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Full text of "History of the counties of McKean, Elk, Cameron and Potter, Pennsylvania, with biographical selections; including their early settlement and development; a description of the historic and interesting localities; sketches of their cities, towns and villages ... biographies of representative citizens; outline history of Pennsylvania; statistics"

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F 157M2T48" ""'"""^ "-'""^ 


*^'*'inliyiiii?iiiiitiill? "^O""*'** Of McKean, Elk, 


null mini iiiiniiniii 

3 1924 028 854 300 


Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 




IcKeai Elk, Cameron and Potter, 












John Morris Company, 

118 AND 120 MoNRoc Street, 



Go fix some weighty truth ; 
Chain down some passion; do some good; 
Teach ignorance to see or grief to smile; 
Correct thy friend; hefriend thy greatest foe; 
Be just in all things; make amends 
For follies past, and, with warm heart, 
Forgive, and be forgiven. Let work not words 
Thy virtue prove. Go act as well as prate. 
And then thy counsels will be strong, 
Thy reprimands avail— Anon. 

THE province of the historian is to gather the threads of the past ere they 
elude forever his grasp, and weave them into a harmonious web to which 
the ' ' art preservative ' ' may give immortality. Therefore he, who would res- 
cue from fast -gathering oblivion the deeds of a community, and send them on 
to futurity in an imperishable record, should deliver a plain, unvarnished tale. 
In such a spirit have the compilers of the following pages approached the work 
of detailing the history embodied therein, and trust they have been fairly 
faithful to the task imposed. It has been their honest endeavor to trace the 
history of the development of this section from that period when it was in the 
indisputed possession of the red man to the present, and to place before the 
reader an authentic narrative of its rise and progress to the prominent position 
it now occupies in the Keystone State. 

This volume has been prepared in strict accordance with the announce- 
ments , made in the prospectus issued more than a year ago. 'The publishers 
were fortunate in securing the services of Prof. M. A. Leeson, whose many years 
of labor in the field of local history have especially fitted him for the work. To 
him was assigned the task of preparing the general histories of these counties. 

The biographical sketches, which are an important feature of the work, 
were prepared, for the most part, by a special corps of writers, who gathered 
the facts from those immediately interested, to whom they were submitted, in 
type- written form, for revision and correction. The personal and family his- 
tories given in these sketches chronicle much interesting and valuable matter 
which, through death and the ravages of time, would otherwise be lost, and it is 
believed that in succeeding years they will be found to possess an additional 
interest and value. 

The volume is believed to contain a larger and more varied amount of his- 
torical materials than was ever before embodied in a local history; but he who 
expects to find it entirely free from errors or defects has little knowledge of 
the difficulties attending the preparation of a work of this kind. To procure 
material for its compilation, official records have been carefully examined; 
newspaper files searched; manuscripts, letters and memoranda have been 


sought, and hundreds of citizens interviewed. In some cases it was necessary 
to reconcile contradictory statements. Some errors are unavoidable. The pub- 
lishers trust that the book will be received in that generous spirit which is grati- 
fied at honest and conscientious effort, and not in that captious spirit which 
refuses to be satisfied short of unattainable perfection. 

Throughout the pages of the history of the counties literary credit is given 
to those, who, in earlier years, did so much for the cause of history in this 
district; acknowledgment is made to others for the ready assistance given in 
the prosecution of the work. The number who have assisted by suggestion, 
relation or written testimony to render this volume what it is, is too large to 
warrant individual mention here, but the aid and courtesy of each one are fully 
remembered and appreciated. 

Special thanks are tendered to the prothonotaries, commissioners' clerks 
and recorders, and to all other ofiicials of these counties, for their co-opera- 
tion with the writer in searching the public record books and documents. To 
the clerks of the boroughs and the record keepers of religious, secret, benevo- 
lent, temperance and military organizations, acknowledgement is gratefully 
made for their material aid. 

To the members of the newspaper circle of McKean county, who not only 
permitted the examination of their most valuable files, but also suggested many 
interesting historical points, hitherto unpublished, much of the complete char- 
acter of this volume must be credited. The files examined comprise the Mirier, 
in possession of Lucius Rogers; the Reporter, of A. J. Hughes; the Era and 
older papers, as well as the Oil Neivs, of the Era Publishing Company, through 
Editors P. C. Boyle and A. L. Snell; the Star, of the Star Publishing Company, 
through Editor H. E. Barbour; the Eldred Eagle, of A. D. Gould; the McKean 
Democrat, of Clark Wilson; the Kane Leader, of Ada C. Malone, and the 
Oswayo Valley Mail, of J. P. Herrick; while a thorough summary was made 
of the old newspaper files of 1832-42; of the King survey books of 1799-1805, 
and historical papers of Orlo J. Hamlin, published in 1832, all in possession of 
Byron D. Hamlin. The reminiscences of Loyal Ward, and the private docu- 
ments in possession of Henry Hamlin, proved very valuable. 

To the editors of Elk county an equal measure of thanks is extended. The 
old files of the Advocate, in possession of Jerome Powell, the new ones, of 
Editor Baker, the files of the Democrat, of George R. Dixon; the Gazette, of 
the Wilmarth Brothers, and the Herald, of F. A. Jacob, yielded up a wealth 
of local history. The pamphlet entitled Our Common Schools, by George R. 
Dixon, the papers by Erasmus Morey, Jefferson L. Brown and George A. 
Rathbun, with short sketches by Henry Souther and Dr. C. R. Earley, con- 
tributed largely to render the history of Elk county complete; while the collec- 
tion of old school records and documents in possession of Charles Luhr, and 
the reminiscences of Ignatius Garner, were invaluable contributions to the 
sketches of Benzinger township and St. Mary's borough. Prom copies of the 
Clarion Breeze accounts of modern Johnsonburg and vicinity are taken. 

Cameron county has been especially fortunate in the number of her his- 
torians. In 1875 one of the pioneers of theSinnemahoning, John Brooks, 
contributed a very interesting historical paper to the literature of the times. 
He was followed by Dr. Lanning and J. B. Newton. All their writings were 
published in the Cameron County Press. Prior and subsequent to Centen- 
nial year the veteran editor of the Press, C. B. Gould, left little or nothing 
undone to render his journal a great, con temporary record, so that to the his- 
torical writers named, and their editor, the complete character of the history 
of Cameron county must be credited. Prom the files of the Independent, 'Oi 


S. S. Hacket, many facts connected with the development of the lumber in- 
dustry were taken, and from the Driftwood Gazette, of J. T. Earl & Co. , much 
relating to the progress of the lower townships. 

In Potter county acknowledgments are due to Edwin Haskell, editor of the 
Potter County Journal; to W. W. Thompson, owner of a valuable collection of 
local newspapers ; to A. J. Evans, of the Ulysses Sentinel; to D. W. Butterworth, 
of the Enterprise, and to H. D. Caskey, of the Austin Autograph. To E. O. 
Austin literary credit must be given for the history of Austin and Costello, 
and their great industries, as published in the Autogragh ; indeed, his history 
published in 1869—71 must be considered the first written of Potter county. Dr. 
E. S. Mattison' s historical manuscript was unhesitatingly granted for the use of 
the compiler, and from it many valuable pages of the county's history were 
taken; to his earnest efforts much of the complete character of the story of 
poneer life is due. 

To all people, whose intelligent cooperation renders this work successful, 
is sent a message of hope and belief that this volume will prove authentic 
and be acceptable. 



' > * < -«-^ 

History of Pennsylvania. 

Introductory.— First Settlers Along the 
Delaware— William Penn— His Early Diffl- 
culties— Dissensions in the Colony- Penn's 
Second Visit to the Province— Accession 
of Governor Keith— French and Indian 
War— Franklin's Mission to England— The 

Boundary Line— Struggle for Independence 
—Convention of 17S7— Constitution of 1790— 
Whisky Insurrection— Stone Coal— Conven- 
tion of 1837— Pennsylvania in the War of 
the Eebellion— Subsequent Events 17-48 

History of JSiloKean County. 

CHAPTEK I.— Topographs and Natu- 
ral History.— Boundary and Area— Land 
Cessions and Purchases— Population— As- 
sessment Statistics— General Description — 
Topography— Creek Nomenclature— Vege- 
tation — Liunher Manufacture— Game and 
Fish— Fossils— Coal Mines— Gas Wells 53-58 

CBLAPTEK II.— Oil Fields.— Early Discov- 
eries of Oil— Coal Oil Mills and Oil Wells- 
Oil Companies— Wells of the Pioneer Period 
—The Bradford Oil Field—" Shut In " by 
Producers— Pipe Lines and Companies- 
Well Drilling, Past and Present— Oil Scouts 
—Well Torpedoes— Miscellaneous 58-94 

CHAPTEK III.— Pioneers and Pioneer 
Days.— Prehistoric Eemains— Indians— In- 
dian Land Purchases— Sale of Lands— Early 
Surveys and Settlements— Early Tax-payers 
—Underground Kailroad— Hunting— Storms 
and Floods— First Court-house— First Ball 
—Early Wedding — Early Incidents and 
Keminiscences— County Centennial Celebra- 
tion 95-105 

CHAPTER IV.— Transactions of the 
County Commissioners. — Organization 
of the County— Holland Land Company's 
Lands— John Keating's Liberality— Smetli- 
poit, the County Town— CoimtyAdministra^ 
tion — County Buildings — Public Eoads — 
Bridges— Poor Farm- Mortgages— Forfeit- 
edLands 105-112 

CHAPTER v.— Courts and Bar.— First 
Courts— Character of the Early Bench and 
Bar, with Dates of Admission of Members 
Prior to 1878— Celebrated Causes— Judges 
and Associate Judges— Prominent Attor- 
neys, Prothonotaries, etc.— Attorneys Ad- 
mitted to the McKean Coimty Bar since May, 
1878, Term— Olio J. Hamlin— John W. Howe 

CHAPTER VI.— Political Affairs.— In- 
troductory— Orlo J. Hamlin— Elections for 
Governor, 1835— Elections from 1840 to 1883 
—General Elections, 1884 to 1889-Prohibit- 
ory Amendment Vote, 1889 121-128 

CHAPTER VII.— Military History.- 
Forty-second Regim'ent (Bucktails)— Col. 
Kane— Fifty-eighth Regiment, P. V. I.— 
Eighty-third Regiment, P. V. I.— One Him- 
dred and Fittiefli Regiment, P. V. I.— One 
Hundred and Seventy-second Regiment, P. 
V. I.— Two Hundrecl and Eleventh Regi- 
ment, P. V. I.— Miscellaneous 128-144 

Addendum. — List of soldiers buried in 
the vicinity of Bradford 569-570 

CHAPTER VIII.— Newspapers— Schools 
— Physicians. — Newspapers — Introduc- 
tory—Journals and Journalists— Bradford 
Newspapers— Bradford Press Club— Miscel- 
laneous Journals. Schools— Grant of Land 
and Money by John Keating— First Schools- 
Primitive Eleemosynary Institution— Early 
School at Smethport — Education Law — 
School Commissioners and Delegates- 
School Tax— Statistical Report for 1888. 
Medical — Physicians, Past and Present — 
Early Practitioners— Indian Doctors— Re- 
markable Cure — Itinerant Disciples of Ms- 
culapius— McKean County Medical Associa- 
tion—List of Medical Men Who Have Regis- 
tered in McKean County since 1881 144-154 

CHAPTER IX.— Railroads. -The Kinzua 
Viaduct— The Warren Railroad Convention 
— Sunbui-y & Erie R. R.— Buffalo, Bradford 
& Pittsburgh R. E.— The Turkey Path— Sale 
of the Western New York & Pennsylvania 
R. R.— Clean. Bradford & Warren R. R.— 
Bradford & Foster Brook R. R.— The " Peg 
Leg" Line— Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua 
R.R.— Bradford, DeGolier & Smethport R. 
R.— Pittsburgh, Bradford & Buffalo Ry., and 
Big Level & Bradford R. R.— Big Levgl & 
Kinzua R. R.— Bradford R. R. and Kinzua 
R. R.— Bradford & State Line R. R. Co.— 
Buffalo Division of Rochester & Pittsburgh 
R. R. Co.— Miscellaneous 155-161 

CHAPTER X.— Bradford Township and 
City of Bradford.— Brad/ord Tmimship. 
—General Description— Census Statistics- 
Early Settlers — Land Warrants and Com- 
panies—Early Schools and Churches— Some 



First Things— Bradford Village in 187.5— 
Township Officers Elected in 1890— Villages. 
CWj of BradfortJ- Pioneers— Origin of the 
Town — Oil Boom, etc.— Fires— Municipal 
Affairs — Light and Heat Companies — 
Banks, Etc.— Oil Exchanges— Post-offlce— 
Hotels — Schools — Churches — Cemeteries — 
Hospital — Societies, etc. — Manufacturing 
and Other Industries— Conclusion 162-214 

OUGH OF Kendall— CORVDON" Town- 
ship.— Poster Tot«?is/iip— Formation— Cen- 
sus— Fires— Township Officers Elected in 
1890— Villages. Borough of ifend«!l— Locar 
tlon— Population— Business— Peg-Leg Line 
—Incidents— Fires, etc. —Elections— Scliools 
— Churches— Cemetery— Societies. Corjjdon 
TouiTisftij)- Topography, etc.— Population- 
Seated Tax-payers, 1836-37— Early Mills- 
Township Ofncers Elected in 1890 214-225 

CHAPTEE XII. — Annin Township — 
Ceres Township. — Annin Tornnship— 
Topography and Natural History— Popula- 
tion— Officers of the Township, 1890— Turtle 
Point— Newell Creek— Churches and Ceme- 
tery. Geres ToionsMB — Topography — Oil 
Wells — Population— Officers of Township, 
1890— First Justice of the Peace— Early Set- 
tlers— Eesident Tax-payers, 1836-37- Ee- 
survey of the Northern State Line. Ge/res 
Ffltaffe— First Arrivals— Post-oJHce — Mer- 
chants— Schools— Churches— Military— Eail- 
roads— Industries 225-230 

CHAPTEE XIII.— Eldred Township- 
Borough or Eldred.— JEIdred Township 
—Topography— Oil Wells— Population— Offi- 
cers of the Township, 1890— First Settle- 
ments— Eesident Tax-payers, 1843-44— First 
Shingle-mill — Villages, etc. Borough of 
j;?dred— Origin of Name— Early History- 
Growth of the Town— Incorporation— First 
Council — Officers Chosen m 1890— Hurri- 
canes, Fires, etc.— Fire Company— Schools 
and Churches — Societies — Banks— Water- 
works— Gas Company— Industries— Miscel- 
laneous 231-244 

CHAPTEE XIV.— Hamilton Township— 
Hamlin Township.— Hamiifem Toumship 
— Topography— Geology— Pojjulation— Eesi- 
dent Tax-payers, 1836-37— Ofncers Elected in 
1889— Villages. Hamlin Township — Boun- 
dary— Topography— Oil Wells— Discovery of 
Limestone— Forests— Population— Eesident 
Tax-payers, 1847^8— JlfouniJeMJett-Its Else 
and Growth — Natural Gas — Industries — 
Post-office— Chinches and Cemetery— Soci- 
ety— Kinzua Bridge— Oil Companies 244-251 

CHAPTEE XV.— Keating Township- 
Borough OF Smethport. — Keating 
Township — Topography — Geology — Oil 
Wells — Population — Township Officers in 
1890— Port of Entry— Early Settlers— The 
Forester— Solomon Sartwell and Others— 
Eesident Tax-payers, 1836-37— Early Mer- 
chants in the Township— Villages. Borough 
Of Smethport — Population, etc.— Officers 
Elected in 1890— First Cabin and House— 
Eeminiscences of Asa Sartwell— Early Set- 
tlers—Some First Things— Post-offlce— Eesi- 
dent Property Owners, 1856-57— Municipal 
AfEairs—Acacfemies— Churches— Societies— 
Hotels— Banks— Water and Gas Systems- 
Floods and Fires— Miscellaneous 251-276 

CHAPTEE XVI.— Lafayette Township.— 
Topography — Minerals — Oil Wells — Coal 
Mines and Companies — Population— Elec- 
tion in February, 1890— Eesident Tax-pay- 
ers, 1843^4— State Eoad— Stores— Disasters 
and Fires— Miscellaneous 276-281 

CHAPTEE XVII.— Liberty Township- 
Borough of Port Allegany.- ii&erty 
Tmonship — Topograpliy — Geology — Coal 
Measures and Mines— Oil Well— Early Set- 
tlers, etc.— Eesident Tax-payers, 1836-37— 
Early Stores— Pc)i)Uhition— Officers Elected 
in Februai-y, 1890 — Churches — Cemetery 
-Fires. Bormifih of Port Allegany— Intio- 
ductory— Canoe Place— Pioneers, etc.— Pop- 
ulation— Fires and Floods— Municipal Mat- 
ters — Industries— Banks— Cemetery Asso- 
ciation— Hotels— Churches— Public Schools 
—Societies, Associations, etc 281 -296 

CHAPTEE XVIII. —Norwich Township.— 
TopograiJhy, etc.— Geology— Coal Mines- 
Oil Wells— Population— Officers for 1890 - 
Assessment, 1837— Early Settlers— The Old 
Norwich Church— The Old Norwich Ceme- 
tery Association— Stores in 1847— Mineral 
Wells — Timber Lands and Saw-raills— 
Newert 296-301 

CHAPTEE XIX,— Otto Township.— Otto 
Township — Topography— Population— Offi- 
cers Elected in 1890— Eesident Tax-payers, 
1854-55— Arthur Prentiss' Account— Some 
Early Settlers— Storms and Fires— Church 
—Society at Eixford— Miscellaneous. Duke 
Centre— Some First Things— The Place in 
1879 — Postmasters — Population — Charter 
Election, 1881 — Gas Company — Bank — 
Churches— Societies 301-306 

QHAPTEE XX.— Sergeant Township.— 
Topography, etc.— Coal Measures— Oil Wells 
—Population— The Cooper Lands— Town of 
Instanter— The Place in 1810-13-17— Assess- 
ment of Sergeant Township for 1836-37 — 
Villages. Cfermtmt— Some First Things- 
Fire— Gas Wells— Cemetery Association- 
Societies 306-312 

CHAPTEE XXL— Wetmoke Township- 
Borough OP Kane.— TFetmore Toumship 

— General Topography — Oil Wells and 
Lands— Limiber Company— Oil Fields and 
Enterprises — Population— Officers Elected 
in 1890— Gen. Kane— The Seneca Hunters- 
Forest Fires- Town of Jo-Jo— Large Sale 
of Oil Interests. Borauigh of Kane— Ori- 
gin of Name— Col. Kane and David Cornelius 

— Population — The Place in 1869-74— Elec- 
tion— Schools— The Board of Trade— Nat- 
ural Gas Companies — Water Company- 
Bank and Industries— Hotels — Churches— 
Societies— Miscellaneous 313-326 

CHAPTEE XXII. -Biographical 
Sketches.— Bradford Township and City of 
Bradford 327-413 

Sketches.— Keating Township and Bor- 
ough of Smetliport 413-165 

CHAPTEE XXIV. -Biographical 
Sketches.— Foster Township and Borough 
of Kendall 465-484 

CHAPTEE XXV. -Biographical 
Sketches.— Eldred Township and Borough 
of Eldred— Otto Townsliip 484r-515 

CHAPTEE XXVI. -Biographical 
Sketches.— Liberty Township and Bor- 
ough of Port Allegany— Annin and Ceres 
Townships 515-535 

CHAPTEE XXVII. -Biographical 
Sketches.— Norwich, Hamlin, Lafayette 
and Sergeant Townships 536-654 

CHAPTEE XXVIII.-B iographical 
Sketches.— Wetmore Townsliip and Bor- 
ough of Kane — Corydon and Hamilton 
Townships 55t-569 

Bio^raiiliical SlcetolxGS, 



Annin Township 527 

Bradford Township and City of Bradford 327 

Ceres Townsliip 531 

Corydon Township 567 

Eldred Township and Borough of Eldred 484 

Foster Townsliip and Borough of Kendall ... , 465 

Hamilton Township 5U7 

Hamhn Township 541 

Keating Townsliip and Borough of Smethport 413 

Lafayette Townsliip 549 

Liberty Township and Borough of Ft. Allegany 515 

Norwich Township 536 

Otto Township 503 

Sergeant Township 553 

Wetmore Township and Borough of Kane.... 554 


Alford, B 307 

Arnold, A. S 119 

Baker, H. S., M. D 169 

Barbour, H. F 211 

Benton, A. M 129 

Brown, "William Wallace 109 

Campbell, G. W 261 

Chrisman, Wm. L., M. D 233 

Coleman, 0. D 297 

Davis, Joshua 267 

Dennis, Eeuben 255 

Foster, 0. H 159 

Griffith, J. T 317 

HamUn, Byron D 59 

Hamhn, Delano K 199 

Hamlin, Henry 79 

Hamlin, Orlo J 49 

Hazelton, B. F 245 

Hughes, A. J 217 

Jones, J. T 139 

Kane, Ma.i.-Gen. Thomas L 69 

Keyes, D.J 287 

LilUhridge, A. N 223 

Newell, Aug. "W 149 

Sogers, Lucius 179 

Eose, EobertH 205 

Sprague, F. W '. 239 

Stone E.B 189 

Taylor, A. N 89 

Wainman, T. C 277 

History of Blk County. 

CHAPTEE I. —Topograph V- and Nat- 
TJKAL History. — Formation — Judge 
Geddes' Eeport — General Topography — 
Population — Area and Natural Eesources 
—Oil and Gas Wells and Pipe Lines— Coal 
Deposits, etc.— Lumber Eesources — Fires 
and Floods— Wild Fruits, Animals, etc. . .573-579 

CHAPTEE II.— Indians and Pioneers.- 
The Aborigines— Gen. Wade— Early Eemi- 
niscences of Judge Kyler— Pioneer Settlers 
—Judge J. L. Gilhs and Others— Irishtown— 
First Declarations of Citizenship — The 
German Union Bond Society— Some First 
Things in the County— Eeminiscences of 
John Brooks 579-589 

CHAPTEE III.— Courts and Bar.— First 
Courts, Where Held— First Eecord of Courts 
in Elk County— Business Transacted in the 
Courts of 1844— Early Admissions to the Bar 
— Crimes — Licenses — Appointments — 
Names of Attorneys Who Practiced Here 
from 1868 to 1879, and Subsequently— New 
Court-house and Jail— Law Lioraries.... 590-595 

CHAPTER IV.— Transactions of the 
COM3IISSIONERS. — Introductory — Estab- 
lishment of Elk County— Its Boundaries— 
The Commissioners of 1843 and Their Trans- 
actions—Location of the County Seat — 
Coimty Contracts, etc. —Doings of the Com- 
missioners from Dates of Appointment- 
County Offtcials—Court-house— First Court 
—New Jail, etc 596-602 

CHAPTEE v.— Political History.— Polit- 
ical Status of Elk County from 1843 to 1889 
—Vote on the Prohibitory Amendment in 
1889— Eeturns by Boroughs and Townships- 
Elections in 1889 602-610 

CHAPTER VI.— Journalism— Schools.- 
JownalUm—St. Mary's Eepublican— The 

Elk County Advocate— The Elk Democrat— 
The Daily Democrat— The Elk County Ga- 
zette — Other Journals. ScftooZs— First 
School in Elk County and Early Teaching- 
Township Schools— First Public School- 
Statistics, 1888-89— School Superintendents 
—County Institutes 613-619 

CHAPTEE VII. -Military Affairs.- 
Some Veterans of the War of 1812— Elk 
Coimty in the Civil War— The Forty-sec- 
ond Eegiment (Buektails)— Names of Sol- 
diers—The Elk County Guards— Sixteenth 
Eegiment, P. V. I.— Company H of Eldg- 
way, and its Eecord 620-625 

CHAPTEE VIII. — Eailroadm. — Philadel- 
phia & Erie Eailroad— Sunbury & Erie Eail- 
road— Pittsburgh & New York Eailroad— 
Other Eoads— Accidents, etc 625-627 

CHAPTER IX.— Medical. — The Pioneer 
Physicians of the County and Later Prac- 
titioners— Eecord of Physicians Wlio Eegis- 
tered under the Act of 1881 628-631 

CHAPTEE X.— Benezette Township.— 
Elevations — Minerals — Population — Elec- 
tions — Eesident Tax-payers, 1844 — The 
Township in 1850— Village of Benezette— 
Miscellaneous 631-633 

CHAPTER XL— Benzin(4ek Township- 
Borough of St. Mxky's. — Benziiwer 
Towmhip — General Description — Early 
Laud Purchases— Eesident Tax-payers in 
1844— Elections- Voters in 1846— Population 
—Business. Burowjli of St. Mary's— Loca- 
tion,etc.— Beginnings of the Town— Eeminis- 
cences of Charles Luhr— Municipal Affairs 
— Fires — Industries — Bank — Hotels — 
Churches— Convents and Convent Schools- 
Academies— Public Schools— Societies— Mis- 
cellaneous 634r-657 


al Description — Settlement — Some First 
Things- Resident Tax-payers, in 1844— 
Elections— United States Land Deeds— Coal 
and Oil Companies— Villages— Churches- 
Industries, etc G58-667 

HORTOX Township— .lAY Township.— 
Highland Toivnship—lts Conformation- 
Growth — Business — Elections. Horton 
ToiOTisWp- General Description— Minerals 
—Villages— Churches— Elections, etc. Jay 
ToiOTisnij)- Streams— Elevations, etc.— Resi- 
dent Tax-payers in 1844— Business in 1850— 
Coal and Oil Companies— Census Statistics— 
Elections— Caledonia— Miscellaneous . . ..667-674 

CHAPTER XIV.— Jones Township.— Gen- 
eral Conformation— Coal Basins and Mines 
—Resident Tajc-payers in 1844— Elections- 
Sketch of the Early History of the Town- 
ship—Villages, etc.— Tftto/j;— What the 
Town is Noted for— Post-office- Business, 
etc.— Population— Cliurches— Societies . . .674-681 

CHAPTElt XV.— RiDGWAY Township- 
Borough op Ridgway.— i?i(Jgwai/ Town- 
sWj)— StreamSj Elevations, etc.--Coal— First 
Comers— Elections-Resident Tax-payers in 
1844 — Population— Villages— Miscellaneous. 
BoroiifiJi of Ridgway — Location, etc. — 

The Eidgways and Other Pioneers— Some 
First Things— Post-office, etc.— Municipal 
Affairs — Fires — Manufactures — Banlis — 
Hotels— Churches— Cemetery Association— 
Schools— Societies, etc 682-712 

CHAPTER XVI.— Millstone Township- 
Spring Creek Township. — Millstone 
Tonmsfitp— Topography— First Settlement 
—Mills — Population — Election. Sriring 
Creek ToomisMp- General Conformation- 
Population — Elections, etc. — Some First 
Things— Villages— Miscellaneous 712-710 

CHAPTER XVII.— Biographical 
Sketches.— Ridgway Township and 
Borough of Ridgway 717-745 

CHAPTER XVIIL— Biographical 

Sketches.- .lONES Township 745- 759 

CHAPTER XIX.— Biographical 
Sketches.— Fox Township — Horton 
Township 760-773 

CHAPTER XX.— Biographical Sketches 
— Benezette Township— Jay Town- 
ship 774-788 

CHAPTER XXL— Biographical 
Sketches.— Benzinger Township and 
Borough of St. Mary's 789-811 

Biograpiical Sfeetclies. 

Benezette Township 774 

Benzinger Township and Borough of St. 

Mary's 789 

Fox Township 760 

Horton Township 769 

Jay Township 783 

Jones Township 745 

Ridgway Township and Borough of Ridgway. 717 


Bardwell J. S., M. D 695 

Be'adle, J. Henry 689 

Brown, Rasselas W 575 

Brown, Mrs. Rasselas W 575 

Brown, Isaac B 629 

Brown, J. L 611 

Cartwright, Burr E 653 

Chamberlin, C. L 660 

Dickinson, George 581 

Dixon, George R 671 

Ely, Byron F 665 

Ernhout, John 647 

Gardner, J. K 707 

Houk, J. V 587 

Horton, Hez 605 

Horton, A. S 659 

Horton, W. H 641 

Jones, Julius 683 

Kaul, Andrew 593 

Luhr, Charles 599 

Meagher, Rev. M 677 

Osterhout, W. H 617 

Oyster, D. C 623 

Robertson, D 635 

Williams, W. L., M. D 701 

History ot Caznefon County. 

CHAPTER I.— Topography and Natu- 
ral History'.— Locality of County and 
Origin of Name— Altitudes— The New Pur- 
chase—Area and Population— Topography- 
Natural History — Salt and Oil WeUs— 
Floods, Storms and Forest Fires — Chma- 
tology 815-819 

CHAPTER II. — Aborigines and Pio- 
neers.— Indian Relics— Interesting Find- 
Fights with Indians— Adventures and Mur- 
ders— Dr. Lannlng's Account — Lands in 1811 
—Early Settlers and Settlements — Expe- 
riences and Privations of the Pioneers — 
Life on the Sinnemahoning in 1839-40— Hun- 
ters' Stories— Highwaymen 819-835 

CHAPTER III.— Transactions of the 
County Commissioners.— Establishment 
of the Coimty— Location of County Seat— 
Capt. Rogers' Reminiscences— First Meeting 
of the Commissioners— Doings of the Com- 
missioners from 1860— War Tax— Appoint- 
ments— County Officers— Jail, etc 835-838 

Record of Cameron County Courts— Ap- 
pointments and Removals— Admissions to 
the Bar In 1862 and Subsequently— Presiding 
Law Judges, Assistant Law Jndges, Presi- 
dent Judges and Associate Judges— Law 
Circle of the County— Crimes 838-843 



CHAPTER V. — Political Histoky.- 
Nortluimbei-land District— Judicial Erection 
of Counties — Organization of Cameron 
County— First Election for County Officers- 
Elections from 1860 to 1889 843-848 

troductoi-y- "War Meeting at Emporium- 
Cameron County Company (Old Bucktails)— 
First Cavalry— Eighty-fourth Kegiment, P. 
V. I— One Hundred and Ninetieth P. V. I. 
—One Hundred and Ninety-first P. V. I.— 
One Hundred and Ninety-ninth P. V. I.— 
Miscellaneous 848-856 

CHAPTEE VII. — Journalism — Educa- 
tion — Physicians — County Associa- 
tions — Eailkoabs. — Journalism — The 
Citizen— The Press— The Independent— The 
Herald— The Gazette (Sterling and Drift- 
wood) — Literature. Education — Early 
Schools— Teachers and County Superintend- 
ents— Report of Superintendent Pearsall 
Year Ending June 4, 1888— The Teachers' 
Institute. Physicians — Dr. Kincaid and 
Others— The Cameron County Medical So- 
ciety. County Associations — Agricultural 
Societies — Centennial Association — Semi- 
Religious Societies. BaiVroads — Road to 
Salt Spring Run— The P. & E. E. E.— The 
B., N. Y. & P. E. E.— Miscellaneous 857-866 

CHAPTEE VIII.— Shippen Township- 
Borough of Emporium.— SMppen Toum- 
sMp— Boundary and Area — General Topog- 
raphy-Population and Assessments— March 
Elections, 1861— Pioneer Days and Homes- 
Lumber and Mills— Oil Well, Coal Mining 
and Other A'entures— Internal Improve- 
ments — Miscellaneous. BororujgU of Empo- 
riums-Its Early History— Mimicipal Affairs 
—Postmasters and Postoffices- Fire Depart- 
ment—Water Company— Bank— Manufact- 
ures— Societies— Churches— Schools — Fires 
—Flood of 1889— Conclusion 866-900 

OUGH OF Driftwood.— Gifisorj Township 
—Boundary and Area — Elevations and 
Streams — Population and Assessments- 
Election, 1844— Miscellaneous. Bonmgh. of 
Driftwood— Origin of the Place— Some First 
Things— Incorporation— Municipal Affairs— 
The Place in 1876— Manufactures, Fires, 
Floods, etc.— Hotels— Churches— Schools- 
Societies and Associations— Conclusion . . 900-910 

Township — Boundary — Elevations and 
Streams— Population and Assessment— In- 
dian History— Industries. Sinnemahcming— 
Survey and Sale of Village Lots— Historic 
Apple Tree— First Business in the Place- 
Hotels — Mails — Early Schools — Fires- 
Church, etc.— Societies 910-916 

CHAPTEE XI. — Lumber Township.— 
Boundary — Topography — Population and 
Assessment— Elections in 1861— Forest Fires. 
Sterling— Oi-lgin and Survey of the Place- 
Business and Improvements— Fires— Post- 
masters— Societies— Churches, etc. Came- 
roji— Sm-vey and Commencement— Fires, 
etc.— Catholic Church 916-920 

CHAPTEE XII. — Portage Township.— 
Portage Township— Us Origin— Elevation- 
Streams — Population and Assessment- 
Families Eesident in 1869— Elections, 1861. 
Sizerville—A Historic Place— Salt Works- 
Hotels— Fires— Cemetery Association— Con- 
clusion 920-922 

CHAPTEE XIIl:.— Biographical Sketch- 
es.— Shippen Township and Borough 
OF Emporium 922-951 

CHAPTEE XIV.— Biographical Sketch- 
es.— Gibson Township and Borough 
of Driftwood— Grove, Lumber and 
Portage Townships 952-975 

Biograpliioal Sketohea. 

Gibson Township and Borough of Driftwood. 952 

Grove Township 965 

Lumber Township 969 

Portage Township 973 

Shippen Township and Borough of Emporiiun 922 


Cochran, J. W 831 

Earl, John T 911 

Felt, J. P 841 

Gould, C. B 821 

HeilmanR. P., M. D 881 

Seger, N 891 

Seger, R 901 

Taggart, L 851 

Warner, G. W 861 

Wiley, J. S 871 

History of Potter County. 

CHAPTER I.— Topography and Natu- 
ral History.— Origin of Name of County 
—Area and Elevations— Topographical Con- 
formation—Fossils and Strata, etc.— Lum- 
bering— Giant Saw-mills— Lumber Camps- 
Experiences of the Woodsman— Technical- 
ities of the Trade— Eaf ting and "Driving" 
—Cyclones and Natural Phenomena 979-i 

CHAPTER II.— Indian and Pioneer 
History. — Indian Settlements, Grain 
Storehouse, Relics, etc.— First White Set- 
tlers, Marriage, etc.— Early Land Transfers 
-Religious Exercises— Price of Commodi- 
ties-Two Interesting Letters— Customs and 
Doings of the Early Times— Some Pioneer 
Names— Indian and White Hunters 989-1004 




COMMISSIONERS.— Establishment of Potter 
County— First Proceedings of the Commis- 
sioners-Laying oil: of Koads— Tax Sales of 
Lands— Building of Court-house— The New 
Jail— Prohibition in Potter— Lists of Offi- 
cers 1004-1011 

CHAPTER lY.— CouBTS AND Bar.— First 
Court and Judges — Jurors — Primitive 
Causes, etc.— List of Lawyers, Dates of Ad- 
• mission, etc.— Judges, Protlionotarles, Dis- 
trict Attorneys and SherlHs— Crimes and 
Punishments 1012-1019 

CHAPTER v.— Medical.— Early Physicians 
—Trials of the Pioneer Doctor— Names of 
all Physicians Attainable in the County . 1019-1020 

CHAPTER VI.— JouKNALiSM— Education. 
—Journalism— Home Account of the Press of 
Potter— The "Survival of the Fittest"— 
Bducatkm^'History of the School and School 
System of Potter Cfounty— Names of Educar 
tors— Interesting Statistics 1021-1024 

CHAPTER VII.— Military Historv.— Pot- 
ter Comity in the Civil War— Enlistment of 
Volunteers— ReUef Committees, etc.— Forty- 
sixth P. V. I.— Fifty-third P. V. I.— Fifty- 
eighth P. V. I.— One Hundred and Forty- 
ninth P. A'. I.— Two Hundred and Tenth 
P. V. I.— New York State Regiments— Lists 
of Soldiers who Entered the Service from 
Potter County— The Battles in which They 
Were Engaged— Miscellaneous 1027-1039 

CHAPTER YIII.— Railroads-Agricult- 
ural— Statistical.— KaiJrofi ds— Project- 
ed and Completed Railroads— First Passen- 
ger Train- Establishment of Railway Mail 
Service. Agricultural — Society — Results 
of not Working in Harmony. Statistical— 
Statistics of Population- Valuation — Re- 
ceipts and Expenditures 1040-1044 

OUGH OF CouDERSPORT.— Eutalia Town- 
sMp— General Topograpliy— Oil Wells, etc.— 
Population— Assessors Statistics-Elections 
in February, 1890— Laying off of Roads- 
Early Tax-payers— Miscellaneous. Borough 
of Goiidersjiort— Survey— Some First Things 
— Reminiscences of Mrs. Mary A. Ross- 
Post-office and Postmasters— Schools, etc.— 
Resident Tax-payers in 184S — Municipal 
Matters— The Germans— Early Events— The 
Great Fire of 1880— Liunberlng— Churches- 
Societies, etc.- Business 1044-1070 

CHAPTER X.— Abbot and Allegheny 
Townships.— ./Ibbot Township— Contorm- 
ation — First Inhabitants — Settlement of 
Germanla— Ole Bull's Colony— Hardships of 
the Pioneers— Interesting Accounts— Some 
First Events and Things— Miscellaneous. 
Allegheny Township— The Summit Town- 
ship of Potter — Topography — Population 
and Assessment— Early Names, Churches, 
Business, etc 1070-1073 

CHAPTER XI.— Bingham Township.— 
Geology of the Township— Tornadoes— Pop- 
ulation and Values— Names of Settlers— A 
Number of First Tilings- Educational and 
Religious— Miscellaneous 1073-1078 

CHAPTER XII.— Clara, Hebron and 
Pleasant Valley- Townships.— Clara 
Township— Its Topography— First Tax-pay- 
ers and Early Elections— Settlers— Schools, 
etc.— Elections in February, 1890. Hebron 
Township— Date of EstabUshment— Popula- 
tion— Residents in 1839— Sad Accident- 
School— Church and Cemetery— Elections in 
February, 1890. Pleasant Valley Township 


—Locality— Taxables — First Church and 
School— Elections in February, 1890 1078-1081 

CHAPTER XIII.— Genesee Township.— 
Boundaries — Settlement — Names of Pio- 
neers — First Store— Schools— Church— Vil- 
lages— Elections in February, 1890— Gene- 
see Forks— Postmasters— Orders and Soci- 
eties 1081-1084 

CHAPTER XIV.— Harkison Township.- 
Early Names and Locations— First School 
Teacher— Early Churches— Business Houses, 
Hotels, Mills, etc.— Harrison Valley— Busi- 
ness Circle— Methodist and Baptist Church- 
es, Societies, etc.— The Village of Mills— Its 
Lumber and Other Interests— I. 0. O. F.— 
Township Officers Elected in February, 1890 

CHAPTER XV.— Hector and Pike Town- 
ships. — Hector Toimiship — Its Surface, 
Population and Taxables — First Rehgious 
Society— Equitable Aid Union— Signal Star 
tlon — Elections in February, 1890. Pike 
Tovmship— Its Lumber Interests, Popula- 
tion, etc.— School and Tavern— Galeton— Its 
Business, Church, and G. A. R. Post— West 
Pike- Blue Run and Its Tragedy— Township 
Elections in February, 1890 1092-1097 

CHAPTER XVI.— Keating, Homer and 
Summit Townships.— Jfeaiijijcr Township 
— General Description— Population— Assess- 
ment— Early Settlers— Some First Thli^s— 
Business, Societies, etc.— Elections in Feb- 
ruary, 1890. Homer Township— Its Pecu- 
har Location— Tax-payers in 1845— Odin and 
Inez— Elections in February, 1890. Summit 
Toumship—lts General Conformation— Pop- 
ulation— Tax-payers in 1855— Elections m 
February, 1890 1098-1100 

CHAPTER XVII.— OswAYO Township.— 
Geologic Formation— Population and Taxa- 
bles— The First Settler— Privations of the 
Early Residents— Stores and Schools— First 
Religious Services — Churches — Societies— 
Ante-Tannery Days— Eleven Mile and Os- 
wayo— The. Tanning Interest, etc.— Elec- 
tions in February, 1890 1101-1104 

CHAPTER XVIII.-Sylvania Township. 
—Settlement of the Township in 1828— Some ' 
Early Residents— Its Growth— First Church, 
etc.— Elections in February, 1890— Village 
of Costello 1104-1109 

CHAPTER XIX. -Portage Township- 
Borough OF Austin— Wharton Town- 
ship— East Fork (Oleona).— Portoflg 
To«'n«;i/p— Topography — Population and 
Taxables— Elections in Februai-y, 1890— Mis- 
cellaneous. Borough of ^lisiiTi^Incorpora- 
tion and First Officers— Elections in Februa- 
ry, 1890- Lumber Interests— Goodyear Rail- 
road System— School and Church— Societies 
—Business, etc. Wharton Township— Con- 
formation— Population, etc.— Early Land 
Owners — First Assessment, 1831 — First 
Schools, etc. East Forlt, (Oleona)—A Wil- 
derness—Residents, Streams, etc 1110-1121 

CHAPTER XX.— Stewardson, Sweden 
AND West Branch Townships.— Stew- 
ardson Township— Streams— Valuations in 
1845— Residents at that Date— Ole Bull and 
His Colonization Scheme — Some First 
Tilings— Elections In February, 1890. Swe- 
den Tow7Uhm—Its Elevation, Population, 
etc.— Some First Settlers, etc.— Churches 
and Cemetery— Business— Elections in Feb- 
ruai-y, 1890. West Branch Toiimship— Some 
Geological Curiosities— Taxables and Popu- 
lation — Cliurch — School — Business — Elec- 
tioHsin February, 1890 „ 1121-1127 



CHAPTER XXI.— Roulette Tom-nship.— 
Topography and Xatui-al Advantages— Pop- 
ulation In 1880 — Taxables In 1831— Early 
Names— The Germans— Primitive Prices- 
Early Baptists — Industries— Schools— Mis- 
cellaneous— Elections in February, 1890— 
Village of Roulette- Its School, Business, 
etc.— Floods— Societies 1127-1130 

CHAPTER XXII.— Shaeon Township.— 
Geological and Geographical— The Boulders 
ValuaDle Stone — Nature's Freaks— Relics — 
Petroleum Interest— Population— Tax-pay- 
ers of 1832— Some First Settlers and Tlieir 
Privations— First Store and School— Ste- 
vens, the Wild Boy— Villages— Miscellane- 
ous 1130-1135 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Ulysses Township- 
Borough OF Levvisville. — Ultjsses 
ToumsMp—VmoB. of Ulysses and Jackson 
TownsMps— General Topography— Popular 
tlon — Assessments— Origmal Settlers— Some 
First Things— Elections in February, 1890— 
Villages. Borough of Levnsville — Location 
and Population — Municipal Matters — 
Churches— Societies and Associations— Ho- 
tels— General Business— MisceUaneous . 1136-1141 

CHAPTER XXIV.-Biographical''^' 
Sketches.— Eulalia Township and 
Borough of Coudeespoet 1U2-1179 

CHAPTER XXV.-Biogeaphioal Sketch- 
es.— Sharon, OswAYO AND Genesee 
Townships 1179-1197 

CHAPTER XXVI.-Biographical 
Sketches.— Bingham and Harrison 
Townships 1197-1217 

CHAPTER XXVII.-B iogeaphical 
Sketches.— H e c t o R, Pike, "West 
Branch, Abbot and Stewaedson 
Townships 1218-1227 

CHAPTER XXVIII.-B iogeaphical 
Sketches.— Ulysses Township and 


Hebron, Claea and Pleasant Val- 
ley Townships 1228-1261 

CHAPTER XXIX. — Biographical 
Sketches.— Roulette, Homee, Por- 
tage (AND Borough of Austin) and 
Wharton Townships 1251-126I 

JBiograpTiioal Slc&tclies. 

Abbot Township 1225 

Allegheny Townsliip 1243 

Bingham Township 1197 

Clara Township 1249 

Eulalia Township and Borough of Couders- 

port 1142 

Genesee Township 1193 

Harrison Township 1204 

Hebron Tovmship 1247 

Hector Township 1218 

Homer Township 1257 

Oswayo Township 1189 

Pilce Township 1222 

Pleasant Valley Township 1250 

Portage Townsliip and Borough of Austin .... 1257 

Roulette Township 1251 

Sharon Township 1179 

Stewardsou Township 1227 

Ulysses Township and Borough of Lewisvllle.1228 

West Branch Township 1225 

Wharton Township 1260 


Benson, Isaac 995 

Cobb, A. H 1105 

Cobb, L. H 1095 

Dent, H. H 1046 

Dodge, George W 1075 

Jones, Arch. F 1025 

Jones, W. K 1035 

Knox, F. W 1015 

Knox, F. W. (view of residence) facing 1015 

Larrabee, D. C 1005 

Lyman, A. G 1116 

Nichols, Rodney L 1085 

Olmsted, A. G 985 

Spafford, J. M 1055 

Tucker, A. J 1126 

Tuclcer, A. J. & Co. (view of tannery), facing 1125 
White, R.L 1065 


Outline map of McKean, Potter, Cameron, Elk, Forest and Warren Counties 14 and 15 

Table shovring the vote of Governors of Pennsylvania since the organization of the State 47 

Map showing the various purchases from the Indians 48 


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FOREST, and 


inters and Engravers, Chicaga 



First Settlers along the Delaware— WiLLLut Penn-His Early Diffi- 
culties-Dissensions IN the Colony-Pbnn's Second Visit to the 
Province— Accession of Governor Keith-French and Indian AVar- 
i^RANKLiNs Mission to England— The Boundary Line— Struggle for 
Independence— Convention of 1787-Constitution of 1790-AVnisKY 
Insurrectiox-Stone Coal— Convention of 1837-Pennsylvania in the 
WAR OF THE Rebellion- Subsequent Events. 

^HE region which is now known as Pennsylvania was, prior to the coming 
X of Eui-opeans, a vast forest, inhabited by its native Indians. The uncer- 
tain traditions which these people have preserved of themselves have often 
been recorded, and their sad history since the advent of the white man is 
well known. 

Early in the seventeenth century the region watered by the Delaware river 
was visited by Dutch traders. Such was their success that posts were estab- 
lished and trade was kept up during some years. They did not seek to estab- 
lish colonies for the cultivation of the soil, but limited themselves to the 
profitable exchange of commodities with the natives. They were followed by 
the Swedes, who established settlements along the river and brought hither 
the habits of industry and thrift in which they had been reared at home. Be- 
tween the Swedes and the Dutch arose conflicts of authority and hostilities 
which finally resulted in the subjugation of the former. The Dutch were in 
turn dispossessed by the diplomacy and arms of the aggressive English, who 
became masters of the territory along the Delaware in 1664. 

William Penn became a trustee and finally a part owner of West New 
Jersey, which was colonized by Quakers in 1675. To his father. Admiral 
Penn, was due, at his death, the sum of £16,000 for services rendered the 
English government. The son petitioned to Charles II to grant him, in liqui- 
dation of this debt, a tract of land in America lying north of Maryland, 
bounded east by the Delaware river, on the west limited as Maryland, and 
northward to extend as far as plantable. 

The charter of King Charles II was dated April 2, 1681, and other grants 
to lands south from the territory originally conveyed were procured in 1682. 
Not being in readiness to go to his province during the first year, he dis- 
patched three ship-loads of settlers, and with them sent his cousin, William 
Markham, to take formal possession of the country and act as deputy- governor. 
It is hardly necessary to say that these settlers were of the then proscribed sect of 
Quakers. Having made the necessary preparations and settled his afPairs in 
England, Penn embarked on the ship "Welcome," in August, 1682, in com- 
pany with a hundred planters, and set his prow toward the new world. He 
arrived at New Castle in October, and on the site of Philadelphia in November 
of that year. The arrival of Markham and Penn, with their colonists, on the 
west bank o^ the Delaware was the inauguration of a new regime there; that 
of the people who had never before enjoyed such a measure of self government. 


By reason of ignorance of the geography of this country the language of 
royal grants was often ambiguous, and sometimes the descriptions covered ter- 
ritory that had been previously granted. Conflicts of claims then arose that 
were sometimes difficult of settlement. Soon after his arrival Penn learned of 
such a conflict in the claims of himself and Lord Baltimore, and he visited the 
latter to adjust the matter, if possible. In this he was not successful. Sub- 
sequent attempts to negotiate also failed, and finally Penn proposed to pay 
Lord Baltimore for territory which he had already purchased from the crown. 
This Lord Baltimore refused, and soon afterward made forcible entry on the 
lands claimed, and drove oif those who had purchased from Penn. The latter 
also learned that secret and ex-parte representations of the case had been made 
to the lords of the committee of plantations in England, and he decided to 
return and defend his imperiled interests. 

He accordingly empowered the provincial council, of which Thomas Lloyd 
was president, to act in his stead; commissioned Nicholas Moore, William 
Welch, William Wood, Eobert Turner and John Eckley provincial judges for 
two years; appointed Thomas Lloyd, James Claypole and Robert Turner to 
sign land patents and warrants; and William Clark as justice of the peace for all 
the counties, and on the 6th of June, 1684, sailed for England, where his efforts 
were successful, though the boundary line was not definitely fixed till 1766. In 
his absence the affairs of his province exhibited the great need of his strong 
guiding hand to check abuse, and direct the course of legislation in proper 

He ,had labored to place the government in the hands of the people, an 
idea most attractive in the abstract, and one which, were the entire population 
wise and just, would result fortunately; yet, in practice, he found to his 
sorrow the results most vexatious. The proprietor had not long been gone 
before troubles arose between the two houses of the legislature relative to pro- 
mulgating the laws as not being in accordance with the requirements of the 
charter. Nicholas Moore, the chief justice, yias impeached for irregularities 
in imposing fines and in other ways abusing his high trust. But though 
formally arraigned and directed to desist from exercising his functions, he 
successfully resisted the proceedings, and a final judgment was never obtained. 
Patrick Robinson, clerk of the court, for refusing to produce the records in 
the trial of Moore, was voted a public enemy. These troubles in the govern- 
ment were the occasion of much grief to Penn, who wrote naming a number 
of the most influential men in the colony, and beseeching them to unite in an 
endeavor to check further irregularities, declaring that they disgraced the 
province, ' ' that their conduct had struck back hundreds, and was ten thousand 
pounds out of his way, and one hundred thousand pounds out of the country. ' ' 

In the latter part of the year 1686, seeing that the whole council was too 
unwieldy a body to exercise executive power, Penn determined to contract the 
number, and accordingly appointed Thomas Lloyd, Nicholas Moore, James 
Claypole, Robert Turner and John Eckley, any three of whom should consti- 
tute a quorum, to be commissioners of State to act for the proprietor. In 
place of Moore and Claypole, Arthur Cook and John Simcock were appointed. 
They were to compel the attendance of the council; see that the two houses 
admit of no parley; to abrogate all laws except the fundamentals; to dismiss 
the assembly and call a new one; and finally he solemnly admonishes them: 
"Be most just, as in the sight of the all-seeing, all-searching God." In a 
letter to these commissioners he says: "Three things occur to me eminently: 
First, that you be watchful that none abuse the king, etc. ; secondly, that you 
get the custom act revived as being the equalest and least offeiisive way to 


support the government; thirdly, that you retrieve the dignity of courts and 


Thomas Lloyd acted as president of the council after the departure of 
Penn. At his own request he was relieved, and Samuel Carpenter was ap- 
pointed m his place, with Thomas Ellis as alternate. July 27, 1688, Penn 
commissioned John Blackwell, who was at that time in New England, and 
who possessed his esteem and confidence, to be lieutenant-governor. With the 
commission the proprietor sent full instructions, chiefly by way of caution, the 
last one being: " Eule the meek meekly; and those that will not be ruled, rule 
with authority." Though Lloyd had been relieved of power, he still remained 
in the council, probably because neither of the persons designated was willing 
to serve. Having seen the evils of a many-headed executive, he had recom- 
mended the appointment of one person to exercise executive authority. It was 
in conformity with this advice that Blackwell was appointed. He met the 
assembly in March, 1689; but either his conceptions of business were arbitrary 
and imperiovis, or the assembly had become accustomed to great latitude and 
lax discipline, for the business had not proceeded far before the several 
branches of the government were at variance. Lloyd refused to give up the 
great seal, alleging that it had been given him for life. The governor, arbi- 
trarily and without warrant of law, imprisoned oificers of high rank, denied 
the validity of all laws passed by the assembly previous to his administration, 
and set on foot a project for organizing and equipping the militia under the 
plea of threatened hostility of France. The assembly attempted to arrest his 
proceedings, but he shrewdly evaded their intents by organizing a party among 
the members, who persistently absented themselves. His reign was short, for 
in January, 1690, he left the colony and sailed away for England; whereupon 
the government again devolved upon the council, Thomas Lloyd, president. 
Penn had a high estimation of the talents and integrity of Blackwell, and 
adds : " He is in England and Ireland of great repute for ability, integrity and 
virtue. ' ' 

Penn's favor at court during the reign of James II caused him to be 
suspected of disloyalty to the government when William and Mary had come 
to the throne. He was three times arraigned before the lords of the council, 
but was each time acquitted. He organized a large party of settlers for his 
colony, but a great accusation compelled him to abandon the voyage, and in- 
duced him to go into retirement for two or three years. His personal griev- 
ances in England were the least which he suffered. For lack of guiding 
influence, bitter dissensions had sprung up in his colony, which threatened the 
loss of all. Desiring to secure peace, he had commissioned Thomas Lloyd 
deputy -governor of the province, and William Markham deputy-governor of 
the lower counties. Penn's grief on account of this division is disclosed in a 
letter to a friend in the province: "I left it to them to choose either the gov- 
ernment of the council, five commissioners, or a deputy. What could be 
tenderer ? Now I perceive Thomas Lloyd is chosen by the three upper, but 
not the three lower, counties, and sits down with this broken choice. This 
has grieved and wounded me and mine, I fear, to the hazard of all ! * * * 
for else the governor of New York is like to have all, if he has it not already." 
But the troubles of Penn in America were not confined to civil aft'airs. 
His religious society was torn with dissension. George Keith, a man of con- 
siderable power in argumentation, but of over-weaning self-conceit, attacked 
the Friends for the laxity of their discipline, and drew off some followers. So 
venomous did he become that on the 20th of April, 1692, a testimony of 
denial was drawn up against him at a meeting of ministers, wherein he and his 


conduct were publicly disowned. This was confirmed at the next yearly meet- 
' ing. He drew off large numbers and set up an independent society, who 
termed themselves Christian Quakers. Keith appealed from this action of the 
American church to the yearly meeting in London, but was so intemperate in 
speech that the action of the American church was confirmed. Penn was 
silenced, and thrown into retirement in England. It can be readily seen what 
an excellent opportunity these troubles in America, the separation in the gov- 
ernment and the schism in the church, gave his enemies to attack him. They 
represented that he had neglected his colony by remaining in England and 
meddling with matters in which he had no business; that the colony in conse- 
quence had fallen into great disorder, and that he should be deprived of his 
proprietary rights. These complaints had so much weight with William and 
Mary that on the 21st of October, 1692, they commissioned Benjamin Fletcher, 
governor of New York, to take the province and territories under his govern- 
ment. There was another motive operating at this time, more potent than 
those mentioned above, to induce the king and queen to put the government 
of Pennsylvania under the governor of New York. The French and Indians 
from the north were threatening the English. Already the expense for defense 
had become burdensome to New York. It was believed that to ask aid for the 
common defense from Penn, with his peace principles, would be fruitless, but 
that through the influence of Gov. Fletcher, as executive, an appropriation 
might be secured. » 

Through the kind offices of Lords Eochester, Eanelagh, Sidney and 
Somers, the Duke of Buckingham and Sir John Trenchard, the king was 
asked to hear the case of William Penn, against whom no charge was proven, 
and who would two years before have gone to his colony had he not supposed 
that he would have been thought to go in defiance of the government. King 
William answered that William Penn was his old acquaintance as well as 
theirs, that he might follow his business as freely as ever, and that he had 
nothing to say to him. Penn was accordingly reinstated in his government by 
letters patent dated on the 20th of August, 1694, whereupon he commissioned 
William Markham lieutenant-governor. 

Free from harassing persecutions at last, and in favor at court, Penn deter- 
mined to remove with his family to Pennsylvania, and now with the expecta- 
tion of living and dying here. Accordingly in July, 1699, he set sail, and, on 
account of adverse winds, was three months tossed about upon the ocean. 
Great joy was everywhere manifested throughout the province at the arrival of 
the proprietor and his family, fondly believing that he had now come to stay. 
He met the assembly soon after landing, but, it being an inclement season, he 
only detained them long enough to pass two measures aimed against piracy 
and illicit trade, exaggerated reports of which having been spread broadcast 
through the kingdom had caused him great uneasiness and vexation. In Feb- 
ruary, 1701, he met the most renowned and powerful of the Indian chieftains 
from the Potomac to the Onondagas of the Five Nations, and entered into a 
formal treaty of active friendship with them. 

Several sessions of the Legislature were held in which great harmony pre- 
vailed, and much attention was given to revising and recomposing the consti- 
tution. But in the midst of their labors for the improvement of the organic 
law, intelligence was brought to Penn that a bill had been introduced in the 
house of lords for reducing all the proprietary goveraments in America to 
regal ones, under pretense of advancing the prerogative of the crown, and the 
national advantage. Such of the owners of land in Pennsylvania ' as hap- 
pened to be in England remonstrated against action upon the bill until Penn 


could return and be heard, and wrote to him urging his immediate coming 
hither. Though much to his disappointment and sorrow, he determined to go ■ 
immediately thither. He promptly called a session of the assembly, and in 
his message to the two houses said: "* * * review again your laws, pro- 
pose new ones, and you will find me ready to comply with whatsoever may ren- 
der us happy, by a nearer union of our interests. ' ' " The assembly returned a 
suitable response, and then proceeded to draw up twenty-one articles. The 
first related to the appointment of a lieutenant-governor. Penn proposed 
that the assembly should choose one. But this they declined, preferring that 
he should appoint one. Little trouble was experienced in settling everything 
broached, except the union of the province and lower counties. Penn used 
his best endeavors to reconcile them to the union, but without avail. The new 
constitution was adopted on the 28th of October, 1701. The instrument pro- 
vided for the union, but in a supplementary article, evidently granted with 
great reluctance, it was provided that the province and the territories might be 
separated at any time within three years. As his last act before leaving, he pre- 
sented the city of Philadelphia, now grown to be a considerable place, and 
always an object of his afFectionate regard, with a charter of privileges. As 
his deputy he appointed Andrew Hamilton, one of the proprietors of East 
New Jersey, and sometime governor of both East and West Jersey; and for 
secretary of the province and clerk of the council he selected James Logan, a 
man of singular urbanity and strength of mind, and withal a scholar. Penn 
set sail for Europe on the 1st of November, 1701. Soon after his arrival, on 
the 18th of January, 1702, King William died, and Anne of Denmark suc- 
ceeded him. 

Gov. Hamilton's administration continued only till December, 1702, when 
he died. He was earnest in his endeavors to induce the territories to unite 
with the province, they having as yet not accepted the new charter, alleging 
that they had three years in which to make their decision, but without success. 
He also organized a military force, of which George Lowther was commander, 
for the safety of the colony. The executive authority now devolved upon the 
council, of which Edward Shippen was president. Conflict of authority, and 
contention over the due interpretation of some provisions of the new charter, 
prevented the accomplishment of much, by way of legislation, in the assembly 
which convened in 1703; though in this body it was finally determined that 
the lower counties should thereafter act separately in a legislative capacity. 
The separation proved final, the two bodies never again meeting in common. 
Though the bill to govern the American colonies by regal authority failed, 
yet the clamor of those opposed to the proprietary governors was so strong 
that an act was finally passed requiring the selection of deputies to have the 
royal assent. Hence, in choosing a successor to Hamilton, he was obliged to 
consider the queen's wishes. John Evans, a man of parts, of Welsh extraction, 
only twenty-six years old, a member of the queen's household, and not a 
Quaker, nor even of exemplary morals, was appointed, who arrived in the col- 
ony in December, 1703. He was accompanied by William Penn, Jr., who was 
elected a member of the council, the niimber having been increased by author- 
ity of the governor, probably with a view to his election. The first care of 
Evans was to unite the province and the lower counties, though the final sepa- 
ration had been agreed to. He presented the matter so well that the lower 
counties, from which the difiiculty had always come, were willing to return to 
a firm union. But now the provincial- assembly, having become impatient of 
the obstacles thrown in the way of legislation by the delegates from these coun- 
ties, was unwilling to receive them. They henceforward remained separate in 


a legislative capacity, though still a part of Pennsylvania, under the claim of 
Penn, and ruled by the same governor; and thus they continued until th^ 20th 
of September, 1776, when a constitution was adopted, and they were pro- 
claimed a separate State under the name of Delaware. During two years of 
the government of Evans, there was ceaseless discord between the council, 
headed by the governor and Secretary Logan on the one side, and the assem- 
bly led by David Lloyd, its speaker, on the other, and little legislation was 

In conjunction with the legislature of the lower counties, Evans was instru- 
mental in having a law passed for the imposition of a tax on the tonnage of 
the river, and the erection of a fort near the town of New Castle for compel- 
ling obedience. This was in direct violation of the fundamental compact, and 
vexatious to commerce. It was at length forcibly resisted, and its imposition 
abandoned. His administration was anything but efficient or peaceful, a series 
of contentions, of charges and counter-charges, having been kept up between 
the leaders of the two factions, Lloyd and Logan, which he was powerless to 
properly direct or control. He was relieved in 1709. 

The experience with Gov. Evans led the proprietor to select a more sedate 
character in his successor. After considering the candidature of his son for a 
time, the founder finally selected Charles Gookin, who was reputed to be a man 
of wisdom and prudence, though, as was afterward learned to the sorrow of 
the colony, he was subject to tits of derangement, which toward the close of 
his term were exhibited in the most extravagant acts. He had scarcely arrived 
in the colony before charges were prepared against the late governor, and he 
was asked to institute criminal proceedings, which he declined. This was the 
occasion of a renewal of contentions between the governor and his council and 
the assembly, which continued during the greater part of his administration. 
In the midst of them, Logan, who was at the head of the council, having de- 
manded a trial of the charges against him, and failed to secure one, sailed for 
Europe, where he presented the difficulties experienced in administering the 
government so strongly, that Penn was seriously inclined to sell his interest in 
the colony. He had already greatly crippled his estate by expenses he had 
incurred in making costly presents to the natives and in settling his colony, for 
which he had received small return. In the year 1707 he had become involved 
in a suit in chancery with the executors of his former steward, in the course of 
which he was confined in the Old Bailey during this and a part of the follow- 
ing year, when he was obliged to mortgage his colony in the sum of £6,600 to 
relieve himself. Foreseeing the great consequence it would be to the crown 
to buy the rights of the proprietors of the several English colonies in America 
before they would grow too powerful, negotiations had been entered into early 
in the reign of "William and Mary for their purchase, especially the "fine 
province of Mr. Penn." Borne down by these troubles and by debts and liti- 
gations at home, Penn seriously entertained the proposition to sell in 1712, 
and offered it for £20,000. The sum of £12,000 was offered on the part of 
the crown, which was agreed upon; but before the necessary papers were ex- 
ecuted, he was stricken down with a'poplexy, by which he was incapacitated 
for transacting any business, and a stay was put to further proceedings until 
the queen should order an act of parliament for consummating the purchase. 
A year before the death of Penn, the lunacy of Gov. Gookin having become 
troublesome, he was succeeded in the government by Sir William Keith, a 
Scotchman, who had served as surveyor of customs to the English goverment, 
in vyhich capacity he had visited Pennsylvania previously, and knew something 
of its condition. He was a man of dignified and commanding bearing, 


endowed with cunning, of an accommodating policy, full of faithful promises, 
and usually found upon the stronger side. Hence, upon his arrival in the 
colony, he did not summon the assembly immediately, assigning as a reason in 
his first message that he did not wish to inconvenience the country members 
by calling them in harvest time. The disposition thus manifested to favor the 
people, and his advocacy of popular rights on several occasions in opposition 
to the claims of the proprietor, gave great satisfaction to the popular branch of 
the legislature, which manifested its appreciation of his conduct by voting him 
liberal salaries, which had often been withheld from his less accommodating 
predecessors. By his artful and insinuating policy, he induced the assembly 
to pass two acts which had previously met witji uncompromising opposition — 
one to establish a court of equity, with himself as chancellor, (the want of 
which had been seriously felt), and another for organizing the militia. Though 
the soil was fruitful and produce was plentiful, yet, for lack of good markets, 
and on account of the meagerness of the circulating medium, prices were very 
low, the toil and sweat of the husbandman being little rewarded, and the taxes 
and payments on land were met with great difficulty. Accordingly, arrange- 
ments were made for the appointment of inspectors of provisions, who from a 
conscientious discharge of duty soon caused the Pennsylvania brands of best 
products to be much sought for, and to command ready sale at highest prices 
in the West Indies, whither most of the surplus produce was exported. A 
provision was also made for the issue of a limited amount of paper money, on 
the establishment of ample securities, which tended to raise the value of the 
products of the soil and of manufactures, and encourage industry. 

Though Gov. Keith, during the early part of his term, pursued a pacific 
policy, yet the interminable quarrels which had been kept up between the 
assembly and council during previous administrations at length broke out 
with more virulence than ever, and he who in the first flush of power had 
declared that "he should pass no laws, nor transact anything of moment relat- 
ing to the public affairs, without the advice and approbation of the council, ' ' 
took it upon himself finally to act independently of the council, and even went 
so far as to dismiss the able and trusted representative of the proprietary in- 
terests, James Logan, president of the council and secretary of the province, 
from the duties of his high office, and even refused the request of Hannah 
Penn, the real governor of the province, to reinstate him. This unwarrant- 
able conduct cost him his dismissal from office in July, 1726. 

Upon the recommendation of Springett Penn, who was now the prospective 
heir to Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon was appointed and confirmed lieuten- 
ant-governor in place of Keith, and arrived in the colony and assumed 
authority in July,' 1726. He had served in the army, and in his first address 
to the assembly, which he met in August, he said that as he had been a 
soldier he knew nothing of the crooked ways of professed politicians, and must 
rely on a straightforward manner of transacting the duties devolving upon 
him. George I died in June, 1727, and the assembly at its meeting in Oc- 
tober prepared and forwarded a congratulatory address to his successor, George 
II. By the decision of the court in chancery in 1727, Hannah Penn's authority 
over the colony was at an end, the proprietary interest having descended to 
John, Eichard and Thomas Penn, the only surviving sons of William Penn, 
Sr. This period, from the death of Penn in 1718 to 1727, one of the most 
prosperous in the history of the colony, was familiarly known as the " Eeign 
of Hannah and the Boys." 

In 1732 Thomas Penn, the youngest son, and two years later John Penn, 
the eldest, and the only American born, arrived in the province, and wero 


received with every mark of respect and satisfaction. Soon after the arrival 
of the latter, news was brought that Lord Baltimore had made application to 
have the provinces transferred to his colony. A vigorous protest was made 
against this by Quakers in England, headed by Richard Penn; but lest this 
protest might prove ineiiectual, John Penn verj"- soon went to England to 
defend the proprietary rights" at court, and never again returned, he having 
died a bachelor in 1746. In August, 1736, Gov. Gordon died, deeply lamented 
as an honest, upright and straightforward executive, a character which he 
expressed the hope he would be able to maintain when he assumed authority. 
His term had been one of prosperity, and the colony had grown rapidly in 
numbers, trade, commerce and manufactures, ship-building especially having 
assumed extensive proportions. 

James Logan was president of the council, and in effect governor during 
the two years which elapsed between the death of Gordon and the arrival of 
his successor. During this period troubles broke out on the Maryland border, 
west of the Susquehanna. The question of boundary was involved in these 
difficulties, but the troubles were quelled by an order of the king and council. 

George Thomas, a planter from the West Indies, was appointed governor 
in 1737, but did not arrive in the colony till the following year. His inter- 
course with the assembly was not at first harmonious, but became more so on 
his relinquishment of the coercive policy which he at first adopted. After the 
death of John Penn, the eldest of the proprietors, he retired from the duties 
of his ofBce because of declining health. 

Anthony Palmer was president of the council at the time of the withdrawal 
of Thomas, and became acting governor. He continued at the head of the 
government about two years. He was a wealthy retired merchant from the 
West Indies, and had come into the colony in 1708. 

On the 23d of November, 1748, James Hamilton arrived in the colony from 
England, bearing the commission of lieutenant-governor. He was born in 
America, a son of Andrew Hamilton, who had for many years been speaker of 
the assembly. The Indians west of the Susquehanna had complained that set- 
tlers had come upon their best lands, and were acquiring titles to them, where- 
as the proprietors had never purchased these lands of them and had no claim 
to them. The first care of Hamilton was to settle these disputes, and allay 
the rising excitement of the natives. Eichard Peters, secretary of the colony, 
a man of great prudence and ability, was sent in company with the Indian 
interpreter, Conrad Weiser, to remove the intruders. It was firmly and fear- 
lessly done, the settlers giving up their tracts and the cabins which they had 
built, and accepting lands on the east side of the river. The hardship was, in 
many cases, great, but when they were in actual need the secretary gave money 
and placed them on lands of his own, having secured a tract of two millions 
of acres. 

But these troubles were of small consequence compared with those that 
were threatening from the West. The French were determined to occcupy the 
whole territory drained by the Mississippi, including that on the Ohio, by force 
of arms, and a body of one hundred and fifty men, of which Washington was 
second in command, was sent to the support of the settlers there; but the 
French having the Allegheny river at flood-tide on which to move, and Wash- 
ington, without means of transportation, having a rugged and mountainous 
country to overcome, the former first reached the point of destination. Oon- 
tracceur, the French commander, with 1,000 men and field pieces on a fleet of 
sixty boats and 300 canoes, dropped down the Allegheny and easily seized the 
fort then being constructed by the Ohio Company at its mouth, and proceeded 


to erect there an elaborate work which he called Fort Du Quesne, after the 
governor-general. Informed of this proceeding, Washington pushed forward, 
and finding that a detachment of the French was in his immediate neighbor- 
hood he made a forced march by night, and coming upon them unawares killed 
and captured the entire party save one. Ten of the French, including their 
commander, Jumonville, were killed, and twenty-one made prisoners. Col. 
Fry, the commander of the Americans, died at Will's creek, where the com- 
mand devolved on Washington. Though re -enforcements had been dispatched 
from the several colonies in response to the urgent appeals of Washington, 
none reached him but one company of 100 men under Capt. Mackay, from 
South. Carolina. Knowing that he was confronting a vastly superior force of 
the French, well supplied with artillery, he threw up works at a point called 
the Great Meadows, which he characterizes as a " charming field for an encoun- 
ter," naming his hastily built fortification Fort Necessity. Stung by the loss 
of their leader, the French came out in strong force and soon invested the 
place. Unfortunately one part of Washington's position was easily com- 
manded by the artillery of the French, which they were not slow in taking 
advantage of. The action opened on the 3d of July, and was continued until 
late at night. A capitulation was proposed by the French commander, which 
^Vashington reluctantly accepted, seeing all hopes of re-enforcements reaching 
him cut off, and on the 4th of July marched out with the honors of war and 
fell back to Fort Cumberland. Gov. Hamilton had strongly recommended, 
before hostilities opened, that the assembly should provide for defense and 
establish a line of block-houses along the frontier. But the assembly, while 
willing to vote money for buying peace from the Indians, and contributions to 
the British Crown, from which protection was claimed, was unwilling to con- 
tribute directly for even defensive warfare. In a single year £8,000 were voted 
to Indian gratuities. The proprietors were appealed to to aid in bearing this 
burden. But, while they were willing to contribute liberally for defense, they 
would give nothing for Indian gratuities They sent to the colony cannons 
to the value of £400. 

In February, 1753, John Penn, grandson, of the founder, son of Richard, 
arrived in the colony, and as a mark of respect was immediately chosen a mem- 
ber of the council, and made its president. In consequence of the defeat of 
Washington at Fort Necessity, Gov. Hamilton convened the assembly in extra 
session on the 6th of August, at which money was freely voted; but owing to 
the instructions given by the proprietors to their deputy-governor not to sign 
any money bill that did not place the whole of the interest at their disposal, 
the action of the assembly was abortive. 

Finding himself in a false position by the repugnant instructions of the pro- 
prietors. Gov. Hamilton had given notice in 1753, that at the end of twelve 
months from its reception, he would resign. Accordingly, in October, 1754, 
he was succeeded by Robert Hunter Morris, son of Lewis Morris, chief justice 
of New York and New Jersey, and governor of New Jersey. The son was bred 
a lawyer, and was for twenty-six years a counselor, and for twenty chief jus- 
tice of New Jersey. The assembly at its first session voted a money bill for 
£40,000, bat not having the proviso required by the proprietors it was vetoed. 
Determined to push military operations, the British government had called 
early in the year for three thousand volunteers from Pennsylvania, with sub- 
sistence, camp equipage and transportation, and had sent two regiments of the 
line, under Gen. Braddock, from Cork, Ireland. Landing at Alexandria, Va., 
he marched to Frederick, Md., where, finding no supplies of transportation, he 
halted. The assembly of Pennsylvania had voted to borrow £5,000, on its 


own account, for the use of the crown in prosecuting the campaign, and had 
sent Franklin, who was then postmaster-general for the colonies, to Braddock 
to aid in prosecuting the expedition. Finding that the army was stopped for 
lack of transportation, Franklin returned into Pennsylvania, and by his com- 
manding iniluence soon secured the necessary wagons and beasts of burden. 

Braddock had formed extravagant plans for his campaign. He would 
march forward and reduce Fort Du Quesne, thence proceed against Fort 
Niagara, having conquered which he would close a season of triumphs by the 
capture of Fort Frontignac. But this is not the first time in warfare that the 
result of a campaign has failed to realize the promises of the manifesto. Accus- 
tomed to the discipline of military establishments in old, long settled coun- 
tries, Braddock had little conception of making war in a wilderness with only 
Indian trails to move upon, and against wily savages. Washington had advised 
to push forward with pack-horses, and by rapidity of movement forestall ample 
preparation. But Braddock had but one way of soldiering, and where roads 
did not exist for wagons he stopped to fell the forest and construct bridges 
over streams. The French, who were kept advised of every movement, made 
ample preparations to receive him. In the meantime Washington fell sick; but 
intent on being up for the battle, he hastened forward as soon as sufficiently 
recovered, and only joined the army on the day before the fatal engagement. 
He had never seen much of the pomp and circumstance of war, and when on 
the morning of the 9th of July the army of Braddock marched on across the 
Monongahela, with gay colors flying and martial music awakening the echoes 
of the forest, he was accustomed in after years to speak of it as the ' ' most 
magnificent spectacle" that he had ever beheld. But the gay pageant was 
destined to be of short duration; for the army had only marched a little dis- 
tance before it fell into an ambuscade skillfully laid by the French and Indians, 
and the forest resounded with the unearthly whoop of the Indians and the con- 
tinuous roar of musketry. The advance was checked and thrown into confusion 
by the French from their well-chosen position, and every tree upon the flanks 
of the long drawn outline concealed a murderous foe, who with unerring aim 
picked off the officers. A resolute defense was made and the battle raged with 
great fury for three hours ; but the fire of the English was ineffectual because 
directed against an invisible foe. Finally, the mounted officers having all 
fallen, killed or wounded, except Washington, the survivors being left without 
leaders were seized with a panic, and "they ran," says Washington, "before 
the French and Indians like sheep before dogs. ' ' 

Gov. Morris made an earnest appeal to the assembly for money to ward 
off the impending enemy and protect the settlers, in response to which the 
assembly voted £50,000; but having no exemption of the proprietor's estates 
it was rejected by the governor, in accordance with his original instructions. 
Expeditions undertaken against Nova Scotia and at Grown Point were more 
fortunate than that before Du Quesne, and the assembly voted £15,000 in 
bills of credit to aid in defraying the expense. The proprietors sent £5,000 
as a gratuity, not as any part of expense that could of right be claimed of 
them. In this pressing emergency, while the governor and assembly were 
waging a fruitless war of words over money bills, the pen of Franklin was 
busy in infusing a wholesome sentiment in the minds of the people. In a 
pamphlet that he issued, which he put in the familiar form of a dialogue, he 
. answered the objections which had been urged to a legalized militia, and 
willing to show his devotion by deeds as well as words, he accepted the com- 
mand upon the frontier. By his exertions a respectable force was raised, and, 
though in the dead of winter, he commenced the erection of a line of forts 


and block-houses along the whole range of the Kittatinny hills, from the 
Delaware to the Potomac, and had them completed and garrisoned with a body 
sufficient to withstand any force not provided with artillery. In the spring 
he turned over the command to Col. Clapham, and returning to Philadelphia 
took his seat in the assembly. The governor now declared war against the 
Indians, who had established their headquarters thirty miles above Harris' 
Ferry, on the Susquehanna, and were busy in their work of robbery and 
devastation, having secured the greater portion of the crops of the previous 
season of the settlers whom they had killed or driven out. The peace party 
strongly objected to the course of the governor, and voluntarily going among 
the Indians induced them to hxirj the hatchet. The assembly which met in 
May, 1756, prepared a bill with the old clause for taxing the proprietors, as 
any other citizens, which the governor was forbidden to approve by his instruc- 
tions, "and the two parties were sharpening their wits for another wrangle 
over it," when Gov. Morris was superseded by William Denny, who arrived 
in the colony and assumed authority on the 20th of August, 1756. He was. 
joyfully and cordially received, escorted through the streets by the regiments 
of Franklin and Dach6, and royally feasted at the State House. 

But the promise of efficient legislation was broken by an exhibition of the 
new governor's instructions, which provided that every bill for the emission 
of money must place the proceeds at the joint disposal of the governor and 
assembly; paper currency could not be issued in excess of £40,000, nor could 
existing issues be confirmed unless proprietary rents were paid in sterling 
money; proprietary lands were permitted to be taxed which had been actually 
leased, provided that the taxes were paid out of the rents, but the tax could 
not become a lien upon the land. In the first assembly the contention became 
as acrimonious as ever. 

The finances of the colony, on account of the repeated failures of the 
money bills, were in a deplorable condition. Military operations could not 
be carried on, and vigorous campaigns prosecuted, without ready money. 
Accordingly, in the first meeting of the assembly after the arrival of the new 
governor, a bill was passed levying £100,000 on all property alike, real and 
personal, private and proprietary. This Gov. Denny vetoed. Seeing that 
money must be had the assembly finally passed a bill exempting the proprie- 
tary estates, but determined to lay their grievances before the crown. To 
this end two commissioners, Isaac Norris and Benjamin Franklin, were 
appointed to proceed to England and beg the interference of the royal govern- 
ment in their behalf. Failing health and business engagements of Norris 
prevented his acceptance, and Franklin proceeded alone. He had so often 
defended the assembly in public, and in drawing remonstrances, that the 
whole subject was at his fingers' ends. Franklin, upon his arrival in Eng- 
land, presented the grievances before the proprietors, and that he might get 
his case before the royal advisers and the British public, wrote frequent 
articles for the press, and issued a pamphlet entitled ' ' Historical Eeview of 
the Constitution and Government of Pennsylvania." The dispute was adroitly 
managed by Franklin before the privy council, and was finally decided sub- 
stantially in the interest of the assembly. It was provided that the proprie- 
tors' estates should be taxed, but that their located uncultivated lands should 
be assessed as low as the lowest uncultivated lands of the settlers; that bills 
issued by the assembly should be receivable in payment of quit -rents, and 
that the deputy- governor should have a voice in disposing of the revenues. 
Thus was a vexed question of long standing finally put to rest. So success- 


fully had Franklin managed this controversy that the colonies of Massa- 
chusetts, Maryland and Georgia, appointed him their agent in England. 

In October, 1759, James Hamilton was again appointed governor, in place 
of Gov. Denny, who had by stress of circumstances transcended his instruc- 
tions. The British government, considering that the colonies had borne more 
than their proportionate expense in carrying on the war against the French 
and Indians, voted £200,000 for five years, to be divided among the colonies, 
the share falling to Pennsylvania being £26,000. 

The boundary line between Maryland and Pennsylvania had long been in 
dispute, aad had occasioned serious disturbances among the settlers in the 
lifetime of Penn, and repeatedly since. It was not definitely settled until 
1760, when a beginning was made of a final adjustment, though so intricate 
were the conditions that the work was prosecuted for seven years by a large 
force of surveyors, as men and pioneers. Finally, the proprietors, Thomas 
and Eichard Penn, and Frederick, Lord Baltimore, entered into an agreement 
for the executing of the survey, and John Lukens and Archibald McLean on 
the part of the Penns, and Thomas Garnett and Jonathan Hall on the part of 
Lord Baltimore, were appointed with a suitable corps of assistants to lay ofF 
the lines. After these surveyors had been three years at work, the proprietors 
in England, thinking that there was not enough energy and practical and 
scientific knowledge manifested by these surveyors, appointed Charles Mason 
and Jeremiah Dixon, two mathematicians and surveyors, to proceed to Amer- 
ica to take charge of the work. They brought with them the most perfect and 
best constructed instruments known to science, arriving in Philadelphia on the 
15th of November, 1763, and, assisted by some of the old surveyors, entered 
upon their work. By the 4th of June, 1766, they had reached the summit of 
the Little Allegheny, when the Indians began to be troublesome. They looked 
with an evil eye on the mathematical and astronomical instruments, and felt a 
secret dread and fear of the consequences of the frequent and long continued 
peering into the heavens. The Six Nations were understood to be inimical to 
the further progress of the survey. But through the influence of Sir William 
Johnson a treaty was concluded, providing for the prosecution of the work 
unmolested, and a number of chieftains was sent to accompany the surveying 
party. Mason and Dixon now had with them thirty surveyors, fifteen axmen, 
and fifteen Indians of consequence. Again the attitude of the Indians gave 
cause of fear, and, on the 29th of September, twenty-six of the surveyors 
a,bandoned the .expedition and returned to Philadelphia. Having reached a 
point two hundred and twenty-four miles from the Delaware, and within thirty- 
six miles of the western limit of the State, in the bottom of a deep, dark valley 
they came upon a well-worn Indian path, and here the Indians gave notice that 
it was the will of the Six Nations that this survey proceed no further. There 
was no questioning this authority, and no means at command for resisting, and 
accordingly the party broke up and returned to Philadelphia. And this was 
the end of the labors of Mason and Dixon upon this boundary. The line was 
marked by stones which were quarried and engraved in England, on one side 
having the arms of Penn, and on the opposite those of Lord Baltimore. These 
stones were firmly set every five miles. At the end of each intermediate mile 
a smaller stone was placed, having on one side engraved the letter P, and on 
the opposite the letter M. The remainder of the line was finished and marked 
in 1782-84 by other surveyors. A vista was cut through the forest eight yards 
in width the whole distance. In 1849 the stone at the northeast corner of 
Maryland having been removed, are-survey of the line was ordered, and survey- 
ors were appointed by the three States of Pennsylvania, Delaware and Marv- 


land, who called to their aid James D. Graham. Some few errors were dis- 
covered in the old survey, but in the main it was found to be accurate. 

John Penn, one son of Richard, and grandson of the founder, had come to 
the colony in 1753, and having acted as president of the council, was in 176S 
commissioned governor in place of Hamilton. 

A difference having arisen between tho governor and assembly on the vexed 
question of levying money, the assembly passed a series of resolutions advocat- 
ing that the ' ' powers of government ought to be separated from the power 
attending the immense proprietary property, and lodged in the hands of the 
king." After an interval of fifty days — that time for reflection and discussion 
might be given — the assembly again convened, and adopted a petition praying 
the king to assume the direct government oi the province, though this policy 
was strongly opposed by some of the ablest members, as Isaac Norris and John 
Dickinson. The Quaker element was generally in favor of the change. 

The great struggle for the independence of the colonies of the British 
crown was now close at hand, and the first sounds of the .controversy were be- 
ginning to be heard. Sir William Keith, that enterprising governor whose 
head seemed to have been full of new projects, as early as 1739 had proposed 
to lay a uniform tax on stamped paper in all the colonies, to realize funds for 
the common defense. Acting upon this hint, Grenville, the British minister, 
notified the colonists in 1763 of his purpose to impose such a tax. Against 
this they remonstrated. Instead of this, a tax on imports to be paid in coin 
was adopted. This was even more distasteful. The assembly of Rhode Island, 
in October, 1765, submitted a paper to all the colonial assemblies with a view 
to uniting in a common petition to the king against parliamentary taxation. 
This was favorably acted on by the assembly of Pennsylvania, and Franklin 
was appointed agent to represent their cause before the British parliament. 
The stamp act had been passed on the 22d of March, 1765. Its passage ex- 
cited bitter opposition, and a resohition asserting that the colonial assemblies 
had the exclusive right to levy taxes was passed by the Virginia assembly, and 
concurred in by all the others. The Massachusetts assembly proposed a meeting 
of delegates in New York on the second Tuesday of October, 1765, to confer 
upon the subject. The Pennsylvania assembly adopted the suggestion, and 
appointed Messrs. Fox, Morton, Bryan and Dickinson as delegates. This 
congress met according to the call and adopted a respectful petition to the 
king, and a memorial to parliament, which were signed by all the members 
and forwarded for presentation by the colonial agents in England. The stamp 
act was to go into effect on the 1st of November. On the last day of October, th& 
newspapers were dressed in mourning, and suspended publication. The pub- 
lishers agreed not to use the stamped paper. The people, as with one mind, 
determined to dress in homespun, resolved not to use imported goods, and to 
stimulate the production of wool the colonists covenanted not to eat lamb for 
the space of one year. The result of this policy was soon felt by British man- 
ufacturers, who became clamorous for repeal of the obnoxious measure, and it 
was accordingly repealed on the 18th of March, 1766. 

Determined in some form to draw a revenue from the colonies, an act was 
passed in 1767 to impose a duty on tea, paper, printers' colors and glass. The 
assembly of Pennsylvania passed a resolution on the 20th of February, 1768, 
instructing its agent in London to urge its repeal, and at the session in May 
received and entered upon its minutes a circular letter from the Massachusetts 
assembly, setting forth the grounds on which objection to the act should be 
urged. This circular occasioned hostile feeling among the ministry, and the 
secretary for foreign affairs wrote to Gov. Penn to urge the assembly to take 


no notice of it; but if they approved its sentiments, to prorogue their sittings. 
This letter was transmitted to the assembly, and soon after one from the Vir- 
ginia assembly was presented, urging union of all the colonies in opposing the 
several schemes of taxation. This recommendation was adopted, and com- 
mittees appointed to draw a petition to the king and to each of the houses of 
parliament. To lead public sentiment, and have it well grounded in the argu- 
ments used against taxation, John Dickinson, one of the ablest of the Pennsyl- 
vania legislators, at this time published a number of articles purporting to 
come from a plain farmer, under the title of " Farmer's Letters," which be- 
came popular, the idea that they were the work of one in humble life helping 
to swell the tide of popularity. They were republished in all the colonies, and 
exerted a commanding influence. * Alarmed at the unanimity of feelings 
against the proposed schemes, and supposing that it was the amount of the 
tax that gave offense, parliament reduced the rate of 1769 to one-sixth of the 
original sum, and in 1770 abolished it altogether, except threepence a pound on 
tea. But it was the principle and not the amount that was objected to, and 
at the next session of the assembly in Pennsylvania their agent in London 
was directed to urge its repeal altogether. 

liichard Penn, son of the founder, died in 1771, whereupon Gov. John 
Penn returned to England, leaving the president of the council, James Ham- 
ilton, at the head of the government. John Penn, eldest son of Richard, suc- 
ceeded to the proprietary interests of his father, which he held in conjunction 
with his uncle, Thomas, and in October of the same year, Richard, the second 
son, was commissioned governor. He held the office but about two years, and 
in that time won the confidence and esteem of the people; and so much 
attached was he to the popular cause that upon his return to England, in 1775, 
he was intrusted by congress with the last petition of the colonies ever pre- 
sented to the king. In August, 1773, John Penu returned with the commis- 
sion of governor, superseding his brother Richard. 

To encourage the sale of tea in the colonies and establish the principle of 
taxation the export duty was removed. The colonies took the alarm. At a 
public meeting called in Philadelphia to consider the subject, 6n the 18th of 
October, 1773, resolutions were adopted in which it was declared: " That the 
disposal of their own property is the inherent right of freemen; that there can 
be no property in that which another can, of right, take from us without our 
consent; that the claim of parliament to tax America is, in other words, a 
claim of right to levy contributions on us at pleasure. ' ' The East India Com- 
' pany now made preparations for sending large importations of tea into the colo- 
nies. The ships destined for Philadelphia and New York, on approaching port 
and being advised of the exasperated state of public feeling, returned to 
England with their cargoes. Those sent to Boston came into the harbor; but 
at night a party disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the vessels, and break- 
ing open the packages emptied three hundred chests into the sea. The min- 
istry, on being apprised of this act, closed the port of Boston, and subverted 
the colonial charter. Early in the year committees of correspondence had 
been established in all the colonies by means of which the temper and feeling 
in each were well understood by the others, and concert of action was secured. 
The hard conditions imposed on the town of Boston and the colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay aroused the sympathy of all; "for," they argued, "we know 
not how soon the heavy hand of oppression may be felt by any of us. " At a 
meeting held in Philadelphia on the 18th of June, 1774, at which nearly eight 
thousand people were convened, it was decided that a continental congress 
ought to be held, and appointed a committee of correspondence to communi- 


cate with similar committees in the several counties of Pennsylvania and in the 
several colonies. On the 15th of July, 1774, delegates from all the counties, 
summoned by this committee, assembled in Philadelphia, and declared that 
there existed an absolute necessity for a colonial congress. They accordingly 
recommended that the assembly appoint delegates to such a congress to repre- 
sent Pennsylvania, and Joseph Galloway, Samuel Ehoads, George Ross, 
Edward Biddle, John Dickinson, Charles Humphries and Thomas Mifflin were 

On the 4th of September, 1774, the first continental congress assembled in 
Philadelphia. Peyton Eandolph, of Virginia, was called to preside, and 
Charles Thomson, of Pennsylvania, was appointed secretary. It was resolved 
that no more goods be imported from England, and that unless a pacification 
was effected previously no more colonial produce of the soil be exported thither 
after September 10, 1775. A declaration of rights was adopted, and addresses 
to the king, the people of Great Britain and of British America were agreed 
to, after which the congress adjourned to meet again on the 10th of May, 1775, 
In January, same year, another meeting of the county delegates was held 
in Philadelphia, at which the action of the colonial congress was approved, 
and while a restoration of harmony with the mother country was desired, yet, if 
the arbitrary acts of parliament were persisted in, they would at every hazard 
defend the ' ' rights and liberties of America. ' ' The delegates appointed to 
represent the colony in the second congress were Mifflin, Humphries, Biddle, 
Dickinson, Morton, Franklin, Wilson and Willing. 

The government of Great Britain had determined with a strong hand to 
compel obedience to its behests. On the 19th of April, 1775, was fought the 
battle of Lexington, a blow that was felt alike through all the colonies. The 
cause of one was the cause of all. A public meeting was held in Philadelphia, 
at which it was resolved to organize military companies in all the counties. 
The assembly heartily seconded these views, and engaged to provide for the 
pay of the militia while in service. The second congress, which met in May, 
provided for organizing a Continental army, fixing the quota for Pennsylvania 
at 4,300 men. The assembly adopted the recommendation of congress, pro- 
vided for arming, disciplining and paying the militia, recommended the organ- 
izing of minutemen for service in an emergency, made appropriations for the 
defense of the city, and offered a premium on the production of saltpetre. 
Complications hourly thickened. Ticonderoga was captured on the 10th of 
May, and the battle of Bunker Hill was fought on the 17th of June. On the 
15th of June George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
continental army, supported by four major-generals and eight brigadiers. 

The royal governors were now an incumbrance greatly in the way of the 
popular movement, as were also the assemblies where they refused to repre- 
sent the popular will. Accordingly, congress recommended that the several 
colonies should adopt such government as should "best conduce to the hap- 
piness and safety of their constituents in particular and America in general." 
This meant that each colony should set up a government for itself, independent 
of the crown. Accordingly, a public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at 
which it was resolved that the present assembly is "not competent to the 
present exigencies of affairs," and that a new form of government ought to be 
adopted as recommended by congress. The city committee of correspondence 
called on the county committee to secure the election of delegates to a colonial 
meeting for the purpose of considering this subject. On the 18th of June the 
meeting was held in Philadelphia, and was organized by electing Thomas 
McKean president. It resolved to call a convention to frame a new constitu- 


tion, provided the legal forms to be observed, and issued an address to the peo- 
ple. The convention for framing a new constitution for the colony met on the 
15th of July, and was organized by electing Franklin president, and on the 
28th of September completed its labors, having framed a new organic law and 
made all necessary provisions for putting it into operation. In the meantime 
the old proprietary assembly adjourned on the 14th of June, to the 26th 
of August. But a quorum failed to appear, and an adjournment was had to 
the 23d of September, when some routine business was attended to, chiefly 
providing for the payment of salaries and necessary bills, and on the 28th of 
September, after a stormy existence of nearly a century, this assembly, the 
creature of Penn, adjourned, never to meet again. With the ending of the 
assembly ended the power of Gov. Penn. 

The titles of the proprietors to landed estates were suspended by the action 
of the convention, and on the 27th of November, 1779, the legislature passed 
an act vesting these estates in the commonwealth, but paying the proprietors 
a gratuity of £130,000, "in remembrance of the enterprising spirit of the 
founder." This act did not touch the private estates of the proprietors, nor 
the tenths of manors. The British government in 1790, in consideration of 
the fact that it had been unable to vindicate its authority over the colony and 
afford protection to the proprietors in the enjoyment of their chartered rights, 
voted an annuity of £4, 000 to the heirs and descendants of Penn. This annu- 
ity was regularly paid until within a few years, when, on the payment of a 
round sum to the heirs by the British government, the annuity was discon- 

The convention which framed the constitution appointed a committee of 
safety, consisting of twenty-five members, to whom was intrusted the govei'n- 
ment of the colony until the proposed constitution should be framed and put 
in operation. Thomas Kittenhouse was chosen president of this body, wha 
was consequently in eifect governor. The new constitution, which was unan- 
imously adopted on the 28th of September, was to take efPect from its passage. 
It provided for an assembly to be elected annually; a supreme executive coun- 
cil of twelve members to be elected for a term of three years; assemblymen ta 
be eligible but four years out of seven, and councilmen but one term in seven 
years. Members of congress were chosen by the assembly. The constitution 
could not be changed for seven years. It provided for the election of censors 
every seven years, who were to decide whether there was a demand for its 
revision. If so, they were to call a convention for the purpose. On the 6th 
of August, 1776, Thomas Wharton, Jr., was chosen president of the council of 

The struggle of the parent country was now fully inaugurated. Parlia- 
ment had resolved upon a vigorous campaign, to strike heavy and rapid blows, 
and quickly end the war. The first campaign had been conducted in Massa- 
chusetts and, by the efficient conduct of Washington, Gen. Howe, the leader 
of the British, was compelled to capitulate and withdraw to Halifax in March, 
1776. On the 28th of June Sir Henry Clinton, with a strong detachment in 
conjunction with Sir Peter Parker of the navy, made a combined land and 
naval attack upon the defenses of Charleston harbor, where he was met by 
Gen. William Moultrie, with the Carolina militia, and after a severe battle, in 
which the British fleet was roughly handled, Clinton withdrew, and returned 
to New York, whither the main body of the British army, under Gen. Howe, 
had come, and where Admiral Howe, with a large fleet directly from England, 
joined them. This formidable power, led by the best talent in the British 
army, Washington could muster no adequate force to oppose, and he was 


obliged to withdraw from Long Island, from New York, from Harlem, from 
White Plains, to cross into New Jersey, and abandon position after position 
until he had reached the right bank of the Delaware on Pennsylvania soil. A 
heavy detachment under Cornwallis followed, and would have crossed the Del- 
aware in pursuit, but, advised to a cautious policy by Howe, he waited for ice 
to form on the waters of the Delaware before passing over. The fall of Phil- 
adelphia now seemed imiftinent. Washington had not sufScient force to face the 
whole power of the British army. On the 2d of December the supreme coun- 
cil ordered all places of business in the city to be closed, the schools dismissed, 
and advised preparation for removing the women and children and valuables. 
On the 12th the congress, which was in session here, adjourned to meet in Bal- 
timore, taking with them all papers and public records, and leaving a committee, 
of which Eobert Morris was chairman, to act in conjunction with Washington 
for the safety of the place. Gren. Putnam was dispatched on the same day 
with a detachment of soldiers to take command in the city. 

Washington, who had from the opening of the campaign before New York 
been obliged for the most part to act upon the defensive, formed the plan 
to suddenly turn upon his pursuers and offer battle. Accordingly, on the 
night of the 25th of December, taking a picked body of men, he moved up 
several miles to Taylorsville, where he crossed the river, though at flood 
tide and filled with floating ice, and moving down to Trenton, where a detach- 
ment of the British army was posted, made a bold and vigorous attack. 
Taken by surprise, though now after sunrise, the battle was soon decided in 
favor of the Americans. The victory had a great stragetic value. The British 
had intended to push forward and occupy Philadelphia at once, which, being 
now virtually the capital of the new nation, had it been captured at this junct- 
ure, would have given them the occasion for claiming a triumphal ending of 
the war. But this advantage, though gained by a detachment small in num- 
bers yet great in courage, caused the commander of a powerful and well-ap- 
pointed army to give up all intention of attempting to capture the Pennsyl- 
vania metropolis in this campaign, and retiring into winter cantonments upon 
the Raritan to await the settled weather of the spring for an entirely new cast 
of operations. Washington, emboldened by his success, led all his forces into 
New Jersey, and pushing past Trenton, where Cornwallis, the royal leader, 
had brought his main body by a forced march under cover of darkness, at- 
tacked the British reserves at Princeton. But now the enemy had become wary 
and vigilant, and, summoned by the booming of cannon, Cornwallis hastened 
back to the relief of his hard-pressed columns. Washington, finding that the 
enemy' s whole army was within easy call, and knowing that he had no hope of 
success with his weak army, withdrew. He now went into winter quarters at 
Morristown, and by constant vigilance was able to gather marauding parties of 
the British who ventured far away fi-om their works. 

Putnam commenced fortifications at a point below Philadelphia upon the 
Delaware and at commanding positions upon the outskirts, and on being sum- 
moned to the army was succeeded by Gen. Irvine, and he by Gen. Gates. On 
the 4th of March, 1777, the two houses of the legislature, elected under the 
new constitution, assembled, and in joint convention chose Thomas Wharton, 
Jr., president, and George Bryan, vice-president. Penn had expressed the 
idea that power was preserved the better by due formality and ceremony, and, 
accordingly, this event was celebrated "with much pomp, the result being de- 
clared in a loud voice from the court-house, amid the shouts of the gathered 
throngs and the booming of the captured cannon brought from the field of 
Trenton. The title bestowed upon the new chief ofiicer of the State was fitted 


by its length and high-sounding epithets to inspire the multitude with awe and 
reverence: "His Excellency, Thomas Wharton, Junior, Esquire, President of 
the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, Captain-General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief in and over the same." 

Early in April great activity was observed among the shipping in New 
York harbor, and Washington communicated to congress his opinion that 
Philadelphia was the object against which the blow "would be aimed. This 
announcement of probable peril induced the council to issue a proclamation 
urging enlistments, and congress ordered the opening of a camp for drilling 
recruits in Pennsylvania, and Benedict Arnold, who was at this time a trusted 
general, was appointed to the command of it. So many new vessels and trans- 
ports of all classes had been discovered to have come into New York harbor, 
probably forwarded from England, that Washington sent Gen. Mifflin, on the 
10th of June, to congress, bearing a letter in which he expressed the settled 
conviction that the enemy meditated an immediate descent upon some part of 
Pennsylvania. Gen. Mifflin proceeded to examine the defensive works of the 
city which had been begun on the previous advance of the British, and recom- 
mended such changes and new works as seemed best adapted for its protec- 
tion. The preparations for defense were vigorously prosecuted. The militia 
were called out and placed in two camps, one at Chester and the other at 
Downington. Eire-ships were held in readiness to be used against vessels at- 
tempting the ascent of the river. 

Lord Howe, being determined not to move until ample preparations were 
corripleted, allowed the greater part of the summer to wear away before he ad- 
vanced. Finally, having embarked his force on a fleet of transports, he sailed 
southward. Washington promptly made a corresponding march overland, 
passing through Philadelphia on the 24th of August. Howe, suspecting that 
preparations would be made for impeding the passage of the Delaware, sailed 
past its mouth, and moving up the Chesapeake instead debarked fifty-four 
miles from Philadelphia, and commenced the march northward. Great activity 
was now manifested in the city. The water- spouts were melted to furnish bul- 
lets, fair hands were busied in rolling cartridges, powerful chevaux-de-frise 
were planted to impede the navigation of the river, and the last division of 
the militia of the city, which had been divided into three classes, was called 
out. Washington, who had crossed the Brandywine, soon confronted the ad- 
vance of Howe, and brisk skirmishing at once opened. Seeing that he was 
likely to have the right of his position at Red Clay creek, where he had 
intended to give battle, turned by the largely superior force of the enemy, 
under cover of darkness on the night of the 8th of September, he withdrew 
across the Brandywine at Chad's Ford, and posting Armstrong with the mili- 
tia upon the left, at Pyle's Ford, where the banks were rugged and precipitous, 
and Sullivan, who was second in command, upon the right at Brinton's Ford,^ 
under cover of forest, he himself took post with three divisions. Sterling's, 
Stephen's and his own, in front of the main avenue of approach at Chad's. 
Discovering the strong position which the American army occupied, the Brit- 
ish general began a maneuver to turn it by a flank movement. Washington, 
always on the alert, promptly divined the enemy's intentions, and ordered 
Gen. Sullivan to counteract the movement by flanking the flankers, while he 
held his immediate command ready to attack the main force while in confusion. 
The plan was ruined, however, by Sullivan' s failure to obey orders, and Wash- 
ington had no alternative but to remain in position and make the best dispo-' 
sition that time would permit. His main body with the force of Sullivan took 
position along the brow of the hill on which stands the Birmingham meeting- 


house, and the battle opened and was pushed with vigor the whole day. Over- 
borne by numbers, and weakened by losses, Washington was obliged to retire, 
leaving the enemy in possession of the field. 

Congress remained in Philadelphia while these military operations were 
going on at its very doors, but on the 18th of September adjournei to meet at 
Lancaster, though subsequently, on the 30th, it removed across the Susque- 
hanna to York, where it remained in session till after the evacuation in the 
following summer. The council remained until two days before the fall of the 
city, when, having dispatched the records of the loan oflace and the more valu- 
able papers to Easton, it adjourned to Lancaster. On the 26th the British 
army entered the city. Deborah Logan in her memoir says : ' ' The army 
marched in and took possession of the city in the morning. We were upstairs 
and saw them pass the State House. They looked well, clean and well clad, 
and the contrast between them and oiir own poor, bare-footed, ragged troops 
was very great, and caused a feeling of despair. * * * * Early in the 
afternoon Lord Cornwallis' suite arrived and took possession of my mother's 

The army of Washington, after being recruited and put in light marching 
order, was led to Germantown, where on the morning of the 3d of October the 
enemy was met. A heavy fog that morning had obscured friend and foe alike, 
occasioning confusion in the ranks and, though the opening promised well and 
some progress was made, yet the enemy was too strong to be moved, and the 
American leader was forced to retire to his camp at White Marsh. Though 
the river had now been opened and the city was thoroughly fortified for resist 
ing attack, yet Howe felt not quite easy in having the American army quar- 
tered in so close striking distance, and accordingly on the 4th of December, 
with nearly his entire army, moved out, intending to take Washington at 
White Marsh, sixteen miles away, by surprise, and by rapidity of action gain 
an easy victory. But by the heroism and fidelity of Lydia Darrah, who as she 
had often done before passed the guards to go to the mill for flour, the news 
of the coming of Howe was communicated to Washington, who was prepared 
to receive him. Finding that he could effect nothing, Howe returned to the 
city, having had the wearisome march at this wintry season without effect, 
Washington now crossed the Schuylkill, and went into winter quarters at Val- 
ley Forge. The cold of that winter was intense; the troops, half -clad and 
indifferently fed, suffered severely, the prints of their naked feet in frost and 
snow being often tinted with patriot blood. Grown impatient of the small 
results from the immensely expensive campaigns carried on across the ocean, 
the ministry relieved Lord Howe and appointed Sir Henry Clinton to the chief 

The commissioners whom congress had sent to France early in the fall of 
1776 — Franklin, Dean and Lee — had been busy in making interest for the 
united colonies at the French court, and so successful were they that arms and 
ammunition and loans of money were procured from time to time. Finally, a 
convention was concluded by which France agreed to use the royal army and 
navy as faithful allies of the Americans against the English. Accordingly, a 
fleet of four powerful frigates and twelve ships were dispatched under com- 
mand of the Count D'Estaing to shut up the British fleet in the Delaware. 
The plan was ingenious, particularly worthy of the long head of Franklin. 
But intelligence of the sailing of the French fleet reaching the English cabinet; 
they immediately ordered the evacuation of the Delaware, whereupon the 
admiral weighed anchor and sailed away with his entire fleet to New York, 


and D'Estaing, upon his arrival at the mouth of the Delaware, found that the 
bird had flown. 

Clinton evacuated Philadelphia, and moved across New Jersey in the direc- 
tion of New York. Washington closely followed, and came up with the enemy 
on the plains of Monmouth, on the 28th of June, 1778, where a sanguinary 
battle was fought which lasted the whole day, resulting in the triumph of the 
American arms, and Pennsylvania was rid of British troops. The enemy was 
no sooner well away from the city than congress returned from New York and 
resumed its sittings in its former quarters, June 24, 1778, and on the following 
day the colonial legislature returned from Lancaster. Gen. Arnold, who was 
disabled from field duty by a wound received at Saratoga, was given command 
in the city, and marched in with a regiment on the day following the evacua- 
tion. On the 23d of May, 1778, President Wharton died suddenly of quinsy, 
while in attendance upon the council at Lancaster, when George Bryan, the 
vice-president, became the acting president. Bryan was a philanthropist in 
deed as well as in word. TJp to this time African slavery had been tolerated 
in the colony. In his message .of the 9th of November, he said: "This or 
some better scheme would tend to abrogate slavery, the opprobrium of Amer- 
ica, from among us. * * * in divesting the State of slaves, you will 
equally serve the cause of humanity and policy, and offer to God one of the 
most proper and best returns of gratitude for His great deliverance of us and 
our posterity from thraldom; you will also set your character for justice and 
benevolence in the true point of view to Europe, who are astonished to see a 
people eager for liberty holding negroes in bondage." He perfected a bill 
for the extinguishment of claims to slaves, which was passed by the assembly, 
March 1, 1780, by a vote of thirty-four to eighteen, providing that no child 
of slave parents born after that date should be a slave, but a servant till the 
age of twenty-eight years, when all claim for service should end. Thus by 
simple enactment, resolutely pressed by Bryan, was slavery forever rooted out 
of Pennsylvania. 

At the election held for president, the choice fell upon Joseph Eeed, with 
George Bryan, vice-president, subsequently Matthew Smith, and finally Will- 
iam Moore. Reed was an erudite lawyer, and had held the position of private 
secretary to Washington, and subsequently that of adjutant-general in the 
army. He was inaugurated on the 1st of December, 1778. William Moore 
was elected president to succeed Joseph Eeed, from November 1-1, 1781, but 
held the office less than one yoar, the term of three years for which he had 
been a councilman having expired, which was the limit of service. James 
Potter was chosen vice-president. In the State election of 1782, contested 
with great violence, John Dickinson was chosen president, and James Ewing, 
vice-president. On the 12th of March, 1783, intelligence was first received 
of the signing of the preliminary treaty in which independence was ac- 
knowledged, and on the 11th of April congress sent forth the joyful procla- 
mation ordering a cessation of hostilities. The soldiers of Burgoyne, who had 
been confined in the prison camp at Lancaster, were put upon the march for 
New York, passing through Philadelphia on the way. Everywhere was joy 
unspeakable. The obstructions were removed from the Delaware, and the 
white wings of commerce again came fluttering on every breeze. 

In September, 1785, after a long absence in the service of his country 
abroad, perfecting treaties and otherwise establishing just relations with other 
nations, the venerable Benjamin Franklin, than nearly eighty years old, feel- 
ing the infirmities of age coming upon him, asked to be relieved of the duties 
of minister at the court of France, and returned to Philadelphia. Soon after 


his an-ival be was elected president of the council." Charles Biddle was elected 
vice-president. In May, 1787, a convention to frame a constitution for the 
United States met at Philadelphia. The delegates from Pennsylvania-were 
Benjamin Franklin, Kobert Morris, Thomas Mifflin, George Clymer, Thomas 
Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris. Upon 
the completion of their work, the instrument was submitted to the several 
States for adoption. A convention was called in Pennsylvania, which met on 
the 21st of November, and though encountering resolute opposition it was 
finally adopted on the 12th of December. On the following day the conven- 
tion; the supreme council and officers of the State and city government, moved 
in procession to the old court-house, where the adoption of the constitution 
was formally proclaimed amidst the booming of cannon and the ringing of 

On the 5th of November, 1788, Thomas Mifflin was elected president, and 
George Boss, vice-president. The constitution of the State framed in and 
adapted to the exigencies of an emergency, was ill-suited to the needs of the 
State in its relations to the new nation. Accordingly a convention assembled 
for the purpose of preparing a new constitution in November, 1789, which was 
finally adopted on September 2, 1790. By the provisions of this instrumeut, 
the executive council was abolished, and the executive duties were vested in 
the hands of a governor. Legislation was intrusted to an assembly and a 
senate. The judicial system was continued, and the terms of the judges 
extended through good behavior. 

The whisky insurrection in some of the western counties of the State, 
which occurred in 1794, excited by its lawlessness and wide extent general 
interest. An act of congress of March 3, 1791, laid a tax on distilled spirits 
of fourpence per gallon. The then counties of Washington, Westmoreland, 
Allegheny and Fayette, comprising the southwestern quarter of the State, 
were almost exclusively engaged in the production of grain. Being far re- 
moved from any market, the product of their farms brought them scarcely 
any returns. The consequence was that a large proportion of the surplus 
grain was turned into distilled spirits, and nearly every other farmer was a 
distiller. This tax was seen to bear heavily upon them, from which a non- 
producer of spirits was relieved. A rash determination was formed to resist 
its collection, and a belief entertained Ihat, if all were united in resisting, it 
would be taken off. Frequent altercations occurred between the persons ap- 
pointed United States collectors and these resisting citizens. As an example, 
on the 5th of September, 1791, a party in disguise set upon Bobert Johnson, 
a collector for Allegheny and Washington, tarred and feathered him, cut off 
his hair, took away his horse, and left him in this plight to proceed. Writs 
for the arrest of the perpetrators were issued, but none dared to venture into 
the territory to serve them. On May 8, 1792, the law was modified, and the 
tax reduced. In September, 1792, President Washington issued his proclama- 
tion commanding all persons to submit to the law, and to forbear from further 
opposition. But these measures had no effect, and the insurgents began to 
organize for forcible resistance. Maj. Macfarlane, while in command of a 
party of insurrectionists, was killed in an encounter with United States sol- 
diers at the house of Gen. Neville. The feeling now ran very high, and it 
was hardly safe for any person to breathe a whisper against the insurgents 
throughout all this district. One Bradford had, of his own notion, issued a 
circular letter to the colonels of regiments to assemble with their commands 
at Braddock' s field on the 1st of August, where they appointed officers and 
moved on to Pittsburgh. After having burned a barn, and made some noisy 


demonstrations, they were induced by some cool heads to return. These tur- 
bulent proceedings coming to the ears of the State and national authorities at 
Philadelphia, measures were concerted to promptly and effectually check them. 
Gov. Mifflin appointed Chief Justice McKean and Gen. William Irvine to 
proceed to the disaffected district, ascertain the facts, and. try to bring the 
leaders to justice. President Washington issued a proclamation commanding 
all persons in arms to disperse to their homes "on or before the Ist of Sep- 
tember, proximo," and called out the militia of four States — Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia — to the number of 13,000 men, to enforce 
his commands. The quota of Pennsylvania was 4,500 infantry, 500 cavalry, 
and 200 artillery, and Gov. Mifflin took command in person. Gov. Eichard 
Howell, of New Jersey, Gov. Thomas S. Lee, of Maryland, and Gen. Daniel 
Morgan, of Virginia, commanded the forces from their States, and Gov. 
Henry Lee, of Virginia, was placed in chief command. President Washing- 
ton, accompanied by Gen. Knox, secretary of war, Alexander Hamilton, secre- 
tary of the treasury, and Eichard Peters, of the United States District Court, 
set out on the 1st of October for the seat of the disturbance. On Friday the 
President reached Harrisburg and on Saturday, Carlisle, whither the army 
had preceded him. In the meantime a committee, consisting of James Eoss, 
Jasper Yeates and AVilliam Bradford, was appointed by President Washington 
to proceed to the disaffected district, and endeavor to persuade misguided 
citizens to return to their allegiance. 

A meeting of 260 delegates from the four counties was held at Parkinson's 
Ferry on the 14th of August, at which the state of their cause was considered, 
resolutions adopted, and a committee of sixty, one from each county, was ap- 
pointed, and a sub-committee of twelve was named to confer with the United 
States commissioners, McKean and Irvine. These conferences with the State 
and national committees were successful in arranging preliminary conditions 
of settlement. On the 2d of October the committee of safety of the insur- 
gents met at Parkinson's Ferry, and having learned that a well -organized 
army, with Washington at its head, was marching westward to enforce obedi- 
ence to the laws, appointed a committee of two, William Findley and David 
Eeddick, to meet the President, and assure him that the disaffected were dis- 
posed to return to their duties. They met Washington at Carlisle, and several 
conferences were held, and assurances given of implicit obedience; but the 
President said that as the troops had been called out, the orders for the march 
would not be countermanded. The President proceeded forward on the 11th 
of October to Chambersburg, reached Williamsport on the 13th and Fort 
Cumberland on the 14th, where he reviewed the Virginia and Maryland forces, 
and anived at Bedford on the 19th. Eemaining a few days, and being satis- 
fied that the sentiment of the people had changed, he returned to Philadel- 
phia, arriving on the 28th, leaving Gen. Lee to meet the commissioners and 
make such conditions of pacification as should seem just. Another meeting 
of the committee of safety was held at Parkinson's Ferry on the 24th, at 
which assurances of abandonment of opposition to the laws were received, and 
the same committee, with the addition of Thomas Morton and Ephraim Doug- 
lass, was directed to return to headquarters and give assurance of this dispo- 
sition. They did not reach Bedford until after the departure of Washington. 
But at Uniontown they met Gen. Lee, with whom it was agreed that the citi- 
zens of these four counties should subscribe to an oath to support the consti- 
tution and obey the laws. Justices of the peace issued notices that books 
were opened for subscribing to the oath, and Gen. Lee issued a judicious 
address urging ready obedience. Seeing that all requirements were being 


faithfully carried out, an order was issued the 17th of November for the re- 
turn of the army and its disbandment. A number of arrests were made and 
trials and convictions were had, but all were ultimately pardoned. 

With the exception of a slight ebullition at the prospect of a war with 
France in 1797, and a resistance to the operation of the "homestead tax " in 
Lehigh, Berks and Northampton counties, when the militia was called out, the 
remainder of the term of Gov. Mifflin passed in comparative quiet. By an act 
of the legislature of the 3d of April, 1799, the capital of the State was removed 
to Lancaster, and soon after the capital of the United States to Washington, 
the house on Ninth street, which had been built for the residence of the Pres- 
ident of the United States, passing to the use of the University of Pennsylvania. 
During the administrations of Thomas McKean, who was elected governor 
in 1799, and Simon Snyder, in 1808, little beyond heated political contests 
marked the even tenor of the government, until the breaking out of the troubles 
which eventuated in the war of 1812. Pennsylvania promptly seconded the 
national government, the message of Gov. Snyder on the occasion ringing like 
a silver clarion. The national call for 100,000 men required 14,000 from this 
State, but so great was the enthusiasm that several times this number tendered 
their services. The State force was organized in two divisions, to the com- 
mand of the first of which Maj.-Gen. Isaac Morrell was appointed, and to the 
second Maj. -Gen. Adamson Tannehill. Gunboats and privateers were built in 
the harbor of Erie and on the Delaware, and the defenses upon the latter were 
put in order and suitable armaments provided. The act which created most 
alarm to Pennsylvania was one of vandalism scarcely matched in the annals of 
warfare. In August, 1814, Gen. Boss, with 6,000 men in a flotilla of sixty 
sail, moved up Chesapeake Bay, fired the capitol, the President's house and 
the various offices of cabinet ministers, and these costly and substantial build- 
ings, the national library and all the records of the government from its 
foundation were utterly destroyed. Shortly afterward. Boss appeared before Bal- 
timore with the design of multiplying his barbarisms, but he was met by a force 
hastily collected under Gen. Samuel Smith, a Pennsylvania veteran of the Eevo- 
lution, and in the brief engagement which ensued Boss was killed. In the severe 
battle with the corps of Gen. Strieker, the British lost some 300 men. The 
fleet in the meantime commenced a fierce bombardment of Fort McHenry, and 
during the day and ensuing night 1, 500 bombshells were thrown, but all to 
no purpose, the gallant defense of Maj. Armistead proving successful. It 
was during this awful night that Maj. Key, who was a prisoner on board the 
fleet, wrote the song of the Star Spangled Banner, which became the national 
lyric. It was in the administration of Gov. Snyder in February, 1810, that an 
act was passed making Harrisburg the seat of government, and a commission 
raised for erecting public buildings, the sessions of the legislature being held 
in the court-house at Harrisburg from 1812 to 1821. 

The administrations of William Findley, elected in 1817, Joseph Heister, in 
1820, and John Andrew Schulz, in 1823, followed without marked events. Par- 
ties became very warm in their discussions and in their management of political 
campaigns. The charters for the forty banks which had been passed in a fit 
of frenzy over the veto of Gov. Snyder set a flood of paper money afloat. The 
public improvements, principally in opening lines of canal, were prosecuted, 
and vast debts incurred. These lines of conveyances were vitally needful to 
move the immense products and vast resources of the State. 

Previous to the year 1820, little use was made of stone coal. Judge Obe- 
diah Gore, a blacksmith, used it upon his forge as early as 1769, and found 
the heat stronger and more enduring than that produced by charcoal. In 


1791 Phillip Ginter, of Carbon county, a hunter by profession, having on one 
occasion been out all day without discovering any game, was returning at night 
discouraged and worn out, across the Mauch Chunk mountain when, in the 
gathering shades he stumbled upon something which seemed to have a glisten- 
ing appearance, that he was induced to pick up and carry home. This speci- 
men was taken to Philadelphia, where an analysis showed it to be a good qual- 
ity of anthracite coal. But, though coal was known to exist, no one knew how to 
use it. In 1812 Col. George Shoemaker, of Schuylkill county, took nine 
wagon loads to Philadelpnia. But he was looked upon as an imposter for 
attempting to sell worthless stone for coal. He finally sold two loads for the 
cost of transportation, the remaining seven proving a complete loss. In 1812 
"White & Hazard, manufacturers of wire at the Palls of Schuylkill, induced an 
application to be made to the legislature to incorporate a company for the 
improvement of the Schuylkill, urging as an inducement the importance it would 
have for transporting coal; whereupon, the senator from that district, in his 
place, with an air of knowledge, asserted that "there was no coal there, that 
there was a kind of black stone which was called coal, but that it would not 
burn. ' ' White & Hazard procured a cart-load of Lehigh coal that cost them %1 
a bushel, which was all wasted in a vain attempt to make it ignite. Another 
cart-load was obtained, and a whole night spent in endeavoring to make a fire 
in the furnace, when the hands shut the furnace door and left the mill in dis- 
pair. "Fortunately one of them left his jacket in the mill, and returning for 
it in about half an hour, noticed that the door was red hot, and upon opening 
it, was surprised at finding the whole furnace at a glowing white heat. The 
other hands were summoned, and four separate parcels of iron were heated 
and rolled by the same fire before it required renewing. The furnace was 
replenished, and as letting it alone had succeeded so well, it was concluded to 
try it again, and the experiment was repeated with the same result. The 
Lehigh Navigation Company and the Lehigh Coal Company were incorporated 
in 1818, which companies became the basis of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation 
Company, incorporated in 1822. In 1820 coal was sent to Philadelphia by 
artificial navigation, but. 365 tons glutted the market." In 1825 there were 
brought by the Schuylkill 5,378 tons. In 1826 by the Schuylkill 16,265 tons, 
and by the Lehigh 31,280 tons. The stage of water being insufiicient, dams 
and sluices were constructed near Mauch Chunk, in 1819, by which the navi- 
gation was improved. The coal boats used were great square arks, sixteen to 
eighteen feet wide, and twenty to twenty- five feet long. At first, two of these 
were joined together by hinges, to allow them to yield up and down in passing 
over the dams. Finally as the boatman became skilled in the navigation, 
several were joined, attaining a length of 180 feet. After reaching Philadel- 
phia, these boats were taken to pieces, the plank sold and the hinges sent back 
for constructing others. Such were the crude methods adopted in the early 
days for bringing coal to a market. In 1827 a railroad was commenced, which 
was completed in three months, nine miles in length. This, with the exception 
of one at Quincy, Mass. , of four miles, built in 1826, was the first constructed 
in the United States. The descent was one hundred feet per mile, the coal 
descending by gravity in a half hour, and the cars were drawn back by mules, 
which rode down with the coal. Bituminous coal was discovered and its quali- 
ties utilized not much earlier than the anthracite. A tract of coal land was 
taken up in Clearfield county in 1785, by Mr. S. Boyd, and in 1804 he sent 
an ark down the Susquehanna to Columbia. 

During the administrations of George "Wolf, elected in 1829, and Joseph 
Eitner, elected in 1 835, a measure of great beneficence to the State was passed, 


aad brought into a good degree of successful operation — nothing less than a 
broad system of public education. Schools had been early established in Phila- 
delphia, and parochial schools in the more populous portions of the State from 
the time of early settlement. In 1749, through the influence of Dr. Franklin, 
a charter was obtained for a ' ' college, academy, and charity school of Penn- 
sylvania," and, from this time to the beginning of the present century, the 
friends of education were earnest in establishing colleges, the colonial govern- 
ment, and afterward the legislature, making liberal grants from the revenues 
accruing from the sale of lands for their support, the University of Pennsyl- 
vania being chartered in 1752, Dickinson College in 1783, Franklin and Mar- 
shall College in 1787, and Jefferson College in 1802. Commencing near the 
beginning of this century, and continuing for over a period of thirty years, 
vigorous exertions were put forth to establish county academies. Charters 
were granted for these institutions at the county seats of forty-one counties, 
and appropriations were made of money, varying from two thousand to six 
thousand dollars, and in several instances of quite extensive land grants. In 
1809 an act was passed for the education of the "poor gratis." The asses- 
sors in their annual rounds were to make a record of all such as were indigent, 
and pay for their education in the most convenient schools. But few were 
found among the spirited inhabitants of the commonwealth willing to admit 
that they were so poor as to be objects of charity. 

By the act of April 1, 1834, a general system of education by common 
schools was established. Unfortunately it was complex and unwieldly. At 
the next session an attempt was made to repeal the act, and substitute the old 
law of 1809 for educating the " poor gratis, " the repeal having been carried 
in the senate. But through the appeals of Thaddeus Stevens, a man always 
in the van in every movement for the elevation of mankind, this was defeated. 
At the next session, 1830, an entirely new bill, discarding the objectionable 
features of the old one, was prepared by Dr. George Smith, of Delaware 
county, and adopted, and from this time forward it has been in efficient opera- 
tion. In 1854 the system was improved by engrafting upon it the feature of 
the county superintendency, and in 1859 by providing for the establishment of 
twelve normal schools in as many districts into which the State was divided for 
the professional training of teachers. 

