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Cl^atneU Bnioeraitg Slibcatg 







Cornell University Library 
F 127L6 H831883 

Histoid of Lewis County, New York: jwith. 

3 1924 028 853 815 
olin Overs 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



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|(Uti§$lntlti(in^ nnd l^imgra^ltietal ^Itetcltie^ 




Published by D. MASON & CO., 


— 1883- 

J>». .4> 







CHAPTER I.— Organization of the County II 

CHAPTER II.— County Buildings and County 

Seat 20 

CHAPTER III.— Land Titles 24 

CHAPTER IV.— Topography and Geology of 

County 42 

CHAPTER v.— Notes upon the Seasons and 

Unusual Phenomena 48 

CHAPTER VI.— Notes upon Natural History- 
Notice by Travelers 52 

CHAPTER VII.— Lists of Public Officers 57 

CHAPTER VIII.— Professional Lists— Legal and 

Medical 66 

CHAPTER IX. — Agriculture — Lewis County 
Agricultural Society — Statistics of Ag- 
riculture — Statistics of Population — 
Political Statistics — Statistics of Taxa- 
tion 69 

CHAPTER X.— School Statistics— Personal Men- 
tion 84 

CHAPTER XL— Religious Denominations and 

Societies 95 

CHAPTER XII.— Other Societies and Associa- 
tions — Temperance Societies — The 
Lewis County Anti-Slavery Society — 
Society for the Acquisition of Useful 
Knowledge — Masonic Associations — 
Odd Fellows Lodges — The Lewis 
County Mutual Insurance Company 107 

CHAPTER XIII.— The Newspaper Press— Pop- 
ular Movements — The Patriot War m 

CHAPTER XIV.— State, Turnpike and Plank 

Roads — Mail Routes 116 


CHAPTER XV.— Railroad Projects 122 

CHAPTER XVI. —Canal Projects — Steam- 
boats 128 

CHAPTER XVII.— The M ilitia— Recent Militia 

Organization.s — The County Armory.... 138 

CHAPTER XVIII. — Commemoration Celebra- 
tion — The National Semi-Centennial 
Celebration in 1826 141 

CHAPTER XIX.— Lewis County in the Late 
War — Proceedings of the Board of 
Supervisors 143 

CHAPTER XX —History of the Town of Cro- 

ghan 162 

CHAPTER XXI.— History of the Town of Den- 
mark ,.. 172 ) 

CHAPTER XXII.— History of the Town oV^^ 
Diana 216 

CHAPTER XXIII.— History of the Town of 

Greig 232 

CHAPTER XXIV.— History of the Town of Har- 

risburgh 236 

CHAPTER XXV.— History of the Town of High 

Market 245 

CHAPTER XXVI.— History of the Town of 

Lewis 248 

CHAPTER XXVIL— History of the Town of 

I.eyden , 256 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— History of the Town of 

Lowville , 296 ) 

CHAPTER XXIX. -History of the Town of 

Lyonsdale ^23 

CHAPTER XXX.— History of the Town of Mar- 

tinsburgh 443 




CHAPTER XXXI.— History of the Town of 

Montague , 487 

CHAPTER XXXII.— History of the Town of 

New Bremen 489 

CHAPTER XXXIII.— History of the Town of 

Osceola 492 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— History of the Town of 

Pinclcney 497 

CHAPTER XXXVI.— History of the Town of 

Turin 501 

CHAPTER XXXVII.— History of the Town of 

Watson 540 

CHAPTER XXXVIII.— History of the Town of 

West Turin 551 

CHAPTER XXXIX.— Appendix 597 


Adams William R., A. M., Lowville, portrait 

facing 389 

Ager Joel Wheeler, Lyonsdale, portrait 438 

Allen Capt. Henry W., West Turin, portrait 591 

Allen Charles M., West Turin, portrait. 593' 

Allen Emory, West Turin, portrait 596 

Arthur Bradford, Martinsburgh, portrait 471 

Arthur Orlando, Martinsburgh, portrait 472 

Blood Charles N., Diana, portrait 232 

Boshart Charles D., Lowville, portrait, (steel) 

facing 415 

Botchford Henry J.. Leyden, portrait 279 

Bowen Farnam J., Lowville, portrait, (steel) facing 391 

Bowen Levi, Lowville, portrait 392 

Burnham Joseph S., Leyden, portrait 291 

Clark John, ist, Denmark, portrait 196 

Clark Lucian, Denmark, portrait 198 

Clark Wayne, Harrisburgh, portrait 241 

Crofoot Elisha, Turin, portrait 526 

Crofoot John, West Turin, portrait 589 

Crosby Hon. Alex. H., M. D., Lowville, portrait, 

(steel) facing 387 

Cunningham Chester S., Denmark, portrait 207 

Dewey Cadwell, Turin, portrait facing 508 

Dewey E. P., Turin, portrait 531 

Doig John, Lowville, portrait 410 

Douglass Charles E., M. D., West Turin 593 

Douglass David D., M. D. , Leyden, portrait 287 


Douglass Norton, Leyden, portrait *°5 

Easton Russel J., Lowville, portrait, (steel) . facing 37^ 

Easton William L., Lowville, portrait 3^9 

Foot Duane D., Lowville, portrait 413 

Foster Ansel, Lowville, portrait 3 

Glenn William, Watson, portrait 55° 

Gordon Solon, Lowville, portrait 4II 

Gould G. Henry P., Lyonsdale, portrait 435 

Hartwell William, Jr., Denmark, portrait 204 

Hough Eli B., Martinsburgh, portrait 480 

House Henry R., Turin, portrait 534 

Hunt Calvin B., Lewis, portrait 255 

Ives Mather S., Turin, portrait 529 

Ives Selden, Turin, portrait 53° 

Johnson Gilbert B., Denmark, portrait 214 

Johnson William H., M. D., Leyden, portrait 289 

Kellogg House, Lowville, view of 39^ 

Kellogg K. Collins, Lowville, portrait, (steel) 

facing 393 

Kilham James, Turin, portrait 522 

Lake Levi C, Diana, portrait 230 

Lanpher Hiram B., Harrisburgh, portrait 243 

Lee Alfred H. , Turin, portrait 521 

Leonard Charles P., Lowville, portrait, (steel) 

facing 397 

Leonard James L., Lowville, portrait, (steel) facing 398 

Leonard Stephen, Lowville, portrait..... facing 396 

Lewis Morgan, Denmark, portrait 206 

Lord John D., Leyden, portrait 277 

Loucks Daniel, Martinsburgh, portrait facing 465 

Lyon Lyman R.is5elas, Lyonsdale, portrait, (steel) 

facing 441 

Merrell Hon. E. S., Lowville, portrait 379 

Merwin Alanson, Leyden, portrait 280 

Merwin Amanda, Leyden, portrait 281 

Merwin James A., Leyden, portrait 283 

Miller Col. Seth, West Turin, portrait 583 

Miller James, West Turin, portrait 585 

Mills Deloss, Lowville, portrait 422 

Morgan Luther, Turin, portrait 535 

Munger Abner, Denmark, portrait 208 

Munn Thaddeus E., Leyden, portrait 292 

Pahud Hon. Joseph, Diana, portrait 224 

Palmer William, Diana, portrait 225 

Patten Daniel, Lowville, portrait 418 

Peebles Charles, Martinsburgh, portrait 473 

Plummer Charles, High Market, portrait 247 

Potter Benjamin F., West Turin, portrait 584 

Rea Peter, Lowville, portrait facing 406 



Rea Rutson, Lowville, portrait, (steel) facing 405 

Rjce William W., Croghan, portrait 171 

Rich Alonzo D., Denmark, portrait 211 

Rich Josiah D., Denmark, portrait 213 

Rich Roland J., Denmark, portrait 212 

Riggs Charles G., Turin, portrait 537 

Roberts Chauncey, Leyden, portrait 295 

Roberts Harriet E., Diana, portrait 228 

Roberts Heman, Diana, portrait 227 

Sackett Martin J., Turin, portrait 525 

Salmon Ransom, Martinsburgh, portrait 486 

Salmon Warren, Martinsburgh, portrait 487 

Scovil Carlos P., Lowville, portrait 375 

Seymour J. Lucius, Turin, portrait 539 

Sharp Ira, Lowville, view of residence facing 419 

Shepard Harlow, Turin, portrait 527 

Shumway Chester, Martinsburgh, portrait 482 

Stevens Samuel, Lowville, portrait 417 

Stiles Alfred, Martinsburgh, portrait 476 

Stiles Dwight, Martinsburgh, portrait 475 

Stiles Jared, Jr., Martinsburgh, portrait 475 

Stiles Jared, Sr., Martinsburgh, portrait 474 

Stoddard Lorin A., Harrisburgh, portrait 244 

Strong John, Turin, portrait facing 514 

Thayer Harrison J„ Turin, portrait 533 

Thompson Chandler E., West Turin, portrait 594 

Turner Henry E., Lowville, portrait 381 

Wadsworth William R., West Turin, portrait 587 

Waters V. R., Turin, portrait 523 

Weller Harvey, Lowville, portrait 421 

West DeWitt C, Lowville, portrait, (steel). . facing 370 

Whitaker Clemence, Martinsburgh, portrait 477 

Whitaker Daniel, Martinsburgh, portrait 478 

Whiting Dr. John, Denmark, portrait 201 

Whiting Harvey M., Denmark, portrait 203 

Wilbur Royal P., Lowville, portrait facing 390 

Wilcox Lyman, Lowville, portrait 408 

Wilcox Marcellus J., Lowville, portrait 409 

Wilcox Marcellus J., Lowville, view of residence, 

facing 407 

Wilson Rodolphus B., Denmark, portrait 216 

Wright Lucius F., Denmark, portrait 210 


Adams Wm. Root, A. M., Lowville 389 


Ager Joel Wheeler, Lyonsdale 437 

Allen Charles M., West Turin 590 

Allen Capt. Henry W., West Turin 59° 

Allen Emory, West Turin 595 

Arthur Bradford, Martinsburgh 470 

Arthur Orlando, Martinsburgh 472 

Boshart Charles D., Lowville 415 

Botchford Henry J., Leyden 278 

Bowen Farnam J., Lowville 391 

Bowen Levi, Lowville 391 

Burnham Joseph S. , Leyden 290 

Clark John, Denmark 195 

Clark Lucian, Denmark 195 

Clark Wayne, Harrisburgh 240 

Crofoot Elisha, Turin 526 

Crofoot John, West Turin 588 

Crosby Hon. Alexander H., M. D., Lowville 387 

Cunningham Chester S., Denmark 207 

Dewey Cadwell, Turin facing 508 

Dewey E. P., Turin 531 

Doig John, Lowville 410 

Douglass Charles Eugene, M. D., West Turin 592 

Douglass David D., M. D 286 

Douglass Norton, Leyden 285 

Easton William L., Lowville 368 

Easton Russel J., Lowville 376 

Foot Duane D., Lowville 412 

Foster Ansel, Lowville 386 

Glenn William, Watson 550 

Gordon Solon, Lowville - 411 

Gould G. Henry P., Lyonsdale 435 

Hall Family, Leyden 293 

Hartwell William, Jr., Denmark 203 

Hough Eli B., Martinsburgh 480 

House Henry R., Turin 534 

Hunt Calvin B., Lewis 255 

Ives John, Turin 528 

Ives Mather S., Turin 529 

Ives Selden, Turin 529 

Johnson Gilbert B., Denmark 214 

Johnson William H., M. D., Leyden 288 

Kellogg House, Lowville 395 

Kellogg K. Collins, Lowville 393 

Kilham James, Turin 522 

Lake Levi C, Diana 229 

Lanpher Hiram B., Harrisburgh 243 

Lee Alfred H., Turin 520 

Leonard James L. , Lowville 398 




Leonard Stephen, Lowville 396 

Leonard Charles P.. Lowville 396 

Lewis Morgan, Denmark 205 

Lord John D., Leyden 277 

Loucks Daniel, Marlinsburgh facing 465 

Lyon Lyman Rasselas, Lyonsdale, 441 

Merrell Hon. E. S., Lowville 379 

Merwin Alanson, Leyden 280 

Merwin Amanda, Leyden 280 

Merwin, M. H., Leyden 280 

Merwin James A., Leyden 280 

Miller James, Turin 585 

Miller Col. Seth, West Turin 582 

Mills Deloss, Lowville 422 

Morgan Luther, Turin , 535 

Munger Abner, Denmark 208 

Munn Thaddeus E., Leyden 292 

Pahud Hon. Joseph, Diana 223 

Palmer William, Diana 225 

Patten Daniel, Lowville 418 

Peebles Charles, Martinsburgh 473 

Plummer Charles, High Market 247 

Potter Benjamin F., West Turin 584 

Rea Rutson, Lowville 405 

Rice William W., Croghan 170 

Rich Alonzo D., Denmark 2ir 

Rich Roland J., Denmark 211 

Rich Josiah D. , Denmark 213 

Riggs Charles G., Turin 536 

Roberts Chauncey, Leyden 294 


.. 226 
,. 228 
.. 524 
. 485 
.. 485 
. 374 
.. 538 
■ 419 

Roberts Heman, Diana 

Roberts Harriet E., Diana 

Sackett Martin J., Turin 

Salmon Ransom, Martinsburgh 

Salmon Warren, Martinsburgh 

Scovil Carlos P., Lowville 

Seymour J. Lucius, Turin 

Sharp Ira, Lowville 

Shepard Harlow, Turin 52? 

Shumway Chester, Martinsburgh 4^'^ 

Stevens Samuel, Lowville 4l6 

Stoddard Lorin A., Harrisburgh 244 

Stiles Family, Martinsburgh 474 

Strong John, Turin facing 514 

Thayer Harrison J., Turin 532 

Thompson Chandler E., West Turin 594 

Turner Henry Ellis, Lowville 380 

Wadsworth William, West Turin 587 

Waters V. R., Turin 523 

Weller Harvey, Lowville 420 

West DeWitt C, Lowville 370 

Whitaker Clemence, Martinsburgh 477 

Whitaker Daniel, Martinsburgh 577 

Whiting Harvey M., Denmark 202 

Whiting Dr. John, Denmark 200 

Wilbur Royal P., Lowville 390 

Wilcox Lyman, Lowville 407 

Wilcox Marcellus J., Lowville 407 

Wilson Rodolphus B., Denmark 215 

Wright Lucius F., Denmark 209 


Nearly a quarter of a century has elapsed since the undersigned undertook, at 
the urgent solicitation of James L. Leonard, and other inends of boyhood, to gather 
the scattered materials that make up the History of Lewis County. The first 
edition, published in i860, embodied many facts that could not now have been obtained ; 
for they were noted down from the recollections of those who had witnessed the 
events that they described, and who are now no more. 

The great events of the War of the Rebellion have added many facts of in- 
terest in our local history, and a large amount of historical materials not previously 
known to exist, has been brought to light. Something of the unwritten annals of 
the early years of settlement had been saved from oblivion during the interval that 
had elapsed, by noting down the incidents and facts as opportunity occurred, and 
occasionally an error had been noticed for correction, which the former edition had 
contained. But the principal object in view in the preparation of a new edition, 
was to amplify from original notes, or from farther inquiry, the details of statements 
which were at first presented in brief, and to bring down the record of events in the 
several towns of the county, by adding a notice of what has since occurred. 

It is not improbable that some errors have odcurred in the orthography of 
names, or in exact dates, for in a work of this kind it is impossible to avoid them. 
We can only ask the indulgence of our readers, and shall always regard it as an act 
of kindness, to have our attention called to any that may be noticed, with a view 
of entering them in a copy that will be used for this purpose, for the benefit of 
those who may hereafter seek more exact information in our local history. 

It would have been a pleasant task, had our space allowed, to have gone over 
in detail the events of the French settlement in Castorland ; — but as we approached 
the end, it was found impossible to do so, excepting in the general way in which its 
history is given in the final chapter. The materials are ample, and prepared for 
publication, — but the opportunity has not yet occurred. 

viii PREFACE. 

I deem it proper to mention that none of the personal notices contained under 
the head of " Biographical Sketches," at the end of the Town Histories, were 
written by myself, nor had I any knowledge as to the names that were to be in- 
cluded, until the pages came to hand for indexing. These sketches, as well as the 
illustrations accompanying, were all prepared by competent assistants of the pub- 
lishers, who. I am confident executed their portion of this work with the same 
solicitude and pains-taking that I have devoted to the purely historical portion. 

The neatness of typography, illustrations, and binding, will commend this 
edition to those who may have become its patrons, and will, we trust, secure their 

In conclusion, the author takes this opportunity to tender his grateful acknowl- 
edgments to the many who in various ways, have so kindly aided him and the pub- 
lishers in this laborious work, and to testify to the cordiality with which his efforts 
have been seconded by the hosts from whom it became his duty to solicit informa- 


LowviLLE, N. Y., May 28, 1883. 





Organization of the County. 

, I / was formed from 
Oneida,* by an act 
formed March 28, 
1805, which also 
created Jefferson 
county. The North- 

( First Seal of Lewis County. ) ^ 

county had been settling rapidly for 
several years, and in the uncertainty 
with reference to centers of business, 
several places aspired for the honors of 
the county-seat^ — for at first but one new 
county was thought of. Nathan Sage, 
of Redfield, Gen. Walter Martin, of 
Martinsburgh. Silas Stow, of Lowville, 
Noadiah Hubbard, of Champion, Hart 
Massey and others of Watertown, and 
Jacob Brown, of Brownville, were then 
active and influential citizens in their 

* Oneida was formed from Herkimer, April 2, 1784, 
including the territory now embraced in the whole of Jef- 
ferson and Lewis counties, and all east of Oswego River 
in Oswego county. Herkimer was taken from Mont- 
gomery, Feb. 16, 1791, and Montgomery (changed from 
Tryon,) was formed from Albany March 12, 1772, Al- 
bany was one of the original counties. 

several localities, and each one had his 
partizans, who were doing their utmost 
to create a public sentiment in favor of 
their particular interest. 

It is probable that Jacob Brown, (af- 
terward the distinguished commander-in- 
chief of the army,) was as influential as 
any one, in creating an opinion in favor 
of two counties, and as the local topog- 
raphy of the country came to be better 
understood, it was found that the Red- 
field settlement was separated by a wide 
swampy region from the rest — a region 
that to this day remains to a great ex- 
tent a wilderness. 

A beginning had been made at Cham- 
pion, in anticipation of its being a county- 
seat, and two or three lawyers, who af- 
terwards elsewhere acquired eminence, 
settled there. One of these was Moss 
Kent, a brother of Chancellor Kent, who 
afterwards removed to LeRayville, and 
finally to Plattsburgh, Henry R. Storrs, 
another, removed to Oneida county, and 
Egbert TenEyck, finally settled in Water- 

The seat of justice in Oneida county, 
had been located at Rome, but an active 
discussion was going on, in favor of its 



removal, or for the erection of half-shire 
towns, as afterwards was done, and in 
the controversy that arose in the older 
settled part of Oneida county, Jonas 
Piatt and Thomas R. Gold, each appealed 
to the public in support of their several 
claims. It was evident that great 
changes were about to take place in the 
county, and active men were on the alert 
to make the most of their opportunity. 
As events were ripening for a division, 
the bearing of every measure that might 
affect the result was watched with inter- 
est, and each was sure to attract its par- 
tizans, according as it would benefit his 
own locality. 

We have already noticed the interest 
taken by Jacob Brown in these move- 
ments. He was then a young man, who 
had come on from near Philadelphia, as an 
agent of LeRay, to survey and settle 
his lands at Brownville. He had first 
passed through this region, from Whites- 
town, in 1797, and as settlers began to 
fill in the country along the west side of 
the Black River, he had become asso- 
ciated on friendly terms with Jonathan 
Collins, of Turin, Walter Martin, of 
Martinsburgh, and other prominent set- 
tlers, with whom it was easy to agree 
that two new counties would be better 
than one. He had a motive in concil- 
iating the southern part of the territory 
to be set off, because he could then have 
a better chance to secure one of the 
prizes. It can hardly be supposed that 
Turin expected to secure the county- 
seat, but it naturally favored the nearest 
point. While Stow, Kelley and others 
were active in attempting to show that 
the tendency of settlement lay further 
north, and it was already known that 
the broad terraces of rich land widened 
out in that direction, while to the south- 
ward they were narrowed in by hills. 

The event proved that the settlers in 
Watertown were a match for Brown, in 
securing one of the new county-seats, 

but by a sort of compromise, they con- 
sented to the location of the court-house 
on the extreme western border of their 
village, towards Brownville, adjacent to 
the present jail, so that it, in fact, did not 
fully accommodate either. 

In a diary left by James Constable, 
one of the executors of the estate of his 
brother William Constable, a partner in 
Macomb's Purchase, he mentions, under 
date of September 20, 1 804, some of these 
plans which he found under discus- 
sion : — 

-X- * * « Finding that Mr. Shaler 
was from home [Constableville,] and not 
knowing what situation his people were 
in, we went to Squire [Jonathan] Col- 
lins, who, although he has left off keep- 
ing tavern, received and entertained us 
kindly from a very heavy rain. He gives 
us some information of the local pro- 
ceedings, about roads, the division of 
the county, and other intrigues, and 
with what I have heard from other 
quarters it appears that Stow and 
Martin had made themselves very 
obnoxious and they will differ about the 
division of the county on their side of 
it. Each will be supported by opposite 
interests, and they will both be defeated 
by the management of the proprietors 
of Redfield or that of Jacob Brown, of 

" Each of the gentlemen requires a 
court house near to himself, and if they 
are all to be gratified, Oneida must be 
divided into five; but there will be op- 
position to their wishes and perhaps to 
any division of the countv, which would 
be for the interest of the'land owners as 
the extra expense would be saved. There 
will be a contest for the clerkship, as 
Mr. Martin, Mr. Stow and Mr. Kelley 
brother-in-law to Stow, are all candi- 
dates. Mr. Stow has declared pubHcly 
he will have it in spite of all opposition, 
but the people are most in favor of Mr! 

To give definite form to these move- 
ments a convention of delegates, mostly 

♦It will be noticed elsewhere that Richard Coxe was 
appointed. He was a brother-in-law of Le Ray and 
was living near CoUinsville. 



chosen at special town meetings, was 
called to assemble in Denmark village, 
to unite in an application to the Legis- 
lature for a division of the county. One 
of these delegates, many years ago,* as- 
sured us that the majority of those sent, 
were instructed to vote for but one new 
county. The result of their deliberations 
is best shown by the record of their sec- 
retary, which is as follows : — 

" At a meeting of three delegates from 
each of the towns of Brownville, Water- 
town, Adams, EUisburgh, Malta,t Har- 
rison,:]: Rutland, Champion, Harris- 
burgh, Lowville, Martmsburgh and 
Turin, convened at the house of Free- 
dom Wright in Harrisburgh,§ on Tues- 
day, the 20th day of November, 1804, 
Jonathan Collins in the chair ; Egbert 
Ten Eyck, secretary: 

" On examination it appeared that the 
following persons were regularly chosen 
to represent their respective towns at 
this meeting : 

" Jacob Brown, John W. Collins, Ben- 
jamin Cole, for Brownville. 

" Tilley Richardson, Henry Coffeen, 
Solomon Robbins, Joshua Beals, for 
A dams. 

" Lyman Ellis, Matthew Boomer, Jr., 
John Thomas, for EUisburgh. 

" Asa Brown, Clark Allen, William 
Hunter, for Malta. 

" William Rice, Cyrus Stone, Simeon 
Hunt, for Harrison. 

" Cliff French, Abel Sherman, WiUiam 
Coffeen, for Rutland. 

" John Durkee, Olney Pearce, Egbert 
Ten Eyck, for Champion. 

" Moss Kent, Lewis Graves, Charles 
Wright, Jr., for Harrisburgh. 

" Silas Stow, Jonathan Rogers, Charles 
Davenport, for Lowville. 

" Asa Brayton, Clark McCarty, Chil- 
lus Doty, for Mar tins burgh. 

♦William Coffeen, then of Rutland, who afterwards 
settled in Antwerp and died there. 

fNow Lorraine. 

JNow Rodman. 

gThe present town of Denmark was then included 
in Harrisburgh. The house where this Convention was 
held, is still [in 1882] standing in Denmark village, and 
is owned by Edward Leonard. 

" Jonathan Collins, John Ives, Elijah 
Wadsworth, for Turin.* 

" The above names being called by the 
secretary, respectively answered and 
took their seats. It was now moved 
and seconded that the sense of this 
meeting be taken whether all the mem- 
bers mentioned in the above list be ad- 
mitted to act in this meeting. Carried 
in the affirmative, 30 to 6. 

" Moved and seconded that all ques- 
tions arising in this meeting, excepting 
questions of order, be taken by ayes and 
nays. Carried unanimously in the af- 

" Moved and seconded that this county 
be set off from the county of Oneida. 
Carried in the affirmative, 27 to 9. 

" Moved and seconded that this meet- 
ing will adjourn for half an hour. Car- 
ried unanimously, adjourned accord- 

" Met pursuant to adjournment. It 
was now moved and seconded that a 
petition be presented to the Legislature 
of this State to appoint a disinterested 
committee to affix our limits for a new 
county, and to decide whether we ought 
to have a whole or a half shire on the 
Black river, and affix the spot or spots 
as sites for. the court house. Carried in 
the negative, 25 to 11. 

" Moved and seconded that the south- 
ern boundary of the counties to be estab- 
lished in the Black river country, begin 
on lake Ontario, at the southwest corner 
of EUisburgh ; theiace along the south 
line of EUisburgh to the southeast cor- 
ner of said town ; thence along the east- 
ern boundary of EUisburgh to the corner 
of No I and 6 on said boundary, thence 
along the line between 1 and 6, 2 and 7, 
to the corner of 3 and 8 ; thence along 
the line between 7 and 8, 12 and 13, to 
the line between Macomb's and Scriba's 
patent ; thence along said bounds to the 
county of Herkimer ; thence along the 
western boundaries of Herkimer and 

* Leyden appears not to have been represented at this 
meeting, although on two previous occasions special 
meetings had been called and delegates chosen for this 
purpose. At one of these held December 15, 1803, 
Stephen Butler, Moses Ostrander and Joel Jinks had 
been appointed, and at the other held Febniary 3, 1804, 
Stephen Butler, Samuel Snow and Richard Coxe were 
chosen to represent this town, at a convention to be held 
at Champion, on the first Tuesday of February, of that 



St. Lawrence to the river St. Lawrence ; 
thence up along said river St. Lawrence 
to lake Ontario ; thence along the mar- 
gin of said lake to the place of begin- 
ning. Carried in the affirmative, 20 
to 16. 

" Moved and seconded that so much of 
the above resolution as respects the 
south bounds of the town of Leyden be 
amended in such a way as to leave it 
optional with the inhabitants of that 
town to remain with the county of 
Oneida, or come into the new county. 
On this amendment the vote was 18 to 
18. It was then moved and seconded 
that so much of the above resolution as 
respects the south bounds of Leyden be 
reconsidered, vote stood 18 to 18. It was 
now moved and seconded that all the 
country included within the boundaries 
as agreed to by the above resolution be 
divided into two counties. The division 
line between the two and the sites for 
the same to be established by a disinter- 
ested committee, to be appointed by the 
Governor and the Council* of this State. 
The men to be appointed to five out of, 
and have no interest in the western dis- 
trict ; and that during five years no ex- 
pense to be paid by the counties to be 
organized as aforesaid for the erection 
of public buildings. Carried in the 
affirmative, 20 to 16. 

" Motioned and seconded that a com- 
mittee be appointed to draft a petition 
to the Legislature of this State accord- 
ing to the resolutions of this meeting, 
and to carry the same into effect with 
the proceedings of this meeting. Said 
committee to consist of five, and to be 
chosen from amongst the members at- 
tending as delegates, and be chosen by 

" The meeting was then adjourned for 
fifteen minutes in order that the mem- 
bers might prepare their ballots, on 
counting which it appeared that Jona- 
than Collins, Jacob Brown, Henry Cof- 
feen, Cliff French and Joseph Beals were 
chosen. Ordered that the secretary sup- 
ply each of the members of the com- 
mittee with a copy of the proceedings 
of this meeting. There being no further 

♦Probably referring to the " Councilof Appointment," 
composed of the Governor and one Senator chosen from 
each of the four Senatorial Districts 

business, ordered that the meeting be 

Jonathan Collins, Chairman. 
Egbert TenEyck, Secretary." 
During the winter of i8o4-'o5, numer- 
ous petitions and remonstrances were 
presented to the Legislature, having in 
view the division of Oneida county, and 
of several of its towns. These were re- 
ferred to the delegation from that county 
then consisting of George Brayton, 
Joseph Jennings, Joseph Kirkland and 
Benjamiri Wright, the latter of whom, 
from his intimate knowledge of the 
county, and especially of the part em- 
braced in Macomb's purchase, was em- 
inently fitted for the duty assigned him. 
He accordingly, on the 4th of March, 
introduced a bill for the erection of 
Jefferson and Lewis counties. Seven days 
after, it was discussed in a committee of 
the whole, amended, the blanks filled 
and clauses added, chiefly relating to 
the location of the county-seats and the 
division of the public moneys. On the 
1 2th it passed the House and on the 22d 
the Senate, receiving from the latter a 
few amendments which were concurred 
in by the House. The vote upon its 
passage is not preserved in the Journals 
of either House, nor are the amendments 
of the Senate a subject of record. The 
bill received the Governor's signature 
on the 28th of March. As the motives 
presented to the Legislature to induce 
the passage of this act, possess perma- 
nent interest, we here insert the petition 
circulated extensively throughout the 
district set off from Oneida. Many 
copies of it were taken for use in the 
several towns, and although its author- 
ship is not stated, it bears within itself 
the evidence that it emanated from the 
pen of Jacob Brown : — 

To the Honorable the Legislature of the State of Nem 
York, in Senate and Assembly convened : 
" We, your petitioners, inhabitants of 

the Black river country, beg leave to rep- 



resent, that we hvimbly apprehend that 
the time has arrived when our true inter- 
est and the prosperity of the country in 
which we are situated, requires a division 
of the county of Oneida. On this sub- 
ject there appears but one sentiment in 
our county, and we flatter ourselves that 
it will be superfluous to multiply argu- 
ments to the legislature, to show the pro- 
priety of a division. We believe that 
your honorable body will be led to in- 
quire why we have not presented a re- 
quest at an earlier period, for we believe 
that no instance can be produced of so 
numerous a body of people, spread over 
such an extensive and highly productive 
country, so remote from the old settled 
parts of the county and seat of justice to 
which they are attached, without pray- 
ing for and obtaining relief. Relying 
therefore upon our former experience in 
the justice and wisdom of your honora- 
ble body, we pray the legislature to di- 
vide the county of Oneida by a line * * * 
[the same as that which now includes 
Jefferson and Lewis] and we pray 
the legislature to divide all the coun- 
try within the aforesaid boundaries 
into two counties, the division line 
between the two counties and site in 
each for the seat of justice in the same, 
to be established by a disinterested com- 
mittee to be appointed by the Governor 
and Council of this State, the men so 
appointed to live out of, and to have no 
interest in the Western District. Hav- 
ing appointed a committee to wait upon 
the Legislature with this petition, and to 
make such further representations to the 
government as they may deem best 
calculated to promote the interest of this 
county and the welfare of the State, we 
shall not go into a detail of our reasons 
on the subject of this petition, but refer 
your honorable body to this committee. 
One subject, however, being of primary 
magnitude, and involving as we appre- 
hend the best interest of this country, 
we cannot pass in silence. That we are 
not ignorant of the opposition that is pre- 
meditated to the town of EUisburgh and 
Malta being connected with the lower 
county on the Black river, and that the 
opposition to this connection is power- 
ful and respectable, but we humbly pre- 
sume that we are not mistaken in believ- 
ing that the prime mover and first cause 

of this opposition* is not fully acquainted 
with the true interests and make of this 
county, and that when he is rightly in- 
formed on this subject he will act con- 
sistent with himself, and not pursue 
measures so injurious to a respectable 
portion of his fellow citizens. The town 
of EUisburgh and Malta are separated 
from the Redfield and Camden country 
by the strong and intelligent hand of 
Nature, and our duty constrains us to 
say that they can not be thrown into 
that county (if one should be organized 
there) without violating these natural 
rights and sacrificing the best inter- 
est. With the Black river country 
they are strongly cemented by natural 
boundaries and natural interests, and we 
flatter ourselves that the Legislature will 
resist every exertion and influence so 
deeply injurious to the peace and pros- 
perity, and so unfriendly to the interest 
of the State as the separation of the towns 
of EUisburgh and Malta from the Black 
river country, in any arrangement that 
may be contemplated for the organiza- 
tion of new counties. Situated on the 
confines of the dominions of a powerful 
empire, we flatter ourselves that our 
country is viewed with an eye of par- 
ticular solicitude by the government, 
and fondly cherish the hope that it will 
with pleasure pursue such measures as 
are best calculated to increase its 
strength, and advance its prosperity. 

" We therefore conclude by renewing 
our solicitation'that your honorable body 
will at 3/our present session cause two 
counties to be organized on the Black 
river and establish their southern bound- 
ary agreeable to our request, and your 
petitioners as in duty bound will ever 

Black River, Dec, 1804." 

♦Referring to Nathan Sage of Redfield ; afterwards 
of Oswego. 

fThe opposing petition referred to in the above was 
as follows : — 

" The petition of the inhabitants of the western part 
of the county of Oneida respectfully sheweth, that 
whereas, a convention of delegates from^ the towns on 
the Black River has been held, and the members of that 
convention recommended a division of the county of 
Oneida, and appointed a committee to carry their reso- 
lutions into effect, and this committee having drawn a 
petition directed to the Legislature of this State, setting 
forth their reasons for and praying such division. We 
beg leave to suggest the propriety of a general division 
for we humbly apprehend that the recent controversy in 
this county respecting a site in it for a seat of justice 


The act erecting the two counties ap- 
plied to them the names of the Execu- 
tive Heads of the National and State 
governments respectively at the time of 
its passage, and read as follows :- — 

AN A CT to erect part of the County of Oneida into two 
separate Counties by the names of fefferson and Lewis, 
and for other purposes. 

Passed March 28, 1805. 
" I . Beit etiacted by the People of the State 
of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, That all that part of the count}' 
of Oneida, contained within the following 
bounds, to-wit : Beginning at the south- 
west corner of the town of ElHsburgh, on 
the easterly shore of Lake Ontario, and 
running along the southerly line of said 
town ; thence along the easterly line 
thereof to the southwest corner of the 
town of Malta ; thence along the south- 
erly line of the said town of Malta, and 
continuing the same course to the corner 
of townships numbers two, three, seven 
and eight ; thence north, along the east 

will appear to you a sufficient argument to show the pro- 
priety of a- general and early division. 

" We therefore pray the Legislature at their present 
session to divide the county of Oneida by aline to com- 
mence on Lake Ontario, at the northeast corner of Ellis- 
burgh, and run along the north line of Constable's 13 
towns to the corner of 3 and 4 on said line, thence south 
between 3 and 4, 8 and 9, to the north line of No. 13, 
from thence southeast until the line intersects the main 
branch of Fish creek, thence down Fish creek to the 
Oneida lake, thence along the lake and O.swego river to 
Lake Ontario, thence along said Lake to the place of 
beginning. And we pray that all the tract of country 
lying within these boundaries may be established and 
organized into a separate county, and a site within the 
same appointed for a seat of justice at such place as you 
in your wisdom may deem best situated to promote the 
interests of the people and advance their prosperity. It 
appears totally superfluous to make use of many argu- 
ments to show the rectitude of the division lines pro- 
posed, for excepting the line between ElHsburgh 
and the 6th town in the Black river country, it may with 
propriety be termed a natural boundary — between Malta 
and Adams the line is within a short distance of the 
south branch of Sandy creek, whose course is marked by 
an impassable gulf for many miles in length ; on the 
east side of this county and between it and Black river, 
the line is also marked by a continued chain of swamps, 
morasses and gulfs, and should the division line be es- 
tablished within 8 or 10 miles of those natural bound- 
aries on either side, it will require the aid of the Legis- 
lature at a future period to give that relief to the inhab- 
itants that justice would demand. We therefore beg 
leave to refer you to a map of this county, and rest fully 
assured that you will resist any arguments that may be 
adduced to effect a separation of any part of the; afore- 
said country where the interests of the people are so 
essentially connected. We conclude by renewing our 
request that your honorable body will take our case into 
consideration and grant us our prayer, and your peti- 
tioners as in duty bound will ever pray." 

line of the town of Malta aforesaid, to 
the northeast corner thereof ; thence in 
a direct line to the corner of the towns 
of Rutland and Champion ; thence along 
the line between the said town of ^"T^arn- 
pion and the town of Harrisburgh to 
Black river; thence in a direct hue to 
the bounds of the county of St. Law- 
rence, to intersect the same at the corner 
of townships numbers seven and eleven, 
in great tract number three of Macomb s 
purchase; thence along the westerly 
bounds of the said county of St. Law- 
rence to the north bounds of this State ; 
thence westerly and southerly, along 
said bounds, including all the islands m 
the river St. Lawrence and in Lake 
Ontario in front thereof and within this 
State, to the place of beginning, shall be 
and hereby is erected into a separate 
county, and shall be called and known 
by the name of Jefferson. 

"II. And be it further enacted. That all 
that part of the said county of Oneida, 
contained within the following bounds, 
to-wit : Beginning at the southeast cor- 
ner of the county of Jefferson aforesaid, 
thence southerly on the westerly line of 
the town of Turin, to the southwest 
corner thereof; thence easterly along 
the south line of said town, to the south- 
east corner thereof ; thence north sixty- 
two degrees east, along the southerly 
line of the tract of land known by the 
name of Macomb's purchase, to the line 
of the county of Herkimer; thence north 
along the said last mentioned line, to the 
bounds of the county of St. Lawrence ; 
thence along the southwesterly line of 
the said last mentioned county to the 
line of the said county of Jefferson, and 
thence along the southerly and easterly 
bounds thereof to the place of begin- 
ning, shall be and hereby is erected into 
a separate county by the name of Lewis. 

" III. And be it further enacted. That 
all that part of township number nine, 
which is comprised within the bounds 
of the said county of Jefferson, shall be 
annexed to and become a part of the 
town of Harrison, in said county ; and 
that all that part of the said township 
number nine, comprised within the 
bounds of said county of Lewis, shall be 
annexed to and become a part of the 
town of Harrisburgh in said county. 

" IV. And be it further enacted, That 



there shall be held in and for the said 
counties of Jefferson and Lewis, respect- 
ively, a court of common pleas and 
general sessions of the peace, and that 
there shall be two terms of the said 
courts in each of the counties respect- 
ively in every year, to commence and 
end as follows, that is to say : The first 
term of the said court in the said county 
of Jefferson, shall begin on the second 
Tuesday of June in every vear, and may 
continue to be held until the Saturday 
following inclusive ; and the second term 
of the said court in the said county of 
Jefferson, shall begin on the second 
Tuesday of December, in every year, 
and may continue to be held until the 
Saturday following inclusive ; and that 
the first term of the said court in the 
county of Lewis, shall begin on the said 
first Tuesday of June in every year, and 
may continue to be held until the Sat- 
urday following inclusive, and the sec- 
ond term of the said court in the county 
of Lewis, shall begin on the said first 
Tuesday of June in every year, and may 
continue to be held until the Saturday 
following inclusive, and the second term 
of the said court in the said county of 
Lewis, shall begin on the first Tuesday 
of December, and may continue to be 
held until the Saturday following in- 
clusive ; and the said courts of common 
pleas and general sessions of the peace 
shall have the same jurisdiction, powers 
and authorities in the same counties 
respectively, as the courts of common 
pleas and general sessions of the peace 
in the other counties of this State have 
in their respective counties ; Provided 
always, That nothing in this act con- 
tained, shall be construed to affect any 
suit or action already commenced or 
that shall be commenced before the first 
terms to be held in the respective coun- 
ties of Jefferson and Lewis, so as to work 
a wrong or prejudice to any of the 
parties therein, or to affect any criminal 
or other proceedings on the part of the 
people of this State, but all such civil 
and criminal proceedings shall and may 
be prosecuted to trial, judgment and 
execution as if this act had not been 
passed; Aitd provided further, T\\a.t the 
first of the said courts in each of the 
said counties, shall be held on the sec- 
ond Tuesday of December next. 

" V. And be it further enacted. That 
three Commissioners shall be appointed 
by the Council of Appointment, who 
shall not be resident in the western dis- 
trict of this State, or interested in either 
of the said counties of Jefferson and 
Lewis, for the purpose of designating 
scites for the court houses and gaols of 
the said counties respectively, and to 
that end the said Commissioners, shall 
as soon as may be, previous to the first 
day of October next, repair to the said 
counties respectively, and after explor- 
ing the same ascertain and designate a 
fit and proper place in each of the said 
counties for erecting the said buildings ; 
and that until such buildings shall be 
erected and further legislative provision 
be made in the premises, the said courts 
of common pleas and general sessions of 
the peace shall be held at such place in 
each of the said counties nearest and 
most contiguous to the places designated 
as the scites for said buildings, as the 
said Commissioners or any two of them 
shall determine and fix on ; and the said 
Commissioners or any two of them are 
hereby required as soon as they have 
designated the places for erecting the 
said buildings, and determined on the 
places for holding the said courts, to 
make out and sign a certificate certify- 
ing the places designated for erecting 
the buildings, and the places fixed on for 
holding the courts in each of the said 
counties, and to transmit one of the said 
certificates to each of the clerks of the 
respective counties who are required to 
receive and file the same in their respect- 
ive offices ; and that the said commis- 
sioners shall be entitled to receive each 
the sum of four dollars per day, for the 
time they may be necessarily employed 
in executing the trusts reposed in them 
by this act, the one moiety thereof to be 
paid by each of the said counties. 

" VI. And be it further enacted,Th2iX. the 
freeholders and inhabitants of the said 
counties respectively, shall have and 
enjoy within the same all and every the 
same rights, powers and privileges as 
the freeholders and inhabitants of any 
other county in this State are by law 
entitled to have and enjoy. 

" VII. And be it further enacted. That it 
shall and may be lawful f(jr all courts 
and officers of the said counties of Jeffer- 


son and Lewis respectively, in all cases 
civil and criminal to confine their pris- 
oners in the gaol or gaols of the county 
of Oneida until gaols shall be provided 
in the same counties respectively, the 
said counties paying each the charges of 
their own prisoners. 

" VIII. And be it further enacted, That 
the distribution of representation in the 
assembly of this State, shall be three 
members in the county of Oneida, and 
one in the counties of Jefferson and 
Lewis and St. Lawrence, any law to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

" IX. And be it further enacted, That no 
circuit court, or courts of oyer and ter- 
miner and general gaol delivery, shall 
be held in either of the said counties 
of Jefferson and Lewis, until the same 
shall, in the opinion of the justices of the 
Supreme Court, become necessary. 

" X. A nd be it further enacted, That the 
said counties of Jefferson and Lewis 
shall be considered as part of the west- 
ern district of the State and also as part 
of the fifteenth congressional district, 
and that as it respects all proceedings 
under the act, entitled ' An act relative 
to district attorneys,' the said counties 
shall be annexed to and become part of 
the district now composed of the coun- 
ties of Herkimer, Otsego, Oneida and 

"XI. And be it further enacted. That as 
soon as may be after the first Monday 
of April, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and six, the supervisors of the 
said counties of Oneida, Jefferson and 
Lewis, on notice being first given by the 
supervisors of the said counties of Jeffer- 
son and Lewis, or either of them for that 
purpose, shall meet together by them- 
selves, or by committees appointed by 
their respective Boards, and divide the 
money unappropriated belonging to the 
said county of Oneida, previous to the 
division thereof, agreeable to the last 
county tax list. 

"XII. And be it further enacted, That 
the votes taken at the election in the 
said counties of Jefferson, Lewis and St. 
Lawrence shall be returned to the clerk 
of the county of Jefferson, to be by him 
estimated and disposed of as is directed 
by the statute regulating elections. 

" XIII. And be it further enacted, That 
all that part of the town of Leyden re- 

maining in the county of Oneida, shall 
be and remain a separate town by the 
name of Boonsville,* and the first town 
meeting shall be held at the house of 
Joseph Denning, and all the remaining 
part of the town of Leyden, which is 
comprised within the bounds of the 
county of Lewis, shall be and remain a 
town by the name of Leyden, and the 
first town meeting shall be held at the 
dwelling house of Hezekiah Talcott. 

" XIV. And be it further enacted. That 
as soon as may be after the first town 
meeting in each of said towns, the super- 
visors and overseers of the poor of the 
said towns of Leyden and Boonsville,* 
shall by notice to be given for that pur- 
pose by the supervisors thereof, meet 
together and apportion the money and 
poor of said town of Leyden, previous 
to the division thereof according to the 
last tax list, and that each of said towns 
shall thereafter respectively maintain 
their own poor." 

It will be noticed, that as originally 
bounded, the town of Pinckney was di- 
vided by a line running from the north- 
west corner of Montague, to the west 
angle of Denmark, and that east of the 
river the line was direct from the cor- 
ners of Champion and Denmark, to St. 
Lawrence county, passing just south of 
Carthage, and including more than a 
quarter of the present town of Wilna. 
The town of Pinckney was brought en- 
tirely within this county upon its organ- 
ization, in 1808, and the line east of the 
river has since been twice amended, as 
stated in our history of Diana. 

The boundary between Lewis and 
Herkimer counties has never been defi- 
nitely located by actual survey. It was 
directed to be done by Chap. 169, laws 
of 1852, under the supervision of the 
commissioners of the Land Office, but 
funds were not appropriated, and the 
work was not done. 

In 1 88 1, Mr. Colvin was directed to'*' 
survey the line, and found the southeast 
corner, from whence he ran about a mile 

* Uniformly since written " Boonville." 



northward, and then stopped for want 
of funds. In 1882, the measure was 
again brought up by the member from 
Lewis county, but did not reach a re- 

A concise notice of the man from 
whom the county derives its name, may 
interest its citizens. 

Morgan Lewis of Welch ancestry, a 
son of Francis Lewis, one of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence, was 
born in New York city, October 16, 
1754, graduated at Princeton College in 
1773, and entered the law office of John 
Jay. In June, 1775, he joined the army 
before Boston, as a volunteer, in a rifle 
company of which he was chosen cap- 
tain, in August; In November, he was 
appointed major of the 2d regiment of 
which John Jay was colonel, but as pub- 
lic duties withdrew the latter from the 
command, it fell upon Lewis. In June,, 
1776, he accompanied General Gates into 
Canada, as chief of his staff, and was 
soon after appointed Quarter-Master 
General for the Northern Department, 
with the rank of colonel. In 1777, he 
was appointed to receive the British 
troops, surrendered by Burgoyne, and 
in 1778, he was sent with General Clin- 
ton on an expedition up the Mohawk 
against a body of partizan troops under 
Sir John Johnson. In 1780, he accom- 
panied Clinton to Crown Point to inter- 
cept the enemy who had made an incur- 
sion upon that frontier. At the close of 
the war he was appointed Colonel-Com- 
mandant of a volunteer corps, and had 
the honor of escorting General Wash- 
ington at his first inauguration as Pres- 
ident. He settled in the town of Clin- 
ton, Duchess county, in the part since 
known as Hyde Park, and in 1792, 
erected a house there, which was burned 
in 1832. 

In 1790 and 1792, he was elected to 
the Assembly from New York city ; in 
1 79 1, appointed Attorney-General, and in 

1804, elected Governor for a term of 
three years, against Aaron Burr, by a 
vote of 30,829 to 22,139, ^nd at the next 
election for Governor he was beaten by 
Daniel D. Tompkins. In 18 10, he was 
chosen to the State Senate from 
Duchess county, by a large? majority 
than had ever before been given, and 
served four years. He was appointed 
Quarter-Master-General of the Army of 
the United States, April 3, 1812, and on 
the 2d of March, 1813, he was promoted 
to the rank of Major-General. 

The descent on Niagara, in April, 
1813, was planned and conducted solely 
by General Lewis, as General Dear- 
born, the senior officer, was confined to 
his tent by indisposition. After the 
evacuation of Fort George, Lewis set off 
in pursuit, but when just arrived within 
sight he was recalled by a peremptory 
order from Dearborn. The next morn- 
ing the latter ordered Generals Chand- 
ler and Winder to pursue the enemy, 
but upon coming up with them, the lat- 
ter, considering their situation desper- 
ate, turned upon their pursuers. In the 
darkness, both of these officers fell into 
the hands of the enemy, and the Ameri- 
can troops returned to Fort George. 
Late in the fall of 1813, General Lewis 
accompanied General Wilkinson's in- 
glorious expedition down the St. Law- 
rence. He continued in the service un- 
til disbanded, in June, 1815, when he re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. 
While on the Canada frontier, he ad- 
vanced large sums from his private 
means to pay the expenses of exchanged 
prisoners, at a time when drafts upon 
the government would not be received. 
His indulgence towards such of his ten- 
ants as had served during the war, either 
as militia or in the regular army, is es- 
pecially worthy of commendation. 

General Lewis married in 1777, Ger- 
trude, fourth daughter of Judge Robert 
Livingston, of Clermont, Manor of Liv- 



ingston. This union lasted fifty-four 
years. He was a member of the New 
York Society of the Cincinnati, and 
president at the time of his death, which 
occurred in New York city, April 7, 
1844. His remains were interred in 
the Episcopal cemetery at Hyde Park. 

The commissioners appointed under 
the fifth section of the act organizing the 
county, were Matthew Dorr* of Colum- 
bia county, David Rogers of Washing- 
ton county, and John Van Benthuysen of 
Duchess county. The names of the Coun- 
cil of Appointment were at that time, 
John Schenck, Joshua H. Brett, Stephen 
Thorn and Jedediah Peck, of whom 
Thorn was an intimate personal friend 
of Walter Martin, through whose in- 
fluence the appointments are said to 
have been arranged. It has been re- 
ported upon very reliable authority, that 
the driver of the coach, in which the 
commissioners came in from Utica, over- 
heard from their conversation that the 
location of the seat of Lewis county was 
already decided upon, and that he made 
an affidavit to that effect.f 

In i8oS-'o6 the sum of $74 was paid 
to Dorr, a Hke amount to Rogers, and 
$82 to Van Benthuysen as compensation 
for their services in locating the county 
seat. The county drew $293.54, from 
Oneida in 1806, as its share of the pub- 
lic money that then happened to be on 
hand, when the division was made. 


County Buildings and County Seat. 

THE act erecting the county, made no 
provision for a court house and jail, 
beyond the designation of their site, 

*Mr. Dorr, was a native of Lyme, Conn., and at the 
time of his appointment lived at Chatham, Cohimbia 
county, N. Y. His business was that of clothier, and 
he died in Dansville, Livingston county, N. Y., at an 
advanced age. 

f This information was given the author by Isaac W. 
Bostwick, in 1852. 

and the expense of these was left at the 
request of the Denmark convention till 
the end of five years. Mr. Martin had as 
early as 1803, began to grub up the 
stumps for the site of a court house, but 
upon being assured of the decision of the 
commissioners, the measure was not 
pressed for some years. At Lowville, 
active efforts were at once made to se- 
cure if possible the location, and a wood- 
en building was erected on the site of 
the stone church at the north end of the 
main street, with the design of offering 
it to the county for a court house, but 
failing in their enterprise, the citizens of 
that place converted the edifice into an 

The first session of the court of com- 
mon pleas, was held at the inn of Chillus 
Doty in Martinsburgh, Dec. 8, 1805 ; 
present, Daniel Kelley, Jonathan Collins 
and Judah 'Q■3^:nG^, Judges, and Asa Bray- 
ton Assistant Justice. This court adopted 
as the county seal, a design having a 
balance for its devise supported by a 
hand in clouds, with the words " County 
of Lewis," on the margin. 

The jail liberties adopted at the first 
session, although not peculiar in their 
day, or essentially different from those 
of other counties, will doubtless be con- 
sidered by many as a curious illustration 
of the absurd legal form and usages of 
the olden time, and as belonging to a 
barbarous period in the history of our 
penal code. The limits comprised the site 
of the court-house, a path two feet wide 
across the street to the store opposite, 
a path eight feet wide along the west 
side of the street to the premises of 
Chillus Doty, afterwards a brick tavern, 
(including the store, the house, garden 
and front yard of General Martin, and 
the house, garden, barn and shed of 
Doty) ; a path eight feet wide from the 
middle of Doty's shed across to the 
premises of David Waters, with the 
house of Mr. Waters, and a space eight 



feet wide in front and at the ends, and 
twenty feet wide in the rear, and a path 
eight feet wide northward to, and in- 
cluding the house of John Waters. 
These were subsequently extended to 
other houses, and finally included nearly 
every building in or near the village, 
from Foot's tannery on the north, to the 
inn then kept by John Atwater, on the 
south, with narrow paths between, and 
crossing places at distant intervals. 
These liberties were duly surveyed and 
recorded, and the unlucky debtor who 
might find himself upon them, would 
need a sober head and steady eye to 
keep himself within the straight lines 
and right angles which the court had so 
precisely marked out for his footsteps. 
An obstacle in the path might stop his 
course or an inadvertent step subject 
his bail to prosecution and himself to 
close confinement. In 1814, the jail lib- 
erties were extended from Adoniram 
Foot's tannery, on the northern border of 
the village, to John Smith's hat shop, on 
the site of the present Methodist church, 
with a breadth of twenty-five rods, and 
after, about 1822, they were made to em- 
brace a square area of 500 acres around 
the court house. The boundaries where 
they crossed the public roads were, at a 
later period and until they rotted down, 
designated by posts painted red. One 
of these posts stood by the northeast 
corner of Foot s tannery, at the foot of 
the hill, towards Lowville ; another on 
the hill by the roadside, west of the grist- 
mill ; another just north of the present 
residence of Martin Sheldon, and an- 
other at the foot of the hill east of the 
village, near where there was once a 

The county courts were held during 
nine terms at the house of Chillus Doty, 
and during the succeeding eight, at the 
house of Ehud Stephens. One term of 
the court of Oyer and Terminer was 
held by Judge Ambrose Spencer, at the 

Lowville academy, previous to the erec- 
tion of the court-house. 

In 1809, General Martin undertook to 
raise means for the erection of a court 
house by subscription among his towns- 
men and those living south, leading off 
on the list with a liberal sum himself. 
The Lowville people were not indifferent 
to the movement, and procured the sig- 
nature of nearly every taxable inhabitant 
north of Martinsburgh, to a petition 
against the final location of the courts 
on the site already designated.* 

The petitioners indirectly charged the 
commissioners with having acted upon 
slight and superficial examination,appeal- 
ed to the map for proof that Lowville vil- 
lage was nearer the center of the county, 
and to tax lists, f military returns, and 
opinions of gentlemen who had traveled 
through the country, and were acquaint- 
ed with it, as evidence that more than 
two-thirds of the population lay north 
of the court house site. They stated 
the want of accommodation in the little 
village where the site had been located 
as compared with the larger village of 
Lowville, and ask the Legislature to fix 
by direct act, or appointment of sound 
and candid commissioners the county 
seat in what shall appear to be the center 
of population ; closing their memorial 
with the sentiment, " that however mis- 
representations may succeed, for a time, 
justice and discernment may ultimately 
be expected of the Legislature." 

The remonstrants claimed by the map, 
that the center of the county lay a mile 
south of the site, and showed by the tax 
list, that over $200,000 more of taxable 
property lay south of the court house.+ 

*A package of these papers has 682 names for and 
474 against a change of site. 

fThe assessment rolls of 1809, gave Leyden 137, 
Turin 167, Martinsburgh 126, Lowville 206, Denmark 
i6g, Harrisburgh 82, and Pinckney 63 taxable inhab- 
itants. Of these 813 names, 630, or over 77 per cent, 
were claimed north of the court house. 

j:The valuation of 1809 was, Leyden, $188,700; 
Turin, $297,715.25 ; Martinsburgh, $70,921 ; Low- 
ville, $90,257 ; Denmark, $83,556 ; Harrisburgh, $29,- 
405 ; and Pinckney, $27,077. 



They denied the assertion that the 
southern portion of the county was in- 
capable of tillage, and proved by affi- 
davits that one principal cause of non- 
settlement was because the lands had 
not been opened for sale. They stated 
that nearly $2,000 had been subscribed 
in good faith, for the erection of a court 
house as located by law, and claimed 
that justice entitled them to a continu- 
ance of the site. These memorials led 
to the introduction of a bill entitled, 
" An Act relative to the establishment 
of a scite for the Court house and gaol 
in the county of Lewis," which failed to 
reach a third reading in the House. It 
was introduced by Dr. Samuel L. 
Mitchill, of New York, as chairman of 
the committee to whom the subject was 

On the 30th of October, 1810, General 
Martin engaged for $1,500, to complete 
the court room like that of Jefferson 
county, and the jail Hke that of Salem, 
Washington county, and on the ist of 
March, 181 1, an act was passed for rais- 
ing $1,200 by tax in one or two years, 
and $300 by loan, to complete the build- 
ing. The commissioners for building 
were Benjamin Van Vleck, of Denmark ; 
Daniel Kelley, of Lowville; and Jonathan 
Colhns, of Turin; and the sheriff was 
directed to give public notice by proc- 
lamation when the work was finished 
and accepted. The first county courts 
were held in the new building January 7, 
1812, and prisoners who had previously 
been sent to Rome, were thenceforth 
lodged in the new county jail. 

The body of this building, partly de- 
prived of its cupola, and with a modern 
addition for stairways in front, still stands 
in Martinsburgh. It was used as the 
court house until 1864, and contained a 
court room and two jury rooms above, 
and a jail with three cells on the south 
side of the hall, in the lower story, with 
apartments for a jailor's residence in an 

adjoining rear wing. Upon the transfer, 
in 1864, of the courts to Lowville, the 
title lapsed to the Martin heirs, and the 
premises were bought for academic and 
public purposes, as elsewhere described. 

The question of a county seat did not 
remain quiet for a long period, and in 
1847, something began to be said about a 
change, which was quieted for the time 
being by the erection of a new Clerk's 
office by subscription of citizens of Mar- 

In the fall of 1852, public notice was 
given of an application to change the 
seat of justice to Lowville, or New 
Bremen, and in the hope of securing 
this, the citizens of Lowville, partly by 
subscription, and partly by a town tax, 
proceeded to erect the building which 
is now the court house, but which, until 
1864, was a town hall. 

In 1863, the supervisors adjourned 
their session to Lowville,* and at 
that meeting of the Board, passed 
resolutions requesting the Legislature to 
change the county seat to that place by 
a direct act, and without submitting the 
question to the people at an election. 
But to secure an expression of opinion 
that should be equivalent to a vote, the 
friends of the measure, as the day for 
town meetings approached, industrious- 
ly canvassed the subject in the several 
towns, and secured in many of them, 
both north and south, the adoption in 
town meeting of the following preamble 
and resolutions : — 

" IVAereas, The citizens of the town of 
Lowville, have tendered to the county a 
good and suitable Court House, a site 
for a county jail and a clerk's office, 
when the county seat should be located 
in said town ; and 

"IVAereas, The Board of Supervisors of 
Lewis county, at their last annual session, 
passed a resolution to remove the county 
seat from Martinsburgh to Lowville, 


* Session of the Board had been lield in Lowville in 



and requested the Legislature to pass a 
special act for said purpose ; and 

Whereas, To remove said county seat 
without special act, would require two 
or three years' time, and involve much 
contention and strife in said county, to 
the damage of its interests, and 

" Whereas, A law to submit such 
question of removal to the people, has 
been declared unconstitutional by the 
Court of Appeals,* and the holding 
of a special election, would cost the 
county several thousand dollars, and 
protract and increase the dissensions on 
said subject. Therefore, 

"Resolved, That the electors of the town 

of , in town meeting assembled, 

do hereby request the Legislature of the 
State, to pass said bill now before the 
Legislature, for the removal of said 
county seat from Martinsburgh to Low- 

"Resolved, That the town clerk be re- 
quested to transmit a copy of the fore- 
going preamble and resolution to our 
representative in the Legislature." 

These measures secured the passage 
of an act dated March 10, 1864, for re- 
moval of the county seat. The town 
hall at Lowville, was deeded to the super- 
visors as a court house, reserving its use 
for elections, and the sum of $2,000 was 
voted by Lowville, to purchase the site 
for a jail, and to aid in the erection of a 
clerk's office. This action of the town 
was authorized by a special act, passed 
May 2, 1864. In the summer of 1875, 
the court house was enlarged by ex- 
tending the building back, so as to afford 
room for halls, a library, consulting room 
for the judges, sheriff's rooms, and three 
jury rooms. 

Upon the erection of a separate county 

» The case referred to is found in 4 Selden, 483, and 
was that of Himrod and Lovett, arising under the act 
of 1849, establishing free scliools throughout the State. 
It fixed the principle that " laws must be enacted by the 
Legislative bodies to which the legislative power is com- 
mitted by the Constitution. They cannot divest them- 
selves of the responsibility of their enactment by a ref- 
erence to the question of their passage to their consti- 
tuents." , , , , 

Notwithstanding this decision, such laws have been 
repeatedly passed before and since the date of the above 
decision, which however afforded on this occasion, a 
convenient argument with those who used it. 

no provision was at first made for a 
county clerk's office, further than by an 
act passed in iBii, which required it to 
be kept within a mile of the court house 
after the first of October of that year. 
The first county clerk, (Richard Coxe), 
lived a Httle west of CoUinsville, and it is 
presumed, he kept the office at that 
place, in the first years after the county 
was formed. The office was kept in the 
dwelling of the clerk, or his deputy in 
the village of Martinsburgh, after 1811, 
until, in 1822, General Martin built a 
fire-proof brick office near his residence, 
and rented a part of it to the county. In 
1829, an act was passed, requiring a 
clerk's office to be built, but for some 
reason this was not done. In 1847, the 
building now used as a store by P. S. 
Hough, in Martinsburgh village, was 
built without cost to the county, as 
already mentioned, and its use given free 
of rent, until the removal of 1864. 


Each town supported its own poor un- 
til 1825, and under the law of earlier 
years, the keeping of those that needed 
support, was let out at auction to the 
lowest bidders. If persons became" a 
public charge before they gained a legal 
residence they were sent back to the place 
from whence they came, and in the prim- 
itive way of the early period, were car- 
ried from town to town by constables, 
and supported in the transit, at the cost 
of the towns through which they 

In 1817, a committee was appointed in 
Lowville, to confer with one in Martins- 
burgh, upon the establishment of a poor- 
house for the two towns, but nothing re- 
sulted. In 1824, the Secretary of State 
undertook, by instruction from the Leg- 
islature, an inquiry into the subject of 
pauperism, and made statistical inquiries, 
which resulted in an elaborate report. It 



led to the passage of a law in that year, 
by which the supervisors might estab- 
lish a county poor-house, and Lewis 
county lost no time in availing itself of 
this permission. The county at that 
time ranked the 46th in the scale of pau- 
perism, and the 51st in taxation, as com- 
pared with the rest of the State. Pau- 
pers formed one-fifth of one per cent, of 
the population, and the poor-tax was a 
little over one cent per $100 valuation. 
Several of the towns had acquired a sur- 
plus poor fund. 

Jonathan Collins, Charles D. Morse, 
and Stephen Hart, were appointed to 
purchase a site and take preliminary 
steps for the erection of a poor house. 
The farm of Major David Cobb, a mile 
west of Lowville village, was bought for 
$1,650, and the premises were fitted up 
for the county use. The first county 
superintendents of the poor, appointed 
in 1826, were Nathaniel Merriam, Philo 
Rockwell, Stephen Leonard, Paul Ab- 
bott and Samuel Allen. 

The distinction between town and coun- 
ty poor, under the act of 1824, was abol- 
ished in 1834, restored in 1842, abolished 
in 1845, ^"d finally restored in 1851. In 
1846, a stone building was erected, 40 by 
60 feet in size, and two stories high, and 
in 1868, this was replaced by the present 
brick building, three stories high, 50 by 
32 feet, with a wing 32 by 60 feet. It 
was finished in February, 1868, and cost 
$11,450. A separate brick building, 30 
by 40 feet in size, and two stories high, 
was erected in 1862, for a lunatic asylum, 
and was approved and designated as an 
asylum, February 13, 1863. 

By an act passed July 14, 1881, the 
superintendent of the poor in this county 
was allowed to be the keeper of the 
poor-house. 1 

The movement in 1846, was in part at j 
least, the result of the efforts of Afiss I 
Dorothea L. Dix, whose former efforts 
in behalf of the poor and the insane, and 

afterwards in aid of the sick in the late 
war, have given her a world-wide repu- 
i tation as a philanthropist. With the 
j zeal of a missionary, she visited the 
i several counties of the State, in 1844, to 
inquire into the condition of the poor 
! and the unfortunate, and in the spring of 
j 1844, she visited the old poor-house 
building, originally built as a dwelling 
house for one family. It was an easy- 
thing to prove that there was need of a 
reform, and it needed only such an im- 
I pulse as she imderstood the way of 
I giving, to secure the improvements 
: which the case required.* 

The poor-house farm contains nearly 

sixt}' acres, and is in part cultivated by the 

labor of paupers. We believe the estab- 

, lishment ranks favorably in comparison 

' with those of other counties in the State, 

; for cleanliness and comfort to its inmates, 

I although less elaborate in architecture, 

i and less expensive in proportion to its 

accommodations than some others. 


Land Titles. 

'TT^ N unfavorable impression as to the 
Xj. value of northern lands had been ac- 
quired from the survey of Totten and 

*About 1856, the writer became acquainted with the 
"Crazy Angel," as the friends of Miss Dix are accus- 
tomed to speak of her, and assisted in tracing on a map, 
a route of travel that would lead to eveiy jail and poor- 
house in the State, at least expense of time, as the lines 
of travel were then arranged. Afterwards, in the camps 
around Washington, and in hospitals in the field, we 
often met her on missions of kindness and of mercy, as 
she passed from place to place, in her capacity of chief 
of the female nurses allowed in the army. Some years 
after the war, upon meeting her at Washington, she 
showed the writer the photograph of a fine monument 
which she had caused to be erected from private means, 
to commemorate the burial place of some of our heoric 
dead, and had much to say of plans she had in hand, 
for the building of asylums, and for the relief of the 

Miss Dix is still living, at an advanced age, and at 
the first session of the 47th Congress, appeared before 
the committee of that body, to obtain justice in behalf 
of the female nurses, who were recognized and em- 
ployed in the late war. It is almost needless to say that 
she secured attention to her appeal, for it was always the 
easiest and best way to grant her request at once, and 
without argument or delay. 



Crossfield's purchase, before 1776. This 
tract, embracing the central part of the 
great northern wilderness, was almost 
the last that remained free from the In- 
dian title, and open for settlement, at the 
close of the colonial period, and was in 
fact just about being patented to a ring of 
government officials, when the Revo- 
lutionary war began. As for " Totten 
and Crossfield," one was a carter, and 
the other a ship-carpenter in the city of 
New York. The real active operators 
were Edward and Ebenezer Jessup, two 
distinguished Tories of that period, who 
were banished from the State in an act 
of attainder passed in 1779, and whose 
estates were confiscated. This great 
plateau region of mountains, swamps 
and lakes, was found by the surveyors 
who explored it, as wild and inhospitable 
as any portion of the country yet visited 
by civilized man. It began to be poor 
soon after passing out of the borders of 
the Mohawk valley, and as it became 
worse towards the north, the inference 
very naturally followed that the northern 
border of the State was not susceptible 
of tillage. 

On old maps this great northern region 
was variously named, as Irocoisia, or " the 
Land of the Iroquois;" Cougksagraga, or 
the "Dismal Wilderness;" and the "Deer 
hunting grounds of the Five Nations." An 
eld map has inscribed across the north- 
ern part of New York this sentence : 
"Through this tract of land runs a chain 
of mountains, which, from Lake Cham- 
plain on one side, and the river St. Law- 
rence on the other side, show their tops 
always white with snow ; but although 
this one unfavorable circumstance has 
hitherto secured it from the jaws of the 
harpy land jobbers, yet, no doubt, it is as 
fertile as the land on the east side of the 
lake, and will in future furnish a comfort- 
able ertreat for many industrious fam- 
ilies." A map drawn in 1756, says this 
country by reason of mountains, swamps 

and drowned lands is impassible and un- 

Sauthier's map, published in England 
in 1777, and supposed to represent the 
latest and most accurate information 
then possessed, remarks that "this marshy 
tract is full of beavers and otters," 
and no map of a date earlier than 
1795 has any trace of the Black River. 
The shores of the St. Lawrence and Lake 
Ontario had long been familiar to voy- 
ageurs, but Black River Bay was evi- 
dently regarded as only one of several 
deep indentations of the coast ; and in 
Morse's geography of 1796, this river is 
represented as flowing into the St. Law- 
rence at Oswegatchie. This mistake 
may have come from the fact that that 
river receives the waters of Black Lake, 
and that the river was actually called the 
Black River in some early surveys, 
doubtless from the color of its waters, 
which would aHke justify the name for 
both rivers. 

The fertility of lands in the western 
part of the State had become known in 
the cou rse of military expeditions through 
them, especially in Sullivan's expedition 
of 1779, but no such occasion led to a 
knowledge of the Black river valley,* 
and it is highly probable that when a 
proposition for purchase was submitted 
to the Land Commissioners, the offer 
was regarded as favorable upon any 
terms conditioned to settlement. 

The Oneida lndians,sole native owners 
of our county, by formal treaty at Fort 
Stanwix, on the 22d of September, I788,t 

* Belletres' expedition against the settlement at the 
German Fiatts, in 1755, and that of Lery, which cap- 
tured Fort Bull, near Rome, in 1757, are supposed to 
have passed through this valley. In 1779, Lieutenants 
McClellan and Hardenburgh, were sent through the in- 
terior to Oswegatchie, more with the view of drawing 
off the friendly Oneidas and preventing them from 
being disturbed by the expedition against the Indians of 
the Genesee country, than in the hope of effecting much 
against the enemy. Several musket barrels and other 
military relics have been found in Greig, on the line of 
this route, which may have been lost in these expeditions. 
Their occurrence has, as usual, occasioned idle rumors 
of buried treasure. 

f Given in full in the Histoiy of Jefferson Co , p. 39. 



ceded to the State all their lands, except- 
ing certain reservations, among which 
was a tract one-half mile wide on each 
side of Fish creek, from its source to its 
mouth, which, according to Cockburn, 
the surveyor, was retained on account 
of the importance of the " salmon fish- 

On the 22d of June, 1791 Alexander 
Macomb submitted an application* for 
the purchase of all the lands within cer- 
tain specified boundaries, including the 
tract since known as Macomb's Purchase, 
excepting certain islands in the St. Law- 
rence, the ownership of which had not 
yet been settled by surveys under the 
treaty between England and the United 
States. One-sixth part of the purchase 
money was to be paid at the end of one 
year, and the residue in five equal annual 
installments, without interest. The first 
payment was to be secured by bond, 
to the satisfaction of the Com- 
missioners, and if paid within time, 
a patent was to be issued for a 
sixth part, and new bonds for the next 
sixth were to be issued. If at any time 
the purchaser chose to anticipate the 
payments, a deduction of six per cent, 
per annum was allowed. The price 
offered was eight pence per acre, de- 
ducting five per cent, for roads, and all 
lakes of more than one thousand acres 
in area. The proposition was accepted, 
and the lands were ordered to be sur- 
veyed out at the expense of Macorab,f 
under the direction of the Surveyor 

The sale of such enormous tracts of 
and at a merely nominal price, attracted 

* Given in full in the History of St. Lawrence and 
Franklin counties, page 253. 

t Alexander Macomb was a son of John Macomb, 
and emigrated from Ireland in 1742. He resided many 
years in New York, and held a colonial office, and in 
i787-'88, 'gr, hewas in Assembly. During several years 
he resided in Detroit as a fur trader, and in passing to 
and from Montreal, had become acquainted with the 
value of the lands of northern New York. He furn- 
ished five sons to the army in 1812, one of whom was 
the illustrious General Macomb of I'lattsburgh memory. 

public notice throughout the State, and 
the occasion was not lost by the opo- 
nents of the State administration to 
charge the Land Commissioners with 
the basest motives of personal gain, and 
even with treason itself, On the 20th of 
April, 1792, Dr, Josiah Pomeroy of Kin- 
derhook, made oath to his belief from 
hearsay, that a company, planned by 
William Smith, Sir John Johnson and 
others, chiefly tories Hving in Canada, 
had been formed under the auspices of 
Lord Dorchester [Sir Guy Carleton] as 
early as 1789, to purchase an extensive 
tract of land upon the St. Lawrence, 
with the ultimate design of annexing it 
to Canada, and that Gov. George Clin- 
ton was privy to their scheme, and inter- 
ested in the result.* To this absurd 
charge the Governor's friends opposed 
a letter of Gen. Schuyler, and the affi- 
davits of Macomb and McCormick, 
fully denying any direct or indirect 
interest of the Governor in the purchase. 
In the Assembly a series of violent 
resolutions was offered by Colonel Talbot 
of Montgomery, evidently designed as 
the basis of an impeachment, but, after 
a most searching investigation, that 
body cleared the Commissioners of 

♦Handbills, 1775 to 1802, p. 41, 43. Library of 
Albany Institute. 

Since our first edition was printed an opportunity 
has been had for examining original historical materials 
at the seat of the Canadian Dominion Government at 
Ottawa, which at least tend to illustrate the feeling that 
prevailed among those who then had the direction of 
affairs in Canada, as to the boundary that should be 
agreed upon between the two countries. Sir John 
Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, was 
particularly grasping in his ambition. He wanted first 
the dividing lands between the waters of the St. Law- 
rence and the Mohawk, as the line, so as to secure the 
lands on both sides of the former. He then proposed 
the Oswego River, — next the Genessee, and finally 
with great reluctance consented to the Niagara as a 
western boundary. Not getting this, he was anxious 
that the waters flowing into Lake Erie, near Eiie, — 
next the Cuyahoga, — the Miami of the Lakes, and so 
on, disputing every step till the last. We regard 
it as not improbable that there may have been 
Canadians, who anxiously looked forward to the annexa- 
tion of some part of Northern and Western New York 
to their territory, although there is no evidence that to 
our knowledge could be construed in support of the 
theory charged by Dr. Pomeroy, as to the complicity of 
Governor Clinton in any such measure. 



blame, and commended their course.* 
Aaron Burr, then Attorney General, 
was absent at the time of the sale, and 
escaped censure at the time, but in his 
after career he was directly charged with 
basely selling his influence to obtain the 
grant. The clamor against the Governor 
was raised for political effect, and had 
its influence on the next election. 

From letters of these negotiators it 
appears that the immense purchase was 
the fruit of years of preliminary man- 
agement, and allusions to some great 
operation as early as 1786, have refer- 
ence, no doubt, to these events, which 
appear to have originated with Con- 
stable. With a keen eye to the public 
interests, the very parties who had 
secured this tract, influenced the pas- 
sage of a law in 1794, fixing the mini- 
mum price of the remaining 2,000,000 
acres of the public lands at six shillings 
per acre, thereby giving this value to 
their own. The unsettled state of the 
frontiers, and the refusal of the British 
to surrender the posts, had a serious 
influence upon the first attempt at set- 
tlement. The surveyors were turned 
back at Oswego from proceeding further, 
and the Indians at St. Regis drove off 
the first intruders. In a speech to the 
Indians in 1794, Lord Dorchester said, 
that there was a prospect of war impend- 
ing, and that the warrior's sword must 
mark the boundaries of the country. 
In the war of 181 2-' 15 it was again pro- 
posed to render the highlands south of 
the St. Lawrence the national boundary, 
and some such hope may have led to 
these embarrassing interruptions in the 


Alexander Macomb, Daniel McCor- 
mickand William Constable were equally 
interested in the original contract, but 
Macomb became soon involved in an 

* Assembly Journals. Hammond's Political History 
of New York, Vol. I, p. 58. Parton's Life of Burr, 
p. 176- 

immense speculation styled the " Million 
Bank," in which Isaac Whippo, WiUiam 
Duer, Walter Livingston and others were 
concerned, and a great number of men 
were pecuniary losers ; Macomb was 
lodged in jail April 17, 1792, and even 
there owed his life to the strength of his 
prison walls. 

On the 19th of April, 1792, Robert 
Benson, City Clerk, advertised the pub- 
lic, that as a number of persons as well 
men as boys and negroes, having assem- 
bled in front of the jail the evening before, 
broken the lamps and behaved disorder- 
ly, the Mayor would take measures to 
prevent the like for the future. Children 
and apprentices were to be kept within 
doors. The disorders here noticed were 
excited by the failure of Macomb and 
others, and his failure interrupted a 
negotiation with the Holland Land Com- 
pany, who had an interest in lands just 
south of the purchase, now in Oneida 
county, and who afterwards bought in 
western New York.* 

The Fish Creek Reservation was not 
regarded in this sale, probably because 
it was supposed not to extend up into 
the tract. In the course of the survey 
this became a subject of anxiety, and 
while some considered that the reserva- 
tion would extend up only so far as the 
salmon went, others would hmit to the 
union of the principal branches, and 
others only by the sources of its main 
tributaries. The proposition was made 
in 1 794, to meet the Oneidas, and request 
a person to be sent to fix the uppermost 
limit of the creek, and see the half-mile 
run out on each side of it. Upon examin- 
ing the patent it was found that the State 
had undertaken to sell the reservation, 
and must settle whatever damages 
might result to the Indians. In a treaty 

* A card published in April, 1792, alludes to great dis- 
orders among the bulls and bears, about the coffee house 
and at the Corners. A great pecuniary panic followed, 
and Richard Piatt, Gardner and Rodman, Leonard 
Bleecker, and others were broken by the transaction. 



held September 15, 1795, the latter en- 
gaged to sell all north of a certain creek 
falling into Fish creek, on Scriba's pur- 
chase, for an annuity of $3 per hundred 
acres, to be ascertained by survey. On 
the 5th of March, 1802, a provisional 
agreement of sale of this and other parts 
of reservations was made, and on the 4th 
of June of that year it was confirmed in 
the presence of John Taylor, United 
States Commissioner, thus forever can- 
celing the native title to the lands of 
Lewis county.* 

Macomb's purchase embraced 3,816,- 
960 acres, from which deducting five per 
cent, there remained 3,670,7 1 5 acres. On 
the loth of January, 1792, the first pay- 
ments having been made, a patent for 
1,920,000 acres was issued to Macomb, 
embracing the whole purchase, excepting 
what lies in St. Lawrence and Franklin 
counties. The conveyance was that of a 
full and unqualified freehold, with no 
reservation but those of gold and silver 
mines, and no condition but the settle- 
ment of one family to every square mile 
within seven years. The purchase was 
subdivided into six great tracts, of which 
I lies in Franklin, II and III in St. Law- 
rence and IV, includes 450,950 acres, or 
all of Jefferson and Lewis counties north 
of a line near the 44th degree of north 
latitude. The division line between V 
and VI was never run, and they have 
never been recognized in land sales, being 
indefinitely regarded as including the 
remainder of the tract. In an early map, 
a line drawn from near the S. W. corner 
of the purchase, about N. 16° E. and 
crossing the Black river at the northern 
bend, east of the Watson bridge, is theo- 

* In the celebrated ' ' Livingston Lease " made with 
the Oneidas and other Indians, Jan. 8, 1788, for ggg 
years, and which was declared void, the Oneidas re- 
ceived a strip of land a mile wide on Fish Creek, from 
one end to the other. This only affords another proof 
of the great importance which they attached to the 
privilege, and perhaps indicates the considerable benefit 
they derived from its fisheries in the primitive condition 
of the streams. 

retically given as the Une between Nos. 
V and VI. Macomb conveyed to Will- 
iam Constable of New York, June 6, 
1792, Great Tracts IV, V and VI, for 
^50,000,* [$125,000,] and this conveyance 
was renewed by Macomb and wife, Octo- 
ber 3d of that year. Constable conveyed, 
Dec. 17-1B, 1 792, to Colonel Samuel Ward 
1,281,880 acres, embracing tracts V and 
VI, (excepting 25,000 which had been con- 
tracted to Patrick Colquhoun and 
conveyed to WilHam Inman, for £100,- 
000. t) On the 27th of February following. 
Ward and wife re-conveyed these lands 
to Constable, excepting 685,000 acres, 
which he had sold.:!: This sale to 
Ward is understood to have been 
a trust conveyance, and the sales made 
by Ward, to be hereafter specified, were 
virtually sales by Constable. We now 
arrive at a point in the chain of title from 
whence several lines diverge, and to con- 
vey a clear idea of each, they will be 
traced separately down to the sales of 
single towns. Such changes as occurred 
within the limits of the towns, will be no- 
ticed in connection with their history. 

Lewis county comprises two whole 
and parts of seven other great tracts 
which have been known in land sales by 
distinct names. To the townships west 
of Black river, separate names were ap- 
plied by Simeon DeWitt, Surveyor- 
General, in his State maps published in 

* Deeds, Sec. office, xxiv, 300. 

f Deeds, Sec. office, xxxix, 6. 

if Deeds, Sec. office, xxv,'2o8. In this conveyance it 
is understood that William Constable, Colonel William 
Stephens Smith, and Samuel Ward, were equally interest- 
ed. A balance sheet of the accounts of these three propri- 
etors, brought down to July 1, 1796, shows an amount 
of ;^69,092.2.o, cost and expenses, and ;^50, 
profits, leaving to each one a share of $74,778.57. The 
current of this affair did not always run smooth, and in 
a letter to Macomb, dated October 29, 1794, Constable 
complained that Smith had never disbursed a sixpence, 
and was profiting by the labors of others, while Ward 
was bound for the bills. Smith died at Lebanon, Mad- 
ison county, N. Y., June 10, 1816. He was a member 
of the 13th and r4th Congresses, and a son-in-law of 
President John Adams. He was secretary to Mr. Adams 
when in England, and was a brother of Justin B 
Smith, who held the Hornby title to lands in southl 
western New York, for sometime. 



1802 and 1804. These tracts, with the 
numbers and original names, were as 
follows : — 

The Great Tracts of Land Em- 
braced IN Lewis County. 

Black River Tract (in part), includ- 

Township 5, Mantua, now Denmark. 

Township 9, Handel, now Pinckney. 

Township 10, Platina, now Harris- 

Township 11, Lowville,novf Lowville. 

The remainder in Jefferson county, 
south of Black river. 

BovLSTON Tract (in part), including 

Township 3, Shakespere, now the 
largest part of Montague. 

Township 4, Cornelia, now Martins- 
burgh, (west part). 

Township 5, Porcia, now Martins- 
burgh, (the triangle). 

Township 8, Hybla, now Osceola. 

Township 9, Penelope, now High Mar- 

Township 13, Rurabella, now Osceola. 

The remainder in Jefferson and Os- 
wego counties. 

Constable's Four Towns, including 

Township i, Xenophon, now Lewis. 

Township 2, Flora, now Lewis, High 
Market and West Turin. 

Township 3, Lucretia, now High Mar- 
ket, Turin and Martinsburgh. 

Township 4, Pomotta, now West Turin 
and Turin. 

Inman's Triangle, including Leyden 
and a part of Lewis. 

Brantingham Tract, in Greig. 

Brown's Tract, (in part). The west- 
ern border of four townships extending 
into the eastern part of the county, viz : 

Part of Township i. Industry, now 
in Greig and Lyonsdale and part of 
Herkimer county. 

Part of Township 2, Enterprise, now 
in Greig and Herkimer county. 

Part of Township 3, Perseverance, now 
in Watson and Herkimer covmty. 

Part of Township 4, Unanimity, now 
in Watson and Herkimer county. 

The remainder in Herkimer and Ham- 
ilton counties. 

Watson's Tract, including part of 
Watson. The remainder in' Herkimer 

Castorland, including parts of Greig 
and Watson, the whole of New Bremen 
and Croghan, and in Jefferson county 
the parts adjoining Black river on the 
north side. 

Great Tract Number Four, or the 
Antwerp Company's purchase, including 
Diana and a large tract in Jefferson, and 
a corner in Herkimer counties. 

The Black River Tract. 

Samuel Ward and wife, on the i2th 
of December, 1792, conveyed to Thomas 
Boylston of Boston,* for ;f 20,000, all of 
Macomb's purchase south and west of 
Black river, excepting Inman's triangle. 
The only knowledge then had of the 
course of the river was derived from 
Sauthier's map, a copy of which, correct- 
ed at the office of the Surveyor-General, 
from the latest data in his possession, 
was used in these early sales. Black 
river was entirely omitted on the printed 
map, and when thus laid out upon vague 
information, was represented as flowing 
in a nearly direct line from the High 
Falls to the lake. The lands south of the 
river were sold for 400,000 acres, but 
upon survey they measured 817,155 
acres. To rectify this enormous error, 
is said to have cost Constable ;^6o,ooo 
Sterling. On the 21st of May, 1794, 
Boylston gave a deed of trust of the land 
since known as the Black River Tract, 

* Boylston proved to be a partner of Lane, Son and 
Frazer of London, who soon failed for a large amount, 
and the title was subsequently conveyed by their assign- 
ees. Boylston was related to the wife of Colonel Wm. S. 
Smith, who is mentioned in connection with Samuel 
Ward's operations. 



to George Lee, George Irving, and 
Thomas Latham, assignees of the firm of 
Lane, Son and Frazer of London, and 
they in turn conveyed to John Johnson 
Phyn of that place,* June 2, 1794, with 
whom by sundry assurances in law the 
title became vested in fee simple, with all 
the rights and appurtenances pertaining 
thereto.f Phyn appointed Constable his 
attorney to sell any or all lands, April 
10, i79i,X and the latter sold, on the 15th 
of July following, to Nicholas Low, Will- 
iam Henderson, Richard Harrison and 
Josiah Ogden Hoffman, all of New York 
city, the land between the Black river 
and a hne running in a course S. 81° E. 
3100 chains, from the mouth of Sandy 
creek to the river. 

In a letter from Wm. Henderson to 
Constable, dated February 6, 1795, the 
writer stated a difficulty in the lodging 
of American stocks as security instead 
of personal responsibility. All the ad- 
vantage he expected was to be derived 
from the credit allowed, and to buy stock 
and pledge it would cost more than to 
advance the money and make full pay- 
ment at once. Constable was offered an 
interest in the tract if he preferred to 
become an associate. Mr. Henderson 
added : " The room for speedy profit on 
waste lands in general above a dollar 
an acre, I do not, for my part, think 
very great; indeed the sudden rise 
which they have taken may be consid- 
ered in a great degree artificial. You 
will say, perhaps, 'Why then do you 
purchase?' I reply, because they have 
been an article in which there is great 
speculation, and therefore maj/ answer to 
sell again." 

The proposition of Hamilton for bring- 

* James Phyn married a sister of Constable, and 
traded at Schenectady with John Duncan before the 
Revolution. John Johnson Phyn, his son, was ap 
unmarried man. We find a memorandum stating that 
Phyn, Ellis and Englis were London furriers, and con- 
cerned in the Canada trade. 

\ Deeds, Sec. office, xxiv, 34. 

\ Deeds, Sec. office, xxxix, 64. 

ing the western territory into market at 
a cheap rate, was looked upon as an 
alarming indication of ruin by those 
making this investment. 

To give a better idea of these specula- 
tions in northern lands, we will quote 
from a letter written late in 1798, by one 
of the parties concerned, to his agent in 
London. After stating that the capital 
invested might be unproductive a few 
years, but would certainly return several 
hundred per cent, in the end, he says 
that in 1786, he received 3,000 acres in 
Bayard's patent, on the Mohawk, valued 
at four shillings the acre, which in 1796 
he brought into market and sold at 
twenty shilHngs. He then mentions the 
purchase of the Boylston tract in 1794, 
estimated at 400,000 acres, at two shil- 
lings, and adds : — 

" On my arrival here in 1795, I had it 
surveyed and explored, when it appear- 
ing that from the course of the river by 
which it was bounded, it comprehended 
double the quantity, or upwards of 800,- 

000 acres, the purchase being so much 
larger than I had contemplated, I was 
under the necessity of proceeding imme- 
diately to sell a part of the tract. This 

1 found no difficulty in doing, as the land 
was found to be uncommonly good. 
Messrs. Nicholas Low and his associates 
purchased 300,000 acres at 8j., or 4s. 6d. 
sterling, one-fourth of the money payable 
down, the balance in five annual install- 
ments, with interest, the whole of the 
land remaining security on mortgage. 
In 1796, 1 had the whole of the remaming 
500,000 acres laid out in townships of 25 
to 30,000 acres, and sold in that and the 
succeeding year about 100,000 acres from 
6s. gd. to gs. sterling, receiving \ the 
money down, and taking mortgage to se- 
cure the balance in five annual payments 
with interest at 7 per cent, as is custom- 
ary. I interested a Mr. Shaler in one-half 
of two townships, on condition of his 
settling on the tract, and selling the lands 
out in small farms of about 200 acres, he 
to be charged gs. per acre for his part, 
and to have half the profit on the sales. 
He accordingly went out and had 
the lands surveyed, made a road from 



Fort Stanwix into the midst of it, 
and built a saw mill and a grist- 
mill. His accounts last rendered 
show the disposal of about 10,000 acres 
for nearly $40,000, of which he has paid 
me all the money received, being $10,000, 
and has made an account of expenses for 
roads, buildings, &c., of about $4,000. 
He sells alternate lots at $4 the acre, the 
settlement, of which will immediately 
give an additional value to the interme- 
diate ones, which we mean t^ reserve." 

A deficiency of 24,624 acres being 
found on the survey of the Boylston 
tract, this was supplied from township 2 
[Worth], in Jefferson county. On the 
15th of April, 1796, Phyn confirmed this 
sale.* One quarter of the purchase was 
paid down, and the balance secured by 
mortgage, which was paid and canceled 
June 16, 1804. It had been assigned to 
the Bank of New York with other ac- 
counts of Constable. 

The Black River tract was divided by 
ballot between the owners, on the iith 
of August, 1796. Low di-ew 2, 7, and 11, 
or Watertown, Adams and Low.ville, 
and 1,578 acres of the surplus tract; 
Henderson took 3, 6, and 9, or Rutland, 
Henderson and Pinckney, and 649 acres 
of the surplus ; and Harrison and Hoff- 
man together, i, 4, 5, 8, and 10, or 
Houndsfield, Champion, Denmark, Rod- 
man, and Harrisburgh, and 1,283 acres 
of the surplus. As their guide, in mak- 
ing this division, Mr. Benjamin Wright,t 

* Deeds, Sec. office, xxxvii, 214. 

f As this name occurs throughout the records of survey 
of most of the towns west of the river, a desire has been 
expressed to know something of his history, although he 
never made the county a place of permanent residence, 
and may have been personally known to but few who 
settled upon the farms that he surveyed. 

Mr. Wright was born in Wethersfield, Conn., Oct. 
10, 1770. In his early life he took a great interest in 
his studies, and especially in surveying, taking appar- 
ently as his model the example of Washington when a 
boy. Becoming skilled as a surveyor, he in 1789 drifted 
into the State of New York with the tide of settlement, 
and settled in a part of Rome still called "Wright's 
Settlement," to which place his father and family had 
previously removed. He was not long in finding ample 
employment, and from 1792 to 1796, he ran out half a 
million of acres of land into farms. Returning in 1798 
to the home of his youth, he married the daughter of 
Rev. Simon Waterman at Plymouth, Ct., and resumed 

who surveyed the outlines of the towns 
in April and May, 1796; reported with a 
minute description of soil, timber, and 
natural advantages, the following gener- 
al summary of his views with regard to 
their relative value : — 

" Numbers 1,2, 5, 6, 7, have very little 
to choose in point of quality. 6 is best 
situated, but 7 is a most excellent town. 
5 would be called best by New Eng- 
land people on account of the luxuriancy 
of its soil on Deer creek. 2 is an ex- 
ceeding good town, but is not so good 
as 7. 8 and 9 are very good towns. 

10, the north part, is exceeding good. 

11, the west part, is excellent. 7 has 
the preference of the whole for qual- 
ity and situation together, and 6 for 
situation only, i is well situated, but 
I fear has not good mill sites on it. 8 
has excellent mill sites, and 9 also, but 
are some broken. 10 is bad on the south 
hne,and 9 also, being cold and hemlocky." 

The prejudice against hemlock timber 
is historically connected with the titles, 
and had an influence upon opinion as to 
the value of lands,, which experience has 
not sustained. The indifferent quality 
of these lands when first brought under 
cultivation, is found due to the large 
amount of tanin in the leaves, and as this 
disappears the capacity of the soil in- 
creases until it may equal the best, other 
circumstances being equal. 

Boylston's Tract and Constable's 
Four Towns. 

On the loth of April, 1795, Phyn re- 
conveyed to Constable 104,997 acres for 
£10,000, which tract was subdivided into 

his employment, which turned from land surveys to en- 
gineering, as projects of inland navigation came up. 

In the surveys of the Erie Canal he was associated 
with James Geddes, and a large share of credit is due 
to him, in the engineering of that great work. He was 
afterwards employed in canal surveys in many other 
States, being in fact, the highest authority that could be 
found upon the subject. The Harlem R. R., the N, 
Y & Erie R. R., the Tioga R. R., the Chicago and 
Illinois River Canal, were partly built under his advice. 
In 1835 he was employed upon a railroad in Cuba. He 
died in New York, where he had resided many years, 
August 24, 1842. Through life he sustained a high 
reputation for zeal, industry, probity, and faithful devo- 
tion to the interests he had in charge. 



four towns adjacent to Inman's Triangle, 
and almost reaching the south-east cor- 
ner of the Eleven Towns of the Black 
River tract.* 

On the 1st of April, 1796, Phyn recon- 
veyed to Constable 406,000 acres for $400, 
this being the residue of the Boylston 
tract. This land was subdivided into 
thirteen towns, which in common lan- 
guage have been denominated the 
" Boylston Tract," although strictly 
speaking, that tract included everything 
between the Black river, the Lake, and 
Inman's Triangle, amounting to 817,155 
acres. The separate numbering of the 
townships surveyed out from the lands 
released in 1795 and 1796, has resulted in 
some confusion as, from i to 4, the num- 
bers are duplicated. The outlines of 
these towns were mostly surveyed by 
Wm. Cockburn, & Son of Poughkeepsie. 
The contract with Wright for sur- 
veying townships 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9, into 
lots in 1805, provided that one acre of 
land in townships i and ro was to be 
paid for every mile run. It appears 
that the survey of 4, amounted to 152 
miles, 42 chains; of No. 6 to 136 1-2 
miles; of No. 8 to 154 miles, 36 chains ; 
of No. 9, to no miles, 39 chains ; and of 
No. 3, to 161 miles, 43 chains; making 
715 1-2 acres due for the survey of five 

On the 29th of December, 1795, Con- 
stable sold to Nathaniel Shaler, of Mid- 
dletown, an undivided half of 52,418 
acres, being numbers 3 and 4 of Con- 
stable's Four Towns, and made him his 
agent for seUing the other half.f 

On the 15th of November, 1798, Wm. 
Constable, on the eve of his departure 
for Europe, appointed his brother James 
as agent to sell lands,:}; and under this 

* Of these townships. No. i contained 26,656 acres • 
No. 2 had 25,926 acres; No. 3 had 29,410 acres ■ and 
No. 4 had 23,005 acres. 

f Transcribed Deeds, Lewis Clerk's office, p. 155. 
X Deeds Sec. office, xll, 623 ; Regr's office, N V Ivi 
l6g. ' ' 

authority the latter sold most of town- 
ship 5, or 8,000 acres, to Walter Martin, 
on the i8th of June, 1801, receiving $5,- 
400, and a mortgage for $6,600, due in 
two equal annualpayments. 

Upon the death of William Constable, 
May 22, 1803, John McVickar, James 
Constable, and Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, 
became the executors of his estate, and 
in 1819, the latter, by purchase, acquired 
the interests of the several heirs. By 
virtue of marriage with a daughter of 
Mr. Constable, he had previously be- 
come an owner of a share of the estate. 
The remaining heirs were paid about 
$25,000 each, principally in lands. By 
this means, the late Edward McVickar, of 
West Turin, became owner of lands in 
the west subdivision of No. 5, and in No. 
9. In January, 1853, a division was made 
in the Pierrepont estate. Considerable 
tracts of the Pierrepont lands have been 
sold in recent years, and they are being 
gradually cleared up and settled. The 
remaining interests in 3 and 4 of Con- 
stable's four towns, became the property 
of William Constable, who settled at 
Constableville, and other members of the 
family became interested either in lands 
or contracts. 

In the beginning William Constable 
adopted the plan of deeding lands and 
taking mortgages, but this being found 
expensive and troublesome, it was super- 
seded by that of contracts, guaranteeing 
an ample deed upon full payment. This 
contract, originally prepared by Alex- 
ander Hamilton, was not afterwards 
changed. It secured legal interest annu- 
ally to the proprietor, required the pur- 
chasers to pay all surveys, taxes and as- 
sessments, bound them not to abandon 
the premises, or sell or assign the con- 
tract, or cut, or suffer to be cut for sale, 
any timber without the consent of the 
proprietor, or commit any waste, actual 
or permissive, upon the premises. In case 
of default, it was optional with the party 



of the first part to abide by the contract 
or consider it void, and of the latter, to 
re-enter and dispose of the premises as 
in case of a tenant holding over without 
permission. The inflexible rule of requir- 
ing one-quarter payment upon purchase 
was never relaxed by Constable, but was 
changed by his executors. 

On the ist of March, 1817, Judge 
James McVickar, who had acquired an 
interest by marriage with a daughter of 
William Constable, conveyed by three 
several deeds, to George Davis, of Belle- 
ville, N. J., 5,224 3-4 acres in townships 
3 and 4, then Turin, for $14,225. He also 
on the same day, conveyed about 3,760 
acres to Thomas Alsop, for $11,500, and 
on the 1st of January following, for $6,- 
000, an undivided half of 46 lots, in town- 
ships 3 and 4 of Constable's towns. On 
the 1 8th of December, Alsop sold for 
$7,000 to Davis, portions of his im- 
proved lands. 

Both Davis and Alsop came to reside 
at Constableville as further noticed in 
our account of West Turin. 

David I. Green of New York, became 
a purchaser under his brother-in-law 
Davis, June 18, 18 18, and a few days after, 
conferred upon him powers of attorney 
to sell lands. Green was for many years 
cashier of the Phoenix bank, N. Y., and 
by a long course of exemplary attention 
to its business, had secured the confi- 
dence of the directors to such an extent 
that they at length made but superficial 
examinations of his accounts. Soon after 
the purchase above noticed, he was 
found a defaulter to the amount of about 
$140,000. There is some reason to be- 
lieve that some of this money was used 
in buying these lands. Green was also 
deeply concerned in cotton and other 
speculations, which proved failures, and 
brought to light his robbery of the 
bank. He got a few hours' start of 
the officers of justice, and escaped by 
way of Lake Champlain to Quebec, from 

whence he sailed to France. In two 
or three years some arrangement was 
made, by which he could return, and 
after going to Michigan, he came back 
to Davis' house near Constableville, and 
died, September 5, 1826, aged forty-five- 

The Phoenix bank became from this 
transaction an interested party to the 
title of a portion of the lands previously 
held by Davis. 

On the 25th of July, 1801, William 
Constable, in part payment of notes and 
endorsements of the firm of Wm. & Jas. 
Constable, and in consideration of $95,- 
704.50, conveyed townships i and 13 on 
the south border of this county to John 
Jones, John McVickar and John Rath- 
bone, in trust for the owners of the 
notes. These towns were conveyed to 
the trustees above named, July 15, 1802, 
and proving more than sufficient after 
making several conveyances amounting 
to 43,704 acres, they reconveyed the 
balance to Constable.* Of the lands 
retained to pay the creditors for whose 
benefit this arrangement was made, 
6,118 1-4 acres in No. i, and 5,431 1-4 
in No. 13, were deeded to John Jacob 
Astor, January 28, 1804;! and a further 
quantity of 3,232 1-2 acres was conveyed 
March loth of that year,:}: On the ist 
of June, 1806, Astor sold the whole of 
his lands in these two townships to 
Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, for $18,477.50, 
receiving a mortgage for a part of 
the amount, due in five, six and seven 
years. § 

The trustees above named on the 28th 
of January 1804, deeded 743 acres of 
township I, and 10,074 of township 13, 
to H. B. Pierrepont. 

* In township I, lots I to 19 and part of 20=4,880 
acres; and in 13 lots, I to 62, and part of 140=15,484 

f Deeds, Lewis county. A., 187. 

J In township i, 2,320^ acres, and in 13, gi2} acres. 
Deeds, Lewis county. A., 190. 

§ Deeds, Lewis county. A., 186. 



Inman's Triangle. 

This tract, embracing the limits of 
Leyden before the western point was set 
off to Lewis, was conveyed February 2, 
1793, by WiUiam Constable to William 
Inman, in trust chiefly for Patrick Colqu- 
houn. As the real owners were aliens, 
and could not hold land in the State, 
the title was conveyed to Inman, their 
agent, who had been empowered by an 
act of the Legislature to hold land. There 
can be no doubt but that this trust was 
betrayed. A lengthy statement pre- 
pared by Mr. Colquhoun, is in existence, 
setting forth the details of the transac- 
tion, but it would serve no good purpose 
to introduce them here. Mr. Colquhoun, 
was a capitalist, and at the time of these 
transactions resided in London, and oc- 
cupied a high position as a citizen and a 
statesman. He was the author of a 
Treatise on the Police of the Metropo- 
lis and on the Wealth, Power and Re- 
sources of the British Empire, with the 
rise and progress of the funding system. 
He was born in Glasgow, and died in 
London in 1820, aged seventy-six years. 
In speaking of Mr. Colquhoim, the au- 
thor of the " Phelps and Gorham Pur- 
chase," says: — 

"Few men have contributed more to 
the reformation of criminal laws, to the 
promotion of trade and commerce, in 
funding systems for benefitting the poor, 
and for public education in England and 

While the negotiation with Colquhoun 
was pending, Mr. Constable addressed to 
him from London the following letter, 
which has historical interest from its 
presenting the ideas that were then 
entertained as to the rise in value of 
lands, and the prospects of investment 
for profit which they offered : — 

Cecil Street, No. 17, Jan. 28, 1792. 

"Sir — As you have made no kind of 
proposal to me since I mentio ned to 

* Turner's, Phelps and Gorham purchase; Monroe 
county, p. 244. 

you about three weeks ago that I had a 
concern in the last extensive purchase 
of land made in the name of my friend 
Alexander Macomb of New York, and 
was empowered fully to dispose of the 
same in Europe. I am now solicitous 
to know whether you conceive it prob- 
able that the gentlemen to whom Colonel 
Smith through you offered the one mill- 
ion of acres for which he made a con- 
ditional bargain at 13 i-2d sterling per 
acre, are likely to accept that bargain. 
I have been restricted hitherto from 
taking any steps towards a sale other- 
wise, while that transaction remained 
open ; and indeed had not our associa- 
tion who purchased this extensive prop- 
erty resolved to pay ready money and 
to take out patents for the whole at 

" No circumstance would have induced 
them to have sold an acre until the lapse 
of two or three years, when there is a cer- 
tain prospect of obtaining double the 
money (if not more,) than is now asked. 
But the fact really is this, that we have 
made this heavy engagement and we must 
make a sacrifice rather than draw money 
from our commercial pursuits to pay for 
this land which would not be convenient 
for us to do. I expect the whole patents 
by next packet from New York, which 
will enable me to show the most com- 
plete titles that ever were exhibited for 
lands in any country. If our associa- 
tion can sell one million of acres ii» 
Europe, it is their resolutions to let 
what remains be divided into townships, 
and to keep up the property until a 
much higher price be obtained for it, 
but to be enabled to do this we must 
now sell a part, and an immense thing 
it will be indeed to any proprietor who 
shall possess such a territory with a fine 
river (besides other streams) running for 
60 miles through this country. I do not 
hesitate to say that whoever does pos- 
sess such a property and can only lie out 
of the money for a few years must raise 
from it a princely fortune. F-or the 
Indian war in the western country and 
many other circumstances are in favor 
of a rapid population. But if the object 
is merely to make money of it without 
being troubled with settlers, let it only 
remain for three years and without 
trouble or expense one hundered per 



cent, lent will unquestionably be obtained 
from speculators for the whole in large 
tracts, but if sold in detached townships 
and credit given, I cannot undertake to 
say at how many hundred per cent, 
advance it would sell. But we certainly 
look for one dollar an acre for the 
remainder of our purchase which is 
supposed to be the worst of the whole, 
in townships of six miles square. You 
once mentioned to me that on consulting 
Sauthier's large map of the State of 
New York, you found that the particu- 
lar tract laid off by Colonel Smith's in 
the plan sent you was represented to 
contain many swamps and pools of 
water and that much of it was drowned 

" Mr. Sauthier in forming this map 
must have gone on the vague informa- 
tion of the Indians who you know are 
incapable of conceiving a geographical 
idea or of conveying exact information 
as to the extent of swamps, or situations, 
distances, &c. 

"As a proof that this country was never 
explored, Mr. Sauthier, in his maps, 
takes not the least notice of the Black 
river, although it runs for a certainty, 
about 60 miles through the tract marked 
off by Colonel Smith and Judge Cooper, 
who purchased Noble's tract, in which 
this river takes its rise, proposed mak- 
ing a large purchase of the proprietors 
who refused to sell, and Mr. Cockburn, 
the surveyor who explored this river, 
states nothing about swamps, but gives 
a very favorable account indeed, of the 
country, and as a proof of this good 
opinion of the soil and situation, he was 
desirous of buying a large tract within 
the bounds marked off by Colonel 
Smith. I have had a smaller chart made 
of the country, into which, in order to 

Frevent all appearances of concealment, 
have got introduced all the waters and 
swamps mentioned in the above map, 
and have besides added those other 
rivers which I understand to exist, and I 
am myself so fully convinced that there 
can be no extensive swamps in that 
country, that I shall have no objection to 
allow the purchasers of the one million of 
acres marked off by Colonel Smith, the 
option of choosing other lands in lieu of 
the swamps, or to make a deduction of 
50 per cent, or half price on all swamps 

exceeding 50,000 acres to be ascertained 
after the country is explored. 

" But as you complamed once that the 
conditional contract made between Mr. 
Macomb and Colonel Smith, was not 
explicit on many essential points neces- 
sary to be attended to in bargains of this 
magnitude, and I have since received 
unlimited powers from the parties con- 
cerned, which I enclose for your perusal ; 
I have endeavored as much as possible, 
to obviate your objections by framing 
the enclosed propositions in such a man- 
ner as I conceive will meet all that you 
mentioned, as far as I recollect them at 
present. I request therefore, you will 
do mc the favor to apply to the gentle- 
men for whom this purchase was condi- 
tionally made, and oblige me, if you can, 
with the answer before the departure of 
the American Mail, on Wednesday next. 
I have letters from various quarters rela- 
tive to this land, where I think by taking 
some little trouble, I could get a much 
higher price. But as we hold a vast ter- 
ritory besides the million of acres now 
offered, and as it is extremely interesting 
to us to have purchasers that can keep 
the land for two or three years without 
being compelled, by necessity, to offer it 
in detached parcels at a low price, I 
would much rather sell to Colonel 
Smith's friends and yours at the present 
sacrifice, than to others, who, being.' 
forced to sell to make good their engage-, 
ments, would keep down the price of' 
what remains, and thereby injure every 
land-holder in America. I send you 
herewith the reduced map of the coun- 
try, made up from DeWitt and Sauthier's 
maps, in which I have inserted the 
swamps, to show that I wish to conceal 
nothing, although I have no belief in 
their existence to any extent worth 

I am Respectfully 

Your most humble servant, 
William Constable." 

Brantingham Tract. 

Samuel Ward and wife, conveyed, 
August 18, 1793, to the name of William 
In man, a tract of land supposed to be 
50,000 acres, east of the river, in trust 
for Patrick Colquhoun, in pursuance of 



a contract with Constable, of February 
13th, of that year. The price was ;^5,- 

000 sterling, and it was the intention of 
the European owner to offer 10,000 
acres to Captain Charles Williamson at 
first cost, and he instructed Inman to do 
so. The latter wrote as directed, but 
added : " I have no doubt of the pro- 
priety of your refusing to accept the 
share of the 18,000 acres, and I confess 

1 had little hopes of your doing so, al- 
though I am certain it would have been 
highly advantageous to you. I can 
speak my mind freely to you ; and I do 
not hesitate to say that Mr. C* is capable 
of expressing sentiments he does not, 
when they are calculated to serve his 
own particular purposes ; and I am 
authorized to say, his friendship for you 
was merely a name, and his boasted at- 
tachment and profession for me was no 
better, and people would do well to be 
on their guard in their transactions with 
that gentleman." Within two months 
the writer of this letter, offered to buy 
these lands himself, stating that William- 
son declined to purchase. The trans- 
action needs neither note nor comment. 
Upon the survey by Cockburn, in 1794, 
the tract was found to measure 74,400 
acres. In August, 1793, Brockholst Liv- 
ingston became a purchaser in trust for 
himself and certain alien owners, of 
whom he alone was allowed to hold 
lands. There were two associations 
formed, for holding the Fellowship loca- 
tion of 50,000 acres, and the Surplus 
lands of 24,400, the latter of which 
belonged exclusively to B. Livingston 
and Patrick Colquhoun, high sheriff of 

In December, 1793, a contract was 
made between Brockholst Livingston 
and Robert Morris,f for the 50,000 acres 
in behalf of the latter, and Mr. Nichol- 

* Referring to P. Colquhoun, who had loaded him 
with kindness. 

f Deeds, Oneida Co., iv, 263 .Consideration $30,000. 

son and James Greenleaf ; but this con- 
veyance was never made, and on the loth 
of April, 1794, William Inman, acting 
for another, sold to Thomas Hopper 
Brantingham,* of Philadelphia, for $23,- 
073, the whole tract. The latter soon 
after executed three mortgages for £t,- 
692, t and appointed August 9, 1794, 
Arthur Breese, his attorney, to sell a 
certain tract of 18,000 acres,:|: but no 
sales appear to have been made by this 
agent. Brantingham and wife, on the 
2ist of January, 1795, sold 10,000 acres 
an undivided part of the tract, to Rich- 
ard W. Underbill, of New York, for £"],- 
000 and other claimants became inci- 
dentally interested,! but the mortgages 
being unpaid, two of them were fore- 
closed and the land sold || according to 
statute. If The lands were re-leased to 
Inman, and were further confirmed by 
the assignment ot the judgments, upon 
which a sale was made November 17, 
1796, by the sheriff of Herkimer county 
to Inman,** in trust. The latter soon 
after mortgaged the whole to Thomas 
Walker, agent of Colquhoun ; and by 
sundry conveyances the title became 
vested in Brockholst Livingston, Sam- 
uel Ogden, James Kerr and Patrick 

The tract was surveyed into lots by 
Benjamin Wright, in 1806, and the tract 
was divided November 25, 181 5, into 
four parts, of which the northeast 
and southwest, marked 2, were drawn 
by Kerr and Colquhoun, and the south- 

* E. was allowed to hold lands in this State, by an 
act of April 9, 1792. He failed in business 'in the 
spring of 1794, and in 1795, was imprisoned for debt. 

f Deeds, Lewis Co., 149, 151. 

:|; Deeds, Oneida Co., ii, 224. 

§ William Bird, Joseph Brantingham, Philip Grim 
and others are named in connectioii with this title' 

II April I, and September i, 1796. 

t From a letter of P. Colquhoun, dated June ■ic, 
1795, It appears that a little before that date, Branting- 
ham had failed, and was in prison, with his son and 
partner ; hence the sale of the lands under foreclosure 
of mortgage. 

** Deeds, Lewis Co., 160. 



east and northwest, marked i, b)' Liv- 
ingston and Ogden.* 

Lots 253 and 235, including the High 
Falls, were not included, but remained 
common property of the four propri- 
etors of the Black River tract. 

By an order of chancery, dated June 
17, 1822, Elisha Wilcox, Uriel Hooker, 
and Nathaniel Merriam, were appointed 
commissioners for making a partition so 
far as concerned Ogden and Livingston. 

In September, 18 18, Caleb Lyon was 
appointed sole agent of John Greig, the 
agent of Kerr and Colquhoun, and pur- 
chased about 10,000 acres on his own ac- 
count. He subsequently bought Liv- 
ingston's interest, and continued in the 
agency until his death, when he was 
succeeded by his son, Lyman R. Lyon, 
and son-in-law, Francis Seger. This 
agency continued until about 1 85 1, -when 
L. R. Lyon bought out the remaining 
interest of Kerr and Colquhoun ; or 
rather of Greig, who had succeeded 
them in the title,t and a part of the 
Ogden interest. About 25,000 acres of 
the Brantingham tract were in the hands 
of actual settlers, when our first edition 
of this work was published, in i860. We 
have no information as to the amount 
since conveyed. 

Brown's Tract. 

This term strictly applicable to a tract 
of 210,000 acres, or 8 townships of land, 
extending across Herkimer and includ- 
ing small portions of Lewis and Hamil- 
ton counties, has come to be applied as 
a generic term to the whole northern 

* In the S. W. corner 62 lots or 12,804.77 acres. In 
the N. E. corner 126 lots, 24,647.71 acres. Inalli88 
lots of 37,452.48 acres. The lands drawn by Living- 
ston and Ogden were in the S. E. corner 56 lots o£ 12,- 
179.83 acres; and in the N. W. 125 lots of 24,753.01 
acres, making in all 181 lots of 36,932.84 acres. 

f In 1834, 42,298 acres of the Brantingham tract were 
sold for taxes, the greater part of which was bid off by 
Seger and deeded to Greig. We are not informed of 
the transactions between Greig and his principals, or 
the dates of connection with the titles. Mr. Greig be- 
came owner in 1821. 

Samuel Ward and wife conveyed, 
November 25, 1794, to James Greenleaf, 
a tract of 210,000 acres from the eastern 
extremity of great tracts V, VI, and the 
latter mortgaged the premises July 29, 
1795, to Philip Livingston. This was 
foreclosed, and Thomas Cooper, Master 
in Chancery, united in a deed to John 
Brown, a wealthy merchant of Provi- 
dence, R. I., on the 29th of December, 
1798.* The tract was surveyed into 
towns by Nathaniel Smith, in 1796, and 
township 2 was surveyed into lots by 
Cliff French, in 1799. There were several 
conveyances of this tract not essential 
to its chain of title, of which we have 
not the exact data. John Julius Anger- 
stein, a wealthy London merchant, Hen- 
ry Newman, Thomas and Daniel Green- 
leaf, Colonel William S. Smith, Aaron 
Burr, and others, were incidentally 
concerned before Brown's purchase. f 

* Brown named his towns Industry, Enterprise, Per- 
severance, Unanimity, Frugality, Sobriety, Economy, 
and Regularity. 

The name of John Brown has been so often mentioned, 
that a certain degree of public interest is attached to him 
in this connection. He was one of four brothers, wealthy 
merchants, of I'rovidencc, R. I., and from a son of one 
of these (Nicholas), Brown University, received an en- 
dowment and a name. Mr. John Brown is described 
by Mr. Reuben Guild, the historian of the University, 
as having been short and thick, — weighing about four 
hundred pounds. He managed however, to get about 
very quickly in a carriage made low, broad and strong. 
He always took command at fires, and on other occa- 
sions where prompt action, energy and decision were de- 

The great Baptist church in Providence, was built 
mainly through his exertions . As they were raising the 
steeple, a work that required several days , as the men 
were hauling up a timber with a rope, a distinguished 
foreigner was standing by. Brown not knowing, or 
perhaps not caring who he was, ordered him to take 
hold and help, which he did. 

Mr. Brown left no portrait, he was not a church mem- 
ber, but as the tradition is, — " a d — d good christian." 

\ Burr was concerned with Ward, and afterwards with 
Smith, in this purchase, after the title had been held as 
security by Angerstein. He became involved in a con- 
tract September 22, 1794, for the purchase at ;f 50.000, 
which he found a hard bargain, and the means he took 
to get released from Constable, showed him the "polished 
scoundrel." He wrote a letter November 6, 1794, re- 
ferring in an insulting manner to an assumed liability of 
escheat from alien title, and the personal obligation of 
Constable to convey notwithstanding, and alluded to his 
ability in influencing legislative action. He professed a 
mock sympathy with his correspondent, expressed a nice 
sense of honor as to obligation, and ended with a prop- 
osition to pay ;^io,ooo less than the sum agreed upon, or 
to forfeit ;^l,ooo and be released from the contract. 



An expensive but ineffectual effort was 
made by Brown to plant a settlement 
upon this tract, and three roads were 
opened to it. One of these led from 
Remsen, another from Boonville, cross- 
ing the Black river a little south of the 
county line, and a third from High Falls. 
Mr. Brown died in 1803, and the land 
was held by his family until a few years 
since, when it was purchased by L. R. 
Lyon and others. It was then contracted 
to the Lake Ontario and Hudson River 
R. R. Co. 

Watson's Tract. 

In April, 1796, Constable conveyed to 
James Watson, by warranty deed, 61,- 
433 acres, comprising two triangular 
tracts connected by an isthmus. Of this 
the western lies chiefly in the town of 
Watson, and the eastern in Herkimer 
county. The first deed being lost, it was 
reconveyed May 13, 1798. The outlines 
were surveyed in 1794, by WiUiam Cock- 
burn. This tract was originallv con- 
tracted to the French company, but their 
tract having a surplus, this was sold to 
Watson at two shillings the acre. Wat- 
son's first agreement Dec. 2, 1793, in- 
cluded 150,000 acres. 

Castorland, or the French Co.'s 

On the 31st of August, 1792, William 
Constable, then in Paris, sold to Peter 
Chassanis of that city, 630,000 acres of 
land south of Great Tract No. IV, 
and between the Black river and a line 
near the 44th° N. latitude.* From the 
mistaken notion of the course of the river 
before alluded to, it was estimated that 
this amount of land lay between these 
two boundaries. Chassanis in this pur- 

* In a deed in Oneida Clerk's office (c. 405) this is 
called great lot No. V, of Macomb's purchase. It ap- 
pears that the French originally contracted 1,255,000 
acres on all south of No. IV, both sides of the river 
but soon relinquished a part. ' 

chase, acted as agent for an association, 
and the lands were to be by him held in 
trust for Constable until paid for, and 
disposed of in sections of one hundred 
acres each, at the rate of eight livres 
Tournois per acre.* The State reser- 
vations for roads, etc., were stipulated, 
and a deed for 625,000 acres having been 
made out, was delivered to Rene Lam- 
bot, as an escrow, to take effect on the 
payment of .1^52,000. Constable bound 
himself to procure a perfect title, to be 
authenticated and deposited with the 
Consul General of France in Philadel- 
phia, and Chassanis agreed that the 
moneys paid to Lambot should be re- 
mitted to certain bankers in London, 
subject to Constable's order, on his pre- 
senting the certificate of Charles Texier, 
Consul, of his having procured a clear 
title. If the sales should not amount to 
;^62,75o, the balance was to be paid in 
si-x, nine and twelve months, in bills upon 
London. The pre-emption of Great 
Tract No. IV, for one month, was grant- 
ed at one shilling sterling per acre. 

Great Tract Number Four of Ma- 
comb's Purchase. 

