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Full text of "History of Orange County, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its earliest growth and development from the early days to the present"

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HISTORY OF 



Orange County 



CALIFORNIA 



WITH 



Biographical Sketches 



OF 



The Leading Men and Women of the County Who 

have been Identified with its Growth and 

Development from the Early 

Days to the Present 



HISTORY BY 
SAMUEL ARMOR 

ILLUSTRATED 
COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME 

HISTORIC RECORD COMPANY 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 

1921 



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Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028881965 




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PREFACE 



It was with great reluctance that we undertook the revision of the History 
of Orange County, which we helped to compile ten years ago, not because we 
believed in Oslerism or wished to enjoy our otium cum dignitate, but because of 
the magnitude of the undertaking and of our lack of special preparation, not 
having anticipated a recall to the work of writing history. 

However, with the help of expert writers on special subjects, and from the 
Federal crop estimator, the state board of horticulture, the county and city officers, 
the secretaries of boards of trade, chambers of commerce, fruit exchanges and 
vegetable unions, patriotic and relief associations, the newspapers — especially the 
Santa Ana Register — and all other available sources of information, we have 
collected a large array of authentic facts about the county, its peopje, productions 
and resources. To all who have assisted in furnishing the data for this work 
we return our sincere thanks. 

Since a county history can have but a limited sale and the initial expense of 
its preparation is just as great for a few hundred copies as for many thousand, it 
stands to reason that the price per copy for a small edition must be greater than 
that for a large one. This condition, coupled with the increased size of the book 
and the present high cost of labor and material, is a sufficient justification for the 
price charged for the second volume of the county history. To avoid loss through 
unsold copies, this book, like all works of similar character, is sold by subscription 
and only enough copies are printed to supply each subscriber with the number 
ordered by him. As a further consideration for the purchase price, a brief biog- 
raphy of each subscriber, who thus patriotically supports a history of his cotmty, 
is published without extra, charge. These biographical sketches are prepared by 
trained canvassers and writers of long experience in this kind of work, and add 
much value to the history in giving personal incidents, otherwise unavailable, and 
in showing to future generations something of the character of the pioneers who 
laid the foundations upon which the superstructure of this county was built. 

As citizens of this favored county, we should forget our few privations and 
trifling discomforts and remember our many privileges and great blessings. For 
instance, when the mercury hovers round the freezing point, we should not 
worry, over the possibility of some small loss from light frosts that occasionally 
nip the tenderest plants; but we should extend our sympathy to less favored 
sections of the country, where the thermometer goes as many degrees below zero 
as it stops here above in our coldest weather. Again, when the winter rains are 
slow in coming, don't let us fret about a dry year, remembering that, in the 
wettest winter within the last half century, the rains commenced January 28, 
1884, and that since then a good rainy reason has occasionally begun even later 
in the year; also that the county passed through three dry years in succession, 
from 1897 to 1900, with comparatively little loss, and it is better equipped now 
with irrigating ditches and pumping plants than it was then. Furthermore, few 
of the present residents of the county remember the apprehension that was felt 
over thie growing scarcity of fuel twenty-five or more years ago, when most of 
the available timber was stripped from the nearby mountains and coal was shipped 
in from Australia and New Mexico. However, before much loss was suffered, 
oil was discovered in the county about the year 1896, and from a small beginning 
the production of oil, gasoline and natural gas has become the largest asset of 
the county and exceeds that of the entire state of Pennsylvania at the present 



time. Immediately following the discovery of oil in the county, electricity began 
to be applied to furnishing light, heat and power ; and now practically all the busi- 
ness houses and residences, in and about the cities and towns of Orange County, 
are provided with electricity, gas and oil for light, heat and power; with sewers 
for carrying off the waste matter and with water for all purposes. 

In short, the more familiar do we become with the vast resources and diversi- 
fied products of this county, with the wise enterprise and good behavior of its 
citizens, the less do we find to criticise and the more to praise and rejoice over. 
Let us, therefore, one and all, appropriate and apply to our goodly heritage the 
advice of the Psalmist to the sons of Korah, in commending "the ornaments and 
privileges of the church," as follows: 

"Walk about Zion, and go round about her ; tell the towers thereof. Mark 
ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces ; that ye may tell it to the generation 
following." 

SAMUEL ARMOR. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 



Formation of Orange County 33 

California created out of territory ceded to United States by Mexico. 
Admission of state to Union. Formation of Counties. Orange County 
set apart from Los Angeles County. Location of county seat. Election 
of officers. Description and Boundaries of County. Mountains and 
hills adapted to grazing and bee culture. Valleys and plains represent 
many soils. Original Spanish grants and their acreages. Subdivision 
of many grants into small tracts. County capable of supporting 
500,000 population. Nine incorporated cities. 

CHAPTER H 
Roster of County and District Officers 36 

State Senators Thirty-ninth District. Assemblymen Seventy-siicth Dis- 
trict. Superior Judges. Sheriiif. County Clerk. Recorder. Auditor. 
Tax Collector. District Attorney. Treasurer. Assessor. School 
Superintendent. Surveyor. Coroner and Public Administrator. Boards 
of Supervisors. Justices and Constables of the following townships: 
Anaheim, Brea, Buena Park, FuUerton, Huntington Beach, Laguna 
Beach, La Habra, Los Alamitos, Newport Beach, Orange, Placentia, 
San Juan, Santa Ana, Seal Beach, Stanton, Tustin, Westminster, Yorba. 
Board of Education. Horticultural Commissioner. Trustees of Law 
Library. Board of Forestry. County Physician. Veterinary Surgeon 
and Stock Inspector. Bee Inspector. Custodian of County Park. Care- 
taker of Westminster Public Park. Fire and Game Warden. County 
Statistician. Highway Commissioner. Purchasing Agent. Lecturer 
and Publicity Agent. Superintendent of County Hospital and Farm. 
Superintendent of Detention Home. Probation Officer. Sealer of 
Weights and Measures. Aid Commissioner and Expert Accountant. 
Superintendent of Road Maintenance. Farm Advisor. 

CHAPTER HI 

Orange County's Water Supply and Way Utilized 48 

Direct and indirect benefits from rainfall. Average annual rainfall at 
Orange. Other sources of water supply. Area of catchment basin of 
Santa Ana River. Anaheim Union Water Company. Santa Ana Valley 
Irrigation Company. Santiago Creek. Serrano Water Company. John 
T. Carpenter Water Company. Trabuco Creek. Coyote, Laguna and 
Aliso Creeks. Number of Pumping Plants and Acres Irrigated. 

CHAPTER IV 

The City of Anaheim 53 

Oldest city in Orange County. Settled by Germans. Organization of 
Los Angeles Vineyard Company. Naming of town. First house built 
in 18S7. First hotel erected in 1865. Fire visits the town. Waning of 
grape industry and rise of walnut and orange culture. First newspaper. 
Anaheim Water Company. Bonds voted and sold for erection of school- 
house. Southern Pacific Railroad builds branch to Anaheim. Indus- 
tries and assessed valuation of city. Churches of Anaheim. City 
officers." 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 
Thb City of Brea .■ 57 

Situation at mouth of Brea Canyon. Oil industry is principal asset. 
Improvements made. Manufacturing industries. City officers. 

CHAPTER VI 

The City oe Fuli^erton 57 

Location and populatioii. Origin of town. Advent of railroad. Be- 
ginning of orange and walnut industry. Name of town. Growth of 
town conservative from beginning. First substantial building erected. 
Incorporated as city in 1904. Admirable location for shipping and 
manufacturing. Proximity to oil fields advantageous. Warehouse 
facilities. Industries other than fruit raising. Banks. Newspapers. 
Churches. Public library. Schools. Fire department. Board of Trade. 
Fraternal orders and clubs. City officers. Recent building operations. 

CHAPTER VII 
The City of Huntington Beach 60 

Original name of settlement. The Huntington Beach Company. Union 
Sunday School and Church organized. First church built. Others 
follow. Bank organized. Various business enterprises. Organized 
4S city in 1909. Schools. Library. Beet sugaj" ajid other factories. 
Pavements, sewers and gas systems. City officers. Chamber of 
Commerce. Fraternal organizations. Municipal band. 

CHAPTER VIII 
The City of Newport Beach 63 

Admirable location on Newport Bay. Unexcelled harbor facilities. 
Bond issue voted to start harbor improvements. Yachting center of 
Pacific Coast. Population and valuation. City officers. Churches and 
organizations. 

CHAPTER IX 
The City of Orange 64 

Location. "Father" of the town. Acreage of original townsite. Orig- 
inally called Richland. First house in town. Courage of early settlers. 
Their struggle with pests. Introduction of spraying and fumigating. 
Irrigation difficulties. Schools established. Churches organized. Musi- 
cal and literary societies. "Pull-together" spirit of citizens. Incorpo- 
ration of city. Natural advantages of soil and climate. Excellent rail- 
road facilities. City water system. Orange a business center. Sewer 
system. Population. Schools. Churches. Fraternal organizations. 
Library. City officers. Public utilities. Financial resources of Orange 
district. Progress in building. City always free from saloons. 

CPIAPTER X 
The City of Santa Ana 68 

Struggles and achievements of its pioneers. "Father" of, the town. 
Other settlers attracted to location. First school district organized. 
Postoffice secured. First hotel erected. First brick building. Southern 
Pacific completes line to Santa Ana. Rivalry between Santa Ana and 
Anaheim. First bank and its failure. Confidence restored. Many busi- 
ness blocks, residences and churches erected. Heaviest rainfall in city's 
history and damage it caused. Agitation for incorporation as a city. 
Period of the "boom." Fire department organized. First street railway. 
Prosperity visible on all sides. Santa Fe railroad built to Santa Ana. 
Rise and fall of Fairview Development Company. Condition of Santa 
Ana after boom was over. Newport Wharf and Lumber Company 
organized. Organization of Board of Trade. Creation of Orange 
County, with Santa Ana as county seat. Municipal water plant. Free 
mail delivery? Erection of court house. Abolition of saloons. Erection 
of city hall. Huntington trolley system enters Santa Ana. General 
growth and prosperity. Banks of Santa Ana. Public library. City 
officers. Commercial progress. Manufacturing establishments. Churches 
and their locations. Fraternal societies. Patriotic societies. Miscel- 
laneous organizations. The press. Future of city. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XI 

The City of Seai, Beach ,. . 81 

Location. Promoted as beach resort under name of Bay City. Incorpo- 
ration. Area and population. Sewer system being installed. Bonds 
voted for municipal water plant. City officers. Beach is exceptionally 
safe jor bathers. Traffic facilities. Growth retarded by lack of housing 
facilities. 

CHAPTER xn 
The City oe Stanton 82 

Located in agricultural section of county. Origin of name. Incorpo- 
ration of city. Assessed valuation and population. Transportation 
facilities. City officers. 

CHAPTER Xni 

Unincorporated Towns 82 

Arch Beach. Benedict. Berryfield. Cypress. Balboa. Bolsa. Brook- 
hurst. Buena Park. Capistrano. San Juan Capistrano Mission. Celery. 
Corona. Del Mar. Delhi. El Modena. El Toro. Fairview. Garden 
Grove. Greenville. Harper, Irvine. Laguna Beach. La Habra. Los 
Alamitos. Mateo. McPherson. Modjeska Mineral Springs. Olinda. 
Olive. Peralta. Placentia. Richfield. San Juan-by-the-Sea or Serra. 
San Juan Hot Springs. Smeltzer. Sunset Beach. Talbert. Tustin, 
Villa Park. Westminster. Wintersburg. Yorba. Yorba Linda. 

CHAPTER XIV 
Orange County's Schools 88 

Elementary schools. High schools. Junior colleges. Number of 
graduates. Public kindergartens. Private schools. Evidence of effi- 
ciency. Notables among the graduates. 

CHAPTER XV 

PuBuc Buildings and Sites 95 

.First jail. Francisco Torres confined there. Site for county buildings 
selected. Difficulties encountered in erecting new jail. Bonds voted for 
building court house. Campaign of villification in adopting plans. 
County detention home. County hospital and farm. Income from 
county farm. Cottage, artificial lake and many other improvements 
for county park. Contract let for beautifying county park. Alteration 
made in court house. Memorial arch at county park. Garage for 
county hospital. County garage at Santa Ana. Sheriflf's office. 

CHAPTER XVI 
Pleasure Drives and Resorts 98 

Part of San Joaquin ranch given by James Irvine for County Park. 
Hewes Park. Sale of Hewes ranch. Santiago Golf Club. Orange 
County Country Club. Lemon Heights. San Juan Hot Springs. 
Westminster Park.' Biixh Park at Santa- Ana. The Plaza at Orange. 
Secure options for park at Anaheim. Fullerton's plans for parks. City 
Park at Newport Beach. Camping ground in Trabuco Canyon. Mod- 
jeska's Home and Inn. Camptonville in Santiago Canyon. Many 
pleasure resorts along beach. 

CHAPTER XVII 
Orange County's Good Roads 102 

Savage Act. Associated Chambers "of Commerce back movement for 
good roads. Members of highway commission. Bond issue for paved 
highways passed. Tabulated statement of paved roads in county. Work 
of highway commissioners continued by board of supervisors. Con- 
tracts for paving recently awarded. Bridges for state highway. U. S. 
Forest Service to aid in building road in Trabuco Canyon. State High- 
way along coast. Miles of paved streets in cities. Many miles of oiled 
roads. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XVIII 
The County's Traffic Facilities 106 

Branches of two transcontinental railroads, electric interurban railway, 
the Pacific Ocean and thousands of motor vehicles furnish unsurpassed 
facilities. Southern Pacific the first railroad to enter county. Santa Fe 
Railroad builds its road through to San Diego. Tustin branch of South- 
ern Pacific built. Intense rivalry between roads. Southern Pacific 
builds branch from Anaheim to Los Alamitos Sugar Factory. Santa 
Ana and Newport Railroad acquired by Southern Pacific. Pacific 
Electric and its branches. Mileage and valuation of railway systems. 
Easy access to water transportation. Traffic carried by motor vehicles. 
Comparative table of motor vehicles in state and county. 

CHAPTER XIX 

Sundry Voluntary Organizations 1 10 

Orange County Medical Association. Date of organization. First 
meeting. Constitution and by-laws adopted. Officers elected. First 
members of association. First annual meeting. Association entertains 
Medical Society of Southern California. Sessions held in Carnegie 
Library, Santa Ana. Medical library established. List of members. 
Presidents of association. Officers and members, 1920. The Orange 
County Bar Association organization. First members. Now in flourish- 
ing condition. Orange County Historial Society. Organization and 
purpose. Orange County Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 
Orange County W. C. T. U. 

CHAPTER XX 
Orange County's Soldiers in World War 116 

CHAPTER XXI 
Service Men's Recognition 130 

Celebration at Orange County Park to pay tribute to service men. 
Lay cornerstone of Memorial Arch. Address by Governor Stephens. 
Presentation of service medals. Address by Chaplain Robert Williams. 
Citations and decorations won by Orange County men. 

CHAPTER XXII 

The County's Liberty Loans 133 

Tabulated statement of apportionment and subscriptions to various 
war loans. 

CHAPTER XXIII 
ReliEE Work oe Associations 135 

Activities of Red Cross. Anaheim Chapter. Fullerton Chapter. Orange 
Chapter. Santa Ana Chapter. Report of Salvation Army. , 

CHAPTER XXIV 
A Chapter oE Tragedies 139 

Killing of Sheriff Barton. Capture and hanging of Juan Flores. Mur- 
der of William McKelvey. His slayer, Francisco Torres, taken from 
Santa Ana jail and hanged. Dennis Kearney, the "Sand Lot Agitator," 
meets his Waterloo. 

CHAPTER XXV 
The Oil Industry • 143 

First development work. E. L. Doheny the pioneer of oil industry in 
Orange County. Graham-Loftus Oil Company. The Columbia Oil 
Company. The Union Oir Company. Olinda Fullerton Field. Oil 
compared with coal for fuel. County assessments show development 
of oil industry. Taxes paid by Standard Oil Company. Union Oil 
Company opens Placentia-Richfield district. Chapman gusher brought 
in. Chronological list of wells brought in by various companies. 
Summary of report of Brea Progress-Munger Oil News Service. 
Activities at Huntington Beach, Newport Mesa and Olive. Estimated 
daily output and gross income from industry. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXVI 

The Citrus Industry 147 

Orange first brought to America in Sixteenth Century by Spaniards. 
San Gabriel Mission grove set out in 1804. William Wolfskill set 
out first commercial orchard. First orange tree in Northern California 
at Sacramento. First Washington Navels at Riverside. Original trees 
still living. One reset at Glenwood Inn by President Roosevelt. 
Orange County the ideal section for cultivating the orange. California 
orange has no equal. Soil and climatic conditions. Evolution in the 
handling and packing of oranges. Most successful varieties . grown. 
Pioneer orange grower of the county. Development of industry. 
Invention of fumigating. Shipment of first cars of oranges. Orange 
County Fruit Exchange. Directors of Exchange for 1920. Amount 
and value of Exchange's shipments for 1919. Estimate of total returns 
of county. 

CHAPTER XXVII 

The Beet Sugar Industry 151 

Early history of the industry. First factory at Philadelphia. Factory 
at Northampton, Mass. Mormons establish factory at Salt Lake City. 
First successful factory at Alvarado, Cal. Congress places duty on 
sugar imports. Department of Agriculture promotes beet sugar in- 
dustry. Dr. Wiley conducts experiments in various states. Beets 
grown on reclaimed desert land. Reach greatest perfection on irri- 
gated land. Value of industry. Germany's increased cereal crop due to 
introduction of sugar beet culture. Thorough fertilization and deep 
plowing required. Blocking and thinning. Process of handling from 
field to finished product. Los Alamitos Sugar Company. Santa Ana 
Co-Operative Sugar Company. Southern California Sugar Company. 
Holly Sugar Company. Anaheim Sugar Company. Value of 1918 and 
1919 crops. Price for beets in 1920. 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

Orange County's Fruits, Grains and Vegetables 159 

Nearly all fruits indigenous to Temperate and Torrid Zones niay be 
grown in some part of Orange County. Apples can be raised with profit 
in some localities. Apricots and figs grown extensively. Grapes not 
raised as extensively as formerly. Development of the avocado. Grape- 
fruit and lemons. Olives, peaches, plums and berries. Alfalfa a valuable 
product. Barley valuable for grain and hay. Oats, wheat and corn 
classed among the light crops. The bean industry on the advance. 
Lima beans first grown on San Joaquin ranch. Cabbage, cauliflower, 
melons, peanuts, peas, peppers, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes 
and onions are also grown. Orange County display at Riverside Fair, 
1919. 

CHAPTER XXIX 

History of the Celery Industry i^ Orange County 165 

Lands, formerly worthless, found valuable for celery. Origin and 
growth of industry in Orange County. Many difficulties encountered 
in the early days. Acreage reduced by planting sugar beets. 

CHAPTER XXX 
Orange County's Live Stock and Poultry 167 

Mexicans and Spaniards paid little attention to domestic animals. Stock- 
men's cattle a menace to ranches. Orange County Fair Association. 
Cattle development from early days to present. Great improvement in 
grade of stock. Fine Holstein stock at County Farm. Sheep industry, 
once important, now annihilated. Goat raising on the increase. Very 
few hogs raised for market. Poultry industry brought much money 
to county. High cost of feed during war causes poultry raisers to 
dispose of flocks. 



CONTENTS 
CHAPTER XXXI 

The Bee Industry 171 

Original importation of bees into California. Growth of industry. 
Average yield and cash income. Main sources of nectar. ' Diseases 
stamped out by work of inspector. Bees are boon to fruit business. 

CHAPTER XXXII 

Semi-Tropic Fruits in Orange County ' 173 

Mission olive and grape the only reminders of Spanish settlers. Other 
and better varieties have succeeded them. Avocado, Feijoa, Guavas, 
Cherimoya, Persimmon, Pomegranate, Carissa and Sapota have been 
introduced. Loquat a characteristic fruit of Orange County. New 
varieties of Avocado planted. Jujube is a recent introduction. Seedless 
Sapota developed. 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

The English Wai,nut Industry 175 

Origin of English Walnut. Its cultivation in America confined to 
certain districts in California. Early planting formerly done with seed- 
lings. Grafted stock subsequently used. Selecting and growing seed 
for budding. For seedling nursery. Amount of irrigation necessary. 
Valuable hints from an old-time walnut grower. Prices and value of 
recent crops. Orange County leads state in production. 

CHAPTER XXXIV 

Farm Bureau Report 177 

Number of farm centers. Program of work. Farm Bureau Weekly. 
Itinerant conference. Issues taken up by bureau. Telephone. Water 
conservation. Good roads. Harbor development. Horticultural Stand- 
ardization. Rodent control. Agricultural clubs. Home gardens. 
County fairs. Drainage districts. Irrigation districts. Fire protec- 
tion. Farmers' institutes. Field demonstrations. Bean seed selection. 
Live stock demonstration. Poultry culling demonstrations. Bees. 
Soils. Soil moisture and irrigation. Farm business. Bud selection. 
Pruning demonstrations. Morning glory control. Fumigation. 
Codling moth on walnut. Nematode. Tractor demonstration. Wheat 
campaign. Water analysis. Farm loans. Summary of work done. 

CHAPTER XXXV 

Population and Valuations 185 

Methods for estimating population. Correctness of results uncertain. 
Federal Census for county, cities and townships from 1890 to 1920. 
Methods of taxation. Official valuations of Orange County property. 
Population and wealth widely distributed over county. Santa Ana 
Chamber of Commerce estimate of 1919 crop value. 

CHAPTER XXXVI 
Anecdotes and Incidents 191 

CHAPTER XXXVII 

Soil, Climate and Water 193 

Government soil survey of Anaheim district. Soil of county has 
limitless depth and no hardpan. Humus mijst be replaced in soil, 
definitions of climate and atmosphere. Equalization of temperatures. 
Situation of Orange County gives it an equable climate. Rainfall for 
past thirty years. Storage of flood water. Increase in number of 
pumping plants. 



INDEX 



A 

Page 

Abercherli, Louis H70 

Abplanalp, William 945 

Adams, Argus 1522 

Adams, John 638 

Adams, Reo C 1362 

Adams, Reuben A., M.D 637 

Ahem, Eugene 1388 

Ahlefeld, George 1317 

Ahlefeld, Otto L 1654 

Ainsworth, Frank h 351 

Ainsworth, I^ewis 343 

Ainsworth, Mitt 459 

Akers, John Allen 705 

Alberts, A. J 1645 

Alexander, William B 1579 

Allen, Augustus Horatio 425 

Allen, Horatio Augustus 570 

Allen, Joseph Garfield 535 

Allen, L,. E 1637 

Allen, Martin V 798 

Allen, Milo Bailey 534 

Allen, Nathan E 1 189 

Allen, Prescott 422 

Ailing, Clyde R 1571 

Alsbach, Mary E '■ 486 

Amack, Ulysses S 1614 

Amerige, Edward Russell 585 

Amerige, George Henry 576 

Anaheim Feel & Fuel Company 1035 

Anderson, Christian 1208 

Anderson, C. G 1386 

Andres, Charles A 1 194 

Andres, George Frederick 1258 

Arballo, Palito 1454 

Armor, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel 615 

Arroues, Bernard 762 

Atherton, Edward 672 

B 

Backs, Joseph M., Jr 653 

Bacon, Robert D 425 

Bagnall, Charles J 1433 

Baier, Fred C 1463 

Baker, Andrew 687 

Baker, John G 1572 

Baker, William 1148 

Ball, Charles Dexter, M.D 243 

Ball, Edson Joel 1458 

Ball, Strother S 226 

Bangs, Frederick E 1294 

Barker, Joshua 1568 

Barrows, George A 1264 

Barter, Harry 1395 

Bartley, George M 1567 

Bastady, Frederick 1317 

Bastanchury,. D. J. 545 

Bastanchury, Domingo and Maria 264 

Baumgartner, John Pemberton 1207 

Baxter, Bluford C 877 



Page 

Beach, Amandus W 907 

Beach, Mrs. Aurel 907 

Beard, Ernest A 1092 

Belt, Mrs. Susan 291 

Bemis, Charles A 810 

Benchley, William 1, 374 

Bennett, Bernice, D. 1643 

Bennett, Charles C 1321 

Bennett, Francis M 1411 

Bennett, Harvey F 1284 

Bennett, Leroy 541 

Bentjen, Fred 1405 

Bergey, Gale S 806 

Best, Charles E 1572 

Best, Rupert 1609 

Bibber, Andrew Harrington 524 

Biner, Albert 1516 

Bird, Richard A 1495 

Bishop, Clyde 896 

Bishop, Fern S 881 

Blackford, Merton 1512 

Blanchar, Robert h 1396 

Blaylock, Wallace W .•. . . 1406 

Blodget, Lewis W 858 

Blom, Andrew Gustav 455 

Bobst, Mrs. Wilda 1065 

Boon, William H 1020 

Boosey, Fred 1242 

Boosey, Mrs. Grace 1268 

Borchard, Antone '. 1533 

Borchard, Frank P 1100 

Borchard, Leo 1460 

Boring, Johnty P 625 

Bowman, Charles E 805 

Bradford, Albert S 225 

Brady, Peter D... 824 

Bricke, Joseph 1357 

Bridge, Marcus Arthur 566 

Broadway, Thomas E 1104 

Brooks, Clifford Hugh, M.D 1314 

Brooks, Lorenzo Nathan . ." '. . . . 478 

Brooks, William H 251 

Brown, Edwin J 1061 

Brown, James E. 1348 

Brown, John Knowlton 1541 

Brown, William Thomas 329 

Brunworth, John 456 

Buchanan, George W 350 

Buchheim, Aaron 438 

Buchheim, Frank J 1328 

Buchheim, Henry William 915 

Bula, Edwin 827 

Bundschuh, C. S 1453 

Burbank, Mrs. Phoebe Ann 1181 

Burke, Hon. Joe Charles 989 

Burnham, William H 600 

Bush, John M., Jr 608 

Bushard, William Winf red 878 

Butler, Clyde D : .-. . .-1126 

Butler, Lewis G 1088 

Byram, Oren Brown 502 

Byram, Wilfred Carroll 503 



INDEX 



C 

Page 

Cady, Eugene C 1065 

Cady, Mrs. Penelope 1065 

Caillaud, Albert '. 1 190 

Cailor, O. T 468 

Callan, J. M 744 

Callens, Adolphe I343 

Callens, Giistave J 1343 

Calleus, Joseph Albert 1343 

Campbell, David F 485 

Campbell, E. Earl , 1649 

Garden, Eincoln Joseph 1276 ' 

Carhart, J. Ralph 566 

Carle, Anton C 1632 

Carriker, Jacob W. . . , 912 

Carrillo, Mrs. Adelina 1237 

Carrillo, Juan Garibaldi 1283 

Carver, Washington 1 1057 

Case, William E 949 

Cassou, John 571 

Castillo, Cayetano, Jr 1 182 

ChaiTee, Albert J 751 

Chaffee, Edwar^d 1039 

Chaffee, J<sJmi D., M.D 559 

Chambers, William M., D.D.S 1418 

Chapman, Charles C 211 

Chapman, - Charles Herbert 1234 

Chapman, Colum C 459 

Chase, Manley C 1474 

Chase, Mrs. Maud H 844 

Cheney, William J 519 

Christensen, E. Martin 1238 

Christensen, Soren 728 

Christiansen, Siegfried M 1381 

Christlieb, Alexander J 1529 

Clark, John I., M.D 1354 

Clarke, Stephen F 451 

Ciaudina, Frank 1100 

Clayton, Prof. W. M 493 

Clement, William E 942 

Clinard, Barney P 1275 

Closson, Gardner, W., D.V.S 1549 

Coate, Elwood 554 

Coburn, I^ewis F 916 

Cochems, William 434 

Cock, Andrew 1638 

Cocking, George J 1246 

Cole, Benjamin H 1151 

Cole, D. G 416 

Cole, Mrs. Ella D 472 

Cole, Homer L 1292 

Cole, Richard W 1659 

Cole, Walter J 645 

Collins, Cornelius C 433 

CoUman, William A 731 

Colman, R. Clarkson ; 765 

Congdon, Walter N 1583 

Conkle, Samuel Q 516 

Conley, James F 761 

Cook, he Roy -R. 1432 

Coon, Herbert 13 1663 

Cooiper, Mrs. Emma Burclifield 536 

Copeland, Justin M ; 256 

Copeland, Mrs. Mary E 256 

Corbit, Byron B 1386 

Cordes, John C 1421 

Cotant, Charles L 1642 

Courreges, Roch 1332 

Cowles, Dan.forth C, M.D 553 

Cox, Charles S 1418 

Cozad,,, David. E 646 

Craig, Isaac 571 

Cranston, John A • 1421 

Cravath, A. K 1229 



Page 

Crawford, Byron Asa 1272 

Crawford, Elmer I, 778 

Crawford, Will C 9^4 

Crookshank, Angus James 604 

Crose, Charles F 1245 

Crosier, William W :..... 1434 

Crouch, Frank Warren 1324 

Crowther, William Henry 217 

Cruiz, Julian R 1660 

Crumrine, Charles L, 1454 

Culp, William A 1376 

Culver, Joseph Warren 1109 

Cuprien, Frank William 794 

D 

Daguerre, Mrs. Marie Eugenia 306 

Dale, Frank Blair 1464 

Dale, Hubert H 1613 

Damewood, t,. P 813' 

Damon, Philip W 1441 

Daneri, Mrs. Catherine J ' 1 166 

Daniels, Henry W 1233 

Dargatz, Otto 415 

Dart, Oral V 1578 

Dauser, Frank J 1546 

Davies, Richard T 546 

Davis, Charles I^eo 1625 

Davis, Evan 861 

Davis, Roy R 1507 

Dawes, Horatio C 963 

Deamud, S. F 1641 

Decker, Willet S 1028 

Del,app, Thomas C. H 1249 

Dcnni, Job 1606 

Dennis, Wallace B 903 

Derksen, Mrs. Anna 718 

Des Granges, Joseph P 295 

De Vaul, Jasper N 650 

Devenney, William 1492 

Dickel, Herman A 794 

Dierker, Benjamin Franklin 907 

Dierker, Edward Henry; 1118 

Dierker, George D 701 

Dierker, Harry F 1165 

Dierker, Henry 781 

Diers, William F 1574 

Dietrich, Mrs. Minnie M 1399 

Ditchey, Jacob 529 

Dittmer, Adolph 960 

Dixon, Raymond T 1550 

Dolan, William A 1375 

Dolph, Miss Blanche h 882 

Domann, Arthur H., M.D 625 

Dominguez, Mrs. Felipa Y 1241 

Donnelly, Dennis J 1625 

Dorn, Fred 1040 

Douglass, Leo F 1507 

Doyle, Leo M'. 1159 

Dozier, Edward M 1470 

Dozier, Thomas E 611 

Drake, David Clarence 286 

Draper, Robert L 1382 

Dresser, Bernard J 1019 

Dross, Werner R 1580 

Druce Brothers 950 

Du Bois, Willard C, M.D 1373 

Duckworth, William Edward 1412 

Duggan, William L 1070 

Duhart, Bautista 1511 

Duker, Henry W 908 

Dungan, H. E 1306 

Dungan, Samuel M 510 

Dunlap, J. T 731 



INDEX 



Page 

Dunstan, John 365 

Dunton, George 1457 

Durkee, Joseph E 1396 

Durnbaugh, Carl E 1366 

Dutton, Earl Chester 1407 

E 

Eaby, George M 1177 

Eadington, Thomas 1438 

Eberth, Charles 1458 

Edens, R. W 1636 

Eden,. Walter 988 

Edwards, Arch M 1182 

Edwards, John H 338 

Edwards, Nelson Thomas , 477 

Edwards, Samson 395 

Edwards, William J 334 

Edwardson, Lars Tobias 854 

Eells, John 1556 

Egan, Richard 373 

Ehlen, P. W 520 

Eismann, Mrs. Elizabeth 1170 

Elbinger, John C 1040 

Elliott, John W 529 

Elliott, R. Earl 1595 

Ellis, Claude Newton 530 

Ellis, Clyde H 1595 

Eltiste, George Paul 1138 

Eltiste, Michael .• 925 

Enderle, Herman 989 

English, Robert Henry 312 

Krramuspe, Domingo 630 

Erreca, Miguel 1291 

Errecarte, Francisco 1503 

Eseverri, Mrs. Dolores 599 

Esmay, George 822 

Espolt, William F 407 

Eummelen, Monsignor Henry 341 

Evans, Henry 694 

Evans, Eoron W 1530 

Evans, I^umis A 447 

Everett, Amos B 1353 

Everett, Samuel B 313 

Eygabroad, Charles H. , 539 

Eyraud, Eeon 1589 

F 

Faacks, Mrs. Maria 620 

Falkenstein, William 903 

Paris, Thomas L 1318 

Farrar, Charles R 1593 

Ferguson, Mrs. Lillian Prest 1636 

Fewell, Archie Vernon 1577 

Field, Fenn B 1370 

Field, Louise W 1370 

Finch, Alfred W 1032 

Finch, Raymond C 1485 

Finley, Col. S. H 777 

First National Bank of Garden Grove 1351 

First National Bank of Olive 934 

First National Bank of Tustin 330 

FiscMe,- Richard 1431 

Fischer, William J 1619 

Fisher, Palo Alto ; , 762 

Pishering, Ambrose F 1635 

Fitschen, William J 1610 

Flesner, G. H 530 

Flippen, Mrs. Minerva J 240 

Fluor, John Simon 1117 

Foote, Edwin Bailey 366 

Forbes, Charles H 561 

I'orbes, James Alexander 560 



Page 

Ford, Benjamin R 1005 

Ford, George W 221 

Ford, Herbert A 270 

Ford, Herbert Andrew, D.D.S 1534 

Ford, Mrs. Laura Reed 885 

Ford, Ray and Dillard E. 1220 

Forster, John O 330 

Foss, Benjamin J 1230 

Foster, Chalmers T 1044 

foster, Sherman 1131^ 

Franklin, G. Raymond 1411 

Frantz, Raymond F 1616 

Franzen, Emanuel C 853 

Franzen, Emanuel -C. H 1651 

Fraser, Fred Ray : 1600 

Frazer, Richard 1664 

Freeman, John William 782 

Freeman, William, M.D 236 

Freeman, W. R 1593 

French, Charles E 405 

French, Eugene Edmund 941 

Frick, Rudolph M 722 

Fridd, John A 1499 

Froehlich, Harry Arthur 1585 

Frye, Alexis Everett, A.M.; LL.B 641 

Fuller, Ralph A ' 1599 

Fuller, Samuel N 1136 

Fulton, Harry C 1323 

G 

Gage, Earl D 1504 

Gaines, Harvey Sylvester 1385 

Gantz, Capt. Harry 565 

Garber, Harvey , 1253 

Gardiner, John Reeder 694 

Gardner, David D 1406 

Gardner, Earl A , 1268 

Gardner, Henri F 1125 

Gates, Frank S 549 

Gatjens, Hans 1014 

Genest, Rev. Louis Philippe 1155 

Gibbs, Frank Nelson 1053 

Gibbs, Henry F. 1095 

Gilchrist, Mrs. Mary McKee 555 

Gisler, Robert 740 

Glenn, Earl G 633 

Gless, Juan 413 

Gobar, Frank J., M.D 1132 

Goddicksen, Peter 582 

Godwin, Raymond L 1623 

Goodrich, Burleigh L 1374 

Goodwin, Almon '. 849 

Goodwin, Jesse 1530 

Gould, Dempsey W 1287 

Grafton, W. D 1035 

Gray, Warren M 1391 

Greenleaf, Fannie S 717 

Greenleaf, Walter A 477 

Greger, Theodore 1049 

Gregory, D. B 1507 

Gregory, Ernest S 1519 

Gregory, Richard Spencer 675 

Gres9weII, Fred K 1018 

Griffith, Conway. 352 

Grinnell, Carl J 1144 

Grote, Fred A 752 

Grote, Henry 793 

Grussing, Thomas 823 

Gulick, James Harvey 353 

Gunther, Louis D 481 

Giihther, Oscar Ernst 919 

Guptill, Charles E 980 

Guptill, John O.. 1322 



INDEX 



Page 

Gustlin, Abraham 997 

Guthrie, John P 1402 

GutziTian, Carl G 1512 

H 

Haan, Otto R 1310 

Halderman, Barrett It 1642 

Haley, Olbert Arvel 1423 

•Halladay, Daniel 215 

Hammerschmidt, Adolph T 1160 

Hampton, Lorenzo A 1 147 

Handy, Harry B 542 

Handy, Joel Bruce 1653 

Handy, Owen 374 

Haniman, Albert John 1387 

Hannum, Vard W 1049 

Hansen, Mrs. Mette 904 

Hansen, Charles X, 1643 

Hansen, George H 1391 

Hansen, Peter. 289 

Hansler, William J 770 

Hare, Orel C 976 

Hargrave, John W 1663 

Harkleroad, Henry J 1092 

Harmon, Edward W 523 

Harmon, Jonathan 654 

Harms, John H 1006 

Harms, John P 1666 

Harris, Eli S 383 

Harris, Richard t 229 

Hartman, Edward 1469 

Hartman, Harvey F'. 1036 

Harvey, Charles E 1185 

Hatfield, Norton W 1452 

Hathaway, Hiram Helm 813 

Haven, A. B 843 

Haven, E. M 843 

Haven,. I,. S 843 

Haven Seed Company 843 

Haver, John Leslie 1203 

Hawley, Alfred E 743 

Hawley, Mrs. Elizabeth M 743 

Hayward, Elmer 523 

Hayden, John C 1254 

Hax, Peter D 1141 

Hazard, James Merrick 414 

Hazard, Mrs. Betsey Ann 747 

Hazard, Robert Tf 959 

Hazen, William A 933 

Head, Waller Sinclair 1667 

' Head, Horace Caldwell 619 

Head, H. W., Dr... 755 

Head, Mrs. Maria E : 755 

Heaney, Hugh J 1652 

Heard,' J. B 1057 

Heartwell, C. D 366 

Hebard, Harold C 1590 

Hedstrom, Gustave 1152 

Heffern, Wesley C 1044 

Heim, Albert L 1073 

Heim, Carl 1138 

Heinemann, Henry G 1477 

Helms, Napoleon Bonaparte. 24S 

Helmsen, Joseph 785 

Henienway, Mrs. Lydia A 836 

Hemphill, L. W 535 

Henderson, Alex 1437 

Hendrie, Isaac R 1596 

Heneks, William 1280 

Heninger, Martin R 1117 

Heiining, Louis 1069 

Hehning, Mrs. Ottilie 1050 

Henry, Alexander N 429 



Page 

Heying, Ferdinand 1407 

Hezmalhalch, Frederick Charles 1143 

Hewes, David 222 

Hickey, John B 1665 

Hickman, Curtis Henry 959 

Hile, Harvey 913 

Hill, Thomas 481 

Hiltscher, Joseph 1511 

Hinckley, John H 1423 

Hiserodt, Leon C 818 

Hockemeyer, Henry 679 

Hoep'tner, John P 1358 

Holditch, William J. S 1656 

Holloway, William H 814 

Holtz, Joseph 1613 

Hooker, Elmer Orval 1451 

Hossler, Harvey H 1062 

House, Edmund S 1357 

Houser, Charles E •- 1310 

Howard, Charles H 1121 

Huff, D. Eyman 396 

Huff, Samuel 809 

Hughes, Mrs. Ida J 882 

Huhn, Alfred 1392 

Huhn, John 1263 

Hull, Orvis U 984 

Huntington Beach Carnegie Public Library. . 850 

Huntington Beach Union High School 1347 

Huntington, Glen E 953 

Hutter, Fred • 1589 

' I 

Irwin, Jesse B 1 122 

Isaac, Hubert 290 

J 

Jackson, Calvin E 399 

Jackson, Josiah 824 

Jacobsen, Asmus Peter 701 

Jacobsen, Peter 1542 

Jahraus, Elmer Ellsworth 586 

Jens, Karl 797 

Jentges, Harry 950 

Jentges, Jack 714 

Jernigan, Samuel 993 

Jerome, Benjamin W 1657 

Jessee, David E 967 

Jessup, Harry E 1555 

Jessup, Thomas 417 

Jessurun, David 930 

Jewell, Walter J.. 1491 

Johnson, Abe W 676 

Jdhnson, John M 735 

Johnson, John T 1452 

Johnson, Joseph' William 596 

Johnson, Niels 1091 

Johnson, O. T 1451 

Johnson, Raymond N 1422 

Johnson, Robert B 840 

Johnson, Wayman K 1155 

Johnston, Herbert A., M.D . 501 

Johnston, John 1630 

Johnston, W. Dean ■ 443 

Jones, Edward Spencer 766 

Jones, George Raymond 1376 

Jones, McClelland G 1347 

Jones, Richard W 302 

Joplin, Josiah C 246 

Jorn, Carl G 638 

Julian, Edwin 1594 

Jumper, Stetson R 1096 

Justice, Elijah P 318 



INDEX 



K 

Page 

Karloff, Edward 1402 

Kaufman, J. F 1369 

Kays, William W 1545 

Kealiher, Floyd B 1324 

Kee, Joseph 596 

Keefe, John C 1204 

Kellogg, Benjamin Franklin 230 

Kellogg, Hiram Clay 337 

Kellogg, Mrs. Mary Orilla 230 

Kelly, James R 278 

Kelly, Robert Bayard 278 

Kenyon, Chester H 1635 

Kidd, Walter H 1545 

King, Dale R 1422 

King, Mrs. Ida B 1288 

King, Vernon H 1340 

Kinsler, Charles C. 739 

Kirker, Frank Kyle 1496 

Kirsch, John H 1 1647 

Kistler, Stephen 370 

Klaner, Deiderich 1520 

Klausing, William 1257 

Klentz, Frank L 607 

Kloth, Gottfried 325 

Kluewer, Anton 1376 

Knapp, James Allan 1017 

Knapp, Robert t, 1347 

Knight, Edmund E 1228 

Knowlton, O. V 926 

Knowlton, Mrs. Wyram E 311 

Knuth, Charles A 798 

Koch, Andrew J 1605 

Koepsel, Arthur E 781 

Kogler, H. J 806 

Kogler, Rev. Jacob 604 

Kothe, William G 1305 

Kozina, Philip 1054 

Kraemer, Benjamin 862 

Kraemer, Daniel 229 

Kraemer, Samuel 592 

Krause, Fred C 1443 

Krause, Howard A 1447 

Krick, Philip Herman 1200 

Kroeger, Henry 416 

Krueger, Emil 1604 

h 

Eabat, Salvador 1424 

Lacabanne, Henry 1335 

Eacy, Dr. John McClellan 279 

Lae, Henry ; 1177 

Eagourgue, Frank R 1039 

Lamb, Anson 448 

Eamb, Earl 1664 

Eamb, Mrs. Elizabeth 272 

Eamb, Hugo J 1414 

Eamb, Jerome T 1358 

Eamb, Walter DeWitt 831 

Eamb, William D 272 

Lambert, Ray C 629 

La Mont, Victor W 1318 

Lancaster, Roy S 1603 

Landell, John 998 

Lang, John Henry, M.D 1230 

Eantz, Albert C 1584 

Earter, Robert Edwin 262 

Eatourette, James H ; .^ 1515 

Launders, Frank E ■- . 954 

Launer. John G 556 

Eautenbach, Joseph 1620 

Lavin, John D 1088 

Eeanrler, Gustaf 1551 



Page 

Le Bard, John 1482 

Ledford, Walter D 1027 

Lee, Albert A 1061 

Lee, Chester K 1118 

Lee, Pleasant B 1534 

Lehmberg, Edward W. , 1413 

Lehnhardt, William 967 

Leichtfuss, Alfred W 1655 

Le M'arquand, Norman 1525 

Lembcke, Herman G 489 

Lemke, August 1473 

Lemke, Herman 1473 

Lemke, Robert 1474 

Lemke, William 1567 

Leonard, Nereus H 702 

Lieffers, Fred 893 

Eindley, Arthur W 1380 

Linebarger, Dallison Smith 663 

Littell, U. G., D.0 1365 

Livenspire, Irvin 1249 

Loescher, Otto 929 

Long, Edward A 667 

Lorenz, Charles 292 

Lotze, Paul John 1481 

Lovering, Roy 1 1122 

Lowell, Jo 1297 

Luce, Walter A 1414 

Luther, James Ervin. 1212 

Lyon, John T 1599 

Lyon, Le Roy E 1538 

M 

McAulay, Angus 1 128 

McCarter, Eugene E 1408 

McCarter, Thomas John 1047 

McCarthy, Dennis J 1223 

McCarty, John H 979 

McConnell, James Vernon 1108 

McCord, Arthur Belden 1408 

McFadden, John 821 

McFadden, Thomas E 900 

McFadden, William M 305 

McGee, Miss Mable 1405 

M'cGuire, George 1373 

McKeen, Charles W 1010 

McKinley, Daniel 1128 

Mclnnes, Jack 987 

McMillan, John 671 

McMillan, Rufus C 1603 

McNeil, George 1417 

McPhee, Barry H . 1600 

McPhee, George 270 

McPherson, Stephen 430 

McWilliams, Waldo R 1615 

Maag, George- W 1048 

Maag, Joe A 1048 

Maag, John A 683 

M'aag, John W 1495 

Maag Ranch 1048 

Maag, William H T048 

Macdonald, D. R ; 702 

Machander, Herman J 1001 

Magill, Cyrus Newton ■ 434 

Magill, Dwight E 835 

Magill, Peryl B., D.O 1321 

Maier, John C 540 

Manning, Ed 972 

Mansur, Carlos F 633 

Marion, Edward D 1035 

Maroon, John Luther, M.D ■ 533 

Marquart, Henry 1053 

Marquez, Rodolfo C 1466 

M'arsden, Samuel A., M.D 1362 



INDEX 



Page 

Marsom, Arthur R 818 

Martel, August It 1344 

Martin, Carl W 938 

Martin, E. C 756 

Martin, John W 511 

Maryatt, Oscar H 1107 

Masters, Bernard R 1413 

Matthews, Earl L, 1298 

Matthews, Fenelon C 1272 

Matthews, Harry E 1182 

Mauerhan, J. C 911 

Mauerhan, William C 920 

Maurer, Fred A 380 

Mayer, Harry 1620 

M'ayfield, Mrs. Lavinia Avery 802 

Mayhew, Joseph P 1043 

Medlock, Dr. J. R : 408 

Mefford, Joseph H 660 

Meger, Rudolph 1414 

Meger, Gotlieb 1427 

Meier, Henry 1309 

Meiser, Henry G 1648 

Melcher, Alvin 732 

Melrose, Richard 418 

Menges, Marion Albert, M.D 562 

Menton, William F 1005 

Merrick, Joseph A 1643 

Metzgar, James Clow 1609 

Meyer, Andrew 1354 

Meyer, Henry D 1650 

Meyer, Herman F 1402 

Meyer, Theodore A 1526 

Miles, E. C 1351 

MiUen, Frank W 1279 

Miller, Augustus G 1219 

Miller, Otto 1650 

Miller, Perry 1036 

Miller, Rudolph W 899 

Miller, Samuel T 773 

Miller, William N 1626 

Mills, Andrew F 684 

Mitchell, Charles F 1001 

Mitchell, David 1054 

Mitchell, Roy Hunter 1374 

Mitchell, William T. . '. 667 

Mitchell, Willis F 839 

Mitchell, Willis G 388 

Moberly, Hanigan C 542 

Modjeska, Felix Bozenta 748 

Modjeska, Mme. Helena 590 

Moody, Joseph P 301 ' 