In 1837 a convention assembled in Harrisburg, and subsequently in Phila- 
delphia, for revising the constitution, which revision was adopted by a vote of 
the people. One of the chief objects of the change was the breaking up of 
what was known as " omnibus legislation, " each bill being required to hav& 
but one distinct subject, to be definitely stated in the title. Much of the pat- 
ronage of the governor was taken from him, and he was allowed but two terms 
of three years in any nine years. The senator's term was fixed at three years. 
The terms of supreme court judges were limited to fifteen years, common pleas 
judges to ten, and associate judges to five. A step backward was taken in 
limiting suffrage to white male citizens twenty-one years old, it havmg pre- 
viously been extended to citizens irrespective of color. Amendments could be 
proposed once in five years, and if adopted by two successive legislatures, and 
approved by a vote of the people, they became a part of the organic law. 

At the opening of the gubernatorial term of David E. Porter, who was 
chosen in October, 1838, a civil commotion occurred known as the "Buckshot 
War ' ' which at one time threatened a sanguinary result. Fraud in the election 
returns was alleged, and finally the opposing factions armed for the mainte- 
nance of their claims. Some of them were supplied with buckshot cartridges, 
hence the name which was given to the contest. It ended without bloodshed. 


Francis E. Shunk was chosen governor in 1845, and during his term of 
office the war with Mexico occurred. Two volunteer regiments, one under 
command of Col. Wynkoop, and the other under Col. Eoberts, sub.sequently 
under Col. J. W. Geary, were sent to the field, while the services of a much larger 
number were ofPered, but could not be received. Toward the close of his first 
term, having been reduced by sickness, and feeling his end approaching, Gov. 
Shunk resigned, and was succeeded by the speaker of the senate, William P. 
Johnston, who was duly chosen at the next annual election. During the 
administrations of William Bigler, elected in 1851, James Pollock, in 1854, 
and William F. Packer, in 1857, little beyond the ordinary course of events 
marked the history of the State. The lines of public works undertaken at the 
■expense of the State were completed. Their cost had been enormous, and a 
debt was piled up against it of over forty million dollars. These works, vastly 
expensive, were still to operate and keep in repair, and the revenues therefrom 
failing to meet expectations, it was determined in the administration of Gov. 
Pollock to sell them to the highest bidder, the Pennsylvania Eailroad Com- 
pany purchasing them for the sum of seven million five hundred thousand 

In the administration of Gov. Packer petroleum was first discovered in 
quantities in this country by boring into the bowels of the earth. From the 
earliest settlement of the country it was known to exist, and it had been gath- 
ered in small quantities and utilized for various purposes. In 1859 Mr. E. L. 
Drake, at first representijig a company in New York, commenced drilling near 
a spot where there were surface indications. When the company would give 
him no more money he strained his own resources and his credit with his 
friends almost to the breaking point, and when about to give up in despair 
finally struck a powerful current of pure oil. Prom this time forward the ter- 
ritory down the valley of Oil creek and up all its tributaries was rapidly 
acquired and developed for oil land. In some places the oil was sent up with 
immense force at the rate of thousands of barrels each day, and great trouble 
was experienced in bringing it under control and storing it. In some cases 
the force of the gas was so powerful on being accidentally fired as to defy all 
approach for many days, and lighted up the forests at night with billows of 
light. The oil has been found in paying quantities in McKean, Warren, 
Forest, Crawford, Venango, Clarion, Butler and Armstrong counties, chiefly 
along the upper waters of the Allegheny river and its tributary, the Oil creek. 
Its transportation has come to be effected by forcing it through great pipe 
lines, which extend to the great lakes and the seaboard. Its production has 
grown to be enormous. Since 1859 a grand total of more than three hundred 
millions of barrels have been produced in the Pennsylvania oil fields. 

In the fall of 1860, Andrew G. Curtin was elected governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States. The war of the 
great rebellion followed, and in the spring of 1861 Pennsylvania was called 
on for sixteen regiments, her quota of the 75,000 volunteers that were sum- 
moned by proclamation of the President. Instead of sixteen, twenty -five regi- 
ments were organized for the three months' service from Pennsylvania. 
Judging from the threatening attitude assumed by the rebels across the 
Potomac that the southern frontier would be constantly menaced, Gov. Curtin 
sought permission to organize a select corps, to consist of thirteen regiments 
of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery, and to be known as the Penn- 
sylvania Eeserve Corps, which the legislature, in special session, granted. 
This corps of 15,000 men' was speedily raised, and the intention of the State 
authorities was to keep this body permanently within the limits of the com- 


monwealth for defense. But at the time of the first Bull Run disaster in July, 
1861, the national government found itself without troops to even defend the 
capital, the time of the three months' men being now about to expire, and at 
its urgent call this fine body was sent forward and never again returned for 
the execution of the duty for which it was formed, having borne the brunt of 
the fighting on many a bard-fought field during the three years of its service. 

In addition to the volunteer troops furnished in response to the several 
calls of the President, upon the occasion of the rebel invasion of Maryland in 
September, 1862, Gov. Curtin called 50,000 men for the emergency, and, though 
thp time was very brief, 25,000 came, were organized under command of Gen. 
John F. Reynolds, and were marched to the border. But the battle of Antie- 
tam, fought on the 17th of September, caused the enemy to beat a hasty 
retreat, and the border was relieved, when the emergency troops were dis- 
banded and returned to their homes. On the 19th of October Gen. J. E. B. 
Stewart, of the rebel army, with 1,800 horsemen under command of Hampton, 
Lee and Jones, crossed the Potomac and made directly for Chambersburg, 
arriving after dark. Not waiting for morning to attack, he sent in a flag of 
truce demanding the surrender of the town. There were 275 Union soldiers in 
hospital, whom he paroled. During the night the troopers were busy picking 
up horses — swapping horses perhaps it should be called — and the morning saw 
them early on the move. The rear guard gave notice before leaving to remove 
all families from the neighborhood of the public buildings, as they intended to 
fire them. There was a large amount of fixed ammunition in them, which had 
been captured from Longstreet's train, besides government stores of shoes, 
clothing and muskets. At 11 o'clock the station-house, round-house, railroad 
machiue shops and warehouses were fired and consigned to destruction. The 
fire department was promptly out; but it was dangerous to approach the burn- 
ing buildings on account of the ammunition, and all perished. 

The year 1862 was one of intense excitement and activity. From about 
the 1st of May, 1861, to the end of 1862, there were recruited in the State of 
Pennsylvania 111 regiments, including eleven of cavalry and three of artillery, 
for three years service; twenty-five regiments for three months; seventeen for 
nine months; fifteen of drafted militia, and twenty-five called out for the 
emergency; an aggregate of 193 regiments— a grand total of over 200,000 
men — a great army in itself. 

In June, 1863, Gen. Robert E. Lee, with his entire army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, invaded Pennsylvania. The army of the Potomac, under G«n. Joseph 
Hooker, followed. The latter was superseded on the 28th of June by Gen. 
George G. Meade. The vanguards of the army met a mile or so out of Gettys- 
burg on the Chambersburg pike on the morning of the 1st of July. Hill's 
corps of the rebel army was held in check by the sturdy fighting of a small 
division of cavalry under Gen. Buford until 10 o'clock, when Gen. Reynolds 
came to his relief with the first corps. While bringing his forces into 
action, Reynolds was killed, and the command devolved on Gen. Abner Double- 
day, and the fighting became terrible, the Union forces being greatly outnum- 
bered. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon the eleventh corps. Gen. O. O. Howard, 
came to the support of the first. But now the corps of Bwell had joined hands 
with Hill, and a full two-thirds of the entire rebel army was on the field, 
opposed by only the two weak Union corps, in an inferior position. A sturdy 
fight was however maintained until 5 o'clock, when the Union forces withdrew 
through the town, and took position upon rising ground covering the Baltimore 
pike. During the night the entire Union army came up, with the exception of 
the sixth corps, and took position; and at 2 o'clock in the morning Gen. Meade 


and staff came on the field. During the morning hours, and until 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, the two armies were getting into position for the desperate 
struggle. The third corps, Gen. Sickles, occupied the extreme left, his corps 
abuttmg on the Little Round Top at the Devil's Den, and reaching, en 
echelon, through the rugged ground to the Peach Orchard, and thence along 
the Emmittsburg pike, where it joined the second corps, Gen. Hancock, reach- 
ing over Cemetery Hill, the eleventh corps, Gen. Howard, the first, Gen. 
Doubleday, and the twelfth, Gen. Slocum, reaching across Gulp's Hill— the 
whole being crescent shaped. To this formation the rebel army conformed, 
Longstreet opposite the Union left, Hill opposite the center, and Ewell opposite 
the Union right. At 4 p. m. the battle was opened by Longstreet, on the ex- 
treme left of Sickles, and the fighting became terrific, the rebels making stren- 
uous efforts to gain Little Round Top. But at the opportune moment a part 
of the fifth corps. Gen. Sykes, was brought upon that key position, and it was 
saved to the Union side. The slaughter in front of Round Top at the wheat- 
field and the Peach Orchard was fearful. The third corps was driven back 
from its advanced position, and its commander, Gen. Sickles, was wounded, 
losing a leg. In a more contracted position, the Union line was made secure, 
where it rested for the night. Just at dusk the Louisiana Tigers, some 1,800 
men, made a desperate charge on Cemetery Hill, emerging suddenly from a 
hillock just back of the town. The struggle was desperate, but the Tigers 
being weakened by the fire of the artillery, and by the infantry crouching be- 
hind the stone wall, the onset was checked, and Carroll's brigade, of the sec- 
ond corps, coming to the rescue, they were finally beaten back, terribly deci- 
mated. A.t about the same time a portion of Ewell' s corps made an advance 
on the extreme Union right, at a point where the troops had been withdrawn to 
send to the support of Sickles, and unopposed gained the extremity of Culp's 
Hill, pushing through nearly to the Baltimore pike, in dangerous proximity to 
the reserve artillery and trains, and even the headquarters of the Union com- 
mander. But in their attempt to roll up the Union right they were met by 
Green's brigade of the twelfth corps, and by desperate fighting their further 
progress was stayed. Thus ended the battle of the second day. The Union 
left and right had been sorely jammed and pushed back. 

At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 3d of July, Gen. Geary, who had been 
ordered away to the support of Sickles, having returned during the night and 
taken a position on the right of Green, opened the battle for the recovery of 
his lost breastworks on the right of Culp's Hill. Until 10 o'clock the battle 
raged with unabated fury. The heat was intolerable, and the sulphurous va- 
por hung like a pall over the combatants, shutting out the light of day. The 
fighting was in the midst of the forest, and the echoes resounded with fearful 
distinctness. The twelfth corps was supported by portions of the sixth, which 
had now come up. At length the enemy, weakened and finding themselves 
overborne on all sides, gave way, the Union breastworks were reoccupied and 
the Union right made entirely secure. Comparative quiet now reigned on 
either side until 2 o'clock in the afternoon, in the meantime both sides bring- 
ing up fresh troops and repairing damages. The rebel leader having brought 
his best available artillery in upon his right center, suddenly opened with 150 
pieces a concentric fire upon the devoted Union left center, where stood the 
troops of Hancock, Doubleday and Sickles. The shock was terrible. Rarely 
had such a cannonade been known on any field. For nearly two hours it was 
continued. Thinking that the Union line had been broken and demoralized by 
this fire, Longstreet brought out a fresh corps of some 14,000 men, under 
Pickett, and charged full upon the point which had been the mark for the can- 


nonade. As soon as this charging column came into view, the Union artillery 
opened upon it from right and left and center, and rent it with fearful efPect. 
When arrived within musket range, the Union troops, who had been crouching 
behind slight pits and a low stone wall, poured in a most murderous fire. 
Still the rebels pushed forward with a bold face, and actually crossed the 
Union lines and had their hands on the Union guns. But the slaughter was 
too terrible to withstand. The killed and wounded lay scattered over all the 
plain. Many were gathered in as prisoners. Finally the remnant staggered 
back, and the battle of Gettysburg was at an end. 

So soon as indications pointed to a possible invasion of the North by the 
rebel army under Gen. Lee, the State of Pennsylvania was organized into two 
military departments, that of the Susquehanna, to the command of which 
Darius N. Couch was assigned, with headquarters at Harrisburg, and that of 
the Monongahela, under W. T. H. Brooks, with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 
Urgent calls for the militia were made, and large numbers in regiments, in 
companies and in squadrons, came promptly at the call to the number of over 
36,000 men, who were organized for a period of ninety days. Fortifications 
were thrown up to cover Harrisburg and Pittsburgh, and the troops were 
moved to threatened points. But before they could be brought into action, 
the great decisive conflict had been fought, and the enemy driven from north- 
ern soil. Four regiments under Gen. Brooks were moved into Ohio to aid in 
arrestiiig a raid undertaken by John Morgan, who with 2,000 horse and four 
guns had crossed the Ohio river for a diversion in favor of Lee. 

In the beginning of July, 1864, Gen. Early invaded Maryland, and made 
his way to the threshold of Washington. Fearing another invasion of the 
State, Gov. Curtin called for volunteers to serve for 100 days. Gen. Couch 
was still at the head of the department of the Susquehanna, and six regiments 
and six companies were organized, but as fast as organized they were called to 
the front, the last regiment leaving the State on the 29th of July. On the 
evening of this day, Gens. McCausland, Bradley Johnson and Harry Gilmore, 
with 3,000 mounted men and six guns, crossed the Potomac, and made their 
way to Chatabersburg. Another column of 3, 000 under Vaughn and Jackson 
advanced to Hagerstown, and a third to Leitersburg. Averell, with a small 
force, was at Hagerstown, but finding himself over-matched, withdrew through 
Greencastle to Mount Hope. Lieut. McLean, with fifty men in front of Mc- 
Causland, gallantly kept his face to the foe, and checked the advance at every 
favorable point. On being apprised of their coming, the public stores at 
Chambersburg were moved northward. At 6 a. m. McCausland opened his 
batteries upon the town, but, finding it unprotected, took possession. Eing- 
ing the court-house bell to call the people together, Capt. Fitzhugh read an 
order to the assembly, signed by Gen. Jubal Early, directing the command to 
proceed to Chambersburg and demand one hundred thousand dollars in gold, 
or five hundred thousand dollars in greenbacks, and if not paid to burn the 
town. While this parley was in progress, hats, caps, boots, watches, clothing 
and valuables were unceremoniously appropriated, and purses demanded at the 
point of the bayonet. As money was not in hand to meet so unexpected a 
draft, the torch was lighted. In less than a quarter of an hour from the time 
the first match was applied, the whole business part of the town was in flames. 
Burning parties were sent into each quarter of the town, which made thorough 
work. With the exception of a few houses upon the outskirts, the whole was 
laid in ruins. Retiring rapidly, the entire rebel army recrossed the Potomac. 

The whole number of soldiers recruited under the various calls for troops 
from the State of Pennsylvania was 366,000. In May, 1861, the Society of 


the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania, an organization of the officers of the Eevolu- 
tionary war and their descendants, donated $500 toward arming and equip- 
ping troops. By order of the legislature the sum was devoted to procuring 
flags for the regiments, and each organizaton that went forth was provided 
with one emblazoned with the arms of the commonwealth. These flags, seamed 
and battle-stained, were returned at the close of the war, and are now preserved 
in a room devoted to the purpose in the State Capitol. When the war was 
over, the State undertook the charge of providing for all soldiers' orphans in 
schools located in different parts of the territory, furnished food, clothing, 
instruction and care, until they should be grown to manhood and womanhood. 
The number thus gathered and cared for has been some 7, 500 annually, at an 
average annual expense of some six hundred thousand dollars. 

At the election in 1866, John ^V. Geary, a veteran general of the war, was 
chosen governor. During his administration,' settlements were made with the 
general government, extraordinary debts incurred during the war were paid, 
and a large reduction of the old debt of forty million dollars inherited from the 
construction of the canals was made. A convention for a revision of the con- 
stitution was ordered by the act of April 11, 1872. This convention assem- 
bled in Harrisburg November 13, and adjourned to meet in Philadelphia, 
where it convened on the 7th of January, 1873, and the instrument framed 
was adopted on the 18th of December, 1873. By its provisions the number 
of senators was increased from thirty-three to fifty, and representatives from 
100 to 201, subject to further increase in proportion to increase of population; 
biennial in place of annual sessions, making the term of supreme court judges 
twenty-one in place of fifteen years, remanding a large class of legislation to 
the action of the courts, making the term of governor four years in place of 
three, and prohibiting special legislation, were some of the changes provided for. 

In January, 1873, John F. Hartranft became governor, and at the election 
in 1878, Henry F. Hoyt was chosen governor, both soldiers of the war of the 
Rebellion. In the summer of 1877, by concert of action of the employes on 
the several lines of railway in the State, trains were stopped and travel and 
trafiic were interrupted for several days together. At Pittsburgh conflicts 
occurred between the railroad men and the militia, and a vast amount of prop- 
erty was destroyed. The opposition to the local military was too powerful to 
be controlled, and the national government was appealed to for aid. A force 
of regulars was promptly ordered out, and the rioters finally quelled. Unfor- 
tunately Gov. Hartranft was absent from the State at the time of the troubles. 

At the election in 1882 Eobert E. Pattison was chosen governor. The 
legislature which met at the opening of 1883, having adjourned after a session 
of 156 days, without passing a congressional apportionment bill, as was 
required, was immediately reconvened in extra session, by the governor, and 
remained in session until near the close of the year, from June 1 to December 
5, without coming to an agreement upon a bill, and finally adjourned without 
having passed one. 

James A. Beaver was elected governor of Pennsylvania in November, 1886, 
and is the present incumbent. He is a native of Perry county, Penn. , and a 
graduate of Jefferson College. He read law, and was admitted to practice in 
1859. In April, 1861, he went into the army as a first lieutenant, and served 
with distinction, being mustered out in December, 1864, with the rank of 
brigadier- general. The most prominent law enacted during his administration 
is the Brooks license law, passed in 1887. The proposed amendment to the 
constitution, prohibiting the manufacture or sale of intoxicants within the 
State, was voted on in the spring of 1889, and was defeated by a large majority. 





Thomas Mifflin 27,725 

Arthur St. Clair 2,802 


Thomas Mifflin 18,590 

F. A. Muhlenberg 10,706 


Thomas Mifflin 30,020 

F. A. Muhlenberg 1,011 


Thomas McKean 38,036 

James Ross 32,641 


Thomas McKean 47,879 

James Ross, of Pittsburgh 9,499 

James Ross 7,538 


Simon Snyder 67,975 

James R"SS 39,575 

John Spayd 4,006 

W. Shields 2 

Charles Nice 1 

Jack Ross 2 

W. Tilghman 1 


Simon Snyder 52,319 

■William Tighlman 3,609 

Scatt'ring,no record for whom 1,675 


Simon Snyder 51,099 

Isaac Wayne 29,566 

Ci. Lattimer 910 

J. R. Rust 4 


William Findlay 66,331 

Joseph Hiester 59,272 

Moses Palmer 1 

Aaron Hanson 1 

John Seffer 1 

Seth Thomas 1 

Nicholas Wiseman 3 

Beniamin R. Morgan 2 

William Tilghman 1 

Andrew Gregg 1 


.Joseph Hiester 67,905 

William Findlay 66,300 

Scattering (no record) 21 


J. Andrew ghulze 81,751 

Andrew Gregg 64,151 

Andrew Shiilze 112 

John Andrew Shulze 7,311 

Andrew Gragg 53 

Andrew Greg 1 

John A. Shulze 754 

Nathaniel B. Eoileau 3 

Capt. Glosseader 3 

.Tohn Gassender 1 

Isaac Wayne.; 1 

George Bryan 1 


J. Andrew Shulze 72,710 

John Sergeant 1.175 

Scattering (no record) 1,174 


George Wolf 78,219 

Joseph Ritner 51,776 

George E. Baum ,. 6 

Frank R. Williams 3 


George Wolf 91,335 

Joseph Ritner 88,165 


Joseph Ritner 94,023 

GoorgeWolf. 65,804 

Henry A. Muhlenberg 40,586 


David R. Porter 127,827 

Joseph Ritner 122,321 


David R. Porter 136,504 

John Banks 113,473 

T.J. Lemoyne 763 

George F. Horton 18 

Samuel L. Carpenter 4 

Ellis Lewis 1 


Francis R. Shunk 160,322 

Joseph Markle 156,040 

Julius J. Lemoyne .10 

JohnHaney " 2 

James Page 1 


Francis R. Shunk 146,081 

James Irvin 128,148 

Emanuel 0. Reigart 11,247 

F.J. Lemoyne 1,861 

George M. Keim 1 

Abijan Morrison 3 


William F. Johnston 168,522 

Morris Longstreth 168,225 

E. B. Gazzam 48 

Scattering (no record) 24 


William Bigler 186,489 

William F. Johnston 178,034 

Kimber Cleaver 1,850 


James Pollock 203,822 

William Bigler 166,991 

B. Rush Bradford 2,194 


AVilliam F. Packer 188,846 

David Wilmot 149,139 

Isaac Hazlehurst 28,168 

James Pollock 

George R. Barret 

William Steel 

F. P. Swartz 

Samuel McFarland 

George F. Horton 


Andrew G. Curtin 262,346 

Henry D. Foster 230,239 


A. G. Curtin 269,506 

George W. Woodward 254,171 

John Hickman 1 

Thomas M. Howe 1 


John W. Geary 307,274 

Hiester Clymer 290,097 

Giles Lewis 7 


John W. Geary 290,.55i 

Asa Packer 285,956 

W. D. lielly 1 

W. J. Robinson ] 


John F. Hartrauft 353,387 

Charles R. Buckalen 317,760 

S. B.Chase 1,197 

William P. Sohell 12 


John F. Hartrauft 304,175 

Cyrus L. Pershing 292,145 

R. Audley Brown 13,244 

James S. Negley 1 

PhilliD Wendle 1. 

J. W. ^rown 1 

G. F. Reinhard 1 

G. D. Coleman 1 

James Staples 1 

Richard Vans 1 

Craig Biddle 1 

Francis W. Hughes 1 

Henry C. Tyler 1 

W. D. Brown 1 

George V. Lawrence 1 

A. L.Brown 1 


H. M. Hoyt 319,490- 

Andrew H. Dill 297,137 

Samuel R. Mason 81,758 

Franklin H. Lane 3,753 

S. Matson - 

John McKee 1 • 

D. Kirk 1 

R. L. Miller 1 

J. H. Hopkins 1 

A. G. Williams 1 

Samuel H. Lane 1 

John Fertig 1 

James Musgrove 1 

Silas M.Baily 1 

A. S. Post 9 

C. A. Cornen S 

Seth Yocum 1 

Edward E. Orvis 1 


Robert E. Pattison 355,791 

.lames A. Beaver 316,589 

John Stewart 43,743 

Thomas A. Armstrong 23,996 

Alfred C. Pettit 5,195 

Scattering .'. 35 


James A. Beaver 412,286 

Chauncey F. Black 369,634 

CharlesS. Wolfe 32,458 

Robert J. Houston 4,835 

Scattering ^- 




Boundary and Area— Land Cessions and Pqkohases— Population— Assess- 
ment Statistics— General Description— Topography— Creek Nomen- 
clature—Vegetation—Lumber Manufacture— Game and Fish— Fossils 
—Coal Mines— Gas Wells. 

THIS county is bounded on the north by the New York-P«nnsylvania line; 
east by Potter county; south by Cameron and Elk counties, and west by 
Warren county. The area is placed at 640,000 acres, a tract the most interest- 
ing in the country, owing to its mineral resources and railroad systems; and 
the most picturesque, on account of its ten thousand hills, many of which are 
still clothed in their suits of hemlock. 

Under .the treaties of 1784 the lands of McKean and adjoining counties were 
ceded to Pennsylvania by the Six Nations Indians, and within a year thousands 
of acres were sold by lottery. In 1796 John Keating made his first purchases 
here (buying 300,000 acres for $80,000 from the original buyers), and a year 
later a line was traced for a road from the head of Pine creek to the Oswayo. 
Surveyors Lightfoot, King, Ayers and others were on the ground at an early 
date, so that before the close of the first decade of the nineteenth century the 
territory was explored, and a few villages established, Ceres and Instanter 
being the most important. 

In 1810 there were 142 inhabitants; in 1820, 728, and in 1830 there were 
1,439, of whom 764 were white males and 674 white females, two deaf and 
dumb and two blind persons. In 1840 the population increased to 2,975; in 
1850 to 5,254; in 1860, exclusive of-Shippen (added to the new Cameron 
county), 7,651, and in 1870, 8,826. The population in 1880 was 42,578, the 
remarkable increase being due to the development of the great oil field from 
1875 to date of census. The total vote in 1888 was 7,709 or 4,066 Republi- 
can, 2,922 Democfatic, 426 Prohibitionists and 295 Labor Unionists. The 
population estimated on this vote of November, 1888, is 40,424, as shown in 
the sketches of the townships and boroughs. 

By the assessment of 1829 the seated lands were valued at 139,340; the 
unseated at $490, 740, and personal property at 132, 707. 25. The tax levy was 
5 mills with $17.26 collected for duties on foreign merchandise amounting to 
$102. 26. The valuation of trades and occupations in 1889 was $434, 710; of seated 
real estate, $4,756,923; of unseated real estate, $1,650,620; of 4,064 horses, $94,- 
035; of 4,547 cows and neat cattle, $48,735, or a total of $6,985,033. The moneys 
at interest were estimated at $1,296,911, and for the luxury of keeping 2,228 
canines the owners paid a tax of $2,512. The amount of money at interest. 


including stocks, bonds, etc. , assessed at the rate of three mills on the dollar, 
was $1,296,911. Smethport leads with $594,903. Bradford comes next with 
$264, 162, and Port Allegany third with $94,228. Wetmore township stands 
fourth with |83,00i, and Kane seventh with $28,893. In January, 1889, the com- 
missioners of Potter, McKean and Cameron counties agreed to value unseated 
lands per acre for the next three years aa follows : Barren lands, 50 cents to $1. 50; 
sparsely timbered hemlock, $2.50 to $4; good hemlock, $5 to 18; sparsely 
timbered pine, $6 to $8; good pine, |10 to $20. The assessed value of real and 
personal estate in the boroughs of McKean county stand in the following order : 
Port Allegany, $161,836; Smethport, $159,585; Kane, $100,538; Eldred, 
$97,046; Kendall, $85,382. 

The Gazetteer, giving a description of McKean county in 1832, says: 

It is everywhere hilly along the streams, but nowhere mountainous, and abounds with 
coal, iron and salt. The first is found in every township, and works have been erected 
for manufacturing salt at the small village of Emporium, on a branch of the Sinnema- 
honing. * * * * The only places that can claim the slightest pretention to be con- 
sidered as towns are Smethport, Emporium and Ceres; neither of the two last named con- 
tains six houses. ***** There is not a church in the county; yet an academy, 
endowed by John Keating and others, and further receiving $2,000 from the State, was 
incorporated January 19, 1839. There are in this town also a very substantial brick 
court-house, and a stone prison; there is also a newspaper published here. Lumber seeks 
the western market at Pittsburgh by the Allegheny, and the eastern markets by the Sin- 
nemahoning creek. 

The measured elevations of the county are given as follows [However the 
average elevation must not be based on such figures; as, within short distances 
of the points named, mountain peaks rise abruptly to heights of from 300 to 
700 feet above the track.]: Sergeant, 1,716 feet above mean ocean level; Clar- 
ion summit, 2,025; Kane, 2,020; Cumming's siding, 1,878; Wetmore, 1,808; 
May' s siding, 1, 789, and Ludlow, 1,604, in the southwest corner on the Phil- 
adelphia & Erie Railroad. The elevation at the Forks of Kinzua creek is 
1,304 feet above tide level; at the sulphur spring, near Kane, 1,619 feet, and 
at Morrison's mill-dam, 1,264 feet. 

Keating summit, 1,876 feet above tide; Liberty, 1,641; Port Allegany, 
1,477; Sartwell, 1,447, Larrabee, 1,476; McKean & Buffalo Eailroad junction, 
1,472, and Eldred, 1,438 feet above tide, the track of the Western New York 
& Pennsylvania Eailroad being the measured elevation, which is comparatively 
level from Eldred to the State line, except below Duffy's tannery, where the 
elevation is more marked than at Eldred. 

The Eldred or Dennis hill is at least 250 feet above the track; Frisbee, 
1,459; Farmers Valley, 1,470; Smethport, 1,488; Crosby, 1,535; Colegrove, 
1,538; Hamlin, 1,552; Wernwag, 1,855; Clermont, 2,074; Bishops Summit, 
2,108; Bunker Hill, 2,095, and old Instanter, 2,200; Carrollton, N. Y., 1,394 
feet; Limestone, 1,405; State Line and Babcock, 1,414; Tarport or Kendall 
Creek, 1,433; Bradford, 1,439 (Mount Eaub is 2,250 feet at summit); DeGol- 
ier, 1,496; Lewis run, 1,560: Big Shanty, 1,667; Crawford's, 1,959; Summit, 
2,133; Alton, 2,067; Bond View or Gilesville, 2,025, and Buttsville, 1,996; 
Creek water at Kinzua crossing, 1,796; Howard Hill Hotel, 2,225; Kane and 
Howard Hill road crossing, 2,196; Clarion crossing, 1,734; Schultz gas well 
and Wilcox well No. 2, 1,646; Lanigan run, 1,634, and county line, 1,605 feet. 
The places named, south of Buttsville, were measured in 1879 for the proposed 
continuation of the road to Wilcox, in Elk county, the elevation of' which is 
1,526 feet; Dalton summit is 2,249 feet above ocean level; Seven Mile sum- 
mit, 2,200; crossing of Wilcox and Smethport State road, 2,186; head of west 
branch of Warner brook, 2,210; Port Allegany depot, 1,477; Smethport depot, 
1,488; cross roads (on warrant 3,064), 1,643; summit near southeast corner of 


No. 2,083 warrant, 2,140 feet; southwest part of No. 2,073 warrant, 1,725 
feet; the Devil's Elbow, on warrant 2,063, is 2,060 feet, and the highest point 
in Pennsylvania west of the fifth coal basin is Prospect hill, or the summit on 
warrant No. 2,063, which is 2,495 feet above tide. 

The highest measured point between Ceres and Port Allegany is near the 
cross-roads on the northeast corner of warrant 2,220, which is 2,185 feet above 
tide. The lowest point is at Turtle bridge over Eock run, on No. 115 war- 
rant, being 1,445 feet, or ten feet below the elevation of hotel at Ceres. The 
highest measured point between Ceres and Eldred, except Dennis hill, is 
1,558 feet above tide-water, being 120 feet above Eldred and 103 feet above 
Ceres. Up Lillibridge creek from Port Allegany an elevation of 1,770 feet 
is reached at the crossing of creek near warrant 2,236 or near the Ames farm, 
but at the head the elevation is 2, 260 feet. On warrant 2, 203, near Annin 
Creek post-office, the altitude is 2,255, and at the office 1,723; at Cooper's saw- 
mill, southwest part of No. 3,444 warrant, 1,665 feet, and at the Methodist 
building on same warrant, 1,740 feet. Between Port Allegany and Norwich 
post-office the highest measured elevation above tide is 1,785 feet, the bridge over 
Wolcott creek being the point measured. At the old Dennis well, near Brad- 
ford, the elevation was found to be 2,055 feet above ocean level ; Two Mile run 
summit is 2,375 feet, and Comes creek summit, on road, is 2,255 feet. The 
ridge between the branches of Brewer's run shows an altitude above tide of 
2,232 feet. 

The Allegheny river enters the county in the west center of Liberty town- 
ship coming down from the heights of Potter county, receives the waters of 
the Portage at Port Allegany, and of Nunundah creek south of Larrabee. 
Hundreds of small streams enter the creeks named, while other hundreds feed 
the main river directly. The river leaves the county at the State line, flows for 
a short distance through New York State and, returning to Pennsylvania, forms 
the natural, but not the political, boundary of the north half of the county's 
west line. The Tuna river and feeders water the central part of the northern 
half, while the Kinzua and headwaters of the Clarion, fed by hundreds of 
streams, are found in the south and southwest. 

Over thirty years ago Orlo J. Hamlin completed his historical notes on this 
county. From his unpublished manuscript, referred to in the chapter on pio- 
neers, the writer learns that Kinzua creek is named from the Indian word Kinzu 
(fish) ; Tuna or Tunuanguant creek, from Tunuan (big) and guant (frog or bull- 
frog). Nun-un-dah (Potato creek), from the Indian word for potato; Marvin 
creek, from the pioneer of that name who settled on its bank. Blacksmith run 
and spring were named from the pioneer blacksmith's shop near the spring in 
the western part of Smethport; Cole's creek from Squire Cole, the pioneer of 
its valley; Tobey, now known as the Clarion, and other creeks derive their 
names in a similar manner. Mr. Hamlin, speaking on the name of Potato 
creek, stated that Indians in the long ago lost some potatoes in this stream 
through the upsetting of their canoe, and they called it Nun-un-dah. In 1832 
he placed a potato before an Indian school-teacher, asking for its Indian name; 
the teacher replied, "nun-un-dah." In after years he interviewed members 
of the Cornplanter and Seneca bands, who gave it the same name. The stream 
was also called "Six's creek," a Quaker name conferred likely by Francis 
King; Conondaw and Cononondaw were titles conferred by some old surveyors, 
likely in honor of some Indian who accompanied them, and in John Keating' s 
letter to the county seat commissioners, he gives it the name " Cononoclan," 
undoubtedly reading "ondaw"as "oclan." Up to the period of Mr. Ham- 
lin's death he always regretted the action of his fellow-citizens in adhering to 


sappho; spirifera, lepidodendron and brachiopoda, small cast, poor. At Brad- 
ford, chonetes scitula; spirifera disjuncta; rhynchonella (stenoschisma) dupli- 
cata; rhynchonella; productella hirsuta; crinoid columns, impressions of ends 
and the plant. On Kinzua creek, near the county lines, he discovered ptycho- 
paria salamanca; orthis leucosia, var. pennsylvanica; rhynchonella (stenoschis- 
ma) sappho; spirifera disjuncta; lamellibranch, poor and broken, and orthis 
impressa. In 1878 A. W. Sheafer reported among others orthis leucosia and 
plant impressions similar to those found in the green sandstone at Eldred and 
Emporium. The discoveries of shells reported include rhynchonella, etc., 
Bradford, point between east and west branches; also in that neighborhood 
allorisma; crinoids; avicula; and rhynchonella and spirifer; grammysia, Brad- 
ford, east side of Tuna; rhynchonella, etc., in SS. Bradford, west branch, 
near "Boss Well" (loose); orthoceras in cong., Eodger's farm, one-half mile 
south of Bradford (loose) and at Morrison's dam; spirifer in cong. (two pieces, 
loose); orthoceras, etc., one and a half miles south of Bradford (loose), also 
spirifer, there, on Sugar creek and on road from Tally Ho to the Swede church; 
carboniferous plants, etc., Dennis well (two pieces) dug from Conductor hole; 
aviculopecten, Tarport (loose), and spirifer at railroad level. 

Id 1880 E. A. Barnum discovered on the Bingham lands near Kinzua junc 
tion the root of a maple tree which was almost a perfect figure of a girl two and 
one-half feet in height .... Near Kinzua village, and at an elevation of almost 
1,000 feet above, is a small pond fifty by twenty feet in dimension, and from 
six to eight feet in depth. In this lake were found fish, most of them blind, 
In 1884 this locality was the home of rattlesnakes .... In April, 1878, H. F. 
Northrup discovered (twenty rods east of the Windsor House, three miles east 
of Port Allegany), the impression of a gigantic lizard in the sand rock .... In 
the history of Bradford township reference is made to the remains of a large 
race of men found some years ago. 

The first semi-bituminous coal found in this county was discovered by a 
surveying party (of which Jonathan Colegrove was chief) near Instanter in 1815 
or 1816. They came to a windfall, and saw the stone coal lying beneath, 
forming a bed for the roots and, in some cases, lumps of coal turned up with 
the roots. Wheeler Gallup, who was one of the party, related the facts to O. 
J. Hamlin in 1875. In '1817 Kansom Beckwith discovered coal on his lands 
one mile from Instanter ; later the Barrus bed, known as the ' ' Lyman Mine, ' ' 
was opened, and in 1821 coal was found on the Clermont farm. In 1845 coal 
was delivered at Smethport from the Barrus bed for 12|^ cents a bushel, and 
shipped by team to Allegany and Cataraugus counties in New York State. In 
1874 the Clermont mines were explored at the expense of Gen. George J. 
Magee, and in September the Buffalo Coal Company was organized with the 
General as president and B. D. Hamlin and O. J. Hamlin, local stockholders. 
The McKean & Buffalo Railroad Company was also organized with Byron 
D. Hamlin, president, and D. R. Hamlin, local director. Work was begun 
in October, 1874, and the road was completed to Clermont in 1875. Mr. John 
Forrest, now of Smethport, was appointed paymaster at that point. During 
the year ending October 1, 1849, there were 1,000 tons of bituminous coal sent 
by wagons into adjoining counties in this and New York State, and to-day the 
coal fields of McKean, whether in the eastern or western portion of the county, 
lend to the owners of manufacturing industries a confidence in supply of fuel 
which neither gas nor oil can destroy. In other sections of this work the his- 
tory of the several coal-mining industries is given, and notes made on the 
attempts to manufacture coal oil from the smoky deposit. 

In the history of the borough of Kane and of Wetmore, Eldred, Liberty and 


other townships, references are made to the gas wells. In Ohio, New York, 
Michigan, Illinois and other States, gas veins have been opened when excavat- 
ing for water wells, and the flame converted into the uses of fuel; but the 
modern well is a something which was discovered by accident in boring for oil. 
Assistant State Geologist Ashburner, replying to Prof. I. C. White's state- 
ment that all great gas wells are found on the anticlinal axes, points out the 
exceptions in the Kane field, at Ridgway, at the old Mullin snorter and round 
Bolivar, where large gas wells have been found ia or near the center of syn- 
clines. He says: 

Although it is a fact that many of our largest Pennsylvaaia gas wells are located 
near anticlinal axes, yet the position in which gas may be found, and the amount to be 
obtained, depend upon (a) the porosity and homogenoousness of the sandstone which 
serves as a reservoir to hold the gas; (b) the extent to which the strata above or below the 
gas sand are cracked; (c) the dip of the gas sand, and the position of the anticlines and 
sjuclines; (d) the relative proportions of water, oil and gas contained in the sand; and 
(«) the pressure under which gas exists before being tapped by wells. All oil-bearing 
sandstones contain a greater or less quantity of gas; and most gas-producing sandstones 
contain some oil, although a number of wells said to produce "dry gas," or that in which 
no oil or water can be delected, contain gas to the exclusion of fresh water, salt water or 

Whether found in the synclines or anticlines the gas wells of McKean have 
proved a luxury which even the poor may enjoy. Throughout the county gas 
is used for light and fuel, giving peace to the home and promises of success 
to every manufacturing industry. 

In the Reporter of January 31, 1890, appeared the following poetical trib- 
ute to McKean county from the pen of Mrs. Jennie E. Groves: 

When morn with its splendor illumines the sky. 
Save where a star lingers to watch the night die. 
And the gray shrouding mist from the valley uprolled 
Is changed by the sun to an ocean of gold 
That bears on its bosom cloud land as fair 
As ever took shape in the realms of the air; 
Ah! who that, enraptured, has gazed on the scene 
Can forget the briglit valleys and hills of McKean? 



Eaiily Discoveries of Oil— Coal Oil Mills and Oil Wells— Oil Companies- 

BY PiiOD [JOE RS— Pipe Lines and Companies— Well Drilling, Past and 
Present— Oil Scouts— Well Torpedoes— Miscellaneous. 

nPHE earliest mention of oil fields was made in the year 440 'B. C, by 
J-- Herodotus, in connection with the black oil of Anderrica. Contemporary 
geologists, as well as the people, appear to have paid no attention to this sub- 
stance, and for over 2,000 years the only known reservoirs of the world were 
left unnoticed and undeveloped. 

A discovery of oil was made July 18, 1627, by the French missionary, P6re 
Joseph De la Roche, who described the Cuba oil spring across the New York 
Ime in Allegany as La Fontaine de bitunie. France was too much engaged in 
spreading her Roman civilization throughout the world to entertain an idea of 


developing tliis fountaia of bitumen. There was no necessity for such devel- 
opment, for before settlements were made at St. Augustine, Baltimore or 
Plymouth Eock, that country was enjoying the fruits of plenty, and came next 
to Eome herself in art and science. Thus these oil wells were left unnoticed 
for almost 240 years. In 1694 Hancock and Portlock were granted patents 
for oil made from rock, and in 1761 oil was distilled from bituminoiis shale 
Thirty-eight years later Col. Brodhead's division of Gen. Sullivan's army 
reported their discovery of petroleum on their return from the expedition 
against the Senecas, and some years later, when the British Indians, soldiers 
and Tory followers fled to Canada from the wrath of a free people, they pur- 
chased oil for illuminating and lubricating purposes from the Indians of the 
Thames Valley. 

On September 19, 1767, Sir William Johnson, writing at Niagara, says: 
" Asenshan came in with a quantity of Carious Oyle, taken off the top of the 
water of some very small Leake near the village he belongs to." 

In 1806 a peddler, by name Nat. Carej-, established his " Seneca Oil" in- 
dustry on Oil creek, where, later, Gen. Hayes of Franklin purchased three 
barrels, which he shipped by wagon to Baltimore. The intelligent oil dealers, 
to whom it was consigned, did not fancy the odor of the oil or appearance of 
the barrels, and consequently had it emptied into the Chesapeake, and the bar- 
rels destroyed by fire. From 1810 to 1817 Hecker and Mitis of Truscovitch, 
Austria, refined petroleum, and at Bayne an official inspection of naphtha and 
mineral oil was made in 1817, and in Starunia they were rectified. The 
Greensburg Gazette of November 18, 1819, speaking of the first oil well, says: 
"We are informed that John Gibson, of this town, in boring for salt water 
near Georgetown, on the Conemaugh river, struck a copious supply of Seneca 
oil at a depth of 207 feet. He supposes that a barrel per day might be pro- 
■cured. " 

In 1854, while the United States bid farewell forever to the Old-line 
Whigs, one Toch, an Austrian, bid farewell to the United States, and going 
to Vienna taught the oil men of Austria the method of refining used at Taren- 
tum, Penn. , by Peterson & Dale, for whom he built the refinery. The Marvin 
Creek Coal Company was organized February 12, 1855, with a capital stock of 
$25,000. John Atkinson, of Erie, and Bryant P. Tilden, of Boston, owned 
half this stock. Two years later the capital was increased, and 700 acres of 
<3oal lands added. Near Smethport, at Crosby, works were erected where are 
now the mills, and coal oil produced from the Clermont coal. In March, 
1857, tbe following letter appeared in the Rochester (N. Y.) Democrat: -'I 
liave just seen specimens of benzole, camphene oil and tallow from coal up 
in the vicinity of Smethport, McKean county, superior to anything ever known. 
■One ton of coal makes eighty gallons of benzole, forty gallons of fluid, twenty 
gallons of lubricating oil and fifteen pounds of tallow or sperm. The actual 
cost of benzole, etc. , will not exceed fifteen cents per gallon. * * * There 
is a machine (for manufacturing purposes) now on the way to Bradford. De- 
pend upon it, this is no humbug." Nor was it, for buildings were erected 
opposite the present Riddell House, and coal oil manufactured there. In 
November, ]859, a New York and Boston company erected a coal-oil mill at 
the Hermit opening between Marsh's Corners and Kinzua, where they hoped 
to mine sufficient coal for obtaining this oil. Gilbert, one of the projectors, 
did not then dream that oil existed here in oceans, although the Drake well, 
at Titusville, was completed August 28, 1859, and even before this, in 1858, 
J. M. Williams' well in Canada, and other wells in Enniskillen township, in 
the county of Lambton, same country, were in operation. The coal oil man- 


ufacturers had before them the efforts of S. Kier and Nevin, McKeown & Co., 
of March, 1857; the latter company's well at Greensburg, Penn., in 1858; 
the offer of $1,000 for a lamp that would burn petroleum made by S. Kier in 
1857, and also the shipments made to New York in November, 1857, by A. C. 
Ferris, and the introduction of a lamp in which the odorous oil would burn. 
Col. Drake's well soon shadowed the coal-oil extract works out of existence, 
and nothing was heard throughout Pennsylvania but stories of wells and drills 

and oils. 

In April, 1861, oil was found on the Beckwith farm, a mile west of Smeth- 
port; at Port Allegany the citizens drilled a well, while near McCoy's mill 
pond (in the vicinity of Smethport) oil was discovered, and down the Tuna ex- 
ploration was carried on. About this time some irreverent drillers placed a 
sign on their new derrick, "Oil, Hell or China." Their resolution amounted 

to little as they did not strike oil, or China. In 1862 the old Barnsdall 

or Bradford well near west city line was drilled, a spring pole being part of 
the machinery used. With this rude driller and ruder ideas of the reservoir, 
it is no wonder that the tired and disappointed owners abandoned the work at 
a depth of 200 feet, or within 825 feet of the productive sand. In 1865-66, 
the citizens of the little village of Bradford* formed a bee to explore farther, 
and drilled to a depth of 875 feet, when they surrendered the works within 
150 feet of the point where perseverance would bring victory. Basing their 
ideas on the Oil City fields, where the top of the productive third sand is 528 
feet above ocean level, they, with little labor, essayed to elevate the level of 
the Bradford third sand which is 114 feet below that of Oil City, a physical im- 
possibility indeed. In 1864-65 the Dean Brothers drilled 900 feet on the 
Shepherd farm, near Custer City. Here another disappointment waited on 
ignorance of geological structure, for while the old Bradford sand could be 
found 1,100 feet below the surface there, it was at least 200 feet deeper down 
on the Shepherd farm. Men were wild in those days. Impatience as well as 
ignorance of altitudes and structures ruined many individuals, whose ideas 
were otherwise practicable. The Dean Brothers did poorer work on the Clark 
farm (Tarport), where they halted within 400 feet of the top of the produc- 
ing sand, after wasting time and labor on a 605-feet hole. Kinzua Village 
oil-field dates back to 1865, when the Kinzua Oil Company and the Kinzua 
Oil Association were organized, and six wells drilled to a depth of 600 feet, 
but oil answered the drill in only small quantities. In 1875 Hunter & Cum- 
mings drilled on the Cobbett farm without success, and in 1878 E. A. Van- 
Scoy & Co. ' s venture on Wolf run was equally unsuccessful, although residents 
and others were much enthused by the appearances and disappearances of oil. 
In the winter of 1884-85 James Parker & Co. drilled on the Fuller farm, 
and on March 27, 1885, the " Kinzua Gusher" was expected to drown out all 
other wells, but yielded only twenty- five barrels. Later, however, staying 
wells were developed and worked successfully. 

In 1868 the several oil enterprises of Job Moses, in the neighborhood of 
Limestone, gave an idea of what the true development of this region would 
yield. The Salem Oil Company' sf well was being drilled in August, 1871, on 

* On August 87, 1866, the Kingsbury well at Bradford was drilled by Mr. Wakhe to a depth of 791 feet 
(eighty feet in oil bearing rock), when a vein of oil was struck. P. T. Kennedy stales that the well of 1866-66^ 
put down by the villagers, produced a fine quality of lubricating oil in small quantities. A man named Hale 
pumped from this well for a number of years. The Dean Brothers' well on Shepherd's run was drilled for a 
Middletown (N. Y.) company. 

fThe Salem Oil Company's well mentioned was never drilled in 1871, but in 1876 carried out their 
plans near where P. T. Kennedy drilled the second well in that neighborhood. The Taylor Company found 
some oil in the second sand, but in 1876 others drilled deeper and were successful. Job Moses drillea across the 
line from 1865 to 1875, meeting with small success. 


Shepherd's run, near DeGolier and the Elk Lick spring. The W. H. Tay- 
lor Oil Company organized in September, 1871, with J. K. HafPey, president; 
J. W. Hillon, vice-president; T. J. Campbell, treasurer, and T. J. Melvin, 
secretary, to drill wells on Kendall creek, on the Moore farm. Mark Hardie, 
of Mt. Alton, and others were members of this company. In August, 1871, 
a meeting held at the new Bradford House, at Bradford, to consider means to 
develop the oil field, organized the Barnsdall Oil Company, with J. W. Hilton, 
president; J. R. Pomeroy, vice-president; C C. Melvin, treasurer; T. J. Mel- 
vin, secretary; James Broder and Enos Parsons, directors. 

Iq 1871 old-time methods changed for the better. The Poster Oil Com- 
pany was organized with C. H. Poster, Job Moses and James E. Butts, mem- 
bers. They drilled at a point two miles northeast of Bradford, and in 
November struck a ten-barrel-per-day sand 1,110 feet below the well's mouth. 
Even with this example of perseverance nothing more of importance was 
accomplished until December 6, 1874, when Butts & Poster opened Butts well 
No. 1 on the Buchanan farm, a half mile northeast of their first well, and 
struck a seventy-barrel- per- day stream. The product for the month was 
seventy-five barrels. Before April 1, 1880, there were 4,000 producing wells 
in the Bradford oil district, yielding 50,000 barrels daily. In March, 1874, 
the Emporium Press, referring to the Butts wells below Tarport, noticed the 
progress of development as follows: "The oil fever is raging in our neighbor- 
ing county. Two wells have been put down at Bradford, and both are yield- 
ing well. The oil is of better quality than that found in the oil regions, and 
many oil men are changing base, preparing to operate in this new oilderado. 
The oil is found at a depth of eleven hundred and fifty feet." In March, 
1875, J. C. Jackson and A. B. Walker leased of P. T. Kennedy a farm one 
mile east of Bradford (now producing), and they completed their first well in 
July — the first ever drilled into the third Bradford sand — yielding about 
twenty-five barrels per day. This field J. C. Jackson, A. B. Walker, S. Solo- 
mon, Elias Eckhart formed a company to develop, putting down twenty paying 
wells in 1875-76. Meantime Mr. Kennedy had his royalties from this field, 
and shortly after the well proved a success he purchased Eckhart' s interest. 
Olmsted, of Tidioute, finished his well into slush oil below the old Bennett 
farm, on the Crooks farm, one mile north of the well on the Kennedy farm, 
about July, 1875. In September, same year, the Crocker well, then only 960 
feet deep, was yielding 150 barrels per day. In April, 1875, work on the 
Smethport oil well was begun, and on November 15a depth of 2, 004 feet was 
reached without finding oil. In August, 1876, the William Haskell well was 

No 1 well on the Tibbett farm is said to be the first success on the East 
branch. This farm became the property of Lewis Emery, Jr. The Quintuple 
tract, formerly the Kingsbury estate, contains 4,000 acres.. It was purchased 
in 1875 by Lewia Emery, Jr., for $54,000. Whitney & Wheeler, Pree Pren- 
tiss and S. L. Wilson were associated with him in this purchase, Wilson sub- 
sequently receiving $15,000 advance on his share of purchase money. In 
1875 Mr. Emery made his first venture on the Tibbett farm in Toad Hollow, 
his next on the J. M. DeGolier farm, and the third on the Salem tract of the 
Quintuple, near a well formerly drilled by Barnsdall, bul abandoned at 1,100 
feet; a fourth on lot 296, southwest of Custer, near Marshburg, and a fifth at 
Lewis run on a lease of 3,700 acres. Lescure, the superintendent, reported 
123 producing wells in January, 1880, and 681 wells in January, 1884, on the 
Quintuple. Blair well No. 1, Jackson & Walker's No. 2, at Bradford, and 
Olmsted's No. 1 on the Sanford farm, were examined in November, 1875, and 


showed the crude to range from 44° to 46° gravity. In July, 1876, the Ken- 
nedy well showed slush oil of 41° gravity, while Prentiss No. 1 showed 44°, 
and Byron & Co.'s well on the Poster farm 45°- Late in 1876 a gas well was 
struck on the Bruce Rogers farm, near Bradford. The gas was ignited, and 
from October 1 to February 1, 1877, jets of flame rose twenty-five to forty 
feet, burning continually, and making summer dwell in the depths of the 
forest during the earlier winter months. 

The Bradford Oil Company was organized under charter April 20, 1876, as 
the successor to Chambers, Jones & Co. The principal stockholders were J. 
T. Jones, Wesley Chambers, L. G. Peck and L. F. Freeman. This company 
owned a large portion of the site of Bradford from Main street south, the sale 
of which in lots brought in $40,000. In January, 1882, the company still 
owned 10,000 acres of the northern field, had 100 producing wells at Four 
Mile, Indian Creek, West Branch of Tuna, and in other localities, so that 
each share was valued at $2,000. In June, 1879, J. T. Jones, who purchased 
Chambers' stock, was elected president, and in 1881 he bought out Peck & 
Freeman, when H. E. Brown, of Warren, was elected secretary, and T. J. 
Powers, treasurer. Thirty-five new wells were added in June, 1876, and the 
total production for the month was 33,134 barrels. There were 115 wells in 
the Tuna Valley in July, 1876, twelve of which yielded less than ten barrels 
per day, and only five yielded over twenty barrels each. During June of 
this year thirty-five wells were drilled, which are included in the total given. 
Of the flowing wells Wing & Lockwood' s, near the State line, and Whitney & 
Co. ' s well No. 5, both new wells, took fire. In August, 1876, a gas explosion 
at Prentiss well No. 9 resulted in two men being burned to death. 

The true development of the Bradford District commenced in the centen- 
nial year, when operators from the Venango fields turned to the Tuna Valley, 
extending their wells from Bradford to Limestone, where Job Moses had the 
first paying well. At this time oil lands were purchased at from |6 to $10 per 
«,cre, which in a few months were worth $500 and $1,000 per acre. The 
Dennis well, located three-quarters of a mile southwest of the old village 
boundary, was begun in December, 1877, and drilled to 1,719 feet by April, 
1878, the mouth being 2,055 feet above the ocean, or about 611 feet above the 
railroad track at Bradford depot. To watch and record the clays and rocks 
brought up by the drill. Geologist Leslie appointed a Mr. Hale, who made the 
complete record published by the department. The McCalmont Oil Company, 
named from the McCalmont farm, where the company met early successes, was 
organized in 1877, with David Kirk, F. A. Dilworth, Frank Tack, F. E. Tack, 
A. H. Tack and I. E. Dean, members. In 1879 they decided to try the north- 
ern field, where heavy purchases were made from the Binghams, as the "Tri- 
angle well," opened by O. P. Taylor, showed what might be expected in 
Allegheny county. In May, 1881, the Richburg well was struck, and imme- 
diately the McCalmont Company purchased the Ackerman farm of 350 acres, 
at $90 per acre, and then the Reed farm, which led to so much litigation in 
order to decide the validity of the Shepherd leases. In the northern territory 
it claimed 950 acres and twenty-six wells, in 1882, and in McKean county 406 
acres and eighty-eight wells, with fifty new wells under construction. 

In 1877 a company of Pennsylvania cheese makers drilled 1,100 feet in 
Sharon township, on a tributary of the Honeoye, and was known as the Wright 
well. The well on Horse run, across the line in Genesee township, Allegany 
county, N. Y. , was drilled about this time ; while Kemper, of Duke Centre, 
drilled in the northeast corner of Ceres township, just inside the line of McKean 
•county, to a depth of 1,600 feet, but very little oil was found. Kemper drilled 


a second well on King's run, which proved dry. It appears that this sand 
belongs to the Elk county family rather than to the Bradford family. It is 
said to have its origin in Spring Creek township, in Elk county, and to extend 
to Wellsville. Taylor's Triangle No. 4, the Schultz wells on Halsey's lands, 
near Wilcox, the Buffalo Coal Company's wells on Instanter brook, the wells 
at Smethport, also the wells drilled toward the northeast, were all found to be 
in the Spring Creek sand. In 1878 the Duke Centre oil field showed the rich 
oils of the Bradford sand, and the same year wells along the Windfall and 
round Eldred were drilled. The Angell Oil Company was organized in March, 
1880, when C. D. Angell' s wells, at Knapp's creek, the Exporters & Producers' 
wells, on Kendall creek and at Fullerton, were merged, and 960 acres of the 
Clark, Babcock & Hulings' tract, north of the State line, added, in all fifty-eight 
producing wells, valued at $400,000. C. D. Angell was chosen general man- 
ager; George H. Danforth, president; William R. Lyon, secretary and treas- 
urer, and they, with Charles T. Crocker and E. M. Danforth, formed the board 
of directors. 

Mitchell & Jones had 900 acres, sixty producing wells, and a one -fourth 
share in forty others, in 1882. Peck & Freeman had 500 acres, fifty produc- 
ing wells, and a one-eighth interest in 125 acres of leased oil lands. Brown & 
Jones claimed 125 acres on the head-waters of Kendall creek, in 1882, with 
twenty-five producing wells. The Emery Oil Company (L. Emery, Jr. , W. E. 
Weaver and L. E. Hamsher), purchased the Minard run tract, in October, 1883, 
from C. C. Melvin, A. B. Walker, Howe and associates. The original Moody 
tract was 7,000 acres, of which 920 were hitherto disposed of, leaving the 
Emery Company 6,080 acres, ninety-four producing wells, and seven 35,000- 
barrel tanks. The consideration was $300,000. This was formerly proved 
and found wanting by the P. C. L. & P. Company, but Melvin, Walker & Howe 
are said to have realized about $1,000,000 from the tract. 

In November, 1885, the Kane field, which was an uncertain quantity in the 
oil market for six years before, came prominently before the people. At this 
time oil reached $1.07|, but on November 20 news arrived that the Kane well 
was making seventy-nine barrels in sixteen hours, and that on December 11 
it had reached ninety-three barrels in twenty-four hours. This news, of course, 
had its efPect upon the market. Among the leading producers of this county 
Capt. Jones leads, with R. J. Straight, the Emery Oil Company, Lewis Em- 
ery, Jr., John McKeown, The Associated Producers, Union Oil Company, 
Forest Oil Company, Anchor Oil Company, Bradford Oil Company, American 
Oil Company, and the Watson Oil Company. The American Oil Company 
(P. T. & W. C. Kennedy), were among the leading producers until a year or 
two ago, when they sold many of their wells. 

Wells of the Pioneer Period.* The wells di-illed in the Bradford field 
prior to December 1, 1880, 8,845 of which were producers at that date, are 
named in the following list; [The few omissions in this list are referred to 
in the sketches of the boroughs and townships of McKean county.] 

*The list was prepared for the j^a by a special staff of reporters, among whom was the late J. C. Mc- 
Mullen; A. L. Snell, now manager of the Era, was also in this work. How well they accoQiplished the work 
confided to them is made evident by this historical list— the only record in existence which gives the names- 
connected with the Bradford field and the drill work accomplished within its boundaries from 1875 to Decem- 
ber, 1880. 



Tuna Vali.ey. 

Irvine, Irvine Oil Co 3 

Mantz, Bennie Bros & Co. . 3 
Leonard, Porter & Mont- 
gomery 1 

Leonard, Allen & Scher- 

merhorn 1 

Leonard,Harsh&Sclireiber 1 

Bissell, P Schreiber 1 

Moses tract, Harsh & 

Schreiber 8 

Willis, Shear Bros 1 

" State Line Oil Co. , . 4 

" Stillwell Oil Co.... 3 

" Woodring&Co 3 

" Diamond Oil Co 1 

Clark, State Line Oil Co ... . 5 

' ' Eureka Oil Co 3 

Patton, J W Humphrey. ... 3 
Zelife, " ..3 

McKenzie, " .. 1 

Carmody, PC L&PCo... 3 

C H Foster , C H Foster & Co 5 

" J L Aleomb 1 

" PC L&P Co.. 1 

Bennett, Hale & Carll 2 

" Foster 1 

J O Beardsley, James 

Rooker 3 

Terry, P C L & P Co 4 

S L Wilson, S L Wilson.... 1 

Miller, M S Miller 3 

Watkins, Roberts & Ster- 

rett 1 

Crooks, J L Aleomb 3 

P Hooker, J L Aleomb & Co 3 
Harris, Sill Farm Oil Co . . . 3 
McCartey, Sill Farm Oil Co 3 
Union Oil Co... 3 
Mrs Miller, Diamond Petro- 
leum Co 1 

Eli Hooker, J C McAllister 2 

Wm Beardsley, GVForman 9 

Kenner, Mitchell 7 

H Beardsley, Empire State 

Oil Co 9 

Cronin, Roberts & Sterrett. 1 

Dan Glass, Glass c&Dikeman 1 

McKean, Roberts & Sterrett 1 
H Beardsley, State Line Oil 

Co 11 

H Beardsley, pur Line Oil 

Co 1 

Bell, Line Oil Co 1 

Clark heirs, J R Clark & Co 35 

" PCL&PCo.. 3 

" CJEverson 5 

WBSnow 5 

.Taft& Payne.. 8 

Evans lot. Union Oil Co . . . 3 

Seward, Whitney c& Wheeler 3 

Ford lease, Mabee 1 

Fuller, J Mabee 3 

" H Trumboer 1 

Welsh, H B Porter & Co. . . 6 

" HM Haskell 2 

" Heady & McNiel. . . 3 

" Geo S Frank 4 

Slocum, Whitney & Wheel- 
er 7 

E D Foster, Foster & Powell 1 

P T Kennedy, A C Scott. . . 2 

Railroad Y, P C L & P Co . . 3 

Hunt lot, H Clark 1 

Ward, A C Scott. 6 

Bramblee, Foster & Co 3 

Parsons lot, J B Farrel. ... 3 

Houeh, J L Aleomb 1 

Widow Hahey, Whitney & 

Wheeler 3 

Sanford lot, Davis & Hilton 3 

Mill lot, P T Kennedy 1 

Miller lot, Foster, Bartlett 

&Co 3 

Matteson lot, F E Bradley . 1 

A W Newell, S G Slike .... 3 

FH Newell.. 3 
Brown & Norris lot. Brown 

& Norris 1 

Van Scoy lot. Brown & Nor- 
ris 3 

Stone lot, J W Humphrey . 1 

Frazier, H Clark 1 

T W Cole, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Balton Bros, F E Bradley . . 1 

Howard, " ... 1 

Wagner, G Emery & Co. 1 

Colegreve, Walker & Co . . '. 1 

Wagner lot, W W Martin. . 1 

Whalen lot, A DeGolier 1 

Fairbanks, Houghton, 

Hanks & Co 3 

Neye lot, John Potts 1 

Hewett lot, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Rutherford, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

DeGolier lot, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Leigh lot, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Parsons lot, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Osgood lot, Thomas Brad- 
ley 1 

Bradley lot, Thomas Brad- 
ley 1 

Butts lot, J E Butts, Jr . . . . 1 
Brennan, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Bakerlot, PC L&PCo... 1 
Webster lot, Whitney & 

Wheeler 2 

Cheese Factory lot, C F 

Allen 3 

Holmes, Mrs Holmes 1 

Tibbett lot, Emery Oil Co . . 1 
Ackley, " ..2 
Fisher, " ..3 

Peterson, " . . 1 

Matteson, " .. 1 

Cutting, " . . 5 
Cockroft, " ..5 
Campbell, Whitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Rogers, Bradford Gas Co . . 1 

Brown, " . . 1 

Raub, PCL&PCo 9 

" GWRaub 3 

" C Everson 2 

" Lane, Smith & 

Thomson 1 

Case lot, A K Darrow 1 

Fisher & Lane, E O Emer- 
son 4 

Fisher & Lane, Husband & 

Wilson 3 

Fisher & Lane, Mechanics' 
Oil Co 2 

Fisher & Lane, W A Pull- 
man & Co 2 

Fisher & Lane, J D Lupher 2 
Derby & 
Jones 3 

Fisher & Lane, Sam Smith 
& Thomson 3 

Canfleld & Brady, Moore & 
Pettibone 3 

Canfield& Brady, McManus 
& O'Dell 3 

Pierce lot, Sterrett & Rob- 
erts 3 

Patterson lot, I L Shank .^. 2 

Total 310 

Irvine, Van Vleck & Mitch- 
ell 4 

Baillet, Short & Co 1 

" Eclipse Oil Co 1 

Huntington, unknown 1 

Cogswell, Tait & Schermer- 

horn 1 

Hapgood, H L Taylor & Co 1 
Moses tract. Harsh & 

Schreiber 4 

Willis, Shear Bros 1 

State Line Oil Co.. 1 

" Miller 2 

" Joseph Fritz 1 

" Haskell & O'Dell.. 1 
Alanson Clark, State Line 

Oil Co 1 

Clark, J W Humphrey 3 

Whittaker, P C L & P Co . . 1 

Terry, " " " .. 3 

S L Wilson, S L Wilson. ... 4 

P Hooker, Buchanan & Sons 1 

Harris, Sill Farm Oil Co. . . 3 

McCartey, Louks Bros 3 

" Morris & Barse. 4 
Parsons &Co.. . 1 
Randolph Par- 
ties 1 

McCartey, James Rooker. . 2 
Mrs Mueller, Diamond Pe- 
troleum Co 3 

Mrs Mueller, P C L & P Co 1 

Eli Hooker, G V Forman. . 5 

Wm Beardsley " .. 2 

Pat Lynch, Pat Lynch 1 

Cronin, McMann 1 

Dan Glass, J E Butts, Jr . . . 3 

Jones, Harris & Slocum. . . 3 
Empire State farm, Sam 

Woodring 1 

Hinchy, Ottman 2 

Buchanan, Heald 3 

' ' Ottman 1 

" Buchanan & Co 1 

Wolcott, Harsh (fcSchreiber 1 

" " Forman.. 6 

J O Beardsley, unknown.. 4 

" Limestone 

Petroleum Co * 3 

Unknown lot, Geo V For- 
man 1 

McKean, unknown 1 

Clark heirs, J R Clark & Co 1 

PCL&PCo. 1 



PT Kennedy, American Oil 

Co 12 

Cockroft, P C L & P Co . . . . 7 

" Emery Oil Co.. . 1 

Railroad T, P C L & P Co . . 4 

Evans, American Oil Co . . . 2 

Parsons lot, " " ... 1 

Sanford lot, Davis & Hilton 2 

Mill lot, P T Kennedy 1 

A W Newell, H Clark 1 

S G Slike 1 

Stone lot, J W Humphrey . 2 

Walsh lot, Anglun Bros ] 

Balton Bros' lot, Whitney 

it Wheeler 1 

Balton Bros' lot, Balton 

Bros 3 

Schroder, E G Tilf ord 2 

Neye lot, Dr Book 1 

Foster lot, Wliitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Caby, PCL&PCo 1 

Church, P T Kennedy 1 

Parsons lot, Whitney iV: 

Wheeler 1 

Little, Harsh & Schreiber. 6 

Wagoner, " 1 

Raub, PCL&PCo 1 

Cole lease, G V Forman 2 

Seward, Whitneycfc Wheeler 4 

Ford lease, unknown 2 

Fuller, " 1 

Welsh, H B Porter & Co. . . 3 
Pierce lot, Sterrett & Rob- 
erts 1 

Patterson lot, I L Shank. . . 1 

J O Beardsley, Morris 4 

" James Rooker 1 

PetCo 1 

Babcock, Wliitney & 

Wheeler 1 

Malony, Whitney A: 

Wheeler 1 

Total 159 


Reservation, Fred Prentice 2 

Palmer & Co. 1 
" Carson & Slo- 

cum 1 

Bartlet Brook, lot 14, PC L 

&PCo 1 

Irvine, State Line Oil Co . . . 1 

" Deluce, Palmer & Co 1 
" Hammerwright, & 

Co 1 

Irvine, Frederick & Co 1 

Boot, Van Vleck & Mitch- 

. ell 2 

Leonard, Porter & Mont- 
gomery 2 

Bennett, unknown 2 

Miller, M S Miller 1 

" unknown 1 

McCartey, McCartey 1 

Mrs Miller, Diamond Petro- 1 

leum Co 1 

H Beardsley, Empire State 

Oil Co 1 

Empire State farm. Empire 

State Oil Co 1 

Empire State farm, Harsh 

it Schreiber 1 

Empire State farm, E Clark 

&Co 1 

Ed Bell, Empire State Oil Co 1 

Pat Lynch, Lynch & Co.. . . 2 

Dan Glass, Glass Bros 2 

Buchanan, unknown .3 

C H Foster, " 1 

McKean, " 2 

H Beardsley, State Line Oil 

Co No 24 1 

Moses, State Line Oil Co No 

24 1 

Metcalf, pur Short & Co. . . 1 

Willett, State Line Oil Co . . 1 

Moses, Peter Schreiber 1 

" Harsh & Schreiber. . 1 

" Ash&O'Dell 1 

Zelife, Olmsted 1 

Boss, Bradford Oil Co 1 

Bolivar Run " 1 

Adams, Nichols Run, Brad- 
ford Oil Co 1 

Total 45 


(Producing) . 
Porter &, Gillmor, C. Sharp 

&Co.... 2 

Porter & Gillmor, Anchor 

Pet Co 2 

Porter & Gillmor, Sharp, 

Metcalf &Cn 1 

Porter & Gillmor, David 

Lamb & Co 2 

Porter & Gillmor, Rathbone 

& Miller 9 

Porter & Gillmor, Hazen, 

Lamb & Co 1 

Porter & Gillmor, Coats & 

Murray 2 

Porter & Gillmor, Porter, 

Gillmor & Co 4 

Porter & Gillmor, Rump & 

Hazen 1 

Ottman, W Crim Walker. . 4 

Mack Bros 3 

Upper Herdick, Frink 4 

Hitrick & 

Howe 3 

Upper Herdick (and C.B. & 

H), J J Carter 14 

Upper Herdick, Irvin, 

Davis & Co 4 

Upper Herdick, Post & 

Bartles 4 

Clean Oil Co., C K Raner 2 
Leopold Bros. 2 

EM Bell 5 

John McMurray, Leopold 

Bros 2 

John McMurray, Murray & 

Critchlow 2 

John McMurray, McMurray 

Bros 5 

Robt McMurray, McMur- 
ray Bros 14 

Robt McMurray, Whitney 

& Son 8 

Robt McMurray, Parks >t 

Hazzard 10 

James McMurray, McMur- 
ray Bros 7 

James McMurray, Wiggic 

&Co 3 

B R & Co, Baum, Richard- 
son & Co 

Smith, O B & W L Smith 2 

Tew, H W Tew 8 

Berry, RD Bailey 3 

" J A Stearns 4 

Lynch, Lynch iV McMurray 2 

E T Co, O A Childs & Co 8 

Walker it Wait.. 3 

Wilcox, Wilcox it Kirk .... 3 

" JMCongdon 6 

Randall* Veder.. 3 

SSScoville 3 

OF Schonblom... 1 

" J Evans 3 

" Donahugh & Sher- 
man 3 

Olmsted it Son .. . 3 

Shelden&Edgett. 2 

" Stewart 4 

FA Wright 3 

Randall ifeVeder.. 2 

Sill Farm Oil Co.. 2 

" Jennings & Ross . . 2 

" C F McDonnell.... 3 

Hunt,Thomas Argue 1 

" J L Clark 6 

" Irvin, Davis it Co .. . 2 

" C Brown & Co 3 

" JVBitts 3 

" C R Sherman 2 

" Short, Blain& Co... 2 
" Rogers &■ Richard- 
son 2 

" Foster Brook Oil Co 2 

" AW Sherman & Co 3 

" Mutual Oil Co 3 

Snyder, Foxburg Oil Co. . . 11 

J E.White 3 

" Gushing & Morri- 
son 1 

Snyder, Hapgood & Lock- 
wood 3 

Snyder Hapgood & Lock- 
wood 3 

Bell, E M Bell 1 

Bradley, Ernst Bradley & 

Co 27 

Bradley, Snyder 1 

" Powell & Wheaton 2 

" Harry Fox 2 

" Union Oil Co 8 

MasonMJTufEt 3 

Buffalo Oil Co 3 

Palmer & Dudley,. 3 

DeloOilCo 1 

" Kelly & Henshaw. . 1 

" E Boyer r. 3 

" Grossmayer it Son 3 

" ON Hazen 2 

" T B Matteson 4 

" Dudley (fePalmer (5) 2 

" Kinney & Chapin. . 3 

" Keny on & Mason.. 1 

" J L Shank 3 

" E A & S B Drake 2 

Evans, Riddell & Co 7 

BNHurd 4 

Thos Tait, Thomas Tait, Sr. 12 

J M Tait 2 

Thos Tait, Jr. . . 4 


Thos Tait, Geo Tait 2 

■ ' ' Harry Fox 2 

J M Tait, J M Tait 6 

McClure,Pittsburgh Oil Co 18 

Ladd, Tliomas Ladd 3 

Smitli, W L & B Smitli . . 3 

Tliayer, H S Payson 4 

J S Williams i 

B R ifc Co., Baum, Richard- 
son & Co 3 

Total 371 


Van Sickles & Co 5 

Clinton, Strong & Co 1 

Wallace, Steele & Co 3 

J B Mandeville S 

Willoughby & Kinkaid .... 15 

Geo K Anderson 6 

Pat Monroe 1 

Smith, Palmer & Co 2 

United Pipe Line, gas 4 

Union Gas Co, gas 3 

J W Humphrey 6 

Fitzsimmons & Bennett. . . 2 

Fitzsimmons & Son 2 

French, Willard & Co 4 

WAWade 3 

Mandeville, Mandeville & 

Murphy ' 5 

A C Hawkins 1 

Boyer, S P Boyer & Co B 

Bussell&Co 12 

Elliott Bros 2 

Medallion 3 

Bar & Manney 3 

P Connors 1 

FA Carlis 2 

WW Bailey 2 

Davis & Haldeman 8 

C W Pratt & Co., lease 4.. . 7 

Burdick Oil Co 4 

Forest Oil Co IB 

WHKinter 3 

Elliott Bros 3 

Eighmey Bros 8 

Dilworth,McCalmont Farm 

Oil Co 14 

Dihvorth, Fulton & Alex- 
ander 4 

Dilworth, Spaulding & 

George 4 

Dilworth, Flemming & 

Payne 4 

Dilworth, C N Payne 3 

" F H Parkman ite 

Co 4 

' ' Barr & Manning 2 

" J S Patterson... . 9 

J D Wolf 4 

J W Shirley 1 

" Morrison & 

Browning 1 

Dilworth, Holmes 1 

" Tom Argue 3 

" Bosley & Ford.. 4 

" Ralph Bros 3 

" RW Shirley 1 

" Babcock & Hul- 

ings 2 

" Jno Stinson.... 1 

Dilworth, W B Snow 1 

Howe Bros & Co 3 
" Canisteo & Hor- 

nellsville Oil C!o 5 

Dilworth, Eaton Bros 2 

" D Grimm 3 

" RJ Straight 8 

" Boyd Kinslcr & 

Co 1 

Evans 2 

" AEMarlin 3 

" Kinslercte Star.. 3 

" Smith & Wilson. 4 
" Hepburn & Goe- 

tel 4 

Taylor & White . 7 

& Scott 5 

Dilworth, Northern Oil Co. 6 
" H F Hutchison 

&Co 5 

" R W Sherman... 1 

" L Emery, Jr 3 

" Wilder & Warren 4 

JnoDodd 7 

" Murray &Penzer 5 

Banks & Co 2 

FB McDonald... 3 
" Hays & McGar- 

land 1 

Styles & Roy.... 8 

" FA Curtis & Co 3 

" Stafford* Patten 4 

Long it Co 6 

Cummings & Co 7 

" A Cummings.. . . 3 

SS&Co 5 

W Smith 6 

Coney Oil Co.... 1 

" Leland & Co 3 

Boyd&Scoville. 3 

De Voe 3 

" Rhodes A; Eaj'- 

mond 3 

" Evans t^i Scrax- 

ton 5 

'' R McMurray. . . . 3 

" Penzer & Gregg 4 

" W M Moore 6 

" Winters & Mc- 

Manus 3 

" R Jennings & 

Son 12 

" Eighmey& Seely 5 
" Cochran & Hor- 

ton 5 

" Cochran & La- 
fever 4 

" James, Christie 

cfcCo 2 

Earl & Co 3 

Johnson & Nut- 
ting 2 

" Caldwell, Boyer 

& Co 12 

" Caldron & Wolfe 22 

" Cushing &Irvin 1 

" Porter & Watson 3 

Treat & Mallory 1 
' ' Dreibelbis & 

Wolfe 1 

" EmlentonOilCo. 1 

" Moore Bros 1 

" Taylor & White 8 

" Weser 1 

Dilworth, E Katz a 

" R W Steele & 

Co 4 

" Fitzgibbons Bros 3 
" Wallace Brown& 

Co 1 

Palmer & Smiley 7 
" Wilder & War- 
ner 1 

" Buckeye Oil Co. B 

FG Babcock 1 

" Clarke <& Steele . 3 

" (Mandeville) A 

C Hawkins ... 3 

Hope Oil Co.... 3 

P F Kerns & Co.. 3 

RF Blackmar.. , 1 

" WM Mercer 1 

" Mercer & Van 

Wormer 3 

G WPlummer.... 1 
" Howes (fe Parker 3 
" John McGinnis.. 2 
J W Douhleday.. 2 
J H Van Wor- 
mer 3 

T Frothingham. 3 
" Patterman&Peif- 

fer 1 

L Vandenstine . . 7 
" EnteiTirise Tran- 
sit Co 1 

C DGreenley.... 3 

WH Abbott 3 

Mercer & Kil- 

bourne 4 

" Norwich Oil Co. 2 

Ed Urner 1 

" Davis, Ottman& 

Hyde 9 

" Benton & Co 4 

Bird &Bell 8 

" Baker & Malone 8 


Howe & Son 11 

Jacob Beyer &Co 6 

Childs & Haldeman 4 

Willets, Boyne & Co 11 

I Willets 30 

NBPurson 2 

FAEathbone 2 

Stafford & Leech 3 

H Snow 2 

N Bushnell 1 

J W Davis 2 

J W Davis & Co 13 

O A Childs & Co 13 

Neath Bros & Willets 10 

Dandy 3 

Willets, Young & Co 4 

J HPerkin 1 

Curtis & Juter 8 

Brawley Bros 3 

EABoyne 3 

Van Scheick Bros 18 

OttoGermer 18 

Brawley & Hotchkiss 3 

OSmithOilCo 6 

NBParsous 2 

N Bushnell 1 

Young & Willets 9 

Total 1,128 

mAi> cZ . iy(^4 ^ 

Aihn!n':f--/ihii'^;lii;,:f:':f_'!/,!r<i\'ii,.'ji n A' Y 



(Abandoned . ) 

C B & H, Plumbley & 

Gould 1 

C B & H, Towanda Oil Co . 1 

Leslie Bros 1 

Clark & Steele.. 1 

Painter 1 

Unknown 3 

Total 7 



Pike, American Oil Co 3 

WF Kelly 4 

Brioty &McVey 3 

JJMcVey 1 

M C McLaughlin 4 

Trax Bros 3 

H O Pike & Brown.... 4 

EB Rogers 3 

Luce & Co 3 

J L Waters 1 

Cutting & Sterrett ... 1 

HWTracy 3 

Fuller, American Oil Co . . . 15 

Rogers, M C McDougal.. 10 

" WB Chapman.... 3 

" Macon Bros 3 

SE Barnard 1 

Wolcott & Hifler . 1 

JWThomas 3 

" John Healy 4 

HG Cutting 4 

" D Atwater & Co.. 3 

Adams & Curtis . . 3 

" Emerson Bros 2 

" Williams & Bailey 3 

Bickford & Curtis 1 

" Martin Comstock. 6 

" Groves &Fourl.. 3 

" MM Jaynes 1 

" Short, Parsons & 

Loomis 3 

Rogers, H Jaynes 1 

Ent Tran Co's tract, Ent 

Transit Co 13 

Ent Tran Co's tract, Law- 
rence Oil Co 10 

Ent Tran Co's tract. An- 
chor Pet Co 3 

Ent Tran Co's tract, Ben- 

ner Bros 3 

Curtis, Benner Bros 13 

Cross, " 3 

John DeGolier, " 7 
David DeGolier, Emery Oil 

Co 11 

Cram, Emery Oil Co 7 

Morris, ' ' 35 

M K Dieter, " 6 

Stoddart, " 1 

Tibbets, " 1 

Kingsbury, Tucker Bros. . , 5 
" J W Humph- 
rey 3 

Kingsbury, Parks & Haz- 

Wagner lot,' W L feiton.V. '. 1 

R R lands. Union Oil Co.. . . 16 

N W M Co's lands, " . . 3 

Hawkins, " . . 7 
P C L & P Co 

& P T Kennedy 6 

Hawkins, Buttrey & Davis. 3 

" J W Dean 3 

" Lawrence Babbitt 

& Co 1 

Hawkins, E A Wing 3 

Rock Oil Co lands, J D 

Case& Co 5 

Ernest lot, Whitney & 

Wheeler 3 

Harris, Whitney & Wheeler 2 
M K Dieter, Cadwell & 

Kleckner l 

Mill lot, H Hill 4 

" P Hanuan 3 

" Harding & Co 3 

Otto Germer lot, ' Straight 

& Shirley 4 

B I Taylor tract. Quartette 

Oil Co 33 

B I Taylor tract, J L Mc- 

Kinney & Co 13 

B I Taylor tract, Williams 

&, Wright 3 

B I Taylor tract. Sill Farm 

Oil Co 3 

B I Taylor tract, H S Baker 

& Co • 3 

B I Taylor ti-act. Gushing & 

Harvey 3 

B I Taylor tract, Bovaird, 

Seyfang tt Co 1 

Clark, Haldeman & Sons . . 20 

" Boulton Bros 7 

" CMCoburn 3 

" Stettheimer 3 

" John Wallace 3 

Baker (Brown lease), John 

Wallace 6 

Baker (Clark lease), John 

Wallace 5 

Baker (Barry lease), John 

Wallace 9 

Baker, W S McMullen & 

Co 4 

J C Drake, W S McMul- 
len & Co 6 

J C Drake, J C Drake 3 

" J W Humphrey 3 

" Mitchell & Buss. 3 

" Quincy Barber. . . 3 
" Montgomery & 

Durston 3 

J C Drake, Drake Oil Co . . 1 

Beckwith, R Carson 5 

" C Kammerdiener 3 

" T Beckwith 1 

" Kriner & Lyons . 1 

Wright, M Matson cfe Co.. . 1 
'^ Keatley Bros & 

Co 1 

Pike, Book & Rhodes 5 

Albert Palmer, J L Mc-/ 

Kinney & Co 5 

A T Newell, Book & Co.. . . 10 
Drake lease, Drake Bros. & 

Co 4 

Drake lease. Book & Co . . . 14 

W&JDuke... 1 

" Pat Lyons 1 

Drake pur DoUey, Burton 

& Morris 3 

Drake pur Hayes & Grif- 
fith 5 

Drake pur H Leonard 8 

Drake estate, R S Battles. 4 

Drake estate, B u r t i s A 

Drake 3 

Geo DictLT, Deitter Bar- 

■ rett & Co 1 

Geo Dieter, Post, Brown 

& Norris 1 

Haffey, Roth & Sax 3 

" Otto Germer & Co . 3 

Widow Dieter, Book & Co. . 1 
Kennedy, L H Cowley & 

Co : . . 4 

Kennedy, W L Yelton 2 

Cutting, Bullock and Clark 2 

" Hastings & Slocum 3 

" Drake Brothers .. . 1 

" L C Blakeslee 3 

" Book& Co 3 

" F Reiber 1 

Rutherford, Book & Rhodes 23 

" Buttrey & Davis 1 
Dikeman, Whitney & 

Wheeler 19 

Dikeman, Caldwell, Ham- 

sher&Co 6 

Forman & Beaver pur 

Whitney & Wheeler 11 

Tait, Hazlett & White 3 

" Alfred Short & Co... 3 

" R A Davidson & Co. . 3 

" A Davidson 1 

Jas DeGolier, Quintuple 

Oil Co 7 

Jas DeGolier, Whitney & 

Son 3 

Burton, Otto Germer & Co. 2 

Carey, John Hill 3 

" Ford Brothers 1 

" Springer & Campbell 1 
Foster, Tarbell, Shafer & 

Co 5 

Foster, HoflEman, Bussell 

&Co 7 

Havens, P C L & P Co 3 

" Fuller & Roberts. . 1 

Herrick, J H Springer & Co 3 

Ten Eyck, D W Thomas ... 3 

Freeman, E Strong & Co.. . 4 

" Leopold & Co.. . 3 

JohnPZane 3 

" Freeman Oil Co.. 3 
" Husband & Bun- 
ton 4 

Jewett,Hamsher, Weaver & 

Co 8 

Smith, P T Kennedy 6 

Sheldon Jewett, Quintuple 

OilCo 7 

Clapp farms, J M Clapp ... 30 
P Shady, Joseph Stettheim- 
er 1 

P Shady, Roberts & Lock- 
wood 2 

P Shady, Mary E Shady ... 1 
Salem tract, Quintuple Oil 

Co 4 

D V R Foster, Huff & Treat 5 

D E Foster, McMann Bros. 3 

" Foster Bros & 

Co 3 

D E Foster, Hogan & Co. . 1 

Foster pur Whitney & Son 2 

Lewis Run tract, " " 3 

Foster, S N Siggins 1 

W Brown, J T Gillespie. ... 3 

" Newell & Slike.. 3 



W Brown, DfVanScoy 2 

" McKeown & 

Vaughn 1 

W Brown, Johnson 1 

" Wheatland Oil 

Co 1 

Foster, Harding & Dow. ... 1 

Turner, Van Wormer 1 

" Harris* Co 2 

" Wheatland Oil Co.. 2 

" Leopold Bros 1 

" Tally 1 

Ingoldsby, DeGolier 3 

Watrous, James Galbraith. 1 

" H James 2 

" Steinwandle 1 

JNBrown.Flisher&Farrell 2 

" Emery & Pike .. . 2 

' ' Campbell & Ford 1 
McKeown & 

Vaughn 3 

Gregg, Gregg 1 

" PomeroyOilCo 4 

" Hitchcock 1 

A Watrous, Flisher & Far- 

rell 6 

Wm Foster, Wolcott & Co . 1 
Bingham, lot 168, R J 

Straight* Co 3 

Bingham, G H Van Vleck. . 3 

" Roess Bros 6 

" lot 177, G VFor- 

man 1 

Bingham, 400 acres, Forest 

Oil Co 2 

Bingham, lot 152, Forest Oil 

Co 3 

Bingham, lot 153, J J & T J 

Vandergrif t 4 

Bingham, Kishwaukee Oil 

Co 3 

Bingham, John McKeown. 2 

Vandergrift 1 

Bingham, lot 482, Johnson 

& Kittenger 1 

Dent lands, PC L&P Co.. 7 

" W S McMuUen 1 
" Parks & Haz- 

zard 1 

Moody, Minard Run Oil Co 32 

Mill lot,Whitney& Wheeler 7 

Fuller, J M Fuller 2 

Taylor, Clark &Noyes 1 

Newell, Potts & Slike 3 

" T W Hartman & 

Frazier 5 

Newell, Fuller, Dow & New- 
ell 1 

Davis, P F Kearns 1 

" Kern 1 

" John Lamars 5 

" Bradford Oil Co ... . 1 

Mack, Quintuple Oil Co 3 

Moorhouse, M B McMauus 1 

" J Moorhouse . 1 

Walker lot, T W Cole 1 

Little, M B McManus 6 

" John Chambers 1 

Dikeman, " .... 1 

Lane,PCL&PCo 1 

Switzer, " 1 

Taylor, Bradford Oil Co ... . 1 

Clark " .... 1 

Blair, - .... 19 

Niles, Bradford Oil Co.... 


Lot 46, Heald, Sisco & Co 


Reed, " 


" 47, 



" 48, Davis & Hyde ... . 

" Wesley Chambers . . 


" 49, " " .... 



" 50, B F Brinton 



" 52, J C Wales 

Clark, Clark & Co 


" 53, " 

Emery, Whitney & Wheeler 


" 54, B F Brinton 

Crooker " 


" 55,- " 

Mack lands, Chapin & Co. . 


" 56, EH Aiken 

" Henry Fisher . 


" 57, Kendall & Boyer . 

" Fisher & Pick- 

" 59, FT Barker 



" 60, " 

" 61, Broder & Humph- 

School-house lot, A F Heald 




Cranmer, Chapin & Co 


" 62, FT Barker 



" 63, Aiken Bros 

Crooker, Carroll, Bauman 

" 64, B F Brinton 

& Co 


" 65, " 

" 66, EB Barton 

Crooker, W B Snow & Co. . 

Craft, G W Archer & Co ... . 


" 67, " 

Kissam, Theodore N Barna- 

" 69, J W Humphrey. . . 



" 70, Davis & Hyde .... 

Kissam, Barnsdall & Briety 


" 71, " . " .... 

Wetmore & Staf- 

" 72, Heald, Sisco & Co. 



" 73, Etna Oil Co 

Kissam, Wetmore & Hayes 


" 76, E Strong 

" Brown & Norris. . . 


" 79, ET Howes 

Stinson, Williams & Alex- 

" 80, AGordnier 



" 81, " 

" 82, J S Wilson 

" 83, " 


" 84, E Strong & Co. .. . 

Lot 1, Venango Oil Co... 



" 2, 


" 86, John DuflE & Co. . . 


" 3, Kahn, Lehman & 

" 87, Strause, Waixel & 




" 88, Kearns &Vosburg 


" 4, Underwood & Co.. 


" 5, John Haggerty ... 


" 89, Aiken Bros 


6, HA Booth* Co.. 


" 90, Joseph Stettheim- 

" 7, Jackson & Conant 




" 8, HA Booth & Co.. 


" 91, Joseph Stettheim- 

" 9, Sherwood & Con- 





" 92, Joseph Stettheim- 

" 10, I G Jackson & Co. 



" 11, 


93, Joseph Stettheim- 

" 12, HA Booth & Co.. 



" 13, Gillis & Hall 


" 95, SG Elliott 

" 14, FtanklinOilCo... 


" 96, Strause, Waixel & 

" 15, " "... 



" 16, 


" 97, ICMcAUester.... 

" 17, JERalph&Bro.. 


" 98, E Strong & Co ... . 

" 18, " "... 


"99, " " .... 

" 19, Heald, Sisco & Co 


" 100, Samuel Grandin . . 

" 20, Tinker, Duncan & 

" 101, G M Barney 



" 104, E Howes 

" 24, JERalph&Bro.. 

" 105, J S Wilson <fc Co.. 

" 26, GW Ralph 


" 108, " " .. 

" 27, " 


" 112, GM Barney 

" 28, " 


" 113, " 

" 29, W H Richards .... 


' ' 114, Samuel Grandin . . 

" 30. AC Parish 


" 115, W H Bradley 

" 32, " 


" 116, " 

" 34, Charles Kendall.. 


" 117, J S Wilson 

" 35, " "... 


" 118, " 

" 36, WH Richards.... 


" 119, Venture Oil Co... 

" 37, Anglum&O'Boyle 


" 121, " "... 

" 38, 


" 132, Bradley &DufE... 

" 39, Gillis & Hall 


" 123, " "... 

" 40, Franklin Oil Co. . . 


" 134, Venture Oil Co... 

" 41, " "... 


" 125, " "... 

" 42, Tarbell & Morris. . 


" 126, " "... 

" 43, " " .. 


" 127, Smith & Wilson. . . 

" 44, J W Humphrey. . . 


" 128, J S Wilson 



" 130, H J Beers 



Lot 131, E Strong & Co.. . . 

" 132, Woodbury & Camp- 

" 133, David Emery 

" 134 *' 

" 135! GW Baldwin!!;;! 

" 136, Jacob OlshoSsky. 

" 137, J H Campbell 

" 13S, RatclifE 

" 145, D Atwater &Co.. 

" 146, Hamsher & Stev- 

" 147, Hamsher & Stev- 

" 148, D Emery & Co ... . 

" 149, " " .... 

" 150,Woodburycfe Camp- 

" 151, E Strong & Co ... . 

" 152, H J Beers 

" 154, BF MeClure 

" 155, H N Kingsbury . . 

" 157, H L McMuUen . . . . 

" 158, Bradley* Duff... 

" 159, " " ... 

" 160, 

" 161, 

" 162, HLMcMullen.... 

" 163, HN Kingsbury... 

" 165,' B F Mcciure. . ; ; ; ; 

" 168, William Hanley . . 

" 169, 

" 170, 

" 171, 

" 172, Hazleton & Bro. . . 

" 173, OPBoggs 

" 174, Atwater Oil Co . . . 

" 183, D Atwater & Co. . . 

" 185, T N Barnsdall . . . . 

" 186, Vrooman & Mc- 

" 189, Jennings, Hunter 
& Oummlngs . . 

" 190, Jennings, Hunter 
& Cummings . . 

" 191, Vrooman & Mc- 

" 192, T N Barnsdall ... . 

" 193, M J Seymour 

" 194, Atwater Oil Co . . . 

' ' 196, Charles H Richards 

" 200, Butler & Martin.. 

" 201, 

" 202, 

" 203, 

" 204,6eoMcCullough& 


" 205, JAVera&Co .... 

" 206, Casper Taylor ... . 
" 207, " " .... 

" 208, S Siggins 

" 209, Bradley & Duff... 

" 210, 

" 211, Emma Howard & 


" 212, Kane City Oil Co. . 

" 213, 

" 214, 

u 215 *' " 

" 216' Gardner & Cheney 

ti 217 '* " 

" 219^ Abbott, Proper & 

Lot 220, Abbott, Proper & 

Conaway 1 

" 221, Petroleum Centre 

Oil Co 1 

" 322, Petroleum Centre 

Oil Co 1 

" 223, Petroleum Centre 

Oil Co 2 

" 226, George MeCul- 

lough & Co 1 

" 227, George McCul- 

lough & Co 1 

" 228, TN Barnsdall* Co 2 

" 239, " " 2 

" 230, " " 3 

" 232, J A Wing 1 

" 233, " 1 

"234, " 1 

" 236, R J Straight 1 

" 237, R J Straight & Co. 1 
" 238, R C Shearman & 

Bro 1 

" 242, Asher Brown 1 

"243, " 2 

" 244, T N Barnsdall .... 2 

" 345, " .... 1 

" 346, Hamsher, Weaver 

ifeCo 1 

" 347, Hamsher, Weaver 

& Co 1 

" 248, M Watson 2 

" 350, Pomeroy & Rich- 
ards 1 

" 2.52, Hamsher, Weaver 

ctCo 1 

" 255, Hamsher, Weaver 

&Co 2 

" 256, Van Scoy & Scow- 
den 1 

" 257, Van Scoy & Scow- 
den 1 

" 258, E W Lamphier & 

Co 3 

" 359, Mahoning Oil Co . 1 
" 360, Conover, Kelley & 

Stewart 2 

" 261, WW Brown 3 

" 362, LTSoule 2 

" 262, Hamburg Oil Co. . 1 

" 263, LTSoule 2 

" 263, Hamburg Oil Co. . 4 

" 364, Eagle Oil Co 3 

" 265, " " 3 

" 266, GW Archer 2 

" 268, J L Brown & Co.. 3 
" 369, Alexander* John- 
son 3 

" 270, Mahoning Oil Co. . 1 

" 271, " " 1 

" 273, A S Hubbard 1 

" 273, J B Flisher 1 

"274, " 3 

" 275, E Shaver & Co.... 2 

" 276, LH Cowley & Co. 2 

" 377, Baker* Co 1 

" 378, " 1 

" 279, Huntley, Davis & 

Schonblom 1 

" 280, J L Brown* Co.. 1 

" 283, P Newell * Bro. . . 1 

" 284, William Lynch... 1 

" 285, A & W Russell ... 1 

" 286, " " ... 2 

" 287, " " ... 1 


Lot 1, Fredonia Oil Co 1 

1, Quintuple Oil Co . ; 3 

2, Kearns, Pemberton 
&Co 2 

3, Potts * Walker ... i 

3, Mountain Oil Co... 3 

4, Frey, Bear * Slin- 
son 3 

5, Gelm & Phillips ... 3 

6, O'Dell* Haskell,. 3 

7, John McVey 1 

8, 1 G Jackson 2 

9, " 2 

10, Boden * Emerson. 3 

11, WF Kelley 2 

Salem lot. Quintuple Oil Co 4 

Sheldon Jewett, " 7 

James DeGolier, " 7 

Total 1,313 


Curtis, American Oil Co. . . 1 

Davis, P F Kearns 1 

Total 3 


Moody, PC L*PCo.... 4 
N W M Co's tract. Union 

Oil Co 2 

Taintor's Mills, Union Oil 

Co 1 

Lafayette Coal Co., Neuer 

* Davis 1 

Boweu, Mullen & Mills 1 

Bingham, 400 acres. Forest 

OilCo 1 

Cranmer, Bradford Oil Co . 3 

Quintuple, Sherman Bros. 1 

Crooker, Chapin & Co 1 

Mack, Gt Western Oil Co . . . 1 
Various tracts, Gt Western 

Oil Co 10 

Marshburg, Venture Oil Co 1 

" Johnson* Co. 1 

Total 37 


(.Producing .) 

Melvin, P C L & P Co 53 

" McCray* Thompson 4 

" Hamsher & Weaver. 4 

" R Sherman 5 

Jane Schoonover, Amm, 

Seep * Co 5 

Jane Schoonover, George 

Leckey 1 

Jane Schoonover, H B Por- 
ter 1 

Jane Schoonover, Sterrett 

& Roberts 2 

Cornen, purCA*DCornen 3 

" F S Reynolds.. 3 

P Buchanan, G A Leckey 3 
" Farnham & 

Gilbert 3 

C Storms, P Buchanan. . 6 

" Wright* Strong 3 



C Storms, J 0' Dell 4 

" Knox, Leckey iV: 

Co 3 

C Storms, Ash & Robinson 1 

" Wright & Sowers 1 

" J Heathcote 1 

PE Shearon.... 1 
Frank Moore, Butts & 

Moore - 3 

Frank Moore, Huff ct Go. . 5 
Boden & Em- 
erson 3 

BN Brooks.. 3 
Seward, Knox, Leckey A: 

Co 4 

" D i n g m a n A 

O'Neill 5 

Buchanan, W J Sherman. . 6 
" Anchor Petrole- 
um Co 7 

Buchanan, P O Buchanan. . 1 

Mack, E K West 14 

" Denman & Co 7 

" Rochester Oil Co... 3 

" CFDoll 3 

" AngellOilCo 8 

" Johnson, Kittenger 

& Treft 5 

Lafferty, Hazelwood Oil Co 33 
" George H Van 

Vleck 38 

Lafferty, R H Thayer 6 

" Johnson & Co and 

Union Oil Co 37 

LafiEerty, A B Smith & D J 

Thayer 13 

Lafferty, Forest Oil Co ... . 3 
Hollow, A Childs 

&Co 15 

Lafferty, C J Lane 3 

WH Selkrigg.... 3 

" Wheaton & Beasy 3 

Totten, Suhr & Shopperlee 8 

" MHGoUins 3 

" Merrick & Harris. . . 7 

P Storms, J Test Oil Co. . . 17 
Cheney & Duf- 

fey 3 

P Storms, O P Buchanan . . 3 

" J W Sherman. .. 1 
" Sandein & Den- 

nigen 3 

Sill, Sill Farm Oil Co 6 

Kirk, Eaton & Co 3 

Eaton & Co 1 

H J Pemherton 3 

MC Treat 1 

Hiram Sill 1 

F Spencer 3 

Anchor Petroleum Co 1 

CN Owens 3 

Richardson, Muuhall & 

Smithman 14 

Richardson, A B Walker.. 3 
" James Peak Oil 

Co 5 

" Davis & West- 

ervelt 5 

Richardson, Ed Dolan 2 

" O' Dell & Emer- 
son 5 

Richardson, Kennedy 3 

Whipple, J J Carter 35 

" Wm Weston 3 I 

Whipple, Anchor Petrole- 
um Co 15 

Whipple, Knox, Leckey & 
Co 11 

Whipple, John W Knox... 3 

BNHurd 5 

" Larrabee et Mc- 
Donald 4 

Whipple, Keller & Wirtner 3 

' ' Crandall 1 

" Norman & Lester 3 
" Morrison & Turn- 
■ er 4 

Schoonover, Anchor Petro- 
leum Co 6 

Schoonover, Forest Oil Co 7 
D D & H 
Schoonover 5 

Schoonover, H Schoon- 
over 1 

Schoonover, Clark & War- 
ren 3 

Schoonover, Clark, Warren 
& Childs 5 

Schoonover, Martin & 
Childs 3 

Schoonover. J W Sherman 3 
■ SoUfleld & 
Dodge 3 

Schoonover, Hunt & Graff 3 
Smith & Han- 
del 3 

Schoonover, O P Buchanan 1 
" P F Kimball 3 

Ent Transit Go's tract, 
J Lewis <& Go 3 

Ent Transit Co!s tract, 
Linieman & Zimmerman 4 

Ent Transit Go's tract, F 
E Boden 5 

Ent Transit Go's tract, Ha- 
zelwood Oil Co 30 

Ent Transit Go's tract, 
Curtis & Jennings 3 

Ent Transit Go's tract, An- 
chor Petroleum Go 3 

Ent Transit Go's tract, W 
H D Chapin & Co 16 

Ent Transit Go's tract, 
Adams Davis 11 

Ent Transit Go's tract, 
Forest Oil Co 33 

Ent Transit Go's tract, An- 1 
chor Petroleum Go 1 

Hollenbeck, E S Temple- 
ton 3 

Hollenbeck, Carmen & Co 3 
" Anchor Petro- 
leum Co 3 

Hollenbeck, W J Porter ... 4 

" WH Brown.. 3 

J D Lupher. . . 4 

" Jennings & 

Shirley 5 

Hollenbeck, Bunton & 
Husband 3 

Brennan, G H Van Vleck. . 10 

Berry, pur R H Thayer .... 6 
Test Oil Co . . . . 6 

Knight, Anchor Petroleum 
Go 9 

Anchor P Go, pur Anchor 
Petroleum Co 6 

Sawyer, M G Treat 1 

Evans, Pittsburgh Oil Co . . 9 

Richardson, O P Buchanan S 

" J H Perkins. . 3 
" James Smith & 

Co 3 

Richardson, Mulqueen & 

Gahan 1 

Davis, J L McKinney & Co 4 

' ' Moore & Gayly 1 

"AD Smith 3 

" Rich & Hostetter .... 3 

" WH North 3 

' ' Rochester Oil Co 5 

" Humes 1 

" Henderson 3 

" Applebee & Rogers. 8 

" Edwards 1 

" Lobruck 3 

" Holstein 1 

" Sondheim 1 

Chamberlain, Rochester Oil 

Co 30 

Chamberlain, J H Bruin & 

Co 1 

Chamberlain,' Swingle & Co 5 
" Giddings & 

Dewees 5 

Chamberlain, F C Giddings 3 
" McElhany. .. 3 
" Stowell & Ea- 
ton 3 

Chamberlain, A O'Niel .... 9 
Rich & Hos- 
tetter 4 

Chamberlain, Westmore- 
land Oil Go 4 

Chamberlain, W H Wood. 3 
" Boylston & 

Go 6 

Chamberlain, Lang, Per- 
kins & Go 3 

Chamberlain, Pierson 3 

" Hammond 

Brothers 1 

Chamberlain, Teff t 4 

" Linch& Win- 
ters 6 

Chamberlain, A W Boyd.. . 1 
" Treat & Craw- 
lord 3 

Chamberlain, Ash & Rob- 
inson 1 

Chamberlain, Kerner & Co 4 
" Dingman & 

Go 3 

Chamberlain, Chamberlain 3 
" Lany&Go.. 3 
Post & Co... 3 
A W Boyd, Hayes & Grif- 
fith 3 

A W Boyd, Benedict & Wise S , 
" Spence & Den- 
nis 2 

A W Boyd, H P Bates & Co 3 

" Schofleld 5 

" Glass & DeGol- 

ier 3 

A W Boyd, Boulton Bros. . 3 
" Murphy & 

Smith 1 

A W Boyd, Foster 2 

" E A Culver .... 4 

" Wade Bros 2 

Ellis & Go 3 

" Johnson &Sha- 

f er 3 



A W Boyd, C B Whitehead 


Monroe, E P Bligh 

C F DeGolier 


" Fltzgibbons 




Bissett, Union Oil Co & 


A W Boyd, Shafer & Co. . . 

" Richardson & 

Bissett, E C Robbins & Co. 




Shear &McGee..., 


Mehan, A T Palmer 


" Lynch & Snyder.. 


" John P Zane 




" Willoughby 


Hoadley & Gamble 


" RG Cochran 


Young, D J Thayer 


" E S Templeton .... 


" Kennedy Bros 


" A L Avery 


Patterson, Huntly, Jamie- 


son & Co 

" Dibble 


Patterson, Spellacy, & Mc- 

Dexter Moore, A S Palmer 




J S Patter- 

Patterson, Wm Alshouse. . 






Dexter Moore, C E Judd. . 


EC Brown 


Campbell, E Duthil 


" WR Patterson... 


" Duthil &Co 


" Nolan Bros 


J M Wood 


" Potts Bros 


Dallas B Whipple 


" For gie Bros 


" J M Congdon 


" McCalmont Oil 

" J D Lupher 




" Tuclier & Sowers 




" McKevert, Locli- 

Tait, Stickney & Co 


wood & Co 


" Pittsburgh Oil Co.... 


Wilson & Smith. 



" Roberts & Sart- 

■' Duor& Roach 



" Artley & Co 


Campbell, J C Donnell 


" Detroit Oil Co .. .' 


" Chamber's well. . 


" Pittsburgh Oil Co & 

Corwin, Pickering c% Smith 




" Barney 


Borden, Pittsburgh Oil Co. 


, " A A Palmiter 


Purchases near K & E, 

" Stowell & Mat- 

Summit, Union Oil Co 




Spencer, Nye & Taylor 


Corwin, Stowell 


" Brenneman 


" Eaton &Bundy 


" WP Logan 


' ' Jarecki & Westh . . 


R V Mitchell.... 


W J Boyd, Zane & Taylor 




S S Fertig & Co 


Corwin, Soult & Dower 


Farr, Pacific Oil Co 


' ' Varney 


" F E Tyler 


" Keeler & Downey 


" Finnegan & Co 


" D Curtis &Co.... 


" Pittsburgh Oil Co... 


" Corwin Bros & Co 


" Selkregg & Son 


" N Grossmayer 


" I)uor& Roach 


J S Boyd 


Shaw John McCort 


" McNiel&Co 


" Newell & Palmer. . . 


" Pittsburgh Oil Co 


" Finnigan & Co 


Garlock, Logan Bros 

ON Hazen &Co. 

" Lockwood& Roberts 



" EFWillets 


" C S Clark & Co... 


" J H Selkregg & Son 


R G Cochran 


" F E Tyler & Co 


" Black & Knight 


" Henney, Tyler & Co 


McCray Bros 


Ethridge, A S Palmer & 

" Frank Cooban 




" Anchor Petroleum 

Ethridge, Bodine & Walker 






" JO Johnston 


" Frank Cooban. . 


" Hi F Whiting 


Pratt, Perkins & DeGolier. 


" Bowers & Ohlwei- 

" M A Brookins 




' ' Hazen & Metcalf 


" Porter cfeWaiigh.. 


" Suhr & Shopperlee . . 


" Frank Cooban 


" Van Wermer & Mer- 




" P M Shannon 


Pratt, G W &AAPlummer 


" Winger Brothers. 


' Deming ifc Gibson . . . 


Fisher, Bradford Oil Co... 


' Van Wermer <fe Craig 


" AT Palmer & Co.. 


' Mercer & Co 


Monroe, Ritts & Eshner . . . 


' M M McElwaine .... 


Ritts & Son 


' C A & D Cornen 


CH Glass* Co... 


' Limited Oil Co 


" W^ard & Anderson 


' O'Dell&Darrow.... 


Pratt, Smith A: Duncan 4 

" Steel & Whitney.... 3 

" Brown Bros 3 

" Dow & Thomas 3 

Taylor tract, Jones, Black- 
mar & Brown 15 

Taylor tract, John J Carter 11 
" Mitchell & 

Jones 14 

Taylor tract, Koeslor & 

Mosley 4 

Taylor tract. Pine Tree Oil 

Co 4 

Taylor tract. Union Oil 

Co 9 

Whipple, Whipple Bros. . . 9 

Rew, J D Wolfe 3 

" DKarns&Co 1 

" Hopkins & Packard. . 3 

" James McKay .^ 

" Hammond & Co 3 

" Dyer & Ford 3 

" McCalmont Oil Co... 7 

" Barlow & Clark 4 

" Johnson & Ritts 4 

" Thompson Bros 5 

" Marian Bros 1 

" Dalrymple 1 

Hodge, O G Emery 2- 

" AC Emery 1 

" John Stinson 3' 

" Seeley & Broder. . 1 

" P Buchanan.... 2 

" HazlewoodOil Co. 3 

" R Jennings & Son 2 

" Sliney & Dodge .. . 2 

I H Shank )> 

" Pencer & Wing 1 

" Everson & Wood- 
ward 2 

Hodge, Whiteman & Bell . 2 

Shedd, Henry Fisher 14 

" A Linnemau 3 

" J C Linneman & 

Chapin 7 

Shedd, P O Buchanan 3: 

" Fuller & Parsons. 1 

Bingham, Geo K Anderson 5 

-" Pittsburgh Oil Co 3 

" Reed & Ker win. . 3 

" Capt Taggart 4 

" Stewart & Mc- 
Donald 3 

Bingham (Tack farm), Mc- 
Calmont Oil Co 1& 

Bingham, lot373, Tack Bros 7 

" Mead& Boss.... 11 

" Mead, Green & Co 3 
" lot 383, Allen Oil 

Co 6 

Bingham, lot 383, Johnson 

& Co and L T Soule 1 

Bingham, J F WykofE Itt 

" Bayne, Fuller & 

Co 10 

J H Caldwell.... 4 
Tuna Valley Oil 

Co 10 

Bingham, lot 380, Niagara 

Oil Co 3 

Bingham, Applebee, Fisher 

&Co 4 

Bingham, Trio Oil Co 5 

" lot 383, Johnson & 

Co and Union Oil Co 6 



Bingham, lot 384, Ocean Oil 

Co 15 

lot 385, Boden, 

Emerson & Payne 10 

Bingham, lot 377, Union Oil 

Co 7 

Kellogg, Flisher & Farrel. 3 

Monroe, A N Simpson 1 
" Simpson & Sulli- 
van 1 

Monroe, Simpson, Sullivan 

& Co 1 

Monroe, J D Wolf 3 

" James O'Neil.... 3 

Below Knox City, Warn- 

niaker & Greer 1 

Below Knox City, Turner. 1 

-J .J Carter, pur John J Car- 
ter 31 

.J J Carter, pur H H Argue 1 

Total 1,690 

Seward, Knox, Leckey & 

Co 1 

Schoonover, Martin Childs 

& Co 1 

HoUenbech, Anchor Petro- 
leum Co 3 

HoUenbech, M C Treat. . . 1 

P Storms, O P Buchanan. . 1 

" J W Sherman 3 

Schoonover, McLachlin... 1 

Crandall&Co 1 

Richardson, Gabriel Mosher 3 
Bissett, Union Oil Co <& 

Morgan 1 

Fisher, Bradford Oil Co. . . 1 

Pratt, M A Brookins 1 

Melvin, PCL&PCo 3 

Jane Schoonover, Amm, 

Seep tt Co 1 

Jane Sclioonover, Gillmor 

& Jamieson 1 

P Storms, Test Oil Co 1 

Total 23 


Binijham, Stevens Oil Co. . 4 
Clark & Hanna. 6 
" Jolinson & Co 
andTlie Union Oil Co... 6 
Bingham, Davis & Haskell 13 
Pickett cV: Co ... 3 
" Wetmore it Bos- 
ley 10 

Bingham, John Conley 1 

" A A Hopkins ... 6 
Bingham & Rixford,Breece, 

Boyer&Co 39 

McGrew pur L S Anderson. 10 

" McGrew Bros 33 
" No. 3, McGrew 

Bros 3 

McKeown & Hayes pur 

McLeod & Morrison 3 

Hawkins pur Billy O'Brien. 1 

Rixford, A A Hopkins 1 

W K Vandegrift . . 3 

Rixford, Plumberton & 

Richardson 3 

Rixford, Dr Love 3 

State Line Oil Co.. 1 

" Archibald* Co... 3 

" Howe & Daley 1 

" Mayle & Campbell 3 

" Huver&Co 4 

" Howe ifc Daley 3 

" Evans &Lockhart. 1 
McCullagh, Ernest W Ham- 
mond 3 

McCullagh, A A Hopkins 1 

& Packard 4 

McCullagh, O'Day & Mc- 
Cullagh 4 

McCullagh, Knapp's Creek 

Oil Co 3 

McCullagh, Otto Oil Co . . . 7 
Cummings, A A Hopkins & 

Packard 4 

Cummings, Wells & Ken- 
yon 3 

Cummings, Christie & 

Cameron 3 

Cummings, Tom Mills 3 

" "Little George" 3 

Failing, Wm Melline 3 

" Brennan & Derby. . 4 
" Knapp's Creek Oil 

Co 3 

" Gerwig & Bacon.. 1 

Cooper pur Cooper Bros.. , 7 

Baker, Whitcomb 1 

" Parks & Co 3 

" Unknown 3 

" Dan Clark 6 

" F E Williams & Co . 4 

Barton, Wm Doe 3 

Longfellow, P T & W C 

Kennedy 3 

Inghram, M B Birdseye ... 3 
Mather, Mather & Ander- 
son 1 

Mather, W L Perrin cfe Co. 7 
Lockwood, Shattuck Sons 

&Co 3 

Stone, Bruin Oil Co 1 

Allen, Doe, Felt & Co 8 

Vaughn, Johnson & Co 4 

Carpenter, Knapp's Creek 

Oil Co 15 

Carpenter, John Baker 3 

Potts & Slike pur Potts & 

Slike 34 

Potts & Slike pur J W 

Humphrey 3 

Potts & Slike pur R H 

Boughton 5 

Bertram, Dr Zimmerman. . 4 
" R H Boughton ifc 

Co 1 

" Bisher & Snyder.. 3 

" Kane&Hazeltou. 1 

" A A Hopkins 3 

" J L Snyder 1 

Cummings, Dolley & Ar- 
nold 6 

" Hi Dean 2 

" L S Anderson. . 1 

" Lovell well 1 

Borden, Buzzell & Eckhart 4 

" John J Carter 11 

" Pittsburgh Oil Co. 6 

" Pew & Emerson.. . 3 

Borden, Tom Bradley 2 

" W McManus 4 

Matson 3 

Lee & Apple 4 

" Shear Bros & 

Braunchweiger 6 

Borden, Broder & Goetler . 3 

" RH Thayer 3 

Duffield & Brene- 

man 3 

' ' Can- & McEntire . . 3 

' ' Adams & Baldwin . 6 

" Pat Layman 7 

" Davis & Co 7 

" CC Scott 3 

Kirk, McCalmont Farm Oil 

Co 11 

Bingham, Harrington 1 

" Thompson & 

Siggins 1 

Bingham, Jones & Brown. . 3 

Gardner, Wesley Chambers 3 

Chambers, Wm Chambers . 8 

" Gushing & 

Chambers 3 

Willet & Coleman, Willet 

& Coleman 3 

Willet & Coleman, R H 

Boughton & Co 1 

Willet & Coleman, Kane & 

Hazelton 3 

Willet & Coleman, Union 

Oil Co 3 

Willet & Coleman, A B Me- 

Connell 3 

Cornish, Merriam Bros 2 

" Shear Bros& 

Braunchweiger 3 

Cornish, S S Fertig & Co . . 3 

" Sharp &JE[azen. . 3 

" J D Clark & Co... 3 

Woodbury, Wm Reader ... 2 

" Ed Hammond.. 2 

Bertram, Caldwell & Clem- 

enger 5 

Bertram, Steinberg 1 

" Geo Gorden 3 

Anderson, M McFadden. . . 2 

Irons, Breeee, Boyer & Co. 3 

" Kemper 1 

Dodge, Dodge 2 

Rixford Gas Wells . 1 
Anderson, Anderson, Otis 

&Co 3 

Anderson, L S Anderson . . 1 
" Wesley Cham- 
bers 3 

Mitchell, F W Mitchell .... 4 
Sherman, Sherman & Sel- 

kregg 2 

Sherman, Beclc & Ross 3 

" Blackball, Spen- 
cer & Reardon 1 

Sherman, T P Thompson . . 3 
" Palme ter & 

Mosher 2 

Sherman, Cowles & Atkin- 
son 3 

Sherman, Bradner & Cos- 
ford 3 

B T & S, Tracy & Pier 3 

" Wm Belsh 2 

" Anderson Bros. . . 3 

" Meads i&Cameron 2 

" Egert & Ross .... 2 



B T & S, Gelm & Phillips. . i 

son 4 

B T (& S, Butters & ShaflEer 4 
" Tarbel, Robinson 

& Bisher 3 

Smith & Thayer, Smith & 

Thayer 14 

Holt, P T tfe W C Kennedy . 3 

" Wood 1 

Thornton, Christie & Cam- 
eron 4 

Borden, Mackin Bros 1 

" Stanton & Barrett. 2 
Reader & Hacken- 

bury 4 

" Whitehead & Bow- 
ens 7 

CB Whitehead.... 10 

Fisher & Weaver.. 3 

" Kneeland Bros 3 

Reed & Kerwin . . . 3 
" Mitchell & McKil- 

lop 1 

" WW Brown 5 

" Bisher & Blackmar 3 
" Cochran & Ander- 
son 3 

" E Ferran 3 

" Custer & Grady .. . 3 

" Northern Oil Co . . 6 
" Clark, Warren & 

Childs 5 

" Logan & Frew 6 

' ' Nelson, Finnegan 

&Co 3 

Zeigler 1 

" McManus & Co . . . 4 

" GO Gorden&Co. 9 

Smith Bros 6 

' ' Patty & Armstrong 3 

' ' Ira Wagner 5 

" Elkhart & Lavens . 6 
" Stickney & Wag- 
ner 1 

Boulton Bros & 

Mullen 3 

" Spellacy & Koester 3 

Triangle Oil Co... 3 

" Butlers & Shaffer. 3 

" Williamson 1 

Anderron, Looker & Wing- 
er 1 

Prentice, C A & D Cornen. 14 

J D Luper & Co 3 

Peterson, Humley, Jam- 
ison & Co 1 

Bingham, Davis & Haskell. 13 

Total 651 

(Abandmied. ) 
Hawlin, Archibald & Co 

No 3 

Failing, Gervey & Becon. . 


Lot 3353, Borden, H 


Lot 3353, Dennis, Bailey. 



(Producing. ) 

C C pur Columbia Oil Co 19 

J McLean 3 

" Barnsdall & 

Briety 4 

" Barnsdall, Duke 

& Co 4 

" Loan, Johnson 

& Co 3 

" Evans 1 

" Gorden 1 

T O C pur Youngstown 

OilCo 33 

Bingham, McCord, Tack 

Bros 5 

Bingham, McCord, Forest 

on Co 18 

Freeman, McLeod & Co. . . 1 

Hamlin, Lego & Son 3 

" Decker & Cofleld. 3 

" Huver& Thomson 5 

" A Sheidemantel. . 5 

" Rochester Oil Co. 4 

" Jordan & Shannon 4 

" Hogan & Duffey. . 1 

" Howe & Parker. . . 3 

Brown, J L McKinney & Co 7 

" FMPratt&Co.... 1 

" VanVleck&Co... 4 
" Stafford Potter & 

Thomson 3 

" Kemp & Armour . . 4 

Wright, Tack Bros 6 

A Sheidemantel . . 3 

" Krug & Mechlin. . 2 

EC Bradley & Co 3 

" Kroger & Griffin.. 3 

" Stahl, Avery & Co , 1 

" Edmunds & Co... 3 

" M Russlander 1 

" Green & Co 3 

North Star Oil Co 4 
Wright, Allen & 

Pratt 1 

Yerdon, Forest Oil Co 3 

Sam Giffln 3 

" Wesley Chambers 5 

" E Emerson 1 

Union Oil Co 5 

Morse, Armstrong & Sharp 8 

" Kemp <fe Patterson. 7 
" Hart,Hicks&Mark- 

ham 3 

Wilber, E O Emerson 9 

" James Amm & Co 15 

" Filkins & White . . 3 

J W Humphrey.. 6 

" Thomas Percy 3 

Mantz, Johnson & Co and 

U O Co 13 

Reitter, Knox Bros & 

Palmer 4 

Reitter, Bayne, Fuller & 

Co 9 

Reitter, Johnson & Kitten- 

ger 3 

Reitter, St Clair & Haw- 
kins 1 

Reitter, 0' Hare & Co 1 

Reitter, A Lemex 3 

Reitter, Curry & Stack- 
house 1 

Reitter, Pike & Co 3 

Reitter, Union Oil Co 3 

Reitter, Nolan & Wright.. 3 

Reitter, J M Harrison l 

Reitter, John Barry l 

Reitter, Clark & Foster 4 

Reitter, Mahan Bros 3 

Reitter, Mitchell l 

Geary, Boden pur Union 
OilCo 16 

Brown & Geary pur Union 
OilCo 14 

Wilber & Emerson pur 
Union Oil Co 4 

Geary, A Lemex l 

" WB Nolan l 

Brown & Bennet. . . 3 
" F M Pratt & Co.... 1 
" A K Murray 4 

Moore, J W Porter l 

Emerson, Forest Oil Co . . . 7 

SSFertig&Co. 10 

" Roter & Spreeter 4 

" Curtis* Wood. . 1 

Younger Emerson, Quar- 
tette Oil Co 4 

Younger Emerson, Duke 
Bros 4 

Vincent, Stafford, Potter & 
Thomson 4 

Vincent, Straight & John- 
son 8 

Vincent, D A Wray 5 

Vincent, H W Williams, Jr 4 

Vincent, Evans & Houtz . . 8 

Bingham lot 363, Tack 
Bros 16 

Bingham lot 393, Johnson 
&C0&UOC0 17 

Bingham Anna Oil Co 9 

Bingham lots 387 & 394, P 
T & W C Kennedy 10 

Bingham lot 388, Beau- 
mont, Lyle & Kane 13 

Bingham (Hermit lot) 
Straight & Johnson 6 

Bingham (P & S pur) Un- 
ion Oil Co 13 

Bingham lot 431, Southard 
& Short 5 

Bingham lot 431, Hooper 
& Stevens 3 

Bingham lot 431, Tinsman 
&McNulty 3 

Bingham lot 431, Lawyer 
Mason 3 

Bingham lot 431, Curry & 
Stackhouse 3 

Bingham lot 431, Oliver & 
Hartwell 1 

Bingham lot 431, Bracken 
&Co 2 

Bingham lot 431, Oak 
Shade Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 390, Forest 
Oil Co 10 

Bingham lot 395, Forest 
Oil Co 6 

Bingham lot 396, Forest 
Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 399, Forest 

Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 398, Forest 

Oil Co 4 

Bingham lot 397, Forest 
Oil Co 3 



Bingham lot 403, Forest 

Oil Co 7 

Bingham lot 430, Forest 

on Co 13 

Bingham lot 419, Forest 

Oil Co 34 

Bingham (D & M pur) Da- 
vis & Murphy 14 

Bingham lot 413, Johnson & 

Co & U Co 6 

Bingham lot 414, Johnson 

&C0&UOC0 4 

Bingham lot 433, Johnson 

& Co & U Co 10 

Bingham (five lots), John- 
son & Co & U O Co 9 

Bingham lot430}^,Johnson, 

Kittenger & Trelt 7 

Bingham lot 431)^, John- 
sou, Kittenger & Treft. . 5 
Bingham lot 483, Johnson 

& Kittenger 1 

Bingham lot 430, R H 

Thayer (1 spoiled) 8 

Bingham lot 431, Smith & 

Thayer 9 

Bingham lot 413, Fertig 

Bros 7 

Bingham lot 413, Sowers & 

Miller 3 

Bingham lot 413, Kelly Oil 

Co 5 

Bingham lot 413, Fertig & 

Henne 9 

Bingham lot 380, Fertig & 

Henne 6 

Bingham lot 381, Fertig & 

Henne 3 

Bingham lot 410, "Fertig & 

Henne 7 

Bingham lot 400, George V 

Forman 8 

Bingham lot 403, Boyer & 

Emery 8 

Bingham lot 404, Bennet & 

Quick 1 

Bingham lot 401, Henry 

Fisher 5 

Bingham, Munhall & Smith- 
man 17 

Bingham lot 433, T J Van- 

dergrift 8 

Bingham lot 439, J L Mc- 

Kmney & Co 9 

Bingham lot 406, J L Mc- 

Kinney & Co 1 

Bingham lot 409, J L Mc- 

Kmney & Co 3 

Bingham lot 501, J L Mc- 

Kinney & Co 6 

Bingham lot 500, Straight 

& Johnson 3 

Bingham lot 373, Tapk Bros 9 
Bingham, Smith pur Huff 

Bros 3 

Bingham, Smith pur C S 

Whitney 1 

Bingham, Smith pur Pratt 

&Co 1 

Bingham, Smith pur Pen- 

ser & MehaSey 3 

Bingham, Smith pur Geo 

Givens 1 

Bingham, S P F & H pur 

F M Pratt & Co 3 

Bingham, S P F & H pur 

Rochester Oil Co 11 

Bingham, S P F & H pur 

Sinclair & Co 3 

Bingham, Union Oil Co . . . 10 
Bingham, G&Vpur Union 

Oil Co 8 

Bingham lot 436, A J 

Thompson 11 

Bingham lot 391, A J 

Thompson 9 

Bingham lot 440, Bayne, 

Fuller & Co 1 

Bingnam lot 463, Stanford 

&Co 3 

Bingham lot 464, H C 

Werthman 3 

Bingham lot 487, Grace & 

Goldsborough 10 

Bingham lot 486, 0. F. 

