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Cornell University Library 
F 157C8 H67 
History of Cumberland and Adams counties 

3 1924 028 852 619 
oiin Overs 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 






Containing History of the Counties, Their Townships, Towns, 

Villages, Schools, Churches, Industries, Etc.; Portraits of 

Early Settlers and Prominent men; Biographies; 

History of Pennsylvania, Statistical and 

Miscellaneous Matter, etc., etc. 










IN presenting the History of Cumberland and Adams Counties to its pa- 
trons, the publishers have to acknowledge, with gratitude, the encour- 
agement and support their enterprise has received, and the willing assist- 
ance rendered in enabling them to surmount the many unforeseen obstacles 
to be met with in the production of a work of such magnitude. To procure 
the materials for its compilation, official records have been carefully exam- 
ined; newspaper files searched; manuscripts, letters and memoranda have 
been sought; those longest in the locality were interviewed; and the whole 
material has been so collated and systematized as to render it easy of refer- 
ence. ■■ 

He who expects to find the v^ork entirely free from errors or defects has 
little knowledge of the difficulties attending the preparation of a work of this 
kind, and should indulgently bear in mind that " it is much easier to be 
critical than to be correct. ' ' It is, therefore, trusted that the History will 
be received by the public in that generous spirit which is gratified at honest 
and conscientious effort. 

The publishers have been fortunate in securing the services of a staff of 
efficient and painstaking historians, who have been materially assisted by the 
gentlemen of the press and of the various professions, by the public officials 
and many other citizens of both counties, of whom personal mention would 
gladly here be made, did space permit. 

The book has been divided into three parts. The outline history of the 
State, contained in Part I, is fi'om the pen of Prof. Samuel P. Bates, of 
Meadville, Penn. The general history of Cumberland County, in Part II, 
was written, for the most part, by P. A. Durant and J. Praise Richard, 
Chapter VIH ("Bench and Bar") and the sketches of the several Town- 
ships and Boroughs of Cumberland County, in the same part, being pre • 
pared by Bennett Bellman. Part III contains the History of Adams Coun- 
ty, the general chronicles of which were written by H. C. Bradsby, except- 
ing Chapter X ("Natural History of Adams County") and Chapter XX 
( ' ' Education' ' ), which are from the pen of Aaron Sheely, of Gettysburg ; 
while the Townships and Boroughs of Adams County, also in Part III, 
have been treated of by M. A. Leeson. The Biographical Department of 
each county is of special interest, and those of whom portraits have been in- 
serted are found among the representative families of the two counties. ^ 

The volume, which is one of generous amplitude, is placed in the 
hands of the public with the belief that it will be found to be a valuable 
contribution to local literature. 






sou Mey, 1624-26. William Van Hulst, 1625 
-26. Peter Minnit, 1626-33. David Peter- 
sen de Tries, 1632-33. Wouter Van TwUler, 
1633-38 15-23 

CHAPTER n.— Sir WilUam Keift, 1638^7. 
Peter Minult, 1638-41. Peter Hollandaer, 
1641-43. John Printz, 1643-53. Peter Stuy- 
vesant, 1647-64. John Pappagoya, 1653-54. 
John Claude Rysingh, 1654-55 23-33 

CHAPTER m.— John Paul Jacquet, 1655-57. 
Jacob Alrichs, 1657-59. Groeran Van Dyck. 
1667-58. WilUam Beekman, 1658-63. Alex. 
D'Hinoyossa, 1659-64 33-35 

CHAPTER IV.— Richard Nichols, 1664-67. Rob- 
ert Needham, 1664-68. Francis Lovelace, 
1667-73. John Carr, 1668-73. Anthony 
Colve, 1673-74. Peter Alrichs, 1673-74 35-41 

CHAPTER v.— Sir Edmund Andros, 1674-81. 
Edmund Cantwell, 1674-76. John Collier, 
1676-77. Christopher Billop, 1677-81 41-50 

CHAPTER VI.— William Markham, 1681-82. 
William Penn, 1682-84 51-61 

CHAPTER VII.— Thomas Lloyd, 1684-86. Five 
Commissioners, 1686-88. John Blackwell, 
1688-90. Thomas Lloyd, 1690-91. William 
Markham, 1691-93. Benjamin Fletcher, 
1693-95. William Markham, 1693-99 61-69 

CHAPTEK VIII— William Penn, 1699-1701. 
Andrew Hamilton, 1701-03. Edward Ship- 
pen, 1703-04. John Evans,J704-09. Charles 
Gooken, 1709-17 69-75 


CHAPTER IX.— Sir William Keith, 1717-26. 
Patrick Gordon, 1726-36. James Logan, 
1786-38. George Thomas, 1738^7. Anthony 
Palmer, 1747-48. James Hamilton 1748-54 

CHAPTER X.— Robert H. Morris, 1754-56. Wil- 
liam Denny, 1756-59. James Hamilton, 
1759-63 89-97 

CHAPTER XI.— John Penn, 1763-71. James 
Hamilton, 1771. Richard Penn, 1771-73. 
John Penn, 1773-76 98-104 

CHAPTER XII.— Thomas Wharton, Jr., 1777- 
78. George Bryan, 1778. Joseph Reed, 1778 
-81. William Moore, 1781-82. John Dickin- 
son, 1782-8S. Benjamin Franklin, 1785-88 

CHAPTER XIII.— Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99. 
Thomas McKean, 1799-1808. Simon Snyder, 
1808-17. William Findlay, 1817-20. Joseph 
Heister, 1820-23. John A. Shulze, 1823-29. 
George Wolfe, 1829-35 Joseph Eitner, 
1886-39 .; 114-121 

CHAPTER XIV.— David R. Porter, 1839-45. 
Francis B. Shunk, 1845-48. WiUiam F. 
Johnston, 1848-62. William Bigler, 1862-55. 
John Pollock, 1865-68. William F. Packer, 
1858-61. AndrewG.Curtin, 1861-67. John 
W. Geary, 1867-78. John F. Hartranfl, 
1873-78. Henry F. Hoyt, 1878-82. Robert 
E. Pattison, 1882-86 122-131 

Gubernatorial Table 132 



CHAPTER L— Desceiptive 3-7 

Geography — Geology — Topography, etc. 

CHAPTEB-II.— Pioneers '. 7-40 

"Loulher Manor," etc. — Taxes paid from 
1736 to 1749— Earliest List of Taxables in 
Cumberland County — First Settlers in the 
North Valley — Taxables in the County in 
1762— Early Settlers— Wild Animalp and 
Fish — Customs and Habits — Formation of 
Townships and Boruughs — Laods. 

CHAPTER III.— Indian History 41-66 

French and Indian War— Pontiac's War. 

CHAPTER IV.— County Organization 66-77 

Location of the County Seat— Division of 
the County into TownshipB — County Build- 
ings — Population — Postomces in 1886 — In- 
ternal Improvements— Public Roads — Rail- 

CHAPTER v.— Military 77-108 




Cumberland County in the Bevolution — 
The Whisky Insurrection— The War of 1812 
—The Mexican War. 

CHAPTEE VI.— Military (QmUrmed) 109-130 

Carlisle Barracks— Cumberland County In 
the War of the Eebellion. 


County Officials — Members of Congress, 
Senators and Assemblymen. 

CHAPTEB VIII.— Bench and Bar 138-170 

Provincial Period — From the Revolution 
Until tbe Adoption of the Constitution of 
1790— Constitutional Period. 

CHAPTER IX.— Medical 170-187 

Biographical — Physicians in Cumberland 
County since 1879 — Physicians in Cumber- 
land County Registered in Office of Protho- 
uotary at Carlisle— Cumberland County 
Medical Society. 

CHAPTER X.— The Press 188-195 

Of Carlisle— Of Shippensburg— Of Me- 
chanicsburg — Of Newville — Of Mount Holly. 

CHAPTER XI.— Edhoational 196-206 

Legal History — Early Schools — Dickinson 
College — Metzgar Female Institute — Indian 
Industrial School — Cumberland Valley State 
Normal School — Teachers' Institute — Coun- 
ty Superintendents. 

CHAPTER XII.— Religious 207-220 

Presbyterian Church — Episcopal Church 
— Methodist Church — Roman Catholic 
Church — German Reformed Church — Luth- 
eran Church — Church of God — German 
Baptists — United Brethren — The Mennon- 
ites — Evangelical Association. 

CHAPTEB Xin— Political 221-222 

Slavery in Cumberland County, etc. 

CHAPTER XIV.— AGKiouLinEAL 225-228 

Cumberland County Agricultural Society 
— Grangers' Picnic-Exhibition, Williams' 

CHAPTER XV.— The Formation of Town- 
ships, ETC 228-229 

The First Proprietary Manor — Formation 
of Townships — Organization of Boroughs. 

CHAPTER XVI.— Borough op Caelisle....229-248 
Its Inception — Survey — First Things — 
Meeting of Captives— Revolutionary Period 
—War of 1812— Growth of the Town, etc.— 
The Borough in 1846— McClintock Riot- 
War of the Rebellion — Situation, Public 
Buildings, etc. — Churches — Cemeteries — 
Schools,Tnstitutes and College — Newspapers 
— Manufacturing Establishments, etc. — Gas 
and Water Company — Societies— Conclusion. 

CHAPTEB XVII.— Borough of MEcaASics- 

BURO 249-266 

Its Beginning— Growth — William Arm- 
strong- Population— War of the Rebellion 
— Schools and Educational Institutes — 
Churches — Newspapers — Public Hall and 
Market House — Banking Institutions — Gas 
and Water Company — Societies — Conclusion. 

CHAPTEB XVIII.— Borough op Shippens- 

BtfEG 267-268 

Its First Settlement — Early Beminiscences 
— List of Original Land Purchasers— Early 
Hotels in Shippensburg — Churches — Cem- 
eteries — Schools — Newspapers — Bank — 

CHAPTEB XIX. — Borough of Shiremans- 

TOWN 268-269 

Locality— Origin of Name— Churches- 
Societies — ^Miscellaneous. 


CHAPTEB XX.— Cook Township 269-270 

Formation — Topography — Beads — Pine 
Grove Furnace and Laurel Forge— George 
Stevenson — Postoffice and Railroad. 

CHAPTER XXI.— Dickinson Township 270-275 

Formation — Topography — Railroads — 
Original Settlers, Early Land-Owners and 
Settlers— Negro Kidnaping— Hotel, etc.— 
Churches — Schools, etc. 

CHAPTEB XXII. — East Pesnsborough 
Township and Borough of Camp Hill 


Origin— Name— Boundary— Early HLstory 
—Villages — Miscellaneous — Borough of 
Camp Hill — Location, etc. — Name, etc. — 
Church and Cemetery. 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Feankfokd Township 


Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
Earliest Settlers— The Butler Family— Vil- 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Hampden Township...286-290 
Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
Early Settlers— Mills, Bridges, etc.— The 
Indians — Paxton Manor in Hampden — 
Churches— Hamlets — Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXV.— Hopewell Township and 

Borough of Newborg 290-298 

Formation — Topography — Early Settle- 
ment — The Bradys — Hopewell Academy — 
Miscellaneous — Borough of Newburg — 
Location— The Village in 1819 1845 and 
1886— "The Sunny Side Female Seminary." 

CHAPTEB XXVI.— Lower Allen Township 
AND Borough of New Cumberland. ..298-305 

Formation, Locality, Boundary, etc. ^In- 
dians— Early Settlers— Chara cter of Soil , etc. 
— Lisburn — Milltown — Churches — Ceme- 
teries — Schools — Miscellaneous — Borough 
OF New Cumberland— Location — Origin 
— Early Incidents and Industries — Incorpo- 
ration—Railroads, etc. — New Cumberland 
of To-day — Churches- Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTEB XXVII.— Middlesex Township 


Formation, Boundary and Topography^ 
Bailroad— Early Settlers— Middlesex — Car- 
lisle Springs— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTEB XXVIII.— Mifflin Township..307-312 
Formation, Boundary and Topography- 
Indian Trail and Village— First Settlement 
—The Williamson Massacre and Other Early 
Incidents — Block Houses — Capt. Samuel 
Brady— First Settlers Along Big Bun- 
Early Beads, Viewers, etc.— Sulphur .Springs, 
etc.— Churches— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTEB XXIX.— Monroe Township 315-317 

Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
First Settlers— Churches and Cemetery- 
Schools, Industries, etc. —Villages. 

CHAPTEE XXX.— Newton Township and 

Borough op Newville 317-327 

Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
General Description— Indian Pack Trail- 
Fort Carnahan— Early Settlers— The Sharp 
Family— Other Pioneers— Villages— Miscel- 
laneous— Borough op Newville — Loca- 
tion — Incorporation — First Settlement- 
First Sale of Lots— First Hotels, Stores etc 
Incorporation, etc.— An Historical Charac- 
ter — Churches — Cemetery — Educational In- 
stitutions—Newspapers—Banks—Fire De- 
partment — Societies. 

CHAPTEE XXXI.— North Middleton Town- 

s™P.-: •" •; " 328-332 

Origin — Boundary — Description —Early 
Settlers— "Heads of Families"— The Cave-- 
Meeting House Springs— The Grave-yard at 
Meeting House Springs- Miscellaneous. 




CHAPTER XXXII.— Penn Township 333-335 

Formation — Boundary — Physical Feat^ 
ures — The Yellow Breeches Creek — Indus- 
tries—Land-Owners — Pioneer Settlers — Vil- 
lages — Churches— Schools — Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXXIII.— Silver Spring Town- 
ship 336-348 

Formation — Boundasy, etc. — Origin of 
Name — Conodoguinet Creek — ^Early Settle- 
ment and Road— Original Settlers— Some 
Early Events— Hogestown— New Kingston 
— First Covenanters' Communion in Amer- 
ica — Silver Spring Church and Cemetery — 
"Silver Spring" (a Poem)— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Southampton Town- 
ship.. 343-347 

Boundary — Formation — Erection — Char- 
acter of Sou, etc. — Earliest Settlers — Villages 
— Ididdle Spring Church and Grave-yard — 
Middle Spring Church Lands — Miscellane- 

CHAPTER XXXV. — South Middleton 
Township and Borough op Mount 

Holly Springs 347-356 

Origin — Boundary — Topography — Roads 
and streams — Early Settlements — Some 
Early Reminiscences — Schools — Railroads 
and Postoffices — Boiling Springs — ^Borough 
OF Mount Holly Springs— Location, etc. 
— Early Reminiscences— Early Settlement 
and Industries— War of the Rebellion — In- 
corporation, etc. — Churches, Schools and 
Newspaper — Hotels — Societies. 

CHAPTER XXXVI.— Upper Allen Town- 
ship 366-360 

Formation — Boundary —Early Settlers, 
Mills, Mines, etc. — Villages — Churches, 
Burial Places, etc. — Schools — Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXXVII.— West Pennseorough 

Township 360-364 

Its Origin— First Settlements, etc,— Vil- 
lages— Miscellaneous. 


Carlisle, Borough of. 367 

Mechanicshurg, Borough of. 405 

Newville, Borough of. 447 

Shlppensburg, Borough of. 442 

Shiremanstown, Borough of 456 

Cook Township 458 

Dickinson Township 459 

East Pennsborough Township and Borough of 

Camp Hill 465 

Frankford Township 476 

Hampden Township 479 

Hopewell Township and Borough of Newburg... 485 
Lower Allen Township and Borough of New 

Cumberland 492 

I Middlesex Township 498 

Mifflin Township 502 

Monroe Township 606 

Newton Township 517 

North Middleton Township 525 

Penn Township 526 

Silver Spring Township 535 

Southampton Township 545 

South Middleton Township and Borough of 

Mount Holly Spring 549 

Upper Allen Township 562 

West Pennsborough Township 574 


AM, C. W 123 

Ahl, Daniel V 263 

Ahl, John A 133 

Ahl, Peter A 253 

Ahl.yrhomas W 213 

£osler, Abraham „ 43 

Clever, George 293 

Coyle, James ; 233 

Dale, Waiiam W., M. D 83 

Gorgas, S. P ~ 53 

Gorgas, Hon. William E 23 

Hemminger, George, M. D 73 

Herman, A. J., M. D 103 

•Hutton, John 283 

Kaufftnan, Levi 273 

Kieffer, S. B., A. M., M. D 63 

Manning, H 243 

Mickey, Eobert 113 

Miller, Capt. W. E....: 16& 

Moore, James.....'. 365 

Moore, J. A 193 

Moser, Hon. H. G Part I, 45 

Mullin,A. F 203 

Niesley, 0. B 153 

Paston, George W 313 

Plank, A. W 173 

Pratt, Capt. R H 183 

Rea, J. D 223 

Sadler, Hon. W. F 2 

Slbbet, R. Lowry, M. D 93 

Snyder, Simon 303 

Stewart, Alex., M.D 33 

Thomas, R. H 143 

Wherry, Hon. Samuel Part I, 79 

Wing, Kev. Conway P 13 






CHAPTER L— Introductory 3-6 

CHAPTER II.— The Indians 7-12 

French and Indian War— Mary Jamison, 
The Indian Queen — Hance Hamilton- Mc- 
Cord'B Fort— Associated Companies in York 
County in 1766. 

CHAPTER ni.— The Mason and Dixon Line 


Grerman, Scotch-Irish and Jesuit Immigra- 
tion in 1734 — Lord Baltimore and William 
Peun- Border Troubles — Temporary Divid- 
ing Line — Mason and Dixon— Their Survey 
— Thomas Cresap— " Diggcs' Choice" — Zach- 
ary Butcher. 

CHAPTER IV.— First Settler 14-17 

Andrew Shriver — Extracts from Hon. 
Abraham Shriver's Memoir— Early Settlers 
— French Huguenots— Their Settlement in 

CHAPTER v.— Second Arrivals 17-23 

Penn'sPurchafie—"ManorofMaake"— Sur- 
vey — Obstructions — Compromise — '* Car- 
■ roll's Delight"— List of Early Settlers on 
the Manor, and Warrantees-" Old Hill" 
Church — Presbyterian Congregation in 
Cumberland Township. 

CHAPTER VI.— The *' Little Conewago Set- 
tlement" .'. 2^24 

" Digges'Choice "—Land Purchases in 1734, 
1738 and 1742— Records of 1752. 

CHAPTER VII.~Early Marriages 24-31 

Rev. Alexander Dobbin — His son, James — 
Record of Marriages during Rev. Alex. Dob- 
bin's Entire Pastorate, 1774 to 1808. 

CHAPTER VIIL— The Revolution 31-36 

Adams (York) County in the Struggle — 
First Company from Pennsylvania — The In- 
dependent Light Infantry Company— Flying 
Camp— Roster of OflBcers, Adams (York) 

CHAPTER IX.— Erection of County 36-43 

Date of its Creation — Boundary Line, Area 
and Population — James Gettys— -Selection of 
County Seat — Taxes Levied— County Build- 

CHAPTER X.— Natural History of Adams 

County 44-54 

Geology — Mineralogy — The South Moun- 
tain — The " Barrens '^—Destruction of For- 
ests— Streams— Elevations — Scenery — Trees 
and Shrubs— Fish— Birds. 

CHAPTER XL— Roads 55-56 

Turnpikes— Railroads — Baltimore &. Han- 
over Railroad— Gettysburg & Harrisburg 
Road— The Old " Tape Worm " Line. 

CHAPTER XIL— Customs and Manners 57-71 

Distinct Streams of Immigrants — Industry 
and Rel^ion— Getting a start — Their Com- 
merce—Receptions — Impro veme n ts. 

CHAPTER XIIL— Sketches andEtchings...71-78 
The McCleans— The McPhersons- Gen. 
Reed— Dr. Crawford— Col. Stagle— Col.Grier 
— Victor King — Judge Black— Thaddeus 
Stevens — Patrick McSherry — Col. Hance 
Hamilton— The Gulps— William McClellan 
— Capt. Bettinger— James Cooper. 


CHAPTER XIV.— War of 1812 78-84 

Adams County Regiments — The Feder- 
alists and Democrats— " Friends of Peace" 
Meetings— Toasts— Close of War. 

CHAPTER XV.— Civil War 84-87 

Recruiting in Adams County — The Mili- 
tary Companies and Their Regiments — Corp. 
Skelly Post, No. 9, G. A. R. 

CHAPTER XVI.— Officials 87-«7 

Members of Congress— Senators and As- 
semblymen — County Officials. 

CHAPTER XVII.— Bench and Bab 98-103 

First Court — "Circuit Riders" — Visiting 
Attorneys— Jonathan F. Haight, First Res- 
ident Attorney — Lawyers from 1801 to 1885. 

CHAPTER XVni.— Political 10^-115 

The Revolution — Party Spirit — Jefferson 
and Hamilton— First County Convention — 
Republicans, Democrats and Federals — 
Hon. William McSherry — Political Factions 
— Elections — Federalists and Republicans 
("Democrats") — A "Cockade" Row — Fed- 
eral-Republicans and Democrats — The 
CentiTiel — Elections to 1814, 


Petition to Postmaster General in 1795 — 
Postmasters in County, Fast and Present. 

CHAPTER XX.— Education 121-135 

Pioneer Schools— Pioneer Teachers — 
Pioneer Schoolhouses — Christ Church School 
— East Berlin School — Gettysburg Classical 
School— Gettysburg Industrial School — 
English School in Gettysburg— Gettysburg 
Academy— Gettysburg Female Institute — 
Gettysburg Female Academy — Theological 
Seminary— Gettysburg Gymnasium— Penn- 
sylvania College— New Oxford College an^ 
Medical Institute — Hunterstown English 
and Classical Academy — Catholic Schools— 
The Free School System— The County Sup- 
erintendency— Educational Meetings — Con- 
clusion — Tabular Statements. 

CHAPTER XXL— Societies 135-137 

Debating Societies — The Gettysbury Sen- 
timental Society— Poluglassic Society — The 
Gettysburg Debating and Sentimental 

CHAPTER XXII.— Newspapers 138-145 

The Owi/inei— Interesting Items — Necrol- 
ogy— 2%e5tor and 51emin€i—7%e Oonwiler—HTie 
C&rUury—York Springs Comet— We^y Visiior 
Weekly Ledger— Orystal Palace — LUtlestovm 
Press— Littfestown News— The Courier— LUUes- 
town Era—New Oxford Mem — Intelligencer— 
Woch&nblatt — Yellow Jacket — Record. 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Old Time Reminiscences 

..,. 145—151 

Citizens in Gettysburg Between IsiV and 
1829 — Interesting Items. 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Battle of Gettysburg 

•••;•■-, -,;;•••;;■■ ■:-■■ 163-181 

Lee's Nortliward Movement in 1863 

Eallying the Forces— The Battle— The Re- 
sult, Lee's Defeat— At Meade's Headquarters 
—Numerical Strength of the Two Armies 
-Effects Following the Battle— National 

CHAPTER XXV.— BOHOUGH op Gettysburg 

Hance Hamilton and Richard McAllister 
—James Gettys— Old Plat of the Town— 




Town Incorporated — Elections — Water 
Companies— Fire Companies— Banks— Sem- 
inary and College — Churches — G. A, R. 
Post — A National Resort. 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Physicians 204^214 

Of the Earliest of Whom Tradition is at 
Fault— Practice of Medicine in Early Days- 
Early Physicians— Adams County Medical 
Society — Present Licensed Practitioners. 

CHAPTER XXVII.— Berwick Township and 

Borough of Abbottstown 2l4r-222 

Origin — Topography — Geological Charac- 
teristics—Census—Assessed Valuation, 1799 
— Schools— War of the Rebellion— Railway 
and Postofl&ce— Borough op Abbottstown 
— Location, etc. — Statistics— Village in 1775 

— Assessment Valuation, 1799 — Officials, 
1864-1885 — Industries — Newspapers — Post- 
office — Miscellaneous — Churches and Socie- 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Butler Towns hip... 222-227 
Organization — Topography — Geological 
Features — Census — Old Bridges — Cemeteries 
— Middletown or Biglerville — Churches and 
Society — Beec h ersville— Centre Mills and 
Menallen Postoffice— Table Rock— Texas- 

CHAPTER XXIX.— CoNOw ago' Township and 

Borough of McSuerr^stown 227-236 

Organization — Topography — Geological 
Features — Biacksaake of Round Top and 
Other Curiosities— Census— Old Bridges- 
Railroads and Pike Roads — AssMsed Valu- 
ation, 1801 — Churches — Cemeteries— Brush- 
town — Borough of McSherrystown — 
Location, etc. — Statistics — Incorporation — 
First Election— Convent Schools — Associa- 
tion — Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXX. — Cumberland Town- 
ship 236-247 

Streams and Hills— Geological Features — 
Indian Field — Census — Bridges — Pike 
Roads — Railroads and Street Railroad — 
Original Land Tracts — Early Pioneers — 
"Manor of Maske" — List of Squatters — 
Assessed Valuation, 1799 — Military — 
Churches — Cemeteries — Schools — Miscel- 

CHAPTER XXXL— Franklin Township..247-261 
Topography — Geolofiical Features — Phe- 
nomena— Census— Land Entries— Assessed 
Valuation, 1799— Mary Jamison— Incidents 
— Churches — Arendtsville— Miscellaneous— 
Cashtown— Mummasburg — McKnightstown 
— Buchanan Valley — Seven Stars— Sheeley's 
— Cham berlin 's — M iscellaneous . 

CHAPTER XXXir.— Freedom Township..261-262 
Creeks, etc .— Bridges— Cen sus-Erection 
— Irish Settlers — " Manor of Maske " — Car- 
rol's Tracts — "Mason and Dixon" Mile- 
stones — Churches— Military. 

CHAPTER XXXIIL — Germany Township 

AND Borough OF Littlestown 263-271 

Topography — Early Merchants — Census — 
Railroad and Pike Roads— Bridge— Post- 
offices — School -System-" Digges' Choice " 
—Assessed Valuation, 1799— Borough or 
Littlestown — Location— Census— Village 
in 1797— Early Mails— Its History— Early 
Schools and Newspapers— Incorporation — 
Officials— Churches— Cemetery— Societies. 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Hamilton Township 

AND Borough of East Berlin 271-275 

Streams — Topography — Turnpike and 
Bridges — Census — Assessed Valuation, 1811 
—School Law— Railroad— Cross Keys— Post- 
office— Borough of East Berlin— Loca- 
tion, etc. — Census— Incorporation — Officials 

— Its History — Churches and Schools — 
Societies, etc. 


CHAPTER XXXV. — Hamiltonban Town- 
ship 276-283 

Streams, Hills and Valleys — Census — 
Geological Features — Old Tree — Railroad — 
Early Incidents-" Carroll's Delight " — As- 
sessment Valuation, 180.'— School Law — 
Fairfield — Churches, Schools, etc.— Miscel- 
laneous — Fountain Dale — Miscellaneous, 

CHAPTER XXXVI. — Highland Town- 
ship 283-286 

Streams — Topography — Census— Bridge — 
Railroad — " The Manor of Maske " — ^Early 
Settlers — Church— Cemeteries. 

CHAPTER XXXVII. — Huntington Town- 
ship AND Borough of York Springs... 286-295 

Streams— Geological Features— A Bottom- 
less Well— Railroad— Census— Assessed Val- 
uation, 1798-99— School Law— Early Inci- 
dents — Railroad— York Sulphur Springs— 
Idaville— Borough op York Springs — 
Location, etc. — Pike Road — Census — Incor- 
poration — Officials — Churches — Schools- 
Societies — Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXXVIIL— Latimore Township 


Streams, etc.— Topography and Geological 
Features— Roads and Bridges— Census— Me- 
chanicsville — School Law— Pioneer Taxpay- 
ers—Assessment Valuation, 1807— Fridley 
and his Mill— Churches and Cemeteries — 

CHAPTER XXXIX —Liberty Township..298-303 
Streams— Valleys— Indian Relics— "Mason 
& Dixon" Mile-Stones— Copper Mine — 
Fire — Bridge — Census — Original Settle- 
ments — School Law — Assessed Valuation, 
1801— Zimmermans — Churches, Cemeteries, 

CHAPTER XL.— Menallen Township 304-312 

Streams — Hills, Valleys, etc. — Geological 
Features— Iron and Coal Mines— Large Tree, 
etc.— Bridges— Road — Census— School Sys- 
tem — Military — Railroad and Postoffices— 
Assessed Valuation, 1799— David Lewis, the 
Robber — Incidents — Monuments— Benders- 
ville — Churches — Societies— Flora Dale— 
Wenksville— Churches. 

CHAPTER XLI~MouNTJOY Township 312-314 

Streams and General Description— A Find 
— Bridges— Census— Assessed Valuation, 1799 
— Military — Churches— Two Taverns. 

ship 315-321 

Topography— Iron and Copper Ore— 
Bridges— Pike Roads and Railroads— Census 
— Early Reminiscences— ^anaghan Tract — 
Assessed Valuation, 1800 — Military— School 
Law— Railroad and Postoffices — Churches — 
White Hall or Red Lands — Mount Rock — 

CHAPTER XLIIL— Oxford Township and 

Borough of NewOxfobd 321-328 

Topography — Old Barn — Railroads, 
Bridges. Pikes, Stage Lines, etc. — Census — 
Original Land Entries— Military — Incidents, 
Fires, Storms, etc. — Irishtown — Heroutford 
Borough of New Oxford — Its Early His- 
tory— Incorporation -Elections— Census — 
Churches— Cemetery —Institute and Schools 
— Societies — Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XLIV.— Reading Township 328-333 

Topography — Geological Features, etc. — 
Bridges — Census — Scmool Law — Assessed 
Valuation, 1799 — Churches — Hampton — 
Round Hill— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XLV.— Straban Township 333-341 


Topography — Census — School Law — 
Bridges and Railroad— Assessed Valuation, 
1800 — Military — Early Land Entries- 
Churches — Hunterstown — Churches and 
Cemeteries — New Chester — Plainview — 
Granite Hill. 

CHAPTER XLVI.— Tyrone Township 341-344 

Boundary — Topography — Bridges — Cen- 
sus — Assessment Valuation, 1801— (School 

Law— Military— Old Mill— Heidlersburg— 
Churches— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XLVII.— Union Township 344-34» 

Topography — Geological Features — Or- 
ganization — Census — Bridges — German Emi- 
grants, 1 735-.?2— Early Settlers— Land Troub- 
les — " Digges' Choice "—Churches — Ceme- 
teries—Sell's Station— Church Station. 


Gettysburg, Borough of. 349 

Berwick Township and Borough of Abottstown. 381 

Butler Township 382 

Conowago Township and Borough of McSherrys- 

town 388 

Cumberland Township 397 

Franklin Township 405 

Freedom Township 416 

Germany Township and Borough of Littlestown 417 
Hamilton Township and Borough of East Berlin 437 

Hamiltonban Township 441 

Highland Township 452 

Huntington Township and Borough of York 

Springs 455 

Latimove Township 467 

Liberty Township 471 

Menallen Township 473 

Mountjoy Township 482 

Mountpleasant Township 485 

Oxford Township and Borough of New Oxford.. 492 

Reading Township 503 

Straban Township 506 

Tyrone Township 513 

Union Township 514 


Barr, Smith 229 

Bell, Maj. Robert 129 

Bonner, W. F 279 

Bream, William 169 

Buehler, Samuel H 29 

Byers. JohnG 409 

Cole, Francis 289 

Coulson, Francis between 308 and 311 

Coulson, Catharine R between 308 and 311 

Diehl, Daniel 399 

Diehl, Peter 379 

Durboraw, Samuel 299 

Garretson, Israel 169 

GUIiland, S. A 389 

Gitt, Joseph S 259 

Goldsborough, C. E., M. D 219 

Griest, Jesse VV 109 

Hersh, James 269 

Hendrix, J. W 369 

Himes, George 119 

Kendlehart, D 49 

Kltzmiller, J. A 79 

Mcclellan, Col. J. H 39 

McPherson, Hon. Edward 9 

Martin, William A 139 

Miller, Ephraim .359 

Mumma, E W., M. D 209 

Myers, H. J 249 

O.Bold, Vincent 347 

O'Neal, J. W. C 199 

Picking, John 239 

Riley, P. H ,439 

Schick, J. L 69 

Schlosser, Amos 149 

Seiss, R. S 429 

Sell, Daniel 459 

Sheely, Noah 329 

Shorb, Joseph L ■ 449 

Slaybaugh, Jesse 179 

Stable, H. J 69 

Tipton, W. H 89 

Tyson, C. J 99 

Welty, Henry A 419 

Wierman, Isaac E 339 

Wills, Judge David 19 

Wilson, N. G 189 

Witherow, J. S 319 


Map of Cumberland and Adams Counties .'. Part I 12-13 

Map Showing Various Purchases from the Indians Part I 113 

Diagram Showing Proportionate Anunal Production of Anthracite Coal since 1820 Part I 118 

Table Showing Amount of Anthracite Coal Produced in Each Region since 1820 Part I 119 

Table Showing Vote for Governors of Pennsylvania since Organization of State Part I 132 

Relief Map of Cumberland Valley Parti 134-135 

Map of Gettysburg Battle-fleld Part III 162 




"God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I believe^ 
bless and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to the 
government that it be "well laid at first. I do, therefore, 

desire the Lord's wisdom to guide me, and those that may be concerned 
"With me, that -we may do the thing that is truly -wise and just/* 




INTEODTTCTOBY — CORNELIS JACOBSON Mey, 1624-25— William Van Hulst, 1626- 
26— Peter Mintjit, 1626-33— David Petersen de Vries, 1682-83— Woutee 
Yan Twiller, 1633-88. 

IN the early colonization upon the American continent, two motives were 
principally operative. One was the desire of amassing sudden wealth 
without great labor, which tempted advejiturous spirits to go in search of gold, 
to trade valueless trinkets to the simple natives for rich furs and ekins, and even 
to seek, amidst the wilds of a tropical forest, for the fountain whose healing 
waters could restore to man perpetual youth. The other was the cherished 
purpose of escaping the unjust restrictions of Government, and the hated ban 
of society against the worship of the Supreme Being according to the honest 
dictates of conscience, which incited the humble devotees of Christianity to 
forego the comforts of home, in the midst of the best civilization of the age, 
and make for themselves a habitation on the shores of a new world, where they 
might erect altars and do homage to their God in such habiliments as they 
preferred, and utter praises in such note as seemed to them good. This pur- 
pose was also incited by a certain romantic temper, common to the race, es- 
pecially noticeable in youth, that invites to some uninhabited J spot, and Ras- 
selas and Eobinsou Crusoe-like to begin life anew. 

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, had felt the heavy hand of 
persecution for religious opinion's sake. As a gentleman commoner at Ox- 
ford, he had been fined, and finally expelled from that venerable seat of learn- 
ing for non-comformity to the established worship. At home, he was whipped 
and turned out of doors by a father who thought to reclaim the son to the 
more certain path of advancement at a licentious court. He was sent to prison 
by the Mayor of Cork. For seven months he languished in the tower of Lon- 
don, and, finally, to complete his disgrace, he was cast into Newgate with com- 
mon felons. Upon the accession of James II, to the throne of England, over 
fourteen hundred persons of the Quaker faith were immured in prisons for a 
conscientious adherence to their religious convictions. To escape this harassing 
persecution, and find peace and quietude from this sore proscription, was the 
moving cause which led Penn and his followers to emigrate to America. 

Of all those who have been founders of States in near or distant ages, none 
have manifested so sincere and disinterested a spirit, nor have been so fair ex- 
emplars of the golden rule, and of the Redeemer's sermon on the mount, as 
William Penn. In his preface to the frame of government of his colony, he 
says: " The end of government is first to terrify evil-doers; secondly, to cher- 
ish those who do well, which gives government a life beyond corruption, and 


makes it as durable in the vorld, as good men shall be. So that government 
seems to be a part of religion itself, a thing sacred in its institution and end. 
For, if it does not directly remove the cause, it crushes the effects of evil, and 
is an emanation of the same Divine power, that is both author and object of 
pure religion, the difference lying here, that the one is more free and mental, 
the other more corporal and compulsive in its operations; but that is only to 
evil-doers, government itself being otherwise as capable of kindness, goodness 
and charity, as a more private society. They weakly err, who think there is no 
other use of government than correction, which is the coarsest part of it. 
Daily experience tells us, that the care and regulation of many other affairs 
more soft, and daily necessary, make up much the greatest part of government. 
Governments, like clocks, go from the motion men give them, and as govern- 
ments are made and moved by men, so by them are they ruined, too. Where- 
fore, governments rather depend upon men, than men upon governments. Let 
men be good, and the government cannot be bad. If it be ill, they will cure 
it. But if men be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor 
to warp and spoil to their turn. * * * That, therefore, which makes a good 
constitution, must keep it, men of wisdom and virtue,qualitie8,that because they 
descend not with worldly inheritances, must be carefully propagated by a vir- 
tuous education of youth, for which, after ages will owe more to the care and 
prudence of founders and the successive magistracy, than to their parents for 
their private patrimonies. * * * We have, therefore, with reverence to God, 
and good conscience to men, to the best of our skill, contrived and composed the 
Frame and Laws of this government, viz. : To support power in reverence 
with the people, and to secure the people from the abuse of power, that they 
may be free by their just obedience, and the magistrates honorable for their 
just administration. For liberty without obedience is confusion, and obedi- 
ence without liberty is slavery." 

Though born amidst the seductive arts of the great city, Penn's tastes were 
rural. He hated the manners of the corrupt court, and delighted in the homely 
labors and innocent employments of the farm. " The country," he said, "is 
the philosopher's garden and library, in which he reads and contemplates the 
power, wisdom and goodness of God. It is his food as well as study, and gives 
him life as well as learning." And to his wife he said upon taking leave of 
her in their parting interview: " Let my children be husbandmen, and house- 
wives. It is industrious, healthy, honest, and of good report. This leads to 
consider the works of God, and diverts the mind from being taken up with vain 
arts and inventions of a luxurious world. Of cities and towns of concourse, 
beware. The world is apt to stick close to those who have lived and got wealth 
there. A country life and estate I love best for my children." 

Having thus given some account at the outset of the spirit and purposes of 
the founder, and the motive which drew him to these shores, it will be in 
place, before proceeding with the details of the acquisition of territory, and 
the coming of emigrants for the actual settlement under the name of Pennsyl- 
vania, to say something of the aborigines who were found in possession of the 
soil when first visited by Europeans, of the condition of the surface of the 
country, and of the previous attempts at settlements before the coming of Penn. 

The surface of what is now known as Pennsylvania was, at the time of the 
coming of the white men, one vast forest of hemlock, and pine, and beech, 
and oak, unbroken, except by an occasional rocky barren upon the precipitous 
mountain side, or by a few patches of prairie, which had been reclaimed by 
annual burnings, and was used by the indolent and simple-minded natives for 
the Culture of a little maize and a few vegetables. The soil, by the annual 


accumulations of leaves and abundant growths of forest vegetation, was luxu- 
rious, and the trees stood close, and of gigantic size. The streams swarmed 
with fish, and the forest abounded with game. Where now are cities and 
hamlets filled with busy populations intent upon the accumulation of wealth, 
the mastery of knowledge, the pursuits of pleasure, the deer browsed and 
sipped at the water's edge, and the pheasaat drummed his monotonous note. 
Where now is the glowing furnace from which day and night tongues of fiame 
are bursting, and the busy water wheel sends the shuttle flashing through the 
loom, half-naked, dusky warriors fashioned their spears with rude implements 
of stone, and made themselves hooks out of the bones of animals for alluring 
the finny tribe. Where now are fertile fields, upon which the thrii^ty farmer 
turns his furrow, which his neighbor takes Up and runs on until it reaches 
from one end of the broad State to the other, and where are flocks and herds, 
rejoicing in rich meadows, gladdened by abundant fountains, or reposing at the 
heated noontide beneath ample shade, not a blow had been struck against the 
giants of the forest, the soil rested in virgin purity, the streams glided on in 
majesty, unvexed by wheel and unohoked by device of man. 

Where now the long train rushes on with the speed of the wind over 
plain and mead, across streams and under mountains, awakening the echoes of 
the hills the long day through, and at the midnight hour screaming out its 
shrill whistle in fiery defiance, the wild native, with a fox skin wrapped about 
his loins and a few feathers stuck in his hair, issuing from his rude hut, trot- 
ted on in his forest path, followed by his squaw with her infant peering forth 
from the rough sling at her back, pointed his canoe, fashioned from the barks 
of the trees, across the deep river, knowing the progress of time only by the 
rising and setting sun, troubled by no meridians for its index, starting on his 
way when his nap was ended, and stopping for rest when a spot was reached 
that pleased his fancy. Where now a swarthy population toils ceaselessly deep 
down in the bowels of the earth, shut out trom the light of day in cutting out 
the material that feeds the fires upon the forge, and gives genial warmth to the 
lovers as they chat merrily in the luxurious drawing room, not a mine had 
been opened, and the vast beds of the black diamond rested unsunned beneath 
the superincumbent mountains, where they had been fashioned by the Creator's 
hand. Elvers of oil seethed through the impatient and uneasy gases and vast 
pools and lakes of this pungent, parti -colored fluid, hidden away from the 
coveting eye of man, guarded well their own secrets. Not a derrick protruded 
its well-balanced form in the air. Not a drill, with its eager eating tooth de- 
scended into the flinty rock. No pipe lino diverted the oily tide in a silent, 
ceaseless current to the ocean's brink. The cities of iron tanks, filled to burst- 
ing, had no place amidst the forest solitudes. Oil exchanges, with their vex- 
ing puts and calls, shorts and longs, bulls and bears, had not yet come to dis- 
turb the equanimity of the red man, as he smoked the pipe of peace at the 
council fire. Had he once seen the smoke and soot of the new Birmingham of 
the West, or snufied the odors of an oil refinery, he would willingly have for- 
feited his goodly heritage by the forest stream or the deep flowing river, and 
sought for himself new hunting grounds in less favored regions. 

It was an unfortunate circumstance that at the coming of Europeans the 
territory now known as Pennsylvania was occupied by some of the most bloody 
and revengeful of the savage tribes. They were known as the Lenni Lenapes, 
and held sway from the Hudson to the Potomac. A tradition was preserved 
among them, that in a remote age their ancestors had emigrated eastward from 
beyond the Mississippi, exterminating as they came the more civilized and 
peaceful peoples, the Mound-Builders of Ohio and adjacent States, and who 


were held among the tribes by whom they were surrounded as the progenitors, 
the grandfathers or oldest people. They came to be known by Europeans as 
the Delawares, after the name of the river and its numerous branches along 
which thoy principally dwelt. The Moneys or Wolves, another tribe of the 
Lenapes, dwelt upon the Susquehanna and its tributaries, and, by their war- 
like disposition, won the credit of being the fiercest of their nation, and the 
guardians of the door to their council house from the North. 

Occupying the greater part of the teritory now known as New York, were 
the five nations — the Senaoas, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Cayugas, and 
the Onondagas, which, from their hearty union, acquired great strength and 
came to exercise a commanding influence. Obtaining firearms of the Dutch 
at Albany, they repelled the advances of the French from Canada, and by 
their superiority in numbers and organization, had overcome the Lenapes, 
and held them for awhile in vassalage. The Tuscaroras, a tribe which had 
been expelled from their home in North Carolina, were adopted by the Five Na- 
tions in 1712, and from this time forward these tribes were known to the English 
as the Six Nations, called by the Iienapes, Mingoes, and by the French, Iroquois. 
There was, therefore, properly a United States before the thirteen colonies 
achieved their independence. The person and character of these tribes were 
marked. They were above the ordinary stature, erect, bold, and commanding, 
of great decorum in council, and when aroused showing native eloquence. In 
warfare, they exhibited all the bloodthirsty, revengeful, cruel instincts of the 
savage, and for the attainment of their purposes were treacherous and crafty. 

The Indian character, as developed by intercourse with Europeans, exhibits 
some traits that are peculiar While coveting what they saw that pleased 
them, and thievish to the last degree, they were nevertheless generous. This 
may be accounted for by their habits. "They held that the game of the for- 
est, the fish of the rivers, and the grass of the field were a common heritage, 
and free to all who would take the trouble to gather them, and ridiculed the 
idea of fencing in a meadow." Bancroft says: " The hospitality of the Indian 
has rarely been questioned. The stranger enters his cabin, by day or by 
night, without asking leave, and is entertained as freely as a thrush or a 
blackbird, that regales himself on the luxuries of the fruitful grove. He 
will take his own rest abroad, that he may give up his own skin or mat of 
sedge to his guest. Nor is the traveler questioned as to the purpose of his 
visit. He chooses his own time freely to deliver his message." Penn, who, 
from frequent intercourse came to know them well, in his letter to the society 
of Free Traders, says of them: "In liberality they excel; nothing is too good 
for their friend. Give them a fine gun, coat or other thing, it may pass 
twenty hands before it sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon epent. 
The most merry creatures that live; feast and dance perpetually. They never 
have much nor want much. Wealth circnlateth like the blood. All parts 
partake; and though none shall want what another hath, yet exact observers 
of property. Some Kings have sold, others presented me with several parcels 
of laud. The pay or presents I made them, were not hoarded by the particu- 
lar owners, but the neighboring Kings and clans being present when the 
goods were brought out, the parties chiefly concerned consulted what and to 
whom they should give them. To every King, then, by the hands of a per- 
son for that work appointed is a proportion sent, so sorted and folded, and 
with that gravity that is admirable. Then that King subdivideth it in like man- 
ner among his dependents, they hardly leaving themselves an equal share 
with one of their subjects, and be it on such occasions as festivals, or at their 
common meals, the Kings distribute, and to themselves last. Thoy care for 


little because they want but little, and the reason is a little contents them. In 
this they are suflSciently revenged on us. They are also free from our pains. 
They are not disquieted with bills of lading and exchange, nor perplexed 
with chancery suits and exchequer reckonings. "We sweat and toil to live; 
their pleasure feeds them; I mean their hunting, fishing and fowling, and 
this table is spread everywhere. They eat twice a day, morning and evening. 
Their Heats and table are the ground. Since the Europeans came into these 
parts they are grown great lovers of strong liquors, rum especially, and for it 
exchange the richest of their skins and furs. If they are heated with liquors, 
they are restless till they have enough to sleep. That is their cry, ' Some 
more and I will go to sleep; ' but when drunk one of the most wretched spec- 
tacles in the world." 

On the 28th of August, 1609, a little more than a century from the time 
of the first discovery of the New World by Columbus, Hendrick Hudson, an 
English navigator, then in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, hav- 
ing been sent out in search of a northwestern passage to the Indies, discovered 
the mouth of a great bay, since known as Delaware Bay, which he entered and 
partially explored. But finding the waters shallow, and being, satisfied that 
this was only an arm of the sea which received the waters of a great river, 
and not a passage to the western ocean, he retired, and, turning the prow of 
his little craft northward, on the 2d of September, he discovered the river 
which bears his name, the Hudson, and gave several days to its examination. 
Not finding a passage to the West, which was the object of his search, he returned 
to Holland, bearing the evidences of his adventures, and made a full report of 
his discoveries in which he says, ' ' Of all lands on which I ever set my foot, 
this is the best for tillage." 

A proposition had been made in the States General of Holland to form a 
West India Company with purposes similar to those of the East India Com- 
pany; but the conservative element in the Dutch Congress prevailed, and while 
the (Government was unwilling to undertake the risks of an enterprise for 
which it would be responsible, it was not unwilling to foster private enter- 
prise, and on the 27th of March, 1614, an edict was passed, granting the 
privileges of trade, in any of its possessions in the New World, during four 
voyages, founding its right to the territory drained by the Delaware and 
Hudson upon the discoveries by Hudson. Five vessels were accordingly 
fitted by a company composed of enterprising merchants of the cities of Am- 
sterdam and Hoorn, which made speedy and prosperous voyages under com- 
mand of Cornells Jacobson Mey, bringing back with them fine furs and rich 
woods, which so excited cupidity that the States General was induced on the 
14th of October, 1614, to authorize exclusive trade, for four voyages, extend- 
ing through three years, in the newly acquired possessions, the edict designat- 
ing them as New Netherlands. 

One of the party of this first enterprise, Cornelis Hendrickson, was left 
behind with a vessel called the Unrest, which had been built to supply the 
place of one accidentally burned, in which he proceeded to explore more fully 
the bay and river Delaware, of which he made report that was read before the 
States General on the 19th of August, 1616. This report is curious as dis- 
closing the opinions of the first actual explorer in an official capacity: "He 
hath discovered for his aforesaid masters and directors certain lands, a bay, 
and three rivers, situate between thirty-eight and forty degrees, and did their 
trade with the inhabitants, said trade consisting of sables, furs, robes and 
other skins. He hath found the said country full of trees, to wit, oaks, hick- 
ory and pines, which trees were, in some places, covered with vines. He hath 


seen in said country bucks and does, turkeys and partridges. He hath found 
the climate of said country very temperate, judging it to be as temperate as 
this coimtry, Holland. He also traded for and bought from the inhabitants, 
the Minquas, three persons, being people belonging to this company, which 
three persons were employed in the service of the Mohawks and Machicans, 
giving for them kettles, beads, and merchandise." 

This second charter of privileges expired in January, 1618, and daring its 
continuance the knowledge acquired of the country and its resources promised 
so much of success that the States General was ready to grant broader privi- 
leges, and on the 3d of June, 1621, the Dutch West India Company was in- 
corporated, to extend for a period of twenty-four years, with the right of 
renewal, the capital stock to be open to subscription by all nations, and 
"privileged to trade and plant colonies in Africa, from the tropic of Cancer 
to the Cape of Good Hope, and in America from the Straits of Magellan to the 
remotest north." The past glories of Holland, though occupying but an in- 
significant patch of Europe, emboldened its Government to pass edicts for the 
colonizing and carrying on an exclusive trade with a full half of the entire 
world, an example of the biting off of more than could be well chewed. But 
the light of this enterprising people was beginning to pale before the rising 
glories of the stern race in their sea girt isle across the channel. Dissensions 
were arising among the able statesmen who had heretofore guided its affairs, 
and before the periods promised in the original charter of this colonising com- 
pany had expired, its supremacy of the sea was successfully resisted, and its 
exclusive rights and privileges in the New World had to be relinquished. 

The principal object in establishing this West India Company was to 
secure a good dividend upon the capital stock, which was subscribed to by the 
rich old burgomasters. The fine furs and products of the forests, which had 
been taken back to Holland, had proved profitable. But it was seen that if 
this trade was to be permanently secured, in face of the active competition of 
•other nations, and these commodities steadily depended upon, permanent set- 
tlements must bo provided for. Accordingly, in 1623, a colony of about forty 
families, embracing a party of Walloons, protestant fugitives from Belgium, 
sailed for the new province, under the leadership of Cornel is Jaoobson Mey and 
Joriz Tienpont. Soon after their arrival, Mey, who had been invested with 
the power of Director General of all the territory claimed by the Dutch, see- 
ing, no doubt, the evidences of some permanence on the Hudson, determined 
to take these honest minded and devoted Walloons to the South River, or Del- 
aware, that he might also gain for his country a foothold there. The testi- 
mony of one of the women, Catalina Tricho, who was of the party, is 
curious, and sheds some light upon this point. " That she came to this prov- 
ince either in the year 1623 or 1624, and that fom- women came along with 
her in the same ship, in which Gov. Arien Jorissen came also over, which four 
women were married at sea, and that they and their husbands stayed about 
three weeks at this place (Manhattan) and then they with eight seamen more, 
went in a vessel by orders of the . Dutch Governor to Delaware Eiver, and 
there settled." Ascending the Delaware some fifty miles, Mey landed 
on the eastern shore near where now is the town of Gloucester, and built a 
fort which he called Nassau. Having duly installed his little colony, he re- 
turned to Manhattan; but beyond the building of the fort, which served as a 
trading post, this attempt to plant a colony was futile; for these religious 
zealots, tiring of the solitude in which they were left, after a few months 
abandoned it, and returned to their associates whom they had left upon the 
Hudson. Though not successful in establishing a permanent colony upon the 


Delaware, ships plied regularly between the fort and Manhattan, and this 
hecame the rallying point for the Indians, who brought thither their commodi- 
ties for trade. At about this time, 1626, the island of Manhattan estimated 
to contain 22,000 acres, on which now stands the city of New York with its 
busy population, surrounded by its forests of masts, was bought for the insig- 
nificant sum of sixty guilders, about |24, what would now pay for scarcely a 
square inch of some of that very soil. As an evidence of the thrift which had 
begun to mark the progress of the colony, it may be stated that the good ship 
" The Arms of Amsterdam," which bore the intelligence of this fortunate pur- 
chase to the assembly of the XIX in Holland, bore also in the language of 
O'Calaghan, the historian of New Netherland, the " information that the col- 
ony was in a most prosperous state, and that the women and the soil were 
both fruitful. To prove the latter fact, samples of the recent harvest, consist- 
ing of wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canary seed, were sent forward, 
together with 8,130 beaver skins, valued at over 45,000 guilders, or nearly 
$19,000." It is accorded by another hislorian that this same ship bore also 
" 853^ otter skins, eighty-one mink skins, thirty-six wild cat skins and thirty-four 
rat skins, with a quantity of oak and hickory timber." From this it may be 
seen what the commodities were which formed the subjects of trade. Doubt- 
less of wharf rats Holland had enough at home, but the oak and hickory tim- 
ber came at a time when there was sore need of it. 

Finding that the charter of privileges, enacted in 1621, did not give suffi- 
cient encouragement and promise of security to actual settlers, further con- 
cessions were made in 1629, whereby " all such persons as shall appear and 
desire the same from the company, shall be acknowledged as Patroons [a sort 
of feudal lord] of New Netherland, who shall, within the space of four years 
next after they have given notice to any of the chambers of the company here, 
or to the Commander or Council there, undertake to plant a colony there of 
fifty souls, upward of fifteen years old; one- fourth part within one year, and 
within three years after sending the first, making together four years, the re- 
mainder, to the full number of fifty persons, to be shipped from hence, on pain, 
in case of willful neglect, of being deprived of the privileges obtained." * * 
" The Patroons, by virtue of their power, shall be permitted, at such places as they 
shall settle their colonies, to extend their limits four miles along the shore, or 
two miles on each side of a river, and so far into the country as the situation 
of the occupiers will permit." 

Stimulated by these flattering promises, Goodyn and Bloemmaert, two 
"wealthy and influential citizens, through their agents — Heyser and Coster — 
secured by purchase from the Indians a tract of iund on the western shore, 
at the mouth of the Delaware, sixteen miles in length along the bay front, and 
extending sixteen miles back into the country, giving a square of 256 miles. 
Goodyn immediately gave notice to the company of their intention to plant a 
colony on their newly acquired territory as patroons They were joined by an 
experienced navigator, De Vries, and on the 12th of December, 1630, a vessel, 
the Walrus, under command of De Vries, was clispatched with a company of 
settlers and a stock of cattle and farm implements, which arrived safely in 
the Delaware. De Vries landed about three leagues within the capes, " near 
the entrance of a fine navigable stream, called the Hoarkill," where he pro- 
ceeded to build a house, well surrounded with cedar palisades, which served 
the purpose of fort, lodging house, and trading post. The little settlement, 
which consisted of about thirty persons, was christened by the high sounding 
title of Zwanendal — Valley of Swans. In the spring they prepared their fields 
and planted them, and De Vries returned to Holland, to make report of his 


But a sad fate awaited the little colony atZwanendal, In accordance with 
the custiim of European nations, the commandant, on taking possession of the 
new purchase, erected a post, and affixed thereto a piece of tin on which was 
traced the arms of Holland and a legend of occupancy. An Indian chieftain, 
passing that way, attracted by the shining metal, and not understanding the 
object of the inscription, and not having the fear of their high mightinesses, 
the States General of Holland before his eyes, tore it down and proceeded to 
make for himself a tobacco pipe, considering it valuable both by way of orna- 
ment and use. When this act of trespass was discovered, it was regarded by 
.the doughty Dutchman as a direct insult to the great State of Holland, and 
so great an ado was raised over it that the simple minded natives became 
frightened, believing that their chief had committed a mortal offense, and in 
the strength and sincerity of their friendship immediately proceeded to dis 
patch the offending chieftain, and brought ther bloody emblems of their deed to 
the head of the colony. This act excited the anger of the relatives of the mur- 
dered man, and in accordance with Indian law, they awaited the chance to 
take revenge. O'Calaghan gives the following account of this bloody massa- 
cre which ensued: "The colony at Zwanendal consisted at this time of thirty- 
four persons. Of these, thirty- two were one day at work in the fields, while 
Commissary Hosset remained in charge of the house, where another of the set- 
tlers lay sick abed. A large bull dog was chained out of doors. On pretence 
of selling some furs, three savages entered the house and murdered Hosset 
and the sick man. They found it not so easy to dispatch the mastiff. It was 
not until they had pierced him with at least twenty-five arrows that he was 
destroyed. The men in the fields were then set on, in an equally treacherous 
manner, under the guise of friendship, and every man of them slain." Thus 
was a worthless bit of tin the cause of the cutting off and utter extermination 
of the infant colony. 

De Vries was upon the point of returning to Zwanendal when he received 
intimation of disaster to the settlers. With a large vessel and a yacht, he set 
sail on the 24th of May, 1632, to carry succor, provided with the means of 
, prosecuting the whale fishery which he had been led to believe might be made 
very profitable, and of pushing the production of grain and tobacco. On ar- 
riving in the Delaware, he fired a signal gun to give notice of his approach. 
The report echoed through the forest, but, alas! the ears which would huve 
been gladened with the sound were heavy, and no answering salute came from 
the shore. On landing, he found his house' destroyed, the palisades burned, 
and the skulls and bones of his murdered countrymen bestrewing the earth, 
sad relics of the little settlement, which had promised so fairly, and warning 
tokens of the barbarism of the natives. 

De Vries knew that he was in no position to attempt to punish the guilty 
parties, and hence determined to pursue an entirely pacific policy. At his 
invitation, the Indians gathered in with their chief for a conference. Sitting 
down in a circle beneath the shadows of the somber forest, their Sachem in 
the centre, De Vries, without alluding to their previous acts of savagery, 
concluded with them a treaty of peace and friendship, and presented them in 
token of ratification, "some duffels, bullets, axes and Nuremburg trinkets." 

In place of finding his colony with plenty of provisions for the immediate 
needs of his party, he could get nothing, and began to be in want. He accord- 
ingly sailed up the river in quest of food. The natives were ready with 
their furs for barter, but they had no supplies of food with which they wished 
to part. Game, however, was^lenty, and wild turkeys were brought in weigh- 
ing over thirty pounds. One morning after a frosty night, while the littla 


craft was up the stream, the party was astonished to find the waters frozen 
over, and their ship fast in the ice. Judging by the mild climate of their own 
country, Holland, they did not suppose this possible. For several weeks they 
were held fast without the power to move their floating home. Being in need 
of a better variety of food than he found it possible to obtain, De Vries sailed 
away with a part of his followers to Virginia, where he was hospitably enter- 
tained by the Governor, who sent a present of goats as a token of friendship to 
the Dutch Governor at Manhattan. Upon his return to the Delaware, De 
Vries found that the party he had left behind to prosecute the whale fishery 
had only taken a few small ones, and these so poor that the amount of oil ob- 
tained was insignificant He had been induced to embark in the enterprise of 
a settlement here by the glittering prospect of prosecuting the whale fishery 
along the shore at a great profit. Judging by this experience that the hope 
of great gains from tliis source was groundless, and doubtless haunted by a 
superstitious dread of making their homes amid the relics of the settlers of the 
previous year, and of plowing fields enriched by their blood who had been 
so utterly cut off, and a horror of dwelling amongst a people so revengeful and 
savage, De Vries gathered all together, and taking his entire party with him 
sailed away to Manhattan and thence home to Holland, abandoning utterly the 

The Dutch still however sought to maintain a foothold upon the Dela- 
ware, and a fierce contention having sprung up between the powerful patroons 
and the Director General, and they having agreed to settle differences by 
the company authorizing the purchase of the claims of the patroons, those upon 
the Delaware were sold for 15,600 guilders. Fort Nassau was ac(!ordinglyre-oc- 
cupied and manned with a small military force, and when a party from Con- 
necticut Colony came, under one Holmes to make a settlement upon the Dela- 
ware, the Dutch at Nassau were found too strong to be subdued, and Holmes 
and his party were compelled to surrender, and were sent as prisoners of war 
to Manhattan. 


8iB WtLLiAM Keipt, 1638-47— Peter Mdtoit, 1638-41— Peter Hollandaer, 1641-43— 
John Printz, 1648-53 — Peter Stutvesant, 1647-64 — John Pappaqoya, 1653-54 — 
John CiiAtjde Rysingh, 1654^55. 

AT this period, the throne of Sweden was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, 
a monarch of the most enlightened views and heroic valor. Seeing the 
activity of surroimding nations in sending out colonies, he proposed to his 
people to found a commonwealth in the New World., not for the mere purpose 
of gain by trade, but to set up a refuge fpr the oppressed, a place of religious 
liberty and happy homes that should prove of advantage to " all oppressed 
Christendom." Accordingly, a company with ample privileges was incorpo- 
rated by the Swedish Government, to which the King himself pledged $400,000 
of the royal treasure, and men of every rank and nationality were invited to 
join in the enterprise. Gustavus desired not that his colony should depend 
upon serfs or slaves to do the rough work. " Slaves cost a great deal, labor 
with reluctance, and soon perish from hard usage. The Swedish nation is 
laborious and intelligent, and surely we shall gain more by a free people with 
wives and children." 


In the meantime, the fruits of the reformation in Germany were menaced, 
and the Swedish monarch determined to unsheath his sword and lead his 
people to the aid of Protestant faith in the land where its standard had been 
successfully raised. At the battle of Liitzen, where for the cause which he had 
espoused, a signal victory was gained, the illustrious monarch, in the flower 
of life, received a mortal wound. Previous to the battle, and while engaged in 
active preparations for the great struggle, he remembered the interests of his 
contemplated colony in America, and in a most earnest manner commended 
the enterprise to the people of Germany. 

Oxenstiern, the minister of Gustavus, upon whom the weight of govern- 
ment devolved during the minority of the young daughter, Christina, declared 
that he was but the executor of the will of the fallen King, and exerted him- 
self to further the interests of a colony which he believed would be favorable to 
" all Christendom, to Europe, to the whole world. " Four years however 
elapsed before the project was brought to a successful issue. Peter Minuit, 
who had for a time been Governor of New Netherlands, having been displaced, 
sought employment in the Swedish company, and was given the command of 
the first colony. Two vessels, the Key of Calmar and the Griffin, early in the 
year 1638, with a company of Swedes and Fins, made their way across the 
stormy Atlantic and arrived safely in the Delaware. They purchased of the 
Indians the lands from the ocean to the falls of Trenton, and at the mouth of 
Christina Creek erected a fort which they called Christina, after the name of 
the youthful Queen of Sweden. The soil was fruitful, the climate mild, and 
the scenery picturesque. Compared with many parts of Finland and Sweden, 
it was a Paradise, a name which had been given the point at the entrance of 
the bay. As tidings of the satisfaction of the first emigrants were borne back 
to the fatherland, the desire to seek a home in the new country spread rap- 
idly, and the ships sailing were unable to take the many families seeking pas- 

The Dutch were in actual possession of Fort Nassau when the Swedes 
first arrived, and though they continued to hold it and to seek the trade of the 
Indians, yet the artful Minuit was more than a match for them in Indian bar- 
ter. William Keift, the Governor of New Netherland, entered a vigorous 
protest against the encroachments of the Swedes upon Dutch territory, in 
which he said " this has been our property for many years, occupied with 
forts and sealed by our blood, which also was done when thou wast in the 
service of New Netherland, and is therefore well known to thee. " But Minuit 
pushed forward the work upon his fort, regardless of protest, trusting to the 
respect which the flag of Sweden had inspired in the hands of Banner and 
Torstensen. For more than a year no tidings were had from Sweden, and no 
supplies from any source were obtained; and while the fruits of their labors 
were abundant there were many articles of diet, medicines and apparel, the 
lack of which they began to sorely feel. So pressing had the want become, 
that application had been made to the authorities at Manhattan for permission 
to remove thither with all their effects. But on the very day before that on 
which they were to embark, a ship from Sweden richly laden with provisions, 
cattle, seeds and merchandise for barter with the natives came joyfully to their 
relief, and this, the first permanent settlement on soil where now are the States 
of Delaware and Pennsylvania, was spared. The success and prosperity of the 
colony during the first few years of its existence was largely due to the skill 
and policy of Minuit, who preserved the friendship of the natives, avoided an 
open conflict with the Dutch, and so prosecuted trade that the Dutch Governor 
reported to his government that trade had fallen off 30,000 beavers. Minuit 


was at the head of the colony for about three years, and died in the midst 
of the people whom he had led. 

Minuit was succeeded in the government by Peter Hollandaer, who had 
previously gone in charge of a company of emigrants, and who was now, in 
1641, commissioned. The goodly lands upon the Delaware were a constant 
attraction to the eye of the adventurer ; a party from Connecticut, under the lead- 
ership of Eobort Cogswell, came, and squatted without authority upon the site 
of the present town of Salem, N. J. Another company had proceeded up the 
ever, and, entering the Schuylkill, had planted themselves upon its banks. 
The settlement of the Swedes, backed as it was by one of the most powerful 
nations of Europe, the Governor of New Netherland -was not disposed to 
molest; but when these irresponsible wandering adventurers came sailing past 
their forts and boldly planted themselves upon the most eligible sites and fer- 
tile lands in their territory, the Dutch determined to assume a hostile front, 
and to drive them away. Accordingly, Gen. Jan Jansen Van Ilpendam — his 
very name was enough to frighten away the emigrants — was sent with two 
vessels and a military force, who routed the party upon the Schuylkill, destroy- 
ing their fort and giving them a taste of the punishment that was likely to be 
meted out to them, if this experiment of trespass was repeated. The Swedes 
joined the Dutch in breaking up the settlement at Salem and driving away the 
New England intruders. 

In 1642, Hollandaer was succeeded in the government of the Swedish 
Colony by John Printz, whose instructions for the management of affairs were 
drawn with much care by the ofl&cers of the company in Stockholm. " He was, 
first of all, to maintain friendly relations with the Indians, and by the advan- 
tage of low prices hold their (rade. His next care was to cultivate enough 
grain for the wants of the colonists, and when this was insured, turn his atten- 
tion lo the culture of tobacco, the raising of cattle and sheep of a good species, 
the culture of the grape, and the raising of silk worms. The manufacture of 
salt by evaporation, and the search for metals and minerals were to be prose- 
cuted, and inquiry into the establishment of fisheries, with a view to profit, 
especially the whale fishery, was to be made. " It will be seen from these in- 
structions that the far-sighted Swedish statesmen had formed an exalted con- 
ception of the resources of the new country, and had figured to themselves 
great possibilities from its future development. Visions of rich silk products, 
of the precious metals and gems from its mines, flocks upon a thousand hills 
that should rival in the softness of their downy fleeces the best products of the 
Indian looms, and the luscious clusters of the vine that could make glad the 
palate of the epicure filled their imaginations. 

With two vessels, the Stoork and Renown, Printi! set sail, and arrived at 
Fort Christina on the 15th of February, 1643. He was bred to the prof ession 
of arms, and was doubtless selected with an eye to his ability to holding posses- 
sion of the land against the confiict that was likely to arise. He had been a 
Lieutenant of cavalry, and was withal a man of prodigious proportions, " who 
weighed," according to De Vries, " upward of 400 pounds, and drank three 
drinks at every meal." He entertained exalted notions of his dignity as Govern- 
or of the colony, and prepared to establish himself in his new dominions with 
some degree of magnificence. He brought with bim from Sweden the bricks 
to be used for the construction of his royal dwelling. Upon an inspection of 
the settlement, he detected the inherent weakness of the location of Fort 
Christina for commanding the navigation of the river, and selected the island 
of Tiuacum for the site of a new fort, called New Gottenburg, which was 
speedily erected and made strong with huge hemlock logs. In the midst of 


the island, he built his royal residence, which was surrounded with trees and 
shubbery. He erected another fort near the mouth of Salem Creek, 
called Elsinborg, which he mounted with eight brass twelve-pounders, 
and gfarrisoned. Here all ships ascending the river were brought to, 
and required to await a permit from the Governor before proceeding 
to their destination. Gen. Van Ilpendam, who had been sent to drive 
away the intruders from New England, had remained after executing 
his commission as commandant at Fort Nassau; but having incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Director Keift, he had been displaced, and was succeeded by An- 
dreas Hudde, a crafty and politic agent of the Dutch Governor, who had no 
sooner arrived and become settled in his place than a conflict of authority 
sprang up between himself and the Swedish Governor. Dutch settlers secured 
a grant of land on the west bank of Delaware, and obtained possession by pur- 
chase from the Indians. This procedure kindled the wrath of Printz, who 
tore down the ensign of the company which had been erected in token of 
the power of Holland, and declared that he would have pulled down the 
colors of their High Mightinessps had they been erected on this the Swed- 
ish soil. That there might be no mistake about his claim to authority, the 
testy Governor issued a manifesto to his rival on the opposite bank, in which 
were these explicit declarations: 

" Andreas Hudde! I remind you again, by this written warning, to discon- 
tinue the injuries of which you have been guilty against the Royal Majesty 
of Sweden, my most gracious Queen; against Her Eoyal Majesty's rights, pre- 
tensions, soil and land, without showing the least respect to the Royal Majes- 
ty's magnificence, reputation and dignity; and to do so no more, considering 
how little it would be becoming Her Royal Majesty to bear such gross violence, 
and what great disasters might originate from it, yea, might be expected. * 
* * All this I can freely bring forward in my own defense, to exculpate me 
from all future calamities, of which we give you a warning, and place it at 
your account. Dated New Gothenburg, 3d September, stil, veteri 1646." 

It will be noted from the repetition of the high sounding epithets applied 
to the Queen, that Printz had a very exalted idea of his own position as the 
Vicegerent of the Swedish monarch. Hudde responded, saying in reply: " The 
place we possess we hold in just deed, perhaps before the name of South River 
was heard of in Sweden." This paper, upon its presentation, Printz filing to 
the ground in contempt, and when the messenger, who bore it, demanded an 
answer, Printz unceremoniously threw him out doors, and seizing a gun would 
have dispatched the Dutchman had he not been arrested; and whenever any of 
Hudde's men visited Tinicum they were sure to be abused, and frequently came 
back " bloody and bruised. " Hudde urged rights acquired by prior posses- 
sion, but Printz answered: " The devil was the oldest possessor in hell, yet he, 
notwithstanding, would sometimes admit a younger one." A vessel which had 
come to the Delaware from Manhattan with goods to barter to the Indians, was 
brought to, and ordered away. In vain did Hudde plead the rights acquired 
by previous possession, and finally treaty obligations existing between the 
two nations. Printz was inexorable, and peremptorily ordered the skipper 
away, and as his ship was not provided with the means of fighting its way up 
past the frowning battlements of Fort Elsinborg, his only alternative was to 
return to Manhattan and report the result to his employers. 

Peter Stuyvosant, a man of a good share of native talent and force of char- 
acter, succeeded to the chief authority over New Netherland in May, 1647. 
The affairs of his colony were not in an encouraging condition. The New 
England colonies were crowding upon him from the north and east, and the 


Swedes upon the South Eiver were occupying the territory which the Dutch 
for many years previous to the coming of Christina's colony had claimed. 
Amid the thickening complications, Stuyvesant had need of all his power of 
argument and executive skill. He entered into negotiations with the New En- 
gland colonies for a peaceful settlement of their difficulties, getting the very 
best terms he could, without resorting to force; for, said his superiors, the 
officers of the company in Holland, who had an eye to dividends, " War can- 
not be for our advantage; the New England people are too powerful for us." 
A pacific policy was also preserved toward the Swedes. Hudde was retained 
at the head of Dutch affairs upon the Delaware, and he was required to make 
full reports of everything that was transpiring there in order that a clear in- 
sight might be gained of the policy likely to be pursued. Stuyvesant was en- 
tirely too shrewd a politician for the choleric Printz. He recommended to the 
company to plant a Dutch colony on the site of Zwanendal at the mouth of 
the river, another on the opposite bank, which, if effectually done, would com- 
mand its navigation ; and a third on the upper waters at Beversreede, which 
would intercept the intercourse of the native population. By this course of 
active colonizing, Stuyvesant rightly calculated that the Swedish power would 
be circumscribed, and finally, upon a favorable occasion, be crushed out. 

Stuyvesant, that he might ascertain the nature and extent of the Swedish 
claims to the country, and examine into the complaints that were pouring in 
upon him of wrongs and indignities suffered by the Dutch at the hands of the 
Swedish power, in 1651 determined to visit the Delaware in his official capac- 
ity. He evidently went in some state, and Printz, who was doubtless impressed 
with the condecension of the Governor of all New Netherland in thus coming, 
was put upon his good behavior. Stuyvesant, by his address, got completely 
on the blind side of the Swedish chief, maintaining the garb of friendship 
and brotherly good-will, and insisting that the discussion of rights should be 
carried on in a peaceful and friendly manner, for we are informed that they 
mutually promised " not to commit any hostile or vexatious acts against one 
another, but to maintain together all neighborly friendship and correspond- 
ence, as good friends and allies aro bound to do. ' ' Printz was thus, by this 
agreement, entirely disarmed and placed at a disadvantage; for the Dutch 
Governor took advantage of the armistice to acquire lands below Fort Chris- 
tina, where he proceeded to erect a fort onlj- five miles away, which he named 
Fort Casimir. This gave the Dutch a foothold upon the south bank, and in 
nearer proximity to the ocean than Fort Christina. Fort Nassau was dis- 
mantled and destroyed, as being no longer of use. In a conference with the 
Swedish Governor, Stuyvesant demanded to see documental proof of his right 
to exercise authority upon he Delaware, and the compass of the lands to 
which the Swedish Government laid claim. Printz prepared a statement in 
which he set out the "Swedish limits wide enough.'' But Stuyvesant de- 
manded the documentiS, under the seal of the company, and characterized this 
writing as a "subterfuge," maintaining by documentary evidence, on his part, 
the Dutch West India Company's right to the soil. 

Printz was great as a blusterer, and preserver of authority when personal 
abuse and kicks and cuffs could be resorted to withcjut the fear of retaliation; 
but no match in statecraft for the wily Stuyvesant. To the plea of pre-occu- 
pancy he had nothing to answer more than he had already done to Hudde's 
messenger respecting the government of Hades, and herein was the cause of 
the Swedes inherently weak. In numbers, too, the Swedes were feeble com- 
pared with the Dutch, who had ten times the population. But in diplomacy 
he had been entirely overreached. Fort Casimir, by its location, rendered 


the rival Fort Elainborg powerless, and under plea that the mosquitoes had bu- 
come troublesome there, it was abandoned. Discovering, doubtless, that a cloud 
of complications was thickening over him, which be would be unable with the 
forces at his command to successfully withstand, he asked to be relieved, and, 
without awaiting an answer to his application, departed for Sweden, leaving 
his son-in-law, John Pappegoya, who had previously received marks of the 
royal favor, and been invested with the dignity of Lieutenant Governor, in 
supreme authority. 

The Swedish company had by this time, no doubt, discovered that forcible 
opposition to Swedish occupancy of the soil upon Delaware was destined soon 
to come, and accordingly, as a precautionary measure, in November, 1653, the 
College of Commerce sent John Amundson Besch, with the conmiission of 
Captain in the Navy, to superintend the construction of vessels.' Upon his 
arrival, he acquired lands suitable for the purpose of ship-building, and eet 
about laying his keels. He was to have supreme authority over the naval force, 
and was to act in conjunction with the Governor in protecting the interests of 
the colony, but in such a manner that neither should decide anything without 
consulting the other. 

On receiving the application of Printz to be relieved, the company ap- 
pointed John Claude Eysingh, then Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, 
as Vice Director of New Sweden. He was instructed to fortify and extend 
the Swedish possessions, but without interrupting the friendship existing 
with the English or Dutch. He was to use his power of persuasion in induc- 
ing the latter to give up Fort Casimir, which was regarded as an intrusion 
upon Swedish possessions, but without resorting to hostilities, as it was better 
to allow the Dutch to occupy it than to have it fall into the hands of the En- 
glish, "who are the more powerful, and, of course, the most dangerous in that 
country." Thus early was the prowess of England foreshadowed. Gov. 
Rysingh arrived in the Delaware, on the last day of May, 1654, and immediately 
demanded the surrender of Fort Casimir. Adriaen Van Tienhoven, an aide- 
de-camp on the staff of the Dutch commandant of the fort, was sent on board 
the vessel to demand of Gov. Kysingh by what right he claimed to dis- 
possess the rightful occupants; but the Governor was not disposed to discuss 
the matter, and immediately landed a party and took possession without more 
opposition than wordy protests, the Dutch Governor saying, when called on to 
make defense, "What can I do? there is no powder." Eysingh, however, in 
justification of his course, stated to Teinhoven, after he had gained possession 
of the fort, that he was acting under orders from the crown of Sweden, whose 
embassador at the Dutch Court, when remonstrating against the action of Gov. 
Stuyvesant in erecting and manning Fort Casimir had been assured, by 
the State's General and the offices of the West India Company, that they had 
not authorized the erection of this fort on Swedish soil, saying, " if our people 
are in your Excellency's way, drive them off." "Thereupon the Swedish 
Governor slapped Van Teinhoven on the breast, and said, ' Go! tell your Gov- 
ernor that.'" As the capture was made on Trinity Sunday, the name was 
changed from Fort Casimir to Fort Trinity. 

Thus were the instructions of the new Governor, not to resort to force, but 
to secui-e possession of the fort by negotiation, complied with, but by a forced 
interpretation. For, although he had not actually come to battle, for the very 
good reason that the Dutch had no powder, and were not disposed to use 
their fists against fire arms, which the Swedes brandished freely, yet, in mak- 
ing his demand for the fort, he had put on the stern aspect of war. 

Stuyvesant, on learning of the loss of Fort Casimir, sent a messenger to the 


Delaware to invite Gov. Rysingh to come to ManL attan to hold friendly confer- 
ence upon the subject of their difficulties. This Rysingh refused to do, and the 
Dutch Governor, probably desiring instructions from the home Government be- 
fore proceeding to extremities, made a voyage to the West Indies for the purpose 
of arranging favorable regulations of trade with the colonies, though without 
the instructions, or even the knowledge of the States- General. Cromwell, 
who was now at the head of the English nation, by the policy of his agente, 
rendered this embassy of Stuyvesant abortive. 

As soon as information of the conduct of Rysingh at Zwanendal was 
known in Holland, the company lost no time in disclaiming the representa- 
tions which he had made of its willingness to have the fort turned over to the 
Swedes, and immediately took measures for restoring it and wholly dispossess- 
ing the Swedes of lands upon the Delaware. On the 16th of November, 1655, 
the company ordered Stuyvesant "to exert every nerve to avenge the insult, 
by not only replacing matters on the Delaware in their former position, but 
by driving the Swedes from every side of the river," though they subsequent- 
ly modified this order in such manner as to allow the Swedes, after Fort Casi- 
mir had been taken, "to hold the land on which Fort Christina is built," with 
a garden to cultivate tobacco, because it appears that they had made the pur- 
chase with the previous knowledge of the company, thus manifesting a disin- 
clination to involve Holland in a war with Sweden. "Two armed ships were 
forthwith commissioned; 'the drum was beaten daily for volunteers' in the 
streets of Amsterdam; authority was sent out to arm and equip, and if neces- 
sary to press into the company's service a sufficient number of ships for the 
expedition." In the meantime. Gov. Rysingh, who had inaugurated hie 
reign by so bold a stroke of policy, determined to ingratiate himself into the 
favor of the Indians, who had been soured in disposition by the arbi- 
trary conduct of the passionate Printz. He accordingly sent out on all sides 
an invitation to the native tribes to assemble on a certain day, by their chiefs 
and principal men, at the seat of government on Tinicum Island, to brighten 
the chain of friendship and renew their pledges of faith and good neighbor- 

On the morning of the appointed day, ten grand sachems with their at- 
tendants came, and with the formality characteristic of these native tribes, the 
council opened. Many and bitter were the complaints made against the Swedes 
for wrongs suffered at their hands, " chief among which was that many of 
their number had died, plainly pointing, though not explicitly saying it, to the 
giving of spirituous liquors as the cause." The new Governor had no answer 
to make to these complaints, being convinced, probably, that they were but too 
true. Without attempting to excuse or extenuate the past, Rysingh brought 
forward the numerous presents which he had taken with him from Sweden for 
the purpose. The sight of the piled- up goods produced a prof ound impression 
upon the minds of the native chieftains. They sat apart for conference before 
making any expression of their feelings. Naaman, the fast friend of the white 
man, and the most consequential of the warriors, according to Campanius, 
spoke: " Look," said he, "and see what they have brought to us." So say- 
ing, he stroked himself three times down the arm, which, among the Indians, 
was a token of friendship; afterward he thanked the Swedes on behalf of his 
people- for the presents they had received, and said that friendship should be 
observed more strictly between them than ever before; that the Swedes and 
the Indians in Gov. Printz's time were as one body and one heart, striking his 
breast as he spoke, and that thenceforward they should be as one head; iu 
token of which he took hold of his head with both hands, and made a motio,;i 


as if he were tying a knot, and then he made this comparison: " That, as the 
calabash was round, without any crack, so they should be a compact body with- 
out any fissure ; and that if any should attempt to do any harm to the Indiafis, 
the Swedes should immediately inform them of it; and, on the other hand, the 
Indians would give immediate notice to the Christians, even if it were in the 
middle of the night." On this thoy were answered that that would be indeed 
a true and lasting friendship, if every one would agree to it; on which they 
gave a general shout in token of consent. Immediately on this the great guns 
were fired, which pleased them extremely, and they said, "Poo, hoc, hoo; 
mokerick picon,'' that is to say "Hear and believe; the great guns are fired." 
Rysingh then produced all the treaties which had ever been concluded between 
them and the Swedes, which were again solemnly confirmed. " When those 
who had signed the deeds heard their names, they appeared to rejoice, but, 
when th« names were read of those who were dead, they hung their heads in 

After the first ebulition of feeling had subsided on the part of the Dutch 
Company at Amsterdam, the winter passed without anything further being 
done than issuing the order to Stuyvesant to proceed against the Swedes. In 
the spring, however, a thirty-six-gun brig was obtained from the burgomasters 
of Amsterdam, which, with four other crafts of varying sizes, was prepared for 
duty, and the little fleet set sail for New Netherland. Orders were given for 
immediate action, though Director General Stuyvesant had not returned from 
the West Indies. Upon the arrival of the vessels at Manhattan, it was an 
nounced that " if any lovers of the prosperity and security of the province of 
New Netherland were inclined to volunteer, or to serve for reasonable wages, 
they should come forward," and whoever should lose a limb, or be maimed, was 
assured of a decent compensation. The merchantmen were ordered to furnish 
two of their crews, and the river boatmen were to be impressed. At this junct- 
ure a grave question arose : " Shall the Jews be enlisted ? " It was decided 
in the negative; but in lieu of service, adult male Jews were taxed sixty-five 
stivers a head per month, to be levied by execution in case of refusal. 

Stuyvesant had now arrived from his commercial trip, and made ready for 
opening the campaign in earnest. A day of prayer and thanksgiving was held 
to beseech, the favor of Heaven upon the enterprise, and on the 5th of Septem- 
ber, 1655, with a fleet of seven vessels and some 600 men, Stuyvesant hoisted 
sail and steered for the Delaware. Arrived before Fort Trinity (Casimir), the 
Director sent Capt. Smith and a drummer to summon the fort, and ordered a 
flank movement by a party of fifty picked men to cut ofl;' communication with 
Fort Christina and the headquarters of Gov. Rysingh. Swen Schute, the com- 
mandant of the garrison, asked permission to communicate with Rysingh, 
which was denied, and he was called on to prevent bloodshed. An interview 
in the valley midway between the fort and the Dutch batteries was held, when 
Schute asked to send an open letter to Rysingh. This was denied, and for a 
third time the fort was summoned. Impatient of delay, and in no temper for 
parley, the great guns were landed and the Dutch force ordered to advance. 
Schute again asked for a delay until morning, which was granted, as the day 
was now well spent and the Dutch would be unable to make the necessary 
preparations to open before morning. Early on the following day, Schute went 
on board the Dutch flag- ship, the j3alance, and agreed to terms of surrender 
very honorable to his flag. He was permitted to send to Sweden, by the first 
opportunity, the cannon, nine in number, belonging to the crown of Sweden, 
to march out of the fort with twelve men, as his body guard, fully accoutered, 
and colors flying; the common soldiers to wear their side arms. The com- 


mandant and other officers were to retain their private property, the muskets 
belonging to the crown were to be held until sent for, and finally the fort was 
to be surrendered, with all the cannon, ammunition, materials and other goods 
iDelonging to the West India Company. The Dutch entered the fort at noon 
with all the formality and glorious circumstance of war, and Dominie Megap- 
•olensis, Chaplain of the expedition, preached a sermon of thanksgiving on the 
following Sunday in honor of the great triumph. 

While these signal events were transpiring at Casimir, Gov. Kysing, at his 
royal residence on Tinicum, was in utter ignorance that he was being despoiled 
of his power. A detachment of nine men had been sent by the Governor to 
Casimir to re-enforce the garrison, which came unawares upon the Dutch lines, 
and after a brief skirmish all but two were captured. Upon learning that the 
fort was invested, Factor Ellswyck was sent with a flag to inquire of the in- 
Traders the purpose of their coming. The answer was returned ' ' To recover 
and retain our property." Rysingh then communicated the hope that they 
would therewith rest content, and not encroach further upon Swedish territory, 
having, doubtless, ascertained by this time that the Dutch were too strong for 
him to make any effectual resistance. Stuyvesant returned an evasive answer, 
but made ready to march upon Fort Christina. It will be remembered that 
by the terms of the modified orders given for the reduction of the Swedes, 
Fort Christina was not to be disturbed. But the Dutch Governor's blood was 
now up, and he determined to make clean work while the means were in his 
hands. Discovering that the Dutch were advancing, Rysingh spent the whole 
night in strengthening the defenses and putting the garrison in position to 
make a stout resistance. Early on the following day the invaders made their 
appearance on the opposite bank of Christina Creek, where they threw up de- 
fenses and planted their cannon. Forces were landed above the fort, and the 
place was soon invested on all sides, the vessels, in the meantime, having been 
brought into the mouth of the creek, their cannon planted west of the fort and 
on Timber Island. Having thus securely shut up the Governor and his garri- 
son, Stuyvesant summmoned him to surrender. Eysingh could not in honor 
tamely submit, and at a council of war it was resolved to make a defense and 
" leave the consequence to be redressed by our gracious superiors." But their 
supply of powder barely sufficed for one round, and his force consisted of only 
thirty men. In the meantime, the Dutch soldiery made free with the property 
of the Swedes without the fort, killing their cattle and invading their homes. 
"At length the Swedish garrison itself showed symptoms of mutiny. The 
men were harassed with constant watching, provisions began to fail, many 
were sick, several had deserted, and Stuyvesant threatened, that, if they held 
out much longer, to give no quarter." A conference was held which ended 
by the return of Rysingh to the fort more resolute than ever for defense. 
Pinally Stuyvesant sent in his ultimatum and gave twenty-four hours for a 
final answer, the generous extent of time for consideration evincing the humane 
disposition of the commander of the invading army, or what is perhaps more 
probable his own lack of stomach for carnage. Before the expiration of the 
time allowed, the garrison capitulated, " after a siege of fourteen days, dur- 
ing which, very fortunately, there was a great deal more talking than cannon- 
ading, and no blood shed, except those of the goats, poultry and swine, which 
the Dutch troops laid their hands on. The twenty or thirty Swedes then 
inarched out with their arms; colors flying, matches lighted, drums beating, 
and fifes playing, and the Dutch took possession of the fort, hauled down the 
Swedish flag and hoisted their own." 

By the terms of capitulation, the Swedes, who wished to remain in the 


country, were permitted to do so, on taking the oath of allegiance, and rights 
of property were to be respected under the sway of Dutch law. Gov. Ry- 
singh, and all others who desired to return to Europe, were furnished passage, 
and by a secret provision, a loan of £300 Flemish was made to Eysingh, to be 
refunded on bis arrival in Sweden, the cannon and other property belonging 
to the crown remaining in the hands of the Dutch until the loan was paid. 
Before withdrawing Stuyvesant offered to deliver over Fort Christina and the 
lands immediately about it to Rysingh, but this offer was declined with dig- 
nity, as the matter had now passed for arbitrament to the courts of the two na- 

The terms of the capitulation were honorable and liberal enough, but the 
Dutch authorities seem to have exercised little care in carrying out its provis- 
ions, or else the discipline in the service must have been very lax. For Ky- 
singh had no sooner arrived at Manhattan, than he entered most vigorous pro- 
tests against the violations of the provisions of the capitulation to Gov. Stuy- 
vesant. He asserted that the property belonging to the Swedish crown had 
been left without guard or protection foom pillage, and that he himself had 
not been assigned quarters suited to his dignity. He accused the Dutch 
with having broken open the church, and taken away all the cordage and sails 
of a new vessel, with having plundered the villages, Tinnakong, Uplandt, Fin- 
land, Printzdorp and other places. " In Christina, the women were violently 
torn from their houses; whole buildings were destroyed; yea, oxen, cows, hogs 
and other creatures were butchered day after day; even the horses were not 
spared, but wantonly shot; the plantations destroyed, and the whole country 
so desolated that scarce any means were left for the subsistence of the inhab- 
itants." "Your men carried off even my own property, " said Rysingh, 
" with that of my family, and we were left like sheep doomed to the knife, 
without means of defense against the wild barbarians." 

Thus the colony of Swedes and Fins on the South River, which had been 
planned by and had been the object of solicitude to the great monarch himself, 
and had received the fostering care of the Swedish Government, came to an 
end after an existence of a little more than seventeen years — 1638-1655. But 
though it no longer existed ao a colony under the government of the crown of 
Sweden, many of the colonists remained and became the most intelligent and 
law-abiding citizens, and constituted a vigorous element in the future growth 
of the Sta;te. Some of the best blood of Europe at this period flowed in the 
veins of the Swedes. "A love for Sweden," says Bancroft, "their dear 
mother country, the abiding sentiment of loyalty toward its sovereign, con- 
tinued to distinguish the little band. At Stockholm, they remained for a 
century the objects of disinterested and generous regard; affection united them 
in the New World; and a part of their descendants still preserve their altar 
and their dwellings around the graves of their fathers." 

This campaign of Stuyvesant, for the dispossessing of the Swedes of terri- 
tory upon the Delaware, furnishes Washington Irving subject for some of the 
most inimitable chapters of broad humor, in his Knickerbocker's New York, to 
be found in the English language. And yet, in the midst of his side-splitting 
paragraphs, he indulges in a reflection which is worthy of remembrance. 
"He who reads attentively will discover the threads of gold which run 
throughout the web of history, and are invisible to the dull eye of ignorance. 
* * * By the treacherous surprisal of Fort Casimir, then, did the crafty 
Swedes enjoy a transient triumph, but drew upon their heads the vengeance 
of Peier Stuyvesant, who wrested all New Sweden from their hands. By the 
f^onquest of New Sweden, Peter Stuyvesant aroused the claims of Lord Balti- 


more, who appealed to the cabinet of Great Britain, who subdued the whole 
province of New Netherlands. By this great achievement, the whole extent of 
North America, from Nova Scotia to the Ploridas, was rendered one entire 
dependency upon the British crown. But mark the consequence: The hith- 
erto scattered colonies being thus consolidated and having no rival colonies to 
check or keep them in awe, waxed great and powerful, and finally becoming 
too strong for the mother country, were enabled to shake off its bonds. But 
the chain of effects stopped not here; the successful revolution in America pro- 
duced the sanguinary revolution in France, which produced the puissant 
Bonaparte, who produced the French despotism." 

In March, 1656, the ship "Mercury," with 130 emigrants, arrived, the 
government at Stockholm having had no intimation of the Dutch conquest. 
An attempt was made to prevent a landing, and the vessel was ordered to 
report to Stuyvesant at Manhattan, but the order was disregarded and the col- 
onists debarked and acquired lands. The Swedish Government was not dis- 
posed to submit to these high-handed proceedings of the Dutch, and the min- 
isters of the two courts maintained a heated discussion of their differences. 
Finding the Dutch disposed to hold by force their conquests, the government 
of Sweden allowed the claim to rest until 1664. In that year, vigorous meas- 
ures wei? planned to regain its claims upon the Delaware, and a fleet bearing 
a military force was dispatched for the purpose. But, having been obliged to 
put back on account of stress of weather, the enterprise was abandoned. 


John Paul Jacqttet, 1655-57— Jacob Aleichs, 1657-59— Goeran Van Dyck, 1657 
_58— William Beekman, 1658-63— Alexander D'Hinotossa. 1659-64. 

THE colonies upon the Delaware being now under exclusive control of the 
Dutch, John Paul Jaquet was appointed in November, 1655, as Vice 
Director, Derek Smidt having exercised authority after the departure of Stuy- 
vesant. The expense of fitting out the expedition for the reduction of the 
Swedes was sorely felt by the West India Company, which had been obliged 
to borrow money for the purpose of t^ie city of Amsterdam. In payment of 
this loan, the company sold to the city all the lands upon the south bank of 
the Delaware, from the ocean to Christina Creek, reaching back to the lands 
of the Minquas, which was designated Nieur Amstel. Again was there di- 
vided authority upon the Delaware. The government of the new possession 
was vested in a commission of forty residents of Amsterdam, who appointed 
Jacob Alrichs as Director, and sent him with a force of forty soldiers and 150 
colonists, in three vessels, to assume the government, whereupon Jaquet relin- 
quished authority over this portion of his territory. The company in commu- 
nicating with Stuyvesant upon the subject of his course in dispossessing the 
Swedes, after duly considering all the complaints and remonstrances of the 
Swedish government, approved his conduct, " though they would not have been 
displeased had such a formal capitulation not taken place," adding as a paren- 
thetical explanation of the word formal " what is written is too long preserved, 
and may be produced when not desired, whereas words not recorded are, in the 
lapse of time, forgotten, or may be explained away." 


Stuyvesant Btill remained in supreme control over both the colony of the 
city and the colony of the company, to the immediate governorship of the lat- 
ter of which, Goeran Van Dyck was appointed. But though settlements ia 
the management of affairs were frequently made, they would not remain set- 
tled. There was conflict of authority between Alrichs and Van Dyck. The 
companies soon found that a grievous system of smuggling had sprung up. 
After a searching examination into the irregularities by Stuyvesant, who vis- 
ited the Delaware for the purpose, he recommended the appointment of one 
general agent who should have charge of all the revenues of both co'onies, 
and William Beekman was accordingly appointed. The company of the city 
seems not to have betn satisfied with the profits of their investment, and ac- 
cordingly made new regulations to govern settlement, by which larger returns 
would accrue. This action created discontent among the settlers, and many 
who were meditating the purchase of lands and the acquisition of homes, de- 
termined to go over into Maryland where Lord Baltimore was offering far more 
liberal terms of settlement. To add to the discomforts of the settlers, " the 
miasms which the low alluvial soil and the rank and decomposed vegetation 
of a new country engenders, ' ' produced wasting sicknesses. When the planting- 
was completed, and the new soil, for ages undisturbed, had been thoroughly 
stirred, the rains set in which descended almost continuously, producing fever 
and ague and dysentery. Scarcely a family escaped the epidemic. Six in. 
the family of Director Alrichs were attacked, and his wife died. New colo- 
nists came without provisions, which only added to the distress. " Scarcity of 
provisions," says O'Calaghan, " naturally followed the failure of the crops; 
900 schepels of grain had been sown in the spring. They produced scarcely 
600 at harvest. Eye rose to three guilders the bushel; peas to eight guilders 
the sack; salt was twelve guilders the bushel at New Amsterdam; cheese and 
butter were not to be had, and when a man journeys he can get nothing but 
dry bread, or he must take a pot or kettle along with him to cook his victuals." 
" The place had now got so bad a name that the whole river could not wash it 
clean." The exactions of the city company upon its colony, not only did not 
bring increased revenue, but by dispersing the honest colonists, served to- 
notify Lord Baltimore — who had laid claim to the lands upon Delaware, on 
account of original discovery by Lord De la War, from whom the river takes, 
its name, and from subsequent charter of the British crown, covering territory 
from the 38th to the 40th degree of latitude — of the weakness of the colonies, 
and persuade him that now was a favorable opportunity to enforce his claims. 
Accordingly, Col. Utie, with a number of delegates, was dispatched to demand 
that the Dutch should quit the place, or declare themselves subjects of Lord 
Baltimore, adding, " that if they hesitated, they should be responsible for 
whatever innocent blood might be shed." 

Excited discussions ensued between the Dutch authorities and the agents 
of the Maryland government, and it was finally agreed to refer the matter to 
Gov. Stuyvesant, who immediately sent Commissioners to the Chesapeake to 
settle differences, and enter into treaty regulations for the mutual return of 
fugitives, and dispatched sixty soldiers to the Delaware to assist in preserving 
order, and resisting the English, should an attempt be made to dispossess the 

Upon the death of AlricLs, which occurred iix 1659, Alexander D'Hinoyossa 
was appointed Governor of the city colony. The new Governor was a man of 
good business capacity, and sought to administer the affairs of his colony for 
the best interests of the settlers, and for increasing the revenues of the com- 
pany. To further the general prosperity, the company negotiated a new loan. 


with which to strengthen and improve its resources. This liberal policy had 
the desired effect. The Swedes, who had settled above on the river, moved 
down, and acquired homes on the lands of the city colony. The Fins and dis- 
contented Dutch, who had gone to Maryland, returned and brought with them 
some of the English settlers. 

Discouraged by the harassing conflicts of authority which seemed inter- 
minable, the West India Company transferred all its interests on the east side 
of the river to the colony of the city, and upon the visit of D'Hinoyossa to 
Holland in 1663, he secured for himself the entire and exclusive government 
of the colonies upon the Delaware, being no longer subject to the authority of 

Encouraged by liberal terms of settlement, and there being now a prospect 
of stable government, emigrants were attracted thither. A Mennonite commu- 
nity came in a body. " Clergymen were not allowed to- join them, nor any 
' intractable people such as those in communion with the Roman See, usurious 
Jews, English stiff-necked Quakers, Puritans, foolhardy believers in the mil- 
lennium, and obstinate modern pretenders to revelation.' " They were obliged 
to take an oath never to seek for an ofiSce; Magistrates were to receive no com- 
pensation, " not even a stiver. " The soil and climate were regarded as excel- 
lent, and when sufficiently peopled, the country would be the " finest on the 
face of the globe. " 


BiCHARD Nichols, 1664^67— Robert Needham, 1664r-68— Francis Lovelace, 
1667-73— John Carr, 1668-73— Anthony Colve, 1673-74— Peter Alrichs, 

AFFAIRS were scarcely arranged upon the Delaware, and the dawning of 
a better day for the colonists ushered in, before new complications 
began to threaten the subversion of the whole Dutch power in America. , The 
English had always claimed the entire Atlantic seaboard. Under Cromwell, 
the Navigation act was aimed at Dutch interests in the New World. Captain 
J9hn Scott, who had been an officer in the army of Charles I, having 
obtained some show of authority from the Governor of Connecticut, had visited 
the towns upon the west end of Long Island, where was a mixed population of 
Dutch and English, and where he claimed to have purchased large tracts of 
land, and had persuaded them to unite under his authority in setting up a 
government of their own. He visited England and ' ' petitioned the King to be 
invested with the government of Long Island, or that the people thereof be 
allowed to choose yearly a Governor and Assistants." By his representation, 
an inquiry was instituted by the King's council, " as to his majesty's title to the 
premises; the intrusions of the Dutch; their deportment; management of the 
country; strength, trade and government; and lastly, of the means necessary 
to induce or force them to acknowledge the King, or if necessary, to expel 
them together from the country. " The visit of Scott, and his prayer to the 
King for a grant of Long Island, was the occasion of inaugurating a policy, 
which resulted in the overthrow of Dutch rule in America. But the attention 
of English statesmen had for some time been turned to the importance of the 
territory which the Dutch colonies had occupied, and a bolief that Dutch trade 
in the New World was yielding great returns, stimulated inquiry. James, 


Duke of York, brother of the King, who afterward himself became King, was 
probably at this time the power behind the throne that was urging on action 
looking to the dispossession of the Dutch. The motive which seemed to actuate 
him was the acquisition of personal wealth and power. He saw, as he 
thought, a company of merchants in Amsterdam accumulating great wealth out 
of these colonies, and he meditated the transfer of this wealth to himself. He 
was seconded in this project by the powerful influence of Sir George Downing, 
who had been Envoy at The Hague, under Cromwell, and was now under Charles 
II. "Keen, bold, subtle, active, and observant, but imperious and unscrupulous, 
disliking and distrusting the Dutch," he had watched every movement of the 
company's granted privileges by the States General, and had reported every- 
thing to his superiors at home. "The whole bent," says O'Calaghan, '' of this 
man's mind was constantly to hold up before the eyes of his countrymen the 
growing power of Holland and her commercial companies, their immense 
wealth and ambition, and the danger to England of permitting these to pro- 
gress oQward unchecked.'' 

After giving his testimony before the council, Scott returned to America 
with a letter from the King recommending his interests to the co-operation and 
protection of the New England colonies. On arriving in Connecticut, he was 
commissioned by the Governor of that colony to incorporate Long Island under 
Connecticut jurisdiction. But the Baptists, Quakers and Menuonites, who formed 
a considerable part of the population, " dreaded falling into the hands of the 
Puritans." In a quaint document commencing, "In the behalfe of sum hun- 
dreds of English here planted on the west end of Long Island wee address," 
etc. , " they besought Scott to come and settle their difficulties. On his arrival 
he acquainted them with the fact, till then unknown, that King Charles had 
granted the island to the Duke of York, who would soon assert his rights. 
Whereupon the towns of Hemstede, New war ke, Crafford, Hastings, Folestone 
and Gravesend, entered into a "combination" as they termed it, resolved to 
elect deputies to draw up laws, choose magistrates, and empowered Scott to 
act as their President; in short set up the first independent State in America. 
Scott immediately set out at the head of 150 men, horse and foot, to subdue 
the island. 

On the 22d of March, 1664, Charles II made a grant of the whole of Long 
Island, and all the adjoining country at the time in possession of thu Dutch, 
to the Duke of York. Borrowing four men-of-war of the king, James sent 
them in command of Col. Richard NichoUs, an old officer, with whom was as- 
sociated Sir Ebbert Carr, Sir George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick, Esq., 
and a force of 450 men, to dispossess the Dutch. To insure the success of the 
expedition, letters were addressed to each of the Governors of the New England 
colonies, enjoining upon them to unite in giving aid by men and material to 
Nicholls. The fleet sailed directly for Boston, where it was expected, and 
whence, through one Lord, the Dutch were notified of its coming. The great- 
est consternation was aroused upon the receipt of this intelligence, and the 
most active preparations were making for defense. But in the midst of these 
preparations, notice was received from the Chambers at Amsterdam, doubtless 
inspired by the English, that " no apprehension of any public enemy or dan- 
ger from England need be entertained. That the King was only desirous to 
reduce the colonies to uniformity in church and state, and with this view was 
dispatching some Commissioners with two or three frigates to New England to 
introduce Episcopacy in that quarter. " Thrown completely off his guard by 
this announcement, the Director General, Stuy vesant abandoned all preparations 
for resistance, and indulged in no anticipations of a hostile visitation. Thus 


were three full weeks lost in which the colonies might have been put in a very 
good state of defense. 

NichoUs on arriving in American waters, touched at Boston and Connecti- 
cut, where some aid was received, and then hastened foward to Manhattan. 
Stuyvesant had but a day or two before learned of the arrival, and of the hos- 
tile intent. Scarcely had he issued ordera for bringing out his forces and for 
fortifying before Nicholls scattered proclamations through the colony promis- 
ing to protect all who submitted to his Brittanic majesty in the undisturbed 
possession of their property, and made a formal summons upon Stuyvesant to 
surrender the country to the King of Great Britain. The Director found that 
he had an entirely different enemy to treat with from Rysingh, and a few half- 
armed Swedes and Fins upon the Delaware. Wordy war ensued between the 
Commissioners and the Director, and the English Governor finding that Stuy- 
vesant not in the temper to yield, landed a body of his soldiers upon the lower end 
of the island, and ordered Hyde, the commander of the fleet, to lay the frigates 
broadside before the city. It was a critical moment. Stuyvesant was stand- 
ing on one of the ppints of the fort when he saw the frigates approaching. 
The gunner stood by with burning match, prepared to tire on the fleet, and 
Stuyvesant seemed on the point of giving the order. But he was restrained, 
and a further communication was sent to Nicholls, who would listen to nothing 
short of the full execution of his mission. Still Stuyvesant held out. The 
inhabitants implored, but rather than surrender " he would be carried a corpse 
to his grave." The town was, however, in qo condition to stand a siege. The 
powder at the fort would only suffice for one day of active operations. Pro- 
visions were scarce. The inhabitants were not disposed to bo sacrificed, and 
the disaffection among them spread to the soldiers. They were overheard mut- 
tering, " Now we hope to pepper those devilish traders who have so long 
salted us; we know where booty is to be found, and where the young women 
live who wear gold chains. " 

The Kev. Jannes Myapoleuses seems to have been active in negotiations and 
opposed to the shedding of blood. A remonstrance drawn by him was finally 
adopted and signed by the principal men, and presented to the Director Gen- 
eral, in which the utter hopelessness of resistance was set forth, and Stuyve- 
sant finally consented to capitulate. Favorable terms were arranged, and 
Nicholls promised that if it should be finally agreed between the English and 
Dutch governments that the province should be given over to Dutch rule, he 
would peacefully yield his authority. Thus without a gun being fired, the En- 
glish made conquest of the Manhattoes. 

Sir Robert Carr, with two frigates and an ample force, was dispatched to 
the Delaware to reduce the settlements there to English rule. The planters, 
whether Dutch or Swedes, were to be insured in the peaceable possession of 
their property, and the magistrates were to be continued in office. 

Sailing past the fort, he disseminated among the settlers the news of the 
surrender of Stuyvesant, and the promises of protection which Nicholls had 
made use of. But Gov. D'Hinoyossa was not disposed to heed the demand 
for surrender without a struggle. Whereupon Carr landed his forces and 
stormed the place. After a fruitless but heroic resistance, in which ten were 
wounded and three were killed, thw Governor was forced to siirrender. Thus 
was the complete subversion of the State's General iti America consummated, 
and the name of New Amsterdam gave place to that of New York, from the 
name of the English proprietor, James, Duke of York. 

The resistance offered by D'Hinoyossa formed a pretext for shameless 
plunder. Carr, in his report which shows him to have been a lawless fel- 



low, says, " Ye soldiers never stoping untill they stormed ye fort, and sae con- 
sequently to plundering; the seamen, noe less given to that sport, were quickly 
within, and have gotton good store of booty." Carr seized the farm of 
D'Hinoyossa, hi: brother, John Carr, that of Sheriff Sweringen, and Ensign 
Stock that of Peter Alrichs. The produce of the land for that year was seized, 
together with a cargo of goods that was unsold. " Even the inoffensive Men- 
nonists, though non-combatant from principle, did not escape the sack and 
plunder to which the whole river was subjected by Carr and his marauders. 
A boat was dispatched to tJ^eir settlement, which was stripped of everything, 
to a very naile." 

Nioholls, on hearing of the rapacious conduct of his subordinate, visited 
the Delaware, removed Carr, and placed Robert Needham in command. Pre- 
vious to dispatching his fleet to America, in June, 1664, the Duke of York had 
granted to John, Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, 
of Saltrnm in Devon, the territory of New Jersey, bounded substantially as the 
present State, and this, though but little settled by the Dutch, had been in- 
cluded in the terms of surrender secured by Nicholls. In many ways, he 
showed himself a man of ability and discretion. He drew up with signal 
success a body of laws, embracing most of the provisions which had been in 
force in the English colonies, which were designated the Duke's Laws. 