Moore Brothers Company 1113 

Moore, Edgar W 1529 

Moore, Waightstill A 1441 

Morales, E. S 1573 

Morris, James A 968 

■ Morris, Thomas R 1048 

Morrison, Ernest L 1392 

Morrison, Mack Henry 1653 

Morrow, Charles W 1215 

Morj-ow,' George Clinton 504 

Morrow, Sylvester W 1442 

Mosbaugh, George J 344 

Moulton, Lewis Fenno 239 

Mueller, Jacob 789 

Myers, Lee 1216 

Myers, Vernon C ". 1434 

N 

Nebelung, Max 464 

Nelson, Alexander P 1313 

Newland, William T 854 

Newsom, Harvey V 650 



I'at-'i; 

Newsom, Willis J 739 

Nichols, Hervey D.. 1659 

Nichols, Jesse O '♦94 

Nichols, John B ' 263 

Nicolas, Pierre, Jr 569 

Nimocks, Mrs. Martha A '*^^ 

Nisson, Mathias '*52 

Noe, Edward A 1087 

North, Mrs. Rosie J 1^*2 

Northcross, Robert C 561 

Norton, C. L '7* 

Norton, P. H : 1578 

Nowotny, Alvin F 1516 

Nusbaumer, Joseph 1242 

Nutt, Charles R 1174 

Nylen, Harry J 1412 

O 

Oborne, John 1147 

O'Connor, Hugh T 929 

O'Donnell, Joseph 1178 

Oelke, William J 1485 

Oelkers, Henry 263 

Oertly, Conrad 1013 

Oertly, Soule C , 1323 

Olewiler, Hester Tripp, D.0 1615 

Oliveras, Joseph 1508 

Olson, Charles W 1156 

Ord, John C 572 

O'Rear, Rev. Arthur T 1519 

Ortega, John M 1522 

Ortega, Juan D 1541 

Orton, Chauncey S 1499 

Osborne, Arthur H. T 1433 

Osterman, Bennie W 1292 

Oswald, Wallace Edwin 1169 

Otis, William E 869 

Overshiner, Charles David 744 

Oyharzabal, Estaban and Peter 1486 

Oyharzabal, E 1644 

P 

Padias, Salvador M. 1629 

Page, Steve 975 

Palmer, Le Roy D 929 

Palmer, Noah 207 

Pannier, William 645 

Pappas, Tom P 1552 

Parker, John R. 1136 

Parker, Leonard 1549 

Parker, Walter M 318 

Partridge, Frank E 1020 

Paterson, Arthur H 679 

Patterson, Frank E 319 

Patterson, John F 357 

Patterson, Ira E 895 

Patterson, Ralph A 319 

Pattillo, William G 1169 

Patton, Murray A., D.D.S 1237 

Paulus, Chris 1215 

Pearson, E. A 1322 

Peek, Arnold F 1512 

Peelor, Mortimer Hugh 1646 

Peitzke, Fred 1417 

Penman, Newton J 1 193 

Penman, William Wright 994 

Peralta, Juan Pablo 1564 

Perkins, Wyllys W 311 

Perry, William W 827 

Peterkin, William D 1573 

Peterson, H. M 1428 

Peterson, Roy Charles 1237 



INDEX 



Page 

PfeifFer, Mrs. Pedrilla P 271 

Phillips, William H 659 

Pickering, Arthur C 1658 

Pierce, Newton Barris 1293 

Pike, Loren D 1661 

Pirie, George Hill 908 

Pister, Carl A 925 

Pixley, Dewitt Clinton 369 

Planchon, Frank C 1584 

Plavan, F. D 710 

Pleasants, Joseph' Edward 218 

Plegel, A. F 1050 

Plummer, John L., Sr 1645 

Polhemus, Henry Dean 1224 

Poling, Ira W 1379 

Pollard, George W 713 

Pollock, Joseph 1399 

Pomeroy, Leason F 1616 

Pope, John Wesley 498 

Popplewell, William M., M.D 1199 

Porter, C. George 744 

Porter, John E ; 1220 

Potter, Noah Ulysses 752 

Prescott, Julian A 1667 

Pressel, G. Fred 1486 

Price, J. D 388 

Prinslow, Charles 1395 

Pritchard, Abe 1151 

Probst, Jacob P 1629 

Proctor, Bertha D. . .■ 849 

Pryor, Albert 1586 

Pugh, S. L 1482 

Pulver, Cyrus B 980 

Purdy, Arthur Waldo 1538 

Pyle, Joshua O 1339 

Q 

Queyrel, Albert E •. 1382 

Queyrel, Joachim 1381 

Quick, Joseph G 603 

R 

Raikes, Joseph Walter 1380 

Ralph, William A 1110 

Rancho Canon de Santa Ana 891 

Ramsey, Charles F 1469 

Ray, Harry 748 

Read, Charles C 1087 

Read, Wendell P 1361 

Reagan, Michael F 489 

Reed, Sumner, E 1626 

Reid, Taylor R 1379 

Reisch', Andrew R 1083 

Reusch, Charles F. W 817 

Renter, Theodore 1654 

Reyburn, George R 512 

Rice, James S 326 

Richards, John F 1465 

Richardson, William J 1156 

Richey, Royal B 975 

Richter, Conrad, M.D 1432 

Riggle, Charles W 1465 

Rimpau, Frederick C 216 

Rimpau, Theodore 216 

Roberts, Bertram C 1002 

Roberts, Theodore 1302 

Robertson, James G 1555 

Robertson, Thomas M 1002 

Robinson, Archie M 1254 

Robinson, George Eddie 575 

Robinson, Phranda A 1257 

Robinson, Richard 290 



Page 

Robinson, William I-1 1447 

Rochester, James Hervey 1133 

Rodger Brothers 1297 

Rogers, Lucian T 1178 

Rogers, W. R 1387 

Rohrs, Fred, Sr 1173 

Rohrs, George 1637 

Rohrs, Henry, Jr 688 

Rohrs, Henry W 471 

Rohrs, William H 1551 

Rolfe, George W 1077 

Rorden, Andrew 380 

Rosenbaum, Oscar 1027 

Ross, George M 1031 

Ross, Mrs. Hattie W 252 

Ross, James Arthur 1301 

Ross, Samuel 706 

Rouse, Manson 1656 

Rousselle, Alcedas B 1 127 

Roy, Paul Benjamin 1352 

Royer, Daniel F., M.D 626 

Royer, Harvey B 790 

Ruddock, Charles Edward 463 

Ruedy, Jacob 1546 

Ruhmann, Fritz 954 

Runyan, John S 1630 

Rurup, Ernest Henry 1023 

Rust, Charles O . 296 

Rust, Mrs. C. O 296 

Rutherford, Henry T 832 

Rutschow, Herman F 1336 

Ryan, Ebon R 1619 

Ryan, George E : 1078 

S 

Sackman, J. William ^ 1594 

Sadler, Charles W 1385 

Salter, Eugene M 1066 

Sanders, Adoniram Judson 354 

Sahdilands, CJerald W 611 

Sansinena, Jose 595 

Sargent, Eugene S 938 

Sauers, John W 1638 

Saunby, William J 1246 

Sawyer, Frank 1253 

Sayles, Leon A 1137 

Schaffert, Henry 1114 

Schildmeyer, Anton 451 

Schildmeyer, Mrs. Eouisa 451 

Schildmeyer, Oscar A 1619 

Schlueter, Fred 1073 

Schmidt, Fred W 810 

Schinidt, Theodore E 629 

Schnitger, Arthur A 1339 

Schnitger, Wm. E 1443 

Schreiner, Henry Andrew 550 

Schroeder, John H 698 

Schulte, Mrs. Adelheid Konig 358 

Schultz, Henry 1131 

Schulz, Jerome V 1579 

Scliumacher, William 414 

Schweiger, G. A 1427 

Schweitzer, J. Fraiik 705 

Scott, John E 822 

Scott, M. Russell 1271 

Segerstrom, Charles J 1331 

Seidel, Henry 1009 

Serrano, Miss Ninfa 509 

Shaffer, David R. S 421 

Shanley, Frank 418 

Sharratt, David F 877 

Shattuck, George B 509 

Shaw, Asbury J 1301 



INDEX 



Page 

Shaw, I^inn Iv 314 

Sheppard, James C 467 

Sheridan, lyco J 1515 

Shields, Martin H 1006 

Shook, Lloyd E 1660 

Shrosbree, Alfred 1211 

Sitton, Albert H 735 

Skidmore, George E 769 

Skidmore, Joseph W 759 

Skiles, Henry A 1250 

Skiles, Lindley B 1590 

Slack, Clement I<incoln 1107 

Smart, William M 354 

Smiley, Charles E 1365 

Smiley, Donald S 1062 

Smith, D. Edson 269 

Smith, George S 710 

Smith, Claude Edgar and Guy 718 

Smith, Mrs. Juliette 392 

Smith, Robert R 1605 

Smith, Willard 680 

Smithwick, Edward 503 

Snow, J. Edmund 693 

Spangler, Roy F 1563 

Sparkes, Cyrus G 732 

Speer, William F 1495 

Spencer, Clarence S 709 

Spennetta, J. D 620 

Sprague, Edgerton B ■ . 1024 

Spurgeon, Granville 255 

Spurgeon, William H 203 

Staley, Arthur 709 

Stanckey, Fredrick 413 

Stanfield, Joab 1079 

Stankey, Adolph 490 

Stanley, Arthur C 1314 

Stanley, Harry W 892 

Stark, Edward 497 

Stearns, Frank C 1428 

Steele, John W 946 

Stein, Felix 1491 

Stein, Sam 1604 

Stern, Herman. 990 

Steward, Olin E 565 

Stewart, David Oliver 840 

Stewart, H. A 1141 

Stewart, O. A 490 

Stinson, John H 1568 

Stock, Godfrey J 697 

Stockton, C. Bruce 1563 

Stockton, James Thomas 1160 

Stockwell, Nathan C 1453 

Stodart, Mrs. Mary 721 

Stodart, Archibald 721 

Stoifel, Fred A 675 

Stoflel, Peter 1208 

Stohlmann, A. F 1478 

Stolt, Theodore E 1369 

Stoner, Christian C 285 

Stork, William E 1463 

Stortz, Walter Albert 870 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Olive 1481 

Stradley, William E 1648 

Strauss, Fred 1555 

Streech, Mrs. Ellen J 1170 

Strock, Dr. Samuel 1137 

Struck, G. W 1459 

Stuckenbruck, John W 1477 

Sutton, Walter A 1010 

Swartzbaugh, John J 362 

Swindler, Jacob S 1401 



T 

Page 

Taft, Charles Parkman 244 

Talbert, Samuel E 1186 

Talbert, Thomas B 1560 

Talmage, C. Forest 1651 

Taylor, Fred G. and Elizabeth 361 

Taylor, Frederick H 668 

Taylor, George M 1432 

Taylor, Harold R 1662 

Teague, Andrew J 1126 

Tedford, Norman B 1189 

Tedford, William N 208 

Teel, Samuel David 919 

Thelan, H. Percy 1388 

Theodore Brothers 1556 

Thomas, Francis M 1264 

Thomas, Dr. John D 934 

Thomas, Julian E 1442 

Thompson, Andrew Wesley 426 

Thompson, Irving Alfred 1520 

Thompson, Orrin M 1190 

Thompson, Robert J 983 

Thomson, Hugh Conger 1148 

Thomson, Hugh T 447 

Thomson,^ Thomas H 379 

Thorman,' A 769 

Thurber, H. Delemere 1661 

Thurston, Joseph S 527 

Till, Edwin 732 

Timken, Fred W : 1424 

Timmons, James Albert 835 

Tingley, S. E 1580 

Todd, Stone Walker 1668 

Toler, Miss Jessie Lee 1080 

Toney, Mrs. Mary N 660 

Tournat, George 1327 

Toussau, Simon 874 

Towner, H. Fred 1227 

Town^end, Stephen 589 

Tralle, George Markham, M.D 1624 

Trapp, Alfred 1585 

Trapp, Roy D 865 

Trapp, William 1099 

Travis, Zoraida B 320 

Tremain, Lyman and Mabel Vance 1142 

Treulieb, Charles 1332 

Treydte, Paul 857 

Tricky, Arthur L 1559 

Trickey, Jasper N 1275 

Tubbs, John W 1521 

Tubbs, W. Lester 1014 

Tubbs, Volney V 987 

Tucker, Simeon 352 

Tuffree, Col. J. K 400 

Tuffree, S. James 400 

Turck, Emil R 786 

Turner, James Andrew 437 

Tuthill, Robert G 1574 

u 

Utt, C. E 1305 

Ulrich, Frank 1331 

Utter, John W., M.D 1669 

Utz, John ■. 1313 

V 

Vail, A. V 1035 

Valenti, J 1454 

Vanderburg, Clarence R 1525 

Vaughan, Leonard 801 

Vaughan, Mrs. Martha M. S 802 

Velasco, Jose Francisco 1193 



INDEX 



Page 

Vincent, Roy E 953 

Violett, C. C, M.D 722 

Volberding, Fred T 946 

\'olImer, Joseph F 899 

W 

Wagner, Frederic Josepli 1 144 

Wagner, John E 1500 

Wagner, Joseph E 1508 

Wahlberg, Harold Edward 1306 

Walker, Arthur Frank 891 

Walker, Mrs. Bella J 1400 

Waller, William 1 1028 

Wallop, William T 1386 

Walter, Scott R 1496 

Walters, Henry 1623 

Walton, Frank W 1058 

Walton, John Franklin 1503 

Ward, John M 963 

Wardlow, Robert 1104 

Wardwell, George W , 1624 

Ware, Edward G 649 

Warne, Jolin H 1287 

Warne, Riley B 1375 

Warren, Eeroy A ^ 1655 

Wasser, Wilbur W 1550 

Watson, Errol Trafford 1216 

Watson, Harold Arlington 1203 

Watson, Jonathan 384 

Watson, Mrs. Sarah' Amanda 612 

Weaver, Jlrs. C. Ella 1521 

Wehrly, John, M.D 460 

Weisel, Fred H 839 

Weisel, Hans Victor 1400 

Weitbrecht, Robert B 933 

Welch, Tliomas B 1537 

Wells, George W 866 

Wells, Lewis Tuttle 634 

Wendt, William 277 

■Wersel, George N 1177 

Wessler, Ferdinand H 1070 

West, Artliur ' 774 

West, Eldo R 1438 

West, Henry 671 

West, Hon. Z. B 333 

Weston, Thomas S 1668 

Wettlin, David G 697 

Whedon, James T 828 

Whippo, Samuel W 1437 

Whitacre, Walter E 1423 

W^hitaker, James H .•. . . 1448 



I'agc 

Whitney, M'iss Justine 546 

Wickersheim, William J . 48l? 

Wickett, William H., M.D 515 

Wilber, Harry Eee 1503 

Wiley, Robert J 1110 

Wilkins, Harold I,., V.S 1447 

Williams, Albert C 664 

Williams, Harry V 1448 

Williams, Isaac R 244 

Williams, J. C 1646 

Williams, Thomas J 261 

Williamson, Samuel S 1084 

Wilson, Foster E., M.D 1074 

Wilson, George P 1 32/ 

Wilson, Robert 1631 

Wilson, Thomas James 1271 

Wilson, William 444 

Wilson, William Oscar 1095 

Wine, John JI 1 103 

Winters, Henry 873 

Winters, John 971 

Winters, William Franklin -1322 

Witman, Henry W 1279 

Witt, Henry D 15S9 

Wolff, ICadja V '. ' 937 

Wood, Albert William 1614 

Wood, Wayland 1023 

Woodington, Harry 510 

Woodworth, J. M ' 1351 

Wray, Newton E 1665 

Wray, Walter n73 

Wright, George E 664 

Wright, Mary E., D.0 1504 

Y 

Yaeger, Miss Lillian E 1132 

Yandeau, Frederick P 1577 

Yoch', Josepli 886 

Yorba, Mrs. Erolinda 280 

Yorba, Vicente G 1444 

York, William L 1224 

Yost, William R 684 

Yount, Henry 736 

Yriarte, Felix ifiio 

Yriarte, Patricio 317 

z 

Zaiser, Harry E., M.D 861 

Ziegler, John B 953 



HISTORICAL 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

By SAMUEL ARMOR 

CHAPTER I 

THE FORMATION AND DESCRIPTION OF ORANGE COUNTY 

The state of California was created out of territory ceded to the United 
States by Mexico in the year 1848. It was admitted into the Union as a free 
state in 1850, with a population of 92,597. This population was located in a few 
little cities, with a small portion in the mining camps and scattered over the graz- 
ing lands adjacent to the water courses. The style of government inherited from 
Mexico might be characterized as feudal or patriarchal, each city or pueblo 
and the adjoining territory being governed by an alcalde or other officer appointed 
by the Mexican government. When the state was formed each of the principal 
towns with its tributary territory was created into a county; but, on account of 
the towns being far apart and the intervening territory sparsely settled, the area 
of the first counties was large and the population small. As the country settled 
up and other centers of population were formed eiiforts were made from time 
to time to form new counties by cutting off portions of the old ones ; some of 
these efforts were successful and others failed. 

With the growth of the communities in the southeastern part of Los Angeles 
County there sprang up the desire for a smaller county with a county seat nearer 
home. This feeling grew apace until finally an appeal was made to the legislature 
of 1889 for autonomy. The city of Santa Ana, which had outgrown the other 
cities in the proposed new county, took the lead in the struggle for county division. 
A lobby was maintained at Sacramento all winter at considerable expense, without 
being able to overcome the influence of Los Angeles against the bill for the new 
county. This bill was entitled "An Act to Create the County of Orange," the 
name Orange being selected partly on its own merits and partly to conciliate the 
city of that name, which also aspired to be county seat. Finally, late in the ses- 
sion, W. H. Spurgeon and James McFadden took up the matter in the legislature 
with better success. They found some members who were friendly to their project 
and others who were hostile to Los Angeles. There are sometimes a few members 
of the legislature who are looking for "Col. Mazuma" to come to the help or 
hindrance of much-desired legislation. Because the rich county of Los Angeles 
would not distribute a large defense fund among such members, they turned 
against that county. Then, too, San Francisco had begun to recognize in Los An- 
geles a possible rival, and was glad of the opportunity to deprive her of some of 
her territory. These various interests and antagonisms were so skilfully handled 
that the bill passed the legislature and was signed by Governor Waterman, March 
11, 1889. 

The struggle was then transferred to the territory involved. The first step 
in the formation of the new county was the appointment by the governor of a 
board of five commissioners to direct the work of organization. Following are 
the men who were appointed on this commission: J. W. Towner, of Santa Ana; 
J: H. Kellom, of Tustin; A. Cauldwell, of Orange; W. M. McFadden, of Pla- 



34 HISTORY UF ORANGE COUNTY 

centia; and R. Q. Wickham, of Garden Grove. The commission organized Alarcli 
22, by electing J. W. Towner president and R. Q. Wickham secretary. 

An election was called for June 4th, to ratify or reject the action of the 
legislature, as provided for in the organic act. This provision was inserted in 
the bill to answer the objection urged, that a majority of the people in the pro- 
posed new county did not want to be set ofif from the old county. The most of 
the opposition to county division was at Anaheim, the people of that place con- 
tending that the line ought to have been located at the San Gabriel River instead 
of at Coyote Creek. They thought that if more territory had been taken in 
towards the west, Anaheim would have had a chance for the county seat; but 
notwithstanding this opposition, the election was carried in favor of county divi- 
sion by a vote of 2,509 to 500. 

A second election was held on July 11, to decide the location of the county 
seat and to select the county officers, who would serve until the next regular 
election. _ Two cities contested for the county seat, Santa Ana and Orange. Ana- 
heim, having no hope for herself, took little interest in the election; in fact, 
scores of people went to Los Angeles or elsewhere on election day to keep out 
of the way of the campaign workers. Orange, being thus deprived of some of 
the help she counted on, made rather a poor showing in the contest. On the other 
hand, the city of Santa Ana was not able to equal its county seat vote for six 
or eight years thereafter, notwithstanding it was growing all the time. The result 
of the election for county seat was 1,729 votes for Santa Ana and 775 for Orange. 

There were three tickets in the field for county officers ; a non-partisan ticket 
in the interest of Santa Ana for county seat, a non-partisan ticket in the interest 
of Orange for county seat, and a straight Republican ticket without reference to 
the county seat. All of the candidates of the Santa Ana non-partisan ticket were 
elected, except the candidate for supervisor of the Fourth District, who was 
defeated by a margin of four votes by the candidate on the other two tickets. The 
officers thus chosen were: Superior judge, J. W. Towner; district attorney, E. E. 
Edwards ; county clerk, R. Q. ^Vickllam ; recorder and auditor, George E. Foster ; 
sheriff and tax coUecter, R. T. Harris ; treasurer, W. B. \\'all ; assessor, Fred C. 
Smj'the ; superintendent of schools, John P. Greeley ; surveyor, S. O. Wood ; 
coroner and public administrator, I. D. Mills; supervisors: first district, W. H. 
Spurgeon ; second district, Jacob Ross ; third district, Sheldon Littlefield, a hold- 
over from Los Angeles; fourth district, Samuel Armor; fifth district, A. Guy 
Smith. 

The supervisors organized August 5, 1889, by the election of W. H. Spurgeon 
as chairman of the board. Rooms for the county offices were furnished rent free 
for two years in the Billings and Congdon Blocks on East Fourth Street, by the 
residents in that vicinity. These rooms, with some changes, were retained by 
the county at a moderate rental until the new court house was ready for occupancy. 
The board of supervisors held frequent meetings during the first few months, 
getting the business of the new county properly started and adjusting the differ- 
ences between the two counties. Los Angeles County resisted the separation in 
many ways. Some of her citizens brought suit against the new county on the 
ground that the organic act was unconstitutional, in that the legislature had dele- 
gated its powers to the people of the new county to decide whether they wanted 
county division or not. The supreme court sustained the constitutionality of the 
act. Meantime the two boards of supervisors appointed commissioners to adjust 
the differences between the counties and to determine the basis of settlement of 
claims for and against the new county. The two commissioners selected for 
Orange County were James McFadden and Richard Egan. These men by their 
shrewdness and tact secured a fair settlement with very little friction. The ques- 
tion of which county should be charged with the money spent in the new county, 
by the old, between the approval of the legislative act by the governor, March 11, 
and the organization of the new county, August 5, was left to the courts to deter- 
mine. This money included the cost of the long bridge over the Santa Ana River 
at Olive, the expense of the justice courts, the care of the indigents and possibly 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 35 

other expenditures on behalf of Orange County. The courts held that this burden 
should be borne by the old county, since it voluntarily built the bridge after the 
Orange County bill was approved and it was its duty to keep the local government 
going until relieved by the new county. 

The formative steps in the creation of Orange County having thus been nar- 
rated, the next thing in order is to describe the county ; giving its area, boun- 
daries, topography and general characteristics. As previously indicated the county 
was formed in the year 1889 by cutting off about forty miles in length from the 
southeastern portion of Los Angeles County, giving the new county about that 
length of coast line. The legislative act made Coyote Creek the dividing line 
between the two counties ; but the surveyors commenced at the mouth of the 
creek and located the county line on the property lines, jogging over from time 
to time to keep near the channel, until they reached the southeast corner of 
.section 13, township 3 south, range 11 west. From that point the line was run 
due north three miles to the township line and thence due east to the San Ber- 
nardino County line. The rest of the boundary line of the new county was left 
the same as that of the old county before division. The county is therefore 
bounded on the west, northwest and north by Los Angeles County j on the north 
and northeast by San Bernardino County ; on the northeast and east by Riverside 
County; on the southeast and south by San Diego County; and on the south, 
southwest and west by the Pacific Ocean. 

It is customary to speak of Orange County as one of the smallest counties 
in the state ; but there are nine counties with less territory, forty-three with less 
population and forty-three with a smaller assessed valuation. Its area is given 
officially as 780 square miles; but the number of acres assessed (446,257) would 
indicate only 697}^ square miles. However, there may be sufficient government 
land within the county to make up the difference. Perhaps a third of this area 
is hilly and mountainous, while the remainder is comparatively level. 

There is very little timber on the southern and western slopes of mountains 
exposed to many months of summer sun, like those in Orange County. Most 
of their surface, however, is covered with chaparral, sage brush, mesquite, man- 
zanita and other hardy shrubs, which, with the cactus, provide food and shelter 
for considerable game and retard the run-ofif from the winter rains. In some 
of the ravines — especially those with a northern exposure — there are clumps of 
hve oak trees ; while in the canyons, near the water courses, there are groves 
of live oak, sycamore and other native trees of considerable size. 

When the temperature cools off in the winter months, the mountains help 
to condense the moisture in the atmosphere and thereby increase the precipitation ; 
they also act as a catchment-basin to collect the rainfall and drain it into the 
streams for use in the summer on the plains below. A considerable portion of 
the mountains and hills is adapted to grazing and bee culture. The hills on 
the north produce large quantities of oil, and oil has also been found under the 
hills along the coast. The hills and mountains on the east abound in minerals 
and. precious metals. Here, too, are extensive beds of coal of a fair quality. 

The valleys and plains, which make up the larger part of the county, have a 
great variety of soils, among which may be mentioned the following: Adobe, 
alkali, clay, gravel, loam, peat, sand and perhaps others. Some of these soils 
are stronger than others, some are easier worked, some need irrigation and 
others need drainage, and some will retain the heat from the sun longer than 
others. When the latter kind of soil is found on the higher parts of the mesa 
near the foothills, it helps to make what is called "the frostless belt" in winter. 
Thus certain localities are better adapted to certain products than others are. 
For instance, the upper portion of the mesa near the foothills is suited to citrus 
and other semi-tropic fruits and winter vegetables ; the lower portion of the 
mesa, bordering on the damp land, is adapted to deciduous fruits and walnuts ; 
the damp land is favorable to the sugar beet and dairying; the peat land is 
almost synonymous with celery growing ; while, with irrigation where needed and 



^(> HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

drainage where needed, all localities and kinds of soil are well adapted to general 
farming. Hence, as a whole, Orange County is well qualified to produce in mer- 
chantable quantities almost every kind of grain, grass, fruit, nut and vegetable 
grown in the temperate zones as well as many kinds indigenous to the torrid zone. 

When the United States acquired possession of California by the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo between this government and Alexico in 1848, it was stipu- 
lated in said treaty that Mexicans in the territory acquired by the United States 
should be allowed to retain their property in such territory or to dispose of it and 
remove the proceeds at their option. Thus were the titles of the many large 
ranches, which were . originally granted by Spain, confirmed to their owners, 
who have since transferred them to their successors in interest. So far as 
can be learned the following are the principal grants, beginning at the lower end 
of the county : 

Mission \'iejo or La Paz, containing 46,432.65 acres; Trabuco, confirmed 
to Juan Forster and containing 22,184.47 acres ; Boca de La Playa ; El Sobrante ; 
Niguel ; Canada de Los Alisos, confirmed to Jose Serrano and containing 10,668.81 
acres ; Lomas de Santiago, which is now included in the San Joaquin ; San 
Joaquin, of which 48,803.16 was confirmed to J. Sepulveda; Santiago de 
Santa Ana, confirmed to B. Yorba et al. and containing 62,516.57 acres ; Bolsa 
Chico, confirmed to Joaquin Ruiz and containing 8,107.40 acres; Las Bolsas, 
confirmed to Ramon Yorba et al. and containing 34,486.53 acres; part of Los 
Alamitos, confirmed to Abel Stearns and containing 17,789.79 acres; part of 
Los Coyotes, confirmed to A. Pico et al. and containing 56,979.72 acres ; San 
Juan Cajon de Santa Ana, confirmed to B. Yorba et al. and containing 13,328.53 
acres ; part of La Brea, confirmed to A. Pico et al. and containing all told 
6,698.57 acres. 

Many of these ranches have been subdivided and more or less of the acreage 
sold off in small tracts to different people, thereby increasing the population and 
settling up the county. Thus the ranch lines become indistinguishable from 
other boundary lines and even the names of the ranchos are lost sight of, except 
in the deeds transferring the property. There is still considerable room for the 
work of subdivision to be done before the comity will have reached the limit of 
its capacity. Li fact, the natural resources of Orange County are such that, if 
properly developed, they will support a population of 500,000 people instead of 
61,375, as reported in the last federal census. 

There are nine incorporated cities in the county, viz., Anaheim, Brea, 
Fullerton, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Orange, Santa Ana, Seal Beach 
and Stanton. In addition to these nine cities there are about forty towns with 
a varied number of residences and some business houses in each. Further along 
in this work a chapter will be devoted to each of the incorporated cities, while 
the unincorporated towns will be grouped together in a single chapter. 



CHAPTER II 

ROSTER OF COUNTY AND DISTRICT OFFICERS 

State Senators, Thirty-ninth District 

J. E. McCoMAS, January 1, 1889 to January 1, 1893. 
E. C. Sbymour, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1897. 
Thomas L. Jones, January 1, 1897 to January 1, 1901. 
A. A. CaldwEIvL, January 1, 1901 to January 1, 1905. 
John N. Anderson, January 1, 1905 to January 1, 1909. 
MiGUEiv EsTUDiLEO, January 1, 1909 to January 1, 1913. 
John N. Anderson, January I, 1913 to January 1, 1917. 
S. C. Evans, January 1, 1917 to— 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Assemblymen Seventy-sixth District 

E. E. Edwards, January 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
A. Guy Smith, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 
C. F. Bennett, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1895. 

C. S. McKelvey, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1897. 

H. W. ChynowETh, January 1, 1897 to January 1, 1901. 

D. W. Hasson, January 1, 1901 to January 1, 1903. 

E. R. Amerige, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
Clyde Bishop, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1909. 
Richard Melrose, January 1, 1909 to January 1, 1911. 
Clyde Bishop, -January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1913. 
Hans V. Weisel, January 1, 1913 to January 1, 1915. 
Joe C. Burke, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1919. 
Walter Eden, January 1, 1919 to — 

Superior Judges, Department 1 

J. W. Towner, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1897. 
J. W. Ballard, January 1, 1897 to January 1, 1903. 
Z. B. West, January 1, 1903 to- 
Superior Judges, Department 2 
W. H. Thomas, September 24, 1913 to January 1, 1919. 
R. Y. Williams, January 1, 1919 to — 

Sheriffs 

R. T. Harris, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
Theo. Lacy, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
J. C. Nichols, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
Theo. Lacy, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1911. 
C. E. Ruddock, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 

C. E. Jackson, January 1, 1915 to — 

County Clerks 

R. Q. Wickham, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1893. 

D. T. Brock, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1899. 
W. A. Beckett, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
C. D. Lester, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 

W. B. Williams, January 1, 1907 to September 11, 1917. 
N. T. Edwards, September 11, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 
J. M. Backs, January 1, 1919 to— 

Recorders 

George E. Foster, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1893. 
W. H. Bowers, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1895. 
W. M. Scott, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1903. 
George E. Peters, January 1, 1903 to April 6, 1914. 
J. M. Backs, April 6, 1914 to January 1, 1915. 
Justine Whitney, January 1, 1915 to— 

Auditors 

George E. Foster, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
J. H. Hall, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1907. 
"C. D. Lester, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1915. 
\V. C. Jerome, January 1, 1915 to— 

Tax Collectors 

R. T. Harris, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
J. R. Porter, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 



38 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

R. L. Freeman, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1899. 
Feed M. Robinson, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1907. 
J. C. Lamb, January 1, 1907 to — 

District Attorneys 

E. E. Edwards, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 

F. W. Sanborn, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 

J. G. Scarborough, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1893. 

J. W. Bai^lard, January 1. 1895 to January 1, 1897. 

Z. R. West, January 1, 1897 to January 1, 1899. 

R. Y. Williams, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 

H. C. Head, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 

S. M. Davis, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 

L. A. West, January 1, 1911 to — 

Treasurers 

W. B .Wall, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
C. F. Mansur, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
R. T. Harris, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
J. C. JoPLiN, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
W. G. Potter, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
J. C. JoPLiN, January 1, 1907 



Assessors 

F. C. Smythe, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
Jacob Ross, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
Frank Vegly, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1907. 
W. M. Scott, January 1, 1907 to November ?7. 1910. 
D. N. Kelly, December 6, 1910 to January 1. 1911. 
James Sleeper, January 4, 1911 to — 

School Superintendents 

J. P. Greeley, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1903. 
J. B. Nichols, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
W. R. Carpenter, January 1, 1907 to March 3, 1908. 
R. P. Mitchell, March 5, 1908 to— 

Surveyors 

S. O. Wood, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
S. H. FiNLEY, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
H. C. Kellogg, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
S. H. FiNLEY, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1907. 
C. R. ScHENCK, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 
J. L. McBride, January 1, 1911 to— 

Coroners and Public Administrators 

I. D.Mills, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
Frank Ey, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
George C. Clark, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1903. 
George S. Smith, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1911. 
T. A. WiNBiGLER, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1919. 
Charles D. Brown, January 1, 1919 to — 

First Board of Supervisors 

1st. Dist. W. H. Spurgeon, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
2d. Dist. Jacob Ross, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
3d. Dist. Sheldon LittlEEield, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
4th. Dist. Samuel Armor, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
5th. Dist. A. Guy Smith, August 1, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 



1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th. 


Dist. 


5th. Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th. 


Dist. 


5th. Dist. 


Sth. 


Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th. 


, Dist. 


Sth. Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th, 


. Dist. 


5th, 


. Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th 


. Dist. 


4th 


. Dist. 


Sth. Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th. Dist. 


Sth. Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th 


. Dist. 


Sth. Dist. 


1st. 


Dist. 


2d. 


Dist. 


3d. 


Dist. 


4th. Dist. 


Sth. Dist. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 39 

Second Board of Supervisors 

Joseph Yoch, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 189S. 
J. W. Hawkins, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
Sheldon LittlEEiEld, January 1, 1891 to February 9, 1891. 
Louis Schorn, February 9, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
Samuel Armor, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
W. N. TedEord, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 

Third Board of Supervisors 

F. P. Nickey, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 

J. W. Hawkins, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
W. G. Potter, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
Samuel Armor, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
A. Guy Smith, January 1, 1895 to April 5, 1898. 

G. \^^ jMcCampbell, April 25, 1898 to January 1, 1899. 

Fourth Board of Supervisors 

F. P. NiCKEY, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
R. E. Larter, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
W. G. Potter, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
D. C. PixLEY, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
J. F. SnovER, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 

Fifth Board of Supervisors 

H. E. Smith, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
Jerome Fulsome, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
D. S. LiNEBARGER, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
D. A. MacMullan, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
U. C. HoLDERMAN, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 

Sixth Board of Supervisors 

H. E. Smith, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 

G. W. Moore, January 1, 1907 to August 4, 1909. 
T. B. Talbert, August 17, 1909 to January 1, 1911. 
D. S. LiNEBARGER, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 
D. A. MacMullan, January 1, 1907 to May 11, 1910. 
Fred W. Struck, June 1, 1910 to January 1, 1911. 

G. W. Angle, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 

Seventh Board of Supervisors 

H. E. Smith, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 
T. B. Talbert, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 
D. S. LiNEBARGER, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 
Fred W. Struck, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 
Jasper Leck, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 

Eighth Board of Supervisors 

H. E. Smith, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1917. 
T. B. Talbert, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1917. 
D. S. LiNEBARGER, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1917. 
Fred W. Struck, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1917. • 
Jasper Leck, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1917. 

Ninth Board of Supervisors 

S. H. FiNLEY, January 1, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 
T. B. Talbert, January 1, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 
Wm. Schumacher, January 1, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 
Fred W. Struck, January 1, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 
Jasper Leck, January 1, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 



40 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Tenth Board of Supervisors 

1st. Dist. S. H. FiNLEY, January 1, 1919 to— 
2d. Dist. T. B. TAI.BEET, January 1, 1919 to— 
3d. Dist. Wm. Sch.umacher, January 1, 1919 to — 
4th. Dist. N. T. Edwards, January 1, 1919 to— 
Sth. Dist. H. A. Wassum, January 1, 1919 to— 

Anaheim Township Justices 

J. B. PiBRCB, August 5, 1889 to January 1, 1899. 
A.-V. Fox, August 5, 1889 to October 13, 1890. 
J. W. LandEi^l, November 10, 1890 to January 1, 1899. 
Frank ShanlBy, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
J. S. Howard, January 1, 1903 to — 

Anaheim Township Constables 

John LandEll, August 6, 1889 to January 1, 1895. 
E. A. PuLLEN, January 1, 1891 to February 15, 1892. 
H. C. GadE, February 15, 1892 to January 1, 1893. 

C. E. Groat, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1899. 
N. A. BiTNER, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
Harrison KuEblER, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
S. O. LlEwEEEYN, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
M. H. LiTTEN, January 1, 1907 to June 8, 1910. 

John KallEnbErgER, June 8, 1910 to January 1, 1919. 
A. W. Wood, January"l, 1919 to— 

Brea Township Justices 

Isaac Craig, March 8, 1916 to May 5, 1920. . 
ChareES E. Smith, May 5, 1920 to July 7, 1920. 

Brea Township Constables 

George Bird, March 8, 1916 to January 1, 1919. 
I. N. Hurst, January 1, 1919 to — • 

Buena Park Township Justices 

E. E. AngEEL, January 1, 1907 to February 12, 1907. 

D. W. Hasson," February 12, 1907 to January 1, 1915. 
W. T. Gaeeaway, January 1, 1915 to January 1, 1919. 
D. W. Hasson, January 1, 1919 to— 

Buena Park Township Constables 

Wallace Fulwider, March 8, 1899 to January 3, 1900. 

F. J. SpEidEl, January 3, 1900 to January 1, 1903. 
A. Nelson, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 

I. D. Jaynes, January 1, 1907 to November 19, 1918. 
C. S. Robinson, November 19, 1918 to February 1, 1919. 
H. S. CovEY, February 1, 1919 to June 17, 1919. 
I. D. Jaynes, June 17, 1919 to— 

FuUerton Township Justices 

Alex Weight, January 18, 1897 to July 22, 1897. 
R. P. Marquez, January 18, 1897 to January 1, 1899. 
Edgar Johnson, August 3, 1897 to January 1, 1903. 
C. K. Ford, January 1, 1903 to March 2, 1910. 
P. A. Schumacher, March 2, 1910 to January 1, 1911. 
H. E. InskEEp, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1919. 
William French, January 1, 1919 to — 

FuUerton Township Constables 
J. Berlin, Jr., January 18, 1897 to January 1, 1899. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 41 

A. A. Pendergrast, January 18, 1897 to April 16, 1900. 
James Gardiner, April 16, 1900 to January 1, 1903. 
Charles E. Ruddock, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
L. C. Edwards, January 1, 1907 to August 7, 1907. 
Charles Young, August 7, 1907 to — 

Huntington Beach Township Justices 

W. D. Seely, April 18, 1905 to January 1, 1907. 
J. W. Shirley, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1915. 
C. W. Warner, January 1, 1915 to— 

Huntington Beach Township Constables 

George Reynolds, April 18, 1905 to November 8, 1905. 
R. H. Winslow, November 8, 1905 to January 1, 1907. 
E. L. Vincent, January 1, 1907 to May 1, 1910. 

C. F. SoRRENSON, May 1, 1910 to March 24, 1914. 
R. E. Linden, March 24, 1914 to January 1, 1915. 
Eugene Davis, January 1, 1915 to August 21, 1917. 
G. S. Bergey, August 21, 1917 to— 

Laguna Beach Township Justices 

Nathan Philbrook, February 2, 1916 to April 1, 1919. 

D. D. Written, April IS, 1919 to— 

Laguna Beach Towmship Constables 

C. R. Clapp, February 2, 1916 to January 1, 1919. 
G. W. JuBB, January 1, 1919 to— 

La Habra Township Justices ^ 

Henry O. Price, April 4, 1917 to September 15, 1918. 
H. E. Hart, November 7, 1918 to January 1, 1919. 
Henry O. Price, January 1, 1919 to May 20, 1919. 
H. E. Hart, May 20, 1919 to— 

La Habra Township Constables 

Frank D. McFadden, April 4, 1917 to August 8, 1917. 
H. F. Ashley, February 19, 1918 to March 23, 1920. 

Los Alamitos Township Justices 
Charles Yost, May 9, 1898 to January 1, 1899. 
J. C. Ord, January 1, 1899 to May 14, 1900. 
J. C. Ord, January 1, 1903 to October 5, 1904. 
Arthur Philbrick, January 1, 1905 to January 1, 1907. 
J. W. Watts, January 1, 1907 to June 18, 1907. 
W. R. McAllEp, July 2, 1907 to February 17, 1914. 
Roy G. Parker, February 17, 1914 to January 1, 1915. 
A. Philbrick, January 1, 1915 to December 8, 1915. 
Hugh T. O'Connor, December 8, 1915 to January 1, 1919. 
N. a. Condra, January 1, 1919 to — 

Los Alamitos Township Constables 

O. S. DevoE, May 9, 1898 to January 1, 1899. 
J. W. Watts, January 1, 1899 to May 14, 1900. 
R. E. Powell, January 1, 1903 to November 21, 1905. 
J. D. Shutt, November 21, 1905 to December 18, 1907. 
A. J. Beals, September 2, 1908 to September 20, 1909. 
James H. Heaston, September 20, 1909 to January 1, 1911. 
J. H. Fortune, January 1, 1911 to May 28, 1912. 
Marshall A. Ramsey, May 28, 1912 to July 2, 1913. 
Ernest Rios, July 2, 1913 to July 28, 1914. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COL'XTY 

Wm. Drake;, July 28, 1914 to January 1, 1915. 
Chari.es Crump, January 1, 1915 to January 6, 1915. 
J. H. MuRiLLO, January 6, 1915 to January 3, 1917. 
Edward KbnnBdy, January 3, 1917 to October 31, 1917. 
James F. WoeE, December 18, 1917 to January 1, 1919. 
J. H. MuRii,LO, January 1, 1919 to June 12, 1919. 

Newport Beach Township Justices 

Leo GoEppEr, December 22, 1914 to — 

Newport Beach Township Constables 

J. A. Porter, December 22, 1914 to- 
Orange Township Justices 

Ira Carter, August 5, 1889 to May 5, 1890. 

M. H. Sweeten, May 5, 1890 to January 1, 1891. 

W. M. Harthorn, January 1, 1891 to July 3. 1893. 

J. N. Lemon, July 3, 1893 to January 1, 1895. 

S. M. Craddick, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 

\\\ S. \\ ATSON, April 25, 1898 to January 1, 1899. 

ChareES Chandler, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1907. 

J. A. PeeiPEER, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 

I-\MES FuLLERTON, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1915. 

Samuel Armor, January 1, 1915 to — 

Orange Township Constables 

K. R. Boring, August 5, 1889 to April 8, 1890. 
j\l. P. Chubb, April 8, 1890 to January 1, 1895. 
Frank L. Carr, January 1, 1893 to December 6, 1896. 

E. T. Parker, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 

T. G. Cervantes, December 7, 1896 to January 1, 1899. 
W. T. Bush, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
H. A. Miller, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1911. 
G. L. Jackson, January 1, 1911 to January 1, 1919. 
^^■. A." Holt, January 1, 1919 to — 

Placentia Township Justices 

F. M. FrasiEr, May 8, 1912 to May 20, 1913. 
A. M. Ashley, May 20, 1913 to— 

Placentia Township Constables 

O. H. Schumacher, May 8, 1912 to February 2, 1916. 
J. N. Watters, February 2, 1916 to January 1, 1919. 
A. O. Nelson, January 1, 1919 to — 

San Juan Township Justices 

J. E. Bacon, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1899. 
Marcos Foster, January 1, 1893 to December 16, 1895. 
E. Petrie HoylE, December 16, 1895 to July 6, 1896. 

G. W. Stevens, December 7, 1896 to January 1, 1899. 
John LandEll, January 1, 1899 to April 8, 1914. 
John Daneri, April 8, 1914 to — 

San Juan Township Constables 

Robert Simpson, January 1, 1891 to August 22, 1892. 
E. Weber, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
M. H. Foster, January 10, 1893 to January 1, 1895. 
R. O. Pryor, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
E. D. BoxlEy, January 1, 1895 to March 18, 1895. 
M. Yorba, January 5, 1899 to November 5, 1901. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 43 

A. A. LiTTEN, November 5, 1901 to April 1, 1902. 
Salbador Labat, April 14, 1902 to September 3, 1902. 
James Rae, January 1, 1903 to February 4, 1903. 
A. L. SwARTHOUT, February 4, 1903 to Jamiary 1, 1907. 