Schonhlom & Co 7 

Bingham lot 416, Lee & 

Apple 3 

Bingham, Palmer 3 

Bingham lot 485, Aiken Oil 

Co 3 

Bingham lot 408, Maple 

Shade Oil Co 9 

Bingham lot 407, Bennett 

& Quick 7 

Bingham lot 411, R. Jen- 

, nings & Son 10 

Bingham lot 467, Hamlin 

& Rose 1 

Bingham lot 417, Forman 

&UnionOilCo 1 

Bingham lot 418, Forman 

& Union Oil Co 4 

Bingham lot 434, Forman 

& Union Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 491, Forman 

& Union Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 499, Forman 

& Union Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 498, Forman 

& Union Oil Co 3 

Bingham lot 466, Logan & 

Buchanan 1 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

Black & George 5 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres. 

Van Vleckcfe Stow 7 

Bingham, M "W H 600 acres, 

Bole & Patterson 3 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres. 

Smith & Aiken 3 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

Spain, Grace & Co 3 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

Logan & Buchanan 4 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

W W Thompson 1 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

E H Barnum 30 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

Leah Oil Co 3 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

R Jennings & Son 11 

Bingham, M W H 600 acres, 

F W Andrews & Co 1 

Total 939 

(Abandfined. ) 
I Geary, J M Tait 1 

Bingham lot 467, Hamlin 

& Rose 1 

McCord Hollow, Boden, 

Hatch cfe Co 1 

Bingham, Warrant 3370, 

Gray & Van Vleck 1 

Sterling lot. Wing & Co ... . 1 
" Montgomery & 

Co 1 

Wright, Sellen & Co 1 

" Queen City Oil Co. 1 

Total 7 

{Producing. ) 

Borden, Oak Shade Oil Co. 1 

" Mutual Pet Co 3 

" Washington Oil Co 3 

" Wentworth&Co.. 1 

" Smith & Ingram.. 3 

" Harris &Tuttle... 1 

" Hogan & Co 1 

" A J Thompson.... 13 

" J S Rogers 9 

Argue & Akin 11 

" H Gallagher 3 

' ' Frey, Bear & Simp- 
son 5 

" Saunders & Stan- 
lord 4 

Wm Chambers 3 

" J J McCandless . . . 3 

" Lennox & Hanna.. 3 

" Johnson & Wilson 3 

" Roanoke Oil Co .. . 4 

" Wright & Loomis . 6 

" PEApplebee 1 

GWIhrig 1 

" J J Vandergrift. . . 11 

" Baker &Malone... 19 

" Bushnell & White 5 

" GL Watson 4 

" J B Daniels 14 

Booth & Newkirk 3 

" SSFertig 5 

" Hoffman & Patter- 
son 4 

" Andrews & Co 4 

" Ralph Bros 3 

J Van Vleck 6 

" VanVleckOilCo.. 13 

VanVleckifc Gray 3 

FE Boden 2 

J G Cooper 2 

" O F Schonhlom ... 2 

" Beverly & Burnett 1 

Waugh&Co 8 

" Macon & Co 3 

" J L Johnson 3 

" M Hughes 2 

A J Wheeler 2 

" AG Bowen 3 

J Fox 1 

" Whitney & Wheel- 
er 7 

Oil City Oil Co ... . 9 

" A J Thompson 10 

" Smith & Thomp- 
son 13 

FW Mitchell 13 

" R Jennings 9 



Borden, Mingo 3 

" Young & Lawtou.. 2 
" Huntley & Jami- 
son 2 

Austin & Bennett. 3 

H R Proctor 7 

Caldwell & Penfiy 1 

Gibbs & Sterrett.. 1 

" Lane & Johnson. . 2 

" Hogue & Duke ... 1 

" Strutbers 6 

" Newell & Palmer.. 3 

" John Pertig 4 

" Bowers & Oblweier 2 

" George Chambers.. 2 

" St Joe Oil Co 3 

" Elk City Oil Co.... 6 

" Riter & Conley.. . . 10 

Hill& Herrick.... 4 

" RTLane 3 

" Bligh&Kyle 3 


Townsend 3 

Trax & Co 8 

" J Grove 5 

" Curtis, Kehr & Co 3 

" Harris & Wallace.. 3 

" Green & Winger. . . 3 
" Blancbard & Klcb- 

ardson 1 

" "Derrick" 1 

" Brawley & Crouth- 

ers 1 

" Wiser & Overy 1 

" W F Monger 3 

" Hooper & Stevens 1 

" Forest Oil Co 11 

" Carter &Hurd 5 

" J J Carter 4 

" Mike Gorman 3 

" Ralston & Co 3 

" J B Daniels & Co . . 14 

Meldrum, E A Boyne 2 

" D Richie 3 

" RO Meldrum... 10 
" Hogan & Mur- 
phy 5 

" Sunburst 3 


Wm Utter 

" Curron & 

baugh . . 

" Bull of 

Woods" 1 

" Theo Heifer.... 1 

" Lorn& O'Dell.. 1 

" Burnes 3 

" Kern & Co 1 

Vandergrift, Gibbs & Ster- 
rett 1 

" Weiser 1 

Rutherford . . 3 
Doubleday, Lee, Milligan 
& Doubleday. 
" Carson Bros.. 
W A Nichol- 

" Allshouse 

Chambers, Hazlewood Oil 


Keller, Bell Bros 3 

" Cutting & Sterrett. 5 

" Lego & McCool 3 

" Healy& Wilder.... 5 
" Backus & Straight. . 3 
" Gaskall& Workman 4 




Keller, W J Morrell 

" Pomeroy & Judd . . . 


J T Williams 

" Williams & Keller 

' ' John Fagundus 

" Longwell & Snow . . 
Morse, Irvin & Morgan . . 
Slike& Williams... 

" J I Dunn 

" Applebee & Fisher 

Kerr & Eaton 

" Lake Oil Co 

" Mattison 

" R J Walker ( Swamp 


" Watkin Bro 

" O P Buchanan 


" J H Sherman 

" Daniels 

" Jno Potts 

" Applebee & Rogers 

" MTcEnvoe & Co 

" Warren & Tidioute 

Oil Co 

" Morse & Ball 

" SPBoyer 

Wm Duke,Wilson & Heller 
" W H & D W 


" Wm Duke, Jr.. 

N C Clark 

White, John Eaton 

" Bently & Thurston 

" H L Blackmar 

H Beardsley 

A J Neil 

NP Stone 

" Hontz & Hower 

" Howe & Eaton 

" Mitchell & Jones. .. 

" Warren Oil Co 

Cole, Stewart & McDonald 

" Fisher & Reeves 

" Eureka Oil Co 

" T B Buchanan 

' ' Maple Grove Oil Co. . 
" Morris, Gillies & Co 

" J Pepper ; 

" Carothers Bros 

Middaugh, 1 G Howe 

Forest Oil Co.. 

" J S Cooper 

" Rochester Oil 


" AC Hawkins. .. 

Inghram, Patterson & Lee- 


Sanderson, W C Patterson 

" Erie Oil Co.... 

Skinner, R J Walker & Co 

" R M Brown & Co 

" Swan Bros 

Scio, Devlin & Co 

" King & Cutting 

" J H Mayer 

" Devlin & O'Connor. . . 

" Nichol & Rhodes 

" Scio Oil Co 

' ' Roch ester Oil Co 

" WL Russell 

Rose, Blackman & Jackson 

W & J Duke, Hackett & 


J Duke, Sjproal & Hasson . . 4 

" MTerket Bros 8 

" John Duke 2 

Dow pur Johnson, Mc- 

Manus & Co o 

Haines pur Carlin Bros ifc 

Golden 8 

" Reed & Brown 2 

WL Russell.. 3 

Kemp & Co.. 4 

Chas Duke, Chas Duke 3 

" Duke Centre 

Oil Co 3 

Oil City Oil Co, Longwell & 

Co 1 

Borden, A C Smith ...'.'.'..'. 3 

Chas Duke, S A Elliott .... 1 

Angell Oil Co,Angell Oil Co 14 

C O Co, Columbia Oil Co . . 18 

Borden, McKelvey & Co... 9 

Total 852 

Borden, Duke & Hague No 

3 1 

" Forest Oil Co 1 

Rose, J S Rogers 1 

Total .3. 



J E & W P Baldwin, Stew- 

art Bros & Co 

J E & W P Baldwin, Wil 

ton (fe Emerson 10 

J E & W P Baldwin, J E & 

WPBaldwin 4 

E & F W Sprague, Nunda 

Oil Co 8 

Noble, Noble 35 

" G H Noble 12 

" HW Noble a 

J B McElwaine 1 

Keating, Hamlin 10 

" DC Brawley...'.. 4 

WHMcGill&Co 3 

" Young & Co 4 

" Bradleyife Metcalf 8 

" Tracy & Jenkins . 2 

" H Robbins 5 

Strickland, W H Bull 2 

" E B Rogers .... 3 

'' Whitman Bros 

& Clark 

" Boden& Emer- 

Field & Chat- 

H H Metcalf . . 
" Johns,on & 


Atwater, R S Battle 

' ' Lupher Bros & Co 
Marvin, T B Clark & Co. . . 

Moore, G N Moore 11 

F W Sprague, Carlin Bros 

& Golden 4 

F W Sprague, Millikin 
Bros 3 







P W Sprague, Norwich Oil 



F W Sprague, Westmore- 
land Oil Co 


F W Sprague, S W Mason. 


F W Sprague, W A Hardi- 

son & Co 


F W Sprague, S F Conant . 


FW Sprague 


W F Sprague, J Galis 


Gates &Siple 




Van Norman 



W R Love . . 


Sam Baldwin, Nunda Oil 



Sam Baldwin, C G "Warner 


" Hardison & 

Collins.. . . 


" Nettie Pete 


" Shadman... 


" PennellBros 


" Waugh & 



" Grierson & 



Steele & 

Tracy .... 


HP Boyd.. 


Wildwood, Wildwood Oil 



Breckenridge, Brecken- 
ridge & Harper 


Borden, unknown 


Rickerson, Alford & Curtis 


J Van Kleecke 


E E Sprague, H P Boyd. . . 


John Ward & 



Thomas & 



. Straight, E Emerson 


" St Petersburg Oil 



Baldwin & Mc- 



CG Warner 


" Carlin, Bros & 



^Slater, Hufe Bros & Farrell 


" Hart 


" Chambers & Bros. . 


" Kump & Nicholson 


" Oil Valley Gas Well 


" J B McElwaine 


Werthman, Hurtzel & Ne- 


Werthman, J N Pew 


" S Watson 


GN Moore.... 


SL Wilson.... 


" Otto Germer.. 


HC Werthman 


" Williamson 

• Bros 


Boot Leg, L P Warner .... 




Boot Leg Oil Co 
W SMcMuUen. 



" Luce & Perkin. . 


Lovell, S L Wilson 


' ' Waugh ,Porter & Co 


Borden, Watson & Willock 

Oil Co 


Borden, Hefner 2 

Fisher & Co 2 

" Pew & Emerson. . 3 

" H Boyer 2 

" Magbee & Whea- 

ton 2 

" Brandeth & Wat- 
son 10 

" Russell & Co 1 

" Glass & Huff 3 

" Smith & Jones 2 

" Tanner & Co 4 

" Bartles & Post . . . . 3 

" Brooks & Hoffman 4 

" TafEt& Egbert.... 6 

C B Williams & Co 12 

Ker win & Reed. . . 1 

" Borden Oil Co.... 3 

" Willard & Weaver 2 
" Wilcox & Brene- 

man 2 

J Knox& Co 3 

Brown, South Shore Oil Co 1 

" WLCalbet 1 

" J McCort 4 

" Weible Bros 3 

" Westmoreland Oil 

Co 4 

" NK Connelly 2 


Ralston & Benedict 6 

Harris & Wallace 3 

Guyer & Basch 4 

R Jennings & Son 4 

Ballard & Barr 6 

J B Daniels* Co 5 

J G & C B Williams 5 

Wallace Oil Co 3 

Frank Campbell & Co 4 

Piper &Dany 3 

Forman & Lawton 3 

Ballard & Williams 2 

Angell Oil Co 9 

Jaynes Bros 5 

M J TufEt 1 

Stewart & McDonald 2 

John Beno 3 

Hart, Hicks & Co 1 

A W Williams 3 

Burns Bros 4 

Havens & Wright 1 

Fargo Oil Co 4 

Waugh & Co 5 

WLPerrin&Co 3 

Chauncy Oil Co 1 

Hamlin, J B Daniels & Co 9 

Total 594 


{Producing. ) 

Whitney & Wheeler, Tay- 
lor cfe McVey 3 

Whitney & Wheeler, Tay- 
lor & Rix 2 

Whitney & Wheeler, Tan- 
ner & Wheeler 1 

Whitney & Wheeler, A P 
Tanner 2 

Whitney & Wheeler, C F 
Allen 1 

Dixon, Dalrymple Bros — 2 
" & Milli- 

ken 1 

Duke & Howard, Dorsey & 

Co 7 

Duke & Howard, Arctic 

Oil Co 8 

Duke & Howard, W G Duf- 

field 6 

Duke & Howard, Keyes . 4 
Duke & Howard, Stahl, 

McFarland&Co 2 

Duke & Howard, D S Kemp 2 
" DG Stage 2 

" Alex Mc- 

Ginness. 2 
" Winich e r 

Bros.... 1 
" Rew & 

Shoem'kr 3 
Johnson, Chubbeck & 

Drake 2 

Duke & Johnson, Reed & 

Brown 4 

Duke & Johnson, Mills, 

Guider & Co 5 

Duke & Johnson, J Wolfe 

&Co 7 

Duke & Johnson, Black 

Giant Oil Co 7 

Duke & Johnson, TafEv Oil 

Co "..... 4 

Duke & Johnson, Hackett 

& Shirley 6 

Duke & Johnson, C E Rob- 
bins & Co 6 

Duke & Johnson, Varney 

&Co 3 

W & J Duke, McPherson 

&Co 6 

W & J Duke, Merrick & 

Co 6 

Morton, J S Cooper 1 

■" Monroe & Smith. 1 
" Heydrick Bros & 

Brown 6 

" J D Downing & 

Co 13 

" White* Clark... 3 

" Dorsey Bros 3 

" Daniels & Co 1 

Keating, L W Young & Co 3 

Forest Oil Co. .. . 21 

" Mountain Oil Co . 7 

" B Kirley 1 

" AP Tanner 2 

Hamlin, Forest Oil Co 31 

A Loop, J D Downing & 

Co 3 

Baldwin Bros, Rauber & 

Hogan i 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Wetter & Nicholson .-. . . 3 
Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Paul Kratzer 3 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

B Vensel 3 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

RC Coulter 2 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Anderson & Leonard 2 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Blakeslee Bros 3 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 
J B McElwaine & Co ... . 7 



Duke, Cluirch & Baldwin, 

Hemlock Oil Co 9 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Patterson & Hoffman ... 4 
Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

G L Howard 4 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Warren Oil Co 4 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Calhoun & Slater 1 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Wilder & Warren 1 

Duke, Church & Baldwin, 

Bronson & Curtis 3 

Swink, Hamsher & Co 4 

Duke & Gorton, Kribhs & 

Co 4 

Duke & Gorton, John Duff 3 
' ' Chauncey 

Oil Co.. 18 
Duke & Blackmar, Burt & 

Abel 3 

Duke & Blackmar, Har- 
rington 3 

Duke &, Blackmar, Lew.. . . 3 
" Kentucky 

Oil Co... 3 
' ' Chautau - 

qua Oil' 

Co 3 

J E Robinson, "Maude" 

wells 3 

Kapp pur " Maggie " 1 

Kansas Br Oil Co, Simonds 

& McGill 13 

Kansas Br Oil Co, Tanner 

& Wheeler 3 

Kansas Br Oil Co, Braun- 

schweiger 5 

Kansas Br Oil Co, R M 

Brown & Co 3 

Kansas Br Oil Co, Mead & 

Co 3 

W^right, Husband & Co ... . 6 
Tarious tracts, J S Patter- 
son 10 

Total 343 

Morton, White & Clark. . 
" Daniels & Co. . . 

Total , 

Peffer, Lupher Bros & Co. 


(Producing. ) 
Keyes, Indian Creek Oil 


Eeyes, J Keyes 

" Collins & Hardison 

" W A Hardison & Co 

' ' Tod, Anderson & Co 

■Cooper, Oak Shade Oil Co . 

" JKribbs: 

" N Wood 

Cooper, Safford 1 

Forest Oil Co 1 

J Campbell, Oak Shade Oil 

Co 4 

J Campbell, Evans & 

Thompson 1 

J Campbell, Forest Oil Co 2 

Rounds, Oak Shade Oil Co 7 

" Kemp & Patterson 4 

" Evans & Thompson 3 

" Forest Oil Co 3 

Dodge, Kemp & Patterson 3 

" Rochester Oil Co . . 1 
Hooker, J D Downing & 

Co 10 

Hooker, L Loup 1 

Drake, Evans & Thompson 1 
L Loup, Evans & Thomp- 
son 4 

L Loup, Bradford Oil Co & 

Follet Bros 11 

Zimmer, Brawley Bros 1 

" Gray Bros 1 

" Zimmer 3 

" McNulty & Strong 1 
" Spring Valley Oil 

Co 1 

" Forest Oil Co 6 

Henry Lo'up, J D Downing 

(&Co 3 

Henry Loup, J J McNulty 1 

Whitney & Co 2 

" Unknown 1 

Wm Loup, Ferness 1 

Palmiter, Cavey & Purtell . 6 
" Spring Valley Oil 

Co 8 

J L Eddy 1 

Swett 1 

" Fry & Hayes 1 

Acre Oil Co 3 

" Boggs& Curtis. . 1 

" C Phillips 1 

G N Smith 4 

" ML Sweeny & Co 4 

Emlenton Oil Co 3 

Barrett, Bartlfttt & Co 3 

" JKBartlett 3 

" Bennie&Co 13 

" LE Mallory 3 

" Markham & Co. . . 8 

" Emlenton Oil Co. . 3 

M Loup, Hart & Hicks 6 

" James O'Neal 4 

Erie City Oil Co. . 3 

" Kinney & Co 2 

Simms, Bradford Oil Co. . . 11 
Sparger, " "... 1 
Hamlin, Plummer Oil Co. . 4 
" Vandergrlft & Mil- 
ler 3 

" GW Strong* Co. 1 
(Oak Shade pur) ' 
Forest Oil Co... 1 
M W Campbell, Spring Val- 
ley Oil Co 3 

M W Campbell, Follett 

Bros 1 

M B Campbell, Spring Val- 
ley Oil Co 1 

M B Campbell, Morris, 

Smith & Co 3 

EUing, Forest Oil Co 1 

Hooker and other farms. 

Forest Oil Co, c< aZ 33 

Hooker and other farms, 

Evans & Thompson, et al 18 


Union Oil Co 9 

Siggins & Lincoln 5 

Smith & Crowley 1 

LB Caldwell 1 

Wm Chambers 3 

Stover & Dilks 7 

SC Whitney 5 

McCort & Hancox 6 

St John & Co 5 

Curtis Bros 4 

W C Patterson 7 

DC Brawley & Co 5 

D S Gray 1 

A C Hawkins 4 

Davis & Hyde 3 

Russell & Co 2 

H W Curtis & Co 3 

Geo V Forman 34 

GilflUan 1 

Tobias & McGiven 2 

Smith & Bovee 5 

Mallory & Co 3 

Gray & Stettheimer 1 

Fitzgibbons Bros 4 

BDCampbell 3 

Steelsmith 1 

Lyon & Connelly 1 

Rovee & Clawson 3 

Boston Oil Co 3 

Collins & Hardison 8 

J D Downing & Co 6 

Emlenton Oil Co 3 

Robert Herse 1 

LE Mallory 3 

Tod & Anderson 1 

Morris & Co 7 

Cape Cod Oil Co 1 

Galbraith & Kennedy 3 

W A Hardison & Co 1 

R Jennings & Son 6 

H Jennings <fc Co 2 

Major Wetter 3 

Total 387 


Barse, Union Oil Co 1 

" Shackleton&Co... 1 

" McCort & Hancox. 1 

Total 3 


McMullen 1 

Unknown 2 

Dodge, Kemp & Patterson 1 

Arthur Loop, unknown. ... 2 

Total 6 


Keating, J L McKinney & 

Co 37 

Burdick, Tack Bros 10 

Wheeler, Dusenberry, 

Wheeler & Co 34 

Comstock & Riddell, John 

Tonkin, Jr 5 



Mann, Geo E Mann 3 

K H McBride, Haymaker. . 4 

Gale, Gale & Son 14 

" Cavey & Purtell 12 

Templeton, Nott Bros 3 

' ' Templeton 4 

" Bennett & 

Brown 2 

Wright & Sawyer, C J Till- 

f ord 3 

Hazzard & Hollister, G S 

Williams 3 

Cook, Kenyon 3 

Weston lot, Forest Oil Co . 6 

" Lee & Apple.. 9 
" EHBarnumcfe 

Co 9 

Weston lot, Dinining Oil Co 5 
J B Kiley & Co 4 
" Gibbs & Alex- 
ander 4 

Weston lot, S S Henne .... 6 

CWPratt&Co 18 

" Geo V Forman 1 

Total 186 


Weston, Kiley & Co il 

" Smith & Ames ... 1 

" . Lyman 1 

J L McKinney & 

Co 1 

Weston, Geo V Forman ... 1 

Annis, Brown & Bennett . . 1 

Clark, J McKinney & Co . . 1 

Cook, Andrews & Comey. . 1 

Gilletts, C E Hatch Co 1 

Total . 


{Producing. ) 
Union Oil Go's track. Union 

Oil Co, Kinzua wells 20 

Union Oil Co's tract. Union 

Oil Co, GufEey wells 10 

Union Oil Co's tract, Union 

Oil Co, Bonanza wells. . . 2 
Bingham lands, Baker & 

Malone 14 

Bingham lands, Corwall, 

Parker* Co 30 

Bingham lands, Riter & 

Oonley 10 

Bingham lands, A Gillmor 

Jr & Co 7 

Bingham lands, lot 135, J 

M Tait 6 

Bingham lands, lot 136, J 

M & Thomas Tait 2 

Bingham lands, Byron & 

MeKeown 3 

Bingham lands, C P Byron. 1 
La Fayette Coal Co's lands, 

Eaton Bros 4 

La Fayette Goal Co's lands. 

Porter, Gillmor & Jack- 
son 3 

La Fayette Coal Co's lands, 

Boden&Co 3 

La Fayette Coal Co's lands. 
Carter & Hurd 




Union Oil Co's tract, Union 
Oil Co No 4 1 

La Fayette Coal Co's lands, 
M Brownson 1 

La Fayette Coal Co's lands, 
(Gronen lot) McCalmont 
Oil Co 2 

La Fayette Coal Co's lands, 
Neuer & Davis 1 

La Fayette Coal Co's lands, 
Porter, Gillmor & Jack- 
son 1 

Total 6 

Union Oil Co's tract. Union 

Oil Co Nos 3 and 5 2 

Halsey lands, Westmore- 
land Oil Co 2 

Halsey lands, Knox, Leck- 

ey&Co 1 

Halsey lands, Wilcox & 

Knox 1 

Bingham lands, E L Bowen 

&Co 1 

Kane lands, P C L & P Co . 1 
" Marcus Hul- 

ings 1 

Hagadorn, Shaf er 1 

Bingham, Treat & Co 1 

" McCuUagh & Co 1 
Patterson, P C L & P Co . . . 5 
Warrant 3901, J&HONeil 1 
Lafayette Coal Co's lands, 

Van Vleck, Stow & White 1 
Lafayette Coal Co's lands, 

Hazlewood Oil Co 1 

Lafayette Coal Co' s lands, 

Pittsburg Oil Co 1 

Lafayette Coal Co's lands, 

Dutchess Oil Co 1 

Lafayette Coal Co's lands. 

Union Oil Co 1 

Hoover lease, Wm Dow. . . 1 
Newton, Martin Comstock. 1 
Backus, General Hamar. . . 1 

Total 26 


Joe Waters, Carroll Bros . . ' 1 
" H wa rd & 

Baum 3 

Joe Waters, John R Bram- 

bley 1 

Jake Waters, E C Howard. 1 
Jacob Moultrous, Robert 

Moultrous & Son 6 

Griffith, A Griffin & Co ... . 7 
' ' Harold & Byrnes . . 4 

Zimbauer, Coast Bros 7 

Rock View Oil 
Co 4 

Zimbauer, Merrill & Coast. 4 

WF Coast 2 

Parson's lot, Carroll Bros. . 3 

" MLLockwood 6 
" Pebble Rock.. 

Oil Co 4 

Parson's lot. Pioneer Oil Co 12 
" ML Lockwood 

&Co 2 

Dye, Coast & Clark 10 

J H Boardman &Co.. 1 

Allegany Oil Co 7 

Pebble Rock Oil Co.. 3 

NADye& Co 4 

John H Borden & Co. 3 

Kerr & Bickle 3 

Boyle, Rogers & Co. . 2 

Argue & Aiken 4 

Argue & Poole 3 

B WBaum& Son.... 

Miller & McNish 1 

T B Clark & Co 2 

LH Ballard & Co.... 6 

George W Consor 3 

Brambley, Granger & 

Co 3 

Frank Waters, Merrill & 

Coast 3 

Frank Waters, Calkins & 

Kelty 11 

Van Campen, Geo Van 

Campen 13 

Widow Carrol, J Wesley & 

Co 2 

Widow Carrol, Collins & 

Son 3 

Widow Carrol, Kerwin & 

Reed..: 4 

McCartney, Gibby 1 

" W J Steele & 

Co 1 

McCartney, S D HefCner ... 3 
Rock City Oil 

Co 3 

McCartney, G D Grannis & 

Co 3 

McCartney, Rogers & 

Seeley ; 1 

McCartney, Clark Bros & 

Canfield 1 

McCartney, Tabor & Co. . . 2 
" Aiken Bros ... 2 
" John R Bram- 
bley 2 

McCartney, H B Davis & Co 1 

' ' Abrams & Co . 1 

" Kinkaid&Co. 1 

Lippert, Howard & Baum . 2 

Mary Waters, Howard & 

Baum 3 

Garr, Hayes & Davis 6 

Howard, Rumsey & Co 6 

' ' Vandergrif t & 

Foreman 1 

Howard, C B Williams & Co 1 

" Hayes Bros 1 

Bozzard, Wiser Bros 3 

" L OTafEel &Co.. 2 

" Griswold & Co . . . 1 

J F Johnson, Argue & Cobb 2 
" Garrett & 

Prentice 1 

J F Johnson, Eaton & Howe 3 
" Hutchinson & 

Stoughton 1 



J F Jolinson, Shear Bros. . 
Stichelbauer, F r a n e h o t 


Stichelbauer, E Bailey 

Ferkel, Franchot Bros 

Geiger, Buffalo Oil Co 

Donahue, Ellis, Coleman & 


Donahue, Brown & Norris 


Bucher, Wm Buolier 

" Pebble Rock Oil Co 

Stevens, McCalmontOilCo 

" Book & Rhodes. . 

" J H Hughes 

" Canfleld 

Zaph, Franchot Bros 

" Meade & Sargent . . . 
J Brandall, Franchot Bros . 
John Harbell, Coleman, 

Meade & Co 

John Harbell, Hickey & 


John Harbell, Capt J M 

Burns & Co 

John Harbell, Smith & 


John Harbell, McNall & 


John Harbell, M H Byrnes 

&Co 1 

John Harbell, Hogan & 

Murphy 1 

John Harbell, Meade & 

Crawford 3 

John Harbell, J B Daniels 

& Co 2 

John Harbell, Allegany Oil 

Co 1 

Andy Harbell, Smith & 

Howard 2 

Andy Harbell, Franchot 

Bros 15 

Andy Harbell,- Smith & 

Howard 1 

United Pipe Lines, Franchot 

Bros 1 

Stewart, Crocker 3 

J G &E M John- 
son 4 

Stewart, Morgan, Wilson 

ifcCo 2 

Fries, Meade & Sargent. ... 1 

" Franchot Bros 7 

Hollander, Pebble Rock Oil 

Co 6 

Hollander, H E Brown & 

Co 2 

Hollander, Colegrove & Co 3 

Johnson, Johnson & Co . . . 3 

HCGaskell 3 

" JHDilks 1 

" Allegany Oil Co . . 3 

C W Rhodes 1 

Total 339 

{Abandoned. ) 

Widow Carroll, J Lewis 

&Co 1 

Fries, Eaton & Stowell .... 2 

Moultrous, Moultrous & 

Son 1 

A Harbell, Smith & Howard 1 



North Pole, unknown 

Stevens, Roberts 

Austin, McVey, Taylor & 


Various sections, unknown 

Total . 

The Bradford Oil Field. — The production of the Bradford field from 
1868 to the close of 1889 is shown as follows: 












































The total product up to January 1, 1888, was 140,166,000 barrels from 
15,722 wells, of which 14,000 were producers prior to the shut-in of 1887. 
In 1885 there were 10,668,255 barrels sent through the pipes from the Brad- 
ford field; 9,847,911 in 1886, and 7,563,452 in 1887. During the years of 
1888-89 the yield fell from 22,422 barrels per day to 17,350 ia the Bradford 
field, and from 5,702 to 935 in the Kane and Elk field; so that the actual yield 
for the two years is said not to have exceeded 12,000,000 of barrels. The fol- 
lowing table gives the average price of crude certificates, on the floor of the 
Bradford Oil Exchange, since March 1, 1879, to December, 1885: 

































































December ' 


Bradford was the field that produced such an extraordinary quantity of oify. 
filling up the stocks in tanks until they reached 36,000,000 barrels with its 
field still yielding 60,000 barrels a day, or thereabouts. In regard to the possi- 
bility of another such field being discovered Prof. Carll said he believed there- 
was absolutely no likelihood of it. The number of experimental wells that 
had been drilled in search of another Bradford sand, in all parts of the coun- 
try, seemed to establish the fact that Bradford was unique and alone. He did 
not believe that such a petroleum deposit as this would ever be found in any 
country in the world. The Bradford field and its annex, in Allegany county, 
N. Y., is apparently being drained to the dregs. At one time the production ^ 
of the field was as high as 105,000 barrels every twenty-four hours. Bradford' 
has produced about 156,000,000 barrels of oil, and a pool that would yield 
the 156th part of this is something that the oil producer is eagerly looking for. 
He goes on to show how, in 1886, the ' ' Whitesand ' ' horizon was producing 
daily 45,560 ba,rrels, and the Bradford, or "Blacksand" horizon was pro- 
ducing 32, 668 barrels (in all 78, 228 barrels) daily, and how the steady decrease 
of production in both brought the figures down, in December, 1888, to 29,349' 
and 20,680—50,029 barrels daily. 

To take in all the fields the following short table will show the decrease in. 
the annua] production: 1886, 25,080,400; 1887 (in spite of 1,694 newwells), 
21,286,560; 1888 (in spite of 1,530 new wells), 16,126,580, the shut-down be- 
ing responsible for only about 1,500,000 of this decline; for the October daily 
average before the shut-down was 58,942, and the December daily average 
after the shut-down was 50,029. In September, 1880, the producers of the 
Bradford field placed a cannon at Bradford, also one each at Coleville and 
'Olean, to be used in bering oil tanks in case of fire. 

Shut-in by Producers. — Under date June 11, 1884, a petition was circu- 
lated by John P. Zane asking the producers to agree to a shut-down until Jan- 
uary 1, 1885. Within six days 200 producers signed this agreement, and by 
August 3 the great majority of oil men had signed it. [The names of majority 
and minority are given in the Era of August 4, 1884.] On the last day of 
October, 1887, the executive board of the Petroleum Producers' Association, 
and the advisory board, met at Oil City and signed the contract by which a part 
of the daily production was to be shnt-in for one year. From this shut-in pro- 
ducers were to receive the benefit which may accrue from the advance in the 
price of 5,000,000 barrels of oil set aside at 62 cents per barrel; the profit on 
the oil to be divided proportionally to the amount of production which each 
man shuts in. Out of the 5,000,000, producers were to give the profit on 1,000- 
000 to laboring men, and the Standard set aside 1,000,000 for the same pur- 
pose, and many producers also agreed not to drill any more wells for one year. 

On June 29, 1889, the Standard Oil Company purchased 3,500,000 barrels 
of this oil at 91 J cents, giving a profit of $248,000, which was divided among 
the 900 producers. The Era referring to this great transaction, says: "Another 
particularly gratifying feature is the consummation of good faith between the 
parties to the great agreement entered into nearly two years ago. While the 
pecuniary results have not been so great as some of the more sanguine led 
themselves to hope for, the Producers' Association has accomplished the great 
purpose of its organization — reducing stock; and have further made a hand- 
some profit on the oil which was set apart without any expense to themselves 
for their own use in case they kept their agreement inviolate. ' ' Prior to this, 
the profits on 1,000,000 barrels, set apart for the support of the laborers in the 
field who were thrown out of employment by reason of this shut in, were 
realized, returning a revenue of no small amount. 


Pipe Lines. — The idea of pipe lines is said to have originated with Gen. S. 
D. Karns in November, J 865, when he proposed to construct a six- inch line 
from Burning Springs to Parkersburg, Va. Hutchinson, of rotary-pump fame, 
explained his plan to John Dalzell and C. L. Wheeler, and the first line was 
placed from the Sherman well to the railroad depot on Miller' s farm. Van 
Syckle detected the faults in Hutchinson's system, and at once constructed a 
line from Miller's farm to Pithole. Afterward William Warmcastle assisted 
Henry Harley in building a line from Benninghoff run to the Oil Creek Railroad,, 
and out of this grew the Pennsylvania Transportation Company. A two-inch 
pipe line from Miller's farm to Pithole was completed October 10, 1865, by 
S. E. Van Syckle, H. C. Ohlen, Henry Harley, Charles Hickox, Charles W. 
Noble and Eeed and Cogswell. It was placed at a cost of |50 per joint; while" 
three pumping stations were found necessary in the 32,000 feet of pipe. 
Branch lines were also constructed to Cherry run. Bull run and Pioneer. Mr. 
Van Syckle, speaking of this venture, refers to the troubles and losses its 
building entailed as follows: 

At length the system was completed, and I began pumping oil into the pipe. The 
experiment was perfectly successful from the time the first barrel of oil was pumped into 
the pipe, and I had the pleasure of seeing my detractors silenced for a little while. But 
my success by no means quelled the opposition to me. Instead of the calm which I thought 
would follow the completion of my work, I raised a tempest. It was the teamsters now 
with whom I had to contend. They saw the value of this means of transportation, and 
they also saw tlieir profits vanishing from them, and they tried every conceivable way to 
worry and annoy me. They pried the pipes with pick-axes or fastened log chains around 
them, hitched their teams to the chains and pulled the pipe apart. To put a stop to this 
I sent to New York for some carbines and armed a patrol to watch the line. Not long 
after the line was laid two partners who had joined with me to work the thing failed for 
a considerable amount, and as they were involved to the amount of $15,000 at the bank, 
I assumed the payment of the debt, and made an agreement with the creditors that they 
should take tlie line and run it until the debt was liquidated, which was done in the course 
of the next nine months. Not long afterward a tank line company was formed down 
East, and they came to me and wanted me to connect my pipe line with their system, in 
payment for which I should receive a certain amount of stock in the company. I agreed 
to this. They began to operate the pipe line and gave me a memorandum stating the 
amount of stock I was entitled to. It was not long before the company became insolvent, 
the line passed into other hands, and I had nothing but the memorandum which was of 
no earthly value. 

The Pennsylvania Tubing and Transportation Company's line from Pit- 
hole Valley to Oleopolis, or Island Well (nine miles), was the first important 
line. This was opened December 10, 1805, by the president, Joseph Casey, 
and superintendent, David Kirk. It appears Judge Casey met Mr. Kirk in 
the woods, and got from him the first word of encouragement, scientists 
pointing out that the pipe transfer of oil was an impossibility under the law 
of friction, Mr. Kirk was given an interest in the line, completed it, and 
while saving the original company from loss made a great success of the enter- 
prise before Pithole sunk into oblivion. 

The Titusville Pipe Company was organized jn January, 1866, by H. E. 
Pickett, J. Sherman & Co. , and the line completed from Pithole to Titusville 
(nine miles), in April of that year, at a cost of |120,000. Before the Penn- 
sylvania Tubing and Transportation Company's line, or the Titusville line, 
was completed, Henry Harley had a two-inch pipe from Benninghoff run to 
the §hafFer farm, on Oil creek, where the oil was shipped on the old railroad 
at that point. 

The Bradford & Olean Pipe Line (eighteen and a quarter miles long) was 
completed in December, 1875, for the Empire Transportation Company, of 
Philadelphia. The main pumping depot was on the Beardsley farm, four 
miles -north of -Bradford, where a 1,200-barrel receiving tank was used. When 


oil was first pumped at Bradford, the Erie Eailroad Company; charged |140 
per oar to New York, and |8 storage. So soon as pipe-line construction 
commenced, the rate was lowered to 1100 per car; again to $80; while the 
rate of the new line was placed at $1 per barrel to New York, and 20 cents 
to Olean. The Tide Water Company dates back to 1878-79, when leases 
were made for a strip of land, two rods wide, from MoKean county to the 
seaboard. This work was secretly and ably performed for some time, but 
the eagle eye of the Standard Company discovered the plans of the new com- 
pany, and every opposition was offered. Yet the Tide Water Company won, 
and their great work was completed. The station at Corryville was moved to 
Eixford, in June, 1880, and since that time many changes in management and 
operation have been effected. 

The Buffalo Pipe Company's station, on the divide between Indian creek 
and Four Mile creek, was completed in 1880. The point is 200 feet above 
the Buffalo end, so that the oil is pumped up from Bradford into the four 
25,000-barrel tanks, whence it is piped sixty-three miles to Buffalo. 

The Kane and Parker City Pipe Line, connecting Bradford with the lower 
country (sixty-five miles in length), was completed August 5, 1880. The 
Bradford Gas Company' s tile pipe line was laid from Eixford to Bradford in 
August, J 880. 

The United Pipe Line Association was organized by J. J. Vandergrift and 
George V. Porman as the Fairview Pipe Line Company. In 1877 and subse- 
quently the following named lines were consolidated under the title ' ' United, 
Antwerp, Clarion, Oil City, Union Conduit, Grant, Karns, Belief, Pennsyl- 
vania and Clarion Division of the American Transportation Company." Later 
the McKean Division of the American Transportation Company, and the Pren- 
tiss and Olean lines were absorbed, and J. J. Vandergrift was elected president; 
M. Hulings, vice-president; H. F. Hughes, secretary; E. Hopkins, manager, 
the president and J. T. Jones and D. O'Day being the executive committee of 
the association. 

In 1884 the company had 3,000 miles of pipe, and storage capacity for 
40,000,000 barrels. Their large depots were at Tarport, Duke Centre, Eich- 
burg and Kane, and the central offices at Bradford and Oil City. Through- 
out the field were 118 pumping stations; fifty-one of which were in the Brad- 
ford and Allegany fields. On April 1, 1884, the transfer of the United Pipe 
Lines to the National Transit Company was effected. The National Transit 
Company was organized in 1880. 

The average daily pipe line runs, by barrels, of the Bradford field by years 
have been as follows: 1878, 16,980; 1879, 38,586; 1880, 55,173; 1881, 70,811; 
1882, 51,030; 1883, 36,812; 1884, 33,052; 1885, 29,228; 1886, 26,980; 
1887, 20,722; 1888, 13,992; 1889, 16,462. 

The pipe line runs for the year 1884 amounted to 12,096,950; in 1885, 
10,668,255; in 1886, 9,847,911; in 1887, 7,563,452; in 1888, 5,121,025, and 
in 1889, 6,018,737 barrels. 

Well Drilling, Past and Present. — The reminiscences of early days in the 
oil field furnish some interesting as well as instructive lessons. In 1888 George 
Koch, of East Sandy, Penn., contributed to the pages of the Petroleum Age 
the following history of old- time and modern drilling operations: 

The first oil well drilled was finished August 38, 1859, at a depth, of sixty-nine and one- 
half feet, and was known as the "Drake well." It was located near Titusville. It was 
commenced in June, and seventy-four days later it was finished. The drilling was done 
with rope tools, and when drilling they made about four feet a day, " Uncle Billy Smith " 
and his sons, of Tarentum, Allegheny' County, Penn., doing the work. The drilling tools 
were made at Kier's shop, Tarentum. It was a four-inch hole. At that time experienced 

/^^ f 


drillers could only be had at Tarentuin, where salt wells were being drilled, and Kier'sshop 
there was the only place where rope-drilling tools could be had. Drilling was done by 
hand, no engines being used. At Tidioute the first engine was used in September, 1860, 
for drilling oil wells, but for some years after many wells were drilled by band. A good 
eight-horse portable engine and boiler cost about $2,000 during 1864 and 1865. Tbe'cost 
of getting them to the oil regions before the railroads were built was the cause of them 
not being used generally. The drilling tools used during the early days of the business 
were very primitive. The auger stem was from twelve to fifteen feet long, and one and 
a half to one and three-fourtbs inches in diameter. The sinker was ten to twelve feet in 
length. The tools, ready to drill, weighed from 235 to 350 pounds. Tlie men on the well 
would, when necessary, often carry the string of tools on their shoulders for miles to a 
shop for repairs. They used one and a half to one and three-fourths-inch rope for drilling, 
and iron jars. George Smith, at Eouseville, made the first set of steel-ltned jars in 1866,' 
for H. Leo Nelson. They did not prove a success. The steel came out of them. They 
were used with a set of three-inch tools, the largest drilling tools then made, but they did 
not prove successful. 

The first well drilled through casing was located on Benninghoft run. It was drilled 
during the summer of 1868. Tliis was the greatest invention ever conceived and applied 
to the art of drilling. Previous to that time all wells were drilled wet. No casing was 
used. Three to six months were required to drill a well 600 feet deep. Contractors at that 
time received from |8 to $4 a foot for drilling, and the well owner paid all expenses 
excepting the labor. It would appear that at that time the contractor received a very remun- 
erative price, but many of them failed. The trouble was fishing, and a lot of it was done. 
Iron jars and poor welding, especially the welding of the jars and the steel in the bits and 
reamers, was the trouble. Fishing tools were very primitive. The valve sockets and the 
grabs were all the tools known for that purpose. When a bit, rimmer or part of the tools 
was lost in a well, the floating sediment or drillings would settle and fasten it. The driller 
knew but little about fishing at that time, and the fishing tools were poorly adapted to 
the business. At this time, looking back over the tools used and the primitive methods 
then in vogue, it is indeed wonderful to think that up to 1868, 5,201 wells were successfully 
drilled, In 1868 the first well was drilled through casing, and the time of drilling was 
made fully two-thirds shorter. The device was not patented. Tool-fishing lost many of 
its terrors. Tools lost in a cased well do not become fastened by the drillings settling. 
When the oil sand is reached it can most always be told if it will be a paying well; in a 
wet hole but little can be told until it is pumped for a time. All drillers dislike to work in 
wet holes. The rig now universally used is known as the " Pleasantville rig," and was 
first used by Nelson on the Meade lease, at Rouseville, in 1866. The writer took out a 
patent November 11, 1873, on full size, fluted drills, which did away with the rimmer. 
This invention was a great benefit to the oil business. It reduced the time of drilling 
from sixty to twelve days, and the price from $3 a foot to 45 cents. The writer and his 
brother William filed an application March 31, 1877, for a patent on the bull-wheel now in 
use, and a patent was granted to them October 1, 1878. This has also been of vast use to 
the oil men, but it has been poor property to the inventors. We hereby grant all our' 
rights and privileges in and to both patents to the benefit of the oil men during the full 
term of both patents. Durina; 1887 drilling was done without a sinker, and at this time 
no driller thinks of using them. This hasbeen a great benefit to the trade. Heavier tools 
can be used with but little strain on the jars. The common-sized tools are now forty-five 
feet long and three and three-fourths inches in diameter, with the jars screwed or welded 
on the top, and the rope socket screwed on to the jars. In formations, where but little 
sand is found, no jars are used. 

Oil Scouts. — From the days of the Drake well to the present time the oil 
scout and reporter have been institutions in the oil field. The newspapers of 
the field were principally relied upon for reports up to 1882, leaving free scout- 
ing to the many who did not believe in geologists or newspaper men of that 
period. The Cherry Grove and Shannon mysteries of that year brought the 
professional scout into existence, and soon Oildom was excited over the doings 
of "Si" Hughes, Justus C. McMullen, J. C. Tennant, Joseph P. Cappeau, 
Daniel Herring, Patrick C. Boyle, Owen Evans, Jale Rathburn, John B. Drake, 
A. L. Snell and their disciples. A. R. Crum, in his sketches of famous scouts, 
refers to the late J. C. McMullen as the most painstaking of the little com- 
pany. This reference is transferred to the chapter on journalism, where men- 
tion is also made of Boyle, Snell and others. "Si" Hughes explored the 
mysterious 646 well near" Clarendon, belonging to Grace & Dimmick, and gave 
$500, 000 worth of information to the Anchor Oil Company. He is superinten d - 


ent of the Elk Oil Company of Kane, Penn. The story of Tennant' s exploration 
of the Shannon mystery is told in the history of Elk county. He was one of the 
pioneers of the Macksburg (Ohio) field, until his removal to Kansas. Cappeau, 
now a resident of Pittsburgh, is a leading oil producer; Owen Evans is con- 
nected with the Philadelphia Natural Gras Company; Jule Eathburn resides at 
Kane, and is interested in oil lands. Herring is a hotel-keeper in New York 
State, and John B. Drake, a ranchman in Nebraska. P. C. Boyle is editor- 
in-chief of the Era and owner of the Toledo Commercial, while A. L. Snell is 
managing editor of the Era. 

Well Torpedoes. — When the old wells began to show signs of giving out, ne- 
cessity invented the torpedo. The Roberts Brothers patented the invention. The 
" torpedo kings," as they were called, had scores of agents in all parts of the oil re- 
gions exploding these torpedoes in wells for producers. Each torpedo was from 
ten to 200 quarts capacity, and the danger in carrying them over the country was 
very great. The agents were called ' ' shooters. " They carried the nitro-glycerine 
in wagons drawn by one and often two horses. They often carried as much as 
1,500 pounds of the deadly stuff, and yet these men would become so reckless 
in their business that they gave little heed to the manner of their driving. 

When the patents expired by limitation the business of exploding torpe- 
does in oil wells was taken up by whosoever chose to engage in the hazardous 
undertaking, and now scores of firms are supplying the trade which formerly 
depended upon " Torpedo Roberts," as the doctor was called. He was origi- 
nally a dentist in New York, but coming to the oil country in the early days 
of the petroleum excitement, he and his brother engaged in the oil business, 
and soon secured a patent on a device for exploding nitro-glycerine in the bot- 
tom of oil wells to increase the flow. The device was simple, but it proved to 
be one of the most valuable inventions of the age, and certainly far exceeded 
the wildest dreams of the young inventors. The device was simply a tube 
made of tin to hold the explosive, supplied with a cap for exploding the sub- 
stance. This was lowered into the well to the depth of 1, 000 feet, if necessary, 
by means of a cord, and, when at the desired depth, a small iron weight called 
" go devil " was dropped down on the cord, and this striking the tube contain- 
ing the nitro- glycerine a terrific explosion followed. These explosions shat- 
tered the oil-bearing rock, and the result in nearly every case was an increase 
in the production of the well. The demand for these torpedoes was enor- 
mous. There were anywhere from 15,000 to 25,000 wells in the region and 
nearly all of them were torpedoed at regular intervals. "Torpedo accidents" 
were therefore a common occurrence. In dozens of cases man, team and 
vehicle were blown entirely out of existence. It was rarely that a cigar box 
would not hold all of the driver that could be found. In one case, that of 
"Doc" Haggerty, no vestige of a human being was ever found, and a few 
pounds of flesh identified by the hair as being all that was left of two horses. This 
was the strangest case of the many "torpedo explosions " in the oil country. 
Below Eldred, or near Ceres, resided a short time ago a man who was thrown 
high up into space, and beyond being filled with tiny pieces of tin he did not 
suffer much from the explosion. 

Miscellaneous. — He who supposes that oil men are specially exempt from 
ordinary human frailties is a miscalculator. They are much like ordinary men 
in many respects, but their dealings are on a larger scale, and their vision is 
more comprehensive. Looking over the pages devoted to the history of the 
Bradford field, one would suppose that the courts were always full of oily liti- 
gants; but the records do not bear out this supposition. Of course leases of 
oil lands have been questioned time and again, but the suits were of an agra- 


rian character. Indeed, with the exception of a few direct oil cases, the 
following memorandum may be considered a fair sketch of the heavy oil suits 
in McKean county: In 1868 the celebrated oil case, O'Connor vs. Tack Bros., 
was tried. The plaintiff appeared to believe that the price of oil would fall 
very soon, and so instructed his brokers, the defendants, to sell for the future. 
Oil did decline within a day or so, but immediately rose again, thus leaving 
O'Connor short. He charged his brokers with conspiracy, claiming $50,000, 
but the court awarded him $600 of the $1,000 due him by his brokers, and 
dismissed the conspiracy charge. In August, 1883, Col. N. D. Preston, of the 
Bradford Oil Exchange, was sued by Mrs. Maria A. Harm, for whom the 
Colonel held 30,000 barrels of oil. It appears he sold this oil, first formally, 
and secondly on change, but the arbitrators decreed that he should pay Mrs. 
Harm $24,000. The Roberts Torpedo Patent resulted in a series of lawsuits. 
"Every oil producer had to pay tribute to the Roberts Brothers, and finally 
the oil men sought to break the monopoly by attacking the validity of the 
patents. The producers organized to fight the patents in the courts, and long 
and bitter litigation was the result. The fight went on' in every court for 
years, and finally the supreme court of the United States decided in favor of 
the Roberts Brothers, and they continued to have the exclusive right to man- 
ufacture and use the torpedo for seventeen years, the life of the patent. ' ' 

In November, 1885, the celebrated case, Blackmarr vs. Scofield, was tried 
at Smethport. On December 8, 1882, H. L. Blackmarr and C. W. Scofield 
entered into a contract, of which the following is a copy: 

Bradford, Pa., Dec. 8th, 1883. 
No '.... 

Sold to C. W. Scofield, for account of H. L. Blackmarr, twenty-five thousand (35,000) 
barrels of crude petroleum at one dollar and twenty-five cents (?1.35) per barrel of forty- 
two (43) gallons, in bulk, to be delivered at buyer's option at any time from the eighth 
day of December, 1883, to the sixth day of February, 1883, in accepted and— United Pipe 
Line receipts, pipage unpaid, and to be paid for in cash as delivered, with no notice from 
buyer to seller. Should no notice be given, delivery shall be made on the sixth day of 

February, 1883. Place of delivery, Bradford, Pa. Brokerage cents per barrel by 

sellers. No margins. Through 

Accepted by C. W. Scofield. 

This contract was written on a blank form, such as has been in use in the 
Old Exchange for many years, and a duplicate was given to Scofield. Feb- 
ruary 6, 1883, was, by the terms of the contract, the limit of the time for 
settlement, and Blackmarr received the following notification: 

Bradford, Pa., Feb. 6, 1883. 

To H. L. Blackmarr: . , , . . „ j . i. 

Sear Sir;— Yon are hereby notified that a certain pretended contract alleged to have 
been made by and between yourself and C. W. Scofield about December 8, 1883, for a pre- 
tended sale of 35,000 barrels of oil at $1.35 is illegal and void, will in no wise be carried 
out by me in any respect, and you are further notified that any attempt to establish a 
difference by a sale of the oil either publicly or privately will be the subject of an action 
for damages. Yours truly, c. W, Scofield. 

By Berry, Elliott & Jack, Attorneys. 

Upon receipt of the above Blackmarr tendered certificates for 25,000 bar- 
rels of oil, freshened to date, to Berry, he being the only representative of 
Scofield that could be found in the city. Berry refused to accept the oil, and 
it was sold by C. L. Wheeler, of the Bradford Oil Exchange, at public sale, 
for $1.04i to C. P. Stevenson, who gave his certified check for $26,125. 
According to the terms of the contract this left a deficiency of $5,125 due 
Blackmarr. Scofield refused to pay the difference, on the grounds that he did 
not consider the contract legal, and consequently not binding. Blackmarr 


took legal proceedings to obtain the established difference, and the case was 
crowded over or postponed a number of times, until November 14, 1885, when 
it was decided by the jury that Blackmarr should be allowed his claim of 
15,125. The court charged the jury that if Blackmarr had the 25,000 barrels 
of oil, or was able to procure the oil before the expiration of the contract, the 
defendant should be held for the difference. Scofield' s attorneys were Berry, 
Elliott & Jack, and Brown & Roberts, of Bradford, and Jerome Fisher, of 
Jamestown. Blackmarr' s were B. D. Hamlin, of Smethport, and F. L. Black- 
marr, of Meadville. The suits in re title to oil and oil lands in Forest coun- 
ty won notoriety at the time, and cost the litigants thousands of dollars. 

As illustrative of the manner in which much of the business was done 
in early oil days, and as evidence of the good faith that prevailed among oil 
men, the following incident is worthy of note: Soon after the Noble welUwas 
struck on Oil creek, Mr. Wheeler met Orange Noble on the streets of Titus- 
ville, and asked him what he would take for 30,000 barrels of oil. Mr. Noble 
replied, " $1. 50 per barrel. ' ' Mr. Wheeler said, " I will take it. ' ' No further 
record was made oi this transaction, but before the oil was delivered crude had 
advanced to $7.50 per barrel, but every barrel was delivered and paid for as 
regularly as if the contract had been drawn up by an expert legal authority 
and recorded in the courts. 

John McKeown, the king of the oil regions, purchased from Mitchell and 
Van Vleck, in August, 1888, 1,200 acres of oil land, and fifty producing wells, 
in Keating and Lafayette townships, McKean county, the price paid being 
190,000. This action on the part of this great oil owner showed his faith in 
the old field, which he aided in developing before his removal to the Washing- 
ton field. The recent Emerson purchase, for $100,000, is an equally material 
testimony to the faith of operators in the perpetuity of the greatest oil field 
in the world. 

During the last ten years crude ranged from 54J cents in 1882 to $1. 17|^ in 
1883. For some time prior to the summer of 1889 it was far below the dollar 
mark, but owing to the judicious action of the producers, it is now ranging in 
price above the dollar. 

" The Bradford field began to be known as early as 1875, but its total pro- 
duction for that year did not exceed 25,000 barrels. It attained its maximum 
in 1881, when its average pipe-line runs were 70,811 barrels a day. By 1887 
these had declined to 20,722 barrels a day. During 1888 there was a decline 
to 13,992 barrels a day, followed in 1889 by a recovery to 16,462 barrels for 
every twenty-four hours. This increase for 1889 is due to two causes: First, 
the termination of the artificial shutting-in of production, and the discovery 
of additional territory on the borders of Cole creek and in the vicinity of Mount 
Jewett. And to bring about this increase of 2,470 barrels a day in the pipe- 
line runs it has been necessary to drill 683 wells during the twelve months 
ending with December 31, 1889."* 

* From the Era. 



Prehistoric Remains— Indians— Indian Land PuEcnASES— Sale of Lands- 
Early Surveys and Settlements— Early Tax Payers— Underground 
Railroad — Hunting — Storms and Floods— First Court-house — First 
Ball— Early Wedding— Early Incidents and Reminiscences- County 
Centennial Celebration. 

THE pioneers were the self-commissioned explorers and settlers of the New 
Purchase. Some of them followed the retiring Indians so closely that they 
cooked their frugal meals by the deserted camp-fires of the evacuating tribes; 
others joined the adventurous band in the wilderness, while yet the Allegheny 
Divide was considered the limit line of settlement, and all may be considered 
satellites of that star which has carried empire westward since the days of the 
Revolution. Their objects and hopes belonged to that peculiar form of Ameri- 
can civilization which desires, to this day, to settle on the horizon, a feat of 
irresistible fascination to them, which they performed practically, although the 
thing was theoretically impossible. 

The Treaty Indians, whose old country they entered, were comparatively 
modern settlers. There were men here before them, who lived in the age of 
giant nature. On the Fisher farm, near Bradford, in the Tuna Valley flats, 
there were relics of a large race exhumed years ago. It appears an aged tree 
was felled and uprooted to make way for improvements, and beneath were 
found large skulls, any one of which could encase the head of any modern man; 
while thigh-bones and shin-bones were several inches longer than those of the 
present people. Near Kane are other souvenirs of prehistoric times, and on 
other sections evidences of possession by an unknown race are not wanting. 

On a map made by the French in 1763 the territory along the lake extend- 
ing southward is marked: "The seat of war, the mart of trade and chief 
hunting grounds of the Six Nations on the lakes and the Ohio. ' ' Sixty years 
prior to the date of this map Le Houton published an account of a decade 
passed by him among the savages on the south of Lake Erie — "the Iroquois, 
Illinois, Oumanies and others who are so savage that it is a risk to stay with 
them." The Iroquois had exterminated the Eriez and the Massasaugas about 
the year 1650. The Eriez were named in 1626, when the French missionaries 
first came among them, as the Neutre Nation, and were governed by a queen — 
Yagowania — whose prime minister was a warrior named Ragnotha. In 1634 
some Senecas murdered a son of the chief of the Massasaugas, and a deputa- 
tion from that tribe waited on the queen to ask for justice. Two Seneca war- 
riors also came, who, on learning of the queen's intention to set out with her 
warriors to give justice, fled to their people to give warning. On the approach 
of the Eriez the Senecas offered battle and forced the imperial troops to fly, 
after leaving 600 warriors on the field. In 1650 the Iroquois invaded the 
district and, though driven back seven times, ultimately conquered, particu- 
larly during the year of pestilence, when disease swept away great numbers of 
the nation. In "l712 the Tuscaroras were admitted to the Iroquois confed- 
eracy and the name " Six Nations " took the place of that of " Five Nations." 


Their territory stretched from Vermont to the upper end of Lake Erie and 
embraced the country at the heads of the Allegheny and Susquehanna, with the 
seat of council in the Onondaga Valley. The Senecas, a tribe of the original 
Five Nations, occupied the territory along the Allegheny and near the Penn- 
sylvania-New York line, and in the treaty of 1784 they were particularly con- 
cerned. In 1789 a supplementary treaty was made and $800 granted to Corn- 
planter, Half- Town and Big Tree in trust for the tribe. This treaty was 
signed in 1791 by the chiefs, and in March, 1792, the triangle was purchased 
from the United States by the commonwealth. In April, 1792, the assembly 
passed an act to encourage settlement here, and in 1794 troops were stationed 
at Le Boeuf to keep peace, as many of the Senecas refused to respect the treaty 
and charged Cornplanter and the other chiefs with being traitors. The 
British emissaries of course urged on the disaffected braves, Brandt, chief of 
the Mohawks, being one of the diplomats; but their logic could not influence 
Cornplanter, although British interest in justice to the Indians was manifested 
by two armed vessels lying off Presque Isle to enforce the claims of the discon- 
tented Senecas. In 1795 other treaties were negotiated, and the threatened 
Anglo-Indian raid on the young republic was postponed. At this time there were 
eighty Senecas at Cornplanter' s town, west of the present city of Bradford, 
where a large tract of land was reserved to them. In 1866 the legislature 
authorized the building of a monument to Cornplanter which was completed 
and dedicated at Jennesedaga October ]8, 1867. The chiefs of the Senecas 
who signed the treaty in 1789 were Gyantwachia (Cornplanter), Guyasota 
(Big Cross), Kanassee (New Arrow), Achiont (Half Town), Anachkont (Wasp), 
Chishekoa (Wood Bug), Sessewa (Big Bale of a Kettle), Sciawhowa (Council 
Keeper), Tewanias (Broken Twig), Souachshowa (Full Moon), Cachunevasse 
(Twenty Canoes), Onesechter, Kiandock-Gowa and Owenewah. 

The purchase from the Indians (Six Nations, Wyandots and Delawares) in 
October, 1784, embraced all the territory lying north and west of a line from 
the mouth of Beaver creek on the Ohio; thence by said river up the Allegheny 
to Kittanning; thence by line to Upper Canoe Place on the West Branch of the 
Susquehanna; thence by that river to the mouth of Pine creek, and north by 
this creek to the New York State line. In 1758 and at other periods the 
Indians ceded their possessions in this district in small parcels, but the " New 
Purchase " treaties and the power of the whites soon did away with requests of 
favors from the red men, and ended in the expulsion of the aborigines. The 
Susquehanna Company's purchase of 1754 is bounded by a line drawn north 
and south through Benizette, Shippen, Norwich, Liberty and other townships 
to the New York State line. In 1785 the act of Pennsylvania declared that 
the laud purchased from the Indians in 1784 and defined in the treaty of Fort 
Stanwix and Fort Mcintosh, should be attached to Westmoreland and Northum- 
berland counties, and that the Allegheny river from Kittanning to the mouth 
of Conewango creek should be the county line. The land office was opened in 
1785, but the homestead of 400 acres and actual settlement thereon, together 
with the Indian wars down to 1796, made the plan of sale useless. In 1793 
an act was passed allowing the sale of lands in 1,000-acre warrants on condi- 
tion of settlement, except during Indian troubles. Under this permit the- 
Holland Land Company purchased 1, 140 warrants, and in 1801 the condition 
of settlement being removed, this company, with the Keatings, Binghams and 
others, located their warrants at will, and within a few years essayed to develop 
the wilderness — John Keating being in the advance. 

Byron D. Hamlin, speaking on this subject, states that the legislature of 
1785 provided for the sale of the "Waste Lands," as the whole territory was: 


named. A lottery- wheel was the system of auction selected. An application 
ticket, with the number of acres applied for written thereon, was placed in one 
urn and a similar ticket with the warrant number, etc., placed in another. Of 
course each applicant drew in or about the number of acres he wished to pur- 
chase, and as early as May 17, 1785, some of the purchasers found their lands 
m what are now known as Liberty and Eldred townships. The survey was 
made in 1787-88. In the latter year it was seen that the desire to purchase 
this wild land was limited, owing to the price ($80 per 100 acres) being too 
high. It was reduced, and again reduced, in 1792, to $131 per 100 acree, and 
in that and the following year the greater part of McKean and adjoining coun- 
ties became private property. William Bingham and the Holland Land Com- 
pany were the principal purchasers. In 1796 John Keating purchased a large 
area from the Binghams, and in 1816 Benjamin B. Cooper purchased the Hol- 
land Company's lands and sold to the Jones Brothers, the Ridgways, the 
Wernwags, Halseys and smaller owners. The first attempt at settlement was 
made at Ceres by John Keating' s agent, Francis King, in 1798. On July 1, 
1801, surveys of the Keating property were commenced. In 1804 the ceme- 
tery at Cerestown was platted; Coudersport was surveyed in July, 1807, and 
Smethport in August, 1807. At this time there was not a wagon-road in Mc- 
Kean county. Every family had its own grist-mill; the meat market was the 
forest; the dry-goods factory was the family spinning-wheel or loom in the 
lean-to; nails and hardware for building were manufactured from wood; tea 
and eofPee were improvised from the most convenient sources, and whisky was 
deferred for a more refined generation. Jersey Shore, one hundred miles dis- 
tant, was the nearest post-office. Two weeks' travel through the wilderness 
(the carrier bearing his own provisions) were required to make the round trip, 
his pockets being the mail-bag and his ardor for news his reward. The census 
taker had not then been seen. His first visit was made in 1810, when he found 
a population of 141 whites and one colored resident in McKean county, and in 
Potter county twenty- eight whites and one colored citizen. 

The original deed of Robert Morris, one of the Revolutionary fathers, and 
his wife Mary, to lands in McKean and other counties dated January 6, 1797, 
is in possession of Mr. Hamlin, and also one from William Bingham to Omer Talon 
(afterward conveyed to John Keating & Company), dated December 21, 1796, 
covers about 300, 000 acres in McKean and Potter counties, for $80, 000. In 
1801 Francis King surveyed the boundaries of the Keating lands, adjoining 
the New York and Holland purchase in New York State, and the lands of the 
Binghams, Ridgways and Joneses in Pennsylvania. When the New York & 
Pennsylvania boundary commission was in session this old field book was pro- 
duced. The present owner of this parchment, speaking of the early land pur- 
chases, calculates that up to 1874 each acre cost the proprietor $26. To arrive 
at this total he takes the original cost, 13^ cents per acre, with interest 
compounded at six per cent, and finds $15.12. Prior to 1840 wild lands were 
assessed 50 cents per acre on which a five-mill county tax and a five-mill road tax 
were levied, or a one-half cent per acre. From 1 840 to 1 860 the taxation was three 
cents per acre, and from 1860 to 1874 five cents per acre was levied. Mr. Hamlin 
thinks that the total cost of each acre of wild land to the original owners was 
$35 including costs of transfers, agencies and other expenditures. 

The survey of the town of Smethport was a most important event of pio- 
neer days. The King survey notes read as follows: 

The first of the seventh month, 1801. Began at a hemlock corner sixty-three perches 
west of the Holland Company's thirteen-mile stake on the State line, when wc found a south 
line, which proved to be a district line, dividing Districts 3 and 3, and traveled it south 


througli a thick wiadfall. Second day. State line marlced on a beecli witli tlie initials 
"T. W., October 10, 1793;" soil, cliocolate colored; timber, white pine, hemlock, beech, 
sugar tree, etc. Our provisions being exhausted we returned home. On the twelfth of 
the tenth month. Found a line blazed for a road from the head of Pine creek to the head 
of Oswayo in the fall of 1797. We then went to meet the pack-horses on the south branch 
of the Allegheny. Nineteenth of the twelfth month. Found a sugar tree corner with 
inilials, one marked "O. S. S." and under it the letters "8. T. E." Seventeenth of the 
tenth month, 1805. Proceeded with the road and lodged at the Allegheny. Running of 
the town lots of Smethport, etc. Twenty-fourth of the eighth month, 1807, left home to 
go to Smethport and loaded at the mouth of our creek; 25th, continued up the river 
and lodged at themouth of Potato creek; 26th, camped near the forks of the creek; 37th, 
still raining, went up the small branch, and built a camp; 28th, finished camp and moved 
into it; 19th of the ninth month finished survey of the town. 

In 1832 Orlo J. Hamlin contributed to the pages of Hazzard's Gazetteer, the 
history of this county published therein, parts of which are used in this work. 
After the publication of the Gazetteer, the pioneer historian of McKean county 
continued the good work, and from among the documents in possession of his 
son, Henry Hamlin, one from which the following summary of early history 
is extracted was found: 

Seventeen hundred and ninety-nine to 1800, Ceres township settled by Francis King 

and others, aaent and employes of John Keating 1808 (about), Corydon township 

settled by Philip Tome and others from the west branch of the Susquehanna. . . .1810-13 
(about), Hamilton township settled by George Morrison and others of the west branch of 
the same river. . . .1813-15 (about). Liberty township settled by ex-Judge Foster from New 
Jersey, ex-Judge Samuel Staunton, Sr., from Wayne county, Penn., L. Lillibridge, Dr. 
H. Coleman and others. . . .1810, Keating township (Farmers Valley), settled by Joseph 
and George Otto, the StuUs and others from Northampton county, Penn., six families 
. . . .1808, Eldred township settled by the Wrights, Jacob Knapp, Joseph Stull, Nathan 
Dennis, E. Larrabee and others. . . .1815, Norwich township settled by Jonathan Cole- 
grove and fourteen families from North Atlantic States 1809-14* Sergeant township 

first settled at Instanter, next by Joel Bishop in 1811; Sweeten, David Combs, Sr., 

R. Beckwith and others settled in 1814 near Bishops summit, and at Clermont farm Paul 

E. Scull, John Garlick, Philip Lee and others about 1819 -30 1834 (about), Lafayette 

township settled by George W. Griswold and others. . . .1833-34 (about), Bradford first 
siittled by Dr. William M. Bennett, the Farrs, Scotts, Fosters and otiiers. . . .1846-47, 
Otto township settled by Arthur Prentiss and others. .. .1833-33 (about), Hamlin town- 
ship first settled by Seth Marvin. . . .1840-41, Annin township first settled by Evans, Ken- 
ney and others. . . .1858 (about). Wetmore township first settled by Grover and others. . . . 
1830-31, Clermimt farm, named by Jacob Ridgway after his return from Belgium, where 
he was United States consul for a term. 

The oldest tax roll in possession of the commissioner's clerk covers the 
years 1806-12. The tax payers (of course non-resident) were William Bing- 
ham, John Barron, Ezekiel King, William Barker. Robert Blackwell, Henry 
Clymer, Henry Drinker, Robert Gillmor, Samuel Hughes, George Harrison, 
William Lloyd, George Meade, Nicklen Griffith, John Olden, Jonathan B. 
Smith, Thomas Stewarton. Thomas Willing, Charles Willing, Wilhelm "W el- 
lick and H^nry WykofP. The valuation was 50 cents per acre, and the tax 
averaged $2.47 on 990-acre tracts and $2. 75 on 1,099-acre tracts. Four years 
later (in 1810) Commissioners Pennington, Glen and Herring of Centre 
county confirmed the asse.ssirient roll, and assessed the unseated lands of Mc- 
Kean county at 50 cents per acre, on which a tax of two and one-fourth 
mills per dollar was ordered to be levied, the assessment to continue in force 
until 1813. 

Joseph Stull and his brother, Jacob, settled below Smethport, four miles 
above Eldred, on the Allegheny, in 1810. A few years later Indians camped 
at the mouth of Potato creek, and while making for this camp a warrior, being 
overtaken by night, wrapped his blanket around him and lay face downward 
to sleep. He was followed by a panther, who sprung on him as soon as he 
laid down,, striking the claws into the sides of the redman and the teeth into 

* See history of townships, and of Sergeant township for sltetcb of Instanter. 

Missing Page 

Missing Page 


his neck. The Indian caught a small tree near by, and, raising himself, stabbed 
the panther in the heart, and then lay down to die with the beast. Next morn- 
ing his brothe^r Indians set oiit in search and found the hero of the fight almost 
■dead. They took him to Jacob Stull's house, where he recovered after some 

Asylum Peters died at the house of Walter Edgecomb, in Homer township. 
Potter county, November 24, 1880. He was born in Bradford, Penn. , in 1793, 
and named after his native township. In 1806 he came to Ceres as cook for 
Oen.. Brevost, a surveyor, and when that work was completed he was sold to 
William Ayers for $100 and the further consideration that he should receive 
a fair common education until he was of age, when he was to be set free. In 
1808 Ayers moved to the Keating farm, six miles east of Coudersport, on the 
old Boone road, then the only road in the county, bringing Peters with him. 

During the years when the abolition movement first gathered sympathizers, 
the King settlement above Ceres became an important underground railroad 
■depot. As long ago as 1827 or 1828, Smethport was a way-station on the 
underground railroad leading from the South to the North, whereon runaway 
slaves used to travel in making their escape into Canada, then a land of free- 
dom to the black man. In other Vords, runaway slaves striking the Allegheny 
river at Warren, would take a short cut, the one used by lumbermen in this 
region returning from Pittsburgh, and reaching what was then known as the 
"Four Corners " pass through Smethport, Eldred and Olean, and so on by way 
of Buffalo to Canada. It was at the above mentioned, that four forlorn look- 
ing slaves, foot- sore and weary, and terribly hungry withal, arrived in the 
little village of Smethport, and stopped at a hotel kept by David Young. They 
acknowledged that they were runaway slaves, fleeing from hard-hearted mas- 
ters, and were also out of money. Through the kindness of several of the 
people of Smethport, the negroes were provided with a good meal at a hotel, 
a small amount of money furnished them, and were sent on their way. The 
next stopping place was in Olean, at the hotel kept by Backus. Fearing pur- 
suit from their masters, the slaves were directed to a lumber camp about one 
mile from the village, which shelter they used for a hiding place and also 
intended to make it their resting place for the night. Hardly had these four 
negroes left Smethport when two men on horseback arrived in pursuit, they 
being the owners of the runaways. Getting no information from the Smeth- 
port people, the horsemen hastened to Olean, at which place they arrived just 
as the slaves had entered their hiding place, though unseen by their mas- 
ters—and here comes the gist of our tale. The citizens of Olean, who were 
aware of the pursuit, and fearing that the negroes might be captured, employed 
a little strategy for the occasion. Sending messengers to the camp with infor- 
mation about the state of matters, the slaves speedily sought their safety. 
In the meantime the slave owners were informed that the objects of their pur- 
suit might be found in a certain camp near Olean, and kind hands directed 
their course to the desired point. But upon their arrival, a sad fate awaited 
them. A bucket of tar and a quantity of feathers were in readiness, and masked 
men spread the unsightly covering without stint upon the persons of the slave 
owners, and then left them to their own musings. The next seen of the pur- 
suers, who by this time had become sadder, but wiser men, was in a hotel kept 
by John Lee near by where the bridge crosses the Allegheny at Eldred. 
Through grease, soap, water and other appliances and a sojourn of a week, 
the unfortunate slave owners presented a somewhat better appearance and 
departed for their Southern homes, and their poor slaves reached the Mecca 
of their hopes in Canada. 


In the history of Potter county reference is made to the successful hunters 
prior to 1826. In January of this year McKean county takes her place as a 
distinct government, and the first order issued is that for 81 cents to Wheeler 
Gallup and Dan Cornelius for fox scalps ; Rufus Cory received 27 cents and 
Ealph Hill, for wolf scalps, $12, while James Taylor, Eben Burbanks, Tim 
Kenney, Isaac King, Jonathan Colegrove, David Grow, Nathan White, Leon- 
ard Foster, Benjamin Chatsey, Hub. Starkweather, James Brooks, George 
Pinkerton, Henry Willard, Erastus John (an Indian), an unnamed Indian, 
James John (an Indian), and Hunter (an Indian) were rewarded for killing 
wild animals. In this year Squire Cole received 112 and Benjamin Freeman 
$17 for one old and one young panther, and an Indian named Jimmerson $12 
for panther certificates. In 1827 the panther hunters were Joseph Silverkeel 
(an Indian), Dan Killbuck (an Indian), Simon Beckwith, William Lewis, Dan 
Lewis and Ralph Hill. In 1828 there is no record of panther hunters, but in 
1829 Philander Reed brought in some trophies. 

Leroy Lyman, one of the great hunters of the past, was a natural philos- 
opher of a determined character. At one time he resolved to acquaint him- 
self thoroughly with the habits of the panther, and in all his expeditions looked 
anxiously to the time when this cruel habitant of the woods of this section 
would cross his track. The time came at last. Returning to his home one 
evening he felt that he was followed, and, after a time, beheld his pursuer. 
The latter kept an equal distance from the hunter until Leroy would stop, 
when the panther would halt for a moment, then purring, creep slowly along 
to leaping distance. This was repeated several times until the open country 
was reached, when the hunter made his last study, and prepared for battle. 
He was well armed, with a seven- shooter rifle, and halting suddenly waited 
his enemy. The panther halted as suddenly, then purred, crept forward, gave 
a blood-curdling scream, and at the moment he sprang forward, the daring 
hunter filled him with seven bullets. Not a moment too soon; for the next 
instant the pafither was dead at his feet .... About fifty-three years ago Reuben 
Dennis and his brother, then boys, started into the bush near the homestead 
to find the cows, taking with them a small farm dog of a fidgety character: 
They were not far into the forest when they heard a terrible scream; but, not 
knowing the cry of the panther, paid no attention to the strange call, until 
they looked at the dog, whose hair stood out like porcupine quills. They 
shared the terror of the dog and fled toward home. On describing their expe- 
rience to Nathan Dennis, the pioneer, he told them they had just escaped an 
encounter with a panther, which, in pursuing other game, left the boys safe. 
Mr. Dennis tells also of the old-time method of trapping bear. Many are 
acquainted with the bird trap (known as the dead-fall) used by boys of to-day. 
The pioneer bear trap was constructed on the same principle, except that in- 
stead of a box or cage a log sufficiently heavy to crush and kill a bear was 
used, the supporting timber being so fixed that bruin, in rushing forward to 
seize the bait, would displace it, leaving the heavy log to fall on him. 

Samuel Beckwith, Sr., one of the pioneers, came upon a bear suddenly,, 
and firing at the animal, wounded it; bxat failed to kill. Believing that bruin 
would escape, he advanced knife in hand and a terrible encounter ensued. 
The bear hugged and tore and bit the desperate hunter, and nearly carried the 
victory, when Beckwith thrust the knife into the animal's heart. The marks 
of the battle remained on Beckwith to his death. In 1828-29, while this. 
Beckwith and O. J. Hamlin were surveying the turnpike route, the latter came 
upon a wolf asleep. The animal was so scared, that instead of jumping over- 
the log, he crept under, where his head and fore-shoulders were caught as in 


a trap. The pack-driver seized him by the hind leg, and opening the jack- 
knife with his teeth, cut off the hamstrings, despatched the wolf, and brought 
in the skin and scalp as trophies of the affair. 

In 1825-26 a road was opened from N. C. Gallup' s mill to the Potter county 
line, and a bridge was built by Lemuel Lucore over the Sinnemahoning, so 
that as the wild animals decreased such evidences of civilization increased. 
The existence of this road scared away the large game. The modern hunters, 
such as Henry Lascar, of Lafayette, and Jones, of Sergeant, tell some extra- 
ordinary stories of the doings of bear and panther here since 1880. 

From 1842 to the present time storm and flood have accompanied progress 
in this section, but there are few, if any, cases of destruction of life through 
such agencies. Lightning, however, has not been bo merciful, for, during the 
last sixty years, it is estimated that over one hundred persons have been killed 
by electricity, and hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of property de- 
stroyed by it. Since 1878 electric storms as well as wind storms have been 
common. That of April 16, 1880, carried away eleven rigs in the Tuna Val- 
ley, four on East Branch, two on West Branch, thirty-six on Kendall creek, 
five at Foster Brook and two at Summit, together with farm and village build- 
ings, forests, fences and orchards; subsequent storms have destroyed oil -tanks 
by the dozen, as related in the chapter devoted to local history. The hail 
storm of May 19, 1888, swept through Marvin Valley and struck Smethport 
and other towns. The hail average the size of hens' eggs, and of course des- 
troyed much of the glass in its path. The heavy rains of the latter days of 
May, 1889, which led to the Johnstown catastrophe, also swelled the rivers 
and creeks of McKean county, entailing heavy losses on owners of valley 
farms, impeding travel, sweeping away bridges and flooding several villages. 
The rain storm of June 21, 1889, swept across the county, creating havoc in 
the forests and injuring buildings and orchards. Lightning played round the 
hill-tops, and at Big Shanty and other points left records of its destructive- 

The rain storm, which began on July 2, 1889, reached its climax on the 
3d, and continued until past midnight, carrying away a few small bridges and 
overflowing the lowland roads. The great anniversary morning, however, ap- 
peared wreathed in sunshine, and one of the most beautiful of summer days 
ensued. The first six months of this year were marked by a rain-fall never 
hitherto experienced. 

The second story of the first court-house was used on Sundays by Elder 
Folsom, the Unionist preacher. Elder Oviatt, the Baptist, and one or other 
of the various Methodist and Adventist preachers who visited this section from 
1826 to 1833. The jail, debtor's room and sheriff's residence were on the 
lower floor; the water supply was taken from a spring on the farm now owned 
by John W. Brennan. In this building Hall and Dikeman, counterfeiter and 
robber, respectively, found a home until they escaped from the " dungeon." 

In 1828 the first ball was held in the county. The tickets were printed at 
Buffalo in the following form: 

1828 — INDEPENDENCE BALL — 1828. 

At the hotel of Davis Young, in the village of Smeth- 
port, July 4, 1828. Yourself and lady are respectfully in- 
vited. Good music and flrat-class accommodations. The 
company to assemble at 3 o'clock, p. m. 


Almon Sarlwell, S. A. Winsor, Horace King, Benjamin' 
Corwin, Daniel Rifle and David Dunbar. 


At this time Mrs. Willard's hotel occupied the site of George Moore's pres- 
ent house. She was indignant at the fact of her house being ignored, and 
threatened the sheriff with punishment should he allow the proposed orchestra 
(a prisoner then in jail) to be present. The sheriff's wife, knowing that Mrs. 
Willard would carry out her threats, dressed a dummy to represent the pris- 
oner, and the lady, looking through the keyhole, saw this figure, and was sat- 
isfied. The committee refused to issue a ticket to her, and thus the first ball 
led to dissension which was not healed for years. The open-air celebration 
was held beneath the shadows of the stars and stripes floating from the great 
hickory pole on the square. A long table of freshly planed pine boards was 
constructed, and above it was a roof of hemlock, pine and hardwood boughs. 
The procession formed at the lower tavern, owned formerly by William Will- 
iams, and marched in couples — male and female —to the court house, under 
the lead of Jonathan Colegrove, a soldier of 1812. O. J. Hamlin was the ora- 
tor, Isaac Burlingame, fifer, and Asa Sartwell, clarionet player. O. R. Ben- 
nett or John E. Niles read the Declaration, but the drummer's name is forgot- 
ten. At the banquet Hiram Payne was toastmaster, and as each toast was 
given Marshal Colegrove would wave his sword as a signal to his squad of 
thirteen soldiers to fire a salute. The thirteen men were armed with flint-locks, 
and were converted for the occasion into an artillery corps, or, if the noise is 
considered, a firecracker corps. Cheers generally followed the salute, but 
when the musketeers were too slow the people cheered before the salute was 
given, while the marshal w_aved his sword wildly. Edward Corwin and Col. 
Elihu Chadwick, Revolutionary soldiers, were present. 

In the fall of 1832 or 1833 Hyde Rice, son of Justice Rice, of Ceres, mar- 
ried Angeline Rice, daughter of Allan Rice, of the salt works neighborhood, 
now in Cameron county. The wedding guests, some seventeen in number, met 
at Smethport, the following morning proceeded to Daniel Rifle's house (Cole- 
grove) for breakfast, and thence twelve miles through the forest to the salt 
works on horseback, where a feast was prepared at the bride's home. Allan 
Rice removed to Cincinnati shortly after his daughter's marriage. It is re- 
lated that on arriving at the salt works, twenty-seven deer, ranged in line, 
looked down on the bridal party from the hill. 

Joel Sartwell came with his father in 1816. He was a celebrated driver of 
oxen, and on one occasion hitched his team to a large pine, which he cut down 
in rear of his house (the Ransom-Beckwith House). Standing on the hill he 
piloted the oxen down by shouting " Gee Buck" — " Haw Buck." The snow 
was twenty-four inches deep, and the flight of the cleared tree down the hill- 
side sent this snow flying to the top of the forest, but the tree and oxen got 
down all safe, with the exception of the tail of one of the animals, which was 
cut clean off. Among the pioneer women who resided at or near Smethport in 
1880 were Mrs. Ira Curtis, then in her eighty- seventh year. She knew Com- 
modore McDonough, and also Commodore Perry, who defeated the British 
fleet near Sackett's Harbor in 1812, and saw the historical rooster. Mrs. John 
Holmes came about 1830, and was eighty-two years old in 1880; Mrs. James 
Taylor, ninety-four years; Mrs. Cory, the tailoress, who made clothes for the 
Confederate officers of Houston, Tex., in 1861-65, ninety-two years; Mrs. 
Ghordis Corwin, daughter of Solomon Sartwell, settled in Farmers valley in 
1816, was ninety-two years old (when twelve years old she coald spin yarn and 
weave cloth, and was asked to visit Port Allegany (Canoe Place) to help Mrs. 
Judge Stanton fix the loom and web). Throughout the county a few more 
women of the pioneer period resided in 1880, but the last nine years have 


thinned the ranks of the heroines of settlement. In January, 1847, the fol- 
lowing poetical tribute to the pioneer women appeared in the Yeoman : 

The mothers of our forest land 

Stout-hearted dames were thev, 
With nerve to wield the battle brand, 

And join the border fray. 

No braver dames had Sparta, 

No nobler matrons Rome; 
The great and good shall honor them 

Throughout their own green home. 

The western line of McKean county is often called the Cornplanter line, 
for here lived the old chief for years. He was born at Conewaugus, on the 
Genesee river, to an Indian woman, who was the hunting wife of John O'Bail, 
a white trader from the Mohawk valley. In July, 1755, he is alleged to have 
been in the French service, opposing Braddock, but later was present with 
the British, at the time of the Wyoming massacre, and on their death-dealing 
scout through the Schoharie Kill and the Mohawk valleys. When the success 
of the Revolution was assured, he hurried to the burial of the hatchet, and 
assisted in the post-Revolution treaties. For his services he was given a beau- 
tiful reservation, near Kinzua village (the river and valley being named from 
Kinzuquade, a contemporary chief), where he settled in 1791, and died in 
1836. The Indians who visited the settlements during the first two decades 
of this century are in their graves, but at long intervals a small band of their 
children visit the old hunting grounds. Jim Jacobs, the aged Seneca Indian, 
who, prior to the war, hunted in McKean, Elk, Potter, Forest and Cameron 
counties, visited throughout the county in November, 1880, to renew his old- 
time sport and observe the changes. Near the northwest corner of McKean 
county were 640 acres, the last piece of Indian land in Pennsylvania. Forty 
years ago the place was called ' ' Burnt Houses. ' ' 

The County Centennial Celebration Convention, held in February, 1876, 
was presided over by B. D. Hamlin, with H. F. Barbour, secretary. Township- 
committees were appointed, and other steps taken to insure proper observance. 


Transactions of the County Commissioners — Organization of the County 
—Holland Land Company's IjAnds— John Keating's Liberality— Smeth- 
port, the County Town— County Administration — County Buildings — 
Public Roads— Bridges— Poor Farm- Mortgages— Forfeited Lands. 

THE county of McKean was established March 26, 1804, being set off from 
Lycoming. On December 13, 1805, Gov. McKean appointed John 
Brevost, John Bell and Thomas Smith, trustees for the new county, under 
the act of March 26. In May, 1806, the trustees posted a notice at Ceres 
that they were ready to receive proposals for the county town. In November 
they assembled to consider the offers made by John Keating and Paul Busti, 
the latter being agent for the Holland Land Company. In Busti' s letter of 
June 13, he expresses his pleasure at the prospect of a new county, and agrees 
to lay off 200 acres of the Holland Land Company's lands, in either of tracts. 


numbered 2313, 2312, 2603, 2602, 2669, 2375, 2470 or 2578, on the com- 
pany's road, from the mouth of Bald Eagle creek, on the Susquehanna, to 
the State line. Of the 200 acres, two-thirds were to be conveyed to the county; 
100 acres adjoining were to be donated for the support of a minister of the 
Gospel, and 100 acres for the support of a school. This or 500 acres of wild 
land was their offer. 

John Keating was more liberal. He offered 228 acres at the forks of the 
Cononoclan (Nun-un-dah), one half the lots surveyed, 150 acres for the support 
of a school-teacher, and 1500 cash to aid in erecting a school building. He 
pointed out so very clearly the beauty and utility of the location that on Sep- 
tember 17, 18 and 19, 1807, he, with the trustees, vi^ted the locality (Smeth- 
port), and selected the spot September 21 that year. On April 19 following 
they made plans for building the State road. 

In October, 1815, J. Borrows, prothonotary of Lycoming county, residing 
at Williamsport, informs Samuel Stanton, Isaac Lyman and Joel Bishop of 
their election as commissioners of taxes for McKean county. On October 19, 
they met at Benjamin Burt's house in Bulalia, where they qualified before 
Justice Nathan B. Palmer. A day later they appointed Palmer clerk, John 
King, of Ceres, treasurer, and made an appointment with Messrs. Bell and 
Smith, the trustees of McKean and Potter, and appointed James Parmeter 
assessor of Eulalia. In 1816 Jonathan Colegrove was appointed assessor of 
Sergeant; Rensselaer Wright, of Ceres, and John Lyman, of Eoulette; in April 
Joseph Otto was appointed, vice Stanton, and in October he was elected with 
Nathan B. Palmer. John King was chosen county clerk. At this time Israel 
Merrick, of Eulalia, Ransom Beckwith, of Roulette, Abram Baker, of Ceres, 
and Joel Bishop, of Sergeant, were appointed assessors. In 1817 C. .Ellis, J. 
Colegrove and R. Wright were appointed auditors of Potter and McKean, and 
Israel Merrick, Jr., commissioner's clerk. W. W. Wattles was chosen clerk, 
in March, 1817; in October John King qualified as commissioner before Joel 
Bishop at Coudersport. In November Ezekiel B. Foster was appointed clerk, 
and Isaac Lyman, treasurer. The latter was requested to remove records, etc. , 
to the house of the clerk. The tax levy was one-half cent per dollar, and the 
pay of treasurer five per cent. In January, 1818, the office was at Kingsville; 
John Taggart was elected auditor; Isaac Lyman, commissioner, vice Otto; I. 
Merrick, clerk, vice Foster, and in November John Taggart was appointed 
commissioner, vice Palmer, by the court of Lycoming county. In 1816 Rens- 
selaer Wright was elected commissioner; Joseph Otto was appointed clerk, but 
did not qualify, leaving the office to Merrick. Thomas Hays was commission- 
er's clerk of Lycoming in 1818, and in 1820 Philip Krebs was prothonotary. 
In November, 1821, R. Wright and J. Colegrove were appointed to make a 
return of all tax payers and slaves in Potter and McKean counties. In 1822 
John Lyman was elected commissioner; Nathaniel Eastman was clerk, and 
Leonard Taggart, treasurer, and all qualified at Coudersport. Jonathan Cole- 
grove, David Crow and John Lyman were chosen commissioners in 1823, and 
Harry Lyman, clerk. R. Wright took John Lyman's place in 1824, and N. 
C. Gallup was appointed clerk, but he was succeeded by Nathan White in 
December of that year; Benjamin Colegrove was appointed treasurer, with 
Timothy Newell, John King and William Smith, auditors.. N. White was 
elected commissioner in 1825, vice R. Wright, and Henry Scott chosen 
clerk (Keating township was established in 1824). In January, 1826, Paul 
E. Scull was appointed treasurer, the first for this separate organization; Tim- 
othy Newell was elected prothonotary in October, having previously served by 
appointment, and in November Richard Chadwick was chosen clerk. 


On May 31, 1827, the mason work on county buildings, was accepted, and 
August 4 an order for 13,000 was given to the contractor, Solomon Sartwell, Jr. 
During this year deeds to a number of lots round the public square were sanc- 
tioned by the commissioners, White and Otto, they being the active members 
of the board. In November, that year, William Bell qualified, and in Novem- 
ber, 1828, Messrs. Otto, Bell and Gallup formed the board. Bradford town- 
ship was established, also Liberty township. In June, 1829, Squire Man- 
ning contracted to build a bridge over Potato creek for $300. Corydon town- 
ship was formed, and practical improvements authorized. In 1830 Messrs. Crow, 
Bell and Colegrove were commissioners, and O. J. Hamlin county attorney. 
On November 12, 1830, B. Freeman contracted to construct the primitive 
water works on the square, and the first privilege of using this water, after the 
supply at the public buildings, was granted to David Crow. A contract was 
entered into January 5, 1831, with B. B. Smith to do the county printing, and 
Paul E. Scull's treasurer's bail bond was signed by Nathaniel White, George 
Darling and Thomas Curtz, Jr. In September, 1831, moneys were paid to 
Burlingame & Co. for raising public buildings, and to Oviatt for leveling pub- 
lic square. In 1831-32 Colegrove, Bennett and Fobes were commissioners. 
In May, 1883, Ghordis Corwin was appointed commissioner, and in Novem- 
ber Commissioner Patterson qualified. B. Freeman with Bennett and Patter- 
son formed the board m 1834; Hamilton township was set off, and in Decem- 
ber Commissioner Smith took his seat. In November, 1835, Greene qualified. 
At this time the contract to line the dungeon with hewed stone was sold to 
Wheeler Gallup. Norwich township was established, and other measures taken 
to show progress. The contract for turnpiking the main street of Smethport, 
from John E. Niles' house on the northeast corner of the square, was sold to 
Gideon Irons, in June, 1836. In November, Col. Wilcox qualified, Smith 
and Greene being the old commissioners, but in May, 1837, Commissioner A. 
Lull was appointed, while Oviatt and Coats were elected that fall. Oviatt was 
re-elected in 1838, and Chapin elected. In 1840 Fobes was one of the commis- 
sioners, and later Squire Hunt and Kobbins became members of the board. 
In October, 1831, Mr. Chadwick signed the records as prothonotary and 
clerk, and continued to sign until F. B. Hamlin qualified in 1842, and again 
from 1845 to January 21, 1851. In November P. Ford signed as his deputy, 
and January 7, 1852, Paul E. Scull qualified as prothonotary. In 1843 the 
contract for building a bridge at Canoe Place was sold to Solomon Sartwell, 
Sr., Commissioner Corwin being on the board. In June, 1843, new streets 
were ordered to be opened at Smethport, and old ones repaired, and Lafayette 
and Eldred townships were established. Corwin, Bobbins and Marsh were 
the commissioners in 1844, and in this year Hamlin township was organized. 

In 1845 Commissioner Eastey and Dr. Darling, with Marsh, formed the 
board. B. C. Corwin qualified as treasurer in January, 1846, and W. A. 
Williams as clerk at a salary of |100 per year. In the fall A. P. Barnaby was 
elected commissioner. In 1847 W. A. Williams was appointed county coun- 
sel at a stated salary of $25 per annum for actual business, and to be paid 
usual fees for extra time. Commissioner A. Martin qualified in 1848. In 
this year contracts for building the jail were sold. In October R. Wright was 
chosen commissioner, and Ira H. Curtis clerk. J. Marsh took Barnaby' s 
place in 1849. In July, 1850, Contractor William Bell agreed to enlarge the 
court-house for $1,000, and on August 30 Wright and Martin were present super- 
intending the hanging of Uzza Bobbins for the murder of his wife. J. F. 
Gallup was chosen commissioner in October, 1850, and at this time David 
Grindley proposed to enlarge the court-house for $800. A. Martin, with Gal- 


lup and Marsh, formed the board in 1851. S. Holmes qualified in June, 
1852, vice Marsh, while in 1853 W. Y. McCoy, A. M. Benton and Holmes 
formed the board. Smethport was incorporated in 1853, and Otto township 
was formed in 1851. In 1855 Nelson Peabody, of Ceres, took Dr. McCoy's 
place. W. J. Colegrove was elected in 1858, and in 1860 Messrs. Colegrove, 
Keyes and Davis were commissioners, Howard being chosen in 1861. Annin 
township was organized during this year. 

The commissioners, Colegrove, Keyes and Davis, assembled November 30, 
1861, to consider the question of relieving families of volunteers, but what was 
accomplished at this meeting is not on record. The records of the period do 
not contain any valuable information, as the clerk appears to have been always 
in a hurry to go home or to the war. In July, 1862, Associate Judge Darling, 
with Commissioners Howard, Davis and Keyes, resolved to pay |50 for the relief 
of each family of volunteers, and a tax of two and one-half mills was ordered for 
that purpose. In October, 1862, J. W. Starks was appointed commissioner, vice 
D. J. Keyes, while A. P. Brewer took the place of Davis, and B. C. Corwin that 
of Howard. W. S. Oviatt was appointed clerk January 5, 1863. James M. 
Baldwin was elected commissioner in October, 1863, and, with Corwin and 
Brewer, formed the board, and were prominent in managing the affairs of the 
county during these dark days of the Civil war. In August, 1864, the board 
appointed W. W. Brown, county agent, to recruit in tlfe rebel States, empow- 
ering him to offer $100 to recruits for one year; $200 for two years and $300 
for three years. Mr. Brown refused to accept this office on account of ill-health, 
and the commissioners, failing to obtain the services of an agent for this pur- 
pose, withdrew bounty offers and placed the matter of filling the quota in the 
hands of the township authorities. August 20, same year, this resolution was 
rescinded and a $300 bounty offered. G. M. Smith, Baldwin and Brewer were 
commissioners at the close of the war. 

In 1866-67 Messrs. Brewer, Smith and P. M. Fuller were commissioners. 
In June, 1867, J. C. Hamlin contracted to remove the old-time rpof from the 
court-house and place a heavy tin one thereon for $150. In 1868 Reuben Den- 
nis, G. M. Smith and P. M. Fuller formed the board. In July, 1869, the 
proposition to abolish the old spring water supply and establish a deep well 
was carried, and the contract sold to Daly. Charles S'. Rice replaced Fuller 
in December, 1869, and Oviatt took Smith's place in November, 1870. In 
January, 1871, F. King was appointed clerk; in January, 1872, C. C. Melvin 
was appointed treasurer to fill vacancy, and Coleman took the place of Com- 
missioner Dennis. In 1873 J. R. Chadwick was appointed clerk, and Commis- 
sioner Smith resumed his place on the board, vice Rice. Bradford borough 
was incorporated. In 1874 Broder replaced Oviatt. In March, 1875, the com- 
missioners authorized the issue of bonds for $25,000, the proceeds to be used 
in building a jail. On April 6, the southeast corner of square No. 38, bought 
of Keating & Co.', was selected as the site and A. S. Bishop was employed as 
building foreman. In January, 1876, the commissioners-elect, JSenjamin 
Bunker, W. A. Young and Orlando Gallup, qualified, and John R. Chadwick 
was appointed clerk. In December, 1877, William D. Gallup qualified as 
treasurer. In 1879 Messrs. Colegrove, Abbey and Boyer were commissioners. 
H. F. Barbour was appointed clerk at a salary of $500, S. W. Smith, attorney, 
and S. D. Freeman, physician. In June, 1879, the board considered the recom- 
mendation of the grand jury in the matter of building a new court-house, and 
ordered such building to be erected on the site of the old house. In Septem- 
ber, 1879, the Methodist church-house was rented for the purposes of a court- 
room, and October 7, 1879, the building contract was sold to John J. Hogan, 


of Erie, for $75,000. On November 24, the issue of $50, 000- bonds was author- 
ized, and December 16, 1880, a further issue of $60,000. J. W. Beeman was 
treasurer in 1880-81. 

The new court-house was completed, and opened September 12, 1881, B. 
D. Hamlin, presiding, with the following representatives of county sub-divi- 
sions: Joseph Hodges, of Annin; B. C. Havens, James Broder and Loyal 
"Ward, of Bradford; W. E. King, of Ceres; Thomas Conover, of Corydon; John 
Duke, of Duke Centre; Eben Barden and William L. Chrisman, of Eldred; A. 
W. Buchanan, of Foster; Jabez E. Gallup, of Hamlin; James A. Anderson, of 
Hamilton; A. H. Cory, of Keating; Philo Ackley, of Kendall borough; A. M. 
Benton, of Liberty; James Hoop, of Lafayette; A. P. Brewer, of Norwich; 
Arthur Prentiss, of Otto; Adam Martin, of Sergeant; W. Y. McCoy, of Smeth- 
port, and O. D. Coleman, of Wetmore. Lucius Rogers and John K. Chadwick 
were secretaries. That evening Judge H. W. Williams opened the September 
term of court, and P. M. Fuller qualified as associate judge vice F. N. Burn- 
ham, deceased. In January, 1882, commissioners F. S. Johnson, A. T. Pal- 
mer and Andrew Eeilly replaced the commissioners of the court-house building 
days, and appointed John R. Sherwood clerk. In April the erection of fount- 
ains on the square was authorized. In January, 1883, T. A. Morrison was 
appointed county attorney, and E. G. Brown, physician. In July of this year 
more contracts for building iron bridges were entered into. In December, 1883, 
C. C. Melvin qualified as treasurer. 

In September, 1883, a petition signed by a majority of the poor-masters 
was presented to the court asking for an election on the question of establish- 
ing a poor' farm. This was granted, and in February, 1884, 1,611 votes were 
cast in favor of and 885 against such establishment. In March, ] 884, an issue 
of bonds for 150,000 was authorized; in April the Wilcox farm was purchased, 
and E. F. Richmond employed as superintendent of the farm. In April the A. 
I. Wilcox farm, 345 acres, was purchased for $15,515. In May the style of 
the Allegheny county poor buildings was adopted, and S. A. Bishop appointed 
architect. In July the contract for buildings was sold to Davitt, O'Brien & 
Hart for $24,813.18; in Deceinber a further issue of bonds for $15,000 was 
authorized. In April, 1885, bonds for $9,000 were ordered to be issued. In 
May, 1885, D. H. Burnham was appointed general superintendent. In July, 
1885, the building was ready to receive poor persons. In January, 1886, E. 
G. Brown and H. L. McCoy were appointed physicians, and D. H. Burnham, 
superintendent; but in 1887 Dr. McCoy alone was appointed physician. Dr. 
Brown succeeding him in 1889, John R. Chadwick succeeding Burnham as 
general superintendent. C. S. King was appointed superintendent of poor 
farm in January, 1890. 

In January, 1885, Commissioners Andrew Reilly, R. A. Rice and W. D. 
Gallup qualified. In January, 1887, M. B. Greer was appointed county 
clerk; T. A. Morrison was re-appointed attorney, and Dr. S. I. Wells, physician. 
In January, 1888, Commissioners James Aoglun, P. M. Fuller and James A, 
McKean took their seats to serve until January 1, 1891. Robert H. Rose was 
appointed attorney and E. G. Brown, physician, in January, 1889. 

The first mortgage was recorded June 1, 1827. It secured to Norry 
Hooker by Justice Rice 200,000 feet of good, merchantable pine boards, pay- 
able in 1828 for 100,000 feet of similar boards purchased from Hooker that 
year. All the mortgage transactions from 1826 to 1858 are contained in 
Record A or in 473 pages. The mortgage record was contained in Book A and 
part of Book B up to 1874, since which time thirty-three large records have 



been filled, and isince 1864 sixty- three records of deeds and twelve miscella- 
neous records. 

During Asa Sartwell' s administration of the prothonotary' s office the county 
commissioners declared 100,000 acres in McKean county and 50,000 acres in 
Potter county forfeited for non-payment of taxes. He commenced to purchase 
such lands at from 3 to 10 cents per acre, and continued until he claimed about 
250,000 acres or even more. In time he sold to Nevy York lumbermen the 
pine, hemlock and maple forests, and with the proceeds purchased from the 
Binghams a tract of 55,000 acres in this county (the greater part of which 
floats on an ocean of oil), Joe E. Ingersoll and William Miller being the agents 
of the estate at the time. In 1836 Mr. Sartwell sold all his lands, as pur- 
chased from the Holland Company in Jeiferson county, as well as the Kersey 
tract in Jefferson and Clearfield counties to the United States Land Company 
of Boston. 

The townships of McKean county established when the county was or- 
ganized are Sergeant and Ceres. Keating township was established in 1824; 
Bradford township, in 1828; Liberty, in 1828; Corydon, in 1829; Hamilton, in 
1834; Norwich, in 1835; Lafayette and Eldred, in 1843; Hamlin, in 1844; 
Otto, in 1854, and Annin, in 1860. Smethport was organized in 1853; Brad- 
ford borough, in 1878; Poster township, in 1880, and Eldred, Duke Centre 
(since discontinued) and Kane boroughs since 1878; Port Allegany was or- 
ganized in 1882, Kendall borough in 1881. 



First Coukts— Character ok the Eaelx Bench and I3ak, with Dates of Ad- 
mission OF Members Prior to 1878— Celebrated CAUSEf— Judges and As- 
sociate Judges— Prominent Attorneys, Prothonotaries, etc.— Attor- 
neys Admitted to the McKean County Bar since May, 1878, Term— Oki.o 
J. Hamlin— John W. Hoave. 

THE first court of McKean county was held at Smethport, September 25, 
1826. Edward Herrick presided, with Joseph Otto and Joel Bishop as- 
sociate judges. Prothonotary Timothy Newell and Sheriff Wright were pres- 
ent, while the bar of the circuit was represented by Anson Parsons* a young 
lawyer from Lycoming county (deputy attorney- general), subsequently judge 
of the Philadelphia courts; Ellis Lewis,* of Wellsboro, later a judge of the 
supreme court; William Garretson,* and Peter E. Adams,* of Tioga county, 
later judge of the Peoria circait, in Illinois; Simon Kenny,* of Towanda, 
Penn. ; Henry Bryan* and Chauncey J. Fox,* of Olean, N. Y. In December 
of this year Orlo J. Hamlin* and John W. Howe* were admitted to the bar. 
Mr. Howe died in 1873, and his wife, Sallie Howe, died April 17, 1880. In 
February, 1827, Clarendon Rathbone, of Tioga county, was admitted, but no 
record is made of the May, September and December terms of that year. On 
the order book of 1826, however, there are no names of jurors given, but in 
May, 1827, the following-named citizens were paid small sums for jury service; 

* Deceased. 


AVilliam Brewer, E. J. Cook, Levi Coats. Oliver Felt, John Smith, Jacob 
Minard, Jonathan Colegrove and William Bell. The other members, it is to be 
presumed, did not call for warrants. In September, 1827, the grand jury 
served two days. The members were William Housler, Eobert King, George 
Jackox, Gideon Irons, Jacob Knapp, Simeon M. Morris, Jacob DeWitt, Will- 
iam Eice, Hugh Moore, Harvey Abbey, Benjamin Billins, William Moore, Henry 
Garlick, Levi Davis, John E. Spencer, Ira H. Curtis, John Applebee, Ealph 
Hill, Ebenezer Burbanks, Smith VVolcott and Essek Smith. In February 
and May, 1828, court was regularly opened, and in September Horace Willis- 
ton, of Bradford county, Eobert Fleming, of Lycoming, George Miles, of Al- 
legany, N. Y., and George A. Y. Crocker, of Cattaraugus, N. Y,, were ad- 

Court was also held in December, 1828, and four terms were held in 1829, 
James Lowrey, * of Tioga county, being admitted in September. In February, 
1830, Judges Otto* and Bishop* were present; Eichard Chadwick* was pro- 
thonotary; S. Sartwell, Jr., sheriff; George Darling, coroner; Levi Bennett, 
crier. Judge Herrick* presided; Justus Goodwin,* of Tioga, and D. C. 
Bryan,* of Cattaraugus county, N. Y., were admitted, and the former ac- 
cepted the office of deputy attorney-general which O. J. Hamlin declined. 
In September William Lowe,* of Cattaraugus county, was admitted, and also 
Abner C. Harding,* of Union county. Eobert G. White,* of Tioga county, 
•was admitted in December, 1830. 

Eegular terms of court were held in 1881, with the judges and the lawyers 
of the old bar present. In February, 1832, Messrs. N. H. Purple* & May- 
nard* were admitted; in May, John E. Niles, ex gratia; in December, L. B. 
Cole,* of Coudersport, and S. M. Eussell,* of Olean, became members of the 
bar. In May, 1833, Asa Sartwell signed the record as prothonotary ; in Sep- 
tember, James Armstrong, of Lycoming, and Josiah Emery, of Tioga, signed 
the roll, and in March, 1834, W. S. Oviatt and E. Patterson. P. B. Depew 
was admitted in June, also Horace M. Bliss. Lawyer White was present in 
September. Hiram Payne and Dr. W. Y. McCoy were appointed school 
inspectors for Keating township, and L. E. Hawkins was then deputy clerk. 
T. M. Keeler and Eli Eees were appointed school inspectors for Wharton 
township, in March, 1835. In September C. B. Curtis, of Warren, was 
admitted to the bar, and also Benjamin Bartholomew, A. S. Tiven and James 
D. Bryan. In December Judge N. B. Eldred presided. Joseph P. King was 
appointed crier, and Thomas Struthers, of Warren, signed the attorney's roll. 
The May term of 1836 was held before Judges Otto and Bishop. Messrs. 
Hamlin and Niles were present as attorneys; F. B. Hamlin was admitted to 
the bar; tavern licenses were granted to P. W. Beach, of Smethport, and David 
Benson, of Ceres. In September Judge Eldred was present, with Attorneys 
Hamlin, Niles, Payne, Johnson, Bartholomew, Curtis, Wetmore, F. B. Ham- 
lin and L. B. Cole. George Weirder, a German, was naturalized at this 
time. A few insolvent petitions were presented, and the property of the debt- 
ors assigned for creditors' use. Probate business was also transacted. In 
February, 1837, Attorneys Johnson, Purple, Maynard and Bryan, with those 
hitherto named, were present. 

In December the divorce" suit of T. B. Shepperd vs. L. Shepperd was 
entered, and also a similar suit by W. B. Otto vs. Lucy O. Otto, but the latter 
was granted her petition in 1838. Testimony regarding the death of Elihu 
Chadwick, a Eevolutionary soldier, showed that he died August 30, 1837, 
leaving his widow, Kebekah. In February, 1838, Attorney DePue was pres- 

* Deceased. 


ent, and Anson ' Gibbs, of Cattaraugus county, N. Y. , was admitted. In May 
S. P. Johnson was appointed deputy attorney-general for McKean county. , J. 
Lowry practiced in this court during the fall term. D. C. Woodcock was 
admitted in December, and prosecuted the indictment for murder against 
Joseph and Sarah Brush. In this case the jury, comprising Erastus Cowles, 
Simeon Morris, David Crow, John Brockham, Eichard Renshaw, Joseph 0. 
Coleman, Samuel Holland, Jr., Walter Brush, Amos Flatt, William Smith, A. 
P. Barnaby and Joseph Rhodes, found the prisoners not guilty on the 22d. 
At this time a horn was used in calling court. In February, 1839, tavern 
licenses were granted to J. S. McCall, William Gibbs and Samuel Eastey. In 
May William A. Williams* was admitted to the bar. In September a lawyer 
named White appeared, and in December Judge McCalmont presided. Cros- 
by W. Ellis was admitted an attorney, also L. P. Williston and J. C. Knox, 
and in 1841 Alexander McDougall. In February, 1841, The Tomahawk was 
declared a nuisance by the grand jury. President Judge McCalmont, with 
associates, W. P. Wilcox and S. Sartwell, were present in May. Sheriff Rich- 
mond took McCoy's place, while Smith still held the office of coroner. M. 
Gallaher was admitted to the bar in September, and in November, 1842, H. 
W. Smith and G. W. Scofield. In 1843 N. White replaced Wilcox on the 
bench. In 1844 the name of Attorney Brown appears, and in September, 
1845, N. W. Goodrich and John McCalmont were admitted, and Isaac Ben- 
son permitted to practice. Nelson Richmond was appointed deputy sheriff, 
and in May, 1846, John K. Williams was admitted to the bar, and in Septem- 
ber Byron D. Hamlin was examined and admitted, and resolutions on the 
death of Judge White adopted. C. B. Curtis was appointed deputy attorney- 
general in December, 1846; Ford was sheriff. Joseph Morse was associate 
judge in 1847, succeeding I. S. Holmes, and A. S. Arnold held over. Attorney 
Knox's name was enrolled here in September, and also that of J. S. Mann. 
In June, 1849, Horace Williston was president judge and W. A. Williams, 
prosecutor. H. W. Souther was admitted to practice here, and Bard was 
sheriff. In January, 1850, the old court-house was considered unsafe, and 
court was held in the Methodist church. There the trial of Uzza Bobbins was 
commenced, with O. J. Hamlin, Isaac Benson and N. W. Goodrich, prosecut- 
ing; S. P. Johnson, C. B. Curtis, C. W. Ellis and L. D. Wetmore, defending. 
Uzza Bobbins was hanged August 30, 1850, and buried, but during the night 
the earth was removed, the murderer's head cut off, and carried to a carpen- 
ter's shop, where it was found next day, and replaced in the grave by a com- 
mittee of citizens. Isaac G. Gordon was admitted in January, 1850, and C. 
C. Green and Arthur G. Olmsted, in October. A. D. Hamlin qualified as 
county surveyor. In 1851 Colegrove was sheriff, and Corwin, coroner. George 
R. Barrett was admitted to the bar in June, and *J. C. Backus, M. W. Aldrich 
and A. F. Frazer, in October. In January, 1852, Judges 'R. G. White, K. 
Chadwick and 0. L. Stanton, with Sheriff Bennett, were present. F. W. 
Knox and Charles B. Curtis were permitted to practice here. S. F. C. Hyde 
took Eichard Chadwick'e place as prothonotary. In February, 1858, the court 
refused tavern license to eleven applicants. A year later E. B, Eldred prac- 
ticed here. In September, 1854, Warren Cowles was admitted, and in Febru- 
ary, 1856, Oliver Payne was examined and enrolled as an attorney, while H. 
B. McKean and E. A. Brooks were permitted to practice here. In December 
Samuel C. Hyde signed the records as prothonotary, Judge White was presi- 
dent of the court, with S. Holmes and J. Darling, associates. In March, 1858, 
the bar petitioned for the removal of H. B. King, the old court crier, and for 

* Deceased. 


<3-. C. DeGolier's appointment. This petition was granted. In June, 1858, 
Judge John Galbraith, of Brie, presided. H. G. Eogers and John H. Boyle 
were admitted to the bar, and in December William A. Nichols' name appears 
as a member of the bar. C. B. Curtis presided, vice White, in June, 1859. 
In September of that year Joseph J. Bobbins was tried for firing John Dexter' s 
house, and acquitted. B. D. Hamlin and Prosecutor Cowles represented the 
State, while L. D. Wetmore and W. A. Williams defended, twenty witnesses 
being called for the defense and twenty for the State. The trial of James 
Dunn, for the murder of James Stocker, in Ceres township, July 1, took place 
at this time, and resulted in a verdict of guilty in the second degree, in June, 
186(); W. Cowles and L. D. Wetmore prosecuted, while B. D. Hamlin and S. 
P. Johnson defended. He was sentenced by Judge White to a fine of one 
dollar costs, and to twelve years solitary confinement. A. B. Armstrong, 
Philetus Ford and Samuel C. Hyde were admitted in 1860. In December, 
1861, Attorney Struthers' name appears. Judge Peabody took the place of 
Judge Holmes. Fred. E. Smith was admitted in July, 1862, and J. W. 
Eyan, J. W. Conley and W. W. Williard, in December. In February, 1863, 
J. B. Newton and G-. W. DeCamp were admitted. 

In 1865 Judge Williams, with Associates Darling and Peabody, presided. 
The petition for the incorporation of Kane was reported on favorably. Attor- 
neys Laurie J. Blakely and Beardsley were admitted, and Wallace W. 

Brown appointed district attorney, vice Cowles, resigned. Judges A. T. Bar- 
den and A. N. Taylor were present in December, 1866, with Judge Williams, 
presiding; William J. Milliken was admitted to the law circle, and William K. 
King was appointed county surveyor. In February, 1868, Nelson Medbery 
was appointed crier of the court, vice King, but the latter was reappointed. 
Henry King was admitted to the bar in June of that year, and Charles R. 
Saunders, in February, 1869. The petition against the election of C. C. Mel- 
vin as treasurer was received in December, 1870, and was considered and re- 
considered until the subject was dropped. Manley Crosby was admitted to the 
bar in June, 1871, and Delano R. Hamlin's* name appears on the records in 
August of that year. Associate Judges W. S. Brownell and Loyal Ward 
qualified in December, H. W. Williams presiding, and in February, 1872, 
S. F. Wilson, the additional law judge, was present. At this session the 
name of E. Brown appears as attorney. D. C. Larrabee* was admitted in 
April, and George A. Rathbun in June, when the charge of murder against 
the Burns brothers was tried, one of whom was found guilty of murder in the 
second degree and sentenced to twelve years solitary confinement. Messrs. 
King, Williams and Clark prosecuted, while Backus and Milliken defended. In 
September F. W. Paine was admitted, the death of Warren Cowles announced, 
and H. E. Brown, of Warren, permitted to practice here, and later John G. 
Hall,* of Elk county. In June, 1873, Andrew Tracy signed the roll of attor- 
neys. J. R. CJark was present as an attorney in the fall, and Robert H. Rose 
was admitted to the bar. At this term the celebrated hunter, Leroy Lyman, 
was indicted for killing deer out of season. In June, 1874, Charles Dinsmore, 
of Warren, was admitted to practice, S. W. Smith in September, also F. D. 
Leet, of Cameron county; R. B. Power qualified as stenographer. The 
grand jury declared the jail and outbuildings nuisances; in December P. 
R. Cotter and C. Hollenbeck appeafed as attorneys, and W. M. Lindsey was 
admitted. Edward Crow was indicted by a coroner's jury of killing Cal- 
vin H. Hobar, at Port Allegany, August 3, 1874. The same year he was 
tried for this offense and sentenced to a five-years term. He was defended by 

* Deceased. 


A. G. Olmsted, W. A. Williams and Charles Dolan. Charles H. Noyes was 
enrolled in September, 1875, and in December the contested election case — C. 
K. Sartwell vs. John R. Chadwick — in re office of prothonotary, was entered. 

B. A. Green was admitted to the bar at this time. In February, 1876, A. W. 
Barry, M. F. Elliott and George A. Berry were admitted attorneys, and H. N. 
Gardiner appointed stenographer. Eugene MulJin signed the roll in June, 
1876, and Roger Sherman, C. J- Curtis and G. W. Kelly in December. Dur- 
ing the year a number of divorce cases were presented, and the records of the 
court began to assume large proportions as the population increased. In Feb- 
ruary, 1877, Associate Judges Brownell and F. N. Burnham were present; 
among the members of the bar were *0. A. Hotchkiss, R. B. Stone, L. H. Cobb 
and C. H. Sherwood. Julius Byles was admitted a member. In September 
Sheridan Gorton, David Sterrett and H. McClure were admitted; in October 
H. C. Dornan, and in December D. E. Dufton, J. C. Sturgeon and C. L. 
Peck. In February, 1878, A. F. Bole was admitted and C. D. Longfellow 
was enrolled; in April J. C. Johnson, W. I. Lewis and W. B. Graves were en- 
rolled as members, and E. B. McCleery was admitted. Edward McSweeney's 
name appears upon the records of 1876, and also that of W. B. Boggs. 

Andrew Tracy, a young lawyer of Smethport, was tried in February, 1879, 
for the murder of his cousin, Miss Mary Reilly, at Smethport. District At- 
torney S.. W. Smith, M. F. Elliott and W. W. Brown represented ' the State, 
while C. B. Curtis, A. B. Richmond, George A. Jenka, A. G. Olmsted and N. 
McSweeney defended. He was found guilty of murder, and, in April, sen- 
tenced by Judge Williams to death. The Judge, in passing sentence, saidr 
" The victim was a friend, not an enemy; a relative by blood; a modest and 
lovely woman, whose only offense was that she had struggled to overcome her 
affection for you, from a sense of duty toward the church to which she be- 
longed, and toward her parents whom she honored. ' ' Every effort was made 
to save this unfortunate man, but the board of pardons refusing to interfere 
with the sentence the law was carried into effect in December, 1879. This 
tragedy of September 18, 1878, may be said to have broken up one of the 
most hospitable homes of McKean county. 

The trial of Robert Butler for murder took place in March, 1880, resulting 
in a sentence of eight years solitary confinement. In December, 1886, the 
trial of John Thompson for the murder, on previous July 24, of John Yohe at 
Mount Jewett was heard. Messrs. Koester, Cotter, Mullin and McClure rep- 
resented the State, while Morrison, Apple, Elliott and Hastings defended. He 
was found guilty of mqpslaughter and sentenced to imprisonment. 

Anthony Anderson Oaks, a Swede, was tried in May, 1889, for the murder 
of Henry Robinson, in Long Hollow, Annin township, February 12, 1889, 
Messrs. Sturgeon and P. R. Cotter prosecuting, and Messrs. Mullin and Mc- 
Clure defending. . . .In October, 1889, one of the heaviest cases ever brought 
before this court was presented — The McKean & Elk Land & Improvement 
Company vs. Elizabeth D. Kane. Plaintiffs originally owned 120,000 acres 
of land in this section of country, of which Gen. T. L. Kane was agent. The 
case involved the title to a large portion of this territory. A brilliant array of 
legal talent was employed in the litigation. F. B. Gowan and William W. 
Wilbank, both of Philadelphia, and R. B. Stone, of Bradford, were for the 
prosecution, and C. H. McCauley, of IJidgway, J. G. Johnson and E. W. 
Hanson, of Philadelphia, B. D. Hamlin, of Smethport, and M. F. Elliott, of 
Wellsboro, represented the defendant. Judgment was rendered in favor of 
Mrs. Kane, and the title to the lands and lots thereby settled. 

* Deceased. 


In February, 1890, a Salvation Army case was presented to the grand jury. 
Three of the bills, ignored by that body, were brought by Capt. Charles Lock- 
■yey, the commander of the Salvation Army in Bradford. He charged two boys 
with disturbing one of the meetings at their barracks. In addition to ignoring 
the bills the grand jury placed the costs upon the prosecutor. The costs of 
the three cases amounted to 193.88. Neither the captain nor the members of 
his army who were present in court had the money, and the captain was com- 
mitted to jail in defaiilt thereof. The parting scene between the captain and 
his followers was an emotional one. He kissed the weeping sisters amid a 
chorus of "God bless you," and the prison door closed. The inmates of the 
jail, upon seeing the badge of their new comrade, welcomed him with a shout 
and a rapturous medley of "war cry" choruses. 

Another bill 'was presented to this jury asking an indictment for assault 
against G. W. Kelly. This indictment was the outcome of the trouble between 
the members of the W. V. R. U. which the national president, Mrs. Camp- 
bell, attempted to adjust, and whom Kelly had arrested for the Jarceny of a 
charter. Kelly had the costs to pay in that case, when Mrs. Campbell was 
discharged. The grand jury in ignoring the bill against Kelly placed the costs 
on the county. 

The attorneys admitted to practice here since the May term of 1878 are 
named 8,8 follows: 

George A. Allen, 1878; James Addle, 1877; George W. Allen, 1879; Isaac Ash and 
Harrison Allen, 1880; John N. Apple, 1882, and Fred L. Armstrong, 1884. 

John B. Brawley, 1877; Lewis F. Barger, W. D. Brown, C. L. Baker, R. C. Beach 
F. L. Blackman, David Ball, W. E. Burdick and M. H. Byles, 1879; James Boyce H 
W. BlakeSlee and Eben Brewer, 1880; B. T. Ball and W. C. Brown, 1881; Joseph 'w. 
Bouton and C. Benedict, 1885; George H. Bemis and Charles E. Boyle, 1887. 