In May, 1667, Col. Francis Lovelace was appointed Governor in place of 
Nicholls, and soon after taking charge of affairs, drew up regulations for the 
government of the territory upon the Delaware, and dispatched Capt. John 
Carr'to act there as his Deputy Governor. It was provided that whenever 
complaint duly sworn to was made, the Governor was to summon " the schout, 
Hans Block, Israel Helm, Peter Eambo, Peter Cock and Peter Alrichs, or any 
two of them, as counsellors, to advise him, and determine by the major vote 
what is just, equitable and necessary in the case in question. " It was further 
provided that all men should be punished in an exemplary manner, though 
with moderation; that the laws should be frequently communicated to the 
counsellors, and that in cases of difficulty recourse should be had to the Gov- 
ernor and Council at New York 

In 1668, two murders were perpetrated by Indians, which caused consider- 
able disturbance and alarm tliroughout the settlements. These capital crimes 
appear to have been committed while the guilty parties were maddened by 
liquor. So impressed were the sachems and leading warriors of the baneful 
effects of strong drink, that they appeared before the Council and besought its 
authority to utterly prohibit the sale of it to any of their tribes. These re- 
quests were repeated, and finally, upon the advice of Peter Alrichs, " the 
Governor (Lovelace) prohibited, on pain of death, the selling of powder, shot 
and strong liquors to the Indians, and writ to Carr on the occasion to use the 
utmost vigilance and caution." 

The native murderers were not apprehended, as it was difficult to trace 
them; but the Indians themselves were determined to ferret them out. One 
was taken and shot to death, who was the chijef offender, but the other escaped 
and was never after heard of. The chiefs summoned their young men, and in 
presence of the English warned them that such would be the fate of all offend- 
ers. Proud justly remarks: "This, at a time when the Indians were numer- 
ous and strong and the Europeans few and weak, was a memorable act of jus- 
tice, and a proof of true friendship to the English, greatly alleviating the 
fear, for which they had so much reason among savages, in this then wilder- 
ness country." 

In 1669, a reputed son of the distinguished Swedish General, Connings- 


marke, commonly called the Long Fin, with another of his nationality, Henry 
Coleman, a man of property, and familiar with the language and habits of the. 
Indians, endeavored to incite an insurrection to throw oif the English rule and 
establish the Swedish supremacy. The Long Fin was apprehended, and wa& 
condemned to die; but upon reconsideration his sentence was commuted ta 
whipping and to branding with the letter B. He was brought in chains to 
New York, where he was incarcerated in the Stadt-house for a year, and was 
then transported to Barbadoes to be sold. Improvements in the modes of 
administering justice were from time to time introduced. New Castle waa 
made a corporation, to be governed by a Bailiff and six associates. Duties on 
importations were laid, and Capt Martin Pringer was appointed to collect and 
make due returns of them to Gov. Lovelace. 

In 1673, the French monarch, Louis XIV, declared war against the Neth- 
erlands, and with an army of over 200,000 men moved down upon that de- 
voted country. In conjunction with the land force, the English, with a power- 
ful armament, descended upon the Dutch waters. The aged Du Ruyter and 
the youthful Van Tromp put boldly to sea to meet the invaders. Three great 
naval battles were fought upon the Dutch coast on the 7th and 14th of June, 
and the 6th of August, in which the English forces were finally repulsed and 
driven from the coast. In the meantime, the inhabitants, abandoning their 
homes, cut the dikes which held back the sea, and invited inundation. Deem 
ing this a favorable opportunity to regain their possessions wrenched from them 
in the New World, the Dutch sent a small fleet under Commodores Cornelius 
Evertse and Jacobus Benkes, to New York, to demand the surrender of all 
their previous possessions. Gov. Lovelace happened to be absent, and his 
representative, Capt. John Manning, surrendered with but brief resistance, 
and the magistrates from Albany, Esopus, East Jersey and Long Jsland, on 
being summoned to New York, swore fealty to the returning Dutch power. 
Anthony Colve, as Governor, was sent to Delaware, where the magistrates 
hastened to meet him and submit themselves to his authority. Property in 
the English Government was confiscated; Gov. Lovelace returned to England, 
and many of the soldiers were carried prisoners to Holland. Before their de- 
parture, Commodores Evertse and Benk6s, who styled themselves ' ' The honora- 
ble and awful council of war, for their high mightinesses, the State's General 
of the United Netherlands, and his Serene Highness, the Prince of Orange," 
commissioned Anthony Colve, a Captain of foot, on the 12th of August, 1673, 
to be Governor General of "New Netherlands, with all its appendences," 
and on the 19th of September following, Peter Alrichs, who had manifested 
his subserviency and his pleasure at the return of Dutch ascendancy, was ap- 
pointed by Colve Deputy Governor upon the Delaware. A body of laws was 
drawn up for his instruction, and three courts of justice were established, at 
New Castle, Chester and Lewistown. Capt. Manning on his return to En- 
gland was charged with treachery for delivering up the fort at New York with- 
out resistance, and was sentenced by a court martial "to have his sword broken 
over his head in public, before the city hall, and himself rendered incapable 
of wearing a sword and of serving his Majesty for the future in any public 
trust in the Government. " 

But the revolution which had been affected so easily was of short duration. 
On the 9th of February, 1674, peace was concluded between England and 
Holland, and in the articles of pacification it was provided "that whatsoever 
countries, islands, towns, ports, castles or forts, have or shall be taken, on both 
sides, since the time that the late unhappy war broke out, either in Europe, or 
elsewhere, shall be restored to the former lord and proprietor, in the same con- 



dition they shall be in when the peace itself shall bo proclaimed, after which 
time there shall be no spoil nor plunder of the inhabitants, no demolition 
of fortifications, nor carrying away of guns, powder, or other military stores 
which belonged to any castle or port at the time when it was taken." This 
left no room for controversy about possession. But that there might be no legal 
bar nor loophole for question of absolute right to his possessions, the Duke ot 
York secured from the King on the 29th of June following, a new patent cov- 
ering the former grant, and two days thereafter sent Sir Edmund Andros, to 
possess and govern the country. He arrived at New York and took peaceable 
possession on the 31st of October, and two days thereafter it was resolved in 
council to reinstate all the officers upon Delaware as they were at the surrender 
to the Dutch, except Peter Alrichs, who for his forwardness in yielding his 
power was relieved. Capt. Edmund Cantwell and William Tom were sent to 
occupy the fort at New Castle, in the capacities of Deputy Governor and Sec- 
retary. In May, 3675, Gov. Andros visited the Delaware, and held court at 
New Castle " in which orders were made relative to the opening of roads, th« 
regulation of church property and the support of preaching, the prohibition 
of the sale of liquors to the Indians, and the distillation thereof by the inhab- 
itants." On the 23d of September, 1676, Cantwell was superseded by John 
Collier, as Vice Governor, when Ephraim Hermans became Secretary. 

As was previously observed, Gov. Nioholls, in 1684, made a complete di- 
gest of all the laws and usages in force in the English-speaking colonies in 
America, which were known as the Duke's Laws. That these might now be 
made the basis of judicature throughout the Duke's possessions, they were, on 
the 25th of September, 1676, formally proclaimed and published by Gov. 
Lovelace, with a suitable ordinance introducing them. It may here be ob- 
served, that, in the administration of Gov. Hartranft, by act of the Legislature 
of June 12, 1878, the Duke's Laws were published in a handsome volume, to- 
gether with th« Charter and Laws instituted by Penn, and historical notes 
covering the early history of the State, under the direction of John B. Linn, 
Secretary of the commonwealth, edited by Staughton George, Benjamin M. 
Nead, and Thomas McCarnant, from an old copy preserved among the town rec- 
ords of Hempstead, Long Island, the seat of the independent State which 
had been set up there by John Scott before the coming of Nicholls. The num- 
ber of taxable male inhabitants between the ages of sixteen and sixty years, 
in 1677, for TJplandt and New Castle, was 443, which by the usual estimate of 
seven to one would give the population 3,101 for this district. Gov. Collier 
having exceeded his authority by exercising judicial functions, was deposed 
by Andros, and Capt. Christopher Billop was appointed to succeed him. But 
the change resulted in little benefit to the colony; for Billop was charged 
with many irregularities, " taking possession of the fort and turning it into 
a stable, and the court room above into a hay and fodder loft; debarring the 
court from sitting in its usual place in the fort, and making use of soldiers for 
his own private purposes. " 

The hand of the English Government bore heavily upon the denomination 
of Christians called Friends or Quakers, and the earnest-minded, conscientious 
worshipers, uncompromising in their faith, were eager for homes in a land 
where they should be absolutely free to worship the Supreme Being. Berke- 
ley and Carteret, who had bought New Jersey, were Friends, and the settle- 
ments made in their territory were largely of that faith. In 1675, Lord Ber- 
keley sold his undivided half of the province to John Fenwicke, in trust for 
Edward Byllinge, also Quakers, and Fenwicke sailed in the Griffith, with a 
company of Friends who settled at Salem, in West Jersey. Byllinge, having 


become involved in debt, made an assignment of his interest for the benefit of 
his creditors, and William Penn was induced to become trustee jointly with 
Gowen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas. Penn was a devoted Quaker, and he was 
of that earnest nature that the interests of his friends and Christian devotees 
were like his own personal interests. Hence he became zealous in promoting 
the welfare of the colony. For its orderly government, and that settlers might 
have assurance of stability in the management of affairs, Penn drew up " Con- 
cessions and agreements of the proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants of "West 
New Jersey in America" in forty- four chapters. Foreseeing difficulty from 
divided authority, Penn secured a division of the province by " a line of par- 
tition from the east side of Little Egg Harbor, straight north, through the 
country to the utmost branch of the Delaware River." Penn's half was called 
New West Jersey, along the Delaware side, Carteret's New East Jersey along the 
ocean shore. Penn's purposes and disposition toward the settlers, as the 
founder of a State, are disclosed by a letter which he wrote at this time to a 
Friend, Richard Hartshorn, then in America: "We lay a foundation for 
after ages to understand their liberty, as men and Christians; that they may 
not be brought into bondage, but by their own consent; for we put the power 
in the people. * * So every man is capable to choose or to be chosen; no man 
to be arrested, condemned, or molested, in his estate, or liberty', but by twelve 
men of the neighborhood; no man to lie in prison for debt, but that his estate 
satisfy, as far as it will go, and he be set at liberty to work; no man to be 
called in question, or molested for his conscience. " Lest any should be in- 
duced to leave home and embark in the enterprise of settlement unadvisedly, 
Penn wrote and published a letter of caution, " That in whomsoever a desire to 
be concerned in this intended plantation, such would weigh the thing before 
the Lord, and not headily, or rashly, conclude on any such remove, and that 
they do not offer violence to the tender love of their near kindred and relations, 
but soberly, and conscientiously endeavor to obtain their good wills; that 
whether they go or stay, it may be of good savor before the Lord and good 


Sib Edmund Andros, 1674-81— Edmund Cantwell, 1674r-76— John Colliek, 1676- 
77— Cheistopher Billop, 1677-81. 

WILLIAM PENN, as Trustee, and finally as part owner of New Jersey, 
became much interested in the subject of colonization in America. 
Many of his people had gone thither, and he had given much prayerful study 
and meditation to the amelioration of their condition by securing just laws for 
their government. His imagination pictured the fortunate condition of a 
"State where the law-giver should alone study the happiness of his subjects, and 
his subjects should be chiefly intent on rendering implicit obedience to 
just laws. From his experience in the management of the Jerseys, he had 
doubtless discovered that if he would carry out his ideas of government suc- 
cessfully, he must have a province where his voice would be potential and his 
will supreme. He accordingly cast about for the acquirement of such a land in 
the New World. 

Penn had doubtless been stimulated in his desires by the very roseate ac- 
counts of the beauty and excellence of the country, its salubrity of climate, its 


balmy airB, the fertility of its soil, and the abundance of the native fish, flesh 
and fowl. In 1680, one Malhon Stacy wrote a letter which was largely circu- 
lated in England, in which he says: " It is a country that produceth all things 
for the support and furtherance of man, in a plentiful manner. * * * I 
have seen orchards laden with fruit to admiration; their very limbs torn to 
pieces with weight, most delicious to the taste, and lovely to behold. I have 
seen an apple tree, from a pippin-kernel, yield a barrel of curious cider; and 
peaches in such plenty that some people took their carts a peach gathering; I 
could not but smile at the conceit of it; they are very delicious fruit, and hang 
almost like our onions, that are tied on ropes. I have seen and know, this 
summer, forty bushels of bold wheat of one bushel sown. From May till 
Michaelmas, great store of very good wild fruits as strawberries, cranberries 
and hurtleberries, which are like om- billberries in England, only far sweeter; 
the cranberries, much like cherries for color and bigness, which may be 
kept till frnit comes again; an excellent sauce is made of them for venison, 
turkeys, and other great fowl, and they are better to make tarts of than either 
goosoDerries or cherries; we have them brought to our houses by the Indians 
in great plenty. My brother Kobert had as many cherries this year as would 
have loaded several carts. As for venison and fowls, we have great plenty; 
we have brought home to our countries by the Indians, seven or eight fat bucks 
in a day. We went into the river to catch herrings after the Indian fashion. 
* * * We could have filled a three-bushel sack of as good large herrings 
as ever I saw. And as to beef and pork, here is great plenty of it, and good 
sheep. The common grass of this country f^eds beef very fat. Indeed, the 
country, take it as a wilderness, is a brave country." 

The father of William Penn had arisen to distinction in tne British Navy. 
He was sent in Cromwell's time, with a considerable sea and land force, to the 
West Indies, where he reduced the Island of Jamaica under English rule. At 
the restoration, he gave in his adhesion to the royal cause. Under James, 
Duke of York, Admiral Penn commanded the English fleet which descended 
upon the Dutch coast, and gained a great victory over the combined naval 
forces led by Van Opdam. Eor this great service to his country, Penn was 
knighted, and became a favorite at court, the King and his brothor, the Duke, 
holding him in cherished remembrance. At his death, there was due him 
from the crown the sum of £16,000, a portion of which he himself had ad- 
vanced for the sea service. Filled with the romantic idea of colonization, and 
enamored with the sacred cause of his people, the son, who had come to be re- 
garded with favor for his great father's sake, petitioned King Charles II to 
grant him, in liquidation of this debt, " a tract of land in America, lying 
north of Maryland, bounded east by the Delaware River, on the west limited 
as Maryland, and northward to extend as far as plantable." There were con- 
flicting interests at this time which were being warily watched at court. The 
petition was submitted to the Privy Council, and afterward to the Lords of 
the committee of plantations. The Duke of York already held the counties of 
New Castle, Kent and Susses. Lord Baltimore held a grant upon the south, • 
with an indefinite northern limit, and the agents of both these territories 
viewed with a jealous eye any new grant that should in any way trench upon 
their rights. These claims were fully debated and heard by the Lords, and, 
being a matter in which the King manifested special interest, the Lord Chief 
Justice, North, and the Attorney General, Sir William Jones, were consulted 
-both as to the grant itself, and the form or manner of making it. Finally, 
after a careful study of the whole subject, it was determined by the highest 
authority in the Government to grant to Penn a larger tract than' he had asked 


for, and the charter was drawn with unexampled liberality, in unequivocal 
terms of gift and perpetuity of holding, and with remarkable minuteness of 
■detail, and that Penn should have the advantage of any double meaning con- 
■veyed in the instrument, the twenty- third and last section provides: "And, 
if perchance hereafter any doubt or question should arise concerning the true 
sense and meaning of any word, clause or sentence contained in this our present 
charter, we will ordain and command that at all times and in all things such 
interpretation be made thereof, and allowed in any of our courts whatsoever 
as shall be adjudged most advantageous and favorable unto the said William 
Penn, his heirs and assigns." 

It was a joyful day for Penn when he finally reached the consummation of 
his wishes, and saw himself invested with almost dictatorial power over a 
country as large as England itself, destined to become a populous empire. 
But his exultation was tempered with the most devout Christian spirit, fearful 
lest in the exercise of his great power he might be led to do something that 
«hould be displeasing to God. To his dear friend, Robert Turner, he writes 
in a modest way: "My true love in the Lord salutes thee and dear friends 
that love the Lord's precious truth in those parts. Thine I have, and for my 
business here know that after many waitings, watchings, solicitings and dis- 
putes in council, this day my country was confirmed to me under the great seal 
•of England, with large powers and privileges, by the name of Pennsylvania, a 
name the King would give it in honor of my father. I chose New Wales, be- 
ing, as this, a pretty hilly country; but Penn being Welsh for a head, as Pen- 
manmoire in Wales, and Penrith in Cumberland, and Penn in Buckingham- 
shire, the highest land ia England, called this Pennsylvania, which is the high 
or head woodlands; for I proposed, when the Secretary, a Welshman, refused 
to have it called New Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it; and though 
I much opposed it, and went to the King to have it struck out and altered, he 
said it was past, and would take it upon him; nor could twenty guineas move 
the Under Secretary to vary the name; for I feared lest it should be looked on 
as a vanity in me, and not as a respect in the King, as it truly was to my 
father, whom he often mentions with praise. Thou mayest communicate my 
grant to Friends, and expect shortly my proposals. It is a clear and just 
thing, and my God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I be- 
lieve, bless and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to the 
government, that it be well laid at first. " 

Penn had asked that the western boundary should be the same as that of 
Maryland; biit the King made the width from east to west five full degrees. 
The charter limits were " all that tract, or part, of land, in America, with the 
islands therein contained as the same is bounded, on the east by Delaware 
Eiver, from twelve miles distance northwards of New Castle town, unto the 
three and fortieth degree of northern latitude. * * * * 

The said land to extend westward five degrees in longitude, to be computed 
from the said eastern bounds; and the said lands to be bounded on the north 
by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, and, 
■on the south, by a circle drawn at twelve miles distance from New Castle 
northward and westward unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of northern 
latitude; and then by a straight line westward to the limits of longitude above 

It is evident that tne royal secretaries did not well understand the geogra- 
phy of this section, for by reference to a map it will be seen that the begin- 
ning of the fortieth degree, that is, the end of the thirty-ninth, cuts the 
J)istrict of Columbia, and hence Baltimore, and the greater part of Maryland 


and a good slice of Virginia would have been included in the clear terms of 
tho chartered limits of Pennsylvania. But the charters of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia antedated this of Pennsylvania. Still, the terms of the Penn charter 
were distinct, the beginning of the fortieth degree, whereas those of Maryland 
were ambiguous, the northern limi t being fixed at the fortieth degree ; but whether 
at the beginning or at the ending of the fortieth was not stated. Penn 
claimed three full degrees of latitude, and when it was found that a contro- 
versy was likely to ensue, the King, by the hand of his royal minister, Con- 
way, issued a further declaration, dated at Whitehall, April 2, 1681, in which 
the wording of the original chartered limits fixed for Pennsylvania were 
quoted verbatim, and his royal pleasure declared that these limits should be 
respected " as they tender his majesty's displeasure." This was supposed to 
settle the matter. But Lord Baltimore still pressed his claim, and the ques- 
tion of southern boundary remained an open one, causing much disquietude 
to Penn, requiring watchful care at court for more than half a century, and 
until after the proprietor's death. 

We gather from the terms of the charter itself that the King, in making 
the grant, was influenced "by the commendable desire of Penn to enlarge our 
British Empire, and promote such useful commodities as may be of benefit 
to us and our dominions, as also to reduce savage nations by just and gentle 
manners, to the love of civil society and Christian religion," and out of "re- 
gard to the memory and merits of his late father, in divers services, and par- 
ticularly to his conduct, courage and discretion, under our dearest brother, 
James, Duke of York, in the signal battle and victory, fought and obtained, 
against the Dutch fleet, commanded by the Herr Van Opdam in 1665.'' 

The motive for obtaining it on the part of Penn may be gathered from tho 
following extract of a letter to a friend: " For my country I eyed the Lord in 
obtaining it; and more was I drawn inward to look to Him, and to owe it to His 
hand and power than to any other way. I have so obtained and desire to keep 
it, that I may be unworthy of His love, but do that which may answer His 
kind providence and people." 

The charter of King Charles II was dated April 2, 1681. Iiest any- 
trouble might arise in the future from claims founded on the grant previously 
made to the Duke of York, of "Long Island and adjacent territories occupied 
by the Dutch," the prudent forethought of Penn induced him to obtain a deed, 
dated August 31, 1682, of the Duke, for Pennsylvania, substantially in the 
terms of the royal charter. But Penn was still not satisfied. He was cut off 
from the ocean except by the uncertain navigation of one narrow stream. He 
therefore obtained from the Duke a grant of New Castle and a district of 
twelve miles around it, dated on the 24th of August, 1682, and on the sam^ 
day a further grant from the Duke of a tract extending to Cape Henlopen, 
embracing the two counties of Kent and Sussex, the two grants comprising 
what were known as the territories, or the three lower counties, which were 
for many years a part of Pennsylvania, but subsequently constituted the State 
of Delaware. 

Being now satisfied with his province, and that his titles were secure, Penn 
drew up such a description of the country as from his knowledge he was able 
to give, which, together with the royal charter and proclamation, terms of 
settlement, and other papers pertaining thereto, he published and spread 
broadcast through the kingdom, taking special pains doubtless to have the 
documents reach the Friends. The terms of sale of lands were 40 shillings for 
100 acres, and 1 shilling per acre rental. The question has been raised, why 
exact the annual payment of one shilling per acre. The terms of the grant by 

(^t^" Xv 


the royal charter to Penn were made absolute on the " payment therefor to us, 
our heirs and successors, two beaver skins, to be delivered at our castle in 
"Windsor, on the 1st day of January in every year," and contingent payment 
of one-fifth part of all gold and silver which shall from time to time happen 
to be found clear of all charges. " Penn, therefore, held his title only upon 
the payment of quit-rents. He could consequently give a valid title only by 
the exacting of quit-rents. 

Having now a great province of his own to manage, Penn was obliged to 
relinquish his share in West New Jersey. He had given largely of his time and 
energies to its settlement; he had sent 1,400 emigrants, many of them people 
of high character; had seen farms reclaimed from the forest, the town of 
Burlington built, meeting houses erected in place of tents for worship, good 
Government established, and the savage Indians turned to peaceful ways. 
With satisfaction, therefore, he could now give himself to reclaiming and set- 
tling his own province. He had of course in his published account of the 
country made it appear a desirable place for habitation. But lest any should 
regret having gone thither when it was too late, he added to his description a 
caution, " to consider seriously the premises, as well the inconveniency as 
future ease and plenty; that so none may move rashly or from a fickle, but from 
a solid mind, having above all things an eye to the providence of God in the 
disposing of themselves." Nothing more surely points to the goodnes.s of 
heart of William Penn, the great founder of our State, than this extreme 
solicitude, lest he might induce any to go to the new country who should af- 
terward regret having gone.\ 

The publication of the royal charter and his description of the country 
attracted attention, and many purchases of land were made of Penn before 
leaving England. That these purchasers might have something binding to 
rely upon, Penn drew up what he termed " conditions or concessions " between 
himself as proprietor and purchasers in the province. These related to the 
settling the country, laying out towns, and especially to the treatment of the 
Indians, who were to have the same rights and privileges, and careful regard 
as the Europeans. And what is perhaps a remarkable instance of provident 
forethought, the eighteenth article provides " That, in clearing the ground, 
care be taken to leave one acre of trees for every five acres cleared, especially 
to preserve oak and mulberries, for silk and shipping." It could be desired 
that such a provision might have remained operative in the State for all 

Encouraged by the manner in which his proposals for settlement were 
received, Penn now drew up a frame of government, consisting of twenty- 
four articles and forty laws. These were drawn in a spirit of unexampled 
fairness and liberality, introduced by an elaborate essay on the just rights of 
government and governed, and with such conditions and concessions that it, 
should never be in the power of an unjust Governor to take advantage of tha 
people and practice injustice. " For the matter of liberty and privilege, I pur- 
pose that which is extraordinary, and leave myself and successors no power of 
doing mischief, that the will of one man may not hinder that of a whole coun- 
try. This frame gave impress to the character of the early government. It im- 
planted in the breasts of the people a deep sense of duty, of right, and of obli- 
gation in all public affairs, and the relations of man with man, and formed a 
framework for the future constitution. Penn himself had felt the heavy hand 
of government for religious opinions and practice' sake. He determined, for 
the matter of religion, to leave all free to hold such opinions as they might 
elect, and hence enacted for his State that all who " hold themselves obligee^ 


in conscience, to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall, in no ways, 
be molested, nor prejudiced, for their religious persuasion, or practice, in mat- 
ters of faith and worship, nor shall they be compelled, at any time, to fre- 
quent, or maintain, any religious -worship, place, or ministry whatever. " At 
this period, such govermental liberality in matters of religion was almost un- 
known, though Roger Williams in the colony of Rhode Island had previously, 
under similar circumstances, and having just escaped a like persecution, pro- 
claimed it, as had likewise Lord Baltimore in the Catholic colony of Mary- 

The mind of Penn was constantly exercised upon the a£fairs of his settlement. 
Indeed, to plant a colony in a new country had been a thought of his boyhood, 
for he says in one of his letters: "I had an opening of joy as to these parts in 
the year 1651, at Oxford, twenty years since." Not being in readiness to go 
to his province during the first year, he dispatched three ship loads of set- 
tlers, and with them sent his cousin, William Markham, to take formal pos- 
session of the country and act as Deputy Governor Markham sailed for New 
York, and upon his arrival there exhibited his commission, bearing date March 
6, 1681, and the King's charter and proclamation. In the absence of Gov. An- 
dros, who, on having been called to account for some complaint made against 
him, had gone to England, Capt. Anthony Brockholls, Acting Governor, re- 
ceived Markham's papers, and gave him a letter addressed to the civil officers 
on the Delaware, informing them that Markham's authority as Governor had 
heen examined, and an official record made of it at New York, thanking them 
for their fidelity, and requesting them to submit themselves to the new author- 
ity. Armed with this letter, which was dated June 21, 1681, Markham pro- 
ceeded to the Delaware, where, on exhibiting his papers, he was kindly re- 
ceived, and allegiance was cheerfully transferred to the new government. In- 
deed so frequently had the power changed hands that it had become quite a 
matter of habit to transfer obedience from one authority to anotherj and they 
had scarcely laid their heads to rest at night but with the consciousness that 
the morning light might bring new codes and new officers. 

Markham was empowered to call a council of nine citizens to assist him in 
the government, and over whom he was to preside. He brought a letter ad- 
dressed to Lord Baltimore, touching the boundary between the two grants, and 
exhibiting the terms of the charter for Pennsylvania. On receipt of this let- 
ter, Lord Baltimore came to Upland to confer with Markham. An observation 
fixing the exact latitude of Upland showed that it was twelve miles south of 
the forty-first degree, to which Baltimore claimed, and that the beginning of 
the fortieth degree, which the royal charter explicitly fixed for the southern 
boundary of Pennsylvania, would include nearly the entire State of Maryland, 
and cut the limits of the present site of the city of Washington. "If diis be 
allowed," was significantly asked by Baltimore, "where is my province?" 
He returned to his colony, and from this time forward an active contention 
■was begun before the authorities in England for possession of the disputed 
territory, which required all the arts and diplomatic skill of Penn. 

Markham was accompanied to the province by four Commissioners sent 
■out by Penn — William Crispin, John Bezer, William Haige and Nathaniel 
Allen. The first named had been designated as Surveyor General, but he 
having died on the passage, Thomas Holme was appointed to succeed him. 
These Commissioners, in conjunction with the Governor, had two chief duties 
■assigned them. The first was to meet and preserve filendly relations with the 
Indians and acquire lands by actual purchase, and the second was to select the 
«ite of a great city and make the necessary surveys. That they might have a 


■suitable introduction "to the natives from him, Penn addressed to them a dec- 
laration of his purposes, conceived in a spirit of brotherly love, and expressed 
in such simple terms that these children of the forest, unschooled in book 
l^rning, would have no difficulty in apprehending his meaning. The refer- 
ring the source of all'power to the Creator was fitted to produce a strong im- 
pression upon their naturally superstitious habits of thought. " There is a 
great God and power, that hath made the world, and all things therein, to 
whom you and I, and all people owe their being, and well being; and to whom 
yoti and I must one day give an account for all that we do in the world. This 
great God hath written His law in our hearts, by which we are taught and com- 
manded to love, and help, and do good to one another. Now this great God hath 
been pleased to make me concerned in your part of the world, and the King 
■of the country where I live hath given me a great province therein; but I de- 
sire to enjoy it with your love and consent, that we may always live together, 
as neighbors and friends; else what would the great God do to us, who hath 
made us, not to devour and destroy one another, but to live soberly and kindly 
together in the world ? Now I would have you well observe that I am very 
sensible of the unkindness and injustice that have been too much exercised 
toward you by the people of these parts of the world, who have sought them- 
selves, and to make great advantages by you, rather than to be examples of 
goodness and patience unto you, which I hear hath been a matter of trouble 
to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, sometimes to the shedding 
of blood, which hath made the great God angry. But I am not such a man, 
as is well known in my own country. I have great love and regard toward 
you, and desire to gain your love and friendship by a kind, just and peaceable 
life, and the people I send are of the same mind, and shall in all things be- 
have themselves accordingly; and if in anything any shall offend you or 
your people, you shall have a full and speedy satisfaction for the same by an 
equal number of just men on both sides that by no means you may have just 
occasion of being offended against them. I shall shortly come to you myself, 
at which time we may more largely and freely confer and discourse of these 
matters. In the meantime, I have sent my Commissioners to treat with you 
about land, and form a league of peace. Let me desire you to be kind to 
them and their people, and receive these presents and tokens which I have sent 
you as a testimony of my good will to you, and my resolution to live justly, 
peaceably and friendly with you." 

In this plain but sublime statement is embraced the whole theory of Will 
iam Penn's treatment of the Indians. It was the doctrine which the Savior 
of mankind came upon earth to promulgate — the estimable worth of every 
human soul. And when Penn came to propose his laws, one was adopted 
which forbade private trade with the natives in which they might be overreached; 
but it was required that the valuable skins and furs they had to sell should be 
hung up in the market place where all could see them and enter into compe- 
tition for their purchase. Penn was offered £6,000 for a monopoly of trade. 
But he well knew the injustice to which this would subject the simple-minded 
natives, and he refused it saying: " As the Lord gave it me over all and 
great opposition, I would not abuse His love, nor act unworthy of His provi- 
dence, and so defile what came to me clean " — a sentiment worthy to be treas- 
ured with the best thoughts of the sages of old. And to his Commissioners he 
gave a letter of instructions, in which he says: "Be impartially just to all; 
that is both pleasing to the Lord, and wise in itself. Be tender of offending 
the Indians, and let them know that you come to sit down lovingly among 
them. Let my letter and conditions be read in their tongue, that they may see 


we have their good in our eye. Be grave, they love not to be smiled on." 
Acting upon these wise and just considerations, the Commissioners had no diffi- 
culty in making large purchases of the Indians of lands on the right bank of 
the Delaware and above the mouth of the Schuylkill. a 

But they found greater difficulty in settling the piace for the new city. 
Penn had given very minute instructions about this, and it was not easy 
to find a tract which answered all the conditions. For seven weeks they kept 
up their search. Penn had written, " be sure to make your choice wliere it is 
most navigable, high, dry and healthy; that is, where most ships may bestride, 
of deepest draught of water, if possible to load and unload at the bank or 
key's side without boating and lightening of it. It would do well if the river 
coming into that creek be navigable, at least for boats up into the country, 
and that the situation be high, at least dry and sound and not swampy, which 
is best known by digging up two or three earths and seeing the bottom." By 
his instructions, the site of the city was to be between two navigable streams, 
and embrace 10,000 acres in one block. " Be sure to settle the figure of the 
town so that the streets hereafter may be uniform down to the water from the 
country bounds. Let every house be placed, if the person pleases, in the 
middle of its plat, as to the breadth way of it, that so there may be ground on 
each side for gardens or orchards or fields, that it may be a green country town, 
which will never be burnt and always wholesome." The soil was examined, 
the streams were sounded, deep pits were dug that a location might be found 
which should gratify the desires of Penn. All the eligible sites were inspected 
from the ocean far up into the country. Penn himself had anticipated that 
Chester or Upland would be adopted from all that he could learn of it; but 
this was rejected, as was also the ground upon Poquessing Creek and that at 
Pennsbury Manor above Bristol which had been carefully considered, and the 
present site of Philadelphia was finally adopted as coming nearest to the 
requirements of the proprietor. It had not 10,000 acres inasoJid square, but 
it was between two navigable streams, and the soil was high and dry, being for 
the most part a vast bed of gravel, excellent for drainage and likely to prove 
healthful. The streets were laid out regularly and crossed each other at 
right angles. As the ground was only gently rolling, the grading was easily 
accomplished. One broad street. Market, extends from river to river through 
the midst of it, which is crossed at right angles at its middle point by Broad 
street of equal width. It is 120 miles from the ocean by the course of the 
river, and only sixty in a direct line, eighty-seven miles from New York, 
ninety-five from Baltimore, 136 from Washington, 100 from Harrisburg and 
300 from Pittsburgh, and lies in north latitude 39° 56' 54", and longitude 75° 
8' 45" west from Greenwich The name Philadelphia (brotherly love), was 
one that Penn had before selected, as this founding a city was a project which 
he had long dreamed of and contemplated with never-ceasing interest. 



William Markham, 1681-82— William Penn, 1682-84. 

HAVING now made necessary preparations and settled his a£fair8 in En- 
gland, Penn embarked on board the ship Welcome, in August, 1682, in 
company with about a hundred planters, mostly from his native town of Sussex, 
and set his prow for the New World. Before leaving the Downs, he addressed 
a farewell letter to his friends whom ho left behind, and another to his wife 
and children, giving them much excellent advice, and sketching the way of 
life he wished them to lead.' With remarkable care and minuteness, he points 
out the way in which he would have his children bred, and educated, married, 
and live. A single passage from this remarkable document will indicate its 
general tenor. " Be sure to observe," in educating his children, " their genius, 
and do not cross it as to learning ; let them not dwell too long on one thing ; 
but let their change be agreeable, and let all their diversions have some little 
bodily labor in them. When grown big, have most care for them ; for then 
there are more snares both within and without. When marriageable, see that 
they have worthy persons in their eye ; of good life and good fame for piety 
and understanding. I need no wsEdth but sufficiency ; and be sure their love 
be dear, fervent and mutual, that it may be happy for them." And to his 
children he said, " Betake yourselves to some honest, industrious course of 
life, and that not of sordid covetousness, but for example and to avoid idle- 
ness. ***** Love not money nor the world ; use them only, 
and they will serve you ; but if you love them you serve them, which will 
debase your spirits as well as offend the Lord. ***** Watch 
against anger, neither speak nor act in it ; for, like drunkenness, it makes a 
man a beast, and throws people into desperate inconveniences." The entire 
letters are so full of excellent counsel that they might with great profit be 
committed to memory, and treasured in the heart. 

The voyage of nearly six weeks was prosperous ; but they had not been 
long on the ocean before that loathed disease — the virulent small-pox — broke 
out, of which thirty died, nearly a third of the whole company. This, added 
to the usual discomforts and terrors of the ocean, to most of whom this was 
probably their first experience, made the voyage a dismal one. And here was 
seen the nobility of Penn. " For his good conversation " says one of them, 
" was very advantageous to all the company. His singular care was manifested 
in contributing to the necessities of many who were sick with the small-pox 
then on board." 

His arrival upon the coast and passage up the river was hailed with dem- 
onstrations of joy by all classes, English, Dutch, Swedes, and especially by his 
own devoted followers. He landed at New Castle on the 24th of October, 1682, 
and on the following day summoned the people to the court house, where pos- 
session of the country was formally made over xi him, and he renewed the 
commissions of the magistrates, to whom and to the assembled people he an- 
nounced the design of his coming, explained the nature and end of truly good 
government, assuring them that their religious and civil rights should be re- 
spected, and recommended them to live in sobriety and peace. He then pro- 


ceeded to "Upland, henoefoward known as Chester, where, on the 4th of Novem- 
ber, he called an assembly of the people, in which an equal number of votes- 
was allowed to the province and the territories. Nicholas Moore, President of 
the Free Society of Traders, was chosen speaker. As at New Castle, Penn 
addressed the assembly, giving them assurances of his beneficent intentions, 
for which they returned their grateful acknowledgments, the Swedes being 
especially demonstrative, deputing one of their number. Lacy Cock, to say 
" That they would love, serve and obey him with all they had, and that this 
was the best day they ever saw. " We can well understand with what satisfac- 
tion the settlers upon the Delaware hailed the prospect of a stable government 
established in their own midst, after having been so long at the mercy of the 
government in New York, with allegience trembling between the courts of 
Sweden, Holland and Britain. 

The proceedings of this first assembly were conducted with great decomm, 
and after the usages of the English Parliament. On the 7th of December, 
1682, the three lower counties, what is now Delaware, which had previously 
been under the government of the Duke of York, were formerly annexed to th» 
province, and became an integral part of Pennsylvania. The frame of govern- 
ment, which had been drawn with much deliberation, was submitted to the 
assembly, and, after some alterations and amendments, was adopted, and be- 
came the fundamental law of the State. The assembly was in session only 
three days, but the work they accomplished, how vast and far-reaching in its 
influence ! 

The Dutch, Swedes and other foreigners were then naturalized, and the- 
government was launched in fair running order: That some idea may be had 
of its character, the subjects treated are here given: 1, Liberty of conscience; 
2, Qualification of officers; 3, Swearing by God, Christ or Jesus; 4, Swearing 
by any other thing or name; 5, Profanity; 6, Cursing; 7, Fornication; 8, In- 
cest; 9, Sodom)'; 10, Rape; 11, Bigamy; 12, Drunkenness; 13, Suffering 
drunkenness; 14, Healths drinking; 15, Selling liquor to Indians; 16, Arson; 
17, Burglary; 18, Stolen goods; 19, Forcible entry; 20, Eiots; 21, Assauiting^ 
parents: 22, Assaulting Magistrates; 23, Assaulting masters; 24, Assault and 
battery; 25, Duels; 26, Riotous sports, as plays; 27, Gambling and lotteries; 
28, Sedition; 29, Contempt; 30, Libel; 31, Common scolds; 32, Charities; 
33, Prices of beer and ale; 34, Weights and measures; 35, Names of days and 
months; 36, Perjury; 37, Court proceedings in English; 38, Civil and crim- 
inal trials; 39, Fees, salaries, bribery and extortion; 40, Moderation of fines; 
41, Suits avoidable; 42, Foreign arrest; 43, Contracts: 44, Charters, gifts, 
grants, conveyances, bills, bonds and deeds, when recorded; 45, "Wills; 46^ 
Wills of non compos mentis; 47, Registry of "Wills; 48, Registry for servants; 
49, Factors; 50, Defacers, corrupters and embezzlers of charters, conveyances 
and records; 51, Lands and goods to pay debts; 52, Bailable offenses; 53, 
Jails and jailers; 54, Prisons to be workhouses; 55, False imprisonment; 56, 
Magistrates may elect between fine or imprisonment; 57, Freemen; 58, Elec- 
tions; 59, No money levied but in pursuance of law; 60, Laws shall be printed 
and taught in schools; 61, All other things, not provided for nerein, are re- 
ferred to the Governor and freemen from time to time. 

"Very soon after his arrival in the colony, after the precept had been issued, 
but before the convening of the Assembly, Penn, that he might not be wanting 
in respect to the Duke of York, made a visit to New York, where he was kind- 
ly received, and also after the adjournment of the Assembly, journeyed to Mary- 
land, where he was entertained by Lord Baltimore with great ceremonv. The 
settlement of the disputed boundaries was made the subject of formal'confer- 


enee. But after two days spent in fruitless discussion, the weather becoming 
severely cold, and thus precluding the possibility of taking observations or 
making the necessary surveys, it was agreed to adjourn further consideration 
of the subject until the milder weather of the spring. We may imagine that 
the two Governors were taking the measure of each other, and of gaining all 
possible knowledge of each other's claims and rights, preparatory to that 
struggle for possession of this disputed fortieth degree of latitude, which was 
desxined to come before the home government. 

With all his cares iu founding a State and providing a government over a 
new people, Penn did not forget to preach the " blessed Gospel," and wherever 
he went he was intent upon his " Master's business." On his return from 
Maryland, Lord Baltimore accompanied him several miles to the house of 
William Eichardson, and thence to Thomas Hooker's, where was a religious 
meeting, as was also one held at Choptauk. Penn himself says: "Ihave 
been also at New York, Long Island, East Jersey and Maryland,. in which I 
have had good and eminent service for the Lord." And again he says: "As to. 
outward things, we are satisfied — the land good, the air clear and sweet, tho 
springs plentiful, and provisions good and easy to come at, an innumerable- 
quantity of wild fowl and fish; in fine, here is what an Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob would be well contented with, and service enough for God: for the 
fields are here white for the harvest. O, how sweet is the quiet of those parts, 
freed from the anxious and troublesome solicitations, hurries and perplexities 
of woeful Europe! * * * Blessed be the Lord, that of twenty-three ships, 
none miscarried; only two or three had the small-pox; else healthy and swift 
passages, generally such as have not been known; some but twenty-eight days, 
and few longer than six weeks. Blessed be God for it; my soul fervently 
breathes that in His heavenly guiding wisdom, we may be kept, that we may 
serve Him in our day, and lay down our heads in peace." And then, as if re- 
proached for not having mentioned another subject of thankfulness, he adds in 
a postscript, "Many women, in divers of the ships, brought to bed; they and 
their children do well." 

Penn made it his first care to take formal possession of his province, and 
adopt a frame of government. When this was done, his chief concern was 
to look to the establishment of his proposed new city, the site of which had 
already been determined on by his Commissioners. Accordingly, early in 
November, at a season when, in this section, the days are golden, Penn em- 
barked in an open barge with a number of his friends, and was wafted 
leisurely up the Delaware to the present site of the city of Philadel- 
phia, which the natives called Coaquannock. Along the river was a bold shore, 
fringed with lofty pines, which grew close down to the water's edge, eo much 
so that when the first ship passing up with settlers for West Jersey had brushed 
against the branches, the passengers remarked that this would be a good place 
for a city. It was then in a wild state, the deer browsing along the shore and 
sipping the stream, and the coneys burrowing in the banks. The scattered 
settlers had gathered in to see and welcome the new Governor, and when he 
stepped upon the shore, they extended a helping hand in assisting him up the 
rugged bluff. Three Swedes had already taken up tracts within the limits of 
the block of land chosen for the city. But they were given lands in exchange, 
and readily relinquished their claims. The location was pleasing to Penn, and 
was adopted without further search, tJiough little could be seen of this then 
forest-encumbered country, where now is the home of countless induetries, the 
busy mart, the river bearing upon its bosom the commerce of many climes, 
and the abiding place of nearly a million of people. But Penn did not con- 


sider that he had as yet any just title to the soil, holding that the Indians 
were ita only rightful possessors, and until it was fairly acquired by purchase 
from them, his own title was entirely void. 

Hence, he sought an oarly opportunity to meet the chiefs of the tribes and 
cultivate friendly relations with them. Tradition fixes the first great treaty 
or conference at about this time, probably in November, and the place under 
the elm tree, known as the " Treaty Tree," at Kensington. It was at a sea- 
son when the leaves would still be upon the trees, and the assembly was called 
beneath the ample shade of the wide-sweeping braaches, which was pleasing 
to the Indians, as it was their custom to hold all their great deliberations and 
smoke the pipe of peace in the open air. The letter which Penn had sent had 
prepared the minds of these simple-hearted inhabitants of the forest to regard 
him with awe and reverence, little less than that inspired by a descended god. 
His coming had for a long time been awaited, and it is probable that it had 
been heralded and talked over by the wigwam fire throughout the remotest 
bounds of the tribes. And when at length the day came, the whole popula- 
tion far around had assembled. 

It is known that three tribes at least were represented — the Lenni Lenape, 
living along the Delaware; the Shawnees, a tribe that bad come up from the 
South, and were seated along the Lower Susquehanna; and the Mingoes, 
sprung from the Six Nations, and inhabiting along the Conestoga. Penn was 
probably accompanied by the several officers of his Government ' and his most 
trusted friends. There were no implements of warfare, for peace was a cardi- 
nal feature of the Quaker creed 

No veritable account of this, the great treaty, is known to have been made; 
but from the fact that Penn not long after, in an elaborate treatise upon the 
country, the inhabitants and the natives, has given the account of the manner 
in which the ladians demean themselves in conference, we may infer that he 
had this one in mind, and hence we may adopt it as his own description of the 

" Their order is thus: The King sits in the middle of a half moon, and 
hath his council, the old and wise, on each hand; behind them, or at a little 
distance, sit the younger fry in the same figure. Having consulted and re- 
solved their business, the King ordered one of them to speak to me. He stood 
up, came to me, and, in the name of the King, saluted me; then took me by 
th* hand and told me he was ordered by the King to speak to me; and now it 
was not he, but the King that spoke, because what he would say was the 
King's mind. * # * * During the time that this person spoke, not 
a man of them was observed to whisper or smile; the old grave, the young 
reverant, in their deportment. They speak little, but fervently, and with ele- 
gance. " 

In response to the salutation from the Indians, Penn makes a reply in 
suitable terms: "The Great Spirit, who made me and you, who rules the 
heavens and the earth, and who knows the innermost thoughts of men, knows 
that I and my friends have a hearty desire to live in peace and friendship 
with you, and to serve you to the uttermost of our power. It is not our custom 
to use hostile weapons against our fellow-creatures, for which reason we have 
come unarmed. Oar object is not to do injury, and thus provoke the Great 
Spirit, but to do good. We are met on the broad pathway of good faith and 
good will, so that no advantage is to be takon on either side; but all to be open- 
ness, brotherhood and love." Having unrolled his parchment, he explains to 
them through an interpreter, article by article, the nature of the business, and 
laying it upoa the ground, observes that the ground shall be for the use of 


both people. " I will not do as the Marylanders did, call you children, or 
■brothers only; for parents are apt to whip their children too severely, and 
brothers sometimes will differ; neither will I compare the friendship between 
lis to a chain, for the rain may rust it, or a tree may fall and break it; but I 
will consider you as the same flesh and blood with the Christians, and the same 
as if one man's body were to be divided into two parts." Having ended his 
■business, the speaker for the King comes forward and makes great promises 
"of kindness and good neighborhood, and that the Indians and English must 
live in love as long as the sun gave light." This ended, another Indian makes 
a speech to his own people, first to explain to them what had been agreed on, 
■and then to exhort them "to love the Christians, and particularly live in peace 
■with me and the people under my government, that many Governors had been 
in the river, but that no Governor had come himself to live and stay here be- 
fore, and having now such an one, that had treated them well, they should never 
do him nor his any wrong. " At every sentence they shouted, as much as to 
«ay, amen. 

The Indians had no system of writing by which they could record their 
•dealings, but their memory of events and agreements was almost miraculous. 
Heckewelder records that in after years, they were accustomed, by means of 
strings, or belts of wampum, to preserve the recollection of their pleasant in- 
terviews with Penn, after he had departed for England. He says, " They fre- 
quently assembled together in the woods, in some shady spot, as nearly as pos- 
■sible similar to those where they used to meet their brother Miquon (Penn), and 
there lay all his words and speeches, with those of his descendants, on a 
blanket, or clean piece of bark, and with great satisfaction go successively 
■over the whole. This practice, which I have repeatedly witnessed, continued 
until the year 1780, when disturbances which took place put an end to it, 
probably forever." 

The memory of this, the " Great Treaty," was long preserved by the na- 
tives, and the novel spectacle was reproduced upon canvas by the genius of 
Benjamin West. In this picture, Penn is represented as a corpulent old man, 
whereas he was at this time but thirty-eight years of age, and in the very 
^height of manly activity. The Treaty Tree was preserved and guarded from 
injury with an almost superstitious care. During the Revolution, when Phila- 
■delphia was occupied by the British, and their parties were scouring the coun- 
try for firewood, Gen. Simcoe had a sentinel placed at this tree to protect it 
irom mutilation. It stood until 1810, when it was blown down, and it was 
ascertained by its annual concentric accretions to be 283 years old, and was, 
■consequently, 155 at the time of making the treaty. The Penn Society erected 
a substantial monument on the spot where it stood. 

Penn drew up his deeds for lands in legal form, and had them duly exe- 
cuted and made of record, that, in the dispute possible to arise in after times, 
ihere might be proof definite and positive of the purchase. Of these purchases 
there are two deeds on record executed in 1683. One is for land near Nesha- 
miny Creek, and thence to Penypack, and the other tor lands lying between 
Schuylkill and Chester Rivers, the first bearing the signature of the great 
•chieftain, Taminend. In one of these purchases it is provided that the tract 
'■shall extend back as far as a man could walk in three days. " Tradition 
runs that Penn himself, with a number of his friends, walked out the half this 
purchase with the Indians, that no advantage should be taken of them by mak- 
ing a great walk, and to show his consideration for them, and that he was not 
above the toils aiid fatigues of such a duty." They began to walk out this 
land at the mouth of the Neshaminy, and walked up the Delaware; in one day 


and a half they got to a spruce tree near the mouth of Baker's Creek, when 
Penn, concluding that this would include as much land as he would want at 
present, a line was run and marked from the spruce tree to Neshaminy, and 
the remainder left to be walked when it should be wanted. They proceed- 
ed after the Indian manner, walking leisurely, sitting down sometimes to 
smoke their pipes, eat biscuit and cheese, and drink a bottle of wine. Id the 
day and a half they walked a little less than thirty miles. The balance of the 
purchase was not walked until September 20, 17b3, when the then Governor of 
Pennsylvania offered a prize of 500 acres of land and £5 for the man who 
would walk the farthest. A distance of eighty-six miles was covered, in 
marked contrast with the kind consideration of Penn. 

During the first year, the country upon the Delaware, from the falls of 
Trenton as far as Chester, a distance of nearly sixty miles, was rapidly taken up 
and peopled. The large proportion of these were Quakers, and devotedly attached 
to their religion and its proper observances. They were, hence, morally, of the 
best classes, and though they were not generally of the aristocracy, yet many 
of them were in comfortable circumstances, had valuable properties, were of 
respectable families, educated, and had the resources within themselves to live 
contented and happy. They were provident, industrious, and had come hither 
with no fickle purpose. Many brought servants with them, and well supplied 
wardrobes, and all necessary articles which they wisely judged would be got 
in a new country with difficulty. 

Their religious principles were bo peaceful and generous, and the govern- 
ment rested so lightly, that the fame of the colony and the desirableness of 
settlement therein spread rapidly, and the numbers coming hither were unpar- 
alleled in the history of colonization, especially when we consider that a broad 
ocean was to be crossed and a voyage of several weeks was to be endured. In 
a brief period, ships with passengers came from London, Bristol, Ireland, 
Wales, Cheshire, Lancashire, Holland, Germany, to the number of about fifty. 
Among others came a company of German Quakers, from Kxisheim, near 
Worms, in the Palatinate. These people regarded their lot as particularly 
fortunate, in which they recognized the direct interposition and hand of Provi- 
dence. For, not long afterward, the Palatinate was laid waste by the French 
army, and many of their kindred whom they had left behind were despoiled of 
their possessions and reduced to penury. There came also from Wales a com- 
pany of the stock of aacient Britons. 

So large an influx of population, coming in many cases without due pro- 
vision for variety of diet, caused a scarcity in many kinds of food, especially 
of meats. Time was required to bring forward flocks and herds, more than 
for producing grains. But Providence seemed to have graciously considered 
their necessities, and have miraculously provided for them, as of old was pro 
vision made for the chosen people. For it is recorded that the ' ' wild pigeons 
came in such great numbers that the sky was sometimes darkened by their 
flight, and, flying low, they were frequently knocked down as they flew, in 
great quantities, by those who had no other means to take them, whereby the}' 
supplied themselves, and, having salted those which they could not immedi- 
ately use, they preserved them, both for bread and meat." The Indians were 
kind, and often furnished them with game, for which they would receive no 

Their first care on landing was to bring their household goods to a place 
of safety, often to the simple protection of a tree. For some, this was their 
only shelter, lumber being scarce, and in many places impossible to obtain. 


Some made for themselves caves in the earth UDtil better habitations could be 

John Key, who was said. to have been the first child born of English par- 
ents in Philadelphia, and that in recognition of which William Penn gave 
him a lot of ground, died at Kennet, in Chester County, on July 5, 1768, 
in the eighty-fifth year of his age. He was born in one of these caves upon 
the river bank, long afterward known by the name of Penny-pot, near Sassa- 
fras street. About six years before his death, he walked from Kennet to the 
city, about thirty miles, in one day. In the latter part of his life he went 
under the name of I'irst Born. 

The contrasts between the comforts and conveniences of an old settled 
country and this, where the heavy forests must be cleared away and severe la- 
bors must be endured before the sun could be let in sufficiently to produce 
anything, must have been very marked, and caused repining. But they had 
generally come with meek and humble hearts, and they willingly endured 
hardship and privation, and labored on earnestly for the spiritual comfort 
which they enjoyed. Thomas Makin, in some Latin verses upon the early set- 
tlement, says (we quote the metrical translation): 

"Its fame to distant countries far has spread, 
And some for peace, and some for profit led; 
Born in remotest climes, to settle here 
They leave their native soil and all that's dear. 
And still will flock from far, here to be free. 
Such powerful charms has lovely liberty." 

But for their many privations and sufferings there were some compensat- 
ing conditions. The soil was fertile, the air mostly clear and healthy, the 
streams oE water were good and plentiful, wood for fire and building unlimit- 
ed, and at certain seasons of the year game in the forest was abundant. Rich- 
ard Townsend, a settler at Germantown, who came over in the ship with Penn, 
in writing to his friends in England of his first year in America, says: "I, 
with Joshua Tittery, made a not, and caught great quantities of fish, so that, 
notwithstanding it was thought near three thousand persons came in the first 
year, we were so providentially provided for that we could buy a deer for 
about two shillings, and a large turkey for about one shilling, and Indian corn 
for about two shillings sixpence a bushel." 

In the same letter, the writer mentions that a young deer came out of the 
forest into the meadow where he was mowing, and looked at him, and when 
he went toward it would retreat; and, as he resumed his mowing, would come 
back to gaze upon him, and finally ran forcibly against a tree, which bo 
stunned it that he was able to overmaster it and bear it away to his home, and 
as this was at a time when he was suffering for the lack of meat, he believed 
it a direct interposition of Providence. 

In the spring of 1683, there was great activity throughout the colony, and 
especially in the new city, in selecting lands and erecting dwellings, the Sur- 
veyor General, Thomas Holme, laying out and marking the streets. In the 
center of the city was a public square of ten acres, and in each of the four 
quarters one of eight acres. A large mansion, which had been undertaken be- 
fore his arrival, was built for Penn, at a point twenty-six miles up the river, 
called Pennsbury Manor, where he sometimes resided, and where he often met 
the Indian sachems. At this time, Penn divided the colony into counties, 
three for the province (Bucks, Philadelphia and Chester) and three for the 
Territories (New Castle, Kent and Sussex). Having appointed Sheriffs and 
other proper officers, he issued writs for the election of members of a General 


Assembly, three from each county for the Council or Upper House, and nine 
from each county for the Assembly or Lower House. * 

This Assembly convened and organized for business on the 10th of Jan- 
nary, 1683, at Philadelphia. One of the first subjects considered was the 
revising some provisions of the frame of government which was effected, re- 
ducing the number of members of both Houses, the Council to 18 the As- 
sembly to 36, and otherwise amending in unimportant particulars. In 
an assembly thus convened, and where few, if any, had had any experience in 
serving in a deliberative body, we may reasonably suppose that many crude 
and impracticable propositions would be presented. As an example of these 
the following may be cited as specimens): That young men should be obliged 
to marry at, or before, a certain age; that two sorts of clothes only shall be 
worn, one for winter and the other for summer. The session lasted twenty two 

The first grand jury in Pennsylvania was summoned for the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1683, to inquire into the cases of some persons accused of issuing 
counterfeit money. The Governor and Council sat as a court. One Picker- 
ing was convicted, and the sentence was significant of the kind and patriarchal 
nature of the government, "that he should make full satisfaction, in good 
and current pay, to every person who should, within the space of one month, 
bring in any of this false, base and counterfeit coin, and that the money 
brought in should be melted down before it was returned to him, and that he 
should pay a tine of forty pounds toward the building a court house, stand 
committed till the same was paid, and afterward find security for his good 

The Assembly and courts having now adjourned, Penn gave his attention 
to the grading and improving the streets of the new city, and the managing 
the affairs of his land office, suddenly grown to great importance. For every 
section of land taken up in the wilderness, the purchaser was entitled to a 
certain plot in the new city. The Eiver Delaware at this time was nearly a 
mile broad opposite the city, and navigable .for ships of the largest tonnage. 
The tide rises about six feet at this point, and flows back to the falls of 
Trenton, a distance of thirty miles. The tide in the Schuylkill flows only 
about five miles above its confluence with the Delaware. The river bank along 
the Delaware was intended by Penn as a common or public resort. But in 
his time the owners of lots above Front street pressed him to allow them to 
construct warehouses upon it, opposite their properties, which importunity in- 
duced him to make the following declaration concerning it; "The bank is a 
top common, from end to end; the rest next the water belongs to front- lok 
men no more than back-lot men. The way bounds them; they may build stairs, 
and the top of the bank a common exchange, or wall, and against the street, 
common wharfs may be built freely; but into the water, and the shore is no 
purchaser's. " But in future time, this liberal desire of the founder was dis- 
regarded, and the bank has been covered with immense warehouses. 

* It may be a matter of curiosity to know the names of the members of this first regularly elected Legis- 
lature in Pennsylvania, and they are accordingly appended as given in official records : 

Council: William Markham, Christopher Taylor, Thomas Holme, Lacy Cock, William Haige, John Moll 
Ralph Withers, John Simcock, Edward CaDtwell, William Clayton, William Biles, James Harrison, William 
•Clark, Francis Whitewell, John Richardson, John Hillyard. 

Assembly: From Bucks, William Yardly, Samuel Darke, Robert Lucas, Nicholas Walne, John Wood John 
Clowes, Thomas Fitzwater, Robert Hall, James Boyden ; from Philadelphia, John Longhurst, John Hart Wal- 
ter King, Andros Binkson, John Moon, Thomas Wynne (Speaker), Griffith Jones, William Warner, Swan Swan- 
son; from Chester, John Hoskins, Robert Wade, George Wood, John Blunston, Dennis Koohford Thomas 
Bracy, John Bezer, John Harding, Joseph Phipps ; from New Castle, John Cann, John Darby, Valentine Holl- 
ingsworth, Gasparus Herman. John Dchoaef, James Williams, William Guest, Peter Alrich, Henrick Williams- 
from Kent, John Biggs, Simon Irons, Thomas HafTold John Curtis, Robert Bedwell, William Windsmore John 
Brinkloe, Daniel Brown, Benony Bishop ; from Sussex, Luke Watson, Alexander Draper, William Fu'toher 
Henry Bowman, Alexander Moleston, John Hill, Robert Bracy, John Kipshaven, Cornelius Verhoof. ' 


Seeing now his plans of government and settlement fairly in operation, as 
autumn approached, Penn wrote a letter to the Free Society of Traders in 
London, which had been formed to promote settlement in his colony, in which 
he touched upon a great variety of topics regarding his enterprise, extending to 
qiiite a complete treatise. The great interest attaching to the subjects dis- 
cussed, and the ability with which it was drawn, makes it desirable to insert 
the document entire; but its great length makes its use incompatible with the 
plan of this work. A few extracts and a general plan of the letter is all that 
can be given. He first notices the injurious reports put in circulation in En- 
gland during his absence: " Some persons have had so little wit and so much 
malice as to report my death, and, to mend the matter, dead a Jesuit, too. 
One might have reasonably hoped that this distance, like death, would have 
been a protection against spite and envy. * * * However, to the great sorrow 
and shame of the inventors, I am still alive and no Jesuit, and, I thank God, 
very well." Of the air and waters he says: " The air is sweet and clear, the 
heavens serene, like the south parts of France, rarely overcast. The 'waters 
are generally good, for the rivers and brooks have mostly gravel and stony bot- 
toms, and in number hardly credible. We also have mineral waters that 
operate in the same manner with Barnet and North Hall, not two miles from 
Philadelphia. " He then treats at length of the four seasons, of trees, fruits, 
grapes, peaches, grains, garden produce: of animals,beast8, birds, fish, whale fish- 
ery, horses and cattle, medicinal plants, flowers of the woods; of the Indians 
and their persons. Of their language he says: "It is lofty, yet narrow; but, 
like the Hebrew, in signification, full, imperfect in their tenses, wanting in their 
moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections. I have made it my busi- 
ness to understand it, and I must say that I know not a language spoken in Europe 
that hath words of more sweetness or greatness in accent and emphasis than 
theirs." Of their customs and their children: " The children will go very young, 
at nine months, commonly; if boys, they go a fishing, till ripe for the woods, which 
is about fifteen; then they hunt, and, after having given some proofs of their 
manhood by a good return of skins, they may marry, else it is a shame to think 
of a wife. The girls stay with their mother and help to hoe the ground, plant 
corn and cany burdens. When the young women are fit for marriage, they 
wear something upon their heads as an advertisment; but so, as their faces hardly 
to be seen, but when they please. The age they marry at, if women, is about 
thirteen and fourteen; if men, seventeen and eighteen; they are rarely elder." 
In a romantic vein he speaks of their houses, diet, hospitality, revengefulness 
and concealment of resentment, great liberality, free manner of life and 
customs, late love of strong liquor, behavior in sickness and death, their re- 
ligion, their feastings, their government, their mode of doing business, their 
manner of administering justice, of agreement for settling difficulties entered into 
with the pen, their susceptibility to improvement, of the origin of the Indian race 
their resemblance to the Jews. Of the Dutch and Swedes whom he found set- 
tled here when he came, he says: " The Dutch applied themselves to traffick, 
the Swedes and Finns to husbandry. The Dutch mostly inhabit those parts 
that lie upon the bay, and the Swedes the freshes of the Delaware. They are 
a plain, strong, industrious people; yet have made no great progress in culture 
or propagation of fruit trees. They are a people proper, and strong of body, 
so they have fine children, and almost every house full; rare to find one of them 
without three or four boys and as many girls — some, six, seven and eight sons, 
and I must do them that right, I see few young men more sober and laborious." 
After speaking at length of the organization of the colony and its manner of 
government, he concludes with his own opinion of the country: "I say little 


of the town itself; but this I will say, for the good providence of God, that 
of all the many places I have seen in the world, I remember not one better 
seated, so that it seems to me to have been appointed for a town, whether we 
regard the rivers or the conveniency of the coves, docks, springs, the loftiness 
and soundness of the land and the air, held by the people of these parts to be 
very good. It is advanced within less than a year to about fourscore bouses 
and cottages, where merchants and handicrafts are following their vocations 
as fast as they can, while the countrymen are close at their farms. * * * i 
bless God I am fully satisfied with the country and entertainment I got in it; 
for I find that particular content, which hath always attended me, where God in 
His providence hath made it my place and Hervice to reside. " 

As we have seen, the visit of Penn to Lord Baltimore soon after his arrival 
in America, for the purpose of settlingthe boundaries of the two provinces, after 
a two days' conference, proved fruitless, and an adjournment was had for the 
winter, when the efforts for settlement were to be resumed. Early in the 
spring, an attempt was made on the part of Peun, but was prevented till May, 
when a meeting was held at New Castle. Penn proposed to confer by the aid 
of counselors and in writing. But to this Baltimore objected, and, complain- 
ing of the sultryness of the weather, the conference was broken up. In the 
meantime, it had come to the knowledge of Penn that Lord Baltimore had 
issued a proclamation offering settlers more land, and at cheaper rates than 
Penn had done, in portions of the lower counties which Penn had secured 
from the Duke of York, but which Baltimore now claimed. Besides, it was 
ascertained that an agent of his had taken an observation, and determined the 
latitude without the knowledge of Penn, and had secretly made an ex parte 
statement of the case before the Lords of the Committee of Plantations in En- 
gland, and was pressing for arbitrament. This state of the case created much 
uneasiness in the mind of Penn, especially as the proclamation of Lord Balti- 
more was likely to bring the two governments into conflict on territory mutu- 
ally claimed. But Lord Baltimore was not disposed to be content with diplo- 
macy. He determined to pursue an aggressive policy. He accordingly com- 
missioned his agent. Col. George Talbot, under date of September 17, 1683, 
to go to Schuylkill, at Delaware, and demand of William Penn " all that part 
of the land on the west side of the said river that lyeth to the southward of 
the fortieth degree." This bold demand would have embraced the entire colony, 
both the lower counties, and the three counties in the province, as the fortieth 
degree reaches a considerable distance above Philadelphia. Penn was absent 
at the time in New York, and Talbot made his demand upon Nicholas Moore, 
the deputy of Penn. Upon his return, the proprietor made a dignified but 
earnest rejoinder. While he felt that the demand could not be justly sus- 
tained, yet the fact that a controversy for the settlement of the boundary was 
likely to arise, gave him disquietude, and though he was gratified with the 
success of his plans for acquiring lands of the Indians and establishing friendly 
relations with them, the laying-out of his new city and settling it, the adop- 
tion of a stable government and putting it in successful operation, and, more 
than all, the drawing thither the large number of settlers, chiefly of his own 
religious faith, and seeing them contented and happy in the new State, he 
plainly foresaw that his skill and tact would be taxed to the to defend 
and hold his claim before the English court. If the demand of Lord Balti- 
more were to prevail, all that he had done would be lost, as his entire colony 
would be swallowed up by Maryland. 

The anxiety of Penn to hold from the beginning of the 40° of latitude was 
not to increase thereby his territory by so much, for two degrees which he 


securely had, so far as amount of land was concerned, would have entirely- 
satisfied him; but he wanted this degree chiefly that he might have the free 
navigation of Delaware Bay and River, and thus open communication with the 
ocean. He desired also to hold the lower counties, which were now well 
settled, as well as his own counties rapidly being peopled, and his new city of 
Philadelphia, which he regarded as the apple of his eye. So anxious was he 
to hold the land on the right bank of the Delaware to the open ocean, that at 
iis second meeting, he asked Lord Baltimore to set a price per square mile on 
this disputed ground, and though he had purchased it once of the crown and 
held the King's charter for it, and the Duke of York's deed, yet rather than 
have any further wrangle over it, he was willing to pay for it again. But this 
Lord Baltimore refused to do. 

Bent upon bringing matters to a crisis, and to force possession of his 
claim, early in the year 1684 a party from Maryland made forcible entry 
upon the plantations in the lower counties and drove off the owners. The 
Oovernor and Council at Philadelphia sent thither a copy of the answer of 
Penn to Baltimore's demand for the land south of the Delaware, with orders 
io "William Welch, Sheriff at New Castle, to use his influence to reinstate the 
lawful owners, and issued a declaration succinctly stating the claim of Penn, 
for the purpose of preventing such unlawful incursions in future. 

The season opened favorably for the continued prosperity of the young 
colony. Agriculture was being prosecuted as never before. Goodly flocks 
and herds gladdened the eyes of the settlers. An intelligent, moral and in- 
dustrious yeomanry was springing into existence. Emigrants were pouring 
into the Delaware from many lands. The Government was becoming settled 
in its operations and popular with the people. The proprietor had leisure to 
attend to the interests of his religious society, not only in his own dominions, 
but in the Jerseys and in New York. 


Thomas Lloyd, 1884-86— Five Commissioners, 1686-88— John Blackwell, 1688 
-90— Thomas Llotd, 1690-91— William Makkham, 1691-93— Benjamin 
Fletcher, 1693-95— William Markham, 1693-99. 

BUT the indications, constantly thickening, that a struggle was likely soon 
to be precipitated before the crown for possession of the disputed terri- 
tory, decided Penn early in the summer to quit the colony and return to En- 
gland to defend his imperiled interests. There is no doubt that he took this 
step with unfeigned regret, as he was contented and happy in his new country, 
and was most usefully employed. There were, however, other inducements 
which were leading him back to England. The hand of persecution was at 
this time laid heavily upon the Quakers. Over 1,400 of these pious and in- 
offensive people were now, and some of them had been for years, languishing 
in the prisons of England, for no other offense than their manner of worship. 
By his friendship with James, and his acquaintance with the King, he might 
■do something to soften the lot of these unfortunate victims of bigotry. 

He accordingly empowered the Provincial Council, of which Thomas 
Lloyd was President, to act in his stead, commissioned Nicholas Moore, Will- 
iam Welch, William Wood, Eobert Turner and John Eckley, Provincial 


Judges for two years; appointed Thomas Lloyd, James Claypole and Robert 
Turner to sign land patents and warrants, and William Clark as Justice of 
the Peace for all the counties; and on the 6th of June, 1684, sailed for Europe. 
His feelings on leaving hid colony are exnibited by a farewell address which 
he issued from on board the vessel to his people, of which the following are- 
brief extracts: "My love and my life is to you, and with you, and no water 
can quench it, nor distance wear it out, nor bring it to an end. I have been 
with you, cared over you and served over you with unfeigned love, and you 
are beloved of me, and near to me, beyond utterance. I bless you in the 
name and power of the Lord, and may God bless you with His righteousness, 
peace and plenty all the land over. * * * Oh! now are you come to a 
quiet land; provoke not the Lord to trouble it And now liberty and author- 
ity are with you, and in your hands. Let the government be upon His 
shoulders, in all your spirits, that you may rule for Him, under whom the 
princes of this world will, one day, esteem their honor to govern and serve in 
their places * * * And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of 
this province, named before thou wert born, what love, what care, what serv- 
ice and what travail has there been, to bring thee forth, and preserve thee from 
such as would abuse and defile thee! * * * go, dear friends, my love- 
again salutes you all, wishing that grace, mercy and peace, with all temporal 
blessings, may abound richly among you — so says, so prays, your friend and 
lover in the truth. William Penn." 

On the 6th of December of this same year, 1684, Charles II died, and was 
succeeded by his brother James, Duke of York, under the title of James IL 
James was a professed Catholic, and the people were greatly excited all over 
the kingdom lest the reign of Bloody Mary should be repeated, and that the 
Catholic should become the established religion. He had less ability than 
his brother, the deceased King, but great discipline and industry. Penn en- 
joyed the friendship and intimacy of the new King, and he determined to use 
his advantage for the relief of his suffering countrymen, not only of his sect, 
the Quakers, but of all, and especially for the furtherance of universal liberty. 
But there is no doubt that he at this time meditated a speedy return to his 
province, for he writes: "Keep up the peoples' hearts and loves; I hope to be 
with them next fall, if the Lord prevent not. I long to be with you. No 
temptations prevail to fix me here. The Lord send us a good meeting." By 
authority of Penn, dated 18th of January, 1685, William Markham, Penn's 
cousin, was commissioned Secretary of the province, and the proprietor's Sec- 

That he might be fixed near to court for the -furtherance of his private as 
well as public business, he secured lodgings for himself and family, in 1685, at 
Kensington, near London, and cultivated a daily intimacy with <ibe King, who, 
no doubt, found in the strong native sense of his Quaker friend, a valued ad- 
viser upon many questions of difficulty. His first and chief care was the set- 
tlement of his disagreement with Lord Baltimore touching the boundaries of 
their provinces. This was settled in November, 1685, by a compromise, by 
which the land lying between the Delaware and Chesepeake Bays was divided 
into two equal parts— that upon the Delaware was adjudged to Penn, and that 
upon the Chesapeake to Lord Baltimore. This settled the matter in theory; 
but when the attempt was made to run the lines according to the language of 
the Eoyal Act, it was found that the royal secretaries did not understand the 
geography of the country, and that the line which their language described was 
an impossible one. Consequently the boundary remained undetermined till 
1732. The account of its location will be given in its proper place. 


Having secured this important decision to his satisfaction, Penn applied 
himself with renewed zeal, not only to secure the i;elease of his people, who 
were languishing in prisons, but to procure for all Englishmen, everywhere, 
enlarged liberty and freedom of conscience. His relations with the King fa- 
vored his designs. The King had said to Penn before he ascended the throne 
that he was opposed to persecution for religion. On the first day of his reign, 
he made an address, in which he proclaimed himself opposed to all arbitrary 
principles in government, 'and promised protection to the Church of England. 
Early in the year 1686, in consequence of the King's proclamation for a gen^ 
eral pardon, over thirteen hundred Quakers were set at liberty, and in April, 
1687, the King issued a declaration for entire liberty of conscience, and sus- 
pending the penal laws in matters ecclesiastical. This was a great step in ad- 
vance, and one that must ever throw a luster over the brief reign of this un- 
fortunate monarch. Penn, though holding no official position, doubtless did 
as much toward securing the issue of this liberal measure as any Englishman. 

Upon the issue of these edicts, the Quakers, at their next annual meeting, 
presented an address of acknowledgment to the Ring, which opened in these 
words: "We cannot but bless and praise the name of Almighty God, who 
hath the hearts of princes in His hands, that He hath inclined the King to hear 
the cries of his suffering subjects for conscience' sake, and we rejoice that he 
hath given us so eminent an occasion to present him our thanks." This ad- 
dress was presented by Penn in a few well -chosen words, and the King re- 
plied in the following, though brief, yet most expressive, language: "Gentle- 
men — I thank you heartily for your address. Some of you know (I am sure 
you do Mr. Penn), that it was always my principle, that conscience ought not 
to be forced, and that all men ought to have the liberty of their consciences. 
And what I have promised in my declaration, I will continue to perform so 
long as I live. And I hope, before I die, to settle it so that after ages shall 
have no reason to alter it." 

It would have been supposed that such noble sentiments as these from a 
sovereign would have been hailed with delight by the English people. But 
they were not. The aristocracy of Britain at this time did not want liberty of 
conscience. They wanted comformity to the established church, and bitter 
persecution against all others, as in the reign of Charles, which filled the 
prisons with Quakers. The warm congratulations to James, and fervent prayers 
for his welfare, were regarded by them with an evil eye. Bitter reproaches 
were heaped upon Penn, who was looked upon as the power behind the throne 
that was moving the King to the enforcing of these principles. He was ac- 
cused of having been educated at St. Omer's, a Catholic college, a place which 
he never saw in his life, of having taken orders as a priest in the Catholic 
Church, of having obtained dispensation to marry, and of being not only a 
Catholic, but a Jesuit in disguise, all of which were pure fabrications. But in, 
the excited state of the public mind they were believed, and caused him to be 
regarded with bitter hatred. The King, too, fell rapidly into disfavor, and so 
completely had the minds of his people become alienated from him, that upon 
the coming of the Prince of Orange and his wife Mary, in 1688, James was 
obliged to flee to France for safety, and they were received as the rulers of 

But while the interests of the colony were thus prospering at court, they 
were not so cloudless in the new country. There was needed the strong hand 
of Penn to check abuses and guide the course of legislation in proper chan- 
nels. He had labored to place the government entirely in the hands of the 
people — an idea, in the abstract, most attractive, and one which, were the entires 


population wise and just, would result fortunately: yet, in practice, he found 
to his sorrow the results most vexatious. The proprietor had not long been 
gone before troubles arose between the two Houses of the Legislatiu-e relative 
to promulgating the laws as not being in accordance with the requirements of 
the charter Nicholas Moore, the Chief Justice, was impeached for irregular- 
ities in imposing fines and in other ways abusing his high trust. But though 
formally arraigned iind directed to desist from exercising his functions, he suc- 
cessfully resisted the proceedings, and a final judgment was never obtained. 
Patrick Robinson, Clerk of the court, for refusing to produce the records in the 
trial of Moore, was voted a public enemy. These troubles in the government 
were the occasion of much grief to Penn, who wrote, naming a number of the 
most influential men in the colony, and beseeching them to unite in an endeavor 
to check further irregularities, declaring that they disgraced the province, 
" that their conduct had struck back hundreds, and was £10,000 out of his 
way, and £100,000 out of the country." 

In the latter part of the year 1686, seeing that the whole Council was too 
unwieldy a body to exercise executive power, Penn determined to contract the 
number, and accordingly appointed Thomas Lloyd, Nicholas Moore, James 
Claypole, Robert Turner and John Eckley, any three of whom should consti- 
tute a quorum, to be Commissioners of State to act for the proprietor. In 
place of Moore and Claypule, Arthur Cook and John Simcock were appointed. 
They were to compel the attendance of the Council; see that the two Houses 
admit of no parley; to abrogate all laws except the fundamentals; to dismiss 
the Assembly and call a new one, and finally he solemnly admonishes them, 
*' Be most just, as in the sight of the all-seeing, all-searching God." In a 
letter to these Commissioiiers, he says: " Three things occur to me eminently: 
First, that you be watchful that none abuse the King, etc. ; secondly, that you 
:get the custom act revived as being the equalest and least offensive way to 
support the government; thirdly, that you retrieve the dignity of courts and 

In a letter to James Harrison, his confidential agent at Pennsbury Manor, 
he unbosoms himself more freely respecting his employment in London than 
in any of his State papers or more public communications, and from it can be 
seen how important were his labors with the head of the English nation. " I 
am engaged in the public business of the nation and Friends, and those in au- 
thority would have me see the establishment of the liberty, that I was a small 
instrument to begin in the land. The Lord has given me great entrance and 
interest with the King, though not so much as is said; and I confess I should 
rejoice to see poor old England fixed, the penal laws repealed, that are now 
suspended, and if it goes well with England, it cannot go ill with Pennsyl- 
Trania, as unkindly used as I am; and no poor slave in Turkey desires more 
-earnestly, I believe, for deliverance, than I do to be with you." In the sum- 
mer of 1687, Penn was in company with the King in a progress through the 
-counties of Berkshire, Glocestershire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, Cheshire, 
Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire, during which he 
Sheld several religious meetings with his people, in some of which the King ap- 
ipears to have been present, particularly in Chester. 

Since the departure of Penn, Thomas Lloyd had acted as President of 
the Council, and later of the Commissioners of State. He had been in effect 
Governor, and held responsible for the success of the government, while pos- 
sessing only one voice in the disposing of affairs. Tiring of this anomalous 
position, Lloyd applied to be relieved. It was difficult to find a person of 
aufficient ability to fill the place: but Penn decided to relieve him, though 


showing his entire confidence by notifying him that he intended soon to ap- 
point him absolute Governor. In his place, he indicated Samuel Carpenter, 
or if he was unwilling to serve, then Thomas Ellis, but not to be President, his 
will being that each should preside a month in turn, or that the oldest mem- 
ber should be chosen. 

Penn foresaw that the executive power, to be efficient, must be lodged' in 
the hands of one man of ability, such as to command the respect of his people. 
Those whom he most trusted in the colony had been so mixed up in the wran- 
gles of the executive and legislative departments of the government that he 
deemed it advisable to appoint a person who had not before been in the col- 
ony and not a Quaker. He accordingly commissioned John Blaokwell, July 
27, 1688, to be Lieutenant Governor, who was at this time in New England, 
and who had the esteem and confidence of Penn. With the commission, the 
proprietor sent full instructions, chiefly by way of caution, the last one being: 
*' Rule the meekmeekly; and those that will not be ruled, rule with authority." 
Though Lloyd had been relieved of power, he still remained in the Council, 
probably because neither of the persens designated were willing to serve. 
Having seen the evils of a many-headed executive, he had recommended the 
appointment of one person to exercise executive authority. It was in con 
formity with this advice that Blackwell was appointed. He met the Assembly 
in March, 1689; but either his conceptions of business were arbitrary and im- 
perious, or the Assembly had become accustomed to great latitude and lax 
discipline; for the business had not proceeded far before the several branches 
of the government were at variance. Lloyd refused to give up the great seal, 
alleging that it had been given him for life. The Governor, arbitra- 
rily and without warrant of law, imprisoned officers of high rank, denied the 
validity of all laws passed by the Assembly previous to his administration, and 
set on foot a project for organizing and equipping the militia, under the plea 
of threatened hostility of France. The Assembly attempted to arrest his 
proceedings, but he shrewdly evaded their intents by organizing a party 
among the members, who persistently absented themselves. His reign 
was short, for in January, 1690, he left the colony and sailed away for En- 
gland, whereupon the government again devolved upon the Council, Thomas 
Lloyd, President. Penn had a high estimation of the talents and integrity 
of Blackwell, and adds, " He is in England and Ireland of great repute for 
ability, integrity and virtue. " 

Three forms of administering the executive department of the government 
had now been tried, by a Council consisting of eighteen members, a commission of 
five members, and a Lieutenant Governor. Desirous of leaving the government 
as far as possible in the hands of the people who were the sources of all 
power, Penn left it to the Council to decide which form should be adopted. 
The majority decided for a Deputy Governor. This was opposed by the mem- 
bers from the provinces, who preferred a Council, and who, finding themselves 
outvoted, decided to withdraw, and determined for themselves to govern the 
lower counties until Penn should come. This obstinacy and falling out be- 
tween the councilors from the lower counties and those from the province 
was the beginning of a controversy which eventuated in a separation, and 
finally in the formation of Delaware as a separate commonwealth. A deputa- 
tion from the Council was sent to New Castle to induce the seceding members 
to return, but without success. They had never regarded with favor the re- 
moval of the sittings of the Council from New Castle, the first seat of gov- 
ernment, to Philadelphia, and they were now determined to set up a govern- 
ment for themselves. 


In 1689, the Friends Public School in Philadelphia was first incorporated, 
confirmed by a patent from Penn in 1701, and another in 1708, and finally, 
with greatly enlarged powers, from Penn personally, November 29, 1711. The 
preamble to the charter recites that as "the prosperity and welfare oE any 
people depend, in great measure, upon the good education of youth, and their 
early introduction in the principles of true religion and virtue, and qualifying 
them to serve their country and themselves, by breeding them in reading, 
writing, and learning of languages and useful arts and sciences suitable to 
their sex, age and degree, which cannot be effected in any manner so well as 
by erecting public schools," etc. George Keith was employed as the first mas- 
ter of this Bchool. He was a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, a man of learning, 
and had emigrated to East Jersey some years previous, whore he was Surveyor 
General, and had surveyed and marked the line between East and West New 
Jersey. He only remained at the head of the school one year, when he was 
succeeded by his usher, Thomas Makin. This was a school of considerable 
merit and pretension, where the higher mathematics and the ancient lan- 
guages were taught, and was the first of this high grade. A school of a pri- 
mary grade had been established as" early as 1683, in Philadelphia, when 
Enoch Flower taught on the following terms: "To learn to read English,, 
four shillings by the quarter; to write, six shillings by ditto; to read, write and 
cast accounts, eight shillings by the quarter; boarding a scholar, that is to 
say, diet, lodging, washing and schooling, £10 for one whole year,'' from which 
it will be seen that although learning might be highly prized, its cost in 
hard cash was not exorbitant. 

Penn's favor at court during the reign of James II caused him to be sus- 
pected of disloyalty to the government when William and Mary had come to 
the throne. Accordingly on the 10th of December, 1688, while walking in 
White Hall, he was summoned before the Lords of the Council, and though 
nothing was found against him, was compelled to give security for his appear- 
ance at the next term, to answer any charge that might be made. At the sec- 
ond sitting of the Council nothing having been found against him, he was 
cleared in open court. In 1690, he was again brought before the Lords on 
the charge of having been in correspondence with the late King. He ap- 
pealed to King William, who, after a hearing of two hours, was disposed to 
release him, but the Lords decided to hold him until the Trinity term, when 
he was again discharged. A third time he was arraigned, and this time with 
eighteen others, charged with adhering to the kingdom's enemies, but was 
cleared by order of the King's Bench. Being now at liberty, and these vexa- 
tious suits apparently at an end, he set about leading a large party of settlers 
to his cherished Pennsylvania. Proposals were published, and the Govern- 
ment, regarding the enterprise of so much importance, had ordered an armed 
convoy, when he was again met by another accusation, and now, backed by 
the false oath of one William Fuller, whom the Parliament subsequently de- 
clared a " cheat and an imposter." Seeing that he must prepare again for hi* 
defense, he abandoned his voyage to America, after having made expensive 
preparations, and convinced that his enemies were determined to prevent his 
attention to public or private affairs, whether in England or America, he with- 
drew himself during the ensuing two or three years from the public eye. 

But though not participating in business, which was calling loudly for his 
attention, his mind was busy, and several important treatises upon religious 
and civil matters were produced that had great influence upon the turn of 
public affairs, which would never have been written but for this forced retire- 
ment. In his address to the yearly meeting of Friends in London, he says: 



*' My enemies are yours. My privacy is not because men have sworn truly, 
but falsely against me. " 

His personal grievances in England were the least which he suffered. For 
lack of guiding influence, bitter dissensions had sprung up in his colony, 
which threatened the loss of all. Desiring to secure peace, he had commis- 
sioned Thomas Lloyd Deputy Governor of the province, and William Mark- 
ham Deputy Governor of the lower counties. Penn's grief on account of this 
division is disclosed in a letter to a friend in the province: " I left it to them, 
to choose either the government of the Council, five Commissioners or a deputy. 
What could be tenderer ? Now I perceive Thomas Lloyd is chosen by the 
three upper; but not the three lower counties, and sits down with this broken 
choice. This has grieved and wounded me and mine, I fear to the hazard of 
all! * * * for else the Governor of New York is like to have all, if he 
has it not already." 

But the troubles of Penn in America were not confined to civil affairs. 
His religious society was torn with dissension. George Keith, a man of con- 
siderable power in argumentation, but of overweaning self-conceit, attacked the 
Friends for the laxity of their discipline, and drew off some followers. So 
venomous did he become that on the 20th of April, 1692, a testimony of de- 
nial was drawn up against him at a meeting of ministers, wherein he and his 
conduct were publicly disowned. This was confirmed at the next yearly meet- 
ing. He drew off large numbers and set up an independent society, who 
termed themselves Christian Quakers. Keith appealed from this action of the 
American Church to the yearly meeting in London, but was so intemperate in 
speech that the action of the American Church was confirmed. Whereupon 
he became the bitter enemy of the Quakers, and, uniting with the Church of 
England, was ordained a Vicar by the Bishop of London. He afterward re- 
turned to America where he wrote against his former associates, but was final- 
ly fixed in a benefice in Sussex, England. On his death bed, he said, " I wish 
I had died when I was a Quaker, for then I am sure it would have been well 
with my soul." 

But Keith had not been satisfied with attacking the principles and prac- 
tices of his church. He mercilessly lampooned the Lieutenant Governor, say- 
ing that " He was not fit to be a Governor, and his name would stink, " and of 
the Council, that . " He hoped to God he should shortly see their power taken 
from them." On another occasion, he said of Thomas Lloyd, who was reputed 
a mild-tempered man, and had befriended Keith, that he was " an impu- 
dent man and a pitiful Governor,' ' and asked him " why he did not send him 
to jail," saying that "his back (Keith's) had long itched for a whipping, and 
that he would print and expose them all over America, if not over Europe." 
So abusive had he finally become that the Council was obliged to take notice 
of his conduct and to warn him to desist. 

Penn, as has been shown, was silenced and thrown into retirement in En- 
gland. It can be readily seen what an excellent opportunity those troubles 
in America, the separation in the government, and the schism in the church, 
gave his enemies to attack him. They represented that he had neglected his 
colony by remaining in England and meddling with matters in which he had 
no business; that the colony in consequence had fallen into great disorder, 
and that he should be deprived of his proprietary rights. These complaints 
had so much weight with William and Mary, that, on the 21st of October, 1692, 
they commissioned Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York, to take the 
province and territories ander his government. There was another motive 
operating at this time, more potent than those mentioned above, to induce the 


King and Queen to put the government of Pennsylvania under the Governor 
of New York. The French and Indians from the north were threatening the 
English. Already the expense for defense had become burdensome to New 
York. It was believed that to ask aid for the common defense from Penn, 
with his peace principles, would be fruitless, but that through the influence of 
Gov. Fletcher, as executive, an appropriation might be secured. 

Upon receiving his commission, Gov. Fletcher sent a note, dated April 19, 
1693, to Deputy Gov. Lloyd, informing him of the grant of the royal commis- 
sion and of his intention to visit the colony and assume authority on the 29th 
inst. He accordingly came with great pomp and splendor, attended by a 
numerous retinue, and soon after his arrival, submission to him having been 
accorded without question, summoned the Assembly. Some differences having 
arisen between the Governor and tbe Assembly about the manner of calling and 
electing the Eepresentatives, certain members united in an address to the Gov- 
ernor, claiming that the constitution and laws were still in full force and 
must be administered until altered or repealed; that Pennsylvania had just as 
good a right to be governed according lo the usages of Pennsylvania as New 
York had to be governed according to the usages of that province. The Leg- 
islature being finally organized, Gov. Fletcher presented a letter from the 
Queen, setting forth that the expense for the preservation and defense of Albany 
against the French was intolerable to the inhabitants there, and that as this 
was a frontier to other colonies, it was thought but just that they should help 
bear the burden. The Legislature, in firm but respectful terms, maintained 
that the constitution and laws enacted under them were in full force, and 
when he, having flatly denied this, attempted to intimidate them by the threat 
of annexing Pennsylvania to New York, they mildly but firmly requested that 
if the Governor had objections to the bill which they had passed and would 
communicate them, they would try to remove them. The business was now 
amicably adjusted, and he in compliance with their wish dissolved the Assembly, 
and after appointing William Markham Lieutenant Governor, departed to his 
government in New York, doubtless well satisfied that a Quaker, though usu- 
ally mild mannered, is not easily frightened or coerced. 

Gov. Fletcher met the Assembly again in March, 1694, and during this 
session, having apparently failed in his previous endeavors to induce the Assem- 
bly to vote money for the common defense, sent a communication setting forth 
the dangers to be apprehended from the French and Indians, and concluding in 
these words : "That he considered their principles ; that they could not carry arms 
nor levy money to make war, though for their own defense, yet he hoped that 
they would not refuse to feed the hungry and clothe the naked; that was to 
supply the Indian nations with such necessaries as may influence their contin- 
ued friendship to their provinces. " But notwithstanding the adroit sugar- 
coating of the pill, it was not acceptable and no money was voted. This and a 
brief session in September closed the Governorship of Pennsylvania by 
Fletcher. It would appear from a letter written by Penn, after hearing of 
the neglect of the Legislature to vote money for the purpose indicated, that 
he took an entirely different view of the subject from that which was antici- 
pated; for he blamed the colony for refusing to send money to New York for 
what he calls the common defense. 

Through the kind offices of Lords Rochester, Eanelagh, Sidney and Somers, 
the Duke of Buckingham and Sir John Trenchard, the king was asked to 
hear the case of William Penn, against whom no charge was proven, and who 
would two years before have gone to his colony had he not supposed that he 
would haVe been thought to go in defiance of the government. King William 


answered that William Penn was his old acquaintance as well as theirs, that 
he might follow his business as freely as ever, and that he had nothing to say 
to him. Penn was accordingly reinstated in his government by letters patent 
dated on the 20th of August, 1694, whereupon he commissioned William Mark- 
ham Lieutenant Governor. 

When Markham called the Assembly, he disregarded the provisions of the 
charter, assuming that the removal of Penn had annulled the grant. The 
Assembly made no objection to this action, as there were provisions in the old 
charter that they desired to have changed. Accordingly, when the appropria- 
tion bill was considered, a new constitution was attached to it and passed. 
This was approved by Markham and became the organic law, the third consti- 
tution adopted under the charter of King Charles. By the provisions of this 
instrument, the Council was composed of twelve members, and the Assembly 
of twenty-four. During the war between France and England, the ocean 
swarmed with the privateers of the former. When peace was declared, many of 
these crafts, which had richly profited by privateering, were disposed to con- 
tinue their irregular practices, which was now piracy. Judging that the peac& 
principles of the Quakers would shield them from forcible seizure, they were 
accustomed to run into the Delaware for safe harbor. Complaints coming^ 
of the depredations of these parties, a proclamation was issued calling on 
magistrates and citizens to unite in breaking up practices so damaging to the 
good name of the colony. It was charged in England that evil-disposed per- 
sons in the province were privy to these practices, if not parties to it, and that 
the failure of the Government to break it up was a proof of its inefficiency, 
and of a radical defect of the principles on which it was based. Penn was 
much exercised by these charges, and in his letters to the Lieutenant Governor 
and to his friends in the Assembly, urged ceaseless vigilance to effect reform. 


William Penn, 1699-1701— Andrew Hamilton, 1701-3— Edward Shipped 
1703-4— John Evans, 1704-9— Charles Gookin, 1709-17. 

BEING free from harassing persecutions, and in favor at court, Penn de- 
termined to remove with his family to Pennsylvania, and now with the ex- 
pectation of living and dying here. Accordingly, in July, 1(399, he set sail,. 
and, on account of adverse winds, was three months tossed about upon the- 
ocean. Just before his arrival in his colony, the yellow fever raged there with 
great virulence, having been brought thither from the West Indies, but had 
been checked by the biting frosts of autumn, and had now disappeared. An. 
observant traveler, who witnessed the effects of this scourge, writes thus of it 
in his journal: "Great was the majesty and hand of the Lord. Great was 
the fear that fell upon all flesh. I saw no lofty nor airy countenance, nor 
heard any vain jesting to move men to laughter, nor witty repartee to raise- 
mirth, nor extravagant feasting to excite the lusts and desires of the flesh 
above measure; but every face gathered paleness, and many hearts were hum- 
bled, and countenances fallen and sunk, as such that waited every moment to 
be summoned to the bar and numbered to the grave. " 

Great joy -s-as everywhere manifested throughout the province at the arriv.-- 


al of the proprietor and his family, fondly believing that he had now como to 
stay. He met the Assembly soon after landing, but, it being an inclement 
season, he only detained them loog enough to pass two measures aimed against 
piracy and illicit trade, exaggerated reports of which, having been spread 
broadcast through the kingdom, had caused him great uneasiness and vexation. 
At the first monthly meeting of Friends in 1700, he laid before them his 
concern, which was for the welfare of Indians and Negroes, and steps were 
taken to instruct them and provide stated meetings for them where they could 
hear the Word. It lu more than probable that he had fears from the first that 
his enemies in England would interfere in his affairs to such a degree as to re- 
quire his early return, though he had declared to his friends there that he 
never expected to meet them again. His greatest solicitude, consequently, 
was to give a charter to his colony, and also one to his city, the very best that 
human ingenuity could devise. An experience of now nearly twenty years 
would be likely to develop the weaknesses and impracticable provisions of the 
first constitutions, so that a frame now drawn with all the light of the past, 
and by the aid and suggestion of the men who had been employed in admin- 
istering it, would be likely to be enduring, and though he might be called 
hence, or be removed by death, their work would live on from generation to 
generation and age to age, and exert a benign and preserving influence while 
the State should exist. 

In February, 1701, Penn met the most renowned and powerful of the In- 
dian chieftains, reaching out to the Potomac, the Susquehanna and to the Ononda- 
goes of the Five Nations, some forty in number, at Philadelphia, where he 
renewed with them pledges of peace and entered into a formal treaty of active 
friendship, binding them to disclose any hostile intent, confirm sale of lands, 
be governed by colonial law, all of which was confirmed on the part of the In- 
dians "by five parcels of skins;" and on the part of Penn by " several English 
goods and merchandises." 

Several sessions of the Legislature were held in'which great harmony pre- 
vailed, and much attention was giving to revising and recomposing the consti- 
tution. But in the midst of their labors forthe improvement of the organic 
law, intelligence was brought to Penn that a bill had been introduced in the 
House of Lords for reducing all the proprietary governments in America to 
regal ones, under pretence of advancing the prerogative of the crown, and 
the national advantage. Such of the owners of land in Pennsylvania as hap- 
pened to be in England, remonstrated against action upon the bill until Penn 
could return and be heard, and wrote to him urging his immediate coming 
hither. Though much to his disappointment and sorrow, he determined to 
go immediately thither. He promptly called a session of the Assembly, and 
in his message to the two Houses said, "I cannot think of such a voyage 
without great reluctancy of mind, having promised myself the quietness of a 
wilderness. For my heart is among you, and no disappointment shall ever be 
able to alter my love to the country, and resolution to return, and settle my 
family and posterity in it. * * Think therefore (since all men are mortal), 
of some suitable expedient and provision for youi- safety as well in your privi- 
leges as property. Review again your laws, propose new ones, and you will 
find me ready to comply with whatsoever may render us happy, by a nearer 
union of our interests." The Assembly returned a suitable response, and then 
proceeded to draw up twenty-one articles. The first related to the appoint- 
ment of a Lieutenant Governor. Penn proposed that the Assembly should 
choose one. Bat this they declined, preferring that he should appoint one. 
Little trouble was experienced in settling everything broached, except the 


union of the province and lower counties. Penn used his best endeavors to 
reconcile them to the union, but without avail. The new constitation was 
adopted on the 28th of October, 1701. The instrument provided for the 
iinion, but in a supplementary article, evidently granted with great reluctance, 
it was provided that the province and the territories might be separated at any 
time within three years. As his last act before leaving, he presented the city 
of Philadelphia, now grown' to be a considerable place, and always an object 
of his affectionate regard, with a charter of privileges. As his Deputy, he ap- 
pointed Andrew Hamilton, one of the proprietors of East New Jersey, and 
sometime Governor of both East and West Jersey, and for Secretary of the 
province and, Clerk of the Council, he selected James Logan, a man of sin- 
gular urbanity and strength of mind, and withal a scholar. 

Penn set sail for Europe on the 1st of November, 1701. Soon after his 
arrival, on the 18th of January, 1702, King William died, and Anne of Den- 
mark succeeded him. He now found himself in favor at court, and that he 
might be convenient to the royal residence, he again took lodgings at Kensing- 
ton. The bill which had been pending before Parliament, that had given him 
so much uneasiness, was at the succeeding session dropped entirely, and was 
never again called up. During his leisure hours, be now busied himself in 
writing ' ' several useful and excellent treatises on divers subjects." 

Gov. Hamilton's administration continued only till December, 1702, when 
he died. He was earnest in his endeavors to induce the territories to unite 
with the province, they having as yet not accepted the new charter, alleging 
that they had three years in which to make their decision, but without success. 
He also organized a military force, of which George Lowther was commander, 
ior the safety of the colony. 

The executive authority now devolved upon the Council, of which Edward 
Shippen was President. Conflict of authority, and contention over the due in- 
terpretation of some provisions of the new charter, prevented the accomplish- 
ment of much, by way of legislation, in the Assembly which convened in 1703; 
though in this body it was finally determined that the lower counties should 
thereafter act separately in a legislative capacity. This separation proved 
:final, the two bodies never again meeting in common. 

Though the bill to govern the American Colonies by regal authority failed, 
yet the clamor of those opposed to the proprietary Governors was so strong 
that an act was finally passed requiring the selection of deputies to have the 
royal assent. Hence, in choosing a successor to Hamilton, he was obliged to 
consider the Queen's wishes. John Evans, a man of parts, of Welsh extrac- 
tion, only twenty -six years old, a member of the Queen's household, and not a 
Quaker, nor even of exemplary morals, was appointed, who arrived in the col- 
ony in December, 1703. He was accompanied by William Penn, Jr., whb was 
elected a member of the Council, the number having been increased by author- 
ity of the Governor, probably with a view to his election. 

The first care of Evans was to unite the province and lower counties, 
though the final separation had been agreed to. He presented the matter so 
well that the lower counties, from which the difficulty had always come, were 
willing to return to a firm union. But now the provincial Assembly, having 
become impatient of the obstacles thrown in the way of legislation by the dele- 
gates from these counties, was unwilling to receive them. They henceforward 
remained separate in a legislative capacity, though still a part of Pennsylvania, 
under the claim of Penn, and ruled by the same Governor, and thus they con- 
tinued until the 20th of September, 1776, when a constitution was adopted, 
and they were proclaimed a separate State under the name of Delaware. 


During two years of the government of Evans, there was ceaseless discord be- 
tween the Council, headed by the Governor and Secretary Logan on the one 
side, and the Assembly led by David Lloyd, its Speaker, on the other, and 
little legislation was effected. 

Bealizing the defenseless condition of the colony, Evans determined to 
organize the militia, and accordingly issued his proclamation. "In obedience 
to her Majesty's royal command, and to the end'that the inhabitants of this 
government may be in a posture of defense and readiness to withstand and 
repel all acts of hostility, I do hereby strictly command and require all per- 
sons residing in this government, whose persuasions will, on any account, per- 
mit them to take up arms in their own defense, that forthwith they do pro- 
vide themselves with a good firelock and ammunition, in order to enlist them- 
selves in the militia, which 1 am now settling in this government. " The Gov- 
ernor evidently issued this proclamation ia good faith, and with a pure pur- 
pose. The French and Indians had assumed a threatening aspect upon the north, 
and while the other colonies had assisted New York liberally, Pennsylvania had 
done little or nothing for the common defense. But his call fell stillborn. 
The " fire-locks" were not brought out, and none enlisted. 

Disappointed at this lack of spirit, and embittered by the factious temper of 
the Assembly, Evans, who seems not to have had faith in the religious prin- 
ciples of the Quakers, and to have entirely mistook the nature of their Christian 
zeal, formed a wild scheme to test their steadfastness under the pressure of 
threatened danger. In conjunction with his gay associates in revel, he agreed 
to have a false alarm spread of the approach of a hostile force in the river, 
whereupon he was to raise the alarm in the city. Accordingly, on the day of 
the fair in Philadelphia, 16th of March, 1706, a messenger came, post haste 
from New Castle, bringing the startling intelligence that an armed fleet of the 
enemy was already in the river, and making their way rapidly toward the city. 
Whereupon Evans acted his part to a nicety. He sent emissaries through the 
town proclaiming the dread tale, while he mounted his horse, and in an ex- 
cited manner, and with a drawn sword, rode through the streets, calling upon all 
good men and true to rush to arms for the defense of their homes, their wives 
and children, and all they held dear. The ruse was so well played that it 
had an immense effect. " The suddenness of the surprise,'' says Proud, " with 
the noise of precipitation consequent thereon, threw many of the people into 
very great fright and consternation, insomuch that it is said some threw their 
plate and most valuable effects down their wells and little houses; that others 
hid themselves, in the best manner they could, while many retired further up 
the river, with what they could most readily carry off; so that some of the 
creeks seemed full of boats and small craft; those of a larger size running as 
far a^ Burlington, and some higher up the river; several women are said to 
have miscarried by the fright and terror into which they were thrown, and 
much mischief ensued." 

The more thoughtful of the people are said to have understood the 
deceit from the first, and labored to allay the excitement; but the seeming 
earnestness of the Governor and the zeal of his emissaries so worked upon the 
more inconsiderate of the population that the consternation and commotion 
was almost past belief. In an almanac published at Philadelphia for the next 
year opposite this date was this distich: 

"Wiae men wonder, good men grieve. 
Knaves invent and fools believe." 

Though this ruse was played upon all classes alike, yet it was generally 
believed to have been aimed chiefly at the Quakers, to try the force of thoir 


principles, and see if they would not rush to arms when danger should really 
appear. "But in this the Governor was disappointed. For it is said that only 
four out of the entire population of this religious creed showed any disposition 
to falsify their faith. It was the day of their weekly meeting, and regardless 
of the dismay and consternation which were everywhere manifest about them, 
they assembled in their accustomed places of worship, and engaged in their 
devotions as though nothing unusual was transpiring without, manifesting 
such unshaken faith, as Whittier has exemplified in verse by his Abraham" 
Davenport, on the occasion of the Dark Day: 

', Meanwhile in the old State House, dim as ghosts, 
Sat the law-givers of Connecticut, 
Trembling beneath their legislative robes. 
'It is the Lord's ereat day! Let us adjourn,' 
Some said; and then, as with one accord, 
All eyes were turned on Abraham Davenport. 
He rose, slow, cleaving with his steady voice 
The intolerable hush. ' This well may be 
The Day of Judgment which the world awaits; 
But be it so or not, I only know 
My present du^, and my Lord's command 
To occupy till He come. So at the post 
Where He hath set me in His Providence, 
I choose, for one, to meet Him face to face, 
No faithless servant frightened from my task. 
But ready when the Lord of the harvest calls; 
And therefore, with all reverence, I would say. 
Let God do His work, we will see to ours. 
Bring in the candles.' And they brought them in." 

In conjunction with the Legislature of the lower counties, Evans was in- 
strumental in having a law passed for the imposition of a tax on the tonnage 
of the river, and the erection of a fort near the town of New Castle for com- 
pelling obedience. This was in direct violation of the fimdamental compact, 
and vexatious to commerce. It was at length forcibly resisted, and its impo- 
sition abandoned. His administration was anything but eiScient or peaceful, 
a series of contentions, of charges and counter-charges having been kept up 
between the leaders of the two factions, Lloyd and Logan, which he was pow- 
erless to properly direct or control. " He was relieved in 1709. Possessed of 
a good degree of learning and refinement, and accustomed to the gay society 
of the British metropolis, he found in the grave and serious habits of the 
Friends a type of life and character which he failed to comprehend, and with 
which he could, consequently, have little sympathy. How widely he mistook 
the Quaker character is seen in the result of his wild and hair-brained experi- 
ment to test their faith. His general tenor of life seems to have been of a 
piece with this. Watson says: 'The Indians of Connestoga complained of 
him when there as misbehaving to their women, and that, in 1709, Solomon 
Cresson, going his rounds at night, entered a tavern to suppress a riotous as- 
sembly, and found there John Evans, Esq. , the Governor, who fell to beat- 
ing Cresson.'" 

The youth and levity of Gov. Evans induced the proprietor to seek for a 
successor of a more sober and sedate character. He had thought of proposing 
his son, but finally settled upon Col. Charles Gookin, who was reputed to be a 
man of wisdom and prudence, though as was afterward learned, to the sorrow 
of the colony, he was subject to fits of derangement, which toward the close of 
his term were exhibited in the most extravagant acts. He had scarcely ar- 
rived in the colony before charges were preferred against the late Governor, 
and he was asked to institute criminal proceedings, which he declined. This 


was the oocasion of a renewal of contentions between the Governor and his 
Council and the Assembly, which continued during the greater part of his ad- 
ministration. In the midst of them, Logan, who was at the head of the Coun- 
cil, having demanded a trial of the charges against him, and failed to secure 
one, sailed for Europe, where he presented the difficulties experienced in ad- 
ministering the government so strongly, that Penn was seriously inclined to 
sell his interest in the colony. He had already greatly crippled his estate by 
expenses he had incurred in making costly presents to the natives, and in set- 
tling his colony, for which he had received small return. In the year 1707, 
he had become involved in a suit in chancery with the executors of his former 
steward, in the course of which he was confined in the Old Baily during this 
and a part of the following year, when he was obliged to mortgage his colony 
in the sum of £6,600 to relieve himself. Foreseeing the great consequence 
it would be to the crown to buy the rights of the proprietors of the several 
English colonies in America before they would grow tno powerful, negotia- 
tions had been entered into early in the reign of William and Mary for their 
purchase, especially the "'fine province of Mr. Penn." Borne down by these 
troubles, and by debts and litigations at home, Penn seriously entertained the 
proposition to sell in 1712, and offered it for £20,000. The sum of £12,000 
was offered on the part of the crown, which was agreed upon, but before the 
necessary papers were executed, he was stricken down with apoplexy, by which 
he was incapacitated for transacting any business, and a stay was put to fur- 
ther proceedings until the Queen should order an act of Parliament for con- 
summating the purchase. 

