the office which he 
has held from the organization of our congrega- 
tion to the day of his death. 

Resolved, That we, as officers, shall en- 
deavor to imitate his example in the interest he 
has felt in the advancement of the cause of 
Christ and in the faithfulness he has shown in 
attendance upon the means of grace. 

Resolved, That we, as a Church Council, 
attend his funeral in a body, that the church edi- 

fice be draped in mourning for the space of 
thirty days, and that a special memorial service 
be held on Sunday, the 30th of October. 

Resolved, That we extend our deepest sympa- 
thies to the aged widowed wife, to his bereaved 
family and that a copy of these resolutions be 
submitted to them, and also published in the 
city papers and that they be entered upon the rec- 
cords of the church. 

H. J. Baker, Secretary. 

First Baptist Church. — In the fall of 1820, 
Elder George C. Sedwick left Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, for the purpose of exploring the West. 
Taking Zanesville in his route, he tarried a few 
days, during which time he preached the un- 
searchable riches of Christ. He then visited 
Kentucky and Indiana, receiving several invita- 
tions to settle with strong churcheS, and the offer . 
of a good salary ; but his mind was fixed upon 
Zanesville, though there was no Baptist Church 
there, and only one man known to be a Baptist. 
So strong were his impressions of duty, that he 
returned and commenced his labors in the begin- 
ning of 1821. The court house and private 
dwellings aflForded places for preaching and 
church meetings. 

On the nth of Febuary, 1821, three persons 
were baptized, viz : Isaiah Miller, Thomas 
Sheppard and J. Johnson ; these were the first 
fruits of his ministry in this new field. Bap- 
tisms are also mentioned as having occured in 
April, May and June ; on the i6th of June, the 
church was constituted. Elder George C. 
Sedwick was, on the same day, chosen pastor, ' 
and Joseph Sheppard and Jeremiah Dale were 
made Deacons, and Thomas Sheppard, Clerk. 
They agreed at this meeting to unite with the 
Muskingum Association, which met August the 
22d, following. At this meeting, they reported 
thirty seven baptized, and four received by letter, 
total, forty one. In the second report of the Asso- 
ciation, in August, 1822, they returned thirty- 
nine baptized, twelve received by letter, six dis- 
missed, total 83. In their last report to this Asso- 
ciation, in 1825, they stated a total of 104; and 
that there had been baptized, at that date, 105. 
Considering that they had no meeting house for 
the first two or three years, and that other socie- 
ties had so much the start, this was considered a 
good beginning, and an evidence of the leadings 
of providence in planting the Gospel standard in 
this place. 

Their house of worship, which had been in 
process of erection for some time, was ready for 
use in the fall of 1823, and was dedicated to the 
service of God, November 15th, of that year, 
and on the 15th of December, following, the first 
meeting was held in the new church. This was 
a neat one story brick building, 40x60, quite as 
good as any other in the town. 

In May, 1826, the Ohio Baptist State Conven- 
tion was organized in the new church, and there 
held its first three annual meetings. The day 
after the convention closed its first session, the 
Meigs Creek Association was constituted, with. 







m iF'\f' ! [i! 


ll'M A! !■, 


m III 





seven churches and 409 members, at the Brook- 
field Church, now in Noble county. This church 
was one of the seven which formed that body. 
Previous to this, there had been no Association 
east of the Muskingum river, except a small 
body called " Still Water," located in the north 
part of Guernsey and Belmont counties, which, 
about this time, was extinct, having been carried 
away by what was called Campbellism. 

The church appears to have had peace within 
her walls for eight or ten j'ears, during which 
time many were added to her members, and 
about that time another swarm — thirty-one mem- 
bers — withdrew, to form a new hive. 