W. B. Chapman, 1877; 8. E. Cheeseman, E. Grossman, A. A. Craig, F. J. Coibin* 
and C. L. Covell, 1878; John B. Chapman, S. M. Crosby and J. H. Cunningham, 1879; 
Mahlon J. Colcord and David Cameron, 1883; A. L. Cole and James Cable, 1889. 

M. E. Dunlap and W. M. Dame, 1878; John W. Dunkle, 1881; Joshua Douglass, 1888; 
W. F. Doyle, 1887, and 8. M. Decker, 1889. 

Thomas F. Emmens and M. T. H. Elliott, 1880. 
John Forrest, 1879; W. L. Poster, 1883; G. N. Frazier, 1886. 

W. B. Graves, 1878; James George, F. F. Guthrie and J. T. Qealy, 1879; S. 8. 

Geisinger, 1880; Henry N. Gardner, 1883; Sam. Trumbine, 1885, and 8. B. Griffith, 1886. 

D. 8. Herron, 1878; P. T. Hallock, William C. Holahan and C. A. Hitchcock, 1879; 

H. D. Hancock, M. J. Heywang, A. P. Huey and George H. Higgins, 1880; Watson £. 

Hinckley, F. W. Hastings, Jacob Hockley, 1881; T. B. Hoover, 1882; H. J. Hammond, 

; J. D. Hancock, 1885, and C. Heydrick, 1889. 

H. C. Johns, 1878: David H. Jack. 1880; Charles E. Judd, 1884; A. L. Kinkead, 1878; 
E. Koester, J. L. Kinkead and E. L, Keenan, 1879; W. C. Kerr, 1880; H. O. Kline, 1881; 
George C. King, 1883. 

W. J. Lewis, 1878; A. H. Low, 1879; William L. LilKbridge, 1881; W. H. Latham, 
1884; J. W. Lee, 1886, and George A. Lukehart, 1888. 

*B. 8. McAllister, A. M. Metzger and C. H. McCauley, 1877; *E. B. McCleery, E. R. 
Mayo, G. B. McCalmont, H. N. Mclntyre and William McSweeney, 1878; W. M. Mere- 
dith, Samuel Minbr, Graham McParlane, W. A. Mason, C. H. McKee, H. J. Muse, Henry 
Mc8weeney, T. A. Morrison, Robert Mackwood, William E. Marsh, Joseph M. McClure 
and J. O. Marshall, 1879; J. C. Metzger, Miles 8. Plummer and J. V. Mclntyre, 1880; 
Joseph A. McDonald, 1881; H. C. McCormack and J. P. McNarney, 1883; James J. Mc- 
Carthy, 1884; ChBirles McCandless, 1885; T. F. Mullln, 1886; J, B. McAllister and R. M. 
Magee, 1888. 

Herman H. North, 1880; 8amuel T. Neill, February, 1890. 

N. M. Orr and *Omer Osmer, 1878; John Omerod, 1883; J. H. Osmer, 1883; George 
M. Orr, 1887. 

Louis K. Purviance and H. 8, Payson, 1879; M. J. Peck. 1887. 

A- B. Richmond, 1878; F. D. Reaves, 1879; George L. Roberts, 1880; L. Rosenzweig 
and Hamlet E. Rossell, 1881; Thomas F. Richmond, 1883; J. E. Rounseville, 1888, and 
W. E. Rice, October 15, 1889. 

G. F. 8tone, N. B. Smiley* and J. W. Shaw, 1878; H. C. Scoville, G. A. Sturgeon, 

* Removed by death or emigration. 


William Svvanson, P. L. Seeley, William A. Stone and G. J. Stranahan, 1879; O. L. Sny- 
der and M. Sullivan, 1880; H. N. Snyder, 1881, and W. R. Scott, 1884. 

E. E. Tail, 1883; 0. C. Thompson, 1885. 

J. K. Wilson, J. K. Wallace and *C. L. Wescott, 1878; W. P. Weston, 1879; 0. H. 
Wheeler, A. Leo Weil, George J. Wolfe, 1880; Irvine Watson, 1883; M. A. K. Werdner, 
1883; S. C. White, 1887. 

Iq the history of Stnethport the first night's experience of the pioneer law- 
yer. Orlo J. Hamlin, at the Willard House is described. Next morning Paul 
E. Scull and Judge Sartwell, then the only merchants at the county seat, in- 
vited him to visit the court-house. Accepting, the trio had to creep along the 
fence to escape the quagmire then occupying the present main street. To 
ameliorate matters, the merchants offered the young lavyyer a retaining fee of 
J5(), and immediately the cloud of disappointment vanished, and Smethport 
seemed clad in sunshine. He decided to stay, and was permitted to occupy the 
west wing of the brick court-house, then completed. Obtaining some rough 
furniture he ranged " Blaokstone, " "Peak's Evidence " and a borrowed vol- 
ume of " Purdonis Digest " on tho cross-legged pine table, and in December, 
18'26, opened the first law office in McKean county. Practice was very primitive 
then. Prior to his coming a justice of the peace, afterward an associate judge 
here, rendered a judgment against the defendant for "six yards of calico" 
(enough then to dress a woman), and in another case for "twenty- five hemlock 
saw logs." The constable did not know how to execute the judgmenfce legally, 
and time alone canceled them. The first case in which Mr. Hamlin partici- 
pated here was tried in the Willard tavern. An employe of a saw-mill owner 
sued his employer for assault and battery with intent to kill. Hamlin was 

retained for the defense, while Counselor T prosecuted. Thef counselor 

was athletic and illiterate, but naturally a speaker and full of assurance. The 
bar-room was crowded, and the young lawyer determined to prove his profes- 
sional training. He was very technical, and the justice was there to listen. 
Eleek Hall, equally powerful as a counselor, was then bar-tender, and while 
the case proceeded, he helped the audience to what drinks were called for. 
Mr. Hamlin, knowing the physical character of his opponent, called Hall to 
assist him, and when Hamlin had examined and cross-examined the witnesses 

and badgered the counselor, he would wink to Hall to answer Counselor T . 

Eleek would step forward, smacking his lips and foaming with vehemence, 
and continue a doggerel speech until exhausted. The sun had set, and the jus- 
tice had sent the case to quarter sessions, holding the mill owner under bonds. 
The latter soon drove away his employe, holding his wife as hostage for a small 
debt. At quarter sessions the banished employe did not appear nor did he ever 
come to claim the wife he left as a hostage. 

About the third week in December, 1826, John W. Howe came to Smeth- 
port, ostensibly to seek employment as a school-teacher. His baggage was a 
small wooden box, which proved to contain only law books. The people soon 
learned that he was a lawyer and not a teacher. He was something of a wag, 
eccentric, sensible, honorable and energetic. After a stay of six years he 
moved to Franklin, Penn. , and thence to Meadville. In M^, 1827, Thomas 
Puller came hither to settle, but after a few months returned to Bethany, N. Y. 

In the spring of this year Counselor T fell into a hornets' nest. It appears 

Hamlin, Howe and Puller determined to oust this individual, and their deter- 
mination succeeded ; for the counselor, being unable to make war against the 
trio, became irritable and sat down, exhausted. Leaving Smethport at once, 
he never returned to practice here. No doubt he felt like the physician in the 
drama of Macbeth: 

Were I from Dunsinane away and clear. 
Profit again should hardly draw me here. 




Introductory— Orlo J. Hamlin— Elections for Governor, 1835— Ele'ctions 
FROM 1840 to 1883— General Elections, 1884 to 1889— Prohibitory Amend- 
ment Vote, 1889. 

THE early election returns of McKean county are among the very few 
records which have been lost; so that the writer had to rely upon the 
commissioners' records as well as court records for the names of men successful 
in the political battles prior to 1840. 

In 1831-33 Orlo J. Hamlin represented the district in the legislature, and 
was re-nominated in 1833 ; but his name not being placed on the legislative 
ticket in Lycoming county he withdrew. He refused the nomination in 1835, 
but served in the great constitutional convention until the poor condition of his 
health compelled him to retire, when Hiram Payne, the alternate, took his 
seat. It was Delegate Hamlin who proposed to give a representative to each 
county, a proposition which has been carried out only in recent years. 

In 1835 there was an election for governor. Wolf being the nominee of the 
Democrats, and Joseph Ritner of the Anti-Masonic party. When the votes 
were counted Wolf was leading, and the merry Democrats of McKean county 
never dreamed of such a thing as defeat. To memorialize this victory a party 
ot Democrats went out at night and imitated the howls of the wolf so thor- 
oughly that Squire Williams arose from his bed to re-examine the sheep-fold. 
Next day he met Squire Crow, Asa Sartwell, and others, to whom he related 
liis night's experience with the pack of wolves; but Squire Crow knew all 
about the howlers, and turning to his Democratic audience said, " Well, boys, 
you have made your last howl." He was correct, for Eitner was chosen gov- 
ernor. Among the old voters of the county are N. W. Abbey, of Smethport; 
H. W. Burlingame, of Kasson; J. P. Evans, of Norwich; M. Ostrander, of 
Liberty, and Moses Dillenbach, of Annin, all of whom voted for Harrison in 
1840. Philetus Ford and A. H. Cory gave their votes to Martin Van Buren. 
C. D. Calkins, of East Smethport is said, by B. D. Hamlin, to have voted that 
year. Jeremiah Chadwick was here then. John Cousin, now of Friendship, 
N. Y. ; Amos Briggs, still a resident; Daniel Crossmire, a resident of Farmers 
Valley; James Daly, Jabez F. Gallup, James Hoop, and a few others named 
in the fownship sketches, are living representatives of the voters of 1840. 

The elections of 1840 gave 263 Harrison votes to Bernard Connelly, Jr. , 
and 275 Van Buren votes to William Philson, the presidential electors. Davis 
Dimmock,. Jr. , received 305 votes and George Kress 211, for congress; James 
L. Gillis (D.) 266, and Perry Shearman (W.) 240, for assembly; Nelson Eich- 
mond (D.) 323, and James Taylor (W.) 205, for sherifP; Abner O. Hunt (D.) 
-307, and Leavitt C. Little (W.) 220 votes for commissioner; Samuel Eastey 
(D.) 297, and William Smith (W.), of Ceres, 220 votes for auditor. 

In 1841 L. B. Dunham (D.) received 242 votes, and C. C. Gaskill(W.) 
187, for representative; Jedediah Darling (W.) was elected coroner; David 
■Crow (W.), treasurer; Nathaniel Bobbins (D.), commissioner, and Ben. C. 
Corwin (D.), auditor. 


In 1842 the county gave marked majorities to William P. Wilcox for 
senator; Joseph Y. James for representative; F. B. Hamlin for prothono- 
tary, and Asa P. Barnaby, for auditor, all Democrats. 

In 1843 Henry Chapin was chosen treasurer; David E. Bennett, sheriff, 
and J. F. Melvin, auditor. At this time the question of establishing a poor- 
house was defeated by a vote of 310 contra, 163 pro. The successful can- 
didates were all Democrats. 

The elections of 1844 show 419 votes for the Democratic elector, N. B. 
Eldred; 340 for John Killinger (W.), and 3 for James Wood, the elector 
on the Abolition ticket. The vote for member of congress was given in the 
same ratio to James Thompson, Charles M. Reed and John S. Mann, respect- 
ively. For the assembly and county offices there were only Democratic and 
Whig candidates, Easselas Brown receiving 408 votes, and L. C. Little re- 
ceiving 314, for representative; Oshea E. Bennett (D.) was chosen coroner, 
A. H. Cory (D.) auditor. There were 151 votes recorded for and 498 against 
the sale of the main line of the Pennsylvania canal and railway. The three 
Abolitionists were John King, Henry Chevalier and Eleazer Wright. 

In 1845 Thomas Struthers (W.) received a majority over James L. Gillis 
(D.) for senator, Benjamin Bartholomew (W.) over Sol. Sartwell, Jr. (D.), for 
representative; Eichard Chadwick (W.) over W. A. Williams (D.) for pro- 
thonotary; Benjamin C. Corwin (D.) was elected treasurer almost unani- 
mously, and Joseph Morse (D.), auditor. 

James Thompson (D.) defeated James Campbell (W.) for congress in 1846 
in this county; Henry P. Kinnear (W.) received a majority over Solomon 
Sartwell for representative; Philetus Ford (D.) defeated Jeremiah Chadwick 
(W.) for the office of sheriff, and J. F. Gallup (D.) was chosen auditor. The 
charge of youth was preferred against Mr. Ford by the friends of Chadwick, 
who was then eight years younger than the victor. 

In. 1847 Alonzo I. Wilcox (D.) received a majority vote for representative; 
Ezra Bard (D.) for treasurer; B. C. Corwin (D.) was elected coroner, and J. 
F. Melvin (D.) and E. F. Carrier (D.), auditors. 

The elections of 1848 showed 367 votes for Taylor and Fillmore; 418 for 
Louis Cass and Butler, and 22 for Van Buren and Adams. James Thompson 
(D.) received a majority for congress; Timothy Ives (D.) for senator; A. I. 
Wilcox (D.) for representative; Eichard Chadwick (W.) for prothonotary ; 
Samuel Smith (D.) defeated William K. King (W.) for treasurer; B. C. Corwin 
(D.) defeated Jedediah Darling (W.) for coroner, while O. L. Stanton (D.) and 
Benjamin F. Cory (D.) were chosen auditors. 

In 1849 Glen W. Scofield (D. ) carried the county for representative; Ezra 
Bard (D. ) was chosen sheriff, and A. K. Johnson (D. ), auditor. Sheriff Bard 
died during his term, when W. J. Colegrove (W.) was appointed. 

Carlton B. Curtis (D.) received 454 votes and J. H. Walther (W.) "^92 for 
congress in 1850; W. J. Hemphill (D.) was chosen representative; Byron D. 
Hamlin (D.), treasurer by 391 votes against 356 received by Jedediah Darling 
(W.); Eobert Hines, Jr. (D.) was elected auditor; A. D. Hamlin (D.), county 
surveyor; William A. Williams (D.), district attorney by 84 to 54 received 
by N. W. Goodrich, while 588 votes were recorded for Constitutional Amend- 
ment and 2 against it. 

In 1851 James L. Gillis (D.) defeated Eeuben Winslow (W.) here for 
representative; Eobert G. White (D.) was elected president judge, receiving 
the whole vote (799). Eichard Chadwick (W.) and O. L. Stanton (D.) re- 
ceived majority votes for associate judges; David E. Bennett (D.) was chosen 
sheriff; A. W. Needham (W.), coroner; PaulE. Scull (D.), prothonotary; John 


C. Backus (D.), recorder, by a vote of 412 against 366 for C. D. Webster (W.), 
and 0. K. Sartwell (D.), auditor. 

The elections of ] 852 gave 597 votes to Pierce and King for Democratic 
president and vice-president; 405 to Scott and Graham, Whigs, and 78 to 
Hale and Julien, Free- soil candidates. C. B. Curtis (D.) defeated Patrick 
Kerr (W.) for congress; Byron D. Hamlin (D.) received a majority vote for 
senator, but the election was almost unanimous; A. S. Arnold (D.) for repre- 
sentative; B. O. Burdick (D.) for auditor; Jedediah Darling (W.) for treas- 
urer, and William Tenney (W.) for coroner. 

In 1853 A. S. Arnold (D.) was re-elected representative; N. W. Goodrich 
(D.), prosecuting attorney; Henry Hamlin (D.), auditor; Jasper Marsh (D.), 
surveyor; A. M. Benton (D. ), commissioner. 

David Barclay (D.) received 441 votes for congress in 1854, against 228 
recorded for Eichard Arthur (W. ), Alexander Caldwell (D. ) received a large 
majority for representative; William M. Smith (D.) for sheriff; Wilber H. 
Sartwell (D.) for treasurer; Samuel C. Hyde (D.) for prothonotary ; Jasper 
Marsh (D. ) for recorder, John Campbell for auditor, and John C. Backus (D. ) 
for prosecuting attorney. The prohibitory liquor law was defeated by a vote 
of 481 against 415. 

In 1855 Henry Souther (W. and K. N.) received a majority vote for sena- 
tor; William A. Williams (D.) for representative, and A. J. Otto (D.) for 

The elections of 1856 show majorities for James S. Myers (E.) for con- 
gress; John Brooks (E.) for representative; Jedediah Darling (E.) and Syl- 
vanus Holmes (E.), associate judges; W. A. Williams (E.), treasurer; Joseph 
Housler (E.) and B. C. Corwin (D.), auditors; Alexander T. Barden (E.), 
coroner, and Horatio Bell (E.), surveyor. The vote in favor of Constitu- 
tional Amendment was 257 and against it 126. 

In 1857 Eobert Matson (D.) and W. P. Wilcox (D.) had the highest num- 
ber of votes for representatives; Joseph Morse (D.) was elected sheriff; 
Samuel C. Hyde (D.), prothonotary; C. K. Sartwell (D.), recorder; L. E. 
Wisner (D.) coroner; A. L. Eifle (E.) and Gideon Irons (D.), overseers of the 
poor; E. B. Eldred (D.), prosecuting attorney. 

In 1858 Chapin Hall (E.) carried the county for congress by a vote of 
835 against 479 recorded for James L. Gillis (D.); Enos Parsons (E.) was 
elected treasurer; V. P. Carter (E.), auditor; Nathan Dennis (D.), coroner, 
and Joseph Wilks (D.), poor-house commissioner. 

In 1859 A. M. Benton (D.) received 649 votes; T. Jefferson Boyer (D.) 
599, I. G. Gordon (E.) 559, and William A. Nichols (E.) 578 for repre- 
sentatives; J. C. Hamlin (D.) and G. B. Gillett (D.) were chosen auditors, 
and Dr. George Darling (E.), coroner. At this time the district comprised 
MoKean, Elk, Clearfield, Jefferson and Forest counties. 

In 1860 Henry Souther, Eepublioan elector, received 1,077 votes; Byron D. 
Hamlin, Democratic, 591, and Joseph H. Otswick, Union, two votes; John 
Patton received the Eepublican vote for congress, and James E. Kerr, the- 
Democratic vote. S. M. Lawrence (E.) and I. G. Gordon (E.) were elected 
representatives over A. M. Benton and — Brady, Democrats; James E. Blair 
(E.), sheriff; John E. Chadwick (E.), prothonotary; C. K. Sartwell (E.), re- 
corder; William K. King (E.), treasurer; W. A. Nichols (E.), attorney; W. 
A. Williams (E.), auditor, and Enos Parsons (E.), coroner. 

In 1861 Eobert G. White (E.) received 633 votes, and Easselas Browa 
491 for president judge; N. Peabody (E.) and Jedediah Darling (E.) were 
elected associate judges; Alonzo I. Wilcox (E.) and Joseph B. McEnally 


(R.), representatives; Charles D. Webster (E.), auditor; P. Ford (R. ), attorney, 
and Ebenezer Barden (R.), coroner. In the district were 6,983 votes, of which 
Judge White received 6,289. 

The elections of 1862 show 785 votes for G. W. Scofield (R.) and 625 for 
Milton Courtright, Democratic candidates for congress; Stephen P. Wilson 
,(R.) received a majority vote for senator; Martin H. Shannon (R.) and War- 
ren Cowles (R.) were elected representatives; V. Perry Carter (R.), treasurer; 
P. Ford (E.), attorney; H. D. Hicks (D.) and B. H. Lamphier (R.), auditors, 
and D. F. Finley, coroner. 

In 1863 Frank Bell (R.) and John MahafCy (R.) received 717 votes, T. J. 
Boyer (D.) and A. M. Benton (D.) 625 votes for the legislature, the Demo- 
crats being elected. A. N. Lillibridge (R., 702 votes) contested for the 
sheriff's office with G. R. Moore (D., 642 votes); John R. Chadwick (R., 
709 votes) opposed J. B. Oviatt (D. 621 votes) for prothonotary ; Wallace W. 
Brown (R., 710 votes) fought against G. W. Sartwell (D., 617 votes) for the 
office of recorder, and James Bond (R. , 693 votes) opposed L. R. Miner (D. , 
'620 votes) for the position of coroner. Warren Cowles (R.) and J. C. Backus 
(D.) received party votes, and Swift (E.) and Duntley (E.) were chosen au- 

The elections of 1864 show 767 votes for Isaac Benson, Eepublican elector, 
and 652 for John M. Irvine, Democratic elector. G. W. Scofield (R.) had a 
majority for congress over Bigler (D. ) ; Lucius Rogers (E. ) had 649 votes for 
representative, against 575 given to C. B. Bldred (D. ), who was elected in the 
district; James E. Blair (R.) was elected treasurer; John H. Duntley (R.), 
auditor; Dr. M. A. Sprague (R.), coroner, and Thomas King (R.), surveyor. 

In 1865 H. W. Williams (R.) was elected president judge; John Brooks 
(R.) opposed E. B. Eldred (D.) for representative; Warren Cowles (E.) 
■defeated S. R. Peale (D.) for senator; S. O. Tenney (R.) and John S. Bean 
(D. ) contested for the office of auditor; William K. King (R.) was elected sur- 
veyor; E. C. Olds (E.) opposed Dr. C. W. Robbins (D.) for the coroner's 
oftice. The military vote was taken on the field. In 1866 C. A. Lyman 
{R.) received 848 and G. O. Deise (D.) 742 votes for representative; A. N. 
Taylor (R.) and A. T. Barden (R.) defeated Medbery (D.) and Brownell (D.) 
for associate judges; B. F. Wright (R.) defeated Coon in the race for sheriff; 
Thomas Malone (R.) was elected treasurer over Dolley; W. W. Brown (E.), 
attorney, defeated Backus; J. E. Chadwick (E.) was elected prothonotary 
over C. C. Melvin; F. D. Wheeler (E.), auditor, and A. N. Lillibridge (E.), 
<3oroner. P. M. Fuller (E.) received 851 votes and Andrew Eeilly (D.) 734 
votes for commissioner. G. W. Scofield (R.) received a majority vote for 
-congress in this county. 

In October, 1867, S. D. Freeman (R. ) received 769 votes for representa- 
tive, against 485 recorded for Deise; Abram Anderson and W. Y. McCoy were 
elected jury commissioners, with W. Y. McCoy (D.) and W. K. King (R.), 
auditor. In this year the questions of "license" and "no license" were 
submitted. The first received 715 votes and the second 478. 

The elections of 1868 show 964 Scofield (E.) and 825 E. Brown votes for 
congress; 978 for A. G. Olmsted (E.) and 808 for A. M. Benton (D.), senato- 
rial candidates; 983 for John Brooks (E.) and 798 for W. J. Davis (D.) for 
representative. E. B. Dolley (D.) was elected treasurer; Reuben Dennis 
(E.), commissioner, and H. Hamlin (E.), auditor. In November, 1,028 votes 
were cast for the Eepublican and 730 for the Democratic electors. 

In 1869 L. W. Crawford (E.) carried the county for representative; 


Henry King (B.) was elected attorney; Lucius Rogers (R.), prothonotary; J 
D. Barnes (R.), auditor, and J. E. Blair (R.), coroner. 

G. W. Scofield repeated his success this time over Selden Marvin in 1870; 
V. Perry Carter received a majority for the assembly; C. C. Melvin (D.) was 
chosen treasurer, receiving 804 votes against J. R. Chadwick's (R.) 762; F. 
W. Sprague (R.) was chosen auditor; William K. King (R.), surveyor, and S. G. 
Curtis (R.) and D. H. Comes (D.), jury commissioners. 

In 1871 B. B. Strang carried the county for senator over W. Y. McCoy; 
H. W. Williams (R.) for president judge over M. F. Elliott (D.); Lucius 
Rogers (R.) received 940 votes for representative against 720 recorded for F. 
W. Knox(D.); W. H. Curtis (R.) was chosen auditor; M. J. Hadley (R.), 
coroner, and Charles E. Bailey (D.), surveyor. There were 1,620 votes cast 
for congressional convention and eleven against. Loyal Ward was elected 
associate judge. 

In 1872 Thomas L. Kane (D.) received 1,000 votes, and C. B. Curtis (R.) 
956, for congress; Charles S. Jones (R.) 1,025 and F. W. Knox (D.) 953 for 
representative; W. J. Milliken (R.) 1,022 and D. R. Hamlin (D.) 946 for 
attorney; C. H. Foster (R.) was elected treasurer; M. A. Sprague (R.), pro- 
thonotary; M. N. PoweU (D.), sheriff; D. A. Butts (R.), auditor; C. P. Rice^ 
(R.), coroner; while Jerome B. Niles, John S. Mann and M. F. Elliott were 
chosen delegates to the congressional convention. The Republican electors 
received 1,040 votes, and the Democratic 618. A unanimous vote was cast for 
the convention. 

The elections of 1873 resulted in 614 votes for Conrad HoUenbeck (D.), or 
six over his opponent, C. S. Jones (R.), for representative; P. T. Kennedy (R.) 
was chosen auditor; Andrew Reilly (D.) and Orrin Vosburgh (R.), jury com- 
missioners, and H. L. Burlingame (R. ), coroner. In December the new con- 
stitution was approved by 1,093 votes and disapproved by 64. 

In 1874 Sobieski Ross (R.) had 922 votes and H. W. Early (D.) 924 for 
congress; Almeron Nelson carried the county for senator; John C. Backus (D.) 
defeated Butts (R.) for the assembly; A. H. Medbery (D.) was chosen treas- 
urer; Thomas Callor (D.), auditor and B. F. Wright (R.), coroner. 

In 1875 C. K. Sartwell and John R. Chadwick received 957 votes each for 
prothonotary, but Sartwell qualified; C. S. King(R.) was chosen sheriff; Pat- 
rick H. Cotter (D.), attorney; Eugene 'Mullin (D.) and J. L. Bean (D.), 
auditors, and Enos Parsons (R.), coroner. 

The elections of 1876 show 1,427 votes for Republican (or Hayes) electors, 
1,320 for Democratic (Tilden), 12 for Greenback (Peter Cooper), and one for 
Prohibition (Green Clay Smith); John J. Mitchell (R.) received 1,414 votes, 
Henry White (D.) 1,331, and John T. Davis (G.-B.) 3, for congress; C. H. 
Seymour (R.), Dr. L. Granger (D.) received the respective votes for senator;. 
C. H. Foster (R.), W. J. Davis (D.) and C. L. Allen (G.-B.) were the candi- 
dates for representative; W. S. Brownell (D.) and F. W. Burnham (R. ) were 
elected associate judges; J. E. B. White (R.) and J. H. Anderson (D.), jury 
commissioners; J. E. McDougall, coroner. 

In 1877 W. D. Gallup (R.) was elected treasurer; J. E. Blair (G.-B.), 
coroner, and G. H. Lyon (R.), surveyor. 

The elections of 1878 show 1,515 votes for John J. Mitchell (R.), 1,252 for 
R. B. Smith (D.), and 774 for John T. Davis (G.-B.), candidates for congress; 
Lewis Emery, Jr. (R.), received 1,652 votes for representative; Roswell Sart- 
well (D.) 1,321 for sheriff, defeating six other candidates; John B. Brawley 
(D.) received 1,516 votes for prothonotary, defeating H. F. Barbour (R. ) and two 
others^ S, W. Smith {R.) 1,699 votes for attorney; 0. D. Vosburg(R.) and 



J. J. Roberts (R.) were chosen auditors, and N. W. Abbey (R.), J. G- Beyer 
CD.) and W. J. Colegrove (R.), commissioners. 

In 1879 N. C. Gallup (R.) and O. P. Coon (D.) were elected jury com- 

In 1880* the presidential vote was 3,693 (Garfield) Republican, 3,169 
(Hancock) Democratic, 16 (Dow) Prohibition, and 299 (Weaver) Greenback; 
Lewis Emery, Jr. (R. ), received 4, 233 votes for senator, and Arthur J. Hughes 
(D.) 2,768; ^ David Kirk (D.) received 3,591 votes, and R. J. C. Walker (R.) 
3,541 votes for congress; W. L. Hardison (R.) 3,591 for representative, and 
E. M. Reardon (D.) 3,307; John W. Brennan (D.) received 3,712 votes for 
treasurer and was elected; G. H. Lyon (R.) was chosen surveyor, and 
Anthony F. Bannon(R.), coroner. 

In 1881 Henry W. Williams (R.) was elected president judge; P. M. 
Fuller (R.) and Henry Hamlin (R.), associate judges; A. I. Wilcox (R.), 
sheriff; John B. Brawley (D.), re-elected prothonotary; Edward McSweeney 
(D.), district attorney; W. H. Higgins (D.) and A. P. Brewer (R.), auditors. 

The elections of 1882 show a majority for M. F. Elliott (D.) for congress- 
at-large; almost a unanimous vote was recorded for Arthur G. Olmsted (R.), 
additional law judge; 2,464 votes for W. W. Brown, Republican candi- 
date for congress; David Sterrett (R.) received 2,294 votes, and B. D. Ham- 
lin (D.) 2,277 for representative; E. F. Clark (R.) and D. F. Pattison (D.) 
were chosen jury commissioners. 

In 1883 Charles C. Melvin (D.) was elected treasurer, defeating John R. 
Shoemaker (R.) by 120 votes; John King (R.) was elected surveyor, and R. 
A. Dempsey (R.), coroner. 


Pbesidential Electors. 

Joseph A. Bge (E.) 3,830 

P. R. Ackley (D.) 3,980 

C. H. Dana (Pro.) 346 

George A. Webb (U. L.) 414 


W. W. Brown (R.) 3,533 

W. C. Kennedy (D.) 3,775 

John Brown (Pro.) 333 


Lewis Emery, Jr. (R.) 3,956 

Eugene Miillin (D.) 3,376 

A. Cadugati (Pro.) 357 


Robert H. Rose (R.) 3,779 

O. L. Snyder (D.) 3,443 

C, E. Tucker (Pro.) 405 


A. F. Bannon (R.) , . . 4 013 

T. L. Sartwell(D.) 3,009 

D. P. Connelly (Pro.) 233 

N. D. Preston (U. L.) 381 

Prothonotary and Recorder. 

J. M. McElroy(R.) 3,678 

J. M. Armstrong (D.) 3,839 

(ILL.) 398 


S. L. Rhodes (U. L.) . 
J. G. Hann(Pro.).... 

District Attorney. 

Ernest Koester (R.) 3,832 

G. B. McCalmont (D.) 3,319 

G. J. Stranchan (U. L.) 381 


A. P. Brewer (R.) 3,759 

G. N. Barrett (R.) 3.796 

Thomas Osborne (D.) 3,006 

C. M. Capehart (D.) 3,947 

J H. McKilop (U. L.) 415 

J. W. Stearns (U. L.) 476 

Peter Findlay (Pro.) 359 

J. 0. Young (Pro.) 362 

• .V* p^'^"™^' f ■ Kane was a member of the Republican National Convention in 1880, and voted thirty-six times 
in that assembly for Grant's nomination. 



In 1885 D. Martin and M. S. Sheldon were elected jury commissioners. 



Henry C. McCormick (R.) 3,727 

Edward L. Keenan (D.) 1,893 

David Sterrett (Pro.) 497 


F. S. Jolinson (R.) 2,138 

JohnK. Wilson (D.) 1,405 

Elisha K. Kane (Pro.) 483 

Ferd. Kriener (U. L.) 1,579 


John R. Shoemalier (R.) 2,686 

John W. .Brennan (D.) 1,180 

Miles S. Howe (Pro.) 460 

Daniel Clarlf (U. L.) 1,296 


William T. McCarthy (R.) 2,192 

Cornelius J. Lane(D.) 1,588 

J. S. Wilson (Pro.) 423 

M. D. Ward (U. L.) 1,397 ■ 


C. M. Colegrove (R.) 2,339 

G. H. Lyon (Pro.) * 429 

William M. Lord (U. L.) 1,449 

Fence Law. 

For repeal 2,204 

Against repeal 1,207 

elections, 1887. 

Additional Law Judge.* 

Thomas A. Morrison (R.) 2,953 

Edward L. Keeuan (D. ) ... 3,811 

Prothonotahy, etc. 

J. M. McElroy (R.) 3,108 

T. H. Lowry (D.) 3,332 

A. J. McIntyre(Pro.) 204 


William B. Clarke (R.) 3,235 

J. W. Stearns (U. L. and D.) 2,506 

C. P. Cody(Pro.) 194 

District Attorney. 

George A. Sturgeon (R.) 2,707 

J. W. Bouton (D.) 1,580 

W. L. Lillibridge (U. L.) 1,480 


J. O. Sonburgh (R.) 3,891 

F. R. Foster (R.) 3,931 

A. B. Wicks(D.) 3,807 

B. P. Greenman(D.) 2,806 

J. C. Young (Pro.) 309 

O. B. Lay (Pro.) 210 

elections, 1888. 

Presidential Electors. 

John W. Wallace (R.) 4,066 

William Dent (D.) 2,923 

Seymour J. Noble (U. L.) 436 

R. D. Horton (Pro.) 395 


Lewis F. Watson (R.) 4,301 

W. A. Rankin (D.) 3,758 

Charles Miller (Pro.) 415 

J. Whitely(U. L.) 337 


Horace B. Packer (R.) 4,058 

G. D. Helwig(D.) 3,879 

A. H. Cory (Pro.) 463 

William E. Burdick (R.) 3,800 

John T. Griffith (R.) 4,094 

Frank J. Collins (D.) 3,134 

James McDade (D.) 3,967 

John R. McCarthy (Pro.) 384 

William Luck (U. L.) 455 

Daniel Clark (U. L.) 405 


'Samuel D. Heffner (R.) 4,061 

Philo Ackley (D.) 2,907 

A. W. Newell (Pro.) 418 

W. D. Murray (U. L.)..... 825 

Jury Commissioners. 

George Hyde (R.) 4,041 

M.S. Sheldon (D.) 2,883 

Gilbert Moody (Pro.) 411 

J. W. Corwill (U. L.) 365 

The vote of June 18, 1889, on the Prohibitory Amendment, was 3,054 for, 
and 2,058 contra, showing a majority of 996, the vote by political divisions 
being as follows: 

*The district vote was 5,091 and 4,248, respectively. 



Annin township. . 

Bradford City.lstward, 1st dist 

1st " 2d dist 




Bradford township, 1st dist. . 
2d dist.. 



Bldred borough 

Bldred township. i 

Poster township, 1st dist 

2d dist 

Hamilton township, 1st dist. . 
2d dist.. 



























For. Against. 

Hamlin 108 63 

Kane borough 173 79 

Keating township, 1st dist. . . . 149 77 

2d dist.... 29 37 

3d dist.... 38 20 

Kendall borough, 1st dist 6°> 31 

2d dist 80 44 

Lafayette township, 1st dist. . . 59 61 

3d dist . , 29 32 

Liberty 74 50 

Norwich 56 64 

Otto township, 1st dist 142 105 

3d dist 103 34 

Port Allegany 119 72 

Sergeant 12 43 

Smethport 83 108 

Wetmore 171 35 

The official canvass of votes cast iu McKean county general election held 
November 5, 1889, was as follows: For State treasurer: Boyer (E.), 2,661; 
Bigler (D.), 1,685 and Johnson, 349. For county treasurer: Capt. Eogers (E.), 
2,467; Broder (D.), 2,037, and Cody, 278. For surveyor: Hadley, 2,424; King, 
128, and Kane, 606. Mr. King was voted for in several of the precincts by 
personal friends, but positively declined to have his name printed on the tickets 
as a candidate for county surveyor. 

The township and borough elections of February, 1890, are recorded in 
the pages of township and borough history. 



TIETH Regiment, P. V. I.— One Hcndked and Seventy-second Regiment,. 
P. V. I.— Two Hundeed and Eleventh Regiment, P. V. I.— Miscellaneous. 


THE Eifle Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Eeserves, changed in June, 1861, 
to the Kane Eifle Eegiment of "the Pennsylvania Eeserve Corps or Forty- 
second Pennsylvania Eegiment, began organization a day before the telegraph 
flashed the tidings throughout the world of the breaking out of the Civil war. 
On April 13, 1861, Thomas L. Kane petitioned Gov. Curtin for leave to organ- 
ize a command in the "Wild Cat District, ' ' known now as Forest, McKean, Elk, 
and Cameron counties. On the 14th the petition was granted, and the news 
being carried into the valleys and mountains, a company of one hundred men 
assembled on the Sinnemahoning, April 24, and entered on raft building, sO' 
that when the proposed regiment would be formed this method of transporta- 
tion would be at their disposal. On April 26 three hundred and fifteen men 
marched onto three rafts then ready, and setting up a green hickory pole on 
one of them, the ' ' flag ship, ' ' placed above it a bucktail, and from this floated 
the flag of the Union. 


The command moved toward Hariisburg without marching orders from the 
governor. As soon as this movement was known, a message was sent to Lock 
Haven ordering the return of the men to their rendezvous, as only a limited 
number could be received. Gen. Jackman, who desired the service of the hardy 
woodsman, opposed this, and though his order was duly sent, it was never 
delivered. The men arrived at Harrisburg, and saluting the capitol with a 
rifle volley, made their presence known. After some days an order to muster 
in as the Seventeenth Eegiment (three months) was issued, but as soon rescinded, 
owing to a regiment of that number being already enrolled. Gol. Kane de- 
clined his commission, an^ entered the ranks May 13. The Warren Company, 
under Capt. Roy Stone, was organized "out of similar material in the woods on 
the head-watej's of the Allegheny river, while other companies of a kindred 
character flocked toward the capitol; so that on June 12 a regiment was or- 
ganized, of which Thomas L. Kane was commissioned colonel; Charles J. 
Biddle, lieutenant-colonel; Eoy Stone, major; A. E. Niles, Hugh McDonald, 
E. A. Irvin, George B. Overton, Julius Sherwood, W. T. Blanchard, Philip 
Holland and John A. Eldred, captains. 

The captains named had previously petitioned Gen. McCall to have their 
companies united under Col. Kane, who resigned June 13, that Lieut. -Col. 
Biddle, a Mexican war soldier, might be commissioned. On the same day the 
captains (Langhorn Wistar's name now appearing) petitioned for change of 
regimental name as hitherto stated. This newly organized command, with 
Simmon's Fifth Eegiment and Barr's Battery, proceeded on June 21 to Mary- 
land, and on the 27th established Camp Mason and Dixon on the State line. 
About July 7, immediately after Col. Wallace' s regiment left for Martinsburg 
to join Patterson's brigade, Kane's rifles returned to the camp; on the 12th 
a scout of sixty men under Lieut. -Col. Kane moved to New Creek, Va., 
where the first skirmish took place with McDonald's Confederate cavalry. 
Kane pursued the rebels to Eidgeville, and held that neighborhood until July 
27, when the regiment returned to Harrisburg. On August 6 the Bucktails 
reported to Banks at Harper' s Ferry, and on October 20 Companies A, G, H, 
I and K, under Lieut. -Col. Kane, encountered the Louisiana Zouave Tigers 
near Hunter's Mill, and drove them back. Col. Biddle resigned December 12, 
leaving Kane to command on the 20th, at Dranesville. At noon on that day 
the enemy was reported advancing on the Centreville road, when Ord's artil- 
lery was sent forward, and the Kane rifles were advanced to check him. A 
little later Kane discovered the enemy flanking him, and the movement which 
led to the occupation of the brick house, the flight of the rebels, the wounding 
of Col. Kane, another officer and twenty-six men, and the death of two men. 
In January, 1862, H. W. McNeil was chosen colonel, and in March attached 
to Gen. Eeynolds' first brigade, four companies being detached, under Lieut. - 
Col. Kane, for the purpose of drill under his new system until May, when the 
four companies reported to Col. Bayard, and were pushed forward to within a 
few miles of Hanover courf-house. From May 25 to June 6 the Bucktails led 
Fremont's army, with such spirit that the efl'ective force was reduced to 128 
men. On June 6 Col. Kane and 104 men went forward to rescue the wounded 
of the First New Jersey Cavalry, who were reported to have fallen into an 
ambuscade near Harrisonburg. This little command came suddenly upon four 
Confederate regiments and a battery, and sending back a message, attacked, 
breaking their line. Recovering from the surprise the Confederate regiments 
prepared to advance, when Martin Kelly, volunteering to draw their fire, stepped 
from behind a tree, received a shower of lead and died next day in the glory 
of wai;. George McGowan was shot near him next day. While holding this 


position against such terrible odds, the while waiting for Fremont's aid, the 
wounded Col. Kane directed the battle. Private Holmes, who lay close hj 
mortally wounded, hearing Gen. Ashby, of the Fifty- eighth Confederate Vir- 
ginians (then in Stuart' s rebel brigade), urge a bayonet charge, fired, killing 
the rebel general. The Fifty- eighth was repulsed, but Johnson pushed onward 
and drove the Federals from the bush, capturing the wounded Lieut. -Col. Kane 
and Capt. Taylor, latter of whom had returned in the face of the enemy to res- 
cue his colonel. Only then did the Confederates realize that the Bucktail rifles 
were the actors in this affair, the famous regiment losing fifty-two men in 
killed, wounded and missing, while killing or wounding 559 of the enemy. 

On June 8 Fremont encountered Jackson at Cross Keys. The former was 
driven back, leaving the Bucktails to cover the retreat, but to the surprise of 
all this command cut its way through, and further carried with them the guns 
which they were ordered to support, receiving marked thanks for the exploit. 
While Lieut. -Col. Kane's four companies were thus engaged Maj. Stone, then 
in charge of the other six companies of 400 men, was engaged in the Shenan- 
doah Vallev. In June his command arrived at Dispatch Station in the Penin- 
sula, and was found within four miles of Eichmond, Va. On the 26th two 
companies were at the railroad and meadow bridge on Beaver Dam creek, and 
the other four in the neighborhood. Their fire checked the enemy's advance; 
but in the hurry, Stone learned that Simmons, who commanded the grand 
guard, had withdrawn the three Bucktail regiments in his rear, leaving the 
other three within the enemy's circle. Stone succeeded in bringing in Wis- 
tar's and Jewett's companies to the entrenchments, where were now the three 
companies formerly withdrawn, leaving Capt. Irvin's company within the 
enemy's lines. The latter withdrew to a swamp, where he held out for three 
days before surrendering. The Bucktails' loss in this affair was seventy-five in 
killed, wounded and missing. Maj. Stone's subsequent doings at Mechan- 
icsville and Gaines' Mills are matters of national history, his little force of 
Bucktails holding a whole division of rebels back and delaying the battle at 
Gaines' Mills until the Federal forces recovered strength to contest that field. 
It lost that morning and on the retreat half their men, being able to muster 
only six officers and 125 men on its arrival at Gaines' Mills, where it suffered 
a loss of one officer and twenty-five men. On the 29th slightly wounded and 
missing members rejoined the remnant of the command, bringing the force up 
to five officers and 150 men, with whom were incorporated five officers and 
eighty-four men of the United States sharpshooters. The battle of Charles 
City Cross-roads took place July 30. There the ' ' Bucktails ' ' did some 
extraordinary fighting, and barely escaped capture. On the night of that 
day MoCall rode into a rebel command and was captured, leaving Stone to 
escape under a shower of lead. The Bucktails lost two officers and ninety 
men killed, wounded and taken prisoners, and their United States sharp- 
shooter friends lost two officers and fifty-six men. At Harrison's Landing the 
work of bridging the river was assigned to the Bucktails. At 5 p. m. these for- 
esters began work, chopping the timber along the river. At sunrise, next 
morning, they had the 500-feet bridge ready for the artillery to cross. Soon 
after Maj. Stone resigned to take command of the One Hundred and Forty- 
ninth Infantry, and Col. McNeil, who had returned, resumed command. Then 
some of those captured at Mechanicsville were exchanged, rejoined their com- 
mand, and all were present at the Second Bull Run, August 29 and 30, where 
five were killed, nineteen wounded and three missing. 

Returning to Col. Kane' s four companies, they are found at Brandy Sta- 
tion on August 19, 1862, where Kane rejoined them after his term of imprison- 


ment. At this time they numbered 160 men. On the morning of the 23d Capt. 
Winslow's guard of fifteen men were seeking shelter from a heavy thunder 
storm when Gen. Stuart' s rebel cavalry rode over his tent, taking all prisoners. 
Col. Kane rallied his men to the number of sixty-eight, and with this small force 
performed some of the most daring feats known to military men. That night 
he charged right and left, causing the stampede of the rebel army, losing only 
one man mortally wounded and four wounded of his sixty- eight warriors. Next 
morning they crossed the Cub run bridge, which they destroyed, and Gen. 
Pope's army was saved. On September 7 Kane was commissioned brigadier- 
general, Edward A. Irvine, of Company K, taking his place as lieutenant- colonel 
of the Bucktails, while A. E. Niles was commissioned major, vice Stone, now 
colonel of the One Hundred and Forty- ninth regiment. 

On th^ day of the promotions just referred to Col. McNeil was ordered into 
Maryland, and, September 14, 1862, led the attack on South Mountain, losing 
eighteen killed and forty-five wounded, among the latter being Lieut. -Col. Ir- 
vine and Capt. Mack. At the Dunkard church, Antietam, they led next morn- 
ning, when Col. McNeil, Lieut. William Allison and twenty-eight men were 
killed, and sixty-five men and officers wounded. Capt. McGee at once took com- 
mand, and, aided by Adj. Hartshorn, fought to the close of that terrible day. 
This division of the Bucktails lost in the two days 110 officers and men, killed, 
wounded or missing. After this affair Capt. Charles P. Taylor, who was capt- 
ured while returning to save Kane at Harrisonburg, rejoined the command. 
He was soon commissioned colonel, and moved to the Eappahannock, where, on 
December 12, the Bucktails met the enemy, losing in killed Lieut. W. B. Jen- 
kins and nineteen others, with 113 wounded and missing. 

On February 6, 1868, the celebrated regiment is found with the First Bri- 
gade at Fairfax Court House. Maj. Niles is lieutenant-colonel, vice Irvine, re- 
signed on account of wounds; William R. Hartshorn is major, and Roger 
Sherman, adjutant; Col. Taylor is commanding, and receiving old members from 
the hospitals. On July 2 the Bucktails are on historical Little Round Top. 
They have just arrived, and in time, for in a moment they are called upon to 
save the Union artillery. Dashing down the hill, through the deep swamp to 
the wheat field, they drove the enemy, but paid dearly for the honor in the 
death of Col. Taylor and Lieut. R. Hall. Lieut. -Col. Niles was wounded 
some time before, so Maj. Hartshorn took command, and the Bucktails fell 
back to remain in rest until the afternoon of July 3, when they again led in 
the capture of the Fifteenth Georgia Confederate Regiment. In this Gettys- 
burg affair Capts. Hugh McDonald, J. D. Yerkes, N. B. Kinsey and Frank 
Bell; Lieuts. J. E. Kratzer, T. J. Roney, J. R. Sparr and thirty-one men 
. were wounded. 

In April, 1864, the Bucktail fighters were given Spencer repeaters instead 
of the Sharp's rifles of former times. On May 5 the regiment barely es- 
caped capture (having been deserted by the first brigade), by breaking 
through the rebel lines, near Parker's Store. On the 7th Maj. Hartshorn lost 
two killed and twenty-one wounded. The day after his little command arrived 
at a point three miles north of Spottsylvania to find two divisions of the fifth 
corps engaged in a terrible struggle. On the 10th it participated in the two 
assaults on the rebel works at Mountain Run, and engaged incessantly until 
the morninf^ of May 13, when it was given a day for rest, but resuming work 
next day continued in active service to their last battle on the Mechanicsville 
road, May 30, 1864. In the Wilderness campaign this command lost two offi- 
cers and twenty-six men killed, and six officers and 112 men wounded. The 
veterans and recruits were transferred to the One Hundred and Ninetieth In- 


fantry, of which Hartshorn was comraissioned colonel, and the One Hundred 
and Ninetieth was mustered out June 11, 1864. 

The field and stafp of the Forty-second Regiment comprised the following- 
named officers: Col. Thomas L. Kane, mustered in as colonel May 12, 1861, 
but resigning next day took a position in the ranks; promoted to colonel June 
12, 1861, he resigned and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel June 13, 1861; 
from this period to the close of his service he was present at all those stirring 
affairs in which the Bucktails were always the leading actors. Charles J. 
Biddle was appointed colonel May 29, 1861, and resigned February 1, 1862. 
Hugh W. McNeil, promoted from captain of Company D to colonel January 
22, 1862, was killed at Antietam, September 16, that year. Charles F. Tay- 
lor, killed at Gettysburg. A. E. Niles resigned the position of lieutenant- 
colonel March 28, 1864. Eoy Stone, promoted colonel of the One Hundred 
and Forty-ninth August 29, 1862. W. E. Hartshorn, mustered out June 1, 
1864. John T. A. Jewett, captain of Company D, February 5, 1862. 
Roger Sherman, adjutant, resigned March 21, 1864. H. D. Patton, quarter- 
master, in May, 1861. Lucius Truman appointed quartermaster on the same 
day. S. D. Freeman, surgeon, in May, 1861, resigned to be promoted sur- 
geon of United States VolTinteers, and was succeeded December 17, 1862, by 
Jonathan J. Comfort, who, in May, 1864, was transferred to the One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment, and breveted lieutenant- colonel March 13, 1865 (Dr. 
Freeman was breveted lieutenant-colonel for distinguished services.) W. 
T. Humphrey, assistant surgeon in 1861, was promoted surgeon of the 
One Hundred and Forty-ninth regiment September 5, 1862. W. B. Jones 
was commissioned assistant surgeon August 2, Daniel O. Crouch December 1, 
1862, and Lafayette Butler September 30, 1863, the latter being transferred in 
1864 to the One Hundred and Ninetieth regiment. W. H. D. Hatton, com- 
missioned chaplain August 8, 1861, resigned November 1 1, 1862 (charged with 
straggling by Roger Sherman), and had no successor. Sergeant-major Baker, 
Quarter- master Sergeant W. C. Hunter, and Hospital Steward J. J. Starr 
were transferred to the One Hundred and Ninetieth regiment in May, 1864. 
John Lemon, commissary-sergeant, was mustered out with Company K, June' 
] 1, 1864. R. Fenton Ward, first hospital steward, was promoted captain of 
Company I July 1, 1862. Henry Zundel, principal musician, served to mus- 
ter out. 

Company I, of the Forty-Second Regiment, was organized in April, 1861, 
but not mustered in until May 30, 1861, as related in the regimental history. 
William T. Blauchard, the first captain, was wounded ab Harrisonburg June 
6, 1862, and resigned December 1 following. Lieut. Frank J. Bell, wounded 
at Antietam September 17, 1862, was promoted captain March 1, 1863, and. 
received discharge October 19, same year. R. Featon Ward was promoted 
second lieutenant July 1, 1862; first lieutenant March 1, 1863; wounded in 
service, and transferred to the One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment May 31, 
1864. Second Lieut. Bruce A. Rice died June 14 of wounds received at 
Cross Keys June 8, 1862. Richard A. Rice was promoted second lieutenant 
May 18, 1863, and served until mustered out, June 11. 1864. Edward D. 
Curtis served as first sergeant to date of muster-out; Sergt. W. J. Kibbe 
was wounded at South Mouatain, and died September 18, 1862; A. G. Poster 
served as sergeant until master-out (Dr. Freeman states that Foster was 
killed); also Lorenzo B. Prosser, while Sergt. Angelo M. Crapsey was wounded 
and made prisoner at Fredericksburg; Sergt. A. Farnham was discharged on 
surgeon's certificate August 6, 1861; Sergt. Charles O. Bee was wounded at 
Fredericksburg, and died January 14, 1863; Sergt. John K. Haffey was dis- 


charged for disability February 22, 1863 ; Corp. Peter B. Porter was transferred 
to the One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment; Henry L. Dewell, wounded and 
made prisoner at Second Bull Kun, was transferred in 1864 to the One Hun- 
dred and Ninetieth Regiment; Solomon S. King lost his foot at Fredericks- 
burg, but was able to be transferred to the One Hundred and Ninetieth Regi- 
ment in 1864. Wallace W. Brewer, wounded at Antietam, and Joseph D. 
Barnes, wounded at Fredericksburg, were mustered in June, 1864. Corp, 
Henry J. Hadley was killed at Cross Keys June 8, 1862, and Corp. F. C- 
Holmes died June 14 of wounds received at Harrisonburg June 6, 1862. 

The private troops who were killed or died from wounds are named as fol- 
lows: Joseph A. Ames, died; Hero Bloom, Henry Magee, William M. Maxson, 
killed at South Mountain; Patrick H. Clyens, Joseph Hayter and Forest 
Sherwood, killed at Fredericksburg; William L. Dale and Milton G. Farr, 
killed at Harrisonburg; James Newpher, died October 6, 1862, and N. A. Delos, 
September 17, 1862, from wounds received at South Mountain; P. G. Elli- 
thorpe, wounded" at Gettysburg, died; Joseph Keener died of wounds, also 
Nathaniel S. Nichols, and Franklin West, wounded at Cross Keys, Va., died 
June 14, 1862. Joseph Little lost a leg and was discharged. 

The private troops who received wounds but recovered and were discharged 
are named as follows: James T. Alton, wounded at Cross Keys; Joseph Aus- 
tin, at Gaines' Mills; Leslie S. Bard, at South Mountain; Samuel R. Beck- 
with, at Cross Keys (was promoted second lieutenant of Company G, One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment September 3, 1862); Cornelius Culp, at Gettys- 
burg; Peter Close, at Antietam; Rev. Columbus Cornforth, at Fredericksburg 
(he was Baptist preacher at Smethport) ; D. V. Crossmire, at Second Bull Run ; 
Frank B. Crandall, wounded and fled; Newell E. Howard, W. Snyder and 
Alonzo Mapes, at Fredericksburg; H. J. Hammond, at Harrisonburg; Samuel 
C. Hamlin, Albert Herglei, at Harrisonburg; Samuel M. Horton, at Fredericks- 
burg; Russell Ingalsbee, at Harrisonburg; Sheldon Jewett, at Second Bull 
Run; Ferd. Kilburn, at Harrisonburg; Frank King, at Gaines' Mills; William 
A. Lafferty and Charles P. Rice, at Antietam; Charles Mulvaney, at Second 
Bull Run; Charles Mellison, J. M. Woods, William Richardson and Charles 
H. Robbins, at Harrisonburg; A.- A. Walters, at Fredericksburg. 

The troops regularly discharged were Thomas Barnes, W. J. Bridge, G. 
W. Briggs, J. B. Belknap, H. G. Babcock, A. L. Buchanan, S. Berts, Jake 
Both, D. W. Brigham, J. O. Blauvelt, J. R. Coates, C. L. Clark, D. Case, 
Alpha W. Colegrove, Edgar W. Wells, G. A. Campbell, W. J. Curtis, N. M. 
Curtis, J. W. Cobbett, L. B. Danforth, J. Demars, C. D. Dickenson, E. W. 
Edson, J. M. Essington, B. H. Freeman, E. P. Fanning, J. A. Fish, H. K. 
Gould, A. T. Hoop, J. L. Johnson, W. A. Knapp, R. M. Keach, James Land- 
rigan, C. B. Lawrence, J. Leber, P. C. Lovell, W. Mulvaney, Joshua Moses, 
William Mason, J. R. Mains, W. Page, W. H. Rifle, D. T. Smith, S. G. 
Southwick, F. T. Smith, A. P. Smith, E. B. Seamans, B. A. Treat, G. W. 
Taylor, A. D. Townsend, C. Vandyne, G. O. White, A. Walters, John 

Whalen, C. H. Weed. -^ c. .^ 

Among the names on the original muster roll of Company I, Forty-beconc! 
Infantry not given above, are S. D. Freeman, who was immediately promoted 
surgeon; John and Joseph Austin, Jacob Crow, G. A. Campbell, E. N. How- 
ard, Samuel Horton, F. King, Solomon S. King, R. T. Lane, Peter Porter, 
W. Richardson and A. J. Turpin. There were eighty-two private troops en- 
rolled. John W. Newell was first paymaster. 

A roster of the surviving members of the old regiment was compiled on 
July 1 1889 Those then residing in McKean county are named as follows: 



Name. Postofflce. 

Lucore, 8. J Kendall Creek 

Mulvaney, William Sartwell 

Prosaer, L. B Kendall Creek 

Quigley, George B Guffey 

Rice, R. A Eldred 

Rifle, W. H Norwich 

Ryan, Thomas H Kane 

Smith, A. P ■ Colegrove 

Seward, Levi Kendall Creek 

South wick, Samuel Smethport 

Simmons, Al Eldred 

Snyder, T Kendall Creek 

Taggart, H. H Bradford 

Walters, A. A Smethport 

Wood, James M Annin Creek 

Wright, B. F Smethport 

Wells, E. W Bell's Run. 

Name. Postoffice. 

Brewer, W. W Mt. Jewett 

Barnes, J. D Kasson 

Brown, W. W Bradford 

Colegrove, A. W Colegrove 

Campbell, J. J Eldred 

Case, Dennis Bradford 

Curtis, William Custer City 

Clark, C. L Bradford 

Coates, John R Annin Creek 

Dickesim, C. W Norwich 

Dougherty, George Farmers Valley 

Freeman, S. D Smethport 

Hanlan, IPatrick Bradford 

Howard, E. N Custer City 

Jewett, Sheldon Custer City 

Lane, R. T Bradford 

Looker, R. E Kane 

Lanigan, James Kane 

E. W. Seamans, one of the survivors, while in the Thornton House at 
Drainsville, Va. , was the objective point of a rebel battery. During that dan- 
gerous moment he vras discovered I)y Dr. Freeman, standing before a mirror, 
oiling his hair. The Doctor, amazed at the fellow' s coolness, ordered him to 
take his rifle and ' ' shoot down the rebels, ' ' an order with which he complied 
with equal coolness. At the re-union in October, 1887, Dr. Freeman read the 
historical address. 


The Fifty-Eighth Eegiment was raised at Philadelphia, also in McKean, 
Cameron, Potter, Elk and adjoining counties, in the fall of 1861, and was 
organized February 13, 1862, with John R. Jones, colonel; Carlton B. Curtis, 
lieutenant-colonel, and Montgomery Martin, major. The forward movement 
commenced March 8, and on May 10 the regiment was at Ocean View, en route 
to Norfolk, over which the flag of the Fifty-Eighth was raised the night pre- 
ceding the morning on which the "Merrimac" was blown up. On February 
13, 1863, as if to celebrate the first anniversary of organization, the Confed- 
erate camp at Sandy Ridge, on the head-wafters of Cone creek, was captured 
and the buildings burned. At New Berne, March 14, this command, with others, 
withstood Pettigrew's attack, and on May 20 the works at Kingston were capt- 
ured. From June 27 to December 31 the regiment was scattered on detached 
service in the Pamlico river country, doing excellent and, in two instances, 
brilliant work. On the last date Col. McChesney, the successor of Palmer as 
commandant at Washington, N. C, led an expedition to Greenville, where a 
hand to hand battle was carried on that night. In May, 1864, the regiment 
proceeded to Bermuda Hundred, on the James river, and on the 9th lost 
twenty killed and wounded near Appomattox. The command arrived at Cold 
Harbor June 1, participated in the assault on the 3d, carried the rifle-pits, 
and was continuously at the front until June 13, and again at Petersburg until 
relieved on the evening of June 15. After return from a well-earned furlough, 
the command held the hill near Fort "Wisconsin, on August 25, and on Sep- 
tember 29 participated in the assault on Fort Harrison, which principal point 
of defense it captured. 

At Star Fort, Spring Hill, Fort Harrison and Charles City Cross Roads the 
Fifty-eighth completed a term of magnificent services, and commencing a new 
term (which resulted in the capture of Lee's army), served until muster-out, 
January 24, 1866. 

Company E of the Fifty-eighth was raised in McKean, Erie and Tioga 


counties. John C. Backus, the first captain, resigned February 12, 1863, and 
in March Lieut. T. J. Hoskinson was promoted, but resigned September 9, 
1864, when Capt. Philetus M. Fuller succeeded, and served until muster-out, 
January 24, 1866. Lieut. Charles D. Webster was gradually promoted until, in 
October, 1864, he was commissioned captain and assistant quartermaster. Syl- 
vanus Holmes was promoted adjutant in February, 1862. F. W. Davis rose from 
the ranks to lieutenant, and served until discharged, June 14, 1865. Second 
Lieut. Samuel B. Sartwell resigned, July 11, 1862, and DeWitt 0. Kinsman 
was muster,ed out, December 7, 1864, at expiration of term. Sergts. Pontius 
Solomon, W. W. Eichardson, J. H. Cobbett, Amos M. Preston and G. W. Farr 
served from October, 1861, to January 24, 1866. Sergt. John Shaftsbury was 
discharged for disability in September, 1862; Melvin Hall for wounds, in July, 
1865; Theodore M. Clark and C. D. Gilbert mustered out in December, 1864; 
William E. Derning, in August, 1865, and W. A. Moore, for promotion, in 
August, 1864. Corps. Eobert Walters, John Lorson, William Grigsby, Alfred 
B. Loop, James A. Saurwine (a substitute), David C. Brown and Warden H. 
Gary were mustered out in January, 1865 ; Eobert A. DeGolier in December, 
1864; John Toony (a substitute) in November, 1865; while James G. Booth, 
N. S. Grinnell, F. E. Patterson, David Quirk and Allen Tibbits (veterans), 
left in August, 1864, the State papers alleging desertion. James H. Doal 
served until 1865 as musician; M. McMillan was discharged in 1862, and E. 
Eeed in 1863. 

The private troops who died during the war, or were killed on the field, are 
named as follows : Henry Baker, at New Berne, N. 0. , in 1863 ; George W. 
Beckwith, wounded, died at Hampton, Va. , in 1864; C. S. Culp, died at 
Hampton in June, 1863; S. P. Dikeman, at New Berne, N. C, in August, 1863; 
Orlando Foster, at Bermuda Hundred, Va., July 15, 1864; J. H. Green, at 
Harrisburg in December, 1861; S. L. Goodwin, at Portsmouth, Va. , in July, 
1862; G. W. Hall, at Alexandria, in June, 1864; Hugh L. Haughey, at An- 
napolis, in March, 1865; John S. Niles, at Harrisburg, in January, 1862; A. 
J. Eifle, at Fortress Monroe, in November, 1864; Joseph Tibbits, of wounds, 
at Arlington, in June, 1864; H. H. Van Gorder, at Bachelor's Creek, N. C, 
March, 1863; Dan Vanatta, in McKean county, October 14, 1864; Abram 
Weed (substitute) at Fortress Monroe, in May, 1865. 

Company F was recruited in McKean, Elk and Warren counties, Lucius 
Eogers being commissioned captain in December, 1861. He resigned in Feb- 
ruary, 1863, when Henry Eogers was promoted.^ On his discharge for disa- 
bility, February 26, 1864, John M. Collins held command and served until 
January 24, 1866. Lieut. W. W. Wells died of wounds July 12, 1864, and 
was buried at New Berne, N. C. ; Lieut. C. J. Tubbs was mustered out in Feb- 
ruary, 1865; Sergt. P. M. Thompson, in January, 1866; P. T. Campbell 
in December, 1865; Eobert M. Overhiser, chosen sergeant at organization, 
was promoted lieutenant of Company H in December, 1864, and veteranized; 
James A. Arnold served from October, 1861, to August 22, 1864, when, it is 
alleged, he deserted. Sergt. Ambrose C. Fuller, wounded in September, 
1864, was absent at muster-out. James C. Malone and James Phelan were 
on furlough. Jesse C. Chew served until January, 1866; M. J. Hadley, pro- 
moted sergeant-major in June, 1865, was mustered out in January, 1866, and 
George W. Hayes is said to have deserted August 22, 1864. Corps. George 
F. North, John Walshe, F. A. Sutton, Patrick Walsh, W. H. Hewitt, and L. 
B. Gleason served until January, 1866; A. N. Farman was killed at Fort Har- 
rison, Va. W. H. Eogers was wounded there, and Hiram Peasley died of 
wounds received there in the affair of September 29, 1864. Elijah T. Davis 


was mustered out Febraary 22, 1865. The musician, L. S. Lytle, served 
until January, 1866. Calvin Shepherd, an old hunter of Cameron county, 
served in this command. 

The private troops killed on the field or who died of wounds or disease are 
named as follows: William Alinder, at Bachelor's Creek, N. C. ; Joseph Black, 
wounded September 29, 1864, was buried at Cypress Hills; John Bowers, 
drafted, died at Point of Rocks, Va. , in February, 1865 ; Otis Copeland was 
killed at Fort Harrison; H. K. Conrad died at Harrisburg January 4, 1862; 
Ezra Daniels died at Hampton, Va., of wounds, in October, 1864; W. E. 
Flanders, drafted, was buried at Staunton, Va., July 29, 1865; R. M. Gibson, 
at Beaufort, N. C. , October 1, 1863 ; Andrew Henderson, died in Anderson- 
ville July 1, 1864; Don D. Jooes, in Cameron county July 16, 1864; Peter 
Manning was killed at Fort Harrison September 29, 1864; James A. Mapes, 
died at Suffolk, Va., November 21, 1862; Alex. McCrady, at Washington, N. 

C, October 10, 1863; George Peasley, at Petersburg, August 12, 1865; James 
Peasley, at Washington, N. C, September 5, and Philander S. Peasley Decem- 
ber 28, 1868; Samuel Richardson, died at Harrisburg January 15, 1862; G. 

D. Rogers, at Point of Rocks, Va. , October 3, 1864; Jeremiah Sullivan, at 
Portsmouth, Va. , August 6, 1862; James Vangarder, of wounds, at Hampton, 
Va., October 30, 1864, and William Whitaker, of wounds, October 12, :864. 

Company H was raised in McKean county October 1, 1861, with Asa H. 
Cory, captain. On his resignation August 21, 1862, C. C. Moses was pro- 
moted, captured July 6, 1863, but returned and was mustered out April 16, 
1865. Lieut. Roswell Sartwell resigned November 25, 1862, and F. N. 
Burnham was promoted. Robert M. Overhiser, transferred from Company F, 
was promoted captain April 17, 1865, but mustered out in 1866 with rank of 
lieutenant. Second Lieut. David Ludwig died at Philadelphia June 17, 
1863; Oliver Haines was mustered out in 1866; J. M. Pelton was discharged 
for promotion in August, 1863, and W. E. Moses was promoted second lieuten- 
ant of the First North Carolina Colored Regiment April 29, 1864. 

The sergeants of this company are referred to as follows: Joseph S. Vaughn, 
Norman J. Stanton, L. L. Dennis and Fernando Loop were mustered out in 
January, 1866; W. H. Richmond and W. M. Skiver, in December, 1864; 
Alonzo Cross and Ed. Baldwin in October, 1865; Allen Wightman died of 
wounds April 20, 1863, and John Bord is said to have deserted August 30, 
1865, and Theodore F. Ostrander on the same day. 

The corporals' records are thus given: Cyrus Baldwin, wounded at Cold 
Harbor; Charles Rodenbush and M. M. Griffin mustered out in January, 
1866; Niles Robbins and Clark B. Hopkins discharged for disability in 1862 
and 1863, respectively; E. C. Wolcott, George Ferris, Emory Skiver, W. D. 
Reitz, George J. Reitz, William Shafftstall (the three last named drafted) were 
mustered out at close of their terms. W. P. Fowler died September 21, 
1864; Henry H. Metcalfe died in Cameron countv, returning from prison in 
1865; W. D. Burlingame died at Hampton, Va., March 17, 1865; M. D. Jud- 
son, transferred to the Fourth United States Artillery, and Augustus Short to 
United States Signal Corps. The musicians were Anthony Breithaupt (a sub- 
stitute), sick at muster out, George W. Bowen, discharged for disability in 
May, 1865, and Nathan Boylan alleged to have deserted December 31, 1865, 
after long service. 

The deaths of private soldiers on the field, or from wounds or disease, are 
recorded as follows: Henry Blasdell, died at New Berne, N. C, July 16, 
1863, of wounds received April 20; James Baldwin, October 12, 1864, of 
wounds received September 20, 1863; C. J. Carter, October 3, 1864; Henry 



D. Hagadorn, killed at Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864; H. H. Haines, died Janu- 
ary 24, 1865; John A. Jennings, February 23, 1863; Leslie Lyons, July 7, 
1864; Charles N. Lawton, wounded at Cold Harbor, died at Arlington ; Jerome 
Netting, wounded September 29, 1864, died October 4 at Hampton, Va., and 
Philip Eoades, died September 24, 1864. In this command no less than 
eighteen substitutes are accounted for, nineteen drafted men and nine 


The Eighty-third Pennsylvania Infantry comprised, among others, Lieut. 
Plympton A. White, of Company D, who enlisted in McKean county, also 
Matthew Hayes, both of whom were wounded at Malvern Hill; William Sohla- 
bach, Julius W. Day, wounded at Gettysburg; Thaddeus Day, at Malvern 
Hill; Eugene Clapper, Charles J. Nichols, died of wounds received at Mal- 
vern Hill; D. Coyle was wounded there, and killed at Gettysburg; Calvin H. 
Wilks, of Company H, died at Eichmond, Va. , of wounds received at Laurel 
Hill. Gott Lehman, of Eoulette, served in Company I, also P. C. Glancy, 
John and Judson Ames, and Norman Scott, of Centreville. 


The One Hundred and Fiftieth Eegiment (New Bucktails) effected organi- 
zation at Camp Curtin September 3, 1862, and claims service with the One 
Hundred and Forty-ninth, sharing in many, if not all, of the successes and 
reverses of that command. Langhorne Wistar, of the old Forty-second, was 
chosen colonel; H. S. Huidekoper, lieutenant-colonel, and Thomas Chamber- 
lin, major. When the colors of the One Hundred and Forty-ninth Eegiment 
were captured at Gettysburg, they were recaptured at once by the sister regi- 
ment, and later, when it became too evident that the President was to be sac- 
rificed to the policy of the Confederacy, the authorities called on Col. Stone to. 
assign two companies of the One Hundred and Fiftieth to take the place of 
the United States troops as President's guard at the Soldiers' Home. On the 
arrival of Companies C and H there, they would not be received, as the regu- 
lars had no orders to retire, and so returned to their command. In the mean- 
time orders came relieving the regular troops, who marched, leaving the Home 
unguarded; but when these false steps were discovered Companies D and K 
were ordered thither, while later Company D was ordered to guard the Sol- 
diers' Home with Company A, leaving Company K to guard the place until 
relieved in June, 1865, when it was mustered out with the other companies. 

Company G, of this command, was raised in McKean county with Horatio 
Bell, captain. He was killed at the battle of the Wilderness May 6, 1864, and 
Lieut. Samuel E. Beckwith, commissioned captain, who served until muster- 
out. Lieut. Dan. J. Keys resigned in June, 1863, and was succeeded by James 
M. Eobinson, commissioned Maj 7, 1864. Second Lieut. Daniel Beckwith 
served to the close; Sergt. Clark Weels was discharged in December, 1863; 
Cyrus W. Baldwin was killed on the North Anna river. May 23, 1864; S. De- 
Loss Taggart, wounded at Hatcher's run, died at Lookout, Md., February 
20, 1865 ; J. L. Beers was mustered out at the close, also John Swink, Buck- 
ley D. Catlin and E. H. Judkins; Sergt. Lorenzo Hodges, who was wounded 
at Gettysburg, died July 16, 1863. 

There were no less than fifteen members of this company honored with 
the position of corporal: Putnam Barber, W. H. Haven, W. F. Lovejoy, 
William Brown, C. D. Winship, Al. L. Lanphere, William A. North, Wilson 
W. Tubbs, H. M. Kenny, H. L. Burlingame, H. A. Young and C. C. Tripper 
served to the close of the war. Theo. Yardley was killed at Hatcher's run^ 


Joseph B. otto, died October 30, 1862, and William J. Holmes, wounded at 
Gettysburg, died July 23, 1863. The only musician, Daney Strickland, 
served from September, 1862, to June, 1865. 

The private troops who fell on the field, or who died from the efPects of 
wounds or other causes, are named as follows: L. M. Adams died in 1864; 
Melville Baldwin, at Eichmond, Va., in 1864; A. M. Beckwith, in 1863; Ben 
Fulton, John Benson and Nathan Hand were killed at Gettysburg, July 1, 
1863; Delos Otto, at the battle of the Wilderness, and Philetus Southwick, 
at Spottsylvania, in May, 1864; William P. Garner died in captivity, Decem- 
ber 11, 1864; T. D. Colegrove, November 21, 1862, and D. A. Morse, Octo- 
ber 30, same year, at Washington; L. F. Haven died in prison, August 31, 
1863; Oscar Moody died in Biehmond prison February, 1864; W. Merrick, a 
prisoner, died July 20, 1868; W. J. Mills, in Andersonville, August 6, 1864; 
J. A. Morris, in March, 1865; Isaac Pelgrim, wounded at Gettysburg, died 
July 1, 1863; Steve Seymour died March 13, 1863; Charles B. Slocum died 
in captivity in May, 1864; Jeffry Kenny died March 3, 1863. 

The record of discharged soldiers after a full term of service contains the 
following names: W^illiam Brockam, Joseph D. Ball, Willard Cummings, Jos- 
eph Coats, M. M. Catlin, Charles Dickerson, Edward Finnegan, John Mead, F. 
Fuller, Eobert Graham, J. S. Hodges, L. F. Hovey, George Loomis, George 
T. Otto, Samuel L. Provin, William T. Strickland, Wesley Starks, Thomas 
Smith and Judson Skiver. Eobert B. Warner was discharged for disability. 

The private troops discharged on surgeon' s certificate were Merrit J. Bald- 
win, W. H. Baker, Silas A. Devaul, Eichard Goodwin, Thomas Good, Elias 
Grimes, John B. Gleason, Moses E. Ford, Levi Holcomb, Charles Karr, 
Ebenezer Leonard, Wellington Lord, George Loomis and Edward Simpson in 
1862-63. S. DeLoss Taggart died some years ago. The transfers to V. E. 
C. included Joseph D. Ball and Benjamin Treat; William Ellis was sick at 
muster-out; John B. Litch, was wounded at Hatcher's Eun, and in hospital 
at date of disbanding; Miles Lovejoy was transferred to the United States 
army in 1862. The alleged deserters were Miles Hess, in 1862, and John 
Barron, in 1863. 


The One Hundred and Seventy-second Kegiment was organized at Camp 
Curtin, in November, 1862, with Charles Kleckner, colonel. Elk and Mc- 
Kean counties contributed detachments to this command, who accompanied 
the regiment to Yorktown, December 2, to relieve the Fifty-second Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry garrisoning that post. In July, 1863, the command moved to 
Hagerstown, Md. , was attached to the eleventh corps, joined in the pursuit of 
the Confederate forces to Williamsport, returned to Warrentown, and was 
mustered ont August 1, 1863. 


Company C, of this regiment (one year) was mustered in September 16, 1864, 
with Warren Cowles, captain; A. J. Sparks, lieutenant; John M. Pelton and 
William C. Smith, second lieutenants. Cowles was mustered out with com- 
mand June 2, 1865, as brevet major; Sparks was killed at Petersburg, April 
2, 1865; John M. Pelton died of wounds received there, and Smith, who took 
his place, was mustered out. Sergt. Harvey D. Hicks was killed at Peters- 
burg; Sergts. H. H. Sparks, J. Shattsbury, E. A. Smith and F. B. Harvey 
were mustered out. Corps. M. S. Sheldon, Joel Hancock and Eli Stevens 
were wounded at Petersburg; while John Smith, J. G. Otto, E. E. Gerrish, 


T. Thompson and S. L. Holoomb were mustered out unwounded, also Musi- 
cians S. R. Seamans and N. M. Tubba. 

Of the private troops Andrew Calhoun was wounded and died at Peters- 
burg; John Largey died October 21, 1864; Simon Martin, Charles D. Mc 
Keown, Peter "W. Struble and Jonathan Studley were woiinded at Petersburg; 
Sanford Provin and Martin VanSickle were wounded at Fort Steadman, Va., 
March 25, 1865; Henry McDowell and William Nuff died in February, 1865, 
and were buried at City Point, Va. ; John W. Nobles was missing at Peters-' 
burg, and C. H. Besse was captured September 29, 1864. 

The private troops mustered out were H. and J. Arnett, A. A. Acre, J. C. 
Allen, I. B. and A. J. Brown, E. Barton, F. S. Bradford, A. R. Barnaby, 
William Cooper, J. Cavanagh, J. M. Caldwell, M. Cummings, M. L. Camp- 
bell, M. Daley, M. G. Dennis, J. Dunbar, G. Emigh, J. Frugen, Enos Grover, 
J. R. Greene, J. E. Graham, A. Gray, Reuben and H. M. Gross, A. Giles, 

A. Holcomb, J. Jund, M. J. Coons, J. D. Kessler, W. K. Kidder, E. R. and 
Al. Loop, Henry Largey, John Leahy, Thomas Madden, A. C. and Josiah 
Myers, J. McQuoine, William M. and William Mcintosh, J. T. and Hymen 
Otto, J. Patterson, Le Roy Paugh, Henry Reedy, W. T. Ross, Benson and 

B. F. Bobbins, A. Stockdill, F. Sanderson, W. F. Stewart, A. Sharp, F. 
Thorpe, W. M. VanSickle, F. Verbeck, W. Wiley, A. G. Walters, George 
Wood and James Walshe. Henry Sperhouse was a prisoner from November, 
1864 to March, 1865, and J. C. Lewis was alleged to have deserted. 


Lieut. Patrick Kelliher, Twenty-eighth United States Infantry, served with 
the Pennsylvania Volunteers during the war, and' died at Fort Davis, Tex. , in 

In May, 1861, a Juvenile Home Guard company was organized at Smeth- 
port. The ages of the troops ranging from five to fourteen years, the arms 
were wooden guns, and the music, tin whistles and a tambourine. 

In June, 1863, Judge Holmes, of Bradford township, was appointed dep- 
uty-provost-marshal for this district, and he appointed Sheriflf Blair, O. Vos- 
burg, L. S. Bard and Thomas Malone enrolling officers, the two last named 
being disabled soldiers of the old Bucktail regiment, the latter working in the 
Citizen office when he went into the Bucktails with William R. Rogers. 

In 1863 the enrolling officer struck a family who believed that Andrew 
Jackson ran for president every four years. The old man and his several sons 
annoyed the officer and even, when he was leaving, one of the boys called out: 
"Hello there, you haven't enrolled the old dog yet," referring to a dog lying 
near the house. "Well," says the officer, " I have all the pups down, and 
they'll answer for the first draft." 

The draft of August, 1863, met with resistance on several quarters, and near 
Port Allegany, it is alleged, an organization to oppose conscription was in ex- 
istence. In January, 1864, H. S. Campbell, then provost-marshal of the 
Nineteenth Military District, called for ninety men from McKean county, while 
five deserters, taking refuge in Liberty township, were sought for. In March, 
1864, the quota of McKean county was placed at 153. On March 12 a 
meeting of citizens of Bradford township, presided over by William Barton, 
with A. T. Newell, secretary, resolved to issue bonds for $7,000 to pay county 

Jonathan Colegrove enlisted in the Chenango County (New York) Military 
Company for the war of 1812, and served at Sacketts harbor until discharged 
for disability. 


The Soldiers' Monument was dedicated June 2, 1886, according to the G. 
A. B. ritual. Lewis Emery, Jr., presided, and A. W. Norris delivered the 



Newspapers— Introductory— Journals and Journalists— Bradford News- 
papers—Bradford Press Club— Miscellaneous Journals. 

Schools- Grant of Land and Money- by John Keating— First Schools- 
Primitive Eleemosynary Institution— Early School at Smethport— 
Education Law — School Commissioners and Delegates— School Tax- 
Statistical Eepobt for 1888. 

Medical— Physicians, Past and Present— Early Practitioners- Indian 
Doctors- Remarkable Cure— Itinerant Disciples of ^sculapius— Mc- 
Kean County Medical Association— List of Medical Men who have 
Registered in MoKean County since 1881. 


THE beginnings of journalism are contemporary with the beginnings of com- 
mercial and political progress. Like these two important branches, jour- 
nalism advanced slowly but certainly, and toward the close of the eighteenth 
century, assumed pretensions, which have since become governing' principles. 
The newspaper took its full share in the trials and sacrifices of the Revolution 
here, and even before that -time, pointed out to the peoples of France and 
America the odious system of class government, defining it as aristocracy — a 
coalition of those who wish to consume without producing, to occupy all pub- 
lic places without being competent to fill them, and to seize upon all honors 
without meriting them. 

The journalists of that period were of the Franklin type the world over, 
but cast in another matrice of thought; they knew nothing of the spirit of 
Republicanism, if we accept a few publicists of France who dared to arraign 
the aristocracy that grew wealthy on the robbery and degredation of thousands 
of human beings. When great political reformations followed revolutionary 
teachings, their attention was given to educating the enfranchised masses. Titles 
were abolished, and ten thousand symbols of old-time ignorance and viciousness 
were swept away. The Bohemian era was introduced under the new dispensa- 
tion, and with it came some of the best and the most liberal thoughts of the 
emancipated world. 

Bohemia has none but adopted sons; 

Its limits, where fanoy's bright stream runs! 

Its honors not garnered for thrift or trade, — 

For beauty and truth men's souls were made. 

The vulgar sham of the pompous feast. 

Where the heaviest purse is the highest priest, 

The organized charity — scrimped- and iced 

In the name of a cautious, statistical Christ; 

The smile restrained, the respectable cant. 

When a friend in need is a friend in want. ^ 

Where the only aim is to keep afloat. 

And a brother may drown with a cry in his throat. 

Oh, I long for the glow of a kindly heart and 

the grasp of a friendly hand. 
And I'd rather live in Bohemia than in any other land. 


When the county was organized, and up to 1826, when the first courts were 
held at Smethport, not one of the pioneers dreamed of a printing press. In 
1827 D. Gotshall was county printer, his office being at Williamsport or 
Wellsboro. The following bill, presented to Sheriff R. Wright, is the evidence 
of the county's first expenditure for printing: 

January 13, to one year's paper $2 00 

April 17, to advertising proclamation 2 50 

July 24, to libel for divorce and sale 4 2,5 

August 22, to proclamation 1 37 

September 13, to printing band-bills '. 4 GO 

November 13, to advertising sale of real estate 1 00 

November 27, to libel for divorce and probate 5 00 

Total $20 12 

Rankin, Lewis & Co. also did some printing for the county this year. 

In 1828 Benjamin B. Smith of the Phoenix, Wellsboro, was appointed 
county printer, for on April 29 he gave to Joseph Allen an order on the com- 
missioners for $29.34, being very near the total amount of contract. This 
order was given to cover a judgment obtained by Allen against J. F. Donald- 
son, but was not paid until September following. In 1831 A. H. Cory entered 
the Phoenix office, and set type for McKean advertisements. A few years 
passed by, when Hiram Payne, who came to this county in 1830 from Brad- 
ford county, Penn., established the Forester, as related in the history of 
Smethport. This was the pioneer newspaper of the county and the first in 
the district, except the papers at Wellsboro, Warren and Franklin, which were 
in existence in 1832, when in the State convention Mr. Payne claimed to rep- 
resent more territory, more bears, more wolves, more porcupines and more 
wild-cats than any five members of the convention, and the members called his 
territory " The Wild-cat District." Miner, his son, is in New York city, and 
Fred, is at Waverly, N. Y. A daughter married a son of John E. Niles. Vol- 
ume II, No. 19, of the Forester and Smethport Register was published June 
14, 1834. Mr. Payne died two years ago at Waverly, N. Y. The press 
used in his office was brought hither from Philadelphia, and was known as a 
' ' Ramage Press. ' ' 

The McKean County Journal was issued by Richard Chadwick in 1834. 
This life-long |)rothonotary of the county published the paper until Septem- 
ber, 1837, when he sold the office to Asa H. Cory for 1300. 

The Beacon and'McKean County Journal was issued in September, 1837, 
although No. 51, of Volume I, is dated April 13, 1839. It bears the name of 
Asa Howe Cory as publisher. He bought the oflice of the Journal. Among 
the advertisers were John Montgomery, of the Williamsville limekilns, twenty 
miles southwest; of Holmes & Co.'s Smethport tannery; S. Sartwell, Jr., a 
stock of fulled cloth, and B. Freeman, a stock of general merchandise. O. J. 
Hamlin and Hiram Payne were the resident lawyers, and W. Y. McCoy, resi- 
dent physician. [Dr. George Darling moved to Brookville before this 
period.] Thomas Hunt, a boy of seventeen years, left home, and for his 
recovery the father, John Hunt, an IJnglish shoemaker, offered a reward of 
one cent. The academical exhibition to be held on April 3, 1839, was also 
advertised. Mr. Cory sold to J. B. Oviatt, who established the Settler and 

' The Settl&r and Pennon, published at Smethport in the summer of 1839 
by William S. Oviatt, was continued in 1845 by J. B. Oviatt. Volume II, 
No. 10, is dated December 24, 1840. Mr. Oviatt abolished Chadwick' s inde- 
pendent ideas, and espoused the Democratic idea of the time. 


The Tomahawk and Scalping Knife was the name given to a sheet pub- 
lished at Smethport fifty years ago. In February, 1841, it became so objec- 
tionable as to be brought before the grand jury and pronounced a nuisance. 
Dwight Holcomb was the printer, and he and others were editors. 

The McKean Yeoman and Elk County Advertiser, Volume III, No. 10, 
bears date April 28, 1849, A. H. Cory being editor. No. 1 was issued in 
December, 1846, by B. F. and A. H. Cory, publishers. The journal was 
Democratic. In its pages the legal advertisements of Elk county were contin- 
ued for some years, and a good deal of attention was given to Elk county 
political news. 

The McKean Orbit, Volume II, No. 27, published by J. B. Oviatt, was 
issued August 2, 1851. The first paper was issued October 13, 1849, by N. 
W. Goodrich and J. B. Oviatt. John R. Chadwick thinks that the Yeoman 
was merged into the Orbit in 1849. 

The McKean News, Volume I, No. 52, published by George B. Backus, is 
dated October 2, 1852, the first number being issued September 13, 1851, as 
a Whig journal. Backus is said to have sold the office \o F. A. Allen, and 
moved to Colorado, where he" died about the year 1870. The News was 
neutral in politics. 

The Citizen was established by F. A. Allen (who moved to Mansfield, 
Penn. , and established the Soldiers' Home there) in September, 1 858, and was 
conducted by him until the spring of 1858, when he sold to Lucius Rogers, 
formerly of the Warren Mail, who published the paper at Smethport up to 
July 14, 1860, when the office was moved to Shippen (Emporium), and the 
paper issued December 28. Volume I, No. 42, of the McKean Citizen is 
dated April 7, 1855, and bears the signature of Charles H. Allen, editor. 

The McKean County Miner, successor of the Bradford Miner, was issued 
June 6, 1863, by L. Rogers, the news pages being devoted to war items. 
In May, 1871, E. H. and J. C. Bard were publishers, and L. Rogers editor, 
of the Miner; but on July 27 following, H. F. Barbour took the place of J. 
C. Bard and also that of Capt. Rogers. On March 11, 1880, E. H. Bard, 
who for the greater part of eighteen years was connected with the Miner, 
and who, in 1873, sold his interest in the office to H. F. Barbour, repur- 
chased the office and was publisher until January, 1883, when Mr. Barbour 
again took control, selling to Capt. Rogers in January, 1884. 

The McKean Democrat was established at Smethport in 1879 by Clark 
Wilson, one of the oldest newspaper men in the State. This journal is devoted 
solely to Democratic interests. 

In 1831-32 Orlo J. Hamlin wrote the historical sketch published in 1832 in 
Hazard's Gazetteer, and in 1850 Josiah Priest wrote a history of the Oswayo 
Valley, which was never published. 

The Bradford Miner was established at Bradford in 1858 by Daniel Kings- 
bury, J. K. Haffey and others. The editor, John Keenan Haffey, a native of 
Armagh, Ireland, born in 1831, died at Beverly, N. J., in November, 1881. 
In 1852 he came to Bradford, married Diantha DeGolier, in 1858 established 
the Bradford Miner, and in 1861 entered Col. Kane's regiment as sergeant of 
Company I. On returning in 1865 he was one of the first to be interested in 
the oil exploration on the outskirts of the present city, and became active 
in oil circles. The Neiu Era was founded at Bradford in 1875 by J. K. Haffey 
as a semi-weekly newspaper; but six months later he sold to Ferrin & Weber. 
After the death of Daniel Kingsbury, Col. HafPey aided the Universalist 
society in securing the property at the corner of North Mechanic and Corydon 


streets, and after the collapse of the first society organized a second. In 1878 
he established the Banner at Beverly, N. J. 

The Bradford Era was issued "October 29, 1877, in Bradford, from the 
office of Weber, Ferrin & Persons (over the old Star Clothing House ou Main 
street). The salutatory points out its independent principles, and further 
states as follows: " We do not run the paper for glory or notoriety; that we 
could have obtained by becoming the president of a savings bank, pocketing 
the depositors' money and then going to State prison. * * * * -^^ 
have faith in the Latin proverb. Omnia Vincit Labor." In 1878 Mr. Thorn- 
ton, now of the Bradford Era, took the position of oil reporter on the old Era, 
and in September of that year furnished the first perfect review of the Brad- 
ford oil field. 

The Daily Breeze was established in the fall of 1878, at Bradford, by David 
Armstrong for a stock company. L. C. Morton, who died at Montreal in 
1884, was one of the staff, and altogether it was credited with being one of the 
leading daily journals of the State. S. K. Dunkle was the first business man 
ager until succeeded by Mr. Linderman. Early in 1879 the publishers of the 
Breeze purchased the opposition Era office, and Jordan, Longwell & Co. took 
charge of the consolidated journals and continued the publication of the Era. 
W. F. Jordan was editor, with P. H. Linderman, business manager, J. C. 
McMullen, oil reporter, L. C. Morton.' night editor, and E. A. Bradshaw (who 
succeeded Frank Vogel), city editor. The notice of incorporation of The 
Era Publishing Company appeared in August, 1887, when H. McSweeney, C. 
H. Lay, Jr., F. G. Eidgway, John E. Campbell and William T. Scheide peti- 
tioned for a charter. Patrick C. Boyle was then editor of the Era, with George 
S. Bright associate manager, who resigned to take charge of the Jamestown 
News, when A. L. Snell, who was previously oil editor, was promoted asso- 
ciate manager. The present staff comprises P. C. Boyle, A. L. Snell, C. Den- 
nison (who succeeded C. H. Steiger transferred to Toledo) and A. H. Thorn- 
ton. There are fifteen printers employed. Mrs. Ada Cable is reporter for the- 
Era, the only lady engaged in reportorial work in the city, and with the ex- 
ception of Miss Malone, of Kane, the only one in the field. 

The Bradford Sunday Herald was issued in Bradford, August 4, 1878, by 
the Herald Company, in the interests of the labor party and greenback money. 
The Sunday News was established April 15, 1879 [On the Sunday prior 
to April 11, 1879, the Era ceased publication of a Sunday issue.], by Butler 
Bros., now of Buffalo, who continued publication up to November, 1883, when 
P. H. Linderman purchased the office. This journal has been regularly pub- 
lished down to the present day. 

The Daily Blaze was established by David Armstrong in April, 1879. On 
one occasion the paper was printed in blood-red ink, to signify its terrible hos- 
tility toward the Standard Oil Company. His staff comprised S. K. Dunkle, 
manager; and J. L. Howell, foreman and local editor. The office was on the 
corner of Newell avenue and Webster street, adjoining the old Academy of 
Music. The Blaze went down in a blaze of glory within three or four months, 
and the editor-in-chief moved to Canada. 

The Star was established in 1879 by Eben Brewer (now editor of the Erie 
Despatch) as an evening journal. Late that year the office became the prop- 
erty of F. N. Farrar and A. J. Carr, and in May, 1880, H. F. Barbour pur- 
chased the latter' s interest, and the same fall sold to E. B. Stone, who wa& 
practically sole owner. In 1883 the office was sold to George E. Allen & Co., 
who conducted the Star until May, 1884, when Mr. Barbour became half- 
owner and editor. In June, 1885, the Star Publishing Company was incor- 


porated, with H. F. Barbour, president, and R. E. Whiteley, secretary and 
treasurer. In October, 1885, the office was moved from the old stone building 
■on Pine street, to the present quarters in the Producers' Exchange. There 
are fourteen hands employed. George E. Allen, who posed as a lazy man while 
running the Star, was making a success of the Railway Magazine, of BufPalo, 
in 1885. 

The Petroleum Age was issued in December, 1882, by W. J. McCullagh 
and A. J. Carr. In July, 1880, A. L. Snell came to Bradford as correspond- 
ent of the Oil City Derrick, and became connected with the Era. In 1882 he 
joined the Cherry Grove Scouts, and in August, 1883, he purchased the 
Petroleum Age, then published by W. J. McCullagh & Co., J. C. McMullen 
and W. C. Armor being the partners in the new purchase. On December 1, 
1887, Mr. Snell and Mr. Armor sold their interests to McMullen, who con- 
tinued publication until his death. The Age was very ably conducted. 

The Sunday Morning was established at Bradford in 1882, Phil. J. Welch 
being then editor, and Benzinger & Edwards proprietors. This journal is 
said to have run only a short time, and closed with the publication of Walt 
Whitman's poem. Blades of Grass, the issue selling for |1 per copy. 

The Sunday Mail was established at Bradford by A. J. Carr. Toward its 
latter days it was printed in the Star office, and in 1884 was absorbed by the 
Star, hence the hyphenated name, Star- Mail, given to the weekly edition of 
the Star. The paper was established in 1881. 

The Kendall Church Visitor is published at Tarport. 

The Evening Call was issued at Bradford in November, 1885, to oppose 
the Star, which then opposed the Typographical Union. The life of this 
journal was short, indeed, having ceased publication early in the following 

The Daily Oil News was issued at Bradford October 3, 1887, by J. C. Mc- 
Mullen and E. A. Bradshaw. The journal continued regular publication until 
June, 1888. 

The Bradford Press club was organized January 29, 1884, with Will P. 
Jordan, president; George E. Allen, vice-president; P. H. Linderman, treas- 
urer; A. J. Carr, financial secretary; C. H. Steiger, recorder; George H. 
Leader, Col. L. M. Morton, T. E. Kern, L. E. Puller and J. C. McMullen, 
directors; Joseph Moorehead, E. A. Bradshaw, Dr. N. L. Willard, L. P. 
Camp and Col. L. M. Morton, committee men. 

The Reporter was established at Port Allegany by A. J. Hughes, May 27, 
1874. The editor made many specious promises and, what is better, more 
than fulfilled them; for seldom, if ever, has a local journal, more complete in 
news items and historical and industrial reviews, been examined by the writer. 
P. A. Thomas, now of the Miner, was the first typo here. As Mr. Hughes has held 
the editor's chair continuously since 1874, he may be considered the senior 
member of the newspaper circle of McKean. He witnessed the establishment 
and fall of many newspaper enterprises, the while building up his own office, 
until now it is one of the moat perfect news and job establishments in this 
congressional district. Prom the files of the Reporter many interesting items 
of history have been obtained. Among the officers of the Pennsylvania Edi- 
torial Association, elected at Harrisburg, January 22, 1890, was A. J. Hughes, 
of the Reporter. 

C. E. Wright, who died here in March, 1889, was born in New York State 
September 5, 18 14. In 1838 he married Martha Wright, of Eldred, and soon 
after moved to Honesdale, where he published the Herald. Later he returned 
to Deposit, N. Y. , and founded the Courier, in which office "P. V. Crosby ' ' 


served his apprenticeship. From 1855 to 1874 or 1875 Mr. Wright resided at 
Janesville, except while assisting in compiling the Chicago Directory. Charles 
E. Wright, his son, died in 1869, while on the editorial staff of the Times. 
A. short time prior to his death he contributed a few papers on local history to 
the Miner, and for years was a contributor to the Reporter. 

The Ceres News was issued at Ceres in 1874 by Jerry Barker. One volume 
was issued within fourteen months, when a humorous valedictory was issued. 
The disappointed editor died a poor man, at Machias. The second paper 
publis'bed at Ceres was the Courant, issued by J. P. Herrick in the summer of 
1886. The success of this journal under Mr. Herrick is told by the fact that 
in May, 1889, a two-story building was completed, and opened as the office. 
The Oswayo Valley Mail is the new name of the Consolidated Ceres Courant 
and the Sharon Leader, of which Mr. Herrick is publisher. The consolidation 
dates to April, 1889. 

The Eldred Express was issued at Eldred August 17, 1878, by Judson 
Howden, publisher, and A. J. Hughes, of the Reporter, owner. In September, 
1879, this journal was consolidated with the present Reporter of Port Allegany. 

The Eldred Eagle was issued at Eldred by A. D. Gould, August 24, 1878, 
as an independent journal in politics. When the Express people witnessed 
the failure of the Eldred oil field, they ceased their contest with the American 
bird, who has held the field successfully down to the present time. 

The Herald was issiied at Duke Centre in November, 1879, by Wellington 
& Carr. Other journals followed during the great oil fever at this point; but 
now the Auger is the only journal published. A number of small papers were 
issued at vaiious oil camps since 1878, such as the Bordell Bazoo, The Driller. 

The Kane Blade was published at Kane as an independent weekly news- 
paper by O. B. Lay, from 1879 to 1882. It was printed in Ridgway, until the 
fire of September, 1882, destroyed the printing office there, when the Blade 
suspended publication. 

Kane Leader.— On July 2, 1885, Earl Bros., of Sterling and T. J. Malone, 
of Eidgway, formed a partnership and published the Kane Leader. Earl 
Bros., on March 11, 1886, sold their interest to a friend of Mr. Malone' s. 
December 24, 1886, Mr. Malone transferred his interest to Miss Ada C. Ma- 
lone, who, under the name of "The Leader Publishing Company " managed 
the paper until May 5, 1887, when it was purchased by Eugene J. Miller. 
During the Prohibitory Amendment Campaign of 1889 Mr. Miller sold the 
paper to a Prohibitionist who desired to control it, and Miss Malone again 
became its publisher in 1889. The Leader is a weekly journal carefully edited, 
and replete with local news. 


The school history of McKean county begins in September, 1807, when 
John Keating, the donor of the county seat, set aside 150 acres for the sup- 
port of a teacher, and subscribed 1500 toward a school building. A refer- 
ence to the transactions of the commissioners will show that for fifteen years, 
at least, no steps were taken to utilize this liberal grant. The first school, 
however, was opened at Instanter in 1809. Joseph Otto taught the second 
school in the county at his house. It was an eleemosynary institution, sug- 
gested by the ignorance and wants of the times, and, like the age, very 
primitive. In time the academy was established at Smethport, a few sub- 
scription schools were opened throughout the county, and the system of com- 
mon schools was adopted. 

Eichard Chadwick taught a school at Smethport in 1828, having constructed 


a frame house for that purpose in rear of the present Methodist church. Mr. 
Chadwick compiled an arithmetic, and had it printed at Williamsport, which 
was used for a number of years. The Ked School-house was erected on the 
lot where Dr. Freeman now resides, in about 1834. Jedediah Darling, Anson 
and William Burlingame and Dr. Graves were among the first teachers, and to 
them the children of the pioneers went to be educated. 

In November, 1 834, the education law was in force here, Amos Patterson, 
Brewster Freeman and John Smith being commissioners. John Morris was 
delegate from Ceres; Lemuel Lucore, from Shippen; Orville Ketchum', from 
Keating; Ambrose Corey, from Bradford; Eussell M. Freeman, from Cory- 
don, and Henry Scott, from Sergeant. All agreed on appropriating moneys 
for common schools, and levied a school tax of one mill per dollar valuation. 
In 1835 the delegates were Eensselaer Wright, John Chandler, Nathaniel 
White, A. Corey, David Cargill and Daniel A. Esterbrooks, from the respect- 
ive townships, with Asa P. Barnaby, of Liberty, and Epaphas Eoot, of Hamil- 
ton. A mill tax was authorized in the face of strong opposition. In 1836 
William White represented Norwich as school delegate; James Greene took 
Freeman's place as commissioner, and a one-half -mill tax was authorized. 

The growth of the system is shown by Supt. W. P. Eckels' report on the 
schools of McKean county for the year ending June 4, 1888. This document 
gives the following figures: 163 school-houses, or 190 rooms, 6 houses being 
built during the previous year; 63 male and 202 female teachers; 4,668 male 
and 4,360 female pupils, of whom 6,435 attended school; school tax, $93,- 
599.28; State moneys, $7,212; total revenue, $117,833.53, of which the sum 
of $64,762.36 was paid to teachers. The total expenditures amounted to 

There were fifteen graded schools, and twenty-four districts in which books 
are supplied free. At Bradford there were five school buildings, containing 
thirty-two rooms. There are 1,905 pupils enrolled, presided over by thirty- 
three female teachers, of whom Miss Ella M. Boyce was superintendent. The 
Catholic separate schools, in charge of the Sisters, also claim a large attendance. 


In 1817 Dr. Butterfield, who settled at Clermont, then called Instanter, 
attended, in 1818, Richard Chadwick, of Rich Valley. Dr. Coleman was a 
farmer and hotel keeper near the Coleman homestead. He was a very excel- 
lent citizen, but did not make medicine a profession. 

Dr. George Darling, the first physician of the county who devoted his time 
to the profession, settled at Smethport in 1827-28. Dr. R. B. Graves was 
school-teacher and physician. Dr. W. Y. McCoy came shortly after, and mar- 
ried Dr. Darling's daughter, who died in 1832. She was the first person 
buried in the old Smethport cemetery. William Printup, a native physician 
of the Oneida Indians, was born during the Revolutionary war, and conse- 
quently was too young to share with his tribe in their removal to Canada, 
or death. At the time that George Long, George Saltsman, Peter Grove and 
the other great frontier men were carrying on their warfare against the In- 
dians on the Sinnemahoning, Printup was a boy, but he remembered the' two 
companies of Oneidas — one of twenty-five men (hunters), one of forty men 
(warriors) — who were still working under the British license. This Printup, 
with the remaining Oneidas, hunted through this district until 1845. Blihu 
Chadwick, Jr. , was dangerously ill at Lafayette Corners, twelve miles west of 
Smethport, in June, 1831, and the local physicians failing to cure the sufferer. 


Printup took charge of the patient, and within ten days had him able to ride 
home in an ox sled, Edmund Freeman and Gideon Irons assisting. 

Dr. Jedediah Darling died February 22, 1871. He was born in Massa- 
chusetts September 25, 1814, and came to Bunker Hill with his father in 1822. 
After a term of study in Dr. McCoy's office he began practice. Dr. Joshua 
Baxom was at Smethport prior to 1837. The house in which he lived, while 
being moved in 1838, careened, killing Joseph Barnes, who was assisting in the 
work. Dr. Jones is said to have practiced at Smethport as early as 1840; 
Drs. Nobles and E. C. Olds were at Littleton (Bradford), and also Goit Brown 
and McDougall. About this period a number of physicians, whose names are 
scattered throughout the sketches of townships and boroughs, were here. Dr. 
B, P. Cory studied in Ohio, and practiced here as early as 1844, then moved to 
Ironton, Ohio, in 1852, where he now resides. Dr. Wisner came here early in 
the "fifties," moved to Michigan after the war, where he died about 1887. 
Silvanus D. Freeman came in 1856, and still resides here. Henry L. McCoy 
came after the war. Kanistanaux, an Indian doctress, was a professional vis- 
itor in 1866, and also Dr. A. C. Jackson. 

The McKean County Medical Association was organized July 24, 1880, 
with Dr. F. M. Follett, president; Dr. Hand, vice-president; Dr. S. B. Dorn, 
secretary, and Dr. Murdoch, treasurer. Drs. Matteson, Buss, Dorand, Wallace 
and Wright, with the officers, were the constituent members. Dr. Shoemaker, 
of Bradford, died in 1888. Dr. S. D. Freeman, Dr. Dorn, Dr. Buss, Dr. Henry 
L. McCoy, have served the society as presidents. 

The following is a list of the medical men who have registered in McKean 
county from 1881 to 1889, inclusive: 

Those who registered in 1881 were as follows: 

Silvanus D. Freeman, Buffalo, 1856. Abram Mayer, Bavaria, 1866. 

Edward G. Brown, Buffalo, 1875. F. M. Follett, Buffalo, 1863. 

Thomas H. Carroll, Buffalo, 1881. G. S. Wykoff, Buffalo, 1877. 

Wilfred W. Streeter, Washington, 1875. J. A. Wallace, Philadelphia, 1869. 
Matthaeum M. Griffith, Philadelphia, 1867. G. W. Weaver, Philadelphia, 1873. 

Henry Wilson, Buffalo, 1873. James L. Carnahan, Cleveland, 1874. 

Joteph H. Shuey, Cleveland, 1876. John C. Swan, Philadelphia, 1876. 

W. P. Shoemaker, Ann Arbor, 1874. H. Scott Baker, Ann Arbor, 1855, 

Myron A. Todd, Cleveland, 1876. A. R. Baker, Cleveland, 1879. 

Bela B. Phelps, Buffalo, 1847. James T. Kinsler, Bellevue, N.Y., 1867. 

O. 8. Wright, Ann Arbor, 1875. Julius Scheffer, Germany, 1865. 

David E. Matteson, Cleveland, 1873. Urban G. Mease, Philadelphia, 1867. 

T. J. Martin, Philadelphia, 1878. W. L. Craig, , 1871. 

Aug. F. McKay, Georgetown, 1873. W. F. Conners, New York, 1880. 

A. F. Groves, New York, 1879. W. H. Kinnier, Albany, 1881. 

Chester S. Hubbard, Ann Arbor, 1877. Merritt Wilcox, Philadelphia, 1866. 

Sylvester S. Satterlee, Cleveland, 1873. Horace A. Place, New York, 1878. 

Charles D. Buss, New York, 1876. W. R. Dorand, Philadelphia, 1870. 

G. H. Monegan, Cleveland, 1880. Thomas D. Ross, Cleveland, 1878. 

L. B. C. Phelps, Columbus, 1877. Henry L. McCoy, Buffalo, 1868. 

Henry A. Page, Yale, 1865. W. Robert Hand, Cincinnati, 1877. 

W. W. Powell, Ann Arbor, 1854. John E. McDougal, , 1871. 

Frank H. Murdoch, Ann Arbor, 1873. James V. Otto, Buffalo, 1878, 

Thomas H. Stewart, Berks, Mass, 1844. John S, Stearns, Buffalo, 1873. 

Kay A. Sweet, Buffalo, 1880. A. K, Corbin, New York, 1881. 

Justin C. Elliott, Buffalo, 1851. H. T. Dunbar, Cincinnati, 1876, 

H. A. Canfleld, Ann Arbor, 1877. Nathaniel Sweet, Buffalo, 1865. 

James Love, Pennsylvania, 1851. W. A. Hobday, Buffalo, 1881. 

Edwin A. Walter, Cleveland, 1879. C. H. Gumaer, Ann Arbor, 1878. 

G W Rae, Canada, 1875. Thomas E. Lewis, U. S, Cert,, 1863. 

G. E, Benninghoff, Cleveland, 1879. Albert H, Smith, Buffalo, 1865, 

Sidney E. Ford, Cleveland, 1878. Fred C. Cluxton, Canada, 1870, 

John D. Maloy, Buffalo, 1875. Luther Phillips, Cincinnati, 1856, 

A. M, Williams, Philadelphia, 1867. W. C. Tracy, Boston, 1866, 


J. H. Harmon, Pennsylvania, 1869. G. H. Preston, New York, 1879. 

Comfort Carpenter, Pennsylvania, 1871. Simon B. Stevens, Cincinnati, 1877. 

Samuel G. Ginner, Pennsylvania, 1871. S. B. Hartman, Philadelphia, 1857. 

Sullivan B. Dorn, Pennsylvania, 1870. Jacob B. Kincaid, Buffalo, 1879. 

Charles P. Ailing, Cleveland, 1863. John R. McCarthy, Buffalo, 1866. 

Lyman Deck, Ann Arbor, 1878. Lewis Balfour, Edinburgh, 1871. 

John C. Cheeseman, Buffalo, 1865. G. H. Gollry, Buffalo, 1860. 

O. W. Sadler, Chicago, 1868. 

Those who registered in 1882 were as follows: 

W. Y. McCoy, Ohio, M. C, 1877. Thomas C. James, New York, 1874. 

C. H. Reed, New York, 1876. Andrew Meisell, Austria, 1842. 

F. "W. Hogarth, Buffalo, 1868. Emily A. Corbin, 1868.' 

Those who registered in 1883 were as follows: 

Jacob C. Batdorf, Columbus, 1864. James Nichols, Buffalo, 1864. 

Robert J. Sharp, New York, 1883. Elmer E. Livingstone, Buffalo, 1883. 

r. W. Johnson, , 1883. Rufus A. Egbert, Ann Arbor, 1875. 

Those who registered in 1884 were as follows: 

Francis H. Linning, Am. Ec, Ohio, 1881. W. H. Perdomo, New York, 1883. 

E. O. Anderson, Philadelphia, 1880. S. S. Herman, Buffalo, 1884. 

Bvanum O. Kane, Jefferson College, 1884. Henry J. Nichols, Buffalo, 1883. 

Ed. Van Scoy, Ec. Pennsylvania, 1873. James Johnston, Canada, 1884. 

Those who registered in 1885 were as follows: 

Brwin M. Coss, Buffalo, 1884. John P. De Lancy, New York, 1885. 

Martia E. Drake, Cleveland, 1885. J. C. F. Bush, Baltimore, 1880. 

Elizabeth D. Kane, Women's Medical Col- Harriet A. Kane, Women's Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania, 1883. lege of Pennsylvania, 1885. 

Those who registered in 1886 were as follows: 

Gardner B. Young, New York, 1886. S. M. K. Wells, Buffalo, 1883. 

Thomas L. Kane, Philadelphia, 1886. H. C. Chesney, Fort Wayne, 1883. 

David Howard, McKean county, 1866. Francis E. Watts, Chicago, 1883. 

F. W. Winger, New York, 1886. 

Those who registered in 1887 were as follows: 

James M. Peebles, Philadelphia, 1876. Walter B. Hnttell, Cleveland, 1886. 

W. J. Armstrong, New York, 1883. Joseph B. Colcord, Baltimore, 1885. 

James H. Douglass, Baltimore, 1883. Joseph Ward, Cleveland, 1885. 

Orra M. Cain. 

Those who registered in 1888 were as follows: 
B. Chadwick, Philadelphia, 1888. Thomas Eddy, Cincinnati, 1854. 
Dunham E. Ash, Ohio, 1887. C. M. Blakeslee, , 1859. 

Those who registered in 1889 were as follows: 

J. G. Taylor, , 1864 John C. Brown, Buffalo, 1889. 

Eli Monell, , 1870. W. J. Fredericks, Philadelphia, 1889. 

James B. Stewart, Cincinnati, 1888. Walter J. Russell, Philadelphia, 1889. 

A. M. Straight, Ohio, 1871. John L. Wright, Philadelphia, 1881. 

Emma Griggs, Chicago, 1888. Abigail Grace, Philadelphia, 1887. 

A. Grace White, of Bradford, registered William R. Gibson, August 13, 1889. 

in June, 1889. Nelson Cheney, September, 5, 1889. 




The Kinzua Viadltct— The Warren Railroad Convention— Sunbuky & 
Erie R. R.— Buffalo, Bradford & Pittsburgh R. R.— The Turkey Path 
—Sale of the Western New York & Pennsylyania R. R.— Olean, Brad- 
ford & Warren R. R.— Bradford & Foster Brook R. B.— The " Peg-Leg " 
Line— Bradford, Bokdell & Kinzua R. R.— Bradford, DeGolier & Smeth- 
port R. R.— Pittsburgh, Bradford & Buffalo Ry., and Big Level & 
Bradford R. R.— Big Level & Kinzua R. R.— Bradford R. R. and Kinzua 
R. R:— Bradford & State Line R. R. Co.— Buffalo Division of Rochester 
& Pittsburgh R. R. Co —Miscellaneous. 

IF variety be a recommeadation to railroad systems, McKean county is 
singularly well endowed. Here have been constructed roads, ranging 
from a single rail to a double track of six-feet gauge, and from a prairie level 
to a grade of 264 feet per mile. In the matter of viaducts the county is no 
less blessed, for every form of bridge from the common wooden culvert" to the 
Kinzua viaduct is found. This latter structure completed September 2, 1882, 
may be classed as one of the world's wonders. This bridge rests on founda- 
tions of sandstone, quarried near by. It consists of twenty lower spans of 
thirty-eight and a half feet each, and twenty- one intermediate spans of sixty- 
one feet each. The trains run 301 feet above the creek bed, and the length of 
the structure is 2,051 feet. The first watchman (StafPord) used to inspect 
three of the twenty towers every day. In the winter of 1883-84, while en- 
gaged in this work, the air benumbed his hands, so that he could not cling 
longer to the braces, and losing his grip, fell sixty-five feet into a deep snow- 
drift which saved him. On another occasion some one hailed him from the 
track, and, forgetting his location, he let go his hold and was falling from the top 
girts, when a friendly iron brace, within reach, saved his life. The old " Peg- 
Leg ' ' Railroad, now a thing of the past, was wonderfully unique. It belonged 
to Bradford's infancy and for this reason is referred to historically in the 
sketch of that city. To-day a ride on the Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua Rail- 
road, is almost as exciting as a chariot-race or bull fight, and a trip from 
Bradford to Smethport, or south on the main line, is something at once enjoy- 
able and instructive. A reference to the first chapter will point out the sharp 
high elevations over which our engineers have carried this and other local rail- 

The Warren railroad convention of June, 1851, claimed Representatives 
O. J. Hamlin, Hiram Payne and N. W. Goodrich, of McKean county; Henry 
Souther, James L. Gillis and C. K. Early, of Elk county, on the executive 
committee. Many other citizens, however, were present as delegates. Work 
on the Sunbury & Erie Railroad was soon after commenced, and the comple- 
tion of that road through McKean, Elk and Cameron counties in 1864 followed. 

The Buffalo, Bradford & Pittsburgh Railroad from Carrollton to Gilesburg, 
twenty-six miles, was consolidated in 1859 with the Buffalo & Pittsburgh and 
the Buffalo & Bradford Railroads, and opened January 5, 1866. 

The Turkey Path was proposed in 1872, and $50,000 was expended on sur- 



vey and right of way. Asa H. Cory waa agent for purchase of right of way, 
and B. D. Hamlin attorney, in 1873. This road was graded through Farmers 
Valley by Contractors A. I. Wilcox and Capt. Murphy, who abandoned it the 
same year. 

In April, 1881, the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad was sold 
to Archer N. Martin. This sale covered the main line, 121 miles; the Olean, 
Bradford & Warren Narrow Gauge (twenty-three miles of which were then 
built); the Kendall & Eldred Narrow Gauge (eighteen miles opened July 30, 
1877); the McKean Eailroad from Larrabee, twenty-three miles up to the coal 
mines, together with 16,000 acres of the Buffalo Coal Company's lands. The 
price paid was $4,850,000, exclusive of $3,000,000 first and $1,000,000 second 
mortgage bonds. Sherman S. Jewett represented the old company, A. N. 
Martin represented the purchasing syndicate, while the city of Buffalo, owner 
of $700,000 stock, was also represented. The Olean, Bradford & Warren 
Railroad was opened in 1878 to the State line (twelve miles), and from the 
State line to Bradford the same year. 

The Bradford & Foster Brook Railroad Company was incorporated in Octo- 
ber, 1877, with Col. A. I. Wilcox, president; John B. Brawley, M. N. Allen, 
S. H. Bradley, Roy Stone, George Gilmore and E. W. Codington, directors. 
The object was to build a railroad from Bradford to Gillmor City, on Foster 
Bro6k, the gauge not to exceed three feet. Among the stockholders were the 
officers named, with C. W. Staats and T. J. Skidmore. The work of construc- 
tion was soon commenced, and in January, 1878, the road was opened to Tar- 
port, running in opposition to the Olean & Bradford Narrow Gauge, com- 
pleted February 11 that year. Eli Perkins, who traveled on the Peg-Leg in 
February, 1878, describes the road as follows: 

The cars run astride an elevated track on a single rail. This rail is nailed to a single 
wooden stringer which rests on the top of piles. So evenly balanced is the train, that 
passing over a pond or creek at the rate of twenty miles an hour the water is hardly dis- 
turbed. ■ The motive for building is economy, the price per mile being $3,000, and the 
cost of a ten-ton locomotive, |3,000. The locomotive is a queer looking thing. An Irish- 
man here compared it to a gigantic pair of boots swung over a clothes line. The boiler 
is without a flue, the engine without a piston, and the driver without a crank. I rode 
with Gen. Stone around corners and up steep grades at thirty miles an hour. 

Eli exaggerated somewhat, as this speed was never attained, there were no 
corners, and little or nothing in the way of grades. The Peg-Leg depots were 
Bradford, Tarport, Foster Brook, Babcock's Mill, Harrisburg Run and Derrick 
City. Ten double trips would be made daily, and an accident was chronicled 
almost every day. The accident of August, 1878, was a trivial one. It 
appears that immediately after the two flat cars were pulled out of the depot, 
by the new locomotive, A. I. Wilcox, the timbers holding the single track gave 
way and the flat cars fell ten feet, leaving the engine on the track. In May, 
Hugh Brawley, now deputy prothonotary, was appointed conductor. In De- 
cember he moved to Smethport, leaving George Grogan to take his place. On 
January 27, 1879, the explosion of a boiler, during the trial of the Gibbs & 
Sterrett locomotive, over the Peg-Leg, resulted in the death of six men and 
the mutilation of three others: George Grogan (conductor), John Addis (brake- 
man), John Vaughn (engineer), Charles Shepherd (assistant superintendent), 
Michael Hollevan (fireman) and Thomas Luby (engineer) being killed, and 
Sterrett, Peterson and Gartside injured. In February, 1879, the road was 
sold to Allen & Skidmore, and in March, 1880, it was disposed of at sheriff' s sale. 

The Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua Railroad Company was incorporated 
March 4, 1880; among the local directors were F. E. Boden, W. F.. Jordan, 
James Broder, W. W. Brown, G. L. Roberts, of Bradford, and C. H. Knox, 


of Kendall. On April 17 the first locomotive was placed on the track for 
construction purposes, and the road was opened for trafSc June 7, 1880, to 
Kinzua junction, the train being in charge of Conductor Stubey, with A.' T. 
Harris, engineer, and Keuben Sweet, express messenger. The officers of this 
company for 1890 are as follows: President, J. J. Carter; vice-president, W. 
W. Brown; directors: John E. Eansom, of Buffalo,. N. Y. ; A. S. Murray, 
Jr., of New York; John C. Havemeyer, of New York; August Stein, of New 
York; M. L. Hinman, of Dunkirk, N. Y. ; W. W. Brown, of Bradford, Penn. ; 
A. I. Wilcox, of Bradford, Penn. ; George A. Eckbert, of Titusville, Penn. ; 
John C. McKenna, of Bradford, Penn. ; John J. Carter, of Titusville, Penn. 

In September, Craigie, Eafferty & Yeomans signed the contract for build- 
ing the road from Simpson's to Smethport, and December 16 the first train 
arrived at the county seat, with President J. J. Carter, Attorney W. W. 
Brown, F. E. Boden, James Broder, A. I. Wilcox and J. W. Humphrey, of 
Bradford, among the passengers. The first freight was received by Ed. 
Schenck, of the Bennett House. 

Col. Carter, lessee of the Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua, reported a total tonnage 
of 430,000 tons five years ago, when he took charge, and 2,000,000 tons in 
1889. This road is now known as the Bradford & Smethport Railroad, and 
forms part of the old Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua system. The officers elected 
in 1890 are as follows: President, J. J. Carter; vice-president, A. I. Wilcox; 
directors: J. J. Carter, J. C. McKenna, W. W. Brown, G. L. Eoberts, A. I. 
Wilcox, J. E. Ransom, M. L. Hinman, L. J. Backer, August Stein. The 
other officers of the roads elected are as follows: Superintendent, J. C. Mc- 
Kenna; treasurer, C. T. Griggs; secretary, J. E. Eansom; auditor, W. R. 

The Bradford, DeGolier & Smethport Railroad Company was organized 
April 16, 1880, under charter, with L. Emery, Jr., president; Eben Brewer, sec- 
retary; Robert H. Eose, treasurer; R. B. Stone, George A. Berry, M.A. Sprague, 
C. S. King, P. H. Towell and W. C. Kennedy, with the officers named, directors. 
The people of Smethport soon entered the project, B. D. Hamlin, D. Sterrett 
and R. H. Rose, leading, and by April 22, $8,000 dollars were subscribed. In 
May, 1880, the Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua Railroad Company was consoli- 
dated with the Bradford, DeGolier & Smethport Road, the condition being that 
the latter' s charter be surrendered, and $30, 000 subscribed to the stock of 
the first- named company. 

Under the management of Col. C. W. Mackey, of Franklin, the Pitts- 
burgh, Bradford & Buffalo Railway was extended to Kane in 1883. The 
same year it was consolidated with the Big Level & Bradford Eailroad (par- 
tially constructed in 1881 by Gen. Kane) and the united railroad was in turn 
consolidated with the Pittsburgh & Western Eailroad, and completed to. 
Mount Jewett. Difficulties of transfer from narrow to standard gauge at 
Mount Jewett however prevented the development of much traffic until, in 
1886, Elisha K. Kane joined with five of the stockholders of the Pittsburgh & 
Western Eailroad, and built the Big Level & Kinzua Eailroad from Mount 
Jewett to Ormsby station on the Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua Eailroad. Con- 
tracts were then entered into by which the Bradford, Bordell & Kinzua Eail- 
road Company gained control of the line from Ormsby to Kane, and have since 
operated it greatly to the satisfaction of the people of Kane, and to the devel- 
opment of traffic. 

The railroad accident of January, 1884, on the Bradford, Bordell & 
Kinzua Eoad, three miles from Bradford and one from Tarport, resulted in the 
death of three female passengers and one male, and injury to many others. It 


appears that oil from the Anchor Company's tank on the Buchanan farm leaked, 
in large quantities, down the steep hill to the railroad track, and running along 
the track formed a pool 1,000 feet below. Engineer Patrick Sexton and Fire- 
man Walsh did not suspect the presence of oil until the gas caught the engine 
fire, and in a minute the engineer opened the throttle wide to fly through the 
flames. It was a terrible ride, the air-pipe couplings were burned, and the 
train plunged down a grade of 130 feet per mile, until derailed at the curve, 
the engineer and fireman being at their posts until their roasting flesh com- 
pelled them to plunge into the snow. The persons burned to death were Mrs. 
Fair, of Kinzua Junction; Mrs. Jones, of Hew City; Miss Moran, of Allen, and 
the aged Prof . Fought, of Tarport. 

The Bradford Railroad, fourteen miles to the intersection of the Kinzua 
Railroad, was opened in July, 1881. The Kinzua Railroad from that point to 
Kinzu^, twelve miles, was also built. The Bradford & State Line Railroad 
Company was incorporated September 23, 1881, to build a road from Bradford 
to the crossing of the State line at Tuna creek. The consolidation of the Alle- 
gheny & Kinzua and Bradford & Corydon Roads, embracing what is known as 
the"Bullis Lumber Roads," was effected in February, 1890. The Allegheny 
& Kinzua had ten miles of road constructed from Red House on the Western 
New York & Pennsylvania Railroad to Freck's lumber station, the Bradford 
& Corydon Railroad, fifteen miles from Bradford to Coffey run. S. S. Bullis 
was chosen president, and C. D. Williams, of Bradford, superintendent. The 
branch road connecting Freck & Gilbert's mills up the west branch, runs 
through ten miles of dense forest. 

The third railroad connecting Bradford with Buffalo was opened November 
19, 1883, by the Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad Company. It is known as 
the Buffalo division, extending to Punxsutawney, about 182 miles. The inaug- 
uration train was in charge of Joe Consalus, with William Hayden, engineer, 
and James M. Nevins, baggageman. 