It is a mournful spectacle to behold the great mind and the great heart of 
Penn reduced now in his declining years, by the troubles of government and 
by debts incurred in the bettering of his colony, to this enfeebled condition. 
He was at the moment writing to Logan on public affairs, when his hand was 
suddenly seized by lethargy in the beginning of a sentence, which he never 
finished. His mind was touched by the disease, which he never recovered, 
and after lingering for six years, he died on the 30th of May, 1718, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age. With great power of intellect, and a religious 
devotion scarcely matched in all Christendom, he gave himself to the welfare 
of mankind, by securing civil and religious liberty through the operations of 
organic law. Though not a lawyer by profession, he drew frames of govern- 
ment and bodies of laws which have been the admiration of succeeding gener- 
ations, and are destined to exert a benign influence in all future time, and by 
his discussions with Lord Baltimore and before the Lords in Council, he 
showed himself familiar with the abstruse principles of law. Though but a 
private person and of a despised sect, he was received as the friend and confi- 
dential advisee of the ruling sovereigns of England, and some of the princi- 
ples which give luster to British law were engrafted there through the influ- 
ence of the powerful intellect and benignant heart of Penn. He sought to 
know no philosophy but that promulgated by Christ and His disciples, and 
this he had sounded to its depths, and in it were anchored his ideas of public 
law and private and social living. The untamed savage of the forest bowed in 
meek and loving simplicity to his mild and resistless sway, and the members 
of the Society of Friends all over Europe flocked to his City of Brotherly Lova 
|Iis prayers for the welfare of his people are the beginning and ending of all 
his public and private correspondence, and who will say that they have not 
been answered in the blessings which have attended the commonwealth of his 
founding? And will not the day of its greatness be when the inhabitants 
throughout all its borders shall return to the peaceful and loving spirit of 


Penn ? la the midst of a licentious court, and with every prospect of advance- 
ment in its sunshine and favor, inheriting a great name and an independent 
patrimony, he turned aside from this brilliant track to make common lot with 
a poor sect under the ban of Government; endured stripes and imprisonment 
and loss of property, banished himself to the wilds of the American continent 
that he might secure to his people those devotions which seemed to them re- 
quired by their Maker, and has won for himself a name by the simple deeds of 
love and humble obedience to Christian mandates which shall never perish. 
Many have won renown by deeds of blood, but fadeless glory has come to 
William Penn by charity. 


Sir William Keith, 1717-26— Patrick Gordon, 17d6-36— James Logan, ]736-38 
—George Thomas, 1738-47— Anthony Palmer, 1747-48— James Hamilton, 

IN 1712, Penn had made a will, by which he devised to his only surviving 
son, William, by his first marriage, all his estates in England, amounting 
to some twenty thousand pounds. By his first wife, Gulielma Maria Springett, 
he had issue of three sons — William, Springett and William, and four daugh- 
ters — Gulielma, Margaret, Gulielma aud Letitia; and by his second wife, 
Hannah Oallowhill, of four sons — John, Thomas, Richard and Dennis. To 
his wife Hannah, who survived him, and whom he made the sole executrix of 
his will, he gave, for the equal benefit of herself and her children, all his 
personal estate in Pennsylvania and elsewhere, after paying all debts, and 
alloting ten thousand acres of land in the Province to his daughter Letitia, by 
his first marriage, and each of the three children of his son William. 

Doubts having arisen as to the force of the provisions of this will, it was 
finally determined to institute a suit in chancery for its determination. Before 
a decision was reached, in March, 1720, William Penn, Jr., died, and while 
still pending, his son Springett died also. During the long pendency of this 
litigation for nine years, Hannah Penn, as executrix of the will, assumed the 
proprietary powers, issued instructions to her Lieutenant Governors, heard 
complaints and settled difficulties with the skill and the assurance of a veteran 
diplomatist. In 1727, a decision was reached that, upon the death of William 
Penn, Jr., and his son Springett, the proprietary rights in Pennsylvania de- 
scended to the three surviving sons — John, Thomas and Richard — issue by the 
second marriage; and that the proprietors bargain to sell his province to the 
crown for twelve thousand pounds, made in 1712, and on which one thousand 
pounds had been paid at the confirmation of the sale, was void. Whereupon 
the three sons became the joint proprietors. 

A year before the death of Penn, the lunacy of Gov. Gookin having be- 
come troublesome, he was succeeded in the Government by Sir William Keith. 
a Scotchman who had served as Surveyor of Customs to the English Govern 
ment, in which capacity he had visited Pennsylvania previously, and knew 
something of its condition. He was a man of dignified and commandino- 
bearing, endowed with cunning, of an accommdating policy, full of faithful 
promises, and usually found upon the stronger side. Hence, upon his 
arrival in the colony, he did not summon the Assembly immediately, 


assigning as ar«ason in his first message that he did not wish to inconvenience 
the country members by calling them in harvest time. The disposition thus 
manifested to favor the people, and his advocacy of popular rights on several 
occasions'in opposition to the claims of the proprietor, gave great satisfaction 
to the popular branch of the Legislature which manifested its appreciation of 
his conduct by voting him liberal salaries, which had of ten been withheld from 
his less accommodating predecessors. By his artful and insinuating policy, 
he induced the Assembly to pass two acts which had previously met with un- 
compromising opposition — one to establish a Court of Equity, with himself as 
Chancellor, the want of which had been seriously felt; and another, for organ- 
izing the militia. Though the soil was fruitful and produce was plentiful, 
yet, for lack of good markets, and on account of the meagerness of the cir- 
culating medium, prices were very low, the toil and sweat of the husbandman 
being little rewarded, and the taxes and payments on land were met with great 
difficulty. Accordingly, arrangements were made for the appointment of in- 
spectors of provisions, who, from a conscientious discharge of duty, soon 
caused the Pennsylvania brands of best products to be much sought for, and 
to command ready sale at highest prices in the West Indies, whither most of 
the surplus produce was exported. A provision was also made for the issue of 
a limited amount of paper money, on the establishment of ample securities, 
which tended to raise the value of the products of the soil and of manufact- 
ures, and encourage industry. 

By the repeated notices of the Governors in their messages to the Legis- 
lature previous to this time, it is evident that Indian hostilities had for some- 
time been threatened. The Potomac was the dividing line between the 
Northern and Southern Indians. But the young men on either side, when out 
in pursuit of game, often crossed the line of the river into the territory of the 
other, when fierce altercations ensued. This trouble had become so 
violent in 1719 as to threaten a great Indian war, in which the pow- 
erful confederation, known as the Five Nations, would take a hand. 
To avert this danger, which it was foreseen would inevitably involve 
the defenseless familes upon the frontier, and perhaps the entire colony, 
Gov. Keith determined to use his best exertions. He accordingly made 
a toilsome journey in the spring of 1721 to confer with the Governor of 
Virginia and endeavor to employ by concert of action such means as would 
allay further cause of contention. His policy was well devised, and enlisted 
the favor of the Governor. Soon after his return, he summoned a council of 
Indian Chieftains to meet him at Conestoga, a point about seventy miles west 
of Philadelphia. He went in considerable pomp, attended by some seventy 
or eighty horsemen, gaily caparisoned, and many of them armed, arriving 
about noon, on the 4th of July, not then a day of more note than other days. 
He went immediately to Capt. Civility's cabin, where were assembled four 
•deputies of the Five Nations and representatives of other tribes. The Gov- 
ernor said that he had come a long distance from home to see and speak to 
representatives of the Five Nations, who had never met the Governor of Penn- 
■sylvania. They said in reply that they had heard much of the Governor, and 
would have come sooner to pay him their respects, but that the wild conduct of 
some of their young men had made them ashamed to show their faces. In the 
formal meeting in the morning, Ghesaont, chief of the Senecas, spoke for all 
the Five Nations. He said that they now felt that they were speaking to the 
same effect that they would were William Penn before them, that they had not 
forgotten Penn, nor the treaties made with him, and the good advice he gave 
ihem; that though they could not write as do the English, yet they could keep 


all these transactions fresh in their memories. After laying down a belt of 
wampum upon the table as if by way of emphasis, he began again, declaring 
that "all their disorders arose from the use of rum and strong spirits, which 
took away their sense and memory, that they had no such liquors," and desired 
that no more be sent among them. Here he produced a bundle of dressed 
skins, by which he would say, "you see how much in earnest we are upon this 
matter of furnishing fiery liquors to us." Then he proceeds, declaring that 
the Five Nations remember all their ancient treaties, and they now desire that 
the chain of friendship may be made so strong that none of the links may 
■ever be broken, This may have been a hint that they wanted high-piled 
and valuable presents; for the Quakers had made a reputation of brightening 
and strengthening the chain of friendship by valuable presents which had 
reached so far away as the I'ive Nations. He then produces a bundle of raw 
skins, and observes "that a chain may contract rust with laying and become 
weaker; wherefore, he desires it may now be so well cleaned as to remain 
brighter and stronger than ever it was before." Here he presents another par- 
cel of skins, and continues, "that as in the firmament, all clouds and dark- 
ness are removed from the face of the sun, so they desire that all misunder- 
standings may be fully done away, so that when they, who are now here, shall 
be dead and gone, their whole people, with their children and posterity, may en- 
joy the clear sunshine with us forever." Presenting another bundle of skins, 
he says, ' ' that, looking upon the Governor as if William Penn were present, 
they desire, that, in case any disorders should hereafter happen between their 
young people and ours, we would not be too hasty in resenting any such acci- 
dent, until their Council and ours can have some opportunity to treat amicably 
upon it, and so to adjust all matters, as that the friendship between us may 
still be inviolably preserved." Here he produces a small parcel of dressed 
3kins, and concludes by saying " that we may now be together as one people, 
treating one another's children kindly and afiectionately, that they are fully 
■empowered to speak for the Five Nations, and they look upon the Governor as 
the representative of the Great King of England, and therefore they expect 
that everything now< stipulated will be made absolutely firm and good on both 
isides." And now he presents a different style of present and pulls out a 
bundle of bear skins, and proceeds to put in an item of complaint, that " they 
get too little for their skins and furs, so that they cannot live by hunting ; 
they desire us, therefore, to take compassion on them, and contrive some way 
to help them in that particular. Then producing a few furs, he speaks only 
for himself, "to acquaint the Governor, that the Five Nations having heard 
that the Governor of Virginia wanted to speak with them, he himself, with 
some of his company intended to proceed to Virginia, but do not know the 
way how to get safe thither." 

To this formal and adroitly conceived speech of the Seneca chief, Gov. 
Keith, after having brought in the present of stroud match coats, gunpowder, 
lead, biscuit, pipes and tobacco, adjourned the council till the following day, 
when, being assembled at Conestoga, he answered at length the items of the 
chieftain's speech. His most earnest appeal, however, was made in favor ot 
peace. " I have persuaded all my [Indian] brethren, in these parts, to con- 
sider what is for their good, and not to go out any more to war ; but your 
young men [Five Nations] as they come this way, endeavor to force them ; 
:and, because they incline to the counsels of peace, and i;he good advice of their 
true friends, your people use them ill, and often prevail with them to go out 
to their own destruction. Thus it was that their town of Conestoga lost their 
good king not long ago. Their young children are left without parents ; 


their wives without husbands ; the old men, contrary to the course of nature, 
mourn the death of their j'oung ; the people decay and grow weak ; we lose 
our dear friends and are afflicted. Surely you cannot propose to get either 
riches, or possessions, by going thus out to war ; for when you kill a deer, you 
have the flesh to eat, and the skin to sell ; but when you return from war, you 
bring nothing home, but the scalp of a dead man, who perhaps was husband 
to a kind wife, and father to tender children, who never wronged you, though, 
by losing him, you have robbed them of their help and protection, and at the 
same time got nothing by it. If I were not your friend, I would not take the 
trouble to say all these things to you." When the Governor had concluded 
his address, he called the Senaca chieftain (Ghesaont) to him, and presented a 
gold coronation medal of King George I, which he requested should be taken 
to the monarch of the Five Nations, " Kannygooah," to be laid up and kept as 
a token to our children's children, that an entire and lasting friendship is now 
established forever betwean the English in this country and the great Five 
Nations." Upon the return of the Governor, he was met at the upper ferry of 
the Schuylkill, by the Mayor and Aldermen of the city, with about two hun- 
dred horse, and conducted through the streets after the manner of a conqueror 
of old returning from the scenes of his triumphs. 

Gov. Keith gave diligent study to the subject of finance, regulating the 
currency in such a way that the planter should have it in his power to dis- 
charge promptly his indebtedness to the merchant, that their mutual interests 
might thus be subserved. He even proposed to establish a considerable settle- 
ment on his own account in the colony, in order to carry on manufactures, and 
thus consume the grain, of which there was at this time abundance, and no 
profitable market abroad. 

In the spring of 1722, an Indian was barbarously murdered within the 
limits of the colony, which gave the Governor great concern. After having 
cautioned red men so "strongly about keeping the peace, he felt that the honor 
of himself and all his people was compromised by this vile act. He immedi- 
ately commissioned James Logan and John French to go to the scene of the 
murder above Conestoga, and inquire into the facts of the case, quickly appre- 
hended the supposed murderers, sent a fast Indian runner (Satcheecho), to 
acquaint the Five Nations with his sorrow for the act, and of his determination 
to bring the guilty parties to justice, and himself set out with three of his 
Council (Hill, Norris and Hamilton), for Albany, where he had been invited 
by the Indians for a conference with the Governors of all the colonies, and 
where he met the chiefs of the Five Nations, and treated with them upon the 
subject of the murder, besides making presents to the Indians. It was on this 
occasion that the grand sachem of this great confederacy made that noble, 
and generous, aiid touching response, so different from the spirit of revenge 
generally attributed to the Indian character. It is a notable example of love 
that begets love, and of the mild answer that turneth away wrath. He said : 
" The great king of the Five Nations is sorry for the death of the Indian 
that was killed, for he was of his own flesh and blood. He believes that the 
Governor is also sorry ; but, now that it is done, there is no help for it, and 
he desires that Cartlidge [the murderer] may n6t be put to death, nor that he 
should be spared for a timo, and afterward executed ; one life is enough to be 
lost ; there should not two die. The King's heart is good to the Governor and 
all the English." 

Though Gov. Keith, during the early part of his term, pursued a pacific 
policy, yet the interminable quarrels which had been kept up between the As- 
sembly and Council during previous administrations, at length broke out with 


more virulence than ever, and he who in the first flush of- power had declared 
' ' That he should pass no laws, nor transact anything of moment relating to 
the public affairs without the advice and approbation of the Council," took it 
upon himself finally to act independently of the Council, and even went so 
far as to dismiss the able and trusted representative of the proprietary inter- 
ests, James Logan, President of the Council and Secretary of the Province, 
from the duties of his high office, and even refused the request of Hannah 
Penn, the real Governor of the province, to re- instate hiui. This unwarranta- 
ble conduct cost him his dismissal from office in July, 1726. Why he should 
have assumed so headstrong and unwarrantable a course, who had promised at 
the first so mild and considerate a policy, it is difficult to understand, unless it 
be the fact that he found that the Council was blocking, by its obstinacy, 
wholesome legislation, which he considered of vital importance to the pros- 
perity of the colony, and if, as he alleges, he found that the new constitution 
only gave the Council advisory and not a voice in executive power. 

The administration of Gov. Keith was eminently successful, as he did not 
hesitate to grapple with important questions of judicature, finance, trade, 
commerce, and the many vexing relations with the native tribes, and right 
manfully, and judiciously did he effect their solution. It was at a time when 
the colony was tilling up rapidly, and the laws and regulations which had been 
found ample for the management of a few hundred families struggling for a 
foothold in the forest, and when the only traffic was a few skins, were entirely 
inadequate for securing protection and prosperity to a seething and jostling 
population intent on trade and commerce, and the conflicting interests which 
required wise legislation and prudent management. No colony on the Ameri- 
can coast made such progress in numbers and improvement as did Pennsylvania 
daring the nine years in which William Keith exercised the Gubernatorial 
office. Though not himself a Quaker, he had secured the passage of an act of 
Assembly, and its royal affirmation for allowing the members of the Quaker 
sect to wear their hats in court, and give testimony under affirmation instead 
of oath, which in the beginning of the reign of Queen Anne had been with- 
held from them. After the expiration of his term of office, he was immedi- 
ately elected a member of the Assembly, and was intent on being elected 
Speaker, "and had his support out- doors in a cavalcade of eighty mounted 
horsemen and the resounding of many guns fired;" yet David Lloyd was 
elected with only three dissenting voices, the out- door business having perhaps 
been overdone. 

Upon the recommendation of Springett Penn, who was now the prospective 
heir to Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon was appointed and confirmed Lieutenant 
Governor in place of Keith, and arrived in the colony and assumed authority 
in July, 1726. He had served in the army, and in his first address to the 
Assembly, which he met in August, he said that as he had been a soldier, he 
knew nothing of the crooked ways of professed politicians, and must rely on a 
straightforward manner of transacting the duties devolving upon him. George 
I died in June, 1727, and the Assembly at its meeting in October prepared 
and forwarded a congratulatory address to his successor, George II. By the 
decision of the Court of Chancery in 1727, Hannah Penn's authority over the 
colony was at an end, the proprietary interests having descended to John, 
Richard and Thomas Penn, the only surviving sons of William Penn, Sr. 
This period, from the death of Penn in 1718 to 3727, one of the most pros- 
perous in the history of the colony, was familiarly known as the " Reign of 
Hannah and the Boys." 

Gov. Gordon found the Indian troubles claiming a considerable part of his. 


attention. In 1728, "worthless bands, who had strayed away from their proper 
tribes, incited by strong drink, had become implicated in disgraceful broils, in 
which several were killed and wounded. The guilty parties were apprehended, 
but it was found difficult to punish Indian offenders without incurring the 
wrath of their relatives. Treaties were frequently renewed, on which occa- 
sions the chiefs expected that the chain of friendship would be polished " with 
English blankets, broadcloths and metals." The Indians found that this 
"brightening the chain" was a profitable business, which some have been un- 
charitable enough to believe was the moving cause of many of the Indian diffi- 

As early as 1732, the French, who were claiming all the territory drained 
by the Blississippi and its tributaries, on the ground of priority of discovery 
of its mouth and exploration of its channel, commenced erecting trading posts 
in Pennsylvania, along the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers, and invited the Indians 
living on these streams to a council for concluding treaties with them at Mon- 
treal, Canada. To neutralize the influence of the French, these Indians were 
summoned to meet in council at Philadelphia, to renew treaties of friendship, 
and they were invited to remove farther east. But this they were unwill- 
ing to do. A treaty was also coQcluded with the Six Nations, in which they 
pledged lasting friendship for the English. 

Hannah Penn died in 1733, when the Assembly, supposing that the pro- 
prietary power was still in her hands, refused to recognize the power of Gov. Gor- 
don. But the three sons, to whom the proprietary possessions had descended, 
in 1727, upon the decision of the Chancery case, joined in issuing a new com- 
mission to Gordon. In approving this commission the King directed a clause 
to be inserted, expressly reserving to himself the government of the lower 
counties. This act of the King was the beginning of those series of encroach- 
ments which finally culminated in the independence of the States of America. 
The Judiciary act of 1727 was annulled, and this was followed by an attempt 
to pass an act requiring the laws of all the colonies to be submitted to the 
Crown for approval before they should become valid, and that a copy of all 
laws previously enacted should be submitted for approval or veto. The agent 
of the Assembly, Mr. Paris, with the agents of other colonies, made so vigor- 
ous a defense, that action was for the time stayed. 

In 1732, Thomas Penn, the youngest son, and two years later, John Penn, 
the eldest, and the only American born, arrived in the Province, and were re- 
-ceived with every mark of respect and satisfaction. Soon after the arrival of 
the latter, news was brought that Lord Baltimore had made application to have 
the Provinces transferred to his colony. A vigorous protest was made against 
this by Quakers in England, headed by Richard Penn; but lest this protest 
rmight prove ineffectual, John Penn very soon went to England to defend the 
proprietary rights at court, and never again returned, he having died a bach- 
■elor in 1746. In August, 1736, Gov. Gordon died, deeply lamented, as ■ an 
ihonest, upright and straightforward executive, a character which he expressed 
ithe hope he would be able to maintain when he assumed authority. His term 
tiad been one of prosperity, and the colony had grown rapidly in numbers, 
irade, commerce and manufactures, ship-building especially having assumed ex- 
< tensive proportions. 

James Logan was President of the Council and in effect Governor, during 
the two years which elapsed between the death of Gordon and the arrival of 
his successor. The Legislature met regularly, but no laws were passed for 
lack of an executive. It was during this period that serious trouble broke out 
iiear the Maryland border, west of the Susquehanna, then Lancaster, now 


"Sork County. A number of settlers, in order to evade the payment of taxes, 
had secured titles to their lands from Maryland, and afterward sought to be 
reinstated in their rights under Pennsylvania authority, and plead protection 
from the latter. The Sheriff of the adjoining Maryland County, with 300 
followers, advanced to drive these settlers from their homes. On hearing of 
this movement, Samuel Smith, Sheriff of Lancaster County, with a hastily sum- 
moned posse, advanced to protect the citizens in their rights. Without a con- 
flict, an agreement was entered into by both parties to retire. Soon afterward, 
however, a band of lifty Marylanders again entered the State with the design 
of driving out the settlers and each securing for himself 200 acres of land. 
They were led by one Cressap. The settlers made resistance, and in an en- 
counter, one of them by the name of Knowles was killed. The Sheriff of 
Lancaster again advanced with a posse, and in a skirmish which ensued one 
of the invaders was killed, a!nd the leader Cressap was wounded and taken 
prisoner. The Governor of Maryland sent a commission to Philadelphia to 
demand the release of the prisoner. Not succeeding in this, he seized four of 
the settlers and incarcerated them in the jail at Baltimore. Still determined 
to effect their purpose, a party of Marylanders, under the leadership of one 
Higginbotham, advanced into Pennsylvania and began a warfare upon the 
settlers. Again the Sheriff of Lancaster appeared upon the scene, and drove 
out the invaders. So stubbornly were these invasions pushed and resented 
that the season passed without planting or securing the usual crops. Finally 
a party of sixteen Marylanders, led by Eichard Lowden, broke into the Lan- 
caster jail and liberated the Maryland prisoners. Learning of these disturb- 
ances, the King in Council issued an order restraining both parties from fur- 
ther acts of violence, and afterward adopted a plan of settlement of the vexed 
boundary question. 

Though not legally Governor, Logan managed the affairs of the colony 
with great prudence and judgment, as he had done and continued to do for a 
period of nearly a half century. He was a scholar well versed in the ancient 
languages and the sciences, and published several learned works in the Latin 
tongue. His Experimenta Meletemata de plantarum generatione, written in 
Latin, was published at Leyden in 1739, and afterward, in 1747, republished 
in London, with an English version on the opposite page by Dr. J. Fothergill. 
Another work of his in Latin was also published at Leyden, entitled, Canonum 
pro inveniendis refractionum, turn simpUciuni turn in lentibus duplicum focis, 
demonstrationis geometricae. After retiring from public business, he lived at 
his country-seat at Stenton, near Germantown, where he spent liis time among 
his books and in correspondence with the literati of Europe. In his old age 
he made an English translation of Cicero's De Senectute, which was printed at 
Philadelphia in 1744 with a preface by Benjamin Franklin, then rising into 
notice. Logan was a Quaker, of Scotch descent, though born in Ireland, and 
came to America in the ship with William Penn, in his second visit in 1699, 
when about twenty-five years old, and died at seventy-seven. He had held the 
offices of Chief Commissioner of property. Agent for the purchase and sale of 
lands. Receiver General, Member of Council, President of Council and Chief 
Justice. He was tlie Confidential Agent of Penn, having charge of all his vast 
estates, making sales of lands, executing conveyances, and making collections. 
Amidst all the great cares of business so pressing as to make him exclaim, " I 
know not what any of the comforts of life are," he found time to devote to the 
delights of learning, and collected a large library of standard works, which he 
bequeathed, at his death, to the people of Pennsylvania, and is known as the 
Loganian Library. 


George Thomas, a planter from the West Indies, was Appointed Governor 
in 1737, but did not arrive in the colony till the following year. His first care 
was to settle the disorders in the Cumberland Valley, and it was finally agreed 
that settlers from either colony should owe allegiance to the Governor of that 
colony wherever settled, until the division line which had been provided for 
was surveyed and marked. War was declared on the 23d of October, 1739, 
between Great Britain and Spain. Seeing that his colony was liable to be 
encroached upon by the enemies of his government, he endeavored to organ- 
ize the militia, but the majority of the Assembly was of the peace element, and 
it could not be induced to vote money. Finally he was ordered by the home 
government to call for volunteers, and eight companies were quickly formed, 
and sent down for the coast defense. Many of these proved to be servants for 
whom pay was demanded and finally obtained. In 1740, the great evangelist, 
Whitefield, visited the colony, and created a deel^ religious interest among all 
denominations. In his first intercourse with the Assembly, Gov. Thomas en- 
deavored to coerce it to his views. But a more stubborn set of men never met 
in a deliberative body than were gathered in this Assembly at this time. 
Finding that he could not compel action to his mind, he yielded and con- 
sulted their views and decisions. The Assembly, not to be outdone in mag- 
nanimity, voted him £1,500 arrearages of salary, which had been withheld be- 
cause he would not approve their legislation, asserting that public acts should 
take precedence of appropriations for their own pay. In March, 1744, war 
was declared between Great Britain and France. Volunteers were called 
for, and 10,000 men were rapidly enlisted and armed at their own expense. 
Franklin, recognizing the defenseless condition of the colony, issued a pamph- 
let entitled Plain Truth, in which he cogently urged the necessity of organ- 
ized preparation for defense. Franklin was elected Colonel of one of the 
regiments, but resigned in favor of Alderman Lawrence. On the 5th of May, 
1747, the Governor communicated intelligence of the death of John Penn, the 
eldest of the proprietors, to the Assembly, and his own intention to retire from 
the duties of his of&ce on account of declining health. 

Anthony Palmer was President of the Council at the time of the with- 
drawal of Gordon, and became the Acting Governor. The peace party in the As- 
sembly held that it was the duty of the crown of England to protect the colony, 
and that for the colony to call out volunteers and become responsible for their 
payment was burdening the people with an expense which did not belong to 
them, and which the crown was willing to assume. The French were now 
deeply intent on securing firm possession of the Mississippi Valley and the en- 
tire basin, even to the summits of the Alleghanies in Pennsylvania, and were 
busy establishing trading posts along the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers. They 
employed the most artful means to win the simple natives to their interests, 
giving showy presents and laboring to convince them of their great value. 
Pennsylvania had won a reputation among the Indians of making presents of 
substantial worth. Not knowing the dilTerence between steel and iron, the 
French distributed immense numbers of worthless iron hatchets, which the 
natives supposed were the equal of the best English steel axes. The Indians, 
however, soon came to distinguish between the good and the valueless. Un- 
derstanding the Pennsylvania methods of securing peace and friendship, the 
the natives became very artful in drawing out " well piled up " presents. Ttie 
government at this time was alive to the dangers which threatened from the 
insinuating methods of the French. A trusty messenger, Conrad "Weiser, was 
sent among the Indians in the western part of the province to observe the 
plans of the French, ascertain the temper of the natives, and especially to 


magnify the power of the English, and the disposition of Pennsylvania to give 
great presents. This latter policy had the desired effect, and worthless and 
wandering bands, which had no right to speak for the tribe, came teeming in, 
desirous of scouring the chain of friendship, intimating that the French were 
making great offers, in order to induce the government to large liberality, 
until this " brightening the chain," became an intolerable nuisance. At a sin- 
gle council held at Albany, in 1747, Pennsylvania distributed goods to the 
value of £1,000, and of such a character as should be most serviceable to the 
recipients, not worthless gew-gaws, but such as would contribute to their last- 
ing comfort and well being, a protection to the person against the bitter frosts 
of winter, and sustenance that should minister to the steady wants of the 
body and alleviation of pain in time of sickness. The treaty of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, which was concluded on the 1st of October, 1748, secured peace between 
Great Britain and France, and should have put an end to all hostile encoun- 
ters between their representatives on the American continent. Palmer re- 
mained at the head of the government for a little more than two years. He 
was a retired merchant from the West Indies, a man of wealth, and had come 
into the colony in 1708. He lived in a style suited to a gentleman, kept a 
coach and a pleasure barge. 

On the 23d of November, 1748, James Hamilton arrived in the colony from 
England, bearing the commission of Lieutenant Governor. He was born in 
America, son of Andrew Hamilton, who had for many years been Speaker of 
the Assembly. The Indians west of the Susquehanna had complained that set- 
• tiers had come upon their best lands, and were acquiring titles to them, where- 
as the proprietors had never purchased these lands of them, and had no claim 
to them. The first care of Hamilton was to settle these disputes, and allay the 
rising excitement of the natives. Kichard Peters, Secretary of the colony, a 
man of great prudence and ability, was sent in company with the Indian in- 
terpreter, Conrad Weiser, to remove the intruders. It was firmly and fear- 
lessly done, the settlers giving up their tracts and the cabins which they had 
built, and accepting lauds onMihe east side of the river. The hardship was in 
many cases great, but when they were in actual need, the Secretary gave 
money and placed them upon lands of his own, having secured a tract of 
2,000,000 of acres. 

But these troubles were of small consequence compared with those that 
were threatening from the West. Though the treaty of Aix was supposed to 
have settled all difficulties between the two courts, the French were determined 
to occupy the whole territory drained by the Mississippi, which they claimed 
by priority of discovery by La Salle. The British Ambassador at Paris entered 
complaints before the French Court that encroachments were being made by 
the French upon English soil in America, which were politely heard, and 
promises made of restraining the French in Canada from encroaching upon 
English territory. Formal 9rders were sent out from the home government to 
this effect; but at the same time secret intimations were conveyed to them that 
their conduct in endeavoring to secure and hold the territory in dispute was 
aot displeasing to the government, and that disobedience of these orders would 
not incur its displeasure. The French deemed it necessary, in order to estab- 
lish a legal claim to the country, to take formal possession of it. Accordingly, 
the Marquis de la Galissoniere, who was at this time Governor General of • 
Canada, dispatched Capt. Bienville de Celeron with a party of 215 French and 
fifty-five Indians, to publicly proclaim possession, and bury at prominent 
points plates of lead bearing inscriptions declaring occupation in the name of 
the French King. Celeron started on the 15th of June, 1749, from La Chine, 


following the southern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, until he reached a 
point opposite Lake Chautauqua, where the boats were drawn up and were takeo 
bodily over the dividing ridge, a distance of tea miles, with all the impedimenta 
of the expedition, the pioneers havin r first opened a road. Following on down 
the lake and the Conewango Creek, they arrived at Warren near the confluence 
of the creek with the Allegheny River. Here the first plate was buried. 
These plates were eleven inches long, seven and n half wide, and one-eighth 
of an inch thick. The inscription was in French, and in the following terms, 
as fairly translated into English: "In the year 1749, of the reign of Louia 
XIV, King of France, We Celeron, commander of a detachment sent by 
..Monsieur the Marquis de la Galissonifere, Governor General of New France, 
to re-establish tranquillity in some Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate of lead at the confluence of the Ohio with the Chautauqua, 
this 29th day of July, near the River Ohio, otherwise Belle Riviere, as a mon- 
ument of the renewal of the possession we have taken of the said River Ohio, 
and of all those which empty into it, and of all the lands on both sides as far 
as the sources of the said river, as enjoyed or ought to have been enjoyed by 
the King of France preceding, and as they have there maintained themselves 
by arms and by treaties, especially those of Ryswick, Utrecht and Aix-la- 
Chapelle." The burying of this plate was attended with much form and cer- 
emony. All the men and officers of the expedition were drawn up in battle 
array, when the Commander, Celeron, proclaimed in a loud voice, "Vive le 
Roi," and declared that possession of the country was now taken in the name 
of the King. A plate on which was inscribed the arms of France was alBxed' 
to the nearest tree. 

The same formality was observed in planting each of the other plates, the 
second at the rock known as the "Indian God," on which are ancient and un- 
known inscriptions, a few miles below Franklin, a third at the mouth ot 
Wheeling Creek; a fourth at the mouth of the Muskingum; a fifth at the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha, and the sixth and last at the mouth of the Great Miami. 
Toilsomely ascending the Miami to its head- waters, the party burned their 
canoes, and obtained ponies for the march across the portage to the head-waters 
of the Maumee, down which and by Lakes Erie and Ontario they returned 
to Fort Frontenac, arriving on the 6th of November. It appears that the In- 
dians through whose territory they passed viewed this planting of plates with 
great suspicion. By some means they got possession of one of them, gener- 
ally supposed to have been stolen from the party at the very commencement of 
their journey from the mouth of the Chautauqua Creek. 

Mr. O. H. Marshall, in an excellent monograph upon this expedition, made 
up from the original manuscript journal of C61eron and the diary of Father 
Bonnecamps, found in the Department de la Marine, in Paris, gives the fol- 
lowing account of this stolen plate: 

" The first of the leaden plates was brought to'the attention of the public 
by Gov. (i-eorge Clinton to the Lords of Trade in London, dated New York, 
December 19, 1750, in which he states that he would send to their Lordships 
in two or three weeks a plate of lead full of writing, which some of the upper 
nations of Indians stole from Jean Coeur, the French interpreter at Niagara, 
on his way to the River Ohio, which river, and all the lands thereabouts, thu 
French claim, as will appear by said writing. He further states ' that the lead 
plate gave the Indians so much uneasiness that they immediately dispatched 
some of the Cayuga chiefs to him with it, saying that their only reliance was 
on him, and earnestly begged he would communicate the contents to them 
which he had done, much to their satisfaction and the interests of the English.' 


The Governor concludes by saying that ' the contents of the plate may be of 
great importance in clearing up the encroachments which the French hav©' 
made on the British Empire in America.' The plate was delivered to Colonel, 
afterward Sir William Johnson, on the 4th of December, 1750, at his resi- 
dence on the Mohawk, by a Cayuga sachem, who accompanied it by the follow- 
ing speech: 

"' Brother Cor lear and War-ragh-i-ya-ghey! I am sent here by the Five 
Nations with a piece of writing which the Senecas, our brethren, got by some 
artifice from Jean Ooeur, earnestly beseeching you will let us know what it. 
means, and as we put all our confidence in you, we hope you will explain it 
ingeniously to us.' 

" Col. Johnson replied to the sachem, and through him to the Five Na- 
tions, returning a belt of wampum, and explaining the inscription on the. 
plate. He told them that 'it was a matter of the greatest consequence, involv- 
ing the possession of their lands and hunting grounds, and that Jean Coeur 
and the French ought immediately to be expelled from the Ohio and Niagara.' 
In reply, the sachem said that ' he had heard with great attention and surprise 
the substance of the "devilish writing " he had brought, and that Col. Johnson's 
remarks were fully approved.' He promised that belts from each of the Five 
Nations should be sent from the Seneca' s castle to the Indians at the Ohio, to 
warn and strengthen them against the French • encroachments in that direc- 
tion. " On the 29th of January, 1751, Clinton sent a copy of this inscription 
to Gov. Hamilton, of Pennsylvania. 

The French followed up this formal act of possession by laying out a line- 
of military posts, on substantially the same line as that pursued by the Cele- 
ron expedition; but instead of crossing over to Lake Chautauqua, they kept 
on down to Presque Isle (now Erie), where was a good harbor, where a fort 
was established, and thence up to Le Boeuf (now Waterford), where another 
post was placed; thence down the Venango River (French Creek) to its moiitk 
at Franklin, eetablishing Fort Venango there; thence by the Allegheny to* 
Pittsburgh, where Fort Du Quesne was seated, and so on down the Ohio. 

To counteract this activity of the French, the Ohio Company was char- 
tered, and a half million of acres was granted by the crown, to be selected 
mainly on the south side of the Ohio, between the Monongalia and Kanaw,ha 
Rivers, and the condition made that settlements (100 families within seven 
years), protected by a fort, should he made. The company consisted of a. 
mumber of Virginia and Maryland gentlemen, of whom Lawrence Washington 
was one, and Thomas Hanbury, of London. 

In 1752, a treaty was entered into with the Indians, securing the right of 
occupancy, and twelve families, headed by Capt. Gist, established themselves 
upon the Monongalia, and subsequently commenced the erection of a fort, 
where the city of Pittsburgh now is. Apprised of this intrusion into the 
very heart of the territory which they were claiming, the French built a fort 
at Le Boeuf, and strengthened the post at Franklin. 

These proceedings having been promptly reported to Lieut. Gov. Dinwid- 
dle, of Virginia, where the greater number of the stockholders of the Ohio 
Company resided, he determined to send an official communication — protesting- 
against the forcible interference with their chartered rights, granted by the> 
crown of Britain, and pointing to the late treaties of peace entered into be- 
tween the English and French, whereby it was agreed that each should respect, 
the colonial possessions of the other — to the Commandant of the French, who 
had his headquarters at Fort Le Boeuf. fifteen miles inland from the presents 
site of the city of Erie. 


But who should be the messenger to execute this delicate and responsible 
duty? It was winter, and the distance to be traversed was some 500 miles, 
through an unbroken wilderness, cut by rugged mountain chains and deep and 
rapid streams. It was proposed to several, who declined, and was finally 
accepted by George Washington, a youth barely twenty-one years old. On 
the last day of November, 1753, he bade adieu to civilization, and pushing on 
through the forest to the settlements on the Monongalia, where he was joined 
by Capt. Gist, followed up the Allegheny to Port Venango (now Franklin); 
thence up the Venango to its head-waters at Fort Le Boeuf, where he held 
formal conference with the French Commandant, St. Pierre. The French 
■officer had been ordered to hold this territory on the score of the dis- 
covery ot the Mississippi by La Salle, and he had no discretion but to execute 
his orders, and referred Washington to his superior, the Governor General of 
Canada. Making careful notes of the location and strength of the post and 
those encountered on the way, the young embassador returned, being twice 
fired at on his journey by hostile Indians, and near losing his life by being 
thrown into the freezing waters of the Allegheny. Upon his arrival, he made 
a full report of the embassage, which was widely published in this country 
and in England, and was doubtless the basis upon which action was predicted 
that eventuated in a long and sanguinary war, which finally resulted in the 
■expulsion of the power of France from .this continent. 

Satisfied that the French were determined to hold the territory upon the 
Ohio by force of arms, a body of 150 men, of which Washington was second 
in command, was sent to the support of the settlers. But the French, having 
the Allegheny Eiver at flood-tide on which to move, and Washington, without 
means of transportation, having a rugged and mountainous country to over- 
come, the former first reached the point of destination. Contraeoeur, the 
French commander, with 1,000 men and field pieces on a fleet of sixty boats and 
300 canoes, dropped down the Allegheny and easily seized the fort then being 
constructed by the Ohio Company at its mouth, and proceeded to erect there 
an elaborate work which he called Fort Da Quesne, after the Governor Gen- 
eral. Informed of this proceeding, Washington pushed forward, and finding 
that a detachment of the French was in his immediate neighborhood, he made 
a forced march by night, and coming upon them unawares killed and captured 
the entire party save one. Ten of the French, including their commander, 
Jumonvjlle, were killed, and twenty-one made prisoners. Col. Fry, the com- 
mander of the Americans, died at Will's Creek, where the command devolved 
on Washington. Though re-enforcements had been dispatched from the sev- 
eral colonies in response to the urgent appeals of Washington, none reached 
him but one company of 100 men under Capt. Majkay from South Carolina. 
Knowing that he was confronting a vastly superior force of the French, well 
supplied with artillery, he threw up works at a point called the Great 
Meadows, which he characterizes as a " charming field for an encounter, " nam- 
ing his hastily built fortification Fort Necessity. Stung by the loss of their 
leader, the French came out in strong force and soon invested the pi ace. Unfor- 
tunately one part of Washington's position was easily commanded by the artil- 
lery of the French, which they were not slow in taking advantage of. The ac- 
tion opened on the 3d of July, and was continued till late at night. A capit- 
ulation was proposed by the French commander, which Washington reluctantly 
accepted, seeing all hope of re-enforcements reaching him, cut off, and on the 
4th of July marched out with honors of war and fell back to Fort Cumberland. 

Gov. Hamilton had stronglyrecommended.before hostilities opened, that the 
Assembly should provide for defense and establish a line of block -houses along 


the frontier. But the Assembly, while willing to vote money for buying peace 
from the Indians, and contributions to the British crown, from which protec- 
tion was claimed, was unwilling to contribute directly for even defensive war- 
fare. Id a single year, £8,000 were voted for Indian gratuities. The proprie- 
tors were appealed to to aid in bearing this burden. But while they were 
willing to contribute liberally for defense, they would give nothing for Indian 
gratuities. They sent to the colony cannon to the value of £400. 

In February, 1753, John Penn, grandson of the founder, son of Eichard, 
arrived in the colony, and as a mark of respect was immediately chosen a mem- 
ber of the Council and made its President. In consequence of the defeat of 
Washington at Port Necessity, Gov. Hamilton convened the Assembly in extra 
session on the 6th of August, at which money was freely voted; but owing to 
the instructions given by the proprietors to their Deputy Governor not to sign 
any money bill that did not place the whole of the interest at their disposal, 
this action of the Assembly was abortive. 

The English and French nations made strenuous exertions to strengtnen 
their forces in America for the campaigns sure to be undertaken in 1754. The 
French, by being under the supreme authority of one governing power, the 
Governor General of Canada, were able to concentrate and bring all their 
power of men and resources to bear at the threatened point with more celerity 
and certainty than the English, who were dependent upon colonies scattered 
along all the sea board, and upon Legislatures penny- wise in voting money. 
To remedy these inconveniences, the English Government recommended a con- 
gress of all the colonies, together with the Six Nations, for the purpose of con- 
certing plans for efficient defense. This Congress met on the 19th of June, 
1754. the first ever convened in America. The Representatives from Pennsyl- 
vania were John Penn and Eichard Peters for the Council, and Isaac Norris 
and Benjamin Franklin for the Assembly. The influence of the powerful 
naind of Franklin was already beginning to be felt, he having been Clerk of 
the Pennsylvania Assembly since 1736, and since 1750 had been a member. 
Heartily sympathizing with the movers in the purposes of this Congress, he 
came to Albany with a scheme of union prepared, which, having been pre- 
sented and debated, was, on the 10th of July, adopted substantially as it came 
from his hands. It provided for the appointment of a President General by 
the Crown, and an Assembly of forty-eight members to be chosen by the sev- 
eral Colonial Assemblies. The plan was rejected by both parties in interest, 
the King considering the power vested in the representatives of the people too 
great, and every colony rejecting it because the President General was given 
" an influence greater than appeared to them proper in a plan of government 
intended for freemen." 

Robert H. Morris, 1754-56— William Dennt, 1756-59— James Hamilton, 1759-63. 

FINDING himself in a false position by the repugnant instructions of the 
proprietors. Gov. Hamilton had given notice in 1753, that, at the end oi 
twelve months from its reception, he would resign. Accordingly in October, 
1754, he was succeeded by Eobert Hunter Morris, sod oi Lewis Morris, Chief 
Justice of New York and New Jersey, and Governor of New Jersey. The son 


was bred a lawyer, and waa for twenty-six years Councilor, and twenty Chief 
Justice of New Jersey. The Assembly, at its first session, voted a money bill, 
for £40,000, but not having the proviso required by the proprietors, it was 
vetoed. Determined to push military operations, the British Government had 
called early in the year for 3,000 volunteers from Pennsylvania, with subsis- 
tance, camp equipage and transportation, and had sent two regiments of the 
line, under Gen. Braddock, from Cork, Ireland. Landing at Alexandria, 
Va., he marched to Frederick, Md., where, finding no supplies of 
transportation, he halted. The Assembly of Pennsylvania had voted to borrow 
£o,O0O, on its own account, for the use of the crown in prosecuting the cam- 
paign, and had sent Franklin, who was then Postmaster General for the colo- 
nies, to Braddock to aid in prosecuting the expedition. Finding that the army 
was stopped for lack of transportation, Franklin returned into Pennsylvania, 
and by his commanding influence soon secured the necessary wagons and beasts 
of burden. 

Braddock had formed extravagant plans for his campaign. He would 
march forward and reduce Fort Du Quesne, thence proceed against Fort Ni- 
aj^ara, which having conquered he would close a season of triumphs by the 
capture of Fort Frontignace. But this is not the first time in warfare that 
the result of a campaign has failed to realize the promises of the manifesto. 
The orders brought by Braddock giving precedence of officers of the line over 
provincials gave ofiense, and Washington among others threw up his commis- 
sion; but enamored of the profession of arms, he accepted a position offered 
him by Braddock as Aidede camp. Accustomed to the discipline of military 
establishments in old, long-settled countries, Braddock had little conception of 
making war in a wilderness with only Indian trails to move upon, and against 
wily savages. Washington had advised to push forward with pack horses, and, 
by rapidity of movement, forestall ample preparation. But Braddock had but 
one way of soldiering, and where roads did not exist for wagons he stopped to 
fell the forest and construct bridges over streams. The French, who were 
kept advised of every movement, made ample preparations to receive him. In 
the meantime, Washington fell sick; but intent on being up for the battle, he 
hastened forward as soon as sufficiently recovered, and only joined the army 
on the day before the fatal engagement. He had never seen much of the pride 
and circumstance of war, and when, on the morning of the 9th of July, the 
army of Braddock marched on across the Monongahela, with gay colors flying 
and martial music awakening the echoes of the forest, he was accustomed in 
after years to speak of it as the "most magnificent spectacle" that he had ever 
beheld. But the gay pageant was destined to be of short duration; for the 
army had only marched a little distance before it fell into an ambuscade skill- 
fully laid by the French and Indians, and the forest resounded with the un- 
earthly whoop of the Indians, and the continuous roar of musketry. The 
advance was checked and thrown into confusion by the French from their well- 
chosen position, and every tree upon the flanks of the long drawn out line con- 
cealed a murderous foe, who with unerring aim picked off the officers. A res- 
olute defense was made, and the battle raged with great fury for three hours; 
but the fire of the English was ineffectual because directed against an invisi- 
ble foe. Finally, the mounted officers having all fallen, killed or wounded, 
except Washington, being left without leaders, panic seized the survivors and 
"they ran," says Washington, "before the French and English like sheep be- 
fore dogs." Of 1,460, in Braddock's army, 456 were killed, and 421 wounded, 
a greater mortality, in proportion to the number engaged, than has ever oc- 
curred in the annals of modern warfare. Sir Peter Halkett was killed, and 


Braddock mortally wounded and brought ofif the field only with the greatest 
difftculty. When Orme and Morris, the other aids, fell, Washington acted 
alone with the greatest gallantry. In writing to his brother, he said: "I have 
been protected beyond all human probability or expectation; for I had four 
bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me; yet I escaped unhurt, 
though death was leveling my companions on every side." In after years, 
when Washington visited the Great Kanawha country, he was approached by 
an Indian chieftain who said that in this battle he had fired his rifle many 
times at Washington and had told his young men to do the same; but when he 
saw that his bullets had no apparent effect, he had bidden them to desist, be- 
lieving that the Great Spirit was protecting him. 

The panic among the survivors of the English carried them back upon the 
reserve, commanded by Gen. Dunbar, who seems himself to have been seized 
with it, and without attempting to renew the campaign and return to the en- 
counter, he joined in the flight which was not stayed until Fort Cumberland 
was reached. The French wero anticipating a renewal of the struggle; but 
when they found that the English had fled leaving the frontier all unprotected, 
they left no stone unturned in whetting the minds of the savages for the 
work of plunder and blood, and in organizing relentless bands to range at 
will along all the wide frontier. The Indians could not be induced to pursue 
the retreating English, but fell to plundering the field. Nearly everything 
was lost, even to the camp chest of Braddock. The wounded General was 
taken back to the summit of Laurel Hill, where, four days after, he breathed 
his last. He was buried in the middle of the road, and the army marched 
over his grave that it might not be discovered or molested by the natives. 
The eajy victory, won chiefly by the savages, served to encourage them in 
their fell wotk, in which, when their passions were aroused, no known people 
on earth were less touched by pity. The unprotected settler in his wilder, 
ness home was the easy prey of the torch and the scalping knife, and the burn- 
ing cabin lit up the somber forests by their continuous blaze, and the shrieks 
of women and children resounded from the Hudson to the far Potomac Be- 
fore the defeat of Braddock, there were 3,000 men capable of bearing arms 
west of the Susquehanna. In six months after, there were scarcely 100. 

Gov. Morris made an earnest appeal to the Assembly for money to ward off 
the impending enemy and protect the settlers, in response to which the As- 
sembly voted £50,000; but having no exemption of the proprietor's estates, 
it was rejected by the Governor, in accordance with his original instructions. 
Expeditions undertaken against Nova Scotia and at Crown Point were more fortu- 
nate than that before Du Quesne, and the Assembly voted £ 15,000 in bills of credit 
to aid in defraying the expense. The proprietors sent £5,000 as a gratuity, 
not as any part of expense that could of right be claimed of them. 

In this hour of extremity, the Indians for the most part showed themselves 
a treacherous race, ever ready to take up on the stronger side. Even the Shaw- 
anese and Delawares, who had been loudest in their protestations of friendship 
for the English and readiness to fight for them, no sooner saw the French vic- 
torious than they gave ready ear to their advice to strike for the recovery of 
the lands which they had sold to the English. 

In this pressing emergency, while the Governor and Assembly were waging 
a fruitless war of words over money bills, the pen of Franklin was busy in in- 
fusing a wholesome sentiment in the minds of the people. In a pamphlet 
that he issued, which ho put in the familiar form of a dialogue, he answered the 
objections which had been urged to a legalized militia, and willing to show 
his devotion by deeds as well as words, he accepted the command upon the 


frontier. By his exertions, a respectable force was raised, and thoiigh in the 
dead of winter, he commenced the erection of a lino of forts and block-houses 
aloQg the whole range of the Kittatinny Hills, from the Delaware to the Po- 
tomac, and had them completed and garrisoned with a body sufficient to with- 
stand any force not provided with artillery. In the spring, he turned over the 
command to Col. Clapham, and returning to Philadelphia took his seat in the 
Assembly. The Governor now declared war against the Indians, who had es- 
tablished their headquarters thirty miles above Harris' Ferry, on the Susque- 
hanna, and were busy in their work of robbery and devastation, having se- 
cured the greater portion of the crops of the previous season of the settlers 
whom they had killed or driven out. The peace party strongly objected to the 
course of the Governor, and voluntarily going among the Indians induced 
them to bury the hatchet. The Assembly which met in May, 1756, prepared a 
bill with the old clause for taxing the proprietors, as any other citizens, which 
the Governor was forbidden to approve by his instructions, "and the two 
parties were sharpening their wits for another wrangle over it," when Gov. 
Morris was superseded by William Denny, who arrived in the colony aad as- 
sumed authority on the 20th of August, 1756. He was joyfully and cordially 
received, escorted through the streets by the regiments of Franklin and Duch6, 
and royally feasted at the State House. 

But the promise of efficient legislation was broken by an exhibition of the 
new Governor's instructions, which provided that every bill for the emission of 
money must place the proceeds at the joint disposal of the Governor and As- 
sembly; paper currency could not be issued in excess of £40,000, nor could ex- 
isting issues be confirmed unless proprietary rents were paid in sterling 
money ; proprietary lands were permitted to be taxed which had been actually 
leased, provided that the taxes were paid out of the rents, but the tax could 
not become a lien upon the land. In the first Assembly, the contention be- 
came as acrimonious as ever. 

Previous to the departure of Gov. Morris, as a retaliatory act he had 
issued a proclamation against the hostile Indians, providing for the payment 
of bounties: For every male Indian enemy above twelve years old, who shall 
be taken prisoner and delivered at any forts, garrisoned by troops in pay 
of this province, or to any of the county towns to the keepers of the common 
jails there, the sum of one hundred and fifty Spanish dollars or pieces of eight; 
for the scalp of every male Indian above the age of twelve years, produced as 
evidence of their being killed, the sum of one hundred and thirty pieces of 
eight; for every female Indian taken prisoner and brought in as aforesaid, 
and for every male Indian under the age of twelve years, taken and brought 
in, one hundred and thirty pieces of eight; for the scalp of every Indian 
woman produced as evidence of their being killed, the sum of fifty pieces of 
eight." Liberal bounties were also offered for the delivering up of settlers who 
had been carried away captive. 

But the operation which had the most wholesome aad pacifying effect upon 
the savages, and caused them to stop in their mad career and consider the 
chances of war and the punishment they were calling down upon their own 
heads, though executed under the rule of Gov. Denny, was planned and 
provided for, and was really a part of the aggressive and vigorous policy of 
Gov. Morris. In response to the act of Assembly, providing for the calling 
out and organizing the militia, twenty- five companies were recruited, and had 
been stationed along the line of posts that had been established for the defense 
of the frontiers. At Kittanning, on the Allegheny Eiver, the Indians had one 
of the largest of their towns in the State, and was a recruiting station and 


rallying point for sending out their murderous bands. The plan proposed and 
adopted by Gov. Morris, and approved and accepted by Gov. Denny, 
was to send out a strong detachment from the militia for the reduction of this 
stronghold. Accordingly, in August, 1756, Col. Armstrong, with a force of 
three hundred men, made a forced march, and, arriving unperceived in the neigh- 
borhood of the town, sent the main body by a wide detour from above, to come 
in upon the river a few hundred yards below. At 3 o'clock on the morning of 
the 7th of September, the troops had gained their position undiscovered, and 
at dawn the attack was made. Shielded from view by the tall corn which cov- 
ered all the flats, the troops were able to reach in close proximity to the cabins 
unobserved. Jacobs, the chief, sounded the war-whoop, and made a stout re- 
sistance, keeping up a rapid fire from the loop holes in his cabin. Not desir- 
ing to push his advantage to the issue of no quarter, Armstrong called on the 
savages to surrender: but this they refused to do, declaring that they were 
men and would never be prisoners. Finding that they would not yield, and 
that they were determined to sell their lives at the dearest rate, he gave orders 
to fire the huts, and the whole town was soon wrapt in flames. As the heat 
began to reach the warriors, some sung, while wrung with the death agonies; 
others broke for the river and were shot down as they fled. Jacobs, in attempt- 
ing to climb through a window, was killed. All calls for surrender were re- 
ceived with derision, one declaring that he did not care for death, and that he 
could kill four or five before he died. Gunpowder, small arms and valuable 
goods which had been distributed to them only the day before by the French, 
fell into the hands of the victors. The triumph was complete, few if any 
escaping to tell the sad tale. Col. Armstrong's celerity of movement and 
well conceived and executed plan of action were publicly acknowledged, and 
he was voted a medal and plate by the city of Philadelphia. 

The finances of the colony, on account of the repeated failures of the 
money bills, were in a deplorable condition. Military operations could not 
be carried on and vigorous campaigns prosecuted without ready money. Ac- 
cordingly, in the first meeting of the Assembly after the arrival of the new 
Governor, a bill was passed levying £100,000 on all property alike, real and 
personal, private and proprietary. This Gov. Denny vetoed. Seeing that 
money must be had, the Assembly finally passed a bill exempting the proprie- 
taiy estates, but determined to lay their grievances before the Crown. To 
this end, two Commissioners were appointed, Isaac Norris and Benjamin 
Franklin, to proceed to England and beg the interference of the royal Gov- 
ernment in their behalf. Failing health and business engagements of Norris 
prevented his acceptance, and Franklin proceeded alone. He had so often de- 
fended the Assembly in public and in drawing remonstrances that the whole 
subject was at his fingers' ends. 

Military operations throughout the colonies, during the year 1757, con- 
ducted imder the command of the Ear) of Loudoun were sluggish, and resulted 
only in disaster and disgrace. The Indians were active in Pennsylvania, and 
kept the settlers throughout nearly all the colonies in a continual fermeut, 
hostile bands stealing in upon the defenseless inhabitants as they went to 
their plantings and sowings, and greatly interfering with or preventing alto- 
gether the raising of the ordinary crops. In 1758, Loudoun was recalled, 
and Gen. Abercrombie was given chief command, with Wolfe, Amherst and 
Forbes as his subordinates. It was determined to direct operations simul- 
taneously upon three points — Fort Du Quesne, Louisburg and the forts upon 
the great lakes. Gen. Forbes commanded the forces sent against Fort Du 
Quesne. With a detachment of royal troops, and militia from Pennsylvania 


and Virginia, under command of Cols. Bouquet and Washington, his column 
moved in July, 1758. The French were well ordered for receiving the attack, 
and the battle in front of the fort raged with great fury; but they were finally 
driven, and the fort, with its munitions, fell into the hands of the victors, and 
was garrisoned by 400 Pennsylvanians. Returning, Forbes placed his remain- 
ing forces in barracks at Lancaster. 

Franklin, upon his arrival in England, presented the grievances before the 
proprietors, and, that he might get his case before the royal advisers and the 
British public, wrote frequent articles for the press, and issued a pamphlet 
entitled " Historical Review of the Constitution and Government of Pennsyl- 
vania." The dispute was adroitly managed by Franklin before the Privy 
Council, and was finally decided substantially in the interest of the Assem- 
bly. It was provided that the proprietors' estates should be taxed, but that 
their located uncultivated lands should be assessed as low as the lowest uncul- 
tivated lands of the settlers, that bills issued by the Assembly should be re- 
ceivable in payment of quit rents, and that the Deputy Governor should have 
a voice in disposing of the revenues. Thus was a vexed question of loDg 
standing finally put to rest. So successfully had Franklin managed this con- 
troversy that the colonies of Massachusetts, Maryland and Georgia appointed 
him their agent in England. 

In October, 1759, James Hamilton was again appointed Governor, in place 
of Gov. Denny, who had by stress of circumstances transcended his instruc- 
tions. The British Government, considering that the colonies had borne more 
than their proportionate expense in carrying on the war against the French 
and Indians, voted £200,000 for five years, to be divided among the colonies, 
the share falling to Pennsylvania being £26,000. On the 25th of October, 
1760, George II died, and was succeeded by his grandson, George III. Early 
in 1762, war was declared between Great Britain and Spain, but was of short 
continuance, peace having been declared in November following, by which 
Spain and Fraribe relinquished to the English substantially the territory east 
of the Mississippi. The wise men of the various Indian nations inhabiting 
this wide territory viewed with concern this sudden expansion of English 
power, fearing that they would eventually be pushed from their hunting 
grounds and pleasant haunts by the rapidly multiplying pale faces. The In- 
dians have ever been noted for proceeding against an enemy secretly and 
treacherously. Believing that by concerted action the English might be cut 
off and utterly exterminated, a secret league was entered into by the Shawa- 
nese and the tribes dwelling along the Ohio River, under the leadership of a 
powerful chieftain, Pontiac, by which swift destruction was everywhere to be 
meted out to the white man upon an hour of an appointed day. The plan was 
thoroughly understood by the red men, and heartily entered into. The day 
dawned and the blow fell in May, 1763. The forts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, 
Venango, La Raji, St. Joseph's, Miamis, Onaethtanon, Sandusky and Michili- 
mackinack, all fell before the unanticipated attacks of tho savages who were 
making protestations of friecidship, and the garrisons were put to the slaugh- 
ter. Fort Pitt (Du Quesne), Niagara and Detroit alone, of all this line of 
forts, held out. Pontiac in person conducted the siege of Detroit, which he 
vigorously pushed from May until October, paying his warriors with promises 
written on bits of birch bark, which he subsequently religiously redeemed. It is 
an evidence of his great power that he could unite his people in so gen- 
eral and secretly kept a compact, and that in this siege of Detroit he was able 
to hold his warriors up to the work so long and so vigorously even after all hope 
of success must have reasonably been abandoned. The attack fell with great 


severity upon the Pennsylvania settlers, and they continued to be driven in 
until Shippensbung, in Cumberland County, became the extreme outpost of 
civilization. The savages stole unawares upon the laborers in the fields, or 
came stealthily in at the midnight hour and spared neither trembling age nor 
helpless infancy, firing houses, barns, crops and everything combustible. 
The suffering of the frontiersmen in this fatal year can scarcely be conceived. 

Col. Armstrong v^ith a hastily collected force advanced upon their towns 
and forts at Muncy and Great Island, which he destroyed; but the Indians 
escaped and withdrew before him. He sent a detachment under Col. Eonquet 
to the relief of Fort Pitt, which still held out, though closely invested by the 
dusky warriors. At Port Ligonier, Bouquet halted and sent forward thirty 
men, who stealthily pushed past the Indians under cover of night, and reached 
the fort, carrying intelligence that succor was at hand. Discovering that a 
force was advancing upon them, the Indians turned upon the troops of Bou- 
quet, and before he was aware that an enemy was near, he found himself sur- 
rounded and all means of escape apparently cut off. By a skillfully laid 
ambuscade. Bouquet, sending a small detachment to steal away as if in retreat, 
induced the Indians to follow, and when stretched out in pursuit, the main 
body in concealment fell upon the unsuspecting savages, and routed them with 
immense slaughter, when he advanced to the relief of the fort unchecked. 

As we have already seen, the boundary line between Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania had long been in dispute, and had occasioned serious disturbances 
among the settlers in the lifetime of Penn, and repeatedly since. It was not 
definitely settled till 1760, when a beginning was made of a final adjustment, 
though so intricate were the conditions that the work was prosecuted for seven 
years by a large force of surveyors, axmen and pioneers. The charter of Lord 
Baltimore made the northern boundary of Maryland the 40tli degree of lati- 
tude; but whether the beginning or end of the 40th was not specified. The 
charter of Penn, which was subsequent, made his southern boundary the 
beginning of the 40th parallel. If, as Lord Baltimcjre claimed, his northern 
boundary was the end of the 40th, then the cif.y of Philadelphia and all the 
settled parts of Pennsylvania would have been included in Maryland. If, as 
Penn cldimed by express terms of his charter, his southern line was the begin- 
ning of the 40th, then the city of Baltimore, and even a part of the District of 
Columbia, including nearly the whole of Maryland would have been swal- 
lowed up by Pennsylvania. It was evident to the royal Council that neither 
claim could be rightfully allowed, and nence resort was had to compromise. 
Penn insisted upon retaining free communication with the open ocean by the 
Delaware Bay. Accordingly, it was decided that beginning at Cape Henlopen, 
which by mistake in marking the maps was fifteea miles below the present 
location, opposite Cape May, a line should be run due west to a point half way 
between this cape and the shore of Chesapeake Bay; from this point " a line 
was to be run northerly in such direction that it should be tapgent on the west 
side to a circle with a radius of twelve miles, whose center was the center of 
the court house at New Castle. From the exact tangent point, a line was to be 
run due north until it should reach a point fifteen miles south on the parallel 
of latitude of the most southern point in the boundary of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and this point when accurately found by horizontal measurement, was 
to be the corner bound between Maryland and Pennsylvania, and subsequently, 
when Delaware was set off from Pennsylvania, was the boundary of the three 
States. From this bound a line was to be run due west five degrees of longi- 
tude from the Delaware* which was to be the western limit of Pennsylvania, 
and the line thus ascertained was to mark the division between Maryland and 


Pennsylvania, and forever settle the vexed question. If the due north line 
should cut any part of the circle about New Castle, the slice so cut should be- 
U)ng to New Castle. Such a segment was cut. This plan of settlement was 
entered into on the 10th of May, 1732, between Thomas and Bicbard, sons of 
William Penn, on the one part, and Charles, Lord Baltimore, great grandson 
of the patentee. But the actual marking of the boundaries was still deferred, 
and aa the settlers were taking out patents for their lands, it was necessary 
that it should be definitely known in which State the lands lay. Accordingly, 
in 1739, in obedience to a decree in Council, a temporary line was run upon a 
new basis, which now often appears in litigations to plague the brain of the 

Commissioners were again appointed in 1751, who made a few of the 
measurements, but owing to objections raised on the part of Maryland, the 
work was abandoned. Finally, the proprietors, Thomas and Kichard Penn, 
and Frederic, Lord Baltimore, entered into an agreement for the executing of 
the survey, and John Lukens and Archibald McLean on the part of the Penns, 
and Thomas Garnett and Jonathan Hall on the part of Lord Baltimore, were 
appointed with a suitable corps of assistants to lay off the lines. After these 
surveyors had been three years at work, the proprietors in England, thinking 
that there was not enough energy and practical and scientific knowledge mani- 
fested by these surveyors, appointed Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two 
mathematicians and surveyors, to proceed to America and take charge of the 
work. They brought with them the most perfect and best constructed instru- 
ments known to science, arriving in Philadelphia on the 15th of November, 
1768, and, assisted by some of the old surveyors, entered upon their work. By 
the 4th of June, 1766, they had reached the summit of the Little Allegheny, 
when the Indians began to be troublesome. They looked with an evil eye on 
the mathematical and astronomical instruments, and felt a secret dread and 
fear of the consequences of the frequent and long continued peering into the 
heavens. The Six Nations were understood to be inimical to the further prog- 
ress of the survey. But through the influence of Sir William Johnson a 
treaty was concluded, providing for the prosecution of the work unmolested, 
and a number of chieftains were sent to accompany the surveying party. 
Mason and Dixon now had with them thirty surveyors, fifteen axmen, and fif- 
teen Indians of consequence. Again the attitude of the Indians gave cause of 
fear, and on the 29th of September, twenty-six of the surveyors abandoned the 
expedition and returned to Philadelphia, Having reached a point 244 miles 
from the Delaware, and within thirty-six miles of the western limit of the 
State, in the bottom of a deep, dark valley, they came upon a well-worn 
Indian path, and here the Indians gave notice that it was the will of the Six 
Nations that this survey proceed no further. There was no questioning this 
authority, and no means at command for resisting, and accordingly the party 
broke up and returned to Philadelphia. And this was the end of Ihe labors of 
Mason and Dixon upon this boundary. From the fact that this was subse- 
quently the mark of division between the Free and Slave States, Mason and 
Dixon's line became familiar im. American politics. The line was marked by 
stones which were quarried and engraved in England, on one side having the 
arms of Penn, and on the opposite those of Lord Baltimore. These stones 
were firmly set every five miles. At the end of each intermediate mile a 
smaller stone was placed, having on one side engraved the letter P., and on the 
opposite side the letter M. The remainder of the line was finished and marked 
in 1782-84 by other surveyors. A vista was cut through the forest eight yards in 
width the whole distance, which seemed in looking babk through it to come to a 


point at the distance of two miles. In 1849, the stone at the northeast corner 
of Maryland having been removed, a resurvey of the line was ordered, and 
suryeyors were appointed by the three States of Pennsylvania, Delaware and 
Maryland, who called to their aid Col. James D. Graham. Some few errors 
wore discovered in the old survey, but in the main it was found to be accurate. 
John Penn, grandson of the founder, and son of Richard, had come to the 
colony in 1753, and, having acted as President of the Council, was, in 1763, 
commissioned Governor in place of Hamilton. The conspiracy of Pontiac, 
though abortive in the results contemplated, left the minds of the Indians in 
a most dangerous state. The more resolute, who had entered heartily into the 
views of their leader, still felt that his purposes were patriotic, and hence 
sought, by every means possible, to ravage and destroy the English settlements. 
The Moravian Indians at Nain and Wichetunk, though regarded as friendly, 
were suspected of indirectly aiding in the savage warfare by trading firearms 
and ammunition. They were accordingly removed to Philadelphia that they 
might be out of the way of temptation. At the old Indian town of Conestoga 
there lived some score of natives. Many heartless murders had been com- 
mitted along the frontier, and the perpetrators had been traced to this Con- 
estoga town ; and while the Conestoga band were not known to be impli- 
cated in these outrages, their town was regarded as the lurking place of roving 
savages who were. For protection, the settlers in the neighboring districts of 
Paxton and Donegal, had organized a band known as the Paxton boys. Earnest, 
requests were made by Rev. John Elder and John Harris to the Government 
to remove this band at Conestoga ; but as nothing was done, and fearful 
depredations and slaughter continued, a party of these Paxton rangers attacked 
the town and put the savages to the sword. Some few escaped, among them a 
known bloodthirsty savage, who were taken into the jail at Lancaster for pro- 
tection ; but the rangers, following them, overpowered the jailer, and breaking 
into the jail murdered the fugitives. Intense excitement was occasioned by 
this outbreak, and Gov. Penn issued his proclamation offering rewards for the 
apprehension of the perpetrators. Some few were taken ; but so excellent was 
their character and standing, and such were the provocations, that no convic- 
tions followed. Apprehensions for the safety of the Moravian Indians induced 
the Government to remove them to Province Island, and, feeling insecure 
there, they asked to be sent to England. For safety, they were sent to New 
York, but the Governor of that province refused them permission to laud, as, 
did also the Governor of New Jersey, and they were brought bacji to Philadel- 
phia and put in barracks under strong guard. The Paxton boys, in a consider- 
able body, were at that time at Germantown interceding for their brethren, 
who were then in durance and threatened with trial. Franklin was sent out , 
to confer with them on the part of the Government. In defending their course, 
they said : " Whilst more than a thousand families, reduced to extreme dis- 
tress, during the last and present war, by the attacks of slmlking parties of 
Indians upon the frontier, were destitute, and were suffered by the public to 
depend on private charity, a hundred and twenty of the perpetrators of the 
most horrid barbarities were supported by the province, and protected from 
the fury of the brave relatives of the murdered. " Influenced by the persua- 
sions of Franklin, they consented to return to their homes, leaving only 
Matthew Smith and James Gibson to represent them before the courts. 



John Penn, 1763-71— James Hamilton, 1771— Eiohard Pbnn, 1771-73— John 

Penn, 1773-76. 

A DIFFERENCE having arisen between the Governor and Assembly on the 
vexed question of levying money, the Assembly passed a series of reso- 
lutions advocating that the " powers of government ought to be separated from 
the power attending the immense proprietary property, and lodged in the 
hands of the King. " After an interval of fifty days — that time for reflection 
and discussion might be given — the Assembly again convened, and adopted a 
petition praying the King to assume the direct government of the province, 
though this policy was strongly opposed by some of the ablest members, as 
Isaac Norria and John Dickinson. The Quaker element was generally in 
favor of the change. 

Indian barbarities still continuing along the frontier, Gov. Penn declared 
war against the Shawanese and Delawares in July, 1765, and sent Col. Bouquet 
with a body of Pennsylvania troops against them. By the 3d of October, he 
had come up to the Muskingum, in the heart of the most thickly peopled 
Indian territory. So rapid had been the movement of Bouquet that the savages 
had no intelligence of his advance until he was upon them with no preparations 
for defense. They sued for peace, and a treaty was entered into by which the 
savages agreed to abstain from further hostilities until a general treaty could 
be concluded with Sir William Johnson, the general agent for Indian afEairs 
for all the colonies, and to deliver up all English captives who had been carried 
away during the years of trouble. Two hundred and eight were quickly 
gathered up and brought in, and many others were to follow, who were now 
widely scattered. The relatives of many of these captives had proceeded with 
the train of Bouquet, intent on reclaiming those who had been dear to them. 
Some were joyfully received, while others who had been borne off in youth had 
become attached to their captors, and force was necessary to bring them away. 
" On the return of the army, some of the Indians obtained leave to accompany 
their former captives to Fort Pitt, and employed themselves in hunting and 
carrying provisions for them on the road. " 

The great struggle for the independence of the colonies of the British 
crown was now close at hand, and the first sounds of the controversy were be- 
ginning to be heard. Sir William Keith, that enterprising Governor whose 
head seemed to have been full of new projects, as early as 1739 had proposed 
to lay a uniform tax on stamped paper in all the colonies, to realize funds for 
the common defense. Acting upon this hint, Grenville, the British Minister, 
botitied the colonists in 1763 of his purpose to impose such a tax. Against 
this they remonstrated. Instead of this, a tax on imports, to be paid in coin, 
was adopted. This was even more distasteful. The Assembly of Rhode 
Island, in October, 1765, submitted a paper to all the colonial assemblies, Vfith 
& view to uniting in a common petition to the King against parliamentary 
taxation. • This was favorably acted on by the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and 
Franklin was appointed agent to represent their caase before the British Par- 
liament. The Stamp Act had been passed on the 22d of March, 1765. Its 
passage excited bitter opposition, and a resolution, asserting that the Golonial 


Assemblies had the exclusive right to levy taxes, was passed by the Virginia 
Assembly, and concurred in by all the others. The Massachusetts Assembly 
proposed a meeting of delegates in New York on the second Tuesday of October, 
1765, to confer upon the subject. The Pennsylvania Assembly adopted the 
suggestion, and appointed Messrs. Fox, Morton, Bryan and Dickenson as dele- 
gates. This Congress met according to the call and adopted a respectful pe- 
tition to the King, and a memorial to Parliament, which were signed by all 
the members and forwarded for presentation by the Colonial Agents in En- 
gland. The, Stamp Act was to go into effect on the 1st of November. On the 
last day of October, the newspapers were dressed in mourning, and suspended 
publication. The publishers agreed not to use the stamped paper. The 
people, as with one mind, determined to dress in homespun, resolved not to 
use imported goods, and, to stimulate the production of wool the colonists cov- 
enanted not to eat lamb for the space, of one year. The result of this policy 
"was soon felt by British manufacturers who became clamorous for repeal of 
the obnoxious measures, and it was accordingly repealed on the 18th of March, 

Determined in some form to draw a revenue from the colonies, an act was 
passed in 1767, to lay a duty on tea, paper, printers' colors, and glass. The As- 
sembly of Pennsylvania passed a resolution on the 20th of February, 1768, 
instructing its agent in London to urge its repeal, and at the session in May 
received and entered upon its minutes a circular letter from the Massachusetts 
Assembly, setting forth the grounds on which objection to the act should be 
urged. This circular occasioned hostile feeling among the ministry, and the 
Secretary for foreign affairs vn:ote to Gov. Penn to urge the Assembly to 
take no notice of it; but if they approved its sentiments, to prorogue their 
sittings. This letter was transmitted to the Assembly, aod soon after one 
from the Virginia Assembly was presented, urging union of all the colonies 
in opposing the several schemes of taxation. This recommendation was 
adopted, and committees appointed to draw a petition to the King and to each 
of the Houses of Parliament. To lead public sentiment, and have it well 
grounded in the arguments used against taxation, John Dickinson, one of the 
ablest of the Pennsylvania legislators at this time, published a number of 
articles purporting to come from a plain farmer, under the title of the Farmer^ s 
Letters, which became popular, the idea that they were the work of one in 
Lumble li fe, helping to swell the tide of popularity. They were republished 
in all the colonies, and exerted a commanding influence. Alarmed at the 
unanimity of feeling against the proposed schemes, and supposing that it was 
ihe amount of the tax that gave offense. Parliament reduced the rate in 1769 
to one sixth of the original sum, and in 1770 abolished it altogether, except 
three pence a pound on tea But it was the principle, and not the amount 
that was objected to, and at the next session of the Assembly in Pennsylvania, 
their agent in London was directed to urge its repeal altogetiier. 

It would seem incredible that the colony of Connecticut should lay claim 
to any part of the territory of Pennsylvania, but so it was. The New En- 
gland charters gave limitless extent westward even to the shores of the Pacific 
Ocean, and south to the northern limits of the tract ceded to Lord Baltimore — 
the territory between the 40th and 46th degrees of north latitude, and from 
ocean to ocean. To encroach upon New York with its teaming popu- 
lation was not calculated to tempt the enterprise of the settler; but 
the rich virgin soil, and agreeable climate of the wide Wyoming Val- 
ley, as yet unappropriated, was likely to attract the eye of the explorer. 
Accordingly, at the general conference with the Indians held at Albany 


in 1754, the Connecticut delegates made a purchase of a large tract in 
this valley; a company, known as the Susquehanna Company, was formed in 
Connecticut to promote the settlement of these lands, and a considerable im- 
migration commenced. The proprietors of Pennsylvania had also made pur- 
chase of the Indians of these identical lands, and the royal charters of Charles 
and James covered this ground. But the Plymouth Charter antedated Penn's. 
Remonstrances were made to the Governor of Connecticut against encroach- 
ments upon the territory of Pennsylvania. The answer returned was under- 
stood to disclaim any control over the company by the Connecticut authorities; 
but it subsequently appeared that the Government was determined to defend 
the settlers in the possession of their lands. In 1768, the proprietors of Penn- 
sylvania entered into treaty stipulations with the Indians for all this tract cov- 
ered by the claim of the Susquehanna Company. Pennsylvania settlers, 
attracted by the beauty of the place, gradually acquired lands under Penn- 
sylvania patents, and the two parties began to infringe on each other's claims. 
Forts and block-houses were erected for the protection of either party, and a 
petty warfare was kept up, which resulted in some loss of life. Butler, the 
leader of the Connecticut party, proposed to settle their differences by per- 
sonal combat of thirty picked men on each side. In order to assert more direct 
legal control over the settlers, a new county was formed which was called 
Northumberland, that embraced all the disputed lands. But the Sheriff, even 
with the aid of the militia, which he called to his assistance, was unable to 
execute his processes, and exercise legal control, the New Englanders, proving 
a resolute set, determined to hold the splendid farms which they had marked 
out for themselves, and were bringing rapidly under cultivation. To the re- 
monstrances of Gov. Penn, Gov. Trumbull responded that the Susquehanna Com- 
pany was proceeding in good faith under provisions secured by the charter of 
the Plymouth Colony, and proposed that the question be submitted to a com- 
petent tribunal for arbitrament. An ex parte statement was submitted to 
Council in London by the Connecticut party, and an opinion was rendered 
favorable to its claims. In September, 1775, the matter was submitted to the 
Continental Congress, and a committee of that body, to whom it was referred, 
reported in favor of the Connecticut claim, apportioning a tract out of the 
very bowels of Pennsylvania nearly as large as the whole State of Connecticut. 
This action was promptly rejected by the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and a 
final decision was not reached until 1802, when Congress decided in favor of 
the integrity of the chartered rights of Penn. 

Richard Penn, son of the founder, died in 1771, whereupon Gov. John 
Penn returned to England, leaving the President of the Council, James Ham- 
ilton, at the head of the Government. John Penn, eldest son of Richard, suc- 
ceeded to the proprietary interests of his father, which he held in conjunction 
with his uncle, Thomas, and in October of the same year, Richard, the second 
son, was commissioned Governor. He held the office but about two years, and 
in that time won the confidence and esteem of the people, and so much attached 
was he to the popular cause, that upon his return to England, in 1775, he was 
intrusted by Congress with the last petition of the colonies ever presented to 
the King. In August, 1773, John Penn returned with the commission of 
Governor, superseding his brother Richard. Soon after his arrival, the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, issued his proclamation, laying claim to a 
vast territory in the Monongalia Valley, including the site of the present 
city of Pittsburgh, and upon the withdrawal of the British garrison, one Con- 
nolly had taken possession of it in the name of Virginia. Gov. Penn issued a 
counter-proclamation, calling on all good citizens within the borders of Penn- 


Bjrlvania, to preserve their allegiance to his Government, seized and imprisoned 
Connolly, and sent Commissioners to Virginia Co efiect an amicable settlement. 
These, Dunmore refused to bear, and was preparing to assert his authority by 
force; but his Council refused to vote him money for this purpose. 

To encourage the sale of tea in the colonies, and establish the principle of 
taxation, the export duty was removed. The colonies took the alarm. At a 
public meeting called in Philadelphia to consider the subject, on the 18th of 
October, 1773, resolutions were adopted in which it was declared : " That the 
disposal of their own property is the inherent right of freemen; that there can 
be no property in that which another can, of right, take from us without our 
consent; that the claim of Parliament to tax America, is, in other words, a claim 
of right to levy contributions on us at pleasure.'' The East India Company 
now made preparations for sending large importations of tea into the colonies. 
The ships destined for Philadelphia and New York, on approaching port, and 
being advised of the exasperated state of public feeling, returned to England 
with their cargoes. Those sent to Boston came into the harbor; but at night a 
party disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the vessels, and breaking open 
the packages, emptied 300 chests into the sea. The ministry, on being apprised 
of this act, closed the port of Boston, and subverted the colonial charter. 
Early in the year, committees of correspondence had been established in all 
the colonies, by means of which the temper and feeling in each was well un- 
derstood by the others, and concert of action was secured. The hard condi- 
tions imposed on the town of Boston and the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
aroused the sympathy of all ; for, they argued, we know not how soon the heavy 
hand of oppression may be felt by any of us. Philadelphia declared at a pub- 
lic meeting that the people of Pennsylvania would continue firmly to adhere 
to the cause of American liberty, and urged the calling of a Congress of dele- 
gates to consider the general interests. 

At a meeting held in Philadelphia on the 18th of June, 1774, at which 
nearly 8,000 people were convened, it was decided that a Continental Congress 
ought to be held, and appointed a committee of correspondence to communi- 
cate with similar committees in the several counties of Pennsylvania and in the 
several colonies. On the 15th of July, 1774, delegates from all the counties, 
summoned by this committee, assembled in Philadelphia, and declared that 
there existed an absolute necessity for a Colonial Congress. They accordingly 
recommended that the Assembly appoint delegates to such a Congress to 
represent Pennsylvania, and Joseph Galloway, Samuel Bhoads, George Ross, 
Edward Biddle, John Dickinson, Charles Humphries and Thomas Mifflin were 

On the 4th of Septemoer, 1774, the first Continental Congress assembled m 
Philadelphia. Peyton Eandolph, of Virginia, was called to preside, and 
Charles Thomson, of Pennsylvania, was appointed Secretary. It was resolved 
that no more goods be imported from England, and that unless a pacification 
was effected previously, no more Colonial produce of the soil be exported 
thither after September 10, 1775. A declaration of rights was adopted, and 
addresses to the King, the people of Great Britain, and of British America 
were agreed to, after which the Congress adjourned to meet again on the 10th 
of May, 1775. 

In January, 1775, another meeting of the county delegates was held in 
Philadelphia, at which the action of the Colonial Congress was approved, and 
while a restoration of harmony with the mother country was desired, yet if 
the arbitiary acts of Parliament were persisted in, they would at every hazard 
defend the "rights and liberties of America." The delegates appointed to 


represent the colony in the Second Congress were Mifflin, Humphries, Biddle, 
Dickinson, Morton, FranJilin, Wilson and Willing. 

The government of Great Britain had determined with a strong hand to 
compel obedience to its behests. On the 19th of April, 1775, was fought the 
battle of Lexington, and the crimson fountain was opened. That blow was 
felt alike through all the colonies. The cause of one was the cause of all. 
A public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at which it was resolved to organize 
military companies in all the counties. The Assembly heartily seconded thete 
views, and engaged to provide for the pay of the militia while in service. 
The Second Congress, which met in May, provided for organizing a continental 
army, fixing the quota for Pennsylvania at 4,300 men. The Assembly adopted 
the recommendation of Congress, provided for arming, disciplining and pay- 
ing the militia, recommended the organizing minutemen for service in an 
emergency, made appropriations for the defense of the city, and offered a pre- 
mium on the production of salt peter. Complications hourly thickened. Ticon- 
deroga was captured on the 10th of May, and the battle of Bunker Hill was 
fought on the 17th of June. On the 15th of June, George Washington was- 
appointed Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, supported by four 
Major Generals and eighf Brigadiers. 

The royal Governors were now an incumbrance greatly in the way of the 
popular movement, as were also the Assemblies where they refused to represent 
the popular will. Accordingly, Congress recommended that the several col- 
onies should adopt such government as should " best conduce to the happiness 
and safety'of their constituents in particular and America in general." This 
meant that each colony should set up a government for itself independent of 
the Crown. Accordingly, a public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at 
which it was resolved that the present Assembly is " not competent to the pres- 
ent exigencies of affairs," and that a new form of government ought to be 
adopted as recommended by Congress. The city committee of correspondence 
called on the county committees to secure the election of delegates to a colonial 
meeting for the purpose of considering this subject. On the 18th of June, 
the meeting was held in Philadelphia, and was organized by electing Thomas 
McKean President. It resolved to call a convention to frame a new con- 
stitution, provided the legal forms to be observed, and issued an address to 
the people. 

Having thus by frequent argumentation grown familiar with the declara- 
tion of the inherent rights of every citizen, and with flatly declaring to the 
government of Great Britain that it had no right to pursue this policy or that,, 
and the several States having been recommended to absolve themselves from 
allegience to the royal governments, and set up independent colonial govern- 
ments of their own, it was a natural inference, and but a step further, to de- 
clare the colonies entirely independent of the British Government, and to or- 
ganize for themselves a general continental government to hold the place of King 
and Parliament. The idea of independence had been seriously proposed, and 
several Colonial Assemblies had passed resolutions strongly recommending it. 
And yet there were those of age and experience who had supported independ- 
ent principles in the stages of argumentation, before action was demanded, 
when they approached the brink of the fatal chasm, and had to decide- 
whether to take the leap, hesitated. There were those in the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania who were reluctant to advise independence; but the majority 
voted to recommend its delegates to unite with the other colonies for the com- 
mon good. The convention which had provided for holding a meeting of del- 
egates to frame a new constitution, voted in favor of independence, and au- 
thorized the raising of 6,000 militia. 


On the 7th of June, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, introduoed in 
Congresa the proposition that, "the United Colonies are, and of right ought to 
be, free and independent States, and that all political connection between 
them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. " 
It was impossible to mistake or misinterpret the meaning of this language. 
The issue was fairly made up. It was warmly discussed. John Dickinson, 
one of the Pennsylvania delegates, and one who had been foremost in speak- 
ing and writing on the popular side, was not ready to cut off all hope of rec- 
onciliation, and depicted the disorganized condition in which the colonies 
would be left if the power and protection of Britain were thus suddenly re- 
moved. The vote upon the resolution was taken on the 2d of July, and re- 
suited in the affirmative vote of all the States except Pennsylvania and 
Delaware, the delegates from these States being divided. A committee con- 
sisting of Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Livingston and Sherman had been, some 
time previous, appointed to draw a formal statement of the Declaration, and 
the reasons "out of a decent respect to the opinions of mankind, " which led 
to so important an act. The work was intrusted to a sub-committee consisting of 
Adams and Jefferson, and its composition was the work of Mr. Jefferson, though 
many of the ideas, and even the forms of expression, had been used again and 
again in the previous resolutions and pronunciamentoes of the Colonial Assem- 
blies and public meetings. It had been reported on the 28tb of June, and was 
sharply considered in all its parts, many verbal alterations having been made in 
the committee of five; but after the passage of the preliminary resolution, the 
result was a foregone conclusion, and on the 4th of July it was finally adopted 
and proclaimed to the world. Of the Pennsylvania delegation, Franklin, 
Wilson and Morton voted for it, and Willing and Humphrey against, Dickin- 
son being absent. The colonial convention of Pennsylvania, being in sessiou 
at the time, on receiving intelligence that a majority of its delegates in Con. 
gress had voted against the preliminary resolution, named a new delegation, 
omitting the names of Dickinson, Willing and Humphrey, and adding othert 
which made it thus constituted — Franklin, Wilson, Morton, Morris, Cljrmer, 
Smith, Taylor and Boss. An engrossed copy of the Declaration was made, 
which was signed by all the members on the 2d of August following, on 
which are found the names from Pennsylvania above recited. 

The convention for framing a new constitution for the colony met on the 
15th of July, and was organized by electing Franklin President, and on the 
28th of September completed its labors, having framed a new organic law 
and made all necessary provisions for putting it into operation. In the mean- 
time the old proprietary Assembly adjourned on the 14th of June to the 26th 
of August. But a quorum failed to appear, and an adjournment was had to 
the 23d of September, when some routine business was attended to, chiefly 
providing for the payment of salaries and necessary bills, and on the 28th of 
September, after a stormy existence of nearly a century, this Assembly, the 
creature of Penn, adjourned never to meet again. With the ending of the As- 
sembly ended the power of Gov. Penn. It is a singular circumstance, much 
noted by the believers in signs, that on the day of his arrival in America, 
which was Sunday, the earth in that locality was rocked by an earthquake, 
which was intei-preted as an evil omen to his administration. He married the 
daughter of William Allen, Chief Justice of the colony, and, though at times 
falling under suspicion of favoring the royal cause, yet, as was believed, not 
with reason, he remained a quiet spectator of the great struggle, living at his 
country seat in Bucks County, where he died in February, 1795. 

The titles of the proprietors to landed estates were suspended by the action 


of the convention, and on the 27t,h of November, 1779, the Legislature passed 
an act vesting these estates in the commonwealth, but paying the proprietors a 
gratuity of £130,000, " in remembrance of the enterprising spirit of the 
Founder." This act did not touch the private estates of the proprietors, nor 
the tenths of manors. The Britioh Government, in 1790, in consideration of 
the fact that it had been unable to vindicate its authority over the colony, and 
afford protection to the proprietors in the enjoyment of their chartered rights, 
voted an annuity of £4,000 to th e heirs and descendants of Penn. This annuity 
has been regularly paid to the present time, 1884. 


Thomas Whakton, Jr., 1777-78— Geoege Bkyan, 1778— Joseph Reed, 1778-81— 
William Mooee, 1781-82— John Dickinson, 1783-85— Benjamin Feanklin, 

THE convention which framed the constitution appointed a Committee of 
Safety, consisting of twenty-five members, to whom was intrusted the 
government of the colony until the proposed constitution should be framed and 
put in operation. Thomas Eittenhouse was chosen President of this body, 
who was consequently in effect Governor. The new constitution, which was 
unanimously adopted on the 28th of September, was to take effect from its 
passage. It provided for an Assembly to be elected annually; a Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council of twelve members to be elected for a term of three years; As- 
semblymen to be eligible but four years out of seven, and Councilmen but 
one term in seven years. Members of Congress were chosen by the Assembly. 
The constitution could not be changed for seven years. It provided for the 
election of censors every seven years, who were to decide whether there was 
a demand for its revision. If so, they were to call a convention for the pur- 
pose. On the 6th of August, 1776, Thomas "Wharton, Jr., was chosen Presi- 
dent of the Council of Safety. 

The struggle with the parent country was now fully inaugurated. The 
Britidh Parliament had declared the colonists rebels, had voted a force of 
55,000 men, and in addition had hired 17,000 Hessian soldiers, to subdue them. 
The Congress on its part had declared the objects for which arms had been 
taken up, and had issued bills of credit to the amount of $6,000,000. Par- 
liament had resolved upon a vigorous campaign, to strike heavy and rapid 
blows, and quickly end the war. The first campaign had been conducted in 
Massachusetts, and by the efficient conduct of Washington, Gen. Howe, the 
leader of the British, was compelled to capitulate and withdraw to Halifax in 
March, 1776. On the 28th of June, Sir Henry Clinton, with a strong detach- 
ment, in conjunction with Sir Peter Parker of the navy, made a combined 
land and naval attack upon the defenses of Charleston Harbor, where he was 
met by Gen. William Moultrie, with the Carolina Militia, and after a severe 
battle, in which the British fleet was roughly handled, Clinton withdrew and 
returned to New York, whither the main body of the British Army, under Gen. 
Howe, had come, and where Admiral Lord Howe, with a large fleet directly 
from England, joined them. To this formidable power led by the best talent 
in the British Army, Washington could muster no adequate force to oppose, 
and he was obliged to withdraw from Long Island, from New York, from 


Harlem, from White Plains, to cross into New Jersey, and abandon position 
after position, until he had reached the right bank of the Delaware on Penn- 
sylvania soil. A heavy detachment under Cornwallis followed, and would 
have crossed the Delaware in pursuit, but advised to a cautious policy by 
Howe, he waited for ice to form on the waters of the Delaware before passing 
over. The fall of Philadelphia now seemed imminent. Washington had not 
sufficient force to face the whole power of the British Ajmy. On the 2d of 
December, the Supreme Council ordered all places of business in the city to 
be closed, the schools to be dismissed, and advised preparation for removing 
the women and children and valuables. On the 12th, the Congress which was 
in session here adjourned to meet in Baltimore, taking with them all papers 
and public records, and leaving a committee, of which Eobert Morris was 
Chairman, to act in conjunction with Washington for the safety of the place. 
Cren. Putnam was dispatched on the same day with a detachment of soldiers 
to take command in the city. 

In this emergancy the Council issued a stirring address: "If you wish 
to live in freedom, and are determined to maintain that best boon of heaven, 
you have no time to deliberate. A manly resistance will secure every bless- 
ing, inactivity and sloth will bring horror and destruction. * « * lyjay 
heaven, which has bestowed the blessings of liberty upon you, awaken you to 
a proper sense of your danger and arouse that manly spirit of virtuous resolu- 
tion which has ever bidden defiance to the efforts of tyranny. May you ever 
have the glorious prize of liberty in view, and bear with a becoming fortitude 
the fatigues and severities of a winter campaign. That, and that only, will 
entitle you to the superlative distinction of being deemed, under God, the 
deliverers of your country." Such were the arguments which our fathers 
made use of in conducting the struggle against the British Empire. 

Washington, who had, from the opening of the campaign before New 
York, been obliged for the most part to act upon the defensive, formed the 
plan to suddenly turn upon his pursuers and offer battle. Accordingly, on 
the night of the 25th of December, taking a picked body of men, he moved up 
several miles to Taylorsville, where he crossed the river, though at flood tide 
and filled with floating ice, and moving down to Trenton, where a detachment 
of the British Army was posted, made a bold and vigorous attack. Taken by 
siu-prise, though now after sunrise, the battle was soon decided in favor of 
the Americans. Some fifty of the enemy were slain and over a thousand 
taken prisoners, with quantities of arms, ammunition and stores captured. A 
triumphal entry was made at Philadelphia, when the prisoners and the spoils 
of war moved through the streets under guard of the victorious troops, and 
were marched away to the prison camp at Lancaster. Washington, who was 
smarting under a forced inacbivity, by reason of paucity of numbers and lack 
of arms and material, and who had been forced constantl}' to retire before a 
defiant foe, now took courage. His name was upon every tongue, and foreign 
Governments were disposed to give the States a fair chance in tbeir struggle 
for nationality. The lukewarm were encouraged to enlist under the banner of 
freedom. It had great strategic value. The British had intended to push 
forward and occupy Philadelphia at once, which, being now virtually the cap- 
ital of the new nation, had it been captured at this juncture, would have given 
tbem the occasion for claiming a triumphal ending of the war. But this ad, 
vantage, though gained by a detachment small in numbers yet great in cour- 
age, caused the commander of a powerful and well appointed army to give up 
all intention o-f attempting to capture the Pennsylvania metropolis in this 
campaign, and retiring into winter cantonments upon the Raritan to await 


the settled weather of the spring for an entirely new cast of operations. 
Washington, emboldened by his success, led all his forces into New Jersey, 
and pushing past Trenton, where Cornwallis, the royal leader, had brought 
his main body by a forced march, under cover of darkness, attacked the 
British reserves at Princeton. But now the enemy had become wary and vig- 
ilant, and, summoned by the booming of cannon, Cornwallis hastened back to 
the relief of his hard pressed columns. Washington, finding that the enemy's 
whole army was within easy call and knowing that he had no hope of success 
with his weak army, withdrew. Washington now went into winter quarters at 
Morristown, and by constant vigilance was able to gather marauding parties 
of the British who ventured far away from their works. 

Putnam commenced fortifications at a point below Philadelphia upon the 
Delaware, and at commanding positions upon the outskirts, and on being 
summoned to the army was succeeded by Gen. Irvine, and he by Gen. Gates. 
On the 4th of March, 1777, the two Houses of the Legislature, elected under 
the new constitution, assembled, and in joint convention chose Thomas 
Wharton, 'Jr., President, and George Bryan Vice President. Penn had expressed 
the idea that power was preserved the better by due formality and ceremony, 
and, accordingly, this event was celebrated with much pomp, the result being 
declared in a loud voice from the court house, amid the shouts of the gathered 
throngs and the booming of the captured cannon brought from the field of 
Trenton. The title bestowed upon the new chief o£Scer of the State was fitted 
by its length and high-sounding epithets to inspire the multitude with awe and 
reverence: "His Excellency, Thomas Wharton, Junior, Esquire, President of 
the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, Captain General, and Com- 
mander-in-chief in and over the same. " 

While the enemy was disposed to be cautious after the New Jersey cam- 
paign so humiliating to the native pride of the Britain, yet he was determined 
to bring all available forces into the field for the campaign of 1777, and to 
strike a decisive blow. Early in April, great activity was observed among the 
shipping in New York Harbor, and Washington communicated to Congress his 
opinion that Philadelphia was the object against which the blow would be 
aimed. This announcement of probable peril induced the Council to issue a 
proclamation urging enlistments, and Cijngress ordered the opening of a camp 
for drilling recruits in Pennsylvania, and Benedict Arnold, who was at this 
time a trusted General, was ordered to the command of it. So many new ves- 
sels and transports of all classes had been discovered to have come into New 
York Harbor, probably forwarded from England, that Washington sent Gen. 
Mifflin, on the 10th of June, to Congress, bearing a letter in which he ex- 
pressed the settled conviction that the enemy meditated an immediate descent 
upon some part of Pennsylvania. Gen. Mifflin proceeded to examine the de- 
fensive works of the city which had been begun on the previous advance of 
the British, and rec9mmeuded such changes and new works as seemed best 
adapted for its protection. The preparations for defense were vigorovisly pros- 
ecuted. The militia were called out and placed in two camps, one at Chester 
and the other at Downington. Fire ships were held in readiness to be used 
against vessels attempting the ascent of the river. 

Lord Howe, being determined not to move until ample preparations were 
completed, allowed the greater part of the summer to wear away before he 
advanced. Finally,- having embarked a force of 19,500 men on a fleet of 300 
transports, he sailed southward. Washington promptly made a corresponding 
march overland, passing through Philadelphia on the 24th of August. Howe, 
F.nspecting that preparations would be made for impeding the passage of the 


Delaware, sailed past its mouth, and moving up the Chesapeake instead, de- 
barlced iifty-four miles from Philadelphia and commenced the march north- 
ward. Great activity was now manifested in the city. The water-spouts wera 
melted to furnish bullets, fair hands were busied in rolling cartidges, power- 
ful chevaux-de-frise were planted to impede the navigation of the river, and 
the last division of the militia of the city, which had been divided into three 
classes, was called out. Washington, who had crossed the Brandywine, soon 
confronted the advance of Howe, and brisk skirmishing at once opened. See- 
ing that he was likely to have the right of his position at Eed Clay Creek, 
where he had intended to give battle, turned by the largely superior'f orce of 
the enemy, under cover of darkness on the night of the 8th of September, he 
withdrew across the Brandywine at Chad's Ford, and posting Armstrong with 
the militia upon the left, at Pyle's Ford, where the banks were rugged and pre- 
cipitous, and Sullivan, who was second in command, upon the right at Brin- 
ton's Ford under cover of forest, he himself took post with three divisions,, 
Stealing's, Stephens', and his own, in front of the main avenue of approach at 
Chad's. Howe, discovering that Washington was well posted, determined to 
flank him. Accordingly, on the 11th, sending Knyphausen with a division of 
Hessians to make vigorous demonstrations upoQ Washington's front at Chad's, 
he, with the corps of Cornwallis, in light marching order, moved up the Brandy- 
wine, far past the right flank of Washington, crossed the Brandywine at the 
fords of Trumbull and Jeffrey unopposed, and, moving down came upon 
Washington's right, held by Sullivan, all unsuspecting and unprepared to re- 
ceive him. Though Howe was favored by a dense fog which on that morning 
hung on all the valley, yet it had hardly been commenced before Washingtou 
discovered the move and divined its purpose. His resolution was instantly 
taken. He ordered Sullivan to cross the stream at Brinton's, and resolutely 
turn the 'left flank of Knyphausen, when he himself with the main body would 
move over and crush the British Army in detail. Is was a brilliant conception> 
was feasible, and promised the most complete success. But what chagrin and 
mortification, to receive, at the moment when he expected to hear the music of 
Sullivan's guns doubling up the left of the enemy, and giving notice to him 
to commence the passage, a message from that officer advising him that he had 
disobeyed his orders to cross, having received intelligence that the enemy were 
not moving northward, and that he was still in position at the ford. Thua 
balked, Washington had no alternative but to remain in position, and it was not 
long before the guns of Howe were heard moving in upon his all unguarded 
right flank. The best dispositions were made which time would permit. His 
main body with the force of Sullivan took position along the brow of the hill 
on which stands the Birmingham meeting house, and the battle opened and 
was pushed with vigor the whole day. Overborne by numbers, and weakened 
by losses, Washington was obliged to retire, leaving the enemy in possession 
of the field. The young French nobleman, Lafayette, was wounded while gal- 
lantly serving in this fight. The wounded were carried into the Birmingham 
meeting house, where the blood stains are visible to this day, enterprising 
relic hunters for many generations having been busy in loosening small slivers 
with the points of their knives. 

The British now moved cautiously toward Philadelphia. On the 16th of 
September, at a point some twenty miles west of Philadelphia, Washington 
again made a stand, and'a battle opened with brisk skirmishing, but a heavy 
rain storm coming on the powder of the patriot soldiers was completely rained on 
account of their defective cartridge boxes. On the night of the 20th, Gen. 
Anthony Wayne, who had been hanging on the rear of the enemy with hia 


detachment, was surprised by Gen. Gray with a heavy oolomn, who fell sud- 
denly upon the Americans in bivouac and put them to the sword, giving no 
quarter. This disgraceful slaughter which brought a stigma and an indelible 
stain upon the British arms is known as the Paoli Massacre. Fifty-three of 
the victims of the black flag were buried in one grave. A neat monument 
of white marble was erected forty years afterward over their moldering 
remains by the KepnbJioan Artillerists of Chester County, which vandal hands 
have not spared in their mania for relics. 

Congress remained in Philadelphia while these military operations were 
going on at its very doors; but on the IHth of September adjourned to meet 
at Lancaster, though subsequently, on the 30th, removed across the Susque- 
hanna to York, where it remained in session till after the evacuation in 
the following summer. The Council remained until two days before the fall 
of the city, when having dispatched the records of the loan office and the more 
valuable papers to Easton, it adjourned to Lancaster. On the 26th, the British 
Army entered the city. Deborah Logan in her memoir says: "Thestfrny 
marched in and took possession in the city in the morning. We were up-stairs 
and saw them pass the State House. They looked well, clean and well clad, 
and the contrast between them and our own poor, bare-footed, ragged troops 
was very great and caused a feeling of despair. * * * ♦ jjarly 
in the afternoon, Lord Cornwallis' suite arrived and took possession of 
my mother's house." But though now holding undisputed possession of the 
American capital, Howe found his position an uncomfortable one, for his fleet 
was in the Chesapeake, and the Delaware and all its defenses were in posses- 
sion of the Americans, and Washington had manned the forts with some of 
his most resolute troops. Varnum's brigade^ led by Cols. Angell and Greene, 
Rhode Island troops, were at Port Mercer, at Ked Bank, and this the enemy 
determined to attack. On the 21st of October, with a force of 2,500 men, led 
by Count Donop, the attack was made. In two colums they moved as to an 
easy victory. But the steady fire of the defenders when come in easy range, 
swept them down with deadly effect, and, retiring with a loss of over 400 and 
their leader mortally wounded, they did not renew the fight. Its reduction was 
of prime importance, and powerful works were built and equipped to bear upon 
the devoted fort on all sides, and the heavy guns of the fleet were brought up 
to aid in overpowering it. For six long days the greatest weight of metal was 
poured upon it from the land and the naval force, but without effect, the 
sides of the fort successfully withstanding the plunging of their powerful 
missiles. As a last resort, the great vessels were run suddenly in close under 
the walls, and manning the yard-arms with sharp-shooters, so effectually 
silenced and drove away the gunners that the fort fell easily into the Brit- 
ish hands and the river was opened to navigation. The army of Washing- 
ton, after being recruited and put in light marching order, was led to German- 
town where, on the morning of the 3d of October the enemy was met. A 
heavy fog that morning had obscured friend and foe alike, occasioning con- 
fusion in the ranks, and though the opening promised well, and some progress 
was made, yet the enemy was too strong to be moved, and the American laader 
was forced to retire to his camp at White Marsh. Though the river had now 
been opened and the city was thoroughly fortified for resisting attack, yet 
Howe felt not quite easy in having the American Army quartered in so close 
striking distance, and accordingly, on the 4th of December, with nearly his 
entire army, moved out, intending to take Washington at White Marsh, sixteen 
miles away, by surprise, and by rapidity of action gain an easy victory. But 
by the heroism and fidelity of Lydia Darrah, who, as she had often done before 


passed the gaardsi to go to the mill for flour, the news of the coming of Howe 
waF communicated to Washington, who was prepared to receive him. Finding 
that he could effect nothing, Howe returned to the city, having had th|e weari- 
some march at this wintry season without effect. 

Washington now crossed the Schuylkill and went into winter quarters at 
Valley Forge. The cold of that winter was intense; the troops, half clad and 
indifferently fed, suffered severely, the prints of their naked feet in frost and 
snow being often tinted with patriot blood. Grown impatient of the small 
results from ihe immensely expensive campaigns carried on across the ocean, 
the Ministry relieved Lord Howe, and appointed Sir Henry Clinton to the 
chief command. 

The Commissioners whom Congress had sent to France early in the fall of 
1776 — Franklin, Dean and Lee had been busy in making interest for the 
united colonies at the French Court, and so successful were they, that arms and 
ammunition and loans of money were procured from time to time. Indeed, so 
persuasive had they become that it was a saying current at court th-at, ' ' It was 
fortunate for the King that Franklin did not take it into his head to ask to 
have the palace at Versailles stripped of its furniture to send to his dear 
Americans, for his majesty would have been unable to deny him." Finally, 
a convention was concluded, by which France agreed to use the royal army and 
navy as faithful allies of the Americans against the English. Accordingly, a 
fleet of four powerful frigates, and twelve ships were dispatched under com- 
mand of the Count D'Estaing to shut up the British fleet in the Dela.ware. The 
plan was ingenious, particularly worthy of the long head of Franklin. But 
by some means, intelligence of the sailing of the French fleet reached (he 
English cabinet, who immediately ordered the evacuation of the Delaware, 
whereupon the Admiral weighed anchor and sailed away with his entire fleet to 
New York, and D'Estaing, upon his arrival at the mouth of the Delaware, found 
that the bird had flown. 

Clinton evacuated Philadelphia and moved across New Jersey in the direc- 
tion of New York. Washington closely followed and came up with the enemy 
on the plains of Monmouth, on the 28th of June, 1778, where a sanguin- 
ary battle was fought which lasted the whole day, resulting in the triumph of 
the American arms, and Pennsylvania was rid of British troops. 

The enemy was no sooner well away from the city than Congress returned 
from York and resumed its sittings in its former quarters, June 24, 1778, and 
on the following day, the Colonial Legislature returned from Lancaster. Gen 
Arnold, who was disabled by a wound received at Saratoga, from field duty, 
was given command in the city and marched in with a regiment on the day 
following the evacuation. On the 23d of May, 1778, President Wharton died 
suddenly of quinsy, while in attendance upon the Council at Lancaster, when 
George Bryan, the Vice President, became the Acting President. Bryan was a 
philanthropist in deed as well as word. Up to thia time, African slavery had 
been tolerated in fhe colony. In his message of the 9th of November, he said: 
"This or some better scheme, would tend to abrogate slavery — the approbrium 
of America — from among us. * * * In divestiag the State of slaves, you 
will equally serve the cause of humanity and policy, nud offer to God one of 
the most proper and best returns of gratitude for ffis great deliverance of us 
and our posterity from thraldom; you will also se?^^ your character for justice 
and benevolence in the true point of view to Europe, who are astonished to see 
a people eager for liberty holding negroes in bondage." He perfected a bill 
for the extinguishment of claims to slaves which was passed by the Assembly, 
March 1, 1780, by a vote of thirty-four tx) eighteen, providing that no child 


•of slave parents born after that date should be a slave, but a servant till the 
age of twenty-eight years, when all claim for service should end. Thus by a 
simple enactment resolutely pressed by Bryan, was slavery forever rooted out 
of Pennsylvania. 

In the summer of 1778, a force of savages and sour- faced tories to the num- 
ber of some 1,200, under the leadership of one Col. John Butler, a cruel and in- 
linman wretch, descending from the north, broke into the Wyoming Valley on 
the 2d of July. The strong men were in the army of "Washington, and the 
only defenders were old men, beardless boys and resolute women. These, to 
the number of about 400, under Zebulon Butler, a brave soldier who had won 
■distinction in the old French war, and who happened to be present, moved 
resolutely out to meet the invaders. Overborne by numbers, the inhabitants 
were beaten and put to the sword, the few who escaped retreating to Forty 
Fort, whither the helpless, up and down the valley, had sought safety. Here 
humane terms of surrender were agreed to, and the families returned to 
their homes, supposing all danger to be past. But the savages had 
tasted blood, and perhaps confiscated liquor, and were little mindful oE capitu- 
lations. The night of the 5th was given to indiscriminate massacre. The 
<5ries of the helpless rang out upon the night air, and the heavens along all 
the valley were lighted up with the flames of burning cottages; " and when the 
moon arose, the terrified inhabitants were fleeing to the Wilkesbarre Mount- 
ains, and the dark morasses of the Pocono Mountain beyond. " Most of these 
were emigrants from Connecticut, and they made their way homeward as fast 
as their feet would carry them, many of them crossing the Hudson at Pough- 
ieepsie, where they told their tales of woe. 