0. B. Cook, January 1, 1907 to November 1, 1909. 
M. YoRBA, November 1, 1909 to December 22, 1914. 
JoHx T. Comes, December 22, 1914 to November 19, 1918. 
George A. Clark, November 19, 1918 to — 

Santa Ana Township Justices 

C. S. McKelvEy, August 5, 1889 to April 14, 1890. 
G. E. Freeman, May 5, 1890 to March 17, 1903. 

1. G. Marks, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 

C. W. Humphreys, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1895. 
George Huntington, January 1, 1895 to January 1, 1899. 
John A. Willson, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
Ed. Smithwick, March 17, 1903 to January 1, 1911. 
J. B. Cox, January 1, 1911 to— 

Santa Ana Township Constables 

WiLEiAM Bush, August 5, 1889 to August 12, 1889. 
George T. InslEy, August 12, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
W. O. Robinson, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 
C. F. PeEbeE, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
G. E. Robinson, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1899. 
Robert Graham, January 1, 1895 to November 16, 1896. 
John Landeel, November 16, 1896 to December 8, 1898. 
Ed. H. Mosbaugh, December 8, 1898 to September 5, 1900. 
C. F. Trunnele, January 5, 1899 to ]\Iarch 8, 1899. 
\\'iLUAM Mann, March 20, 1899 to November 8, 1899. 
George W. Young, November 8, 1899 to September 17, 1900. 
T. G. Cervantes, September 17, 1900 to January 1, 1907. 
Sid Smithwick, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1911. 
C. E. Jackson, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1915. 
E. W. BoYNTON, January 1, 1911 to April 14, 1911. 
Robert Squires, April 14, 1911 to December 19, 1911. 
Frank W. Heard, December 19, 1911 to January 1, 1919. 
W. Russell Coleman, January 1, 1915 to August 20, 1918. 
Jesse L. Elliott, November 19, 1918 to — 
W. N. Carter, January 1, 1919 to — 

Seal Beach Township Justices 

Ch.\s. W. Bowdish, December 5, 1915 to March 18, 1919. 
John H. May, April 1, 1919 to November 1, 1919. 
G. H. Morrison, July 1, 1920 to— 

Seal Beach Township Constables 

C. L. Neuschwanger, December 5, 1915 to May 1, 1918. 
Harry H. Mayer, September 27, 1918 to— 

Stanton Township Justices 

J. C. Alcorn, July 6, 1910 to October 4, 1911. 

C. O. Winters, October 4, 1911 to November 5, 1911. 
Marshall Clark, November 5, 1911 to January 1, 1920. 

Stanton Township Constables 

E. R. M. Pierce, July 6, 1910 to September 10, 1912. 

D. L. Newlin, September 10, 1912 to January 1, 1915. 
Lester C. Dale, January 1, 1915 to July 18, 1916. 

J. C. WhallEy, July 18, 1916 to March 1, 1920. 



44 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Tustin Township Justices 

D. L. McCharlEs, January 27, 1890 to January 1, 1893. 
^^'lI.^AM ScHKOMODAu, January 1, 1891 to November 2, 1891. 

C. D. Ambrose, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1895. 

H. L. HemUnway, January 1, 1895 to November 4, 1895. 
L. StEEPER, January 1, 1895 to November 4, 1895. 

D. L. IMcCharlES, December 6, 1916 to January 1, 1919. 
H. W. Smith, January 1, 1919 to— 

Tustin Township Constables 

Wili,iam Jerome, January 27, 1890 to January 1, 1891. 
H. E. ^^'II.LARD, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 
W. H. Brooks, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1895. 
C. C. BuTTEREiELD, January 1, 1895 to November 4, 1895. 
T. CuMMi^rs, January 1, 1895 to November 4, 1895. 
R. McCarthy, December 6, 1916 to October 3, 1917. 
J. A. Coleman, October 16, 1917 to— 

Westminster Township Justices 

David Webster, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 
T. \A'. Fawcett, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1893. 
L. E. Smith, January 1, 1893 to July 17, 1893. 
JosiAH McCoy, January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1907. 
ToHN Lane, February 18, 1895 to February 15, 1897. 
S. D. McKelvEy, February 15, 1897 to January 1, 1899. 

A. H. BurlingamE, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911, 
S. E. Chafeee, January 1, 1911 to May 31, 1916. 

S. Wooldridge, May 31, 1916 to — 

Westminster Township Constables 

W. T- Orr, September 16, 1889 to January 1, 1891. 
S, D. McKeevEy, January 1, 1891 to September 3, 1894. 
FI. Y. Stevens, January 1, 1891 to January 1, 1897. 
M. R. SwEETzER, October 2, 1894 to January 1, 1895. 
C. C. Lloyd, January 1, 1895 to June 1, 1896. 
W. R. Ball, June 15, 1896 to January 1, 1899. 
Jerome Fulsome, January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903. 
T. T. Williams, January 1, 1903 to January 1. 1907. 
M. Smith, January 1, 1907 to March 3, 1909. 
J, U. Clark, April 7, 1909 to— 

Yorba Township Justices 

R. P. MarquEz, January 16, 1899 to August 6, 1906. 
R. C. MarquEz, August 27, 1906 to January 1, 1907. 
August LemkE, January 1, 1907 to October 5, 1915. ^ 
R. C. MarquEz, October 5, 1915 to January 1, 1919. 
August Lemke, January 1, 1919 to — 

Yorba Township Constables 

J. Berlin, Jr., March 8, 1899 to February 6, 1901. 
VincEnte G. Yorba, February 6, 1901 to January 1, 1903. 

B. G. Yorba, January 1, 1903 to January 1, 1907. 
Erwin Bayha, January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1911. 

M. BoissERANCE, January 1, 1911 to November 19, 1918. 
H. A. Buhrman, November 19, 1918 to — 

Board of Education 

The county superintendent is ex-officio member of the Board of Education. 
The other members, four in number, that have helped to constitute the various 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 45 

boards since the formation of the county, with the date of the appointment and 
the length of the service of each, are as follows : 

M. ManlSy, August 6, 1889 to June 12, 1893. 
T. N. Keran, August 6, 1889 to June 4, 1895. 
G. W. Weeks, August 6, 1889 to June 12, 1893. 
G. C. Mack, August 6, 1889 to June 8, 1891. 
Katie L. Wing, June 8, 1891 to October 17, 1896. 

F. E. Perham, June 12. 1893 to July 1, 1896. 
B. R. Grogan, June 12, 1893 to March 12, 1894. 
W. R. Carpenter, INIarch 12, 1894 to July 1, 1896. 

G. W. Weeks, June 4, 1895 to July 1, 1897. 
Mrs. E. D. Buss, July 1-, 1896 to July 1, 1898. 

T. N. Keran, July 1, 1896 to September 20, 1897. 
F. E. Perham, October 17, 1896 to July 1, 1897. 
W. R. Carpenter, July 1, 1897 to July 1, 1899. 
W. B. HiLi,, July 1, 1897 to July 1, 1899. 
Lyman Gregory, September 20, 1897 to July 1, 1900. 
T. J. ZiEUAN, July 1, 1898 to July 1, 1906. 
Miss M. C. Bray, July 1, 1899 to July 1, 1901. 
Louis Grubb, July 1, 1899 to July 1, 1901. 

B. F. Beswick, July 1, 1900 to July 1, 1904. 

F. G. AthEarn, July 1, 1901 to January 24, 1903. 
T. B. Nichols, July'l, 1901 to July 1, 1903. 

G. A. Harun, January 24, 1903 to July 1, 1905. 

W. R. Carpenter. July 1. 1903 to February 12, 1907. 
R. P. Mitchell, June 21, 1904 to March 15, 1908. 

C. O. Waldore, July 1. 1905 to July 1, 1907. 

E. M. NeallEy. July 1, 1906 to June 5, 1912. 

T. F. \^'ALKER, February 12. 1907 to January 8, 1913. 
L. A. DuRFEE, July 1, 1907 to April 2, 1913. 

A. \Y. Everett, March IS, 1908 to June 5, 1912. 
T. J. ZiELiAN, June 5, 1912 to May 8, 1918. 

Chas. C. Smith, June 5, 1912 to September 15, 1913. 
T. L. \'andervEER, January 8, 1913 to June 4, 1913. 
V. B. Brown, September 15, 1913 to June 3, 1914. 
W. M. FjSHBACK, April 2, 1913 to June 2, 1915. 
Chas. E. Teach, June 2, 1915 to August 7, 1918. 
W. P. Read, August 30. 1918 to July 1, 1919. 
T. R. Parker, June 4, 1913 to— 
S. R. FiTz, June 3, 1914 to- 
ll F. Beswick, July 1, 1918 to— 
Geo. C. Sherwood, July 1, 1919 to — 

Horticultural Commissioners 

Up to a recent date the horticultural commission has consisted of three mem- 
bers appointed by the board of supervisors. Following are the names of those 
who have been thus appointed and the length of service of each: 

S. W. Preble, September 2, 1889 to April 21, 1891. 

F. H. Keith, September 2, 1889 to May 5, 1891. 

H. Hamilton, September 2, 1889 to March 5, 1902. 

B. J. Perry, May 5, 1891 to December 1, 1893. 
I. N. RaeeeRTy, May 5, 1891 to March 4, 1903. 

L. Z. Huntington, December 1, 1893 to March 1, 1902. 
A. D. Bishop, March 5, 1902 to May 3, 1905. 
Max Nebelung, March 5, 1902 to July 3, 1907. 
Fred Raeferty, March 4, 1903 to July 2, 1907. 
E. W. CamField, May 3, 1905 to July 1, 1909. 



46 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

A. H. Stutsman, July 2, 1907 to July 1, 1909. 

J. J. Schneider, July 3, 1907 to July 1, 1909. 

Roy K. Bishop, November 16, 1909 to January 15, 1918. 

EARt Morris, January IS, 1918 to — 

By legislative enactment the horticultural commission of three members was" 
abolished July 1, 1909, and a single certificated commissioner was substituted 
therefor. Roy K. Bi.shop was the only applicant who succeeded in passing the 
examination and he was appointed to the place November 16, 1909. 

Trustees of Law Library 

The legislature of 1891 passed an act authorizing the establishment of a law 
library in each county and the collection of a fee of one dollar for every case 
filed in the superior court, to support such library. The supervisors of Orange 
County objected to thus taxing the litigants for the benefit of the lawyers, so an 
amendment was introduced by Assemblyman C. S. McKelvey and passed by the 
legislature of 1895, cutting out the fee. That amendment and the repeal of the 
county ordinance establishing the library put a quietus on the appointment of 
trustees for the next twelve years. In the legislature of 1907, Senator H. ]\I. 
Willis introduced an amendment to the original act, restoring the dollar fee on 
court cases, which was adopted. Immediately the Orange County law library 
was revived and trustees were appointed as before the interruption. There arc 
three appointive members and two ex-officio members, the latter being the superior 
judge and the chairman of the board of supervisors. The appointive trustees from 
the beginning and the time of service of each are as follows : 

E. E. KeEch, June 1, 1891 to July 1, 1895. 

C. C. Hamieton, June 1, 1891 to January 3, 1893. 

F. W. Sanborn, June 1, 1891 to January 3, 1893. 

J. G. Scarborough, January 3, 1893 to January 7, 1895. 

Victor Montgomery, January 3, 1893 to January 7, 1895. 

T. ^^'. Baeeard, January 7, 1895 to July 1, 1895. 

Z. B. West, January 7, 1895 to July 1, 1895. 

Richard Melrose, February 12, 1907 to — 

R. Y. WiELiAMS, February 12, 1907 to— 

H. C. Head, February 12, 1907 to— 

Board of Forestry 

T. E. Stephenson, April 8, 1914 to— 

R. E. Larter, April 8, 1914 to— 

A. S. Bradford, April 8, 1914 to — 

WiLEARD Smith, April 8, 1914 to — 

A. E. Bennett, April 8, 1914 to February 3, 1920. 

A. L. CoTANT, February 3, 1920 to— 

County Physicians and Health Officers 

T. P. BoYD, May 4, 1891 to January 14, 1895. 
W. H. HiEE, January 14, 1895 to January 5, 1903. 
R. A. CuSHMAN, January 5, 1903 to October 20, 1904. 
C. D. Baee, October 20, 1904 to January 1, 1911. 
John Wehrly, January 4, 1911 to January 6, 1915. 
A. H. Domann, January 6, 1915 to^ 

Veterinary Surgeons and Stock Inspectors 

J. H. Garner, April 7, 1890 to January 1, 1893. 

W. E. SeleEck, January 1, 1893 to September 27, 1894. 

R. A. Lord, September 27, 1894 to November 29, 1894. 

G. E. Armstrong, December 7, 1904 to February 20, 1906. 
C. E. Price, February 20, 1906 to February 12, 1907. 

W. A. Boucher, February 12, 1907 to September 30, 1907. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COLNTY -17 

W. S. McFarlanB, October 2, 1907 to March 3, 1909. 
W. S. McFarlanE, June 2, 1909 to January 8, 1913. 
Geo. W. Closson^ January 8, 1913 to January 3, 1917. 
\\'. S. AIcFarlane, January 3, 1917 to October 29, 1917. 
Geo. W. Closson, October 29, 1917 to— 

Bee Inspector 

J. E. Pleasants, December 22, 1902 to — 

County Engineer 

J. L. jMcBridE, January 1, 1920 to — 

Custodians of County Park 

L. D. West, April 5, 1898 to iNIarch 25, 1901. 

W. M. Boring, March 25, 1901 to October 18, 1904. 

C. S. Mason, October 18, 1904 to February 12, 1907. 

A. B. Tiffany, February 12. 1507 to T^Iay 3, 1916. 

S. C. King, May 3, 1916 to January 1, 1919. 

Fred SiEFERT, January 1, 1919 to February 3, 1920. 

J. B. Irwin, February 24, 1920 to— 

Caretaker of Westminster Public Park 

James A. McFaddEn, January 8, 1919 to October 7, 191'). 
A. ^^'. Knox, October 7, 1919 to— 

Fire and Game Wardens 

W. K. Robinson, May 5, 1909 to April 19, 1910. 
J. L. Combs, April 19, 1910 to May 3, 1911. 
W. E. Adkinson, May 3, 1911 to January 8, 1913. 
W.-K. Robinson, January 8, 1913 to June 1, 1913. 
W. E. Adkinson, June 1, 1913 to — 

County Statisticians 

Charles Lehmann, January 1, 1906 to January 1, 1908. 
Walter S. Gregg, January 1, 1908 to January 1, 1909. 
Ralph A. Fuller, January 1, 1909 to January 1, 1910. 
Erwin B.wha, January 1, 1910 to August 22, 1911. 
Helen \V. Craemer, Augvist 22, 1911 to— 

Highway Commissioners 

C. C. Chapman, March 2, 1910 to April 12, 1910. 

W. H. BuRNHAM, March 2, 1910 to December 3, 1912. 
M. M. Crookshank, March 2, 1910 to March 4, 1914. 
Richard Egan, April 12, 1910 to March 4, 1914. 

D. C. PiXLEY, December 3, 1912 to June 1, 1915. 
S. H. FiNLEY, March 4, 1914 to April 21, 1914. 

R. J. McFadden, March 4, 1914 to January 3, 1917. 
W. T. Newland, April 21, 1914 to January 3, 1917. 
N. T. Edwards, June 1, 1915 to January 3, 1917. 

Purchasing Agents 

J. S. Perry, September 2, 1914 to January 8, 1919. 
F. ^\^ Slabaugh, January 8, 1919 to — 

Lecturer and Publicity Agent 

D. \\'. McDannald, November '21, 1910 to— 

Superintendents of County Hospital and Farm 

E. A. Chaffee, January 8, 1913 to March 1, 1914. 
Geo. Clement, March 1, 1914 to Dec. 22, 1914. 
Harry E. Zaiser, December 22, 1914 to — 



48 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Superintendents of Detention Home 

C. E. HaynES, June 3, 1914 to December 1, 1914. 

C. R. MuNSON, December 1, 1914 to February 7, 1917. 

Mrs. S. E. Hutchins, February 7, 1917 to — 

Probation Officer 

T. H. Scott, Tune 3, 1914 to October 1, 1920. 
Paui, B. Wright, October 1, 1920 to— 

Sealer of Weights and Measures 

GivORGfi McPheu, July 2, 1913 to— 

Aid Commissioner and Expert Accountant 

\\'ai,ti;r S. GrBGG, November 1, 1915 to — 

Superintendent of Road Maintenance 

Nat. H. NeF]?, January 3, 1917 to — 

Farm Advisors 

A. R. SpraguE, March IS, 1918 to September 1, 1918. 
H. E. WahebErg, September 1, 1918 to — 



CHAPTER III 

ORANGE COUNTY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WAY UTILIZED 

It is generally understood that the original source of water supply for any 
given territory is the rainfall precipitated upon the entire surface of such territory. 
In a dry climate the rainfall is regarded as an asset that may be recorded and 
proclaimed as one of the natural advantages of the locality. There is also an in- 
direct benefit from the rainfall that surrounding sections derive from the under- 
ground waters which are percolating through the gravel on their way from the 
higher elevations to the sea. Such water may be brought to the surface by pump- 
ing, or, on the lowlands near the ocean, it may be forced to the surface by the 
pressure from the higher elevations, whenever a boring is made for an artesian 
well. 

The average annual rainfall at Orange for a third of a century has been 
13.87 inches, the extremes being 5.32 inches in the winter of 1897-98 and over 
three feet in the winter of 1883-84. This is probably as low an average as any- 
where in the county, since Orange is situated in the middle of a plain near the 
center of the county and the rainfall in the hills and mountains is greater than 
on the plains below. In fact, the rainfall in the San Bernardino Mountains, where 
the Santa Ana River has its source, averages nearly three feet of water per year. 
During the violent or long continued storms in winter, vast quantities of water 
rush down the steep slopes of the hills and mountains into the canyons and valleys, 
and unite, forming streams that carry the surplus to the sea. It is estimated that 
fully fifty per cent of the rainfall is lost by evaporation and run-off. The other 
fifty per cent sinks into the ground and percolates slowly through the porous soil, 
fructifying it and replenishing the underground reservoirs formed by pockets or 
strata of gravel at various depths below the surface. Gradually the excess of this 
underground water oozes into the channels of the streams at lower levels, thus 
continuing their flow throughout the year and even through a period of two or 
three dry years, like the one from 1897 to 1900. when the rainfall was 5.32-6.64- 
8.86 inches, respectively. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 49 

The streams of Orange County, that carry more or less water to the ocean in 
times of floods, are : Coyote Creek ; Santa Ana River, including Santiago Creek 
and its branches; Laguna Canyon; Aliso Creek, and its tributaries; Trabuco 
Creek, which receives the waters from a half dozen canyons northwest of Capis- 
trano ; and a number of arroyos and lagoons which drain the plains between the 
streams and the lowlands near the ocean. Coyote Creek, forming the boundary 
between Orange County and Los Angeles County, draws its water from the ad- 
joining plains in both counties. The Santa Ana River takes its rise in the San 
Bernardino Mountains, from seventy-five to one hundred miles distant, and is one 
of the most important streams for irrigating purposes in Southern California. The 
rest of the streams mentioned are wholly within the confines of Orange County. 

The area of the catchment-basin of the Santa Ana River has been estimated 
by J. B. Lippincott, former resident hydrographer of the Federal Government, as 
follows : mountain section, 557 square miles ; hill section, 382 square miles ; valley 
section, 525 square miles; making a total of 1,464 square miles. From records 
of observers as widely scattered as possible over this area, it has been found that 
the average annual rainfall for a long period of years has been 33.84 inches in 
the mountains, 20 inches in the hills and 14.98 inches in the valleys. Applying 
these figures to the three classes of territory involved and adding the result, we 
find the average annual rainfall in the basin of the Santa Ana River amounts to 
the enormous sum of 79,819,529,856 cubic feet of water. If three-quarters of the 
rainfall in the mountains, two-thirds of that in the hills and half of that in the 
valleys be discarded for evaporation and run-off, and if the remainder be drawn 
into running water and distributed over the entire year, there would be 41,201 
inches of perennial water still left within the basin of the stream. Probably not 
much over a quarter of that amount is actually available in the irrigating season 
and four-fifths of that quarter is appropriated before the stream reaches Orange 
County. However, a considerable portion of the underflow of the river finds its 
way into the county, thereby adding its quota to the underground water which the 
county gets from its own rainfall. 

All the water entering Orange County through the Santa Ana River is equally 
cHvided between the two sides of the stream; that for the northwest side is distrib- 
uted to the users by the Anaheim Union Water Company, and that for the 
southeast side by the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company. 

The Anaheim Union Water Company, as its name indicates. Was formed 
by the union of the Anaheim Water Company, the Cajon Irrigation Company, the 
North Anaheim Canal Company, and the Farmers' Ditch Company. The Anaheim 
Water Company was established in 1857, its water rights having been purchased 
in that year with the land on which Anaheim is located, from Juan Pacifico On- 
tiveras. The Cajon Irrigation Company was formed in 1877 to irrigate the Pla- 
centia and Fullerton sections. The other two companies were formed, or re- 
organized in 1882. These four companies consolidated under the name of the 
Anaheim Union Water Company in the year 1884. The capital stock of this com- 
pany was fixed at $1,200,000, which was divided into 12,000 shares of a par value 
of $100 each. Two-thirds of this stock has been issued and the other one-third 
remains unsold in the. treasury. The use of the stock is confined to about 12,000 
acres of land susceptible of irrigation by gravity from the company's ditches. 

The facilities of the Anaheim Union Water Company for supplying its stock- 
holders with water consist of a half interest in the waters of the Santa Ana 
River at the division-gate ; many miles of ditches, of which over fifty are lined 
with cement concrete; five pumping plants, capable together of furnishing about 
1,400 inches of water; and two reservoirs for storing night water for day use 
and winter water for summer use. The TuflEree reservoir will hold the entire flow 
of the main canal over night, and the Yorba reservoir will store enough of the 
winter floods to furnish 300 miner's inches for three months in the irrigating 
season. In addition to the foregoing facilities, the company owns a half interest 



50 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

in nearly 2,400 acres of riparian land up the river, as well as several hundred 
acres in its own right. These lands strengthen and protect the company's rights 
in the river and give opportunity for further development, when needed. Oil has 
been found on some of this land and money enough is being received from leases 
to meet all the expenses of the company. 

The Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company, which distributes the waters of 
the Santa Ana River to the territoi'y southeast of said river, like the Anaheim 
Union Water Company, is the outgrowth and legatee of previous efiforts and or- 
ganizations for the irrigation of the territory which it now serves. The right to 
use the waters of said river on the Ranc-ho Santiago de Santa Ana is based on 
the appropriations of such waters by the early Spanish settlers as well as on the 
riparian character of the land itself. Col. John J. Warner, who died in Los An- 
geles a number of years ago, at an advanced age, testified, in the suit of the Ana- 
heim Water Company vs. the Semi-Tropic Water Company, that he found Don 
Bernardo Yorba with a large retinue of servants, irrigating his ranch from the 
Santa Ana River in the year 1834. These water rights were handed down from 
owner to owner with the land, and in 1868 they were parceled out by the court, 
pro rata to the acreage, regardless of the distance of each subdivision from the 
river. The court also protected the exercise of these rights by granting to the 
holders of the lower allotments a right of way over the upper allotments for 
ditches to convey water to their respective holdings. In order to irrigate the por- 
tion of the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, purchased by A. B. Chapman and 
Andrew Glassell, a ditch, called the Chapman ditch, was constructed during the 
winter of 1870-71, which delivered water as far down as the present site of 
Orange the following July. Two years later, May 24, 1873, these same persons 
incorporated the Semi-Tropic Water Company and transferred to it all the rights 
and interests of the Chapman ditch. As the land was subdivided and sold, stock 
in this water company was furnished to the purchasers, who thus came into pos- 
session and control of the company. In 1877 this company was superseded by 
a larger and stronger one in the name of the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Com- 
pany. The property and rights of the old company were purchased and trans- 
ferred to the new, and all the water rights on the southeast side of the river below 
the intake were absorbed in exchange for equivalent rights in the new company. 
The capital stock of the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company was fixed at 
$100,000, divided into 20,000 shares of a par value of $5 each. This stock was 
made appurtenant to the land, one share to each acre, and is transferable only 
with the land which is described in the certificate. All the assessments, together 
with ten per cent interest, have been added to the par value of the stock until 
at the present writing the market value has reached $120, which amount must be 
paid for any new stock purchased for unstocked land. There are now in force 
17,437 shares held by 2,231 stockholders, making an average of less than eight 
shares to each stockholder in the company. Over $500,000 has been spent on the 
canals, pipe lines, pumping plants and reservoirs; nearly another $100,000 has 
been paid for riparian lands and water rights, making about two-thirds of a million 
dollars invested in water facilities by this company, to say nothing about current 
expenses, etc. These large sums have been drawn gradually from the stock- 
holders during the past fifty years in such low water rates and moderate assess- 
ments that the burden has scarcely been felt. In fact, this company has long 
enjoyed the reputation of being one of the least expensive of the large water 
companies of Southern California. 

The facilities of the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company for supplying its 
stockholders with water are very similar to those of the Anaheim Union Water 
Company and consist of a half interest in the waters of the Santa Ana River at 
the division-gate; about 141 miles of ditches, of which 117 miles are pipe lines and 
the rest are lined with cement concrete ; eight pumping plants capable together of 
furnishing about 1,520 inches of water ; and one small reservoir at Olive for regu- 
lating the flow of the water in the ditches. In addition to the foregoing the com- 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 51 

pany owns a half interest in nearly 2,400 acres of riparian land up the river, as 
well as several hundred acres in its own right. These lands strengthen and pro- 
tect the company's rights in the river and give opportunity for further develop- 
ment, when needed. 

The stream next in importance to the Santa Ana River for irrigation purposes 
is the Santiago Creek, which is a tributary of said river. This creek rises in the 
Trabuco National Forest Reserve in the eastern end of the county, flows in a 
northwesterly direction across the San Joaquin ranch to the mouth of the canyon 
and from there proceeds in a southwesterly direction to its junction with the Santa 
Ana River. The creek and its branches drain about 127 square miles on the 
western slope of the Santa Ana Alountains and the foothills adjacent. Assuming 
that the average annual rainfall within the drainage basin of this stream is fifteen 
inches, which is under rather than over the mark, the precipitation would aggre- 
gate 4,425,696,000 cubic feet of water per year, or one-eighteenth of the rainfall 
in the great catchment-basin of the Santa Ana River. Like most of the streams 
between the coast range and the sea, this creek carries off the greater part of the 
rainfall shortly after it is precipitated. However, a small per cent sinks into the 
soil and gradually percolates into the channel, thereby continuing the stream 
throughout the year. The quantity thus saved and utilized can be greatly in- 
creased by storage reservoirs and by spreading part of the storm water over waste 
lands to sink into the gravel beds and find its way into the stream later in the 
season. Some of this work has already been done and more is being planned for 
the future. 

The parties who are interested in the waters of the Santiago Creek are the 
Irvine Company, owner of the San Joaquin ranch, and the settlers on the lands 
about the mouth of the canyon, above ditch A of" the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation 
Company, who are represented by the Serrano Water Association on the north side 
of the creek and by the John T. Carpenter Water Company on the south side. 
Naturally, the Irvine Company would have large riparian rights in the stream on 
account of furnishing a large part of the catchment-basin and owning land on both 
sides of the stream for ten or eleven miles. These rights have never been adjudi- 
cated, although the attempt to take water over the water shed to other parts of 
the ranch was successfully resisted in the courts by the settlers. An agreement 
was finally reached whereby the water of the creek will be apportioned to the 
different parties in interest and an opportunity be given to increase such water 
by diminishing the run-off. The stipulations of this agreement were made the 
judgment of the court, thereby making them binding on all concerned. 

By the terms of this agreement the two water companies, designated as the 
party of the first part, get practically all the water of the creek up to 600 inches 
during the five irrigating months, from June 20, to November 20, of each year ; 
the Irvine Company, designated as the party of the second part, gets the next 50 
inches, and all above the 650 inches will be divided equally between the two parties. 
For the rest of the year the party of the first part will have the first 60 inches and 
the party of the second part the next 60 inches; and all above the 120 inches 
will be equally divided. An easement to three tracts of land, aggregating about 
500 acres, is granted for spreading the storm water, and also an option to build 
a dam across Fremont Canyon and impound water therein, together with rights 
of way for roads and ditches. The party of the first part covenant to spend not 
less than $14,000 during the next five years in spreading water on the two upper 
tracts, and may spend other large sums within the next ten years; the party of 
the second part agrees to refund one-third of all the money thus expended each 
year, up to a limit of $16,666.67 for the third, during the ten years. In return 
for the liberal concession of the Irvine Company, that company is permitted to 
take its share of the water over the watershed to other parts of the ranch. The 
time within which a dam might be built in Fremont Canyon having expired, it 
is understood that the option, with all its agreements and conditions, given by 
the Irvine Company for that purpose, has lapsed. The two water companies. 



52 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

designated the party of the first part in the agreement, together own the Barhani 
ranch upon which they have constructed a shallow reservoir of considerable area. 
Below this ranch they built a bedrock dam across the creek in 1892, at a cost of 
$3,600, the deepest point being nineteen feet below the surface of the creek-bed. 
The water intercepted and raised to the surface by this dam is carried off in a 
28-inch cement pipe 725 feet to the division-gate, where it is divided equally 
between the two companies. 

The Serrano \\'ater Company was organized in 1875 by the Lotspiech 
Brothers, J. W. Anderson, Dr. Worrell, Charles Tiebout and a few others. The 
association has no capital stock, but the water is distributed among the sixty-six 
owners according to the acreage of each, with the limitation that two-thirds of the 
association's water belongs to the 631 acres in the Lotspiech tract and the other 
one-third to the 672 acres in the Gray tract. To serve these owners the association 
has laid below the division-gate 6,288 feet of 20-inch pipe and 2,679 feet of 
16-inch pipe, while individual members have laid three and one-half miles of from 
10 to 16-inch pipe. 

The John T. Carpenter Water Company is capitalized for $16,000, divided 
into 1,600 shares of $10 each. This stock is held by 115 owners, who use the 
water on 900 acres of land. The company has laid about four miles of 16 and 
20-inch pipe and about eight miles of 10 and 12-inch pipe. 

Trabuco Creek, with its tributaries, furnishes water for quite an area of land 
in the vicinity of Capistrano. The greater portion of the water from this stream 
is distributed by the Trabuco Water Company, which irrigates about 500 acres. 

In addition to the irrigation from the three streams just described, there are 
a few farms that take out more or less water from Coyote Creek, Laguna Creek, 
Aliso Creek and other sources. Then, too, there are thousands of acres irrigated 
from wells, either artesian or pumped. As already described, large quantities of 
water from the rainfall sink into the ground and percolate through the gravel 
strata on their way from the higher elevations to the sea. This water may be 
found at various depths in nearly every part of the plains forming the major 
portion of the county; but it is particularly abundant about Anaheim and in the 
western part of the county, where it is undoubtedly supplied by the underflow of 
the Santa Ana River. According to the assessor's report there are 1,224 pumping 
plants in Orange County valued at $3,060,000. These raise from 25 to 125 inches 
of water each from a single well, while in a number of cases a large plant fur- 
nishes from 200 to 400 inches from a group of wells. The lower lands near the 
ocean are either damp enough or they are irrigated from artesian wells. The 
number of acres irrigated from wells, pumping or artesian, is about 12,000; the 
total number of acres irrigated from all sources in the county is approximately 
50,000. 

If anything further were needed to prove that Orange County is well watered, 
it might be found in the vast quantities of nearly every kind of grain, fruit, nut 
and vegetable grown in the temperate zone, as well as many kinds indigenous 
to the torrid zone, which are produced in this county and sent to market every 
year, not only supporting the farmers and fruit growers, but actually enriching 
them. Surely Orange County may take rank alongside of the land of Canaan as 
described by Moses in the following paragraph : 

"For the Lord, thy God, bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks 
of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of 
wheat and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates, a land of oil, olive, 
and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not 
lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou 
mayest dig brass. When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the 
Lord, thy God, for the good land which he hath given thee." 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 53 

CHAPTER IV 

THE CITY OF ANAHEIM 
Supplemented by E. B. Merritt 

The city of Anaheim is the oldest city in Orange County and was founded 
and settled by some Germans who had been residents of San Francisco for some 
time. They were all citizens of the United States and were looking about for 
cheap land that would be suitable for the growing of grapes. They traveled about 
the state and especially turned their attention to the southern part, and soon 
decided that the section that is the present site of Anaheim was best suited to 
the growing of grapes and the making of wine. 

This corporation was organized in 1857 by fifty men, among whom were the 
following: George Hansen, John Fisher, John Froelich, Charles Kohler, Utmar 
Caler, C. C. Kuchel, C. Biltsen, Henry Kroeger, H. Schenck, H. Bunnellman, Julius 
Weiser, John P. Zeyn, Benjamin Dreyfus, Hugo Currance, and others. Their 
organization was known as the Los Angeles Vineyard Company. Each man pur- 
chased a share, which was valued at $750. They bought about 1,200 acres of 
land, being a part of the Rancho San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana, and owned by 
Juan Pacifico Ontiveras, to whom they paid two dollars per acre. This tract was 
laid out in twenty-acre lots, and work was at once begun upon it under the man- 
agement of George Hansen, who was selected for their superintendent. He began 
leveling, building fences, digging ditches, etc. Expenses were $216 per day, a 
considerable amount for that period. The tract was one and one-half miles long 
and one and a quarter wide, fenced in with 40,000 willow poles, six feet above the 
ground and one and one-half feet apart; these were strengthened by three hori- 
zontal poles. These poles eventually took root and soon the colony was sur- 
rounded by a living willow wall. The whole was defended by a ditch four feet 
deep, six feet wide at the top, sloping to one foot at the bottom. Streets were 
laid out through the tract, a gate constructed across the end of the main street 
and when this was closed it made the enclosure secure from invasion. Thousands 
of wild Spanish cattle and horses roamed the plains at that time and these would 
have devastated the growing vines and other crops unless so protected. 

These sturdy pioneers gave the name of Anaheim to their new found home, 
from the German, heim — home — and the Spanish, Ana — a proper name. Home 
by the Santa Ana River. A ditch was dug to convey water for irrigation, seven 
and one-half miles in length, and several rriiles of laterals were constructed. On 
each twenty-acre tract eight acres of vines were planted the first year. At the 
end of two years these vines had come into bearing. All assessments had been 
paid by each shareholder, which brought the total amount to $1,200 each. At this 
time each lot had a valuation placed upon it according to location and improve- 
ments, at from $600 to $1,400. Division was made by lot. As each man had paid 
in $1,200, the ones who drew the $1,400 lots paid in $200 and those who drew 
under that figure received balance in cash ; and, besides all this, each shareholder 
received one lot in the town plot. During these two years the men of the com- 
pany had continued their residence in San Francisco, but at this date they as- 
sumed control of their separate properties. They began building houses, having 
to haul lumber and necessities from Los Angeles, that being their nearest supply 
point. Thirty miles was a long distance to bring their necessities and as soon as 
possible they established a landing on the coast where boats could land supplies. 
This was but twelve miles west and was known for many years as Anaheim 
Landing. 

Their main object was to grow grapes and manufacture wine, but of the 
entire number there was but one man who understood the art of wine making. 
They were mostly mechanics and carpenters, besides whom there was a watch- 
makei-, blacksmith, a gunsmith, an engraver, a brewer, teacher, bookbinder, miller, 



54 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

shoemaker, poet, merchants, musicians and a hotelkeeper. Benjamin Drey 
built the first house in 1857. John Fischer erected the first hotel in 1865 ; this was 
destroyed by fire in 1871 and the following year Henry Kroeger built the Anaheim 
hotel. In the town plot of forty acres, which occupied the center of the tract, one 
lot was reserved for a school building and this was among the very first structur s 
erected. This was very commodious and was put up to serve as a school- 
house and assembly hall. During the flood of 1861-62 the Santa Ana River over- 
flowed and damaged the foundations, rendering its unsafe and school was then 
held in the water company's building on Center Street until 1869, when a new 
building was built. It was a severe struggle against all kinds of odds for several 
years, but their patient industry and perseverance won the struggle and at the 
end of ten years each stockholder's property was worth from $5,000 to $10,000. 
In the meantime they made their improvements and supported their families. The 
company had its officers, electing Utmar Caler, president ; G. C. Kohler, vice-presi- 
dent ; Cyrus Biltsen, treasurer, and John Fischer, secretary. 

A fire occurred in the town on January 16, 1877, which destroyed Enterprise 
Hall, a saloon, a Chinese wash-house and the Daily Gazette building, entailing a 
loss of about $18,000, half covered by insurance. The Anaheim Hide & Leather 
Company was established in 1879 and was operated less than a year, when it 
quit business. A. Guy Smith & Company built a steam grist and planing mill in 
1875. Hinds Brewery was established by Theodore Reiser in 1874. Vines were 
set out in Anaheim and vicinity each year from 1857 until 1887. In 1884 a disease 
Avas discovered among the vines and in 1885 it was seen that the grape industry 
was doomed. A'^ines that had produced ten tons to the acre dwindled to nothing. 
It seemed to attack the Mission variety first and the oldest and strongest vines 
were the first to die. In 1885 there were about 500,000 vines in that vicinity and 
about fifty wineries, which up to that time had been making money. For twentv- 
five years Anaheim and vicinity was the greatest wine producing center in Cali- 
fornia. After the vines began to die out walnuts and oranges took their places 
and this is now one of the best sections in Orange County for these products. 

The Anaheim Gazette, the pioneer newspaper, established by G. \Y. Barter, 
was first issued October 29, 1870. Barter had bought the plant of the Wilmington 
Journal, defunct. The press had been brought around the Horn in 1851 and had 
been used in Los Angeles by the Star, the pioneer newspaper of Southern Cali- 
fornia. In 1871 Barter sold the paper to C. A. Gardner, who in turn sold to 
Melrose & Knox, in 1872. Knox retired in 1876. F. W. Athearn was connected 
with it in 1876-77, then Melrose became sole owner and sold it to Henry Kuchel, 
the present owner, who has continued the publication for more than thirty years.' 
The Orange County Plain Dealer, established in Fullerton in 1898, moved to 
Anaheim and was owned and edited by J. E. Valjean a number of years before 
his death. The Anaheim Daily Herald was founded by Thomas Crawford in 1913 
and is now owned and published by The Anaheim Herald Publishing Company. 

In 1860 the Anaheim Water Company became owner of the ditches and water 
rights originally belonging to the Anaheim Vineyard Company. The stock of this 
company was an appurtenance of the land and could not be diverted from it. The 
water company was incorporated with $20,000 capital stock and in 1879 this was 
increased to $90,000, and ditches were extended to cover the Anaheim extension. 
The Cajon Water Company's ditch was completed November 18, 1878, at a cost 
of $50,000. It tapped the Santa Ana River at Bed-Rock Canyon and was fifteen 
miles long. In 1879 the Anaheim Union Water Company bought a half interest 
in this ditch. Anaheim was incorporated as a city February 10, 1870, but the 
burden was too great to be carried by the people and in 1872 they petitioned the 
legislature to be dis-incorporated. This was granted and it was an unincorporated 
town until March, 1878, when it was incorporated and then in 1888 it was 
reincorporated. 

In 1880 Anaheim boasted of the best school building in Los Angeles County, 
outside of that city. In 1877 Prof. J. M. Guinn, who had been principal of the 




FIRST SANITARIUM AT ANAHEIM 




OLD DREYFUS WINERY, ANAHEIM 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 55 

Anaheim school for eight years, the building having become inadequate for the 
increased population, drafted a bill authorizing the district to issue bonds for 
$10,000. He was instrumental in securing its passage by the legislature and it 
became a law ^March 12, 1878. The bonds were sold at par and a building erected. 
This was the first instance on record in the state of incorporating and bonding a 
school district to secure funds to build a schoolhouse, a method now quite com- 
mon in the state, thus giving California the best schoolhouses of any state in 
the Union. The schools of Anaheim embrace grades from the kindergarten to 
the junior college and compare favorably with the best in Southern California. 
For further particulars about Anaheim's schools see chapter on Orange County's 
Schools. 

In January, 1875, the Southern Pacific Railway built a branch to Anaheim 
and for two years this was their terminus. In 1887 the Santa Fe built through 
to San Diego and that year a number of vineyards were divided and sold in town 
lots. Anaheim has three banks, all well capitalized ; a public library, several school 
buildings; eight miles of paved streets, and fifteen miles of cement sidewalks. 
The city owns its own water supply, as well as its own electric lighting plant. 
There are two depots of the Southern Pacific and one of the Santa Fe, and it will 
soon have an outlet by the Pacific Electric, building a direct line. The country 
about is fertile, growing almost anything put into the ground. 

The living willow wall that surrounded the original colony disappeared long 
ago and but few of the present citizens of the city remember the appearance of 
the original place, called by the native Californians Campo Aleman — German ■ 
camo. Anaheim is now a city of beautiful homes, with a population of 5,526. 
Early in the year of 1911 bonds were voted for $90,000, to construct a sewer sys- 
tem ; and $8,500, for additions to the electric lighting system. As showing the 
progressive sentiment of the people it may be said that the former received 352 
votes for, and 24 against, and the latter 303 for, and 68 against. The city has six 
packing houses for oranges and lemons, one beet sugar factory, one marmalade fac- 
tory, one cigar factory, a large hotel and several apartment houses, besides the 
usual complement of all kinds of business houses. Its area is two and three-quar- 
ters square miles; its assessed valuation in 1920 was $3,017,415, and the building 
permits issued the same year amounted to $92,000. This shows a healthy growth 
when it is remembered that the war lid was on building operations that year. 
During the year 1919, Anaheim had a building total of more than $200,000, 
Included in the construction program was a thirty-apartment building, a bungalow 
court, many individual residences, a large new First Methodist Church and a few 
business buildings, but here, as in other towns, construction could not keep up 
with the demand, and still greater activity is foreseen in the future. 

The churches of Anaheim represent fourteen denominations, as follows : 
Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist, Episcopal, Christian Science, Lutheran, Bap- 
tist, Evangelical, Mennonite, German Methodist, Mexican Methodist, Seventh 
Day Adventist, German Lutheran, and German Baptist. 

Following are the city officers as they stood after the election and appoint- 
ment in 1920 : Board of trustees, William Stark, president ; Frank N. Gibbs, 
Fred A. Backs, Jr., Charles H. Mann, Howard E. Gates; clerk, Edward B. Mer- 
ritt; marshal and tax collector, N. F. Steadman ; treasurer, Charles A. Boege; 
recorder, J. S. Howard; manager and street superintendent, O. E. Steward; elec- 
trician, V. W. Hannum ; attorney. Homer G. Ames ; rate collector, W. A. Wallace. 

The soil about Anaheim is a sandy loam, easily worked, retains the heat and 
moisture. This, with its proximity to the ocean and distance from the snow- 
capped mountains, places that section in the frostless belt of the county. Then, 
lying in front of the mouth of the Santa Ana Canyon, the territory about Ana- 
heim gets the greatest benefit from the underflow of the river. A people with 
such natural resources and with the sturdy manhood to voluntarily close their 
.saloons, as they did January 1, 1919, cannot help but prosper. 



56 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Anaheim Municipal Light and Water Works 
By V. W. Hannum 

The first step, in the building of the present Municipal Light and Water 
System, was taken in April, 1879, when the pioneers of the Mother Colony started 
the municipal water plant, then located on West Cypress Street. 

Making a success of. this venture, and wishing to keep abreast of modern im- 
provements, they started the electric light plant on August 23, 1894, with a con- 
nected load of thirteen arc lamps, used for street lighting, and 145 incandescent and 
nine arc lamps from which a revenue was derived. By 1907, there were 324 light 
and 372 water consumers, which made it necessary to construct an entirely new 
plant at 518 South Los Angeles Street. The equipment at that time consisted of 
two 125 horsepower boilers, two steam-driven electric generators of eighty kilo- 
watt capacity, two twelve-inch wells with a pumping capacity of 600 gallons per 
minute. In 1912 another 125-horsepower boiler and a steam-driven electric gen- 
erator of 150 kilowatt capacity was added. In 1913, the increasing water demand 
made it necessary to drill a new sixteen-inch well, in which a pump of a capacity 
of 800 gallons per minute was installed, this installation being duplicated in 1915. 

By 1916 the electric load had reached such proportions that the generating 
equipment was inadequate, so rather than add more generating equipment, an 
agreement was made with the Southern California Edison Company whereby 
the city purchases all of its electric energy wholesale, but maintains its own dis- 
tributing system. 

In 1918 it became necessary to again increase the water supply. This was 
done by replacing one of the small capacity pumps, with one of a capacity of 1,200 
gallons per minute. In 1920 a new sixteen-inch well was drilled and a 1,200- 
gallon pump installed. The city now has three wells, each 335 feet deep, with 
a pumping capacity of over 3,000 gallons per minute. A reinforced-concrete 
reservoir, with a capacity of 173,000 gallons, -at an elevation to give forty pounds 
pressure on the mains, insures an adequate supply of good pure water at all times. 
A two-stage centrifugal pump, driven by a 125-horsepower motor, is used to 
increase the pressure in case of fire; this pump will deliver 1,500 gallons of water 
per minute at a pressure of 125 pounds. 

Until May, 1914, the rate for lighting purposes had been ten cents per kilo- 
watt-hour; at that time the plant had become self-sustaining, so the lighting rate 
was reduced to seven cents per kilowatt-hour. This cut, while greatly reducing 
the revenue for the city, was a great saving to the consumers. 

While the past few years have seen prices rise by leaps and bounds on all 
materials used in the light and water departments, as well as increases of wages, 
and two increases on the wholesale price of electric energy, the city by conservative 
methods has been able to keep its water rate at ten cents per hundred cubic feet, 
and the electric lighting rate at seven cents per kilowatt-hour, thereby furnishing 
light and water at pre-war prices to its many patrons, and still maintaining a 
source of revenue, of which the year ending May 1, 1920, is a good example. 

At that time there were more than 3,000 services for light and water, with a 
revenue of nearly $70,000, leaving better than $20,000 for the general fund after 
all operating expenses had been paid. Besides being a source of revenue to the 
city, the Municipal Light and Water ^^'orks furnish steady employment to many 
of the citizens of Anaheim. 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 57 

CHAPTER V 

THE CITY OF BREA 

By Mable McGee 

Brea is situated at the mouth of the canyon of the same name adjoining the 
eastern part of Fullerton on tlie north. The canyon has long afforded an easy 
passage for a wagon road from tlie interior valley to the coastal plains and was 
named Brea Canyon from the brea, or mineral tar, which oozed out of the ground 
in the canyon. The city is the youngest and one of the smallest in the galaxy 
of Orange County cities. It was incorporated February 23, 1917, and has an 
area of one and three-quarter square miles. The assessed valuation of the city 
in 1920 was $718,880, with a tax rate of $1.00. The population given by the 
1920 census is 1,037. 

While there are some orchards and farms in the southern part of the city, 
the principal support of the place is derived from the oil industry. The city is 
in the heart of a rich oil district, surrounded by about twenty-three leases. In 
fact, looking up and down the mesa in front of the hills, hundreds of oil derricks 
may be seen in either direction. This oil industry is not only the main support of 
the city of Brea, but it is a valuable asset of the whole county, as manifested 
by the increase in the assessment roll each year as the territory expands and new 
wells are brought in. 

The city has one and a half miles of cement sidewalks and three miles of 
paved streets. There are four churches. Congregational, Christian, Nazarene and 
Seventh Day Adventist. (The schools may be found in the chapter on Orange 
County's Schools.) The following organizations have branches in Brea: Oil 
Field, Gas Well Refineries International Workers of America (this is a labor 
organization of oil men and used to be called "The Oil Field Workers' Union") ; 
Women's Union Label League (the latter is an auxiliary of the men's organiza- 
tion just mentioned) ; Knights of Pythias; Woodmen; Maccabees; Royal Neigh- 
bors; and Brea Study Club. 

The Brea Boiler Works and Union Tool Company are home industries that 
employ a great many men. 

The city officers at the present time are as follows : Board of trustees, Jay 
C. Sexton, president; Isaac Craig, P. C. Huddleston, R. H. Mitchell, Frank J. 
Schweitzer; clerk, Mrs. L. A. Sayles; treasurer, Leon A. Sayles; attorney, Albert 
Launer ; engineer, Robt. W. Phelps ; marshal, street superintendent and pound 
master, D. O. Stegman. 

That Brea went over the top in subscribing to the five liberty loans may be 
seen in the lists published elsewhere in the history. 