In December, 1878, a meeting was held at Eldred to consider the question 
of building the Wellsville & Eldred Railroad, Guerdon Evans presiding. In 
May, 1881, this narrow gauge railroad was commenced, W. F. Jones being 
president; William Duke, vice-president; L. S. Anderson, secretary; W. A. 
Baldwin, treasurer, and C. A. Farnum, attorney at the time. Work on the 
Eldred & Rew City Railroad was commenced May 28, 1882. In May, 1886, 
the contract for building the narrow gauge from Mount Jewett to Ormsby was 
sold to Tennant & Johnson. This road was suggested in 1858 by Gen. Kane. 
The Mount Jewett, Kinzua & Riterville Railroad Company was chartered in 
April, 1889, with Elisha K. Kane, president. The capital stock was placed at 
$80,000. The line is eight miles long, extending from the junction of the Big 
Level & Kinzua Railroad at Mount Jewett to the junction of the New York, 
Lake Erie & Western Railroad, near Crawfords Summit. The work of con- 
struction was at once entered upon, and by the close of July the road was ready 
for the iron to Kushequi, or crossing of Kinzua creek, where McClellan & 
Kane's large saw-mill was being built. The road was completed to Doyle's 
mill, two miles below, in September. It is proposed to build the road through 
to the mouth of the Kinzua. The Philadelphia & Erie Railroad branch between 
Johnsonburg and Clermont was completed in May, 1889. 

In 1885-86, during the oil excitement at Kane, James Bros., of Kane, 
constructed the Kane Oil Field Railroad, from Jo-Jo Junction, one mile south 
of Kane, to Jo- Jo, an ephemeral village near the confluence of West and Wind 
runs of East Branch, Tionesta creek. It is not now operated. 

In 1886 West & Britton, of Kane, constructed a lumber railroad, which 

C, y^kj^a^^u^^ 


they called the North Kane Railroad, from the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, 
at Kane, for two miles down the south branch of Kinzua creek. In 1888 they 
sold their mills at North Kane and the railroad to G. W. Campbell & Sons, 
who made the North Kane Railroad form a portion of their Kinzua tJreek & 
Kane Railroad. The Kinzua Creek & Kane Railroad was chartered to run 
from Kane to Neely's mill on the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, 
and about six miles have been completed. In consideration of right of way 
and of a loan of money necessary for its construction this railroad was ex- 
tended to a connection with the Pittsburgh & Western Railroad, forming a belt 
line through the borough, and entered into a permanent contract with Elisha 
K. Kane, by which any manufacturer locating upon its line within borough 
limits is entitled to free use of the tracks, or to have cars brought to his works 
and returned to the main railroad at a charge of only 75 cents per car. 

In 1882 a railroad was built between Coudersport, in Potter county, and 
Port Allegany, in McKean county, known as the Coudersport & Port Allegany 
Railroad. The Kinzua Creek Railroad Company was chartered in February, 
1890, to build twelve miles of track from Anderson switch, of the Western 
New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, to the big bridge on the New York, Lake 
Erie & Western Railroad. 




Bradford Township — General Description — Census Statistics — Early 
Settlers — Land Warrants and Companies — Early Schools and 
Churches— Some First Things— Bradford Village in 1875— Township 
Officers Elected in 1890— Villages. 

City of Bradford Pioneers— Origin of the Town— Oil Boom, Etc.— 

Fires— Municipal Affairs— Light and Heat Companies— Banks, Etc.— 
Oil Exchanges — Post-Office— Hotels— Schools— Churches— Cemeter- 
ies — Hospital— Societies, Etc. — Manufacturing and Other Industries 

BRADFORD TOWNSHIP is bounded on the north by the south line of 
Foster township, south by Lafayette and Keating townships, east by 
Otto township, and on the west by Corydon township. The east branch of 
' Tuna creek*, running north from Lewis run, near the center of the south line, 
forms a confluence with the west branch at Bradford, while at Tarport and 
Babcock the main stream receives Kendall creek and Foster brook. The west 
branch heads in Two Mile run and flows northeast from the southwest corner 
of the township to Bradford city. Kendall creek rises in the southeast corner 
and flows northwest to Tarport, and Foster brook rises near the east line of 
the northeast quarter of the township, flowing almost west to Babcock. Ma- 
rilla creek, the principal feeder of the west branch, comes down from the 
heights in the northwest corner. A hundred smaller streams are found here, 
some finding a way to the main streams through deep cafions. Mount Eaub, 
a mile east of Bradford, is the highest measured point, being 2, 225 feet above 
level. The lowest point (1,415 feet) is where Tuna creek enters New York 
State. All the higher points are capped by Pottsville conglomerate, which is 
either the Kinzua creek sandstone or the Olean conglom. , while in tHe south 
and west the Johnson run sandstone is found resting on its Alton coal bed. 
The dip of the Olean and, consequently, the oil sand from Rpck City to Tar- 
port (nine miles) averages five and one-half feet per 'mile ; Tarport to Bradford, 
thirteen feet; Bradford to DeGolier, twelve and one-half feet; DeGolier to 
Lewis run, thirty-seven feet; Bradford to Marilla summit (summit elevation 
2,010 feet, and distance six miles), three feet per mile, and the average dip 
from Tarport to the southeast corner of the township is fourteen feet per mile. 
The total thickness of rocks explored in the outcrop or wells is 1,977 feet ex- 
tending from cap of Mount Raub to the' Chemung formations. Bold outcrops 
of Olean conglomerate are visible in the Tuna Valley, and west of Custer 
City they take the peculiar features of the formation at Olean, Rock City, 
where the summit is 2, 350 feet above tide. In the Marilla region occurs the 
extreme northern outcrop, in the United States, of the Appalachian coal basin, 
but the area is so small it is held in little estimation by coal men. At Lewis 
run is the black band iron ore (under a bed of black band shales) which yielded 
on test 43.75 per cent of metal. Near the head of Two Mile run, just across 

* Tuna creek derives its name from the eddy at its mouth, called by the Indians Ichunuagwanl or Big 
Cove with Large Mouth. 


the south town line, five varieties of ore exist, one of which yields 48. 65 per cent 
of metal, and one as low as 23. 10 per cent. The mineral paint ore on the Foster 
farm was largely used by the Erie Eailroad Company some years ago in paint- 
ing depots, bridges and cars. It was ground and mixed, with crude oil, and 
found to be very desirable for an outside paint. There being no mill near in 
which it could be ground, the expense of transporting it to Buffalo, having it 
ground and then sent to market, was too great for the limited capital of the 
party engaged in its manafacture. A barn now standing near Smethport built 
some years ago by Col. Wilcox is entirely constructed of McKean county prod- 
ucts except the nails, and is painted with the paint in question. 

The population of Bradford township and village in 1870 was 1,446, of 
which 100 were foreign-born citizens. In June, 1874, the number was esti- 
mated at 1,500, including 350 in the village. The oil production for the pre- 
ceding six years was roughly estimated at twenty-one barrels per day, which 
sold for $1. 30 per barrel. One lumberman ran over 5,000, 000 feet of white pine 
logs and manufactured over 3,000,000 shingles that year, and with the other 
lumber and bark interests of Zeliff, Clark & Babcock, Peterson, J. W. Hilton 
and P. T. Kennedy brought to the township at least $150,000. Three hun- 
dred cows yielded 112,000 worth of butter and $3,620 worth of cheese, while 
grain and root crops, cattle, sheep, hogs and horses contributed largely to the 
township's wealth. 

The population of Bradford township in 1880 was 2,699. In 1888 the 
township gave 270 Republican, 132 Democratic, 41 Prohibition and 19 Labor 
votes, or a total of 462. This number multiplied by six, as in the case of 
Bradford city, gives the population, at the close of last year, 2,772. 

The population of Bradford city in 1880 was 9,197. Of this number 2,622 
resided in the First Ward, 1.704 in the Second, 2,603 in the Third, 1,520 in 
the Fourth, and 1,228 in the Fifth. In November, 1888, there were 178 
votes cast in the First Ward for the Eepublican candidate for president, 265 
for the Democratic, and 8 for the Prohibitionist; in the Second Ward the 
figures were 242, 112 and 15, respectively; in the Third, 143, 181 and 17; in 
the Fourth, 228, 106 and 7, and in th^ Fifth, 122, 73 and 9, while Streeter 
received 7 votes in all the wards, or 913+737-1-56+7^1,713, multiplied by 
6 equals 10, 278, the population based on vote. 

The resident tax-payers of Bradford township in 1844-45 were Philo Ack- 
ley, N.. J. Buel, Smith Barton, William Coleman, John Dudley, James Cooper, 
Orrin Fuller, C..Lukins, Hiram and J. O. Beardsley, Phil. Barron, Chester 
Barron, Asmit Brown, Bradley & Fobes (saw-mill owners), Jones and A. L. 
Buchanan, A. W, Buchanan, George Brookmire, William Beardsley, Aaron 
Boon, James Babcock, H. C. Blakesley; James Blair (assessed $100 for a gold 
watch), Andrew and W. P. Browne, John Boyd, Henry Conklin, Erastus 
Croak, Ed. Case, J. L. Colegrove, Dyer Cramer, John Corwin, Henry Collins, 
John anl3 Orrin Coleman, J. F. Clark, Jared Curtis, Philetus Corwin, Dana 
& Smith (grist- and saw-mill owners), William Dikeman, Joe DeLong, Ben., 
Dan. and Sam. Dikeman, Lorenzo and Silas Drake, James, Abel, David and 
William DeGolier, Nathan DeGolier (saw-mill owner), F. E. Dodge, Tom 
Doloff, Samuel and Darius Emery, H. Edson, P. D. Dean (owner of a gold 
watch), L. Dewey (owner of a silver watch), Nathaniel, Newton and Warren 
Edson, William Fisher (saw-mill owner), G. W. Fisher, H. Fox, M. Filler, 
Jonathan Fuller & Son, Isaac Farr, Ephraim Foster, David Foster, Edmond 
Freeman (farmer, near Custer City), C. D. Foot, L. S. Foster, Daniel and H. 
W. Glass, E. Gates, Nathan Green, A. and A. L. Houghton, Hiram Hagadorn, 
William Hook, O. Hegle, Orrin and Benjamin Havens, Simon Hamond, A. O. 


Hunt. Hunt, Bradley & Fobes (saw-mill owners), John and Absalom Hutchi- 
son, Lyman Imus, John Inglebee, G. W. and Timothy Kelly, James Lilly, 
James Meddock, William Miller, W. Q. McKean, William and Simeon Morris, 
Amos Moore (saw-mill owner), Dr. McDougall, J. F. Melvin, Melvin & Whea- 
ton (saw-mill owners), G. W. Mantz, Michael McCullough, Sands Niles, Dr. 
E. C. Olds (tan-yard owner), Barnabus Pike, E. C. Phillips, R. B. Eogers, 
George Reynolds, John Rutherford, Seth Scott, William Sherman (saw-mill 
owner), Silas Stormes, J. P. S. Snape (a foreigner), W. Snyder, H. Stellon, 
Ardos Shepherd, W. C. Shedd, Silas Sutton, William Tanner, Jerry Totton, 
Col. L. C. Little (agent for Boston Land company), William Yansickles, L. 
R. Vaughn, Henry Webb (saw-mill owner), Roswell Walker, J. S. and T. L. 
V. Waggoner, Allen Whittaker, Matt. W^oodruff, Matthew Withrow (saw-mill 
owner), Sabines Walker, Henry Welks, John & Willard Whipple (saw-mill 
owners) and Eli Whipple. L. S. Foster was assessor. 

In 1846 the stores in Bradford village were those of L. C. Little, A. K. John- 
son, E. Walker & Co., Melvin & Wheaton and E. P. Allen, the grocery of Seth 
Scott and the tavern of S. Walker. In December of this year Kingsbury & 
Fuller, the Boston Company, Sam. W. Bradley and Noble & Tozer were 

The merchants of Bradford township in 1852 were S. Holmes & Co. (J. H. 
Porter), J. F. Melvin, B. Chamberlain andB. McCoy, H. Hazzard&Co., David 
Hunt, G. A. S. Crooker and Daniel Kingsbury. McCoy, Melvin & Co. paid 
a tax of $10, while the others paid $7. 

In 1829 David DeGolier and his wife took three days to move from the 
site of the present town of Eldred to their farm on the east branch of the Tima. 
The Beardsleys, Fishers, Dollops and Fosters were then in the valley, and 
Henry Bradford Dollop was the first white child born there, in that same house 
above Sawyer City which was destroyed by the glycerine explosion of 1880. 
Of the two first houses built on the site of Bradford, one was occupied by the 
Hart family, six boys and six girls, including three sets of twins. The Deacon 
speaks of wolves being very plentiful, even in 1867, when the well drillers 
appeared on the west branch, the time whistles would be chorused by packs of 
wolves. He further states that No. 1 well, on the Tibbett farm, was the first suc- 
cessful one on the east branch. The farm was purchased by Louis Emery, Jr. 

Warrant 3906 dated July 1 7, 1793, to William Bingham, the consideration 
for 1,100 acres being £5, 8s. The patent was signed by Gov. Miiflin Decem- 
ber 12, 1794. On February 6, 1795, Bingham deeded the warrant to Eobert 
Morris and John Nicholson, but it fell into the hands of the Binghams in 
1799 as shown in Deed Book F, page 41. In 1851 the United States Land 
Company deeded this tract to Daniel Kingsbury. 

Col. Levitt C. Little, agent for the United States Land Company, who had 
purchased 250,000 acres in McKean county, settled where Bradford city now 
is, and the place was called Littleton. The first log house was constructed in 
December, 1887, where the old calaboose stood; but later a frame house was 
erected where the Berry block stands. The plan of the town was drawn in 
1888 by Leech, of Boston, after the Colonel' s idea. In 1840 another plat was 
drawn by C. D. Webster, wherein is shown the space for a church-house where 
is now the St. James Hotel. Main street was known as the Smethport road; 
the south extension of Mechanic street, the Warren road, and northward, the 
Clean road. Congress street was a short alley, which connecte(i Main street 
with the Corydon road. The old lumbering town of Littleton was down in 
I^Sypt until 1858, when a weekly newspaper, the Miner, was inaugurated, and 
the name of Bradford assumed. 


In December, 1849, when Judge Ward came from Cattaraugus county, N. 
Y., he settled at Tarport and took charge of the large school there. He was 
at once struck with the remarkable progressive character of the people and 
merchants, and equally so by the pupils. Prof. F. A. Allen was then county 
superintendent and principal of the Smethport Academy.' Tarport was then 
the business center of the Bradford lumber field, and here were the large stores 
of John F. Melvin (who came as a lumberman in 1826), and Benjamin Cham- 
berlain, his partner, who lived in Cattaraugus county. Sylvanus Holmes and 
Joseph Porter also had a large store there. Hiram Hazzard was also a mer- 
chant, and like the 6thers, engaged in lumbering. David Hunt was solely a 
merchant; Sabines Walker carried on his grocery; Harvey D. Hicks was post- 
master (it is thought deputy to Mr. Melvin) and hotel-keeper; Dr. Goit Brown 
was physician there, while Dr. Peckham was at Littleton. Johnson & Leech 
were sole dealers in pine lumber and shingles. There were four saw-mills run- 
ning, of which W. B. Fisher owned one and Melvin & Chamberlain the remain- 
ing three. The school building was a large one, ornamented with a cupola, 
and in this building the Methodists, Baptists and Congregation alists used to 
worship. Elder Porter (who owned the farm on which Judge Ward's house 
now is) was minister of the last-named denomination, while the energetic Will- 
iams watched over the Methodists and Elder Prosser over the Baptists. Judge 
Ward presided over this school for two sessions, then moved to Bradford to 
take charge of the village school, and about 1855 he established the Bradford 
Academy, with Mr. Sellick, assistant. This select school continued only two 
years, but Judge Ward continued teaching at Limestone, and after the war 
completed his school experiences at Salamanca. After Mr. Kingsbury' s of&ce 
was really established Tarport began to decline, and Littleton to advance. 

At Littleton was Daniel Kingsbury's little store, also that of G. D. H. 
Crooker. The Boston Company's land office was just opened with Mr. Kings- 
bury in charge, and Col. Little, agent. The double mill stood just west of the 
Mechanic street iron bridge; a frame school-house stood on what is now the 
corner of Corydon and Mechanic streets. Therein religious services were 
held by the preachers named in the history of Tarport. From this period 
the progress of Littleton dates. Thomas J. Melvin, Loyal Ward (who, 
about war times carried on a store at Tarport) and Nelson Parker estab- 
lished their business at Littleton after the war. E. C. Old's tannery was here 
in 1849. Among the leading lumbermen were Fuller and Miller, of Bolivar 
run. The firm of Bradley & Fobes had three mills on Foster brook. At the 
State line, on the Tuna, was the Webb and Leech & Johnson mills; up Ken- 
dall creek was F. A. Moore's mill, also Whipple's and Silas Sutton's. Up the 
south branch was N. DeGolier's mill, and above Bradford Fobes & Bradley 
had a miU. The Judge is convinced that this list covers the mills in operation 
forty years ago. All over the country shingle makers found a home, bringing 
the shingles to the lumberman in the evening and receiving their pay. The 
square timber industry was also very extensive, as the pines were large and 
clear. The large timber was rafted and run down the Tuna to the Allegheny, 
and thence to the Ohio. 

The first golden wedding celebration ever held in Tuna Valley was that of 
July, 1883, by W. E. Fisher and wife. Forty years prior to this date they 
settled on the Tarport road in a log cabin which this old settler erected. In 
1847 he built the house in which the celebration was held. Dan Glass, 
who for forty years played the violin throughout the Tuna and neighboring 
valleys, contributed the music on this occasion. 

In September, 1875, when C. L, Wheeler came to Bradford, the business 


of the village was represented by Thromas Melvin, who kept a general store, 
Frank Davis, the druggist and telegraph operator, and Wilbur DeGolier, 
watchmaker and postmaster. J. K. Pomeroy kept a dry goods store; Albert 
DeGolier had a general store, the popular Bradford House, Green's Hotel on 
Main street, while the old St. Nicholas Hotel stood where the Producers' Ex- 
change now is. The hotel formerly kept by P. M. Fuller was in existence in 

The officers of the township elected in February, 1890, are as follows: 
Supervisors, J. L. Morris, H. Boss; school directors, W. H. Emery, H. G. 
Cutting; auditor, M. Ingalsby, Sr. ; collector, J. L. Morris; constable, G. W. 
Eddy; town clerk, H. C Chesney; judge of election. First District, C. A. 
Wilbur; inspectors, C. E. Seely, Louis Brown; judge of election. Second 
District, W. W. White; inspectors, George A. Brown, James Bell. 

Villages. — Custer City, south of Bradford, was brought into existence dur- 
ing the days of the oil stampede up the east branch. Here are the works of 
the Kock Glycerine Company noticed in the history of the city. The bull and 
bear fight of July 1, 1879, took place at Custer City, under the management 
of one Marsh. The officers of the Pennsylvania society for prevention of 
cruelty to animals, tried to stop the fight; but the people threatened to pitch 
them into the pit, and ultimately drove them as far as Bradford. The fight 
went on, but the bear, escaping from the infuriated bull, ran through the 
crowd, was recaptured, placed in the pit and made fight to the death. The 
agent had twenty men arrested for participation in this brutal affair, but with- 
out satisfactory results. The fire of December 16, 1881, destroyed seven 
buildings, including the Straight House. In March, 1885, the explosion of 
6,000 pounds of glycerine at Custer City resulted in the deaths of H. V. 
Pratt and William Harrington. 

DeGolier, north of Custer City, was named in honor of the pioneer, of 
whom mention is made in the history of Bradford. As a settlement it is 
among the oldest in the western part of the county. The DeGolier Cemetery 
Association was incorporated in December, 1869, with M. Ingalsby, H. J. 
Hammond, Phil. ShafPner, Aug. M. Cram, Michael K. Dexter and John K. 
Haffey, trustees. The United Brethren Church of DeGolier was incorpor- 
ated April 12, 1888, with L. E. Cutting, Allen T. Foster, W. C. Freeman, 
M. Ingoldsby, G. W. Foster, Spencer Tibbits and H. E. Bryner, officials. 

Howard Junction, near the south line of the township, is a lumbering 


Throughout the pages devoted to general history and particularly those on 
the Bradford oil field, a good deal has been written relating to this capital of 
oildom. In the foregoing sketch of the township many names, inseparably 
connected with the early agricultural and lumbering interests of this section 
are given, so that little of the early history of the old village remains to be 
told. How often the Indians camped in this beautiful valley of the Tuna will 
never be learned any more than the history of the people who were here before 
them. How often the ancient Mount Eaub was ascended by the watchmen of 
the tribes to give warning of the advance of hostiles of the same race, or to 
signal the approach of friends, as they |urned the distant valley curve, can 
never be known, but enough has been told by the Oornplanters to point out 
the fact that Indians hunted here before the coming of Seneca or Delaware, 
and that the valley, from Foster brook to Marilla creek, on the west branch, 
and Eutherford run on east branch, was a favorite site for their camps. As 


told in the third chapter, remains of ancient settlement were unearthed a few 
years ago. 

From 1823 to 1827 the pioneers of a new race appeared on the scene. Dr. 
William M. Bennett, after whom Bennett's branch is named, the Pikes, Farrs, 
Scotts, Fosters, Beardsleys, Harts, Dollops and Fishers came into the beauti- 
ful wilderness. This immigration took place almost a quarter of a century 
after Eobert Morris, of Eevolutionary fame, lost his title to lands here, leav- 
ing them to revert to the Binghams. The Hart family, fourteen members, 
settled on the site of Bradford in about 1827. For years they held p'ossession 
of the Forks, welcoming new comers and hailing new settlers. They saw a 
thriving village built up north of them at Tarport, and south of them the De- 
Golier settlement was winning recruits; but their chosen spot was merely a 
mark in the forest. 

In 1837 Col. Little purchased 250,000 acres in and around Bradford, and 
built a log house. In 1888 the village was surveyed, and named Littleton. 
In 1851 a large tract was sold to Daniel Kingsbury by the United States Land 
Company, and to that year we must look back for the first faint beginnings of 
the city, though not until 1858 did the new proprietor make a determined- 
effort to build up the place. Thirty-two years ago the name Littleton was 
cast aside, and the present name chosen. Messrs. Kingsbury and Haffey estab- 
lished a newspaper to aid in building up a village; Old's tannery, the mills, 
stores, schools and religious societies referred to in Judge Ward's reminiscences 
were all here sharing in the hopes of Kingsbury; but all their efPorts were 
rewarded with very limited results, the mercantile and manufacturing interests 
named in the history of the township being the only material response. During 
the Civil war the oil fever penetrated the valley, and new hopes were built up, 
only to be cast down; after the war, a series of disappointments waited on the 
attempts to find oil ; but amid all such reverses men came and remained, a few 
of whom in after years, took a foremost place among those to whom the honor 
of developing the resources of this section is credited. They decided to carve 
out for themselves a home in this valley and fashion out a city in the forest, 
which would one day be regarded as the goal of enterprise, where scholars 
would find a home and religion 10, 000 adherents. They built well ! Only a few 
years of hope deferred, and a city sprung out of the ancient forest, extending 
from hill to hill, and stretching down the valley. In 1878 the people asked 
for borough government, and the demand was granted. Within three years the 
locality was filled with busy men, and the oily ocean was yielding up its wealth 
of petroleum; the forest fell, and in its place hundreds of houses and a thous- 
and derricks grew up, as it were. 

In 1880 eight large brick buildings, including the Eiddell House, and 500 
frame buildings were erected; the swamp was reclaimed and a number of new 
streets laid out. 

Col. A. K. McClure, of the Philadelphia Times, visited Bradford in May, 
1883. In his description of the city, he says: "The houses as a rule are 
pitched together like a winter camp, with here and there a solid brick edifice 
to mock the make-shift structures around it. The oil exchange is a beautiful 
building, and looks as if it was expected that oil gambling would continue, 
even after the day of doom, regardless of the shifting of oil centers. * * * 
Oil is just now on a boom. Everybody talks oil, and the visitor must talk oil 
or endure the unconcealed pity Qf all around him. Oil had struck somewhere 
about $1.12 on Tuesday. * * * They sold oil by the million of barrels, 
without a speck in sight, and with only a small percentage of margin money 
to give substance to the hazard. Five million barrels, and even more, are sold 


in a day, and speculators make one day to lose the next. * * * The one 
thing that the people of this great center of oildom pride themselves upon is 
their hospitality. They are, as a community, a broad gauge, manly, generous 
people, with little affection and much merit." 

The first public observation of Decoration Day at Bradford was that of May, 
1876. On May 13 a subscription list (now in possession of F. S. Johnson) 
was circulated, and thirty persons paid |2 each to aid in defraying expenses. 
The first subscribers were Ezra Holmes, E: F. Clark, John McGill, Joseph 
A. Hughsto, E. J. Carew, George Wright & Co. , G. A. Berry, A. L. Hughes, 
J. E. Butts, Jr., J. Moorhouse, H. J. Pemberton, D. E. Matteson, J. H. 
Norris, Ed. Dolan, A. DeGolier, J. K. Haffey, C. S. Whitney, L. C. Blakes- 
lee, G. D. H. Crooker, J. Amm, P. T. Kennedy, P. M. Fuller, F. W. Davis, 
L. Emery, Jr., A. B. Walker, P. L. Webster, E. Parsons, Bell Bros., F. S. 
Johnson and J. C. Jackson. The oration was delivered by E. C. Beach, on 
the public square, and the cenotaph erected there. 

Fires. — The Bradford House, valued at |1 0,000, and one of the first buildings 
there under the rule of progress, was burned May 30, 1868. The oil fire, one 
mile from the center, of June 13, 1876, arose from lightning setting fire to the 
gas from the Olmsted Well No. 1, on the Sandford farm. It communicated 
with the McKean county pipe line tank, then with the P. C. L. & P. Com- 
pany's tank, P. T. Kennedy's mill, Prentiss & Co.'s tanks, Jackson & Walk- 
er's well and tank, J. B. Farrel's well, forty empty wooden car tanks of Pren- 
tiss & Co., and Eiley'a dwelling, the total loss being placed at $90,000. 

The fire of November 15 and 16, 1878, destroyed forty buildings, great 
and small, including the Riddell House, the machine shops and foundry of Bo- 
vaird & Seyfang, the planing- mills and tank shop of Stewart, the United 
States Express Company's building, besides numerous stores, saloons, board- 
ing houses, and shops of every description. The area burned over extended 
from Boylston street on the north through and across Main street to Gorydon 
street on the south, easterly to the Erie railway track, and west on Main street 
to Osgood's dwelling house on the north side and Burgess' green grocery on 
the south side. The total loss was placed at 1150,000. The following list 
embraces the names of owners of destroyed buildings in the order of location 
on Main street, looking east along that street: Fred Schutt's, where the fire 
was stopped, still standing; Hogan & McCartey's unfinished building; Dila- 
berto's barber shop; Keystone clothing store; Boyd & Dickson, drugs; Cor- 
bierre & Benson, billiards; cigar store and Brunswick saloon; Theatre 
Comique, where the fire originated; Union House; United States Express office; 
George S. Stewart, planing-mill ; office, occupied by Williams & Cushman, vit- 
rified stone flues; Sanborn & Co.'s news room; Tinker's hardware store; 
Pierce House; Eiddell House; Loekwood & Haggerty, bakery and confection- 
ery; Osgood & Howard's, occupied by Misses Rogers, millinery; Osgood, 
owner, Mrs. Clark, occupant, boarding house (damaged, but fire stopped); 
Thompson & Co., feed and flour; Eiddell House laundry; Johnson's, Eyder's 
Shaw's and Mrs. Wentworth' s boarding houses; Palmer' s dwelling and grocery; 
Wallace Lawkes' , scorched and damaged, but fire stopped; Kennedy's build- 
ing (Brady, tenant); Newell' s building; Bradley's oil well rig; Whitney & 
Wheeler's oil well rig and tank; Bovaird & Seyfang' s boiler shop, damaged, 
but fire stopped; Seyfang & Bovaird' s machine shop, consumed; planing mill, 
George S. Stewart; Oyster Bay, Pete Heaton; Bradford Ice Company's store 
room, ice melted; House that Jack built; Bell Mahone's house; Bradley's oil 
and well rig, tank and two old buildings; the union and elevated railway 
depots were scorched, but saved. The fire did not cross the Erie track. 



(i. S, /^aJ-Lui In ,z> 


The fire of April 3, 1880, originated in the Sawyer House, in the room oc- 
cupied by James Wilson, who was burned to death. Four acres of buildings 
were destroyed, the total loss being over $100,000. The following list of losses 
is taken from the Era's report of the fire: On the south side of Main street, 
E. G. Wright & Co.'s grocery store, where the fire terminated on the west; 
loss on stock, 16,000; on building, S1,000; insurance, $4,500. John,C. Holmes, 
wholesale liquors and cigars; loss, $9,000; no insurance; owner of building un- 
known; loss, about $3,000; Sawyer Bros.' saloon and restaurant; loss on 
building and stock, $2,500; no insurance. Applebee & Eogers, grocers; loss 
on building and stock, 18,500; insurance, $4,300. Titusville House, T. Mc- 
Goldrick; loss on building, $5,000; insurance, $2,500. Harvey Hill; loss on 
furniture, $500; insured. Academy of Music, John Nelson; loss, $18,000; 
no insurance. Philadelphia Oyster House, Irving Campbell, proprietor; loss, 
$1,500; no insurance. E. Michael, clothing, Academy building; loss on stock, 
$1,700; no insurance. Owney Williams, billiard room; loss, $200; insured; 
building owned by John H Shaver; loss, $2,000. Rush building; loss, $3,000; 
occupied by P. Hanlan, saloon; loss, $500. Stephen O'Leary, hotel; loss on 
building, $2,000; insurance, $450; on stock, $400; insured; occupied by 
Luther & Draper; loss, $600; no insurance. Thomas Bradley, building; loss, 
$1,000; fully insured; occupied by G. H. Dewitt, saloon; loss, $300; no in- 
surance; goods partly saved. Italian fruit stand; goods partly saved. L. E. 
Dunton, watchmaker; loss, $200; goods partly saved. Billy Howard and 
Billy Eose, saloon; stock mostly saved; loss, about $100. Barber shop; stock 
damaged by moving. Greenewald Bros., clothing; damage, $700; fully in- 
sured. A. Mayer & Co., liquors and cigars; damage by moving, $300; in- 
sured. Folwell & Mott, druggists; loss on building, $1,250; insurance, $500; 
on stock and fixtures, $550; no insurance. Whitlock, liquors; loss, $100. 

On the north side of Main street considerable damage was done by the in- 
tense heat and removal of goods. James Casey, liquors, $100; insured. Mc- 
Carty, billiards, $100; insured. N. Lazarus, saloon, $70; insured. Borchert, 
Daggett & Co., $100; fully insured. T. Bradley, express office, $150; in- 
sured. A. & G. Hochstetter, loss, $50; insured. Daniel Clark, $150; in- 
sured. Nick Weiss, loss, $50; insured. On Webster street, behind the 
Academy of Music, was Judge Newell' s building and office, totally destroyed; 
loss, $1,500; fully insured. Bullis, meat market, loss on building and stock, 
$1,000; no insurance, as far as could be learned. J. W. Euble, Washington 
House; loss on building, stock and fixtures, $2,000; insurance, $600. Mrs. 
P. McNamara, Corry House; loss on building and furniture, $2,000; insur- 
ance, $1,500. Amos Williams, Williams House; loss, $2,500; no insurance. 
Traveler's Home, owned by Whitman & Trainer; loss on building, $800; fur- 
niture, $200; no insurance; saved part of contents. Parker House, Lewis & 
Davie, proprietors; damaged by tire, $2,000; $1,000 on furniture; insured. 
McBean, from Tonawanda, N. Y. (old Frew House), in charge of C. A. Dur- 
fee; damage, $250; insured. Jamestown Bottling Works, damage, $150; in- 

The fire of May 31, 1880, originated in Wheeler's rig, in rear of the 
Parker House. Hostetter's building, occupied by E. G. Wright & Co. as a 
storehouse, and the rig, were destroyed, and other buildings were damaged.* 

The central office of the United Pipe Lines was destroyed by fire June 
22, 1882, the loss being placed at $20,000. The fire of December, 1882, 
destroyed Habenrig's store on Mechanic street and public square, the Ho- 
tel La Pierre, the Hotel Florence, and Irvin's livery stable. 

The fire of June 19, 1884, destroyed the Burt House and three adjoining 


buildings The burning of Mrs. Charles Eeibley' s bakery and hotel occurred 

July 11, 1884, when Mrs. Eeibley, her two children and a Swedish girl were 
burned to death. A few months before Mr. Eeibley was drowned in the Al- 
legheny at Carrollton The fire of December 19, 20, 1886, destroyed five 

buildings on Kennedy street. . . .The fire of January 11, 1889, destroyed the 
Palace Hotel nearly opposite the Eiddell House, burning out P. P. Bate- 
man, McEvoy Bros., A. F. Moore, Samuel Ames, J. Krienson, Ardizone Bros. , 
J. B. Fox, A. Lino, I. Marks and others in the Durfey & Walshe buildinge, 
and damaged the Greenwald Bros. ' stock. 

A number of small fires are recorded, many of them occasioned by light- 
ning, such as that which destroyed Park & Hazzard's rig. The great oil fires 
are recorded in the sketches of Foster and Keating townships, while a few be- 
longing to this township are noted as follows: The glycerine explosion of Sep- 
tember 15, 1878, on the farm of Jared Curtis, near Bradford, and opposite 
Toad Hollow, resulted in the destruction of the Mclntyre Torpedo Company's 
magazine and the death of N. B. Pulver, A. P. Higgins, C. Page and J. B. 
Burkholder . . . . The oil fire of July 14,15, 1880, at Custer City, Lewis run 
and Coleville, caused by lightning, resulted in the burning of a 30,000-barrel 
tank belonging to the Acme Oil Company, and the destruction of three N. P. 
L. oil tanks at Custer City and other property in the Minard run neighborhood 
.... The Custer City fire of December 16, 1881, destroyed seven buildings, 
including the Straight House then conducted by William Dean. 

The Bradford tire of November, 1889, originated in the Stewart building 
on Main street. The Bradford Stone Company lost $1,000; L. L. Higgins, 
16,000; F. N. Merrian, |400, and George S. Stewart, |4,500. Insurance 
reduces the total loss to a few thousand dollars. 

The fire of January 19, 1890, destroyed the Protestant Episcopal church 
building on Chatauqua place. The fire was assisted in its rapid progress by 
the Christmas evergreen trimmings, which had become dry and had not been 
removed since the services for which they had been put up to commemorate, 
and the flames thus reached the steeple, which afforded them an excellent 
draft. It was the universal remark that a fire was never seen to spread 
with so much rapidity and burn so fiercely as did this one .... The fire of Feb- 
ruary 19, 1890, originated at 118 Pleasant street, destroying the houses of 
John Hutchinson and Myers, and damaging that of James Gleason. The fire- 
men worked like heroes to save the property, but their work was made slow 
and difficult by too much mud and too little water .... McAmbley's lumber mill 
was totally destroyed by fire February 26, 1890, entailing a loss of $6,000. 

Municipal Affairs. — Bradford borough was incorporated February 26, 
1873, and the first election held the last Friday in March. P. T. Kennedy was 
chosen burgess; P. L. Webster, assistant burgess; F. W. Davis, E. Parsons, 
J. Mool-ehouse, J. H. Matteson and A. T. Stone, councilmen; G. D. H. Crooker 
and James Broder, justices; W. Lord, constable; G. D. H. Crooker with E. 
W. Davis and S. Emery, assessors; A. C. Switzer and P. Woodward, poor- 
masters; J. W. Hilton, A. DeGolier and G. D. H. Crooker, auditors; J. H. 
Matteson, H. S. Baker, P. T. Kennedy, W. J. Morrow, J. Moorehouse and E. 
D. Foster, school directors, and J. Moorehouse, treasurer. F. W. Davis was 
appointed clerk. A. DeGolier, John A. Evans and Loyal Ward were elected 
justices prior to 1878. 

Borough elections were held February 17, 1874, when the following votes 
were recorded: Burgess: P. L. Webster, 33; P. T. Kennedy, 17, and A. K. 
Johnson, 2. Councilmen: A. DeGolier, 35; E. Parsons, 44; P. Woodward, 
42; J. Moorehouse, 39; J. W. Morrow, 38; J. E. Pomeroy, 38, and Con. 


Lane, 32. There were eleven other candidates, who received from one to nine 
votes. The school directors elected were E. D. Foster and P. L. Webster. 
Mrs. J. Colby and five other candidates received a nominal vote. In 1875 J. 
W. Brennan, A. C. Switzer and A. DeGolier were elected directors, the latter 
being succeeded, in 1876, by A. T. Lane and E. A. VanScoy. The council 
centennial year comprised P. L. Webster, C. J. Lane, J. A. Evans, P. W. 
Davis, A. C. Switzer and J. W. Brennan. A. DeGolier was chosen assessor; 
M. W. Wagner, auditor; W. Lord and P. Woodward, poor-masters; Samuel 
Emery, constable; Con. Lane, inspector, and P. Woodward, judge of elections. 
A. DeGolier was appointed clerk. 

The burgess' office has been since filled by the following named citizens • 
J. W. Brennan, 1875; P. T. Kennedy, 1876; J. H. Norris, 1877; J. M. Fuller, 
1878. In February, 1879, the first city election was held. James Broder 
received 483 votes and P. T. Kennedy 222 for mayor; Will F. Jordan received 
a large majority for mayor in 1881; James Broder, 1883; P. M. Shannon. 
1885; E. A. Dempsey, 1887; Edward McSweeney, 1889, and Loyal Wardj • 
1890, for three years. The assistant burgesses elected annually up to 1877 are 
named af follows: T. J. Melvin, 1875; P. L. Webster, 1876; H. Friedenbur?, 

In ]879 E. P. Miller was appointed clerk, serving until April 30, 1883, 
when James A. Lindsey was elected by the council, and has since held the office, 
except for nine months in 1887, when S. M. Decker filled the position. 

In 1875 G. A. Crooker was treasurer; in 1876, C. J. Lane, succeeded in 
July by J. W. Brennan; F. S. Johnson, in 1877; L. G. Peck, in 1878. Treas- 
urer Critchlow was elected in 1880. 

In February, 1882, City Treasurer Critchlow was arrested on the charge 
of embezzlement, but on the 23d was discharged on common bail. On the 25th 
F. W. Davis was appointed treasurer .... In May, 1879, Messrs. Daggett, 
McElroy and Logan were elected by council members of the first city board of 
health .... In January, 1880, C. D. Webster was chosen city engineer. Build- 
ings for the Johnson and Era Hose Companies were authorized, the Whitney 
Hose Company having been hitherto supplied with a building. The bondsmen 
of E. J. McMath, absconding collector, asked for the appointment of a collector 
for balance of taxes, and G. W. Moorehouse was appointed. 

The officers of the city elected in February, 1890, are as follows: Mayor, 
Loyal Ward (B.), who received 804 votes against 689 recorded for Gardner; 
city treasurer, E. T. Lain (E. ) ; city controller, M. Albert (E. ) ; city assessors, 
N. J. Stanton (E.), George P. Booth (E.), E. A. Boyne (E.). 

Select Council— J. L. Andrews (E.), John P. Zane (E.), Matt Euddy (D.), 
I. G. Howe (E.), C. E. Harrington (E.). Eepublicans, four; Democrats, one. 
Common Council — F. A. Moore (E.), Felix Steinberger (D.), L. E. Ham- 
sher (E.), W. K. Laney (E.), E. Quigley (D.), Bert McAllister (E.), W. C. 
Kennedy (E.), S. D. Weaver (E.), Thomas A. Flynn (E.), T. W. Eoberts (E.). 
Eepublicans, eight; Democrats, two. 

School Controllers— C. A. Durfey (D.), W. O. Neely (D.), J. T. Jones (E.), 
W. E. Weaver (E.), H. H. Adsit (E.), A. M. Mayer (D.), W. A. Booth (E.), 
A. Miller (E.), Samuel Huff (E.), M. D. Harris (E.). 

Constables — Thomas Osborne (D.), George E. Gibbons (E.), Thomas Fen- 
nerty (D.), C. A. Spreeter (E.), W. W. Tadder (E.). 
The vote by wards is recorded as follows: 

First Ward, First Precinct — Select council: Andrews (E.), 77; O'Donnell 
CD.), 66. Common councU: Steinberger (D.), 84; Moore (E.), 80; Euble (D.), 
65; Hawkins (E.), 53. School controller: Durfey (D.), 77; Neely (D.), 71. 


Constable, Osborne (D.), 91; Hayes (lud.), 51. Assessor: Osborne, 89; Brin- 
ton (R.), 50. Judge of election: P. Fragner (R.), 78; G. W. McMullen (D.), 
46. Inspector of election: C. M. Hendrickson (R.), 68. 

First Ward, Second Precinct — Select council: Andrews (R.), 139; O'Don- 
nell (D.), 97. Common council: Steinberger (D.), 158; Ruble (D.), 135; 
Moore (R.), 124; Hawkins (R.), 4. School controller: Durfey (D.), four 
years, 180; Neely (D.), two years, 148; Greenewald (R.), 30. Constable: Os- 
borne (D.), 151; Hayes (Ind.), 94. Assessor: Osborne (D.), 151; Brinton(R.),. 
80. Judge of election: P. H. Gallagher (D.), 152; H. K. Welch (R.), 58. 
Inspector of election: T. F. Mayer, 158; C. A. Dickinson, 55. 

Second Ward— Select council: Zane (R.), 201; Sondheim (D.), 89. Com- 
mon council: L. E. Hamsher (R.), 210; W. K. Laney (R.), 211. School con- 
troller: J. T. Jones (R.), 210; W. R. Weaver (R.), 210. Constable: Gibbons 
(R.), 206. County assessor: Thomas (R.), 275. Judge of election: John R. 
Zook (R.), 206; B. F. Smith (D.), 84. Inspector of election: W. B. Chapman 
(R.), 204; J. H. Dibble (D.), 84. 

Third Ward— Select council : Ruddy (D. ), 206 ; Hockenberry (R. ), 11 1 . Com- 
mon council: Quigley (D.), 162; McAllister (R.), 159; Coffey (D.), 158; Lucas, 
151. School controller: Adsit (R.), 214; Mayer (Ind.), 163; Hager (D.), 129; 
Wilcox (D.), 71. Constable: Fennerty (D.), 207; McMahon (R.), 107. County 
assessor: Fennerty (D.), 191; Blair (R.), 124. Judge of election: M. W. 
Chaffee (D.), 174; George Duffey (R.), 145. Inspector: Clarence Merrow (D. ), 
175; C. Hill (R.), 142. 

Fourth Ward— Select council: Howe (R.), 187; Flynn (D.), 100. Com- 
mon council: Kennedy (R.), 283; Weaver (R.), 131; Scott (D.), 59. School 
controller: Booth (R.), four years, 288; Miller (R.), two years, 217; Davis (D.), 
two years, 71. Constable: Spreetor (R.), 288. County assessor: Haggerty (R.), 
215; Robbins (D.), 71. Judge of election: W. F. Robinson (R.), 288. In- 
spector of election: N. J. Loveless (R. ), 219; Frank Costello (D.), 71. 

Fifth Ward— Select council: Harrington (R.), 127; Rasch (D.), 65. Com- 
mon council: Flynn (R.), 429; Roberts (R.), 112; Murray (D.), 87; Brooks 
(D.), 52. School controllers: Huff (R-), two years, 121; Harris (R.), four 
years, 118; Walker (D.), four years, 75; Mallick (D.), two years, 70. Con- 
stable: Tadder (R.), 117; Harrigan (D.), 70. County assessor: Gowdy (R.), 
122. Judge of election: William Maginn (R.), 122; J. W. Slattery (D.), 70. 
Inspector of election: John B. Pierson (R.), 120; W. Enches (D.), 72. 

City Finances. — Prior to 1887 there were two valuations of taxable prop- 
erty in the city, one for city purposes and one for county purposes. The val- 
uation for county purposes was at least one-third, and often one-half, less 
than the valuation for city purposes. But it happened that the supreme court 
in 1886 declared the act of 1875 (the act under which two assessments were 
permissible) unconstitutional. * This made it necessary to fall back to the 
county valuation as a basis for the city assessment in 1887, which brought the 
valuation down from $1, 500, 000 to $1, 000, 000. 

The bonded indebtedness of the city, December 31, 1888, as shown in 
Mayor Dempsey's address, is as follows: 

Bonds Issued December 1, 1881, to purchase old water-works, due December 1. 1891, 
$3,500; purchased by sinking fund commissioners, $1,000; leaving a balance outstanding 
of, $3,500; cash in treasury, $1,157.04, which leaves a balance of $1,342.96 to be raised in 
three years, or $447.65 this year, together with Interest on $3,500 amounting to $310, 
making a total of *657.65. 

Bonds issued May 1, 1883, for the erection of the city building and funding the float- 
ing debt, $17,900; purchased for benefit sinking fund, $1,900; leaving a balance outstand- 
ing of $16,000; cash in treasury, $6,431.87, which leaves a balance of $9,568.63 to be taken 


care of in four years, or |2,376.99thisyear with interest on |17,900, amounting to $1,074, 
making a total this year for principal and Interest of $3,450.99. 

Bonds issued December 1, 1883, for building new waterworks, due December 1, 
1893, $20,000; purchased for benefit sinking fund, $8,000; balance outstanding, $12,000. 
Amount in treasury to be credited to payment of these bonds, $2,857.88, which leaves a 
balance to be paid in five years of $9,142.12 or $1,828.42 to provide for the incoming year. 

Bonds issued December 1, 1883, due December 1, 1898. Amount of bonds, $30,000; 
cash in treasury, $2,381.20, leaving a balance to be paid in ten years of $17,618.80; in 
order to liquidate this we will have to raise this year $1,761.88. 

Bonds issued December 1, 1883, due December 1, 1903. Amount of bonds, $25,000; 
cash in treasury to apply, $1,984.33; amount to be raised in fifteen years, $23,015.67; 
amount required to be raised this year, $1,534.37. 

Total to be provided for this year. 

Bonds due December 1, 1891, $657.65; bonds due May 1, 1893, $3,450.99; water bonds 
due December 1, 1893, $1,828.42; water bonds due December 1, 1898, $1,761.88; water 
bonds due December 1, 1903, $1,584.37; interest on water bonds, $3,900; all showing a 
total of $13,133.31. 

The total assets of the city on January 1, 1889, were estimated at 
$141,885.27, of which the water- works were said to be worth $102,000; the 
city building, $8,000, and fire department houses and outfits, |5,200. 

The municipal act of May, 1887, was declared unconstitutional in 1888, 
and some difiB.culty in managing the affairs of the city ensued; but the act 
of 1889 remedied this, and in April, 1890, the city officers chosen in Febru- 
ary, under this act, assumed their duties. 

Police Department. — The oldest police record dates back to 1879 when 
Thomas Murphy was chief, with Abel Edick, Nelson Morrell, John C. McCrea, 
S. H. Emmerson and Thomas McDonough, policemen. In 1880 John C. 
McCrea took Chief Murphy's place, and William Quirk and William McAn- 
drews were added to the force. In July, J. D. Piscus, J. W. Eiley and S. 
W. Truck were added. On the 21st of this month no less than fifty-one arrests 
were made within houses of prostitution. The old officers may be said to 
have continued in service until 1887, when John Wilson, Cummings, and Bent 
and Hills were appointed, and Ed. Eonan came in later, vice Wilson. In 
1887 N. J. Stanton succeeded John C. McCrea as chief, and he was succeeded 
in April, 1889, by Thomas E. McCrea, chief, who along with William Eohne, 
Matthew Donahue and P. H. Donnelly form the present police force. The 
police docket, which was opened December 17, 1888, was filled up January 28, 
1890. It contains 500 pages and represents about 1,500 arrests. 

In years now gone forever the position of the police officer was no sinecure. 
Desperate men and even women came here at intervals. Even the obsequious 
Chinaman got into trouble in those days. In June, 1880, Wah Lee delivered 
a bundle of laimdry goods to some girls on the island, who refused to pay him. 
He battled for repossession, but was driven to retreat, after leaving marks of 
his visit on the faces of the girls. Charged with assault, he was brought before 
Justice McClure, and after a ludicrous attempt to defend himself, was re- 
manded for trial, and subsequently was punished. 

The first murder ever recorded at Bradford was that of Maj. Ashton, a col- 
ored man, August 23, 1883, George Gordon, another colored man, being 
charged with the murder. 

Fire Department. — A movement to organize* a hose company resulted in the 
formation of the F. S. Johnson Hose Company No. 1. This took place on August 
2, 1877. The company was furnished with 1,000 feet of hose and a two- wheeled 
cart, by the borough. Thehose-house was on Barbour street, in Whitney & Wheel- 
er' s old barn. Another barn located on the public 8qug,re was used as a place of 
meeting. In the loft of that building the first needs of the hose- boys were 

* From the Era. 


brought up and acted upon, with Frank Whalen in the chair. Later on the 
Johnsons fitted up a building on Pine street and made their headquarters there. 
Their first fight with the fiery enemy was the conflagration which destroyed the 
old Bradford House. In recognition of their gallant services at this fire the 
citizens purchased a carriage for them, and since that time they have played 
well their parts in saving life and property from the devouring element. Their 
present headquarters are in the city building. This company was incorporated 
March 7, 1881. The following is a list of the present officers: President, 
Thomas Blakely; vice-president, Thomas Osborne; recording secretary, B. 
McAllister; treasurer, George Carney; foreman, D. A. Ropp; first assistant 
foreman, Jacob Heckel; second assistant foreman, Charles Bobbins. 

One of the foremost organizers of the fire department was Mr. J. L. 
Andrews, who for several terms held the position of chief engineer. He helped 
to build up the department, and the fame of Bradford's excellent organization 
spread all over the country. Mr. Andrews laid the foundation for the Era 
Hook and Ladder Company, which was the second fire-fighting company organ- 
ized in Bradford. This was in June, ] 878. Mr. Andrews raised the money 
and went to New York and purchased the truck, which cost $1,000, and has 
Served its purpose admirably. As a company for work the Eras are second to 
none in the State, and, as the name implies, " they are up with the times." 
They belong to the era in which we live. Headquarters, city building. The 
present officers are: President, H. H. North; vice-president, Charles H. Steiger;' 
treasurer, Robert L. Edgett; secretary, Fred. Humbert; financial secretary, 
Frank Levens; wardrober, Charles F. Genthner; foreman, Charles F. Genth- 
ner; first assistant, J. J. Hutchinson; second assistant, J. Disney. 

Citizens' Hose Company No. 2 was organized November 27, 1878. Their 
first conveyance for carrying hose was a sleigh, the runners of which were made 
of bent pipe two inches in thickness. The motto of this hose company, semper 
paratus, is well sustained by their record in checking the ravages of fire. Will- 
iam M. Williams, now of Buffalo, was their first foreman. This organization 
has furnished the two latest chief engineers of the department, James E. 
Grainger, and the present incumbent, J. F. Campbell. Their headquarters 
are on Newell avenue, near Webster street. They are earnest and effective in 
their work. The present officers are: President, J. C. Greenewald; vice-presi- 
deut, Herman Frank; treasurer, M. Schaaf; recording secretary, Len. Chad- 
wick; financial secretary, J. W. Euble; foreman, J. H. Burns; first assistant 
foreman, James Casey. 

Whitney Hose Company No. 3 was organized November 12, 1878, and 
commenced a brilliant career with the Johnson's old pumper and 500 feet of 
rubber hose. They soon acquired a good footing, and established their head- 
quarters on Barbour street, where they now have a fine building and first-class 
equipment. E. N. Southwick, who has been elected to the positions of first 
assistant and chief engineer, was presented by the company with a hat, belt 
and trumpet in 1880. The presentation was made by William McVeigh, fore- 
man. These were his remarks: "Nate, here is something the boys got you — 
the speech will be ready next week." Nate was nearly overcome, but man- 
aged to say : " Much obli ged. Bill ; my speech- will be ready at the same time. ' ' 
The Whitney boys are firemen of the "first water." The present officers are: 
President, W. B. Potter; vice-president, T. Whitirig; secretary, James Bell; 
foreman, Thomas White; first assistant foreman, D. Smith; second assistant 
foreman, C. Hudson. 

The Weaver Hose Company (independent) is an organization composed of 
employes of the firm of Emery & Weaver. They are well prepared for service. 



being backed up by the steamer "Lewis Emery, Jr." They are thorough 
firemen. The present officers of the Weaver Hose and Steamer Company are: 
President, M. B. Bailey; treasurer, C. D. Evans; secretary, Ed. Caldwell; 
foreman, E. A. Guy; assistant foreman, G. F. Guy; engineer of steamer, 
John Doty. 

The Central Hose Company (independent) was organized in the fall of 
1885, and since that time has accomplished good work in fighting fire. The 
majority of the members belong to the Central Iron Works and the Oil Well 
supply shops. They beat the record in a hose race in this city September 1 of 
the present year by running 100 yards in 31 seconds. They should join the 
department. The present ofScers are: President, H. W. Eaton, Jr. ; vice- 
president, W. J. Bovaird; recording secretary, J. M. Crawford; financial sec- 
retary, W. H. Zahnizer; foreman, C. S. Flick; first assistant foreman, S. H. 
Nightingale; second assistant foreman, J. J. Crosby. 

The Falcon Hose Company is a Third Ward independent organization 
which is always ready to respond to an alarm. It was formed to protect 
property remote from the other companies' headquarters, and deserves 

The present officers of the Bradford Fire Department are: President, Her- 
man Frank; vice-president, J. B. Fuller; secretary, M. Cohn; treasurer, J. 
C. Greene wald; chief engineer, J. Campbell; first assistant engineer, Bert 
McAllister; second assistant engineer, Harry Campbell. 

The Bradford Exempts are firemen who have seen veteran service, and have 
retired on their laurels. They own a large and finely furnished building on 
Kennedy street. They are firemen to the back bone. Their handsome quar- 
ters are a favorite resort. The parlors are furnished with pictures donated by 
citizens, and the floor is covered with a costly carpet. Here the Exempts meet 
and talk over old times. The Exempts have a striking parade uniform and 
always command the lion' s share of the public attention. Mr. C. L. Wheeler 
has served as president since the organization of the company. The present 
officers are: President, C. L. Wheeler; vice-president, M. McMahon; secre- 
tary, George L. Blakeley; treasurer, J. C. Green ewald; foreman, J. L. An- 
drews; first assistant foreman, Thomas Osborne; second assistant foreman, Col. 
B. Adams; directors, J. W. Euble, Arthur Colby, J. F. Campbell, T. C. Kelly. 
Two steam fire engines, known as "L. Emery, Jr.," and "City of 
Bradford," are two tine machines that are useful adjuncts to the efficient fire 
department. The " Emery ' ' steamer is housed in the rear of Emery & Weaver' s 
store. Main street, and the ' ' City of Bradford ' ' is kept in the city building. 
The Bradford Fire Police Brigade was organized in December, 1878. The 
object of the organization was to keep crowds from interfering with firemen 
while at work, and to stop the operations of thieves. While this company 
lasted much good work was accomplished in that line of duty. The fire police 
disbanded and sold their effects some months ago. 

The United Hose Company No. 4 was organized March 25, 1879. This 
company was composed of men employed mostly by the United Pipe Line. 
They were originally organized to protect the Pipe Line property in the 
city, but were admitted to the department in July, 1879. Their record is a 
good one. This company disbanded a few years ago, much to the regret of 
all citizens. 

Water- Works. — The Bradford Water- Works Company was incorporated in 
June, 1877, with C. S. Whitney, president; T. J. Melvin, treasurer; T. A. 
Hylands, secretary; A. W. Newell, Lewis Emery, Jr., Thomas Bradley and 
H. J. Pemberton, directors. The capital stock was placed at $7,000, which 


■was owned by fifty stockholders. lu October, 1879, Fuller, Bayne & Whitney, 
representiog the Water- Works Company, proposed to sell to the city for 
117,9(31.66, if the annual rental would not be increased to |4,600, but a propo- 
sition by the city was accepted. As told in the pages devoted to the organiza- 
tion of the city, Bradford owns the present water-works system. 

Light and Heat Companies. — The Keystone Gas Company of Bradford 
was chartered in February, 1882, with J. B. Bradley, E. O. Emerson, E. C. 
Bradley, J. N. Pew and John A. Johnson, directors. The object was to sup- 
ply gas and heat to the people along the summit from State Line southwest 
to Big Shanty, and to drill and pump oil wells. The Bradford Light and Heat- 
ing Company, incorporated in June, 1879, offers additional advantages. 

The Bradford Electric Light and Power Company purchased Thornton's 
big rink building in October, 1889, and converted it into an immense electric 
light establishment. Among the incorporators are J. H. Rose, D. W. Robert- 
son, W. C. Walker & Co., D. Phillips and Potter & Wood. 

Banks, Etc. — The McKean County Bank was chartered May 13, 1857, with 
Solomon Sartwell, George B. Backus, John 0. Backus, Samuel C. Hyde, Syl- 
vanus Holmes, Samuel L. Casey, Wells D. Wallbridge, A. M. Benton and 
Daniel Kingsbury, directors, who were appointed to establish a bank at Smeth- 
port on a capital stock of $150,000. Contrary to the charter some of these 
financiers determined to locate at Bradford, and called a meeting to elect 
directors for June 8, at the office of Daniel Kingsbury. The Smethport 
stockholders protested, and had O. J. Hamlin prepare such protest. This was 
partially successful, for the wily bankers did pretend to have headquarters at 
Smethport for a time. In January, 1858, a certificate of capital stock was 
issued to Hannah L. Hamlin for two twenty-dollar shares in this concern. 
Samuel C. Hyde and John C. Backus signed the certificate as commissioners, 
while Solomon Sartwell, Jr., was the third commissioner. 

Col. Henry, in his reminiscences of this bank, states that " a long- 
legged, gander-heeled, old bank swindler from Rhode Island, with Timothy 
O. Grannis and one Deidrich, of Utica, N. Y. , came to Smethport, bringing 
with them three or four boxes said to contain about 134,000 in specie. They 
interested Daniel Kingsbury and others in their plans, had a charter from 
the State, elected Kingsbury president, Grannis, vice-president, and Deidrich, 
cashier, and placed their bills in circulation. Kingsbury was ultimately left 
liable for large sums, while the cashier walked off with $75,000 in bills, but 
was captured and made disgorge." 

The Bradford National Bank commenced business July 25, 1879, succeed- 
ing the Bradford Bank (limited), capital $100,000. The first board of directors 
were as follows: W. C. Allison, T. E. Allison, James O'Neill, G. A. Berry, 
R. F. Borokman. The following were the officers: R. F. Borckman, presi- 
dent; O. F. Schonblom, vice-president; J. F. Merrill, cashier; J. P. Thompson, 
assistant cashier. On January 8, 1884, the management changed, the follow- 
ing being the new board: O. F. Schonblom, P. T. Kennedy, W. C. Kennedy, 
G. A. Berry, S. G. Slike, with O. F. Schonblom, president; P. T. Kennedy, 
vice-president; T. H. Tomlinson, cashier; J. M. Fink, assistant cashier. On 
January 13, 1885, the board changed as follows: P. T. Kennedy, O. F. 
Schonblom, W. 0. Kennedy, H. F. Whiting, R. J. Straight, with the following 
officers: O. F. Schonblom, president; P. T. Kennedy, vice-president; T. H. 
Tomlinson, cashier; C. A. Mitchell, assistant cashier. The above named have 
all remained in office except the cashier, of which office S. P. Kennedy is 
now incumbent. On September 21, 1886, the capital was increased from 
$100,000 to $200,000, and the surplus is $40,000. 




On March 6, 1888, about 11 a. m.; while several customers were transacting 
business, a man, wearing a mask and a long rubber coat, entered the front 
door of the bank. Approaching the cashier's window, he presented a revolver, 
and ordered the official to open the door. Without pausing, he rapidly 
walked a short distance toward the rear of the bank, and suddenly sprang 
over the seven-foot railing, landing directly behind the paying teller. So 
quickly was this done that the attention of the teller, who was engaged in 
checking out a deposit, was not attracted. Mr. Tomlinson had apparently 
kept an eye on the man, and as he vaulted over the partition the official started 
from his post and met the robber, who instantly*plaeed his revolver against 
the cashier's abdomen and fired, the bullet passing entirely through his body. 
The desperado then turned on the paying teller, and, covering him with his 
revolver, drove him toward the rear of the room. Then seizing what money 
lay on the counter (about $600) he escaped through the cashier's room and 
the front door of the bank. A crowd gathered and started in pursuit. 
After running a short distance the robber turned and fired upon Louis Bleich, 
who was in advance of the crowd, the bullet striking Bleich in the bowels 
and passing through his body. The robber continued his flight about 1,500 
feet farther, when, apparently thinking escape impossible, he placed the 
revolver to his head and fired, dying almost instantly. The name of the 
desperado was George A. Kimball. He was formerly a resident of Bradford, 
but for some years had lived at Garden City, Kas. Several parties who have 
known Kimball are of the opinion that he was insane, but it was believed 
generally that the robbery was the well-planned act of a desperado. 

The First National Bank is presided over by F. W. Davis (the successor in 
that office of J. M. Fuller), with C. C. Melvin, vice-president, W. W. Bell, 
cashier, and George H. Mills, assistant cashier. The directors are S. G. Bayne, 
D. O'Day, Joseph Seep, T. Wistar Brown, Trust Company (Philadelphia), A. B. 
Walker, F. W. Davis, C. C. Melvin, J. M. Fuller and W. W. Bell. Among its 
stockholders may be named Byron D. Hamlin, Henry Hamlin, A. G. Olmsted, 
L. Emery, Jr. , J. T. Jones, C. E. Hequembourg, L. E. Hamsher, C. M. Farrar, 
L. F. Lawton, S. Auerhaim, John Weiss, P. W. Roth, John McKeown, Robert 
C. Simpson, W. R. Weaver, F. D. Wood, Asher Brown, John Loy, P. L. Web- 
ster, Joseph Stettheimer, Robert Long, I. W. Shirley, A. Hochstetter, James E. 
Blair, A. B. Smith, Kenton Saulnier, E. T. Howes, J. D. Case. The capital is 
placed at $150,000, and the surplus at $30,000. 

The Tuna Valley Bank of Bradford, established in 1875-76, by Whitney 
& Wheeler, was forced to close its doors, owing to the fierce pressure brought 
to bear on financial houses during the year 1884. In February, 1886, the 
final dividend, with interest, was paid to creditors, and the honorable pro- 
jectors were the only losers. 

The Commercial National Bank was opened in March, 1890, in the O'Don- 
nell Building, on Main and Pine streets. The entire capital stock of $100,000 
was easily disposed of, and the new bank started out with a solid backing, 
both in a financial and a patronizing sense. At a meeting held in January, 1890, 
the following officers were chosen: P. F. Borckman, president; C. H. Lavens, 
vice-president; W. H. Powers, cashier; R. L. Mason, assistant cashier and 
teller; C. H. Lavens, Alexander Urquhart, John R. Zook, J. C. Lineman, E. 
H. Barnum, J. H. llealey, R. F. Borckman, directors. 

The People's Building, Loan & Savings Association was organized at 
Elliott & Edgett's office, July 18, 1889, when the following-named officers 
were chosen: W. W. Brown, president; George A. Sturgeon, treasurer; 
Roy W. Edgett, secretary; Silas G. Elliott, manager; Stone, Brown & Stur- 


geon, attorneys; board of appraisers: E. J. Boylston, A. T. Godfrey, James 
H. Koche, Frank W. Boss and C. M. Carr. At this time no less than 116 
shares were subscribed for. 

The Bradford Building & Loan Association is presided over by H. S. 
Southard, with H. H. North, secretary. The second series of stock was au- 
thorized to be opened February 2, 1890. 

The McKean County Board of Underwriters was organized some time ago, 
and presided over by E. V. Cody, with John Troy, of Olean, vice-president, 
Fred W. Groves, secretary, and William Haskell, treasurer. 

Oil Exchanges. — The Tlina Valley Oil Exchange was presided over in 
January, 1877, by A. I. Wilcox, with Col. D. Gardner, vice-president, and 
C. Everson, secretary. 

The Bradford Oil Exchange may be said to have been established March 
19, 1878, when a meeting, over which C. L. Wheeler presided, considered the 
question of organization. A. J. Stephenson was secretary; J. M. Fuller, L. 
Emery, Jr., C. L. Wheeler, G. H. VanVleck and F. E. Boden, executive and 
building committee, and A. F. Kent, treasurer. Stock to the amount of 
$30,000 was at once subscribed, and in May plans by E. A. Curtis were 
adopted, and the old Johnson homestead on Main street, purchased for 
$10,000. The building contract was sold to Henry Shenk, who commenced 
work June 13, 1878, and completed the house in February, 1879, the total 
cost including lot being $44,000. Charles L. Wheeler, the first president, 
has been elected annually down to the present time. The officers of the 
Bradford Oil Exchange elected for 1890 are C. L. Wheeler, president; J. E. 
Haskell, vice president; Winfield Scott, secretary and treasurer; J. B. Jayne, 
F. W. Davis, C. C. Melvin, P. L. Blackmarr, E. Boyer, W. R. Weaver, S. 
H. Durston, A. B. Walker, J. E. Cochran and John Denman, directors; F. 
H. Eoberts, A. Thornton, F. P. Leonard, W. E. Gould and J. M. McElroy, 
arbitration committee; C. L. Wheeler, E. P. Whitcomb and J. T. Jones, 
conference committee; C. K. Thompson, judge of election; E. J. Boylston 
and I. G. Jackson, inspectors of election. 

The Producers' Petroleum Exchange was chartered in December, 1882, 
and early in 1883 the inaugural meeting was held in Armory Hall, with 500 
members, each of whom carried a $100 share. In June, 1888, a site for the 
Exchange building was obtained, and January 2, 1884, the house was com- 
pleted and opened, David Kirk, the president, delivering the address. Messrs. 
McKevett, Williamson and Lockwood formed the building committee. Mr. 
Kirk, referring to the progress of the county, said: " Congressionally we are 
in the same condition. For six years of the ten at least we must continue to 
be the tail end of a wild-cat district. Politically we amount to no more to day 
than when the population of McKean county consisted of a few men in the 
lumbering camps of the wilderness. Our representatives must be held ac- 
countable. One of them, with a vulgar display of wealth, has tendered money 
in place of services." 

The Association of Producers was organized June 11, 1884, with H. L. 
Taylor, president; David Kirk and W. J. Young, vice-presidents; F. W. 
Mitchell, treasurer; W. H. Johnson, secretary; John L. McKenney, John 
Satterfield, J. A. Cadwallader, W. ^N . Hague, F. T. Coast, J. T. Jones, B. 
Goe, W. R. Weaver, C. S. Whitney, J. S. Davis, F. W. Andrews, James 
Amm, W. J. Young and H. B. Porter, executive committee. A meeting was 
held August 21, 1884, when the secretary read the report on the ' ' shut-down ' ' 
prepared by the executive committee, and with it the agreement, signed by 861 
individual owners of wells or representatives of firms, while the total number 


of wells in the Bradford district, connected with the National Transit and the 
Tide Water Lines, was 13,328. 

The Producers' Protective Association elected the following named officers 
September -3, 1889: T. W. Phillips, of New Castle, president; H. L. Taylor, 
of Buffalo, vice-president; James R. Goldsborough, of Bradford, secretary'; 
R. J. Straight, of Bradford, treasurer. The association was organized two 
years before this date, and is credited with introducing the new era of pros- 
perity in the oil field. 

The W. P. Driven Well Protective Association was organized at Bradford 
in 1888, with A. J. Edgett, president; Dr. M. A. Todd, secretary; A. De- 
Golier, treasurer; P. T. Kennedy, C. C. Melvin and James E. Blair, execu- 
tive committee. 

Post-office. — In 1879 W. F. DeGolier was postmaster at Bradford. His 
direct salary was $2,300, with 11,500 allowance for clerk hire. During the 
first quarter of the year 1879 moaey orders for $31,000 were issued, and 
$5,899 worth of stamps sold. In March, 1885, the citizens of Bradford peti- 
tioned for the extension of the free-letter delivery system. The petitioners 
were given an idea of the mills of the gods, for the department devoted four- 
teen months to the consideration of their prayer. The present postmaster, C. 
B. Whitehead, took possession of the office May 28, 1886, and within thirty 
days the welcome letter-carriers were distributing letters among the people. 
In 1887 the voluine of business was far in excess of any preceding year, and 
an increase in business marks every month since that time. 

Hotels. — The Riddell House was sold in November, 1881, by Dr. George 
Riddell, to Chamberlain & Gelm for $40,000. The Doctor built a large frame 
house in 1878, on part of the site of the present structure. Late that year it 
was swept away by tire. In 1879 the present house was built by him. Ander- 
son & Co. purchased Chamberlain & Gelm's interests; Mitchell & Anderson 
bought the house from them on July 23, 1885; P. P. Holley purchased Mitch- 
ell's interest, and in 1887 he became sole owner. The Riddell is a first-class 
hotel, admirably managed. 

The St. James Hotel, at the head of Main street, near the exchanges, 
banks, newspaper offices and leading business houses, is equally as well man- 
aged as the Riddell House. The building is quite modern, and the location 

The Henderson House comes next in importance. It is a most popular hos- 
telry, and well conducted. The hotel is a large building, one block from Main 
street, but near the business center, the churches and schools, and convenient 
to the railroad depots. 

The American House is spoken of with favor by visitors from various 
sections of the Bradford field; while several other houses have their admir- 
ers, leading one to suppose that the city knows no such thing as a poor hotel. 

In January, 1847, Sabines Walker petitioned the court to grant him a 
license for keeping a house of entertainment in his dwelling on Tunuanguant 
creek, where the Smethport and Ellicottville road passes. In January, 1848, 
Sylvanus Holmes asked license for this house. For about thirty years Bradford 
and neighborhood were happy in the old-time inns referred to by Judge Ward, 
and when the modern inns came to replace tl^em, fire swept away a few of the 
new institutions, as related. 

Schools. — In the reminiscences of Judge Ward, references are made to the 
early schools of Bradford. In 1877 the old school building became the prop- 
erty of the Catholic church, and on its site stands the present St. Bernard's 


church and convent schools. At that time the common-school system of the 
city placed the foundation stone of its present greatness. 

In his first report to the State superintendent in 1882, George F. Stone, 
then superintendent of the city schools, said: " In submitting my first report of 
the condition of the schools of the city of Bradford, you will permit a refer- 
ence to the peculiar difficulties with which our city in its infancy has labored. 
M'ithin seven years our school population has increased more than twelve fold, 
and the number of schools in like proportion. It has been found necessary to 
erect within the last two years three school buildings, furnishing accommoda- 
tions for thirteen schools, and during the present vacation another building 
has been enlarged to accommodate two additional schools." In 1882 there were 
in the city twenty-one schools, employing twenty-six teachers. The average 
attendance was 1,037 and the average percentage was ninety-two. The total 
amount of tax levied for school and building purposes, $39,649.21. In 1883 
the number of schools had increased to twenty- four, the number of teachers 
to thirty-five, and the average attendance had swelled to 1,080. The sexes 
were about evenly divided. In this year the total tax was $29,488.46. Dur 
ing the school year ending June 2, 1884, the capacity of the schools was 
again severely tested, and a new brick building was erected on Congress street. 
This structure contains a library, a laboratory and a printing office. In this 
year the number of schools was swelled to thirty-two, employing thirty-eight 
teachers, with an average attendance of 1,166. The total amount of taxes 
levied was $27,578.46. In 1885 the schools were not increased. The num- 
ber of teachers employed was thirty-nine, and the average attendance was 
1,300. The total amount of the tax levy was 138,091.07. In the spring of 
1886 the central school building was destroyed by fire. It was replaced by a 
larger and more commodious structure. In this year there were thirty -four 
schools, which gave employment to thirty, nine teachers. The average attend- 
ance was further increased to 1,315. The tax levy was $31,287.48. In 1887 
there were thirty-one schools, employing thirty-five teachers. The enrollment 
consists of 912 males and 968 females, a total of 1,880. The average daily 
attendance is 1,387, and the average cost of each pupil $1.03 per month. The 
total amount levied for school and building purposes is $27, 180. 74. In 1888 
phenomenal progress was reported. In June of this year the discussion on 
the question of the superintendent's salary created a stir in school circles and 
brought from the superintendent a letter of which the following is a copy. 

Bangor, Mb., June 23, 1888. 


As I read in the Era of to-day that I have been charged with disloyalty to the schools 
of Bradford in advising teachers to ask higher salaries elsewhere, and thus oblige the Brad- 
ford board to increase them; also, that the public are dissatisfied with the increase made 
in my salary, I again ask the Bradford board to release me from my engagements for an- 
otheryear. A Superintendent may be found whose desire for a position may be so great 
that he will be willing to keep silent when he is unjustly accused. Fortunately my op- 
portunities in life are so many that I am not so placed. I again thank the Board for the 
uniform courtesy I have received at their hands. 


Ella M. Botce. 

The lady did not lose her position; on the contrary her salary was advanced, 
and in July, 1889, the following assignment of teachers was made, which was 
adopted by the board: Central Brick Building: Anna McBride, principal; 
Helen M. Biscoe, first assistant; Oriana Wycoff, principal; Christine Miller, 
assistant; Sarah Bruce, Sallie Hamor, Luella Harris, Bessie Johnson, A. Hag- 
gerty, A. Herrick. — Annex: L. Heard, M. Silberberg. — Synagogue: Bertha 
James. — Central Wooden Building : Helen Shepard, Miss Angell, Annie Miller, 


K. Murphy, J. Simons, H. Horton, B. Huflf, M. Bro^n.— Third Ward: Belle 
Minard, Nellie Lewis, Cleora Prosser, L. Morton, S. Lewis, Francis Wann.— 
Fourth Ward: Jennie Renninger, Delia Neely, H. Mason, A. Brennan — 
Fifth Ward: M. Wann, M. Mead, H. A. Brown, I. Blanchard. 

The actual expenses were, for year ending June, 1889: Salaries of superin- 
tendent and teachers, 116,559; of secretary and librarian, |411; of janitors, 
11,242; fuel and contingencies, |1,078; supplies, $823; miscellaneous, $3391 
total, $20,452. > * > 

Late in the fall of 1878 the work of erecting the schools attached to St. 
Bernard's Church was begun, and school opened in them in September of the 
following year, the services of the Sisters of the Order of St. Joseph having 
been secured as teachers in the same. The maintenance of these schools is 
quite a heavy burden upon the congregation. These schools are free to all. 
There are some three hundred pupils upon the school roll, who are instructed 
and well grounded in all the primary branches without any expense to the tax- 
payers of the city. Of her educational advantages Bradford has good reason 
to be proud. The public school system is very nearly perfect, and the advanced 
methods, the thorough training, and the excellent discipline by which they 
have been distinguished, have drawn to their cordial support a class which in 
other cities depends almost wholly upon private schools. The newspapers of 
the city are, however, the great practical educators. 

Churches. — The First Baptist church is contemporary with the first settle- 
ment at Bradford. In 1840 Rev. N. E. Chapin had an appointment as mis- 
sionary pastor, preaching in what was known as Col. Little's house, near the 
present oil exchange. 

The Regular Baptist church of Bradford was organized under State laws 
in September, 1852, with Enos Parsons, Truman Sherman, W. F. Peckham, 
E. C. Olds, James DeOolier, C. Storms and Edwin Colegrove, trustees. In 
1874 the church was reorganized under the labors of State Missionary Stowell, 
and T. J. Knapp, of Parker, became pastor in June, 1878. His labors were 
continued until July, 1879, when he resigned. The church was left pastorless 
until February, 1880, when Rev. Alfred Rose, of Westerfield, N. Y. , accepted a 
call. The society was organized under legal form in December, 1 880, and the 
constitution signed by the following named members: W. "W. Brown, T. J. 
Powers, F. Z. Trax, P. T. Kennedy, W. H. Dennis, M. S. Cody, C. P. Cody, 
E. B. Chappelle, Alfred Rose, W. H. Powers, E. Crossman, Clara Prosser, 
Jessie Browne, Jennie E. Rose and D. DeGolier. Among the trustees were 
Isaac Jones and A. K. Johnson. Services were held in the Opera House and 
other places until January 16, 1881, when the present house was dedicated. 
In April, 1882, Mr. Rose resigned, and in May following was succeeded by 
Rev. W. R. Baldwin, who served until February 15, 1884. At this time the 
church numbered 125 members, and was carrying a debt of $8,000. On Au- 
gust 1, 1884, Rev. James P. Thoms, of Cazenovia, N. Y. , began his pastorate. 
The Methodist Church of Tunuangaant was incorporated in July, 1848, 
with John F. Melvin, John O. Beardsley, Absalom Hutchinson, Seth Scott, 
Thomas DoUoff, William Beardsley, Daniel Warner, William R. Fisher, H. 
Webb, L. W. Fisher and A. S. Wheaton, stockholders or subscribers. 

The First Methodist Church of Bradford was incorporated May 80, 1878, 
with Loren G. Peck, J. H. Harris, A. DeGolier, H. S. Baker, L. B. Blakes- 
lee, A. W. Newell and John Brown. The object of legal association was to 
acquire property and build a house of worship. For many years before this 
an organization existed in Bradford, but regular services were not commenced 
under the auspices of such organization until October, 1876, when Rev. J. A. 


Copeland was appointed pastor. Until March, 1887, the Opera House was 
used for public worship. At that time their new church was completed, which 
has since been enlarged. Mr. Copeland was succeeded in 1879 by Eev. C. W. 
Gushing, D. D. , and in 1882 by Eev. D. W. C. Huntington, D. D. The mem- 
bership of the church at present is over 500, and the average attendance at the 
Sunday-school is almost 400, under the care of fifty-five officers and teachers. 
Kev. G. Chapman Jones concluded a four-years term as pastor in September, 
1889. At that time he reported 553 members and thirty probationers. Mr. 
Huntington was reappointed in the fall of 1889. 

The First Congregational Church of Bradford was organized in May, 1854, 
with T. Lambert, V. Waggoner, W. W. Norton, E. D. Norton, M. 0. Fuller, 
C. D. Webster and E. S. Niles, trustees. Samuel Porter and P. L. Webster, 
with the trustees, signed the petition for incorporation. 

The Bradford Meeting-House Association was incorporated June 21, 1871, 
with P. L. Webster, J. E. Blair, T. W. Cole, Benjamin Jewett, Thomas J. 
Melvin and Abram K. -Johnson, trustees. The society was formed to control 
the property of the Congregational Church, vice E. D. Norton, A. K. Johnson 
and F. Newell, the trustees of the old Congregational society of 1853-54, of 
Littleton Village, who were acting in 1866. 

The Universalist Church was organized here early in the "fifties," as told 
in the sketch of Editor Haff ey, but meetings were irregular. In later days serv- 
ices of this denomination have been held here. 

St. Bernard's Church. Previous to the discovery of oil in the northern 
field there was no resident Catholic pastor in Bradford. The few members of 
that denomination located at this point and in the immediate vicinity were oc- 
casionally visited by a priest from Newell creek, and among the first to thus 
visit them was Very Kev. J. D. Coady, now pastor of St. Titus Church, Titus- 
ville. His field of missionary duty, though extensive in respect to territory, 
embracing, as it did, the counties of McKean, Potter, and parts of Elk, was, 
however, limited in respect to numbers. The summer of 1877 witnessed the 
climax of the oil excitement in this section; people began to flock to it from 
every point of the compass, and Bradford grew rapidly from a mere hamlet 
to a full-fledged city. It was in the fall of this year that Eev. William 
Coonan, present pastor of St. Bernard's Church, was appointed by Bishop 
Mullin, of Erie, to look after the spiritual wants of the Catholic population, 
and build up the church. After some debts, which had been contracted pre- 
vious to his taking charge, were satisfactorily adjusted, immediate preparations 
were made for the erection of a suitable church edifice. Heretofore the little 
congregation had worshiped in what used to be the old village school-house, 
which, together with the grounds attached, they had purchased, and upon 
which the present church parsonage and schools are erected. In the spring of 
1878 the present church, 44x100 feet, was commenced, and was occupied the fol- 
lowing December, though not dedicated until the summer of 1879, at which time 
it was almost completely paid for. The school buildings were begun in the fall 
of 1878, and opened by the Sisters of St. Joseph in September, 1879. In 1881 
the Catholic cemetery was established on the Brown farm, one mile southwest of 
the city. Work on the proposed large brick and stone church will, it is said, 
commence in the spring of 1890. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Bradford was incorporated in June, 1879, 
the following named having hitherto signed the constitution: Theodore Ladd, 
C. D. Webster, A. M. Davis, C. H. Hoffman, A. L. Kinkead, J. M. Arm- 
strong, E. G. Williams and William M. Boggs. Among the directors were 
Bernard Hook and W. J. McCullough. The society was originally organized 


June 19, 1877, with twenty-four members. For more than two years the con- 
gregation was without a regular place of worship, during which time services 
were held in Wagner's Opera House, the Universalist Church, the Academy of 
Mu^ic and other places. In the fall of 1875 the lecture room of the church 
was completed, and a place was thus provided for the services. The church 
edifice itself was not finished until the following spring. On May 30, 1880, 
the church was dedicated, $5,000 being raised on this occasion to pay for the 
same. The following autumn the excellent pipe-organ, which is still in use, 
was purchased at a cost of $1,600. Eev. R. G. Williams, now of Nelson, 
Penn. , was the first pastor of the church, and continued his ministry for one 
year and a half. He was succeeded by Eev. J. Eoss Findley, now of Con- 
neaut, Ohio, who was pastor of the church from May, 1879, until May, 1882. 
The present pastor, Eev. Edward Bryan, was installed November 1 5, 1882. 
The church is now in connection with the presbytery of Erie, to which it was 
transferred from the presbytery of Buffalo by the general assembly. On Sep- 
tember 4, 1889, Bryan resigned his of&ce as pastor after seven years' service. 
During that period $51,172 were collected for missionary and church purposes. 
Rev. M. J. Eccles came in February, 1890. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Ascension petitioned for incor- 
poration May 27, 1880. The signers were W. W. Mason, A. B. Put- 
nam, L. C. Blakeslee, W. F. Crane, I. Beam, J. A. Ege, S. L. Wilson, J. R. 
Mattock, S. H. Durston, T. L. Shields, E. F. Willetts, A. C. Scott, J. F. 
Merrill, Peter T. Kennedy, C. L. Wheeler, Ed. R. Shepherd, Lynford Lard- 
ner, C. A. Seigfried, H. G. Cutting and F. Winslow, of Bradford, with C. A. 
Cornen and W. N. Hanna, of Kendall. The Eouseville, Penn., church build- 
ing was moved to Bradford, rebuilt, and was used up to January 19, 1890, 
when it was burned. The society proposes to erect a new building this year. 

The United Brethren Church is one of the modern religious organizations 
of the city. The membership is small, but flourishing. 

Beth Zion Congregation was incorporated in December, 1880, with Jacob 
Olshoffsky, Philip Nusbaum, Alexander Simpson, Moses Ruslander and A. M. 
Mayer, trustees. The names of S. Auerhaim and Asher Brown also appear 
on the record. A temple was erected on South Mechanic street, and dedicated 
in the spring of 1881. The services are conducted according to the reform 
principles of modern Judaism. That is to say, prayers and sermons in the 
English language are connected with the Hebrew ritual. Rev. Samuel Weil 
has been the Rabbi ever since the founding of the congregation. The congre- 
gation numbers forty members, besides many seat-holders. The Rabbi con- 
ducts, besides the Sabbath-school, a day school in which Hebrew and German 
are taught. 

The First Bradford Orthodox Hebrew Congregation was incorporated in 
March, 1881, with P. Freidman, David Levi and Isaac Nusbaum, trustees. 
The petition was signed by Joseph Rosenberg, H. Cohn, Dan. Silberene, 
Raphael Michael, B. Jacobs and L. Graff. 

The African Methodist Church was organized in the spring of 1880 by 
Eev. Mr. Cyrus. The following fall Rev. R. H. Jackson was appointed to 
this charge, and for three years served the church in the capacity of pastor. 
He was succeeded by Rev. R. H. Henderson, who, after serving for two years, 
was succeeded by Rev. S. H. Lacey in a pastoral service of one year. Rev. 
C. H. Brown was then appointed. The highest number of members in con- 
nection with the church at any one time is seventy-two; the lowest reported 
membership, thirteen. 

The Swedish Church was incorporated September 4, 1888. The congrega- 


tion, like others of this faith in the southern townships of McKean county, 
pushes forward valiantly to gain a place among the old religious societies of 
the city. 

Rev. Clim Gim, educated in the Lane Seminary for Presbyterian mjj^sion 
work, came to Bradford in 1881 to address Judge Ward's Sunday-schoo! class 
of Chinese pupils. 

Ben Hogan, referred to in the history of Tarport, is now an Evangelist. 
The following concerning this extraordinary man is taken from a local paper: 

Ben Hogan, old-time gambler, cracksman, confidence man, bounty jumper, dive- 
keeper and pugilist, who left the oil country eleven years ago with the reputation of being 
the wickedest'man in the world, is back again after his long absence, going from town to 
town, visiting his old haunts, greeting his old friends, and— preaching to them the gos- 
pel! Packed houses greet him, and although crude, ungrammatical, and with a vocabu- 
liiry not at all extensive, he holds the interested attention of ignorant and cultivated 
alike with the forceful and rudely eloquent recital of his past adventures, and the story 
of his marvelous conversion. As he looks from the platform he can see the faces of many 
of his old patrons— the man who drank his liquor at Pithole, the habitue of his dance- 
house at Babylon, the ex-oil prince who spent his $100 a night on board the infamous 
" floating palace " at Parker's Landing, and the driller who patronized his place at Tar- 
port. They all come to hear Ben preach the gospel. For how many men does the whirli- 
gig of time work such wouders as it has for Ben Hogan, Evangelist? 

Cemeteries. — About fifty- seven years ago three acres were donated to the 
settlers of Littleton for a free burial-ground. This tract was located on Ken- 
nedy street. In the winter of 1880-81 the cemetery on the Tarport road was 

The Oak Hill Cemetery Association of Bradford was incorporated in De- 
cember, 1883, with W. E. Weaver, Enos Parsons, C. C. Melvin, P. M. Fuller 
and P. L. Webster, stockholders. In 1881 the Catholic cemetery on Washing- 
ton street was opened. This is located on the H. Brown farm, one mile south- 
west of the city. 

Hospital. — The project of establishing a hospital was first started by Gen. 
Kane. He recognized the necessity for an institution of that kind to care for per- 
sons disabled in the oil field; and in April, 1881, the McKean County Belief Soci- 
ety was organized and incorporated. A hospital was to be erected on Mount 
Kaub, but on account of the General' s death the project was abandoned. Rev. D. 
B. Wilson, well known for his charities, next revived interest in the matter, but 
before his plans could be properly carried out he died, in 1885. The Brad- 
ford Hospital Association was incorporated August 4, 1885, on petition of the 
following named supporters: H. F. Barbour, M. B. Pierce, A. L. Weil, P. 
M. Shannon, L. Emery, Jr., H. W. Eaton, E. B. Stone, Edward Bryan, J. 
T. Jones and M. McMahon. By public and private donations and entertain- 
ments the hospital fund grew, and that worthy institution was placed upon a 
substantial footing. The hospital was opened in May, 1887, and placed under 
the direction of Mrs. M. Krider, matron. 

Societies, Etc. — In the order of Masonic* advancement and organization, 
the Blue Lodge comes first under consideration. 

Union Lodge No. 334. Up to the year 1858 there was not a lodge of Free 
and Accepted Masons within the borders of McKean county, and there was 
none nearer than Warren, known as North Star Lodge No. 241. In that year 
a number of Masons living in the village decided to form a lodge. The con- 
sent of North Star Lodge No. 241 having been given, the following brethren 
petitioned the grand lodge of Pennsylvania for a warrant of constitution: 
Samuel Boyer, Montour Lodge, 168, N. J. ; Nelson Parker, North Star Lodge, 
241 ; G. F. Peckham, Ellicottville Lodge, 307, N. Y. ; William Beardsley, 

♦Masonic history is taken from the Slar of July, 1889. 




EUicottville Lodge, 307, N. Y. ; J. L. Savage (lodge not given) ; Jasper Marsh, 
North Star Lodge, 241; Jonathan Marsh (lodge not given); J. C. Ackley, 
Brownville Lodge. At a quarterly communication of the grand lodge, held 
March 7, 1859, the warrant of constitution was granted for a lodge in the vil- 
lage of Bradford, Penn. , to be known as Union Lodge No. 334, signed by the 
following grand officers: Henry M. Phillips, E. W. G. M. ; John Thompson, D. 
G. M. ; David C. Sterrett, S. G. W. ; Lucius H. Scott, J. G. W. ; Peter William- 
son, grand treasurer; William H. Adams, grand secretary. On August 3, 1859, 
the lodge was duly constituted, and on that day held its first meeting. The 
first officers were Samuel Boyer, W. M. ; Nelson Parker, S. W. ; George F. 
Peckham, J. W. ; Wilson Beardsley, secretary ; Jasper Marsh, treasurer; J. S. 
Savage, S. D. ; J. C. Ackley, J. D. The following have served as masters of 
the lodge: George F. Peckam, S. Boyer, A. K. Johnson (three years), William 
Burton, H. W. Glass, T. H. Stock, Nelson Parker, George T. Keith, L. B. 
Prosser (two years), G. D. H. Crooker (two years), James Broder, J. W. 
Brennan, F. W. Davis, T. J. Melvin, James E. Blair, F. P. Wentworth, E. 
D. Matteson (two years), G. L. Wheeler, E. A. Boyne, D. S. Kemp, Walter 
Grubb, William K. Laney. The officers of the lodge in 1889 were A. D. 
Sloan, W. M. ; James M. Stevenson, S. W. ; Henry Trumbower, J. W. ; Lewis 
C. Longaker, treasurer; C. P. McAllister, secretary; and in 1890, J. M. Stev- 
enson, Henry Trumbower, S. R. Dresser, C. L. Wheeler and C. P. McAllister. 
C. L. Wheeler is district deputy grand master of the Twenty-second District of 
Pennsylvania, comprising the counties of McKean and Potter. Up to 1875 the 
lodge grew in numbers but moderately. At that time the remarkable growth 
of the city set in and the lodge felt the effects of it in an increased prosperity 
and interest. The lodge has now a membership of 240, and its members not 
only comprise many of the leading and best citizens of Bradford, but are scat- 
tered alL over the land, in almost every State and Territory. The lodge is 
also in a flourishing condition, financially, being out of debt and liaving |2,000 
in property and invested funds. Applications for membership are received at 
nearly every meeting, and the total inadequacy of the present lodge room to 
accommodate comfortably one-half the membership has made the building of 
the new Temple a necessity. There were 225 members in March, 1890. 

Bradford Chapter, R. A. M., No. 260. In the summer of 1880 a number 
of Royal Arch Masons residing in this city discussed among themselves the 
formation of a new chapter, and the result was an application to the grand 
chapter for a charter signed by the following companions as charter members: 
C. L. Wheeler, Joseph H. Simonds, W. R. Weaver, W. A. Rix, James Broder, 
J. C. Sturgeon, W. M. Keeler, C. D. Buss, W. H. Clarke, W. C. Husband, 
John Stinson, Michael Murphy, W. F. Jordan, E. P. Pooler, C. C. Melvin, 
Henry Trumbower. The charter was granted by the grand chapter, and on 
September 6, 1880, Bradford Chapter, R. A. M. , No. 260, was constituted and 
the new officers installed. The occasion was one of great interest in Masonic 
circles for many miles around. The grand officers of the State were nearly 
all present and conducted the impressive ceremonies in the presence of a large 
assembly of chapter masons, including many distinguished men of high posi- 
tion and character. The first officers, of the new chapter, installed were 
Joseph H. Simonds, M. E. H. P. ; William R. Weaver, king; William A. Rix, 
scribe; Charles L. Wheeler, treasurer; Robert T. Thompson, secretary. The 
chapter at once entered upon an era of unexampled growth and prosperity. 
At the end of the first year the membership had been increased to eighty- seven, 
at the end of the second year to 122, and at the end of the third year to 155. 
Since then the growth has been steady, and at the present date the roster num- 


bers 210 companions, and the invested funds and property of the chapter 
amount to about $2,500. Following are the past high priests who have 
served in that capacity since the constituting' of the chapter: Joseph H. 
Simonds, W. E. Weaver, W. H. Clarke, David S. Kemp, Phillip M. Shannon, 
H. Trumbower, Elias Urquhart, Francis W. Sprague and E. F. Sawyer. 
This chapter elected the following named officers in December, 1889: F. J. 
Collins, H. P. ; George W. Ashdown, K. ; James M. Stevenson, scribe; Charles 
L. Wheeler, treasurer; Charles P. McAllister, secretary, and F. W. Sprague, 
representative. The membership is now (1890) 200. 

Bradford Council No. 43, R. & S. M. In the early part of January, 1 888, 
a number of royal and select masters residing in Bradford met to consider 
the advisability of establishing a council of royal and select masters. At an 
informal meeting held February 9, 1888, it was decided to apply for a charter 
at the grand council meeting at Erie, Penn. On Friday evening, May 4, 1888, 
the grand council held a special meeting in this city, constituted Bradford 
Council No. 43, E. & S. M., and installed the following officers : F. J. Collins, 
T. I. G. M. ; L. E. Mallory, D. I. G. M. ; J. H. Youngs, P. C. of W. ; C. L. 
Wheeler, Treas. ; E'. F. Sawyer, Eec. With the exception of P. C. of W. and 
recorder, the above officers were re-elected for this year. Companion Youngs 
and Companion Sawyer declined a re-election, and Companions D. C. Greene- 
wald and C. P. McAllister were elected as P. C. of W. and recorder. The offi- 
cers of this council elected in December, 1889, were L. E. Mallory, T. I. G. M. ; 
S. E. Sheakley, D. I. G. M. ; C. S. Hubbard, P. C. of W. ; C. L. Wheeler, 
Treas. ; C. P. McAllister, Eec. ; J. E. Goldsborough, F. W. Sprague and J. 
W. Hogan, trustees. The membership is 147, or the third in strength in this 

Trinity Commandery, No. 58, K. T. In the early months of 1881 the 
matter of instituting a Commandery of Knights Templar began to be discussed. 
Among the new residents of the city were many members of the order who 
had located in the great northern field to stay, and they wanted a templar 
home. On April 80, 1881, a preliminary meeting of members of the order was 
held, and a petition for a dispensation forwarded to the grand commandery, 
with the following charter members' names affixed: J. H. Simonds, C. L. 
Wheeler, Victor Gratter, Casper Taylor, E. T. Thompson, James Broder, W. 
E. Weaver, A. C. Hawkins, J. M. McElroy, E. A. Drake, J. E. Goldsborough, 
C. H. McKevitt, J. B. Farrel, O. F. Schonblom, L. E. Hamsher, W. H. Brad- 
ley, Marion Henshaw, John Bird, Joseph Overy, W. L. Yelton, J. C. Stur- 
geon, H. Trumbower, T. B. Hoover, W. C. Hayes, D. S. Scoville, W. P. 
Shoemaker, John T. Farmer, W. H. Spain, F. M. Cole, W. H. H. Fithian, 
J. M. Stevenson, W. Warmcastle, M. A. Sprague, W. F. Kelley, D. F. Sieg- 
fried, John Eaton, J. B. Wheaton, W. C. Husband, H. C. Sanderson, Sey- 
mour Peck, W. H. Clarke, Alfred Smedley, Charles A. Bailey, J. E. Haskell, 
W. A. Eix, Frank A. Smith, W. F. Jordan, J. B. Flisher, John Stinson, A. 
B. Walker, Charles D. Buss, John C. Holmes, Enos O. Adams and Ed. Good- 
win. On May 13 the dispensation was granted, and on May 18, 1881, the first con- 
clave of Trinity commandery was held, with the following officers: Joseph 
Simonds, eminent commander; C. L. Wheeler, generalissimo; Victor Gratter, 
captain-general; Casper Taylor, treasurer; Eobert T. Thompson, recorder; 
John C. Sturgeon, prelate; -James Broder, senior warden; William H. Clarke, 
junior warden; J. E. Goldsborough, standard bearer; William A. Eix, sword 
bearer; John Stinson, warder; W. 'H. H. Fithian, sentinel. At the meeting 
of the grand commandery in that same month the charter was duly granted, 
and R. E. Sir George W. Kendrick, grand commander of the State of Penn- 


sylvania, appointed Wednesday, September 28, 1881, for the constituting of 
Trinity Commandery, No. 58, K. T. The members of the new commandery 
resolved to make the occasion one long to be remembered, both as a social and 
Masonic event of the city, and they more than succeeded. The most elaborate 
prepara,tions were made, both for the reception of the grand officers and the 
entertainment of the guests of the occasion. The new commandery so auspi- 
ciously constituted increased rapidly in members, and soon ranked as one of 
the most vigorous and most ably officered and conducted templar organiza- 
tions in the State. At the present time the membership numbers 198. The 
commandery hSs within the last few years lost many prominent members by 
death, among them the First Commander E. Sir Joseph H. Simonds, to 
whose earnest intelligent efforts are dae more than to any other one man, the 
constituting of both the chapter and commandery, and their success and' effi- 
ciency. Following are the past commanders in order of service: Joseph H. 
Simonds, Joseph M. McElroy, Charles L. Wheeler, Phillip M. Shannon, Win- 
field Scott Watson, James E. Goldsborough, Harry A. Marlin. The officers 
for 1889 were James E. Goldsborough, eminent commander; Henry F. Bar- 
bour, generalissimo; William E. Weaver, captain- general; Phillip M. Shan- 
non, treasurer; W. H. H. Fithian, recorder. The officers for 1890 are H F 
Barbour, E. C. ; W. E. Weaver, G. ; F. J. Collins, C. G. ; C. L. Wheeler, 
Treas., and C. P. McAllister, Eec. The present membership is 200. 

In the summer of 1889 the proposition to build a Masonic Temple was 
favorably received, and the lots on which the Eoberts' block was standing, 
purchased. The old building was removed and the elegant edifice erected. 
Mr. Curtis, of Fredonia, is the architect, and the Masonic Temple Association, 
with S. B. Dresser, president, W. E. Weaver, vice-president, and C. P. Mc- 
Allister, secretary, had charge of its construction. 

Tuna Lodge No. 41], I. O. O. F., was instituted June 4, 1877. The 
Past Grands of this lodge are W. H. Adams, C. W. Bartholomew, E. I. Bald- 
win, J. J. Cole, J. C. Greenewald, D. C. Greenewald, C. A. Huggins, Ber- 
nard Hook, F. E. Hinkley, J. G. Hann, Lee Kennedy, Dave Kibler, John 
Kelly, Ed. Kahn, D. C. Macon, A. G. Moultoa, John Meyers, J. W. Piatt, J. 
H. Ealph, E. N. Southwick, John Theetge, W. E. Weaver, F. Steinberger, 
V. E. Bryant and John Cummings; A. N. Heard has served as D. D. G. M., 
and E. A. Dempsey as secretary. The membership is about 100. 

McKean Encampment No. 266, I. O. O. F., was instituted June 18, 1884. 
The P. C. P's. of this organization are W. E. Weaver, D. C. Greenewald, 
J. H. Ealph, J. C. Greenewald, James A. Lindsey, V. E. Bryant, John Cum- 
mings, W. H. Adams, E. G. Baldwin and John Myers. C. V. Cottrell has 
served as scribe, and J. H. Ealph as D. D. G. M. There are forty-five mem- 
bers with encampment property valued at $1,300. 

Tuna Valley Lodge No. 453, K. of P., was instituted December 9, 1884, 
with the following named members: W. H. Malick, Sanford Gordon, F. S. 
Parker, G. E. Mabb, G. B. Watson, E. J. Chambers, H. Frank, E. T. Wright, 
J. S. Fritz, C. M. Carr, G. W. Willis, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Charles A. Bailey, 
J. A. Lindsey, N. A. HoUenbeck, P. Fragner, E. N. Eobinson, L. M. Finney, 
M. A. Todd, J. A. Nelson, T. J. Beridge, T. J. Collins, C. H. Hogans, W. 
C. Leonard, G. B. McCalmont, John Slocum, J. E. Grainger, E. A. Durham. 
Following are the names of P. Cs. : Thomas Fitzpatrick, H. Frank, Sanford 
Gordon, J. W. Willis, W. A. Hutcheson, S. M. Wilcox, H. M. Wilson, W. H. 
Malick, J. S. Fritz, A. D. Sloan, E. T. Wright, J. C. McCrea, M. H. Fitz- 
gibbon, M. Eeis, Charles Morris, G. E. Mabb, Joseph Kilgore, J. L. Andrews, 
J. T. Burkholder and J. A. McCready. F. S. Butler was elected chancellor 


in June, 1889, and G. E. Mabb re-elected K. of R. & S. The present "num- 
ber of members is 125, and value of lodge property $500. T. Fitzpatrick is 
representative to the grand lodge, and the other officers in lodge rank are E. 
D. Matteson, G. W. Double, P. J. Nolan, W. J. Loucks, J. W. Baker, G. R. 
Mabb, W. H. Malick, E. T. Wright, W. F. Eobinson and J. C. Malick. 

Bradford Division No. 22, IJ. R. K. of P., was instituted December 22, 
1885. The early members of this division were Henry S. Tucker, Thomas 
Fitzpatrick, Charles M. Carr, James A. Lindsey, Edwin P. Wright, Andrew 
R. Burns, Fred S. Parker, James A. McCready, M. H. Fitzgibbons, John C. 
McCrea, J. S. Fritz, William H. Malick, Edwin J. Chambets, William H. 
Hall, George W. Slocum, C. L. Bradburn, John A. Nelson, William G. Kahl, 
C. L. Casterline, J. L. Tracy, J. F. Lasher, John W. Vantine, James O'Hara, 
Frank E. Bradley, James E. Grainger, Sanford Gordon, M. Herron, Isaac V. 
Averill, A. W. Swanson, Charles Brown, C. Hazelmaier, William C. Howe, 
David W. Lerch, P. H. Linderman. The seven first named were elected of- 
ficers in the order of rank. The officials in 1889 were A. D. Burns, James 
O'Hara, E. D. Matteson, W. H. Malick and E. P. Wright. The present 
membership is thirty. 

Bradford Post No. 141, G. A. R., was instituted August 13, 1879, with the 
following members: J. A. Ege, Peter Grace, Joseph Moorhead, J. W. Shaw, J. 
W. Searls, Henry A. Page, W. H. Perrigo, J. K. Graham, Clinton J. Smith, A. 
Wicks, W. W. Brown, F. M. Loekwood, C. G. Cooper, J. C. Sturgeon, T. J. 
Fennerty, J. F. Collins, A. S. Sinclair, M. W. Ferris, Lynford Lardner, G. H. 
Lyons, G. H. Baldwin, S. M. Potter, P. M. Fuller, H. B. Huff, E. B. Cham- 
berlain, W. M. Boggs, S. M. Sayer, E.- S. Pier, Benjamin Franklin and J. P. 
Siggins. The commanders have been E. R. Sherman, R. A. Dempsey, J. T. 
Bishop, W. W. Brown and William Dobie, who is now commander. The posi- 
tion of adjutant has been filled by J. K. Graham, W. C. Rockwell and E. R. 
Sherman. E. R. Sherman is the present adjutant. The trustees are F. H. 
Roberts, J. C. Hughes and E. R. Sherman. S. Howard is S. V. ; A. N. 
Heard, J. V. The number of members is 180, and the value of post property 
|1 , 500. A few years ago a number of the members of this post formed the 
Union Veteran Legion, and were duly installed. Later on another body of men 
from the same post organized Union Veteran Union, and in 1889 another post 
was formed by members of the parent post. 

John S. Melvin Post No. 585, G. A. R., was mustered June 21, 1889, by 
J. M. McElroy, mustering officer, assisted by the following officers: W. Dobie, 
S. V. Com. ; J. E. Baldwin, J. V. Com. ; B. F. Wright, Chap. ; George Grif- 
fith, Q. M. ; H. M. Choate, Adjt. ; F. H. Roberts, O. D. ; Thomas Ryan, O. G. ; 
M. B. McMahon, I. S. ; W. W. Brown, escort. The charter officers, in order 
of rank, were P. M. Shannon, C. P. Byron, W. L. Yelton, W. C. Rockwell, 
L. E. Hamsher, J. W. McFarland, W. B. Chapman, C. T. Cummings, C. H. 
Babcock, Arch. Gilchrist, J. T. Bishop, T. J. Fennerty, I. G. Howe, and the 
trustees, R. McAllister, S. D. HefPner, T. J. Fennerty. The present officers 
areas follows: C, L G. Howe; S. V. C, S. D. Heffner; J. V. C, W. L. 
Yelton; Chap., Warren G. Gray; Q. M., W. C. Rockwell; Adjt., J. L. Adams; 
O. D .,W. B. Chapman; O. G., S. Fisher; Surg., E. I. Baldwin; Sergt.-Maj., 
C. F. Cummings; Q. M. S., T. J. Fennerty. 

In February, 1890, W. B. Chapman was elected judge advocate -general of 
the National Encampment of the U. V. L. 

Camp No. 7, Union Veteran Legion, was instituted July 29, 1886. Among 
the first officers were C. C, S. D. Heffner; L. C, W. K. Laney; M., C. E. 



HarringtoD; A., M. Albert; Q. M., T. Gallaher; O. D., N. S. Siggins; C, W, 
B. Tracy; O. G., Thomas Fitzpatrick. The membership at close of year was 

Gen. Kane Command No. 6, Union Veteran Union, Department of Penn- 
sylvania, was instituted August 20, 1887, with thirty-five members. The first 
officers were C, T. J. Fennerty; L. 0., Callip Tibbetts; M., G. W. Eddy; A., 
N. Wilkins; Q. M., C. H. Ehodes; C, D. F. Wolcott; O. D.,M. C. Canrow; 
O. O. T. G., J. H. Lefi9er. Command No. 6 elected the following named offi- 
cers in October, 1889: T. J. Fennerty, Col.; C. B. Tibbetts, Lieut. -Col. ; C. 
P. Byron, Surg. ; D. F. Wolcott, Chap. ; L. F. Egbert, Q. M. ; T. C. Hosier, 
O. of D., and L. Wolfe, O. of G. 

During the G. A. E. reunion of August, 1888, the pipe wherein the blue- 
colored fire was burning, exploded, killing three men: Eobert Hurley, Ed. 
Duel and Wallace E. Curtis, and wounding many others. In September, 
1888, the second annual reunion of the Bucktails was held at Bradford. 

The Bradford Military Company completed enrollment August 30, 1880, 
with a roster of eighty-seven men and asked to be assigned to the Seventeenth 
National Guard Post. This was subsequently assigned to the Sixteenth. 
Among its charter members who answered roll-call in September, 1885 (five 
years after muster) were T. F. Conneely, J. C. Fox (the present captain), A. 
McAlpine, F. E. Bradley, T. Scroxton, H. Field, A. D. Burns, John J. Lane, 
W. F. Eobinson, E. C. Hazelmair, Ed. J. Boylston and W. G. Kohl. 

The score made by this company in January, 1890, the years of service 
and names of candidates for sharpshooters' medals are given as follows : 

T. F. Conneely, lieutenant 47 

P. E. Bradley, lieutenant 46 

W. B. Chapman, private 45 

T. B. Bahew, private 43 

T., W. Scroxton, sergeant 42 

F. F. Eiliben, private 42 

F. W. Webster, sergeant 42 

C. G. Griffith, private 41 

C. L. Griffin, sergeant 39 

W. P. Kobinson, sergeant 89 

J. E. Fennerty, private 39 

C.W.Wallace, " 37 

M. M. Neal, " 36 

E. J. Boylston, sergeant 36 

E. E. Blair, corporal 36 

G. F. Bullock, corporal 35 

TJ. C. Elliott, private 34 

T. F. Mullen, private 34 

F. E. Cloud, 
W. J. Bovaird, " 

G. W. McKay, " 
O. B. Cutting, " 
R. H. Slone, corporal. 






J. D. Snyder, private 32 

J. W. Maybee, private 31 3 

C. L. Blakeslee, corporal 31 2 

C. W. Conneely, musician 31 2 

I. O. Cloud, private 31 2 

N. R. Baker, private 31 2 

A. F. Campbell, corporal 30 2 

J. C. Fox, captain 30 4 

H. C. Chesney, private 30 2 

C. W. Heard, private 30 3 

G. O. Slone, private 29 3 

M. H. Riley, corporal 29 2 

J. J. Crosby, private 38 2 

H. C. Chattle, nrivate 27 2 

E. F. Mclntyre, private 27 2 

W. N. Crane, private 27 2 

S. B. Burton, private 27 2 

A. D. Burns, lieutenant 27 3 

E. F. Riley, private 27 2 

E'. A. Sherman, private 27 3 

J. B. Begel, private 26 2 

F.N. Levens, private 26 1 

J. W. Crosby, private 26 2 

A. F. Leonard, private 25 1 

E. P. Wilcox, private - 25 4 

The Armory Hall Company was incorporated in April, 1881, .with Charles 
A. Bailey, president; Thomas Connolly, secretary, and F. E. Bradley, treasurer. 
There were sixty shares of $100 each subscribed, the president and secretary 
each holding thirteen shares. 

Bradford Eelief Corps No. 13 was organized January 29, 1885, with the 
following named members: Madams M. A. Wallace, N. J. Heffner, E. E. Sher- 
man, Lucy Siggins, E. M. Gillespy, J. E. Broniger, Allis Smith, A. O. Baker, 
Eachel Troup, W. G. Shaw, Laura Switzer, Amond Siggins, S. C. Jayert, 


M. J. Mitchel, C. Hill, I. S. Woursly, E. J. Chambers, G. Graff, B. Brown, 
L. B. Clark, S. E. Artly, A. Jones, L. A. Levans, M. A. Rockwell, J. Hood, 
L. J. Sherman, D. Goodwin, Lottie McAlister, J. McEntyre, G. Ashdun, 
Z. Gareman and H. Laurence. Madams M. A. Wallace, Culbertson, Sher- 
man and Karns have presided over the corps, while Madams Gillespy, God- 
frey, Langworthy, Green and Bergman have filled the office of secretary 
Mrs. Chapman, of Bradford, was elected color bearer of the Ladies' Auxiliary 
of the National Encampment of the U. V. L. 

Tunungwant Lodge No. Ill, Ancient Order of United Workmen, was in- 
stituted June 1, 1877, with the following members: H. H. Adsit, J. L. An- 
drews, A. L. Avery, L. B. Brown, T. J. Powers, H. Wilson, P. D. Wright 
and O. 0. Cutting, who are now members, with others who have removed. 
The past-masters are named as follows: J. L. Andrews, J. T. Bishop, J. W. 
Bogardus, Eobert Collins, George E. Davis, Frank Fowler, I. G. Howe, 
James A. Lindsey, T. J. Powers, C. A. Sinclair, J. W. Siggins, S. D. Wear- 
ing, C. R. Cosolowsky, C. A. Spreater, F. H. Bailey, T. J. Fennerty, A. Simp- 
son, W. W. White, A. A. Perkins, H. Wilson, H. M. Harkness, A. P. Odell, 
T. Kavanaugh, John Wilson, Otho Gash, H. R. Waiger, S. D. Winter and F. 
W. Hastings. The office of secretary has been held by J. A. Lindsey, John 
Kelly and F. W. Hastings. The membership is 190. The officers elected for 
1890 comprise C. Burnsides, J. W. Siggins, W. W. White, J. A. Lindsey, F. 
W. Hastings, J. G. Howe, F. Fowler, Otho Gash, S. D. Winter and A. P. 

Bradford Legion No. 16, S. K. A. O. U. W. was organized July 30, 1884, 
with the following named officers : J. T. Bishop, C. ; James A. Lindsey, V. 
C. ; J. S. Barlow, Lt. C. ; W. L. Beardsley, Rec. ; A. Simpson, R. T. ; A. L. 
Wyman, Treas. ; J. Franklin, Chap. The names of commanders are J. T. 
Bishop, J. A. Lindsey, A. P. Odell, M. L. Thorn, Otho Gash, W. W. White. 
Jacob Turk and S. A. Smith, with E. Burnsides, M. ; J. P. Eaton, S. B. ; B. 
Sackrand, Sr. W. ; J. Turk, Jr. W. ; M. L. Thorn, G. L. The position of sec- 
retary has been held by W. L. Beardsley, J. M. Denny andD. H. Rook, who is 
the present recorder. There are thirty- six members. The officers elected in 
1890 are W. W. White, Charles Burnsides, F. W. Hastings, W. H. Coleman, 
Otho Gash, D. H. Rook, J. A. Lindsey, A. P. Odell, H. S. Karns, Jacob 
Turk and H. Boss; James A. Lindsey is P. G. C. and treasurer. 

Bradford Council No. 302, Royal Arcanum, was instituted March 24, 1879, 
with the following members : S. L. Kinkead, M. Danson, E. W. Barker, Ezra 
Holmes, A. Thornton, C. B. Seymour, F. M. Sweet, C. W. Dennis, H. M. 
Spence, H. R. Lamb, J. M. Armstrong, F. D. Wood, F. M. Lockwood, F. 
H. Murdoch, W. A. Brown, P. G. Andrew, C. A. Siegfried, R. Pettibone, F. 
P. Morris, C. Murray, L. Kennedy, A. A. Perry, J. N. Markham, George Shef- 
lield, I. Beam, A. L. Ewing, O. N. Hazen, M. D. Harris and G. Chapman. 
The names of past regents are J. W. McFarland, J. A. Ege, J. T. Evans, H. 
M. Spence, F. H. Murdoch, J. L. Barrett, J. A. Lindsey, W. C. Henry, A. 
Thornton, B. McAllister, P. D. Tangney and the present regent, John C. Mc- 
Kenna. The names of secretaries are S. L. Kinkead, J. T. Evans, J. L. Bar- 
rett, and J. T. Evans, the present secretary. The present membership is 
twenty- four. In ten years this council has lost seven members by death, and 
paid out 121,000 in benefits. The officers for 1890 are P. W. Howe, E. R. 
Shepard, J. C. McKenna, J. B. McElwaine, G. H. Mills, J. T. Evans, F. P. 
Slocum, S. L. Rhodes, C. Spangler and A. Thornton. 

Keystone Council No. 144, Catholic Benevolent Legion, was instituted 
April 28, 1886. Among the first officers were P. C, J. T. Kinsler; P., A. 


H. Blomer; V. P., John E. Sullivan; O., J. F. Leonard; S., J. H. Ossenbeck; 
C, A. Gillis; T., W. Hanley; Sr. C, C. P. Byron.' The officers elected in 
December, 1889, are C. J. H. Ossenbeck; P., A. Gillis; V. P., M. J. Berry; 
O., Phillip Wise; E. S., D. Healey; C, A. H. Blomer; Treas., Joseph Fischer; 
M, , James E. Henretty; G., J. M. Englehaupt; Trustees, John E. Sullivan, 
J. F. Leonard, P. H. Maroney. 

, Bradford Branch No. 13, Catholic Mutual Benevolent Association, was in- 
stituted April 16, 1879. Among the past presidents of this association the 
names of J. T. Kinsler, J. B. Fox, James Casey, A. H. Blomer, J. H. Ossenbeck, 
M. McMahon, J. E. Sullivan, T. A. Flynn and Dennis Healy are recorded. 
John O'Brien is recorder. Other officers of long service are J. A. Myers (of 
Duke Centre), John Madigan, Leonard Wholer, J. J. Cleery, B. Healy and J. 
J. Lane. 

Osmer Lodge No. 2365, K. of H., was organized February 5, 1881. The 
past dictators are H. C. Jfacock, J. P. McGibbenny, S. Gordon, F. Perkins, 
W. C. Henry, S. D. Miller, J. N. Mapes, F. W. Hastings, H. Frank, J. L. 
Dulin; P. S. D., Col. J. A. Ege; P. G. D., James A. Lindsey, John H. Cos- 
ford, N. Sweet, M. D. , I. G. Howe and J. M. Geiger. James A. Lindsey served 
this lodge as secretary for seven years, E. N. Hallock for two years, and in the 
directory F. W. Hastings is credited with holding the position in 1889. There 
are eighty-four members. The present officers, in order of rank, are C. H. 
Swift, W. H. Conklin, D. MoKenney, W. T. Magaw, J. A. Lindsey, F. W. 
Hastings, J. G. Howe, J. P. McGibbenny, J. W. Fritts, A. Brown, D. Gren- 
nells and H. C. Hacock. • 

Bradford Encampment No. 56, Knights of St. John and Malta, was insti- 
tuted September 2, 1885, with S. L. Koonse, J. A. Waldo, W. Eople, A. S. 
Ackerly, E. F. Howland, D. B. Croll, W. L. Ford, C. A. Cummings, A. L. 
Wyman, M. D. Murray, W. B. Van Horn, P. A. Darby, F. G. Teany, N. W. 
McCoort, T. F. Howe, J. Z. Wise, H. C. Murray, J. Eobinson, H. C. Brown, 
J. H. Flynn, C. H. Dubois, E. J. Cross, J. A. Lindsey, M. A. Todd, E. A. 
Beatty and J. E. Simons, members. The names of past commanders are 
E. A. Beatty, J. A. Lindsey, A. P. Odell and E. J. Boylston, with C. A. Cum- 
mings, assistant chancellor. There are 171 members. E. A. Beatty is most 
eminent grand commander of the chapter general of America, and A. P. Odell 
is grand prior of the State of Pennsylvania. The present officers in encamp- 
ment rank are L. D. Gowdy, E. C. Dean, W. T. Johnson, D. H. Eook, E. J. 
Boylston, C. A. Cummings, S. L. Koonse and seven minor officers. There 
were 163 members reported in March, 1890. 

Star Conclave No 171, Improved Order of Heptasophs, was organized Feb- 
ruary 16, 1888, with the following officers: Past archon, L. B. Lockard; ar- 
chon, George S. Bright; provost, H. W. Eaton, Jr. ; prelate, James George; sec- 
retary, G. H. Mills; financier, F. W. Hastings; treasurer, E. B. Pemberton; 
inspector, J. W. Leasure; warden, N. W. McCourt; sentinel, M. Henlein; H. 
W. Eaton, Jr., was archon in 1889, and G. H. Mills, secretary. There were 
forty-five members in July, 1889. The officers for 1890 are T. A. Sangster, A. 
W. Coburn, G. H. Mills, E. B. Pemberton, F. W. Hastings, W. F. Ehone, A. 
Simon, C. E. Cosolowsky and W. H. Johnson. 

Don Abarband Lodge No. 85, Independent Order Sons of Benjamin, 
"claimed the following named officers in 1889: G. Herz, H. Friedenberg, I. J. 
Yampolski, S. Werthman, B. Ash, A. Simon, M. Sidorsky, Eev. D. W. Ja- 
cobson, L. M. Kreinson, J. B. Levine, M. A. Todd. Among the past pres- 
idents are H. Friedenberg, A. Simon, L. Kronenberg, Gustav Herz, N. Lev- 
inson, S. Grange, B. Ash, H. Frank and H. S. Sakolski. The officers chosen 


in January, 1890, in lodge rank are H. Friedenberg, H. Frank, B. Ash, S. 
Werthman and D. Andriesse. The present membership is forty-seven. 

On November 12, 1888, W. 0. 372 of the Patriotic Order Sons of America 
■was instituted at Kane, July 9, 1889. National Representative Clarence F. 
Heeth, of Philadelphia, and J. T. Campbell, district president of McKean 
county, assisted by W. C. 372 of Kane, instituted Washington Camp No. 452 at 
Bradford. The Degree Team of "372" conferred the degree of the council. 
The first officers, elected July 8, were R. L. Edgett, M. A. Henlein, Otto Koch, 
W. K. Andrus, L. C. Blakeslee, R. W. Murray, A. R. Simons, M. I. Deuel, 
Mat. Neil, and Trustees W. K. Andrus, L. B. Waters, A. N. Heard. 

Bradford Lodge No. 1111, K. & L. of H., was instituted December 10, 
1885, by G. P., L. B. Lookard, and D. G. P., A. N. Heard. Among the pres- 
idents of this society may be named I. G. Howe, Mrs. J. M. Brooks, F. W. 
Hastings, Mrs. E. M. Wheeler and H. H. North. Ascension Lodge No. 1345 
claims Mr. Heard as protector, and Mrs. S. Nobles, secretary. 

Bradford City Lodge No. 103, Independent Order Free Sons of Israel, was 
instituted in April, 1881. The past presidents of this lodge are A. Leo Weil, 

E. Kahn, I. Rich, B. Forst, Fred. Silberburg, A. Silberburg, J. Eloskey, M. 
Cohn, I. Kahn, Felix Steinberger, A. M. Mayer, S. Fisher. The secretary in 
1889 was A. M. Samuels. In 1890 J. Weiss was chosen president, with H. Cohn, 
A. Silberberg, Fred Silberberg, I. Rich, H. Frank and H. Leny filling the 
other offices. 

Bradford Lodge No. 50, Order of the Golden Chain, was instituted October 
7, 1885. Among the commanders were F. P. Slocum, Winfield Scott, A. W. 
Johnson and H. W. Eaton; James Geary was secretary in 1889. The offi- 
cers, in lodge rank, elected in January, 1890, are H. W. Eaton, Jr., P. H. Lin- 
derman, W. H. Murphy, J. Preerkson, A. R. Stewart, W. Scott, J. L. John- 
son, S. D. Weaver, Thomas Banker and C. E. Thompson. At date of election 
there were thirty-eight members reported. 

Tuna Valley Council No. 70, Home Circle, was instituted October 8, 1883. 
The past leaders include W. C. Henry, E. R. Shepard, J. P. Taylor and D. 
R. MacKenzie; F. D. Williams was secretary in 1889. The elections of 1890 
resulted in the choice of L. C. Longaker, for leader; C. E. Black, V. L. ; W. 

F. Robinson, instructor; M. A. Freeman, secretary; H. T. Crandall, F. S., 
and James Robinson, treasurer. There are thirty-two members reported. 

Dewey Union No. 5, Equitable Aid Union, was instituted June 7, 1879, by 
Supreme President Dewey. The P. Ps. are Frank Fowler, L. B. Hill, Delos 
Armstrong, Mrs. E. B. Burley, W. Walters, T. O'Connor and L. W. Smith. 

The Bradford Aid Union was organized in 1880, and the petition for incor- 
poration signed January 15, by D. Whiticar, George Young, C. H. Sherwood, 
Nathaniel Sweet and A. J. Edgett. The latter was first president. 

The Equitable Aid Society of Bradford was organized June 15, 1881. Its 
officers were P. P., W. D. Lucas; P., J. B. Rutherford; V. P., S. Ames; S., 
Miss A. J. Lucas; T., Mrs. A. H. Smith; F. C, Mrs. S. A. Lucas, Miss A. 
J. Lucas, S. Ames. Messrs. Lucas and Rutherford filled the offices of 
president and secretary in 1889. L. B. Thompson was first secretary, and is 
now filling that position. The officers of this union for 1890 are J. Burt, pres- 
ident, with P. T. Fitzgerald, E. B. Chappell, M. Nusbaum, Mrs. Burt, David 
Drummond, Mrs. Lyons, Mrs. Bender, Mrs. Wightman and J. D. Burt. 

Bradford Local Branch No. 316, Order of the Iron Hall, was instituted 
February 3, 1886. The chief justices of the past are H. Harmon, N. Wise 
and W. S. Robison. R. T. Shaw is accountant succeeding W. L. Ford. 
Among the first members were D. H. Rook, R. Gregg and L. E. Avery, and 



the officers named. The officers chosen in December, 1889, are as follows: 
Past chief justice, D. H. Eook; chief justice, W. L. Ford; vice-justice, C. F. 
Cummings: cashier, L. E. Avery; accountant, John M. Crawford; adjuster, 
W. L. Robinson; prelate, Joseph Franklin; herald, W. C. Maxwell; watch- 
man, F. L. Bodine; vedette, D. Campbell; trustees, Joseph Franklin, D. 
Campbell and S. D. Winters. 