Elder Sedwick occupied a very prominent 
position among the Baptist Ministers of Ohio, 
and he is held "in grateful remembrance" by 
those who knew him. His was truly a mission- 
ary spirit ; on this subject he held advanced 
views, and earnes,t. As an illustration : Early 
in the spring of 1832, he pi-oposed to i-aise $100 
jointly between Zanesville and Granville, for 
Foreign Missions. Rev. Allen Darrow informs 
us that this was done, and that he was the bearer 
of that sum to the "Triennial Convention," 
which met in New York, in May, of that year. 
[The constitution required $100 from each rep- 
resentative.] And when the $100 was handed 
in to the Treasurer, [Deacon H. Lincoln,] he 
said: "Hei^e is the first sheaf of the harvest 
from Ohio." He was foremost also in establish- 
ing the College in Granville, and among the first 
Trustees, and continued in that body until death 
closed his career. He resigned his pastorate in 
July, 1836, when the church was without an 
under-shepherd about one year, and then called 
Elder William Sedwick, who entered upon his 
labors in July 1837. His connection with the 
church was gratifying, and a good degree of 
harmony and prosperity attended their mutual 

Just at the close of Elder Wm. Sedwick's sec-, 
ond year, and after the church had signified its 
desire for his continuance, he 'was called to 
preach the funeral sermon of Elder Wm., Spencer, 
of Salem township, who died suddenly. The 
church in Adamsyille, where Elder Spencer had 
labored for twenty-one years, earnestly requested 
Elder Sedwick to come to their church, and after 
several weeks' consideration he resigned the care 
of the church in Zanesville and accepted the call 
and moved to Adamsville. Elder S. S. Parr 
was then called to the church in Zanesville, and 
commenced his labors in December, 1839. He 
was an eloquent man, and might truly be called 
a "Boanerges." His stay, however, was short, 
though prosperous, many being added during 
the eighteen months of his pastorate. After his 
resignation and removal, in April 1841, Elder 
John M. Courtney was called. He served faith- 
fully during seven years, and enjoyed the con- 
fidence of the church and of the community. 
The church was greatly strengthened and en- 
larged under his ministry. A few years after 
his removal from Zanesville, he passed "over 
the river," All loved Brother Courtney, and 

deeply lamented his death. David E. Thomas 
succeeded Brother Courtney, and was pubHcly 
installed in December, 1849. The exercises were 
conducted by Elders George C. Sedwick and 
Abel Johnson. Brother Thomas was a native of 
Wales, and spoke his native language as fluently 
as the English. But few were his equal in de- 
bate. He served the church up to the close of 
1855. "Many were added to the church during 
his ministry, and the present church was erected 
while he was pastor, although it was not finished 
for some years after he left. He died at his 
home, near Piqua, Ohio. 

.After the resignation of Rev. Thomas, Rev. 
J. B. Conyers was called. He served about 
three years, durijUg which time the church ex- 
pei-ienced serious troubles — which were the out- 
growth of difficulties engendered before Brother ■ 
Conyers became pastor — and finally terminated 
in the withdrawal of sixty-four members, who 
organized another church, called the Sfxth 
Street Church. This body subsequently united 
with the Market Street Church of Zanesville. 

In December, 1859, I^^v. D. F. Carnahan be- 
came the pastor and served three years. During 
his ministry the church moved on in harmony. 
He resigned his office as pastor to become an 
officer in the Army of the Noi-th against the 
Southern Rebellion. After his resignation, 
Elder Smith, of Virginia, supplied the church 
for a short time, and was succeeded by Brother 
George W. Young, of Pennsylvania. His mis- 
sion was also of short duration, but he was called 
away by death, on the 12th of November, 1864. 
This unexpected loss was deeply lamented by 
the congregation, as well as his family ; all 
mourned, even as a household, for a good man 
had fallen. 

After the death of Brother Young, the church 
called Brother J. B. Sharp, who entered upon 
his duties as pastor in February, 1865. Qiiite a 
large addition of members were received by bap- 
tism during his ministry. And again, as if the 
church was destined to be the mother of 
churches, seventy-seven members, sixty-five of 
whom were verj' largely young people, separated 
from the flock, and were constituted the Berean 
Church, but subsequently disbanded, some re- 
turning to their mother church, and some to the 
Market Street Church. 

In August, 1866, Rev. W. G. Pratt became the 
pastor, and while some had felt as though severely 
tried, and as if enduring along, dark and fearful 
night, the morning at last dawned, and the)' 
hailed with delight the promise of peace. 

During the year that Brother Pratt was with 
them, they were chiefly engaged in adjusting the 
unsettled state of affairs that he found to exist. 
A large number being excluded, the church was 
pruned that it might bi"ing forth more fruit. 