On the 1 2th of April, 1793, Constable 
sold in London, with the consent of 
Chassanis who held a pre-emptive claim, 
this tract of 450,950 acres for 300,000 
florins ($125,356) to Charles J. Michael 
De Wolf of Antwerp. The town of 
Diana Hes wholly in this tract, which 
also embraces a large portion of Jefferson 
county. DeWolf published in Dutch a 
plan of settlement under a company of 
which he was to be the presiden t. The 

* The romantic scheme of settlement which was founded 
upon this purchase renders the subject one of ex raor 
dmary mterest_, and m a subsequent chapter we willpre- 

Z> r"^T °^ "'r^'^^'''L'• ^' '^ ^"ffi='^"^ here to notke 
that Mr. James D. LeRay.who was one of the orieinal 
members of the company, afterwards by means of 
purchase, power of attorney from other proprS tax 
sales and otherw^e acquired the control of the Uaa 
and sold It through his agents to settlers. A ew t^tle^ 
^a« back to other associates, but the greater pa '^ 



following is a full translation of this doc- 
ument : — 

"Plan of a negotiation for 1,200,000 
florins, current money, to be invested in 
440,000 acres of land lying in the State 
of New York, in North America, upon 
Lake Ontario and along the River St. 
Lawrence ; under the direction of C. J. 
M. De Wolf of Antwerp ; who offers these 
lands to the public upon the following 
conditions, being convinced that after a 
few years they will turn out to be very 
remunerative, especially for these rea- 
sons : First, for their cheapness and 
good situation, as they are situated as 
mentioned above, upon Lake Ontario 
and along the river St. Lawrence, oppo- 
site the great island which is used as a 
depot for the above mentioned lake and 
river, whose navigation, commerce and 
abundance offish are well known. Sec- 
ondly, for the fertile soil of these lands on 
which are found different kinds of trees, 
from 80 to 100 feet high, and even 
higher, different kinds of vegetables for 
food for cattle and horses, a great 
amount of birds and game, and many 
other advantages of this kind. This has 
been stated by disinterested authors, and 
will be corroborated by persons who 
have been there, who have communi- 
cated these facts many times to the 
President. Thirdly, the pleasant and 
healthy climate of the State of New 
York, whose population since the year 
1756 to July, 1791, has gained 96,000, en- 
tire population 340,000, which since that 
period has grown considerably by the 
continual emmigration from Europe and 
is increasing every day and is a proof of 
what is stated above. I would say that 
many lands not far situated from these 
lands have in six years risen to four or 
five times their first value, and in some 
places still higher, and this statement 
can be corroborated by disinterested 
persons who have been there. 

" r. These lands will be in the name of 
C. J. M. DeWolf aforesaid, and four 

fentlemen whose names will be made 
nown in the shares and who will be 
directors of these negotiations on the 
part of the buyers, which directors, to- 
gether with the President, shall have the 
control of the whole negotiation, and 
shall use every possible means that in 
their judgment is of advantage to this ne- 

gotiation, namely, to sell these lands, or 
part of them over again, to see to their cul- 
tivation and emigration without being in 
the least responsible for anything what- 
soever, and in case one of them may die 
or resign, his place will be filled by the 
four others by electing one from the 

" 2. The aforesaid sum of 1,200,000 flor- 
ins current money will be disposed of 
as follows, namely :_ 

"First, 800,000 florins for the payment 
of the aforesaid 400,000 acres for which 
good titles will be given, and of which 
copies will be kept at the office of the 
President, and all other papers in rela- 
tion to this negotiation will be kept 
there also. 

" Secondly, 400,000 florins current 
money will be invested by the said five 
directors in such stocks as they may 
deem advisable for the best interest of 
the negotiators, and in case they deem 
it necessary to send emigrants there, or 
to clear some of these lands, or make 
other expenses for the improvement of 
the same, or if they cannot pay the year- 
ly dividends, the said directors may sell 
or use so much of the said stock as is 
necessary to cover the expenses. 

" Thirdly, The interest which may ac- 
crue on the said 400,000 florins shall be 
for the benefit of the negotiators. 

"3. As it is evident that this negotiation 
will be beneficial to its stockholders, the 
directors will issue with each share of 
1,000 guilders each, three coupons as 
a dividend, each of fifty guilders current 
money, each of them payable the first of 
June, 1794, 179s and 1796, and after the 
expiration of this time, or if possible 
even before, the directors will call a gen- 
eral meeting of all the stockholders who 
are known to have ten shares each of 
1,000 guilders, and in this meeting will 
be given an account of the negotiation. 

" 4. The aforesaid 440,000 acres will be 
divided according to an exact map into 
1,100 parts each of 400 acres, in order to 
effect better the sale of the same. 

"5. The President shall have for the 
payment of the yearly dividend and for 
all other work, one per cent, without re- 
gard to any other expenses, to be paid 
out of the account kept with the negoti- 

"6. There will be issued 1,200 shares, 


ach of a thousand guilders, numbered 
rom No. i to No. 1,200, dated primo 
une 1793, signed by the Pre.sident afore- 
aid, and by J. D. Deelen, and of which 
hares the latter shall keep an account, 
show that there have not been issued 
lore than r,2oo shares." 

It was evident that this scheme was 
nly a trap, and as such it served its end, 
Dr De Wolf soon sold for 680,000 florins 
) a company of large and small capital- 
its of Antwerp, who organized the " Ant- 
werp Company." The several schemes 
rhich were devised by these people for 
nproving their lands belong rather to 
efferson county. 

In January, 1800, Governeur Morris 
jceived a trust deed of half of the tract 
id on the next day, James D. Le Ray 
jceived a like deed for the other half.* 
[orris and Le Ray exchanged releases 
ug. 15, i802,tand the former June 15, 
509, conveyed 326 lots of 143,440 acres 
) Moss Kent who conveyed the same to 
e Ray, June 24, 1817.:!: The operations 

the Antwerp company like those of 
3 neighbor were a failure, and Le Ray 
timately purchased the most if not all 
the rights of the individual sharehold- 
s in Europe. Not the slightest settle- 
ent had been undertaken by the 
impany before Le Ray's connection 
ith the title. 
A large part of Diana, with portions 

Jefferson county adjoining, were con- 
ned to Joseph Bonaparte, ex-king of 
)ain and brother of the illustrious Na- 
ileon, under circumstances which are 
us related by Mr. Vincent LeRay : — 
" Mr. LeRay de Chaumont was at his 
tate in Tourraine in 1815, when he 
ard of Joseph Bonaparte's arrival at 
ois. He had known this prince before 
3 great elevation and was his guest at 
ortefontaine when the treaty of Sep- 

These conveyances were made by James Constable, 
ler powers from his brother, dated Nov. i6, 1798' 
t's. office, N. K, Ivi., i6q. See Deeds, Oneida Co. 

612, E., 307. ' 

Deeds, Jefferson Co., A., 358. Deeds, Oneida Co., 


Deeds, Jefferson Co., K., 279. 

tember 30, 1800, between the U. S. and 
France was signed there, but he had 
ceased meeting him afterwards. Seeing 
however that misfortune had assailed 
the prince, he remembered the man and 
hastened to Blois. The prince having 
invited Mr. LeRay to dinner, said sud- 
denly to him: 'well, I remember you 
spoke to me formerly of your great pos- 
session in the United States. If you 
have them still, I should like very much 
to have some in exchange for a part 
of that silver I have there in those 
wagons, and which may be pillaged 
any moment. Take four or five hun- 
dred thousand francs and give the 
equivalent in land.' Mr. LeRay ob- 
jected that it was impossible to make a 
bargain where one party alone knew 
what he was about. ' Oh ! ' said the 
prince, I know you well and I rely more 
on your word than my own judgment.' 
Still Mr. LeRay would not be satisfied 
by this flattering assurance, and a long 
discussion followed, which was termi- 
nated by the following propositions im- 
mediately assented to by the prince. 
Mr. LeRa}' would receive 400,000 francs 
and would give the prince a letter for 
LeRay 's son then on the lands instruct- 
ing hjm to convey a certain designated 
tract, if after having visited the country 
(whither he was then going), the prince 
confirmed the transaction, otherwise the 
money was to be refunded." 

The purchaser, who in the United 
States assumed the title of the Count de 
Survilliers, in closing the bargain, is un- 
derstood to have made payment in cer- 
tain diamonds brought from Spain, and 
in real estate. A trust deed with cove- 
nant and warranty, was passed Decem- 
ber 21, 18 18, to Peter S. Duponceau, the 
confidential agent of the Count, for 1 50,- 
260 acres, excepting lands not exceeding 
32,260 acres, conveyed or contracted to 
actual settlers.* This was recorded 
with a defeasance appended, in which it 
is declared a security for $120,000, and it 
provided for an auction sale of lands to 
meet this obligation. The tract con- 
veyed by this instrument included the 

* Mortgages, Jefferson Co., A. 626; Deeds N, i. 



greater part of Diana, two tiers of lots 
on the southeast side of Antwerp, the 
whole of Wilna and Philadelphia, a small 
piece south of Black river at the Great 
Bend, a tract four lots wide and seven 
long, from LeRay, and nine lots from the 
easterly range in Theresa. 

Diamonds having fallen to half their 
former price, the fact was made a sub- 
ject of complaint, and in 1820 the Count 
agreed to accept 26,840 acres for the 
nominal sum of $40,260. These lands 
lay in the most distant portion of No. 
IV, and Mr. Le Ray, in a letter to one 
of the Antwerp company, dated April 
9, 1 82 1, complimented the Count upon 
his taste in selecting a " tract abounding 
with picturesque landscapes, whose re- 
mote and extensive forests affording re- 
treat to game, would enable him to 
establish a great hunting ground ; quali- 
ties of soil, and fitness for settlers were 
only secondary considerations. * * * 
He regrets, notwithstanding, that thus 
far he has been unable to find among the 
26,000 acres of land, a plateau of 200 
acres to build his house upon, but he in- 
tends keeping up his researches this 
summer." The attempt of Joseph Bon- 
aparte to establish himself in Diana, is 
elsewhere noticed. By an act of March 
31, 1825, he was authorized to hold 
lands in this State, without his promis- 
ing or expecting to become a citizen. 
In his memorial he alludes to the liberal- 
ity of other States, especially Pennsyl- 
vania, in allowing aliens to hold lands, 
"and not being of the number of those 
who would wish to abandon this land of 
hospitality, where the best rights of man 
prevail, but nevertheless bound to his 
own country by ties which misfortune 
renders more sacred," he solicited the 
privilege of holding titles in his own 

* This memorial is preserved in Assembly papers xii, 
37, 41. Sec. office, and is given in full in the History 
of Jefferson County, p. 566. 

Duponceau executed to Joseph Bona- 
parte July 31, 1825, a deed of all the 
rights he had before held in trust.* In 
1835, John La Farge bought for $80,000 
the remaining interests of Count Survil- 
liers in Lewis and Jefferson counties, + 
and attempted more active measures for 
settling these lands. The hard reputa- 
tion he had acquired in the sale of 
Penet's Square, and the severe measures 
he had adopted in ejecting squatters and 
delinquents, however, prejudiced the 
minds of settlers to such an extent that 
but few in this county ventured to com- 
mit themselves to his " tender mercies. " 
La Farge had been a merchant at 
Havre, and afterwards resided in New 
Orleans. While in France he purchased 
the title to much of Penet's Square, and 
in 1824 came to reside upon it. In about 
1838 he removed to New York, where 
he became concerned in extensive pecun- 
iary operations on his own account, 
and as agent of Louis Phillippe, who, 
while king of the French, invested large 
amounts of funds in American stocks. 
A magnificent hotel on Broadway, New 
York city, was named from its owner, 
the La Farge House. The La Farge 
Fire Insurance Company was also named 
from him. He died in New York about 
the year 1856. 

On the 3d of June, 1825, William and 
Gerardus Post, for $17,000, purchased 
11,888 acres (out of which 3,503 acres 
were excepted) in the present towns of 
Wilna and Diana, portions of which 
were afterward conveyed to T. S. Ham- 
mond of Carthage.ij: 

The Swiss company that made the 
first investment at Alpina, received July 
28, 1846, a conveyance from La Farge of 
a tract embracing two ranges of lots in 
Antwerp, and 122 lots in Diana,§ and 

* Deeds, Jefferson Co., N. l8l ; Lewis Co., I, i6. 
f Deeds, Jefferson Co., U, 2, 43. 
\ Deeds, Jefferson Co., X, 108 ; mortgages B. 3, p. 

g Deeds, Jefferson Co., 81, p. 532. 



the whole of La Farge's interest has 
since been sold in this county. The 
principal owners of the unimproved 
lands of his tract in Diana, in 1850 were 
Loveland Paddock of Watertown, and 
David C. Judson of Ogdensburgh. 
Their agent was Joseph Pahud * of Har- 

A part of Diana and the adjoining 
parts of Antwerp, are still a wilderness, 
but the demand for lumber and bark, 
and the establishment of iron furnaces 
has, in recent years, done much in clear- 
ing up these lands, and bringing them 
under settlement. 


Topography and Geology. 

EWIS County lies mostly in the 
valley of the Black river,f which 
flows centrally through it from south to 
north. The river is broken by frequent 
cascades and rapids, until it reaches the 
High Falls, [Lyon's Falls,] where it 
plunges down a steep, broken ledge of 
gneiss rock, to the still water that affords 
a navigable channel to Carthage, 42 1-2 
miles below. This is the lowest part of 
the county, and is 714 feet above tide 
level. The amount of water passing at 
Carthage at the lowest stages was com- 
puted in the days of canal survey, at 30,- 
000 cubic feet per minute, but now in 
dry seasons, it must be considerably less. 
The principal tributaries of Black river 

* Pronounced Pi-u. 

f The Indian name of this river, as given by the late 
Lewis H. Morgan, of Rochester, in his " League of the 
Iroquois," IS Ka-hu-ah-go. As given by the St. Regis 
Indians to the author, in 1852, it is Ni-ka-hi-on-ha-ko- 
wa, and by E. A. Squier, in his '•Aboriginal Monuments 
of New York, Ka-mar-go. The authority first cited 
gives the name of Deer river, as Ga-ne-ga-to-da ■ Beaver 
river, Ne-ha-sa-ne ; Otter creek, Da-ween-net ■ Moose 
river, Te-ca-hun-di-an-do ; Great Fish creek Ta-ga- 
so-ke ; Salmon river, Ga-hen-wa-ga ; Sandy creek To- 
ka-da-o-ga-he ; and Indian river O-je-quack. The St 
Regis named Indian river, 0-tsi-qua-ke, " where the 
black ash grows with knots for making clubs " 

on the east, are Beaver river. Crystal, 
Independence, Otter and Fish creeks, 
and Moose river, which mostly issue 
from lakes or swamps, and have their 
waters soft and highly discolored by 
organic or mineral matter in solution. 
On the west, the river receives Deer 
river. Stony, Sulphur Spring, Lowville, 
Martin's, Whetstone, House's, Bear and 
Mill creeks, Sugar river and a few 
other streams. Such of these as rise in 
swamps on the western plateau region 
are also highly discolored, but the smaller 
ones, fed by springs from the slates and 
limestones, are very clear and the water 
"hard." Along the river, but little above 
its level, are extensive swamps in Mar- 
tinsburgh, Lowville and Denmark, on 
the west side, some of which are cap- 
able of being brought into use. They 
were mostly covered with black ash and 
alders, but the lower one of these was 
in 1854, burnt off, and is now covered 
with wild grass and reeds capable of 
being mowed. The soil of this vlaie, or 
natural meadow, is a deep black muck, 
underlaid by clay. Along the river- 
bank is a ridge of hard land formed by 
its overflow, and west of it, a drift-ridge 
of sand, originally covered with hemlock 
timber. Still west of this, is a long nar- 
row cedar swamp, extending several 
miles. It is higher than the meadow 
near the river, and in the early days of 
the iron industry, furnished a large 
amount of bog iron ore for the Carthage 
furnace.* A cedar lot has by many been 
regarded as an essential appendage of a 
farm, but the supply is now nearly 
washed out, and but little pains have 
been taken to secure another growth. 
The river flows over limestone a short 

* This ore never occurs in swamps liable to overflow 
from the river. It has been found largely in Watson, 
New Bremen and Denmark, occurring as a loam, or in 
solid masses, sometimes replacing the particles of roots, 
leaves and wood, but preserving their form. It is said 
to have been mostly exhausted, but if allowed to remain 
without drainage, would be again deposited. Limited 
quantities of this ore have been found in Diana. 



distance from Oneida county, when its 
bed comes upon gneiss rock, the primi- 
tive formation extending from about half 
a mile west of the river, throughout the 
whole eastern part of the county, ex- 
cepting a portion of Diana. This rock, 
when it appears at the surface, rises into 
round ridges, mostly naked, or with soil 
only in the crevices and hollows. It is 
largely composed of feldspar and quartz, 
with particles of hornblende, magnetic 
iron ore, and more rarely of garnets. It 
is everywhere irregularly stratified and 
highly inclined. The general surface 
rises gradually from the river eastward, 
until it reaches an elevation of from 
1,500 to 2,000 feet above the river on the 
eastern border. This rock covers a 
comparatively small part of the sur- 
face, the intervals being a light 
sandy soil of drift, with occasional 
intervals of alluvial deposit, sometimes 
appearing to have been formerly ponds 
or small lakes. The disintegration of this 
rock affords the iron sand so common 
along the streams, and upon the shores 
of lakes in this region. A vein of mag- 
netic iron ore has been opened in the 
north part of Greig, but not worked to 
any extent. It was highly charged with 
sulphuret of iron, and probably other 
ingredients, but was never analyzed. At 
Port Leyden, a more extensive bed of 
ore was found interstratified with the 
gneiss, and hopes of its abundance and 
value, led to the establishment of the 
iron furnace at that place. It was found 
to contain, besides iron pyrites and 
phosphorus, a considerable amount, (said 
to be ten per cent.) of Titanniuni, one of 
the most refractory and worthless of 
the metals. It is not now used, and the 
furnace is supplied from elsewhere. In 
Diana, white crystaline limestone occurs, 
presenting a great variety of interesting 
minerals, and many instructive points 
for the study of geology. The region 
is highly metamorphic, and presents 

marked indications of former igneous 

The minerals of Diana and vicinity, 
are ^/a/?V^ in small green crystals; Cal- 
cite in great variety, including satin spar, 
and a coarse crystaline- limestone of sky 
blue tint ; Hornblende ; Mica of the varie- 
ties known as " Phlogopite ;" Pyroxene, 
white and black in crystals, and ingrains, 
known as "CoccoHte ," Quartz \n crystals, 
and of the forms known as "Ribbon 
agate " and " Chalcedony ;" Rensselaerite ; 
Scapolite in rounded pearly gray crystals ; 
Serpentine, opaque and greenish ; Sphene 
of the variety known as " Ledererite ;" 
Sulphur ets of copper and of iron ; Tremolite; 
Wollastonite or tabular spar, and Zircon 
in square prisms, sometimes a third of 
an inch on a side, and with terminal 
prisms. Mining for silver was attempted 
by Enoch Cleveland many years since, 
and a small blast furnace was put up 
which produced a few hundred pounds 
of very hard metal apparently iron. The 
reputed ore is a fine grained greenish- 
black rock which occurs abundantly, 
and appears to consist of chlorite and 
specular iron ore in variable proportions. 
The primitive region of this county 
still comprises large areas of unsettled 
lands, and where not ravaged by fires, 
and by lumbermen, presents the same 
wild forest scenery of lakes, dark wind- 
ing streams, tangled swamps and sombre 
pine and hemlock forests, as when first 
explored by surveyors and hunters. The 
whole of Diana, and about half of Cro- 
ghan are drained by the Indian and 
Oswegatchie rivers. A small part of 
Diana is underlaid by calciferous sand- 
stone, which usually occurs level and 
covered by a thin but fertile soil. This 
formation extends further northward un- 
derlying the flat country in Wilna, Ant- 
' werp and Philadelphia. Detached cap- 
ping masses of Potsdam sandstone also 
occur in this town, but the most remarka- 
ble locality of this rock in the county, is 



due east of Martinsburgh village, at the 
place where the railroad crosses Roaring 
brook, where a stratum is found resting 
directly upon the gneiss, in the bed of 
the stream. Its thickness does not ex- 
ceed three feet, and its surface exposure 
is slight. It is directly covered by lime- 
stones and is composed of masses of peb- 
bles and sand cemented as if by heavy 

Parallel with the river, and on an 
average of about a mile west, rises an 
irregular series of terraces, consisting of 
Birdseye, Black River and Trenton lime- 
stones. The first of these may be quar- 
ried in rectangular blocks, and is highly 
valuable for building and for lime. A 
portion of it furnishes hydrauHc lime, 
which has "been made to some extent in 
Lowville and Martinsburgh. It does not 
form a surface rock of much extent and 
occurs chiefly on the edge of the lower 
terrace, and in the beds of streams. 
This limestone is less pure in quality 
for the making of lime than the Trenton 
limestone, and contains in some places a 
considerable amount of silica. The lime 
makes a mortar that sets quickly but is 
not as hard nor durable as that from the 
upper limestones. The Birdseye lime- 
stone of geologists is locally known as 
the " blue limestone," and has been 
largely used for the piers of bridges and 
for canal locks. The Black River lime- 
stone that next succeeds this, is the 
formation which forms the surface rock 
between the first and second terrace, is 
not adapted to building, contains masses 
of flint, and is so soluble that every ex- 
posed angle has been rounded and every 
seam widened by the action of rains and 
running water. Streams usually sink 
into crevices and flow under it, often 
forming caverns of Hmited extent, espec- 
ially in Leyden. This rock is more 
largely developed further down the 
river in Jefferson county, in Champion, 
Rutland, Watertown, Houndsfield, Le- 

Ray, Pamelia, Brownville, Lyme and 
Cape Vincent, and extends over into 
Canada. It is everywhere distinguished 
for its cavernous structure, and for its 
nodules of flint. These siliceous nodules 
are petrified sponges, or other forms of 
animal life of the lowest grade. It also 
contains the coraline masses so closely 
resembling a honeycomb, and very large 
conical fossils, sometimes of immense 
size. In excavating for the foundations 
of the railroad bridge at Lowville village 
the largest specimen of these " ortko- 
cera" was found that the world has ever 
seen. The original is now in the collec- 
tions at Cornell University, and a speci- 
men in plaster is in the Lowville 
Academy. This enormous shell must 
have been at least fifteen feet long when 
entire. It was from the interior of a 
creature like the " devil fish " of modern 
times, and corresponds with the ''cuttle 
bone " of a modern Cephalopod. It had 
long jointed arms that brought food 
within its reach, and almost justifies the 
wild and strange descriptions by Victor 
Hugo, the modern French writer, in his 
" Toilers of the Sea. " 

The Trenton limestone forms the 
highest and broadest terrace of the 
series, rising from 300 to 600 feet above 
the river, and spreading out into the 
level fertile region which every traveler 
through the country has admired. These 
limestones seldom appear at the surface 
except at the edge of the terraces and in 
the water courses, and every stream 
flowing across them has more or less of 
a smooth rocky bed, and a picturesque 
cascade where it tumbles down to the 
next lower level. Deer river, in Den- 
mark, Roaring brook or Martin's creek 
in Martinsburgh, and Sugar river in 
Leyden, have worn deep yawning 
chasms into the rock, and present cas- 
cades of singular wildness and beauty 
well worthy of a visit by the pleasure- 
seeking tourist. 



The western tributaries of Black river 
have usually no valleys, except the 
immediate channels they have worn. 
Drift agencies have given the appear- 
ance of several oblique valleys coming 
down from the northwest across the 
limestone terraces, which usually have a 
drift deposit on their northern side, 
while on the south the rock is exposed 
and often furrowed in the direction of 
these oblique valleys. Deer river might 
almost as well have turned northward at 
Copenhagen into Sandy creek, as to 
have taken its present course, and in 
fact Sandy creek rises in a swale just 
north of the village. 

In Martinsburgh and Lowville, veins 
of calcite with the sulphurets of zinc, 
lead and iron have been found. In the 
former, carbonate of lead, and in the lat- 
ter fiuor spar occurred. These mineral 
veins are of scientific interest, from the 
evidence they afford of electrical de- 
posit. They were formed in what ap- 
peared to be natural fissures of the rock, 
and the sulphuret of zinc was attached 
to each wall, upon which was a layer of 
lead ore and lastly of pyrites, the latter 
often covering the crystals of calcite or 
appearing with cavities left by their 
solution. The lead was sometimes crys- 
talized and imbedded in spar, or grouped 
with clusters of that mineral in masses of 
much beauty. The crystals were small, 
and their surfaces were not bright, but 
their forms were complete, and the 
angles often truncated. 

A range of high lands, known as Tug 
Hill* runs thr ough the county parallel 

* Said to have been named by Isaac Perry and 

Buell, on their first journey into the county, upon reach- 
ing the top of the hill on the old road west of Turin 

The more interesting of these is Whetstone Gulf. 
The chasm extending about three miles up, is bordered 
by precipitous banks 200 to 300 feet in height. The 
first two miles was formerly mostly occupied by a heavy 
growth of timber, but the last mile presents but little of 
this, except what overhangs the oanks, or finds root on 
the steep, crumbling slate rock. The stream is here 
quite irregular in its course, presenting sharp angles and 
sudden turns, which afford, at every step, new points of 

with the river, and from three to seven 
miles from it. It rests upon the lime- 
stone and consists of Utica slate and 
Hudson river shales, rising by a rounded 
slope to an elevation of from 500 to 1,000 
feet above the flats below, and spread- 
ing out in a level or slightly broken re- 
gion, into Oneida, Oswego and Jefferson 
counties. Many beaver meadows occur 
along the sluggish streams rising from 
extensive swamps in this region, and the 
waters from this plateau flow from it 
into the Mohawk and Black rivers and 
Lake Ontario. The largest streams flow- 
ing from this region are Fish creek and 
Salmon river, each of which; have val- 
leys of considerable extent, amd receive 
numerous tributaries. Deef river also 
gathers the waters of a wide district, 
and some of the head waters of Sandy 
creek. The large streams flowing down 
have uniformly worn deep channels, the 
larger of them several miles in length, 
and in Martinsburgh presenting some 
of the wildest scenery in the State. 

interest, and a constant succession of magnificent views. 
The walls approach nearer as we ascend the stream, un- 
til they may be both reached by the outstretched arms, 
and the torrent is compressed into a deep, narrow 
chasm, which forbids farther progress without ditficulty 
and danger. A rough wagon road has been made about 
two miles up the gulf, and in low water parties can cross 
the stream everywhere without difficulty. 

Whetstone Gulf has lost much of its wild native grand- 
eur in the clearing off of the forests that once bordered 
and overhung its banks, and from fires that have ravaged 
the timbef-growth upon its sides. The saw mills above 
have discharged their rubbish in'o the stream which finds 
lodgment along its course, and slides now and then en- 
cumber the ravine, but generally not- for a long time, for 
they are very apt to get washed out by the first floods. 

About four years since, the upper mill-dam broke 
away, and sent down a wave that cleared out everything 
movable and swept off the two bridges near the mouth of 
the gulf. In rebuilding them, an effort has been made 
to establish stone piers and abutments of heavy mason- 
ry, but in this it was impossible to find a rock-bottom, 
for nowhere in the county can the slate of the hills be 
seen resting in actual cmtact with the limestone. 

In the bed of Sandy creek, upon the road from Co- 
penhagen to Rodman, the limestone can be seen forming 
the bed of the stream, and the slate the banks. Between 
Boonville and Johnstown the slate can be seen resting 
against the gneiss rock, at a steep angle, the whole of 
the limestone series being absent. 

About two miles west of Martinsburgh village, on 
Martin's creek, occurs another gorge worn in the slate 
hills, of much the same character. From a vast trian- 
gular pyramid of slate rock formed by the junction of 
two gulfs, it has acquired the name of Chimney Point. 



Every spring torrent has its ravine, 
and the limestone flats below, are 
so covered with slate gravel, that the 
line of junction of the two rocks can no- 
where be seen in the county. Leyden 
Hill is a detached mass of this slate for- 
mation, cut off by a valley from the main 
portion. The road from Constableville 
to Rome, rises about i,ooo feet above the 
latter place and runs many miles over 
this range of highlands, which comprises 
the whole of Lewis, Osceola, High Mar- 
ket, Montague and Pinckney, and parts 
of Leyden, West Turin, Turin, Martins- 
burgh, Harrisburgh and Denmark. The 
black oxyde of manganese occurs in 
swamps in Martiiisburgh on the top of 
Tug Hill, and weak sulphur springs 

To the left of this, as seen from the banks above, a 
stream of moderate size falls into a beautiful cascade 
about sixty feet, breaking into a sheet of foam upon the 
rough bed, down which it glides. A few rods below, it 
unites with the longer and larger branch, whose ravine 
extends half a mile further up. Upon following the 
latter we arrive at a cascade, where the stream falling 
from a narrow chasm into a pool, forbids further prog- 
ress. The strata of slate, elsewhere nearly or quite 
level, are here highly inclined, but the disturbance in 
the stratification only extends a few rods. Chimney 
Point has the advantage of presenting its finest view from 
the banks, but such as prefer to descend, will find them- 
selves amply rewarded by the pleasing variety of scenery 
which the locality presents. This lavine is surrounded 
by cultivated fields, and has now none of the wild soli- 
tude it presented when first seen by surveyors. 

A thrilling incident occurred at Chimney Point, in the 
spring of 1834, which, were it not well authenticated 
would scarcely appear credible. It is, however, too well 
known and attested to admit of a doubt, and must be 
placed on the list of wonderful escapes. Chillus D. 
Peebles, who lived adjacent, was clearing the land, and 
rolling the logs off into the gulf, when by an unexpected 
motion of a log he was thrown off the precipice. He 
fell about one hundred and fifty feet, and struck on the 
steep slope formed by the gravel crumbled from the cliffs 
above, from whence he bounded and rolled to the'bottom, 
about a hundred feet further. The accident was seen 
by a man not far off, who hastened to descend by the 
usual path, expecting to find the unfortunate man dashed 
to atoms or mangled and dying on the crags below. To 
his infinite surprise he met Peebles, who had got up and 
started to return, which he did without aid, and in 
less time than the person who came to assist him. Upon 
reaching the top he was delirious, but after a few days 
he returned to his labor as usual. 

In the south branch of the stream, about a quarter of 
a mile above, is a cascade of much beauty when seen at 
high water. It has been called the " Silver Casc§de." 
Above this the stream rises to the general level of the 
country, and formerly flowed through beaver meadows. 

Chimney Point is easily seen from the bank above, and 
from its facility of access is often visited by pleasure 

known in the early settlement as deer 
licks, are common but unimportant.* 
The limestones and slates in this county 
abound in characteristic fossils of great 
scientific interest. About half a mile 
below the foot of Tug Hill, on the line of 
junction between the slate and Umestone, 
there occurs a strip of tough blue clay 
averaging perhaps forty rods in width, 
which may be traced from one end of 
the county to the other. In the state of 
nature this was a line of ash or cedar 
swamp, and when cleared and drained it 
affords a strong meadow or grass land, 
but it can not well be plowed. The 
slates allow the rains to percolate down 
through their seams until the water 
reaching the limestone finds its way to 
the surface in this line of .springs. West 
of the strip, slate may be found an)^- 
where, by digging through the soil and 
drift. East of it, it can be found no- 
where, except in broken gravel washed 
down by streams. 

Drift deposits occur promiscuously 
over every part of the county, usually in 
rounded ridges. The largest of these 
are southeast of Denmark village, where 
the deposit is miles in extent and of great 

* One of these occurs near the head of Whetstone gulf, 
and another i mile S. W, of Houseville on House's 
creek. One sulphur spiingof some interest occurs in 
the limestone near C. S. Sheldon's Cheese Factory, on 
lot 14 in the N. W. part of Lowville, which from the 
earliest settlement has enjoyed a local reputation for its 
medicinal properties. It issues from ihe foot of a low 
terrace of Trenton limestone within a few feet of the 
upper strata of that rock, and its sulphurous taste and 
odor is apparently due to sulphuret of iron disseminated 
in the rock. It occurs on the west side of a small 
mill stream a few rods below a former grist mill and 
the spot is shaded by a thin growth of trees. The spring 
is curbed about three feet deep and the water is clear. 
Now and then a few bubbles of inflammable gas 
rise from the bottom, and at some periods the dis- 
charge of gas is said to be sufficiently active to give the 
spring the appearance of boiling. The water may be 
easily drank, and as he measured it in 1859, flows off at 
the rate of about six quarts in a minute. 

Anothersulphurspringa mile west of Lowville village 
led to the erection of a large hotel in 1872, with the in- 
tention of maintaining a sanitarium. The enterprise 
has not been thus far successful, partly from faults of earlv 
management, and more from the competition of mor<> 
noted localities. Dr. Homer G. Brooks was the u ^ 
resident keeper of this establishment, but since his deatl 

has been closed. 



depth. Remarkable deposits of drift 
forming a series of sharp hills and deep 
valleys occur along under the Umestone 
terraces in Denmark and in Turin. By 
the term drift, we wish to include all 
earthy matter or detached rocky masses 
lying upon the undisturbed rock, except- 
ing soil derived from the disintegration 
of the rock underneath, and the alluvium 
or soil washed down and deposited by 
water, or formed by organic growth. 
The soil of the drift is variable, being in 
some places light and sandy, while at 
others it is hard loam or clay. In the 
Primary region, especially in Diana, 
there are found in many places, flat inter- 
vales and marshes which appear to have 
been formerly lakes that have been filled 
in by the encroachment of vegetable 
growth and by the soil washed down 
from the ridges adjacent. Perhaps the 
most interesting of these ancient beds of 
lakes or ponds, occurs in Denmark, a 
little to the right of the road leading 
from Copenhagen to Watertown, per- 
haps half a mile from the county line. 
The bottom is marl, with remains of 
shells like those now living in fresh 
water ponds in this region. Above this 
is muck, filling the whole so that it is 
now a swamp without drainage. It was 
in this muck and marl that the mam- 
moth's tusk was found described in 
our account of Denmark. Peat has 
been observed in some of these marshes, 
and marl deposited in the bottom of the 
lakes. Boulders of gneiss and other pri- 
mary or igneous rock, are found promis- 
cuously resting upon all the formations 
of the county, or imbeded in the soil. In 
many cases clusters of these masses are 
found together, favoring by their ap- 
pearance the theory that they had been 
transported by fields of floating ice, at a 
period when this region was covered by 
the ocean. 

The scenery of the county, excepting 
the ravines and cascades above de- 

scribed, presents nothing majestic, and 
maybe regarded as beautiful rather than 
grand. From the western side of the 
river, the eastern slope appears rising by 
insensible degrees until lost in the blue 
level range of the forests of Herkimer 
count}', with here and there a point 
slightly elevated above the general sur- 
face, indicating the position of the higher 
mountain peaks of Hamilton county. 
The highest primary ranges in Lewis 
county, occur in its southeastern corner, 
in the town of Greig. On an autumnal 
morning, or after a summer shower, 
patches of white mist resting upon 
the surface, indicate the position and 
extent of the forest lakes, and at 
tunes a curtain of fog hanging over the 
river, may shut out the view entirely. 
As viewed from the brow of the slate 
ranges, the panorama of the valley 
and of the distant horizon is exceedingly 
beautiful, and sunrise as seen from these 
hills on a clear morning, will amply re- 
pay the labor of an early walk to their 
summit. The beaver meadows of the 
western plateau region, are usually bor- 
dered by a thrifty growth of balsam fir 
trees, whose dense conical masses of 
dark evergreen, give a characteristic as- 
pect to the scenery of these open mead- 
ows in the bosom of the forests. No 
prospect can be conceived more cheer- 
less than the swamps which extend for 
miles along the head waters of Fish 
creek, and other streams, which have 
their sources in these highlands. They 
are mostly without trees or shrubs, ex- 
cepting here and there a slender tama- 
rack, festooned with gray hanging moss. 
Where the soil is of sufficient stability to 
support them, a growth of alder shrubs 
may be traced along the margin of the 
channels, but in many places the surface 
may be shaken to the distance of many 
feet, and a pole may be thrust to an al- 
most indefinite depth. 
Viewed from the eastern side, the 



limestone terraces and slate hills on the 
west, are seen to great advantage, and 
successive steps by which the surface 
rises, are distinctly observable. The cul- 
tivation of more than eighty years has 
quite changed the natural surface of the 
landscape, and a patch of reserved 
woodland here and there alone remains. 
Viewed from a distant eastern point, the 
horizon towards the north drops down 
as the hills are of less elevation towards 
the lake, and the terraces become much 
broader. At the period when Lake On- 
tario, or more probably an estuary from 
the sea, flowed up to the ridges, now 
nearly four hundred feet above its sur- 
face, the northeastern portion of the 
county might have been submerged, as 
traces of these ridges are found in 
Wilna, near the borders of this county, 
on the road leading from Carthage to the 
Natural Bridge. We find evidence that 
the water last covering this flat region 
northward, was salt water, from the 
shells found in the clay near Ogdens- 
burgh and elsewhere, which are marine 
shells, identical as to species with those 
now living upon the coast of Greenland. 
The broad open valley of the Black 
river, must have been eroded by a vast 
glacier, slowl}' advancing southward 
from a more northerly region, at a period 
which may be reckoned as among 
the latest in the earth's history, 
if we compare it with the date when 
the older limestones, and somewhat 
newer shales were deposited. The source 
from whence the primary rock found as 
boulders in the soil and on the surface 
everywhere, must have been to the far 
north, in Canada. Some of these trans- 
ported masses are of enormous sizes, and 
they are occasionally found densely 
crowded together, or in long moraines, 
extending for miles along the country, 
generally in lines having a northerly and 
southerly direction ; and occasionally we 
find among these erratic masses, rocks. 

unlike any that we have in situ, any- 
where in the State of New York. Among 
these strangers are greenstone, epidote, 
nephaline, and forms of porphyry and 
basalt, that have evidently been the 
product of ancient volcanic action. 

The highest point in the county is 
believed to be Gomer Hill, in Turin, 
where a signal station has been estab- 
lished by the Government, as an angle 
in the system of triangulation that is 
being extended over the whole country. 
Upon one of the preliminary maps in 
the office of the Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
veys, at Washington, we notice that a 
line from this hill runs to a point on the 
eastern horizon, from whence another 
line extends to a signal point on Mount 
Marcy, the highest mountain in the 
State. Along these lines, the surveyors 
when at work, flash reflections of sun- 
Hght, and by intercepting the light for 
longer or shorter intervals, are able to 
spell out signals, and converse as readily 
as if connected by telegraphic wires, the 
alphabet used being in principle much 
the same. 


USUAL Phenomena. 

THE following items are a brief re- 
sume of the more important mete- 

* The most wonderful example of conveying tele- 
graphic messages by light, ever known, occurred a few 
years ago, in the surveys going on in Spain and Algeria. 
In each of these countries there were two high moun- 
tains that could be seen rising from the opposite side, 
just above the waters of the Mediterranean, and from 
each of these four peaks, the other three couid be seen. 
It was only needed that luminous points should be obi 
tained, in order to measure the exact distances between 
them. They first tried sunlight, bvit the most powerful 
rays they could condense upon reflectors, could not pen- 
etrate to that distance. They next made mule paths to 
their summits, and carried up the materials for steam 
power and electrical apparatus. They were then, by 
electric lights, able to get beams of light that would 
cross the sea, and found the means to establish lines on 
the African side, with the greatest precision, and to an 
indefinite extent. By means of these Iriangulations, the 
precise distances between prominent points all over our 
county, may be measured with the utmost ease and 



orological phenomena that have been 
recorded in the years mentioned : — 

1799. — The summer pleasant, and 
cooled by frequent showers. A slight 
frost occurred early in September, which 
was not followed by hard frost till De- 
cember. Heavy rains occurred in Sep- 
tember and October, followed by a mild 
and pleasant Autumn. The winter fol- 
lowing was open, with snow of moder- 
ate depth. 

1800. — Snows disappeared on the last 
of March ; the crops good and the au- 
tumn more pleasant than the former. 
The winter of 1801-02 was memorable 
as warm and open. Many families, in- 
tending to remove from New England 
by the first sleighing, were detained till 
February 24th, when a deep snow fell but 
soon wasted. The reputation of mild 
winters and genial climate which the 
Black River country [undeservingly] 
acquired by this circumstance, tended in 
no small degree to hasten the settlement 
of the new towns in the county. 

1802. — Plowing in March. Warm and 
wet in the early part of the season, giv- 
ing a great amount of vegetable growth, 
but towards harvest the wheat fields 
were struck with rust, destroying the 

1803. — Long and memorable as the dry 
summer. The streams were, it is said, 
lower than ever since known. This re- 
gion of country suffered from the drouth 
much less than portions of Jefferson 

j8o7._A snow storm from the north- 
east, set in on the 31st of March, and 
continued till April 5th. It fell on a level 
five feet deep, did not drift, and went off 
almost as soon as it came, producing a 
flood which has never since been equalled 
upon Black river. The grist mill at 
Martinsburgh was swept off on this 
occasion. The season which follovved 
was good for crops. 

1806 to 1 812.— A series of cold sum- 

mers, although in 1806 the corn crop in 
Lowville was excellent. 

181 1. — Spring rye sowed in Leyden 
March 21st. 

1813. — Oct. i2th, snow two feet deep 
in Denmark. In the winter following 
the snow fell deep and was much 

181 5. — Crops good, wheat and pota- 
toes excellent, corn light. 

1 8 16. — Long memorable as the cold 
season. The spring was mild and a few 
days of April oppressively warm. This 
was followed by cold, and frost occurred 
in every month of the year. On Pinck- 
ney it snowed and drifted like winter. 
June 6th, 7th, 8th, the snow lay ankle 
deep in the fields and many newly shorn 
sheep perished. In Denmark the snow 
lay an inch deep on the 9th of June, and 
ice formed a quarter of an inch thick. 
Corn and garden vegetables, generally 
were killed, but grass was an average 
crop, and in Lowville the wheat was not 
cut off. A frost on the 26th of August, 
killed down what remained of the corn. 
The autumn was mild, and the winter 
late. On the 26th of December, there 
was no snow, but the ground was 

1817. — The potatoe crop was exceed- 
ingly fine, in one instance 700 bushels to 
the acre. Other crops were excellent. 

1820. — May 25th, snow an inch deep in 

Dr. Horatio G. Hough, of Martins- 
burgh, in a letter dated May 11, 1821, 
and addressed to a brother in Ohio, gives 
the following account of the season pre- 
ceding that date in Lewis county : — 

" The last summer was uncommonly 
dry. We had no rain from the last of 
spring to the middle of September. 
Hogs might have nearly fattened on 
grasshoppers, they were so numerous, 
and the pastures and meadows appeared 
as if they had been burned over. Indian 
corn and winter wheat did well, but 
many cattle died in the winter for want 



of hay. Major John Ives* lost nearly 
twenty head of horned cattle. Things, 
however, look promising this spring." 

1824. — May 14th. Snow four inches 
deep in Denmark. On the 26th the 
ground was frozen hard, and on the 
28th of October snow lay a foot and a 
half deep. The winter following was 
open, and there were not two weeks of 
sleighing. The snow was gone March 

I St. 

1828. — Hot sunshine and copious 
showers produced a sickly season. Root 
crops were excellent, but winter wheat 
blasted and yielded more straw than 

1829.— An unusually bountiful year, 
wheat, rye, corn and almost every fruit 
of the earth good. Apples yielded 
abundantly, but there were no plums. 

December was like April, warm and 
spring like. Six weeks before there had 
been snow enough for sleighing. 

1830. — A more abundant yield than on 
any previous year. Barn room was 
everywhere insufficient, and most grains 
(especially wheat) superior. Corn was 
not as good as usual, owing to spring 
frosts. Rains frequent in harvest. Ap- 
ples and plums plenty. A terrific hail 
storm crossed Leyden, June 14th. The 
track was half a mile wide and from four 
to five long, and the storm was preceded 
15 to 20 minutes by roaring of thunder. 

1832. — Drouth very severe. 

1833. — A rainy season and heavy 

1834. — May 14th, snow three feet deep 
in drifts in Denmark, and on the i8th 
nearly as great, plum and cherry trees in 
blossom were broken down with snow, 
and many trees were killed by frost. 

1835. — A remarkable yield of wheat, 
averaging in some fields 35 to 40 bushels 
to the acre. 

1841. — May 6th, great freshet, and 

* Father of the late Selden Ives, and grandfather of 
Mather S. Ives of Turin. 

much damage done at and below Car- 

1849.^ — Memorable for drouth and run- 
ning fires in the woods east of the river. 

1853. — Summer dry and grasshoppers 
abundant. About the middle of Sep- 
tember rains revived vegetation, and in 
some places fruit trees put forth blos- 
soms in the fall. 

1856. — Sept. 15th, destructive hail 
storm crossed Turin attended with wind 
and rain. About 3,000 panes of glass 

1857.— May. Flood from melting 

1857. — July. One of the most remark- 
able instances of rainfall occurred upon 
a small area in Martinsburgh, — the exact 
date not being remembered. The morn- 
ing had been clear, but in the afternoon 
storms from the north and from the 
south, appeared to meet upon the hill 
southwest from the village, and westerly 
from the residence of J. H. Pitcher. An 
eye-witness describes it as preceded by 
unusual darkness, and as accompanied 
by thunder and lightning, but not with 
a violent wind. The rain continued 
about two hours, with great intensity. 
As it began to cease, a roaring sound 
was heard in the gulf, and presently a 
wave at least ten feet high came sweep- 
ing down the ravine, bearing trees, tim- 
bers and every object in its course. All 
the bridges in its way were carried off, 
down to its junction with the main branch 
on the southern border of Martinsburgh 
village. An immense amount of rubbish 
was left on the adjacent fields, and in two 
hours the flood had subsided to its com- 
mon level. There was no rain a mile 
distant, either to the north or south, and 
but little at two miles west, upon the hill. 
Such phenomena, often called " cloud- 
bursts," and occasioned by the meeting 
of currents of air, when the conditions 
of humidity favor a heavy rainfall— in 
fact almost a pouring, over a limited area, 



are unusual, but not unknown in this and 
adjacent counties. One in the towns of 
Rutland and Champion, about six "years 
since, was equally violent, and its effects 
may be seen in remarkable erosions, a 
short distance below the village of " Black 
River," close by the railroad, as it passes 
under the hill toward Watertown. 

1 87 1. — Autumn late and mild. Trees 
budded and some blossomed. The suc- 
ceeding winter was mild. 

In September, 1881, forest fires pre- 
vailed extensively in Wilna, adjacent to 
Carthage, and in the back settlements of 
this town, and of Croghan. In Jefferson 
county many buildings were burned, but 
in Lewis county the greatest injury was 
done to standing timber, cord wood and 
bark. Fires also prevailed at about the 
same time in the towns of Watson, Mar- 
tinsburgh and Montague. Relief funds 
were raised for assisting families who had 
experienced losses in the neighborhood 
of Carthage in that season. 

i882-'3. — Judging from its beginning, 
the winter of i882-'3 will be as memora- 
ble from the amount of snow, as the 
preceding autumn has been, from the ab- 
sence of rainfall, and the remarkably low 
water in the streams and wells. In this 
the conditions are believed to be without 
a precedent in the history of the country. 


Of these, several have swept over the 
county since its settlement, and traces of 
others, as shown by fallen timber and 
young trees, indicate that these fearful 
tempests had traversed this region before 
its settlement. The first and greatest 
one ever witnessed in the county, oc- 
curred on Sunday evening, June 3, 18 10, 
and formed an epoch in the memories of 
the early settlers. It passed nearly a due 
east course from West Martinsburgh 
across the river near the Watson bridge, 
and far beyond into the wilderness, leav- 

ing a track of broken and prostrate trees 
over a space a mile and a quarter wide 
and of unknown length. It was attended 
by torrents of rain and vivid and inces- 
sant lightning. Its approach was an- 
nounced by a fearful roaring in the 
woods, and the crash of falling timber 
was lost in terrific peals of thunder. The 
affrighted inhabitants fled to their cellars 
or sought in the open air an asylum from 
the danger? which their own dwellings 
threatened. The clouds which had been 
gathering in dense black masses, having 
poured an immense volume of water 
along the track of the storm, cleared up 
as soon as it had passed, and the remain- 
der of the evening was beautifully serene 
and quiet. Although many buildings 
were unroofed or prostrated, it is won- 
derful to relate that no lives were lost. 

In 1823, a tornado passed over the un- 
settled country near the southwest corner 
of the county, leaving a track two miles 
long and half a mile wide, on which no 
trees were left standing. This occurred 
about a mile south of the deep valley of 
Salmon river, and nearly parallel with it, 
in the present town of Osceola. 

A tornado from the northwest passed 
over Harrisburgh, Sept. 9, 1845, tearing 
down trees over a track in some places 
forty or fifty rods wide. It struck the 
saw-mill of Jacob Windecker and the 
house of Richard Livingston in Lowville, 
where it prostrated a building attached, 
and did other damage to buildings but 
destroyed no lives. Eleven days later, 
the great northern tornado swept the 
forest from Antwerp to Lake Champlain, 
mostly through an uninhabited region 
and likewise without the loss of human 

At half past five o'clock on the after- 
noon of July 5, 1850, a tornado cloud was 
seen, like an immense cloud of smoke, 
rapidly whirling and advancing down 
the hill, about a mile south of Turin 
village. It passed eastward to the 



river, demolishing two or three barns, 
unroofing several houses, and prostrating 
everything that lay in its track. It is 
reported that plank were torn up from 
the road, grass twisted out by the roots, 
and solid objects on the ground removed. 
No lives were lost. 


These fearful but unnatural phenomena 
have been felt several times since the set- 
tlement of the county, but seldom suffi- 
cient to create a sensible motion of the 
earth. They were indicated by a deep 
rolhng noise like distant thunder, or like 
wagons driven over frozen ground. Such 
an instance occurred in the county, late 
in the evening of January 22, 1832, and 
in Martinsburgh, April 8, 1836. On the 
first of March, 1838, a slight shock was 
felt at Lowville, at 9 o'clock in the even- 
ing, and another in December, 1839. At 
half-past two o'clock, on the morning of 
March 12, 1853, an earthquake was felt 
throughout the county, windows, stoves 
and crockery were rattled, in Lowville 
one chimney was thrown down, and 
even the bells in the stone church and 
academy were rung by the movement. 
The effect was more sensible in brick and 
stone, than in framed houses, and some 
persons awakened by the noise and 
frightened by the motion, ran into the 
open air, lest they should be buried in 
their own houses. The phenomenon 
was attended by a distant deep rumbling 
sound, gradually approaching and then 
dying away in the opposite direction. 
As it approached it was interrupted by a 
series of explosions like bursts of thun- 
der, and the noise is described as pecu- 
liarly grand, appalling and unearthly. It 
continued from one to three minutes, and 
was heavy in Turin, Lowville, Copen- 
hagen and Adams, and light in Water- 

On the morning of October 17, i860, a 

subterranean thunder was heard, and a 
slight tremor was felt in Turin. It was 
also heard and felt at many other places 
at this hour. 

On the nth of July, 1861, at about 
9 o'clock in the evening, or a little later, 
an earthquake shock was felt, rather 
than heard, in Turin, Martinsburgh, Low- 
ville, etc. Windows were heard to rat- 
tle, as if shaken by an external force. 
Some observed a visible motion in build- 
ings, and others noticed a deep rumble, 
like a wagon crossing a bridge, but the 
greater number of those who felt the 
motion, heard no sound. The tremor 
lasted a minute or so, and some who 
noticed the sound, thought that it passed 
towards the southwest. 


Notes Upon Natural History — 
Notice by Travelers. 

WE are not aware that there have 
been found any animals, or their re- 
mains, of particularly local occurrence 
within the county of Lewis. The re- 
mains of a Mammoth found near Copen- 
hagen, will be found noticed more par- 
ticularly in our account of Denmark. 
There have been found fragments of the 
horns of the Elk, in the great eastern 
wilderness, showing that that animal 
once inhabited this region, in times com- 
paratively recent, but still before any 
record in human history. 

The Moose was found somewhat fre- 
quently, at an early day, in the great 
forest, but it is now supposed to be 
wholly extinct, as to the native race, al- 
though some have been introduced and 
placed under protection by parties own- 
ing tracts of woodland in the interior. 

The Beaver must have once been com- 
mon, if we can judge from the beaver 
dams, and meadows caused from their 



overflow, that occurred on the plateau 
region of the western part of the county, 
and less frequently upon the limestone 
terraces of lower level. They are still 
supposed to exist here and there, but 
nowhere colonize as formerly, or build 
dams. They were found busy at work 
on their hydraulic structures, at the time 
when the first surveys were in progress. 

Wolves once common are now rare, 
and bounties for their destruction have 
been offered by the State, county and 
towns, in former times, and occasionally 
claims are brought in for these bounties 
at the present time. In 1823 and 1824, 
fraudulent speculations in these bounties 
prevailed to a large extent in Franklin 
county, but we are not aware of their ex- 
tending into our county. 

Panthers are seen and killed at rare in- 
tervals, but were formerly more com- 
mon. The bounties for their destruction 
were generally the same as for wolves. 

Of other animals the county presents 
nothing of particular interest, it being no- 
ticed here as elsewhere that in certain 
years, bears, foxes, squirrels and other 
animals are much more common than 
others, probably from some unusual 
abundance of their food, or a mild win- 
ter that favors their Hving. The " squir- 
rel hunts," once more common, are not 
wholly forgotten. In one of these con- 
tests many years ago, we noticed the 
scale of reckoning had the red squirrel 
as the unit, and this being counted i, 
the black squirrel was 2, partridge 2, 
woodchuck 4, fox 6, deer 8, wolf 12, and 
bear 12. The last two, however, were 
commonly rated as much higher. 

Of birds, besides those of the migratory 
species that stop for a brief period in 
passing in spring and fall, and those that 
nest in the county, there have occasion- 
ally been found specimens or flocks very 
unusual in this region. A flock of white 
swans was seen on the river in March, 
1826, and one of them that was shot 

measured seven feet ten inches from tip 
to tip of wings, and weighed seventeen 

Pigeons have in some years nested in 
prodigious numbers in the beech woods 
of Montague and West Turin. The 
spring seasons of 1829, 1849 ^"d 1858 
were especially noted for their abun- 

Fish. — In Fish creek, salmon formerly 
abounded, and were taken in the early 
history of the county as large as twenty 
or twenty-five pounds in weight. More 
were caught after about 1815. We have 
been informed by an early settler that 
about the year 1805, ninety-five salmon 
were caught at one haul in " Shalers' 
Hole " in Fish creek, in the present town 
of High Market, weighing from three to 
five pounds each. At the next haul but 
two or three were taken, no more being 
apparently left at that time. This is alto- 
gether the " biggest fish story " we have 
to relate as located in Lewis county, 
but the statement was made by an eye 
witness who was- entirely reliable. Sal- 
mon river, which rises in the south- 
western part of the county, is named 
from the former abundance of these fish, 
but as settlements began in that part of 
the county, at a comparatively recent 
date, no traditions remain as to their 
former abundance. 

About the year 1843, B. Smith and 
Amos Higby, Jr., put about thirty spec- 
imens of perch into Brantingham lake. 
From these they have since multiplied 
in the waters of the Black river and its 
tributaries. In recent years various 
kinds of fish have been placed in the 
waters of the county, under the direc- 
tion of the U. S. Fish Commission. In 
their native condition the waters of the 
county abounded with trout, dace, 
suckers, bullheads, eels, sunfish, and 
probably some other species. 

The natural history of the county is 
in the way of being very carefully 



studied up, and whatever there may be 
of scientific interest will at no distant 
day be made known. We deem it prop- 
er in this connection to notice the labors 
of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, of Locust 
Grove (Leyden), who has in preparation 
an elaborate work upon the literature of 
Natural History in the State of New 
York. His careful and thorough man- 
ner of studying this subject, and the 
completeness with which he has gone 
over a somewhat similar, but much less 
comprehensive work, upon the birds of 
Connecticut, is a sufficient guarantee 
that his present enterprise will be of 
great scientific value. Considerable col- 
lections of the fauna of this region have 
also been made- by Romeyn B. Hough, 
curator of the collections of birds and 
mammals in Cornell University. 

The Journeys of Washington Irving 

THROUGH Lewis County, in the 

Summer of 1803, and in the 

Autumn of 1814. 

In the summer of 1803, Washington 
Irving, then twenty years of age, and a 
student in the law office of Josiah Ogden 
Hoffman, [one of the first owners of 
Denmark,] accepted an invitation of a 
journey to Ogdensburgh, and has left 
some trace of his trip through Lewis 

The party consisted of seven persons : 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoffman, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ludlow Ogden, Miss Eliza Ogden, Miss 
Anne Hoffman, and himself. We will be- 
gin his journey at Utica : — 

On Monday, August 9th, they set off 
from Utica for the High Falls on Black 
river, in two wagons, having despatched 
another with the principal part of their 
baggage. The roads were bad, and lay 
either through thick woods, or by fields 
disfigured with burnt stumps, and fallen 
bodies of trees. The next day they grew 
worse, and the travelers were frequently 

obUged to get out of the wagon and 
walk. At High Falls, they embarked in 
a scow on Black river, " so called from 
the dark color of its waters," but soon 
the rain began to descend in torrents, 
and they sailed the whole afternoon and 
evening, under repeated showers, from 
which they were but partially screened 
by sheets stretched on hoop poles. About 
twenty-five miles below the Falls, they 
went ashore, and found lodgings for the 
night at a log-house, on beds spread on 
the floor.* 

The next morning it cleared off beau- 
tifully, and they set out again in their 
boat. On turning a point in the river, 
they were surprised by loud shouts, 
which proceeded from two or three ca- 
noes in full pursuit of a deer which was 
swimming in the water. 

A gun was soon after fired, and they 
rowed with all their might to get in at 
the death. 

" The deer made for our shore, " says 
the Journal. " We pushed ashore imme- 
diately, and as it passed, Mr. Ogden 
fired, and wounded it. It had been 
wounded befoi'e. I threw off mj coat 
and prepared to swim after it. As it came 
near a man rushed through the bushes, 
sprang into the water, and made a grasp 
at the animal. He missed his aim, and I, 
jumping after, fell on his back and sunk 
him under water. At the same time I 
caught the deer by one ear, and Mr. 
Ogden seized it by a leg. The sub- 
merged gentleman, who had risen above 
water, got hold of another. We drew it 
ashore, when the man immediately dis- 
patched him with a knife. We claimed 
a haunch for our share, permitting him 
to keep all the rest. In the evening we 
arrived at B[ossout]'s, at the head of 
the Long Falls. [Carthage.] 

" A dirtier house was never seen. We 
dubbed it ' The Temple of Dirt, ' but we 
contrived to have our venison cooked in 
a cleanly manner by Mr. Ogden's ser- 
vant, and it made very fine steaks, which, 

* This must have been at Spafford's Landing in Low- 
ville, at the point where the road from Lowville village 
to Wa»son strikes the river. 



after two days' living on crackers and 
gingerbread, were highly acceptable. 

Friday, iith. " We prepared to leave 
the Temple of Dirt, and set out about 
sixty miles through the woods to Oswe- 
gatchie. We ate an uncomfortable 
breakfast, for it was impossible to relish 
anything in a house so completely filthy. 
The landlady herself was perfectly in 
character with the house ; a little squat 
Frenchwoman, with a red face, a black 
wool hat stuck on her head, her hair 

freasy and uncombed, hanging about 
er ears, and the rest of her dress and 
person in similar style. We were heart- 
ily glad to make an escape." 

The Journal omits to mention that just 
before they started, the young traveller 
took out his pencil, and scribbled over 
the fire-place the following memorial : — 

"Here Sovereign Dirt erects her sable throne, 
The house, the host, the hostess all her own. " 

In a subsequent year, when Mr. Hoff- 
man was passing the same way, with 
Judge WilliamCooper, (the father of the 
distinguished novelist, James Fenimore 
Cooper), he pointed out this memento of 
his student, still undetected and unef- 
faced ; whereupon the Judge, whose 
longer experience in frontier travel had 
probably raised him above the qualms of 
over-nicety, immediately wrote under it, 
this doggerel inculcation : — 

" Learn hence, young man, and teach it to your sons. 
The wisest way's to take it as it comes."* 

Irving's journey through the wilder- 
ness to Ogdensburgh, mid dreary drench- 

* Irving appears to have gained something himself from 
experience, for in traveling the next year in France, 
in remarking upon the dirt, noise and insolence he 
met with on the road from Marseilles to Nice, he says :— 

"Fortunately for me, I am seasoned, in some degree, 
to the disagreeables from my Canada journey of last 
summer. When I enter one of these inns to put up for 
the night, I have but to draw a comparison between it 
and some of the log hovels into which my fellow travel- 
ers and myself were huddled, after a fatiguing day s 
journey through the woods, and the inn appears a palace. 
For my part 1 endeavor to take things as they come, 
with cheerfulness, and when I cannot get a dinner to 
suit my taste. I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner. 
He adds, '• There is nothing I dread more than to be 
taken for one of the Smellfungi of this world. I there- 
fore endeavor to be pleased with every thing about me, 
and with the masters, mistresses and servants of the inns, 
particularly when I perceive they have ' all the dispo- 
sition in the world ' to serve me ; as Stone says, ' it _is 
enough for Heaven, and ought to be enough for me. 

ing rains, — his sleepless nights in log 
cabins, and the cheerful contrast pre- 
sented after three or four days wading 
through the mud, would have interest, 
but our space does not allow. While 
writing the history of St. Lawrence 
county, in 1852, and knowing of Irving's 
former transient residence there, we ad- 
dressed him a letter, asking if he could 
give some reminiscences of the country 
at that early day. He replied, court- 
eously thanking us for the invitation, but 
declined, as other engagements just then 
claimed all his time, and the impressions 
of his youth had become faded by time. 

But in September, 1853, he had occa- 
sion, on a journey, to pass through 
Ogdensburgh by railway from Lake 
Champlain, to take a steamer for the 
west, and the visit brought back with 
freshness, the scenes which it recalled, 
and in a letter to a niece in Paris, he de- 
scribes them with a beauty and pathos 
that shows how sad these memories 
were, and yet how dear. He says : — 

" One of the most interesting circum- 
stances of my tour was the sojourn of 
a day at Ogdensburgh, at the mouth of 
the Oswegatchie river, where it empties 
into the St. Lawrence. I had not been 
there since I visited it fifty years 
ago, in 1803, when I was twenty years 
of age ; when I made an expedition 
through the Black river country to Can- 
ada, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Hoff- 
man, and Anne Hoffman, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ludlow Ogden, and Miss Eliza Ogden. 
Mr. Hoffman and Mr. Ogden were visit- 
ing their wild lands on the St. Lawrence. 
All the country was then a wilderness. 
We floated down the Black river in a 
scow ; we toiled through the forests in 
wagons drawn by oxen ;* we slept in 

* Judge Noadiah Hubbard, for many years a prom- 
inent citizen of Champion, drove this ox team, and in 
1853, he related to the author some reminiscences of the 
journey. The girls wanted to learn the names of his 
oxen — the meaning of " gee " and "haw," and many 
other details, which they probably did not remernber as 
long as it took him to tell them. But it was all new to 
them — in the spring-time of life — and there was a ro- 
mance, even in the discomforts of a journey with an ox 
team, which would be at least remembered after the 
weariness of the ride was forgotten. 



hunter's cabins, and were once four and 
twenty hours without food ; but all was 
romance to me. 

"Arrived on the banks of the St. 
Lawrence, we put up at Mr. Ogden's 
agent, [Nathan Ford,] who was quar- 
tered in some rude buildings belonging 
to a French foil at the mouth of the Os- 
wegatchie. What happy days I passed 
there! rambling about the woods with 
the young ladies ; or paddHng with them 
in Indian canoes on the limpid waters of 
the St. Lawrence ; or fishing about the 
rapids and visiting the Indians who still 
lived on islands in the river. Everything 
was so grand and so silent and solitary. 
I don't think any scene in life made a 
more dehghtful impression on me. 

" Well, here I was again after a lapse of 
fifty years. I found a populous city occu- 
pying both banks of the Oswegatchie,con- 
nected by bridges. It was the Ogdens- 
burgh, of which a village plot had been 
planned at the time of our visit. I sought 
the old French fort, where we had been 
quartered — not a trace of it was left. I 
sat under a tree on the site and looked 
round upon what I had known as a wil- 
derness — now teeming with Hfe, crowded 
with habitations — the Oswegatchie river 
dammed up and encumbered by vast 
stone mills — the broad St. Lawrence 
plowed by immense steamers. I walked 
to the point, where, with the two girls, I 
used to launch forth in the canoe, while 
the rest of the party would wave hand- 
kerchiefs, and cheer us from the shore ; 
but it was now a bustling landing-place for 
steamers. There were still some rocks 
where I used to sit of an evening and 
accompany with my flute one of the 
ladies who sang. I sat for a long time 
on the rocks, summoning recollections 
of by-gone days, and of the happy beings 
by whom I was then surrounded. All had 
passed away, all were dead and gone ; of 
that young and joyous party, I was the 
sole survivor ; they had all lived quietly 
at home, out of the reach of mischance, 
yet had gone down to their graves; 
while I, who had been wandering about 
the world, exposed to all hazards by sea 
and land, was yet alive. It seemed al- 
most marvelous. I have often, in my 
shifting about the world, come upon the 
traces of former existence ; but I do not 
think any thing has made a stronger im- 

pression on me than this second visit to 
the banks of the Oswegatchie." 

Irving was afterwards engaged to 
marry Matilda Hoffman, a younger sister 
of Anne, but she died after a short illness 
in her eighteenth year, in 1809. He was 
never afterwards able to forget this sad 
event, which cast a shadow over his life 
till the end. 

In September, 18 14, Irving, then aid 
and military secretary to Governor 
Tompkins, with the rank of Colonel, was 
sent to Sackett's Harbor, with discre- 
tionary power to consult with the com- 
manding officers stationed there ; and if 
necessary to order out more militia, as 
the place was threatened with an attack 
by land and water. Proceeding to Utica 
by stage, he there took horse for the 
Harbor, which with all his diligence he 
could not reach under three days, for the 
roads were exceedingly heavy, and the 
journey rough and toilsome, but not 
without interest. A great part of this 
lonely ride lay through the track trav- 
ersed in 1803 ; but eleven years had made 
great changes in the face of the country, 
and doubtless suggested to him what 
further time would do. 

Among his papers, left at his death, and 
used by his nephew Pierre M. Irving, in 
preparing " The Life and Letters " of this 
distinguished author, were found faded 
leaves, numbers 10, 11, 12 and 13, of an 
article which Irving had apparently 
written for the press, but had never sent. 
This fragment begins on the second 
day after leaving Utica, when he was 
proceeding on his way amid such " gen- 
eral stillness "' that " the fall of an acorn 
among the dry leaves would resound 
through the forest." 

" While I was jogging thus pensively 
on, my horse scarce dragging a snail's 
pace and seemingly, like his rider, sunk 
into a reverie, I was suddenly startled 
by a loud rustling on the right; a 
beautiful doe came bounding through 
the thickets, leaped lightly over a 



fallen pine, and alighted in the road 
just before me. The poor animal seemed 
transfixed with astonishment at behold- 
ing another tenant of these solitudes; it 
gazed at me for an instant with the most 
picturesque surprise, and then launching 
to the left, I presently heard it plunge 
into the river. 

" I had now been traveling for some 
time through close woodland, my view 
bounded on every side by impassive 
forests, when I came to where the face 
of the country sinks for a considerable 
distance, and forms a vast terrace of ten 
miles in breadth, and then sinking again 
forms another broad terrace or plain, 
until it reaches Lake Ontario. Nothing 
could exceed the grandeur of the effect 
when the view first burst upon my sight. 
I found myself upon the brow of a hill, 
down which the road suddenly made a 
winding descent. The trees on each 
side of the road were like the side scenes 
of a theatre; while those which had 
hitherto bounded my view in front 
seemed to have sunk from before me, 
and I looked forth upon a luxuriant and 
almost boundless expanse of country. 
The forest swept down from beneath 
my feet, and spread out into a vast ocean 
of foliage, tinted with all the brilliant 
dj'es of autumn, and gilded by a setting 
sun. Here and there a column of smoke 
curling its light blue volumes into the 
air, rose as a beacon to direct the eye to 
some infant settlement, as to some haven 
in this sylvan sea. As my eye ranged 
(jver the mellow landscape I could per- 
ceive where the country dipped again 
into its second terrace ; the foHage be- 
yond being more and more blended in 
the- purple mist of sunset ; until a glit- 
tering line of gold trembling along the 
horizon, showed the distant waters of 
Lake Ontario." 

The scene thus beautifully described, 
was that presented upon the Rutland 
hills, as the road approaches the present 
city of Watertown, which is about four 
miles distant. 

The prospect of an early attack by the 
British, induced Irving to call out the 
militia, in pursuance of authority vested 
in him by the Governor. 

As there was no immediate prospect 

of anything at the Harbor, he set out to 
return to Albany, on the 7th of Octo- 
ber, by the way he came, in com- 
pany with a commissary. As they 
were wending their way back to Utica, 
they were constantly meeting squads of 
militia which he had been calling out, 
from Herkimer, Oneida and the Black 
River counties, trudging towards Sack- 
ett's Harbor to re-inforce the scanty de- 
fenses of that place, and they would hail 
him as they passed with " What news of 
the big ship ?" — then jeer him for going 
the wrong way, and banter him to face 
about, little dreaming that it was to him 
that they were indebted for the sum- 
mons to turn out. 


Lists of Public Officers. 
Members of Congress. 

UNTIL 1808, Lewis county, formed 
with Herkimer, Oneida, Jefferson 
and St. Lawrence counties, the 15th 
Congressional District, and during this 
time was represented as follows : — 
9th Congress, i8os-'o7 — Nathan Will- 
iams, of Utica, Oneida county, 
loth Congress, iSoj-'og — William Kirk- 
patrick, of Whitesboro, Oneida 
From 1808 to 181 2 it was united with 
Herkimer, Jefferson and St. Lawrence 
as the loth District, represented as fol- 
lows : — 

nth Congress, 1809-1 1 — John Nichol- 
son, of Herkimer, Herkimer county. 
I2th Congress, i8ii-'i3 — Silas Stow, of 
Lowville, Lewis county. 
From 181 2 to 1822 it was united with 
Jefferson and St. Lawrence as the 18th 
District, represented as follows : — 
13th and 14th Congress, 1813-17 — Moss 
Kent, of Le Raysville, Jefferson 



15th Congress, 1817-19 — David A. 
Ogden, of Madrid, St. Lawrence 

i6th Congress, 1819-21 — William D. 
Ford, of Watertown, Jefferson 

17th Congress, 1821-23 — Micah Sterling, 
of Watertown, Jefferson county. 
From 1822 to 1832 it formed with Jef- 
ferson, Oswego and St. Lawrence 

counties a double District, the 20th, rep- 
resented as follows : — 

i8th Congress, i823-'25^Ela CoUins, of 
Lowville, Lewis county ; Egbert 
Ten Eyck, of Watertown, Jefferson 

19th Congress, i825-'27 — NicoU Fordick ; 
Egbert Ten Eyck ;* of Watertown, 
Jefferson county ; Daniel Hugunin,f 
of , Oswego county. 

20th Congress, 1827-29 — Rudolph Bun- 
ner, of Oswego, Oswego county ; 
Silas Wright, Jr., of Canton, St. 
Lawrence county. 

2ist Congress, i829-'3i — George Fisher,;]: 
of Oswego, Oswego county ; Silas 
Wright, Jr.,§ of Canton, St. Law- 
rence county; Jonah Sanford,!. of 
Hopkinton, St. Lawrence county ; 
Joseph Hawkins, of Henderson, Jef- 
ferson county. 

22d Congress, i83i-'33 — Charles Dayan, 

of Lowville, Lewis county ; Daniel 

Wardwell, of Mannsville, Jefferson 


From 1832 to 1842 it formed with 

Herkimer the i6th District, represented 

as follows : — 

23d Congress, i833-'35 — Nathan Soule, 
of Mmden (then,) Herkimer county. 

24th Congress, i835-'37 — Abijah Mann, 
of Fairfield, Herkimer county. 

25th Congress, 1837-39 — Arphaxed 
Loomis, of Little Falls, Herkimer 

26th and 27th Congress, 1839-41 — An- 
drew W. Doig, of Lowville, Lewis 
From 1842 to 185 1 it formed with St. 

Lawrence the i8th District, represented 

as follows : — 

* Lost his seat in a contest with Hugimin. 

f Dec. 9, 1825, in place of Ten Eyck. 

I Contested by Silas Wright, Jr. 

S Dec. 15, 1829, in place of Fisher. 

I Elected in place of Wright, March 9, 1830. 

28th and 29th Congress, 1843-47 — Pres- 
ton King, of Ogdensburgh, St. Law- 
rence county. 

30th Congress, 1847-49 — William Col- 
lins, of Lowville, Lewis county. 

31st Congress, 1849-51 — Preston King, 
of Ogdensburgh, St. Lawrence 

From 185 1 to 1862 it formed with Jef- 
ferson county the 23d District, repre- 
sented as follows : — 

32d Congress, i85i-'53 — Willard Ives, of 
Watertown, Jefferson county. 

33d Congress, 1853-55 — Caleb Lyon, 
of Lyonsdale, (Greig,) Lewis coun- 

34th Congress, 1855-57 — Wm. A. Gil- 
bert,* of Adams, Jefferson county. 

35th and 36th Congresses, i857-'6i — 
Charles B. Hoard, of Watertown, 
Jefferson county. 

37th Congress, i86i-'63 — Ambrose W. 
Clark, of Watertown, Jefferson 

From 1862 to 1873 it formed with Jef- 
ferson and Herkimer counties the 20th 
District, represented as follows : — 
38th Congress, i863-'65 — Ambrose W. 
Clark, of Watertown, Jefferson 
39th to 41st Congress, 1865-71 — Addi- 
son H. Laflin, of Herkimer, Herki- 
mer county. 
42d Congress, i87i-'73— CHnton L. Mer- 
riam, of Leyden, Lewis county. 
Since 1873, it has formed with Jeffer- 
son and Herkimer counties the 21st 
district, represented as follows : — 
43d Congress, i873-'75— Clinton L. Mer- 

riam, of Leyden, Lewis county. 
44th and 45th Congresses, i87S-'79— Geo. 
A. Bagley, of Watertown, Jefferson 
46th Congress, i879-'8i— Warne^r Miller, 

of Little Falls, Herkimer county. 
47th Congress, 1 881— Warner Miller,t 

of Little Falls, Herkimer county. 
48th Congress, 1883— Chas. R. Skinner,! 
of Watertown, Jefferson county. 

* Resigned Feb. 27, 1857. 

•f Resigned on being elected to the United States Sen- 
ate, July 26, 1881. 

i Elected in place of Miller resigned, for most of 47th 
Congress ; re-elected to 48th Congress. 



State Senators. 

Until 1 815, this county formed a part 
of the Western District. In that year it 
was transferred to the Eastern District, 
and so remained until the revision in 1822. 
During this period, the county had two 
Senators, viz:- — 

1 809-'! 2 — Walter Martin, of Martins- 
1819-22 — Levi Adams, of Martinsburgh. 
The revision of 1822 increased the 
number of Senatorial Districts from four 
to eight and gave four senators to each, 
of whom one-fourth in number were 
chosen annually with terms of four years. 
Under this constitution the county form- 
ed a part of the 5th District, with Her- 
kimer,* Jefferson, Madison, Oneida and 
Oswego. The county was represented 
as follows : — 

i827-'28 — Charles Dayan,t of Lowville. 
1834-37 — Francis Seger, of Greig. 
i843-'46 — Carlos P. Scovil, of Martins- 
1847 — Nelson J. Beach, of Watson. 

The Constitution of 1846 increased the 
number of Districts to 32, in each of 
which one senator was to be chosen 
biennally — and all the same years. From 
1846 to 1857, Lewis and Jefferson coun- 
ties formed the 2 1 St District, represented 
as follows : — 

i848-'49— John W Tamblin, of Water- 
i85o-'5i— Alanson Skinner,+ of Brown- 
ville-; Caleb Lyon, of Lyonsdale,§ 
i852-'53— Ashley Davenport, of Den- 
i854_'55_Robert Lansing, of Water- 
,856-57— Gardner Towne, of Rutland. 

From 1857 to 1879, it formed with 
Jefferson county, the i8th District, rep- 
resented as follows : — 

* In May, 1836. Otsego was annexed, and Herkimer 
was transferred to the 4th District. 

t Elected in place of George Brayton of Oneida 

county, rasigned. 

t Resigned April 17, 185 1 ; not re-elected. 

§ Elected May 27, 185 1, in place of Skinner, resigned. 

1 85 8-' 59 — Joseph A. Willard, of Low- 

i86o-'65 — James A. Bell, of Dexter. 

1866-69 — John O'Donnell, of Lowville. 

i870-'73 — Norris Winslow, of Water- 

i874-'75 — Andrew C. Middleton, of Rut- 

i876-'77 — James F. Starbuck, of Water- 

i878-'79— Henry E.Turner, of Lowville. 
Since 1879, it has been united with 

Franklin and St. Lawrence counties, 

forming the 20th District, represented 

as follows : — 

i88o-'83 — Dolphus S. Lynda, of Her- 
mon, St. Lawrence count3^ 

Members of Assembly. 

Lewis county was united with Jeffer- 
son and St. Lawrence as one Assembly 
District, until 1808, since which it has 
been entitled to one member alone. Its 
members in the Assembly have been : — 
1808 — Lewis Graves, Denmark. 
1809 — Judah Barnes, Turin. 
1810 — Lewis Graves, Denmark. 
181 1 — Nathaniel Merriam, Leyden. 
18 1 2 — William Darrow, Lowville. 
18 1 3 — Levi Collins, West Turin. 
1 8 14 — Chillus Doty, Martinsburgh. 
181 5 — Ela Collins, Lowville. 
i8i6-'i7 — Chillus Doty, Martinsburgh. 
r8i8 — Levi Hart, Turin. 
1 8 19 — Levi Robbins, Denmark. 
i82c>^Nathaniel Merriam, Leyden. 
1 82 1 — Stephen Hart, Turin. 
1822 — Chester Buck, Lowville. 
1823 — Abner W. Spencer, Denmark. 
1824 — Caleb Lyon, Greig. 
1825 — Amos Buck, Jr., Denmark. 
1826 — Amos Miller, Leyden. 
1827 — John W. Martin, Martinsburgh. 
i828-'29 — Geo. D. Ruggles, Lowville. 
1830 — Joseph O. Mott, Turin. 
183 1 — Harrison Blodget, Denmark. 
1832 — Andrew W. Doig, Lowville. 
1833 — Eli Rogers, Jr., Turin. 
1834 — Geo. D. Ruggles, Lowville. 
i835-'36 — Charles Dayan, Lowville. 
1837 — Geo. D. Ruggles, Lowville. 
1838 — William Dominick, Greig. 
1839 — Sanford Coe, West Turin. 
1840 — Chester Buck, Lowville. 



1841 — Eliphalet Sears, Ley den. 
1842— Carlos P Scovil, Martinsburgh. 
1843— Amos Buck, Denmark. 
1844— Alburn Foster, Martinsburgh. 
1845 — Dean S. Howard, Greig. 
1846— Nelson J. Beach, Watson. 
1847 — Thomas Baker, Leyden. 
1848 — David D. Reamer, Diana. 
1849— Diodate Pease, Martinsburgh. 
1850 — John Newkirk, Pinckney. 
185 1— Caleb Lyon,* of Lyonsdale, Greig. 
185 1— Dean S. Howard,! Greig. 
1852 — John Benedict, Lowville. 
1853 — Seymour Green, Osceola. 
1854— Jonathan C. CoUins, West Turin. 
1855 — Aaron Parsons, Leyden. 
1856 — David Algur, Leyden. 

1857 — Lucian Clark, Denmark. 

1858 — Homer CoUins, West Turin. 

1859 — Lyman R. Lyon, Greig. 

i860— Richardson T. Hough, Lewis. 

1861 — Edmund Baldwin, West Turin. 

1862 — Henry H. D. Snyder, Jr., Leyden. 

1863 — John Chickering, Denmark. 

1864 — John O'Donnell, Lowville. 

1865 — Nathan Clark, Denmark. [men. 

1866 — Alexander Y. Stewart, New Bre- 

1867 — Henry A. Phillips, Lowville. 

1868 — John R. Mann, New Bremen. 

1869 — Chester Ray, Martinsburgh. 

1870 — Jay A. Pease, Lewis. 

1 87 1 — Joseph Pahud, Diana. 

1872 — Amos V. Smiley, Lowville. 

1873 — Sidney Sylvester, Martinsburgh. 

1874 — John Herrick, New Bremen. 

1875 — James A. Merwin, Leyden. 

1876 — Alexander H. Crosby, Lowville. 

1877 — -William Wirt Rice, Croghan. 

1878 — Cyrus L. Sheldon, Lowville. 

i879-'8i — Chas. A. Chickering, Denmark. 

1882 — G. Henry P. Gould, Lyonsdale. 

1883 — Friend Hoyt, Leyden. 

Judicial Districts. 

Under the Constitution of 1822, the 
State was divided into eight circuits, or 
districts, of which the 5th included 
Lewis County. As defined by law 
April 17, 1828, the 5th district included 
Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, 
Oneida and Oswego counties. The 

* Lyon resigned to run for office of Senator, and 
Howard was elected to fill the vacancy, 
•f Elected in place of Lyon resigned. 

Circuit Judges under that arrangement 

were as follows: — 

1823. April 21 — Nathan Williams, of 

Utica, Oneida county. 
1834, April 12 — Samuel Beardsley, of 

Cooperstown, Otsego county. 
1834, May 7 — Hiram Denio, of Utica, 

Oneida county. 
1838, April 18 — Isaac H. Bronson, of 

Watertown, Jefferson county. 
1838, July 17 — Philo Gridley, of Utica, 
Oneida county. 
In arranging judicial districts under 
the. act of May 8, 1847, the 5th district 
was made to include Herkimer, Jeffer- 
son, Lewis, Oneida, Onondaga and Os- 
wego counties, and this has been since 
continued. There are four Justices of 
the Supreme Court elected in each dis- 
trict. As it may be. a matter of con- 
venience for reference, we give the list 
of those who have held the office, none 
of them being residents in our county 
at the time of holding office. Justice 
Merwin is a native of Leyden : — 
1847, June 7 — Charles Gray, of Coopers- 
town, Otsego county. 
1847, June 7 — Daniel Pratt, of Syracuse, 

Onondaga county. 
1847, June 7 — Philo Gridley, of Utica, 

Oneida county. 
1847, June 7 — William F. Allen, of Os- 
wego, Oswego county. 
1849, Nov. 6 — Frederick W. Hubbard, 

of Watertown, Jefferson county. 
1 85 1, Nov. 4 — Daniel Pratt, of Syracuse, 

Onondaga county. 
1853, Nov. 8 — William J. Bacon, of 

Utica, Oneida county. 
1855, Nov. 6— WiUiam F. Allen, of Os- 
wego, Oswego county. 
1857, Nov. 3 — Joseph Mullin, of Water- 
town, Jefferson county. 
1859, Nov. 8 — LeRoy Morgan, of Syra- 
cuse, Onondaga county. 
1861, Nov. 5 — William J. Bacon, of Utica, 

Oneida county. 
1863, Nov. 3 — Henry A. Foster, of Rome, 

Oneida county. 
1865, Nov. 7 — Joseph Mullin,* of Water- 
town, Jefferson county. 
1867, Nov. 5 — LeRoy Morgan, of Syra- 
cuse, Onondaga county. 

* Re-elected. 



1869, Nov. 2— Charles H Doolittle, of 
Utica, Oneida county. 

1 87 1, Nov. 5 — George A. Hardin, of 
Little Falls, Herkimer county. 

1874, Nov. 8— Milton H. Merwin, of 
Utica, Oneida county. 

187s, Nov. 2 — James Noxon,* of Syra- 
cuse, Onondaga county. 

1881, Jan. 18— John C. Churchill,t of 
Oswego, Oswego county. 

1 88 1, Nov. Irving G. Vann, of Syra- 

ctise, Onondaga county. 


These officers were appointed, and the 
office was separate until 1846, when it 
was united to that of County Judge. 
Before that year, the persons holding 
this office w^ere as follows : — 

1805, April 3 — Isaac W. Bostwick, of 

18 1 5, March 15— Chillus Doty, of Mar- 

1820, June 6 — Barnabas Yale, of Mar- 

1 82 1, Feb. 13 — Chillus Doty, of Martins- 

1823, March 28— Sylvester Miller, of 

1835, Feb. 28 — Andrew \Y. Doig, of 

1840, Feb. 7 — WiUiam L. Easton, of 

1844, Feb. 7 — Daniel S. Bailey, of Mar- 


County Judges 

This office was filled by the Council 
of Appointment, until 1822, and from 
that time to 1846 by the Governor and 
Senate. Since 1846, they have been 
elected. The present terra is six years. 

1806, March 29 — Daniel Kelley, of Low- 

1809, June I — Jonathan Collins, of Turin, 

[now West Turin.] 
1815, June 27 — Silas Stow, of Lowville. 
1823, Jan. 24 — Edward Bancroft, of Mar- 

1833, March 16 — John W. Martin, of 


•Died Jan. 6, 1881. 

f Appointed in place of Noxon, deceased. 

1843, April 9— Francis Seger, of Turin. 

1847, June— (elected) , of Martins- 

1855, Nov.— Edward A. Brown, of Low- 

1859, - — Henry E. Turner, of Low- 



-Carlos P. Scovil, of Lowville. 
-Eliada S. Merrell,* of Low- 


County Clerks. 

Before 1822 these officers were ap- 
pointed by the Council of Appointment, 
but since that year they have been 

1805, April 3— Richard Coxe, of Turin, 

[now West Turin.] 
1 8 16, March 12 — Edward Bancroft, of 


1820, June 6— Dr. John Safford, of 

1 82 1, February 13 — Edward Bancroft, of 

1822, November— Martin Hart, of Tu- 

1825, November — Andrew W. Doig, of 

1 83 1, November — Carlos P. Scovil, of 

1840, November. — Dr. Charles Orvis, of 

1843, November — Julius A. White, of 

1846, November — Lucian Clark, of 

1849, November — Harrison Barnes, of 

1855, November — Sidney Sylvester, of 

1858, November— Walter B. Fosttf, of 

1 86 1, November — David A. Stewart, of 

New Bremen. 
1867, November — Rufus L. Rogers, of 

1870, November — ^Thomas J. Lewis, of 

1873, November — Charles E. Mitchell, 

of Lowville. 
1876, November — Eugene B. Wool- 
worth, of West Turin. 
1879, November — Edward H. Bush,-f- of 


* Re-elected for six years, in 1B80. 
f Re-elected in 1882. 



District A ttorneys. 

Before [8i8 several counties were 
united in forming Districts, and from 
1808 to 1 8 18 Lewis was united with Jef- 
ferson and St. Lawrence counties. Dur- 
ing this period the Attorneys were as 
follows : — 

1808, April 6 — Samuel Whittlesey, of 

1 8 10, Feb. 9 — Amos Benedict, of Water- 

i8ii, Feb. 12 — Samuel Whittlesey, of 

181 3, March 3 — Amos Benedict, of 

1 81 5, March 15 — Ela Collins, of Low- 

Since 18 18 the county has had sepa- 
rate District Attorneys, as follows : — 

1818, June II — Ela Collins, of Low- 

1840, March 24 — Charles Day an, of 

1845, March 24 — William Collins, of 

1847, June — David M. Bennett, of Mar- 

1850, November — EHada S. Merrell, of 

1856, November — Henry E. Turner, of 

1859, November — Leonard C. Kilham, 

1862, November — Cornelius E. Steph- 
ens, of Lowville. 
1865, November — Seymour F. Adams,* 

of West Turin. 
1867, January — Edward A. Brown.f of 

1867, November — Eliada S. Merrell, of 

1870, November — Henry E. Turner, of 

1873, November — J. Miller Reed, of 

1879, November — Charles S. Mereness, 

of Lowville. 
1882, November — George N. Whittaker, 

of Lowville. 

* Resigned. 

f Appointed January 24, 1867, in place of Adams, 

Justices of Sessions. 

In the following list, the years set 
opposite the names were those in which 
they were in office. They were elected 
on the previous November elections, 
except that in 1847 the Judicial election 
was held in June : — 
1848. Emery B. Holden, Turin. 

Edwin S. Cadwell, Martinsburgh. 

1850. John Post, Leyden. 

David T. Martin, Martinsburgh. 

1851. Henry Ragan, Turin. 
Alfred K. Kellogg. 

1852. Charles Pease, Lewis. 
Zenas Shaw, Denmark. 

1853. James R. Northrup, Greig. 
John Chickering, Harrisburgh. 

1854. Hamilton Cobleigh, Pinckney. 
Emory B. Holden, Turin. 

1855. Hamilton Cobleigh, Pinckney. 
Thomas Rogers, Greig. [rin.' 

1856. Van Rensselaer Waters, West Tu- 
Earl R. Johnson. 

1857. John C. Wright, Denmark. 
Roswell Bingham, Martinsburgh. 

1858. Edwin S. Cadwell, Martinsburgh. 
Roswell Bingham, New Bremen. 

1859. Horace Clark, (Diana.) 
Charles Pease, Leyden. 

i860. Elisha M. Dunham, Montague. 

Roswell Bingham, New Bremen. 

1861. WiUiam Brown, Lewis. 
Asa D. Wright, Denmark. 

1862. Charles L. Holmes, Harrisburgh. 
Frederick M. Leonard, Denmark. 

1863. Ziba Knox, Lowville. 
William Brown, Lewis. 

1864. George D. Moffatt, Montague. 
Roswell Bingham, New Bremen. 

1865. Phineas Woohvorth, Pinckney. 
Alvah S. Nichols, Leyden. 

1866. George M. Brooks, Leyden. 
Alvah S. Nichols, Pinckney. 

1867. Edwin S. Cadwell, Martinsburgh, 
Hiram Warren, Greig. 

1868. Andrew J. Thayer, Leyden. 
Joseph M. Gardner, Montague. 

1869. Peter Back, New Bremen. 
Phineas Woohvorth, Denmark. 

1870. Edwin S. Cadwell, Martinsburgh. 
James D. Smith, Greig. 

1871. William Rowell, Osceola. 
Walter D. Higby, Leyden. 

1872. DeWitt C. Hall, Pinckney. 
George W. Acker, Pinckney. 



1873. Nathaniel R. Carley, Diana. 
Eli R. Paul, Diana. 

1874. Harvey Noulton, Turin. 
Peter Back, New Bremen. 

1875. DeWitt C. Hall, Pinckney. 
Frederick Anken, High Market. 

1876. Andrew J. Thayer, Ley den. 
James K. Galvi'n, Montague. 

1877. Andrew J. Thayer, Leyden. 
William Render, Diana. 

1878. Frederick Anken, High Market. 
Phineas Woolworth, Denmark. 

1879. Frederick Anken, High Market. 
John Walsh, High Market. 

1880. Samuel L. Mott, Martinsburgh. 
William Rowell, Osceola. 

1881. WiUiam Seymour, Lyonsdale. 
William Hunt, Diana. 

1882. John Walsh, High Market. 
William Hunt, Diana. 

1883. William Seymour, Lyonsdale. 
Peter Back, New Bremen. 


1804, April 3 — Chillus Doty, of Martins- 

1808, June 9 — Ehud Stephens, of Mar- 

1810, February 28 — John Ives, of Turin. 

181 1, March 2 — Chillus Doty, of Mar- 

1814, March 2— Silas Stow, of Lowville. 

1 81 5, March 15— Levi Adams, of Mar- 

181 8, June 15— Sylvester. Miller, of Low- 

1820, June 6 — Ehud Stephens, of Mar- 

1 82 1, January 10 — Ira Stephens, of Low- 

1 82 1, February 12— Sylvester Miller, of 

1822, November — Ira Stephens, of Low- 

1825, November— David Miller, of Mar- 

1828, November— Hezekiah Scovill, of 
West Turin. 

1 83 1, November- Ashley Davenport, of 

1834, November— John Whittlesey, of 
West Turin. 

1837, November — Elias Gallup, of Har- 

1840, November— -Alvin Farr, of Mar- 

1843, November — Elihu Parsons, of Ley- 

1846, November — George Shepard, of 

1848, November — Aaron Parsons, Jr., of 

1852, November — Peter Kirley, of Wat- 

1855, November — Gilbert E. Wool- 
worth, of Pinckney. 

1858, November — Chester Ray, of Mar- 

1861, November — VanRensselaer Wa- 
ters, of West Turin. 

1864, November — Elisha Crofoot, of 

1867, November — Peter Kirley, of Wat- 

1870, November — James B. PhiUips, of 

1873, November — J. Mather House, of 

1876, November — C. Frank Smith, of 

1879, November — J. Mather House, of 

1882, November — George S. Fisher, of 

County Treasurers. 

Appointed by the Board of Super- 
visors until 1846, since which time they 
have been elected triennially : — 

1805, October 25- Daniel Kelley, of 

1808, October 6 — Ela CoUins, of Low- 

1809. Daniel Kelley, of Lowville, 
1814. James H. Leonard, of Lowville". 

1823. Baron S. Doty, of Martinsburgh. 

1824. John W. Martm, of Martinsburgh. 
1840. Enoch Thompson, of Martinsburgh 

1845. Charles L. Martin, of Martins- 

1846. Lyman R. Lyon, of Martins- 

1847. Ela N. Merriam,* of Martinsburgh. 
185 1, November— Moses M. Smith, of 

185 1, November — Diodate Pease,+ of 

* Elected November, 1848. 

f Term of 1857-60, contested by Moses M. Smith. 
Died in office March 25, 1B62. 



1862, November— Alpheus S. Pease,* of 

1 87 1, November— Darwin Nash, of Den- 

1874, November— Marion Nash, of Mar- 

1880, November— William P. Rogers, of 

Chairmen of the Board of Supervisors. 

1805. Jonathan CoUins, of Turin, [now- 
West Turin.] 

1806, (June). Lewis Smith, of Leyden. 

1 806, (Oct). Lewis Graves, of Denmark. 
i8o7-'o8. Jonathan Collins, of Turin, 

[now West Turin.] 
1809. John Ives, of Turin. 
i8io-'i2. Lewis Graves, of Denmark. 

1813. John Ives, of Turin. 

1 8 14. Levi Adams, of Martinsburgh. 

1815. Chillus Doty, of Martinsburgh. 

1816. Nathaniel Merriam, of Leyden. 

18 17. Ebenezer Baldwin, of Turin. 
1818-19. Jonathan Collins, of Turin, 

[now West Turin.] 
1820-21. Samuel Allen, of Denmark. 

1822. James McVickar, of Turin, [now- 
West Turin.] 

1823. Stephen Spencer, of Leyden. 
i824-'28. James McVickar, of Turin, 

[now West Turin.] 

1829. ? 

1830. Ela Collins, of Lowville. 

183 1. James McVickar, of Turin, [now 
West Turin.] 

i832--'35. David Miller, of Martinsburgh. 
i836-'37. Chester Buck, of Lowville. 

1838. Nelson J. Beach, of Watson. 

1839. Aaron Perkins, of Greig. 

1840. Horace Johnson, of West Turin. 
i84i-'43. Francis Seger, of Greig. 

1844. Alfred Day, of Leyden. 

1845. David D. Remer, (declined) of 

Seth Miller, of West Turin. 

1846. Seymour Green, of Osceola. 

1847. Seth Miller, of West Turin. 
1848-55. [We have failed to obtain the 

names of Chairmen of Supervisors 

for these years.] 
1856. Seymour Green, of Osceola. 
1857-58. Lewis Pierce, of Denmark. 
1859. Joseph M. Gardner, of Montague. 
i86o-'6i. Francis Seger, of Greig. 
1862. Seymour Green, of Osceola. 

•Appointed to fill vacancy ; elected November, 1862, 
and November 1865. 

1863. Francis Seger, of Greig. 

1864. John M. Paris, of Pinckney. 

1865. Francis Seger, of Greig. 

1866. Peter Kirley, of Watson. 
i867-'70. Francis Seger, of Greig. 

1 87 1. Nelson J. Beach, of Watson. 

1872. John C. Wright, of Denmark. 
i873-'74. WiUiam Rowell, of Osceola. 

1875. John Herrick, of New Bremen. 

1876. Peter McCarty, of Harrisburgh. 

1877. Hamilton Wilcox, of Watson. 

1878. WiUiam Barrett, of Pinckney. 

1879. G. H. P. Gould, of Lyonsdale. 
i88o-'82. William Hunt, of Diana. 
1882. Charles M. Allen, of West Turin. 

Clerks of Boards of Supervisors. 

[Imperfect List.) 

1805. Daniel Kelley. 

Asa Brayton. 
1806-07. Philo Rockwell. 
1 8 10. Melancton Wells. 
i8ii-'i2. Philo Rockwell. 

1 8 14. Baron S. Doty. 

181 5. David Miller. 
i8i6-'i8. Philo Rockwell. 
1819. David Miller. 
i820-'28. Philo Rockwell. 
1830-31. David Miller. 
1832-37. Daniel S. Bailey. 

1838. David Miller. 

1839. Daniel S. Bailey. 

1840. Lewis G. Van Slyck. 

1 841. David Miller. 
1842-44. James M. Henry. 

1845. Henry W. Hunt. 

1846. James M. Henry. 
1847-49. Charles L. Martin. 
i850-'55. [The names of Clerks for this 

period could not be ascertained from 
records that were accessible.] 

i856-'58. Abraham I. Mereness. 

1859. Jehiel R. Wetmore. 

i860. Abraham I. Mereness. 

i86i-'62. Joseph M. Gardner. 

1863. Thomas Baker, (resigned). 
Rufus L. Rogers. 

i868-'69. R. Sanford Miller. 

1870. John Gibson. 

1 87 1. Amos B. Mereness. 

1872. Eldridge A. Carter. 
i873-'74- Hamilton Wilcox. 
1875-76. Charles F. Niebergall. 
1877-78. J. Milton Pease. 
1879. WiUiam Rowell. 
i88o-'8i. George W. Whitaker. 
1882. George W. Morrow. 



In the autumn of 1862, a difficulty arose 
in the Board of Supervisors of Lewis 
county, which occasioned some delay 
and discussion upon a point that had not 
been settled by precedent. 

In April of that year, a special meet- 
ing of the board had been called, to fill 
a vacancy in the office of County Treas- 
urer, and Francis Seger was chosen the 
chairman. At the November meeting, 
nine of the seventeen supervisors, re- 
garding their former choice of a chair- 
man as but temporary, elected Seymour 
Green. The remainder adhered to the 
election made in April. The case was 
referred to eminent counsel, and to the 
Attorney General. In the meantime 
one party met at the clerk's office, and 
the other at the court house in Martins- 
burgh. The decision fixed the principle 
that a permanent chairman can be 
chosen only at a regular annual meeting. 

The town meetings of Lewis county 
are held on the third Tuesday of Feb- 
ruary, annually, and on the same day in 
all the towns throughout the countyi 
but not the State, excepting as they have 
been so appointed under a general act. 

Superintendents of the Poor Since 1848, 

{^With Years of Election.) 

1848. Wm. Sterling, (ly.j; Edwin Mil- 
ler, (2y.) ; John M. Paris, (3y.). 









David Griffis, (Martinsburgh). 
Edwin Woolworth, (West Turin). 
John A. Schuyler. 
Hiram Porter, (Lowville). 
Edwin Woolworth, (West Turin). 
John A. Schuyler. 
Hiram Porter, (Lowville). 
Eleazer Spencer, (Leyden). 
Allen Parker, (Harrisburgh). 
Hiram Porter, (Lowville). 
Eleazer Spencer, (Leyden). 
John Clark, 2d, (Denmark). 
Charles S. Rice, (Lowville). 
Eleazer Spencer, (Leyden). 
Allen Parker, (Harrisburgh). 
Charles S. Rice, (Lowville). 
David Alger, (Leyden). 

1866. Samuel P. Sears, (Montague). 

1867. Charles S. Rice, (Lowville). 

1868. David Alger, (Leyden). 

1 869. Christopher H. Chase,(Pinckney). 

1870. James H. Boshart, (Lowville). 

1871. Silas Markham, (West Turin). 

1872. Chandler E. Thompson, (Consta- 

bleville, to fill vacancy) ; Wm. 
C. Clark, (full term). 

1873. William Boshart, (Lowville). 

1874. Charles M. Merriam, (LeydenV 

1875. Joseph C. Otis, (Denmark); Cnas. 

M. Merriam, (Leyden). 

1876. fames T. Campbell, (Lowville). 

1878. William C. Clark, (Denmark); 

Charles M. Goff, (Constable- 

1879. Samuel S. Raine*, (Lowville) 
1882. Samuel T. Douglass, (Pinckney). 


1844. Joseph Stephens, Horace Daven- 
port, (Denmark.) 

1846. Asa L. Sheldon, (Martinsburgh) ; 
Alfred Day. 

1847. John Clark, ist, (Denmark); Chas. 
G. Loomis. 

1848. Apollos Stephens, (Copenhagen.) 

1849. Ansel Foster, Adam Dietz, (Greig.) 

1850. Squire H. Snell, Joseph Boynton. 

1 85 1. Robert H. Blanchard. 

1852. Austin Harris, Asa Beals, Ansel 

1853. Levi Nellis, Charles Pease, (West 

1855. Edwin S. Cadwell, (Martinsburgh); 
Emory Alien, (West Turin.) 

1856. Edward L. Hulbert, (Denmark); 
James H. Miller, Aaron G. Atkins, 
(to fill vacancy.) 

1857. Edward L. Hulbert. 

1858. Thomas Rogers, (Greig); Wm. C. 
Clark, (Denmark) ; Michael Welch, 
(High Market.) 

1859. ^^^^ Rensselaer Waters, (Turin.) 
i860. Albert Buell, (Martinsburgh.) 
1861. Asa W. Spaulding, (Croghan) ; 

Samuel P. Sears, (West Leyden) ; 
Henry E. Smith, (Montague.) 
1863. Elisha Crofoot, (Turin.) 

* By an act passed July 14, 1881, it was provided that 
any Superintendent cf the Poor in Lewis county might 
be appointed keeper of the poor-house. Under this 
act Mr Raine was appointed, and had personal charge 
of the poor-house during the remainder of his term, he 
being sole superintendent. 



1864. Thomas Barker, (Croghan) ; Elihu 
Robinson, (Watson) ; Levi Tedmon, 

1865. John Strong, (Turin.) 

1868. Emory Allen, (West Turin); 
Thomas Barker, (Croghan) ; Geo. 

D. Moffatt, (Montague); Frederick 
A. Crane, (Lowville.) 

1869. Frederick Bischoff, (Lowville.) 

1871. Charles W. Burdick, (Lowville); 
Emory Allen, (West Turin) ; Oliver 

E. Lindsley, (IVIontague.) 

1872. Sanford Coe, (Constableville) ; 
John W. Wright, (Denmark.) 

1874. Alva L. Nichols, (Pinckney) ; Free- 
born C. Baker, (Croghan.) 

1875. Martin Barnes, (Turin); Philan- 
der Blodget, (Denmark.) 

1.877. Ralph E. Stoddard, (Harrisburgh) ; 

William Seymour, (Lyonsdale.) 
1878. Moses J. Eames, (Constableville); 

Darwin E. Cheney, (Denmark) ; 

Jerome Kilts, (New Bremen.) 

1880. Luther C. Burdick, (Greig.) 

1 88 1. Darwin E. Cheney, (Denmark) ; 
Moses J. Eames, (Constableville) ; 
Jerome Kilts, (New Bremen.) 


Professional Lists — Legal and 

THE Lewis County Bar. — In the ab- 
sence of a connected official record of 
the names of those who have been admit- 
ted to the Bar of this county, the follow- 
ing was given in our first edition as 
embracing nearly all of the legal profes- 
sion who had resided in the county. 
Those known to be now deceased are 
marked with a star. More than a third 
of the remainder had removed from the 
county. The residence given is that 
while engaged professionally here. Many 
dates were left blank from our inability 
to refer to the record : — 


Adams Charles D. 
Barnes Alanson H. 
*Barnes Harrison, 
Bennett David M , 
•Bostwick Isaac W,, 
•Brown Edward A , 
* Brown George L., 




Dec. 10, 1805. 

•Carpenter Hiram, 
•CoUms Ela, 
•Collins William, 
•Conklin Thomas L., 
Davenport Leonard C. 
Davis Perry, 
•Dayan Charles, 
•Doty Baron S. , 
Hawes Albert, 
Hazen S. D. 
♦Henry Edmund, 
Keene R. E., 
Kilham Leonard C , 
*Knox Ziba, 
Lahe John, 
*Low Cornelius, 
•Martin Vivaldi R., 
*Mereness Abram I , 
Merrell Eliada S., 
Merrell Nathaniel, 
♦Miller Morris S., 
*Molt Jo.seph 0., 
Muscott John M., 
•Page Henry, 
♦Parish Russell, 
♦Pawling John. 
•Rathbun Solomon, 
Scovil Carlos P., 
•Seger Francis, 
•Shaler William D., 
Shaw Rodney K., 
Stephens Cornelius E , 
Stephens W. Hudson, 
Sylvester Nathaniel B., 
•Talcott Samuel A.. 
Turner Henry E., 
Wilson Alba S., 
•Yale Barnabas, 
















Deer River, 

May 6, 1807. 

July 7, 1851. 

Aug. 18, 1816. 


May, 1846. 
July, 185s, 
Dec. 10, 1805. 

May 6, 1817. 

May 6, 1807, 


April, 1855. 
Oct. I, 185;. 
July 7, 1851. 
April ;, iSjj 
Sept. 21,1813, 

Dec, 20, 1S08. 

The members of the Lewis County 
Bar, in the summer of 1882, were as fol- 
lows : — 

Lowville — Henry E. Turner, Leonard 
C. Davenport, Eliada S. Merrell, W. 
Hudson Stephens, Charles L. Knapp, 
Carlos P. Scovil, William M. Dewey, 
T. Miller Reed, Leon Talcott, Thomas 
N. Marron, Hiram H. Ryel, Charles S. 
Mereness, Edward McCarty. Frederick 
C. Schraub, and George W. Whitaker. 

Lewis — Jay A. Pease. 

Port Levden — Isaac A. Wormuth, 
William H. Hilts. 

Copenhagen — Alfred H., G. 
P Breen. 

Constableville — E. Merriam Bagg. 

Glensdale — James B. Smith. 

The Lewis County Law Library. 

This library, which is provided, for in 
the court house and is in charge of the 
county judge, in 1880 was reported to 
contain 1,543 bound volumes, mcluding 
those in the county clerk's office, be- 
sides forty volumes unbound, and its 
estimated value was $1,500. Amongthe 
books thus reported, there were 546 
volumes of reports, 134 miscellaneous 
law books, and 80 volumes of law. Of the 
bound volumes 783 were legislative 
journals and documents. 



The Medical Profession. 
A County Medical Society was formed 
under the act of 1806, soon after its 
passage. In 1808, it was represented in 
the State Medical Society by Dr. Jona- 
than Bush, of West Lowville, and in 
1 8 10 by Dr. John Safford, of Martins- 
burgh. The loss of its records by fire, 
October 15, 1849, has thrown oblivion 
over its proceedings. The seal of this 
old society had for its device an open 
lancet, and the letters L. C. M. S. in 
script entwined. The statutes of that 
period forbade any person from prac- 
ticing medicine until a copy of his cre- 
dentials had been filed in the county 
clerk's office, and this enables us to fix 
the names and dates of the beginning of 
some physicians, of whom we have no 
other record, in the following alphabeti- 
cal list. This list, however, is not com- 
plete, because some of the earlier physi- 
cians had entered their names in the 
clerk's office of Oneida county, and 
some at a later period neglected the 
filing altogether. Under a recent stat- 
ute, this is now again required, and all 
the names entered prior to November, 
1882, are included. The old society fell 
into neglect after many years, and for a 
considerable period there was no organ- 
ization maintained in the county. 

The Lewis Coimty Medical Society under 
its Present Form. 

This society under its present form 
was organized January 8, 1861, at the 
office of Dr. Robert C. Cone, at Low- 
ville, the following named persons at- 
tending, viz : — Dr. Seth Adams, Dr. 
Robert C. Cone, Dr. Stephen P. Uhline, 
and Dr. Frederick Bischoff, of Lowville ; 
Dr. Horatio S. Hendee, of Deer River ; 
Dr. Marion Nash, of Martinsburgh ; and 
Dr. Charles D. Budd and Dr. John E. 
Prichard, of Turin. 

The first officers chosen were as fol- 
lows : — 

President — Dr. Seth Adams, of Low- 

Vice-President — Dr. Marion Nash, of 

Secretary — Dr. John E. Prichard, of 

Treasurer — Dr. Robert C. Cone, of 

Censors — Drs. H. S. Hendee, S. P. 
Uhline, and C. D. Budd. 

The meetings of this society were 
suspended after the first year of re- 
organization (1861) until 1865, but since 
1867 they have been continued regu- 
larly. Its annual meetings are held on 
the 4th Tuesday of June for the election 
of officers, and the transaction of the 
more important business. Other meet- 
ings may be held quarterly or semi- 
annually, and at other places than at 
Lowville. It is usual to hold a semi- 
annual meeting on the 4th Tuesday of 
December. It is customary to appoint 
a delegate to the State Medical Society, 
and he holds for four years. All other 
officers are chosen annually. The pow- 
er of censors and various other provisions 
relating to the society are defined by 
general law. In late years the annual 
meetings have been held at the court 
house in Lowville. 

The officers chosen at the annual meet- 
ing, in June, 1882, were as follows : — 

President — Dr. A. H. Crosby. 

Vice-Presidejit — Dr. O. O. Stowell. 

Secretary — W. O. Hubbard. 

Treasurer — C. P. Kirley. 

The delegate at the present time is 
Dr. C. E. Douglass. 

Those who had been members of the 
society under its present organization 
from 1 86 1 to August, 1882, are desig- 
nated by a star prefixed to their names, 
in the alphabetical list that follows. We 
include the various schools of medicine 
in this list, with no other designation, 
than as appears in the column of re- 
marks. The list is undoubtedly defect- 
ive in not embracing every name, but 
' none have been purposely omitted. 



Physicians of Lewis County, from the time of settlement to 1882, as near as it has 

been possible to ascertain. 


Adams Ira, 
*Adams Seth, 
Allen Ebenezer. 
Allen Samuel, 
Avery Stephen W., 
Bagg Henry, 
Baker Freeborn ('., 
Bartholomew Erasmus D., 
Bass Samuel, 
Bates William, 
*Bischoff Frederick, 
Blake George A,, 
Bliss John & , 
Bradish James S., 
Bronson Miles H., 
Brooks Homer G., 
Buckley Lyman, 
Budd Benjamin S., 
*Budd Charles D., 
Budd David, 
Burdick Charles W., 
Bush Charles R., 
Bush Jonathan, 
Carley Nathan R., 
+Cone Robert C, 
♦Cornish Harris J., 
^Cornish Josiab, 
*CraQe FredericK A., 
♦Crosby Alexander H., 
*Crosbv J. Howard, 
Cummiogs Morfjan L., 
Darrow William, 
*Dewey Dwight C, 
Dewey Hoyal Dwight, 
Dewey Walter, 
Dickinson Noah, 
-fDouglass Andrew J , 
♦Douglasd Charles E., 
Drury A. C, 

♦English Gustavus Pierce, 
♦Fawdry David, 
Foot Anson, 
Foster Charles A., 
•Foster E. Sowden C , 
Francis T. P., 
French Elkanah, 
Gage Alden, jr., 
♦Gebbie Alexander R,, 
Gocdenier Alonzo H., 
Hanon Dennis B,, 
Hastings Charles P.. 
Hawn Abraham, 
•Hendee Horatio S,, 
*Hough Franklin B., 
Hough Horatio Gates, 
♦Hubbard Willis Orlando, 
Hull Charles J., 
Huntington Ralph, 
♦Jamieson Walter W., 
Jerome Levi K., 
♦Johnson Wm. H., 
♦Jones Wm. Whildon, 
Joslin Albert A., 
Kellogg Joseph, 
Eilbourn Henry Francis, 
♦Kirley Cyrille Penn, 
Lewis Gary M., 
McConnell Charles, 
♦Mason L. F., 
♦Merriam C. Hart, 
Meyer Adolph, 
Miller David, 
Miller Sylvester, 
Moelliug Peter Augustus, 
♦Murphy Stephen H , 
Murray Charles, 
Murray David L., 
♦Nash Marion, 
Nichols Alvah L., 
♦Olmstead Wm. J., 
Owen J. W., 
Orvid Charles, 
♦Peck Henry C, 
♦Peden James T., 
Perry David, 
♦Powell Wm., 
♦Priohard John E., 
Rathbone Josiah, 

Dateof author- 
izationof filing . 

June 17, 1817, 
.May 4l, 1826. 
Nov. 84, 1842, 
Feb. 21, 180e, 
July 2, 1821, 
Aug 26, 1846, 
April 27, 1864, 
May 31, 1825, 
Sept. 15, 1812, 
June 26, 1832, 
April 30, 1856, 
Sept. 18, 187H, 
Sept 6, 18«, 
March 19, 1865, 
March 1, 1861, 

Feb. 26, 1841, 


Low ville,lN. part) 
Lowville village, 



June, 1849, 
Jan 3, 1832, 

March 8, 1S77, 

April 7, 1838, 

Dec. 22,(1870, 

March 1, 1866, 
July 17. 1863, 
Fob. 27, 1878, 

Jan 1, 1807, 
Sept. 11, 1807, 

June 87, 1874, 
July 1, 1871, 

March 1, 1882, 
Sept. 8, 1833, 
Aug. 14, 1813, 
March 4, 1861, 
Junes. 1869, 
Jan 16, 1844, 
March 31,1848, 
Jan. 6, 1832, 
June 18. 1851, 
Feb., 184S, 

Feb. 81, 1882, 
Oct, 15, 1879, 
Jan. 88, 1808, 
March 8, 1881, 
March 12. 1844, 
March 1, 1871, 
March 3, 1874, 
Aug. 18, 1876, 
April 3, 1843, 
Feb. 82. 1881, 
June 85, 1875, 
Feb. 80, 1879, . 
March 8, 1881, 
Deo. 22. 1868, 
Feb. 88, 1879, 

March 19, 1818, 
Feb. 12, 1816, 
March 11. 1878, 
Feb. 27, 1878, I 
Jan. 21, 1864. I 
March 13, 188ft, i 
June 12, 1865, 1 
Aug. 13, 1874, 1 

I Lowville, 

I Harrisvllle, 

I Turin, 

I Martinsburgh, 

j Lowville, 

; Lowville, 






W. Lowville, 



1 Turin, 
( Lowville, 
I Lowville, 



Stows Square, 
' Turin, 
■ Turin, 
! Collinsviile, 











i Lowville, 
I Copenhagen, 
! Houseville, 








New Bremen, 
Port Leyden, 







Oct. 1, 1836, 

Jan. 86. 1844. 
Aug. 14, 1806, 
June 4. 1881, 


















Died near Stow's Square. 

Graduated at Fairfield, died at Lowville. 

Botanical Med. Coll. O. 

Died at Copenhagen. 



Ecleo. Med Coll. Pa. 



Died at Lowville. 

Eclcc. Med, Soc. B. R. Dist. 


Died in South Carolina. 

Horn. Med. College, Pa. 

Died in Lowville, scarcely engaged in practice. Eclectic. 



Co. Med. Soc; State Dip. Sept. 23, 1863; died in Turin. 

Died in Turin. 

Died in Watertown. 

Hom. Med. Coll. N. ¥. 

Died in Lowville. 

Studied at Castleton, Vt , with A. Robertson. 


Albany Med Coll. 

Died in Turin. 

Bollevue Med. Coll. 

Albany Med. Coll. 

Louisville Med. Coll. ; removed. 

Died April 7, 1851, aged 45. 

Died Jan 8. 1815, aged 44. 

Died in Turin. 

Died ill Turin. 

Died in Collinsviile. 



L. 1. Med. Coll. Hosp. 

Univ. of Vermont. 

Moved to Genesee in 1804. 

L, I. Med. Coll. Hosp. 

Co. Med. SoC. 


Louisville Med. Coll. 


Eelec Med. Coll. N. Y. 


Univ. of City of N. Y. 

Jeff. Co. Med. Society. 




Castleton Med. Coll. 

Cleveland Med. Coll.; has not practiced in this county 

Licensed by Court, Oneida Co.; died Sept. 3, 1830. 

Med. Dept. Univ. of Buffalo. 

Eclec Med Coll. N. Y. 

Med. Dept. Univ. of N. Y. 


Bellevue Med Coll, 

Med. Dept. Collumbia Coll. 

Eclec Med. Soc, 18th Dist. 

Coll. Physio and Surgery. 

Kentucky School of Medicine. 

Univ. of City of N, Y. 

Univ. of City of N. Y. 

Co Med. Soc. 

Coll. Physio and Surgery, N. Y. 

Died in Martinsburgh. 

Died in Lowville. 

Med. Univ. N. Y. 

Bellevue Med. Hosp. 

Eclec. Med. Coll. Pa. 

Univ. of City of N. Y. 

Albany Med. Coll. 

Eclec. Med, Soc. 18th Dist. 

Removed to Ced,-»r Falls, Iowa 

Removed; (Eclectic). 



Died in Carthage. 

Died in Rutland. 

L. I. Coll. Hosp. 


Died in Utica. 





Rouchpl Laurentine, 
Runge F. R„ 
*Sabin George S.. 
Safford John, 
SchwarzQiann Anton. 
*ShaTP Otis, 
Sherwood Jonathan, 
StevensS. Rodney, 
Stone A. C, 
*Stowell Olmsby O., 
Sturtevant James M., 
Sweet Jonathan, 
♦Tanner Edward, 
Taylor Francis L,, 
Thompson William, 
Tied ale, 

♦Turner Wro. Henry A., 
♦Uhline Stephen P., 

Wait Samuel C , 
Wellman Manley, 
Whiting John, 
Wood Charles, 
Wood E. H., 
Woodman Joseph. 


Feb. 21, 1881, 

April 8, 1851, 
July 3, 183.3, 

July 10, 1839, 
July 6, 1842. 
March 23. 186!), 
July 19, 1&32, 
July 11, 1805, 
July 19, 1878, 
Aug. 1. 18.33, 
July 18, 1832, 

March 4, 1S60, 

April 10, 1833, 
July 19, 1805, 
Dec. 15, 182H. 
May 3, 18,36, 
April li, 1881, 
May 3, 1830, 






















A fever of a typhoid type appeared 
in the county in the winter of 1812-13 
in common with a large district of coun- 
try in the northern and eastern States, 
and in Canada. It was especially preva- 
lent in March and April, and was more 
fatal to men of strong constitutions than 
to those naturally feeble. It was attend- 
ed with great pain in the stomach and 
chest, burning fever, and in the last mo- 
ments with delirium. 

A malignant erysipelas prevailed ex- 
tensively throughout the county in the 
spring of 1843 ^"d in 1845, proving espe- 
cially fatal to parturient women. The 
slightest wound or abrasion would some- 
times become the seat of extensive ul- 
ceration, and sloughing, and in the loss 
of parts thus occasioned, was extremely 
slow in replacing. Other less marked 
periods of mortality have occurred, but 
only as portions of wide spread epidem- 
ics. Intermittent and other malarial fe- 
vers are altogether unknown, unless con- 
tracted in other places. 

We are not aware of any local causes 
of disease, other than as they may be 
transiently produced from defective 
drainage or other neglect. Perhaps it 
might be said in general, that climatic 
changes, tend more to pulmonary than 
(jther forms of disease, but taken as a 


Very early; went west. 
Univ. o£ ButEalo. 


Died in Watertown. 

Wurtzburg, Bavaria. 

Co. Med Soo. 

Died April 25, 1829. 


Queen's Univ. Coll, Kingston. 

Died ia Rome . 


Uciv. of City of N. Y; removed. 

Died in Lowville, 


Alb. Med. Coll. 



Died in Gouverneur. 