Bradford Tent No. 4, Knights of the Maccabees of the World, was insti- 
tuted May 31, 1884. Among the early members were N. J. Stanton, J. R. 
Porter, J. B. McCutcheon, R. F. Howland, P. A. Derby, T. J. Berridge and 
R. W. Murray. The present sir knight commander is F. D. Matteson and the 
other officers in tent rank are G. O. Slone, G. B. Watson, R. McAllister, John 
Burton, Dr. N. Sweet, T. J. Bateman, John Bogart, F. B. Hazelton, John 
Lyons, John Lustig and T. J. Berridge. M. G. Raub, the record keeper, re- 
ports a membership of 290. 

Bradford Lodge No. 97, Sons of St. George, was reorganized January 
16, 1887, with the following named officers: P. P., V. Stanford; P., John 
Hocking; V. P., John Slocum; S., T. J. Parkes; T., H. D. Hulme; trustees, 
William Dickson, H. T. Hulme, M. W. Ferris. 

Bradford Branch No. 690, Robert Emmett Land League, was organized in 
July, 1882, to forward the political interests of the people of Ireland. Among 
the officials were T. F. McManus, Marshall McMahon, Edward Frawley, D. 
A. Dennison, J. J. Lane, John J. Sheehe and P. T. Flynn. The officers for 
1890 are B. Healy, M. McMahon, P. H. Davitt, L. Cushing and D. A. Den- 
nison, the corresponding secretary. 

Bradford Lodge, I. O. G. T., was organized September 18, 1867, with 
thirty-two members. A. C. Switzer was first W. C. T., and Mrs. Caroline 
Holmes, W. V. T. 

The Ladies' Temperance Association of Bradford was organized September 
11, 1872, with Mrs. J. Colby, president; Madams Young and Crandall, vice- 
presidents; Mrs. A. DeGolier, treasurer; Madams Pomeroy and Osgood, sec- 
retaries; and Madams P. T. Kennedy, Foster, Blair, J. N. Brown, Frank and 
Miss Dieter, executive committee. 

[The Temperance Reading-room Association was incorporated in May, 1879, 
with W. W. Brown, T. J. Powers, W. J. McCullough, R. M. Sayer. A. W. 
Newell, C. L. Wheeler, G. L. Watson, H. E. Norris and N. Bushnell, direct- 
ors. There were no less than sixty- two subscribers.] 

The Women's Christian Temperance Union was organized October 13, 1880, 
with the following named members: Madams C. H. Hoffman, H. A. Page, F. 
T. Davis, W. Chambers, W. Boggs, L. C. Blakeslee, C. Johnson, J. S. Wilson, 
O. Stone, T. B. Hoover, — Whitman, J. N. Bolard, J. R. Findley, C. E. Hatch, 
C. D. Greenlee, O. Hotchkiss, J. Bondson, J. Morgan, C. E. Garton, J. Roger- 
son, J. Erwin, A. Metcalf. Mrs. H. A. Page was first president; Mrs. O. 
Hotchkiss, second president; Mrs. J. N. Bolard, third president, and Mrs. W. 
Chambers, fourth president. Mrs. J. K. Purse is corresponding secretary, 
and Mrs. D. A. Burnett, recorder. There are 150 members, and seventeen 
honorary members, with property valued at $2,000, including hall, which was 
built in 1888. The officers for 1890 are Mrs. W. Chambers, president; Mrs. J. 
K. Purse, corresponding secretary; Mrs. D. A. Burnett, recording secretary; 
Mrs. J. A. Kennedy, treasurer; Mrs. F. J. Davis, vice-president at large. 

Tuna Council No. 17, Royal Templars of Temperance, was instituted Sep- 
tember 27, 1887, with the following officers: P. C, T. M. Shearer; S. C, 
D. H. Rook; V. C, T. M. Griffith; E. S., C. G. Essler; F. S., H. H. Lock; 
T., C. E. Tucker; S. P. C. G. L. and G. T., D. T. Seeley. The officers for 


1890 are as follows: S. C, D. T. Seeley; V. C, Mrs. E. B. Laraway; P. C, 
D. H. Eook; C, Mrs. L. Messner; F. S., W. W. Laraway; R. S., Mrs. E. 
M. Adams; T., W. G. Long; H., Mrs. E. M. Arnold; G., B. F. Shergerland; 
S., C. G. Esler. The number of beneficiary members is thirty-four and of hon- 
orary members thirty-two. 

United Council No. 80, R. T. of T., was organized August 10, 1886. The 
officers in 1887 were P. G., E. R. Sherman: S. G., A. N. Heard; V. G., S. 
Howard; E. S., JohnBogart; P. S., Martha Sherman; T., Mrs. L.Westbrook; 
P. C, E. M. Wheeler. In 1890 the following named officers were elected: 
S. Howard, Mrs. Knerr, A. Simpson, Mrs. Lenehan, E. S. R. Knerr, Miss 
Smith, E. E. Comstock, William Campbell, Miss Abbey, Miss. Hacock and E. 
W. Mann. The membership at present numbers 110. 

Women' s Protective and Reform Association of Bradford was incorporated 
in May, 1882, with the object of aiding women seeking a virtuous livelihood. . 
Amanda T. Jones was president; Artie B. Willard, vice-president; Margaret 
B. Stone, Mary A. Wolcott, Mrs. John Brown, Augustus W. Newell and H. 
S. Davis, directors. Among the memljers were Mrs. F. H. Stanford, M. D. , 
and Mrs. J. J. White. 

The Young Mea's Christian Association was organized May 27, 1889, when 
a board of managers was appointed. This board comprises C. P. Cody, F. D. 
Cleland, H. S. Thompson, J. T. Evans, J. L. Davidson, W. W. Brown, H. 
W. Blakeslee, J. W. Davis, W. H. Dennis, E. E. Tait, E. T. Howell, J. A. 
Perkins, P. A. Kent, John McCrum and S. Hollenbeck. The association pro- 
poses to rent the principal room on the second floor of the new Masonic Tem- 
ple. In 1890 W. H. Dennis was chosen president; P. A. Kent, vice-president; 
J. T. Evans, treasurer; S. Hollenbeck, recorder, and J. G. Purple, general 
secretary. Total number of members 131. 

The Cherra Bicker Cholim Relief Society was incorporated January 14, 
1884, on petition of Rev. S. Weil, K. Berwald, H. Sigel, A. Joseph, H. Cohen 
and I. Cohen. 

Typographical Union No. 185 was organized in May, 1879, with George 
J. Klehm, W. R. Barnwell, James Howell, R. A. Russell, James Spear, C. H. 
Widgeon and Harry K. W^elsh, members. The corresponding secretary of 
this union is James W. Leasure, and the recorder, George O. Slone. Among 
the members are R. A. Russell and H. K. Welsh of the first organization, W. 
J. Cotter, D. A. Ropp, George Hummell, S. C. Gilman and A. G. McKenna. 
The officers for 1890 comprise R. A. Russell, president; George O. Slone, sec- 
retary; J. W. Leasure, correspondent; H. K. Welsh, treasurer; W. J. Cotter, 
vice-president, and J. Fetterley, chairman of executive committee. There 
were sixteen members in March, 1890. 

Oil Exchange Division No. 254, Locomotive Engineers, was formally organ- 
ized June 7, and completed organization July 7, 1884, with L. J. Jones, chief-, 
James Wheeler, first engineer; J. R. Banta, second engineer; H. G. King, 
H. Kendall and O. Burke, assistant engineers ; C. A. Clough, guide, and C . 
L. Shaffer, chaplain. 

Folwell Lodge No. 326, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, was insti- 
tuted July 10, 1886. Among the officers were E. Bellington, G. P. Clough, 
J. H. Penner, C. W. Palmer and P. T. Lane. The following named are the 
officers for 1890: G. P. Clough, master; C. H. Alger, secretary; G. E. Love- 
lace, collector, and M. W. Maybee, magazine agent. 

The Cigar-makers Union claimed the following named officials: President, 
R. Coeninberg; vice-president, P. Hopkins; financial secretary, J. Semhauser; 
corresponding secretary, P. H. Kieley; recording secretary, P. H. Kieley; ser- 


geant-at-arms, M. Singer; trustees, W. Ruple, J. Harbrecht, and treasurer, 
John Bohne. The four principal officers for 1890 are P. Hopkins, J. Har- 
brecht, T. J. Gary and J. Casterline. 

The Well Drillers Union was incorporated November 27, 1888, with C. H. 
Snively, James G. Winger, H. Gosser, C. H. Ley and D. W. Brenton, 

The Bradford Athletic Club was organized in February, 1886, and secured 
spacious rooms in the Producers' Petroleum Exchange for athletic exercises, 
as well as club quarters. The list of members in 1887 was as follows: H. A. 
Marlin, C. R. Huntley, Tom Kennedy, C. M. Dodge. C. H. Lavens, J. M. 
Fuller, B. F. Smith, E. P. Whitcomb, H. C. Brooks, J. L. Johnson, W. H. 
Powers, L. E. Mallory, E. W. Wolfe, C. M. Brennan, Fred Davis, Heber Den- 
man, John Denman, M. B. Pierce, C. K. Book, B. F. Kennedy, L. E. Ham- 
sher, Sam Kennedy, E. C. Sherman, W. R. Weaver, C. A. Mitchell, W. G. 
Gray, J. L. Barrett, Fred McKee, J. P. Taylor, J. A. Johnson, G. L. Roberts, 
William Cochran, S. G. Bayne, G. H. Mills, T. B. Flynn, J. C. Flynn, W. J. 
Alexander, C. P. Cody, R. H. Gibson, W. S. Watson, H. K. Williams, C. E. 
Tucker, W. L. Curtis, B. M. Bailey, G. F. Groves, Harry Egbert, T. P. Thomp- 
son, S. C. Rhodes, P. M. Shannon, J. H. Evans, W. J. Russell. H. J. Seig- 
fried, C. B. Shepard, A. Willoughby, G. K. Hawkins, G. L. Watson, W. F. 
Robinson, J. B. Buttry, G. A. Bodine, W. C. Leonard, H. B. Goe, G. H. 
Potter, Walt Willis, R. L. Edgett, D. H. Jack, H. C. Sanderfeon, E. H. Bar- 
num, F. D. Wood, C. S. Hubbard, C. F. Collins, Kenton Saulnier, D. J. 
Thayer, F. E. Wood, J. A. Walker, J. C. Gormely, Robert Long, T. B. Mc- 
Cray, L. B. Prosser, W. P. Shoemaker, Bateman Goe, C. A. Norton, Frank 
Giflford, S. M. Reid, W. C. Higgins, A. L. Avery, C. C. Youmans, W. W. 
Bell, L W. Sherley, A. C. Hawkins, J. E. Haskell, J. C. Greenewald, D. C. 
Greenewald, J. K. Wilson, M. Matsoa, J. W. McCray, W. H. Scott, H. M. 
Spence, S. G. Slyke, C. Foley, E. S. Williamson, W. F. Flynn, R. T. Shaw, 
J. C. Boyce, R. W. Carroll, W. G. Carroll, D. O'Donnell, J. A. Simonds, C. 
W. Dennis, E. A. Weart, Clark Hayes, F. H. Willis, F. W. Groves, B. New- 
comer, John R. Zook, W. G. Mason, Walter Bovaird, J. B. Farrell, C. C. Con- 
roy, E. L. Adams, M. H. Byles, M. Compton, E. B. Pemberton, D. Marks, S. 
G. Coffin, C. H. Filkins, James Robinson, F. G. Boyer, C. E. Hequembourg, 
A. P. Huey, E. Given, W. W. Splane, C. C. Melvin, A. B. Smith, John P. 
Zane, E. R. Shepard, E. J. Boylston, J. T. Evans, C. P. Byron, J. W. Van- 
Tine, E. T. Johnson, W. H. Orcutt, C. D. Evans, T. N. Barnsdall, J. B. 
Chapman, L. A. Brenneman, Henry Wilson, William Hanley, F. P. Atkinson, 
E. W. Coleman, George B. Morgan, J. H. Healey, J. E. Wolf, F. A. Griffin, 
George A. Sturgeon, J. F. Wilson. W. E. Pickering, H. G. Morrow, P. P. 
Wentworth, John B. Brawley, R. B. Johnson, John O'Brien, H. H. Stowe, J. 
H. Field, F. P. Leonard, A. B. Walker, Frank Chapman, T. J. Powers, John 
McCrum, W. B. Chapman, B. F. Gushing, J. M. McElroy, J. B. Janes, G. C. 
Scott, W. C. Kennedy, M. J. Lowe, T. J. Melvin, F. L. Smith, David Kirk, 
James Flanigan, L. W. Oaks, E. A. Van Scoy, F. T. Coast, A. M. Straight, 
J. D. Wolf, O. B. Comfort, Charles Samuels, Harry Brinker, R. L. Mason, A. 
Eraser, J. W. Jeffry, Joseph Albertson. 

The Board of Trade is an important institution in Bradford. An enterpris- 
ing party of Bradford men organized a stock company for the purpose of estab- 
lishing and conducting in this city a furniture factory. The project was car- 
ried into effect. From that organization sprang the Board of Trade. The 
glass works were started under its patronage, the present shops of the Buffalo, 
Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad and several other industrial enterprises. The 


Board of Trade was allowed to become inactive for a few years, but was reor- 
ganized for service early in 1887. Since that time its members have been 
untiring in their efforts to aid Bradford by encouraging manufacturers to 
locate here. The board is composed of some of Bradford's best citizens. 
Col. A. I. Wilcox was general agent. C. B. Whitehead, E. B. Stone, W. W. 
Brown, C. H. Kennedy, A. J. Edgett, D. C. Greenewald, C. J. Lane, A. W. 
Newell, J. K. Merriam, H. F. Barbour, Loyal Ward, A. M. Mayer, H. S. 
Southard, F. W. Groves, S. G. Elliott, C. P. Cody were among the first offi- 
cers of the revived organization. In January, 1888, the Board of Trade 
elected the following named directors: R. B. Stone, W. W. Brown, A. M. 
Mayer, A. J. Edgett, L. Emery, Jr., John P. Zane, F. W. Groves, J. K. 
Merriam, D. C. Greenewald, G. S. Stewart, A. W. Newell, H. S. Southard, 
G. A. Berry, C. P Cody, C. H. Kennedy, K. A. Dempsey and S. G. Elliott. 

The Bradford Telephone Exchange was opened in April, 1880, with F. A. 
Newell, manager. Derrick City, Red Rock, Gillmor and Tarport were con- 
nected on April 6. The system has heen extended in every direction within 
the last nine years. In June, 1883, the strike of telegraph employes was 
inaugurated at Bradford, and continued four weeks. During the strike Bar- 
rett & Harvey constructed a private line between the Producers' Exchange and 
Bradford Exchange, and transacted business at five cents per message. The 
postal telegraph line was built through Bradford in January, 1884. 

The Pompelon Club, organized some time ago, is one of the leading liter- 
ary societies of the district. The officers for 1890 are C. L. Wheeler, presi- 
dent; Mrs. R. B. Stone, vice-president; L. H. Simons, historian; H. H. North, 
treasurer; Loyal Ward, Eugene Mullin, Mrs. Ada Cable, O. B. Comfort and 
John P. Zane, members of committee on literary exercises; W. B. Chapman, 
Miss McBurney, Miss Biscoe, Ferd Kreiner and W. L. Curtis, members of the 
executive committee. The topics for discussion are of a philosophical character, 
such as the "Future of the Republic," by W. J. Milliken; "Free Coinage of 
Silver," by W. W. Brown; "The Future of the Africo- American, " by P. R. 
Cotter; "The Congressional Embargo," by H. F. Barbour, and "Trend of 
Thought Favorable to Republican Forms," by T. F. Mullin. 

The Columbian Club was organized in the fall of 1889, with L. B. Lock- 
ard, president; A. H. Blomer and C. C. Melvin, vice-presidents; George B. 
Morgan, secretary, and C. P. Byron, treasurer. In October this circle of social 
Democrats purchased a two-story building in rear of Whitney & Wheeler's 
office for club uses. 

The Bradford Driving Park and Fair Association was permanently organ- 
ized October 11, 1889, with A. C. Hawkins, president; F. H. Chapman, vice- 
president; C. C. Melvin, treasurer; W. R. Weaver, secretary, and they with 
L. E. Mallory, L. E. Hamsher, Joseph Klench, C. C. Kimball, H. G. Cutting, 
James Baylor, C. DuBois, R. A. Dempsey and P. Newell were directors. 

Manufacturing and Other Industries. — In former pages references are made 
to the pioneer sawmills and shiQgle makers of this section. Late in the "fif- 
ties" the manufacture of oil from local coal was attempted; in 1861-62 oil 
explorations were begun, but not until 1878 was a practical effort to discover 
the oil ocean made. 

In the fall of 1871 Foster built a derrick, and began work on the Henchie 
farm. He struck a log at a depth of 180 feet and farther down a fifteen-barrel 
well — the first in the district which paid expenses. This well soon gave out, 
and in 1873 the Butts & Foster, the Olmsted, William Barnsdall's, on the 
Hooker farm, and that on the Buchanan farm were the only evidences of oil suc- 
cesses. Theo. E. Barnsdall pumped the first two producing wells, and states that 


$21,000 were realized from them before they were abandoned. In 1875 Jack- 
son, Walker & Co. struck their well on the Kennedy farm, and found it to be 
a lOO-barrel one, being the only true producer at the time. Jackson & Walker 
had from ten to twenty wells in operation before work on the Quintuple com- 

The village proper of that day contained about 300 inhabitants, but the 
stampede which followed this discovery soon swelled the population to thou- 
sands, and the modern Bradford was commenced. 

The Emery Manufacturing Company' s Eefining Works were established 
in 1887 by Mr. Haggerty, on the north city line, as a small oil refinery of two 
cheese-box stills, with a capacity of 150 barrels each. The works became the 
property of Lewis Emery, Jr. , under whom the little refinery was conducted 
until the explosion last winter. Early in 1889 two hall-stills, perfected by 
Mr. Wilbur, were adde'd, enlarging the capacity considerably and changing the 
whole system materially. The Commercial Gazette, referring to this new in- 
dustry in August last, says: 

Their entire works will be completed and in full operation by about the middle of Octo- 
ber, and then they will consume 1,000 barrels of crude per day. They will be operated by 
an entirely new system, called the Hall improved process. The Hall system gives a con- 
tinuous distillation, and this industry will be the only one in the country having it in use. 
When it can be said that Mr. L. Emery, Jr., the proprietor, has a pipe line of his own; a 
tank line of his own; owns a sufHcient production of crude to supply the works; has a 
house in Philadelphia supplied with plenty of tankage and distributing wagons with which 
to speedily deliver his products to dealers; and in fact is provided with everything to per- 
fect such an enterprise, it can be safely said that the success of the Emery Manufacturing 
Company is assured, and that Bradford can lay claim to the most modern oil industry of 
the age. Mr. Emery is one of the " old-timers " in the oil business, having followed it since 
1865, when he made his debut at Pithole. He came to this city July 28, 1875, and in the 
following September completed three miles north of here by contract the second well In the 
Bradford field. His experience in the refining of petroleum is also quite extended, he hav- 
ing been one of the firm of Logan, Emery & Weaver, of Philadelphia, who disposed of their 
plant there in 1887. The products of this institution are high-test burning oils, and an 
article they are now making that Is meeting with much favor wherever introduced is 
their "petroleum linsine," used in the mixing of paints, taking the place of linseed oil. 

The Kock Glycerine Company, R. A. and C. G. Dempsey and N. Francis, 
members, established their business in 1881. The factories at Custer City, 
Penn., and Lima, Ohio, turn out nitro- glycerine, dynamite and torpedo sup- 
plies in large quantities, supplying the two fields and outside territory. This 
company also own over thirty oil wells. 

H. G. Cutting, a resident of Bradford since 1876, now operates about 
fifty wells, the gas from which is used for heating and illuminating purposes in 
the city. 

The Bradford Oil Company was incorporated in 1876 with J. T. Jones, 
president, T. J. Powers, treasurer, and H. E. Brown and H. H. Adsit, 
directors. This company own over 300 wells in this and the adjoining Alle- 
gany county, N. Y., yielding about 800 barrels per day. For almost fourteen 
years the members have held a leading place among oil producers. 

Whitney & Wheeler established their house in 1875, and the same year 
founded the Tuna Valley Bank. The dual business was conducted with uni- 
form success until the panic of 1884, when by the failure of their New York 
correspondent — The Metropolitan. National Bank — the firm were obliged to 
suspend and make an assignment for the benefit of their creditors. The sus- 
pension occurred in 1884, and through no fault of theirs the firm found them- 
selves suddenly deprived of the business that they had worked so hard and 
faithfully to build up. Undaunted by this great disaster, however, they went 
manfully to work to retrieve their losses; and to their honor and credit be it 


said that by February, 1886, they had paid their creditors in full with interest, 
and resumed the control of their property. Since commencing business the firm 
have confined themselves exclusively to the conduct of their extensive produc- 
ing interests. Their property in this connection is of the most valuable in the 
oil regions, and they are among the heaviest producers of petroleum in this 

The Oil Well Supply Company, sand-reel and band-v»heel shop, located on 
Davis street, employs fifteen men, and its product is valued at $40,000 
annually. The officers of the company are John Eaton, president, Pittsburgh, 
Penn. ; K. Chickering, secretary. Oil City, Penn. ; E. T. Howes, treasurer,' 
Bradford, Penn. ; K. Saulnier, assistant treasurer, Bradford, Penn. The 
Eaton, Cole & Burnham Company, of New York, and Bridgeport, Conn. , are 
the Eastern correspondents of this company, and are equally well and favora- 
bly known. This is the only establishment in the world from which can be 
obtained everything necessary to drill and equip oil, gas or artesian wells. 
The machine shops are located on North Mechanic street, where fifty men are 
steadily employed. Labor, iron, steel and other incidentals bring the total 
expenditures to the sum of $100,000 per annum. 

C. E. Tucker is one of the heavy jobbers in nitro glycerine and torpedoes. 
C. L. Casterline is also an extensive dealer in this class of goods. R. Jen- 
nings & Son have been engaged in oil production since 1870, and now hold a 
leading position among the well proprietors of this field in which they own 
125 wells. 

The Sucker Eod Factory of Gideon Chapman was established here in 1878. 
W. G. Chapman' s shop on Dresser avenue employs three men, who turn out 
$20,000 worth of rods annually. 

The firm of Wheeler & Simonds was organized in 1877, and the office has 
been in Bradford since 1879. The business of the firm consists in the pro- 
duction of petroleum, valuable fields being owned in Butler, McKean, and 
other counties, from which the annual output is of vast magnitude. S. A. 
Wheeler came to the oil regions from Toledo, Ohio, in 1870, and began oper- 
ating in Venango county, near Franklin. Later he was interested in Butler 
county, being manager and part owner of the ' ' Relief Pipe Line Company ' ' 
for some years previous to forming his present connection. Mr. Wheeler is 
also a member of the firm of Whitney & Wheeler, and has long been numbered 
among the representative business men and financiers of this section. J. H. 
Simonds came to the oil regions in 1864, and has operated in Venango, Butler 
and McKean counties, his first principal operations having been in the famous 
"Pithole District." 

The McKee Bull and Sand- wheel Factory was established in 1872 at Frank- 
lin, and moved to Bradford, in 1878, by J. W. McKee. ^ The bull wheel man- 
ufactured is what is known as the "patent sectional," its great feature being 
that it can be detached from the shaft at will. The sand- wheel is made also 
upon the same principle, and in addition the establishment turns out solid 
wheels to order, and all parts of all machinery .... The Corbett Reel and Rig 
Company' s shop is located on Hilton street ; employs eight men and does a busi- 
ness of 1100,000 annually. 

The Tuna Iron Works of W. C. Walker & Co., produce $50,000 worth of 
iron ware annually, and give employment to sixteen men. 

The Central Iron Works of Bovaird & Seyfang were established in 1872, 
and now give employment to 100 men. The product of this establishment 
embraces engines of from six to 100 horse-power, a noted specialty being a 
newly improved oil engine. This great utility is manufactured in sizes of 


twelve, fifteen and twenty horse-power, and is especially adapted to drilling in 
deep territory, under which circumstances its great rapidity and unsurpassed 
strength are readily perceived. The firm also manufactures special machinery 
of all kinds, and are, in all probability, the heaviest producers of drilling and 
fishing tools in the world. They also deal extensively in boilers, steam pumps, 
tubing, casing, new and second-hand machinery, machinists' supplies, and the 
output is valued at 1100,000 annually. 

William Eobertson & Son, machinists, works located on Chestnut street, 
employ six men and do a $25,000 business annually. The business of this 
concern was originally established at Pithole, Penn. , in 1865, by the head of the 
firm, who removed to this city in 1880, and two years later admitted his son, 
D. W. Eobertson .... Brown & Manning do a business at 33 Webster street. 
They employ four men and do a business of 112,000 annually. They run a 
machine shop .... Eobert Manning, a native of Pennsylvania, came to Brad- 
ford in 1880, and established his present business in the early part of 1885 
. . . .D. Phillips, machinist, transacts an annual business of 155,000; employs 
ten men .... The Eoss Machine & Eepair Shops were established by G. W. 
Ross. in 1875, and conducted by him until 1886 when J. H. Ross took charge. 

The Eui'eka Iron Works, operated by S. McCaughtry, H. Harris, W. H. 
Pepper and R. Ireland, produce all kinds of fishing and drilling tools, sand- 
pumps, boilers, mud sockets and casing cutters. The shops are on Foreman 
street, and the annual business is over $20,000. 

The S. R. Dresser's Packer Factory is located near the Quaker Rod Shop. 
Oil and Gas well packers are specialties .... Connelly Bros, boiler works, 
located on Hilton street; employ seven men and do a $12,000 business per 
annum .... Shearer & Hicks, machinists, shop located on Railroad street; 
employ 10 men and do a $85,000 business per year. . . .H. J. Eose, machinist, 
shop on Corydon street; employs two men and does a $30,000 business yearly 

Winthrop & Delvin have a small machine shop at No. 35 Webster street; 

they are practical men and do their own work; they do in the neighborhood of 
$4,500 yearly. . . .John Ley has a large plant, a machine shop, on Corydon 
street; employs twelve men, his yearly business aggregating $25,000. . . .The 
Lock Manufacturing Company, located at 25 Webster street, employ two men and 
do a trade of $5,500 per annum .... Bradford, Bordell & Kendall railroad shops, 
located up the east branch; employ twenty men and do a $20,000 business 
yearly .... BufPalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh railroad shops, located on the east 
branch, employ 156 men and do a $250,000 business per annum. 

B. C. Quigley' s Ash and Hickory Sucker Rod factory was established here 
in 1885, although he was a resident of the city for six years prior to that time. 
His factory on East Main street is thoroughly equipped. 

L. Emery, Jr. , & Co' s oil well, machinist and railroad supply house, and 
general hardware store was established in 1876. The store is one of the largest 
business places in the city. The premises consist of a double two-story brick 
structure, with large plate glass windows in front, and the interior is system- 
atically and conveniently arranged with all the modern facilities for the hand- 
ling and displaying of goods. The mammoth stock embraces all kinds of silver- 
ware, cutlery, jewelry, optical goods, hardware, and in short everything in the 
merchandise line excepting shoes and dry goods. A specialty is made of oil- 
well, machinist and railway supplies, the stock carried being the largest 
and most complete in this section of the country. The firm's large warehouse 
for the accommodation of* the surplus is located near the Union Depot. In addi- 
tion to the above interests the members of this firm are among the heaviest 
oil producers in this region, under the title of the Emery Oil Company. This 


is a separate branch of their extensive. business, the office being located at No. 
41 Main street. They employ in the several departments of their enterprise 
a great number of* people, and their trade extends throughout the oil regions. 

The hardware and oil supply store of H. A. Jamieson and W. H. Pickett 
was established in 1864 by J. H. Mitchell. The present owners took charge 
in 1871 . . . .Bodine & Walker's business was founded in 1876 by George Bod- 
ine .... The Bradford Stone Company was established by C. R. Cosolowsky 
in May, 1886 .... J. B. McBlwaine founded his oil-well supply house in 1879, 
and later established branches at Duke«Centre and Kane, Penn. , and Bolivar, 
N. Y . . . . The Jarecki Manufacturing Company is represented by E. A. Weart. 
.... Boggs & Curtis machine and oil well supply store dates to 1884 . . . . R. W. 
Carroll's agency was established in 1884. He handles the goods of the Ameri- 
can Tube and Iron Company, the Gutta Percha and Rubber Manfactur- 
ing Company, the Belknap Manufacturing Company, the Hoyt Metal Com- 
pany, the Crosby Steam Gauge and Valve Company, the Hart Manufacturing 
Company, the Titusville Iron Works, the Watertown Steam Blower Company, 
the Standard Boiler Feeder Company and many others .... The Tifft Engine 
and Boiler Manufacturing Company has been represented by A. McLean since 
1869. Their office here was established in 1860 .... Dennis & Booth, successors 
to Jones, Dennis & Booth, established their building business in 1877. 

The Bradford Glass Works were erected in 1884 on the site of Brain's 
brick-yard, near the Erie Railroad track. A proposition to re-open this indus- 
try was pending in June, 1889. The proposition materialized, and on Sep- 
tember 25, 1889, the window-glass factory made the third run or heat. Since 
the successful opening of the works, A. P. Lewis, manager, with thirty-five 
glass-blowers, seven flatteners, eight cutters, four pot-makers, three packers 
add sixteen helpers have formed the working force. The glass-blowers received 
from $125 to |250 per month. No less than 1,000 persons witnessed this third 

Bradford Tooth-pick Factory employs twenty persons and does a 120,000 
business per year. Factory on Hilton street. 

The Clark Mill, on the island, is the only saw-mill in the city. For twenty- 
five years Mr. Clark has been connected with the lumber industry; product 
4,000,000 feet of hemlock annually. . . .H. Tuthill, dealer in sash blinds and 
dressed lumber, employs three men and does a yearly business amounting to 
130,000; the plant is located at 54 Chestnut street; the house was founded in 
1881 by D. Wright . . . . C. F. McAmbly, lumber merchant, yard on Hilton street; 
employs eighty-five men; his business amounts to $500,000 per annum.... 
P. A. Kent' s yard was established in 1883 .... The G. Koebly carriage shops, 
on the island, is one of the largest industries of this class in this section of 
Pennsylvania. . . .Herman Frank, cigar manufacturer. No. 12 Congress street, 
employs twenty men, and does a $50,000 business per year . . . . M. L. Pomeroy, 
harness, etc., employs two men and does a $5,000 business annually; shop 
located at 6 Pine street . . . . W. H. Walker, manufacturer of harness, etc., whose 
house was established in 1879 by L. B. Hill, also does considerable business. 

John Meyer' s upper factory and leather shop was established in 1878 .... 
Sendker Bros.' shoe store was established in 1880, and C. M. Bosworth's 
in 1885 Drew's furniture factory was founded in 1880-81 The Consoli- 
dated Bottling Company was incorporated in 1882; it is simply a consolida- 
tion of the firms of A. F. Kent, Woodbury & Campbell, Mayer Brothers and 
T. Blakely & Company; the business is well carried on. . . .Campbell Broth- 
ers' bottling works, on Davis street, is a large industry here .... Brennan & 
Davis' jewelry store was established in 1883; C. H. Norton's in 1881. 


The Bradford office of the Singer Manufacturing Company was established 

with G. F. Anderson, manager J. W. Fritts is also a dealer in sewing 

machines and organs, and Harrington Brothers in pianos and other musical 
instruments ; also H. E . Morrison. 

The American Steam Laundry was established in 1878 by H. J. Skinner, 
who was followed by Godfrey & Hunt, the present owners. 

The Pennsylvania Storage Company is an adaptation of the lumber com- 
pany mentioned in the history of St. Mary's. The yards are located on a ten- 
acre tract, donated by the city in 1888, to which the company added ten acres 
subsequently. F. W. Brooks is general superintendent. The lumber is 
brought to the yard in the rough, from the different sawmills of the county, 
most of the proprietors being stockholders. A planing-mill is located on the 
ground, and the lumber is dressed and matched complete for the market. Par- 
ticular pains are taken in piling the lumber. As soon as a pile is finished it 
is roofed, and the number of boards booked. Over 11,000,000 feet of lumber 
are stored on the grounds at present. Nearly all of it is hemlock. The Star, 
in noticing this great industry, says: " Perhaps our citizens are not aware of 
the mammoth amount of lumber handled annually by the lumber dealers of 
this city. The industry has grown to such an extent that it can be classed next 
to the oil interests in this county." The reason it is called a storage concern 
is because a mill-owner ships his lumber to this plant, and he is given a certifi- 
cate of the value of his shipment taken from the inspector's book. It is 
stored on the grounds until sold, when he receives his price. In addition to 
the above the business of making wood alcohol is carried on extensively in the 
vicinity of Bradford, there being no less than four establishments of the kind 
— commonly called acid works — within a few miles of the city. They are con- 
ducted respectively by A. B. Smith & Co. , Ph. Nusbaum & Co. , the Alton 
Chemical Works (limited) and the Lewis Eun Chemical Company. 

The Wagner Opera House was built and opened in 1876. The building is 
owned by M. W. Wagner and managed in conjunction with the oil region cir- 
cuit, comprising Erie, W^arren and New Castle, in Pennsylvania, and Elmira, 
Hornellsville and Olean, in New York, by Wagner & Eeis, their headquarters 
being in this city. Three to four performances a week are given in the Wag- 
ner during the season. Among the noteworthy attractions that have appeared 
at the Opera House may be mentioned Sara Bernhardt, Edwin Booth, Mrs. 
Langtry, Theodore Thomas' Orchestra, Gilmore's Band and the Emma Abbott 
Opera Company. In addition to the W^agner Opera House there is a variety 
theatre and numerous halls for concert and other uses. 


The humble beginnings of Bradford have been related, and the gradual 
advances of the settlement to the position of a city traced. Every feature of the 
building-up process has been painted in documentary languages, true in every 
particular. Only a few years have passed since the place was a wilderness. To- 
day it is a busy hive of industry, with many of the vices and all the virtues of a 
great business center. The pioneers of the Bradford oil field built well indeed, 
and witnessed the springing up of a great, well-regulated and prosperous 
community out of the ancient groves of the Tuna Valley. Here is the 
inventive, enterprising, fearless Yankee; there the Pennsylvanian — man of 
iron nerves ; here the sons of Vermont and New Hampshire, happy among the 
great hills; there the children of that Maryland — "the only place in the wide, 
wide world where religious liberty found a home;" here the shrewd Irishman 
whose faults almost counterbalance his virtues ; the ruddy, fair-haired German 

1 1 


working steadily to win a competence and hold it; the Englishman, generally 
transatfantic ; the Italian, untrained to labor; the "cannie" Scot, zealously 
watchful of his interests; the chivalrous Pole, the polite Frenchman, the 
money-making Jew, the never-tired Swede or Norwegian, and even the China- 
man all find employment and a home here. In other points the city claims 

distinctive features, such as natural terraces, variety of landscape and wild- 
wood drives, all retained involuntarily amid the ruin of old-time forests, 
change of river courses and assaults on the great hills. 



rosTEE Township roHMATioN — Census — Fires — Township Officers 

Elected in 1890— Villages. 

Bokoti(Jh of Kendall Location— Population— Business— Peg-Leg Line— 

Incidents— Fires, Etc.— Elections — Schools — Churches — Cemetery- 

CoEYDON Township Topography, Etc.— Population— Seated Tax Payers, 

1836-37— Early Mills— Township Officers Elected in 1890. 

FOSTER TOWNSHIP formed part of Bradford township until 1880, and to- 
day it is practically a part of the old township in its topographical features 
and business interests. In March, 1880, the vote on setting off Foster township 
from Bradford was seventy-two for and thirty-one contra. The name was 
given in honor of Leonard S. Foster, the oldest continuous white resident of 
the Tuna Valley, who resided at Foster Brook since 1824, Bernard Pike, the 
pioneer, moving away years ago. This township in 1880 had a population of 
5,373. In November, 1888, there were 288 Republican, 154 Democratic^ 48 
Prohibitionist and 46 Labor Unionist votes cast; and a total of 531 multiplied 
by six gives the population at the time as 3,186. 

The history of this township is one story of conflagration after conflagra- 
tion. Red Rock was burned early in 1880, shortly after the destruction of Knox 
City and of Gillmor. 

The Reyr City fire of May 7, 1880, originated on the Shedd farm, sparks 
from Fisher & Pickett's engine setting fire to their No. 6 well, and resulting 
in the four-months old town of Rew City being destroyed within two hours. 
Beginning on the north boundary on the east side of Bordell avenue, there 
were destroyed as follows: Dan Kelly's feed stable; Moscho's barn and dwell- 
ing; Curtis & Hart's building; Seth Jordan's boarding house ; Robert Menziers' 
restaurant; Chandler Bros.' grocery; J. D. Wolf's building and hardware stock; 
U. Pox's new boarding house, and Eugene Capron's building and stock. On 
the north and south sides of Coleville road, west of Bordell avenue, Ireland's 
machine shop ; the pioneer hotel, known as the Summit House, conducted by 
Ross & Marr; the Rew City House ; Hale' s drug store; Giles' & Mehany's 
building ; Bradford shoe store; LaydryDavey's boarding house; Central House; 
Dailey's hardware; Allington's restaurant; Connelly's hotel. Sniggs & Stick- 


ney's grocery; Wood.& Bowens' meat market and bakery; Seanlon's Daven- 
port House; Cook's portable restaurant building; Chandler Bros.' building; 
G. B. Edmund's livery; Dayton & Jackson's hotel; McGeorge's dwelling; S. 
S. Francis' dwelling; Sinclair's fruit shop; McDermott's feed store and 
blacksmith shop; Murray, Morrison & Company's buildings; Thomas' res- 
taurant ; Lewis' boarding house; Eobinson's building; McNamara's Edinburg 
House, and C. Webster's tank shop, on the west side of Bordell avenue, south 
of the Coleville road, were all swept away. D. Rew's farm house and build- 
ings, then occupied by Middaugh, were destroyed, and five buildings on the 
west side of the street; Whiting's boarding house, Stoddard's hotel, Mrs. 
Agger's Central House, Dorey's boarding house, Lewis' Cuba House, and a 
number of small buildings were destroyed. On the Eew farm the McCalmont 
Company, McKay & Company, Packard & Company, S. D. Karn & Company, 
Benedict & Whitnal, Dyer & Ford, lost heavily in oil and rigs. 

The fire of May 6, 1880, at Kendall Creek, a half mile north of Eew City, 
originated in the premature explosion of a torpedo in Bradley & Co.'s No. 6 
well on the Taylor tract. It appears the torpedo was lowered to a depth of 
600 feet, when a sudden flow of oil drove it upward, and, striking the walking 
beam, it exploded. The rig and a 150-barrel tank were destroyed, and the 
fire, running to Johnson & Co.'s rig on the Bingham land, destroyed it and the 
oil in tank, together with their rig on the Mantz farm below the Eew farm. 

On the hillside between LafEerty and Sawyer, the rigs at eight producing 
wells were burned. The property of Munhall & Smithman, O'Dell & Emerson 
and Van Vleck was burned over, while the Anchor Petroleum Company lost 
two rigs on the Whipple farm. 

The Foster Brook tire of May 6, 1880, originated at Porter, Gilmore & 
Co.'s No. 7 well, at the foot of the hollow leading to Bell's Camp, and extended 
southeast over the divide through the C. B. & H. tract, thence through a por- 
tion of the Willets tract to the west line of the Borden tract, destroying 101 
rigs and a quantity of oil in the Foster brook and Harrisburg run neighbor- 
hoods. Tram Hollow lost nineteen rigs, six were burned on the east branch 
and fifty- four at Kendall Creek, aggregating 132 rigs destroyed in a few hours. 
Near Tarport the fire began in the brush near the Cornen purchase, and at 
once encircled three 250-barrel oil tanks. 

The Eixford fire of May 9, 1880, originated in Squire Cline's office, and 
resulted in the destruction of seventy-five buildings, six loaded freighi cars, 
twelve empty flat cars, forty rigs and 70, 000 barrels of oil — the total loss being 
placed at |l84,000. The old Eixford dwelling was swept away at this time, 
but, although the fire surrounded it, John McKeown's well on Main street was 
left untouched. On the north side, western end of Main street, west of the 
point of origin, this fire destroyed Cronin's boarding house; Fai-ley's dwelling; 
the Central House; Cline's of&ce; Mitchell's grocery; the Waterman block; 
Mrs. Karn's jewelry store; Tuttle's fruit stand; the Seymour building; the 
NastBros.' building; A. J. North's; Krohn's clothing house; Steven's bowl- 
ing alley; Otto's dwelling; Scoville's law office; Blue Front grocery; Baker's 
dwelling; Edmund's dwelling; Tait's photograph gallery; Wass' restaurant; 
Garvin's blacksmith shop; Gibney's shoe shop; Dana's billiard hall; Brun- 
dage's Bakery Hotel; Mcintosh's boarding house; Crandall & Alderman's 
grocery; Goodenough's Scranton House; Shanbacker' s Yeoman House ; Tait's 
grocery; Farrell's boarding house; Ive's shoe store; Holmes', Porter's and 
Mrs. Barry's dwellings; Drach's laundry, and Curtis & Drake's Titusville 
House. On Eailroad street, extending north from Main, there were destroyed 
Horan's Hotel; Kane's restaurant; Mrs. Eockwell's Central Hotel; the dwell- 


ings of Crooker, August and Dean; Mrs. Eobins' saloon; Gorley's Railroad 
House; railroad depot; Packard & Co.'s office; Youngstown Oil Company's 
office, and Culbertson's dwelling, while Allen's coal yard, MoAndrew's boiler 
shop and E. S. Crooker' s tank shop, west of depot, were destroyed. South of 
Railroad street U. T. No. 429 and No. 452, 25,000-barrel tanks, and McLeod 
& Morrison's 7,000-barrel tanks burned. On the south side of Main street, 
beginning on the west, there were destroyed Unger's clothing store; Wagner's 
meat market; the Rolph House; Wagner & Paught's Opera House; the O'Brien 
building; Kammacher's building; Royer building; John Faught's dwelling; 
Crandall's dry goods house; Dickenson's post-office building; Neilen's hotel 
(Bishop House); Fleming's tank shop; Robinson's glycerine office; William 
O'Brien's residence; Dibble's drug store; the Gleason House; Edward's livery 
•stable; O'Brien's old Rixford House; John McKeown's office, and O. Flem- 
ing's dwelling. The work of rebuilding was begun on May 10 of that year. 

The Dallas City oil fire took place August 19, 1880, 50,000 barrels of oil 
being on fire. At that time the Tidewater Tank No. 6 stood 350 feet distant 
from the pump station, while up the brook was United Lines Tank No. 410, 
and in the vicinity other oil reservoirs. At five o'clock that evening lightning 
struck two of the 25,000-barrel tanks and one 700-barrel tank, and destroyed 
the telegraph instruments. James Stephens extinguished the fire at the small 
tank, the property of W. M. Carner & Co. , but the large tanks and several 
rigs were destroyed. 

The Eew City fire of October 24, 1881, originated in Bernard's barber 
shop, on the west side of Bordell street, burning Francis' meat market and 
dwelling, Googe Bros.' bowling alley, A. J. Dearmont's blacksmith shop on 
the south side. The fire was checked at Murray's feed store and dwelling, 
where there was an alley three feet wide. Murray' s store was badly scorched 
and had a narraw escape. On the north side were burned the Tioga House, 
the building owned by C. C. Violl and occupied by D. E. Miece as a furniture 
store, being checked at Blakeley Bros.' drug store, where there was an alley 
about eight feet wide. On the east side of the street the Fox House, used as 
a hall, and on the north side Woodbury & Campbell' s building, occupied by 
Edney Smith as a saloon and bowling alley, and Dearmont's blacksmith and 
wagon shop were destroyed. The flames were checked at Cornell's dwelling by 
an alley about eight feet wide. Water was hauled from the Hopking & Packard 
lease in a 250-barrel tank. Eight teams were employed and furnished an 
ample supply. The citizens fought the fire bravely. 

The Kansas Branch fire of January 4, 1884, resulted in the burning of 
the four children of C. N. Garver, an employe of the Keystone Company. 

The glycerine explosion at Sawyer City in September, 1881, resulted in the 
death of William Bunton, Charles Rust, James Thrashier and Charles Krouse, 
and serious injury to four others. 

Knox City, which came into existence in 1879, on the Hodge farm (soon after 
the Sawyer & Boille well was drilled on the the Rew farm), was inaugurated by 
the opening of Jack Eraser's Knox City House. It was destroyed by fire April 
21, 1880. This fire originated in a barber shop, and destroyed Hussey's sa- 
loon, Pfunter's furniture shop, M. T. Holahan's buildings, the Oil Exchange 
Hotel, the Barnes House, Stone Bros. ' grocery, and Eraser' s Knox City House. 

Gillmor, near Bradford, was wiped out by fire in March, 1879, and Hugh 
Lafferty burned to death. Rebuilt at once, it is to-day one of the busy ham- 
lets of this section. The Knights of Honor and other secret and benevo- 
lent organizations are to be found here, including G. A. R. Post No. 589, and 
the Women' s Relief Corps. The old villages were rebuilt after the fashion of 


oil camps, business resumed, and to-day the visitor may converse with some per- 
sons who never heard of the destructive tires of 1879-84. 

Babcock, a lumbering village, now known as Tuna Creek, is located north 
of Bradford, near the State line. 

The villages of this township are Foster Brook, Babcock' s Mills, Derrick 
City, Lafferty, Red Rock, Gillmor, Sawyer City, Hazelwood, Forest, Taylor, 
and Rew City. Throughout the valleys of the township are several argricult- 
ural settlements. At Derrick City is a Methodist church building; it is the 
circuit station and here Rev. William Magovern resides. 

Foster Brook Lodge No. 11, Knights of Pythias, was organized some time 
ago, and in October, 1889, took an important place among the societies of the 

The township officers elected in February, 1890, are as follows: Supervisors, 
Robert McMurray and J. L. Seager; town clerk, George Wannamaker; col- 
lector, T. F. Hungerville; school directors, it. T. Morian and S. A. Shannon; 
auditor, E. B. Sage; assessor, N. Snyder; judge of election. First District, H. 
B. Day; inspectors, T. W. Powers andM. M. McKay; judge of election, Second 
District, J. W. Gormley; inspectors, W. J. Boyd and S. M. Henderson. 


Tarport adjoins Bradford city on the north, and is connected therewith 
by railroad and street car lines. In 1880 it contained 2,689 inhabitants. In 
1888 there were 181 Republican, 139 Democratic, eleven Prohibitionist and 
three United Labor votes cast, or a total of 334. This number multiplied by 
six gives an approximate of the present population, about 2,004. 

Tarport was great when Bradford was a little hamlet. For years the trade 
of northwestern McKean centered here, and here many of the pioneers of Brad- 
ford' s business entered on commercial life. Harvey D. Hicks was first postmas- 
ter at Tarport, keeping the office in the hotel. On entering the anion service 
in 1862, his wife continued the office during the war. In 1872 Loyal Ward 
was appointed to the office, and served until William Beers succeeded him in 
1873. The office has been filled by Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Butler in recent 
years until J. C. Brenneman was commissioned in Julj', 1889. The discovery of 
oil in the Tuna Vafley changed the pleasant little village of olden days into a 
bustling oil camp. In 1876 the name was changed to Kendall Creek; the post- 
office was then established under that name, with H. G. Mitchell postmaster. 
In June of that year Mitchell & Sons opened a grocery store and Z. Fisher 
commenced building his three-story hotel. Later P. N. Taylor opened a store 
there and the Oil Exchange hall was erected. 

In 1878 the village contained about 900 inhabitants. Here was the junction 
of the Peg-Leg Line and the Olean, Bradford & Warren Railroads; hundreds 
of derricks standing all around, and large tanks, telling at once that this was 
the great tank city of the period. In January, 1878, the Peg-Leg Railroad 
was completed to Tarport, and the Narrow Gauge was opened February 11, 
1878, between Bradford and Olean, the train climbing grades of 135 feet per 

In January and February, 1878, the Era was filled with accounts of atroc- 
ities at Tarport, in the low resort of Ben Hogan, since which time strange 
changes have taken place. The wicked village of 1878 was destroyed to give 
place to the new order of houses and inhabitants, and even the notorious Ben 
has become an evangelist, as elsewhere related. Contemporary with Ben's 
settlement at Tarport came the era of fires and explosions. Roberts' glycerine 


factory, a mile from Tarport, exploded October 2, 1877, killing J. F. Smith 
and injuring Col. Eoberts and his son. The fire of April 25, 1880, destroyed 
Schmultz's grocery, Kerns' saloon, Stine's Dew Drop Inn, Delmage's tank 
shop, and Mrs. Eobinson's boarding house. William Houseler was arrested 
and charged with being the incendiary. The glycerine explosion of May 24, 
1880, destroyed the Ernest Koester works below Tarport. It appears the for- 
est fires communicated with the safes (then containing only 200 pounds of the 
explosive), which were lifted bodily upward and scattered over a wide area. 
In May, 1880, Book & Rhodes' No. 15 Tank, on Rutherford run, was struck 
by lightning and 600 barrels of oil burned, and Stettheimer' s engine house, on 
East branch, destroyed. J. M. Tait lost the rigs and tanks at his wells on 
Foster brook. The Roger Sherman 10,000-barrel oil tank, near Tarport, was 
struck by lightning June 10, 1880, and set on fire. Superintendent Seymore 
turned steam on the burning oil, and this, aided by the application of wet 
blankets, subdued the flames — the first time an oil tank and contents were thus 
saved. The fire of June 25, 1880, destroyed thirty-two buildings in two 
hours. It originated in the Westcott House, which it destroyed as well as the 
following buildings: Mrs. Melhuish's boarding house, J. W. Winsor's dwell- 
ing, Heathcote's hotel, Riley & Evans' hotel, Wheaton's meat market, J. S. 
Fisher's saloon, Mackay & Benson's grocery, Phillips' Oil Exchange Hotel, the 
Dowdney House, Mulqueen's saloon, Ockerman building, L. R. Barnes' hotel, 
Flynn Bros.' grocery, Levi's clothing house, Kern's saloon, and another 
saloon, Calhoun's shoe store, Walsh's building, Kurd's harness shop, and the 
Fuller House barn. On the opposite side it destroyed the Walsh House, then 
operated by John Ingersoll ; the double house owned by John Mitchell and 
Knox Brothers, in which was the postofifice, with H. G. Mitchell, master; his 
dwelling in the rear; E. R. Sherman's and George Smith's dwellings; the Oil 
Exchange building; Frank Taylor's building. Judge Craig's dwelling and 
Cadwallader' s office. The total loss was estimated at 150,000. Mrs. Neff's 
boarding house, at head of Main street, was saved. The fire of May 5, 1883, 
destroyed six houses, and burned to death George O'Neil, a fireman. 

Kendall Borough elections were held February 15, 1881, whenEugene Buck 
received 208 votes and C. E. Everson 103, for burgess. M. A. Haggerty, O. 
L. Lathrop, Denis Lundergan, C. Benson, Philo Ackley and Joseph Nye were 
elected members of council; E. F. Converse, constable; A. J. Evans, high 
onstable; A. M. Kleckner, C. D. Longfellow and Robert Pilkington, school 
directors; Joe Bensinger, assessor; C. D. Longfellow and W. B. Clark, audit- 
ors; S. B. Shaffer and E. W. Baker, inspectors, and John Todd, judge of 
elections. J. H. Butler was elected burgess in 1882. receiving the total vote, 
216; Philo Ackley, in 1883; L. D. Langmade, in 1884, with W. W. Penhollow, 
justice; E. J. Fitzsimmons, in 1885-86; Philo Ackley, in 1887, with A. M. 
Kleckner, justice, and T. T. Mapes, in 1888-89. The officers elected in Feb- 
ruary, 1890, are as follows: Burgess, W. K. Urquhart; councilmen, J. G. 
Fisher, S. W. Stilling, P. Mallory; school directors, A. V. Field, J. C. Smith; 
justice of the peace, Philo Ackley; collector, W. W. Penhollow; constable, M. 
B. Delmage; auditor, Wilson Rice; judges of election, First District, Philo 
Ackley; Second District, C. D. Gilbert; inspectors, William Heaps, James 
Flynn, Wilson Rice, E. H. Parish. 

The early schools of Tarport are noticed in the history of Bradford town- 
ship, where many of the pioneers of this section are also referred to. So also 
with the religious organizations. 

The first Presbyterian Church of Kendall was incorporated in June, 1881, 
with T. W. Williamson, F. S. Reynolds, J. W. Sherman, G. Buchanan, C. 


D. Longfellow, C. B. Seymour, Dr. McCarthy, J. Hockley, D. L. Skinner, 
J. Odell and G. W. Newman, members. 

The first Free Methodist Society of Tuna Creek was organized in 1883, 
with O. Dodge, A. D. Gaines, Sam. Henderson, L. Sager, Harriet E. Jones, 
Mrs. M. J. ZelifP, Phil, and Mrs. M. V. Hooker, Mrs. M. G. Beardsley hus- 
band and William, A. G. McCoy, H. G. Crawford, G. Brightonberger, C. 

B. Stoddard, William Cornelius, I. Walker, George Hasson, H. Hare and 
George G. Sandford. Eev. John H. Stoody is pastor of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church here, the beginnings of which are told in the history of Bradford. 

The Kendall Creek Cemetery Association was incorporated March 3, 1871, 
with C. C. Melvin, C. H. Foster, A. W. and James Buchanan and P. A. 
Moore, trustees. 

Kendall Lodge No. 133, A. O. U. W., is one of the oldest benefit organi- 
zations of the borough. Among its officers may be named J. S. Fisher, V..K. 
Boyer, L. Keed, A. M. Kleckner and D. Huntley. This lodge built a hall 
some years ago near the railroad, which hall is still standing. The officers for 
1890 are F. O. Hane, C. Crary, A. Cole, T. J. Buchanan, James Moseley, 
G. W. Mitchell, L. S. Eeed, F. H. Burr, James Hood and A. M. Kleckner^ 
Present membership, 97. 

Washington Legion, S. K. of A. O. IJ. W. , was organized April 8, 1884. 
Among its members are those named in connection with the lodge, R. B. Gil- 
lespie, A. J. Martin, O. L. Lathrop, H. H. Berringer, A. J. Cole, T. B. 
Humes and others. The officers of the legion in 1890 are H. R. Winger, 

C. S. Crarey, James Hood, D. Huntley, D. J. Stewart, A. M. Kleckner, 
R. B. Gillespie, J. G. Fisher and G. E. Benninghoff. There are twenty-one 

Kendall Tent No. 5, K. O. T. M., was organized Jiily 8, 1884. Among 
its members are T. M. Olmsted, Col. D. Gardner, H. C. Jones, H. K. 
Boyer, M. P. Wooley and F. M. Bickford. The tent elected the following named 
officers in December, 1889, in order of tent rank: Moses P. Wooley, James L. 
Fleming, W. K. Urquhart, H. C. Jones, H. Boyer, M. B. Delmage, D. E. 
Ash and J. M. Shaw. The membership on March 10 was 136. 

Tuna Lodge No. 1122, Knights and Ladies of Honor, was instituted Jan- 
uary 20, 1886, by D. G. P., A. N. Heard. Among its members are E. M. 
McElhaney, J. Q. Field, Mrs. Kate Walter, E. R. Sherman, Frank G. Bemis, 

E. R. Sherman, C. F. Jewell, E. J. Fitzsimmons. The officers for 1890 are 
L. E. Shaw, Mrs. M. P. Hennage, E. R. Sherman, Rachel Troup, Ella Smiley, 
Mrs. Retta Phillips, Mrs. Sarah Artley, J. W. Stephens and M. E. Smiley. 
Medical examiner, D. E. Ash. There are eighty members. 

Local Branch No. 389 of the Order of the Iron Hall was organized September 
17, 1886; among the official members are H. G. Vankenren, J. Manly, J. R. 
McCarthy and T. B. Humes. 

Break of Day Division No. 170, Sons of Temperance, was organized Sep- 
tember, 1886. Its members were William Dobin, Rev. J. G. Hann, Mrs. W. 
Harris, P. Whittlesey, Mrs. H. Wardell. 

Kendall Section Cadets of Temperance, organized March, 1887; Mrs. M. 
A. Thomas, Mrs. L. Hann; D. G., William Dobie; W. A., Grace Sandburn; 
V. A., Annie Greer; P. W. A., Ella Dobie; R. S., Arch Worton; T., George 

In 1889 the Kendall Loan and Savings Association was organized with the 
following officers: President, George W. Mitchell; secretary, E. R. Sherman; 
treasurer, T. T. Mapes; appraising committee, T. T. Mapes, A. V. Field and 
J. M. Nye. The board of directors consists of A. V. Field, T. T. Mapes, J. 


M. Nye, George W. Mitchell and E. R. Sherman. These, officers were re- 
elected for 1890. 

Kendall Circle No. 74, Protected Home Circle, is presided over by E. E. 
Sherman, with Ellen Geary, vice-president; Mrs. M. Moseley, chaplain; J. J. 
Gonter, G. ; Emma J. Gonter, accountant; C. D. Longfellow, secretary; Mrs. 
Martha Sherman, treasurer; J. T. Graham, porter; Mrs, L. Whitman, watch, 
and Dr. J. E. McCartey, medical examiner. 

Equitable Aid Union No. 249 was organized December 28, 1885, and is 
presided over by D. Keibler, with Dora Boyer, vice-president, and Mrs. L. 
Hathaway, secretary. The remaining offices are filled by H. E. Wigner, D. 
Huntly, Mrs. C. Withery, Mrs. L. Dorrance, Mrs. Wilda Eice, Mrs. Alice 
Smith, Myrtle Hathaway, Cora Montrose and O. B. Coleman. There are 158 
members belonging to this union. 


Corydon township occupies the northwest corner of McKean county. Here 
Corydon run flows west by north through the northern sections, while the two 
branches of Sugar run meander everywhere through the southwest and center, 
and flow together near the west line, whence the main stream rushes down to join 
the Allegheny river in Warren county, south of Cornplanter' s run, which also rises 
here. On the divide between Willow and Quaker creeks (heads of the Corydon, in 
the northeast corner), an elevation of 2, 210 feet above tide is recorded; while on 
the Warren county line, where Sugar run enters the Allegheny valley, the ele- 
vation is only 1,300 feet. Geologist Asburner, speaking of this section in 1878, 
states that the number of houses and shanties there could be counted on the 
fingers, and denied the assertion of local geologists in the matter of coal beds, 
asserting that never could coal be profitably mined here. He further termed 
it the "Barren Township," but acknowledged the existence of plateaus, to 
which he ascribed the general character of those in Lafayette township. 

The population of Corydon township in 1880 was 154. In 1888 there were 
fifty Eepublican and thirteen Democratic votes recorded, on which total — 
sixty-three — the population was placed at 315. 

The seated tax-payers of Corydon township in 1836-87 were Edwin Adams, 
James Anderson (a trader), William Brown, John Brown, James L. Baker, 
Albert and David Cargill, William Care (tavern-keeper), Benjamin Chamber- 
lain, Chamberlain & Hall (saw-mill owners), Alfred Forbes (merchant), Andrew 
Flatt, Amos Piatt, E. M. Truman, J. W. Pield (tavern-keeper), Seth W. 
Green, Walter Guy, William Gibbs, Comfort Hamlin, Orrin Hook, John Hasel- 
tine, Abel Morrison, Eice Morrison, Jacob McCall, Morrison, Stephens & Co. 
(saw-mills), Moses Parmlee, Zelotes Parmlee, Juri Perry, B. H. Pike (trades- 
man), Amos Patterson (merchant), Abiel Eolfe (tavern-keeper), Walter and 
George Seaman, Perry Shannon (saw-mill owner), Clark Stearns, P. H. Tracy, 
Jonathan Thompson, Ben. Tome, Isaac Williams, H. N. Wheeler (store-keeper 
and saw-mill owner), John Wait (store- keeper) and John E. Woodbeck (trader); 
A. Poster was the assessor .... Brownell, now of Tionesta, worked in Con- 
over' s saw-mill, at the head of Sugar run, in 1857. This mill was erected 
in 1854-55, while the mills operated by the Templetons, south of the town- 
line, were erected much earlier. 

Early in 1843 a colony of German Catholics purchased a large tract of land 
in Warren county, near the east line of McKean, and established a commercial 
village, and in 1843 a post-office was existing at Kinzua. 

The Corydon well, on Willow creek, one-half mile up stream from the 
Allegheny, was in existence in 1850. 

%^^' jf ^J^'^'^ 


The township officers elected in February, 1890, are aa follows: Super- 
visors, Moses Johnson, James Hinton; school directors, C. D. Seaman, B. D. 
Tome; collector, H. Schobey; constable, H. Schobey; justice of the peace, E. 
S. Payne; town clerk, Peter Parsons; auditor, B. D. Tome; judge of election, 
Philip Tome; inspectors, J. Rogers, Fred Flynn. 



Annin Township Topography and Natural History— Population— Of- 

AND Cemetery. 

Ceres Township Topography— Oil Wells— Population— Officers of the 

Township, 1890— First Justice of the Peace— Early Settlers— Resi- 
dent Tax-Payers, 1836-37 — Re-survey of the Northern State Line. 

Ceres Village First Arrivals— Post-office— Merchants — Schools- 
Churches— Military— Railroads— Industries. 

ANNIN TOWNSHIP, south of Ceres, and north of Liberty, is the home 
of Annin creek, which rises in the heights north of Annin, and enters 
the Allegheny river at Turtle point. Two Mile creek rises southeast of Annin, 
and flowing southwest enters the Allegheny below Port Allegany. Bell run, 
mentioned in the sketch of Ceres township, rises in the northeast corner; 
Newell creek flows southwest through the northwest corner, and Rock run 
parallels Annin creek northwest of the divide. Open Brook flows north 
through the southwest corner, where it enters the main river, which marks the 
northeast line of this corner. The high land one mile northwest of Annin is 
2,345 feet above tide; two miles southwest an elevation of 2,340 exists, and two 
and one-half miles due south, near the Port road, a plateau 2,300 feet above 
tide was measured. In fact an average elevation of 2, 200 feet for summits, 
marks this township, the lowest point being the mouth of Rock run, 1,435 
feet. Northwest of the Smetbport anticlinal are two small areas of Olean 
conglomerate, and between Annin and Two Mile creeks two more, but be- 
yond such evidences of coal, there were no minerals discovered up to 1879. 

The population of Annin township in 1880 was 1,089. The vote in 1888 
was 109 Republican, 117 Democratic, 10 Prohibitionist and five Labor Union- 
ist, or 241, multiplied by five, equals 1,205,' the estimated population. 

The officers of this township elected in February, 1890, are as follows: 
Justice of the peace, S. R. June; school directors, L. E. Bishop and F. K. 
Winship for three years, and John J. Cawley for one year; constable, Joseph 
Mullin; judge of election, H. A. June; inspectors of election, Jerome Robin- 
son, H. M. Harder; supervisors, J. J. McCarey, James Hooley; auditors, H. 
M. Harder for one year, Thomas McGavisk for two years, and Eugene Mc- 
Carey for three years; collector, L. J. Phenix; town clerk, Lorenzo Hodges. 

Turtle Point was the name given to the present village in 1836, when 
Henry Bryant, an Olean lawyer, erected the large saw- mill there. When 
cleaning out the 'mill-race the workmen found a large turtle buried deep in the 


mud. A few remnants of the old village were to be seen in 1885, although 
the new village was transferred to the corners nearer the railroad. Bryant 
invested $11,000 in this milling concern, but the panic coming on swept it 
away. Later he took Enoch Fobes as partner and James H. Wright as miller. 
In 1844 S. A. Backus purchased Bryant's interests, leaving the original 
owner to begin life anew in California. 

Newell Creek and neighborhood were settled about fifty years ago. Among 
the names of old families are John and William Crawley, Ed. McMahon, Tim. 
Mullin, Murty and Patrick Driscoll, George Oliver, Patrick Masterson, Con. 
Doyle, John O'Connor, Jerry Eiley, Michael McAulifPe, Philip Cooney, 
Thomas Dunn, Eichard and Dennis Delany, Thomas Bizell, W. M. Londrigan, 
James Harkin. 

St. Mary's Church was established here in 1847, and Eev. J. J. Burns 
was resident priest in 1850, when the old church was erected and dedicated by 
Bishop O'Connor. Fathers Dean and Galligan were missionary priests in 
1847-48, and Father Smith was resident pastor from October, 1848, to June 
16, 1850. In 1853 Kev. Coady succeeded Father Burns, who was followed by 
Father Madigan in September, 1856, and he by Father Murrill in December, 
1866. Father P. J. Patterson, V. F., came in September, 1868. In 1869 he 
commenced the present church building, which was dedicated in February, 
1872, by Bishop Mullen. The congregation comprises 150 families. The 
church at Newell Creek may be said to have absorbed old St. Mary's above 
Smethport, leaving the southern members alone to the new parish of Smeth- 
port. The pastor died December 21, 1889. Father Cosg'rove is successor of 
the venerable Father Patterson as pastor of St. Mary's parish, including Port 
Allegany, Austin, Costello, Duke Centre and other places. 

The Annin Creek Humane Society was the name given to a cemetery asso- 
ciation in June, 1851, of which D. Buckley, I. H. Holcomb, S. Foote, S. D. 
Cooper, Theron Cooper, J. P. Evans, Jr., Joshua D. Knapp, J. C. Evans, 
N. B. Foote, Joseph Hodges, C. Graham, J. H. Knapp and J. P. Evans were 

The Methodist Church was incorporated in September, 1867, on petition 
of Joseph Merrick, Niles Kinney, C. H. Bessee, G. F. Tubbs, H. M. Harder, 
M. S. Hadley, S. H. Kinney and A. H. Bessee. 

The First Baptist Church was incorporated March 21, 1887, on petition of 
S. L. Holcomb, Eli B. Buckley, L. H. and F. K. Winship and G. O. Buckley. 

The First Eegular Baptist Church of Turtle Point was incorporated June 
3, 1887. The subscribers were Theron Cooper, D. C. Winship, S. L. Hol- 
comb, Albertus Cooper and Darius Simpson. 


Ceres township occupies the northeast corner of the county. King's run 
of the Oswayo runs in a general northern course through the center; Bell's 
run parallels it in the center of the east half; Oswayo creek enters in the 
northeast corner, flows northwestwardly to Ceres for two and a quarter miles, 
then crosses the State line, and eventually loses itself in the Allegheny 
river. The head-waters of Newell creek are found in the southwest, and of 
Barden creek in the west center. Taylor's run and several smaller streams 
feed the creeks named. The highest measured elevation is 2,245 feet, one 
mile southwest of Glenn, at the head of Eock run, and the lowest point, 1,443, 
near State Line depot. The divide between King's and Bell's runs shows a 
general elevation of 2,200 feet, declining to 1,450 south of Ceres. East of Bell's 
run it ranges from 2,200 feet in north and south extremes to 1,509 in the 


Oswayo valley, while the divide at the head of Barden and Newell creeks pre- 
sented summits of 2,219 and 2,200. The township is minus coal measures 
and conglomerate; but the summit caps of Pocono are from 250 to 300 feet 
thick. Near Kussell's house on the Ceres road, at an elevation of 2,075 feet, 
there was discovered, in 1878, a red limy shale band. In King's run gulch, at 
Lynch's house, red soil was found at an elevation of 1,675 feet; along Barden 
run at an elevation of 1,645 feet, as at the old Biggens' place; and toward 
Ceres, of 1,720 feet, or only thirty feet below the top of the Chemung in that 
neighborhood. At Ely's house, on Ceres and Turtle Point road, a slightly red 
soil was seen at an elevation of 1,980 feet, and toward Turtle Point this soil 
was seen at different elevations; but from Bly's to Ceres, with the exception 
of one place (Chevalier's farm), the soil as well as sandstone was of the gray 
variety. About twelve years ago the first oil well was drilled up Bell's brook, 
N. Y. , by Howard & Magee, which was made dry. About four years ago a 
well was drilled up Carr's brook by Henry Carter, which is a half-barrel well. 
This is now owned by V. Perry Carter. Two wells have since been drilled 
for gas by V. P. Carter, representing the Ceres Gas Company, which wells sup- 
ply the village and neighborhood. The King's run well was bored five or six 
years ago by a local company. 

The population of Ceres in 1880, including the 108 inhabitants of Ceres 
village, was 975. In 1883 there were 123 Republican, 58 Democratic, 27 Pro- 
hibition and 47 Labor Unionist votes cast, or a total of 255, which, multiplied 
by five, gives a population of 1,275. 

The officers chosen in February, 1890, are as follows: Supervisors, Win- 
field Lanphere, James E. Welch; school directors, G. N. Hackett, O. P. Coon;_ 
constable, G. W. Hackett; collector, G. W. Hackett; auditor, James Big- 
gins; justice of the peace, W. W. Holley; judge of election, E. W. Kitebsire; 
inspectors of election, F. H. Raymond, Barton Holley; town clerk, J. J. 

Francis King, the agent of John Keating, brought a number of workmen to 
Ceres in 1798, where King's settlement was founded. Mr. King came from 
England about that time, and, being a Quaker, his co-religionists in Philadel- 
phia recommended him to John Keating for the position of agent and surveyor. 
He was a surveyor, and, like the old-time men of that profession, eccentric, and 
it is alleged, when clearing the hillside at Ceres, he compelled the imported 
laborers to roll the logs up hill, and satisfied the ignorant fellows that this 
course was correct, because the Yankees rolled them down hill. In 1801 he 
began the survey of the Keating lands, and in 1812 surveyed for the settlers 
in Farmers valley. Five years later, in 1817, he died, when John Keating 
continued his son in the agency. His original field book is in possession of 
Byron D. Hamlin, forming a monument to his precision. 

The commission of justice of the peace of Ceres was issued by Gov. Thomas 
McKean October 4, 1806, to John Claudius Brevost. What the feelings of the 
old governor must have been when he authorized this pioneer justice "to have 
and execute all and singular the powers, jurisdictions and authorities and to 
receive and enjoy all and singular the lawful emoluments of a justice of the 
peace," may be imagined. Except John Keating' s agent and his employes 
there were no settlers in the township to lead the new justice to hope for emol- 
ument. In November following Squire Brevost did actually qualify before the 
Coram, J. G. Lowrey, of Centre county. 

Uncle Harry, who came with his father, Thomas Smith, to Ceres in 1803 
or 1804, died August 27, 1877. Lester Hargrave was also one of the early 
employes here. Asahel Wright, a soldier of 1812, resided at Glenn up to 


1880, but for twenty-seven years prior to 1872 was never as far as Olean, and 
never saw a railroad train, although then eighty-three years old. His daugh- 
ter, L. Ellen Wright, was for years corresponding secretary of Grand Lodge 
of i. O. G. T. in Pennsylvania. Eeuben S. Taylor, who settled at Bell's run 
in 1836, served in the war of 1812. He died in September, 1877, at Roulette. 

The resident tax-payers of Ceres township in 1836-37 were David Axtell 
(moved to Wisconsin), G. C. Burnham, H. Bowen, A. Brown, William Bards- 
ley, John C. Brevost, John O. Bradsby, Daniel Bliven, John Bee and Tom Bee* 
(who operated a saw-mill). Potter Benson (who owned a second saw-mill), Dan 
Benson, S. A. Barber*, William Bell*, Valentine Bowen, Cyrus and Ira Cooper* 
(saw-mill owners, on site of Van Wormer's present mill), A. C. Conklin*, 
William and J. O. Cutter (moved away years ago), Hosea Cappell, William 
Cobbett (grist-mill owner), H. Chevalier (Frenchman), Peter and Orrin Cook, 
Asa Canfield, Oscar* and Timothy Carpenter*, Harvey Carr*, Cynthia Camp- 
bell, Philip Corwin, John Chase*, Levi Davis (tradesman), Jonathan, John 
and Thomas Drake (Oswayo), Nathan Dennis*, Rev. J. P. Evans (Annin 
Creek Baptist), Warren Edson, John Fobes* (saw- mill owner), T. J. Fowler, Mary 
Gilbert*, Lester Hargraves*, W. Hawley*, C. J. Hurlburt, A., Phil, and Will- 
iam Hooker*, Absalom Hutchison, Sol. Jordan, Friend S. Kinney*, Niles Kin- 
ney*, John King*, Robert King*, Abijah, Luke and Jacob Knapp*, William 
Lester*, George and William Lanphere*, Reverious and Rod. Loop*, Eb- 
enezer Larrabee*, John Lee, Orsamus Meeray, John and Delos Morris, 
Michael McEvilly, L. Nelson*, Sam Nicholes, I. Phelps*, Harrison Ruby, 
Thomas Robbins*. Leonard, Almond (justice), Anson and William Rice*, W. 
Ray*, Linas P. Stoddart, George A. Smith, William, Henry and John Smith*, 
W. P. Stillman* (tan-yard owner; left before the war). Perry and Spencer 
Sweet, Clark Stillman*, Dan. Spencer, Joseph, Abram and John Stull*, 
William Tupper*, Willard and Norman Taylor (said to reside at Port Allegany), 
John Thompkins, Ben.* and Uriah Vaudamark, John Wolcott, Asel*, W. P. 
and Alf. Wright, Samuel and John Whipple, N. and I. N. Winans, Marvel 
Wheelock, Rev. William Weber (Methodist), R.* and Micajah Wright* and 
Jacob Young* (owner of saw-mill). William Hooker was assessor. 

In 1877 the re-survey of the northern State line was made, varying but 
little from the line of 1786. Ceres village was transferred to Pennsylvania, 
and in 1878 the boundary stones were placed. 

Myrtle, formerly Mapleton Postoffice, was established in 1877, with Silas 
Cooper as postmaster, who held the office until F. E. Tull was appointed. In 
1887 Mr. Tull sold his store to J. C. Burt, who carried on the office of deputy 
until regularly appointed in August, 1887. 

The Myrtle Cheese Factory was established, thirteen or fourteen years ago, 
by George Chamberlain, his heirs being the present owners. The Hickox Mill, 
in existence many years, is still in use, east of the village; and at the head of 
Bell's run is Miller's saw- mill, operated by the Dibble Brothers. Lester Har- 
grave is said to have been the iirst resident of this settlement. Like others of 
the pioneers of Ceres, he was connected with Keating' s agency here. 

The Oswayo flood of May 31, and June 1, 1889, filled the valley, being about 
three feet higher than the flood of 1865. Large saw logs were carried over the 
main street of Ceres, and boats were used for travel; several trestles on the 
Bradford, Eldred & Cuba Railroad were carried away, and the track torn up. 
The only dams on the stream which escaped destruction were F. M. Van 
Wormer's and Pratt & Bixby's. Among the heavier losers by this disaster 



were Gr. C. Hickox, F. M. Van Wormer and the Oswayo Tannery Company; 
many others along the flood-swept valley met with smaller losses. 


Late in 1837 Samuel Estes came to " Ceres village, where he found a one- 
half log and one-half plank house standing opposite the present Central Ho- 
tel. Within a few years (in 1841) he moved south of the creek and erected 
part of the present Oswayo House, which he conducted until the Western New 
York & Erie Eailroad was built, when he moved to Olean and built a hotel near 
the depot. In later years he moved to Minnesota, where he died. 

In 1838 Nelson Peabodycame to the village. He found John Smith's gen- 
eral store and the Estes tavern. John King kept the post-office where Will- 
iam K. King now resides; Cooper's old saw-mill, where Franklin Van Worm- 
er' s large mills are now situated, and the Youngs' mill, where is now the Minor 
mill, were in operation; the Methodists had a class here, which has beea con- 
tinued to the present time. Mr. Peabody was clerk in John Smith's store un- 
til February, 1840, when V. Perry Carter bought the concern and Mr. Pea- 
body joined Russell Cooper in business and continued four or five 'years. 
V. Perry Carter opened his store after the death of John Smith, whose daugh- 
ter he married in 1842. 

In 1841 the residents of the village grew tired of having to walk one and 
one-half miles to John King's house for their letters, and had V. Perry Car- 
ter petition the department for an oiSce in the village. This petition was 
granted, but Mr. King interested John Keating and others in his cause and had 
the office returned to him. A little later Mr. Carter had a chart of the locality 
made and a new petition signed. The demand was manifestly so just that the 
department ordered the removal of the office to the village, where it has been 
continued to this day. Mr. King kept the post-office on the table in the family 
sitting-room, and into this each one who expected a letter had to go to seek it. 

Josiah Priest, who, in 1850, wrote sketches of the Oswayo valley, was jus- 
tice of the peace at Ceres. His papers were never published is the statement 
of Mrs. Keyser, while Mr. Carter is positive that parts or all of the papers ap- 
peared in print. 

Eobert Hinds was the only merchant here in 1852. John Eobarts was a 
trader here for a number of years; also Simpson & Barber, C. H. Smith, John 
B. Gleason, F. H. Eaymond and Gr. Perry. Joseph Morse was postmaster 
here before the war, succeeding John King, and had the office in his house, 
which occupied the site of the Central Hotel, afterward the residence of V. 
Perry Carter until destroyed by the first fire, in 1869. In 1855 or 1856 Mr. 
Carter returned from Eichburg, bought the Hinds store and was appointed 
postmaster, holding the office until his removal to Duke Centre, in 1879, when 
he was succeeded by Eobarts, who in turn was succeeded by Call. Louis Car- 
rier was appointed in 1885, but Miss Augusta Call conducted the office for 
eight years, or until the appointment of John B. Gleason in June, 1889. 

When Nelson Peabody arrived there were two school buildings — one south, 
where is the present school building on the Pennsylvania side, while the 
building on the New York side occupied the site of Wellington White's pres- 
ent home. These buildings continued in use until the present house was 
erected. In Ceres township in 1846 general stores were kept by P. B. Ded 
rick and Ealph Adams, and the tavern by Samuel Estes. In 1847 Dedrick & 
Pardy, Samuel Estes" and C. Peabody were merchants; J. H.Wright and D. 
Dunham the new tavern-keepers. 

In 1847 the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Ceres was incorporated. 


The oldest record in possession of the pastor shows the names of W. T. Lane, 
Honeoye; Joel Whitney, Lane school-house; Stephen Chapel, South Bolivar; 
R. D. Garrison, Pikeville (members joined the Nazarites), and B. C. Call of 
Ceres; Edward Nicholas and Calvin Blood of Shinglehouse were the class 
leaders. Later H. B. Robarts is named as leader of the Bell's run class, 
with Elisha B. West local preacher; A. Mallory was recording steward in 
1867, while Mrs. F. G. Fuller is now recorder. The pastoral record goes 
back only to 1879, when A. B. Kelly was appointed. In 1882 Rev. W. Post 
and Rev. A. I. Blanchard came, and in 1886 Rev. W. H. Farnham. There 
are now seventy-nine members. 

In 1840 Nelson Peabody was commissioned justice of the peace and held 
the oftice until elected associate judge in 1861. He was again commis- 
sioned and served until six or seven years ago. During the war he was dep- 
uty provost marshal for Ceres township. Among the soldiers of the district, 
many of whom belong to Portville Post, No. 85, G. A. R., are the following 
named: Frank A. Chapman, Twenty-ninth Ohio Infantry; F. P. Chapman, 
Eighty-fifth New York; Nat. Hendrix, Company A, Eighty-fifth New York; 
Henry B. Robarts, Eighty-fifth New York; John Frugan, New York Infant- 
ry; William Hyde, William Worden, Eighty-fifth New York; Frank Ful- 
ler, Eighty-fifth New York; John B. Gleason, Clark Wells and Edgar Wells, 
Forty-second Regiment, Pennsylvania Bucktails; Byron Lanphere and Rob- 
ert Lanphere, Bucktails; Jacob Brock, Eighty-fifth New York; Adam Bur- 
dick, Eighty-fifth New York; Daniel and Matthew Burdick, Eighty-fifth 
New York; Lafayette Maxson, Eighty-fifth New York; James Gobies, Eighty- 
fifth New York; Martin Stephens, Pennsylvania Infantry; F. Maxson, Eighty- 
fifth New York; Robert Clark, Fifty- eighth Pennsylvania; Frank Van Wormer, 
Pennsylvania; A. De North, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania; Moses Ford, Hiram 
Grow, Daniel Peabody, James Biggins and Amos Safford, Eighty-fifth New 
York (drowned in the Oswayo some years ago); Bill North, Bucktails; 
George North, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania; George Lanphere, Eighty-fifth 

New York; James Hobbs, New York Infantry; Carpenter (wounded at 

Gettysburg), Pennsylvania Infantry; William North, Fifty- eighth Pennsyl- 
vania; Volney Mix, Pennsylvania Infantry; Albert Lanphere, Bucktails; 
Freeman Fuller, Bucktails; Philip Haines and Bennie Haines, Pennsylvania 
Infantry; F. Hawley, Eighty-fifth New York; Lewis Hawley, Eighty-fifth 
New York; John Hawley, Eighty-fifth New York; Floyd Hawley, Forty- sec- 
ond Pennsylvania; C. Melven, Forty- second Infantry; C. Bridge and West 
Bridge, Forty-second Pennsylvania Regiment; also Nate Foote, Thomas, John, 
and Alonzo Cushman, and Nathan Hand. • 

Charles B. Bailey, who resided in Ceres township before the war, now of 
Young Hickory, N. Y., was, in June, 1889, granted a back pensioH of 15,000, 
and 172 monthly. This large pension was granted on account of his total 

A. B. Luce was the first agent at Ceres of the Bradford, Eldred & Cuba 
Railroad in October, 1881. W. D. Chase took charge in February, 1882; E. 
D. Cummings in May, 1882; L. J. White in February, 1883, and in No- 
vember, 1883, C. H. Gleason, the present agent, took charge. (Between 
6,000 and 8,000 cords of bark will be shipped from Ceres this summer. ) 

In 1877 the White & Van Wormer Mill at Ceres was erected. This is one 
of the immense lumber industries of the county. 



Eldked Township Topography— Oil Wells — Population — Offioeiss of 

THE Township, 1890— First Settlements— Kesident Tax-Payers, 1843-44— 
First Shingle-Mill— Villages. Etc. 

Borough of Eldred — Origin of Name— Early History- Growth of the 
Town— Incorporation— First Council— Officers Chosen in 1890— Hur- 
ricanes, FiKES, Etc.— Fire Company— Schools and Churches— Societies 
—Banks— Water- Works— Gas Company— Industries— Miscellaneous. 

ELDEED TOWNSHIP is divided into two ridges by the valley of the 
Allegheny. The river enters the township near the southeast corner, 
flows in a tortuous course, generally north, to the bend at the confluence of 
Indian creek, where it runs east, and thence north, entering New York State 
near the northeast corner of the township, and seven and one- third miles from 
the northeast corner of the county, at State Line village. Newell creek enters 
from the northeast in the southeast corner; Potatoe creek joins the river a mile 
below Frisbee; Barden creek enters at Eldred, and Knapp's creek a mile below. 
Several small feeders run down from the high lands: Eice's creek (along which 
runs the pipe line) courses southeast through the southwest corner, and Indian 
creek holds a similar position in the northwest corner. The rich valley lands 
comprise the greater part of the area; but the summits are bold, many attain- 
ing a height of about 2,200 feet above tide level. At State Line the elevation 
is only 1,440. The outcrop of Kinzua creek sandstone extends for 800 feet 
to the Chemung conformation, and up to 1879 the oil field was mainly confined 
to the Indian creek region. The old Littlefield well, drilled in 1878, was the 
only producer at Eldred for some time prior to 1879, when the Cummings & 
Dean well was drilled, only, to be found dry. In August the old Erie Com- 
pany' s well was shot, and became (it is alleged) a ten-barrel producer. The 
well on the Benham farm, at the head of Windfall, was abandoned, but be- 
came a gasser. The Gas Company's new well is bored on this farm. 

In August, 1878, the well on the Welch farm, the Hostetter on the Wolcott 
farm, the Knott Bros. ' well on Mix creek, and the Lee & Halleck well, as well 
as Parsons & Co. 's, were in existence. Palmer well No. 1, on Carpenter brook, 
was drilled in the spring of 1880, but proved dry. In March, 1881, the Morse 
well, on Windfall, gave a new industry to Eldred. The Sartwell well, five 
miles south of Eldred, was shot in February, 1882, and threw out the oil and 
salt water in the hole. The Eldred wells in existence in March, 1884, were the 
Simcox on the Littlefield farm, completed in May, 1877, but, owing to heavier 
wells being found at Duke Centre and Indian Creek, it was abandoned until 
the winter of 1883-84, and it is now a producer. The Cummings & Dean well, 
on the G. T. Dennis farm, was finished August 2, 1879; Barber's well, in 
January, 1881; Morse & William's, in March, 1881; White & Lloyd's, in 
April, 1883; Morse & Allen's, on the Winchell farm, in December, 1883; Al- 
len, Morse & Jones', on the Hartson farm, in February, 1884; Morse & Co.'s, 
on the Jerome Curtiss farm, in February, 1884; Douglass & Co.'s, on the Eix- 
ford, March 1, 1884; Eiley Allen's, on Will Curtiss', March 3, 1884; Bradley 


& Curtiss' , on the Dean farm, March 5, 1884, while Douglass & Co. were en- 
gaged in drilling. The Bennett well was shot in March, 1886, also the Chris- 
man, Brown & Baldwin wells, while the Keyes well, on the E. R. Lamphier 
farm, was drilled to the Kane sand, 1,605 feet, when it was shot and oil taken, 
and a new well begun at Turtle Point — Alford & Loops'— on the Rixford farm. 
In June, 1889, Tarbell, Eice & Shafer finished their well No. 1 on the Perham 
mill lot, eastward of the older wells. They have their rig for No. 1 on the 
Bennett farm, near Mitchell Bros.' No. 1, and one for their well on the Rice 
purchase. Throughout the summer of 1889 Steele & Duncan, the Mitchell 
Bros, and others were engaged in drilling. Tarbell, Shafer & Rice's well was 
shot at the close of July, 1889, and yielded twelve "barrels. This was the first 
well drilled east of the river at Eldred. It shows a difference in the oil-bear- 
ing rock. In November the same firm shot No. 2, east of the river, obtaining 
thirty barrels. 

The population of Eldred township in 1880 was 3,243, including 1,165 in 
Eldred village, 228 in Indian Creek village, 200 in Larrabee village, 200 in 
State Line and 220 in Haymaker. In 1888 the township recorded 176 Repub- 
lican, 111 Democratic, 20 Prohibition and 15 Labor Unionist votes, or a total 
of 322; the respective vote of the borough was 112, 85, 22 and 5, or a total of 
224. The total vote of the township multiplied by five equals 1,610 as the 
population, and that of the borough multiplied bv six gives 1, 344, or a total of 

The officers of the township chosen in February, 1890, are as follows: 
Supervisors, John Ellis, O. Bell; school directors, Joseph Stull had 213 votes, 
and R. A. Rice and Mike McAuliff each had 212 votes; collector, Pat McDon- 
ald; constable, C. J. Carey; auditor, D. Burnham; judge of election, C. M. 
Slack; inspectors, G. Kelley, Mike McAuliff ; town clerk, J. C. Campbell. 

The first settlements were made in 1808 by the Loops and Hookers, in 1810 by 
Joseph and Jacob Stull, in 1812 by Rensselaer Wright and a man named Hitt, 
on the farm which Stephen H. Smith occupies, opposite the Coleman & Wright 
mill. Wright filled the office of sheriff one term, and that of justice for many 
years. In 1818 Justice Rice and three brothers arrived and settled near what 
was known as the Benton mill. Jacob Knapp also came that year and located 
at the mouth of Knapp' s creek. Ebenezer Larrabee, father of Ransom, came 
in 1818; the Dennis family arrived in 1822, and shortly after, Timothy Car- 
penter. In 1835 came William Lamphier, and in 1838 Dr. E. Barden. Tor 
some years after settlement bear-hunting was a common sport for the pioneers, 
and stories are related of Nathan Dennis and his brother-in-law, Larrabee, of 
adventures in the dense alder-brush below and west of the present village. In 
1838 the country was so wild a party of raltsmen were lost in the woods near 
Knapp' s creek. 

The resident tax-payers in 1843-44 were Ebenezer* and A. A. Barden*, 
James Bakerf, Val. Bowen*, Nelson, Josiah and I. C. Burnham*, Selden 
Blackman, S. D. Brownf , A. D. Brainard*, Orrin Cook*, James and Cynthia* 
Campbell, David Cooper, John Chase*, Cornelius Culp*, Oscar Carpenter*, 
Timothy Carpenter*, T. T. Carpenter*, Nathan Dennis*, Asa* and Caleb Can- 
field, Dave Cornelius*, James Drake, John Fobes* (saw-mill, owner and pro- 
prietor of a silver watch), Perry and George Frost, Mary Fowler*, Eldredge 
Goodmanf , John D. Green*, Jesse L. Garey*, Phil. Hooker*, Horace Hooker* 
(saw-mill owner), Martin G. Samuel*, Abijahf, Jacob* and William Knapp, 
John* and Norry Loop, Ben. Lumpkin, William*, William, Jr.*, and Benjamin 
Lamphier, Ransom, Ebenezer* and Eben, Jr.*, Larrabee, John Morris*, C. 

* Deceased, f Moved. 





C. Morris, James McCrayf, Michael Mixf, John Mill*, Sam.* and Erastus 
Nichols, Almon* and Justin* Eice, Thomas Bobbins*, W. S. Bounds*, Sher- 
man Strong* (on whose land was the Catholic Church ground), Joseph Stull*, 
Caleb*, Jerome and Abram* B. Stull, S. and John M.* Wright, John Wol- 
cott* and William Wright, Jr. John Morris, the assessor, estimated the total 
value of seated lands and personal property at $7,484, and of unseated lands 
at #^0, t>2i0. 

The first shingle-mill was built at Prentiss Vale in 1847, by Strong, who 
was the only settler there. There was plenty of pine at that time, and he 
agreed to give Eeuben Dennis one-half the shingles, on condition that he 
would supply the timber. This agreement took efPect, and young Dennis, 
with A. T. Harden and L. L. Dennis, to whom he paid $18 per month, entered 
the wilderness and began the work of stocking the mill — a work which con- 
tinued throughout the summer. The following winter B. Dennis hauled the 
shingles to Portville, where he received 14 shillings per thousand. Close by 
the mill was Hermann Strong's blacksmith shop, with the earth for a floor, the 
sky for a roof and the forest for its walls. The proprietor, his partner and the 
latter' s employes worked hard, but withal were always ready for a joke. On 
one occasion L. L. Dennis was crossing the creek, on the single log which then 
filled the place of a bridge, carrying dinner for his two friends. Next to him 
was Barden, carrying the axes, and last was the heavy joker of the camp, 
Beuben Dennis. When one-half way across, he called out to Barden, "look 
out for the log," and the latter, alarmed, caught hold of L. L. Dennis, when 
both fell into the creek. The men took the affair as a joke, but did not for- 
get the joker. The same year A. T. Barden bought some meadow land oppo- 
site Wolcott's mill, and among the men called to aid in hay-making was 
the joker, Beuben. A party of six crossed the river in a canoe, but on dis- 
embarking, Barden, who was second last, leaped forward to the Allegheny's 
bank, tipping the canoe as he jumped ashore, leaving Beuben Dennis strug- 
gling in the water. He had his revenge when he cried out in turn, ' ' Look out, 
or you'll fall off that log!" 

Eldred in 1846 claimed one store, kept by John Fobes, but no tavern. J. 
N. Dennis opened in 1847, and in February, 1848, mention is made of bridges 
being in bad repair. Oscar Jordan and John Fobes were the merchants of 
Eldred in 1852 

Larrabee post-office (usually spelled Larabee) was established in August, 
1852, and Bansom Larrabee appointed master. The settlement became a 
place of importance in the fall of 1874, when the railroad builders gathered 
round the junction of the McKean & Buffalo, with the Buffalo, New York & 
Philadelphia and the B. N. & P. Bailroads. The hotel was carried on by 
Ransom Larrabee, a restaurant by E. & T. Mullin, two general stores were 
opened, a blacksmith shop and Williams' barber shop. 

Wainman & Foster's mill, near Larrabee, was destroyed by fire in June, 
1876, together with about 700,000 feet of sawed lumber. . . .The fire of March, 
1885, destroyed the Benton House, the Larrabee Hotel and other property. A 
telegram to the Chicago Tribune, dated Larrabee, October 21, 1889, gives 
information, relating to the burning of J. J. Newman's saw-mill and 3,000,000 
feet of lumber, loss $24,000; J. C. French's store, $6,500; Mrs. Smith's 
boarding house, $800, and two barns and hay, the property of D. C. Young, 

In 1878 P. A. Templeton purchased the Annis farm on Mfe; creek, and had 
it surveyed into town lots, calling the village Templeton. 

* Deceased, t Moved. 



Haymaker, a new town, was almost destroyed in August, 1879, when the 
Weston House and the Gilmore and Haymaker Hotels were burned. The post- 
office and store of John E. Coleman barely escaped. A mile north of this 
village are the producing wells of the Bardens; and round the village are some 
valuable farms. The E. A. U. of Haymaker was organized in March, 1886, 
with forty- seven members. The officers selected were W. A. Nott, M. A. 
Sypher, G. T. Weible, Dr. Cass and A. Sinclair. 

In December, 1881, the old Chamberlain mill at State Line was purchased 
by M. Smith, who introduced new machinery and opened it as a modern mill 
in July, 1882. The Bullis Brothers, who, in 1875, purchased 552 acres on 
Two Mile run and established large mills near Port Allegany, bought 947 
acres near State Line, and in 1880, 1, 200 acres near Turtle Point. Their old 
mills, with the new mills near State Line, and their large concern at Car- 
rollton, N. Y. , gave employment to a large force of men and played an im- 
portant part in the progress of McKean county during the last fifteen years. 

In early days a steam tug-boat was used on the Allegheny, sometimes as 
far up as Larrabee. In May, 1889, B. Alford' s steamboat was completed, and 
during the flood of May 31 and June 1, was used on the streets of Eldred. 


Eldred is the new name of an old settlement. It is the principal town of 
the northeast part of the county, and the center of a large trade as well as of 
a rich agricultural and mineral district. 

In November, 1879, a petition was presented to the postmaster-general to 
abolish the name of Allegheny Bridge and substitute that of Eldred. , In Feb- 
ruary, 1880, the petition was granted, and the name which the pioileers selected 
fifty years before was cast aside. In 1830 Nathan Dennis was appointed post- 
master, and opened his office in the old log-cabin near the Lattice bridge. .The 
Nathan Dennis post-office and hotel was above the mouth of Knapp's creek on 
the east side of the river, but later was moved to the site of E. W. Doane's 
brick building, where it was carried on for twenty-five years, when it was 
moved to the Eldred House, where is now the St. Elmo. After a period of ten 
years in that building or a thirty years' term for Mr. Dennis, W. P. Wright 
was appointed, and established the office in the house now occupied by S. H. 
Smith. A. T. Barden succeeded in 1872, and had the office opposite where 
the St. Elmo stands. A. H. Mayo was appointed in 1882, and held the office 
until A. B. Rowley was commissioned in 1885. On his resignation, C. Y. 
White was appointed. 

In the fall of 1878 the old Eldred House was rebuilt by Ed. Dolan; the Oil 
Well Supply Company' s house was completed ; the store buildings for A. More, 
A. Davidson, Dornby, V. P. Carter, Hamlin & Co., W. B. Archibald, Speller 
and others were projected or being built; the E. W. Doane block, Steele's barn 
and Methodist .church building completed and Ward & Shaner's machine shop 
erected. A two- story school building marked the days of the oil stampede. 
Mr. Barden was postmaster and the Eagle and Express were just established. 
Drs. Guthrie, Wykoff and Winans had located here; the Wright House, R. 
Dennis of the Central, Anthony's Hotel, L. L. Dennis, White, Moore of the 
Benton House, the Bennett House and J. S. Hicks of" the Prohibition House, 
represented the hotel interests; the plank road to Duke Centre was completed; 
Attorney Dunlaj)' s office was opened; Spiller's cottage and other private houses 
were finished. The planing-mill and factory and the Green & Hooker tank 
shop were in operation. 

In October, 1881, the first brick building was begun for Joseph & Dorn- 


berg. The Crandall, L. M. Dennis, W. G. Eobaits and E. W. Doane build- 
ings wei'e all in progress, and by December a number of houses were opened. 
The Eldred Banking Company opened an office in the Davidson block that 

Eldred town was incorporated December 22, 1880, on petition of the fol- 
lowing named inhabitants: J. S. Hicks, A. Crandall, W. G. Eobarts, Pat- 
rick Walsh, W. B. Archibald, A. B. Rowley, E. Dennis, A. N. McPall, C. D. 
Doane, A. Herman, M. E. Eoyce, H. Mapes, L. A. Halbert, E. Spiller, Wales 
& Varnum, M. S. Davidson, J. P. Cherry, H. J. Corell, E. L. & W. H. Dodd, 
George W. Colegrove, A. T. Barden, J. M. Addle, C. Y. White, W. L. Hardi- 
son, J. S. Eowley, E. W. Doane, E. E. Moses, V. E. Shaw, P. D. Alquire, 
Jerome Sabins, Ezra Marsh, A. Ortman, William Loi'beer, A. E. Bower, N. 
Edson, M. Finnegan, R. Lightfoot, E. Emerson, G. W. Allen, T. C. \A'ain- 
man, B. F. Cory, A. Cohoon, J. S. Cotton, L. G. Wright, J. T. Sinnette, E. 
Rumsey, Mrs. Wolcott, J. R. Fessenden, A. Hotchkiss, E. McCarty, E. D. 
Billington, J. A. Casey, C. M. Coleman, F. H. De Costin, E. S. Dennis, C, 
H. Havens, W. A. Howell, S. M. Turner and G. W. Bradley. The proposi- 
tion was opposed by Seth Eockwell and others. The first burgess was C. Y. 
White, who served two years; his successors have been W. H. Dodd, one year; 
James D. Downing, one year; Dr. J. P. Morgan, two years; L. L. Owens, two 
years, and L. L. Hill, elected in February, 1889. The first council comprised 
Dr. W. L. Chrisman, W. H. Dodd, Michael Finnegan, J. S. Hicks, I. G. 
Lesuer and T. C. Wainman. E. E. Mayo served as secretary up to March, 
1888, when A. H. Mayo was chosen. C. C. Moses and C. H. Kaufman were 
the first borough justices, succeeded by F. F. Brown and A. T. Bobbins. In 
1883 Messrs. Archibald, E. Dennis, Greenman, Eowley and Sartwell were 
chosen councilmen. In 1884 Messrs. Joseph Cotton and Douglass were elected. 
Messrs. Booth and Walsh were chosen in 1885, the latter serving down to the 
present time. 

The officers chosen in February, 1890, were as follows: Burgess, C. C. 
Moses; council, A. C. Douglass, M. V. Hotchkiss (three years), W. G. Eobarts 
(two years); school directors, T. L. Sartwell, A. N. Squires; constable, H. G. 
Heath; collector, H. G. Heath; judge of election, A. Ortman; inspectors, G. 
C. Weidman, F. M. Eockwell; auditor, A. D. Gould. 

The hurricane of May, 1860, did some damage throughout Eldred town- 
ship, carrying away bodily the Lattice bridge below the Half- Way House, and 
overturning a small house; large trees were twisted or uprooted .... The burn- 
ing of Bunker's steam saw and grist-mill, at the mouth of Knapp's creek, took 
place November 25, 1870, entailing a loss of about $8,000. .. .The Eldred 
fire of June 7, 1876, destroyed the saw-mill of Wainman & Foster, and 
600,000 feet of lumber. There was no insurance. . . .The Eldred fire of Oc- 
tober 7, 1878, originated in the new Hamlin block, which it destroyed, together 
with Barden and Eobarts' block. The latter lost property valued at $15,000, 
the former $12,000; the Eagle job-room was wrecked; Dr. Balfour lost his 
books and instruments, and several buildings in the neighborhood were 

scorched. In April, 1879, fire destroyed Seth Eockwell' s house The J. N. 

Williams planing-mill was burned in May, 1879 In June, 1879, a locomo- 
tive and thirteen cars were wrecked on the Buffalo, New York & Philadelphia 
Railroad, two and one-half miles north of Eldred. Engineer Ed. Squibb 
was killed. Four oil cars, burst and a tank close by caught fire. Amy May 

was killed by lightning a few days before The wreck of March, 1880, two 

and one-half miles north of Eldred, at the scene of the former catastrophe, 
resulted in the burning of the locomotive and two oil cars. 


The destruction of the old Central Hotel by fire occurred August 14, 1880. 
The building was completed in July, 1878, and was one of the finest hotels 
in this section of the State. Mr. Dennis began the work of rebuilding in 
September. Barton's steam flouring-mill was burned in November, 1880. . . . 
The fire of September 30, 1881, destroyed five acres of the business center of 
Eldred, and entailed a loss of $100,000. The fire originated in the old Opera 
House, in which was Robarts' store, and destroyed the following buildings 
and business places: Welsh's blacksmith shop, the Bennett House, Dodd 
Bros.' new building, the Opera House, J. S. Hicks' building, Sartwell's build- 
ing, the U. B. Church building, Walsh & McGavis' building, McDonald & 
Ca's bottling works. Parks' meat store, I. G. Leseur's building, W. A. 
Young's, H. J. Corell's, Miss Langdon's, E. Spiller's, L. M. Dennis', A. B. 
Rowley's, Dr. Chrisman's, Bennett Block and Soule's Hotel, Joseph & Dorn- 
berg's, E. W. Doane's (2), Miss Varnum's, W. B. Archibald's (2), and E. O. 
Titus'. In each building was stock or household goods, all of which were 
swept away in one hour and five minutes .... The St. Elmo was burned Sep- 
tember 17, 1884 — Mr. Rice, the owner, losing about $11,000. In the summer 
of 1885 the present St. Elmo was erected . . . .Ben Perham's steam grist- and 
saw-mill was destroyed by fire April 1, 1886. There were 40,000 feet of lum- 
ber also consumed. . . .The fire of April, 1889, destroyed Coleman's hotel on 
Railroad street. 

The Eldred Hook, Ladder and Bucket Company was organized in April, 
1879, with C. C. Moses, president; C. B. Jackson, vice-president; W. G. 
Robarts, secretary; John Reedy, engineer; William Geist and P. Parsons, 
foremen; A. T. Barden, C. B. Jackson, E. W. Doane, A. D. Gould and E. 
R. Mayo, managing committee. In June another company, of which C. M. 
Wagner was engineer, was organized, and in May, 1883, the Hook and Ladder 
Company was re-organized in modern form. 

When the Lamphiers came in 1835, there was no church building and but 
one school-house in the township. The first teacher remembered by Mr. 
Lamphier, was Martha, daughter of Rens. Wright. Mr. Pratt succeeded her 
in 1835, presiding in a frame building twenty feet square, opposite the pres- 
ent school-house at Eldred. Often seventy-five pupils were gathered there. 
The contract for the new school-building was sold to J. S. Cotton, June 3, 
1889, for $7,150. Work was begun in September, 1889, by Contractor Cot- 
ton. It was dedicated November 30, 1889. P. E. Cotter delivered the ad- 
dress. This building is 66x73 feet. Prof. George is principal ; Anna Siebert, 
Jessie Canfield, Minnie Cotton, Angle Dunhaver and Maud Baldwin are the 
teachers in the new school-house. 

The first church building in the village was the Union, of 1869, by Baptists 
and Methodists, Samuel Dexter Morris being a leader in the enterprise. 
Prior to this, meetings were held in the school-house. The old Union church 
was refitted in 1889, and dedicated to the uses of Baptist worship in October, 
that year. During the week of dedication, $3,000 were subscribed by Eldred 
citizens to aid the two churches. The re-dedication of the Methodist Episcopal 
church of Eldred took place October 26, 1889, Rev. E. M. Snodgrass, pre- 
siding. The First Evangelical Church of Eldred township was dedicated 
April 3, 1872. 

The question of building a Methodist church on First street was approved 
in August, 1878. R. Dennis donated the ground and Dr. Chrisman $2,000; 
work was begun by J. D. Chrisman, the contractor, and December 22 the 
house was opened. Prior to this, services were held for years in the old 
Union church. The First Methodist Church of Eldred was incorporated in 



April, 1879, with the following named subscribers: J. C. and D. A. White- 
side, J. T. Shute and wife, Eeuben, L. L. and Tirzah Dennis, C. P. and J. 
W. Leyde, Ira G. Leseur, E. S. Riddell, A. H. and E. R. Mayo, M. B. Archi- 
bald, E. E. Brown. E. A. Pinney, T. M. Bunker, J. S. Cotton, Dr. and Mary 
E. Chrisman, M. E. Eoyee, Henry Mapes, A. E. Fowler and J. J. Thompson. 
The United Brethren Church was begun in August, 1878, under the super- 
vision of Elder Bennett, who donated the building to the society. It was 
completed and dedicated February 9, 1879, but destroyed in the great fire 
of 1880, and never rebuilt, the little society worshiping in the Methodist and 
Baptist houses. Elder Bennett received $1,000 insurance and sold the lot to 
the Opera House company. 

In August, 1878, the purchase of grounds on First street for the Catholic 
church building was made. In May, 1884, definite steps to build the church 
were taken, when Father Patterson was chosen president; James Biggins, 
treasurer; J. C. Walsh, secretary; J. J. Ivers, P. McDonald and P. Ivers, 
building committee. On September 1, the contractor began work. The build- 
ing was dedicated October 18, 1885, by Bishop Mallin, of Erie, assisted by 
Fathers Patterson, Galligan, Madigan and Smith. The late pastor. Father 
Patterson, died December 21, 1889, and was succeeded by Father Cosgrove. 
Eldred Lodge, No. 560, A. F. & A. M., was chartered June 8, 1882, and 
constituted September 6. The past masters of this lodge are W. Dunbar, Will- 
iam A. Young, C. H. Kaufman, P. O. Heasley, A. B. Eowley, A. H. Mayo. 
The officers elected for 1890 are: W. A. Young, W. M. ; R. A. Mackie, S. W.; 
C. W. Dorrion, J. W. ; C. C. Moses, Treas. ; F. D. Wheeler, Sec. Eldred 
Masonic Hall, in the third story of the Alford or Davidson building, is said to 
be one of the most complete in this section of the State. 

la June, 1886, S. N. Johnson, Frank Parker, S. Brumberg, D. C. Holcomb, 
B. F. Hopewell, W. A. Hopewell, W. H. Bradley and Henry Templeton in- 
augurated a movement for the establishment of an Odd Fellows' lodge. In 
August Brumberg was elected N. Gr. ; E. W. Snyder, F. S. ; H. G. Heath, Sec, 
and William Duringer, Treas. 

Eebecca Lodge of Eldred was instituted in January, 1890, with H. G. 
Heath, N. G. ; Mrs. George Gridley, V. G. ; Mrs. Heath, Sec. ; Frank Havens, 
Asst. See. ; Mrs. J. W. King, Treas. , with Luella Havens, Mrs. Arnot, Mrs. 
Doerr, Mrs. J. H. Douglass, Dena Dornberg, Susie Gridley, Mrs. J. Dennis, 
Robert Templeton and W. N. Llewelyn filling the other offices. 

A tent of the K. O. T. M. was organized at Eldred in August, 1884, with G. 
B. Booth, F. H. Carter, T. C. Cole, M.V. Hotchkiss, Er A. Mackie, J. M. Addle, 
W. H. Perdoma, A. A. Fisher, S. E. Hays, William Duringer, M. L. App, S. E. 
A. Hays and E. O. Hotchkiss, officers, in the order of rank. The officers elected 
for 1890: Edmund Smith, Com. ; G. C.Wiedman, E. K; M.V. Hotchkiss, P. K., 
and George E. Smith, Lt.-Com. 

The Knights of Labor established their lodge at Eldred in 1885, with thirty- 
three members and the following named officers: J. McFrazier, A. A. Fisher, 
J. E. Lawrence, JJ. Wilson, J. B. Leo, A. Donnelly, N. Browner, S. A. Smith, 
S. A. Irwin, J. S. Dalton, H. S.'Patton, F. Woodmansee, P. Nitrower, H. M 
Dale and Jacob Martin. 

The Equitable Aid Union was organized at Eldred, September 23, 1880, with 
A. W. Nelson, president; Mrs. E. A. Spiller, vice-president; J. P. Morgan, 
secretary, and Dr. Morris, medical examiner. 

The Mutual Protective Association was organized in June, 1879, with C. B. 
Jackson, E. R. Howden, F. C. Stillman and O. E. Eowley, principal officers. 
Northern Council, American Legion of Honor, was organized June 6, 1879, 


with W. H. Hoffman, W. H. Kline, W. P. Russell, E. J. McCurdy, J. E. K. 
Morris, J. McCurdy, J. W. Yard, B. G. Spiller, J. A. Uncopher, J. W. Church- 
ill and Dr. Guthrie, officials. 

J. R. Jones Post, G. A. R., No. 156, was mustered in February 3, 1880, with 

C. C. Moses, B. G. Spiller, F. M. Adams, W. H. Richmond, W. A. Howell, L. 

D. Dennis, James Marshall, J. S. Hicks, W. R Hoffman, James Biggins of 
Second United States Sharp Shooters, Lewis Ralph, George Newland, A. J. 
Diiryea, George W. Colegrove, G. T. Dennis, E. H. Nichols and Ellis Coder. 
J. S. Hicks, of Eleventh United States Regiment, was first commander, 
and G. T. Dennis, of the Eighty-fifth New York Volunteers, adjutant, suc- 
ceeded in 1882 by A. J. Duryea, Two Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania In- 
fantry, who served until succeeded, January 8, 1886, by Adjt. William S. 
Hazen, of Sturgess' Rifle Regiment. F. M. Adams, of Fifty-eighth Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry, served as commander in 188'^; J. S. Hicks in 1884; A. H. Mayo, 
of the United States Engineer Corps, in 1885; C. C. Moses, in 1886; A. C. 
Douglass, 1887; A. H. Mayo, 1888, with L. D. Hill, of the One Hundred and 
Eighty-seventh New York Infantry, adjutant, who was re-elected for 1889, 
when Patrick McDonald, of the Twenty- seventh New York Infantry, was elected 
commander. There were 153 members enrolled, of whom about 100 remain 
in the post, although at date of last report there were only seventy-two members 
reported. The officers for 1890, in order of rank, are: P. McDonald, Com. : 
M. M. Dalton, S. V. C. ; Ezra Marsh, J. V. C. ; A. H. Mayo, S. M. ; G. T. Den- 
nis, Chap. ; Norman Wright, Serg. ; Frank Adams, O. of D. ; W. Wilmarth, O. 
of G. ; A. C. Douglass, I. G. ; Frank Hibbard, O. G. 

Eldred Woman's Relief Corps was instituted November 19, 1886, with 
Madams B. E. Marsh, L. A. Douglass, F. M. Squires, C. J. Hazen, C. M. Wol- 
eott, A. Keyes, J. Sterling and S. Howell, officers in the order of rank. Mrs. 
Chase is president for 1890; Mrs. Mary Cotton, S. V. P. ; Libbie Moses, J. V. P. ; 
Mrs. A. J. Clark, Sec. ; Mrs. Havens, Treas. ; Mrs. T. A. Douglass, Chap. , with 
Mrs. Howell, Mrs. King, Mrs. Pepper and Mrs. Ellis, filling the other offices. 

Nichols Camp, .Sons of Veterans, was organized in January, 1887, with C. 
M. Slack, captain ; N. Zeak, lieutenant, and John Learn, second lieutenant. 

Eldred Lodge, No. 278, K. of P., was organized October 13, 1889, with the 
following named members: I. N. Stickle, P. C. ; H. A. Johnston, A. M. Palmer, 
A. N. Squires, W. G. Robarts, E. S. Rogers, K. of R. and S. ; W. B. Rogers, C. 
W. Franklin, C. Y. White, F. M. Rockwell, H. E. Rockwell, W. W. Grove, C. 
G. Richardson, W. A. You»g, C. H. Kaufman, W. D. Russell, Fred Julien, C. C. ; 
A. H. Mayo, C. W. Dorrion, F. P. Beamer, B. W. Doane, J. Lemmler, A. D. 
Gould, Lewis Balfour, F. Simon, R. Doerr, W. F. Burr and F. A. Carter. The 
officers for 1890 are: Robert Templeton, C. C. ; W. B. Rogers, V. C. ; A. M. 
Palmer, M. A. ; L. Balfour, Prelate; R. Doerr, M. of E. ; H. A.Johnston, K. R. S. ; 
H. E. Rockwell, Trustee. 

The Chess Club, organized in February, 1890, elected H. G. Heath, Pres. ; 
P. F. Brown, V. P. ; C. W. Franklin, Sec. ; Allen Morse, Treas. ; A. H. Mayo 
and L. D. Hill, Trustees. 

The Young Men's Catholic Association was organized in 1889.... The 
officers of the Library Association, chosen in March, 1890, are: Mrs. W. B. 
Archibald, Pres. ; Mrs. T. L. Sartwell, V. P. ; Mrs. A. T. Barden, Treas. ; 
Miss Jennie Wolcott, Sec. 

The Eldred Board of Trade was organized in July, 1887, with A. B. Row- 
ley, president; E. C. Wolcott, vice-president; E. R. Mayo, secretary; E. S. 
Rogers, treasurer; P. O. Heasley, W. A. Young, W. B. Archibald, F. Simon 
«tnd R. H. Owens, directors. 


The Bank of Eldi-ed was opened in February, 1879, in the Dolan House, 
■with P. McGough, president, and S. M. McGough, cashier. In April the office 
was removed, owing to the owners being engaged in wider fields. The Eldred 
Bank, chartered in the fall of 1881, completed the present building in 1882. 
The officers at the time were W. L. Hardison, president; D. D. Moriarty, vice- 
president; P. O. Heasley, cashier; J. D. Downing, Dr. W. L. Chrisman, M. Fin- 
negan, W. A. Young, J. V. Eitts, and the president and vice-president, directors. 
The Eldred Bank robbery was perpetrated September 11, 1884. It appears 
that Cashier Heasley and Clerk Sloan were placing the cash in the safe, prepar- 
atory to closing; a bearded burglar appeared, and covering the officials named 
■with a revolver, gathered up $2, 500 and disappeared. 

The Eldred Savings and Loan Association -was organized in May, 1889, with 
D. L. Bobbins, president; B. F. Greenman, vice-president; A. D. Gould, 
secretary; W. B. Archibald, treasurer; F. F. Brown, attorney; J. C. Welch, 
B. T. Hopewell and the officials named, directors. 

In May, 1879, W. L. Chrisman and Eeuben Dennis constructed a system of 
water--works, the latter agreeing to connect the dwelling houses with the main 

pipe and supply water for |1 per month The Eldred Water-Woi*ks, the 

enterprise of E. A. Barden, date back only to November, 1889. The water is 
obtained from the springs southeast of the town, where a reservoir of 3,000 
barrels capacity was constructed. Up to March, 1890, pipes were laid on 
Mechanic street. 

The Eldred Gas Company was organized in January, 1884, with Sam. M. 
Jones, Joseph R. Morse, Daniel E. Jones, James D. Downing and W. L. Har- 
dison, members. 

The Eldred Oil Company was organized in November, 1879, with A. B. 
Eowley, president; M. Finnegan, vice-president; A. D. Gould, secretary, and 
T. C. Wainman, treasurer. The executive committee comprised A. T. Barden, 
W. B. Archibald, A. Lemex, W. L. Chrisman, J. Uncopher, J. I. McCarthy, 
W. G. Eobarts, T. H. Ford, B. Alford, H. H. Mullin, E. E. Mayo and B. E. 
Cutler. In January, 1880, drilling was commenced on the Stull farm .... In 
October, 1883, White & Leaven's lamp-black factory on Indian creek was estab- 
lished .... The Windfall glycerine factory, owned by George H. Dana, of Duke 
Centre, was blown to atoms in January, 1885; James Simmons and a boy 
named Charles Thompson were killed. A large hemlock tree forty feet to the 
east, and the magazine equidistant on the south, were lifted up bodily. 

G. T. Dennis, manufacturer of the Dennis Botanic Eemedies, came to 
what is now Eldred in 1822 with his parents; in later years traveled exten- 
sively as far west as Illinois, and in 1873 established the "Great American 
Panacea, ' ' a medicine which was received with much favor. In later years he 
has introduced a number of medicines and extracts, all of which are accorded 
an excellent reputation by his neighbors of McKean county. 

Dr. Bates' Medicine Company was formed in 1886, with Dr. Morgan and 
A. D. Gould members. The medicines are prepared at Eldred and are adver- 
tised by a regular traveling company. 

The Carriage Leather Manufactory of James N. Duffy was established in 
July, 1887. The location of the works is on the old Stull farm, near the 
junction of the Western New York & Pennsylvania Eailroad and the Nar- 
row Gauge, on the right bank of the Allegheny river, below the town of 
Eldred. Mr. Duffy has been connected with this business since 1846, begin- 
ning at Newark, N. J. , and gives his great industry at this point personal super- 
vision. In 1889 additions to the original works were made, and the facilities 
for tanning and finishing all kinds of leather used in the construction of car- 


riages, and all kinds of patent and enameled leather used by saddlers and 
harness-makers, are ample. 

The Woloott Opera House was completed in August, 1884, for B. C. Wol- 
cott, A. T. Barden, Miles Loop, W. B. Archibald and A. B. Eowley. 

In 1865 there was high water, which came up in the road where Main 
street is now made, but that memorable flood was placed in the back-ground by 
that of May 31, 1889, which passed the water-mark of 1865, on the old Barden 
house at Eldred, by twelve inches. From Archibald's to the St. Elmo, on the 
west side, not a place escaped a thorough wetting, and from Welch's to Bar- 
den's, on the east side, the bank, Sartwell's, Owens Brothers' and Hill's were 
the only places high enough to escape. Carter's furniture store, above the 
St. Elmo, received its share of wetting. Sidewalks were either afloat or 
turned up on edge, boats flitted about the streets, through yards and in 
stores, while a horse and wagon became an object of curiosity. It was a pict- 
ure of Venice with the rough side out, and was especially brilliant when at night 
the large open gas lights shown upon the water, and pleasure parties enjoyed 
a boat ride through the streets. 



Hamilton Township Topography — Geology — Population — Eesident 

Tax-Payebs, 1836-37— Officers Elected in 1889— Villages. 

Hamlin Township Boundary- Topography — Oil Wells— Discovery or 

Limestone — Forests — Population— Resident Tax-Payees, 1847-48. 

Mount Jewett— Its Rise and Growth— Natural Gas— Industries-Post- 
office— Churches AND Cemetery— Society— Kinzua Bridge— Oil Com- 

HAMILTON TOWNSHIP is bounded on the north by Corydon township, 
on the east by Lafayette township, on the south by Wetmore township 
and on the west by Warren county. In 1879 the following described terri- 
tory, taken from Wetmore township, was added to its southwestern corner: 
Warrants 2514, 2597, 2400, 2394, 2399, 2352, 2338, 2465, 2563, 2395, 2318 
and 2391. Kinzua creek, which rises in Keating township, flows in a gen- 
eral westerly course to the confluence with the South branch, five miles due 
north of Wetmore, thence northwesterly, and passes out of the township near 
its northwest corner. Chappel fork and its numerous feeders divide the 
north one-half, and Two Mile run, a branch of the Tionesta, divides the 
southwest annex, as it runs northwest from Wetmore via Ludlow, leaving the 
county a point west of Windfall run. Wild Cat run flows southwest into 
Two Mile, while numerous small streams course down the plateau openings 
into the streams named. Paine' s summit, in the north, is the highest meas- 
ured elevation, being about 2,100 feet above tide level; the lowest, 1,240 
feet, where the Kinzua enters Warren county. At Ludlow depot the sub-Olean 
conglomerate is exposed, its top being 116 feet above the track. At the Hulings 
& Davis well, drilled in the fall of 1878, one and one-half miles northeast of 
this exposure, 48 feet of Olean, 343 feet of Mauch Chunk and Pocono, 60 of 


jlJ^ on^z? 


Red rock, 160 of shale and slate, and 40 of Eed rock were penetrated before 
the Chemung formation was reached, at a depth of 651 feet. Through 
the Chemung the drill penetrated 379 feet of white slate; at a depth of 
1,950 feet struck fossiliferous shale, and at 1,957 feet the hard slate and shale, 
or the Bradford oil sand, down to 2,011 feet. The well was cased dry at 360 
feet. In the hill north of Ludlow detatched sandstone and conglomerate 
exists and in some places red soil. 

Hamilton township claimed a population of 539 in 1880, including the 215 
residents of Ludlow. In November, 1888, there were 111 Republican, 84 
Democratic and 14 Prohibition votes cast, or a total of 209, which number 
multiplied by five gives a fair estimate of the present population, 1,045. 

The officers elected in 1889 were: Supervisors, Frank Morrison, Otto Law- 
son; school directors, H. Morlin, A. Logan; town clerk, J. B. Richardson ^ 
justice of the peace, J. K. Bates; constable, H. J. Parker; collector, J. K. 
Bates; auditor, E. B. Fisk; judge of election. First District, A. Logan; in- 
spectors. First District, C. O. Nelson, H. Gofl; judge of election. Second 
District, M. Strong; inspectors. Mat. Morrison, J. H. Crozier. 

The resident tax-payers of Hamilton township in 1836-37, as certified by 
George Morrison, assessor, were George Morrison (saw-mill owner), David 
Sears (saw-mill owner), Caleb Chappel (farmer), William English (who owned 
two horses), Jonathan and David E. Dunbar, Jonathan Marsh and Thomas- 
Pound (who had not yet improved their little farms), Morrison & Harrison 
(saw-mill), Samuel Morrison, Isaiah Morrison and Root & Beeman. 

Ludlow is a thriving village in the extreme western part of the township,, 
situated on the Philadelphia & Erie Railfoad. Its industries are chiefly the 
manufacture of lumber, leather and carbon black. J. G. Curtis, who came tO' 
the village in 1889, erected the Ludlow Tannery and began the manufacture 
of leather, and in 1886 established the firm of Curtis, Maxwell & Co. Mr. 
Curtis is also largely interested in the manufacture of lumber, as well as in 
the mercantile business. A post-office and several general stores are also 
located at this point. The A. R. Blood Carbon Works are very extensive, and 
are under the supervision of P. F. Riordan. 

Deputy Supreme President G. W. Brown, of Youngsville, Penn. , organized 
Ludlow Union, E. A. U., June 28, 1889, at Ludlow, with fifty-one applicants 
for charter, and with the following ofiicers: Chancellor, J. K. Bates; advocate, 
A. W. Vantassel; president, John Gibbs; vice-president, Mrs. Jennie Rich- 
ardson; auxiliaiy, Miss Hanna Nolin; secretary, Mrs. Millie Bates; treasurer, 
Mrs. J. G. Curtis; accountant, H. H. Curtis; chaplain, Mrs. C. H. Loucks; 
warden, D. G. Curtis; sentinel, Mrs. A. Cameron; watchman, P. F. Riordan;, 
conductor, H. M. Swick; assistant conductor, Mrs. H. M. Swick; trustee, J. 
G. Curtis; examining physician, G. T. Pryor, M. D. ; representative to Grand 
Union, J. K. Bates; alternate, P. F. Riordan. 

Wetmore is a busy little lumber town on the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad. 
Here Thomas Keelor has his extensive lumber mills and mercantile estab- 
lishment. L. D. Wetmore' 8 lumber industries are also located here, as well 
as a post-oflSce. 