Rev. S. Washington, of Pittsburg, was the 
successor of Brother Pratt, and took the over- 
sight of the church in April. 1868. He wielded 
a salutary influence in favor of the church, and 
through him she was lifted up to a higher posi- 




tion of usefulness. A number of useful persons 
were added to her numbers. 

The meetirig house was repaired and beauti- 
fied during this time, at great expense, most of 
which was subscribed and paid, and the church 
was well nigh through the wilderness ; her pulse 
beat more healthily than for years before. But it 
was with "fear and trembling," for Brother 
Washington felt it his duty to resign and accept 
a call from the church at Jacksonville, Illinois. 
He closed his labors with the church in October, 
1869, after a useful pastorate of eighteen months, 
and they were without an under-shepherd sev- 
eral months. January ist, 1870, a few .of the 
faithful met and resolved to observe the ensuing 
week in prayer to Almighty God. At this time, 
also, thei-e was an unusual spirit of prayer in 
nearly all of the churches in the city, and revi- 
vals, also, in some of them.* Night after night, 
a little band met in the basement of the First 
Baptist Church and prayed, clinging to the right 
arm of Jehovah, and believing His word. Light 
shone suddenly upon them, and God gave heed 
to their prayers in a way unexpected. The third 
Sabbath morning in January, the Holy Spirit 
came, with much power, into the Sunday School, 
and prevailed among the scholars. The Super- 
intendent noticed a spirit of religious inquiry in 
the school, and he requested all who wished to 
be prayed for to arise, and foily stood up for 
prayer. This unlooked for event caused them to 
send for Brother E. W. Daniels, of Rockville, to 
come and help them a few days. He attended 
to the Macedonian cry, and the church came up 
nobly to the work with him ; the few days were 
lengthened into weeks, and there were dail}^ 
added to the church rejoicing converts ; most of 
the families in the church were rejoicing over the 
salvation of some of their members ; whole house- 
holds were brought into the church, and the only 
ones of other families, who were out, were brought 
into the church, and there was great joy in the 
church and in the city ; near fifty persons pro- 
fessed conversion, and a large number of young 
men and women were received into the church, 
many of whom became very efficient members. 

The church extended a call to Brother Daniels 
to become her pastor, and he began his pastoral 
labors with them the first Sabbath in April, 1870. 
All her meetings were well attended. The church 
now looked forward to a promising future. She 
had seen days of darkness, and seemed almost 
destroyed. Thus the "vine brought out of 
Egypt," planted in Zanesville, in 1821, has taken 
deep root, and spread its branches eastward and 
westward, till its songs of praise are sung in 
China, and echoed back from hills and moun- 
tains to the farthest known west, amid the valleys 
and mountains of the Pacific slope. 

Rev. E. W. Daniels resigned his pastorate in 
the fall of 1872. The church was supplied by 
Rev. R. S. James during the winter of 1872-73, 
when Rev. Thomas Powell, of Geneva, Ohio, 
received and accepted the unanimous call to be- 
come the pastor, and entered upon his labors 
April 1st, 1873, and continued as their pastor un- 

til July 1st, 1877. From that date until October 
following, the church was without a shepherd, 
although it had numerous supplies. In that 
month, the church called Rev. Dr. T. R. Palmer, 
of Columbus, Indiana, and he entered immedi- 
ately upon his labors. January ist, 1880, Dr. 
Palmer ofFei'ed his resignation, to take effect 
April 1st, following. In April, of that year, the 
church extended a call to Rev. J. B. Ewell, of 
Warsaw, Western New York, and he began his 
labors in May, 1880, and is the present pastor. 
The church is in good spiritual condition. The 
following ministers have- gone out from the 
church : Samuel Williams, George F. Adams, 
John Maginnis, Thomas M. Erwin, Jeremiah 
Dale, Benoni , Allen, Seth Wickham, Joseph 
Sheppard, Thomas Sheppard, Ely Fry, Joseph 
and William S. Sedwick, Robert Cairnes, 
Thomas Sheppard, Jr., and William Ashmore. 

The following churches have been oi-ganized 
from her : Market Street Thii'd Church (colored). 
Sixth Street and Berean. Large numbers have 
removed to the West ; on one occasion forty 
were dismissed to go West. 