Hahnemann Med. Coll. S. Y. 

whole, we doubt whether a district of 
equal area could be found in the State, 
that is more generally healthy. 


, Agriculture. 

I Lewis County Agricultural So- 


FROM 1808 to 1814, premiums for do- 
mestic cloths were awarded by the 
State to the extent of $15,210, mostly by 
the Judges of the County Courts, and 
specimens of each are still preserved in 
, the Albany histitute. These premiums 
were offered at a time when troubles 
with England were pending,and to stimu- 
late domestic industries, in view of ren- 
dering the country dependent upon its 
own resources,rather than upon a foreign 
supply. The embargo and non-inter- 
course measures of the general govern- 
ment of the same period, had an obvious 
tendency to the same end. The follow- 
ing awards were made to citizens of 
Lewis county : — 

1809, Lewis Graves, $80. 

1 8 10, Peleg Card, $10. 

181 1, Pelcg Card, $40 ; Chester Wood, 
$35 ; Nathan Munger, $30. 

1814, Moses Waters, $40 ; Ethan Card, 
$35 ; Lewis Card, $30. 



Under an act of 1819, creating a Board 
of Agriculture, Lewis county was en- 
titled to $100 annually for two years, if 
a like amount should be raised by sub- 
scription. A society was formed under 
this act in 1820, held four annual fairs, 
and distributed premiums in money and 
plate upon farms, tillage, animals and do- 
mestic manufactures. The Secretary 
was Charles Dayan, and the President 
for one year at least, was the Re\-. Isaac 
Clinton.. The first fair was held in the 
old Academy on the site of the stone 
church In Lowville village, October 23, 
182J, at which the address was delivered 
by Judge Stow, and premiums to the 
amount of over $300 were awarded. 
Members were furnished with a badge 
formed of ears of wheat, worn like a 
cockade upon the hat. The festival 
ended with a ball at Welles' tavern, in 
Lowville village, where nearly a hundred 
couples attended. 

Upon the semi-centennial anniversarj' 
of the first County Agricultural Society, 
(September 13, 1871,) the occasion was 
commemorated by a historical address by 
Dr. Franklin B. Hough, and the address 
of Silas Stow, delivered fifty years be- 
fore, Mras read by W. Hudson Stephens. 
Quite a number of reHcs of historical 
interest, including several specimens of 
silverware given as premiums, and some 
of the prize articles of 1821, were exhibit- 
ed, and the occasion was made one of un- 
usual interest, by the presence of several 
persons who had witnessed the former 
exhibition. In the historical address it 
was noticed that the first cow was driven 
into the county in June, 1795, and this 
animal with her calf, a sow, seven sheep 
and a pair of goats, all brought in from 
Fort Schuyler (Utica), by the French col- 
onists, were, so far as is known, the first 
of their race that were intended for per- 
manent residence. At an earlier period 
cattle had been driven through the 
county, from Kingston to the Mohawk 

settlements. The forest-path lay on the 
west side of the river, along the bottom 
of the valley. 

The last fair of the old Agricultural 
Society, was held in 1824. 

The Lewis County Association for Im- 
proving the Breed of Horses, was formed 
in 1 83 1, and held one or two annual fairs. 
It may be here noticed that this county- 
early acquired distinction for its superior 
breed of horses. 

The next Agricultural Society was 
formed at a meeting of the inhabitants 
of the county, held on the 21st day of 
June, 1 841, at the Court House in Mar- 
tinsburgh, agreeably to the notice given 
by the county clerk, under the provisions 
of the law, entitled, " An act for the en- 
couragement of Agriculture, passed May 
9, 1 841." Ela Collins was chosen chair- 
man, and David M. Bennett, secretary. 

The object of the law having been 
stated, and after an address by C. E. 
Clark, of Jefferson county, it was 

Resolved, That the meeting now pro- 
ceed to organize an Agricultural Society 
for the County of Lewis. 

Resolved, That a committee of fi\ e be 
appointed to report a constitution for 
said society; whereupon John W. Mar- 
tin, Harrison Blodget, Alburn Foster, D. 
M. Bennett, and Alvin Farr, were ap- 
pointed such committee. 

Resolved, That the meeting adjourn to 
6 o'clock, P. ' M., at Elijah L. Thomp- 
son's inn, to receive the report of said 
committee. At such adjournefl meeting 
the committee reported a constitution 
which was adopted. 

This constitution declared the name of 
the society, and provided that its officers 
should be a President, six Vice-Presi- 
dents, an Executive Committee of five, a 
Corresponding Secretary, a Recording 
Secretary, and a Treasurer, who were 
to be ex-officio members of the Executive 
Committee. The annual dues were $1.00, 
and none but members could enter 
articles for premiums. 

On the day following, at an adjourned 



meeting, the following officers were 
elected : — 

Presidenit— Clement Whitaker. 

Vice-Presidents — Johnson Talcott, Car- 
los Hart, Charles D. Morse, Harrison 
Blodget, Elias Gallup, and Alburn Fos- 

Executive Committee — Jared Stiles, 
Enoch Thompson, Timothy Mills, Lievi 
Hart, and Oliver Bush. 

Corresponding Sccretary~-'^\.e\)\\e\\ Leon- 

Recording Secretary — Charles Dayan. 

Treasurer — Harvey Stephens. 

For many years this society had no 
iixed place for holding its fairs, which 
went to the place that offered the most 

In December, 1855, it was resolved to 
hold the fairs alternately at Turin and 
Lowville, for six years, and a few public 
spirited citizens in each place, associated 
together to provide something like per- 
manent accommodations.t The Presi- 
dents and Secretaries of this society, 
while it continued in existence, were as 
follows : — 



Norman Gowdy, 
Hiram Mills, 

S. D. Mason, 
Ashley Davenport, 
Seth Miller. 
Sanford Coe, 

Lewis Stevens, 
Edmund Baldwin, 

Cornelius H. Wood. 
Harrison Barnes, 

John Benedict, 
F. W. Northrup, 
Samuel P. Mills, 

N Duane Baker. 

Charles D. Adams, Charles G. Riggs, 
L. C. Davenport, " *' 

C. E. Stevens, Mortimer Smith, 
H. D. Nolton, 

Jehiel R. Wetraore, Charles M. GofF. 


Clement Whitaker, 

Ela Merriam, 
Ela Merriam, 
Lyman R- Lyon, 
Norman Gowdy, 



Stephen Leonard, 

Charles L. Martin, 
Francis Seger, 
V. R. Martin, 
William King, 



Charles Dayan, 

Charles L Martin, 
Charles Dayan . 
S D. Hungerford, 
John Benedict, 

The officers since the reorgani 

Moses M Smith. _ 

The Treasurers were: — 1 841,. Harvey 
Stephens ; 1848-49, Ela N. Merriam ; 
i8so-'58, Moses M. Smith; 1859, Alfred 
H. Lee. 

The County Agricultural Sc^ciety was 
re-organized Dec. 27, 1859, "nder Chap- 
ter 425, Laws of 1855, entitled " An act 
to facihtate the formation of Agricultur- 
al and Horticultural Societies." Under 
this form, its first officers were chosen as 
follows : — 

President — James S. Jackson. 

Vice-President — William W. Smith. 

Secretary — F. B. Morse. 

Treasurer — Alfred H. Lee. 

Directors — Norman Gowdy, and San- 
ford Coe, (for 3 years) ; Ela N. Merriam, 
and Charles G. Riggs, (for 2 years); and 
Charles H. Curtis and Azro H. Buck, 
(for I year). 

The fairs continued to be held alter- 
nately at Turin in even years, and at 
Lowville in odd years until 1871, since 
which time they have been held only at 
zation have been as follows : — 







1866. ... 

1867. .. . 

















James S. Jackson, 
William W. Smith, 
A. H. Buck. 
C. G. Riggs, 
Harrison Blodget, 
Norman Gowdy, 

Emory Allen, 
Daniel Whitaker, 

Alexander R. Gebbie, 

George M. Brooks, 

Charles Merriam, 
Alexander R. Gebbie, 
John Dence, 

Grin F. Bowen, 
Alfred H. Lee, 
Ledet A. Bostwick, 
P. E. White. 



William W. Smith, 
A. N. Foster, 
C. H. Curtis, 
James H. Miller. 
Seth Miller, 
J. H. Miller, 
E. Merriam, 
(tive ; see note*) 
(five ; see notet) 
(eight ; see notet) 
N. Gowdy, 
N, Gowdy, 
A. R. Gebbie, 
A. R. Gebbie, 
N. Gowdy, 
G. M. Brooks, 
C. G. RiKgs, 
C. .D Davenport, 
R. D. Williams, 
G. W. Stephens, 
C. F. Smith, 
J H. Dryden, 

J. S. Jackson, 
Henry E. Smith. 
A. H. Buck, 

H. Blodget, 

£. Merriam, 
£. Merriam, 
N. Gowdy, 
N Gowdy. 
G. M. Brooks, 

C. M. Merriam, 
A. R. Gebbie, 

D. Whitaker. 
C. G. Ri^gs, 
How'd Bingham, 
H. C. Bingham, 
H. C Bingham. 

F. B. Morse, 










Farnum J Bowen, 

Oliver V Hedden, 
A R Gebbie. 
Nelson H Reed, 

L. A Scolt, 
L A. Boslwick, 
L. H. Stephens, 

W D. Hesler. 


Alfred H. Lee, 
C. G. Riggs, 

E. H. Bush,§ 
Geo Sherwood. 

G. J Magee. 


* They were held at Denmark in 1852; at Lowville, in 
1843, '46 '48, '56, '59; at West Martinsburgh in 1844; at 
Turin in 1847, '49, '51, '55, '57, '58; and at Constable- 
villein 1853. 

\ The owners of the Turin fair f;round were Albert 
Foster, Jefferson M. Wilcox, Edwin Woolworth. 
Charles. G. Riggs, Alfred H. Lee, and Edmund Bald- 
win. In Lowville. a lot was purchased by Norman 
Gowdy in 1859, and enclosed by the society for this use. 

*E. Mcii-iam, N. Gowdy, 11. Blodget, Cornwall Wool- 
worth, and Kuswell Miller. 

f H. Blodget, N. Gowdy, Wm. Whitaker, E. Allen, 
E. Merriam. 

X H Blodget, N. Gowdy, Wm. Whitaker, E. Allen, 
Ashley Daven[jort, Leonard S. Standring, H. D. H. 
Snyder, Jr., E, .Merriam. 

§ Did not qualify, and George Sherwood appointed. 



In January, 1876, a committee was ap- 
pointed to buy a site for a new fair 
ground, the society having until this 
time occupied premises owned by asso- 
ciates and rented for its use. The site 
purchased was a part of the Bostwick 
estate, including about fifteen acres of 
land, which D. C. West sold to the socie- 
ty for $3,150. The sum of $560 was 
spent for fencing, $2,609 fo'" buildings, 
$99 for conduit and reservoir, $28.50 for 
insurance, and $1,017 for grubbing and 
ditching, making the first expenses $7,- 
467.50. Mortgages of $3,150, $1,000 and 
$i,300were executed, constituting ad3bt 
of $5,450. The society paid $700 from 
its funds, and $1,217.50 in a subscription 
by the friends of the society and citizens 
of Lowville and vicinity. 

These premises are on the northeast- 
ern border of the village of Lowville, 
and are finely shaded, a large number of 
the native trees of the forest being left. 
The fairs have since been held annually 
there, and the premises have been found 
convenient for holding mass meetings 
and for various other purposes. 

Upon the abandonment of the old fair 
grounds southeast of the village, a town 
Agricultural Society was formed, and 
two fairs were appointed to be held the 
same year. The difificulty was amica- 
bly adjusted, and the town organization 
was dropped. 

The Carthage Union Agricultural Society , 
was formed in July, 1875. Although its 
fairs are held outside of Lewis county, 
it includes several active members within 
it, and as an agency for promoting an 
interest in agricultural subjects, it merits 
notice in this connection. 

The Lewis County Dairymen's Associa- 
tion. — This society devoted to the special 
interest indicated by its name, was or- 
ganized on the 3d Tuesday of January, 
1868, and held its last meeting February 
13, 1874. 
An attempt was made more recently 

to organize a Board of Trade at Low- 
ville, but it held only one meeting. 

Cheese Factories. 

About the commencement of the late 
war, cheese factories began to be estab- 
lished, and during the war, the high 
price of labor led to their rapid exten- 
sion, until nearly the whole of the cheese 
made in the county , was produced at these 
establishments. The economy which 
they effect, and the uniformity of quahty 
which they secure have been so appar- 
ent, that they have since been continued, 
with every prospect of permanence, and 
every year with new improvements 
tending to better results. At some of 
these butter is also made to a limited ex- 
tent, but this article is still chiefly pro- 
duced upon farms, in the spring and fall 
at seasons when it is found more profita- 
ble than cheese. 

To Lewis county readers, it would be 
quite superfluous to describe the routine 
of manufacture, and the business trans- 
actions concerned ; but as this book may 
fall in the hands of sonje not familiar 
with this subject, or it may be referred 
back to hereafter, we will describe them 
as concisely as possible. The milk is 
taken to the factory in large cans, and 
now generally in the morning only. The 
milking of the evening is strained into 
the cans, and by a cooling process, the 
animal heat is taken out, either by plac- 
ing in the cans tin vessels filled with cold 
water, or by letting the milk fall from a 
perforated tin strainer in finely divided 
streams like a shower. Upon arriving 
at the factory, the milk is drawn off into 
a receiving can and weighed. This 
weight is entered on the books of the 
factory, and in a pass-book carried 
by the driver, and becomes the basis 
for the distribution of proceeds when the 
products are sold. 

The cheese factory is usually by the 
side of a spring or stream of pure water ; 



if not, cold water is always brought in 
pipes to the premises. It is often on a 
hill-side, to favor the unloading ; if not, 
a bridge is raised on the side where the 
milk is delivered, so that it can flow, 
from the bottom of the cans on the 
wagon into the top of the receiver with- 
in. The buildings are generally cov- 
ered on the sides with rough boards, 
nailed upright, and almost ahvavs a 
family lives upon the premises. The 
apparatus consists of several large tin 
vats, that are suspended in wooden vats 
somewhat larger, so that the tempera- 
ture can be regulated by the admission 
of water heated to a proper degree be- 
tween them. There must be a large 
boiler for heating water, and this often 
supplies steam to a small engine for 
churning, pumping, or other light work. 

The milk is heated to a proper degree, 
and rennet in solution is added. The 
curd presently forms, after which the 
whey is drawn off, the curd is cut and 
broken, salted, and placed in hoops for 
the presses. Of these there are various 
forms, but in all, or nearly all, the pres- 
sure is applied by an iron screw. When 
pressed, bandaged and oiled, the cheeses 
are placed upon long tables, and care- 
fully turned, oiled, and attended daily 
until sold, which is generally at inter- 
vals of about a month ; but this varies 
according to the market, from two weeks 
to two or three months. A thin scale- 
board of about the thickness of a card 
is finally placed upon each side, and each 
cheese is placed in a separate and closely 
fitting box. The cheese are from four- 
teen to fifteen inches across, and from 
nine to eleven inches high, and the 
weight is generally from fifty to sixty 

With respect to business transactions, 
the custom varies. Sometimes a num- 
ber of farmers, owning together from 
300 to 500 cows, will associate together, 
procure and fit up a building, and hire a 

man and his wife, or more help if needed, 
dividing the expenses and sharing the 
receipts pro-rata, according to the total 
weight of milk received in the season. 
In other cases, the owner of the factorv 
will contract to make the cheese, and 
pay all the expenses of manufacture at a 
given price per pound, he furnishing the 
boxes or not, as may be agreed upon. 
We believe a common price is about a 
cent and a quarter to a cent and a half 
a pound, the boxes included. The boxes 
are circular and made of elm, with 
the top and bottom generally of bass- 

The selling is usually done b\' a com- 
mittee, or by one man selected by the 
associates from their own number. It is 
occasionally sent to market to be sold 
on commission, but the common custom 
is to sell to produce dealers, who either 
buy on their own account, or on joint 
account, or as agents for the wholesale 
dealers in New York City, to which by 
far the greater part of the cheese is sent, 
and from thence mostly to European 
markets. It sometimes goes to Phila- 
delphia or Boston markets, but the 
amount thus sent is small. 

There has formerly been much specu- 
lation in the buying of dairy produce, 
but now, with the facilities of telegraph, 
and the constant quotation of prices in 
the daily papers, and often through the 
vigilance of trusted correspondents, 
those having the selling of the cheese of 
the factories, may keep themselves 
closely informed, and the profits of mid- 
dle men have become less. 

The relatively greater profit of cheese 
from a given quantity of milk, has re- 
duced very materially, the quantity of 
butter made in this and adjacent counties, 
in recent years ; but it is an easy matter 
to change from one to the other, as the 
interest may appear. For butter-making, 
the tin pans formerly used, are in many 
cases now replaced by large oblong vats 



of tin, placed in larger vats of wood, 
and by means of a current of water 
flowing between them, the milk can 
be kept at a constant temperature 
best adapted to the formation of cream. 

Formerly, the whey of cheese facto- 
ries, was fed to swine in adjacent pens, 
but this offensive practice is now very 
generally discontinued, and the whey is 
pumped into the cans that bring the 
milk, as they are returning to the farms 
where they belong, and is fed to the 
swine at home. 

Until the present time, no attempt has 
been made to produce condensed milk for 
canning. At a few places, pine-apple, 
Limburg, and other kinds of cheese are 
made, but they form quite an insignifi- 
cant proportion to the whole amount. 

Special Crops. 

In the early period of settlement, 
after roads had been opened to the great 
markets, the first surplus crop produced 
in the county ; and for a time, much more 
was sent out of the county, than was 
needed for its use. This was at first 
taken down to Albany in the winter, 
by sleighs, and after the construction of 
the Erie Canal, to Utica and Rome. For 
a few years it was made into flour, which 
was sent off in barrels, but this business 
had ended about 1840, when the dairying 
business had begun to be quite prevalent, 
and has ever since been the leading agri- 
cultural industry of the county. 

Hops may now be placed next after 
dairy pi-oducts, having in very recent 
years become an object of extensive cul- 
tivation. W^e are not aware of any 
special methods of cultivation or prep- 
aration peculiar to this region, and there 
are certain casualties which no skill can 
avoid. In 1875, t^he census reported over 
a quarter of a million of pounds, and 
617 acres devoted to this cuUivation, but 
the amount has since largely increased. 

and the unprecedented prices of 1882, 
cannot fail to stimulate further pro- 
duction. The greater part is exported 
to Europe from New York, being pur- 
.chased by dealers, who make this a 
special business. 

Dye Stuffs. — The cultivation of saff- 
ron {Cartlianius tinctorius), for dyeing, 
was about 1846, a prominent business 
with several farmers in Lowville and 
Martinsburgh. At a somewhat earlier 
period, the cultivation of madder was 
attempted, but without success sufficient 
to induce a continuance of the enter- 

Flax has been a subject of culture 
from the first, but never extensively as 
a leading business, except during the 
active operation of the Copenhagen 
works. In i845-'6, large quantities were 
raised, chiefly from the high price of the 
seed. Linseed oil has been extensively 
manufactured at Lowville and Copen- 

Hemp was cultivated to a considerable 
extent in Denmark and vicinity, soon 
after the establishment of Varick's cord- 
age manufactory at Copenhagen, about 
i832-'5. The result was not satisfactory, 
chiefly from the difficulty of properly 
preparing it for use when grown. 

Essential Oils. — The manufacture of, 
the oil of peppermint, has been an im- 
portant item of business in Lowville and 
Harrisburgh, and was still followed to a 
limited extent when our first edition was 
printed ; but since then the business has 
disappeared entirely. The first field of 
mint in the county was planted in 181 1, 
by Martin Guiteau and Truman Terrill, 
who continued the business several years. 
The Buck, Morse, Humphrey, and 
other families, were afterwards exten- 
sively engaged in it. In 1814, three 
farmers had 40 acres planted, and the 
profits of some of the earlier adventurers 
were great. The plant is usually mown 
three years, and the yield per acre in 



oil generally averages ten pounds the 
first year, fifteen the second, and five or 
six the third. It is distilled soon after 
being cut, or when partially cured like 
hay. The price of this article was very 
fluctuating, and on several occasions, 
the transition from one extreme to the 
other resulted in heavy losses. Other 
essential oils, as of hemlock, cedar, 
wintergreen, balsam fir, spearmint, &c., 
have been made to a limited extent. 

Silk. — In 1843, Ira Adams received a 
premium of $3.79, at the rate of 15 cents 
per pound, for cocoons, and $1.12 at the 
rate of 50 cents per pound for reeled silk. 
This was probably the largest amount 
ever raised in one year by one person, 
and but few have ever attempted silk 
culture in the county. The Morus mul- 
ticautis speculation prevailed in this coun- 
ty to only a moderate degree, as compared 
with other sections. We know of but a 
single tree now growing, as a relic of the 
time when " it would be cheaper to dress 
in silk than in woolen." It is upon the 
farm of Ezra W. Stanford, between Mar- 
tinsburgh and Lowville village, and was 
planted by Russell Hills, a former owner 
of the place, and an enthusiast in this 

Agricultural Statistics of the 


The year of production reported in 
the census is that preceding the census 
year, excepting as otherwise indicated 
by notes. We give in the following 
table a summary for Lewis county, as 
reported since 1821 : — 

Acres of Land. 

1821. 37,880 

1825. 47,574 

1835. 86,150 
1845. 114,187 
1855. 184,540 

i860. 177,031 
1865. 211,480 










Acres Plowed. 

Acres in Fallow. 





1855. 1,641 
1865. 335 

Cash Value of Farms. 





Cash value of Tools and Implements. 

1855 $287,903 




Cash value of Stock. 

185s $1,102,582 

i860 1,404,247 

1865 2,062,564 

1870 2,635,706 

1875 2,174,994 

Value of Farm Buildings other than 

1875 $1,498,636 

Value of Forest Products. 


$ 33,030 

Value of Animals Slaughtered. 

i860 $148,287 

1870 286,992 

Total Value of Farm Products. 
1870 $3,837,797 

Gross sales of Farm Products. 
1875 $1,590,217 

Wages paid for Farm Labor. 

1870 $371,374 

Value of Commercial Fertilizers Used. 



*0f this amount 154,679 acres were in woodland. 
t Of this amount, 249,045 acres were in woodland. 



Sizes of Farms. 




Acres Planted. 

Bushels Harvested. 

Of all sizes 3,526 




Under 3 acres. 10 





3 to 10 acres 268 
10 to 20 acres 430 





20 to 50 acres 1,025 




50 to 100 acres 925 





100 to 500 acres 866 




500 to 1,000 acres 2 





1,000 and over 




Acres sown for fodder 1 


472; 1875,290. 

Dwelling Houses. 


1851;. 1865. 


D J 

' J 

Acres Sown. Bushels of Seed. Pounds of Lint. 

Stone (No.) 34 40 








(value) $61,500 $44,300 



Brick (No.) 18 60. 
(value) $22,000 $90,400 



219 I, 



Framed (No.) 3,195 4,403 
(value)$i, 141,653 $1,738,192 




Log (No) 1,094 718 





(value) $30,571 $15,403 


Other (No.) 366 251 

Grass Lands. 

(value) $48,234 $45,973 
Total (No.) 4,707 5,472 


Acres of Acres 
Pasturage. Sown. 

Tons Bushels of 
of Hay. Grass Seed. 

(value) $1,303,958 $1,934,268 









1855 71 

,496 57,238 


,802 1,746 

Acres Sown. Bushels Harvested. 



,296 1,652 



1864 102 

,561 78,692 

78,781 271 

1845 1,587 


1865 102 

,565 79,875 





^,653 456 

185s 1,922 


1874 117 

,113 86,569 

i°7,493 1.132 



1875 '17,973 88,061 

1865 4,277 



1874 2,29s 


Acres Cultivated. 

Pounds Harvested. 

1875 2,995 



Beans — See " Peas and Beans." 

Acres Planted. Bushels Harvested. 
1845 104 678 





1855 72 
1864 231 





1874 44 




1875 5° 



Acres Sown. 

Bushels Harvested. 

Acres Sown. Bushels Harvested. 








1845 1,816 







1855 1,067 









1864 696 





1874 893 





1875 753 






Spring Wheat. 

Acres Sown. 

Bushels Harvested. 

Acres Sown. Bushels Harvested. 


































Winter Wheat. 

Peas and Beans. 

Acres Sown. Bushels Harvested. 

























■ 400 






Acres Planted. 

Bushels Harvested. 


Bushels of apples, (1855) 72,198 ; barrels of 
cider, (1855) 1,451. 

Value of orchard products, (1840) $2,820 ; 


(i860) $8, 

283; (1870) $28,946. 

Number of Bushels 




Trees in Fruit. of Apples 

of Cider. 





22,262 19,141 





53,575 42,011 







Market Gardens. 




Value Grown. 



$ 115 




Acres Sown. 

Bushels Harvested. 












Cattle and Dairy Prod 




Neat Cattle— Total Number. 





10,417 i860 





13,780 1864 





25,063 1865 






31,130 1870 





32,790* 1874 



32,308 187s 






Bushels Harvested. 

Number of Milch Cows. 





18,024 1865 






19,151 1870 






26,373 1874 

30,06 if 





30,846 1875 

Number of Working Oxen, 


Acres Sown. 

Bushels Harvested 


2,423 1870 

0^ _ 







2,195 '875 

1,1 16 


* Under one year, 5,176; over one year, 26,915. 



f Milk sent to factories, 17,209. 




X Milli sent to factories, 18,555- 





Number of Other Cattle. 
8,174 1870 


Bulls of all Ages. 




1875, (calves) 6,3ss; (i yr.) 4,673; (2 yrs.) 

Dairy Products. 





of Butter. 

of Cheese.* 

of Milk Sold. 






















Value of Dairy Products. 

1840 $137,177 

Cattle Killed for Beef. 

(1855) 1,247; (1865) 2,141; (1875) 1,110. 









Colts one year old. 

Colts of first season. 







* In 1865, there were reported thirty-two cheese 
factories, worth $52,546, and employing fifty-five men 
and sixty-three women. They used the milk of 12,084 
cows, and paid $15,574 foi" labor. Of these, twenty- 
eight used 33,531.746 pounds of milk, and produced 
3,171,721 pounds of cheese. They usually began in 
May and ended in October. 

In 1875, the statistics of cheese factories were very 
fully taken by the aid of a separate blank, but were not 

■j- Evidently a gross error. Perhaps includes milk 
sent to factories. 

J Made upon farms. The amount made at factories 
was not published. 








Sheep and Wool. 


No. of Sheep. 

Pounds of Wool 


















27 = 047 
















Lambs Raised. 









Sheep Slaughtered. 





Sheep Killed .by Dogs 





Swine and Pork. 


No of Swine. Pounds of Pork. 














10,308 I, 





12,766 I, 
Pigs of first season. 






Maple Sugar and Syrup. 

Pounds of Sugar. Gallons of Syrup. 











2,6 1 8 







* Under one year, 11,995, over one year, 28,427. 



Honey and Wax. 







Poultry and Eggs. 

Value owned — 1865 — $11,329.65; 1875 — 

Value sold — 1855 — $4,701.00; 1865 — $2,- 
595.03; 1875— $5,817.00 

Eggssold— 1855— $2,671 ; 1865— $2,997.89; 
1875— $12,087. 

Poultry owned — 1840 — 5,293. 

Domestic Manufactures. (Yards.) 


Flannel and 



Otlier Woolens. 

Cotton, Etc. 

























Manufacturing Establishments. 

Grist Mills 

Saw Mills 

Oil Mills 

Fulling Mills ... 
Carding Machines 
Rope Factories .... 



Iron Works _ . . . 
Woolen Factories. . 






1811 I8Z5 183s 1840 1845 1855 '865 

Value of Home-made Manufactures. 
(1840), $25,253 ; (i860), $10,606. 
Total value of Manufactured Products. 
(1870), $19,094. 

Statistics of Population and of 
A national census has been taken every 
ten years since 1790. Before 1825, the 
State government (excepting in 18 14,) 
took a census of Electors only, but com- 
mencing in 1825, it has since taken a full 
census of the population at intervals of 
ten years. The number of Electors in 
1807, 1814 and 1821, was as follovirs: — 

Freeholders Freeholders Renting tenements Total, 

worth over $z5o. worth $50 to $250, worth over $5 

per annum. 

1807 574 72 45° 1,096 

1814 614 71 499 1,184 

1821 740 34 617 1,391 

The number of voters at different pe- 
riods, as shovirn by the State census, be- 
ginning in 1825 has been as follows : — 














Na- ural- 

■ 11 







Croghan .... 






Denmark — 



















Greig . .. 



















High Market 




• 58 



Lewis... . 

















Lowville. . . 



















495 86 



Montague . . . 



98 44 



New Bremen. 

1 20 


190, 244 



Osceola.. . . 




95! 77 



Pinckney . , . 






278 40 






42 f 



I8» , 59 









246 ' 18 



West Turin.. 





319 , 188 












of Towns in Le 



at Various 


Towns. ' 

1800 1 1814 



1825 1 1830 





1850 1855 

I860 1865 













1,135' 1,531 

2,824 2,381 

970l 1,177 

1,074 1,203 

1,367 1,240 













High Market, 





2,232 2;i69 
1,645 1,776 
1,946, 8,638 
1,238[ 1,090 
l,130i 1,051 
1.2591 1.252 


T a^AaT\ 


1.203 1.156 

1,602| 1,687 
2,334 2,097 

2,382 2,288 


763 796 
1,661 1,907 

909 1,163 
1,635 1,843 

2,253l 1,856 

1.859 1.828i 2.048 


1,601 1.9)3 2,107 

2,047 2.167 

2,377 2.1441 2.373, 2.574, 2.806 





New Bremen, 


1,4971 1,950 


507 664 

1,8121 2,388 

1 693 











2,4S9 2,865 8,480 
67 ll 707 643 

1,647 1,786 1,966 
513 5961 718 









West Turin, 

i 404 
410 1,078 


1,0.39! ] 393 ]_j,9] ] ,49 

1,748 1,819! l,683i 1,493 

930 1,(128! 949, 1,146 

2,4-8 2,410 2,128l 2,111 



l,36Sl 6,8481 9,227 11,669 

15,239ll6,093il7,830 20,218 

24.56425,229128, 580'a7,810iS8,699|29,245! 31,416 

In 1810 the population was not reported by towns. The total of the county was 6,438. 



The apparent decrease in population 
is in some cases due to changes of boun- 
dary, or the erection of new towns. In 
a dairying region, there is a tendency, 
however, to the consolidation of smaller 
farms with larger ones, and a conse- 
quent diminution of the population by 
removal. In such towns, the number of 
inhabitants can scarcely be expected 
ever to increase, so long as dairying is 
the principal business of the farmers. 

If we take a comprehensive view of 
the distribution of the population 
throughout the country, and compare 
one period with another, we cannot fail 
to be impressed with the great and 
rapid growth of cities and villages, and 
the increase of numbers in centers of 
trade and manufactures. Something of 
this may be seen in Lewis county, where 
villages have increased in population, as 
the rural districts have declined. This 
effect is strikmgly shown in the attend- 
ance at district schools, which in the 
farming sections does not now average 
more than one-fourth as much as it was 
forty or fifty years ago. In all of the 
older towns, through the central portion 
of the county, there has been more or 
less of consolidation of school districts 
as the result of this change. 

The relative standing of some of the 
towns in 1803, as then bounded, was as 
follows : — 

Turin, 145 residents, valuation, $279,824 
Leyden, 183 residents, $287,385.77 

Lowville, 161 residents, $41,300 

Martinsburgh, 53 residents, $45,818.50 

In the direct tax imposed upon the 
country in August, 1813, to raise the 
sum of $3,000,000 for the war, the share 
assigned to the State of New York was 
$430,140.62, or about 14 1-3 per cent. 
Lewis county was called upon for 
$1,960, or a httle less than half of one 
per cent, of the State. The county 
formed a part of the 1 7th collection dis- 

Political Statistics. 

In the early years, county politics ap- 
pear to have been nearly evenly bal- 
anced between " Federal " and " Repub- 
lican," as parties were then named. The 
latter gradually came to be known as the 
Democratic party, and for some years 
was strongly in majority. The political 
campaign of 1840, in which log cabins, 
hard cider and other incidents of that 
day played so memorable a part, among 
those supporting the nomination of Gen- 
eral Harrison wrought a great change, 
but still did not turn the balance. The 
excitement of that campaign is probably 
without a parallel, before or since, and 
many persons now growing old will re- 
member the log cabins of that day, 
which were erected in the genuine pio- 
neer style as political rallying points in 
all of the great towns and villages in the 
country. One of these stood close ad- 
jacent to the old Martinsburgh hotel, 
on the site of what is now Lovejoy's 
hotel, but then kept by Elijah L. Thomp- 
son. After giving the notes of the 
former edition as regards the total vote 
of the county for the office of governor 
from the beginning, we will present the 
vote of single towns for the office of 
governor in recent years, as a subject 
convenient for reference and compari- 
son, and of interest with those who 
watch the tide of politics as it ebbs and 

The vote upon governor at the several 
elections in this county, has been as fol- 
lows : — 

1807. — Morgan Lewis, 419; Daniel D. 
Tompkins, 411. 

i8io.-~Daniel D. Tompkins, 533 ; Jonas 
Piatt, 302. The former had majorities 
in every town except Denmark and Har- 

18 13. — -Daniel D. Tompkins, 313; 
Stephen VanRensselaer, 229. The for- 
mer had majorities except in Denmark, 
Martinsburgh and Turin. 



1816. — Daniel D. Tompkins, 326; Ru- 
fus King, 228. Mr. King had a majority 
only in Denmark. 

1817.— DeWitt Clinton, 381 ; Peter B. 

1820. — DeWitt Clinton, 334; Daniel 
D. Tompkins, 304. The former had ma- 
jorities except in Harrisburgh, Lowville 
and Pinckney. 

1822. — Joseph C.Yates, 776; Solomon 
Southwick, I, in Martinsburgh. The 
vote on Lieutenant-Governor was 467 for 
Root, and 300 for Huntington. 

1824. — Samuel Young, 678; DeWitt 
Clinton, 502. Clinton's only majority 
was in Denmark. 

1826. — William B. Rochester, 768; 
DeWitt Clinton, 726. The towns of 
Denmark, Harrisburgh, Turin and Wat- 
son, gave majorities for Clinton. 

1828. — Martin VanBuren, 964; Smith 
Thompson, 778; Solomon Southwick, 66. 
VanBuren had majorities in Greig, Ley- 
den, Lowville, Martinsburgh, Pinckney, 
Turin and Watson, and Thompson in all 
the other towns. 

1830. — Enos T. Throop, 103 1 ; Francis 
Granger, 618; Erastus Root, 14. Throop 
had majorities in Diana, Greig, Leyden, 
Lowville, Pinckney, Turin, Watson and 
West Turin, and Granger in the other 

1832. — WiUiam L. Marcy, 1450; Fran- 
cis Granger, 836. Marcy had majorities 
in all the towns except Denmark, Har- 
risburgh and Lowville. 

1834. — William L. Marcy, 1230; Will- 
iam H. Seward, 952. The majorities 
were the same as in 1832. 

1836. — William L. Marcy, loi ; Jesse 
Buel, 400. Marcy had majorities in every 
town except Lowville. 

1838.— William L. Marcy, 1308; Will- 
iam H. Seward, 1 1 56. Marcy had ma- 
jorities in Greig, Leyden, Martinsburgh, 
Pinckney, Turin, Watson and West 
Turin, and Seward in other towns. 

1840.— William L. Marcy, 1786; "Will- 
iam H. Seward, 1690 ; Gerrit Smith, 40. 
Marcy had majorities in Diana, Greig, 
Leyden, Pinckney, Watson and West 
Turin, and Seward in the other towns. 

1842. — WiUiam C. Bouck, 1716, Luther 
Bradish, 15 19; Alvin Stewart, 64. Bouck 
had majorities in Croghan, Diana, Greig, 

Harrisburgh, Lowville, Martinsburgh, 
and Turin, and Bradish in the other 

1844. — Silas Wright, 2080; Millard 
Fillmore, 1649; Alvin Stewart, 153. 
Wright had majorities in Croghan, 
Greig, Leyden, Osceola, Pinckney, Tu- 
rin, Watson, and West Turin, and Fill- 
more in the other towns. 

1846.— John Young, 1828; Silas Wright 
1 1 72 ; Henry Bradley, 166. Young had 
majorities in every town except Cro- 
ghan, Diana, Osceola, Pinckney and 
Watson, which went for Wright. 

1848. — Hamilton Fish, 1216; John A. 
Dix, 1250: Reuben H. Walworth, 804 ; 
William Goodell, 10. Fish had majori- 
ties in Denmark, Diana, Harrisburgh, 
Lowville, Martinsburgh, Pinckney and 
Turin ; Dix in Croghan, Leyden, New 
Bremen, Osceola, Watson and West 
Turin, and Walworth in Greig. 

1850. — Horatio Seymour, 2004 ; Wash- 
ington Hunt, 1618; William L. Chaplin, 5. 
Sej'mour had majorities in every town 
except Denmark, Harrisburgh, Low- 
ville, and Martinsburgh, which went for 

1852. — Horatio Seymour, 2549; Wash- 
ington Hunt, 1 121; Minthorne Tompkins, 
268. Sevmour had majorities in Diana, 
Greig, Leyden, Martinsburgh, Mon- 
tague, New Bremen, Osceola, Pinckney, 
Turin, Watson and West Turin ; Hunt 
in Denmark, Harrisburgh, and Lowville, 
and Tompkins in Croghan. 

1854.— Horatio Se);mour, 1583 ; Myron 
H. Clark, 1449; Daniel Ullmann, 138; 
G. C. Bronson, 131. Clark had major- 
ities in Denmark, Greig, Harrisburgh, 
Lowville, Martinsburgh, Montague, Os- 
ceola, and Turin, and Seymour in the 
other towns. 

1856 — John A. King, 2949; Amasa J. 
Parker, 1173 ; Erastus Brooks, 431. King 
had majorities in every town except 
High Market and Lewis, which went for 

1858. — Edwin D. Morgan, 2557; Am- 
asa J. Parker, 1861 ; Gerrit Smith, 126; 
Lorenzo Burrows, 38. Morgan had ma- 
jorities in every town except Croghan, 
High Market, Lewis, Montague, New 
Bremen, Osceola, Pinckney and West 
Turin, which went for Parker. 



Vote of the Two Principal Political Parties at Each Election for Gov- 
ernor, Commencing in i860. 







































































1 45 































































High Market 


202! 19 
87, '77 







































































298J 64 
io8| 52 
io6| 65 
186I 192 

56! 50 


New Bremen 




67 1 80 
64 56 




, 69 




: 141 
1 118 















293i 258 
93' 96 

121 96 
'°7 99 







West Turin 


232 175 
221 264 






Elections hav 
State CoNsxr 


1821. For the 1 
958; against 94. 

1822. Ela Coll 
delegate to Con 


\R Vote. 
lolding of a 

ins, of Low 


\ Po 














22. F 

ist 13 

^5. F 
; ag. 

46. R 

46. F 
ist 3; 

or th 



or th 


e ne 

3 hole 

1 P: 
e to 

e nev 

w Co 



V Cor 


f aC 










1846. For equal suffrage to colored 
persons, 379; against 1,189. 

1849. For new school law, 1,961 ; 
against 1,206. 

1853. For amendment, relating to Ca- 
nal debt, 1,572; against 907. 

1854. Vote on the amendment allow- 
ing soldiers to vote while absent from 
the State, in the military service 2,312 
for; and 301 against. 

1865. On amendment relating to Com- 
missioners of Appeals, 546 for; 685 

1866. On the holding of a Constitu- 
tional Convention, 3,143 for; 2,001 

1867. Delegates to the Constitutional 
Convention were chosen in part by 
election from Senatorial Districts. — 
From the i8th district, th*e delegates 
chosen were Edward A. Brown, of Low- 
ville, James A. Bell, of Dexter, Marcus 
Bickford, of Carthage, and Milton H. 
Merwin, of Watertown. 

1869. For the new Constitution, 309; 
against 2,374. 

1869. For Article VI, 1,866; against 

1869. For uniform rate of assessment, 
etc., 3,613; against 2,361. 

1869. For abolishing propert}^ qualifi- 
cations of voters, 2,054; against 2,183. 

1870. For creating a State debt to pay 
deficiences, etc., 2,318; against 2,985. 

1872. For amendments relating to 
Court of Appeals, 2,918; against 12. 

1872. For creating State debt to pay 
Canal and General Fund Deficiencies. 
1,616 ; against 30. 

1874. For amendment of Article II, 
1,314; against 3,836. 

1874. For amendment of Article 
Part I, 1,073; against 4,081. 

1874. For amendment of 
Part 2, 1,231 ; against 3,933. 

1874. For amendment of Article IV, 
1,196; against 3,957. 

1874. For amendment of Article VII, 
38 ; against 5,118. 

1874. For amendment of Article VIII, 
Part I, 1,239; against 3,914. 

1874. For amendment of Article VIII, 
Part 2, 1,230; against 3,923. 


Article III, 

1874. For amendment of Article XII, 
1,256; against 3,897. 

1874. For adding Article XV, 1,286; 
against 3,885. 

1874. For adding Article XVI, 1,275 ; 
against 3,878. 

1879. For amendment of section 6, 
Article VI, 5 ; against 2. 

1880. For amendment of sections 12 
and 13, Article VI, 813; against 1,200. 

1882. For amendment relating to Free 
Canals, 3,797 ; against 769. 

1882. For amendment increasing the 
number of Justices of the Supreme 
Court, 1,863 ; against 522. 

Statistics of Taxation in Lewis 

County, for a Series of Years ; 

From the Returns to the 

Comptroller- for the 

Years Previous. 


1853 $12, 


1864 178, 

186S| 80. 












1877 1 42. 

1878 34: 

1879 29. 
IS8O' 33, 
1881 ! .32. 

,282 31 
,631 80 
,600 DO 
,a63 14 
.303 69 
,313 47 
1,965 44 
,063. 4» 

1 15,059 




3,746 40 
8,371 00 
3,9.59 16 
4,069 .-;] 
3.373 3.1 
4,916 17 
4.910 77 
8,186 08 
8,385. 15 

t 5,615.00 




11,510 3: 






33,914. 20 

24,417 02 



36,9,s6 94 





31,930 04 




13,988 79 






; 33,006.14 









.•-.O.gOo 70 






107,670 .V 






103,451 .30 

94,334 60 







7 900 

3 060 

The census of 1880, reported the 
amount of town bonded debts in Lewis 
county as $156,805, and the amount of 
School District debt, (not bonded,) as 




Statistics of Assessment in Lewis 



Correct- ; Aggre- 

Acres of 

Value of 

Value of 

ed Aggre-| gate 





gate Val-, Equalized 




uation. j Valuat'n. 



$4,937 508 

$ 677,005 

$ 5,615,000 

1854. . , 




5.688, 1 lOO 

1865 .... 




5,688 000 






1857 . 






740 000 









1861J,. .. 




4,995,200 4,495,800 

1861 ... 


3 .581,769 


4,173,0001 4,495,800 





4,173,9001 5,279.275 

1863 .... 




4,164,5001 .5,391,577 




.581 366 

4,io8,000l 5,426,005 





4,183,0001 4,538,719 





4.050,0001 4,497,668 





3.988.5001 4,»49,9I1 

1868 ... 




3.939,00 i 4,388,498 

186H . . . 




3,H63,000| 4.838.688 




395 827 

3,933,0001 3,963,9C'8 

1871.. . 




3,989,000 3,933,377 

1878 ... 




3,970,200 3,938,617 





3,970,800 3,970,107 





10,518,000 4,848,883 

1875. ... 

765.51 1 



9,187,200 4,684,742 

1876 ... 




9,137,300 6,334,549 




9l4 530 

8,783,188 8,100,375 

1878 .... 




8,240,2811 7,657,677 





7,865,712 7,781.136 

1880 ... 




7,677,835 7,683,156 

1881 . . . 




7.606,567 7,688,.301 


School Statistics; Personal Men- 

School Statistics. 

THE School system of New York 
_ dates as a connected and continued 
organization from 1812; but from the 
beginning of settfement, schools had 
been an object of early care, and volun- 
tary expense. In the second or third 
year from the first arrival, in fact as soon 
as there were children enough to form a 
school, they were gathered for instruc- 
tion, and until other provision was made 
by law, the expenses were equalized upon 
the basis of attendance, and before the 
establishment of free schools, the rate 
bills of the poor were charged to the 
school fund, and to those who were able 
to pay. 

By an act passed April 13, 1843, and in 
force till March 13, 1847, the Common 
Schools of the State were, (excepting in 

certain cities,) under the supervision of 
a County Superintendent , who received 
his appointment from the Board of Su- 
pervisors. As this law came to be ap- 
plied in Lewis county, it was found no 
easy matter to harmonize opinions, for 
the Board then consisted of twelve mem- 
bers equally divided as to politics, and 
each party appeared determined to elect 
its own candidate. In the fall of 1843, 
after balloting three days every vote re- 
sulting in the equation 6=6, nothing was 
accomplished. The candidates were at 
first Lewis G. VanSlyck, of Martins- 
burgh, [a clerk of William King, mer- 
chant], and William C. Lawton, of Co- 
penhagen, They next tried VanSlyck 
against Duel Goff, of Turin, and then 
against Ziba Knox, of Lowville. They 
finally gave it up as something that could 
not be done. 

Notice was in due time given by the 
Secretary of State, then ex-officio State 
Superintendent of Schools,that unless the 
county complied with the statute, the 
public school moneys would be with- 
held. This led to a special meeting of 
the Supervisors on the 15th of January, 

1844, and every member of the Board 
was punctually on hand, for there was 
an office to be gained or lost. The fore- 
noon of the first day was spent in ballot- 
ing, and twenty-four efforts were made 
to agree, but failed. Upon assembhng 
after dinner, it was found that eleven 
persons were present, the twelfth being 
on his way from the hotel. The vote 
was at once pressed to an issue, and the 
dilemma was solved, the choice falling 
upon Sidney Sylvester, of Copenhagen. 

He was succeeded by Alfred H. Bush, 
of Turin, who was chosen November, 

1845, and began his term January 16, 

1846, He remained in the office until it 
was abolished March 13, 1847. For 
about ten years next following, a Town 
Superintendent was elected in each town; 
but by Chapter 179, Laws of 1856, the 



office of School Commissioner was cre- 
ated, and the county was soon after di- 
vided by the Board of Supervisors into 
two Commissioners' Districts, as fol- 
lows : — 

District No. i. — (Or the Southern 
District), including what are now the 
towns of Greig, High Market, Lewis, 
Leyden, Lyonsdale, Martinsburgh, Osce- 
ola, Turin and West Turin. 

District No. 2. — (Or the Northern 
District), including Croghan, Denmark, 
Diana, Harrisburgh, Lowville, Mon- 
tague, New Bremen, Pinckney and Wat- 

The succession of School Commission- 
ers has been as follows : — 

District No. i.- — (Southern Dist.) : 
William J. Hall, (by appointment) i 1-2 

R. Sanford Miller, (by election), 3 years. 
Henry C. Northam, (by election), 6 

William Adams, (by election), 6 years. 
William D. Lewis, (by election), 6 years. 
Boardman S. Hough, (by election), 3 

Royal P. Damuth, (by election,) 


District No 2. — (Northern Dist.) : 
Wayne Clark, (by appointment), i 

Wayne Clark, (by election,) 6 years. 



School Statistics of Lewis County, as compared with those of the whole State, as reported in l88i. 

Lewis County 









21, '.04 






















35 5 


















































1,088.950. 14 





















1,467.561 00 

2, 563. JO 









Number of children, 5 to 21 years old, in the county and State, September 30, 1881, 

Number of children attending school during the year. 

Residing in the district. 

Residing in other districts, 

Number of children over S and under ii, for each qualified teacher, 

Whole number of children attending school any portion of the year, to each qualified teacher, 
Average daily attendance per teacher. 

Per cent, of average daily attendance on whole number of children between 5 and 21, 

Per cent of average daily attendance on whole number of children attending school any porlion of the year. 
Licensed teachers employed 18 weeks or more. 

Number of districts, 

Number of private schools, 

Number of pupils in private schools. 

Average number of weeks school, were kept by licensed teachers. 

Teachers licensed by local officers, 

Teachers licensed by State Superintendent, 

Teachers licensed by Normal Schools, 
Number of male teachers, 
Number of female teachers, 
Number of inspections by Commissioners, 
Days attendance. 

District Libraries, number of volumes, 
Number of school houses, log. 
Number of school houses, framed, 
Number of school houses, brick, 
Number of school houses, stone, • 

Financial Statements 


Total receipts. 

Valuation, 1881, 

Amount oftax paid in 1881, 

Amount of school moneys received in 1881, 

Received from school fund. 

Apportionment teacher's wages; district quotas, 

Apportionment teacher's wages ; according to population. 

Apportionment for Libraries, 

Value of school district Libraries, ^ 

Value of school house sites. 

Value of sites and school buildings. 

Receipts for the year ending September Jo, 1881. 
Amount on hand October i, 188c, 
Apportioned to districts. 
Proceeds from Gospel and school lands. 
Raised by tax, 
From teacher's board, 
From other sources, 

Total receipts, 
Payments for the year ending September 30. 1881. 
For teacher's wages, 
For Libraries. 
For school apparatus. 
For Colored schools. 

For school house sites, fences, out-houses, repairs, furniture, etc., 
For all other incidental expenses. 

Forfeited in hand of Supervisor, ist Tuesday in March, 1881, 
Amount on hand September 30, 1881, 

Total payments, etc , 



Elbridge R. Adams, (by election,) 24 

years, 7 months. 
Charles A. Chickering, (by appointment,) 

5 months. 
Charles A. Chickering, (by election,) 9 

Joseph A. Harvey, (by election,) 6 years. 
Julian H. Myers, (by election,) in office. 

Dollars of School Tax, and School 
Moneys Since 1863. 

1 School Tax 

1 School Tax 

Com School 


"^"^ 1 Paid 1 Received iFund Rec'd 1 Received 










































4,91 5-47 







1,769.1 1 



















22,107.1 1 







24 494 1 1 







8,3^5- '5 














Teachers' Institutes. 

These annual gatherings of teachers 
for instruction, and a review of studies 
began to be held in the State in 1843, 
although they did not begin to be re- 
cognized by the Legislature until 1847. 
In that year a law was passed allowing 
the sum of $60 to be expended in each 
county, whenever a majority of the town 
Superintendents united in a call, and 
since then we believe no year has passed 
without one being held. The reports of 
the State School Administration do not 
separately show the details of attend- 
ance in the early years ;* and we cannot 
give a connected statement excepting 
since 1862. The Teachers' Institute in 
Lewis county was reported in that year 

*In 1854, the Institute was held at Copenhagen under 
Truman H. Bowen and David H.Cruttendeu. 

as held in Lowville, and continued six 
weeks. In 1864 it was held in Turin for 
three weeks, and in 1865 at the same 
place for two weeks. They have been 
held annually since, at Martinsburgh, 
generally in the month of September. 
In 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, they continued 
three weeks, from 1870, to 1876, two 
weeks, and since then about one week. 
The attendance has been as follows :-— 




Total Days. 

















j 110 










I 107 



































































Educational Society of Lewis 


This was formed November 14, 1845, 
with David P. Mayhew, as President ; 
Sidney Sylvester, First Vice-President; 
Alpheus D. Pease, Second Vice-Presi- 
dent ; Harrison 'Barnes, Corresponding 
Secretary ; A. S. Easton, Recording 
Secretary; and John P. Clark, Treas- 
urer. It kept up an organization for 
several years, but died out about 1850. 

At the close of a very successful 
meeting of the Teachers' Institute held 
at Copenhagen, in 1854, the teachers 
present organized the Lewis County 
Teachers' Association. 


The Lewis County Teachers' 

The committee appointed for drafting 
a constitution, consisted of R. K. Shaw, 
(chairman), Ezra W. Stanford, Asahel F. 
Dickinson, Anson F. Thompson, Harriet 
Sylvester, Harriet Carpenter, and Fran- 
ces Stanford. Their first meeting was 
held at West Martinsburgh, December 
30, 1854. It has we believe since held 
meetings semi-annually in June and De- 
cember in different parts of the county, 
and at its meeting, addresses and essays 
are read, and subjects are discussed upon 
education in its various forms and 
methods. The subjects were originally 
assigned to committees, but after a few 
meetings this was discontinued and since 
then they have been prepared by in- 
dividual members. A new constitution 
was adopted in 1882. 

Persons Distinguished for their 
Educational Labors. 

In noticing the educational agencies of 
the county, besides the associated efforts 
already mentioned, and those connected 
with the official management of schools 
and academies, there should be some- 
thing said of the special labors of indi- 
viduals in this field of useful labor. It 
would appear invidious to name some, 
without mentioning others, who have 
made the teacher's caUing a profession 
for life, and who have spent many years 
in the faithful discharge of these duties 
in the school room. 

Of those who have made the theory 
and methods of education a special study 
and a business of life, we may mention 
Mr. Henry C. Northam, a native of Ley- 
den, and a resident of Lowville, who 
besides his long service as a School Com- 
missioner, has for many years been regu- 
larly employed in conducting Teachers' 
Institutes, in various places in this and 

■other States. He is also an author of 
excellent reputation among educators. 

Prof. James Cruikshank, for several 
recent years a summer resident of Turin, 
but a citizen of Brooklyn, was for many 
years editor of the official Journal of Edu- 
cation published under State patronage, 
and more recently has prepared a Geo- 
graphical work for public schools. 

In the line of higher educational au- 
thorship, the Lowville Academy claims 
as a former student, one who in the line 
of chemistry, has achieved a reputation 
as an author that has few equals, and but 
few superiors in the world. We refer to 
Prof. Samuel W. Johnson, of the Shef- 
field school of science in Yale College, 
and author of various chemical works of 
great value and wide reputation. He is 
the son of the late Abner A. Johnson, of 
Deer River, and a native of Kingsboro, 
Fulton county, N. Y., from which place 
he removed with his parents, when about 
twelve years of age. He became a stu- 
dent in the Lowville Academy, under D. 
P Mayhew, who had fitted up a work- 
ing laboratory, in the basement, which 
gave him the first opportunity for the 
study of chemistry. He subsequently 
had a very serviceable laboratory of his 
own, in a building upon his father's 
premises at Deer River. Later he be- 
came a pupil of Liebig at Munich, and a 
translator of some of his publications in 
Agricultural Chemistry, which is the par- 
ticular division of that science, in which 
he has been chiefly engaged. 

Of Principals of the Lowville Academy 
we may mention, Stephen W. Taylor, 
Cyrus M. Fay, Henry Bannister, Erastus 
Wentworth, David P. Mayhew, Frank- 
lin Moore, Charles W. Bennett, and A. 
Barton Wood ; of the Collinsville Insti- 
tute, A. W. Cummings, and of the Den- 
mark Private Academy, John P. Clark, as 
having elsewhere acquired a wider and 
some of them a distinguished reputation 
as teachers after leaving the county. 


Several natives, or early residents of 
the county, have held professorships 
in colleges, among whom may be men- 
tioned Henry C. Sheldon, son of Ira 
Sheldon, of Martinsburgh, who has been 
for several years a Professor of Histori- 
cal Theology in the Theological Depart- 
ment of the Boston University ; William 
X. Nynde, who holds a Professorship in 
the Garrett Biblical Institute at Evans- 
ton, 111. ; Henry P. Mott, for some years 
Professor of Political Science, in the 
University of the city of New York, and 
for a time, principal of the Martin Insti- 
tute ; Augustus C. Merriam, son of Ela 
Merriam, of Leyden, who is Assistant 
Professor of Greek in Columbia College ; 
Dr. Charles A. Foster, son of the late 
Alburn Foster, of Lowville, formerly pro- 
fessor in St. Stephen's College, at Annan- 
dale, and Frederick L. Harvey, son of 
Daniel Harvey, of Leyden, now Profes- 
sor of Botany in the State Agricultural 
College of Arkansas. 

The Hon. Henry E. Turner, of Low- 
ville, is a member of the Board of Regents 
of the University of the State of New 
York, and is the only person who has 
held this office in the county. 

Other Natives or Former Citizens 
OF THE County, who have Ac- 
quired Prominence Elsewhere. 

In the military line, may be mentioned 
Major-General William H. Halleck, 
commander-in-chief during a part of the 
late war, who lived for a year or two 
when a lad, in Leyden ; General Daniel 
Ullman, a former student of Lowville 
Academy, who was commander of col- 
ored troops of the Lower Mississippi, in 
the late war, and Colonel Guilford D. 
Bailey,* son of Daniel S. B ailey, who was 

* Colonel Bailey was a graduate of West Point and 
was in the army that was disbanded in Texas, by the 
rebel General Twiggs, at the beginning of the war He 
was Colonel of the 1st N. Y. Artillery, and would un- 
doubtedly have risen to a high rank in the army had 
he lived. He was buried at Elizabethtown N I 
where his wife's family resided. 

killed at Fair Oaks, Va., as chief of ar- 
tillery, in General Casey's Division ; 
Captain William Clark, from Denmark, 
is now in the cavalry service, in the 
Western country, and Melville R.Loucks, 
from West Martinsburgh, who graduated 
from West Point, and entered the regu- 
lar service, but died in early manhood. 
Bishop Cheeney, of the Reformed 
Protestant Episcopal Church, is a son of 
Dr. Warren Cheeney, formerly of Mar- 
tinsburgh. The Rev. Thomas Brainerd, 
D. D., from Leyden, became an eminent 
clergyman of the Presbyterian Church 
in Philadelphia. The Rev. Leicester 
A. Sawyer, translator of the New and 
portions of the Old Testament, was for 
some years pastor of the Presbyterian 
church in Martinsburgh. 

Of those who have acquired poHtical 
distinction, may be mentioned James D. 
Doty, former Governor of Wisconsin 
and of Utah ; Samuel A. Talcott, after- 
wards Attorney-General of the State, 
and a lawyer of brilliant tallent; — the 
sons of Daniel Kelley, (Alfred and Datus) 
in Ohio ; A. J. Edgerton, once a student 
of Lowville Academy, for a time United 
States Senator from Minnesota, and now- 
Chief Justice of Dakota ; Daniel Buck, 
State Senator in Minnesota ; Henry E. 
Tedmon, State Senator in Colorado; 
Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdale, first Gov- 
ernor of Idaho, and several who became 
Members of Congress and influential Leg- 
islators in several of the Western States. 
The sons of Stephen W. Taylor, of Low- 
ville Academy, [Alfred and Benjamin F.) 
have acquired favorable reputations as 
lecturers and writers. Two of the sons 
of Judge Silas Stow, of Lowville, be- 
came eminent as lawyers. Of these, 
Alexander W. Stow, was Chief Justice 
of Wisconsin, at the time of his death, 
and Horatio J. Stow, was a lawyer in 
Buffalo and Lewiston, — for a term in the 
State Senate, and a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1846. 



Eliam E. Barney, once a principal of 
the Lowville Academy, became an ex- 
tensive manufacturer of railroad cars at 
Dayton, Ohio. Among those natives of 
the county, who attained great success 
in business after leaving it, may be men- 
tioned Royal Phelps, a shipping mer- 
chant in New York ; Jason C. Easton, 
from Lowville, a banker and financier in 
Minnesota;' John H. Easton, of De- 
corah, Iowa ; Charles B. Collins, of West 
Turin, lately deceased in Leyden, a suc- 
cessful merchant in New York ; Leon- 
ard C. Kilham, from Turin, in Colorado ; 
Horace Kilham, a banker, in California ; 
Ralph E. Woolworth, son of George 
Woolworth, of West Turin, president of 
the gold bank of California ; Foster 
Dewey, son of Cadwell Dewey, of Tu- 
rin, in New York, and others. 

The sons of Rev. J. D. Pickands, for- 
merly of Lowville, have become prom- 
inent men in the iron business in Michi- 
gan ; those of Edward Bancroft, of 
Martinsburgh, became extensive for- 
warders at Detroit ; those of William 
King, late of Martinsburgh, are prom- 
inent merchants in Chicago ; those of 
Ela Merriam, late of Leyden, in New 
York and elsewhere ; those of Paul Ab- 
bot, of Lowville, and others, have in 
various lines of business, gained honor- 
able and influential positions in the com- 
munities where they went to reside. The 
three sons of Ela CoUins, of Lowville, 
became eminent lawyers in Ohio, where 
they all died. 

Mr. Harry H. Ragan, of Dubuque, 
Iowa, son of the late Harry Ragan, of 
Turin, is a distinguished lecturer and 

We have had occasion to mention the 
name of Mr. Benjamin F. Taylor, L. L. 
D., as a native of the county. It cannot 
fail to interest our readers, if we present 
a brief notice of his works and speci- 
mens of his style. He is the author of 
sev-eral volumes of short political and 

prose sketches, among which may be 
mentioned the following :— 

^'' January and June" N. Y., 1864, pp. 

" The World on Wheels, and other 
Sketches" Chicago, 1874, pp. 258. 

" Old-Time Pictures, and Sheaves of 
Rhyme." Chicago, 1874, pp. 194. 

" Songs of Yesterday," Chicago. 

" Summer Savory, Gleaned from Rural 
Nooks in Pleasant Weather." Chicago, 
1879, PP- 212. 

" Between the Gates!' 

''In Camp and Field." 1875, ^2 mo. 

" Life and Scenes in the Army." 

" Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain, 
with Pictures of Life in Camp and Field," 
12 mo. 

In many of Mr. Taylor's sketches, 
both in prose and verse, we find allusions 
to the home of his childhood, as in " The 
Psalm Book in the Garret ; " " How the 
Brook Went to Mill ; " " The Old State 
Road ; " " The Old Barn ; " " The 'Spin- 
ning Wheel ; " " Mowing ; " " The North 
Woods ; " " The North Woods Meeting- 
House ; " " Funeral Extravagance ; " 
"The Concord Coach;" "My Starry 
Days," etc., etc. In fact, these first im- 
pressions of life, appear to have left an 
impression that he has carried ever 
since, and in his occasional visits, he sel- 
dom fails to re-call these incidents, in a 
manner that excites an interest in his 

In presenting examples of Mr. Tay- 
lor's style, we select from his prose writ- 
ings, an extract from his article " Mine 
Inn," wherein he describes his recollec- 
tions of the hotel as kept by Jared House 
in Lowville, which was a fair example of 
the kind in the early period to which he 
refers : — 

"The first landlord I ever saw is but just 
dead, and he was an old man in the begin- 
ing — my beginning. He kept a stage 
house on the old State Road as far north 
as the Black River country. It was an 
old-time inn, with a long, low, hospitable 
stoop, pulled down over the lower row 
of front windows like a broad-brimmed 



hat, a world too biff, fallen over on ur- 
chins eyebrows. Along the wall be- 
neath this stoop was a hospitable bench, 
within the wide door was a bar-room 
with a great hospitable Franklin and 
chuckle headed andirons with slender 
crooked necks craning away from the 
maple logs as it they were afraid of burn- 
ing their brains out. Across the room 
from the firey irons was "the bunk " a seat 
by day and a bed by night, above it 
hung a stage driver's whip, with an open- 
mouthed tin horn in the act of swallow- 
ing the handle, and the stock coiled about 
like the hopeless Laocoon by a long and 
snaky lash with a pink silk tail. Beside 
the whip a shaggy overcoat, a long red 
muffler, a buffalo robe, and a tin lantern 
tattooed like a Polynesian. Upon the 
wall the tatters of an old menagerie show 
bill, where a spotted leopard partly 
loosened from the plaster, wagged his 
tail in a strangely familiar way in the lit- 
tle breaths of air from the ever opening 
door. But the marvel of the place was 
the bar — a cage of tall sharp pickets and 
within it " black spirits and white, blue 
spirits and gray;" in the fence was a 
wicket window that lifted like a port- 
cullis; and upon a little ledge beneath 
it a half grown tumbler of green glass 
was set forth, as a portly decanter of 
some amber liquid, wherein rolled lazy 
lemons or cherries, or sprigs of tansy a 
little pale from drowning — or a blood- 
red port that came across the sea, or 
something blueish from the Indies, " cru- 
saders " were not yet. In the dining- 
room were no sable waiters, and no bills 
of fare with impossible combinations of 
letters naming improbable things, but 
good and abundant food — sugar that 
looked as if it had been quarried, and 
white as Parian marble; pure coffee fit 
for Turks, and tea for Mandarins ; and 
with all a hearty welcome. When bed- 
ward bound, a pair of sheepskin slippers 
were produced from a closet in the bar, 
and " the brief candle " that Shakspeare 
mentions, and you are shown to a bed 
fat as Falstaff, to which whole flocks of 
geese paid featherly tribute— mattresses 
were not yet. 

" The first landlord was a hero to me. 
He hnked the small village to the big 
world. He was to strangers what the 
mayor is now. He extended them the 

freedom of the city for two shillings a 
meal. There were shillings as well as 
" giants in these days." By the way ; 
when an American tradesman tells you 
an article is a shilling and a delusion, he 
is joking at your expense, and lacks but 
very little of being an honest man, for he 
comes within half a cent of it." — Summer 
Savory, p. 95. 

As an example of Mr. Taylor's poetry, 
we quote his description of a village choir 
in Lowville, when he was a boy: — 


I have fancied sometimes the Bethel-bent beam, 
That trembled to earth in the Patriarch's dream. 
Was a ladder of song in that wilderness rest, 
From the pillow oPstone to the blue of the Blest, 
And the angels descending to dwell with us here' 
" Old Hundred" and " Corinth," and " China '' 

and " Mear." 
All the hearts are not dead nor under the sod. 
That those breaths can blow open to Heaven 

and God. 
Ah ! " Silver Street " flows by a bright shining 

road, — 
Oh ! not to the hymfis that in harmony flowed, 
But the sweet human psalms of the old-fash- 
ioned choir, 
To the girl that sang alto, the girl that sang 

"Let us sing to God's praise!" the minister said: 
All the psalm-books at once fluttered open at 

" York," 
Sunned their long dotted wings in the words 

that he read, 
While the leader leaped into the tune just 

And politely picked up the key-note with a fork, 
And the vicious old viol went growling along 
At the heels of the girls in the rear of the song. 
Oh, I need not a wing : — bid no genii come. 
With a wonderful web from Arabian loom, 
To bear me again up the river of Time, 
When the world was in rhythm and life was in 

And the stream of the years flowed so noiseless 

and narrow, 
That across it there floated the song of a spar- 
row : 
For a sprig of green caraway carries me there, 
To the old village church and the old village 

Where clear of the floor my feet slowly swung, 
And timed the sweet pulse of the praise that 

they sung, 
Till the glory aslant from the afternoon sun, 



Seemed the rafters of gold m God's temple 

begun ! 
You may smile at the nasal of old Deacon 

Who followed by scent till he run the tune 

And dear Sister Green, with more goodness 

than grace. 
Rose and fell on the tunes as she stood in her 

And where " Coronation" exultingly flows. 
Tried to reach the high notes on the tip of her 

toes ! 
To the land of the leal they have gone with 

their song, 
Where the choir and the chorus together belong. 
Oh ! be lifted, ye gates ! Let me hear them 

Blessed song ! Blessed Singers ! Forever, 


Mr. Rodney K. Shaw, a native of Den- 
mark, now of Marietta, Ohio, has writ- 
ten some pieces in verse that have been 
well received. His " Battle of Corinth," 
(October 4, 1862,) describes a scene in 
which he participated as Captain in the 
63a Ohio Vols., but its length prevents 
its insertion. We give below, the poeti- 
cal portion of a response made by him at 
a re-union of the Ohio Brigade, entitled; 


There is no towering mountain range, 

No sullen ocean deep and wide. 
That bids us freedom's fealty change. 

That can our fatherland divide. 
The God of nations made us onk, 

The God of nations made us free; 
He made the land of Washington 

The dwelling-place of liberty. 

As God has made us one 

As God has made us free. 

We swear we will be one, 

We swear we will be free. 

Will own one common country, 

Columbia, will own but thee, 

Our God — our flag — and liberty. 

There is no line divides the clay 

That holds a race of loyal dead ; 
Between the men at Eutaw slain. 

And those the gallant Putnam led 
There is no shade that makes us two. 

One common language we have learned, 
One common cause our fathers knew. 

Their offerings on one altar burned. 

As God has made us one. 

As God has made us free, 

We swear we will be one. 

We swear we will be free. 

Will own one common country, 

Columbia, will own but thee. 

Our God — our flag — and liberty. 

The North, the South, the East, the West, 

The teeming millions say are mine ; 
We own the land that God has blest, 

One people own the palm and pine. 
When human hands divide the seas. 

Their mountain waters roll aside, 
Then we would lose our liberties, 

Our faithless hands God's gift divide. 

No, God has made us one, 
And God has made us free. 
We swear we will be one, 
We swear we will be free. 
Will own one common country, 
Columbia, will own but thee. 
Our God — our flag — and liberty. 

In speaking of writers natives of 
Lewis county, who have displayed a tal- 
ent for beautiful description and ele- 
gance of style, we should not fail to men- 
tion Mr. Nathaniel B. Sylvester, now 
residing at Saratoga Springs, and doing 
business in Troy. Mr. Sylvester was born 
in Denmark, and resided several years 
at Lowville, as a lawyer. 

We take as an example the first part 
of his chapter entitled " The Two Water- 
Wheels,"* in which after noticing the 
twentieth anniversary of his leaving 
home to settle in Lowville, he says : — 

" The v-illage of Lowville is situated 
upon a little stream at the foot of the 
terraced hills which skirt the western 
limits of the valley of the Black River 
in Northern New York. The village is 
surrounded on every side save that which 
faces the river, with high hills, and nestles 
in groves of sugar maples and stately 
elms, which serve, when clothed with 
the exuberance of June, or decked in the 
more brilliant hues of October, to render 
it one of the earth's fairest bowers of 

* Cited, from a volume entitled " Historical Sketches 
of Northern New York, and the Adirondack Wilder- 
ness, including Traditions of the Indians, Early Ex- 
plorers, Frontier settlers, Hermits, Hunters, etc." By 
Nathaniel Bartlett Sylvester, of the Troy Bar, Troy, 
1877, 800 pp. 3t6. 


beauty. In this quiet unpretending love- 
ly village, thus situated about midway 
between the rush of traffic and travel 
that surges along the valley of the Mo- 
hawk on the one hand, and the St. Law- 
rence upon the other ; yet far removed 
from the influence of either, I took up 
my abode. 

" But twenty years have wrought great 
changes in the village of Lowville. Its 
elms have grown taller, and its maples 
cast a wider breadth of shade. Stately 
blocks of stores and elegant mansions 
now adorn its streets, takmg the places 
of the more humble structures of earlier 

" But more than this. The telegraph 
and railroad have recently invaded the se- 
cluded valley of the Black River, bring- 
ing in their train the spirit of modern 
progress. The quiet village of twenty 
years ago, has become a busy mart of 
trade, and now rivals in importance its 
more favored sisters upon the Mohawk 
and the St. Lawrence. 

" The little stream above mentioned is 
formed by the junction of three branches 
near the village. These three branches 
come tumbling down the terraced slope of 
the plateau of the Lesser Wilderness from 
the westward, in a series of beautiful 
rapids and cascades, and have worn deep 
gorges for their beds through the soft 
limestone rock that forms the founda- 
tion of the lower terraces of the hills. 

" One day shortly after my arrival in 
the village, and while the Indian sum- 
mer was pouring its glories over the 
land, I wandered up one of these gorges 
to the foot of a splendid cascade, there 
known as the Silvermine Falls, and sat 
down upon a rock under the shade of an 
elm, to enjoy the scene before me. 

"The water came rushing over the 
jagged limestone ledge in a beautiful 
shower of spray and foam. It had noth- 
ing to do there but to spatter and foam, 
and laugh and dance along as wild and 
free as any mountain stream is wont to 
be before the hand of man turns it into 
the channels of labor. 

" While I sat thus engaged, an old man 
came walking slowly up the gorge, aiding 
his uncertain steps with a huge hickory 
cane. He was tall, with stooping shoul- 
ders. His nose and his cheek bones were 
prominent ; his forehead protruding, his 

chin somewhat receding ; his hair was 
long and scanty and as white as the driv- 
en snow. His garments were tattered 
and torn, and had been often patched 
with cloth of different colors. 

"As he came along, he was muttering 
incoherently to himself, and was so intent 
upon his thoughts that he did not see me 
as he passed the spot where I sat. He 
proceeded a few paces farther and sat 
down upon a log of drift-wood. Re- 
moving his hat, which had long before 
seen better days, he wiped the beaded 
drops of sweat from his brow, and then 
gazed at the waterfall. 

" ' They say it can't be done,' said he, 
' but I say it can. I say there is water 
enough running over these falls to turn 
an overshot wheel of sixty feet in diam- 
eter. I say it will run the machinery for 
the whole village. I will build it some 
day, too, and it will be my water-wheel. 
They say I never can, but I will. Eunice, 
too, says I'll never do it, but I shall. 
She has been a good wife to me. She 
never complains much, but I think she 
ought to have more faith in my water- 
wheel. She says I'm always going to 
do it, but never get about it. She says 
she hates people that are always going 
to do something but never do it. She 
thinks it is about time, too, that she 
should have the new silk dress I prom- 
ised her better than twenty years ago, 
when she signed the mortgage on the 
old farm. But I can't get it for her till 
my water-wheel is done. Little Alice — 
Oh! how 1 wish she had lived to see my 
water-wheel ! There ! there ! see, see 
Alice ! It is going now ; see how it 
works! See how the water drips and 
dashes about it ! There is power in it ! 
/ tell you there is poiver in it ! ' 

"As the old man began to see the 
vision of the wheel before him, seeming 
to him so like something real, he arose 
from his seat, extended his arms con- 
vulsively upward, and raised his voice 
into a shrill tenor. Then, as the vision 
vanished and the blank reality came back, 
he sank down exhausted to the earth. 

" I hurried to his side, and dipping 
some of the cool water of the creek in 
the hollow of my hand, dashed it into 
his face. As he partially recovered he 
began to give utterance to the struggling 
fancies of his returning consciousness. 



'• ' I thought,' said he, ' I was showing 
little Alice my water-wheel. Poor thing, 
she died years and years ago, but it 
seemed to me that I had her in my arms 
again and that the wheel was going, and 
she was looking at it.' 

" Opening his eyes and seeing a 
stranger thus bending over him, he 
started at once to his feet with a look of 
mingled surprise and alarm. While I 
was endeavoring to make some sort of 
apology for my involuntary intrusion, 
he turned upon his heel, and without 
saying another word, slowly retraced 
his steps down the gorge. In a few 
moments he passed around a bend of the 
stream, out of my sight. 

" After the old man had gone, the 
laughing waters again entranced me 
with their pearly splendor. The sun sank 
slowly down behind the western hills, 
shedding his blood-red effulgence over 
the smoky drapery of the landscape, 
which was now putting on its garb of 
sadness — its robes of mourning for the 
dead and dying beauties of the summer. 
But sadder than all things else was the 
heart of that old man, now mourning 
over his buried hopes." 

He then describes the former history 
of this old man, Joseph Dunklee, as he 
afterwards learned by inquiry. He had 
seen better days, and inherited a com- 
fortable estate, including a farm and a 
mill, in one of the New England States. 
He had a genius for mechanics, but was 
indolent and shiftless. As he experi- 
mented and wasted time and estate, in 
vainly endeavoring to reahze his ideas, 
he was finally ruined, after spending his 
means upon an enterprise that was to be 
a complete suceess. The farm and mill 
were sold by the sheriff, and Dunklee 
and his wife Eunice and Httle Alice were 
soon to be sent forth, wanderers, from 
their once happy home. But not together ; 
for little Alice, before the day of sale, 
took sick and died. He found his way 
to this region of country, and Hved for 
some years in extreme poverty, but con- 
tinually dwelling on his vision of a 
water-wheel — an object of derision with 

those who could find heart to jeer him 
about these fancies of the brain — until, 
at length, with his meek and patient 
wife he found a home in the poor-house, 
and rest is a pauper's grave. 

In his second part of " The Two 
Water-Wheels," Mr. Sylvester describes 
a visit to the Burden Iron Works and 
horse-shoe and spike factory, in the 
lower part of the city of Troy, with its 
vast machinery, driven by a majestic 
water-wheel, the largest in the world, 
and says : — 

" As I stood gazing at this ponderous 
wheel, a vague impression arose in my 
mind that I had seen it before. When, 
or where, or whether I had not dreamed 
it all, I could not at first conceive. In 
another moment, however, scenes that 
had lain dormant in the memory for 
years flashed into consciousness. Then 
the busy scene in which I stood, faded 
away. I was again in the gorge of the 
little stream that runs through the vil- 
lage of Lowville, and the waters were 
dashing and foaming over the Silver- 
mine Falls. I saw the old man Dunklee, 
with white locks streaming in the wind, 
with extended arms holding up his little 
Alice to see his water-wheel. But the 
vision of the past vanished as quickly as 
it came, and I was again conscious of^the 
sharp reality. ' No ! no ! ' I cried, ' this 
is not Dunklee's water-wheel, it is Bur- 
den's.' Dunklee never saw his own 
wheel save in dreams. Here was Bur- 
den's wheel a tangible reality. Burden 
had never seen Dunklee — had never 
heard of him or his wheel — neither had 
Dunklee ever seen or heard of Burden. 
Yet both had conceived the same idea, 
and both had comprehended alike the 
magical mysteries of mechanism and of 
motion. But one was a dreamer and the 
other was a worker. How vast the dif- 
ference in the result of their lives ! Dunk- 
lee's dreams never found expression in 
outward works, never lifted an arm in 
useful labor, never filled a single mouth 
with bread. 

" Burden, too, embodied his concep- 
tions, and they have become tangible 
shapes, working out wonderful results. 
His horse-shoes ring over the pavementsu^ 



of a thousand cities in the Old World and 
in the New. At Shiloh, at Antietam, at 
Gettysburg, at Malvern Hill, in the Wil- 
derness and before Richmond, in Sheri- 
dan's ride and Sherman's march, each 
fiery hoof that pranced along the peril- 
ous edge of battle, was shod with shoes 
from Burden's Works. Each iron rail 
that forms a link in the almost endless 
chain of railway that stretches from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, helping to bind 
the silken chain of commerce round the 
world, is fastened in its bed with spikes 
from Burden's mill. Thus Burden light- 
ened labor of her drudgery, and relieved 
civilization of her wants. Thus has he 
given employment to a thousand willing 
hands, and filled a thousand homes with 

" But can nothing be said for poor 
Dunklee? Are not the world's inven- 
tors after all, the superiors of the world's 
workers? Is not invention itself the 
highest kind of work? Without the in- 
ventors, the world's mere workers would 
be but senseless plodders. 

" Burden possessed in a high degree, 
the gift of inventive genius, coupled with 
rare executive ability. But nature is 
seldom thus prodigal in her favors, and 
poor Dunklee was gifted with as high con- 
tractive powers as Burden, but like nine- 
tenths of his class, Dunklee lacked the 
faculty of getting on in the world." 

This reference to inventors leads us 
to notice one who spent a portion of his 
early life in Lowville, — who was sur- 
passed by but few that ever lived, in the 
wonderful fertility of his inventive 
power, but who, like many gifted with 
genius, yet wanting in the faculty of 
turning it to their profit, died poor. We 
refer to Walter Hunt, the inventor of 
the sewing machine, and of scores of 
other ingenious and useful contrivances, 
from some of which, others, with little 
or no real merit as inventors, grew rich, 
and in some instances acquired colossal 

In "Knight's American Mechanical 
Dictionary;' (iii. 2101,) we find the fol- 

lowing statement of the greatest of his 
inventions ; — 

"Between 1832 and 1834, Walter Hunt, 
of New York, made and sold sewing 
machines which embraced a curved eye- 
pointed needle at the end of a vibrating 
arm, and a shuttle making what is known 
as the lock stitch. He neglected to pur- 
sue the business, which consequently at- 
tracted little attention at the time. His 
extreme versatility f)revented success ; 
his inventions absorbed his time, and he 
seemingly had none left for securing the 
pecuniary results of his genius. He just 
missed, and by mere inattention, one of 
the grandest opportunities of the centu- 
ry. The main features of his machine 
had been patented eight years, (previous 
to Hunt's appHcation), to another in- 
ventor, — Elias Howe. When Hunt ap- 
plied for a patent in 1854, it was refused 
him on the ground of abandonment, * 
* * * The legal point was with 
Howe, and bitterly Hunt rued his care- 
lessness. He declared he would invent 
imitation stitch work more accurate 
than the original ; the result was the pa- 
per collar, with imitation stitching." 

In an article in " The Galaxy" (1867,) 
iv, 471, entitled, "Who Invented the 
Sewing Machine?" the priority of Mr. 
Hunt's invention is fully stated, and it is 
shown that a working model, clumsy, but 
correct in principle, was made in his 
shop on Amos street. New York, by 
him and his brother Adoniram F. Hunt, 
and that one was exhibited by the latter 
in Baltimore, in 1835, in actual opera- 
tion. Some of these early machines 
afterwards came into possession of 
Singer & Co. They were first sold by 
Hunt to George A. Arrowsmith, with 
the rights belonging to them, but the 
latter never profited by the purchase, or 
anyone else. The number of useful in- 
ventions conceived in the brain of Wal- 
ter Hunt, was prodigious. Over twenty 
patents were issued in his own name, 
and a host of others, like the sewing 
machine, were lost from abandonment, 
or because they were not ^MiVi- perfected. 
Grammatically speaking, his success was 



always in the " paulo-post future tense" a 
little after, some other future event — 
that did not happen. 

Mr. Hunt was a Hicksite Quaker, fond 
of theological discussion, and well-read 
in Scripture, — honest and strong in his 
convictions, and intellectually and mor- 
ally, ranking high ; but in business mat- 
ters he was simple as a child, pledging 
the profits of his inventions before they 
were finished, and always overwhelmed 
with debt. He died in New York City, 
in June, 1859, 3^ged about sixty years. His 
brother, Adoniram F. Hunt, resided 
many years in Warren, Ohio, and was a 
watchmaker. His brain, too, was of the 
inventive kind, but less productive, and 
as to profits, quite as barren. Dr. James 
S. Bradish, a nephew, showed some of 
the family trait in the way of invention, 
but without results. 

Another inventive genius, a native of 
Martinsburgh, where he spent his youth 
and learned the cabinet-maker's trade, 
might also be mentioned. This was 
Hiram Pitcher, a brother of Edwin 
Pitcher, and cousin to most of the now 
older class of this name in that town. 
He settled at Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, 
and was a prolific inventor, and to some 
extent a patentee. A multitude of his 
ideas, some of really great merit, were 
never patented, and like many others of 
this class, he died poor. His death oc- 
curred at Sterling, Kansas, some four 
or five years ago. 


Religious Denominations and 

Methodist Episcopal Church in Lewis 

FROM the systematic way in which 
the records of this denomination 
have been kept and published from the 

beginning, it is an easy thing to present 
them very nearly complete. We will, 
therefore, in this place, in addition to the 
notices under the different towns, give a 
connected summary of the succession, 
from the date of first record down to 
the present. 

Conferences. — This county was includ- 
ed in the " New York Conference " till 
1809, and in the " Genesee Conference," 
from its formation, in 1809, down to 
1828, when it was taken in by the 
" Oneida Conference." In 1836, the 
" Black River Conference " was form- 
ed."* In 1869, the " Central New York 
Conference " included at least, a part, 
and in 1873, the "Northern New York 
Conference " included the whole, with 
some that had not been associated be- 

Districts.— Th.Q " Black River District" 
began to appear in the records in 1821, 
and the presiding elders, while it lasted, 
were as follows : — 

i82i-'22. Renaldo M. Everts. 

i823-'2S. Dan. Barnes. 

1826. Goodwin Stoddard. 

i827-'30. Nathaniel Salisbury. f 

1831-32. Josiah Keyes. 

i833-.'35. John Dempster.^ 

1836-39. Gardner Baker. 

The Herkimer District was formed 
in 1840, and in i840-'4i, Aaron Adams was 
Presiding Elder. It included for a time 
the south part of the county. 

The Watertown District was also 
formed in 1840, and in 1840-41, F. Salis- 
bury was Presiding Elder. In 1844-47 it 
was Lewis Whitcomb ; but in the mean- 
time, it ceased to include any part of the 

* Incorporated by special act, April 17, 1841, and em- 
powered to hold real estate, not exceeding $200,ooo,and 
an income of not over $10,000 per annum. 

f Died at Rome, February 18, 1876, aged 82 years. 

i Mr. Dempster was sent on a mission to Buenos 
Ayres, in South America, in 1841. He returned in a 
year or two, and was for a short time stationed at the 
Vestry Street Methodist Church, in New York city. He 
was then appointed a professor of Theology, in the 
Methodist Biblical Institute, at Concord, New Hamp- 



In 1843, the Gouverneur District was 
formed, and in 1844 the Adams Dis- 
trict. The former for a year or so in- 
cluded some part. The latter now in- 
cludes the whole of the county. Its Pre- 
siding Elders have been as follows : — 

1844-45. Lewis Whitcomb. 

1846. Nathiel Salisbury. 

1847. Isaac Stone.* 
1848-49. George C, Woodruff. 
i850-'5i. George Gary.f 
1852. A. T. Phelps. 
J853-'s6. Gardner Baker. 
1857-60. Freeman H. Stanton. 

The southern part of the county was 
in the Rome District, many years after 
its formation, but now this district in- 
cludes no part of the county. 

Sessions of Conference. 

These have been held annually, anJ 
since the formation of the Black River 
Conference, as follows : — 

1837. Potsdam, August 9. 

1838. Fulton, August i. 

1839. Turin, Julv, 31.$ 

1840. Pulaski, July 29. 

1841. Rome, July 21. 

1842. Watertown, July 20. 

1843. Syracuse, July 19. 

1844. Potsdam, Julv 31. 

1845. Mexicoville, July 9, 

1846. Lowville, June 17. 

1847. Malone, June 16. 

1848. Adams, July 5. 

1849. Fulton, June 20. 

1850. Rome, June 26. 

185 1. Oswego, July 2. 

1852. Ogdensburgh, June 25. 

1853. Watertown, June 2. 

1854. Camden, May 31. 

1855. Weedsport, May 30. 

1856. S y racuse, June 1 8 . 

* Born in Hoosick N. Y.. March 28, 1797, died in On- 
ondaga September 10, 1850, having served in ministry 
30 years. ' | 

f Mr. Gary was born in Middlefield, N Y Dec 8 ' 
1793. and admitted to trial as a preaclier, while but 
fifteen years of age. Having been employed many 
years m New England and Central New York he was 
m 1834. appointed to take charge of Oregon mission, 
where he remained four years. He died at Camden, N 
Y., March 25, 1855 having labored 46 years, of which 
23 were as a presiding elder, 6 as a missionary, and 16 
on circuits or stations. ^ 

X Held in a grove south of the village. 

1857. Potsdam, June 3. 

1858. Jordan, June 2. 

1859. Canton, May 18. 
i860. Rome, April 18. 

1861. Pulaski, April 24. 

1862. Oswego, April 23. 

1863. Watertown, April 15. 

1864. Adams, April 13. 
1865.. Potsdam, April 19. 

1866. Fulton, April 19. 

1867. Syracuse, April 17. 

1868. Malone, April 18. 

1869. Watertown, April 15. 

1870. Ogdensburgh, April 21. 

1871. Adams, April 27. 

1872. Canton, April 10. 

1873. Utica, April 16. 

1874. Carthage, April 29. 

1875. Mexico, April 28. 

1876. Potsdam, April 5. 

1877. Watertown, April 18. 

1878. Rome, April 10. 

1879. Lowville, April 9. 
i88o. Ilion, April 14. 

1881. Oswego, April 13. 

1882. Malone, April 12. 

1883. Watertown, (State street,) April: 

Black River Circuit. 

In 1804, this circuit was formed com- 
prising the whole county and much be- 
sides. The duties of a circuit preacher in 
those days must have been very ardu- 
ous, as they were required to travel 
great distances, over very poor roads. 
The appointments to this circuit were as 
follows: — 

1804. Griffin Sweet, Asa Cummins. 

1805. Griffin Sweet, Seymour Ensign. 

1806. Mathew Van Duzan, William 

1807. Datus Ensign. 

1808. Mathew Van Duzan, Luther 

1809. Luther Bishop, William Jewett. 

1810. Joseph Willis, Chandley Lambert. 

181 1. William Snow, Truman Gillett. 

1 8 12. Joseph Kinkread. 

1 8 13. Isaac Puffer, Goodwin Stoddard. 

1 8 14. Chandley Lambert.* 

* Mr. Lambert was born in AWord, Mass., March 27, 
1781, entered the ministry at 27 and labored about 
twenty years. He finally settled in Lowville and died 
March i6, 1845. 



1815. Ira Fairbank, James Hazen. 

i8i6. Ira Fairbank, Goodwin Stod- 


1817. Joseph Willis. 

1 818. Andrew Prindle, Abraham 


1819. Andrew Prindle, Henry Peck. 

1820. Nathaniel Reeder, Joseph Wil- 


1 82 1. Benjamin Dighton. 

1822. Chandlcy Lambert. 

1823. Truman Dixon, Squire Chase, 

Elijah King, (sup.) 

1824. Benj. G. Paddock, Nathaniel 


1825. Benj. G. Paddock, Squire 


1826. Isaac Puffer, John Ercanbrack. 

1827. Isaac Puffer, Isaac Stone.f 

1828. John H. Wallace, Isaac Stone. 

1829. Calvin Hawley. 

1830. Josiah Keyes, L. Whitcomb. 
i83i-'32. Anson Fuller. 

1833. C. Northrop, Frederick H. 

i834~'35. Elijah Smith. 
1836. R. Houghton, J. Downing. 

18374 ^- Houghton, C. H. Austin, 

W. Cummings. 

1 838. Isaac Puffer, Eleazer Whipple.§ 

1839. Darius Mason, [one to be 

1840-41. John Roper, John Thomas. 

1842. M. H. Gay lord, S. D. Fenton. 

1843. Stephen D. Fenton, Reuben 


During the latter years, the circuit had 
been narrowed down by the formation 
of others, while this remained in charge 
of the " remainders," scattered around 
the margins and in waste places, and by 

* Mr. Chase was born in Scipio, N. Y., February 15, 
1803, was licensed to preach in June, 1822, and was 
soon after received on trial in the Genesee Conference. 
He preached at various places in this and Oneida Con- 
ference, and in 1831 was appointed presiding elder of 
Potsdam District. In 1836, he was sent by his own re- 
quest on a mission to Liberia, where he remained about 
two years, when he returned with greatly impaired health. 
In 1841, while at Lowville, the opportunity for returning 
to the African mission offered, and he again sailed to 
Liberia, where he remained till March, 1843. He died 
at Syracuse while attending Conference, July 26, 1843, 
and was buried at Houseville. He married Julia, 
daughter of Eli Rogers, of Martinsburgh, 

I Mentioned, in 1S37, as the "Black River and Mar- 
tinsburgh Circuit." 

Died September 10, 1850, aged 53. 
Died February 19, 1856, aged 71. 

the time the circuit ceased, these had 
been otherwise provided for. 

We will present the circuits in the 
order in which they were organized, 
explaining in notes any facts that relate 
to them : — 







1 841. 














1868- '70, 












John S. Mitchell. 

Benjamin Phillips, Schuyler 

Luther Lee, R. Stoddard. 
Luther Lee, J. L. Hunt. 
Isaac Stone. 

E. B. Fuller, F. Hawkins. 
Elisha Wheeler. 
E. Smith, John Thompson. 
Elijah Smith, John Thompson. 
Wm. W. Ninde.t 
Squire Chase. 
James Erwin. 
Harvey E. Chapin. 
W. Wyatt, R. Lyle, (sup.) 
W. Wyatt, T. S. Bingham. 
G. Sawyer. 
Lorenzo D. Stebbins. 
M. D. Gillett. 
John F. Dayan. 
Ward W. Hunt. 
Darius Symonds.:]: 
J. L. Hunt. 
John W. Armstrong. 
E. E. Bruce. 
William Jones. 
W. S. Titus. 
C. W. Brooks. 
Charles H. Guile. 
Henry W. Bennett. 
Sidney O. Barnes. 
M. D. Kinney. 
W. F. Markham. 


Isaac Puffer. 
Richard Lyle. 
H. O. Tilden. 
A. S. Wightman. 
Wm. C. Empey. 

* Lowville and Martinsburgh. 

f Born December, l8og ; married Mary M. Moore, 
of Lowville ; died at Delta, N. Y., February 27, 1845. 

I Did not remain, although thus appointed. 

g A mission during the earlier of the above years. 
Supplied from Lowville for some years. 



1875. L. B. Knowlton. 

1876. (Supplied.) 
1877-79. D. D. Parker. 
i88o-'82. (Supplied.) 


i840-'4i. James Erwin. 

1842. J. E. Downing. 

1843. Lorenzo D. Stebbins. 
i844-'45. Allen O. Wightman. 
1846. Hiram Shepard.* 
1847-48. H. O. Tilden. 
i849-'50. Benj. S. Wright. 
1851-52. Eleazer Whipple. 
1853. Wm. B. Joyce.f 
1854-55. R. E.King. 
i856-'57. Lucius L. Palmer. 

1858. G.W.Elwood,T.B. Shepherd. 

1859. H.M. Church, A. T.Copeland. 
i860. H. M. Church. 

1 86 1. Spencer R. Fuller. 

1862. G. G. Hapgood. 
i863-'64. Robert Barber. 

1865. Chamberlain Phelps. 

1866. C. Phelps, A. McLaren. 
i867-'69. A. M. Fradenburgh. 
1870. (To be supplied.) 
1871-72. W. W. Tutheroh. 
1873. Dan. Marvin, Jr. 
1874-75. Eugene H. Waugh. 
i876-'78. Anson Cheeseman. 
1879-81. Sanger Dewey. 

1882. Isaac Jenkins. 


i840-'4i. William W. Wood. 

1842. Silas Slater, Jr., I. Puffer. 

1843. Harris Kinsley, [Wright. 

1844. David Ferguson, Benjamin S. 

1845. Isaac Hall, Benj. S. Wright. 

1846. . Isaac Hall, A. S. Wightman. 

1847. Hiram Shepard, G. W. Plank. 

1848. Hiram Shepard, Silas Kenny. 
i849-'5o. Abram M. Smith,T. D. Brown. 
1851-52. O. C. Lathrop. 

1853-54. W. W. Hunt. 

1855. L. Clark. [(sup.) 

i8s6-'57. Rufus E. King, Silas Slater, 

1858-59. Lucius L. Palmer. 

i86o-'6i. Cyrus Phillips. 

1862. N. R. Barber. 

1863-64. Edwin S. Cheeseman. 

i865-'67. Charles H. Guile. 

* Died in Malone, May 25, 1863. 

t Died in Oswego county, March 17, 1869. 

1868. Thomas Ritchie. 

1869-71. E. W. Tones. 

1872. G.W.Miller. 
i873-'7S- Soranus C. Corbin. 
1876-77. C. E. Hawkins. 
i878-'79. J. Staunton. 
i88c^'82. W. M. Holbrook. 


1 844-45. Jesse Penfield.* 

i846-'47. George C. Woodruff. 

1848. R. N. Barber. 

1849. A. S. Wightman. 
i85o-'5i. Royal Houghton. 
1852. D. M. Rogers. 
i8S3-'54- E. Smith. 

1855. T. D. Sleeper. 

1856-57. Isaac Hall. 

1858-59. Cyrus Phelps. 

i86o-'6i. Lucius L. Palmer. 

1862-63. D. Stone. 

1864-65. William A. Nichols. 

1866. H. C. Abbott. 
1867-69. J. W. Roberts. 
i870-'72. S. Cheeseman. 

1873. Hiram M. Church. 
1874-75. H. W. P. Allen. 

1 876-78. D. W. Ay les worth. 
i879-'8o. A. G. Markham. 
1881-82. C. W. Brooks. 


1849-50. O. Lathrop. 

185 1. L. L. Adkms. 

1852. Benjamin Brundidge. 
1853-54. T. D. Sleeper. 
1855-56. Frederick J. Whitney. 
1857. Benajah E. Whipple. 
1858-59. O. Holms. 
i86o-'6i. William B. Joice. 
1862-63. Anson Cheeseman. 
i864-'66. Silas Slater, Jr. 

1867. (To be supplied.) 

1868. Lewis W. Phelps.1 

1869. E. W. Wheeler. 
i870-'7i. L. B. Knowlton. 
1872. Z. B. Hitchcock. 
i873-'74- N. Edgar Bush. 
1875-76. R. O. Beebe. 

1877. James McFee. 

1878. (Supplied.) 
i879-'8o. James R. Crofoot. 
i88i-'82. (Supplied.) 

*Died at Lee Center, Illinois, June 6, i86g. 

•j- In the first years a Mission church. 

i Died in Martinsburgh, February 28, 1871, 



New Boston. (Mission.) 

1849 to '56. (To be supplied.) 

1857. Gideon P. Jones. 

1858. (To be supplied.) 

1859. Lucius B. Ford. 
i86o-'6i. Michael Taylor. 

1862. G.W. Plank. 

Barnes' Corners. 

1863. G. W. Plank. 
i864-'66. William S. Chase. 
i867-'68. Lester Brown. 
1869. Lewis W. Phelps. 
1870-71. E. W. Wheeler. 
1872. N. Edgar Bush. 
i873-'7S- (To be supphed.) 
i876-'77. H. A. Harris. 
1878-79. P. LeClair. 

1880. (SuppHed.) 

1 88 1. James R. Crofoot. 

1882. A. J. Cottrell. 

West Turin. 

185 1. John Slee. 

1852-53. W. I. Hunt. 

i854-'55. Lucius L. Palmer. 

i856-'57. Lucius Whitney. 

1858-59. Pomeroy Wright. 

i860. J. Wells. 


1 86 1. James Wells. 

1862. E. Smead. 

1 863- '64. Morrell T. Hill. 
1865-66. Samuel Salisbury. 
1867.* Samuel S. Salisbury. 
i868-'70. M. M. Rice. 
1871-72. B. F.Wood. 
1 873-74. William C. Smith. 

1875. J. H. Buell. 

1876. J. H. Buck. 

1877. T. L. Allen. 
1878-79. H. A. Harris. 
1881-82. (Supplied.) 

Port Leyden. 

1867-70. B. F. Wood. 

i87i-'73- Oliver P. Pitcher. 

i874-'76. Merritt N. Capron. 

1877. N. E. Bush. 

1878-80. E. S. Cheeseman. 

i88i-'82. B. F. Wood. 

* Constableville and Port Leyden in 1867. 

Croghan. (Mission.) 

1856-59. Michael Taylor. 

i860. (To be supplied.) 

1 86 1. Anson Cheeseman. 

1862. (To be supplied.) 

1863. W. C. Smith. 
1864-65. (To be supplied.) 
1873. Abel S. Barter. 

Harrisville. (Ogdensburgh District.) 
1863. E. A. D. Farrell. 

West Martinsburgh. 

1867. Silas Slater. 

1868. (To be supplied.) 

1869. Silas Slater. 

1870. (To be supplied.) 

1 87 1. Z. B.Hitchcock. 
1872-74. L. E. Knowlton. 
1875-76. W. Merrifield. 
1877-78. L. L. Davy. 
i879-'8i. L. B. Knowlton. 
1882. F. B. Stanford. 


1867-70, (To be supplied.) 
i87i-'72. A. S. Barter. 
i873-'74- (To be supplied.) 
1875. A. Miller. 
1877-78. (To be supplied.) 
i88o-'8i. F. B. Stanford. 
1882: W. C. Empey. 


1870. H. E. Chase. 

1 87 1. (To be supplied.) 

Statistics of Membership. 

Sabbath Schools and Property of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Lewis County, as Reported in i88z. 

Mem- 1 
bers. 1 



^ to 






















Barnes' Comers 


















$ 1,500 


$ 600 








New Bremen 

Port Leyden 






West Martinsburgh. 




21)i '$58,3.0 


f With Harrisburgh, in 1867, '68, '69, '70. In 1814, 
with Barnes' Corners. 




The Watertown Presbytery includes 
this county. It was formed in 1 830, from 
the St. Lawrence Presbytery, which was 
organized from that of Oneida in 18 16, 
and held its first session in Martinsburgh 
in the fall of that year. The Reverends 
Jas. Murdock, Isaac Clinton, Samuel F. 
Snowden, Jeduthan Higby, Jr., and Da- 
vid Banks (of Watertown), were original 
members of this body. The principal 
facts concerning the union and with- 
drawal of churches, are noted under the 
towns where they severally occur. 


The Black River Association was 
formed at Lowville, Sept. i, 1807, by 
delegates from churches at Leyden, West 
Leyden, Turin, Lowville, Denmark, and 
six towns in Jefferson county. 

The Free Communion Baptists 

The Free Communion Baptists were 
first organized in this county in 181 3, 
by persons who had belonged to the 
Baptist church, but who were led to differ 
upon doctrinal points, probably through 
the influence of persons from Russia, 
Herkimer county. The Black River 
Yearly Meeting adopted its Constitution 
in September 1830, and embraced the re- 
gion between East Canada creek and the 
Genesee. In the spring of 1844, this sect 
was merged in the Free-Will Baptists 
and their number in Lewis county has 
become very small. They were in i860, 
and we believe still are, embraced in the 
St. Lawrence Yearly, and the Jefferson 
Quarterly Meetings. Small societies 
exist in Diana, Harrisburgh, Lowville, 
West Turin and Watson. 


The Black River Baptist Association, 
was formed in 1808, at which time there 
existed a church at Denmark, of 29 mem- 

bers under the Rev. Peleg Card, and an- 
other at Turin of 65 members under the 
Rev. Stephen Parsons. The Association 
then also included Jefferson and parts of 
St. Lawrence and Oswego counties 
numbering in all 9 churches, 371 mem- 
bers, and 5 ministers. The Black River 
Missionary Society was formed in 181 7, 
and up to 1844, had received $7,837. 

A file of "minutes" from 1808 to 1853, 
(excepting the years 1813, '32, '35, '36, 
'37, '41, '42, '43, '44, '45,) gives the follow- 
ing list of Elders of " close communion " 
Baptist churches during that period, in 
the county. It is not offered as com- 
plete, but will be of interest : — 

Ashley, Riley B., Martinsburgh, 1825, '26; 
Turin, 1827, '28, '29, '30, '31, '32 ; Ley- 
den, 1834. (Removed to Plainfield, 

Blodget, John, Denmark, i8i8,'i9 ; Low- 
ville and Denmark, 1824, '26, '27, '28, 
'29; Lowville, 1831, '32, '34. 

Burdick, , West Leyden, 1829. 

Card, Peleg, Denmark, 1808 to 18 18; 
Turin and Leyden, 182410 1831. 

Clark, Charles, Lowville, 1833; Copen- 
.hagen, 1834. 

Clark, John, Leyden, 18 15. 

Guitteau, Norman, Denmark, 1821, '22, 
'23, '24. (Went to Watertown.) 

Hartshorn, Chancellor, Leyden, 1828, 

'29, '3'.- 

Hersey, Simeon, Denmark and Low- 
ville, 1823, '24; Tnrin, 1825. 

Horr, Calvin, Denmark and Lowville, 

i833> '34- 
Marshall, Samuel, Martinsburgh, 1820, 

'25 ; West Leyden, 1826. 
Morgan, Elisha, Lowville and Denmark, 

1820, '23. (Went to Henderson.) 
Morgan, Thomas, Leyden and Turin, 

1820, '23. (Went to Lyme.) 
Parsons, Stephen, Turin, 1808,-' 19. 
Philleo, Calvin, Turin, 1824. 
Rogers, Elisha, Leyden and Turin, 1821. 
Salmon, Martin, Martinsburgh, 1827, '31. 
Rice, William, Martinsburgh 1834. 
Warner, Thomas, Denmark, 1826, to '31; 

Lowville, and Denmark, 1833. (Went 

to LeRay.) 
Wedge, Albert, Denmark, 1833; Low- 
ville and Denmark, 1834. 



The same source of information shows 
that in the years included, the " Associa- 
tion," was held in "Leyden in 1825, 1836, 
and 1846; at Stow's Square in 1834; in 
Copenhagen in 1838, and in Lowville in 
1 841 and 185 1. 

Catholic Churches in Lewis 

Lewis county was included in the 
Diocese of Albany, until the formation 
of the Diocese of Ogdensburgh, Febru- 
ary 15, 1872, when it came within the 
jurisdiction of the latter. 

The churches of this denomination, 
and the charges connected with each, 
are at the time of our writing as fol- 
lows : — 

Constableville — St. Mary's, Rev. J. A. 
McKenna, who also has in charge, St. 
Patrick's of High Market, St. George, 
of Greig, and attends occasionally at 
Dannatberg, Botchfordville and other 

Croghan — St. Stephen's, Rev. P. Greg- 
ory Schlitt, O. S. F., who also attends 
St. Peter's in Dayanville, St. Vincent in 
Belfort, and occasionally at Jordan Falls. 

Lowville — St. Peter's, Rev. — Nyhan, 
who also serves Maple Ridge, in Mar- 

Port Leyden — St. Matthew's, Rev. Jas. 
O'Connor, (in place of Father Carroll, 
who died July 16, 1882.) He has also 
charge of St. Anthony, in French Set- 
tlement, six miles east of Port Leyden, 
and at Lyons Falls, Moose River Tan- 
nery, etc., where services are occasionally 

Copenhagen— Re\. J. A. Haggarty, 
who has apastoial residence at this place, 
but no church. He serves at St. Pat- 
rick's in Harnsburgh,Sts. Peter and Paul, 
in Pinckney, near New Boston, the chap- 
pel of the Sacred Heart in the west 
part of Martinsburgh, near the line of 
Montague, etc. 

West Turin, (Mohawk Hill,)— St. Mi- 
chael's, served by Franciscan Fathers, 
who also attend at a small church near 
Fish creek, and at Prussian Settlement, 
m the Church of the Nativity, B. V. M. 


The " Black River Association" was 
formed June, 1823, and includes this 
county, Jefferson and Oswego. The 
only churches erected within our limits 
are at Denmark at Talcottville, and at 
neither of these have services been had 
for many years. We believe the}' never 
had a settled minister, at either of these 


There were never but a few individuals 
of this sect in the county. They settled 
at Lowville, and had a meeting-house 
there. It appears to be entirely extinct. 
The Lowville Quakers belonged to the 
Le Ray Monthly Meeting. 

Religious Revivals. 

As a part of the history of the county, 
I we should notice certain periods of un- 
i usual religious interest that have oc- 
' CLirred since its settlement. In the 
winter of i8o3-'o4, a revival occurred 
I among the Baptists in Turin. In 18 18, 
j 1822, 1831, 1833, i842-'43, and 1857, sea- 
sons of religious awakening occurred, 
some of them of extraordinary intensity, 
I especially that of 1831-33. That of 
' 1857, was characterized by the absence 
of excitement, and by its apparently spon- 
, taneous origin. Some facts in reference 
I to the movement in 1831, are given in a 
1 series of articles first written for the 
I Journal and Republican, by Mr. Ezra Bots- 
[ ford, of Martinsburgh, in September and 
October, 1876, and printed at Albert 
Lea, Minn., in 1877, in pamphlet form, 
entitled " The Country Church." The 
author's name did not appear, the arti- 
cles being signed " Sparks from the 
Blacksmith's Anvil," and as " written 
between heats," in the old brick black- 
smith shop in Martinsburgh, where Mr. 
Botsford has for more than half a cent- 
ury labored at his trade. From this 



pamphlet, and from a diary kept by one 
who became interested in the events, we 
prepare the following account : — 

" Early in 1831, there began to be held, 
what were called ' Conferences of the 
Churches,' or ' Three Days' Meetings.' 
The first in the county was held at Stew's 
Square, March 17-19, and another was 
appointed at the ' Line Church ' for 
March 23-25. The Baptist church in 
Lowville, began one March 30th, and 
they quickly followed in Denmark, Co- 
penhagen, and many of the towns of Jef- 
ferson county, as well as in Martins- 
burgh, Leyden, and elsewhere. The 
meetings in Martinsburgh continued 
eleven days, and were conducted by 
Revs. Blodgett, Crandall, and Pickarids, 
and by Judge William Root and others. 
On the second day thirteen public meet- 
ings were appointed, beginning at 5 A. M., 
and continumg till late in the evening. 
The court was in session at the time ; 
but as Mr. Botsford says — ' the sanc- 
tuary had more attractions than the bar- 
room and the court house, as frequent 
interruptions occurred by officers of the 
court calling for persons at church who 
were wanted in court. Bv a mutual un- 
derstanding between the leaders of the 
meeting and the Judges, court adjourned, 
that all might attend the meeting. The 
body pews were reserved for them, and 
all came in procession.' " 

In 1832, the Rev. Jacob Knapp, a Bap- 
tist, held meetings at the Line Church 
at Lowville, and in the following spring 
in Turin and Constableville. The Rev. 
Jedediah Burchard, a Presbyterian, in 
the same year held meetings at Stow's 
Square, Copenhagen, Denmark and Ley- 
den Hill. Weare able to quote from the 
autobiography of Elder Knapp, some ac- 
count of his own labors in Turin and 
Constableville : — 

" Dunngthe period between the years 
1832 and 1834, I held meetings in all the 
principal towns in the counties of Jeffer- 
son, Lewis and Oswego, and in many 
towns in Cayuga county. Throughout 
these two years I usually called in the 
aid of all evangelical denominations, 
namely the Baptist, Methodist, Presby- 
terian and Congregational. All labored 

together, and I was content to leave the 
spoils with the pastors and churches 
after I had gone. But I found this 
method fraught with serious evils. In 
the first place, the different churches 
were almost sure to quarrel about their 
respective share of the converts. The 
churches, in these small country villages, 
were generally more or less feeble ; and 
each felt that its very existence depend- 
ed upon these accessions. This conten- 
tion would stop the revival, the wicked 
would triumph, and devils hold jubilee 
in hell." 

In short, Elder Knapp, who was a 
Baptist, learned to work for his own 
church ; although, as appears from his 
own statements, he was sometimes 
brought in contact with other church- 
es, but not as we are aware of in collision 
with any. 

Deacon Tenman, of the Congregation- 
al church, and Calvin Horr, a licentiate 
of the Baptist church, accompanied him 
several years, and assisted in conducting 
his meetings for prayer and inquiry. He 
also mentions Elders Hervey Little, 
Thomas A. Warner, Charles Clark, 
Joshua Freeman, Martin E. Cook, Azel 
Waters and Albert Wedge, who labored 
with him ; and writing in 1868, says : — 

"Some of them prayed and toiled 
themselves to death. They died on the 
field of battle, with their armor on. How 
strange it seems that I am permitted to 
outlive them all, when I was expecting 
to be among the first to cross over Jordan, 
as I did more of the preaching, and per- 
formed the hardest part of the labor." 

He however found sometimes " old 
fogies," who would invite neither Fin- 
ney nor Burchard to labor with them. 
They "went poking along like an old 
lazy yoke of oxen, keeping a little ahead 
of the converts, and hooking them back 
least they should go too fast." 

We cannot refrain from quoting his 
description of the excitement in Turin. 
Instead of spelling out the names, he 
gives only the initials. We will improve 
upon this by adding as many stars as 



there were letters, by the aid of which 
our younger readers will be able by a 
little inquiry, (and the older ones with- 
out,) to restore the names in full : — 

" In the course of these two years, 
1832-34, I was called in the providence 
of God to attend a meeting of days in 
Turin, Lewis county, N. Y. At that 
time there was no church of any denom- 
ination in the village. The town was 
called 'Satan's Seat.' The people had 
built one meeting-house, which was free 
■ for anybody to preach in, whether they 
preached truth or error. A number of 
Christian people of different names com- 
bined together to get up a meeting, and 
then extended to me an invitation to 
preach.* When I arrived, I found a 
number of ministers of the Gospel of 
different names there, praying together, 
and ready to lend a helping hand for the 
conversion of the place. Most of the 
men of business were infidel or Univer- 
salist in sentiment. I commenced preach- 
ing day and night, and opened prayer- 
rneetings in different places. The people 
came in, the Spirit began to manifest his 
power, and sinners were converted. 

" But opposition soon began to arise 
and develop itself more and more. When 
speaking on the tendency or effects of 
Universalism one evening, I related the 
following fact which took place in that 
village : — 

" A boy whose mother was a Univer- 
salist, stepped into a store one day, in the 
absence of the merchant, and took from 
the drawer all the money it contained. 
As he was going out at the front door, 
the merchant was coming in at the back 
door, and recognized him. The mer- 
chant knowing him to be a bad boy, 
followed and caught hipi, and accused 
him of having stolen money from his 
drawer. The boy denied the charge, 
calling on God to witness his innocence ; 
but the money was found in his pocket. 
The merchant asked him what he thought 
would become of him if he continued to 
steal and lie, and call on the name of God. 
The boy looked him impudently in the 
face and replied, ' I don't care if I do he 
and steal ; there is n o hell ; mother tells 

* These meetings were held in the spring of 1833, in 
Turin, and in the course of the next summer at Consta- 

me so.' The Universalists did not fancy 
such a naked, unvarnished application of 
the tendency of their doctrines. So they 
stirred up the wicked, set the town in an 
uproar, and got out a summons for me, 
with the intention of breaking up the 
meeting, and of being revenged on me. 
Squire P*** agreed to carry on the suit 
free of charge ; others subscribed five 
dollars each to meet the expenses, and it 
was reported through the town that 
Knapp had lied ; and had slandered a 
poor widow, and was going to be prose- 
cuted. I called a council of war, and 
after praying over it, and consulting to- 
gether, we unanimously resolved to go 
on, regardless of what any one might 
say or do, and trust events in the hands 
of God. I was then young,* and had 
had but little experience in such mat- 
ters. I entered the pulpit, told the 
brethren that possibly the sheriff might 
call for me before I had finished my dis- 
course, and that if he did I should goto 
jail, and 1 wished them to go on with 
the meeting, and that if I could get bail 
on the limits, I would open a protracted 
meeting there, and we would kindle a 
fire on both sides of the Devil, and burn 
him out. These remarks aroused the 
brethren, and seemed to carry them 
back to the Apostles, and they cried un- 
to God mightily. But no sheriff ap- 
peared. On that afternoon, however, I 
received a note from my persecutors, 
stating that if I would made a handsome 
apology, they would pass the matter 
over; if not, then the suit should go on ; 
and that they would all come that even- 
ing to the meeting, in order to hear my 
apology. All were excited to the high- 
est pitch ; some were praying and look- 
ing beyond all creature aid ; some were 
cursing, and some were smitten in their 
hearts. I think my text for that even- 
ing was, — 'And Thou Mourn at the Last, 
when Thy Flesh, and Thy Body are Con- 
sumed, and say. How have I Hated Instruc- 
tion, and My Heart Despised Reproof, 
(Prov. V, II, 12;) and if I ever felt that 
I stood between the Hving and the dead, 
I felt so that night, The solemnities of 
the eternal world gathered around us, 
and settled on the whole congregation. 
So me sank down in their seats helpless, 

* Elder Knapp was born in Otsego county, December 
7, 1799, and was therefore about 34 years of age. 



before I had finished my sermon. Not a 
dog moved his tongue. We spent a 
season in pra)'er, and several were con- 
verted on the spot ; others were unable 
to get home without assistance. Colonel 
F*****, a dry goods merchant, could 
not stand on his feet ; several of the 
brethren helped him home to his house, 
and staid with him all night. He was 
brought into light and liberty before 
morning. Strange to say, his wife con- 
tinued hardened, and was heard to say 
repeatedly that she would rather her 
husband lost all his property, than to 
have lived to become a Christian. If I 
am not mistaken, she was, notwith- 
standing, brought to give her heart to 
Christ sometime afterwards. 

" From that hour, the work rolled on 
until most of the village was converted 
to God. The lawyer who offered to 
carry on the suit, was among the con- 
verts. A Dr. D****, and wife, were 
converted. A wealthy man, by the 
name of P****, a confirmed Univer- 
salist, who had subscribed five dollars 
towards the suit, and who laid his hand 
on the Bible and swore that he would 
cowhide any man who should darken 
his door to talk with him or his family 
on the subject of religion, was made a 
signal trophy of redeeming grace. His 
family likewise shared in the blessing. 

" The victory of the people of God in 
this place, was complete. The Devil 
was vanquished. Error was driven like 
chaff before a mighty wind, and I 
learned, from experience, that it was 
better to trust in the Lord than to put 
confidence in princes." 

He also gives a lengthy account of his 
meetings in Constableville, which were 
held in Edwin Miller's barn, a large and 
then newly finished building, which was 
fitted up with a bower upon each side, 
sufficient for the accommodation of two 
thousand people. There was then no 
other church at or near that place, ex- 
cepting St. Paul's (Episcopal,) about a 
mile north of the village. 

In the bowers they conducted an 
anxious-meeting separate from the con- 
gregation which was listening to the 

preaching. "As fast as one was brought 
under the influence of the Holy Spirit, 
and could be induced to go, he was led 
to the inquiry-meeting. The ungodly 
called it ' the finishing-off room.' " 

While they were in want of such a 
room. Colonel Miller, offered the use of 
an old store which he was occupying for 
the purpose of packing pork, and it was 
thankfully accepted. Though a perfect 
gentleman, he would sometimes indulge 
in a slv joke with his friends, in a pleas- 
ant way, about the minister's taking 
the anxious to his " pork-shop," in order 
to get them converted, but before the 
end of the meeting he resorted thither 

In fact, wherever he went, Elder 
Knapp was sure to raise an enthusiasm — 
and this from year to year through a 
long life. At the time of the publica- 
tion of his autobiography in 1868, he had 
been living for some years in Illinois, but 
was then holding revival meetings in 

Elder Knapp died at Rockford, 111., 
March 2, 1874, aged 74 years and a few 
months. In a notice published at that 
time, it is said : " His preaching was 
stern and terrible, yet cultivated and 
able men were moved by it, as well as the 
populace," He had acquired by judi- 
cious investments a comfortable estate in 
his old age, a considerable part of which 
he distributed among the benevolent 
societies belonging to his denomination. 

The Rev. Charles G. Finney, who is 
mentioned in the preceding notice, had 
for a dozen years or more, been labor- 
ing as an Evangelist in Jefferson, St. 
Lawrence, Oneida and other counties, 
but he does not, in his autobiography, 
mention this county as the scene of his 
labors. He was a law student at Adams, 
in 1 82 1, when his attention was first 
given to religious matters. He was quite 
as remarkably successful in his ministry 
as Elder Knapp, and died at Oberlin, 



Ohio, August 1 6, 1875, nearly eighty- 
three years of age. His manner was of 
the argumentative kind, with neither wit 
nor dramatic effect. His statements 
were simple, plain and direct ; often re- 
peated to enforce their meaning, and 
often with wonderful results. With 
Burchard, it was theatrical throughout. 

In the summer of 1853, while spending 
a short time at Sackett's Harbor, in col- 
lecting materials for the history of Jeffer- 
son county, the author was called upon 
by the Rev. Jedediah Burchard, who 
requested him to appoint an interview. 
Being pressed for time, and having in 
fact none to spare, the hour of nine 
o'clock in the evening was mentioned as 
likely to make it short. He came with 
a friend, and after introducing the sub- 
ject by saying, that as we were writing 
the history of the county, perhaps some- 
thing might be said of him, and the re- 
ligious revivals he had conducted, he be- 
gan with giving an account of their ori- 
gin and progress, and of his manner of 
conducting them. It led into the recital 
of the most amusing anecdotes we ever 
heard ; in all of which he made himself 
the chief character, and many of them 
were told " at his own expense." They 
were told too, in a way so replete with 
humor, that the narrative compelled 
most immoderate laughter in his hear- 
ers, while he kept himself under perfect 
control, although intensely enjoying the 
spirit of wit that flashed and sparkled 
like diamonds in his narratives. 