The Union Oil Company has a beautiful building and picturesque grounds in 
Brea, showing what can be done with capital and good taste, where the climate 
is equable, the soil fertile and the water abundant. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE CITY OF FULLERTON 

Supplemented by H. L. Wilber 

Twenty-three miles southeast from Los Angeles lies the thriving little city 
of Fullerton with its population of 4,415 souls. Until 1887 this section of the 
county was largely given over to pasturage for sheep and cattle. Its richness had 
not been discovered except by a few, but now it is considered by the residents of 
the vicinity as the "garden spot of Orange County." The city was laid out in 
1887 by Amerige Brothers and the Pacific Land and Improvement Company. The 
first building was erected the same year, in which year also occurred the advent 
of the railroad. The peculiar location of the town has much to induce home 



58 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

making, for it is surrounded by a very productive country and its climatic condi- 
tions are ideal, far enough away from the snow-capped mountains and near 
enough to the sea, to have a very equable temperature. 

Soon after the advent of the railroad the little hamlet grew rapidly. At an 
early date the planting of. oranges and walnuts was begun and the results were 
so gratifying that the locality soon attracted general attention as a fruit section. 
Planting of various kinds of deciduous fruits followed and soon it was discovered 
that soil and climatic conditions were the best to be found in Southern California. 
Besides the fruit industry there sprung up a lucrative business in vegetable grow- 
ing. ^Vith a ready market in Los Angeles a man with a limited amount of money 
could get good returns from his farming venture from the very start. 

It was at the close of the "boom," in 1888, that this part of California was 
the center of attraction and towns sprung up in the desert and, by the develop- 
ment of water for irrigation, garden spots were made to blossom out of drear 
waste. The Amerige Brothers were among the men who came to Southern 
California during this period and, seeing the possibilities of the section that is 
now Fullerton and Placentia districts, purchased 500 acres of bare, unimproved 
land, from the Miles' estate. They had inside information that the Santa Fe 
Railroad would be built in this direction on its way to San Diego and entered into 
negotiations with the Pacific Land and Improvement Company to have a change 
made in the surveys in order to strike the proposed town site. To insure the 
building of the road and location of a depot the brothers gave railroad rights to 
the company. The first stake was driven on July 6, 1887, in a field of wild mus- 
tard. Soon the land was cleared, streets laid out and graded, business blocks and 
several dwellings erected. On account of some obstruction in securing right of 
way, the railroad was unable to build to the town until the following year and 
thus it was greatly handicapped for lack of transportation facilities. Amerige 
Brothers sold an interest in their holdings to Wilshire Brothers, and soon after- 
ward all interests were merged into the Fullerton Land and Trust Company, to 
facilitate development. 

The town was given its name in honor of G. H. Fuller, then president of 
the Pacific Land and Improvement Company, which was an organization of the 
directors of the Santa Fe. He was a factor in the early beginning of the town, 
but soon was deposed from office. The name of the town was then changed to 
La Habra, in harmony with the name of the valley adjoining. The opposition to 
this change was so strong that the town was re-christened Fullerton, although the 
first railroad tickets were issued to La Habra. In the fall of 1888 the first train 
reached the place ; this did not increase the growth of the town as was expected, 
for by that time the great boom of Southern California was over. The hamlet 
has had only a conservative growth from the beginning. 

The first good building to be erected in Fullerton was the St. George Hotel, 
costing $50,000. This was followed by the Wilshire block, costing about $8,000. 
It was in this building that the first postoflfice was established and the first store 
opened. The Chadbourne block, costing $22,000, was the next one of importance, 
followed quickly by the Schumacher, Grimshaw and Schindler buildings. The 
first church was the Presbyterian, which was erected in 1889. 

The streets were all named by the founders of the town. Fullerton remained 
a town until 1904, at which time, on January 22, it was incorporated as a city of 
the sixth class. In 1920 the assessed valuation of property was $19,558,695. The 
town has but small indebtedness and the limits of the city embrace eighteen square 
miles. It is one of the best shipping points in Orange County, and is admirably 
located for manufacturing industries. It is near the oil fields, which thus guar- 
antees a permanent and cheap fuel supply, and has an abundant supply of water. 

The warehouse facilities of Fullerton are the best in the county and its pack- 
ing houses give employment to a large number of men and women. All the roads 
leading to the city are paved. There are two well-capitalized national banks, one 
savings bank and one state bank ; the professions are represented by able men in 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 59 

law and medicine. There are among its industries of importance the following 
besides those already mentioned : Seven orange and two vegetable packing houses, 
two grist mills, three lumber yards, three hotels and a number of good boarding 
houses. The city maintains a band and two newspapers, the Orange Count}' Dail\ 
Tribune, established in 1889, and the Fullerton News, which was established in 
1902. There are six churches — the Presbyterian, organized in February, 1888; 
the Methodist, December 2, 1888; Baptist, November 12, 1893 ; Christian, in April, 
1905 ; also tht Catholic and Christian Science. 

The following account of the origin and development of the Fullerton Public 
Library was furnished by Miss Minnie Maxwell, the librarian : 

The Fullerton Public Library had its origin in a little reading room that was 
established about 1903 by a little group of women led by Mrs. Anna T. Dean. 
A room over the First National Bank was secured and funds for rent, heat and 
light were raised by subscriptions solicited by Mrs. G. W. Sherwood and Miss 
Anna McDermont. Magazines, newspapers and books were freely donated by 
citizens, and the room soon became a popular place. Volunteer attendants cared 
for the room and lent books to patrons. 

In 1905, realizing the advantages to the city of such an institution, the city 
trustees took up the matter of securing funds to build a public library, and applica- 
tion was made to Andrew Carnegie. In order to comply with the requirements, 
the city purchased a lot on the corner of Wilshire and Pomona avenues, and also 
appointed a committee to secure subscriptions amounting to $1,000 for the pur- 
chase of books. The committee appointed consisted of Miss Anna McDermont, 
Mrs. G. W. Sherwood, Mrs. Otto des Granges and Mt-s. Wm. Schulte. The 
money was subscribed and a gift of $10,000 was secured from the Carnegie Cor- 
poration. The board of library trustees, acting at the time of the construction of 
the library building, was made up of J. C. Braly, president; A\'. W. Kerr, secre- 
tary ; D. R. Collings, Prof. A. L. Vincent and Meredith Conway. 

Early in 1907 work was begun on the building, which was completed and 
ready for use by December, 1907. Miss Minnie Maxwell was elected as the first 
librarian, and began her work in September, 1907. By the time the new building 
was completed about 1,000 volumes were ready to place on the shelves. From the 
beginning the books added to the library have been classified and catalogued 
according to the most approved methods, making the contents of the library 
readily accessible to the users. The collection of books has grown .steadily until 
now (1919) there are about 7,000 volumes, besides valuable files of magazines, 
newspapers, pamph'lets, etc. 

The library serves not only the people of the city of Fullerton, but gives free 
service to the people of the surrounding country and the neighboring towns as 
well. The present building is inadequate for the needs of the rapidly growing 
city, and a new addition or an entirely new building is necessary in the near future. 
The board of trustees of the library is as follows. Dr. F. J. Gobar, president ; 
H. W. Daniels, secretary; Mrs. G. W. Sherwood, Anna McDermont, S. J. Lillie. 

November 12, 1902, a hospital association was incorporated and this has been 
in operation ever since, maintaining a reputation for having a thorough equipment 
and efficient service. 

The city has one union high school, organized in 1893, and in 1906-07 a new 
building was erected, costing about $50,000. This was totally destroyed by fire 
in 1910. A new site was purchased and more and better buildings were erected, 
as may be seen in the chapter on Orange County's Schools. On August 12, 1908, 
Fullerton organized a fire department. It has a paid service and is modernly 
equipped. Fullerton has an active Board of Trade, which has done more than 
any other agency to advertise the city and its surroundings, and to beautify them 
as well. It was organized in 1901 and now has 150 members. It has a Masonic 
Lodge, which was organized in October, 1900; -the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows was instituted in March, 1901 ; the Independent Order of Foresters in 



60 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

September, 1897; Fraternal Brotherhood in August, 1899; Fraternal Aid in 1893 ; 
also Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen of America, Woodmen of the World, 
Eastern Star, P. E. O. and Rebekahs. It has also a Woman's Club, which is affili- 
ated with the state federation. This organization has wielded a strong influence 
in the social and civic work in the city. The Ebell Club is also a dominant factor 
in the city's life. 

Following are the city officers as they stood after the election and appoint- 
ments in 1920: Board of trustees, W. F. Coulter, president; L. F. Drake, R. 
A. Marsden, R. R. Davis, Robert • Strain ; clerk, F. C. Hezmalhalch; treasurer, 
Fred Fuller ; recorder, William French ; attorney, Albert Launer ; engineer, George 
Wells; street superintendent, A. G. Barnes; water and sewer superintendent, 
Geo. Witty ; marshal, Vernon Myers; health officer, Dr. J. H. Lang; park superin- 
tendent, J. G. Seupelt; board of health, J. H. Lang, M. D., health officer; K T. 
Hall, :\1. D., G. C. Clark, M. D., G. W. Finch, Mrs. Carrie Ford; community 
nurse. May Pierce. 

Fullerton nestles in the center of orange and walnut groves and is distant 
but ten miles from Santa Ana, the county seat. The city is made up of com- 
fortable homes and is surrounded w.ith very fine land suitable for growing almost 
anything put into it. The people are generous and hospitable and anxious to pro- 
mote the general welfare in any way that will serve the interests of all. 

During the year 1919, the city of Fullerton issued 188 building permits, whose 
total value was $528,609. I. H. Dysinger, building inspector, says the actual 
value of the improvements is greater than the amovmt indicated by the permits; 
but that is the case generally in all the cities. 

Recent building operations include the Fullerton Improvement Company's 
building at Spadra and Amerige, erected at a cost of $55,000, and a later one at 
Spadra and Wilshire costing $62,000. This latter building houses the temporary 
city hall and the Rialto theater, the latter being one of the classiest playhouses in 
the state. The Masons have bought ground at Spadra and Chapman for a $60,000 
temple ; the Christian Scientists have built a $26,000 church, and the Ebell Club 
plans to erect a $40,000 club house. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE CITY OF HUNTINGTON BEACH 
Supplemented by Charles R. Nutt 

In the spring of 1904, the name of a little village known as Pacific City 
was changed to Huntington Beach, and the townsite was acquired by the Hunting- 
ton Beach Company, a corporation with its principal offices at Los Angeles, from 
a syndicate of Long Beach and Santa Ana men who were owners of Pacific 
City. On July 4, 1904, the first electric car from Los Angeles reached Hunt- 
ington Beach. 

In addition to purchasing the holdings of the Pacific City syndicate, the Htmt- 
ington Beach Company bought large acreage sites which they included in the 
limits of the new city, dividing it into lots 25xll7j^ feet, laid many miles of 
cement pavement, built a water and an electric lighting system, installed a tele- 
phone system and made many other municipal improvements which added greatly 
to the value of their holdings. 

At that time there were only three houses on what is now Main Street, and 
about twenty homes in the town. The grammar school building was also com- 
pleted in the summer of 1904. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 61 

In the spring of the above mentioned year a meeting was held in a Main 
Street building by a Union Sunday school, and in the following year a church 
of the Methodist denomination was organized and services were held in the 
present bank building, in the room now used as a city hall. In March, 1906, 
the newly organized church secured a church building, locating it at the 
corner of Seventh Street and Magnolia Avenue, where it still stands. In the 
spring of the same year the present Baptist Church was erected and an organiza- 
tion of the Christian Church was formed about the same time^ In 1908 the last 
named denomination built the church which it now uses on Eighth Street. 

In 1906 the Southern California Methodist Association, which had- been 
holding its annual sessions at Long Beach, built in Huntington Beach the com- 
modious auditorium which it has ever since used for its annual camp meetings 
and sessions of the Epworth League. 

Early in the year 1904 a bank was organized by business men residing chiefly 
at Long Beach and called the Huntington Beach Bank. A year later its name 
was changed, having been reorganized under the national banking laws and it 
was called, as it still is, the First National Bank of Huntington Beach. A savings 
bank was also formed in connection with it and called the Savings Bank of Hunt- 
ington Beach, and the present quarters of the two banks were built in 1905 and 
have been occupied continuously by them ever since. The stock of both institu- 
tions is now owned by local men. In the year 1905 two lumber companies were 
formed to do business in the city, one the Starr and the other the San Pedro 
Lumber Company ; the latter afterwards buying the former and continuing in 
business to the present time. 

Other business enterprises which came to Huntington Beach in the early 
years of its existence were the Anthracite Peat Fuel Company in 1905, the La 
Bolsa Tile factory, the Raine Tile Company, the Huntington Beach Cannery 
(which put up a substantial canning plant and flourished until 1908) ; the Hunting- 
ton Beach Tent City Company (composed of local business men, which has 
enjoyed a fairly successful career), and various mercantile establishments. The 
Tent City Company each summer puts up and rents a large number of tents to 
those attending the jNlethodist camp meetings, the Grand Army encampments and 
other conventions and meetings for which Huntington Beach is fast becoming 
popular. 

Huntington Beacli was incorporated in February, 1909, as a city of the sixth 
class. Its area is about 2.77 square miles. Its assessed valuation in 1920 was 
$1,023,635, with a tax rate of $1.50, which includes special taxes for library, 
music, promotion and sinking fund. The bonded indebtedness is $104,750.00. 
The postoffice receipts in 1913 were $5,625.52, and in 1918 were $7,867.40, an 
increase of 39.8 per cent in five years. Village delivery was established in 
September, 1917. The present population is 1,687. 

The following denominations have each a church in the city: Methodist 
Episcopal, Baptist, Christian, Catholic, Church of Christ, and Christian Science. 
The Southern California Methodist Association maintains an auditorium here with 
a seating capacity of over 2,000, where the Methodists hold their annual camp 
meetings, and which is also used by other organizations, such as the Southern 
California Veterans' Association, Epworth League, Church of Latter Day Saints, 
etc., for their annual outings. 

The elementary school district has a very modern and up-to-date school build- 
ing, erected in 1915 at a cost of approximately $75,000, employs thirteen teachers 
and has an enrollment of 300 pupils. The Union high school employs nine teachers 
and has an enrollment of 115 pupils. It has a well-equipped manual arts building 
and teaches domestic science in all its branches in addition to the regular training 
for college or business. Much attention is also paid to agriculture in the course 
of study. 



62 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

The public library, housed in a Carnegie building and supported by the city, 
has over 6,000 bound volumes on its shelves and many of the leading magazines 
and other publications on its tables. A weekly newspaper was established almost 
with the birth of the city, and has been published without intermission ever since, 
increasing in importance with the city's growth. 

Huntington Beach has been selected as a suitable place for the location of a 
number of important industries, among which may be mentioned the following: 
Holly Sugar Factory with an annual output worth $2,225,000; Beach Broom 
Factory, output worth $40,000; Pacific Linoleum and Oilcloth Factory, output 
worth $250,000 ; Pearse Cannery, output worth $8,000 ; Huntington Beach Nur- 
series, output worth $4,000. The city has exported approximately 625 carloads 
of sugar and 325 carloads of beans, besides other products in less than carload lots. 

The total length of paved streets in the city aggregates 16.85 miles with about 
fourteen miles of oiled streets. Approximately fifty-eig:ht miles of cement side- 
walks have been laid. The length of the sewers, including laterals, is seven and 
a half miles. The trunk lines, septic tank and outfall cost $35,000; extension to 
main and construction of laterals, under district assessment, cost $29,158. 

The municipality owns the gas distributing system, which includes about 
twenty miles of mains and laterals. It has 500 patrons consuming about 75,000 
cubic feet of gas daily ; the gas is the natural article purchased from the Southern 
Counties Gas Company. 

The city has four parks of moderate size aggregating about eleven and a half 
acres. It also has a pleasure pier constructed of reinforced concrete at a cost 
of about $60,000. 

Following are the present city officers : Board of trustees, Ed. Manning, 
president ; Richard Drew, C. J. Andrews, R. L. Obarr, Albert Onson ; clerk, 
Chas. R. Nutt ; treasurer, C. E. Lavering ; attorney, L. ^^^ Blodget ; recorder, C. 
W. Warner; engineer, C. R. Sumner; superintendent gas and sewers, F. L. 
Snyder ; marshal and superintendent streets, Geo. M. Taylor. 

The city has a chamber of commerce with about seventy wide-awake mem- 
bers. The Free and Accepted Masons have a good healthy lodge, and the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows have a good membership and fairly good attend- 
ance. The Order of Eastern Star and the Rebekah lodges are reported to be very 
much alive. There is but one labor organization. The American Federation of 
Musicians, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. There are two 
fraternal insurance lodges, the most active of which is the Modern Woodmen, 
although the Woodmen of the World has some membership. 

The municipality gives aid to and partially supports a brass band under the 
direction of C. H. Endicott, more generally known as "Pop," who is a thorough 
musician and very active in every good work for the" advancement of the com- 
munity and the county. The Huntington Beach Municipal Band under his leader- 
ship has become a very creditable organization and a veritable booster for the 
county. 

Surrounded by a rich agricultural section, supplemented by the beach as a 
summer attraction, Huntington Beach will not only maintain its place in the 
struggle for existence, but it will forge ahead of some of its less favored com- 
petitors and become one of Orange County's important cities. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 63 

CHAPTER VIII 

THE CITY OF NEWPORT BEACH 
Supplemented by George P. Wilson 

When the final history of California shall have been written Newport Beach 
will be counted as one of the most thriving of her coast towns. Not only is its 
location beautiful from a scenic point of view, but better still it has a more abiding 
attraction in its admirable location from a commercial standpoint. Located upon 
the body of water from which it takes its name, Newport Bay, which is the largest 
body of water between San Francisco and San Diego, it had been the habit of 
vessels of other days to make port here because it was possible to cross the bar 
on high tide, unload and reload the vessels in still waters, not on piers constructed 
for the purpose, but upon the solid ground of the mainland. Inasmuch as the 
Pacific Coast is not sufficiently equipped with ports of entry and as Newport Bay 
offers unsurpassed natural advantages, it is the earnest hope of citizens of the 
town located upon its borders that the Government, which needs for the carrying 
on of its own business every available port on this coast, will unite with the 
citizens of Orange County in perfecting one of the most important harbors on 
America's western coast. This hope is strengthened by the fact that comparatively 
speaking the improvement could be accomplished at small cost. Newport Bay is 
a perfectly land-locked body of water, covering eight square miles, and the union 
of Nature's efforts with modern engineering could easily convert this into one of 
the best ports in the world. 

Appeals to the Federal Government have thus far brought no material assist- 
ance, although the inspecting engineers and visiting statesmen all speak favorably 
of the natural advantages of the bay for harbor purposes. The Hon. Josephus 
Daniels, Secretary of the Navy,' in his recent trip through the county, gave strong 
encouragement for Federal aid. Some time ago the people of Newport Beach 
bonded their city for $100,000 to start the improvement. The good results from 
that outlay were so apparent that they were encouraged to solicit aid from the 
county. An election was called for June 10, 1919, to vote county bonds in the 
sum of $500,000 for the development of the harbor. The result of that election 
was: Bonds, yes 6,077; bonds, no 2,572. These bonds sold at a premium of 
$11,887, which speaks well for the credit of Orange County. 

Not only will Newport Harbor become the yachting center of the Pacific 
Coast, it is expected, but the opening of this safe anchorage will no doubt attract 
industrial establishments to this already favorable location. A fish cannery has 
been built which will employ about fifty people and it is quite probable that this 
will lead to the location of other fish canneries on the harbor. 

The city of Newport Beach is clustered about the bay and water front so 
promiscuously that it is hard to determine its area from the map with any degree 
of accuracy; however, it seems to occupy from three to three and a half square 
miles of territory. The census of 1910 credits Newport Beach with a population 
of 445 ; the 1920 census gives the city a population of 898. The assessed valu- 
ation of the city for the year 1920 is $1,289,685. The city has one and a half 
miles of paved streets and seven, miles of oiled streets, fourteen miles of cement 
sidewalks and one and one-half miles of board walk, and two pleasure piers. 

The present city officers are as follows: Board of trustees, J. P. Greeley, 
president ; J. J. Schnitker, Art L. Hieard, Dr. Conrad Richter, L. S. Wilkinson ; 
clerk, Alfred Smith; treasurer, Lew H. Wallace; marshal and tax collector, J. A. 
Porter ; attorney, Clyde Bishop ; street superintendent, Frank J. Knight ; gas man- 
ager, F. L. Rinehart; water superintendent, John McMillan; engineer, Paul E 
Kressley; recorder, Byron Hall; harbor master, A. J. Beek; clerk of harbor com- 
mission, Lew H. Wallace. 

The following associations maintain organizations in Newport Beach : Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, Bible Institute Chapel, Newport Beach Chamber of Com- 
merce, Newport Harbor Yacht Club. 



64 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

CHAPTER IX 

THE CITY OF ORANGE 

Supplemented by D. G. WettUn 

Almost in the exact center of the county of Orange may be found the city 
of Orange, thirty-one miles southeast of Los Angeles, on the Santa Fe Railroaa, 
at the junction of the kite-shaped track with the surf line to San Diego, it is 
also centrally located on the upper half of the mesa between the foothills and the 
Santa Ana River, and is surrounded by a productive, densely populated area con- 
tammg the communities of McPherson, El Modena, Villa Park, Olive, West 
Orange and Santa Ana, the county seat, all within a radius of four miles. 

The following statement, taken from the testimony of A. B. Chapman in the 

famous water suit between the two sides of the river in 1877, explains the origin 

of the city : 

"The townsite of Orange was laid off in 1870 or 1871 by Captain Glassell 
and myself. The town of Santa Ana was laid out at the same time. At that time 
I went to Santa Ana and there were two or three men there in tents, a Mr. 
Spurgeon and two or three others. Santa Ana was not laid off by the same parties 
who laid off Orange. I was the father of Orange and Spurgeon and Bradford 
were the fathers of Santa Ana. Columbus Tustin laid off Tustin and lives there." 

The original townsite of Orange contained forty acres of land which was sub- 
divided into eight five-acre blocks with twenty lots in each block. Eight lots were 
reserved at the center, for a public plaza. The town was called Richland, but 
later the name was changed to Orange, because there was already one Richland 
in the state and the government would not grant a postofifice to another. Additions 
have been made to the town from time to time by subdividing the acreage tracts 
surrounding the original townsite and naming such additions after the owners. In 
that way P. J. Shaffer, Joseph Beach, N. D. Harwood and others have left their 
names to streets or additions to the city. 

Building material was an important item in the early days, the lumber in the 
first houses being hauled by team from Los Angeles or \Vilmington. The resi- 
dence of Joseph Beck on Almond Avenue is said to be the oldest house in Orange, 
having been built for Captain Glassell's office where the Ainsworth block, now 
stands. If we mistake not, the building moved to the northwest corner of the 
plaza square to make way for the Campbell building, was the first store. 

The early settlers were a sturdy band, collected from all parts of the world 
tor the sal<e of the cheaper land and the better opportunities afforded by a new 
country. Their very hardships and privations brought them closer together, 
enabling them to realize the truth of the proverb that "one touch of nature makes 
fnra^ff» worid kiu " Previous distinctions of birth, rank and precedence were 
banfer in" <* ^^^^''""^"^'^^ ^^""^ ^'^her ignored or treated with good natured 
banter. All met on the common plane of good will and helpfulness. 

whenaTho'lTcommlr"'^"'^^'^ ^^^"^ handicaps for any individual; but 

:r'L"st™Tt'tm:r a'^fry^tfuTlt^lu^f^^^^ °"^ '^"^"'f i° ^"^^^^^' ^^^'^^ 
experience what the climate and soil of fh "''^^ "' ^"'^'"^ °"* "^^ ^^^tual 

of the old home are SadanterTtn^!,"^'^ '^°""*'">^' ^^""^ '^'ff^^^"* from that 
results. For Since, Jo epfXchpfaTted'^nr? ''°" '° '""^ ^''°"' *^ ^^^^ 
kinds of trees and vin;s^n s'ucces%',tvSg°revSTarsr eld^^^^^^^ 
convinced that ifdid not come up to his expectations. TfermiitS of ^'"^ 
vines had grown to matu^ ty and a reputation M superior rai iiS lad been ^'?u' 
hshed, some mysterious disease, which baffled the government SnertsH.'*^''j 
all the vines. Before there were any quarantine kws the mrservme; destroyed- 
several kinds of insect pests on their stock, which cringed frn^J.^ '^P"""*^^ 
eral years and even tl^reatened its extinctiok; I^fSl^S^Kl^nprf)^^^. ^ 



HISTORY OF ORANGE" COUNTY 65 

fumigating were perfected that keep the pests in check. The difficulties of de- 
veloping an irrigating system were almost insuperable, to say nothing about the 
litigation over the water rights. The soil, which never had been irrigated, was 
porous and the squirrels and gophers honeycombed the ditch banks, so that it was 
hard to make them hold water. Many an orchard was kept alive by water hauled 
in a barrel on a sled. While all these experiences were being worked out, the 
people had to live somehow. Every profession, trade and vocation had its repre- 
sentatives in the community ; while all kinds of farming, dairying, poultry raising, 
etc., were carried on with different degrees of success. Many men found employ- 
ment abroad and the women did the outdoor work at home. 

Notwithstanding the hardships and privations of the early days, the educa- 
tional, religious and social wants of the community were not neglected. Schools 
were established, some of the children coming as far as eight miles on their ponies. 
At first religious services were held in the schoolhouse by the different denomi- 
nations, with a union Sunday school. People thought nothing of mounting the 
high seat of the farm wagon and riding from one to twenty miles to church ; 
in fact, one old Scotch couple used to walk the latter distance from the Santiago 
Canyon to the Presbyterian Church in Orange nearly every Sunday. The Musical 
Union was one of the earliest musical organizations, and from that time down to 
the present many other organizations, both vocal and instrumental, have furnished 
the people with music of a high order. Literary societies were carried on, and 
entertainments of various kinds for various purposes were frequent. One of the 
best amateur baseball clubs in Southern California, if not in the state, had its 
headquarters at Orange. 

The esprit de corps, or spirit of local patriotism, was just as strong in the 
early days as now. Nearly every exhibit, of whatever character, from Orange 
in competition with others, won a prize, because the people were willing to con- 
tribute of their products and labor to make it a success. When the Santa Fe 
wanted a right of way through the valley, the citizens of this community donated 
one of their streets and $8,000 in money to get the railroad where they wanted 
it. A few months later a little diplomatic work secured the junction for Orange 
after it had been promised to Santa Ana. Some $1,500 was raised to improve the 
plaza, the ladies raising one-third of the amount by the production of an original 
play, with local coloring, and other entertainments; a few years ago about $1,000 
more was added to provide cement curbs and gravel walks. Bonds were voted 
from time to time to build schoolhouses as fast as they were needed, one $7,000 
building being destroyed by fire. Most of the present church buildings were 
erected in the early days, though some of them have since been enlarged. The 
public library had grown to considerable proportions on private subscriptions, en- 
tertainments and membership dues before it was turned over to the city. When 
the new county was being formed, in 1889, the Rochester Hotel, which cost over 
$50,000, was offered free for a courthouse, and a vigorous but unsuccessful cam- 
paign was waged for the county seat. A little later the hotel was bought by the 
people, with the assistance of Rev. J. H. Harwood, and turned into the Orange 
County Collegiate Institute. After carrying on the school for three years, Mr. 
Harwood mortgaged the property to get his. money out, and left the city. More 
examples of the early hardships might be given; but perhaps enough have been 
mentioned to show something of the difficulties encountered in the settlement of 
Orange and the character of the people who overcame those difficulties and made 
the later successes of the community possible. 

The city of Orange was incorporated April 6, 1888, as a city of the sixth 
class, with an area of approximately three square miles and a population of about 
600 people. Its location midway between the sea and the mountains gives it almost 
an ideal climate the year round. The invigorating sea breezes temper the extreme 
heat experienced farther inland, while the damp and chilling atmosphere prevailing 
nearer the coast, seldom causes discomfort here. There is scarcely ever sufficient 
frost to do any material damage. The soil of this portion of the valley is a sandy 



66 HISTORY -OF ORANGE COUNTY 

loam, rich and fertile, easily cultivated and adapted to a great variety of products. 
Citrus and deciduous fruits, nuts, vegetables and all kinds of farm products are 
successfully grown and easily marketed over the many railroads or by ocean 
transportation. 

The railroad facilities of this section are unsurpassed. The Santa Ee has 
stations at Orange and Olive, and the Southern Pacific at West Orange, 
Villa Park, McPherson and El Modena. The Pacific Electric has recently built 
through Orange on its way from Santa Ana to connect with its line from Los 
Angeles to Placentia. Its fine new depot is located on the northwest corner of 
Chapman Avenue and Lemon Street. On account of the convenient location of 
the Santa Fe depot in Orange and the excellent service of that road, it has received 
the greater part of the business of this community thus far. 

Water for domestic purposes, for lawns and flower gardens and for street 
sprinkling, is supplied by the city water system. The city owns its water system, 
which consists of three deep wells, two 50,000 gallon tanks on sixty-foot steel 
towers and a large reservoir, steam engines, air compressors, pumps, etc., with 
mains and pipes adequate to supply the growing needs of the city. The water is 
abundant and wholesome. Ample fire protection, has been provided, including a 
fine motor truck, hose and hose carts and hook and ladder equipment, in charge 
of a well organized volunteer fire department. Water for irrigation is supplied 
from the Santa Ana River by the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company, which 
is described elsewhere. The charges for water in both systems are very moderate 
— much below the average. 

Notwithstanding its close connection with larger places. Orange is itself a 
business center, and has enough stores, shops and offices to supply all the ordinary 
wants of the people. These establishments represent almost every business, pro- 
fession and trade found anywhere ; many of the lines have more than one repre- 
sentative in the city. The stores, shops and offices are generally housed in sub- 
stantial buildings and modern business blocks, some of which are equal to anything 
of the kind in the county. Surrounding this business center are hundreds of 
beautiful residences, furnished with all the conveniences and luxuries of the 
modern home. The cement sidewalks and well kept streets give easy access to all 
parts of the city for pedestrians and every kind of vehicle. There are twelve 
miles of streets with cement sidewalk and curb on each side, which improvement 
was made at a cost of about $75,000. Two and three-quarter miles of streets in 
the business section have been paved with the regular cement asphalt pavement. 
Twenty miles in the residence portions have been graded, oiled, wet down, graveled 
and rolled, making a smooth, firm roadway, free from dust, at a cost of about 
$750 per mile. The city trustees on March 8, 1920, let the following contracts for 
street paving according to specifications including five-inch thickness : To B. R. 
Ford, on Collins Avenue, .78 miles or 4,145.97 feet long by 8 feet wide at 21 1^ 
cents per square foot, amounting to $7,131.06; to H. E. Cox, on Tustin Street, .98 
miles or 5,197 feet long by 16 feet wide at 21 cents per square foot plus $618 for 
culverts, $18,079.92; to H. E. Cox, on N. Glassell Street, .12 miles or 630.26 feet 
long by 44 feet wide and .37 miles or 1,982 feet long by 20 feet wide at 21 cents 
per square foot, $14,148. Total 2.25 miles at a cost of $39,358.98. This leaves 
only one mile of unsurfaced dirt road in the city. About nine years ago a good 
sewer system was installed, consisting of septic tanks, two and a half miles of 
outfall and several miles of laterals reaching all the thickly settled portions of 
the city. 

A contract was awarded to Joseph A. Lieb on November 21, 1919, to erect 
117 concrete electric light posts with single lamps complete in the business center 
and principal streets of Orange for the sum of $18,000. Bonds were voted on 
February 24, 1920, to the amount of $80,000 for a city hall ; also to the amount 
of $12,000 for an additional city well. 

According to the United States census the population of the city of Orange 
in 1890, two years after its incorporation, was 866; ten years later, in 1900, it 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 67 

was 1,216; and in 1910 it was 2,920, having more than doubled in that decade. 
The 1920 census gives a population of 4,884. Besides this good number in the 
city itself, the territory surrounding Orange, and tributary to it, is thickly settled, 
adding strength and support to the schools, churches and other institutions of 
the city. 

The elementary schools, which take the children through the eighth grade, 
thereby fitting them to enter the high school, are housed in two substantial eight- 
room buildings and one larger intermediate building, with aU the necessary con- 
veniences, which with the grounds are worth over $100,000. The Orange Union 
high school district includes the elementary school districts of Orange, El Modena, 
Villa Park and Olive. The four high school buildings, which are located in 
Orange, are among the most commodious and tasteful buildings in the state, con- 
sidering their cost, which was over $100,000, including the fvirnishings and six 
acres of grounds. The St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church supports a large 
parochial school at Orange, to teach the children the tenets of the church and 
to give them correct instruction in the use of their mother tongue, the German 
language. The school occupies two buildings valued at over $9,000. 

There are nine religious denominations that are maintaining regular services 
in Orange, each having its own house of worship. These church edifices range 
in value from $1,000 to $50,000, including the furnishings and grounds. Lodges — 
or other titles — of nearly every known organization, benevolent, educational, fra- 
ternal, industrial, patriotic and social, have been instituted here and are well 
supported. The Orange Public Library, containing several thousand well-selected 
books, besides current papers and periodicals, is housed in a $10,000 Carnegie 
building, the grounds and furnishings for which cost about $2,500 additional. 
j\Iiss Charlotte Field'is the competent librarian and is assisted by her mother, Mrs. 
Anna C. Field, who had charge of the library for many years. 

The officers of the city at the present time are as follows : Board of trustees, 
Elmer D. Hayward, president ; F. E. Hallman, W. T. Walton, O. E. Gunther, L. 
\V.- Hemphill ; clerk and assessor, D. G. Wettlin; treasurer, Bessie Wilkins; attor- 
ney, L. F. Coburn ; recorder, H. L. Bearing ; water rate collector, Florence Reavis ; 
marshal and tax collector, H. S. Warner; night marshal, C. W. Pulley; water 
superintendent, W. J. Richardson ; health officer, Dr. F. L. Chapline ; gardener, 
C. F. Sauer'; fire chief, A. L. Tomblin; fire truck drivers, Wm. Vickers and D. C. 
Squires ; street superintendent and general inspector, G. W. Buchanan ; board of 
health. Dr. F. L. Chapline, G. W. Whitsell, Perry V. Grout, F. A. Grote, C. C. 
Bonebrake. 

The Edison Electric Company supplies electricity for light and power ; the 
principal streets, all of the business houses and most of the private residences are 
thus lighted, while practically all the manufacturing and repair shops use electric 
power. The Southern Counties' Gas Company furnishes gas for light and fuel. 
The city is provided with excellent mail, express, telegraph and telephone service. 

Orange made commendable progress in 1919 with quite a number of new 
residences, a few new business buildings, and several fruit packing houses, the 
bi^ilding cost totaling more than $100,000. The headquarters of the Orange 
County Fruit Exchange are in Orange, as well as several independent buyers. 
Following are some of the more expensive buildings recently erected in the city, 
as shown by the building permits : The Santiago Orange Growers' Association 
packing house, $52,290 ; Orange Union High School garage and machine shop, 
$7,000; A. H. Pease, packing house, $6,000; A. H. Pease, another packing house, 
$6,000; N. T. Edwards, addition to offices, $2,000; Santa Ana Valley Irrigation 
Company, garage, $2,200; George H. Pirie, remodeling building, $3,200; A. H. 
Pease, addition to packing house, $4,000; F. H. Kredel, business block, $7,000; 
H. W. Duker, dwelling and barn, $6,500; J. Mclnnes, packing house, $7,000. 

One of the first acts of the first board of trustees was to forbid the sale of 
intoxicating liquors as a beverage in the city, and this opposition to saloons has 
been maintained from the incorporation of the city down to the present time. 



68 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Thus the city of Orange, with much that is good and little that is evil in its make- 
up, attracts and retains the best class of people for citizens. 

Financial Resources of Orange District 

There are two strong national banks and two savings banks in the city of 
Orange, and to these may be added the Orange Building & Loan Association and 
the First National Bank of Olive in estimating the financial resources of the 
district. All of these institutions by their liberal assistance, carefully administered, 
have done much toward the advancement of the best interests of the community. 
The large amount of deposits in each, in proportion to the size of the community, 
shows the confidence the people have in their stability. 

The deposits in the National Bank of Orange, June 30, 1920, were $1,545,- 
343.27, and in' the Orange Savings Bank, affiliated with it, $863,572.06, making 
a total in these two banks of $2,408,915.33. The deposits in the First National 
Bank of Orange on the same date were $840,514.37, and in the Security Savings 
Bank, affiliated with it, $736,982.43, making a total in these two banks of $1,577,- 
496 80. The Orange Building & Loan Association has deposits of $745,358.84 
and the First National Bank of Olive, $169,436.51, making a total of $4,897,207.48 
for the Orange district, a comfortable balance for the community after having 
invested considerably over a million dollars in the five Liberty Bond issues, to 
say nothing of AVar Savings Stamps and all the contributions to the various 
relief funds. 



CHAPTER X 

THE CITY OF SANTA ANA 
By Linn L. Shaw 

A history of Santa Ana, the county seat and principal city of Orange County, 
would be incomplete and lacking in real historic value, did it not embody the tales 
of the struggles and achievements of its pioneers — the men who, backing their 
foresight with their limited capital, their energy and toil, selected its site in the 
wilderness of mustard and cactus and made its future development possible. As 
this volume contains interesting biographical sketches of nearly all these men, 
wherein much is related concerning the early history of Santa Ana, the attention 
of the reader is directed to them in conjunction with this article, particularly to 
the life stories of W. H. Spurgeon, James McFadden, Samuel Ross, Granville 
Spurgeon, Noah Palmer and D. Halladay. And we would also refer to the sepa- 
rate article on the public library, which contains much of interest of the early 
days of our municipality. 

Santa Ana was founded as a settlement in October, 1869, by Hon. William 
H. Spurgeon, who from that incident and from the fact that during all the years 
of his activity he was a leading factor in its development, is fairly entitled 
lo the distinctive title of the "father of the town," which he has always 
borne. The original townsite as platted by Mr. Spurgeon, and surveyed by 
George Wright, was recorded December 13, 1870, and consisted of but twenty- 
four blocks ; bounded on the north by Seventh Street, on the south by First Street, 
on the east by Spurgeon and on the west by West Street, or what is now officially 
named Broadway. Prior to this date, however, Mr. Spurgeon built his plain red- 
wood store, at the corner of Fourth and West streets, and the English home had 
been erected on the east side of Sycamore Street, between Second and Third, 
where it still remains and is being used as a blacksmith shop. December 18, 1870, 
is an important date in the town's history, for upon that day the first child was 
born within its borders — Lloyd Hill, a son of Jasper C. and Maria Hill. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 69 

That others than Mr. Sptirgeon were attracted by news of the rich, cheap 
lands of this section is attested by the record that in December in 1869 a sufficient 
number of settlers had arrived to organize a school district, known as Spring. 
And as usual the little American schoolhouse blazed the way for patriotic citizen- 
ship — only in this instance the schoolhouse was not "red," but a rough board 
affair without desks or blackboa.rds, and provided only with long, hard benches. 
iVIiss Annie Cozad was the first teacher and deserves a place in the history with 
our local pioneers. 

At this time Santa Ana was three miles off the main traveled stage road 
between Los Angeles and San Diego, which crossed the Santa Ana^ River north of 
where the city of Orange now stands, at a ford designated the "Rodriguez Cross- 
ing," and continued southeasterly through Tustin, where a settlement already 
existed. With characteristic energy Mr. Spurgeon induced the stage company to 
change its route to Santa Ana, and thereby secured a postoffice for the new town 
in 1870. He was appointed postmaster at the munificent salary of $1 a month. 
The first postoffice consisted of a wooden shoe box, with partitions to separate the 
mail of the settlers. He also cut a road through the mustard connecting the new 
town with the Anaheim road, with the view to making it as accessible as possible 
to settlers and homeseekers. Town lots were placed on the market at ridiculously 
low prices and in many instances donated outright where immediate improvements 
were agreed upon. The little hamlet thus struggled on for several years, slowly 
adding to its population and advantages, and receiving the benefit of a general 
development of the rich, damp lands to the south and west, to which had already 
been applied the facetious title of the "Gospel Swamp," a term which has almost 
been forgotten in the rapid march of progress. Good, pure water was easily 
obtainable, and in June, 1873, Mr. Spurgeon established a plentiful supply with 
an eleven-inch well, sunk to a depth of 340 feet, with a large elevated tank for 
a reservoir. 

The Wells-Fargo Express Company opened an office at Santa Ana in July, 
1874, and the following year marked a new era of activity for the town. Just 
preceding this period D. M. Dorman built the Santa Ana Hotel, a really fine 
structure for those days, at the corner of Fourth and Main streets, on the present 
site of the First National Bank. This old building is now located at the corner 
of Fruit and G streets. From 1875 the growth of the town gained momentum. 
The Masonic brethren of the community organized Santa Ana Lodge, No. 241. 
F. & A. M., which was instituted on October 1 of that year, the Odd Fellows 
immediately following with Santa Lodge, No. 236, on the thirtieth of the same 
month. The year 1877 marked the erection -of the first brick building of Santa 
Ana, which was built by Mr. Dodge, near the corner of Fourth and Bush streets. 

Early in the spring of 1877 the Southern Pacific completed its line to Santa 
Ana, from Anaheim, which for two years had been its terminus, placing its depot 
at Fruit Street. The fare to Los Angeles was two dollars, and twice that amount 
for the round trip, which restricted the journeys of our people and caused a good 
deal of dissatisfaction. Complaint was not confined to the exorbitant fare, but the 
character of the service was also bitterly condemned, as it was furnished entirely 
with mixed trains and three hours was the usual running time each way. While 
these complaints were apparently justified, yet the great advantage of the railroad 
was at once manifested. 

With the advent of the railroad a rival townsite, called Santa Ana East, was 
platted and was expected by its promoters to attract all the business houses of the 
town. The streets of this new townsite ran diagonally, parallel, and at right 
angles with the railroad track, which entered the town on an angle almost due 
southeast. The lots were all twenty-five foot fronts, designed for business pur- 
poses, and the site extended from the railroad to French Street, including D, E, 
F, G and H streets, with the cross thoroughfares from Wellington Avenue to 
Fruit Street. The venture was a total failure so far as any effect on the business 
center was concerned, which has always remained practically as outlined by the 



70 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

founder of the city, never varying more than a block or two in the swing of the 
commercial pendulum. 

A strong temperance sentiment in the village was indicated by the organ- 
ization of a large lodge of Good Templars January 19, 1878. The last of what 
might be termed the pioneer lodges was that of the A. O. U. W., which came mto 
legal existence February 27, 1879. During the month of March of this same year 
Dr. J. G. Bailey began the erection of a brick block, at the corner of Third and 
West streets, where it still stands. Many new dwellings now marked the site 
where ten years before an absolute waste prevailed ; several business houses sup- 
plied, the commercial wants of the people, and with its railroad, postoffice. news- 
paper, express office and hotel, the inhabitants of the young city were justified 
in anticipating a prosperous future. Already a bitter rivalry had developed be- 
tween this lusty new aspirant for municipal distinction and the older town of Ana- 
heim, which, established as it was in 1857, had held undisputed supremacy of the 
valley in this regard for twenty years. 

The census of 1880 was anxiously awaited by both towns, and when the 
figures were finally received, showed the following population for the two 
localities : 

Anaheim township 1,469 Anaheim town 833 

Santa Ana township 3,024 Santa Ana town 711 

Such a condition could have but one result. Santa Ana, having the advantage 
of by far the most populous contiguous territory, soon forged ahead of its rival 
and as early as 1882 became the chief town of the valley, a position which it has 
always maintained. Just at this time, however, occurred the most discouraging 
calamity of its career. The people of Santa Ana had for several years been dis- 
cussing the need of a bank and in December, 1881, B. F. Seibert, a prominent 
citizen of Anaheim, opened a general banking house in the new Gildmacher block, 
which had just been completed at the corner of Fourth and West streets. His 
venture was met with enthusiasm, and the entire confidence of the community, 
which was eloquently illustrated by the fact that his first day's deposits amounted 
to $28,000. Mr. Seibert immediately became the moving financial spirit of the 
town. He negotiated for business property, residences and ranch lands, inaugu- 
rated a movement for a fine new hotel building and exhibited a most inspiring 
and inexhaustible spirit of enterprise generally. His bank steadily grew in popu- 
larity and importance until, on the fateful day of August 16, 1882, the citizens 
were almost paralyzed by the news that it had failed to open its doors, behind 
which $130,000 of their good money was supposed to have been safely entrenched. 
Practically all the ready money of -the town had passed into the hungry maw of 
this unscrupulous swindler, and. as the truth of the appalling situation became 
understood, the temporary apathy of despair overcame the hitherto bustling little 
city. Business was generally suspended and the bank failure and its probable 
outcome monopolized the conversation of anxious throngs everywhere. Seibert 
had discreetly vanished, and in this precaution he evinced his old-time shrewdness, 
for had the outraged populace been able to lay their hands upon him at this hour 
the most drastic measures would, no doubt, have been resorted to. 

The general impression was that Seibert's afifairs were a complete failure 
but Messrs. C. F. Mansur and Charles Wilcox, who were appointed receivers of 
the defunct bank, held the securities which came into their possession until ad 
vantageous sales were made and were finally able, after a period of many months 
of trying circumstances, to clear up the aflfair with a total payment of seventv 
cents on the dollar. 

A few weeks prior to Seibert's failure a new bank, called the Commercial 
was opened on Fourth Street, near Main, being financed chiefly by Noah Palmer 
and Daniel Halladay. This institution being perfectly sound and conducted on 
absolutely safe and con.servative lines, assisted materially in restoring the financial 
conditions of the town to a normal basis, though naturally suflfering temporarily 
from the general lack of confidence resulting from the previous disaster. In spite 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 71 

of the retarding influence of that overwhehning loss, the tales of the wonderful 
fertility of this new region served to bring new settlers and new money into the 
town and its surrounding country, and improvements followed each other with 
such rapidity that a genuine boom was soon in full progress. 

Sycamore hall, which for some time had been used for dances and general 
public gatherings, was arranged for a primitive theater in May, 1881, and two 
rival but enterprising citizens put on the first street sprinkling wagons the same 
month. The Stafford block had been built the year previous and the year 1882 
was made notable by the erection of the pretentious Spurgeon block, a large 
two-story brick at the corner of Fourth and Sycamore streets ; the Commercial 
Bank building, at Fourth and Main streets ; the Dibble, Titchenal, Layman and 
Vanderlip blocks, all two stories, and the Hdllingsworth block, a one-story brick 
structure. No less than forty good residences were erected during the year. At 
this period there were eighty business houses in the town, and the religious element 
was represented by five churches; the South Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, 
North Methodist and the German Evangelical. The citizens were proud of their 
"large new two-story school house," which by the way was later condemned and 
sold by the school board, moved further north on Sycamore Street and remodeled 
for a lodging house. 