In 1832, seventy-six were baptized ; in 1833, 
sixty -three ; in 1840, seventy-one ; and in 1848, 
sixty-five. Very few churches in the State have 
exerted a wider and more beneficial influence 
upon the community in which they were located. 

The Sunday-School was organized soon after 
the church became a fact ; its record, according 
to tradition, has been very satisfactory. The Su- 
perintendent is H. M. Sedgwick, assisted by J. 
D. Warner ;the Secretary is F. C. Deitz, assisted 
by E. H. Bauer : the Librarian and Treasurer is 
, assisted by George Mitchell ; the Chor- 
ister is Lambert Parker ; the Organist is Miss 
Oneida Mitchell. There are nineteen classes, 
with an enrollment of two hundred and twenty- 
five, and an average attendance of one hundred 
and sixty-five. The attendance is fortj^ per cent, 
greater than it was one year ago, and the officers 
and teachers are noted lor their punctuality. 

St. Thomas' Church [Catholic] — This 
church was organized in 1820, by Rev. Nicholas 
D. Young, O.P. The first members were John 
S. D.ugan and family, and William Colerick and 
family. The first pastor was Rev. Stephen H. 
Montgomery, and the services were held in a 
small brick ware-house, which stood on the north- 
east corner of Fifth street and Locust alley. 

The first church was a one story building, 
thirty-five feet high, seventy feet deep, and forty 
feet front, built at a cost of abovxt two thousand 
dollars, and stood on the back part of the lot oc- 
cupied by the present church. The corner stone 
was laid in the spring of 1825, and the building 
was dedicated to the service of Almighty God in 
the fall of 1827. The ceremony was performed 
by the Rt. Rev. Edward Tennick, Bishop of 

The present church, located on the northeast 
corner of Locust alley and Fifth street, is a mag- 
nificent stone structure of one hundred and twen- 
ty by sixty feet, and furnished in the most sub- 



stantial and beautiful manner ; the entire cost was 
about $40,000. The corner-stone was laid 
March 17, 1842, by Bishop Miles, of Tennessee. 

The late pastor, Rev, P. C. Coll, was assisted 
by Rev. C. H. Metzger and Rev. J. H. Lynch. 
Father Coll was ordered to Washington, D. C, 
and was succeeded by Rev. J. A. Bokel, who 
came November 8, 1880 ; the assistants remain- 

The membership of the church, which includes 
children, is about 3,000. 

The Svmda}' School was organized by Rev. 
B. A. Brady, assisted by Miss Mary Wright, 
Elizabeth Crowly, Julia Sullivan, andThomas R. 
Phelps ; the latter was made Superintendent, 
and Miss Crowly, assistant. John Taggart, Sec- 
tary, and J. C. Sullivan, Treasurer. The Li- 
brary was well selected, and is ample. Miss 
Mary Wright, Librarian. This school was sub- 
sequently substituted by the Parish school. 


The Altar Society — was organized in 1830. 

The Society of the Blessed Virgin Mary — was 
organized in 1848. 

The Rosary — an account of which follows 
these societies, organized in 1848. 

The Purgatorial Society — organized in 1877. 

The Sacred Heart Society — organized in 1877. 

The Holy name of Jesus Society — -organized 
in 1880, having the following officers : Presi- 
dent, E. P. Bloomer ; Secretary, J. C. Sullivan ; 
Treasurer, Patrick Dugan. 

These Societies are strictly devotional in their 

Saint Patrick's Benevolent Society — organized 
March 17, 1859. The first officers were : Pres- 
ident, George D. McMahon ; Secretary, Thomas 
R. Phelps ; Treasurer, H.J. Dennis. The pres- 
ent officers are : President, E. P. Bloomer ; Sec- 
retary, Daniel Sattersal ; Treasurer, John Ryan. 

Shortly after the bi^eaking out of the war of the 
rebellion, and the call for troops was heard in 
the city of Zanesville, this society, with true Irish 
generosity and patriotism, gave all it had in its 
treasury, five hundred dollars, to equip men for 
the fray. This sum, the accumulation from hard 
day labor, saved for the purpose of taking care 
of their sick, burying the dead, an.d keeping the 
wolf from the door of the widow and orphan, 
had been husbanded with great cai-e by the Hon. 
John O'Neil, then their President. But when 
Sumter was fired upon, and the cry, "to arms !" 
was heard throughout the North, they said with 
•one voice : 

Take this sacred fund, though it be, 
And many stalwart Irishmen beside ; 

Oh, our country, we would save thee, 
Or go down in the crimson tide. 