We do not in this, wish to intimate 
that there was anything in the sHghtest 
degree in derision of religious matters 
in his stories ; on the contrary one could 
not doubt the sincerity of his convictions; 
but there was something in his nature 
that leaned strongly to the comic, and 
he had a faculty in bringing this out, that 
was inimitable. We remember one of 
his anecdotes that may serve as an exam- 
ple. He was holding a revival meeting 

in central New York in a village where 
there were two hotels. The proprietor 
of one of them was a most worthy and 
respectable man — influential and forward 
in all worthy enterprises, while the other 
was in every sense of the word a " hard 
case." There had been difficulties be- 
tween them, and the latter was known to 
hate his more respected neighbor with a 
perfect hatred. 

In the midst of the meeting one even- 
ing, as he was urging the people to arise, 
and ask prayers for themselves and their 
friends, this "hard case," arose in the 
broad aisle, and as all eyes were turned 
upon him, he gravely asked the prayers of 
the congregation, for the other man. Mr. 
Burchard, at a glance saw that there was 
something not sincere, but as both parties 
were unknown he enquired: — "Do )'Ou 
believe in the efficacy of pi-ayer in this 
case ?" The answer promptly came : — " I 
don't know; but I would like to see you 
try the experiment." 

His methods in short, had been, to 
create an enthusiasm, and to work it up 
to furnace-heat— his wife assisting among 
the women and children, while he was 
engaged among the men. The inter- 
view lasted till morning dawn — in fact 
made one day of two. Not long after in 
meeting the friend he had brought with 
him, and in speaking of that night, he re- 
marked. " I have known Burchard for 
years, but never got acquainted with him 
till then," 

Whenever there was an enthusiasm to 
be got up, the people of Jefferson coun- 
ty knew where to apply. Mr. Burchard 
had settled in that county, and having 
acquired a considerable amount of prop- 
erty, became a director in the Jefferson 
county bank. In 1849, when the Irish 
were starving, a relief committee em- 
ployed him to work for them, which he 
did, with effect. 

He was one of the most attractive and 
successful temperance lecturers ever 



heard; and finally, in the early days of the 
war, when it was necessary to raise vol- 
unteers, he was again in his element, 
and at the patriotic meetings that were 
held, he addressed great public assem- 
blies, with thrilling effect. 

He lived for some years at Sackett's 
Harbor, and finally died at Adams, Oc- 
tober I, 1864, aged 70 years. His wife 
lost her reason in these intensely excit- 
ing scenes, which physical nature could 
not sustain, nor long endure. 

The Rev. Abel L. Crandall, who 
labored in some of these meetings, and 
was the principal leader in those at Mar- 
tinsburgh, had nothing of the dramatic 
in his style, but he had an effectual way 
of presenting his ideas, and was especial- 
ly earnest in prayer. Unlike Finney and 
Knapp and Burchard, who made (if we 
may use the expression), a " specialty " 
of revivals ; his connection with them 
was occasional and limited to the 
churches in which he labored, or their 

Religious and Other Societies. 

The Lewis County Bible Society. — This 
society was formed May 28, 1812, when 
the Rev. James Murdock was chosen 
President ; Rev. Isaac Clinton, Vice- 
President ; Stephen Leonard, Treasurer; 
Barnabas Yale, Secretary ; and Jedediah 
Darrow, Jr., Deacon Mather Bosworth, 
Deacon Samuel Dean, William S. Rad- 
cliff, and John McCoUister, a Committee. 

Members were required to pay $1.00 
the first year, and 50 cents annually un- 
til it amounted to $3.00. During the 
first seven years, there was no change 
of officers except in the Committee, 
which included at different times, the 
Rev. Jeduthan Higby, Deacon Seth 
Miller, Jonathan Barker, Paul Abbott, 
Lemuel Dickinson, Chillus Doty, John 
Ives and Chester Shumway. In August, 
1827, a Bible Society, auxiliary to the 
American Bible Society, was formed in 

this county. Its donations to the parent 
society up to i860, had been $599.08, 
and its remittances for bibles and testa- 
ments $3,056.39. Stephen Leonard acted 
as treasurer from the beginning, ex- 
cepting one year, until near or quite the 
time of his death. In 1828, it established 
auxiliaries in each town, but this was 
found unadvisable. A Bible census has 
been several times taken, by the first of 
which, in 1829, it was found that 400 
families in 2,000 were without the Bible. 
In 1848 it was found that 708 out of 3,743 
families were destitute, and of that num- 
ber 278 were supplied, the remaining 
430 being all Catholic. 

In 1818, John W. Towne, of Vermont, 
agent of Holbrook & Fessenden, at Brat- 
tleboro, got an immense subscription 
list for a $12.00 quarto family bible in 
this county. This was considered then, 
and may be regarded still as a remark- 
able transaction, in view of the relative 
scarcity of money then, as compared 
with the present time. The subscribers' 
names were stamped upon the back of 
the volumes, and in very many of the 
old families, copies of this bible may still 
be found. 

The Bible Society still keeps up an 
organization in the county, but we think 
it has not had continuous existence 
since 18 12. It holds an annual meetmg, 
in October, and its present officers 
are . — 

Presidetit — Horace Bush. 

Secretary — Royal P. Wilbur. 

Treasurer — Horatio Arthur. 

The First Sunday School in Lewis 

The first Sunday School in the countv 
is said to have been started in Martins- 
burgh by Barnabas Y' ale in 18 15, on 8 16. 
Mr. Yale was a lawyer and magistrate, 
and a zealous Presbyterian. From the 
recollections of persons still living, that 
were present, the number attending was 



about forty, and the sessions were kept 
up with much interest, in Mr. Yale's office 
for several months. They were then 
transferred to the church, and organized 
into classes according to the present 
plan. They have since been continued 
with much regularity down to the pres- 
ent time. 

Of helps in the way of books there 
were then only the Testament and the 
New England Primmer, and the exer- 
cises consisted chiefly in memorizing and 
reciting portions of the Scripture. 

The succession of Sunday School Su- 
perintendents in Martinsburgh, has been 
Barnabas Yale, Philemon Hoadley,* 
Charles L. Martin, Ezra Botsford, and 
George W. Locklin. 

Sunday Schools were first begun in 
Lowville by Fenner Bosworth in 1820, 
and from about the same year in Turin 
by Barnabas Yale. After conducting 
them two or three years, Mr Yale was 
succeeded by Nathaniel Hart, Elder 
Alva Seymour — from 1852 to 1869 by D. 
D. Foot, and since then by Dewey Hol- 
den, the present incumbent. 

The Lewis County Sabbath School 
This was formed in- 1825, and held an- 
nual meetings about five years. It be- 
came auxiliary to the American Sunday 
School Union. The first anniversary 
gathering of Sunday School pupils 
was at Lowville July 2, 1829, at which 
550 scholars were present. The ser- 
vices were unusually impressive from 
the funeral of Anna Shepherd, a child of 
twelve years of age, which was held 
upon the occasion. In 1830, 400 met at 
Martinsburgh, and similar gatherings 
have been held occasionally since that 

The Lewis County Sunday School 

The Association was formed in 1870, 
consisting of members of various Prot- 
estant denominations, and having for 
its object the promotion of the Sun- 
day School interests of the county 
by means of meetings, discussions, 
essays, the collection of statistics, 
and other measures. It holds semi-an- 
nual meetings. At a meeting held at 
Port Leyden, December 7, 1882, sec- 
retaries were appointed in the several 
towns, with the view of organizing aux- 
iliary societies. 


* Mr. Hoadley was a farmer living in the eastern part 
of the town, near the present Martinsburgh R. R. sta- 
tion. He removed to New Haven. Conn., and was af- 
terwards the Superintendent of a State Reform School. 
He was a brother of Lyman Hoadley, formerly of Col- 

Other Societies and Associations. 
Temperance Societies. 

THE first society of this kind in the 
county,* was formed at Copenha- 
gen, in February, 1825, and consisted of 
twelve members. It grew out of prose- 
cutions for the sale of ardent spirits with- 
out a license, under an act passed Feb- 
ruary 18,1820, requiring poor-masters to 
recover certain fines for the benefit of 
the poor. These suits were instituted 
by Levi Robbins, poor-master, and al- 
though judgment was got, the town 
would release the parties convicted, by 
a vote of town meeting. The discus- 
sions which these measures raised, led to 
the formation of a society, consisting of 
Norman Guiteau, Levi Robbins, William 
C. Lawton, David Goodenough, Dr. 
John Loud, Austin H. Robbins, Harris 
Bronson, Edward S. Robbins, William 
Keen, J. Stoddard, and two others not 
remembered by our informant. 

* Turin may incidentally claim an earlier attempt at 
reform with regard to intemperance. At a town meet- 
ing held in 1821, it voted that no lictnse should be granted 
(unless the applicant should first produce a certificate of 
the town sealer, that his measures had ueen compared 
and found correct.) 



A town society was formed in Turin, 
July, 1827 ; in Lowville in February, 
1828; in West Ley den in January, 
1829; and in Martinsburgh in October, 
1830. Societies were also formed in 
Stow's Square, Leyden and Greig. The 
first temperance tavern in the State, so 
far as we are informed, was opened by 
Douglas Wright, of Denmark, in 18 17, 
and continued two years. The first 
merchants who discontinued the sale of 
liquors, were Fowler & Woolworth, of 
Turin, in April, 1829, and their trade 
fell off one-third in consequence. 

A county temperance society was 
formed at Martinsburgh, September 15, 
1828, and became auxiliary to the State 
temperance society, upon the formation 
of the latter. This county society in a 
few years fell into neglect.* The Wash- 
ingtonian temperance movement began 
in 1843. A society styled the Washing- 
ton Association of Lewis was formed 
July 15, 1843, and at the close of that 
year 5,000 members belonged to it in 
Lewis county. Anniversary meetings 
were held June 25, 1844, and July 8, 
1845, and the interest continued until the 
vote upon the license question, in 1846 
and 1847, divided pubhc sentiment. f A 
" Carson League " was formed at the 
county seat, July 13, 1854; capital 
$100,000, in shares of $5, of which 25 
cents were required to be paid. It is 
believed a few prosecutions were begun, 

* In 1830, there were ten town societies, and 677 
members ; in 1831, there were nine town societies, and 
1,237 members ; in 1832, there were thirteen town 
societies, and 2,118 members. 

t At the special election held in 1846, upon the ques- 
tion of "License" or "No License," the towns of 
Croghau, Diana, Greig, Leyden, Turin, Watson and 
West Turin gave majorities favoring licenses, and the 
rest against license, the total vote in the county being 
1.173 /<"■. and 1,348 against license-,. In 1847, the 
towns that voted for license were Lowville, Martins- 
burgh, Turin and West Turin. The town of Denmark 
still voted for «« /ueiise, and from the other towns we 
have no returns. The sum of votes /oj- license in the 
towns mentioned was 1,026, and that against was 701 
Viewed from this lapse of time, no one can look upon 
that phase of legislation upon the temperance question 
but as a failure. 

but a decision of the Court of Appeals 
terminated its existence. 

The Black River Annual Conference 
of the M. E. Church at Lowville, De- 
cember, 1826, voted to use its influence 
to prevent the use of ardent spirits in 
their society, and in 1832, passed strong 
resolutions, in which the use, manufac- 
ture or sale of liquors was declared 
strongly derogatory to Christian char- 
acter and a fit subject of discipline. 

Temperance lecturers through the 
country have been frequent ; among 
which were Rev. D. C. Axtel, in Octo- 
ber, 1829; Samuel Chipman in 1833, and 
in November, 1845 ; L. A. Crandall, in 
1839; Caleb Lyon, of Lyonsdale, in the 
spring of 1842; J. P. Coffin, in Decem- 
ber, 1842, and Thomas N. Johnson, in 
September, 1844. Since then, there has 
seldom a year passed without more or 
less being done in this fine, and in recent 
years a Sabbath temperance meeting has 
been held in Lowville village very regu- 
larly, at which persons from the various 
Protestant churches have attended, and 
their clergy have assisted. 

Various forms of associations tending 
to the promotion of temperance have 
been at different times under discussion, 
the general effect of which has been to 
lessen the extent of the evil in a very 
marked degree. We may add, that Uv- 
ing examples have always been and are 
now found, to which reference may be 
made, in showing the degradation and 
shame to which men of ability may re- 
duce themselves, by habitual drunken- 

In the discussion of the temperance 
question, the Hon. John O'Donnell, of 
Lowville, has acquired a general notori- 
ety throughout the State. Mrs. M. B. 
O'Donnell is also widely known in this 
country and abroad, as an able advocate 
of temperance reform. 

Sons of Temperance. — Eleven lodges of 
this order have existed in this county. 



all of which are extinct. They were 
formed between 1844 and 1850, the first 
at Copenhagen, and the last at Lowville, 
viz : — 

Copenhagen Lodge No. 45 ; Consta- 
bleville, No. 46; ColUnsville, No. 63; 
Port Leyden, No. 64; Cedar Grove 
(Deer River), No. 65 ; West Martins- 
burgh, No. 170; New Bremen, No. 206; 
Houseville, No. 217; Dayspring (Mar- 
tinsburgh). No. 218; Turin, No. 219; 
and Lowville, No. 267. Eight of these 
reported January, 1852, a total of 228 
contributing members. 

Daughters of Temperance. — A society 
of twelve members of this order, named 
" Hope of the Fallen Union," was organ- 
ized in Martinsburgh, January 9, 185 1, 
by Mrs. J. A. Granger, of Champion. 
It was of ephemeral duration. 

Good Templars. — This order was insti- 
tuted at Martinsburgh in June, and at 
Deer River in July, 1854, and at various 
places since. It had great popularity 
for a few years, and is still kept up in 
several places, but we beheve the inter- 
est which they excited has greatly de- 
chned. There are lodges at present in 
Belfort and Lowville. 

Hope, of Lowville. — There are also in 
Lowville, Juvenile Templars. 

Temple of Honor. — Copenhagen. 

Rechabites. — A tent at Constableville 
and one at Lowville, and we beheve at 
some other places. 

The Lewis County Anti-Slavery So- 

This society was formed August, 1835, 
auxiliary to the American Anti-Slavery 
Society,and re-organized Jan. 10, 1837, em- 
bracing at first members of both of the 
great political parties, and of all rehg- 
ious creeds. It was soon after merged in a 
political party which in 1846, numbered 5 
per cent, of all the votes cast for gover- 
nor. At no other election has their vote 
been so high. 

The party that grew out of this move- 
ment never numbered more than a dozen 
or so in any town in the county ; but 
they were steadfast in their faith, and 
kept up an organization until about 1848, 
when they joined with the " Free Soil 
Democrats," when the latter, in 1854, be- 
came merged with the " Republican 
Party " of the present day. They 
almost invariably gave their adherence 
to that party. 

The "Colonization" movement was 
scarcely recognized in this county as 
one that deserved support. One or two 
colored families in Denmark, however, 
emigrated to Africa, and we believe all 
soon perished from fever. 

Society for the Acquisition of Use- 
ful Knowledge. 

Under this name an association was 
formed in this county April 26, 1843, 
and continued till Sept. 2, 1848. It con- 
sisted at one time of about forty young 
men, mostly students, and was designed 
for mutual improvement by the reading 
of original papers, debates, &c. 

Among the proprietors of this concern 
were F. B. Hough, Jas. S. Bradish, Wal- 
ter D. Yale, Samuel W. Johnson, (now 
of Yale College,) N. B. Sylvester, and 
many more. The germs of ideas, then 
discussed, have in some instances ripened 
into fruit ; in other cases they left no 
trace. Nevertheless the intentions were 
commendable, and although of short 
duration, and little known, either then 
or since, it deserves a transient notice, 
as worthy of a place in memory. 

Masonic Associations. 

A Mark lodge was formed at Martins- 
burgh, about i8io,at the house of Adon- 
iram Foot, and afterwards removed to 



Denmark. It was merged in chapters 
about 1824. 

A Master's lodge was formed at a ver}' 
early day at the house of Jonathan Col- 
lins, in Turin. It was the first in the 

Jefferson Lodge, No. 64, was formed in 
the winter of i8o6-'o7, in Martinsburgh, 
with Chillus Doty, Master ; Wm. Derby- 
shire, S. W. ; Solomon Rathbone, J. W. 
It was removed to Lowville, and held for 
some time in the house of Ira Stephens, 
from whence it has returned to Martins- 
burgh. Before its removal it was held 
at the house of Chillus Doty and A. 
Foot, and after its return at the house of 
David Waters. Its charter was surren- 
dered June 3, 1 83 1. 

Orient Lodge was formed in Denmark 
about 1 8 10, with Jonathan Barker, M., 

Sueton Fairchild, S. W., and Van 

Vleck, J. W. A new charter was granted 
September 6, 1851, No. 238; and it has 
been removed from Denmark village to 

Lowville Lodge, No. 134, was chartered 
June 13, 1848, and has since been sus- 

Turin Lodge, No. 184, was chartered 
December 3, 1850. 

Port Ley den Lodge, No. 669. 

Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. — 
There is one Chapter in the county, lo- 
cated at Lowville, (No. 223). It was in- 
corporated in 1866, to enable it to hold 
real estate, as noticed in our account of 
that town. 

Odd Fellows' Lodges. 

In 1866, six lodges of the I. O. O. F., 
had been formed, and four then contin- 
ued in this county, as follows : — 

Lewis Lodge, No. 92. Constableville. 
Meetings Saturdays. 

Copenhagen Lodge, No. 190. Copenha- 
gen. Meetings Saturdays. 

Cynosure Lodge, "i^io. 215. Turin. (Char- 
ter surrendered). 

Adelphia Lodge, No. 308. Lowville. 
(Charter surrendered). 

Central Lodge, No. 367. Martinsburgh. 
(Charter surrendered). 

Juris Lodge, No. 417. Port Leyden, 
and afterwards near Lyons Falls, in 
Greig. (Charter surrendered). 

A few " Daughters of Rebekah " were 
admitted to the Juris Lodge, in 1853, or 
1854, but no others are, it is believed, re- 

The Lewis County Mutual Insur- 
ance Company. 

A company under this name was in- 
corporated February 27, 1837, and Ela 
Collins, Isaac W. Bostwick, Stephen 
Leonard, Andrew W. Doig, Jared House, 
Merrit M. Norton, John W. Martin, Car- 
los P. Scovil, Enoch Thompson, Isaac 
W. Bush, Asa L. Sheldon, Ashley Dav- 
enport, Abraham Miller, John Whittle- 
sey, and Ela Merriam, were appointed 
Directors. The Directors elected John 
Whittlesey President of the company, 
but the organization was never complet- 
ed, and no policies were issued. 

There was probably some difficulty in 
locating the office. There was no want 
of ability on the part of the officers des- 
ignated, and had there been a concerted 
effort there can now be seen no> reason 
why the project could not have succeeded 
unless perhaps in the opposition 
raised through the influenceof agents of 
other companies. At that period, the 
Mutual Insurance companies organized 
in Montgomery, Saratoga, Jefferson, St. 
Lawrence and other counties, were oper- 
ating largely throughout the county, and 
a large part of the buildings on farms and 
in villages were under this form of insur- 




The Newspaper Press — Popular 

THE Black River Gazette, the first 
newspaper printed north of the Mo- 
hawk valley within the State, was begun 
at Martinsburgh, March lo, 1807, by Jas. 
B. Robbins, and continued a year. It 
was Republican in poHtics, and chiefly 
under the patronage of General Martin. 
The press was then removed to Water- 
town and used in printing the first paper 
in Jefferson county. While at Martins- 
burgh, this paper was 19 by 21 inches in 
size, with four columns to the page, and 
the type was of the old style with the 
long " s." Ephraim Luce was post-rider. 

The Lewis County Sentinel was begun 
at Martinsburgh, October 12, 1824, by 
Charles Nichols, and pubHshed one year, 
at $2.00 by post or $1.75 if taken at the 
office. The size was 19 by 22 inches, 
four columns to the page. Neutral in 

The Martinsburgh Sentinel and Lewis 
County Advertiser, was first issued Octo- 
ber 13, 1829, by James Ketchum Averill. 
Terms $2.00 to village and mail sub- 
scribers, $1.75 if taken at the office, and 
$1.50 in clubs of ten or more. If not 
paid till the end of the year, $2.50. It 
was a small sheet, with five columns to 
the page, and ended in February, 1830. 
Democratic in politics. Mr. Averill was 
afterwards long connected ivith the 
press in the northeastern part of the 

The Lewis County Gazette was begun 
in Lowville, in the spring of 1821, by 
Lewis G. Hoffman, and was continued 
nearly two years, when its publisher re- 
moved to Black Rock. He afterwards 
resided in Waterford, and then in Al- 
bany, where he was for many years en- 
gaged in business as a real estate agent. 
This paper was 18 by 24 inches, with 

four columns to the page, and was issued 
weekly, at $2.50 per annum. In politics 
it was " Bucktail." 

The Black River Gazette was begun by 
William L. Easton, at Lowville, October 
19, 1825, and published until December 
I, 1830, by him, when Joseph M. Farr 
became publisher and continued it until 
1833. It began of the same size as the 
Lewis County Sentinel, upon the same 
press that had been used by that paper, 
but the second year was enlarged by 
one column to the page, and in the sec- 
ond volume, till No. 33, H. L. and W. L. 
Easton were associated. It was issued 
at $2.00 per annum, and professed to be 
impartial and independent in politics. 
The nominations of both parties were 
kept standing in its columns previous to 
elections, and it was open to discussion 
on any subject of public interest until 
1832, when it adopted the anti-masonic 
nominations, and advocated the election 
of William Wirt to the Presidency. Mr. 
Easton became a joint publisher again 
October 10, 1832, and continued such 
till the end. He afterwards became en- 
gaged in merchandise and banking, hav- 
ing given up the business of a printer 

The Lewis Democrat was begun by Le 
Grand Byington, March 25, 1834, and 
was published one year. It supported 
the Whig party, and advocated Seward's 
claims as candidate for Governor. Its 
size and terms were the same as that of 
the Black River Gazette, the press and 
type of which were employed upon this 
paper. Its editor subsequently 'figured 
in the Ohio Legislature, and afterwards 
resided in Iowa City. 

The Lewis County Republican was 
begun at Martinsburgh, by James 
Wheeler,* May 18, 1830, as the organ of 
the Democratic party in the county — 
the type and press being the same that 

* Mr. Wheeler removed to Meadville, Pa., and we 
believe died there. He was by trade a harness maker. 



had been used by Mr. Averill. On the 
1 2th of September, 1836, it was trans- 
ferred to Daniel S. Bailey, who con- 
tinued to publish it until united with 
the Northern Journal, January i, i860. 
It was issued from a wooden Ramage 
press, until Mr. Bailey procured a new 
iron press, and in January, 1853, a steam 
power press was procured. In the 
spring of 1845, it was removed to Low- 
ville, and a few years after returned to 
Martinsburgh. During the campaign 
of 1848, it supported the "Hunker" 
portion of the Democratic party ; in 
1852, it supported Pierce; and in 1854, 
it became Republican. Being thus 
brought upon the same political plat- 
form with the Northern Journal, the pro- 
prietor of the latter purchased Mr. 
Bailey's interest, and January 4th, the 
first number of the Journal and Repub- 
lican was issued. 

Few country newspapers have been 
conducted with more discretion and 
ability than this, during the long period 
it was in the hands of Mr. Bailey. We 
were indebted to the early files of this 
paper for many valuable facts in the first 
edition of this work. 

Mr. Bailey, after closing his connec- 
tion which he had so long sustained with 
this paper, removed to Warren, Pa., and 
afterwards to Ellington, Chautauqua 
county, N. Y., where he engaged in 
merchandise. He died there, January 
6, 1880, at the age of eighty years. His 
father, James Bailey, was among the 
'larly settlers upon Stow's Square, in 
Lowville, where he spent his early life, 
before his removal to Martinsburgh. 

The Lewis County Democrat, the first 
paper printed at Turin, was begun by 
Horace R. Lahe, September 22, 1846, 
with new type and press bought for its 
use, partly by the aid of a local subscrip- 
tion, but chiefly by Clement Whitaker, 
Homer Collins and Jonathan C. Collins, 
who advanced money with the agree- 

ment that Lahe should purchase at the 
end of a year. This was accordingly 

It supported the Radical or " Barn- 
burner " branch of the Democratic 
party, and in the campaign of 1848, was 
strongly Free Soil in politics. Terms, 
$1.50. In January, 1850, it was removed 
to Martinsburgh, where a few numbers 
only were published, and soon after to 
Boonville, where its press and material 
were afterwards used. Mr. Lahe was 
for some years a journe3'man printer at 
Lowville, where he raised a company 
for the 14th New York Volunteers. He 
served as captain in that regiment 
through the term of his engagement, 
and was afterwards employed several 
years in the Government printing office 
at Washington. 

The Lewis County Banner was begun 
at Lowville, September 8, 1856, as the 
organ of the Democratic party, and 
advocate of Buchanan for the Presi- 
dency. It was conducted the first year 
by N. B. Sylvester, subsequently by E. 
A. Teall and Almond Barnes, and begin- 
ning September i, 1858, by Henry 
Allgoever. The latter sold to DeWitt 
C. Finch, and on the i ith of April, 1867, 
it passed into the hands of Manville & 
Phelps, by whom it is now published. 

The Northern Journal, was commenced 
at Lowville, by Ambrose W. Clark,* from 
Otsego county, February 22, 1838, at 
$2.00 per annum. At the end of the 
eighth volume, 1846, Edwin R. Colston f 
became its publisher, and in November, 
1 847, the paper appeared under the name 
of C. W. Haven as editor. Jason C. 
Easton, became owner, March 9, 1848, 
and November 16, 1848, William Oland 
Bourne of New York followed as pub- 
lisher, until January i, 1850. After ap- 

* Afterwards publisher of the Notthetn New York 
Journal at Watertown, and Member of Congress. 

f Mr. Colston died in Brooklyn, October ii, 1857, 
aged 33 years. He was for several years a reporter for 
the New York Tribune after leaving Lowville. 



pearing a few months under the names 
of Wm. X. Ninde, printer, and V. R. 
Martin, editor, Mr. Easton resumed the 
paper and in the spring of 1853, became 
associated with Homer C. Hunt, under 
■the name of Easton & Hunt, and contmu- 
ed to the close of Volume XVI. Cordial 
Storrs, Jr., became proprietor December 
28, 1853, and having conducted the paper 
two years, was followed January 2, 1856, 
by Geo. W. Fowler. On the 27th of Oc- 
tober, 1858, Henry A. Phillips, became 
publisher. This paper was established 
as the organ of the Whig party in the 
county, and in 1854, it became Republi- 
can. It has uniformly supported the 
nominees of this party, except in 1858, 
when it substituted the name of Mr. 
Lyon for Congress as an independent 
candidate, in opposition to the nominee 
of the Republican party. Late in 1859, 
Mr. Phillips purchased the Lewis County 
Republican, and January 4, i860, the first 
two were issued under the title of 

The Journal and Republican, at Low- 
ville, Mr. Bailey remaining for a time 
associate editor. The paper was sold 
January i, 1864, to Smiley & Hazen, and 
upon the removal of the latter to Nebras- 
ka, the former became sole owner. In 
July, 1868, Smiley sold to Phillips, the 
former owner, and on the ist of January, 
1870, Smiley became again owner. He 
remained proprietor until his death, 
April 9, 1878,* and in May of that year, 
Phillips again purchased the paper, and 
has since published it. 

The Lowville Times was started as a 
new establishment by John O'Donnell, 
July 4, 1876, and was conducted by him 
fill the fall of 1882, when it passed into 
the hands of Warren R. Fitch, the pres- 
ent publisher. Soon after it began. The 
Farmers' Journal, from Carthage, was 
consolidated with it, and issued separate- 

* Amos V. Smiley died at St. Augustine, Florida. 
His remains were brought back to Lowville for inter- 

ly for afew months. It had been published 
at Carthage, as a Grange paper, until 
purchased by Mr. O'Donnell. He also 
at about the same time bought the 
Watchword at Ilion, and continued it 
about three years, when it was sold to 
Light & Rechard, of Utica. It has 
been since discontinued. In 1881, Mr. 
O'Donnell began a monthly periodical 
under the name of the Farmers' Work- 
man's Journal" (16 pages quarto in cov- 
ers,) which was made up chiefly of 
editorial articles from the Lowville Times, 
and had scarcely any local circulation, 
but was printed in large editions for 
the promotion of the interests which it 
professed to advocate. 

The Dollar Weekly, Northern Blade, was 
begun at Constableville, August, 1854, 
by Fairchild & Bealls. It was changed 
from small folio to quarto at the end of 
the first year, and Fairchild became sole 
publisher in July, 1855. The third vol- 
ume became folio. In February, 1856, 
Galusha P. Eames became publisher, 
and in September of that year, J. S. 
Kibbes' name appeared as editor. While 
in Eames' possession the paper was en- 
larged to 24 by 30 inches. 

On the 23d of April, 1857, William R. 
Merrill and Edwin R. Cook became 
publishers and changed its name to 

The News Register, and in the spring of 
1858, removed the office to Carthage and 
began the publication of the Carthage 

The Hawk Eye, a juvenile four page 
quarto sheet, supposed to have been 
printed at Lowville, appeared at Consta- 
bleville a few weeks in the fall of 1855. 
To oppose this 

The Young American was printed at the 
Blade office a few weeks. It was some- 
what larger, but scarcely more respecta- 
ble than its pigmy opponent. 

The Boys' Journal was begun at Mar- 
tinsburgh July, 1868, by the Mereness 
brothers, and continued as a monthly. 



but somewhat irregularly as to form, 
two or three years. 

The Copenhagen Independeiit was com- 
menced by Edgar D. Bates in the 
spring of 1880, (about May loth,) and in 
July, 1 88 1, it was changed to the Lewis 
County Independent, by which name it is 
now known. The present editor is 
Charles M. Redfield. 

The Port Leyden Register was begun 
July, 1867, by the Rev. James E. N. 
Backus, a Seventh-Day Baptist minis- 
ter. Upon his removal to DeRuyter, he 
was succeeded by A. T. Goodenough. 
After his removal it was continued for a 
time by Dexter Orvis, and finally discon- 

The Turin Gazette was commenced 
March 17, 1881, and is pubhshed weekly 
by John R. Beden ; edition 800 ; sub- 
scription price $1.50 a year. Neutral 
in politics. 

Popular Movements. 

To the student of local history there is 
nothing more common than to find at 
times a prevailing interest amounting 
to enthusiasm throughout the whole 
community upon subjects that at other 
times would be passed unnoticed. The 
poHtical excitements that periodically dis- 
turb the social system, are very apt to 
recur with greater energy at intervals 
of four years. The temperance move- 
ment, under its various forms, and other 
questions that have at different periods 
come up, had their fever-heat, and their 
decline. It is seldom that history has 
recorded such an energy of spirit as 
was displayed in the course of the late 
war, and especially in the early period, 
and in the crisis when everything seemed 
to hang upon uncertainties, and to de- 
mand promptness and vigor in meeting 
the emergencies that were upon us. 
Without specially noticing here the 
more obvious examples already pre- 

sented in our religious annals, we may 
speak of two or three popular movements 
which for a time absorbed the public in- 
terest to a most remarkable degree. 

The Greek Revolution was perhaps the 
most sentimental of these excitements ; 
it was, at least, one that in any possible 
event, would affect the material welfare 
of Americans in the slightest possible 
degree. But from whatever cause it 
may have been, a most remarkable inter- 
est was got up throughout the country, 
and in this our county shared in the 
prevailing movement. On the 20th of 
February, 1827, a meeting was held in 
Lowville village to adopt measures for 
aiding the Greeks, then struggling for 
independence and reported as famishing 
and destitute. This expression of sym- 
pathy was but a part of a general feeling 
which at that time prevailed through the 
country. The circular of the Albany 
executive committee was read, and a 
series of resolutions adopted, in which 
the people " once first in science, freedom, 
arts and arms " were declared entitled to 
aid as a Christian country struggling 
against Turkish tyranny. The clergy were 
invited to call attention to the subject 
from the pulpit, and town officers were 
urged to solicit donations on town meet- 
ing day. A central committee composed 
of Philo Rockwell and Edward Bancroft, 
of Martinsburgh, and Isaac W. Bostwick, 
David Perry and James H. Leonard, of 
Lowville, was appointed, and the follow- 
ing persons were requested to solicit 
gifts in clothing, grain or money, to be 
transmitted to the state committee at 
Albany, viz.: Dr. Sylvester Miller, 
chairman ; Orrin Wilbur, secretary ; Jo- 
seph A. Northrup, Stephen Leonard, Eli 
Collins, Palmer Townsend, Isaiah Bailey, 
Moses Waters, Truman Stephens, Wm. 
Shull, Constant Bosworth, John Steph- 
ens, Wm. Dingman, Chester Buck, Geo. 
D. Ruggles, Daniel T. Buck, Lemuel 
Wood, Benjamin Davenport, James 



Henry, Solomon King, Jr., Thomas 
Townsend, Benjamin Hillman, Eleazer 
Hill, Jacob Dimick, Melancton W. 
Welles, and Jared House. A spir- 
ited address was prepared and circula- 
ted, and in the first week $120 were 
raised. The ship Chancellor, which sailed 
from New York in the spring with sup- 
plies, arrived safely, and proved timely 
and serviceable to these people. These 
efforts continued to the spring of 1828, 
when a contribution of $170 in cash 
and clothing was sent from Lowville, 
and formed a part of the outfit of the 
brig Herald, which sailed about the close 
of May. A general county meeting was 
held at the courthouse in Martinsburgh 
in April, 1828, for the promotion of this 
object, and town committees were ap- 

The Discovery of Gold in California, in 
1848, presented quite a different motive, 
and the excitement which it occasioned 
was for a time sufficient to turn the 
heads of many persons who on ordi- 
nary occasions are usually able to look 
upon an enterprise in a spirit of reason. 
But here was gold, to be had for the 
trouble of picking it up, or of washing 
it out of the soil, — they could not all go, 
and so they proposed that those who 
staid at home should advance the moneys 
needed by those who went, and then the 
latter would " divide." As it was some- 
thing considerable in the way of enter- 
prise, associated effort might succeed 
where individuals might fail, and under 
this view, companies were formed in 
many parts of the country, consisting of 
two classes of members :— those who were 
to go, and those who were to provide the 
means. We may present The Lewis 
County Mining Association, and The Lewis 
County Mining Company as fair examples. 

The former, organized at Turin, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1849, consisted of fourteen 
members who were joined by others, 
but disbanded in a few days, and only a 

few went to California. The latter, 
formed at Lowville a few days after, was 
to have expired April i, 1851. Capital 
limited to 300 shares of $50, and affairs 
under seven directors, chosen annually. 
The persons going to dig gold, were to 
have expenses paid, except clothing, and 
were entitled to half the proceeds, the 
balance being divided among the stock- 
holders. The diggers were to act under 
a superintendent, and the articles of 
agreement required them to be honest, 
temperate, Sabbath-keeping and indus- 
trious. If sick, they were to be nursed, 
and if they died they were to be decently 
buried (if circumstances permitted.) The 
constitution and by-laws, as published in 
the Northern Journal, February 27, 1849, 
never went into effect, chiefly from the 
impossibilit)' of finding any men willing 
to go on the terms proposed, and the 
utter inability of the company to raise 
money for sending them. Notwith- 
standing an allusion to the ist day of 
April, there is no doubt but that the en- 
terprise began and ended in good faith. 
Perhaps fifty men from this county went 
to California for gold, nearly all of whom 
returned wiser but poorer. A few 
remained, and some died miserably in 
crossing the Plains, or on the route by 
way of the Isthmus. Among the early 
emigrants to the Land of Gold, was 
Caleb Lyon, of Lyonsdale, who while in 
California, was elected one of the secre- 
taries of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, and who afterwards lectured in 
various places, in terms of glowing eulo- 
gy, upon the wonderful resources of the 
Pacific coast. He exhibited a nugget of 
gold of great value, as evidence of the 
reality of what he professed to have seen, 
and doubtless persuaded many persons to 
risk their fortune in this enterprise. The 
risks and probabilities of this movement 
gradually came to be looked upon in the 
light of reason, and the excitement wore 



The Plank Road Fever. — The building 
of plank roads, which began in 1848, and 
lasted about five years, (although some 
were kept up for fifteen years or more,) 
must be mentioned as an enterprise car- 
ried beyond reason, and undertaken upon 
routes where it would be impossible to 
pay expenses from their earnings. Their 
stock was mostly owned by farmers along 
the road, and by small capitalists in the 
villages. In one sense they conferred a 
lasting benefit upon the country, in se- 
curing improved grades of the hills, as 
may be seen in several places along their 
former line in Martinsburgh, Lowville 
and Denmark. 

The Railroad Competition 0/ 1853-'55. — 
The active competition between rival 
lines of railroad, one from Rome to Og- 
densburgh and the other from Utica to 
Clayton, was a costly affair to all con- 
cerned, and at best sure to ruin one, while 
it would seriously weaken the other, if 
it did not destroy both. The details of 
these undertakings are given in their 
proper connection. 

The Patriot War. 

During the excitement throughout the 
Northern border, in i837,-'38,-'39, inci- 
dent to the " Patriot war," (so called,) in 
an attempt to invade Canada, ' Hunter 
Lodges " were organized in many of our 
villages ; funds were subscribed, and en- 
listments were made. 

Among the volunteers in this wild 
campaign, was Sylvanus S. Wright, a 
son of Tyrannus A. Wright, of Denmark, 
who was captured at the " Windmill," 
below Prescott, and sentenced to trans- 
portation for life to Van Dieman's land. 
When pardoned by the Queen he re- 
turned to his former home, and was wel- 
comed at Copenhagen with great parade. 
His narrative of three years' captivity, 
was written up by Caleb Lyon, of Lyons- 
dale ; but it having libelled Preston 

King, of Ogdensburgh, by statements 
shown to be false, (but doubtless made 
from misinformation rather than malice,) 
the author was compelled to suppress 
the pamphlet, and to widely publish an 
acknowledgment to Mr. King. 

In the organization of these Lodges, 
Charles Dayan and others, were very 
active. As viewed from this distance of 
time, the movement can scarcely be re- 
garded otherwise than as visionary and 
fanatical ; but at the time, it enlisted the 
sympathies of a vast number who were 
sincere and honest in their motives, and 
who verily believed themselves called 
upon to emancipate a people suffering 
from a despotism quite as oppressive as 
that which excited our own Revolution. 


State, Turnpike, and Plank Roads; 
Mail Routes. 

THE first road projected through this 
part of the State, was designed to ex- 
tend from the Little falls on the Mohawk 
to the High falls on Black river. The 
measure was urged upon the Legislature 
by Arthur Noble and Baron Steuben in 
1 79 1, and received a favorable report but 
no further action.* The first road act- 
ually opened in the county, was made at 
the expense of the Castorland Company 
and led from Rome to the High falls. 
It was cut out about 1798, by one Jordan, 
and was used several years, but as its 
course lay across the current of travel as 
it was soon after directed, it soon fell into 
disuse and not a mile of it is now in exis- 
tence. It is said that a branch from this 
road led to Whitesboro. The French 

* The petition of Steuben and Noble is given in our 
History of Jefferson county (1854), p. 307. The diver- 
sion of the Canadian fur trade to Albany, was urged as a 
prominent motive. In fact this was the only traffic that 
then existed, or that was then in prospect, in this region 
or beyond. 



also caused a road to be laid out and cut 
from their settlement at the falls to Beav- 
er river, but this could only be traced a 
few years afterwards by a line of second- 
growth trees through the forest, or the 
rude vestiges of its bridges, and even 
^hese have now all ceased to exist. It 
was nearly direct in its course, and ap- 
pears to have' been laid out rather with 
a view to shorten distance than to ac- 
commodate settlement along its course. 
It was cut by Major' Judah Barnes in 
1797-98, some fifteen men being em- 
ployed on the works. 

A bridle path run with a pocket com- 
pass, with very little reference to the 
most favorable location, was opened 
about the time of first settlement. It led 
from Collinsville to Tug Hill west of 
Turin village, and across the hill, down 
to the place first settled by Ezra Clapp, 
(one mile south of Houseville,) from 
thence northward along near the line of 
the State road, passing west of Martins- 
burgh village, and below Lowville, to 
Deer River and Champion. The idea of 
climbing a hill over five hundred feet 
high, and again descending to the same 
side,, when a level and nearer route 
might have been taken, is sufficiently ab- 
surd to one acquainted with the topog- 
raphy of this region, and affords a strik- 
ing proof of the ignorance of the sur- 
veyor. Along this path known as " Dus- 
tin's track," the first settlers toiled their 
weary way on foot or on horseback (for 
it was not passable for teams,) until a 
more favorable route was discovered and 

The first routes through the county 
were surveyed and chiefly cut out at 
the expense of the land proprietors, but 
the principal cost of constructioYi was 
borne by the settlers along their route. 
One of the earUest of these in the north 
part of the county, was that leading from 
the village of Lowville through Copen- 
hagen to Rutland, or township 3, and on 

this account still named the " Number 
Three Road." It was surveyed by Jo- 
seph Crary, before 1800, and cut through 
about 1802 or 1803. The East road in 
Lowville and Denmark is a little older, 
and has scarcely been changed from its 
location in advance of settlement. 
"Through Denmark it was in early days the " Base Line Road," from its 
running along the line from which off- 
setts were made in surveying the lands 
adjacent to the river. 

Nathaniel Shaler, in 1797, caused a 
road to be cut from Constableville south- 
ward to Rome. It meandered along the 
valleys not far from the present route, 
but in no place for any considerable dis- 
tance on the same line. He established 
a family named Jones at the half-way 
point in the present town of Ava, Oneida 
county. He also opened a road in the 
western part of Turin, which did not 
settle through, and is now wholly grown 
up. Both of these rcjutes were known 
in their day as the " Shaler roads." 

The first State patronage for roads in 
this county, was obtained in an act of 
March 26, 1803, by which the sum of 
$41,500 was to be raised by a lottery, for 
public roads, chiefly in the Black River 
country. The drawings of this lottery 
began June 12, 1807, and continued over 
a month. The largest prize (No. 26,435) 
of $25,000 was drawn by Robert Benson 
first clerk of the New York State Sen- 
ate. It was the last ticket that was sold. 
The Governor and Council of Appoint- 
ment were directed to appoint three 
Commissioners to lay out and improve 
a road from within two miles of Preston's 
tavern, in Steuben, to within three miles 
of the High falls on Black river, and 
thence through Turin, Lowville, Cham- 
pion, etc., to Brownville, to intersect 
another road ordered in the same act to 
be built from Rome through Redfield. 
Walter Martin, Silas Stow and Jacob 
Brown were appointed Commissioners 



for constructing this road, but subse- 
quently Stow was succeeded by Peter 
Schuyler, and Brown was succeeded by 
Nathaniel Merriam, February 5, 1820. 
The location through Lewis county was 
made by Stow and Martin, and an ac- 
tive rivalry was excited, especially in 
Turin, between settlers who had located 
on different routes. The East road 
through that town was already opened 
and traveled as far north as a mile be- 
yond Eleazer House's location, (east of 
Houseville) and the farms on its route 
were all taken up by actual settlers. The 
road nearer the hill through Houseville 
had been laid out, but led through 
swamps difficult to pass, but the interests 
of Ezra Clapp, a sub-agent, and incident- 
ally those of one or two of the Commis- 
sioners, lay in that direction. Profess- 
ing no concern but for the greatest good 
to the greatest number, the offer was 
made that the route should be given to 
the parties who would subscribe the 
greatest amount of free labor. Upon 
comparing, it is said that notwithstand- 
ing five hundred days signed by Clapp 
for Shaler, the East road outnumbered 
the West. The latter was however 

Although deprived of their object, the 
disappointed party resolved to connect 
their road with the East road in Low- 
ville, and by the utmost effort, finished 
in the summer of 1803, a branch five or 
six miles long, and from a quarter to half 
a mile east of the State road, connecting 
the two East roads. It was never much 
traveled, and soon fell into ruin. This 
route was known as the " Oswegatchie 
road," as it formed a continuation of the 
road from the Long Falls (Carthage) to 
the Oswegatchie at Ogdensburgh. 

The cost of the State Road is said to 
have been about $30,000 to the State, and 
its Commissioners were continued about 
twenty years. In 18 14, they were author- 
ized to change the southern location. 

An act passed Feb. 25, 1805, appointed 
Commissioners living in Oneida county 
to lay out a road from Whitesboro, 
through to intersect the State road 
at Turin.* The road was surveyed by 
John Hammond, but its proposed loca- 
tion gave much dissatisfaction in Turin. 
In 1807, fruitless efforts were made to 
procure aid by a lottery to construct 
a road from Whitestown to Turin. 

A road from Turin to Emilyville, or 
township 15, Great Tract No. i of Ma- 
comb's purchase, St. Lawrence county, 
was authorized April 15, 1814, and James 
T. Watson,t Robert McDowell and Levi 
Collins were appointed to locate and con- 
struct it at the expense of adjacent lands. 
This act was kept alive about thirty 
years, and a road was cut through from 
Independence creek to the old Albany 
road. By a constrained but perhaps 
justifiable interpretation of the law, a 
portion of the money was finally applied 
upon collateral and tributary roads upon 
which settlement was progressing and the 
labor on the northern end of this route 
was lost, as it still lies partly in the forest, 
and has never been traveled. 

A State road from Lowville to Hen- 
derson Harbor was authorized April 17, 
1816, and Robert McDowell, of Lowville, 
Eber Lucas, of Pinckney, and Abel Cole, 
of Rodman, were appointed to lay it out. 
The route was surveyed, and the map 
filed in the clerk's office May 2, 181 8. 
It was located chiefly upon roads previ- 
ously laid out, and the expense of its 
improvement was assessed upon adja- 
cent wild lands. In 1820, David Canfield 
of Denmark, Tyrannus A. Wright of 
Pinckney, and Sanford Safford, of Har- 
risburgh, were appointed commissioners 
for completing the road. It runs from 

* Henry McNeil, George Doolittle and Bill Smith, 
were appointed Commissioners under this act. See As- 
sembly youmal, 1805, p 50. 

f Patrick S. Stewart was appointed a Commissionerof 
this road, in the spring of 1840, in place of Watson, de- 



the stone church in Lowville, nearly 
parallel with the south Unes of Low- 
ville, Harrisburgh and Pinckney, into 
Jefferson county, and is the present di- 
rect road from Lowville to Barnes' 

About 1824, a road was cut out from 
the Black river in Watson, northeast- 
ward to the St. Lawrence turnpike. It 
was wholly built by Watson and Le Ray, 
and long bore the name of the " Erie 
Canal Road." 

A road from Cedar Point on Lake 
Champlain to the Black river was author- 
ized April 21, 1828, and the Commis- 
sioners emerged from the forest on a 
preliminary survey on the last day of 
August of that year, but only the eastern 
end was opened. 

A road from the West road on the 
north line of Lowville towards Denmark 
village, was laid out under an act of Feb. 
19, 1829, by Pardon Lanpher, Harvey 
Stephens and Homer Collins. It was in- 
tended to avoid the hills on the State 
road, and is now one of the public 
highways in that part of the county. 

A road was opened under an act of 
April 9, 183 1, by Peter Mann and Silas 
Salisbury, from one mile east of Watson 
bridge north to the Lower falls on Beaver 
river, and the then north line of Watson. 

By act of April 14, 1841, David Judd, of 
Essex, Nelson J. Beach of Lewis and Na- 
than Ingersol of Jefferson county, were 
appointed to construct a road from Car- 
thage through township 4, of Brown's 
tract, to Lake Champlain in Moriah or 
Crown Point, the expenses to be de- 
frayed by a tax on the non-resident lands 
to be benefitted. The road was surveyed 
in the summer of 1841, and opened during 
the next half dozen years so as to be pass- 
able by teams, but was scarcely ever 
traveled beyond the actual settlements, 
and soon fell into disuse. 

Several acts have been passed concern- 
ing this road, among which was one in 

1843, releasing from the tax, certain lands 
in Denmark and Lowville which came 
within the limits first defined by law. 

A road from Port Leyden to the " old 
forge " on township 7 of Brown's tract, 
Herkimer county, and another from the 
residence of Hezekiah Abbey to inter- 
sect this, were authorized June 8, 1853, 
to be constructed under the direction of 
Lyman R. Lyon and Francis Seger, by 
the aid of highway taxes upon unsettled 
lands adjacent. 

Under an act passed April 2, 1859, Sey- 
mour Green and Diodate Pease were ap- 
pointed to lay out and open a road from 
the northern settlements of Osceola 
through to some road already opened 
in Martinsburgh, and granted most of 
the non-resident highway taxes upon the 
lands of the towns through which it 
passed, for a period of five years for its 
construction. Surveys were made, but 
the road was never finished. 

The foregoing Hst embraces, with an 
exception to be noticed, all the roads lo- 
cated within this county by virtue of 
special acts of the Legislature, except- 
ing turnpikes, of which, more have been 
projected than built, and of which the 
last rod has long since been merged in 
common roads. 


These internal improvements were in 
their day regarded as great public enter- 
prises, and in fact did much to give an 
impulse to the growth of important 
points along their line, and of the coun- 
try that they supplied. They were al- 
ways stock companies, and their route, 
mode of construction, rates of toll, and 
other details concerning them were pre- 
scribed by special acts. It was usual to 
fix a limit to their continuance, and at 
the end of the period they were to revert 
to the pubhc. 

As the common highways became im- 
proved, it was no uncommon thing for 



those who were obliged to use them, to 
complain of the burden which the tolls 
' occasioned, and as a matter of fact, 
the greater part were abandoned to 
the public long before their franchises 

In our first edition of the County His- 
tory, many details were given concern- 
ing these roads — but as they have all 
ceased to exist in the county, they may 
be regarded as belonging altogether to 
the past. We will therefore here only 
mention them briefly by name and 
route, referring to the former edition for 
whatever else the reader may desire to 
learn concerning them. 

Mohawk and Black River Turnpike 
Company, authorized April 5, 18 10. Rome 
to Turin. Not organized. 

St. Lawrence Turnpike Company, April 
5, 1 8 10. Across Diana, no settlements 
formed, and in 1829 charter repealed. 
Surveyed in 1812 by Benj. Wright and 
C. C. Brodhead, opened but scarcely 
ever much used until abandoned. [See 
our History of St. Lawrence and Frank- 
lin counties (1853) for details.] 

Black River and Sacketfs Harbor Turn- 
pike, March 30, 181 1. Lowville to Copen- 
hagen and Watertown. Not made. 

Lewis Turnpike Company, April 8, 181 1. 
Steuben to Martinsburgh and Lowville. 
Nothing done. 

Boonville Turnpike. Extended a mile 
and a half into Lewis county. Changed 
to a plank road. 

Turin and Leyden Turnpike, March 26, 
1 8 19. From near the county line to the 
State road, one mile north of Turin. 
Finished but no gates erected. After- 
wards a plank road. 

Canal Turnpike, February 28, 1823. 
Capital $15,000. From Stokesville in 
Lee, to Olmsted Creek in Turin. In 
1826, the south end extended to Rome, 
and the north end to the site of old St. 
Paul's church in West Turin. Used 
many years, and changed to the plank 

road passing through Constableville and 
West Leyden to Rome. 

In 1 842, the plan of a macadamized road 
was discussed, but nothing was done in 
the way of improvement till the period 
of plank road construction, which began 
in 1847. 

Plank Roads. 

Of these, nine were incorporated un- 
der the general law, with a total length 
of seventy-eight miles. They all belong 
to the past. 

Rome and Turin Plank Road. Rome to 
Turin, mostly on the line of Canal Turn- 
pike. Articles filed December 24, 1847. 
Capital $45,000. Cost $50,000. Aban- 
doned January 18, 1855. 

Tnrin Plank Road. Through the town 
of Turin on the line of the State road, 
December 27, 1847. Capital $8,000. 

West Martinsburgh and Copenhagen 
Plank Road, February 17, 1848. Capital 
$25,000. From the Turin plank road to 
Copenhagen, on the line of the " West 
road." Abandoned about 1858. 

West Turin and Leyden Plank Road, 
October 23, 1848. Capital $6,000. On 
line of Turin and Leyden turnpike, 
(so called.) Abandoned March 3, 1856. 

Loivville and Carthage Plank Road, 
November 8, 1848. Capital $22,000. Cost 
$26,000. From south line of Martins- 
burgh through Lowville and Denmark 
to Deer River and Carthage. Abandon- 
ed May 5, 1859. 

Boonville Plank Road, on State road 
from Black River House, Boonville to 
south line of Turin, November 8, 1848. 
Capital $30,000. Abandoned November 
27, 1869. 

Martinsburgh Plank Road Company, 
December 13, 1848. Capital $7,000. 
Through the town on State road. 
Abandoned March 8, 1865. 

Great Bend and Copenhagen Plank Road, 
December 4, 1848. Capital $13,000. 



About three miles in this county. 
Abandoned about 1858. 

A plank road from the Carthage and 
Antwerp road near the old Lewis Tavern 
place to Sterling Bush was the last one 
of these roads. It was made chiefly to 
lacilitate the drawing of ore to the fur- 
nace at the latter place. These roads were 
laid eight feet wide with hemlock plank, 
three inches thick. They were generally 
laid on the side or the center of the high- 
way, so that teams going south retained 
the plank in meeting other teams. Their 
durability was greatly less than previous 
estimates, and their receipts generally be- 
low cost. 

Mail Routes. 

The first route through the valley was 
established January 19, 1804. Daniel 
Gould is said to have been the first car- 
rier. He was succeeded by Reuben 
Chase soon after, who began in 1804, and 
performed one trip each week from Utica 
to Brownville. Mr. Barnabas Dickinson 
of Denmark, was the next mail carrier, 
and by him a two-horse carriage was 
first placed upon the route for the accom- 
modation of travelers. About 18 12, or 
1 8 14, Parker & Co. ran a line of stages. 
Other parties were afterwards engaged 
in this service, and in January, 1824, E. 
Backus and Ela Merriam, with N. W. 
Kiniston and John McElwaine, com- 
menced carrying the mail, and with the 
exception of fotir years, Mr. Merriam had 
continued in the business till the time of 
publication of our former edition of the 
History of Lewis county. It had been 
carried daily except on Sunday during 
36 years, and until 1848 to '50 over as 
muddy a road as could be found in the 
State. In our former edition we re- 
marked : " The spirited and sacrificing 
efforts of Mr. Merriam, in calling public 
attention to plank roads and other im- 
provements, and in their construction 
and maintenance, entitle him to the last- 

ing gratitude of the citizens of Lewis 
county. Without his exertions the only 
existing plank road southward from Low- 
ville would ere this have been abandoned, 
and the travehng public left to plod their 
weary way over the original mud road." 
The perils threatened from the discon- 
tinuance of plank roads have since 
been realized, and the country has 
survived the loss. In fact they were 
very good while new, and had they been 
introduced earlier, they would have been 
vastly more useful. But the opening of 
the railroads have taken off the business 
of both staging and teaming over the 
historical routes " from Utica to Sackett's 
Harbor," and " from Turin to Rome," 
and these roads now relieved from heavy 
traffic, consolidated by age, and im- 
proved every year more and more by 
highway labor, have an excellence that 
is worthy of all praise. The Turin 
plank road finally fell into the hands of 
C. G. Riggs and Paul B. Yale, and was 
kept in repair and under toll, until its 
unoccupied toll-house was burned one 
night, soon alter the stage passed 
through it. A passenger was heard to re- 
mark some days afterwards, that " he 
looked back when the stage had got half 
a mile beyond, and he saw no fire," 
Query: Why did he look back, — and 
what did he expect to see ? 

The shortest trip from Utica to Sack- 
ett's Harbor ever made over this route 
by stages, was on Thursday, February 
19, 1829. The trip was made in nine 
hours, 45 minutes, and the mail was 
changed at every office. The stops 
amounted to 39 minutes, distance 93 
miles, snow 2^ feet deep. Mr. Merriam 
was at various times concerned in stage 
routes from Denmark to Ogdensburgh, 
from Rome to Sackett's Harbor, through 
Redfield, from Oneida to Turin, from 
Rome to Turin and Denmark, from 
Rome by Copenhagen to Watertown, 
and from Rome by Western to Boon- 



ville. The last of this stage business 
was on the line from Boonville to Low- 
ville in company with Moses M. Smith, 
then of Lowville. As we have had occa- 
sion to mention the name of Mr. Smith, 
we cannot pass without paying a tribute 
to this energetic, impulsive and " whole- 
souled " man. He was born in the Mo- 
hawk valley, and came into the county 
not far from 1832. He settled for a time 
as a tailor in West Martinsburgh, and 
some of our older readers may remember 
the doggerel rhymes of his advertise- 
ments in " Bailey's Paper " of a little 
later date. He engaged in merchandise 
and various kinds of business at Martins- 
burgh and Lowville and for a time had 
an interest in a canal forwarding line, 
and a warehouse at " Smith's Landing " 
on the road towards Dayanville. He 
held the office of County Treasurer ; was 
active in promoting enlistments for the 
war, and finally moved to Rochester, 
and entered into business as a druggist. 
He was elected a member of the Com- 
mon Council, of that city, and died there 
October 3, 1871, of cancer of the stom- 
ach, aged 58 years. His brother Daniel 
A. Smith, a well-known 'clothing mer- 
chant, for some years in Lowville, re- 
moved to Watertown, and died there 
May 15, 1873, aged 53 years. 


Railroad Projects. 

THE Black River Company, incorpo- 
rated in 1832, was empowered to 
construct a route by canal or railroad, 
from the Erie canal at Rome or Her- 
kimer, to Ogdensburgh, but accomplish- 
ed nothing beyond a partial survey.* In 
December, 1852, the plan of a railroad 
through the Black River valley was dis- 

* For details, see History of Jefferson county, (1854) 
page 338. 

cussed, and a call for a meeting signed 
bj thirty-four citizens, and published 
in the Northern Journal, in January, 
1853, led to a favorable response, and 
the appointment of a committee consist- 
ing of five persons in each county in- 
terested, for collecting statistics. A 
meeting was appointed at Theresa, on 
the 20th, and another at Boonville, on 
the 26th of the same month. On the 
27th, articles of association were drawn 
up forming the Black River Railroad 
Company, with $1,200,000 capital for 
building a railroad from Herkimer, or 
Mohawk village, to Clayton, on the 
St. Lawrence. Of the proposed di- 
rectors, Ela Merriam, Seth Miller, Moses 
M. Smith, William L. Easton, and John 
Benedict, resided in Lewis county. 

This movement excited immediately 
an active rivalry between Utica and 
Rome, and on the 29th of January, 1853, 
the Black River & Utica Railroad 
Company wasiormed, and the articles 
filed two days after, in the Secretary's 
office. The capital was $1,000,000, (in- 
creased one-half September 26, 1853,) 
and the Directors were T. S. Faxton, 
Spencer Kellogg, John Butterfield, Mar- 
tin Hart, Alfred Churchill, James V. P. 
Gardiner, Benjamin F. Ray, James S. 
Lynch, William H. Ferry, Hugh 
Crocker, Harvey Barnard, Jonathan R. 
Warner, and John D. Leland ; all of 
Utica, excepting Leland, who resided in 
Deerfield. They proposed to build a 
road by way of Boonville and Carthage 
to Clayton. Daniel C. Jenne, was at 
once employed to begin surveys in the 
midst of winter, and energetic efforts 
were made to secure subscriptions to 
the stock. 

The citizens of Rome lost no time in 
raising means for a preliminary survey, 
under Octave Blanc, and on the 8th of 
March, at a meeting held at Lowville, 
the claims of the three rival routes south 
of Boonville were presented and urged, 



and a committee of three to each town 
on the line from Boonville to the St. 
Lawrence, was appomted to examine 
the subject, and to decide as to which of 
the three routes had the strongest claims 
to patronage. This committee was un- 
able to agree, and appointed a sub-com- 
mittee of eight, to visit the several 
places proposed for junction with the 
New York Central Railroad, and report 
at an adjourned meeting at Carthage, on 
the 22d inst. The Lowville meeting 
continued two days, and an intense ac- 
tivity was shown by the rival parties in 
securing a favorable decision. At the 
Carthage meeting a rule was adopted, 
that two-thirds majority should decide 
upon the southern terminus. After two 
days' discussion it was found impossible 
to obtain the requisite vote, and the 
committee was discharged. 

The Ogdensburgh, Clayton & Rome 
Railroad Company was formed February 
19, 1853, with $2,000,000 capital. Its direc- 
tors were Henry A.Foster, John Stryker, 
Edward Huntington, and Alexander 
Mudge, of Rome ; Elijah B. Allen and 
Henry VanRensselaer, of Ogdensburgh ; 
Augustus Chapman, of Morristown ; 
William L. Easton, of Lowville ; Seth 
Miller, of West Turin ; Alanson H. 
Barnes, of Martinsburgh ; Sidney Syl- 
vester, of Denmark; Samuel J. Davis, of 
Wilna ; and Jason Clark, of Plessis.* 

The Herkimer location having been 
abandoned, the Utica and Rome Rail- 
road projects were pressed with enthu- 
siasm by their respective friends. Acts 
were procured allowing the corporations 
of Utica, Rome, and Ogdensburgh, to 
subscribe to the stock. Subscriptions 
were urged, surveys completed, and 
right of way purchased or solicited as 
a donation. 

Work was begun on the Black 

* Extended details of the origin of these companies, 
will be found in the History of Jefferson county, (1854) 
page 339. 

River & Utica Railroad, at Utica, with 
commemorative ceremonies, August 
27th, and at Lowville, October 27, 
1853. Speeches were made, in which 
many pleasant things were said of Lewis 
county, and cheerful hopes expressed 
that the road thus begun would, before 
many months, be finished. The road 
was put under contract August loth, 
with Farewell Case, Lund & Co., who in 
October, 1853, sub-let a part extending 
from the north end of Lowville village, 
to south of Martin's creek, in Martins- 
burgh, to Solomon Phelps, Chester Ray, 
and Albert Buel. 

Large quantities of ties were got out, 
the masonry of bridges was built in a 
substantial manner, the road was exten- 
sively graded, and costly excavations in 
rock and earth were begun, and in some 
places completed. The road was opened 
to Boonville, December 15, 1855, and. has 
since been in regular operation to -that 
place, changing entirely the business con- 
nection between Lewis county and 
Rome, and diverting nearly all the travel 
and business of the Black River valley 
from Denmark southward to Utica. A 
large amount of work was done on this 
route north of Boonville, chiefly in grad- 
ing and the masonry of bridges. 

Work was begun on the Ogdensburgh, 
Clayton & Rome Railroad, at Rome, 
November ioth,andat Carthage, Novem- 
ber 23, 1853. Sections 6, 7 and 9 were 
awarded November 7, 1853, to Clapp 
& Allen of Lewis county, and Archi- 
bald McVickar & Co., of New Jersey. 
Sections 10, i i,and 12 in Lewis, to Beebe, 
Williams & Co., of Onondaga. Much of 
the right of way was secured and fenced, 
a large amount of grading was done, but 
no part of the road was ever completed, 
and five years after the date of organiza- 
tion the project was hopelessly and com- 
pletely abandoned. The land granted 
for the use of the road was re-conveyed, 
and the shareholders, exasperated by re- 



peated calls for installments to pay large 
salaries of officers and unavailing ex- 
penses, were doubtless greatly relieved 
when finally free from further liabilities 
arising from this reckless adventure. 
The proposition for two railroads, side 
by side, and seldom a mile apart, running 
through the whole length of the county, 
both leading to the same markets and 
supplying the same wants, was sufifii- 
ciently absurd. There was no doubt, but 
that the business of the county would 
render the construction of one railroad 
through it a safe and prudent investment, 
and ensure it permanent and remunera- 
tive support. The wealth of its forests, 
the extent of its water-power, and the 
capacity of its soil, were subjects of too 
much importance to lie long neglected, 
and the construction of a railroad was 
only a question of time. In the mean- 
while, the county must wait until the 
losses in the late controversy were in 
some degree repaired; they were of too 
serious extent to be soon forgotten. The 
company first formed, changed owners 
by a sale and transfer, in which the origi- 
nal stockholders and owners of its bonds, 
excepting as they came in under the new 
organization were heavy losers. 

Re-organization and Completion of the 
Railroad from Utica. — On the 31st of 
March, i860, the Utica & Black River 
Railroad Company was formed, upon 
the sale under foreclosure of the " Black 
River & Utica Railroad Company," 
and projects for its extension through 
to the St. Lawrence, began to be dis- 
cussed, when the war came on the next 
year, absorbing every other interest in 
the mighty issues that it presented. 

After this war was fairly ended, the 
measure was revived, and an active in- 
terest was felt in extending the road from 
Boonville northward, so as to pass the 
villages along the limestone terraces be- 
low the plateau region of Tug Hill. 
But the necessity of descending to the 

river valley, in order to secure connec- 
tions northward, finally led to its loca- 
tion near the river, and rendered im- 
portant changes necessary at Boonville. 
The railroad was extended to Lyons 
Falls, in December, 1867, and to Low- 
ville, in October, 1868. That village re- 
mained the terminus until 1871, when it 
was extended. to Carthage. It was com- 
pleted to Philadelphia, in 1873, and by 
leasing connecting lines, and completing 
certain portions, it was extended through 
Watertown to Sackett's Harbor, in Oc- 
tober, 1874, and to Ogdensburgh, Octo- 
ber I, 1878. The details of history con- 
cernmg these rented roads, are briefly as 
follows : — 

Black River and Morristown Railroad 
— Philadelphia to Morristown, 36.60 
miles; total track, 38.85 miles. Char- 
tered March 22, 1870; opened Novem- 
ber 24, 1875. Rental 37 1-2 per cent, of 
gross earnings, and not less than 7 per 
cent, on bonds issued for construction ; 
capital, $327,462.96; funded debt, first 
mortgage, 7 per cent, bonds, ($500,000; 
$495,900; floating debt, $3,900.00; total 
liabilities, $827,262.96 — per contra, cost, 
etc., $681,298.94. 

Clayton and Theresa Railroad. — Clay- 
ton to Theresa Junction, 15.86 miles; 
total track, 16.81 miles. Chartered Feb- 
ruary 7, 1871 ; opened May 10, 1873 ; 
annual rental, $14,000 ; capital, $203,570 ; 
funded debt, first mortgage, 7 per cent., 
$200,000 ; floating debt, $29,437.72 ; total 
liabilities, $433,007.72— per contra, cost, 
etc., $323,389.38. Due lessees, $70,980; 
profit and loss, $38,658.34. 

Carthage, Watertown and Sacketfs 
Harbor Railroad Company. — Carthage to 
Sackett's Harbor, 30 miles ; total track 
31 miles. Organized February 5, 1869; 
opened in 1874; rental, 37 1-2 percent, 
of gross earnings, or enough to pay in- 
terest on bonds; capital, $486,953.00; 
funded debt, first mortgage, 20 years, 
7 per cent, bonds on road from Carthage 



to Watertown, rolling stock, etc., $150,- 
000 ; 7 per cent, bonds first mortgage on 
road from Watertown to Sackett's Har- 
bor, and second mortgage on road from 
Carthage to Watertown, dated Sep- 
tember 16, 1873, due October i, 1893, 
$150,000.00; total, $786,953.00 — per con- 
tra, cost of road, etc., $783,683.26. 

Ogdensburgh & Morristown Railroad. 
— Morristown to Ogdensburgh, 10.67 
miles; total track, 11.42 miles. Char- 
tered September 11, 1877; built by the 
Utica & Black River Railroad Com- 
pany, in 1878 ; capital, $11 1,800.00 ; float- 
ing debt, advances by lessees, $4,121.27 ; 
total liabilities and cost of road, $115,- 
921.27. This road is virtually owned by 
the lessees. 

General Balance Sheet, September 
30, 1881. 

Road and Equipments, 

($32,276.42 per mile) $2,878,702.66 

Stocks and Bonds 183,100.00 

Advance, etc., to Branch 

Lines 128,266.50 

Sundry Dues 7>753-23 

Cash on hand 62,100.20 

Total Assets. . $3,259,922.59 

Capital Stock $1,772,000.00 

Funded Debt 1,112,000.00 

Isaac Maynard, Treasurer. 50,000.00 

Construction Coupons, etc. 5.645-SO 

Surplus Fund 320,277.09 

Total Liabilities. . . $3,259,922.59 

The town of Martinsburgh was bonded 
$30,ooo,and the town of Lowville $100,000 
to aid in the construction of this road, 
as mentioned more fully in our history 
of these towns. There was much bond- 
ing to aid this and connecting roads in 
Jefferson county, which we cannot here 
notice in detail. 

By an act passed April 17, 1866, the 
towns of Greig, Watson, New Bremen, 
and Croghan were empowered to take 
stock in the Utica & Black River Rail- 
road Company. A project was then un- 
der discussion for running the road on 
the east side of the river from Beach's 
Landing to Carthage; but the weight of 
influence in favor of Lowville, neutralized 
this effort, and neither of the towns gave 
their bonds in aid of the road. 

The entire road as now owned or 
leased and operated by this Company, is 
as follows : — 

Line of road properly owned by the 
Company, from Utica to Philadel- 
phia, 87.00 Miles. 

Leased Lines. 

Black River & Morris- 
town R. R 36.60 

Ogdensburgh & Morris- 
town R. R 10.67 

Carthage, Watertown & 

Sackett's Harbor R. R. . 30.00 

Clayton & Theresa R. R. 15.86 " 

General total 180.13 Miles. 

Statement of Operations for Eight Years. 

Miles of Railroad 

Train Miles 

Passengers Carried 

Passengers Miles 

Freight (tons) Moved 

Freight (ton) Miles 

Qroas Earnings • ■ • 

Transportation Expenses... 

Net Earnings 

Other Eeoeipts 

Available Revenues 

Lease Rentals . .. 

Conponsand Interest . 

Dividends ... 

Balance „., 

Gross Earnings per Mile. ... . . 

Gross Expenditures per Mile. 

Net Earnings per Mile 

Expenses to Earnings 


$ 470,954 
1,784 18 
1,704 36 
51.14 per Ct 








% 484,856 

2.') 1,661 I 


18,658 ! 


39.248 ; 

76.475 1 


+29,981 , 

3,276 05| 


$ 481,673 
I 287,372 
I 194,301 
! 9,898 

' .')H,)93 
1 77.490 
, —36,033 






i;700 4ll 1,690.42 

1,675.64 1.143.29, 

51.81 per Ctl59.65 per Ct 51.07 per Ct,47.19 per Ct 

8 45.3,576 
1,362 45 

; 453,145 
+40,727 ' 

1 614.06 
61.81 per Ct 

1880 I 





5 836,600 



S 690,760 

274.989 ] 


14,.i51 \ 

330,322 ' 

70,219 I 



♦ 107,931 ' 




5 693.170 

46.65 per Ct,64.04 per Ct 



It is a single tract road, with 21.72 
miles of siding on main line and 
branches ; gauge 4 feet, 8 1-2 inches, 
connecting with all the roads that meet 
or cross it, without change of gauge, 
and its rails weigh 56 to 60 pounds to 
the yard. In Poor's Railroad Manual, 
1882, it is reported that 34 miles of the 
track have steel rails. The same author- 
ity reports it as having 22 locomotives, 
23 passenger cars, 10 baggage and mail 
cars, 277 freight cars, and three service 

Other Railroad Projects. 

Although the Utica & Black River 
Railroad Company, is the only one that 
has yet been constructed, there are some 
others that have made themselves a place 
in the history of the county, and deserve 
a passing notice. 

The Sackett's Harbor & Saratoga Rail- 
road Company, was incorporated by an 
act of April 10, 1848, which granted 
250,000 acres of the State lands, upon 
conditions which have since been so far 
complied with, that the lands have been 
conveyed to the company. The pre- 
liminary arrangements were completed 
and the company duly organized Janua- 
ry 10, 1852. On the 8th of April, 1852, 
the ceremony of breaking ground near 
Dayanville was performed by Caleb 
Lyon, of Lyonsdale, and others, with 
parade of martial music and oratorical 
display, but work was not actively com- 
menced until 1854. During the summer 
of that year, a large amount of grading 
was done on the southern portion, and 
in places in this county, but in the fall 
of 1854, work was finally suspended. 
The intention of the company was to first 
construct a plank road, to facilitate the 
travel which the railroad would require 
until opened, and large quantities of road 
plank were sold for less than their worth 
in standing timber, upon the suspension 

of work. The report at the close of 
1858, states that the capital stock is 
$6,000,000; amount subscribed $5,461,- 
100; paid in $2,714,150; expenditures 
$3,665,858.67; length 182 miles. The 
legislature by act of April 6, 1857, 
changed the name of the company to the 
Lake Ontario & Hudson River Railroad 
Company. It is understood that the pres- 
ent "Adirondack Company," are owners 
of whatever exists of the franchises of 
this old corporation. 

Black River & St. Lawrence Railroad 
Company. — The project of a railroad from 
Carthage to Harrisville, and an extension 
to DeKalb Junction, came up in the 
spring of 1867, and the surveys and esti- 
mates were made by Octave Blanc, 
Civil Engineer. On the 30th of June, 
articles of association were filed, with 
$380,000 capital, and by acts passed 
April 2-1 1, 1868,* the towns of Wilna, 
Diana and Edwards were authorized to 
subscribe for stock, viz. : Wilna and 
Diana $50,000 each, and Edwards 
$25,000. Samuel H. Beach, Benjamin 
Wicks, and William Hunt, in Diana, 
were empowered to obtain the consent 
of Diana, and that town assumed the full 
limit allowed, the assessed valuation at 
that time being only $52,000. This was 
an act of recklessness, perhaps without 
a parallel in the bonding period. The 
total length of the proposed road from 
Edwards to Carthage was about thirty- 
eight miles, and the road was to serve as 
an outlet for the forest products of that 
region, and the magnetic iron ore known 
to exist not far from the proposed route. 

The road was commenced and fourteen 
miles ot the Carthage end were graded 
and laid with maple rails, which from 
want of means were used instead of iron. 
For a time trains were run between Car- 
thage and Harrisville, but the wooden 
rails soon proved a failure, and the funds 
being exhausted, the project became a 

* Chapters 115 and 182, Laws of i868. 



wreck, and was lost to sight during the 
great collapse of 1875-79. Since 1880 
persevering efforts have been made to 
revive the scheme, and bring it to a good 
end. Induced by valuable mineral con- 
cessions, Pennsylvania iron men and 
capitalists have made a lengthy investi- 
gation of the iron deposits, using the 
diamond drill, and at the close of autumn 
in 1882, a number of large veins of excel- 
lent Bessemer magnetic ore have been 
brought to light, which discovery may 
at an early day lead to the completion of 
the old project. 

Mr. Pahud, the leading spirit in these 
efforts, and who has devoted much time 
and labor to the promotion of this ob- 
ject, in a letter received just before these 
pages go to press, says : " Controlling 
a vast forest, estimated at half a million 
of acres, at a time when timber is fast 
growing scarce and valuable, it is be- 
lieved that this road will prove a lasting 
success, as well as a most important 
feeder to both the Black River canal, 
and the Utica & Black River rail- 

* * * * * 

The town of Diana has borne bravely 
its heavy burden, providing promptly 
for its obligations, and without even 
suggesting the thought of repudiation. 
The debt has been reduced to $40,000, 
and a re-issue of its bonds is readily 
taken at the low rate of four per cent, 

Boonville & Constableville Railroad 
Company. This was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 7, 1868, and preliminary surveys 
virere made, but nothing was ever done 
towards its construction. There are no 
engineering difficulties on the line be- 
tween these villages, the only question 
being that of profit and expense. At 

•The Commissioners in charge of this debt, are 
Joseph Pahud, and William Hunt. In Wilna, the 
debt was reported to the Supervisors, in 1881, as re- 
duced to $32,000. 

the present time, the business would not 
probably justify this road. 

A Projected Route Northeastward from 
Lowville. — In the winter of 1 88o-'8 1 , a line 
of railway was surveyed by Mr. Bond, 
from the swamp near the foot of the 
grade north of Lowville village, by way 
of Beaver Falls, to Harrisville. The 
grades were found favorable, and no 
practical difficulties in the way of en- 
gineering were found. It was thought 
that the manufacturing interests of the 
northeastern part of the county, and the 
iron mines in the adjacent portion of St. 
Lawrence county, would afford' remu- 
nerative business for a branch road, 
perhaps ultimately connecting with 
lines to the northward. No company 
had been organized at the time of this 
writing, and the interest which the sur- 
vey had occasioned, had in a measure, 

The route of a railroad from Boston 
to Henderson Harbor, was run through 
this county, along the level of the pla- 
teau at the base of Tug Hill, by Adam 
Bond, civil engineer. It was to accom- 
modate the line of villages along that 
route, and excited hopes of success that 
were wholly disappointed, and perhaps 
never had much real foundation. It is 
very probable that it would have re- 
ceived aid from some towns along the 
line, had it been undertaken. 

Another branch of the same road was 
talked about from Boonville to West 
Leyden, and so westward to Oswego. 
We are not informed as to what surveys 
were made, but some money was spent 
by individuals, in promoting this meas- 
ure, which died out without any result. 

At the time of our going to press, 
some movement is being made for com- 
pleting the work begun thirty years 
ago between Rome and Boonville, and 
the villages along the upper terrace of 
limestone in Lewis county, may seek to 
extend it further northward. 




Canal Projects — Steamboats. 
Black River Canal and Improvement. 

EXCEPTING the vague allusion to 
canals and other public works, in the 
instructions of Tillier in 1796, no meas- 
ure was proposed for constructing a ca- 
nal into this county until 1825, when 
Governor DeWitt Clinton in his annual 
message, suggested a connection between 
Black river and the Erie canal, as one 
of several highly desirable canal routes. 
Under a general act passed April 20, 
1825, a survey was ordered from the 
Erie canal in Herkimer county, to the 
head waters of Black river and thence 
to Ogdensburgh, and another from 
Rome to the same waters. 

A survey was begun by James Geddes, 
one of the chief engineers on the Erie 
canal, July 25, 1825, and the leveling 
was continued down to Carthage. By 
this survey, the Remsen summit on the 
eastern route was found 841 feet, and 
the descent from thence to the lake 985 
feet. From Rome to Boonville, the rise 
was 700 feet, and from thence to the river 
below the falls 422 feet. The Camden 
route to Ogdensburgh, 129 miles, was 
estimated at $655,630, and the Boonville 
route, 114 miles, $931,014. Mr. Geddes 
advised two dams with locks on the river, 
and a towing path on the bank. A canal 
meeting was held at the Court House 
September 21, 1825, at which James T. 
Watson reported Geddes' survey. The 
maps were left with Mr. Charles Dayan 
for reference, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to gather statistics of transporta- 
tion from each town in the county, speci- 
fying every article of which more than 
five tons were carried, with the probable 
increase. Other meetings were held in 
Jefferson and St. Lawrence counties, and 
committees of correspondence were 
chosen to secure unity of action. 

At a meeting at the Court House, De- 
cember 24, 1825, the committee prepared 
a petition to the Legislature, and reported 
the following estimates of business : — 

Denmark 1,272 tons ; mean distance 60 

Lowville 1,310 tons, viz : grain and flour 
550; ashes 130; butter and cheese 10; 
sundries 620. Distance 60 miles at i 1-2 
cents per mile. 

Martinsburgh 1,280 tons. Turin 600 
tons. Leyden, Watso7i, Pinckney and Har- 
risburgh, 1,200 tons. Total 5,662 tons, 
amounting to $5,435.80. From Jefferson 
county the estimate claimed 10,680 tons 
at $10,146; from St. Lawrence 13,000 
tons at $23,400, and from Herkimer and 
Oneida 4,620 tons at $1,386, making with 
the extra transportation added to the 
Erie Canal a revenue of $69,145.88.* 

The county papers of northern New 
York at this period teemed with articles 
favoring the measure, and a series of sta- 
tistical essays in the Black River Gazette, 
signed Jojtathajt, had a beneficial influence 
upon public opinion. 

The Canal Commissioners reported 
March 6, 1826, upon the Herkimer, Rome 
and Camden routes. The first had a 
rise and fall of 1,831 feet, and was deemed 
inexpedient. The second had 1,587 feet 
lockage, and would cost to Ogdensburgh 
$931,014, and the third with 635 feet 
lockages, would cost $855,630. No result 
followed, and on the 2d of January, 1827, 
a canal meeting held at the Court House, 
renewed their memorial, and petitioned 
Congress to procure the right of navi- 
gating the St. Lawrence to the ocean. 
A meeting at Carthage October 23, 1827, 
prepared the way for a general conven- 
tion at the Court House in Martinsburgh 
on the 4th of December, at which dele- 
gates attended from all the towns inter- 
ested in the work. Spirited addresses 
were delivered, and a resolution was 
passed for the incorporation of a com- 
pany to construct a canal. 

* A general committee of correspondence was chosen 
at this meeting, consisting of Russell Parish, Isaac W 
Bostwick, Ela Collins, Chas. Dayan and Jas. McVickar 



The address of the Rev. Isaac Clinton 
of Lbwville upon this occasion, affords 
data in the highest degree valuable as 
showing existing resources at that 
period. It was therein stated that five 
towns in Lewis county made annually 
100 tons of potash each ; * and three 
otherst about fifty tons each. About 2, 500 
barrels of pork, and 60,000 bushels of 
wheat, were supposed to pass through 
and from the county to the canal. About 
1,500 head of cattle were driven from 
the county and five times as many from 
Jefferson and St. Lawrence. The county 
exported 50 tons of butter and cheese, 20 
tons of grass-seed, 14 tons of wool, 12 
tons of oil of mint, J and 325 tons or 650 
hogsheads of whiskey. It received an- 
nually 400 tons of merchandise, 50 tons 
of bar iron and steel, 40 tons of gypsum, 
15 tons of dye-stuffs and 20 tons of hides. 
This increase from the county and be- 
yond had been during twelve years, at 
the rate of 300 hundred tons annually. 
This address closed with a direct appeal 
to the enterprise of our citizens. It was 
as follows : — 

" Perhaps sir, it may be said that the 
remarks are plausible, but the undertak- 
ing is great and we can do without it. 
So we might do without many other 
things. A farmer on a very small scale 
might do without a scythe and cut his 
grass with a jack-knife. What are canals 
and what are railroads but great labor 
saving machines ? What a grass scythe 
is to a jack-knife, so is a canal to a com- 
mon team. Will it be said, sir, that the 
undertaking is really too great — we can 
not accomplish it ? 'Let no such thought 
lodge in any man's bosom. Say we can 
accomplish it, we must and we will have 
a canal. What if the patriots of the 
Revolution had said — 'slavery is truly 
detestable and liberty is equally desir- 
able, but what are we? We have no 
army, no treasury, no revenue, no maga- 
zines of arms, and such is the mighty 

* These must have been Leyden, Turin, Martins- 
burgh, Lowville and Denmark. 

\ Watson, Harrisburgh and Pinckney. 
j Chiefly from Lowville. 

power and prowess of Great Britain that 
we cannot withstand them ! ' What, I 
say! then,we and our children would have 
been slaves forever. But they said, we 
can withstand them, and they did 
withstand them, and with their blood 
and treasure and indescribable hardships 
and privations, procured the benefits and 
blessings we now enjoy. Let us not say 
' we can't.' This expression has been 
the ruin of thousands, has prevented 
many a glorious enterprise, — has kept 
many a family poor and in the back- 
ground. This was the imbecile lan- 
guage of our committee, last winter ! 
Let us then say we can and we will have 
a canal. Many farmers may turn out if 
need require, with their teams and work 
out shares. It would be better to do this 
than be forever wearing out their teams 
in carrying their produce to market and 
paying toll at turnpike gates. The enter- 
prise is only worthy of the industrious 
and spirited citizens inhabiting this sec- 
tion of the State. And from the previous 
estimates I am confident the stock must 
be good, and after the canal is made and 
proved, will sell at any time for ready 

A writer in the Black River Gazette, 
under the signature of Asdrubal, at this 
period also urges the measure proposed 
at this convention. 

The application in the hands of Mc 
Dayan, then in the Senate, and General 
George D. Ruggles, in Assembly, pro- 
cured an Act, passed March 20, 1828, in- 
corporating the Black River Canal Com- 
pany. A subscription of $100,000 by the 
State, was proposed by Mr. Dayan, who 
was supported by Senators Hart, Water- 
man and Wilkins, and opposed by Jor- 
dan and Carroll. It was finally stricken 
out in the Senate. 

The act incorporated George Bray- 
ton, Isaac Clinton, Levi Adams, Peter 
Schuyler, James McVickar, James T. 
Watson, Seth B. Roberts and Vincent 
LeRay de Chaumont, and their associ- 
ates, with $400,000 capital and the usual 
powers of stock companies. The canal 
was to be finished within three years, 



and the franchise included the naviga- 
tion of the river to Carthage. The Com- 
missioners above named employed Al- 
fred Cruger* to survey and estimate a 
route, and his railroad report, rendered in 
September of that year, mostlv advised 
railroad inclined planes as extensively em- 
ployed in Pennsylvania, instead of locks, 
and placed the total cost of 44.86 miles 
at $433,571.25. The structures were to 
include 9 culverts, 8 dams, 7 waste weirs, 
52 bridges, 1,015 feet rise by planes, and 
75 feet by locks. He proposed to im- 
prove the river by wing dams, where 
obstructed by sand-bars, eight of which 
might be built for $4,168. Subscription 
books were opened at the office of W. 
Gracie, New York, December 15, 1828, 
but the stock was not taken, and a meet- 
ing at Lowville, represented from many 
towns, January 24, 1829, discussed apian 
of local taxation, but finally abandoned 
it, and agreed upon a memorial, urging 
its adoption as a State work. 

A concurrent resolution, introduced 
by Mr. Ruggles, was passed April 7, 
1829, ordering a new survey in case that 
made by Cruger was not found reliable, , 
and the Canal Commissioners were di- 
rected to report the result to the next 
Legislature. Canal meetings were held 
at Lowville, June 4th, and at Turin, Octo- 
ber 17, 1829, and an effort was made to 
procure a nomination of a person 
pledged to the canal alone, irrespective 
of party, but did not meet with favor. 
On the 1 2th of January, 1830, a conven- 
tion of delegates from Lewis, Jefferson 
and Oneida, met at Lowville, to memor- 
ialize the Legislature ; town committees 
were appointed, and again November 
22d of that year, for a similar purpose. 

On the 6th of April, 1830, the Canal 
Commissioners were by law directed to 
cause a survey of the proposed canal, 
and Holmes Hutchinson employed 

*Mr. Cruger died at Mantanzas, Cuba, in 1845, 
while engaged in a railroad survey. 

under this act, reported his labors the 
6th of March following.* His estiftiate, 
based upon a canal twenty feet wide at 
the bottom, four feet deep, and the locks 
ten by seventy feet, capable of passing 
boats of twenty-five tons, placed the 
total cost of the canal knd feeder at 
$602,544. The charter of the first com- 
pany having expired by its own limita- 
tion, a new one of the same name was char- 
tered April 17, 1843, with $900,000 capi- 
tal, and power to construct a canal from 
Rome or Herkimer to the Black river, 
and thence to Ogdensburgh, Cape Vin- 
cent, or Sackett's Harbor. The work 
was divided into six sections, of which 
one must be finished in three and the 
whole in ten years. Nothing was done 
under this act. 

In 1834, Francis Seger in the Senate, 
and George D. Ruggles in the Assem- 
bly, procured an act (April 22d) provid- 
ing for an accurate survey of a canal 
from the Erie canal to the Black river 
below the falls, and thence to Carthage. 
The surveys of Cruger and Hutchinson 
were to be adopted in whole or in part, 
at the discretion of the Commissioners, 
and the result was to be reported at the 
next session. Mr. Timothy B. Jervis 
was employed upon this duty, and his 
survey, based upon a canal twenty-six 
feet wide at the bottom, banks seven feet 
high, water four feet deep, locks and 
two inclined planes, computed the cost 
at $907,802.72, with, composite locks, and 
$1,019,226.72 with stone locks.f 

A report from the Canal Board, in 
1835, stated that the actual cost of 
freight by railroad was three and one- 
half cents a mile per ton, as shown by 
the Mokawk & Hudson Railroad.;]: 
This is believed to have influenced favor- 
able action upon the Black River canal, 
although manifestly unfair as regarded 
railroads, becaus e based upon the ex- 

* Assembly Documents, No. 229, 1831. 

f Assembly Documents, Nos. 55, 150, 1835. 

i Between Albany and Schenectady. 



perience of a road only sixteen miles 
long,' having two heavy inclined planes, 
and using locomotive and stationary 
steam povirer as well as horses. 

The construction of the Black River 
canal was authorized by an act of 
April 19, 1836, which provided for a 
navigable feeder from Black river to 
Boonville, and a canal from thence to 
Rome and to the High Falls, and the 
improvement of the river to Carthage 
for steamboats drawing four feet of 
water. The details of construction and 
expense were left discretionary with the 
Canal Commissioners, who were to re- 
ceive from the Canal Fund such sums as 
the Canal Board might estimate and 
certify would be the probable expense, 
with such additional sums over and 
above the foregoing, borrowed on the 
credit of the State, and not to exceed 
$800,000. The surplus waters of Black 
river, not needed for the canal, were to 
be passed around the locks by sluices or 
turned into Lansing's kill or the Mohawk 

This act was largely due to the exer- 
tions of Francis Seger of the Senate, and 
Charles Dayan of the Assembly, whose 
active labors for the promotion of this 
measure deserve honorable recognition 
in this connection.* Eleven years had 
passed since this work was first urged 

* Francis Seger removed from Albany county to this 
county in 1826. He studied law with Marcus T. Rey- 
nolds, and was admittSl to the Bar in 1823, having 
taught school at various times to aid in acquiring an 
education. He was several years deputy clerk, and 
from 1828 to 1833, inclusive. Clerk of Assembly, but 
yielded this position at the urgent solicitatioti of friends 
of the Black River canal, for a place in the Senate, 
where he remained four years. He was appointed a 
Master in Chancery, and in April, 1843, under Bouck's 
administration, became First Judge of Lewis county. He 
continued to officiate until 1856, having been elected 
Judge and Surrogate, at the first Judicial election in June, 
1847, and again in 1851. In 1846, he was elected one of 
the secretaries of the Constitutional Convention. His 
highest ambition ever seems to have been the faithful 
discharge of official trusts, with an ability and simplicity 
worthy of imitation. While holding the office of Coun- 
ty Judge, Mr. Seger lived in Martinsburgh, but his prin- 
cipal home was in the present town of Lyonsdale. east 
of the river, and within view of the High Falls. He 
died there, in 1872. 

upon public notice by the Governor, and 
the youth who Hstened with enthusiasm 
to the glowing prospect of coming bene- 
fits from the completed canal, had 
ripened into manhood before the first 
positive step was taken towards its real- 
ization. Still they were destined to 
grow old in the anticipation, and while 
those who had fondly cherished and aided 
the successive stages of effort, became sil- 
vered with age; full many closed their 
eyes in death, before it became a practi- 
cal reality ! Stow, Clinton, Watson, the 
elder Le Ray, Lyon, W. Martin, Adams, 
J. McVickar, Collins, Parish, Rockwell, 
Bancroft, J. H. Leonard, N. Merriam, H. 
G. Hough, B. Yale, S. Allen, and many 
others who had served on committees, 
and contributed time and money to the 
promotion of this improvement, died be- 
fore it was so far completed as to admit 
boats into the river. 

Surveys were placed in charge of Por- 
teus R. Root, and in September, 1836, 
Daniel C. Jenne, resident engineer, be- 
gan further examinations which were 
continued through the fall and the spring 

The first contract for construction was 
made November 11, 1837, including 14 
miles from Rome, and work was at once 
begun. On the 26th of May following, 
the work was let to Boonville, including 
the feeder, and Sept. 7, 1838, eight miles 
north of that place. Work was begun 
and vigorously prosecuted until, under 
an act of March 29, 1842, entitled "An 
act to provide for paying the debt and 
preserving the credit of the State," more 
familiarly known as the tax and stop law, 
work was suspended. The original esti- 
mate upon which work had been begun 
was $1,068,437.20. The third division, 
extending from Boonville to the river, 
a distance of ten miles, contained 38 
locks of which 24 were nearly finished, 
the gates and dock timbers excepted. 
The other 14 locks had not been contract- 



ed. It was estimated that $276,000 would 
finish this division, and $809,000 the whole 
work.* There had been expended ac- 
cording to the report of 1842, $1,550,- 
097.67. The sum of $55,222.78 was paid 
for extra allowances, and for suspension 
of contracts on the part of the State, and 
much loss was occasioned by the decay 
of wooden structures, washing away of 
banks, filling in of excavations, and other 
damages to which half finished works of 
this class are liable. 

In the Constitutional Convention of 
1846, Lewis county was represented b)' 
Russell Parish, an ardent friend and able 
advocate of the Black River canal. In 
a speech of Sept. 1 5th, he urged the com- 
pletion of this work with great zeal, and 
the clause in the Constitution (Art. vii. 
Sec. 3), providing for the completion of 
this canal among other public works, is 
without doubt to be attributed in quite 
a degree to him.f 

An act passed May 12, 1847, appropri- 
ated $100,000 to this canal. Work was 
soon after resumed on the feeder, and 
the next year on the canal south of Boon- 
ville, many old contracts were resumed, 
new portions were let, and in the fall of 
1848, the feeder was finished so far as to 
admit water on the 1 8th of October. The 
first boat passed up the feeder to the 
river, Dec. 13, 1848. The canal from 
Boonville to Port Leyden was put under 
contract in 1849, ^^d the feeder was 
brought fully and successfully into op- 
eration in May or June of that year. 

The first boat from Rome came up May 
10, 1850, and water was let in down to 
Port Leyden, Oct. 27, 1850, and it was 

* Other estimates placed this amount less. A special 
report by acting Commissioner Enos. dated Feb. 23, 
1843 (Senate Doc, 4y), estimated thecost of completion, 
with stone locks, at $639,000.01, and with composite 
locks, at $436,740.96. 

t The vote in February, 1854, on amending the State 
Constitution in relation to the canals, was in this county 
cast in favor of the change in every town except .Mon- 
tague, West Turin, Turin, Osceola, Lewis Leyden, and 
Pinckney, amounting to i,^-]2 /or and go; against the 

brought into use in the spring of 1851. 
The part north of Port Leyden was put 
under contract in 1850, to be done July 
I, 1854, and one mile brought into use in 
1852. A dam four feet high was built in 
1854, just above the High Falls at a cost 
of $5,000, affording two and a half miles 
of navigation on Black and Moose rivers. 
The canal passes 45 chains in the river 
above this dam. 

The improvement was finally com- 
pleted, by the construction of two 
dams in the river below the High Falls, 
for use in low stages of the water.* 

The canal was finally brought into the 
river, November 13, 1855, by the com- 
pletion of 2.7 miles of canal, compris- 
ing 13 locks north of Port Leyden. The 
canal is 35.62 miles in length. The 
feeder is 10.29 miles, and the slack water 
above the dam 2 miles further ; a feeder 
at Delta, 1.38 miles, and the river below 
the falls 42.5 miles, making in all about 
95 miles of navigation, including 5 miles 
on Beaver river, on the bank of which 
there is at present a towing path. The 
canal rises 693 feet by 70 locks, from 
the Erie canal at Rome, to the sum- 
mit at Boonville. It descends north- 
ward, 387 feet, by 39 locks to the river 
below the High Falls, a distance of 10.3 

The canal has 6 aqueducts, 12 waste- 
weirs, 18 culverts, 36 road bridges, 40 
farm bridges, 3 tow bridges and 2 
dams. Its net cost of construction and 
working up to September 30, 1857, was. 
$4,050,406.70. It had not then paid its 
expenses for repairs in any one year.f 

The experience of 1849, (a very dry 
season,) demonstrated the necessity of 
reservoirs on the head waters of Black 
river, to 'supply the Rome level on t he 

*The estimated cost of completion in 1851, was 
$397,761-96. including the River Improvement. In'1853 
the estimated cost of finishing was $155,400, or accord- 
ing to the plan of 1851, $248,784. 

tSenate Doc. 129. 1858. The deficiency alluded to, 
IS not limited to this canal, and might be said with ref- 
erence to others. 



Erie canal. Of these, three, known as 
the WoodhuU, North Branch and South 
Branch reservoirs, having together an 
area of 2,177 acres, and a capacity of 
1,822,002,480 cubic feet have been built. 
The lakes on Moose river appear capable 
of improvement as reservoirs, to an ex- 
tent sufficient to meet all probable de- 
mands for river navigation or hydraulic 
power below, and have recently been 
used for this purpose.* 

The improvement of the river chan- 
nel was, for some years, made a subject 
of vacillating project, and barren ex- 
penditure, which reflected Uttle credit 
upon the State authorities charged with 
this duty, and although large sums were 
applied to this object, we had compara- 
tively little benefit to show beyond the 
dam at Carthage,t three substantial 
bridges, and a few landing places partly 
built at town or individual cost. 

In the summer of 1849 two boats were 
built for clearing the river, one at the 
falls and the other at lUingworth's in 
New Bremen. In 1851 a plan was 
adopted for constructing jetty dams and 
piers, for confining the current and thus 
deepening the channel. The estimated 
cost of this work, including the dam at 
Carthage, two bridges and the reservoirs 
was $153,200. On the 1 8th of October, 
1853, after large expenditures, this plan 
was abandoned, and that of two dams 
with locks were substituted, under the 
advice of John C. Mather, then Canal 
Commissioner.:}: This scheme was su- 

*By an act passed May 21, 1881, the sum of $6,000 
was appropriated for the purpose of constructing reser- 
voirs upon the upper waters of Independence creek 
and Beaver river, for the maintenance of hydraulic 
power upon the river below, and as a compensation for 
the waters diverted into the Erie canal, by the Boon- 
ville feeder, from the upper tributaries of the Black 
river, the Superintendent of Public Works was author- 
ized to take lands needed for overflow, in the mode 
usually practiced in public improvements. 

f The dam at Carthage was built in 1854, at a cost of 
$7, 500. One of the bridges above alluded to is at that 

t A dam near Lowville was to cost $29, 700, and one 
at Otter creek $35,000, two bridges $6,000, dredging 
$6,000, and reservoirs $39,600. 

perceded in 1854, by the Canal Commis- 
sioners, on the ground of fraudulent con- 
tracts, and that of 1851 readopted De- 
cember 19th of that year, at an estimated 
cost of $161,000 for completion. Other 
heavy expenditures were incurred, when 
on the 3d of September, 1857, this plan 
was again abandoned, and the engineer 
was directed to furnish plans for a dam 
and lock just above the mouth of Otter 
creek. There had then been spent on the 
piers, $88,320. A dam and lock were 
constructed at the mouth of Otter creek 
in i855-'6o, and another at a point some 
three miles east of the Beach Bridge (in 
a direct Hne) in i865-'66. These locks 
have chambers 160 by 34 feet, with lifts 
of four feet. In high water steamers go 
up and down over the dams adjacent. 
It will be noticed that the idea of im- 
provement of the river has been a sub- 
ject of progressive growth. In 1828, 
Cruger estimated its cost at $4,168. In 
1830, Hutchinson found it would be$i2,- 
000. In 1834, Jervis estimated it at $20,- 
840. Its ultimate cost is to be revealed 
by time and our Canal Engineers. 

The Black river was declared a pub- 
lic highway by an act of March 16, 1821, 
from the High falls to Carthage, and on 
the 24th of June, 1853, from the falls up 
to the Moose River tract. The latter 
act applied $5,000 to the improvement of 
the channel for floating logs, required 
booms and dams to be constructed with 
reference to passing timbers, and at- 
tached penalties for obstructing the 
channel. The commissioners for apply- 
ing this sum were Alfred N. Hough, 
Gardner Hinkley, and Anson Blake, Jr. 

The Business of the Black River 

In the winter of i875-'76, at a time 
when an amendment to the State Con- 
stitution was under discussion, allowing 
the Legislature to sell or abandon the 



lateral canals, a public meeting was held 
at Lowville, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to collect data tending to show 
the importance of the Black River canal, 
on account of the business done upon 
it, and upon the river, as well as 
its necessity as a feeder to the Erie 
canal. As these facts have a certain his- 
torical interest, and were derived from 
official sources, we deem it proper to 
introduce them in this connection. The 
statement was prepared at the request 
of the committee, by the author of this 
volume : — 

This canal represents a navigation of 
90.3 miles, of which 35 1-3 miles are the 
canal proper, including the feeder from 
the summit level at Boonville to the 
Black River dam — 12.09 miles are the 
waters of the pond of this dam, — 1.38 
miles are in the Delta feeder, and 42.5 
miles the natural navigation of the Black 
river, ending at Carthage, in Jefferson 

As is well known, this canal was be- 
gun at about the same time as 'the en- 
largement of the Erie canal, and that a 
prominent reason for its construction was 
the necessity of bringing an abundant 
supply of water for the " Long Level " 
of that canal, which could not be had 
from any other source. As this was a 
summit level, the drain from each end 
was heavy and constant, and it is well 
known that without this supply, naviga- 
tion could not now be maintained in the 
Erie canal, in ordinary seasons, while in 
those unusually dry, it demands the ut- 
most capacity of this important feeder, 
and its reservoirs, which are capable of 
delivering about 12,000 cubic feet of 
water per minute. 

It may be readily shown that the 
Black River canal might have been sup- 
plied with water sufficient for its own 
navigation, from the streams along its 
course, without the costly structures on 
the Black river and its upper waters 
for storing the vast amount of water de- 
manded by the Erie canal, in very dry 
seasons, and common justice would 
charge the expenses of construction, 
maintenance and damages of these agen- 
cies of the supply to the Erie canal, rath- 

er than to the Black River canal. In fact, 
they must be maintained, so long as the 
enlarged Erie canal is a thoroughfare of 
the commerce of the State, and of the 
Great West, at a cost of about $11,600 
per annum, even were the waters allowed 
to find their way down to Rome feeder, 
by the natural channels, from Boonville 

In the projection of a new public 
work by the State, the probabilities of 
costs and profits would probably come 
into the estimate, and a decision might 
depend upon the result of the calcula- 
tion. But in the case of a work, finished 
and paid for, the question of cost has 
nothing to do with the future. This de- 
pends altogether upon the fact as to 
whether the maintenance will be greater 
or less than the benefits derived from it. 
We may remark that a large proportion 
of the cost of the canals is for perma- 
nent construction, in excavation and ma- 
sonry. While some canals have been 
built with wooden locks, this has its 
locks of stone, requiring but a small ex- 
pense for maintenance, as compared with 
first cost. In fact, future expenses will 
be chiefly those for timber structures in 
the lock-gates and bridges. The latter 
would require maintenance in any event, 
now the canal is finished either at the cost 
of the State or of the towns, so long as 
highways are travelled, or to the end of 

Where an investment is made by indi- 
viduals, or by moneyed corporations, 
the question of profit or loss necessarily 
becomes the leading one, and the strict 
balance of receipts and payments, deter- 
mines as to success or failure. The public 
benefit to the community is accidental 
rather then essential, and may or may not 
result from the enterprise. But in every 
well ordered government, large sums are 
expended for the public welfare, which 
yield no direct revenues whatever. Of 
this nature are our public highways, our 
river and harbor improvements, our 
light-houses and other aids to commerce, 
all of which may require continual ex- 
pense. Yet taken in connection with 
their benefits, they are of the highest 
utility, and worthy of all the care and 
expense bestowed upon them. In short, 
they are essential to our civilization, and 
an absolute want, demanding the earnest 



care of government, and maintenance at 
every hazard. 

Our State caiials are public high- 
ways, made for the pubHc convenience, 
and their utihty is not measured by the 
amount of tolls they bring into the treasu- 
ry, so much as by the benefit they con- 
fer upon the district which they accom- 
modate, and upon the State at large. 

But in examining the claims of the 
Black River canal, it will be found that 
this avenue of internal commerce has 
substantial and growing results to show 
in the way of direct and indirect reven- 
ues, and that the actual balance of cost 
for maintenance is but trifling in amount 
when taken in connection with the bene- 

The Tonnage Reports show the num- 
ber of clearances and tons transported 
each year, to have been increasing (with 
occasional exceptions) since the canal 
was first opened. Taking the average 
annual result, in periods of five years, 
there has been a steady advance without 
exception. The returns of late years 
upon lumber and timber, two important 
objects of our canal business, are as fol- 
lows: — 

Boards and Scantling. Ton«. Feet. 

1871. Lyons Falls 43,080 2n,a48,114 

Boonville 23,446 14,067,776 

Tfttal 66,526 39,915,890 

1872. Lyons Falls 54,393 32,635,540 

Boonville 24,933 14,960,208 

Total 79,825 47,595,748 

1873. Lyons Falls 50,491 30,596,051 

Boonville 20,151 12,090,714 

Total T0,642 42,386,765 

1874. Boonville 44,376 86,625,8.32 

Timber. Timber. 

1871. 1,305 tons. 11873. 2,780 tons. 

1872. 6,126 " I 1874. 18,480 " 

Total Tonnage/or each year/or Vp and Down Freights. 

1871. 97,040 tons. 11873. 92,142 tons. 

1872. 101,803 " I 1874. 82,998 " 

Tolls, (including Contributions to the Frte Cannl.) 

1871. Lyons Falls $15,701.33 

Boonville 8,16425 

Eome 1,981.87 

Total 836,837.46 

1872. LyonsFalls $16,665.02 

Boonville 10,441.33 

Rome 1,-396.65 

Total $28,493.00 

1873. LyonsFalls $15,376.76 

Boonville 8,128.00 

Rome 1,378.14 

Total $24,882 90 

1874. Boonville. $27,698.59 

Eome 1 106.26 

Tolls that should properly be cred- 
ited, but are not ... 3,468 42 

Total $32,2?3.25 

Cost of Maintenance $45,000.00 

Of which there was chargable to Reservoirs 

torbeneflt of Erie Canal 11,600.00 

Cost of Black River Canal proper for the 

year $33,400.00 

Deduct tolls, etc 82,273.25 

Deficiency for 1874 $ 1.126.73 

Now let US consider some of the ben- 
efits conferred upon the Black River val- 
ley and State at large, in return for this 
sum of $1,126.75 : — 

There are about forty tanneries and 
two hundred saw-mills that have been 
mostly built since the canal was opened, 
and on the faith that the canal was to be 
permanently owned and kept in condi- 
tion for use by the State. 

There are many warehouses and other 
structures built along the line of the 
canal, to facilitate the business of for- 
warding, boat building, etc. .which are fit 
for nothing else. The State has estab- 
lished the precedent of paying for such 
damages, in the case of change of line of 
the Erie Canal during its enlargement, 
and would be justly chargeable with the 
damages, in case the canal is not main- 

There are various manufactories and 
other interests that have grown up, 
either from the facilities of transporta- 
tion which the canal affords, or in con- 
sidei^ation of the reduced rates of rail- 
road freights, which the competition of 
the canals has secured, and can ensure 
in the future. 

There are about 900,000 acres of tim- 
ber land in the great Northern Wilder- 
ness, on the Black river and its tribu- 
taries, which will yield and furnish, on 
an average, not less than 12,000 feet of 
timber to the acre, including vast quan- 
tities of timber suitable for spars, spiles 
and shipping timber, from which timber- 
lands the timber may be floated (by 
means of streams made public highways, 
at great expense to the State and private 
enterprise,) down to mills using this 
canal as an avenue to market ; the same 
section abounding also in an almost un- 
Hmited amount of mineral wealth, all of 
which would be heavily depreciated in 
value, were this privilege impaired. In 
fact, the greater part of this timber 
would otherwise have no market value 

There is a broad and highly fertile 



tract of farming land, which would also 
be reduced in taxable value from $3.00 
to $5.00 per acre ; of course increasing 
in inverse proportion the burdens of tax- 
ation throughout the State, because the 
amount of State taxes is to continue, and 
b)' reducing taxable values in one section, 
we must increase them in others. 

Besides these, the inhabitants within 
reach of the canal, and various manu- 
factories that are springing up along the 
line of the canal, and in the region that 
it accommodates, get the benefit of com- 
petition in prices, with the railroad that 
runs parallel with it through the greater 
part of its course ; so that, even where 
they use this road instead of the canal, 
as do many of the tanneries, in bringing 
their hides and returning their leather, 
they get a substantial reduction of rates 
by these means. A single factory, the 
Extract Works, reports a saving of $3,000 
a year from this cause alone. • 

Viewed in this light, our canals may 
be regarded as the most effectual check 
upon monopolies in the carrj'ing trade. 
Like the common highway, they are 
open to all, and by affording equal facil- 
ities to every one who chooses to carry 
his own freight, or to engage in carry- 
ing for others, they effectually defeat all 
attempts at combination, and are justly 
entitled to our favorable regard, not 
only in the cheapening of freight actual- 
ly carried, but in compelling railroads 
to reduce their rates in corresponding 

Your memorialists, in view of these 
facts and considerations, cannot but en- 
tertain a confident hope that the Black 
River canal, which has furnished the 
main opportunity for Northern New 
York, developing its resources, which 
development is yet in its infancy, will 
continue in the future as in the past, an 
essential feeder of the Erie Canal, as 
well in the water that fills its channel, as 
in the freight it bears to market, and that 
its future earnings will grow at past and 
present rates, until at a period in the near 
future, it will pay all expenses of main- 
tenance, and leave the benefits con- 
ferred upon Northern New York and 
the State, as a clear profit. 

The results of the election in Novem- 
ber last, in the three counties directly 
interested in this canal, showed a una- 

nimity of feeling among the . electors, 
never before presented upon any ques- 
tion that has come before them, and this 
sentiment, founded upon self-interest, 
and effecting their welfare in a vital 
part, cannot fail to unite them hereafter 
in any question in which the Black River 
canal is concerned. The solid vote or 
81 per cent, of our electors, it being 
a majority of 17,786 in the counties of 
Oneida, Lewis and Jefferson, in favor of 
continuing these rights under the pro- 
tection of the Constitution, is a signifi- 
cant declaration of their earnest feeling 
upon this question, and the determi- 
nation to give the full weight of their 
influence as voters in defense of their 

By an amendment of the Constitution 
adopted in 1874, the Legislature was left 
at liberty to sell or abandon all but cer- 
tain canals specified, of which the Black 
River canal was not one. It was there- 
fore left to the discretion of the Legis- 
lature, to maintain or otherwise dispose 
of, until by a further amendment, allow- 
ing the tolls to be removed upon the 
State canals, adopted in November, 1882, 
the Black River canal was specified as 
one of the canals that should, be main- 
tained at the State's expense. It is there- 
fore beyond the reach of legislation as 
to continuance, under the Constitution 
in its present form. 

Steamboats on Black River. 

The steamer Cornelia* was built in 1832, 
at Carthage, by Paul Boynton, (who af- 
terwards settled at Canton and died 
there,) for a company in which Vincent 
Le Ray was president and principal 
owner, at a cost of about $6,000. Its 
dimensions were, length of keel 90 feet, 
across the guards 22 feet, and when light 
it drew 22 inches of water. She meas- 
ured 70 tons, and was furnished with 
two upright high pressure engines of 

f Named from Madame Cornelia Juhel a relative of 
the Le Rays, among other names proposed was Dido. 
by some one who is presumed to have read the .(Enead 
of Virgil. 



ten horse power each, when first built, 
but before starting one of these was 
taken out, reducing the draft to 17 inches. 
The machinery was built by N. Starbuck, 
of Troy. Her cabin was aft, the floor a 
little below the deck, and the forward 
part was covered by an awning. Her 
first trip was made Sept. 22, 1832, having 
on board a large number of citizens, and 
everything went on pleasantly until op- 
posite Lowville, where she ran on a 
sand-bar, and although the hands jumped 
into the water and tried to lift her off it 
was of no avail. 

This was but a prelude to numerous 
like casualties which marked her short 
and unprofitable career, which ended 
with 1833. A thriUing incident attend- 
ed her first visit to the High Falls. 
The man at -the tiller, wishing to show 
the party on board and the spectators on 
shore, the quahties of the boat in rapid 
water, steered up so near the falls that 
as she turned, the spray from the torrent 
covered the deck, and the boat itself 
came as near as possible being drawn 
under. Fortunately there was a heavy 
pressure of steam up, and the next mo- 
ment the craft was out of harm's way, 
with only a thorough drenching.* This 
boat was dismantled, and a few years 
after was privately cut loose from the 
dock at Carthage in a freshet, and went 
to pieces in the rapids below. Her en- 
gine was put on a boat upon Black lake, 
and her boiler, many years after, was used 
in pumping water at one of the iron 
mines near Somerville, St. Lawrence 

The steamer Jack Downing was a small 
craft originally intended to run on the 
Black river. She was built at Car- 
thage in 1834, but its destination being 
changed, it was drawn on wheels in the 
summer of that year to Sackett's Harbor. 
The team consisted of four yoke of oxen, 

» This incident was related to us in 1852, by Mr. Boyn- 
ton the builder and engineer at the time. 

and a special truck was made for this use. 
It was there finished, and the deck and 
engine put in, costing in all about $1,500. 
It was 45 feet long, 8 wide within, and 
14 feet across the guards, engine seven 
horse-power, builder and owner, Paul 

The arrival of this stranger at Ogdens- 
burgh created quite a sensation. It so 
happened that the steamer United States, 
then the largest on the lake, came in just 
ahead, and the rumor spread in the streets 
that she had" pupped." Crowds hastened 
down to the wharf to see the stranger 
that had come to town unexpected and 
unannounced, — for steamers great and 
small were still something of a novelty, 
so few were they in number, and every 
addition to the fleet was an event that 
attracted notice, whether acquired by 
immigration or natural increase. 

In January, 1848, notice of an applica- 
tion for the formation of a steamboat 
company with $50,000 was published 
but failed. The Black River Steamboat 
Company was formed at Lowville, April 
24, 1856, and in the summer following, the 
steamer L. R. Lyon was built at Lyons 
Falls. It was launched June 26, 1856, 
and got in operation that year, at a 
cost of $8,000. When light this boat 
drew 15 inches of water ; she was built 
with a stern wheel, after the model of the 
Ohio river boats, with open sides and 
elevated cabin. She was chiefly em- 
ployed in towing canal boats, and was 
afterwards burned, as was also a side- 
wheel steamer of the same name after- 
wards constructed. The little steamer 
/. W. Norcross, built at Phoenix, Oswego 
county, came in from the canal in the 
spring of 1858, and was employed one 
season as a packet, making a trip from 
Carthage to the Falls and back daily. She 
was afterwards run on the Erie canal. 

The steamer Gallagher was completed 
and began running in June, i860, and was 
used several years; 



The steamer F. G. Conncll made her 
trial trip from Carthage to Lyons Falls 
Nov. 22, 1865. It afterwards formed a 
connecting route from Lowville to Car- 
thage, at the time that the railway had 
its terminus at Lowville, a line of omni- 
buses being used to transfer passengers 
and their baggage at the southern end of 
the line. This steamer was burned near 
Glensdale Nov. 16, 1869, and an attempt 
was made to show that it was an incen- 
diary fire. 

The steamer Wren was also used to 
connect with the trains for Lowville, and 
is, w^ believe, still used. 

In the spring of 1853, G. H. Gould fit- 
ted up a scow with a small portable en- 
gine connected with a stern wheel by a 
band. This craft, named the Enterprise, 
made a few trips. The little steam tug 
William. P. Lawrence, of Lansingburgh, 
was brought into the river in Sep- 
tember, 1856, and on the nth made 
the first steamboat visit to Beaver 
Falls. She soon after burst her boiler 
near Independence creek and was com- 
pletely demolished. The captain was 
badly injured in the face, a boy was 
thrown through the window into the 
river, and the engineer into the hold. 
The fireman was thrown into the river 
somewhat scalded, and the boiler itself 
blown ashore, the steam chest going far 
beyond over the tops of the trees. The 
accident was attributed to fastening 
down of the safety valve. 

There are at present five other steam- 
boats on the river, viz : — 

Nellie Sweet, built by James Ervin 
and Captain George Sweet, about 1873; 
owned by the Van Amber Brothers, of 

Van Amber Brothers, built in 1879, ^"^ 
owned by the firm whose name it bears. 

T. F. Macoy, built in 1879, ^"^^ owned 
by the Van Amber Brothers. 

T. B. Baselein, built by James Ervin 
in 1 88 1, and owned by a stock company. 
Captain J. Ervin in charge. 

Oclawaha, built in 1881, and owned 
bv the Van Amber Brothers ; chiefly 
used in carrying charcoal from the banks 
of the river to Carthage furnace. 


The Militia. 

First Military Organization after the for- 
mation of Lewis County. 

THE minutes of the Council of Ap- 
pointment contain the following, 
[April II, 1805] : — 

" His Excellency, the Commander-in- 
Chief, having thought proper to form 
the Militia of the counties of Lewis, Jef- 
ferson and St. Lawrence into a Bri- 
gade : — 

"Resolved, That Walter Martin be, and 
he is, hereby appointed Brigadier-Gen- 
eral thereof, and that in the said Brigade 
the following officers be, and are, here- 
by appointed, to-wit : — 

Jonathan CoUins, Lieutenant-Colonel; 
V. W. Martin, promoted. 

Jonathan Edwards, Captain. 

Thomas Wolcott, Lieutenant. 

Ethe Witmore, Ensign. 

Nathan Coe, Lieutenant. 

Gideon Sprague, Ensign. 

Levi Hough, Ensign. 

Morris S. Miller, Captain. 

Zeboan Carter, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Daniel Gould, Ensign. 

Solomon Buck, Captain. 

Nathan Mun^er, Lieutenant. 

Jeremy Chapin, Ensign. 

Jabez Wright, Captain. 

William Clark, Lieutenant. 

Francis Saunders, Ensign. 

Oliver Bush, Captain. 

Winthrop Shepard, Lieutenant. 

Edward Bush, Ensign. 

Ephraim Luce, Captain. 

Ehud Stephens, Lieutenant. 

John McCoUister, Ensign. 

Enos Scott, Captain. 

Jesse Wilcox, Lieutenant. 

Benjamin Davenport, Ensign. 
Of Light Infantry : — ^ 

Richard Coxe, Captain. 

Asahel Hoof, Lieutenant. 



Levi Collins, Ensign. 

Stephen Butler, Adjutant. 

Leonard Sage, Paymaster. 

William Holada, Quartermaster. 

William Darrow, Surgeon. 

The loist Regiment was formed June 
15, 1808, comprising the towns of Low- 
ville, Denmark, Harrisburgh, and Pinck- 
ney, its first officers being Luke Win- 
chell, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding ; 
Solomon Buck, ist Major ; Zeboam 
Carter, 2d Major ; William Card, Adju- 
tant ; Andrew Mills, Quartermaster; 
and William Darrow, Surgeon. Its first 
Captains were John Bush, Nathan Cook, 
David Cobb, William Clark, Robert 
Clafton, Jesse Wilcox, and Ezra King. 
Zeboam Carter was Colonel of this reg- 
iment when war was declared, and these 
two regiments comprised the whole 
county through that period. 