Hamlin township, bounded by Wetmore, Sergeant, Lafayette and Keating 
townships, is divided into three sections, Kinzua creek valley in the north 
center, and part of the northwest, separated by Big Level, of which Howard 
Hill is a peak, from Marvin and West Clarion valleys on the east, center and 
south. The Smethport anticlinal runs southwest between Howard Hill and 


Marvin creek; the Kinzua — Emporium cross anticlinal — through the southwest 
corner; the southeast corner is near the Clermont (4) bituminous basin; the 
western and central sections in the sixth bituminous basin, which also crosses 
the northwest corner. The greatest elevation (Howard Hill) is 2,268 feet 
above tide, and the lowest (near the old Hulings well No. 1) 1,625 feet. The 
high lands average 2,200 feet above tide. 

The head-waters of West Clarion form the southwest of Howard Hill, while 
Kinzua creek, which forms in Lafayette and Keating, receives many feeders 
along the great bend north of the hill. Windfall run rises in the northwest 
corner, and the south branch of Kinzua in the southwest corner. Marvin 
creek may be said to rise in the south center, although a small branch comes 
down from Seven Mile summit in Sergeant township. Head Brook, Wildcat 
and Stanton runs, with a hundred rivulets, flow southeast from Big Level to 
swell the stream, and at Kasson post-office Long run flows northwest from 
Chappel Hill into it. Warner Brook flows from Clermont Hill through the 
southeast corner into the Marvin, and Glad run flows northwest in the south- 
west corner to join the south branch of the Kinzua. 

Early in the " fifties ' ' the McKean & Elk Land Company opened a num- 
ber of coal mines here. Dalson's principal bed was at the head of Wildcat 
run, east of Howard Hill, a four-feet deposit of pure, bright bituminous coal, 
eleven feet of dark and six feet of cannel. Within this township three mem- 
bers of the coal family are grouped, the Dagus, Clermont and Alton middle. 
The first occupies but small space, the second inhabits the heights of the 
Howard Hill divide, and the third is found in almost every place throughout 
the county. 

The old Owl Well (Hulings No. 1) was drilled in 1878 (opposite the mouth 
of Town Line run on the south bank of the Kinzua, 1,625 feet above ocean 
level) to a depth of 1,613 feet, and yielded thirty barrels per day for the year 
ending in July, 1879. Hulings No. 3 well was completed in March, 1879, to 1,730 
feet, near the southwest corner of Warrant 3076, and the wells of Wilcox & 
Schiiltz, Knox Bros. , and the Westmoreland Oil Company on Warrant 3073, 
found some oil in the top of the sand, but deeper drilling produced salt water 
in such quantity that they were abandoned and the southeast limit of the field 
supposed to have been reached. A subsequent well drilled by Wilson in 1881 
north of the middle of Warrant 2690, and promptly abandoned, confirmed this 
supposition, but wells drilled by the Union Oil Company, southeast of the 
Hulings No. 5, have recently demonstrated an extension in that direction. On 
the western edge of the field a number of wells drilled by the P. C. L. & P. Com- 
pany were similarly drowned out by salt water and operations in that quarter 
were abandoned also. These wells all stopped at the Bradford sand, the 
deeper Kane sand not having been discovered until 1885, at Kane. The 
Kinzua well, at the confluence of Glad run and the Kinzua, was opened early 
in 1877 by L. C. Blakeslee for the Producers' Consolidated Land & Petroleum 
Company of Bradford. Salt water was found in the sand at 1,745 to 1,768 
feet, or flfty feet below ocean level. 

In 1856 Dalson discovered limestone, but the location is not given nor has 
the modern explorer found an outcrop, but as the valley of Marvin creek is 
celebrated for its deposits of this slaty-bluish rock, a dip may bring it under the 
sub-Olean conglomerate. 

The valley of North Kinzua in this township, as well as those of Windfall, 
Mead, South Kinzua and Glad run, with the intervening territory (nearly one- 
half of the township) are still clothed with an unbroken forest in which hem- 
lock predominates. This is the property of the Union Oil Company and the 


■Gen. Kane estate. The Kane estate still owns in Wetmore and Hamlin town- 
ships, extending into Elk county, about 25,000 acres. 

The resident tax-payers of Hamlin township in 1847-48 were Adin and 
Aranah Aldrich, William Fields, Freeman Garlick, J. P. King, C. McFall, H. 
Burlingame (now a resident), Sam. Stanton, Abel Stanton, Jerry Warner, 
Hiram White, David Woodruff, William Woodruff and Joseph Wilks & Co. 
The total value of occupied lands and personal property was $2,940, as certi- 
fied by Assessor McFall. 

Hamlin township, in 1880, had 330 inhabitants. In 1888 there were 165 
Republican, 57 Democratic and 15 Prohibitionist votes cast, or 237. The 
total multiplied by five gives the population at the time 1,185. The officers 
<jhosen in February, 1890, are: Supervisors, D. F. Pattison, Bent Lunberg; 
school directors, W. H. Neil, M. J. Gallup; auditor, L. J. Swanson; con- 
stable, G. H. Sparks; collector, G. H. Sparks; judge of election, J. E. B. 
White; inspectors, S. W. Pattison, Charles Paulson; town clerk, Charles 

The post-ofBce at Kasson is in charge of G. O. Garlick. 


N. D. Battison's basket factory was established in August, 1883, when he 
leased free from Elisha Kane a three-acre lot for such factory. Mr. Kane 
gave him fl75 and also a large lot for his dwelling — the only consideration 
being the establishment of this industry. Earlier that year the town plat was 
surveyed, and with this industry, employing twenty-five persons, the nucleus 
of the present village was formed. That year the R. & P. E. E. was com- 
pleted, but some of the people opposed the location of the factory earnestly. 
A tire destroyed the buildings soon after, but the owner rebuilt and continued 
in business some time. The building passed into various hands, and is now 
occupied by Hitchcock & Davis. 

In 1887 F. W. Andrews began a series of seven test wells on the Kane 
lands, which led to the development of the field by the Anchor Oil Company. 
The first of the wells, one and one-half miles northeast, showed gas in small 
quantity at a depth of 900 feet. This with others reverted to Mr. Kane, and 
he conceived the idea of supplying Mount Jewett with gas. With some difficulty 
thirteen consumers were secured, but the gas proving itself worthy of its 
•claims, the list was increased to over 100. At the beginning Mr. Kane could 
not obtain one subscriber to a proposed stock company. The system now ex- 
tends from McAmbley's mill to the village. 

O. B. Mosser & Co. ' s tannery at Mount Jewett was established in 1887, 
when most of the present buildings were erected. The capacity is 600 hides 
per week, and the number of men employed in July and August, 1889, fifty. 
This tannery uses from 4,000 to 5,000 cords of bark annually, the price paid 
being 14.50 per cord. The hemlock bark is fouad in the woods adjoining, oak 
bark being imported. 

The McAmbley saw-mill, three miles northeast of Mount Jewett, is an im- 
portant industry .... Hitchcock & Davis' saw-mill is devoted to the manufact- 
ure of hardwood Mellander's mill is northeast of the village Camp- 
bell's saw-mill, a mile south of the village, was a large concern, but in July, 
1889, the machinery was moved to Kane to make way for Huff's hardwood 

iactory. Southeast of the village are the Roos saw-mills Kinzua mill, six 

miles from Kane, was burned in July, 1887 The McClelland & Kane model 

mill was erected at Mount Jewett in the fall of 1889. M. H. Manning was 
superintendent of building and machinery. 


Mount Jewett post-office was established in February, 1882, with Augustus 
Mellander postmaster. 

The Presbyterian Society was organized July 13, 1888, and incorporated 
July 25, with O. B. Mosser, G. V. Thompson, E. W. Hevner, W. W. Brewer, 
L. A. Groat and Hubert Schultz, trustees, all of whom were members except 
Brewer, Hevner and Thompson. The list of original members also embraced 
Calvin Gray and wife, Mrs. W. W. Brewer, B. A. Conn, Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. 
Groat, Mrs. Schultz and Mrs. Mosser. Work was begun in July on a new 
church house and completed in October. Bev. W. J. Arney of Kane organ- 
ized this society, and is its first pastor. 

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Nebo Church of Mount Jewett was in- 
corporated in September, 1888, with B. C. and A. Lundberg, Oscar Wiborg 
and J. Mellander, subscribers The Church of the Mission Friends was or- 
ganized in 1887 and a small house for worship erected. 

The Aldrich Cemetery was incorporated in May, 1877, with H. W. Bur- 
lingame, G. O. Garlick, O. Perry, H. L. Burlingame, J. E. B. White and 
Hiram W. Burlingame, trustees. 

Fisher Tent of the K. O. T. M. was organized at Mount Jewett in May, 
1887, with James Doyle, Owen Coyle, L. A. Groat, De T. Parrish, C. W. 
Obing, W. H. Reese, A. A. Van Slyke, W. J. Jackson, Dan. Shea, M. Syl- 
vester, N. Marsh, R. Jackson and O. McLoud filling the several positions. 

The Kinzua bridge was completed April 1, 1882. To the observer, as he 
stands upon the north abutment pier, and, facing southward, gazes down a 
depth of over 300 feet to the creek's bed, then up the slope of the opposite 
side to the south end, at a distance of more than 2,000 feet from him, and con- 
siders that these extreme points are connected by a continuous line of track of 
uniform grade, over which roll the heavily freighted trains, he can not fail to 
be impressed with the fact that this is a progressive age. The bridge is con- 
structed of stone and iron entirely.- It consists of twenty lower spans of 
thirty-eight and one-half feet each, and twenty-one intermediate spans of sixty- 
one feet, and contains about four and one-half million pounds of wrought iron. 
The height is 301 feet, and length 2,051 feet, giving it a title to being the high- 
est bridge in the world and one of the longest. The stone piers which are to 
support the towering iron columns are built of massive sandstone blocks, quar- 
ried on the ground, which nature has provided in abundance, and of an excel- 
lent quality. These are skillfully jointed, bedded and bonded. 

Stafford, the watchman, climbs over and inspects three of the towers every 
day. As there are twenty towers altogether he gets over the entire system of 
piers and braces in a week. Once, in the winter of 1883-84, while making his 
usual inspection, he fell a distance of sixty-five feet. The cold winter air 
numbed his hands so that he could cling no longer to the iron braces. Fortu- 
nately he fell into about ten feet of snow, which broke his fall, else the com- 
pany might have been compelled to look for a new msin. He said he only 
missed striking a stump by a few inches. He relates another narrow escape. 
He said he was climbing over the top girts one day when some one hailed him 
from above. It startled him, and he sort of forgot where he was. He let go 
his hold and was going. By a great effort he caught hold of one of the iron 
braces just in time to save himself. The accident of July, 1889, tested the 
strength of the structure. Conductor Keily' s train, bound south, separated on 
the viaduct, the locomotive and attached cars reaching Mount Jewett before 
fourteen cars were missed. The engineer at once backed down and when 
near the bridge Brakeman Ryan discovered the conductor's signals. The en- 
gineer reversed his lever, and at once a coupling snapped and three cars went 


thundering down grade. At the bridge there was a terrible crash and three 
cars were converted into kindling wood, 301 feet above the creek. Had the 
cars gone over the sides of the viaduct there is little doubt regarding the dam- 
age which would have been caused to the structure. 

The Anchor Oil Company's lease on the Kane oil reservation or the Swe- 
dish farms was developed in July, 1889. Up to the 21st the well was guarded, 
but it is now declared to be a gusher as well as gasser. The location is one 
and a half miles south of the tannery on Frank Nelson's farm. The Anchor 
and Forest Oil Company and Taylor & Torrey secured a piece of the Kane 
estate, consisting of 2,500 acres. P. W. Eoth came to Mount Jewett in July, 
1889, and located his first well July 29 on the John Mellander farm. Mr. 
Roth drilled the first producer in the Washington field, and has been con- 
nected with oil interests in the Bradford field since 1875. The Timbuctoo 
well at Lafayette was completed July 25, 1889. 

Oil memories cluster round the big bridge. An old weather-beaten der- 
rick is still visible from the viaduct a short distance up the stream, where Mar- 
cus Hulings anchored some cash in the autumn of 1879 in searching for a con- 
tinuation of the Cole creek streak. In the winter of 1883-84 Mumford, a 
former bookkeeper for Butts, together with Cheeney & Phillips, of Alton, 
obtained a 200-acre lease from Bowen, of Boston, on Warrant 2,'241. The 
company drilled a well on the piece. The Barnsdall venture of August, 1884, 
is located in the southeast corner of Warrant 2,248 — 2,500 f8et north and a 
trifle east of the Mumford & Cheeney well. In 1879 the Parker Brothers, 
and, in 1884, Higgins also, drilled on Ormsby lands. 



Keating Township Topography— Geology— Oil Wells — Population- 
Township Okficees in 1890— Port of Entry— Early Settlers- The For- 
ESTER— Solomon Sartwell and Others— Resident Tax-Payers, 1836-37 
—Early Merchants in the Township— Villages. 

Borough of Smethport Population, Etc.- Officers Elected in 1890— 

First Cabin and House— Reminiscences of Asa Sartwell— Early Set- 
tlers— Some First Things'— Post-office— ResidBnt Property Owners, 
1856-57— Municipal Affairs— Academies— Churches— Societies— Hotels 
—Banks— Water and Gas Systems— Floods and Fires— Miscellaneous. 

KEATING TOWNSHIP holds a semi-central position in the county. 
Nunundah creek enters the township near the southeast corner, flows 
north by west via Smethport to Farmers Valley, where it turns northeast to 
join the Allegheny beyond the north town line. Cole creek's south branch 
flows northeast from the plateau, receives the north branch in the center of the 
north half of the township, and enters Nunundah creek opposite Farmers 
Valley. Marvin creek enters the township a point west of the south center, 
and flowing northeast to Smethport forms a confluence with the. main creek. 
In the southwestern corner the head-waters of the West Clarion unite with 
Three Mile run to flow southwest; and within a short distance of this conflu- 
ence one of the heads of Kinzua creek is found. South of the road from 


Smethport to Ormsby' s summit a feeder of Marvin creek rises, which enters- 
that creek south of the borough limits. A little over two miles east of Smeth- 
port occurs the greatest elevation in the State west of the fifth bituminous 
basin — Prospect hill, 2,495 feet above tide level. The lowest point, of course, 
is where Nunundah creek exits at Frisbee, which is 1,460 feet above tide. At 
Smethport depot the elevation is 1,488 feet, so that the grade from the track 
for two and a quarter miles east to Prospect peak is 1,007 feet. The altitude- 
of the plateaus may be placed at 2,100 feet. In the southeast corner the 
Smethport anticlinal separates the Clermont coal basins. At Smethport the- 
anticlinal is broken by the elevation of strata, so that the dome center lies one 
and a half miles east. Small tracts of Clermont exist along the western line, 
and on Ormsby's summit, 2,140 feet above tide. The Pocono formation at 
Smethport is 260 feet thick, and at Barnett's, southwest of Haskell's well, 285 
— sixty feet covered, forty feet coarse-grained ferruginous sandstone, partly 
covered, ten feet fossiliferous flags, fifty feet covered rock, forty feet gray shal& 
with bands of fossiliferous, ferruginous lime-rock; twenty feet of green and 
brown flags and shale, five feet of hard, fossiliferous, gray lime-rock, and sixty 
feet of olive and gray shales and shaly sandstone. 

The well drilled by Lytle & Vezie in 1875 for the Smethport Oil Company 
reached a depth of 2,004 feet, its opening being 102 feet higher than the rail- 
road track. Forty-three records of strata were obtained and the crust on the 
Taylor farm, where the drilling was done, thoroughly explored. From 330 
to 378 feet slate and shale, and very hard shells, were taken; from 570 feet 
sand shells, and so on until oil was struck at 1,127 feet, the Bradford oil sand 
at 1,360 feet, and the Smethport oil sand at 1,720 feet. This well proved a dry 
one; the 237 feet of casing were taken up, the hole plugged with five feet of 
pine below the water courses, and rock filled in above, but within six hours the 
gas removed such obstructions. The Haskell well, drilled in December, 1876, 
and April, 1877, for William Haskell, to a depth of 1.861 feet, is located on the 
east side of Marvin creek, one and one half miles southwest of Smethpoit. 
Gas was struck at 719 feet and also at 1,620 feet, where oil made a fair show 
for a short period. Brant & Co. 's well yielded one barrel per day; Lucius 
Rogers' well on Warrant, 2,058, near the borough; Sherman, Hatch & Co.'s 
well, and other ventures, mark the oil fever period of this township. The 
Miner said so much about the Haskell well that a skeptical contemporary,, 
named Brandon, of the St. Marys Gazette, perpetrated a pun, which was war- 
ranted by the circumstances: "If the Miner continues much longer to sound 
the praises of the Haskell well in its peculiar way we will not be surprised to 
learn that it has-killed somebody." 

Keating township claimed a population of 2,974 in 1880. This included 
364 residents of Bordell settlement and 986 of Coleville village, but not the- 
borough of Smethport, which then had only 872 inhabitants. The vote of 
Keating in 1888, outside Smethport, shows 266 Republicans, 239 Democrats, 
16 Prohibitionists and 21 Labor Unionists, or a total of 542, which, multiplied by 
five, gives 2,710 as the present number of inhabitants. 

The officers chosen in February, 3890, are: Supervisors, J. H. Sowers, 
Richard Grifiin; collector, Thomas Hussey; school directors, William H. Huff, 
D. B. Zillafro; constable, J. E. Stull; auditor, Allen Oviatt; town clerk, C. 
M. Capehart; judge of election. First District, C. D. Calkins; inspectors of 
election, First District, W. A. Mcintosh, M. N. Allen; judge of election. Sec- 
ond District, R. S. Porterfield; inspectors of election. Second District, C. P. 
Smith, P. S. Kepler; judge of election. Third District, W. H. Barr; inspect- 
ors of election. Third District, M. J. Lynch, R. L. Stephens. 


In 1809-10 Benjamin B. Cooper petitioned Congress to establish a port of 
entry at Smethport. He purchased twenty-one acres of land on the west side 
of Nunundah creek, near the bridge at East Smethport on which to build a 
town, and made propositions to men to get out timber for the proposed wharves. 
This was to be the harbor wherein the ships of the citizens of Instanter might 
be moored while receiving and discharging cargoes. His plans for hauling 
freight from the port to his town on the hill are not given. 

Shortly after the disestablishment of Instanter, or in 1811, Arnold Hunter 
moved to the site of Smethport, and other settlers flocked into Farmers val- 
ley, as related in the chapter on pioneers. Among the pioneers was Jonathan 
Colegrove, who died April 11, 1872. He settled in Keating township in 1815,. 
traveling from Portville to Smethport by canoe, with his wife and two children. 
From 1817 to 1852 he was one of the Eidgway land agents, P. E. Scull be- 
ing also agent for another portion of the lands. Uncle Daunty, or Jonathan 
Dunbar, another pioneer, was certainly a stage Dutchman in general make-up- 
and manners. His wife made what she was pleased to call "clothes" for her 
epouse. He built the first saw-rnill in the county at Farmers Valley, bat had 
so much trouble with it he finally exclaimed : "If the Lord had given Job a 
saw-mill instead of boils the devil would then have got him sure. ' ' Dunbar- 
became leader of the first singing school, and, though a strange character in 
many ways, was a most useful citizen. 

The Forester and Smethport Begister, Volume I, No. 12, was issued by 
Hiram Payne June 30, 1832. The motto was : ' ' The uncultivated forest 
shall become a fruitful field." W. E. Wolcott, of Sergeant, advertised cattle 
for sale; Tobias L. Warner his shoe factory at Smethport, and Isaac Burlin- 
game advertised for stone masons; Isaac Harvey placed his books in the hands 
of John E. Niles for collection; Orvil Ketchum, of Farmers Valley, asked his 
debtors to pay up; the Erie Canal Company advertised their lines, giving as 
reference J. M. Hughes, of New York, an uncle of the present editor of the 
Reporter ; P. E. Scull wished his neighbors to have their goods imported to 
Bushnell's basin; Sartwell & Eice offered ten barrels of pork for sale; the 
death of Harriet Young, aged twelve years, at Farmers Valley, was noticed, 
and the marriage of Harman Sprague and Adaline Vredenburgh, of the west 
branch of Tunuanguant creek was announced. B. B. Cooper advertised 
60,000 acres of land for sale, and E. A. Smith his stock of goods. 

Solomon Sartwell, one of the leading pioneers, who died August 4, 1876, 
was born at Littleton, N. H., January 16, 1796; settled in McKean county in 
1816 (whither the lady to whom he was married in 1822 came in 1818). He 
served as postmaster twenty years and as associate judge five years, having 
previously filled the office of high sheriff for two terms and treasurer for one 
term. The StuUs and Ottos, to whom references are made in other chapters, 
must also be counted among the pioneers, while the Williamses, Youngs, 
Crows (of Sinnemahoning), the Hamlins, and fifty other families of whom 
mention is made in this volume, are connected with the beginnings of the pro- 
gressive period. Of the Crow family several humorous stories are related. 
One is entitled "Called to Preach." It appears that along in the "thirties" 
Moses Crow and his father were engaged in the bottom lands back of the pres- 
ent Wright House in chopping trees. Work went on fairly well until a dry 
elm tree was encountered, and to it both men directed their strength. The day 
was sultry and the workers perspired freely. The younger one, looking round 
on the sea of trees, grew tired suddenly, and, addressing his father, said: " I 
think I am called to preach." Soon after he became an exhorter, passed a lit- 
tle while at the Meadville College, and received a regular appointment. David,, 


Jr. , followed his brother into the Methodist ministry in 1842, and a few years 
later the old squire was asked for a donation for church purposes, but as a re- 
sponse made the suggestion that he had given two sons to the Methodist church, 
•contribution enough for one man. 

The resident tax-payers of Keating township in 1836-37 were Daniel Acre, 
Samuel Armstrong, William J. Anderson, Aaron Arnold, Dudley Birge (a sad- 
dler at Smethport), J. L. Birge (moved west), N. G. Barrus, Joseph Brush 
{moved to Lafayette corners), Levi Bennett (who sold the site for the poor- 
farm to Gol. Wilcox), T. Barrett, Willis Barrett, Gardner Barrett (died in 
1888), Nath. Barrett, Daniel Burbank, Enoch Briggs (who still resides in the 
township), Aurilas Beman, Dr. Joshua Bascom, Elisha and Uri Bush, Daniel 
Brown (who cleared the Vincent farm), Harvey Brewer (a shoemaker), D. E. 
and O. R. Bennett, William Bell (of Ceres), John Brockham, Nicholas Baker, 
Curtis Bump, Amos Briggs (a mason), H. N. Burgett, P. W. Beach, B. C. 
Corwin, C. D. Calkins (now at Smethport), Ghordis Corwin (who owned the 
grist- and saw- mill), Daniel and David Cornelias, Amasa Cowles, Erastus 
Cowles (saw-mill owner), Henry Chapin,' Thomas Curtis, Eichard Chad- 
wick (who died in 1866), E. J. Cook, David Crow, Elihu Chadwiok, J. P. 
Clark (merchant), C. S. Comes (living in Eldred), Daniel Crossmire, Silas 
Crandall, John and J. D. Dunbar, D. Othneal, Eliza De Golier, L. H. De 
Aubigny (non-resident), E. E. Fowler, Dr. George Darling, James O' Daily, 
Levi Davis, Jr., Brewster Freeman, Daniel Foster, Nathan Folsom, D. C. 
and J. A. O. Gunning, G. W. Griswold, Truman Garlick, Jesse, Hiram 
and Almon Garey, Wheeler Gallup, James Green, J. W. Howe (a lawyer), 
Simon Hammon, James Hoop (now of Lafayette), Barnabas Hill, George 
Hetohelder, Minard Hall, John Holmes & Co. (tan-yard owners, near F. 
Andrews' house). Holmes & Eichmond (merchants), L. E. Hawkins (of Cha- 
<!opee, Minn.), O. J. Hamlin (lawyer), Dwight Holcomb (moved to Florida), 
A. Housler, L. Havens, Gideon Irons, John King, Horace B. and Isaac King, 
Jared and Jonathan Ketchum, Eev. Abner Lull, Warren Lucore (mer- 
chant), John and T. Moore, J. McDowell, Dr. William Y. McCoy, T. Mattison, 
Chester Medbery (now in Dakota), John Nolan (lawyer), John E. Niles, John 
Needham (merchant), Alvin Owen, Dr. William Otto, James, John, Jemima 
and Charity Otto, W. D. Owen (merchant), Joseph Otto (saw-mill owner), W. 
S. Oviatt, Silas D. and Lewis Otto, Eben Parker (who owned a part of the A. 
H. Cory farm), Hiram Payne (editor), Elisha Eandall (dealer). Dr. Salmon M. 
Eose (who owned the Freeman property), S. E. Eobbins, William Eice, Allan 
Eice, Nelson Eichmond, Jonas Eiddle, William Eipley (died in 1888), P. E. 
Scull (died in 1867), Jonas, Sam. and Arnold Southwick, Cephas Scott, Asa 
Sartwell (fulling and saw-mill owner), Joel Sartwell (now of Cedar Eapids, 
Iowa), John Smith, Jesse Spencer, Sol. Stoddard, Charles Smith, and Samuel 
Smith (tailor, now in Iowa), Sol. Sartwell, Jr., Sartwell & Arnold (traders), 
Sol. Sartwell, E. H. Stillson, John Taylor (merchant), Nathan Tinney, James 
Taylor, Enoch Tyler, D. Voorhes, D. S., William C, George W. and Nathan 
White, WiUiam Williams (trader), L. C. Willard (col.), Clinton and Stephen 
Young, Hiram Spencer and Henry Bunyan (trader). Abner Lull, the assessor, 
recommended Jared Ketchum and Ghordis Corwin for collectors. In 1837 
A. H. Cory and Lawyer L. F. Maynard settled here. 

In Keating township in 1846 were the general stores of C. Steele & Co., 
Ford & Holmes, O. J. & B. D. Hamlin, W. Y. McCoy and O. E. Bennett; the 
taverns of O. E. Bennett and Eichmond & Bennett, and the grocery of James 
Miller. Elijah Bennett had a store in December. The merchants of Keating 
township in 1852 were B. D. & H. Hamlin, James Taylor & Son, C. K. Sart- 


well & Co., S. & E. G. Eaton, C. Steele and O. R. Bennett. The latter and 
Sartwell & Co. were also liquor dealers. 

No. 1, Volume VI, of the Citizen, was issued September 3, 1859, with L. 
Eogers editor. At this time E. B. Eldred, W. A. Williams, William A. Nichols, 
Warren Gowles and John C. Backus were resident attorneys; W. Y. McCoy, 
J. Darling and S. D. Freeman, physicians; W. K. King, surveyor, and J. K. 
HafPey; geologist. The hotels advertised were the Bennett House, by D. R. 
Bennett, and the Eldred Half-way House, on the Glean road. 

Villages. — Farmers Valley, Coryville and Prisbee may be called synony- 
mous terms. They all form a part of the old settlement of Farmers Valley, 
of which so much is written in the general history as well as in this chapter. 
In 1812 Francis King surveyed the fifty-acre tracts donated by John Keating 
for the following named settlers in Farmers Valley: George, Joseph and 
Matthias Otto, Robert Gilbert, Jonathan Moore, Zachariah, Thomas and Will- 
iam Ashley. 

The old post-office of Farmers Valley dates back to early in the "thirties," 
when Timothy R. Bobbins was master. Thomas Goodwin, Jackson Otto and 
F. C. Olds have filled the office. The post-office of Coryville was established 
in 1872 with Asa H. Cory, master, who has been continued in office since. 

The Union Church of Farmers Valley was built early in the "fifties" 
through the exertions of A. J. Otto and Arnold Southwick. Dan Lennox was 
the carpenter and builder. It has been open to all denominations, but the 
United Brethren may be said to be the principal worshipers. 

The United Brethren Church at Coryville, or Frisbee, was built in 1878-79 
on land donated by A. H. Cory. The building cost over 12,000. 

The United Brethren Society of Farmers Valley was founded October 19, 
1867, with William S. Moore, T. R. Robbins, the Southwicks and John 
Holmes the elder, as organizers. 

The E. A. U. lodge of Farmers Valley was organized in February, 1886, 
with A. R. Tubbs, Mrs. Otto, J. H. McQuade, Mrs. Tubbs, Mrs. Ellen Otto. 
J. L. Bean, A. Tyler, F. C. Olds and Dr. R. J. Sharp, officials. 

The tide water pump station was established near A. H. Cory' s house, but 
owiag to the absence of gas the pumping works were moved to Rixford. On 
June 19, 1887, a 25,000-barrel tank was burned, 1,000 teams bringing people 
to witness the fire. The remaining tanks were moved to Ohio in 1888. 

Lucius Rogers built the first steam saw, shingle and planing mill in Nun- 
undah Creek valley in 1885. Prior to that time saw-mills run by steam and 
water-power were common along the banks of this stream, and a few are found 
to-day using up the remnant of pine and hemlock of the valley and hills. 

In 1855-57 a coal oil factory was established up the creek from Smethport. 
Bordell (Coleville post-office), known in 1879 as the "Banner Frontier 
Town," was partially burned February 9, 1880, when McCormack's hall and 
three other buildings were destroyed. In November, thirty-five buildings were 
reduced to ashes, the Bennett House, the leading hotel, conducted by T. P. 
Hill, being among the number. . . .The fire of February 16, 1881, resulted in 
the destruction of the Golden Rule block, and two adjoining buildings .... In 
February, 1880, the sum of 130,000 was subscribed 'to build a plank road from 
Bradford to Coleville. The stockholders elected J. J. Carter, president; P. T. 
Kennedy, vice-president; James Amm, secretary, and F. A. Wheeler, treas- 
urer. When the town was in its glory the Bordell Bazoo was published here, 
and altogether the place was considered of much importance. 

Ormsby Junction is the name given to the junction of the narrow gauge 


roads connecting Smethport with Bradford, Mount Jewett and Kane. Sub- 
sequent to 1842 Mr. W. F. Ormsby settled in this then comparative wilderness, 
and he continues to reside here on his fine farm. 

Aiken, Davis, Van Vleck and Simpson are small settlements on the Brad- 
ford, Bor'dell & Kinzua Eailroad. Cyclone post-office is located in the west- 
ern part of the township. 

In December, 1888, a well was drilled on the Ormsby farm to a depth of 
2,408 feet, to the fifth sand. This well answered 120 quarts of glycerine with 
seventy-five barrels of oil within four weeks; but the production fell to one 
and one-half barrels, when it was abandoned in February, 1889. One and one- 
half miles west of the Ormsby farm is a well which gives gas and oil, but is 


Smethport is located in one of the most beautiful valleys in the mountain 
country. Its site was selected by John Keating, and this selection confirmed 
by the commissioners. The latitude and longitude ascertained by Surveyor 
Chadwick in 1839 are 41° 55' and 78° 33', respectively. 

In 1880 the borough claimed 872 inhabitants. In 1888 there were 148 
Republican, 116 Democratic, nine Prohibitionist and one Union Labor votes 
cast, or a total of 274, which number multiplied by six gives an idea of the 
present population as 1,644. 

In 1811 Capt. Arnold Hunter built the first cabin at Smethport, where 
the Widow Rifie resided in 1871, now occupied by a Swede. A second house 
was built in 1812, but both were abandoned in 1814. Capt. Hunter died in 
Harrison township, Potter county, March 16, 1857, aged seventy-eight years 
and 364 days. In 1850 he was deputy census marshal for Potter county. 

Asa Sartwell, of Iowa, who revisited his old hunting grounds in 1880, 
made the visit memorable by relating to the editor of the Miner his reminis- 
cences of Smethport and vicinity in early times. Over sixty years before, 
his father, Solomon Sartwell, located within a few miles of the county seat in 
Farmers Valley, while his brother, Solomon, Jr., settled soon after at Smeth- 
port, and built the second large log-house, Eastman having built before. 
Asa, the younger brother, came in 1820, when Smethport contained a few log- 
huts and a carding-mill. He bought this mill, but at the close of the season 
saw it destroyed by fire. Going to Utica, N. Y. , he purchased machinery for 
carding wool and dressing cloth, brought it hither, and in conjunction with 
these industries entered the lumber trade, and became a real estate dealer. 
John Applebee's saw- and grist-mill and Conant's cloth -dressing house were 
among the first industries. 

Joseph Otto came from Mifflin county, Penn., early in 1810, and settled 
two and one-half miles below Smethport with his young wife. The trip hither 
from Angelica was through sixty miles of wilderness without one inhabitant, 
and from the effects of such a journey he fell sick soon after settlement, and 
he and his wife were almost on the point of starving when he became strong 
enough to hunt. Stephen Young located in Farmers Valley with others 
named in the chapter on first settlement. James Taylor moved to McKean 
county in 1824, and a few years later engaged in mercantile business at 
Smethport with Hawkins & Ford. A. N. Taylor, who died May 15, 1876, 
from injuries inflicted by a fall September 25, 1875, came with his father, and 
in 1843 became a partner in the business, ultimately purchased his father's 


interest in the store and built a house, adjoining the Astor House, which was 
burned in the fire of March 28, 186S. He filled the office of associate judge 
for one term. In his journey to Smethport in November, 1826, Lawyer Orlo 
J. Hamlin met the Smethport and Jersey Shore mail carrier, Moses Hanna, 
at Canoe Place. Both traveled to the county seat over the moiintains and 
across the terrible corduroy or pole bridges. Crossing Nunundah creek, they 
were soon at the Eed Tavern, kept by Mrs. Willard. His stay he describes 
in his reminiscences, thus: "It being long after dark when we arrived, the 
bar-room was well filled with men. After supper we joined the men in this 
room. One of them, the leading man, after inquiring whence I came and 
what I came for, asked me ' What spelling books are in use now ? ' Replying, 
I said it was long since I was in the elementary schools, but I believed Dills- 
worth's were going out and Webster's coming in. Retiring for the night, I 
was shown to a room adjoining the bar-room. It so happened that a married 
couple occupied a room near by, and about ten o'clock that night the woman 
was in her accouchement, and I was kept awake by neighboring women passing 
to and fro every few minutes, while the men in the bar-room kept up a contin- 
ual cross-fire of conversation and laughter. About rcfidnight I heard the 
sound of men falling on the bar-room floor, and this intolerable nuisance was 
kept up until nearly morning, when I arose, irritable and feverish, determined 
to return to Towanda. ' ' In his reminiscences of the bar, given in connection 
with the courts, he refers to the manner in which he was received next morn- 
ing and the establishment of his law office at Smethport. 

Moses Hanna was mail carrier between Jersey Shore and Smethport as 
early as 1826, making the round trip every two weeks. Byron D. Hamlin 
carried the mail later on the Eldred route, while Davis Young carried over the 
Smethport and Olean route in the ' ' thirties. " The latter died in Michigan in 
January, 1871. Orlo J. Hamlin was postmaster for three years — 1829-31. 
L. E. Hawkins held the position in 1837; Arthur Burlingame, in 1843; Phi- 
letus Ford, in 1844; E. Bard, in 1847; W. K. King, in 1851; Sol. Sartwell, Jr., 
in 1855, followed by C. K. Sartwell, Ira H. Gleason, M. L. Armstrong, and M. 
A. Sprague, who was appointed in 1884. Mr. Wilson, editor of the Democrat, 
was appointed in 1888. Mr. E. M. Kerns was appointed in July, 1889, but 
did not take possession of the office until April, 1890. The office is now located 
in the Odd Fellows' hall building. 

Smethport borough, in 1856-57, was assessed by William K. King. The 
resident property owners were: N. W. Abbey (joiner), H. W. Annis, F. A. 
Allen (printer and school superintendent), Almon Allen, William Bell, J. C. 
Backus (attorney), S. A. Backus (representative), G. B. Backus, G. Bar- 
rett. D. R. Bennett, O. R. Bennett (hotel keeper), E. W. Bingham (owner of 
fifty-two lots), J. L. Beckwith (blacksmith), John Baker, J. Chadwick, R. 
Chadwick, Warren Cowles (attorney), G. Corwin, Widow Milligan, Amor 
Chandler (joiner), J. C. Chandler (printer), David Crow (owner of twenty 
acres and thirty-three lots), G. C. Chapin (joiner), L. H. De Aubigny, 
G. C. DeGolier (joiner), Dr. George Darling, Jedediah Darling (physician 
and judge), John Doyle, J. G. Eaton, E. B. Eldred (attorney), B. Freeman 
(owner of forty lots and thirteen and a half acres), B. H. Freeman, S. D. Free- 
man (physician), Philetus Ford (merchant), Job Gifford, Jr., O. W. Gallup, 
S. S. Hackett (shoemaker), B. Harris (cooper), Mary Holmes, Henry Hamlin, 
0. J. Hamlin, A. D. Hamlin, B. D. Hamlin (attorney), Ed. Hupey (mason), J. 
C. Hamlin, G. Irons, B. F. Jackson, W.K. King (owner of twenty one lots and 
six and three-quarter acres), Robert King (draftsman), Patrick King, John K. 
Lamphier, John Long, Dr. W.Y. McCoy (owner of twelve lots and seven acres). 


N. Medbery, Joe Morse, J. M. Miller (A.stor House), C. J. Medbery, E. B. Mason 
(tianpr), W. F. Orm^by (blacksmith), W. S. Oviatt, Hiram Payne, T. P. W. 
Palmer (watchmaker), W. H. and JE, P. Richmond, Chris. Ritzan (cabinet- 
maker), G. W. Sartwell, C. K. Sartwell, W. H. Sartwell, Sol. Sartwell, S. B. & 
R. Sartwell, Stanton & Beokwith (owners of sixty-four lots), J. L. Smith, P. 
E. Soull, G. M. Smith (joiaer), J. B. Taylor (blacksmith), A. N. Taylor, Aug. 
Wolters, Ernest Wolters (blacksmith), W. A. Williams (attorney and treasurer), 
Dr. L. E. Wisner, J. G. Young. There were seven watches discovered and 
assessed. There were thirty- nine horses and fifty-two cows, and all property 
was valued at $25,504. 

Municipal Affairs. — The first election held at Smethport, for borough ofii- 
cers, was that of February 11, 1853. William A. Williams received forty-three 
votes for burgess; W. Y. McCoy, S. Sartwell and Henry Hamlin, received 
forty-three; William K, King, forty-two, and Ghordis Corwin, forty-one 
votes, for council; O. R. Bennett, Jeremiah Chadwick, N. Medbery and N. W. 
Goodrich, received forty votes; C. B. Curtis, twenty-eight, and P. E. Scull, four 
votes, for school directors; Byron D. Hamlin, eighteen votes, and Jeremiah 
Chadwick, seventeen votes, were chosen poormasters; N. W. Goodrich, James 
Miller and C. B. Curtis, were elected auditors; O. R. Bennett, assessor; George 
B. Backus, constable, and Hiram Payne, justice. At this time C. K. Sart- 
well and A. N. Taylor were chosen inspectors, and Philetus Ford, judge of 

The names of citizens who have filled the of&ce of burgess down to the 
present time are as follows: W. A. Williams, 1853; Philetus Ford, 1854; 
JohnC. Backus, 1855; C. K Sartwell, 1856; S. M. Smith, 1857; G. C. De- 
Golier, 1858; S. A. Backus, 1859; Byron D. Hamlin, 1860; W. Y. McCoy, 
1861-62. G. H. Mason was chosen assistant burgess in 1862; L. R. W^isner, 
1863, with R. Sartwell, assistant; Warren Cowles, 1864, with J. K.Townsend; 
G. Corwin, 1865-66, with N. W. Abbey; B. D. Hamlin, 1867, with H. Ham- 
lin; Henry Hamlin, 1868, with M. A. Sprague. The last named was elected 
burgess in 1869, with R. Sartwell assistant, and re elected in 1870; John C. 
Backus, 1871, with M. L. Armstrong, assistant; W. Y. McCoy, 1872, with 
W. D. Gallup, assistant; P. Ford, 1873, witl; N. W. Abbey, assistant; G. M. 
Smith, 1874-75, with T. J. Gifford, assistant; Thomas King, 1876, with Hugh 
Glenn, assistant; M. A. Sprague, 1877, with E. F. Richmond; M. L. Arm- 
strong, 1878, with H. L. McCoy;. S. J. GifPord, 1879, with H. S. Sartwell; 
B. L. Knapp, 1880, with J. C. Hamlin; J. C. Backus, 1881-85, with S. J. 
Gifford; M. L. Armstrong, 1882-83; Frank Moses, assistant, in 1884; A. T. 
Palmer, burgess, in 1886; B. F. Wright, 1887; F. W. Brownell, 1888, and 
Warley Gifford, 1889. 

The names of the justices are as follows: W. A. Williams, 1854; Jeremiah 
Chadwick, 1855; G. B. Backus, 1856; Philetus Ford, 1860-65; R. Sartwell, 
1861; A. B. Armstrong, 1862-67; M. JSf. Powell, 1869; J. G. Eaton, 1870; P. 
Ford, 1871 (but being collector of internal revenue he did not qualify); S. Sart- 
well, 1872; C. K. Sartwell, 1872; G. M. Smith, 1876-81-86; P. Ford, 1877- 

The officers elected in February, 1890, are as follows: Burgess, F. W. 
Brownell; council, N. D. Ramer, William Haskell ; school directors, Hon. T. A. 
Morrison, E. R. Mayo; constable, H. L. Burlingame; collector, J. A. Holder; 
judge of election, E. F. Waller; inspectors of election, J. C. Backus, Wash. 
Starks; auditor, W. D. Gallup. 

The secretaries of the borough have been Henry Hamlin, 1853; C. K. Sart- 
well, 1854; G. C. Chapin, 1855; 'S. B. Sartwell, 1856; W. K. King, 1858; 



A. N. Taylor, 1859-64; B. F. Wright, 1860; W. S. Brownel], 1861; J. C 
Hamlin, 1862-73-78; P. Ford, 1865; C. K. Sartwell, 1869; EobertKing, 1870; 
Henry King, 1871; D. R. Hamlin, 1872-74; H. F. Barbour, 1875; R. H. Rose, 
1877; W. D. Gallup, 1879-81; E. Quackenbush, 1880; A. B. Armstrong, 1882; 
Lucius Rogers, 1886, and John Forrest, 1889. 

The expenditures for the year ending March 1, 1889, amounted to $2,900.05. 
The vouchers for this expenditure, in possession of treasurer, M. L. Armstrong, 
were examined by Auditors J. O. McCarty, F. R. Foster and John Forrest, 
borough auditors. 

Hose Company. — The Smethport Hose Company was organized in Decem- 
ber, 1881, with Sheridan Gorton, Pres. ; W. F. Specht, V. P. ; G. R. Brownell, 
Sec; M. L. Armstrong, Treas. ; W. P. Walshe, foreman; H. L. Wilson and 
John Russ, Assts. ; Hugh P. Brawley, A. B. Armstrong and John Forrest, 
trustees. In July of this year 107 votes were recorded for, and eighteen 
against, the proposed water tax. The question being carried, the work of con- 
struction commenced, aad when the hose company was organized a full supply 
of water for all purposes existed. 

The election of the following efificient officers for the ensuing year occurred 
in December, 1889: President, E. M. Kerns; vice-president, Henry Beiver; 
foreman, F. W. Brownell; first assistant foreman, F. W. Rumsey; second assist- 
ant foreman, W. H. De Garmo ; secretary, Clifford Burlingame ; treasurer, M. Ij. 
Armstrong; trustees, Frank Kerns, John Rooney, Sam. Fry. 

Academies. — The April exhibition of 1839, at the Smethport Academy, was 
participated in by David Crow, Levi Ketcham, Henry Hamlin, Wallace Saw- 
yer, William King, Ransom Devereaux, Ithual Humphrey, Elizabeth Chapin, 
Violetta Sartwell, George Sartwell, Montague Rose, George Birge, Niles Tay- 
lor, I. N. Sawyer, Ormand A. Holmes, John K. Williams and Byron D. Ham- 
lin. At this time Luther Humphrey was principal from 1837 to 1840, when 
Afkins came; George W. Scofield came in 1842, and is now judge of court of 
claims, at Washington; L. D. Wetmore in 1842-43, later president judge of 
the Warren District; Franklin Freeman was succeeded by B. D. Hamlin in 
1844; Henry M. Lane came in 1845, and from 1847 to the temporary closing 
of the school, ladies presided. In November, 1849, the old academy was re- 
opened, with Ephriam Mariner (now a leading citizen of Milwaukee), principal. 
W. Y. McCoy presided at this time over the board with J. Darling, secretary. 
In the fall of 1850 Miss Miner was principal. On June 30, 1851, the academy 
trustees organized, with S. Sartwell, president; William Y. McCoy, treasurer; 
Hiram Payne, secretary; G. Irons, J. Taylor and William AVilliams, directors. 
This board resolved to collect all debts due the old academy, put the build- 
ings and grounds in repair and rent the concern to a qualified teacher. In 
November the academy was re-opened by F. A. and C. H. Allen. In 1854 the 
Aliens left, but were followed by others until Mr. Train ended the academy 
days. In March, 1870, the trustees of the academy were authorized by special 
act to convey the buildings and grounds to the school district, which was 
done, the old buildings moved and the present large buildings erected on the 

The call for the organization of the Smethport Lyceum was made in Octo- 
ber, 1870, by Dr. W. Y. McCoy, who was chosen president; E. H. Bard, secre- 
tary; L. Rogers, J. C. Backus, A. B. Armstrong, Henry King, M. A. Sprague, 
G. Corwin, G. M. Smith, W. J. Milliken and A. N. Taylor. In November, L. 
Rogers was chosen president, and D. R. Hamlin, secretary. 

Churches. — The history of religious bodies in McKean county dates back 
to 1809, when a Catholic missionary founded a congregation at Instanter, and 


held servicea there regularly until his disappearance in the forest toward the 
close of 1810. A reference to the history of Cameron county points out Smeth- 
port as a part of the Sinnemahoning Methodist circuit in the "twenties;" the 
collapse of the circuit work; the introduction of the Adventists; the return of 
Methodism and the introduction of Universalism. 

The Methodist Episcopal Chiirch of Smethport is said to have had its begin- 
ning about 1832. Under date October 9, 1837, a subscription book was opened 
by the trustees. The subscription contracts were drawn for $500 down, but 
under the $500 heading a few men write their names for $5.00: Andrew Rifle, 
David Crow, Jr., Harvej' Brewer, Richard Wooley and Daniel Rifle; Asa 
Sartwell contributed $300; Brewster Freeman, $200; Richard Chadwick, A. 
M. Stanton, Nathan White and Nathan Burlingame, $100; Samuel Smith, 
David Crow, Thornton Barrett, $50 ; John Needham, James O. Gunning, David 

C. and "Warren Lucore, $25: Horace B. King, $20 in nails; David Comes and 
Lew. R. Hawkins, $25; Hiram Payne, John E. Niles, Salmon M. Rose, A. 
Burlingame, Harvey Brewer, Cephas Scott, Dudley Birge, J. L. Birge, AV. Y. 
McCoy, Charles Smith, Leonard Rice, Isaac Thompson (who subscribed $10 
worth of axes), William C. White, Joel Sartwell, L. F. Maynard, E. C. Chand- 
ler, Horace and Milo Scott, Anson Rice and Barnabas Graves were also among 
the subscribers. The society was incorporated with Samuel Smith, Cephas 
Scott, Willis Barrett, Daniel Rifle and Gardner Barrett, trustees. The 
petitioners were Sandusky Miller, H. B. King, John Mills, R. Chadwick, 

D. S. White, Daniel Brown, ' W. J. Colegrove and C. Steele. In 1837 a 
lot was purchased from the commissioners of the county, and the present house 
was built by Sol. Sartwell and P. Ford. It was completed, in 1839, at a cost 
of §3,000, repaired in 1865 at an expense of $1,000, and in 1880 at $2,000. 
The past recording stewards were Richard Chadwick, S. M. Rose. David S. 
White, I. S. Gleason. H. L. Burlingame and W. J. Colegrove. The present 
recorder is W. P. Eckels. The roll of preachers from 1832 to 1889 is as fol- 
lows: 1832, William Butts and Samuel Gregg; 1833, Thomas J. Jennings, 
Benjamin Preston and Joseph A. Halback; 1834, Ignatius H. Hacket, Amer 
G. Smith and Bryan S. Hill; 1835, John Demming, Matthew Hanna and Lo- 
renzo Whipple ; 1836, Auguatin Anderson and J. W. Stryker; 1837, A. Ander- 
son, F. W. Conable and J. F. Mason; 1838, Alpha Wright and F. W. Conable; 
1839, Horatio M. Seaver and J. W. Stryker; 1840, H. M. Seaver and Hugh 
Ely; 1841, A. Haywood and J. Hagar; 1842, J. P. Kent, J. Hagar and John 
Glass; 1843, _J. F. Mason and John Glass; 1844, J. F. Mason; 1845, J. 
Pearsall; 184/, F. W. Conable and J. McCleary, Jr. ; 1848, James McClelland; 
1850, E. B. Pratt; 1851, R. E. Thomas; 1852, Hiram Hood; 1854, Withan 
H. Kellogg; 1855, H. W. Annis; 1857, J. J. Roberts; 1859, S. D. Lewis; 
1860, Alonzo Newton; 1862, L. A. Stevens; 1864, Lowell L. Rogers; 1866, 
William Blake; 1867, Roswell R. Puree; 1868, E. B. Williams; 1870, W. 
Gordon and F. D. Sargent; 1871, H. Peck; 1873, J. L. Rushidge; 1875, 
J. C. Whiteside; 1878, W. B. Waggoner; 1881, E. P. Hubbell; 1884, William 
Bradley, and 1887-89, T. W. Chandler. The presiding elders are named as 
follows: 1832, J. S. Barris; 1833, H. Kinsley; 1836, A. Abell; 1837, J. Hem- 
minway; 1841, J. Durham; 1844, Thomas Carlton; 1845, William Hosmer; 
1846, J. G. Gulick; 1848, Elija Thomas; 1850, A. D. Wilbor; 1852, J. C. 
Kigsley, 1854, C. D. Burlingham; 1858, E. E. Chambers; 1862, A. P. Riplev; 
1866, W. S. Tuttle; 1870, E. A. Rice; 1873, L. D. Watson; 1878, L. A. Stevens; 
1882, O. S. Chamberlayne, and 1886, T. J. Bissell. Carlton, above named, was 
one of the Methodist Book Concern for twenty years; Hosmer died in June, 
1889. He was an abolitionist. Thomas was killed in the Modoc war. 


The membership of this church is placed at fifty and the value of property 
at $5,000. 

The Baptist Church of Smethport had its origin in the society formed in 
Norwich township in 1820. The Baptist revival of May, 1836, was conducted 
by a Mr. Ketchum. He came to Farmers Valley to convert the people who 
scofPed at the preachers of the period. During the meetings a baby died at 
Smethport, and Mrs. Asa Sartwell went up to offer consolation to the parents. 
At the burial there was no one to say a prayer. Next morning she, with 
other women, went down to the camp, and arrived there just as Ketchum was 
reading the text — "Woe unto ye lawyers." After the rough address the 
women told him the state of affairs at Smethport, and he agreed to move on the 
village next day, provided the women would support him. He came and 
opened his batteries in the court-house. There was a Methodist class here 
composed of Richard Chadwick, Horace King, Mrs. Sol. Sartwell, Mrs. Ghor- 
dis Corwin and others, but they had no church house. All turned to Ketchum, 
who conducted the meetings for some days, when he was called away, leaving 
Mr. Denning, a Methodist preacher, to baptize sixty persons. In 1840 a soci- 
ety was organized here with the following members: William Williams and 
wife, James Taylor and wife. Ann Taylor, William L. Oviatt and wife, Abner 
Lull, Benjamin Oviatt and wife, George Griswold and wife. Job Gifford, Sr. , 
and wife, Elizabeth Holcomb, Amy Holcomb, Nelson Medbery and wife, Ghordis 
Corwin and Benjamin Corwin. The pastors have been Eev. S. Messinger, William 
Sawyer. Abner Lull, J. L. Smith, J. P. Evans, S. D. Morris, Columbus Cornforth, 
E. H. Gates, W. H. Willahan, C. H. Michelmore, and the secretaries have 
been George Griswold, William S. Oviatt, C. L. Douglas, Mrs. C. L. Doug- 
las, P. D Hopkins, J. H. Duntley and L. T. Medbery. In 1847 the church 
house was erected. This, with lot and other property, is valued at ffi.OOO. 
The membership is fifty-six. The society was incorporated in June, 1850, on 
petition of Ghordis Corwin, J. L. Smith, Bester Corwin, William Williams, W. 
G, Oviatt andE. J. Cook. At the time of organization, in March, 1850, G. Cor- 
win, William Williams, Wheeler Gallup, James Taylor, Benjamin Corwin and 
J. L. Smith were the trustees. 

The Catholic Church of Smethport may be said to be a continuation of the 
■old mission of Instanter, established in 1809, and of St. Marys, founded in 1842, 
when the Reilly family came into the Daly settlement on Nunandah creek. A 
year later the Tracys came. In the fall of 1 842 Father Berthy rode hither from 
Pittsburgh and held the first services of the church at James Daly' s house. The 
settlement was subsequently visited by Father Alexander, by the present Bishop 
Mullin and other priests until Father Smith came, in 1845, to stay a few years. 
On March 1, 1848, John Keating donated to Bishop O'Connor, of Pittsburgh, 
in trust for the Catholic congregations in McKean county, a part of Warrant 
2,050, near the lands of James Daly, Sr. , while at Turtle Point, near William 
and John Crowley' s lands, a tract of fifty acres was donated. A church build- 
ing was erected in 1848-49 and dedicated by Bishop O' Connor. It was in use 
up to the time the church at Smethport was completed. At St. Marys Revs. 
John Burns and J. D. Cody were stationed, and a few missionary priests came 
hither until Father Madigan came; P. J. Patterson took charge and remained 
some years. Father Flood was here in 1869, after Father Patterson moved to 
Newell creek. Rev. John Smith came in 1881, and remained until Rev. J. J. 
Galligan was appointed, in 1884. 

St. Elizabeth's Catholic Church was founded at Smethport February 19, 
1868, and in 1869 part of square 61 was donated for church purposes by Dr. 
William Keating. The proposition to build was received with favor, and a 


subscription book opened, Andrew Eeilly subscribing 1200; Eugene Daly, 
$125; Bernard McKean, $50; Jaraes Daly, 1124; James W. Griffin, $95; Mar- 
tin Burns, $70; Charles Hyland, $70; Hugh Glenn, $70; C. McElwee, $87; 
Timothy McCarthy, $60; Hugh McCabe, $60; Ed. McGill, $55; John Ward, 
$50; Mrs. McCullough, $50, and Timothy Lane, $35. Later B. D. Hamlin 
contributed $120; Henry Hamlin, $100, and Dr. Keating, $500. Other sums 
were subscribed by the Lynches, McCarthys and other members and citizens, 
subsequently, so that the building fund in August, 1874, was $4,624.48. The 
present church was dedicated April 25, 1874, by Bishop Mullin, assisted by 
Fathers Flood, Patterson and Kinsella. 

St Luke's iProtestant Episcopal Church of Smethport. The tirst services 
of the Episcopal church were held in the county seat in 1842. There were 
then only three members of the church living in the place. Irregular services 
were had at long intervals up to 1872, when a mission was organized by Bishop 
Kerfoot, with an executive committee consisting of Messrs. J. C. Hamlin, P. 
Ford, J. C. Backus and D. C. Yotmg. At that time there were twenty-four 
communicants. The progress was rapid, and in 1879 a parish, called "St. 
Luke's," was organized and incorporated, and in the same year a handsome 
church building was erected. Rev. H. Q. Miller, the first rector, retired in 
1880, and was followed by Rev. J. H. McCandless, the present rector. The 
church continued to grow rapidly year by year, and now, in 1890, it numbers 
sixty families, 160 communicants, and has a membership of about 300 by bap- 
tism. Many improvements have been made in the church property, a fine 
rectory has been built, and other additions are about to be made. The value 
of the church property, including the chapel at East Smethport, which was 
opened in 1887, is $8,700. The present vestry is composed of Dr. H. L. Mc- 
Coy, Messrs. J. C. Hamlin, John Forrest, Henry Hamlin, D. C. Young, E. L. 
Keenan and W. D. Gallup. 

The Congregational Church of Smethport was chartered in January, 1851, 
with Dr. W. Y. McCoy, Ezra Bard and Zera R. Tubbs, trustees. The peti- 
tion was signed by O. J. Hamlin, John E. Niles, A. A. Aldrich, Calvin How- 
ard, Timothy R. Tubbs, George W. Pelton, Abner Rockwell, Jonah S. Al- 
drich and S. G. Curtis. 

Societies. — McKean Lodge No. 388, A. F. & A. M., Smethport, was 
instituted June 5, 1867, with S. C. Hyde, W. M. ; J. C. Backus, S. W. ; 
Miles Irons, J. W. ; Warren Stark, S. D. ; William GifFord, J. D. ; M. A. 
Sprague, S. , and S. D. Freeman, treasurer. Lucius Rogers, William Haskell, 
T. W. Hogarth, J. W. Stark, T. Seems and A. B. Armstrong, unofficial members. 
The names of past masters are S. C. Hyde, J. C. Backus, T. Seems, G. M. 
Smith, S. D. Freeman, J. W. Stark, A. B. Armstrong, J. G. Boyer, William 
Specht, O. D. Gallup, G. N. Barrett, W. T. Callar, H. T. Sawyer, D. Martin, 
G. M. Smith, M. A. Sprague, I. A. Holder, W. D. Gallup, H. P. Brawley, P. 
W. Brownell. T. R. Foster is the present master. The past secretaries are 
M. A. Sprague, L. Rogers, F. King, E. H. Bard and W. D. Gallup. G. M. 
Smith is the present secretary. 

The Masonic Hall Association of Smethport was incorporated in March, 
1879, with S. D. Freeman, W. T. Callar, William Specht, M. A. Sprague, O. 
D. Gallup and H. T. Sawyer, stockholders. The capital stock was divided 
into 200 shares of $5 each. The hall was erected in 1878-79, and, with other 
property, is valued at $2,000. At present there are seventy-five members. 

Smethport Lodge No. 389, I. O. O. F. , was organized and the by-laws ap- 
proved by the grand lodge October 10, 1882. The charter members were 



H. W. Rubin, J. B. Brawley, Frank Rowlee,* W. B. Wagoner * H. W. Geor- 
gia, T. A. Morrison, W. H. Wetenhall, John McConaghy* and A. Reynolds.* 
Among the present members, who are not charter members, are M. N. Allen, 
W. G. Holder, W. Z. Georgia, T. P. Richmond, G. W. King, C. H. Moore^ 

A. R. Cory, M. A. Lillibridge, H. S. Sartwell, E. J. Hall, C. H. Calkins, B.' 
F. and E. G. Pelton, B. Badger, A. Deshetler, William Bennett, C. A. Krue- 
ger, W. A. Young, W. B. Joiner, H. H. Wilson, C. J. McClure, R. McCord, 

F. C. Olds, D. B. Freeman, D. Ramsdell, M. Rosenfield, F. Westerland, John 
Malin, A. G. Farley, G. A. Hyde, H. Saunders, H. L. McCoy, E. B. McCoy, 
W. A. King, A. B. Hyde, H. B. Vincent, S. B. Sherwood, M. A. Hall, R. W. 
Bloodsworth, W. A. Mcintosh, A. D. Bush and F. N. Taylor. A. T. Strana- 
han is present secretary of the lodge and H. M. Choate, noble grand. Among 
his predecessors in the chair were H. W. Rubin, J. B. Brawley, H. L. Wilson, 
Charles Beckwith and A. R. Cory. The officers elected in October, 1889, are' 
N. G., W. A. Mcintosh; V. G., O. D. Bush; P. S., A. T. Stranahan; A. S., 
W. G. Holder; Treasurer, H. W. Rubin; Con., A. R. Cory; trustee, J. E. Stull. 

Smethport Encampment No. 273, I. O. O. F., was instituted January 18, 
1888, with the following named charter members: M. N. Allen, Jacob Amend, 
R. W. Bloodsworth, W. E. Butts, Samuel Bedford, H. M. Choate, A. R. Cory, 
W. T. Callar, Julius Dupjon, M. Dunn, William Dunbar, J. Eber'spacker, D. 

B. Freeman, A. G. Farley, Frank R. Foster, W. Z. Georgia, A. W. Hamm, 
W. G. Holder, G. W. King, W. A. King, G. W. Kunsman, George W. 
Weaver, D. M. Wright, R. E. Looker, W. A. Mcintosh, Peter Martin, John 

C. Martin, C. H. Moore, H. L. McCoy, T. A. Morrison, Robert McCord, C. 
J. McClui-e, S. J. McKendrick, F. C. Olds, E. G. Pelton, B. F. Pelton, W. 
V. Provin, D. Ramsdell, H. W. Rubin, W. A. Russell, M. Rosenfield, J. O. 
Sonbergh, F. N. Taylor, H. B. Vincent, W. A. Young, J. H. Tate and I. J. 

The officers of the encampment in order of rank in October, 1889, were r 
H. W. Rubin, C. P. ; John 0. Sonbergh, S. W. ; F. C. Olds, J. W. ; A. R. 
Cory, H. P.; T. A. Morrison, trustee; G. W. King, treasurer. 

The officers in March, 1890, are: A. R. Cory, C. P. ; F. C. Olds, S. W. ; 

G. W. King, J. W. ; J. O. Sonbergh, H. P.; J. Amend, trustee; H. M. 
Choate, scribe. 

The Smethport Odd Fellows' Hall Association was incorporated in July, 
1889, on petition of M. N. Allen, H. M. Choate and W. H. Wetenhall, trust- 
ees of Lodge 389, and M. Dunn, E. G. Pelton and J. O. Sonbergh, trustees 
of Encampment No. 273. The lodges named, with J. H. Tate,* W. V. Pro- 
vin, D. P. Ansall, G. W. King,* E. G. Pelton, A. R. Cory,* H. M. Choate,* 
S. J. McKendrick, J. O. Sonbergh,* M. Dunn, H. W. Rubin,* Frank M. 
Taylor and Peter Martin, are also named as subscribers to stock. The names 
marked * and F. C. Olds were chosen directors. J. H. Tate was elected pres- 
ident; H. M. Choate, secretary, and H. W.. Rubin, treasurer, in December,. 
1889. This building was completed in April, 1890. This is a three-story 
brick, with stone facings, just north of M. A. Sprague's store. 

Keystone Encampment No. 77, Knights of St. John and Malta, was 
founded in January, 1890, and on February 1 the following named officers 
were installed: Eminent commander, P. A. Thomas; lieutenant-commander, 
J. W. Baker; captain of guards, A. H. Kidder; prelate, H. S. Rogers; chan- 
cellor, W. A. Curtiss; assistant chancellor, L. W. Dunn; almoner, William 
Masser; herald at arms, Fred M. Baker; sword bearer. Prank Green; mar- 
shal, George Thomas ; first guard, William Bennett ; second guard, B. A. East- 

* Not now members. 


man; medical examiner, Drt Burg Chadwick; warder, John Cramsie; sentinel, 
Edward Norman; trustees, Dr. Burg Chadwick, O. S. Greeley and James 
Dunn. The officers named, and the following named, were charter members: 
J. B. Laraway, C. E. Sprague and Peler Conley. 

McKean Post No. 347, G. A. E., was mustered in June 21, 1883. At the 
beo-inning of 1889 the following named were active members, names marked * 
being charter members: 

B. F. Wrigbt*, First Pennsylvania Rifles, Smethport. William H. Qrumbine* 
Eighty-seventh "Pennsylvania Volunieers, Smethport. S. D. Freeman* Bucktails, Smeth- 
port D A. Easterbrook*, Second United States Signal Service, Kendall Creek. A. H. 
Peirce*, Sixth Ohio Cavalry, Smethport. N. D. Foote*, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, Farmers Valley. J. D. Barnes* Foriy-second Pennsylvania Volunteers, Kas- 
son. R. Sartwell* Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. W. H. Rifle* 
Forty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers, Norwich. S. G. Bush*, Fifty-eighth Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, Smethport. W. Brockham* One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, Farmers Valley. W. Ogilvie* First New York Dragoons, Coleville. M. S. 
Sheldon* Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. A. Reed* 
One Hundred and Eighty-ninth New York Volunteers, Farmers Valley. E. P. Pratt* 
One Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. J. Howard* One 
Hundred and Forty-first New York Volunteers, Farmers Valley. H. S. Sawyer*, First 
Volunteer Cavalry, Farmers Valley. Charles S. Sanford* Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
Smethport. George Ogilvie*, First New York Dragoons, Farmers Valley. M. Rowan* 
Thirty-seventh New York Volunteers, Smethport. J. L. Stanton* Fifty-sixth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, Farmers Valley. N. F. Ferris* Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
Farmers Valley. W. W. Brewer* Forty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers, Mount Jew- 
ett. Emil Thamm*, Forty-first Missouri, Smetiiport; J. H. McQuaid* Tenth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, Farmers Valley. M. O'Reilly* Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Smeth- 
port. R. E. Hooker*, First New York Dragoons, Farmers Valley. M. R. McCauley* 
One Hundred and Forty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Farmers Valley. William 
Smith*, One Hundred and Fifth New York Volunteers, Mount Jewett. J. M. Robinson, 
One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Kasson. A. L. Hughes, Indiana 
Cavalry, Smethport. P. Rowan, Sixty-fOurth New York Volunteers, Smethport. J. E. 
Henderson, Eighty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colegrove. S. W. Evans, Fifty- 
eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Norwich. John A. Marsh, Sixth Vermont, Norwich. 
F. Cox, One Hundred and Thirteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Kane. A. Ostrandcr, 
Two Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Port Allegany. W. Ostrander, Two 
Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Port Allegany. J. H. Sowers, Seventh 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, East Smethport. Thomas Walker, Twenty-first Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, East Smethport. H. K. Moore, Seventy- sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Cole- 
ville. A. A. Welters, Forty-second Pennsylvg,nla Volunteers, Smethport. D. Smith, One 
Hundred and Seventy-ninth New York, Coleville. D. Sterrett, One Hundred and Thirty- 
first Pennsylvania Volunteers, Washington. E. Grover, Two Hundred and Eleventh 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colegrove. S. Martin, Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, Smethport. O. Brink, Thirty-third New York Battery, Smethport. H. 
L. Burlingame, One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. Jacob 
Hafner, One Hundred and Seventy-second Pennsylvania Volunteers, Clermont. William 
Wilkins, Forty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Kanesholm. F. J. Vickery, One Hun- 
dred and Nine'tyfourth New York, Smethport, J. H. Ellsworth, One Hundred and Sev- 
enth New York, Smethport. J. Colegrove, Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, Cole- 
grove. W. H. Curtis, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. L. Rogers, 
Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. W. C. Dickenson, Second United 
States Signal Service, Norwich. W. Grigsby, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
Smethport. H. M. Choate, Twenty-first New York Volunteers, Smethport. R. Kassel- 
bach. One Hundred and Tenth New York Volunteers, Clean. J. M. McElroy, One Hun- 
dred and Second Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. J. H. Stull, Fifty-eighth Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, East Smethport. H. B. Vincent, Fifty-first New York Volunteers, 
Smethport. A. Fields. One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Kane. G. W. 
Talbot, United States Navy, England. L. W. Searfass, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
Kane. T. A. Morrison, One Hundred and Twenty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smeth- 
port. G W. King, One Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, East Smeth- 
port. Herman Young, One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Farmers 
Valley. J. A. Briggs, One Hundred and Ninety-fourth New York Volunteers, Smeth- 
port. S. E. Quick, One Hundred and Forty-fourth New York Volunteers, Keating. C. 
F. Holmes, Tenth New York Heavy Artillery, Keating. T. W. Chandler, One Hundred 
and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport.' D. Y. Lee, Sixth New York Artil- 
lery, Smethport. Asa Champlin, Thirteenth Artillery, Farmers Valley. William Cas- 


ke.y, One Hundred and Forty-lliird Pennsylvania Volnnteers, Smelhport. G. H. Prance, 
One Hundred and Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, Smethport. D. E. Robbihs, 
Sixth New Hampshire Artillery, Smethport. P. O'Brien, Third New York Volunteer 
Excelsior Brigade, Smethport. S. Lewis, One Hundred and Eighty-ninth New York 
Volunteers, Oolegrove. E. R. Mayo, Third Maine Light Battery, Smethport. T. Kay, 
One Hundred and TUirty-fourtli Pennsylvania InfantrJ^ H. C. Hammon, Eleventh Illinois 
Cavalry. J. C. Backus*, J. K. Graham*, E. V. Chadwicli*, .Joseph Hoover*, Patrick 
McCabe* George Badger* R. E. Tooker*, J. Loudragon*, Henry Herring*, B. H. 

B. P. Wright was chosen commander, and J. K. Graham was acting adju- 
tant until appointed adjutant in July. In 1884 A. L. Hughes succeeded Gra- 
ham, but H. L. Burlingame filled the office until he was appointed, vice 
Hughes, in July. J. C. Backus was commander in 1885 and Burlingame adju- 
tant. William H. Grambine was chosen commander in 1886; Lucius Rogers 
in 1887, with the adjutant of 1885-86 still in office. In December, 1887; J." 
M. McElroy was elected commander, and H. M. Choate adjutant, who served 
until January, 1889, when Adjt. Choate was elected commander, and Lucius 
Rogers was appointed adjutant. The officers for 1890 are: S. G. Bush, C. ; 
C. S. Sanford, S. V. C. ; H. L. Burlingame, J. V. 0. ; Emil Thamm, Q. M. ; 
T. W. Chandler, Chap. ; J. D. Barnes, Surg. ; J. H. Sowers, O. of D. ; J. H. 
Ellsworth, O. of G.; M. O'Reilly, O. S. 

Women's Relief Corps No. 23, Smethport, was organized September 17, 
1885, with Madams Kate L. Wright, Helen S. Morrison, Rebecca Kerns, Al- 
minia Backus, Sarah Grumbine, Hattie P. Colegrove, Julia L. Easterbrook, 
Rose E. Peirce, Elminia Thamm and Amelia Bush, members. Mrs. Wright 
was elected first president and Mrs. Morrison secretary. In 1887 Mrs. Cham- 
bers was elected secretary, and Mrs. Thamm president, succeeded in 1888 by 
Mrs. Helen Morrison as president, and Miss Ella J. Wright secretary. In July, 
1888, Miss Lena Wright took the former secretary's place and was appointed 
in December, 1889, -^fhen Mrs. Morrison was re-elected president. On the 
latter' s election as president of the department of Pennsylvania, W. R. C, 
Mrs. Kate Wright was elected president, and Mrs. Bertie Choate vice-presi'- 
dent. The officers for 1890 are: President, Miss Lena Wright; senior vice- 
president, Mrs. Nina Rumsey; junior vice-president, Mrs. Amelia Bush; treas- 
urer, Mrs. Sarah Vickery; chaplain, Mrs. Julia Pratt; conductor, Mrs. Rose 
Peirce; guard. Miss Maud Stephens. 

The K. O. T. M. is a recent organization at Smethport. I. S. Reynolds 
presides over the lodge, with M. B. Greer, recorder. 

The Central Home Relief Society was organized at Smethport August 20, 
1863, with Mrs. P. Eord, president; Mrs. H. Hamlin, vice-president; Mrs. 
C. Cornforth, treasurer; Mrs. W. Cowles, secretary; Madams A. N. Taylor, 
W. H. Richmond, L. A. Stevens, A. S. Swift, M. A. Holmes and J. R. Chad- 
wick, collecting committee. The object was to furnish aid to the families of 

The County Prohibitory Constitutional Association was organized at 
Smethport in February, 1889, with W. W. Brown, president; Byron D. Ham- 
lin, vice-president; E. E. McElwaine, secretary, and B. F. Hazelton, treas- 
urer. W. A. Young, Mrs. Young, W. H. Dodd and Reuben Dennis were 
•chosen delegates. In May of this year the association established The Amend- 
ment Herald, and by other means essayed to educate the people in temperance 
affairs, carrying the question so far as to win 3,054 votes for the amendment, 
against 2,058 recorded for maintaining the evil to which they were opposed. 

The Women's Christian Temperance Association was organized March 13, 
1883, and reorganized May 2, 1885. The names of original members are 
Madams L. T. Medbury, F. L. Chadwick, A. Corwin, F. M. Blodgett, R. 


Kerns, B. P. Wright, C. L. Douglas, E. J. Bush, J. G. Strong, S. J. Gifford, 
T. A. Morrison, K. E. Kidder, Charles Leemler, C. A. Burdick, M. L. Georgia,, 
Emma GifPord, E. P. Hubbell, E. Sterrett and M. D. Bush. Mrs. L. T. 
Medbury was president of the old society. After reorganization Mrs. H. 
Hamlin presided, and next Miss S. A. Scull. The present president is Mrs. 
T. W. Chandler. The first corresponding secretary was Mrs. T. A. Morrison, 
with Mrs. P. L. Chadwick, recorder. Since reorganization Mrs. Morrison,, 
Mrs. Bogisch, Mrs. E. Richardson and Mrs. ^ Chadwick have held the secre- 
tary's position. The officers elected in July, 1889, are Mrs. D. L. Forsyth,, 
president; Mrs. E. P. Chandler, vice-president; Mrs. M. E. Richmond, 
recording secretary; Mrs. Esther Keefe, corresponding secretary; Mrs. M. A. 
Backer, treasurer. Vice-presidents in churches: Mrs. A. T. Palmer^ 
Methodist; Mrs. B. P. Wright, Baptist; Mrs. A. P. Brown, Episcopal. Su- 
perintendents: Mrs. Martha Chadwick, literature; Mrs. M. A. Backer, heredity; 
Mrs. B. P. Wright, soldiers and sailors; Mrs. Esther Keefe, jail and alms- 
house; Mrs. D. L. Porsyth, Mrs. M. E. Richmond, assistants jail and alms- 
house. Delegates to county convention: Mrs. Martha Chadwick, Mrs. Esther 
Keefe. Alternates: Mrs. A. T. Palmer, Mrs. E. P. Chandler. 

The I. O. G. T. was organized in January, 1871, with S. B. Sartwell,, 
Anna Potter, H. S. Sartwell, M. L. Armstrong, J. C. Bard, L. O. Chadwick,, 
R. D. Hays, E. V. Chadwick, L. S. Bard, D. C. Young, Mrs. A. E. Taylor, 
B. Downey and G. Corwin filling the ofiices of the lodge. 

The Young Women's Christian Temperance Union is one of the new addi- 
tions to the ranks of temperance workers. Mrs. W. P. Burdick is president, 
with Miss Lydia Burlingame, secretary. 

TheC. M. B. A. elected the following named officers for 1890: Chancellor, J. 
P. Rooney; president, Morris Mulvehill ; first vice-president, James Lynch; sec- 
ond vice-president, Peter Conely; recording secretary, Ed. Obertrifter; assistant 
recording secretary, James A. McKean; financial secretary, Daniel Bacon-, 
treasurer, Dennis Quinlisk; marshal, Thomas O'Brien; guard, William Cov- 
ley; representative to Grand Council, John P. Rooney; alternate, T. H. 
Purtle; trustees (two years), J. P. Rooney, P. Conely. 

On July 18, 1875, the St. Elizabeth's Total Abstinence Association was 

The Knights of St. Martin and the Iron Cross are presided over by Dwight 
Waller, with Pred Gallup, scribe, and Rev. J. H. McCandless, warden. 

The McKean County Musical Convention held its first session in Pebruary,. 
1875, with C. S. Diffen, president; J. W. Hilton, Dr. E. A. Van Sooy and T. 
J. Campbell, vice presidents; Albert DeGolier, secretary; and Loyal Ward, 

The Equitable Aid Union is presided over by Lucius Rogers, with W. H. 
Knight, secretary. 

Smethport Lodge 182, A. O. U. W., was instituted August 19, 1880, with 
G. Lyman, S. V. Godden, H. L. Burlingame, W. O. Congdon, George R. 
Brownell, W. P. Specht, Prank Kerns, S. W. Pattison and S. G. Bush, hold- 
ing the respective offices. At the annual election in December H. L. Burlin- 
game was chosen master. 

The Wild-Cat Base Ball Club was organized at Smethport in May, 1873, 
with A. W. Colegrove, president; Henry Biever, vice-president; M. L. Arm- 
strong, treasurer; B. T. Downey, secretary. The directors were Robert Wel- 
ters, C. A. Burdick and Patrick' McLea. 

Hotels. — About 1822 the first regular hotel was completed by Willard, 
whose wife carried on the house in 1826. Some short time after came Squire 


Crow from the Sinnemahoning country to compete with the Willard Hotel. 
The house which he erected occupied the site of the Bennett House. This last 
named hotel was erected in 1851 by O. E. Bennett. This house, and the 
Haskell store, built in 1857 by B. D. and Henry Hamlin, were destroyed by 
tire in May, 1882. . > j .) 

In Janiiary, 1847, 0. E. Bennett petitioned the court to open an inn at 
his house in Smethport. This petition was signed by Edward Hartnett, O. A. 
Holmes, B. D. Hamlin, Perd. Hamilton, W. F. Ormsby, O. E. Bennett, Nathan 
Barrett, J. B. Taylor, Gideon Irons, Adam Brockham, W. F. Young and N. 
W. Goodrich. 

Mr. "Williams, at whose house the judges and officers of the court made 
their home for years after 1826, came about 1822, when John Keating Williams 
■was born as the first white child of the settlement. Squire Williams had many 
of the pioneer' s experiences. On one occasion he was making lard from a hog 
killed for the purpose, and left this lard in an iron kettle to render during the 
night. Later there was heard a terrible racket in the cellar, and the Squire, 
descending, discovered a huge bear with his head trapped in the kettle. The 
Squire had little difficulty in killing " bruin. ' ' The late Mrs. Asa H. Cory remem- 
bered this event. 

Eockwell House was built in 1880-81, by S. J. Eockwell, who conducted it 
for a few months ; C. W. Dickinson followed, then H. S. Sartwell. John Hussey 
carried on business here for two or three years, when the property was bought 
by H. B.Vincent, who changed the title to Chautauqua House, and conducted it 
for three years, when J. L. Thomas became proprietor. 

The Wright House, built in 1875, is modern in arrangement and manage- 
ment, and is generally credited with being one of the first-class hotels of this 
section of the State. 

The Grand Central Hotel building, begun early in 1880 by Andrew Eeilly, 
was completed in June, 1881. The intention of Mr.. Eeilly was to make it one 
of the finest hotel buildings in the northern part of the State, and in carrying 
this intention forward he gave to Smethport a house 67x82 feet, containing 
sixty-two rooms fitted with all modern improvements and elegantly furnished. 
The plans were drawn by S. A. Bishop, assisted by Mr. Eeilly. The latter 
superintended the mason work. The building cost 140,000 and was opened 
by Mr. Eeilly June 22, 1881. Gen. Hammer, of the Bennett House, leased 
the building soon after, and after two years H. S. Sartwell conducted the house. 
In the year 1883 the property passed into the hands of Mrs. A. N. Taylor, 
from whom the popular Frank N. Taylor leases the house. The lessee and his 
chief clerk, Ham Hill, conduct this hotel on modern principles. 

Banks. — In the history of Bradford City the story of the old McKean 
County Bank is told. It was established in 1857, and in opposition to the de- 
sire of many of the local stockholders Bradford was fixed upon as its head- 
quarters, which action led to legal proceedings to change headquarters to 

The Hamlin Bank may be said to date back to 1862. Since that year Henry 
Hamlin has been the recognized leader of the banking business at the county 
seat, if not in the county. His store office was the bank office, and drafts of 
exchange, a^ well as loans, were negotiated in much the same form as at pres- 
ent. In 1874 he retired from mercantile life, and established a banking office 
over the old Hamlin store, later known as the Haskell store. In 1880 S. C. 
Townsend was employed as cashier. After the fire of May, 1882, the office 
was in B. D. Hamlin's office, and in 1885-86 in the room now occupied by 
Wells' drug store until the present building was completed in January, 1887. 



It is one of the best finished buildings of its size in the State, and fully 
equipped for banking purposes. Thecostof this ornamental pile wasllS.OOO. 
In February, 1889, Moss M. Coleman took the position of assistant cashier and 
book-keeper. The financial condition of this house July 8, 1889, is shown as 
follows : 


Due to Banks I 585.63 

Deposits 496,741.60 

Exchange 782.69 

ProfitandLoss 108,891.16 

Interest and Discount 19,380.27 



Due from Banks and Bankers. .$ 43,647.46. 

Discounts 553,214.44 

Stocks and Bonds 11,750.00- 

County Order 4,590.00 

Cash 13,389.18 

Expense 840.27 


The McKean County Savings Bank was chartered in February, 1872. A. 
N. Taylor, V. P. Carter, J. 0. Backus, J. E. Butts, Jr. , J. E. Chadwick, J. F. 
Gallup and D. C. Young being incorporators. This banking company was 
never organized. 

Water and Gas Systems. — The beginning of Smethport's water system 
dates back to 1874, when the commissioners purchased a spring lot and con- 
nected the spring with the jail by means of a small pipe. E. V. Chadwick 
secured the use of the surplus water for $10 per annum and had a pipe ex- 
tended from the main pipe to his dwelling, but the supply being limited the 
contract was rescinded. The Smethport Water Company was incorporated in 
April, 1881, with thirty-seven stockholders. Henry Hamlin held twenty-four, 
Byron D. Hamlin ten, W. J. Colegrove and D. R. Hamlin five shares each. 
The works were completed within the year. 

The Smethport Gas Company was incorporated September 20, 1881, with 
C. A. Backer, E. L. Keenan, Eobert H. Eose, David Sterrett, Leroy Tabor 
■ and L. J. Backer, directors. In January, 1890, the following named ofiicers 
were chosen: C. P. Byron, president; H. McSweeney, secretary; A. B. Arm- 
strong, treasurer; and they, with E. H. Eose and W. D. Gallup, directors. 
The gas well on the Eben Gallup farm was opened in January, 1890. 

Floods and Fires. — The rains of May 31 and June 1, 1889, swelled the 
tributaries of Marvin and Nunundah creeks and raised these streams far above 
all high-water marks of previous floods. The citizens of Smethport emerged 
from their homes Friday morning to find the low lands everywhere covered 
with several feet of water, while the rain still fell in torrents. Some residents 
of East Smethport were forced to take refuge in the second stories of their 
buildings, and anchor their houses to neighboring trees. The only way to- 
reach the depot was by means of a boat. The railroads were undermined and 
damaged in many places, and traffic was suspended for several days. The 
bridge on the poor-farm, which was built at the expense of the county, was 
swept away, and Gilford's upper dam was damaged, necessitating the suspen- 
sion of work. 

In the destruction of G. W. White' s house (two miles southwest of Smeth- 
port) in March, 1852, a three-year-old son was burned to death, and the father 
severely burned while trying to rescue the boy .... The Smethport fire of 
March 24, 1868, destroyed the Astor House block, property of William Haskell^ 
A. N. Taylor's store. Miss Holmes' building, and the barns, all valued at 140,- 

000 and insured for $19,000 The Smethport fire of May, 1882, originated 

in the. Bennett House, destroying Haskell's large store-building on the other 
side of the street, the banking office of Henry Hamlin in that building, the 
Bennett House and Sterrett & Eose law office. 


Miscellaneous. — The Smethport Cemetery Society was chartered in 1863 on 
petition of S. C. Hyde, C. K. Sartwell, L. E. Wisner, Miles Innis and W. A. 

The question of building a plank road from Qlermont to Olean was pre- 
sented to the people of McKean county in November, 1849, by O. J. Hamlin. 
He estimated the number of acres of coal land in the county at 10,000, and 
stated that the selling price ranged from $1.50 to $3 per acre. In less than 
two years after this proposition was made the Smethport & Olean Plank Eoad 
Company organized (June 21, 1851), with S. Sartwell, president; Henry Ham- 
lin, secretary; William K. King, treasurer; R. Phelps Wright, G. Irons, Ran- 
som Larrabee, Dr. McCoy and J. W. Prentiss, directors. Railroads now follow 
this route, the McKean & Buffalo Road being (practically completed to Smeth- 
port in 1875, and pushed thence to the mines. In 1889 the road was contin- 
ued from Clermont to Johnsonburg in Elk county. 

Smethport has celebrated the anniversary of national independence for 
fifty years. As if to emphasize this fiftieth celebration, the Fourth of 1889 
was a day especially prepared for festivity. From a late hour on the evening 
of July 3 to the dawn of next day rain poured down in torrents to moisten the 
parched earth. Early on the 4th the streets were rolled smooth, and before 
noon were in excellent shape for the parade, the sunbeams giving token that 
old Sol himself was pleased with the intentions of the people. The procession, 
which was the feature of the day, was composed of the following well-equipped 
bands, hose companies, etc. : Marshal, J. M. McElroy, and aids ; Smethport 
Band; McKean Post 347, Gr. A. R., and guests; Dr. Freeman, commanding 
second division, and aids; Gorton's Gold Band; J. Gorton Hose No. 1. Friend- 
ship, N. Y. ; Eldred Band; Mountaineer Hose No. 1, Emporium; Forest Band; 
Citizen Hose No. 2, Emporium; Bolivar Cornet Band; Citizen Hose No. 2, 
Bolivar, N. Y. ; Smethport Hose No. 1; president of the day and speakers in 

The exercises in the court-house opened with music by the Smethport Band. 
E. L. Keenan, president of the day, delivered the address of welcome, and ai^ 
the suggestion of the sheriff, extended a general invitation to visitors to share 
the hospitalities offered by the citizens. Rev. T. W. Chandler delivered an 
excellent prayer; Capt. Rogers read the "Declaration," and W. J. Milliken, 
of Bradford, delivered the oration — which was eloquent as well as historical. 
At night the festivities were continued, one of the features being a merry 
march from East Smethport to the court-house square, lead by the Eldred 
Band. The hose companies, without an exception, presented a handsome 
appearance, and the music rendered by the different bands mentioned was of a 
high standard. 

The history of the Keating, the Bingham and the Ridgway lands in this 
county is related on other pages. Smethport has been for years the Mecca 
of land hunters, as there the agents of the great estates ultimately congregated 
and established their offices. Robert C. Simpson, the general agent of the 
Bingham estate, resides at Wellsboro, Penn. Robert H. Rose was the first agent; 
W. B. Clymer had charge of the estate until Mr. Simpson was appointed, dur- 
ing the war. Robert H. Rose is attorney for the estate and local agent at 
Smethport. Much of the land is leased, and this, with the unseated lands, 
aggregates over 40, 000 acres in McKean, and an equal area in Potter county. 
Smaller areas of lands belonging to the other proprietors are still unsold. 

East Smethport may be said to date back to the establishment of the Ex- 
tract Works at that point. Shortly after the large buildings were erected the 
place began to assume the features of a village, and with its railroad commun- 


ication would be a strong contestant for the business center, had it any one of 
the physical advantages possessed by the old town. The ground is low and 
marshy, and in seasons of heavy rain subject to the overflow of Nunundah 
creek. Opposite the Western New York & Pennsylvania depot is the planing- 
mill of Bush & Mcintosh, near by the Bottling Works, and in the vicinity the 
Extract Works. On the corner of Main and Railroad streets is the store and 
post-office buildjng of James M. Tracy; below is the large store building of 
Stickney, Bell'& Co. The Exchange Hotel is conducted by John H. Sowers; 
a few rods westward of this hotel is the Sherwood grocery store, and opposite 
it the meat market of J. H. StuU. The English Protestant Episcopal Chapel 
is near the bridge, and across the creek, near the mouth of Marvin creek, the 
first of a series of saw-mills on the latter stream is found. A number of small 
dwelling houses, occupied by Swedish workmen and their families, are scat- 
tered here and there, all forming the nucleus of what enterprise may convert 
into a large business town. 

There is no history of failure attached to Smethport. The men who came 
here to build up a prosperous community knew no such word as fail, and con- 
sequently the story is one of success following perseverance, tolerance and 
intelligence. To the wisdom and policy of John Keating, who selected this 
location, much is due, but without the pioneers the place might be still in the 
wilderness, as it would undoubtedly be still comparatively primitive without 
the modern pioneers of commercial and professional progress. To the latter 
the achievement of placing Smethport above all other towns in the district, in 
beauty and cleanliness, and equal to any in modern conveniences, is due, and 
to their enterprise and virtues must be credited her substantial business and 
social life. 



Topography— Minerals— Oil Wells— Coal Mines and Companies— Popu- 
lation— Election IN Februaiiy, 1890— Resident Tax-Pj^yees, 1843-44— 
State Road— Stores — Disasters and Fires — Miscellaneous. 

LAFAYETTE TOWNSHIP occupies almost the west half of the center of 
the county. It is distinguished by three great plateaus or table lands: 
the Lafayette, in the center, extending from the southwest to northeast five 
miles, and attaining a width of two and a half miles north of Lafayette 
corners; the Alton, east and southwest of the East branch, extending into 
Bradford, Keating and Hamilton townships, being eleven miles long in its 
southwest course, and five miles wide in a line north of Alton, or from Craw- 
ford's to the east fork of Three Mile run; the Marshburg, west of the east 
branch of the Tuna, and east of the west branch, extending southwest to the 
valley of the Kinzua, one branch running into the center of Hamilton township, 
which forms the divide between Chappal fork on the north, Tarnip run on 
the east, and the Kinzua on the south. The greatest length is twelve miles, 
from a point west of Custer, through Marshburg to Union run. At Lafayette 
■corners the elevation is 2,143 feet above the ocean; at Marshburg, 2,108 feet; 
the divide between Winter Green and Turnip runs is 2,165 feet; at Buttsville, 



1,998 feet; at Alton, 2,072 feet; on creek at Big Shanty, 1,666 feet; at head 
of Two Mile run, 2,058 feet, and at Bingham's dry well, 1,673 feet. The dip 
of the rock in the sixth bituminous basin averages only twenty feet per mile 
to the southwest. Alton being in the central portion, the greatest dip occurs 
there, being lifty-eight feet between Bond Vein and that point, a distance 
of little over a half-mile. The lowest dip averages live feet per mile, between 
Marshburg and Lafayette. 

King & Co. ' 8 well, the first at Big Shanty, showed oil sand at a depth of 
1,545 feet, or 127 feet above tide water; while in the Prentiss well, Lewis run, 
oil sand. was struck at 227 feet above tide, or at a depth of 1,378 feet. 

The Clermont coal deposit underlies the slate, shale and sandstone- capped 
peaks northeast and southwest of Alton, throughout the Lafayette plateau, 
and in the summit, southwest of Marshburg, where the cap' rocks are deep, 
the coal is valuable, as in the old Davis mine, and in the old openings on the 
Newell, Bullock, Root and "Whitman lands, the bottoms of all of which rest 
from 2,130 to 2,145 feet above tide level. This deposit is generally separated 
from the Alton upper coal layers by Johnson run sandstone, the thickness of 
which ranges from fifty to sixty feet; but near Bond Vein a black and blue 
slate occupied this position; on the Bullock lands a hard sandstone, and on the 
Matthews' lands a sandstone, separated by a six-feet deposit of red rock, 
rests on a twelve-inch bed of coal. The Alton deposit ranges from four to 
seven feet. It has been worked at Buttsville, Alton and Bond Vein. The 
latter mine was worked in 1877-78, by James E. Butts, for the Longwood Coal 
Company, giving three shallow beds above the bottom, third bed 2,084 feet 
above tide. The Malony mine showed six to eight feet of bony coal near the 
roof, and Alton coal, in two distinct beds, before reaching the hard, sandy, 
fire-clay deposit. 

In July, 1863, the Lafayette Coal Company was incorporated, with William 
Cockroft of New York City, president. The Owen mine, near Buttsville, was 
opened years ago by Mr. Owen. In April, 1868, the Longwood Company — 
James E. Butts, E. Sears, I. P. T. Edwards, E. D. Winslow, G. P. Hayward, 
Lem. Shaw and "W. P. Grubb, directors — began operations, 2,065 feet above 
tide level, on a solid two and one-half feet bench; but owing to its irregularity, 
work was abandoned. At James E. Butts' house the lower coal was found 
twenty-eight feet below the surface. In 1865 the Lafayette Coal Company 
began operations near Mr. Alton's log house, constructing a 280-feet slope to 
a point in the oannel and bituminous deposit, seventy feet below the level of 
of the opening. This and several other shafts were abandoned. On the Haga- 
dorn and Armstrong lands and at the old Davis mine explorations were made 
years ago. 

The Seven Foot Knoll, on the Keating township line, was opened 2,053 
feet above tide level, and won its name on account of the four heavy coal 
benches discovered in a seventy-two-feet hole, the coal being overlaid by thin 
beds of carbonate of iron; while in Shaft No. 1, opened 2,088 above tide, 
270 feet southwest of the mouth of the drift, nodular iron ore takes the place 
of iron carbonate. In the vicinity several shafts were constructed, and the 
enterprise was carried so far by Allen Putnam, of Boston, as to explore near the 
old Butts saw- mill, on Three Mile creek, at an elevation of 2,037 feet. The drill 
went through 113 feet, meeting only two small seams. 

Lafayette township had a population of 1,266 in 1880. Of this number 
seventy-three were residents of Buttsville. In 1888 there were 128 Repub- 
lican, 127 Democrat, 5 Prohibition and 12 United Labor votes recorded, a 
total of 272, which multiplied by five represents a population of 1,360. Fol- 


lowing are the returns of the vote cast in Lafayette township in February, 
1890: For road supervisors, Peter Wagner (D,), 124; James Barnes, Jr. (D.), 
103 ; Walter Cassidy (E. ), 131 ; Charles Harding (R. ), 95. For school directors, 
D. Kennedy (D.), 134; J. C. Cannon (D.), 77; P. H. Freel (R.), 140; John 
Green (R.), 125. For collector, J. H. Fleming (D.), 143; J. C. Haven (R.), 
101. For town clerk, M. Ryan, Jr. (D.), 124; H. L. Sherwood (R.), 109. 
For constable, First District, W. W. Lenox (D.), 102; Second District, Frank 
Sprague, 93. For auditors, James Donovan (D.), 141; M. McCarten (D.), 
150; J. C. Jones (R.), 116; C. L. Milton (R.), 100. 

The resident tax-payers of Lafayette township in 1843-44, as certified by 
Jasper Marsh, assessor, were Jane Armstrong, Abram and Mary Anderson, Al- 
bert and Rufus Beeman, Joe Brush, George W. Brown, Abram Brothwell, 
Andrew Gush, L. Davis, Allen, David and William Foster, William Grannis, 
Aaron Hagadorn, James Hoop, William Howard, Washington Higby, J. Iver- 
son, C. Leach, Jacob Lewis, Henry Luce, Jonathan, J. C. and Jasper Marsh, 
John Mulligan, Oliver Matthews, David Monteith, John Newton, William G. 
Presley, Job Poots, Lewis Ransom, John Shepley, Nathan and George Tenney, 
Zira Tobbs and William C. Webber. The total value of their property as 
assessed was $4,580, while the unseated lands were assessed at $27,688. 

The east and west State road was laid out by Joel Sartwell, Hiram Payne 
and Jonathan Marsh through the center of McKean county in 1838, at a time 
when only four families, Joseph Brush, Nathan Tenney, Hoop and Anderson, 
resided in Lafayette, and two years before Taintor, Davis and Hagadorn settled 

Albert Beeman, who died near Mount Alton, in February, 1880, was cred- 
ited with being the discoverer of the coal beds about Alton and Lafayette. 
For years he was king of the hunters of this county, and was also farmer and 

Mary Anderson, who died at Anderson Station, on the Kinzua, in Decem- 
ber, 1889, was in her one hundred and third year. She settled there in 1836, 
and five years later her husband was frozen to death near Marshburg. Her 
son James is now seventy-seven years old. 

Mount Alton, the leading village of the township, contains a number of 
industrial establishments and the usual number of stores found in villages of 
its size. Chief among its industries are the Mount Alton Chemical Work?, 
McClain & Co. 's and Weaver & Droney's lumber factories, and J. B. Phillips 
saw mill, which give employment to many of the inhabitants. 

The Alton Chemical Works were established in October, 1887, at Bond Vein, 
with twelve retorts, and had contracts for all the acetate of lime and wood alcohol 
that could be produced up to 1888. The acid works were destroyed by fire in 
March, 1889. The flames spread through the spacious building — the dimensions 
of which were 200x175 feet — and in a short time it was reduced to smoulder- 
ing ruins. The loss on the building and contents is estimated at $15,000; in- 
surance, $6,000. The Alton Chemical Company is composed of J. C. Greene- 
wald, A. L. Wyman, Sterns & Milligan of Bradford, and J. W. Beacom and 
D. Hilton of Alton. No time was lost in re-establishing this important manu- 
facturing concern. In July, 1889, George Beaumont was appointed post- 
master at Alton. 

In the fall of 1866 Newcomb & Hagadorn established their store at Alton, 
and in March, 1867, L. S. Bard and A. N. McFall opened their hotel (which 
was burned afterward), and a daily mail service to Smethport established. 

Kinzua Lodge No. 442, 1. O. O. F. , the leading secret association of Mount 
Alton and neighborhood, elected the following named of&cers in December, 


1889: N. G., George H. GrafP; V. G., C. D. Tenny; Sec. J. S. C. Gra- 
ham; Asst. Sec, Simon Crites; Treas., J. M. Park; W., F. Aldrieh; Con., 
H. L. Sherwin; O. G., P. A. Evarts; I. G., C. Harding; R. S. to N. G m' 
Quinn; L. S. to N. G., T. Elmore. 

Alton Encampment, Kniglits of St. John and Malta, at.Alton, was orean- 
ized in 1888. ^ 

The cyclone of September 28, 1884, swept away six houses, as well as the 
new Methodist church building at Alton. In April, 1886, thirty Italian laborers 
found themselves imprisoned in the Erie Eailroad Company's burning con- 
struction shanty at Alton. Twenty-four men escaped only to witness the roast- 
ing of six companions, whose lives went out with the blaze. 

The Mount Alton tragedy of September 26, 1889, resulted in the death of 
Mrs. Isabel Quinn. Her husband, J. H. Quinn, a Scotch-Irishman, was the 
miu-derer, and his insane jealousy the cause. A coroner's jury found in accord- 
ance with the facts. The murderer was taken to jail at once, but during the 
evening he wove a rope out of his large silk handkerchief and some time after 
3 o'clock on the morning of the 27th hanged himself in the cell. 

The post-office of Lafayette was discontinued in November, 1872, owing to 
the resignation of the postmaster, but was soon after restored. 



Liberty Township Topogkaphy— Geology — Coal Measui!bs and Mines — 

Oil Well — Early Settlers, Etc. — Eesident Tax-Pa y'ers, 1836-37 — 
Eaely Stores— Population— Offioeus Elected in February, 1890 — 
Churches— Cemetery— F ikes . 

Borough of Port xIllegany Introductory- Canoe Place— Pioneers, 

Etc. — Population — Fires and Floods — Municipal Matters — Industries 
—Banks— Cemetery Association— Hotels— Chueches—Public Schools- 
Societies, Associations. Etc. 

LIBERTY TOWNSHIP stretches along about half of the eastern line of the 
county. It is the gateway to the Sinnemahoning, as well as to the upper 
waters of the Allegheny, northwest of Coudersport. This river enters the 
township at Burtville, five miles above Port Allegany, and flowing northwest 
exits in the center of the west half of the north town line (the lowest elevation), 
about three and one-half miles below the town, a mile and one-half below the 
mouth of Two Mile creek, and three and one-half miles below the confluence- 
of Lillibridge creek, which flows from the northeast corner, as well as Coleman 
creek, above Port Allegany. Allegheny Portage creek (which rises across the 
line, near the head of the Sinnemahoning portage) joins the parent river jusfe 
above the Port, and this receives several streams from the summits of Norwich, 
such as Comes creek, as well as a few short streams from the borders of Pot- 
ter county. For altitudes the township may claim a part of Prospect hill, the 
peak of which (2,495 feet high) is in Keating township; a mile east of that 
hill the height is 2,415 feet, gradually falling to 1,800 feet as Skinner creek 
is approached; near Keating depot the altitude is 2,400, although at the depot 


oaly 1.876 feet; at Liberty 1,641, at Port Allegany 1,477, and at Sartwell 
1,447 feet. The rock exposures show 890 feet, of which 190 form coal meas- 
ures and conglomerate, 250 to 300 Mauch Chunk and Pooono, 300 red Cats- 
kill, and 100 Chemung. In the center of the Skinner creek coal region the 
highest stratum is found, Kinzaa creek sandstone, at an altitude of 2,140 feet. 
In'the year 1855 Seth A. Backus opened two coal beds here, finding eighteen 
or twenty inch benches forty feet below the surface and below a nine to twelve- 
inch deposit of iron ore, which showed fifty-six per cent of metal. S. H. 
Barrett also opened a mine here, finding a twenty-eight-inch seam of good 
coal six feet below the surface. In the vicinity of the Backus bed Thomas 
Petturick found a four and one-half feet vein of cannel coal in 1856. From 
Port Allegany to Comes creek summit the soil is red; also to the head of the 
Lillibridge and up Two Mile ran. 

The oil well at Sartwell was drilled 723 feet in 1877, but abandoned. In 
July, 1887, the work of drilling the gas well at Port Allegany was commenced 
on the DoUey lands. This well was bored 2,400 feet, but without the desired 
result, although sufficient to supply light and heat to a section of the borough 
was obtained. 

In 1788 a party of immigrants came up the Susquehanna and Sinnemahon- 
ing to Emporium in canoes, left their barks there and crossed the portage on 
foot, making a road hither and camping here beyond the river, on what in later 
days was known as the W. J. Davis farm. E. Fitch, who contributed much 
valuable history to the pages of the Reporter, is inclined to believe that this 
same party made the first settlement at Franklin, Venango county. The first 
road from Canoe Place to Smethport crossed the river at Red House, thence 
by the mouths of Skinner and Portage creeks across the flats ; thence up the 
hill and along the ridge to Nunundah creek, where it crossed another road at 
Horace King's corners. Samuel C'lrtis is credited with cutting this road. In 
1844 Gideon Irons was employed to cut a wagon-road from the Port to Larra- 
bee. Years before this a road was cut through and regular culverts built, but 
at the period of building the Turtle Point mill it was hid under fallen trees or 
underbrash, and the culverts disappeared in decay. 

In 1822 the first bridge in this township was erected across the Allegheny 
by Judge Nathan "White, who resided on Marvin creek, four miles from Smeth- 
port. This structure was near Davis' Eed House, and up to 1839 some por- 
tions of it were visible. Daniel Stanton's still-house was near this bridge. 

The mill erected in 1815, where the Daniel Clark mills stood in 1876, was 
the joint property of Obediah Sartwell, W. W. Whitney, Benjamin Burt and 
David Burt. In 1820 Maj. Lyman purchased the concern, and sold it to 
Daniel Brooks in 1823. This Brooks erected the first grist-mill in 1824, but 
in 1827 he sold the old saw-mill as well as the new mill to William Moore, 
who in turn sold it to Sartwell & Arnold in 1835. Three years later they sold 
to Coats & McKee, but, through foreclosure, resumed ownership in 1841, and 
then sold to Barnaby Brothers, who, after establishing a pail and sap-bucket 
factory there, had to give up the property. N. L. Dike then purchased from 
Sartwell & Arnold in 1844, who sold to A. M. Benton in 1845. He continued 
the industries until 1869, when Daniel Clark became owner. 

The first farmer was David Burt, who cultivated lands where George Mc- 
Dowell settled in 1833. Obediah Sartwell owned the farm where Seth Hackett 
settled in 1835, and where he resided until his removal to Emporium, about 
1869, while Benjamin Burt, one of the pioneers, resided here until his death, 
February 28, 1876, in his ninety- seventh year. The old barn belonging to W. 
J. Davis in 1876, near the cheese factory, was built in 1816 by Benjamin Burt 


and Daniel Stanton, and the oldest dwelling house, coming down to centennial 
year, was that in which Owen Coyle resided, William Moore, one of the old ' 
owners, being accidentally killed at Cincinnati in 1844. 

The lirst mill on the Portage was that built in 1838 by Luke, John and Har- 
vey Gibson. At that time the family of Horace Barnaby was the only one on the 
Portage. D. Cornelius and Stephen Eowley operated for some time, untii S. 
A. Backus purchased it. The old mill was burned, but rebuilt for Jacob Coss 
in 1852 by Nathan Boylan. In 1853 steam machinery and a circular saw were 
introduced the first time in this township, but in 1856 Mr. Coss removed to a 
point below Olean, intending to use the water-power there. The building 
was burned soon after, but a new mill was erected by Fordyce Lawton, who 
sold to J. Campbell, who sold to A. L. Wright, the owner in 1876. la 1849 
David Cornelius and S. S. Lillibridge built the second mill on the Portage, 
which, in 1873, became the property of L. H. DoUey. J. M. Grimes built 
the third mill near Liberty depot, which, in 1869, became the property of Ira 

Horace Barnaby, A. P. Barnaby and one TJptoa were the first settlers on 
this creek, having opened their farms in 1830. In 1883 Philander Read and 
Elisha H. Bent were road supervisors. In 1866 John Tallamadge built his 
mill, later the property of the Goodyears. A. S. Arnold & Co. built the first 
lath-mill in 1852; A. M. Benton the first shingle-mill in 1855, and John G. 
Hall the first sash and blind factory in 1866-67. The records of survey around 
Canoe Place in 1811-12 mention Conrad's mill and Hitt's place, and Eobert 
Gilbert's and John Bell's lots on the Oswayo. In 1817 John King and E. B. 
Foster surveyed lots on the Portage branch, above Kingsville, near the Straw- 
bridge lands, and at other places. In 1818 surveys in the Eensselaer Wright 
neighborhood were begun; mention is also made of Jonathan Moore's lot and 
of Isaiah Tyler's lots. 

The resident tax-payers of Liberty township in 1836-37 were Ralph P. 
Andrews, D. Allard, Henry Bryan, Elisha H. Bent, Dan. Bellows, H. and A. 
P. Barnaby, J. C. Coleman (now living, saw-mill owner), Horace Coleman, 
Pete Corsaw, Levi Coats, Hiram Coon, Edward Cummings, John Chase, A. 
and S. B. Eastwood, John and Horatio Fobes, John R. and Sam Grimes, Eph- 
raim Green, Seth Hackett, Lod. Lillibridge, Isaac and Harry Lyman, Moses 
Lucore (saw-mill owner) Andrew Moore, William McKee, George McDowell. 
Solomon Sartwell, Sartwell & Arnold (saw-mill owners), Jacob Simcox, Hub- 
bard and Elisha Starkweather, Daniel Wright (a wheelwright) and B. H. Wil- 
marth (blacksmith); William Moore was the assessor. 

A. M. Benton came into this township in 1846, where he purchased about 
3,000 acres of pine lands, and also the N. L. Dike mills above Port Allegany 
at Bartville. where Hubbard's steam mill now stands. In 1852 Mr. Benton 
found an old hunter on the Summit, living in a shingled house, who gave his 
leisure hours to making the spring rivulets flow north, south, east or west. For 
twenty-six years Mr. Benton continued the fine industry, sometimes employing 
100 men on the rafts and in the mills. After the pine era vanished he built a 
mill below Eldred (the same which is now operated by the Wolcotts) nineteen 
years ago, which, after thirteen years' use was destroyed, and a new mill was 
erected. In that mill he continued the hemlock industry for seventeen years, 
when he sold to the Wolcotts. 

A. S. Arnold died at Port Allegany April I, 1874, aged sixty-seven years. 
He came to the county in 1833, opened a store at Smethport, moved to Canoe 
Place in 1836, and joined Solomon Sartwell in his lumber business. 

In February, 1847, S. A. Backus had a store, and later H. Coleman was 


granted a tavern license. In February, 1848, A. M. Benton, L. Wells and 
Marvin were merchants, and later S. M. Eussell. The merchants in 1852 
•were Arnold, Davis & Medbery, Martin W. Barker (small grocery), A. M. Ben- 
ton and Johnson Slerozier (small store). 

In February, 1885, Peter Brion, of Liberty township, killed a cranberry 
bear. This animal had long, thin legs, with a long sharp nose and red fur. 
la'May H. Beriield and W. Burlingame captured four black bears in Wharton 
tOAvnship, Potter County. 

Liberty township in 1880 had a population of 2,029, of which number 731 
were credited to Port Allegaoy village. In 1888 the vote of the township, out- 
side Port Allegany, was 146 Republican, 186 Democratic, 1 Prohibitionist, and 32 
United Labor, or a total of 365, which multiplied by five represents a popula- 
tion of 1,825. The officers elected in February, 1890, are as follows: Super- 
visors, Mart Simar, Henry Lynch; justice of the peace, R. M. Dunbar; con- 
stable, W. D. Thomas; collector, John Acre; town clerk, W. R. Franklin; 
school directors, George Backus, H. R. Meeker; auditor, F. A. Fitch; judge 
of election, Samuel Grimes; inspectors, John O'Brien, George W. Baxter. 

The Methodist Chiirch of Liberty township was incorporated in February, 
1854, on petition of Samuel M. Hopkins, James E. Proctor, Nathaniel West, 
C. B. West, B. M. Pride, S. H. Barrett and J. F. Cone. 

The Grimes District Cemetery was incorporated in February, 1881, with 
Samuel Grimes, Z. J. Sherwood, A. Ostrander and Lester Grimes, directors. 
Among the other stockholders were S. L. Strang, Runa Keeler, G. W. Wet- 
more, H. J. and Abel Eastwood, G. Amidon, D. W. and J. R. Sherwood, C. 
Ostrander, A. Lewis, L. Burrows and A. D. Freer. 
" F. H. Goodyear & Co.'s upper mill at Liberty, seven miles southeast of 
Port Allegany, was destroyed in 1877. The loss was about $9,000 .... The 
George D. Briggs steam saw-mill at Liberty depot was burned in April, 1886 — 
the second destroyed on that site. 

The Birch Grove Mills of H. Palmer are located two miles below Port 
Allegany. There, on August 5, 1889, was organized a branch of the W. C. T. 
U. , with Mrs. H. Palmer, president; Mrs. N. Palmer, vice-president; Mrs. M. 
Robinson, corresponding secretary; Mrs. S. Proctor, recording secretary, and 
Mrs. L. Burleson, treasurer. 

The Allegheny Eiver, Sartwell Creek and Fishing Creek Improvement 
Company elected the following named officers in November, 1889: C. E. Hub- 
bard, president; F. E. Rowley, secretary and treasurer; F. H. Arnold, E. P. 
Dalrymple and C. E. Hubbard, directors, with F. L. Peck and J. H. Steele 
directors of the Allegheny River Improvement Company. 


The phenomenal growth within the past few years of this bustling and thriv- 
ing place has far surpassed even the most sanguine expectations. And this 
development is due not alone to the vast lumber districts and magnificent farm- 
ing country surrounding the place, or to its unlimited water-power privileges, 
but in a very large measure to the well-known enterprise of its solid business 

Until about the year 1840 the point, which is now the site of Port Allegany, 
was called ' ' Canoe Place, ' ' so named for two different reasons, as handed down 
by tradition. One is that it was the custom of the aborigines on the Atlantic 
slope to move up the Susquehanna periodically to what is now Emporium, 
shelter their canoes there, and march over the divide to the Allegheny river at 
this point. The other reason advanced is that a number of immigrants came 


np the Susquehanna river and across the country to this same point, where 
they erected rude huts and commenced the work of hewing out canoes. In 
the .following spring there came a flood, and the party had to take to their 
canoes and hurriedly paddle or float away from the scene of danger. 

About the close of the first decade of this century pioneer Stanton came 
into this wilderness and settled on the river bank, where the Red House stood 
on the W. J. Davis farm. The pioneer was soon joined by another. Poster, 
and the beginnings of Port Allegany were made. 

The first saw-mill was established by Daniel Stanton and Dan. Webber 
{six rods east of Arnold & Dolley's dam) in 1824. Five years later, Stanton, 
being sole owner, sold the concern to Gideon Irons, who, in 1832, sold to Solo- 
mon Sartwell. In 1835 A. S. Arnold purchased an interest, and with Sartwell 
continued in business until 1849, when W. J. Davis and C. I. Medbery pur- 
chased Sartwell' s interests and became Arnold's partners. In 1869 this com- 
pany sold to F. H. Arnold, E. B. DoUey and C. L. Bellows, the latter going 
out in 1878. 

The first postmaster was Dr. Horace Coleman, who served from 1828 to 
1838. During the first few years it bore the name of Keating, then changed 
to Liberty, but on A. S. Arnold being appointed master in 1838 the present 
name was conferred. In 1841 William Moore was appointed. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1843 by J. S. Barrett; he by E. Fitch, in 1847, and in 1849 Dr. 
Coleman, the pioneer postmaster, was appointed, keeping the office at his 
house. A short time after S. H. Barrett was appointed, but held the office 
only three months, when Elihu Starkweather became postmaster. William 
•Wilkin succeeded him in 1853, and served until 1861, when Dr. B. S. Gould 
was commissioned. Within six months O. D. Coleman was appointed; and 
shortly afterward Orrin Vosburg, who held the office until succeeded by N. 
V. Jackson in 1865. In 1869 A. N. Lillibridge was appointed, and in 1873 
C. A. Larrabee, who served until succeeded in 1885 by W. J. Davis, the pres- 
ent postmaster. In April, 1888, the office became a presidential appoint- 

The first school teacher at Port Allegany was Miss Eliza Manning, who 
taught in the Red House. In 1836 the first school-house was built near the site 
of the old Starkweather store of 1850. 

The old store building which stood near the old tannery was torn down by John 
Ford in 1875. It was erected about 1850 by Elihu Starkweather, and used 
by him for store and hotel purposes. Afterward it was successively occupied 
by Martin Barker, I. W. Bellows & Co., F. W. Tucker & Co., *A. M. Benton, 
for whom T. McDowell was clerk, T. McDowell & Co., McDowell & Dolley, 
Arnold & McDowell, A. H. Medbery & Co., J. O. White & Co., A. F. Bard 
•& Co. , and lastly by the office of the Northern Tier Reporter. On the site is 
the residence of James Ford. 

The editor of the Reporter, reviewing the business of the town in Decem- 
ber, 1874, refers to L. H. Dolley's general store building as the oldest mer- 
cantile house, being established in 1850. The old building was erected by 
Johnson & Crozier, but in 1855 A. M. Benton purchased the house, completed 
the building and opened it that year. In 1860 or 1861 he sold the building 
to Dolley & Co. In 1850 A. S. Arnold, W. J. Davis and C. I. Medbery, 
opened the house, which was sold to T. McDowell & Co. in 1868. In 1869 
B. C. Gallup established his hardware house, followed in 1870 by A. F. Bard 
& Co., in the same line, and C. L. Medbery & Son, general merchants. 
Davis & Simar opened their dry-goods house in December, 1871; Dr. G. H. 
Goltry, his drug store in 1873; R. B. Rhodes & Son, their furniture house the 


same year, while Dr. Hogarth and Charles Dolley's drug store, J. Demarest's 
tailor shop, J. W. Neefe's clothing store, Dairy mple & Humphries' coal and 
lumber yard, W. Hooker's grocery, C. W. Bishop's bakery, P. A. McDonald's 
harness shop, A. C. White's book store, C. A. Larrabee's jewelry store, M. A. 
Lillibridge's clothing and shoe store, and Mrs. Sue Kenny's millinery store 
were all in existence in 1874. The Mullin House on Main street, the Sart- 
well House near the railroad, L. B. Bishop and E. D. Slingerland' s restau- 
rants, and Lillibridge's and Blackman'a meat markets were also here. 

The Chapin Tannery, built years ago, may be considered the first manu- 
facturing industry of this district. A. M. Benton purchased the work in 
1857. He sold to J. O. White & Co. in 1860-61, who operated it until pur- 
chased by John Ford in 1869, and he conducted it until 1884, when work was 
discontinued. Barrett, Dolley & Co. 's sash, door and blind factory was estab- 
lished in 1873, south of the depot; H. J. Barrett, was sleigh manufacturer; 
J. H. Sherrill operated the carding mill, and A. Crandell, the iron foundry. 
The Jewett & Keating Tannery was completed in the fall of 1874, after plans 
by Henry Jewett, and the dwelling houses were built for the company by 
Barrett & Dolley. The Hub factory was established in the " seventies. ' ' 

The population of Port Allegany in 1880 was 731. In 1888 there were 
115 Kepublican, 133 Democratic, 19 Prohibitionist, and 11 United Labor 
votes cast, or a total of 278 representing a population of 1,668. 

Recent fires have destroyed some of the houses named. The fire of June, 

1888, destroyed Bard, Dalrymple & Co.'s store; Attorney Colcord's office and 
Brandon & Dodd's insxirance office. The tire of July, 1889, swept away the 
Durfee photograph gallery owned by L. L. Lillibridge, and the latter' s bill' 
iard hall and barber shop; Weiper Bros.' store, then unoccupied, Dolley & 
Eoy's billiard hall, and Hallett's household goods and stock. 

The flood of May 31 and June 1, 1889, introduced itself at Port Allegany 
by rushing down Mill street, tearing up side-walks, destroying gardens, and 
impeding travel — people living above the Mill street bridge being compelled to 
go over the hill to reach their homes. About 4 o' clock on the morning of June 
1, the boom of Arnold & Dolley, near the mouth of the Portage creek, burst 
asunder, and the logs were hurled with irresistible force through the mill yard 
of C. E. Grover, and thence among the houses, along the street, and across 
the Arnold flats to the river below. Several families were driven from their 
homes by the angry waters, and valuable property was torn up or carried 

Municipar Matters. — The charter election for Port Allegany borough was 
held April 4, 1882. C. N. Barrett was elected burgess without opposition, 
receiving 129 votes; F. D. Leiner, L. H. Dolley, S.' G. Peters, received almost 
unanimous votes for councilmen; C. E. Wright was elected justice; S. S. 
Lillibridge, high constable; W. M. Eoyce, constable; C. E. Bard, auditor; K. 
Hanlon, poormaster; B. C. Gallup, assessor, with V. E. Vanderhule and A. 
H. Medbery, assistants; A. J. Hughes, C. A. Larrabee, F. P. Camp, A. R. 
Barnaby, M. C. Field and O. L. Snyder were elected school directors; E. E. 
Bellows, judge, and O. Vosburg and E. B. Starkweather, inspectors of elec- 
tions. N. E. Bard was elected burgess in 1883, over P. E. Cotter; O. L. 
Snyder, in 1884, with H. D. Helmer, justice; H. J. Burritt, in 1885; B. C. 
Gallup, in 1886-87-88, with C. A. Larrabee, justice; W. L. Lillibridge, in 

1889, received 128 votes, and O. E. Goldhagen 96 votes for burgess, and J. 
E. Eounseville 110, and O. Vosburgh 108 votes for justice. In 1885 there 
were 104 votes for and 90 against the proposed water tax. 

The officers chosen in February, 1890, are as follows: Burgess, George 


Weber; council, J. Dick, S. C. Sartwell; school directors, J. W. Kershner, W. 
H. Keeney; justice of the peace, William Eoy; constable, M. T. Shurtz; col- 
lector, M. T. Shurtz; auditor, E. O. Durfee; judge of election, M. J. Dwyre; 
inspectors, R. E. Roj', John Carlson. 

Hose Company. — Star Hose Company No. 1 was organized November 16, 
1885, and, unlike former fire companies, entered at once on a successful career. 
Since organization a State charter has been secured and Star Hose Company 
No. 1 now owns the building and equipment, and boasts of thirty-five active 
members. The president is J. V. Otto, with M. A. Lillibridge, vice-president j 
W. M. Holm-es, secretary; N. R. Bard, treasurer; P. E. Eowley, foreman; C. 
W. Wagner and M. E. Hall, assistants, and B. C. Gallup, chief engineer; 
directors: F. E. Eowley, J. V. Otto, E, P. Dalrymple, W. W. Rinn and N. E. 
Bard. Star Hose Company No. 1 attended the State convention of- firemen at 
Carlisle in September, 1889. 

Gas and Water. — The Citizens' Gas Company was incorporated in May, 

1888, with F. H. Arnold, B. C. Gallup and H. E. Sturcke, directors. The 
company developed the gas reservoirs of the vicinity and gave to the borough 
the advantages which gas light and heat can alone give .... Gas Well No. 6, 
at Port Allegany, did not prove profitable, and was abandoned in November, 

1889. No. 7 was drilled in the spring of 1890. 

In 1885 a complete system of water-works was provided for the village 
by a stock company with a capital of 120,000, of which Thomas McDowell 
is president, F. P. Camp, secretary, and J. H. Williams, treasurer. The res- 
ervoir is one mile from the town, on Skinner creek, 200 feet above the 
borough, and is furnished by a pure mountain stream. The water is con- 
veyed to the city through a six-inch pipe. In case any damage should occur 
to this reservoir the company has another on the other side of town, called 
Smith's addition, which would supply the people's wants. 

Industries. — The Port Allegany Tannery had at the beginning a capacity 
of 90,000 hides. The grinding house, sixty feet square, had a capacity of fifteen 
cords of bark per day. Here was the Keystone mill. The leach room was 180x32 
feet; the three steam pumps were supplied by Blake & Co., of Boston. The 
boiler house is sixty feet square, supplied with four large Eiter boilers and Hoyt' s 
tan burning ovens. A brick chimney, twelve feet square at the base, is 116 feet 
high. The beam house and yard building are 92x180 feet, with an " L " sixty 
feet square. There are six sweat pits, each with a capacity of 200 hides. The 
dry house is 60x180 feet, five stories in height, with ten feet basement. During 
the summer of 1886 a building 54x72 feet was erected for a cooling house. It 
contains twelve large tanks, holding about 250 barrels each, in which the liquor 
is allowed to cool before being drawn on to the leather in the lay-away vats, to 
which it is conveyed through wooden pipes by gravity. Another building was 
erected during the year 1887, 60x126 feet, northwest of the boiler house, for 
the storage of hides. Here can be stored from 25,000 to 30,000 dry flint hides, of 
which large stocks are kept on hand. There are employed usually from ninety 
to 100 men in the various departments of tanning, and in the piling of the 
bark during the season. The men employed about the tannery live within a 
short distance, occupying some thirty houses belonging to the plant, as well 
as nearly as many more owned by the occupants. Not far from 1,000 acres of 
hemlock timber are annually denuded of bark to supply the needed product 
for thoroughly tanning the thousands of sides which are turned out each 
month during the year. No " bark extract " (so called) is used. Of course, 
so large an establishment must of necessity be a large patron of the railroads, 
and it is not unusual for the weekly freight bill to amount to $500, and some- 


times to more than double that amount. At the beginning of the year 1878 
the firm name was changed from Jewett & Keating to that of Root & Keating, 
which name still remains. Myron H. Paxson was superintendent and John 
Goodsell foreman till February, 1877, when they resigned and M. C. Field was 
appointed superintendent and B. Kershner tannery foreman, who still hold 
the same positions. In the year 1881 Peter Sharp was appointed bark fore- 
man, aad in ,1885 George H. Kershner was appointed assistant tannery fore- 
man. Mr. Root, a resident of Buffalo, visits the town every two weeks, but 
beyond a general observation does not interfere with the management. To this 
company is credited much of the progress of Port Allegany. The members 
and managers are very liberal in their dealings; their cheerful methods of 
business, together with their active, earnest interest in local affairs, give them 
a high place in public estimation. 

The American Extract Company purchased lands, made many repairs and 
additions, and increased the working capacity of their manufactory twenty 
per cent during the fall of 1889. The works are owned by a Chicago com- 
pany, for whom B. C. Tabor, a stockholder, is manager. 

Arnold & Dolley, F. H. Rowley and A. N. Lillibridge are heavily engaged 
in the lumber business, as well as V. R. Vanderhule, the latter also having in- 
terests in stone quarrying, etc. N. R. Bard of the firm of N. R. Bard & Co., 
successors to A. M. Benton & Co., is extensively engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness at Roulette, Potter County. 

The Hall & Pelton planing and turning- mill was erected in the fall of 1889, 
the building being 28x76 feet and two stories in height .... Within the borough 
and a radius of a few miles are several important lumber manufacturing con- 
cerns. Portage creek, Keating and Shippen to the south, and Turtle Point, 
Sartwell and Larrabee to the north, are all tributary to Port Allegany. 