The city highly appreciated the generous of- 
fer, yet on account of the purpose for which the 
money had been raised, and the fact that means 
were not lacking to accomplish the purpose for 
which this money was offered, and considering 

it far more than their portion, returned the money 
to the society with sincere thanks. 

St. Thomas' Benevolent and Literary Society 
— organized May 2, 1871. The first officers 
were: Henry J. Dennis, President; J. C. Sul- 
livan, Secretary -L. H. Dennis, Treasurer. The 
membership, at this time, was about twenty. The 
present officers are : Thomas S. McCormack, 
President ; Thomas Lacey, Secretary; J. C. Sul- 
livan, Treasurer. 

The present membership is about seventy- 
eight. The society has a library of about six 
hundred and fifty volumes, embracing standard 
works on history, poetry, biography, religion, fic- 
tion and encyclopaedias. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians, Division No. i. 
— This is a branch of a time honored association 
for benevolence, and the care of the widow and 
the orphan within its folds. The order in Zanes- 
ville was organized in Zanesville, August 26, 
1876, with the following officers : County Dele- 
gate — P. J. Kelly ; President, Michael Hayden ; 
Vice President, Terrence Farmer ; Financial 
Seci^etary, James T. Bradley ; Recording Secre- 
taiy, Michael Liston ; Treasurer, P. J. Kelly. 
The present officers are : County Delegate, 
Terrence Farmer; President, P. J. Kelly; Vice 
President, Thomas Farrell ; Financial Secretary, 
Howard Carroll ; Recording Secretary, C. F. 
McCue ; Treasurer, Thomas Cosgrove. The 
membership numbers about seventy-five. The 
time and place of meeting — the first and third 
Sunday evening of every month, at St. Thomas' 
Hall, North Fifth street. 

The Rosary was founded by St. Dominic, 
and instituted, as a solemn form of devotion, in 
the year 12 13. The same idea which prompted 
St. Dominic to establish his order, prompted him 
to establish the Rosary — one was to be the aux- 
iliary of the other. When passing through France, 
shortly before the period above mentioned, St. 
Dominic was shocked and grieved at beholding 
the ravages which the Albigensian heresy, then in 
its full growth and vigor, was committing in that 
portion of the Lord's vineyard. This heresy was 
one of the most formidable and destructive that 
ever afflicted the church of God, and it was for 
its suppression, and to remedy the evils it had 
caused, that Dominic conceived the thought of 
founding, his order, to be composed of men who 
should make teaching and preaching the truths 
of the gospel, to every class of society, the grand 
object of their lives. The heretics whom St. Dom- 
inic and his confreres thus pitted themselves 
against, are known in history as the Albigenses ; 
they had their origin, as a sect, about A. D. 1160, 
at Albigeois, in Languedoc,and at Toulouse ; they 
opposed the disciples of the church, as we have 
said. Their errors were not only destructive of 
true religion and morality, but calculated to sap 
the foundation of society itself. Like the Man- 
ichians of old, they believed in the existence of 
twOfgreat principles of good and evil, continually 
contending against each other. Like them, also, 
the}' taught that marriages were unlawful, and 
should not be tolerated,- while the most scanda- 