The first Troop of Horse was formed 
in this county in 1809, having Levi Col- 
lins, Captain; Abner Clapp, 1st Lieuten- 
ant ; Adoniram Foot, 2d Lieutenant ; 
Johnson Talcott, Cornet ; and Leonard 
House, Levi Hart, and David Waters, 

Services of the Militia in the War of 
1812-15. — The troubles with England 
occasioned an act of Congress passed 
March 30, 1808, detaching 100,000 men 
from the mihtia and placing them under 
the orders of the general government. 
Of these, 14,389 were drawn from this 
State, and 350 from Martin's Brigade. 
None of the militia of this region were 
called out under this act. On the loth 
of April, 18 12, in anticipation of a war, 
the President was authorized to require 
the several States to organize, arm and 
equip their proportions of 100,000 men 
to be of ficered from the militia then ex- 

* The first roll comprised, besides the above, WaiTen 
Church, Oliver AUis, Comfort Parsons, James Henry, 
John Waters, Elisha and Richard Arthur, Elijah Halla- 
day Tames Coates. Selah Hills, Joshua Loomis, Joseph 
Bradford, James Miller, Ithamer Ward, Aaron Parks, 
Johnson Foster, Benjamin Baker, Gurdon Lord, Win- 
throp Allen, Levi Hunt, Eber Hubbard, and John 

isting, or others at the option of the 
States and to receive the same pay, 
rations and emoluments as in the regu- 
lar army when in actual service. The 
whole or a part of this draft might be 
called out as occasion required, and the 
levies were to be drawn for a term of 
six months. Under this authority, 
13,500 men were detached in this State, 
and 230 from the 26th Brigade. A com- 
pany was drafted for three months, 
under Captain Lyman Deming, of Den- 
mark, in the regiment of Colonel Chris- 
topher P. Bellinger, of German Flats. 
They served at Sackett's Harbor from 
May i2th to August 21, 1812, when they 
were discharged. 

War was declared June 1 2th, while these 
men were in service, and upon the receipt 
of the news the Governor by general 
orders, dated June 23d, authorized Gen. 
Brown to call upon the militia of Lewis, 
Jefferson and St. Lawrence counties, and 
equip them at the State arsenals at Water- 
town and Russell. Under this authority 
one company of 72 men, besides officers, 
was called into service from this county 
for a term of six months, under Capt. 
Nathan Cook of Lowville, a'nd placed 
under Colonel Thomas B. Benedict of 
De Kalb. This company drew their 
arms at Watertown, escorted two heavy 
loads of arms to the arsenal at Russell, 
and repaired to Ogdensburgh, where 
they remained in the presence of the 
enemy through the season, and assisted 
in repelling the attack in October.* Row- 
land Nimocks, of Turin, was Lieutenant, 
and Ebenezer Newton, of Pinckney, En- 
sign of this company. Major Oliver 
Bush, of Turin, was on duty in this draft. 
During the winter following some 
arms and ammunition were deposited 
at Martinsburgh in the care of General 

* Capt. Cook was arrested by order of Gen. Brown 
upon a charge of cowardice on the occasion of this at- 
tack, but was honorably acquitted, and the affair did him 
no injury where the facts were known. He was after- 
wards Colonel of the regiment in which he belonged. 



Martin, and 200 muskets and some am- 
munition in Turin, Leyden and Lowville, 
upon the bond of Richard Coxe, Daniel 
Kelley, James H. Leonard, Jesse Wil- 
cox, Levi Hart and Levi Collins.* An 
alarm for the safety of Sackett's Harbor, 
occasioned by the arrival of Sir George 
Prevost in Kingston, and a threatened 
attack by crossing on the ice, led General 
Dearborn to call out the militia en masse 
in this and other counties on the ist of 
March, 1813, and they remained at the 
Harbor and at Brownville till the 20th,t 
under Brigadier-General Oliver Collins, 
of Oneida county.;]: The fear of an at- 
tack ceased with the melting of the ice, 
and a project for an aggressive move- 
ment was postponed until the fleet could 
co-operate. A third draft for three 
months was made in September, 181 3, 
consisting of 60 .men under Capt. Win- 
throp Shepard, of Turin, and a company 
under Capt. Wm. Root, of Denmark. 
They served under General Collins in the 
regiment of Col. Geo. H. Nellis, from 
Sept. 14th to Nov. 4, 1813, at Sackett's 
Harbor and Brownville, during the costly 
preparations for the miserable failure of 
Wilkinson in his boasted descent upon 
Montreal.§ An inspection return dated 
September, 1813, showed that the 26th 

* Governor Tompkins' message of April i, 1813. 

\ Colonel Coxe's (46th) regiment consisted of compa- 
nies under Captains Truman Stephens and Adam 
Conlcey, of Martinsburgh, Winthrop Shepard and 
Hezekiah Scovil, of Turin, Ethemer Wetmore and John 
Felshaw, of Leyden, and Luke Wincliell, of Lowville. 
Colonel Carter's (loist) regiment included the companies 
of Captains Moses Waters, Joel Murray and Cyrus Trow- 
bridge, of Lowville, Israel Kellogg and Francis Saun- 
ders, of Denmark, and Capt.-Hart Humphrey, of Har- 
risburgh. Winchell's company consisted of "Silver 
Greys " or exempts. Bradford Arthur served as lieuten- 

X Gen. Collins was father of Ela Collins, formerly of 

§ This draft included Montgomery, Madison, Otsego, 
Herkimer, Oneida, Onondaga, Jefferson and Lewis 
counties. In the general orders of Oct. 4th, the general 
rendezvous was ordered to be at Martinsburgh, Lowville 
or Champion, as Gen. Collins might direct. The 26th 
Brigade (Martin's) was directed to furnish two captains, 
four lieutenants, four ensigns, ten sergeants, twelve cor- 
porals, two drummers, and one hundred and eighty 
privates. While encamped near the Harbor, the snow 
fell a foot deep, and the weather was severe. 

Brigade contained in the 46th and loist 
regiments (Coxe's and Carter's), seven 
companies each, and a total of 301 and 
-367 rank and file. 

A call en masse was made, and the mili- 
tia of the county served in one regiment, 
under Colonel Carter, from July 30th to 
Aug. 22, 18 14, at Sackett's Harbor.* Gen- 
eral Martin was on duty upon this occa- 
sion. The last call en masse was made Oct. 
7, 1 8 14, and the militia of Lewis county 
were comprised in four consolidated com- 
panies under Colonel Carter.f They 
served at Sackett's Harbor till Nov. 11, 
1 8 14. Two companies of cavalry under 
Captain Sanford Safford, Abner Clapp 
and Calvin McKnight, served at Brown- 
ville in Major Levi ColHns' regiment, and 
a company of Silver Greys under Capt. 
Jonathan Collins, volunteered for the 
service and were on duty from October 
28th to November 9, 18 14, in Lieutenant- 
Colonel Calvin Britain's regiment.:]: 

The above comprises the military ser- 
vice of the citizens of Lewis county dur- 
ing the war.§ The settlements were 
frequently alarmed by rumors of Indian 
invasions from Canada. The route 
through the county became a thorough- 
fare of armies, and every resource of the 
valley was called into use to supply the 
troops passing through, or the garrison 
on the frontier. The first body of regu- 
lars that passed was Forsyth's rifle com- 

* Captains Waters, Root, Conkey, Tallmadge, Kel- 
logg, Knapp, Trowbridge, Murray, Scovil, Shepard, 
Wetmore and Felshaw, served with their companies at 
this call. 

\ Uuder Captains Kellogg, Root, Tallmadge and 
Waters. The general orders making this call were 
dated Oct. 3d, and stated that Sackett's Harbor was in 
immediate danger of invasion. Oneida, Herkimer and 
Lewis counties were comprised in this call, the whole to 
be under the command of General Collins. 

X This company of exempts numbered 56 men, officers 
and privates. A few citizens of Pinckney joined a com- 
pany of exempts in Lorraine, under Capt. Joseph Wil- 

§ Most of the facts above given were furnished by Mr. 
Leonard C. Davenport, who made it a specialty as an 
attorney for many years to solicit claims arising from 



pany.* Armies under Generals Dearborn, 
Izardjt Covington and Dodge,:}: besides 
many small parties of regulars, marines, 
militia and sailors, trains of artillery and 
arms under escort, went through at vari- 
ous times. 

In the winter of 1813-14, some tenor 
fifteen teamsters were hired from the 
north part of this county, and many more 
from Jefferson, to remove flour from 
Sackett's Harbor to French Mills, [Fort 
Covington] and from thence to Platts- 
burgh. They had returned as far as 
Chateaugay, where thirty-two teamsters 
had stopped at an inn for the night, and 
were carousing to wear away the tedious 
hours, as sleep in such a crowd was out 
of the question. Their gaiety was sud- 
denly arrested by the entrance of a Brit- 
ish officer, who informed them that the 
house was surrounded by his men, and 
that they were all prisoners. Their 
sleighs were loaded with plunder and 
they set out for Cornwall, where, 
after four days' detention, they were 
paid and dismissed. Mr. Ichabod Par- 
sons, of Denmark, was one of the party, 
and from him the circumstances were 
received in these details many years ago. 

Recent Militia Organizations. 

From i860 to 1864, there were two 
militia companies in the county ; a com- 
pany of artillery at Lowville, and one of 
infantry at Copenhagen. In 1863, the 
87thRegiment of State militia was formed 
by Governor Seymour and included 
Lewis county with other territory. 

The Lowville Greys, were mustered 
into the State militia service, February 
15, 1 87 1, in pursuance of a resolution of 

* Shadrach Snell, of Martinsburgh, a lad, ran away, 
joined this company, was taken prisoner, and died in 
Dartmoor Prison, in England. 

+ Izard's army passed in September, 1812. 

t General Dodpe was from Johnstown, and married a 
sister of Washington Irving. His brigade of about 1,000 
men was quartered a few days adjacent to the Old 
Academy on the site of the stone church in Lowville 

the Board of Supervisors, and they were 
mustered out February 15, 1882. They 
were known in the record as the " 19th 
Separate Company of Infantry N. G.," 
and were commanded by Captain and 
Brevet-Colonel Henry E. Turner from 
organization till October 1880, when he 
resigned, and Captain Louis A. Scott, 
succeeded him. Its last officers were L. 
A. Scott, Captain; A. A. Pelton, ist 
Lieutenant ; and J. H. Locklin, 2d Lieu- 

County Armory. 

The old frame building first erected 
for Trinity church was removed to Sha- 
dy Avenue by Moses M. Smith, and in 
November, 1864, was bought for a county 
armory for $1,800, and this sum was ap- 
plied upon a judgment held by the coun- 
ty against Smith and others,* in a mat- 
ter growing out of a settlement of his 
accounts as Countv Treasurer. The 
building was held by the county until 
afterwards sold, upon the general dis- 
continuance of county armories under a 
general law. 


Commemoration Celebration. 

The National Semi-Centennial Cel- 
ebration in 1826. 

THE completion of the first half-cent- 
ury of our National history, was 
duly celebrated by a county meeting 
held at Lowville, July 4, 1826, and pre- 
sented a feature of peculiar interest 
from the number of Revolutionary vet- 
erans assembled from all parts of the 
county, to honor it with their presence. 
Fifty-five of these were present at the 
dinner, and their names, present and 

* Henry McCarthy, William W, WooUey and Francis 



former residence and age, were present- 
ed as follows : — 

Name. Residence. Former Besidence. Ages. 

Levi Adams, Martinsbuigh,...Gianby, Ct., 63 

Charles Allen, do ...Windsor, Ct 64 

Joseph Anderson, Denmark, ...Cummington, Vt 71 

Jonathan Austin, Harrisburgh,Charleston, R. I., 71 

Jonathan Ball,* Lowville, Southborough, Mass. ,.75 

Jesse Benjamin, Martinsbmgh, Preston, Ct., 63 

Luther Bingham, Turin, Canterbuiy, Ct. 67 

Taylor Chapman, Lowville. ...Windsor, Ct., 63 

Leonard Chambers, Denmark, Dublin, Ire. 78 

SamueiClark, do Newton, Mass., 71 

Isaac Clinton, Lowville, Milford, Ct, 68 

Josiah Dewey, Leyden, Lebanon, Ct., 68 

Benjamin Dowd, Turin, Middleton, Ct., 64 

Giles Easton. Martinsburgh,...East Hartford, Ct.,....64 

Thomas Farr, do ...Chesterfield, N. H 67 

Samuel Garnsey, Lowville,. ...Dummerston. Vt 64 

Timothy Gorden, Mart'sburgh, Freehold, N. J., 70 

Samuel Gowdy, do Enfield, Ct 66 

Elijah Granger, do Southwick, Mass., 64 

Peler Hathery, Turin, Minden, N. Y., 59 

John Ives, do Meriden, Ct. , 65 

Solomon King, Lowville, Amenia, N. Y 70 

William Risner, Harrisburgh,Canajoharie, N. Y.,...66 

Nathaniel Lane, Lowville,.... Peekskill, N. Y., 58 

Ezekiel Lyman, Turin, Canterbury, Ct., 66 

Zelak Mead, Harrisburgh Salem, N. Y. .75 

William Miller, Martinsburgh.Middletown, N. Y.,...67 

Ithamer Morgan, Turin W.Springfield, Mass., 64 

Charles Morse, Lowville, Plainfield Ct. , 63 

Jeremiah Nott, Martinsburgh,Elizabethtown, N. J. ,.63 

Ichabod Murray, Lowville New Milford, Ct. 70 

Jacob Nash, Denmark,... ......Braintree, Mass 90 

Heniy Mumford, Mart'sburgh, Boston, Mass., 86 

Silas Perkins, do Windham, Ct., 62 

Isaac Perry, Lowville,... Fredericksburgh, N.Y.66 

Salmon Root, Martinsburgh, .Farmington, Ct,, 63 

Peter Ryel.f Denmark ...Fishkill, N. Y 67 

Elijah Skeels, Martinsburgh. . Kent, Ct., 73 

Levi Smith, Leyden Haddam, Ct 73 

John Shull, Lowville, Palatine, N. Y., 8l 

Hendrick Schaffer, Lowville, Manheim, N. Y., 66 

Abiather Spaulding, Denmark,Dover, N. Y 69 

James Stevens, Lowville, Glastonbury, Ct 6g 

Nicholas Streeter, Mart'sburgh, Stone Arabia, N. Y.,...74 
Joseph Talmadge, do East Hampton, N. Y.,71 

Edward Thompson, Lowville, Gran by, Ct., 66 

Jesse Thrall, do Windsor, Ct., 72 

Daniel Topping, Turin, Southampton, N. Y.,...84 

WillardWarriner, Mart'sburgh, Wilbraham, Mass 70 

Joseph Van Ingen, Denmark, .Schenectady, N. Y.,...63 

Jeremiah Wilcox. Mart'sburgh, Middletown, Ct., 81 

Josiah Wool worth, Leyden, ...Ellington, 73 

Levi Woolworth, 'Turin, Sufiield, Ct., 69 

Samuel Weyman, Mart'sburgh, Brethren, Mass., 67 

Mathias Wormwood, Lowville, Johnstown, N. Y., 75 

General George D. Ruggles acted as 
Marshal of the day, and the following 
military companies participated in the 
celebration, viz : Artillery from Turin, 
Captain Homer Collins ; Light Infantry 
from Martinsburgh, Captain Conkey ; 
Rifles from Lowville, Captain Dodge ; 

■* Mr. Ball died in Lowville, August 15, 1832, aged 79 

f Mr. Peter Ryel died in Denmark, September 17, 
1851, aged go years. 

and Rifles from Martinsburgh, Captain 
Coates. The Union band of Lowville 
Academy, under Captain G. De Feriet, 
discoursed patriotic music, and the Rev. 
Isaac Clinton delivered an oration at the 
Methodist church. 

The census of 1840, returned the 
names of thirty -eight Revolutionary 
pensioners, of whom fourteen were 
widows. Their names and ages were 
as follows : — 

Denmark, Elizabeth Graves, yj; John 
S. Clark, 78 ; Louisa Munger, 79 ; Han- 
nah Mores, 88 ; Elias Sage, 83 ; Joseph 
Van Ingen ; Peter Royal, 80. 

Greig, John Slaughter, 86. 

Harrisburgh, Elias Jones, 81 ; William 
Risner, 81 ; Garret Marcellus, 80. 

Lowville, John Buck, y6 ; Elisha Buck ; 
Wilham Chadwick, 79 ; Arthur Gor- 
don, 80. 

Leyden, Lydia Dewey, 79 ; Elizabeth 
Cone, 76 ; Ada Miller, 86 ; Lewis Smith, 
87 ; William Topping, 75 ; Hezekiah 
Johnson, 79. 

Martinsburgh, Ruth Adams; Jesse 
Benjamin, 81 ; Anna Easton, 69; Lydia 
Green, 80; Edward Johnson, 81; Sal- 
mon Root, "]"] ; Peter Vandriessen, 75 ; 
Bartholomew Williams, 76. 

Pinckney, Catharine Forbes, 84. 

Turin, Benjamin Dowd, 79 ; Giles 
Foster, 83. 

Watson, Sarah Puffer, 75 ; Jacob Shutz, 
78; Elizabeth Webb, 81; Lewis Day, 
73 ; Sarah Farr, 73. 

West Turin, Jonathan CoUins, 84; 
Simeon Strickland, 54. 

The Centennial of 1876. 

This was not celebrated within the 
county in any manner materially differ- 
ing from common years. The trustees 
of the Lowville Academy published a 
history of their institution upon the in- 
vitation of the Bureau of Education at 
Washington, covering the period of 
their existence down to that year. 

But the citizens in multitudes visited 
the great Exhibition at Philadelphia, 
and some lingered many days at that 
place. We are not aware that any arti- 



cles were sent for exhibition in the way 
of productions, or manufactures, except- 
ing a series of mounted birds, prepared 
by Romeyn B. Hough, now Curator of 
the Cabinet of Birds and Mammals at 
Cornell University, which were placed 
there upon invitation of the Commis- 
sioner of Education, the Hon. John 
Eaton, and at the expense of the Gov- 
ernment. A series of the publications by 
the author of this volume, and number- 
ing over sixty titles, was also placed 
there, under the same direction. 


Lewis County in the Late War. 
First Days of the War. 

THE citizens of Lewis county felt a 
lively interest in the progress of 
events which led to the fall of Sumter, 
but did not organize until after that 
event. On the 22d of April, the follow- 
ing call was published over the signa- 
tures of sixty-nine prominent citizens, 
representing both parties, and residing 
in nearly every town : — 

" Citizens of Lewis County : — Our be- 
loved country is infested with armed 
and organized bands of traitors. Our 
forts have been seized, the treasury 
robbed, and loyal citizens killed in de- 
fending the flag of our Union! The 
Federal Capital is in danger. The Pres- 
ident of the United States, and the Gov- 
ernor of the State of New York, call the 
citizen soldiery to the rescue! Meet 
with us at the Town Hall in Lpwville, 
on Saturday, at one o'clock P. M., to 
adopt measures for responding to these 
calls, and thereby testify in a substantial 
manner, to our Love of Country,— our 
devotion to Civil Liberty." 

This call was circulated by hand-bill 
and in both county papers. On the 
same date, [April 22d,] Horace R. Lahe, 
a journeyman printer in the office of the 
Journal & Republican, issued a call for 

volunteers by hand-bill, and his efforts 
resulted in the formation of a company, 
afterwards known as Company I, 14th 
New York Volunteers. Captain Lahe 
went out and returned as Captain of 
this company. 

At about the same time, William N. 
Angle, a merchant at Copenhagen, suc- 
ceeded in forming another company, 
which became Company B, 35th New 
York Volunteers. Spirited meetings 
were held at Copenhagen to promote 
this enterprise, which interested the 
towns of Denmark, Pinckney and Har- 

The first of these meetings at Copen- 
hagen, was held on the evening of April 
26th, at the Baptist church, and was very 
enthusiastic. Thirty-five volunteers had, 
at its close, enrolled their names in Cap- 
tain Angle's company, including those 
who had proviously enlisted, and liberal 
subscriptions were pledged. It was esti- 
mated that these would amount to 

The county meeting was held, pursu- 
ant to notice, on the 27th of April, and 
was well attended. Ziba Knox, Esq., 
was called to preside, and the proceed- 
ings were opened by a prayer. After 
short addresses, made by several citi- 
zens, the following resolutions were 
adopted : — 

Resolved, It is the sense of this meet- 
ing that the Federal Government should 
be sustained and defended as the com- 
mon household of every American. 

Resolved, It is the duty of the Govern- 
ment to keep open every communication 
to the National Capitol at every cost, 
except the surrender of the Government 

Resolved, That the business of this 
meeting be carried out by the commit- 
tees : — 

I. A general committee of three each, 
from Lowville, Martinsburgh, Turin, 
Watson, New Bremen, Greig, West 
Turin and Leyden, to solicit subscrip- 
tions and funds ; ist, to pay the expenses 



of volunteers, between enrollment and 
mustering ; 2d, to pay the expenses to 
muster into the service of the State, or 
the United States ; 3d, to relieve the 
families of such volunteers during the 
term of their enlistment. 

II. An Executive committee of six, to 
secure such funds, and assess such sub- 
scriptions pro rata, and to pay out the 
same. The minimum allowance to a 
family of a volunteer, was fixed at $10.00 
per month, and the sum of $1,410 was 
subscribed upon the spot. 

The executive committee appointed at 
this meeting consisted of DeWitt C. 
West, Elaida S. Merrill, Rutson Rea, 
Diodate Pease, Edwin S. Cadwell, and 
James H. Sheldon. 

At a subsequent meeting of this com- 
mittee, Mr. West was appointed chair- 
man ; James L. Leonard, treasurer ; and 
Diodate Pease, secretary. They con- 
tinued their existence through the first 
year of the war,- and about forty per 
cent, of the subscriptions were collected 
and paid to families, or otherwise spent 
in the recruiting service. 

Village and neighborhood meetings 
were held throughout the county, at 
which liberty poles were raised, and sub- 
scriptions taken for the encouragement 
of volunteers, and the relief of families. 

At a period dating from about the 29th 
of April, the Hon. Henry E. Turner, 
then County Judge, announced his in- 
tention of raising a company of Flying 
Artillery, of one hundred men. This 
measure was abandoned, but with his 
aid, Mr. Charles E. Mink, engineer on 
the steamer L R Lyon, began enlist- 
ments which resulted in part, in the for- 
mation of Company H, ist New York 
Artillery, of which Mr. Turner became 

Colonel Guilford D. Bailey, of this 
regiment, who afterwards fell at Fair 
Oaks, was a native of Lewis county, and 
a graduate of West Point. He was in 
the army that General Twiggs disband- 
ed in Texas, at the opening of the war. 

and an earnest patriot. His name doubt- 
less gave prestige to this effort, which 
was entirely successful, but the regi- 
ment, before entering the field, was di- 
vided into batteries, and its individuality 
was in a measure lost. 

Captain Angle's company left for 
Elmira on the 9th of May, and Captain 
Lahe's company for Albany at about the 
same time. While remaining in the 
county, such of the volunteers as had 
left home, were liberally supported in 
the families of citizens. 

In June, a company roll was opened 
by Philip W. Smith, at Lowville, and 
several volunteers were enlisted for a 
company at first intended for the " An- 
derson Zouaves," but finally merged in 
Company B, 59th New York Volun- 
teers. To promote this enterprise, a 
pubHc meeting was held on the 22d of 
June, at the Town Hall, in Lowville, and 
a committee was appointed, consisting 
of F. B. Hough, S. Sylvester, C. G. 
Riggs, Edwin Woolworth, and Thomas 
Baker, including the town of Lowville, 
and all south on the central tier of towns, 
who were authorized to call future meet- 
ings to promote enlistments, and raise 
means for supporting families. This 
measure was thought necessary, because 
the avails of the April meeting were 
applicable only to Captain Lahe's Com- 

This meeting was addressed by the 
Hon. Caleb Lyon, of Lyonsdale, Rev. 
Mr. Ball, Rev. S. H. Taft, Prof. Bennett, 
Rev. Mr. Ferris, Rev. Mr. Lockwood and 
others, and committees were appointed in 
the southern towns to raise subscriptions 
for Captain Smith's company. Under 
this effort subsequent local meetings 
were held, and considerable sums were 

The Rev. Jerome B. Taft, who had 
begun with Smith, subsequently started 
an independent company, of which the 
greater part were enlisted out of the 



count)'. It became Company E, 59th 
N. Y. Vols. 

Mr. Newton Hall, of Leyden, began, 
in June, to enlist men for a cavalry com- 
pany, and succeeded in forming what was 
afterwards known as Company G, 3d N. 
Y. Cavalry. He entered as Captain, and 
was promoted to Major in the last year 
of the war. His men were chiefly from 
the towns of Leyden and Greig. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated 
with unusually impressive proceedings 
at Lowville and elsewhere in the county. 
With the exception of the companies 
raised by Captains Angle and Lahe, 
none had left the county before the 
date of the First Battle of Bull Run. 
As no entire regiment or other sepa- 
rate organization was enlisted in Lewis 
county during the late war, it would be 
quite impossible to ascertain approxi- 
mately the number that entered the 
service from the several towns. 

In taking the State census in 1 865, while 
a part of the volunteer forces were still 
in the field, and at a time when all further 
enlistments had ceased, an inquiry was 
made in each family as to the number 
who had entered the service. The tend- 
ency would be to error in returning too 
few, rather than too many, as some who 
had enlisted may not have belonged to 
any family that could answer for them. 
This inquiry gave a return as follows : ^ 
Croghan, 123 ; Denmark, 107 ; Diana, loi ; ' 
Greig, 144; Harrisburgh, 70; High Mar- 
ket, 21 ; Lewis, 10; Leyden, 48; Lowville, 
118; Martinsburgh, 112; Montague, 39; 
New Bremen, 96; Osceola, 36 ; Pinckney, 
55 ; Turin, 73 ; Watson, 50; West Turin, 
50. Total, 1,253. 

The muster-in rolls of first entrance 
(but not of recruits who joined after- 
wards,) have been published, but in some 
cases the volunteers were not mustered 
in until reaching Albany, Elmira, or 
some other rendezvous. In other cases, 
persons may have been enlisted within 

the county who did not reside in it, 
and others who were residents enlisted 
elsewhere. An examination of the printed 
rolls above mentioned shows the follow- 
ing members : — 

14/^ Infantry, (2 years,) chiefly raised 
in Oneida county, mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States at Albany, May 
17, 1 861 ; mustered out May 24, 1863. 
Captain Horace R. Lahe raised Company 
1 of this regiment, chiefly in Lowville. A 
few from the southern border may have 
joined Captain Muller's company, chiefly 
raised in Boonville. 

35^/? Infantry, (2 years,) chiefly raised 
in Jefferson county, mustered into ser- 
vice at Elmira, June 11, 1861 ; mustered 
out June 5, 1863. Captain William N. 
Angle, of Copenhagen, raised Company 
B of this regiment, of whom 79 were 
from that place. 

59^/? Infantry, (3 years,) mustered in 
from July ist, to December, i86i,at New 
York; mustered out June 30, 1865. 
Captain PhiHp W. Smith, of Lowville, 
raised part of a company in the county. 
About 55 men from the county joined 
the regiment, of whom 39 entered Sniith's 

94M Infantry, (3 years,) chiefly raised 
in Jefferson county, mustered into ser- 
vice at Sackett's Harbor, March, 1862; 
mustered out July 18, 1865. About 64 
men from Lewis county, chiefly from the 
northern towns, entered this regiment, 
of whom 1 1 were in Company F, 3 in H, 
45 in I, and 5 in K. 

97M Infantry, (3 years,) chiefly raised 
in Oneida, Herkimer and Lewis counties, 
mustered into service at Boonville, Feb- 
ruary, 1862, mustered out July 18, 1865. 
About 120 men originally entered this 
regiment from the county, of whom 3 
were in Company A ; 60 in B (Captain 
Wm. R. Parsons); 11 in C (Captain 
Stephen Manchester) ; 40 in H (Captain 
Anton Brendle, chiefly Germans) ; and 6 
in Company K. 

1 86//? Infantry, (i year,) chiefly raised 
in Jefferson county, mustered in at 
Sackett's Harbor, in August and Sep- 
tember, 1864 ; mustered out June 2, 1865. 
About 130 men joined from this county, 
of whom 23 were in Company A (Cap- 
tain H. J. Welch); 2 in D ; 100 in F 



(Captain Charles D. Squires) ; 4 in H ; 
and I in I. 

isi Artillery, {t, years,) Colonel Guil- 
ford D. Bailey, mustered in at Elmira, 
and the number from this county not 
separately given. The regiment served 
as batteries, upon entering the field in 
the spring of 1862. 

$tk Artillery. — " 3d Battalion, Black 
River Artillery," (3 years,) mustered into- 
service at Sackett's Harbor, September 
12, 1862. Transferred to 5th Artillery, 
October, 1862; mustered out, July 19, 
1865. Captain Henry L. Smith, Compa- 
ny A, 154 men; Captain F. E. Root, 
Company B, 120 men ; Captain Henry 
B. Wilder, Company C, 131 men; Cap- 
tain, George W. Hubbard, Company D, 
141 men, from Lewis county. 

loth Artillery. — First known as " ist, 
2d and 4th Battalions, Black River Ar- 
tillery," organized September i ith to 
December 22, 1862, New York City; 
mustered out, June 23, 1865. A few men 
from this county — 3 in company F, 
(Captain E. McGrath,) and 8, raised by 
2d Lieutenant John E. Pritchard ; 27 in 
Captain Seneca R. Cowles' company, 
and 5 in Captain B. B. Taggarts com- 

\lth Artillery. — Mustered in August, 
1863 to September 1864. Transferred to 
6th Heavy Artillery, June 27, 1868; 18 
men from Lewis county. 

igth Artillery. — Chiefly organized at 
Rochester, August 29th to December 17, 
1863; mustered out, August 26, 1865. 
about 113 men from this county, of whom 
38 were in CaptainJohnWeed's company; 
5 in Captain David Jones' ; 12 in Cap- 
tain W. A. Treadwell's; 8 in Captain 
Chauncey Wilkes'; 30 in Captain Je- 
rome Cooper's ; 19 in Captain Charles H. 
Houghton's ; and i in Captain Luther 

2d Cavalry. — (Afterwards called 7th 
Cavalry), 8 companies mustered in at 
Troy and Elmira.October 8th, to Novem- 
ber 6, 1861 ; mustered out, March 31, 
1862. Captain John Wesley Horr's 
company had about 50 men from the 
county, and a small number in one or 
two other companies. 

3(3? Cavalry. — Mustered in at New 
York, July 17, August 22, 1861. Con- 

solidated with 7th Cavalry, July 21, 1865. 
Captain Newtim Hall's Company G, had 
34 men, when first mustered, from this 

\Zth Cavalry. — Mustered in at New 
York, from July 18, 1863, to February 
3, 1864. Some 9 or 10 men in Company 
L, were from Lewis county. 

20th Caz'a'/rjf.— Mustered in at Sackett's 
Harbor, September, 1863 ; mustered out, 
July 31, 1865. In this regiment, known 
as the " McClellan Cavalry," Captain 
Charles F. Smith's company, contained 
66 Lewis county men ; Captain John 
O'Hara's company B, 4 ; Captain Norris 
M. Carter's company E, 32 ; Captain 
Carpenter's 2 ; Captain J. J. Carroll's 6; 
Captain S. L. Bridgford's, and Captain 
J. F. Thompson's each 2 ; and Captain F. 
Stewart 3, when first mustered. 

2^th Cavalry. — "Frontier Cavalry," 
organized at various places from Decem- 
ber 29, 1863 to February 22, 1864, for i 
year; mustered out July 7, 1865. The 
number who entered this regiment can- 
not be stated, as they were mustered in 
at Watertown. 

Many natives of the county who had 
previously emigrated to other sections 
of the country, entered the service as 
members of regiments of other States. 
It would therefore be quite impossible to 
state with even an approach to accuracy, 
the share actually taken by the county 
in the war. 

It may however be safely stated, that 
no section of the North, evinced a greater 
willingness 'to incur the dangers or to 
bear the burdens ot th,at period, than did 
Northern New York, and that were the 
personal annals of the war written fully 
up, they would present instances of pa- 
triotism as fervent as could be furnished 
in the history of any period of the world. 

List of Persons who died in the Military 
Service from Lewis County, in the 
War of i86i-'65, as reported by the 
Census of 1865. 

In the State Census of 1865, an at- 
tempt was made to ascertain by inquiry 



in families, the names and details of ser- 
vice of members belonging to the family 
who had been, or who then were in the 
military or naval service of the United 
States. There were no returns made 
concerning the dead from the towns of 
High Market and Lewis, and from the 
other towns the list is manifestly imper- 
fect, and perhaps it may be in some re- 
spects erroneous in the spelling of names, 
and in the names of regiments and dates. 
It is not therefore presented as a full list, 
but as a list returned in the manner above 
mentioned, and without opportunity of 
verification by reference to other rec- 


Barker, Thomas G., 7th N. Y. Cavalry, 
died June 28, 1862, at Baltimore, 

Cash, I. Patrick, 59th N. Y. Volunteers. 

Dickerson, Thomas, 26th N. Y. Volun- 

Hamen, Nicholas, i8th N. Y. Volun- 
Harvey, John, i86th N. Y. Volunteers, 

died March 8, 1864, at City Point, 

Hubbell, George, loth N. Y. Artillery, 

died in hospital. 
Martin, Henry, 97th N. Y. Vols. 
Patchin, Nathan, — Cavalry, died April, 

1865, in hospital. 
Porte, Orsemus, 35th N. Y. Vols., died 

November 29, 1862, in hospital. 
Sawyer, Jacob, — Artillery. 
Sherman, Henry, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

August 30, 1862, in hospital. 
Wetmore, Henry I., 27th N. Y. Vols., 

died November 9, 1862. 
Wiseman, George, loth N. Y. Artillery, 

died September, 1864, in hospital at 

Hampton, near Fortress Monroe, Va. 
From other sources we add the name 
of Franklin B. Farr, son of John F., who 
died at Hicks Hospital, August 2, 1865 ; 
Sergeant in Company H, 2d New York 
Heavy Artillery, aged 23. 


Austin, William S., — Artillery, died 
July 8, 1864, at Portsmouth, Va. 

Barnes, William, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 
died November 10, 1862. 

BUnn, CHnton Abner, 48th N. Y. Vols., 
died April 13, 1865, at David's 
Island, N. Y. 

Corner, John H., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 
died January 24, 1864, at Harper's 

Crane, James Madison, died January 12, 
1862, in hospital. 

Dunniway, Gustavus, 5th N. Y. Artil- 
lery, died April 13, 1864, in hospital. 

Lassell, Moses, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 
November 15, 1862, in hospital. 

Perkins, Charles H., ist N. Y. Artillery, 
died January 21, 1862, in hospital. 

Sage, Lewis H., i86th N. Y. Vols., died 
December 10, 1864, in hospital. 

Sprague, Benjamin, 59th N. Y. Vols., 
died April 5, 1865. 

Sprague, Martin, — Artillery, died Jan- 
uary 12, 1865. 

Thompson, Nathaniel, ist N. Y. Artil- 
lery, died July 2, 1862, at Philadel- 

Wilkins, Martin A., L4th N. Y. Artillery, 
died March 28, 1865, of wounds. 

Florida, Frank, of Captain Wilder's com- 
pany, 5th New York Artillery, died 
November, 1864, at Maryland 
Heights, Va. ; buried in Copenha- 


Barber, Hallett W., 15th U. S. Infantry, 

died June 24, 1864, in hospital. 
Bray, Jonathan A., ist N. Y. Artillery, 

died Oct. 31, 1864, in hospital. 
Carley, Alva B., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died Nov. 17, 1864. 
Clark, Samuel, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, died 

Sept. 26, 1864. 
Durney Daniel, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, died 

Oct. 9, 1864. 
Galvin, Michael, 6oth N. Y. Vols., died 

March, 1865. 
Green, Alonzo S., 35th N. Y. Vols., died 

July 20, 1864, in prison. 
Hall, Sylvanus, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 

died Sept. 2, 1864, in prison. 
Herrington, Welton, 105th N. Y. Vols., 

died June 18, 1864. 
Lasher, Luther S., 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

Sept. 17, 1862, battle of Antietam. 
McSyger Michael, 14th N. Y.Vols, died 

August, 1864. 



Mongle, Orrin V., ist N. Y. Artillery, 
died June 26, 1864. 

Seely, Sebra, 94th N. Y. Vols., died Aug. 
30, 1862, battle of Bull Run. 

Weed, Henry C, i86th N. Y. Vols., died 
April 2, 1865, in battle near Peters- 

Greig, (including Lyonsdale.) 

Beals, Harvey F., 59th N. Y. Vols., died 

Jan. 12, 1864. 
Burr, Nelson, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

August 17, 1864, in prison. 
Clark, Joseph H., sth N. Y. Artillery. 
Crandal, Adelbert, i86th N. Y. Vols., 

killed in battle, April 2, 1865. 
Dailey, Hiram M., 14th N. Y. Artillery, 

died July 15, 1863. 
Gallup, Mordecai, i86th N. Y. Vols., 

died April 2, 1865, in battle. 
Harvey, George, 87th N. Y. Vols. 
Hough, Eli, 97th N. Y. Vols. 
Lampman, David E., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died Sept. 19, 1864. 
Lampman, John E., sth N. Y. Artillery, 

died April 15, 1865. 
Laroy, Francis G., 14th N. Y. Artillery. 
Lief, John, regiment not reported. 
Loness, Peter, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

April 29, 1864. 
Morse, Jacob, sth N. Y. Artillery, died 

June 12, 1864. 
Morton, Charles S., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died Sept. 7, 1864. 
Sabine, Irvine, regiment not reported, 

died July 5, . 

Seymour, Henry, 5th N. Y. Artillery. 
Tanger, Martin G., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died Sept. 19, 1864, in prison. 
Tugaw, Henry, ist N. Y. Artillery. 


Austin, WiUiam S., Co. A, 20th N. Y. 

Cavalry, died July 7, 1864. 
Duff, Edward, 14th R Y. Artillery. 
Durfey, Edwin E., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died Oct. 15, 1864, at Maryland 

Edgehill, Harlan, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 

died August, 1864. 
Lane, James R., 20th N. Y. Cavalry, 

died Oct. 17, 1864. 
Rhodes, Frederick, 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died "Sept. 29, 1864. 

Thomas, Henry S., i86th N. Y. Vols., 

died March 9, i86s. 
Weller, Hazael, 35th N. Y. Infantry, died 

Sept. 6, 1862. 


Brown, George, 117th N. Y. Vols., died 
June 15, 1865. 

Brown, James, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 
July I, 1863, killed at Gettysburgh. 

Clark, R. S., 14th N. Y. Artillery, died 
Oct. 16, . 

Cook, William, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 
died Dec. 12, — = — . 

Pitcher, Horace S., 51st N. Y. Vols., 
died Sept. 11, 1864. 

Post, Alonzo, 14th N. Y. Artillery. 

Scovil, A. J., 14th N. Y. Artillery. 

Scrafford, Jacob, regiment not report- 
ed, died Dec. 22, 1864. 

Thornton, J. M., 14th N. Y. Artillery. 


Allen, A. W., 14th N. Y. Artillery, died 

July 14, 1864, at Andersonville, 

Brownell, George, loth N. Y. Artillery. 
Ebblie, Albert, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

Nov. 15, 1862. 
Gorman, Patrick, — U. S. Infantry. 
Macoloch, William, 14th N. Y. Vols., 

died Nov. 18, 1864. 
Phinney, Josiah, sth N. \^ Artillery, 

died Dec. i, 1862. 
Rathbone, W. R., 59th N. Y. Vols., died 

autumn of 1864. 
Rettis, Henry, S9th N. Y. Vols., died 

April 2, 1862. 
Safford, Legrand B., 28th Wisconsin 

Vols., died July 29, 1864. 
Tuttle, Milo M., 6th Michigan Cavalry, 

died March 27, 1865. 
Wyeth, Madison, lUinois Vols., died 

March, 1862. 

We add from other sources : — 
Cook, Seward, 14th N. Y. Vols., died at 
Fort Wood, Bedloe's Island, N. Y., 
June 3, 1862, aged 22; son of G. R. 
Dewey, Major Lewis F., 2d Infantry.died 
at Jacksonville, Fla., Nov. 3, 1868, 
aged 33 years and 7-months. 
Leonard, George E., Co. B, 94th N. Y. 
Vols., died at Ely's Ford.Va., Dec. i, 
1863, aged 37 years ; son of Stephen L. 



McRae, William, 59th N. Y. Vols., died 
after imprisonment, at Anderson- 
ville, Ga. 

Stephens, Carlos D., Sheboygan Co., 
Independent 8th Wis. Vols., died 
at Pilot Knobb, Mo., Nov. 6, 1861, 
aged 28 years ; son of Rufus S., of 


Allen, Thorn, 59th N. Y. Vols., died June 

1 1 , 1 864. 
Arthur, Maurice H., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died April 24, 1862. 
Bates, James K., 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

March 16, 1864, at Andersonville. 
Bates, Lester, 97th N. Y. Vols., died June 

16, 1864, at Andersonville. 
Butts, Joseph, 97th N. Y. Vols. 
French, James R., 14th N. Y. Artillery, 

died February 20, 1865. 
Hartley, Ezra P., Lieutenant 14th N. Y. 

Artillery, died July 30, 1864. 
Hartley, William H., 14th N.Y. Artillery, 

died October 11, 1864. 
Hoyt, Ogden A., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died May 14, 1865. 
Lynch, John Jr., 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died January i, 1863. 
Madrick, , ist N. Y. Artillery, died 

May 3, 1862. Killed in battle. 
Peeler, George, 59th N. Y. Vols., died 

November 15, t86/]. 
Pitcher Oliver, 14th N. Y. Vols., died 

July 17, 1862, mortally wounded at 

Games' Mill. 
Rothwell, William, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, 

died September, 1864, at Anderson- 
Seymour, Jefferson D., 5th N. Y. Artil- 
lery, died October 24, 1864. 
We add from other sources the fol- 
lowing : — 
Jerome D. Brooks, died in Washington, 

December 23, 1862, aged 31. 
Cornehus Babcock, died in Washington, 

July 18, 1864, aged 18. 
William C. Pease, died March 6, 1862, 

aged 18. 
Charles A. French, died at Port Sum- 
ner, August 23, 1865, aged 22. 
William B. Hubbard, died of wounds 

received at Pittsburg Landing, 

April, 1862, aged 22. 
George H. Patten, died September 21, 

1864, aged 25. 


Ceast, David, 5th N. Y, Artillery, died 

August 18, 1864. 
Durham, Henry S., died August 31, 1864, 

in hospital, at Fort Woodbury, Va., 

aged 37, company B, loth N. Y. V. 
Keig, John S., 94th N. Y. Vols., died 

August 31, 1862. 
Neibergall, George, i86th N. Y. Vols., " 

died April 2d, 1855. 
Sheldon, Sherman, 2d Veteran Cavalry, 

died April 5, 1864. 
Sheldon, Zadoc, 20th N. Y. Cavalry. 
Weed, Lewis, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

November 25, 1862. 

New Bremen. 

Bush, John C, i86th N. Y. Vols., died 

February 4, 1865. 
Dekin, Erwin A., 94th N. Y. Vols., died 

April 10, 1863. 
Green, Hiram I., 8ist N. Y. Vols., died 

May 31, 1862. 
Habriger, Nicholas, 97th N. Y. Vols., 

died September, 1863. 
Kischner, Nicholas, i8th N. Y. Vols., 

died December 10, 1864, aged 35. 
Major, John, 117th N. Y. Vols., died July 

12, 1863. 
Murphy, Francis, i8th N. Y. Vols., died 

August 12, 1864. 
Oberly, Frederick, loth N. Y. , died 

July 31, 1864. 
Peak, John, sth N. Y. Artillery, died 

January 18, 1863, company L, 3d 

Battery, 5th Artillery. 
Puffer, Reuben S., 7th Connecticut , 

died June 9, 1864. 
Roster, Frederick, 76th N. Y. Vols., died 

, 1864. 

Ruprick, Francis, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

September, 1863. 
Searles, Clark S., 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

November 28, 1863. 
Squires Seth, 59th N. Y. Vols., died 

January 8, 1863. 
Stevens George, 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died August 29, 1864. 
Verney, Joseph, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

June, 1862. 
Wilder, Charles, i8th N. Y. Vols., died 

August 15, 1864. 


Riley, Sylvester, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 
I May 5, 1864. 




Conklin, Henry, 2d N. Y. Artillery, died 

•February 12, 1864. 
Cornwell, Wilson J., loth N. Y. Artillery, 

died September 4, 1863. 
Green, Sylvester, i86th N. Y. Vols., died 

May I, 1865. 
Hall, Albert, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

July 31, 1864. 
Hollis, David, Sth N. Y. Artillery, died 

January 24, 1863. 
Hotten, Nicholas, Jr., loth Wisconsin 

, died April 6, 1863. 

Howard, Michael, 94th N. Y. Vols., died 

December 26, 1863. 
Jones, Frederick, 18th N. Y. Cavalry, 

died September 20, 1864. 
Jones, Oscar, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

September 10, 1864. 
Peck, Miles, 14th N. Y. Artillery. 
Streeter, Danforth, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 

died September 25, 1864. 
Ward, L. Lampson, 94th N. Y. Vols., 

died November 8, 1864. 
Wilson, Warren, 3d N. Y. Cavalry, died 

September 30, 1864. 
Wright, Lansing, 17th N. Y. Cavalry, 

died November 21, 1863. 


Clobridge, Charles C, 14th N. Y. Artil- 
lery, died August 23, 1864. 

Hulbert, Dwight, 2d N. Y. Cavalry, 
died June 22, 1864. 

Jones, David C, ist N.Y. Artillery, died 
April 21, 1864. 

Ledger, John C, 5th N. Y. Artillery, 
died October 6, 1864. 

McVicker, William, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, 
died June 2, 1865, in prison. 

Mason, Libanus, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 
died December 5, 1864, in prison. 

Mason, Theodore P., 14th N. Y. Artil- 
lery, died December i, 1864, in 

Mather, Russell, 27th N. Y. Vols., died 
December 16, 1864. 

Peak, Jonathan, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, died 
December 8, 1864. 

Phelps, George, 14th N. Y. Vols., died 
July I, 1862. 

Rockwell, Levi, Sth N. Y. Artillery, 
died September 3, 1864. 

Scrafford, Jacob H., 20th N. Y. Cavalry, 
died December 22, 1864. 

Seckner, Jefferson, jth N. Y. Artillery, 
died February 4, 1865. 

Seckner, Nelson, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, 
died August 2, 1864. 

Towner, Seth, 2d Illinois Infantry, died 
December 16, 1864. 

White, Frederdick, , died Novem- 
ber 5, 1863. 
We add from other sources the fol- 
lowing : — 

Hill, Andrew, son of Cornelius H., 
starved to death at Andersonville, 

Roberts, Ela V., died in hospital at 
Washington, April 11, 1862, aged 
18 ; only sou of Caroline R., widow 
of Elisha R. 


Back, John, 97th N. Y. Vols., died Aug. 

24, 1864. 
Bowman, Charles, 14th N. Y. Artillery, 

died May 12, 1864. 
Coal, Nelson, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

December 8, 1863. 
Dunbar, John, 14th N. Y. Artillery, died 

March 25, 1865. 
Hall, Monroe, 5th N. Y. Artillery, died 

October 27, 1862. 
Harrington, Robert, 5th N. Y. Artillery, 

died December 24, 1864. 
Higby, Louis, 3d N. Y. , died Sep- 
tember 29, 1864. 
Moyer, Dwight, 3d N. Y. , died 

January 20, 1862. 
Moyer, Oliver, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 

January 4, 1865. 
Wilder, Thomas D., i86th N. Y. Vols., 

died January 6, 1865. 

West Turin. 

Bennett, George W., Company G, 14th 
N. Y. Artillery, died August 17, 

Burns, Luke, 97th N. Y. Vols., died 
March 19, 1862. 

Loftis, Patrick, Company K, 5th N. Y. 
Artillery, died April 6, 1865, from 
sickness acquired m prison. 

McCorley, Bortley, regiment not men- 

Morris, Edwin, Company C, 57th N. Y. 
Vols., died March 12, 1862. 

Pierce, John, 57th N. Y. Vols., died Feb- 
ruary — , 1865. 



Plumb, Samuel L., 57th N. Y. Vols., 
died February 28, 1862, at Alexan- 
Strickland, Walter S., Company K, 5th 
N. Y. Artillery, died December 5, 

Taylor, Theodore N., Company C, 57th 
N. Y. Vols., killed May 5, 1864, at 

Thompson, Lewis L., Company B, 97th 
N. Y. Vols., died November 16, 
1863 ; remains buried in Consta- 
We add from other sources the fol- 
lowing : — 

Budd, William C, Sergeant, son of Dr. 
Budd, of Constableville, killed in 
Mississippi, August 31, 1862. 

Schultz, Theodore, Company C, 57th N. 
Y. Vols., killed near Richmond, 
June 27, 1862. 

Keriter, Martin, Jr., Company F., 14th 
N. Y. Vols., killed in Seven Days' 
battle before Richmond, July 2, 
1862, and buried on the field. 

Crofoot, Henry, Company C, 57th N. 
Y. Vols., killed at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864, and buried where he 

Mumford, Newcomb P., Company F, 
1 86th N. Y. Vols., died December 
20, 1864; remains buried in High 

Purcy, John, Company B, 14th N. Y. 
Vols., died February 2, 1865, at 
home while on a furlough. 

Hawley, John, Company H, 6th Artil- 
lery, (?) died of wounds, near Alex- 
andria, Va., July, 1864. 

Higby, Edward F., Company H, 14th 
N. Y. Vols., died at home, Septem- 
ber 2, 1864. 

Collins, Bryan R., died at Harrison's 
Landing, July 15, 1862; buried in 
old St. Paul's Cemetery in this 

Duff, Edwin R., Company B, 59th N. 
Y. Vols., died October 15, 1863, 
from wounds received near Bristow 
Station, Va. 

The Death Roll of Martinsburgh 
Volunteers, in the War of 
A group of portraits, fourteen in num- 
ber, was photographed upon one sheet 

at the instance of Mr. Sidney Sylvester, 
and copies of this memento printed off 
from the same negative are preserved 
in many households in that town. The 
names are as follows : — 

1. Ezra P. Hartley, killed before Peters- 
burgh, July 36, 1864, aged 22. 

2. John Lynch, Jr., died at Washington, 
Jan. I, 1863, aged 18. 

3. Jerome D. Brooks, died at Washing- 

ton, Dec. 23, 1862, aged 31. 

4. Cornelius Babcock, died at Washing- 
ton, July 18, 1864, aged 18. 

5. James R. French, died at Baltimore, 

Feb. 20, 1865, aged 18. 

6. William Rothwell, died at Ander- 
sonville, Sept. 12, 1864, aged 29. 

7. William C. Pease, died March 6, 

1862, aged 18. 

8. Morris H. Arthur, died at Washing- 
ton, April 23, 1863, aged 23. 

9. Charles A. French, died at Fort 
Sumner, Aug. 23, 1865", aged 22. 

10. WiUiam H. Hartley, died on Long 

Island, Oct. 11, 1864, aged 18. 

11. William B. Hubbard, died of wounds 

received at Pittsburg Landing, 
April, 1862, aged 22. 

12. George Peeler, died at Anderson- 
ville, Nov. 15, 1864, aged 23. 

13. George H. Patten, died at Maryland 

Heights, Sept. 21, 1864, aged 25. 

14. Jefferson DeGrasse Seymour, died 

Oct. 23, 1864, aged 27. 

Of the foregoing list, numbers i and 10 
were sons of Walter Hartley ; 3, the son 
of Alfred J. Brooks ; 4, the son of Har- 
vey Babcock ; 2, the son of John Lynch ; 
5 and 9, the sons of Frederick French ; 

6, was an Englishman, who had been 
living in the family of Warren Arthur ; 

7, was the son of Jabez Pease ; 8, the 
son of Augustus Arthur ; 12, the son of 
Joseph Peeler, and 13, the son of George 
W. Patten. 

Draft Ordered in 1862. 

The first draft of the late war was 
ordered to be had on the loth of No- 
vember, 1862. The quota assigned to 
Lewis county, was 846, to which 5 per 
cent. (42) were added, making the total 



requisition 888. The entire quota was 
120,000 for the State. The number from 
each town, with the 5 per cent added, 
was as follows : — 

Croghan, 26. 

Denmark, 83. 

Diana, 48. 

Greig, 57. 

Harrisburgh, 43. 

High Market, 38. 

Lewis, 46. 

Ley den, 61. 

Lowville, "J"]. 

Martinsburgh, 92. 

Montague, 23. 

New Bremen. 58. 

Osceola, 19. 

Pinckney, 45. 

Turin, 60. 

Watson, 33. 

West Turin, 79. 
The Senatorial Committee for the 18th 
District in Lewis county, was composed 
of DeWitt C. West, of Lowville ; S. G. 
Scoville, of Copenhagen ; Edwin S. 
Miller, of Constableville ; and Peter Kir- 
ley, of Watson. 

No draft was held at that time, the 
quotas having been filled by volunteer 

The Lewis County Draft of August, 

Croghan. — (Enrolled, 134; Drawn, 36.) 
Noah Denicia, Morris Revener, John 
Noffseger, Albert Overton, John San- 
derson, Owen Mointagnon, Edmund 
Weatherhead, John C. Warner, Sebas- 
tian Guyon, John E. Fredinberg, John 
H. Putnam, Alex. Mouget, Zefferin Bono, 
Michael Henry, Nicholas Henry, Nich- 
olas Jeffley, Henry MulHn, Andrew Zehr, 
Philip Zecher, Henry Rceder, Claude 
Bastian, Joseph Violet, Wm. R. Town- 
send, Sylvester Arch Dickens, Sebastian 
Champney, 2d, Richard Palmer, Jule 
Violet, Albert Parker, Geo. Welch, 
Francis Monnett, Jacob Miller, Joseph 
F. Chattilm, Fred. Sauer, Wm. Head- 
man, Thomas Byer, Eugene C. Mangin. 

Denmark. — (Enrolled, 212 ; Drawn, 58.) 
Duet Rogers, Charles B. Sherwood, Wm. 
H. White, Horace F. Rich, Emory O. 
Shepard, Henry B. Whitney, Stephen 
P. Howard. Geo. D. Hewitt, Charles S. 
Thompson, John Murphy, Jr.. Horace 
Potter, Roland Houghton, Jr., Andrew 
M. Hulbert, John H. Raymond, James 
Johnston, Sherman Judson, Warren 
Vorce, Charles E. Vrooraan, Guilford 
D. Parsons, James F. Bassett, Isaac 
Tripp, Geo. J. Dryden, Geo. Barnum, 
A. M. Ryel, Marcus D. Nichols, Carlos 
C. Potter, Emerson P Weller, Geo. C. 
Hawkins, John T. Hartwell, John E. 
Vroman, Leonard W. Loomis, Carol 
Crary, David Yemo, Wm. Pierce, Mor. 
gan W. Clark, Enos Galop, Jr., Peter 
Snyder, Garret N. Goutremont, Wm. 
W. Leonard, Darwin Nash, Milo Barnum, 
Geo. Hofcut, Joseph Thompson, Imri 
Johnson, Fred. M. Leonard, A. G. 
Harter, Pat. Murphy, Wm. Agins, Chas. 
S. Hartwell, Elam R. Austin, Homer H. 
Benedict, Warren Allen, Lorenzo M. 
Rich, Alonzo S. Austin, Franklin D. 
Austin, Clark J. Hewit, Chester L. 
Smith, Oscar P. Hadcock, 

Diana. — (Enrolled, 154; Drawn, 44.) 
William Sautwell, Martin Clark, Aus- 
tin Blanchard, Zelotus Clark, Abram 
Hogan, Joel Hulburt, Monroe Sturte- 
vant. Dexter Wright, Thomas Mulvany, 
Albert M. Simser, Charles A. Ackerman, 
Charles C. Pierce, Oliver E. Holmes, 
Thophilus Fitzgerald, James M. Chat- 
tuck, Charles T. Cheesbro, William 
Weaver, Patrick Doyle, Tom Allen, 
John Guiles, James 2d, Charles Smith, 
George W. Dyke, Aaron Hume, 
Oscar Blanchard, Charles Wessel, Hi- 
ram Phillips, Peter Campbell, Jr., Charles 
Prosier, Silas Bowhall, Anthony Melany, 
Oscar Van Wagoner, John Fiick, George 
Miller, James Doyle, ist, Allen Kinsman, 
Addison Wilcox, George Davis, Richard 
Hulbert,Wm. R. Dodge, John D. Moyer, 
Amenzo Kinsman, Michael Corbin. 



Greig. — (Enrolled, 157; Drawn, 46.) 
Wessel Gallup, Francis Leland, Joel W. 
Agur, Allen Blade, Edward Conelly, 
Thomas Northrup, Lucian T. Hoag, 
Solon Burnap, Jr., Charles A. Dominick, 
Samuel Haskins, Joseph Depeau, John 
Brewer, Thomas Kirley, William F. 
Reed, John VanOrum" Orlando Hub- 
bard, Leonard H. Burdick, Jeremiah 
McDonald, Alfred A. Brown, John Lam- 
bell, James E. Northrup, William Bar- 
ley, Henry W. Failing, Reuben W. 
Ralph, Joseph Thomas, John Shannon, 
William Jewett, Harrison Lane, Josh 
Henry Stalker, Alfred Higbee, Edwin 
F. Green, Russel Burdick, Patrick O. 
Marrow, Dillon Smith, John C. Mealus, 
William A. Pullman, Roland Stearns, 
Ira Foot, John L. Smith, Levi Depeau, 
Franklin Graves, Patrick Lana, Charles 
Wooley, Samuel Blanchard, John Moyer, 
David Covey. 

Harrisburgh. — (Enrolled, 126; Drawn, 
34.) Alexander Terrell, Matthew Carey, 
Mortimer Florida, Robert Porter, Hugh 
Jones, Pardon Laupher, Wm. Mclntyre, 
Walker Whiler, Charles Rhodes, Lod- 
wick R. Humphrey, David R. Cobb, 
Ansel G. Holmes, Edward Duffy, Geo. 
W. Simmons, Marcus Petrie, Peter Hen- 
ry, John Kelsey, James McCarty, Thom- 
as O'Brien, Seymour W. Austin, Will- 
iam O'Brien, Thomas Battle, Prescott 
W. Jones, Elliot Knapp, Sylvester Win- 
decker, James McLane, Warren J. Lash- 
ar, James R. Lane, Stephen Vandrie, 
Sebastian Hoch, John Brady, Thomas 
Whalen, Sidney • Laupher, Marion Shel- 

High Market.— (Enrolled, 89 ; Drawn, 
23.) Anthony Kirk, James Kelley, John 
W. Gainer, Michael Martough, John 
Loftus, Garrett Rourke, Philo Marto, 
Albert D. Blair, James McHale, Joseph 
Powell, Dennis Fox, Charles Mumford, 
Gilbert Higbee, Patrick Conner, James 
Buckley, Jr., Jacob Wise, Francis Joint, 
Anthony Joint. William Barker, Charles 

Gormnly, Patrick Rourke, Francis Eis- 
enicker, Charles Oster. 

Lewis. — (Enrolled, 140 ; Drawn, 39.) 
Pratt Griffin, WiUiam J. Grey, Nicho- 
las Rein Miller, Adam Stein, Stephen 
Flinn, Nicholas Sends, Leonard Meyers, 
1st, Joseph Nellebacker, Broteus Rusque, 
Henry Dice, Jacob Bowish, John Carr- 
ar, J. A. Pease, Charles Selman, Fred 
Meyers, Jr., ist, Albert S. Capron, Jacob 
Shoe, Gottleib Jutzlier, William Harger, 
John O. Adams, Anthony Rymiller, ist, 
George Echart, Joseph Shoe, Anthony 
Urts, Ela Fox, Frederick Ruble, William 
Pinger, Peter Urts, EUis Howk, Peter 
Rip, Frank Selman, George Capron, 
John Mills, Jr., Henry H. Hough, John 
Joseph Weegl, Francis Eisenicker, 
Adam Keim, John Grems, Edward Sel- 

Leyden. — (Enrolled, 210 ; Drawn, 59.) 
William H. Cole, Oliver La Frances, 
Amos H. Miller, Henry Zoofelt, Mi- 
chael Kaw, William A. Olmsted, Or- 
rin Thayer, Robert Wilcox, Spaulding 
Deck, Fred Hays, Gilbert S. Spencer, 
Walter Welch, George Geoyscope, John 
Feshumal, Markes Stooring, Adam 
Scrafford, David E. Jones, Jerome B. 
Nelson, Lewis N. Northam, George W. 
Bacon, Leonard C. Miller, Henry D. H. 
Snyder, Lewis Kelsey, Hiram Whiter, 
John V. Talcott, And. Swink, George 
Marcy, Judson Thornton, Carlos Combs, 
Thaddeus E. Munn, John Schwartfager, 
Jacob Sawyer, George Kroop, Freder- 
ick C. Taylor , John O'Hara, Chester 
Dean, Martin H. Scovill, Moses Lord, 
Augustus Merriam, Robert H. Roberts, 
Hial H. Kellogg, John Loso, Hiram 
Lane, Thomas White, Andrew Nugent, 
N. Oscar Wolcott, Chester Dewey, 
William W. Bacon, Francis A. Sawyer, 
Robert Lane, Cephas C. Topping, Ben- 
jamin Cooper, Horace L. Wilcox, James 
Brady, William H. Wilcox, Henry Dice, 
Carlostine A. Pope, Dennis Looring, 
George W. EUenwood. 



Lowville. — (Enrolled, 242 ; Drawn, 66.) 
Stuart C. Boice, Isaac D. Larkins, Dio 
C. Perkins, Roland Wakefield, Henry E. 
Smith, James P. Bowman, Stephen S. 
Kling, Wm. Archer, John O'Brien, Geo. 
H. McCarty, John J. Knox, Edwin R. 
Cook, John Neighborgall, Daniel Sulli- 
van, Roland Hall, Eleisur Rasbeck, 
Henry R. Martin, Sylvester D. Cook, 
Fred. Fowler, Charles L. Easton, John 

A. Livingston, Geo. R. Barrett, J. Madi- 
son Arthur, J. Duane Mills, Ogden A. 
Hoyt, Alex. R. Gebbie, James E. Bos- 
worth, DeWitt Rogers, Jacob J. Wey- 
neth, Monroe S. Boohall, John Bradt, 
Edward J, Bowman, Nathan A. Waters, 
James Carr, Wm. Buckley, Elbridge G. 
Ritges, Geo. L. Willard, Peter Ritz, John 
R. Snyder, Otto Zecker, Isaac G. Puffer, 
Sara. S. Rain, Henry A. Phillips, John 
C. Van Brocklin, James H. Davenport, 
Charles C. Cook, James Donagan, Leon- 
ard B. Denison, Orville P. Lanfear, 
Linus W. Clark, Geo. C. Stevens, Luther 

B. Richardson, James Mosher, Charles 
J. Ryel, Garret B. Reed, H. Prescott 
Chambers, Eli L. Jones, Walter Buck, 
Miles H. Bronson, John Rica, Augustus 
Reno, Charles M. Curtis, Alexander L. 
Jeffers, Francis H. Reed, Amanuel 

Martinsburgh. — (Enrolled, 227 ; Drawn, 
64.) James Cole, John Keener, Henry 
Botsford, Michael Garman, James Dew- 
ey, Hiram Rawlson, Julius Hoyt, Chas. 
P.Wilbecker, Willard Green, Jr., Henry 
Granger, John Seymour, James Gilligan, 
Barton Rumble, Michael Mc Felama, 
Mathew Gilligan, Charles Alexander, 
Francis Gowdy, William Mangin, Chas. 
Wallace, Howard M. Arthur, Francis 
Knight, Daniel Vandeburgh, Charles 
McKee, John G. Porter, Hugh Jones, 
Charles Crast, Peter Nellis, Squire Oli- 
ver, Darius Brooks, Francis Hopkins, 
Lewis Suffle, George W. Babcock, Chas. 
Pease, Thomas Cahooa, Martin Sheldon, 
Wesley L. Jemison, Levi Adams, Au- 

gustus Wood, John Gibbins, Irwin 
Leonard, Henry W. Windecker, John 
Ingersol, Jr., Edward Patchell, John 
Tuft, Dennis Dunn, Jr., Frederick Mar- 
tin, Edwaj-d x^rthur, Chester Stanford, 
Richard Winn, Charles F. Morse, Har- 
vey Plopper, James Pebles, William 
Way, Hiram Pitcher,Patrick Tye, Chas. 
Babcock, John Holmes, Patrick O'Brien, 
Hudson Loucks, Ransom Salmon, John 
Andrus, George F. Gallowav, William 
Rawson, Jr. 

Montagiie. — (Enrolled, 50; Drawn, 10.) 
Sherman Sheldon, Hiram H. Harter, 
Valentine Joice, Michael Connor, An- 
drew Horth, Ura Croak, Pat. Ryan, 
Grotus Lanfear, John B. Berry, Orvas 

New Bremen. — (Enrolled, 139; Drawn, 
38.) Philip Fricker, Joseph J. Williams, 
Peter Snyder, Loren Young, S3dvester 
Deacon, Chas. H. Smith, Whitford M. 
Hall, Peter Terry, John Luphie, Harri- 
son Lillie, Henry D. Sumner, Wm. 
Hulsizer, George Wilder, John Stien- 
hilber, Robert Barbie, Peter S. Farney, 
Raphial Gague, Peter M. Seeber, John 
Dufar, William H. Hulburt, Michael 
Festomel, Fernando Rose, Alvin Roe, Jr., 
Norton J. Snell, Caleb Stacher, Peter 
Vibrick, John Adanis, John A. Segovis, 
Jacob Steinhilber, Peter Conover, John 
P Reneaux, Stephen Terrillion, Joseph 
Vickler, Joseph Wakefield, Jacob Stu- 
key, Giles M. Brown, Jacob Weineth, 
Michael V^irkler. 

Osceola. — (Enrolled, 48 : Drawn, 10.) 
Frank H. Durst, WalteV Lindsay, Frank 
M. Nash, John Quinn, Thomas Cline, 
James Lindsey, Roland Fox, Abram 
F. Vandewalker, James Lake, Albert J. 

Pinckney.—{^.wr^y\\&A, 137; Drawn, 41.) 
Oscar F. Thomas, Danforth Streeter, 
J as. B. Lucas, Solon M. Weed, Abel B. 
Thomas, George Rawlston, George 
W. Acker, Henry J. Stoddard, Horace 
Stoddard, John B. Goodenough, Jacob 


W. Harter, Sidney Chickering, Henry 
Simonds,Dennis VanTassel, Henry Hart, 
William Roger, Franklin Green, James 
H. Rawlston, Clark S. Cook, George C. 
Kellogg, Henry M. Hunt, Curtis J. Aus- 
tin, Russel Gilbert, Joseph D. Buntz, 
Christopher Dempster, Charles J. Fer- 
guson, Christopher H. Chase, John 
. Beadle, Charles B. Hall, David Rich- 
ards, Charles E. McCormick, Irvin Mar- 
shall, Noel C. Jones, George J. Peck, 
Orlo Streeter, David E. Hill, Amos Hall, 
George Smith, Warren G. Bent, John 
Hollis, Benjamin F. Hubbard. 

Turin. — (Enrolled, 161 ; Drawn, 41.) 
Jeremiah Swackhammer, Charles W. 
Riggs, John L. Jones, George Hill, No- 
ble L. King, Robert Roberts, Daniel 
Burdick, Osmon Hill, Andrew Failing, 
Mather House, Henry Johnson, Charles 
Peters, Jonathan Peak, Ebenezer Hurl- 
burt, Thomas O. Williams, Evan E. 
Evans, Samuel Utley, Crinman Austin, 
David Jones, Charles A. Fowler, Guil- 
ford A. Bush, Dwight Hurlburt, Charles 
N. Owens, Jerome Bush, John S. Dewey, 
Ebin Turner, John G. Williams, Joseph 
Utley, Charles H. Morgan, Charles 
King, Alva Burdick, Richard Duvere, 
Emanuel Freeman, William H. Swinton, 
Theodore Mason, Warren Burdick, An- 
son Lenon, Reuben Payne, John R. 

Watson. — (Enrolled, 121 ; Drawn, 31.) 
Orren Bush, James Higbee, George W. 
Puffer, Sylvester Wheeler, Nehemiah 
Mumford, Nelson J. Stone, Peter Mc- 
Filma, George A. Williger,Witford Hall, 
Charles Kirley, Nicholas Bach, Edward 
Kirley, Almiran Higbee, Addison W. 
Puffer, William A. Crandall, Samuel 
Bates, Albert Shark, James R. Kirley, 
Porter D. Hall, Robert D. Williams, 
George Moyer, Isaac S. Stone, Elias 
Williams, Isaac D. WiUiams, Amos Mo- 
nat, Francis M. Robertson, Seymour 
Hitchcock, Horace Robinson, Chauncey 
Orandorf, John Fenton, Samuel Gaunan. 

West Turin. — (Enrolled, 219; Drawn, 
60.) Horatio N. Stoddard, John Krack, 
Godfrey Neff, Wm. Harger, Anthony 
Markham, George Harper, Thomas By- 
ron, Chester Motsey, John Plover, John 
Evans, Richard Roberts, Andrew Stan- 
brainard, George O. Newman, Friend 
Hoyt, Jacob Burt, John H. Enos, Homer 
J. Aldrich, James Smith, Jacob Lond, 
Andrew Kreager, Wallace W. Kentner, 
John CoUins, Henry Krack, Egbert C. 
Rockwell, Edmund W. Thompson, 
David Rosier, Hugh J. Owen, Matthew 
Sampson, Jacob Stevens, Anson D. De- 
voe, John Fisher, Moses J. Fames, Jacob 
Stevens, Galusha Fames, Peter Barrows, 
Patrick Duffee, Martin M. Dewey, Peter 
Billinger, Henry C. Scovill, John Lewis, 
Henry R. Miner, Michael Byron, Ansel 
Post, Robert R. Jones, John Dish, 
Charles Bennett, George Melas, Stephen 
Earl, Jarvis Lindsay, James Mulkins, 
Edward Payne, John Jones, Horace Lyt- 
ty,* Charles E. Taylor, Andrew Copier, 
James McGambin, Lawrence Cunning- 
ham, Henry Dice, Jacob Saddler, U. M. 
B. McDonald. Total, 2,570 enrolled; 
700 drawn. 

CoNDENSKU Summary of the Pro- 
ceedings OF THE Board of Super- 
visors, IN Reference to 
Bounties and the Draft 
IN THE Late War. 

At the annual meeting of the Board, 
November 19, 1863, it was 

Resolved, That the sum of $100.00 be 
paid to each and every volunteer, who 
may hereafter enhst into the service of 
the United States, under the State au- 
thority, for the present quota, and that 
the said $100.00 be paid on the certificate 
of a proper officer, certifying that the 
said volunteer has been regularly mus- 
tered into the service of the United 
States, and credited on the quota ap- 
portioned to the county of Lewis. 

* Littaye- 



Resolved, That the Treasurer be, and 
is hereby authorized and directed to 
loan upon the credit of the county, such 
sum or sums of money as may be neces- 
sary to comply with the foregoing reso- 

At an extra session of the Board of 
Supervisors, held February 3, 1864, the 
following resolution was passed : — 

Resolved, That each member of this 
Board be appointed a committee, for the 
town he represents, to furnish a list of 
the names of all volunteers from his 
town, who have been mustered into the 
service of the United States, since the 
draft, in August last, and whose town is 
entitled to be credited with such volun- 
teers, and that he report to this Board, 
at its adjourned session, for the purpose 
of enabling this Board to certify to the 
Supervisors of such towns respectively, 
the names of the volunteers properly 
belonging to them. 

At a special meeting, held February 
12, 1864, the following resolution was 
passed : — 

Resolved, That a committee of one be 
appointed by the chairman, to go to 
Albany, or elsewhere, for the purpose of 
procuring the credits for the county of 
Lewis and for each town of said county 
respectively, and that the county shall 
pay the expense of said committee, and 
that each supervisor is hereby requested 
to furnish said committee with the name 
of each man enlisted from his town and 
the name of his regiment and company 
in which they enlisted, and that said 
committee be directed to procure the 
proper evidence to enable the several 
credits they are entitled to. 

It was ordered that Mr. Pease,* be 
said committee. It was also resolved 
that the bounty of $100.00 offered No- 
vember 19th, last, be paid upon the order 
of the volunteer, accompanied by the 
certificate of Peter Kirley or John M. 
Paris, recruiting agents of the county, 
or of the supervisor of the town, show- 
ing that the volunteer had been mustered 
in and credited, and that such certificate 
improperly given, should subject the 
* J. A. Pease, Supervisor from the town of Lewis. 

person giving it, to personal loss of the 
sum paid. The sum of $3,111.79 was 
assessed upon Watson, to pay bounty 
money. It was also 

Resolved, That the county treasurer 
of this county be authorized to pay the 
bounty of $300.00, as directed in the 
resolutions of this day, upon the pre- 
sentation of the order of the volunteers, 
accompanied with the certificate of 
Peter Kirley or John M. Paris, recruit- 
ing agents for this county, or the super- 
visor of the town to which such volun- 
teer is credited, that such volunteer has 
been regularly mustered into the service 
of the United States, and credited to 
the quota of the county. 

The treasurer was also directed to pay 
out of funds provided for that purpose 
to each volunteer who might thereafter 
enlist, to the number of thirteen men 
from Croghan, twenty from Denmark, 
fifteen from Diana, fifteen from Greig 
twelve from Harrisburgh, eight from 
High Market, fourteen from Lewis, 
twenty from Leyden, twenty-two from 
Lowville, twenty-one from Martins- 
burgh, five from Montague, fourteen 
from New Bremen, five from Osceola, 
twelve from Pinckney, fifteen from 
Turin, eleven from Watson, and twenty 
from West Turin. If any town had paid 
$300 towards fiUing their quotas, they 
were to be re-imbursed upon proper 
certificate. The sum of $75,000 was to 
be borrowed, and collected by tax with- 
in ninety days for repayment. 

At a special meeting of the Board in 
March, 1864, a committee was appointed 
consisting of Chickering of Denmark, 
Pease of Lewis, and Johnson of Den- 
mark, to audit claims presented for 
county bounties, with power to meet on 
its own adjournment, as the business 
might require. 

Another committee was appointed, 
consisting of Pitcher of Martinsburgh, 
Leonard of Lowville, and Birdsey of 
Leyden, to report in what manner the 
funds could be obtained for paying vol- 



unteers, and if borrowed, in what form 
the obligation should be given, the 
length of time, and manner of repay- 
ment. They decided that it would be 
proper to borrow upon notes signed by 
the Treasurer and the Chairman of the 
Board, payable on the ist of March fol- 
lowing. A tax was imposed to meet 
this obligation. 

In April, 1864, an adjourned meeting 
was held. It was reported that ' 258 
claims of $100 each had been presented 
for bounties, and four claims for $300. 

On the 2d of August, 1864, the towns 
were authorized to pay a bounty of not 
over $600, including the county bounty 
already offered for volunteers, and on 
the following day the names of Peter 
Kirley of Watson, A. Y. Stewart of 
New Bremen, Jay A. Pease of Lewis, 
C. M. Goff of West Turin, H. E. Turner 
of Lowville, and Charles J. Pitcher of 
Martinsburgh, were agreed upon for 
nomination to the Governor as recruit- 
ing agents for the county, to proceed 
to the States in rebeUion, to pro- 
cure volunteers upon the quotas for 500,- 
000 men. Mr. James L. Leonard was 
appointed to act with the Treasurer and 
the Chairman of the Board, in negotia- 
ting the sale of county bonds. 

Another meeting of the Board was 
held August 26, 1864, and the town 
bounties were allowed to be increased 
to $1,000. A resolution was passed, 
providing for the payment of the bonds 
on the loth of February annually, in not 
more than six years from 1865, and in 
sums of not more than $75,000 a year. 
The amount of bonds or money each 
town was entitled to receive, was fixed 
as follows: — 

Croghan $ i3>Soo 

Denmark 10,000 

Diana 12,500 

Greig 17.000 

Harrisburgh 10,500 

High Market 8,000 

Leyden 18,000 

Lewis $ 9,500 

Lowville 1 5,000 

Martinsburgh 21,500 

Montague 5,000 

New Bremen 12,500 

Osceola 5,000 

Pinckney IS,500 

Turin 12,500 

Watson 6,500 

West Turin 19,000 

Total $211,500 

It was resolved that in case the draft 
was postponed, or if from any other 
cause, the Commissioners appointed at 
the last special session should deem it 
for the interest of the county to go south 
to the rebellious States to obtain re- 
cruits, they might pay a bounty of not 
over $500 per man to serve one, two, or 
three years. 

A uniform county bounty of $500 was 
offered to all volunteers and persons 
who might furnish substitutes, whether 
for one, two, or three years. 

At the annual session of the Board, 
in November, 1864, the Committee on 
Bounty Claims reported that the follow- 
ing sums had been allowed in the sev- 
eral towns : — 

$100 $300 $500 

claims, claims. claims. 


Croghan. . . .$ 1,900 

Denmark 1,100 

Diana 3,000 

Greig 500 

Harrisburgh . . 800 

High Market. 1,800 

Leyden 3>ooo 

Lewis 2,000 

Lowville 2,700 

Martinsburgh. 3,200 

Montague 300 

New Bremen. 1,900 

Osceola 700 

Pinckney. . . . 1,900 

Turin 1,500 

Watson 1,600 

West Turin. 2,900 

3,000 $ 13,500 

2,100 10,000 

5,700 12,500 

2,400 15,000 


2,700 8,000 

5,400 18,000 

3,900 9,500 

6,300 15,000 

2,100 21,000 

1,200 5,500 

3,600 12,500 


1,800 15,500 

1,800 11,500 

2,700 6,500 

4,200 20,000 

Total.... $30,800 $48,900 $209,500 
And to Osceola by special resolution 
of $300 claims, $1,200. 



In the tax levy of November, 1864, 
the sum of $115,214.15 w^as included for 
the payment of the principal of bonds 
coming due in February and March, 
1865, and $14,306.31 for interest upon 
the bonds thus coming due. The total 
sum raised by tax for all purposes on 
that occasion, viras $178,419. 

In case of needing support from the 
public, the wives and families of soldiers 
absent were to be provided for at their 
homes, at the expense of the towns 
where such soldiers were credited, and 
at a rate not exceeding that paid at the 
county house. 

At an adjourned meeting, held Janu- 
ary 6, 1865, it was resolved to offer a 
county bounty of $400.00 for one year's, 
$700.00 for two years', and $1,000.00 for 
three years' men to fill the quota of 300,- 
000, under the call of December 19, 1864. 
The sum of $200,000.00, or so much 
thereof as might be necessary, was voted 
to be raised to meet these expenses, to 
be redeemed in sums of $75,000.00, or 
one-third of the whole amount, until 
paid. The bounties under this resolu- 
tion were not to be paid to any persons 
who had formerly received a county 
bounty. With respect to the final ad- 
justment of these expenses, the views of 
the Board were expressed in the follow- 
ing preamble and resolution : — 

Whereas, Heavy burdens have been 
borne by citizens of this State, growing 
out of the competition existing between 
towns and counties, in offering local 
bounties to volunteers into the ser. 
vice of the United States. Therefore, 
for the purpose of removing such com- 

Resolved, That bounties to volunteers 
to operate equally upon all classes, 
should be borne by the State, and ulti- 
mately assured by the United States as 
the most practicable mode by which the 
burdens of the ivar can be fairly equal- 
ized and local oppression avoided, and 
that the member from this county in the 
Assembly, be requested to favor the 

proposition, to make all bounties to vol- 
unteers in this State, State bounties. 

The Supervisor of each town was au- 
thorized to appoint an agent, or agents, 
for the town, for the purpose of enlist- 
ing men to fill its quota, and that the ex- 
penses of such agent, or agents, be paid 
by the respective towns. 

It was further provided, that in case 
any person liable to draft, should have 
put in a substitute prior to the 7th of 
January, 1865, to apply on the quota of 
any town in the county, he should re- 
ceive the pay provided in the resolution 
adopted on that day. 

A committee of three was appointed to 
procure the apportionment of the quota 
of the county and they were authorized 
and required to certify to the county 
treasurer, the quota of the several towns 
under the late call for 300,000 men ; and 
the treasurer was authorized to receive 
said certificate as evidence of the amount 
of said quotas, upon which to issue the 
county bonds to the supervisors, as pro- 
vided in resolutions adopted on that 
day. Mr. Gardner, Mr. Johnson, and 
Mr. Pease, were appointed such com- 

A special meeting was held February 
8, 1865, at which a committee was ap- 
pointed to enquire and report what 
further action, if any, was necessary on 
the part of the Board, to fill the quotas 
under the recent call for 300,000 men. It 
was resolved to issue not exceeding $50,- 
000, payable within three years. The 
bonds thus issued, and those under the 
resolutions of January 6, 1865, were to 
be distributed to the several towns as 
follows : — 

Croghan $19,500 

Denmark 26,000 

l-^i^-na 19,000 

g^'"?V- Y 15,000 

Hamsburgh 9^000 

High Market 6,000 

Lewis 16,000 

Leyden 26,000 


Lowville $ii,ooo 

Martinsburgh 19,000 

Montague 8,000, 

New Bremen 12,000 

Osceola 7^000 

Pinckney 18,000 

Turin 7,000 

Watson 7,000 

West Turin 22,000 

Total $247,500 

Or so much as might be necessary to 
fill the quotas of each of said towns, un- 
der the call of the President, of Decem- 
ber 19, 1864, for 300,000 men. 

Mr. Kirley, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. 
House, were appointed a committee to 
audit all claims that might be presented 
for county bounties to volunteers, and 
persons hiring substitutes, with full 
power to determine the validity and 
amount of such claims, and to whom 
they should be paid, and certify the 
same to the clerk of the Board, who was 
authorized to act as clerk of said com- 
mittee, and to draw orders upon the 
county treasurer for the accounts so 

At a special meeting held March 20, 
1865, Mr. Gardner was appointed on 
the above committee, in place of Mr. 
House who declined to serve. Provis- 
ion was made for the payment of inter, 
est upon bonds. The Bounty Committee 
was vested with like powers and duties 
as those conferred upon a like commit- 
tee under resolutions of March 18, 1864. 
They were also to ascertain the amount 
of money to which the county was enti- 
tled under the new bounty act passed 
February 10, 1865, (Chapter 29,) and 
were instructed to take whatever steps 
might be necessary in the name of the 
county, to obtain the credit and pay for 
the same from the State, in accordance 
with said act. 

At an extra session held June 15, 1865, 
the county treasurer was instructed to 
use any money that might come into his 



hands from the State, as re-imbursement 
of county bounties, in paying any 
county bonds and accrued interest 
which he might be able to obtain ; and 
further, that if State bonds were re- 
ceived by him as a part or the whole of 
said re-imbursement, he was authorized 
to exchange the same for county bonds 
as far as practicable. 

The Bounty Committee was empow- 
ered and instructed to investigate all 
claims by the several towns of the coun- 
ty for re-imbursement for town bounties 
paid, and to collect and receive such sums 
from the State authorities as might be 
found due to the said towns, and pay 
the same into the county treasury, to 
the credit of the towns entitled to the 

The treasurer's accounts rendered 
November 15, 1865, show the following 
disbursements on account of bounties 
and the debts incurred on account of 
the war : — 

Bounty Orders, 112, 113, 129, 130, 131, 132 . . $ 21,000.00 
County Bonds, exclusive of interest, . . . 188,914.05 
Interest on County Bonds, ... 12,756.99 

BountjrOrders— call of Dec. 19, 181)4, . . . 64,019.19 
Bonds in hands of Supervisors, under resolution of 

January 5, 1S65, 157,600.00 

Certificates of State Stocks, carried to new account, 198,000.00 
The latter being on hand. 

The following sums were mentioned 
as necessary to be raised, for the pur- 
poses mentioned : — 

County Bonds, first series, due Feb. 10, 1866, . 8 71,000.00 
Interest on the same, . . . . 2,485.00 

Bonds of second series, .... 72,750.00 

Interest due Feb. 10, on all Bonds of second series, 15,261.22 
Interest due in Feb. and Aug. on all unpaid bonds 

of first series, .... 5,130.78 


Mr. James L. Leonard, on the 21st of 
November, 1865, informed the Board 
that he had bought the New York 
State Bounty Bonds, held by the county 
treasurer at 99 per cent, to the amount 
of $198,000, and that he would pay for 
the same before the funds were needed 
for county and town purposes. It was 
understood that he had the privilege of 
taking any portion of the same at any 
time at the above rates. This proposal 
was accepted on the 23d. 



Mr. Miller and Mr. Chickering were 
added to the Bounty Committee, and 
the committee was directed to apportion 
to the county and to each town, the 
amount to which they were entitled for 
excess of years' service under the call of 
July 1 8, 1864, in proportion to the 
amount of bounty paid by them respect- 
ively ; and each Supervisor was request- 
ed to certify the amount that had been 
paid, to fill the quotas under that call. 

On the 29th of November, 1865, the 
following resolution was passed : — 

" Resolved, That in any town where 
an excess of men was in good faith en- 
listed by the Supervisors under the call 
of December 19, 1864, and where the 
amount actuall}' paid, or to be paid to 
the said enlisted men is less than the 
amount of the quota of said towns at 
$1,000 per man, this Board authorize the 
payment of the said bounty to the said 
excess men, and authorize the Bounty 
Committee and the County Treasurer 
to allow the same in settling with the 
Supervisor of such town in the same man- 
ner as with Supervisors of other towns, 
provided that no recruit or substitute 
receive a greater amount than $400 for 
one year's service, $700 for two years' ser- 
vice, and $1,000 for three years' service. 

On the 30th of November the Bounty 
Committee reported that they had allow- 
ed claims for bounty as follows : — 

Men. Bounty. 

Croghan 21 $19,800.00 

Denmark 10 9,400.00 

Diana 20 19,600.00 

Greig 14 9,200.00 

Harrisburgh 10 7,750.00 

High Market 6 5,400.00 

Lewis 13 12,800.00 

Leyden 26 25,725.00 

Lowville.... .... 21 9,600.00 

Martinsburgh 28 19,000.00 

Montague ... ... 8 6,700.00 

New Bremen 14 1 1,600.00 

Osceola 7 7,000.00 

Pinckney 20 17,700.00 

Turin 7 5.77S-00 

Watson . . .-. 10 5,000.00 

West Turin 22 18,444.19 

Total 257 $210,494.19 

The committee also reported that they 
had presented claims to the Paymaster- 
General of the State, for re-imbursement 
of payment of bounties for 250 volun- 
teers and substitutes for the period of 
service as follows : For three years, 194 ; 
for two years, 3 ; and for one year, 53 ; 
total, 250; making a total payment of 
$133,500, which amount was paid in cer- 
tificate of New York State Stocks, $120,- 
000; cash, $13,500; total, $133,500. Also 
the claims for excess of years' service was 
allowed at $78,800, which amount was 
paid in certificates of New York State 
Stocks, $78,000, cash, $800 : total, $78,800 ; 
making a total received from the State in 
certificates of State stock of $198,000, 
cash, $14,300 ; total amount of stocks 
and cash, $212,300, which amount had 
been deposited with the County Treas- 

The following resolution was adop- 

Resolved, That the evidence before the 
Bounty Committee to enable the towns 
to draw the portion of excess money 
belonging to them, shall be the affidavit 
of the Supervisor or other disbursing 
agent, of the amount paid, or liability 
incurred by bonds by said towns for the 
recruits or substitutes from whom such 
excess accrued. 

The committee to whom was assigned 
the duty of apportioning the amount re- 
ceived by the County Treasurer for 
excess of years' service to the several 
towns of the county, reported as fol- 
lows : — 

To Town. To County 

Croghan $ 600.00 $ 600.00 

Denmark 4,266.00 5,334.00 

Diana 343-00 857.00 

Greig i,99S-00 2,805.00 

Harrisburgh 2,200.00 2,800.00 

High Market. . . 1,213.00 2,787.00 

Lewis 800.00 600.00 

Leyden 1,060.3 1 2,939.69 

Lowville 1,533-33 10,266.67 

Martmsburgh... 3,373.50 4,626.50 


New Bremen... 1,700.00 2,100.00 



Osceola $ $ 

Pinckney i ,200.00 i ,400.00 

Turin 3,542.00 7,458.00 

Watson 1 ,200.00 1 ,200.00 

West Turin 400.00 7,600.00 

The treasurer was directed to place to 
the credit of the several towns the 
amounts reported as due by the com- 
mittee on excess of years respectively, 
as set forth in the above report, and 
the said moneys were made subject 
to the order of the Supervisors of the 
several towns. 

The money and bonds received from 
the State and belonging to the county, 
were applied so far as they went to the 
payment of the county bonds falling due 
in February, 1866. 

The balance of the funds arising from 
the excess of years', service not appro- 
priated by the report of the committee 
on apportionment of excess years was 
applied to the credit of the several towns, 
in proportion to the quotas of said towns 
respectively, under the call of July 18, 
1864, subject to the order of the Super- 
visor of each town respectively, for the 
use of his town. 

The Bounty Committee upon appor- 
tionment of the balance of the fund 
arising from the excess of years' service 
among the several towns, in proportion 
to the quotas, under the call of July 18, 
1864, reported the following as the re- 
sults of their labors, which was agreed 
to, viz : — 

Quota. A mount. 

Croghan 27, $ 3>oo8.34 

Denmark 41. 5-125.32 

Diana 25, 2,785.50 

Greig 34, 3,788.28 

Harrisburgh 21, 2,339.82 

High Market 16, 1,782.72 

Lewis 21, 2,339.82 

Lcyden 38, 4,233-96 

Lowville 46, 5,125.32 

Martinsburgh 43, 4,791.06 

Montague 11, 1,225.62 

New Bremen 26, 2,896.92 

Osceola 10, 1,114.20 

Pinckney 31, $3,454.02 

Turin 28, 3,1 19.76 

Watson 15, 1,671.30 

West Turin 41, 4,568.22 

Total,.. 474, $53,370-38 

The treasurer, in reporting 

to the Board, inNovem- 

ber, 1866, credited the 

county with certificates 

of State stocks, $198,000.00 

He had disbursed to super- 
visors, as excess money, 77,409.22 
Paid Bounty orders, call of 

Dec. 19', 1864, 156,509.41 

Paid principal on county 

bonds, 142,225.00 

Paid interest on county 

bonds 23,527.37 

There was to be provided for : — 

For the payment of principal 

of county bonds coming 

due February 10, 1867,.. $148,371.85 
For interest on the same,. . . 12,426.64 

In November, 1867, the treasurer re- 
ported the disbursement of $1,587.10 ex- 
cess money, and informed that the fol- 
lowing sums must be provided for:— 

To pay principal of county 

bonds, due February 10, 

1868, $65,800.00 

To pay interest on county 

bonds, due February 10, 

1868, 4,606.00 

To pay interest on bonds 

due in 1871, 140.00 

In 1868, there was reported the need 
of $140 to pay the interest on outstand- 
ing bonds, but after this the burdens of 
the war debt may be said to have been 
wholly closed up, excepting in so far as 
the State was still for a few years to bear 
its proportion of the State Bonded War 

At the time of writing, measures are 

under discussion for the erection of a 

soldiers' monument, at the county seat 

in memory of those who fell in the late 

I war. 

1 62 



History of the Towns. 

THE county of Lewis upon its organ- 
ization embraced five towns, viz : — 
Leyden, Turin, Martinsburgh, Lowville, 
and Harrisburgh. The present number 
is eighteen. Their names, dates of erec- 
tion and origin, are as follows : — 

Croghan, April 5, 1841, from Watson and 

Denmark, April 3, 1807, from Harris- 

Diana, April 16, 1830, from Watson. 

Greig, April 5, 1828, from Watson. 

Harrisburgh, February 22, 1803, from 
Lowville, Champion and Mexico. 

High Market, November 11, 1852, from 
West Turin. 

Lewis, November 11, 1852, from West 
Turin and Leyden. 

Leyden, March 10, 1797, from Steuben. 

Lowville, March 14, 1800, from Mexico. 

Lyonsdale, November 26, 1873, from 

Martinsburgh, February 22, 1803, from 

Montague, November 14, 1850, from 
West Turin. 

New Bremen, March 31, 1848, from Wat- 

Osceola, February 28, 1844, from West 

Pinckney, February 12, 1808, from Har- 
rison* and Harrisburgh. 

Turin, March 14, 1800, from Mexico. 

Watson, March 30, 1 821, from Leyden. 

West. Turin, March 25, 1830, from Turin. 

Croghan was formed from Watson 
and Diana, April 5, 1841, and named in 
honor of George Croghan, whose mili- 
tary services had then been recently 
brought to public notice in the Presiden- 
tial campaign resulting in Harrison's 

* The former name of Rodman. 

election.* The name of Tippecanoe 
had been proposed, and that of New 
France had been applied to the bill as 
passed in the Senate, but on the third 
reading in the lower House, the present 
name was substituted. New Bremen 
was taken off in par{, in 1848. An 
unsuccessful effort was made in 1859, to 
procure a division of this town into two. 
The first town meeting was ordered to 
be held at the house of John C. Fox, be- 
fore Willard Barrett, Lodowick Snyder, 
and Joseph Hamen, but was held in his 
grist-mill at Belfort, and the following 
were elected as first town officers : — 
Benjamin R. Ellis, Supervisor; Abra- 
ham Fox, Town Clerk ; Joseph Ham- 
mond, Frederick Ford, and Ira Wilcox, 
Assessors ; Silas Wilder, Joshua Sny- 
der, and Simon Putnam, Commissioners 
of Highways ; Robert A. Dekin and 
Willard Barrett, Justices of the Peace ; 
Benjamin R. Ellis, Joseph Virkler, and 
Robert Smith, Inspectors of Schools ; 
Jacob House, Isaac Shaver, and Charles 
Holmes, School Commissioners ; Joseph 
Virkler, Collector; and Jacob House, 
John C. Cook, Jehu Farr, and James 
Rophinot, Constables. 

Supervisors. — 1841, Benjamin R. Ellis; 
1842-44, Bornt NelHs; i845-'5o, Darius 
G. Bent; 1851-60, Patrick Sweetman ;f 
1861, William H. Peer; 1862-65, Nich- 
olas Gandel; i866-'69, William Wirt 
Rice; 1870-71, Joseph P. Brownell ; 

* Croghan was a native of Locust Grove, near the 
falls of the Ohio, where he was bom November 15, lyqi. 
His father was Major William Croghan, an Irishman 
who had rendered efficient service in the Revolution, 
and his mother was sister of William Clark, who with 
Captain Lewis explored the M issouri country in iSoj-'oy. 
In 1810, Croghan graduated at William and Mary's 
College in Virginia, and began the study of law ; but 
the war soon opened a more inviting field of enterprise, 
and in the battle of Tippecanoe, and the sieges of Fort 
Meigs and Fort Stephenson, he won the applause of the 
Union. He rose from the rank of Captain to that of 
Inspector-General ; and in 1825, he received from Con- 
gress a gold medal for his brilliant military services. He 
died at New Orleans, January 8, 1849. His name was 
pronounced Craw-an, although that of the town is uni- 
formly spoken Cto-gan. 

tDied, Oct. 1874. 



1872, James H. Morrow ; 1873, N. Gan- 
del ; 1874-75, Theodore. B. Basselin ; 
1876-77, AugustusValin ; i878-'8o,Peter 
Shinbourn ; 1881, William Wirt Rice; 
1882, James P. Lewis. 

Clerks. — i84i-'43, Abraham Fox; 1844 
-'46, Joseph Hamen; i847-'48, Joseph 
Virkler; 1849, Foster L. Cunningham; 
1850, Hartwell F. Bent; 1851-54, Joseph 
Rofinot; 1855, Joseph Catillaz ; 1856, 
Joseph Rofinot ; 1857-59, Augustus Va- 
lin ; i86o-'64 ;* 1865, Joseph Rofinot ; 
1866-70, Augustus Valin; 1871-72, Da- 
rius G. Bent ; 1873, William Wirt Rice ; 
1874, Augustine Gandel ; 1875, Nicholas 
Gandel ; 1876-80, J. Sigel; George W. 
Whitaker, to fill vacancy ; 1881-82, Au- 
gustine Simonet. 

Bounties for the destruction of wild 
animals have been voted as follows : — 
For wolves, $15 in 1841 ; $10 in 1845 ; 
and $5 in 1842-46. For panthers, $10 in 
1841-46 ; and $5 in 1842. For bears, $5 
in 1841. In 1856, the town meetings of 
this town and New Bremen, were held 
in the same house in Croghan village, 
the town line passing through near the 

In this town, the " Company of New 
York," had intended to lay out a city by 
the name of Castorville, on the north side 
of the Beaver river, half a mile above 
the head of navigation, and at the lowest 
water power on that stream. The de- 
tails of this plan are elsewhere fully 
stated, but it is believed the city was 
never surveyed into lots, further than as 
a part of the Castorland Tract. The 
reservation amounted to 663 acres, and 
upon it was built, about 1798, the first 
saw-mill east of Black river. From 
this mill the first lumber used by the 
settlers at Lowville, was obtained. The 
mill stood on the site of the upper part 
of Lefever's tannery, but its last vestige 
had disappeared long before the modern 

* From the absence and probable loss of the records, 
we cannot readily supply the list from i860 to 1864. 

occupation of this site. Rodolph Tillier, 
agent of the French Company, made a 
clearing at the head of navigation, on 
Beaver river, four miles from its mouth, 
and a few log huts were erected. The 
only access to and from this place, was 
by river navigation.* A few French 
emigrants settled on the banks of the 
Black river, among whom were, it is 
beheved, J. T. Devouassoux, A. Tassart, 
Louis Francois de Saint Michel, and per- 
haps others. Mr. Devouassoux was a re- 
tired officer, who owned a good lot on the 
river, and had built a log house a few 
feet from the water, on a beautiful flat 
piece of ground, which he hoped before 
long to see changed to a smooth verdant 
lawn. One day, as he was sitting by the 
door in his morning gown and slippers, 
Mr. Le Ray came along, on his way 
down the river, to visit his lands. After 
the usual salutations and a little general 
conversation, the visitor asked Mr. De- 
vouassoux whether he was not afraid 
the water would reach his house in the 
spring. This was a new idea to the old 
soldier, and he was asked to explain. 
" Well," said Mr. Le Ray, " this river 
does not, by any means, cause such rav- 
ages as most rivers do in snowy coun- 
tries, but it does overflow its banks in 
very low grounds. I think I even saw 
some marks left by it on some trees near 
your house, and according to them, 
you would have been about two feet un- 
der water in your house next spring." 

At these words our Frenchman felt as 
perhaps he had never felt before the en- 
emy. " But," resumed Mr. Le Ray, after 
giving him time to compose himself, 
" have you not on your lot some higher 
ground ?" " Indeed, sir, I cannot say." 
" Why, have you not explored your 
lands before building ?" " Indeed, no ; I 

* Steamers and canal boats can now ascend to the 
landing, and a towing-path has been constructed- along 
the south bank. A tram road, with a small traction- 
engine, brings down lumber from the saw-mills to the 
landing, on the south bank, on the New Bremen side. 



thought I could not possibly find a better 
spot than the banks of this beautiful river. 
I like fishing. Here I am near my field 
of operations." Mr. Le Ray could not 
see without apprehension such apathy 
and levity, for knowing well that Mr. 
Devouassoux, was not an exception 
among his countrymen, he read in his 
fate that of many others. He persuaded 
Mr. Devouassoux to take a little walk 
upon his lot, and in a few_ minutes they 
found a beautiful building spot on a ris- 
ing ground.* We are not informed pre- 
cisely upon which side of Beaver river 
this location was, and it may have been 
in the town of New Bremen. 

M. St. Michel arrived in New York in 
November, 1798, and undertook the im- 
provement of a tract of i ,200 acres owned 
by three daughters of Mr. Lambot, and 
from them named Sistersfield. The 
agreement was made with Patrick Blake, 
husband of one of the sisters, and the 
owner of 200 acres of the tract. The 
two other sisters were named Renee 
Jeane Louise, and Reine Marguerite 
Lambot. Blake returned to Europe in 

1802. M. St. Michel had seen better days 
in France, and is believed to have held 
an office under Louis XVI, the unfortu- 
nate royal victim of the French Revolu- 
tion. His household affairs were managed 
by a daughter who had been tenderly 
reared at the schools in Paris, but who 
applied herself to the duties of her fath- 
er's home with a cheerfulness that did 
much to lighten the gloom of solitude 
and lessen the sadness of both. About 

1803, as Gouverneur Morris, Nicholas 
Low and one or two other landholders, 
had met at Brownville, M. St. Michel 
came down with Richard Coxe to see 
them and enjoy the luxury of a conver- 
sation with some one who could speak 
his native language with fluency. The 
meeting was described to the author in 

* Related by Vincent Le Ray, Esq., in a letter to the 

1853, by Mrs. Skinner, of Brownville, 
a sister of General Brown, who was an 
eye-witness, as affording a scene worthy 
of a painter. Their visitor was a tall, thin 
man, with a keen and intelligent e)'e, and 
a vivacity peculiar to the French charac- 
ter. The eagerness with which he grasped 
the hand of the dignified Morris, and the 
satisfaction he evinced, was as interest- 
ing to the spectators as it was gratify- 
ing to the parties. M. St. Michel in 
dress and manners, indicated that he had 
been bred in polished society. He was 
a man of fervent piety and deep thought. 
His daughter married Louis Marseille, 
and adopted with grace the coarse fare 
and rustic accommodations of a new coun- 
try, without a murmur.* Her father 
moved to a farm a little south of Deer 
River village, where he died. Upon the 
death of her husband she married Louis 
de Zotelle, who, in the summer of 1838, 
was supposed to have died. Preparations 
were made for the burial, and a prema- 
ture notice of the death was printed in 
the Northern Journal. In a few days he 
called upon the editor to request that no 
notice be again printed unless he be in- 
formed in person. He died " in good 
faith," about 1854, but in the absence of 
the authentic notice promised, we are 
unable to give the date. Still further 
down, and just beyond the border of the 
county, Jean Baptiste Bossuot, settled at 
the present village of Carthage, where 
he held an acre of ground under a ver- 
bal agreement with Sauvage, its owner, 
and kept a ferry and tavern. Other 
men would have made an independent 
fortune out of the opportunities which 
his location offered, but the bridge de- 
stroyed his occupation, the village of 
Carthage which sprung up around " the 
meagre field of his slothful farming," 

*Louis A. Marseille, one of her sons, lived many years 
in Martinsburgh and Denmark, and died in the eastern 
part of the latter town. March 6, 1881, aged nearly eighty 
years. His wife Mary Ann (Babcock) died June 5 1873 
age sixty-five years. ' ' 



failed to enrich its tenant, and he died a 
few years ago at an advanced age, leav- 
ing a world that was getting along with- 
out him. 

This person is mentioned in many 
places in our account of the Castorland 
Colony, under the name of " Battise." 

A few miles from the last, on the north 
bounds of Castorland, lived a man whose 
name is familiar to the visitors of Mont 
Blanc, as that of a family of one ot the 
best guides to that mountain. A guide 
of this name, lost on Mont Blanc was 
found forty-three years afterwards, in the 
glazier, near this village, and his funeral 
was held. Mr. Balmat's descendants re- 
sided many years, and perhaps still live 
in the town of Fowler, St. Lawrence 
county. A neighbor of his, Mr. Carrett 
a man of good education, would have 
fared better had he been brought up on 
a farm. His eldest son, James, a youth 
of bright natural talents, was obliged to 
seek service, and while tending ferry at 
the Long Falls, fell under the notice of 
Le Ray, who received him into his office, 
and found him so very useful that he 
took him to Europe. While transacting 
some business with Joseph Bonaparte, 
the latter formed so favorable an im- 
pression of the young man, that he pre- 
vailed upon Le Ray to allow him to be- 
come his secretary, and he afterwards 
appointed him his general land agent. 
He subsequently returned to France, and 
settled near Lyons, where he was resid- 
ing twenty years ago. The three last 
named settlers located in what is now 
Jefferson county. 

The little improvements made by the 
French were soon abandoned, as the 
would-be pioneers became disheartened 
and moved away to older colonies or re- 
turned to France. 

There was scarcely a perceptible prog- 
ress in settlement during the first twenty- 
five years after the French removed. 
Their clearings and roads grew up with 

brambles, and their rude cabins rotted 
down, leaving but slight traces of their 
industry, and few evidences that this re- 
gion had been traversed by civilized 

In 1830, P. Somerville Stewart, for a 
long time Le Ray's agent at Carthage, 
removed to Belfort, on Beaver river ; 
built a saw-mill and store, brought in 
settlers, and two or three years after 
erected a grist-mill. A fire occurred 
May 30, 1 83 1, from a fallow, which con- 
sumed the only two buildings then fin- 
ished. A postoffice, named " Monterey," 
was established here some years after, 
but the route has been changed, and the 
office discontinued. 

About 1830, an immigration began 
from Europe, and continued many years, 
mainly through the exertions of agents 
employed by Le Ray, and the represen- 
tations sent home by those who had 
taken up land and settled. The first of 
these was Jacob Kiefer.* In the winter 
of 1848-49, a census taken in this town 
and New Bremen showed 247 European 
families of 1,275 persons, classified as 
follows : — 

Families. Persons. 

From France 190 987 

" Germany 46 230 

" Switzerland 11 58 

Their religious belief was found to 

Families. Persons. 

CathoHc 150 787 

Prostestant 57 297 

Muscovite 39 189 

Their residence in America had been, 
one family 21 years ; three, 19; five, 18 ; 
seventeen, 17; six, 16; ten, 15; twenty- 
one, 14; four, 12; nine, 10; sixteen, 9; 
forty-nine, 8 ; fourteen, 7 ; six, 6 ; nine, 5 ; 
two, 4 ; six, 3 ; twenty-four, 2 ; thirty- 
five, I ; and ten, less than i year. They 
owned or occupied 12,413 acres of 

* Mr. Kiefer was from near Metz, then in the Depart- 
ment of France. Christian Hierschey came in 
September, 1831, with Joseph Kiefer. John Kiefer 
came in 1837 or '38. 

1 66 


which 4,338 were fenced and improved, 
and 500 partly cleared. They owned 
59 horses, 388 sheep, 513 swine and 
1,256 horned cattle, and their produce 
the year previous had been 2,770 bushels 
of wheat, 4,430 of corn, 7,513 of rye, 
3,127 of buckwheat, 10,640 of oats, and 
33>339 of potatoes, 1,447 tons of hay, 
17,068 pound's of butter exclusive of that 
. used in families, and 27,925 pounds of 
maple sugar. 

From a pamphlet issued in 1858, it 
appears that there were then over 500 
European families, numbering 3,000 per- 
sons, upon Le Ray's lands, the greater 
part in this town and New Bremen. 
They were chiefly from the east of 
France, and the adjacent parts of Ger- 
many and Switzerland. 

In a list of settlers numbering over 
three hundred names, the departments 
of Moselle, Meurthe, Lower Rhine, Up- 
per Saone and Doubs in France had 
furnished 154, Prussia 56, Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz 4, 
Hesse Darmstadt 5, Kur Hessen 14, 
Holstein and Lauenburg 3, Bavaria 8, 
Saxony and Saxe-Weimar 7, Baden 9, 
Wurtemburg 10, and Switzerland 36. 
In 1849, this town had a population of 
1,168, of whom 646 were Americans and 
Irish, and 522 French, German and 

Mr. Le Ray, employed for some years 
as his sole agent in France, for the pro- 
curing of emigrants, M. Vanderest, of 
Dunkirk, and issued several circulars, 
maps and other publications in French 
and German, with the view of calHng 
favorable notice to his lands. The terms 
advertised in Europe were one-fifth pay- 
ment at the end of one year after the 
selection of lands by the purchasers, 
and four-fifths in six years in equal an- 
nual installments, with interest. The 
amount offered in the two counties was 
80,000 acres. M. Vanderest gave a con- 
tract, binding Le Ray to sell a tract of 

land to be selected within fifteen days 
or later after their arrival in New York, 
at a price varying from three to six dol- 
lars per acre, according to location, 
except lands near villages and water 
falls, and such as have timber conven- 
ient for sawing or manufacture, and 
engaged the emigrant to remove within 
three months to New York, and from 
thence, by way of Watertown, to Car- 
thage. This instrument, drawn up with 
due formality, included the names of all 
persons, old and young, belonging to the 
emigrating company, and was evidently 
intended to keep those removing, out of 
the hands of emigrant runners interested 
in other localities, until they may have 
an opportunity of visiting the lands and 
selecting for themselves. 

The foreigners settling in this town, 
were mostly industrious, frugal, and dis- 
posed to avail themselves of every ad- 
vantage that their situation afforded. 
From the fact that settlements were de- 
layed some forty years later on the east 
side of the river than upon the west, 
the first impression from a contrast 
in the conditions on the two sides of 
the river, must have had a discour- 
aging effect upon immigrants, but now, 
since clearings and improvements have 
been made, the agricultural capabilities 
of the eastern towns, are found to be 
much greater than was formerly sup- 
posed possible. Indeed, in wet seasons 
like the early summer of 1882, the crops 
upon the eastern side of the Black river 
are for the most part excellent, and the 
large and well filled barns, show ample 
evidences of plenty. 

The Europeans who often came in large 
companies, and who settled together, 
naturally retained for some years their 
native language in common use, in fam- 
ilies, and in rehgious meetings ; but most 
of the middle-aged, and all of the young, 
acquired very readily the English. The 
children attending the district schools. 



where this language alone is taught, and 
associating with Americans, of course 
soon acquired the language of the coun- 
try, without a trace of foreign accent, 
and in a few years longer, not a vestige 
of the French or German will be found 
in that part of the country. 

Croghan Village. 

This place, often known as " French 
Settlement," is located upon the Beaver 
river, partly in the town of New Bre- 
men, and about ten miles northeast from 
Lowville, with between 700 and 800 in- 
habitants* and a large and growing 
amount of business, in the way of manu- 
factures and local trade. Arranged al- 
phabetically, the business of the village, 
chiefly in the town of Croghan, in the 
summer of 1882, was as follows: — 

Blacksmiths — Coenrad Hoch, Michael 
Magra, John Loson, Joseph Lallier, 
(blacksmith and wagon shop,) under- 
stood to be lately sold to Petzhold Bros. 

Boots and Shoes — Claude Klein, Peter 
Shinbourne, William Wirtz. 

Butchers — Frederick Housecker, Klein 
& Rood. 

Carpenters — Nortz Bros. 

Cheese Factory — Augustus Valin. 

Cooper — Samuel Hartzig, Tiss. 

Dress Makers — Mrs. Elizabeth Back, 
Nancy Sn)'der. 

Drug Store — S. E. Simonet. 

Furniture and Undertaking — Victor 

Grist-Mills — Theodore Basselin, Chris- 
tian Yousie, Peter Shinbourne. 

Harness-Maker — Joseph L. Monroe. 

Hotels and Saloons — Charles E. Gard- 
ner, Alpheus Gasser, Henry V. Miller, 
John Parquet, Nicholas Parquet, (saloon). 

Milliners — Miss Ruth Laraway, Mrs. 

Painter — H. R. Graham. 

Physiciafis—Dv. T. C. Francis, Dr. 
Murray, Dr. Henry F. Kilbourn. 

Saw-mills, etc. — Christian Farney, 
(saw-mill, planer, lath, shingles, clap- 
boards, etc., using steam and water- 
power) ; Thomas C. Cadwell, (saw-mill, 

* The census of 1880 reported 445 inhabitants. 

veneers, sounding boards for pianos, 
etc., made 400,000 feet of thin maple and 
cherry for New York market in last 
year. Employs about fifteen men). 

Stores— Yienry Brothers ; Charles Tan- 
zer (hardware) ; Austin E. Prentice 
(P. O.) ; Anna Basselin & Son ; John 
Scanlan (confectionery, ice-cream, etc.) ; 
HippoUte Monnat ; James Garnham 
(hardware) ; Edward M. Marilley ; Ers- 
kine Laraway ; Samuel R. Virkler. 

Tannery— Kice Brothers* (extensive 
establishment) ; Peter Shinbourne, (in 
connection with other business). 

Wagon Makers — Michael Buckingham. 
(See Blacksmiths.) 

The village has a Methodist and a 
Catholic church, the latter being the 
finest church edifice in the county. 

Beaver Falls. 

This manufacturing village upon both 
sides of the Beaver river, and upon the 
line of Croghan and New Bremen, is on 
the site of the prospective city of " Cas- 
torville," of the French pioneers, and it 
is to be regretted that it does not bear 
this name. It is the seat of the exten- 
sive tannery, lumber mills, and a pulp- 
mill. A tannery was built here in 1852, 
and had eighty vats, with a production 
of 16,000 sides of sole leather per year. 
It was burned December 31, 1873, but 
has since been re-built. 

Theodore B. Basselin has two gang 
saw-mills on the New Bremen side, with 
a tramway and steam power to the land- 


This is the oldest settlement of any 
note in the town, and dates from 1830, 
under Mr. Stewart, as agent of LeRay, 
as already noticed. It has a tannery, 

* The tannery of Mr. Rice was built in 1857, burned 
September 15, 1865, and with it a large quantity of 
leather. It was soon afterwards re-built. It tans 
35,000 sides of sole leather a year, uses 3,500 cords of 
hemlock bark, employs twenty-three men through the 
year, and fifty in the bark season. It ships 500 tons a 
year upon the raiiroad. It is known in the trade as the 
" Croghan Tannery." 

1 68 


built by William H. Pier, and now 
owned by Samuel Branaugh, of Car- 
thage, a store in connection with the 
tannery, a grist-mill (Peter Yancey, Jr.), 
a saw-mill (Joseph Yancey), hotel (Louis 
V. Bisha), and a few dwellings. Popu- 
lation in 1880, 132. 

On the 1st of January, 1882, a mill was 
put in operation for the manufacture of 
wood-pulp for paper, upon the Croghan 
side of the river^ near the head of navi- 
gation, and at the last site of a water- 
power on Beaver river. It is owned 
by James P. Lewis, Charles Nuffer and 
Martin R. LeFever, under the name of 
the " Pulp Mill Co.," and uses Outterson 
& Taylor's patent mechanical process. 
It has seven run of stones, and employs 
about twenty men. It uses chiefly 
spruce timber, and sends off its pulp for 
manufacture into paper elsewhere. 

There is a small Methodist church at 
Beaver Falls (Croghan side), two hotels, 
a cheese factory, and a few other small 
places of business. 


This is a scattered settlement along a 
road parallel with the river, and not far 
from the Parker bridge opposite Castor- 
land Station. It has three small church 
edifices, (Lutheran, Anabaptist and Meth- 
odist) ; an inn ; two stores, (Frederick Ries 
and Frank Ormsby) ; blacksmith, (John 
McFalls); wagon shop, (Seymour Hitch- 
cock); shoe maker, (S. H. Schorge), etc., 
and in the vicinity a manufactory of 
Limburg cheese. A short distance up 
the river is a saw-mill owned bv Van 
Amber & Co. 

The Parker Bridge was erected across 
the Black river at the State expense, 
under an act passed May 12, 1865, and 
under the direction of the Canal Board. 
It is directly opposite Castorland station 
on the U. & B. R. R. R., and just below 
the mouth of Beaver river. 

Bent's Settlement. 
[Indian River P. O.) 
This is located a little north of the 
town of Croghan, on a ridge between 
the Indian and Oswegatchie rivers, 
about seven and a half miles from 
Carthage. It was named from Thomas 
W. Bent, who located near here in 1824, 
and formed the first permanent settle- 
ment in the town. William Ash and 
Patrick Burns became residents of the 
town in 1826, and Patrick Clark in 

Jordan Falls. 

This is a tannery and dependency upon 
the west branch of the Oswegatchie 
river, about two and one-fourth miles 
east from Bent's Settlement, and ten 
miles from Croghan village. The estab- 
lishment is owned by the Rice Brothers, 
and was begun in 1870. It tans 70,000 
sides of sole leather a year, using 7,000 
cords of bark. It employs 40 men through 
the year, and 100 in the bark season, and 
ships 1,000 tons a year on the railroad. 

In other parts of this town, and not in 
villages, there are a few mills etc. that 
may be mentioned. Julius Partee has a 
saw-mill and planer on Beaver river 
above Croghan. Jehiel and Joseph La- 
favre have a saw-mill on Balsam creek, 
a mile above Belfort. Erskine Laraway 
has a shingle and saw mill near Long 
Pond, in the eastern border of the town. 
Bisha & Yancey have also a shingle mill 
in the eastern part. About two miles . 
and one-half east from the village, An- 
drew Stiner has a cloth dressing and 
carding mill, and near by Alpheus Virk- 
ler has a brick yard. Christian Yonsie 
has a saw-mill on a pond at its outlet in- 
to Indian river, and Squire Wilcox has 
a saw-mill. 

In 1 88 1, this town near the line of 
Wilna, suffered from forest fires which 
destroyed considerable quantities of tim- 
ber and bark. 



Remgious Societies. 

The Methodists have a church at Cro- 
ghan village, built in 1858. The society 
was formed Aug. 14, 1857, virith William 
G. Dealing, Aley Thomson and Jacob 
House, as trustees. There is also a small 
Methodist church on the river road, to- 
wards Carthage, four miles below Naum- 

The "EvangeHcal Association of North 
America," have had an organization and 
a house of worship in Naumburg several 
years. It was organized in 1847, under 
the Rev. M. Weiscotten, and the build- 
ing erected the next year. 

The " German Evangelical Lutheran 
and Reformed Congregation " in Cro- 
ghan, was formed Sept. 15, 1847, and 
elected Ernest Schlieder, Christian Ray- 
ser, C. Frederick Bachman, Frederick 
Wilk, and Weiss Katlen, trustees. 

A church styled the " Evangelical As- 
sociation," was legally formed Dec. 12, 
1854, with August Stoebe, John Holler, 
and Jacob Rohr, trustees, and in 1857, 
erected a plain wood church at Beaver 
Falls. On the 19th of December, 1876, 
deeming the former minutes of 1854, to 
be insufficient, they re-organized under 
the name of the " Salem Church of the 
Evangelical Association of North Amer- 
ica, in the town of Croghan, in the 
county of Lewis, and State of New 
York," the trustees being Lewis Petsoldt, 
Michael Nuffer, and Edward A. Wey- 


A number of Anabaptist famihes re- 
side in this and the adjoining town, and 
of these there are two classes, one being 
usually termed the new, or Reformed 
Anabaptists. These people.locally known 
as " Hook and Eye Baptists," have no 
church edifice, worshiping after the 
manner of the primitive Christians, in 
private houses, and in all their deahngs 
and social intercourses, are as much as 
possible restricted to their own circle. 

The Roman Catholics have three 
churches in town, viz : St. Stephen's* 
(near or on the line of Croghan and New 
Bremen in Croghan village,) St. Vincent 
de Paurs,\ at Belfort, and St. Leonard's 
of Port Maurea church at Jordan Falls. J 

The present church of St. Stephen's, 
was blessed Oct. 3, 1881, and is quite 
the largest and finest church edifice in 
the county. It is nearly on the town line, 
the church being in New Bremen, and 
the priest's house in Croghan. 

The congregation was formed by Rev. 
Father Guth from Cape Vincent in 1835, 
with 125 members, and a church was 
put up that year. In 1842, the present 
" old church " was built. The parish 
was in charge of priests from Utica sev- 
eral years, and for about fifteen years 
the same as served at Mohawk Hill in 
West Turin. Father Tappert was at 
both, from 1850 to '53. His successors 
were Father Feddermann (one year) ; 
Herino, (O. M. C.) ; Clemens, 1858, (O. 
M. C.) ; Ladisclaus, (O. M. C.) 1 861-63 ; 
and others, here and in West Turin. 
Since 1863, this has been separate, and 
the priests have been Joseph Lessen, 
1863, (an Italian, who could preach in 
neither English, French or German) ; 
Smitt, 1867-68, (a secular priest); Vol- 
kert, (1868-Sept., 1871); Johannis Coul- 
lon, (March to August, 1875); Thomas 
A. Fielt, (December, 1875, to February, 
1876, O. S. A.); Ferdinand Miiller, 
(February to August, 1876, O. S. F.) ; 
Francis Koch, (went to Paterson, N. J., 
February, 1880, O. S. F.); Father Cerom, 
for out-missions (February, 1880, to 
March, 1882) ; and Gregory Schlitt, 
(since December, 1861, O. S. F.) There 

*The first incorporation is dated March 14, 1S53, the 
first trustees being Nicholas Gandel, Christopher Milles 
and V. E. Rofinot, Jr. Under its present form the 
corporation dates from Aug. 31, 1869, Gabriel Volkert 
being their pastor. Its seal adopted Dec. 13, 1878, was 
recorded in the office of county clerk, in " Miscellan- 
eous Records" ii, p,38o. 