In February, 1778, Parliament, grown tired of this long and wasting war, 
abolished taxes of which the Americans had complained, and a committee, 
composed of Earl Carlisle, George Johnstone and William Eden, were sent 
empowered to forgiVe past offenses, and to conclude peace with the colonies, 
upon submission to the British crown. Congress would not listen to their 
proposal?, maintaining that the people of America had done nothing that 
needed forgiveness, and that no conference could be accorded so long as the 
English Armies remained on American soil. Finding that negotiations could 
not be entered upon with the government, they sought to worm their way by 
base bribes. Johnstone proposed to Gen. Eeed that if he would lend his aid 
to bring about terms of pacification, 10,000 guineas and the best office in the 
country should be his. The answer of the stern General was a type of the 
feeling which swayed every patriot: "My influence is but small, but were it 
as great as Gov. Johntone would insinuate, the King of Great Britain has noth- 
ing in his gift that would tempt me." 

At the election held for President, the choice f el-1 upon Joseph Reed, with 
George Bryan Vice President, subsequently Matthew Smith, and finally Will- 
iam Moore. Reed was an erudite lawyer, and had held the positions of Pri- 
vate Secretary to Washington, and subsequently Adjutant General of the 
army. He was inaugurated on the 1st of December, 1778. Upon the return 
of the patriots to Philadelphia, after the departure of the British, a bitter 
feeling existed between them and the tories who had remained at their homes, 
and had largely profited by the British occupancy. IJhe soldiers became dem- 
onstrative, especially against those lawyers who had defended the tories in 
■court. Some of those most obnoxious took refuge in the house of James Wil- 
son, a signer of the Declaration. Private soldiers, in passing, fired upon it, 
and shots were returned whereby one was killed and several wounded. The 
President on being informed of these proceedings, rode at the head of the 


«it7 troop, and dispersed the assailants, capturing the leaders. The Academy 
and College of Philadelphia required by its charter an oath of allegiance to 
the King of Great Britain. An act wa^ passed November 27, 1779, abrogating 
the former charter, and vesting its property in a new board. An endowment 
from confiscated estates was settled u])on it of £15,000 annually. The name 
of the institution was changed to the " University of the State of Pennsyl- 

Prance was now aiding the American cause with money and large land 
and naval forces. While some of the patriots remained steadfast and were 
disposed to sacrifice and endure all for the success of the struggle, many, who 
should have been in the ranks rallying around Washington, had grown luke- 
warm. The General was mortified that' the French should come across the 
ocean and make great sacrifices to help us, and should find so much indiffer- 
ence prevailing among the citizens of many of the States, and so few coming 
forward to fill up the decimated ranks. At the request of Washington, Presi- 
dent Beed was invested with extraordinary powers, in 1780, which were used 
prudently but effectively. During the winter of this year, some of the veteran 
soldiers of the Pennsylvauia line mutinied and commenced the march on 
Philadelphia with arms in their hands. Some of them had just cause. They 
had enlisted for "three years or the war," meaning for three years unless 
the war closed sooner. But the authorities had interpreted it to mean, three 
years, or as much longer as the war should last. President Beed immediately 
rode out to meet the mutineers, heard their cause, and pledged if all would re- 
turn to camp, to have those who had honorably served out the full term of 
three years discharged, which was agreed to. Before the arrival of the Presi- 
dent, two emissaries from the enemy who had heard of the disaffection, came 
into camp, offering strong inducements for them to continue the revolt. But 
the mutineers spurned the offer, and delivered them over to the officers, by 
■whom they were tried and executed as spies. The soldiers who had so patriot- 
ically arrested and handed over these messengers were offered a reward of fifty 
guineas; but they refused it on the plea that they were acting under authority 
of the Board of Sergeants, under whose order the mutiny was being conducted. 
Accordingly, a hundred guineas were offered to this board for their fidelity. 
Their answer showed how conscientious even mutineers can be: "It was not 
for the sake, or through any expectation of reward; but for the love of our 
country, that we sent the spies immediately to Gen. Wayne; we therefore 
do not consider ourselves entitled to any other reward but the love of our 
country, and do jointly agree to accept of no other." 

William Moore was elected Presidei^t to succeed Joseph Reed, from No- 
vember 14, 1781, but held the office less than one year, the term of three years 
for which he had been a Councilman having expired, which was the limit of 
service. James Potter was chosen Vice President. On account of the hostile 
attitude of the Ohio Indians, it was decided to call out a body of volunteers, 
numbering some 400 from the counties of Washington and Westmoreland, 
where the outrages upon the settlers had been most sorely felt, who chose for 
their commander Col. William Crawford, of Westmoreland. The expedition 
met a most unfortunate fate. It was defeated and cut to pieces, and the 
leader taken captive and burned at the stake. Crawford County, which was 
settled very soon afterward, was named in honor of this unfortunate soldier. 
In the month of November, intelligence was communicated to the Legislature 
that Pennsylvania soldiers, confined as prisoners of war on board of the Jer- 
sey, an old hulk 1 j ing in the New York Harbor, were in a starving condition, 
receiving at the hands of the enemy the most barbarous and inhuman treat- 


ment. Fifty barrels of flour and 300 bushels of potatoes were immediately 
sent to them. 

In the State election of 1782, contested with great violence, John Dickin- 
son was chosen President, and James Ewing Vice President. On the 12th of 
March, 1783, intelligence was first received of the signing of the preliminary 
treaty in which independence was acknowledged, and on the 11th of April 
Congress sent forth the joyful proclamation ordering a cessation of hostilities. 
The soldiers of Biirgoyne, who had been confined in the prison camp at Lan- 
caster, were put upon the march for New York, passing through Philadelphia 
on the way. Everywhere was joy unspeakable. The obstructions were re- 
moved from the Delaware, and the white wings of commerce again came flut- 
tering on every breeze. In June, Peunsylvania soldiers, exasperated by delay 
in receiving their pay and their discharge, and impatient to return to their 
homes, to a considerable number marched from their camp at Lancaster, and 
arriving at Philadelphia sent a committee with arms in their hands to the 
State House door with a remonstrance asking permission to elect officers to 
command them for the redress of their grievances, their own having left them, 
and employing threats in case of refusal. These demands the Council rejected. 
The President of Congress, hearing of these proceedings, called a special ses- 
sion, which resolved to demand that the militia of the State should be called 
out to quell the insurgents. The Council refused to resort to this extreme 
measure, when Congress, watehful of its dignity and of its supposed supreme 
authority, left Philadelphia and established itself in Princeton, N. J., and 
though invited to return at its next session, it refused, and met at Annapolis. 

In October, 1784, the last treaty was concluded with the Indians at Fort 
Stanwix. The Commissioners at this conference purchased from the natives 
all the land to the north of the Ohio River, and the line of Pine Creek, which 
completed the entire limits of the State with the exception of the triangle at 
Erie, which was acquired from the United States in 1792. This purchase 
was confirmed by the Wyandots and Delawares at Fort Mcintosh January 21, 
1785, and the grant was made secure. 

In September, 1785, after a long absence in the service of his country 
abroad, perfecting treaties, and otherwise establishing just relations with other 
nations, the venerable Benjamin Franklin, then nearly eighty years old, feel- 
ing the infirmities of age coming upon him, asked to be relieved of the duties 
of Minister at the Court of France, and returned to Philadelphia. Soon after 
his arrival, he was elected President of the Council. Charles Biddle was 
elected Vice President. It was at this period that a citizen of Pennsylvania, 
John Fitch, secured a patent on his invention for propelling boats by steam. 
In May, 1787, the convention to frame a constitution for the United States 
met in Philadelphia. The delegation from Pennsylvania was Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Robert Morris, Thomas Mifflin, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared 
IngersoU, James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris. Upon the completion of 
their work, the instrument was submitted to the several States for adoption. A 
convention was called in Pennsylvania, which met on the 21st of November, and 
though encountering resolute opposition, it was finally adopted on the 12th of De- 
cember. On the following day, the convention, the Supreme Council and offi- 
cers of the State and city government, moved in procession to the old court 
house, where the adoption of the constitution was formally proclaimed amidst 
the booming of cannon and the ringing of bells. 

On the 5th of November, 1788, Thomas Mifflin was elected President, and 
George Ross Vice President. The constitution of the State, framed in and 
adapted to the exigencies of an emergency, was ill suited to the needs of State 


in its relations to the new nation. Accordingly, a convention assembled for 
the purpose of preparing a new constitution in November, 1789, which was 
finally adopted on September 2, 1790. By the provisions of this instrument, 
the Executive Council was abolished, and the executive duties were vested in 
the hands of a Governor. Legislation was intrusted to an Assembly and a 
Senate. The judicial system was continued, the terms of the Judges extend- 
ing through good behavior. 


Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99— Thomas McKean, 1799-1808— Simon Snyder, 1808-17— 
William Findlay, 1817-20— Joseph Heister, 1830-23— John A. Shulze, 1823 
-29— George Wolfe. 1829-35— Joseph Ritner, 1835-39. 

THE first election under the new Constitution resulted in the choice of 
Thomas Mifflin, who was re-elected for three successive terms, giving him 
the distinction of having been longer in the executive chair than any other 
person, a period of eleven years. A system of internal improvements was now 
commenced, by which vast water communications were undertaken, and a moun- 
tain of debt was accumulated, a portion of which hangs over the State to this 
day. In 1793, the Bank of Pennsylvania was chartered, one-third of the cap- 
ital stock of which was subscribed for by the State. Branches were established 
at Lancaster, Harrisburg, Beading, Easton and Pittsburgh. The branches 
were discontinued in 1810; in 1843, the stock held by the State was sold, and 
in 1857, it ceased to exist. In 1793, the yellow fever visited Phila- 
delphia. It was deadly in its effects and produced a panic unparalleled. 
Gov. Mifflin, and Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the United States Treasury, 
were attacked. " Men of affluent forl.unes, who gave daily employment and 
subsistence to hundreds, were abandoned to the csfre of a negro after their 
wives, children, friends, clerks and servants had fled away and left them to 
their fate. In some oases, at the commencement of the disorder, no money 
could procure proper attendance. Many of the poor perished without a hu- 
man being to hand them a drink of water, to administer medicines, or to per- 
form any charitable office for them. Nearly 5,000 perished by this wasting 
pestilence. " 

The whisky insurrection in some of the western counties of the State, 
which occurred in 1794, excited, by its lawlessness and wide extent, general 
interest. An act of Congress, of March 3, 1791, laid a tax on distilled spirits 
of four pence per gallon. The then counties of "Washington, Westmoreland, 
Allegheny and Fayette, comprising the southwestern quarter of the State, 
Were almost exclusively engaged in the production of grain. Being far re- 
moved from any market, the product of their farms brought them scarcely any 
Returns. The consequence was that a large proportion of the surplus grain 
was turned into distilled spirits, and nearly every other farmer was a distiller. 
This tax was seen to bear heavily upon them, from which a non-producer of 
spirits was relieved. A rash determination was formed to resist its collection, 
and a belief entertained, if all were united in resisting, it would be taken ofl. 
Frequent altercations occurred between the persons appointed United States 
Collectors and these resisting citizens. As an example, on the 5th of Septem- 


ber, 1791, a party iu disguise set upon Bobert Johnson, a Collector for Alle- 
gheny and Washington, tarred and feathered him, cut off his hair, took away 
bis horse, and left him in this plight to proceed. Writs for the arrest of the 
perpetrators were issued, but none dared to venture into the territory to serve 
them. On May 8, 1792, the law was modified, and the tax reduced. In Septem- 
ber, 1792, President Washington issued his proclamation commanding all per- 
sons to submit to the law, and to forbear from further opposition. But these meas- 
ures had no effect, and the insm-gents began to organize for forcible resist, 
ance. One Maj. Macfarlane, who in command of a party of insurrectionists, 
was killed in an encounter with United States soldiers at the house of Gen. 
Neville. The feeling now ran very high, and it was hardly safe for any per- 
son to breathe a whisper against the insurgents throughout all this district. 
" A breath," says Brackenridge, " in favor of the law, was sufficient to ruin 
any man. A clergyman was not thought orthodox in the pulpit unless against 
the law. A physician was not capable of administering medicine, unless his 
principles were right in this respect. A lawyer could get no practice, nor 
a merchant at a country store get custom if for the law. On the contrary, to 
talk against the law was the way to office and emolument. To go to the 
Legislature or to Congress you must make a noise against it. It was the Shib- 
boleth of safety and the ladder of ambition " One Bradford had, of his own 
notion, issued a circular letter to the Colonels of regiments to assemble with 
their commands at Braddock's field on the 1st of August, where they appoint- 
ed officers and moved on to Pittsburgh. After having burned a barn, and 
made some noisy demonstrations, they were induced by some cool heads to re- 
turn. These turbulent proceedings coming to the ears of the State and Na- 
tional authorities at Philadelphia, measures were concerted to promptly and 
effectually check them. Gov. Mifflin appointed Chief Justice McKean, and 
Gen. William Irvine to proceed to the disaffected district, ascertain the facts, 
and try to bring the leaders to justice. President Washington issued a proc- 
lamation commanding all persons in arms to disperse to their homes on or be- 
fore the 1st of September, proximo, and called out the militia of four States 
— Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia — to the number of 13,000 
men, to enforce his commands. The quota of Pennsylvania was 4,500 infan- 
trv, 500 cavalry, 200 artillery, and Gov. Mifflin took command in person. 
Gov. Richard Howell, of New Jersey, Gov. Thomas S. Lee, of Maryland, and 
Gen. Daniel Morgan, of Virginia, commanded the( forces from their States, 
and Gov. Henry Lee, of Virginia, was placed in chief command. President 
Washington, accompanied by Gen. Knox, Secretary of War, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, Secretary of the Treasury, and Richard Peters, of the United States Dis- 
trict Court, set out on the 1st of October, for the seat of the disturbance. On 
Friday, the President reached Harrisburg, and on Saturday Carlisle, whither 
the army had preceded him. In the meantime a committee, consisting of 
James Ross, Jasper Yeates and William Bradford, was appointed by President 
Washington to proceed to the disaffected district, and endeavor to persuade 
misguided citizens to return to their allegiance. 

A meeting of 260 delegates from the four counties was held at Parkinson's 
Ferry on the 14th of August, at which the state of their cause was considered, 
resolutions adopted, and a committee of sixty, one from each county, was ap- 
pointed, and a sub-committee of twelve was named to confer with the United 
States Commissioners, McKean and Irvine. These conferences with the State 
and National Committees were successful in arranging preliminary conditions 
of settlement. On the 2d of October, the Committee of Safety of the insur- 
gents met at Parkinson's Ferry, and having now learned that a well-organized 


army, with Washington at its head, was marching westward for enforcing 
obedience to the laws, appointed a committee of two, William Findley and 
David Eeddick, to meet the President, and assure bim that the disaffected were 
disposed to return to their duty. They met Washington at Carlisle, and sev- 
eral conferences were held, and assurances given of implicit obedience; but 
the President said that as the troops had been called out, the orders for the 
march would not be countermanded. The President proceeded forward on the 
11th of October to Chambersburg, reached Williamsport on the 13tb and Fort 
Cumberland on the 14th, where he reviewed the Virginia and Maryland forces, 
and arrived at Bedford on the 19th. Remaining a few days, and being satis- 
fied that the sentiment of the people had changed, he returned to Philadel- 
phia, arriving on the 28th, leaving Gen. Lee to meet the Commissioners and 
make such conditions of pacification as should seem just. Another meeting of 
the Committee of Safety was held at Parkinson's Ferry on the 24th, at which 
assurances of abandonment of opposition to the laws were received, and the 
same committee, with the addition of Thomas Morton and Bphriam Douglass, 
was directed to return to headquarters and give assurance of this disposition. 
They did not reach Bedford until after the departure of Washington. But at 
Uniontown they met Gen. Lee, with whom it was agreed that the citizens 
of these four counties should subscribe to an oath to support the Constitution 
and obey the laws. Justices of the Peace issued notices that books were oppned 
for subscribing to the oath, and Gen. Lee issued a judicious address urging 
ready obedience. Seeing that all requirments were being faithfully carried 
out, an order was issued on the 17th of November for the return of ttie army 
and its disbandment. A number of arrests were made and trials and convic- 
tions were had, but all were ultimately pardoned. 

With the exception of a slight ebulition at the prospect of a war with France 
in 1797, and a resistance to the operation of the " Homestead Tax " in Lehigh, 
Berks and Northampton Counties, when tlie militia was called out, the re- 
mainder of the term of Gov. Mifflin passed in comparative quiet. By an act 
of the Legislature of the 3d of April, 1799, the capital of the State was re 
moved to Lancaster, and soon after the capital of the United States to Wash- 
ington, the house on Ninth street, which had been built for the residence of the 
President of the United States, passing to the use of the University of Pennsyl- 

During the administrations of Thomas McKean, who was elected Governor 
in 1799, and Simon Snyder in 1808, little beyond heated political contests 
marked the even tenor of the government, until the breaking-out of the troub- 
les which eventuated in the war of 1812. The blockade of the coast of France 
in 1806, and the retaliatory measures of Napoleon in his Berlin decree, swept 
American commerce, which had hitherto preserved a neutral attitude and prof- 
ited by European wars, from the seas. The haughty ctmduct of Great Britain 
in boarding American vessels for suspected deserters from the British Navy, 
under cover of which the grossest outrages were committed, American seaman 
being dragged from the decks of their vessels and impressed into the English 
service, induced President Jefferson, •in July, 1807, to issue his proclamation 
ordering all British armed vessels to leave the waters of the United States, and 
forbidding any to enter, until satisfaction for the past and security for the 
future should be provided for. Upon the meeting of Congress in December, 
an embargo was laid, detaining all vessels, American and foreign, then in 
American waters, and ordering home all vessels abroad. Negotiations were 
conducted between the two countries, but no definite results were reached, and 
in the meantime causes of irritation multiplied until 1812, when President 


Madison declared war against Great Britain, known as the war of 1812. 
Pennsylyania promptly seconded the National Government, the message of 
Gov. Snyder on the occasion ringing like a silver clarion. The national call 
for 100,000 men required 14,000 from this State, but so great was the enthu- 
siasm, that several times this number tendered their services. The State force 
was organized in two divisions, to the command of the first of A^hich Maf 
Gen. Isaac Morrell was appointed, and to the second Maj. Gen. AdamsonTan- 
nehill. Gunboats and privateers were built in the harbor of Erie and on the 
Delaware, and the defenses upon the latter were put in order and suitable 
armaments provided. At Tippecanoe, at Detroit, at Queenstown Heights, at 
the Eiver Baisin, at Fort Stephenson, and at the Eiver Thames, the war was 
waged with varying success. Upon the water, Commodores Decatur, Hull, 
Jones, Perry, Lawrence, Porter and McDonough made a bright chapter in 
American history, as was to be wished, inasmuch as the war had been under- 
taken to vindicate the honor and integrity of that branch of the service. Napo- 
leon, having met with disaster, and his power having been broken, 14,000 of 
Wellington's veterans were sent to Canada, and the campaign of the next year 
was opened with vigor. But at the battles of Oswego, Chippewa, Lundy's 
Lane, Fort Erie and Plattsburg, the tide was turned against the enemy, and 
the country saved from invasion. The act which created most alarm to 
Pennsylvania was one of vandalism scarcely matched in the annals of war- 
fare. In August, 1814, Gen. Koss, with 6,000 men in a flotilla of sixty sails, 
moved up Chesapeake Bay, fired the capitol, President's house and the various 
offices of cabinet ministers, and these costly and substantial buildings, the nation- 
al library and all the records of the Government from its foundation were utterly 
destroyed. Shortly afterward, Ross appeared before Baltimore with the design 
of multiplying his barbarisms, but he was met by a force hastily collected under 
Gen. Samuel Smith, a Pennsylvania veteran of the Revolution, and in the brief 
engagement which ensued Ross was killed. In the severe battle with the 
corps of Gen Strieker, the British lost some 300 men. The fleet in the mean- 
time opened a fierce bombardment of Fort McHenry, and during the day and 
ensuing night 1,500 bombshells were thrown, but all to no purpose, the gal- 
lant defense of Maj. Armistead proving successful. It was during this awful 
night that Maj. Key, who was a prisoner on board the fleet, wrote the song of 
the Star Spangled Banner, which became the national lyric. It was in the ad- 
ministration of Gov. Snyder in February, 1810, that an act was passed making 
Harrisburg the seat of government, and a commission raised for erecting public 
buildings, the sessions of the Legislature being held in the court house at Har- 
risburg from 1812 to 1821. 

The administrations of William Findley, elected in 1817, Joseph Heister, 
in 1820, and John Andrew Schulz in 1823, followed without marked events. 
Parties became very warm in their discussions and in their management of po- 
litical campaigns. The charters for the forty banks which had been passed in 
a fit of frenzy over the veto of Gov. Snyder set a flood of paper money afloat. 
The public improvements, principally in opening lines of canal, were prose- 
cuted, and vast debts incurred. These lines of conveyances were vitally need- 
ful to move the immense products and vast resources of the State 

Previous to the year 1820, little use was made of stone coal. Judge 
Obediah Gore, a blacksmith, used it upon his forge as early as 1769, and 
found the heat stronger and more enduring than that produced by charcoal. 
In 1791, Phillip Ginter, of Carbon County, a hunter by profession, having on 
one occasion been out all day without discovering any game, was returning at 
night discouraged and worn out, across the Mauch Chunk Mountain, when, in 













































































Total Tons. 




























































6. 331,934 










11 108 































































































































































1868 ...., 

























the gathering shades he stumbled upon something which seemed to have a 
glistening appearance, that he was induced to pick np and carry home. This 
specimen was takeo to Philadelphia, where an analysis showed it to be a good 
quality of anthracite coal. But, though coal was known to exist, no one knew 
how to use it. In 1812, Col. George Shoemaker, of Schuylkill County, took 
nine wagon loads to Philadelphia. But he was looked upon as an imposter 
for attempting to sell worthless stone for coal. He finally sold two loads for 
the cost of transportation, the remaining seven proving a complete loss. In 
1812, White & Hazard, manufacturers of wire at the Falls of Schuylkill, in- 
duced an application to be made to the Legislature to incorporate a com- 
pany for the improvement of the Schuylkill, urging as an inducement the im- 
portance it would have for transporting coal; whereupon, the Senator from 
that district, in his place, with an air of knowledge, asserted "that there was 
no coal there, that there was a kind of black atone which was called coal, but 
that it would not bum." 

White & Hazard procured a cart load of Lehigh coal that cost them $1 a 
bushel, which was all wasted in a vain attempt to make it ignite. Another 
cart load was obtained, and a whole night spent in endeavoring to make a fire 
in the furnace, when the hands shut the furnace door and left the mill in de- 
spair. "Fortunately one of them left his jacket in the mill, and returning for 
it in about half an hour, noticed that the door was red hot, and upon opening 
it, was surprised at finding the whole furnace at a glowing white heat. The 
other hands were summoned, and four separate parcels of iron were heated 
and rolled by the same fire before it required renewing. The furnace was 
replenished, and as letting it alone had succeeded feo well, it was concluded to 
try it again, and the experiment was repeated with the same result. The 
Lehigh Navigation Company and the Lehigh Coal Company were incorporated 
in 1818, which companies became the basis of the Lehigh Coal and Naviga- 
tion Company, incorporated in 1822. In 1820, coal was sent to Philadelphia 
by artificial navigation, but 365 tons glutted the market." In 1825, there 
were brought by the Schuylkill 5,378 tons. In 1826, by the Schuylkill, 
10, 265 tons, and by the Lehigh 31,280 tons. The stage of water being in- 
sufficient, dams and sluices were constructed near Mauch Chunk, in 1819, by 
which the navigation was improved. The coal boats used were great square 
arks, 16 to 18 feet wide, and 20 to 25 feet long. At first, two of these were 
joined together by hinges, to allow them to yield up and down in passing over 
the dams. Finally, as the boatmen became skilled in the navigation, several 
were joined, attaining a length of 180 feet. Machinery was used for jointing 
the planks, and so expert had the men become that five would build an ark 
and launch it in forty-five minutes. After reaching Philadelphia, these boats 
were taken to pieces, the plank sold, and the hinges sent back for constructing 
others. Such were the crude methods adopted in the early days for bringing 
coal to a market. In 1827, a railroad was commenced, which was completed 
in three months, nine miles in length. This, with the exception of one at 
Quincy, Mass., of four miles, built in 1826, was the first constructed in the 
United States. The descent was 100 feet per mile, and the coal descended by 
gravity in a half hour, and the cars were drawn back by mules, which rode 
down with the coal. "The mules cut a most grotesque figure, standing three 
or four together, in their cars, with their feeding troughs before them, appar- 
ently surveying with delight the scenery of the mountain; and though they 
preserve the most profound gravity, it is utterly impossible for the spectator 
to maintain his. It is said that the mules, having once experienced the com- 
fort of riding down, regard it as a right, and neither mild nor severe measures 


will induce them to descend in any other way." Bituminous coal was discov- 
ered and its qualities utilized not much earlier than the anthracite. A tract 
of coal land was taken up in Clearfield County in 1785, by Mr. S. Boyd, and 
in 1804 he sent an ark down the Susquehanna to Columbia, which caused 
much surprise to the inhabitants that " an article with which they were wholly 
unacquainted should be brought to their own doors." 

During the administrations of George Wolf, elected in 1829, and Joseph 
Kitner, elected in 1835, a measure of great beneficence to the State was passed 
and brought into a good degree of successful operation — nothing less than a 
broad system of public education. Schools had been early established in 
Philadelphia, and parochial schools in the more populous portions of the 
State from the time of early settlement. In 1749, through the influence of 
Dr. Franklin, a charter was obtained for a "college, academy, and charity 
school of Pennsylvania," and from this time to the beginning of the present 
century, the friends of education were earnest in establishing colleges, the 
Colonial Government, and afterward the Legislature, making liberal grants 
from the revenues accruing from the sale of lands for their support, the uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania being chartered in 1752, Dickinson College in 1783, 
Pranklin and Marshall College in 1787, and Jefferson College in 1802. Com- 
mencing near the beginning of this century, and continuing for over a period 
of thirty years, vigorous exertions were put forth to establish county acad- 
emies. Charters were granted for these institutions at the county seats of 
forty-one counties, and appropriations were made of money, varying from 
•$2,000 to 16,000, and in several instances of quite extensive land grants. In 
1809, an act was passed for the education of the "poor, gratis." The Asses- 
sors in their annual rounds were to make a record of all such as were indi- 
gent, and pay for their education in the most convenient schools. But few 
were found among the spirited inhabitants of the commonwealth willing to 
admit that they were so poor as to be objects of charity. 

By the act of April 1, 1884, a general system of education by common 
Bchools was established. Unfortunately it was complex and unwieldy. At the 
next session an attempt was made to repeal it, and substitute the old law of 
1809 for educating the "poor, gratis," the repeal having been carried in the 
Senate. But through the appeals of Thaddeus Stevens, a man alwa^^s in the 
van in every movement for the elevation of mankind, this was defeated. At 
the next session, 1836, an entirely new bill, discarding the objectionable feat- 
ures of the old one, was prepared by Dr. George Smith, of Delaware County, 
and adopted, and from this time forward has been in efficient operation. It may 
seem strange that so long a time should have elapsed before a general system of 
education should have been secured. But the diversity of origin and lan- 
guage, the antagonism of religious seats, the very great sparseness of popula- 
t^ion in many parts, made it impossible at an earlier day to establish schools. 
In 1854, the system was improved by engrafting upon it the feature of the 
County Suporiutendency, and in 1859 by providing for the establishment- of 
twelvfc) Normal Schools, in as many districts into which the State was divided, 
for the professional training of teacher^ 



David R. Portek, 1839-45— rBANcis R. Shunk, 1845-48— William F. Johnstone 
1848-53— William Bigler, 1852-55— James Pollock, 1855-5»— William F. 
Packer, 1858-61 —Andrew G. Curtin, 1861-67— John W. Geary, 1867-73— 
John F. Hartranft, 1873-78— Henry F. Hoyt, 1878-82— Robert E. Pat- 

TISON, 1882. 

IN 1837, a convention assembled in Harrisburg, and subsequently in Philadel- 
phia, for revising the constitution, which revision was adopted by a vote of 
the people. One of the chief objects of the change was the breaking up of 
what was known as "omnibus legislation," each bill being required to have 
but one distinct subject, to be definitely stated in the title. Much of the pat- 
ronage of the Governor was taken from him, and he was allowed but two terms 
of three years in any nine years. The Senator's term was fixed at three years. 
The terms of Supreme Court Judges were limited to fifteen years. Common 
Pleas Judges to ten, and Associate Judges to five. A step backward was taken 
in limiting suffrage to white male citizens twenty-one years old, it having pre- 
viously been extended to citizens irrespective of color. Amendments could be 
proposed once in five years, and if adopted by two successive Legislatures^ 
and approved by a vote of the people, they became a part of the organic law. 
At the opening of the gubernatorial term of David E. Porter, who was 
chosen in October, 1838, a civil commotion occurred known as the Buckshot 
War, which at one time threatened a sanguinary result. By the returns, 
Porter had some 5,000 majority over Ritner, but the latter, who was the in- 
cumbent, alleged frauds, and proposed an investigation and revision of the 
returns. Thomas H. Burrows was Secretary of State, and Chairman of the 
State Committee of the Anti-Masonic party, and in an elaborate address to the 
people setting forth the grievance, he closed with the expression " let us treat 
the election as if we had not been defeated. " This expression gave great 
ofiense to the opposing party, the Democratic, and public feeling ran high 
before the meeting of the Legislature. Whether an investigation could be had 
would depend upon the political complexion of that body. The Senate was 
clearly Anti-Masonic, and the House would depend upon the Representatives of 
a certain district in Philadelphia, which embraced the Northern Liberties. 
The returning board of this district had a majority of Democrats, who pro- 
ceeded to throw out the entire vote of Northern Liberties, for some alleged 
irregularities, and gave the certificate to Democrats. Whereupon, the minor- 
ity of the board assembled, and counted the votes of the Northern Liberties, 
which gave the election to the Anti-Masonic candidates, and sent certificates 
accordingly. By right and justice, there is no doubt that the Anti- Masons 
were fairly elected. But the majority of a returning board alone have 
authority to make returns, and the Democrats had the certificates which bore 
prima facie evidence of being correct, and should have been received and 
transmitted to the House, where alone rested the authority to go behind the 
returns and investigate their correctness. But upon the meeting of the House 
the Secretary of the Commonwealth sent in the certificates of the minority of 
the returning board of the Northern Liberties district, which gave the majbr- 
i'^y to the Anti -Masons. But the Democrats were not disposed to submit, and 


the consequence was that two delegations from the disputed district appeared, 
demanding seats, and upon the organization, two Speakers were elected and 
took the platform — Thomas S. Cunningham for the Anti-Masons, and Will- 
iam Hopkins for the Democrats. At this stage of the game, an infuriated 
lobby, collected from Philadelphia and surrounding cities, broke into the 
two Houses, and, interrupting all business, threatened the lives of members, 
and compelled them to seek safety in flight, when they took uncontrolled pos- 
session of the chambers and indulged in noisy and impassioned harangues. 
From the capitol, the mob proceeded to the court house, where a ' ' committee 
of safety ' ' was appointed. For several days the members dared not enter 
either House, and when one of the parties of the House attempted to assemble, 
the person who had been appointed to act as Speaker was forcibly ejected. All 
business was at an end, and the Executive and State Departments were closed. 
At this juncture. Gov. Bitner ordered out the militia, and at the same time 
called on the United States authorities for help. The militia, under Gens. 
Pattison and Alexander, came promptly to the rescue, but the President refused 
to furnish the National troops, though the United States storekeeper at the 
Frankf ord Arsenal turned over a liberal supply of ball and buckshot cartridges. . 
The arrival of the militia only served to fire the spirit of the lobby, and they 
immediately commenced drilling and organizing, supplying themselves with 
arms and fixed ammunition. The militia authorities were, however, able to 
clear the capitol, when the two Houses assembled, and the Senate signified the 
willingness to recognize that branch of the House presided over by Mr. Hop- 
kins. This ended the diflSculty, and Gov. Porter was duly inaugurated. 

Francis R. Shunk was chosen Governor in 1845, and during his term of 
office the war with Mexico occurred. Two volunteer regimente, one under 
command of Col. Wynkoop, and the other under Col. Eoberis, subsequently 
Col. John W. Geary, were sent to the field, while the services of a. much 
larger number were offered, but could not be received. Toward the close of 
his first term, having been reduced by sickness, and feeling his end approach- 
ing, Gov. Shunk resigned, and was succeeded by the Speaker of the Senate, 
William F. Johnston, who was duly chosen at the next annual election. Dur- 
ing the administrations of William Bigler, elected in 1851, James Pollock in 
1854, and William F. Packer in 1857, little beyond the ordinary course of 
events marked the history of the State. The lines of public works undertaken 
at the expense of the State were completed. Their cost had been enormous, 
and a debt was piled up against it of over $40,000,000. These works, vastly 
expensive, were still to operate and keep in repair, and the revenues therefrom 
failing to meet expectations, it was determined in the administration of Gov. 
Pollock to sell them to the highest bidder, the Pennsylvania Eailroad Com- 
pany purchasing them for the sum of $7,500,000. 

In the administration of Gov. Packer, petroleum was first discovered in 
quantities in this country by boring into the bowels of the earth. From the 
earliest settlement of the country it was known to exist. As early as July 18, 
1627. a French missionary, Joseph Delaroche Daillon, of the order of Eeool- 
lets, described it in a letter published in 1632, in Segard's L'Histoire du 
Canada, and this description is confirmed by the journal of Charlevois, 1721. 
Fathers Dollier and Galinee, missionaries of the order of St. Sulpice, made a 
map of this section of country, which they sent to Jean Talon, Intendent of 
Canada, on the 10th of November, 1670, on which was marked at about the 
point where is now the town of Cuba, N. Y. , "Fontaine de Bitume." The 
Earl of Belmont, Governor of New York, instructed his chief engineer, 
Wolfgang W. Romer, on September 3, 1700, in his visit to the Six Nations, 


" To go and view a well or spring which is eight miles beyond the Seneks' 
farthest castle, which they have told me blazes up in a flame, when a lighted 
■coale or firebrand is put into it; you will do well to taste the said water, and 
give me your opinion thereof, and bring with you some of it." Thomas Cha- 
bert de Joncaire, who died in September, 1740, is mentioned in the journal of 
Obarlevoix of 1721 as authority for the existence of oil at the place mentioned 
above, and at points further south, probably on Oil Creek. The following 
account of an event occurring during the occupancy of this part of the State 
by the French is given as an example of the religious uses made of oil by the 
Indians, as these fire dances are understood to have been annually celebrated: 
■'While descending the Allegheny, fifteen leagues below the mouth of the 
Connewango (Warren) and three above Fort Venango (Oil City), we were 
invited by the chief of the Seneeas to attend a religious ceremony of his tribe. 
We landed and drew up our canoes on a point where a small stream entered 
the river. The tribe appeared unusually solemn. We marched up the stream 
about a half a league, where the company, a large band it appeared, had 
arrived some days before us. Gigantic hills begirt us on every side. The 
scene was really sublime. The great chief then recited the conquests and 
heroisms of their ancestors. The surface of the stream was covered with a 
thick scum, which bluest into a complete conflagration. The oil had been 
gathered and lighted with a torch. At sight of the flames, the Indians gave 
forth a triumphant shout, and made the hills and valley re-echo again." 

In nearly all geographies and notes of travel published during the early 
period of settlement, this oil is referred to, and on several maps the word petro- 
leum appears opposite the mouth of Oil Creek. Gen. Washington, in his will, 
in speaking of his lands on the Great Kanawha, says: " The tract of which the 

125 acres is a moiety, was taken up by Gen. Andrew Lewis and myself, for and 
on account of a bituminous spring which it contains of so inflammable a nat- 
ure as to burn as freely as spirits, and is as nearly difiScult to extinguish." 
Mr. Jefierson, in his Notes on Virginia, also gives an account of a burning 
spring on the lower grounds of the Great Kanawha. This oil not only seems 
to have been kuown, but to have been systematically gathered in very early 
times. Upon the flats a mile or so below the city of Titusville are many acres 
of cradle holes dug out and lined with split logs, evidently constructed for 
the purpose of gathering it. The fact that the earliest inhabitants could 
never discover any stumps from which these logs were cut, and the further fact 
that trees are growing of giant size in the midst of these cradles, are evidences 
that they must have been operated long ago. It could not have been the work 
of any of the nomadic Indian tribes found here at the coming of the white 
man, for they were never known to undertake any enterprise involving so 
much labor, and what could they do with the oil when obtained. 

The French could hardly have done the work, for we have no account of 
the oil having been obtained in quantities, or of its being transported to 
France. May this not have been the work of the Mound-Builders, or of colo- 
nies from Central America? When the writer first visited these pits, in 1855, 
he found a spring some distance below Titusville, on Oil Creek, where the 
water was conducted into a trough, from which, daily, the oil, floating on its 
surface, was taken off by throwing a woolen blanket upon it, and then wring- 
ing it into a tub, the clean wool absorbing the oil and rejecting the water, and 
in this way a considerable quantity was obtained. 

In 1859, Mr. E. L. Drake, at first representing a company in New York, 
commenced drilling near the spot where this tub was located, and when the 
company would give him no more money, straining his own resources, and his 


credit with his friends almost to the breaking point, and when about to give 
up in despair, finally struck a powerful current of pure oil. From this time 
forward, the territory down the valley of Oil Creek and np all its tributaries 
was rapidly acquired and developed for oil land. In some places, the oil was 
sent up with immense force, at the rate of thousands of barrels each day, and 
great trouble was experienced in bringing it under control and storing it. In 
some cases, the force of the gas was so powerful on being accidentally fired, 
as to defy all approach for many days, and lighted up the forests at night 
with billows of light. 

The oil has been found in paying quantities in McKean, Warren, Forest, 
Crawford, Venango, Clarion, Butler and Armshrong Counties, chiefly along 
the upper waters of the Allegheny Eiver and its tributary, the Oil Creek. It 
was first transported in barrels, and teams were kept busy from the first dawn 
until far into the night. As soon as practicable, lines of railway were con- 
structed from nearly all the trunk lines. Finally barrels gave place to im- 
mense iron tanks riveted upon cars, provided for the escape of the gases, and 
later great jpipe lines were extended from the wells to the seaboard, and to the 
Great Lakes, through which the fluid is forced by steam to its distant destina- 
tions Its principal uses are for illumination and lubricating, though many 
of its products are employed in the mechanic arts, notably for dyeing, mixing 
of paints, and in the practice of medicine. Its production has grown to be 
enormous, and seems as yet to show no sign of diminution. We give an ex- 
hibit of the annual production since its discovery, compiled for this ^ork by 
William 11. Siviter, editor of the Oil City Derrick, which is the acknowledged 
authority on oil matters: 

Production of the Pennsylvania Oil Fields, compiled from the Derrick'^ 
Hand-book, December, 1883: 

Barrela Barrels. 

1859 83,000 1873 9,849,508 

1860 500,000 1874 11,102.114 

1861 8,113,000 1875 8,948,749 

1862 3,056,606 1876 9,142,940 

1863 2,611,399 1877 18,052,713 

1864 2,116,182 1878 15,011,425 

1865 3.497,712 1879 20.085,716 

1866 8,.597,512 1880 24,788,950 

1867 3,347,306 1881 29,674,458 

1868 3,715,741 1882 31,789,190 

1869 4,186,475 1883 24,385,966 

1870 5,308,046 

1871 5,278,076 A grand total of 243,749,558 

1872 6,505,774 

In the fall of 1860, Andrew G. Curtin was elected Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Abraham Lincoln President of the United States. An organized 
rebellion, under the specious name of secession, was thereupon undertaken, 
embracing parts of fifteen States, commonly designated the Slave States, and 
a government established "under the name of the Confederate States of America, 
with an Executive and Congress, which commenced the raising of troops for 

On the 12th of April, an attack was made upon a small garrison of United 
States troops shut up in Fort Sumter. This was rightly interpreted as the 
first act in a great drama. On the 15th, the President summoned 75,000 vol- 
unteers to vindicate the national authority, calling for sixteen regiments from 
Pennsylvania, and urging that two be sent forward immediately, as the capital 
was without defenders. 

The people of the State, having no idea that war could be possible, had no 


preparation for the event, There chanced at the time to be five companies in 
a tolerable state of organization. These were the Ringold Light Artillery, 
Capt. McKnight, of Reading; the Logan Guards, Oapt. Selheimer, of Lewis- 
town ; the Washington Artillery, Capt. Wren, and the National Light Infan- 
try, Capt. McDonald, of Pottsville; and the Allen Rifles, Capt. Yeager, of 

On the 18th, in oonjunctibn with a company of fifty regulars, on their way 
from the West to Port MoHenry, under command of Capt, Pemberton, after- 
ward Lieut. Gen. Pemberton, of the rebel army, these troops moved by rail 
for Washington. At Baltimore, they were obliged to march two milesthrough 
a jeering and insulting crowd. At the center of the city, the regulars filed 
ofi" toward Fort McHenry, leaving the volunteers to pursue their way alone, 
when the crowd of maddened people were excited to redoubled insults. In the 
whole battalion there was not a charge of powder; but a member of the Logan 
Guards, who chanced to have a box of percussion caps in his pocket, had dis- 
tributed them to his comrades, who carried their pieces capped and half 
cocked, creating the impression that they were loaded and ready for service. 
This ruse undoubtedly saved the battalion from the murderous assault made 
upon the Massachusetts Sixth on the following day. Before leaving, they were 
pelted with stones and billets of wood while boarding the cars; but, fortu- 
nately, none were seriously injured, and the train finally moved away and 
reached Washington in safety, the first troops to come to the unguarded and 
imperiled capitaL 

Instead of sixteen, twenty-five regiments were organized for the three months' 
service from Pennsylvania. Judging from the threatening attitude assumed 
by the rebels across the Potomac that the southern frontier would be con- 
stantly menaced. Gov. Curtin sought permission to organize a select corps, 
to consist of thirteen regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery, 
and to be known as the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, which the Legislature, in 
special session, granted. This corps of 15,000 men was speedily raised, and the 
intention of the State authorities was to keep this body permamently within 
the limits of the Commonwealth for defense. But at the time of the First 
Bull Run disaster in July, 1861, the National Government found itself with- 
out troops to even defend the capital, the time of the three months' men being 
now about to expire, and at its urgent call this fine body was sent forward and 
never again returned for the execution of the duty for which it was formed, 
having borne the brunt of the fighting on many a hard- fought field during the 
three years of its service. 

In addition to the volunteer troops furnished in response to the several 
calls of the President, upon the occasion of the rebel invasion of Maryland in 
September, 1862, Gov. Curtin called 50,000 men for the emergency, and 
though the time was very brief, 25,000 came, were organized under command 
of Gen. John F. Reynolds, and were marched to the border. But the battle of 
Antietam, fought on the 17th of September, caused-the enemy to beat a hasty 
retreat, and the border was relieved when the emergency troops were dis- 
banded and returned to their homes. On the 19th of October, Gen. J. E. B. 
Stewart, of the rebel army, with 1,800 horsemen under command of Hampton, 
Lee and Jones, crossed the Potomac and made directly for Chambersburg, 
arriving after dark. Not waiting for morning to attack, he sent in a flag of 
truce demanding the surrender of the town. There were 275 Union soldiers in 
hospital, whom he paroled. During the night, the troopers were busy picking 
up horses — swapping horses perhaps it should be called — and the morning saw 
them early on the move. The rear guard gave notice before leaving to re- 


move all families from the neighborhood of the public buildings, as they in- 
tended to fire them. There was a large amount of fixed ammunition in them, 
which had been captured from Longslreet's train, besides Government stores 
of shoes, clothing and muskets. At 11 o'clock the station house, round house, 
railroad machine shops and warehouses were fired and consigned to 
destruction. The fire department was promptly out; but it was dangerous to 
approach the burning buildings on account of the ammunition, and all 

The year 1862 was one of intense excitement and activity. From about the 
1st of May, 1861, to the end of 1862, there were recruited in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, one hundred and eleven regiments, including eleven of cavalry and 
three of artillery, for three years' service; twenty-five regiments for three months; 
seventeen for nine months; fifteen of drafted militia; and twenty -five called out 
for the emergency, an aggregate of one huQdred and ninety- three regiments — a 
grand total of over 200,000 men — ^a great army in itself. 

In June, 1863, Gen. ttobert E. Lee, with his entire army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, invaded Pennsylvania. The Army of the Potomac, under Gen. Joseph 
Hooker, f ollo\yed. The latter was superseded on the 28th of June by Gen. George 
G. Meade. The vanguards of the army met a mile or so out of Gettysburg on the 
Chambersburg pike on the morning of the 1st of July. Hill's corps of the 
rebel army was held in check by the sturdy fighting of a small division of 
cavalry under Gen. Buford until 10 o'clock, when Gen. Reynolds came to his 
relief with the First Corps. While bringing his forces into action, Reynolds 
was killed, and the command devolved on Gen. Abner Doubleday, and the 
fighting became terrible, the Union forces being greatly outnumbered. At 2 
o'clock in the afternoon, the Eleventh Corps, Gen. O. O. Howard, came to the 
support of the First. But now the corps of Ewell had joined hands with Hill, 
and a full two-thirds of the entire rebel army was on the field, opposed by 
only the two weak Union corps, in an inferior position. A sturdy fight was 
however maintained until 5 o'clock, when the Union forces withdrew through 
the town, and took position upon rising ground covering the Baltimore pike. 
During the night the entire Union army came up, with the exception of the 
Sixth Corps, and took position, and at 2 o'clock in the morning Gert. Meade 
and staff came on the field. During the morning hours, and until 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, the two armies were getting into position for the desperate 
struggle. The Third Corps, Gen. Sickles, occupied the extreme left, his corps 
abutting on the Little Round Top at the Devil's Den, and reaching, en echelon, 
through the rugged ground to the Peach Orchard, and thence along the Em- 
mettsburg pike, where it joined the Second Corps, Gen. Hancock, reaching 
over Cemetery Hill, the Eleventh Corps, Gen. Howard, the First, Gen. Double- 
day, and the Twelfth, Gen. Slocum, reaching across Gulp's Hill — the whole 
crescent shape. To this formation the rebel army conformed, Longstreet op- 
posite the Union left. Hill opposite the center, and Ewell opposite the Union 
right. At 4 P. M. the battle was opened by Longstreet, on the extreme left of 
Sickles, and the fighting became terrific, the rebels making strenuous efforts 
to gain Little Round Top. But at the opportune moment a part of the Fifth 
Corps, Gen. Sykes, was brought upon that key position, and it was saved to 
the Union side. The slaughter in front of Round Top at the wheat-field and 
the Peach Orchard was fearful. The Third Corps was driven back from its 
advanced position, and its commander. Gen. Sickles, was wounded, losing a 
leg. In a more contracted position, the Union line was made secure, where it 
rested for the night. Just at dusk, the Louisiana Tigers, some 1,800 men, 
made a desperate charge on Cemetery Hill, emerging suddenly from a hillock 


just back of the town. The struggle was desperate, but the Tigers being 
weakened by the fire of the artillery, and by the infantry crouching behind thy 
stone wall, the onset was checked, and Carroll's brigade, of the Second Corps, 
coming to the rescue, they were finally beaten back, terribly decimated. At 
about the same time, a portion of Ewell's corps made an advance on the ex- 
treme Union right, at a point where the troops had been withdrawn to send to 
the support of vSickles, and unopposed, gained the extremity of Culp's Hill, 
pushing through nearly to the Baltimore pike, in dangerous proximity to the 
reserve artillery and trains, and even the headquarters of the Union com- 
mander. But in their attempt to roll up the Union right they were met by 
Green's brigade of the Twelfth Corps, and by desperate fighting their further 
progress was stayed. Thus ended the battle of the second day. The Union left 
and right had been sorely jammed and pushed back. 

At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 3d of July, Gen. Geary, who had been 
ordered away to the support of Sickles, having returned during the night and 
taken position on the right of Green, opened the battle for the recovery of his 
lost breastworks on the right of Culp's Hill. Until 10 o'clock, the battle raged 
with unabated fury. The heat was intolerable, and the sulphurous vapor 
hung like a pall over the combatants, shutting out the light of day. The 
fighting was in the midst of the forest, and the echoes resounded with fearful 
distinctness. The Twelfth Corps was supported by portions of the Sixth, 
which had now come up. At length the enemy, weakened and finding them- 
selves overborne on all sides, gave way, and the Union breastworks were re- 
occupied and the Union right made entirely secure. Comparative quiet now 
reigned on either side until 2 o'clock in the afternoon, in the meantime both 
sides bringing up fresh troops and repairing damages. The rebel leader hav- 
ing brought his best available artillery in upon his right center, suddenly 
opened with 150 pieces a concentric fire upon the devoted Union left center, 
where stood the troops of Hancock and Doubleday and Sickles. The shock 
was terrible. Earely has such a cannonade been known on any field. For 
nearly two hours it was continued. Thinking that the Union line had been 
broken and demoralized by this fire, Longstreet brought out a fresh corps of 
some 18,000 men, under Pickett, and charged full upon the point which had 
been the mark for the cannonade. As soon as this charging column came into 
view, the Union artillery opened upon it from right and left and center, and 
rent it with fearful effect. When come within musket range, the Union 
troops, who had been crouching behind slight pits and a low stone wall, 
poured in a most murderous fire. Still the rebels pushed forward with a bold 
face, and actually crossed the Union lines and had their hands on the Union 
guns. But the slaughter was too terrible to withstand. The killed and 
wounded lay scattered over all the plain. Many were gathered in as prisoners. 
Finally, the remnant staggered back, and the battle of Gettysburg was at an 

Gathering all in upon his fortified line, the rebel chieftain fell to strength- 
ening it, which he held with a firm hand. At night-fall, he put his trains 
with the wounded upon the retreat. During the 4th, great activity in build 
ing works was manifest, and a heavy skirmish line was kept well out, which, 
resolutely met any advance of Union forces. The entire fighting force of the 
rebel army remained in position behind their breastworks on Oak Eidge, until 
nightfall of the 4th, when, under cover of darkness, it was withdrawn, and 
before morning was well on its way to Williamsport. The losses on the Union 
side were 2,834 killed, 13,709 wounded, and 6,643 missing, an aggregate of 
23,186. Of the losses of the enemy, no adequate returns were made. Meade 


reports 13,621 prisoneis taken, and the losses by killed and wounded must 
have been greater than on the Union side. On the rebel side, Maj. Gens. 
Hood, Pender, Trimble and Heth were wounded, Pender mortally. Brig. 
Gens. Barksdale and Garnett were killed, and Semms mortally wounded. 
Brig. Gens. Kemper, Armistead, Scales, G. T. Anderson, Hampton, J. M. 
Jones and Jenkins were wounded; Archer was taken prisoner and Pettigrew 
was wounded and subsequently killed at Falling Waters. In the Union army 
Maj. Gen. Reynolds and Brig. Gens. Vincent, Weed, Willard and Zook were 
killed. Maj. Gens. Sickles, Hancock, Doubleday, Gibbon, Barlow, Warren 
and Butterfield, and Brig. Gens. Graham, Paul, Stone, Barnes and Brooke 
were wounded. A National Cemetery was secured on the center of the field, 
where, as soon as the weather would permit, the dead were gathered and care- 
fully interred. Of the enLire number interred, 3,512, Maine had 104; New 
Hampshire, 49; Vermont, 61; Massachusetts, 159; Rhode Island, 12; Con- 
necticut, 22; New York, 867; New Jersey, 78; Pennsylvania, 534; Delaware, 
15; Maryland, 22; West Virginia, 11; Ohio, 131; Indiana, 80; Illinois, 6; 
Michigan, 171; Wisconsin, 73; Minnesota, 52; United States Regulars, 138; 
unknown, 979. In the center of the field, a noble monument has been erect- 
ed, and on the 19th of November, 1864, the ground was formally dedicated, 
when the eminent orator, Edward Everett, delivered an oration, and President 
Lincoln delivered the following dedicatory address: 

" Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this conti- 
nent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that 
all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing 
whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long en- 
dure. We are met on a great battle field of that war. We are met to dedi- 
cate a portion of it as the final resting place of those who here gave their 
lives that this nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we 
should do this. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot conse- 
crate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who 
struggled here have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. 
The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can 
never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedi- 
cated here to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly carried on. 
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — 
that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for which 
they here gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve 
that the dead shall not have died in vain; that the nation shall, under God, 
have a new birth of freedom, and that the government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.'' 

So soon as indications pointed to a possible invasion of the North by the 
rebel army under Gen. Lee, the State of Pennsylvania was organized in two 
military departments, that of the Susquehanna, to the command of which 
Darius N. Couch was assigned, with headquarters at Harrieburg, and that of 
the Monongahela, under W. T. H. Brooks, with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 
Urgent calls for the militia were made, and large numbers in regiments, in 
companies, in squadrons came promptly at the call to the number of over 36,- 
000 men, who were organized for a period of ninety days. Fortifications 
were thrown up to cover Harrisburg and Pittsburgh, and the troops were moved 
to threatened points. But before they could be brought into action, the great 
decisive conflict had been fought, and the enemy driven from northern soil. 
Four regiments under Gen. Brooks were moved into Ohio to aid in arresting a 
raid undertaken by John Morgan, who, with 2,000 horse and four guns, had 
crossed the Ohio River for a diversion in favor of Lee. s 


In the beginning of July, 1864, Gen. Early invaded Maryland, and made 
his way to the threshold of Washington. Fearing another invasion of the 
State, Gov. Curtin called for volunteers to serve for 100 days. Gen. Couch 
was still at the head of the department of the Susquehanna, and six regiments 
and six companies were organized, but as fast as organized they were called to 
the front, the last regiment leaving the State on the 29th of July. On the 
evening of this day, Gens. McCausland, Bradley Johnson and Harry Gilmore, 
with 3,000 mounted men and six guns, crossed the Potomac, and made their 
way to Chambersburg. Another column of 3,000, under Vaughn and Jackson 
advanced to Hagerstown, and a third to Leitersburg. Averell, with a small 
force, was at Hagerstown, but finding himself over-matched withdrew through 
Greencastle to Mount Hope. Lieat. McLean, with fifty men in front of Mc- 
Causland, gallantly kept his face to the foe, and checked the advance at every 
favorable point. On being apprised of their coming, the public stores at Cham- 
bersburg were moved northward. At six A. M. , McCausland opened his bat- 
teries upon the tovm, but, finding it unprotected, took possession. Ringing the 
court house bell to call the people together, Capt. Fitzhugh read an order to 
the assembly, signed by Gen. Jubal Early, directing the command to proceed 
to Chambersburg and demand $100,000 in gold, or $500,000 in greenbacks, 
and, if not paid, to burn the town. While this parley was in progress, hats, 
caps, boots, watches, clothing and valuables were unceremoniously appropriated, 
and purses demanded at the point of the bayonet. As money was not in hand 
to meet so unexpected a draft, the torch was lighted. In less than a quarter 
of an hour from the time the first match was applied, the whole business part 
of the town was in flames. No notice was given for removing the women and 
children and sick. Burning parties were sent into each quarter of the town, 
which made thorough work. With the exception of a few houses upon the 
outskirts, the whole was laid in ruins. Retiring rapidly, the entire rebel 
command recrossed the Potomac before any adequate force could be gathered 
to check its progress. 

The whole number of soldiers recruited under the various calls for troops 
from the State of Pennsylvania was 366,000. By authority of the common- 
wealth, in 1866, the commencement was made of the publication of a history 
of these volunteer organizations, embracing a brief historical account of the 
part taken by each regiment and independent body in every battle in which it 
was engaged, with the name, rank, date of muster, period for which he en- 
listed, casualties, and fate of every officer and private. This work was com- 
pleted in 1872, in five imperial octavo volumes of over 1,400 pages each. 

In May, 1861, the Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania, an organiza- 
tion of the officers of the Revolutionary war and their descendants, donated 
$500 toward arming and equipping troops. By order of the Legislature, 
this sum was devoted to procuring flags for the regiments, and each organiza- 
tion that went forth, was provided with one emblazoned with the arms of the 
conxmonwealth. These flags, seamed and battle stained, were returned at the 
close of the war, and are now preserved in a room devoted to the purpose in 
the State capitol — precious emblems of the daring and suffering of that great 
army that went forth to uphold and maintain the integrity of the nation. 

When the war was over, the State undertook the charge of providing for 
all soldiers' orphans in schools located in different parts of its territory, fur- 
nishing food, clothing, instruction and care, until they should be grown to 
manhood and womanhood. The number thus gathered and cared for has been 
some 7,500 annually, for a period of nineteen years, at an average annual ex- 
pense of some $600,000. 


At the election in 1866, John W. Geary, a veteran General of the late war, 
was chosen Governor. During his administration, settlements were made with 
the General Government, extraordinary debts incurred diiring the war were 
paid, and a large reduction of the old debt of $40,000,000 inherited from the 
construction of the canals, was made. A convention for a revision of the con- 
stitution was ordered by act of April 11, 1872. This convention assembled in 
Harrisburg November 13, and adjourned to meet in Philadelphia, where it 
convened on the 7th of January, 1878, and the instrument framed was adopted 
on the 18th of December, 1873. By its provisions, the number of Senators 
was increased from thirty-three to fifty, and Representatives from 100 to 201, 
subject to further increase in proportion to increase of population; biennial, 
in place of annual sessions; making the term of Supreme Court Judges twenty- 
one in place of fifteen years; remanding a large class of legislation to the ac- 
tion of the courts; making the term of Governor four years in place of three, 
and prohibiting special legislation, were some of the changes provided for. 

In January, 1878, John F. Hartranft became Governor, and at the election 
in 1878, Henry P. Hoyt was chosen Governor, both soldiers of the late war. 
In the summer of 1877, by concert of action of the employes on the several 
lines of railway in the State, trains were stopped and travel and traffic were in- 
terrupted for several days together. At Pittsburgh, conflicts occurred between 
the railroad men and the militia, and a vast amount of property was destroyed. 
The opposition to the local military was too powerful to be controlled, and 
the National Government was appealed to for aid. A force of regulars was 
promptly ordered out, and the rioters finally quelled. Unfortunately, Gov. 
Hartranft was absent from the State at the time of the troubles. 

At the election in 1882, Robert E. Pattison was chosen Governor, who is the 
present incumbent. The Legislature, which met at the opening of 1888,having 
adjourned after a session of 156 days, without passing a Congressional appor- 
tionment bill, as was required, was immediately reconvened in extra session by 
the Governor, and remained in session until near the close of the year, from 
June 1 to December 5, without coming to an agreement upon a bill, and 
finally adjourned without having passed one. This protracted sitting is in 
marked contrast to the session of that early Assembly in which an entire con- 
stitution and laws of the province were framed and adopted in the space of 
three days. 





Thomas Mifflin 27,725 

Arthur St. Olair 2,802 


Thomas Mifflin 18,590 

F. A. Muhlenberg 10,706 


Thomas Mifflin 30,020 

F. A. Muhlenberg 1,011 


Thomas McKean 38,036 

James Boss 32,641 


Thomas MoKean 47,879 

James Boss, of Pittsburgh 9,499 

James Ross 7,538 


Simon Snyder 67,975 

James Ross 39,575 

John Spayd 4,006 

W. Shields 2 

Charles Nice 1 

Jack Rosa 2 

W. Tilghman 1 


Simon Snyder 52,319 

WUliam Tighlman 3,609 

Scatt'ring,no record for whom 1,675 


Simon Snyder 51,099 

Isaac Wayne 29,566 

G. Lattimer 910 

J. R. Rust 4 


William Findlay 66,331 

Joseph Hiester 69,272 

Moses Palmer 1 

Aaron Hanson 1 

John Seffer -. 1 

Seth Thomas 1 

Nicholas Wiseman 3 

Benjamin R. Morgan 2 

William Tilghman 1 

Andrew Gregg 1 


Joseph Hiester 67,905 

William Findlay 66,300 

Scattering (no record) 21 


J. Andrew Shulze 81,751 

Andrew Gregg. 64,151 

Andrew Shulze 112 

John Andrew Shulze 7,311 

Andrew Gragg 63 

Andrew Greg 1 

John A. Shulze 764 

Nathaniel B. Boileau 3 

Cant. Glosseader 3 

John Gassender 1 

Isaac Wayne 1 

George Bryan 1 


J. Andrew Shulze 72,710 

John Sergeant,, 1,175 

Scattering (no record) 1,174 


George Wolf 78,219 

Joseph Eitner 51,776 

George E. Baum 6 

Frank R. Williams 8 


George Wolf 91,335 

Joseph Ritner 88,165 


Joseph Eitner 94,023 

GoorgeWolf. 65,804 

Henry A. Muhlenberg 40,586 


David R. Porter 127,827 

Joseph Ritner 122,321 


David R. Porter 136,504 

John Banks 113,473 

T, J, Lemoyne 763 

George F, Horton 18 

Samuel L, Carpenter 4 

Ellis Lewis I 


Francis R, Shunk 160,322 

Joseph Markle 156,040 

Julius J, Lemoyne 10 

John Haney 2 

James Page 1 


Francis R, Shunk 146,081 

James Irvln 128,148 

Emanuel 0, Relgart 11,247 

F. J. Lemoyne 1,861 

George M. Eeim 1 

Ab^an Morrison 3 


William F, Johnston 168,522 

Morris Longstreth 168,225 

E, B, Gazzam 48 

Scattering (no record) 24 


William Bigler 186,489 

William F. Johnston 178,034 

Klmher Cleaver 1,850 


James Pollock 203,822 

William Bigler 166,991 

B. Rush Bradford 2,194 


William F. Packer 188,846 

David Wllmot 149,139 

Isaac Eazlehurst 28,168 

James Pollock 1 

George R. Barret 1 

William Steel 1 

F, P, Swartz 1 

Samuel McFarland 1 

George F, Horton 7 


Andrew G, Curtin .262,346 

Henry D, Foster 230,239 


A. G, Curtin 269,506 

George W. Woodward 254,171 

John Hickman 1 

Thomas M, Howe 1 

John W, Geary 807,274 

Hiester Clymer 290,097 

Giles Lewis 7 


John W. Geary 290,552 

Asa Packer 285,956 

W. D, Kelly 1 

W, J, Robinson 1 


John F. Hartranft 353,387 

Charles R. Buckalen 317,760 

H. B. Chase 1,197 

William P. Sohell 12 


John F. Hartranft 304,175 

Cyrus L. Pershing 292,145 

R. Audley Brown 13,244 

James S. Negley 1 

Phillip Wendle 1 

J. W. Brown I 

G, F. Reinhard 1 

G. D.Coleman 1 

James Staples 1 

Richard Vaux 1 

Craig Biddle 1 

Francis W. Hughes 1 

Henry C. Tyler 1 

W. D. Brown 1 

George V. Lawrence 1 

A. L.Brown 1 


H, M. Hoyt .319,490 

Andrew H. Dill 297,137 

Samuel R. Mason 81,758 

Franklin H, Lane 3,753 

S. Matson 2 

John McKee 1 

D, Kirk 1 

R. L. Miller 1 

J. H. Hopkins 1 

A, G. Williams 1 

Samuel H. Lane 1 

John Fertig 1 

James Musgrove 1 

Silas M. BaUy 1 

A, S, Post 9 

C. A, Cornen 3 

Seth Yocum 1 

Edward E. Orvis 1 


Robert E,J>attlson 3,55,791 

James A. Beaver. 315,589 

John Stewart 43,743 

Thomas A. Armstrong 23,996 

Alfred C. PetUt 5,196 

E. E. Pattison 

R, E, Beaver 

J, H. Hopkins 

W. H, Hope 

R, H. Patterson 

— Stewart 

J. A. Brown 

R. Smith 

— Cameron 

James McNalls 

T. A. Armstrong 

Thomas Armstrong 16 

R, E. Pattison 

William N. Drake 

John McCleery 

John A, Stewart 

G, A Grow 




History of Cumberland County. 

History of Cumberland County. 


Geogeaphy— Geology— TOPOGEAPHY, ETC. 

OTJMBEKLAND COUNTY, althoagh extending into the mountains along 
its northern and southern boundaries, lies mostly in the picturesque valley 
between the two great ridges. The North Mountain was called by the Indians 
Kau-ta-tin-chunh, signifying "endless mountains," or, as some authorities give 
it, main or principal mountain. It extends in a long, smooth-topped ridge 
from northeast to southwest, broken only by occasional gaps through which 
highways have been constructed leading into the counties to the northward of 
Cumberland. The South Mountain trends in the same general direction as its 
neighbor on the north, but its surface is far more uneven. Both are covered 
with a thick growth of timber and shrubbery, in which appear such varieties as 
pine, oak, ash, willow, maple, poplar, chestnut, spruce, elm, cedar, alder, 
sumac, etc. The timber in the valley was never a heavy growth, and consisted 
mainly of a few varieties of oak. A thick brush grew in portions of the valley, 
and was easily cleared away, it was therefore a comparatively light task to 
prepare the soil for cultivation. 

Probably nowhere in the State are the colors of autumn brought out with 
more pleasing effect than in the South Mountain region of the county of Cum- 
berland. A writer upon the subject has given the following fine description: 
' ' In the dry, burning summer month — a month in which it is hard to believe 
there are any nights — the leaf, panting, as it were, in the furnace, knows not any 
repose. It is a continual and rapid play of aspiration and respiration; a too- 
powerful sun excites it. In August, sometimes even in July, it begins to turn 
yellow. It will not wait for autumn. On the tops of the mountains yonder, 
where it works less rapidly, it travels more slowly toward its goal ; but it will 
arrive there. When September has ended, and the nights lengthen, the 
wearied trees grow dreamy; the leaf sinks from fatigue. If the light did but 
succor it still! But the light itself has grown weaker. The dews fall abun- 
dantly, and in the morning the sun no longer cares to drink them up. It looks 
toward other horizons, and is already far away. The leaves blush a marvelous 
scarlet in their anger. The sun is, as it were, an evening sun. Its long, 
oblique rays are protruded through the black trunks, and create under the 
woods some luminous and still genial tracks of light. The landscape is illum- 
inated. The forests around and above, on the hills, on the flanks of the 
mountains, seem to be on fire. The light abandons us, and we are tempted to 


with the limestone, iron ore is abundant and is extensively mined for the sup- 
ply of furnaces. Further north and wholly within the limestone formation, 
pipe ore and other varieties of excellent quality may be obtained in many 

The rocks of the NorthMountain are coarse gray and reddish sandstone, val- 
uable neither for building nor mineral purposes. Like the South Mountain 
they are covered with a dense growth of the varieties of timber which flourish 
in the region. Of the ores which occur in the limestone formations of the val- 
ley, a valued writer speaks as follows: "Beneath the surface are inexhaustible 
deposits of magnetic iron, conveniently near to valuable beds of hematite, 
which lie either in fissiu:es, between the rooky strata, or over them in a highly 
ferruginous loam. This hematite is of every possible variety, and in immense 
quantities. When it has a columnar stalactite structure, it is known under 
the name of pipe ore, and it is found abundantly along the slopes of the valley 
of the Yellow Beeches. It usually yields a superior iron, and at the same 
time is easily and profitably smelted. It generally produces at least 50 per 
cent of metallic iron. The beds are frequently of extraordinary extent, and the 
actual depth to which they reach has not been determined. Over a space of 
ten acres a number of holes have been opened, from sixteen to forty-two feet 
in depth, without going through the vein. Together with the magnetic ore 
these hematite beds, many of which remain untouched, are sufficient for sup- 
plying a large part of the manufacture of the United States. But in the val- 
ley there are traces, also, of sulphuret of copper (the blue vitriol of commerce), 
red and yellow ochre and chrome ores, alum earth, copperas ores, porcelain 
earth, and clay for stone- ware, common glazed ware and fire bricks ; also epsom 
salts, shell lime, marl, manganese, and valuable marbles. * * * In every part of 
the limestone region tho earth resounds under the tread of the traveler, and 
numerous sink-holes communicate with caverns or running streams beneath 
them. These constitute a natural drainage, which is amply sufficient for all 
the ordinary demands of the highest culture. Two or three caves have been 
discovered and entered, which have been esteemed as curiosities. The most 
wonderful of these is on the bank of the Conodoguinet, about a mile north from 
Carlisle. It is under a small limestone cliff, not more than thirty feet high 
above the surface of the creek; but through a semi-circular arched entrance, 
from seven to ten feet high and ten in width, it descends gradually to an ante- 
chamber of considerable size. Prom this a vaulted passage large enough to 
allow one to walk erect extends 270 feet, to a point where it branches off in 
three directions. One on the right is somewhat difficult on account of the 
water which percolates through the rocks on every side, but leads to a large 
chamber of great length. The central, one is narrow and crooked, and has 
never been completely explored on account of a deep perpendictilar precipice 
which prevents all progress beyond about thirty feet. The other passage is 
smaller and has but little interest. In different parts are pools of water, sup- 
posed by some to be springs, but as they have no outflow they are more prob- 
ably formed from drippings from the surrounding rocks. Human bones have 
been found in it, and no doubt it has been used as a place of refuge or tempo- 
rary lodgment by the Indians. No such articles as are usually deposited 
with their dead have yet been discovered, "f 

Another cave has been discovered on the bank of the Conodoguinet, in the 
township of West Pennsborough, about one and a half miles north of Greason. 
The opening is about 10 feet wide and 6 feet high, extending back about 10 


tEev. C. P. Wing in "History of Cumberland County," 1879. 


feet; then 3 feet wide and 16 feet high for a distance of 38 feet. Then 
another room is reached 10x10 feet, and 15 feet high, from which a pas- 
sage leads to a similar room not so large, but with a high ceiling; thence 
a long narrow passage opens into a room 40 feet in circumference and 
the same height as the others, and from this another small passage leads 
to near the place of entrance. This cave abounds in stalactites and many 
curious shapes. 

It is said that the white men who first came to the valley were greatly im- 
pressed with its beauty and the natural productions of the soil. The grass 
was rich and luxuriant, wild fruits were abundant, and there was a great vari- 
ety of trees in places, including numerous species of oak, black and white 
walnut (butternut), hickory, white, red and sugar maple, cherry, locust, sassa- 
fras, chestnut, ash, elm, linden, beech, white pine and scrub pine. There 
was also a shrub growth of laurel, plum, juniper, persimmon, hazel, wild cur- 
rant, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, spice-bush and sumach, while in the 
open country the strawberry, dewberry and wintergreen made a luscious car- 
peting and furnished to the Indians in their season a tempting and welcome 
partial supply of food. 


Pioneers—" Louthbr Manor," etc.— Taxes Paid from 1736 to 1749— Earliest 
List of Taxables in Cumberland County— First Settlers in the North 
Yalley— Taxables in the County in 1763— Early Settlers— Wild Ani- 
mals AND Fish— Customs and Habits— Formation of Townships and Bor- 

BEFORE any attempts at permanent settlement were made in the valley the 
region was known to and explored by traders among the Indians, who had 
posts in various places on the frontier. Some of these traders were in reality 
emissaries of the French Government, sent among the Indians for the purpose of 
seducing them from their allegiance to the English, and the proprietary gov- 
ernment regarded them with watchful jealousy. On the 22d of July, 1707, 
Gov. Evans laid before the council at Philadelphia an account of his journey 
among the Susquehanna Indians, in which he mentions Martines Chartieres as 
being located at Pequehan (now Pequea), at the mouth of the creek of the same 
name in Lancaster County, where was an Indian town also bearing the name. 
Nicole Godin was a trader near Peixtan, and he was decoyed and captured dur- 
ing the journey, put on a horse with his legs tied under the animal' s belly, and 
taken to Philadelphia and imprisoned. Peter Bezallion, who had a license, re- 
sided near the mouth of Peixtan or Paxton Creek, and James Le Tort was also 
a trader in the region. Bezallion and Le Tort were both in prison in 1709 for 
sundry offenses. Chartieres was known as ' ' Martin Chartieres, the French 
glover of Philadelphia."* Other traders were in the neighborhood. The 
post of Chartieres, or as it is more commonly given, Chartier, was on the east 
bank of the Susquehanna, about three miles below Columbia, Lancaster 
County, and the Penns gave him a large tract of land on Turkey Hill, in that 
county. He died, in April, 1718, much esteemed. His son, Peter Chartier, 

•Notes on Lancaster County in Day's Hist. Coll., p. 391. 


after living a few years at his father's place, moved to the neighborhood of 
New Cumberland, in the southeast corner of Cumberland County, where he 
established a trading post. He subsequently removed to a point on the Ohio 
River below Pittsburgh, where a creek now bears his name. He was all his 
life an Indian trader, and finally becoming a resident among the Indians, took 
sides with them against the English. * Peter Chartier was not, however, one 
of the first actual settlers in this county, for it was not until 1740 that he pur- 
chased 600 acres of land lying in the southeast corner of what is now Lower 
Allen Township, bounded east by the Susquehanna, and south by the Yellow 

James Le Tort (now written Letort) was a French-Swiss, who acted as an 
Indian interpreter and messenger to the government. He was also a trader, 
and very early built a cabin at the spring at the head of the run which now 
bears his name. His first cabin is said to have been burnt by the Indians. It 
was built as early as 1720. So far as known, he was the first white man to 
have an abode, even temporarily, in what is now Cumberland County. His 
location was near Carlisle, at a place since known as Beaver Pond. Letort 
was a man of excellent reputation. He received £12 annually from the 
government for his services. 

Before the Indian title to the lands west of the Susquehanna had been 
extinguished, the Govemm.ent authorized Samuel Blunston, of Lancaster 
County, to issue to the settlers licenses allowing them to go and improve the 
land, a title to which should be granted as soon as the land office should be 
opened. These documents were known as ' ' Blunston' s licenses, ' ' and many 
of the earlier settlers held them previous to 1736. 

Andreiv Ralston. — Authentic information points to the fact that this per- 
son settled at the ' ' Big Spring, " either in Newton or West Pennsborough 
Township, in 1728. Ralston was a native of County Armagh, Ireland, and 
upon applying at the land office for a warrant, soon after it was opened, he 
stated that he had occupied the land ' ' ye past eight years. ' ' The following is 
a verbatim copy of the license directed to be issued to him at that time, f 

Lancaster County, ss. 

By Order of the Proprietary: 

These are to license and allow Andrew Ralston to Continue to Improve and Dwell on 
a Tract of Two Hundred acres of land on the Great Spring, a branch of Conedogwainet, 
Joynins to the Upper Side of a Tract Granted to Randel Chambers for the use of his son, 
James Chambers; To be hereafter surveyed to the s'd Ralston on the Comon Terms Other 
Lands in those parts are sold, provided the same has not been already Granted to any 
other person, and So much can be had without Prejudice to other Tracts before Granted. 
Given under my hand this third day of January, Ano: Dom: 1736-7. Sa: Blunston. 
Pensilvania, ss. 

Indorsed: License to Andrew Ralston, 200 acres. 

The land was subsequently surveyed to him by Samuel Blunston, surveyor 
of Lancaster County, of which it was then a part. Mr. Ralston had two 
daughters, who married a Hayes and a Dickey, and a son, David, who 
remained at Big Spring for many years, but finally removed to Westmoreland 
County,' and died about 1810. 

Tobias Hendricks located in the valley before Andrew Ralston, possibly 
previous to 1725. He was a son of Tobias Hendricks, of Donegal. It is posi- 
tively certain he was west of the Susquehanna in 1727, for in a letter to John 
Harris, dated May 13 that year, he speaks of his father "at Donegal," and 
requests Mr. Harris to forward a letter to him. He also alludes to " a trader" 
at the Potomac of whom he purchased skins, and also of the ' ' grate numbers 

*Saiuuel Evans, in Notes and Queries, Part I, p. 17. 
tNotes and Queries, Part I, p. 19.— Dr. H. W. Egle. 


coming this side of ye Sasquahannah. " The Scotch-Irish emigration had 
then begun and the valley was being rapidly settled. * Whether Hendricks 
became a permanent settler is not stated. 

The Chambers Brothers. — Four brothers, James, Robert, Joseph and 
Benjamin Chambers, from County Antrim, Ireland, were among the very first 
to cross the Susquehanna and settle upon lands in the North Valley. They 
landed at Philadelphia in 1726, and pushing westward located at the mouth of 
Fishing Creek, on the east bank of the Susquehanna, a few miles above Har- 
ris' ferry, where they built a mill which was a great convenience for the 
settlers over a large tract of country. Benjamin, the youngest, was but eight- 
een years of age when the brothers came to this country, and he died Febru- 
ary 17, 1788, aged eighty years. Not long after their settlement at Fishing 
Creek the brothers became attracted by the prospect for procuring fine farms 
west of the river, and in or before 1730 crossed over and settled at different 
places : ' ' James at the head of Green Spring, near Newville ; Robert at the 
head of Middle Spring, near Shippensburg; and Joseph and Benjamin near 
the confluence of Falling Spring and the Conococheague, where Chambers- 
burg now stands." Joseph soon returned to Fishing Creek; the others 
remained where they had settled and became prominent and influential citizens 
in many respects. 

It would appear that the land included in the Louther Manor, in the east- 
ern part of the county, was very early the home of white settlers. That tract, 
being first laid out as a hunting ground for the Delawares and Shawnees, three 
men were appointed to visit the Indians whither they had gone upon the 
branches of the Ohio, and induce them to return. They had left this region 
partly on account of the encroachments of white settlers upon their lands, and 
partly through the efforts of emmissaries of the French in the guise of traders. 
The three persons mentioned indited a document as follows : 

PESHTANK.t Nov. ye 19tli, 1731. 
Ffriend Peter Ohartiere, This is to Acquaint Thee that By the Comisioners' and the 
Governour's order We are now Going over Susquehanna, To Lay out a Tract of Land be- 
tween Conegogwainet & The Shaawnat Creeks five or six miles back from the or- 
der to accomodate the Shaawna Indians or such others as may see fit to Settle there, To 
Defend them from Incroachments, And we have also orders to Disposess all Persons Set- 
tled on that side of the River, That Those woods may Remain free to ye Indians for Plant- 
ing & Hunting, And We Desire thee to Comunicate this to the Indians who Live About 
Allegening. We conclude 

Thy Assured Ff 'ds, 

John Wright, 
Tobias Hbndkicks, 

Sam'l BlUN8T0N.§ 

As seen elsewhere the Indians did not return; the above simply shows that 
white persons had settled in the eastern part of the county as early as 1731, 
and probably earlier. Peter Chartier had been appointed a trader by the 
court at Lancaster, and he married a Shawanese squaw. His subsequent de- 
sertion to, the French has been noted. 

"The influx of immigrants into North or Kittatinny Valley," says Mr. 
Rupp, " increased fast after 1734. In 1748 the number of taxables was about 
800, and the population rising to 3,000. As early as 1735 a road was laid out 
from Harris' Ferry toward the Potomac river. November 4, 1735, the court 
at Lancaster appointed Randle Chambers, Jacob Peat, James Silvers, Thomas 
Eastland, John Lawrence and Abram Endless, to lay out said road. These 
» • — 

*Notes and Quries, Part I, p. 18. 

tPeshtank, Peixtan orPaxton, was the original name of the manor. 

tYellow Breeches, or Callapasskinker, or Callapasscink— Indian name of stream, Delaware language. 

fFrom article on Louther Manor, by Dr. J. A. Murray, of Carlisle, In Carlisle Herald, 1885. 


gentlemen made a report February 3, 1736, of their views of the road, which 
was opposed ' by a considerable number of the inhabitants on the west side of 
the Susquehanna in those parts,' and praying for a review. The court then or- 
dered that William Rennick, Richard Hough, James Armstrong, Thomas 
Mayes, Samuel Montgomery and Benjamin Chambers view the road, and to 
make such alterations in it as to them may seem necessary for the public good, 
and report their proceedings to next court. They made the following report, 
May 4, 1786: ' That they had reviewed the eastern most part of the said road, 
and find it very crooked and hurtful to the inhabitants, etc. , and therefore have 
altered the said road and marked it in the manner following, to- wit : From the 
said ferry, near to a southwest course about two miles; thence a westerly 
course to James Silvers', then westward to John Hogg's meadow; then west- 
ward to a fording place on Le Tort' s spring, a little to the northward of John 
Davison's; thence west northerly to the first marked road in a certain hollow; 
thence about southwest a little to the south of Robert Duning's, to the former 
marked road; thence along the same to the Great Spring head, being as far as 
any review -or alteration to them appeared necessary, ' which so altered as 
above said, and altered from the return to go by James Silvers' house, was al- 
lowed to be recorded. ' ' 

The North Valley (now constituting Cumberland and Franklin Counties) 
was divided in 1735 into two townships, called Pennsborough and Hopewell, 
and the line dividing them was thus described : ' ' That a line running northerly 
from the Hills to the southward of Yellow Breeches (crossing in a direct line 
by the Great Spring) to Kightotinning Mountain, be the division line; and 
that the easternmost township be called Pennsborough and the western Hope- 
well." Hopewell was divided in 1741 "by a line beginning at the North 
Hill, at Benjamin Moor's; thence to Widow Hewre's and Samuel Jamison's, 
and on a straight line to the South Hill, and that the western division be 
called Antrim, and the eastern Hopewell. " This was before the organization 
of Cumberland County. 

Taxes and Collectors. — Table of taxes paid, and names of collectors in town- 
ships in what is now Cumberland County, from 1736 to 1749: 

1736 — Pennsborough, £13 17s. 6d. ; James Silvers, collector. Hopewell, 
£5 2s. 

1737— Pennsborough, £13 9s. 9d. East part of Hopewell, £3 2s. ; west 
part of Hopewell, £2 19s. 

1738— Pennsborough, £20 14s. Od. East part of HopeweU, £10 Os. 3d.; 
west part of Hopewell, £7 7s. 9d. 

1739 — Pennsborough, £23 16s. 8d. ; William Tremble, collector. South 
part of Hopewell, £11 8s. Id. ; Jacob Snebly, collector. North part of Hope- 
well, £6 lis. 6d. ; Abraham Endless, collector. 

1740 — West part of Pennsborough, £11 4s. 7d. ; Robert Dennin, collector. 
East part of Pennsborough, £14 18s. 7d. ; John Walt, collector. East Hope- 
well, £4 Os. 2d. ; James Laughlin, collector. West Hopewell, £4 19s. 3d. ; 
Philip Davis, collector. 

1741 — Pennsborough, £17 15s. lOd. ; Robert Redock, collector. Hopewell, 
£3 8s. 9d. ; James Montgomery, collector. 

1742— West end of Pennsborough, £7 19s. 2d. ; William Weakly, collector. 
East end of Pennsborough, £16 7s. 8d. ; John Swansey, collector. Hopewell, 
£5 lis. 4d. ; David Herren, collector. 

1743 — East end of Pennsborough, £9 Os. 6d. ; John Semple, collebtor; West 
end of Pennsborough, £10 7s. 3d. ; Robert Miller, collector. Hopewell, £6 
16s. lid. ; Henry Hallan, collector. 


1744 — West end of Pennsborough, £22 4s.; John Mitchell, collector; east 
end of Pennsborough, £17 12s. 7d. ; Thomas Fisher, collector. Hopewell, 
£10 16s. 2d. ; Thomas Montgomery, collector. 

1745 — "West Pennsborough, £23 Is. lid. ; James Chambers, collector; East 
Pennsborough, £13 4b. ; John McCrackin, collector. Hopewell, £12 10s. 4d. ; 
WUliam Thompson, collector. 

1746 — East Pennsborough, £10 5s. ; John Eankin, collector; West Penns- 
borough, £13 4s. 8d. ; James McFarlin, collector. Hopewell, £9 17s. 9d. ; 
John Erwin, collector. 

1747 — East Pennsborough, £10 12s. ; Joseph Green, collector; West Penns- 
borough, £18 18s. 6d. ; Patrick Da-vis, collector. Hopewell, £12 7s. 7d. ; John 
Currey, collector. 

1748 — East Pennsborough, £12 2s. ; Christopher Huston, collector; West 
Pennsborough, £14 14s. 6d. ; William Dunbar, collector. Hopewell, £13 13s. 
6d. ; James Walker, collector. 

1749— East Pennsborough, £23 16s. 6d. ; Tobias Hendricks, coUector; West 
Pennsborough, £28 8s. 9d. ; Archibald McAllister, collector. HopeweU, £43 
3s. 9d. ; John Kirkpatrick, collector. 

Antrim Township we do not give as it was outside the present limits of 
Cumberland County, being in Franklin. 

Earliest List of Taxables. — The earliest list of taxables in Cumberland 
County, as given by Mr. Eupp in the history of Dauphin, Cumberland and other 
counties, is as follows: 

East Pennsborough, 1750. — Tobias Hendricks, Widow Jane Woods, Samuel 
Calhoon, Thomas Spray, Thomas Kenny, James Shannon, James Dickey, John 
Bigham, Samuel Chambers, William BaiTehill, William Noble, William Craw- 
ford, William McChesney, Richard Fulton, John McCleUan, William Eose, Adam 
Calhoun, WUliam Shannon, John Semple, Charles West, Christopher Hewston, 
Walker Buchang,n, David Eeed, James Armstrong, Hugh Wharton, Edward El- 
iot, Francis McGuire, William Findley, Josias McMeans, Hugh Mahool, Eob- 
ert Carrithers, William Eoss, Henry Quigly, William Morton, John Armstrong, 
John Buchanan, Nathaniel Nelson, John Nailer, Andrew Armstrong, Thomas 
McCormick, John Dickey, John McCracken, Widow Clark, Widow McMeans, 
Eobert Eliot, Eobert Eliot, Jr., James Corrithers, William Gray, Alexander 
Lamferty, John WUley, Eobert Duning, Joseph Junkin, William Walker, 
Alex Armstrong, Moses Star, James Crawford, Eoger Cook, Hugh Cook, Will- 
iam Miller, John McCormick, -lamer Silvers, John Stevenson, James Coleman, 
David Waason, John Hunter, William Douglas, John Mitchel, Andrew Mile- 
kin, John Milekin, Patrick Holmes, James Finley, Peter Shaver (Shaver was a 
trader among the Indians and was employed by Gov. Thomas, in 1744, to car- 
ry letters to the Shawanese Indians on the Ohio inviting them to come to Phil- 
adelphia), John Erwin, WUliam Carrithers, Widow Quigly, Samuel Martin, 
William Hamilton, Eobert Samuels, John Waugh, Thomas Eankin, Eichard 
Eankin, John Clendenin, Joseph Waugh, Widow Eoberts, Thomas Henderson, 
William Hamilton, William Marshal, William Miller, Wilson Thomas, Alex 
Crocket, Widow Branan, Thomas Calvert, William Griffith, Eobert Bell, Will- 
iam Orr, James McConnel, John Bowan, Eobert McKinley, Samuel Fisher, 
Titus HoUinger, Samuel McCormick, Eowland Chambers, Eobert Kelton, Isaac 
Eutlidge, Eowland McDonald, Walter Gregory, Widow Stewart, James Mc- 
Teer, Peter Leester, Peter Title, Joseph Willie, Anthony McCue, James Beaty, 
William Crocket, Andrew Miller, Eobert Eoseborough, Joseph Green, James 
Douglas, W^idow Steel, Widow McKee, Joseph Keynolds, Jr. Freemen — Will- 
iam Hogg, George Crogham, Esq. , Jonathan Hogg, Samuel Huston, JohnGilke- 


son, Robert Airs, Abraham Headricks, Archibald Armstrong, Joseph Ferret, 
Clime Horal, Daniel Campbell, William McDonald, Matthew Lindham, J. 
Armstrong, Cornelius Brown, Hugh Shannon, Eobert Walker, Nathaniel Wil- 
son, Matthew Brown (two silversmiths at William McChesney's), John Adams, 
David Kenworthy, James Gaily, William McTeer, Edward Ward, Arthur' Er- 
win, James Clark, William Cranula — total 190, 

West Pennsborough 1751. — William Queery, William Lamont, Archibald 
McAllister, William Carithers, John Davison, Allen Leeper, Neal McFaul, 
John McClure (the less), William Logan, John Atchison, Thomas McCoy, 
Charles Gillgore, Andrew Griffin, William Dunbar, William Harkness, Will- 
iam Patton, Samuel McOlure, Eobert Walker, James Kirkpatrick, John Swan- 
sy, Arthur Clark, Adam Hays, James McMeans, John Deniston, John Mcln- 
tire, James MoFarland, William Laughlin, Eobert Brevard, Robert McQueston, 
James Peebles, John McClure (mountain), Alex McClui-e, John Langley, John 
Gordon, William Livingston, Eobert Guthrie, William Anderson, John Glass, 
John Logan, William Duglass, Alex Erwin, Alex Logan, William Townsley, 
William Parker, Margaret Parker, Andrew Forbush, John Morrison, David 
KoUogh, George Brown, Francis Cunningham, Alex Eobb, Anthony Gillgore, 
Jacob Peebles, Samuel Wilson, Allen Scroggs, David Kenedy, Mary Dunn- 
ing, William Carithers, John Carithers, John Chestnut, Thomas Patton, 
Andrew Ealston, John McClung, Ezekiel Dunning, James Lea, John Lusk, 
Alex McBride, James McNaught, William Blackstock, James Crutchlow, Will- 
iam Dunlap, Thomas Evans, Steven Cesna, James Weakly, David Hunter, 
Josh Cornelius, Alex Weyly, Lewis Hutton, James Warnock, David Dunbar, 
David Miller, John Wilson, Josh Thomson, Josh Dempsay, Samuel Lindsay, 
Paul Piercy, Owen McCool, Pat Eobeson, Thomas Parker. Freemen — Samuel 
Wilson, James McMunagle, David McCurdy, Pat Eeynolds, Andrew McAdams, 
John McCurdy — total 95. 

Middleton, 1751. — William Trent, Thomas Wilson, John Elder, John 
Chambers, Eobert McNutt, James Long, John Mahafy, James Eeed, John 
Moor, John Craighead, James Dunlop, Patrick Hawson, Walter Denny, James 
Gillgore, Patrick Davison, Thomas Elder, Henry Dinsmore, John Mitchell, 
Samuel Lamb, James Williams, James Matthews, Alexander Sanderson, 
James Henderson, Matthew Miller, John Davis, William Graham, William 
Campbell, William Parkeson, Francis McNichley, John McKnaught, John 
Calhoun, William Peterson, John Eobb, Eobert Graham, Samuel McLucass, 
Daniel Williams, George Sanderson, Alexander Sanderson, Joseph Clark, John 
McClure, Jonathan Holmes, James Chambers, Thomas Armstrong, William 
Waddel, James McConnell, Eichard Nicholson, John Neely, John McCrea, 
John Stuart, Archibald Kenedy, John Jordan, William Jordan, George Tem- 
pleton, James Stuart, Eichard Venable, Widow Wilson, David Dreanan, John 
Dinsmore, Samuel Gauy, William Davison, Samuel Bigger, Thomas Gibson, 
John Brown, John McKinley, Eobert Campbell, John Kinkead, Samuel Wil- 
son, Eobert Patterson, John Reed, Robert Reed, James Reed, William Reed, 
William Armstrong, James Young, Robert Miller, William Gillachan, Josh 
Davies, William Fleming, John Gilbreath, Richard Coulter, Richard Kilpat- 
rick, Andrew Gregg, Robert Thomson, John Dicky, James Brannan, John Mc- 
Clure, John Buyers, Arthur Foster, Harmanus Alrichs,* John Armstrong, 
John Smith, William Buchanan, William Blyth, John McAllister, William 
Montgomery, John Patterson, Eobert Kilpatrick, Archibald McCurdy, William 
Whiteside, John Woodle, William Dillwood, William Huston, Thomas Loek- 

•Some give this Hermanus Alricka, but Harmanus Alrichs is the way it appears in his own handwriting 
on the old records at the court bouse. 



Ji<if''n-i^ejMl -t Sf:::jJ: 'bo-^-:a:SlSr . 


ward, Thomas Henderson, Joseph Thornton, James Dunning, William Moor, 
George Davison, Alexander Patterson, John McBride, Eobert Eobb, Dennis 
Swansy, Daniel Lorranoe, Jonathan Hogg, Oliver Wallace, John Bell, Arthur 
Buchanan, Eobert Guthrie, Berry Cackel, Cornelius McAdams, Andrew Mc- 
Intire, Alexander Eoddy, Josh Price, Hugh Laird, William Ferguson, Widow 
Duglas, Abraham Sanford, Moses Moor, Joseph Gaylie, Charles Mahaufy, 
William Kerr, Hugh Creanor, William Guilford, William Stuart, William 
Chadwick. Freemen in Middleton and Carlisle — Andrew Holmes, Jonathan 
Kearney, Francis Hamilton, Jonathan Donnel, William Wilson, Patrick Loag, 
Eobert Patterson, William Kinaird, George Crisp, Hugh Laird, William Br aidy, 
James Tait, Patrick Kearney, Arthur Foster, James Pollock, Thomas Elmore, 
Eobert Mauhiny, Jonathan Hains, William Eainiston, James Gambel, John 
Woods, David Hains, Henry Hains — total, 158. 

Hopewell Township, 1751. — Eobert Gibson, David Heron, Moses Donald, 
Thomas Donald, Francis Ignue, Daniel McDonald, John Eliott, Alexander 
McClintock, James McFarland, Joshua McClintock, Hugh Terrance, Hugh 
Thomson, Josh Thomson, Josh Thomson, Jr., Eobert McDowell, James Mc- 
Dowell, Eobert Eusk, John Scrogs, William Walker, William Cornahan, 
Thomas Gawlt, James Hamilton, John Laughler, Josh Gair, Samuel William- 
son, Samuel Smith, David Kidd, John Hodge, Eobert McCombs, Thomas 
Micky, John AVray, Eichard Nicholson, Andrew Mcllvain, George Hamilton, 
John Thomson, William Gambel, Samuel Montgomery, Eobert Simeon, John 
Brown, Allen Nisbit, John Nesbit, Jr., John Nesbit, Sr., James Wallace, An- 
drew Peeble, John Anderson, Patrick Hannah, John Tremble, Moses Stuart, 
William Eeigny, John Moorhead, James Pollock, Samuel Stuart, Eobert Eob- 
inson, David Newell, James McCormick, Charles Murray, Joseph Boggs, John 
Lysee, Andrew Leckey, John Montgomery, John Beaty, James WalEer, William 
Smyley, James Chambers, Eobert Meek, Dr. William Mc(j6freck, James Jack, 
James Quigly, Eobert Simonton, John McCune, Charles Cumins, Samuel Wier, 
John McCune, Jr. , Josh Martin, James Carrahan, Allen Kollogh, James Young, 
Francis Newell, John Quigly, Eobert Stuart, Samuel Montgomery, Daniel 
Mickey, Andrew Jack, Eobert Mickey, Hugh Braidy, Eobert Chambers, Will- 
iam Thomson, Edward Leasy, Alexander Scrogg, John Jack, James Laughlin, 
John Laughlin, Jr., Eobert Dinney, David Simrel, Samuel Walker, Abra- 
ham Walker, James Paxton, James IJxley, Samuel Cellar, W. McClean, James 
Culbertson, James McKessan, John Miller, Daniel O'Cain, John Edmonson, 
Isaac Miller, David McGaw [Magaw — Ed.] John Eeynolds, Francis Cam- 
ble, William Anderson, Thomas Edmonson, James Dunlop, John Eeynolds, Jr. , 
William Dunlop, Widow Piper, George Cumins, Thomas Finley, Alexander 
Fairbairn, John Mason, James Dysert, William Gibson, Horace Brattan, John 
Carothers, Patrick Mullan, James Blair, Peter Walker, John Stevenson, John 
Aiger, John Ignue. Freemen — John Hanch, Josh Edmonson, John Callwell, 
John Eiohison (skinner), P. Miller — total, 134. 

First Settlers. — The first settlers in the North Valley and the region to the 
northward, embraced in what was Cumberland County, were mostly Scotch-Irish, 
a fearless and aggressive people who were impatient at the delays of the land- 
of&ce, and began as early as 1740-42 to settle on lands to which the Indian 
title had not been fully extinguished. A few Germans were also among them, 
and the settlements were made principally on the Juniata Eiver, Shearman's 
Creek, Tuscarora Path (or Path Valley), in the little and big caves formed by 
the Kittatinny and Tuscarora Mountains and by the Big and Little ConoUoways. 
The Indians very naturally regarded them as intruders, and in 1750 threatened 
to settle matters in their own way if the Government failed to put a stop to the 


proceedings. MeaBurea were promptly adopted. ' ' The secretary of the 
province, Mr. Richard Peters, and the interpreter, Mr. Conrad Weiser, were 
directed to proceed to the county of Cumberland, in which the new settlements 
lay, and to expel the intruders. They were joined by the magistrates of the 
county, the delegates from the Six Nations, a chief of the Mohawks, and Andrew 
Montour, an interpreter from Ohio. The commissioners met with little resist- 
ance in the execution of their duty, a few only of the settlers, under an ap- 
prehension of imprisonment, making a show of opposition. All readily entered 
into recognizance for their appearance at the next sessions, and many aided to 
reduce their own habitations to ashes in the presence of the magistrates and 
attendant Indians. ' ' * 

Following is the report of the proceedings made to the governor by Mr. 
Peters, under date of July 2, 1750: 

To Jambs Hamilton, Esq., Governob of Pennsylvania, 

May it please Tour Honor: — Mr. Weiser, having received your Honor's orders to give 
information to the proper magistrates against all such as had presumed to settle and re- 
main on the lands beyond the Kittochtinny Mountains, not purchased of the Indians, In 
contempt of the laws repeatedly signified by proclamations, and particularly by your Hon- 
or's last one, and bring them to a legal conviction, lest for want of their removal a breach 
should ensue between the Six Nations of Indians and this province, we set out on Tues- 
day, the 15th of May, 1750, for the new county of Cumberland, where the places on which 
the trespassers had settled lay. 

At Mr. Croghan's we met with five Indians, three from Shamokin, two of which are 
sons of the late Schlckcalamy, who transacted the business of the Six Nations with the 
Government; two were just arrived from Allegheny, viz.: one of the Mohock's Nation, 
called Aaron, and Andrew Montour, the interpreter at Ohio. Mr. Montour, telling us he 
had a message from the Ohio Indians and Twlehtwees to this Government, and desiring 
a conference, one was held on the 18th of May last, in the presence of James Galbreth, 
George Croghan, William Wilson and Hermanus Alrioks, Esq., justices of the county of 
Cumberland; and when Mr. Montour's business was done, we, with the advice of the 
other justices, imparted to the Indians the design we were assembled upon, at which they 
expressed great satisfaction. 

Another conference was held at the instance of the Indians, in the presence of Mr. 
Galbreth and Mr. Croghan, before mentioned, wherein they expressed themselves as 

" Brethren, we have thought a great deal of what you imparted to us, that ye were 
come to turn the people off who were settled over the hills; we are pleased to see you on 
this occasion, and as the council of Onondago has this affair exceedingly at heart, and it 
was particularly recommended to us by the deputies of the'Six Nations, when they parted 
from us last summer, we desire to accompany you, but we are afraid, notwithstanding 
the care of the Governor, that this may prove like many former attempts; the people will 
be put ofl now, and next year come again, and if so, the Six Nations will no longer bear 
it but do themselves justice. To prevent this, therefore, when you shall have turned the 
people off, we recommend it to the Governor to place two or three faithful persons over 
the mountains who may be agreeable to him and us, with commissions empowering them 
immediately to remove every one who may presume after this to settle themselves until 
after the Six Nations shall agree to make sale of their land." 

To enforce this they gave a string of wampum and received one in return from the 
magistrates, with the strongest assurances that they would do their duty. 

On Tuesday, the 22d of May, Matthew Dill, George Croghan, Benjamin Chambers, 
Thomas Wilson, John Finley and James Galbreath, Esqs., justices of the said county of 
Cumberland, attended by the under sheriff, came to Big Juniata, situate at the distance 
of twenty miles from ttie mouth thereof and about ten miles north from the Blue Hills, 
a place much esteemed by the Indians for some of their best hunting ground, and there 
they found five cabins or log houses, one possessed by William White, another by George 
Cahoon, another, not yet quite finished in possession of David Hiddleston, another possessed 
by George and William Galloway, and another by Andrew Lycon. Of these persons, Will- 
iam White and George and William Galloway, David Hiddleston and George Cahoon ap- 
peared before the magistrates, and being asked by what right or authority they had pos- 
sessed themselves of those lands and erected cabins thereon, they replied by no right or 
authority, but that the land belonged to the proprietaries of i Pennsylvania. They then 
were asked whether they did not know they were acting against the law, and in contempt 
of frequent notices given them by the Governor's proclamation. They said they had seen 

*Rupp'a Cumberlaad, etc., p. 378. 


one such proclamation, and had nothing to say for themselves, but craved mercy. Here- 
upon the said William White, George and William Galloway, David Hiddleston and 
George Gaboon, being convicted by said justices. on their view, the under sheriff was 
charged with them and he took William White, David Hiddleston and George Cahoon 
into custody; but George and William Galloway resisted, and having got at some dis- 
tance from the under sheriff, they called tons: "You may talse our lands and houses and 
do what you please with them; we deliver them to you with all our hearts, but we will 
not be carried to jail." 

The next morning being Wednesday, the 33d of May, the said justices went to the log 
house or cabin of AndrewJLycon, and finding none there but children, and hearing that the 
father and mother were expected soon, and William White and others offering to become 
security, jointly and severally, and to enter into recognizance as well for Andrew's ap- 
pearance and Jimmediate removal as for their own, this proposal was accepted, and Will- 
iam White , David Hiddleston and George Gaboon entered into a recognizance of one hun- 
dred pounds, and executed bonds to the proprietaries in the sum of five hundred pounds, 
reciting that they were trespassers and had no manner of rieht, and had delivered 
possession to me for the proprietaries. When the magistrates went to the cabin or log 
house of George and William Galloway (which they had delivered up as aforesaid the day 
before, after they were convicted and were flying from the sheriff), all the goods belong- 
ing to the said George and William were taken out, and the cabin being quite empty, I 
took possession thereof for the proprietaries. And then a conference was held, what should 
be done with the empty cabin; and after great deliberation all agreed that if some cabins 
were not destroyed they would tempt the trespassers to return again, or encourage others 
to come there should these trespassers go away, and so what was doing would signify 
nothing, since the possession of them was at such a distance from the inhabitants could 
not be kept from the proprietaries, and Mr. Weiser also giving it as his opinion that if all 
the cabins were left standing the Indians would conceive such a contemptible opinion of 
the government that they would come themselves in the winter, murder the people and 
set their houses on fire. On these considerations, the cabin, by my order, was burnt by 
the under sheriff and company. 

Then the company went to the house possessed by David Hiddleston, who had en- 
tered into bond as aforesaid, and he having voluntarily taken out all the things which 
were in the cabin, and left me in possession, that empty and unfurnished cabin was like- 
wise set on fire by the under sheriff by my order. 

The next day being the 24th of May, Mr. Weiser and Mr. Galbreath, with the under 
sheriff and myself, on our way to the mouth of the Juniata called at Andrew Lycon's with 
the intent only to inform him that his neighbors were bound for his appearance and im- 
mediate removal, and to caution him not to bring himself or them into trouble by a re- 
fusal. But he presented a loaded gun to the magistrates and sheriff; said he would shoot 
the first man that dared to come nigher. On this he was disarmed, convicted, and com- 
mitted to the custody of the sheriff. This whole transaction happened in sight of a tribe 
of Irtdians who by accident had in the night time fixed their tent on that plantation; and 
Lycon's behavior giving them great offense, the Shickcalamies insisted on our burning 
the cabin or they would do it themselves. Whereupon, when everything was taken out of 
it (Andrew Lycon all the while assisting) and possession being delivered to me, the empty 
cabin was set on fire by the under sheriff and Lycon was carried to jail. 

Mr. Benjamin Ghambers and Mr. George Croghan had about an hour before separat- 
ed from us, and on my meeting them aeain in Cumberland Gounty they reported to me 
they had been at Sheerman's Greek, or Little Juniata, situate about six miles over the Blue 
Mountain, and found there James Parker, Thomas Parker, Owen McKeib, John McGlare, 
Richard Kirkpatrick, James Murray, John Scott, Heni-y Gass, John Cowan, Simon Girtee 
and JohnKilough, who had settled lands and erected cabins or log houses thereon; and 
having convicted them of the trespass on their view, they had bound them in recog- 
nizances of the penalty of one hundred pounds to appear and answer for their trespasses 
on the first day of the next county court of Cumberland, to be held at Shippensburg, 
and that the said trespassers had likewise entered into bonds to the proprietaries in five 
hundred pounds penalty to remove off immediately, with all their servants, cattle and ef- 
fects, and had delivered possession of their houses to Mr. George Stevenson for the pro- 
prietaries' use; and that Mr. Stevenson had ordered some of the meanest of those cabins to 
be set on fire, where the families were not large nor the improvements considerable. 

On Monday, the 28th of May, we were met at Shippensburg by Samuel Smith, William 
Maxwell, George Croghan, Benjamin Chambers, Robert Chambers, William Allison, Will- 
iam Trent, John Finley, John Miller, Hermanns Alricks, and James Galbreth, Esqs., justices 
of Cumberland County, who, informing us that the people in the Tuscarora Path, in Big 
Cove, and at Aucquick would submit, Mr. Weiser most earnestly pressed that he might be 
excused any further attendance, havingf abundance of necessary business to do at home; 
and the other magistrates, though with much reluctance, at last consenting, he left us. 

On Wednesday, the 30th of May, the magistrates and company, being detained two 
days by rains, proceeded over the Kittoohtinny Mountains and entered into the Tuscarora 


Path, or Path Valley, through which the road to Alleghany lies. Many settlements were 
formed in this valley, and all the people were sent for and the following persons appeared, 
viz.; Abraham Slack, James Blair, Moses Moore, Arthur Dunlap, Alexander McCartie, 
David Lewis, Adam McCartie, Felix Doyle, Andrew Dunlap, Robert Wilson, Jacob Pyatt, 
Jacob Pyatt, Jr., William Ramage, Reynolds Alexander, Samuel Patterson, Robert Baker, 
John Armstrong and John Potts, who were all convicted by their own confession to the 
magistrates of the like trespasses with those at Shearman's Cree^, and were bound in 
the like recognizances to appear at court, and bonds to the proprietaries to remove with all 
their families, servants, cattle, and effects, and having all voluntarily given possession of 
their houses to me, some ordinary log houses to the number of eleven were burnt to the 
ground, the trespassers, most of them cheerfully and a very few of them with reluctance, 
carrying out all their goods. Some had been deserted before and lay waste. 

At Aucquick, Peter Falconer, Nicholas De Long, Samuel Perry and John Charleton 
were convicted on the view of the magistrates, having entered into the like recogniz- 
ances and executed the like bonds. Charlton's cabin was burned and fire set to another 
that was just begun, consisting only of a few lojjs piled and fastened to one another. 

The like proceedings at Big Cove (now within Bedford County) against Andrew Don- 
naldson, John Macclelland, Charles Stewart, James Downy, John Macmean, Robert Kendell, 
Samuel Brown, William Shepperd, Roger Murphy, Robert Smith, William Dickey, Will- 
iam Millican, William Macconnell, Alexander Macconnell, James Campbell, William 
Carrell, John Martin, John Jamison, Hans Patter, John Maccollin, James Wilson and 
John Wilson, who, coming before the magistrates, were convicted on their own confes- 
sion of the like trespasses as in former cases, and were all bound over in like recogniz- 
ances and executed the like bond to the proprietaries. Three waste cabins of no value 
were burned at the north end of the cove by the persons that claimed a right to them. 