lous practices were allowed their followers. The 
doctrine of the Incarnation was peculiarly dis- 
tasteful to the Albigenses, and they strained ev- 
ery point to bring it into odium amongst the peo- 
ple ; and, owing to the ignorance and irreligion 
■of a portion of France, at the time, they were 
very successful. It was to remedy this evil, es- 
pecially, that St. Dominic established the Ro- 
sary. The idea was a happy one, and wisely 
conceived. Knowing very well that it would be 
labor in vain to attempt removing the errors that 
had crept in, by explaining the great mysteries 
of Christianity, in a scientific or theological man- 
ner, therefore, he thought of establishing a form 
•of prayer which would contain in itself an epitome 
of Christianity, and which, while it enabled 
those who practiced it to commune with God, 
and draw down the blessings of Heaven upon 
them, would afford, also, an oppoi'tunity of be- 
ing instructed in the principles, mysteries and 
dogmas, of the faith, by making them the subject 
of their contemplation, while reciting a certain 
form of prayer. How well it was calculated to 
insure the end intended, the success in its pro- 
mulgation and practice fully shows. Reciting 
the Rosary very soon became a universal custom 
among the people, and by meditating on the 
mysteries which it represents, they became deep- 
ly imbued with the principles of their faith, and 
error received its death-blow, and disappeared 
from amongst them. Especially was the mystery 
of the Incarnation resuscitated and strengthened. 
A society of the Rosary was formed, which still 
exists, a branch of which was instituted in St. 
Thomas' Church, in 1848, and which now num- 
bers five hundred members. To this society the 
church has granted the most extraordinary fa- 
vors and indulgences ; it is in universal practice 
in the church, and is considered one of the most 
potent and excellent devotions, not only in its 
simplicity, but grandeur, being suitable for every 
rank or class ; for the ignorant as well as the in- 
structed, the most limited capacity, or the most 
learned philosopher. It is a combination of the 
most beautiful petitions, or prayers, that can be 
offered to propitiate Heaven. It commences with 
t^e Lord's prayer, is followed by that beautiful 
angelic salutation addressed to the blessed Vir- 
gin Mary, " Hail, Mary, full of grace, the Lord 
is with thee," (and the inspired words of St. 
Elizabeth,) "Blessed art thou among women, 
and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus," (and 
the addition made by the church), " Holy Mary, 
Mother of God, pray for us now and at the hour 
of our death, amen," repeated one hundred and 
fifty times, in imitation of the psalter of David. 
These one hundred and fifty petitions are divided 
into fifteen parts, or decades, terminating with a 
special acknowledgement of praise and glory, to 
the Blessed Trinity. While each decade is be- 
ing recited, it is necessary also to contemplate 
the great mystery of the Incarnation, the stupen- 
dous miracle of God becoming man, and sub- 
jecting himself to all the miseries of our nature, 
for the redemption of man ; and so, also, the oth- 
er great mysteries — the passion, death, resurrec- 

tion, and ascension of Christ — while reciting the 
other decades ; so that, while the tongue is em- 
ployed in praising God in the most beautiful 
forms of prayer, the mind is engaged in contem- 
plcicing those miracles of grace and love which 
He has lavished on man. 

Zanesville is in the Diocese of Columbus, of 
which Rt. Rev. John A. Watterson, D. D., was 
consecrated Bishop, in St. Joseph's Cathedral, 
Columbus, August 8th, 1880 ; the ceremony of 
consecration was conducted by Bishop Elder, of 
Cincinnati. The following prelates assisted : J. 
B. Purcell, Archbishop of Cincinnati ; Coadjutor 
Bishop Elder ; Bishop McClosky, of Louisville, 
Kentucky ; Bishop Fitzgerald, of Little Rock, 
Arkansas ; Bishop Twigg, Bishop Chatard, Bish- 
op Toebbe and Bishop Dwenger. 

South Street A. M. E. Church. — This 

church was organized by the Rev. Freeman, 

in the year 1826, at the house of Ellen Feelin, on 
Seventh street, between Market and Main streets. 
Meetings were held at hei" house about three 
months, and subsequently in a small building on 
Market street, east of Seventh street. Henry 
Adkison was local preacher, and Miss John- 
son, class leader. 

The first members were : Henry Adcrisson, Jar- 
ed Jenkins, Harriet Jenkins, David Woodlock, 
Sarah Woodlock, Rachel Ford, Margaret Dar- 
nal, Harriet Carter, William Lowery, Barbara 
Lowery, Peter Stanton, Margaret Henderson, 
Sarah Robertson, Enos Jones, Charlotte Marlon, 
Elizabeth Stephens, Solomon Walker, Mary Hill, 
Clarissa Walker and Elizabeth W^alker. 