+ Incorporated Sept. I, 1869, G. Volkert (pastor,) 
James Conboy and J. H. Tardy, (laymen.) 

\ Proved Aug. 31, 1878. 



have also been here Rev. Moritz San- 
der, (August, 1876, to March, 1882, O. 
S. F.) ; Leonat Malkmas, (November, 
1876, to December, 1881, O. S. F.); and 
Camillus Mondor, (February, 1880, to 
March, 1882, O. S. F.) 

These priests, who, it will be noticed, 
have mostly belonged to the 3d Order 
of St. Francis, dress as Franciscan monks, 
and serve at other places, as at Moose 
River, Harrisville, Fine and Greig. Be- 
sides Father Gregory, there are at pres- 
ent Fidelis Kircher and Albert Strabele, 
both Franciscans. 

The Franciscan Monastery of St. 
Stephen (priest's house) was built in 
1877; St. Mary's school building about 
1864 to 1867 ; and the Convent of St. Eliz- 
abeth in 1878. The school-house is for 
elementary instruction of both sexes, and 
has about one hundred scholars ; the Con- 
vent is for young ladies only, and has 
some eighteen or twenty pupils. These 

are taught by four Franciscan Nuns. 
The mother house of their order is at 
Peekskill. There is also connected with 
the Priest's house a building erected in 
1 88 1, where twelve boys are under ele- 
mentary religious instruction. They 
are from fifteen to twenty years of age, 
and are intended for priests. This 
school was begun about three years ago, 
and the boys board and lodge on the 

St. Stephen's church is of wood, was 
built in 1 88 1, and blessed October 4th 
of that year. It is about 120 feet long, 
with a spire 160 feet high, and will seat 
about 700 persons. It is finished in 
black ash within, and cost about $16,000. 

The priests claim 424 families, and 
2,226 souls as under their charge. They 
were induced to leave Germany in con- 
sequence of the measures of Bismarck in 
prohibiting monastic orders from exer- 
cising their functions in that country. 

Biographical Sketch. 


The family of Rice is descended from 
Robert Rice, who was born in England 
about the year 1590. The name in the 
earlier days of the family was variously 
spelled as Royce, Roise, Roice, and 
Royse. At what time it was changed to 
the more simple form of Rice, is not 

Robert, the ancestor mentioned, came 
to America in 163 1, and settled first in 
Boston, Massachusetts, from whence he 
removed to New London, Connecticut, 
previous to 1657. He was constable 

there in 1660, and was a representative 
in the Colonial Legislature, in 1661. He 
was in good repute, and was the father 
of nine children — six sons and three 
daughters. His first wife, Elizabeth, 
was living on the estate in 1688. He 
died in 1676. 

His third son, Samuel, married Han- 
nah Churchell, of Wethersfield, Conn. 
He resided in New London, Conn., and 
was a freeman there in 1669, but removed 
from there to Wallingford, New Haven 
county, previous to 1677. He had two 
sons and three daughters. His eldest 
son, also named Samuel, resided in Wall- 



ingford, where he married, June 5, 1690, 
Sarah Baldwin, by whom he had four 
children. He died June 11, 1729. Of his 
children, Jacob, the youngest son, born 
April II, 1697, married Sept. 28, 1724, 
Thankful Beach, daughter of Thos. and 
Phebe Beach. She was born Sept. 20, 
1702. Jacob died Nov 13, 1727, aged 30. 

county in 1857. Of the children of this 
marriage, two sons, William W. and Yale, 
have achieved some prominence in the 
business interests of Lewis county. 

Yale Rice, the eldest, was born De- 
cember 23, 1831, and received his educa- 
tion in Cortland and Ithaca. In 1849, he 
entered the leather establishment of Lor- 


The children of Jacob and Thankful 
Beach Rice, were Amos and Experience. 
Amos, born November i, 1725, married 
Sarah Morse, about 1753, and resided in 
Wallingford, Conn. They had seven 
sons and four daughters. Their fifth son, 
Benajah, was born March 16, 1767, and 
married Sarah Hough, in January, 1793. 
Their only son Amos, was born August 
22, 1800, in Windham, Greene county, N. 
Y. He married Loretta Susan Andrews, 
of Greene county, and came to Lewis 

ing Andrews, in New York, where he 
remained as clerk and book-keeper until 
1853. He then went to Sullivan county, 
where he became connected with a tan- 
nery, remaining some six years. In 1859, 
he removed to Wisconsin, where he was 
a merchant until 1864. In that year he 
came to Lewis county, and became a 
partner with his brother in the manufac- 
ture of leather, under the firm name of 
W. & Y. Rice. 
WiUiam Wirt Rice, the subject of the 



accompanying portrait, was born in 
Lexington, Greene county. New York, 
August 13, 1833. At tiie age of two 
years his parents removed from Greene 
county to Homer, Cortland county, 
where his early life was passed, and 
where he received his education in the 
Cortland Academy, under Prof. S. B. 
Woolworth, since secretary of the Board 
of Regents. He lived on the farm until 
the age of twenty, and in 1853, left home 
and came to the town of Greig, Lewis 
county, where he worked for C. W. 
Pratt, a tanner, for three years at twelve 
dollars per month, during which time 
he mastered the trade of sole leather 
tanning. In 1856, in company with his 
oldest brother, B. B. Rice, he built a 
tannery at Dunning's Station, on the 
Delaware & Lackawanna Railroad, nine 
miles from Scranton, Pa., which he sold 
before its entire completion, and in De- 
cember, 1856, came to Croghan, Lewis 
county. Here in the year following he 
built a tannery which was destroyed bv 
fire in 1865, and the present tannery was 
built in its place at once. In 1863, B. B. 
Rice sold his interest in the business to 
the father, Amos, who in 1864, sold to 
his son Yale, the present partner with 
William W. The capacity of this tannery 
is 20,000 sides of sole leather per year, 
using during that time 3,000 cords of 
bark. In the spring of 1870 they pur- 
chased ten thousand acres of land in 
Croghan, principally for its growth of 
hemlock timber. They built also a tan- 
nery at Jordan Falls, on the Oswegatchie 
river, the capacity of which is 60,000 
sides per annum. Here they erected 
twenty-five or thirty dwellings, a large 

boarding house, a store and school 
house. In 1873, they purchased some 
18,000 acres more of land, for its hemlock 
timber, and now conduct probably the 
most extensive tannery in the county. 
In 1866, William W. Rice was elected 
Supervisor of the town, which office he 
held four years, and was elected to that 
position again in 1881, for one term. In 
1876, he was elected to the Assembly of 
the State by the Democratic party, and 
served to the satisfaction of his constit- 

On the nth of October, 1864, Mr. 
Rice was married to Martha A. Gowdy 
daughter of Norman Gowdy of Low- 
ville. His children are : — 

Alice G., born October 24, 1865, died 
September 28, 1870 ; George Stanley, 
born August 20, 1867; Julia B., born 
October 23, 1869; Francis Yale, born 
November 12, 1871 ; Norman G., born 
January 12, 1874; Martha A., born Sep- 
tember 12, 1876. 

On the 27th of February, 1883, W. & 
Y. Rice sold their tanneries, and about 
10,000 acres of bark land, to Messrs. 
BuUard & Co., of New York City, and 
will retire from business. 


History of the Town of Denmark. 

THIS town was formed from Harris- 
burgh, April 3, 1807, with its pres- 
ent limits, comprising Township V, ot 
the Black River Tract, or Mantua, as 
named by the Surveyor-General, on his 
published maps of 1802 and 1804. The 
first town meeting was ordered to be 
held at the house of Simeon Dunham, 
and the poor and poor moneys were to 
be divided with Harrisburgh according 
to the last tax list. The act took effect on 
the first Monday of February following. 
The first town officers were : — 

Lewis Graves, Supervisor; Wm. Der- 
byshire, Clerk ; Levi Robbins, Willis Se- 



combe and Eleazer Sylvester, Assessors ; 
John Clark, William Clark and John 
Hurd, Commissioners ; Stephen Parson 
and Sueton Fairchild, Poormasters ; 
Aaron Nash, Constable ; and Eleazer S. 
Sylvester, Constable and Collector. 

Lewis Graves was from Greenfield, 
Saratoga county, N. Y. He represented 
this county, Jefferson and St. Lawrence 
in Assembly in 1808, and this county 
aloae in 18 10. He was several years 
judge and supervisor, and died May 10, 
1 8 16, aged sixty -one years. His widow 
survived until 1852, when she died Jan. 
10, aged eighty-nine years. A brother 
named David also became an early settler. 

Eleazer Sylvester died February 17, 
1835, aged fifty-four years. 

Supervisors. — 1808, Lewis Graves; 
1809, John Canfield ; 18 10-' 12, L.Graves; 
1813-14, J. Canfield; 1815-16, Samuel 
Allen; 18 17-' 18, Israel Kellogg; i8i9-'23, 
S.Allen; i824-'37, John Clark, ist; 1838- 
'39, ApoUos Stephens;* i840-'4i, Ab- 
ner A. Johnson ; 1842-50, Lewis Pierce ; 
185 1, John H. Allen ; 1852-53, Albert G. 
Thompson; 1854, Lewis Pierce ; 1855- 
'56, Lucian Clark; 1857-58, L.Pierce; 
1859, Philander Blodget ; i860, L. 
Pierce ; 1861-63, Albert G. Thomp- 
son ; i864-'69, Gilbert B. Johnson; 
i870-'75, John C. Wright; i876-'77, G. 
B. Johnson ; 1878-81, Addison L. Clark; 
1882, Darwin Nash. 

Dr. Samuel Allen, (1815-16,) was a na- 
tive of Massachusetts, studied with Drs. 
Guiteau, of Trenton, and Willoughby, 
of Newport ; settled in practice at Low- 
ville, in 1808, and in April, 1809, became 
a partner with Dr. Perry. He re- 
moved to Copenhagen in 181 1, engaged 
in trade with David Canfield, and 
through the war was concerned in heavy 
contracts with the navy. The peace 
which followed brought ruin to this firm, 
although they kept on doing some busi- 

* Died at Deer River, April 7, 1867, aged 79 year-, 
3 months. 

ness from about 1820 to 1828. They suc- 
ceeded in recovering from the govern- 
ment, a portion of the claims which the 
suspension of contracts occasioned, and 
while on this business at Washington, 
Dr. Allen formed the acquaintance of 
many prominent public men. He became 
the agent of Varick, in the rope manu- 
factory at Copenhagen, and afterwards 
engaged in farming a little southeast 
from the village, and adjacent to the 
High Falls. He died June 12, 1849, aged 
sixty-six years. Dr. Allen was ardently 
attached to the Whig party, and once 
nominated by them to the Assembly, but 
not elected. With literary tastes, pol- 
ished manners, and uncommon conver- 
sational powers, he was eminently fitted 
to please and instruct, while his prompt 
reply and keen wit, made him the life of 
the social gathering. 

Clerks. — 1808-09, William Derby- 
shire; i8io-'ii, Willis Secombe; 1812, 
Levi Robbins ; 1813, Eleazer S.Sylves- 
ter; 1814-19, Asa D. Wright ; 1820-24, 
Absalom Sylvester; 1825, Apollos 
Stephens; 1826, Absalom Sylvester; 
1827, David A. Higley ; 1828, Absalom 
Sylvester; i829-'33, Apollos Stephens; 
1834-35, Amos Buck; 1836-37, Otis 
Shaw; 1838, Amos Buck; 1839-40, 
Lewis Pierce; i84i-'43, Charles Loud*; 
1844-45, John M. Hulbert ; 1849, Sidney 
Sylvester; 1847, William N. Angle; 
i848-'49, Elon G. Parsons ; 1859, C. Loud ; 
1851, William N. Angle; 1852, Edward 
L. Hulbert; 1853, Elon G. Parsons; 
1854-55, JohnH. Angle; 1856, E. L. 
Hulbert; 1857, Darwin Nash ; 1858-60, 
Silas Slater, Jr.; 1861, John W. Wright ; 
1862, Darwin Nash ; 1863-64, James 
Johnson; 1865, John Sylvester; 1866, 
David Graham, Jr.; 1867-70, Phineas 
Wool worth; 1871-73, Edward L. Hul- 
bert ; 1874-76, Oscar P Hadcock ; 
1877-78, Edward L. Hulbert: 1879-81, 

* Died January 8, 1851, aged 36. 



Joseph W. Empey ; 1882, Charles M. 

In 1810, 'II, '12, '13, a fine of $10 was 
voted for allowing Canada thistles to go 
to seed. A bounty of 50 cents was 
voted in 1821, for killing foxes, and $10 
for panthers in 1828. 

As noticed in our chapter upon titles, 
this town formed a part of the purchase 
of Harrison, Hoffman, Low and Hender- 
son, and fell to the lot of the first two, 
as joint owners, together with townships 
8 and 10, or Rodman and Harrisburgh. 
On the ist of May, 1805, Josiah Ogden 
Hoffman, sold to Thomas L. Ogden, his 
half of these towns, and the securities 
upon them in trust, to pay, first, to the 
bank of New York, his share of debt 
due the bank, as assignee of Constable ; 
second, the personal debts of Hoffman to 
the Constable estate ; third, a debt due 
to Abijah Hammond ; fourth, to William 
Harrison, the sum due on a bond of 
$9,093.50, given January i, 1805 ; and 
lastly, what remained to Hoffman. In a 
transaction of this date, Harrison ac- 
quired Hoffman's interest in lots i, 2, 3, 
18, 53. 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 
excepting parts of 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, and 
64, for $7,300. The first and second 
trusts were executed in the summer of 
1809, and on the ist of June, Harrison 
and Hoffman made a division of con- 
tracts, bonds and mortgages. On the 
19th of July, Hoffman and Ogden con- 
veyed the whole to Harrison, to satisfy 
his demands in full. The amount of 
securities in the three towns thus trans- 
ferred, was $86,600.80. Hoffman, while 
concerned in these titles, was Attorney- 
General. He was seven years in the 
Assembly, in 1810, '13, '14; was Recorder 
of New York ; and at the time of his 
death, which occurred January 24, 1838, 
he was Associate Judge of the Superior 
Court of that city. He was a lawyer of 
great ability and strict integrity. 

The first definite knowledge of this 

town was ascertained by Benjamin 
Wright, who surveyed around it in April, 
1776, and recorded in his field-book the 
following : — 

" This is a most excellent township of 
land, and is beautifully watered with 
small streams, with a large creek called 
Deer creek running through the middle 
of it. On this creek is a cataract,* about 
four miles from the mouth, of about 20 
or 30 feet, and very curious mill seats. 
There are several large creeks, of fine 
water running through the town, with 
mill seats on them. There is an exceed- 
ingly large intervale on Deer creek near 
the mouth, which is of the richest kind 
of land, and will be equal in quahty and 
extent to any flat in the State oi New 
York. The extent of these flats is about 
2,000 acres, and their richness is not over 
estimated. They are not ordinarily 
flowed over their whole extent, but in 
the winter of 1856-57, the flood came 
up to the foot of the hill, a few rods be- 
low Deer River village. On the 12th of 
May, 1833, the inundation was higher 
than ever before or since known. The 
south line of this town is of an excellent 
quality, excepting a swamp near the 
Black river, which is timbered with pine, 
ash, cedar, beech, and soft maple. This 
township needs no other remarks,but 
only to say, that it is the best township 
in the 300,000 acres, and has every good 
quality that can be contained in a town- 
ship of land — mill seats, excellent timber, 
finest quality of soil, excellent water, and 
pretty good situation. Area 33.951 acres, 
strict measure." 

The triangular form of this town and of 
Champion,appears to have resulted from 
a wish on the part of the owners of the 
Black River tract, to give to each a 
proportional river front. Along the 
Black river we first find a series of 
meadow lands of great fertility and an- 
nually flowed by the river. Back of this 
the surface rises by a succession of lime- 
stone terraces, with heavy deposits of 
drift, especially on the eastern margin 
of the upper terrace, below the village 
of Copenhagen. The accumulation of 

• Probably King's Falls, The High Falls appear to 
have been unknown at this time. 



drifted materials there forms a succes- 
sion of sharp, irregular hills, with deep 
valleys between. The same appearance 
is observed in Turin, and was apparent- 
ly caused by currents bearing these loose 
materials along, a little obliquely across 
the valley that had previously been 
formed in the limestone, by glacial ac- 

The proprietors of Township V, ap- 
pointed Abel French of Albany, their 
agent, and the latter employed Joseph 
Crary, in i/qS-'qq, to subdivide the town- 
ship into farms.* It will be observed.up- 
on examination of the map, that this 
survey was made with reference to a 
line since adopted as the route of the 
East Road, which was called the Base 
Line; and that the lot lines were run 
nearly parallel, or at right angles to this. 
The principal lots were intended to 
measure seventy chains on each side, 
and were sold as right angled, although 
uniformly, and no doubt purposely, run 
at an angle varying 6° from this, thus 
faUing a little short of reputed contents 
in every case. It is said that Crary 
remonstrated at this irregularity, but 
was overruled, and directed to proceed 
as the surveys now indicate. 

The lands of this town were offered to 
settlers upon terms that were considered 
very favorable, varying from two to 
three and a half dollars per acre, one- 
half being required at purchase. About 
1806, Mprris S. Miller, then of Lowville, 
but subsequently of Utica, became agent, 
and soon after Isaac W. Bostwick, of 
Lowville, under whom its settlement 
and conveyance by deed was mostly 

Abel French made the first location, 
having from his position as agent the 

* Joseph Crary afterward settled in this town, and 
was buried at Deer River, about 1815. He was a very 
large man. His name occurs in the records of land 
surveys in St. Lawrence and Jefferson counties, where 
he was employed by David Parish and others, to subdi- 
vide townships into farms. ' 

first choice, and selected the site of what 
has since become Deer River village. 
It is a prevalent belief among the first 
purchasers, that Mr. French saved a 
valuable tract of land to himself, by this 
arrangement. He represented Oneida 
county in Assembly in 1799, 1801, '02, 
'03, and Albany county in 1810. French 
resided in Floyd before Hving in Den- 
mark. A citizen of that town who 
knew him there, has informed us that a 
few years befoi'e his death, he boasted 
to him that he had " gutted the Black 
River people." The character given of 
him in our first edition, our informant 
considered as well deserved, and he 
thought him in many respects a " bad 
man." He was supervisor in Floyd in 
1798-99. He died in Albany, where the 
latter years of his life were spent, on the 
17th of November, 1843, aged seventy- 
eight years. 

The ne.xt settlement was by Jesse 
Blodget, the first actual resident, who, 
in 1800, settled at Denmark village, 
where he resided till his death, January 
9, 1848, at the age of eighty-four. His 
wife was the first woman who came into 
town. She died August 5, 1844, aged 
seventy years. Their son, Harrison 
Blodget, born March 18, 1801, was the 
first male child born in town. In 1824, 
Mr. Jesse Blodget built the large stone 
hotel in Denmark village. He first 
began keeping tavern in 1812. Harri- 
son Blodget was for a long period 
actively concerned in the affairs of the 
town and county, and was Member of 
Assembly in 1831. He was for many 
years one of the leading men in the 
County Agricultural Society, and in 
other matters of public utility. He died 
January 4, 1875, aged seventy-four years. 

Joseph Crary, the surveyor, Peter 
Bent (died November 30, 1833, aged fifty- 
six years), Solomon Farrell, William and 
Daniel Clark, James Bagg, Charles 
Moseley, Simeon Dunham, and others 



settled in the lower part of the town. 
Freedom Wright and his sons, Douglas 
(died July 21, 1863, aged eighty-four 
years ; his wife died December 17, 1863, 
aged eighty-two) and Freedom ; Charles 
Wright and his sons, Charles (died May 
20, 1827, aged fifty-four), Tyrannus A. 
(died July 12, 1862, aged eighty-four), 
Stephen, Erastus, Chester, Nathan and 
Matthew, and son-in-law, William Mer- 
riam , Joseph Blodget, his son, Calvin 
(died June 7, 1845, aged seventy), and 
son-in-law, Shadrach Case ; Andrew 
Mills, Freedom Williams, Darius Sher- 
win (died November 13, 1865, aged sixty- 
five) ; Levi and Reuben Robbins, David 
Goodenough, John Williams, Nathan 
Munger and his son, Nathan ; Levi 
Barnes, John Clark, Joseph and Bezaled 
I. Rich, (died December 11, 185 1, 
aged seventy -eight) ; David King, 
Isaac Munger (died April 20, 1850, aged 
seventy-five) ; Abner Whiting, Robert 
Horr, Henry Welch, and perhaps others, 
in the central and western parts, in 1801 
and 1802. In most cases as was then a 
common custom, the settlers came on 
the first year and made some improve- 
ments before the removal of their 
families the following spring. The 
Wrights were from Winstead, Conn., the 
Mungers from Ludlow, Mass., the 
Blodgets and Rich from New Hamp- 
shire, Crary from Vermont, the Rob- 
bins families from Sandisfield, Mass., 
Clark from Barre, Mass., and with 
scarcely an exception, all who arrived 
during the first five years were from 
some of the New England States. 

The town settled with great rapidity, 
and in less than three years, most of it 
was in the hands of actual settlers.* 

In the winter of 1800-01, it isbeheved 
no family but that of Jesse Blodget, re- 

* Jonathan Barker, Nathaniel Sylvester, William Root, 
tJrial and Timothy Twitchell, Solomon Wedge, John 
and David Canfield, Ichabod Parsons and others were 
early settlers. Mr. Parsons died September 9, 1867, 
aged ninety-one years. 

mained in town. The next winter was 
remarkably open, and land was plowed 
in March. This may have created a 
highly favorable opinion of the climate 
of the new town, although the occur- 
rence was not peculiar to this section in 
that year. 

That portion of the town south taf 
Deer river, between Copenhagen and 
Denmark villlage, early acquired the 
name of Halifax, and prejudices were 
raised against it, but fifty years of culti- 
vation have shown that it is equal to any 
part of the town. 

The first physician who settled at Co- 
penhagen was Dr. Dunn, but he removed 
to the Genesee country in 1804, and in 
the year following Dr. John Loud settled 
and remained till his death, March 3, 
1 83 1, at the age of fifty -two. 

The first framed house in Denmark 
village was built by Freedom Wright, 
first inn-keeper, and the first in Copen- 
hagen by Levi Barnes. 

In the spring of 1801, the Nathan Mun- 
gers (father and sonj, millwrights, having 
had their attention called to the Black 
River country, came down the river and 
followed up the Deer river to half a mile 
above the falls where they selected a site 
for mills, and in that season finished a 
saw-mill and got it in operation. The 
proprietors to encourage the enterprise 
gave them the water privilege from the 
High falls up over two miles. In 1803, 
they got a small grist-mill with one run 
of burr stones in operation, in time to 
grind the first wheat raised in the town 
as soon as it was in condition for use. 
The mill stood directly below the upper 
saw-mill in Copenhagen village, and its 
vicinity gradually receiving a number 
of mechanics, acquired the name of Mun- 
ger s Mills. 

The first store was opened at this 
place by Urial Twitchell* and the first 
inn on the hill south of the village was 

* Died November 19, 1856, aged seventy-nine. 



kept by Andrew Mills. A beaver 
meadow, now a broad and beautiful in- 
tervale just above the village, afforded 
the first hay used in the settlement. 

It so happened that most of those liv- 
ing at this place were Federalists, and as 
politics then ran, were presumed to sym- 
pathize with British measures. Soon 
after the arrival of the news of the bom- 
bardment of Copenhagen in Europe in 
1807, by a British fleet, in time of peacei 
and under circumstances that were re- 
garded throughout Christendom as high- 
ly disgraceful to the assailants, a politi- 
cal meeting was held at Munger's Mills, 
by the Republicans as then styled. Their 
business being done, some one proposed 
to christen the place Copenhagen, in de- 
rision of the party who were in duty 
bound to justify the recent outrage in 
Europe. The name was at once adopt- 
ed, and a few years after it was applied 
to their post-office. The town had pre- 
viously been named by the Legislature, 
which rendered the new name to this 
village the more appropriate, as the 
largest village in town. 

We have the means for furnishing the 
names of most of the men living in this 
town, and two others adjoining, all then 
comprising the town of Harrisburgh, in 
the State Electoral census of 1807. We. 
have carefully arranged them in alpha- 
betical order, to facilitate reference. 

Census of Electors in Harrisburgh, 
IN 1 807, {including the present towns of 
Denmark, Harrisburgh and Pinckney.) 
[Gilbert Taylor, and Jabez Wright, 
Census Takers.] 

Allen, Winthrop. 
Alton, Asa. 
Alton, David. 
Andeisa, Joseph. 
Anderson, Joseph. 
Austin, Caleb. 
Austin, Gunman. 
Austin, Jonathan. 
Austin, Silas. 
Babcock, Backus. 

Babcock, Caleb. 
Babcock, Daniel. 
Bailey, John. 
Bailey, Samuel. 
Barker, Jonathan. 
Bander, Michael, Jr. 
Beebee, Henry. 
Belmat, Peter N. 
Benson, Ebenezer. 
Bent, David. 

Bent, Peter. 
Blodget, Calvin. 
Blodget, Jesse. 
Blodget, Joseph. 
Blodget, Rufus. 
Boyington, John. 
Brigham, David. 
Brown, Horace. 
Brush, Berick. 
Buck, Amos. 
Buck, Elijah. 
Buck, Solomon. 
Buris, James. 
Burr, Hiram. 
Bush, John. 
Bush, Silas. 
Burt, Josiah. 
Butts, Morris. 
Butts, Thomas. 
Card, Peleg. 
Carey, Rice. 
Carter, Benjamin. 
Case, Shadrach. 
Chambers, Lawrence. 
Chapins, Jeremy. 
Chinchman, Chris. 
Clark, Edward. 
Clark, Elijah. 
Clark, John. 
Clark, John S. 
Clark, William. 
Clifford, Jonathan T. 
Cobb, Ezra. 
Cobb, George H. 
Collins, Julius. 
Cone, Crocker. 
Cone, Silas. 
Cook, Nathan. 
Cook, Peter. 
Copeley, William. 
Cottrell, Gardner. 
Cottrill, Wm. B. 
Cown, Peter G. 
Darbyshire, William. 
Davis, Heman. 
Davis, John. 
Dean, Isaac. 
Demirig, Lyman. 
Denison, Nathan. 
Dixon, Jeremiah. 
Dixon, Robert B. 
Dunham, Daniel. 
Dunham, Simeon. 
Eldridge, Robert. 
Elmer, Isaac. 
Elmer, Samuel. 
Everett, Daniel. 
Fairchild, Sueton. 
Farwell, Solomon. 
Farwell, Leonard. 
Fitch, Benjamin. 

Forward, Jesse. 
Fry, Abraham. 
Fry, John. 
Fulsom, Joseph. 
Gates, George D. 
Gilbert, James. 
Gillet, Azariah. 
Gillett, Barnabas. 
Gleason, John. 
Godard, Lewis. 
Goodenough, David. 
Goodenough, John. 
Goodwin, Joseph. 
Graves, David. 
Graves, Lewis. 
Graves, Harting. 
Green, Olney. 
Griswold, James. 
Hall, George. 
Hanchel, Seth. 
Hancock, Rufus. 
Hartwell, WiUiam. 
Heart, Stephen. 
Hewit, David. 
Hildreth, Aaron. 
Hitchcock, Amasa. 
Horham, Benjamin. 
Horr, Isaac. 
Horr, Jacob. 
Horr, Luther. 
Horr, Robert. 
Hovey, Levi. 
Hovey, Samuel. 
Humphrey, Ashbel. 
Humphrey, Hart. 
Humphrey, Micah. 
Hunt, Ephriam. 
Hunt, James. 
Huntmgton, Ralph. 
Hurd, John. 
Hyde, Elihu. 
Ingraham, George S. 
Ingraham, Jeremiah. 
Irish, Daniel. 
Kelsey, Oliver. 
Kenyon, Joshua. 
King, Elijah. 
King, Grimes. 
King, Silas. 
Knapp, Jared. 
Knapp, John. 
Knapp, Wright. 
Lamkin, Thomas. 
Lewis, John. 
Lockwood, James. 
Loud, John. 
Macumber, Cyrus. 
Macumber, Enoch. 
Macumber, Samuel. 
Mann, Jabez. 
Mann, Samuel. 



Mead, T. 
Meriam, William. 
Mills, Andrus. 
Moody, Elijah. 
Moody, Elijah, Jr. 
Moor, Levi. 
Morison, Consider H. 
Moss, James. 
Munger, Elijah. 
Munger, Isaac. 
Munger, Nath'an. 
Munger, Nathan, Jr. 
Munger, Solomon. 
Murry, Ichabod. 
Nash, Eleazer. 
Nash, James. 
Nash, Joel. 
Noxon, Benjamin, Jr. 
Newton, Joseph. 
Newton, Jotham. 
Olncy, Joseph. 
Ordway, John. 
Packard, Jared. 
Page, Amasa. 
Parkerford, Gurdon. 
Parks, William. 
Parsons, Elihu. 
Parsons, Ichabod. 
Parsons, Stephen. 
Pearce, Asa. 
Peck, Azariah. 
Peck, Henry. 
Peck, Jonathan. 
Phinney, Joshua. 
Pickart, Thomas. 
Plank, John. 
Porter, Asa. 
Parington, Joseph. 
Rich, Joseph. 
Richards, David. 
Richards, Joseph. 
Robbins, Levi. 
Robbins, Reuben. 
Rogers, Eli. 
Rogers, Grary. 
Rogers, Zebadiah. 
Root, William. 
Saflford, Sanford. 
Saye, Elias. 
Saunders, Francis. 
Saunders, Silas. 
Sawyer, Jotham. 
Scherraerhorn, Henry. 
Seccomb, Thomas. 
Seccomb, Willis. 
Shephard, Ichabod. 
Shephard, Israel. 
Shearman, Mishael. 
Skeels, Cephas. 

Skeels, Elijah. 
Skeels, Nirum. 
Slater, Abiel. 
Slater, Silas. 
Smith, David. 
Smith, Ira. 
Smith, Isaac B. 
Smith, Samuel. 
Smith, Selah. 
Stannard, Roswell. 
Stoddard, George A. 
Stoddard, John. 
Stoddard, Ralph. 
Stoddard, Richard. 
Stoddard, Samuel. 
Swinburn. Peter. 
Sylvester, Ezra. 
Sylvester, Nathaniel. 
Taylor, Abisher. 
Taylor, David. 
Taylor, Gilbert. 
Thomas, Sturbeal. 
Thompson, Archibald. 
Tisdale, Elisha. 
Toflfy, Hewlett. 
Torey, Azariah. 
Townsend, Abner. 
Townsend, Jonathan. 
Townsend, Timothy. 
Trowbridge, Hezekiah. 
Trowbridge, Roswell. 
Twitchel, Uriel. 
Verten, Gellis V. 
VanBrocklin, Gilbert. 
VanVlek, Benjamin. 
Vaughan, John. 
Vedder, Adam. 
Vedder, Lemon V. 
Vrooman, Abram. 
Vrooman, Barrant. 
Watson, Samuel. 
Webb, Joseph. 
White, John G. 
White, Isaac L. 
White, Joseph. 
Whiting, Abner. 
Wilcox, Daniel. 
Williams, Absalom. 
Williams, Freeman. 
Williams, Isaac. 
Williams, Jacob. 
Williams, John. 
Wood, Solomon. 
Woolworth, Phineas. 
Wright, Charles. 
Wright, Charles, Jr. 
Wright, Freedom. 
Wright, Tyrannus A. 

About 1807, the Rev. Peleg Card, a 

pioneer Baptist minister, began a cloth 
manufactory belovsr Copenhagen, which 
was continued by himself and sons 
for many years. The cloth principally 
made was satinet, but afterwards the 
business was chiefly limited to carding 
wool. The business disappeared entirely 
many years ago. 

In 1806, most of a militia company at 
Copenhagen, failed to appear at a train- 
ing, on account of some grievance at the 
change of their captain, and were ac- 
cordingly summoned to a court martial, 
to be held at the inn of Andrew Mills, 
half a mile south of the village, in Janu- 
ary following. Their numbers inspired 
confidence in the belief that the proceed- 
ings of the Court might be embarrassed 
or interrupted, and they agreed upon a 
course of proceeding, perhaps natural, 
under the circumstances of time and 
prevailing customs. Procuring a keg of 
spirits at a distillery, they marched to 
the court, and when called up for trial, 
assigned whimsical reasons for delin- 
quency, alleging the want of decent 
clothing, short funds, the existence of 
various infirmities, and other frivolous 
causes, tending to throw ridicule upon 
the court, and rendering it necessary to 
order the arrest of the greater number 
of the party. The prisoners were con- 
fined in the room over that in which the 
court martial was held, and finally by 
their boisterous conduct, compelled an 
adjournment without trial. 

The offending parties were indicted 
for riot, and their trial came off at Doty's 
tavern, in Martinsburgh, but resulted in 
acquittal. The rioters had in the mean 
time, prepared a song, entitled. The Keg 
and the Lazv, which recited minutely the 
transaction, and when the county court 
had adjourned, after the trial, this song 
was sung in the court room with great 
force and effect. The presiding judge is 
said to have jocosely remarked, that if 
this had been sung during the trial, 



witnesses would have been needless, as 
it embodied every fact in the case. One 
year after, the anniversary of their ac- 
quittal was celebrated, by an address, 
and the well remembered song was re- 
peated. It was written by Charles 
Wright, and a friend has furnished us a 
written copy, as taken down half a cent- 
ury after, from the memory of one of 
the party. It consists of twenty-four 
stanzas, and is entirely destitute of 
rhyme, poetical measure or hterary 
merit, although it might appear quite 
different in its appropriate tune, now for- 
gotten, or so changed as not to be appli- 
cable to the subject. A company of Sil- 
ver Greys or Exempts, was formed in 
this town, under Charles Wright, during 
the war. It never found occasion for 

In June, 181 5, Henry Waggoner was 
found dead below the High falls, in Deer 
river, under circumstances that excited 
suspicions of murder. A coroner's jury 
was called, but could not agree, and the 
body was buried, but the clamors of the 
public led to the holding of a second in- 
quest before a jury of twenty -three 
persons, summoned from the central 
and southern part of the county, of 
whom twelve united in a verdict of 

It appeared that Simpson Buck, of this 
town, had been on terms of improper in- 
timacy with the wife of a son of Mr. 
Waggoner, who resided on the Num- 
ber Three road, south of Copenhagen. 
The old man, who had been a Hessian 
soldier, and was perhaps seventy years 
old, pubHcly denounced this conduct, 
and in a recent suit against Buck, had 
appeared and testified against him. It 
is related that the latter swore that Wag- 
goner should never appear against him 
again in court. When last seen, Mr. 
Waggoner was going to his work of 
hoeing potatoes in a field about a mile 
south of the falls. When found by 

Lyman Demming, half a mile or so 
below the falls, some days after, the 
body was much decayed, and showed 
marks upon the skull as if made with the 
head of a hoe. It is said there was also 
found a trail of blood for some distance 
from the bank, and on a tree fence over 
which the body was supposed to have 
been taken. Forty-two witnesses were 
sworn by the coroner, (Adoniram Foot,) 
and the evidence taken led to the verdict 
that the deceased, about the 1 2th of June, 
1815, "came to the south bank of Deer 
river, about one or two rods above the 
High falls, and then and there, by acci- 
dent, or intentionally fell, threw himself 
into the said river, and then and there 
passed over said falls, a distance of 164 
feet, and in so doing bruised and drowned 
himself." Dr. Spencer, of Champion, 
was the examining surgeon on the oc- 
casion, and believed that Waggoner had 
been murdered. 

Buck soon after went off with the 
young man's wife, resided some years 
in Penn Yan, and then removed to 
Michigan, where he is said to have 
perished by violence. At the time of 
the event he was very strongly suspect- 
ed, even before the body was found, 
and in accordance with a superstition 
that should rather belong to the days of 
Salem witchcraft, he was brought and 
required to touch the dead body, to as- 
certain whether blood would flow afresh 
from the wound. Upon conversing with 
many cotemporaries of Waggoner, we 
find that the belief in his murder was 
very generally prevalent, although two 
or three expressed doubts as to whether 
an old soldier, who had been living in the 
place some time before, and also went off 
soon after, was not employed to execute 
the deed, or to assist in it. 

An arrest was made in this town in 
I Big, which forms one of the links in a 
chain of events in one of the most singu- 
lar criminal trials upon record. Stephen 



Bourne, from Vermont, was one of two 
brothers charged with the murder of 
Russel Colvin, in Vermont, about seven 
years before. Being taken back to that 
State, he confessed the murder, and was 
sentenced to be hung. His brother, 
Jesse, was sent to the penitentiary for 
life. Doubts being expressed by some 
as to whether there had been a murder, 
an appeal was made to the Legislature 
for a pardon, but instead of granting this 
they passed a law directing the execution 
to take place on an appointed day — Jan. 
28, 1820. 

The facts as to the supposed murder 
were briefly these : Colvin was their 
brother-in-law, and a roving, shiftless, 
half-crazy fellow ; living upon them with 
his family, but tramping off, sometimes 
for months together. An altercation 
arose in the field where the brothers 
were plowing, and Colvin was knocked 
down and left senseless. They robbed 
his pockets, piled brush over him, and in 
the night set fire to the heap, and as they 
thought, reduced his remains to ashes. 
But before this Colvin had recovered, 
crawled out, and departed. He wan- 
dered off to New Jersey, and found a 
home in a family where he made himself 
useful, and lived several years, a crazy but 
harmless man. A singular dream is said 
to have started up the story of a murder, 
which Colvin's long absence and failure 
to return, appeared to justify. It is said 
that Colvin had informed the family 
where he lived, of enough to satisfy 
them of his identity, but he could not 
be persuaded to return. The arrest of 
the brothers and the notoriety of the 
case having come to the family, they 
took Colvin under a pretense of going on 
some business, and brought him to the 
place where Stephen Bourne was soon 
to be executed. His identity could not 
be doubted, and of course the sentence 
of the two brothers was suspended. 

Stephen Bourne returned to Denmark, 

stayed two or three years, and went from 
thence to Champion, and finally west. He 
was thought to be half-crazy, good to 
work, but always poor, and " none too 
good " to commit the crime of which he 
had been charged. He was regarded as 
malicious, passionate, and when angry, 
blind to consequences. But the most 
singular part of the whole occurred 
when, about 1861, this same Bourne, 
being arrested at Cleveland, O., for 
passing counterfeit money, and then at 
an advanced age, again confessed in jail, 
the murder of Colvin. The guilt of the 
crime had been on his conscience 
through all these years, and he could 
not be persuaded but that it was real. 

Two other criminal events of more 
recent date may be noticed in this con- 
nection : — 

Lorenzo A. Larabee, of this town, was 
tried for the murder of Jack Woodward; 
in 1 87 1, and sentenced to Auburn prison 
lor two years and four months, for man- 
slaughter in the third degree. 

In April, 1878, David Merrihew, living 
in the eastern part of Denmark, was 
taken ill, and in ten days died in con- 
vulsive agony. He was a single man, 
living in the family of his brother, 
Charles B., who three weeks afterwards 
was also taken sick, with like symptoms, 
but under careful nursing was saved. 
Suspicion strongly pointed to these cases 
as poisoning, and to the wife of the lat- 
ter as the criminal. Mrs. Harriet Mer- 
rihew, was accused, arrested, tried, found 
guilty of murder in the second degree, 
and sentenced to inprisonment for life. 
She was sent to the Onondaga peniten- 
tiary. Winthrop Merrihew, her cousin, 
was also indicted, but was acquitted. 
While awaiting trial in jail, he made an 
attempt at self-starvation, but was com- 
pelled to abandon it. 

In December, 1850, William Cratzen- 
berg of this town, was indicted for the 
murder of his wife in the spring preced- 



ing, and tried but acquitted. The judge, 
in charging the jury, stated that the 
prisoner had been guilty of great cru- 
elty and brutality ; but the evidence 
failed to establish a verdict of guilt. He 
resided on the road between Copenha- 
gen and Deer River. 

On the gth of July, 1832, a Board of 
Health, consisting of the Supervisor, 
Overseers of the Poor and Justices of 
the Peace, was appointed in this town, 
to guard against cholera, and Dr. Eras- 
mus D. Bartholomew was appointed 
health officer. Dr. Bartholomew who 
then lived in Denmark village, after- 
wards removed to Hamilton, Madison 

Copenhagen Village. 

We have already mentioned the be- 
ginning of settlement at Mungers Mills, 
and the naming of the place as since 
known. There remains to be mentioned, 
the causes that have given it growth, 
and its present condition. 

About 1820, Allen & Can field,* who 
had several years transacted a heavy 
mercantile and manufacturing business, 
failed and their mill property was sub- 
sequently bid in by Abraham Varick of 
Utica. Dr. Samuel Allen was appoint- 
ed agent for the erection of an extensive 
rope factory, and the farmers of this and 
adjoining towns were induced to en- 
gage largely in the culture of flax and 
hemp, hundreds of acres of which were 
raised. In 1832, a rope walk, 575 feet long, 
was erected, and about 1836, machinery 
was introduced for the preparation 
of hemp. Active efforts were made 
at about this period to induce farmers 
to undertake the raising of flax, and seed 
was loaned to such as would undertake 
it. The rotting of hemp was not found 
economical by the process employed, 
and its culture quickly fell into disuse. 

* David Canfield died December 17, 1849, aged sev- 

The rope works were burned in the 
spring of 1843, doubtless by an incen- 
diary, and again built soon after, 400 feet 
in length, by Archibald Johnston, and the 
business has continued more or less regu- 
larly for some years. Varick lost a large 
sum in this investment. 

In 1853, surveys were made with the 
design of securing the location of the 
Rome railroad to this place. The high- 
est point on the surveyed route was 61 1 
feet above Felt's mills, and about forty 
above Copenhagen. At that time, a 
square mile was surveyed, and prelim- 
inary measures adopted to obtain a vil- 
lage charter. The census taken for this 
purpose, gave on the proposed limits, 
610 inhabitants.* 

The project of an incorporation rested 
until the beginning of 1869, when a new 
and this time a successful result was ob- 
tained. The population as reported 
January 12, 1869, was 559, on an area 
assumed as the boundary of the village, 
measuring about 75 1 acres, as surveyed 
by William C. Lawton. The incorpo- 
ration dates from February 22, 1869, and 
the election on the acceptance of arti- 
cles held May 4, 1869, resulted in a vote 
of 108 for, to 27 against. 

The first Trustees were John C. Wright, 
John M. Paris, Erastus P. Daggett, 
Phineas Woolworth, Enos Gallup, and 
J. L. Merrell. 

The remaining first officers were Peter 
Bent, John D. Dryden and A. M. Stock 
well. Assessors ; James Johnston, Clerk ; 
Leicester J. Raymond, Treasurer; and 
George Chickering, Street Commission- 
ers. John C. Wright, was chosen Presi- 

At an election held June 7, 1870, upon 
the acceptance of the new General act 
for the organization of village govern- 
ments, it was approved by a vote of 
38 to o. 

* The census of 1870, gave the population of the vil- 
lage as 575. In 1880 it was 702. 



The succession of Village Presidents, 
has been as follows : — 

1870. John C. Wright. 

i87i-'72- Oliver Woodward. 
i873-'74- Charles M. Paris. 
i875-'77- Lucian Clark. 
1878-79. D. P- Hadcock. 

1880. A. L. Clark. 

1 88 1. Charles M. Redfield. 

1882. A. L. Clark. 

The present business of the village 
(August, 1882,) may be summarized asj 
follows ; — 

Barber— George Keiser. 

Blacksmiths — Nelson T. Cutwater, 
Corcoran Bros., John W. Wright. 

Boots and Shoes — (Sold at all dry -goods 
stores, but at no separate establishment.) 
Albert Boynton, Franklin Cottrell, Solo- 
mon Doness and Celia LeMain, shoe- 

Butter-tub factory and Planing-Mill — 
Olney Newton. 

Cheese Box and Butter-tub Factory — 
Horace Ward. 

Clothing Store — George R. Scovil. 

Dentist — William G. Smith. 

Dress Makers — Mrs. Anna Ferguson, 
Miss Louisa Forward, Mrs. Augusta 

Druggists — Erwin J. Noyes, Leicester 
J. Raymond & Son, Curtis R. Stoddard. 

Dry-Goods Stores and Groceries — Benja- 
min Stanton, Albert G. Thompson & 
Son, Frederick H. Angle, Wheeler Bros. 

Furniture Dealers and Undertakers- — 
Joseph Empey, Frank Lansing. 

Grist-Mill — Eugene C. Hurd. 

Feed Mill— }. S. Campbell. 

Groceries, etc. — George J. Dryden, 
Warren S. Stiles. 

Hardware — Charles A. Chickering, 
Robert G. McCuen. 

Harnesses — Moses Lang, Charles L. 

Hotel — Davenport Bros. [John R. & 
William A. sons of Ashley D.] (Another 
hotel owned by L. Totman, was partly 
burned July i, 1882. It has since been 

Jewelers — Morris L. Merriman, D. Ter- 

Lawyers— K. H. Kellogg, G. P. Breen. 

Milliners— Mrs. Harriet Cottrell, Mrs. 
Chas. Hughes, Miss Irene Bohall. 

Painters — Sidney B. Daggett. ' 

Photographer — Morris L. Merriam. 

Physicians— Dr. E. I Wood, (Homeo- 
pathic); Dr. O. O. Stowell; Dr. Otis 
Shaw ; Dr. Ebenezer Allen, (Eclectic); 
Dr. A. H. Gordenier. 

Printer — Charles M. Redfield, office of 
Lewis County Independent. 

Produce Dealers — Thomas McMichael, 
and the stores generally. 

Sash and Blinds, Planing, Etc. — Eu- 
gene H. Green, James Carey. 

Saw-Mills — Horace Ward, Burrington 

Tailors — Henry Murphy and James 

Tannery — Switzer Campbell. 

Telegraph Operator — Warren S. Stiles. 

Tin Shops — (With each of the hard- 
ware stores.) 

Wagon Shops — Oscar T. Ingerson, Cor- 
coran Bros., William Bushnell. 

The Perkins Academy, on the northern 
border of the village, was opened as a 
private academy in the fall of 1879, by 
the Rev. Judson O. Perkins, and has 
usually an attendance of from 40 to 60, 
the rolls at times having 100 at a time 
on record. 

The Free Masons have a lodge at Co- 
penhagen — " Orient Lodge " No. 238. 
There was a lodge also at Denmark vil- 
lage early in the century. 

The order of Temperance styled " The 
Temple of Honor," has an organization 
kflown as " Robins Temple," No. 13, at 

John H. Raymond's Cornet Band, has 
been in existence for several years. 

Levi Bobbins, the Centenarian. — In the 
spring of 1880, there occurred in this 
town, the extraordinary event of a birth- 
day party, in which the person honored 
had finished the first century of life, and 
was about to enter upon the second. The 
occasion derived the greater interest, 
from the fact that the subject of this 
notice had acted a somewhat prominent 
part in the history of the town and 
county, and because from his having 
been at one time a member of the Leg- 
islature, the event became a matter of 



record, in the form of a resolution of con- 
gratulation upon the Assembly Journal. 
Levi Robbins, son of Solomon and Mary 
Robbins, was born at Wethersfield, 
Conn., May i, 1780, and came to reside 
in Denmark, in 1801. In 1803, he mar- 
ried Dinah Goodenough, and settled as 
a farmer, which was his occupation 
through life. He became a member of 
the Baptist church, and was the first 
man baptized in Copenhagen, and upon 
the formation of a Baptist church under 
the Rev. Peter P. Roots, and Rev. 
Stephen Parsons, in 1808, he became 
the first deacon and clerk. 

He took an early and active interest 
in the temperance question, and was a 
radical abolitionist. In the early days of 
the agitation upon the slavery question, 
he voted as he believed, upon that ques- 
tion, at a time when one could count the 
number of voters of his party in this 
town, upon the fingers of one hand ; and 
if we rightly remember, he would have 
held several responsible offices in the 
county, if he had received votes enough. 
But office seeking was not quite in his 
line, although in 18 19, he was elected to 
the Assembly. With his face set against 
sin, as usual, he proposed a measure, 
while a member, that at least got his 
name into poetry, in the way we will 
describe : — 

The country being infested then, as 
now, with strolling companies of show- 
men, he brought in a bill tending to sup- 
press the nuisance. It was made the op- 
portunity for one of our most gifted of 
American poets, the late Fitz Green Hal- 
leck, to bring out one of the satirical 
poems, which he, in company with 
Joseph Rodman Drake, was then print- 
ing in political newspaper, over the sig- 
nature of the " Croakers." 

In this facetious poem, the writer in- 
dulges in conjectures as to how Mr. Pot- 
ter, a ventriloquist of the day, might 
turn his special craft to account after 

losing his business, by getting into the 
State service, and into politics, generally. 
This whimsical production was as fol- 
lows : — 

" Dear Sir, you've heard that Mr. Robbins 

Has brought in without rhyme or reason, 
A bill to send you jugglers hopping ; 

That bill will pass this very season. 
Now as you lose your occupation. 

And may perhaps be low in Cofifer, 
I send you for consideration 

The following very liberal offer : — 

" Five hundred down, by way of bounty, 

Expenses paid (as shall be stated). 
Next April to Chenango county, 

And there we'll have you nominated. 
Your duty '11 be to watch the tongues 

When Root* begins to skirmish, 
To stop their speeches in their lungs. 

And bring out such as I shall furnish. 

" Thy ventriloqual powers, my Potter ! 

Shall turn to music every word. 
And make the Martlingf Deists utter 

Harmonious anthems to our Lord ; 
Then, all their former tricks upsetting. 

To honey thou shall change their gall. 
For Sharpe shall vindicate brevetting. 

And Root admire the great canal. 

" It will be pleasant, too, to hear a 

Decent speech among our Swains ; 
We almost had begun to fear a 

Famine for the dearth of brains. 
No more their tongues shall play the devil, 

Thy potent art the fault prevents ; 
Now GermanJ shall, for once, be civil, 

And Bacon§ speak with common sense. 

" Poor German's head is but a leaker ; 

Should yours be found compact and close, 
As you're to be the only Speaker, 

We'll make you Speaker of the House. 
If you're in haste to ' touch the siller,' 

Dispatch me your acceptance merely. 
And call on trusty Mr. Miller.|| 

He'll pay the cash — Sir, yours sincerely.'' 

— Croaker. 

On the hundredth birthday of Mr. 
Robbins, a pleasant party assembled to 
congratulate him upon the unusual 
event. As he had been a Member of the 

* Erastus Root, a leading statesman in that day in 
Delaware county. 

\ Abraham B. Martling, the proprietor of Tammany 
Hall Hotel, and successor to Batty Skaats as keeper 
of the City Hall. 

± Obadiah German, of Chenango county. 

§ Ezekiel Bacon, a Member of Assembly. 

If Sylvanus Miller, Surrogate of New York City. 

1 84 


Legislature, and was at that time with- 
out doubt, the oldest person then living, 
who had been a member of that body, 
the Assembly, upon motion of Mr. Chick- 
ering, of Lewis county, moved the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was adopted 
unanimously, by a rising vote : — 

Resolved, That the Assembly of 1880, 
hereby extends to the Honorable Levi 
Robbins, its hearty congratulations upon 
the arrival of this interesting event in 
his honored life, which marks with so 
much significance, the rounding off of a 
full century of existence, crowned as it 
is, with a consciousness of having done 
his duty to his State, and having been 
faithful to his public trusts when our 
great Commonwealth was just entering 
upon her career of power and greatness. 
As he was true to every public obliga- 
tion reposed in him, may his declining 
years be filled with pleasant recollec- 
tions of the great past covered by his 
long life, and of the notable events which 
its history embraces, and may every 
comfort of mind and body, be his to the 
end of his days. Also, 

Resolved, That a copy of this preamble 
and resolution, be engrossed and for- 
warded to Mr. Robbins.* 

The water-power at Copenhagen and 
below is valuable for manufacturing pur- 
poses, and may be improved to a much 
greater extent than at present. The 
river is, however, somewhat liable to ex- 
tremes of flood and drouth, and the 
bridge at the village has been several 
times swept away. This accident oc- 
curred in the winter of 1842-43. 

Deer River Falls. — About half a mile- 
below Copenhagen, occur the celebrated 
High falls, on Deer river. The stream 
has here worn a broad deep chasm in 
the Trenton limestone, down which the 
torrent plunges a nearly vertical slope, a 
distance of 166 feet. The bank on the 
south side is 225 feet high. On the north 
side of the cascade, the rock presents a 
very steep inclination, and has been 
broken away, leaving a succession of 

•Assembly Journal, April 30, 1880, page 1,135. 

small narrow steps, with occasional 
projections, "along which the adven- 
turous visitor may creep a considerable 
distance up the bank, but not without 
imminent danger. 

The Rev. John Taylor, in a missionary 
tour through the Black River country, 
in 1802, visited these falls and recorded 
the following description : — 

" Captain Mosley and five others rode 
out with me to see a great curiosity, six 
miles from Champion, in ye corner of 
number 5. It is a gulf in Deer river. 
We walked ^ths of a mile from the 
road on the rocks, on the bed of the 
river. The rocks are limestones, and 
smooth, with here and there a large 
crack. The river has worn the rock, on 
an average, about twenty feet deep, and 
the bed of the river is about nine or ten 
rods wide. At present, there is on each 
side of the stream, about three rods of 
fine walking. When we come to the 
falls, the most sublime prospect presents, 
which is conceivable. The ground above 
has the same appearance as the general 
form of the country, and is level. The 
water passes down into a gulf 155 feet. 
The top of the gulf from rock to rock is, 
as near as I could judge, 12 rods ; at the 
bottom it is, on an average, 8 or 9. 
For the first hundred feet, the rocks are 
perpendicular, then there lies fragments 
of rocks and stones, so that where the 
water passes, when it has come to the 
bottom of the fall, it is about four rods 
wide. Upon ye side of ye place where 
the water passes over, Mr. Mosley went 
to the edge, and let down a cord, with a 
stone, when I was at the bottom. The 
cord hung perpendicular, and I was then 

24 feet from the base of the rock. The 
cord measured 155 feet by a square. Fif- 
teen rods below the falls the perpendic- 
ular rock is about 40 feet higher. About 

25 rods below this, there is a place where 
it is possible for people to get down, but 
extremely steep, and something danger- 
ous ; but we passed down without injury. 
At ye bottom of ye river, there is ye 
same rock — which rock extends all over 
this county ; how deep, no one can tell. 
The rock is a great curiosity ; it is all a 
limestone, and is filled with every kind 
of sea shells petrified. I knocked out of 



ye solid rock, 155 feet below the surface 
of the earth, various shells. * * * 
This gulf is, without any doubt, all made 
from three-fourths of a mile below, by 
the wearing of the water, which makes 
the curiosity of the shells vastly greater. 
And, indeed, this whole rock, which is 
certainly 155 feet deep, and which ex- 
tends to Sandy creek — and perhaps 50 
to 100 miles around in all directions, 
made up of sea-shells of every kind — 
such as cockles, clams, oysters, and a 
thousand others." — Doc. Hist. N. V., Ill, 
pp, 1145, 46. 

About 1806, Miss Lodema Schermer- 
horn, in attempting rashly to climb this 
perilous steep, had crept over half-way 
up before she was aware of the danger, 
when she found that descent was im- 
possible, and her only chance for life de- 
pended upon herreaching the top. With 
cautious and steady nerve, she contin- 
ued on, now clinging with one hand in a 
crevice of the rock, while she found a 
firm hold for the other a little higher, till 
she finally gained the summit, exhausted 
with fatigue, and overcome by the ex- 
traordinary nervous excitement which 
the effort occasioned. A female associ- 
ate had followed her lead, and also found 
it necessary to go on or perish in the ef- 
fort. She also reached the top of the 
precipice in safety. Some years after, 
Thomas Parkman attempted to scale the 
cliff, and got so far up that he could 
neither advance nor recede. His com- 
panions ran to the nearest house, pro- 
cured a bed cord, and drew him to the 

On the night of September 17, 1853, 
WiUiam Ferguson, a British deserter, 
working in a foundry, having drank 
freely the day previous, and retired late, 
sprang up from sleep, saying that a man 
had fallen into the river above the falls, 
and ran towards the precipice. A per- 
son followed, but before he could be 
overtaken, the delirious man had climbed 
a tree that overhung the chasm, when 
the branch on which he stood broke, and 

he fell to the bottom, a distance of 130 
feet, striking half-way down, and bound- 
ing into deep water. He was instantly 
killed by the fall. 

On the 7th of September, i860, a 
young man, named Jackson, not only 
climbed the bank on the north side of 
the falls, but then climbed down again the 
same way. The latter part of this ex- 
ploit would seem to be impossible to 
one who ever observed the place. The 
author happened to visit the falls a short 
time after, while Jackson and some 
friends were still there, and the intrepid- 
ity with which he approached and stood 
within a hand-breadth of the chasm, was 
convincmg evidence of his steady nerve, 
and there appeared no reason to doubt 
the truth of his statement. 

The Riverside Cemetery Association of 
Copenhagen, on the eastern border of the 
village, and not far from the Deer River 
falls, was incorporated May 28, 1867, 
with John D. Loud, John C. Wright, 
Nathan Clark, Oliver Woodard, Erastus 
P Daggett and Lucian Clark as first 
trustees. It includes a town cemetery 
formerly existing. A receiving vault 
was erected adjacent to the street upon 
which the cemetery fronts, in 1869. 

In Riverside Cemetery in Copenhagen, 
is a headstone that bears the following 
inscription : — 

" Charles Wenham, 

Died January 6, 1873 : Aged 

23 Years and 2 Months." 

To the stranger, there is nothing in 
this to attract notice ; but the manner of 
his death attracted at the time remark- 
able attention, and in the sequel it af- 
forded an impressive example of Retrib- 
utive Justice, working slow, but sure. 

Wenham had been employed in farm 
labor near Copenhagen, and had as a fel- 
low laborer a young Englishman of about 
his age, named Charles Sutherland. 
The work of the season being over, he 
was about to start for California, with 

1 86 


his earnings, amounting to something 
over $200. He was to take the cars at 
Carthage, and Sutherland drove down 
to that village to see him off. It being 
some hours before car time, it was pro- 
posed that they should take a ride, al- 
though the weather was cold and 
stormy. A cutter with three men was 
seen by many persons that afternoon 
going down "Martin Street" towards 
Great Bend, and the same vehicle was 
seen to return later in the day with only 
one man in it. A family living a quarter 
of a mile or so south of this place and in 
full view, particularly noticed that the 
cutter stood for a long time in the storm, 
and that persons went to and among 
some willows, on the border of Deer 
creek. Finally, one of them entered 
the cutter, turned around, and came 
back. Curiosity soon led to examina- 
tion, and the body of a dead man was 
found under the ice. The road showed 
tracks around the place where the cut- 
ter had stood, and a bit of colored 
worsted was picked up that had come 
from the fringe of a muffler. The dis- 
covery was at once reported at Car- 
thage, and the person who had come 
with the murdered man to the village 
was very naturally suspected. A war- 
rant for his arrest was issued, and offi- 
cers were sent to Copenhagen to secure 
him, but they encountered the greatest 
difficulties in facing the storm, and in 
breaking their way through the snow- 
drifts. Arriving in the night, they found 
him at the house which he made his 
home, and upon call, he came down stairs. 
Being told that he was wanted, he asked 
leave to get his overcoat, and in this 
absence he swallowed a poisonous dose 
of strychnine. On the way down to 
Carthage, he was soon taken with 
spasms, and long before their arrival he 
was dead. They brought his rigid 
corpse, still in the sitting posture, into 
the hotel, and sat it up in a chair — the 

ghastly spectacle of a murderer, self- 
confessed and self-executed. 

But the testimony of many persons 
about a third person in the cutter, was 
so positive that it became certain that 
justice had not yet been satisfied, and 
suspicions, at first vague, began to cen- 
ter upon one Hiram Smith, who had 
previously been an associate of Suther- 
land, and who, after his death, had been 
employed as a laborer near Copenhagen 
and at Carthage for many months. He 
was arrested, tried at Watertown, and 
finally, after one or two respites, was hung 
December 4, 1874. Although no one 
could well doubt his guilt, there were 
many who censured the manner in 
which an admission of the crime was 
drawn from him under a confidence, by 
a pretended partner in the crime which 
it was proposed to undertake. In fact, 
so sensibly was this associate made to 
feel the public displeasure, that he found 
it best to remove to a distant place. 

The Tusk of a Mammoth found near Co- 
penhagen. — On the 20th of September, 
1877, as Joseph Butlin, Hving on the 
Watertown road about a mile from Co- 
penhagen, and not far from the county 
line, was getting muck out of a low 
place which had evidently been a small 
land-locked pond without an outlet, 
he came upon the tusk of a small Mam- 
moth partly bedded in the muck, and 
partly in a stratum of marl by which it 
was underlaid. It was very complete, 
and weighed twenty-five pounds. It 
measured on the convex side five feet 
nine inches in length, and had a girth of 
8^ inches at the base and of 10^ inch- 
es at the largest place. This tusk is now 
in the State Museum of Natural History 
at Albany, and plaster casts have been 
made by the author for several public 
institutions, from a mold prepared while 
the specimen was for a time in his pos- 
session. Among the many tusks of 
the Mammoth which we have seen in 



American and European Museums, there 
were none that could be compared with 
this for completeness ; in fact, one of the 
most distinguished of Naturalists, upon 
seeing a plaster copy, could scarcely be 
made to believe but that it was from a 
recently buried elephant, so entire and 
perfect did it appear. The texture had 
however changed considerably from 
that of recent ivory, and although hot 
glue was poured in liberally into the 
socket at the base, and it was readily 
absorbed in every part, the original has 
after some years' exposure to the air, 
lost some of the perfection that it first 
exhibited, and has shown a tendency to 
fall to pieces. 

The marl at the bottom of this muck 
bed, contains fresh water shells exactly 
like those found in Lake Pleasant in 
Champion, some two miles away, and 
the muck itself has evidently been 
formed by the slow accumulation of veg- 
etable material from around the borders 
of the ancient pond. 

King's Falls. 

This cascade occurs in Deer river, 
about two miles below Deer River falls, 
and has a descent of about forty feet. It 
is said to have been named in compli- 
ment to Joseph Bonaparte, ex-king of 
Spain, by whom the place was visited 
and much admired, but we have not been 
able to definitely prove this point. There 
are those who think the name derived 
from an early citizen of the town, named 
David King, who first located on the 
river road west of Copenhagen, near the 
former residence of Joseph Rich. He 
did not remain there long, but took up 
land in the lower part of the town, near 
Peter Bent's. He was a surveyor. 

This locahty is often visited by picnic 
parties, and although not particularly 
grand, the scenery is still beautiful. The 
banks of_, Deer river, from the High 

Falls to the last of the Hmestones below 
Deer River village, present the finest 
section of these rocks for the study of 
geology, that the county affords. 

Deer River Village. 

Settlement at Deer River was begun 
by Abel French, a few years after his 
arrival as agent. In 1824, a large stone 
mill was built by Richard Myers and 
A. Wilson. A large saw-mill was built 
in 1848. The mill property was subse- 
quently owned by Johnson & Rogers, 
Leonard S. Standring, Munger & Wool- 
worth, and Wood, Rogers & Co., upon 
whose hands it was burnt, June 18,1870. 
It was rebuilt by T. Standring and H. 
S. Hendee, and was again burned, when 
owned by Dickinson & Kingsbury, Oct. 
22, 1 88 1. It has not since been complete- 
ly rebuilt. This village has at various 
times borne the name of the mill owner, 
as French's Mills, Myers' Mills, etc., but 
since the establishment of a postofifice, 
it has been known as Deer River. The 
name was adopted at a meeting called 
for the purpose. The village is quite 
small, having one hotel, (A. M. Seymour,) 
a store, (E. D. Mix; formerly from 1848, 
to Oct. 1 88 1, kept by Edward L. Hul- 
bert,) a tin-shop, (Wm. Stevens,) a cast- 
iron and steel plow factory and saw-mill, 
(Thomas L. Kidney,) a cheese-box facto- 
ry and planing and saw-mill run by 
steam and water, (John W. Brace; em- 
ploying 6 to 10 men,) and a rake factory. 
The latter owned by Otho A. Lamphear, 
was begun as an establishment for mak- 
ing broom handles and curtain rollers, 
about 1870; was changed to a rake fac- 
tory in 1877, and in 1882, made about 
1,000 dozen of rakes, employing about 
four men. 

There was formerly a lodge of Good 
Templars at this place, but it has not 
been continued. 

The Deer River Swinburne Cemetery 


Association, was formed February 21, 
1880, with the following trustees : — 

J. Erwin Vrooman and Collins Miller, 
three years. 

James M. Myers and William C. Clark, 
tw^o years. 

Alanson Myers and Stephen S. Otis, 
one year. 

Two were to be elected, as vacancies 
occurred thereafter. The proceedings in 
organization were confirmed by law, 
April 12, 1881. It derives its name from 
Dr. John Swinburne, of Albany, a na- 
tive of this town and vicinity, who gave 
it land adjacent to a town burial-ground 
that had previously been formed, and 
which is included in it. The prem'ises in- 
clude four acres, and are adjacent to Deer 
River village, on the south side of the 
creek, and upon a gentle swell of land. 

Deer River Station. 

This place, on the flats near the river, 
and about three-fourths of a mile east of 
the village, is the usual stopping place 
and point for shipment on the railroad 
for this part of the town, but is other- 
wise of no importance. 

Castorland Station. 

This is one of the two stations on 
the Utica & Black River Railroad, 
in this town, and a point of im- 
portant business for the country east 
of the river, it being opposite the Par- 
ker bridge, and the road leading to 
Beaver Falls and Croghan. At present 
it has only a hotel, (kept by L. Church,) 
and one or two houses. A warehouse 
for storing hides and leather, was under 
construction in the summer of 1882. 
Two miles below, on the river bank, is 
a steam saw and shingle mill, owned by 
Linus M. Gates. This point was for- 
merly known as Parsons' Landing, from 
having belonged to Captain William R. 

The name of this station is given to 

commemorate the Castorland colony of 
early days. Although it is not located 
upon the tract which that company had 
purchased, it is the nearest approach by 
railway, to the principal seat of their in- 
tended operations — the inland metropo- 
lis of their domain. It is to be regretted 
that the name could not have been per- 
petuated on the exact spot where it had 
been intended ninety years ago. 

In 1849, a steam saw-mill was erected 
by Kitts & Broadway, on the east road, 
near the Lowville line, and in 1858, Sen- 
eca R. Cowles & Co., erected a manu- 
factory of staves, shingles and heading, 
upon the Black river, at Blodget's land- 
ing. This mill was burned August 30, 
i860, and as was supposed, by an in- 
cendiary. It was valued at $10,000, and 
insured at $6,000. 

Denmark Village. 

Denmark (p. o.) is the oldest village in 
the town. Its postofhce was one of the 
first in the county, having been estab- 
lished in January, 1804. As a business 
place it is now probably one of the least 
important. It has a hotel and store, 
(Philander Blodget,) a separate store, 
(Darwin Nash,) a harness-shop, (John 
Hess,) and blacksmith shop, (Phineas 
Page.) It has also one physician, (Dr. 
W. H. A. Turner.) The place is little else 
than a thickly settled neighborhood, a 
mile or so in length, rather more dense 
at the two ends than in the middle, and 
not so populous as it was forty years 

Almon M. Norton* and Amos Buck,t 
were many years prominent merchants 
in this village. The first merchant was 
Jabez Wright, in 1805. Freedom Wright 
was the first inn-keeper. He was suc- 
ceeded by various others in this busi- 

* Mr. Norton died at Lockport, 111.. November 23, 
1859, aged 73. 

t Mr. Buck died July ir, 1855, aged 60. He was in 
the Assembly in 1825 and 1843. 



ness. About 1821, Hezekiah Hulbert, 
from Utica, began keeping the then only 
hotel in the village. It was burned, and 
the stone hotel of Blodget was built. 

The first school in Copenhagen, was 
taught by Tyrannus A. Wright, and the 
first school house in town was built near 
the inn of Freedom Wright, in Denmark 
village. The first school commissioners 
were Lewis Graves, Charles Wright, Jr., 
and Stephen Parsons ; and the first 
school inspectors were John Canfield, 
Israel Kellogg, and Charles Squire. 
These were chosen in 181 3. 

In 1829, Charles Brown erected a 
wooden building in Denmark village for 
an academy, and taught with much suc- 
cess for several years. Since his removal 
about 1840, Johnson Clark and several 
others have taught, but the premises 
were discontinued for school purposes 
many years ago. More recently Joseph 
A. Prindle has taught a private school 
in the village for several years. 

The Alexandria library of Denmark, 
was formed May 6, 181 1, by Willis Se- 
combe, Lewis Graves, Jr., Chas. Squire, 
Asa Pierce, Gardner Cottrell, Solomon 
Wood, and Isaac Horr, trustees. It was 
dissolved before the introduction of 
school libraries. 

On the 6th of October, i860, John La- 
Mountain, somewhat celebrated as an 
aeronaut, made a balloon ascension at 
Carthage, and landed on the north side 
of the valley, south of Denmark village, 
near the State road. He was up sixteen 
minutes, and descended safely. 

This man was noted for his reckless 
adventures as an aeronaut, and was one 
of the party that, starting from St. Louis, 
about i860, drifted across the States of 
Illinois, Indiana and Ohio ; crossed Lake 
Erie obliquely, and finally, after riding 
the whole length of Lake Ontario, in a 
gale of wind, lodged in a tree in Ellis- 
burgh. A few weeks later he made an 
ascension at Watertown, with John A. 

Haddock,and landed three hundred miles 
north, in the wilderness, beyond Ottawa. 
During the war he was employed by the 
Government in the Army of the Potomac 
but we believe without much benefit. 
Finally, in an ascension in the interior of 
the State, in a smoke balloon, and secur- 
ed only by two ropes crossing it above, 
the balloon slipped out and left him and 
the ropes half a mile in the air. He never 
made another ascension. 

Deaths of Some Old Inhabitants and Early 

Settlers of Denmark, not Elsewhere 


These names are not selected because 
more prominent than others that are not 
given, but they are such as are within 
our possession at the time of writing. 
There are many others that should have 
been included, that could not be ascer- 

Anderson Nicholas, died Sept. 7, 1863, 

aged 74. 
Austin Silas, died April 2, 1853, aged 75. 
Austin Silas, Jr., died June 20, 1873, aged 

Austin Harrison, died Dec. 7, 1864. 
Babcock Daniel, born 1749, died March 

14, 1849, (Revolutionary soldier.) 
Babcock Orlando, died May 28, 1864, 

aged 62. 
Baker John, died March 15, 1854, aged 

Bedell Daniel, died April 25, 1874, aged 

Bedell William, died Aug. 14, 1876, aged 

Bent Abel D., born July 3, 1802, died 

Feb. 17, 1878. 
Burt Ithamer, died Sept. 14, 1841, aged 

Carter Benjamin E., died Dec. 27, 1868, 

aged 69. 
Chad wick John H., died Jan. 4, 1869, 

aged 83. 
Chambers James H., died May 27, 1856, 

aged 68. 
Clark EHjah, died Oct. 20, 1848, aged j-j. 
Clark John, died Nov. 25, 1875. 
Clark John S., died Feb. 10, 1850, aged 87. 
Clark William, died June 13, 1849, aged 


I go 


Collins Ezekiel, died Sept. 24, 1864, aged 


Cratzenberg Nicholas A., died Dec. 22, 

1873, aged ^6. 
Cunningham Aaron, died Sept. 18, 1864, 

aged 75. 
Cunningham Lyman, born Sept. 17, 1814, 

died July 22, 1876. 
Davis Aaron, died Aug. 12, 1880, aged 71. 
Davis Amos, died Oct. 13, 1861, aged 66. 
Davis Benjamin, died Aug. 3, 1877, aged 


Dickinson Deacon George, died June 24, 

1877, aged 83. 
Dimock Joseph, died Feb. 7, 1843, aged 

Ganes James, died May 3, 1876, aged 80. 
Gomer John, died June 8, 1879, aged 84. 
Graves David, died Dec. i, 1814, aged 55. 
Green Oliver, died Ma}' 11, 1867, aged 

94, (came in 1805.) 
Hadcock Jacob, died March 4, 1861, 

aged 76. 
Harter Philip H., died July 17, 1876, 

aged 78. 
Hartwell Morris, died Aug. 25, 1880, 

aged 79. 
Hartwell WilHam, died Sept. 18, 1845, 

aged 68. 
Hazen John, died Nov. 21, 1838, aged 52. 
Hopgood William, died Aug. 19, 1872, 

aged 8 1 . 
Howland Rufus, died Dec. 5, 1852, aged 

Hunt Asa, died Nov. 29, 1857, aged 57. 
Hunt Ephraim, died Oct. 6, 1852, aged 79. 
Johnson Archibald, died Dec. 27, 1867. 
Keen Deacon WiUiam, died March 4, 

1850, aged 84. 
Kitts Jacob, died June 30, 1865, aged 82. 
Lawton William C, died July 21, 1874, 

aged Tj. 
Lawton William H., died Aug. 6, 1876, 

aged 32. 
Leonard Dennis, died Nov. 9, 1854, aged 

Lockwood Gershom, died Feb. i, 1839, 

aged 87. 
Loucks Aaron, died Feb. 11, 1845, aged 

45, (suicide.) 
Loucks James, of West Lowville, died 

March 7, 1867, aged 47, (suicide.) 
Loud John D., died March 17, 1877, 

aged 57. 
Macomber Samuel, died May 6, 1838. 
Merrell Seth, died Dec. 31, 1852, aged 63. 
Moors John, died March 5, 1832, aged 84. 

Munger Nelson, died Sept. 17, 1879, 

aged 66. 
Munger Isaac, died April 20, 1850, aged 

Munger Charles R., died July 25, 1867, 

aged 34. 
Myers James H., died Sept. 26, 1877, 

aged 83. 
Myers Richard, died Nov. 13, i86i,aged 

Myers Samuel, died Dec. 13, 1869, aged 

Orvis Samuel, died Jan. 14, 1878, aged 

99 v., II mo., 19 days. 
Orvis Samuel, Jr., (Rev.) died Sept. 14, 

1850, aged 38. 
Orvis Sally, (wife of Samuel,) died March 

16, 1874, aged 91. 
Nash James, born May 3, 1779, died Aug. 

27, 1854. 
Newman Jesse, died Aug. i, 1851, aged 

Packard Jared, died June 20, 1843, aged 

Pans Michael, died July 15, 1871, aged 

Parsons Stephen, died Aug. 30, 1832, 

aged 58. 
Phinney Joseph, died Julv 23, 185 1, aged 

Pierce Asa, died Sept. 10, 1845, aged j6. 
Potter Angel, died Feb. 5, 1858, aged 84. 
Rathbone Josiah, died Feb. 12, 1840, aged 

81, (Revolutionary soldier.) 
Rich Benjamin H., died March 17, 1848, 

aged 67. 
Rich Josiah, died June 24, 1831, aged 92. 
Rogers Duett, died Nov. 2, 1878, aged 69. 
Rogers Rev. Horace, died April 11, 

1872, aged -j-T. 
Rogers John, died July 28, 1858, aged 76. 
Root William, died at Chicago, April i, 

1868, at an advanced age. 
Ryel Isaac, died Decembers, 1869, aged 

Ryel Peter, died February 12, 1877, aged 

Sage Elias, died February 29, 1852, aged 

Shaw Philip, died October 22, 1818, 

aged 69. 
Shaw Philip, Jr., died March 19, 1854, 

aged 76. 
Shepard Jacob, died May 4, 1856, aged 


Shepard Obed, died April 10, 1853, aged 



Sherwood Michael, died May 15, 1832, 

aged 50. 
Sherwood Capt. WiUiam, died April 2, 

1837, aged 65. 
Spalding William, died October 8, 1876, 

aged 86. 
Spencer Abner H., died in summer of 

1848, (suicide). 
Staunton Dr. Lyman, died November 23, 

1870, aged 57. 
Stiles Sullivan, died June 12, 1855, aged 

Suits Thomas, died April 9, 1864, aged 

Taylor Charles, died October 18, 1855, 

aged 72. 
Thomas WiUiams, died March 7, 1871, 

aged 64. 
Thomas Joseph T., died August 31, 

1853, aged 63. 
Townsend Abner, died May 12, 1839, 

aged 78. 
Twitchell Uriel, died November 19, 1856, 

aged 79. 
Van Brocklin Alexander, died August 

31, 1851, aged 83. [A. H. VanBrock- 

lin, formerly of this town was mur- 
dered in Montana, November 12, 

Wells Joseph, died January i, 1851, aged 

Whitford William, died August 30, 1873, 

aged 86. 
Wright Augustus T., died July 12, aged 

61. (Killed while a keeper in CHn- 

ton prison.) 
Wright John C, died Mav 29, 1 881, aged 

Wright Stephen S., died September 27, 

1840, aged 64. 

Special Town Meetings durijig the Late 

As in other towns, the citizens of 
Denmark had repeated occasion to con- 
sult together, during the late war, for 
the purpose of filling quotas and raising 
means to defray the expenses that these 
required. The first of these special 
town meetings was held August 23, 1862, 
at which, bounties of fifty dollars were 
offered to those enhsting in Captain 
Hubbard's company. An agreement 
was confirmed, by which a majority had 

in writing appointed John C. Wright, 
Peter Bent, Lucian Clark, Nathan Clark, 
Henry C. Potter, A. G. Thompson, Oli- 
ver Woodward, E. D, Babcock, E. G. 
Parsons, Ellis A. Cook, L. S. Standring, 
W. D. G. Cottrell, Abner Munger, Gil- 
bert E. Woolworth, and Gilbert B. John- 
son, as a committee to raise funds. It 
was voted to raise $4,000, and to pay 
$50 bounties to volunteers. 

On the 1 8th of July, 1863, a special 
town meeting requested the supervisors 
to raise on the town, a tax of $4,321 in 
pursuance of a former vote. 

On the I2th of December, 1863, a 
bounty of $300 was voted to pay volun- 
teers and drafted men ; but if the county 
should offer $100, then the town would 
pay $200, viz : — $100 on muster in three 
months and §100 in six months. A com- 
mittee consisting of Peter Bent, Harrison 
Blodget, Lucian Clark, E. D. Babcock, 
E. A. Cook, G. E. Woolworth, L. S. 
Standring, John Dence, G. B. Johnson, 
Abner Munger, Ashley Davenport, John 
C. Wright, and R. J. Rich, were ap- 
pointed to raise money for paying 

On the 23d of December, 1863, another 
special meeting was held, and the boun- 
ties were increased to $325. 

On the 2d of August, 1864, the follow- 
ing resolution was passed at a special 
town meeting : — 

Whereas, At a meeting held July 28, 
1864, a resolution was passed to raise 
$15,000 on the quota to fill the call for 
500,000 men, and John C. Wright, Gil- 
bert Woolworth, G. A. Scovil, Alfred 
G. Thompson and Lucian Clark were 
appointed agents to raise men to fill the 
quota ; and 

Whereas, This money has been 
raised on notes of individuals, and one 
of the committee (John C. Wright) has 
gone to Fortress Monroe, under a com- 
mission from the Governor for this pur- 
pose ; therefore, 

Resolved, That the sum of $15,000 be 
raised by tax upon this town. 



At this meeting a bounty of $200 was 
offered for one year's and §400 for three 
years' men. A committee was appointed, 
consisting of Gilbert B. Johnson, Lucian 
Clark and Elam Parsons, to see that 
those not liable to military duty, be 
taken from the enrollment. 

On the 30th of August, 1864, the 
former committee was empowered to 
raise $6,000, or so much as might be 
needed, besides the $15,000 formerly 
voted to pay volunteers. A bounty of 
not over $1,000 was offered, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to make legal in- 
quiries as to the regularity of former 
proceedings. The sum of $10,000, a 
part of the $15,000, was ordered to be 

On the 2d of January, 1865, a resolu- 
tion was passed to raise $15,000, if 
needed, by the committee, composed of 
Lucian Clark, Gilbert Woolworth, Har- 
rison Blodget, John Dence, Gilbert B. 
Johnson, E. D. Babcock, G. A. Scovil, 
A. D. Wright, and John C. Wright. 

Religious Societies. 

Copenhagen. — The first meetings in 
town were held by travelers. On the 
9th of July, 1805, the Harrisburgh Ec- 
clesiastical Society was formed, with 
Levi Robbins, Edward Frisbie, John S. 
Clark, Charles Wright, Jr., and James 
Buxton, trustees, with the view of erect- 
ing a place of worship. The division of 
the town having made the name inapplic- 
able, the Denmark Ecclesiastical Society 
was formed in its place, Sept. 21, 18 10, 
with Gershom Sylvester, Chester 
Wright, Daniel Babcock, Wm. Root, 
John Canfield, John Loud and Freedom 
Wright, trustees. This was also unable 
to erect a church, and in 1815, a third 
organization, termed the First Ecclesi- 
astical Society in the town of Denmark, 
was formed, having as its trustees, Josiah 
White, J. Loud, David Canfield, Lemuel 

Dickenson, Asa D. Wright and G. Syl- 

From the first subscription for a 
church at Copenhagen, under this or- 
ganization, dated December 6, 18 16, it 
appears that Samuel Allen, John Loud, 
David Canfield, and W. H. Geary, each 
subscribed $100, and that the total sum 
subscribed by 64 persons, was $1,580. 
At a meeting subsequently held, (March 
30, 1 8 18,) it was unanimously 

Resolved, That in case the Baptist 
church members, together with the 
Baptist Society of this part of the town 
of Denmark, (or a principal part of 
them,) shall subscribe to the subscrip- 
tion which the present subscribers have 
subscribed to, for the purpose of erect- 
ing said house, and as liberally as the 
present subscribers have in proportion 
to what they are worth, leaving that 
consideration to our present committee 
which were chosen to superintend the 
building of said house, and to obtain 
subscribers for that purpose, then the 
Baptists shall have equal rights with the 
Presbyterian church members and so- 
ciety in the occupying of the said house, 
and that this vote, which is unanimous, 
shall not be reversed nor repealed until 
two-thirds of all the subscribers shall 
vote to the contrary." 

The trustees of the building were S. 
Allen, J. Loud, and E. S. Sylvester. The 
church was built by Carr, Rounds & 
Co., and the following rates will show 
the prices of building materials and sup- 
pHes, as they were in Copenhagen, in 

Lime per bushel, 2s. 6d.; lath, hem- 
lock boards etc., $6 per M.; scantling 
and brace timber, $8 per M.; nails,i9 cts. 
per lb.; iron, 10 cts.; whiskey, $1.25 per 
gallon ; shingles, $2.50 per M.;pine boards, 
$14 per M.; oil, $1.50 per gallon; 
Spanish White, i2>^ cts. per lb.; and 
white lead, 3 1 cts. 

The old Union church stood on the 
corner where Corbin's block now stands 
in Copenhagen village, and was burned 
Feb. 16, 1832. The Presbyterians unit- 
ing with the Methodists, built a place of 



worship which continued in use by both 
until the latter built a separate edifice. 

In July, 1839, these denominations 
united in holding a camp meeting in a 
grove half a mile south of the village. 

The Baptist Church of Copenhagen was 
formed in April 1808, and at first con- 
sisted of eleven members. The Rev. 
Peleg Card had settled here the year 
before as a cloth-dresser, and remained 
as minister until he was dismissed in 
1819. At about the beginning, the Rev. 
Peter P- Roots, a missionary, visited the 
place, and remained several days.* Mr. 
Cardf was succeeded by the Rev. Stephen 
Parsons in 1819 ; Rev. Norman Guiteaiu 
in 1822; Rev. Thomas A. Warner in 
1826; Rev. Charles Clark about 1835; 

Rev. Azel Waters, ; Rev. George 

Lisle, in 1836; Rev. C. Nichols, in 1839; 
Rev. Orin G. Robbins, in 1840; Rev. W. 
I. Crane, in 1846; Rev. Marinus Thrash- 
er, in 1846 ; Rev. A. S. Curtis, in 1848 ; 
Rev. Lorenzo Rice, in 1851 ; Rev. Orin 
Wilber, in 185 1; Rev. Sherman Maltby, 
in 1852; Rev. Joshua Freeman, in 1852; 
Rev. Nathan Dike, about 1857; Rev. 
Z. G. Brown, in 1859 : Rev. J. W. Stark- 
weather, ; and Rev Judson O. Per- 
kins, in 1875, the present pastor. 

Elder Parsons (pastor in 18 19,) was 
born September 5, 1748, and ordained to 
the ministry, January 31, 1788. He was 
an early, zealous and successful mission- 
ary in the Black River settlements, and 
active in the organization of nearly ev- 
ery Baptist church in the county. He 
removed from Middletown to Whites- 
town towards the close of the last cent- 
ury, and in 1802 came to Leyden, from 
whence, after several years, he removed 
to this town. His sons became heads of 
families and most of those of this name, 
now living in the county, are his de- 

* Mr. Roots was one of thirteen who formed the Bap- 
tist Education Society of New York, at Hamilton, Sep- 
tember 24, 1 81 7. 

+ Elder Card was employed as a Baptist minister in 
Turin and Leyden, in 1824-31. and at LeRay, in 1833. 

scendants. The circumstances of his 
death were so peculiar that they made a 
deep and lasting impression upon the 
public mind. He had preached on a 
Sabbath, in the forenoon, from a favorite 
text, Psalms, xc, 12, and in the after- 
noon from II. Samuel, xix., 34: "How 
long have I to live ?" On going to the 
barn to feed his horse on the same da)-, 
he fell from a scaffold, receiving an in- 
jury, from which he died unconscious, 
Jan. 7, 1820 — within the same week that 
this sermon was preached. 

The Baptists worshipped in a school- 
house, until the Union church was built, 
and owned an interest in it until burned 
in 1832. They at once began to rebuild, 
and completed their church in 1834. 

The society on the 17th of November, 
1877, held an election under the act of 
May IS, 1876, (Chap. 329,) and chose 
John Young, E. J. Noyes and Ebenezer 
Allen, as trustees. 

Presbyterian and Congregational. — We 
have not been able to fix the date of the 
first Presbyterian church in Copenhagen, 
but it goes back to the early settlement 
of the village. It suffered from the 
scandalous conduct of the Rev. Walter 
H. Gerry, who was installed in 181 5, and 
went off some years after in debt and 
disgrace. All sorts of evil rumors came 
back concerning his subsequent career, 
some of which are noticed in our former 

The Rev. Luman Wilcox was or- 
dained and installed March 16, 1824, 
and dismissed in 1826. A Presbyterian 
society was legally formed at Copenha- 
gen January 20, 1824, with Hezekiah 
Hulbert, Philo Weed, Wm. Root, John 
Loud, Gideon Smith and Malachi Van 
Duzen, trustees. The Denmark first 
and second churches remained one till 
1827, when they were separated by the 
presbytery. The Rev. Wm. Jones, Abel 
L. Crandall and others were subsequently 



A Congregational church was legally 
formed at Copenhagen May 3, 1841, with 
Malachi Van Duzen, Silas Chapin, Allen 
Kilborn, Jr., Lorenzo Baker, Warren 
Murray, Gideon Smith, Nathan Law- 
ton, J. H. Allen and John Newkirk, 
trustees. Many of the members of this 
society and others have formed a church 
upon what is termed the Union principle, 
professing to be kept together b)' Chris- 
tian fellowship rather than creeds. A 
legal society styled the " Church of 
Christ in the village of Copenhagen," 
was formed May 11, 1858, with William 
Canfield, Wm. C. Lawton, Ezekiel Col- 
lins, Nelson Munger, Lyman Waters, 
Stephen Thompson, John D. Loud, Wm. 
L. Tompkins and Abel G. Sage, trustees. 
On the 13th of October, 1880, this was 
again changed to the " First Congrega- 
tional Church of Copenhagen." 

Methodists.-The first Methodist preach- 
er in town is said to have been Mr. 

Willis. A society was formed in the west 
part of the town at an early da}', but no 
separate circuit until 1840. The second 
societ}' (jf the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Denmark was formed Feb. 
3, 1841, with Orlando Babcock, Abner 
Munger, John Clark, 2d, Stephen Nash, 
and John Whiting as trustees. 

Grace Church, (Protestant Episcopal,) 
was incorporated April 19, 1877, with 
Rev. J. Everest Cathell, as Rector ; E. 
D. Babcock and R. G. McEven, as War- 
dens; and Benjamin Stanton, John R. 
Davenport, W. H. Alexander, J. S. 
Mitchell, Seymour A. Woolworth, 
George Bush, and Horace F. Rice, as 
Vestrymen. The succession of clergy- 
men has since been the Rev. Messrs. 
Ormsby, Granbury and Launt. They 
have a small church erected about five 
years since. 

Roman Catholic. — In June, 1869, the 
Rev. James O'Driscoll was appointed 
in charge of the churches in Pinckney 
and Harrisburgh, with his residence at 

Copenhagen. His parish embraced the 
towns of Worth, Harrisburgh, Pinckney, 
Montague and Denmark, but the de- 
nomination has no church edifice in this 

Churches in Other Parts of Den- 

The " Second Presbyterian Church of 
Denmark" was formed by the Rev. Isaac 
Clinton, June 29, 1826, under authority 
from the St. Lawrence Presbytery, with 
Lemuel Dickinson and Philo Weed as 
Elders, and William Root* as Deacon. 
They worshipped for some years in an 
old building in Denmark village, but in 
1857, it was removed to Deer River. It 
was changed to Congregational, Septem- 
ber 6, 1833, the Rev. James M. Monroe 
being then pastor.f A plain and small 
stone meeting-house was built at Deer 
River some years before 1848, and occu- 
pied by Congregationalists and Method- 
ists, but in 1859, the present Congrega- 
tional church at that place was erected, 
at a cost of $3,000, and dedicated Sep- 
tember 15th, of that year. The succes- 
sion of clergy in this church has been the 
Reverends Abel L. CrandaJl, James H. 
Monroe, David Spear, Charles Bolles, 
Hiram Doane, (i85o-'s6); Rufus A. 
Wheelock, (1856-66); George A. Rock- 
wood, (February 4, 1866); Olney Place, 
(February 2, 1868); John Waugh, (Feb- 
ruary, 1870) ; John A. Farrar, (February 
I, 1875); Harlan P. Blair, (February 18, 
1877); and George B. Rowley, (July 4, 
1880). It has of late years commonly 
united with West Carthage, in giving 
support to a minister. 

The Baptist church in Lowville and 

* William Root was born in Tolland county. Conn., 
September 15, 1780, and removed with his father's 
family to Whitestown in lygo. In February, 1804, he 
removed from Utica to Denmark, and resided there till 
the spring of 1828, when he went to Martinsburgh. In 
September, 1833, he settled in Carbondale, Pa. 

t A legal society was formed July 8, 1841, with 
Lyman Graves, Wm. Shelden, L. S. Standring, and 
Abner A. Johnson, as trustees. 



Denmark, locally known as the " Line 
Church," was formed August 25, 1819, 
a society having been organized under 
the statute, as the First Baptist church, 
of Lowville and Denmark, February 
Qth, of that year; Moses Waters, 
Luther Horr, Elijah Clark, Benjamin * 
and Charles Davenport, Nelson Bur- 
rows, Samuel Bassett, Ichabod Par- 
sons and Jacob Kitts, 2d, being the 
first trustees. An edifice was built on 
the town line on the State road, in 
1 8 19, rebuilt in 1850, and re-dedicated 
Jan. 10, 1 85 1. Its early ministers were 
Elders Stephen Parsons, Elisha Morgan, 
John Blodget, Ruel Lathrop and others. 
In the anti-masonic troubles of 1 828-' 30, 
the church was nearly broken up, and 
some twenty members withdrew at one 
time. This church still maintains its 
organization, and has been in recent 
years under the care of the Rev. Joseph 
A. Prindle. 

The Methodist Episcopal society of 

Deer River was incorporated April 13, 
1852, with Rev. Horace Rogers, Tyran- 
nus A. Wright and C. A. Poor, as trus- 
tees. They have no church edifice. 

The present Union church in Denmark 
village was built in the fall of 1848, and 
is owned by the Methodists, Baptists 
and Congregationalists. The town also 
owns an interest, the basement being 
fitted up for holding elections and town 
meetings. This church was re-dedicated 
May 25, 1871. 

A Universalist church was built in 
Denmark about 1830, but has not been 
used as a place of worship for many 
years. More recently it has been used 
for a select school. 

The first temperance society in Co- 
penhagen, was formed January 13, 1825. 
The Rev. Norman Guiteau drew up the 
constitution, and Wm. C. Lawton was sec- 
retary. It will be noticed that the above 
was at a very early period of this move- 
ment, both in the county and in the State. 

Biographical Sketches. 


The first of the ancestors of this Clark 
family in America, of whom we have any 
information, was a merchant in Boston, 
several years before the Revolution. 

William Clark, the father of John 
Clark, 1st, of Denmark, at the begin- 
ning of the Revolutionary war was 
living at, or near, Cambridge, in the 
vicinity of Boston, with his father, whose 
remote ancestors were from Scotland. 

His father, thre e brothers, and himsel f 

* Benjamin Davenport died in Turin, Feb. 19, i860, 
aged 92 years. 

were among the skirmishers who annoyed 
the British troops in their retreat after 
destroying the military stores at Con- 
cord, and at night not one of them knew 
whether the others were dead or alive. 
All, however, were found safe at home 
in the morning. William was afterward 
wounded at the battle of Bunker Hill. 
He was standing by a comrade with the 
breech of his gun upon the ground, 
(having exhausted his ammunition) try- 
ing to see if his neighbor's cartridges 
would fit his weapon, when a grape-shot 
passed through the body of the man at 



his side, struck and shivered the stock of 
his gun,andglancingaside passed through 
his wrist. He had previously been mar- 
ried to Phebe Fuller, whose early ances- 
tors were from England. During, or 
soon after, the war, they removed to a 
farm in Barre, Worcester county, Mass., 
and became the parents of six children. 

age, and neither ever married. Mary 
lived about seventy years ; Abigail, less 
than forty. Josiah and Jonathan were 
younger than John. Soon after John 
came to Black River, Josiah with his 
father removed to Gill, Franklin county, 
Mass., where the father and mother died. 
He was a bachelor, and acquired a large 

[JOHN CLilRK, Is t. 

four boys and two girls. William, the 
oldest boy, studied surveying, and made 
the first survey of the State of Ver- 
mont, in which occupation he was 
engaged when caught in a heavy 
snow storm with a scanty supply 
of provisions, and, with his companions, 
suffered untold hardships from cold and 
starvation, from which he never fully 
recovered, and in consequence of which 
he died a few years after. Mary and 
Abigail were the girls, and the next in 

estate, engaged extensively in purchasing 
cattle for the Boston market, failed in 
business about 1836, and came to Den- 
mark, where he died in the winter of 

Jonathan, the youngest brother, learn- 
ed the trade of a printer, and was for a 
few years, in Albany, with the firm of 
Packard, Benthuysen & Co. While there, 
he published a biography of the life of 
George Washington. He then went to 
Ohio, to locate bounty land, which his 



father had earned in the Revolution, and 
had given him. He settled in Zanes- 
ville, where he became the editor and 
publisher for several years, of the Zanes- 
ville Express. He was also land agent 
and the owner of a township, which he 
sold to actual settlers. The town of 
Clarksville was named for him. He left 
home one day, to transact business, 
and on the next day, his horse, with sad- 
dle and bridle on, was found grazing by 
the roadside, not far from the place he 
had started for. A search of several 
days, revealed his body suspended by 
the neck, in a log cabin in the middle of 
a large cornfield, and it was never satis- 
factorily known whether he committed 
suicide, or was murdered and placed 
there. He left a wife, to whom a child 
was born soon after his death, but died in 

John Clark, was born at Barre, Wor- 
cester county, Mass., Aug. 18, 1778, and 
until he attained his majority, lived and 
worked with his father, on his farm and 
in his brewery. He enjoyed but limited 
educational opportunities, attending the 
common schools but about three months 
in a year, till he was sixteen years of 
age. When he became of age, he pro- 
cured a set of tools for boring and lay- 
ing aqueducts, and followed that busi- 
ness two or three years, in Massachu- 
setts and Rhode Island. In the spring 
of 1801, he camje to the Black River 
country, in search of a place for a home, 
and located a farm of 125 acres, in the 
town of Lowville, now Denmark, about 
three-fourths of a mile southeast of the 
present village of Copenhagen, at the 
junction of what are now known as 

Number Three and West roads. The 
land was held at three and one-half dol- 
lars per acre. He paid one-half of the 
purchase money down, made a small 
clearing, and built a log house, covering 
it with bark, as there was no saw-mill 
within ten miles, and no roads. 

He then returned to Massachusetts, 
and in the winter following, married Ab- 
igail White, daughter of William White 
(then dead,) whose ancestors were of 
English origin. 

Early in the spring of 1802, he placed 
his tools and household goods upon a 
wagon, hitched a yoke of oxen and a 
horse before it, and with his wife, started 
for the Black River country. After a 
toilsome journey of eighteen days, he 
arrived at his log house, and immediate- 
ly proceeded to extend his clearing, and 
put in such crops as he was able that 
season, and during several years, strug- 
gled under many difficulties and depri- 
vations. In 1805, he built a framed barn, 
and in 1809, a house, and finished paying 
for his farm in 18 15. Upon the organi- 
zation of the town of Denmark, in 1807, 
he was chosen one of the commissioners 
of highways, which office he held many 
years. In 18 12, when war with England 
was declared, he was Lieutenant of a 
militia company, was three times 
called to the defense of the frontier 
at Sackett's Harbor, and served, it is be- 
lieved, in the capacity of Brigadier-In- 
spector. He was often called to sit as 
arbitrator in the settlement of difficulties, 
and to act as administrator on intestate 
estates. He was, for several years, jus- 
tice of the peace, and held the office of 
supervisor of the town thirteen years in 



succession, from 182410 1837, inclusive. 
He was originally a Federalist in politics. 
In 1829, he was nominated for Mem- 
ber of the Legislature, but was defeated 
by John W. Martin by a small vote. He 
enjoyed in an eminent degree the confi- 
dence of his neighbors. In 1840, he 
was a Whig in politics, and took an 

September 11, 1865, at the age of eighty- 
seven years. 

His wife's opportunities for education 
were even more limited than his own. 
In her time it was not deemed necessary 
that girls should be educated further 
than to be able to read and write. She 
was a woman of good mind, remarkable 

[LtlCIiiN CLiiRK,] 

active part in the Presidential campaign 
of General Harrison. He was an ex- 
tensive reader, possessed a retentive 
memory, and was consequently well 
versed, not only in the history of his 
own country, but also of foreign coun- 
tries. When about seventy years of age 
his eye-sight began to fail, and during 
the last ten years of his life he was en- 
tirely blind, but bore his infirmities with 
fortitude and cheerfulness. He died 

industry, energy, perseverance and 
economy, and to her may be attributed 
much of the husband's success in life. 
She was in stature not above the medium, 
had a mild disposition, and was an affec- 
tionate wife and mother. She joined the 
Presbyterian church in Copenhagen in 
1 81 5, and was a consistent and honored 
member until her death, which occurred 
September 9, 1850, at the age of seventy- 
three years. 



They were the parents of seven chil- . 
dren, three sons and four daughters,- 
six of whom grew to maturity. William, 
the oldest, was born in 1803 ; was edu- 
cated in the common schools and Low- 
ville Academy ; worked on his father's 
farm until of age ; taught school several 
terms, and spent the remainder of his 
life in the manufacture of wagons and 
carriages. He held the office of Justice 
of the Peace several years, was County 
Superintendent of the Poor one or two 
terms, and was much respected. He 
died at the age of sixty-two. 

Caroline, the third child, lived to the 
age of about seventy years, and never 

Louisa, the fourth, married Harvey 
M. Whiting. 

Josiah, the fifth, died in infancy. 

Phebe, the sixth, became the wife of 
Lyman Cunningham, and died ai Fond- 
du-Lac, Wis., at about the age of thirty. 

Lydia, the youngest of the family, was 
born in March, 1821, and became the 
second wife of Lyman Cunningham, who 
died in July, 1876, leaving her a widow. 

Lucian Clark, the second son of John 
Clark, I St, and Abigail White, was born 
February 27, 1808, in a log cabin at the 
juncture of the Number Three and 
West roads, in the town of Denmark, 
and at a time when nine-tenths of the 
county of Lewis was a dense wilderness. 
He labored on his father's farm during 
his minority, attending the district 
school some three months each winter 
till he was nineteen years of age. Dur- 
ing the next ten years, after attaining 
his majority, he continued to labor for 
his father in the summer season, and 

teaching district schools in the winter, 
in which profession he was eminently 
successful. In the fall of 1838, he pur- 
chased of his father 170 acres of land, 
on what was then called Halifax street, 
some of which was partially cleared, 
and on which was an old barn. He took 
possession the next spring, and during 
the summer built the house now (1883) 
on the farm. On the 7th of January, 
1840, he was married to Louisa J. Bab- 
cock, daughter of Caleb Babcock, of 
West Lowville, and moved into his new 
house on the 8th of January, 1840. 

Having exhausted his purse in build- 
ing the house, and the land but partly 
paid for ; having a team, but no stock 
and but few farming tools, his progress 
was slow. By hard work, perseverance 
and economy, he erected new barns and 
had them ready to receive the next har- 
vest, and had not increased his indebt- 
edness. But money being scarce and 
produce low, it was seven years before 
the farm was paid for, during which 
time his pockets were generally empty, 
but all other debts were paid at the 
time agreed upon. In the spring of 
1838, he was chosen one of the School 
Inspectors for the town, and held that 
office two years. In 1840, he was chosen 
Assessor, holding the office three years, 
and was then elected Town Superin- 
tendent of Common Schools, which 
office he held four years. In the fall of 
1846, he was elected County Clerk on 
the Whig ticket. He rented his farm 
and moved to Martinsburgh, and during 
the next three years he passed most of 
his time in the clerk's office, and per- 
formed nearly all of the duties connected 



with it. In February, 1850, he removed 
back to his farm, to the care of which 
he directed his whole attention for a 
number of years, and holding no offices 
but minor ones until 1855. In the spring 
of that year he was elected Supervisor 
of the town, and was re-elected m 1856. 
He was chairman of the first Republican 
Convention held in Lewis county, in the 
fall of 1855 ; '^^s chosen to represent 
the county in the Legislature the next 
year, and was a member of the commit- 
tee on public printing. He was several 
times called to act as administrator in 
the settlement of intestate estates. In 
the spring of 1861, when the War of the 
Rebellion broke out, he was chosen one 
of the committee to raise volunteers and 
funds for the support of their families 
while they were absent on duty, serving 
on that committee until the war ended. 
In 1 87 1, he sold his farm to his son and 
moved to the village of Copenhagen, 
purchasing the place owned by the late 
Apollos Stephens. Since, he has held 
no office of importance but president of 
the village three years. In all of his 
business relations, he has been earnestly 
and efficiently assisted by his wife, and 
to her efforts must be ascribed much of 
his success in the various positions in 
which he has been placed. The children 
of Lucian and Louisa Clai^k are Addison 
L. and Marinus W. 

Addison L. was born July 7, 1843. 
He was educated in the common schools, 
Lowville Academy, the Normal School 
at Albany, Eastman's Commercial Col- 
lege at Poughkeepsie, and afterward en- 
gaged for some years in school-teaching. 
He married Mary K. Paris, daughter of 

John M. Paris, in January, 1871. He 
was Supervisor of the town in 1878, and 
was three times re-elected, and was 
president of the village two years. 

Marinus W. Clark was born October 
2, 1845. He died suddenly at Low- 
ville, on the 4th of March, 1865, in the 
twentieth year of his age, while attend- 
ing school at the academy. 


John Whiting was born in Colebrook, 
Connecticut, August 24, 1790. He was 
the fourth son and seventh child of John 
and Sylvia (Loomis) Whiting. His early 
life was passed in the vicinity of his birth- 
place, and in teaching for a time in the 
town of North East, Duchess county, N. 
Y., in the year 1809. In 181 1, he was en- 
gaged in the study of medicine with Dr. 
Truman Wetmore, and afterward with 
Dr. Jesse Carrington, and received his 
medical diploma from the Connecticut 
Medical Society on the 8th of Novem- 
ber, 1813, signed by Mason F. Cogswell, 
President, and Jesse Carrington and 
Warren B. Fowler, Committee for the 
county of Litchfield. 

Late in the spring of 18 15, he came on 
horseback from his native place to Den- 
mark, Lewis county, where his oldest 
brother, Abner, had settled thirteen 
years before. Here he engaged in the 
practice of medicine, and also in school- 
teaching for the first six years, riding 
and making professional calls in the in- 
terim between school hours, and in cases 
of urgency, leaving his school in the 
care of the older pupils, while he at- 



tended to the more pressing demands of 
his patients. 

He was never married, never actively 
engaged in political contests, but was 
for many years a prominent member of 
and exhorter in the M. E. church. 
Among the licenses given him, one is 
signed by John Dempster in 1834. He 

had striking evidence. He was loved 
by his pupils and honored by their par- 
ents. * * * His practice in medicine 
rapidly increased, and he often rode the 
white horse on which he came into the 
county through the whole night, over the 
hills and through the roads and valleys of 
Denmark, Harrisburgh and Pinckney, 
to visit his patients, returning to his 
school in the morning, and after its close 
repeating his nocturnal ride. At length 


greatly aided the societies, both at Co- 
penhagen and at Pinckney, where he for 
some time resided on a farm managed 
by his brother Samuel, in erecting suit- 
able buildings for worship. He was sur- 
geon of the regiment organized in the 
county, or the part of the county in 
which he lived. 

One of his pupils wrote as follows of 
him: — 

" He was an apt teacher, and a strict 
disciplinarian of which the writer has 

the calls for a doctor became so fre- 
quent that he found it necessary to de- 
vote his entire time to the practice of 
his profession. He was very successful 
as a physician, and accumulated proper- 
ty rapidly. He was of a philosophical 
turn of mind, well versed in history and 
the current topics of the day, a good 
and interesting conversationalist, select 
in his language, and minute in his de- 
scriptions. * * * According to my 
best recollections, he continued in the 
active practice of his profession ten or 
twelve years, and for several years after 
that was often called as council in diffi- 
cult and dangerous cases." 



For the greater part of his Hfe he was 
a member of the families of his brothers 
Abner and Samuel. In the year 1870, 
he went to live in the family of Frank- 
lin Whiting, the son of his nephew, 
Harvey M., where he remained until his 
death, which occurred at Clark's Cor- 
ners, in the town of Denmark, Feb. 17, 
1 88 1, at the age of 90 years, 5 months 
and 23 days. 


Abner Whiting, father of the subject 
of this sketch, was born in the town of 
Colebrook, Conn., May 24, 1779. His 
parents were John and Sylvia (Loomis) 
Whiting, and he was the oldest in a 
family of fourteen children. 

His genealogical record is believed to 
be established as follows : He was the 
son of John Whiting, born July 24, 1758, 
who was the son of John Whiting, born 
Nov. 23, 1720, who was the son of Ben- 
jamin Whiting, the tenth and youngest 
child of Rev. Samuel Whiting, Jr., who 
was born in England in 1633, and brought 
to Lynn, then called Saugus, Mass., by his 
father. Rev. Samuel Whiting, in June, 

Rev. Samuel Whiting was born at 
Boston, Lincolnshire, Eng., November 
20, 1597. His father, John Whiting, was 
mayor of that city in the year 1600, and 
also in 1608, and his brother, John, held 
the same office in 1655. It appears that 
the names of John and Samuel have con- 
tinued in the family for three or more 
centuries ; that of the former being 
found to have been in every generation 
to the present date. Samuel Whiting, 

brother to Abner, who came to Lewis 
county in 1824, and settled in Pinckney, 
dying Feb. 7, 1874, was the last repre- 
sentative of this name in this branch of 
the family. 

Abner Whiting came to the vicinity 
which is now the town of Denmark, 
Lewis county, — then a part of the town 
of Lowville and Oneida county, — in the 
fall of 1 80 1, and purchased a farm, pay- 
ing for it and receiving a receipt therefor, 
his deed not being given until the 14th 
of June following. He married Asenath, 
the daughter of John Scott Clark, in the 
fall of 1804. He died January 7, 1866, 
and his wife February 18, 1861. Their 
children were twelve in number, two of 
whom died in early infancy. The rec- 
ord of the others is as follows : — 

Roxy, born July 13, 1805, died Dec. 

13, 1839; Harvey M.; Lovma, born De- 
cember 21, 1808, died December 14, 
1829; Melinda, born July 31,1812, died 
March 19, 1881 ; Sylvia, born May 11, 
1814, died March 26, 1834; Arline, born 
May 30, 1 8 16, died April 30, 1882 ; 
Asenath, born January 24, 1818; Susan, 
born February 17, 1821, died June 15, 
1858 ; John Clark, born March 10, 1823, 
died July 31, 1854; Huldah, born April 

14, 1828, died September 4, 1830. 

Of these children, Asenath married 
Avery Allen, of Harrisburgh, in Octo- 
ber, 1836, in which town she now (1883) 
resides, as do also her grandchildren, 
and only descendants, the children of 
Newton Stoddard. 

Arline married Ira Hodge, in 1834, 
and in 1846, removed to Dodge county, 
Wisconsin, where she died, and in which 
State her two surviving children still 



live. — Charles C. M., near Oak Centre, 
and Sidney J., in Hartford, Washington 

Harvey M. Whiting, the second of 
these children, was born in the town of 
Denmark, April 14, 1807, where he has 
passed his life. He married Louisa, 
daughter of John Clark, ist., January 4, 

John Kent, born March 4, 1870; Fos- 
ter S., born April 17, 1872 ; Una L., born 
November 24, 1874. 

Mary A. married Ashbel S. Humph- 
rey, of Harrisburgh, April 22, 1863. 
Their children were as follows : — 

Frankie J., born April 29, 1864 ; Henry 
G., born July 2, 1866; Harvey W., born 


1838. His children and descendants are 
as follows : — 

Franklin M., born November 21, 1838 ; 
Abigail Janette, born October i, 1840, 
died June 26, 185 1 ; Mary A., born April 
13, 1843; Anna E., born April 13, 1846; 
John H., born October 28, 1850, died 
January 2, 1852. 

Franklin M., married Ophelia North 
Wemple, January 13, 1869, and had chil- 
dren as follows : — 

March 12, 1871 ; Bessie L., born June 7, 

During the Revolutionary war two 
brothers of the name of Hartwell came 
from England to America to aid in sub- 
duing the Rebels. Both were officers in 
the British army. At the close of the 
war, one of the brothers returned to 
England, but the other, choosing to re- 



main in America, settled in New York, 
where he married an English lady of the 
name of Mary Cable. They had nine 
children, of whom William Hart well 
was the oldest. He married Elizabeth 
Cooper, daughter of William Cooper. 
They were of French descent and lived 
in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

William Hartwell, Sr., was a soldier 
in the War of 1 8 12, and after his death his 
widow received the soldier's land bounty. 
He died Sept. 18, 1845, aged 68 years. 
Elizabeth, his wife, died Jan. 6, 1871, 
aged 92. 

Their children were Ransom, born in 
1797, died in 1850; Hannah, born in 


William Hartwell settled in Duchess 
county, N. Y., and came to the Black 
River country in 1804. His family then 
consisted of four children— Ransom, Han- 
nah, Morris and Abigail. The country 
was then in its infancy, and they were 
among the first settlers in the town of 
Denmark. Six children were added to 
their family after coming to Denmark — 
William J., Laura, James, Almon, Charles, 
and Benjamin. 

1799, died April 3, 1810; Morris, born 
July 18, 1801, died August 25, 1880; 
Abigail L., born July 12, 1803 ; William, 
Jr.; Laura, born July 27, 1808; James, 
born in 1810 ; Almon N., born m 1812 ; 
Charles S., born in 1814; Benjamin, 
born December 11, 1817, died January 
25, 1881. 

William Hartwell, Jr., the first child 
born to them after coming to this coun- 
try, was born in Denmark Sept. 27. 1806, 



where he was educated and where he 
has always lived. He began life first as 
a mechanic, which occupation he after- 
ward relinquished for farming. A man 
of sound common sense and trusted by 
his townsmen, he has held numerous 
offices of the town, scarcely a year pass- 
ing since he attained his majority that he 
has not filled some official position. He 
was at one time nominated and elected 
sheriff on the Republican ticket, but lost 
the office through some illegality in the 
returns in one election district. On the 
25th of October, 1854, he married E. 
Catherine Squire,daughter of Dr. Charles 
Squire, who was for nearly sixty years a 
physician in Denmark. He was the son 
of Stoddard Squire, an Englishman by 
birth, who, on the 24th of October, 1781, 
man-ied a lady from Fi'ance by the name 
of Theadocius French, by whom he had 
four children—Charles, born Nov. 5, 1783; 
John G., born May 5, 1785 ; Fanny, born 
June ig, 1788, and Truman, born May 
27, 1791. Doctor Charles Squire was 
born in Duchess county, studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Willoughby, of Newport, 
attended the Medical College at Fairfield, 
where he received his diploma, and came 
to Denmark in 18 10. He was a surgeon 
in the army in the War of 18 12. He 
married Eliza Evens, of Fairfield, N. 
Y., January 15, 1814. They had two chil- 
dren, Charles D., born November 23, 
1815, and E. Catherine, born January 24, 
1824. He lived a useful life, and died in 
Denmark, September 15, 1867. 

The children of Wm. Hartwell, Jr., are : 
Mary Eliza, born April 9, 1858, married 
Richard C. Otis; Ada E., born Nov. 
9, 1859; Walton S., born June 18, 1861. 


, The first known of this name were 
John and James Lewis, two brothers, 
who came from England at a very early 
day, and settled in Barnstable, Mass. 
James was the father of six sons. John, 
the eldest of these moved to Hingham, 
Mass. He had three sons, of whom the 
oldest was John, who moved eastward 
and.lived in North Yarmouth. James 
Lewis, the second born, and great-grand- 
father to Morgan, was bc5rn December 
27, 1724. His famil}' was as follows: — 

Lydia ist, born May 26, 1750, died 
in infancy ; Lydia 2d, born December 
10, 1751; John, born Jan. 3, 1754; Bet- 
sey, born March 10, 1756; Rachel, born 
Nov. 24, 1757; James, born Dec. 6, 1759; 
Hannah, born Jan. 27, 1762 ; Laban, born 
April 12, 1764; Benjamin, born Nov. 
13, 1766; Lucy, born March 3, 1769. 
Elijah, born March 3, 1773. The father 
of these died April 3, 1802. The moth- 
er, Lydia Pratt, also died. 

Of these children, John, born in 1 754, on 
the 27th of June, 1782, married Mary 
Phelps, who was born May 27, 1762. 
He died Feb. 3, 1828, aged 74; she died 
March 9, 1840, aged TJ years, 9 months. 
Their children were : — Seth, born Feb. 
4, 1783 ; John, born Feb. 16, 1784 ; James, 
born Oct. 10, 1785 ; Calvin, born Jan. 
18, 1788; Polly, born Sept. 18,1789; 
Luther, born April 9, 1791 ; Lydia ist, 
born Oct. 11, 1792, died Sept. 4, 1793; 
Lydia 2d, born May 25, 1794; Lucy, 
born Nov. 13, 1795; Betsey, born April 
18, 1797; Warren, born June 6, 1799; 
Fanny, born Dec. 18, 1804; Hannah, 
born Dec. 27, 1806, died Oct. 26, 1827. 

John Lewis, the father of Morgan, 



was born in Suffield, Conn. He came 
to Harrisburgh, Lewis county, in 1804. 
His occupation was that of farmer. On 
the 15th of January, 1803, he married 
Betsey Winchell, who was born in 
Springfield, Mass., September 9, 1786. 
John died in Harrisburgh, December i, 
1865 ; his wife died in the same place, 

1845; Franklin, born May 10, 1822, 
died in Utah, May 11, 1850; Fanny, born 
Feb. II, 1825, married Amos Lasher, of 
Harrisburgh, Feb. 16, 1848. 

Morgan Lewis,the third child, was born 
April 27, 1 808. His early life was passed in 
Harrisburgh, where he was born. He 
was educated in the common schools. 


March 20, 1867. They had ten children, 
as follows : — 

Mary A., born Aug. i, 1803, died June 
24, 1848; Caroline, born April 3, 1806, 
died Nov. 24, 1827; Morgan, born April 
27, 1808; Julia, born April 14, 1810, died 
Feb. 1,1842; George, born Aug, 31, 1812, 
died Aug. 27, 1882 ; John, Jr., born Jan. 
II, 181 5; Betsey, born March 26, 1817, 
married Abel Bickford, Jan. 6, 1838, 
died Sept. 10, 1875 ; Warren, born Feb. 14, 
1820, died in Rockford, 111., Oct. 14, 

and adopted the occupation of farming, 
which he has always followed. He 
married Betsey Hazen, daughter of Sew- 
all Hazen, of Denmark, Feb. 19, 1846, 
who was born June 15, 1820. Their chil- 
dren are : — John Morgan, born March 
15, 1847 ; Ledru Lycurgus, born Oct. 
3, 1849; Wilson Hazen, born Dec. 24, 
185 1 ; Mary Eugene, born March 5, 
1854, died Oct. 7, 1874; Bessie Edith, 
born Nov. 14, 1859; Emma Anna, born 
May 20, 1865. 




Aaron Cunningham, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in Royal- 
ston, Mass., August 31, 1789. He came 
to Denmark, Lewis county, in the win- 
ter of 18 17, where he resided until his 
death, which occurred in Copenhagen 
September 15, 1864. His wife was Mary 

Copenhagen, x\pril 19, 1825. He was 
educated in the district schools, and 
worked for a number of years at the 
trade of leather tanning with his father, 
who was engaged in that business at 
Charles Corners, near Copenhagen. He 
afterward took up the occupation of 
farming which he has since followed. 


Dimock, of Norwich, Mass., who was 
born March 29, 1791, and to whom he 
was married November 14, 18 13. She 
died December 31, 1859. 

They had four children, namely :— 
Lyman, born iii Norwich, Mass., Sep- 
tember 17, 1814, died July 22, 1876, 
Dorothy E., born April 21, 18 19, mar- 
ried L W. Dickenson; Chester S.; Mary 
E., born June 21, 1828, died May 14, 1830. 
Chester S. Cunningham was born in 

He was married to Nancy M. Snyder, 
of Picton, Canada, March 4, 1855, who 
died August 5, 1864, leaving one son and 
two daughters — Ellen M., born April 19, 
1856, died August 4, 1856; WiUiam C, 
born January 23, 1858; and Hattie E., 
born August 3, 1861. He was again 
married to Maria H. Millard, of Copen- 
hagen, October 1 1, 1865, by whom he had 
one child, a daughter, Mary L., born 
May 12, 1868. 