The Little Cove (in Franklin County) and the Big and Little Connolloways being the 
only places remaining to be visited, as this was on the borders of Maryland the magis- 
trates declined going there and departed for their homes. 

About the year 1740 or 1741 one Frederic Star, a German, with two or three more of 
his countrymen, made some settlements at the very place where we found William White, 
the Galloways and Andrew Lycon (on Big Juniata situate at the distance of twenty miles 
from the north thereof and about ten miles north of the Blue Hills, a place much esteemed 
bv the Indians for some of their best hunting ground. — {Votes Asaem. Vol. IV. p. 138,) 
whicli (German settlers) were discovered by the Delawares at Shamokin to the deputie- of 
the Six Nations as they came down to Philadelphia in the year 1742 to hold a treaty with 
this government; and they were so disturbed as to inquire with a peculiar warmth of Gov- 
ernor Thomas if these people had come there by the orders or with the privity of the gov- 
ernment, alleging that if it was so this was a breach of the treaties subsisting between the 
Six Nations and the proprietor, William Penp,who in the most solemn manner engaged to 
them not to suffer any of the people to settle lands until they had purchased them from 
the council of the Six Nations. The Governor, as he might, with gi-eat truth, disowned 
any knowledge of these persons' settlements, and on the Indians requesting that they 
should immediately be thrown over the mountains, he promised to issue his proclamation 
and if this had no effect to put the laws in execution against them. The Indians, in the 
same treaty publicly expressed some very severe threats against the Inhabitants of Mary- 
land for settling lands for which they received no satisfaction, and said if they would not 
do them justice they would do justice to themselves; and would certainly have commit- 
ted hostilities if a treaty had not been on foot between Maryland and the Six Nations 
under the mediation of Governor Thomas, at which the Indians consented to sell lands 
and receive a valuable consideration for them, which put an end to the danger. 

The proprietaries were then in England, but observing, on perusing the treaty, with 
what asperity they had expressed themselves against Maryland, and that the Indians had 
just cause to complain of the settlements at Juniata, so near Shamokin, they wrote to their 
governor in very pressing terms, to cause those trespassers to be immediately removed; 
and both the proprietaries and Governor laid their commands on me to see this done, 
which I accordingly did in June, 1743, the Governor having first given them notice by a 
proclamation served on them. 

At that time none had presumed to settle at a place called Big Cove — having this 
name from its being enclosed in the form of a basin by the southernmost range of the Kit- 
tochtinny Hills and Tuscarora Hills, which last end here and lose themselves in other hills. 
This Big Cove is about five miles north of the temporary line and not far west of the place 
where the line terminated. Between the Big Cove and the temporary line lies the Little 
Cove, so-called from being likewise encircled with hills; and to the west of the Little 
Cove, toward Potowmec, lie two other places called the Big and Little ConoUaways, all of 
them situated on the temporary line, was it to he extended toward Potowmec. 

In the year 1741 or 1742 information was likewise given that people were beginning to 
settle in those places, some from Maryland aad some from this province. But as the two 
governments were then not on very good terms, the Governor did not think proper to 
take any other notice of these settlements than to send the sheriff to serve his proclama- 


tion on them, and thought it ample occasion to lament the vast inconveniencies which 
attend unsettled boundaries. After this the French war came on, and the people in these 
parts, taking advantage of the confusion of the times, by little and little stole into the 
Great Cove; so that at the end of the war it was said thirty families had settled there— not, 
however, without frequent prohibitions on the part of the government, and admonitions 
of the great danger they ran of being cut off by the Indians, as these settlements were on 
lands not purchased of them. At the close of the war Mr. Maxwell, one of the justices of 
Lancaster County, delivered a particular message from this government to them, ordering 
their removal, that they might not occasion a breach with the Indians; but it had no 

These were, to the best of my remembrance, all the places settled by Pennsylvanians 
in the unpurchased part of the province till about three years ago, when some persons had 
the presumption to go into Path Valley or Tuscarora Gap, lying to the east of Big Cove 
and onto a place called Aucquick, lying to the northward of it; and likewise into a place 
called Shearman's creek, lying all along the waters of Juniata, and is situate east of the 
Path Valley through which the present road goes from Harris' Ferry to Allegheny; and 
lastly they extended their settlements to Big Juniata, the Indians all this while repeatedly 
complaining that their hunting ground was every day more and more taken from them, 
and that there must Infallibly arise quarrels between their warriors and these settlers 
which would in the end break the chain of friendship, and pressing in the most importunate 
terms their speedy removal. The government in 1748 sent the sheriff and three magis- 
trates with Mr. Weiser unto these places to warn the people; but they, notwithstanding, 
continued their settlements in opposition to all this, and as if those people were prompted 
by a desire to make mischief, settled lands no better — nay not so good— as many vacant 
lands within the purchased parts of the province. 

The bulk of the settlements were made during the administration of President Palmer; 
and it is well known to your Honor, though then in England, that his attention to the 
safety of the city and lower counties would not permit him to extend more care to places 
so remote. 

Finding such a general submission, except the two Galloways and Andrew Lycon, and 
vainly believing the evil would be effectually taken away, th ere was no kindness in my ijower 
which I did not do for the offenders. I gave them money where they were poor, and tell- 
ing them they might go directly on any part of the two millions of acres lately purcliased 
of the Indians; and where the families were large, as I happened to have several of my 
own plantations vacant, I offered them to stay on them rent free till they could provide 
for themselves. Then I told them that if, after this lenity and good usage, they would dare 
to stay after the time limited for their departure, no mercy would be shewed them, but 
that they would feel the rigor of the law. 

It may be proper to add that the cabins or log houses which were burnt were of no 
considerable value, bein^ such as the country people erect in a day or two and cost only 
the charge of an entertainment. 

After the close of Pontiac's war, the valley, which had been so sadly 
devastated, soon began to wear an air of great prosperity. When it became a 
positive assurance that the savages, in fear of whom the people had lived for 
years, were to trouble them no longer, the joy of the aiflicted was great, being 
tempered, however, by the recollections of the awful scenes through which 
they had so lately passed. The inhabitants who had left their homes to seek 
safety in the older settled counties to the east now returned to their homes 
in the valley, and many immigrants of a desirable class also came in and took 
advantage of the chances offered to them in the new country. In 1762 of 
141,000 acres of land in the county, 72,000 acres had been patented and 
warranted by actual settlers. About the same time (1761-62) a few Germans 
had settled in the eastern part of the county, near the Susquehanna. Louther 
Manor was resurveyed and opened for settlement (1764-65), and two years 
later it was again surveyed and divided into twenty-eight lots or parcels, con- 
taining from 150 to 500 acres each, which lots were purchased principally by 
Scotch-Irish in Lancaster and Cumberland Counties, though some were sold to 
Germans. Robert Whitehill is said to have erected the first stone house on 
the manor. Among purchasers of manor lands who were of Scotch-Irish 
nativity were Isaac Hendricks, Capt. John Stewart, John Boggs, John Arm- 
strong, James Wilson, Robert Whitehill, Moses Wallace, John Wilson, Sam- 
uel Wallace, James MoCurdy, David Moore, Rev. William Thompson (Episco- 


pal minister at Carlisle), Alex Young, Jonas Seely. Among the Germans were 
John Mish, Conrad Reinninger, Caspar Weaver, Christopher Gramlich, Philip 
Kimmel, Andrew Kreutzer. 

Prominent settlers about the same time in various parts of the county were 
Ephraim Blaine, who built a grist-mill in 1764 on the Conodoguinet about a 
mile north of Carlisle; Robert Collander, who also built a mill near the conflu- 
ence of the Conodoguinet and Letort's Spring, in Middlesex Township; Will- 
iam Thompson, a captain in the Indian war, and later a general in the Revo- 
lution; William Lyon, justice, judge and military officer; John Holmes, elected 
sheriff October 5, 1765; William McCoskry, coroner in 1764; Stephen Duncan, 
Rev. George Duffield (pastor of a Presbyterian Church as early as 1768); John 
Montgomery, Esq., Dr. Jonathan Kearsley, Robert Miller, Rev. John Steel 
(captain in the Indian war) — all at Carlisle; George Armstrong, member of the 
Assembly, and Walter Gregory, both in Allen. James Carothers, Esq. , James 
Galbraith, Esq., James and Matthew Loudon,* in East Pennsborough; 
George Brown, Ezekiel Dunning (sheriff in 1764), John Byers, an extensive 
farmer near Alexander Spring and subsequently a member of Council, all of 
West Pennsborough; William Buchanan, James Blaine, John McKnight 
(judge), Thomas Wilson (judge)— all of Middleton. 

Shippensburg, the oldest town in the county, had become a prosperous 
settlement also. A company of twelve persons had settled there in June, 
1730, and were soon joined by others. Hopewell Township, which was formed 
as a part of Lancaster County in 1735, had settlements outside of Shippens- 
burg (then in its limits) as early as 1731. And it is easy to see that upon the 
breaking out of the war of the Revolution the number of residents in the 
territory now included in Cumberland County was quite considerable. 

The following interesting sketch, written by Thomas Craighead, Jr., of 
Whitehill, December 16, 1845, and published in Rupp' s History of Dauphin, 
Cumberland and other counties, is worthy of insertion in this connection, and 
will doubtless be new to many: 

* * * The facts, incidents, etc., I communicate, I record as they occur to 
my mind. I will confine myself to my youthful neighborhood and such facts as I heard 
related by those who have, by reason of age, gone beyond the bourne whence none return. 
I need not inform you that the first settlers of new countries have to encounter trials, 
hardships and dangers. These my ancestors, in common with others, experienced on their 
first coming into this county. Nothwithstandine their multiplied trials and difficulties, 
they had ever in mind the fear and worship ot one common Creator. An ancestor of 
mine, who early immigrated to America, was a student of theology under the Rev. Tuck- 
ney, of Boston, who had been a member of the General Assembly at Westminster. You 
will find, on consulting the history of the Presbyterian Church of this county, that the 
name of Craighead appears at an early period. In establishing churches in this county, 
Craighead appears as one of the first ministers. The first sermon preached west of the 
Susquehanna was delivered by the Kev. Thomas Craighead, then residing, as I believe, in 
Donegal Township, Lancaster County. Soon after, these congregations were organized in 
what IS now Cumberland and Franklin, viz.: One in the lower settlement, near Carlisle; 
one at Big Spring, near Newville, and one in the Conogocheague settlement. Thomas 
Craighead preached at Big Spring. When divine service was first held, the settlers went 
with their guns to hear preaching. These defensives were then deemed necessary to deter 
the Indians from attacking them. However, the peaceful disposition of the true Christian 
had its salutary influence upon the untutored Indian — the Indian feared and respected the 
consistent professor of religion. Religious influence was felt — at Big Spring protracted 
meetings were held for public worship. So powerful, it is said, were the influences of the 
Spirit, that the worshippers felt loth, even after having exhausted their stores of provis- 
ions, to disperse. I have heard it from the lips of those present, when Thomas Craighead 
delivered one of his parting discourses, that his flow of eloquence seemed supernatural — 

;»Mattliew and James Loudon had come from Scotland and settled first in Shearman's Valley, but were 
driven out by the Indians, and relocated on land near Hogestown, southeast of Carlisle. James returned to 
Shearman's Valley after peace was declared with the Indians. His son, Archibald, born on shipboard during 
the passage from Scotland, afterward became postmaster at Carlisle, and also published several volumes, one of 
which was descriptive of outrages during the Indian wars, and has been much quoted. 


he continued in bursts of eloquence, while his audience was melted to tears — himself how- 
ever exhausted, hurried to pronounce the blessing, waving his hand, and as he pronounced 
the words, "farewell, farewell," he sank down, expiring without a gi-oan or struggle. His 
remains rest where the church now stands as the only monument to his memory. 

John Craighead, a son of Thomas, settled at an early date on Yellow Breeches Creek, 
near Carlisle. His son John oflBciated a short time as pastor at Big Spring. He then re- 
moved to Conegocheague, and was there placed as pastor. When the Bevolution was the 
absorbing question of the day, he was an ardent Whig, and fearless of consequences; the 
Government had an eye on him, but the people were with him. He preached liberty or 
death from the pulpit; the young men's bosoms swelled with enthusiasm for military glory 
— they marched to the tented field, and several were killed. Still he urged them not to be 
daunted. On one occasion he brought all his eloquence to bear on the subject, until the 
congregation arose to their feet as if ready to march. An old lady who had just lost a son 
in battle, hallooed out: " Stop, Mr. CraigheadI I just want to tell ye agin you loss such 
a purty boy as I have in the war, ye will na be so keen for fighting. Quit talking and gang 
yersel to the war. Ye're always preaching to the boys about it, but I dinna think ye'd be 
very likely to gang yersel. Jist go and try it!" He did try it, and the next day, he and 
Mr. Cooper — I think — a preacher also, set about to raise a company. They did raise one, 
of the choicest spirits that ever did live; marched in short order, and joined the army under 
"Washington, in the Jerseys. He fought and preached alternately, breasted all danger, re- 
lying on his God and the justice of his cause for protection. 

One day, going to battle, a cannon ball struck a tree near him, a splinter of which 
nearly knocked him down. "God bless me," says Mr. Cooper, " you were nearly knocked 
to staves." "Oh, yes," says he very cooly, " though you are a cooper you could not have 
set me up." He was a great humorist. » » * When he marched his company 
they encamped near where I am now writing, at the Hon. Robert Whitehill's, who opened 
his cellar, which was well stored with provisions and barrels of apple brandy. Col. Hen- 
drick's daughters assisted in preparing victuals for them. They fared sumptuously with 
this brave man. They next encamped at Boyd's, in Lancaster County; he fell in love 
with Jennie Boyd and married her. He died of a cancer on his breast, leaving no children. 
His father, John, had been educated in Europe for the ministry, but on his return he found 
preaching a poor business to live by. He stopped at Philadelphia, took to tailoring, took 

food care when he went into good company to tie up his forefinger, for fear of his being 
iscovered, but being a handsome little man and having a good education he was courted 
by the elite of the day. He fell in with an English heiress, of the name of Montgomery, 
I think, married her, and spent the fortune all but a few webs of linen, with which he pur- 
chased from the proprietor 500 acres of land on Yellow Breeches. * * * . * 
His other two sons, Thomas and James, were farmers; they had great diflBculty in paying 
the balance due on their land. They took their produce to Annapolis (no business done in 
Baltimore then); prices got dull; they stored it; the merchant broke; all seemed gone; they 
applied for more time; built a saw-mill. They had made the money, but the war came on. 
Thomas was drafted; his son John, thirteen years old, and my father drove the baggage 
wagon. It took the money to equip and bear their expenses while going to and in camp. 
Thomas took the camp fever and his son the small-pox. Gen. Washington gave them a 
furlough to return home. A younger son, James, met them below Lancaster, and drove 
the team home. He often stopped and looked into the wagon to see if they were still liv- 
ing, but he got them home, and they both recovered. By some mistake in recording their 
furlough, there was a fine imposed on Thomas for leaving camp a few days before his time 
was up. When the bailiff came to collect it he was up on a barrack building wheat. The 
oflBcer was on horseback. He told him he would come down and pay him. He came 
down, took a hickory withe that happened to lie near, caught his little horse by the tail, 
and whipped the oflScer, asking him if he was paid, untU he said he was paid. That set- 
tled the fine. He was paid off with Congress money; broke up again with a chest full of 
money. By this time things began to go up; all prospered. John Craighead, his father, 
had been an active member of the Stony Ridge convention, which met to petition parlia- 
ment for redress of grievances. He was closely watched by the Tories, and one Pollock 
was very near having him apprehended as a rebel, but the plot was found out and Pollock 
had to leave the county. ISIear the place where this convention met, at the stony ridge, 
one Samuel Lamb lived on his land. There was a block-house, where the neighbors flew 
for shelter from hostile Indians. * * * Lamb was a stone mason, built stone 
chimneys for the rich farmers who became able to hew logs and put up what was called a 
square log house. They used to say he plumbed his corners with spittle — that is, he spit 
down the corner to see if it was plumb. Indeed, many chimneys are standing to this day 
and look like it; but he had a patriotic family. When the army rendezvoused at Little 
York, four of his sons were in the army — two officers and two common soldiers. His 
daughters had a web of woolen in the loom; they colored the woof with sumach berries, and 
ma^ it as red as they could, for all war habiliments were dyed red as possible; made coats 
by guess for their brothers, put them in a tow-cloth wallet, slung it over their young 
brother, Samuel, to take to camp. He hesitated, the country being nearly all forest and 


full of wolves, bears, etc. One of them, Peggy, asked him: "What are you afraid of ? 
Go on I Sooner come home a corpse than a coward! " He did go on, and enlisted during 
the war; came home, married Miss .Trindle, of Trindle Spring, removed to Kentucky, 
raised a large family. * * * It seems as if there was something in the blood, 
as one of his sons in the last war* was a mounted volunteer in Gen. Harrison's army. 
At the battle of Tippecanoe he rode a very spirited horse, and on reining him to keep him 
in the ranks, his bridle bit broke. Being an athletic, long-legged young fellow, and his 
horse running at full speed toward the ranks of the enemy, he brandished his sword, hal- 
looing: "Clear the way, I am comingi" The ranks opened, let him through, and he es- 
caped safe andgot back to his camp.f Peggy Lamb deserves a notice. She afterward 
married Capt. William Scott, who was a prisoner on Long Island, and she now (1845) en- 
joys a captain's half pay; lives in Mechanicsburg. near her native place, a venerable old 
lady in full strength of intellect, though more than four-score years have passed over her. 
She well deserves the little boon her country bestows upon her. The first horse I remem- 
ber to ride alone was one taken in the Revolution by William Gilson, who then lived on 
the Conodoguinet Creek, where Harlacher's mill now is. He was one of Hindman's rifle- 
men, and after the battle of Trenton, he being wounded in the leg, two of 
soldiers were helping him off the field; they were pursued by three British Light Horsemen 
across an old field and must be taken, lliey determined to sell themselves as dearly as 
possible. Gilson reached the fence, and propped himself against it. "Now," says he, 
" man for man; I take the foremost." He shot him down, the next was also shot, the third 
was missed. The two horses pursued their courses, and were caught by Gilson and his 
companions and brought into camp. His blue dun lived to a great age. Gilson was offered 
£1,500 for him. Gilson removed to Westmoreland County. His wife was also a Trindle. 
He left a numerous and respectable family. I wish I was able to do those families more jus- 
tice for their patriotism and integrity to their country. They have left a long line of off- 
spring, who are now scattered far and wide over the Union. If they would but all take their 
forefathers for examples! I come now within my own remembrance of Cumberland County. 
I have seen many a pack-horse loaded with nail rods at Ege's Forge to cany out to Somer- 
set County and the forks of Yougheigany and Red Stone Fort, to make nails for their log 
cabins, etc. I have seen my father's team loading slit iron to go to Fort Pitt. John Rowan 
drove the team. I have known the farmer's team to haul iron from the same forge to 
Virginia; load back corn for feed at the forge. All the grain in the county was not enough 
for its own consumption. I have known fodder so scarce that some farmers were obliged 
to feed the thatch that was on their barns to keep their cattle alive. James Lamb bought 
land in Sherman's Valley, and he and his neighbors had to pack straw on horses across the 
mountain. He was on the top of the mountain waiting until those going over would get up, 
as they could not pass on the path. He hallooed out: " Have they any more corn in Egypt?" 
I saw the first mail stage that passed through Carlisle to Pittsburgh. It was a great wonder; 
the people said the proprietor was a fool. I think his name was Slough. I happened a 
short time ago to visit a friend, Jacob Ritner, son of that great and good man, ex-Gov. 
Ritner, who now owns Capt. Denny's farm, who was killed during the Revolutionary war. 
The house had been a tavern, and in repairing it Mr. Ritner found some books, etc., which 
are a curiosity. Charge, breakfast, £20; dinner, horse-feed, £30; some charges still more 
extravagant. But we know it was paid with Congress money. The poor soldier on his 
return had poor money, but the rich boon, liberty, was a prize to him far more valuable. 
As late as 1808 I hauled some materials to Oliver Evans' saw-mill at Pittsburgh. I was 
astonished to see a mill going without water. Mr. Evans satisfied my curiosity by showing 
and explaining everything he could to me. He looked earnestly at me and said: " You may 
live to see your wagons coming out here by steam." The words were so impressed that I 
have always remembered them.' I have lived to see them go through Cumberland County, 
and it seems to me that I may see them go through to Pittsburgh; but I have seen Mr. 
Evans' prophecy fulfilled beyond what 1 thought possible at that time. But things have 
progressed at a rate much faster than the most gigantic minds imagined, and we are on- 
ward still. * » * * Yours, truly, etc., Thomas Cbaighead, Jr. 

In truth, could Mr. Craighead now peep at the region he knew for so many 
years, he would be even more greatly surprised. The ' ' steam wagons ' ' have 
reached Pittsburgh and gone beyond it to the shores of the distant Pacific 
Ocean, over mountains beside which the Allegheuies would be but pigmy foot- 
hills. Side by side is the great telegraph, and even the human voice, by 
means of the delicate instrument known as the telephone, can be heard almost 
across the continent. The most wonderful strides toward the perfection of 
civilization have been taken since Mr. Craighead was laid to rest, and the end 
is not yet. 

*War of 1812. 

fPretty tough story. [Ed.] 

^^A-^/zy-y J^u 

7'yL yi . U^^-^Y^/^ 


In a pamphlet history of the United Presbyterian Church of Big Spring, at 
Newville, Cumberland County, published in 1878 by James B. Scouller, occur 
the following passages: 

" The first known settlements in Cumberland County were made in 1730, 
and at no great distance from the river. But new settlers came in very rapidly 
and passed up the North Valley, or the Kittochtinny Valley as then called, 
following the Conodoguinet and Yellow Breeches Creeks, and locating also 
upon Silver Spring, Letort Spring, Big Spring, Mean's Spring, Middle Spring, 
Falling Spring, Eocky Spring and the different branches of the Conococheague, 
until in 1736 a line of settlements extended from the Susquehanna clear 
through to the western part of the province of Maryland. In 1748 there were 
800 taxables in the valley, and in 1751 the number had increased to 1, 100 
indicating a population of at least 5,000 inhabitants. These, with the exception 
of about fifty German families in Franklin County, were immigrants from 
Ireland and Scotland, and the descendants of those who had taken root in 
Lancaster County. In 1751 a sudden and large increase in the flow of immi- 
gration commenced, which ministered greatly to the rapid settlement of the 
county. This tidal wave owed its origin to a very unusual and novel 
cause. In 1730 Secretary Logan* wrote thus: 'I must own from my own 
experience in the land office that the settlement of five families from Ireland 
gives me more trouble than fifty of any other people. Before we were broke 
in upon ancient friends and first settlers lived happily, but now the case is 
quite altered.' The quick temper and belligerent character of this people, 
which kept them generally in a kind of chronic broil with their German neigh- 
bors, did not seem to improve with time, for in 1743 Secretary Peters wrote in 
very much the same strain as had done his predecessor, and even the Quaker 
forbearance of the Proprietaries finally became exhausted, so that in or about 
1750, the year in which Cumberland County was organized, positive orders 
were issued to all the agents to sell no more land in either York or Lancaster 
County to the Irish, and to make very advantageous ofPers to those of them 
who would remove from these counties to the North Valley. These offers were 
so liberal that large numbers accepted, and built their huts among the wig- 
wams of the native inhabitants, whom they found ' to be peaceful but by no 
means non-resistant. ' ' 

A pamphlet containing an historical sketch of Carlisle, together with the 
charter of the borough and published in 1841, also says: " In the year 1755 
instructions were given by the proprietaries to their agents that they should 
take especial care to encourage the immigration of Irishmen to Cumberland 
County. It was their desire to people York with Germans and Cumberland 
with Irish. The mingling of the two nations in Lancaster County had pro- 
duced serious riots at elections, f ' 

In the year 1749 the total revenue from taxation in the county of Cumber- 
land was only £117 7s. 8d., and the amount of excise collected in the county 
for the year ending June 1, 1753, was £55. In 1762 the county contained 
896 taxables, 37,820 acres of warranted land, 21,500 acres of unwarranted 
land, 19, 304 acres of patented land, 201 town lots, and there was paid £726 in 
rents and £4, 641 10s. in taxes. ' ' The proprietaries were the owners of land 
estimated at 5,167 acres in Middleton Township, near Carlisle, and 7,000 in 

♦Logan was himself an Irishman, but had been bo long in the con&dence and pay of the proprietaries that 
he was at this time, probably, somewhat prejudiced even against his own people. 

fThe same authorities relate, concerning the manner of settling election difficulties, that, ** in 1756, when 
William Allen was returned a member of the Assembly for two counties, Cumberland and Northampton, he was 
merely requested by the speaker to name the county for which he would sit, as he could not serve for both. 
He chose Cumberland, and a new election was ordered for Northampton." Elections were somewhat irregular 
heoause of the sparse population. 


East Pennsborough, of which 1,000 had been given up to Peter Chartier (and 
now in the hands of his assigns) and Tobias Hendricks, who took care of the 
whole manor. They also were the owners of sixty-four lots in Carlisle, eight 
of which were rated at £100 and the remainder at £15 each. The manor 
lands were valued for taxes, 3,000 of those in Middleton at £100 per hundred, 
and those in East Pennsborough at £75 per hundred, on which they paid a 
tax of 6s. on the pound. Before 1755 the proprietary estates had not been 
included in any general land-tax bill, but in that year the proprietaries had 
yielded the point and consented to be taxed on all really taxable property (that 
is, appropriated lands, all real estate except unsurveyed waste land, lots in 
town and rents of all kinds), and on equal terms with the other owners. 
There was, however, so much dispute on various points connected with this 
matter, that no collections were made on the proprietaries, but in considera- 
tion of the dangers of the province they had made a donation of £5,000.* 
In 1759, therefore, when the tax was levied, it was made retrospective for the 
five years (1755-59) inclusive, which had been in dispute, allowing them credit 
for the £5.000 which had been given, f" 

Taxables in 1762. — The following is a list of the taxables in the county in 

East Pennsborough Township, 1762. — James Armstrong, Andrew Armstrong, 
Samuel Anderson, James Armstrong, Samuel Adams, Samuel Bell, William 
Brians, William Beard, John Beard, Walter Buchanan, William Bell, David 
Bell, John Buchanan, John Biggar, James Carothers, Esq. , William Chestnut, 
Thomas Clark, William Carothers, Thomas Culvert, Samuel Chambers, John 
Clendening, Adam Calhoon, Samuel Calhoon, Robert Carothers, John Crosier, 
John Chambers, William Culbertson, William Cronicle, John Carson, Thomas 
Donallson, Eobert Denny, William Duglas, John Dickey, James Dickey, An- 
drew Ervin, William Ervin, James Ervin, John Ervin, John Edwards, John Ful- 
ton, James Galbreath, James Gattis, John German, William Gray, Samuel Gaily, 
Samuel Hustin, Tobias Hendricks, John Hickson, WilliamHarris, Patrick Holmes, 
John Hamilton, Widow Henderson, Clement Horril, Jonathan Hogg, David 
Hogg, Joseph Junkin, Eobert Jones, James Kerr, James Kile, Widow Keny, 
Brian Kelly, Matthew Loudon, Alex Laverty, Widow McClure, William Mar- 
tial, Edward Morton, John Morton, Eobert McKinly, James McConall, Sam- 
uel McCormick, John McCormick, Francis Maguire, James McCormick, Thom- 
as McCormick, Matthew McCaskie, James McKinstry, William Mateer, Will- 
iam Millar, Edward Morton, Andrew Milligan, John McTeer, Thomas Mur- 
ray, Shedrick Muchmore, James McConneU, Jr. , Brian McColgan, James Neal- 
er, Nathaniel Nilson, Nathaniel Nilson (again), William Noble, John Orr, Will- 
iam Orr, William Oliver, William Parkison, James Purdy, William Plunket, 
John Quigley, David Eees, William Eoss, James Eeed, Nathaniel Reaves, 
Archibald Stuart, Eobert Steel, John Semple, Francis Silvers, David Semple, 
Eobert Samuels, John Shaw, Mr. Seely, William Speedy, Thomas Spray, Hen- 
ry Taylor, Henry Thornton, John Trimble, Benjamin Vernon, John Williams, 
William Walker, George Wood, John Wood, John Waugh, James Waugh, 
John Willey, Henry Warton, Samuel Williamson — 126. 

Carlisle, 1762. — John Armstrong, Esq. , Samuel Allen, Harmanus Alricks, 
Nicolas Albert, William Armstrong, Thomas Armstrong, John Anderson, 
John Andrews, Widow Andrews, Mary Buchanan, Widow Buchanan, Thomas 
Bell, William Blyth, James Bell, William Bennet, William Blair, James Bar- 
clay, William Brown, Thomas Blair, Joseph Boyd, Charles Boyle, Isaac 
Burns, James Brandon, John Chapman (wagoner), John Crawford,' Henry 

♦See Indian History. 
tDr. Wing, p. 64. 


Creighton, "William Crocket, Kobert Crunkelton, Eoger Connor, William 
Caldwell, George Crocket, Samuel Coulter, Andrew Colboon, James Crocket, 
Simon Callins, Robert Callender, William Christy, John Chapman, William 
Clark, John Craig, Thomas Copling, Jacob Cart, Thomas Christy, Widow Col- 
hoon, Michael Dill, George Davidson, James Duncan, Samuel Davidson (not 
of age), Thomas Duncan, Ezekiel Dunning, Thomas Donallan, William Devin- 
port, WUliam Denny, Widow Dunning, Adam Duglas, Stephen Duncan, Denis 
Dougherty, Rev. George Duffleld, James Eckles, James Earl, David Franks, 
Stephen Foulk, John Fortner, James Ferguson, James Fleming, Thomas 
Fleming, Mary Gallahan, William Gray, Joseph Galbreath, James Gregg, 
WiUiam German, John Gamble, Daniel Gorman, Robert Gorral, Robert Gib- 
son, Robert Guthrie, Abraham Holmes, Adam Hoops, Barnabas Hughes, 
Joseph Hunter, Jacob Hewick, Jacob Houseman, John Hastings, George 
Hook, John Huston, John Hunter, Joseph Jeffreys, Thomas Jeffreys, John 
Kennedy, John Kelly, Benjamin Kid, Andrew Kinkaid, John Kerr, John Kin- 
kaid, John Kearsley, Robert Little, Agnes Leeth, William Lyon, William 
McCurdy, William Main, David McCurdy, John McCurdy, Widow Mclntyre, 
Robert Miller, James McCurdy, John Montgomery, Esq. , Hugh McCormick, 
William MoCoskry, James McGill, John Mordough, Widow Miller, John 
McKnight, Esq. , Hans Morrison, Patrick McWade, William Murphy, John 
Mather, Widow Miller, John McCay, Hugh McCurd, William Miller, Robert 
MeWhiney, Andrew Murphy, Philip Nutart, Joseph Nilson, Culbert Nickelson, 
John Orr, Thomas Parker, William Parker, Philip Pendergrass, John Patti 
son, Charles Pattison, William Plunket, WiUiam Patterson, James Taylor Pol- 
lock, James Parker, James Pollock, Thomas Patton, John Pollock, William 
Reaney, William Roseberry, William Rusk, Mary Rogers, John Robison, Rob- 
ert Robb, James Robb, William Rodeman, Widow Ross, Henry Smith, Ezekiel 
Smith, John Scott, Robert Smith, William Sharp, Widow Steveson, Charles 
Smith, Widow Sulavan, James Stakepole, John Starret, John Steel, John 
Smith, WUliam Spear, Timothy Shaw, Peter Smith, Rev. John Steel, Joseph 
Smith, Rowland Smith, WUliam Spear, for court house, James Thompson, 
Samuel Thompson, Wilson Thompson, James Thomas, James Templeton, 

WiUiam White, William Ward, Roger Walton, Samuel , William Watson, 

William Wadle, Edward Ward, Francis West, William Whiteside, Widow 
Welch, ThomasJWalker, Abraham Wood, William Wallace, John Welch, 
James Woods, Nathaniel Wallace, Widow Vahan, John Van Lear, James 
Young— 190. 

Allen Township, 1762. — John Anderson, James Atkison, George Arm- 
strong, Alex Armstrong, William Abernathy, George Armstrong, James 
Brown, WUliam Boyls, James Beatty, Robert Bryson, WUliam Boyd, William 
Crocket, George Crocket, John Clark, Roger Cook, James Crawford, Rowland 
Chambers, Samuel Cunningham, Philip Cuff, James Crocket, William Crosby, 
Thomas Davis, WiUiam Dickey, John Dunlap, William Elliott, Widow Frazer, 
Henry Free, John Glass, Walter Gregory, John Grindle, Richard Gilson, John 
GUkison, James Gregory, John Gibson, John Giles, William Hamersly, Robert 
Hannah, Thomas Hamersly, Isaac Hendricks, Charles Inhuff, Nicholas. King, 
James Long, Henry Longstaff, Hugh Laird, James McTeer, John McTeer, 
WUliam McCormick, William Martin, John McMain, Rowland McDonald, 
Widow McCurdy, Anthony McCue, Hugh McHool, Andrew MiUer, John Mc- 
NaU, Samuel Martin, Thomas McGee, John NaUer, Richard Peters, Richard 
Peters, Esq., Henry Quigley, Richard Rankin, Thomas Rankin, John Rutlidge, 
Robert Rosebary, Isaac Rutledge, John Sands, Widow Steel, Thomas Stewart, 
James Semple, Charles Shoaltz, Moses Starr, Peter Tittle, WiUiam Trindle, 


Alex Trindle, David Willson, John Willson (weaver), John Willson, Alex 
Work, Ralph Whiteside, George Wingler — 81. 

West Pennsboi-ough Township, 1762. — John Armstrong, Esq., Jacob 
Arthur, Peter Ancle, Laurence Allport, John Byers, Robert Bevard, George 
Brown, Thomas Butler, James Brown, Widow Bratton, William Blackstock, 
James Bevard, William Bevard, John Buras, William Carothers, James 
Oarothers, William Clark, John Campbell, Widow Crutchlow, David Cronister, 
Matthew Cralley, John Denny, Ezekiel Dunning, William Dunbar, William 
Dunlap, John Dunlap, John Dunbar, James Dunning, John Dunning, George 
Davidson, John Dunning, William Dillwood, Robert Brwin, William Eakin, 
Thomas Eakin, Thomas Evans, William Ervin, John Ervin, Alex Erwin, 
William Ewing (at Three Springs), Thomas Ewing, William Ewing, Andrew 
Forbes, Alex Fullerton, Andrew Giffin, James Graham, Rob Guthrie, James 
Gordon, William Gattis, Thomas Gray, Samuel Henry, John Hodge, Adam 
Hays, William Harkness, James Hunter, Joseph Hasteen, Thomas Holmes, 
Barney Hanley, David Hall, Henry Hanwart, Joseph Kilgore, John Kerr, 
Matthew Kerr, Charles Kilgore, Samuel Kilgore, John Kenner, William Lem- 
mon, William Laughlin, Allen Leeper, William Leviston, William Logan, 
George Little, George Leavelan, William Little, Samuel Lindsay, John Lusk, 
William Leich, John McOlung, Robert Meek, James McFarlane, William Mc- 
Farlane, Robert McFarlane, John McFarlane, Andrew McFarlane, David Mc- 
Nair, John McClure, Edward McMurray, John McGeary, Patrick McClure, 
Robert McClure, John McCune, Robert McQuiston, James McQuiston, James 
McCay, Thomas McKay, Daniel McAllister, Archibald McAllister, James Mc- 
Naught, Alex McBride, Samuel McCullough, David McAllister, John Miller, 
Robert McCullough, John Mclntyre, John McNair, David McNair, Alex Mo- 
Cormick, William MoMahan, Daniel Morrison, Matthew MoCleares, James 
McAllister, Francis Newell, John Newell, Herman Newman, Alex Officer, 
Richard Peters, Esq., WUliam Parsons, Proprietaries' Manor (700 acres 
patented), William Dutton, Paul Pears, Richard Parker, William Parker, 
Widow Parker, Joseph Peoples, Jacob Peoples, Michael Pears, John Patton, 
Thomas Parker, William Quiry, David Ralston, Matthew Russell, Robert 
Rogers, William Robison, Archibald Robison, John Robison, Samuel Reagh, 
Patrick Robison, Singleton's Place, Robert Stuart, John Scroggs, Allen 
Scroggs, John Smily, James Sea, Robert Swaney, John Swaney, David 
Stevenson, Thomas Stewart, Robert Stewart, William Scarlet, William Stewart, 
James Smith (attorney), Anthony White, Widow Willson, Samuel Willson, 
Samuel Wilson, James Weakley, Robert, Walker, William Woods, James White, 
Robert Welsh, Alex Young — 164. 

Middleton Township, 1762. — Nathan Andrew, William Armstrong, James 
Alcorn, Adam Armwick, John Beatty, John Bigham, William Beatty, William 
Brown, .John- Beard, William Buchanan, John Brownlee, James Blair, Richard 
Coulter, Widow Clark, William Campbell, John Crennar, Robert Caldwell, 
Charles Caldwell, John Craighead, James Chambers, John Davis, George 
Douglass, John Dinsmore, David Drennan, William Dunbar, John Dickey, 
Walter Denny, David Dunbar, James Dunlap, Widow Davies, William Davison, 
Jr., James Eliot, Robert Eliot, Jr., John Elder ("Disputed Land, " 150 acres), 
James Eliot, Jr. , Andrew Eliot, William Forgison, William Fleming, Joseph 
Fleming, Ann Fleming, Arthur Foster, John Forgy, Thomas Freeman, John 
Gregg, Samuel Gaay, Widow Guliford, Andrew Gregg, Robert Gibson, Lod- 
wick Ginger, Joseph Gaily, Joseph Goudin, Thomas Gibson, Nicholas Hughs, 
Samuel Harper, William Henderson, Thomas Holt, William Hood, Jonathan 
Holmes, Humphrey's land, Hamilton's land, Patrick Hason, Andrew Holmes, 


Thomas Johnston, John Johnston, Archibald Kenedy, James Keny, Matthew 
Kenny, John Kincaid, George Kinkaid, James Kinkaid, Eichard Kilpatrick, 
William Leer, Eobert Little, John Little, George Leslie, Samuel Lamb, David 
McClure, William McKnitt, Andrew McBath, William McClellan, Hugh Mc- 
Bride, John McCrea, David McBride, "Meeting-house land," Hugh McCor- 
mick, James McCuUough, Matthew Miller, James Matthews, James McAllister, 
Francis McNickle, John McKnight, Esq., James Moore, William Moore, 
James McManus, Guain McHaffy, John McHafly, Thomas McHaffy, Samuel 
McCrackin, John Mitchell, Widow Mclntyre, John Neely, Matthew Neely, 
John Patton, William Parkison, James Pollock, Kobert Patterson, William Pat- 
terson, Richard Peters' land. John Patterson. William Riddle, Archibald Ross, 
James Robison, John Reed, Robert Reed, William Reed, John Reed, Jr. , John 
Robb, Adam Ritchy, David Reed, James Reed, William Riggs, George Riggs, 
Jacob Stanford, Abraham Stanford, John Stuart (weaver), James Stuart, William 
Smith, John Stinson, George Sanderson, Sr. , Robert Sanderson, Jean Sanderson, 
George Sanderson, Jr. , James Sharon, John Smith, Alex Sanderson, Andi-ew 
Simison, Randies Slack, William Shaw, James Smith, William Stewart, Robert 
Stinson, Ezekiel Smith, John Stewart, James Smith, Widow Templeton, 
Robert Urie, Patrick Vance, Solomon Walker, Daniel Williams, Samuel Will- 
son, John Waddell, Widow Williamson, Francis West, John Welsh, Thomas 
Wilsouj Esq., Samuel White, Thomas Woods, James Woods — 159. ' 

Hopewell Township, 1762. — Thomas Alexander, John Anderson, Widow 
Andrews, Hugh Brady, Samuel Brown, Benjamin Blyth, William Bricer, Joseph 
Brady, John Brady, Samuel Bratin, Hugh Brady, Jr., William Crunkelton, 
John 'Cloff, James Chambers, George Clark, James Chambers, William Car- 
nahan, James Carnahan, George Cunningham, Robert Chambers, Francis 
Campble, Robert Campble, William Duncan, Thomas Duncan, Daniel Duncan, 
Johji Daizert, James Daizert, Moses Donally, Widow Donally, Philip Dusky, 
Henry Daviea, John Eager, John Egnew, Joseph Eager, John Eliot, James 
Eliot, Robert Fryer, Clement Finley, Thomas Finley, William Gibson, Ann 
Gibson, Andrew Gibson, Samuel Gibson, Widow Gibbs, Robert Gibbs, William 
Gamble, Samuel Gamble, John Hanah, Josiah Hanah, Samuel Hindman, John 
Hunter, William Hodg, James Hamilton, George Hamilton, John W. Hamil- 
ton, John Taylor Hamilton, David Herrin, John Hannah, William Hunter, 
John Jack, Joseph L-vin, James Jack, James Kilgore, Thomas Lyon, James 
Long, Edward Leasy, John Laughlin, James Laughlin, James Little, Andrew 
Lucky, John Laughlin, Widow Leasin, Josiah Martin, Daniel McDowel, James 
McFarlan, John McFarlan, John McClintock, James McGafEog, Andrew Man- 
kelwain, Samuel Morrow, Patrick McGee, Eobert McComb, Samuel 'Montgom- 
eryTTkomas Montgomery, James Mahan, John Moorhead, James McCormick, 
George McCormick, John Montgomery, James Montgomery, John McCune, 
Jr., John McCune, Robert McCune, John McClean, Daniel Mickey, Robert 
Mickey, John S. Miller, Samuel Montgomery, David McGaw, Philip Millar, 
Isaac Miller, James McAnay, John Millar, James McCall, John Meason, Nail 
McClean, George McCully, John Mclntire, Samuel Moor, Andrew Mankel- 
wain, John Morris, William McGaffog, Widow Myers, William Moorhead, 
Samuel Mitchel, Samuel Mackelhing, John Montgomery, David McCurdy, 
Patrick McFarlan, James McDowel, Robert McDowel, Thomas McKiny, James 
Mankelwain, Samuel McGready, Samuel Neaves, John Nisbet, Richard Nick- 
elson, William Nickelson, James Nesbit, John Nisbet, William Plumstead, 
Richard Peters, William Piper, Samuel Perry, Nathaniel Peoples, James 
Pollock, William Powell, John Porter, Thomas Pordon, John Porterfield, 
James Quigly, John Quigly, John Robison, William Reynolds, John Redman, 


James Reynolds, Samuel Smith, George Sheets, Samuel Stewart, David Simi- 
ral, William Stitt, Robert Simonton, Edward Shipper, Alex Scroggs, John 
Stineton, Samuel Sellars, Nathaniel Scruchfield, Samuel Sorre, Hugh Torrins, 
John Thompson, William Thompson, John Trimble, Widow Trimble, Joseph 
Thompson, David Thompson, Widow Thompson, John Thompson, Joseph 
Woods, John Wodden, William_ Walker, Robert Walker, Samuel^JWalker, 
James Williamson, Samuel Wier, Samuel Williamson, James Work, William 
Walker, James Walker, James Wallas, James Jocky Williamson, West & 
Smith, James Young. 

More Early Settlers. — Dr. Wing, at pages 24 and 25 of his History of 
Cumberland County, mentions the following early settlers: 

George Croghan, five miles from the Susquehanna River, on the north side 
of the Conodoguinet, also owned lands in various parts of the county, and in 
1748 was the owner of 800 acres, which extended nearly to the mouth of Sil- 
vers' Run, on the Conodoguinet. Part of it had been taken up by Rob- 
ei-t Buchanan, in 1743, and part ' by William Walker, who sold to William 
Trent. Mr. Croghan also owned a large tract in Hopewell, north of Shippens- 
burg. He was a trader with the Indians, did not cultivate his land, and 
changed his residence frequently to suit the convenience of trade. He was 
originally from Dublin, and lived afterward at Aughwick, in what is now 
Huntingdon County. He was greatly trusted by Sir William Johnson as an 
agent among the Indians. 

Robert Buchanan, above mentioned, sold his first claim and removed farther 
up the creek with his brother Walter, living in East Pennsborough. William 
Buchanan kept an inn at Carlisle in 1753, and another Buchanan was a resi- 
dent of Hopewell Township in 1748, adjoining the Kilpatrick settlement. 
James Laws lived next to Croghan, opposite to the mouth of Silvers' Run. 
At a spring adjoining on the south was James Silvers, from whom the stream 
and spring were named. He had settled there with his wife, Hannah, before 
1733, and owned 500 acres of land or more; was public- spirited and honor- 
able; has no descendants bearing his name. Within ten or fifteen years from 
the time he settled there located around him James Pollock, who built a grist- 
mill at or near the confluence of the Conodoguinet and the stream which issues 
from Silvers' Spring, John Scott, Robert and James Robb, Samuel Thomp- 
son, Thomas Fisher, Henry Quigley and William Berryhill. Andrew and 
John Galbreath owned land adjoining them on the east, and William Walker 
on the west. 

John Hoge settled very early on the site of Hogestown, and had numerous 
distinguished descendants. Two brothers, named Orr, coming from Ireland 
before 1788, settled near him. William Trindle, John Walt, Robert Redock, 
John Swanzey, John McCracken, Thomas Fisher, Joseph Green and John 
Rankin owned land in Pennsborough, and were at different times tax collect- 
ors before 1747. John Oliver, Thomas McCormick and William Douglas had 
farms in Hoge's vicinity, John Carothers at the mouth of Hoge's Run, and 
William Douglas west of and opposite him up the Conodoguinet. In the same 
neighborhood were John and Abraham Mitchell, John Armstrong, Samuel 
Anderson, Samuel Calhoun, Hugh Parker, Robert Dunning, John Hunter 
(near Dirty Spring), Samuel Chambers, James Shannon, William Crawford, 
Edward Morton, Robert Fulton, Thomas Spray, John Callen, John Watts, 
Michael Kilpatrick, Joseph Thompson, Francis Maguire and James Mateer. 
James Armstrong lived farther west, and on the ridge back of the present 
site of Kingston was the residence of Joseph Junkin, who early settled upon 
a large tract. Robert Bell lived near Stony Ridge, and south of him were 


Samuel Lamb, "a stone mason and an ardent patriot," John Trindle, near 
Trindle's Spring, James Irvine, Mathew Miller, John Forney and David 
Denny. At Boiling Spring there settled early Dr. Eobert Thompson, for- 
merly of Lancaster, Joseph Graley, Patrick Hassen, Andrew, William, James 
and George Crocket, David Eeed and John Dickey. Charles Pippin settled 
on "Pippin's Tract," on Yellow Breeches, in or before 1742. West of him, 
on the same stream, were John Campbell, who had a mill , Eoger Cook, David 
Wilson, John Collins, James McPherson, Andrew Campbell, Andrew and John 
Miller, Eobert Patrick, J. Crawford, William Fear, John Gronow, Charles 
McConnel, Alexander Frazier, Peter Title (or Tittle, as sometimes given), Ar- 
thur Stewart, Thomas Brandon, Abraham Endless, John Craighead, the last 
earlier than 1746 on lands extending along the creek eastward from the Balti- 
more Turnpike. Adjoining him on the southwest was James Moore, who had 
a mill which is still in existence. On the Letort, near Middlesex, James Davi- 
son lived in 1736, a little south of the fording place where the road from 
Harris' Ferry crossed the run. The land in this vicinity is said to have been 
thickly settled before Carlisle was laid out. Patrick and William Davison, 
William Gillingham, James Gillgore (or Kilgore), Joseph Clark, Peter Wilkie 
and John McClure owned land near the propesed site of Carlisle, part of which 
the proprietaries bought back for the purpose of laying out the town upon it. 
Eichard lived two miles southwest. "William Armstrong's settlement" was 
on the Conodoguinet just below Meeting-house Springs. " David Williams, a 
wealthy land-holder and the earliest known elder in the congregation of Upper 
Pennsborough, James Young and Eobert Sanderson were probably included 
in this settlement. ' ' Thomas Wilson was farther east, near the present Hen- 
derson mill; next east was James Smith, and south, Jonathan Holmes, " an- 
other elder and an eminently good man, " who lived near the Spring on land more 
recently owned by Mrs. Parker, just northeast of Carlisle. Eowland Chambers 
lived near the mouth of the Letort on the State road, and below or back of him on 
Conodoguinet was a settlement where the first mill in the county was claimed 
to have been erected. North and on the north side of the creek were Joseph 
Clark and Eobert Elliott, who came from Ireland about 1737. Abraham 
Lamberton came soon after, also Thomas Kenny. East of them were John 
Semple, Patrick Maguire, Christopher Huston and Josiah McMeans. ' ' On the 
glebe belonging to the congregation of Upper Pennsborough, about two miles 
northwest from Carlisle, was the Eev. Samuel Thompson (1788), near which 
were lands belonging to John Davis, Esq. ; and farther up the creek were Will- 
iam Dunbar and Andrew Forbes, near whom a mill was afterward erected by 
WiUiam Thompson. " About four miles west of Carlisle Archibald McCallis- 
ter had an extensive purchase, the upper part of which was sold to John 
Byers, Esq., as early as 1742. Samuel Alexander was on Mount Pleasant, 
and east of him on and near the road to Carlisle were David Line, Andrew 
McBeath, James Given, John Eoads, M. Gibbons, Jacob Medill, Stephen 
Colis and Samuel Blyth. Farther south, near the present Walnut Bottom 
road, were John Huston and two brothers, from Donegal, Lancaster County, 
Samuel and William Woods. Between them and the Soath Mountain, as 
early as 1749, were James McKnight, William Dunlap, Eobert Walker and 
James Weakley, and in the same vicinity were James L. Fuller, John Mc- 
Knight, Esq. , William Campbell, John Galbreath, Hugh Craner, John Wilson, 
James Peoples, Eobert Queston, Thomas Armstrong, William Parkinson and 
John Elder. 

' ' In the settlement commenced by James Chambers (whose residence was 
about three miles southwest of Newville) was one of the most numerous clus- 


ters of inhabitants in the valley. It was very early (1738) strong enough to 
form a religious congregation, which offered to pledge itself to the support of a 
pastor. In each direction from the Big Spring the land was almost entirely 
taken up before 1750; so that the people there presented strong claims to the 
county seat. Among the earliest of these settlers was Apdrew Ralston [see 
page 8, this Part], on the road westward from the Spring; Robert Patterson the 
Walnut Bottom road; James McKehan, who came from Gap Station, Lan- 
caster County, and was for many years a much respected elder in the church 
of Big Spring; John Carson, John Erwin, Richard Fulton, Samuel Mc- 
CuUough and Samuel Boyd. On the ground now occupied by the town of 
Newville were families of the name of Atchison and McLaughlin, and near 
them were others of the name of Sterrett, Blair, Finley, Jacobs, and many 
whose locations are not known to the writer. *' ' 

The third brother of the Chambers family, who located near Middle Spring 
(north of Shippensburg at the county line) soon had a numerous settlement 
around him. A history of the Midcie Spring Presbyterian Church in 1876, 
by Rev. S. S. Wylie, then its pastor, has the following: " There is good evi- 
dence for the statement that at that time (1738) this section of this valley, be- 
tween Shippensburg and the North Mountain, was as thickly settled as almost 
any other portion of it. It is a matter of history that the first land in this 
valley taken up under the ' Samuel Blunston license' was by Benjamin Furley, 
and afterward occupied by the Herrons, McCombs and Irwins, a large tract 
lying along the Conodoguinet, in the direction of and in the neighborhood of 
Orrstown. At the house of Widow Piper, in Shippensburg, as early as 1735, 
a number of persons from along the Conodoguinet and Middle Spring met to 
remonstrate against the road which was then being made from the Susque- 
hanna to the Potomac, passing through ' the barrens,' but wanted it to be made 
through the Conodoguinet settlement, which was more thickly settled. This 
indicates that at this time a number of people lived in this vicinity. I give 
the names of some of them, on or before the year 1738: Robert Chambers, 
Herrons, McCombs, Youngs (three families), McNutts (three families), Mahans 
(three families), Scotts, Sterretts and Pipers; soon after the Brady family, 
McCunes, Wherrys, Mitchells, Strains, Morrows and others. It was such pio- 
neers as these who, with their children, made Shippensburg the most promi- 
nent town of this valley prior to the year 1750. Many of the names given 
above constituted some of the most prominent and worthy members of Middle 
Spring Church. ' ' Dr. Wing gives names in this settlement as follows : Hugh 
and David Herron, Robert McComb, Alex and James Young, Alex McNutt, 
Archibald, John and Robert Machan, James Scott, Alex Sterrett, William and 
John Piper, Hugh and Joseph Brady, John and Robert McCim.e and Charles 
Morrow. The twelve persons who, in June, 1730, made the first settlement at 
Shippensburg, were Alex Steen, John McCall, Richard Morrow, Gavin Mor- 
row, John Culbertson, Hugh Rippey, John Rippey, John Strain, Alex Askey, 
John McAllister, David Magaw, John Johnston. 

Wild Animals and Fish. — Dr. Wing says, in his general work on Cum- 
berland County: "These fields and forests were full of wild animals, which had 
multiplied to an unusual degree with the diminution of their enemies — the 
Indians. Deer were especially numerous, particularly on the mountains; but 
bears, wolves, panthers, wildcats, squirrels, turkeys and other game were 
everywhere plentiful. Along the creeks and smaller streams the otter, musk- 
rat and other amphibious animals were taken, and their skins constituted no 
small part of the trade with the Indians and early hunters. Fish of all kinds 

»Dr. Wing's History, pp. 24-6. 



I A 


"were caught in the streams, and large quantities even of shad are said to have 
come up the Susquehanna and to have frequented the Conodoguinet in the 
Eastern part of the county. Many of these were taken in the rude nets and 
seines called "brushnets," made of boughs or branches of trees. Most of 
these wild animals and fish have now disappeared, but the accounts of the 
early settlers are filled with tales of their contests with each other, the Indians 
and themselves." The same facts are substantially given in Eupp' s History 
of Dauphin and other counties. 

Customs and Habits. — Wearing apparel was " home-spun and home-made, " 
and the men went about dressed in this, and in hunting shirts and moccasins. 
Carpets were unknown. Floors were of the ' ' puncheon' ' variety — logs split and 
hewed, with the smooth surface uppermost. Benches made of the same material 
with legs in them answered in the place of chairs. Instead of crockery and 
china-ware the table furniture consisted of plates, spoons, bowls, trenchers, and 
noggins made of wood, or of gourds and hard-shell squashes; though in the 
families in better circumstances pewter took the place of wood, and there was 
nothing finer. The border settlers who could eat their meals from pewter 
dishes were rich indeed. Says Rupp: "Iron pots, knives and forks, especially 
the latter, were never seen of different sizes and sets in the same kitchen. ' ' 

The few sheep, cows and calves possessed by the first settlers were for some 
years a prey to wolves, unless securely protected and watched. The raven- 
ous wolves were bold in their marauding expeditions, and many a time they 
came prowling around the houses at night, poked their noses into the openings 
and looked in through the crevices in the log dwellings upon the families 
within, while the discordant howling sounded like the yelling of demons and 
made the darkness appalling. Woe be then to the domestic animal that was 
not securely housed or penned, for in the morning only its glistening bones 
would be left to tell that it ever existed. The country lying between the Con- 
odoguinet and the Yellow Breeches, for a distance of ten or twelve miles west- 
ward from the Susquehanna, was a barren, or tract devoid of timber, and 
across this deer were occasionally seen in a race for life with a pack of snarl- 
ing and hungry wolves at their heels. These cadaverous and cunning animals 
were seldom taken in steel traps", a better plan offered for their capture was the 
log pen, with sloping exterior, open at the top, with retreating inner walls. 
The wolf could easily climb up^the outside, and get at the bait within — gener- 
ally the carcass of a sheep which had previously furnished a wolf a meal — but 
once inside they could not get out, and were at the mercy of the settlers. 
Many were destroyed in this way, yet it was forty years or more before they 
ceased to be very troublesome. 

The pioneers were a "rude race and strong," or they never could have 
withstood the terrible hardships and privations of life in a border region, with 
wUd beasts and wilder men continually harrassing them and making their lot 
■desperate indeed. There is that in the Anglo-Saxon blood which appears to 
court difficulty and danger, and the resources of the race in time of trial are 
wonderful beyond comparison. In this broad and beautiful valley, in the days 
when the colonists were going through experiences which should finally cause 
their separation from the mother country and the upbuilding of a magnificent 
Eepublic, there were hours, months and years of extremest peril, of which he 
who reads at this late day can hardly have coneeptioti. 

Necessarily the buildings erected by the first settlers were simple and 
unpretending, whether for dwellings, places for worship or schools. Their 
supplies must be brought on horseback from Philadelphia, and across the Sus- 
quehanna in canoes or simple boats. It may, therefore, readily be understood 


that they did not make pretensions to style, though there was a degree of uni- 
formity about their buildings, dress, furniture and mode of living, which their 
isolation brought about as a matter of course. Lumber was not to be had for 
any price; wooden pins took the place of nails; oiled paper answered for glass 
in the windows. Says Dr. Wing: "They could dispense for a time with 
almost everything to which they had been accustomed, provided they could 
look forward with confidence to a future supply. Their cabins were soon 
erected, and they did not scorn to receive suggestions from the rude savages 
whose skill had so long been tasked in similar circumstances. The same for- 
ests and fields and streams were open to them, and the Indian did not grudge 
his white brother his knowledge of their secrets. These buildings were con- 
structed of the logs to be had ofiP the banks of the streams or from the neigh- 
boring hills ; the combined strength of a few neighbors was sufficient to put 
them in position and small skill was needful to put them together, to fill up the 
interstices between them, and to roof them with rude shingles, thatched straw 
or the bark of trees, and in a little while the same ingenuity would split and 
carve out of timber, and fashion the floors, benches, tables and bedsteads 
which were wanted for immediate use. As the number of settlers increased, 
these dwellings became of a better order. More skilled workmen began to be 
employed, and better materials and furniture were introduced, but for the first 
twenty years the people were contented with the most humble conveniencies. 
A few houses were constructed of stone, but these were not common. The first 
stone dwelling on Louther Manor, or in the eastern part of the county, was 
said to have been put up by Robert Whitehill, after his removal over the river, 
in 1772. The houses for schools and for public worship may have been of a 
better quality, for they were not usually erected under such extreme emergency, 
but they were of like materials and by the same workmen. Those, however, 
who know the buoyancy of hopes which ordinarily characterize the pioneers of 
a new country will not be surprised to learn that these were a happy people. 
The rude buildings in which they slept soundly, studied diligently, and wor- 
shiped devoutly, were quite as good for them, and were afterward remembered 
as pleasantly as were the more costly edifices of their father-land. ' ' 

Flour was an article not easily obtained until after the erection of mills to 
grind the wheat raised in the valley. The latter was found to flourish on the 
soil of the region, easily cleared of the busheiB which grew upon it, and ' ' as 
soon as it could be carried to market it became the most important article of 
trade." Maize, or Indian corn, was for some time more abundant, and 
afforded a good source of food supply. The Indians raised it and none was 
exported, and the process of preparing it for eating was simple. 

Buckskins were made into breeches and jackets of great durability, though 
the working classes more commonly wore garments of hempen or flaxen tow, 
or woolen. The men had wool hats, cowhide shoes, linsey frocks, and some- 
times deer-skin aprons, while the women had frocks of similar materials, and 
occasionally sun-bonnets. They managed to have a little better dress for Sun- 
day, or for social meetings, in which they indulged for ' ' amusement and good 
cheer." In out-of-door sports the Indians often came in for a share in the 

After the long French and Indian war, and the subsequent war precipitated 
by Pontiac, there was a greater feeling of relief than had been experienced 
since the settlements began, and prosperity became more general. Some fam- 
ilies had by that time become possessed of considerable wealth, and were enabled 
to maintain a style of living which those less fortunate could not indulge in. 
This styl^ was naturally modeled after English customs. Dr. Wing, who quotes 


as authority ' ' Watson' s Annals of Philadelphia, ' ' continues : "To have a house 
in town for winter and another on a plantation for summer was not very unus- 
ual, and in the proper season a large hospitality was indulged in. In many 
families slaves were possessed, and even where a more ordinary style of servi- 
tude prevailed there were not a few forms of aristocratic life. Some slaves 
were found even on the smaller farms, but the great majority of servants were 
Grerman or Irish 'redemptioners.'* As their term of service was commonly 
not more than four or five years, and the price not more than the hire of labor- 
ers for a less term, many farmers found this'an advantageous method of obtain- 
ing help. As they were not much distinguishable from their employers and 
afterward received good wages, they soon became proprietors of the soil, and 
their children, being educated, passed into better society. In such a state of af- 
fairs there was a perpetual tendency to a uniformity of conditions and of social 
life. The great body of the people were moral, and all marked distinctions 
among them were discountenanced, but those who followed rough trades were 
not unwilling to be recognized. A style of dress and manners prevailed to 
which our later American habits are generally averse, and which plainly dis- 
tinguished between them and professional men and persons of independent 
means. Each class had its special privileges, which amply compensated for in- 
feriority of position. The long established relations which thus grew up were 
the sources of mutual benefits and pleasures. The dress of those who aspired 
to be fashionable was in many respects the reverse of what it now is. Men 
wore three-square or cocked hats and wigs ; coats with large cuffs, big skirts 
lined and stiffened with buckram; breeches closely fitted, thickly lined and 
coming down to the knee, of broadcloth for winter or silk camlet for summer. 
Cotton fabrics were almost unknown, linen being more common, the hose es- 
pecially being of worsted or silk. Shoes were of calfskin for gentlemen, while 
ordinary people contented themselves with a coarser neat's leather. Ladies 
wore immense dresses expanded by hoops or stiff stays, curiously plaited hair 
or enormous caps, high-heeled shoes with white silk or thread stockings, and 
large bonnets, universally of a dark color. The dresses of the laboring classes 
were different from these principally in the materials used. Buckskin breeches, 
checked shirts, red flannel jackets and often leather aprons were the ordinary 
wear. While at their work in the fields the appearance of the men and women 
continued much as we have des1?ribed it at an earlier period. Before the Rev- 
olution Watson tells us that ' the wives and daughters of tradesmen through- 
out the provinces ' all wore short gowns, often of green baize but generally of 
domestic fabric, with caps and kerchiefs on their heads, for a bare head was 
seldom seen except with laborers at their work. Carriages were not common 
and were of a cumbrous description. People usually rode horseback, and good 
riding was cultivated as an accomplishment. At the country churches on the 
Sabbath not unfrequently the horses on the outside were nearly as numerous as 
the people inside the buildings. Stores in town were places of resort, and did 
a more extensive business than they have done since the cities have been so ac- 
cessible. Newspapers were rare, published generally only once a week and 
reaching subscribers in this county nearly a week after date. Eight weekly 
newspapers and one semi- weekly had been started in Philadelphia, but as the 
post went into the interior only once a week, the latter was of little advantage 
to our people. The sheets on which they were printed were small, and the 
amount of news would now be considered very meager. The death of a sover- 
eign about this time was not proclaimed in the province until nearly six weeks 
after its occurrence, and Bouquet' s victory and treaty with the Indians were not 

♦Emigrants hired out until their passage money, which had heen advanced to them, should be repaid. 


known in Carlisle until between three and four weeks from those events. Visit- 
ors to Philadelphia usually went in their own two-wheeled chaises or on horse- 
back, occupying two or thi-ee weeks in the journey. The numerous coiu*ts and 
transactions in land, as well as the lively social intercourse, made such journeys 
fi'equent. The transportation of goods both ways rendered needful trains of 
heavily loaded wagons (since called by the name of Conestoga or Pennsylvania), 
with four, five or six horses. As the woods westward and over the mountains would 
not allow of this method, either at Shippensburg or Smiths (Mercersburg), the 
goods had to be transferred to pack-horses. 'It was no uncommon thing at one 
of these points to see from fifty to 100 packhorses in a row, one person to each 
string of five or six horses, tethered together, starting off for the Monongahela 
countiy, laden with salt, iron, hatchets, powder, clothing and whatever was 
needed by the Indians and frontier inhabitants. ' ' ' 

In the days of pack-trains, time about 1770-80, there were seen at onetime 
in Carlisle as many as 500 pack-horses, going thence to Shippensburg, Fort 
London and other western points, loaded w;ith merchandise, salt, iron, etc. 
Bars of iron were carried by fir^t being bent over and around the bodies of the 
horses. Col. Snyder, an early blacksmith of Chambersburg, once told (1845) 
that he " cleared many a day from six to eight dollars in crooking, or bending 
iron, and shoeing horses for Western carriers." [Kupp' s History of Cumberland 
and other counties, p. 376.] The same authority says: " The pack horses were 
generally led in divisions of about twelve or fifteen horses, carrying about two 
hundred weight each, all going single file and being managed by two men, one 
going before as the leader, and the other at the tail to see after the safety of 
the packs. When the bridle road passed along declivities or over hills, the 
path was, in some places, washed out so deep that the packs, or burdens, 
came in contact with the ground, or other impeding obstacles, and were fre- 
quently displaced. However, as the carriers usually traveled in companies, 
the packs were soon adjusted and no great delay occasioned. The pack hors- 
es were generally furnished with bells, which were kept from ringing during 
the day drive, but were let loose at night when the horses were set free and 
permitted to feed and browse. The bells were intended as guides to direct 
their whereabouts in the morning. When wagons were first introduced, the 
carriers considered that mode of transportation an invasion of their rights. 
Their indignation was more excited and they manifested greater jrancor than 
did the regular teamsters when the line of single teams was started, some 
thirty [now seventy] years ago." 

Formation of Townships and Boroughs. — The townships, as they now ex- 
ist in the County of Cumberland, were formed at dates as follows: 

Cook, from a part of Penn, June 18, 1872; Dickinieon, April 17, 1785; 
East Pennsborough, 1745 (originally Pennsborough, 1785); Frankford, 
1795; Hampden, January 23, 1845; Hopewg^^l735; Lower Allen, 1849, 
(originally Allen, 1766); Middlesex, 1859; Mifflin, 1797; Monroe, 1825; New- 
ton, 1767; North Middleton, 1810 (originally Middleton, 1750); Penn, from 
part of Dickinson, October 23, 1860; Shippensburg, 1784; Silver Spring, 
1787; Southampton, 1791;* South Middleton, 1810, (originally Middleton, 
1750); Upper Allen, 1849 (originally Allen, 1766); West Pennsborough, 
1745, to present limits in 1785, part of original township of Pennsborough, 
1735; Carlisle Borough, 1782, new charter, 1814; Camp Hill Borough, Novem- 
ber 10, 1885; Mechanicsburg Borough, 1828; Mount Holly Springs Borough, 
1878; Newburg Borough, 1861; New Cumberland Borough, 1831; Newville 
Borough, February 26, 1817, township in 1828, borough in 1869. Shippens- 
burg Borough, 1819; Shiremanstown Borough, 1874 or 1875. 

*0ne authority says before 1782, but we have found no record to that efiect. 


Lands. — The lands in this region at the time of the early settlements 
were of two classes: those to which the Indian title had not yet been extin- 
guished, and upon which white people were not allowed to settle until the 
government should purchase them and open an office for their sale; and the 
proprietary lands ' ' sometimes surveyed into manors and reserved for special 
pui-poses and sometimes held open for private purchase," but belonging to 
them (the proprietaries) in fee simple. Purchasers of land from the proprie- 
taries, who had surveyed and divided them into lots, paid very low prices, some- as low as one shilling sterling per acre, and even down to a merely nom- 
inal valuation according to location. These purchasers often had to borrow 
money to pay even the small sums required, and gave mortgages upon the 
lands for security. They were generally able to meet their obligations in a 
few years. Every acre of land sold by the proprietaries was also subject to an 
annual rental, from one penny down, and sometimes a diminutive quantity of 
wheat or corn, or perhaps poultry.* 

It was not until the treaty of October, 1736, that the Indian title to lands 
in Cumberland County was extinguished and vested in the heirs, successors and 
assigns of Thomas and Eichard Penn. Paxton Manor had been set off in 
1731-32 by Thomas Penn as an inducement to the Shawanees to settle here and 
live at peace with the whites; the title to it was, however, acquired in 1736 
with the other lands included in the deed, and it was then laid out. f Its 
limits were described as follows in the return. May 16, 1765, of the warrant for 
its resurvey, issued December 26, 1764 : ' ' On the west side of the Susquehannah 
River, opposite to John Harris' ferry, and bounded to the eastward by the 
said river; to the northward by Conodogwinet Creek; to the southward by the 
Yellow Breeches Creek, and to the westward by a line drawn north, a little 
westerly from the said Yellow Breeches to Conodogwinet Creek aforesaid, con- 
taining 7, 507 acres, or upward. " The survey showed it to contain 7, 551 acres. 
It embraced all the land between the two creeks, according to reliable author- 
ity, extending westward to ' ' the road leading from the Conodogwinet to the 
Yellow Breeches, ' past the Stone Church or Frieden' s Kirch, and immediately 
below Shiremanstown. " Its first survey had been made very early (1731-32). 
John Armstrong surveyed it in 1765, and divided it into twenty portions, and 
in 1767 John Lukens surveyed it and divided it into twenty- eight tracts or 
plantations of various sizes, aggregating about the original quantity of land in 
the manor. These tracts were sold originally to the following persons : No. 1, 
530 acres, to Capt. John Stewart; No. 2, 267^ acres. toJohnBoggs; 300 acres 
to Casper Weber; 256 acres to Col. John Armstrong; 227 acres to James Wil- 
son; 227 acres to Eobert Whitehill (including site of town of Whitehill); No. 3, 
200 acres; No. 4, 206 acres, to Moses Wallace; No. 5, 200 acres, to John Wil- 
son; Nos. 6 (267 acres) and 7 (283 acres), to John Mish; No. 8, 275 acres, to 
Eichard Eogers; No. 9, 195 acres, Conrad Eenninger; No. 10, 183 acres, to 
Casper Weaver; No. 11, 134 acres, to Casper Weaver; No. 12, 181 acres, to 
William Brooks; No. 13, 184 acres, to Samuel Wallace; No. 14, 153 acres, 
Christopher Gramlioh; No. 15, 205 acres, James McCurdey; No. 16, 237 acres, 
Isaac Hendrix; No. 17, 213 acres, Eobert Whitehill; No. 18, 311 acres, Philip 
Kimmel; No. 19, 267 acres, Andrew Kreutzer; No. 20, 281 acres, David Moore; 
Nos. 21 and 22, 536 acres, Edmund Physick; No. 23, 282 acres, Edmund 

♦The annual quit rent was placed at 1 shilling per 100 acres, payable in lawful money forever. Its collec- 
tion was very difficult, however, ftir the people deemed it preposterous that they should have to pay it even 
though it exempted them from all other proprietary taxes. Some were paid in Cumberland County though, 
until some time after the Revolutionary War. The amount was payable to the heirs of William Penn. Gold 
and silver was very scarce and the province issued paper money, which depreciated to half its face value. 
Many farmers lost their tracts througu failure to pay mortgages, losing at the same time their earlier payments 
and improvements. 

tDr. J. A. Murray in article upon Louther Manor, in Carlisle Herald, early in 188.5. 


Physick; No. 24, 287 acres, Rev. William Thompson; No. 25, 150 acres, Alex 
Young; No. 26, 209 acres, Jonas Seely; Nos. 27 (243 acres) and 28 (180 acres), 
Jacob Miller. The manor included portions of Hampden, East Pennsborough 
and Lower Allen Townships, as at present existing, and the western boundary- 
would pass just east of Shiremanstown. Within its area are now situated the 
towns and settlements of New Cumberland, Milltown (or Bberly' s Mills), Bridge- 
port, Wormleysburg, Camp Hill and Whitehill Station. 

The troubles between the proprietors of Pennsylvania and Maryland over 
the boundary between the two provinces, with their final settlement by the run- 
ning of "Mason and Dixon's Line," are set forth in Chapter X of the history 
of Pennsylvania in this volume, and it is unnecessary to repeat them here. 

At one time during the Revolutionary period, when the titles of lands in 
Cumberland County were examined with a view to taxation, it was discovered 
that a large quantity of land was yet vested in the proprietary family and no 
revenue was derived from it. "The following tracts," says Dr. Wing, "were 
described as belonging to them : in East Pennsborough a tract called Lowther 
(formerly Paxton) Manor, containing 7,551 acres; in West Pennsborough these 
tracts are called Jericho, containing 807 acres and 40 perches, another of 828 
acres, and another of 770 acres and 20 perches; a tract adjoining the moun- 
tains of 988 acres; one composed of several fragments, originally 6,921 acres 
and 23 perches, and including the borough of Carlisle and then in the vicinity 
of the town; one adjoining the North Mountain, 3,600 acres; another near the 
Kittatinny Mountains of 55 acres; two tracts in Hopewell Township, most if 
not all of which are probably now in Franklin County, 4,045 acres and 120 
perches, and 980 acres — making in all 26, 536 acres. Much of the land which 
had been sold had been subjected by the terms of sale to a perpetual quit 
rent. During the war none of these quit rents had been collected, no further 
sales could be effected, and no tax could be collected from this large amount 
of property. Many persons, too, had settled upon such proprietary lands as 
were unoccupied without the form of any title, and were making improvements 
on them. November 27, 1779, the Assembly passed resolutions annulling the 
royal charter, and granting to the Penn family as a compensation for the 
rights of which this deprived them £130,000. This, however, did not affect 
their ownership of lands and quit rents as private persons, so that they still 
remain the largest land owners in the State. On a subsequent occasion 
(1780) these private estates were forfeited and vested in the commonwealth, 
by which act the State government became possessed of a large amount of land 
which it bestowed upon officers and soldiers, or sold to private settlers for the 
profit of the State. ' ' 

We have seen a copy of an original draft of a "proprietary manor southwest 
of the borough of Carlisle, in Middleton Township, Cumberland County, 
containing in the whole 1,927 acres, 34 perches, and an allowance of six acres 
per cent for roads, etc. Resurveyed the 6th, 7th and 8th days of Janu- 
ary, 1791. Pr. Samuel Lyon, D. S." This joined Carlisle on the southwest, 
being bounded north by Gillanghan's tract, Armstrong's tract, Richard Peters' 
tract and Richard Coulter's tract; east by lands belonging to Patrick and 
William Davidson, Banton & Co., Stephen Foulk, Joseph Thornburgh and 
William Patterson; south by James Lyon's and the heirs of George Lyre's 
land; west by Lyre's heirs, William Reaney and John Carver. It was quite 
irregular in form. 



Indian History— French and Indian War— Pontiao's War. 

IN this connection it will not be necessary to enter into an extended history 
of the Indian nations who at various periods claimed power over this region. 
It will be sufficient to state that when the Cumberland Valley first became 
known to the European races, and was looked upon as a place of future coloni- 
zation, it was virtually in possession of the aggregation of tribes known as the 
Six Nations. It has been said that at the opening of the seventeenth century 
"the lower valley of the Susquehanna appears to have been a vast, uninhabited 
highway, through which hordes of hostile savages were constantly roaming be- 
tween the northern and southern waters, and where they often met in bloody 
encounters. The Six Nations were acknowledged as the sovereigns of the Sus- 
quehanna, and they regarded with jealousy and permitted with reluctance the 
settlement of other tribes upon its margin."* 

The Six Nations — originally the Five Nations until the Tuscaroras of 
North Carolina joined them in 1712 — were the Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, 
Senecas, Mohawks and Tuscaroras. They were termed the " Iroquois' ' by the 
French. The "Lenni Lenape," or the "original people," commonly called 
the Delaware Nation, were divided into three grand divisions — ^the Unamis,, or 
Turtle tribes; the Unalachtgos, or Turkeys, and the Monseys, or Wolf tribes. 
The first two occupied the territory along the coast and between the sea and 
the Kittatinny or Blue Mountains, with settlements reaching from the Hudson 
on the east to the Potomac on the west. The Monseys, a fierce, active and 
warlike people, occupied the mountainous coimtry between the Kittatinny and 
the sources of the Susquehanna and Delaware Eivers. These three divisions 
were subdivided into various subordinate classes bearing distinguishing names. 
The Lenni Lenape tribes occupying this region soon after the first settlement 
of Pennsylvania were the Tuteloes and Nantecokes, formerly in Maryland and 
Virginia. The Shawanos, or Shawanese, a fierce and restless tribe which was 
threatened with extermination by a more powerful tribe in the south, sought 
protection from the northern tribes whose language was similar to their own, 
and a portion of them settled near the forks of the Delaware and on the flats 
below Philadelphia. Becoming troublesome they were removed by either the 
Delawares or Six Nations to the Susquehanna Valley, and during the Revolu- 
tion and the war of 1812 their terrible deeds became matters of historic record. 
From them sprang the renowned chieftain Tecumseh (or Tecumthe). The 
historian Bancroft, in speaking of the Shawanese, says: " It was about the year 
1698 that three or four score of their families, with the consent of the govern- 
ment of Pennsylvania, removed from • Carolina and planted themselves on the 
Susquehanna. Sad were the fruits of that hospitality. Others followed; and 
when, in 1732, the number of Indian fighting men in Pennsylvania was esti- 
mated to be 700, one-half of them were Shawanee emigrants. So desolate was 
the wilderness that a vagabond tribe could wander undisturbed from Cumber- 
land down to the Alabama, from the head waters of the Santee to the Susque- 
hanna." Some historians believe the Shawanese came north in 1678. They 

*J)ay'a Hiatorical Collection orPenns^lTania, pp. 388, 389. 


had a village in Lancaster County, at the mouth of Pequea (or Pequehan) 
Creek, and their chief's name was Opessah, and there were several Indian 
towns along both sides of the Susquehanna. Those who had settled at Pequea 
removed a quarter of a century later to lands on the Conodoquinet, within the 
present limits of Cumberland County, with also a village at the mouth of the 
Yellow Breeches Creek. They deserted the villages about 1725, when the 
whites began to look to it for homes, and removed westward to the Ohio. The 
lands on the Conodoquinet were surveyed for the use of the Indians upon a 
treaty of purchase being made by the proprietaries for their lands on the Sus- 
quehanna, at the mouth of the Conestoga and elsewhere. ' ' The intrusion of 
the white settlers upon their hunting ground," says Conyngham, "proved a 
fresh source of grievance; they remonstrated to the governor and to the As- 
sembly, and finally withdrew and placed themselves under the protection of the 
French. Big Beaver, a Shawanee chief, at the treaty of Carlisle in 1753, re- 
ferred to a promise made by William Penn, at Shackamaxon, of hunting 
grounds forever." The treaty mentioned was one " of amity and friendship," 
made at Carlisle in October, 1753, with the Ohio Indians, by Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Isaac Morris and William Peters, commissioners. The expense thereof, 
including presents to the Indians, was £1,400. 

Treaties. — Says Dr. Wing (pp. 14-15 History of Cumberland County) : ' ' For 
one or two generations at least the land of Penn was never stained by an In- 
dian with the blood of a white man. Deeds were obtained on several different 
occasions during the years 1682-1700 for lands lying between the Delaware 
and the Potomac, and south of the South Mountain. In 1696 a purchase was 
effected through Gov. Dongan, of New York, in consideration of one hundred 
pounds sterling, ' of all that tract of land lying on both sides of the river Sus- 
quehanna and the lakes adjacent in or near the province of Pennsylvania.' As 
the right of the Six Nations to sell this territory was not acknowledged by the 
various tribes living on the Susquehanna, Conestoga and Potomac Rivers, other 
treaties were entered into with the sachems of these tribes (September 30, 1700, 
and April 23, 1701), by which their sale was expressly confirmed. So vague, 
however, was the language used in these deeds that a question arose whether 
the phrases ' lands on both sides of the Susquehanna and adjoining the same, ' 
would give any rights beyond that river, and it was thought best to effect an- 
. other purchase before any settlement should be allowed on that territory. Ac- 
cordingly the chiefs of the Six Nations met October 11, 1736, in Philadel- 
phia, when they revived all past treaties of friendship and executed a deed 
conveying to John, Thomas and Richard Penn and their heirs ' all the said 
river Susquehanna, with the lands lying on both sides thereof, to extend east- 
ward as far as the heads of the branches or springs which run into the said 
Susquehanna, and all the land lying on the west side of the said river to the 
setting of the sun, and to extend from the mouth of the said river northward 
up the same to the hills or mountains called in the language of said nations 
Tayamentasachta, and by the Delaware Indians the Kekachtannin* hills. ' This 
deed included all the lands comprised in the present county of Cumberland, 
but was not executed until a few years after settlements had been commenced 

Previous to the purchase of 1736, a number of unauthorized settlements had 
been made upon the Conodoguinet and Conococheague, mostly by persons 
from the north of Ireland, and after the purchase, but before the lands were 
sui'veyed, these settlements were encouraged for the purpose of preventing in- 
truders coming in under Lord Baltimore's title. "These settlements," says 
Day, ' ' gave rise to th e complaints of the Shawanese. ' ' 

♦By other authority Kekachtanamin. 


After Franklin' s treaty with the Indians at Carlisle, in 1753, a dispute arose 
between the governor and Conncil, and the Assembly, over a complaint made 
by the Shawanese, ' ' that the proprietary government had surveyed all the land 
on the Gonodoguinet into a manor, and driven them from their hunting ground 
vrithout a purchase and contrary to treaty." The remarks made by Big 
Beaver at said ti-eaty have been mentioned. They were mentioned by the As- 
sembly in the dispute, but "by the governor and Council it was alleged that no 
such thing had occurred, and that a treaty held in 1754, the same Shawanee 
chiefs who were at Carlisle the year before made the strongest professions of their 
friendship, without any complaint on account of the same tract of land. They 
alleged, too, that the Shawanese never had any claim to the Conodoguinet 
lands ; for that they were southern Indians who, being rendered uneasy by their 
neighbors, had settled on these lands in 1698, with the permission of the 
Susquehanna Indians and the proprietary, William Penn." However, no com- 
pensation being made to the Shawanese, they removed as stated and put them- 
selves under the protection of the French and became a source of terror to the 
colonists because of their hostility during the great French and Indian war 
of 1753-60. 

Indians belonging to various tribes were met with by the early settlers. 
Among them were the Shawanese, Delawares, Susquehannas (of which people 
but a remnant was left, the tribe having been swept away by wars and small- 
pox), Manticokes, Mingoes, Tuteloes, etc. A Mingo village is said to have ex- 
isted on Letort Kun, in the neighborhood of Carlisle and the famous Lo- 
gan, whose residences were many, if aU tradition be true, is said to have once 
occupied a cabin on the Beaver Pond, at the head of Letort Spring. The 
Shawanees were not so numerous as in former years, as many of them had 
removed westward. They had professed that the lands, being barren, or devoid 
of large trees were not suitable for a hunting ground, and for that reason they 
had left, but indiscretion on the part of some of their young men, who had in 
drunken frolics given ofFense to the Delawares, had undoubtedly been a great- 
er reason, although both the Delawares and the Six Nations made investi- 
gations, forgave their offenses, and invited them to return, which they would 
not do. Even the proprietary, Thomas Penn, upon his arrival in 1732, ex- 
tended the same invitation and assigned them a large tract of the land they 
had previously occupied provided they would return. A few of them did so, 
and lived peaceably with the settlers. In order to prevent whites from locating 
upon the land given to the Shawanese, a tract containing 7,551 acres was sur- 
veyed in 1732 and erected into a manor called Paxton. The Indians were 
finally found unwilling to occupy this land, and it was surveyed December 26, 
1764, and given the name "Louther Manor," in honor of a sister of "VVUliam 
Penn, who married a nobleman of that name. The order for the resurvey was 
given December 6, 1764, and returned May 16, 1765, the quantity being found 
as above — 7, 551 acres. The bounds are described as follows : ' ' Bounded on 
the east by the Susquehanna, opposite John Harris' ferry; north by tie Cono- 
doguinet; south by the Yellow Breeches Creek, and on the west by a line 
drawn a little westerly from the said Yellow Breeches to Conodoguinet Creek, 
containing 7,507 acres or upward." 

The state of mind the Shawanese were in over their pretended wrongs, and 
the bargaining away of their land by the Six Nations with little regard for their 
welfare, rendered them easy to win from their friendship to the English. 
" More than once, " says Dr. Wing, ' ' when messengers were sent to them by the 
Governor and the Six Nations, they confessed that they had been mistaken, 
and promised that they would return, or at least live in peace where they were ; 


but every year it became more and more evident that their friendship was 
forced, and lasted only while they were in expectation of some benefits, 
and that their hostility might be counted upon whenever an opportunity 
of vengeance should occur. The Delawares had not as extensively gone beyond 
the mountains ; the main body adhered to their chiefs, and were almost support- 
ed by the government, but an increasing number of them were wandering off 
and were making common cause with the Shawanees. The 'Indian Walk,' by 
which a portion of their lands had been acquired, seemed at least sharp practice, 
but the injustice had been more than compensated by subsequent dealings." 

The use of liquor among the Indians was the cause of much trouble between 
themselves, and to a certain extent between them and the whites. They knew 
not how to govern their appetites, and more than once Indian murders occurred 
which could be directly traced as the effects of the liquor the perpetrators had 
swallowed. It burned any humanity out of them and made their naturally sav- 
age dispositions wilder and fiercer. It is known that Sassoonan, king of the 
Delawares, in 1731 killed his nephew while in a drunken frenzy, and was over- 
come with remorse and shame when he became sober, and yet he could not 
bring himself to ask that the sale of the poison to the Indians be entirely pro- 
hibited, but only that it might be kept from his people, except as it was asked 
for by themselves. 

The French began their work of alienating the Shawanese from the Eng- 
lish as early as 1730, desiring to secure their influence in the furtherance of 
their own purposes. The following, from a message by Gov. Gordon to the 
Provincial Assembly, August 4, 1731, as given in the provincial record, shows 
' ' that by advices lately brought to him by several traders (from Ohio) in those 
parts, it appears that the French have been using endeavors to gain over those 
Indians (Shawanese) to their interest, and for this end a French gentlemjin 
had come among them some years since, sent, as it was believed, from the gov- 
ernor of Montreal, and at his departure last year carried with him some of the 
Shawanese chiefs to that government, with whom they at their return appeared to 
be highly pleased. That the same French gentleman, with five or six others in 
company with him, had this last spring again come among the said Indians 
and brought with him a Shawanese interpreter, and was well received by them. ' ' 
[Rupp's History of Cumberland and other counties, page 351. The same au- 
thority says that "Hetaquantagechty, a distinguished chief, said, in a council 
held at Philadelphia, August 25, 1732, that last fall (1731) the French inter- 
preter, Cahichtodo, came to the Ohio River (or Allegheny) to build houses 
there, and to supply the Indians with goods, etc. ' ' ] 

Settlements by the Scotch-Irish upon unpurchased lands about the Jimiata 
assisted in fanning the flame of Indian hostility. Yet, in what is now Cum- 
berland County, these settlements must have been as stated by Mr. Rupp, 
made ' ' by permission from the Indians, whom the first settlers conciliated, ' ' 
for there were no outbreaks here for more than thirty years after the pioneer 
locations had been made. Yet it was evident that a crisis was impending. 
The provincial government was hard pressed to provide presents for the In- 
dians, in order to keep them peaceable and to maintain a line of frontier de- 
fense against French incursions. Finally war was declared between France 
and England,* and the storm, which had for so many years been gathering 
force, broke with deadly fury upon the mountain region, and sad were the ex- 
periences of the colonists before morning dawned upon a peaceful horizon. 

Matters began to look dark for the settlers upon this declaration of hostil- 

*0pen hostility was declared in March, IT44, although the actual strife in Pennsylvania did not break 
out until 1T53, when the French established posts to connect the lakes with the Ohio. 


ities. The French had encroached upon territory claimed by the English, and 
the Six Nations were silent when messages were sent them concerning the 
other tribes they had previously held in check. Chartier, the Indian trader, 
formerly located at the mouth of the Yellow Breeches, had made his home with 
the Shawanese and accepted a commission in the French Army. He was a 
half-breed with Shawanese blood in his veins, and had great influence over that 
tribe. A conference was held with the Six Nations at Lancaster June 24, 
1744, when the latter pledged themselves to remain at peace and to do all in 
their power to prevent the tribes which owed them allegiance from indulging 
in hostile forays. But as a large portion of the Shawanees and Delawares had 
gone beyond their jurisdiction, the treaty could not reach them, and it became 
the inhabitants to cast about for means of security and defense. The foolish 
differences between the governor and the Assembly for years prevented steps 
being taken sufficient to allay fear. Finally, through the sagacity of Benjamin 
Franklin, aided by James Logan, 10,000 volunteer militiamen were formed 
into 120 companies throughout the provinces, and the expense was met by 
voluntary subscriptions. The regiments thus raised were called "Association 
regiments, ' ' and this was the beginning of a system which continued on into 
the Revolutionary war. Bancroft states on the authority of Logan that ' ' the 
women were so zealous that they furnished ten pairs of silk colors wrought 
with various mottoes." The inhabitants of Lancaster County, for Cumber- 
land was not yet formed, being largely Scotch-Irish and naturally warlike and 
aggressive, entered heartily into the military spirit. A number of companies 
was formed in the valley, the ofi&cers being chosen by the soldiers and com- 
missioned by the governor. The several militia captains in the county were 
sent letters, dated December 15, 1745, stating that news had been received that 
"the French and their Indian allies were preparing to march during the win- 
ter to the frontiers of Pennsylvania under the conduct of Peter Chartier, who 
would not fail to do them all the mischief in his power. The news served to' 
stir up the people, as may well be imagined, but the alarm proved groTindless. 
March 29, 1748, a list of officers in an Associated regiment, raised in ' ' that 
part of Lancaster which lay between the river Susquehanna and the lines of 
this province, ' ' was presented to the provincial council. The officers had been 
chosen by the men in their commands and commissioned by the governor, and 
were as follows: Colonel — Benjamin Chambers, of Chambersburg; lieutenant- 
colonel — Robert Dunning, of East Pennsborough ; major — William Maxwell, 
of Peters; captains — -Richard O'Cain, Robert Chambers, of Hopewell; James 
Carnaghan, of Hopewell; John Chambers, of Middleton; James Silvers, of 
East Pennsborough; Charles Morrow, of Hopewell; George Brown, of West 
Pennsborough; James Woods, of Middleton; James McTeer, of East Penns- 
borough, and Matthew Dill; lieutenants — ^William Smith, of Peters; Andrew 
Pinley, of Lurgan; James Jack, of Hopewell; Jonathan Holmes of Middle- 
ton; Tobias Hendricks, of East Pennsborough; James Dysart, of Hopewell; 
JohQ Potter, of Antrim; John McCormick, of East Pennsborough; William 
Trindle, of East Pennsborough; Andrew Miller, of East Pennsborough ; Charles 
McGill, of Guilford; John Winton, of Peters; John Mitchell, of East Penns- 
borough; ensigns — John Lesan, John Thompson, of Hopewell; Walter Davis, 
of Middleton; Joseph Irwin, of Hopewell; John Anderson, of East Penns- 
borough; John Randalls, of Antrim; Samuel Fisher, of East Pennsborough; 
Moses Starr, of East Pennsborough; George Brenan, Robert Meek, of Hope- 
well; James Wilkey, of Peters, and Adam Hayes, of West Pennsborough. 
No invasions of what is now Cumberland County occurred, and no murders of 
citizens of this immediate valley are recorded during this period. 


The home government were in doubt about the legality and expediency of 
these associated organizations, but their doubts were easily removed, and the 
council, in a letter to the proprietaries dated July 30, 1748, said: "The zeal and 
industry, the skill and regularity of the officers have surprised every one, 
though it has been for them a hard service. The whole has been attended by 
such expense, care and fatigue as would not have been borne or undertaken by 
any who were not warm and sincere friends of the government, and true lovers 
of their country. In short, we have by this means, in the opinion of most stran- 
gers, the best militia in America; so that, had the war continued, we should 
have been in little pain about any future enterprises of our enemies. Whatever 
opinion lawyers or others not fully acquainted with our unhappy circum- 
stances may entertain of it, it is in our opinion one of the wisest and most useful 
measures that was ever undertaken in any country. ' ' The peace of Aix-la- 
Ghapelle, in October, 1748, did not affect the American colonies, for the 
French continued to erect forts and take other steps until war was precipitated 
in 1753. 

In what is at present Cumberland County, forts — in some instances mere 
trading-houses — were erected at various times from 1753 to 1764, and so far 
as now known were as follows : Fort Le Tort, a trading house near Carlisle, 
1753; Fort Louther, at Carlisle, 1753; Fort Croghan, a trading-house, eight 
miles up the Conodoguinet from Harris' ferry, where the veteran trader, 
George Croghan, resided; Fort Franklin, at Shippensburg, said to have been 
commenced in 1755; Fort Morris, at Shippensburg, 1755; Forts Dickey, Fer- 
guson and McAllister, all in 1764. (These are on authority of an historical map 
of Pennsylvania issued by the Pennsylvania Historical Society. ) The defeat 
of Gen. Braddock on the Monongahela, July 9, 1755, left the frontier in a 
greatly exposed condition, and the people were quick to apprehend their dan- 
Gov. Morris visited Carlisle July 10, 1755, for the purpose of sending on 
supplies to Braddock and encouraging the people in the midst of their panic 
over various Indian depredations and the removal of troops for their protec- 
tion from the valley, and while there learned of the disastrous end of Brad- 
dock' s expedition. The troops in Pennsylvania were sent north, and the prov- 
ince was left to take care of itself as best it could. Large quantities of pro- 
visions had been accumulated at Shippensburg, Carlisle and other points, 
which the retreating army had no pressing need for, and it was well for the 
, inhabitants of the valley. Work on the military road, elsewhere described, 
was abandoned, and the people looked to the future with dire forebodings. 
' ' News of contemplated attacks upon the settlements along the frontier from 
the Delaware to the Maryland and Virginia line came upon the people in 
quick succession, and some actual massacres, burnings and captivities were 
reported from the south, west and north. Even before Braddock' s defeat, and 
when that general with his army had gone only thirty miles from Fort Cum- 
berland, a party of 100 Indians, under the notorious Shingas, came to the 
Big Cove and to the Conoloways (creeks on the border of Maryland in what is 
now Fulton County) and killed and took prisoners about thirty people, and drove 
the remainder from their homes. "* The fugitives spread the news, and terror and 
consternation resulted among the inhabitants of the region, not lessened when 
warning was given that an attack had been planned against Shearman' s Valley 
and the settlements here. ' ' John Potter, " says Wing, ' ' the sherifp of Cumber- 
land County, who resided in the vicinity which had been ravaged, gathered some 
companies to resist the assailants, but it was only to witness the burning build- 
ings, bury the dead and form a gathering of the fugitives ; the nimble foe was 

*By Dr. Wing, from PennBylyanlii Arcbives, Vol. II, p. 375, 


always at a distance on some other depredations before the pursuers reached 
any point where they had been. James Smith (a brother-in-law of "William 
Smith, the justice and commissioner on the road), a youth of eighteen, had 
been captured with several others while engaged in conveying provisions along 
the road, and a still larger number up the river Susquehanna was slain and 
driven in. Twenty-seven plantations were reported as utterly desolated in 
the southwestern part of this valley and vicinity, and no prospect seemed to 
be before the people but that of being given up to the will of the savages." 

When Gov. MoitIs learned in Carlisle of Braddock's defeat he was im- 
portuned by the people to take some steps for their protection. He issued 
writs to summon to a meeting on the 23d of July at Philadelphia, to devise 
means to defend the frontier and provide for the expense; and upon request 
of the people laid out ground for wooden forts at Carlisle and Shippensburg, 
and gave orders to have them built and supplied with arms and ammunition. 
He at the same time encouraged the inhabitants to form associations for their 
own defense, and they scarcely needed a second bidding. Four companies of 
militia were formed and supplied with powder and lead. John Armstrong and 
"William Buchanan, of Carlisle, Justice William Maxwell, of Peters, Alexander 
Culbertson, of Lurgan, and Joseph Armstrong, of Hamilton Townships, received 
supplies to distribute among the inhabitants. Ttiere was great danger from the 
enemy at the upper end of the valley, though no locality was safe. Petitions 
were sent to the governor by numerous citizens in the valley, showing their in- 
ability to provide adequate protection for themselves, and calling upon him 
for assistance. The people at Shippensburg ofFered to finish a fort begun un- 
der the late governor if they might be allowed men and ammunition to de- 
fend it. 

Dr. Egle in his History of Pennsylvania (pp. 89-90), says: "The conster- 
nation at Braddock's defeat was very great in Pennsylvania. The retreat of 
Dunbar left the whole frontier uncovered; whilst the inhabitants, imarmed 
and undisciplined, were compelled hastily to seek the means of defense or of 
flight. In describing the exposed state of the province and the miseries 
which threatened it, the governor had occasion to be entirely satisfied with 
his own eloquence ; and had his resolution to defend it equaled the earnest- 
ness of his appeal to the Assembly, the people might have been spared much 
suffering. The Assembly immediately voted £50, 000 to the King' s use, to be 
raised by a tax of 12 pence per pound, and 20 shillings per head, yearly, for two 
years, on all estates, real and personal, throughout the province, the proprie- 
tary estate not excepted. This was not in accordance with the proprietary in- 
structions, and therefore returned by the governor. In the long discussions 
which ensued between the two branches of government, the people began to be- 
come alarmed, as they beheld with dread the procrastination of the measui-es 
for defense, and earnestly demanded arms and ammunition. The enemy, long 
restrained by fear of another attack, and scarcely crediting his senses when he 
discovered the defenseless state of the frontiers, now roamed unmolested and 
fearlessly along the western lines of "Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
committing the most appalling outrages and wanton cruelties which the cupidity 
and ferocity of the savage .could dictate. The first inroads into Pennsylvania 
were in Cumberland County, whence they were soon extended to the Susque- 
hanna. The inhabitants, dwelling at the distance of from one to three miles 
apart, fell unresistingly, were captured or fled in terror to the interior settle- 
ments. The main body of the enemy encamped on the Susquehanna, thirty 
miles above Harris' feiTy, whence they extended themselves on both sides the 
river below the Kittatinny Mountains. The settlements at the Great Cove 


in Cumberland County, now Fulton, were destroyed, and many of the inhabi- 
tants slaughtered or made captives, and the same fate fell upon Tulpehocken, 
upon Mahanoy and Gnadenhutten. ' ' 

As an illustration of the desperate strait the people were in, the follow- 
ing letter, written to the governor by John HaiTis, of Harris' ferry, October 
29, 1755, is quoted: "We expect the enemy upon us every day, and the in- 
habitants are abandoning their plantations, being greatly discouraged at the 
approach of such a number of cruel savages, and no sign of assistance. The 
Indians are cutting us ofP every day, and I had a certain account of about 
1. 500 Indians, besides French, being on their march against us and Virginia, 
and now close on our borders, their scouts scalping our families on our fron- 
tiers daily. Andrew Montour and others at Shamokin desired me to take care; 
that there was forty Indians out many days, and intended to bum my house 
and destroy my family. I have this day cut holes in my house, and it is de- 
termined to hold out to the last extremity if I can get some men to stand by 
me, few of which I yet can at present, every one being in fear of their own 
families being cutoff every hour; such is our situation. I am informed that 
a French officer was expected at Shamokin this week with a party of Delawares 
and Shawnese, no doubt to take possession of our river; and, as to the state of 
the Susquehanna Indians, a great part of them are actually in the French in- 
terest ; but if we should raise such a number of men immediately as would be 
able to take possession of some convenient place up the Susquehanna, and 
build a strong fort in spite of French or Indians, perhaps some Indians may 
join us, but it is trusting to uncertainty to depend upon them, in my opinion. 
We ought to insist on the Indians declaring either for or against us. As soon 
as we are prepared for them, we must bid up for scalps and keep the woods fuU 
of our own people hunting them, or they will ruin our province, for they are a 
dreadful enemy. We impatiently look for assistance. I have sent out two 
Indian spies to Shamokin. They are Mohawks, and I expect they will return 
in a day or two. Consider our situation, and rouse your people downward, 
and do not let about 1, 500 villains distress such a number of inhabitants as is 
in Pennsylvania, which actually they will, if they possess our provisions and 
frontier long, as they now have many thousands of bushels of our corn and 
wheat in possession already, for the inhabitants goes off and leaves all."* 

Gov. Morris, moved by the sad tidings from the frontier, summoned 
the Assembly to meet November 3, (1755), when he demanded money and 
a militia law, after laying before the body an account of the proceedings of 
the enemy. Petitions were constantly coming in for arms and ammunition, 
and asking for the taking of such steps as should carry out the Governor's 
ideas and afford protection to the inhabitants. With the Indians committing 
depredations on the south side of the Blue Mountains, the obstinate Assembly 
' ' fooled along " as if there were no necessity for action. The proprietaries 
made a donation of £5,000, and the Assembly finally passed a bill for the is- 
suance of £30,000 in bills of credit, based upon the excise, which was approved 
by the Governor. The people held public meetings in various places to de- 
vise means to bring the Assembly to its senses, and the dead and mangled 
bodies of some of the victims of savage cruelty were sent to Philadelphia and 
hauled about the streets, with placards announcing that they were victims of 
the ' ' Quaker policy of non-resistance. ' ' The province of Pennsylvania erect- 
ed a chain of forts and block-houses along the Kittatinny HUla, from the 
Delaware to the Maryland line, and garrisoned them with twenty to seventy- 
five men each. The whole expense was £85,000, and the principal mountain 

*Egle'8 History of Pennsylvania, pp. 90-91. 


passes were guarded by them. Benjamin Franklin and his son William were 
leading spirits and raised 500 men, with whom they marched to the fi'ontier 
and assisted in garrisoning the forts. 

October 30, 1755, about eighteen citizens met at the residence of Mr. 
Shippen, of Shippensburg, pursuant to a call by Sheriff John Potter, and re- 
solved to build five forts: one at Carlisle, Shippensburg, Benjamin Chambers', 
Steel' s meeting-house and William Allison' s, respectively. Fort Louther at 
Carlisle, had existed in an uncompleted state since 1753, and Fort Franklin, 
which stood in the northeastern part of Shippensburg, was begun aa early as 
1740. The latter was a log structure, and its ruins were torn down about 
1790. Fort Morris, commenced after the meeting, of citizens above alluded 
to, was not finished until the 17th of December following, although 100 men 
worked upon it ' ' with heart and hand " every day. It was built on a rocky 
hill at the western end of town, of small stones, the walls being two feet thick 
and laid in mortar. A portion of this fort was in e^iistence until 1836, when 
it was torn down. Its construction was carried on during an exciting period. 
Fort Franklin, the log structure, was enlarged by the addition of several sec- 
tions, and in 1755 had a garrison of fifty men. Edward Shippen, writing to 
William Allen June 30, 1755, tells of murders committed by the Indians 
' ' near our fort. ' ' 

Twenty-five companies of militia, numbering altogether 1,400 men, were 
raised and equipped for the defense of the frontier. The second battalion, 
comprising 700 men, and stationed west of the Susquehanna, was commanded 
by Col. John Armstrong, of Carlisle. His subordinates were, captains, Hans 
Hamilton, John Potter, Hugh Mercer, George Armstrong, Edward Ward, 
Joseph Armstrong and Robert Callender; lieutenants, William Thompson, 
James Hayes, James Hogg, William Armstrong and James Holliday; en- 
signs, James Potter, John Prentice, Thomas Smallman, William Lyon and 
Nathaniel Cartland. 

Four forts were built by the province west of the Susquehanna, viz. : Fort 
Lyttleton, in the northern part of what is now Fulton County; Fort Shirley at 
Angharich, the residence of George Croghan, where Shirleysburg now is, in 
Huntingdon County; Fort Granville, near the confluence of the Juniata and 
Kishicoquillas, in Mifflin County, and Pomfret Castle on the Mahantango 
Creek, nearly midway between Fort Granville and Fort Augusta (Sunbury), 
on the south line of Snyder County. Capt. Hans Hamilton commanded Fort 
Lyttleton; Capt. Hugh Mercer, Fort Shirley, subsequent to the resignation of 
Capt. George Croghan; Col. James Burd, Fort Granville, and Col. James 
Patterson, Pomfret Castle. These forts were too far from considerable settle- 
ments to be effectual, and in 1756 John Armstrong advised the building of 
another line along the Cumberland Valley, with one at Carlisle. The old fort 
(Fort Louther) at Carlisle was simply a stockade of logs, with loop-holes for 
muskets, and swivel guns at each corner of the fort. In 1755 it was garris- 
oned by fifty men; it probably received its name in 1756. Other forts were 
erected in the valley outside of what is now, Cumberland County, and Col. 
John Armstrong was at the head of the military operations. In 1757 breast- 
works were erected by Col. Stanwix, northeast of Carlisle, near the present 
Indian school (old United States barracks). CoJ. Stanwix wrote to Secretary 
Peters, July 25, 1757, as follows: "Am at work at my intrenchment, but as I 
send out such large and frequent parties, with other neccessary duties, can only 
spare about seventy workingmen a day, and these have very often been inter- 
rupted by frequent and violent gusts, so that we make but a small figure yet; 
and the first month was entirely taken up in clearing the ground, which was 


full of monstrous stumps. Have built myself a hut in camp, where the cap- 
tains and I live together. ' ' * 

An early vyriter (1757) upon the mode of warfare adopted by the Indians 
thus describes their maneuvres: "They come within a little way of that part 
they intend to strike, and encamp in the most remote place they can find to be 
quite free from discovery; the next day they send one, or sometimes two, of 
their nimble young fellows down to different places to view the situation of the 
town, the number of people at each house, the places the people most fre- 
quent, and to observe at each house whether there are most men or women. 
They will lie about a house several days and nights watching like a wolf. As 
soon as these spies return they march in the night in small parties of two, 
three, four or five, each party having a house for attack, and each being more 
than sufficient for the purpose intended. They arrive at their different desti- 
nations long before day, and make their attack about day-break, and seldom 
fail to kill or make prisoners of the whole family, as the people know noth- 
ing of the matter until they are thus labyrinthed. It is agreed that the moment 
each party has executed its part they shall retreat with their prisoners and 
scalps to the remote place of rendezvous which they left the night before. As 
soon as they are thus assembled they march all that day (and perhaps the next 
night, in a body if apprehensive of being pursued) directly for the Ohio. Per- 
haps at some of these houses thus attacked some of the people may be fortu- 
nate enough to escape; these as soon as the Indians are gone, alarm the forts 
and the country around, when a detachment, if possible, propose to pursue the 
enemy. But as the whole or the 'chief part of the day is spent in assembling, 
taking counsel, and setting out on the expedition, the Indians, having eight or 
ten hours the start, cannot be overtaken, and they return much fatigued and 
obliged to put up with their loss. Upon this the chief part of inhabitants ad- 
jacent to the place fly, leaving their habitations and all they have, while per- 
haps a few determine to stay, choosing rather to take the chance of dying by 
the enemy than to starve by leaving their all. These must be constantly on 
the watch, and cannot apply themselves to any industry, but live as long as 
they can upon what they have got. The Indians avoid coming nigh that place 
for some time, and will make their next attack at a considerable distance, where 
the people are not thinking of danger. By and by the people who had fled 
from the first place, hearing of no encroachments in that quarter, are obliged, 
through necessity, to return to their habitations again and live in their former 
security. Then in due time the Indians will give them a second stroke with 
as much success as the first. ' ' 

The autumn of 1755 was fraught with terror to the citizens of Carlisle and 
vicinity. November 2, John Armstrong wrote Gov. Morris: "I am of the 
opinion that no other means than a chain of block-houses along or near the 
south side of the Kittatinny Mountain, from Susquehanna to the temporary 
line, can secure the lives and properties of the old inhabitants of this county; 
the new settlements being all fled except those in Shearman's Valley, who, 
if God do not preserve them, we fear will suffer very soon." Armstrong 
wrote the same day to Richard Peters as follows: 

Carlisle, Sunday night, November 2, 1755. 