The first church edifice erected by the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church, organized as above, 
was a small brick building near the river, a little 
east of Eighth street. From this brick church, 
they removed to a frame school house, on Put- 
nam Hill. " At this place, under the pastorate 
of the Rev. George W. Coleman, they were bless- 
ed with a gracious revival, and a large accession 
to the church." From " Putnam Hill" they re- 
moved back to Zanesville, into a frame church, 
which they built on Ninth street, near South. 
While in this church, they experienced another 
revival, under Rev. Lawrence Newman. Here, 
also, the Sabbath-School was organized. Henry 
Newsom was the first Superintendent ; there was 
one teacher and seven or eight scholars ; the 
school flourished and was a source of pride. 

The congregation remained in the frame church 
for several years, when they purchased a brick 
church on South street, between Third, and 
Fourth streets, formerly occupied and owned by 
the Protestant Methodists. They built a new 
brick church on the same site, in 1876 ; the length 
is sixty-three feet, and the width forty-five feet, 
and cost seven thousand dollars. 

The following ministers have served the 
church — the time of the year not given — ^begin- 
ning with 1856. 

Rev. A. R. Greene, served two years; Rev. 
David Smith, two years ; Rev. S. H. Thompson, 
two years ; J. A. Shorter, three years ; Rev. 
John Tibbs, three years ; Rev. G. W, Clark, one 




ea'r;Rev. J. A. Warren, two years; Rev. J. 
Eades, one year ; Rev Lewis Woodson, one 
year ; Rev. Jeremiah Lewis, two years ; Rev. M. 
W. Walker, two years ; Rev. J. W. Riley, six 
months ;Rev.J. A. Nelson, two years ;Rev. A. A. 
Whitman, eighteen months ; Rev. G. H. Graham, 
two years ; Rev. John G. Mitchell — now in 
charge, beginning September 2d, 1879. In 
addition, the following are Local Preachers : 
T. J. Barnett, N. B. King and Amos Grey. 
The official members are as follows : 

Trustees — N. G. Grant, Washington Turner, 
William Pinn, James Guy, Alfred Dickinson, 
Rice Barnett, Benjamin Messer, Washington 
Johnson and Daniel Gravson. 

Stewards— T. J. Barnett, N. T. Grant, Con- 
way Tibbs, W. H. Carter, M. Clinton, Samuel 
Guy, M. M. Simpson, Joseph S. Brown and N. 
B. King. 

Stewardesses — Eva Sawyer, Martha Carter, 
Eliza Messer, Charlotte Barnett, Melissa Dol- 
man, Cecillia Caliman, Dorcas Tate, Lucy Clin- 
ton, Mary Tate. 

Class Leaders — Rice Barnett, George W. 
Turner, Charles Grant, Samuel Guy, T. J. Bar- 
nett, Conway Tibbs, Charles Sawyer and A. J. 

Sabbath School Officers — Superintendent, 
Charles H. Sawyer ; Assistant, Eliza Messer. 

Treasurer — Charles S. Harrison ; Secretary, 
Wm. L. Hardy. 

Secretary — Eva Guy ; Librarian, Edward 
Turner; Assistant Jennie Guy. Chorister — 
George Simpson ; Organist, Minnie Barnett. 

This church is subject to the Ohio Annual 
Conference of the A. M. E. Church, which 
meets according to appointment. The Bishop 
is A. W. Wayne, D. D., of Baltimore, Marj^- 

The congi'egation numbers two hundred and 
thirty-four. The Sunday School numbers two 
hundred, and teachers fifteen. 

Market Street Baptist Church. — About 
the year 1832, a little band of devoted Christians 
met in what was then known as the Market 
Street Academy, and organized what is known 
as the Market Street Baptist Church, of Zanes- 
ville, Ohio. Their meetiiigs for worship were 
held in the court house, for a short time, and 
then in a small building on South street, not far 
from Seventh. And such were the difficulties with 
which they had to contend that "they wept when 
they remembered Zion." They were more intent, 
•doubtless, on doing what they could to win souls 
to the Master, than keeping a record of their 
'doings, and so many of those pioneers have 
passed "over the river" — and the difficulty in 
consulting the few survivors is so great — indeed 
fairly impossible, that we have been confined 
to the traditions of those who have come after 

Rev. S. W. Hall, an earnest worker, was one 
of the principal leaders of the' enterprise, and, 
rendered efficient aid in the inauguration of the 
church, and its firm foundation. The records 

of 1835 Rive information of a movement toward 
the erection of a church. The lot was donated 
by "Father Mills," and was a magnificent dona- 
tion. The record does not show, however, any 
details of erecting this church, only that the at- 
tempt of this little band of workers was made in 
great faith — and with immense sacrifice. The 
building was begun in 1836, and finished about 
1839. -'-'• ^^^ ^ commodious and somewhat ele- 
gant chvirch edifice, for that day, located on the 
east side of North Sixth street, between Market 
and North streets. 