In the spring of 1801, the Nathan 
Mungers, (father and son,) millwrights, 
having had their attention called to the 
Black river country, came down the 
river and followed up Deer river to_ 
half a mile above the falls, where they 

Copenhagen village, and the place soon 
acquired the name of " Mungers Mills." 
Nathan Munger, the father of Abner, 
was born in Ludlow, Mass., and came to 
this section of New York State in the 
spring of 1801. He married Louisa 
Bishop, who was also from Massachu- 
setts. Their children were : Nathan, who 


selected a site for mills, and in that 
season finished a saw-mill and got it in 
operation. The proprietors, to encour- 
age the enterprise, gave them the water 
privilege from the High falls up over 
two miles. In 1803, they got a small 
grist-mill, with one run of burr stone in 
operation in time to grind the first 
wheat raised in town as soon as it was 
in condition for use. The mill stood 
directly below the upper saw-mill in 

was killed in 181 1, by the falling of tim- 
bers in a house which he was repairing; 
Isaac, who was born in 1780, and died 
April 20, 1855; Solomon, who died Oct. 
16, 1863; Sylvester, who died in Hol- 
yoke, Mass., at what date is unknown; 
Roswell, who died July 12, 1870, aged 
82; Anthony, who died Oct. 30, 1869; 
Elijah, who died June 2, 1877, aged 86; 
Sylvanus who died Aug. i, 1877; Cham- 
pion, who left home in 1834, and has 



never been heard from since; Betsey, 
the first woman who came to this part 
of the town, married Calvin Blodgett, 
and died August 26, 1874, aged 91 years; 
Folly, who married first, Eleazer Nash, 
second, Jeremiah Babcock, and who 
died September 26, 1864; Maria, who 
married Jason Millard, and died March 
25, 1864, aged 65 ; and Samantha, who 
married Abijah Tisdale, and died Sep- 
tember IS, i860, aged 60 years. 

Abner Munger, the tenth child, was 
born May 29, 1801, in Paris, Oneida 
county, and came with his parents to 
Lewis county when about two years 
old. His early life was passed amid the 
hardships of pioneer days. He received 
the scanty education of the schools of 
those times, which was afterward en- 
larged by reading and commingling with 
men, and adopted the occupation of car- 
penter, in which business he was for 
some years engaged with his brother, 
Elijah. He afterward entered upon the 
life of a farmer, which he followed suc- 
cessfully for a number of years. He 
then retired from that business and took 
up his residence in the village of Copen- 
hagen where he now (1883) resides. 

In 1825, he was married to Amelia 
Boswell, of Champion, Jefferson county. 
New York, by whom he had children 
as follows: — Russell, born Feb. 20, 1826, 
died Jan. i, 1830 ; Louisa C, born July 20, 
1830, died April 3, 1848. Mr. Munger's 
wife died April 3, 1858, and on the 9th 
of February, 1859, ^^ married Elizabeth 
Hunt Boynton, who died Jan. 13, 1869. 
He then married Olive J. Lewis Colhns, 
a native of Petersburg, Rensselaer coun- 
ty, Feb. 18, 1873, now living. 


Charles Wright, the grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was born Sept. 16, 
1739, and married Ruth Smith, who was 
born May 17, 1750. He died July 13, 
1820, and Ruth died March 24, 1834. 

They had nine children, as follows : — 

Lydia, born March 11, 1772, died in' 
August, 1839. 

Charles Wright, Jr., born July 28, 1774, 
died May 20, 1827. 

Stephen S., born Aug. 18, 1776, died 
Sept. 27, 1840. 

Tyrannus A., born Feb. 6, 1779, died 
July 21, 1863. 

Ruth, born April 30, 1781, died Sept. 
23, 1869. 

Erastus, born May 28, 1787, died Aug. 
10, 1865. 

Chester, born Nov. 10, 1789, died June 

25, 1835- 

Nathan, born May 17, 1792, died Feb. 

12, 1871. 

Matthew M., born Oct. 24, 1794, died 
Sept. 10, 1870. 

Of these children, Charles Wright, Jr., 
and Tyrannus A. came to the town of 
Denmark, Lewis county, in May, 1801, 
from Colebrook, Conn. They came 
down the Black river from the High 
falls on a raft, landing at the mouth of 
Deer river, then followed a line of marked 
trees through the wilderness to their 
future home, situated a mile west of 
what is now the village of Copenhagen. 
In the autumn of that year they went 
back to Connecticut, and in the follow- 
ing spring, with their parents and all of 
their brothers and sisters, returned again 
to Denmark. They started from Cole- 
brook about the first of March, making 



the entire journey in four weeks with a 
sled drawn by two ox teams. The entire 
family lived and died in the town of Den- 
mark, with the exception of Chester, who 
moved to Ohio. 

Lucius F., the son of Tyrannus A. and 
Mary C. Wright, was born in the town 

Pinckney. She died Nov. 27th, in that 
same year, leaving one child, Margaret 
Amelia, who afterward married the 
Hon. Cyrus L. Sheldon. He was again 
married November 12, 1.835, to Ann M. 
Jeffers, daughter of Benjamin Jeffers, of 

[LUCms F. WRIGHT. 1 

of Denmark Jan. 3, 1808. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools of those 
days, and the Lowville Academy. At 
the age of twenty he began teaching in 
the district schools of the county, which 
profession he followed for thirteen win- 
ters, and afterwards adopted the occu- 
pation of farmer. On the i6th of March, 
1834, he married Margaret Armstrong, 
third daughter of James Armstrong, of 

He held the office of School Inspector 
for the town of Pinckney from 1829 to 
1840, with the exception of one year, and 
I was captain of the militia company of 
Pinckney for five years. From 1848 to 
1866 he was a resident of the town of 
Lowville, and while residing there was 
three times elected as Justice of the 
Peace. In 1866 he removed to Copen- 
hagen, where he still resides. 




Josiah Rich, grandfather to Alonzo 
and Roland, emigrated from Claremont, 
New Hampshire, to Lewis county in 
i8i6. His occupation through Ufe was 
that of farmer. His wife was Elizabeth 
Stone. They were people of the Baptist 

took up the farm on which he resided 
for the most part ot his life. He put up 
a log cabin there, made a clearing dur- 
ing the summer, and in the fall returned 
to New Hampshire for his family, who 
came back with him in the spring of 
1802. Joseph was born in 1776, and died 
July 8, 1864. His wife. Avis Dean, was 


persuasion, and were known far and 
near for their hospitable entertainment 
of the members and ministers of that 
denomination. Josiah died in 1834, aged 
92 years. His wife died in 18 19. They 
had a large family of children — Samuel, 
Josiah, Phebe, Eliza, Bazaleel Ives, Jo- 
seph, Benjamin H., and Ives Bazaleel. 

Of these, Bazaleel Ives and Joseph 
Rich, came from Claremont to the Black 
River country, in 1801, where the latter 

born in 1767, and died November 28, 1854. 
Their children were : Alonzo D., Roland 
J., and Horace B. The latter was born 
July 6, 1809, and died August i, 1831. 

Alonzo Dean Rich was born in what is 
now the town of Denmark, Oct. 26, 1803. 
Here his early life was passed, and here 
he was educated in the common schools, 
supplemented by after training in the 
Lowville Acadeni}'. He has devoted his 
life to agricultural pursuits, in which he 



has been successful. He married Louisa 
Merriam, of Denmark, Feb. 27, 1831. 
Their children were: Maria D., born 
July 23, 1832, married Duane M. Cook, a 
native of Rodman, Jefferson county, died 
March 7, 1857 ; Sidney M., born July 30, 
1835, died Aug. 20, 1882, in Hudson, 
Bates county. Mo. ; Lorenzo M., born 

been passed. He, too, received the edu- 
cation of the schools of those days and 
that to be obtained in the Lowville Acad- 
emy, which was organized when he was 
a mere child. For some years he taught 
school, but abandoned that profession for 
farming, which business he has since fol- 
lowed. He married Louisa Blodget, 


Nov. 17, 1840, lives in Hudson, Mo. ; 
Horace F., born Jan. 8, 1843 ; Henrietta 
A., born June 23, 1847, married the Rev. 
George B. Barnes, now (1883) in Ottawa, 

The wife of Alonzo D. died February 
28, 1880, and he married for his second 
wife, Mrs. Isabel Pamelia Austin, of 
Denmark, December 5, 1880. 

Roland Josiah Rich was born in Den- 
mark April 15, 1805, where his life has 

in January, 1837, who died September 
22, 1 84 1, aged 33 years. She left a daugh- 
ter, Louisa, who was born September 9, 
1 841, and married Ensworth D. Bab- 
cock, of Denmark. Mr. Rich then mar- 
ried Sally Maria, a sister of his former 
wife, in 1843, who also died Dec. 28, 1850, 
at the age of 33. She left two children, 
viz : Sarah Augusta, born July 15, 1845 ; 
and Roland Jay, born Aug. 10, 1849, died 
in March, 1852, aged two and a half years. 



In January, 1852, Mr. Rich married Lucy 
Ann Blodget, who is still living. 


The father of the subject of this 
brief sketch was Bazaleel Ives Rich, 
brother to Joseph, the father of Alonzo 

that time the forests have been removed, 
the blackened stump fields have given 
place to broad and fertile acres, and his 
hands have aided in the prosperity of the 
town. To that class of men, the hardy 
workers, the men of sturdy common 
sense, who feared no bodily labor, the 
towns of Lewis county owe their pres- 

[j, n. 

and Roland J. Rich. Josiah v^as born 
in Copenhagen, September 25, 1816. 
His early life was passed in Denmark 
where he was educated. He early took 
up the occupation of farming, in which 
business he has amassed a competency. 
He was married to Lovina M. Horning, 
Jan. 2, 1845, who died July S, 1875. Mr. 
Rich has passed his life in the town of his 
birth, and has witnessed the changes of 
nearly three-quarters of a century. In 


ent advanced and prosperous condition, 
and the citizens should not willingly per- 
mit their name to pass into oblivion. 
Josiah Rich in a few more years will be 

The generation that knew him will 

: have passed away ; the labors which he 
and his cotemporaries performed will 
be forgotten, except as recorded on his- 

i toric page ; but those of the newer gen- 
eration who gaze upon the faces herein 



collected, will recognize him as one of 
the early and hardy men who bequeathed 
to the towns of the county the blessing 
of prosperity. 


The family of Johnson is of English 
ancestry. Jacob Johnson, grandfather 

for many years Judge of Montgomery 
county. They lived at Kingsboro 
until March, 1834, when they moved 
to Deer River, Lewis county. They 
both lived honored, trusted and re- 
spected, and left their impress for 
good on the social, moral, and religious 
interests of the community where they 


of the subject of this sketch, was a soldier 
in the war of the Revolution, and mar- 
ried Esther Hotchkiss. Both were born 
in Connecticut. Their son, Abner A. 
Johnson, the father of Gilbert B., was 
born in Connecticut, January. 11, 1788. 
He married at Cranberry Creek, Mont- 
gomery county, (now Fulton county,) 
N. Y., April 29, 1820, Annah W. Gilbert, 
born in Connecticut, December 3, 1802, 
the daughter of Hon. Samuel A. Gilbert, 


lived- Abner A. Johnson held here for 
several terms,the office of supervisor. He 
died in Deer River April 17, 1867. His 
wife died in the same place January 14, 
1864. They had eight children, as fol- 
lows : — 

Lucien A., now (1883), living at Chat- 
field, Minn. ; Gilbert B.; Sarah, wife of 
Jason C. Easton, Chatfield, Minn.; Samu- 
el W., Professor in Yale College, New 
Haven, Connecticut ; Esther A., wife of 



Giles C. Easton, died in Lowville, Octo- 
ber 20, 1862; Elizabeth, wife of John 
W. Clark, now (1883) living at Carthage, 
N. Y.; Abigail W., and Annah G., twins; 
the fornmer the wife of Rev. John Moore, 
of Ripon, Wis., and the latter the wife 
of George H. Haven, of Chatfield, 

Gilbert B. Johnson, was born in Kings- 
boro, town of Johnstown, N. Y., Octo- 
ber 10, 1823. He passed the first ten 
years of his life in Kingsboro, and came 
with his parents to Deer River, in 1834, 
where he received the education of the 
common schools, and Lowville Academy, 
and the practical education of his father's 
farm. He has obtained the reputation 
of being a sound, shrewd, business man, 
and has held in his town numerous posi- 
tions of responsibility and trust. He has 
been justice of the peace from and in- 
cluding 185 1 to 1883, except one term, 
and was supervisor from 1864 to 1869, 
both years included, and also in 1876, 
and 1 877. He assisted in the organization 
of the First National Bank of Carthage, 
which commenced business in January, 
1880, and was elected President, which 
position he has since held. 

On the 2d of January, 1850, he mar- 
ried at Deer River, Elizabeth Easton, 
who was born in Johnstown, April 30, 
1830. The result of this marriage was 
seven children, three of whom are still 
living : — 

Mary E., born October 16, 1855, mar- 
ried Charles H. Loomis, August 18, 1874, 
now (1883) living at West Carthage, 
N. Y.; Annah Nellie, born October i, 
i860; Lucien Gilbert, born August 11, 


Of the ancestry of this family nothing 
is known back of the grandfather, John 
Wilson, who was of Scotch parentage, 
and whose father and mother dying when 
he was an infant placed him under the 
care of a guardian who came with him to 
America, when he was but four years of 
age, and located in Washington county, 
N. Y. He died in that county in October, 
18 13. His wife's name was Anna Maria 
Switzer. Their children were : John, 
George, Christopher, Peter, James, Will- 
iam, Elinor, Nancy, Catherine and Sarah. 

Of these children, George was the 
father of Rodolphus B. He was born in 
Washington county November 6, 1793, 
and came to Lewis county in 1814, locat- 
ing in Harrisburgh, on the farm now 
owned by William Rook. His life oc- 
cupation was that of a farmer. His wife 
was Mary Ann Bush, daughter of John 
Bush, of Harrisburgh, who was born 
May 23, 1799. George Wilson died 
December 14, 1849. ^"^is wife died Oc- 
tober 13, 1882. 

Their children were four: — 

Jane, born April 15, 1826, married 
Allen Snell, October 14, 1848, and died 
December 29, 1877; Rodolph, who died 
at the age of one year ; Rodolphus B. ; 
Anna Maria, born July 16, 1830, married 
the Rev. Willett Vary, who died, and 
she married his brother, John Vary. 

Rodolphus Bush Wilson, the third 
of these children, was born in Harris- 
burgh, Lewis county, November i, 1829, 
in which town his early life was passed 
on the farm. He received the educa- 
tion of the common schools and adopted 
the Ufe of a farmer, in which business he 



has been more than ordinarily prosper- 
ous. In January, 1862, he removed from 
Harrisburgh and settled in the town of 
Denmark, where he has since resided. 
He is regarded by his fellow-townsmen 
as a man of honor .and integrity in all 
business matters, and faithful and true 
in his friendships. 

On the i6th of January, 1857, he mar- 
ried Amelia A. Shultz, daughter of 
Solomon Shultz, of Denmark, who was 
born in that town, December 6, 1832. 
Their children are : — George Frank, 
born June 19, 1859; James Addison, 
born August 22, 1869; and Fay L., born 
February 28, 1874. 

LRnnnLPHus h. wilsdn.j 


History of the Town of Diana. 

THIS town was formed from Watson, 
(by request of town meeting,) April 
26, 1830, and named in compliment to the 
wishes of Joseph Bonaparte, who then 
owned a considerable part of its wild 
lands and had begun small improvements. 
In his favorite pastime of hunting, he had 
here found an ample field for enterprise, 
and fancying that Diana herself might 
covet this region as her home, by a happy 
turn of poetic fancy, he conferred upon it 
the name of the goddess of huntsmen. 

The first town meeting was held at the 
house of Robt. Blanchard, at which Chap- 
man Johnson was elected Supervisor; 
Geo. W. Bingham, Clerk ; Silas D. Stiles, 
John Wilbur and Enoch Cleveland, As- 
sessors ; Willis Edwards, Caleb Blanch- 
ard and Jesse Palmer, Commissioners of 
Highways; Daniel Robert, C. Blanch- 
ard and G. W. Bingham, Commissioners 
of Schools ; E. Cleveland and Mills Sly, 
Poormasters ; James Edward, Collec- 
tor ; and Thomas Brayton, John Wilbur 
and Norman Stevens, Inspectors of 



Supervisors. — i830-'3i, Chapman John- 
son ; ,1832, Thomas Brayton, Jr.; 1833, 
Chapman Johnson;, i834-'35, Thomas 
Brayton, j r. ; 1 836-'39, Caleb Blanchard ; 
i840-'4i, David D. Reamer; 1842, John 
Wilbur; 1843-49, David D. Reamer; 
1850, Sherman Blanchard ; 185 1, Eugene 
Burnand ; i852-'53, Jonathan Aldrich ; 
1854, Howard Sterling; 1855, Horace 
Clark: 1856, William Hunt; 1857-60, 
Joseph Pahud ; 1861-63, William Hunt; 
1864, William B. Dodge ; 1865-66, How- 
ard Sterling; i867-'68, William Hunt; 
1869, Truman Davis; 1870, William 
Hunt; 1871, Jonas Frost; 1872-73, 
Levi C. Lake ; 1874-75, William Hunt ; 
1876, Henry Hitchcock; i877-'8i, Will- 
iam Hunt ; 1882, Oliver Collins. 

Clerks.— \'&io, G. \V. Bingham; 1831- 
'32, John Wilbur; 1833, James G. 
Lyndes, (removed, and John Wilbur ap- 
pt)inted July i ith ;) 1834, Silas D. Stiles ; 
1835- '39, John Wilbur ; i840-'45, Horace 
Clark; 1846, Reuben Tyler; 1847, Henry 
Allen, Jr. ; 1848-49, Reuben Tyler ; 1850- 
'53, Henry Allen; 1854, Nathan R. Car- 
ley; i855-'59, Henry Allen. Since i860, 
Henry Allen, Erastus Lasher, Thomas 
Broadway and Augustus Saltsman have 
held the office of Town Clerk, the last 
named for the seven years last. 

The south line of the town was fixed 
between the 19th and 20th north ranges 
of Castorland, but in the erection of 
Croghan, in 1841, the north line of that 
tract was made the south line of the 
town. The poor and the public money 
of Watson, were to be divided in the 
ratio of the last tax list. While a part of 
Watson, the north line of this town was 
twice changed. On the loth of April, 
it was made to run so as to include 
about thirty lots, now in Wilna, and leave 
off several now in Diana ; and on the 2d 
nf April, 1813, the county-hne was fixed 
as it now exists.* The Checkered House 

* These cliaiij;c-s arc- fully described on page 29 of 
Hoiigli^ JclTcisoii ComUy Ilibtoiy. 

(four miles from Carthage, towrards Ant- 
werp,) and adjoining neighborhood in 
Wilna, were under the former arrange- 
ment included in Lewis county, and res- 
idents in that section could only enjoy 
the privilege of voting, by a journey to 
Leyden, distant about forty miles. 

A panther bounty of $5 was voted in 
1831, '32, '35, and of $10 in 1836 to 1842, 
'50, '51. A wolf bounty of $5 was voted 
in 1835, and of $10 in 1832, '34, 36, 37, 
'38, '39, .'56. Fox bounties of $1 were 
voted from 1837 to 1842, inclusive. In 
1845, ^ special law, allowing $5 on pan- 
thers, was asked by this town of the 

Settlement began on the old St. Law- 
rence Turnpike, by one Doharty ; but 
the first farm improvement was made by 
Thomas and Jeremiah Brayton, about 
1818. Caleb, Robert and Sherman, sons 
of Isaac Blanchard, came about 1824, 
and afterwards their brother Daniel. 
They were originally from Rhode Island, 
but then from Wilna, from whence also 
many of the other settlers removed. 
George W. Bingham, John Wilbur, 
Enoch Cleveland and others, settled 
about 1830, or a little before. 

About 1828, the Count de Survilliers 
(Joseph Bonaparte), having acquired the 
title, first came to explore his lands and 
spend a few weeks in rural pastimes. He 
directed a road to be cut, and went in a 
stage-coach through from the old turn- 
pike, to the lake, which has since been 
know as " Bonaparte Lake." He caused 
a boat to be taken through the woods, 
and launched upon this water, and a log 
house to be built upon an elevation com- 
manding a fine view of the lake and its 

This sheet of water covers about 1,200 
acres, has several wild rocky islands with- 
in it, and in its primitive condition, was 
environed by bold rocky shores, alter- 
nating with wooded swamps and inter- 
vales, presenting altogether one of the 



most picturesque and quiet woodland 
scenes which the great forest affords. 
The place chosen for the house, was on 
Lot 928, on the most commanding site 
that the shores of the lake afforded. On 
the outlet of the lake at the present vil- 
lage of Alpina, the Count had a clearing 
of some thirty acres made, and a framed 
house erected with ice house, cellars, out 
houses and other conveniences, with the 
view ot making this a summer residence. 
He also built in 1829, at the Natural 
Bridge,'a large house, which was standing 
when our first edition was published. 

The Count visited his lands four times, 
upon each occasion spending a few weeks, 
and always accompanied by a number of 
chosen companions, some of whom had 
witnessed and shared the sunny fortunes 
of the ex-king of Naples and of Spain, 
the favorite brother of the great Napo- 
leon. Upon one occasion, in returning 
from the Natural Bridge to Evans's Mills, 
the cortege halted upon the Pine Plains, 
and partook of a sumptuous feast which 
had been prepared with great care, and 
embraced every delicacy that the coun- 
try afforded, displayed upon golden 
dishes, and served with regal ceremonies. 
Liberal in the use of money, and sociable 
with all who were brought in business 
relations with him, he was of course 
popular among our citizens, and his an- 
nual return was awaited with interest 
and remembered with satisfaction. 

He soon, however, sold to LaFarge ; 
the house on the outlet, still unfinished, 
rotted down, and the log house on the 
lake was some years after burned.* 

This episode in the life of Joseph 
Bonaparte has been made the subject of 
the following poem by the late Caleb 

* Bonaparte was sued in the Jefferson County Court 
by Johnson Willard, fora claim arising from the clearing 
of a piece of land He paid without going into court, 
but the incident is said to have disgusted him exceed- 
ingly, and may have been a motive for his abandoninp 
this establishment. The Count appeared suspicious of 
being robbed, and observed cautions very unusual in 
this country. 

Lyon of Lyonsdale. It was extensively 
quoted in the newspapers of the day, 
and presents a favorable specimen of the 
style of our Lewis county poet : — 


Waters enwound with greenest woods, 
And jewelled isles, the gift of Pan, 

Unsought, unseen, where Silence broods, 
Unwelcoming the feet of man. 

Gray clouds in liquid opal burn 
Above the jagged hemlock's height, 

A sunset sky outpours its urn 
In ripples of the rosiest light. 

By sinuous shore the baying hound 
Tells the stag seeks on silver sands 

Diana's mirror ; here is found 
One of Endymion's haunted lands. 

The lilies on thy glowing breast 
Loll languidly in crowns of gold, 

Were pure Evangels speaking rest 
Unto an Exile's heart of old: 

Brother of him whose charmed sword 
Clove or created kingdoms fair, 

Whose faith in him was as the word 
Writ in the Mamaluke's scimiter. 

Here he forgot La Granja's glades, 
Escurial's dark and gloomy dome, 

And sweet Sorento's deathless shades, 
In his far off secluded home. 

The hunter loved his pleasant smile. 
The backwoodsman his quiet speech, 

And the fisher's cares would he beguile 
With ever kindly deeds for each. 

He lived for others not in vain, 

His well kept memory still is dear — 

Once King of Naples and of Spain, 
The friend of Bernardin St. Pierre. 

Sterling Bush. 
In 1832, Fannel and Jomaine,* French 
capitalists of some experience in the iron 
business, began the erection of a blast 
furnace on Indian river, at a place which 
they named Louisburgh. As built by 
them, the furnace was thirty-three feet 
square at the base, of the kind technical- 
ly termed a quarter furnace, and intend- 
ed for a cold blast. They got the fur- 
nace in operation in 1833, but their 

* Of the latter name there were two or three brothers. 
They were directly from Porto Rico. One of them 
afterwards died of cholera, in Canada. Fannel was 
book-keeper, and one of the Jomaines was a founder. 



European experience did them more 
harm than good, and after runnings two 
or three short blasts upon bog ore, their 
capital was expended, and their proper- 
ty, including about five thousand acres 
of land, was sold. 

Isaac K.Lippencott, Joseph M. Morgan 
and David D. Reamer became purchas- 
ers in 1836, and continued the business 
with better success about ten years. 
They rebuilt the furnace, twenty-eight 
feet square, (seven and a half feet inside 
measure,) introduced the hot blast in 
1839, ^^^ ^o^ some time made stoves 
and other castings, by dipping directly 
from the furnace. The establishment 
had been founded upon the expectation 
of finding ores in the vicinity, but this 
failing, a supply was drawn from the 
Kearney mine, in Gouverneur, and else- 
where in St. Lawrence county. The 
yield was generally three tons per day, 
and towards the end, much of it found 
a market in Rochester. 

In 1850, the premises were bought by 
James Sterling,* who procured a change 
in the name of the postoffice, to Sterling 
Busk, and resumed the manufacture. He 
paid $10,000 for the premises, and spent 
about $13,000 in rebuilding. The fur- 
nace at this place was operated by Ster- 
ling, until the year 1863. It was soon 
after purchased from his estate, by E. 
Bulkley, a New York capitalist, and rel- 
ative of Judge Hilton. In this purchase 
were included the Sterling Hematite 
mines, in Antwerp, and other interests. 
Mr. Bulkley has made several blasts, and 
closed operations in 1881, the furnace 
demanding expenses, repairs and im- 
provements, while proving a source of 
loss to its owner. The village consists 

• Mr. Sterling died July 23, 1863. He resided at 
Sterlingville, Jefferson county, which derived its name 
from him, and its existence from the iron furnace which 
he established there, and run for many years. He had 
a remarkable talent for business, and although quite 
corpulent, he was active and present wherever business 
called. A daughter of Mr. Sterling has attained dis- 
tinction as a singer. 

of but little else than the furnace and its 
dependencies. The Sterling Bush and 
North Wilna plank road, built in 1853, 
connected this place by plank with the 
Railroad at Antwerp, and the old Ster- 
ling iron mines, between Antwerp and 
Somerville, but has long since been 
abandoned to the public. 


In 1833, Foskit Harris, of Champion, 
under a promise of two acres of land, 
and a waterfall on the Oswegatchie, 
with other inducements from Judge 
Boyer, agent of Bonaparte, hired several 
men, and on the 25th of September of 
that year, pushed three miles beyond set- 
tlement, and began the erection of mills 
at the present village of Harrisville. A 
saw-mill was built the first season, and a 
grist-mill, with one run of stones, in 
1835 ; several mechanics came in, roads 
were opened, lands cleared, and the 
place appeared destined to become a 
central business point. Several families 
were from Le Ray and towns adjacent ; 
but no sooner was it known that Mr. La- 
Farge had become the owner of the 
lands in this section, than they resolved 
to quit the place. His reputation was 
exceedingly bad among the settlers on 
Penet Square, and elsewhere, and cases 
of marked severity had created so bit- 
ter a prejudice, that no inducement, not 
even that of a free gift at his hand, 
could induce them to remain. Thus de- 
serted, the place retained little besides a 
name, until 1854, when Joseph Pa- 
hud, a Swiss gentleman (who had be- 
come concerned in the Alpina works, 
towards the last of the Swiss Company's 
operations), came to reside at this place. 
Under his auspices, a grist-mill of supe- 
rior finish was erected in 1857, and a saw- 
mill with double saws, in 1858. Induce- 
ments were offered, which led, in 1859, 
I to the building of a chair factory, a sash. 



door and blind shop, and several build- 
ings in the village. In May of that year, 
Messrs. Beach & Dodge began an ex- 
tensive tannery on the east side of the 
river, half a mile below the village, and 
in the midst of a forest. It was 288 feet 
long, had 160 vats, and was intended .to 
turn out about 40,000 sides of sole leather 
annually. A new saw-mill was got in 
operation a mile above, and other manu- 
factories were got under way at the time 
when the first history of Lewis county 
was published, in i860. 

Harrisville is yet, in 1882, the only vil- 
lage of any importance in the town of 
Diana. Its large tannery was success- 
fully kept in operation by Beach & 
Dodge, until 1879, ^^'^ then sold by them 
to D. Botchford & Co., the present own- 
ers, Thomas E. Proctor, of Boston, being 
a partner in the concern. The village is 
the center of a comparatively large trade, 
its stores and establishments being as 
follows : Tannery store, general mer- 
chandise; Lake & Blood, general store, 
and drugs and liquors ; Thomas Brady, 
groceries and liquors ; William Render, 
Oliver D. Collins, Frank Werner and 
Melzar f'aul, general merchandise, (Wer- 
ner uniting the sale of drugs ;) Crandall 
& Weed, hardware and tin shop ; George 
Miller, harness shop; WiUiam Stuart, 
shoe maker ; Peter Bullock, oar factory; 
A. Morgan & Son, furniture and under- 
taker; William Weaver, furniture, sash 
and doors ; Reuben Kilbourn and Philan- 
der Harris, carriage makers ; John 
Weeks and Solon Carley, blacksmiths ; 
Louis Harris, barber ; Sidney Nellis, 
watchmaker ; Mrs. Emma Osborn and 
Mrs. E. Nellis, millinery ; Snell & Co., 
saw-mill and lumber dealers ; Pahud & 
Hitchcock, saw-mill and lumber dealers, 
and grist-mill. 

The village has a commodious school- 
house, a large public hall, and spacious 
hotel, kept by Lake & Blood, and said to 
be one of the best in the county. It has 

two churches, one built in 1861, by the 
Congregationalists, and the other by the 
Campbellites, or Disciples. The Method- 
ists are now making preparations for 
building a church. Population in 1880, 
353. Two lines of stages connect Har- 
risville with railroad points, daily, one 
atGouverneurandtheotherat Carthage. 
There is also a tri-weekly stage to Fine 
and Edwards. 


The tannery at Harrisville is the only 
one in the town, but one was built in 
1 86 1, at Natural Bridge, just over the 
line, by Dr. Pearly Johnson, and is now 
owned and operated by T. E. Proctor. 
The Jordan Falls tannery built in 1868, 
by William W. & V. Rice, in Croghan, 
and one in Fine, St. Lawrence county, 
built in 1870, by Rice & Co. of Boston, 
S are near the town, and contribute to its 
business. These four tanneries have a 
yearly capacity for tanning 300,000 sides 
of sole-leather, consume 30,000 cords of 
bark, and require the clearing of 7,000 
acres a year. They give steady employ- 
ment to 180 men, besides those employed 
as peelers, teamsters, etc. 

Cheese Factories, Etc. 

The town of Diana has four cheese 
factories, viz : " Lake Bonaparte Fac- 
tory," erected in 1868, by Pahud & Hitch- 
cock, " Sterlingbush Factory." " Natural 
Bridge Factory," and "Rice Factory." 
The last named is in the extreme north- 
west corner of the town, and is patron- 
ized by the three adjacent towns. In 
all, these factories work the milk of 1,000 
to 1,100 cows. 

The Oswegatchie was declared a pub- 
he highway,. by act of April 13, 1854, as 
far up as the junction of the middle and 
west branches, and to the sources of both 
branches March 22. 1878. 



Alpixa. I 


Eliuenc Burnand, a Swiss, about 1844, 
jiurchased 48,513 acres from La Fara^e, 
embracing two ranges of lots in Ant- j 
wcrp, and 122 lots in Diana, and returned \ 
to Switzerland to find pixrchasers to set- , 
tie upon his tract. While traveling upon 
the lake Neufchatel he met Louis Such- 
ard, the proprietor of the steamer upon 
which they then were, and in conversa- 
tion got him much interested in the 
chances of speculation, which his tract 
afforded, especially when he learned that 
iron ores occurred in this region and that 
forests of wood were abundant. Select- 
ing, at random, a lot upon the map, (No. 
920,) he paid for it, and took a deed upon 
the spot." Suchard came over in 1845, 
and after two days spent in personal ex- 
ploration and conversation with settlers, 
this ardent and credulous adventurer 
returned, and in the winter following, 
organized a company with a capital of 
300,000 francs, for the purchase of the 
tract, and erection of an iron furnace. 

Charles Favarger was sent over to con- 
duct operations, receiving a salary at 
first, and promised eventually an inter- 
est in the enterprise. He selected a site 
on Lot 886, on the outlet of Bonaparte 
Lake, and began the erection of a furnace, 
giving the location the name of Alpina. 
Mr. F~avarger was not a practical iron 
master, but the furnace which he erected 
was of superior construction, and after an 
expenditure greatly exceeding the esti- 
mates, it was got in operation in the 
spring of 1848, at a cost of $20,000. The 
local supply of ore" proved insufficient,! 
and it was obtained from the Kearney 
and other mines m St. Lawrence county. 

* This lot afterwards proved to be chiefly swamp and 
lake. Buinand, when this was found, made a satisfac- 
tory change of other lands. 

f A few hundred tons of ore were obtained on the 
lands of the company and proved of good quality. 
About 1,000 tons of iron were made under Favarger. 
Some poor sandy bog ores, obtained from the vicinity, 
were used as flux only. 

After running two blasts with hot air, 
making from two to five tons per day, 
the company failed. By Favarger's con- 
tract with Burnand, he was to have a deed 
of 1,000 acres whenever he had paid 
$1,000, and under this arrangement 17,- 
000 acres had been convened at the time 
of the assignment. 

Frederick de Freudenrich, to secure 
his own interests and those of his 
nephew, the Count de Portalis, in this 
Swiss company, bought the property of 
the assignee, and by careful management, 
secured both without loss. The stock re- 
maining at the furnace was worked up 
by Sterling, under an agreement with 

The furnace and its dependencies, 
with a large tract of land, passed into 
the hands of Z. H. Benton, of Ox Bow, 
Jefferson county, who, on the 6th of 
June, with his associates, organized the 
" St. Regis Mining Company," with 
$1,000,000 capital, in shares of $10 each. 
The parties named in the articles, were 
Thomas Morton, John Stanton, Lyman 
W. Gilbert, William Hickok and Albert 
G. Allen, and they stipulated the right 
to work mines in various towns of St. 
Lawrence, Jefferson and Lewis coun- 
ties. It is needless to add that this 
scheme proved a failure, and that certain 
parties lost heavily by the speculation. 
We are not able to follow the intricate 
management of this affair. One blast 
had, in i860, been run by Benton, two 
by Emmet, and one by Fahud, after the 
above company was formed. About 
1853, Loveland Paddock, of Watertown, 
and David C. Judson, of Ogdensburgh 
became the owners of about 30,000 
acres in this town, to secure certain in- 
terests growing out of the Alpina man- 
agement, and appointed Mr. Pahud, of 
Harrisville, as their agent. 

Two blasts were made at the Alpina 
furnace in the decade of i86(>-'70, by Mr. 
Benton, and in 1872 it was leased for five 



years, at a yearly rental of $4,000, to 
George F. Paddock, a banker at Water- 
town, and under the management of Lott 
Frost, father-in-law of Paddock, exten- 
sive repairs were made, and costly im- 
provements provided. In connection 
with this lease, Mr. Paddock had also 
secured various mineral interests in Ant- 
werp and Rossie, for the double purpose 
of supplying the Alpina furnace, and 
selling and shipping ore to distant estab- 
lishments. Two short blasts were made 
by Paddock, and the mines were opened 
and connected with the Rome, Water- 
town & Ogdensburgh Railroad, by 
branch lines ; but the management of 
this large interest was so wanting in ex- 
perience that ruin soon followed, con- 
tributing largely to the failure of Pad- 
dock's bank at Watertown, in 1874, in. 
volving ruin to many persons. 

The Hematite mine, known as the 
Dixon bed, in Antwerp, and opened by 
Mr. Frost, has since proved very valu- 
able. Both bed and branch road were 
purchased by Mr. E. Bulkley, in 1877, 
and are at present operated by him. 

The Alpina furnace was also operated 
in 1880-81, by Dr. Longnecker of Phil- 
adelphia, and Colonel Biddell, of New 
York, but from want of experience and 
capital, the venture proved a sore thing 
to both the operators and their creditors. 
In this age of stacks of huge dimen- 
sions and vast capacities, the small Diana 
furnaces can make no headway, and have 
not, so far, proved a remunerative in- 

In 1852, Prince Louis Sulkowski, of 
Bielitz, a political exile from Polish Aus- 
tria, became a resident of Harrisville. 
His uncle had been a General under Na- 
poleon, and fell in the battle of the Pyr- 
amids. The subject of this notice, in the 
revolutions of 1848, became obnoxious 
to the government, but managed to 
reach America with his family, and to 
secure a small stipend from a once large 

estate. He removed to this section from 
the opportunities it offered in the pur- 
suit of his favorite diversion, that of 
hunting, and perhaps from the number 
of families that could speak his native 

The cultivated French society at 
Cape Vincent, of which he had heard in 
New York, is said to have directed him 
towards this region, and meeting the 
late Colonel Goldsmead, of Watertown, 
on the cars, he learned from him the op- 
portunities for hunting, which this par- 
ticular region afforded, which definitely 
fixed his destination. Settling near Har- 
risville, he lived four years, and then re- 
moved to Dayanville. He not long 
afterwards returned to Europe, where 
he was restored to his hereditary titles 
and vast estates in Poland. 

But little has been heard from the 
Prince since he returned to Europe. His 
son, only child of first marriage, and 
heir to enormous wealth from maternal 
parent, has, from time to time, been 
noticed by the press of both countries, 
for his great eccentricities and reckless 
expenditures, — last, on a journey to Swe- 
den and Norway, with a large retinue of 
servants, hunters, dogs and wild beasts. 
Lavishness, bravery and tragical ends, 
seem to have been the characteristics of 
this noted Polish family. 

Rural Cemetery. 

The " Harrisville Cemetery Associa- 
tion" was incorporated June 30, 1877, 
under the general act, with Austin 
Harris, Oliver D. Collins, Dexter D. 
Waggoner, Nathaniel R. Carley, Eli R. 
Paul and George Hughes, as first trus- 

Religious Societies. 

The Congregational Church of Harris- 
ville was incorporated September 26, 
1865, Silas Bacon, Albert C. Morgan and 
Stephen Seabury being the first trustees. 



The Church of Christ, Disciples or 
Christians, of Pitcairn and Diana, Feb. 5, 
1873, elected the following as their first 
trustees : F. A. Van Patten, one year ; 
Stephen Ackerman and A. P. Minick, 
two years ; George Miller, and William 
Siver, three years. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church 
of Harrisville, was incorporated Novem- 

ber 19, 1877, with John Weeks, Vincent 
Lanpher, Daniel Sawyer, Orville Harris, 
Leonard Peabody, Nelson Mantle, Chas. 
Mantle, Thomas Bradway and William' 
Palmer, as trustees. 

The St. Francis Solanus Church at Har- 
risville, (R. C.) was acknowledged June 
7, 1879, with Mathew Managhen, and 
Michael Fallon as two trustees. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Joseph Pahud the subject of the ac- 
companying portrait, was born on the 
5th of January, 1824, at Yverdon, Switz- 
erland. His ancestors were Huguenots, 
who found refuge in that country at the 
time of the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. He was educated at National 
schools and at the Pestalozzy College, at 
that time an institution of great repute. 
He emigrated to America in 1847, when 
twenty-three years of age, and located at 
Alpine, in the town of Diana, where a 
company of his countrymen had erected 
mills and a charcoal furnace in connec- 
tion with a purchase of 17,000 acres of 
timber land. During his management 
of this property, Mr. Pahud disposed of 
some 8,000 acres to actual settlers, and in 

1853, sold the remainder, including fur- 
nace, mills and appurtenances, to Colonel 
Z. H. Benton, and associates. The fol- 
lowing year he removed to Harrisville, 
then a small hamlet located on the Os- 
wegatchie river, and at present a pros- 
perous village. In 1857, he built a large 
grist and flouring mill and a saw-mill, 
followed by the erection of a large sole- 
leather tannery and other establish- 

Mr. Pahud has been for many years, 
and is yet, the agent, co-owner and mana- 
ger of large landed interests in the town 
of Diana, once the property of Joseph 
Bonaparte, ex-king of Naples and Spain. 
His intercourse with settlers was always 
kind and humane, and it is said that he 
never ejected a tenant holding land from 
under him. He has taken an active part 



in most of the improvements made in 
his town, and has been of late years en- 
gaged in the investigation and opening 
of valuable veins of Bessemer Magnetic 
Iron Ore, found in this locality, which 

retained the social courtesy and refine- 
ment of his early training. Always a 
friend to progress and freedom, he has 
remained an earnest and devoted fol- 
lower of the Republican party from the 

at present promise important results and earliest day of its formation. For sev- 

:HaN JOSEPH paHiin.i 

will lead at an early day to the construc- 
tion of a railroad connecting these mines 
with the Utica and Black River railroad 
and the Black River canal, thus open- 
ing an outlet to the vast forest yet cov- 
ering a part of the town of Diana, and 
adjacent townships in St. Lawrence and 
Herkimer counties. Although spending 
most of his life in contact with pioneers 
and rude workers of the forest, he has 

eral years he was supervisor of the town, 
elected to that position without a dis- 
senting vote and was a Member of As- 
sembly from the county of Lewis in 1871. 
Mr. Pahud was married in 1853. His 
wife Mary and daughter Annette, are 
yet spared to him. Although never con- 
nected with any denomination, he holds 
Christianity in reverence, and continues 
in the faith of his forefathers. 





William Palmer was born in the town 
of Midfield, Otsego county, N. Y., on 
the 13th day of January, 1826. His an- 
cestors came from England to Columbia 
county, N. Y., in the middle of the last 
century. His grandfather was a Revo- 
lutionary soldier. His father, James 
Palmer, and family, removed from Otse- 
go county to the town of LeRay, Jeffer- 
son county, in 1828, thence to the town 
of Diana, Lewis county, in 1830. The 
town was then a wilderness — he located 
in that part of it known as the Oswe- 
gatchie Settlement, purchasing land 

from Joseph Bonaparte, ex-King of 
Spain and Naples, — and died in 1853, 
when sixty-eight years of age. His 
wife, Olive, mother of William Palmer, 
died in 1862, at the age of seventy-four. 
Their surviving children were as fol- 
lows : — 

David, now living in Jefferson county. 



Maria, wife of Horace Clarke. 

Harriett, wife of Heman Roberts, still 
residing in the town of Diana. 

Peter, who resides in the State of 



Albert, who resides in the State of 

Sylva, wife of Benjamin Shultz, who 
died in the year 1879. 

James Palmer has buried two of his 
children— Richard, in 1830, who was 
accidentally shot by his brother David ; 
and daughter Electa, in 1831. 

In the year 1852, William Palmer mar- 
ried Deha Humes, daughter of Nahum 
Humes, a hunter of fame. Six children 
were given to them as follows : — 

Ella Emiha, wife of Myron Dobson. 

Emma E., who died in June, 1878. 

WiUie E. 

Ida L., wife of Sidney Kearns. 

Etta L., wife of Elmer Lake. 

Freddie E. 

He has been a life-long Democrat, 
and became, in 1868, a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church of which 
he is at present a trustee, and has held 
several town offices, such as com- 
missioner of highways, assessor, etc. 
Although his educational opportunities 
had been limited to the inferior common 
school teaching of his early days, his 
native intelligence, energy, untiring in- 
dustry, steadfastness to principles, com- 
bined with kindness and modesty, have 
raised him to an enviable and well-earned 
position. From humble beginnings in 
a locality remote, offering few oppor- 
tunities of acquiring wealth, he is to-day 
the owner of about 800 acres of land, 
th'j most of which is well improved and 
stocked. He is also interested in a 
cheese factory and various other matters. 
Of his wealth he makes a generous use, 
assisting his children as they start in life. 
William Palmer resides at present in the 

village of Harrisville, in the fine dwell- 
ing erected by him in 1877, and con- 
tinues the general supervision of his 
large farming interest. 


Heman Roberts was born on the 4th 
day of November, 18 16, in the town of 
Cherry Valley, Otsego county. New 
York, where his parents, formerly from 
Columbia county, had moved the previ- 
ous year. His ancestors came to this 
country from Wales in the middle of the 
last century, and his grandfather and 
great-uncle served under General Wash- 
ington during the Revolutionary war. 
His father, Daniel Roberts and family, in 
the year 1830, removed from Otsego 
county to the town of Diana, then a 
part of the great wilderness of north- 
ern New York, locating in the central 
part of the town, known as the Oswe- 
gatchie Settlement. In the year 1843, 
he married Harriett Elizabeth Palmer, 
yet his living consort. No children 
were given to them. Heman Roberts 
has been a life-long Democrat. Enjoy- 
ing to a remarkable degree the good 
will and confidence of his fellow towns- 
men, he has held for 25 years, and yet 
retains the position of poor-master. 
Has been also commissioner of highway, 
collector, etc. In 1861, he became a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and has been ever since a faith- 
ful adherent of this religious denomina- 
tion. He has been eminently an upright 
and just man, and as a farmer, intelli- 
gent, industrious and successful. Deeply 



attached to each other, the old couple 
are at present resting from the labor of a 
long and useful life, surrounded by pub- 
lic esteem and the kind wishes of a large 
circle of friends. His father, Daniel 
Roberts, died in 1845, and his mother. 



Three of these, besides the subject of 
this notice, are yet living — John, Rich- 
ard and Sally, now residing in the State 
of Minnesota. 


Sally, in 1840, leaving eight children as 
follows : — 







Rachel, then wife of Horace Clarke, 
died in 1843. 

Theresa died in 1837. 

Minerva died in 1837. 

Erastus died in 185 1. 

Another child, Drusilla, met previ- 
ously with accidental death, in 1821, 
when five years of age. 




Harriet Elizabeth Roberts was born 
in the town of Medfield, Otsego county, 
June 8, 1818. Her ancestors came from 
England to Columbia county, New York, 

In the year 1843, she was married to 
Heman Roberts. In i860, she became 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Her father died in 1853, and 
her mother, Olive, in 1862. Their 
family consisted of ten children- — 


in the middle of the last century. Her 
grandfather was a Revolutionary soldier. 
Her father, James Palmer, and family 
removed from Otsego county in the 
year 1828, to the town of LeRay, Jeffer- 
son county, thence in 1830, to the town 
of Diana, Lewis county, then a vast wil- 

six sons and four daughters — Richard, 
David, Peter, James, William and Albert, 
Sylva, Harriet Elizabeth, Maria and 
Electa. Of these, the following are 
living : — 

David, in Jefferson county. 





Harriet Elizabeth. 

Maria, wife of Horace Clark, in the 
town of Diana. 

Peter and Albert, in the State of 

Richard died in 1830, meeting with 
a tragical end at the hand of his brother 
David. The two brothers had gone 
deer hunting on grounds adjacent to 
Lake Bonaparte, a few miles from their 
home. After parting for a while on 
game tracks, they soon, unaware, came 
again close to each other, when David, 
getting a glimpse of Richard's garment 
through the thicket, and mistaking it 
for the skin of a deer, took aim and the 
fatal bullet went crashing through the 
poor boy's heart. 

Electa died in 1831, and Sylva, then 
widow of Benjamin Shultz, in 1879. 


The great-grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch,Garrett Lake, was a resident of 
the town of Jackson,Washington county, 
New York, and was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. He had three sons and one daugh- 
ter — James, Abraham, John and Catha- 
rine, all of whom married and had fami- 
lies, and lived to good and useful old age. 
Abraham and Catharine after marriage 
went to Canada and settled on the 
Reade river, at a place called Merrick's 
Falls, where they remained until they 
died. John L. moved from Washington 
county and settled in the town of Alex- 
ander, Jefferson county, where he lived 

and raised a large family, the most of 
whom moved to Michigan about the 
year 1802. 

It is believed that the family is of 
German descent. James, the oldest son 
of Garrett Lake, grandfather to the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was born in the town 
of Jackson, August 9, 1765, and died in 
the town of Gouverneur, March 7, 1841. 
His wife was Hannah Jackson, who was 
of Irish descent, and who was born in 
the same town and county in which he 
was born, July 15, 1767. They were 
married September 9, 1790, and moved 
soon after to the town of Naples, On- 
tario county. New York. There they 
settled on a farm and lived until they 
had five children, four sons and one 
daughter — Thomas, Jesse, Stuart, Abra- 
ham and Catharine. 

Jesse, father to Levi C, was born in 
the 'town of Naples, May, 2, 1795, and 
died in the town of DeKalb, St. Law- 
rence county, January 7, 1865. About 
the year 18 10, he moved with his par- 
ents from Naples and settled in Canada 
on Reade river, at Merrick's Falls. 
Here two more children were born, 
John and Henry. Sometime during 
the War of 1812, James, the father, was 
requested to take an oath of allegiance 
to England. This he refused to do, and 
in consequence was obliged to leave his 
home in order to escape bearing arms 
against his native country. Soon after 
the close of the war he returned with 
his family, except Jesse and his brother 
Thomas, who had come before to New 
York State, and settled in the town 
of Gouverneur, where he lived until his 



During the War of 1812, when the 
British were trying to take Ogdens- 
burg, Jesse, although a young boy, to- 
gether with his brother Thomas, older, 
was pressed into the British service 
and ordered to be present to guard that 
place. Not liking the idea of fighting 
against their own flag, they, together 

Lovina Cook, who was of English parent- 
age, and who was born in the town of 
Plainfield, Hampshire county, Mass., 
November 16, 1799, and died in the town 
of Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county, 
June 4, 1882. This acquaintance led to 
their marriage in Perrinton, October 
3, 1816, where they lived about one 

with their cousin, crossed the St. Law- 
rence river upon the ice, at a place 
about five miles above Prunet, and land- 
ed at Ministua. From thence they went 
to Ogdensburgh, and reported to the 
commander, who gave them a pass to 
go where they chose. 

From Ogdensburgh, Jesse went to the 
town of Perrinton, Monroe county, N. 
Y. Here he became acquainted with 

year, when they went to Gouverneur 
and settled on a piece of wild land, in 
the northwestern part of the town, 
about five miles from the present village 
of Gouverneur. 

While living there they had four chil- 
dren : — 

Thomas, born December 27, 1818, now 
(1883) in Michigan. 
Laura, born August 5, 1821, married 



John Cooper, — by whom she had three 
children, — died February 18, 1866. 

Catharine, born December 20, 1822, 
married Elecum Hunt, by whom she has 
three children. 

Garrett, born August 28, 1824, died 
February 26, 1848. 

In 1825, the family moved back to the 
town of Perrinton, and settled on a farm 
near to the spot where the father and 
mother were married. 

There they had two daughters as fol- 
lows: Hannah, born June 6, 1826, and 
Orrissa Jane, born August 10, 1828, — the 
latter of whom married Morris G. Smith. 
From here they moved and located on 
a farm in the town of Macedon, Wayne 
county, where three sons were born : — 
Joseph, January 3, 1832. 
Levi C. 

Christopher, born May 8, 1838. 
In the winter of 1838, at the request of 
his father, Jesse returned with his fatnily 
to Gouverneur to take care of his parents, 
who had returned from Canada shortly 
after the War of 18 12, and had taken up 
a farm in the northeastern part of that 
town. Here Jesse had born another 
son, — making ten children in all, — Ed- 
win, August 14, 1840, who died January 
10, 1873. 

Upon this farm and in this neighbor- 
hood the children were brought up and 
schooled, all of them receiving a limited 
common school education. 

Levi C. Lake was born in the town of 
Macedon, Wayne county, N. Y., No- 
vember 26, 1835. He remained at home 
until the age of twenty, and the spring 
following, his father gave him his time 
and he apprenticed himself to Charles 

Fisk, to learn the trade of carpenter and 

Charles Fisk was a contractor and 
builder in Ogdensburgh,who, some eight 
months after Levi's engagement, be- 
came involved in business difficulties 
and left the country. The young ap- 
prentice then returned to Gouverneur, 
and entered the employ of C. A. & S. B. 
VanDuyn, to work at the same trade, 
serving with that firm six years. 

On the 13th of October, 1859, he was 
married to Louisa A. Blood, youngest 
daughter of Israel P., and Esther Blood, 
of Diana, Lewis county, who was born 
in the town of Scriba, Oswego county, 
N. Y., May 15, 1839. Mr. Lake con- 
tinued in the employment of C. A. & S. 
B. VanDuyn, until April 12, 1861, when 
he moved to the village of Harrisville, 
where from that date to May i, 1875, he 
was engaged in mechanical business. 

In May of that year, he entered into a 
co-partnership with C. N. Blood, his 
brother-in-law, in mercantile business, 
under the firm name of Lake & Blood, in 
which he still continues. They also built, 
and are now (1883), the proprietors of 
the Adirondack House in that village. 
Mr. Lake has been supervisor of his town 
two terms, and may be counted among 
the enterprising and useful men of the 

He has three children — two sons and 
one daughter : — 

Elmer P., born in Harrisville, Sep- 
tember 29, 1863. 

Charles E., born in Harrisville, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1868. 

Maude M., born in Harrisville, Jan- 
uary 24, 1873. 





History of the Town of Greig. 

THIS town was formed from Watson 
under the name of Branthigkam* 

*Named from Thomas Hopper Brantingham of Phila- 
delphia, in whom the title of a large portion was, for a 
short time, vested. He is understood to have been an 
unsuccessful merchant. The letters of contemporaries, 
allude to him as unworthy of trust and destitute of 

March i, 1828, and changed to its 
present name, February 20, 1832, and 
reduced to 'its present boundaries by 
the erection of Lyonsdale from ' its 
southern part, in 1873. It is named 
from John Greig, who was born in 
Moffat, Dumfrieshire, Scotland, August 
6, 1779. His father was a lawyer, 
the factor of the Earl of Hopeton, 
and a landholder who ranked among 



the better class of Scotch farmers. He 
was educated in his native parish and at 
the high school in Edinburgh, and at the 
age of eighteen emigrated to America 
with John Johnstone, a Scotch gentleman 
who had previously been concerned in 
Mr. Williamson's settlements in Western 
New York. After spending a short time 
in New York and Albany he went to 
Canandaigua in April, 1800, and became 
a law student at the office of Nathaniel 
W. Howell. In 1804, he was admitted to 
the Bar, and becoming a partner with 
Judge Howell, continued in the practice 
of his profession until the death of the 
latter in 1820. In 1806, upon the death 
of Mr. Johnstone, he succeeded him as 
the agent of the Hornby and Colquhoun 
estate, and continued in that relation till 
his death. He was relieved of a portion 
of the duties of this trust, at his own re- 
quest, in August, 1852, by the appoint- 
ment of William Jeffrey as associate 
agent. In 1820, he became president of 
the Ontario Bank, and held this office 
until the expiration of its charter in 
1856. In 1 841, he was elected to Con- 
gress, but resigned at the end of the first 
session, and during several of his later 
years he was one of the managers of the 
Western House of Refuge at Rochester. 
In 1825, he was chosen a Regent of the 
University, and in 185 1, he became Vice- 
Chancellor of that Board. He held many 
years the office of President of the On- 
tario County Agricultural Society, and 
was one of the founders and corporators 
of the Ontario Female Seminary. His 
death occurred at Canandaigua, April 9, 

Through a long and active life, he dis- 
charged the duties entrusted to him 
with an industry, method and success, 
which earned him the implicit confidence 
of his employers, while his indulgent 
kindness towards those who settled un- 
der him, is remembered with gratitude 
by hundreds of the pioneer families. Of 

his private life, the village paper, in an 
obituary notice, remarks : — 

" Mr. Greig, though sometimes drawn 
from home by necessary business rela- 
tions and interests, was eminently do- 
mestic in his habits and predilections. 
His chosen enjoyment was found in the 
indulgence, amidst the treasures of his 
select and ample library, of a refined lit- 
erary taste — in the cultivation and adorn- 
ment of the grounds about his stately 
mansion — in the society of a numerous 
circle of personal friends, and in the dis- 
pensation of a generous and tasteful, 
though unostentatious hospitality. Al- 
most to the close of his life, nearly every 
stranger of distinction that visited the 
place, found a welcome and a home at 
his hospitable dwelling. Indeed, our 
beautiful village, owes much of its repu- 
tation abroad, for social courtesy and 
refinement, and for a frank and liberal 
hospitality, to him and his generous 
hearted and worthy lady." 

The first town meeting in this town 
(then including the present town of Ly- 
onsdale, and at a time when the present 
town of Greig was almost uninhabited,) 
was held at the house of Dr. Simon 
Goodell, at which Mr. Goodell was 
chosen Supervisor ; Joshua Harris, 
Clerk ; Jedediah Plumb, George Pinney 
and Henry Harris, Assessors ; Gilbert 
Ford and Ezbon Pringle, Overseers of 
Poor; Johannes Saut, Simeon N. Gar- 
ratt and Otis Munn, Commissioners of 
Highways ; Henry Harris, Collector ; 
Henry Harris and Daniel T. Sears, 
Constables; William Parkes, Jedediah 
S. Plumb and John R. Myers, Commis- 
sioners of Schools ; S. Goodell, E. Prin- 
gle and G. Pinney, School Inspectors ; 
John Fisher, D. T. Sears and Milo Clark, 
Fence Viewers ; John W. Southwick, 
Chancey Carroll and Judah Barnes, 
Pound Masters. 

Supervisors. — 1828, Simon Goodell; 
1829-33, Joshua Harris; 1834-36, Will- 
iam Dominick ;* i837-'39, Aaron Per- 
kins; 1840-43, Francis Seger; 1844, 

*Mr. Dominick died in Greig, April 15, 1861, aged 
63 years. 



William Dominick ; 1845, John I. Domi- 
nick; 1846, Dean S. Howard; 1847-48, 
David Higby; 1849-50, Lyman R. 
Lyon; 1851, Aaron Perkins; 1852, J. I. 
Dominick; 1853-54, Adam Deitz ; 1855 
-'56, Thomas Rogers; 1857-59, Henry 
S. Shedd; 1865, Francis Seger ; 1866, 
Lyman R. Lyon; i867-'7i, F. Seger; 
1872, Seymour Benedict'; 1873-76, Wal- 
ter B. Foster ; 1877-78, John F. Domin- 
ick; 1879-80, Luther C. Burdick; 1881, 
Jacob VanWoert; 1882, James Casler. 

Clerks.— \%2'^, Joshua Harris ; 1829-33, 
Henry Harris; 1834, Joseph Atkins; 
1835, George W. Sharpe ; i836-'38, 
Adam Deitz; 1839-40, H.Harris; 1841 
-'44, J. Harris; 1845-47, A. Deitz ; 1848 
-'49, H. Harris; 1850, Aaron Perkins; 
1851, Adam Shell; 1852, Asa Beals ; 
1853-54, Chauncey Munson ; 1855-56, 
Seymour Benedict; 1857-58, James 
Springsteed, Jr.; 1859-61, Emmet Har- 
ris; 1862-65, Aaron Perkins ; 1866-67, 
Joseph F. Jones ; 1868, Francis S. Budd ; 
1869, Peter Conway; 1 870-7 1, Walter 

B. Foster; 1872, Luther C. Burdick; 
1873, Colonel C. VanWoert ; 1874, James 
Calhoun; 1875, John Foley; 1876, 
Chester A. Lonas ; i877~'78, Charles F. 
Stephens; 1879, Jonathan Palon ; 1880, 

C. A. Lonas; 1881, J. Calhoun; 1882, 
William H. Manzer. 

This town has since 1832, voted money 
annually for the support of ferries across 
Black river, upon the condition that 
the town's people should go free. The 
towns of Martinsburgh and Turin dur- 
ing several years, united in the support 
of these ferries. A bridge was built at 
Tiffany's Landing, in 1846, by the towns 
of Greig and Martinsburgh, and main- 
tained till 1854, when it was cut away by 
the State authorities as hindering navi- 
gation. A ferry was then resumed, but 
since that time an excellent State bridge,* 

* The contracts for building this bridge, and the one 
at Carter's Landing, were let to John F. Thomas, 
June 23, 1861, the former at $7,769.90, and the latter 
at $8,463.00. 

with a draw, has been built by the State 
at this place, which has become the vil- 
lage of Glensdale, on the west side of 
the river, in the town of Martinsburgh. 

Greig Village. 

This is a small village, that owes its 
existence to the tannery built upon Crys- 
taline creek, as elsewhere noticed. The 
business of the place, in the summer of 
1882, was as follows : — 
Hotel— K. H. Burdick. 
Stores—]. Van Woert, F. G. Burdick, 
and Hill Brothers. 

Wagon Shop and Blacksmith — A. W. 
Blacksmith — John J. Lovejoy. 
Toy Factory — Employing several per- 
sons, mostly children, in the making of 
children's toys. 

Physician — Dr. A. A. Joslin. 
Tannery — Employing about 25 men, 
and tanning 40,000 sides of sole leather a 
year; J. Van Woert. 

This tannery was built in 1849, by 
John R. Williams, of Troy. It after- 
wards passed through the hands of va- 
rious owners. It was rebuilt by Paige 
Burhans and Cyrus W. Pratt, the former 
owning three-fourths of the interest. 
About 1852-53, Pratt bought out his 
partner. He afterwards sold a part to 
L. R. Lyon, and for a time it was run by 
Snyder & Lyon. In January, 1870, it 
was sold to VanWoert, by whom it has 
since been run. 

The " Upper tannery," so called, on 
Fish creek, was built in the spring of 
1849, by Cyrus W. Pratt, and has gener- 
ally been run by the same owner. It is 
now given up. To distinguish it from 
the other, it was called the " Branting- 
ham Tannery," which will probably not 
long be able to get supplies of bark suffi- 
cient to make it profitable to continue. 
The population of Greig village, by 
I the census of 1880, was 236. 



Other Industries. 

Upon Otter creek, in the eastern part 
of this town, is a mill for the cutting up 
of spruce timber into sounding boards 
for pianos. It is owned by Alfred Dol- 
ges, who also has a larger establishment 
at Brockett's Bridge, in Herkimer coun- 
ty. For this use, none but the best of tim- 
ber can be used, and that of slow growth 
and very uniform texture is sought. 
The logs are first quartered, and then 
sawed by an upright gang, across the 
rings of annual growth, into boards five- 
eighths of an inch thick. When planed', 
it is three-eighths of an inch thick, and 
each piece is squared upon the edges, as 
wide as it will allow, there being a use for 
every piece down to those three inches 
wide and ten inches long. From seven 
to eight thousand feet are cut in a day. 

A planing-mill for finishmg the prep- 
aration, is run at Port Leyden, by Mr. 
G. W. Chase, upon premises formerly a 
tannery. Mr. Dolges also cuts flooring 
and other stuff, as materials come in not 
suitable for the finer uses, and employs 
some fifteen or twenty men. 

Lower down, upon Otter creek, there 
is a saw-mill, owned by Charles Part- 
ridge, and still below this, a gang saw- 
mill, formerly owned by A. C. Eaton, 
but now by Richard Carter, (formerly 
of Troy,) and run by Thomas J. Lewis. 
The lumber and other stuff made at 
this mill, is transported to the river 
bank, by a wooden tram-road, using 
horse power. 

Still lower down on Otter creek is a 
mill owned by Edwin Pitcher, and below 
this is another belonging to Duane Nor- 
ton, for the manufacture of lumber and 
lath. This completes the Ust of lumber 
mills upon this stream at the present 
time. There was formerly another still 
lower down, but its dam was carried^ 
away some years since, and it is now in 

The saw-mill of Richard Carter, on 
Otter creek in Greig, was destroyed by 
fire February 21, 1870. The mill was a 
valuable one, and contained a gang of 
thirty-six saws, and was insured for 
$4,000, which did not cover the loss. 
The origin of the fire was unknown. 

On the i6th of December, 1876, A. C. 
Eaton lost 300,000 feet of lumber by in- 
cendiary fire. It was insured for $6,500. 

Besides the saw-mills on Otter creek, 
there are at present the following, in 
the present town of Greig : — 

Jacob Van Woert has a steam saw- 
mill on Fish creek, using circular saws, 
and employing about fifteen men. 

There are also on Fish creek, water 
mills owned by Joseph T. Northrup and 
Wessel Gallup. 

There is one cheese factory in town, 
owned by Fayette Van Aernam. 

Upon Otter creek, near Partridge's 
saw-mill, there is an extensive tannery, 
formerly owned by the Botchford 
Brothers, but now by Charles W. Her- 
sey, of Boston. It is run by G. M. 
Botchford & Company. 

Henry J. Botchford, who was for sev- 
eral years prominently engaged in tan- 
ning in this town and Lyonsdale, died 
at Port Leyden, February 22, 1882. 

Brantinghani Lake has been many 
years a favorite resort for picnic parties, 
being easy of access, and sufficiently 
rural and picturesque to answer every 
purpose. It is about a mile long, and 
has islands and points that give interest 
and variety to the scenery. 

Town Meetings during the War. 

During the latter part of the war, and 
while measures were pending for filling 
quotas to avoid the draft, several special 
town meetings were held in this town, 
and the following action was taken : — 

January 2, 1 864. — A bounty of $200 was 
offered by the town, by unanimous vote. 



At the annual town meeting in the 
spring of that year, Francis Seger and 
Thomas Rogers were appointed a com- 
mittee to procure affidavits of residence 
of the volunteers credited to the town. 

August II, 1864. — At a special town 
meeting, Francis Seger, Thomas Rogers, 
Cyrus W. Pratt, John Perkins and 
Charles G. Springsteed were appointed 
a committee, and a bounty of $100 was 
offered by the town to fill the quota of 
500,000 men. 

August 31, 1864. — At a special meet- 
ing, it was resolved to borrow the money 
needed, and to ask that a tax of $15,500 
be levied to repay. A bounty of $400 
was voted, and the sum of $30 was to 
be paid to each person procuring a vol- 
unteer. Drafted men were to receive 
$430. Francis Seger, Lyman R. Lyon, 
Cyrus W. Pratt, Caleb Brown, Peter J. 
Sand, Joel W. Ager, Seymour Benedict, 
Kirkland Johnson and James E. Willard 
were appointed a committee to fill the 
town quota, and were empowered to 
borrow the money above mentioned. 

December u, 1865. — At a special town 
meeting, it was resolved to apply the 
sum of $5,783.28 received back on ac- 
count of excess of quotas, as follows : — 

1. To pay a balance of bounty due to 

James E. Willard and Kent Will- 
ard, each $280, for substitutes, 
and to David Dominick $200 for 
the same. 

2. To apply the remainder to reduce 

the town tax of that year. 

RELIGIOU.S Societies. 

A Free Will Baptist church was 
formed in this town November 30, 1844, 
but never built a place of worship. 

The Union Society of Greig, was in- 
corporated August i, 1856, with Alexan- 
der Hess, Waitstill Cleveland and Adam 
Shell, trustees. A small chapel was built 
and used for some years, but it has fallen 
into decay. 

The church and Society of North 
Greig, was formed January 26, 1859, 
and Cyrus W. Pratt, Richard Carter, 
William L. Phillips, William Hillman, 
Caleb Brown, Wellington Brown, A. F. 
Cole, Simeon Crandall and Stephen 
Burdick were chosen first trustees. 

The first Methodist Episcopal church 
of Greig, was legally organized October 
I, 1872, with James Burdick, William 
Taylor and LaFayette Lonas, as trus- 

The Methodist church of Greig vil- 
lage was dedicated September 27, 1876. 

A small Catholic church, known as 
" St. Thomas," was dedicated at Greig 
village, December 21, 1879, and the 
same day a fire occurred, as supposed 
from a defective chimney. Loss, $200. 
The first local trustees, were E. S. C. 
Foster and James Calhoun. 

The first Methodist Protestant church 
of Brantingham Lake, was legally formed 
March 30, 1880, with W. D. Hubbard, 
Treasurer, James H. Lampman, Secretary, 
and George F. Houghton, Lewis Sabin, 
and Frank Lahah, as trustees. A small 
church was built in 1881. The Rev. Mr. 
Houghton preaches there, and at Greig 

A Protestant Episcopal Mission was 
formed at Greig village, a few years 
since, by the Rev. Mr. Allen, then of 
Lowville. It has no church edifice, but 
holds occasional services in a hall. 


History of the Town of 

THIS town was formed from Lowville, 
Champion and Mexico, February 
22, 1803, embracing townships 5 and 10 
of the Black River tract. By an act of 
March 24, 1804, Number 9, or Handel, 
was annexed to this town from Mexico. 



Denmark was taken off in 1807, and 
Pinckney in 1808, leaving it with its 
present limits, comprising township 
No. 10, or Platina, of the tract above 
named. The first town meeting was 
appointed at the house of Jesse 
Blodget, and adjourned to Freedom 
Wright's, in Denmark village, where 
Lewis Graves was chosen Supervisor ; 
Jabez Wright, Clerk; David Graves 
and Solomon Buck, Assessors ; Andrew 
Mills, Francis Saunders and Jesse 
Blodget, Commissioners of Highways ; 
Charles Wright and Freedom Wright, 
Overseers of Poor ; Nathan Munger, 
Jr., Constable and Collector ; and 
Charles Mosely and Andrew Mills, 
Fence Viewers. 

Supervisors. — i8o3-'o7, Lewis Graves; 
1808-13, John Bush; i8i4-'i5, Ashbel 
Humphrey ; 18 16, George A. Stoddard ; 
t8i7-'2i, A. Humphrey; i822-'25, Sim- 
eon Stoddard; 1826, A. Humphrey; 
1827, Amos Buck, Jr. ; 1828, S. Stoddard; 
1829-30, A. Humphrey; 1831, S. Stod- 
dard ; 1832-33, William C. Todd ; 1834- 
'37, Elias Gallup; 1838-39, Henry 
Humphrey; 1840, Julius A. White; 
1841-42, H. Humphrey; 1843-47, 
Horatio N. Bush; 1848, Bester B. Saf- 
ford; 1849-50, John M. Paris; 1851, H. 
Humphrey; 1852-54, J.M. Paris; 1855- 
■70, John Chickering; 1871, Marcus S. 
Jones, (resigned, and C. M. Prescott, 
appointed November 15th,); 1872-73, 
Wayne Clark; 1874-76, Peter Mc- 
Cartey; 1877-78, Hiram B. Lanpher; 
1879-81, John C. Hughes; 1882. S. D. 


Clerks — I'&oi-O'i,, Charles Wright, Jr. ; 
1806, Andrew Mills; 1807, C. Wright, 
Jr.; 1808, John G. White; 1809-15, 
Sanford Safford ; 18 16, Simeon Stod- 
dard; 1817-19, S. Safford; 1820, Pal- 
mer Hodge ; 1821, S. Safford ; 1822-24, 
Amos Buck, Jr.; 1825-26, S. Safford, 
(May 6th, William Allen) ; 1827-30, Will- 
iam Allen ; 1831-33, Elias Gallup ; 1834- 

'50, B. B. Safford; 1851, Rufus Scott; 
1852-55, E. Gallup; i856-'6i, John 
Young; 1862-63, Ehas Kelsey ; 1864, 
Asa A. Goodenough ; 1865-70, Marcus 
S.Jones; 1871-74, Charles D. Kilham ; 
1875-76, Todd B. Baunon; 1877-78, 
George A. Stoddard ; i879-'8o, S. D. 
Bush; 1881-82, George A.Stoddard. 

From 1836 to 1846, the bounties au- 
thorized by special statute in this county 
were voted in this town for the killing 
of wolves. In 1846, '47 and '48, a $5 
bounty was voted for bears. 

Mr. Benjamin Wright, in surveying the 
boundaries of this town, in the spring of 
1796, made the following memoranda : — 

"The north line of this town is, in 
general, an excellent soil, timbered with 
basswood, maple, elm, beech, birch, but- 
ternut. There is one small cedar swamp 
near the 5 mile stake on this line. The 
country is level in general, and very 
finely watered. A large creek crosses 
this line near the one and one-half mile 
stake, which makes a N. E. direction, on 
which there is a fine country. The east 
line is excellent and very finely watered. 
There is some near the southeast corner 
which is rather indifferent, but very 
little ; the timber is maple, bass, elm, 
beech, birch, butternut and hemlock. On 
the South line there is middling country, 
some considerable swamp and some 
beaver meadow, on which excellent hay 
may be cut. Along the west line there 
is a good country of land. Some small 
gulfs along it which are made by the 
streams and a considerable gulf where 
the Deer creek crosses the line. The 
timber, in general, is maple, beech, bass, 
ash, birch, elm and some butternut and 
hemlock. Towards the South part, the 
land is swampy and timber sprucy. 
Measures 24,992 acres." 

This town was subdivided into 49 lots 
by Joseph Crary, surveyor of Denmark. 
It was named in honor of Richard Har- 
rison of New York, former proprietor of 
the town. Mr. Harrison was of Welsh 
origin and a prominent lawyer. In 1788- 
'89, he was in Assembly, and from Feb. 
15, 1798 to August, 1801, Recorder of 



that city. He died December 6, 1829, 
aged 81 years. After the death of Ham- 
ilton he became counsel for Constable 
and Pierrepont in their landed transac- 

The transfers of title in this town have 
been related in our account of Denmark. 
Settlements were mostly made under the 
agency of Isaac W. Bostwick, of Low- 
ville. The first improvements were 
made about 1802, along the line of the 
West road, which crosses the northeast 
corner of the town, and among the first 
settlers on this road were Waitstill Stod- 
dard,* John Bush,f Ashbel Humphrey, 
Joseph Richards,^ Jared Knapp,§ Syl- 
vanus Mead,! Palmer Hodge and John 

In 1806, Silas Greene, Thomas and 
Ebenezer Kellogg, John Snell, Mark 
Petrie, John F. Snell and Jacob Walrod, 
with families named Lamberton and 
Weston, settled on what was afterwards 
known as the State Road from Low- 
ville to Henderson Harbor across the 
south border of this town. Several of 
these were Germans from the Mohawk 
valley, and from them the settlement 
acquired the name of Dutch Hill, by 
which this region is still known. They 
have all since removed, and their places 
are held by others. 

Captain Ralph Stoddard came to Lew- 
is county in 1805. He had been an offi- 
cer in the Revolution, and died Decem- 
ber 4, 1 83 1, at the age of 79 years. 

Mr. Ephraim Allen, an uncle of Mr. 
Loren A. Stoddard, of this town, was 

*Died March I2, 1826, aged 84. 

t Mr. Bush died March 27, 1847, aged about 72 years. 

t From Cummington, Mass.; settled in 1803 ; died 
February, 1813, aged 58 years. David R. settled in 
1804, and died in this town in 1845. They were de- 
scendants of Joseph Richards, of Abington, Mass. 

§Col. Knapp died in Copenhagen, March 2g, 1854, 
aged 73 years. 

II Died August 15, 1848, aged 61 years. 

"|[ Mr. Lewis died Deceniber i, 1865, aged 82 years. 
He came to Harrisburgh at the age of 19 years, and his 
wife two years younger. They located on the West 
Road near Copenhagen, at which place they lived for 
over sixty years. His wife Betsey died March 20, 1867, 
aged 81 years. 

born in Connecticut, came to Lewis 
county in 1806, and enlisted in the War 
of 18 1 2, but at its close, when his com- 
pany was returning home, and had near- 
ly reached head-quarters, Mr. Allen was 
shot by a British ranger from mere mal- 
ice, and his body was buried there. 

This event occurred in 18 13, and in 
1880, his remains were taken up, when 
the skeleton was found in a good state 
of preservation, and the ball that had 
done its work was entirely different from 
what had been supposed. People had 
carried the idea that it must have been 
an ounce ball, but after handling and 
scraping it was found to be about the 
size of a marrowfat pea, and is now in 
the possession of Mr. Loren Stoddard. 
Mr. Allen's remains now lie in the cem- 
etery at Harrisburgh, having been placed 
there by his grandchildren and great- 

The names of those living in this town 
in 1807, who enjoyed the privilege of 
voting, will be found in our account of 

In 1 82 1, Jacob Hadcock, and soon 
after, Michael Parish, Peter Picket, Hen- 
ry Cramer, Jacob Biddleman, Thomas 
and Gilbert Merrills, settled on the road 
above Copenhagen. 

The following fact shows that this re- 
gion must have been traversed by civil- 
ized man, long before its settlement. 

Mr. Loren A. Stoddard has an ounce 
ball which his son, Alfred L., when ten 
years of age, found imbedded in the sol- 
id wood near the heart of a black-ash 
tree, and which is supposed from the 
number of grains covering it, to have 
been in the tree over ninety years, and 
must have been fired there some 130 
years ago. 

Schools were first legally formed 
under the statute in 18 14, when John 
Bush, John Lewis, and Micah Humphrey 
were chosen first school commissioners, 
and David Richards, Hart Humphrey, 



Nathan Look, Jr., Charles Loomis and 
Seth Hanchet, inspectors. 

John Lewis was from Westfield, Mas- 
sachusetts. The Bush famihes were also 
from that town, and came to Lowville 
in 1800. Silas Bush died January 22, 
1829, aged 58 years. Other men of this 
family name have died in this town as 
follows: — Francis L. Bush, May 13, 
1848, aged 32; George Bush, March 3, 
1876, aged 73; Horatio N. Bush, Oc- 
tober I, 1861, aged 53; Sylvester Bush, 
January 21, 1864, aged 24; Walter A. 
Bush, December 5, 1852, aged 34; Will- 
iam H. Bush, September 22, 1880, aged 
79, and Timri Bush, July 21, 1874, aged 
89 years, (nearly.) Mrs. Catharine Bush, 
widow of John Bush, died August 18, 
1870, aged 96. 

Harrisburgh is an excellent dairying 
town, and has at the present time eight 
cheese factories, viz : — " South Harris- 
burgh," Stiles WilHams ; " West Harris- 
burgh," Wm. Wheeler ; " Harrisburgh 
Center," J. Hodges ; " Lanpher Factory," 
Hiram Lanpher ; " Dutch Street Fac- 
tory," on the north side of Deer river ; 
one near Mr. Hughes' ; A. Wider's fac- 
tory (formerly Vary's); and one on the 
No. 3 road, owned by Sumner Reed. 

This town has a town-house about 20 
by 30 feet in size, costing about $300. 
The lease of the ground, for so long a 
time as it should be occupied for this 
use, was recorded July 29, 1876. 

The town has no village, or other cen- 
ter of business, the trade being divided 
between Copenhagen and Lowville. 

Special Town Meetings during the 

August 16, 1862.— Offering a bounty 
of $25, and authorizing a loan of money 
to meet the expense. 

August 21, 1862.— Offering a bounty 

of $50. 

December 17, 1863.— Offering a boun- 

ty of $300, including that which may be 
paid by the county. Of this, the sum 
of $100 was to be paid at once, $100 in 
three months after muster, and the re- 
maining $100 in six months. A war 
committee was appointed at this meet- 
ing,consistingof John Chickering, Henry 
Humphrey, Elias Gallup, Abel Bickford, 
Wilham R. Windecker, Addison Stod- 
dard, Loren A. Stoddard, Stephen Snell, 
Riley Humphrey, Newton Stoddard, 
Charles D. Kilham, and Nathan Cobb. 

July I, 1864. — The bounty of $300 was 
renewed, to be paid to volunteers, 
drafted men and substitutes, and provi- 
sion was made for issuing town bonds. 
The vote was 34 to 3 on this question. 

August 9, 1864. — The following reso- 
lution was passed : — 

" Whereas, At a recent meeting of 
the Board of Supervisors, it was agreed 
that they are to pay a bounty of $500 to 
all enlisted men and substitutes ; and 

" Whereas, At a recent town meet- 
ing a bounty of $300 was offered ; it is 

"Resolved, That there be raised the 
sum of $100 above the $500 paid by the 

A tax was voted of $6,000. 

August 30, 1864. — Voted a bounty of 
$1,000, by a vote of 113 to 12, and a tax 
of $21,000 for meeting expenses. 

Religious Societies. 

A Free Communion Baptist church 
was formed in this town, July 16, 1822, 
by a council appointed from Lowville, 
Martinsburgh and Turin,and subsequent- 
ly a regular Baptist church was formed 
and a church edifice erected on the 
West road. In 1847, this first edifice 
was removed, and a new one, 34 by 44 
feet, erected on its site. It was built by 
Philo Hadcock, at a cost of $945, and was 
owned in equal shares by the two Bap- 
tist organizations. It has since been re- 
moved and a new one erected on the 
site. It was dedicated November 5, 



1879. The bell in this church was do- 
nated by Mr. William Bush, a short 
time before his death, and cost about 
$160. The edifice is owned in common 
by the Close Communion and Free Will 

The former were organized in this 
town as a church June i, 1842, having 
formerly belonged with Copenhagen, 
Lowville and Denmark, and originally 
numbered twelve members. It has now 

It has been for many years a custom 
of these two Baptist churches, to em- 
ploy alternately a clergyman from each, 
the whole joining in his support, and at- 
tending his services. The present cler- 

gyman is the Rev. J. O. Perkins, of Co- 
penhagen, who holds a service here half 
a day every Sabbath forenoon. 

The Free Will Baptist Society of the 
Town of Harrisburgh, was incorporated 
under the general law, March 10, 1862, 
Stephen S. Vary, Henry Humphrey, 
Loren A. Stoddard. George Bush and 
Nehemiah Austin being the first trus- 

St. Patrick's Church, (R. C.) was organ- 
ized in 1850, by Timothy White, Christo- 
pher O'Brian, Christopher Duffy, Marty 
Corcoran and Martin Battle, and a house 
of worship was built in that year, in the 
north part of the town, at a cost of 
$555. It will seat 175 persons. Its first 
pastor was Rev. Michael Power. It is 
now served from Copenhagen. 

Biographical Sketches. 


John Clark, of the first generation 
of this family in America, who came 
to Massachusetts about the year 1718, 
was born in Ireland about 1665. He 
belonged to that class known as the 
" Scotch Irish," his forefathers having 
emigrated to Ireland from Argylshire, 
Scotland, during the time of the great 

He was married in Ireland in the 
year 1699. In 17 18, he first settled with 
his family in Rutland, Massachusetts, 
from whence he moved with his sons 
and daughters to Colerain, then in Hamp- 
shire county, in 1738 or 1739. His fami- 
ly of the second generation consisted of 
Matthew, Thomas, John, William, Sam- 
uel, James, George, Sarah and Elizabeth 
all of whom were born in Ireland. 

Matthew Clark,* of this second gene- 
ration, was born in the year 1700, and 
was about eighteen years of age when 
the family came to America. Alexander 
Bothd, of the first generation, married 
Jane Doneice in Ireland about 1702, 
and emigrated to America in 1716, locat- 
! ing in Rutland, Massachusetts. The 
I issue of the second generation was Janet, 
Alexander and Anne, all born in Ireland. 
Jane Bothd, wife of Alexander, died on 
the passage to America. 

Matthew Clark, of the second genera- 
tion, married Janette Bothd, of Rutland, 

* On the loth day of May, 1746, Matthew Clark, of 
I the second generation, thinking he saw indications of 
hostile Indians in his neighborhood, deemed it safe 
to have his family go to the nearest fort for protection. 
The fort was about one mile away. He sent his family 
in advance ; they arrived at the fort safely. He re- 
mained behind to see what discoveries he could make. 
The Indians soon discovered him, and made chase, 
and gained so fast on him, he thought his only chance 
for life was to hide. When one hundred and fifty rods 
from the fort he had to cross a small stream, over which 
i was a rude log bridge, under which he secreted himself. 
' The Indians here discovered and shot him. His was 
the first death by violence of a white person that occurred 
at Colerain. 



Massachusetts, in which place he resided 
until 1738 or '39, when, with his father, 
brothers and sisters, he removed to Col- 
erain. The issue of Matthew Clark, of 
the second generation, was Jane, John, 
Alexander, Agnes, William, Hannah, 
and Elizabeth, all of whom were born in 
Rutland, Massachusetts; James, Marga- 

war which soon followed. He died in 
Chester, Massachusetts, but at what date 
is unknown. He had six sons and one 
daughter — John Scott, Royal, Silas, 
David, James, (the latter twins), Orrin, 
and Betsey. Of these. Royal was in the 
army some time during the Revolution 
and died iu the New London hospital. 


ret, Sarah, and Matthew born in Colerain, 
these being of the third generation. 

James Clark, son of this Matthew, was 
born in Colerain, Massachusetts, in 1739, 
and was seven years of age at the death 
of his father. He was made a Captain 
during the French war which began in 
1754, and ended in 1763. He was sent to 
garrison Fort Stanwix, located near the 
present site of Rome, New York. He re- 
tained his rank during the Revolutionary 

Silas emigrated to Wyoming county. 
New York, and died there. James was 
of a wandering disposition. He died in 
Lewis county in June, 1848. Orrin, the 
youngest son, moved to Herkimer coun- 
ty. New York, and died in the town of 
Russia. Betsey, the only daughter of 
Captain James Clark, married Reuben 
Porks; was born in Chester, lived in 
Russell, and died in Blanford, Massachu- 
setts. She had ten children— Reuben, 



Sally, Charlotte, Robert, Lucindy, Bet- 
sy, Roland, Sylvester, Israel and Polly, 
all born in Russell, Massachusetts. She 
was nearl}' one hundred years old at the 
time of her death. 

John Scott, the oldest son of Captain 
James Clark, was born April i, 1762, in 
Chester, Massachusetts, and was the 
first white male child born in that town. 
He entered the Revolutionary army at 
ihe age of fifteen and was stationed at 
New London, Connecticut, in charge of 
property taken from General Burgoyne 
at Saratoga. About the year 1790, 
he married Selah Anderson, of Ches- 
terfield, Massachusetts, the wedding 
being held in Chesterfield " meeting 

The fruit of this marriage was Orrin, 
Osenath, Electa, John and Lucinda. 
Electa died in infancy. The family 
lived in Chester until the spring of 1804, 
when the)' returned to Lewis county, 
and located near Copenhagen. The 
village then contained but two or three 
houses. ■ John Scott Clark resided in the 
home he had chosen until his death, 
which occurred March i, 1850, in the 
88th year of his age. He was one of the 
number that organized the first religious 
society at Copenhagen, and was a lead- 
ing member of the Baptist church until 
his death. He loved justice and mercy, 
and in return was beloved and honored 
by all who knew him. Selah Anderson 
Clark, his wife, died June 23, 1838. 

Asenath, eldest daughter oi John 
Scott Clark, married Abner Whiting. 
She died February 15, 1861. 

Lucinda married Francis Wright, and 
died in Copenhagen in the summer of 

1874. She was mother of the late John 
C. Wright. 

John, the youngest son, married Phebe 
Keene. He lived most of his life in 
Denmark, and died in 1875. 

Orrin, the eldest son of John Scott 
Clark, married Rebecca White, of Tem- 
pleton, Worcester county, Mass., and 
had as children Electa, Betsey, Orrin, 
Sarah, Rebecca, Nathan, Wayne, 
George W., and John Scott. During 
the War of i8i2,Orrin, the father, served 
for a time with Captain Israel Kellogg, 
then stationed at Sackett's Harbor. He 
died in Copenhagen January 13, 1840, 
in the 49th year of his age. His wife, 
Rebecca, died September 23, 1855, aged 
sixty-eight. Mrs. Rebecca White Clark 
had two brothers, William and Nathan, 
and four sisters, Abigail, Sally, Lydia 
and Hannah ; also four half-sisters, Polly, 
Dorcas, Susan and Elizabeth. Abigail 
White married John Clark, ist, who 
came from Worcester county, Mass., in 
1802, and settled at Copenhagen. He 
belonged to some other branch of the 
Clark family, of whose genealogy we 
are not informed. 

Wayne Clark, the third son of Orrin 
and Rebecca, was born in Copenhagen 
February 16, 1825. His educational 
privileges were those of the common 
schools, with a short term at Denmark 
Academy, then taught by Johnson Clark. 
Elizabeth Clark, his wife, was born in 
Watertown, N. Y., December 21, 1831, 
and received her education at what was 
then called the Jefferson County Litera- 
ry and Religious Institute. They were 
married November 6, 1854. The chil- 
dren of this marriage are George W,, 



Frances L., John N., and William Grant. 
The family have resided since 1854, in 
Harrisburgh. Wayne Clark was elected 
town superintendent of schpols for 1856. 
He afterwards held the ofSce of school 
commissioner for three successive terms 
for the second district of Lewis county. 
He was supervisor of Harrisburgh dur- 

now great State of Minnesota then con- 
tained only a few sti'aggling settlements 
on the Mississippi. He is the oldest 
settler in this county. John Scott Clark 
removed to the same place in 1852, where 
he died two years after. Orrin followed 
his brothers to Winona in 1854, where 
he now (1883) resides. Nathan lives on 

[HIRilM B, LiiNPHER,] 

ing 1872-73, and has held other minor 


Of the brothers of Wayne Clark, 
George Washington emigrated to the 
territory of Minnesota in 1851, and 
settled at Wabasha Prairie (now 
Winona). The country was then occu- 
pied by the Sioux Indians, and the place 
a missionary station of the Jesuits many 
years previous. La Crosse, Wis., was 
the nearest white settlement, and the 

the homestead of his grandfather, John 
Scott Clark, near Copenhagen. Of the 
sisters, two reside in Livingston county, 
and two in Mannsville, Jefferson county, 
N. Y. 


I Hiram B. Lanpher, the subject of this 
] brief sketch, was born in Harrisburgh 
i October 14, 1837. His parents were 



Nathan and Harriet Bailey Lanpher. 
Nathan, the son of Pardon Lanpher, was 
born in Lowville in 1801, and is still 
(1883) living. Pardon Lanpher came to 
Lewis county in 1800 from Rhode Island. 
The early life of Hiram B. was passed 
in Harrisburgh, where he was educated 
in the common schools. His business 

ney, Lewis county, January 23, 1861, and 
has no children. 


The earlier accounts of this family, re- 
late that two brothers of the name of 
Stoddard came to this country from 
England, at an early day. One of these 


through life has been that of a farmer 
and dairyman, in which by hard work 
he has amassed a competency. He is a 
retiring, pleasant, honest-faced gentle- 
man, with a supply of good common 
sense, broad and liberal in his religious 
and political views. In the matter of 
politics he has taken no very active part, 
and the only office of importance held by 
him was that of supervisor, on the Re- 
publican ticket, in 1877-78. He was 
married to Elizabeth Roberts of Pinck- 


brothers located in Connecticut, but of 
the other all trace has been lost. The 
grandfather of Lorin A. was Ralph, who 
was born in New London, Conn., in 1750. 
He was a soldier of the Revolutionary 
war, and died in Harrisburgh, Dec. 31, 
1 83 1. His wife was Mabel Newton, who 
was also a native of Connecticut. She 
died Jan. 10, 1837, aged 87. They came 
to Lewis county about 1807, and settled 
in Harrisburgh. Their children were 
George A., Avery P., Charlotte, Waite, 



Amos, Susan and Simeon, all of whom 
are dead. 

George A., the father of Lorin A., was 
born in 1772. From the age of sixteen 
until he was twenty-four, he was a sailor 
between the Indies and the United States. 
He came to Lewis county from West- 
field, Mass., in the spring of 1805, per- 
forming the journey with an ox team and 
a horse in eighteen days. He located on 
the farm now owned by Lorin A., on 
which he passed his days, and died Jan- 
uary II, 1844. His wife was Temperance 
Allin, of New London, Conn., born April 
I, 1772, died November 6, 1847. Their 
children were as follows : — 

Lydia, born May 6, 1798, married 
Wm. I. Lasher, June 8, 1820, both dead ; 
Synthia, born October 7, 1800, married 
Wm. Thompson, March 16, 1820, both 
dead; Maria, born May 14, 1802, mar- 
ried Amasa Dodge, January 30, 1823 ; 
Anson, born October 21, 1804, died Au- 
gust 20, 1828 ; Polly, born October 10, 
i8c6, married Henry Humphrey, June 
22, 1828 ; Charles S., born March 23. 1809, 
married Nancy Humphrey ; Lorin A., 
born Feb. 16, 181 1, married Clarrissa 
Dewey, Feb. 19, 1835 ; Mabel, born 
March 16, 1813, married Avery Root, 
Nov. 10, 1853, died Jan. 6, 1881. 

Lorin A. Stoddard was born in Harris- 
burgh, February 16, 181 1, on the home- 
stead where he has passed his life, and 
which he inherited at his father's death. 
He received 4 common school educa- 
tion which he enlarged by an extensive 
reading that has made him a man of 
broad and liberal views. In 1835, he 
married Clarrissa Dewey, a native of 
Westfield, Mass., born November 9, 1809. 
One child was the fruit of this marriage—; 
Alfred L., born July 20, 1837. 

Alfred L. was married to Elizabeth 
Searls, Feb. 16, 1859. To them was 
born, Nov. 17, 1859, a daughter, Jennie 
L., who was married Sept. 21, 1881, to 
Ralph W. Caperon. 


History of the Town of High Market. 

THIS town was formed from West Tu- 
rin by the Board of Supervisors, No- 
vember II, 1852, by the same act that or- 
ganized the town of Lewis. The first 
town meeting was directed to be held at 
the house of Schuyler C. Thompson. 

Supervisors — 1853, Schuyler C. Thomp- 
son; 1854-55, Michael H.Coyle ; 1856-58, 
Michael Walsh ; i859-'6o, Charles Plum- 
mer ; i86i-'63, Patrick Byron; 1864, 
William Dolphin; 1865-69, Charles 
Plummer; 1870-71, Edward Sweeney; 
1872-73, Frederick Anken; 1874, Pat- 
rick Byron; 1875-76, Israel Mullin ; 
1877-78, Charles A. Wider; i879-'8o, 
John Byron ; 1881-82, Christian Closner. 

Clerks. — 1853, Lynville M. Beals; 1854, 
William Dolphin; 1855, G. R.Thompson; 
1856, Lynville M. Beals; 1857, Chas. P. 
Felshaw ; i858-'59,Wm. Rowlands; 1860- 
'61, Robert D. Blair; i862,Wm. Dolphin; 
1863, Robert D. Blair; 1864, Thos. Mc- 
Ginnis ; 1865-66, Robert D. Blair; 1867, 
Patrick Byron; i868-'8o. Christian 
Clossner, Jr. ; 1881-82, James Hanley. 

This town embraces township 9, or 
Penelope, of the Boylston tract, with 35 
lots of township 2, or Flora, and 64 lots 
of township 3, or Liicretia, of Constable's 
four towns ; its present name was bor- 
rowed from that of its postoffice, estab- 
lished in March, 1849. ^t was invented 
by Schuyler C. Thompson, to distin- 
guish this place from every other, and in 
this view it was entirely successful. The 
Irish settlers, wished to have the town 
named Sligo, and usage had long before 
applied to an undefined region, west of 
Constableville, the nondescript name of 
Kiabia, which it retained for many years. 

Township 2, of which nearly half lies in 
this town, was subdivided by Benjamin 
Wright, in 1797, and measures 26,266 J^ 
acres. The bearings and distances of its 
outlines are as follows : — 

N. W. side. N. 37° 30' E. 412 ch. 48 Iks. 

N. E. " N. 52° 30' W. 632 " so " 

S. E. " S. 37° 30' W. 412 " 48 " 

S. W. " S. 52° 30' E. 63 " 23 " 



At the second town meeting, the 
owner of the premises at which, by ad- 
journment, the voters were to meet, re- 
fused to open his house. The majority 
of the voters, who were Irish, and not 
accustomed to the usages proper in such 
a case, were quite at a loss to know how 
to proceed, and came near losing their 
organization by failure to elect town 
officers. Just before sunset, they how- 
ever organized in the street, as near the 
place of meeting as practicable, and ad- 
journed to some convenient place the 
next day. With the advice of J. M. 
Muscott, a lawyer of Turin, they went 
through with their meeting, and have 
since retained the management of town 
affairs. In 1858, the town voted, with 
but one dissenting voice, to petition for 
re-annexatiou to West Turin, but with- 
out success. In 1857, they purchased 
for $200, a store for a town house. 

Settlement was begun about 1814, by 
Alfred Hovey and Liberty Fairchild, 
and in 1815, John Felshaw became the 
third settler. Ebenezer Thompson, and 
others subsequently located in the town. 

John Felshaw died June 24, 1857, aged 
82 years. He settled in the county in 

Ebenezer Thompson removed from 
Rockingham, Vt, in 1 821, and died June 
6, 1843, aged 69 years. He was the 
father of S. C. Thompson, Esq., former- 
ly of Constableville, and of Chandler E. 
Thompson, of that place. 

Upon the suspension of the public 
works, in 1842, great numbers of Irish 
families removed to this town, and took 
up small tracts of land. 

The western part of this town is still 
a wilderness, including a considerable 
part of township 9, near the west part of 
which Fish creek flows southward across 
the town. 

The highest point of land in the coun- 
ty is said to occur on lot 50, township 3. 
Streams flow from this lot in several dif- 

ferent directions, and in a clear day dis- 
tant ghmpses of the hills in Madison 
county, as well as more than half of the 
distant eastern horizon, are seen. 

In 1 87 1, Emory Allen, Newton Nor- 
tham, Alva Ward and Archibald Mc- 
Vickar (the two last named being of the 
firm Ward & McVickar) bought a 
tract of 14,500 acres in township 9. 
There was then a large amount of 
spruce timber upon this tract, — esti- 
mated by good judges at 100,000,000 feet. 
It began to die off the next year, and 
continued till most that had value of 
this timber had decayed. 

Mr. Ward is dead. The firm of which 
he was a partner failed, and the burden of 
this purchase fell upon Mr. Allen. He 
has recently sold the tract to Hood, Gale 
& Co., of Michigan, and they intend to 
clear it off at an early day. It is chiefly 
valued for its birch and other hardwood 
timber. It will need roads — possibly a 
railroad — to accomplish this clearing. 

The principal business of this town is 
dairying, for which it is well adapted. 

A case of murder has been before the 
courts from this town, since its organiza- 
tion. In 1 87 1, Peter Carey, John Col- 
lins, Jr., and Michael Collins, were in- 
dicted for killing Francis Joyce. They 
were sentenced May 2, 1871, as follows: 
Carey for manslaughter in the second 
degree, seven years ; and the two others 
for manslaughter in the fourth degree, 
two years each. It resulted from a 
drunken quarrel. 

Special Town Meetings during the 

Bounties of $50 were offered at the 
annual town meetmg in 1863. 

March 17, 1864.— A bounty of $300 
was voted to each volunteer, and the 
sum of $2,400 was borrowed. 

March 28, 1864.— The proceedings of 
the recent meeting were amended, and 
the sum of $300 was to be paid. 



September 7, 1864. — A bounty of $500 
was offered, and $150 to each man who 
furnished a substitute. A committee was 
appointed, consisting of John B. Murphy, 
Charles S. Felshaw, and Christian Closs- 
ner, to fill the quota of the town. 

Religious Societies. 

After the burning of the CathoUc 
church west of Constableville in 1880, a 

division occurred among the members, 
a part separating from the rest, organ- 
izing a church in High Market, while 
the rest proceeded to re-build in Con- 
stableville village. The church in this 
town is named " St. Patrick's," and is 
not finished at the time of our writing. 
It is located near the town house and 
postoffice of High Market, and will be 
served from Constableville. 

Biographical Sketch. 


Charles Plummer is the son of William 
and Ann Plummer, natives of Burton 
Leonard, Yorkshire, England, where 
Charles was born, January 12, i8n, and 
where he lived until 1832. In that year 
the family sailed for America, and landed 


in New York on the 24th of May. Re- 
maining there no longer than necessity 
required, they went to Deerfield, Oneida 
county, where they purchased forty-five 
acres of woodland, and entered upon the 
active duties of life in their new country 
and new home. 



On the first of the following May, 
1833, the mother died, at the age of 
fifty-two. His father died December 
10, 1848. 

Mr. Plummer lived in Deerfield eight 
years, and in 1840, moved to High 
Market, which was at that time embraced 
in the town of West Turin, where he 
bought one hundred and seventy-six 
acres of wild land. Here he toiled man- 
fully for years to clear his land and 
bring it to its present state of cultivation, 
to build for his family a home, and to 
accumulate a competency for the declin- 
ing years of his life. 

For the turmoil of politics, which 
produces cares and trials, as well as 
triumphs, Mr. Plummer has never been 
ambitious, although he has at differ- 
ent times acceptably filled the official 
positions to which his townsmen have 
elected him. He has served seven years 
as Supervisor of the town of High 
Market, was for three years Assessor, 
and for two years filled the position of 
Town Auditor. In all these public, as 
well as in all his private matters, he has 
conscientiously endeavored to do his 
duty, believing that he is the better man 
who acts the better part in all dealings 
with his fellow men. Such characters 
need no written eulogy. Their lives are 
remembered even alter they have passed 
away, and their characters stand as ex- 
amples for the men of other .generations. 
As it is the deep waters that run with 
the greatest force and stillness, so it is 
the quiet and unobtrusive men who, to 
an extent greater than is imagined, shape 
the events of the day, and act as the 
moral, social, and business motive power 

of the world. They clear the wilderness, 
build the homes, develop the townships, 
and decide the social, moral, and relig- 
ious tendency of their time. Of that 
class of men can be reckoned the subject 
of this sketch. He is respected by all 
who come in contact with him as a man 
of honor and integrity, and is one of 
those whose name should be preserved 
to the men of the coming years. 

On the 27th of December, 1834, Mr. 
Plummer was married to Catherine 
Smith, daughter of John P. and Nancy 
Smith, of Deerfield, Oneida county, N. 
Y., by whom .he has had two children, 
George, born May 27, 1836, and Ann, 
born November 13, 1844. His wife died 
January 3, 1853, aged thirty-four years.. 
George, the son, married Mary E. Shep- 
ard, daughter of Harlow Shepard, of 
Turin, December i, 1858, and lives on 
the homestead. His children are : Em- 
ma C, Nellie M., Charles E., Jennie C, 
and George H. 

The daughter, Ann, married Albert 
D. Blair, of High Market, January i, 
1863. Their children are: Charles R., 
Jennie C, Kittie B., George A., May 
B., and a child that died when an 


History of the Town of Lewis. 

HE town was formed from Ley den 

. . and West Turin by the Supervisors, 

"«Jovember 11, 1852, embracing a part 

from the narrow point at the south- 



western part of " Inman's Triangle," 
which previously had formed the town 
of Leyden and No. i, and part of No. 
2, (three rows of lots,) of "Constable's 
four towns," previously in West Turin. 
The first town meeting was ordered to 
be held at the house of Orlando S. 
Kenyon. Its name was derived from 
that of the county ; but as there is also 
a town of " Lewis," in Essex county, the 
postoffice of " West Leyden," remains 
as before, the only one in the town. 

Supervisor s.-^i?:'^l, Orson Jenks ; 1854- 
'55, Charles Pease; 1856, O. Jenks ; 1857, 
Hiram Jenks ; 1858, Jonathan A. Pease; 
1859-61, O. Jenks; 1862-71, Jay A. 
Pease; 1872, Mathew Kilts; 1873, 
Andrew Katsmeyer; 1874, J. A. Pease; 
1875, A. Katsmeyer; 1876, M. Kilts; 
1877-80, A. Katsmeyer; 1881, George 
Pohl; 1882, A. Katsmeyer. 

Clerks. — 1853-54, David Crofoot ; 
1855, Orson Jenks ; 1856-57, Daniel H. 
Buell; 1858, O. Jenks; 1859, William 
Gray; 1861, J. Pease; 1862-67, Orson 
Jenks; 1868-70, J. Milton Pease; 1871, 
Louis Gleason; 1872, William M. Hough; 
1873, J. Wallace Douglass; 1874, Louis 
Gleasman; 1875, Mathew Kilts; 1876, 
Andrew Katsmeyer; 1877, George Pohl ; 
1878-80, Valentine Pohl; 1881, Willard 
Gray ; 1882, Valentine Pohl. 

The town embraces very nearly that 
part of Inman's triangle, known as the 
" New Survey," and parts of Town- 
ships I and 2. Township No. i, was 
originally designed to be called Xeno- 
phon, and No. 2, Flora, but these names 
were never known as in use, even in the 
land sales. The principal settlements 
are in the eastern part, and its drainage 
is southward, by the head waters of the 
Mohawk and by Fish creek, and south- 
westward by Salmon river. The soil is 
well adapted to grazing and the coarser 
grains, but fruits and corn have not 
been extensively or successfully culti- 
vated. Its soil is inclined to clay, and 

in places is a gravelly loam, or covered 
with flat stone derived from the under- 
lying slate rock. 

That part of this town taken from 
Leyden, was sold to settlers by Storrs 
and Stow. Township i was surveyed 
into lots by Benjamin Wright in 1797, 
and its outlines were run in 1795, as fol- 
fows : — 

N. W. line: N. 37°, 30' E. 520 chains, 3 links. 

N. E. do S. 52°, 30' E. 631 do 62 do 

S. E. do S. 37°, 30' W. 339 do 07 do 

S. W. do N. 68", 50' W. SS9 do 20 do 

The latter is the patent line, and was 
surveyed in 1794. Township i meas- 
ures 27,105 acres, and the whole of Town- 
ship 2, 26,266^ acres. The connection of 
John Jacob Astor with the titles of this 
town has been noticed on a previous 
page. Lots i to 19, and half of 20, in 
township I, were conveyed bj' Pierre- 
pont to Charles Ingersol of Philadelphia, 
agent of Consequa, a China merchant, 
in payment of a debt of $12,000 which 
the captain of a vessel owned by Mr. 
Pierrepont, had incurred. John G. Cos- 
tar, afterwards became agent, and paid 
the taxes many years from a fund pro- 
vided for that purpose. They were final- 
ly sold for taxes and were in 1 860, chiefly 
owned by the Costar heirs. Fifteen lots,* 
owned by Judge Wilham Jay of Bed- 
ford, by virtue of a marriage, were sold 
in 1 841, to Richardson T. Hough, with 
certain conditions of opening roads and, 
forming settlements. Jas. S. T. Strana- 
han of Brooklyn, the Lawrence heirs 
and John E. Hinman of Utica, have been 
heretofore owners of considerable tracts 
of wild lands in this town. 

These various conveyances of land to 
Astor and others, in No. i, of the four 
towns, as also in No. 13, now in Osceola, 
grew out of the settlement of an insolv- 
ency in which James, brother of William 
Constable, became involved in 1801, as 

* Numbers 26, 27, 32, 41, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 61, 
64, 65, 68, 69. 



explained in our notice of the latter, 
in the account of West Turin. 

Settlement was begun at West Ley- 
den (now included in the town of Lewis), 
in the summer of 1798, by two families 
named Newel and Ingraham, who came 
by way of Whitestown and Fort Stan wix, 
and located, the former on the farm of 
George Olney, and the latter on that of 
John Domser, adjacent to the east line 
of this town. Fish then abounded in the 
streams, and game in the forests, afford- 
ing partial support, with no care but 
the taking, and incidents were not want- 
ing to diversify the life of the first pio- 
neers of this lonely spot. On one occa- 
sion, as the wivesof the two first settlers 
were returning on foot from Fort Stan- 
wix (Rome), they saw a bear on a tree 
near where Jenk's tavern was afterwards 
built. One of the women took her sta- 
tion at the foot of the tree, club in hand, 
to keep bruin from escaping, while the 
other hastened home, a distance of two 
miles, procured a gun, returned and 
shot the bear.* These families remamed 
about two years and went off. 

Colonel John Barnes came in 1799, 
and brought potatoes,for planting, on his 
back from Whitestown. A saw-mill was 
built in the winter following, near the 
present mill of Calvin B. Hunt, by Joel 
Jenks, Medad Dewey, John and Corne- 
Hus Putnam, who came on with their 
families. Major iVIpheus Pease,t took up 
four or five lots in 1801, and built the 
first grist-mill, one or two years after, 
a little above the Mohawk bridge, in the 
present village of West Leyden. Na- 
than Pelton:j: and William Jenks,§ 
from Stafford, Connecticut, Stephen 

* Related by Josiah Dewey of Delta, New York, who 
furnished ample notes upon the early histoiy of this 
town, for our first edition. 

f Mr. Pease died April 8, 1816, aged 54 years. 

i Died June 7, 1856, aged 92 years. 

§ Died in the fall of 1865, about 80 years of age. 
His son, Hiram, died about the same time, aged he- 
tween 50 and 60 years. 




Levi Tiffany, t Winthrop Felshaw,:]: and 
perhaps others, settled within four years 
after. Most of the lands first taken up 
were sold at $5 per acre. Samuel Kent 
and Jeremiah Barnes, were early teach- 
ers, and the first school was taught at 
the house of Joel Jenks. The first death 
that occurred in town, was that of a 
child in the family of some travelers, 
but the first adult person that died in 
town, was Mrs. Calvin Billings, a sister 
of Stephen Hunt, in the spring of 18 10, 
about twelve )'ears after the beginning 
of the settlement. 

TheCastorland settlers speak of a road 
to Fort Stanwix, from tneir settlement 
at the High Falls, as early as 1795, and 
it must have passed through this town, 
about a mile of West Leyden vil- 
lage, but we have no information upon 
this point. The first road of which we 
have certain knowledge, was opened to 
Constableville, in 1803, by .Mr. Shaler; 
but the first direct road was not opened 
until 18 16, by Commissioners appointed 
for the purpose. This became the line 
of the Canal Turnpike, and still later of 
a Plank road, which in its turn has been 
abandoned to the public, and is now 
maintained by the towns through which 
it passes. 

These routes, now seldom used except 
for local travel, but consolidated and 
good at most seasons of the year, were, 
in former times, one of the principal 
thoroughfares for all the country north, 
in Lewis, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence 
counties. They were thronged with 
teams bearing southward the produce 
of that region, or returning with mer- 
chants' goods, and were noted for the 
great depth of snow that fell upon the 
highlands, and for their mud in spring 
and fall. The road from Rome to Con- 

* Died June 14, 1853, aged 79 years. 

■f From Somers, Ct. 

X Died May 2, 1863, aged 87 years. 



stableville, was for a long period, a stage 
route that carried the mails daily each 
way, and because some miles nearer, and 
usually not much worse, it was preferred 
to the Utica route, by the farmers, in get- 
ting their surplus produce to the canal. 

An occurrence happened in Novem- 
ber, 1804, which caused much alarm in 
this settlement, and might have led to a 
most melancholy result. Joseph Bel- 
knap, Cornelius Putman, Jr., and Josiah 
Dewey, Jr., set out from the former 
Dewey tavern stand, westward, on a 
deer hunt. The snow was about ten 
inches deep, and they found tracks of 
deer plenty, but no game. They had no 
compass, the day was cloudy, and 
towards night they attempted to return, 
and as their track was crooked, they con- 
cluded to take a direct line for home. 
After traveling some distance, they came 
around to the same place, a second and 
a third time. They were evidently lost, 
and no longer trusting to their own esti- 
mate of direction, they concluded to fol- 
low down a stream of water which they 
took to be the Mohawk, which would, of 
course, lead them home. They passed a 
number of beaver meadows, and were 
frequently obliged to wade the freezing 
stream, and at other times were forced 
to wade down its channel instead of 
climbing its steep rocky banks. They 
tried to kindle a fire, but failed, and final- 
ly kept on traveling till daylight, when 
they came to a foot-path, which in two 
or three miles, led out into a settlement 
which proved to be in the town of 
Western, twenty miles by the nearest 
traveled road from home. They had fol- 
lowed down the Point-of-Rock stream, 
to near its junction with Fish creek. 
The half-starved wanderers having fed, 
pushed on over a miry road, and reached 
home at midnight, when they found the 
country had been rallied, and a dozen 
men had gone into the woods in search 
of the lost. 

About 1 83 1, ten German families set- 
tled in this town, and these have been 
followed by others, until the population 
of foreign birth equaled half, and with 
their children born in this country, con- 
siderably more than half of the whole 
population of the town. Of these Euro- 
peans, 376 were reported by the State 
census of 1855 as Germans, 171 French, 
and 2 1 Swiss. They are divided between 
the Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed 
Protestant Dutch denominations, in the 
relative order here named, and although 
they used their native languages at 
home for some years, they are now able 
to speak English with facility, and the 
rising generation uses no other. These 
foreigners were mostly an industrious, 
hardy and frugal people, obedient to the 
laws, and mostly became naturalized 
citizens as soon as the law allowed. The 
European settlement in this town, was 
preceded by that in West Turin. 

In 1 841, a bridge was built over Fish 
creek, and a road opened from the town 
of Lee, near the line of the old road of 
1805, noticed in our account of Osceola. 
It led only to the line of Township 13. 
The first deeds to actual settlers in this 
part of the town, were issued in May, 
1840, amounting to 1,746% acres, for 
$3,194.60. The bridge was swept off in 
the winter of 1842-43, and soon rebuilt, 
and in 1843, a mill was built by Mr. Her- 
ron, and afterwards owned by David L. 

Several branches of lumbering have 
been followed in this town, for which it 
formerly afforded special facilities. 
About 1840, the manufacture of oars 
from white ash was begun and continued 
some seven years. The quantity is esti- 
mated at about 500,000 hnear feet per 
annum, during that period, and the prin- 
cipal market was Boston. Whaling oars 
were sold in sets of seven, of which two 
were 14, two 15, two 16, and one 18 feet 
long. The price ranged about 6 cts. per 



foot, linear measure. The business was 
continued until the supply of timber be- 
came scarce. 

Of birds-eye maple, Lewis county for 
many years produced about 100,000 
feet (board measure) annually, mostly 
from this town, and the greater part sent 
off by Richardson T. Hough.* Of this 
quantity, nine-tenths went to the Euro- 
pean market by way of New York. The 
accidental variety of the sugar maple is 
found somewhat common upon the range 
of highlands, extending from this town 
to Adams. It was estimated by Mr. R.T. 
Hough, that two-thirds of all the timber 
of this variety, used in the world had, 
during the twenty years preceding i860, 
come from Lewis county. The market 
price depended upon the fashions of the 
day, with regard to styles of furniture, 
and prices ranged from $60 to $80 per 
M. ft., board measure. A mill for cut- 
ting veneers was formerly established, 
four miles west of West Leyden, but was 
burned in 1845. O^ hoops, for oyster 
kegs, this town and Ava, in Oneida 
county adjoining, were producing in 
1 860, about 4,000,000, averaging $2 per 
M., shaved and delivered, on the railroad 
at Rome. They were mostly used at 
Fairhaven and Cheshire, Connecticut. 
They were made of black ash and were 
bought in a rough state by a few dealers 
who shaved and forwarded them to mar- 
ket. Considerable quantities of hard- 
wood lumber, chiefly maple and birch, 
for flooring, turning, etc., are still sent 
from this town. 

West Leyden Village. 
This is a small village located upon 

* Mr. Hough was born in Warrensburgh, N. Y., July 
15, 1806, and died in this town August 26, 1871. His 
wife Chloe (Warner,) bom in Kirkland, Oneida county, 
December 3, 1803 ; died at West Leyden, August 12, 
1876. Their children are: Myron B. W., born January 
20, 1829 ; Delia, (Mrs. Selden Dewey), born January 
12, 1831 ; BoardmanS.,born December 10, 1832; Hen- 
ry H., born October 28, 1838 ; Helen M., bom Sep- 
tember 16, 1841 ; and William W., bom Septemberi4, 

the Mohawk river, — here a mill-stream 
almost dry in summer, but sufficient for 
a considerable amount of water power 
in the winter months. It is 17 miles 
from Rome, 6 miles from Boonville and 
8 miles from Constableville. It is now 
connected with the first two of these 
places by a telephone. The business of 
the village has declined since the con- 
struction of the railroad to Boonville, 
as compared with the time when a plank 
road supplied the country travel from 
Rome northward. The business of the 
village in August, 1882, was as follows : — 

Cheese Factory. — Michael Ernst. There 
are two others in town, viz : Bierly & 
Sims, known as the " Crofoot Road 
Factory," and the Hayes Factory near 
Fish creek. 

Carpenter. — Jacob Rauscher. 

Flour and Feed Mill.- — Charles S. 

Furniture and Undertaking. — Peter 

Hotel. — Adolph Domser. 

Saw-Mills. — Calvin B. Hunt and 
Charles S. Myers, each having a planer. 

Stores. — George Pohl, Mathew Kilts, 
Andrew Katsmeyer and F. A. Edgerton. 

Wagon and Blacksmith Shops. — Valen- 
tine Pohl, owner of both, but separately 

Besides the two saw-mills above men- 
tioned there are seven others in town, 
viz : George S. Thompson, George 
Powell, D. L. Swancott, M. Shrader, 
and T. L. Davis, using water power, 
Fames & Bridgman, using steam, and 
Houghton, Hough & Ambler using 
steam. The latter is new and large. 

Some years since, this town raised 
moneys to aid in the survey of a railroad 
that was to run from Boston to Oswego, 
passing through this town, but nothing 
further was ever done. 

The hotel of Lewis Hoffman, in West 
Leyden, was burned December 21, 1872, 
and Christian Yokey was killed by the 
falling of timber. 

The population of West Leyden vil- 
lage in 1880, was reported as 181. 



The following are dates of death of 
several well-known citizens of this 
town, not elsewhere mentioned in these 
pages, some of them having been early 
settlers : — 
Anken David, died July 19, 1863, aged 

Bell Henry G., died September 15, 1847, 

aged 59. 
Billings Horace, died October 12, 1848, 

aged 42. 
Ernst Christian, died November 22, 

1874, aged 79. 
Fox Ashbel, died November 13, i860, 

aged 64. 
Hunt Darius, died August 16, 1872, aged 

100 years, 2 months, 7 days. 
Hunt Elisha, died April 3, 1822, aged 41. 
Kent Enos, died September 29, 1841, 

aged 57. 
Maurer Frederick, died March 13, 1868, 

aged 80. 
Pease Charles, died March 16, 188 1, aged 

Terry Levi, died March 19, 1836, aged 66. 

Notes from the Town Records Re- 
lating TO the War. 

In 1872, a correspondmg committee 
was appointed, consisting of WiUiam 
Brown, Charles Pease, and Paul Flu- 

August 15, 1863. — A special town 
meeting was held, at which OUver Cap- 
ron, A. B. Billings, F. Schopfer, R. T. 
Hough and C. B. Hunt were appointed 
a committee to borrow money to pay 
bounties for filling town quotas. 

A second committee, consisting of 
William J. Gray, Hiram Jenks, Peter 
Stephens, Lewis Staleger, Lewis Gleas- 
man, Paul Finster, and Alden P. Doyle, 
was afterwards appointed. At a special 
town meeting held December 29, 1863, 
a committee was appointed to borrow 
$6,000, and the sum of $300 was offered 
for bounties. 

Religious Societies. 

Meetings were first held in 1804, by 

Justus Billings,* a Presbyterian, at the 
house of John Putnam. 

The " Second Presbyterian Church of 
Leyden," was formed in the summer of 
1806, by the Rev. Nathaniel Dutton, of 
Champion, consisting of Josiah Dewey, f 
Justus Billings, Cornelius Putnam, Sol- 
omon Washburn, and their wives ; 
Major Alpheus Pease, Widow Horton, 
Cyrus Brooks, and a Mr. Wood, and 
their wives ; of whom the last four lived 
a mile east of Ava Corners, and the 
others in this town. This church 
erected a house of worship a mile north 
of West Leyden, many years after, and 
in February, 1826, it joined the Water- 
town Presbytery. The church has be- 
come extinct, the building removed, and 
its site sold for cemetery purposes. 

A Baptist church was formed in May, 
1829, with fourteen members. Elders 
John Marshall, Riley B. Ashley, and 
Martin Salmon were present at the or- 
ganization. A legal society was formed 
September 9, 1837, with Winthrop Fel- 
shaw, Jonathan A. S. Pease, and 
Nathaniel Wadsworth, trustees, and a 
small plain church edifice was erected. 

The Reverends Burdick, WiUiam 

Rice, R. Z. WiUiams, R. W. Chafa, 
David D. Barnes, and others, have 
preached here, and meetings are occa- 
sionally held, but no regular services 
are at present maintained. 