Bear &>.•— Inclosed to Mr. Allen, by the last post, I send you a letter from Harris'; 
but I believe forgot, through that day's confusion, to direct it. 

You will see our melancholy circumstances by the Governer's letter, and my opinion 
of the method of keeping the inhabitants in this country, which will require all possible 
despatch. If we had immediate assurance of relief a great number would stay, and the 
inhabitants should be advertised not to drive off nor waste their beef cattle, etc. I have 

•By a letter from Col. Armstrong dated June 30, 1767, it is known that Col. Stanwix had begun these in- 
trenchments shortly previous to that date. 



not so much as sent off my wife, fearing an ill precedent, but must do it now, I believe, 
together with the public papers and your own. 

There are no inhabitants on Juniata nor on Tuscarora by this time, my brother Will- 
iam being just come in. Montour and Monaghatootha are going to the Governor. The 
former is greatly suspected of being an enemy in his heart— 'tis hard to tell— you can com- 
pare what they say to the Governor with what I have wrote. I have no notion of a large 
army, but of great danger from scouting parties. 

Jamiaiy 15-22, 1756, another Indian treaty of amity was held at Carlisle, 
■when Gov. Morris, Eichard Peters, James Hamilton, William Logan, Joseph 
Fox (a commissioner from the Assembly) and George Croghan (interpreter) 
■were present. But seven Indians only were present, including one chief from 
the Six Nations and one or two from a portion of the Delawares. Neverthe- 
less, it ■was found that the hostile savages were confined to the Delawares and 
Shawanese tribes, and even among them there was a considerable minority op- 
posed to the war. After taking all matters into consideration it was decided 
by the Governor to issue a declaration of war against the Delawares, the Shaw- 
anese not being included, because it was hoped they might be brought back to 
theii- former homes. Therefore, on the 14th of April, 1756, a proclamation 
of war was published against the Delaware Indians and all who were in con- 
federacy with them, excepting a few who had come within the border and were 
li-ving in peace. By advice of the Assembly's commissioners, who deemed any 
steps, however extreme, wise when the punishment of the savages and the ces- 
sation of hostilities was the object, rewards were ofPered as follows, as sho'wn 
by the colonial records : ' ' For every male Indian enemy above twelve years of 
age, who shall be taken prisoner and be delivered at any fort garrisoned by the 
troops in the pay of this province, or at any of the county towns to the keep- 
ers of the common jaUs, there shall be paid the sum of one hundred and fifty 
Spanish dollars or pieces of eight; for the scalp of every male Indian enemy 
above the age of twelve years, produced as evidence of their being killed, the 
sum of one hundred and thirty pieces of eight ; for every female Indian taken 
prisoner and brought in as aforesaid, and for every male Indian prisoner under ^ 
the age of twelve years, taken and brought in as aforesaid, one hundred and 
thirty pieces of eight; for the scalp of every Indian woman, produced as evi- 
dence of their being killed, the sum of fifty pieces of eight, and for every 
English subject that has been taken and carried from this province into cap- 
tivity that shall be recovered and brought in, and delivered at the city of 
Philadelphia to the governor of this province, the sum of one hundred and 
fifty pieces of eight, but nothing for their scalps, and that there shall be paid 
to every officer or soldier as are or shall be in the pay of this pro^vince, who 
shall redeem and deliver any English subject carried into captivity as aforesaid, 
or shall take, bring in and produce any enemy, prisoner or scalp as aforesaid, 
one-half of the said several and respective premiums and bounties. ' ' Very few 
rewards were claimed under this proclamation, and it was not considered prob- 
able that any Indians were killed for the sake of procuring the bounty. 

The proclamation issued in May, 1756, subsequent to that against the Del- 
awares, declaring war against France, was hardly necessary so far as the Amer- 
ican territory was concerned, for, nothwithstanding the treaty of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle in 1748, the French had kept up their movements in this country, build- 
ing forts and inciting the Indians to commit outrages upon the English set- 
tlements, and winning the savages over to their own standards by arts well 

The year 1756 was a dark one for the colonists, to whom the terrible ex- 
periences of Indian warfare were nothing new. Murders were committed in 
■what -was then Cumberland County but now Bedford, Union. Franklin, Dauph- 


in, Perry and others, the leading spirits among the Indians being Shingas and 
Capt. Jacobs. Samuel Bell, residing on the Stony Eidge, five miles below Car- 
lisle, had a lively experience, which is thus told by Loudon: " Some time after 
Gen. Braddock's defeat, he and his brother, James Bell, agreed to go into 
Shearman's Valley to hunt for deer, and were to meet at Croghan's (now Ster- 
ret's) Gap, on the Blue Mountain. By some means or other they did not meet, 
and Samuel slept all night in a cabin belonging to Mr. Patton, on Shearman's 
Creek. In the morning he had not traveled far before he spied three Indians, 
who at the same time saw him. They all fired at each other; he wounded one 
of the Indians, but received no damage except through his clothes by the balls. 
Several shots were fired on both sides, as each took a tree. He took out 
his tomahawk and stuck it into the tree behind which he stood, so that should 
they approach he might be prepared; the tree was grazed with the Indians' 
balls, and he had thoughts of making his escape by flight, but on reflection 
had doubts of his being able to outrun them. After some time the two Indians 
took the wounded one and put him over a fence, and one took one course and 
the other another, taking a compass, so that he could no longer screen himself 
by the tree ; but by trying to ensnare him thay had to expose themselves, by which 
means he had the good fortune to shoot one of them dead. The other ran and 
took the dead Indian on his back, one leg over each shoulder. By this time 
Bell's gun was again loaded. He then ran after the Indian until he came 
within about four yards from him, fired and shot through the dead Indian and 
lodged his ball in the other, who dropped the dead man and ran off. On his 
return, coming past the fence where the wounded Indian was, he dispatched 
him but did not know that he had killed the third Indian until his bones were 
found afterward. ' ' 

February 15, 1756, William Trent, in writing from Carlisle, stated that 
' ' several murders or captures and house burnings had taken place under Par- 
neir s Knob, and that all the people between Carlisle and the North Mountain 
had fled 'from their homes and come to town, or were gathered into the little 
forts, that the people in Shippensburg were moving their families and effects, 
and that everybody was preparing to fly."* Shingas kept the upper end of 
the county in a state of terror, and fresh outrages were reported daily. The 
Indians killed, indiscriminately, men, women and children, and received rewards 
from the French for their scalps; they boasted that they killed fifty white peo- 
ple for each Indian slain by the English. Inhabitants of the Great Cove fled 
from their homes in November, with the crackling of their burning roofs and 
the yells of the Indians ringing in their ears. John Potter, formerly sheriff, 
sheltered at his house one night 100 fleeing women and children. The cries 
of the widows and fatherless children were pitiful, and those who had for- 
tunately escaped with their lives had neither food, bedding nor clothing to 
cover their nakedness, everything having been consumed in their burning 
dwellings. ' ' Fifty persons, ' ' so it is recorded, ' ' were killed or taken prisoners. 
One woman, over ninety years of age, was found lying dead with her breasts 
torn off and a stake driven through her body. The infuriated savages caught 
up little children and dashed their brains out against the door-posts in presence 
of their shrieking mothers, or cut off their heads and drank their warm blood. 
Wives and mothers were tied to trees that they might witness the tortures and 
death of their husbands and children, and then were carried into a captivity 
from which few ever returned. Twenty-seven houses were burned, a great 
number of cattle were killed or driven off, and out of the ninety -three families 
settled in the two coves and by the Conolloway' s, members of forty-seven f am- 

*Dr. Wing, from Pennsylvania Archives. 


ilies were either killed or captured and the remainder fled, so that these settle- 
ments were entirely broken up. ' ' Small wonder that such circumstances ex- 
cited the people of the Cumberland Valley ! Preparations were made at Ship- 
pensburg and Carlisle, where the people flocked in such numbers as to crowd 
the houses, to give the enemy a warm reception, and 400 men (of whom 200 
were from this part of the valley) marched under the command of Hans Ham- 
ilton, sheriff of York County, to McDowell's Mill, in Franklin County, a few 
miles from the scene of the slaughter, but the Indians had retreated. Rev. 
John Steel, pastor of the ' ' Old White Chui-ch, ' ' of Upper West Conococheague, 
raised a company among his parishioners for defense of their church and indi- 
vidual property in 1755, and was commissioned captain. The church was after- 
ward burned, the congregation scattered, and Mr. Steel removed to Carlisle 
in 1758. 

April 2, 1756, a body of Indians attacked and burned McCord's fort, on the 
Conococheague, in what is now Franklin County, killing and capturing a total 
of twenty-seven persons. The alarm extended to Shippensburg, and three 
companies were raised in various parts of the valley, for the pursuit and pun- 
ishment of the marauders, commanded respectively by Capts. Culbertson, 
Chambers and Hamilton. Capt. Alex Culbertson' s company with nineteen 
men from the other two, overtook the Indians west of Sideling Hill and a fight 
ensued which lasted two hours. The Indians, from the report made by one of 
their number who was captured, lost seventeen killed and twenty-one wounded. 
The whites suffered severely. Among those killed were Capt. Culbertson, 
John Reynolds (ensign of Capt. Chambers' company), William Kerr, James 
Blair, John Leason, William Denny, Francis Scott, William Boyd, Jacob 
Paynter, Jacob Jones, Robert Kerr and William Chambers; wounded, Francis 
Campbell, Abraham Jones, William Reynolds, John Barnet, Benjamin Blyth, 
John McDonald and Isaac MUler. 

Another party, commanded by Ensign Jainison,. from Fort Granville, under 
Capt. Hamilton, in pursuit of the same Indians, had about the same experience, 
losing Daniel McCoy, James Robinson, James Peace, John Blair, Heniy 
Jones, John McCarty and John Kelly, killed; and Ensign Jamison, James 
Robinson, William Hunter, Matthias Ganshorn, William Swails and James 
Louder, wounded — the latter afterward died of his wounds. Most of these 
men were from the oldest and most respectable families in Cumberland 

All around the settlements in this county outrages were frequent and the 
number of lives taken was appalling, considering the sparsely settled condition 
of the country. Bands of Indians even ventured within a few miles of Car- 
lisle. The military were employed in protecting men harvesting their crops 
in 1756, and it was necessary for all persons to be ever on the alert to guard 
against surprise and attack. In June, 1756, a Mr. Dean, living about a mile 
east of Shippensburg, was found murdered in his cabin, his skull cleft vwth a 
tomahawk. It was supposed a couple of Indians seen in the neighborhood the 
day before had committed the deed. On the 6th of the same month, a shoit 
distance east of where Burd's Run crosses the road leading from Shippensburg 
to the Middlespring church, a party of Indiana killed John McKean and John 
Agnew and captured Hugh Black, William Carson, Andrew Brown, James 
Ellis and Alex McBride. A party of citizens from Shippensburg pursued the 
Indians through McAllister's Gap into Path Valley, and on the morning of 
the third day out met all the prisoners except James Ellis, and on their return 
home, they having escaped. Ellis was never afterward heard from. The 
pursuers returned with the men who had escaped, further pursuit being 


Many other instances of murders and kindred outrages by the Indians 
might be mentioned, for the history of that dread time teems with them, but 
it ia not necessary to recount them. Enough has been said to show the terri- 
ble state the region was in, and the horrid tales are dropped to tell of an expe- 
dition in which the whites took the initiative. * 

Gov. Morris was superseded on the 20th of August, 1756, by Gov. "William 
Denny, but before the latter' s arrival he (MoitIs), in view of the constant cries 
for help from the frontier, and especially from East Pennsborough Township, 
Cumberland County, and the upper portion of the county, whose inhabitants 
sent in urgent petitions for aid, had arranged with Col. Armstrong for a move- 
ment against the Indian town of Kittanning, on the Allegheny River, about 
twenty miles above Port DuQuesne, in what is now Armstrong County. The 
place was the chief stronghold of the red men, was the base of their operations 
eastward and toward the Ohio, and was the home of both Shingas and Capt. 
Jacobs. f There were also held a considerable number of white prisoners. A 
small army was organized under the command of Lieut. -Col. John Ai-mstrong, 
consisting of seven companies, J whose captains were John Armstrong, 
Hans Hamilton, Dr. Hugh Mercer, Edward Ward, Joseph Armstrong, John 
Potter, and Rev. John Steel. The command set out in August, 1756, 
and at the dawn of the 7th (8th ?) of September made the attack on the Indian 
town, which was totally destroyed, together with large quantities of ammuni- 
tion. Capt. Jacobs and his nephew were killed, and few, if any, escaped the 
avenging hand of the officer, whose rapid march and well executed plans won 
for him the approval of his people. The corporation of Philadelphia voted 
him a medal for his exploit. § This disaster to the Indians led them to remove 
to the Muskingum, in Ohio, but served only for a short time to check their 
operations in Pennsylvania. The year 1757 was fraught with unabated hor- 
rors. Cumberland County, with others, was kept in a state of continual 
alarm, although in May of that year another conference was held with the 
Indiana at Lancaster to try and bring about peace. The western Indians, 

*At one period (1750-.55) there was a noted person in tlie valley who figured conspicuously in moTementa 
against the In Uans. He was known as ''Captain Jack," "the black hunter, ' *'the blAck rifie/* ''the wild hun- 
ter of the Juniata," "the black hunter of the forest," etc, He was a white man, an early comer to the region, 
;ind happy and contented in his occupations of fishine: and hunting, until the Indians, one day when he was 
absent, burned his cabin and murdered his wile and children. Then he became imbued with a spirit of revenge, 
and his exploits rendered him famous. He was a dead shot with the rifle, a terror to the Indians, and greatly 
respected and appreciated by the scattered settlers, whose lives and property he was more than once the means 
of saving. It ia said of him that "he never shot without good cause. His look was as unerring as his aim. He 
formed an association to defend the settlers against savage aggressions. On a given signal they would unite. 
Their exploits were heard of in 1756 on the Conococheague and Juniata."— [Egle's Hist, of Pa., p. 616.] He was 
also sometimes called the "Half Indian." Through Coh Croghan he proffered his aid to Gen. Braddock, in the 
latter's disastrous campaign, and Croghan, in recommending him to the General, said; "He will march with 
his hunters; they are dressed in hunting shirts, moccasins, etc,, are well armed, and are equally regardless of 
heat or cold. They require no shelter for the night, they ask no pay." This character, it appears, in a letter 
written from Carlisle in 1754, as well as one the previous year by John O'Neal to Gov. Hamilton, was also 
known as "Captain Joel." He was given a captain's commission in 17,'>3. The movements of himself and his 
band of rangers were very rapid, and the mention of his name, like those of Brady, Boone, Logaton, Kenton 
and others, struck terror to the hearts of his painted foemen. 

tCapt. Jacoba was a large man, very powerful and exceedingly cruel. Shingas was not as large, but made 
up for his stature in ferocity. Capt. Jacobs' nephew, who with him was killed in Armstrong's attack upon 
' Kittanning, -was said to be seven feet tall. 

t.Most authorities place the total number of men at 300; some give it 280. 

gFrom Col. Armstrong's report of the affair to Gov. Denny it is learned that the casualties among the 
volunteers were as follows: From hU own company — K-Uled, Thos. Power, John McCormick; wounded^ Lieut.-Col. 
Armatrong (in the shoulder by a muaket ball), James Carothers, James Strickland, 'Thomas Foster. Capt. Hamil- 
ton's company — KiUed, John Kelly. Capt. Mercer's company — Kitted, John Baker, John McCartney, Patrick MuUer, 
Cornelius McGinnia, Theophilus Thompson, Dennis Kilpatrick, Bryan Croghan; wouTided, Bichard Fitzgibbons; 
missing, Capt. Hugh Mercer (wounded, but found to have been carried away safely by his men), Ensign John 

Scott, hJmanuel Menisky, John Taylor, John , Francis Philipa, Robert Morrow, Thomas Burke, Philip 

Pendergrass. Qipt. Armstrong's company — Kitted, Lieut James Hogg, James Anderson, Holdcraft Stringer, 
Edward O'Brian, James Higgins, John Leeson; tmunded, William Fridley, Robert Eobinson, John Ferrol, 
Thomas Camplin, Charles ii'Neill; missing, John Lewis, William Hunter, William Baker, George Appleby, 
Anthony Grissy, Thomas Swan. Capt. Ward's company— Kilted, William Welsh; wounded, Ephraim Bratton; 
missing, Patrick Myera, Laurence Donnahan, Samuel Chambers. Capt. Potter's company — Wounded, Ensign 
James Potter, Andrew Douglass. Capt. Steel's company — Missing, Terrence Cannabery. Total— killed 17; 
wounded 13; missing 19—49 in all. Seven captives were recovered and a number of Indiana taken prisoners. 
Thirty or forty warriors were slain. 


however, would hear to nothing, and it became evident that subduing them by- 
force of arms was the only sure method. Col. Stanwix was at Carlisle build- 
ing intrenchments, and Col. Armstrong had two companies, part stationed at 
Carlisle and part at Shippensburg. These two officers did all in their power 
to protect the citizens and punish the savages, but they were handicapped in 
numerous regards. Murders were frequent in the upper part of Cumberland 
(now Franklin) County, and the lower portion was not without its visitations of 
bloodshed. May 13, 1757, William Walker and another man were killed near 
a private fort called McCormick's, on the Conodoguinet, in East Penns- 
borough; two men were killed and five taken prisoners near Shippensburg on 
the 6th of June; Joseph Mitchell, James Mitchell, William Mitchell, John Fin- 
lay, Robert Steenson, Andrew Enslow, John Wiley, Allen Henderson, William 
Gibson and an Indian were killed in a harvest field near Shippensburg, July 
19, and Jane McCommon, Mary Minor, Janet Harper and a son of John Fin- 
lay were captured or missing at the same time; four men were killed July 11 
near Tobias Hendricks', who lived on and had charge of Louther Manor, six 
miles from the Susquehanna, in East Pennsborough, and two men were killed 
or canied off near- the same place September 8, while out hunting horses. 
July 18, in a harvest field a mile east of Shippensburg, belonging to John 
Cesna, Dennis O'Neiden and John Kirkpatrick were killed, and Mr. Cesna. his 
two grandsons, and a son of Kirkpatrick were made prisoners and carried off. 
Others working in the field happened to be concealed from the view of the In- 
dians, and escaped without injury. There was little rest from anxiety until after 
the expeditions of 1758 and the capture of Fort DuQuesne, with the building 
upon its ruins of Fort Pitt, which remained under English rule while the mother 
country had jurisdiction over the American colonies. The troops were mostly 
disbanded i.n 1759 by act of Assembly, which body imagined the war was 
ended. Practjcally for this region it was so, although the two powers met in 
conflict afterward on the northern frontier. 

The inhabitants enjoyed for a brief period immunity from danger and re- 
joiced that peace smiled upon the valley. A worthless Delaware Indian called 
"Doctor John" who had for two years lived in a cabin near the Conodoguinet 
and not far from Carlisle, was killed in February, 1760, together with his wife 
and two children, by whites ; and though he had talked contemptuously about 
the soldiers, and boasted of having killed sixty white people with his own arm 
the event was looked upon as untoward by the inhabitants of the region, who 
feared the vengeance of the tribe and steps were taken to apprehend and pun- 
ish the murderers. Several arrests were made, but the more guilty parties fled 
and were not found, whUe the others were released as they could scarcely be 
convicted on hearsay evidence. Very likely the people were glad the Indians 
were out of the way, for they had no pleasing recollections of their fiendish 

Presently, however, came the dread news that a more desperate war was to 
be waged under the leadership of the wonderful western chieftain, Pontiac, and 
close upon the heels of the alarm followed actual invasion of the country bor- 
dering the valley, with a renewal of the horrid scenes of previous years. July 
5, 1763, a gentleman wrote from Carlisle to Secretary Peters as follows : ' ' On 
the morning of yesterday horsemen were seen rapidly passing through Carlisle. 
One man rather fatigued, who stopped to get some water, hastily replied to the 
question, 'What news?' 'Bad enough! Presque Isle, Le Beuf and Venango 
have been captured, their garrisons massacred, with the exception of one officer 
and seven men who fortunately made their escape from Le Beuf. Fort Pitt 
was briskly attacked on the 22d of June, but succeeded in repelling the as- 


sailants. ' Thus saying he put spurs to his horse and was soon out of sight. 
From others I have accounts that the Bedford militia have succeeded in saving 
Port Ligonier, Nothing could exceed the terror which prevailed from house 
to house, from town to town. The road was nearly covered with women and 
children flying to Lancaster and Philadelphia. Rev. Thomson, pastor of 
the Episcopal Church, went at the head of his congregation to protect and en- 
courage them on the way. A few retired to the breastworks for safety. The 
alarm once given could not be appeased, ^\'e have done all that men can do 
to prevent disorder. All our hopes- are turned upon Bouquet." 

The following extracts of letters written fi-om Carlisle in July, 1763, and 
published at the time in the Pennsylvania Gazette at Philadelphia, will also 
serve to show the condition of affairs then existing in the valley:* 

Carlisle, July 13, 1763. 

I embrace this first leisure since yesterday morning to transmit you a brief account 
of our present state of affairs here, which indeed is very distressing, every day almost 
affording some fresh object to awaken the compassion, alarm the fears, or kindle into re- 
sentment and vengeance every sensible breast; while flying families, obliged to abandon 
house and possession to save their lives by a hasty escape; mourning widows, bewailing 
their liusbands, surprised and massacred by savage rage; tender parents, lamenting the 
fruit of their own bodies, cropped in the very bloom of life by a barbarous hand, with re- 
lations and acquaintance pouring out sorrow for murdered neighbors and friends, present 
a varied scene of mingled distress. 

When, for some time after striking at Bedford the Indians appeared quiet, nor struck 
any other part of our frontiers, it became the prevailing opinion that our forts and com- 
munication were so peculiarly the object of their attention; that, till at least after harvest, 
there was little prospect of danger to our inhabitants over the hills, and to dissent from 
this generally received sentiment was political heresy, and attributed to timidity rather 
than judgment, till too early conviction has decided the point in the following manner: 

On Sunday morning, the 10th instant, about 9 or 10 o'clock, at the house of one 
William White, on Juniata, between thirty and forty miles hence, there being in said 
house four men and a lad, the Indians came rushing upon and shot White at the door, just 
stepping out to see what the noise meant. Our people then pulled in White, and shut the 
door; hut observing through a window the Indians setting fire to the house, they attempted 
to force their way out at the door. But the first that stepped out being shot down, they 
drew him in and again shut the door, after which one attempting an escape out of a win- 
dow on the loft was shot through the head, and the lad wounded in the arm. The only 
one now remaining — William Kiddle — broke a hole through the roof of the house, and an 
Indian, who saw him looking out, alleged he was about to fire on him, withdrew, which 
afforded Riddle an opportunity to make his escape. The house, with the other four in it, 
was burned down, as one McMachen informs, who was coming to it, not suspecting Indians, 
and was by them fired at and shot through the shoulder, but made his escape. 

The same day about dinner time, at about a mile and a half from said White's, at the 
house of Robert Campbell, six men being in the house, as they were dining three Indians 
rushed in at the door, and after firing among them and wounding some they tomahawked 
in an instant one of the men, whereupon one George Dodds, one of the company, sprang 
back into the room, took down a rifle, shot an Indian through the body who was just pre- 
senting his piece to shoot him. The Indian being mortally wounded staggered, and letting 
his gun fall was carried off by three more. Dodds, with one or two more, getting upon the 
loft, broke the roof in order to escape, and looking out saw one of the company, Stephen 
Jeffries, running, but very slowly by reason of a wound in the breast, and an Indian pur- 
suing, and it is thought he could not escape, nor have we heard of him since, so that It is 
past dispute he also is murdered. The first that attempted getting out of the loft was fired 
at and drew back. Another attempting was shot dead, and of the six Dodds was the only 
one who made his escape. The same day about dusk, about six or seven miles up Tusca- 
rora and about twenty-eight or thirty miles hence, they murdered one William Anderson, 
together with a boy and girl, all in one house. At White's were seen at least five, some 
say eight or ten Indians, and at Campbell's about the same number. On Monday, the 11th, 
a party of about twenty-four went over from the upper part of Shearman's Valley to see 
how matters were. Another party of twelve or thirteen went over from the upper part of 
said valley, and Col. John Armstrong, with 'Thomas Wilson, Esq., and a party of between 
thirty and forty from this town, to reconnoitre and assist in bringing in the dead. 

Of the first and third parties we have heard nothing yet, but of the party of twelve six 
are come in, and inform that they passed through the several places in Tuscarora and saw 
the houses in flames or burnt entirely down. That the grain that had been reaped the 

*See Rupp's History of Cumberland and other Counties, pp. 139-143. 


Indians burnt in shocks, and had set the fences on fire where the grain wasunreaped; that 
the hogs had fallen upon and mangled several of the dead bodies; that the said company 
of twelve, suspecting danger, durst not stay to bury the dead; that after they had returned 
over the Tuscarora Mountain, about one or two miles this side of it and about eighteen or 
twenty from hence (Carlisle, Penn.), they were fired on by a large party of Indians, sup- 
posed about thirty, and were obliged to fly; that two, viz., William Robinson and John 
Graham, are certainly killed, and four more are missing, who it is thought have fallen into 
the hands of the enemy, as they appeared slow in flight, most probably wounded, and the 
savages pursued with violence. What further mischief has been done we have not heard, 
but expect every day and hour some more messages of melancholy news. 

In hearing of the above defeat we sent out another party of thirty or upward, com- 
manded by our high sheriff, Mr. Dunning, and Mr. William Lyon, to go in quest of the 
enemy or fall in with and reinforce our other parties. There are also a number gone out 
from about three miles below this, so that we now have over the hills upward of eighty or 
ninety volunteers scouring the woods. The inhabitants of Shearman's Valley, Tuscarora, 
etc., are all come over, and the people of this vallev, near the mountain, are beginning to 
move in, so that in a few days there will be scarcely a house inhabited north of Carlisle. 
. Many of our people are greatly distressed through want of arms and ammunition, and 
numbers of those beat off their places have hardly money enough to purchase a pound of 

Our women and children I suppose must move downward if the enemy proceeds. To- 
day a British vengeance begins to rise in the breasts of our men. One of them that fell 
from among the twelve, as he was just expiring, said to one of his fellows: "Here, take 
my gun and kill the first Indian you see, and all shall be well." 

Another letter dated at'Carlisle July 13, has the following: "Last night 
Col. Armstrong returned. He left the party who pursued further, and 
found several dead, whom they buried in the best manner they could, and are 
now all returned in. From what appears the Indians are traveling from one 
place to another along the valley, burning the farms and destroying all the 
people they meet with. This day gives an account of six more being killed in 
the valley, so that since last Sunday morning to this day, twelve o'clock, we 
have a pretty authentic account of the number slain being twenty -five, and 
four or five wounded. The Colonel, Mr. Wilson and Mr. Alricks are now on 
the parade endeavoring to raise another party to go out and succor the sheriff 
and his party, consisting of fifty men, which marched yesterday, and I hope 
they will be able to send ofP immediately twenty good men. The people here, 
T assure you, want nothing but a good leader and a little encouragement to 
make a very good defense. ' ' 

July 28, 1763, the editor of the Pennsylvania Gazette printed the following: 
"Our advices from Carlisle are as follows, viz. That the party under the 
sheriff, Mr. Dunning, mentioned in our last, fell in with the enemy at the 
house of one Alexander Logan, in Shearman' s Valley, supposed to be about 
fifteen or upward, who had murdered the said Logan, his son and another man, 
about two miles from said house, and mortally wounded a fourth who is since 
dead; and that at the time of their being discovered they were rifling the house 
and shooting down the cattle, and it is thought about to return home with the 
spoil they had got. That our men, on seeing them, immediately spread them- 
selves from right to left with a design to surround them, and engaged the sav- 
ages with great courage, but from their eagerness rather too soon, as some of 
the party had not got up when the skirmish began; that the enemy returned 
our first fire very briskly, but our people, regardless of that, rushed upon them, 
when they fled and were pursued a considerable way till thickets secured their 
escape, four or five of them, it was thought, being mortally wounded; that our 
parties had brought in with them what cattle they could collect, but that great 
numbers were killed by the Indians, and many of the horses that were in the 
valleys carried off; that on the 21st, the morning, news was brought of 
three Indians being seen about 10 o'clock in the morning; one Pummeroy and 
his wife, and the wife of one Johnson, were surprised in a house between Ship- 


pensburg and the North Mountain and left there for dead; but that one of the 
■women, when found, showing some signs of life, was brought to Shippensburg, 
where she lived some hours in a most miserable condition, being scalped, one of 
her arms broken, and her skull fractured with the stroke of a tomahawk; and 
that since the 10th inst. , there was an account of fifty- four persons being killed 
by the enemy! 

"That the Indians had set fire to houses, barns, corn, wheat, rye, and hay 
— in short, to everything combustible — so that the whole country seemed to be 
in one general blaze ; that the miseries and distress of the poor people were 
really shocking to humanity, and beyond the power of language to describe; 
that Carlisle was becoming the barrier, not a single inhabitant being beyond it; 
that every stable and hovel in the town was crowded with miserable refugees, 
who were reduced to a state of beggary and despair, their houses, cattle and 
harvest destroyed, and from a plentiful, independent people they were become 
real objects of charity and commiseration; that it was most dismal to see the 
streets filled with people in whose countenances might be discovered a mixture 
of grief, madness and despair; and to hear now and then the sighs and groans 
of men, the disconsolate lamentations of women, and the screams of children, 
who had lost their nearest and dearest relations; and that on both sides of the 
Susquehanna, for some miles, the woods were filled with poor families and 
their cattle, who made fires and lived like savages, exposed to the inclemencies 
of the weather. ' ' 

Letter dated at Carlisle July 30, 1763 : "On the 25th a considerable num- 
ber of the inhabitants of Shearman's Valley went over, with a party of soldiers 
to guard them, to attempt saving as much of their grain as might be standing, 
and it is hoped a considerable quantity will yet be preserved. A party of vol- 
unteers, between twenty and thirty, went to the farther side of the valley, next 
to the Tuscarora Mountain, to see what appearance there might be of the In- 
dians, as it was th6ught they would most probably be there if anywhere in the 
settlement — to search for and bury the dead at Buffalo Creek, and to assist 
the inhabitants that lived along or near the foot of the mountain in bringing 
off what they could, which services they accordingly performed, burying the 
remains of three persons, but saw no marks of Indians having lately been 
there, excepting one track, supposed to be about two or three days old, near 
the narrows of Buffalo Creek Hill, and heard some hallooing and firing of a gun 
at another place. A number of the inhabitants of Tuscarora Valley go over the 
mountain to-morrow, with a party of soldiers, to endeavor to save part of the 
crops. Five Indians were seen last Sunday, about sixteen or seventeen miles 
from Carlisle, up the valley toward the North Mountain, and two the day be- 
fore yesterday, about five or six miles from Shippensburg, who fired at a young 
man but missed him. 

"On the 25th of July there were in Shippensburg 1,384 of our poor, dis- 
tressed back inhabitants, viz. : men, 301; women, 345; children, 738, many of 
whom were obliged to lie in barns, stables, cellars and under old leaky sheds, 
the dwelling-houses being all crowded." 

Indians were also occasionally seen in the valley after Bouquet had left, 
and occasionally some of the inhabitants WQre fired upon within a few miles of 
Carlisle. Where is the wonder that the stricken people looked so eagerly to 
Bouquet for deliverance, or that they suspected and mistrusted every being in 
the shape of an Indian, whether professedly frienc^ly or otherwise ! Such terrible 
experiences were sufficient to foster all the fiendishness of revenge in the 
breasts of the afflicted, and the great wonder at the present day is that they 
did not resolve upon and enter into a war of extermination of the red race. 



Upon the outbreak of the savages the Assembly had ordered the raising of 
700 men to protect the frontier daring the harvest, but almost without effect. 
The safety of the garrison at Fort Pitt was the cause of anxiety, and finally 
Col. Henry Bouquet was ordered to march to its relief. This he did with 
barely 500 men, the remnants of two shattered regiments of regulars — the 
Forty-second and Seventy-second — lately, returned from the West Indies in a 
debilitated condition, together with 200 rangers (six companies) raised in 
Lancaster and Cumberland Counties. Although depending so greatly upon 
him, the inhabitants of Carlisle and vicinity were in such a state of terror and 
utter consternation that they had taken no steps to prepare provisions for him 
and his little army, and they arrived at Carlisle to find matters there and along 
the line of march in a desperate condition, though several quite heavy contri- 
butions had been raised by various congregations in Philadelphia and sent for 
their relief. Instead, therefore, of the inhabitants being able to lend him aid, 
they were dependent upon him, and he was forced to lie at Carlisle eighteen 
days until supplies could be sent for and received. By this time the people 
had regained courage and confidence in themselves, although the appearance 
of Bouquet' s army led them to expect little from its expedition. Most happily 
were they disappointed, however, for the Colonel's successful march, his re- 
lief of Fort Ligonier, his terrible thirty-six hours fight at Bushy Eun with the 
Indians, who were defeated and driven from the field, his relief of Fort Pitt, 
and his subsequent expedition against the Indians in Ohio, with the treaty on 
terms of his own dictation, and the release of many white prisoners who were 
returned to their homes, are all matters of history. Bouquet became the sa- 
vior of the region, and to his memory let all honor be accorded. The Indians 
committed outrages along the frontier in 1764, but an army of 1,000 men was 
raised, of which a battalion of eight companies of 380 men, mostly from 
Cumberland County — commanded by Lieut. -Col. John Armstrong, with 
Capts. William Armstrong, Samuel Lindsey, James Piper, Joseph Armstrong, 
John Brady, William Piper, Christopher Line and Timothy Green, with a few 
under Lieut. Finley — was sent against them under Col. Bouquet, who pierced 
to the very heart of their western stronghold, and compelled them to accede the 
terms above mentioned. The battalion of provincial troops from this county 
was paid off and mustered out of service, the arms were delivered to the authori- 
ties, and the long and dreadful Indian war, with all its attendant sickening 
horrors, was at an end. 

The people had little confidence, however, in the Indians, and were not 
disposed to place in their hands any weapons or materials which would give 
them the slightest advantage over the whites, at least until their new relations 
had time to become fixed. It had been agreed that trade should be opened 
with the Indians, and large quantities of goods were gathered in places for the 
purpose before the governor issued his proclamation authorizing trading. This 
led to the destruction of a large quantity of goods in which Capt. Eobert Col- 
lender, a flouring-mill proprietor near Carlisle, was part owner, the goods hav- 
ing been started westward. A party under James Smith, who had done ser- 
vice under Braddock, Forbes and Bouquet, waylaid them near Sideling Hill, 
killed a number of horses, made the escort turn back, burned sixty -three loads, 
and made matters exceedingly lively, when a squad was sent out to capture the 
rioters. Smith afterward acknowledged himself too hasty. He was subse- 
quently arrested on suspicion of murder and lodged in jail at Carlisle in 1769. 
An attempt was made to rescue him, but he dissuaded the party, and upon his 
trial was acquitted. He became a distinguished Revolutionary officer and 
member of the Legislature. ' 


Another occurrence, which might have resulted seriously for the settlers, was 
the murder of ten fi-iendly Indians in the lower part of Shearman's Valley, on 
Middle Creek, in January, 1768, by Frederick Stump and an employe of his 
named Hans Eisenhauer (John Ironcutter). The authorities captured the 
murderers and placed them in jail in Carlisle, although the warrant for their 
arrest charged that they be brought before the chief justice at Philadelphia. 
That step the people of Cumberland County resisted, claiming it was encroach- 
ing upon their rights to try the men in the county where the crime was com- 
mitted. They were detained at Carlisle until the pleasure of the authorities 
at Philadelphia could be ascertained, and were rescued by a large armed party 
on the morning of the 29th of January, four days after their arrest. The pris- 
oners were carried away over the mountains and were never afterward found, 
though it was the opinion that they got away and took refuge in Virginia. The 
matter was finally dropped after the heat of the affair was over. 


CoxTNTY Oeganization— Location of Cottnty Seat — Division of County 
INTO Townships— County Buildings— Population— Postoffices in 1885— 
Internal Improvements- Public Roads— Railroads. 

CUMBEELAND COUNTY was named after a maritime county in England, 
bordering on Scotland. I. Daniel Eupp, in a sketch of .this county in 
Egle' s History of Pennsylvania, published in 1876, says : ' ' The name is derived 
from the Keltic, Kimbriland. The Kimbrie, or Keltic races, once inhabited 
the county of Cumberland, in England, " but we are inclined to think that the 
word Cumberland signifies ' ' land of hollows, " from the Anglo Saxon word 
' ' comb, " a valley or low place. 

In the matter of pedigree Cumberland is the sixth county formed in Penn- 
sylvania; Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester were established in 1682, Lancaster 
in 1729 and York in 1749. Petitions having been presented to the Assembly by 
numerous inhabitants of the North or Cumberland Valley, among whom were 
James Silvers and William Magaw, in behalf of the inhabitants of the North Val- 
ley, on the ground of their remoteness from the county seat, Lancaster, and the 
di£&culty which the sober and the quiet part of the valley experienced in se- 
curing itself against the thefts of certain idle and dissolute persons (who easily 
avoided the courts, the officers and the jail of so distant a county town), pray- 
ing for the establishment of a new county, an act was passed to that effect on 
the 27th of January, 1750. Eobert McCoy, of Peters Township, Benjamin 
Chambers, of Antrim, David Magaw, of Hopewell, James Mclntire and John 
McCormick, both of East Pennsborough, were appointed commissioners to carry 
out the provisions of the act. The territory embraced in Cumberland County 
was set off from Lancaster, and its ample limits were thus described: "That 
all and singular the lands lying within the province of Pennsylvania, to the west- 
ward of the Susquehanna, and northward and westward of the county of York, 
be erected into a county, to be called Cumberland; bounded northward and 
westward with the line of the provinces ; eastward partly by the Susquehanna 
and partly by said county of York; and southward in part by the line divid- 
ing said province from that *f Maryland. ' ' 


It was also further enacted, in order to better ascertain the boundary be- 
tween Cumberland and York Counties, that commissioners should be appoint- 
ed on the part of the latter to act in conjunction with those of the former for 
that purpose. The York County commissioners were Thomas Cox, Michael 
Tanner, George Swope, Nathan Hussey and John Wright, Jr. The commis- 
sioners of the two counties disagreed when they met to fix the boundary line. 
Those from Cumberland wished the line to commence opposite the mouth of 
Swatara Creek and run thence along the ridge of the South Mountain (or Trent 
Hills, or Priest Hills) ; but to this the York County commissioners would not 
listen; they wished the Yellow Breeches, or Callapasscinker Creek, to form a 
portion of the boundary. The difficulty was finally settled by the Assembly in 
an act passed February 9, 1751, which says: " But for as much as the ridge of 
mountains called the South Mountain, — along which the lines, dividing the said 
counties of York and Cumberland, were directed to be run by the several here- 
inbefore mentioned acts, before the river Susquehannah, to the mouth of a run 
of water called Dogwood Eun, — is discontinued, much broken, and not easily to 
be distinguished, whereby great differences have arisen between the trustees of 
the said counties concerning the matter of running said lines; by which means 
the boundaries of said counties, between the river Susquehanna and the mouth 
of aforesaid run of water called Dogwood Run, are altogether unsettled and so 
likely to continue to the great injury of the said counties, and to the frustrating 
the good purposes by the hereinbefore mentioned acts of Assembly intended for 
the preventing hereof, it is hereby enacted, that the creek called Yellow Breeches 
Creek, from the mouth thereof where it empties into the Susquehanna afore- 
said, up the several courses thereof, to the mouth of a run of water called Dog- 
wood Eun, and from thence on one continued straight line, to be run to the 
ridge of mountains called the South Mountain, until it intersects the Maryland 
line, shall be and is hereby declared to be the boundary line between said coun- 
ties of York and Cumberland. ' ' 

Previous to this legislation a petition fi-om the commissioners appointed on 
the part of Cumberland County to run the line had been presented to the As- 
sembly setting forth facts as follows: " That the York commissioners, refusing 
to run the line agreeable to the act of Assembly, the petitioners conceived it 
their duty to do it themselves, and accordingly began opposite to the mouth of 
the Swahatara [now Swatara — Ed.], on Susquehanna Eiver, and then took 
the courses and distances along the highest ridge of the mountain, without 
crossing any running water, till they struck the middle of the main body of 
the South Mountain, at James Caruther's plantation; a true draught whereof 
is annexed to the petition. That the draught of the line and places adjacent, 
laid before the house by the York commissioners, as far as relates to the wa- 
ters and courses, is altogether imaginary, and grounded on no actual survey; 
those commissioners having no surveyor with them, nor so much as attempting 
to chain any part of it. That the petitioners would willingly agree to the pro- 
posal of making Yellow Breeches Creek the boundary, if that draught had any 
truth in it; but as it is altogether false, and the making that creek the line 
would actually cut off a great part of the north valley, reduce it to a point on 
the Susquehanna, and make the county quite irregular, the petitioners pray 
that the line in the draught to their petition annexed may be confirmed, or a 
straight line granted from the mouth of Swahatara to the middle of the South 
Mountain. ' ' This petition was read and ordered to lie on the table. — [ Votes 
Assem., IV, 154, 8th mo., 18th, 1750, as quoted by Eupp.] 

Had the line been established as prayed by this petition, the eastern end of 
the county, as now existing, would have been about the same in extent as the 


■western; wlieareas now it is much less — or narrower. Mr. Chambers, one of 
the Cumberland County commissioners, on the establishment of the line had 
written as follows to Richard Peters, secretary, but all to no avail : 

CuMBBBLAND CouNTT, October 8th, 1750. 

Sir: I received your letter in which you enclosed the draughts of the line run by the 
commissioners of York County and ours; and if the branches of the Yellow Britches and 
Great Conewago interlocked in the South Mountain, as laid down in the aforesaid draught, 
I would be of opinion with the Assembly that a line consisting of such a variety of courses 
could not be a good boundary between two counties. I can assure you that the courses 
that we. the commissioners of Cumberland, run, we chained, and have returned by course 
and distance the ridge of the mountain, and can send our deposition that we crossed no 
running water above ground, and that we have run it past Capt. Dills, till we are in the 
middle of the mountains, as laid down in the red line in their draughts; so that our 
draughts will show you that theirs is but an imaginary of the waters, done by some 
friends of York County who had no regard for our countiy's welfare; for we sent our re- 
turn to be laid before the Assembly at the same time that York County laid this one before 
them that your Honor was pleased to send me. But our messenger did not deliver our re- 
turn to the House, or if he had, I suppose they would not have troubled his Honor, the 
Governor, to send any further instructions to us. for I humbly suppose that there cannot be 
any better boundary than the ridge of the mountain; for, were there a line run to cross the 
heads of the waters of both sides and the marks grown old, it would be hard for a hunter 
to tell which county the wolf was killed in, but he may easily tell whether it was killed on 
the descent of the North or South Valley waters. Likewise, a sheriff, when he goes to any 
house where he is not acquainted and enquires at the house whether that water falls into 
the North or South Valley, can tell whether they live in his county or not, which he could 
not tell by a line crossing the heads of the waters of both sides till he made himself ac- 
quainted with said line; so that if you will give yourself the trouble to enquire at any of 
the authors of that draft that was laid before the Assembly, you will find that they never 
chained any part of their line to know the distance, and therefore cannot be capable to 
lay down the heads of the waters. 

Sir, I hope you will send me a few lines to let me know if our return be confirmed, 
or we must run it over again. But you may believe that the ridge of the mountain and 
heads of the waters are as laid down in our return; and we run it at the time we went 
with you to Mr. Croghan's, and did not expect to have any further trouble; and I yet 
think that his Honor, the Governor,* will confirm our return, or order them to disapprove 
of it by course and distance. 

Sir, I am your Honor's most humble servant, 

Benjamin Chambers. 

Location of County Seat. — In the act organizing the county of Cumberland 
the same persons appointed to run the boundary line, or any three of them, 
were authorized to purchase a site for county court house and prison, subject 
to approval by the governor. It was at the same time the desire of the pro- 
prietaries to lay out a town at the same place. The matter of selecting a suit- 
able site was very difficult, as no less than four locations were offered. At 
length Thomas Cookson, Esq., the deputy surveyor at Lancaster, was sent to 
examine the different places and report to the governor, after hearing the ar- 
guments in favor of each. He reported mainly as follows: 

Lancaster, March 1, 1749. 
Honored Sir: — In pursuance of your directions I have viewed the several places 
spoken of as commodious situations for the town in the county of Cumberland, and also 
the several passes through the Kittochtinny and Tuscarora Mountains, for the conven- 
ience of the traders to Allegheny. I shall take the liberty of making some observations 
on the several places recommended, as the inhabitants of the different parts of the county 
are generally partial to the advantages that would arise from a county town in their own 
neighborhood. And first, the inhabitants about the river recommended the Manor, that be- 
ing a considerable body of the propietaries' land, well timbered, and likely to be rendered 
valuable should the town be fixed there; but the body of the county cry loudly against 
that location as lying in a distant corner of the county, and would be a perpetual incon- 
venience to the inhabitants attending public business, and a great charge of mileage to the 
respective officers employed in it. The next situation is on Le Tort's Spring. This place 
is convenient to the new path to Allegheny now mostly used, being at the distance of 
four miles from the gap in the Kittochtinny Mountain. There is a fine stream of water 

*GoT. James Hamilton. 


and a body of good land on each side, from the head down to Conodogwainet Ci-eek, and 
the lands on both sides of the Conodogwainet are thickly settled. As these lands are set- 
tled, if It should be thought a proper situation for the town, the people possessed of them 
are willing to sell their improvements on reasonable terms, or exchange them for other 
lands of the honorable proprietors'. There is a tract of about 2,000 acres of tolerably well 
timbered land, without water, adjoining the settlements on Le Tort's Spring, which may 
be serviceable to accommodate the town, and lies as marked in the plan. 

If this place should not be central enough, the next situation is the Big Spring. It 
rises a mile and a half to the northwest of the great road, five miles from Dunnings, and 
seven from Shippensburg; runs into the Conodogwainet In about three miles, and has 
good land on each side and on the Conodogwainet, and a great quantity of land to the 
southward, which is tolerably well timbered, but has no water. The honorable proprie- 
taries have a tract of 4,000 acres on the north side of the Conodogwainet, opposite to the 
spring, and there is a gap in the mountain called McClure's Gap, convenient for bringing 
the road from Allegheny to this place; and, with the purchase of two or three small im- 
provements, the proprietaries might be accommodated with a sutHcient quantity of land 
for that purpose. 

As to Shippensburg, I have no occasion to say anything, the lands being granted; 
and, indeed, if that were not the case, the lands about it are unsettled, for the want of 
water, which must be a suflScient objection. 

The next place proposed was on the Conococheaque Creek, where the road crosses 
it. The lands to the eastward of it are vacant, the settlements being chiefly on the sides 
of the creek. The situation is very good, and there is enough vacant land, as only the 
plantations on the creek would need to be purchased. This place was proposed as more 
convenient for the Indian trade, and opened a shorter and better passage through the 
mountains. It is true a tolerable passage may be had, but it must be by various turnings. 
Upon the whole, the choice appears to me to lie between the two situations of Le Tort's 
Spring and the Big Spring. 

Upon fixing the spot, directions will be necessary for a plan of the town, the breadth- 
of the streets, the lots to be reserved and those to be allotted for the public buildings. In 
the execution of which or any other service for the honorable proprietaries committed to 
me I shall take great pleasure. 

I am, honored sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

Thomas Cookson. 

The site upon Le Tort's Spring was finally determined upon, and Carlisle 
sprang into existence; though, even after the courts were removed from Ship- 
pensburg, there was considerable effort made to have the county seat located 
elsewhere than on the Le Tort, various reasons being urged why other loca- 
tions were better adapted for the purpose. The place was laid out in 1751, 
and as late as May 27, 1753, it contained but five dwellings. 

Division of County into Townships. — The records of the court of quarter 
sessions of Lancaster County for November, 1735, contain the following; " On 
the petition of many of the inhabitants of the North Valley on the west side of 
the Susquehanna River, opposite to Paxton, praying that the parts settled be- 
tween the said Eiver and Potomac River, on Conodogwainet, Yellow Britches 
and Conegochegue Creeks may be divided into townships and constables ap- 
pointed in them, it was ordered by court that a line running northerly from the 
Hills to the southward of Yellow Britches (crossing a direct line by the Great 
Spring) to Kightotining Mountain, be the division line, and the easternmost 
township be called Pennsborough and the western Hopewell." In 1741 Hope- 
well was divided "by a line beginning at the North Hill at Benjamin Moor's; 
thence to Widow Hewres' and Samuel Jamison's and in a straight line to the 
South Hill, ' ' the western division to be called Antrim (in what is now Franklin 
County) and the eastern retaining the name of Hopewell. In 1745 Penns- 
borough seems to have been divided, as the returns are then first made from 
East Pennsborough and West Pennsborough. Dickinson was formed from a 
portion of West Pennsborough in 1785; Silvers' Spring (now Silver Spring) 
from part of East Pennsborough in 1787, and Middleton was divided into 
North and South Middleton in 1810, the original township of Middleton having 
been formed as early as 1750, when the county was organized. [See Chapter 


The first courts at Carlisle were held in a temporary log building on the 
northeast corner of the Public Square, where St. John's Church now stands. 
About 1766 a small brick court house was erected in the southwest quarter of 
the Square. March 3, 1801, the county commissioners advertised for proposals 
to build ' ' a house for the safe keeping of the public records of the county, " which 
are known to have been nearly completed December 22, 1802. It was a build- 
ing also of brick, adjoining the court house. In 1809 a cupola and bell were 
placed upon the court house. An incendiary fire on the morning of Monday, 
March 24, 184:5, destroyed these buildings, with the fire company's apparatus 
in a building close by. The county records were mostly saved through the 
efforts of the citizens. The court house bell, which fell and was melted in 
the fire, was a gift from some of the members of the old Penn family and had 
been greatly prized. Steps were at once taken to erect a new court house, and 
the present substantial fire-proof brick building was completed in 1846, hav- 
ing cost $48,419. It is 70x90 feet with a row of fine Corinthian columns in 
front, and is surmounted by a belfry in which are a clock and bell. 

A stone jail was built about 1754, on the northwest corner of High and Bed- 
ford Streets and was enlarged in 1790. A petition to the Assembly for aid to 
complete it in 1755 met with no response. Stocks and a pillory were also erect- 
ed on the Public Square in 1754, and it was many years before their use and the 
custom of cropping the ears of culprits were abolished. The present massive 
jail, with a brown stone front and an appearance like that of an ancient feudal 
castle, with battlemented towers, was built in 1853-54 at a cost of $42,960. It 
stands on the site of the old one and has a yard in the rear surrounded by a 
high and solid stone wall. The sheriff resides in the front part of the 

The poor of the county were for many years either "collected near the dwell- 
ing of some one appointed to have charge of them, or farmed out to those who 
for a compensation were willing to board them." It was not untU about 1830 
that an alms-house was erected and then after much ' •' consultation and negotia- 
tion' ' the fine farm and residence of Edward J. Stiles, about two miles east of 
Carlisle, in Middlesex Township, were purchased for the purpose, and addi- 
tional buildings have since been erected. Mr. Stiles was paid $13,250 for his 
property. In 1878, at a cost of $83, 284, a building was erected especially for 
the accommodation of the insane and idiotic. Many improvements have been 
made on the farm and it is a credit to the county. 

From the territory originally embraced in Cumberland County Bedford was 
formed in 1771; Northumberland in 1772; Franklin in 1784; Mifflin in 1789 
and Perry in 1820. These have been in turn subdivided until now, 1886, the 
same territory embraces about forty counties, with won drous resources, great 
wealth and extensive agricultural, mining, stock and manufacturing interests. 
Cumberland County as now existing includes a tract thirty- four miles long and 
from eight to sixteen miles in width. Of its total area, 239, 784 acres are im- 

Population. — By the United States census for each year it has been taken, 
the population of Cumberland County is shown to have been as follows: In 1790, 
18,243; in 1800, 25,886; in 1810, 26,757; in 1820, 23,606; in" 1830, 29,226; 
in 1840, 30,953; in 1850, 84,327; in 1860, 40,098; in 1870, 48,912; in 1880, 

The following table gives the population by townships and boroughs from 
1830 to 1870, except for the year 1840: 



Township or Borough. 





Dickinson Township 

East Pennsborougli Township. . 

Frankford Township 

Hampden Township 

Hopewell Township 

Newburg Borough 

Lower Allen Township 

Middlesex Township 

Mififlin Township 

Monroe Township 

Newton Township 

Newville Borough 

North Middleton Township. . . 
Carlisle Borough 

Carlisle, East Ward 

Carlisle, West Ward 

Penn Township. 

Shippensburg Township 











Shippensburg Borough. 

Silver Spring Township 

Mechanicsburg Borough 

Southampton Township 

South Middleton Township. . . . 

Upper Allen Township 

New Cumberland Borough 

West Pennsborough Township. 















By the census of 1840 the county made the following showing: Number fur- 
naces in the county, 6, producing 2,830 tons cast iron; hands employed in fur- 
naces and forges, 400; capital invested, $110,000. Number horses and mules in 
the county, 9,247; neat cattle, 24,204; sheep, 23,930; swine, 47,235; value of 
poultry (estimated), S12,671. Bushels of wheat raised, 567,654; barley, 11,104; 
oats, 654,477; rye, 247,239; buckwheat, 13,772; Indian corn, 645,056. Other 
productions: Pounds woo], 47,133; hops, 4,812, beeswax, 680; bushels potatoes, 
121,641; tons hay, 24,423; tons hemp, 11|; cords wood sold, 14,849; value of 
dairy products, $100,753; orchard products, 118,860; value of home-made or 
fancy goods, §24,660. Number tanneries, 31, which tanned 12,970 sides of sole 
leather, 10,777 of upper, and employed 64 men on a capital of $89,175. Soap 
manufactured, 230, 2 1 8 pounds ; candl es, 45, 060 pounds. Number of distilleries, 
28, producing 252,305 gallons "alcoholic beverages;" breweries, 3, producing 
12,000 gallons beer. Fulling-mills, 12; woolen factories, 9, making 126,800 
worth of goods and employ 61 persons; 1 cotton factory; 1 paper-mill; 54 
llouring-miUs, making 71,652 barrels floui-; 8 grist-mills; 63 saw -mills; 1 oil- 
miU. Total capital invested in manufactories, 1390,601. 

The census for 1880 shows the following exhibit for Cumberland County: 
White population, 48, 807 ; colored, 2, 167 ; Japanese, 3. Of the colored popula- 
tion Carlisle had 1,117, and of the total inhabitants in the county 45,322 were 
natives and 655 foreign born. ■ Number farms in county, 2,983; acres improved 
land, 232,093; value of farms, including land, fences and buildings, 119,776,- 
980; value farming implements and machinery, $727,411; value live-stock on 
farms, $1, 358, 224 ; cost of building and repairing fences in 1879, 186, 166 ; costs 
of fertilizers purchased in 1879, 152,042; estimated value of farm products sold 
and on hand for 1879, 12,509,572; bushels barley raised in 1880, 2,553; buck 
wheat, 1,242; Indian corn, 1,219,107; oats, 937,166; rye, 33,055; wheat, 
834,517; value of orchard products, $46,554; tons hay raised, 52,284; bushels 
Irish potatoes, 144,418; bushels sweet potatoes, 9, 510; pounds tobacco, 448,118; 


number horses, 10,737; mules and asses, 652; working oxen, 4; milch cows, 12,- 
6]4; other cattle, 13,442; sheep, 8,772; swine, 32,773; pounds wool, 53,816; 
gallons milk, 121,619; pounds butter, 960,516; pounds cheese, 2,352; number 
manufacturing establishments, 308 ; capital invested, $2, 266, 409 ; total hands 
employed, 1,892; wages paid, $535, 068; materials used, $1,727,681; value of 
products, $2,850,640; assessed value of real estate, $12,223,355; value of 
personal property, $2,054, 110; total taxation for 1880, with the exception of 
one or more townships from which no reports were received, $185,480; indebt- 
edness of county, bonded and floating, $142, 106. 

In 1778, when the townships in the county were Allen, East and West 
Pennsborough, Hopewell, Middleton and Newton, besides the borough of Car- 
lisle, there were 111,055 acres of patented and warranted lands, 512 acres of 
proprietary manor lands, and 206 lots in Carlisle, upon all of which the total 
taxation was £120 38. 4d. 

The population of Cumberland County, by townships and boroughs in 1880, 
was as follows, according to the United States census report: 

Carlisle Borough, 6, 209 (comprising Ward No. 1, 1,714; Ward No. 2, 1,202; 
Ward No. 3,1,613; Ward No. 4, 1,680); Cook Township, 417; Dickinson Town- 
ship, 1,741; East Pennsborough Township, 3,084; Frankford Township, 1,514; 
Hampden Township, 1,000; Hopewell Township, 1,069; Lower Allen Town- 
ship, 972; Mechaniosburg Borough, 3,018 (comprising Ward No. 1, 1,153; 
Ward No. 2, 763; Ward No._3, 543; Ward No. 4, 559); Middlesex Township, 
1,466; MifSin Township, 1,50/; Monroe Township, 1,905; Mount HoUySprings 
Borough 1,256; Newbury Borough, 433; New Cumberland Borough, 569; 
Newton Township, 1,843; Newville Borough, 1,547; North Middleton Town- 
ship, 1,115; Penn Township, 1,521; Shippensburg Borough, 2,213; Shippens- 
burg Township, 494; Shiremanstown Borough, 404; Silver Spring Township, 
2,263; Southhampton Township, 1,992; South Middleton Township, 2,864; 
Upper Allen Township, 1,400; West Pennsborough Township, 2,161. 

In November, 1885, the county contained the following postoffices: Allen, 
Barnitz, Big Spring, Bloserville, Boiling Springs, Bowmansdale, Brandts- 
ville. Camp Hill, Carlisle*, Carlisle Springs, Cleversburgh, Dickinson, Eber- 
ly' s Mill, Good Hope, Greason, Green Spring, Grissinger, Hatton, Heberlig, 
Hoguestown, Hunter's Run, Huntsdale, Kerrsville, Lee's Cross Roads, Lis- 
burn, Mooredale, Mechanicsburgh*, Middlesex, Middle Spring, Mount Holly 
Springs, Mount Rock, Newburgh, New Cumberland, New Kingstown, Newlin, 
Newville*, Oakville, Pine Grove Furnace, Plainfield, Shepherdstown, Ship- 
pensburgh*, Shiremanstown, Stoughstown, Walnut Bottom, West Fairview, 
Williams Mill, Wormleysburgh — total 47. 


Public Road, 1735. — The first public road in the " Kittochtenny" (or Cum- 
berland) Valley west of the Susquehanna River, was laid out in 1735, by order 
of the court of Lancaster, from Harris' ferry on the Susquehanna to Williams' 
ferry on the Potomac. (See pioneer chapter for further items concerning the 
road.) The commissioners to lay out this road, appointed November 4, 1735, 
were Randle Chambers, Jacob Peat, James Silvers, Thomas Eastland, John 
Lawrence and Abraham Endless. It was not finished beyond Shippensburg 
for a number of years,and even at the time of Braddock's expedition (1755) "a 
tolerable road " was said to exist "as far as Shippensburg." Indian trails were 
the first highways, and some of them were nearly on the routes of subsequent 
public roads. 

♦Money order offices. 





Military road, 1755. —This was in no part in the present county of Cum- 
berland, though at the time it was Cumberland. It extended from McDowell's 
mill, near Chambersburg, "over the mountains to Eaystown (Bedford) by the 
forks of the Toughiogheny, to intersect the Virginia road somewhere on the 
Monongahela," being supposed indispensable for the supply of Braddock's 
troops on the route to Fort DuQuesne, and after their arrival. The commis- 
sioners appointed to lay it out were principally from Cumberland County; 
among them were George Croghan, the Indian trader; John Armstrong, who 
had come from Ireland about 1748, and was then (when appointed commis- 
sioner) a justice of the peace; Capt. James Burd; William Buchanan, of Car- 
lisle, and Adam Hoops, of Antrim. A route was surveyed from a gap in the 
mountain near Shippensburg over an old Indian trail to Eaystown. Armstrong 
and Buchanan were called from the work by other duties, and William Smith, 
Francis West and John Byers were appointed in their places. The road was 
from 10 to 30 feet wide, according to work necessary to construct it. 200 men 
from Cumberland County worked on the road, the whole cost being nearly 
£2,000. The road was completed to Raystown in the latter part of June. 
Braddock's defeat rendered further work unnecessary and Indian troubles 
caused a cessation of labor upon the roads. 

The Harrisburg & Chambersburg Turnpike, passing through Hogestown, 
Kingston, Middlesex, Carlisle and Shippensburg was begun by an incorporated 
company in 1816, and was extensively traveled before the completion of the 
Cumberland Valley Eailroad. 

The Hanover & Carlisle Turnpike, * running southeast from Carlisle by way 
of Petersburg in Adams County, to Hanover and thence to Baltimore, was be- 
gun in 1812, and the Harrisburg & York Turnpike was built along the west 
side of the Susquehanna. 

The State road leading from Harrisburg to Gettysburg and crossing the 
southeast portion of Cumberland County, was laid out in 1810. It is said that 
' ' it met with much opposition at first, even from those who were appointed to lo- 
cate it. They directed it over hills that were almost impassable, hoping thus 
to effect its abandonment, but its usefulness has since been so thoroughly dem- 
onstrated that these hills have been either graded or avoided. ' ' 

Among other very early roads were one from Hoge's Spring to the Sus- 
quehanna Eiver opposite Cox's town, laid out in October, 1759, and another 
from Trindle's spring to Kelso's ferry in January, 1792. 

Cumberland Valley Railroad. Looking back over the past fifty years, the 
half century's horizon includes the sum total of that almost fairy story of 
magic that we find in the development of our entire system of railroads to 
their present marvellous perfection. The crude and simple beginnings; the 
old strap rails that would so playfully curl up through the car and sometimes 
through a passenger; the quaint, little, old engines that the passengers had to 
shoulder the wheels on an up-grade, where they would "stall" so often with 
five of the little cars attached to them; the still more curious coaches, built 
and fiinished inside after the style of the olden-time stage coaches, where pas- 
sengers sat face to face, creeping along over the country — what a wonder and 
marvel they were then to the world, and now in the swift half century what a 
curiosity they are as relics of the past. The railroad forced the coming of 
the telegraph, the telephone, the electric light, — the most wonderful onward 
sweep of civilization that has yet shed its sunshine and sweetness upon the world 
in this brief-told story of fifty years. 

*The company to build this road was incorporated March 26, 1809, but work was not begun until 1812' 
The portion between Carlisle and the York County line was built upon a public road laid out in 1793 and known 
as " the public road from Carlisle through Trent's Gap to the York County line." 



The history of the Cumberland Valley Eailroad spans the entire period of 
railroad existence in this country. The first charter is dated in April, 1831. 
The active promoters were, among others, Judge Frederick Watts, Samuel 
Alexander, Charles B. Penrose, William Biddle, Thomas G. McCullough, 
Thomas Chambers, Philip Berlin and Lewis Harlan. The designated termini 
were Carlisle and the bank of the river opposite Harrisburg. In 1836 a sup- 
plemented charter authorized the construction of a bridge at Harrisburg. 
Surveyors completed the location of the line in 1835; the road was at once 
contracted for and the work actively commenced in the spring of 1836. In 
August, 1887, it was "partially and generally" opened for business. At 
first, passengers and freight were transported across the river by horse-power, 
and but a small force of this kind could do all the business easily. In 1835 
an act was passed extending the line of the road to Chambersburg, 

In 1856 the Cumberland Valley Boad was authorized, by the authority of 
the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland, to purchase the Franklin Railroad, 
which also was one of the early-built roads of the country. It was then a 
completed road from Chambersburg to Hagerstown. The consolidation of the 
two lines was effected fully in 1864, and at once the line was completed to the 
Potomac — Martinsburg — the present Cumberland Valley Railroad; a distance 
of 94 miles from Harrisburg to Martinsburg. An extension is now contem- 
plated of twenty-two miles from Martinsburg to Winchester, which opens the 
way for this road to the tempting marts and trafiic of the South and West. 
The first president was Hon. Thomas G. McCullough, elected June 27, 1835. 
His executive abilities and ripe judgment — for he had no precedents then to 
follow, so he had to evolve a system for the young and awkward giant from 
his own brain — show that he was the right man in the right place. In 1840, 
Hon. Charles B. Penrose became the president. He resigned in 1841, having 
been appointed solicitor of the treasury, when Judge Frederick Watts, now 
of Carlisle, became the president, and filled the position ably and acceptably 
until 1873, when he resigned to become the commissioner of agriculture, by 
the appointment of President Grant, where he remained six years and retired 
to private life, though still an efficient and active member of the board of 
directors of the railroad. 

Thomas B. Kenedy, the present incumbent, was elected to the position on. 
the retirement of Judge Watts. He resides in Chambersburg, which has been 
his home since early boyhood. The history of the other general officers of the 
road is told wholly in the long life's labor of General E. M. Biddle, who is 
now the secretary and treasurer, and who has filled the place so ably and well 
since 1839. What a wonderful panorama in the world' s swift changes since 
1839, has unfolded itself and has been a part of the official life of General 
Biddle ! He owes now one great duty to this generation and to future man- 
kind, and that is to tell the story of what he saw and was a part of — the 
particulars of the little crude commencement of railroads and the steps leading 
to their present greatness and boundless capabilities. A sleeping car was put 
on this road in 1839 — a historical fact of great interest because it was the first 
of the kind in the world. They were upholstered boards, three-deckers, held 
by leather straps, and in the day were folded back against the wall, very sim- 
ple and plain in construction, but comfortable. 

The Dillsburg & Mechanicsburg Railroad is a branch of the Cumberland 
Valley Railroad, extending from the towns indicated in its name. The length 
is eight miles. It was organized September 2, 1871, and completed the fol- 
lowing year. It has been a paying property from the first, and adds much to 
the comfort and well-being of the people of the country it taps. 


The fiuancial affairs of the road are fully explained in the following: 

First preferred stock $341,900 00 

Second preferred stock 343,000 00 

Common preferred stock 1,292,950 00 

First Mortgage Bonds, due 1904 161,000 00 

Second Mortgage Bonds, due 1908 109,500 00 

Dividends and Interest due 41,313 70 

Profit and loss 704,871 91 

Total 13,794,535 61 

Harrisburg & Potomac Railroad. The original, active promoters, the or- 
ganizers and builders of this road were the Ahl brothers, Daniel V. and Peter 
A. Ahl, of Newville. They procured the charter, furnished the money for 
the preliminary work, cashed the bonds to a large extent, and contracted and 
built the original road. The road was chartered June 27, 1870, as the Mer- 
amar Iron & Railroad Company, its name explaining the original purposes 
of the enterprise. The officers elected June 20, 1870, were Daniel V. Ahl, 
president; Asbury Derland, secretary; William Gracey, treasurer; William 
H. Miller, solicitor. The road was built from Chambersburg to Eichmond. 
The project was then expanded, and the road built from Chambersburg to 
Waynesboro, via Mount Alto. The charter members: Daniel V. Ahl, John 
Evans, Asbury Derland, John Moore, W. H. "Langsdorf, George Clever, Sam- 
uel N. Bailey, Alexander Underwood and James Bosler. A branch road was 
surveyed and built from the main line to Dillsburg. When the construction 
of the line was about completed the concern fell into great financial difficulties, 
when the almost omnipotent Pennsylvania Road gathered it quietly to its fold 
and shaped its destinies into the present line of road, and it took its present 
name, The Harrisburg & Potomac Railroad. 

The Northern Central Railroad passes along the shore of the Susquehanna, 
crossing the eastern end of Cumberland County in which it has about nine miles 
of road. 

The South Mountain Railroad, built or completed in 1869, by the South 
Mountain Iron Company extending from Carlisle to Pine Grove Furnace, is 
seventeen and one-half miles long. 



BEOTioN— The War of 1813. 

IpOR more than ten years after the close of the Indian wars the inhabitants 
' of the county gave their attention to peaceful pursuits. Agriculture 
flourished and the population increased. Great Britain finally attempted to 
force her American colonies to comply with all her outrageous demands without 
giving them any voice in the Government. They naturally objected. The 
famous " Boston port bill " roused their ire. This county had few citizens 
who stood by the mother country in such proceedings. July 12, 1774, a pub- 
lic meeting was called, of which the following are the minutes: 

" At a respectable gathering of the freeholders and freemen from several 
tovmships of Cumberland Couaty in the province of Pennsylvania, held at 


Carlisle, in the said county, on Tuesday, the 12th day of July, 1774, John 
Montgomery, Esq., in the chair — 

1. Resolved, That tbe late act of the Parliament of Great Britain, by which the port of 
Boston is shut up, is oppressive to that town and subversive of the rights and liberties of the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay; that the principle upon which the act is founded is not more 
subversive of the rights and liberties of that colony than it is of all other British colonies 
in North America; and, therefore, the inhabitants of Boston are suffering in the common 
cause of all these colonies. 

2. That every vigorous and prudent measure ought speedily and unanimously to be 
adopted by these colonies for obtaining redress of the grievances under which the inhabi- 
tants of Boston are now laboring; and security from grievance of the same or of a still 
more severe nature under which they and the other inhabitants may, by a further operation 
of the same principle, hereafter labor. 

3. That a congress of deputies from all the colonies will be one proper method for ob- 
taining these purposes. 

4. That the same purpose Will, in the opinion of this meeting, be promoted by an 
a^eement of all the colonies not to import any merchandise from nor export any merchan- 
dise to Great Britain, Ireland, or the British West Indies, nor to use any such merchan- 
dise so imported, nor tea imported from any place whatever, till these purposes be obtained; 
but that the inhabitants of this country will join any restriction of that agreement which 
the general Congress may think it necessary for the colonies to confine themselves to. 

5. That the inhabitants of this county will contribute to the relief of their suffering 
brethren in Boston at any time when they shall receive intimation that such relief wiU 
be most seasonable. 

6. That a committee be immediately appointed for this county to correspond with 
the commitee of this province or of the other provinces upon the great objects of the pub- 
lic attention; and to co-operate in every measure conducing to the general welfare of 

Briish America. 

7. That the committee consist of the following persons, viz. : James Wilson, John 
Armstrong, John Montgomery, William Irvine, Robert Callender, William Thompson, 
John Calhoon, Jonathan Hoge, Robert Magaw, Ephraim Blane, John Allison, John Har- 
ris and Robert Miller, or any five of them. 

8. That James Wilson, Robert Magaw and William Irvine be the deputies appointed 
to meet the deputies from other counties of this province at Philadelphia on Friday next, 
in order to concert measures praparatory to the General Congress. 

John Montgomebt, Chairman. 

This meeting was held in the Presbyterian Church at Carlisle, and the 
chairman (Montgomery) lyas an elder in the church. The meeting was called 
on receipt of a letter from the Assembly, under action of June 30, calling upon 
each county to provide arms and ammunition and men to use them from out 
their associated companies, also to assess real and personal estates to defray 
expenses. The Assembly encouraged military organizations, and promised to 
see that officers and men called into service were paid. We quote Dr. Wing's 
notes upon the men composing the committee : 

"James Wilson was born in 1742 in Scotland; had received a finished edu- 
cation at St. Andrews, Edinburgh and Glasgow, under Dr. Blair in rhetoric 
and Dr. Watts in logic, and in 1766 had come to reside in Philadelphia, where 
he studied law with John Dickinson, from whom he doubtless acquired some- 
thing of the spirit which then distinguished that eminent patriot. When ad- 
mitted to practice he took up his residence in Carlisle. In an important land 
case, which had recently been tried between the proprietaries and Samuel 
Wallace, he had gained the admiration of the most eminent lawyers in the 
province, and at once had taken rank second to none at the Pennsylvania bar. 
At the meeting of the people now held in Carlisle, he made a speech which 
drew forth the most rapturous applause. Eobert Magaw was a native of 
Cumberland County, belonging to a family which had early settled in Hope- 
well Township, and was also a lawyer of some distinction in Carlisle. The 
career on which he was now entering was one in which he was to become known 
to the American people as one of their purest and bravest officers. William 
Irvine was a native of Ireland from the neighborhood of Enniskillen; had been 


classically educated at the University of Dublin, and had early evinced a 
fondness for military life, but had been induced by his parents to devote him- 
self to the medical and surgical profession. On receiving his diploma he had 
been appointed a surgeon in the British Navy, where he continued until the 
close of the French war (1754-63), when he resigned his place, removed to 
America and settled in Carlisle, where he acquired a high reputation and an 
extensive practice as a physician. William Thompson had served as a captain 
of horse in the expeditions against the Indians (1759-60), had been appointed 
a justice of the peace in Hopewell Township, and had lately been active in 
the relief of the inhabitants in the western part of the province in their diffi- 
culties with Virginia on the boundary question. Jonathan Hoge and John 
Calhoon had been justices of the peace and judges in the county, and be- 
longed to two of the oldest and most respectable familes in the vicinity of 
Silvers' Spring. Ephriam Blaine we have known for his brave defense of a 
fort at Ligonier, and was now the proprietor of a large property and mills on 
the Conodoguinet, near the cave, about a mile north of Carlisle. John Alli- 
son, of Tyrone Township; John Harris, a lawyer of Carlisle, and Kobert 
Miller, living about a mile northeast of Carlisle in Middleton Township; John 
Montgomery, a member of the Assembly, and Robert Callender, formerly an 
extensive trader with the Indians, a commissary for victualing the troops on 
the western campaign and the owner of mills at the confluence of the Letort 
with the Conodoguinet, were all of them active as justices, judges and comnlis- 
sioners for the coxmty. ' ' 

The three delegates from Cumberland County were at Philadelphia a few 
days later, when the delegates from the various counties of the province as- 
sembled, and James Wilson was one of the committee of eleven which brought 
in a paper of ' ' Instructions on the present situation of public affairs to the 
representatives who were to meet in the Colonial Assembly next week. ' ' The 
proceedings of this meeting, the subsequent steps of the Assembly, and all 
the proceedings up to the opening of hostilities, are matters of record not 
necessary to introduce here. The committee of thirteen which had been ap- 
pointed at Carlisle, July 12, 1774, kept busy, and through their efforts a 
"committee of observation" was chosen by the people who bad general over- 
sight of civil affairs, and few counties were more fortunate than Cumberland 
in their choice of men. About this time the terms ' ' whig " and ' ' tory " began 
to be heard, and the bitterness the two partisan factions held toward each 
other after the declaration by the colonies of their independence, was extreme, 
leading to atrocious crimes and terrible murders by the tories when they could 
strike like cowards, knowing their strength. ' ' Few such, ' ' says Dr. Wing, ' ' were 
found among the native population of this valley. There were indeed some 
both in civil and in ecclesiastical life who questioned whether they had a right 
to break the oath or vow of allegiance which they had taken on assuming some 
official station. Even these were seldom prepared to go so far as to give actual 
aid and comfort to the enemy, or to make positive resistance to the efforts 
of the patriots. They usually contented themselves with a negative withdraw- 
al from all participation in efforts at independence. Many of them were earn- 
est supporters of all movements for redress of grievances, and paused only 
when they were asked to support what they looked upon as rebellion. These 
hardly deserved the name of ' ' tories, " since they were not the friends of extreme 
royal prerogative, and only doubted whether the colonies were authorized by 
what they had suffered to break entirely away from the crown to which they 
had sworn allegiance, and whether the people were yet able to maintain this 
separate position. Among these who deserved rather to be ranked as non- 


jurors were one of the first judges of the county, who had recently removed 
over the mountain to what is now Perry County, and two clergymen who held 
commissions as missionaries of the ' Venerable Society in England for the 
Propagation of Eeligion in Foreign Parts. ' ' ' 

James Wilson, of Cumberland County, was in December, 1774, appointed 
one of nine delegates to a second Congress to be held the next year in Phila- 
delphia, and held the position until 1777. Both he and Eobert Magaw were 
members from this county of the provincial convention which met at Philadelphia 
January 23, 1775, and continued in session six days, during which time much 
business of great importance was transacted. 

Upon receipt of the news of the battle of Lexington (April 19, 1775), 
Congress resolved to raise an army, and the quota of Pennsylvania was figured 
at 4, 300. Word was sent to the committee of Cumberland County, and they 
proceeded at once to organize companies of ' ' associators, ' ' many of which 
were already formed on the old plan in use since the days of the Indian 
troubles. A letter from this county dated May 6, 1775, said: "Yesterday 
the county committee met from nineteen townships, on the short notice they 
had. About 3,000 men have already associated. The arms returned amount 
to about 1,500. The committee have voted 500 effective men, besides 
commissioned ofiicers, to be immediately drafted, taken into pay, armed 
and disciplined to march on the first emergency; to be paid and supported 
as long as necessary, by a tax on all estates real and personal in the county; 
the returns to be taken by the township committees, and the tax laid by 
the commissioners and the assessors ; the pay of the officers and men as in 
times past. This morning we met again at 8 o'clock; among other subjects 
of inquiry the mode of drafting or taking into pay, arming and victualing im- 
mediately the men, and the choice of field and other officers, will among other 
matters be the subjects of deliberation. The strength or spirit of this county 
perhaps may appear small if judged by the number of men proposed, but 
when it is considered that we are ready to raise 1,500 or 2,000, should we 
have support from the province, and that independently and in uncertain ex- 
pectation of support we have voluntarily drawn upon this county a debt of 
about £27,000 per annum, I hope we shall not appear contemptible. We 
make great improvement in military discipline. It is yet uncertain who may 

From July 3, 1775, to July 22, 1776, John Montgomery, Esq., of Carlisle, 
was an active and a prominent member of a committee of safety, consisting of 
twenty-five men from different parts of the province, sitting permanently at 
Philadelphia, and having management of the entire military affairs of the 
province. The first troops sent out from Cumberland County, were under the 
call of Congress in May, 1775, and were from the association companies, the 
call by the committee of safety not being made until some months later. To 
furnish arms and ammunition for the soldiers was the greatest difficulty, es- 
pecially in Cumberland County. ' ' Each person in the possession of arms was 
called upon to deliver them up at a fair valuation, if he could not himself en- 
list with them. Rifles, muskets, and other fire-arms were thus obtained to the 
amount of several hundred, and an armory was established for the repairing 
and altering of these, in Carlisle. On hearing that a quantity of arms and 
accoutrements had been left at the close of the Indian war at the house of Mr. 
Carson, in Paxtang Township, and had remained there without notice or care, 
the commissioners of Cumberland County, regarding them as public property, 
sent for them and found about sixty or seventy muskets or rifles which were 
capable of being put to use, and these were brought to Carlisle, repaired 


and distributed. Three hundred pounds were also paid for such arms and 
equipments as were collected from individuals who could not themselves come 
forward as soldiers. All persons who were not associated, and yet were of the 
age and ability for effective service, were to be reported by the assessors to 
the county commissioners and assessed, in addition to the regular tax, £2 10s. 
annually, in lieu of the time which others spent in military training. The on- 
ly persons excepted were ministers of the gospel and servants purchased for a 
valuable consideration of any kind. It was assumed that those who had con- 
scientious scruples about personally bearing arms ought not to hesitate to con* 
tribute a reasonable share of the expense for the protection they received. ' ' 

The first troops going out from Cumberland made up eight companies of, 
generally, 100 each, and nearly all from the county. The regiment, which be- 
came the First Kifle Regiment of Pennsylvania, was formed of men already 
associated, and therefore the more easily organized for immediate service. It 
was formed within ten days the news of the battle of Bunker Hill had 
been received. The companies rendezvoused at Reading, where the regiment 
was fully organized by the election of officers as follows: Col. William 
Thompson, a surveyor who lived near Carlisle and had served with distinction 
as an officer in the Indian war; Lieut. -Col. EdwardHand, of Lancaster; Maj. 
Robert Magaw, of Carlisle. The captains of the several companies were 
James Chambers, of Loudon Forge, near Chambersburg ; Robert Cluggage, of 
Hamilton Township; Michael Doudel, William Hendricks, of East Penns- 
borough; John Loudon, James Ross, Matthew Smith and George Nagle. 
Surgeon — Dr. William Magaw, of Mercersburg, a brother to Robert. Chaplain 
— Rev. Samuel Blair. The regiment marched directly to Boston, reaching 
camp at Cambridge in the beginning of August, 1775, when it consisted of 
3 field officers, 9 Captains, 27 lieutenants, 1 adjutant, 1 quartermaster, 1 sur- 
geon, 1 surgeon's mate, 29 sergeants, 13 drummers and 713 privates fit for 
duty, or 798 men all told. The officers were commissioned to date from June 25, 
1775; term of enlistment, one year. This was the first regiment from west of the 
Hudson to reach the camp, and received particular attention. They were thus 
described by a contemporary: " They are remarkably stout and vigorous men, 
many of them exceeding six feet in hight. They are dressed in white frocks 
or rifle shirts and round hats. They are remarkable for the accuracy of their 
aim, striking a mark with great certainty at 200 yards distance. At a review 
a company* of them, while on a quick advance, fired their balls into objects of 
seven inches in diameter at a distance of 250 yards. They are stationed in our 
outlines, and their shots have frequently proved fatal to British officers and 
soldiers who exposed themselves to view even at more than double the distance 
of a common musket shot. ' ' Col. Thompson, with two of his companies under 
Capts. Smith and Hendricks, went with the expedition to Canada, being pro- 
bably part of the troops who went on the eastern route with Arnold. Decem- 
ber 31, 1775, they were in the assault on Quebec, carried the barriers, and for 
three hours held out against a greatly superior force, being finally compelled 
to retire. Of the body to which this regiment belonged, Gen. Richard Mont- 
gomery said: "It is an exceedingly fine corps, inured to fatigue and well ac- 
customed to common shot, having served at Cambridge. There is a style of 
discipline amongst them much superior to what I have been accustomed to see 
in this campaign. ' ' 

By subsequent promotions Col. Thompson became a brigadier-general; 
Lieut. -Col. Hand succeeded to the command of the regiment; Capt. Chambers 
became lieutenant-colonel, and James Armstrong Wilson, of Carlisle, major, in 
place of Robert Magaw, transferred. Part of the regiment was captured at 


Trois Eivieres and taken to New York, while Col. Hand barely escaped with 
the balance. Gen. Thompson was finally paroled and sent home to his family 
in 1777, but was not exchanged until October 26, 1780, when he and others 
were exchanged for Maj. -Gen. De Eeidesel, of the Brunswick troops. He died 
on his farm near Carlisle September 3, 1781, aged forty-five years, and his 
death was undoubtedly' hastened by exposure while in a military prison. 

Upon the expiration of the term of enlistment of this regiment, June 30, 
1776, most of the officers and men re-enlisted "for three years or during the 
war," under Col. Hand, and the battalion became the first regiment of the Con- 
tinental line. The two separated parts of the regiment, one from Cambridge 
and the other from Canada, were reunited at New York, though some of its 
officers, like Magaw, were transferred by promotion to other portions of the 
army. It was at Long Island, White Plains, Trenton and Princeton under 
Hand. In April, 1777, Hand was made a brigadier, and James Chambers be- 
came the colonel. Under him the regiment fought at Brandywine, German- 
town, Monmouth and in every other battle and skirmish of the main army until 
he retired from the service, January 1, 1781, and was succeeded by Col. Dan- 
iel Broadhead May 26, 1781. With him the first regiment left York, Penn. , 
vrith five others into which the line was consolidated under the command of 
Gen. Wayne, and joined Lafayette at Eaccopn Ford on the Eappahannock 
June 10; fought at Green Springs on July 6, and opened the second parallel 
at Yorktown, which Gen. Steuben said he considered the most important part 
of the siege. After the surrender the regiment went southward with Gen. 
Wayne, fought the last battle of the war at Sharon, Ga. , May 24, 1782, entered 
Savannah in triumph on the 11th of July, Charleston on the 14th of Decem- 
ber, 1782; was in camp on James Island, S. C. , on the 11th of May, 1783, and 
only when the news of the cessation of hostilities reached that point was em- 
barked for Philadelphia. In its services it traversed every one of the original 
thirteen States of the Union. Capt. Hendricks fell during the campaign in 
Canada. A few of the original members of the regiment were with it through 
all the various scenes of the eight years of service. Col. Chambers and Maj. 
Wilson both retired from the service because of wounds which incapacitated them 
from duty. The regiment had a splendid record. 

Additional regiments from Pennsylvania were called for by Congress in the 
latter part of 1775, and the Second, Third and Fourth Battalions were raised 
and placed under the command of Cols. Arthur St. Clair, John Shea and An- 
thony Wayne. The Fifth Battalion was commanded by Eobert Magaw, who 
had been major in the First, and was composed of companies principally from 
Cumberland County. It was recruited in December, 1775, and January, 1776, 
and in February, 1776, some of its companies were in Philadelphia, though 
the main body of the regiment left Cumberland County in March. It departed 
from Carlisle March 17, 1776, on which occasion Eev. William Linn, who had 
been licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Carlisle, and had been ap- 
pointed Chaplain of the Fifth and Sixth Battalions of Pennsylvania militia, de- 
livered a stirring patriotic sermon, which has been preserved in print to the 
present day. The command proceeded to Long Island, assisted in the con- 
struction of defenses, and upon the retreat assisted other Pennsylvania regi- 
ments in covering the same. They were afterward placed in Fort Washington 
at the head of Manhattan Island, with other Pennsylvania troops, commanded 
by such officers as Cols. Cadwallader, . Atlee, Swope, Frederick Watts (of Car- 
lisle) and John Montgomery, the whole commanded by Col. Eobert Magaw. 
Gen. Howe demanded the surrender of the fort, threatening dire consequences 
if it had to be carried by assault. Col. Magaw replied that "he doubted 


whether a threat so unworthy of the General and of the British nation would 
be executed. " ' ' But, " said he, ' ' give me leave to assure your excellency that, 
actuated by the most glorious cause that mankind ever fought in, I am deter- 
mined to defend this post to the very last extremity. ' ' And that he did, 
Washington witnessing part of the operations from the opposite side of the 
Hudson. Finally, however, November 19, 1776, the gallant Colonel was com- 
pelled to capitulate, and the strong position, with 2,818 men, fell into the 
hands of the British. Col. Magaw remained a prisoner on parole until Octo- 
ber 25, 1780, when, with Gens. Thompson and Laurens he was exchanged for 
the British major-general, De Eeidesel. Many of Magaw' s men suffered 
greatly in the British prisons, but they refused all temptations held out to in- 
duce them to desert and enlist in the royal service. A few were exchanged in 
1777, but most remained prisoners until nearly the close of the war. 

The committee of correspondence for Cumberland County wrote to Congress 
about the middle of August, 1775: "The twelfth company of our militia has 
marched to-day, which companies contain in the whole, 833 privates; with 
officers, nearly 900 men. 9ix companies more are collecting arms, and are 
preparing to march. ' ' This committee of correspondence included, among others, 
John Armstrong, JohnByers, Robert Miller, John Agnew and James Pollock; all 
but Byers residents of Carlisle. (Mr. Miller, in 1768 until 1782, and later, ac- 
cording to the records, owned a tan-yard, and he also is said to have been a mer- 
chant. He was an elder in the church and held numerous offices. His daughter, 
Margaret, married Maj. James Armstrong Wilson. ) The committee reported in 
December, to the committee of safety, that they expected to be able to raise an 
entire battalion in the county, and hoped they might be allowed to do so, in 
order to do away with the discords generally prevalent among bodies of men 
promiscuously recruited. They recommended as officers for such a regiment, 
colonel, William Irvine; lieutenant-colonel, Ephraim Blaine; major, James 
Dunlap; captains, James Byers, S. Hay, W. Alexander, J. Talbott, J. Wilson, 
J. Armstrong, A. Galbreath and E. Adams; lieutenants, A. Parker, W. Brat- 
ton, G. Alexander, P. Jack, S. McClay, S. McKenney, R. White and J. Mc- 
Donald. The Sixth Regiment was accordingly organized, and William Irvine 
received his commission as colonel, January 9, 1776. Changes were made in 
the other officers, and they were as follows : lieutenant-colonel, Thomas Hart- 
ley, of York; major, James Dunlap, who lived near Newburg; adjutant, John 
Brooks ; captains, Samuel Hay, Robert Adams, Abraham Smith (of Lurgan), 
William Rippey (resided near Shippensburg), James A. Wilson, David Grier, 
Moses McLean and Jeremiah Talbott (of Chambersburg). The regiment 
marched in three months after Col. Irvine was commissioned, and joined the 
army before Quebec, in Canada. It was brigaded with the First, Second 
and Fourth Regiments; the brigade being commanded first by Gen. Thomas, 
and after his death, by Gen. Sullivan. The latter sent Col. Irvine and Gen. 
Thompson on the disastrous Trois Rivieres campaign, when, June 8, 1776, so 
many of the men were captured, together with the commanders. The portion 
of the regiment that escaped capture fell back to Lake Champlain and wintered 
under command of Lieut. -Col. Hartley. Most of the men re-enlisted after their 
original term of service had expired (January 1, 1777), and the broken Sixth 
and Seventh Regiments were consolidated into a new one under the command 
of Col. David Greer. Col. Irvine, like the others on parol, was exchanged 
May 6, 1777, and appointed colonel of the Second Pennsylvania Regiment. 
May 12, 1779, he was 'made a brigadier-general, and served one or two years 
under Gen. Wayne. In 1781 he was stationed at Fort Pitt. He died at Phil- 
adelphia July 29, 1804. Capt. Rippey, who was captured at Trois Rivieres, 


succeeded in making his escape. After the war he resided at Shippensburg, 
where he kept a hotel. 

May 15, 1776, Congress passed a resolution recommending ' ' to the respective 
assemblies and conventions of the United Colonies, where no government sufS- 
cient to the exigencies of their affairs has been hitherto established, to adopt 
such government as shall, in the opinion of the representatives of the people, 
best conduce to the happiness and safety of their constituents in particular 
and America in general." On the 3d of June, that body also devised measures 
for raising a new kind of troops, constituting them the "flying camp," inter- 
mediate between militia and regulars, to consist of 10, 000 men from the States 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware. The quota of Pennsylvania was 
6,000 men, but as 1,500 had already been sent into the field, the immediate 
demand was for 4, 500, and it was finally settled that the quota of Cumberland 
County was 334, as so many had already been sent out from said county. 
Meantime, the Assembly having dissolved, and the committee of safety declining 
to act, it became necessary for the people to organize some form of government, 
and on recommendation the several county committees met and sent delegates, 
for that purpose, to a meeting held at Carpenter' s Hall, Philadelphia, June 18, 
1776. Cumberland County was represented by James McLane, of Antrim 
Township; John McClay, of Lurgan; William Elliot, Col. William Clark and 
Dr. John Calhoon, of East Pennsborough; John Creigh and John Harris, of 
Carlisle; Hugh McCormick and Hugh Alexander, of Middle Spring, This 
conference continued in session one week, approved the resolutions of Congress, 
declared the existing government in the province incompetent, and appointed 
the 15th of July as the date for holding a convention at Philadelphia to frame 
a new government based upon the authority of the people. Voting places for 
■delegates fi-om Cumberland County, were established at Carlisle, with Eobert 
Miller and James Gregory, of that town, and Benjamin Blyth, of Middle 
Spring, as judges of election; at Chambersburg, with John Allison and James 
Maxwell and John Baird as judges; at Robert Campbell's, in Hamilton Town- 
ship, with William Brown, Alex Morrow and James Taylor as judges. The 
election was held July 8, and William Harris, then practicing law at Carlisle, 
William Clark, William DufBeld (near Loudon) ; Hugh Alexander, of Middle 
Spring; Jonathan Hoge and Eobert Whitehill, of East Pennsborough; James 
Brown, of Carlisle, and James McLane, of Antrim, were chosen delegates. 
The convention met per appointment, July 15, and adopted a constitution, 
which in spite of some informalities, was acquiesced in by the people for a 
number of years. Among other acts of the convention it appointed a council 
of safety, of which William Lyon was a member from Cumberland County. 

George Chambers, in an excellent work upon the ' ' Irish and Scotch and 
Early Settlers of Pennsylvania," published at Chambersburg in 1856, says of 
the period at which we have now arrived : ' ' The progress of the war and the op- 
pressive exactions of the British Government after a few months unsettled public 
opinion on this question [that of separation from the mother country, Ed.] 
and the necessity and policy of independence became a debatable question vrith 
the colonists in their social meetings. At this time there were no newspapers 
published in Pennsylvania, we believe, west of York. The freemen of the 
County of Cumberland, in this province, were amongst the first to form the 
opinion that the safety and welfare of the colonies did render separation from 
the mother country necessary. The first public expression of that sentiment 
and its embodiment in a memorial emanated from the freemen and inhabitants 
of that county to the assembly of the province and is among the national arch- 
ives." Mr. Chambers in further speaking of this memorial says: "The me- 


morial from Cumberland County bears evidence that the inhabitants of that 
county were in advance of their representatives in the Assembly and in Con- 
gress, on the subject of independence. The considerations suggested to them 
had their influence on the Assembly, who adopted the petition of the memorial- 
ists and withdrew the instructions that had been given to the delegates in Con- 
gress in opposition to independence. As the Cumberland memorial was pre- 
sented to the Assembly on the 23d* of May, 1776, it probably had occupied the 
attention and consideration of the inhabitants of the Cumberland Valley early 
in that month. As there was no remonstrance from this district by any dissat- 
isfied with the purposes of the memorial we are to suppose that it expressed the 
public sentiment of that large, respectable and influential district of the prov- 
ince which had then many officers and men in the ranks of the Continental Army. ' ' 

When in Congress the motion for independence was finally acted upon, the 
vote of Pennsylvania was carried for it by the deciding vote of James Wilson, 
of Cumberland County, and of him Bancroft says (History of the United States 
Vol. VIII, pp. 456—459) : ' ' He had at an early day foreseen independence as 
the probable, though not the intended result of the contest; he had uniformly 
declared in his place that he never would vote for it contrary to his instructions ; 
nay, that he regarded it as something more than presumption to take a step of 
such importance without express instructions and authority. ' For' said he, 
' ought this act to be the act of four or five individuals, or should it be the act 
of the people of Pennsylvania?' But now that their authority was communi- 
cated by the conference of committees he stood on very different ground." 
Mr. Chambers says: "The majority of the Pennsylvania delegates remained 
inflexible in their unwillingness to vote for the measure, at the head of which 
opposition was the distinguished patriot, John Dickinson, who opposed the 
measure not as bad or uncalled for, but as premature. But when on the 
4th of July the subject came up for final action, two of the Pennsylvania del- 
egates, Dickinson and Morris, who voted in the negative, absented themselves, 
and the vote of Pennsylvania was carried by the votes of Franklin, Wilson and 
Morton against the votes of Willing and Humphreys. The men who voted in 
opposition to this measure were esteemed honest and patriotic men but were too 
timid for the crisis. They faltered and shrank from responsibility and danger 
when they should have been firm and brave." The Declaration of Independ- 
ence though adopted on the 4th of July was not signed until August 16 follow- 
ing. The name of James Wilson was affixed to the document with those of the 
other delegates, and Cumberland County has the satisfaction of knowing that 
her citizens and foremost men had an important voice in the formation of the 
Republic which is now so dear to more than 50,000,000 people. 

After this step had been taken by the colonies there was no way of honor- 
able retreat from the ground they had taken. The struggle was upon them, 
and many were the dark and trying hours before it closed in their favor and 
the nation was firmly established. It was with difficulty the ranks were kept 
full. Many had enlisted for only one year, and some as emergency soldiers 
for as short a period as three months. The appeals cf the recruiting officers 
are described as most stirring, and the county of Cumberland, like others, was 
kept in a constant state of excitement. By strenuous efforts the flagging 
energy of the people was renewed. October 16, 1776, William Lyon, who 
that day took his seat as member from Cumberland County of the council of 
safety, proposed to the board of war to continue a larger force in the State, to 
protect it both against British troops and ' ' the growing party of disaffected 
persons which unhappily exists at this time, ' ' also to carry on the necessary 

*Other authority says May 28. 


works of defense. It was resolved to raise four battalions of 500 men each 
(for the immediate defense of the State), of militia from the counties of York, 
Cumberland, Lancaster and Berks — -one battalion for each county. The news 
from Trenton (December 3, 1776) and Princton (January 3, 1777) encouraged 
the people and recruiting became more lively. July 4. 1776, a military con- 
vention representing the fifty-three associated battalions of Pennsylvania, met 
at Lancaster and chose two brigadier-generals to command the battalions and 
forces of Pensylvania (Daniel Robardeau, of Philadelphia, and James Ewing, of 
York). Cumberland County was represented at this convention by Col. John 
Armstrong; Lieut. -Cols. William Blair, William Clark and Frederick Watts, 
Maj. James McCalmont;Capt8. Rev. John Steel, Thomas McClelland, John Da- 
vis, James McFarlane and George Robinson, and privates David Hoge, Ephraim 
Steel, Smith, Pauling, Brown, Sterrett, Hamilton, Read, Finley, and Vance. 
When the "Flying Camp " was formed, two regiments had been organized in 
Cumberland County under Cols. Frederick Watts and John Montgomery, of 
Carlisle, and sent to Washington at Long Island; they were captured with 
others at Fort Washington, but the officers were soon exchanged and later 
commanded regiments under a new arrangement. We quote at considerable 
length from Dr. Wing: 

"When Gen. Howe appeared to be about crossing New Jersey to get pos- 
session of Philadelphia by land (June 14, 1776), messengers were dispatched to 
the counties to give orders that the second class of the associated mUitia should 
march as speedily as possible to the place to which the first class had been or- 
dered, and that the third class should be got in readiness to march at a moment's 
notice. These orders were at once complied with, but before the companies 
from this county had started, the order was countermanded on account of the 
return of the British troops to New York. It soon, however, became known 
that the approach to Philadelphia was to be by transports up Chesapeake Bay 
and Delaware River, and a requisition was made upon the State for 4,000 mili- 
tia in addition to those already in the field. One class, therefore, was again 
ordered from the county. On the 5th of October, 1776, the council of safety 
resolved to throw into the new continental establishment two of the three Penn- 
sylvania battalions, before in that service, to serve during the war, and the third 
was to be retained in the service of the Staite until the Ist of January, 1778, 
unless sooner discharged, and to consist of ten companies of 100 men each, in- 
cluding officers. The privates of the three battalions were to continue in the 
service of the State, -the officers according to seniority to have the choice of 
entering into either, and the two battalions to be recruited to their full com- 
plement of men as speedily as possible. By this new arrangement Pennsylva- 
nia was to keep twelve battalions complete in the Continental service. Of 
course this broke up all previous organizations, and renders it difficult to trace 
the course of the old companies. We have seen that on the 16th of August 
thirteen companies fully officered and equipped had left the county for the 
seat of war, and six others were preparing to go. The regiments of Cols. 
Thompson, Irvine and Magaw, we have noticed, and two or three others must 
have been in existence about this time. One of these was commanded by Col. 
Frederick Watts and Maj. David Mitchell, and another by John Montgomery, 
who after the dissolution of the committee of safety, July 22, 1776, appears to 
have taken charge of a regiment. Both of these regiments-were at the taking 
of Fort Washington and were then captured. One of the volunteer companies 
under Col. Watts, after the latter had been set at liberty and been put again 
at the head of a regiment, was commanded by Capt. Jonathan Robinson, of 
Sherman' s Valley, the son of George Robinson, who suffered so much in the 


Indian war, and wto now, though above fifty years of age, had entered the 
patriot army. This company was in the battle of Princeton, and was for some 
time stationed at that town to guard against the British and to act as scouts to 
intercept their foraging parties. Near the close of the year 1776, or the be- 
ginning of 1777, battalions began to be designated by numbers in their respect- 
ive counties and are made of the First, Second, Third, etc., of Cumberland 
County. This was under the new organization of the militia of the State. 
The first was organized in January, 1777, when ' Col. Ephraim Blaine of the 
First Battalion of Cumberland County militia is directed to hold an election for 
field officers in the said battalion, if two-thirds of the battalion, now marched 
and marching to camp, require the same. ' Accordingly the Colonel was fur- 
nished with blank commissions to fill when the officers should be chosen. 
Capts. Samuel Postlethwaite, Matthias Selers, John Steel, William Chambers 
and John Boggs are mentioned in the minutes of the council of safety as con- 
nected with this regiment. Col. Blaine' s connection with the regiment must 
have been brief, for he was soon transferred to the commissary department, 
and we find it under the command'of Col. James Dunlap (from near Newburg, 
and a ruling elder in the congregation of Middle Spring), Lieut. -Col. Robert 
Culbertson, and connected with three companies from what is now Franklin 
County, viz. : those of Capts. Noah Abraham of Path Valley, Patrick Jack of 
Hamilton Township and Charles McClay of Lurgan. The Second Battalion 
was at first under the command of Col. John Allison, a justice of the peace in 
Tyrone Township, over the mountains, and a judge of the county, but after his 
retirement (for he was now past middle life) it was for awhile under the com- 
miand of Col. James Murray, and still later we find it under John Davis, of 
Middleton, near the Conodoguinet. Under him were the companies of Capts. 
William Huston, Charles Leeper (of the Middle Spring congregation), James 
Crawford, Patrick Jack (sometimes credited to this regiment), Samuel Eoyal 
and Lieut. George Wallace. While this regiment was under marching orders 
for Amboy, near January 1, 1777, they took from such persons as were not 
associated, in Antrim and Peters Township, whatever arms were found in their 
possession* to be paid for according to appraisement by the Government. The 
Fourth Battalion was under Col. Samuel Lyon, and had in it the companies of 
Capts. John Purdy, of East Pennsborough ; James McConnel, of Letterkenny, 
and, in 1778, of^ Jonathan Robinson, of Sherman's Valley; Stephen Stevenson, 
who was at first a lieutenant but afterward became a captain. The Fifth Bat- 
talion was commanded by Col. Joseph Armstrong, a veteran of the Indian 
war and of the expedition to Kittanning, and in 1756-57, a member of the 
Colonial Assembly. Most of this regiment was raised in Hamilton, Letterkenny 
and Lurgan Townships, and its companies at diJBferent times were under Capts. 
John Andrew, Robert Culbertson (for a time), Samuel Patton, John McCon- 
nel, Conrad Snider, William Thompson, Charles McClay (at one period), 
James McKee, James Gibson, John Eea, Jonathan Robinson, George Mat- 
thews and John Boggs. John Murphy was a lieutenant and John Martin 
ensign. Capt. McClay' s men are said to have been over six feet in height and 
to have numbered 100, and the whole regiment was remarkable for its 
vigor and high spirit. It suffered severely at the battle of "Crooked Billet," 
in Berks County, May 4, 1778, when Gen. Lacy was surprised and many of 
his men were butchered without mercy. The Sixth Battalion was commanded 
by Col. Samuel Culbertson, who had been a lieutenant-colonel in the First but 
was promoted to the command of the Sixth. John Work was the lieutenant- 
colonel; James McCammont, major; John Wilson, adjutant; Samuel Finley, 
quartermaster, and Richard Brownson, surgeon, and Patrick Jack, Samuel Pat- 


ton, James Patterson, Joseph Culbertson, William Huston, Robert McCoy and 
John McConnel were at some periods captains. 

" As the period for which the enlistments abont this time, when the inva- 
sion of Pennsylvania was imminent, was usually limited to six months and 
sometimes even to three aad two months, we need not be surprised to find that 
at different times the same men and officers served in two or three different 
regiments. As an instance J. Robinson says that he entered the service a 
number of times on short enlistments of two or three months, and was placed 
in diilerent regiments and brigades. The Seventh Battalion is believed to have 
consisted of remnants of the old Fifth and Sixth Continental Regiments, and 
was commanded by Col. William Irvine. These soldiers re-entered the service 
as the Seventh Battalion in March, 1777, and were under the command of its 
major, David Grier, until the release of Irvine from his parole as a prisoner of 
war (May 6, 1777). In 1779 Col. Irvine was commissioned a brigadier, and 
served under Gen. Wayne, but before this (July 5, 1777) Abraham Smith, of 
Ltirgan Township, was elected colonel. Among the captains were William 
Rippey; Samuel Montgomery, who became captain of Smith's company when 
the latter was promoted; John Alexander, before a lieutenant in Smith's com- 
pany; Alexander Parker; Jeremiah Talbott, who in the latter part of the year 
1777 was promoted a major in the Sixth, and served in that position until the- 
close of the war. He was the first sheriff of Franklin County (October, 1784) 
and was twice re-elected. The Eighth Battalion was commanded by Abraham 
Smith, who was chosen July 6, 1777, probably from Lurgan, and a member 
of the congregation of Middle Spring. Its officers were largely taken from a 
single remarkable family in Antrim Township. The head of this family had 
settled very early, about 1735, two and a half miles east of where Greencastle 
now is, and had died near 1755, leaving a large property and four sons. Each 
of these sons entered the army. The eldest, James, was a lieutenant- colonel 
of the Eighth Battalion, but afterward was the colonel of a battalion during a 
campaign in New Jersey. John, the youngest, was the major, and Thomas, 
the second son, was adjutant, and was present at the slaughter at Paoli, Sep- 
tember 20, 1777, but survived to be promoted to a colonelcy and lived till 
about 1819. Dr. Robert, the other brother, was a surgeon in Col. Irvine's 
regiment, was in the South during the latter years of the war, was at the sur- 
render of Yorktown, in October, 1781, and in 1790 was an excise collector for 
Franklin County. Terrence Campbell was the quartermaster. The captains 
were Samuel Roger, John Jack, James Poe and John Rea, who afterward be- 
came a brigadier-general. 