Many wooden structures of more or less importance now housed commercial 
enterprises of various sorts all along Fourth Street, the principal thoroughfare ; 
real estate agents were eagerly showing and selling ranch lands and town property 
and the Griffith Lumber Company was taxed to its utmost to supply the demands 
of the busy contractors. In 1883 Mr. Spurgeon's water system had a storage 
capacity of 20,000 gallons of pure artesian water, pumped from two deep wells, 
and. the taxable wealth of the town had reached the very respectable sum of 
$597,785. The first fire-fighting apparatus, a chemical engine, was purchased in 
December of that year, the money being raised by popular subscription. 

During the summer of 1884 a handsome new hotel, the Taylor House, a large 
two-story wooden building, was erected at the corner of Fourth and French 
.streets ; and the west end of town received another important building in the D. 
Gildmacher block, on the north side of Fourth Street, between West and Birch. 
The winter and spring preceding marked the heaviest rainfall ever recorded in 
the history of the city, the total precipitation for 1883-84 reaching over thirty-six 
inches. Early in February, prior to which time the rainfall had been rather less 
than the average, a season of flood began. All streams were transformed into 
raging torrents, and as there were no wagon bridges, soon became impassable. 
Railroad traffic was suspended altogether February 16, when the bridges over 
both the Santa Ana River and Santiago Creek were practically destroyed and 
several miles of track beyond washed out. Away to the west and south for miles 
the country resembled an inland sea, and a rowboat, launched by some courageous 
citizens at the western edge of town, voyaged into the Newport district, where 
it was reported that human lives were in danger. These men did take several 
parties out of the flooded district, but found no one in imminent peril. Much 
property was destroyed by this flood, a few families being rendered almost desti- 
tute, but such instances were readily cared for by the warm-hearted people of 
the valley. 

Train service to Santa Ana was not resumed until March 26, and was inter- 
rupted several times after that by freshets. Mail, provisions, etc., had been brought 
in with great hardship intermittently during the period of isolation, and while 
supplies were often at a low ebb, there was never any suffering. As late as June, 
1884, the Santa Ana River was described as being one-third of a mile wide and 
even in August a sudden rise of two feet in the turbulent stream, caused by the 
melting snows in the mountains, washed out the dam of the irrigation compan}' 
at the headworks of their system. Wells of all depths were flowing that summer 
and water was the cheapest thing in use. Authentic history of the valley records 
only one similar season to this— that of 1861-62, when it rained almost contin- 



72 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

uously from December 24 to April 9, and the precipitation must have been 
measured in feet, if at all. 

During all these years Santa Ana had existed merely as a village, under 
control of the county of Los Angeles. Sentiment for incorporation as "a city of 
the sixth class" had been growing steadily and on June 1, 1886, at which time 
the population of Santa Ana was about 2,000, an election was held to determine 
whether the town should assume the responsibility of separate municipal govern- 
liient. The advocates for corporation carried the day by forty- four majority and 
the following gentlemen were elected as the first officers of the city: Trustees, 
W. H. Spurgeon, J. R. Porter, T. J. Harlin, John Avas and A. Snyder; clerk, 
Samuel Wilson ; treasurer, G. J. Mosbaugh ; marshal, Charles H. Peters. The new 
board of trustees met June 21 and organized by electing Mr. Spurgeon as its 
chairman. A few weeks later J. W. Turner was appointed town attorney ; C. W'. 
Humphreys town recorder, and Adam Foster chief of the fire department. 

At this period the "boom" was rapidly approaching the zenith of its spec- 
tacular existence. People were pouring into Southern California from all parts 
of the country and the abnormal and unfounded demand for real property of all 
descriptions had developed into a mania. Matters of location and price were not 
considered and town lots several miles from a railroad, with absolutely nothing 
to recommend them for such a purpose, sold readily at really enormous prices. 
The unbridled frenzy of speculation was rampant all over Southern California, and 
the young city of Santa Ana was soon enveloped within its dazzling folds. 

This fact, coupled with the natural desire to improve the town as rapidly as 
possible, placed upon its newly organized government a heavy load of business 
and responsibility. On August 11, 1886, the trustees granted to M. G. Elmore 
a franchise to lay gas mains through the streets and alleys of the town, and a 
week later decided to purchase twelve street lamps from Mr. Elmore to be used 
on Fourth Street on alternate corners from Mortimer to Olive. On this same 
date steps were taken for the organization and maintenance of a fire department, 
the southeast room in the Spurgeon block was rented for a city hall and the 
Herald was designated as the first official paper. A communication was also 
received from C. W. Humphreys asking for a franchise to build and operate the 
Santa Ana, Orange and Tustin Street Railway, which was later granted. This was 
the first street railway in the town and was operated for several years with horses, 
finally being discontinued after heavy financial losses. The line to Tustin was 
removed entirely, but the one to Orange was continued through subsidies on the 
part of the merchants for several years, when it was sold to the Pacific Electric 
Company and still remains a part of that system. 

The First National Bank was organized in May, 1886, and in September the 
Pacific Weekly Blade, a Republican paper, was started by A. J, Waterhouse and 
Walter F. X. Parker. Business blocks and residences were in process of con- 
struction everywhere and any man who could run a saw or swing a hammer found 
ready employment as a carpenter. Acreage adjoining the city was snapped up 
by speculators and subdivided into town lots which were sold with a rush, either 
through the usual office methods or by auctions. "South Santa Ana,"' where 
enterprising farmers are now raising sugar beets, threatened for a time, at this 
period, to become a world-famed metropolis. 

If anything further was needed to complete the utter speculative abandon 
with which the people were now possessed it was supplied in the advent of the 
great Santa Fe system, which built into Santa Ana in 1887 and on to San Diego 
Being now furnished with two great competing railroads, both of which were 
daily bringing new people by the score into the new city, all doubts as to the 
future were dispelled. Realty values climbed higher with each setting sun and 
dreams of opulence became the nightly portions of dozens of men who, with a 
little property, deemed themselves poor a couple of years before. 

Perhaps the most notable of all the boom-time operators were the men com- 
posing the "Fairview Development Company," who purchased several hundred 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY n 

acres on the mesa eight miles southwest of Santa Ana and proceeded to build a 
city of their own. They constructed a railroad from Santa Ana to this town of 
Fairview, sold lots by the hundred, erected quite a number of good buildings 
there, started a newspaper, established a hotel and bath house, which was made 
locally famous on account of the warm sulphur water which they had procured 
from a deep artesian well, and it is said, held an option on every piece of property 
between the two places. 

Everywhere the same spirit manifested by this company prevailed, and in 
many instances their methods were imitated so far as resources and ability per- 
mitted — the resources often consisting very largely of credit acquired through 
matchless nerve and balmy influence. Conservatism was roughly jostled aside or 
trampled under foot, and day by day the boom ascended the smooth pathway of 
plausible hope and apparently tangible prosperity until, reaching the summit of 
human credulity, it began to weaken; slowly at first, but with ever-increasing 
impetus until in 1889 the whole structure collapsed, leaving the fair face of 
Southern California strewn with pitiful wrecks of erstwhile handsome fortunes. 

It was almost impossible to place a fair value on any piece of realty, par- 
ticularly town property, in the general slump which followed and Santa Ana 
suffered heavily in the reverses. However, in spite of the undeniable ruin meted 
out to veritable armies of investors during this spectacular period of California 
history, the fact remains that much permanent good resulted to Santa Ana after 
all, for during these years it had been transformed from a village to a modern 
young city of importance. The Brunswick Hotel, First National Bank building. 
Opera House block and Richelieu Hotel — all three-story structures — besides a 
large number of good two-story brick buildings, were erected during the boom, 
as well as hundreds of residences, all of which, of course, remained and formed 
a solid nucleus upon which to resume the building up of the city later on. 

Once more the boundless resources of the fertile valley were appreciated, 
perhaps as never before ; and while the collapse of the boom struck hard at the 
financial strength of all Southern California cities, Santa Ana, by reason of its 
splendid agricultural backing, was able to weather the reverses with but little 
harm as far as its municipal standing was concerned. 

About this time (in the year 1888) an important commercial enterprise known 
as the Newport Wharf & Lumber Company was organized, being the outgrowth 
of the transportation business which had been conducted by Jarries and Robert 
McFadden since 1874, through a vessel operated between Newport Bay and San 
Francisco. The new company erected a wharf at Newport Bay extending about 
1,500 feet into the ocean, in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Steamship Com- 
pany, and established a wholesale lumber business at Santa Ana which soon de- 
veloped into the largest and most important commercial enterprise the city has 
ever known. In the year 1891 the McFadden brothers, with others of the com- 
pany, organized the Santa Ana & Newport Railway and built a steam road con- 
necting the city with the^new wharf, eleven miles distant, and thus provided cheap 
and quick transportation of their immense cargoes of lumber to the general yard 
at Santa Ana. This business rapidly increased in volume, its transactions reaching 
half a million dollars yearly and its payroll' carrying one hundred men who never 
failed, during all its existence, to receive their wages regularly every week. This 
enterprise assisted very materially in the prosperity of Santa Ana during the dull 
period following the boom and continuing on through the national panic of 
1893-96. The lumber business was finally discontinued in 1902 on account of 
transportation difficulties and the railroad was sold to Senator Clark, of Montana, 
who almost immediately disposed of it to the Southern Pacific, which company 
still operates it. 

The year 1888 was also a notable one in the city's history on account of the 
organization of its original board of trade, now known as the Santa Ana Cham- 
ber of Commerce, which has always been a potent factor in the development of 
the town, but the most important event of this period was the creation of the new 



74 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

county of Orange on March 11, 1889, and the selection of Santa Ana as its county 
seat July 11, of the same year. 

The census of 1890 gave the city a population of 3,628. Company F, its 
first military organization, was mustered in in June of that year with sixty-one men, 
Capt. C. S. McKelvey commanding, H. T. Matthews heing first Ueutenant and 
N. A. Ulm second lieutenant. 

Up to this time Mr. Spurgeon's water system had supplied the town, but on 
December 1, 1890, the city voted $60,000 for a municipal plant, which was at 
once installed. The supply was secured from a number of deep artesian wells, 
forced to all parts of the city by the Holly system. On November 21, 1904, addi- 
tional bonds of $100,000 were voted for a general enlargement of the plant. 

The city's history during the '90s was marked by few important events and 
its growth was exceedingly slow for the greater part of that decade. A bond 
issue of $60,000 was voted March 7, 1898, for a complete sewer system, to which 
about $7,000 has since been added, represented by a total of about twenty-five 
miles of mains. 

Free mail delivery was established in Santa Ana in March, 1899, with letter 
carriers, the receipts of the postoffice having passed $10,000 a year. The postal 
receipts of this office for the year 1911 exceeded $30,000 and seven city carriers, 
seven rural carriers and eight clerks were employed. 

The census of 1900 showed a population of 4,933. During this year a hand- 
some court house, costing $100,000 with furnishings, was erected by the county 
on the old plaza owned by Mr. Spurgeon, which had always been reserved by him 
for that purpose. This building with its imposing architecture and spacious, well- 
kept grounds, is the most conspicuous structure in the city. 

One of the notable achievements during the city's history was the abolition 
of saloons, which was accomplished at the regular election in April, 1903, the 
proposition being submitted directly to the people and carried by nearly two-thirds 
majority. For a number of years preceding this crisis the anti-saloon forces had 
been agitating prohibition, and the action of the city trustees in granting an extra 
saloon license in 1902, increasing the number from six to seven, brought the issue 
to a head. All saloon licenses expired June 30, 1903, and Santa Ana has remained 
"dry"' ever since. That a strong high-license sentiment still existed, however, was 
demonstrated by the fact that the next year the trustees were compelled by a 
popular petition to again submit the question, the majority still being in favor of 
prohibition, but greatly reduced. An important coincidence was here manifested, 
for while the city's growth had been exceedingly slow since 1890, and the retard- 
ing effect of banishing the saloons had been one of the chief arguments of the 
high-license people, a marked era of improvement was soon inaugurated and has 
continued without interruption to the present time. 

A handsome new city hall, costing $20,000, was formally dedicated in Novem- 
ber, 1904, at the corner of Third and Main streets. In the fall of 1906 the great 
Huntington trolley system entered Santa Ana from Los Angeles, giving our 
citizens the best passenger service possible and affording a new and popular means 
of transit for tourists and homeseekers to' reach this section. This important 
event was celebrated in December by a novel innovation, called the "Parade of 
Products," in which the varied resources of the county were marshaled into an 
attractive pageant of floats, which was such an unparalleled success that the 
following year it was extended to three days, with a different street display each 
day and a large tent exhibit. The name was changed to the "Carnival of Prod- 
ucts," under which more comprehensive title it was for several years an annual 
event. 

It would be impossible to attempt to enumerate the great list of improvements 
which have been made in Santa Ana in recent years. Handsome new residences, 
in which the world-famed California bungalow style predominates, have been 
erected by the score in all parts of the city ; several new imposing church edifices 
which would be a credit to any city, mark a prosperous condition in religious 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 75 

circles ; the school facilities have been greatly improved by the addition of modern 
structures and including a commodious separate building for a commercial high 
school ; and miles upon miles of cement sidewalks and curbs have been put in. 

Banks of Santa Ana 

Following were the deposits in the banks of Santa Ana as reported to the 
Government on June 30, 1920, in comparison with those reported on June 30, 
1919: 

Banks— 1920 1919 Increase 

First National $ 6,390,621.03 $ 4,790,945.05 $ 1,599,675.98 

Farmers & Merchants Sav.. 2,260,395.95 1,554,442.92 705,953.03 

Orange Co. Trust & Savings. 1,763,271.69 1,286,136.60 477,135.09 

California National 1,296,526.53 888,977.72 397,548.81 

Totals $11,700,815.20 $ 8,520,502.29 $ 3,180,312.91 

While the' date of these reports may not be regarded as the most favorable 
time of the year for the best showing of deposits, on account of so much money 
being tied up in the growing crops, yet it is just as good as any for making com- 
parisons either with the deposits of past years or with those of banks in other 
cities, since the same date would be used on both sides of every comparison. 
However, $11,700,815.20 is a lot of money to have in the banks of a city 
the size of Santa Ana. It is $2,623,865.20 more than all the property, real and 
personal, is assessed at in the county seat for the purpose of taxation. If the 
amount were divided equally among the citizens of Santa Ana, every man, woman 
and child would have a bank account, for a brief period of $755.62 in addition 
to any other property that he might possess. But these bank deposits do not all 
belong to the citizens of Santa Ana ; quite a portion of them came in from the 
surrounding country. In any case, they are not community property or subject 
to any kind of distribution without an equivalent in exchange. What is true of 
these deposits is true of other deposits elsewhere and of all kinds of property 
throughout the world. Private ownership and use of property is almost invariably 
the reward of industry and frugality and should not be shared with the idle 
and dissolute. W^ealth honestly acquired and rightly used is a great blessing not 
only to its possessors, but also to the whole community in which it is held or 
expended. 

Present Status of the Banks 

The Commercial Bank of Santa Ana began negotiating the sale of its assets 
to the Farmers & Merchants National Bank of Santa Ana in May, 1910. It took 
several months to complete the transaction on account of the legal questions 
involved. The Commercial Bank ceased to exist on the first day of August, 1910. 

The Citizens' Commercial & Savings Bank was organized and opened in 
November, 1914. On January 1, 1917, it merged with the California National 
Rank under the name of the latter, which had been doing business since February, 
1911. 

The First National Bank and the Farmers & Merchants Bank merged Febru- 
ary 21, 1919, taking the name of First National Bank. 

The Santa Ana Savings Bank, affiliated with the First National Bank, and 
the Home Savings Bank, affiliated with the Farmers & Merchants National Bank, 
merged July 1, 1919, under the name of Farmers & Merchants Savings Bank. 

The Orange County Trust & Savings Bank was remodeled in 1911. Addi- 
tional real estate with leases on same cost $18,245, building cost $39,612.33, and 
vaults and safety deposit boxes cost $11,000. 



76 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Public Library of Santa Ana 

The spring of 1878 was one of great rejoicing for Santa Ana, as it marked 
the completion of the Southern Pacific Railway to the town. The round trip 
from Los Angeles was $4 and the trip was a luxury which was enjoyed only on 
state occasions, but it gave the citizens a new feeling of responsibility, a 'desire 
for greater opportunities for self cuUure and mutual improvement. It was at 
this time that the need of a circulating library was suggested. The Santa Ana 
Weekly Times of April 11, 1878, has a communication as follows: "Editor of 
The Times:. Several times I have through the medium of your paper called atten- 
tion to the fact that Santa Ana ought to have a circulating library. _ The project 
has met with universal appreciation. I have now much pleasure in informing the 
public the Santa Ana Public Library Association has been organized, to be gov- 
erned by the following constitution and by-laws. Further particulars can be 
obtained by applying to .Airs. H. C. Berry, Mrs. H. W. Lake, Mrs. O. B. Hall or to 

Yours respectfully, 

J. G. BAILEY, M.D." 

Then followed the constitution and by-laws in full, one part of which was "the 
by-laws of the association can be altered or amended at any semi-annual meeting, 
providing two-thirds of the charter members present agree to the same, and not 
otherwise." 

A few persons became intensely interested in the enterprise and assumed the 
task of soliciting names for membership. The following officers were elected, viz. : 
Mrs. O. B. Hall, president; Rev. H. S. McHenry, vice-president; Dr. J. G. Bailey, 
secretary; Mrs. N. O. Stafford (now Mrs. R. J. Blee), treasurer, and Mrs. C. E. 
French, librarian. Santa Ana had a library association organized — on paper — 
with about $20 to purchase and equip the institution. Persons having books that 
were of interest kindly donated them; thus a nucleus was formed. C. E. French 
contributed a wardrobe into which shelves were fitted and he offered the society a 
portion of the office be occupied at the corner of Fourth and Main streets. Books 
were added from time to time from the membership fees. In the fall of 1878 
the library was opened to the members and their families. The struggle to main- 
tain it was then begun. To keep it supplied with new matter socials, musicals and 
literary entertainments were given and collections taken to increase the funds. 
Among some of the workers besides those already mentioned were Rev. H. I. 
Parker and wife, Mrs. Walter Kent, Mrs. S. H. Hersam, jNIiss May Kent, Miss 
L. Berry, Miss M. D. Hotell, Miss Claribel Nichols, Dr. J. N. Burtnett, Pearl 
Kent and Col. W. F. Heathman. In April, 1879, the latter succeeded in giving 
an entertainment which was very successful and brought over $100 to the fund, 
and this increased the interest in the organization. The location of the library 
was changed several times owing to changes in business firms, it being placed 
wherever the best place was offered without cost to the association. 

In 1886 an organization of the W. C. T. U. was perfected in Santa Ana. The 
following year they decided to establish a library and free reading room. They 
gave a book social and over 100 volumes were donated. They leased a place 
over Rowe's book store and fitted up the front room as a reading room. The 
library of the old association numbered then about 400 volumes. After due con- 
sideration the members voted to turn the library over to the new organization, 
which was done in 1887. and in January following the \Y. C. T. U. gave a formal 
opening. The problem of meeting the necessary expenses was a grave one and the 
organization deserves great credit for the manner in which they solved it. One 
"flower festival" they gave netted them $700. A merchants' carnival for the 
same purpose was a great success. 

The next important step was the transfer of the library by the W. C. T. U. 
to the city of Santa Ana, September 1, 1891. This included the 960 volumes with 
all fixtures and equipment and the lease of the hall at 112 West Fourth Street. 
From that date it was to be supported by a tax levied for that purpose and to 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 77 

be thrown open to the city as a free Hbrary and reading room "to all proper 
residents and taxpayers therein." The first funds received from this source was 
October 5, 1891. The first board of trustees were E. E. Keech, C. E. French, 
Dr. J. A. Crane, Rev. Mr. Booth, and D. M. Baker. Helen A. Kernodle was ap- 
pointed librarian. A report of the board of library trustees of July 3, 1893, shows 
the library to have had about fifty patrons and the highest number of books given 
out in one day, twenty. The report for the year was 950 patrons and the maxi- 
mum number of books passed out in one day, 135. 

October 1, 1892, the library was transferred to the Hervey building, 121 East 
Fourth Street, where it remained until it was removed to its present home, made 
possible by Andrew Carnegie, who donated $15,000 to the city for the building. 
W. H. Spurgeon gave the lot and the Native Sons built the walks and the retain- 
ing wall. The furnishings were provided by private subscription and the trustees 
of the city gave $1,000. When it was first used only the main fioor was occupied 
and there was then ample room. As the years have passed shelving has been 
added for the books and the quarters gradually became crowded. A document 
room has been added in the basement. The circulation from July 1, 1909, to June 
30, 1910, was 47,588. The present building was started in August, 1902, and the 
library moved in July, 1903. The board of library trustees are, viz. : Dr. C. D. Ball, 
Mrs. W. B. Tedford, Mrs. P. L. Tople, Chas. Robinson and J. S. Smart. The 
present librarian. Miss Jeannette E. McFadden, became associated with the library 
in 1897 and in June, 1901, was appointed to her present position, which she fills 
with satisfaction to all. 

Commercial Progress 

The commercial progress of the city of Santa Ana has been even greater in re- 
cent years than its growth in population, as may be seen in the fact that there are 
$2,623,865.20 more deposits in the city's banks than its entire assessed valuation. 
While the assessment is undoubtedly low, that will not account for such a discrep- 
ancy. The fact is that a considerable part of those deposits belong to the rural 
population for miles around Santa Ana. The county seat is the center of trade and 
distribution for practically all of the middle and lower parts of the county and to 
some extent for the upper parts as well. With trade and distribution come produc- 
tion and manufacturers. In 1909 the Southern California Sugar Company com- 
menced operating a factory with a daily capacity of 600 tons of sugar beets. Two 
or three years later the Santa Ana Sugar Company entered practically the same 
field, each of these companies employing about 300 men during the campaign, be- 
sides providing a market for the farmers' beets. Two large lumber yards with well- 
equipped planing mills have been kept busy supplying the increasing demand for 
building materials. Several large packing houses for fruits, nuts and vegetables 
make this city an important shipping point. A number of autos are constantly 
employed collecting and returning clothes for the steam laundries of the city. 
Among other industries that made noteworthy progress during the year 1919 may 
be mentioned the C. H. Kaufmann & Sons' plant, which manufactured and shipped 
nearly 100,000 automobile spotlights during the year, and employing about fifty 
people. The Haven Seed Company produced, cleaned, packed and shipped nearly 
five billion tomato seeds during the season of 1919, with an annual payroll of 
$100,000. The J. E. Taylor Canning Company packed thousands of jars of mar- 
malade, jellies, preserves and canned fruits, and the California Packing Corpo- 
ration's plant packed approximately 7,000,000 cans of chili, pimentos and apricots. 
A horse-collar factory, a rug factory, an iron and brass foundry, artificial stone 
works, several machine shops, numerous garages and bicycle shops and oil stations, 
an ice plant and many other industries have added their quota to the general 
volume of business. 

Two important industries have been reserved from the foregoing brief sum- 
mary for special mention, because they gave some special data about their business 



78 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

to chronicle in the history. They are the "Mission Woolen Manufacturing Com- 
pany" at Washington Avenue and Santiago Street, and the "California Crate 
Company." 

The woolen mill has been running since August, 1917. Up to January 1, 
1919, it made 70,000 army blankets and 60,000 yards of melton for overcoats for 
the Government. It is now making blankets, cassimeres and lap robes. Some of 
the blankets are exported to Siberia and China. The company is employing 
seventy-five men and women, and has a weekly payroll of $1,600; at one time, 
while on Government work, it had $90,000 worth of wool in the warehouse. The 
officers are : A. E. Bennett, president ; C. A. Robinson, vice-president ; P. A. Robin- 
son, treasurer. According to a newspaper report the mill is planning to put on a 
night shift of weavers to keep pace with the demand. 

The California Crate Company dates the first step that led to its organiza- 
tion back about four years. Fred P. Jayne of Santa Ana established a small 
factory in August, 1916, for manufacture of folding or collapsible crates of his 
own invention. In February, 1917, M. A. Carter, formerly of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, 
joined him under the firm name of Jayne & Carter. In October of the same year 
the California Crate Company was incorporated with F. P. Jayne as president, 
A. M. Jayne as vice-president and M. A. Carter as secretary and treasurer. The 
principal product of the company has been the manufacture of the standard 
"Cummer Type" folding onion crate and during the last year this company has 
furnished the largest part of these crates used in Imperial and Coachella Valleys. 
This year the company has spread out and in addition is now making two sizes of 
a fruit crate invented by F. P. Jayne and known as the "Midget Crate," which 
is meeting with large success. It has also begun the manufacture of a new toy 
aeroplane and is fairly launched in the toy business having recently purchased 
two new buildings for use of the toy department. Mr. Jayne and Mr. Carter are 
both actively engaged in establishing and enlarging the business, the former as 
president and manager and the latter as superintendent. There are about twenty 
men and women employed in the factory at present and the number will be largely 
increased during the busy season beginning in December and running until June. 
The factory buildings consist of large, light and roomy machinery house, as- 
sembling rooms and storage warehouse, all well located on the tracks of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway in Santa Ana. 

The Chamber of Commerce maintains a substantial fund to aid in securing 
industrial enterprises. 

Churches 

The Methodist Episcopal Church South holds the distinction of being the 
first religious organization in Santa Ana, which was effected at the home of 
W. H. Titchenal in December, 1869. Services were held for a time in a private 
residence, later on in the schoolhouse and finally in its own building erected in 
1876, which is now supplanted by a commodious and well-arranged edifice. The 
Baptist Church was organized in 1871, the Methodist Episcopal North in 1874. 
and the United Presbyterian in 1876. After these pioneer churches various other 
denominations have been established here, until at the present time the list includes 
the following churches with their locations : 

Christian Holiness Mission , Spurgeon bet. Second and Third 

Church of Christ S. E. cor. Walnut and Broadway 

Church of the Messiah S. W. cor. Bush and Seventh 

Church of the Nazarene, Pentecostal N. E. cor. Fifth and Parton 

First Baptist N. W. cor. Main and Church 

First Christian N. W. cor. Broadway and Sixth 

First Church of Christ, Scientist S. E. cor. Sycamore and Sixth 

First Church of the Brethren N. E. cor. First and Lacy 

First Congregational S. E. cor. Main and Seventh 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 79 

First Methodist Episcopal N. E. cor. Sixth and Spurgeon 

First Presbyterian N. E. cor. Sixth and Sycamore 

First Reformed Presbyterian N. ^V. cor. First and Spurgeon 

First Spiritualist Church : 306i^ East Fourth 

Free Methodist , 311 Fruit 

Friends S. W. cor. Sixth and Garfield 

Holiness S. W. cor. First and Flower 

Immanuel Baptist '. . S. W. cor. Sixth and French 

International Bible Students' Association 311 N. Birch 

Japanese Church 602 E. Fifth 

Mexican Methodist Episcopal N. W. cor. First and Garfield 

Pentecostal Gospel Mission 405 N. Birch 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 

S. E. cor. Fifth and Flower 

Richland Avenue Methodist Episcopal S. E. cor. Parton and Richland 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic S. E. cor. Lacy and Stafford 

St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran N. E. cor. Sixth and Van Ness Avenue 

Salvation Army 303^ N. Sycamore 

Seventh Day Adventists S. E. cor. Fifth and Ross 

Spurgeon Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church South 

N. E. cor. Church and Broadway 

Trinity German Evangelical Lutheran Sixth bet. Lacy and Garfield 

Unitarian S. E. cor. Eighth and Bush 

United Brethren N. W. cor. Third and Shelton 

United Presbyterian N. W. cor. Sixth and Bush 

Zion's Church Evangelical Association (German) . . . .N. E. cor. Tenth and l\Iain 

Fraternal Societies 

F. & A. M., Santa Ana Lodge, No. 241. R. A. M., Orange Chapter, No. 72,. 

0. E. S., Hermosa Chapter, No. 105. I. O. O. F., Santa Ana Lodge, No. 236. 
R. & S. M., Santa Ana Council, No. 14. Canton S. A. No. 18, Patriarchs Mili- 

1. O. O. F. Laurel Encampment, No. 81. tant U. R. 

Sycamore Rebekah Lodge No. 140. Ladies of Canton, Santa Ana. 

Torosa Rebekah Lodge. A'eteran Odd Fellows Association. 

Veteran Rebekah Association No. 50. B. P. O. E., Santa Ana Lodge, No. 794. 

Fraternal Aid Union. Fraternal Brotherhood, S. A. Lodge, 
I. O. of R., Osage Tribe, No. 166. No. 2. 

Knights and Ladies of Security. Independent Order of Foresters. 

Knights of the Maccabees. Knights of Columbus. 
Ladies of the Maccabees Review No. 7. K. of P., Santa Ana Lodge, No. 149. 

R. N. A., Magnolia Camp, No. 4133. Modern Woodmen of America. 

K. T., Santa Ana Commandery, No. 36. Women of Woodcraft, S. A. Circle, 295. 

Woodmen of the World, Santa Ana Camp, No. 355. 

Patriotic Societies 

G. A. R., Sedgwick Post, No. 17. L. of G. A. R., Shiloh Circle, No. 21. 
Sedgwick, W. R. C, No. 17. D. of V., Sarah A. Rounds Tent, No. 10. 

Miscellaneous Organizations 

Altar Society, St. Joseph's Church. Associated Charities of Santa Ana. 

Automobile Club of Orange County. Automobile Club of Southern Calif. 

Catholic Homeseekers' Bureau. City Parent-Teachers' Association. 

Ebell Society of S. A. Valley.. Monday Club. 

Orange Co. Bldg. Industries. Orange Co. Medical Association. 



80 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Orange Co. Bar Association. Orange Co. Trades Association. 

Orange Co. Society P. C. A. Santa Ana Music Association. 

Santa Ana Domino Club. S. A. Typographical Union No. 579. 

Santa Ana Rifle Club. United Daughters of Confederacy. 

Sunset Club. Woman's Club of Santa Ana. 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Young Ladies' Sodality. 

The Press 

Nap Donovan, pioneer printer, published the first number of the Santa Ana 
News, on May 15, 1876. This paper died young from inanition. In October of 
the following year, he started the Santa Ana Herald, which, after passing through 
many hands, was absorbed by the Blade in 1903. 

Some time in the eighties the Stamps Brothers started the Santa Ana Times, 
which they afterwards sold to D. M. Baker. He changed its name to the Santa 
Ana Standard and continued its publication through the formative period of 
Orange County's history. He then sold the paper and traveled through the North- 
western States in search of a better field. After passing through a number of 
hands and suffering a change of name, the paper gave up the ghost. 

The Evening Blade was founded in 1887 by A. J. Waterhouse and W. F. X. 
Parker; but it was soon turned over to other owners. While it suffered many 
vicissitudes it continued to be the only daily paper in the county for several years, 
except for a brief period in the early nineties when the Free Press was making a 
vain struggle for existence. The Blade was purchased by Horace McPhee in 1895, 
who with his brother George carried it on for nearly a score of years. It was then 
sold to a Mr. Clarkson, who in turn sold it to the Register Publishing Company, 
and thus ended its existence. 

The Register was founded in 1905 by the Register Publishing Company with 
Fred Unholz and Frank Ormer as managers. The following year J. P. Baum- 
gartner bought a controlling interest of the stock, and has been editor and manager 
ever since. 

D. M. Baker, failing to find a more promising field for newspaper work, 
returned to Santa Ana, and with W. J. Rouse established the Bulletin in 1899, 
which he continued to publish until his death. The paper is now owned and pub- 
lished by C. D. Overshiner and M. A. Yarnell. 

The following are the present city officers : Trustees and committee assign- 
ments, J. G. Mitchell, president ; H. H. Dale, city and fire departments ; Walter 
A. Greenleaf , street committee ; C. H. Chapman, water, sewers ; and John W. 
Tubbs, police ; city clerk, E. L. Vegely ; city marshal, Sam' Jernigan ; city attorney, 
Geo. H. Scott ; city treasurer, Olive Lopez ; city recorder, W. F. Heathman ; super- 
intendent watei- and sewers, Walter Wray; street superintendent and city engi- 
neer, W. W. Hoy; city health officer, Dr. J. I. Clark; fire chief, John Luxem- 
bourger ; building inspector, Thomas Ash ; city electrician, Wm. McCuUoch ; sani- 
tary inspector, W. W. Chandler. 

Area of the city is nine square miles. It was first incorporated as a city 
of the sixth class June 1, 1886; then later its boundaries were extended to corre- 
spond with the boundaries of the school district and it was incorporated April 
9, 1888, as a city of the fifth class. The assessed valuation of the city in 1920 
was $9,076,950, with a tax rate of $1.45 for city purposes. Building permits for 
last year amounted to $215,344.48. The postoffice receipts for the last fiscal 
year were $64,648.61. Thirty miles of the streets are paved and as a rule cement 
sidewalks and curbs always border paved streets. 



October 10, 1919, was the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the city 
of Santa Ana. On his fortieth birthday, October 10, 1869, W. H. Spurgeon rode 
through mustard higher than his head on horseback to the sycamore tree, still 
standing, a few yards south of Fifth Street between Sycamore and Broadway. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 81 

Dismounting he climbed the tree and viewed the landscape o'er. Pleased with 
the prospect he bought seventy-four and one-quarter acres of this land from Ana 
M. Chaves, widow of Vicente Martinez, for $594. This was the allotment of 
Zenobia Yorba de Rowland in the division of the Santiago de Santa Ana grant, 
effected in 1867 in the Los Angeles Superior Court as the result of the suit of 
A. Stearns vs. L. Cota. The place was called Santa Ana from the name of the 
grant, Mr. Spurgeon being unwilling to call it by his own name. He lived to 
see his fondest hopes realized in the marvelous development of the city he founded 
and the county he helped to organize. 

What the future holds in store for this favored municipality no man can 
foresee. With a population of 15,485, according to the government census of 
1920, and the development of the magnificent territory hereabouts, yet practically 
in its infancy, an increase to 25,000 in the next ten years would not appear an 
over sanguine expectation. As yet no effort has been made to attract tourist 
support to the city, although the mountains and coast line afford more varied 
attractions than most tourist centers have to offer. It is not at all visionary to 
predict that when the Santa Ana Valley awakens to the possibilities which it has 
neglected in this respect for all these years, its chief city will become as famous 
as a mecca for pleasure seekers as it has for its purely stable characteristics. At 
the present time there is not a first class hotel or restaurant in the city, nor 
accommodations of any sort which travelers of means desire. Located as it is on 
the El Camino Real, or "King's Highway," the main thoroughfare for automo- 
biles between Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as on two steam lines and 
one electric, in the midst of the most celebrated playground for tourists in the 
world, it does not seem possible that such a condition can long continue. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE CITY OF SEAL BEACH 

By Sadie C. Sweeney 

The city of Seal Beach is located in the extreme southwest corner of Orange 
County, bordering on the Pacific Ocean southeast of the mouth of the San Gabriel 
River, into which Coyote Creek empties some distance from the coast. Accord- 
ing to tradition, the place was selected and promoted as a beach resort by Los 
Angeles capitalists under the name of Bay City, which name the school district 
still bears. Although the city continues to receive the patronage of many Los 
Angeles people, its main support comes from its own residents who are citizens 
of Orange County. 

The city was incorporated under its present name on October 25, 1911. Its 
area, as nearly as can be determined from the map, is about one and five-eighths 
square miles. Its assessed valuation for the year 1920, exclusive of operative 
property, is $638,755. Its present population is 669, according to the Federal 
census of 1920. There are two miles of paved streets, eight miles of oiled streets 
and about twenty miles of concrete sidewalk. 

A complete sewer system is being constructed now, and the city has voted 
bonds to install a municipal water plant. Following are the present city officers, 
and officers of other organizations : Board of trustees : John J. Doyle, presi- 
dent; Albert J. Morris, Walter A. Storts, A. J.. Spinner, J. Burkhart; clerk, 
B. B. Brown ; marshal, Harry Mayer ; city attorney, Joe C. Burke ; treasurer, 
Mrs. Sadie C. Bailey ; recorder, John H. May; health officer, J. P. Dougall; plumb- 
ing and electric inspector, Harry Mayer ; board of health : Dr. J. Park Dougall, 
Sadie C. Sweeney, A. W. Armstrong, James Graham, Mrs. Millie Ernie ; chamber 
of commerce: James A. Graham, president; J. H. May, vice-president; A. W. 
Armstrong, secretary ; Sadie C. Sweeney, treasurer ; Gustav Mann, Wm. Temple- 
man, W. A. Storts, J. H. May, Raymond Aldrich ; school board : Miss Amy Dyson, 
president; I. E. Patterson, clerk; Mrs. C. L. Flack. 



82 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

The number of teachers employed in the public schools, the number of 
pupils enrolled, the value of the school property and the cost of the schools for 
the year 1918-1919, may be found in the chapter on Orange County's Schools 
under the title "Bay City," which is the name of the school district belonging to 
Seal Beach. 

The only church to report in the city is the Bungalow Methodist Church. 

Bathing is enjoyed the year 'round ; it is absolutely safe for the children. 
There has never been a drowning in the surf at Seal Beach; there is no under- 
tow. The climatic conditions, too, are the best that can be found in Southern 
California; it is cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter than at most 
other places. 

The Pacific Electric Railway passes through Seal Beach on its way from 
Long Beach to Balboa. There is a paved road from Seal Beach to Long Beach 
and provision is made in the $40,000,000 state bonds, recently voted, to extend 
the state highway from Oxnard to Capistrano along the coast. 

The growth of Seal Beach is retarded at present by the lack of housing facili- 
ties, and it might pay the holders of vacant lots to build on them; but it would 
be better for the community, as well as the home-seekers, if they would buy and 
build in Seal Beach for the sake of the many natural advantages it has to offer. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE CITY OF STANTON 

The city of Stanton is located centrally in the agricultural section in the 
western part of Orange County, southwest of Anaheim and northwest of Garden 
Grove. It was named after Hon. Phil. A. Stanton of Los Angeles, who has 
large holdings of land in that vicinity. The city was incorporated on jMarch 29, 
1911 ; the principal purpose of the incorporation was to prevent Anaheim's sewer 
farm being located in that community. The area of the territory first included 
was afterwards reduced until now it is about six and one-half square miles. The 
assessed valuation of the city for the year 1920 is $629,335 ; and the tax rate for 
city purposes is $1.00. The population, according to the 1920 census, is 695. 
No one ever heard of Stanton parading itself as a. railroad center ; yet so it is, as 
may be seen on the map. The branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad, running 
from Anaheim to Los Alamitos, intersects the main line of the Pacific Electric 
Railway, running from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, in the very heart of the city 
of Stanton. 

Following are the city officers as they stood after the election and appoint- 
ments in 1920: Board of trustees, John F. Roe, president; E. B. Hosking, True 
W. Clark, James F. Robison, Frank G. Redmond; clerk, F. C. Beecher; treas- 
urer, F. D. Turner ; recorder, E. X. Willard. 



CHAPTER XIII 

UNINCORPORATED TOWNS 

Besides the nine incoi'porated cities in Orange County, which have been de- 
scribed elsewhere, there are about forty unincorporated towns, ranging in size 
from a few families to nearly sufficient population to incorporate as a city of 
the sixth class. Each of these towns serves as a business and social center for 
the surrounding territory, the postoffice in many cases having been superseded 
by the rural delivery from the larger cities. These towns may be briefly described 
in alphabetical order, as follows : 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 83 

Arch Beach is a small seaside resort one mile east of Laguna Beach. The . 
shore line in front of this town is the most attractive on the coast, with its 
picturesque bluflfs, jutting rocks and cunning coves. The name, Arch Beach, 
comes from a natural arch formed by the action of the breakers cutting a passage 
through a large projecting rock. 

Balboa is the name given to the eastern end of Newport Beach, to an island 
in the bay, and to the j;,alisades near Corona del Mar. 

Berryfield, Benedict and Cypress are way stations on the Pacific Electric 
Railway northwest of Garden Grove in the order named going toward Los An- 
geles. Besides accommodating the local travel they form shipping points for 
the products of the surrounding farms, gardens and poultry yards. 

Bolsa is located four miles west of Santa Ana in the grain, vegetable and 
stock-raising lands. It consists of a store, church, schoolhouse, and a few resi- 
dences which are badly scattered. 

Brookhurst is the first station on the Southern Pacific Railway northwest 
of West Anaheim. Although it is located near the dividing line between the 
fruit lands and the dairy secticTn, there are some fine orchards near the station. 
Buena Park is the last station on the Southern Pacific Railway before cross- 
ing into Los Angeles County. It is surrounded by alfalfa, beet and general farm- 
ing lands. Here is located the large condensed milk factory of the Pacific Cream- 
ery Company. 

Capistrano, the "Old Mission Town," is situated near the junction of San 
Juan Creek and Trabuco Creek, on the Santa Fe Railway, about twenty-five 
miles southeast of Santa Ana and three miles from the coast. The locality seems 
to be well adapted to fruits, grains and grazing, but the principal distinction is 
being the home of the San Juan Capistrano Mission. 

The first attempt to found the Mission of San Juan Capistrano was made 
October 30, 1775. A cross was erected and a mass said in a hut constructed 
for the purpose. The revolt of the Indians at San Diego on the night of 
November 5th, and the massacre of Father Jaume and others, news of which 
reached San Juan on the 7th, called away the soldiers. The bells which had 
been hung on the branch of a tree were taken down and buried and the soldiers 
and padres hastened to San Diego. November 1, 1776, President Serra and 
P'athers Mugartegui and Amurro, with an escort of soldiers, reestablished the 
mission. The bells were dug up and hung upon a tree, and their ringing assem- 
bled a number of the natives. An enramada of boughs was constructed and 
mass was said. 

The first location of the mission was several miles northeast of the present 
site, and at the foot of the mountain. The former location is still known as La 
Mission Viejo. Whether the change of location was made at the time of the 
reestablishment or later is not known. The erection of a stone church was begin 
in February, 1797, and completed in 1806. A master builder had been brought 
from Mexico, and under his superintendence the neophytes did the mechanical 
labor. It was the largest and handsomest church in California and was the pride 
of mission architecture. The year 1812 was known in California as el ano dc 
los temhlorcs — the year of earthquakes. For months the seismic disturbance 
was almost continuous. On Sunday, December 8, 1812, a severe shock threw 
down the lofty church tower, which crashed through the vaulted roof on the 
congregation below. The padre who was celebrating mass escaped through the 
sacristy. Of the fifty persons present only five or six escaped. The church was 
never rebuilt. "There is not much doubt," says Bancroft, "that the disaster was 
due rather to faulty construction than to the violence of the temblor. The edifice 
was of the usual cruciform shape, about 90x180 feet on the ground, with very 
thick walls and arched, dome-like roof all constructed of stones imbedded in 
mortar or cement. The stones were not hewn, but of irregular size and shape, a 
kind of structure evidently requiring great skill to insure solidity." The mission 



84 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

reached its maximum in 1819; from that on until its secularization there was a 
rapid decline in the number of its livestock and of its neophytes. 

This was one of the missions in which Governor Figueroa tried his experi- 
ment of forming Indian pueblos of the neophytes. For a time the experiment 
was a partial success, but eventually it went the way of all the other missions. Its 
lands were granted to private individuals and the neophytes scattered. It was 
restored by the Landmarks Club of Los Angeles, and its picturesque ruins are a 
great attraction to tourists. 

Celery is one of the stations and shipping points on the branch of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad running from Newport Beach to Smeltzer. 

Corona del Mar is a small hamlet on the mesa east of the mouth of New- 
port Bay. 

Delhi is a community center about two miles south of Santa Ana. 

El Modena is snuggled up against the foothills on a sightly mesa three miles 
east of Orange. The town proper was started in the boom, about 1886, by 
immigrants from the East, chiefly of the Quaker or Friends' denomination. The 
boomers went out with the boom and those who were left set to work to develop 
the country. As a result there are many fine orange and lemon orchards in this 
section and many other fruits and farm products are grown here. About half a 
mile south of the schoolhouse is the famous Hewes ranch, containing several 
hundred acres of diversified fruits and a large packing house on the Tustin branch 
of the Southern Pacific Railway. El Modena has a good water system, a Friends' 
Church, a graded school, a general merchandise store and other conveniences per- 
taining to a prosperous community. 

El Toro, twelve miles southeast of Santa Ana on the Santa Fe Railway, 
is the trading point of an extensive grain and grazing district. It is also the 
nearest railroad point to certain mining camps and bee ranches in the hills on 
the north and to Laguna Beach and Arch Beach on the south. 

Fairview, seven miles southwest of Santa Ana, is located on the northwest 
part of the broad mesa lying between the ocean and the damp lands southwest 
of the county seat. A carline was projected in boom days to connect the town 
with Santa Ana, but there was not sufficient travel to justify its continuance. 
Circumscribed by the San Joaquin ranch on the east and south and by the damp 
lands on the west and north, the place has made but little growth. 

Garden Grove, five miles northwest of Santa Ana on the Pacific Electric 
Railway, is the center of a large area of land adapted to general farming, dair)- 
ing and poultry raising. The shipping records show that Garden Grove has 
become the greatest egg producing district in Southern California. Ample 
water can he obtained for pumping at a maximum depth of 125 feet, which rises 
to within a few feet of the surface ; in fact, many of the wells flowed in the early 
days. This abundance of water has induced the installation of many pumping 
plants, thereby increasing the productiveness of the section. The town itself is 
making rapid strides toward a city, with brick blocks, cement sidewalks and nearly 
every kind of business house. A lighting district has been established under a 
state law, and a brass band is being maintained by the people. 

Garden Grove people must have considerable satisfaction — ^not to say pride — 
in helping to produce the following eggs-traordinary results, as set forth in The 
Youth's Companion: 

"The value of the eggs and poultry produced every year in the United States 
is now three-quarters of a billion dollars, or more than that of all the gold, silver 
and diamonds produced in a year in the whole world. There are about three hens 
to a person, and each hen lays on an average eighty eggs a year. The best layers 
produce as many as 240 a year. Farmers' flocks consist on the average of only 
about forty birds, but even at that they contribute notably to good living on the 
farm. 

"Of all sad words of tongue or pen. 
The saddest are these : 'I have no hen.' " 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 85 

As proof that Garden Grove's productions are not confined to eggs alone, 
note the following products shipped from there in 1919: Beans, 45 cars, 1,350 
tons ; beets, 130 cars, 4,662 tons ; cabbages, 37 cars, 439 tons ; eggs, 3,283 cases, 
98,490 dozen; oranges and lemons, 126 cars, 1,755 tons; peppers, green chili, 132 
cars, 1,990 tons; peppers, dried chili, 121 cars, 1,455 tons; pimentos, 75 cars, 
1,125 tons; potatoes, Irish, 11 cars, 157 tons; potatoes, sweet, 26 cars, 404 tons; 
tomatoes, 33 cars, 328 tons ; walnuts, 40 cars, 483 tons ; approximate value, 
$2,000,000.00. 