Banks. — The First National Bank was founded in April, 1888, with F. H. 
Arnold, Henry Hamlin, B. D. Hamlin, A. G. Olmsted, F.. H. Root, B. C. 
Gallup, J. S. Rowley and A. J. Hughes, stockholders. The capital stock was 
$50,000. The ofiice of this banking company is an elegant modern structure. 
The ofiicers of the First National Bank for 1890 are F. H. Arnold, president; 
Henry Hamlin, vice-president; J. S. Rowley, cashier; A. J. Hughes, F. H. 
Arnold, B. C. Gallup, C. A. Dolley, Henry Hamlin, B. D. Hamlin and F. H. 
Root, directors. 

A local board of the National Savings and Loan Association of Rochester, 
N. Y. , was organized May 27, 1889, with the following named officers: Pres- 
ident, N. R. Bard; vice-president, J. H. Williams; secretary, A. J. Hughes; 
treasurer, F. E. Watts; attorney, R. C. Bard. In 1890 C. C. Ward was elected 
secretary, and M. J. Colcord, attorney, with A. J. Hughes, N. R. Bard and 
R. C. Bard, directors. 

Cemetery Association. — The Cemetery Association was organized in March, 
1852. Among the members were Aaron S. Arnold, John J. Abbey. S. H. 
Barrett, William Wilkins, T. W. Richmond, L. Lillibridge, Merrit Smith, 
Isaac Viner, R. B. and William Bellows, William Simar, Aaron Smith, Harvey 
Manning, William Sherwood and P. Fean. On June 10, 1889, the following 
officers were elected: E. B. Dolley, president; C. A. Dolley, treasurer; C. H. 
■Cole, secretary; Andy Black, sexton; F. H. Arnold, trustee. 

Hotels. — The Sartwell House, the leading hotel, with the Port Allegany 
House and the new hotel of A. J. Connelly on Pearl street, form the principal 
hostelries of the town. The latter was built in October, 1889. 

C/iwrc^es. —Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1836 a hunter named Foster 
came to Canoe Place and preached at the house of Lodowick Lillibridge. In 


April, 1838, a class was organized with Levi and Sophronia Coats, Phebe 
Eastwood, S. S., Nabby and Annie Grimes, Anna and L. Lillibridge, Jacob 
and Maria Simcox, Betsy Bellows, A. P., Horace and Oretta P. Barnaby, Joel 
H. Eice, Saloma Cummings, members. Meetings were held in the " Old Bed 
House" of Levi Coats, subsequently in the school-house, and later in the 
Union church house. In 1853 the members belonged to the Eldred mission of 
the Olean district, and in 1871 Port Allegany circuit was established. 

In a letter by I. Steele, dated August 13, 1874, it is stated that at the time 
a small scattered Methodist class existed here, attended irregularly by Elder 
Morris, of State Line, but the editor of the Reporter corrected this statement 
by showing that a church building which cost 13,500 stood here at the time, 
and was used by all Protestant denominations. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Port Allegany, which is the same 
as that organized in 1836 with Rev. J. D. Wood, pastor, was incorporated in 
January, 1880, with Balthasar Kershner, William Grigsby, H. F. Dnnbar, M. 
C. Field, James K. Moore and Fred and L. Meservey, trustees. The church 
house was erected in 1880 by Cotton & Sons of Olean. A. M. Benton donated 
three lots and |650 cash, while Mr. Root donated $1,600. Mr. Benton, with 
Messrs. Kershner, Field and Freeland, formed the building committee. Not- 
withstanding the liberal donations, the society owed large sums to Mr. Root 
and Mr. Benton for some time after the completion of the building. 

The Union Church, Port Allegany, was incorporated December 26, 1867,' 
on petition of A. S. Arn9ld, J. J. Abbey, E. B. Dolley, C. Dolley, W. J. 
Davis, J. C. Coleman, A.' Fortner, William Sherwood, T. Mullin, William 
Simar, L. J. Gallup, J. K. Moore, E. Fitch, Peter Frederick, R. E. Bellows, 

F. H. Arnold, A. H. Medbery, V. H. Benton, B. B. Burt, T. N. Peet, Charles 
Peet, J. G. Hall, Dennison Woodcock, J. Campbell, J. Tallmadge, Paul Hall, 

G. W. Nichols, J. Ames, A. Acre, J. S. Wert, P. M. Coleman, William Cole- 
man, L. M. Eastwood, W. A. Wright, N.- N. Metcalf, Samuel Cole, H. Met- 
calf, A, Eastwood, O. D. and O. Vosburg. A. N. and S. S. Lillibridge, G. W. 
Manning, J. R. Proctor, W. Grigsby, W. P. and A. I. Wilcox, Horace Cole- 
man, and L. H. Dolley. The church was dedicated February 15, 1872. The 
total cost was $3,600, the bell being presented by A. S. Arnold. 

Universalists. — In December, 1874, Rev. B. Brunning came here to organ- 
ize a Universalist society, but the results did not warrant the building of a 
church house. 

Catholic Church. — The first regular services of St. Gabriel's Catholic 
Church were performed by Father Patterson in 1875, and the congregation 
was formed April 30, 1876. Among the early members were Keron Hanlon, 
P. Moran, P. Brider, P. Kilday, Maggie Kilday, Sol. Leighton, J. Cook, M. 
Galligar, Joseph Galligar, A. Laumer, A. Sampur, M. Ward, C. Bishop, 
J. Conelly, Pat Kilday, John Kilday, Patrick Welch, P. Glenon, M. Mitchel, 
S. Ebelheir, Julia Ward and Thomas Mack. The secretaries of the church 
have been Dr. Rinn, James Galligar, R. Mulholland and A. Connelly ; Matthew 
Snyder is secretary. The work of building was commenced in 1879 by Barrett 
Brothers, and the church was completed in 1880 at a cost of $3,000. The 
congregation numbers 300. The present pastor is Rev. Father Cosgrove. 

The First Regular Baptist Church of Port Allegany was incorporated in 
August, 1881, the signers of the articles being Dr. J. S. Stearns and wife, O. 
J. Rose and wife, James Steele and wife, Mary Steele and Frfincis M. Robin- 
son. When the society was organized, on June 2, 1877, the above named, ex- 
cept the Rose family, were members, with Mrs. Teft and Charles H. Dodd. 
Rev. S. D. Morris was the first pastor, succeeded by Rev. Rose, Rev. Dodd, 


and the present pastor, Rev. E. C. H. Catterall. J. S. Stearns, F. M. Eobin- 
son and A. A. Matthews have filled the clerk's office successively, the first 
named being nov? clerk. The society of twenty-foar members worship in 
the old Union Church building, which has now been transferred to the Pres- 
byterians. The Baptist Society proposes to erect a house of worship on land 
donated by A. M. Benton, nearly opposite the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The cost is estimated at $3,500. 

The Congregational Society was organized May 7, 1877, by Rev. H. M. 
Higley, with Mrs. G. C. Barrett, Lettie and Nellie Barrett, Mrs. M. A. Lilli- 
bridge, Mrs. Eddy, Mrs. W. Hooker and C. W. Wasson,*members. 

The Free- Will Baptist Society of Port Allegany was incorporated in June, 
1883, with A. N. Lillibridge, William Pelton, John H. Eastwood, J. H. Burr 
and C. C. Richardson, trustees. The names of J. Richardson, A. L. East- 
wood and O. C. Griffin also appear as contributing members. 

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Society of Port Allegany was incorpor- 
ated July 13, 1886 — O. Lindberg, N. J. Anderson, Benjamin Anderson and 
B. M. Johnson being the petitioners. 

St. Joseph's Protestant Episcopal Church was opened July 22, 1888, and 
now claims twenty -nine members. This church has been attended by Revs. J. 
H. McCandless, H. Q. Miller, Josephus Tragett, F. W. White and C. L. Bates, 
present pastor. The property of the society is valued at $2,000. The new 
' church house was dedicated November 16, 1889. Work was begun during the 
pastorate of Rev. F. W. White. The property was transferred free of debt 
to a committee comprising Rector Bates, Dr. F. E. Watts, F. E. Rowley and 
S. C. Sartwell. 

The Presbyterian Society was organized at the house of C. E. Hubbard, 
December 10, 1889, with G. C. Farnsworth, president; George Weber, secre- 
tary; E. P. Dalrymple, treasurer; C. E. Hubbard, F. Gerwiok, Mrs. Dalrym- 
ple, Mrs. Farnsworth, Mrs. Hubbard and Mrs. Weber, executive committee. 
Their first services were held in the Union building January 12, 1890. 

In January, 1890, the new Presbyterian society elected C. C. Ward, C. E. 
Hubbard and B. Both, elders; S. W. Smith (president), E. P. Dalrymple 
(treasurer), F. Gerwick, Jr., G. C. Farnsworth and George Weber (clerk), 
trustees Later in January services were held in the Swedish chiirch, and 
toward the close of that month a proposition to purchase the Union church 
house was entertained and the building purchased. 

Public Schools. — The public schools of Port Allegany are under the profes- 
sorship of A. E. Barnes, who has been at the head of the schools several years. 
He is assisted by Miss Edith Van Duzen (a graduate of the Genesee Normal 
School), who teaches the grammar school; Miss Ida Manay, the second inter- 
mediate; Miss Grace Sweeting, the first intermediate, and Miss Addie Neefe, 
the primary department. The schools have recently been graded, and a pre- 
paratory course is now taught. About 275 pupils are enrolled. 

The Port Allegany school board, elected in June, 1889, comprises C. R. 
Bard, president; Thomas McDowell, treasurer; T. B. Day, secretary; with E. 
B. Starkweather, C. E. Hubbard and C. H. Bergman. In July A. E. Barnes 
was employed as principal; Ida V. Manay, Grace M. Sweeting and Addie C. 
Neefe, assistant teachers. 

Societies, Associations, Etc. — Liberty Lodge, No. 505, A. F. & A. M. , was 
constituted December 26, 1871, with the following members: George Goltrey, 
Miles Irons. H. Jay Barrett, F. H. Arnold, Thomas McDowell, C. H. Cole, E. 
B. Dolley, William Dunbar, A. L. Medbery, C. L. Bellows. The names of 
the past masters are G. H. Goltrey, H. Jay Barrett, P. A. McDonald, C. H. 


Cole, E. J. Mott, John Dick and James H. Williams, now acting master. The 
names of secretaries are Thomas McDowell, H. Jay Barrett, O. L. Snyder and 
C. \V. Hooker, now acting secretary. The present number of members is 
fifty-four, and the value of the property 1500. This lodge elected the follow- 
ing named officers for 1890: O. E. Goldhagen, W. M. ; Frank Eckert, S. W. ; 
C. H. Cole, J. W. ; T. McDowell, Treasurer; C. W. Hooker, Secretary; E. B.' 
Dolley, C. H. Cole and B. Kershner, Trustees, and J. A. Williams, Represent- 

R. A. Chapter, 'Hj^o. 254 was instituted May 17, 1877. with the following 
named members: P. A. McDonald, F. H. Arnold, E. B. Dolley, A. H. Med- 
bery, E. P. Dalrymple, George M. Smith, Frank D. Simar and Nathan R. 
Bard. The names of past high priests are P. A. McDonald, G. M. Smith, 
Charles N. Barrett, C. R. Bard and O. L. Snyder, while the present high 
priest is E. P. Dalrymple. The secretaries have been E. P. Dalrymple, H. 
J. Barrett, O. L. Snyder, C. R. Bard, and the present secretary, J. H. Will- 
iams. There are thirty-two members, and the property is valued at 1800. 

The Knights of Honor Lodge was organized October 25, 1879, under the 
name of Mountain Lodge. The names of original members are P. A. Mo- 
Donald, H. J. Barrett, C. A. Larrabee, P. E. Cotter, R. J. Mott, C. W. 
Hooker, William Hooker, A. Crandal, J. V. Otto, M. D., M. A. Lillibridge, 
O. E. Coyle. William Dunbar, H. D. Helmer, James Doyle, S. L. Youngs, M.' 
M. Griffin, J. E. Chandler. P. A. McDonald was first dictator, and the pres- 
ent dictator is W. C. Downs. C. A. Larrabee was first reporter, the present 
reporter being C. H. Bergman. There are nineteen members. The officers of 
the Knights of Honor for 1890, in the order of lodge rank, are C. C. Ward, D. 
M. Teater, M. A. Lillibridge, C. H. Bergman, Thomas McDowell, William 
Hooker, J. V. Otto, J. L. Ward, M. L. Shmtz and S. C. Sartwell. 

Lam-el Encampment, No. 61, Knights.of St. John and Malta, was organized 
April 7, 1887. The names of original members are F. E. Watts, M. E. 
Manning, F. Schoonover, J. D. Ford, F. Allen, E. M. Fulmer, C. M. Good- 
win, B. M. Johnson, O. C. Wagner, Reene Wilson, P. J. Fleming, 0. Fulmer, 
C. H. Bergman, O. E. Goldhagen, O. M. Johnson, H. Coleman, G. Reese, F. 
W. Weidman, F. H. Hall, E, A. Cole, T. H. Trous, W. L. Lillibridge, C. A. 
Lambert and W. D. Russell. The names of eminent commanders were W. D. 
Russell, C. H. Bergman and I. B. Baker. The names of the secretaries are 
O. M. Johnson, I. B. Baker, W. D. Russell and O. E. Goldhagen. The offi- 
cers installed April 11, 1890, in encampment order, are as follows: F. H. 
Hall, C. M. Goodwin, T. H. Burleson, I. B. Baker, W. M. Holmes, C. H. 
Bergman, A. A. Abbey, S. L. Young, B. M. Johnson, Frank Schoonover, 
J. G. Hall, M. A. Lillibridge. O. C. Wagner, J. B. Colcord, M. D., M. I. 
Sawyer, A. G. Irons, Frederick Gerwick. The present number of members 
is forty. 

In May, 1887, a tent of the K. O. T. M. was organized at Liberty, with 
Nathan Tronst, president, and Frank Hoover, secretary. The officers of the 
K. O. T. M., for 1890, in the order of tent, rank, are F. Gerwick, J. W. Kersh- 
ner, M. Venus, I. E. Johnson, E. D. Sherrill, H. J. Wolcott, J. V. Otto, J. J. 
Gallagher, W. E. Pelton, S. A. Eastwood, A. Fairbanks, L. L. Hilliker and 
John Brown. 

Henry H. Metcalfe Post, 431, G. A. E., was organized May 15, 1884, with 
E. Horton, C. ; C. A. Larrabee, S. V. ; John Dean, J. V. ; C. N. Barrett, Q. M. ; 
Dr. Hogarth, Surg.; S. S. Steele, Chap.; C. W. Wagner, O. D., and Melvin 
Hall, O. G. Commander Wright, of McKean Post, presided. Young Metcalfe 
came with his parents to Port Allegany in 1857, enlisted in the Fifty-eighth 


Pennsylvania Infantry in August, 1862; was made prisoner at Fair Oaks;, 
confined in the Confederate prisons at Richmond and Salisbury, and while 
returning " with his mother died two miles north of Emporium, April 25, 
1865. The charter members were: C. N. Barrett, Forty- sixth Pennsylvania;. 
M. E. Hall, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania; C. A. Larrabee, Eighty-fifth New 
York; William Van Loon, First New York Dragoons; Chester Baker, Fifty- 
eighth Pennsylvania; A. S. Ames, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Pennsylvania;. 
B. G. Bartle, Twenty-third New York; A. A. Goodwin, Fifty-eighth Pennsyl- 
vania; I. Studley, Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsjjlvania; H. D. Hel- 
mer, Eighty-fifth New York; P. N. Hogarth, First K. R. ; S. Steele, One 
Hundred and Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania; I. B. Harrup, One Hundred and 
Ninety eighth Pennsylvania; Yates Anson, Fifty-third Pennsylvania; John 
Dehn, First Minnesota; L. Burrows, One Hundred and Ninety-ninth Penn- 
sylvania; E. Horton, First New York Dragoons; R. S. Dexter, Seventy-sixth 
Pennsylvania; William Rauber, One Hundred and Eighty-eighth New York 
Volunteers; S. R. Semens, Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania; C. W. 
Wagner, First Light Artillery; Rufus Coombs, Seventeenth New York. The 
position of commander has been filled, since Horton' s time, by C. N. Barrett, 
B. G. Bartle and R. H. Camp. The two last named have served as adjutants, 
a position now well filled by E. F. Cornell. There are thirty-five members. 
The officei-s of Metcalfe Post for 1890 are A. S. Ames, J. M. Matthews, L. 
Burrows, I. S. Fogle, A. A. Peling and J. F. Sharp, with C. C. Ward and I. S. 
Fogle, delegates, and C. C. Ward, adjutant. 

^Vomen's Relief Corps was organized February 15, 1887, with the following 
named members: Madams Flora Hogarth, Nancy Van Loon, Julia Helmer, 
Elizabeth Richardson, Jane Hall, Susan Baker, Ada Horton, Mary Steele and 
Misses Ina Richardson, Nora Fogle, Belle Fogle, Clara Steele, Nellie Clare, 
Belle Bartle and Lou Bartle. Mrs. Hpgarth and Mrs. Van Loon have presided 
over this society, of which Mrs. Sarah Hooker is now president. Mrs. Rich- 
ardson was first secretary, and Mrs. Lou Bartle is present recorder. There 
are nineteen members. 

The Port Allegany I. O. G. T. was organized September 20, 1867, with J. 
K. Moore, W. C. T. Mrs. J. F. Shurtz, O. D. Vosburg, Misses Thompson, 
Wilkin, Dolley and Vosburg, Mrs. Lillibridge, W. D. Bellows, Mason Lilli- 
bridge, Izates Dolley and G. B. Fitch, were the ofiScers. 

The Port Allegany Library Association was organized in February, 1875, 
with A. J. Hughes, president; E. P. Dalrymple, secretary; A. B. Humphrey,. 
Mrs. F. H. Arnold and Mrs. Thomas McDowell, executive committee. 

The High School Literary Society, in March, 1890, elected the following 
named officers: President, William H. Catterall: vice-president, Grace M. 
Sweeting; secretary, Alice Rowley; treasurer, Gretta Kinney ; librarian, Edith 
Van Deusen. 

The International Fraternal Alliance was instituted at Port Allegany in 
November, 1889, by J. B. Hargrave. It sets forth to pay its members the 
sum of $700 every seven years. M. J. Headley is speaker, S. J. Carlson, 
clerk, and W. H. Keeney, treasurer. 

The W. C. T. U. elected the following named officers in December, 1889: 
Mrs. C. A. Larrabee, president; Mrs. G. C. Farnsworth, secretary, and Mrs. 
R. C. Bard, treasurer. 

The Young Women' s Christian Temperance Union elected the following 
named officers June 10, 1889: Mrs. J. S. Shaner, president; Delia Dolley, 

vice-president; Alice Rowley, secretary, and Dora Dolley, treasurer On 

July 18, 1889, the Loyal Temperance Union was organized bv Miss Schoch,, 
with E. May Bellows, leader. 


The Port Allegany Musical Association was organized by S. W. Adams in 
August, 1876, -with G. A. Larrabee, Mrs. Kate Cowdrey, S. W. Smith, Mrs. T. 
McDowell and H . J. Barrett, officials. 

The Business Men's Club was organized in November, 1889, with F. E. 
Eowley, president; B. C. Gallup, vice-president; G. C. Farnsworlh, secretary; 
R. J. Mott, treasurer; J. H. Williams, J. V. Otto and W. W. Rinn, trustees. 
The McKean County Agricultural Society. — For some years before the war 
an agricultural society existed in the county and held fairs annually, Smeth- 
port being the headquarters. After the war. and up to 1875, the old society 
showed signs of life, but the oil excitement of 1875 diverted men's attention 
from farms and farming, and the organization may be said to have ceased. A 
few years later, when oil prospectors did not succeed so well east of the divide, 
the prosperous farmers of Liberty, Keating and adjoining townships suggested 
their willingness to revive their association, and as a result the McKean 
County Agricultural Society was organized in February, 1880, with A. J. 
Hughes, N. N. Metcalf and E. B. DoUey, directors. Among the stockholders 
were the officers named and F. H. Arnold, A. M. Benton, G. L. Blackman, S. 
R. June, Goltry and Camp and S. W. Smith. In 1881-82 V. R. Vanderhule- 
was president and A. J. Hughes, secretary. The McKean County Agricultural 
Society petitioned for incorporation September 24, 1883. F. H. Arnold, W. 
J. Davis and N. N. Metcalf were elected directors, and the total membership 
was twenty-five. The following officers were elected for 1890: President, N. 
R. Bard; vice-president, E. B. DoUey; secretary, A. J. Hughes; treasurer, F. 
H. Arnold; directors: Henry Smith, B. C. Galhap, L. J. Gallup; auditors: 
Thomas McDowell, E. P. Dalrymple, W. J. Davis. The shares are 1100 each. 
Port Allegany is beautifully located in one of the most picturesque parts of 
the Allegheny Valley. Nestling upon the banks of the river, it forms the gate 
to the upper Allegheny country, and from it leads the fii-st railroad built in 
that country. A range of hills bounds the horizon, from the summits of which 
is spread out, before the observer, a landscape rivaling in beauty and exquisite 
perfection many of the scenes chosen by master artists for their pencil or 
brush. The whistle of the locomotive is constantly heard, as hurrying trains 
come and go; the river gives life and animation to the scene, and all in all the 
city site was well chosen and her streets surveyed on proper lines. Round th& 
business section and interspersed with the houses of trade are seen the modern 
homes and well-kept grounds of the people; school and church buildings, and 
even the park, the whole completing a picture at once harmonious and attract- 
ive. This pretty town is a monument to the intelligence of the people and to 
their enterprise, which will survive when superficial tokens of remembrance, 
shall have crumbled into dust. 




Topography, Etc.— Geology— Coal Mines— Oil Wells— Population— Offi- 
cers FOR 1890— Assessment, 1837— Early Settlers— The Old Norwich 
Church— The Norwich Cemetb:ry Association— Stores in 1847— Mineral 
Wells— Timber Lands and Saw-mills— Newerf. 

"VrORWICH TOWNSHIP forms the southeast corner of the county in con- 
-LNI junction with a strip of territory belonging to Liberty township. The 
divide occupies a central position, reaching an elevation of 2, 348 feet above 
the ocean. From this height the east branch of Potatoe creek flows south and 
west, to join the main creek running north by the divide; North creek and 
Portage creek, southeast to the Sinnemahoning portage, and the head-waters 
of Allegany portage north into the Allegheny river above Port Allegany. The 
Salt Works branch of the Sinnemahoning also rises in the southeast corner. 
The Emporium and Norwich anticlinal valleys traverse this section, while 
the Norwich and Clermont synclinals or bituminous coal basins parallel the 
anticlinals. The highest elevation of the bottom of the Olean conglomerate 
is found three-fourths of a mile northwest of Keating depot, 2,275 feet 
above ocean, and the lowest at the Hamlin coal opening, 1,890 feet. The low- 
est measured point in the township is just below Crosby post-of&ce, where the 
creek bottom is 1, 508 feet above ocean level. The average dip from the Keat- 
ing summit near the depot to the Lyman Camp mine in the Potatoe creek coal 
basin is 140 feet per mile, but in sections it ranges from 250 feet per mile to 
100 feet. Prom the Lyman Camp to the Hamlin mine the dip is only eleven 
feet, and thence to Burnt Hill eighteen feet. Prom Norwich Hill to Splint 
mine on the eastern side the dip is 110 feet per mile; the southeastern dip, in 
the southwest corner, 132 feet per mile, and the dip between Wolcott-Comes 
creek summit and well No. 1, twenty-two feet per mile. There are many local 
dips in the coal beds of this township, while the rock outcrop extends verti- 
cally downward to the upper Chemung shale and sandstone, a distance of 
1, 240 feet (as at Coal Pit mines, which open 2, 183 feet above tide), from the 
shale overlying the Dagus coal bed. This stratum shows 290 feet of coal meas- 
ures, including Olean conglomerate, 450 feet of Mauch Chunk and Pocono, 300 
leet of red Catskill and from 150 to 250 feet of Chemung. The 290 feet of 
coal measures show fifteen feet of shale, three of gray slate, five of Dagus coal, 
one and one-half of fire-clay, forty of shale and sandstone, three and one-half 
of coal, one and one-half of fire-clay, thirty-three of shale and slate, one and 
one-half of Clermont coal, one and one-half of fire-clay, fifty of Johnson run 
sandstone, five of black slate, two and one-half of Alton upper coal, eight of 
fire-clay and shale, three-fourths of Alton middle coal, four and one- fourth of 
shale and sandstone, four of Alton lower coal, two of fire-clay, forty-eight of 
Kinzua creek sandstone, two and one-third of Marshburg upper coal, two and 
two-thirds of fire-clay and fifty- five of Olean conglomerate and sandstone. The 
section was made from the survey by P. E. Gleason in 1876. The conforma- 
tion at the Eock coal mine, 2, 138 feet above tide, varies a little, showing a 



fifteen-feet exposure of flaggy sandstone at the opening, while the Hamlin and 
Splint coal beds rest on Kinzua creek sandstone. The Blue coal opening is 
2,028 feet above tide; the Spring, 2,035 feet, and Eochester cannel mines, 
2, 074 feet. In the test of these coals it was found that Coal Pit coal yielded about 
56.2 of fixed carbon and 63.6 of coke; Spring, 59.3 and 67.3, respectively 
Hamlin, 61.6 and 69.2; Blue, 62.1 and 69; Eock, 58 and 70; Lyman Camp 
57.5 and 68.8; Charley, 49.2 and 64.2; Block coal, 38.8 and 61.5; Burnt Hill 
(cannel), 48.1 and 66.3, and Eochester (cannel), 37. 7 and 75.9 per cent of fixed 
carbon and coke. In the gas test, one pound from the Hamlin seam yielded 
5.10 cubical feet; from the Spring and Blue seams, over four; from the Block, 
over three aad one-half, and from the Burnt Hill cannel almost three cubical 
feet. In 1875-76 explorations on the Backus and Chadwiek lands (known as 
the Butterfield purchase), in the southeast and southwest corners of Sergeant 
and Norwich townships, were reported by Seth Backus, of Smethport. Well 
No. 1 opened 2,232 feet above ocean level in five and one-fourth feet of soil, 
resting on a bed of shale from fourteen to twenty feet in depth. This well 
reached a depth of about 1,400 feet, striking white, fine, micaceous sand rock 
at the bottom, passing through thin beds of coal (thirty feet below the mouth) 
and iron ore. In well No. 2 a heavier coal deposit was found sixty- four feet be- 
low the surface, and in well No. 4 about forty-seven feet below the top. In the 
vicinity of No. 4 the Buffalo Coal company opened a well 2, 173 feet above 
ocean level, and at a depth of almost 127 feet bored through the Marshburg 
coal. Tip Indian run several four-inch beds have been opened. 

Near Hamlin, an oil well was drilled in 1875-76 to a depth of 2,002 feet, 
and in June, 1877, the great flagstone quarry was opened by Orlando Gallup, 
and worked by John Digel. 

The population of Norwich township in 1880 was 431. In 1888 there were 
96 Eepublican, 63 Democratic and 3 Prohibitionist votes cast, or a total of 162, 
representing a population of 810. 

The officers for 1890 are as follows: Supervisors, B. D. Colegrove, E. E. 
Burdick; school directors, J. B. Oviatt, N. C. Gallup; justice of the peace, M. 
Blodgett; constable, Ellis Griffith; town clerk, J. B. Oviatt; auditors, W. E. 
Wilson, C. A. Anderson and C. D. Comes for one year; collector, O. D. Gal- 
lup; judge of election, E. N. Wilson; inspectors, W. O. Gallup, W. B. Eichey. 
The assessment of residents of Norwich township in 1837 shows the names 
of John Abbey, Tim Abbey, John Avery, Dave Allard, Joe Apple, I. Burlingame, 
William Brewer, Wheeler and Henry Brown, George and Daniel A. Easter- 
brooks, Eowland Burdick, Nathan Brewer, Asa Cotton, Dave Comes, Elias J. 
Cook, Benjamin and Jonattian Colegrove, Francis J. Chadwiek, Edward Cor- 
win and son, Amos Coats, Henry Chapin, Edward Dickenson, Levi Davis, Jr., 
E. Eastwood, John Ellis, Job GifPord, John S. Gunning, O. W. Wheeler, 
Jabez, N. C. and A. E. Gallup, Luke B. Gibson, J. W. Howe, John 
Housler, Ben Haxton, L. and Hiram Havens, Horatio and William Hall,* 
Thomas Hookey, George and H. Jacox, Henry Lasher, Asenath Lawrence, 
Levi Lathrop, Samuel Messenger, Abner Miller, — Marsh, I. Murphy, Eben 
Pattison, Daniel Eifle, Nathan Eobbins, Esseck Smith, William Smith, Henry 
Scott, Levi Thomas, Asa Townes, Ehoda White, Samuel Wiswall (trader), 
William White, Tim and L. F. Wolcott. Henry Scott was assessor, and he 
recommended Daniel Eifle and Esseck Smith for collectors. 

The first permanent settlement was made in 1815 by Jonathan Colegrove, the 
Abbeys and Wolcotts from Norwich, Chenango Co. , N. Y.,with others from various 
towns, giving the township the name of their old home. William Smith and 
the Whites and Corwins also settled in Norwich William Gifford, who 

* WUUam Hall was the owner of the grist-mill. 


was born in Norwich townsbip in 1821, died-June 26,1889,atSmetbport; .'. . 
Edward Oorwin, who served in the Eevolution for six years and a quarter, 
came with his family to Norwich in 1822, and in 1828 settled at Smethjport. 
Grhordis Corwin, the son, died in 1876, leaving $800 to the' Baptist church, 
which he joined here in 1836. 

The old Delmar Church, the first organized in the western part of Tioga 
county, lost seventeen members in 1820-21, when the old Norwich church of 
McKean county was founded.. In 1876 James' Steele, of Port Allegany, was 
said to be the last survivor of the first members. 

The Norwich Cemetery Association was incorporated in November, 1874, 
with W. J. Colegrove, A. P. Brewer, O. D. Gallup, D. D. Gomes and Orlando 
Gallup, ttustees. 

Colegrove is a thriving village, located on the Western New York & 
Pennsylvania Eailroad. The post-office there was presided over. Tip to 1880, 
by W. J. Colegrove, to whose efforts the establishment of an office at this 
point was due. Jonathan Colegrove is the present postmaster. In 1883 the 
general mercantile business of W. J. Colegrove & Son was purchased by C. A. 
Anderson. The Heinemann lumber industry and other lumber interests in 
the vicinity contribute principally to the trade of the village. A pumping 
station of the National Transit Company is located here. 

In May, 1847, the stores of C. R. & B. O. BurdicK and J. F. Gallup were 
opened in Norwich. 

Gardeau is the new postal name given to the old Elk-lick. 

The Parker Magnetic Mineral well, near the comer of McKean, Potter and 
Cameron counties, nine miles from Emporium, was analyzed in July, 1888, 
and found to contain 627.59 grains of mineral matter — Silica, 1.33; Mag. Chi., 
109.84; Cal. Carb., 11.95; Cal. Chi., 221.92; Sod. Chi., 282.55; Pot. Chi. 
traces. In 1887 a mineral spring was discovered at Four Mile on Ni P. Min- 
ard' s lands. The present site of the flowing well has always been known, since 
the earliest" history of the country, as the great Elk-lick. Although it is not 
certain that the water flowed from the ground in its present strength, it un- 
doubtedly possessed saline qualities which attracted deer and elk in great num- 
bers. In 1865 N. H. Parker drilled a well 640 feet deep in the bed of the old 
spring, and struck the present vein of mineral water that flows from the top 
of the well. Mr. Parker drilled the well in the hope of finding oil. The 
water was allowed to flow uncared fox and unthought of, until about four years 
ago, when one George Broucham, who was working for Mr. Parker in the saw- 
inill, was laid up with an attack of calculiis, which had been troubling him for 
several years. Having a fondness for- this water, he commenced drinking it 
from the well, and began to recover immediately. The flow of the spring, 
which never varies perceptibly, is about sixty-five gallons per hour. The 
spring was purchased by the Parker Mineral Spring Company in 1888. They 
have built a good hotel and commodious bath-house, which are under efficient 

In February, 1890, H. C. Crawford bought 1,400 acres of timber land, on 
the line of the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, about fifteen miles 
south of Port Allegany, and engaged in cutting the timber on it. He has built 
two saw-mills, one at Gardeau, and the other at Sizerville. 

Digel is the name of a post-office in this township. 

Newerf , formerly known as Spearsburg and later as Crosby, is six miles 
south by east of Smethport. Here at the old Spearsburg mill, lately owned 
by G. C. Carpenter & Son, people in this vicinity and Smethport, no later than 
1873, came to have lumber planed. This mill was burned about 1884. Here 
also were the oil extract works written of in the chapter on the oil fields. 


The town is pleasantly located on the line of the Western New York & Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, and contains several frame houses, a billard room, a tonsorial 
parlor, a building recently erected for a foundry, not yet in operation, a board- 
ing house which is under the management of Ed. Eldridge, two blacksmith 
shops, and two saw mills, one owned by the Crosby lumber company and the 
other by James White. There is also a school-house which was built in the 
fall of 1882. The school is managed by a Mrs. Gary of Bradford. Besides 
all these many improvements there are two stores, one owned by the Crosby 
Lumber Company, and the other by M. Erhart. The last store" contains the 
post-office and M. Erhart is the postmaster. 

At the rate of the present output of hemlock lumber, it will be but 
a few years when people around here will be compelled to resort to other in- 
dustries, in order to gain a livelihood. The forests are being stripped of the 
hemlock very rapidly and no doubt the present generation will live to see hem- 
lock as scarce as pine is . After the little hills are stripped of the hemlock 
the land will be of little use save for grazing, and then the sheep will have to 
be shod, for the hills are so steep and stony that they can not hold their footing. 



Otto Township Topogkaphy — Population — Officees Elected in 1890— 

Resident Tax-Payees, 1854-55— Aethue Peentiss' Account— Some Early 
Settleus — Stobms and Fiees — Ciiueoh— Society at Rixfokd — I^Jiscel- 
Duke Centee Some Fiest TntNGS- The Place in 1879— Postmastees— 

Population— Chartee Election. 1881— Gas Company— Bank— Chueches 

OTTO TOWNSHIP is situated in the north part of the county. Indian 
creek rises in the northeast corner near the New York State line; Tram, 
North and Kansas branches of Knapp' s creek, which flow together above Duke 
Centre, occupy the three canons of the north, while the heads of the north 
branch of Cole creek flow south by east from the^ southern divide, leaving the 
center of the township to be drained by Knapp' s creek, in the valley of which 
the Kendall & Eldred Eailroad runs. The greatest measured height is the 
summit of the Tide Water Pipe Line southeast of Rixford, 2,148 feet, but it is 
ascertained that the summit between Indian creek and North branch is 2,350 
feet above tide. Up to 1879 there were no discoveries of coal or other min- 
eral made here, save that of petroleum, and the little territory was second to 
none of equal extent in the production of this oil. 

Otto township in 1880 claimed 4,277 inhabitants. Of this number 249 
resided in Kansas Branch village, 145 in Fullerton, 737 in Oil Valley, 1,127 in 
Eixford, 136 in Prentiss Vale, 231 in Tram Hollow and 16 in Windfall village. 
In 1888 there were 173 Republican votes cast, 99 Democratic, 50 Prohibition 
and 50 United Labor, or a total of 372, indicating the population at the time 
to be 1,860. 

The officers elected for 1890 are as follows : Supervisors, F. W. Sprague, 
H. T. Breese; school directors, James Fraiser, J. M. Sloan; auditor, J. T. 


Irvine; . collector, Z. Wilson; town clerk, E. B. Cronk; constable, C. C. Ama- 
long; justice of the peace, E. E. Nash; judge of election, First District, E. B. 
Cronk; inspectors, J. W. McCown, Prank Walsh; judge of election. Second 
District, J. J. Donley; inspectors, J. E. Martin, F. E. Burton. 

The resident tax-payers of Otto township, in 1854-55, were J. M. Baldwin 
(who died in Maine), Nahum, Samuel, Sr., James Cyrus, Asa and Sam. 
Baldwin, Jason W. Blanchard (now in Wisconsin, former owner of Eixford), 
T. J. Bryant, Cook, Borden & Co. (saw-mill owners), John and Josiah Davis, 
Gideon Ellis (living near Eldred), L. Ellis, James Pogle, Jesse Garey (Keat- 
ing), Orisson Grey (moved to Wisconsin), Milton Koons, Col. James Labree, . 
O. Lovell, William Lovejoy, James McCord, William McCullough (moved 
to Jamestown), Hiram Moore, Eobert Moore, Arthur Prentiss (still a resident) 
and H. K. Prentiss G. M. Prentiss, Ed. S. Eeed, Brad. G., Joe and William 
H. Spiller, George and William Plummer, John Swink (living in Kansas), 
Eev. M. W. Strickland, J. S. Thompson (now in Eldred), Henry Twambley 
(living in Minnesota), Coon Wagoner (moved away) and Miami York (moved 
west). The value of their property was placed at $6,305 by Nahum Baldwin. 
Deacon Sprague came in January, 1856, and settled that year on his present 

The following from the pen of Mr. Arthur Prentiss, giving some of his 
reminiscences of Otto township, will be read with much interest: " The valley 
of Knapp's creek," says Mr. Prentiss, " now forming the greater part of Otto 
township, was formerly included in the township of Eldred. It was an un- 
broken wilderness until 1842, in which year Hermon Strong, who had come 
from Springfield, Penobscot Co., Me., located a farm at what is now called 
Prentiss Vale, although for three years before settling here he had^been a res- 
ident of Farmers Valley, same county. Soon after getting fairly to work on 
his farm he put in operation a Yankee shingle machine, the first in the county. 
Through the influence of Mr. Strong, who was an old acquaintance of mine, 
I first came to what is now Otto township in December, 1845, having in view 
the purchase of the pine timber land (at the head-waters of the creek branches), 
and also the location of a colony of eastern farmers and lumbermen. I spent 
several days with Mr. Strong in exploring the pine lands, and then returned 
home. In the spring of 1846 I again visited the spot and made further ex- 
amination of the valley, as well as several other locations, but being unable to 
make any definite agreement for the timber land, owing to the existence of some 
old speculation contracts, I again returned home. The fall of the same year, 
however, once more found me out in this land of promise, and I succeeded in 
arranging with W. B. Clymer (general agent for the Bingham estate) and John 
King (agent for the Keating estate) for all the land we wanted. In April, 
1847, I moved my family to Farmers Valley, and occupied the old Sartwell 
(now Goodwin) farm two years, while locating land preparatory to building 
a mill, etc. In the spring of 1849 I moved into a log house in the valley and 
began the erection of a saw-mill, which was put in operation in the fall. The 
heavy frame of this mill was raised without the use of whisky, probably the 
first so raised in the county. (No intoxicating drink was ever sold in the val- 
ley before oil was found.) In 1851 the timber land and mill were sold to W. 
P. Pope and Cyrus Strong, of Binghamton, N. Y. , who cleared the streams, 
built dams to reserve the water, and drove the pine logs, Yankee fashion, to 
Olean, where they built mills and manufactured for the eastern market. In 
1854 they sold out the remaining timber and the mills to Borden & Co., of Fall 
Eiver, Mass., since known as the Olean Lumber Company. Almost all this 
timber land has proven to be the best oil territory in the county. 


' ' A goodly mimbev of settlers from the vicinity of my former residence in 
Penobscot county, Me., came and located on farms in my vicinity. We soon 
built a small school-house, in which, for years, were held school. Sabbath- 
school, religious services, etc. We had only a winter sled road from the 
river, a distance of about three miles, but it was not long before we made a 
wagon road, spending about |1,000, $500 of which were appropriated by the 
county. Soon after starting business we procured the establishment of a 
special post-office, which continued as such for about fifteen years, when a 
regular mail route from Eldred to Bradford was put in operation. I. W. 
Prentiss was appointed postmaster in 1850, and held the office about two 
years, since which time I have held the office. Since the discovery of oil, two 
other offices have been established. In 1852 (I think, as all records were 
destroyed by fire) a Congregational church was organized, with Rev. M. W. 
Strickland, from Maine, as first pastor. This church at one time had more 
than thirty members, but through deaths, removals and other causes is now 
almost extinct. Most of the early settlers were Old Line Democrats, but they 
were soon converted to anti-slavery Whigs or Republicans, "and at one election, 
near the commencement of the war of the Rebellion, the eighty or so voters 
gave a unanimous Republican vote. At the outbreak of that war almost all of 
oui' men, liable to military duty, volunteered, and I think only two were 
drafted. We sent nearly fifty soldiers in all, of whom about twenty lost their 
lives. Probably no other township with the same number of voters furnished 
and lost an equal number of men during that struggle. ' ' 

Benjamin Bunker came in 1852, and was engaged in lumbering and milling 
until 1884, when he moved to Minnesota, where he died in 1889. John Duke 
came here about the time of the Civil war, and built the present mills after 
that struggle. 

This township, like the adjoining one of Foster, has sufPered considerably 
from fire, and on one occasion was storm-stricken. The storm of November, 
1879, destroyed the new church building at Rixford, and a number of derricks 
there, at Dallas, and at other points. 

The Rixford fire of May 9, 1880, occasioned by a gas explosion, destroyed 
seventy-five buildings, forming the business center of the town, in less than 
two hours, and burned up 70,000 barrels of oil and forty rigs. . . .The, United 
Lines Tank 714, completed in July, 1880, on the McKean farm, one mile south 
of State Line, burst August 4, 1880, and 20,747 barrels of oil cut a channel down 
to the creek .... United Lines Tank 738, opened on the McKean farm, 200 
rods northeast of Babcock depot, August 11, was struck by lightning August 
28, 1880, and 26, 597 barrels of oil burned up ... . The bush fires around Rix- 
ford began on August 31, 1881, near Baker's trestle, and spread rapidly, de- 
stroying twenty-four rigs and consuming large quantities of oil ... . The fires 
around Bordell in September, 1881, destroyed forty-six rigs and 3,900 barrels 
of oil. This fire spread over 250 acres .... The fire on the Loop farm on the 
north branch of Indian creek, resulted in the destruction of oil at Hardison & 
Kribb's wells. 

In 1826 Joshua Barnes and Barnabas Pike built a fluter saw-mill at State 

The State Line Chapel Association was incorporated March 8, 1887, in 
order to build a house for Methodist worship. The names of the petitioners 
are C. Beaton, N. J. Warren, E. H. Crook, D. Bleakslee, A. R. Wagner and S. 
E. Humphrey. 

The E. A. U. of Rixford was established in March, 1876, with seventy 
members. The officers chosen were J. Eraser, Mrs. D. Pearsall, John Jack, 
Mrs. E. E. Brown, Miss L. Love, J. B. Nutting and J. W. Martin. 


The accidental shooting of Fred Sprague, a boy aged seventeen years, 
took place at McAdoo's engine-house, near Duke Centre, in October, 1888. 
It appears he and Dallas Thomson stepped into the engine house to see the 
well starting up. Young Sprague grounded his gun, but, slipping through a 
crack in the floor, it was discharged, the shot entering his liver and causing his 


The first house built on the site was Cook, Borden & Co.'s frame boarding 
house, erected in May, 1856. Peter Haines, another pioneer, died before the 
oil era, and Chauncey Boot resided on the site of Duke Centre before the war. 
The settlement of the Bunkers is noticed above, and also the coming of John 
Duke. In February, 1878. the business houses of Duke Centre were those of 
Charles Duke, Huffman & Dalrymple, Swan & Bacon, O. D . Bloss & Co. , and 
Barber Bros. 

When V. P. Carter, who, as president of the Duke Centre Gras Company, 
built the second gas line known in this county in 1879 (from Rixford to Duke 
Centre), found at Duke Centre that year John, Thomas and Charles Duke, 
with Randall, afterward postmaster, the Spragues and Baldwins and others. 
There were ten store buildings and several hotels, among which was Brown's 
Empire House and the McDonald House; G. F. Barton conducted his Opera 
House, while three church buildings existed, Mr. Sprague building the Con- 
gregational and John Duke the Church of Christ. The lot for the Congre- 
gational society was secured, and a room over Barton's Opera House was beiijg 
fitted up for the Good Templars. William H. Bandall was appointed first 
postmaster, having previously carried a penny-post between Eldred and Duke 
Centre. He served until 1885, when the late postmaster, P. L. Golden, was 
appointed. W. H. Eandall was re-appointed in July, 1889. Prior to 1878 
the office of this section was at Prentiss Vale. 

The population of Duke Centre, in 1880, was 2,068. In 1888 there were 
eighty-five Eepublican, forty-four Democratic, nine Prohibitionist and fifteen 
Labor-Union votes cast, or a total of 153. Multiplying by sis, as in the case 
of Bradford, the population is found to be 918. 

Thel3harter election for the borough of Duke Centre was held February 15, 
1881. M. M. McElwain received 214 votes, and William Williams 116, for 
burgess; A. H. Low received 287 votes, and John M. Lyman 38, for justice. 
Henry Fitzsimmons, Charles Duke, E. M. Eeardon, B. M. Moulton and J. W. 
Flynn, were elected members of council; John Duke received 302, and A. M. 
Boyd 198 votes, for auditor, three years' term; and George Fisher was elected 
for short term; J. 0. B. Stivers, Joseph Norris, W. I. Lewis and Monroe 
Henderson, were elected school directors; A. N. Heard, assessor; A. A. Coon, 
overseerof the poor; J. L. Thomas, constable; George Tinto, high constable; 
John Mills, judge of elections, and C. S. Colt, inspector of elections. R. T. 
Salvage was elected burgess in 1882, the total vote cast being eighty-two: John 
Needham, in 1883; W. B. Graves, in 1884-85, when G. F. Barton was elected 
justice; Robert Shaffer, in 1886, withW. H. Randall, justice; W. D. Singleton, 
188Y-88, with A. Wheeler, justice, and J. S. Moody, justice in 1888. The 
charter is not now observed. 

The Duke Centre Gas Company was incorporated in November, 1879, with 
T. Kemper, V. P. Carter and John J. Robarts, trustees, and Daniel Dodge 
and J. N. Brown, unofficial subscribers. Mr. Carter is present president. The 
company operates forty-five wells, of which twenty-seven are their own. 

The first bank at Duke Centre was carried on by H. O. Roberts in 1879. 


The banking business of the section has been conducted by Charles Duke 
from 1883 to the present time. 

The First Congregational Society of Diike Centre and Prentiss Vale was 
incorporated in June, 1879, with the following named stockholders: M. M'. 
Strickland, M. A. Strickland, L. B. Prentiss, C. L. Allen, L. S. Allen, B. & H. 
Bunker, F. W. Sprague, Mary Sprague, Joseph Gridley and J. K. Leugemors. 
A church building was erected in 1879, which was sold in 1884-85, and con. 
verted into a skating rink. 

The First Church of Christ, Duke Centre, was incorporated in November, 
1879, with John Duke, Samuel H. Brown, A. A. Trend, A. J. Applebee, 
Thomas S. T\'oodard and Israel Couroth, members. That year the work of 
building a house of worship commenced. It was completed in 1880, although 
services were held within it in 1879. 

The First Methodist Church of Duke Centre was incorporated in December, 
1879, with A. R. Baker, C. G. Thomas, I. C. Schonerman, Enos Thomas, A. 
A. Coons, W. A. Simons and James L. Yan Kirk, stockholders. Among the 
trustees Charles Duke and J. E. Baldwin are named. The church building is 
still used. 

The Odd Fellows organized March 25, 1881, with the following named 
members: S.- Frankenstein, W. N. George, John Sharpe, A. A. Averill, Henry 
L. Raymond, A. N. Heard, J. R. McKinzie, John McGee, A. J. Watkin, 
Morris Shear, Thomas Buchanan, David Greenberg, Benjamin Kempner, P. 
Mills, F. J. Fox. The names of past grands are A. J. Watkin, A. N. Heard, 
J. Sharpe, George Hancock, N. Fair, J. R. McKinzie, R. D. Henderson, John 
Needham, John McEwen, James Rickerson, A. H. Stuart, J. I. Dunn, E. 
KooDse, George Williams and J. I. Painter. The names of secretaries are A.. 
J. Watkin, R. D. Henderson, A. W. Terrill, J. V. Brown, N. Fair, J. 
McEwen and J. I. Painter. The present number of members is 53; value of 
property, |450, and date of building is 1884. 

J. H. Mullin Post, No. 356, G. A. R, was organized at Rixford by W. W. 
Brown July 30, 1883, and participated in the decoration of Lamphier's grave, 
he being the only soldier of the Revolution buried in McKean county. The 
charter members were H. G. Allen, Eighty-fifth New York; C. D. Andrus, 
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth New York; S. C. Andrus, First Okio Artil- 
lery, D. Adams, Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania; H. T. Breese, Fourteenth Mis- 
souii; E. J. Baldwin, Second New York Cavalry; J. E. Baldwin, One Hun- 
dred and Ninety-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers; W. P. Baldwin, Fifty-eighth 
Pennsylvania; John V. Brown, One Hundred and Forty-ninth Pennsylvania; 
Clark Brown, Eighth New York; H. P. Black, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry; T. R. Burton, Navy; H. K. Burton, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry; 
C. M. Brace, Twenty-first New York Cavalry; W. P. Bair, One Hundred and 
Third Pennsylvania; Fred Curtis, Seventy-first New York Infantry; M. ,G. 

Dennis, Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania; James Eraser, ; S. M. 

Fletcher, One Hundred and Twenty- sixth Pennsylvania; H. Trummon, First 
New York Dragoons; A. Glines, Thirteenth New York Artillery; L. J. Lilly, 
Second Pennsylvania Artillery; A. N. Loop, Two Hundred and Eleventh 
Pennsylvania; G. Lancomer, One Hundred and Ninety-fifth Pennsylvania; A. 
H. Low, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania; E. W. Mullin, One Hundred and Thirty- 
seventh New York; J. S. Pittinger, of the Sixty-fourth New York (joined in 
1886), N. Moore, Fourth New York Artillery; N. L. Moore, Eleventh Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry; J. Moore, Fifty-first Pennsylvania; F. T. McEvoy, Thir- 
teenth New Jersey Cavalry; D. Moore, Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania; H. A. 
McGraw, Twenty-third New York; J. D. McGee, Eleventh I. Battery, Penn- 


sylvania; J. W. Martin, Tenth Pennsylvania Cavalry; G. W. Potter, Eighth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry; S. Peterman, Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania; H. Peter- 
son, Fifth New York Artillery; A. T. Rence, Sixty- third Pennsylvania; 
Henry Kiley, Eleventh New York Cavalry; E. P. Shields, One Hundred and 
Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania; Samuel Stives, Twenty-seventh New York Artillery; 
F. Shrout, Fourteenth Virginia Infantry; G. W. Salmon, One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania; W. M. Smith, Eighty-second Pennsylvania; Owen 
Slayman, One Hundred and Forty- second Pennsylvania. On June 15, 1885, 
headquarters were moved to Duke Centre. Nelson Moore was first com- 
mander, with N. L. Moore, adjutant. In 1885 W. P. Black was adjutant and 
J. E. Baldwin commander, succeeded in 1886 by F. T. McEvoy and M. G. 
Dennis, respectively; James Eraser was commander in 1887. and H. M. Black 
in 1888. In the latter year E. B. Cronk was appointed adjutant and served 
in 1889 with C. E. Hatch, commander. Mr. Cronk served in the Fourth New 
York Heavy Artillery. The present membership is fifty-nine. 

Northern Star Lodge, F. & A. M. , was organized about nine years ago with 
the following named members: Charles Bunce, David J. Wilson, John V. Brown, 
Lucius J. Lilly, Jesse E. Leonard, James Green, Pyrrhus Mills, Samuel M. 
Jones, George Tinto, Charles C. Anderson, O. P. Irvine, Joseph Norris, Will- 
iam N. George. The past masters are Charles Bunce, William N. George, 
John V. Brown, Joseph Norris, Lucius J. Lilly, William H. Eandall, John S. 
Greer, F. W. Sprague and John E. Baldwin. 

The R. T. and A. O. IT. W. of Duke Centre completed their building in 
June, 1883. 

In July, 1889, there were no less than thirty- one Equitable Aid Unions in 
this county, and at that time the county union of McKean was the only 
county organization of the order in the world. These county meetings are not 
required by the supreme law, but McKean County Union originated in the 
fertile brain of John T. Irvine, of Duke Centre, grand secretary and account- 
ant of the grand union of Pennsylvania. 



Topography, Etc. Coal Measures— Oil Wells— Population— The Coopee 

Lands— Town of Instantee— The PLAOii in 1810-13-17— Assessment of See- 
GEANT Township for 1836-37— Villages. 

Clermont Some First Things— Fire-Gas Wells— Cemetery Association 


SEEGEANT TOWNSHIP occupies the south center of the county. The 
west fork of the west branch of Portage creek. Lick run, Brewer' s run, 
Eed Mill brook, Eobin's brook and Smith's brook rise inside the east line in 
the gulches between the hills, which here have an altitude of 2,100 feet above 
ocean level. In the south center are Pour Mile, Buck and Smith runs, flow- 
ing into the east branch of the Clarion ; also Five Mile, Seven Mile and Rocky 
runs, forming near Williamsville, while Sicily, Large, Beckwith and Little 
Buck runs flow into the west branch. The Katrine swamp is west of Ginals- 


J * 



burg, in a basin 2,200 feet above the ocean, -while west of this pond one of the 
feeders of Marvin creek steals north from Seven Mile summit. Howard's 
farm, 2,100 feet above ocean level, is on the divide between Smith brook and 
Five Mile run. The highest measured point in the township is at Chappel 
Hill, in the extreme northeast section, 2,810 feet above ocean level, but it is 
said the hill, 7,000 feet north, has a greater elevation. The lowest point is 
where the West Clarion enters Elk county, the elevation being 1,600 feet. The 
conglomerate bottom follows the summits, being 2,300 feet at Chappel Hill 
and 1,950 at Williamsville, while a little northeast, on Instanter creek, it is 
2,050. From Chappel Hill to Bunker hill, a distance of two and seven-eighth 
miles, the dip is about 300 feet, or 10-1 feet per mile, and from Wilcox well 
No. 1 to Williamsville there is no dip. The thickness of the greatest exposure 
is 710 feet, which shows 285 feet of coal measures, 325 feet of Mauch Chunk 
and Pocono, and 100 feet of red Catskill; but from well records geologists 
have ascertained that the carboniferous and devonian structures exist for at 
least 2,500 feet in this township. The Dagus coal bed exists on the hill be- 
tween Eed Mill brook, Beaver run and Instanter creek, at a depth of about 
sixty feet, and twelve feet above the limestone formation. This slaty lime- 
stone outcrops on the old Wilcox farm, between Clermont and Warner' s brook. 
The rock is about six feet thick, and quarrying and burning it were for years 
the industries of the neighborhood. As has been stated the coal bed rests over 
this immense deposit of lime rock, while under the coal is the white fire-clay 
bed, from two to three feet in depth. The Johnson run sandstone (a hard 
white and yellow rock) reaches a thickness of fifty feet, and is prized by build- 
ers much more than the Kinzua creek sandstone, which falls to pieces under 
the influence of the weather. 

Wilcox well No. 1, on Warrant 2,676, a mile north of Elk county, was drilled 
in 1864 to a depth of 1,600 feet by Adams & Babcock, and subsequently drilled 
to 1,785 feet, when the tools were lost and work abandoned. The well, 
however, showed signs of life and sent up great columns of gas and water as 
high as 115 feet, which feat it repeated every seven minutes, until new efforts 
to develop it were made, when the procedure changed, the intervals of explo- 
sion being longer and the discharge of water greater in volume. With diffi- 
culty the well was tubed and oil obtained, but again was abandoned and the 
:gas allowed to escape, a match applied, the derrick burned, and in 1871 was 
controlled by a wooden plug. In August, 1876, when well No. 2 was drilled, gas 
was carried 855 feet to be used as fuel in boring No. 2, while the surplus gas 
was conducted through a two- inch pipe, and discharged over a water tank, 
splashing the pipe and, the pressure being thus released, formed a circle of 
ice around the opening. In January, 1877, an effort to remove the wooden 
plug resulted in taking up 175 feet of casing, when an eight-minute geyser 
was brought into existence. In May gas ceased to flow, but on July 14 the old 
seven-minute explosion was renewed in wells Nos. 1 and 2, and the gas from 
No. 2 was used as fuel in drilling No. 3 from October, 1876, to June, 1877. In 
March, 1879, Hamar & Ernhout's well, at the mouth of Head brook, was down 
2,230 feet, and Hamar's well on Wild-Cat run 2,000 feet. 

Sergeant township, in 1880, claimed 922 inhabitants. In 1888 there were 
sixty-four Eepublican and fifty Democratic votes cast, or a total of 114, repre- 
senting about 570 inhabitants. 

The first reference to the Cooper lands in McKean county is contained in 
an old day-book, dated August 22, 1809. This book is in possession of W. J. 
Colegrove. Cooper's farm is mentioned (Clermont) and the names of Van 
Wickle, Freeman and Outgalt appear. There was a saw-mill at Cooper's 


Grove, but Mr. Colegrove states that there was only a grist-mill on Red Mill 
creek, near Clermont, in 1815. In 1809 some iron was purchased from Joseph 
Olds for use in the old saw-mill. 

Alexander Van Peter Mills was the surveyor for Busti & Cooper in 1809- 
10, and in August, 1810,' he received 1154.25 for his services from Mr. Law- 
rence. In August, 1810, A. Van Peter Mills surveyed the town of Instanter, 
and Gooding Packard received $23. 32 for carrying the chain ; Isaac Vantayle 
and George Vantayle were also chain carriers. David Combs is introduced in 
August as the purchaser of three qiiarts of whisky. As he was the first man 
married in the county it is thought that the occasion suggested this extrava- 
gance. In October the following entry is made: "Busti & Cooper, by a man 
Mr. Cooper left almost dead;" and in November a road was opened from the 
mill to Instanter, and William Neilson was allowed a dollar a day for work in 
the saw-mill, and was allowed f 16 for going down Tobey creek with Wallace. 
John Harrison was blacksmith as well as Seth Marvin. The names of John 
Hunter, Thomas Cole and William Gygar (the first blacksmith), appear on the 
books at this time. Arnold Hunter, the first settler of Smethport, was at 
Instanter in 1811, and at this time Joel Bishop's name appears. The land 
office building was completed in 1811. James D. Bemis was added to the 
settlement, and John Stevens' printing office was established. In 1812 the 
ofiice was abandaned, and the settlement practically broken up. The legends 
of the settlement tell of the old Catholic church of 1809, and the sudden dis- 
appearance of the priest in 1812. He was seen to enter the sugar bush at the 
end of the main street, but not a vestige of his garments or himself could 
be found by the searchers. Seth Marvin, John Mullander, Squire Renwick, 
Surveyor E. Ayers, William Armstrong, Thomas Lazenby, William Higgins, 
Sylvanus Russell, George Graham, Stephen Waterman, John Burrows are the 
names mentioned in the records of the period. In February, 1810, E. Van 
Wickle completed a six months' term of service for Busti & Cooper. In April, 
1810, a cow- bell was purchased from Ellis Pierce for the use of Instanter, 
and in May, Dan. Cornell purchased eleven gallons of metheglin at four shill- 
ings per gallon. The only persons remaining at Instanter in- 1813 were Joel 

Bishop, Sweeten, David Combs, Sr. , Job Gifford, Sr. and Seth Marvin, 

while Arnold Hunter moved to Smethport, and perhaps John Hunter. Those 
pioneers, with others in the county from Ceres to Instanter, heard the boom of 
Perry's victorious cannon on Lake Erie, September 10, 1813, and the weaken- 
ing reply of the British guns. Their patriotism told them the story of victory 
long before positive news arrived. 

John Wallace was a surveyor in the Instanter neighborhood in 1810. He 
it was who surveyed the lots for I. Rookens, south of the town; for John 
Hunter, on Marvin creek; for Seth Marvin, on the Nunundah; also for Will- 
iam Neilson, Nathaniel B. Bowens, James Travis, George Vantayle, Lorin 
Phillips, Thomas Lazenby, Daniel Cornell, David Combs, Paul Busti, Henry 
Dukintash, Reuben Priest, Joseph Phillips, John Robson, Joshua Loree, 
Solomon Tracy, Robert Armstrong and Louis Bronkart. He surveyed Peter 
Hankinson's mill lot in October, 1810, on the east side of the creek. 

In May, 1817, Benjamin B. Cooper acknowledged a plat of the lands 
claimed by him in the fourth east Allegheny district as surveyed that year by 
Brewster Freeman, over the surveys of 1792. The lands were conveyed in 
1812 by Paul Busti, attorney for the Holland Land Company, to B. B. Cooper 
and O. W. Ogden. In 1814 other tracts were conveyed to Joseph McElvaine. 
On this tract, within Sergeant township. Cooper had the town of Instanter 
surveyed in 1817, and acknowledged this plat May 30, that year. There are 


four public squares shown, together with church lots and cemetery, all donated 
to the people who would settle here. W. J. Colegrove is positive that this is 
a resurvey and new entry. 

The assessment of Sergeant township for 1836-37, made by William Mc- 
Allister, gives the following names of resident tax-payers: D. A. Easterbrooks, 
G. and William Easterbrooks, Joseph Ehodes, William Palmer, Eansom, 
Simeon and Samuel Beckwith, Jacob Slyoff, Joel Bishop, Joseph Lucas (now 
living), William P. Wilcox (saw-mill owner), Asa Messinger (the Baptist 
preacher), J. Barnett, E. G. Wilson, George W. Dix, D. J. M. Howard, Will- 
iam A. Cl«ugh, E. S. B. Johnston, Simon J. Eobins, Perry Preston, C. P. 
Johnson, A. J. , William M. and Ann Swift, J. B. Wagor, J. M. Clark, Thomas 
Stafford, Lewis H. Beadle, EHphalet Covill, Joseph P. King, John Montgom- 
ery (Jacob Eidgway's Clermont farm of 376 acres was assessed $1,180.50), 
J. Garlick, Lot Coats, Eichard Wildey, Thomas Hockey, J. W. How, — Marsh, 
J. F. Gallup and William McAllister" 

Teutonia dates back to March, 1843, when the Society of Industry (Henry 
Ginal, agent) established the town four miles west of Ginalsburg. The prin- 
ciples of this society varied a little from the older Fourier system. The capi- 
tal was $40,000, the acreage 40,000, including the coal hills. In the year 
named there were 450 inhabitants, a school- building and seventy or eighty log 
dwellings. This community divided their purchase into several districts, in 
each of which a town was projected. Clothing and food were distributed 
from the commercial store, married women were not compelled to work for the 
community, and all religious forms were tolerated. At Ginalsburg there were 
then 100 inhabitants. A stone school-house, a steam saw-mill, a pottery and 
a furnace were projected. The dwellings were frame buildings. In 1875, 
when Mr. John Forest went to Clermont as paymaster for the Buffalo Coal 
Company, there were remains of the houses. It was a communial affair, 
which, like most of that class, fell to pieces. Ginalsburg is also a town of the 
past. The old Wernwag farm house was at Clermont. 

This township may be considered as still in a primitive condition. A few 
prosperous settlements exist; but its greater area is still clothed in its native 
trees. The construction of the Clermont and Johnsonburg branch of the Penn- 
sylvania Eailroad system now passes through the township and already the 
effects of its presence are visible. 


p. E. Scull, who died at Smethport, in 1867, came here early in the "twen- 
ties," as an agent of Jacob Eidgway, and in 1821 cleared the old Bunker Hill 

farm In 1827 the Bed Mill was built near Clermont by I. Burlingame, who did 

the mason work. On the mill dam J. Green, J. Garlick and J. King worked. 
Ben Colegrove split rails for fencing the nursery and Orlo J. Hamlin and 
Kenny were attorneys in the Crooker litigation. The mill was built immedi- 
ately after Paul E. Scull took the agency. ScuP told Eidgway that it had a 
capacity of eight bushels, and the proprietor was amazed at such an extensive 
concern being erected in the wilderness. 

In the year 1827 the Clermont farm and store of Scull & Lee were in ex- 
istence. Jonathan Colegrove was succeeded in July, 1852, as agent by W. J. 
Colegrove, the present agent, the former being general agent from 1817 to 

1852 In May, 1847, the taverns of I. D. Dunbar and M. Goodwin were 

opened in Sergeant G. E. Moore & Son's mill at Clermont was burned July 

17, 1887, with 100.000 feet of hemlock lumber, one car of bark and four 


empty cars. Their new mill, three miles below, was being built at this time 
.... the Clermont saw-mill of C. H. Moore was burned in September, 1889. 

Supt. W. C. Henry, of the fuel department of the National Transit Com- 
pany, furnished some data, in 1885, concerning the gas wells about six miles 
east of Kane, from which the gas supply is drawn for the city of Bradford, 
and most of the National Transit Company's pump-stations in the northern 
field. They have secured through purchase and by drilling ten wells north 
of the MoKean and Elk county line on warrants 2,675, 2,729, 2,676, 2,723, 
2,684, 2,695 and 2,685. Seven of the ten wells produce gas, and the other three 
are either salt water wells or failures for gas or oil. At some of these wells a 
showing of oil is found in a brown sand having a thickness of from twenty to 
twenty-four feet, which Mr. Henry has termed the oil sand to distinguish it 
from the gas sand which is found about ninety feet below. Where this gas 
sand has been drilled through it has been demonstrated to have a thickness of 
from five to seven feet. The No. 5 well, on the southeastern corner of 
Warrant 2,684, reached 1,943 feet where the gas sand was a depth of five feet. 
Well No. 6 is in the eastern part of 2,676, where a six-feet vein of sand 
begins at 1,776 feet. At the suggestion of Mr. Schultz, of Wilcox, this well 
was torpedoed, showing 250 feet of oil and 250 feet of water after standing 
thirty days. 

The National Transit Company No. 7, known as the Frank Andrews well, 
is located in the northeastern corner of Warrant 2,675, and is a large gas well. 
The oil sand was struck at a depth of 1,762 feet and the gas sand at 1,862. 

Clermont Cemetery Association was incorporated July 19, 1879, on peti- 
tion of L. Steinham, L. Boyer, Jacob Hafner, Caspar Hafner and John 

Clermont Lodge, 949, I. O. O. F., was organized June 7, 1877, with the 
following named members: W. E. Butts, Robert Dick, Walter Dick, Robert 
Jaap, L. J. Lewis, John Lee, James Morgan, George Morgan, J. H. Tate, 
Andrew Reynolds. The names of past grands are John C. Martin, Robert 
Dick, J. H. Tate, W. E. Butts, John Lee, James Morgan, Andrew Reynolds, 
A. M. Schmelz, George G. Windman, Edward Tracy, John Wilson, Alexan- 
der Muir, George T. Brown, W. A. Russell, James Davidson, A. W. Taylor, 
John O. Sonbergh, James Hamilton, James Robertson, John T. Cunningham, 
John W. Steinhauer, I. J. McCandless, Samuel Bedford, Addison Fluent, 
Jacob Amend, Adam Hafner, George W. Weaver. The names of secretaries 
are James Morgan (one year), W. E. Butts (one year), and J. H. Tate (nine 
years). The present number of members is eighty- seven and value of property 
12,500. Dr. A. K. Corben, N. G. ; Frank Hafner, V. G. ; Jacob Amend, Asst. 
Sec. ; Addison Fluent, trustee, and J. O. Sonbergh, representative, were 
elected in October, 1889. 

The Clermont Union Church Society elected the following named officers in 
October, 1889: John O. Sonbergh, president; J. H. Tait, secretary, and Sam- 
uel Bedford, treasurer. 

A Sunday-school was organized at Clermont in December, 1889, with. S. 
Bedford, superintendent; Mrs. Harrington, assistant; Sophia Hafner, organ- 
ist; Maggie Bedford, assistant; Albert Anderson, treasurer, and Jennie Mc- 
Kendrick, secretary. 



Wetmoee Township General Topography— Oil Wells and Lands— Lum- 
ber Company— Oil Fields and Enterprises— Population— Officers 
Elected in 1890— Gen. Kane— The Seneca Hunters— Forest Fires- 
Town OF Jo-Jo — Large Sale of Oil Interests. 

Borough of Kane Origin of Name— Col. Kane and David Cornelius— 

Population— The Place in 1869-74— Election— Schools— The Board of 
Trade— Natural Gas Companies— Water Company— Bank and Indus- 
teies—Hotels—Churohes— Societies— Miscellaneous. 

WETMORE TOWNSHIP lies wholly within the sixth bituminous coal 
basin. It is the birthplace of the East branch of the Tionesta, the head- 
waters of which — West run and Wind run — rise in the Kane neighborhood, 
enter the East branch southwest of Kane, whence the river flows northwest, 
into Hamilton township. A feeder of the south branch of the Kinzua (Hubert 
run) rises within Kane borough, flows by the Sulphur spring, joins the south 
branch two miles north, whence this branch flows into Hamilton township. 
Crane creek rises in the extreme southwest. Wilson run, just south of Kane, 
receives Dalson's run three miles southeast and flows by Sergeant village into 
Elk county. A few tributaries of West Clarion flow southeast across the east 
township line, while Fife run flows northwest across the northeast corner of the 
township. The highest point measured is near the Sergeant township line or 
divide, between Beckwith and Glad runs, being 2,150 feet above tide level, 
and the lowest point on the north line, where the south branch enters Hamilton 
township, 1,400 feet. The depot at Kane is 2,020 feet, at Sergeant 1,716 and 
at Wetmore 1,808 feet above ocean level. The average thickness of exposures 
in the township above water level is 575 feet, of which coal measures and con- 
glomerate show 175, Mauch Chunk and Pocono 325, and red Catskill 75 feet, 
while the highest stratum is the shale cap near Kane, and the lowest on the 
south branch, where seventy-live feet of the upper Catekill appears. The 
shale cap of the Clermont coal forms the summits, and from the drift cover- 
ing of this cap the rock used in the cellar of the late Gen. Kane's house was 
excavated. Fifteen years after the building of this house a shaft was put down 
seventy-five feet near by to explore the Clermont deposit; owing to the escape 
of gas the cautious laborers retired, but in two or three days they were able 
to resume work, as the flow was exhausted. 

On the old Kittanning trail, north of this house, the Indians of long ago. 
used to camp, and to-day there is the tire-clay which formed the rest for beds 
of Clermont in ages past. Around Kane, however, what remains of this coal 
deposit was explored and found wanting, in a commercial sense. The Alton 
coal was opened on the Howard Hill road and in the Swede settlement south- 
west of the borough at an elevation of 1,980 feet above the ocean, or forty feet 
below the level of Kane depot. 

The Johnson run sandstone at this point is highly fossiliferous. The cut- 
tings on Clarion summit at Kane show its pink-yellow hue and regular blocks 
of forty feet depth. The color is derived from the equal distribution of iron 


through its parts, as shown in the prismoidal blocks used in the Leiper memo- 
rial church at Kane. The kindred Kinzua creek sandstone also abounds here. 
The Olean conglomerate here averages about sixty feet in thickness, but one 
mile from Wetmore, on the road to Blesses, it is found in detached blocks 
1,890 feet above ocean level. 

The Ernhout & Taylor well No. 2, in the southeast corner of Warrant 
3,216, was drilled to a depth of 1,990 feet between March 12 and May 9, 1878, 
and subsequently lowered ten feet through a fine, dark, oil-impregnated sand. 
The record kept by M. M. Schultz shows the opening 1,730 feet above tide, 
through forty feet of loam and sand, followed by gray slate, red shale, sand, 
shells and soft, gray slate, down 1,980 feet, when ten feet of dark, oil-impreg- 
nated sand was brought up, and from 1,990 to 2,000 feet, the oil containing 
coffee grounds. The well was cased down 364 feet, but when it was evident 
that oil would not yield in commercial quantities this casing was withdrawn, 
and the phenomena witnessed in the old Wilcox well repeated here by an eleven- 
minute water- spout, winning for this the title, " Kane Geyser well. ' ' This spout 
reached various heights, from 75 feet to 138, and in winter, when the ice king 
would grasp the stream, ice would form so as to show a high, transparent 
stand-pipe. The Ooburn Dry Hole, one and one-half miles north of Sergeant 
depot, reached a depth of 2,'2QB feet in August, 1879, and casing inserted for 
357 feet. At a depth of 148 feet, and again at 212 feet, oil appeared; at 610 
feet gas; at 1,953 feet oil; at 2,238 feet Bradford sand; at 2,093 gas, and at 
2,263 slate and sand. The Kane Geyser well was stopped by Dr. Crossmire 
and others, who day after day made trial to control its wild flow. 

The Kane Blade of February, 1880, notices the purchase of 250 acres of 
oil land on Warrants 3,760 and 3,786 by H. O. Ellithorpe; the drilling of the 
Olemenger & Hunt well, on the James Brothers' land, and the Winsor pur- 
chase of 150 acres on 3,760. 

Wilcox well No. 1, on Warrant 2,723, six miles east of Kane, and one mile 
north of the line of Elk county, was drilled to a depth of 1,943 feet in June, 
1881, and filled to a depth of fifty feet with oil in one night. The Adams well, 
on Warrant 2,676, was put down in this neighborhood in 1865. The Wilcox 
Company comprised A. I. Wilcox, D. A. Wray, H. W. Williams and others. 

In November, 1883, the Eidgway Lumber Company purchased 2,500 acres 
of land near Kane for $58,000. The tract was estimated to contain from six 
to eight millions feet of cherry, with other varieties of hardwood and hemlock. 

In January, 1&86, the Kane Oil field, or New Black Sand field, appeared 
so worn out that the oil map, hanging in the Thompson House, was turned by 
the scouts wallwards, and many operators deserted the field. On January 28, 
however, the foresight of the scouts was rendered unreliable, for on that day 
the Kane Company's well touched sand at a depth of 2,207 feet, and, penetrat- 
ing it for six feet, found a 125-barrel well. This well was drilled on Lot 426, 
a little less than three months after the Craig & Cappeau well was drilled (No- 
vember 11, 1885), 400 rods south by east. The wells reported finished on Feb- 
ruary 11, 1886, numbered fifteen. Mr. Murphy's, the Associated Producers', 
and Chapman & Fickin's wells were dry. Kane Oil Company's well No. 1, on 
Lot 11, of Griffith's, produced gas, and their well No. 2 seventy- five barrels of 
oil; P. T. Kennedy's well, on Lot 12, yielded forty-five barrels per day; Simp- 
son & McMullen's, on Lot 19, did not produce; Bayne, Fuller & Co.'s well, 
on Lot 20, gave 15 barrels; the Associated Producers' wells No. 1 and 2, 77 
barrels; Craig & Cappeau' s Nos. 1 and 2, 114 barrels; Eoy, Archer & Clemen- 
ger's wells yielded gas, also Tennent & Co.'s, while the new well referred to 
above gave 125 barrels per day, and gave new life to the district, leading to 


an increase of ten, by February 11, from the twenty-six wells in existence Jan- 
uary 28. By April 10, the Kane Oil Company had six wells in the field, No. 
6 producing 225 barrels, and No. 1, 145 barrels. The Union Oil Company 
had seven wells of from 70 to 197 barrels per day; Coast & Thyng's No. 1 
yielded 242 barrels, while Shirley and Hochstetler, Andrews & Co. , and Reed 
& Brown wells, were all producers. 

In January, 1889, the firms of West & Co. and Davis & Co. drilled for oil 
on Warrant 3,131, in Wetmore, two and one-half miles north of Kane. At 1,773 
feet they tapped the oil sand, but not satisfied with the promise of a ten-barrel 
well, they continued the boring to 1,956 feet, when they struck the heaviest 
flow of gas known in the Kane region. 

The first gas well in the Kane field was struck in the fall of 1884. To-day 
the pressure varies from 200 to 1,200 pounds to the square inch. On Novem- 
ber 11, 1885, this field yielded its first oil. 

Wetmore township, in 1880, had a population of 1,438. In 1888 there 
were 184 Republican votes, sixty- one Democratic, eighteen Prohibitionist 
and three Labor-Unionist, or a total of 266, on which figures the population is 
estimated to be 1, 330. A number of unnaturalized residents, however (Swedes, 
Italians, Germans), place the true population far above this. 

The township ofiicers elected in February, 1890, are as follows: Super- 
visors, Charles Hedm^n, Peter Nelson; school directors, P. A. Carlquist, E. 
W. Campbell; constable, G. N. Jackson; auditor, John Selin; town clerk, C. 
L. O'Kerlind; justice of the peace, Eric Erickson; collector, William Wilkins; 
judge of election, J. O. Liddell; inspectors, John McNall, Neil C. McEwen. 

In 1855 Gen. Kane came to the upper Clarion with a number of friends, 
where his father and the widow of Mr. Leiper owned lands. The party took 
up their quarters in Williamsville, on the Elk county side of the Wilcox farm. 
In 1856 Mrs. Kane accompanied her husband into the wilderness, and that 
year the General instructed Erastus Burlingame in geology, and had him join 
the explorations of that year. In 1859 he selected the country ,around Kane 
for his home, and in 1860 began the building of the present Kane home. On 
the opening of hostilities the place was deserted, and the cut stone, which was 
intended for the building, was stolen and used in filling the railroad embank- 
ment. In 1^64, however, the work of building was resumed, but the pioneer 
saw-mill, built in 1864, burned in 1867, and delayed progress. 

Evidences of prehistoric occupation are not wanting. There are three 
earthworks or forts, each from two to foar feet high, and about one mile apart. 
They resemble each other, being all of a true circle and about fifty paces across 
the center, and are evidently of great age, as large trees have grown up their 
embankments. One contains from eight to ten small mounds with a deep 
hole in the center, and all are situated on high land far from water. Two 
cannon balls or shells were found at Kane when excavating for a round-house. 
They are supposed to be reminders of the soldiers of the Revolution. 

In May, 1880, the Seneca hunters, with their women and children, camped 
below Kane in the great pigeon roosts. Their object was to feed on young 
pigeons, which thfey intended to capture and kill chicken fashion, but owing 
to some miscalculation, they arrived at the wrong time, and so had to evacuate 
the location in the face of starvation, as they had no arms to bring down the 
hitherto despised old birds. 

The forest fires around Kane in May, 1888, originated near Wetmore, de- 
stroying three houses at Swamp Lodge, the Clinton Oil Company's stock and 
property; the Boston Oil Company's rigs and tanks; Treat & Mallory's rigs 
and tanks, while much of the country between Kane and Mount Jewett was 


burned over. The clothespin factory of Howells, Moffitt & Co., of West Kane, 
was destroyed that month. 

The town of Jo Jo, which sprang into existence in the winter of 1885-86, 
was practically deserted in April of the latter year. In October, 1889, the 
name of the place was changed to Joville, and a post-office established there, 
with Thomas J. McCann, master. The Kane Oil Field Eailroad, built in 

1886, had the tracks removed, and the James Brothers' milling interest, or 
Weaver's mill, was moved to Alton. 

About the heaviest deal that has been made here for some time was made 
between J. T. and W. Griffith and parties who owned a large oil interest near 
the western limit of Kane. This interest consists of twenty-two producing 
wells, and was purchased by Ihe Griffiths for 180,000. 


The town was named in honor of Thomas L. Kane. He and David Cor- 
nelius were the first of the white men to settle here, and Mr. Kane was also 
the first in Pennsylvania to volunteer his services to the government at fhe 
commencement of the civil war, he having been colonel of the famous Buck- 
tail Regiment, dying on Christmas Day, 1883. His sons are Elisha, Evan O. 
and Thomas L., and with creditable zeal they are carrying out the public- 
spirited policy adopted by their father, the honorable and distinguished founder 
of the place, doing their utmost to advance the community in all that is possi- 
ble for man to accomplish. 

Kane borough, which was included in Wetmore township in 1880, gave, 
in 1888, 163 Republican, 117 Democratic, 37 Prohibition and three Labor- 
Unionist votes, or a total of 320. The figures multiplied by six give an ap- 
proximate of the present number of residents as 1,920, but local authorities 
place it much higher. In January, 1890, Robert Campbell, city asset sor, 
reported a population of 1,925. 

In December, 1869, a large hotel (164x122 feet, four stories) was com- 
pleted; the railroad restaurant was carried on by the Nicholses; the McKean and 
Elk Land and Improvement Company's park of 600 acres was laid out; the 
Catholic church building, 40x60 feet, \\as completed prior to this time by 
Father Voisard. Rev. Goodrich preached to the Methodists in a log house; 
the school- building was completed, while the Swedes held religious meetings 
on Fraley street. In 1871 O. D. Coleman, Leonard & Meese, and Robert 
Lafferty, were the leading merchants. The large saw-mill (Kane's) was 
burned in July, 1867, entailing a loss of $75,000. The commercial interests 
of Kane in 1871 were represented by F. W. Meese, J. Davis, O. D. Coleman 
and M. W. Burk, merchants; R. E. Looker and P. Burns, grocers; D. T. 
Hall, of the Kane House; J. D. Leonard, postmaster; J. D. Barnes, foreman 
of steam saw-mill; William Bartholomew, butcher; M. Grotty, shoemaker; 
James Hyde, machinist, and William Gannon, locomotive engineer. The 
railroad buildings at Kane were destroyed by fire May 10, 1874. 

Election. — The charter election of Kane borough was held February 15, 

1887, when W. B. Smith received 235 votes for burgess (bSing the total vote 
cast). George Griffith, J. McDade, O. D. Coleman, J. C. Myers, H. H. Cor- 
son and E. W. Smith were elected members of council; J. H. Grady, O. B. 
Lay, P. J. Daly, M. W. Moffitt, J. Davis and R. M. Campbell received each a 
full vote for school directors; C. V. Gillis was chosen justice; Robert Camp- 
bell, assessor; Henry McConnell, collector; F. A. Vanorsdall, auditor; Dan 
Matthews, constable; John Wegley, high constable; William Turby, judge, 
and A. Peterson, inspector of elections. W. B. Smith was elected burgess in 


1888. In February, 1889, Joshua Davis and E. H. Long received each 126 
votes. The matter was decided by the court declaring the office vacant and 
appointing M. W. Moffitt, burgess. A. Y. Jones v?as chosen iustice, receiving 
130 votes, while D. T. Hall received only 117. 

The following is the vote cast in the borough in February, 1890: 

Water Tax— For, 190; against, 44. 

Burgess— M. W. Moffitt, E., 107; George Kinnear, D., 81; N M Orr 
I., 85. . • > 

Council— W. B. Smith, R., 172; C. E. Brown, E. &P., 128; T. H Eyan 
E., 99; P. McHale, D., 98; William O'Connor, D., 81; James Cochran, D.' 
81; Dr. W. J. Armstrong, I., 39; Webb Evans, I., 34; G. W. Neuls, I., 87; 
O. B. Lay, P., 38; D. Staples, P., 22. 

School Directors— T. S. James, E. & P., 150; Albert Peterson, E. & P., 
139; Dr. 'J. L. Wright, D., 102; Edward Brooder, D., 88; William Habard, 

Constable— E. E. Looker, R., 160; James F. Wood, D., 59; Davis Smilev. 
P. &L,49. 

High Constable — H. N. Cummings, E., 121; John McDonough, D., 80; 

D. M. Longshore, P. & I., 64. 

Auditor— Dennie Davis, E., 134; E. H. Long, D., 88; W. O. Marvin, P., 
20; Willis Jackson, I., 32. 

Tax Collector— E. E. Looker, E., 96; James F. Wood, D., 38; Davis 
Smiley, P. & I., 34; C. V. Gillis, I., 103. 

Judge of Election— F. W. Meese, Sr., E., 133; D. H. Hall, D., 86; Will- 
iam Blew, P. & I. , 55. 

Inspector of Election — W. H. Davis, E., 137; Eichard Kerwin, D., 85; 
Milton Craven, P. ,24. 

Schools. — The Kane school-building was erected in 1883 at a cost of about 
f 12,000. In 1885 W. P. Eckles was principal, with Misses Jones and Hodges, 
assistants. E. Campbell is president of the school board, O. B. Lay, secre- 
tary, W. J. Armstrong, treasurer, and Charles Eoos, Grady and McKnight 
unofficial members. The schools are presided over by C. D. Higby. The 
teachers are Kate Eyan, Irene Davis, Florence Olmsted and May Norris. 
The Convent school-building was erected in 1882, and has been attended by 
three sisters of the Benedictine Convent. The enrollment is over 150. 

The Board of Trade. — Of this organization Joshua Davis is president; J. 
T. Griffith and Eugene J. Miller, vice-presidents; U. M. Orr, secretary, and 

E. Davis, treasurer. This organization gave authority to the treasurer to 
offer the following inducements: Free building sites. Sites in desirable loca- 
tions will be sold outright for manufacturing purposes at one-half the current 
prices of adjacent lots, or, will be furnished on lease, rent free in any year 
when twenty men (daily average) are employed about the works. Free gas. 
In cases of manufactures where the number of hands employed is large in 
proportion to the quantity of fuel consumed, the gas companies will fur- 
nish gas free for one or more years, according to the number of hands 
employed. Free lumber. Eough lumber for factory buildings will be donated 
in special cases. 

Natural Gas Companies. — In October, 1883, Elisha K. Kane commenced 
the construction of a system of natural gas supply for Kane, and in December, 
1883, Kane Gas Company (limited), consisting of J. H. Snow, Henry Mc- 
Sweeney and Charles P. Byron, all of Bradford, and E. K. Kane, of Kane, 
filed articles of association at the county seat. In August, 1884, the limited 
partnership was succeeded by the Kane Gas Light and Heating Company, a 



chartered corporation of the State (capital, 110,000 — 100 shares). In Sep- 
tember, 1884, Messrs. Byron, McSweeney and Snow successively sold their 
interests, and J. D. Brooder, Elizabeth D. Kane and Joshua Davis suc- 
ceeded them. September 29, 1885, the company reorganized under the nat- 
ural gas act. At first the company purchased its gas from the National 
Transit Company, but in May, 1884, they drilled a well at the north end of 
Fraley street, and obtained an abundant supply of gas at the depth of 2,488 
feet. Before means could be devised for confining the gas, the roar of its 
escape could be plainly heard at a distance of eight miles, and the company 
were threatened with suits for damage on account of loss of sleep by the 
neighbors. To avoid interruption of supply during repairs of well, a second 
gas well half a mile south of Kane was drilled in 1885. The excellent sand 
and evidences of oil found in these two wells encouraged Mr. Clemenger 
to try another " wild-cat," and the discovery of the Kane oil field. The 
company's mains have been extended with the growth of the town, and now 
(in August, 1889) they are laid in every street of Kane, and branches extend 
to the three villages of West Kane, North Kane and East Kane, while the 
value of the entire plant is estimated at 140,000. 

In 1887 the Citizen's' Gas Company (capital $5,000) was chartered as a 
competing line. James McDade, president; J. T. Griffith, vice-president, and 
W. A. Holgate, originated the project and pushed it to success. Mains were 
laid on the four principal streets of Kane, and a branch to East Kane was 
constructed. A well was drilled on Fraley street and another on sub. 343, 
but the latter has since been disposed of. The plant is worth about 112,000, 
the principal stockholders having procured loans to the company for the excess 
over the capital. The immediate result of the competition was a reduction in 
price of gas from $2 per stove, monthly, to 90 cents and $1 per stove. 

Water Company. — Spring Water Company of Kane (capital $40,000) was 
incorporated in 1887, the principal stockholders being Elizabeth D. Kane, 
Elisha K. Kane, Joshua Davis, H. J. James and M. W. MofiStt, all of Kane. 
Water is obtained from Hubert run, one mile north of the town, the entire 
valley being preserved in timber for its protection. It is propelled by natural 
gas introduced in lien of steam into the cylinders of a Worthington duplex 
pump, through a six-inch cast iron main to two 600-barrel wooden tanks, 
elevated twenty feet above the highest point of ground in the borough. Prom 
this reservoir distribiiting mains are laid on all the principal streets east of 
the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad. The value of the plant is (August, 1889) 
about $20,000, paid in by stockholders, the remaining $20,000 of the capital 
remaining in the treasury for future extensions. 

Bank and Industries. — In the Kane Bank, conducted by McDade, Davis 
& Co., the town has a monetary interest of which it is justly proud. It 
was founded April 27, 1886. James McDade, Joshua Davis, W. P. Weston 
and Dr. G. H. Preston are the individual proprietors, and they are all men of 
influence and enterprise. TJie ofSce is in the modern McDade building, com- 
pleted in 1886. 

A branch of the Security Building & Loan Association was organized Jan- 
uary 30, 1890, with the following named officers: President, Andrew Larson, 
ten shares; treasurer, D. B. Keelor, ten shares; secretary, Carl Egelin, five 
shares; board of advisors, Andrew Skoog, ten shares; Albert Peterson, ten 
shares; Andrew Skoglund, five shares. 

In the James Brothers, of whom there are seven, although not all of them 
are residents of Kane, the town has substantial pillars. Their principal busi- 
ness is the manufacture of lumber, their mills being situated about nine miles 


south of Kane, in Elk county. There they cut 12,000,000 feet of hemlock, 
cherry and poplar annually, and have sufficient timber standing to keep 
them busy for ten years. They cut mostly yard sizes, and are now just com- 
pleting a lath mill. At Hinton, W. Va., where J. C. James, assisted by his 
brother, D. W., is located, they have a mill and other interests, the style of 
♦the firm being William James & Sons, the father, now deceased, having 
founded the business in 1865, taking his son into partnership two years later. 
They cut yearly 2,000,000 feet of pine, poplar and oak, and from both there 
and Elk county they make shipments to all parts of Eastern Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey and Delaware. The business in Kane is in charge of H. J. and 
T. S. James. 

The Griffith Mills were established in 1866, by Thomas Griffith, who con- 
ducted them until 1884, when J. T. Griffith leased two of them. A year later 
he and his brother, Webb, purchased the three mills, which produced 7,000,000 
feet of lumber last year. In 1883 the Griffith Brothers established their large 
store at Kane, and in 1889 invested $80,000 in local oil lands. They carry 
almost a half interest in the Citizens' Gas Company, and employ from forty 
to a hundred men. 

Probably the largest industry in Kane is the brush-block factory, founded 
here some four years ago by the Holgate Brothers, the oldest and most widely- 
known firm in this line in the whole country, the business having been handed 
down to the present generation from a hundred years back. In February, 
1888, Joshua Davis, his son, W. H., and G. W. Neuls, beeaq^ie'the sole pro- 
prietors, retaining the old title, but adding to it the word company. Mr. 
Neuls, who gives every detail of the business his personal attention, was with 
the Holgates fifteen years ago, becoming thoroughly versed in the manufact- 
ure of every article made in the factory, including brush heads, brush handles, 
and white- wash, paste, dust, stove and scrub blocks. They make the finest 
goods, and their productive capacity is 500,000 to 800,000 gross per annum, 
the variety of handles made being over 50, 000. 

The Kane clothes-pin factories are operated by David Howells, M. W. 
Moffitt and Joshua Davis. The works at West Kane were first opened in the 
fall of 1889. The process of making these is an interesting one. It is done 
in just six motions. The first one cuts a four-foot chunk off the log, the sec- 
ond saws a board from the chunk, the third saws the board into square strips, 
the fourth cuts the strips into clothes-pin lengths, the fifth turns the pin, and 
the sixth cuts the slot in it. This is done very rapidly, and they are then dried 
and polished in revolving cylinders, after which they are at once boxed and 
shipped. The capacity is 300 boxes of 720 pins each per day, or twenty-nine 
miles in length. In February, 1890, the West & Britton clothes-pin factory 
was purchased by Howells, Moffitt & Co. 

The Carbon Manufacturing Company's Gas-black factory was established in 
February, 1889, by A. R. Blood and James McDade. The works give em- 
ployment to three hands and produce $25,000 worth of gas-black annually. 
W. S. Haskins is foreman. 

The Sergeant Chemical Works dates back to 1886, when the Chemical 
Company was incorporated with L. M. Otto, president; N. B. Bubb, secretary 
and treasurer; J.. B. Coryell, H. C. Bubb, J. F. Tyler, and C. H. Heim 
(superintendent), members. The works were erected that year and now em- 
ploy thirty-five hands. The annual product is valued at $75,000. Natural 
gas" is used in this factory as in nearly all others; part of the product goes to 


The La Mont Chemical Works Company, of which J. C. James is president. 


H. J. James, treasurer; Joshua Davis, secretary, and J. B. Finch, superin- 
tendent, manufactare acetate of lime, charcoal and naphtha, operating what 
is known as a twelve-retort plant and consuming 3,000 cords of beech, maple 
and birch woods annually, using natural gas fuel. The works are located 
three miles south of Kane, have been running seven years, and their products 
are shipped to the Philadelphia and Boston markets. * 

The Brooder Wall-Catching Packer was patented by Mr. Brooder August 
6 1886, and May 17. 1887. In the use of the Brooder packer no anchor is 
required, as a screw purchase, instead of the weight of the tubing, is employed 
in compressing the rubber, causing it to expand, shutting off the flow of gas 
or oil outside the packer, forcing the same up through the packer and tubmg 
instead. With this invention Mr. Brooder guarantees the shutting-in of any 
well, no matter how strong the pressure or at what depth it is to be shut off. 
The Brooder packers are also used with success in packing oft' salt water where 
it is necessary to pull the casing, the packer sustaining the weight of water 
aad the tubing while the casing is being drawn. In January, 1890, John P. 
Farrell, of the Butler Co-Operative Glass Works, which were burned to the 
o-round the previous spring, recently made Kane a visit to consult with her cit- 
fzens in regard to bringing the works here. Flattering offers were made to him 
which were in substance as follows: Ground rent, free; gas from the Kane Gas 
Light and Heating Company, at exceedingly low rates; and water from the 
Spnno- Water Company free. For the site of the works he preferred the land 
in the "y" 'foyned by the P. & W. and P. & E. Railroads. The gentleman 
has visited the gas fields in the West and he found no place which pleased 
him better than Kane. 

Hotels.— The Thompson House was leased by R. M. N. Taylor^ in 1876, 
when the house was first regularly opened for hotel purposes. In 1877 he was 
succeeded by C. H. Kemp, formerly of the Washington Hotel, Philadelphia, 
who gave place in 1880 to George W. Jackson. On the removal of the latter 
Mr. Kemp leased the house and conducted it from 1884 until 1887, when 
Martin O' Brien leased it. In the spring of 1888 Mr. Kemp resumed the con- 
duct of the house, being the only successful lessee. The house is part of the 
Kane estate. There are eighty bed-rooms, together with large parlors, etc. 
There are thirty hands generally employed. A. Y. Jones is the genial clerk. 

The Hotel La Mont is conducted by Rick Donovan, who is one of the most 
popular hosts in the field. The Fleming House is a favorite hostelry, and 
claims an extensive patronage, while the Kane House is admirably conducted 
and consequently very popular. There are smaller hotels and boarding houses 
in the city, which are all doing a fair trade. The St. Elmo was purchased in 
November, 1889, by John O'Shea. 

Churches. — The Kane Methodist Episcopal Church was formerly connected 
with the Sheffield work; while a circuit its first pastor was Rev. George F. 
Reeser. Then followed A. S. Goodrich, S. Holland and Wilder (Rev. Wilder 
being the one who preached to Gen. Grant when he visited Kane), M. Col- 
grove, L. P. Merritt, M. V. Stone, H. P. Hicks, S. S. Burton, C. Clark, A. 
H. Bowers, M. Fording, L. A. Chapin, L. F. Merritt, D. M. Carpenter, L. O. 
Mead, F. A. Mills, W. A. Merriam, J. A. Parsons, C. W. Foulk and J. Bell 
Neff. Under J. A. Parsons it was made a station. At present the pastor, J. 
Bell Neff, is putting up a new brick church, which will cost $12,000.* The 
society was organized in 1864 with the following members: Neil McEwen, 
Lydia McEwen, Maggie McEwen, Katie McBwen, Mary A. Repine, Joseph 

*Tliis church building was dedicated March 16, 1890, Rev. Dr. Williams, of Allegheny College, offi- 


Wegley, Eve Wegley, William Hubbard, Charles Everson, Elizabeth Everson, 
John A. Mell, Hettie Mell, Theodosia Mell, Robert Campbell, Sarah Camp- 
bell, Elizabeth S. James, Mary A. Blew, Laura Campbell, Lucetta Laft'erty, 
Hanna Davis, Ebenezer Edwards, Helen Fisher, Orpha Campbell, Almysa Jane 
Cummings. The first Methodist Episcopal building was dedicated in Decem- 
ber, 1872, and the second February 28, 1875. Eev. John Hicks was pastor 
in 1872. 

The Catholic Church dates back to 1866. Eev. G. A. Voisard signed the 
records of the Catholic church in 1866, when the work of church building was 
begun. The house was completed in 1867, at a cost of |686. In 1869 Eev. 
Mr. Mullowney presided here; in 1871, Eev. De la Eocque; in 1878, Eev. B. 
Klocker, followed by Eev. Hugh Mullen in 1887. Eev. George Winkler, the 
present pastor, came in 1888. In 1885 the old church was burned and the 
people worshiped in Temperance Hall until October 13, when the new church 
was dedicated by Bishop Mullen, of Erie. Eev. George Winkler, immediately 
upon taking charge of his mission, began the building of Ihe new church; it is 
of gothic style, 50x100 feet, with a large and handsome foundation to hold 
the brick work, which is also solid. The spire from foundation wall to peak 
of the cross has a height of 131 feet. It will, without the furniture, cost 
$14,000. The number of families attending this church is eighty. The build- 
ing, if erected under ordinary contract forms, would cost about $32,000. 
Under the close supervision of Father Winkler the large church, with great 
high altar, stained- glass windows, modern pews, etc., has been provided for 
the people at less than half the cost of the highest bid tendered for the work. 

The Presbyterian Church of Kane was organized November 15, 1874, by 
Eev. J. L. Landis. Egbert Field and William Hubbard were installed elders. 
Pending the erection of a building, services were held in (he Thomson House, 
with Rev. J. M. Gillette, pastor. Mrs. Thomas, aunt of Gen. Kane, may 
be said to be the donor of the church at Kane to the Presbyterian society. It 
appears that she was anxious that Gen. Kane's children should be educated 
in Presbyterian religious ideas, and this, in connection with her desire to build 
a memorial to her father, Mr. Leiper, suggested this building. The stone 
was taken from A. A. Clay's quarry, with his permission, and with this excep- 
tion must be considered her grant to the society here. In building, Henry L. 
Taylor was architect; the layer of the stone, Gen. Kane; all Masons, and 
Mrs. Thomas were the leaders in the ceremony of corner-stone laying; and the 
latter being the principal and an anti-Mason in sentiment, varied from the 
Masonic ritual in one instance and used the words of the church ritual. 

The Congregational Church was organized December 29, 1887, with Joshua 
Davis, David Howells, A. Y. Jones, John T. GrifiSth, R. T. Starsmeare, O. D. 
Coleman, W. A. Holgate and their families members. Eev. George Belsey 
is pastor, and A. Y. Jones, clerk. The church building, which was completed 
and dedicated December 9, 1888, cost $13,000. Lemuel Davis and E. B. 
James are named among the trustees in act of incorporation of April, 1888. 

The Baptist Church was organized November 25, 1887, with the following 
named members: Charles Eoos, Mrs. Ella Roos, Emery Davis, Mrs. Margaret 
Mentice, Mrs. Sarah Ware. Mrs. C. R. Dickey, Mrs. Parkhurst, Mrs. Dora 
Norline, Mrs. Martha Young, P. C. West, Mrs. M. E. West. It was incor- 
porated in May, 1888, the subscribers being C. Roos, P. C. West, E. R. Brit- 
ton, Emery Davis, Norman Thomas, and their wives, A. D. Clark, A. J. 
Donachi, O. A. Thomas, Madams Lida Mitchell, Margaret Mentrice, Martha 
Young, Sarah Ware, Parkhurst, Gillis, Dickie, and Agnes Hanna. Rev. O. 
R. Thomas is pastor, and Emery Davis clerk. There are .twenty-nine mem- 
bers, with property valued at $6,000. 


The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Society of Kane was incorporated Sep- 
tember 4, 1888, on a petition signed by August Torstenson, J. A. Carlson, Ole 
Hanson, J. P. Larson and A. Peterson. 

The Free Lutheran Evangelical Church of Wetmore township was incor- 
porated October 27, 1885, on petition of H. Norlin, A. Norman, G. Oberg and 
C, F. Karlson. 

The Kanasholm Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Augustoria 
Synod v^as organized in June, 1876, with John Alfred Berling and others 
trnstees. • 

The Kanasholm Cemetery of Wetmore township was incorporated as the 
last resting-place of deceased Swedes in September, 1876. 

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Mission Church dates its beginning De- 
cember 1, 1888, when Mr. and Mrs. Flynn and daughter, Mrs. Eugene Miller, 
Mrs. Thomas McClellan, Miss Ella Herrick, Mrs. O'Brien, A. Louisa Long 
and Mrs. Wilkinson, signed the roll of membership. N. M. Long was the 
lirst secretary and J. Elmer Fluke is the present secretary. The membership 
numbers ten persons, with Eev. A . W. Eyan, pastor. 

Societies. — Kane Lodge, No. 566, F. & A. M., was organized October 28,' 
1886, with the following named charter members: Claudius V. Gillis, Thomas 
H. Ryan, Alexander Y. Jones, Joshua Davis, Eichard W. Smith, John T. 
Griffith, David Howells, Edward W. Long, William Turbey, Randolph M. 
Campbell, Walter B. Smith, James Campbell, Francis A. Lyte, William A. 
Holgate, Ogden B. Lay, Charles W. Stone, William Hearst, Joseph Manzella, 
Frank W. Brayton, John J. Stenstrom, Richard T. Starsmeare, Arthur H. 
Holgate, William E. Blew, J. Frank Tyler, Jacob M. Mock. The three first 
named have served as masters and F. A. Lyte in 1889; R. W. Smith as sec- 
retary, and Joshua Davis as treasurer, with W. B. Smith, master. There 
are forty-five members with property valued at $1,500. 

Lodge 209, K. of P., was instituted July 27, 1888, with the following 
named officers: C. C, M. A. Bingham; V. C, William B. Beamer; P. A., J. 
Kingsley; M. at A., E. E. Looker; K. of E. & S., A. E. Myers; M. of F., 
A. B. Thomas; M. of E,, John Fleming; I. G., George N. Jackson; O. G., 
John Shaner. The names of past and present C. Cs. ai'e M. A. Bingham, 
A. A. Truxel and William B. Beamer; W. 0. Delph was C. C. in February, 
1890; John Shaner, A. E. Myers and A. B. Thomas are past chancellors. The 
names of secretaries are A. D. Swick and A. E. Myers. The present number 
of members is, sixty-four and the value of property is 1600. 

Kane Lodge, No. 412, I. O. O. F., is presided over by L. Davis, N. G., and 
Willis Jackson, Sec. This lodge has a well-equipped hall, and is one of the 
most prosperous of the Kane societies. 

Charles R. Riddle Post, 238, G. A. E., was mustered in March 27, 1888, 
with R. E. Looker, Com.; George Griffith, S. V. C. ; Michael Galvin, 
J. V. C. ; B. F. Burgess, Q. M. ; Joshua Davis, Surg. ; David Howells, 
Chap. ; D. E. Matthews, O. of D. ; R. M. Campbell, O. of G. ; A. Y. Jones, 
Adjt. ; Michael McEvoy, S. M ; H. McConnell, Q. M. S. ; E. J. Collins 
and T. H. Ryan, trustees. The membership at date of muster included the 
above named with S. P. Bray, William "Brennan, Adam Brodt, Omit Brestle, 
M. A. Bingham, S. W. Brewer, Murty Dowd, C. H. Franklin, G. N. Jackson, 
J. R. London, James Landragan, L. N. Mosier. W. H. H, Parker, Philip 
Qiiigley, F. W. Patch, William Rose, Sebastian Searles, Peter C. Tripp and 
Thomas H. Ryan. 

Col. Charles J. Biddle, Women's Relief Corps, No 100, was organized March 
27, 1888, with Mrs. Jennie Griffith, president; Mrs. Joshua Davis, vice-presi- 


dent; Mrs. O. Brestle, junior vice-president; Mrs. George Griffiths, treasurer; 
Mrs. W. J. Arney, chaplain; Mrs. Ed. H. Long, secretary; Mrs. D. E. 
Matthews, conductor; Mrs. C. E. Brown, assistant conductor; Mrs. B. E. 
Looker, guard, and Mrs. James Landragan, assistant guard. The charter 
members included the above named with Madams Rose Brennan, Martha 
Blood, T. Crosson, M. Dowd, Hannah Davis, Elizabeth Frazier, Mary Galvin, 
F. E. Griffith, Mattie Griffith, Jennie Griffith, Ann Howells, E. Landragan, 
Mary Looker, Margaret Long, J. Matthews, H. McConnell, Mary E. Mock, 
Abbie Maher, Ellen Quigley, Harriet Ryan, Maggie Sherry, Rosa Smith, S. 
E. Stewart, L. Thomas, Misses L. Brestle and Mary Long. The Women's 
Relief Corps is presided over by Mrs. Harriet M. Ryan, with Mrs. Ella Kelts, 

Gen. Thomas L. Kane Camp, S. of V. , No. 237, claims J. L. Mitchell as 
captain, and Claude B. Gillis, first sergeant. 

Patriotic Order Sons of America, was organized November 12, 1888, with 
the following named officials: "Willis Jackson, George W. Neuls, John T. 
Campbell, J. H. Gillis, John B. Fluke, W. H. Morgester, Charles Davis, 
George Smith, Dennis Davis, F. O. Peterson, G. H. Preston, Webb Evans, 
Webb Griffith, John W. Griffith. The presidents have been J. T. Campbell 
and Willis Jackson, while George W. Neuls was serving in 1889. W. H. 
Morgester, the first secretary, was succeeded in August, 1889, by John W. 
Griffith. The lodge claims thirty-five members. W. H. Davis was president, 
and Dennie Davis, secretary, in February, 1890. 

In August, 1872, a military company was organized at Kane, with Joseph 
D. Barnes, captain; Thomas Crosson, lieutenant, and Charles Everson, second 
lieutenant. The membership was about fifty. 

The Columbian League was organized at Kane in April, 1888, with A. A. 
Truxel, P. C. ; T. Diffenderfer, C. ; Arthur Morris, V. C. ; W. W. Morrison, 
A. C. ; George Wyviel, Sec. ; Dr. J. L. Wright, Treas. ; R. R. Hughes, Col. ; 
J. McChessney, Chap. ; A. N. Russell, Mar. ; A. Clemenger and J. G. King, 
Trustees. This society was organized for mutual benefit, and offered a cheap 
method of life insurance. 

The Loyal Legion claims the following officers: President, Bessie Staples; 
vice-president, Bessie McDade; recording secretary, Anna Campbell; corre- 
sponding secretary, Minnie Parsons; treasurer, Flora Lay; organist, Myrtie 

The Kane Catholic Total Abstinence Society was organized in 1873, with 

John H. Butler, president; ■ McKean, treasurer, and James Landragan, 


Kane E. A. U. was organized August 4, 1885, with W. M. Bartlett, chan- 
cellor; R. L. Earl, advocate; M. W. Moffitt, president; Mrs. S. B. Thomas, 
vice-president; Mrs. L. M. Meese, auxiliary; Thomas J. Malone, secretary, and 
W. H. Davis, treasurer. 

Encampment of Knights of Malta at Kane was named in honor or J. T. 
Griffith. F. B. Booth is E. C, and G. A. Robinson, C. 

Branch No. 13, C. M.. B. A., was organized in November, 1889, with thir- 
ty-eight members. The officers installed were: President, Peter J. Daly; 
first vice-president, James T. Kelly; second vice-president, Thomas Dwyer; 
recording secretary, Thomas J. Dolphin; assistant recording secretary, P. J. 
Sullivan; financial secretary, M. J. Daly; marshal, Patrick Curran; guard, 
Peter J. Crosson; trustees, John H. Garry, M. O'Shea, James P. Remond, P 
Curran, B. Crowley. 

Miscellaneous. — J. D. Leonard was postmaster at Kane until the appoint - 
ment of O. G. Kelts in 1886. 


In the fall of 1889 a number of citizens met in O. B. Lay's office and or- 
ganized what is known as the Kane Cemetery Association. At the meeting a 
committee consisting of Messrs. Joshua Davis, C. H. Kemp and M. W. Moffitt 
was appointed and instructed to procure the ground. This committee at once 
commenced work and purchased six acres of Erick Erickson at $100 per acre. 
Mrs. E. D. Kane donated four acres, making in all ten acres. This laud has 
been fenced in. The services of Alson Rogers, of Warren, were secured, who 
did the work reasonable, and did it well. A part of the ground has been laid 
out in lots, and the committee are now ready to dispose of them. The cem- 
etery is situated about half a mile south of the borough, and a graded road 
leads to and through the grounds. 

The location of the town in the wilderness, near where the pioneers of 
Williamsville settled long ago, is excellent. When Gen. Kane came in later 
years and looked up from the valley of the Clarion he pictured the tree-covered 
hills, partially cleared of the forest, and in the openings a thousand happy 
farm homes. In after years, when the railroad sought a way out of the val- 
ley and its builders determined to cross the high divide, he selected the sum- 
mit for a town site and dreamed great things of its future, seeing in fancy the 
porticoed houses of a happy people extending 'over the plateau and stretching 
away to the valleys. The pioneer dream has been practically fulfilled. Omit- 
ting its poetic features the location is all that he pictured, and more than that, 
for conveniences of life which were not knovm a decade ago are found here, 
and great industries, which provide work for the industrious, take the place of 
fancy's castles. The town is an example of what enterprise may accomplish 
in a short space of time. It is very young, but very precocious, and the 
marker of its progress has work daily, for every day adds either a small or 
large contingent to the mercantile or manufacturing circle and many persons 
to the community. What history may say of this progressive town at the close 
of this century depends much on its residents of the present time. 




JAMES L. ADAMS, manager of the Bradford Beef Company, Bradford 
was born in Ossian, Livingston Co., N. Y., October 31, 1847, a son of Leonard 
and Amy (Crocker) Adams. He left school and served as private in the Union 
army, Second Army Corps, Third Brigade, Third Division, One Hundred and 
Twentieth New York State Eegiment, Company I, from September 2, 1864, 
until the end of the war; was discharged June 15, 1865, at Kingston, N. Y.^ 
when he returned to school and graduated from the Rushford Academy, Alle- 
gany county, N. Y., in 1865; then attended Eastman's commercial school of 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. , and graduated in March, 1866, and then was employed 
for a time as bookkeeper, when he began the manufacture of cheese, which he 
continued until 1871. He then sold out his business and moved to McKean 
county, Penn., where he was employed as superintendent and manager of the 
cheese factory at Kendall. In 1874 he accepted a position as bookkeeper at 
Bradford, which he held until 1886, when he became manager of the Bradford 
Beef Company, which was established by Swift & Co., of Chicago, 111., in 1883. 
The business of the company has doubled since Mr. Adams became its man- 
ager, and they now sell three car loads of beef per week at Bradford. Mr. 
Adams was married July 4, 1870, to Miss Emma M. Tyler, of Farmersville, N. 
Y., and they have two children: Myrtie M. and Carrie L. In politics Mr. 
Adams is independent. He is a member of the Knights of St. John and Malta 
and the Knights of Pythias. The parents of Mr. Adams are native-born 
Americana of English descent; those of Mrs. Adams, James and Malona 
(Clark) Tyler, are also native-born Americans, and reside at Farmersville, N. 
Y., where the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Adams was solemnized. Although 
regular attendants at church, they are not members of any congregation. 

H. H. ADSIT, superintendent of the Bradford Oil Company, Bradford, 
was born in Chautauqua county, N. Y., January 22, 1841, a son of Albert Gr. 
and Genette (Montgomery) Adsit, who were natives of Saratoga county, N. Y. 
The subject of these lines, who is the youngest son in a family of four sons and 
four daughters, was reared in his native county, and in his boyhood attended 
the common schools, later becoming a student at Fredonia Academy. In 1858 
he began to learn the trade of machinist, and served an apprenticeship of three 
years. At the breaking out of the Rebellion he enlisted in the Forty-fourth 
New York Volunteer Infantry, known as the ' ' Ellsworth Zouaves, ' ' being se- 
lected to represent Chautauqua county. The regiment was made up from the 
entire State, each county and each ward in the cities furnishing one man, who 
was to be at least five feet ten inches in height, well-built and between the 
ages of twenty-one and thirty. Mr. Adsit was appointed orderly sergeant of 
his company. He served faithfully until the expiration of his term of service, 
and was discharged in 1864 ; he was wounded twice — neither time seriously. 
After his discharge he returned to Chautauqua county, and worked at his trade 
a year. In 1865 he entered into the oil business, and in 1872 was employed 


by an English company to go to the West India Islands, taking with him men 
and tools. Eeturning to Pennsylvania in 1874, in 1876 he came to Bradford, 
where he has since been superintendent of the Bradford Oil Company. Mr. 
Adsit was married in 1878 to Miss Frances Nevens, daughter of William 
Nevens, of Titusville. This union has been blessed with three children, viz. : 
Grace, Bessie and Howard. In politics he is a Republican. He is a member 
of the Veteran League, of which he is lieutenant-colonel. He and his wife 
are members of the Episcopal Church. 

C. P. ALLING, M. D., Bradford, was born in Norwalk, Huron Co., 
Ohio, February 19, 1838, a son of P. and Eliza L. (Gibbs) Ailing, former a 
native of New York and latter of Connecticut. His father was clerk of Huron 
county ten years. C. P. is the second in a family of eight children, was given 
good educational advantages, and after leaving the common schools attended 
the Western Eeserve College, from which he graduated in 1856. He then took 
a three years' course at Kenyon (Ohio) College, and afterward taught school 
one year at Milan, Ohio. He began the study of medicine at Norwalk with 
Dr. John Tifft, completing same with Dr. Charles Merrill, of Cleveland, in the 
meantime attending lectures at the Western Homoeopathic College, of Cleve- 
land; received his degree in 1862, and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Lima. The following summer the Doctor enlisted in one of the regi- 
ments formed for the defense of the southern border of the State, serving as 
assistant surgeon, and was discharged in December following. He practiced 
at Milan three years, and then, in January, 1867, moved to Dunkirk, N. Y., 
where he remained ten years. While there he served for a time as city physi- 
cian, was chairman of the board of health, and an active member of the New 
York Homoeopathic Medical Society. In 1877 he moved to Bradford, where 
he remained four years, and in 1881 went to Buffalo, but two years later re 
turned to Bradford, where he has since lived. While in Buffalo he served as 
city physician and was also surgeon for a railroad company. For five years he 
has been chairman of the Bureau of Microscopy and Histology in the National 
Medical Association. While in Buffalo he perfected the " Triumph Inhaler," 
which seems destined to revolutionize the treatment of all diseases of the head, 
throat and lungs. The Doctor now has a large practice, which is mostly con- 
fined to his office, and has been very successful in his treatment of disease. 
Dr. Ailing was married in March, 1863, to Miss Ruhamah Wakeman, daugh- 
ter of W. H. Wakeman, and they have two children: Mary E. (wife of Capt. 
A. A. Fengar) and H. W. (now a medical student in the office of his father. ) 
The Doctor and his wife are members of the Episcopal Church. In politics he 
is a Republican. 

ABRAHAM ANDERSON is a prominent flour and feed dealer in Bradford, 
formerly of Lafayette, same county, where he was postmaster for thirteen 
years. He also owns a farm of 200 acres, and is largely interested in the pro- 
duction of oil, working ten wells and receiving a royalty on a number of others. 
Mr. Anderson was born in England, and came with his parents to America in 
1828. They settled in McKean county, being among its first settlers, at a 
time when it was mostly inhabited by Indians and wild animals. His father 
died in 1832 ; his mother died at the age of one hundred and three, retaining 
her mental faculties till the time of her deatTi, December 3, 1889. Of their 
seven sons, Joseph, James, Thomas, John, Isaac, William and Abraham, three 
are living: Isaac, in Erie county, Penn., and James and Abraham, ^in McKean 
county. The mother was a cousin of John C. Calhoun, the eminent states- 
man. Mr. Anderson has served as justice of the peace and deputy sheriff of 
his county. By special act of the legislature he was appointed State road 



commissioner, in which capacity he served six years. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity and of the Equitable Aid "Union. He was married August 
12, 1852, to Sarah Ann Elizabeth Beeman, and they have had four children: 
Burton J. (killed in a railroad disaster), Jesse E., Eva (wife of Charles Welch, 
of Newton, Kas.), and Anna A. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are prominent mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In politics he is a Republican. 

J. L. ANDREWS, proprietor of the Hotel Brunswick, Bradford, was born 
January 19, 1842. He was reared in Bradford county, Penn., and enlisted in 
1862 in the One Hundred and Thirty- second Pennsylvannia Volunteer Infan- 
try, Company D, serving his term of enlistment. He has lived in Bradford 
since 1875, and has been one of the most active in the promotion of her public 
interests. He was one of the most prominent movers in the organization of 
the Bradford Eire Department, and was elected its first chief, serving in that 
capacity five years, and still enjoys the reputation of having been one of the 
best chiefs the department has had. He is now serving his third term as a 
member of the select council of Bradford. In politics Mr. Andrews is a Re- 
publican, and he is a member of Bradford Post, No. 141, G. A. R. He was 
married in Jamestown, N.Y., in 1870, 'to Miss Blanche, daughter of Col. James 
T. Henry, and they have two children: James and Blanche Broder. 

S. AUERHAIM, dealer in dry goods, millinery, etc. , Bradford, is a native 
of Germany, born November 28, 1838. He was reared in his native country, 
■and his father, Moses Auerhaim, being a merchant, he, when but a child, be- 
gan to learn the business, serving a regular apprenticeship of three years. In 
1850 he came to America, and in New York learned the cigar-maker's trade. 
He was obliged to rely on himself for support, and as he had not money enough 
to start the dry goods business, for some time he gave his attention to the 
manufacture and sale of cigars. He remained in New York until 1866, when 
he removed to Petroleum Centre, Penn., and there embarked in the dry goods 
business; later he went to Erie, and from there to Oil City, where he remained 
five years. In 1879 he located in Bradford, where he now has one of the best 
dry goods stores in the place. Mr. Auerhaim married Miss Fannie Kuntz, and 
they have seven children: Selina, Ida, Bertha, Emma, Clara, Samuel and 
Moses Martin. In politics Mr. Auerhaim is a Republican. He is a member 
of the Jewish Reformed Church, of which he is a trustee. He is also a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O. F. 

HARVEY S. BAKER, M. D., one of the oldest physicians in Bradford, 
settled in McKean county in an early day, and has lived to see the wonderful 
changes in the county in the last half century. When he first came to the 
county, and for many years thereafter, his practice extended for twenty miles 
from his home, in all directions, and his professional visits were mostly made 
on horseback, he carrying his own drug store in his saddle-bags. He has had 
an extensive practice both in Pennsylvania and New York, and is one of the 
best- known physicians in the county. Dr. Baker is a native of New York, 
born May 26, 1827, a son of Thomas and Abigail (Shaw) Baker. His grand- 
father, Abner Baker, was a soldier in the colonial army during the war of the 
Revolution. Dr. Baker graduated from the Medical Department of the State 
University of Michigan, March 29, 1855. He was married September 26, 
1860, to Nancy J. Comstock, who died in 1878, leaving four children: C. L., 
R. N., Ernestine and Nancy J. February 23. 1881, Dr. Baker married 
Nellie M.-, daughter of Emanulus O. and Lydia (Starkwether) Dickinson, and 
they have one child, Leala D. Dr. Baker is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
■copal Church. 

J. W. BAKER, one of the prominent business men of Bradford, was born 


in Allegheny county, Penn., July 13, 1849, son of Daniel and Harriet (Hughes) 
Baker, natives of Maryland, former of German, and latter of English 
descent. Mr. Baker remained with his parents in Allegheny City until seventeen 
years of age, attending school the most of the time, and then went to work in the 
oil fields, later buying property and working wells for himself until 1875, when 
he began dealing in torpedoes and nitro-glycerine. In 1878 he removed to 
Bradford, where he has continued the same business. In politics Mr. Baker 
is a Eepublican. He is a member of the F. & A. M. , lodge and chapter. 

A. F. BANNON, reading'clerk of the Pennsylvania State senate, is a well- 
known figure of McKean county, where he has hosts of friends among all par- 
ties. He is a native of the Keystone State, born in Blossburgh, October 13, 
1847, and is a son of Patrick and Joanna (Lanergan) Bannon, natives of Ire- 
land. His parents came to America in 1841, and soon thereafter settled in 
Blossburgh, Penn. When he was twelve years of age the subject of these 
lines was put to work with his father in the mines, an occupation he followed 
ten years. As he was obliged to work at an age when most boys are at school, 
his educational advantages were necessarily very limited; but being of a stu- 
dious disposition, and having a natural thirst for knowledge, he attended 
night-school, thus obtaining a fair education. In the year after reaching his 
majority, being determined to seek other employment, he secured a situation 
as clerk in a grocery store in Blossburgh; and so well did he improve his 
opportunities that, in 1872, he was enabled to start in business for himself. 
In 1875 he closed out his store, and in 1877 removed to McKean county, where 
he entered the employ of the Erie Railroad Company at Kendall Creek. A 
year later he embarked in the coal business, in which he continued five years, 
when, having purchased valuable oil property, he sold out and devoted his 
attention to the production of oil, a business he is thoroughly acquainted with. 
In politics Mr. Bannon has for a long time been a prominent Eepublican, and 
in 1883 he was chairman of the county committee. In 1880 he was elected 
coroner of the county; between the years 1885 and 1888 he served as sheriff of 
the county, and in 1889 he was appointed to his present position of reading- 
clerk of the Pennsylvania State senate, his services commencing with the 
session of that year. He has two years to serve, so that his voice will be 
heard in that distinguished body in 1891. Mr. Bannon was married August 
25, 1870, at Corning, N. Y., to Mary J., daughter of Samuel Carlyle, and 
they have three children: Anthony F., William P. and Mary. The family are 
members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Bannon is a member of Lodge No. 
183, A. O. U. W., and represented his lodge in the grand lodge in 1883. 

H. F. BAKBOUR, editor of the Bradford Evening Star, Bradford, was 
born in Chemung county, N. Y. , March 14, 1845, the youngest of five children 
that lived to maturity of J. N. and Elizabeth (Thompson) Barbour, the former 
a native of New York, and the latter of Connecticut. His mother died just as 
he reached manhood. His father, over eighty, is now residing near Elmira, 
N. Y. The subject of these lines was reared in his native county, and her& 
obtained his rudimentary education, and at the age of sixteen entered Alfred 
University. After three years he left college to prepare himself for his life 
work as publisher and editor, the University, at the commencement in 1889, 
voluntarily granting him an honorary diploma and degree of Master of Arts. 
In March, 1869, he received an appointment in the Government printing office 
at Washington, where for three years he held the Greek cases. In 1872 he 
came to McKean county and purchased the Smethport Miner. In 1884 he sold 
the Miner and bought a half interest in the Bradford Evening Star. A year later 
he purchased his partner's interest and organized The Star Publishing Com- 


pany, of which he is president, and owner of more than three-fourths of the 
stock. He is an able writer, aggressive and forcible, but never scurrilous; is an 
out-and-out Bepublican, and the Star, being conducted in the interests of that 
party, has proved of great benefit to the Republican cause of McKean county. 
The Star is published daily, and has the largest circulation in the county, in- 
deed, remarkably large for a city like Bradford. Mr. Barbour is an indefati- 
gable worker, and the success the paper has attained is due to his untiring 
energy and his ability as publisher and editor. He is an active member of the 
Masonic order, and is a Knight Templar. Mr. Barbour was married at Smeth- 
port, McKean Co., Penn., September 17, 1873, to Mary E., daughter of Rev. 
H. and Jane (Smith) Peck, her father having been a minister in the Methodist 
Church for several years, in McKean county, but now living in t