' ' Besides these we have notices of several companies, regiments and offi- 
cers, whose number and position in the service is not given in any account we 
have seen. Early in the war James Wilson and John Montgomery were ap- 
pointed colonels, and in the battalion of the former are mentioned the compa- 
nies of Capts. Thomas Clarke and Thomas Turbitt. Montgomery was in the 
army at New York in 1776, and was at the surrender of Fort Washington, but 
both he and Wilson were soon called into the civil department of the service, 
and do not appear in the army after that year. Besides them were Cols. 
Robert Callender, of Middlesex, now in advanced life, whose death early in the 
war deprived his country of his valuable services ; James Armstrong, Robert 
Peoples, James Gregory, Arthur Buchanan, Benjamin Blythe, Abraham Smith, 
Isaac Miller and William Scott. Among the captains, whom we are unable to 
locate in any particular regiment, at least for any considerable time, were Jo- 
seph Brady, Thomas Beale, Matthew Henderson, Samuel McCune (under Col. 
William Clarke for awhile, and at Ticonderoga), Isaac Miller, David Mc- 


Knight, Alexander Trindle, Robert Quigley, William Strain, Samuel Kearsley, 
Samuel Blythe, Samuel Walker, William Blaine, Joseph Martin, James Adams, 
Samuel Erwin and Peter Withington. One of the companies which were early 
mustered into the service was that of Capt. William Peebles. The officers' 
commissions were dated somewhere between the 9th and the 15th of March, 
near the time at which Magaw' s regiment left the county. The company was 
in Philadelphia August 17, and was then said to consist of eighty-one riflemen. 
It was in the battle of Long Island, August 27, when a portion was captured, 
and the remainder were in the engagements at White Plains, Trenton and 
Princeton. On his return from the war Capt. Peebles resided on Peebles' 
Run, a little distance from Newburg, and was for many years an elder in the 
congregation at Middle Spring. He was promoted to be a colonel September 
23, 1776. Matthew Scott was the first-lieutenant, and among the captured at 
Long Island, but he was exchanged December 8, 1776, and promoted captain 
April 18, 1777. He married Peggy, the daughter of Samuel Lamb, a stone- 
mason near Stony Ridge, who long surTived him and was living in Mechanics- 
burg in 1845. The family of Mr. Lamb was distinguished for its ardent pa- 
triotism. The second lieutenant was Robert Burns, promoted to be a captain 
in Col. Hazen's regiment December 21, 1776. The third lieutenant was 
Robert Campble, also promoted to be a captain at the same time in the same 
regiment, and when wounded was transferred to an invalid regiment under 
Lewis Nichola. The sergeants were Samuel Kenny, William McCracken, 
Patrick Highland (captured), and Joseph Collier. James Carson, drimimer, 
and Edward Lee, fifer, were also captured at Long Island August 27, 1776. 
The privates were William Adams, Zachariah Archer, William Armstrong, 
James Atchison (captured), Thomas Beatty, Henry Bourke, William Boyd, 
Daniel Boyle (enlisted for two years, discharged at Valley Forge July 1, 1778, 
and in 1824 resided in Armstrong County), James Brattin, John Brown, 
Robert Campble, John Carrigan, William Carson, William Cavan, Henry Dib- 
bins, Pat Dixon, Samuel Dixon (captured), Barnabas Dougherty, James Dowds, 
John Elliott, Charles Fargner, Daniel Finley, Pat Flynn, James Galbreath, 
Thomas Gilmore, Dagwell Hawn, John Hodge, Charles Holder, Jacob Hove, 
John Jacobs, John Justice, John Keating, John Lane, Peter Lane, Samuel 

■ Logan, Bobert McClintock, Alexander McCurdy, Hugh McKegney, Andrew 
McKinsey, Charles McKowen, Niel McMullen, Alex. Mitchell, John Mitchell 
(justice of the peace in Cumberland County in 1821), Laurence Morgan, 
Samuel Montgomery, William Montgomery, David Moore, James Moore, John 
Moore, James Mortimer, Robert Mullady, Patrick Murdaugh, John Niel, 
James Nickleson, Robert Nugent, Richard Orput, John Paxton, Robert Petjl- 
ing, James Pollock, Hans Potts, Patrick Quigley, John Quinn, Andrew Rals- 
ton, James Reily, Thomas Rogers (captured on Long Island, died in New 
Jersey, leaving a widow, who resided in Chester County), James Scroggs, 
Andrew Sharpe, Thomas Sheerer, John Shields, John Skuse, Thomas Town- 
send, Patten Viney, John Walker, John Wallace, Thomas Wallace, William 
Weatherspoon (captain), Peter Weaver, Robert Wilson and Hugh Woods. 
Total of officers ten, and of privates, eighty. 

"A company of rangers from the borders of this county, who had been 
accustomed in the Indian wars to act under James Smith, also deserves notice. 
He had now removed to the western part of the State, and was a member of the 
Assembly from Westmoreland. While attending on that body early in 1777, 
he saw in the streets of the city some of his former companions in forest ad- 
venture, from this region, and they immediately formed themselves into a 
company under him as their commander. Obtaining leave of absence for a short 


time from the Assembly, he ■went with them to the army in New Jersey, 
attacked about 200 of the British, at Rocky Hill, and, with only thirty- six men, 
drove them from their position ; and on another occasion took twenty-two Hes- 
sions with their officers' baggage- wagons, and a number of our Continental pris- 
oners they were guarding. In a few days they took more of the British than there 
were of their own party. Being taken with the camp fever Smith returned to 
the city, and the party was commanded by Maj. McCammont, of Strasburg. He 
then applied to Gen. Washington for permission to raise a battalion of riflemen, 
all expert marksmen, and accustomed to the Indian method of fighting. The 
council of safety strongly recommended the project, but the General thought it 
not best to introduce such an irregular element into the army, and only oiffered 
him a major's commission in a regular regiment. Not fancying the officer 
under whom he was to serve, he declined this, and remained for a time with 
his companions in the militia. In 1778 he received a colonel's commission, 
and served with credit till the end of the war, principally on the western frontier. 

" Another partisan leader was Samuel Brady, originally from near Ship- 
pensburg, and among those who went first to Boston. Though but sixteen 
years of age when he enlisted, in 1775, in a company of riflemen, he was one 
of the boldest and hardiest of that remarkable company. At the battle of 
Monmouth he was made captain; at Princeton he was near being taken pris- 
oner, but succeeded in effecting an escape for himself and his colonel, and 
in many places displayed an astonishing coolness and steadiness of courage. 
He so often acted on special commissions to obtain intelligence that he became 
distinguished as the ' captain of the spies. ' In 1778 his brother, and in 1779 
his father were cruelly killed by the Indians, and from that tipae it was said 
of him, ' this made him an Indian killer, and he never Jchanged his business. 
The red man never had a more implacable foe or a more relentless tracker. 
Being as well skilled in woodcraft as any Indian of them all, he would trail them 
to their very lairs with all the fierceness and tenacity of the sleuth hound.' 
During the whole sanguinary war with the Indians he gave up his whole time 
to lone vigils, solitary wanderings and terrible revenges. He commenced his 
scouting service in 1780, when he was but twenty-one years old, and became 
a terror to the savages and a security to a large body of settlers. He did not 
marry until about 1786, when he spent some years at West Liberty, in West 
Virginia, where he probably died about 1800. [See McKnight' s "Western Bor- 
der," pp. 426^42.] 

"The Patrick Jack, who is mentioned more than once above as connected at 
different times with several regiments, was probably the same man who after- 
ward became famous as the ' Wild Hunter, or Juniata Jack the Indian Killer.' 
He was from Hamilton Township, and is said by George Croghan in 1755 to 
have been at the head of a company of hunter rangers, expert in Indian war- 
fare, and clad, like their leader, in Indian attire. They were therefore pro- 
posed to Gen. Braddock as proper persons to act as scouts, provided they were 
allowed to di-ess, march and fight as they pleased. 'They are well armed,' 
said Croghan, ' and are equally regardless of heat and cold. They require no 
shelter for the night and ask no pay. ' It is said of him as of Brady that he 
became a bitter enemy of the Indians by finding his cabin one evening, on his 
return from hunting, ' a heap of smoldering ruins, and the blackened corpses 
of his murdered family scattered around. ' Prom that time he became a ran- 
corous Indian hater and slayer. When the Revolutionary war began he was 
among the first to enlist, and he afterward enlisted several times on short 
terms in various companies. He was of large size and stature, dark almost as 
an Indian, and stern and relentless to his foes. John Armstrong in his ac- 


count of the Kittanning expedition, calls him ' the half Indian,' but he could 
have had no Indian blood in his veins. His monument may be seen at Cham- 
bersburg, with this inscription: 'Colonel Patrick Jack, an officer of the 
Colonial and Eevolutionary Wars — died January 25, 1821, aged ninety-one 
years.' " 

We shall now give a few of the important events of the war as relating to 
Cumberland County without going further into details. In 17'i8 George 
Stevenson, John Boggs, Joseph Brady and Alexander McGehan were appointed 
a committee to attend to estates forfeited for treason, and the commissioners 
for the county, James Pollock and Samuel Laird, were required to collect 
from nou-associators the amounts they owed the State as a fair equivalent for 
military services, also to collect such arms and ammunition as may be found 
in their possession. In September, 1777, information had been given of plots 
by ' ' tories ' ' to destroy public stores at York, Lancaster, Carlisle and other 
points, and several prominent persons in the region were implicated. ' ' By a 
proclamation of the Supreme Executive Council, June 15, 1778, John Wilson, 
wheel-wright and husbandman, and Andrew Pursuer, laborer, both of Allen 
Township; Lawrence Kelley, cooper; William Curlan, laborer; John M. Cart, 
distUler and laborer, and Francis Irwin, carter, of East Pennsborough; 
George Croghan, Alexander McKee, Simon Girty and Matthew Elliott, Indian 
traders, were said severally to have aided and assisted the enemy by having 
joined the British Army, and were therefore attainted of high treason and sub- 
ject to the penalties and forfeitures which were by law attached to their crime. 
The committee on forfeited estates rendered an account of several hundred 
pounds which they had handed over to the proper officers to be used in the 
purchase of arms, provisions, etc. , from which it would appear that some per- 
sons had been found guilty of treason in the county. The names which have 
come down to us either by tradition or documentary evidence were usually of 
persons of no prominence, or of such as were then residing beyond the limits 
of the present county of Cumberland." — l^Wing.] 

An act of the Supreme Executive Council passed March 17, 1777, provided 
for the appointment of one or more lieutenants of militia in each city or 
county, also of sub-lieutenants, with duties which the act prescribed. John 
Armstrong and Ephraim Blaine were successively appointed lieutenants for 
Cumberland County, but both declined for sufficient reasons. April 10, 1777, 
James Galbreath, of East Pennsborough Township, was appointed, and finally 
accepted the position and performed its duties faithfully. He was succeeded 
by John Carothers, and he by Col. James Dunlap, in October, 1779. Abra- 
ham Smith held the office in April, 1780. The sub-lieutenants were Col. 
James Gregory, of Allen Township; Col. Benjamin Blythe, near Middle 
Spring; George Sharpe, near Big Spring; Col. Robert McCoy (died in May, 
1777); John Harris of Carlisle; George Stewart, James McDowell, of Peters 
Township (in place of Col. McCoy), all appointed in 1777, and Col. Frederick 
Watts, Col. Arthur Buchanan, Thomas Buchanan, John Trindle, Col. Abra- 
ham Smith and Thomas Turbitt appointed in 1780. 

In June, 1777, the Supreme Executive Council appointed an entirely new 
board of justices for Cumberland County, as some of the old ones had failed 
to take the oath of allegiance required of them and several of the positions were 
vacant. Those newly appointed were John Rannels (Reynolds), James Max- 
well, James Oliver, John Holmes, John Agnew, John McClay, Samuel Lyon, 
William Brown, John Harris, Samuel Royer, John Anderson, John Creigh, 
Hugh Laird, Andrew McBeath, Thomas Kenny, Alexandria Laughlin, Samuel 
McClure, Patrick Vance, George Matthews, William McClure, Samuel Cul- 


bertson, James ArniBtrong, John Work, John Trindle, Stephen Duncan, 
Ephraim Steel, William Brown (Carlisle), Eobert Peebles, Henry Taylor, 
James Taylor, Charles Leeper, John Scouller, Matthew Wilson and David 
McClure. November 5, 1777, John Agnew, on the nomination of these 
jastices, was appointed a clerk of the peace, and February 20, 1779, a com- 
missioner for the exchange of money. These justices were required to "ad- 
minister the oath of allegiance to every person who should vote for officers or 
enter upon any office either under the State government or under the Conti- 
nental Congress. " Prom 1777 to 1779 Col. William Clark was paymaster of 
troops in Cumberland County. In 1777 he reported concerning the destitute 
condition of the militia, and a committee was appointed consisting of John 
Boggs, Abraham Smith, John Andrew, William McClure, Samuel Williamson, 
James Purdy and William Blair "to collect without delay from such as have 
not taken the oath of allegiance and abjuration, or who have aided or assisted 
the enemy with arms or accoutrements, blankets, linen and linsey-wolsey cloth, 
shoes and stockings for the army." Besides this committee, George Stevens, 
John Boggs and Joseph Brady were appointed commissioners ' ' to seize upon 
the personal estates of all Who have abandoned their families or habitations, 
joined the army of the enemy, or resorted to any city, town or place within 
the commonwealth in possession of the enemy, or supplied provisions, intelli- 
gence or aid for the enemy, or shall hereafter do such things; and they shall 
as speedily as possible dispose of all the perishable part thereof, and hold pos- 
session of all the remainder subject to the future disposition of the Legisla- 

Large numbers of wagons and teams and teamsters were employed to trans- 
port the great quantities of stores and supplies from place to place as necessary, 
and a special department was maintained for the organization and manage- 
ment of this service. Cumberland County was required to furnish a large pro- 
portion of supplies, wagons and teams, and sent out at one time 200, at an- 
other 800, and at various times smaller numbers of wagons. Hugh McCormick 
was appointed wagon-master in 1777, Matthew Gregg in 1778 and Robert 
Culbertson in 1780. Dr. Wing states: "In November, 1777, the assessment 
was upon East Pennsborough, Peters and Antrim Townships, each for twelve 
wagons and teams; Allen for eleven, Middleton, West Pennsborough, Newton, 
Hopewell, Lurgan, Letterkenny, Guilford and Hamilton each for ten. Each 
wagon was to be accompanied by four horses, a good harness and one attendant, 
and the owner was paid thirty shillings in specie or forty in currency, accord 
ing to the exchange agreed upon by Congress. ' ' 

Early in 1776 a number of British prisoners captured on the northern fron- 
tier and in the east were confined at Lancaster, but by order of Congress they 
were removed in March, half to York and half to Carlisle. At that time 
Lieuts. Andre, Despard and Anstruther were taken to Carlisle; and, as 
stated by early writers, were confined in a stone building which stood on the 
east side of Hanover Street, on Lot 161. These prisoners were exchanged in 
the latter part of the same year, most of them being sent to New York, Novem- 
ber 28, ' ' under the escort of Lieut. -Col. John Creigh and Ephraim Steel, two 
members of the committee of inspection, with their servants and their ser- 
vants' wives and their baggage, by way of Beading and Trenton to the near- 
est camp of the United States in New Jersey. ' ' With the subsequent fate of 
Andre, promoted to captain and then to major, everybody is familiar. A 
large number of the Hessians captured at Trenton, December 25, 1776, were sent 
to Carlisle, and while here were set at work building barracks, which became 
noted in later years as a school for cavalry training and in other ways, and 
stood on the site now occupied by the Indian school. 


"About the 1st of August, 1777," says Dr. Wing, "John Penn, James 
Hamilton, Benjamin Chew, and about thirty others who had been officers un- 
der the royal and proprietary government, and declined to take the oath of 
allegiance to the new government, were arrested in Philadelphia, received by 
the sheriff of Beading and by the sheriff of Cumberland County, and escorted 
through this valley to Staunton, Va., where they were detained until near 
the conclusion of the war." 

In April, 1777, Gen. Armstrong, of Carlisle, was placed in command of 
the militia of the State; resigning his position as first brigadier-general in the 
Continental Army, he was "appointed first brigadier-general and a month after- 
ward major-general of the State of Pennsylvania. Though advanced in years 
he entered vigorously upon the work of protecting the State against the 
enemy, and erected and maintained defensive works along the Delaware Eiver. 
Portions of his command did splendid service at Brandywine and Germantown. 
Five hundred men or more enlisted and went to the fort fi-om Cumberland 
County early in 1778. The county was nearly bereft of men to cany on neces- 
sary business or to guard the prisoners which from time to time were sent to 
Carlisle. It was difficult to provide arms and ammunition until Prance 
came to the aid of the colonies in 1778. " Hence the efforts in the beginning of 
the conflict to establish at every available town shops for the manufacture of 
rifles, muskets and even cannon. Old arms were repaired and altered so that 
even fowling-pieces could be used for deadlier purposes, and bayonets were 
prepared. Armories are spoken of in Carlisle and Shippensburg at which 
hundreds of rifles were got in readiness at one time. A foundry was started 
at Mount Holly and perhaps at Boiling Springs, at which cannon were cast, 
and at which William Denning [Deming?] was known to have worked at his 
inventions. Aware of the many failures which had followed all previous at- 
tempts, under the most favorable conditions, to make cannon of wrought iron; 
he is said to have persevered until he constructed at least two of such uniform 
quality and of such size and calibre as to have done good service in the Ameri- 
can Army. One of them is reported to have been taken by the British at the 
battle of Brandywine, and now kept as a trophy in the Tower of London, 
and another to have been for a long time and perhaps to be now, at the barracks 
near Carlisle. (William Denning was a resident of Chester County when the 
war broke out; enlisted in a company and was its second lieutenant for nine 
months; was a blacksmith by trade, and very ingenious; was placed at head 
of a band of artificers at Philadelphia, but removed to Carlisle upon the ap- 
proach of the British Army ; iron from the South Mountain was made into gun- 
barrels, bayonets, etc. , and Denning had a chance to exercise his ingenuity to 
his greatest desire. In welding the heavy bars of iron for bands and hoops to 
his wrought iron guns, few could be induced to assist him on account of the 
great heat. He made four and six-pounders and attempted a twelve -pounder, 
but never completed it. He resided at Big Spring after the war, and died 
December 19, 1830, aged ninety-four years). So great was the destitution of 
lead for bullets, that the council of safety requested all families possessing 
plates, weights for clocks or windows, or any other articles made of lead, to 
give them up to the collectors appointed to demand them, with the promise 
that they should be replaced by substitutes of iron. Payments were acknowl- 
edged for considerable quantities of lead thus collected in this county. Every 
part of the county was explored to obtain sulphur and other substances in suf- 
ficient quanties for the manufacture of gunpowder. Jonathan Kearsley, of 
Carlisle, was for some months employed in learning the art and in the attempt 
to manufacture saltpetre out of earths impregnated with nitrous particles in 


Dauphia County. After nearly three months of experiments he wrote that 
the amount obtained was not sufiScient to warrant his continuance at the 
work in that vicinity. Common salt finally became so scarce that Congress took 
upon itself the business of supplying the people as well as the soldiers. Before the 
construction of those vast establishments which have since been created for 
the manufacture of these articles, the whole population was dependent on for- 
eign countries, and now were cut ofP from all importation of it. Near the 
close of 1776 a law was passed against those who endeavored to monopolize 
the sale of salt, and a large purchase of it was made by Congress itself. A cer- 
tain quota was assigned to each State, and then to each county under the 
direction of the State authorities. The proportion which fell to Cumberland 
County (November 23, 1776) was eighty bushels. On its arrival a certain por- 
tion was delivered to each householder who applied for it with an order from 
the county committee, ' on his paying the prime cost of 15 shillings a bushel, 
expenses of carriage only added. ' ' ' 

August 17, 1776, by authority of a resolution of the Assembly passed a 
month previous, the committee of inspection and observation for Cumberland 
County drew an order on the council of safety for £200 for the relief of the 
poor families of associators called into service. The greater part of the grain 
raised in the county was sent away for supplies or distilled into liquor, and 
the men were so scarce it was difficult to harvest and thresh the grain. Gen. 
Armstrong, noting this condition of affairs, wrote on the 17th of February, 
1777: "From the best information that I can get, the rye in both this and 
the county of York is almost all distilled, as is also considerable quantities of 
wheat, and larger still of the latter bought up for the same purpose; nor can 
we doubt that Lancaster and other counties are going on in the same destruc- 
tive way, so that in a few months Pennsylvania may be scarce of bread for her 
own inhabitants. Liquor is already 10 shillings per gallon, wheat will im- 
mediately be the same per bushel, and if the complicated demon of avarice 
and infatuation is not suddenly changed or cast out, he will raise them each to 
twenty! " 

To Col. Ephraim Blaine, of Cumberland County, as assistant quartermas- 
ter-general, under Gen. Greene, quartermaster-general, was due great praise 
and much credit for his aid in. times of financial depression during the war. 
His flouring-mill on the Conodoguinet, near Carlisle, was enlarged and kept 
in operation to its utmost capacity for the benefit of the suffering army and 
without profit to himself. His extensive fortune was ever at the disposal of 
his country, and by his earnest and careful management he kept the soldiers 
from actual starvation, more than once in the face of pronounced opposition to 
his measures. His name became dear to his countrymen. The schemes of Con- 
gress to provide money led to disastrous results, and many inhabitants of Cum- 
berland County were very seriously embarrassed or completely broken up finan- 
cially for years. Many dark days were experienced by the people of the 
struggling republic during the war, and at times even mutiny and violence 
were advocated or attempted; the Indian troubles of 1778 and succeeding 
years brought to mind the terrible scenes of days gone by, and soldiers from 
the county were sent with others for the punishment of the marauding mur- 
derers. The sad end of the expedition of Col. Crawford, in 1782 against the 
western Indians, called numbers into the service for vengeance, for Crawford 
was known and loved in the valley, but the British recalled their Indian allies 
from the frontiers of the northwest, and the troops organized to march against 
them under Gens. Irvine and Potter were disbanded. The peace of 1783 
brought relief to the land, and the war cloud was lifted. 


March 3, 1781, Samuel Laird and William Lyon were appointed auditors 
of depreciated accounts, "to settle -with officers and soldiers in the county the 
amount which should be allowed on their pay for the depreciated value of the 
notes paid them. " Gen. William Irvine, of Carlisle, was made one of the board of 
censors October 20, 1783, from Cumberland County, as was also James Mc- 
Lene, of Chambersbui-g. The only meeting was at Philadelphia November 
10, 1783, for the new constitution (1790) abolished it. 

The Whiskey Insurrection, 1794. — When it became evident that some source 
of revenue must be looked to besides the duties on imported goods, and Con- 
gress decided to levy a tax (of 4 pence per gallon) on distilled spirits (March 
3, 1791), believing that article to be of the least necessity, the tax was violently 
opposed by people in the interior and western parts of Pennsylvania, where it 
bore with most severity. There had been no market for the great quantities 
of grain raised, and it was largely used to fatten cattle and hogs upon. When 
distilled it was more easily transported over the mountains and found a ready 
market, and in numerous sections every fifth or sixth farmer had a still-house. 
[The consumption was not all away from home, either. — Ed. ] The excise 
law was felt to be oppressive, as most of the money brought into the region 
was sent out in the shape of excise duties. The people hoped the law would 
be unexecuted and finally repealed, and the collectors were often thi-eatened, 
intimidated, and as in the instance of Pittsburgh, roughly handled and their 
property destroyed. The excitement spread and the fury grew by the aid of 
mass meetings, pole raisings, and the like, and steps were taken for an armed 
resistance to the authorities should a force be sent against the disturbers. 
Braddock's Field, ten miles east of Pittsburgh, was designated as a place of 
rendezvous for the rebellious troops. The general sympathy of even the most 
prominent men was with those who openly opposed the law, but they did not, 
as the end shows, believe in a resort to arms. President Washington issued 
proclamations, September 15, 1792, and August 7, 1793, requiring insurgents 
to disperse and directing that troops should be raised to march at a moment' s 
wartiing before the 15th of September in the latter year. Those who had 
been opposed to the law, but hoped a few trials of aggressors would lead to its 
repeal, now joined hands with the Government. An army of 12,900 men was 
called for from the four States most interested, and the quota of Pennsylvania was 
5,200. Gen. William Irvine, of Carlisle, was one of a number of commission- 
ers appointed to confer with such deputies as the deputies might appoint, but 
they returned with an adverse or unfavorable report, though they were fol- 
lowed by commissioners from the insurgents who were more reasonable than 
those with whom they had conferred. The army was put in motion and final- 
ly reached Carlisle. The softened commissioners met the President and com- 
mander-in-chief at that point October 10, 1794, and assured him that it was 
unnecessary to send the military to obtain submission and order, but he de- 
clined to stay the march of the army, though promising that no violence would 
be offered if the people would return to their allegi ance. Carlisle was the place of 
rendezvous for the army. Cumberland County furnished 363 men and officers 
who were brigaded with others from York, Lancaster and Franklin Counties, 
under Brig. -Gen. James Chambers, of Franklin County. They encamped on 
"an extensive common near the town (Carlisle) said to be admii'ably fitted for 
the purpose." 

A large number of distilleries then undoubtedly existed in Cumberland 
County, where those opposed to the law had not been over- cautious in making 
remarks or in demonstrations of disfavor. A liberty pole had been erected 
in the Public Square on the night of September 8, 1794, with the words, 


"Liberty and No Excise, & "Whisky," thereon. A few frieads of law and 
order out it down the next morning, and the excitement was great. A large 
number of country people, some bearing arms, came in a few days later, one 
afternoon, and put up a large pole with the words, "Liberty and Equality." 
They were mostly of the poorer class, although the county treasurer was a 
leader among them and distributed money to buy whisky. Deeds of violence 
were offered occasionally, the insurgents patroling the town to prevent the 
pole being taken down. Col. Ephraim Blaine was pursued and fired upon by 
three of them while conducting his sister, Mrs. Lyon, out of town, but fortu- 
nately without injury. Threats were made against the militia should they turn 
out, and affairs were rather desperate. Gen. Irvine, as commissioner, attend- 
ed strictly to the business of his office, saying, ' ' I make a rule of doing what 
I think is right, and trust to events for consequences." The presence of 
troops in Carlisle brought the people to their senses. Gov. Mifflin arrived on 
the 1st of October, and in the evening delivered a stirring address in the 
Presbyierian Church. His arrival was in advance of the army, which reached 
Carlisle October 3. A writer says ' ' the beloved Washington' ' approached in a 
traveling dress, attended by his secretary, Alexander Hamilton, and proceeds: 
"As he passed our troops he pulled off his hat and, in the most respectful 
manner, bowed to the officers and men, and in this manner passed the line, 
who were (as you may suppose) affected by the sight of their chief, for whom 
each individual seemed to show the affectionate regard that would have been 
paid to an honored parent. As he entered the town the inhabitants seemed 
anxious to see this very great and good man; crowds were assembled in the 
streets, but their admiration was silent. The President passed to the front of 
the camp, where the troops were assembled in front of the tents; the line of 
artillery, horse and infantry appeared in the most perfect order; the greatest 
silence was observed. The spectacle was grand, interesting and affecting; ev- 
ery man as he passed along poured forth his wishes for the preservation of this 
most valuable of their fellow-citizens. Here you might see the aged veteran, 
the mature soldier and the zealous youth assembled in defense of that govesn- 
ment which must (in turn) prove the protection of their persons, family and 
property. ' ' The court house was illuminated in the evening, and a transpar- 
ency was prepared, bearing the inscriptions: "Washington is ever triumphant. " 
' ' The reign of the laws, ' ' and ' ' Woe to Anarchists. ' ' President Washington 
while here was the guest of Col. Ephraim Blaine. A number of the princi- 
pal inhabitants presented him the following address on Monday of the week 
following : 

Cabusle, October 17, 1794. 

To George Washington, Esq., President op the United States: 

Sir: "We, the subscribers, inhabitants of this borough, on behalf of ourselves, our fel- 
low-citizens, friends to good order, government and the laws, approach you at this time 
to express our sincere admiration of those virtues which have been uniformly exerted with 
so much success for the happiness of America, and which at this critical period of impend- 
ing foreign and domestic troubles have been manifested with distinguished lustre. 

Though we deplore the cause which has collected in this borough all classes of virtuous 
citizens yet it affords us the most heartfelt satisfaction to meet the father of our country 
and brethren in arms, distinguished for their patriotism, their love of order and attach- 
ment to the constitution and laws; and while on the one hand we regret the occasion 
which has brought from their homes men of all situations, who have made sacriflcos un- 
equaled in any other country of their private interests to the public good, yet we are con- 
soled by the consideration that the citizens of the United States have evinced to our 
enemies abroad and the foes of our happy constitution at home that they not only have 
the will but possess the power to repel all foreign Invaders and to crush all domestic 

The history of the world affords us too many instances of the destruction of free gov- 
ernments by factious and unprincipled men. Yet the present insurrection and opposition 


to government is exceeded by none, either for its causeless origin or for the extreme 
malignity and wickedness with which it has been executed. 

The unexampled clemency of our councils in their endeavors to bring to a sense of 
duty the western insurgents, and the ungrateful returns which have been made by that de- 
luded people, have united all gdod men in one common efEort to restore order and obe- 
dience to the laws, and to punish those who have neglected to avail themselves of and have 
spurned at the most tender and humane oilers that have ever been made to rebels and 

We have viewed with pain the great industry, art and misrepresentations which have 
been practiced to delude our fellow-citizens. We trust that the efforts of the General 
O-overnment, the combination of the good and virtuous against the vicious and factious, 
will cover with confusion the malevolent disturbers of the public peace, and afford to the 
well-disposed the certainty of protection to their persons and property. The sword of jus- 
tice in the hands of our beloved President can only be considered an object of terror by 
the wicked, and will be looked up to by the good and virtuous as their safegard and pro- 

We bless that Providence which has preserved a life so valuable through so many 
important scenes, and we pray that He will continue to direct and prosper the measures 
adopted by you for the security of our internal peace and the stability of our Government, 
and that after a life of continued usefulness and glory you may be rewarded with eternal 

There was no doubt of the sincerity of the foregoing address, and Wash- 
ington, whom it could not fail to touch with a feeling of pleasure, responded 
as follows: 

Gentlemen: I thank you sincerely for your affectionate address. I feel as I ought 
what is personal to me, and I can not but be particularly pleased with the enlightened and 
patriotic attachment which is manifested towards our happy constitution and the laws. 

When we look around and behold the universally acknowledged prosperity which 
blesses every part of the United States, facts no less unequivocal than those which are the 
lamented occasion of our present meeting were necessary to persuade us that any portion 
of our fellow-citizens could be so deficient in discernment or virtue as to attempt to dis- 
turb a situation which, instead of murmurs and tumults, calls for our warmest gratitude 
to heaven, and our earnest endeavors to preserve and prolong so favored a lot. 

Let us hope that the delusion cannot be lasting, that reason will speedily regain her 
empire, and the laws their just authority where they have lost it. Let the wise and the 
virtuous unite their efforts to reclaim the misguided, and to detect and defeat the arts of 
the factious. The union of good men is a basis on which the security of our internal 
peace and the stability of our government may safely rest. It will always prove an ade- 
quate rampart against the vicious and disorderly. 

In any case in which it may be indispensable to raise the sword of justice against ob- 
stinate offenders, I shall deprecate the necessity of deviating from a favorite aim, to estab- 
lish the authority of the laws in'the affections rather than in the fears of any. 

George Washington. 

Before Washington arrived at Carlisle, the accidental discharge of a sol- 
dier' s pistol killed the brother of a man whom a party of soldiers were pur- 
suing because of his action in conjunction with the insurgents, and another 
countryman was killed in a quarrel with a soldier. The circumstances were 
regretted by the President and his secretary (Gen. Hamilton). Several who 
had acted with the insurrectionists were arrested and lodged in jail at Carlisle, 
but they appeared to be little concerned at the consequences of their proceed- 

Andrew Holmes, Esq. , a member of a company from Carlisle, in the com- 
mand of Gen. Chambers, kept a private journal in which he recorded the 
movement of the troops, and under date of Sunday, October 11, 1794, 2 
o'clock P. M., he wrote as follows: "The Carlisle Light Infantry, together 
with from 3,000 to 4,000 troops, cavalry, rifle and infantry, marched from 
Carlisle to Mount Rock. The offlsers of the Carlisle lafantry were as follows: 
Captain, George Stevenson; first-lieutenant, Eoberfc Miller; second-lieutenant, 
William Miller; ensign, Thomas Oreigh; orderly sergeant, William Armor; 
sergeant-major, George Hackett; drum-major, James Holmes; and fifty-two 
privates, among whom were Thomas Duncan, David .Watts, Robert Duncan, 


John Lyon, Nathaniel Weakley, George Pattison, Charles Pattison, William 
Andi'ew, Abraham Holmes, Archibald Ramsey, Joseph Clark, William Dun- 
bar, Archibald McAllister, William Crane, Jacob Fetter, Archibald Loudon, 
Thomas Foster, Jacob Housenet, George Wright, Thomas Wallace, Francis 
Gibson, Joseph and Michael Egolf, Robert MoClure and William Levis. At 
Sideling Hill Capt. Stevenson was made a major, and William Levis, quarter- 
master. ' ' 

The following brigade order, December 4, 1794, is from the same journal: 

Tlie General congratulates the troops which he has the honor to ooramand, on their ar- 
rival at Strasburg,*and feelini^ly anticipates the pleasure which the worthy citizen soldiers 
and himself shall have in the company of their nearest connections. He also has the 
pleasure of announcing to the brigade the entire approbation of the commander-in-chief 
for their orderly conduct and strict discipline, which reflects the highest honor on both offi- 
cers and soldiers. He is likewise happy in assuring his fellow-citizens that their soldierly 
behavior during the whole campaign has merited his highest acknowledgments and as they 
have supported the laws of their country he rests assured that they will, when they have 
retired to private life, support civil society in every point of view. As the worthy men who 
stepped forward in support of the happiness of their country and the support of the Con- 
stitution of the Federal Government are to deposit their arms in this town to-morrow, the 
commanding officers of the regiments composing the brigade will see that fair inventories 
of every article are made to Mr. Samuel Riddle, brigade quartermaster, who is to give re- 
ceipts for such delivery. And the quartermaster of the brigade is to detain a sufficient 
number of wagons to transport the arms to the place pointed out in the orders of the com- 
mander-in-chief of the 17ih ult. The officers commanding the several corps will meet to- 
morrow morning to certify to the men as to their time of service and the balance due and 
to becoire due. agreeable to General Irvine's orders of the 30th of JTovember. 

By order of Gen. Chambers. 

William Ross, Adjutant. 

The company of Carlisle infantry was mustered out of service and arrived 
at home December 5, 1794. Thus ended the famous "Whiskey Insurrection 
of 1794." 

The following account of Washington's visit is from a recent account pub- 
lished by George R. Prowell in the Gettysburg Compiler : 

' ' Much has been written that is inaccurate concerning the visit of Gen. 
Washington to western Pennsylvania for the purpose of quelling the so-called 
Whisky Insurrection in that section of our State in 1794. An original record 
of the facts and incidents of that famous trip having lately come into my pos- 
session, and in a condensed form, I feel a pleasure in hereby furnishing them to 
the readers of the Compiler. 

' ' President Washington, accompanied by a portion of his cabinet, left Phil- 
adelphia, then the capital of the United States, for the west via Reading, on 
Wednesday, October 1, 1794. He reached Harrisburg on the afternoon of Fri- 
day, October 3, when he was presented with an address by the burgesses, to 
which he replied the next morning. He reached Carlisle at 12 o'clock, noon, 
October 4. The town was the place of rendezvous for the Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey troops, and he remained in Carlisle from Saturday, October 4, to 
Saturday, October 11, reviewing the troops. On the last named date he left 
for the West, dined at Shippensburg and reached Chambersburg the sanle even- 
ing. At this place tradition says he stopped and spent Sunday with Dr. Rob- 
ert Johnson, a surgeon of the Pennsylvania line during the Revolution. He 
passed through Chambersburg, and arrived at Williamsport, Maryland, on the 
evening of October 13, Monday. Early the next morning he set out for Fort 
Cumberland, where he arrived on Thursday, October 16, and the next day re- 
viewed the Virginia and Maryland troops under command of Gen. Lee. 

"On Sunday, October 19, Gen. Washington arrived at Bedford, where he 
remained until Tuesday, October 21. The approach of the armed troops soon 

*A village ten miles nortHwest of Chambersburg, where the troops were then encamped. 

&^ ' ''Ski ^ 


I ■ 

^^ % JC;^^^0^>^^r.^.^ /%?,AP, 


caused a cessation of hostilities. On the last named date he set out on his re- 
turn, spending the night of Friday, October 24, at Shippensburg, and the fol- 
lowing night (Saturday) with Gen. Michael Simpson, in Fairview Township, 
York County, who then owned the ferry across the river and what is now known 
as the "Haldeman property" below New Cumberland. At this place he is 
supposed to have spent a quiet Sunday, as he arrived in Philadelphia on the 
following Tuesday morning. 

" One time in the history of this great man's life he crossed the southern 
border of Adams County. The facts of this trip I will be pleased to furnish 
at some future time, giving exact facts and data fi'om original documents, which 
are the only true sources of history. ' ' 

In the Northwestern Indian wars of 1790-94, under Gens. Harmar, St. Clair 
and "Wayne, Cumberland County was represented by a number of daring men, 
though no companies were raised or called for in Pennsylvania except west of 
the Allegheny Mountains. Dr. William McCoskry, then of Carlisle but after- 
ward of Detroit, served as surgeon in the expeditions of St. Clair and Wayne; 
and Eobert McClellan, son of a pioneer in East Pennsborough, distinguished 
himself as a scout, winning the title "Fleet Eanger" by his exploits and 

In 1798, when a war with France was threatened, companies of militia 
were by order of Gov. Mifflin held in readiness for immediate service, and 
quite a speck of war cloud was visible above the horizon. Some of the people 
sympathized with the French, and affairs might have become very serious but 
for the accession of Napoleon Bonaparte to power in France, by which event 
the aspect was changed and France withdrew from her offensive attitude. To 
meet any emergency the Tenth Eegiment of Pennsylvania troops was organ- 
ized under Thomas L. More, of Philadelphia, as colonel, and William Hen- 
derson and George Stevenson, of Cumberland County as majors. These men 
had been active in the Revolution. Maj. Stevenson had command of the 
recruiting service in that portion of the State west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains. Alexander McComb — afterward a major-general and noted in the war 
of 1812-15 — was an ensign in this Tenth Regiment, and Hugh Brady, also a 
general afterward, was a lieutenant. 

War of 1812-15. — Upon the call of the President for troops at the break- 
ing out of the second war with Great Britian in June, 1812, Pennsylvania 
responded quickly, and Cumberland County hastened to furnish her quota of 
soldiers. There was little opposition to the war in the county, and four full 
companies were speedily mustered and equipped at Carlisle, generally for six 
months' service, ready to march wherever ordered. 

Principal among these was the "Carlisle Light Infantry," which, as seen, 
took part in the campaign against the whisky insurrectionists in 1794. It was 
originally organized in 1784, by soldiers who had served in the Revolution, 
and after its service in the second war it continued to exist until some time in 
1854. From its organization its commanders were Capts. Magaw, George 
Stevenson, Robert Miller, William Miller, William Alexander (who was captain 
when the second war began, and had been, since July 1, 1802, printer and 
editor of the Carlisle Herald, established that year), Lindsey, Thompson, 
Spottswood, Edward Armor (1823), George D. Foulke (1827), John McCart- 
ney (1829), William Sterrett Ramsey (1835), William Moudy (1839), Jacob 
Rehrar (1840), George Sanderson (1842) and Samuel Crop (from November 
24, 1845, to 1854). 

Two small companies of riflemen — one from Carlisle commanded by Capt. 
George Hendall, and the other from Mechanicsburg under Capt. Coover — were 


united into one company, George Hendall was chosen captain, and they went 
with the Light Infantry to the Niagara frontier in 1814. It is said of them: 
' ' Both companies participated in most of the battles and sorties of that hard 
fought campaign. In the battle of Chippewa, they were a part of the detach- 
ment of 250 Pennsylvanians under the command of Col. Bull, of Perry County, 
who were sent with fifty or sixty regulars and 300 Indians, into the woods 
to strike the Chippewa Creek about a half mile above the British works. 
Here they were attacked by a party of 200 militia with some Indians, but 
so impetuous was the charge with which oar troops met them that they were 
compelled to give way in every direction and were pursued with great slaughter 
up to the very guns of the fort. This little band of Pennsylvanians here found 
themselves forsaken by the Indians, and in the face of the enemy' s main force 
and assailed by four companies on the left and flank. They were of course 
compelled to retire, but having gone about 300 yards they reformed and kept 
up a heavy fire for about ten minutes, when, being raked by a cannon on the 
right, outflanked and almost surrounded by the entire four companies now 
brought against them they were obliged to retreat. They had depended on 
and every moment expected a support from the main army, but as this was not 
given them in season they retired in good order and keeping up a fire upon 
their assailants. They had fought more than an hour, had chased their enemies 
a mile and a half, and when exhausted by their exertions and extreme heat 
they rejoined their regiment, which they met entering the field imder Col. 
Fenton. They then re-entered the field and bore their part as if they had been 
fresh from their tents. Not more than twelve men (and these on account of ex- 
treme exhaustion) were absent from this second encounter. Eight of their men 
had been killed in the woods and the number of their wounded was in the usual 
proportion. One hundred and fifty of the enemy's militia and Indians were 
left dead on the field. Col. Bull was treacherously shot down by the enemy 
after his surrender, and Maj. Galloway and Capt. White were taken prisoners. 
These two officers on their return home were received by their former compan- 
ions with great rejoicings. The time of enlistm.ent for these companies was 
short, being not over six or nine months, but whether they continued during 
another term we are not informed. ' ' 

Besides these Cumberland County troops there were other men from the 
county connected with the regular army on the same (Niagara) frontier. Among 
them were George McFeely and Willis D. Foulke. The former became a lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the Twenty-second United States Infantry, July 6, 1812, and 
colonel of the Twenty-fifth April 15, 1814. He had in the early part of 1812 
been in charge of the recruiting service at the Carlisle Barracks. He left that 
place October 5, 1812, and proceeded to the Niagara frontier, with 200 men 
of the Twenty- second Begiment. With his men he was sent to the old Fort 
Niagara to relieve Col. Winder in the command of that station, arriving Novem- 
ber 14. In the artillery duel with Fort George on the 21st the British had 
the worst of the game. May 27, 1813, Lieut. Col. Winfield Scott ("to whom 
he yielded precedence' ' ) invited him to lead the vanguard in the movement 
into Canada. Col. McFeely was second in command in that expedition and 
had about 650 men under him. They routed a superior force of the enemy 
and captured Fort George, and subsequently suffered greatly during the cam- 
paign. Lieut. -Col. McFeely was sent to Lake Champlain later, and in June, 
1814, was promoted to colonel, to rank from April previous. Eeported to 
Maj. -Gen. Jacob Brown on the Niagara frontier again, and joined his new 
regiment under Gen. Scott. Held several responsible commands until close 
of war. ' ' He was an excellent disciplinarian, had his troops under admirable 


control, and was remarkable for his coolness under, the enemy's fire and his 
patient hardihood under the severest sufferings." 

The "Patriotic Blues" was another company, commanded by Capt. Jacob 
Squier; first lieutenant, Samuel McKeehan; second lieutenant, Frederick Fogle; 
and ensign, Stephen Kerr. The company was sent to Baltimore to assist in 
repelling the British attack upon that city, and was attached to the Forty- ninth 
Maryland Militia under Lieut. Col. Veazy. Took an important part in the 
actions of September 12-15, 1814, and on the 16th, danger being apparently 
over, left ■ for home with the assurance that they had performed their duty 
honorably and well. 

"There were other companies," says Dr. Wing, "which went to Baltimore 
from the eastern towns in the county, and from what is now- Perry County. 
It is said that these were in the detachment which was sent to lie in ambush 
by the route on which the British troops were expected to advance on its way to 
Baltimore. As Gen. Ross, the commander of these troops, was riding by the 
spot where they were concealed, it is said that two sharpshooters raised their 
pieces and were about to fire. An order was given them to desist, but before 
one of them, whose name was Kirkpatrick, from over the m.ountains, could 
understand the order, he fired his gun and the British general fell. The re- 
sult was that a tremendous volley was fired into the thicket where they were 
concealed; but confusion was thrown into the plans of the invading party by 
the loss of their commander, and the idea of occupying Baltimore was given 

In order to protect Philadelphia from possible violence at the hands of an 
invading force, a large body of troops was massed at that point, and among 
them was a company known as the "Carlisle Guards," who marched under 
Capt. Joseph Halbert early in September, 1814, and were encamped on Bush 
Hill, near Philadelphia, for nearly a month,drilling, constructing intrenchments, 
etc. They saw no enemy, but were subjected to as strict dicipline as troops 
at the front. Capt. Halbert, on the 3d of August, 1811, had been commis- 
sioned by Gov. Snider, a major of the Second Battalion, Twelfth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Militia, in First Brigade, Second Division, including militia of 
Cumberland and Franklin Counties. His commission was for four years from 
that date. 


When the Mexican war broke out Carlisle Barracks was in command of 
Capt. J. M. Washington, Battery D, Fourth United States Artillery. This 
company of light artillery received recruits from various portions of the coun- 
try, and finally left Carlisle for the seat of war June 23, 1846. The organiza- 
tion was as follows: Captain, J. M. Washington; first lieutenant, J. P. J. 
O'Brien; second lieutenant, Henry L. Whiting; acting assistant quartermaster, 
Thos. L. Brent; surgeon, C. M. Hitchcock. 

The company did valiant service with Taylor's army in Mexico. At the 
battle of Buena Vista the battery was divided into sections, one of which, con- 
sisting of three guns, under charge of Lieut. O'Brien, was captured, but not 
till every man was shot down and every horse killed. Lieut. O'Brien was 
wounded, but continued steadfast at his post till the last. In this engagement 
the casualties to the section were as follows: Killed, privates, Edwin HoUey, 
Green, Weakley, Rinks and Doughty. Wounded: first lieutenant, J. P. J. 
O'Brien; sergeant, Queen; lance sergeant, Pratt; privates, Hannams, Puffer, 
Beagle, Berrin, Floyd, Hannon, Baker, Brown, Birch, Butler, Clark and Rob- 

On the 18th of January, 1847, an election of officers for an independent 


company of volunteers occurred at Carlisle, resulting as follows : Captain, John 
P. hunter; first lieutenant, Marshall Hannon; second lieutenant, Wm. H. 
Gray; third lieutenant, Geo. L. Keighter. 

This company, organized by Capt. Hunter under what was known as "the 
ten regiments' bill, ' ' embraced recruits from Cumberland, Perry and Franklin 
Counties, and probably some from others. They were enlisted to serve during 
the war, and were rendezvoused at Carlisle Barracks. The company required 
sixty-six men, but left Carlisle with some forty-six, additions having been made 
to it en route for Mexico. It was known as Company G, Eleventh Infantry. 

The following is the roster of enlisted men as it left Carlisle : first sergeant, 
E. G. Heck; second sergeant, Wm. Blaine; third sergeant, Alex. P. Meek; 
fourth sergeant, P. O. Baker; first corporal, S. W. Hannon; second corporal, 
Wm. Hippie; third corporal, Jacob Bender; fourth corporal, John Thompson; 
drummer, George King; fifer, Archibald Eowe; privates, Applegate, John 
Brannon, George Boyer, Samuel Baxter, Wm. Biceline, Crell, James Carey, 
Culp, Deung, John Evinger, Joseph Faust, James Gallagan, Graham, John 
Gill, Samuel Guysinger, George Hikes, Higbee, Wm. Hudson, Leonard Hoff- 
man, Wm. HoUinger, Hetrich, Wm. James, Kunkle, Casper Kline, George 
Lamison, McCracken, Wm. Moore, Mclntire, Wm. McDonald, Misinger, Sam- 
uel Peck, Lafayette Searcy, Amos Steffey, Scheime, Samuel Swigert, Stein, 
George Shatto, Emanuel Weirich, Lewis Weaver, Wilde, Sam^uel Zell. 

This company was first under command of Capt. Hunter, but on reaching 
the field he was promoted to be major of the Eleventh Infantry, and Lewis 
Carr, of Philadelphia, was chosen captain. Lieut. Gray finally became com- 
mander of Capt. Waddel's company. Eleventh Infantry. 

The company left Carlisle Barracks on Monday morning, March 29, 
1847, for the field. Marching to town it was halted in front of the court 
house, where the men were addressed by L. G. Brandeberry, Esq. , in a few 
appropriate and well-timed remarks. They were then presented, each with a 
new testament, by Mr. Samuel Ensminger, after which they marched to the cars 
to the tune of ' ' The Girl I left Behind Me. " Going by rail to Harrisburg, the 
company proceeded thence by canal-boat to Pittsburgh, whence it sailed by 
boat to New Orleans, and thence to the mouth of Rio Grande River via Brazos 
Island. After a time it sailed for Vera Cruz, but after eighteen days' deten- 
tion on the Gulf, it was compelled to stop at Tampico, where it lost about one- 
third of its number by yellow fever and other forms of disease. The company, 
from no fault of its own, never reached Vera Cruz, and did not fight. 

Other companies were organized in Cumberland County and their services 
tendered to the Government, but not accepted. In this list is found a com- 
pany of young men organized, in May, 1847, with the following officers : Capt. 
R. M. Henderson; Lieuts. Hampton R. Lemer, Robert McCord. 

In June, 1846, Capt. Samuel Crop tendered a company with full comple- 
ment of men known as Carlisle Light Infantry. 

Edward Watts, formerly a student of West Point, established a recruiting 
station at Winrot's Hotel (now Mansion House) for a company of infantry. 
This was in June, 1847. 

Capt. R. C. Smead, Fourth United States Artillery, superintended recruit- 
ing service at the barracks during several months in 1847. 

Prom the time Capt. Washington relinquished command of the barracks 
(June 23, 1846) George M. Sanno, barrack master, had charge of the public 
property until the return of Col. A. C. May, August 25, 1847. 



Military Continued — Carlisle Barracks— Cumberland County in the 
War of the Rebellion. 

IN 1777, by the aid of the Hessian prisoners captured by Gen. Washington 
at Trenton, New Jersey, certain buildings were erected in the edge of Car- 
lisle, and known thereafter as " Carlisle Barracks. " Of the buildings thus 
constructed, one, situated at the main entrance to the ground and known as 
the " Guard House " still remains. These buildings, increased as necessity 
demanded, were used for military purposes afterward till they were diverted 
to their present purpose for the Indian Industrial School. The officials who, 
from time to time were stationed at the Barracks, constituted an active ele- 
ment of Carlisle society, and subsequently figured conspicuously in the war of 
the Rebellion. 

The following officers served as commanders of Carlisle Barracks from 
1838 to the commencement of the Rebellion, the facts being obtained from 
the War Department at Washington: 

Capt. E. V. Sumner, Capt. R. S. Dix, Second Lieut. A. J. Smith and 
First Lieut. R. H. West, First Dragoons; First Lieut. W. H. Saunders, 
Second Dragoons; Maj. C. Wharton, First Dragoons; Capt. J. M. Wash- 
ington, First Lieut J. W. Phelps and Lieut. Col. M. M. Payne, Fourth 
Artillery; Capt. Chas. A. May and First Lieut. A. Pleasonton, Second 
Dragoons; First Lieut. R. C. W. Radford, First Dragoons; Lieut.-Ool. 
P. St. G. Cooke and First Lieut. R. H. Anderson, Second Dragoons; 
Capt. A. J. Smith, First Dragoons; Capt. Chas. F. Ruff, Mounted Rifles; 
Col. E. A. 'Hitchcock, Capt. Geo. W. Patten, Capt. D. Davidson, Capt. 
C. S. Lovell, Capt. S. P. Heintzelman and Capt. H. W. Wessells, Second 
Infantry; Lieut. -Col. C. F. Smith and Col. E. B. Alexander, Tenth Infantry; 
Lieut. -Col. G. B. Crittenden and First Lieut. Julian May, R. M. Rifles; Capt. 
R. H. Anderson, Second Dragoons; First Lieut. D. H. Maury, R. M. Rifles; 
First Lieut. K. Garrard, Second Cavalry; First Lieut. Alfred Gibbs, R. M. 
Rifles; Maj. L. P. Graham, Second Dragoons. 

Of the foregoing, it will be observed that Sumner, A. J. Smith, Pleason- 
ton and Heintzelman were major-generals during the Rebellion, and held 
prominent positions in the Union Army; R. H. Anderson was a major-general 
in the Confederate service, and commanded a division of Hill' s Corps at the 
Battle of Gettysburg. 

Cumberland County, like other portions of the Cumberland Valley and the 
Keystone State, always responded to any call which sought to defend the 
Nation against any foes, external or internal. When the wires announced that 
a portion of this country had raised the puny arm of revolt, and that the Na- 
tional flag had been insulted by those whom it had previously protected and 
honored, its citizens were fired with indignation, and responded, with patriotic 
alacrity, to the call of President Lincoln, but recently installed as the legally 
elected President of this great commonwealth, for 75,000 men to protect pub- 
lic property and maintain the supremacy of the Federal Union. The firing on 
Fort Sumter in April, 1861, and the surrender of Gen. Anderson to over- 


whelming forces of secessionists, stirred the patriotic heart of the country. In 
response to the President's call for 75,000 men to serve for three months, some 
three companies proffered their services within a week fi'om the issuing of the 
proclamation. One of these companies, with 100 brave men, started from Car- 
lisle Saturday, April 13, and reached Harrisburg, the place of rendezvous, to 
be mustered, on the 23d instant. Three other companies in Carlisle and one 
in Mechanicsburg were awaiting orders to march to the front in a short time. 
By the 9th of June, they were mustered into reserve regiments, and shortly 
participated in the severest engagements of that early period of the 

Sumner Rifles. — The first company was the Sumner Rifles with the fol- 
lowing organization: Captain, Christian Kuhns; first lieutenant, Augustus 
Zug; second lieutenant, John B. Alexander; sergeants, John S. Lyne, 
Barnet Shafer, John W. Keeney and John S. Low; corporals, Charles F. 
Sanno, Charles H. Foulk, Thomas D. Caldwell and John T. SheafFer. It be- 
came Company C of the Ninth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, under 
the command of Col. Henry C. Longnecker, of AUentown. 

Eleven days after its muster into service, viz. , May 4, this regiment was 
sent for drill purposes to West Chester, where it remained in Camp Wayne tUl 
the 26th, when it was transferred to Wilmington, Del., to aid the loyal people 
of that State. Returning by way of Carlisle June 6, it was attached at 
Chambersburg to the Fourth Brigade of First Division, under Col. Dixon 
S. Miles. It performed faithful duty in West Virginia, in the region of 
Martinsburg, Falling Waters and Williamsport, till July 21, when its term 
of service having almost expired, it returned to Harrisburg to be mustered 
out. Many of its men re-entered the service for a longer period. 

A second company of three months' men was that enlisted at Mechanics- 
burg with the following organization: Captain, Jacob Dorsheimer; first 
lieutenant, David H. Kimmell; second lieutenant, Isaac B. Kauffman; ser- 
geants, George M. Parsons, Benjamin Dull, Samuel F. Swai-tz and David R. 
Mell; corporals, Theophilus Mountz, Wm. H. Crandall, John G. Bobb, and 
Levi M. Coover. It was designated Company C, and was attached to the Six- 
teenth Regiment, under Col. Thomas A. Zeigle of York. It also belonged to 
the Fourth Brigade under Col. Miles, and had the same experiences as the 
company from Carlisle. When its term of service had expired, it was the 
first company from the Keystone State to re -enlist. 


First Reserve. On the 20th of April, 1861, Gov. And. G. Curtin recom- 
mended to the Special Legislature of Pennsylvania, ' ' the immediate organiza- 
tion, disciplining and arming of at least fifteen regiments of cavalry and in- 
fantry, exclusive of those called into the service of the United States." In 
harmony with this suggestion, a law was passed, authorizing a body of soldiers 
known as the " Reserve Volunteers Corps of the Commonwealth, " to consist of 
thirteen regiments of infantry and one each of cavalry and artillery, and to be 
mustered for three years or during the war, for State or National service. 

Under this call, the Carlisle Light Infantry, in existence since 1784, 
was reorganized and mustered in June 8, 1861, with the following commissioned 
and non-commissioned officers: Captain, Robert McCartney; first lieu- 
tenant, Joseph Stuart; second lieutenant, Thomas P. Dwynn; sergeants, 
John A. Waggoner, Andrew J. Reighter, Robert McManus and Abram Heiser; 
corporals, John A. Blair, William Corlaett, Frederick Deemer, Frederick K. 
Morrison and Daniel Askew. 


Capt. McCartney resigning in August, 1861, his position was taken in Oct- 
ober following by Lieut. Dwynn, who was killed at South Mountain Septem- 
ber 14, 1862. His successor was F. B. McManus, who retained command till 
the company was mustered out, June 13, 1864. Lieut. Joseph Stuart was 
killed at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1862, and was succeeded by John A. Growl, 
who was promoted from the ranks through the intermediate grades. 

The Carlisle Guards, a second organization, was mustered June 10, 
with the following officers: Captain, Lemuel Todd; first lieutenant, George 
W. Cropp; second lieutenant, Isaiah H. Graham; sergeants, Wm. B. Wolf, 
James Broderick, Robei-t B. Smiley, George A. Keller; corporals, T. B. 
Kauffman, Isaac Gorgas, J. T. Bailey and Levi H. Mullen. 

These companies became Companies H and I respectively, of the Thirtieth 
Regiment, under the command of E. Biddle Roberts, colonel; H. M. Mclntyre, 
lieutenant- colonel, and Lemuel Todd, major. The promotion of Capt. Todd 
to the majorship gave the position of captain to George W. Cropp. The 
place was subsequently filled, also, by T. B. Kauffman and Isaiah Graham. 
After the battle of Bull Run, the Thirtieth Regiment was ordered to Washing- 
ton, but stopping at Annapolis, it performed such efficient service in guarding- 
railroad communication and preventing the smuggling of supplies into the 
South, as to elicit special mention by Gen. John A. Dix. On August 30, 
the regiment was sent, via Washington, to Tennallytown, Md. , where it united 
with other reserves under Gen.. McCall. During the autumn and winter of 
1861, it engaged in the Virginia campaign, neai; Dranesville, Manassas Junc- 
tion and Fredericksburg. In the engagements at Mechanicsville and Gaines' 
Mill, during the Peninsular campaign of 1862, the command suffered heavily, 
losing some fourteen killed and about fifty wounded. Among the former 
was Lieut. Stuart of Company H. Subsequently, at Centreville and South 
Mountain, the regiment met its former foes and achieved new successes. 

The same year it engaged in the severely contested battles of Antietam and 
Fredericksburg, and the following year was a part of the grand army which, 
at Gettysburg, turned the fate of the Confederacy July 1-8, 1863. Its services 
continued with the Army of the Potomac through the campaign of 1863 and 
early 1864 till Juno 13, when it was mustered out at Philadelphia. Its muster- 
rolls, originally, had 1,084 men. Of this number, 139 were lost by sickness and 
death on the field of battle, 233 were wounded, 258 were discharged for disa- 
bility, and 148 re-enlisted as veterans. 

Seventh Reserve. — A company known as the Carlisle Fencibles, was ready 
for service in April, 1861. With a beautiful satin flag, bearing the motto, 
" May God Defend the Right," the gift of Mrs. Samuel Alexander, grand- 
daughter of Col. Ephraim Blaine, the company left Carlisle, on June 6, for 
Westchester, its organization consisting of the following officers : Captain, 
Robert M. Henderson; first lieutenant, James S. Colwell; second lieutenant, 
Erkwries Beatty; orderly sergeant, John D. Adair. 

Capt. Henderson, wounded both at Charles City Cross Roads and Bull Run, 
was promoted to lieutenant- colonel, July 4, 1862, his position being filled by 
Lieut. J. S. Colwell. The latter being killed at Antietam, September 17, 1862, 
Lieut. Beatty became captain, Samuel V. Ruby and D. W. Burkholder became 
first and second lieutenants, respectively. 

Almost simultaneous with the organization of this company, one was raised 
at Mechanicsburg, with Joseph Totten as captain; Jacob T. Zug, as first and 
Geo. W. Comfort as second lieutenant, and John W. Cook as first sergeant 
Capt. Totten was promoted to lieutenant-colonel soon after the departure of 
the company, and was followed by Henry I. Zinn, who, resigning November 30, 


was succeeded by Samuel King. The latter remained with the company till it 
was mustered out June 16, 1864. Jacob Zug lost an arm by a wound Decem- 
ber 30, 1862, when he resigned as first lieutenant and was followed by Jacob 
HefEelfinger. George W. Comfort was killed at Fredericksburg, December 
13, 1862. 

These companies, on their arrival at Camp Wayne, became Companies A 
and H of the Seventh Regiment of Reserves, whose oflBcers were: Colonel 
Elisha B. Harvey, of Wilkes Barre; lieutenant-colonel, Joseph Totten; major, 
Chauncey A. Lyman, of Lock Haven. The regiment was ordered to report to 
Washington, D. C. , where on the 27th of July, it was mustered into the United 
States Service, and- finally attached to the Brigade of Reserves under command 
of Gen. George G. Meade. Having spent the autumn and winter in north- 
ern Virginia, the regiment was given active service in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. At Gaines' Mill it was called upon to meet an impetuous attack on 
Butterfield's artillery. Though met by overwhelming numbers it saved the 
caissons, Capt. King, however, being taken prisoner with twenty of his men. 
The loss of the regiment was large, embracing about one-half of its effective 
force. In the succeeding seven days' fighting, June 26 to July 2, it was con- 
tinually occupying posts of danger and death, the muster revealing the fact 
that the loss was 301, embracing, among the wounded, Capt. Henderson and 
Lieuts. Zug and Beatty, and that only about 200 of the men who started. on 
the campaign were ready for duty. Promotions changed the stations of officers, 
and Capt. Henderson became lieutenant-colonel. 

In August following this brigade was sent to the Rappahannock, and joined 
io the Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by Gen. Pope. At Groveton, 
after two days' severe skirmishing, the regiment was engaged in a spirited battle, 
with heavy loss and the wounding of Col. Henderson. It followed the Army 
of the Potomac again, under command of Gen. McClellan, the successor of 
Pope, to Washington; thence through western Maryland to South Mountain 
and Antietam. At the latter place (September 17), the Seventh took an im- 
portant part, but suffered heavily in killed and wounded. The explosion of 
a shell either killed or wounded mortally, Capt. Colwell and Privates John 
Gallio, Leo Faller, David Spahr and Wm. Culp of Company A. 

A few months later, viz., December 12, it participated in Gen. Burnside's 
unsuccessful attack upon the Rebels at Fredericksburg. Crossing the riyer in 
the face of the enemy, it was subjected to a galling fire from Stuart's battery; 
but moving up the height, leaping ditches, it penetrated Longstreet's lines, 
capturiag and sending back more than 100 prisoners. Though finally repulsed, 
the captures by soldiers of Company A alone embraced the swords of three 
rebel captains and the battle-flag of a Georgia regiment. Corp. Cart was 
given a medal for capturing the colors. The losses to the regiment were heavy, 
embracing 6 killed, 72 wounded and 22 missing. After this sanguinary bat- 
tle the regiment was called to perform duty around Washington, where it re- 
mained till the next spring, when it moved out on the Campaign to Richmond. 
In the Wilderness, near Chancellorsville, 272 officers and men, pursuing the 
enemy, were captured on the 2d of May, 1863. The soldiers were taken 
to Southern prisons, notably Andersonville and Florence, where many of them 
died under most pitiabld circumstances. The officers, taken to Macon, were sub- 
sequently exposed to the fire.of Federal guns "at Charleston, to defend the city 
against attack. A fragment of the regiment not captured, increased by re- 
cruits furnished by Capt. King of Company H, participated in the Campaign 
against Richmond in 1864. At the expiration of its service it was mustered 
out June 16, 1864 at Philadelphia. 


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In 1861, Cumberland County farnished Wo companies of cavalry at a 
time when this branch of the service was fully appreciated. One of these was 
known as Big Spring Adamantine Guards, and had had an organized exist- 
ence for fifty years. It embraced 108 men, under command of Capt. S. 
Woodbum. After a year's service he was mustered out by special order Au- 
gust 28, 1862, when his position was filled by Wm. E. Miller, promoted from 
the second lieutenancy. The first lieutenants in order were Wm. Baughman and 
E. L. Cauffman. The second lieutenants in succession were Wm. E. Miller, 
Louis R. Stille and Elwood Davis. It became a part of the Third Cavalry 
under command for a time of Col. Wm. H. Young. Under the rigid disci- 
pline of Col. W.. W. Averill, at Washington, it became highly efficient, and 
engaged in the movement southward in March, 1862, participating in the siege 
of Torktown. With Averill it participated in the severe campaigns of McClel- 
lan near Richmond, at Harrison' s Landing, and during the Maryland invasion 
at Antietam. 

When Col. Averill was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, the regi- 
ment was commanded (November, 1862) by Col. J. B. Mcintosh, its operations 
being in Virginia mainly during the remainder of the year. When its term of 
service expired, a veteran battalion was formed, which participated with the 
Army of the Potomac in its active operations preceding, during and subsequent 
to the Battle of Gettysburg, where the regiment did such valiant service against 
Stuart's cavalry. 

The second company recruited under authority of the War Department by 
Wm. B. Sipes, of Philadelphia, was formed in small part from Payette, but 
mainly from Cumberland County. It was joined to the Seventh Cavalry with 
Geo. C. Wyncoop as colonel and Wm. B. Sipes as lieutenant-colonel. Of this 
company, David T. May, of West Fairview, was the first captain. After his 
death at Chickamauga, September 21, 1863, James G. Taylor became captain. 
His death ensuing, Wm. H. Collins assumed the place. Joseph G. Vale, of 
Carlisle, was first lieutenant, but in August, 1862, he was promoted captain of 
Company M of same regiment. This regiment was sent west to the Depart- 
ment of the Cumberland, where, in 1862-63, it did efficient service. It partici- 
pated in the Chickamauga battle, in which Lieut. Vale was wounded. In 1864 
most of the men re-enlisted at Huntsville, Ala. After various services in 
Georgia and other States, it was mustered out at Macon, Ga. , August 13, 1865. 

In 1862, two companies of cavalry were aiithorized by the Secretary of War 
to be organized for three years' service. They were known as H and I of the 
Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Company H was recruited by David H. Kim- 
mel, afterward promoted (May 22, 1863) to be major. Wm. H. Shriver, pre- 
viously a first lieutenant in Company I succeeded him for half a year, when his 
resignation gave the position to Thomas W. Jordan. Company I was under 
the command of. Capt. H. W. McCuUough, who was killed at Moore's Hill, 
Ky., June 6, 1862, and was succeeded by Wm. H. Longsdorf, who, after two 
years of service, became major, his former position falling to O. B. McKnight. 

The regiment bore the name of " Lochiel Cavalry, " and was commanded 
successively by Edward C. Williams, Thomas C. James and Thomas J. Jor- 
dan. Its service was, during the first two years, mainly in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, but subsequently with Sherman in his "march to the sea. " 

The Anderson Troop was an independent company which was recruited 
at Carlisle Barracks during the closing part of 1861, from various parts of the 
United States. In it were some young men from Cumberland County. Of 
this number, Edward B. InhofP, of Carlisle, was a representative, being ap- 


pointed quartermaster-sergeant of the regiment. It operated in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, with Gens. Buell and Rosecrans, until by the latter it was ordered 
mustered out of service March 24, 1863. 


The notion was still entertained in 1862 that the war would not continue 
much longer, and that enlistments for a period of nine months would be suffi- 
cient. The One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment, with five full companies 
and a part of another from Cumberland County, was organized on this sup- 
position. In this regiment, organized August 17, 1862, were the following 
field officers: Colonel, Henry I. Zinn, Mechanicsburg; lieutenant-colonel, 
Levi Maish, York County; major, John Lee, Cumberland County. 

Company A was made up at Carlisle early in the summer of 1862, and 
selected Wm. R. Porter as captain, which position he held during his term of 
service. First lieutenant was John R. Turner, who was subsequently chosen 
quartermaster of the regiment; second lieutenant, John Hays, finally becoming 
first lieutenant and then regimental adjutant (February 18, 1863). John O. 
Halbert was, at first, its orderly sergeant and then second lieutenant. He was 
succeeded by Alphonso B. Beissel March 1, 1863. 

Company D, recruited in and near Shippensburg, had as officers: Captain, 
James Kelso; first lieutenant, Samuel Patchell; and second lieutenant, Daniel 
A. Harris. 

Company E was formed at Newville with Wm. Laughlin as captain; Joshua 
W. Sharp, first lieutenant; and Henry Clay Marshall, second lieutenant. Capt. 
Laughlin was killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, and Lieut. 
Sharp succeeded him. He was succeeded as first lieutenant by John P. Wag- 
ner. Henry Clay Marshall was appointed regimental adjutant August 17, 
1862. First Sergt. Joseph A. Ege was promoted to be second lieutenant in 
place of Wagner. 

Company F, from Mechanicsburg, composed largely of three months' 
men, had the following organization: Heniy I. Zinn, captain; John B. Zinn, 
first lieutenant; W. A. Givler, second lieutenant; Levi M. Haverstick, first ser- 
geant. When Capt. Zinn was appointed colonel, August 17, Lieut. Zian 
was promoted to be captain; resigning this place, March 19, 1863, he was suc- 
ceeded by Haverstick. Michael W. French rose from a sergeancy to first lieu- 
tenancy. William A. Givler was killed at Antietam, and was succeeded by M. 
W. French, and he by Wm. E. Zinn. 

Company G was formed in and around Carlisle, with John Lee, captain; 
John S. Lyne, first lieutenant; Thomas D. Caldwell, second lieutenant. Lee 
was promoted to major; but after his resignation, February 5, 1863, was suc- 
ceeded by John S. Low. 

Company H was secured by Capt. John C. Hoffaker, mainly at New Cum- 
berland and West Fairview. The first lieutenant was George C. Marshall, 
and John K. McGann, second lieutenant. Capt. Hoffaker, resigning February 
13, 1863, the lieutenants were regularly promoted, and Sergt. Chas. A. Hood 
became second lieutenant. 

The day after the organization of the regiment it was sent to Washington, 
where it was assigned to French's division of Sumner's corps. Its first active 
service was in the battle of Antietam, where it lost forty killed and 256 
wounded. Though new and undisciplined, its brave conduct elicited the 
strong commendation of Gen. French, its division commander. After camp- 
ing for a time at Harper's Ferry, it moved to Fredericksburg, and engaged in 
that sanguinary struggle, losing sixty -two killed or wounded, a large per cent 


of its depleted ranks. Among the killed were Col. Zinn and Capt. Laughlin. 
Lieut. Haverstick was again wounded. Its next service was in the campaign 
around Chancellorsville, where Lieut. -Col. Maish and Lieut. John Hays were 
wounded. Its term of enlistment having expired, the regiment was mustered 
out at Harrisburg on the 21st of May, and its citizen- soldiers were welcomed 
home with great demonstration of feeling. 

THBEE years' MEN. 

The three months' men, already spoken of, who had served under Capts. 
Christian Kuhns and Jacob Dorsheimer, re-enlisted and were mustered for 
three years' service. Christian Kuhns was captain of the reorganized com- 
pany, and remained with it till April 2, 1863, when he was succeeded by First 
Lieut. James Noble. The company was knovra. as Company A, of the Elev- 
enth Regiment, and served as an integral part of the Army of the Potomac in 
the Virginia campaigns. The second company, known as Company A, One 
Hundred and Seventh Regiment, of which Thomas A. Zeigle, of York, was 
colonel, was presided over by Capt. Dorsheimer for about a year, when he 
resigned, and was succeeded by Theodore K. Scheffer and Samuel Lyon. The 
regiment served also with the Army of the Potomac at Antietam, Chancellors- 
ville, Gettysburg, and in the usual minor contests. These two Cumberland 
County companies, faithful from the beginning to the close of the war, having 
participated in the grand review at Washington May 23, 1865, were mustered 
out of service with richly earned honors. 

A number of men went from the county into Company A, of the One Hun- 
dred and First Regiment, commanded at first by Capt. David M. Armour, 
and afterward by James Sheafer. Active service was seen in North Carolina, 
where some of the men were captured and compelled to undergo the horrors of 

In 1861 a part of a company was enlisted in Cumberland County, and 
joined at Harrisburg with men from Cameron County, forming Company G, of 
the Eighty-fourth Regiment. The company officers consisted of Capt. Mer- 
rick Housler, First Lieut. James W. Ingram and Second Lieut. Daniel W. 
Taggart. It operated in West Virginia during the early part of 1862, but par- 
ticipated subsequently at Bull Run (second battle), Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, Wilderness and siege of Petersburg. 

The terrible defeat of the Union Army at the second battle of Bull Run 
afforded grave apprehensions of the devastation of southern Pennsylvania by 
Lee's soldiers.. Gov. Curtin summoned 50,000, to be mustered at Harrisburg 
at once, to serve as protectors for the border. Everywhere did the people re- 
spond cheerfully to the call. Two columns, one of 15,000 at Hagerstown, and 
another of 25,000 ready to march from Harrisburg, if needed, attested the pa- 
triotic spirit of the Keystone State. Of these troops, so quick to respond, 
Cumberland County furnished one regiment, which was held in service only 
two weeks, viz. , September 11 to 25. Its officers consisted of Col. Henry Mc- 
Cormick, Lieut. -Col. Robt. A. Lamberton and Maj. Thos. B. Bryson. The 
alacrity with which these troops appeared on the scene of action called forth 
warm praise from both Gen. McClellan and the governor of Maryland. 


Toward the close of 1862, some companies were gathered in the county, 
but did not get into actual service till the early part of 1868. One of these 


was organized for nine months' service, with the following officers: Captain, 
Martin G. Hall; first lieutenant, Henry S. Crider; second lieutenant, Patrick 
G. McCoy. It became Company F, of the One Hundred Fifty-eighth Regi- 
ment, under Col. David B. McKibben, and with its regiment served in North 
Carolina, principally assisting in the recovery of a Union garrison at Washing- 
ton from the clutches of Gen Hill ; afterward it served with Gen. Meade in 
in the Army of the Potomac till Lee was driven across into Virginia. It was 
mustered out of service at Chambersburg August 12, 1863. 

Company F, of the One Hundred and Sixty-second Regiment, Seventeenth 
Cavalry, was raised by Capt. Charles Lee, for three years. The regiment, 
colonels, Josiah H. Kellogg and Jamos Q. Anderson, was in Devin's (Iron) 
Brigade, and served with Hooker at Chancellorsville, Buford at Gettysburg, 
in eastern Virginia next year, with Sheridan in the Shenandoah VaUey, and 
with Army of Potomac when peace was declared. 

Company B, of the One Hundred and Sixty-fifth Regiment of drafted mi- 
litia, was formed in the eastern part of the county, with Abraham J. Rupp as 
captain, and Henry Lee as first lieutenant. It served from November, 1862, 
tiU it was mustered out July 28, 1863. There were also some men in the 
Eighteenth Cavalry (One Hundred and Sixty-fifth Regiment, Pennsylvania), 
whose record can not be given. 


Portions of the Two Hundredth and Two Hundred and First Regiments were 
recruited from Cumberland County, one from the towns of West Fairview and 
New Cumberland. Company K, of the Two Hundred and First Regiment was 
mustered into service, for one year, at Harrisburg, August 29, 1864. Its 
officers were: Captain, Alexander C. Landis; first lieutenant, Alexander Stew- 
art; second lieutenant, John H. Snow; sergeants, Daniel F. Rohrer, John A. 
Witmer, S. G. Glauser, Henry G. Walters and Richard G. Moore; corporals, 
George Shields, Hiram C. Senseny, W. A. Clugh, Theo. Artz, Wm. H. Tritt 
J. O. M. Butts, Geo. McCormick and Thos. V. Baker ; musicians, Wm. W. 
Snyder, Jos. H. Snyder, Henry Dumbaugh and Henry Graves. This company 
was formed from Shippensburg and vicinity. The two regiments operated 
largely in eastern Virginia, and performed meritorious service. 

Companies G, H and part of Company D, of the One Hundred and Second 
Regiment were formed from the county, and were commanded, respectively, 
by Capts. David Goehenauer, John P. Wagner and S. C. Powell. The regi- 
ment guarded the Manassas Gap Railroad, to keep it open for carrying army 

Companies A and F, of the Two Hundred and Ninth Regiment, were 
mustered September 16, 1864, under Capts. John B. Landis and Henry Lee. 
Its colonel, Tobias B. Kauffman, Capt. Lee and Lieut. Hendricks, vyith nine- 
teen men, were captured November 17, while defending the picket line, and 
were held prisoners till the close of the war. The regiment remained in active 
service till the close of the Rebellion by Lee's surrender. 


The public men of the county took an active part in support of the Govern- 
ment during the war. Particularly was this true of the legal profession. 
Says Dr. Wing, in his History of Cumberland County, p. 137: "At the very 
first call, when the example of prominent men was of peculiar importance, a 
large number of these gentlemen promptly gave in their names and entered in 
most instances as privates until they were promoted to office. Igncfrant as 


they all were of military drill, they at once submitted to the instruction of a 
sergeant at Carlisle Barracks, and as soon as possible left their pleasant homes 
for the severities of an ill-supplied and perilous service; In most cases this 
was at the sacrifice of health and sometimes of life, and they were intelligent 
enough to know beforehand what these sacrifices were likely to be. They 
were not alone, for they were accompanied by many in every walk of life. 
Among them were E. M. Henderson, John Lee, Lemuel Todd, A. Brady 
Sharpe, Christian P. Humrich, C. McGlaughlin, George S. Emig, C. P. Corn- 
man, Joseph G. Vale, Wm. E. Miller, J. Brown Parker, Wm. M. Penrose, 
Joseph S. Colwell, S. V. Euby, Wm. D. Halbert, D. N. Nevin, J. B. Landis, 
John Hays and J. M. Weakley. These took their places, not in some single 
company or regiment to which special eclat might be awarded, but wherever 
their lot happened to fall. As, however, the companies belonging to the One 
Hundred and Thirtieth were in process of formation at that time, most of them 
were connected with that regiment. ' ' 


Thus far the records have shown the work of men in volunteer service. 
Cumberland County had an honorable representation in the regular army, 
among whom we can specify the following only briefly : 

Samuel Sturgis, born at Shippensburg in 1822, and graduated at West 
Point, served tirough the Mexican war with distinction, gave valuable aid 
afterward in suppressing hostile Indians, and with increasing and deserved 
promotions to the rank of brigadier-general, aided greatly in quelling the 
great Rebellion. 

Washington L. Elliott, whose father, Com. Jesse D. Elliott, was second 
in command at the naval battle at Lake Erie September 10, 1813, was bom at 
Carlisle in 1825. After three years' study in Dickinson College, he graduated 
at West Point in 1844. With the rank of second lieutenant he served efS.- 
ciently in the Mexican war, and among the Indians with the rank of first 
lieutenant and captain. He served during the late Rebellion, with the ranks 
of major, colonel and brigadier- general, in both the Eastern and Western 
Armies. In all the stations to which he was assigned, he demonstrated him- 
self to be an able and trustworthy commander. 

John R. Smead was born in 1830 and graduated from West Point in 1851. 
When the war of the Rebellion began he was employed with Prof. Bache on 
the coast survey. He entered the artUlery service, and as captain of a battery 
in the Fifth Artillery, he participated in the campaign around Richmond and 
in the second battle of Bull Run. At the latter place he was struck and killed 
by a ten-pound cannon ball, August 31, 1862. 

Alexander Piper, graduate of West Point in 1851, and an associate of 
Smead, served through the Rebellion in various responsible positions, having 
attained the rank of captain and become Smead' s successor after the battle of 
Bull Run. He died October 30, 1876. 

lee' s invasion in 1863. 
The most exciting period of the war to the Cumberland Valley was that 
connected with the invasion of 1863. The devastating and demoralizing fea- 
tures of war were brought home to the citizen engaged in the lawful pursuits 
of every-day life. The advance of the enemy to the Potomac in the region of 
Williamsport or Harper's Ferry was always a signal for a stampede along the 
valley in the direction of Harrisburg. Money and other valuables were removed, 
horses and cattle were driven out of the country for their own safety and to 


prevent giving aid to the Rebels, and a general restlessness and anxiety took 
possession of the people. When in May, 1863, after the defeat of Hooker's 
army at Chancellorsville, Gen. R. E. Lee made requisition on the Confederate 
commissary department for rations for his hungry men, he was answered, ' ' If 
the General wants provisions, let him go and look for them in Pennsylvania." 
He came. On the 20th of June, Gen. Ewell' s corps began to cross the Poto- 
mac at Williamsport and commenced to move in the direction of Harrisburg. 
Chambersburg was reached by a portion of Ewell' s corps on the 23d, Gen. 
R. S. Ewell himself arriving on the 24th. 

Gradually the troops marched along the valley, occupying Shippensburg on 
the 25th, and reaching Carlisle on Saturday, the 27th. 

When the alarm of the Rebel approach was first sounded, companies of 
civilians were organized byCapts. Martin Kuhn, JohnS. Low, A. Brady Sharpe, 
David Block and Robert Smiley. These companies embraced the best elements 
of the community, the pastors of the Episcopal and the Reformed Churches 
entering as privates. In connection with these militia companies, Capt. W. H. 
Boyd, First New York Cavalry, with 200 of his men, performed picket duty. 

As Gen. A. G. Jenkins' advance of 400 cavalry came toward town, these 
companies fell back. Jenkins was met en route by Col. William M. Penrose and 
Robert Allison, assistant burgess, and was requested to make no dash upon the 
town lest a panic among the women and children might ensue. He entered in 
good order, his men being on the alert against surprise. He demanded of the 
place supplies for men and horses. The citizens responded generously, and 
the provisions were stored in the stalls of the market house. A good supply 
of corn was also obtained from the crib of John Noble. 

In the afternoon of the same day (Saturday), Rodes' and Johnson's divis- 
ions of E well's corps arrived, Early' s division having crossed the mountains, via 
Fayetteville, to York. The band at the head of the column played ' ' Dixie, ' ' the 
men conducting themselves with much decorum notwithstanding their ragged 
condition. Gen. Ewell established his headquarters in the barracks, he occupy- 
ing the dwelling of Capt. Hastings, while his staff took the adjacent buildings. 
The commanding general was well acquainted with the barracks and the town, 
having been stationed there in former years. In consequence of this acquain- 
tanceship, he spared the public buildings from being burned on the eve of his 

He at once made a public demand for 1,500 barrels of flour, four cases 
of surgical instruments, quinine, chloroform and other medical supplies. 
They could not be furnished, however. Strict orders were issued against the 
selling of intoxicating drinks to soldiers, and the pillaging of private property 
by them. 

Sunday and Monday were dreary days for the town. All communication 
with the loyal world was cut off. On the Lord's day, services were conducted 
at several of the churches by their own pastors. At the same time the chap- 
lains of rebel regiments encamped in the college campus, and at the garrison 
conducted services for their troops with great fervor. Guards were stationed 
at the street corners, to preserve order and to receive any complaints made by 
citizens. Some spirited discussions between soldiers and citizens on moral 
and political questions were had, but with more courtesy and good feeling than 
generally characterize such controversies. All conversation with Southern of- 
ficers and soldiers led the people to believe that their movement was directed 
toward Harrisburg and Philadelphia. On Monday evening, however, John- 
son's division, encamped at McAlister's Run, began to move in the direction 
of Stoughstown, Shippensburg and Fayetteville, the march being characterized 


by a want of dicipline and the commission of heinous outrages upon unoffend- 
ing people. 

As early as 3 o'clock of Tuesday morning, the remaining troops from the 
college campus and the barracks, accompanied by Gen. Ewell, began to move 
along the pike in the direction of Mount Holly. The town was deserted by 
rebel forces except 200 cavalry, who continued till evening doing provost duty, 
when they also left. The pillaging around the barracks and the destruction 
of public and private property were performed by dissolute characters, some 
of whom proved to be deserters that afterward enlisted in the Union service. 
It has been said the town was largely deserted by rebel forces. This needs a 
little modification. About the time the people began to rejoice over the disap- 
pearance of the rebel forces, a body of cavalry, under command of Col. Coch- 
ran and numbering about 400, made its appearance at the gas works on the 
Dillstown road, and took possession of the streets. These men, intoxicated 
against orders, became unmanagable, and their stay in the town made citizens 
restless. Thus closes the condition of affairs in Carlisle Tuesday, June 30. 

The incidents of the following day are so graphically and carefully presented 
by Dr. Wing that we give his account entire: 

' ' Early on Wednesday morning, the town was gladdened by the return of 
Capt. Boyd with his 200 men of the First New York Cavalry. They had 
been at the extreme eastern part of the county, in the neighborhood of Fort 
Washington, and had had, on Sunday evening, a slight artillery skirmish at 
Oyster's Point, about three miles west of Harrisburg, with a small party of 
Gen. Jenkins' men. That general had spent a night at Mechanicsburg, and on 
Sunday advanced vrith a few men to reconnoitre the bridge over the Susque- 
hanna ; but on seeing the preparations there, had deemed it prudent to retire. 
This was the farthest point in the direction of Harrisburg to which the invad- 
ing troops ventured to proceed. On hearing the rapid progress of the Union 
Army under Gen. Meade, in his rear, Gen. Lee at once perceived that he 
could not safely advance with such a force between him and the base of his op- 
erations, and that a great battle was inevitable in the neighborhood of Gettys- 
burg. Both armies had mustered in unexpected strength and discipline, and 
neither could afford to dispense with any of its forces. Every regiment was 
called in, and summoned in haste to the expected field of conflict. But there 
were a few regiments in both armies near the river, to which the summons 
could not be sent in time, and which, therefore, were unaware of the move- 
ments of the main bodies. Early in the afternoon, Gen. W. F. (Baldy) Smith, 
who had taken command in this valley, reached town. There were then under 
him, two Philadelphia regiments, one militia battery from the same city, parts 
of two New York regiments, and a company of regular cavalry from Carlisle ■ 
Barracks. While he was selecting a suitable place for his artillery, a body of 
rebel troops made its appearance near the east end of Main Street, at the 
junction of the Trindle Springs and York roads. One or two rebel horsemen 
rode nearly to the center of the town, but hastily returned to their companions, 
who sat in their saddles and gazed up the street at the Union infantry. A call 
to arms was at once made, and the companies which had been disbanded dur- 
ing the occupation of the town came together, and with other citizens armed 
themselves as best they could, and formed a line of skirmishers along the Le- 
tort. They kept up a desultory fire upon the advanced portion of the en- 
emy and prevented them from penetrating our lines. Of course such an op - 
position was soon driven in and silenced ; but for a while its true character 
could not be known. It was not long before the whizzing and explosions of 
shells in the air over and within the town, announced that a formidable en- 


emy was at hand. No warning of this had been given, and it was soon accom- 
panied by grape and canister, raking the principal streets and the central 

"As twilight set in, a flag of truce was forwarded to Gen. Smith, informing 
him that Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, with a force of 3,000 cavalry, was ready for an 
assault and demanded an immediate and unconditional surrender. The offer 
was promptly declined, and was followed by the threat that the shelling of the 
town would be at once resumed. 'Shell away!' replied Gen. Smith; and 
scarcely had the bearer of the flag left, before a much fiercer bombardment com- 
menced. And now began a general flight of the inhabitants into the country, 
into cellars, and behind anything which was strong enough to afford hope of 
protection. A stream of women and children and infirm people on foot was 
seen, with outcries and terrified countenances in every direction. Some of 
these fell down breathless or seriously injured by some accident, and lay in the 
barns or by the fences through the ensuing night. To add terror to the scene, 
the sky was lighted up by the flames of a wood-yard in the vicinity of the rebel 
encampment, and about 10 o'clock the barracks and the garrison were burned 
and added their lurid glare to the brightness. In the middle of the night there 
was another pause in the firing, and another call for a surrender was made, to 
which a rather uncourteous reply was made by Gen. Smith, and the shelling pro- 
ceeded, but with diminished power and frequency. It is supposed that am- 
mimition had become precious in the hostile camp." 

Gen. ritzhugh Lee, now governor of Virginia, in a letter to the vrriter un- 
der date of May 20, 1886, says of the attack on Carlisle: "On July 1, 1863, 
I was ordered to attack and occupy the place, by Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, com- 
manding cavalry corps of the Confederate Army, and did attack it on my arri- 
val late' that evening — night put a stop to the fighting. At light next morning I 
intended to renew the attack, but during the night received information that the 
two contending armies were concentrating for a general battle at Gettysburg, 
and, in pursuance of orders, left the vicinity of Carlisle before daylight, on the 
2d of July, marching for Gettysburg. Carlisle was at that time defended by 
Gen. William Smith, who commanded, I believe, the Pennsylvania Reserves; 
he was known in the old United States Army as ' Baldy ' Smith. " 

The battle of Gettysburg was fought. In a few days, demand was made 
by the authorities for medical aid to be sent to wait upon the Union and rebel 
wounded at that terrible field 'of death and suffering. The claims of humanity 
prevailed, and Cumberland County responded generously. In addition to the 
aid sent much was given at home; for the maimed soldiery of both armies had 
to be cared for in the adjoining villages and cities. The college chapel and 
recitation rooms of Dickinson and one of the central churches were converted 
into regular hospitals, the latter being thus used for a considerable time. 


Subsequent to the close of the war, the erection of a suitable monument 
to pepetuate the memory of the country' s fallen heroes was agitated. The ef- 
fort to do justice to the soldier had been made by several towns. This stim- 
ulated the desire to haVe a common monument centrally located. In 1868 a 
meeting of citizens was called, and a committee appointed to formulate a feas- 
ible plan for securing such a result. Subscriptions were taken and it was de- 
cided that the shaft should be located on the Public Square in Carlisle. The 
dimensions were, height thirty feet; base to stand on a mound four feet high, 
ten and one-half feet square. The base was to be of Gettysburg granite, three 
feet high and ten feet square, surmounted by a marble pedestal containing tablets 

'ft'/' y^^-''-'- 



for the names of fallen heroes. The work was done by Eichard Owens, Esq. 
of Carlisle, and cost about $5,000. The shaft was erected February 9, 1871, 
and with the iron fence which surrounds it is a place of much interest to pe- 
destrians. The inscription is 

In Honor of the Soldiers op Cumberland County 

Who Fell in Defense of the Union 

DtJKiNG the Great Rebellion. 

This Monument is erected by those who revere the Patriotism, 

and vdsh to perpetuate the Memory, of the Brave Men, 

who aided in saving the Nation and securing the Blessings of Liberty to all. 

The ' ' battle wreath " which encircles the shaft contains the names of the 
following engagements: Mechauicsville, Drainsville, Gainesville, New Mar- 
ket Cross Roads, Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Bethesda Church, Spott- 
sylvania, Wilderness, Gettysburg, Vicksburg. Evidently the artist must have 
omitted Antietam and probably some other engagements. 


Col. Henry J. Biddle, Assistant Adjutant-General Pennsylvania Reserve Volnnteer Corps. 
Col. Henry I. Zinn, One Hundred and Thirtieth Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
Capt. John R. Smead, Fifth United States Artillery. 

Capt. Thomas P. Owen, Conipany H, First Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps. 
Capt. James S. Colwell, Company A. Seventh Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps. 
Capt. William Laughlin, Company E, One Hundred and Thirtieth Pennsylvania Volun- 
Capt. D. G. May, Company K, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Capt. Hugh W. McCuUough, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Lieut. Jos. Stuart, Company H, First Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps. 
Lieut. Geo. W. Comfort, Company H, Seventh Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps. 
Lieut. Wm. A. Givler, Company P, One Hundred and Thirtieth Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
Lieut. I. B. Kauffman, Company H, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Lieut. Theo. Mountz, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Lieut. Alf. F. Lee, Company E, Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Lieut. Wm. B. Blaney, Second Iowa Cavalry. 
Sub. John B. Goover, Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Asst. Eng. William E. Law, United States Navy. 




Frank Hunt. 
Joseph Ewing. 
Wm. Watson. 
John Sheafer. 
John Black. 
Saml. Baker. 
John Clouser. 
F. Morrison. 

David Askew. 
Wm. Donnelley. 
Curtis Griffin. 
G. Kauffman. 
Fred Brown. 
Wm. Quigley. 
George Morton. 


Frank Wilson. 
Wm. Dunlap. 
Wm. Spottswood. 
Chas. F. Gould. 
Levi Kennedy. 

John Lusk. 
Wm. Baxter. 
John Baker. 
Jos. Buttorf. 
John Mathias. 
John Shisler. 


G. W. Savage. 




Wm. Gulp. 
Wm. R. Holmes. 
•G. W. Brechbill. 
John Callio. 
Fred K. RiefE. 
Henry T. Green. 
B. Haverstick. 
R. H. Spottswood. 
Geo. I. Wilders. 
Jacob Landis. 
John T. Cuddy. 
Joseph U. Steele. 
Chas. Jarmier. 
J. Harvey Bby. 
Patrick Brannon. 
Wm. B. Sites. 
J. A. Schlosser. 

Wm. M. Henderson. 
Geo. W. Wise. 
Wm. A. Low. 
John T. Adams. 
Ed. T. Walker. 
D. Haverstick. 
Wm. Nevil. 
Saml. E. Smith. 
Wm. Zimmerman. 
John B. Kenyon. 
James Miller. 
S. Heffelflnger. 
Van Buren Eby. 
Wm. McCleaf. 
Leo W. Faller. 
David H. Spahr. 


Michael J. Foucht. 




Michael Hess. 
Levi A. Bowen. 
Jac. A. Welty. 
Daniel M. Hoover. 
John Lininger. 
John Anthony. 
Jonas Blosser. 
Frank A. Smith. 
Jos. B. Moouey. 
John Devlin. 
G. Beavei'son. 

Isaiah Siders. 
Saml. 8. Gooms. 
Wm. H. Kline. 
J. Richey Clark. 
Saml. Wesley. 
Thos. J. Acker. 
D. W. Conrad. 
Milton Warner. 
Geo. W. Smith. 
Max. Barshal. 
Benj. Baker. 


Geo. L. Reighter. 
J. Christman. 
James Warden. 
Thomas Conway. 

Moses Boss. 
Thos. Morgan. 
Wm. Fielding. 
Wilson Vanard. 
John Spong. 


Thos. Lyne. 


S. Kriner. 


H. Strough. 


Jas. Tyson. 


Wm. H. Vance. 


J. C. Filey. Samuel Bear. 

Geo. Sanno. 


Fred Sanno. 


Geo. Grove. 


Geo. H. Coover. 



Samuel T. Kunkle Reuben Line. 

Richard Lilly. Benj. H. Getz. 

John Ritson. Benj. Hippie. 

Adam SheafEer. Thos. Snoddy. 



Michael Ritta. Charles Huber. 

E. Beaverson. Henry Snyder. 

Thomas Neely. 


Wm. H. Chapman. 


Levi Kutz. 
Chris. Rothe. 




J. Fahnestock. 


P. R. Pislee. 




J. F. McMath. 


E. Crandle. 
Benj. Hoover. 




P. Faber. Wm. E. Greason. 

Joseph P. Weaver. A. Bronswell. 
Geo. W. Green. 


N. Lenhard. W. B. Grabill. 

Henry Miller. Geo. Brenizer. 

Joseph Matthews. Geo. J. McLean. 
M. S. Carbaugh. 

J. W. Crull. 
Wm. P. Woods. 
Jesse K. Allen. 
J. A. Stickler. 
Thad. McKeehan. 


Wm. A. McCune. 
David L. MiUer. 
Wm. Lockery. 
Jos. Connery. 


Geo. White. B. Barshinger. 

P. Y. Kniseley. John Petzer. 

Thos. English. Theo. R. Zinn. 

H. P. Lambert. Keller Bobb. 


J. Barkley. Jas. Withrow. 

S. McMaughton. 




J. B. Snavely. 
D. B. KaufEman. 



J. Heiser. 



Isaac Bear. 



Levi Rupp. 
Cteo. Ensor. 



H. Oatman. David Barnhill. 

J. Cunningham. Jacob Bricker. 

Abraliam Myers. 


John Sells. Wm. Wetzel. 

J. A. McNaskey. 


Eli Ford. D. A. Ziegler. 

Zach. Ford Andrew Fickes. 

Samuel Mixell. Joseph Stine. 
Hugh Campbell. 




D. Moore. 



J. Plank. 



George Wolf. 
James Krall. 
D. Lenker. 
Michael Smith. 

John Askew. 
Lewis B. Fink. 
Henry Tost. 


Wm. W. Heacy. 



R. C. Moore. 



William Webb. 
J. Cockenauer. 
Joseph Reese. 
D. Hippensteel. 

Robert Qracy. 
S. J." Cockenauer. 
Jesse Swartz. 


Alex. Fagan. 
J. Burkhart. 
J. Fahnestock. 

8. J. Orris. 
Daniel Stum. 
James McGaw. 


J. C. Grant. 



F. Eschenbaugh. 


Samuel Lutz. 
Joseph A. Shaw. 
H. !Nonnemaker. 
David Sheriff. 

Theo. K. Boyles. 
McE. Fanchender. 
Uriah Stahl. 
William P. Gensler. 



William Sipe. 
Joseph Millard. 



T. Hoerner. 
John P. Leib. 


E. Sykes. 
S. HoUinger. 



L. Matchett. 


A. Bucher. 





William Myers. 
C. A. Holtzman. 
Alex. Koser. 
Edward Tarman. 
George W. Trout. 
Josli McCoy. 
Samuel Golden. 
Henry A. Martin. 

William Bwing. 
Cul'n Koser. 
C. Vanderbilt. 
Z. McLaughlin. 
J. Nicholson. 
Frank Cramer. 


James Gilbert 


George W. Heck. 
J. Livingston. 
John Givler. 

Arch. Mullen. 
Hiram Gleaver. 


H. Irvine. 

E. Speece. 

J. Bishop. 
Jacob Day. 


Jacob Agle. 


J. C. Creps. 
C. Liszman. 
Kobt. T. Laughlin. 
Henry Shriver. 
L. Keefauver. 
S. McCullough. 
H. L. Sennet. 
Elijah Bittinger. 

Joshua Dunan. 
Wm. Bricker. 
Jos. A. Shannon. 
Chris. Felsinger. 
Samuel A. Welsh. 
Robt. T. Kelley. 
David Woods. 


S. Bowman. 


A. Y. Kniseley. 


Geo. W. Graham. 
D. F. Hoerner. 
Wm. H. Miller. 
Benj. D. Hehn. 
P. Huntsherger. 
J. F. Eigenower. 
Geo. Forney. 

Joseph Rudy. 
Anson Smith. 
D. W. McKenny. 
Jas. A. Kelso. 
John Snyder. 
John F. Gettys. 
Wm. D. Kaufiman. 
Jas. Y. Stuart. 

Jacob Myers. 

C. W. Nailor. 




J. W. Buttorf. 

J. Conley. 



David Kutz. 
Thos. Speece. 
M. F. Shoemaker. 
AbnerW. Zug. 
S. C. Weakline. 
Wm. H. Weaver. 
D. E. Hollinger. 
Solomon Sow. 
John G. Burget. 
Samuel Deardorf . 
A. Herschberger. 

J. W. KaufEman. • 
Geo. W. McGaw. 

B. StoufEer, 

Geo. W. Whitmore. 
Wilson Seavers. 
Lewis Rin^walt. 
Eman. Smith. 
Robt. Kelley. 
David Carle. 

C. Evil hock. 


Samuel Grier. 


W. F. Miller. 


M. A Griffith. 
F. F. Steese. 

J. H. Christ. 

Wm. Sheeley. 

Wm. Balsley. 
Andrew Bear. 

JohnM. Kunkle. 


Geo. W. Matthews. 


J. Palm. 


W. T. Fanus. 


Geo. W. Welsh. J. H. Baughman. 

R. M. Houston. 


Fred Faber. 


Peter Paul. 
J. W. Christ. 
Samuel Bortel. 

Wm. Hawkes. 
Wm. H. Albright. 


A. Webbert. 


W. B. Flinchbaugh. 



One of the permanent organizations resulting from the late war is that of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. It is a patriotic institution, whose primary ob- 
ject is to watch carefully the rights and privileges of those who imperilled their 
lives and fortunes in behalf of their country, and to assure the widows and 
orphans of such fallen comrades that they shall not be forgotten. It is the 
organized society of America to see that the sacrifices of life and blood and 
treasure during the war shall not have been made in vain. Nearly every town 
of importance has such an organization named in honor of some fallen com- 
rade. We give the list in Cumberland County. 

Capt. Colwell Post, No. 201, at Carlisle — This post was organized in 1881, 
its charter bearing date February 24 of that year. Its charter members 
consisted of the following persons: J. .T. Zug, Wm. E. Miller, Isaac El- 
liott, Wm. Vance, A. C. Ensminger, John S. Humor, J. B. Haverstick, John 
Albright, P. D. Beokford, Peter Monger, M. A. Hufner, John G. Bobb, J. L. 
Meloy, James Campbell, D. A. Sawyer, R. P. Henderson, J. P. Brindle, Smith 
McDonald, H. Linnehul, H. G. Carr, J. G. Vale and Wm. Bottengenbach. 

The original corps of officers embraced W. E. Miller, C. ; J. L. Meloy, 
S. V. C. ; P. D. Beckford, J. V. C. ; Jacob T. Zug, Q. M. ; J. B. Haverstick, 
Adj.; J. S. Bender, Siirg.; Joseph G. Vale, O. D. ; J. P. Brindle, O. G. ; A. 
C. Ensminger, S. M. ; John S. Humor, Chaplain. 

The present corps (1886) consists of J. P. Brindle, C. ; Wm. Lippert, S. V. 
C; H. G. Carr, J. V. C. ; Wm. E. Games, Chaplain; B. K. Goodyear, Adj.; 
Wm. E. Miller, Q. M. ; J. S. Bender, Surg. ; Joseph Lider, O. D. ; Lazarus 
Minnich, O. G. ; J. M. Goodyear, Q. M. S. ; D. A. Carbaugh, S. M. The post 
has an active membership of 105, and is in a prosperous condition. 

Capt. James S. Colwell, after whom the post was named, was born near 
Shippensburg, Penn., August 19, 1813. His education in elementary subjects 
was received at home and at Chambersburg. He graduated finally from 
Princeton College, New Jersey, in 1839. Returning to his native county, he 
read law in the office of Wm. Biddle, Esq. , at Carlisle, where he practiced, 
after being admitted to the bar, till he entered the Army. He was mustered as 
first lieutenant in Seventh Pennsylvania Reserves (Thirty-sixth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers) April 21, 1861, and as captain July 4, 1862. He engaged in the 
Peninsular campaign in 1862 ; was in the second battle of Bull Run of same 
year; the battle of South Mountain and finally in the battle of Antietam, where 
he was killed, September 17, 1862, by the explosion of a shell of the enemy. 
He was a brave soldier, a worthy citizen and a faithful husband and father. 
His widow still resides in Carlisle. 

There is also a colored post at Carlisle, having a small membership, concern- 
ing which, however, no facts could be obtained. 

Col. H. I. Zinn, Post No. 415, Meehanicsburg, was organized March 4, 
1884, by Asst. Adj. -Gen. T. J. Stewart, aided by Post No. 58, of Harrisburg. 
It had forty- four charter members. Its first corps of officers embraced the fol- 
lowing comrades: Col. Wm. Penn Lloyd, Com'dr; H. S. Mohler, S. V. C. ; 
A. C. Koser, J. V. C. ; S. B. King, Q. M. ; L. F. Zollinger, Adj. ; E. K. 
Ployer, Chap. ; E. N. Mosser, Q. M. S. ; A. Hauck, O. D. ; A. F. Stahl, O. G. 

The post is a live one, and has a membership at present of 132, and com- 
mands the confidence of the public. It was named in honor of Col. H. I. 
Zinn, who was born in Dover Township, York Co., Penn., December 8, 1834. 
He was the son of John and Anna Mary Zinn. On the 15th of September, 
1855, he was married, by the Rev. J. C. Bucher, to Miss Mary Ann Clark, the 
ceremony being performed at Carlisle. As the result of this union three chil- 


dren were born, viz. : Elsie Myra, James Henry and George Arthur. The 
first two died in 1862, of measles and diphtheria, respectively. Col. Zinn was 
killed December 13, 1862, in the desperate battle of Fredericksburg, Va. 

Corp. McLean Post, 423, at Shippensburg, was organized by Capt. Hav- 
erstick April 7, 1884, with thirty-nine charter members. In its first corps 
of officers were the following comrades: M. G. Hale, C. ; Wm. Baughman, S. 
V. C. ; John S. Shugars, J. V. C. ; M. S. Taylor, Adj. ; J. K. C. Mackey, Q. 
M. Since its organization Wm. Baughman and John Shugars have also held 
the position of commander. The membership has increased to seventy-one, 
rendering the post a flourishing one. 

George Johnston McLean, whose name the post wears and reveres, was 
born at Shippensburg March 7, 1842. He was a member of Company D, 
One Hundred and Thirtieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was wounded in 
front of Marye's Hill, Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. From this 
wound he died nine days afterward in the hospital at Washington, D. C. He 
was unmarried at the time of his death. 

Kennedy Post, 490, at Mount Holly Springs, was organized August 15, 
1885. First members were Henry WoUet, C. A. Burkholder, Moses Wag- 
goner, Philip Harman, Samuel Sadler, Silas Tower, N. J. Class, Joseph S. 
Early, B. F. Wollet, A. Adams, W. H. Brinn, James Cuddy, David A. Corn- 
man, John Goodyear, Augustus Miller, David Taylor, Joseph Swords, Christ 
Harmon, Joseph Wise, David Newman, William Kennedy, William Hummel- 
bough, J. N. Allen, John Snyder, J. E. Mandorf, Alex Noffsinger, David 
Noggle, A. T. Eichwine, William Bicker, George Slosser, W. M. Still, Philip 
Snyder, Joseph K. Snyder, Eli B. Tower, John Ward, A. J. McGonnigal, G. 
W. Kinter, John KaufiFman, WiUiam H. Hartz, Jacob Hoffert, John Bennett, 
Frank Stoner, A. P. Eichwine, David Withrow and George Fair; present 
membership, sixty-eight. First officers were Henry Wollet, Commander; C. 
A. Burkholder, S. V. C. ; Moses Wagner, J. V. C. ; Joseph Early, Adj. ; Alec 
Adams, Q. M. Present officers are Eev. J. G. Shannon, Commander; Samuel 
Sadler, S. V, C. ; A. Miller, J. V. C. ; Phil. Harman, Q. M. ; William Goodyear, 
Adjt. The society meets every Saturday night in the hall of the I. O. O. F. 

Private B. F. Eisenberger Post, at New Cumberland, organized in the early 
part of 1885. The original members were Henry and B. H. Eisenberger, John 
Robinson, Henry Drager, Capt. J. W. Fight, A. D. Eepman, Henry Goriger, 
Frank Mathias, M. K. Brubaker, Frank Hager, Sr., Frank Hager, Jr., Wash. 
Shipe and Harry Free. Officers: John Kirk, Commander; B. F. Hager, 
Secy. ; Jesse Oren, Adjutant. 


Courts — County OrriciALs— Members of Congress, Senators and Assembly- 

DTJEING nearly 100 years succeeding the settlement of Pennsylvania," 
says a writer in 1879, ' ' few of our judges understood the principles of 
the law, or knew anything about its practice before their appointment. Our 
county courts were presided over by the justices of the peace of the respective 
counties, all of whom were ex officio judges of the courts of common pleas and 
quarter sessions of the peace, any three of whom were a quorum to transact 


bTisiness. At the same time the provincial council and the high court of 
errors and appeals, which was presided over by the governor of the province 
for the time being, very frequently had not a lawyer in it. And yet the busi- 
ness of that day was done, and well done, too. The judges were generally 
selected because of their well-known integrity of character, extended business 
experience and sound common sense, and by close observation and long ex- 
perience became well acquainted with the duties of their positions and fitted to 
adjudicate the important interests committed to their charge. Nor was the bar 
inferior. Gentlemen, eminent for their legal abilities and oratorical powers, 
practiced before them, and by the gravity of their demeanor and respectful 
behavior shed lustre upon the proceedings and gave weight and influence to 
the decisions rendered. Great regard was had for the dignity of the court, 
and great reverence felt for forms and cerem^onies; and woe to the unlucky 
wight who was caught in a ' contempt, ' or convicted of speaking disrespect- 
fully of the magistrate or of his sovereign lord — the king. ' ' 

The usual form of record at the opening of court may be seen in the fol- 

At a Court of Common pleas held at Carlisle, for Cumberland County, the Twenty- 
third day of July, in the fifth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, George the Third, hy 
the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c., 
and in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred & sixty-five, before John Arm- 
strong, Esq., and his Associate Justices, &c., of the Same Court. 

As a matter of necessity the fii'st courts in Cumberland County were held at 
Shippensburg, it being then the only town in the valley (1750) and therefore 
the only place which could accomodate those who gathered at court. By a. 
commission dated March 10, 1750, the following persons were appointed jus- 
tices of the peace and of common pleas in Cumberland County: Samuel Smith,. 
of Carlisle; William Maxwell, of Peters; George Croghan, of East Penns- 
borough; Robert Dunning, of West Pennsborough; Matthew Dill and Benj. 
Chambers, of Antrim; Wm. Trent, of Middleton; Wm. Allison, of Antrim; 
Hermanus Alricks, of Carlisle; John MUler, of West Pennsborough; Robert 
Chambers, of Hopewell; John Finley, of Lurgan; and Thomas Wilson, of 
Middleton. Samuel Smith was president of the court. He had previously 
been a member of the Assembly, sheriff and justice of the peace in Lancaster 
County. He was succeeded by Francis West in 1797. 