Greenville is the new name for what used to be the Newport school district, 
or Old Newport to distinguish it from the beach city of the same name. Whether 
the new name will supersede the latter name for the town remains to be seen. 
The place is a small cluster of houses about three miles southwest of Santa Ana 
in what was formerly known as the "Gospel Swamp" region. 

Harper is a station on the Santa Ana and Newport branch of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad near the north boundary of the latter city. 

Irvine is a station on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway about seven 
miles southeast of Santa Ana. It is the principal shipping point for the products 
of the great San Joaquin ranch. 

Laguna Beach, at the mouth of the Laguna Canyon and almost due south 
of El Toro, has been retarded in its growth by its difficulty of access. It has 
many natural advantages, the shore line here being nearly as picturesque as at 
Arch Beach, but most people prefer to go where there is railroad communication. 
Nevertheless, with regular automobile connection with Santa Ana and private con- 
veyances, the town continues to grow and the resort to keep many loyal patrons. 

A few years ago Pomona College, recognizing the advantages of Laguna 
Beach for the study of marine life, established a summer school there and gath- 
ered ,quite a collection of specimens in aquariums and cabinets to illustrate the 
instruction. For the same reason, and also for its coast scenery and atmospheric 
efifects, Laguna Beach has become a veritable Mecca for worshipers at the shrine 
of the fine arts. "Nature calls mightily here and answers the craving of every 
being who appreciates her wonders and delights in her beauty." The many artists 
thus drawn thither have formed the Laguna Beach Art Association and maintain 
an art display in the auditorium. Funds are being raised for an art gallery, library 
and music room in a new building. The present officers of the association are : 
Edgar A. Payne, president; Anna A. Hills, vice-president; Mrs. Thaddeus Lowe, 
2nd vice-president; Nevada Lindsay, secretary; Mrs. E. E. Jahraus, treasurer. 

The following appreciation, clipped from the Santa Ana Register, though 
not localized by the author, Thomas Wright of Tustin, will apply to Laguna Beach 
as well as to other places along the coast : 

"Orange County, fringed on its western boundary by scenic grandeur — the 
blue of the Pacific that ebbs and flows on its golden shores — the waves that beat 
against the scarred and rugged rocks that defiant stand, as they have done for 
ages, as the breakers hurl their restless forces against the barriers placed in their 
path by Him who holds the seas in the hollow of His hand ! 

"In this wonder spot of scenic grandeur, the wave-washed rocks reflect the 
glory of the sun and the blue of the sky, with their countless thousands of beau- 
tiful stone formations in all the colors and shades and delicate tints of the rain- 
bow's glorious glow. 

"As a lover of the beautiful, I stand among the rocks, in the misty spray, 
unable to comprehend the true wonders of creation ; the unfathomable mysteries 
of the deep ; the wonders in stones, shells and sea life washed in by the tides. I 
hear the happy laughter of children who play among the rocks and in the sand. I 
see lovers of the beautiful who come for recreation close to Nature's breast, 
some to meditate, others to study the wonders in curious shells, stones and sea 
life washed in upon the shore. I think of the Master who gave to us Christian- 
ity, who preached to the whole world by the Sea of Galilee, teaching the unfath- 
omable Love of God, and the simple lessons of faith and trust — as 'the lily that 



86 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

toils not, neither does it spin, yet Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like 
one of these.' I think of the sermons in stones, iri flowers, in every living thin'' ■ 
in purple dawn, in sunset's radiant glow; in life, in love, in joy and tears — the 
inexpressible grandeur of it all ! 

"Then I remember what the Good Book says — that it was the fool who said 
in his heart, 'There is no God.' " 

La Habra is the name of a rancho and settlement near the extreme northwest 
corner of Orange County. The town is one of the stations of the Pacific Electric 
Railway from Los Angeles to Riverside through the La Habra Valley and the 
Santa Ana Canyon. This valley contains some excellent land and, with its close 
connection with the Los Angeles markets, has a bright future before it. 

Los Alamitos, named after a rancho of that name, is situated on Coyote Creek 
at the western boundary of the county nearly due west of Anaheim. It owes its 
existence to the large beet sugar factory established about 1896 by Ex-Senator 
W. A. Clark and his brother, J. Ross Clark. This factory worked up 80,000 tons 
of beets in 1909 and 90,000 tons in 1910. An auxiliary company to the Los Ala- 
mitos Sugar Company is the Montana Land Company holding 8,000 acres of land 
in the Los Cerritos rancho, which is in Los Angeles County, near the factory. 

Mateo is the last station of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Ee Railway in 
Orange County, about four miles on this side of the San Diego County line. 

McPherson, two miles east of Orange on the Tustin branch of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, took its name from the McPherson brothers who were most 
active in establishing the town. In the heyday of the raisin industry McPherson 
was a busy place, but, with the passing of the grapes and the competition of El 
Modena on the east and Orange on the west, the town has not made much progress. 
Plowever, the place is surrounded by fine orchards and maintains an excellent 
packing house, extensive nurseries, a blacksmith shop and other conveniences for 
a rural community. 

Modjeska Mineral Springs is a mountain health resort opened up in the San- 
tiago Canyon. 

OHnda is a bustling town in the oil district eight miles northeast of Euller- 
ton. The wells of the Santa Fe Railway, from which the company procures its 
chief supply of fuel, are located here. 

Olive is situated at Burruel Point on the Santa Fe Railway, four miles north 
of Orange. Evidences of an earlier occupancy of this locality were visible fortv 
years ago in adobe ruins and abandoned ditches, and the present name of the town 
is said to come from a group of olive trees found growing at the west end of the 
point. The whole territory about Olive is one vast orchard and garden with many 
individual owners. In the language of a resident, "whatever soil, water and sun- 
shine will germinate, sustain and fructify in any part of California, can be grown 
in the vicinity of Olive." Here are located the large flour mills of the Central Mill- 
ing Company, which are operated by water power from the canal of the Santa 
Ana Irrigation Company, supplemented by steam power. The capacity of the 
mills is about 100 barrels of flour per day. In 1919, 335 cars of Valencia oranges, 
and fifteen cars of Navels and lemons were shipped out. Wheat, barley and milo 
maize are shipped in for the Central Milling Company, of which John M. Gar- 
diner is president. The First National Bank of Olive has deposits of $169,436.51. 

Peralta, or Upper Santa Ana, is a Spanish settlement on the southeast side of 
the Santa Ana River about four miles above Olive. 

Placentia is the name given to the territory east of Fullerton and northeast 
of Anaheim. The nucleus of a town by that name was started in the year 1910 
on the Santa Fe cut-off between Fullerton and Richfield. Trains on this cut-off 
pass through orange groves, some of whose fruit might almost be plucked from 
the car window. Here are the famous Chapman orchards, whose "Old Mission" 
brand of fruit brings the highest price of any similar fruit in the world. The 
Placentia Library District was formed September 2, 1919, the vote in favor being 
unanimous. 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY «7 

Richfield, a couple of miles north of Olive on the Santa Fe Railway, has been 
nothing but the shipping point for the oil from the Olinda district for several 
years. N.ow, however, that it has been made the eastern terminus of the cut-off, 
it has commenced to grow and several substantial buildings have been erected. 

San Juan-By-The-Sea, or Serra, is a small fishing hamlet at the mouth of the 
San Juan Creek. Here the surf line of the Santa Fe Railway, on its way to 
San Diego, first strikes the beach. 

San Juan Hot Springs, fourteen miles northeast of Capistrano in the San 
Juan Canyon, has long been a noted resort for rest and recreation. Here many 
people find relief from various diseases in the hot baths and enjoy the rest and 
relaxation which the mountain seclusion affords. 

Smeltzer is situated in the heart of the celery district south of Westminster. 
The town was named after the late D. E. Smeltzer of Kansas City, who discov- 
ered the adaptability of the peat lands, when drained, to the growth of celery. 
Smeltzer and Wintersburg, one mile further south, are busy places in the shippinp^ 
season. These towns are on the Southern Pacific Railway from Newport Beach 
to Los Alamitos. 

Sunset Beach is an ambitious resort between Huntington Beach and Seal 
Beach. The coast line of the Pacific Electric Railway from Long Beach to New- 
port Beach passes through these beach resorts, giving easy access to the pleasure 
seekers from Los Angeles and the interior cities. 

Talbert is the business center of the Fountain A'alley region southeast of 
^^'intersburg and was named after some of the leading citizens of that locality. 
It is surrounded by productive farming lands similar to those generally found 
west of the Santa Ana River. 

Tustin, founded in the early '70s by Columbus Tustin, is about three miles 
southeast of Santa Ana. . It is the terminus of the Tustin branch of the Southern 
Pacific Railway, and has a station on the Santa Fe Railway, southwest of the 
town, called Aliso station. At one time there was a horse car line from Tustin 
through Santa Ana and Orange to El Modena, but the owners, finding it did not 
pay, took up the track between Tustin and Santa Ana, and also between El Mo- 
dena and Orange. Although Tustin is near the upper border of the damp lands, 
it is still on the mesa and is surrounded by many fine orchards of oranges, lemons, 
walnuts and deciduous fruits. The residents of Tustin have always taken great 
pride in their well-kept streets lined with stately trees ; in order to light the same, 
they have established a lighting district, similar to the one established at Garden 
Grove. 

Villa Park was originally named Mountain View on account of its sightly 
location near the mouth of the Santiago Canyon overlooking the rest of the 
valley, but the postofiice department objected to the name because there was an- 
other Mountain View in the state. Although the objection has since been removed 
by the abandonment of the postofiice, it was sufficient at the time to secure the 
adoption of the name Villa Park. The soil around Villa Park has considerable 
gravel in its composition, making it good material for roads, and also enabling 
it to absorb the heat of the sun during the day and retain it through the night 
better than a clay soil. For this reason the Villa Park section is specially adapted 
to the growth of semi-tropic fruits and winter vegetables. The Serrano Water 
Association, a cooperative concern, furnishes abundance of water for irrigation 
from the Santiago Creek and from wells. 

Westminster was promoted as a Presbyterian colony by Rev. Weber of Pat- 
erson, N. J., and John Y. Anderson was the first purchaser of land in the settle- 
ment. In 1870 he bought eighty acres, which later he reduced to thirty-two 
acres and kept till his death, which occurred at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
Mary Tilton, at East Los Angeles, May 18, 1920. James D. Ott, of Santa Ana, 
helped him build his house in 1871, the same house in which his son, Harrv 
Anderson, lives today. Mr. Anderson was eighty-two years old when he died, 
having lived in what is now Orange County practically fifty years. 



88 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Westminster is rated as one of the older settlements of the county, perhaps 
next to Anaheim. It early became known in the political conventions at Los 
Angeles as a foe to intemperance. More than one tippling candidate went down 
to defeat before the combined delegations from Westminster, Orange,. Pasadena 
and other temperance communities. Located seven miles west of Santa Ana, 
in the midst of a broad plain of rich, damp lands, Westminster began with a dairy 
industry, the first products of its herds being hauled to Los Angeles to market. 
A creamery company was organized in 1895, which invested $5,000 in a building. 
These improved facilities increased the profits ; still with the drainage of the peat 
lands to the south and the introduction of cultivated crops the land became too 
valuable for a mere cattle range. At the present time all kinds of stock and 
poultry raising is carried on to a certain extent, and nearly every pro'duct of the 
farm and garden is grown in great profusion. 

Wintersburg is a shipping station on the Newport Beach and Smeltzer branch 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad one mile sOuth of Smeltzer. 

Yorba takes its name from some of the Spanish families in its vicinity. It 
is a station on the Santa Fe Railway to Riverside, east of Richfield. Its sur- 
roundings are adapted to fruits, grain, vegetables and stock and poultry raising. 

Yorba Linda is a comparatively new town north of the Santa Ana River and 
east of Yorba on the Riverside branch of the Santa Fe Railway. It has made 
a fine start and, with so many thriving young orchards, it will continue to grow. 



CHAPTER XIV 

ORANGE COUNTY'S SCHOOLS 

Perhaps the best index of the character of any people may be found in fiie 
provision such people make for the education of their offspring. In order to make 
a fair showing of the school facilities of Orange County in the briefest space 
possible, it is thought best to present in tabular form the same kind of data about 
every school in the county. The following four descriptive items have been 
selected out of more than a dozen given in Superintendent [Mitchell's report for 
1920, as most typical of the size and quality of the county's schools, viz., Number 
of teachers, number of pupils, value of property and year's expenses. 

Elementary Schools 

Number Number A'alue Expenses 

of of of of 

Names of Districts Teachers Pupils Property 1919-1920 

1. Alamitos 2 49 $ 1,850 $ 3,053.31 

2. Anaheim 29 852 168,050 103,768.77 

3. Bay City 3 75 12,325 4,307.10 

4. Bolsa 2 57 18,350 16,106.36 

5- Brea 12 295 68,850 21,841.67 

6. Buena Park 4 83 8,060 6,886.47 

7. Centralia 2 47 5.550 2,599.14 

8. Commonwealth 1 30 4,100 1,054.90 

9. Cypress 2 45 3,140 2,627 £<d 

10. Delhi 4 100 13,000 4,701.65 

11. Diamond 1 34 3,300 1,518.02 

12. El Modena 7 ISO 36,900 9,222.37 

13. El Toro 2 47 7,000 2,008.66 

14. Fountain Valley 2 57 5,600 2,771.46 

15. Fullerton 24 594 92,500 49,648.41 

16. Garden Grove 11 272 21,500 14,774.96 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 89 

17. Greenville 1 24 15,300 13,973.11 

18. Harper-Fairview 3 80 10,675 5,558,21 

19. Huntington Beach 11 257 96,550 20,575.00 

20. Katella 3 55 6,750 4,252.64 

21. Laguna 2 30 5,750 3,051.33 

22. La Habra 11 228 50,000 22,004.45 

23. Laurel 4 79 6,600 4,705.18 

24. Loara 4 111 12,200 5,493.80 

25. Lowell Joint 2 26 20,000 2,847.00 

26. Magnolia 2 53 3,100 2,326.95 

27. Newhope 2 42 1,600 1,930.06 

28. Newport Beach 4 101 33,975 6,329.70 

29. Ocean View 4 82 11,790 5,423.58 

30. Olinda 6 188 14,700 11,057.92 

31. Olive 3 80 16,800 19,854.76 

32. Orange 25 645 113,000 38,631.84 

33. Orangethorpe 3 102 15,500 5,167.36 

34. Paularino 1 30 975 942.35 

35. Peralta 1 24 2,550 938.17 

36. Placentia-Richfield 16 361 53,750 47,560.01 

37. San Joaquin '. 3 96 7,100 3,850.74 

38. San Juan 3 93 10,800 4,727.18 

39. Santa Ana 73 1,930 281,950 112,826.51 

40. Savanna 2 32 2,250 2,131.36 

41. Serra 1 9 90 874*56 

42. Silverado- 1 14 450 902.95 

43. Springdale 2 22 4,950 2,522.11 

44. Trabuco 1 12 650 1,117.87 

45. Tustin 12 260 61,000 20,399.45 

46. Villa Park 2 64 2,200 24,606.89 

47. Westminster 3 84 17,800 3,773.39 

48. Yorba 2 51 3,700 2,524.69 

49. Yorba Linda 5 142 10,700 17,159.16 



Tntals 324 8,194 $1,365,280 $666,931.93 

High Schools 

The legislature of 1891 passed two high school laws, one allowing the people 
in an entire county to authorize the establishment and maintenance of one or more 
high schools at the expense of the county, and the other permitting two or more 
contiguous school districts to unite and form a union high school district. The 
county board of education advocated the establishment of a high school under 
the former law. After more or less agitation of the subject, petitions were circu- 
lated, signed and presented to the board of supervisors asking that an election be 
called to vote on the question. With one exception, the supervisors were in favor 
of the county measure, and called the election for August 29, 1891. The super- 
visor from the Fourth District, having failed to even delay the calling of the 
election, started in to defeat the measure at the polls. He furnished the county 
papers each week with articles against a county high school and carried on a dis- 
cussion in the Evening Blade with Gen. H. A. Pierce, a Santa Ana attorney, over 
the legal points involved. A resident of Tustin reported that the papers con- 
taining these articles were passed from voter to voter until they were literally 
worn out. The result of the election was 749 votes in favor of a county high 
school and 1,026 against. This defeat prepared the way for union high schools 
in different parts of the county, instead of one large institution at the county 
seat. There are now (1920) six of these schools in the county, each doing good 



90 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COL'NTY 



work and in flourishing condition, allowing the pupils to board at home while 
pursuing their advanced studies in the high school. 

The following statistics, along the same lines as those presented on the ele- 
mentary schools, show that these high schools are appreciated and are liberally 
supported and patronized by the communities in which they are located. 

Number Number A^alue Expenses 

of of of of 

Names of Schools Teachers Pupils Property 1919-1920 

1. Anaheim 22 330 $ 172,500 $61,463.93 

2. Capistrano (new) ... 

3. Fullerton 39 537 491,000 201,655.67 

4. Huntington Beach 12 173 108,800 33,172.96 

5. Orange 23 395 137,200 61,404.12 

6. Santa Ana 51 981 391,000 126,422.52 

Totals 147 2,416 $1,300,500 $484,119.20 

Junior Colleges 

There are two junior colleges in the county at the present time (1920). They 
are carried on in connection with their respective high schools and are dependent 
on them for teachers, grounds, buildings and other accommodations, leaving 
nothing but the number of pupils to be reported in this paragraph, as follows : 

1. Fullerton Junior College 79 Pupils 

2.* Santa Ana Junior College 51 Pupils 

Total number in Colleges 130 Pupils 

Number of Graduates 

The number of graduates from the schools of the county in the class of 1920 
was as follows : 

Names of Schools Boys Girls Totals 

Elementary Schools 322 306 628 

Anal\eim Union High 46 65 111 

Fullerton Union High 29 59 88 

Huntington Beach Union High 5 15 20 

Orange Union High 32 29 61 

Santa Ana Union High 46 65 111 

Total, Union High Schools 158 233 391 

Fullerton Junior College 6 8 14 

Santa Ana Junior College ■. 5 5 

Totals from Junior College 6 13 19 

Public Kindergartens 

Nine of the school districts maintain kindergartens in connection with the 
other grades of their elementary schools. Most of these, like the junior colleges, 
are somewhat dependent on another department for grounds, buildings and other 
accommodations ; still they are so far separate that the same lines of data can be 
given on them as on the other departments, as follows : 

Number Number \'alue Expenses 

of of of of 

Names of Kindergartens Teachers Pupils Property 1919-1920 

1. Anaheim 2 97 $1,700 $2 177 73 

2. Brea 2 40 2,315 1,900.00 

3. Fullerton 2 62 4,300 4,267 20 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 91 

4. Huntington Beach 2 41 1,312 2,318.46 

5. La Habra 1 47 4,500 1,932.16 

6. Olinda 1 34 1,106 1,435.27 

7. Orange 4 88 5,025 3,327.01 

8. Santa Ana 9 311 9,250 7,408.16 

9. Tustin 2 26 3,006 1,875.00 



Totals 25 746 $32,514 $24,765.99 

Private Schools 

There are at least seven private schools in the county, supported by religious 
denominations, or by tuition charged the pupils, instead of by taxation as are 
the public schools. Although not quite so easy to trace and separate the items 
as with public schools, yet some of the lines of data can be given on the private 
schools, as follows : 

Number Number Value Expenses 

of of of of 

Names of Schools Teachers Pupils Property 1919-1920 

Seventh Day Adventists, Garden • 

Grove 1 18 $ 545.00 

St. John's Parochial, Orange 4 160 5,445.00 

Lutheran Trinity, Olive 2 31 1,700.00 

St. Joseph's Academy, Anaheim. . 7 193 



St. Catharine's, Anaheim 5 147 

St. Joseph's Grammar, Santa Ana 5 100 

Orange Co. Bus. College, Santa 

Ana 4 200 $ 25,000 



Totals 28 849 $ 25,000 $ 7,690.00 



Grand Totals for County.... 524 12,335 $2,723,294 $1,183,507.12 
As an indication of the growth of the schools of Orange County and of the 
way the taxpayers respond to the call for more school accommodations. County 
School Superintendent M'itchell gave out figures on March 16, 1920, showing that 
a number of districts in the county had voted an aggregate of $870,000 worth of 
bonds since March, 1919, to be used in the erection of new buildings, while other 
districts are planning to vote bonds within the next six months that will bring the 
total up to $1,100,000. Liasmuch as a few districts, which need more school 
room, failed to get the necessary two-thirds vote for their bonds, we may be per- 
mitted to state here some of the underlying principles that should govern the 
voting of bonds. 

A public corporation, such as a state, county or district, issuing bonds upon 
all the taxable property within its jurisdiction, as security for the repayment of 
borrowed money with interest, is like an individual's placing a mortgage on his 
property for the same purpose. In either case the borrower must meet his obliga- 
tion or have his property seized and sold, in the one case for delinquent taxes and 
in the other under foreclosure of the mortgage, to repay the lender. It behooves 
every citizen, therefore, to weigh carefully the needs for the public improvement 
called for at any time, as well as the ability of the average taxpayer to meet his 
pro rata of the obligation he is thus helping to incur, before he votes for bonds. 

The officers in charge of any department, or portion of the government, 
having concluded that more room, or other accommodations, is absolutely neces- 
sary for the successful handling of the increasing business of such department, 
should carefully consider the ways and means for procuring the needed improve- 
ment. If the amount wanted is small, it may be obtained by a single assessment 
or tax; but, if large, it will require several assessments or taxes in succession, or 



92 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

a bond issue, to raise the requisite amount of money. A succession of assess- 
ments or tax levies can only be applied when the improvement can be made a 
piece at a time, like road building. This method of raising money is much more 
economical than issuing bonds, and also gives opportunity to correct mistakes in 
construction, that may be discovered by use, before much money is misspent. 

For instance, after the proceeds of the good road bond issue were practically 
exhausted, the county highway commission decided that the concrete base would 
be stronger and better with one part less of sand in the mixture. Still later the 
supervisors concluded that the paving should be five inches thick instead of four to 
withstand the strain of the heavy traffic. If this paving had been done under the 
continued contract system, a portion each year, instead of all at once under a 
big bond issue, the improved methods just described could have been applied to 
the unpaved portions of the highways to be improved, and thus have made a 
better job on the greater part of the work. 

Another case in point is the improvement of the ditches of the Santa Ana 
Valley Irrigation Company. From three to seven miles of these ditches were 
lined or piped with cement concrete each year until now practically the whole 
system is thus improved. Funds for this work were obtained by levying about 
three ten-per-cent assessments per annum on the capital stock of the company, 
every dollar oi which went directly into the work. This vast improvement, cost- 
ing thousands of dollars, but worth millions to the central part of the county, 
was accomplished without much hardship on the stockholders and without a dollar 
of indebtedness to the company. Had bonds been issued to finance the im- 
provement, more than double the par value of the bonds would have been spent 
before the last bond was paid off, to say nothing about the money that would 
have been wasted in mistakes, if the work had all been done at once thirty 
years ago. 

However, there are some kinds of public improvements requiring large sums 
of money, like school buildings, which must be completed at the time of their 
construction in order to get the immediate use of the entire structures. Such 
improvements must be financed by the issue of bonds ; there is no other practical 
way. Since good schools are essential to the future welfare of the community, 
state and nation, and since they cannot be carried on successfully without adequate 
support, it becomes the patriotic duty of loyal citizens to economize on other 
enterprises, that can either be dispensed with altogether or be procured by "the 
continued contract system," and give their hearty support to their schools by 
voting bonds for needed improvements, provided that such improvemetits are 
wisely planned without any extravagant superfluities. 

Evidence of Efficiency 

The foregoing record of the establishment and maintenance of Orange 
County's schools, wonderful as it is, would be incomplete without some evidence 
of the efficiency of such schools. 

The high schools of this county are accredited by the University of California, 
showing that their scholarship is rated as high as that of other schools. They 
have repeatedly joined in friendly rivalry in forensic and athletic contests with 
the high schools of other counties, to quicken the pupils' interest in elocution 
and keep their equilibrium, in accordance with the Latin formula, Mens sana in 
cor pore sano. In all such contests Orange County's representatives have proved 
to be the peers of their competitors. 

While every person receives more or less benefit from his attendance at 
school, according to his ability and application, and hundreds ot Orange County 
high school graduates are filling positions of importance and trust in the trades 
and professions, yet lack of space will permit only a few, from such of the schools 
as have furnished the data, to be mentioned as examples of pupils who have re- 
ceived at least a part of their preparation in these schools and who are making 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 93 

good in every walk of life, with honor to themselves and credit to their alma 
mater, as follows: 

Louis E. Plummer, Principal of the Fullerton Union High School, Kindly 
furnished the following data about that institution : 

The Fullerton Union high school was organized in 1893. Mr. W. R. Car- 
penter was elected principal, serving until 1906, at which time he became County 
Superintendent of Schools and was succeeded in Fullerton by Mr. Delbert Brun- 
ton. Mr. Brunton served as principal until 1916, at which time he was superseded 
by Mr. E. W. Hauck, who in turn was followed by Mr. Louis E. Plummer, the 
present principal. During the time of Mr. Carpenter's service the school grew 
until the enrollment reached 65. The period of greatest growth came during the 
ten years of Mr. Brunton's service as principal. At the time he left the school' in 
1916 the total attendance reached 400. In 1913 a junior college was established, 
in connection with the high school. The college has flourished. The enrollment 
for 1920-21 totals nearly 100, while our high school for the same year totals 650. 

So many of the persons who spent their school days in the Fullerton Union 
high school have achieved more or less prominence that it becomes a difficult task 
to select those deserving of special mention. A few, however, will be mentioned 
with the full knowledge that many more as worthy will remain unnamed so far 
as this article is concerned. 

The first graduating class, that of 1896, numbered only two, both of whom 
have made their mark in their chosen work. Mr. Arthur Staley continued his 
education in Stanford University, graduating in 1900. Since that time he has 
held positions of influence in his own community. He is an auditor of high 
ability, a splendid packing house foreman, and very successful rancher. Mr. 
Thomas McFadden, also a graduate of Stanford University, is now a very suc- 
cessful and prominent attorney of Orange County, with residence and extensive 
citrus holdings at Placentia. 

Dewitt Montgomery of the class of 1897 has proven unusually successful in 
the teaching profession. Following his graduation from Stanford University his 
marked ability won for him position as county superintendent of schools in Santa 
Rosa County. He was later elected city superintendent of schools of A^isalia, 
which position he now holds. 

A student and athlete in his school days in the Fullerton Union high school 
later won for himself undying fame in the pitcher's box in big league company. 
This person is none other than the world-famous pitcher, W^alter Johnson, of the 
Washington Nationals. 

A young attorney, growing in prominence, and likely some time to be heard 
of in state affairs, is Mr. Albert Launer, now city attorney for Fullerton. Mr. 
Launer graduated with the class of 1909, and after completing his law course, 
returned to northern Orange County to win his first laurels. 

Mr. Arthur Schultz, a graduate of the class of 1902, is steadily climbing 
upward in the ministerial field. Mr. Schultz is now located at San Diego. 

Mr. Barrett Case, a classmate of Mr. Schultz, entered the University of Cali- 
fornia to take engineering work. He later returned to the oil fields of northern 
Orange County, where he remained in the employ of the Columbia Oil Compan}' 
for a number of years. He now holds a position of importance with the State 
Mining Bureau in the Oil Production Department. 

A more recent graduate of the high school, Mr. Max Henderson, of the 
class of 1908, is one of Orange County's most successful dentists. He is' now 
located at Anaheim, and has one of the largest practices in the county. 

Miss Sue Dauser, a graduate of the class of 1907, later took training in the 
California Hospital and followed the profession of nursing. During the recent 
war she was in charge of the relief work at Camp Kearney. She has served her 
country and fellowmen with such rare skill that she became known to many 
through her activities. 



94 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Captain Delbert Brunton, late principal of the Orange Union high school, 
with the assistance of Professors Mason M. Fishback and Alfred Higgins, fur- 
nished the following list of a few of the graduates of this school who have made 
good and what they are doing: 

Fred Kelley, World Champion High Hurdler, Lieutenant of Aviation, U. 
S. A. 

Nina Harbour, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Vassar College for Women. 

Carey Billingsley, M.D. Died in service of his fellowmen during the influ- 
enza epidemic. 

Clyde Shoemaker, J.D., Prominent Attorney, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Revoe Briggs, Civil Engineer in the Government Service. Prominent in 
affairs in Alaska. 

■ May Bathgate, State Sanitation work. State Board of Health. 

Jesse Crawshaw, Lieutenant Infantry, U. S. A. 

Ruby Campbell, Social Worker, Hamburger Dept. Store, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Arline Davis, Librarian, Riverside, CaHf. 

Aileen Everett, Phi Beta Kappa, graduate Stanford.- Y. W. C. A. work. 

U. S. Fitzpatrick, Attorney; Consul, Central America. 

William Hinrichs, Baseball Pitcher on Washington American team. AA'ent 
direct from High School to the big league. Retired on account of injury. 

Walter Kogler, Banker, 1st National Bank, Orange, Calif. 

^^'illiam Kroener, Lieutenant Infantry, U. S. A.; Y. M. C. A. Secretary: 
Medical Student, University Chicago. 

Edward Lucy, Instructor in Radio, Harvard University Radio School, during 
the World War. 

Leighton Bascom, Ensign in U. S. N. during the World War. Banker in 
Santa Ana. 

Frank Aldrich, Assistant Paymaster, U. S. N., during the AA'orld War. 

Norman Luke, Lieutenant Aviation, U. S. A. 

\'"erl Murray, noted track athlete. On Olympic Team, 1920. 

Maurice Perry, Lieutenant Infantry, U. S. A. 

Clyde Slater, Lieutenant Infantry, U. S. A. Now a student at the University 
of California. 

Paul Schooley, Athlete. State Agricultural College, N. C. 

Maurice Forney, Instructor, University of California. 

Ralph A¥oods, M.D., Los Angeles Hospital. 

Lew Wallace, Instructor in Farm Miechanics, University of Nebraska. 

Besides the laurels of individual students, like Fred Kelley and others, won 
in athletic contests, the school has become distinguished by the phenomenal success 
of its baseball, basketball and track teams on many a hard-fought field in the 
southern part of the state. In fact, the men's basketball team holds the champion- 
ship of the California and Nevada high schools at the present time. In 1918 
the school won five first prizes in forensic contests, one by each class, and one by 
the school ; an unusual occurrence in a single contest. 



The Santa Ana High School was established in 1889 in the building on 
Church Street, now known as the Washington School. In 1897 it was moved 
to larger quarters at Tenth and Main streets, where it remained until the present 
modern Polytechnic plant was completed for it in the fall of 1913. Since its 
establishment, diplomas have been granted to 1,535 graduates, the class of 1920 
numbering 112. 

Space will not permit the mentioning of the names of the many graduates 
of the high school who have been successful in their chosen life work. Found 
near and far will be ministers, teachers, farmers, lawyers, doctors and business 
men along various lines who have been successful. 

Charles Martin, an authority on Oriental Relations, is now a Professor of 
International Law at the ITniversity of California. 



. HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 95 

\\'illsie Martin is pastor of the First Methodist Church of Hollywood; also 
a lecturer. 

John Nourse is Associate Justice of the District Court of Appeals. 

James Nourse is a Washington and New York correspondent. 

Glenn Martin, while not a graduate, is a Santa Ana boy and his success as 
an inventor, manufacturer and operator in aviation is well known. 



CHAPTER XV 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND SITES 

Shortly after the organization of Orange County, temporary provision was 
made for housing the prisoners in a little brick jail which cost the county, without 
the cells, about $4,000. With the kindest of motives the jailer was in the habit 
of leaving the cell doors open so the prisoners could have the range of the entire 
jail for air and exercise. Some vagrants took advantage of this liberty and picked 
a hole through the brick wall with a case knife, thereby making their escape. At 
the request of the sheriff, the superior judge issued an order requiring him to 
place a guard over the jail. This was the jail, thus guarded, from which Fran- 
cisco Torres was taken and hanged, as narrated in the Chapter of Tragedies. 
The building and lot were sold to the city as soon as the present county jail 
was ready for occupancy. 

Early in the niiieties the board of supervisors called for sealed proposals 
for a site for the county buildings. A half dozen persons responded with offers 
of sites ranging in price from one dollar for a block in the Harlin tract on East 
Fourth Street up to $16,500 for a block on Birch Street by John Avas. None 
of the supervisors favored the Harlin site, notwithstanding its cheapness, because 
it was distant from the center of the city and was on comparatively low ground. 
Two, Yoch and Hawkins, favored the old Layman property, offered by Joseph 
Yoch for $6,000; two, Tedford and Schorn, favored the present site, offered by 
W. H. Spurgeon for $9,500 and afterwards reduced to $8,000; and one, Armor, 
favored the block immediately south of the present intermediate school site on 
North Main Street, offered by James Buckley on behalf of the Fruit heirs for 
$5,000. When attention was called to the impropriety of the chairman's support- 
ing his own offer, the advocates of the Layman site joined the supporters of the 
Spurgeon site ; and, when the advocate of the Fruit site failed to get any support 
for his choice, he also joined the supporters of the Spurgeon site and made the 
vote unanimous. Thift was the present site of the courthouse and jail selected 
and purchased from W. H. Spurgeon for the sum of $8,000. 

Not long after the purchase of the site for the county buildings, the board of 
supervisors took steps for the erection of a commodious and substantial county 
jail. Provision was made in the tax levy to raise the funds by a direct tax ; the 
plans of Dennis and Farwell of Los Angeles were adopted ; and the contract 
for the erection of the building was awarded to Hulteen & Bergstrom of Los 
Angeles, who were the lowest bidders. This firm was hampered throughout 
the work by the lack of capital, certifying bills to the supervisors for payment in 
advance of the sums due on the building, which created friction with the board. 
It also quarreled with Hall's Safe and Lock Company and protested against the 
full payment of that company's bills for steel and iron work. The board, there- 
fore, quit the payment of all bills and instructed the district attorney to bring 
.suit compelling the claimants to interplead and settle their accounts through the 
court. This' was done and only such bills as were approved by the court were 
allowed by the supervisors. The contractors then stopped work and locked un 
the building, hoping to compel the board to make terms with them. Instead 
of doing so, however, the supervisors took forcible possession of the building 
and had it completed according to the plans and specifications, charging the 



96 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

cost to the contractors. Thus were the public interests protected and the unfor- 
tunate complications cleared away with as little loss as possible to all concerned. 
The entire cost of the jail to the county was about $23,000. 

Because of the cramped quarters for the county offices, the exposed condition 
of the county records and the clause in the deed to the site requiring a court house 
to be built thereon within ten years after its purchase, a movement was started 
early in 1899 to raise funds and commence the erection of the building. An 
election was called for September 5, 1899, to vote on the question of issuing 
$100,000 court house bonds. At this election the bonds carried by a vote of 
1,414 in favor to 283 against. On the submission of competitive plans for the 
building by different architects, there followed a campaign of villification and 
vituperation by certain newspapers and mechanics to secure the adoption of the 
plan each was championing rather than any one of the others. To all appear- 
ances, some of the non-resident architects had enlisted these local influences against 
their competitors to help land the prize for themselves. Charges of corruption 
were made and denied ; the board of supervisors investigated some of the accusa- 
tions against its own members and seriously considered bringing suit against the 
worst offenders. Finally the two supervisors who were supporting the plans of 
C. B. Bradshaw, fearing the other three might unite on the worst plans, changed 
over to the plans of C. L. Strange, which were thus adopted December 20, 1899. 
The contract for the erection of the building was let to Chris. McNeal of Santa 
Ana, who carried it through to completion in a creditable and workmanlike man- 
ner. The cost of the court house, including a few expensive changes, was about 
$117,000. 

On June 8, 1912, the Grand Avenue schoolhouse in Santa Ana was leased 
by the county for a Detention Home. Two months and a half later the super- 
visors bought the building and grounds from the Santa Ana Board of Education 
for $2,750. The purchase of this property enabled the county to make improve- 
ments in the buildings and grounds for the convenience of the management and 
the comfort of the inmates that otherwise could not have been made. 

A bond election for two purposes was held on July 20, 1912, viz., to vote 
on the issue of $60,000 bonds for a county hospital, almshouse and poor farm 
combined, and on the issue of $100,000 for county bridges. The returns On the 
hospital bonds were. Yes, 1,983 and No, 361 ; and those on the bridge bonds were 
Yes, 1,829 and No, 479. Notice of intention to buy seventy-two acres of land for 
$24,250 from the Dawn Land Company, as a site for the county hospital and 
poor farm, was given by the board of supervisors on October 22, 1912, and the 
purchase was completed November 19, following. This site is in West Orange 
and is a part of the U. L. Shaffer estate, west of the Southern Pacific Railway at 
the end of Chapman Avenue. A contract for the erection of foreman's bungalow 
and four cottages was awarded to Anderson & Bolyard, on December 26, 1912, 
for $5,996 ; also one to Horton & Eaton Company to furnish a 6,000-gallon tank 
on a thirty-foot octagonal tower with three-horsepower motor and Bulldozer head 
pump, for $700. Chris McNeal was given the contract to erect the main hospital 
building for $45,441, on September 16, 1913, and Hunger & Hunger were awarded 
the contract for the lighting and heating plant for $5,115. November 18, 1913, 
A. H. Anderson secured the contract to erect three cottages, a laundry and club 
house for $8,450. February 17, 1914, Robertson & Packard were employed to put 
electrical fixtures into the county hospital for $412; and March 10 the Johns- 
Manville Company to put in refrigerator and ice box for $494.40. On April 14, 
the bid of the Western Laundry Machinery Company was accepted to put in 
laundry appliances for $2,232 ; and Fairbanks-Horse Company's bid of $65.50 for 
a motor was also accepted. A month later Chris McNeal was given the contract 
to provide sewers ancl sewer connections for the. hospital buildings for $5,545. 
November 17, 1914, Fred Siefert secured a contract for buildings at the county 
farm amounting to $10,925. August 8, 1917, contracts were given to G. A. Bar- 
rows to erect a service building, including dining room and kitchen, at the poor 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 97 

farm for $7,652, to the Anglo Range & Refrigerator Company for kitchen equip- 
ment for $2,357 and to the Automatic Refrigerator Company for refrigerator 
equipment and cold storage boxes for $3,707. 

The following clipping from the Santa Ana Register is of interest : 

"With the sale, announced by F. W. Slabaugh, county purchasing agent, of 
5,240 pounds of lima beans, grown on the Orange County Farm property, at the 
end of West Chapman Avenue, it became known today that $641.90 has been 
added to the account of the institution, and that the farm's income from all 
sources this year will total slightly more than $10,000. 

"The lima beans were sold to the C. C. CoUins Company, buyers of this city, 
at twelve and one-quarter cents per pound. 

"The County Farm property consists of approximately seventy-two acres. 
There are 1,000 six-year-old Valencia orange trees on the property, as well as 1,600 
one-year-old Valencias. The income from these trees during the present year was 
$3,131, Slabaugh announced. 

"It is estimated that the returns from the oranges next year will be at least 
$7,000. There is a bumper crop on the trees, and Slabaugh has recently purchased 
2,000 props for use in preventing branches from breaking as a result of the great 
weight of fruit. 

"In addition to the oranges that are sold, an ample supply is always available 
for use of the 80 persons who live at the farm. 

"While the Orange County Farm is not a self-sustaining institution, still the 
cost of operation is cut down considerably by sales of fruit. There are two acres 
of deciduous fruit on the property. In addition, the farm raises its own vege- 
tables. Four cows supply milk for the institution." 

Shortly after the county came into possession of the grounds now forming 
the county park, a cottage was erected for the use of the custodian ; a well was 
dug, a tank and engine were provided and the water was piped into the house and 
to different parts of the grounds where needed. A few years later, a neat and 
commodious pavilion was built for dancing and the use of assemblies. Furnaces 
. were built for outdoor cooking; long tables and benches were stationed under 
the trees for large picnic parties to spread their lunches ; swings, teeters and other 
devices for the amusement of the children were supplied. On October 21, 1913, 
E. G. Stinson contracted to excavate a basin of considerable proportions for a 
lake in the county park for the modest sum of $3,960. Boats and a boathouse 
soon were added to the accommodations of the park and now aquatic sports are 
available for those who enjoy such pastimes. On the same date, C. M. Jordan 
agreed to refit and furnish the old office of the sheriff in the court house, to 
accommodate the new department of the superior court, for the sum of $1,529.50. 

On December 23, 1919, the board of supervisors accepted a proposition sub- 
mitted by Florence Yoch, landscape architect of Los Angeles and daughter of 
Joseph Yoch of this city, with reference to beautifying Orange County Park. 

Included in the services which are to be rendered are the drawing up of a 
picture plan of the park ; working drawings and an engineering plan for system 
of walks and roads, indicating the proposed planting areas and locating buildings, 
recreational features and park utilities ; a sketch of the proposed treatment of the 
entrance ; detailed planting plans for the entrance ; a report and recommendation 
concerning methods, time and amounts of development; personal supervision of 
the laying out of roads and principal walks and personal supervision of such 
planting as may be done at this time. 

On July 10, 1919, C. McNeill was awarded the contract to make changes 
in the court house, to provide better accommodations for Department 2 of the 
Superior Court, for the sum of $10,558. A memorial arch is being built at Orange 
County Park and other improvements are under consideration. 



98 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

On September 16, 1919, G. A. Barrows was awarded the contract for build- 
ing a garage at the County Hospital for the sum of $2,935. 

December 2, 1919, a contract was let to E. W. Smith to build a cowshed at 
the county farm for the sum of $1,099.65. 

On March 4, 1920, the supervisors awarded a contract for buildmg a county 
garage at the southeast corner of Church and Sycamore streets to R. C. McMillan 
for $27,000, which was the lowest of seven bids. They also awarded the contract 
for erecting a sherifif's office, at the southeast corner of Seventh and Sycamore 
streets, to the same bidder for the sum of $4,600. 

While the foregoing list of disbursements does not include money spent for 
changes, repairs and small furnishings, it does include practically all the large 
constructive expenditures for sites and buildings for the county offices and public 
institutions. An examination of these accommodations and of the methods by 
which they were procured will convince any fair-minded citizen that the public 
funds have been judiciously expended and that the county has got value received 
for the money paid out. 



CHAPTER XVI 
PLEASURE DRIVES AND RESORTS 

The title to most of the land in Orange County came down through Spanish 
grants. The largest of these grants is the San Joaquin ranch, which extends en- 
tirely across the county from northeast to southwest and contains 108,000 acres. 
The greater part of this vast estate still belongs to one person, James Irvine, who 
leases parts of the hill land for grazing and parts of the valley land for agricul- 
ture and occupies other parts with enterprises of his own. In the basin of San- 
tiago Creek, which flows across the ranch, are some fine groves of large sycamore 
and live oak trees. One of the finest of these groves had been used as a picnic 
ground by the people long before the property came into the possession of the 
present owner. In considering how to make the best use of iiis heritage Mr. 
Irvine conceived the idea of donating that grove to the county for a pleasure resort 
for the people. He accordingly conferred with the supervisors as to the best 
method of protecting the gift and making it effective in accomplishing the benefi- 
cent purposes intended by the donation. The conditions proposed by Mr. Irvine 
and agreed to by the board of supervisors were that the tract should be enclosed 
and put in charge of a keeper, thereby protecting the majestic trees from destruc- 
tion, and that the sale of intoxicating liquors should not be permitted anywhere on 
the property. All the preliminaries having been satisfactorily arranged, Orange 
County, through the generosity of James Irvine, came into possession, on October 
11, 1897, of 160 acres of the finest wood land in the southern part of the state, 
as a perpetual playground for its inhabitants.. 

Some time during the seventies Rev. H. H. Messenger, a retired Episcopal 
clergyman, bought a tract of land on the mesa south of the present location of the 
town of El Modena and settled a small colony of members of that denomination 
on it. These people, having no water system provided and being without means 
with which to develop one, soon starved out and scattered to parts unknown. A 
few years later David Hewes came down from San Francisco, bought this land 
and set to work to improve it. One of the oracles in that vicinity warned him 
that nothing could be done with such land. Mr. Hewes answered that he could 
cover the tract with twenty dollar gold pieces, if he wanted to. "You'll have to 
do so, to make it worth anything," was the retort. Nevertheless, the Hewes 
orchards, consisting of about 525 acres, are now worth a million dollars and the 
Hewes Park is one of the show places of the county. 

In January, 1920, the David Hewes Realty Company, representing the heirs 
of the Flewes estate, sold the property to a syndicate of Los Angeles and Orange 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 99 

County people for $1,000,000, which is an average of about $1,487 per acre for 
the 672.54 acres of highly improved, water-stocked land. The improvements con- 
sist of 425 acres of lemons, 212 acres of Valencia oranges, fifteen acres in the 
park, two large packing houses, pumping plant and pipe lines, ranch houses, etc. 
The principal reason for such valuable property selling below the market price is 
that its magnitude prevented competition among buyers. The market price for 
good bearing orchards ranges from $3,000 to $5,000 per acre. In a few instances 
offers of $6,000 per acre have been refused. 

About a quarter of a century ago a nine-hole golf course was laid out in the 
valley southeast of the El Modena grade. Among those interested in the sport, 
the following names have been recalled: James Irvine, Dr. J. P. Boyd, W. H. 
Burnham, R. H. Sanborn, James Fullerton and Henri F. Gardner. Golfing 
parties would be made up in the different communities from time to time as in- 
clination prompted and the cares of business permitted until the inclination was 
overborne by the cares and the sport languished. Then in 1910 the club revived 
and increased its membership to about 100, drawing in such members as F. B. 
Browning, J. R. Porter, A. J. Klunk, Kellar Watson, C. F. Newton, H. T. Ruther- 
ford, C. G. and A. C. Twist, J. F. Parsons, J. W. Tubbs, and George B. Shat- 
tuck. In 1913 Messrs. Browning, Porter and Shattuck looked up the present 
grounds, containing about 160 acres adjoining the city of Newport Beach west 
of the bay, which the club leased for ten years with the privilege of renewal for 
another like period. The name "The Santiago Golf Club," was dropped and 
June 4, 1914, the organization was incorporated as The Orange County Country 
Club. An eighteen-hole course was laid out and a club house built. A tennis 
court and croquet grounds were also provided. A professional is employed to give 
instruction and look after the grounds, which are kept open the year round for the 
use of members. The membership has increased to 278 and the present officers 
are: Charles G. Twist, president; F. B. Browning, vice-president; George B. 
Shattuck. secretary; Harry L. Hanson, treasurer; and board of directors as fol- 
lows : C' G. Twist, F. B. Browning, C. S. Gilbert, Lew Wallace, W. A. Huff, 
Edward McWiUiams, C. D. Holmes, Hugh G. Smith and George B. Shattuck. 
With automobiles and good roads, groups of players come to the grounds from 
anv distance for an afternoon's sport in the open air; besides special features are 
nrovided at intervals in the club house for the entertainment of the members. 