The Methodists have a small organ- 
ization in town, and for some years used 
the old Presbyterian church. 

The United German Lutheran and 
Reformed Congregation of West Ley- 
den, was formed August 16, 1847, with 
Frederick Meyer, Frederick Schopfer 
and George Fries, trustees. It was 
formed of the German Lutheran and 

* Died July 31, 1847, aged eighty years. 

tDied January 14, 1838, aged eighty 'years. Mr. 
Dewey was one of the first deacons of this church. 
Josiah Dewey, his son, died August 11, i860, aged 
seventy-four, and Lemuel Dewey, another son, died 
March g, 1858, aged fifty-three years. 



Reformed churches, and their new 
meeting-house was to be called the 
Church of St. Paul. It was to remain a 
German house of worship, so long as 
the number of members of the congre- 
gation speaking the German language 
was more than two. A law-suit has oc- 
curred between the two sects, in which 
the Lutherans have gained the case. 
After this decision, the Reformed 
Protestant Dutch built a church edifice. 
The church was formed September 12, 
1856, with John Boehrer, minister ; Philip 
Riibel and Frederick Meyer, elders ; 

and Frederick Schopfer and Valentine 
Glesman, deacons. The Rev. John 
M. Reiner is present pastor. 

The Lutherans have a small church 
north of the village, which is attended 
by the Rev. Mr. Cludius, from Olmstead 
Creek church in West Turin. Services 
are held both in this and the last pre- 
ceding churches in the German lan- 

The Catholics have a small stone 
church three miles west of the village, 
which is attended from St. Michael's on 
Mohawk Hill. 



Biographical Sketch. 




C. B. HUNT. 

The genealogy of the Connecticut 
division, Northampton line, of the 
Hunt family, is briefly as follows : — 
Elisha Reynolds Hunt, born July 12, 
1781, was son of Elijah Hunt, of Leba- 
non, Conn., son of Stephen Hunt, being 
one of a family of eight children, three 
sons and five daughters. His mother 
was Abigail Reynolds, daughter of 
EHsha Reynolds, of Norwich, Conn., 
who was born in 1773 and died in Octo- 
ber 1820. Elisha died in the town of 

Lewis, then Leyden, April 22, 1822. 
Only one daughter of this family mar- 
ried, Sally, who married Calvin Billings, 
of Somers, Conn., and died in New York 
State May 6, 18 10. Elijah Hunt, of 
Lebanon, father of Elisha R. Hunt, was 
son of Stephen Hunt, was son of Eben- 
ezer, born in 1730, died July 6, 175 1. 
His wife's name was Esther Jones. The 
family is of EngHsh origin. 

Elisha R. Hunt came to Lewis county 
for a permanent residence in June, 
181 5, and located in the town of Lewis, 
then known as Leyden. He was a 



farmer of some repute. He married 
November 17, 1808, Persis Billings 
Perkins, who was born in Somers, Conn., 
March 29, 1777, and died October 14, 
1865. They had the following chil- 
dren: — Samuel, born September 7, 1809, 
died August 5, 1875 ; Sally, born May 
25, 181 1, died August 3, 1814; Persis 
Malvina, born May 10, 1813, married 
Alpheus Pease, March 7, 1833, died 
October 12, 1865; Roxana, born Septem- 
ber 23, 181 5, married Thomas Richards ; 
Hannah Adelia, born September 29, 
1817, died March 27, 1818 ; Calvin B. 

Calvin Billings Hunt was born in the 
town of Lewis, July 21, 1819, where his 
life has been passed. He received a 
common school education and took up 
the business of farming in which he has 
been more prosperous than the average 
of men engaged in that pursuit. He is 
quite an extensive land owner, having in 
his possession over a thousand acres, 
and is largely interested in the dairy 

Some fifteen years ago he engaged in 
the manufacture of lumber in which 
he is now doing a thrifty trade. Dur- 
ing his busy life Mr. Hunt has taken 
much interest in political matters, not 
as an office seeker, but as an opponent 
or advocate of the questions and issues 
of the day. On the questions which in- 
volved principles he has often been in 
the minority, but has had the satisfac- 
tion of knowing that he acted conscien- 
tiously, and was possessed of the courage 
that never barters honest convictions 
for temporary political triumphs. In 
the antebellum days he was a pronounced 
abolitionist, in times when it required 

a rare moral courage to befriend the 
slave and denounce slavery ; and when 
the war for their freedom broke forth 
he was an ardent friend of the Union 

Mr. Hunt has never united with any 
church. His parents were Presbyterians, 
but he has regulated his life by the rules 
of right, and endeavors to so live that 
he need not fear to meet any of his 
fellow men. He married December 14, 
1848, Charlotte L. Bush, daughter of 
Walter Bush of Turin, who was born 
May 4, 1 8 19. But one child was born 
to this marriage, which died in infancy. 


History of the Town of Leyden. 

THIS town was formed from Steuben,* 
March 10, 1797, embracing besides 
Inman's Triangle, all of Lewis and Jef- 
ferson counties lying east and north of 
Black river. By the erection of Brown- 
ville in 1802, Boonville in 1805, Wat- 
son in 1802 and Lewis in 1852, it has 
been trimmed down to its present 
limits. It derived its name from the 
settlement made by Gerret Boon in 
Boonville, under the auspices of the Hol- 
land Land Company, whose members 
chiefly resided in Leyden, in Holland. 

•Whitestown was formed March 7, 1788, embracing 
the whole of the State west of German Flats. Steuben 
and Mexico were formed April 10, 1792, embracing all 
of this county and a vast area north, south and west. 



They were the same persons who were 
concerned in the great Holland Land 
Purchase of Western New York. In the 
division of the town, upon the erection 
of Lewis county, the old name was re- 
tained by a section to which it was not 
strictly applicable in order that Boon's 
name might be perpetuated in the chris- 
tening of Boonville, 

At the first town meeting held at the 
house of Andrew Edmonds (Boonville), 
April 4, 1797, Andrew Edmonds was 
chosen Supervisor ; John Stormes, Clerk ; 
Asa Brayton, Jacob Rogers and Phineas 
Southwell, Assessors ; Jared Topping 
and Levi Hillman, Constables and Col- 
lectors ; Bela Hubbard and Luke Fisher, 
Poormasters; Asa Lord, Reuben King 
and Elisha Randall, Commissioners of ' 
Highways ; Sheldon Johnson, Eliphalet 
Edmonds, Amasa King and Archelius 
Kingsbury, Road-Masters ; Lilly Fisher, 
Asahel Hough and Timothy Burges, 
Fence Viewers ; Chandler Otis and 
Joshua Preston, Pound Masters. 

Supervisors. — 1797- '98, Andrew Ed- 
monds; 1799, Phineas Southwell; 1800, 
Asa Brayton; 1801, P Southwell; 1802, 
A. Brayton; 1803, Silas Southwell; 1804, 
John Dewey ;* 1805, Peter Schuyler ; 
1805 (April 1 8th), Lewis Smith ;t 
i8o6-'o7, L. Smith; 1808-10, James 
Hawley ; 1811, J. Dewey; i8i2-'i6, 
Nathaniel Merriam ;% 18 17, John Fish; 
1818-23, Stephen Spencer ; 1824-30, 

*Born at Westfield, Jan. 20, 1754, served in the 
Revolution, removed to Leyden in the spring of 1802, 
and died Dec. 31, 1821. 

f Deacon Smith died May 21, 1841, aged 89 years. 
He was a soldier in the Revolution. 

t Nathaniel Men iam was born in Wallingford, Conn. , 
Tune 3, 1769, and in 1800 removed to Leyden and set- 
tled on a place partly new and the remainder first taken 
up by Asahel Hough. He continued to reside at this 
place until 1838, during many years as an inn-keeper 
when he removed to Indiana, but in 1846 he returned 
to this town. He died August ig, 1847. In 1811, and 
1820, he .served in Assembly, and in 1815 he was ap- 
pointed a County Judge. He was widely known as an 
enterprising and public spirited citizen. His son Gen. 
Ela Merriam is elsewhere noticed. This family name 
occurs among the founders of Meriden, Conn., and has 
been till the present time a common and promipent one 
in that town. 

Michael Brooks; 1831, Amos Mil- 
ler; 1832--' 33, Ezra Miller; 1834-36, 
Isaac Parsons; 1837-38, Allen Alger; 
1839-42, Joseph Burnham ; 1843-44, 
Alfred Day; i845-'48, Thomas Baker; 
1849-, Aaron Parsons; 1850, T.Baker; 
1851, J. Burnham; i852-'53, T. Baker; 
i8S4-'56, Wm. J. Hall ; i857-'58, Wm. J. 
Olmstead; 1859, Samuel Northam ; i860, 
David Alger; i86i-'62, Thomas Baker; 
i863-'67, Linus Birdseye ; 1 868-' 70, James 
A. Merwin ; i87i-'76, Thaddeus E. Munn ; 
i877-'78; Joseph H. Wilcox; 1879, J. 
Merwin ; i88o-'8i, J. H. Wilcox ; 1882, 
Friend Hoyt. 

Clerks. — 1797-1803, John Stormes; 
1804, Aaron Willard ; i8oS-'o7, Stephen 
Butler; i8o8-'o9, David Higby ; 1810, 
Benjamin Starr; i8ii-'i2, Augustus 
Chapman; 1813, D. Higby; 1814-17, 
Stephen Spencer; i8i8-'i9, Martin 
Hart; i820-'22, Allen Alger ; 1823, Samuel 
Northam, Jr.; i824-'25. Parsons Tal- 
cott; i826-'33, A. Alger; i834-'39, Thos. 
Baker; i840-'42, Lewis S.Alger; 1843, 
'48, E. R. Johnson; 1849, Alfred Day; 
i850-'S4, E. R. Johnson ; 1855, David Al- 
ger; i856-'58, James M. Malcom; 1859, 
Chester J. Munn; i86o-'66, Benjamin S. 
Jones; 1867, David Spencer; 1868, Chas. 
D. Alger; 1869, Edward D. Spencer; 
1870, Thomas Baker, Jr.; i87i-'73, Chas. 
D. Alger; 1874, Geo. Sommers ; i87S-'82, 
Edward D. Spencer. 

The supervisors of Herkimer county, 
in 1797, allowed £iT, lis. 2d. school 
money to this town, then a part of that 
county. A special town meeting was 
held June 17, 1797, to appoint School 
Commissioners, and Luke Fisher, Elias- 
hab Adams and Jacob Rogers, were 
chosen. This is the only money received 
in this region from the State school grants 
of 1795. 

In 1798, the names of Ezra E. C. Rice, 
Asa Lord, William Topping, Bela But- 
terfield. Chandler Otis, Amos Miller, 
David Miller, Lilly Fisher, Reuben King, 



Silas Southwell, Josiah Goodrich, Leb- 
beus Ford, Archelaus Kingsbury, and 
Jeptha King, were reported from Ley- 
den, as qualified to serve on the grand 

In 1800, a special town meeting was 
held for choosing persons to be appoint- 
ed Justices by the State Council of Ap- 
pointment, and another, March 19, 1803, 
to choose two persons to a County Con- 
vention, to nominate candidates for As- 
sembly. The delegates were Nathaniel 
Merriam and Samuel Snow. They were 
paid by the town, and present the only 
instance we have known, in which dele- 
gates were thus authorized and paid. 

Census of 1800. 

A census of Leyden, taken in the year 
1800, while the town included Boonville 
and a vast uninhabited region east of 
the river, in what are now Lewis and 
Jefferson counties, showed a population 
of 623, distributed among rii famihes, 
by far the greater portion being within 
the present limits of Leyden, and emi- 
grants from Connecticut. Of these, 344 
were males, 104 being under ro; 49 from 
10 to 16; 63 from 16 to 26 ; 102 from 26 
to 45 ; and 26 over 45. Of 278 females, 
99 were under 10; 42 from 10 to 16; 47 
from 16 to 26; 69 from 16 to 45 ; and 21 
over 45. One was a slave, owned by 
John Stormes, of Boonville. We give 
the names ol the heads of families, in 
the following list, the first number after 
each name being the number of males in 
the family, and the other the number of 
females : — 

Aldridge, Peter A., 3, 4.Briggs, Richard, i, r. 
Auger, Allen, i, 2. Britton, Samuel, 4, 2. 

Ballard, David, 2, 3. Brown, George, 3, 2. 
Barnes, Tuder, [Judah] Brown, Henry, 9, 4. 
Boardman, J., 6, 3. [7,6. Brown, Samuel, 13, 3. 
Bossout, John B., 7, i. Burges, John, 4, 3. 
Branch, Zeba, i, 4. Burgis, Timothy, 4, 4. 
Brayton, Asa, 2, 5. Butler, Stephen, 5, 5. 

Brayton, Thomas, 5, 2. Camp, Asahel, i, 1. 
Briggs, Enoch, 2, 3. Carr, Caleb, 2, 2. 

Claflin, Moses, i, i. 

Combs, John, i, 3. 

Coe, Brainard, 2, 2. 

Coe, Joel, 6, 2. 

Combs, Solomon, 3, 4 

Cook, Joseph, 4, 5. 

Cooper, William, i, o. 

Copelin, Joseph, 2, 5. 

Culver, Silas, i, i. 

Cummings, Abr'am, 3,3 

Darrow, Amrous, 5, 4. 

Davis, Ebenpzer, 4, 2. 

Dewey, E., 2, 2. 

Douglass. Samuel, 2, i. 

Dowas, Francis, 2, i. 

Dustin, Nathaniel, 4, o. 

Edmonds, Andrew, 4, 5. 
Edmonds,Ehphalet, 4,3. 
Elensworth, A., 3, 2. 
Fisher, Lille, 4, 3. 
Fisher, Luke, 2, 2. 
Fisk, Job, 5, 3. 
Francis, Simeons, i, i. 
Goodrich, Jonah, 3, 2. 
Grant, Elisha, i, i. 
Green, Nathan, 2, o. 
Harger. Ebenezer, 3, i. 
Harger, Philo, 4, 3. 
Hillman, Levi, 4, 2. 
Horton, Moses, 5, 3. 
Hough, Asahel, 4, 5. 
Jenks, Joel, 5, 6. 
Johnson, EHsher, 6, 4. 
Johnson, Sheldon, 3, 4, 
Johnson, William, 3, 3. 
Jones, Benjamin, 2, i. 
Jones, Hezekiah, 3, r. 
Kelsey, Eber, 5, 5. 
King, Amasa, i, 3. 
King, Jeptha, 3, 3. 
King, Reuben, 3, i. 
King, William, 6, 2. 
Kingsbury, Ansel, i, 2. 
Kingsbury, Elias, 4, 4. 
Kingsbury, Elijah, 4, 3. 
Lee, Thomas, 4, 2. 

Lord, Asa, i, i. 
Lord, Lebeus, i, i. 
McCarty, Clark, 5, 3. 
Merriam, Nathaniel, 2,5 
Merry, John, 3, 3. 
Miller, Amos, 2, 2. 
Miller, David B., 5, 3. 
Miller, Joel, 3, i. 
Mitchell, L. S. D., 4, i. 
,. Morgan, Plena, 2, 2. 
Morris, Samuel, 5, 3. 
Ostrander, Moses, 5, 5. 
Otis, Chandler, 4, i. 
Porter, Asel, 3, 2. 
Porter, Ezekiel, i, 3. 
Putnam, John, 3, 2. 
Ransom, William, 2, 4. 
Reaves, Asel, i, 2. 
Rice, Ezra, i, i. 
Rice, Ezra E. C, i, i. 
Rogers, Jacob, 3, i. 
Simmons, Jinks, 3, 5. 
Smith, Lewis, 2, 2. 
Snow, Jotham, 2, i. 
Snow, Samuel, 3, 2. 
Southwell, F., 2, 4. 
Sprague, Frederick, 3, 6 
Stockwell, David, 3, i. 
Stormes, John, 2, 2, (i 

slave. ) 
Talcott, Daniel, 2, 2. 
Talcott, EHsha, 3, i. 
Talcott, Hezekiah, 5, 2. 
Topping, Daniel, 1,1. 
Topping, William, 4, 2. 
Truman, William, t, i. 
Turner, Hezekiah. 2, 3. 
Wetmore, Joseph, 2, i. 
Wheeler, Ebenezer, 5, 2 
Wheeler, Jonathan, i, 2 
Wl^itmore, Ether, 3, 5. 
Wilcox, Elisha, i, 3. 
Willeger, William, 2, i. 
Willey, Nathaniel, 4, 4. 
Wolcott, Thomas, 1,1. 
Wood Lemuel, 3, 2. 

In 1801, John Stormes, Lewis Smith 
and Eber L. Kelsey were appointed to 
petition for a division of the town. On 
the loth of January, 1802, and Novem- 
ber 14, 1804, other attempts at division 
were voted. By the latter, it was pro- 
posed to divide the town (as was done 
the next year, on the ei^ection of Lewis 
county), the south part to retain ■ the 
name of Leyden, and the triangle and 
part east of the river, Storrsburgh. On 



the 3d of February, 1804, Stephen But- 
ler, Samuel Snow and Richard Coxe, 
were chosen delegates to a Convention 
to be held at Champion, February ist, 
to take measures for securing the divi- 
sion of Oneida countv. On the i8th of 
September, 1802, Asa Lord, Job Fisk 
and Asa Brayton were delegated to 
attend a meeting at Lowville, to consult 
about procuring a road from Albany to 
Johnstown, and thence to the Black 
river and down to its mouth. This was 
the beginning of a movement that 
secured an appropriation for the State 
Road through the valley. 

In 1799, a unique resolution was 
passed to the effect, that if sleds of less 
than four feet track were found on the 
highway more than four miles from 
home, their owners were liable to a fine 
of $1, one half to go to the informant, 
and the remainder to the poor. 

Bounties for the destruction of noxious 
animals have been voted as follows : For 
wolves, $10 in i8oi,'o3, '04, '06, '10, '11 ; for 
hen hawks, 6 cents in 181 5 ; and for chip- 
squirrels 2 cents in i8o6-'o7, if killed 
within one month after May 20th. 

This town is comprised within Inman's 
Triangle, and includes the whole of that 
tract excepting the acute angle taken 
off in the erection of Lewis in 1852. 
This was in some early documents er- 
roneously named " Storr's Patent," and 
its south line running N. 68° E., is sup- 
posed to have been the earliest one sur- 
veyed in the county. The eastern part 
comprising its principal area, was sur- 
veyed into 126 lots by Wm. and James 
Cockburn, of Poughkeepsie, and the 
western angle into 28 lots, by Broughton 
White. The latter is called the " New 
Survey " and with the exception of the 
first five lots is now included in the town 
of Lewis. 

On the 5th of June, 1792, Patrick Col- 
quhoun, high sheriff of London, pur- 
chased from his friend, William Consta 

ble, this tract of 25,000 acres, at one shil- 
ling sterling per acre,and from his friend- 
ship to William Inman, interested him 
in a share of 4,000 acres at the original 
cost ; and as the purchaser was an alien, 
and therefore incapable of holding lands 
in America, he caused the whole to be 
conveyed in the name of Inman, in trust, 
and made him agent for the sale and set- 
tlement of the tract. A few of the early 
settlers in this town received their titles 
directly from Inman, among whom were 
Ebenezer Coe, William Bingham, Jared 
Topping, Thomas Brayton and Asa 

William Inman was allowed to hold 
lands in this State by an act of March 
27, 1794. He was a native of Somerset- 
shire, England, and in early life was a 
clerk of Lord Pultney. He first sailed 
to America, March 13, 1792, and arrived 
in June. He soon after was entrusted 
with the interests of certain Europeans, 
prominent among whom was Patrick 
Colquhoun, and took up his residence in 
Whitestown, not far from the present 
lunatic asylum, in Utica. He was many 
years resident in Oneida county and be- 
came extensively concerned in land 
speculations in and near Utica, where 
he was engaged in a brewery. He was 
a merchant in New York, where he met 
with heavy reverses. About 1825^ he 
came to Le3'den, where he died Febru- 
ary 14, 1843, aged 81 years. His wife, 
Sarah, died in Leyden, July 24, 1829, 
aged 56 years. Their sons were William, 
John, Henry and Charles. 

WilHam Inman, the eldest son, resid- 
ed formerly in Leyden, entered the navy 
January i, 1812, and became a com- 
mander May 24, 1838. He retired after 
58 years' service, and died at Philadel- 
phia October 23, 1874. 

John Inman was educated to the law, 
but turned his attention to literature, 
was connected with the New York Mir- 
ror, and soon after, with Colonel Stone, 



engaged as editor of the Commercial 
Advertiser, of which, in 1847, he became 
principal editor. He conducted for 
some time the Columbian Magazine, and 
died at New York, August 30, 1850, 
aged 47 years. 

Henry Inman, (born October 28, 1801,) 
early evinced a great talent for painting, 
and at the age of fifteen, painted his fath- 
er's portrait, which is still preserved. He 
became one of the most eminent of his- 
torical and portrait painters, and died at 
New York, January, 1846, aged 45 years. 
He never resided in this county, but was 
an occasional visitor. Charles Inman, 
a cabinet maker, died in Cincinnati. 

Topping received a deed of 139 acres, 
lot 60, October 28, 1795, for £\2%. Bray- 
ton's deed of loo^ acres, was dated July 
2, 1797. Coe's deed for Lot 88, 1521^ 
acres, is dated June 12, 179S, and was 
given by Arthur Breese, attorney for 
Inman {Oneida Deeds, iii., 39). Others 
were less fortunate, and some were re- 
quired to make second payment by a 
transfer of the titles by Inman, before 
their deeds were made out or their pay- 
ments completed. 

Late in 1793 Mr. Inman returned to 
England, and through his representa- 
tions, Mr. Colquhoun was induced to 
undertake the purchase of what is now 
known as the Brantingham tract, of 
which he was entrusted the agency. He 
sold most of the 25,000 acre tract in Feb- 
ruary 1794, and in the sequel his princi- 
pals found reasons to sincerely regret 
their connection with him. It would be 
unpleasant to specify details, and it is 
sufficient to know that Mr. Inman is not 
one of those to whom the town owes a 
grateful recollection. 

The purchasers were Lemuel Storrs 
and Joshua Stow,* of Middletown, 

* Storrs died in Middletown ; Stow died in Middle- 
field, about five miles from Middletown, October g, 
1842, aged eighty-one. He was many years postmaster 
at Middletown, and had been Chief Judge of the Mid- 
dlesex County Court, State Senator, etc. 

Conn., with whom Thomas and Abel 
Lyman, of Durham, Conn., and Silas 
Stow, held a small interest ; and sales 
were made by these, as joint proprietors, 
a few years. Inman reserved a few 
lots. After the division of the joint 
estate, Ezra Miller became an agent of 
Stow. Henry Champion, S. W. Dana, 
Zenas Parsons, of Springfield, Mass., 
and others, subsequently owned portions 
of the town before actual settlement. 

Great Lot No. 7, upon Black river, 
containing 620 acres, was reserved for a 
town plot, and the first road traced from 
Fort Stanwix, led obliquely down to the 
river at this place, but it was never laid 
out or traveled. The water-power of 
this point was supposed to offer a chance 
for important manufactories. Storrs 
and Stow owed a large sum to the Con- 
necticut school fund, and an act was 
passed for receiving lands in this town 
for security. C. C. Brodhead, of Utica, 
was appointed appraiser, and the price 
set upon them being considered too 
high, they long remained unsold, and 
finally proved a heavy loss to the fund 
for which they were pledged. In 1835, 
an act was passed by that State, provid- 
ing for the conveyance of lands in this 
State, and they have since been sold. By 
this act of 1835, the secretary of that 
State was authorized to take acknowl- 
edgement of deeds for these lands, and 
the State Treasurer to give deeds. 

Settlement was first made in this town 
and county by William Topping,* who 
emigrated from Meriden, Conn., early in 
1794, with an ox team and his household, 
consisting of his wife, a son aged seven 
years, and a girl aged five years. They 
were two weeks in reaching Whites- 
town, and turning northward into the 
wilderness, pursued their course through 
tangled underbush and around fallen 
logs, to the far-off tract where they 

* William Topping died September 17, 1840, aged 
seventy-six years. 



hoped to find a home. The wife assisted 
in driving the team, while the husband 
went on before, with axe in hand, to 
clear the way. After laying by one day 
to nurse a sick child, they at length 
reached Lot 60, and selected a spot for 
shelter. They arrived late in April, and 
built a bark shanty by the side of a large 
log, with poles for the sides and a blank- 
et for the door. 

This pioneer home was on the East 
road, a little northeast of Sugar river, 
where the road rises from the river flat, 
on land owned in i860 by Robert Harvey 
and P. Owens. His neighbors to the 
south were many miles distant, and none 
were nearer than Canada to the north. 
Jared, his brother, came on in June, to 
assist in building a log hut, and the first 
cabin was hardly finished when William 
Dustin, Asa Lord,* Bela Butterfield and 
others, came to settle in town. It is be- 
lieved no families wintered here in 
1794-95, besides Topping and Butter- 

The following reminiscence of the 
first settler in Lewis county, was writ- 
ten by Major Isaac Hall, of Talcottville, 
and cannot fail to be read with inter- 
est: — 

" When a boy of probably from six to 
eight summers, I went with my mother 
to visit an uncle (the husband of my 
father's eldest sister), an old man, whose 
farm joined that of my father's. His 
hair was white as snow. When we had 
arrived at his house, we found there an- 
other old man, who was as old, appar- 
ently, as my uncle. His appearance in- 
terested me at once, and I can describe 
him as he then appeared as though but 
yesterday I had seen him. He was of 
English type. His face was round and 
full, with a fair and ruddy countenance, 

* Mr. Lord was born in Franklin, Conn., October 6, 
1767. He arrived here immediately after Topping, and 
built the first log house in the county, on Leyden Hill. 
He was brother of Thomas and Rufus L. Lord of New 
York, Eleazer Lord of Piermont, and Gurdon Lord of 
Leyden. He went to St. Lawrence county, and was 
drowned April 9, 1818, with five others, at Madrid, N. 
Y., while attempting to cross his mill-pond. 

eyes blue, nose Grecian, forehead high 
and oval, and his head was covered with 
a luxuriant growth of pure glossy white 
hair. His figure was well developed, 
compact and closely knit, full and well 
rounded out, but m the strict sense of 
the word he was not corpulent. He 
was straight, and his height about five 
feet eight inches. In subsequent life I 
have occasionally compared most favor- 
ably to him the memory of his compact 
form with that of others of noted endur- 
ance. Though, then, probably of more 
than four-score years, he had vitality 
enough to illuminate his being, and 
when his face was lit up with expressive 
intelligence, as I saw him that day in 
conversation, its impress upon my child- 
hood was indelibly fixed. He was then 
living at Turin, with his son Jared, as I 
have been lately informed, and this was 
the only time of my recollection that I 
ever saw him. When we had started 
for home I asked my mother who that 
stranger was. She said his name was 
Topping. Referring to uncle, I eagerly 
inquired if they were brothers. ' Why, 
no,' said she ; ' one is father to the other.' 
Surprised at that, I said, hastily, ' Is that 
old man, Uncle Bill's son?' 'Oh, no,' 
said she, ' he is Uncle's father.' I won- 
dered, child-like, how that could be 
when Uncle Topping was the taller and 
larger man ; but he was not of so fine a 
mould. They were William Topping, 
the first settler of Lewis county, and his 
father, Daniel Topping ; both patriots of 
the Revolution, and the former a soldier 
of the war of 1812. He served in the 
latter as a substitute for Joseph Wet- 
more, (a carpenter, and a brother-in-law 
of his) who worked day for day, upon a 
house Topping was then building. 
They were the grandfather and great- 
grandfather of Richmond and Cephas 
Topping, and of Mrs. John Andrus, of 
this town. William Topping, the first 
settler, was the uncle of Mrs. Levi 
Benedict, of CoUinsville, and Mrs. S. 
Gaylord, of this town, and Daniel con- 
sequently their grandfather. Mrs. 
Cyrus Pitcher, of Martinsburgh, and 
her brothers and sisters of Wayne 
county, children of the late Ezra Miller, 
bear the same relation as the Toppings 
of this town. Dwight and Lucy Miller 
are descendants of one geneVation later." 



Daniel Topping died at the house of 
his son Jared, in Turin, in 1830, aged 
ninety years. He had served through 
the whole of the Revolutionar}' war. 

In 1795, Allen Alger, and families 
named Olmstead, Adams, Bingham, 
Hinman, Miller, and perhaps others, 
came, and in 1796, David Brainerd Miller, 
Peter W. Aldrich, Eber Kelsey, Brain- 
erd Coe, and others. A road warrant 
dated May 23, 1797, has upon it the fol- 
lowing names of tax-payers in District 
No. 5, viz: — Asa Lord, Ezra E. C. Rice, 
Bela Hubbard, William Topping, 
Rodolphe Tillier, Jonathan Boardman, 
David B. Miller, David Miller, Calvin 
Miller, Jared Topping, Ezra Rice, 
Asahel Hough, Chandler Otis, Amos 
Miller, Brainerd Coe, Eben Wheeler, 
Asa Brayton, Elisha Randall, Paul 
Green, John Worden, Daniel Topping, 
John Barns, Ephraim Town, Joseph 
Buttolf, Jonathan Wheeler, Asher Hol- 
dridge, Edmund Newell, Jerden Ingham, 
Moses Warren, Thomas Stone, Eliasheb 
Adams, Lemuel Storrs, Nathaniel Dus- 
tin, Abel Lyman, Peter W. Aldrich, 
Samuel Douglass, John Allen, and fifty- 
four others, in what is now Boonville. 

The first birth in town was that of 
Jonathan, son of William Topping, who 
died, aged thirty years. The birth oc- 
curred in June, 1796. 

The first death of an adult person in 
town was that of Calvin, son of David 
B. Miller, March 23, 1797, at the age of 
twenty-one years. 

This historical fact, which we have di- 
rect from the deceased, and without 
heresay, is recorded on his tombstone in 
the old Leyden hill cemetery, as fol- 
lows : — 

" Of all the adults which in this yard do lie, 
I was the first, eternity to try." 

In speaking of tomb-stones, one of 

more recent date may be mentioned. 

Upon a headstone adjacent to the old 

Baptist church, upon Leyden hill, there 

may be seen the following epitaph : — 

"Henry Scovil, died July 5, 1823, aged 

23 years. 

" Mourn not for him a saint departing. 
Though killed was he while hard at chopping. 
By a limb that struck his head. 
At noon in health, and joy abounding, 
At night in death, and friends surrounding. 
Now the sainted spirit fled." 

As a further confirmation of the truth 
of this melancholy event, there is at the 
top, a representation of a tree, (as nearl}^ 
resembling a cabbage as a palm tree) and 
one branch in the attitude of falling upon 
the saint's devoted head. 

A man named Bingham was accident- 
ally killed by a tree early in 1797 or '98. 
This was the first fatal accident known 
to have occurred in the county. 

The first saw-mill in the county was 
built in 1795, at Talcottville, by BelaBut- 
terfield, a few rods below the present 
grist-mill, but it went off in the next 
spring flood. In 1798, he sold to the 
Talcott famihes, from Middletown, Con- 
necticut, who became prominent settlers 
in town, but adopted a poHcy adverse to 
the building up of a village at the point 
where natural advantages greatly favor- 
ed. It is said they refused to sell vil- 
lage lots to mechanics, and retained the 
water power on Sugar river, although 
parties offered to invest liberally in manu- 
factures. Bela Hubbard, husband of 
Stow's sister, removed in 1795, but did 
not long remain in town. The first 
framed building after the saw-mill, was a 
barn built by David Brainerd Miller in 
April, 1798; and the next, a house by 
Lemuel Storrs, the same year. The lat- 
ter is still standing and is the oldest in 
the country. In 1803, the Talcotts built 
the second grist-mill in town. The pres- 
ent stone mill at Talcottville, was built 
about i832-'33. The river has here a 
fall of nearly 100 feet within a quarter of 
a mile. 



Hezekiah Talcott, father of the fami- 
lies of this name who settled in this town, 
died March 16,1813. His children were : 
Phebe, born 1766, married David Hall, 
died Januar}', 1826; Sally, born 1768, 

married ist, Joel Coe, 2d Parsons, 

died March 20, 185- ; Elisha, born 1770, 
was killed May, 1807: Daniel, born 1772, 
died June 3, 1847; Joel, born 1774, died 
April 16, 1813, of the prevaiHng epi- 
demic ; Jesse, born 1775, died January 
15, 1846; Johnson, born September 6, 
1778, died February 17, 1850; Parsons, 
born 1780, died January 16, 1849; ^"d 
Lucy, born 1782, married Ithamer Whet- 
more, died March, 1852. Elisha and 
Daniel were men with families when they 

Many of the early settlers of Leyden 
were from Haddam, Middlefield and 
Middletown,* Connecticut. An advei-- 
tisement in the Western Centinel of 
Whitesboro, dated 1797, and signed by 
Lemuel Storrs, records the fact that 
there were at that time 40 actual settlers 
upon Inman's Triangle, and the official 
records of the earlier years show an un- 
usually large number of voters, and of 
course of men having sufficient property 
to entitle them to this privilege. Many 
of the pioneers were able to pay down for 
their lands, and have a surplus to enable 
them to begin settlement free from debt. 
In 1799, the number of senatorial voters 
was 57, and in 1800 it was 79, including 
of course the territory now known as 
Boonville. In 1798, the number of per- 
sons liable to serve as jurors was 14 ; in 
1802, 61 ; and in 1805, 64. 

One of the pioneer settlers of Lewis 
county was Isaac Hall, Jr. He came 
from Wallingford, Conn., now Meriden, 
in 1 80 1 or 1802, and built a log house at 
the northeast corner of lot No. 59, of 
Leyden — adjoining the first settled lot 

*The families of Merwin, Northum, Algur, Thomas, 
Cone, &c., were from Haddam, those of Coe, Talcoit, 
Brainerd, Smith, Stimson, Starr, &c., from Middlefield. 

of the county — having purchased seven 
acres of that lot of Joel Coe, on which 
to build, and that he might have access 
to Sugar river. He priorly owned lot 
No. 49, directly east. The seven acres 
above named, is now owned by Horatio 
Coe, grandson of said Joel, and the re- 
mains of the old log-house cellar are 
plainly visible in the bend of the road 
that runs from Sugar River cheese 
factory to the Leyden depot, and is 
memorable not only on account of its 
antiquity, but also by reason of an excit- 
ing incident of pioneer life — related 
further on — that occurred near it. Jona- 
than, the brother of Isaac Hall, Jr., soon 
came on, having received in January, 
1802, a deed of lot No. 48, of his father, 
Isaac Hall, Sr., then of Wallingford, 
Conn., and being then unmarried, he 
boarded with his elder brother, and the 
brothers changed works with one an- 
other in clearing up their respective 

Early in the fall of 1803 or 1804, the 
younger bi-other, who slept in the upper 
part of the house, was awakened by the 
running of the cow and calf near the 
house, and soon after a sound so peculiar 
to swine when suddenly alarmed ; a 
bounce, and then the sharp squeal of a 
hog, in the pen near the house, was 
heard, which brought him from his bed, 
with an outcry to his brother that a bear 
had caught one of his hogs. The elder 
brother, already alarmed, arrived at the 
door in time to see — in the dim dark- 
ness — the bear drag the hog over the 
top rail of the pen. The brothers gave 
chase, but the cow preceded them, and 
followed up so closely, that bruin was 
glad to leave his prey at the fence near 
by and save himself. The hog's back was 
badly lacerated, and deep incisions were 
made by the animal's teeth, rendering 
its slaughter necessary. The younger 
brother subsequently bought out the 
elder, and resided upon the farm till his 



death, which occurred February 22, 

The Isaac Hall above mentioned was 
one of seven males and five females, who 
organized the first Baptist church in the 
town of Meriden, Conn. 

The Post Family. — Josiah Post, an- 
cestor of all of the name in Lewis county 
was the son of Nathan Post. He was 
born in Saybrook, Conn., April 12, 1761. 
April 19, 1781 he married Miss Lydia 
Platts, of the same town. Miss Platts 
was a granddaughter of Frederick 
Platts, from Germany, who carried the 
first mail between New York and Bos- 
ton, requiring two weeks to make the 
round trip. Frederick Platts married 
an English lady, Miss Fox, of New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and settled in Killing- 
worth in 1670, and was the father of 
three sons, viz : Samuel, Ebenezer and 
Obadiah, the latter, father of Lydia. In 
1802, Josiah Post bought of Abel Ly- 
man, of Durham, Connecticut, a tract of 
land for six dollars per acre, located in 
Leyden, Lewis county, N. Y., one mile 
southwest of the High Falls, (now Lyons 
Falls) on the Black river. In the spring 
of 1803, Mr. Post, with his family of seven 
children, removed to the then almost 
unbroken wilderness, and settled on his 
new purchase, where he worked with a 
will in making the necessary improve- 
ments for a home. Being a good car- 
penter, his services were much needed 
by the hardy resolute settlers that were 
rapidly coming in at that date. 

Mr. Post built for himself two good 
saw-mills, worked at his trade, continued 
to clear and make improvements on his 
farm until February 13, 181 3, when he 
died, being the first victim of the terrible 

* Isaac Hall, the settler, died in February, 1810. 
He was a descendant of John Hall, who came over in 
1672, and died at Wallingford in 1676, aged seventy- 
one. Ason Thomas, born March 25, 1679, h^d a son 
Isaac, the first physician in Meriden, born July 11, 
1714 ; was the father of Isaac, the settler in Leyden, 
who was bom in 1745. His sons were John, Isaac, 
Jonathan, Abijah and Joseph, — the last one bom in 
the county. 

epidemic of that year, which carried off 
so many of the early settlers. 

His wife remained a widow after his 
death, and died in Martinsburgh, No- 
vember 15, 1836. 

Of the children, — 

Lydia was born March 9, 1772, mar- 
ried Elderkin Boardman ; was the mother 
of two sons and died in Leyden, Aug. 
25, 1814. 

Josiah, Jr., was born April 13, 1784, 
and died in Leyden, February 26, 1827. 

Josiah Post, Jr., married Miss Fanny 
Banning, of Leyden, by whom he was 
the father of ten children, five of whom 
are now (1883) living in Lewis county. 
The mother died September 8, 1833. Jo- 
siah, Jr., was remarkable for his courage, 
resolution and physical sti'ength. When 
but sixteen years of age, he seized a large 
grey wolf which he had caught in a trap, 
bound it with barks, and carried him 
alive three miles on his back, receiving 
ten dollars bounty for his scalp. 

Nancy Post was born July 26, 1788, 
and died in Randolph, Portage county, 
Ohio, May 8, 1865. 

In 1832, Mr. Post moved with his fami- 
ly to Ohio. His two sons were in the 
army during the Rebellion, and the 
youngest, Jesse, Jr., died of starvation in 
Andersonville prison. John Post, was 
born October 21, 1801, and died in Olm- 
stead county, Minnesota, January 13, 

John Post married Miss Fidelia Lyon, 
August 28, 1825. Four childi-en were 
born to these parents. 

John Post, Jr., lost his life on the 9th 
of January, 1857, by accidentally falling 
into the Black river while cutting ice in 
a flume, and was instantly carried over 
the falls, his body not being recovered 
for some months afterward. John Post 
was for many years a justice of the peace 
and for a time one of the Associate Judges 
of Lewis county. He was the youngest 
of Josiah Post's seven children, and for 



a number of years the only survivor. 
July 5, 1 81 3, Nancy married Joseph 
Brainerd of Leyden, by whom she was 
the mother of five children, four sons 
and one daughter. The husband died in 
Martinsburgh March 10, 1831, aged 48 

Rebecca Post was born August 25, 
1791, died in Leyden November 12, 1813, 
(unmarried). Obadiah Post born May 6, 
1793, died May 28, 1873 at Elkhart, In- 
diana, aged 80 years. 

Obadiah married Lucretia Bailey, by 
whom he was the father of six children, 
four sons, and two daughters. The 
mother died at Elkhart, Indiana, Sept. 
21, 1867. 

Jesse D. Post, was born September 
14, 1797, died in Stow, Summit county, 
Ohio, May 30, 1863. Jesse D. married 
Sybil Fisk, of Leyden, Nov. 16, 1820. She? 

died leaving one daughter. June 

19, 1822, he married Melancy Rogers, 
who bore him four sons and one daugh- 

In the winter of 1799- 1800, a funeral 
service was held at Talcottville upon re- 
ceiving news of the death of Washington. 
We are not informed who delivered the 
oration, but think it probable that Ste- 
phen Butler might have been designated. 
He was at about this time a teacher in 
town, and in former years had been one 
of Washington's life guard. He removed 
to Ohio many years after. These funeral 
services were common all over the coun- 
try, being held in fact, almost every- 
where, and a very large number of these 
sermons and eulogies have come down to 
us in print. A few years since, the author 
of this volume had occasion to publish in 
two large octavo volumes, a series of 
memorials and documents relating to 
the death of President Washington. It 
embraced a notice of about two hundred 
and fifty publications of that day, (a few 
of them foreign), relating to that event. 
The nearest place at which published^vo- 

ceedings were had, was at Oldenbarne- 
veldt, (now Trenton,) in Oneida county. 

The first grist-mill in this town, and 
the second one in the county, was built 
on the Black river, at what has since be- 
come Port Leyden, in 1799, and got in 
operation the next year, by Peter W. 
Aldrich and Eber Kelsey, mill-wrights, 
from KiUingworth, Conn. They came 
on to explore in the fall of 1796, selected 
a site arid purchased two lots, extending 
from the river to near Leyden Hill. In 
the spring of 1797 they removed their 
families, and during this season put up a 
frame for a saw-mill, which was swept 
off by the next spring flood and lodged 
on the rocks below. In 1798, the frame 
was again set up, and the saw-mill got in 
operation, and in 1800 the first rude grist- 
mill was prepared to relieve the early 
settlers from long tedious journeys to 
Whitestown in the dry season, and to 
Constableville at the more favored peri- 
ods of the year. When first got in op- 
eration the mill was but partly enclosed, 
and its bolt was turned for some time by 
hand. It stood west of the river, a little 
below the present bridge. Aldrich sold 
his share to Jonathan Colhns, Oct. 25, 
i8o2.. The saw-mill was burned in Feb- 
ruary, 1802, but was rebuilt by Kelsey & 
Collins, and both mills were afterwards 

In the fall of 1805, a huge bear was seen 
on the farm since owned by James S. 
Jackson, but escaped. Depredations 
were committed the next night, and 
Capt. Jonathan Edwards set out in pur- 
suit. He found the enemy on Nathaniel 
Merriam's farm, fired at him without ef- 
fect, and followed on, till in preparing 
for a second shot, the bear turned upon 
the hunter and got within two or three 
rods of him when the latter hastily fired 
his half-loaded gun and wounded him. 
Calls for help brought persons to his as- 
sistance, and the beast was killed with 
an axe. It was judged to weigh 500 



pounds, and had done much mischief to 
the settlers. Trout abounded in the 
streams when first known, and deer were 
numerous. Deer used to go east in No- 
vember and December to winter beyond 
the Black river, and return as soon as 
the snow was gone in the spring. Many 
hundreds used to pass Lot 68 before it 
was cleared. On lot No. 58 was a small 
strip of land called the Point, just above 
the junction of Moose crc^k on Sugar 
river, where there was a beaten path. 

We are able to present from the Elec- 
toral State census of 1807, the names of 
those who enjoyed the right of voting 
in this town at that time. 

Cen.sus of Electors in Leyden, in 

Including so much of the present town 

of Lewis as was then in this town, 

none else in the present town of 

Lewis being then settled. 

LEWIS SMITH, Census Taker. 

Allen, Samuel. 
Andrews, Phineas. 
Arnold, Asa. 
Augur, Allen. 
Baldwin, Smith. 
Baning, John. 
Barns, Abraham. 
Barns, Elihu. 
Barns, Jeremiah. 
Barns, John. 
Belnap, Joseph. 
Billing, Justice. 
Boardman, Jonathan. 
Botsford, Jabez. 
Brainard, Isaac. 
Burr, Benjamin. 
Burrows, Nathan. 
Camp, Ashel. 
Churchill, Abel. 
Clark, John. 
Coe, Brainard. 
Coe, Joel. 
Cook, Clark. 
Davis Ebenezer. 
Dewey, John. 
Dewey, John, Jr. 
Dewey, Josiah. 
Dewey, Medad. 

Douglass, Daniel. 
Douglass, Israel. 
Douglas, John. 
Douglass, Israel, Jr. 
Douglas, Nathan. 
Dustin, Nathaniel. 
Edward, Jonathan. 
Felshaw, Winthrop. 
Fields, John. 
Fish, John. 
Ford, Amasa. 
Fox, Ashbel. 
Gregory, John M. 
Gridley, Eli M. 
Hall, Abijah. 
Hall, Isaac. 
Hall, John. 
Hartfon, Jabez. 
Hawley, James. 
Height, George W. 
Higley, David. 
Hubbard, Ephraim. 
Hubbard, Everts. 
Hubbard, Leonard C. 
Hubbard, Robert. 
Hubbard, Timothy. 
Hunt, Stephen. 
Jinks, Joel. 

Jinks, Stoddard. 
Jinks, William. 
Jinks, William, Jr. 
Johnson, Samson. 
Johnson, Sheldon. 
Kelsey, Eber. 
Kent, Augustus 
Kent, Samuel. 
Lord, Gurdon. 
Manfield, John. 
Merriam, Nathaniel. 
Merwin, James. 
Miller, Aaron. 
Miller, Amos. 
Miller, David B. 
Miller, Elias. 
Miller, Isaac. 
Miller, Joel. 
Mumford, Henry. 
Northara, Samuel. 
Otis, Chandler C. 
Palmer, Aaron. 
Pease, Alpheus. 
Pelton, Nathan. 
Post, Josiah. 
Putman, Cornelius. 
Right, Samuel. 
Sage, Zadock. 
Scovil, John. 
Seger, Daniel. 
Smith, Lewis. 
Snow, Nathaniel. 
Spencer, Abraham. 
Spinner, Stephen. 
Starr, Benjamin. 

The first store in town was kept by 
Benjamin J. Starr, at Talcottville. Dr. 
Jotham Snow was the first physician 
in Leyden, and Dr. Manley Wellman 
the next. The latter removed to Low- 
ville and afterwards to the Genesee coun- 
try, above Rochester, and died there. He 
came into this town from Whitestown. 

Silas Southwell taught the first school 
in town. The first school organization 
under the act of 1813, was effected at a 
special town meeting, held December 
27th, in that which Thomas WoL 
cott, David B. Miller and Winthrop Fel- 
shaw were appointed School Commis- 
sioners, and Nathan Pelton, Samuel Kent, 
Israel Douglass, Jr., Amos Miller, Allen 
Auger and Benjamin Starr, Inspectors. 
The first school house in town was built 
in 1802, at Leyden Hill. 

Stemson, Joseph. 
Stone, Luther. 
Stone, Timothy. 
Stone, William. 
Talcott, Daniel. 
Talcott, Hezakiah. 
Talcott, Joel. 
Talcott, Johnson. 
Talcott, Parson. 
Thayer, Ahaz. 
Thayer, Eleazer. 
Thayer, Simeon. 
Thayer, Ziba. 
Thomas, Eliphalet. 
Thomas, Henry. 
Tiffany, Levi. 
Tilly, William. 
Tolls, Jonathan. 
Topping, William. 
Tyler, Josephus. 
Tyler, Moses. 
Tyler, Patrick. 
Utley, Henry. 
Walker, James. 
Ward, Ithamer. 
Washburn, Solomon. 
Wetmore, Joseph. 
Wetmore, Nathaniel. 
Witmore, Ebenezer. 
Whitniore, Ethe. 
Wilcox, EHsha. 
Wilby, Nathaniel. 
Wolcott, Thomas. 
Woolworth, Josiah. 



The Leyden Union Library was 
formed December 24, 1821, with John- 
son Talcott, John Fish, Ela Merriam 
Parsons Talcott, Allen Auger, Joseph 
Stimson, Ezra Miller and Thomas Wol- 
cott, trustees. It acquired about 300 
volumes and was dissolved two or three 
years after the introduction of school li- 
braries, sharing in this the fate of all the 
Union Social Libraries of that dav. 

An unsuccessful application was made 
to the Regents of the University, March 
29, 1826, for the incorporation of an acad- 
emy at Talcottville, but a sufficient sum 
had not been raised by the applicants to 
obtain an incorporation. 

A murder occurred in the northeast 
corner of this town on the morning of 
May 4, 1855, under these circum- 
stances : — 

A quarrel arose between two Irish 
women, near Lyon's Falls, growing out of 
the pawning of a pair of flat-irons. One 
of the parties, who kept a low grog-shop, 
hired Thomas Rutledge and Michael 
Cavanaugh, two drunken sots, to whip 
James Cooper, the husband of her op- 
ponent. The hirelings assailed Cooper's 
cabin, pelted it with stones and broke 
his windows. He resolved to seek the 
protection of the law, but observing the 
superstition of his countrymen that 
"when the cock crows, all danger is over," 
he awaited this signal, and a little after 
three o'clock, started for Port Leyden ; 
was watched, pursued and killed with 
clubs, as he fell exhausted with running, 
at the door of Mr. Philo Post. Rutledge 
fled, and was doubtless concealed for 
some time among the Irish in High 
Market. Rewards were offered by the 
Sheriff and the Governor, but he was 
never arrested. Cavanaugh was indicted 
May 16th, tried June 26th, when the jury 
did not agree, and again before Judge 
Allen, August 14th and 1 5th, when he was 
convicted of murder and sentenced to be 
hung October 5th. The convict was res- 

pited by the Governor till Nov. 9, 1855, 
and subsequent!)' his sentence was com- 
muted to imprisonment for life in Clin- 
ton prison. An attempt was made by a 
low class of politicians, to bring discred- 
it upon the Governor for this exercise 
of executive clemency, and on the night 
of November 9th, Governor Clark was 
hung and burnt in effigy. The Gov- 
ernor, for political effect,.wrote a lengthy 
letter in answer to one addressed to 
him, in which he stated in detail, the 
grounds upon which the commutation 
was granted. 

Besides at Port Leyden the principal 
place, there are two other postoffices in 
town. Leyden P. O. was formerly kept 
at the village known as Leyden Hill, but 
in 1836, it was transferred to Talcottville 
on the Sugar river, two miles south, 
where it has been since kept. The other 
is " Locust Grove," at the place former- 
ly owned by Ela Merriam, a little north 
of " Leyden Hill," on the old " State 
Road." Leyden Hill was formerly a 
place of some business, but is now only 
a farming vicinage, having neither 
church, store, hotel or business place of 
any description, other than a cheese 
factory, and this occupies the building 
of the old Presbyterian church. 

Port Leyden Village. 

On the 22d of March, 1836, General 
Ela Merriam bought of Eber L. Kelsey 
an undivided half of fifty acres. Lot 17, 
embracing the water-power at Port Ley- 
den and Rock Island, about sixty rods 
below. On the same day he bought of 
Daniel Sears his farm on Lot 16, adjoin- 
ing Kelsey's, and immediately sold 
three-fourths of his interest to Francis 
Seger, Lyman R. Lyon and Jesse Tal- 

The intention in these operations, was 
to establish a village, and in anticipa- 
tion of the construction of the canal, — 



still many years in the future, but rea- 
sonably certain — they called their place 
" Port Leyden." It had been previ- 
ously known as " Kelsey's Mills," but 
was at the time only a farming region, 
adjacent to a valuable water-power on 
the river, and a convenient point for 
business on either side. 

The village was surveyed out into lots 
by Eleazer Spencer, in 1838-39, very 
nearly upon the same plan as it exists 
upon the map to-day. 

A short distance below the village, 
the channel of Black river is contracted 
to less than twenty feet in width, and 
the torrent rushes through the gorge 
with immense force. Several pot-holes 
have been worn in the gneiss rock to a 
great depth. Rock Island, at this place, 
is a rugged bluff, in its natural state, 
surrounded by v^ater only during floods 
and easily accessible at other times. Its 
scenery was highly picturesque before 
it was disturbed by the hand of man. 
In the map of a survey made before set- 
tlement, this narrow gorge is named 
"Hellgate." The rock has been exca- 
vated west of the island, to afford 
hydraulic privileges, and when our first 
edition was published, it remained an 
unfinished work. It has since been com- 
pleted, and is used as a race for bringing 
water-power to the furnace works. By 
being lower than the natural bed of the 
river east ai the island, the necessity of 
a dam is obviated, except at the head, 
to turn off the surplus water. 

Mrs. Pamelia J. Munn afterwards pur- 
chased the interest of Talcott. A tan- 
nery was run at this place many years 
by Cornwell Woolworth, who had 
bought the other half of Kelsey's inter- 
est, and in the fall of 1855, the Snyder 
Brothers purchased this tannery, greatly 
enlarged it and made it one of the larg- 
est establishments of the kind in North- 
ern New York. It contained in i860, 
163 vats ; used 3,800 cords of bark a 

year, and tanned annually about 40,000 
sides of sole leather. It suffered with 
other interests along the river, from the 
breaking away of the reservoir on the 
upper waters of the river in the spring 
of 1869, and was finally burned April 30, 
1875, being then owned by Thomas 
Watson & Company. It employed 
about 300 men in the bark season. A 
part of the stock was lost ; but to finish 
the rest, the tannery was partly re-built. 
As a matter of prospective interest, this 
tannery was of less consequence, be- 
cause the supplies of bark were becom- 
ing every year more scarce, and the 
closing out of this business was only a 
question of time, and very near at hand. 

The river flood above mentioned 
swept off entirely a grist-mill, and did 
other damage of vast amount all along 
the river from Boonville to Watertown. 
These damages became a subject of ex- 
tensive investigation, and elaborate re- 
ports were published giving facts and 
details in great abundance. The losses 
as ascertained were paid by the State, 
but of course there were some claims 
altogether beyond reason, that were re- 
jected. The withdrawal of the waters 
of Black river for the canals, to the in- 
jury of its hydraulic power, has been 
but in part restored by the construction 
of reservoirs for equalizing the supply. 

The village of Port Leyden was in- 
corporated about 1867, under the gen- 
eral act, but we are unable to give the 
exact date, as the books were burned in 
a fire in March, 1872.* It accepted the 
general village act, at a special election, 
at which 23 votes were cast for, and i 
against that measure. The village in- 
cludes a part of two towns — Leyden 
and Lyonsdale. Nearly all the business 

* The village has suffered several times by fire. On 
the 7th of March, 1870, the grocery and drug store was 
burned with all its contents. Loss, about $11,000 
partly insured. The hotel of Asa H. Loomis was burned 
October 13, 1870, and the stores of N. J. Brown and 
C. G. Riggs, March 25, 1872. 



and population are in the former. The 
census of 1880, showed a population of 
1,115 within the corporate limits, and 
the tendency is manifestly towards a 
much greater increase. 

The Masons have a lodge in this vil- 
lage. The "Good Templars" organized 
a lodge (No. 256), in 1868, and they 
maintained it until about 1877. 

In 1868, the Grand Army of the Re- 
public established a post, in which they 
were assisted by the Hon. Clinton L. 
Merriam. It was named Post Merriam, 
in honor of his brother, Major Gustav- 
us Merriam, who was in active service 
in the late war. It was kept up about 
four years, when it was given up. There 
is now a " Veteran Organization," an in- 
dependent affair, in the village, made up 
of those who had been in service in the 
late war. 

Business of Port Leyden in August, 1882. 

Barber. — William Cone. 

Blacksmiths. — John Cummings, Mi- 
chael Depster, James Jordan, 


Drugs and Groceries. — E. D. Spencer, 
W. L. Wilcox. 

Furniture. Samuel McClure. 

Grist-Mill, (steani). — Norton Douglass. 

Hardware. — C. G Riggs. 

Hotels. — E. McMarrion, A. Secor. 

Harnesses. — O. Holdridge, Reubin 

Jewelers. — G. B. Reed, J. S. Tardy. 

Lawyers. — W. H. Hilts, Isaac A. 

Merchants. — James Corney, Colton & 
Manchester, W. J. Hav^es, William B. 
Reyn, John Schroeder, C. E. B. Williams, 
Wilcox & Woolworth. 

Milliners and Dress-Makers. — Mrs. 
Hoag, Mrs. Post, Mrs. Stevens, Mrs. 

Photographer. — O. J. Kenyon. 

Physicians. — Dr. Ash, Dr. D. D. 
Douglass, Dr. WilHam H. Johnson. 

Planing, Sawing, Wood-Making, etc. — 
G. W. Chase, Cone & Sears. 

Saloo7is. — John Hart, Martin Kelsey. 

Saw-Mills. — James A. Merwin, (gang 
mill), Thomas Rogers. 

Shoemakers and dealers. — Peter Beck, 
John McHale, Somers & Sawyer. 

Taylors. — Timothy Crowley. 

Wagon Shop. — Jordan & Kilts. 

Iron Furnaces at Port Leyden. 

About 1865, a deposit of black mag- 
netic iron ore, was discovered in the 
gneiss rock, near the river, in the village 
of Port Leyden, on the west side, and in 
the town of Leyden. It appeared to be 
abundant and of good quality, and led to 
the formation of " The Port Leyden Iron 
Company," which was incorporated July 
25, 1865, with a capital of $500,000. Its 
trustees were: Henry D. H. Snyder, Jr., 
Benjamin F. Sherwood, Henry Hopson, 
Abel B. Buell and Charles H. Sayre. A 
tract of fifteen acres was deeded by Sny- 
der to the company, and a furnace was 
built. The enterprise failed, and the title 
passed through the hands of a succession 
of owners, assignees and agents, as fol- 
lows : — 

The company to Addison "C. Miller; 
Miller to John Horton ; Horton to the 
Black River Iron and Mining Company, 
(July 29, 1872,) the latter assigned to 
Schuyler C. Thompson, who bought on 
a sheriff's sale March 7, 1876, and ran the 
furnace until his death, when it laid idle 
for some time. 

In the early history of the furnace, and 
before the " Black River Iron and Min- 
ing Co." had possession, an ineffectual 
attempt was made to establish a steel 
company. " The Port Leyden Steel Co." 
was formed under the general act, Janu- 
ary 7, 1 870, with Christian W.Weise, John 
Werkert, Lawrence Conrad, Herman 
Winehenbach, Frederick G. Schwind 
and Caroline Helm as parties named, 
and the first five of these as trustees • 
capital $48,000. On the 7th of April of the 
same year, there was another organiza- 
tion formed with a capital of $250,000, 



under the name of " The Port Leyden 
Steel and Iron Co." and the following 
persons were named : Edward L. Sey- 
mour, Christian W. Weise, John Weis- 
kert, Lawrence Conrad, Herman Win- 
chenbach, Frederick G. Schwind and 
William Gries. They spent a large 
amount of money, but encountered diffi- 
culties with the ore, which they could 
not overcome. It was then thought that 
the ore contained no other injurious ele- 
ments besides sulphur and phosphorus, 
but it is since found that it has a considera- 
ble amount (said to be about 10 per 
cent.) of titanium, one of the most refrac- 
tory of the metals, and a material wholly 
incapable of reduction in furnaces of 
the usual form. 

While owned by Mr. Thompson, the 
furnace was run profitably upon ores 
from Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Oneida 
counties, with charcoal as a fuel. 

On the 4th of May, 1880, the title to 
the property passed into the hands of the 
" Gere Iron and Mining Co." which has 
existed as a corporation since April 15, 
1868, and is also the owner of a furnace 
in Syracuse. The present officers of the 
company are : WiUiam H. H. Gere, of 
Syracuse, President ; Isaac Maynard, of 
Utica, Vice-President ; George H. Gere, 
of Syracuse, Secretary ; and Charles H. 
Hawley, as Treasurer. The capital of 
the company, at first, $100,000, was in- 
creased to $200,000, February 7, 1822. 

With the view of ascertaining the 
amount and quality of the ore, upon the 
faith of which the furnace had formerly 
been started, the present company went 
down with a diamond drill about three 
hundred feet, and the core from this bor- 
ing shows that there is an abundance of 
the ore — in one instance fifteen feet, yet 
the presence of deleterious materi&ls, ren- 
der it at present undesirable to attempt 
its use. 

The company began to fit up the fur- 
nace as soon as they purchased, and it 

was put in blast on the 14th of October, 

1880. It was burned down January 26. 

1 88 1, but at once rebuilt, and it again 
went into blast May 19, 1881. At the 
time of our enquiry in August, 1882, it 
was still in blast, using ores from the 
Keene and Old Sterling mines in Jeffer- 
son county, and some ores from Canada, 
SaUsbury, Connecticut, Middleton, N. 
Y., and Carthagena, in Spain. 

The following technical description of 
this furnace, is from the "Journal of the 
U. S. Association of Charcoal Iron Work- 
ers," for May, 1882:— 

•' The plant consists of the blast fur- 
naces, and extensive chemical works, 
wherein the acetic vapors from wood- 
carbonization are transformed into 
chemical products. The two stacks 
"Grace" and "Fannie," stand side by side, 
and are of cut stone for 33 feet, topped 
by iron shells for 18 feet, making the 
total height of the stacks 51 feet. The 
interior measurements of the two furna- 
ces are similar, being as follows : diame- 
ter of bosh 10 feet 6 inches; height from 
hearth, 15 feet 3 mches ; diameter of 
crucible, 4 feet 6 inches ; height, 4 feet 3 
inches ; tuyeres placed 3 feet 6 inches 
above the bottom ; cubic capacity, 2,550 

" The crucibles are each equipped with 
a water-cooled dam, Lurmann cinder 
notch, and four bronze tuyeres (4-inch 
nozzle,) placed in water breasts. The 
stacks are lined throughout with fire 
brick. The top of the furnace, which is 
seven feet in diameter, is supplied with a 
hopper and a 4-foot bell, operated by a 
hand winch. The stack-house is of two 
stories, the ores and limestones being re- 
ceived upon the upper floor, in cars over 
the Company's switch, connecting with 
the Utica & Black River Railroad, and 
passes through two crushers to the floor 
below, on which the charcoal is also de- 
livered. The materials are raised to the 
tunnel-head, by a single cage-hoist. 

" The plant is located on the bank of 
the Black river, which makes, at this 
point, a most picturesque fall ; the large 
volume of water dashing over a series of 
cascades, which in 500 feet, make a fall of 
50 feet. Only a small portion of this 



water-power is now used by the Com- 

" The blowing machinery consists of 
two vertical iron cylinders, 60" diame- 
ter, by 68" stroke, connected with two 
turbine wheels, under 17 feet head. An 
additional turbine furnishes power for 
crushers, hoist, wood-sawing, etc., etc. 

" But one of the furnaces was in blast, 
the other being lined, ready for opera- 
tion. The blast is heated by two stand- 
ing pipe hot-blast stoves, each contain- 
ing 24 pipes, 10 feet high. There are 
three additional stoves of similar size, 
not now in common use, connected with 
the plant. The average temperature of 
the blast is 800°; pressure i ^ to 2 pounds. 
The practice is to blow the furnace by 
volume, and not by pressure. The iron 
is tapped every eight hours, and the 
average product is 23 tons per day of 
iron, showing very satisfactory chill 
tests. ***** 

" Specular ores, from northern New 
York, averaging 45 per cent, of iron, are 
used, and are charged with 20 per cent, 
of local limestone,* all being finely 
crushed. The basis of the charge is 600 
pounds of charcoal (30 bushels). The 
average consumption of fuel is 2,400 
pounds charcoal per gross ton of iron 
made. There is a large deposit of tita- 
niferous ore, close to the furnaces,which 
is not in use." 

The chemical works connected with 
this establishment, may be thus de- 
scribed : — 

Seasoned hard-woods (beech, birch, 
maple, etc.,) are brought to the furnace 
in cord-wood form, and cut up into form 
for stove wood. A series of 24 strong 
egg-shaped retorts, made of boiler plate 
iron, are arranged in pairs along a struc- 
ture in masonry, so that they can be filled 
from above, and the charge may be 
withdrawn from below. Each retort 
will hold a cord of stove wood, and 
they are firmly tlosed and secured, both 
above and below, for the pressure from 

* The limestone used as a flux, is from the Trenton 
limestone strata, forming the upper terraces of this for- 
mation. The " blue," or "bird's eye " limestone, from 
the lower terraces, contains about lo per cent, of Silica, 
and is not suitable for this use. 

within them, in the process of carboni- 
zation, is very great. 

The heat needed for this purpose is 
derived from the gases of the furnace, 
which are brought in pipes, and the 
flame is made to circulate around the 
retorts, heating them to the degree re- 
quired for the disengagement of all vol- 
atile products, which requires from 
twelve to fourteen hours. These are 
condensed in pipes placed in cold water, 
and the completion of the process is 
judged by the character of the smoke 
that is allowed to escape from a small 
hole provided for this purpose. The 
lower end of the retort is then opened, 
and the contents, still glowing hot, are 
dropped into a great iron-plate drum, to 
which the cover is at once applied, and 
luted air-tight. It is then allowed to 
cool, which requires about as much 
longer time ; but as all the air is excluded, 
there can be no combustion. These iron 
coolers are mounted upon an iron rail- 
way, and when cooled, the coal is at once 
used in the furnace, it being best when 
entirely fresh. The yield of charcoal is 
about 60 bushels to a cord — an amount 
much greater than where a part of the 
substance of the wood is wasted in burn- 
ing, as in common coal-pits. The coal 
weighs from 19 to 20 pounds to the 
bushel. The wood is cut in winter and 
seasoned six or eight months before 
using, and the wood costs about $3.00 
per cord. 

We will now attempt to describe the 
processes of obtaining the products of 
value, from the volatile portions of the 
wood : A portion will not condense, 
but remains as vapor. These gases have 
inflammable properties, that are turned 
to account by being passed into the 
flames circulating around the retorts. 
They give a steady white flame, and aid 
considerably in the process. By special 
arrangements, illuminating gases of the 
very best quality, are now made from 



wood, but these gases do not afford a 
flame suitable for this purpose, as they 
come from the condensers. This illum- 
inating gas is not made at this place. 

The watery products obtained from 
the condensed smoke, are much the 
same as we get in " leaking chimneys," — 
that is to say, in places where the smoke 
of our stoves and furnaces gets nearly 
cold before it leaves the chimney, and 
condenses in "soot water," to the infinite 
annoyance of house-keepers. This liq- 
uor is first distilled to separate the 
" wood-alcohol," which by two or three 
other distillations is reduced to a clear 
or slightly brown liquor, of a specific 
gravity of about 0.85, and an intensely 
pungent taste. It is very volatile, in- 
flammable and applicable to all the uses 
for which alcohol from grain is em- 
ployed — except for drinking. It is used 
as a solvent of gums and resins, chiefly 
in the making of paints and varnishes, 
and because it pays no internal revenue 
tax, it is now generally employed instead 
of common alcohol for all chemical and 
mechanical uses to which that can 
be appHed. The quantity got, is said to 
be about 5 gallons to the cord, worth 
some 75 to 80 cents per gallon. It is 
sent off in kerosene barrels, and must be 
kept closely confined to prevent waste. 

The waters remaining after distilla- 
tion, which are chiefly dilute acetic acid, 
are then saturated either with quick- 
lime, or with litharge — the former mak- 
ing the " acetate of lime," and the latter 
the " brown acetate of lead." It is then 
evaporated down to dryness, when it is 
ready for market. 

The " acetate of lime," is worth some 
$40 to $50 per ton, and is a black, earthy 
substance, soluble, but not liable to 
change in the air, and may be sent off 
in bags. It is used in the manufacture 
of white lead. For this, it is dissolved 
and mixed with muriatic acid, which 
uniting with the lime, releases the acetic 

acid in form of vapor. These vapors 
are conducted in among lead in thin 
sheets, forming the "acetate of lead," 
and this by further action of carbonic 
acid furnished at the same time by an- 
other process, becomes the carbonate 
OF LEAD, or common "white lead" of 

But the product heretofore made here 
has been chiefly the "brown acetate of 
lead," a dark brown substance, looking 
something like maple sugar, and when 
broken presenting a crystaline structure. 
It is hard, heavy and very poisonous. 
It forms the basis of many chemical salts 
used in calico printing and dying, and 
is worth some six or eight cents a pound. 
About 300 pounds are made from the 
smoke of a cord of wood. For procur- 
ing the Htharge used in its preparation, 
common pig-lead is melted in. shallow 
pans, and raked in the open air until 
it turns to dross. This, when ground 
to dust, is the material employed in 
neutralizing the acetic acid in the waters 
left after distillation as above described. 

The retort, and some other portions 
of the apparatus, are secured by patent 
to Jean Antoine Mathieu, but other 
portions are public property for use, 
and there is no secret or mystery in any 
part of the process. 

We have not mentioned another prod- 
uct, which is tar, of which no use is 
made. It is proposed to use it by mix- 
ing it with charcoal dust, and thus form 
blocks that may be used as fuel. 

We have given these processes some- 
what in detail, because we think they 
will be read with interest. They show 
the great saving that may be secured by 
the application of science to the arts and 
the profits that may be got from so com- 
mon and useless a thing as smoke. It is 
not impossible that means may be de- 
vised for saving these products in many 
other places where wood is burned as a 
fuel, and that there may be economies 



hereafter discovered in things now neg- 
lected and wasted, that will excite a 
wonder that they were not known be- 

Talcott Village, {Leyden P. 0.) 

This place is located upon Sugar river, 
at the point where it is crossed by the 
State road. With suitable enterprise on 
the part of its first settlers, it should 
have grown into an important village, 
having everything in its favor in the 
way of water-power and location. The 
opportunity was lost, and the village is 
what it was forty years ago, a quiet 
vicinage, with no great prospect of 
future change. Its business may be 
stated briefly as follows : — 

Blacksmith and Wagon Shop. — John 

Cheese-box Factory. — Benj. S. Jones. 

Hotel. — Thomas Baker. 

Quarry. — Mulcher Auer, (employing 
four or five men.) 

Sash and Blind Factory and Grist-mill. 
— Mrs. Albert Jones. 

Saw-mill. — Benjamin S. Jones. 

Store.— A. G. Miller. 

There are five cheese factories 
in the town of Leyden, viz : — " Sugar 
River," " Clover Dale," " Meadow 
Brook," " Leyden Association," and 
" Sperl." 

The house of Mrs. Pamelia J. Munn, 
north of the village, was burned Febru- 
ary 4, 1870. 

The census of 1880 gave a population 
of 129 in Talcottville village. 

Leyden Station. 

This is merely a railroad station 
wholly without business, other than as 
supplied by the village of Talcottville, 
a mile west. 

A short distance to the south of this 
is a highly picturesque locahty, upon 
the Sugar river, above the railroad 

bridge, and almost within sight from the 
passing trains. The river here tumbles 
down a hundred feet or more along a 
narrow gorge in the Trenton limestone, 
presenting a succession of cascades, 
which in high water are very fine. 

The river, in passing through the 
Black river limestone a quarter of a 
mile or more below, sinks into the fis- 
sures, and in summer disappears entirely, 
but some fifty rods below again comes 
to the. surface. This feature is a com- 
mon one wherever this rock comes to 
the surface. 

These currents not unfrequently 
widen the natural fissures into narrow 
caverns, which may be followed several 
hundreds of feet. They are generally 
lighted from above, and present no par- 
ticular interest, excepting from the 
fossils that sometimes stand out in relief 
from the eroded surface. 

Town Meeting Districts. 

At the annual town meeting held in 
1876, a vote was taken of 98 to 81 favor- 
ing the formation of districts for holding 
town meetings. This resulted in an act 
passed by the supervisors December i, 
1876, providing that a town meeting 
should be held in each election district, 
and that all resolutions should be voted 
upon by ballot. This arrangement, re- 
quiring two separate town meetings at 
the same time, of course makes it neces- 
sary to secure an understanding before 
hand, as to the business to be done. We 
have been informed that this arrange- 
ment gives general satisfaction. The 
reasons that led to it were, that when 
the town meetings were held at Talcott- 
ville, it was found difficult to get the 
votes up from Port Leyden, and if thev 
were held somewhat more frequently at 
the latter place, it excited the jealousy 
of the remainder of the town, because it 
is on the extreme border. 



Special Town Meetings during the 

August 25, 1862. — A special town 
meeting was held, pursuant to call, for 
the purpose of offering a bounty for vol- 
unteers, under the call for 300,000 men, 
the quota of the town being 22. A 
bounty of $50 was offered with but two 
dissenting votes. A committee of five 
persons, besides the supervisor, was ap- 
pointed to act as a War Finance Com- 
mittee, viz : — Thomas Baker, (Super- 
visor) ; Ela Merriam, Jerome B. Hurl- 
but, Eleazer Spencer, James S. Jackson, 
and Dennis Miller. 

August 18, 1862. — Another special 
meeting was held to provide means for 
paymg the bounties already promised. 
A Finance Committee was appointed, 
consisting of John D. Lord, Eliphalet 
Sears, George M. Brooks, H. D. H. 
Snyder, Jr., and N. C. Brooks. 

October 18, 1862. — At a special meet- 
ing, a further bounty of $50 was offered, 
and a War Committee was appointed 
to raise the men, and to stipulate the 

December 8, 1863. — At a special meet- 
ing a committee, consisting of Ela Mer- 
riam, William J. Hall, Eleazer Spencer, 
Alanson Merwin, Lysander W. Wolcott, 
Joseph H. Wilcox, and David Alger, 
was appointed to fill quotas, and a 
bounty of $200 was offered. 

August 5, 1864. — The bounty was 
raised to $300. 

August 12, 1864. — A committee, con- 
sisting of Linus Birdsey, L. W. Wolcott, 
H. D. H. Snyder, Jr., Joseph H. Wil- 
cox, Ela Merriam, Thaddeus E. Munn, 
James S. Jackson, John D. Lord, and J. 
B. Hurlbut, was appointed to procure 
men to fill the quota, and the sum of $30 
was to be paid for getting a recruit. 

September 6, 1864. — Voted to pay a 
sum which, with the county bounty, 

should make $1,000, to fill the call for 
500,000 men. 

November 3, 1864.- — It was provided 
that the above should be raised in three 
equal installments. 

January 7, 1865. — A special meeting 
was held, at which the former proceed- 
ings were confirmed. 

The excess of bounty moneys refunded 
to this town, amounted to $5,294.27, 
which was applied to reduce the taxes. 

Religious Societies. 

The Baptist Church of Leyden is the 
oldest church in this town, and the old- 
est of this sect north of Oneida county, 
in the State, having been formed at the 
house of Thomas Bray ton, April 22, 1803, 
b3' four males and one female. Elder 
John Clark, their first minister, was or- 
dained October 4, 1804, by Elder Jesse 
Hartwell, of New Marlborough, Mass., 
Elder Timothy Pool, of Champion, Phil- 
ips, Chandler, Maltby, William H. 
Stevens, Jeduthan, Zaccheus and John 
Higby, and Russell Way. In this year 
the church received an accession of 
twenty-eight males and thirty-one 
females from a revival of religion that 
occurred. Elders Thomas Davis, Thos. 
Morgan, Chandler Hartshorn, Riley B. 
Ashley, R. Z. Williams, H. Nichols, 
Henry W. Chafa, Clement Haven, V. 
R. Waters, J. Lawrence, Reuben Saw- 
ver, Calvin Fisher, S. M. Hubbard, 

Luke Davis, M. E. Fisk, Graves, 

Frederick Kratz, G. N. Sears, D. D. 
Barnes, C. Bailey, and others, have 
preached here. 

On the 4th of July, 1820, a subscrip- 
tion was drawn up to procure the means 
for erecting a church, 35 by 40 feet, 
which was successful. The edifice was 
built in 1821, at a cost of $1,660, and on 
the 17th of January, 1825, a society was 
legally formed, having Dr. Samuel 



Bass,* Daniel Talcott, Samuel Doug- 
lass.t Jesse Miller, Isaac L. Hitchcock, 
and Nathan Coe, first trustees. The 
church edifice at Leyden Hill was re- 
paired in 1856, but since the erection of 
another church edifice by the same 
society, in 1864, the old church on Ley- 
den Hill has been falling into decay, and 
is already beyond use. Several years 
since, a plot of ground was purchased 
adjacent to this church by individuals 
as a burial place, and the title was con- 
veyed to its trustees. This church has 
fallen into disuse, and is passing to 

The Presbyterian Church of Leyden 
was formed November 6, 1803, by the 
Rev. Ira Hart, and consisted of six 
males and eight females. The first pas- 
tor was the Rev. Jeduthan Higby, who 
was ordained September 10, 18 10, and 
preached three years. The second pas- 
tor was the Rev. Reuel Kimball, who 
was installed May 14, 1817, and dis- 
missed for the want of support in 1826. 
The Rev. James Murdock and others 
were afterwards employed, and Mr. 
Kimball was re-engaged at a later period. 
The Rev. Evan Evans was employed 
from June 3, 1838, to August 12, 1843, 
and one year after, the Rev. Augustus 
L. Chapin began to preach. Others 
have been engaged for short periods, 
but for several years no stated services 
have been held, and the church num- 
bered in 1859 but two males and about 
a dozen females. The Presbyterian 
church of Leyden was built in 1821, and 
the First Presbyterian Society of Ley- 
den was formed under the statute, Jan- 
uary 3, 1826, with Abner Porter, Calvin 
B. Gay, and William Parks, trustees. 
It was changed to Congregational Jan- 

• Dr. Bass died February 20, 1858, aged sixty-seven 

f Samuel Douglass died February 22, 1874, aged 
seventy-two years. 

uary 4, 1836. Revivals occurred in 1824 
and 1 83 1, and protracted meetings have 
been held by Burchard, Crandall and 
Knapp. Some years since, the old 
church of this society was sold, and it 
has since been used as a cheese factory. 
In 1825, an effort was made to erect 
a Union church at Talcottville, but with- 
out success. The First Universalist 
Society in Leyden was formed June 4, 
1831, with Otis Munn, James Brooks, 
Joseph Burnham, Eliphalet Sears, 
Armstrong Malcom, Alfred Day and 
Ezra Miller, first trustees. A church 
was erected,* and the society has 
kept up its organization, although for 
several years it has not held regular 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church 
of Leyden was formed March 12, 1832, 
with Halsey Miller, Levi Hubbard and 
John Utley as trustees. A church edi- 
fice was erected at Talcottville, but this 
having much decayed, has been removed, 
and an arrangement recently made by 
which the Universalist church has been 
thoroughly repaired and is now owned 
by the two sects, but chiefly occupied 
by the Methodists. 

An Old School Baptist Church was 
formed May 22, 1834, in the shed of the 
Leyden church, consisting of five males. 
A few days after, four females united, 
and December 17, 1837, the church was 
dissolved, and united with this sect in 

A church was erected in Port Leyden 
and dedicated December 6, 1853. It 
has been used by the Congregationalists 
and others, and the title of its property 
has been, or is now, in suit. A Congre- 
gational church was legally organized 
at Port Leyden, May 2, 1859, with Alan- 
son Merwin, Daniel Scrafford and Syl- 
vester Stimson, trustees. 

* Joshua Stow, former proprietor of lands in this 
town, gave $50. He died about 1840. 



The Calvinistic Methodist Church of 
Port Leyden was formed March 9, 1855, 
with Rev. Edward Reese, Pierce Owens, 
David Roberts, Richard Roberts, Evan 
Evans, and John Hughes, trustees. It 
has not now a place of worship and the 
members attend at CoUinsville. 

The Congregational Church at Port 
Leyden, was organized November 3, 
1854, from the old church of Leyden, 
with fifteen members. The church 
they used was dedicated December 
6, 1853, and was owned in part by 
others, and was for a time in litigation. 
The pastors of this church have been as 
follows : — 

Rev. E. S. Barnes, (in connection with 
Boonville one year, and with Lyons Falls) 
till January, 1858 ; J. H.Richards, 1857- 
'59; Henry Budge, 1859-62; James B. 
Fisher, May, 1862, to May, 1867 ; George 
A. Miller, 1867 to 1871 ; W. W. Warner, 
October, 1871, to October, 25; 1874; J. 
S. Wilson, May i, 1875, to May i, 1877; 
Lewis Williams, since May i, 1877. 
Present number, 75. Present trustees, 
W. G. Hall, O. Betts, Oscar Wilson ; 
deacons, William G. Hall, J. W. Hol- 
comb, C. R. Hubbard. Parsonage owned 
by the society and free of debt. Church 
property valued at $3,500. Expect to 
build a new house of worship the com- 
ing year. 

The Leyden Methodist Episcopal Church 
was incorporated August 10, 1868. 
Richard Bailey, F. Tefts, McKaw, S. P 
Fo.K, O. Seymour, Orrin Thayer, T. J. 
Coe, and Selden Goff. 

St. Martins Church, (R. C.,) was built 
at Port Leyden, in i88o-'8i, .1 pastoral 
residence having existed several years 
before. The Rev. Eugene Carroll was 
the first resident priest, who resided 
till his death, in July, 1882. He has 
been succeeded by the Rev. James 

The church of this denomination is 
much the largest one in the village, and 
is externally of brick, with a timber 
frame within. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Port 
Leyden, organized a legal society, 
December 8, 1873, with Henry J. Botch- 
ford, Franklin B. Rugg, John J. Gills, 
H. N. Kellogg, and Robert Jaycock, 
as trustees. They erected a church 
soon afterwards. A parsonage was 
built in 1865. 

The Methodist Protestant Church has an 
organization on the east side, but no 
meetings are at present held. 

St. MarMs Church, (Protestant Episco- 
. pal,) of Port Leyden, was incorporated 
July 24, 1865, the Rev. R. McDuff, pre- 
siding. The first wardens were Augus- 
tus B. Snyder, and William H. Swinton, 
and the first vestrymen, Henry C. North- 
am, James A. Merwin, James EiWillard, 
John Gibson, Henry D. H. Snyder, Jr., 
Charles Wheelock, Edgar Jenks, and 
George W. Merrihew. 

They have a neat but small church on 
the western border of the village, erect- 
ed in 1865, and for which Mrs. Augustus 
Snyder was the first subscriber. The 
amount she gave was $500. 



Biographical Sketches. 

(JOHN n 


The family of Lord is of English ori- 
gin. Nathan Lord, grandfather of John 
D., and the first of the name of whom 
anything definite is known, was a resi- 
dent of Franklin, Connecticut, where he 
died at the age of 95, probably about the 
year 1830. He was twice married. His 
first wife was Abigail Ingraham, and his 
second wife was Mary Nevins. Their 
children were Asa, Peggy, Hannah, 
Charles, Mary, Gurdon, Rufus L., Na- 
than, Lydia, Lynds, Eleazer, Henry, 
David and Thomas. Of these children, 
Asa was born in Franklin, Connecticut, 

LD HH . ] 

October 6, 1767, and settled in Ley den, 
Lewis county, in 1794, on the farm now 
owned by Leonard S. Loomis, being one 
of the first three pioneers of that town. 
He was drowned on the 9th of April, 
1 8 18, by being swept over a mill-dam 
during a freshet at Madrid, St. Lawrence 

Gurdon, the father of John D., was 
born in Franklin, Connecticut, July 5, 
1780. He came to Lewis county at the 
age of 21, worked one summer, and in 
the next year, bought a farm in the town 
of Leyden, one portion of which is now 
owned by the sons of the late James S. 
Jackson, and another portion by John D. 



Lord. His life was the quiet and un- 
eventful life of a farmer. He married 
Sally Dewey, daughter of John Dewey, 
of Leyden, December 19, 1804. His death 
occurred October 18, 1866, and that of 
his wife April 13, 1861. Their children 

were : — 

Mary Rudd, born August 12, 1807, 
died October 12, 1809; Lydia Axie, born 
September 20, 18 10, married first, Will- 
iam Horr, second, AbnerHorr, and now 
a widow living in Cleveland, Ohio; John 
D.; Sarah Naomi, born July 3, 18 13, 
married Ruel Kimball, Jr., and now a 
widow living in Utica ; Nathan Lynds, 
born August 23, 1715, a Presbyterian 
minister, now (1883), in Rochester, Ind.; 
Mary Ann, born August i, 1818, died 
December 11, 1881. 

John D. Lord, the third child of Gur- 
don Lord and Sally Dewey, was born 
April I, 1812. His life has been passed 
in the pursuit of farming, in which he has 
been successful, and is owner of some of 
the finest land in the town. He received 
the education of the common schools, 
and to the learning thus derived, was 
added a well-poised mind of the rugged 
and independent type. He was united 
in marriage January 20, 1842, with Mary 
Bailey, of Lowville, who died July 11, 
1852 ; andonthe23d of October, 1855, he 
married Samantha Sawyer, a native of 
Brandon, Vt. His children were : — 

Sarah Elizabeth, born November 22, 
1843, married December 21, 1871, to 
Rev. Everett R. Sawyer, a native of 
New London, N. H., now a clergyman 
at Sandy Hill, Washington county, N. 
Y. ; Mary Bailey, born April 7, 1846, 
married August 18, 1875, to William H. 

Johnson, M. D., of Port Leyden ; John 
Albert, born January 17, 185 1, and died 
in infancy. 


The subject of this memoir was born 
in the town of Hunter, Greene county, 
N. Y., June 11, 1839. When in his 
ninth year, his father moved to Wood- 
land, Ulster county, N. Y., and engaged 
in the business of tanning, He attended 
the district schools of the neighborhood 
until his seventeenth year, when he en- 
tered the Ashland Collegiate Institute, 
where he remained three years, gradu- 
ating therefrom in 1859. He soon after 
entered the law office of King & Mat- 
toon, of Catskill, Greene county, N. Y., 
but after a year's study there, his health 
failed him, and he was obliged to give 
up the legal profession. 

In 1861, he enlisted in the 44th New 
York State Volunteers, and served three 
years in the Army of the Potomac, en- 
gaging in all the principal battles of 
that branch of the service. Here his 
bravery entitled him to recognition, and 
from the ranks of a private, he was suc- 
cessively promoted to sergeant, second 
and first lieutenant and captain, and dur- 
ing the major part of his last year's ser- 
vice, was acting-adjutant of the regi- 

After the regiment was mustered out 
of service, he returned to his home, and 
soon after engaged in the business of 
leather tanning with General Sampson, 
of Ulster county, N. Y., where he re- 
mained until the fall of 1866, when he 
married Clementina G. Woodworth, 

History of the town of leyden. 


daughter of David Woodworth, of 
Woodland, Ulster county, and soon after, 
in connection with his brother, G. M. 
Botchford, came to Lewis county, and 
built the Otter Lake tannery, where he 
remained until 1870. In that year he be- 
came connected with the Moose River 
tannery, having in the same year pur- 

Of this trade he was master, and he 
had a happy faculty of elucidating any 
proposition in which he was interested, 
so that he was equally capable, both as 
to the theory and the practice of leather 
making. In the conventions of the 
National Tanner's Exchange, held in 
Philadelphia, in 1876, and in New York, 


chased a residence in Port Leyden, 
where he lived up to the time of his 
death. In i879,he built a second tannery 
at Moose River, and in December, 1880, 
purchased in connection with his father, 
the Oswegatchie tannery, at Harrisville, 
N. Y. In these various and extensive 
enterprises, he displayed unusual busi- 
ness capacity, being quick in percep- 
tions, and of sound judgment in all 
affairs of business. 

in 1877, he was prominent among the 
debaters on the art of leather tanning. 

Politically, Mr. Botchford was a Re- 
publican, and for a time was as active as 
he was influential. In the fall of 1875, 
he was nominated for member of Assem- 
bly from Lewis county, but was defeated 
by twelve votes. 

In 1877, when Lewis and Jefferson 
counties were in the same senatorial dis- 
trict, he carried his county for State 



Senator, but was disqualified on ac- 
count of being postmaster at Moose 

Mr. Botchford was a prominent and 
devoted member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church of Port Leyden, and 
in all his various walks of business, 


Alanson, Amanda, M. H. and James 
A. Merwin. 

The ancestor of the Merwins in 
America, was Miles Merwin, who was 
born about 1623, in the north of Wales, 


church or politics, succeeded in mak- 
ing friends of all with whom he came 
in contact. 

At the time of his death, he was a 
partner with his brother, G. M. Botch- 
ford, as H. J. & G. M. Botchford, at Ot- 
ter Lake, and as H. J. Botchford & Co., 
at Moose River; also with his father, D. 
Botchford, of Botchford & Co., at Har- 

He died February 22, 1882, aged 42. 

or England, and in 1645, being then by 
trade a tanner, emigrated to New Eng- 
land, and settled in the town of Milford, 
Connecticut, there becoming the owner 
of a large tract of land, on Long Island 
Sound, and now known as Pond Point, 
or Merwin's Point — a quite celebrated 
local summer resort. This town was 
originally known as " Wepowage," and 
its settlement commenced in 1639, the 
pioneers being mostly from the counties 



of Essex, Hereford, and York, in Eng- 
land. At this place, Milford Miles died, 
April 23, 1697, aged 74. His family was 
as follows :— 

Eliza, who married a Mr. Canfield ; 
John, born in 1650, who settled at the 
homestead ; Abigail, who married Abel 
Hclbrook ; Thomas, who settled at Nor- 

about 1 7 ID, and was a proprietor there 
in 1724. He had a son Daniel, Jr., born 
about 1 7 16, who married Elizabeth Wells, 
December 20, 1738. Of this marriage 
was born James Merwin, grandfather to 
Alanson, October 19, 1739. The wife 
Elizabeth, died October 29, 1739, and 
the husband married again in 1741, and. 


walk. Conn.; Samuel, born August 21, 
1656, married Sarah Woodin, and set- 
tled at New Haven ; Miles, born 
December 14, 1658 ; Daniel, born in 
1661, and died young; Martha; Mary; 
Hannah, and Deborah, who married a 
Mr. Burwell. 

Miles, the son, was married in Sep- 
tember, 1681, and had a son Daniel, who 
was born in Milford, Conn., about 1685. 
This Daniel moved to Durham, Conn., 

had other children, some of whose de- 
scendants are now living in the vicinity 
of Kingston and Prescott, Canada. 
James Merwin married Martha Smith, 
who was born in 1736, and died August 
2, 1808. They lived in Haddam, Conn., 
where James died, February 13, 1790. 
Of this marriage, there were born, He- 
mon Merwin, August i, 1767, died Jan- 
uary I, 1844; Elizabeth, born 1769, died 
young; Rebecca, born May 13, 1771, 



married Daniel Carter, about 1803, died 
in 1849 ; Anna, born in 1773, died young; 
Martha, born December i, 1774, married 
James Clark, in 1789, died in 1849; 
James, father to Alanson, born June 5, 
1777; Daniel, born December i, 1779. 
died in 1836. 

James Merwin, father to Alanson, was 
born during the struggles of the Revo- 
lution, and his childhood was familiar 
with its trials and successes. Early left 
fatherless and poor, his education was 
but sufficient to enable him to read and 
write, and he depended on experience to 
give him whatever else he needed. At 
about sixteen years of age, he was ap- 
prenticed to learn the trade of black- 
smith, and at that practical school he 
graduated with a reputation second to 
none for industry, knowledge of his 
trade, and faithfulness to the interest of 
his employer. With this capital and a 
good constitution he started in hfe, and 
for several years was engaged at his 
trade in Haddam, Middletown, and the 
sea coast, being much employed as a 
ship blacksmith upon vessels being built 
on the Connecticut river. The desire to 
obtain a home,which operated then as it 
does now, led him with others, in the 
year 1800 to the Black River valley, 
whither the tide of immigration from his 
locality tended. The settlements then 
in New York State, west of Albany, 
were tew and scattering. Utica was but 
a hamlet in a swampy valley. Boon- 
ville had but two or three houses, and 
here and there in the woods beyond was 
a settler, who had built his log house, 
and was clearing and burning the woods 
for cultivation. Travel then was by 

the ox team or on foot. The bear and 
the Indian were the neighbors mostly 
seen. Men then were hardy and indus- 
trious, and foremost among them was 
James Merwin. At first he could buy 
and pay for but ten acres of land, and 
his practice was not to run in debt. 

To this region, then a wilderness, he 
came with his wife Esther, from Had- 
dam, Conn., in 1800, and settled in Ley- 
den, on the farm he owned and occupied 
until his death. Here he built a log house 
for himself and wife, and began to clear 
and till his few acres of land. During 
the day he worked on his farm, and at 
night he was at his forge, as work might 
come in. One fall, within a year or two 
after his arrival, he went on foot back to 
Connecticut, worked there during the 
winter at his trade, in ship building, and 
in the spring returned with funds enough 
to purchase another ten acres. During 
the War of 18 12, he served with the 
militia, when called out to Sackett's 
Harbor. After the war he continued 
his farming, always attending faithfully 
to his business, and performing all his 
engagements ; careful in all things, tem- 
perate, kind and humane, intellectually 
strong and sound in judgment, never 
neglecting his duties to his family, to 
society, or as a citizen ; modest in his 
demeanor, and never intruding himself 
in the way of others. For sixty-five 
years, he, with his faithful, intelligent 
and capable wife, sharing his labors and 
burdens and pleasures, lived upon the 
farm which in their youth they had 
selected for a home, and lived to see the 
wilderness turned into fruitful fields; 
their child and grand-children grown up 



and become settled in life, and their 
great-grandchildren gather about them, 
and lisp their names with affection and 

James Merwin died in Leyden, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1865. Esther Smith, his wife, 
died April 30th, of the same year. She 
was born in Haddam, Connecticut, Feb- 

Lucinda, Sabra, Clinton, Mary Ann, now 
deceased ; Sylvester, now deceased, and 

The only child of James and Esther 
Merwin was Alanson, who was born in 
the town of Leyden, February 23, 1801. 
Here he passed his early life where he 
was educated, and here through life he 

^^ cy/^i>''yx^O'~^''t^'^ 

ruary 5, 1782, and was the daughter of 
Lewis Smith and Anne Hubbard, his 
wife. This couple had two other chil- 
dren, Hannah, wife of Allen Augur, and 
Catharine, wife of Joseph Stimpson, 
both of whom settled early in Leyden. 
The sole representative of the family of 
Mrs. Augur, is Lewis Augur, of San 
Francisco, Cal. The family of Mrs. 
Stimpson, were Sydney, deceased ; Nel- 
son, Joseph, Catharine, now deceased; 

has been the architect of an honest name 
which men respect and his children re- 
vere. On the 13th of January, 1825, he 
married Amanda Kimball, and immedi- 
ately thereafter went to Hve upon their 
farm on the East road, in Leyden. Their 
children were James A. ; Huldah Kim- 
ball, born January 18, 1829, married Rev. 
George G. Saxe, now of New York ; 
Milton H., born June 16, 1832, now of 
Utica, N. Y. 



The wife of Alanson Merwin died 
in 1878. She was descended from the 
Kimballs who were at Ipswich, Mass., 
from 1650, and were numerous, origin- 
ating probably with Richard Kimball, 
who came from Ipswich, England, in 
1634. Henry, son probably of Richard, 
was at Ipswich in 1640, and Thomas 
was at Charlestown- in 1653. Boyce 

Kimball, a descendant of Richard, was 
born at Ipswich, June 26, 1731, and the 
record of the family of himself and Re- 
becca, his wife, is thus : — 

Boyce, born March 4, 1757; Rebecca, 
July 9, 1759; Jonathan, July 23, 1761 ; 
Ebenezer, December 3, 1764; Mary, 
September 11, 1767; Susanna, July 24, 
1769; Priscilla, November 21, 1771 ; 
Timothy, December 21, 1773; Richard, 
May 19, 1775; Amasa, May 23, 1777; 
Ruel, December 20, 1778. 

This Ruel was a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, and about the ist of January, 1799, 
married Hannah Mather, and settled in 
Marlboro, Vermont. Their family rec- 
ord is as follows : — 

Ruel, born December 24, 1799; Aman- 
da, April 13, 1802, at Marlboro, Vt. ; 
Cotton, June 7, 1804; Huldah, August 
I, 1806, at LeRay, died August 22, 1827 ; 
Alonzo, November 20, 1808; David M., 
November 25, i8io,died August i, 1813; 
David M., August 26, 1813, died Octo- 
ber 23, 1857; Lucy, July 31, 1815, mar- 
ried Rev. Henry Bannister ; Mary, De- 
cember 18, 1817, died March 4, 1852; 
Harriet, January 14, 1820, died Febru- 
ary 12, 1823 ; Martin L., September 24, 

Ruel Kimball, Sr., died October i, 
1847, at East Hampton, Mass., and his 

wife Hannah died at Ley den, March 9, 
1 860. She was the daughter of Timothy 
Mather and Hannah Church. Timothy 
Mather was descended from Richard 
Mather, who was born of an ancient 
family in Lowton, Parish of Winwick, 
Lancashire, England, and settled as a 
minister at Dorchester, Mass., in 1635, 
and was the grandfather of the cele- 
brated Cotton Mather. 

In the life and character of Rev. Ruel 
Kimball, as well as in that of his wife, 
Hannah, there was much that is inter- 
esting and mstructive, and that deserves 
a place in the memoirs of their descend- 
ants. Mr. Kimball, with but a common 
education, prepared himself for the min- 
istry, at a time when its duties were 
more than ordinaril}' laborious and self- 
denying, and when the burdens, too, 
rested heavily on the wives. He at first 
located in Marlboro, Vermont, and left 
there about 1805, for Leroy, Jefferson 
county, where he remained until about 
1 8 16, when he moved to Leyden, where 
he lived until his death. Though 
strict in his religious views and habits, 
he was still paternal and kind, with a 
heart always open to the unfortunate, 
and with a benevolence that was con- 
stant and up to the Scriptural standard. 
His wife was well fitted for her position, 
and was a woman of more than ordinary 
ability, and with an elevated standard 
both morally and intellectually. 

Of the children of Alanson Merwin 
and Amanda Kimball, James Merwin 
was born in Leyden, January 8, 1827. 
His early life was passed in this town, 
where he received the education of the 
common schools, and of Lowville Acade- 



my, supplemented by a two years' course 
in Wiliston Seminary, East Hampton, 
Mass. From the latter place he returned 
to Leyden in 1846, and for four years 
worked on his father's farm. He then 
went on to a farm of his own, where he 
remained one year, and in the fall of 
1851, came to Port Leyden, and engaged 

of Antwerp, Jefferson county, N. Y. She 
died in August, 1856. Their children 
were: — Julia, born August 9, 1853, mar- 
ried John L. Bickford, of Lowville ; Jane, 
born August 13, 1856, died in August, 
1859. He was niarried again October 
28, 1857, to Susan Scrafford, daughter 
of George Scrafford, of Albany. 


for three years in mercantile and lum- 
bering business. He then devoted his 
attention to the lumber trade, and built 
his present saw-mill in i860. He has 
held the office of supervisor for four 
vears, being elected by the Democratic 
party. In the fall of 1 874, he was elected 
by that party as Member of Assembly, 
and served one term, defeating Sydney 
Sylvester, by a majority of 202. In Sep- 
tember 1850, he married Julia Church, 


The family of the subject of this sketch 
is descended from two Scotchmen, broth- 
ers, who emigrated to this country at an 
early day. One of these brothers settled 
in Vermont, the other in Connecticut, 
and from the latter is descended this 
branch of the family. The celebrated 
Stephen A. Douglass, it is said, was a 
descendant of the brother who settled 
in Vermont. 



The father of Norton was Jonathan 
Douglass who was born, probably in 
Connecticut, September 21, 1774, and 
who came to Lewis county in 1802, lo- 
cating on a farm in the town of Ley den, 
now owned by George Banning. His 
wife was Rachel Allen, whom he married 
in Saybrook, Conn., in October, 1798, 
She was born January 25, 1778, and died 
in 1 843. Jonathan Douglass died in Port 
Leyden, in i860. His children were 
Rachel, born May 4, 1801 ; Jonathan Jr., 
born July 11, 1803 ; Allen, born June 25. 
1805; Norton; Amanda, born August 
17, 1813; Asa, born December — , 1815. 
Rachel married Sylvanus Heath. Aman- 
da married Warren Allen. 

Norton Douglass was born in the town 
of Leyden, June 27, 1809. He passed 
his earlier years on his father's farm, re- 
ceiving the education of the district 
schools, and at the age of eighteen, went 
to Utica to learn the trade of edge-tool 
maker. Here he served a three years' 
apprenticeship under Alfred Windsor, 
and then for four years worked as jour- 
neyman for Windsor & Morris. He 
then went to Newport, Herkimer county, 
where he engaged in the manufacture of 
axes, in which business he continued four 
years. At the expiration of that time 
he returned to Utica and hired the 
manufactory of his former employers, 
which he conducted one year. From 
there he moved to Clarksville, near Au- 
burn, where for four years he was en- 
gaged in the manufacture of hoes. He 
next established a trip-hammer shop at 
Seneca Falls, which he run one year and 
sold to Alfred Gould, and went to Wa- 
tertown, N. Y., where he hired a water 

trip-hammer shop and engaged for some 
ten or twelve years in the manufacture 
of axes. This business he sold out, and 
bought a farm about two miles from 
Watertown where he remained four 
years, and from there went to Clay- 
ville, Oneida county, where he worked 
one year for S. A. Millard, in the manu- 
facture of hoes and forks. He then went 
to Bald wins ville, Onondaga county, and 
worked four years for the Morris Axe 
and Tool Company. In 1867, he re- 
moved from there to Leyden, and en- 
gaged in the flour and feed business, 
purchasing in 1875, the Port Leyden 
steam niill, which is now (1883), under 
his management. 

On the 14th of September, 1832, Mr. 
Douglass was married to Sally B. Shaw, 
of Utica. She died on the second of July 
of the following year, and on the 15th 
of April, 1834, he married Charlotte 
Elizabeth Furman, of Utica, by whom 
he had six children. She died March 
4. 1879. The children were: Helen, 
born January 8, 1836, married E. G. 
Hutchinson, of Phoenix, N. Y. ; Euo-ene, 
born August 20, 1837, died November 
15, 1838; Frances Josephene, born Au- 
gust 22, 1843, died June 22, 1847; 
Gertrude M., born July 22, 1845, died 
June 22, 1847; Mary R., born April 15, 
1849, married Oscar Howard, of Bald- 
winsville, N. Y. 

In 1 88 1, Mr. Douglass was married to 
his present wife, Elizabeth McNeal, of 
Coldbrook, Herkimer county, N. Y. 

The first that is known of the ances- 
tors of this branch of the Douglass fami- 



ly was Israel, grandfather to the subject 
of this sketch, who came from Scotland 
to America at an early day and settled 
in Middletown, Connecticut, and from 
thence removed to Lewis county. His 
children were Lydia, Annie, Jonathan,* 
Israel, Nathan, Salmon. One, Ruth, 
died with small-pox. 

Oneida county ; Roxana, born Feb- 
ruary 16, 18 14, married Orrin Kenyon, 
of Lee, Oneida county, died August 
II, 1875; Lydia S., born March 20, 1815, 
married William H. Jacobie, of Port 
Leyden ; David D., born February 2, 
1817; Achsah, born June 22, 1819, mar- 
ried William Post, of Leyden ; Salmon 

[DiiiriD n, nnuELiiss, m. d. 

Salmon was born in Saybrook, Con- 
necticut, February 24, 1786. He mar- 
ried Roxie Hubbard, of Saybrook, Con- 
necticut, in 1798. He died in Ellisburgh, 
Jefferson county, August 25, 1851. 

His wife died October 14, 1826. Their 
children were : Marilla, born Septem- 
ber 23, 1809, married John A. Clarke, 
of Leyden ; Julia H., born January 2, 
18 12, married Joseph Kenyon, of Lee, 

• Father of Norton Douglass. 

J., born April 11, 1 821, died in Sandy 
Creek, Oswego county, August 28, 

Salmon Douglass married for his 
second wife Prudence Halley, ot Weth- 
ersfield, Conn., March 13, 1827. By her 
he had five children — Horace L., born in 
Sandy Creek, March 12, 1828, dead; Pru- 
dency, born in Sandy Creek, February 6, 
1 83 1, married Ogden Edwards, of Ellis- 
burgh, N. Y., is now in Minnesota; 



Charles, born in Sandy Creek, Sep- 
tember I, 1834, killed July 3, 1854, in 
California, by the caving in of a mining 
shaft while digging for gold; Harriet 
L., born March 13, 1837, at Sandy Creek, 
married Allen M. Johnston, of Lee, 
Oneida county, died in 1872 ; Frances A., 
born June 6, 1841, at Sandy Creek, mar- 
ried first, Joel Merills, second, Allen M. 

Salmon, father to David D., was a 
physician who began his practice after 
the age of thirty-five, and pursued it 
successfully in Oswego and Jefferson 
counties until his death. Three of his 
sons were also physicians of some re- 
pute of the Eclectic practice. 

David D. Douglass was born in Ley- 
den, New York, February 2, 18 17, in 
which place he passed his early life. He 
passed through the studies of the com- 
mon schools, and attended the academy 
at Mexico, Oswego county, two years, 
and also at Geddes, Onondaga coun- 
ty, nearly two years more. At this 
latter place was located a school of Phy- 
sicians where he studied medicine, and 
from there went to Sandy Creek, where 
for five years he practiced his chosen 
profession with his father. At the ex- 
piration of that time he came to Leyden 
where he remained some two years, and 
then returned to Sandy Creek where he 
resided one year. He then removed to 
Oswego City for three years' practice, 
then to Leyden where he has since re- 
mained in the practice of his profession. 
At that time the village of Port Leyden 
was but a hamlet. Here he invested 
largely in real estate, built numerous 
buildings, and interested himself gener- 

ally in the welfare of the village and 
town. In 1859, he began business as a 
druggist, in connection with his profes- 
sion, and continued it until 1879, when 
he sold to E. D. Spencer, his son-in-law. 
In 1870, he built the Douglass House, the 
leading hotel of Port Leyden, and in 1879 
and 1880, erected the Douglass Block, a 
commodious and beautiful brick edifice 
on the main street, devoted to mercantile 
and official pursuits. In these and many 
other ways Dr. Douglass has been instru- 
mental in the upbuilding of the village. 
On the 29th day of September, 1839, 
he married Harriet L. Clark, of Ley- 
den, daughter of Elder John Clark,* a 
Baptist minister, and one of the first 
settlers in the town of Leyden. Their 
children were : — Eugene C, born Sep- 
tember 3, 1843, in Leyden— a bright, in- 
telligent young man, was drowned at 
Midland City, Michigan, in the Titawa- 
boise river, February 28, 1863, body 
found March 8th, and brought to Port 
Leyden for burial ; — Emogene B., born 
November 20, 1845, in Sandy Creek, 
married Edward D. Spencer, of Port 


The subject of this sketch is descended 
from James Johnson, a native of Eng- 
land, who went to Ireland and married 
an Irish lady of the name of Dority, and 
in that country died, at what date is 
unknown. The children of James John- 
son were Charles, William, James, John, 
Margaret, Mary and Elizabeth. Of these 

* The first Baptist church at Talcottville was organ- 
ized with five members, (four males and one female,) at 
the house of Thomas Brayton, April 22, 1803, by Elder 
John Clark, its first pastor. 



children, James came to America, en- 
tered the Union army at the outbreak 
of the Rebellion, and was killed at the 
siege of Petersburgh; Margaret died in 
Columbus, Ohio ; Mary died in New 
York; Elizabeth died in Ohio; William 
is now Hving at Florence Court, County 

some years the occupations of farmer 
and merchant; was for four years an 
officer in the New York State Senate, 
and during the last fourteen years of 
his life was an officer in the House of 

He married Rachel Emery, of Duanes- 

^^^A^- /^.^^^^*^^>^' ^^.2j 

Fermanaugh, Ireland ; and John is a 
colonel in the English service. 

Charles, the father of William H., was 
born at Florence Court, County Fer- 
manaugh, Ireland, about the year 
1820, and came to America about 1832, 
at the age of twelve years; locating 
first in Canada, then in St. Lawrence 
county, N. Y.,from whence he removed 
to Norway, Herkimer county, N. Y., 
where he died in 1873. He followed for 

burg, Montgomery county, N. Y. To 
them were born the following chil- 
dren: — George G., born May 5, 1838; 
Wilham H. ; Allen J., born May 24, 
1842 ; Sarah L., born August 2, 1845 ! 
Catherine E., born February 23, 1848, 
died in September, 1875. 

William Henry Johnson, the second 
child, was borr) October 9, 1840. 
His early life was passed in Herkimer 
county upon the farm, and in attendance 



at the common schools in the village of 
Graysville. He afterwards attended 
the Seminary at Whitestown, Oneida 
county. His father intended that he 
should lead the life of a farmer, and in 
obedience to his wishes, WiUiam for a 
few years plodded the weary way of 
the ploughman with uncongenial foot- 
steps. He resolved at last to break 
away from labor so entirely at variance 
with his tastes and inclinations, and hew 
out for himself a newer and a better 
path. He had that faith in himself 
without which success in life is impos- 
sible in any calling, and added to that, 
he had the gift of patient labor. It is 
said that genius consists, in the main, of 
a prodigious capacity for hard work. 
His secret longings, during the uncon- 
genial routine of farm work, were to- 
ward the study of medicine, — to wield 
the scalpel^rather than to hold the plow, 
— and he determined to enter upon a 
course of instruction that would gratify 
those longings ; to shrink from no labors, 
however hard, that would tend to that 
result, and to study, without an attempt 
to practice, until he had mastered, as 
far as it was possible, the intricacies of 
his chosen profession. Accordingly, in 
1868, at the age of twenty-eight, he en. 
tered the office of Dr. S. R. MilHngton, 
in Poland, Herkimer county, and began 
his medical studies. The first few years 
of his new life were years of up-hill work ; 
but possessing a resolute and deter- 
mined spirit, he fought his way against 
many obstacles, and with the one idea 
of becoming a skillful physician, he 
studied in season and out of season, to 
perfect himself in the calling of his 

choice. Studying diligently for some 
time in Poland, he attended his first 
course of lectures at the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and immediate- 
ly after attended three successive 
courses of lectures at Bellevue Hospital 
College, New York City, in 1869, '70, 
'71, graduating therefrom the 2d of 
March of the latter year. On the 26th 
of April, 1 87 1, he came to Port Leyden 
and established a practice that has been 
both successful and lucrative. He was 
chosen as the President of the Lewis 
County Medical Society, and has been 
a delegate to the State Medical So- 
ciety for the past six years. In 1882, 
he was elected a permanent member 
of that society, probably the first per- 
manent member ever elected in Lewis 

On the 6th of March, 1872, he was 
married to Mary J. Nichols, of Fairfield, 
Herkimer county, who died on the i6th 
of July in the following year ; and on 
the 1 8th of August, 1875, he married 
Mary B. Lord, daughter of John D. 
Lord, of Leyden. His children are : May 
Lord, born August 9, 1876; John Emery, 
born May 21, 1878; Ruth Mabel, born 
February 7, 1880; and Helen Edith, 
born June 20, 1882. 


The grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch was a resident of Middletown, 
Conn. He was a sea-faring man, and, 
contracting small-pox, died in Middle- 
town when Joseph, the father of Joseph 
S., was a small boy. 

Joseph Burnham was born in Middle- 



town, Conn., January 7, 1787, and came 
to the town of Leyden at the age of fif- 
teen, where he remained until the year 
1808. In that year he went south, trav- 
eling through Virginia and North Caro- 
Hna as a dealer in tinware, and there re- 
mained until 'the breaking out of the 
War of 1 81 2, when he returned to Ley- 

visor and Loan Commissioner. He was 
a member of the Universalist church, 
and was regarded as a man of sound and 
liberal views. His wife, Eliza, who was 
born March 4, 1788, died December 21, 
1865. Their children were: Louisa, 
born April 12, 181 5, married Orrin 
Hutchinson, and settled in New York ; 


den and was drafted and furnished a ; 
substitute. In 18 14, he went into trade 
in the old house situated on the farm 
now owned by Noah C. Brooks, and ; 
was for seventeen years a merchant in 
the town of Leyden. On the loth of 
July, 1 8 14, he was married to Eliza Rice, 
and settled on the farm now owned by 
Joseph S., where he remained until his 
death, which occurred May 22, 1864. 
He was for a number of years Super- 

Juliet, born September 23, 1817, married 
Dr. Charles N. Bass, and is now a widow 
in Boonville, N. Y. ; Joseph S., the third 
child, was born in Leyden October 6, 
1825. He was born in the house in 
which he now lives, and received his 
education in the common schools and 
at Williston Seminary, East Hampton, 
Mass. On the 4th of June, 1867, he 
married Elvira S. Brooks, daughter of 
Matthew T. Brooks, of Leyden, who was 



born April 29, 1834. Their children 
were : Eliza M., born November 22, 
1869 ; Frederic C. J., born June 4, 1871. 


Among the genial, intelligent and en- 
terprising citizens ot Lewis county, none 

purchased a large tract of land near 
Carthage Landing. He remained there 
a short time and sold this land and re- 
moved to the town of Greig, Lewis 
county, where he entered upon the oc- 
cupation of carpenter and joiner and 
bridge builder, which he followed for a 
number of years. In that town he 

deserve more favorable mention than 
Thaddeus E. Munn. His father was 
Otis Munn, who was born in Greenfield, 
Mass., November 20, 1792, and who re- 
moved from that place to Champion, 
Jefferson county, N. Y., in 1812. There 
he remained a short time and returned 
home, and on the 15th of April, 1815, 
married Parmelia Jenings, of Green- 
field, Mass. Soon after his marriage he 
removed to Rochester, N. Y., where he 

bought a farm which he sold, and moved 
to Leyden about 1839, where he pur- 
chased the farm now owned by Thad- 
deus. Here for nearly forty years he 
lived the life of a farmer, and died Aug. 
31, 1880. His wife died May 5, 1876. 
Their children were : — 

Franklin Lyon, born October 2, 18 16, 
died December 29, 1847; Margaret J., 
born February 25, 18 19, married Francis 
W. Northrop, of Lowville, now of Utica ; 



Mary P., born August 20, 1821, mar- 
ried Walter Whittlesey, of Lyons Falls, 
died March 25, i860; Chester J., born 
July 16, 1824; George W., born Octo- 
ber 6, 1827, died August 23, 1839 : Helen 
M., born February 9, 1830, married 
Henry Shedd, of Lyons Falls, died Oc- 
tober 30, 1863. 

Thaddeus Eugene Munn, the seventh 
child, was born July 29, 1835. His 
early life was passed about home in 
attendance on the common schools. At 
the age of thirteen he entered the Low- 
ville Academy, under the tuition of Pro- 
fessor Mayhew, where he studied two 
and a half years. At the expiration of that 
time he engaged as clerk in the store of 
F. W. Northrop, at Lowville, where he 
remained one year, and went with him 
to Zanesville, Ohio, where he was con- 
nected with him in the dry-goods busi- 
ness nearly two years. He then returned 
and entered upon a preparatory course 
of study for college at Fairfield, Herki- 
mer county. Here he studied one year, 
and went to Williston Seminary, East 
Hampton, Mass., where he remained 
another year, and entered the second 
term as freshman in Union College, 
Schenectady, graduating therefrom in 
1861. During the next four years, 
through the eventful struggle of the Re- 
bellion, he devoted much of his time to 
pubHc speaking at the patriotic war 
meetings that were held to raise funds 
and volunteers, and gained for himself 
a respectable name as a champion of the 
Federal cause. A member of the Re- 
publican party, yet not an office seeker 
or a politician in the corrupted sense, he 
was elected by that party as supervisor 

in 1870, and held that office six consecu- 
tive terms. On the 3d of September, 
1868, Mr. Munn married Adeline S. 
Baker, daughter of Thomas Baker, of 
Talcottville, who was born September 
23, 1836. The only child of this mar- 
riage is Thaddeus Eugene, Jr., born 
May 13, 1869. 


Among the early settlers in the Black 
River country, was Isaac Hall, who 
came from Wallingford, Conn., about 
the year 1802, and settled on a tract of 
land lying on the West road, adjacent to 
the village of Talcottville. 

This was a part of a purchase, in sec- 
tions, made by him, of some six hundred 
acres. The farm owned and occupied 
by Eli Hall, his grandson, is the old 
homestead, and the old frame house at 
the intersection ol the Talcottville road 
with the West road, was built by him, 
where he resided till his death, in the 
year 18 10. 

His sons were, John, Isaac, Jonathan, 
Abijah, and Joseph who was born at 
the old homestead in Leyden. The 
elder sons came from Connecticut, and 
settled on sections of land near by, a 
part being from the original purchase 
by their father. 

Mary, his eldest daughter, married 
William Topping, who settled on the 
farm now occupied by Loren Drake. 
He was the first settler in Lewis 
County. Isaac Hall's ancestor, " John 
Hall, the emigrant," as he is called by 



Henry Stanley Davis, in his history of 
Wallingford, -Conn., emigrated to this 
country about the year 1639, landing in 
Boston, and setthng in New Haven, 
Conn. It is not recorded from what 
country he emigrated, but it is probable 
that he came from England. 

He and his sons, John, Thomas, and 
Samuel, removed to Wallingford about 
the year 1669, as their names appear on 
the Plantation Covenant of i669-'70-';42. 
In 1675, he and his son, John, were 
chosen selectmen of Wallingford. He 
died early in 1676, aged seventy -one 

Lyman Hall, one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, and after- 
wards Governor of Georgia, was great- 
grandson of " John Hall, the emigrant," 
and grandson of Samuel Hall. 

Thomas, son of " John Hall, the emi- 
grant," was born March 25, 1649, died 
September 17, 1 73 1 , aged sixty -two years, 
five months, seventeen days. 

Jonathan, son of Thomas and Grace 
Hall, was born July 25, 1675, died Janu- 
ary 15, 1760, aged eighty years, seven- 
teen days. 

Dr. Isaac Hall, son of Jonathan and 
Dinah (Andrews) Hall, was born July 
II, 1714, died March 7, 1781, aged sixty- 
six years. He married Miiry Moss. He 
was the first practicing physician in 
Meriden, Conn. His great-grandson, 
Nathan Kelsey Hall, was Postmaster- 
General under Fillmore's administra- 
tion, and afterwards United States 
Judge for the Northern District of 
New York. 

The mother of one of the early settlers 
in Lewis county, John Ives, Esq., father 

of the late Selden Ives, Esq., of Turin, 
was the eldest daughter of Dr. Isaac 

Isaac Hall, an early settler in the Black 
River country, son of Dr. Isaac and 
Mary (Moss) Hall, was born March 7, 
1745, died February 17, 18 10, aged sixty- 
four years, eleven months, ten days. He 
married first, Phebe Ives, second, Lois 
Buckley, mother of his youngest son, 

Jonathan, son of Isaac and Phebe 
(Ives) Hall, was born August 22, 1776, 
died February 22, 1841, aged sixty- 
four years, five months and twenty- 
nine days. He married first, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Dr. John Hoadley, second, 
Sally Jenks, daughter of WiUiam 
Jenks. His sons were Jehiel Hoadley, 
Daniel, Jonathan, Isaac, William Jenks, 
and Newton. 


The ancestry of the subject of this 
sketch cannot be traced farther back 
than his father, Calvin Roberts, who 
was born in Connecticut, May 2, 1777, 
and who married Anna Brainard, March 
6, 1799, who was born in the same month 
and year in which he was born. The 
earlier portion of the father's life was 
passed at the trade of shoemaking, and 
the latter portion was devoted to farm- 
ing. Calvin Roberts died in West Turin, 
Lewis County, N. Y., in May, 1835. His 
wife died in August. 1855. Their chil- 
dren were six in number, Amanda, 



Clarinda, Ira, Priscilla, Chauncey, and 

Chauncey Roberts was born in Turin, 
Lewis County, May 5, 1810. He was 
educated in the common schools, and 
lived in that town until 1839, when he 

born to this marriage, William M., born 
September 22, 1838, died February i, 
1864, and Mary E., born December 27, 
1841, who married Walter D. Jackson, 
of Boonville, Oneida county, October i, 


moved to Leyden, where the remainder I Mr. Chauncey Robert