The date of the first court held at Shippensburg was "the twenty-fourth 
day of July, in the twentieth year of the reign of his Majesty King George the 
Second, Annoque Domini 1750. ' ' The last at that place was held in April, 
1751. John Potter, who had come to America in 1741 and settled "in the 
neighborhood of Shippen's farm," now Shippensburg, as early as 1746 or 
earlier, had been appointed sherifP, * and on the original organization of the 
county returned the writ of venire which had been directed to him with the 
panel annexed, and the following persons were sworn as grand jurors: Wm. 
Magaw, John Potter, John Mitchell, John Davison, Ezekiel Dunning, John 
Holliday, James Lindley, Adam Hoops, John Forsyth, Thomas Brown, George 
Brown, John Reynolds, Robert Harris, Thos. Tlrie, Charles Murray, James 
Brown and Robert Meek. The record of this first session of the court shows 
also that " Hermanus Alricks, Esq. , produced to the court a commission under 
the hand of the Hon. James Hamilton, Esq. , governor, and the great seal of 
the province, appointing him clerk of the peace of the county of Cumberland, 
and the same was read and allowed and ordered to be recorded." The beauti- 

*Mr Potter was twice sheriff, his oommissions hearing date October 6, 1760, and October, 1764. His son, 
James was a lieutenant in the militia, and a captain in Armstrong's Kittanning, expired in 1766. Hfr 
removed to what is now Centre County in 1772, and became distinguished both in military and civil circles. 


fill penmanship of Mr. Alricks is as plain to-day on the old records as it was 
when written. 

The first court of common pleas and the criminal courts were, by order of 
the Governor, first held at Carlisle, July 23, 1751, and under the above named 
justices, and were held at that place regularly afterward. "The orphans' 
court, however, for four or five years remained unfixed to any one place, and is 
said to have followed the persons of the judges. " The justices were intended to be 
appointed at least one from each township, and out of the number some one 
was commissioned to act as president. 

On account of some existing vacancies in the county, the Governor, in Octo- 
ber, 1764, appointed a new board of justices, consisting of John Armstrong, 
James Galbreath, John Byers, Wm. Smith (superseded January 15, 1766, for 
participation in the afPair at Fort Loudon), John McKnight, James Carothers, 
Hermanns Alricks, Adam Hoop, Francis Campbell, John Reynolds, Jonathan 
Hoge, Robt. Miller, Wm. Lyon, Robt. Callender, Andrew Calhoun, James 
Maxwell, Samuel Perry, John Holmes and John Allison. These were reap- 
pointed in 1769, together with some others outside the present limits of the 
county, except, perhaps, John Agnew and Turbutt Francis. John Holmes was 
appointed sheriff, and James Jack, coroner, in 1765, and in October, 1768, 
David Hoge was appointed sheriff, and William Denny, coroner (these appoint- 
ments made by the Governor upon returns of election to him). 

August 16, 1765, at a court of oyer and terminer, before Alex. Steadman, 
of the supreme court, and John Armstrong and James Galbreath, Esqs., 
John Money was tried and convicted of felony and the murder of Archibald 
Gray in March previous, and was not long after executed for his crime. One 
Warner was very early tried and executed for the robbery and murder of a 
man named Musselman, near New Kingston. The courts of the county have 
been called upon to try a number of murder cases, and several legal executions 
for murder have occurred in the county. A case in the first court held at 
Shippensburg was recorded as follows: 

Dominus Bex ) Sur Indictmt. for Larceny, not guilty & now ye deft ret her pi and 
vs. > submits to ye Ct. and thereupon it is considered by the Court and 

Bridget Eagen. ) adjudged that ye sd Bridget Hagen restore the sum of Six pounds 
seventeen shillings & six pence lawful money of Penna. unto Jacob Long ye owner and 
make fine to ye Governor in ye like sum and pay ye costs of prosecution & receive fifteen 
lashes on her bare back at ye.Public Whipping post & stand committed till ye fine & fees 
are paid. 

The whipping post was, with the stocks and pillory, on the square near the 
court house. Generally in the sentence where a culprit was to receive lashes 
they were to be " well laid on, " as in the case of Wm. Anderson, convicted of 
felony at the January term in 1751. Whipping was the ordinary mode of 
punishment, and probably the executioner used his lash with telling effect. 

In the court of quarter sessions for July, 1753, sixteen bills were presented 
to the grand jury against a number of persons ' ' for conveying spurious liquor 
to the Indians out of the inhabited portion of this province." The jury 
ignored most of them. As a writer says: " To the noble red man civilization 
had already become a failure. ' ' 

Cases of imprisonment for debt occupied the time and attention of the 
early courts and lawyers, as page after page of the common pleas record testi- 
fies. Entries like the following are by no means uncommon: 

Upon reading the petition of A. B., a prisoner under execution in the public gaol of 
this county, to the court, it is therefore ordered by the Court that the petitioner notify 

his creditors to appear the day of next, and now (same date) the Court order the 

above petitioner to be brought into court; and now, being brought into court, the Court 
do thereupon remand him, the said A. B., to the public gaol. 

By the Court. 


Sometimes it was so arranged that the prisoner was discharged, or ocoa- 
sionally sold or bound to some one to work out the amount of his indebted- 
ness, the person having advanced the same to the creditors. 


Clerks of Quarter Sessions. — 1789, Samuel Postlethwaite ; 1794, John 
Lyon; 1798, F. J. Haller; 1809, Charles Bovard. 

I Clerks Orphans' Court, Registers of Wills and Recorders of Deeds. — John 
Creigh, appointed April 7, 1777; resigned February 9, 1779, and succeeded 
February 13, by William Lyon, who was also appointed to receive subscriptions 
for the State loan. Mr. Lyon was also in 1777-79 Clerk of oyer and termiuer, 
and prothonotary. 

Clerks Orphans^ Courts, Oyer and Terminer, and Prothonotaries. — 1798, 
William Lyon; 1809, WiUiam Eamsey; 1816, Robert McCoy. 

Prothonotaries. — 1750-70, Hermanns Alricks, Turbutt Francis, John 
Agnew; 1777, Wm. Lyon; 1820, B. Aughinbaugh; 1823, John P. Helfenstein; 
1826, E. McCoy; 1828, WUlis Foulke; 1829, John Harper; 1835, George 
Fleming; 1839, George Sanderson; 1842, Thomas H. Criswell; 1845, William 
M. Beetem; 1848, James F. Lamberton; 1851, George Zinn, Jr. ; 1854, 
Daniel K. Noell; 1857, Philip Quigley; 1860, Benjamin Duke; 1863, Samuel 
Shireman; 1866, John P. Brindle 1869, Wm. V. Cavanaugh; 1872, David 
W. Worst; 1875, John M. Wallace; 1878, Robert M. Graham; 1881, James 

A. Sibbet; 1884, Lewis Masonheimer. 

Registers and Recorders. — 1798, George Kline; 1804, Francis Gibson; 1809, 
George Kline; 1816, William Line; 1820, F.-Sharretts: 1823-28, J. Hendell; 
1829, John L;vine. 

Registers (only). — 1834, James G. Oliver; 1835, Wm. Line; 1839, Isaac Ang- 
ney; 1842, Jacob Bretz; 1845, James McCulloch; 1848, Wm. Gould; 1851, A 
L. Sponsler; 1854, Wm. Lytle; 1857, Samuel M. Emminger; 1860, Ernest N. 
Brady; 1863, George W. North; 1866, Jacob Dorsheimer; 1869, Joseph Neely; 
1872, JohnReep; 1875, Martin GUswiler; 1878, J. M. Drawbaugh; 1881, C. 
Jacoby; 1884, Lemuel E. Spong. 

Corowers.— 1765-67, James Jack; 1768-70, William Denny; 1771-73, 
Samuel Laird; 1774-76, James Pollock; 1777, John Martin; 1778, William 
Eippey; 1779, WiUiam Holmes 1781, WUliam Rippey; 1783, John Eea. 

Clerks of Court.— 1820, John McGinnis; 1823-26, John Irvine; 1828, F. 
Sharretts; 1829, R. Angney. 

Clerks and Recorders. — 1832, Eeinneck Angney; 1834, John Irvine; 1836, 
Thos. Craighead; 1839, Willis Foulke; 1842, Eobt. Wilson; 1845, John 
Goodyear; 1848, John Hyer; 1851, Samuel Martin; 1854, John M. Gregg; 
1857, Daniel S. Croft; 1860, John B. Floyd; 1863, Bphraim Cormnan; 1866, 
Samuel Bixler; 1869, George C. Sheaffer; 1872, George S. Emig; 1875, D. 

B. Stevick; 1878, John Sheafifer; 1881, D. B. Saxton; 1884, John Zinn. 
Sheriffs.— 1149, John Potter; 1750, Ezekiel Dunning; 1756, Wm. Parker; 

1759, Ezekiel Smith; 1762, Ezekiel Dunning; 1765, John Holmes; 1768, 
David Hoge; 1771, Ephraim Blaine; 1774, Eobt. Semple; 1777, James 
Johnson; 1780, John Hoge; 1783, Sam'l Postlethwaite; 1786, Chas. Leeper; 
1789, Thos. Buchanan; 1792, James Wallace; 1795, Jacob Crever; 1798, 
John Carothers; 1801, Eobt. Greyson; 1804, George Stroup; 1807, John 
Carothers; 1810, John Boden; 1813, John Rupley; 1816, Andrew Mitchell; 
1819, Peter Eitney; 1822, James Neal; 1825, John Clippinger; 1828, Martin 
Dunlap; 1831, George Beetem; 1834, Michael Holoomb; 1837, John Myers; 1840, 
Paul Martin; 1843, Adam Longsdorf; 1846, James Hoffer; 1849, David Smith;, 


1852, Joseph McDarmond; 1855, Jacob Bowman; 1858, Eobert McCartney; 
1861, J. Thompson Eippey; 1864, John Jacobs; 1867, Joseph C. Thompson; 
1870, James K. Foreman; 1873, Joseph Totten; 1876, David H. GiU; 1879, 
A. A. Thomson; 1882, George B. Eyster; 1885, James E. Dixon. 

Treasurers.— 1181, Stephen Duncan; 1789, Alex McEeehan; 1795, Eobt. 
Miller; 1800, James Duncan; 1805, Hugh Boden; 1807, John Boden; 1810, 
Eobert McCoy; 1813, John McGinnis; 1815, Andrew Boden; 1817, George 
McFeely; 1820, Jas. Thompson; 1824, Geo. McFeely; 1826, Alex. Nesbitt; 
1829, Hendricks Weise; 1832, John Phillips; 1835, Jason W.Eby; 1838, Wm. 
S. Eamsey; 1839, Eobt. Snodgrass; 1841, Wm. M. Mateer; 1843, Eobt. Moore, 
Jr. ; 1845, David N. Mahon; 1847, Eobt. Moore, Jr. ; 1849, Wm. M. Porter; 
1851, William S. Cobean; 1853, N. Wilson Woods; 1855, Adam Senseman; 

1857, Moses Bricker; 1859, Alfred L. Sponsler; 1861, John Gutshall; 1863, 
Henry S. Eitter; 1865, Levi Zeigler ; 1867, Christian Mellinger; 1869, George 
Wetzel; 1871, George Bobb: 1873, Levan H. Orris; 1875, A. Agnew Thom- 
son; 1878, JohnC. Eckels; 1881, W. H. Longsdorff; 1884, Jacob Hemminger. 

District Attorneys.— 1850, Wm. H. Miller; 1853 and 1858, Wm. J. Shearer; 
1859 and 1864, J. W. D. Gillelen; 1865 and 1870, C. E. Maglaughlin; 1871, 
W. F. Sadler; 1874, F. E. Beltzhoover; 1877, George S. Ewing; 1880, John. 
M. Wetzel; 1883, John T. Stuart. , 

County Commissioners. — 1839, Alex. M. Kerr; 1840, Michael Mishler; 1841, 
Jacob Eehrar; 1842, Eobt. Laird; 1843, Christian Titzel; 1844, Jefferson 
Worthington; 1845, David Sterrett; 1846, Daniel Coble; 1847, John Mell; 
1848, James Kelso; 1849, John Sprout; 1850, Wm. H. Trout; 1851, James 
G. Cressler; 1852, John Bobb; 1853, James Armstrong; 1854, George M. Gra- 
ham; 4,855, Wm. M. Henderson; 1856, Andrew Kerr; 1857, Sam'l Magaw; 

1858, Nath'l H. Eckels; 1859, James H. Waggoner; 1860, George MUler; 
1861, Michael Kast; 1862, George Scobey; 1863, John McCoy, three years; 
Mitchell McClellan, two years; 1864, Henry Karns, John Harris; 1865, Alex. 
F. Meek; 1866, Michael G. Hale; 1867, Allen Floyd; 1869, Jacob Ehoads; 
1870, David Deitz; 1871, J. C. Sample; 1872, Samuel Ernst; 1873, Jacob 
Barber; 1874, Joseph Bautz; 1875, Jacob Barber; 1878, Jacob Barber, Hugh 
Boyd; 1881, Hugh Boyd, Alfred B. Strock; 1884, James B. Brown, George 

President Judges.— 1150-51, Samuel Smith; 1757, Francis West; 1791, 
Thos. Smith; 1794, Jas. Eiddle; 1800, John Joseph Henry; 1806, James. 
Hamilton; 1819, Chas. Smith; 1820, John Eeed; 1838, Sam'l Hepburn; 1848, 
Fred'k Watts; 1851, James H. Graham; 1871, Benj. F. Junkin; 1875, Mar- 
tin C. Herman; 1884, Wilbur F. Sadler. 

Associate Judges. — 1791, James Dunlap, John Jordan, Jonathan Hoge, 
Sam'l Laird; 1794, John Montgomery; 1800, Wm. Moore, JohnCreigh; 1813, 
Ephraim Steel; 1814, Jacob Hendel; 1818, Isaiah Graham; 1819, James Arm- 
strong; 1828, Wm, Line; 1835, James Stewart, John LeFevre; 1842, T. 0. 
Miller; 1847, John Clendenin; 1851, Sam'l Woodbum, John Eupp; 1856, 
Sam'l Woodburn, Michael Cochlin; 1861, Eobt. Bryson; 1862, Hugh Stuart; 
1866, Thos. P. Blair; 1871, John Clendenin, Eobt. Montgomery; 1872, Hen- 
ry G. Moser, Abram Witmer. 


Representatives in Congress. — 1775-77, Col. James WUson; 1778-80, Gen. 
John Armstrong; 1783 (to July 4), John Montgomerv; 1797-1805, John A. 
Hanna; 1805-13, Eobt. Whitehill; 1813-14, Wm. Cr'awford; 1815-21, Wm. 
P. Maclay; 1827-33, Wm. "Eamsey; 1833 (unexpired term), C. T. H. Craw- 


ford; 1535-37, Jesse Miller; 1838-40, Wm. Sterrett Eamsey; 1841-43, Amos 
Gustine; 1843-47, James Black; 1847-49, Jasper B. Brady; 1849-53, J. X. 
McLanahan; 1853-55, Wm. H. Kurtz; 1855-57, Lemuel Todd; 1857-59, 
John A. Ahl; 1859-61, Benj. P. Junkin; 1861-65, Joseph Bailey; 1865-69, 
Adam J. Glossbrenner; 1869-73, Richard J. Haldeman; 1873-75, John A. 
Magee, also Lemuel Todd at large; 1875-79, Levi Maish; 1879-81, Frank E. 
Beltzhoover; 1883, W. A. Duncan (died in office, and Dr. John A. Swope, of 
Gettysburg, elected to fill vacancy December 23, 1884; also re-elected in No- 
vember, 1885). 

State Senators.— 1841-43, J. X. McLanahan; 1844-46, Wm. B. Ander- 
son; 1847-49, Robt. C. Sterrett; 1850-52, Joseph Baily; 1853-55, Sam' I 
Wherry; 1856-58, Henry Fetter; 1859-61, Wm. B. Irwine; 1862-64, George 
H. Bucher; 1865-67, A. Heistand Glatz; 1868-70, Andrew G. Miller; 1871- 
74, James M. Weakley; 1875-78, James Chestnut; 1878, Isaac Hereter; 1882,. 
Samuel C. Wagner. 

Representatives in Assembly. — 1779-80, Abraham Smith, Sam'l Cuthbert- 
son, Fredk. Watts, Jona. Hoge, John Harris, Wm. McDowell, Ephraim Steel; 
1780-81, S. Cuthbertson, Stephen Duncan, Wm. Brown, J. Hoge, John An- 
drew, John Harris, John Allison; 1781-82, James McLean, John AUison, Jas. 
Johnston, Wm. Brown, Robt. Magaw, John Montgomery, Stephen Duncan; 
1782-83, S. Duncan, John Carothers, J. Johnston, Wm. Brown, Jas. McLene, 
J. Hoge, Patrick MaxweU; 1783-84, Wm. Brown, of Carlisle, F. Watts, Jas. 
Johnston, John Carothers, Abraham Smith, Wm. Brown, Robt. WhitehUl; 
1814, Jacob Alter, Samuel Fenton, Jas. Lowry, Andrew Boden and Wm. An- 
derson; 1815, Philip Peffer, Wm. Wallace and Solomon Gorgas; 1824, James 
Dunlap; 1829, Wm. Alexander, Peter Lobaoh; 1833, Michael Cochlin, Sam'l 
McKeehan; 1834, David Emmert; 1835, William Runsha (died suddenly in 
oface), Chas. McClure; 1836-38, Wm. R. Gorgas, Jas. Woodburn; 1840, 
Abraham Smith McKinney, John Zimmerman; 1841, Wm. Barr, Joseph Cul- 
ver; 1842, James Kennedy, Geo. Brindle; 1843, Francis Eckels; 1843-44, 
Jacob Heck; 1844, Geo. Brindle; 1845, Augustus H. Van Hoff, Joseph M. 
Means; 1846, James Mackey, Armstrong Noble ; 1847, Jacob LeFevre; 1847-48, 
Abraham Lamberton; 1848, Geo. Rupley; 1849-50, Henry Church, Thos. E. 
Scouller; 1851, Ellis J. Bonham; 1851-52, Robt. M. Henderson; 1852-53, 
David J. McKee; 1853, Henry J. Moser; 1854, Montgomery Donaldson, Geo. 
W. Criswell; 1855-56, William Harper, James Anderson; 1857, Chas. C. 
Brandt; 1857-58, Hugh Stuart; 1858-59, John McCurdy; 1859, John Power; 
1860, Wm. B. Irvine, Wm. Louther; 1861, Jesse Kennedy; 1861-62, John P. 
Ehoads; 1863-64, John D. Bowman; 1865-66, Philip Long; 1867-68, Theo- 
dore Cornman; 1869-70, John B. Leidig; 1871-72, Jacob Bomberger; 1873- 
74, Wm. B. Butler; 1874-75, G. M. Mumper; 1876-77, Sam'l W. Means; 
1877-78, Samuel A. Bowers; 1878-80, Alfred M. Rhoads, Robt. M. Cochran, 
Jr. ; 1882, Geo. M. D. Eckels, John Graham. 

Representatives in Supreme Executive Council. — March 4, 1777, Jonathan 
Hoge; November 9, 1778 (from what is now Franklin County), James Mc- 
Lean; December 28, 1779, Robert Whitehill, of East Pennsborough ; 1781- 
84, John Byers. 

In the committee of safety John Montgomery was representative from 
Cumberland County during the life of the committee. William Lyon was a 
member of the Council of Safety until its close, December 4, 1777. 

Commissioners in Assembly, efc.— Prom November, 1777, and later, Will- 
iam Duffield, James McLean, William Clark, James Brown, Robert Whitehill, 
John Harris. In 1777 John Andrew was commissioner of the county, while 


James Lyon, William McClure, William Finley, James McKee, James Laird 
and George Robinson were assessors. William Piper was collector of excise 
in 1778, and Matthew Henderson in 1779, William Irvine in 1781, and John 
Buchanan in 1782. James Poe became commissioner of taxes October 22, 
1783, and Stephen Duncan county treasurer. J. Agnew was at the same time 
clerk of the quarter sessions, over which court John Eannells, Esq. , presided 
for some time subsequent to January 20, 1778, on which date the "Grand In- 
quest for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the body of the County of 
Cumberland" presented the following: "That the public Court House of the 
County of Cumberland is now occupied by Capt. Coran and his men, who are 
employed in the service of the United States, as a laboratory and store- 
house, and has been occupied by the people in the service of the United States 
for a considerable time past, so that the County of Cumberland can not have 
the use of the said Court House, but are obliged to hire other places for the 
county' s use — they are of opinion that the United States ought to pay to the 
treasurer of the County of Cumberland, after the rate of £10 per month, 
monthly and every month Capt. Coran hath been possessed of said Court House, 
and for every month he or they may continue to occupy it, not exceeding the 
20th day of April next; and of this they desire that Capt. Coran, or the com- 
manding officer of the laboratory company, may have notice. Per Wm. 
Moore, foreman." 


Bench and Bab— Provincial Period— From the Revolution Until the 
Adoption or the Constitution of 1790 — Constitutional Period. 



THE bar of Cumberland County had its birth in the colonial period of our 
history — in the days when Pennsylvania was a province, and when 
George II was the reigning king. Courts of justice had been established by the 
proprietaries in the settled portions of the province, at first under the laws of 
the Duke of York, and subsequently under the rules of the common law ; but 
the necessity for them became greater as the population increased, as new sec- 
tions were settled, and it was this necessity for the establishment of courts of 
justice nearer than Lancaster, in this newly settled portion of Pennsylvania, 
which was the principal reason for the formation of Cumberland County in 

From this period begins the history of our bar. For nearly one hundred 
years succeeding the settlement of Pennsylvania, few of the justices knew 
anything of the theory or practice of law, until after they had received their 
commissions from the King. Even the ' ' Provincial Council, ' ' which was the high 
court of appeal, and which was presided over by the governor of the province, 
had frequently no lawyer in it ; but by the time of the formation of our coun- 
ty a race of lawyers had arisen in Pennsylvania, who ' ' traveled upon the 
circuit" — many of whom became eminent in the State and nation — whose 
names will be found in the early annals of our bar. 



The first courts in the Cumberland Valley were held at Shippensburg; four 
terms, dating from the 24th of July, 1750, to and including April, 1751. But 
when Carlisle (Letort' s Spring, as it had been called) was laid out and chosen 
by the proprietaries as the county seat, they were removed to that place. 

At the first term of court in Shippensburg Samuel Smith, who had been a 
member of the Colonial Assembly, and his associate justices presided ; John 
Potter had been appointed the first sheriff, and Hermanns Alricks, of Carlisle, 
a grandson of Peter Alricks, who came from Holland in 1682 with dispatches 
to the Dutch on the Delaware, and who was himself, at this time (1749-50), the 
first representative of Cumberland County in the assembly, produced his com- 
mission from the governor of the province, under the great seal, as clerk of the 
peace for the said county, which was read and recorded. 


The first court held at Carlisle was in the year immediately succeeding the 
formation of the county, and was ' ' a court of general quarter sessions, held at 
Carlisle, for the county of Cumberland, the twenty-third day of July, 1751, 
in the twenty-fifth year of our Sovereign Lord, King George II, over Great 
Britain, etc. Before Samuel Smith, Esq., and his associate justices." 

These first courts were probably held in " a temporary log building on the 
northeast corner of the public square. ' ' The court house was used during the 
Eevolution, and as late as January, 1778, by Capt. Coran and a company of 
United States troops as a laboratory, so that the justices were compelled to 
hold courts at temporary places elsewhere. 


The justices who presided were commissioned, through the governor of the 
province, by the King. The number of these justices varied from time to 
time. The courts of quarter sessions and common pleas were held four times 
each year, and private sessions, presided over often by the associate justices, 
irregularly, as occasion called for. 

At the beginning of our history the public prosecutor was the Crown, and 
all criminal cases are entered accordingly in the name of the King, as: The 
King vs. John Smith. This is until the Revolution, when, about 1778, the 

form is changed to " Pennsylvania us. ," which is used until August, 

1795, after which the form ''Bespublica vs. " is used until August, 

1832, when the word "Commonwealth," which is now in use, appears. 

The form of the pleadings at this early period may be considered curious: 

The King ) 

vs. y Sur Indictment for Assault and Battery. 

Charles Mcsrat. ) 

Being charged with avers he is not guilty as in the indictment is supposed, and upon 
this he puts himself upon the court and upon the King's attorney likewise. 

But now the defendant comes into court and retracts his plea, not being willing to 
contend with our Sovereign Lord, the King. Protests his innocence and prays to be ad- 
mitted to a small fine. Whereupon it is adjudged by the court that he pay the sum of two 
shillings, six pence. October term, 1751. 

Besides the ordinary actions of trespass, debt, slander, assault and battery 
and the like, there were actions in the early courts against persons for settling 
on land unpurchased from the Indians, and quite a number ' ' for selling liquor 
to the Indians without license. ' ' For the lighter offenses there were fines and 
imprisonments, and for the felonies the ignominious punishment of the whip- 
ping post and pillory. 


This was then the ordinary method of punishment and the form of the 
sentence was, to take one of many instances, ' ' that he [the culprit] receive 
twenty -one lashes well laid on his bare back, at the public whipping-post in 
Carlisle, to-morrow morning, between the hours of eleven and twelve o'clock, 
that he make restitution to Wm. Anderson in the sum of £18, 14 shillings 
and 6 pence. That he make fine to the Governor in the like sum, and stand 
committed until fine and fees be paid." — [January term, 1751.] "Twenty-one 
lashes ' ' was the usual number, although in some few cases they were less. 
The whipping-post seems to have been abandoned during the Revolution, as we 
find the last mention of it in the records of our court in April, 1779. These 
records also show that the justices of the courts, who seem to have been ex 
officio justices of the peace, superintended the laying out of roads, granted 
licences, took acknowledgments of deeds and registered the private marks or 
brands of cattle. They exercised a paternal supervision over bond servants, 
regulated the length of their terms of service, and sometimes, at the request 
probably of the prisoners, sold them out of goal as servants for a term of 
years, in order that they might be able to pay the fines imposed. In 
short the cases in these early courts, whicl} had distinct equity powers, seem 
to have been determined according to the suggestions of right reason, as well 
as by the fixed principles of law. 


In order that we may get some idea of the foundation of the courts in Cum- 
berland County — of the authority, in the days of kings, from which their power 
was derived — it may be interesting to turn to the old commissions, in which 
the power of the early justices was more or less defined. 

A commission issued in October, 1755, appointing Edward Shippen, Sr., 
George Stevenson and John Armstrong, justices, is as follows: 

GREETING: Know ye that reposing special Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, 
Integrity, Prudence and Ability, TTs Aare assigned you or any two of you our Justices to En- 
quire by The Oaths or afiBrmation of honest and Lawful men of the said Counties of York 
and Cumberland * * of all Treasons, Murders and such other Crimes as are by the 
Laws of our said Province made Capital or felonies of death * * * to have 
and determine the said Treasons, Murders, etc., according to Law, and upon Conviction of 
any person or persons. Judgment or sentence to pronounce and execution thereupon to 
award as The Law doth or shall direct. And we have also appointed you, the said Edward 
Shippen, George Stevenson and John Armstrong, or any two of you, our justices, to de- 
liver the Goals of York and Cumberland aforesaid of the prisoners in the same being for 
any crime or crimes. Capital or Felonies aforesaid, and therefore we command you that at 
certaint imes, which you or any two of you shall consider of, you meet together at the Court 
Houses of the~8aid Counties of York apd Cumberland, to deliver the said goals and Make 
diligent inquiry of and upon the premises, and hear and Determine all and singular the 
said premises, and do and accomplish these things in the form aforesaid, acting always 
therein as to justice according to Law shall appertain. Saving to us the Amerceiments 
and other things to us thereof Belonging, for we have commanded the SherifEs of the said 
Counties of York and Cumberland that at certain days, which you shall make known to 
them, to cause to come before you all of the prisoners of the Goals and their attachments, 
and also so many and such honest and Lawful men of their several Bailiwicks as may be 
necessary by whom the truth of the matters concearning maybe the better known and en- 
quired. In testimony whereof we have caused the Great Seal of our Province to be here- 


unto affixed. Witness, Robert Turner Morris, Esq. (by virtue of a commission from 
Thomas Penn and Ricbard Penn, Esqs., true and absolute proprietaries of this Province), 
"with our Royal approbation, Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Province 
aforesaid and counties of New Castel, Thrent and Sussex-on-Delaware. At Philadelphia, 
the ninth day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred and flfty- 
flve and in the twenty-ninth year of our reign. Signed, Robert T. Morris. 

Another commission was issued April 5, 1757, to John Armstrong, appoint- 
ing him a justice of the court of common pleas for the county of Cumberland. 
The powers of these provincial justices were much more extensive then than 
those which belong to the office of a justice now, and for some time the coun- 
ty of Cumberland, over which their jurisdiction extended, included nearly all 
of Pennsylvania west of the Susquehanna. 

Many of the justices who were appointed never appear upon the bench. 
Not less than three presided at each term of court, one as the presiding justice 
and the others as associates. Sometimes only the name of the presiding jus- 
tice is given; sometimes all are mentioned. They seem to have held various 
terms, and to have rotated without any discoverable rule of regularity. The 
justices who, with their associates, presided during the provincial period, until 
the breaking out of the revolution, were as follows: 


Samuel Smith, from July, 1750, to October, 1757 ; Francis West, from Oc- 
tober, 1757, to 1759; John Armstrong, Francis West and Hermanus Alricks, 
January, 1760; Francis West, July, 1760; John McKnight, October, 1760; 
John Armstrong, April, 1761; James Galbreath, October, 1761; John Arm- 
strong, January, 1762; James Galbreath, April, 1762; John Armstrong, July, 
1762; Thomas Wilson, April, 1763; John Armstrong, from October, 1763, to 
April, 1776. 

The above embraces the names of all the justices who presided prior to the 
Revolution, with the exception possibly of a few, who held but a single term of 
court. It will be seen that from October, 1757, the judges rotated irregularly 
at brief intervals until October, 1763, when John Armstrong occupied the bench 
for a period of nearly thirteen years. 

Of these justices John McKnight was afterward a captain in the Eevolution; 
Francis West was an Englishman who went to Ireland and then immigrated to 
America and settled in Carlisle in or before 1753. He was an educated man 
and a loyalist. His sister Ann became the wife of his friend and co- justice, 
Hermanus Alricks, and his daughter, of the same name, married Col. George 
Gibson, the father of John Bannister Gibson, who was afterward to become 
the chief justice of Pennsylvania. Francis West some time prior to the Revo- 
lution moved to Sherman' s Valley, where he died in 1783. 

Thomas Wilson lived near Carlisle. 

James Galbreath, another of these justices, was born in 1703, in the north 
of Ireland. He was a man of note on the frontier, and the early provincial 
records of Pennsylvania contain frequent reference to him. He had been sher- 
iff of Lancaster in 1742, and for many years a justice of that county. He had 
served in the Indian wars of 1755-63, and some time previous to 1762 had 
removed to Cumberland County. He died June 11, 1786, in what was then 
East Pennsborough Township. 

Hermanus Alricks was the first clerk of the courts, from 1750 to 1770, and 
the first representative of Cumberland Counly in the Provincial Assembly. 
He was born about 1730 in Philadelphia. He settled in Carlisle about 1749 
or 1750, and brought with him his bride, a young lady lately from Ireland, 
•with her brother, Francis West, then about to settle in the same place. He 


was a man of mark and influence in the valley west of the Susquehanna. -He 
died in Carlisle December 14, 1772. 

But the greatest of these, and " the noblest Roman of them all, " was Col. 
John Armstrong. He first appears as a surveyor under the proprietary gov- 
ernment, and made the second survey of Carlisle in 1761. In 1755 we find 
him commissioned a justice of the courts by George II, and from 1763 until his 
duties as a major-general in the Revolution called him from the bench, we 
find him, for a period of nearly thirteen years, presiding over our courts. 
He was at this time already a colonel, and had already distinguished himself 
in the Indian war. In 1755 he had cleaned out the nest of savages at Kittan- 
ning, and had received a medal from the corporation of Philadelphia. When, 
later the Revolution broke out, we find him, in 1776, a brigadier-general of 
the Continental Army (commissioned March 1, 1776), and in the succeeding 
year a major-general in command of the Pennsylvania troops. He was a warm, 
personal friend of Washington. He was a member of Congress in 1778-80, 
and 1787-88. It was, probably, owing to his influence, in a great measure, 
that the earliest voice of indignant protest was raised in Carlisle against the 
action of Great Britain against the colonies. ' ' He was a man of intelligence, 
integrity, resolute and brave, and, though living habitually in the fear of the 
Lord, he feared not the face of man. ' ' * He died March 9, 1795, aged seventy- 
five years. He was buried in the old grave-yard at Carlisle. 


In this provincial period these were our judges: George Ross, afterward 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the public prosecutor for the 
Crown from 1751 to 1764; Robert Magaw follows in 1765-66, and Jasper 
Yeates in 1770; Benjamin Chew, who was a member of the Provincial Coun- 
cil, and afterward, during the Revolution, a Loyalist, was, at this time, 1759- 
68, attorney-general, and prosecuted many of the criminal cases, from 1759 to 
1769, in our courts. He was, in 1777, with some others, received by the 
sheriff of this county, and held at Staunton, Va. , till the conclusion of the war. 


The earliest practitioners at our bar, from 1759 to 1764, were George Ross, 
James Smith (afterward a signer of the Declaration of Independence), James 
Campbell, Samuel Johnston, Jasper Teates and Robert Magaw. 

From 1764 to 1770, George Stevenson, James Wilson (also a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence), Hamilton (afterward judge), David 
Sample, David Grier, Wetzel, Morris, and Samuel Johnston, were the leading 
attorneys. Up to this time Magaw, Stevenson and Wilson had the largest 
practice. During this period, in 1770, Col. Turbutt Francis becomes clerk of 
the court, as successor of Hermanns Alricks; and from 1771 to 1774, Ephraim 
Blaine, afterward commissary in the Revolution, and the grandfather of the 
Hon. James G. Blaine, of Maine, was sheriff of the county. 

THE BAE IN 1776. 

During this first year of our independence the practitioners at the bar were 
John Steel (already in large practice), James Campbell, George Stevenson, 
James Wilson, Samuel Johnston, David Grier, Col. Thomas Hartley (of York), 
Jasper Yeates, James Smith, Edward Burd and Robert Galbreath. It is a 
noteworthy fact that two of the men who practiced in our courts in this mem- 
orable year were signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

♦Chamber's tribute to the Scotch-Irish settlers, p. 88. 


Hon. George Boss, who, at the age of twenty-two, was the first public 
prosecutor for the Crown in our courts in Cumberland County, was the son of 
George Boss, an Episcopal minister, and was born in New Castle, Del. , in 
1730. He began the practice of law in Lancaster in 1751. He acted as prose- 
cuting attorney for the Crown in our county from 1751 to 1764, and practiced 
in our courts until October, 1772. He was a member of the Colonial Assem- 
bly of Pennsylvania from 1768 to 1776, and when this body ceased, or was 
continued in the Legislature, he was a member of that body also. In 1774 he 
was one of the committee of seven who represented Pennsylvania in the Con- 
tinental Congress, and remained a member until January, 1777. He was a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. He died at Lancaster in July, 
1779. In appearance George Koss was a very handsome man, with a high 
forehead, regular features, oval face, long hair, worn in the fashion of the day, 
and pleasing countenance. 

Col. James Smith is one of the earliest names found as a practicioner, in this 
provincial period, at the bar of Cumberland County. There is a brief notice 
of him in Day's Historical Collections. He was an Irishman by birth, but 
came to this country when quite young. In Graydon' s Memoirs it is stated 
that he was educated at the college in Philadelphia, was admitted to the bar, 
and afterward removed to the vicinity of Shippensburg, and there established 
himself as a lawyer. From there he removed to York, where he continued to 
reside until his death, July 11, 1806, at the age of about ninety-three years. 
He was a member of Congress in 1775-78. He was one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. For a period of sixty years he had a large and lu- 
crative practice in the eastern counties, from which he withdrew in about 1800. 
During the Revolution he commanded, as colonel, a regiment in the Penn- 
sylvania line. A more extended notice of him can be found in Saunderson's 
or Lossings' Lives of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

James Wilson LL. D. is another of these earliest practitioners at the bar. His 
name occurs on the records as early as 1763. He was a Scotchman by birth, 
born in 1742, and had received a finished education at St. Andrews, Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, under Dr. Blair in rhetoric, and Dr. Watts in logic. In 
1766 he had come to reside in Philadelphia, where he studied law with 
John Dickinson, the colonial governor, and founder of Dickinson College. 
When^ admitted to practice he took up his residence in Carlisle, and at once 
forged to the foremost of our bar. At the meeting at Carlisle, in July, 1774, 
which protested against the action of Great Britain against the colonies, he, 
with Irvine and Magaw, was appointed a delegate to meet those of other 
counties of the State, as the initiatory step to a general convention of delegates 
from the different colonies. He was subsequently a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, and when the motion for independence was finally acted 
upon in Congress, the vote of Pennsylvania was carried in its favor by the 
casting vote of James Wilson, of Cumberland County. "He had," says Ban- 
croft, in his History of the United States, " at an early day foreseen independ- 
ence as the probable, though not the intended result of the contest," and al- 
though he was not, at first, avowedly in favor of a severance from the mother 
country, he desired it when he had received definite instructions from his con- 
stituents, and when he saw that nearly the whole mass of the people were in 
favor of it. In 1776 he was a colonel in the Bevolution. From 1779 to 1783 
he held the position of advocate-general for the French nation, whose business 
it was to draw up plans for regulating the intercourse of that country with the 
United States, for which services he received a reward, from the French King, 
of 1 000 livres. He was at this time director of the Bank of North America. 


He was one of the most prominent members in the convention of 1787 which 
formed the constitution of the United States. "Of the fifty-five dele- 
gates," says McMaster, in his History of the People of the United States, "he 
was undoubtedly the best prepared by deep and systematic study of the his- 
tory and science of government, for the work that lay before him. The Mar- 
quis de Chastellux, himself a no mean student, had been -struck with the wide 
range of his erudition, and had spoken in high terms of his library. 'There,' 
said he, ' are all our best writers on law and jurisprudence. The works of 
President Montesquieu and of Chancellor D'Aguesseau hold the first rank 
among them, and he makes them his daily study.' (Travels of Marquis de 
Chastelhix in North America p. 109. ) This learning Wilson had in times past 
turned to excellent use, and he now became one of the most active members of 
the convention. None, with the exception of Gouverneur Morris, was so often 
on his feet during the debates or spoke more to the purpose. ' ' * [McMaster' s 
History Vol. I, p. 421.] By this time Wilson had removed from Carlisle and 
lived in Philadelphia. He was appointed, under the Federal Constitution, 
one of the first judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, by President 
Washington, in which office he continued until his death. In 1790 he was 
appointed professor of law in the legal college at Philadelphia, which, during 
his incumbency, was united with the university. He received the degree 
of LL.D., and delivered a course of lectures on jurisprudence which were 
published. He died August 26, 1798, aged fifty-six. 

Col. Robert Magaw, was another practitioner at this early period. He was an 
Irishman by birth, and resided in Cumberland County, prior to the Revolu- 
tion, in which war he served as colonel of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion. 
In 1774 he was one of the delegates from this county to a convention at Phila- 
delphia for the purpose of concerting measures to call a general congress of 
delegates from all the colonies. He was a prominent member of the bar, a 
brave officer, and a trustee of Dickinson CoUege from 1783 until his death. He 
had a very large practice prior to the Revolution. He died January 7, 1790. 

The name of Jasper Yeates appears upon our records as early as 1763, and 
for a period of twenty-one years (1784) his name appears as a practitioner at 
our bar. He resided in Lancaster. He was an excellent lawyer and practiced 
over a large territory in the eastern counties of the State. On March 21, 1791, 
he was appointed by Gov. Mifflin one of the associate justices of the su- 
preme court, which position he fiUed until the time of his death in 1817. In 
appearance he was tall, portly, with handsome countenance, florid complexion 
and blue eyes. He was the compiler of the early Pennsylvania reports which 
bear his name. 

George Stevenson, LL. D. , was a prominent member of the bar in 1776. 
His name appears upon the records as early as 1770. He was born in Dublin in 
1718, educated at Trinity College, and emigrated to America about the middle 
of the century. He was appointed deputy surveyor-general under Nicholas 
Scull for the three lower counties on the Delaware, known as the ' ' territories 
of Pennsylvania," which William Penn obtained from the Duke of York in 
1682. He afterward removed to York and was appointed a justice under 
George II in 1755. [See commission, page 7.] In 1769 he moved to 
Carlisle and became a leading member of the bar. He died at this place in 
1783. Some of his correspondence may be seen in the Colonial Records, 
and the Pennsylvania Archives. He married the widow of Thomas Cookson, 
a distinguished lawyer of Lancaster, who was instructed, in connection with 
Nicholas Scull, to lay out the town of Carlisle in 1751. 

*A3 a matter of curiosity we may mention; number of speeches were Morris, 173; Wilson, 168; Madison, 161; 
.Sherman, 138; Mason, 136; Elbrldge Gerry, 119. 


Papt. John Steel was a prominent member of our bar in 1776. He had been 
admitted, on motion of Col. Magaw, only three years previously, April term, 
1773, and seems immediately to have come into a large practice. We find him 
having a large practice again from 1 782 to 1785, shortly after which date his name 
disappears from the records. Capt. John Steel was the son of Eev. John Steel, 
known as the "fighting parson," and was born at Carlisle, July 15, 1744. 
Parson Steel led a company of men from Carlisle and acted as a chaplain in 
the Eevolutionary Army, whUe his son, John Steel, the subject of our sketch, 
led, as a captain, a company of men from the same place, and joined the army 
of Washington after he had crossed the Delaware. He was the father of 
Amelia Steel, the mother of the late Eobert Given, of Carlisle. He married 
Agnes Moore, a sister of Mrs. Jane Thompson, who was the mother of Eliza- 
beth Bennett, the maternal grandmother of the writer. He died about 1812. 

Col. Thomas Hartley, who appeared as a practitioner at our bar in 1776, 
was born in Berks County in 1748. He received the rudiments of a classical 
education at Reading, when he went to York at the age of eighteen, and stud- 
ied law under Samuel Johnston. He commenced practice in 1769. He ap- 
pears as a practitioner at our bar from April, 1771, to 1797. Col. Hartley be- 
came distinguished, both in the cabinet and the field. In 1774 he was elected 
member of the Provincial Meeting of deputies, which met in Philadelphia 
in July of that year. In the succeeding year he was a member of the 
Provincial Convention. In the beginning of the war he became a colonel 
in the Revolution. He served in 1778 in the Indian war on the west 
branch of the Susquehanna, and in the same year was elected a member of the 
Legislature from York County. In 1783 he was a member of the council of 
censors. In 1787 he was a member of the State Convention, which adopted 
the Federal Constitution. In 1788 he was elected to Congress and served for 
a period of twelve years. In 1800 he was commissioned by Gov. McKean 
major-general of the Fifth Division of Pennsylvania Militia. He was an ex- 
cellent lawyer, a pleasant speaker, and had a large practice. He died in York 
December 21, 1800, aged fifty-two years. * 

These were some of the men who practiced at our bar in the memorable 
year 1776, men who by their services in the forum and the field helped to lay 
broad and deep the foundations of the government which we enjoy. 



OF 1790. 

From the period of the Revolution, until the adoption of the constitution 
of 1790, the courts were presided over by the following justices: 

John Rannalls and associates, from 1776 to January, 1785; Samuel Laird 
and associates, from January, 1785, to January, 1786; Thomas Beals and 
associates, April, 1786; John Jordan and associates, from July, 1786, till 
October, 1791. 

Owing to the adoption of the Declaration, and the necessity of taking anew 
the oath, most of the attorneys were re-admitted in 1778. Among these were 
Jasper Yeates, James Smith, James Wilson, Edward Burd and David Grier. 
Thomas Hartley was re-admitted in July of the succeeding year. 

James Hamilton, who afterward became the fourth judge under the Consti- 

*Brief sketches of him will be found in Day's Historical CoUectioDB, and in " Otzinachson, " p. 335-6. Also 
in the Archives and Records. 


tution was admitted to practice upon the motion of Col. Thomas Hartly in 
AprU, 1781. 

Among the names of those who practiced during this period between the 
Revolution and the adoption of the Constitution of 1790, are the following: 

Hon. Edward Shippen was admitted to our bar in October, 1778. He was 
the son of Edward Shippen, Sr., the founder of Shippensburg, and was bom 
February 16, 1729. In 1748 he was sent to England to be educated at the 
Inns of Court. In 1771 he was a member of the "Proprietary and Governors' 
Council." He afterward rose rapidly and became chief justice of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was the father of the wife of Gen. Benedict Arnold. During the 
Eevolution his sympathies were with England, but owing to the purity of his 
character and the impartiality with which he discharged his official duties, the 
new government restored him to the bench. His name appears upon our 
records as late as 1800. 

James Hamilton was admitted in April, 1781. He afterward became the 
fourth president judge of our judicial district. He was an Irishman by birth, 
and was admitted to the bar in his native country, but immigrated to America 
before the Eevolution, and first settled for a short time in Pittsburgh, then a 
small frontier settlement, but soon afterward removed to Carlisle, where he 
acquired a large practice. 

Hon. Thomas Duncan's name is found as a practitioner as early as 1781;* 
The date of his admission to the bar is not known to us. He was of Scotch 
ancestry, and a native of Carlisle. He was educated, it is said, under Dr. 
Eamsey, the historian, and studied law in Lancaster, under Hon. Jasper 
Yeates, then one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. On 
his admission to the bar he returned to his native place and began the practice 
of law; his rise was rapid, and in less than ten years from his admission he 
was the acknowledged leader of his profession in the midland counties of the 
State, and for nearly thirty years he continued to hold this eminent position. 
He had, during this period, perhaps, the largest practice of any lawyer in 
Pennsylvania outside of Philadelphia. 

In 1817 he was appointed by Gov. Snyder to the bench of the supreme 
court, in place of Judge Yeates, deceased. He shortly after removed to Phila- 
delphia where he resided until his death, which occurred on the 16th of 
November, 1827. 

During the ten years he sat upon the bench, associated with Tilghman and 
Gibson, he contributed largely to our stock of judicial opinions, and the re- 
ports contain abundant memorials of his industry and learning. These opin- 
ions begin with the third volume of "Sergeant & Eawle," and end with the 
seventeenth volume of the same series. 

For years preceding the beginning of the present century and under five 
of the judges after the adoption of the first constitution, namely: Smith, Eid- 
dle, Henry, Hamilton and Charles Smith, Thomas Duncan practiced at our 
bar. As a lawyer he was distinguished by acuteness of discernment, prompt- 
ness of decision, an accurate knowledge of character and a ready recourse to 
the rich stores of his own mind and memory. He was an excellent land and 
criminal lawyer, ' ' although, ' ' says one, ' ' I think it could be shown by citations 
from his opinions that his taste inclined more strongly to special pleading than 
to real estate, and that his accuracy in that department was greater than in 
the law of property. ' ' f 

*Iu Dr. Nevin's "Men of Mark" it is stafted that he was educated at Dickinson College, which is evidently 
an error, as that institution was not founded until two years later. 
fPorter, in speaking of Duncan , in his essay on Gibson. 


He was enthusiastically devoted to Ms profession, "His habits of investi- 
gation," says Porter, in speaking of him as a judge, "were patient and sys- 
tematic ; his powers of discrimination cultivated by study and by intercourse 
with the acutest minds of his day; his style, both in speaking and writing, 
easy, natural, graceful and clear, and his acquirements quite equal to those of 
his predecessors on the bench. ' ' 

In appearance Mr. Duncan was about five feet six inches high, of small, 
delicate frame, rather reserved in manners, had rather a shrill voice, wore pow- 
der in his hair, knee breeches and buckles, and was neat in dress. 

Upon a small, unobtrusive-looking monument in the old grave-yard in Car- 
lisle, is the following inscription: 

' ' Near this spot is deposited all that was mortal of Th9mas Duncan, Esq. , 
LL.D. ; born at Carlisle, 20th of November, 1760; died 16th of November, 
1827. Called to the bar at an early age, he was rapidly borne by genius, per- 
severance and integrity to the pinnacle of his profession, and in.the fulness of 
his fame was elevated to the bench of the supreme court of his native State, for 
which a sound judgment, boundless stores of legal science, and a profound 
reverence for the common law, had peculiarly fitted him. Of his judicial labors 
the reported cases of the period are th« best eulogy. As a husband, indulgent; 
as a father, kind; as a friend, sincere; as a magistrate, incorruptible, and as a 
citizen, inestimable, he was honored by the wise and good, and wept by a large 
circle of relatives and friends. Honesta quam splendida." A panegyric 
which leaves nothing to be said. 

Stephen Chambers, who appears upon the records of the court occasionally 
about 1783, although re- admitted later, was from Lancaster, and was a broth- 
er-in law of John Joseph Henry, who was afterward appointed president judge 
of our judicial district in 1800. 

James Armstrong Wilson, whose name appears occasionally after the Eevo- 
lution as a practitioner at our bar, was the son of Thomas Wilson, who resided 
near Carlisle, and whom we have mentioned as a provincial justice. He was 
educated at Princeton, where he graduated about 1771. He studied law with 
Eichard Stockton, and was admitted to the bar at Easton. He was a major in 
the Revolution. The earliest mention of his name in the records of our court 
is about 1778. 

John Clark, who was from York, Penn., appears occasionally as a practitioner 
about 1784. He was a major in the Revolution, of large frame, fine personal 
appearance, witty, so that his society was much courted by many of the 
lawyers who rode the circuit with him in those days. 

Ross Thompson, who had practiced in other courts, was admitted to our bar 
in 1784. He lived some time in Chambersburg, but removed to Carlisle, where 
he died at an early age. 

John Wilkes Kittera, admitted in 1783, was from Philadelphia, but settled 
in Lancaster. He was admitted to the first term of court two years later, 
May, 1785, in Dauphin County. 

Gen. John Andrew Hanna (1785), settled in Harrisburg at about the time 
of the organization of Dauphin County. He is noticed favorably in the narra- 
tive of the Duke de Rochefoucault, who visited the State capital in 1795. He 
says that Gen. Hanna was then " about thirty-six or thirty-eight years of age, 
and was brigadier-general of militia." He was a brother-in-law of Robert 
Harris, the father of George W. Harris, the compiler of the Pennsylvania 
Reports, and was an executor of the will of John Harris, the founder of Har- 
risburg. He was elected to Congress from his district in 1797, and served 
tiU 1805, in which year he died. 


Ealph Bowie, from York, was admitted to our bar at October term, 
1785, and practiced considerably in our courts from 1798 till after 1800. He 
was a Scotchman by birth and had probably been admitted to the bar in his 
native country. He was a well-read lawyer and much sought after in important 
cases of ejectment. He was of fine personal appearance, courtly and dignified 
in manner, and neat and particular in dress. He powdered his hair, wore 
short clothes in the fashion of the day, and had social qualities of the most 
attractive character. 

Of James Eiddle, Charles Smith, John Joseph Henry and Thomas Smith, 
all of whom became judges, we will speak later. 

Thomas Creigh, who was admitted in 1790, was the son of Hon. 
John Creigh, who emigrated from Ireland and settled in Carlisle in 1761. 
John Creigh was an early justice, and one of the nine representatives who 
signed the first Declaration, June 24, 1776, for the colony of Pennsylvania. 
Thomas Creigh was born in Carlisle August 16, 1769. He graduated in the 
second class which left Dickinson College in 1788. He probably studied law 
under Thomas Duncan, upon whose motion he was admitted. He died in Car- 
lisle October, 1809. One sister, Isabel, married Samuel Alexander, Esq., of 
Carlisle ; Mary married Hon. John Kennedy, of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania, and Elizabeth, Samuel Duncan, Esq. , of Carlisle. 

David Watts (1790), a son of Frederick Watts, who was a member of 
the early Provincial Council, was born in Cumberland County October 29, 
1764. He graduated in the first class which left the then unpretentious halls of 
Dickinson College in 1787. He afterward read law in Philadelphia under the 
eminent jurist and advocate, William Lewis, LL.D., and was admitted to 
our bar in October, 1790. He soon acquired an immense practice, and became 
.the acknowledged rival of Thomas Duncan, who had been for years the recog- 
nized leader on this circuit. He died September 25, 1819. 

We have now given a brief sketch of our bar, from the earliest times down 
to the adoption of the constitution of 1790, when, in the following year, 
Thomas Smith, the first president judge of our judicial district, appears upon 
the bench. 



From the adoption of this first constitution until the present, the judges 
who have presided over our courts are as follows: 


Thomas Smith, 1791; James Riddle, 1794; John Joseph Henry, 1800; 
James Hamilton, 1806; Charles Smith, 1819; John Reed, 1820; Samuel Hep- 
burn, 1838; Frederick Watts, 1848; James H. Graham, 1851; Benjamin F. 
Junkin, 1871; Martin C. Herman, 1875; Wilbur F. Sadler, 1885. 

Hon. Thomas Smith first appeared upon the bench in the October ternl, 
1791. He resided at Carlisle. He had been a deputy surveyor under the 
government in early life, and thus became well acquainted with the land sys- 
tem in Pennsylvania, then in process of formation. He was accounted a good 
common law lawyer and did a considerable business. He was commissioned 
president judge by Gov. Mifflin on the 20th of August, 1791. He con- 
tinued in that position until his appointment as an associate judge of the su- 
preme court, on the 31st of January, 1794. He was a small man, rather re- 
served in his manner, and of not very social proclivities. He died at an ad- 
vanced age in the year 1809. 


Owing to the necessity of being resworn, according to the provisions of the 
new constitution, the following attorneys ' ' having taken the oath prescribed by 
law," were readmitted at this term of court: James Riddle, Andrew Dunlap, 
of Franklin; Thomas Hartley, of York; David Watts, Thomas Nesbitt, Ralph 
Bowie, Thomas Duncan, Thomas Creigh, Robert Duncan, James Hamilton 
and others. 

Hon. James Riddle first appears upon the bench at the April term, 1794. 
He was born in Adams County, graduated with distinction at Princeton Col- 
lege, and subsequently read law at York. He was about thirty years of age 
when he was admitted to the bar. He had a large practice until his appoint- 
ment as president judge of this judicial district, by Gov. Mifflin, in February, 
179-. His legal abilities were very respectable, though he was not considered 
a great lawyer. He was well read in science, literature and the law; was a 
good advocate and very successful with the jury. He was a tall man, broad 
shouldered and lusty, with a noble face and profile and pleasing manner. 
Some time in 1804 he resigned his position of judge, because of the strong 
partisan feeling existing against him — he being an ardent Federalist — and re- 
turned to the practice of the law. He died in Chambersburg about 1837. 

Hon. John Joseph Henry, of Lancaster, was born about the year 1758. He 
was the third president judge of our judicial district and the predecessor of 
Judge Hamilton. He was appointed in 1800. He had previously been the 
first president judge of Dauphin County in 1793. In 1775 young Henry, then 
a lad of about seventeen or eighteen years of age, entered the Revolutionary 
Army and joined the expedition against Quebec. He was in the company un- 
der Capt. Matthew Smith, of Lancaster. The whole command, amounting to 
about 1, 000 men, was under the command of Gen. Benedict Arnold. Young 
Henry fought at the battle of Quebec and was taken prisoner. He subse- 
quently published an account of the expedition. Judge Henry was a large 
man, probably over six feet in height. He died in Lancaster in 1810. 

THE BAR IN 1800. 

And now we have arrived at the dawn of a new century. Judge Henry 
was upon the bench. Watts and Duncan were unquestionably the leading 
lawyers. They were engaged in probably more than one-half the cases which 
were tried, and always on opposite sides. Hamilton came next, six years later, 
to be upon the bench. There also were Charles Smith, who was to succeed 
Hamilton; Bowie, of York, and Shippen, of Lancaster, with their queues 
and Continental dress, and the Duncan brothers, James and Samuel, and Thomas 
Creigh, all of them engaged in active practice at our bar at the begraning of 
the century. At this time the lawyers still traveled upon the circuit, and cir- 
cuit courts were held also as will be seen by the following entry: "Circuit 
Court held at Carlisle for the County of Cumberland this 4th day of May, 
1801, before the Hon. Jasper Yeates, and Hon. Hugh Henry Brackenridge, jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court. ' ' 

Among the prominent attorneys admitted to the bar during the time Judge 
Henry was upon the bench, were John Bannister Gibson, afterward chief jus- 
tice of Pennsylvania, George Metzgar and Andrew Carothers. Gibson was 
admitted in March. 1803. 

On the motion of Thomas Duncan, Esq. , and the usual certificates filed 
stating that Alexander P. Lyon, John B. M. S. Gibson and James Carothers 
had studied law imder his direction for the space of two years after they had 
respectively arrived at the age of twenty-one. Com. Ralph Bowie, Charles 
Smith and William Brown. 


George Metzgar was born in 1782, and graduated at Dickinson College in 
1798. He studied law with David Watts after he had arrived at the age of twenty- 
one, and was admitted in March, 1805. Afterward he served as prosecuting 
attorney, and was a member of the Legislature in 1813-14, and held a respect- 
able position at the bar. He died in Carlisle June 10, 1879. He was the 
founder of the Metzgar Female Institute in Carlisle. 

Andrew Carothers was born in Silver Spring, Cumberland County, about 
1778. He learned the trade of a cabinet-maker, but when about nine- 
teen years of age his father's family was poisoned, and Andrew, who sur- 
vived, was crippled by its effects in his hands and limbs to such an extent 
that he was incapacitated for the trade which he had chosen. He had received 
but the education of the country school, and it was not until he had become 
unfitted for an occupation which required bodily labor, that he tui-ned his at- 
tention to the law. He entered the office of David Watts, in Carlisle, and after 
three years' study, was admitted to the bar December, 1805. In the language 
of Judge Watts "He became an excellent practical and learned lawyer, and 
very soon took a high place at the bar of Cumberland County, which at that 
time ranked amongst its numbers some of the best lawyers of the State, Watts, 
Duncan, Alexander and Mahan were at different times his competitors, and 
amongst these he acquired a large and lucrative practice, which continued 
through his whole life. Mr. Carothers was remarkable for his amiability of 
temper, his purity of character, his unlimited disposition of charity and his 
love of justice. ' ' 

On all public occasions and in courts of justice his addresses were delivered, 
by reason of his bodily infirmity, in a sitting posture. He was active in pro- 
moting the general interests of the community, and was for years one of the 
trustees of Dickinson College. He died July 26, 1836, aged fifty-eight years. 


Of James Hamilton, who appears upon the bench in 1806, we have before 
spoken. Watts and Duncan were still leaders of the bar under Judge Hamilton. 
Mr. Watts came to the bar some years later than Thomas Duncan, but both 
were admitted and the latter had practiced under the judges prior to the con- 
stitution; but from that time, 1790, both practiced, generally as opponents, 
and were leaders at the bar under the first five judges who presided after the 
constitution, until the appointment of Duncan to the supreme bench in 1817. 
David Watts died two years later. 

Judge Hamilton was a student, but lacked self-confidence, and was more 
inclined, it is said, to take what he was told ruled the case than to trust to his 
own judgment, and there is a legend to the effect that a certain act, which can 
be found in the pamphlet laws of Pennsylvania, 1810, p. 136, forbidding the 
reading of English precedents subsequent to 1776, was passed at his instance 
to get rid of the multitudinous authorities with which Mr. Duncan was wont 
to confuse his judgment. 

Mr. Watts was an impassioned, forcible and fluent speaker. He was a 
strong, powerful man. Mr. Duncan was a smaU and delicate looking man. 
The voice of Mr. Watts was strong and rather rough, that of Mr. Duncan was 
vreak and sometimes shrill in pleading. In Mr. Brackenridge' s "Recollec- 
tions," he speaks of attending the courts in Carlisle, in about 1807, where 
there were two very able lawyers, Messrs. Watts and Duncan. ' ' The former, ' ' 
says he, " was possessed of a powerful mind and was the most vehement speaker 
I ever heard. He seized his subject with a herculean grasp, at the same time 
throwing his herculean body and limbs into attitudes which would have de- 


lighted a painter or a sculptor. He was a singular instance of the union of 
great strength of mind with bodily powers equally wonderful. 

"Mr. Duncan was one of the best lawyers and advocates I have ever- seen 
at a bar, and he was, perhaps, the best judge that ever sat on the supreme 
bench of the State. He was a very small man, with a large but well-formed 
head. There never was a lover more devoted to his mistress than Mr. Duncan 
was to the study of law. He perused Coke upon Littleton as a recreation, and 
read more books of reports than a young lady reads new novels. His educa- 
tion had not been very good, and his general reading was not remarkable. I 
was informed that he read frequently the plays of Shakespeare, and from that 
source derived that uncommon richness and variety of diction by which he was 
enabled to embellish the most abstruse subjects, although his language was 
occasionally marked by inacuracies, even violation of common grammar rules. 
Mr. Duncan reasoned with admirable clearness and method on all legal sub- 
jects, and at the same time displayed great knowledge of human nature in ex- 
amination of witnesses and in his addresses to the jury. Mr. Watts selected 
merely the strong points of his case, and labored them with an earnestness and 
zeal approaching to fury; and perhaps his forcible manner sometimes produced 
a more certain effect than 'that of the subtle and wiley advocate opposed to 

Among the attorneys admitted under Hamilton was Isaac Brown Parker, 
March, 1806, on motion of Charles Smith, Esq. Mr. Parker had read law un- 
der James Hamilton, just previous to the time of his appointment to the bench. 
His committee was Ralph Bowie, Charles Smith and James Duncan, Esqrs. 
Alexander Mahan, graduated at Dickinson College in 1805 ; August, 1808, read 
under Thomas Duncan; committee David "Watts, John B. Q-ibson and Andrew 
Carothers, Esqrs .... William Eamsey same date, instructor and committee. 

In 1809 William Ramsey, Democrat, ran for sheriff of Cumberland 
County. The opposing candidate was John Carothers, Federalist. At this 
time, under the old constitution the governor appointed one of the two having 
the highest number of votes. Ramsey had the highest number of votes 
but Carothers was appointed. Gov. Snyder afterward appointed William Ram- 
sey prothonotary, which office he held for many years. He had great influence 
in the Democratic party. About 1817 he began to practice his profession and 
acquired a very large practice. He died in 1831. 

James Hamilton, Jr., was the son of Judge Hamilton. He was borb in 
Carlisle, October 16, 1793. He graduated at Dickinson College in 1812. He 
read law with Isaac B. Parker, who was an uncle by marriage, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar while his father was upon the bench in April, 1816. He 
was, from 1824 to 1838, a trustee of Dickinson College. For several years Mr. 
Hamilton followed his profession, but being in affluent circumstances he 
gradually retired from active practice. He died in Carlisle June 23, 1873. 

John Williamson, was for many years a member of our bar. He was 
the brother-in-law of Hon. Samuel Hepburn, with whom he was for a long 
time associated. He was born in Mifflin Township, Cumberland County, Sep- 
tember 14, 1789, and graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, in 1809. He 
was admitted to our bar at the August term, 1811. He previously read law 
with Luther Martin, of Baltimore, Md. , who was one of the counsel for Aaron 
Burr, in his trial for high treason, at Richmond, Va. Luther Martin, the " Fed- 
eral Bull-dog," as he was called, was a character altogether sui generis, with an 
unlimited capacity both for legal lore and liquor. In the former respect only 
his pupil somewhat (although in a less degree) resembled his preceptor. Mr. 
Williamson seems to have been exceedingly well versed in law, with an intimate 



knowledge of all the cases and distinctions, but the very depth or extensiveness 
of his learning seemed at times to confuse his judgment. He saw the case in every 
possible aspect in which it could be presented; but then which particular phase 
should, in the wise dispensation of an all-ruling Providence, happen to be the 
law, as afterward determined by the court, was a question often too difficult to 
decide. His aid as a counselor was valuable, and as such he was frequently 
employed. He died in Philadelphia, September 10, 1870. 

John Duncan Mahan was admitted under Hamilton in April, 1817. He 
was born November 5, 1796; graduated at Dickinson College in 1814, and im- 
mediately began the study of law under the instruction of his uncle, Thomas 
Duncan. He became a leader of the bar of Carlisle at a brilliant period, un- 
til in 1833, when he removed to Pittsburgh and became a prominent member of 
the bar of that city, where hp resided until his death July 8, 1861. When 
Mr. Mahan was admitted to the bar Watts and Duncan were at the zenith of 
their fame, and were retained in aU great cases within the circuit of their prac- 
tice. But this was near the end of their career, as competitors, for at that 
very time Duncan was appointed to the supreme bench, which he adorned 
during his life, and Watts died two years later. Judge Duncan transferred 
his whole practice to his then young student and nephew, John D. Mahan and 
his eminent success justified his preceptor's confidence. His first step was into 
the front rank of the profession. 

Mr. Mahan was a man of rare endowments. What many learned by study 
and painful investigation he seemed to grasp intuitively. He had the gift, the 
power and the grace of the orator, and in addressing the passions, the sympa- 
thies, or the peculiarities of men he seldom made mistakes. ' ' His every ges- 
ture," it has been said of him, " was graceful, his style of eloquence was the 
proper word in the proper place for the occasion,- and his voice was music." 
He was afPable in temper, brilliant in conversation and was among the leaders 
of our bar, under Hamilton, Smith and Eeed, at a time when it had strong 
men, by whom his strength was tested and his talents tried. 

A writer speaking from his recollections of the bar at about this period, 
says: "John D. Mahan was its bright, particular star;, young, graceful, elo- 
quent, and with a jury irresistible. Equal to him in general ability, and su- 
perior, perhaps, in legal acumen, was his contemporary and rival, Samuel 
Alexander. Then there was the vehement Andrew Carothers and young Fred- 
erick Watts, just admitted in time to reap the advantages of his father's repu- 
tation and create an enduring one of his own. And George Metzgar, with his 
treble voice and hand on his side, amusing the court and spectators with his 
not overly delicate facetice. And there was ' ' Billy Eamsey with his queue, ' ' 
a man of many clients, and the sine gwa non of the Democratic party. 

Hon. Charles Smith was appointed to succeed Hamilton as the fifth presi- 
dent judge of our judicial district, in the year 1819. Mr. Charles Smith, 
was born at Philadelphia, March 4, 1765. He received his degree B. A. at 
the first commencement of Washington College, Charleston, Md. , March 14, 
1788. His father, William Smith, D. D., was the founder, and at that time 
the provost of that institution. Charles Smith commenced the study of the 
law with his elder brother, William Moore Smith, who then resided at Easton, 
Penn. After his admission to the bar he opened his office in Sunbury, North- 
umberland County, where his industry and rising talents soon procured for 
him a large practice. He was elected delegate, with his colleague, Simon 
Snyder, to the convention which framed the first constitution for the State of 
Pennsylvania, and was looked on as a very distinguished member of that tal- 
ented body of men. Although difPering in the politics of that day from his. 


colleague, yet Mr. Snyder for more than thirty years afterward remained the 
firm friend of Mr. Smith, and when the former became the governor of the 
State for three successive terms it is well known that Mr. Smith was his con- 
fidential adviser in many important matters. Mr. Smith was married in 1719 
to a daughter of Jasper Yeates, one of the supreme court judges of the State, 
and soon removed from Sunbury to Lancaster, where Judge Yeates resided. 
Under the old circuit court system it was customary for most of the dis- 
tinguished country lawyers to travel over the northern and western parts of 
the State with the judges, and hence Mr. Smith, in pursuing this practice, 
soon became associated with such eminent men as Thomas Duncan, David 
Watts, Charles Hall, John Woods, James Hamilton, and a host of luminaries 
of the middle bar. The settlement of land titles, at that period, became of 
vast importance to the people of the State, and the foundation of the law with 
regard to settlement rights, the rights of warrantees, the doctrine of surveys, 
and the proper construction of lines and corners, had to be laid. In the trial 
of ejectment cases the learning of the bar was best displayed, and Mr. Smith, 
was soon looked on as an eminent land lawyer. In after years, when called 
on to revise the old publications of the laws of the State, and under the au- 
thority of the Legislature to frame a new compilation of the same (generally- 
known as Smith's Laws of Pennsylvania) he gave to the public the result of 
his knowledge and experience on the subject of land law, in the very copious 
note on that subject, which may well be termed a treatise on the land laws of 
Pennsylvania. In the same work his note on the criminal law of the State is 
elaborate and instructive. Mr. Smith was, in 1819, appointed president judge 
of the district, comprising the counties of Cumberland and Franklin, where 
his official learning and judgment, and his habitual industry, rendered him a 
useful and highly popular judge. 

On the erection of the District Court of Lancaster he became the first pre- 
siding judge, which office he held for several years. He finally removed to 
Philadelphia, where he spent the last years of his life, and died in that city in 
1840, in the seventy- fifth year o^ his age. 

Hon. John Eeed, LL.D., appeared upon the bench in 1820. Judge Keed 
was born in what was then York, now Adams County, in 1786. He was the 
son of Gen. William Eeed, of Revolutionary fame. He read law under Will- 
iam Maxwell, of Gettysburg. In 1809 he was admitted to the bar and com- 
menced the practice of law in Westmoreland Coimty. In the two last years 
of his professional career he performed the duties of deputy attorney-general. 
In 1815 Mr. Reed was elected to the State Senate, and on the 10th of July 
1820, he was commissioned by Gov. Finley president judge of the Ninth 
Judicial District, then composed of the counties of Cumberland, Adams and 
Perry. When, in 1839, by a change in the constitution, his commission expired, 
he resumed his practice at the bar, and continued it until his death which 
occurred in Carlisle, on the 19th of January, 1850, when he was in the six- 
ty-fourth year of his age. In 1839 the decree of LL.D. was conferred upon 
him by Washington College, Pennsylvania. In 1833 the new board of trustees 
of Dickinson College formed a professorship of law, and Judge Eeed was 
elected professor of that department. The instructions consisted of lectures, 
and of a moot court of law, where legal questions were discussed, cases tried, 
and where the pleadings were drawn up in full — Eeed being the supreme court. 
After a full course of study, this department conferred the decree of LL.B. 
Many were admitted to the bar during this period, most of whom practiced 
elsewhere, and many of whom afterward became eminent in their pro- 



At this period, and later, the bar was particularly strong. Of the old 
Teterans, David Watts was dead, and Duncan was upon the supreme bench. 
But among the practitioners of the time were such men as Carothers, Alexander, 
Mahan, Eamsey, Williamson, Metzgar, Lyon, William Irvine, William H. 
Brackenridge and Isaac Brown Parker; while among those admitted, and who 
were afterward to attain eminence on the bench or at the bar, were such men 
as Charles B. Penrose, Hugh Gaullagher, Frederick Watts, William M. Biddle, 
James H. Graham, Samuel Hepburn, William Sterritt Eamsey, S. Dunlap Adair 
and John Brown Parker — a galaxy of names such as has not since been equaled. 

Gen. Samuel Alexander was practicing at our bar in 1820, when Judge 
Reed took the bench. He was the youngest son of Col. John Alexander, a 
Revolutionary officer, and was born in Carlisle September 20, 1792. He 
graduated at Dickinson College in 1812, after which he read law in Greens- 
burg vsrith his brother, Maj. John B. Alexander, and became a prominent law- 
yer in that part of the State. He afterward returned to Carlisle, and by the 
advice of Judge Duncan and David Watts was induced to become a member of 
our bar, at which he soon acquired a prominent position. In 1820 he married 
a daughter of Col. Ephraim Blaine, but left no sons to perpetuate his name. 

As an advocate Mr. Alexander had but few, if any, superiors at the bar. 
In the early part of his career he was a diligent student and was in the habit 
of carefully digesting most of the reported cases. In addition to this he was 
possessed of a tenacious memory and seemed never to forget a case he had 
once read. He was always fully identified with the cause of his client, and 
possessed that thorough onesidedness so necessary to the successful advocate. 

He possessed also great tact and an intuitive quickness of perception. In 
the management of a case he was apt, watchful and ingenious. If driven 
from one position, like a skillful general he was always quick to seize another. 
In this respect his talents, it is said, only brightened amid difficulties, and 
shone forth only the more resplendent as the battle became more hopeless. 
Nor was oratory, the crowning grace and the most necessary accomplishment 
of the advocate, wanting. He was a forcible speaker, with a large command 
of language, and with the happy faculty of nearly always finding the right 
word for the right place. His diction was choice, and in his matter, although 
sometimes diffusive, in his manner he was always bold, vigorous and aggres- 
sive. He had the power of sarcasm, was often ironical, and was a master in 
personal invective. In this he had no equal at the bar. In the examination 
of witnesses, also, he had no superior. 

Mr. Alexander had a natural inclination for mechanics, and was passion- 
ately fond of anything pertaining to military life. He was for years at the 
head of a volunteer regiment of the county. He cared for this, strange as it 
may, appear, more than for his profession, which, toward the close of his life, 
seems to have become distasteful to him; at least with his abilities unim- 
paired, he appeared but seldom in the trial of a cause. He died in Carlisle 
in July, 1845, aged fifty -two. 

Hugh Gaullagher, a practitioner at the bar under Reed, studied law with 
Hon. Richard Coulter of Greensburg, and shortly after his admission com- 
menced the practice of law in Carlisle. This was about 1824, from which time 
he continued to practice until about the middle of the century. 

He was eccentric, long limbed, awkward in his gait, and in his delivery 
with an Irish brogue, but he was well-read, particularly in history and in the 
elements of his profession. He was an affable man, an instructive companion, 
fond of conversation, vrith inherent humor and a love of fun, and was popular 


in the circle of his friends, of whom he had many. He was among the num- 
ber of the old lawyers of our bar who were fond of a dinner and a song, how- 
ever gravely they appear upon the page of history. 

At the bar his position was more that of a counselor than of an advocate. 
He was fond of the old cases and would rather read an opinion of my Lord 
Mansfield, or Hale, or Coke, than the latest delivered by our own judges, ' ' not 
that he disregarded the latter, but because he reverenced the former. ' ' 

He is well remembered, often in connection with anecdotes, and is as fre- 
quently spoken of bv survivors as any man who practiced at our bar so long 
ago. He died April 14, 1856. 

Hon. Charles B. Penrose was born near Philadelphia October 6, 1798. He 
read law with Samuel Ewing, Esq. , in Philadelphia, and immediately moved 
to Carlisle. He soon acquired a prominent position at the bar. He was 
elected to the State Senate in 1833, and at the expiration of his term was re- 
elected. In this capacity he achieved distinction even among the men of abil- 
ity who were then chosen for this office. In 1841 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Harrison, solicitor of the treasury, which position he held until the clos» 
of President Tyler's administration. After practicing in Carlisle he moved 
first to Lancaster, then to Philadelphia, in both places successfully pursuing 
his profession. In 1856 he was again elected as a reform candidate to the 
State Senate, during which term he died of pneumonia at Harrisburg. April 
6, 1857. 

"William M. Biddle was admitted under Eeed in 1826. He was born in 
Philadelphia July 3, 1801, and died of heart disease in that city, where he had 
gone to place himself under the care of physicians, on the 28th of Febru- 
ary, 1855. He was the great-great-grandson of Nicholas Scull, surveyor-gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania from 1748 to 1761, who, by direction of Gov. Hamilton, 
laid out the borough of Carlisle in 1751. Mr. Biddle was originally destined 
for mercantile pursuits, but the death of his cousin, Henry Sergeant, an East 
India trader, who had promised him a partnership in business, put an end to 
these plans and his attention was turned to the law. He went to Beading, Penn. , 
and studied with his brother-in-law, Samuel Baird, Esq. In 1826, shortly af- 
ter his admission to the bar, he moved to Carlisle, induced to do so by the ad- 
vice of his brother-in-law, Charles B. Penrose, Esq. , who had recently opened 
a law office there, and was then rising into a good practice. Located in Carlisle he 
soon acquired a large business and soon took a high position at the bar, which 
he retained to the day of his death, a period of twenty-nine years. 

Mr. Biddle was an able lawyer and had a keen perception of the principles 
of law, which, when understood, reduce it to a science. He was endowed with 
a large fund of wit, in addition to which he was also an excellent mimic, and 
often indulged in these powers in his addresses to the jury. He was rather a 
large man, of fine personal presence, great affability, endowed with quick wit 
and high moral and intellectual qualities which made him a leader at the bar 
at a time when many brilliant men were among its members. 

Gen. Edward M. Biddle was born in Philadelphia; graduated at Princeton 
College, and then removed to Carlisle, where he studied law under his broth- 
er-in-law, Hon. Chas. B. Penrose, and in 1830 was admitted to practice in the 
several courts of Cumberland County. 

Hon. Charles McClure was admitted to the bar under Eeed in August, 1826. 
He was born in Carlisle, graduated at Dickinson College, and afterward be- 
came a member of Congi'ess, and still later, 1843-45, secretary of state of 
Pennsylvania. He was a son-in-law of Chief Justice Gibson. He did not prac- 
tice extensively at the bar. He removed to Pittsburgh, where he died in 1846. 


Hon. William Sterritt Ramsey, one of the most promising members of the 
bar admitted under Reed, was bom in Carlisle June 16, 1(510. He entered 
Dickinson College in the autumn of 1826, where he remained three years. 
In the summer of 1829 he was sent to Europe to complete his education and to 
restore, by active travel and change of scene, health to an already debilitated 
constitution. The same year he was appointed (by our minister to the court of 
St. James, Hon. Lewis McClane) an attache to the American Legation. He 
pursued his legal studies, visited the courts of Westminister, and the author 
of Waverly at Abbottsford, to whom he bore letters from Washington Irving. 
After the Revolution of three days in July, 1830, he was sent with dispatches to 
France, and spent much of his time, while there, at the hotel of Gen. Lafayette. 
In 1831 he returned to America and began the study of law under his father. 
In the month of September of this year his father died. He continued to study 
under Andrew Carothers, and in 1833 was admitted to the bar of Cumberland 

In 1838 he was elected a member of Congress by the Democratic party, 
and at the expiration of his term was re-elected. He was at this time the 
youngest member of Congress in the House. He died, before being qualified 
a second time, by his own hand in Barnum' s Hotel, Baltimore, October 22, 
1840, aged only thirty years. An eloquent obituary notice was written on the 
occasion of his death by his friend, Hon. James Buchanan, afterward Presi- 
dent of the United States, from which some of the above facts are taken. 

S. Dunlap Adair was admitted under Reed in January, 1835. For fifteen 
years he was a practitioner at the bar. He was born March 26, 1810. While 
a youth he attended the classical school of Joseph Casey, Sr. , the father of 
Hon. Joseph Casey, in Newville, and was among the brightest of his pupils. 
He was apt in acquiring knowledge and particularly in the facility of acquiring 
languages. He became a good Latin scholar, and, after his admission to the 
bar, made himself acquainted with the German, French and Italian languages. 
He was well read in English literature, and although not a graduate of any 
college, his attainments were as varied as those of any member of the bar. 
He studied law under Hon. Frederick Watts , and soon after his admission was 
appointed deputy attorney-general for the county. He was a candidate of 
his party in the district for Congress when William Ramsey, the younger, was 
elected. He had a chaste, clear style, and was a pleasant speaker. In stature 
he was below the medium height, delicately formed, near-sighted, and whether 
sitting or standing had a tendency to lean forward. He was of sanguine 
temperament, had auburn hair and a high forehead. He died of bronchial 
consumption in Carlisle, September 23, 1850. 

John Brown Parker, Esq. , was born in Carlisle October 5, 1816. He grad- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, in 1834. He read 
law with Hon. Frederick Watts for the period of one year, completing his 
course of study in the law school under Judge Reed, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in April, 1838. He was for a time associated with his preceptor, Hon. 
Frederick Watts. He retired from practice in 1865, and moved to Philadel- 
phia, where he resided for some years. 

Capt. William M. Porter was born in Carlisle, this county, in 1808 ; read 
law under Samuel A. McCoskry, and was admitted to the Carlisle bar in 1835. 
He died in 1873. 

In 1827 John Bannister Gibson, LL.D. , was appointed chief justice of 

He was born on the 8th of November, 1780, in Sherman's Valley, then 
Cumberland, now Perry, County, Pennsylvania. He was of Scotch-Irish de- 


■scent, and the son of Col. George Gibson, who was killed at the defeat of St. 
Clair in 1791. In 1795 young Gibson studied in the preparatory school con- 
nected with Dickinson College, and subsequently in the collegiate department, 
when that institution was under Dr. Nesbitt, graduating at the age of eight- 
een, in the class of 1798. 

During this period he was in the habit of frequenting the office of Dr. Me- 
■Coskry — one of the oldest practitioners of medicine in the place — and there 
acquired a taste for the study of physic, which he never lost. 

On the completion of his collegiate course, he entered on the study of law 
in Carlisle in the office of his kinsman, Thomas Duncan, with whom he was af- 
terward to occupy a seat on the bench of the supreme court. He was admit- 
ted to the bar of Cumberland County in March, 1803. 

He first opened his office in Carlisle, then removed to Beaver, then to 
Hagerstown, but shortly afterward returned to Carlisle. This was in 1805, 
and at this point is the beginning of a remarkable career. 

From 1805 to 1812 Mr. Gibson seems to have had a reasonable share of 
the legal practice in Cumberland County, particularly when we consider that 
the field was occupied by such men as Duncan, Watts, Bowie of York, and 
Smith of Lancaster, who, at the time of which we speak, had but few equals 
in the State. Nevertheless it may well be doubted whether his qualifications 
were of such a character as would ever have fitted him to attain high eminence 
at the bar, His reputation, at this period, was not that of diligence in his pro- 
fession, and it is quite probable that, at this time, he had no great liking for 
it. In fact, at this period, of his life Mr. Gibson seems to have been known 
rather as a fine musical connoisseur and art critic than as a successful lawyer. 
He was a good draughtsman, a judge of fine paintings, and a votary of the violin. 

In 1810 Mr. Gibson was elected by the Democratic party of Cumberland 
County to the House of Representatives, and after the expiration of his term, 
in 1812, he was appointed president judge of the court of common pleas for 
the Eleventh Judicial District, composed of the counties of Tioga, Bradford, 
Susquehanna and Luzerne. 

Justice Gibson' s personal appearance at this time is within the recollection 
of men who are still living. He was a man of large proportions, a giant both 
in physique and intellect. He was considerably over six feet in height, with 
a muscular, well-proportioned frame, indicative of strength and energy, and 
a countenance expressing strong character and manly beauty. 

' ' His face, ' ' says David Paul Brown, ' ' was full of intellect and benevo- 
lence, and, of course, eminently handsome; his manners were remarkable for 
■their simplicity, warmth, frankness and generosity. There never was a man 
more free from affectation or pretension of every sort. ' ' 

Until the day of his death, says Porter, ' ' although his bearing was mild 
and unostentatious, so striking was his personal appearance that few persons 
to whom he was unknown could have passed him by in the street without re- 

Upon the death of Judge Brackenridge in 1816, Judge Gibson was ap- 
pointed by Gov. 'Snyder Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, where, 
as it has been said, if TUghman was the Nestor, Gibson became the Ulysses of 
ihe bench. 

This appointment of Gibson to the bench of the supreme court seems first 
to have awakened his intellect and stimulated his ambition. He partly with- 
drew himself from his former associates, and was thus delivered from numer- 
ous temptations to indolence and dissipation. He became more devoted to 
study, and for the first time perhaps in his life he seems to have formed a 


resolution to make himself master of the law as a science. Coke particularly 
seems to have been his favorite author, and his quaint, forcible and condensed 
style, together with the severity of his logic seem to have had no small in- 
fluence in the development of Gibson' s mind, and in implanting there the 
seeds of that love for the English common law, which was afterward every- 
where so conspicuous in his writings. 

It is pertinent here to remark that Judge Gibson, like Coke and Blackstone, 
seems never to have had any fondness for the civil law. Whether this 
was on account of the purely Anglo-Saxon of his mind, or on account of a want 
of opportunity in the means through which to become thoroughly acquainted 
with the most beautiful and symmetrical system of law which the world has 
ever known, we can not say, but certain it is that he seems to have cast ever 
and anon a suspicious glance at the efforts of a judge story, and writers of that 
school to infuse its principles in a still greater degree into our common law. 
We need but refer to the opinions delivered in Dyle vs. Eichards, 9 Sergeant 
and Eawle, 322, and in Logan vs. Mason, 6 Watts and Sergeant 9, in proof of 
the existence of these views in the mind of their author. 

In an old number of the "American Law Register" there is a review of 
Mr. Troubat' s work on limited partnership by Gibson. It was the last essay 
he ever wrote, and in it he says : ' ' The writer of this article is not a champion 
of the civil law; nor does he profess to have more than a superficial knowledge 
of it. He was bred in the school of Littleton and Coke, and he would be 
sorry to see any but common law doctrines taught in it. " But here Gibson is 
speaking of the English law of real property, and he afterward says ' ' The 
English law merchant, an imperishable monument to Lord Mansfield's fam^e, 
shows what a magnificent structure may be raised upon it where the ground is 
not preoccupied. ' ' 

Hitherto the bench of the supreme court had consisted of but three judges, 
but under the act of April 8, 1826, the number was increased to five. But little 
more than one yeai' elapsed before the death of Chief Justice Tilghman. Gib- 
son was his successor. He received his commission on the 18th of May, 1827, 
and from this time forward the gradual and uniform progress of his mind, 
says Col. Porter, " may be traced in his opinions with a certainty and satisfac- 
tion which are perhaps not offered in the case of any other judge known to our 
annals. His original style, compared to that in which he now began to write, 
was like the sinews of a growing lad compared to the well-knit muscles of a 
man. No one who has carefully studied his opinions can have failed to re- 
mark the increased power and pith which distinguished them from this time 
forward. ' ' In the language of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens ' ' he lived to an advanced 
age, his knowledge increasing with increasing years, while his great intellect 
remained unimpaired." 

From 1827 he remained as the chief upon the bench, until 1851, when 
by a change in the constitution the judiciary became elective, and was elected 
the same year an associate justice of the court, being the only one of the for- 
mer incumbents returned. But although ' ' nominally superseded by another 
as the head of the court, his great learning, venerable character and over shad- 
owing reputation still made him," in the language of his successor. Judge 
Black, ' ' the only chief whom the hearts of the people would know. 

' ' His accomplishments were very extraordinary. He was born a musician, 
and the natural talent was highly cultivated. He was a connoisseur in paint- 
ing and sculpture. The whole round of English literature was familiar to 
him. * He was at home among the ancient classics. * * * Hq 

*He was well read, we have seen it stated, ia the Britisb classics, fond of English drama, and familiar with 
the dramatists of the Kestoration. 


had studied medicine in his youth and understood it well. His mind absorbed 
all kinds of knowledge with scarcely an effort."* 

In regard to his mental habits, he was a deep student, but not a close 
student ; he worked most effectively, but he worked reluctantly. The concur- 
rent testimony of all who knew him is that he seldom or never wrote, except 
when under the pressure of necessity, but when he once brought the powers 
of his mind to a focus and took up the pen, he wrote continuously and with- 
out erasure. When he once began to write an opinion he very rarely laid it 
aside until it was completed. This, with the broad grasp with which he took 
hold of his subject, has given to his opinions a consistency and unity otherwise 
difficult to have attained. He saw a case in all its varied relations, and the 
principles by which it was governed, rather by the intuitive insight of genius, 
than as the result of labor. 

These opinions very seldom give a history of decided cases, but invariably 
put the decision upon some leading principle of law — referring to but few 
cases, by way of illusftation, or to show exceptions to the rule. He was emi- 
nently self-reliant. He appeared at a time when the law of our common- 
wealth was in process of formation, and in its development his formulating 
power has been felt. 

Of his style much has been said. Said Stevens " I do not know by whom 
it has been surpassed." It is a judicial style, at once compact, technical 
and exact. His writing can be made to convey just what he means to express 
and nothing more. His meaning is not always upon the surface, but when 
it is perceived it is certain and without ambiguity. [It may be interesting ta 
state that Chief Justice Gibson often thought out his opinions while he was 
playing upon the violin. When a thought came to him he would lay down 
his instrument and vsrite. As to his accuracy of language, he was in the habit 
of carrying with him a book of synonyms. These facts have been told to the 
writer by his son. Col. George Gibson, of the United States Army.] 

It has been said that one ' ' could pick out his opinions from others like gold 
coin from among copper." He was, for more than half hjs life, a chief or 
associate justice on the bench, and his opinions extend through no less than 
seventy volumes of our reports f — an imperishable monument to his memory. 

Chief Justice Gibson died in Philadelphia May 3, 1853, in the seventy- 
third year of his age. He was buried two days afterward in Carlisle. 

In the old grave-yard, upon the tall marble shaft which was erected over 
his tomb, we read the following beautiful inscription from the pen of Chief 
Justice Jeremiah S. Black : 

In the various knowledge 
Which forms the perfect SCHOLAR 
He had no superior. 
Independent, upright and able, 
He had all the highest qualities of a great JUDGE. 
In the difficult science of Jurisprudence, 
He mastered every Department, 
Discussed almost every question, and 
Touched no subject which he did not adorn. 
He won in early manhood, 
And retained to the close of a long life. 
The AFFECTION of his brethren on the Bench, 
The EESPECT of the Bar 
And the confidence of the people. 

Hon. John Kennedy, who had studied under the elder Hamilton and had 
been admitted to our bar under Riddle in 1798, was appointed to the bench 

•Judge Black's Eulogy ,on Gibson. 
tFrom 2 Sergeant and Eawle to 7 Harris. 


of the Bupreme court in 1830. He was born in Cumberland County in June, 
1774; graduated at Dickinson College in 1795, and after his admission to the 
bar, removed to a northern circuit, where he became the compeer of men like 
James Ross, John Lyon, Parker Campbell, and others scarcely less dis- 
tinguished. He afterward removed to Pittsburgh, where his high reputation 
as a lawyer at once introduced him to a lucrative practice. From 1830 he 
remained upon the bench until his death, August 26, 1846. His opinions, 
extending through twenty-seven volumes of reports, are distinguished by lucid 
argumentation and laborious research. Judge Gibson, who had known him 
from boyhood, and who sat with him upon the bench for a period of over fifteen 
years, said: "His judicial labors were his recreations. He clung to the com- 
mon law as a child to its nurse, and how much he drew from it may be seen in 
his opinions, which, by their elaborate minuteness, remind us of the over- 
fullness of Lord Coke. Patient in investigation and slow in judgment, he 
seldom changed his opinion. A cooler head and a warmer heart never met 
together in the same person; and it is barely just to sSy that he has not left 
behind a more learned lawyer or a more upright man." In David Paul 
Brown' s ' ' Forum ' ' we find the following : " It is recorded that Sergeant 
Maynard had such a relish for the old Year Books, that he carried one in his 
coach to divert his time in travel, and said he preferred it to a comedy. The 
late Judge Kennedy, of the supreme court, who was the most enthusiastic 
lover of the law we ever new, used to say that his greatest amusement consisted 
in reading the law; and indeed, he seemed to take almost equal pleasure in 
writing his legal opinions, in some of which, Eeed vs. Patterson, for instance, 
he certainly combined the attractions of law and romance." He is buried in 
the old grave-yard at Carlisle. 

Hon. Samuel Hepburn (seventh president judge), the successor of Judge 
Heed, first appears upon the bench in April, 1839. Judge Hepburn 
was born in 1807 in Williamsport, Penn., at which place he began 
the study of law under James Armstrong, who was afterward a judge on 
"the supreme bench. He completed his legal studies at Dickinson CoUege 
under Eeed, and was admitted to the bar of Cumberland County in November, 
1834. He was, at the time of his admission appointed adjunct professor of 
law in the Moot court of Dickinson College by Judge Reed. Before he had 
been at the bar five years, he was appointed by Gov. Porter, president 
judge of the Ninth Judicial District, then embracing Cumberland, Perry and 
Juniata, and he presided at times also, during his term in the civil courts of 
Dauphin. He was at this time the youngest judge in Pennsylvania to whom 
a president judge's commission had been ever offered. Among the important 
cases the McClintock trial took place while he was upon the bench. After 
the expiration of his term he resumed the practice of law in Carlisle, where he 
still resides. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon Judge Hepburn by 
Washington College, Penn. 

The most prominent practitioners admitted under Judge Hepburn were J. 
Ellis Bonham, Lemuel Todd, William H. Miller, Benjamin F. Junkin, Will- 
iam M. Penrose and Alexander Brady Sharpe. 

J. Ellis Bonham, Esq., was among the ablest lawyers admitted under 
Judge Hepbixrn. He was born in Hunterdon County, N. J. , March 31, 
1816, graduated at Jefferson College, Penn. , studied law in Dickinson CoUege 
under Eeed, and was admitted to the bar in August, 1889. 

' ' He had no kindred here nor family influence. His pecuniary gains were 
small during the first few years of his professional career, and he had little or 
no aid outside of them, as his father was in moderate circumstances." He 


had not been long, however, at the bar before he was appointed deputy attor- 
ney-general for the county — a position which he filled with conspicious ability. 
He had a taste for literature and his library was large and choice. He had 
little fondness for the drudgery of his profession, but he had political ambition, 
and his political reading and knowledge were extensive. He wrote for the 
leading political journals of his party articles on many of the prominent ques- 
tions of the day. " During his term in the Legislature he was the acknowl- 
edged leader of the House, as the Hon. Charles B. Buckalew was of the Sen- 
ate; and they were not unlike in mental characteristics, and somewhat alike in 
personal appearance. They were decidedly the weakest men physically and 
the strongest mentally in either House. ' ' 

After the expiration of his term he was nominated for Congress, and 
although he was in a district largely Democratic, eminently fitted for the posi- 
tion, and had, himself, great influence in the political organization, he was de- 
feated by the sudden birth of a new party. He died shortly afterward of 
congestion of the lungs, March 19, 1855. 

In personal appearance Mr. Bonham was rather under than above the me- 
dium height, delicately formed, with light hair and complexion. He was of 
nervous temperament. His countenance was handsome and refined. As an 
advocate he was eminently a graceful and polished speaker, attractive in his 
manner, with a poetic imagination and chaste and polished diction. His 
speeches, although they at times bore traces of laborious preparation, were ef- 
fective, and on one occasion, we are told, many persons in the court were moved 
to tears. 

He died before his talents had reached their prime, after having been at 
the bar for fifteen years and before he had attained the age of forty. 

Hon. Lemuel Todd was born in Carlisle July 29, 1817. He graduated at 
Dickinson College in 1839, read law under Gen. Samuel Alexander and was 
admitted to practice in August, 1841. He was a partner of Gen. Alexander 
until the time of his death in 1843. He was elected to Congress from the 
Eighteenth District in 1854 on the Know-nothing ticket as against J. Ellis 
Bonham on the Democratic, and was elected congressman at large in 1875. 
He presided over the State conventions of the Eepublican party at Harrisburg 
that nominated David Wilmot for governor; at Pittsburgh that nominated 
Gov. Curtin; and at Philadelphia that advocated for President Gen. Grant. 

Gen. Todd has practiced continuously at the bar except for a period during 
the late war, a portion of which time he acted as inspector-general of Penn- 
sylvania troops under Gov. Curtin. 

William H. MiUer, for more than a quarter of a century, was an act- 
ive practitioner at the bar of our county. He was a student of Judge Eeed, 
and was admitted to the bar in August, 1842; William M. Biddle, S. Dunla,p 
Adair and J. Ellis Bonham, Esqs. , being his committee of examination. His 
initiate was difficult, but by perseverance and talent he succeeded in winning 
a large practice and an honorable position at the bar. As a speaker he was 
deliberate and dignified; as a man refined and amiable ; scholarly in both his 
taste and in his appearance. As a lawyer he was cool and self-possessed, and 
with deliberate logic and tact he ' won, as a rule, the implicit confidence of a 
jury. He died suddenly of congestion of the brain in June, 1877. 

William McFunn Penrose, was admitted vmder Hepburn. He was bom 
in Carlisle March 29, 1825; graduated with honor at Dickinson College in 1844, 
and was admitted to the bar in November, 1846. He was the eldest son of 
Hon. Charles B. Penrose. As a lavryer he was eminently successful, learned, 
quick and accurate in his perceptions, cogent in argument, fluent but terse as 



a Bpeaker, he seldom failed to convince a jury. He had a keen perception of 
distinctions in the cases, and of the principles which underlie them, and in all 
questions of practice was particularly at home. He served for a time as 
colonel of the Sixth Regiment at the beginning of the war. He died Septem- 
ber 2, 1872, in the prime of life and in the midst of usefulness. 

Hon. Eobert M. Henderson, born near Carlisle March 11, 1827. Gradu- 
ated at Dickinson College in 1845. Read law under Judge Reed, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in August, 1847. He was elected, by the Whig party, to the 
Legislature in 1851 and 1852. He served, by appointment in April, 1874, as 
additional judge of the Twelfth Judicial District, and was elected to that office 
in the same year. He became president judge of this district in January, 1882, 
resigned his position in March of the same year, and returned to his practice 
in Carlisle. He served as a colonel in the late war. 

Alexander Brady Sharpe was born in Newton Township, Cumberland 
County, August 12, 1827. He graduated with honor at Jefferson College, 
Pennsylvania, in 1846. He read law under Robert M. Bard, Esq. , of Cham- 
bersburg, and subsequently with Hon. Frederick Watts, of Carlisle. He was 
admitted to the bar in November 1848, since which time he has practiced, ex- 
cept during the period of the war, when he was in the service of his country, 
a portion of the time serving upon the staff of Gen. Ord. 

Hon. Frederick Watts became judge of our courts in 1849. He was the 
son of David Watts, a distinguished member of the early bar, and was born in 
Carlisle May 9, 1801. He graduated at Dickinson College in 1819. Two 
years later he entered the office of Andrew Carothers, and was admitted to 
practice in August, 1824. He remained for a time in partnership with his pre- 
ceptor and acquired a lucrative practice. During a period of foi-ty-two years 
from the October term, 1827, to May term, 1869, in the Supreme Court, there 
is no volume of reports containing cases from the middle district (except for 
the three years when he was upon the bench) in which his name is not found. 
For fifteen vears he was the reporter of the decisions of that court, from 1829; 
three volumes, " Watts & Penrose," ten volumes "Watts Reports," and nine 
"Watts & Sergeant." On March 9, 1849, he was commissioned by Gov. 
Johnston, president judge of the Ninth Judicial District, containing the 
counties of Cumberland, Perry and Juniata. He retired in 1852, when the 
judiciary became elective, and resumed his practice, from which after a long 
and honorable career, he gradually withdrew in about 1860-69. In August, 
1871, he was appointed and served as commissioner of agriculture mider Hayes. 
As a man he had great force of character, sterling integrity, and, as a lawyer, 
ability, dignity and confidence. He had great power with a jury from their 
implicit confidence in him. He was always firm, self-reliant, despised quirks 
and quibbles, and was a model of fairness in the trial of a cause. He is still 
living in honorable retirement in Carlisle at an advanced age, being now the 
oldest surviving member of the bar. 

We have now brought the history of our bar with sketches, some of them 
dealing with living members, down to the time when Judge Graham appears 
upon the bench, which is within the recollection of the youngest lawyer. For 
the future we must for obvious reasons satisfy ourself with briefer mention. 

Hon. James H. Graham, born September 10, 1807, in West Pennsborough 
Township, graduated at Dickinson College in 1827, studied law under Andrew 
Carothers, Esq. , admitted to the bar in November, 1829. In 1839, after the 
election of Gov. Porter, he was appointed deputy attorney-general for Cum- 
berland County, a position which he filled ably for six years. After the amend- 
ment of the Constitution making the judiciary elective, he received the nom- 


ination (Democratic) and was elected in October, 1851, president judge of the 
Ninth Judicial District, comprising the counties of Cumberland, Perry and 
Juniata. At the expiration of his term he was re-elected in 1861, serving 
another full term of ten years. After his retirement from the bench he re- 
turned again to the practice of law. He died in the fall of 1882. In 1862 his 
alma mater conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. Perhaps the highest 
eulogy we can pay is to say that for more than half a century at the bar or on 
the bench, there was never, in the language of Judge Watts, a breath of im- 
putation against his character as a lawyer, or upon his honor as a judge. " 

Hon. Benjamin F. Junkin was admitted to the bar in August, 1844. 
He lived in Bloomfield and became, with the younger Mclntyre, a leader 
of the bar of Perry County. In 1871, he was elected the tenth president 
judge of the Ninth Judicial District— then including the counties of Cum- 
berland, Perry and Juniata. He was the last of the perambulatory judges. 
On the redisti-ibution of the district under the constitution of 1874, he 
chose Perry and Juniata, and therefore, from that period, ceased to preside 
over the courts in Cumberland County. 

Hon. Martin C. Herman, who succeeded Hon. Benjamin Junkin as the 
eleventh judge of our Judicial District, was born in Silver Spring Township, 
Cumberland County, February 14, 1841. He graduated at Dickinson College 
in 1862. He had registered as a student of law previous to this time with B . 
Mclntyre & Son, Bloomfield, then with William H. Miller, of Carlisle, under 
whom he completed his studies. He was admitted to the bar in January, 1864. 
He was elected by the Democratic party president judge of the Ninth Judicial 
District, in 1874, taking the bench on the first Monday of January in the 
succeeding year, and serving for full term of ten years, and was nominated by 
acclamation in August, 1884. 

Hon. Wilbur F. Sadler, twelfth and last judge, was born October 14, 1840; 
read law under Mi-. Morrison at Williamsport, and afterward in Carlisle; was 
admitted to the Carlisle bar in 1864, and acquired a large clientage; was 
elected district attorney in 1871, and, in 1884, president judge of the Ninth 
Judicial District of Pennsylvania. 

The present members of the bar, with the dates of their admission, are as 
follows : 

J. E. Barnitz, August, 1877; Bennett Bellman, April, 1874; Hon. F. 
E. Beltzhoover, April, 1864; Edward W. Biddle, April, 1873; Theodore Corn- 
man, 1870; Duncan M. Graham, November, 1876; John Hays, 1859; Hon. 
Samuel Hepburn, November, 1834; Samuel Hepburn, Jr., January, 1863; Hon. 
Martin C. Herman, January, 1864; Christian P. Humrich, November, 1854; 
W. A. Kramer, August, 1883; John B. Landis. 1881; Stewart M. Leidieh, 
August, 1872; W. Penn Lloyd, April, 1865; John E. MUler, August, 1867; 
George Miller, January, 1873; Henry Newsham, April, 1859; Eichard M. 
Parker, November, 1876; A. Brady Sharpe, November, 1848; William J. 
Shearer, January, 1852; John T. Stuart, November, 1876; Silas Stuart, April, 
1881; J. L. Shelley, August, 1875; Alexander Bache Smead; Hon. Lemuel 
Todd, April, 1841; William E. Trickett*, August, 1875; Joseph G. Vale, April, 
1871; Hon. Frederick Watts (retired), 1829; Edward B. Watts, August, 1875; 
Hon. J. Marion Weakley, January, 1861; John W. Wetzel, April, 1874; Muh- 
lenburg Williams (Newville), November, 1860; Eobert McCachran (New- 
viUe), 1857. 

Among the early members of our bench and bar were men who fought 

♦William E. Trickett, formerly professor of metaphysics In Dickinson College, and author of " Liens in 


and were distinguished in the Indian wars and in the Revolution. No less 
than three who practiced in our courts were signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and two were members of the colonial convention at its inception. 
Three sat upon the supreme bench, one as Chief Justice, who has been justly- 
called, in a legal sense, the " great glory of his native State. ' ' Since then many- 
have become distinguished, in their day, on the bench, in the halls of legisla- 
tion, or at the bar. In its prestige the bar of Cumberland County has been 
equal to any in the State, and its reputation has been won in many a well con- 
tested battle for a period of now more than a century and a quarter, so that, 
whatever it may be to-day, it may well pride itself upon its past, and stand, 
among the younger bars of our sister commonwealths, like a Douglas bonneted, 
and bow down to none. 


Medical— Biographical— Physicians in Cumberland County Since 1879— 
Physicians in Cumberland County Kegistered in Office of Protho- 


THE genesis of medical science, like that of chemistry, astronomy or gov- 
ernment, is necessarily slow, and attended with much of empiricism. 
Observations, even if correctly made, are either imperfectly recorded or not 
recorded at all. The common people are destitute of scientific methods of in- 
vestigation. Even if they were so disposed, they lack both the opportunity 
and the ability to note, scientifically, the nature and symptoms of disease 
together with their proper remedial agents. 

It is not strange, therefore, that mothers and grandmothers of the olden 
time should insist, on applying, externally, skunk oil or goose fat for the curing 
of internal derangements. The day of herbs and salves . as panaceas was not 
far removed from the period when special luck was supposed to attach to first 
seeing the moon over the right shoulder ; when potatoes planted or shingles 
laid in the dark of the moon would fail to serve their purposes; when water- 
witches were deemed necessary to locate wells properly; and when bleeding 
the arm for the ailments of humanity was considered absolutely essential to 

The superstition which sought cures in miraculous interferences in these 
various tricks of sleight-of-hand" performances, and meaningless signs and 
tokens, would readily believe that the hair of the dog -will cure his own bite; 
that the carrying, around the neck, of a spider imprisoned in a thimble -will 
cause whooping-cough to disappear; that washing the face in water formed 
from the first snow of the season will remove frecHes ; that the weather of the 
first three days of December will presage the weather of the three following 
months; that the washing of the hands in stump water will cure warts; and 
that if the ground hog sees his shadow on the 2d day of February, he will re- 
tire to his den to endure a six weeks' cold siege. 

The transition from these simple superstitions of the olden times to the 
patent medicine cure-all remedies of the present day was an easy one. He 
who imagined that warts could be removed or pain alleviated by the sorcerer's 
pow-wow, or that skunk fat would cure pleurisy or consumption, would not be 
slow to believe in the curative properties of some thorougly advertised patent nos- 


trum. The statements in patent medicine circulars would receive full credence by 
those suffering the ills to which humanity is subject, and unknown and per- 
haps absolutely worthless remedies would be used assiduously until the system 
was thoroughly deranged. From the ravages of these patent nostrums, as well 
as from the ignorance of the human system prevailing among the masses, the 
medical profession had to save their patients. Everywhere people were per- 
ishing from a lack of knowledge of the physical organization which they were 
expected to preserve, and suffering humanity, racked with the pains of real 
or imaginary ills, was ready to seek relief in any direction. Hence the diffi- 
culty of placing medical science on a substantial basis in which its advocates 
could practice intelligently and conscientiously, and yet receive a proper reward 
for their labors. No class of pioneer citizens made greater sacrifices for hu- 
manity, or deserve stronger marks of recognition, than the genuine medical 
practitioners of a country. With the impetus given to the SBsculapian art by 
their labors and sacrifices, it is safe to predict that the introduction of rudimen- 
tary science into the public schools, and especially the teaching of anatomy, 
physiology and hygiene, will finally usher in a period when the people shall 
obey the laws of their being, and physicians, instead of being migratory drug 
stores, shall be, as the term "doctor" literally implies, teachers of health 

In this chapter brief sketches of most of the medical practitioners of Cum- 
berland County, more or less noted in their fields of labor, are given. 


Among the early physicians who practiced in Carlisle before the Revolution 
was Dr. William Plunkett, but we know nothing more of him than that he re- 
sided in Carlisle and is spoken of as "a practitioner of physic in 1766." 

The most noted of all the pre-Revolutionary practitioners of medicine in 
Carlisle was Dr. William Irvine. He was born near Enniskillen, Ireland, in 
1740; was educated at the University of Dublin, studied medicine and sur- 
gery, and was appointed a surgeon in the British Navy. In 1763, he immigrated 
to America and settled in Carlisle, where he soon acquired a high reputation 
and a large practice as a surgeon and physician. In 1774 he took a conspicu- 
ous part in the politics of Cumberland County and was appointed as a delegate 
to the Provincial Convention. He had a strong leaning toward a military life, 
and was commissioned by Congress colonel of the Sixth Batallion and was or- 
dered to Canada, where he was captured. He was afterward colonel of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania Batallion. In 1779 he was commissioned a brigadi