In 1910 C. E. Utt and Sherman Stevens bought about 600 acres of hill land 
northeast of Tustin and the following year commenced to set out orchards and 
build roads and drives. The eminence was christened "Lemon Heights" and early 
attracted the attention of Mr. Marcy, one of J. Ogden Armour's lieutenants. He 
bought the original purchase of Messrs. Utt and Stevens, and later added to his 
holdings over a thousand acres, purchased from others. Much of this land is 
unfit for cultivation ; but with water it is susceptible of improvement as a park, 
like Smiley Heights at Redlands. Plowever, Mr. Marcy is already developing 
about three hundred acres, building scenic roads, setting out orchards and con- 
veying water to the tract. The water is supplied from three wells near Tustin, 
and is forced to the heights through two twelve^inch steel pipes, by electric power, 
which convey 240 inches into a large reservoir on the very top of the heights, 
from where such water can be delivered through pipes by gravity to all parts of 
the tract. He also has a well on his own land which yields thirty inches of water. 
Mr. Stevens disposed of all his interests in the enterprise some time ago, but 
Mr. Utt still retains about 200 acres of the land and a large share in, if not com- 
plete control of, the main water supply. Other former Chicagoans who are 
financially interested, are Robert M. Simons, who has over ninety acres set to 
oranges and lemons, and Doctor and Mrs. Bartholomew, who have about sixty-five 
acres. Of local people besides Mr. Utt there are Arthur Lyon, who recently 
refused $108,000 for his thirty-eight acre orange and lemon orchard; Doctor 
Waffle, who has about thirty acres of lemons, and a number of others with smaller 
holdings. A fine view of the valleys and plains, constituting the central and south- 



100 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

ern portions of the county, may be had from these heights; and doubtless many 
palatial residences will be erected there in the near future, whose occupants may 
thus perennially enjoy the beauties of nature enhanced by the arts of civilization. 

From time immemorial San Juan Hot Springs in the canyon of that name, 
has had quite a reputation as a health resort. Water may be obtained there at any 
temperature desired, without artificial heat ; but whether it has mineral ingredients 
that give it medicinal value we are not advised. It is well attested, however, that 
hot baths at these springs have relieved patients afflicted with different diseases, 
and that the tepid mud baths have been very helpful in the treatment of rheu- 
matism. Hence, if any one wishes to get rid of his rheumatics while enjoying 
a pleasant outing, let him camp at these hot springs for a few weeks, taking a 
regular course of warm baths and spending the rest of the time in exhilarating 
exercise and refreshing sleep. 

A number of the cities and towns in the county have a plaza or pubhc park, 
a breathing place, as such places are callgd in the large cities. The land for this 
purpose is sometimes donated to the public by the person or company that lays 
out the town, and in other cases it is donated by some public-spirited citizen or 
association of such citizens. In the former case the land often lies neglected for 
several years, a sort of "No MAn's Land," while in the latter case the improve- 
ment generally follows immediately after the donation. The plaza at Westminster 
is an example of the former class, and is specifically mentioned because it has 
come under the care of the board of supervisors. The Stearns Land Company 
donated about four acres to the community for a plaza and two acres each to 
the Presbyterian Church and the public school for building sites in the year 1871. 
No improvement was made on the plaza grounds for forty years. Then the com- 
munity had to chip in and buy the property back, for through its own inattention 
it had allowed it to be illegally assessed and sold for taxes past redemption. 
Nearly $400 was raised for this purpose and for sinking a well. This well flowed 
for a while ; but, with the capping and the Hght rainfall, it has ceased to flow, 
in common with all the wells in that vicinity. In 1914 the care of the park was 
committed to the board of supervisors and in 1916 trees were furnished by the 
forestry commission. January 8, 1919, the supervisors appointed James A. Mc- 
Fadden caretaker of this park and he has bought an engine and pump ; so the 
prospects for better care are brightening. This example illustrates the difficulty 
of a community in having any public improvements without a local government 
to take care of such improvements. It also shows that the community has the 
right spirit at heart in recovering its plaza and taking steps to improve the same. 
Doubtless this spirit will push the improvement until the Westminster Plaza will 
rank with similar "beauty spots" in other cities. Santa Ana's Birch Park is almost 
as popular as the County Park in attracting small groups of people for an outdoor 
lunch and a quiet social time. The Plaza at Orange forms a picture in the minds 
of the beholders that never can be forgotten, to say nothing about the pleasure it 
aflfords citizens with leisure to enjoy its comfortable seats and gi-ateful shade 
while discussing the questions of the day. Anaheim was willing to pay six per 
cent interest per annum on a twenty-acre orange orchard, valued at $60,000, 
during the life of the owner, to acquire the property at his death for park pur- 
poses ; but the governor vetoed the legislative act designed to legalize such a deal. 
Since the blocking of that deal the board of trade has secured options from every 
property owner in the library block, to purchase that property at an estimated 
cost of $75,000 for a public park. Fullerton has a five-acre park now; but the 
board of trade and the city trustees are advocating the purchase of the twenty 
acres known as Reservoir Hill for park purposes. They are also proposing to 
lay out a skyline drive, one and one-eighth miles long, on the nearby hills, which 
will give a fine view of the entire coastal plain. 

At a meeting of the city trustees of Newport Beach on or about April 19, 
1920, J. P. Greely, president of the board, and Lew H. Wallace, city treasurer, 



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ARDEN, THE HOME OF MADAME MODJESKA 




LAGUNA BEACH SCENE 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 101 

were made a committee to negotiate with the owners of a tract of land for a city 
park. A tract has been offered the city for $4,000 on an easy payment plan, 
which is suitable for that purpose ; it lies between Bay and Central avenues, fac- 
ing Island Avenue, directly across the street from the East Newport Garage. The 
tract has several big trees on the grounds and has long been used by visitors to 
the beach for a camping ground. 

Reference is made in the chapter on Orange County's Good Roads to the con- 
struction of a road in Trabuco Canyon from the schoolhouse up to the forks by 
the United States Bureau of Roads, Orange County bearing half the expense. 
Trabuco Canyon is said to be one Of the most beautiful in Southern California, 
and to have a very fine camping ground near the Forks. The Forest Service pro- 
poses to lay out this ground and lease the lots to campers, for whom it will furnish 
tables and other equipment, including public toilets. Several applications have 
already been made for lots on which to erect cabins. This will add another 
pleasure drive and resort to the many within the county. 

"Modjeska's Home and Inn" is the business name of the idyllic retreat in the 
Santiago Canyon which belonged to Madame Modjeska for a number of years 
and to which she would return for relaxation and rest after finishing a season's 
engagements on the stage. The place was selected in the early days by J. E. 
Pleasants, when all the sites were unoccupied. He built a commodious house 
with wide porches, developed a water system and added such other improvements 
as would help to make a comfortable and tasteful home for himself and family. 
-After Madame Modjeska bought the property, we visited the place over thirty 
years ago and were shown all about the premises by the housekeeper, in the 
absence of the owner. The house was elegantly furnished with antique furniture 
made of jnahogany and other rare and costly woods; the floors were covered 
with rugs of intricate patterns and skins of wild beasts; and every nook and 
cranny was filled with expensive articles of vertu, curios, ornaments and various 
kinds of relics. On the walls and easels were paintings of noted actors and 
actresses, among which were some of Madame Modjeska in different poses in 
stage attire. About the grounds were some good-sized trees that suggested to the 
actress the "Forest of Arden," one of the scenes of Shakespeare's play, "As You 
Like It," as a romantic name for her sylvan retreat. The flowers, shrubbery and 
decorations were so placed as to add to the artistic effect of the landscape. Now, 
however, the large tract originally held under one ownership is being rapidly sold 
off in lots and acreage tracts which, of course, means more homes and more com- 
munity interests, without impairing or lessening the grandeur of the mountain 
scenery. 

"And this our life exempt from public haunt 
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones and good in everything." 

—Act 2, Scene l—"As You Like It." 

Besides Modjeska's Home and Inn, there are numerous houses and camping 
grounds in the different canyons throughout the mountains. Some of the houses 
are occupied all the time by families that live in the mountains for various reasons, 
and others are occupied only in vacation or when their owners wish to take an 
outing. The camping grounds are generally occupied by a few families or con- 
genial friends in vacation time only, like Camptonville in the Santiago Canyon 
above Orange County Park. 

Most of the cities and towns along the coast appreciate the ocean as a valu- 
able asset, not only for fishing and transportation, but also as an attraction for 
pleasure seekers who spend more or less money in their midst. They accordingly 
gave the deciding vote for the big bond issue for good roads to draw travel their 
way ; they also built bath houses, pavilions, pleasure piers and other conveniences 
for the accommodation of their visitors. Residents of the interior generally go 
to the beach for their annual bath in summer time when "the water is fine ;" but 
tourists, accustomed to the variable climate of the East, consider California 



102 HISTORY OF OR,\XGE COUNTY 

climate as "summer ail the year" and, therefore, frequent the beaches without 
regard to season. 

Thus with over 300 miles of paved roads, including city streets, tree-lined 
avenues between evergreen orchards, and scenic drives entering canyons or climb- 
ing foothills that overlook the coastal plain and ocean beyond and with a great 
variety of resorts and camp grounds to choose from in the mountains or at the 
beach. Orange County is a veritable paradise for pleasure seekers. 



CHAPTER XVII 
ORANGE COUNTY'S GOOD ROADS 

Just prior to the meeting of the legislature of 1907, some representative auto- 
mobile men came together at Los Angeles and drafted a road law which was intro- 
duced in the legislature by Senator Savage of San Pedro. This "Savage Act" 
authorized any county in the state to vote bonds for the improvement of its main 
highways connecting the cities and towns, exclusive of the streets in the incorpo- 
rated cities, such improvement being confined to a width of sixteen feet along 
the middle of said highways, which width was later increased to at least twenty 
feet, as may be seen in the following tables. 

Shortly after the passage of this act an agitation was commenced to make 
it applicable to Orange County ; but, some opposition being encountered, the mat- 
ter was dropped for a time. Two years later the subject was taken up by the 
Associated Chambers of Commerce. Petitions were circulated for signatures and 
presented to the board of supervisors, asking that the question of issuing bonds 
of the county for highway purposes be submitted to the electors. The super- 
visors granted the petitions on March 2, 1910, and appointed C. C. Chapman, W. 
H. Burnham and M. M. Crookshank as a highway commission to prepare the 
preliminary work and have charge of the improvement of the highways. C. C. 
Chapman served but little more than a month, resigning on account of too many 
other interests that needed his time and attention, and Richard Egan was ap- 
pointed to take his place. The commission employed R. T. Harris as secretary, 
Daniel S. Halladay as engineer and S. H. Finley as assistant engineer. Several 
months were spent in surveying and mapping the roads and in obtaining data 
from all available sources ; but, when the commission was about ready to report, 
the approval by the people of the state's issuing $18,000,000 road bonds, caused 
some doubt and hesitation. 

However, after the state engineers had located the state highway through 
Orange County and the county highway commission had amended its report two 
or three times, said report was finally filed with the board of supervisors Septem- 
ber 19, 1912, recommending a bond issue of $1,270,000. The supervisors promptly 
approved the report and called the election for November 4, the day before the 
regular election. The result was: Bonds, yes 5,290 and Bonds, no 2,236. The 
opposition was to bonding and not to the improvement of the roads. It was 
argued that, if a sum equal to the interest on bonds were put into the improve- 
ment of a piece of road each year, the roads would all be improved in a few 
years and the county would have no debt, or double burden, to carry meanwhile. 
But over two-thirds of the voters declared in favor of the bonds in order to get 
the immediate benefit of the improvement ; so the taxpayers have no just cause 
for complaint of the burden which they voluntarily assumed. 

In addition to the resignation of C. C. Chapman, which has already been 
mentioned, the following changes in the personnel of the commission, during the 
progress of the work, have been noticed in the records : On December 3, 1912, 
D. C. Pixley succeeded W. H. Burnham who had resigned. On March 4, 1914, 
S. H. Finley and Ralph J. MIcFadden were joined with D. C. Pixley to constitute 
the commission, but on April 21, following, Mr. Finley resigned and W. T. New- 
land took his place. Seven days later Mr. Finley was appointed chief engineer 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 103 

with W. W. Hoy as division engineer. June 1, 1915, N. T. Edwards succeeded 
D. C. Pixley, who had resigned from the commission. 

While the "Savage Act" did not go into particulars about the kind of mate- 
rials and methods to be used in improving the roads, it did require the materials 
to be durable and the work to be permanent. Imbued with this spirit the highway 
commission sought information from all available sources and gleaned wisdom 
from the experience of others. It was decided that, after each road was properly 
graded and the soil compacted, its surface should be paved with a cement con- 
crete base overlaid with an oil and grit finish. In carrying out this decision the 
concrete was composed of 1 part best Portland cement, 2j4 parts clean sand and 
5 parts crushed rock. In some of the work the proportions were 1-2-4, respec- 
tively. These ingredients were thoroughly mixed, moistened and tamped or 
rolled into place to a vmiform thickness of four inches. When sufficiently dry, 
the surface was treated to a thin coating of heavy oil and sprinkled with finely 
crushed rock. This work was all done under the vigilant eye of a competent, 
trustworthy inspector employed by the county. 

On March 3, 1915, the highway commission reported the original 108 miles 
of road, estimated to be built by the bond issue of $1,270,000, as completed, with 
a balance of about $240,000 left over, and recommended that such surplus be 
spent in paving certain other specified roads. The board of supervisors approved 
the report and authorized the expenditure of this surplus as recommended. The 
final report of the commission was received and approved by the supervisors on 
January 3, 1917; thus the Orange County Highway Commission, having completed 
its task, was discharged with the commendation and thanks of the board of 
supervisors. 

Following is a tabulated statement of the improved roads in the county, fur- 
nished by the county surveyor, in which the different widths of the paved portions 
are separately grouped, as well as the sections paved by bonds and by the county 
road funds ; the length of each section is given in miles : 

Paved Roads of Orange County 

SIXTEEN FOOT 

Sections of Roads — Paved by Bond Paved by County 

Fairview 1.51 .... 

Dyer... .95 

Smeltzer .62 .... 

Wintersburg 1.0 .... 

ElToro 1.11 

First Street : ~ .45 

Main Street, Tustin 1.31 

Newport Avenue 1.83 .... 

Westminster-Garden Grove 3.81 .... 

Laguna 10.47 

Irvine Boulevard .93 .98 

Myford .75 

Placentia-Yorba 5.18 

Riverside No. 3 5.25 

Santa Ana Canyon No. 1 .... 1.77 

Santa Ana Canyon No. 2 1.74 

Santa Ana Canyon No. 3 2.90 

San Juan Hot Springs .... .56 

Santiago Boulevard 5.68 .... 

Yorba Linda 2.40 

Seventeenth Street 1.22 

Road Improvement District No. 4 .... 1.45 



104 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



County Park 

Road District Improvement No. 



3.83 
5.19 



32.07 



30.82 



Sections of Roads — 

Anaheim-Olinda 

Chapmaii Avenue 

Anaheim-Olive 

Anaheim-Stanton-Cypress 

Bay City 

Brea Canyon 

Brea-Olinda 

Brea Park 

Commonwfealth 

Garden Grove Boulevard 

Huntington Beach No. 2 

La Mirada 

Los Alamitos 

Newport Avenue 

Newport Beach Boulevard 

Orangethorpe 

Talbert Road 

Chapman Avenue 

Bradford Avenue 

La Palma 

Garden Grove Avenue 

Edinger Street 

Walker Street 

Road District Improvement No. 3 
Olinda Road 



EIGHTEEN FOOT 

Paved by Bond 
7.70 



Paved by County 



.93 
3.58 
4.01 
8.97 
4.14 

3.63 
1.50 
5.95 
4.32 

'4.14 
4.14 
6.85 
3.24 
7.70 



2.97 



1.00 



.98 
1.18 

.43 
1.13 
1.00 

.51 
2.63 

.85 



70.80 

TWENTY FOOT 

Sections of Roads — Paved by Bond 

Huntington Beach No. 1 5.14 

Newport Beach 2.68 

Riverside No. 1 .32 

Riverside No. 2. 2.58 

Orange-Tustin .' 3.98 



12.68 



Paved by County 



14.70 

TWENTY-TWO EOOT 

Sections of Roads — Paved by Bond 

Lemon Street .... 

Santa Fe Street .... 

West Broadway .... 



Paved by Countv 
.32 
.10 
.50 



.92 

SPECIAI, 

Twenty-two foot Asphalt, Central Avenue, miles 4.7 

Eighteen-foot Asphalt, Garden Grove, miles. 9 

Fifteen-foot Cement, State Highway, miles 29.6 

Eighteen -foot Cement, State Highway, miles 13.8 

Eight-foot Cement, Collins Avenue, miles 33 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 105 

Dirt Road, estimated miles 510 

County Paved, estimated miles 168.42 

State Highway, estimated miles 43.40 

Total Miles 721.82 

As shown in the foregoing tables, the county highway commission not only 
constructed more good roads with the big bond issue than the estimated amount, 
but it also built many miles with county funds provided by the board of super- 
visors. Since the discharge of the commission, the supervisors have continued the 
road improvement policy with whatever funds they were able to command, as 
may be seen from the following items of business transacted by the board: 

November 5, 1919, a contract for paving East Fourth Street, Mabury Street 
and Tustin Avenue was awarded to Wells & Bressler for $10,009.87 ; also, on the 
same date, the bid of the same contractors to regrade the road to the County 
Park for $29,238.90, was accepted. 

December 30, 1919, the board of supervisors let the contract for the improve- 
ment of the Buen'a Park-Commonwealth Road to Wells & Bressler for $14,322.64. 

March 30, 1920, the bid of B. R. Ford for paving .83 of a mile of Collins 
Avenue, 8 feet wide, the county to furnish some materials, for eleven and three- 
quarter cents per square foot, was accepted, provided the bidder secured the 
paving of the city's half of the street, which he did. This contract amounted to 
$4,119.46, for the county's half and to $7,362.43 for the city's half. 

On March 2, 1920, the board of supervisors awarded the contract to Wells 
& Bressler for paving 1.64 miles of county roads in the Fairhaven district for 
$13,080, which was the lowest of three bids. This strip of road includes portions 
of South Glassell Street, Fairhaven Avenue and Grand Street, and connects the 
paved street of Orange with the paved road from Santa Ana to the cemeter)-, 
thereby making the second all-paved highway between the two cities, and giving 
to each a paved road to the cemetery. 

August 10, 1920, the contract for the improvement of the Fairview Road in 
Fifth Road District was awarded to Wells & Bressler for $24,861.24, as the 
lowest responsible bidders. 

In building the state highway, the engineering department required the county 
to build the bridges over all the streams. To meet this expense and build bridges 
on the county highways, bonds were voted to the amount of $100,000, as men- 
tioned in the chapter on Public Buildings and Sites. The bridges built with this 
fund are span bridges, constructed of reinforced cement concrete, and are artistic 
and substantial. 

Since the foregoing figures were furnished, the supervisors let a contract to 
Steele Finley to pave three and three-quarter miles of road at Sulphur Slide in 
Santa Ana Canyon for $36,211.93. The width is to be sixteen feet with eighteen 
feet on the turns. 

Early in August the supervisors accepted the proposal of the United States 
Forest Service to go fifty-fifty in the construction of a good mountain road up 
the Trabuco Canyon from the schoolhouse to the ForkS; The board appropriated 
$3,500 for this purpose on the promise of a federal appropriation of a like 
amount. The road will not be paved, but will be a good substantial road for 
automobile travel. The work will be done by the United States Bureau of Roads. 

On Septeniber 11, 1919, County Surveyor J. L. McBride announced that the 
State Highway Commission had let a contract to a Los Angeles firm for the 
improvement of the Irvine-Galivan road for the sum of $86,000. The improve- 
ment consists in adding two and a half feet shoulders to each side of the paving, 
increasing its width from fifteen to twenty feet between Irvine and Galivan. The 
contract also requires the surfacing of the highway south from Irvine for a dis- 
tance of five miles with a layer of asphaltum one and one-half inches thick. 



106 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Orange County's vote July 1, 1919, on the $40,000,000 state highway bonds 
was : Yes, 3,529 ; No, 344. The part of the improvement affecting Orange County 
is the piece from Oxnard to Capistrano, which would enter the county at Seal 
Beach and follow the coast most of the way, thereby adding nearly twenty-five 
miles to the county's paved highways, exclusive of the paved streets in the cities 
through which the road will pass. 

Besides the nimiber of miles of paved country roads described above, each 
incorporated city has more or less paved streets which have been reported as 
follows : 

City Miles City Miles 

Anaheim 8.00 Brought forward 49.35 

Brea 3.00 Orange 5.00 

Fullerton, estimated 20.00 Santa Ana 30.00 

Huntington Beach 16.85 Seal Beach 2.00 

Newport Beach 1.50 Stanton, estimated 1.00 



Carried forward 49.35 Total 87.35 

The total number of miles of paved roads in the county, including those under 
construction and provided for and those in the cities, is as follows : 

Reported by County Surveyor 201.82 

Under Construction 28.75 

Paved Streets in Cities 87.35 



Total Paved Roads 317.92 

]\Iany miles of the unpaved roads in the cities and county have been brought 
to a proper grade, wet down and rolled, and then treated with a thin coating of 
heavy oil, evenly distributed while hot, and covered with a sprinkling of sand or 
crushed rock — preferably the latter. The asphalt in the oil cements the top gravel 
or soil of the roadbed together, thereby forming a hard, smooth surface almost 
equal to paving. Such roads are practically free from mud in the rainy season and 
from dust in the dry season. 

Hence, in view of the foregoing facts and figures, Orange County may fairly 
be awarded the palm for good roads. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE COUNTY'S TRAFFIC FACILITIES 

The traffic facilities of Orange County are unsurpassed, due partly to its 
own need of such facilities and partly to its lying in the path of traffic to other 
sections of the state. These facilities consist of branches of two transcontinental 
railroads, an electric interurban railway, littoral contact with the Pacific Ocean 
and thousands of motor vehicles to carry on the traffic over the hundreds of miles 
of good roads. 

The first railroad to enter the territory now comprising Orange County was 
the Southern Pacific. The spirit of enterprise and achievement, that inspired the 
building of the Central Pacific Railroad, still burned in the breasts of the heroic 
band who accomplished that feat, or of their successors, when the increasing 
immigration to the southern part of the state in the early seventies attracted their 
attention. They immediately formed another company, naming it the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company, bought the Los Angeles and Wilmington Railroad, 
which had been built by local enterprise, and commenced building out of Los 
Angeles in three directions: North toward San Francisco, east through San 
Gorgonio Pass and south toward San Diego. The latter ranch reached Anaheim 
January 1, 1875, where it stopped over two years. The management, however, 
becoming jealous of the ocean traffic developing through Newport Bay, ex- 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 107 

tended the railroad across the river to East Santa Ana, where the terminus of 
that branch remains to this day. 

Shortly after the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Raiboad came into the county 
and went on through to San Diego, the Southern Pacific Railroad thought it would 
pick up its terminus at Santa Ana and transfer it to San Diego, so as to continue 
the competition in that county that it had been waging with the new road in this 
county, but even the most determined people cannot always have their own way. 
That company could not get its terminus out of Santa Ana because the property 
owners between the county seat and Tustin refused to allow the road to cross 
their property. In sheer desperation it started another branch road south of 
Anaheim, thence east to Villa Park and south to MtPherson, thence southeast 
through the Hewes ranch past Tustin to a point on the San Joaquin ranch where 
that terminus would be safe from sequestration. This Tustin branch of the 
Southern Pacific has become a feeder of the main line in the fruit shipping season. 

When the Los Alamitos sugar factory was built near the western boundary 
of the county in 1896, the Southern Pacific Company built a road from Anaheim 
across to that place to handle the traffic of the factory. About the year 1902, 
when the McFadden Brothers were curtailing their activities, they sold the Santa 
Ana and Newport Railroad to ex-Senator W. A. Clark, who immediately turned it 
over to the Southern Pacific Company. Shortly after this purchase the company 
built a line from Newport to Smeltzer, eleven miles, to handle the celery, sugar 
beets and other products of that section. 

These various branches make a total of nearly sixty miles of railroad, dis- 
tributed throughout the county so as to be accessible to the majority of the people, 
and owned and operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. 

The following .account of the building of the Santa Fe lines in Orange County 
was furnished by the chief engineer of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad 
Company : 

"From the northeastern boundary line of the county in Santa Ana Canyon 
near Gypsum to near the north boundary of the city of Santa Ana, via Olive, and 
from the city of Orange, via Anaheim and Fullerton, to the northwestern line of 
the county near Northam, was constructed in the years 1887 and 1888 by the 
Riverside, Santa Ana & Los Angeles Railway Company. 

"From near the north boundary of the city of Santa Ana, via Rancho San 
Joaquin and San Juan Capistrano, to the southernmost corner of the county at San 
Mateo Point near San Mateo station, was constructed by the San Bernardino & 
San Diego Railway Company in 1887 and 1888. 

"The branch line from Richfield to Olinda oil fields was constructed by the 
Southern California Railway Company in 1889, and 

"The main line between Richfield and Fullerton was constructed by the Ful- 
lerton & Richfield Railway Company in 1910. 

"The mileage of the above is 71.79 miles. The mileage of side tracks in the 
county is 37 miles." 

As soon as the Santa Fe was ready to do business it found the Southern 
Pacific determined to beat it to the business and, if possible, maintain its monopoly 
of the field. This resulted in several months of fierce rate-cutting, so that a 
first class ticket could be bought to Missouri River points for a dollar and freights 
from the Middle States were almost nothing. Finally rates were restored at less 
than the old monopolistic prices and the service was greatly improved by the 
competition. 

When Henry E. Huntington decided to put his ideals of good railroad build- 
ing into practice and make use of electricity as the motive power, he saw no more 
inviting field than Southern California for the investment of his millions. He 
announced that his company would ask no right of way nor bonus of any kind, 
but it would buy and pay for whatever it needed. He soon found that he didn't 
have sufficient money to buy a right of way at the landowner's price and have 



108 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

any left with which to build and equip a railroad thereon afterward, so he changed 
his policy and required the communities desiring the road to furnish the right of 
way. 

During the year 1905 the people of Santa Ana and vicinity acquired the 
right of way for the Pacific Electric railway in a straight line from Watts to 
Santa Ana for about $22,000. The following year the road was built and its 
arrival was celebrated in Santa Ana by a "Parade of Products" in December, 
1906. ^Vithout regard to the chronological order, the following additional lines 
have been built in the county within the past fifteen years : A line from Los An- 
geles via ^^^^ittier enters Orange County near the northwest corner, passes through 
La Habra, Brea and Yorba Linda and heads for the Santa Ana Canyon, but stops 
for the present at a little station east of Richfield called Stern. It is the intention 
to extend this line up the canyon to connect with the Corona and Riverside line 
and thereby make a through line from the interior to Los Angeles. The company 
has already acquired portions of the right of way through the canyon. A third 
line branches off from the Los Angeles and Long Beach line at Signal Hill, enters 
Orange County at Seal Beach and, skirting the beach cities and towns, terminates 
at Balboa near the entrance to Newport Harbor. A fourth line connects the first 
line at Santa Ana with the third line at Huntington Beach, passing the Southern 
California Sugar Factory on its way to the coast. A fifth line leaves the first 
line at the intersection of Fourth and M^ain streets in Santa Ana, goes north on 
Main Street out of the city and then swings east to Lemon Street in Orange, 
terminating for the present at its depot in the latter city. 

\\'hile the negotiations for the fifth line were pending, Mr. Huntington traded 
all his interurban red car lines for all the street yellow car lines in Los Angeles, 
which up to that time belonged to the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. This 
deal gave the latter company possession of the Pacific Electric Railway Company; 
but it was decided to keep the two companies separate. However, it is understood 
that the companies will mutually assist each other, and rumors have been rife 
about the Southern Pacific's intention to electrify the Tustin and Newport 
branches. It is probable that the Tustin branch will be thus changed and be used 
as an extension of the fifth line north from Orange to connect with the company's 
line into Los Angeles. In fact, the roadbed has already been graded north from 
Orange ; but work was stopped by the late war. The total length of the various 
lines of the Pacific Electric Railway Company in the county of Orange is 66.268 
miles. 

The following figures show the mileage and valuation of these railway sys- 
tems, as fixed by the State Board of Equalization : 

Assessment of Railroads, 1918 

Names of Roads No. of Miles Price per Mile Total Valuation 

S. P. R. R. Co 59.682 $28,137.18 $1,679,402.54 

Pullman Co 62.42 1,034.61 64,580.36 

A., T. & S. F. R. R. Co 71.97 22,432.19 1,614,444.71 

P. E. Railway Co 66.268 21,402.77 1,418,318.76 

It will be understood from the foregoing description, or it may be seen on 
the map, that these railroads are about as widely distributed over the settled por- 
tions of the county as possible ; hence the greatest number of people are reached 
by their service and the only duplication is in the through service between the 
large cities. 

A county bordering on the great Pacific Ocean for its entire length, as 
Orange County does, would naturally have a fresh, invigorating climate ; it would 
also have easy access to water transportation, which is the cheapest transportation 
in the world. With such a traffic facility in reserve, no exorbitant transportation 
charges would long be endured by the people, especially as population increases 
and means for business ventures become abundant. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 109 

The last of the county's traffic facilities to be mentioned is the thousands of 
motor vehicles that are used on the hundreds of miles of good roads. The motive 
power for the vast majority of these motor vehicles is gas, generated from gasoline 
which is a product of petroleum ; hence these motor vehicles get their fuel at first 
hand, from the oil producers of Orange County. The first gasoline engine ever 
seen in this county was exhibited to a crowd on one of the .vacant lots in Santa 
Ana about thirty years ago. The demonstrator predicted then that the gas engine 
would largely displace the steam engine, which prediction has come true so far 
as small, portable engines are concerned. 

To get an idea of the amount of traffic carried on by motor vehicles a person 
.should ride over some of the principal roads and note the number of vehicles 
he meets. Then he should go into the marts of trade and packing houses and see 
the number of huge motor trucks, with one or two trailers each, piled high with 
the products of the orchards and farms. But perhaps the best evidence of the 
large number of motor vehicles in actual use would be a report of the registrations 
for Orange County in the State Motor Vehicle Department at Sacramento. While. 
Orange County is in the fourteenth class according to population based on the 
1910 census, it ranks ninth in the 1919 motor vehicle registration. The counties 
having the highest and the lowest registrations are given along with Orange 
County by way of comparison, and also the totals for the state, as follows : 
Counties 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 

Alpine 9 11 15 18 17 16 

Los Angeles 43,099 55,217 74,709 93,654 107.232 109,435 

Orange 3,761 4,913 6,440 8,132 9,430 . 9,794 

Totals for State 123,516 163,795 232,440 306,916 364,800 376,768 

The foregoing registrations do not include farm tractors, of which there 
were 750 in 1919, as reported by the dealers selling them in the county. 

The report of the department for 1920, containing five separate items about 
each county, is given a separate table, as follows : 

Motor- 
Commercial Auto cycle 
Counties Automobiles Trucks. jNlotorcycles Dealers Dealers 

Alpine 14 2 

Los Angeles 132,145 10,083 • 6,231 678 25 

Orange 14,240 397 548 85 10 

Totals for State 450,155 31,195 17,750 3,199 219 

The semi-annual statement of apportionment of motor vehicle fees to coun- 
ties for the period from January 1, 1920, to July 31, 1920, was as follows: 

State and County 
Counties Net Receipts Apportionment 

Alpine $ 169.62 $ 84.81 

Los Angeles 1,384,435.50 692,217.75 

Orange 114,045.48 57,022.74 ' 

Totals for State $4,646,529.23 $2,323,264.61 

It is noticeable in the foregoing tables that Orange County's automobiles 
increased 4,446 in 1920 over those in 1919, making this county fifth from the top 
in the graduated list of automobiles in the state. The county will probably move 
up from the fourteenth class to the tenth in population under the new census. 

While noticing that the great county of Los Angeles owns nearly a third of 
the registered motor vehicles of the entire state, and has nearly twelve times as 
many as this county, don't overlook the fact that the little county of Orange is 
fifth in the owriership of cars; that is, there are only four counties in the state 
with more cars than Orange and fifty-three with less. 

The interruption of the mails and other traffic in Orange County for three 
days during the last week in August, 1919, by a strike of the employees on the 
steam railroads, points to the following conclusions : ( 1 ) No matter how good 
the county's traffic facilities, they must be utilized and operated in order to be of 



no HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

real benefit to the people. (2) Government ownership per se will not cure labor 
troubles, for these steam roads were absolutely controlled by the Government, yet 
such control did not prevent the strike. (3) Government regulation unll cure 
labor troubles, as was seen in the cessation of the strike when the Government 
issued its mandate without itself owning the roads. However, such regulation 
should be fairly and squarely administered on behalf of employers, employees and 
the general pulDlic whose patronage pays the bills. 



CHAPTER XIX 

SUNDRY VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS 

Orange County Medical Association 
By Dr. John L. Dryer 

The Orange County Aledical Association was organized June 13, 1889, just 
nine days after the election for county division which separated Orange from the 
mother county of Los Angeles. 

The first meeting of physicians was held on that day at two p. m. in the office 
of Judge Humphreys, a small frame building located where the Sunset Club 
now stands. Those present were: Dr. W. B. Wall, Dr. J. M. Lacy, Dr. J. A. 
Crane, Dr. J. P. Boyd, Dr. C. D. Ball, Dr. S. B. Davis and Dr. John L. Dryer, 
all of Santa Ana. 

Dr. J. A. Crane called to order and stated the objects of the meeting. 

Dr. W. B. Wall was chosen temporary president, and Dr. J. P. Boyd tem- 
porary secretary. 

The following agreement was drawn up and signed by all present: "\Vc, 
the undersigned physicians of Orange County, agree to form ourselves into an 
organization to be known as the Orange County Medical Association, and to be 
governed by such rules as may be hereafter determined upon." 

On motion the secretary was instructed to receive the signatures of Dr. J. 
R. Medlock of Santa Ana, and Dr. L. H. Fuller of Tustin, each of whom had 
signified his intention to be present but was unable to do so. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

"Resolved, That any regular physician of Orange County against whom no 
objection is raised at a subsequent meeting, be allowed to participate in the organ- 
ization of this Association." 

Under the foregoing resolution Dr. J. H. BuUard of Anaheim and Dr. W. 
B. Wood of Orange were received and added to the list of charter members — 
eleven in all. 

The next meeting was held on June 25, following, at which time a Constitu- 
tion and By-J^aws were adopted, and under the permanent organization the fol- 
lowing officers were elected and installed to serve until the first annual meeting 
in 1890: 

President, Dr. A\'. B. Wall; Vice-President, Dr. J. ]\I. Lacy; Secretary, Dr. 
J. P. Boyd ; Treasurer, Dr. W. B. Wood. 

The first members elected under the Constitution were Dr. I. D. Mills of 
Santa Ana, and Dr. D. ^V. Hunt of Anaheim, both in September. On November 
Sth Dr. J. A. Blake of Fullerton was also elected to membership, but never at- 
tended any session of the Association. 

The year 1889 closed with fourteen members as named on the roll, and no 
others were added until 1894, while during this period the records show a net 
loss of three, on account of removal from the county. These were Doctor Blake, 
above mentioned, Doctor Fuller and Doctor Davis, the last two being charter 
members. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 111 

The first annual meeting was a public one held in Spurgeon's Hall and ad- 
dressed by Dr. Walter Lindley of Los Angeles, then president of the State Med- 
ical Society, and Professor (now Judge) Conrey, also of Los Angeles. 

In June, 1891, the Association entertained the Medical Society of Southern 
California, the meeting and banquet being held in what was then Odd Fellows' 
Hall, in the First National Bank Building. The sessions were well attended. An 
excursion about and through the valley was greatly appreciated by the visiting 
doctors, although there was a marked absence of automobiles. Twice since then 
the Association has entertained the Southern Society, once in 1897, again with- 
out automobiles, and in 1908, when machines were abundant. 

From its very beginning to the present time good work, in the preparation 
of papers, and the presentation of cases for clinical study, has been the rule. The 
meetings have been regular and well attended, and even when its membership was 
small the attendance was proportional to that of later times, although long drives 
had to be made with horses from distant towns, to attend the monthly sessions, 
which have always occurred on the first Tuesday evening of each month. 

Until the completion of the Carnegie Library in Santa Ana, the sessions of 
the Association were visually held in the office of the doctor who was to read the 
paper or lead in the discussion of a selected topic. For the most part these were 
in the county seat, though many interesting gatherings were held in surrounding 
towns. 

Since the completion of the Library the sessions when in Santa Ana have been 
held in the executive committee . room of that building, adjoining which, in a 
convenient alcove, a growing medical library, consisting of several hundred vol- 
umes, has been established. 

Though from the first organization until 1894 the membership declined in 
numbers, it never fell below the original number — eleven, and from said date the 
list steadily increased with the growth of the county and enlargement of its towns. 

From, and including the first enrollment in 1889, there have been during 
the thirty and one-half years, ending December 31st, 1919, a total of ninety-one 
members received, while the present number is forty-four. 

A number of physicians have come into the county, affiliated for a time, and 
then removed to other fields. Since under the rules of the Association such 
removal terminates membership, it is impossible to give exact duration of one so 
ended. 

Death has dealt kindly with the Association during the period mentioned, and 
although a large per cent of the original founders were men well advanced in 
years, but nine active members have been so taken. Of these Dr. J. A. Crane, Dr. 
W. B. Wall, Dr. J. M. Lacy, and Dr. J. R. Medlock were charter members, and 
with Dr. Ida B. Parker were ex-presidents. One member was, by a unanimous 
vote, expelled from the Association for unethical conduct. Of the original charter 
members there remain on the roll, Dr. C. D. Ball, Dr. J. P. Boyd and Dr. John 
L. Dryer. 

Beginning with the new influx of members in 1894, the list of those received 
since then is as follows : 

1894— J. G. Berneike, L. N. Wheeler, C. \Y. Rairdon. 

1895— A. F. Bradshaw, G. J. Rubleman, L. W. Allingham, F. E. Wilson. 

1897— J. B. Cook, W. V. Marshburn. 

1898— G. S. Eddy, D. F. Royer. 

1899— Wm. Freeman, H. S. Gordon, F. ]\f. Bruner. 

1900— A. Bennie, J. A. Tyler. 

1901— E. M. Freeman, John Wehrly. 

1902— R. A. Cushman, G. H. Dobson. 

1903— H. A. Johnston, Ida B. Parker, J. G. McCleod, J. W; Jones. 

1904— J. I. Clark, J. M. Burlew, G. A. Shank. 

1905— J. H. Beebe. 



11. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



1906— C. C. Violett, J. S. Gowan, C. L. Rich. 

1907— F. J. Gobar, H. E. W. Barnes, W. H. Syer. 

1908— S. G. Huff. 

1909— H. M. Robertson, W. S. Davis, F. L. Chapline, H. H. Forline, W. H. 
\Aickett. 

1911 — Geo. L. Prentice, J. \Y. Shaul, R. A. Cushman (re-elected after ab- 
sence from the county), J. H. Lang, Geo. C. Clark, John Janus, Jos. F. Doyle. 

1912— A. H. Domann, C. H. Brooks, Geo. C. Bryan, J. W. Utter. 

1913— John W. Truxaw. 

1914_Albert Osborne, W. W. Davis, Harry E. Zaiser, F. E. Winter, E. F. 
Jones, Dorothy Harbaugh, J. E. McKillop, A. M. Tweedie. 

191 5^J. c. Osher, C. W. Harvey, J. M. Bartholomew, W. C. DuBois, F. 
E. Wilson (re-elected after absence from county), John F. McCauley, W. H. 
Wickett (re-elected after retirement). 

1916— H. P. Hendricks, G. M. Tralle. 

1917— Mrs. B. Raiche, O. O. Young, E. C. Day, J. Luther Maroon, C. C. 
Crawford, J. A. Jackson. 

1918— D. C. Cowles, M. C. Myers, J. P. Brastad. 

1919— S. A. Marsden, H. D. Newkirk. 

There have been twenty-eight presidents. Dr. W. B. Wall having served four 
years, each of the others a single year — as follows : 



1889— W. B. Wall. 
1890— Dr. J. R. Medlock. 
1891— Dr. J. M. Lacy. 
1892— Dr. John L. Dryer. 
1893— Dr. C. D. Ball. 
1894— Dr. W. B. Wall. 
1895- Dr. \Y. B. Wall. 
1896— Dr. W. B. Wall. 
1897— Dr. J. A. Crane. 
1898— Dr. L. W. Allingham. 
1899— Dr. T. G. Berneike. 
1900— Dr. W. B. Wood. 
1901— Dr. H. S. Gordon. 
1902— Dr. J. P. Boyd. 
1903 — Dr. Wm. Freeman. 
1904— Dr. F. E. Wilson. 



1905— Dr. J. W. Jones. 
1906— Dr. G. H. Dobson. 
1907— Dr. F. M. Bruner. 
1908— Dr. John Wehrly. 
1909— Dr. J. M. Beebe. 
1910— Dr. C. C. Violett. 
1911— Dr. J. M. Burlew. 
1912— Dr. Ida B. Parker. 
1913— Dr. H. A. Johnson. 
1914— Dr. D. W. Hasson. 
1915- Dr. J. I. Clark. 
1916— Dr. R. A. Cushman. 
1917— Dr. G. A. Shank. 
1918— Dr. Harry Zaiser. 
1919— Dr. G. M. Tralle. 
1920— Dr. W. C. DuBois. 



The Secretaries, and times of service, are as follows : 

Dr. J. P. Boyd, three years. Dr. C. D. Ball, two and one-half years. Dr. 
L. H. Fuller, one-half year. Dr. John L. Dryer, six and one-half years. Dr. J. 
G. Berneike, one and one-half years. Dr. J. B. Cook, one-half year. Dr. H. S. 
Gordon, four years. Dr. J. I. Clark, one-half year. Dr. J. M. Burlew, one and 
one-half years. Dr. Ida B. Parker, two years. Dr. John Wehrly, three years. 
Dr. R, A. Cushman, one year. Dr. W. C. DuBois, four years. 

The Orange County Medical Association, loyal to its country, furnished more 
than its normal quota of doctors for service in the late war. ■ The following, who 
were active members at the time of enlistment, served for varying periods, and 
each attained to the rank opposite his name : 

Burlew, Jesse M., Captain, Santa Ana. 
Chapline,. F. L., Captain, Orange. 
Davis, Walter W., Lieutenant, Brea. 
Marsden, Samuel A., Lieutenant, Orange. 
McAuley, John, Lieutenant, Santa Aha. 
McKillop, J. E., Major, Huntington Beach. 
Winter, Frank E., Major, Santa Ana. 
Wehrly, John, Major, Santa Ana. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 1 K5 

Young, Oscar O., Captain, Garden Grove; 
Wickett, William H., Captain, Fullerton. 

OfHcers of Association in 1920 

Dr. W. C. DuBois, President. Dr. J. H. Lang, Vice-President. 

Dr. J. C. Crawford, Secretary. Dr. R. A. Cushman, Treasurer. 

Members of Association in 1920 

Ball, Dr. C. D. Crawford, Dr. J. C. 

Barnes, Dr. H. E. W. Cushman, Dr. R. A. 

Beebe, Dr. J. L. Davis, Dr. W. W. 

Boyd, Dr. J. P. Dobson, Dr. G. H. 

Burlew, Dr. J. M. Domann, Dr. A. H. 

Brooks, Dr. C. H. Dryer, Dr. J. L. 

Brastad, Dr. J. P. DuBois, Dr. W. C. 

Chapline, Dr. F. L. Day, Dr. Emery C. 

. Clark, Dr. J. I. Freeman, Dr. W. 

Clark, Dr. Geo. Gobar, Dr. F. J. 

Cowles, Dr. D. C. Gordon, Dr. H. S. 

Hasson, Dr. D. W. Robertson, Dr. H. M. 

Johnston, Dr. H. A. Royer, Dr. D. F. 

Jackson, Dr. J. A. Shank, Dr. G. A. 

Lang, Dr. J. H. Truxaw, Dr. J. W. 

Maroon, Dr. J. L. Utter, Dr. J. W. 

Marsden, Dr. S. A. Violett, Dr. C. C. 

McAuley, Dr. John. Wehrly, Dr. John. 

McKillop, Dr. J. E. Wickett, Dr. W. H. 

Myers, Dr. M. C. Wilson, Dr. F. E. 

Osher, Dr. J. C. Winter, Dr. F. E. 

Raiche, Dr. B. F. Zaiser, Dr. H. E. 

The Orange County Bar Association 
By Samuel M. Davis 

On October 31, 1901, members of the Bar of Orange County signed a call 
for a meeting to organize the Orange County Bar Association, to be held on 
November 22, 1901. The following attorneys signed the call for the meeting: 
Victor Montgomery, W. F. Heathman, J. W. Towner, Ray Billingsley, Richard 
Melrose, Z. B. West, E. E. Keech, F. O. Daniel, R. Y. Williams, A. Y. Wright, 
S. A. Bowes, H'. C. Head, Horatio J. Forgy, John N. Anderson, E. T. Langley, 
W. E. Parker, W. B. Williams, Homer G. Ames, Samuel M. Davis, J. Howard 
Bell, J. C. Scott, H. S. Peabody. 

On November 22, 1901, the following members of the Bar, met in the Court 
Room of the Superior Court, in the Court House, at Santa Ana, and organized 
the Orange County Bar Association: Z. B. West, E. E. Keech, F. O. Daniel, 
R. Y. Williams, Horatio J. Forgy, W. E. Parker, Homer G. Ames, Samuel M. 
Davis, J. Howard Bell, J. C. Scott. 

The first officers of the Association were as follows : President, Victor Mont- 
gomery ; vice-president, Richard Melrose ; treasurer, R. Y. Williams ; secretary, 
Horatio J. Forgy. A constitution and by-laws were adopted. F. O. Daniel was 
duly elected as second president of the Association, and following him in order 
as presidents were Eugene E. Keech and R. Y. Williams. H. C. Head is now the 
president of the Bar Association. 

Following the secretaryship of H. J. Forgy, J. C. Burke was elected secre- 
tary, and is now acting secretary of the Association. 

The Association has been very active in keeping up the standard of the pro- 
fession. It has brought to the attention of the courts several of its members and 

6 



114 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

other attorneys practicing in the county, who had violated certain sections^ of 
the Codes, relating to the practice of the law, and had been accused of unethical 
methods of practice. It has continuously and consistently attempted to raise the 
standard of the profession, especially in regard to the honorable practice of 

the law. . ^ , ^- • ■ 

This Bar Association was active in havmg one of the attorneys practicmg m 
the county disbarred for reprehensible conduct after he had been admitted to 
practice by the Appellate Court of the Third District. It was shown afterwards 
that he had practiced fraudulent and surreptitious methods of gaining admission. 
The disbarment of this attorney caused the entire membership of the Bar Asso- 
ciation to be joined as defendants in the United States District Court of the 
Southern District of California. The case was tried before Hon. Oscar Trippett, 
of the United States District Court. When the plaintiff rested his case, the case 
was dismissed on a motion for a nonsuit made by the attorneys representing the 
Orange County Bar Association. 