Removing there, the church, as a body, de- 
termined to retain the name, "Market Street," 
as one too dear in association, and too closely 
identified with early struggles, to be given up, 
and it is known as "the Market Street Baptist 
Church," to this day. At the dedication of this 
home, Rev. George I. Miles — of the East — one 
of a family of five brothers — all ministers — was 
present, and the lot fell to this able minister to 
lead in the pastorate of this young church, for a 
number of years. He was a man of noble aspi- 
rations, tender in sympathy, simple in manner, 
and a fearless preacher of the Gospel. Such 
was his magnetic influence that he inspired the 
confidence of all who knew him. Men rallied 
around him, and he loved the preaching of the 
word — the hour of prayer — and the singing of 
the songs of Zion — and the blessed enjoyment of 
leading souls into the baptismal waters. The 
writer of these outlines has often heard it stated 
that George I. Miles was emphatically the in- 
spiring spirit, and the successful founder of the 

There was scarcely a Sabbath during a good 
part of his ministry, that he did not welcome 
some one to the Lord's Supper, as a new con- 
vert to the faith he so earnestly contended for. 
His pastorate was, perhaps, one of the most suc- 
cessful of any in that day, in southeastern Ohio. 

The executive work of the church, on the other 
hand, was noted for extreme slowness. Men 
did not "rush things" then — they deliberated — 
they sat together in council for hours, and gave 
solemn and earnest thought, in debate, to matters 
which would now be turned off or hurried 
through in a few moments. 

Rev. Mr. Miles was succeeded by the Rev. 
Daniel Sheppardson, a graduate of Brown Uni- 
versity — who came to the field accidentally — but 
was a workman who had no need to be ashamed 
— although his pastorate was brief. For several 
months after his pastorate, the church was with- 
out a pastor, yet maintained all its appointments, 
supplying its pulpit with the best talent at com- 
mand, and specially observing the business ses- 
sions, and the ordinances in which the faith of a 
Christian body is strengthened ; and just here was 
seen the fact that much of the success of this 
church was due, as it has been since, to the very 
stable character of its lay members. They were 
men, frequenriy of radical convictions, executive 
ability and fine social standing. 

One of the greatest problems with which 
churches of a democratic form of government 



have to contend, is the tendencj' of partj^ feeling 
and prejudice to show itself in a dominating 
manner, in business, matters ; and in this they 
were no exception — differences arose, opinions 
clashed, and party feelings became intense, and 
even bitter ; but nevertheless. Christian integrity, 
executive ability, brain culture, and heartfelt pi- 
ety, were frequently found sufficient in the 
Church to meet every demand. 

Dr. Sheppardson has risen to the foremost 
rank in the denomination. His work in the 
Young Ladies' College, at Granville, Ohio, has 
made him a name and a place of merited distinc- 
tion ; he is an enthusiastic advocate of the high- 
er education of women, a man of sterling integ- 
rity, and a recognized force. The probable 
cause of his removal from the pastorate of this 
church, may be found in the fact of his leader- 
ship being too radical and fast for the conserva- 
tism so prominent in the churches of that day. 
Dr. Sheppardson "believes in Almighty God, 
and the Baptist Church." 

One of the interesting events of the interval 
following his pastorate, and one in which the 
church may have just pride, was the coming out 
into a new sphere of duty of Rev. Jefferson 
Chambers, now a member of the church, and 
an honored minister of the Gospel. A young 
man of more than ordinary ability, he was in 
the successful and honorable pursuit of business, 
when it appeared to him a duty and a privilege 
to devote his life to the work of the Gospel min- 
istry. He converted his business into available 
funds, stated his convictions of duty to the 
church, and soon after left for Granville Col- 
lege, to pursue a course of study. Mr. Cham- 
bers was a young man of stei'ling integrity, good 
judgment, and earnest piety — and has been one 
of the best past