In the prosecution of this litigation, the Bar Association of this courity did 
not prosecute any of the parties with a vindictive spirit, but solely to raise the 
moral and ethical standard of the profession. In this endeavor, the Bar Associa- 
tion, and its officers and members, have been sustained, both by the Supreme and 
Federal Courts of this state. These facts are mentioned as noteworthy, because 
laymen generally think that the ordinary lawyer is liable to be unethical in prac- 
tice, and will take no steps to rid the profession of undesirable members. 

' The Association is now in a flourishing condition, and has had considerable 
work in forming public opinion in legislative matters that have come before the 
Association. Several members of the Association have had high honors con- 
ferred on them. 

■ The first judge of the Superior Court, after the formation of the county in 
1889, was Hon. J. W. Towner. He was followed by Hon. J. W. Ballard and 
Hon' Z. B. West. 

In 1913 the legislature passed an act increasing the number of judges in 
the Superior Court from one to two, and this act took effect on August 10, 1913. 
Gov. Hiram W. Johnson, on September 13, 1913, appointed Hon. William H. 
Thomas to be Judge of the Superior Court, thus established, which became known 
as Department Two of the Superior Court of Orange County. 

Subsequently, Gov. W. D. Stephens, in December, 1918, appointed William 
H. Thomas, Associate Justice of the newly established Court of Appeals, Sec- 
ond District, Division Number Two, sitting in Los Angeles, Cal., to take effect 
January 1, 1919. 

Gov. W. D. Stephens, in December, 1918, appointed to Hon. R. Y. Williams 
as Judge of Department Two of the Superior Court of Orange County, to take 
the place made vacant in that Court by the appointment of Judge Thomas to the 
Appellate Court. Judge Williams took office January 1, 1919. 

The Hon. Z. B. West was elected Judge of the Superior Court in Novem- 
ber, 1902, and has succeeded himself for two consecutive terms, and is now Judge 
of Department One of the Superior Court of Orange County. 

The following members of the Orange County Bar Association have filled 
the office of District Attorney: J. W. Ballard, Z. B. West, R. Y. Williams, H. 
C. Head, S. M. Davis, L. A. West. 

The Orange County Bar Association is an aggressive and active force in the 
legal history and activities of Orange County, and is doing its part to keep the 
standard of the profession high and honorable. 

Orange County Historical Society 

Attorney S. M. Davis of Santa Ana, in May, 1919, invited a number of citizens 
from different parts of the county to meet in the Santa Ana library to consider 
the question of forming a historical society to collect and preserve a record of the 
events of historical interest to the county together with any souvenirs, trophies 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 115 

or other articles connected therewith. At that meeting the proposition was 
unanimously approved and the following persons were selected to act as the first 
board of directors in forming the organization and securing the incorporation of 
the society, viz. : Dr. John L. Dryer, S. M. Davis, Mrs. A\'. B. Tedford, C. C. 
Chapman, Samuel Armor, H. Clay Kellogg and George W. jMoore. Doctor 
Dryer was elected president and S. M. Davis secretary. Articles of incorporation 
were adopted and the secretary was instructed to file copies of the same with the 
board of supervisors and the secretary of state. In due time the secretary received 
the certificate of incorporation and called a meeting of the society to convene 
on June 26, 1919, to perfect the organization. At that meeting the resignation 
of George W. Moore as director was accepted and Dr. C. D. Ball was elected 
to fill the vacancy. With this change the temporary board of directors was made 
permanent. Doctor Dryer declining to continue in the chair. Doctor Ball wa.s 
elected president; Samuel Armor, vice-president; S. M. Davis, secretary and 
treasurer ; and Miss Jeannette E. McPadden, curator. Thus was the Orange 
County Historical Society organized on June 26, 1919. 

Orange County Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company 

One of the cooperative organizations of Orange County that reflects great 
credit on the judgment and forethought of its organizers is the Orange County 
Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. Organized June 30, 1898, with about 
twenty or thirty present, the company now has about 4,500 members. During 
the ensuing years it has paid losses amounting to $51,681.51, and has the enviable 
record of never having had a claim contested in court. 

At the time of the organization of the company the farmers of the county 
were paying from thirty cents to $1.08 per year on a $100 valuation. For insur- 
ance that gives additional safeguards to its policyholders, the company has a rate 
of about fifteen cents per year on $100. It has now in force insurance to the 
amount of about $7,500,000 in valuation. * 

The first official board consisted of the following: W. A. Beckett, Garden 
Grove, president; N. H. Leonard, Bolsa, vice-president; F. D. Reed, Garden 
Grove, secretary ; E. W. Crowell, Orange ; Thomas Nicholson, El Modena ; Albert 
Barrows, Fullerton; H. Larter, Westminster. Of the first board of directors 
only two are now living, N. H. Leonard and H. Larter, the former being the only 
one who was actively engaged in all the details of the company's organization. 
Mr. Leonard, who is now living in Santa Ana, personally wrote the first appli- 
cations that were filed with the secretary, F. D. Reed, and served as the vice- 
president of the company for four or five years. 

Orange County W. C. T. U. 

By Elizabeth H. Mills 

In writing the history of Orange County, all who read its history should know 
that the organized forces of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union — organ- 
ized immediately after the organization of the County in 1889 — though numer- 
ically small, have been a potent factor in the moral, spiritual and political uplift 
of the county. The education given by this organization has been progressive 
along all lines that tend to the betterment of the human race. It has spared 
neither sacrifice nor service to this end, and today not a county in our beloved 
state can show a better record. Splendid men have stood behind the brave women 
who have dared to blaze the way through indiflference, criticism and intolerance 
that ever marks the path to victory. These kept the faith and waged the war- 
fare that made it possible for Orange County, with its present eleven Unions 
and over five hundred members, to be an eflfective part in placing in our National 
Constitution the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Amendments. All honor to the W. 
C. T. U. women, and their helpers, of this County for their part in making the 
nation's present and future sober. Christian citi^en-ship. 



116 



A. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 
CHAPTER XX 

ORANGE COUNTY'S SOLDIERS 

B. 



Abbott, William F. 
Abshier, Clifford 
Adams, A. A. 
Adams, Anthony 
Adams, Arley 
Adams, Colvin E. 
Adams, Edgar A. 
Adams, Harry P. 
Adams, W. H. 
Adair, Clarence M. 
Adkinson, Edmund R. 
Adkinson, Raymond 
Adkinson, Russel 
Ahlf, L. L. 
Aldrich, Frank 
Alexander, John C. 
Allander, Sydney \\'. 
Allec, Eugene A. 
Alleman, Roscoe C. 
Allen, Joe 
Ailing, Earl W. 
Amos, George E. 
Anderson, Beverly 
Anderson, Frank M. 
Anderson, Mike 
Anderson, Norbert L. 
Anderson, Sydney W. 
Andrada, Arthur B. 
Andrus, Lynn T. 
Angle, Arthur \V. 
Annon, Valevian ' 
Appel, Henry 
Appel, Theo. G. 
Aragno, Matteo 
Argiiello, Joseph M. 
Armfield, Lee 
Armin, Frank C. 
Arnerich, James V. 
Aseves, Eliseo B. 
Ashman, Leslie B. 
Ashman, Raymond 
Ashman, Theodore 
Atkinson, Farrell G. 
Atwell, Frank 
Atwood, Chas. P. 
Atwood, Percy 
Aubuchon, L. A. 
Avrit, Burnie 
Axelson, Carl 
Ayers, Lorin D. 
Ayers, Maxie H. 



Badgley, Chester E. 

Baggerly, Jesse 

Bagwell, Samuel 

Bagwell, William L. 

Baier, John L. 

Baker, Arnie E. 

Baker, Carl 

Baker, Clark E. 

Baker, Verne A. 

Baldwin, Fred W. 

Baldwin, Lester G. 

Ball, Dexter 

Ball, John D. 

Ball, Milton W. 

Bangs, Edward C. 

Barber, Bronson 

Barker, Christopher R. 

Barnes, Charles 

Barnes, R. 

Bartlett, Wiir 

Bascom, John L. 

Batterman, Herbert W. 

Bauer, Louis L. 

Beach, Archer C. 

Beal, Darold L. 

Beals, Ralph A. 

Beecher, Walter 

Beem, Raymond E. 

Beisel, Emerson A. 

Belden, Lawrence E. 

Beltz, Carl L. 

Beltz, Ralph E. 
Belvin, Charles C. 
Bemis, Arthur C. 
Benchley, Frank E. 
Benchley, William L . 
Benedict, Newton R. 
Bennett, Edward L. 
Benson, Albert R. 
Bentjen, Fred C. 
Berry, Fred M. 
Bertman, John E. 
Besser, Frank L. 
Best, Ralph C. 
Best, Willard 
Bibber, Ray 
Biggs, Frank E. 
Biggs, Martin 
Bird, Harold 
Birenbaum, Benjamin H. 
Bishop, Edwin A. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



117 



Bittner, Alfred E. 
Bittner, Walter 
Black Bruce 
Black, John P. 
Black, Robert L. 
Blackmore, Bayard C. 
Blaeholder, Charles C. 
Blake, Frank 
Blakemore, Paul E. 
Blandin, Clarence W. 
Blandin, Harold C. 
Blank, Leon 
Blee, Harry H. 
Blee, James B. 
Block, John A. 
Bly, Edwin P. 
Bockrath, Leo A. 
Bohannon, James E. 
Boisseranc, Henry 
Bolinger, Dowley 
Booms, William F. 
Boose, Herbert A. 
Borchard, Ted 
Bowen, Arthur U. 
Bowen, Earl P. 
Bowen, Franklin L. 
Bowen, Frederick J. 
Bowers, Noble 
Boyer, George R. 
Brace, Harry H. 
Braddock, Fred W. 
Bradford, Chester A. 
Bradley, John I. 
Brady, Arthur J. 
Brandt, L. K. 
Brashear, Walter F. 
Bressler, C. E. 
Brewer, Harley P. 
Brewster, William B. 
Briggs, Frank E. 
Briggs, Lewis 
Briggs, Otis E. 
Briney, Perry 
Britton, John J. 
Brock, V. D. 
Brooks, Henry M. 
Brooks, Ray 
Brothers, Howard N. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Brown, Donald 
Brown, George W. 
Brown, Harold R. 
Brown, Hector 
Brown, Howard E. 
Brown, J. Burdett 
Brown, Joe 
Brown, Lee I. 
Brown, Ollie 



Brown, Raymond 
Brown, William R. 
Brubaker, Omer E. 
Brubaker, Walter S. 
Bruce, Robert A. 
Bruer, Jesse 
Bruer, Samuel B. 
Brundson, Harold D. 
Bruns, C. W. 
Bruns, J. E. 
Brunton, Delbert 
Bryant, Whitney 
Buchanan, Stacy M. 
Buchheim, Daniel G. 
Buckner, Clyde W. 
Burdick, Earl K. 
Burge, William M. 
Burke, Sam W. 
Burlew, J. M. 
Burns, Edward M. 
Burr, Charles W. 
Burr, Clifford 
Burruel, John 
Burruels, Victor 
Burry, Delbert E. 
Buss, Harold J. 
Butchers, William 
Butler, Eldon 
Buzord, Claude 
Byran, Wilfred C. 

C. 

Cadwallader, Forrest 
Calder, James A. 
Calderwood, Willis C. 
Calkins, Harry C. 
Campbell, Chester 
Campbell, Denver D. 
Campbell, Elgie 
Campbell, Howard D. 
Card, George M. 
Carey, George W. 
Carillo, Raymond L. 
Carisoza, Frank P. 
Carisoza, Joe 
Carlson, Nels A. 
Carmichael, David B. 
Carnahan, Aaron E. 
Carothers, Oscar A. 
Carpenter, Thaddeus E. 
Carriker, Floyd E. 
Carroll, Charles T. 
Carron, Henry 
Carver, Roy 
Cathcart, William H. 
Catherman, Ray E. 
Cadand, Alfred 



118 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



Certly, George 
Cervantez, Joe 
Chandler, Ernest L. 
Chandler, Roy 
Chandler, Roy ^^^ 
Chaffee, Elmo N. 
Chapline, Frank L. 
Chapman, Charles Stanley 
Chappell, Ralph K. 
Chase, Ralph 
Chisum, O. H. 
Chittenden, Burton L. 
Christ, Earl W. 
Christensen, Jennings B. 
Christenson, Albert R. 
Christenson, Earl D. 
Christy, Samuel ^^'. 
Clabby, Jack 
Claes, Tonie 
Clark, Daniel B. 
Clark, Harry R. 
Clark, Luther 
Clarke, Martin F. 
Claypool, Hugh 
Clayton, Herbert J. 
Clayton, O. H. 
Clemens, Ruben \\'. 
Clever, Oscar R. 
Clifton, Floren G. 
Cline, Carl Otto 
Cochran, Ross 
Coenen, John J. 
Coffin, John R. 
Coffin, Owen T. 
Cole, Amen 
Cole, Glendon 
Cole, Ralph .W. 
Coleman, Harry E. 
Coleman, James O. 
Collar, Jess. B. 
Collette, Frank A. 
Collings, Joseph B. 
Collins, Joseph L. 
Collins, Homer V. 
Collins, Loyd R. 
Collins, Robert W. 
Collis, Ronald B. 
Comstock, J. Roy 
Cone, Arthur L. 
Cohley, Alfred A. 
Conley, Joseph J. 
Conner, Caswell L. 
Cook, Earl T. 
Cook, Thomas D. 
Cookson, Raymond D. 
Cooley, Archie D. 
Cooley, Glenn H. 
Coons, Arthur G. 



Corcoran, Robert E. 
Cordes, Alfred A. 
Corliss, Roy Carleton 
Cornelison, Enoch 
Corrigan, Hugh 
Corser, Lloyd C. 
Covington, Daniel L. 
Cox, Ralph L. 
Coyle, Harold H. 
Coyle, William A. 
Cozad, Paul N. 
Cramer, George W. 
Crawford, Percy O. 
Crawford, Robert M. 
Crawford, Ross 
Crawshaw, Jesse A. 
Crespin, Emil 
Crespin, Jim M. 
Critton, Lloyd V. 
Crouch, John Edgar 
Crow, Grover C. 
Crowell, Claude S. 
Culley, Herbert B. 
Cummings, Albert L. 
Cunningham, Richard 
Curry, Robert A. 
Curti, Lorenzo 
Curtis, John H. 
Cutler, William E. 

D. 

Dahl, Walter A. 
Dahn, Frank 
Dale, Loring J. 
Dale, Milton B. 
Daman, Ross 
Daniel, F. Orin 
Daniel, William H. 
Daniels, Aurelio 
Daniels, Thomas D. 
Danielson, Carl 
Danker, Benjamin J. 
Danker, Ernest L. 
Dankers, Martin L. 
Dankers, William J. 
Dauser, Sue 
Davidson, Irving D. 
Davis, Elmo H. 
Davis, Keith 
Davis, P. R. 
Dean, Arthur C. 
Dean, Calvin J. 
Dean, Floyd B. 
Dean, Floyd M. 
Deaver, Barrett 
Deaver, Charles L. 
Deaver, Victor 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



11" 



Degryse, Adolph 
De Guesippi, Antonio M. 
Deitrick, Leo 
Delaney, Rubin E. 
Bellinger, Charles P. 
De Long, Keith 
Dennison, John 
De Fetter, Gustof 
Dewitt, Theodore H. 
Dickenson, Eugene 
Dickenson, Raymond R. 
Dickenson, R. R. 
Dickey, Leon A. 
Dickson, James H. 
Dickson, Oma V. 
Dillingham, Henry 
Dismukes, Joseph ^^^ 
Dismukes, J. Walton 
Ditchey, John D. 
Doty, Charles V. 
Douglas, Eugene A. 
Dowling, Francis M. 
Dowling, William H. 
Doyle, Ralph M. 
Drake, A. L. 
Draper, James F. 
Duarte, Perfect 
Dufau, Remi L. 
Duhart, Peter 
Duker, Otto H. 
Duncan, Elora 
Duncan, Elbert 
Duncan, Harry 
Dunkle, William \\'. 
Dunlap, Stafford 
Dunlap, Stewart 
Dunn, Ray E. 
Dunning, Marshall F. 
Durham, Benjamn B. 
Durler, Ralph E. 
Durrett, Henry N. 
Dyckman, Albert W. 
Dyckman, Walter G. 
Dyer, Charles Y. 
Dyer, George H. 
Dyer, Raymond S. 
Dysinger, Glen H. 

E.. 

Eaby, Roy L. 
Easley, Roy B. 
Eastham, E. S. 
Echols, Marion H. 
Eckhart, Lee F. 
Eckley, Lee R. ■ 
Eden, John R. 
Edgar, Carl R. 



Edgar, Nelson 
Edwards, Walter E. 
Eells, Arthur Lewis 
Eells, Ralph H. 
Ehlen, Henry 
Eichler, Chauncy II. 
Eimers, Victor A. 
Elam, Joe C. 
Elliott, Delbert 
Elliott, Floyd T. 
Elliott, Frank 
Elliott, Leon C. 
Elliott, Stamey 
Ellis, Archie 
Ellis, L. R. 
Emmonds, Sheppard 
Enderle, Maurice F. 
Engelhardt, Clarence 1 1 
Ensigne, Elmer C. 
Esau, Carl 
Escarsega, Juan 
Estes, Troy L. 
Estrada, Joe M. 
Etchandy, Joe 
Evans, James 
Everett, Harold 
Eyman, Leroy 



Faheyn, Edward T. 
Fallert, Joseph A. 
Fargher, Arthur 
Faul, John L. 
Faulkner, William C. 
Felix, Andres C. 
Felts, A. W. 
Ferguson, John W. 
Ferguson, Samuel A. 
Fickle, Glen 
Fickle, Marvin D. 
Fields, Albert M. 
Fife, Edward J. 
Finch, Leonard B. 
Finley, Edmund J. 
Finster, Frank E. 
Fipps, Remus F. 
Fisher, H. G. 
Fisher, Jacob M. 
Fixsen, Ivan D. 
Fletcher, Warren 
Fleusouras, George G. 
Flies, Ellery K. 
Flowers, Dwight A. 
Fluor, Fred 
Fluor, P. E. 
Forbes, Herbert 
Ford, Arthur K. 



120 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



Ford, Clifford M. 
Ford, Guy 
Ford, Maurice E. 
Fordham, George H. 
Fordham, Roy D. 
Foster, Henry H. 
Foster, Jesse L. 
Fowler, Herbert J. 
Fox, Elwin 
Fox, Melville W. 
Frampton, Fred F. 
Franklin, Norman T. 
Franzen, George H. 
Fraze, Major C. 
Frazier, Earl 
Freeman, Don 
Freeman, F. G. 
Freeman, Frank E. 
Freeman, James A. 
Freeman, John W. 
Frenger, Eugene A. 
Frevert, Ervin C. 
Frevert, W. G. 
Frice, Arthur 
Frice, Harvey 
Friend, Bruce H. 
Fries, Fred 
Frink, William S. 
Frostefer, Hugo L. 
Frye, Herschel G. 
Frye, Joseph L. 
Frye, Lawrence H. 
Frye, Valiant J. 
Fuller, E. I. 
Fuller, Fred 
Fuller, Lloyd L. 



Gage, Loren M. 
Gale, Guy H. 
Gallienne, Peter F. 
GalIoway,Ellis Lee 
Ganther, C. 
Garcia, Vito W. 
Gardner, Vera P. 
Garner, Robert W. 
Garner, Thomas C. 
Garr, Charles H. 
Garrett, Hubert J. 
Georts, Henry 
Geretson, Rudolph G. 
Gerken, Fred 
Gerken, Walter 
Getty, Wilbur K. 
Geyer, Charles 
Geyer, Floyd L. 
Gianoulas, Demeterios 



Gibbon, Jamie 
Gibson, Rex G. 
Giese, William 
Gilbert, Earl C. 
Giles, Clarence F. 
Gill, Oliver 
Gillaspy, Ivan R. 
Gillison, Robert D. 
Gilmore, James T. 
Girton, William H. 
Gisler, Julius P. 
Gisler, Thomas P. 
Gittins, Lyman S. 
Glenn, William F. 
Glidden, Harrison 
Glidden, R. H. 
Gobar, F. H. 
Goddard, Gerald J. 
Goetz, Edward A. 
Going, Charles F- 
Good, Junius M. 
Goodale, Ralph H. 
Goodell, Philip H. 
Goodnight, Maloy 
Gordon, G. M. 
Gorton, Alonzo M. 
Gothard, Joseph R. 
Gow, James 
Graham, Robert P. 
Graham, Wilbert G. 
Granger, Earl C. 
Graw, J. J. 
Greathouse, Marshall 
Greder, George B. 
Greeley, Ross 
Green, Robert W. 
Greenleaf, Erol F. 
Griffen, James \Y. 
Grissette, Victor 
Grouard, Franklin L. 
Grover, Herbert H. 
Grumm, Ewald 
Guenther, Otto D. N. 
Guglielmana, Riccardo 
Gulley, Fred 
Gunther, Emma O. 
Guntz, Beaver G. 

H. 

Haapa, Eino 
Habener, William 
Hacklander, Atwill H. 
Haegele, Frank J. 
Halderman, Clarence 
Halderman, Leonard P. 
Halderman, Myron E. 
Hale, Harold E. 



HISTORY. OF ORANGE COUNTY 



121 



Hale, Harry L. 
Hale, Walter B. 
Halloway, Bert J. 
Hamann, Richard J. 
Hambleton, Walter N. 
Hammerle, Raymond J. 
Handley, William C. 
Hankey, Carl H. 
Hankey, Howard 
Hankins, Garland 
Hansbarger, Frank 
Hansen, Magnus 
Hansen, Walter 
Hansfield, Gordon E. 
Hantsbarger, Frank A. 
Harding, William W. 
Hardy, Ashael 
Hardy, Daniel 
Hargett, Coleman A. 
Hargrave, Edgar J. 
Harms, Fred J. 
Harnock, Charles J. 
Harper, Harry E. 
Harper, Harry O. 
Harper, Wilbur B. 
Harris, George F. 
Harris, George Franklin 
Harris, Eeon 
Harrison, T. H. 
Hart, Charles H. 
Hart, William O. 
Hartman, Carl A. 
Hartman, Claude 'E. 
Hartung, Edgar J. 
Hartwick, Delette 
Hartwick, Martin 
Haskell, M. D. 
Hassler, Bert R. 
Hassler, Ferdinand O. 
Haster, Richard 
Hatch,^ Ashley 
Hatch, Jesse D. 
Hatch, Melton 
Hatfield, George H. 
Hauk, Edward W. 
Hawkins, Elmer 
Hawkins, William G. 
Hays, Mart V. 
Healton, Orval P. 
Hebson, John W. 
Heil, Vernon C. 
Heine, Dale M. 
Heinecke, Albert 
Hemmerling, Walter 
Henderson, Walter 
Heninger, William P. 
Henry, Archie 
Henry, Ernest M. 



Henselman, Linn 
Herbst, Valentine F. 
Herron, Daniel W. 
Hess, Albert F. 
Heying, Edward 
Heying, Oscar W. 
Hickman, Carl 
Hildebrand, George W. 
Hilend, James E. 
Hill, Frank R. 
Hill, Fred 
Hill, H. H. 
Hill, Horace R. 
Hill, Robert 
Hill, Roger F. 
Hillebrecht, George A. 
Hillyard, Warren K. 
Hilton, Jules V. 
Hinds, Thomas H. 
Hinricher, Joseph A. 
Hinrichs, John F. 
Hoben, Hugh J. 
Hodson, Burt B. 
Hodson, Roscoe N. 
Hoflfman, Ralph 
Hohn, Vernon F.' 
Holder, Dee 
Holderman, Nelson M. 
Holditch, George E. 
Holditch, John P. 
Holditch, Joseph B. 
Hollis, A. D. 
Hollowa, Bert J. 
Holm, Albert C. 
Holmes, Max C. 
Holston, Thomas E. 
Holt, Harvey K. 
Holt, John H. 
Holve, Albert A. 
Holzgrafe, Harold T. 
Holzgrafe, Homer C. 
Honey, Lyle C. 
Hooker, Ray E. 
Hooser, Clarence H. 
Hopkins, Clyde H. 
Hopkins, Donald 
Horine, George L. 
Horton, Earl 
Horton, Kenneth E. 
Hoskins, Glenn G. 
Hoskins, William C. 
Hossler, Harry 
Houston, Raymond S. 
Howard, Carl V. 
Howard, Horace J. 
Howard, Kyle 
Howell, William E. 
Howland, George H. 



122 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



Howland, W. 
Hubbard, George R. 
Hudson, C. D. 
Hudson, Gerald S. 
Hudson, Percy W. 
I-Iuff, Ralph E. 
Huffman, Alvan W. 
Huffman, Ralph 
Hugh, H. 

Humbard, William A. 
Hunt, Elmer R. 
Hunton, Gwendoline M. 
Huntzinger, Amos 
Huntzinger, Oscar 
Hupp, Victor 
Hutchinson, Samuel A. 
Hyline, Stephen 

I. 

Ilxes, Steven B. 
Iman, Homer F. 
Imes, Clinton 
Imus, Carl O. 
Indergand, Alex. 
Inman, Elmer 
Innes, Wells W. 
Irvine, James R. 
Irvine, Joseph B. 
Irwin, Cecil C. 
Irwin, George W. 
Isinor, Albert P. 

J- 

Jabs, Harry 
Jackman, Carl H. 
Jackman, Harry H. 
Jacobs, John, Jr. 
Jacobs, Otto A. 
Jacobsen, Walter L. 
Jacques, Jules F. 
Jacques, Placido 
Jaeger, Fred C. 
Jamar, T. R. 
Jamison, A. J. 
Jansen, Johannes 
Janss, Elmer R. 
Janssen, Frank A. 
Jayne, Maxwell 
Jayne, Ralph 
Jefferies, Lester A. 
Jenks, Stillman N. 
Jensen, Norman R. 
Jessee, William D. 
Jessup,. John H. 
Jessup, Robert 
Jiles, Clarence F. 



Jiles, John A. 
Johnson, Arthur A. 
Johnson, Arthur W. 
Johnson, Carl 
Johnson, Claude E. 
Johnson, Elmer L. 
Johnson, Ernest 
Johnson, Jack Stacy 
Johnson, John A. 
Johnson, John C. 
Johnson, John H. 
Johnson, Raymond N. 
Johnson, Roy 
Johnson, Samuel C. 
Jolly, Hubert T. 
Jones, Arch 
Jones, Charles C. 
Jones, Christopher l'\ 
Jones, David M. 
Jones, Gordon 
Jones, Lawrence 
Jones, liable 
Juden, Floyd 
Junge, William F. 



K. 

Kadau, Carl J. 
Kadelbach, Albert 
Kamp, Ralph B. 
Kaufman, Louis H. 
Keech, Dana E. 
Keech, Cara 
Keefe, John Edward 
Keefe, Thomas A. 
Keencey, Leo 
Keim, Otto A. 
Keiser, Delbert A. 
Kellingworth, Hallie E. 
Kellog, Ernest L. 
Kellogg, George E. 
Kelly, Arthur J. 
Kelly, Daniel E. 
Kelly, Joseph 
Kelly, Leo W. 
Kelly, Ralph A. 
Kelly, William E. 
Kemper, Arthur A. 
Kemper, John F. 
Kendall, A. Gordon 
Kendall, Harry L. 
Kendall, Herbert R. 
Kennedy, Shirley A. 
Kennedy, William F. 
Kennon, Stanley W. 
Kenyon, Lee F. 
Keseman, William 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



123 



Kestenholtz, Emil 
Kettler, William 
Killingsworth, Hallie E. 
Kimball, True W. 
Kimbrough, Edwin W. 
Kindle, Daniel C. 
King, Earl R. 
King, John S. 
King, Ralph E. 
Kingston, William 
Kirk, Dean W. 
Kirkpatrick, Harry G. 
Kitchen, Harvey F. 
Klaustermeyer, Henry F. 
Kneen, William E. 
Knick, Thomas O. 
Knight, Roscoe W. 
Knowlton, HoUis H. 
Koech, Hugh 
Koenig, Albert F. 
Kogler, Edwin 

Kohlenberger, Charles F. W. 
Kohlenberger, H. H. 
Kolkhorst, Emil W. " 
Kozina, Albert 
Kozina, Alvin 
Kraemer, Samuel P. 
Kraft, Louis 
Krause, H. A. 
Krebs, Otto 
Kroener, Rudolph 
Kroener, William F. 
Krueger, Herbert 
Kubitz, Walter 
Kuechel, Edwin P. 
Kurtz, Milton H. 
Kurt^, Neale C. 
Kusch, William H. 
Kutzner, Herman J- 
Kutzner, Otto J. 

E. 

Lacy, Alex H. 

Lae, John 

Lae, Louis 

Lae, Phillip 

Lamb, John W. 

Lambert, Emery B. 

Lambert, George W. 

Lambert, Munroe M. 

Lambert, Wilson W. 

Lambracopoulos, Theophanes 

Lamhoffer, Eric 

Lamme, Halsey 

Lantz, Royce 

La Porte, Peter 

Larios, Thomas A. 



Larter, Donald 
Launders, Clarence B. 
Lauterback, Fred C. 
Lay, James F. 
Lay, Verna Clyde 
Leatherwood, Clyde E. 
Leavitt, Frank S. 
LeBard, Aubrey C. 
LeBard, Thomas J. 
Le Beu, Paul M. 
Lee, George M. 
Lee, Harold K. 
Lee, Roscoe 
Lehner, Merritt G. 
Leimer, Charles J. 
Leinberger, \^'illiam S. 
LeLande, Joseph A. 
Lemar, Dwight H. 
Lentz, Donald E. 
Lentz, Wilber S. 
Lenz, Otto 
Levine, Sam 
Liafe, William A. 
Lichermann, Benedict A. 
Lieberman, Anna L. 
Lindley, Charles 
Little, Walter B. 
Litton, B. E. 
Livesy, James E., Jr. 
Lockett, Henry J. 
Loerch, Albert L. 
Loescher, William G. 
Logan, Charles F. D. 
Loney, Earl 
Long, Beaugh 
Lopez, Alonzo 
Lopez, Felix 
Lopez, Franklin 
Lopez, Paul 
Loptien, Henry, Jr. 
Love, Henry 
Love, Leonard 
Lovelandy, Thomas A. 
Lovell, J. C. 
Lovett, Daniel C. 
Lowen, Clifton E. 
Luchau, Henry O. 
Luck, Benjamin F. 
Ludy, Howard E. 
Lugo, Paul 
Luhring, Rolla 
Lujan, Sam 
Luke, Norman 
Lumsden, John C. 
Lutten, P. H. 
Lutz, William A. 
Lykke, Andrew P. 
Lyon, Franklin J. 



124 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



M. 

Maas, George B. 
AIcAnley, John 
McBride, Frank 
McCabe, Thomas 
jMcCain, A. Lawrence 
McCarthy, Robert 
McClelland, George E. 
McClain, Charles R. 
McClintock, Clarence M. 
McClintock, David 
McCollum, Robert E. 
McCollum, Thomas C. 
McComber, George D. 
McCounal, Arthur A. 
McCoy, Alvan C. 
McCracken, Lolie 
McCime, John P. 
McDonald, Donald H. 
McDowell, Alonzo G. 
McElnogg, Clarence H. 
McFadden, Edwin T. 
McFarland, James P. 
McGaffey, Edgar W. 
McGill, Robert E. 
McGraw, Harold S. 
Maclntire, Carlyle F. 
McKaughan, Dick O. 
McKean, Jacob E. 
McKean, Ross 
McKelvy, Robert S. 
McKinley, Robert 
McKinney, Elmer 
McMillan, Delbert L. 
McPherson, S. Brown 
McRae, Charles M. 
Maddux, Clement R. 
Maddux, James W. 
Maganety, John L. 
Magg, George W. 
Magill, James W. , 
Mahoney, Fred O. 
Maigre, Henry A. 
Majel, Juan 
Makokst, Frank 
Mang, Henry A. 
Mang, William E. 
Mangham, Elwood B. 
Marks, Benjamin H. 
Marks, Emerson J. 
Marks, Harry 
Marlborough, Numa A. 
Marple, R. S., Jr. 
Marsden, Samuel A. 
Marshburn, Clinton 
Martin, Arthur T. 
Martin, Charles 



Martin, Perle M. 
Martinet, Morris W. 
Martinez, John B. 
Martinez, Joseph P. 
Marzo, Fernando C. 
Mathis, Marion W. 
Matter, Henry J. 
Matthews, Curtis F. 
Matthews, Julian D. 
Mattocks, Douglas C. 
Mattocks, Edward S. 
Mattocks, George E. 
Mauerhan, Conrad J. 
Mauerhan, Frank E. 
Mauerhan, James A. 
Mauerhan, Ralph W. ' 
Mayer, Lawrence H. 
Meadows, Arthur C. 
Meadows, Donald C. 
Meehan, Henry C. 
Melchior, Jacob J. 
Melton, Turner L. 
Mensenkamp, Albert F. 
Merkerm, F. G. 
Meserve, Eugene 
Messerall, Raymond E. 
Metz, William R. 
Meyer, Edward G. 
Meyer, Fred C. 
Meyer, Victor C. . 
Meyers, Walter W. 
Michaeli, Elmer F. 
Miles, Martin R. 
Miller, Irene 
Miller, Stewart S. 
Milosevich, Dusan 
Minnix, Henry C. 
Mitchell, Floyd H. 
Mitchell, L. C. 
Mitchell, Ralph J. 
Mitchell, W. E. 
Mitchell, Willis 
Mitchell, Willis F. 
Mock, John M. 
Mohr, A^ernon F. 
Moist, M. S. 
Mollica, Lawrence J. 
Montana, Joseph 
Montenegro, Albert 
Moody, John K. 
Moon, Cecil K. 
Mooney, Charles H. 
Moore, Arlo F. 
Moore, Charles H. 
Moore, Glenn A. 
Moore, James Francis 
Moren, Robert H. 
Morgan, Earl 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



125 



;\Iorris, William E. 
Morris, Frank E. 
Morris, Virgil 
Morrison, John L. 
Morrison, Loftns B. 
]\losely, Lemuel H. 
Moss, Willard 
Muckenthaler, William M. 
Mueller, Emil C. 
Munger, Horace 
Munger, Robert 
Murdy, John A. 
Alurphy, Earl R. 
Murillo, Alonzo 
Muzzall, Clyde E. 
Myer, Theodore J. 

N. 

Nankerville, William J. 
Nash, Arthur Forest 
Nearing, Alfred E. 
Nelson, Benjamin F. 
Nelson, Charles A. 
Nelson, H. W. 
Nelson, Orion L. 
Nelson, Richard G. 
Nesbit, Harry 
Newkirk, Harry 
Newland, John D. 
Newland, Clinton C. 
Newman, Horace T. 
Newton, James B. 
Newton, John L. 
Nichols, Albert Q. 
Nichols, Homer L. 
Nichols, William I. 
Nickles, Earl T. 
Nicolas, John P. 
Niece, Roland E. 
Niland, Edwin R. 
Nisyros, Anastasio 
Noose, Herbert A. 
Nordeen, Ansel G. 
Nordeen, Orval J. 
Noriego, Ygnacio 
Noulis, John 
Nuffer, Bernard 
Nunn, Robert N. 

O. 

Oberlander, William J. 
Oertly, George 
Olds, Leon B. W. 
Orosco, George ' 
Ortiz, Fred 
Ortiz, Joe 



Osborn, Hugh 
Osborn, John H. 
Osborn, Roy N. 
Osborne, Dennis O. 
Osborne, Harry C. 
Outland, John R! 
Owenby, Ira J. 

P. 

Packard, Otto B. 
Padgham, Henry I. 
Page, George W. 
Pangilla, Manuel G. 
Pappageorgopoulos, Nicholos 
Park, Eugene L. 
Parker, Bernard D. 
Parker, Clarence 
Parslow, Edward C. 
Paschall, Arthur 
Patterson, Edward M. 
Patterson, Lyford M. 
Paulus, Walter L. 
Pearson, Arthur 
Pearson, Charles A. 
Pease, Arthur W. 
Pease, Walter J. 
Peck, Robert G. 
Pederson, James M. 
Peel, Alvin 
Pefley, Clarence R. 
Pellegrin, A. E. 
Pendleton, John A. 
Penhall, Leslie W. 
Penn, Ivan 
Perkins, Byron 
Perkins, Dixie 
Perkins, Frederick, Jr. 
Perkins, Harry R. 
Perkins, Leo L. 
Perry, Robert B. 
Peterkin, George W. 
Peterman, William H. 
Peters, Josiah 
Peters, Rudolph O. 
Peterson, Edward M. 
Pettz, Hellie H. 
Phelps, Allen G. 
Phillips, Merrill N. 
Pickett, Jesse H. 
Pierson, Oliver C. 
Pittman, Earl 
Planchon, Elman N. 
Planchon, William 
Piatt, George H. 
Plavan, Clyde A. 
Pogue, John H. 
Pohndorf, Henry G. J. 



126 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



Poland, Oscar J. 
Polillo, Antonio 
Pollard, George A. 
Pollard, William M. 
Porter, Arthur 
Porter, Charles L. 
Porter, Joseph 
Porter, Lloyd M. 
Potter, Claude E. 
Potter, Lee Roy 
Potter, Raymond 
Potts, Clifford C. 
Prather, Floyd 
Preble, Boyd 
Preble, Dallas E. 
Preston, Harold R. 
Price, Henry O. 
Price, Jake 
Priebe, William E. 
Prince, Elmer L. 
Pritchett, Clyde 
Proud, Lucien E. 
Puchert, Otto 
Purviance, Glenn P. 
Pye, B. C. 
Pygman, Paul B. 

Q. 

Quintana, Anselmo 
Ouarton, Thomas L 

R. 

Ragan, James R. 
Rails, Roy F. 
Rains, George L. 
Ralph, A. S. 
Ramsey, Ethel C. 
Rand, Henry C. 
Randall, Guy B. 
Ranker, Frank J. 
Rathke, Jacob C. 
Raymond, Carl L. 
Read, Noah 
Reed, Harry 
Reed, Leroy 
Reed, Ruel L. 
Rees, Albert E. 
Reese, Emory W. 
Reeves, Richard L. 
Regan, Richard R. 
Rehor, Victor 
Reid, Harry A. 
Reid, Leland E. 
Reid, Taylor R. 
Reihl, Grover C. 
Reihl, Lewis A. 



Reinecke, Joe R. 
Reinhaus, Stanley M. 
Renshaw, Clarence B. 
Reusch, AA'illiam 
Reuter, Ernest A. 
Reuter, Herman A. 
Rhodes, Marvin D. 
Rhodes, Marion 
Rice, George B. 
Rice, Oliver \^^ 
Richards, Perey 
Richardson, Hugh G. 
Richardson, John W. 
Richardson, Lee 
Richman, B. E. 
Riess, John J. 
Riffle, Russell S. 
Rigdon, Walter B. 
Riggle, Harvey P. 
Rilea, Dwight S. 
Riley, William J. 
Rios, Antonio 
Rios, Frank 
Rios, Jesus 
Ritner, William W. 
Roberts, Harry F. 
Roberts, Ray 
Roberts, A\'alter J. 
Robertson, John M. 
Robertson, Robert M. 
Robinson, Ernest F. 
Robinson, Frederick D. 
Robinson, John H. 
Robinson, L. Homer 
Robinson, Michael 
Rochester, Nathaniel N. 
Rodriguez, William 
Roehm, Cornish J. 
Roepke, Roy S. 
Rogers, Floyd 
Rogers, F. W. 
Rogers, Meade M. 
Rogers, Newton 
Rogers, Willie 
Rohrs, Albert F. 
Rohrs, Henry 
Romero, Jose 
Romero. Stanley 
Rose, Chester A. 
Rose, Jesse G. 
Ross, Elmer 
Ross, Garland C. 
Ross, Hugo J. 
Ross, Raymond R. 
Rossiter, Harry A. - 
Rossiter, Henry M. 
Rouse, Luther G. 
Rowley, Burton H. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



127 



Royer, Merrill C. 
Ruble, George F. 
Ruiz, Bidal 
Rush, George P. 
Ryan, Joseph H. 

S. 

Sala, Myers 
Salven, Fred M. 
Salveson, Salve M. 
Sampson, Herbert C. 
Sanders, Ward 
Sargent, James K. 
Saunders, Ray 
Sawyer, Guy 
Schacht, Frank H. 
Schalten, Roy F. 
Schelling, Otto W. 
Schey, Charles 
Schiffer, Philip F. 
Schildmeyer, Oscar A. 
Schilling, Walter A. 
Schindler, Henry 
Schlueter, Henry H. 
Schmidt, John H. 
Schrott, Frank J. 
Schultze, William C. R. 
Schulz, Charles M. 
Schumacher, David H. 
Schumacher, Roy F. 
Schumacher, Walter 
Scott, Greba 
Scott, Hubert G. 
Scovel, George K. 
Scudder, Thomas W. 
Schwartzbach, Rudolph R. 
Scale, Joshua E. 
Sears, Rippley B. 
Seeley, Esley 
Segerstrom, Anton H. 
Segerstrom, Fred A. 
Shadel, Paul 
Shaffer, Charles B. 
Shampang, M. R. 
Shanchez, Adolfo 
Sharp, Selvin T. 
Sharp, Selwyn J. 
Shaw, Charles H. 
Shaw, Robert 
Shepherd, James C. 
Sherwood, Arthur H. 
Sherwood, Lyman 
Shields, Cecil R. 
Shipkey, Arthur H. 
Shirley, Knox A. 
Shoemaker, George G. 
Shoneka, Selim 



Shugg, Cecil M. 
Sielitz, Richard J. 
Siems, Fred J. 
Siems, Harry W. 
Siewert,Leonard W. 
Simmons, Clark 
Simmons, Fritz M. 
Simmons, Jerome N. 
Simmons, John G. 
Simmons, Tom J. 
Sinclair, William 
Slater, Clyde 
Slater, F. Clyde 
Sleeper, Claude L. 
Slodt, Harry C. 
Smart, M. Carson 
Smart, William A. 
Smiley,Kenneth E. 
Smith, Carson M. 
Smith, Earl E. 
Smith, George W. 
Smith, Harrison E. 
Smith, James J. 
Smith, Joe 
Smith, Lewis M. H. 
Smith, Loren W. 
Smith, Louis D. 
Smith, Myer 
Smith, Nicholas E. 
Smith, Ralph 
Smith, Robert E. 
Smith, Stewart S. 
Snodgrass, Archie C. 
Snodgrass, Oran L. 
Snodgrass, Sam 
Snow, Horace E. 
Snyder, Paul M. 
Snyder, William L. 
Solonon, Morris S. 
Sonduck, Samuel 
Sorenson, Samuel 
Spohr, Elizabeth 
Spotts, Harry F. 
Sprotte, Charles W. 
Sproull, Henry F. 
Spurgeon, Robert 
Spurling, Kingsley 
Squires, C. E. 
Squires, Elwell 
Squires, Robert 
Stalker, John B. 
Stambaugh, Warren A. 
Stamey, Elliott 
Standring, Samuel P. 
Stanfield, Frank 
Stanley, Eugene B. 
Stansbury, Harold I. 
Stark, Ernest A. 



128 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



Starkey, Preston F. 
Steadman, Earl J. 
Stearns, Charles A. 
Stearns, Marco M. 
Steenberg, John 
Sterrett, Wyman J. 
Stevens, Arthur E. 
Stevenson, Donald 
Stevenson, Joseph 
Stevenson, Samuel L. 
Stevenson, Wendell M. 
Stever, Fred P. 
Steves, Fred 
Stewart, Joseph P. 
Stewart, Martin V. 
Stewart, Wayne C. 
Stillman, M. J. 
Stillwell, Edwin G. 
StiUwell, John W. 
Stillwell, Richard C. 
Stockton, Everett A. 
Stoffel, Barney A. 
Stoffel, Peter F. 
Stogsdill, Earl W. 
Stokes, Arthur J. 
Stoll, Frederick 
Stone, William T. 
Stortz, Parker H. 
Stratton, Fred D. 
Streetch, Wilhelm 
Streed, Henry G. 
Strieker, Edward E- 
Strieker, Marshall L. 
Strong, Clarence D. 
Strong, Leo S. 
Stroschein, Frank G. 
Studebaker, Harvey S. 
Stall, Bertram L. 
StuU, Glenn B. 
Summons, Tom. J. 
Sutton, William 
Swain, W. B. 
Swanner, Charles D. 
Swanner, John L,. 
Swarthout, Willard I.. 
Sweger, George I,. 
Swoap, Howard F. 



Tait, Magnus W. 
Talbott, Dale E. 
Tanner, George F. 
Tate, John N. 
Taulbee, Bennie L,. 
Taylor, George M. 
Taylor, Hugh F. 
Taylor, Otis G. 



Tedford, Edgar 
Tedford, Jack 
Tedford, Malcom E. 
Tervooren, John G. 
Thierfelder, Leonard G. 
Thomas, Thomas B. 
Thomas, W. Perry 
Thompson, Allison W. 
Thompson, Benjamin F. 
Thompson, Gerald R. 
Thompson, Lloyd 
Thompson, Morris J. 
Thompson, Pharis L. 
Thompson, Roland 
Thompson, Somerville 
Thompson, Stanfield 
Thrall, Leman D. 
Tidball, Charles T. 
Tidball, David G. 
Tillinghast, Charles D. 
Tillotson, Clayton B. 
Timmons, Herbert J. 
Timmons, Howard C. 
Titchenal, William H. 
Titus, Gilbert I. 
Todd, Merritt L. 
Toppins, John N. 
Townsend, Arthur F. 
Townsend, Joe 
Tracy, Charles O. 
Trago, Eugene 
Treadwell, Frank A. 
Trapp, Donald 
Trapp, James B. 
Tripp, Martin O. 
Trotter, Clarence W. 
Trude, Peter A. 
Trudeau, Adolph iNI. 
Trudeau, Peter A. 
Tryk, Peter N. 
Tubbs, Will L. 
Tucker, Paul W. 
Turner, Charles N. 
Turner, J. Howard 
Tweedie, A. M. 
Twist, Arthur C- 
Twist, Charles G. 
Twombly, Gerald R. 
Twombly, Harold S. 
Twons, Arnold P. 



U. 

Unger, Edward G. 
Upton, George 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



129 



V. 

\'an Bibber, Ray 
Vanderburg, Elton D. 
Van Buren, Cornelius 
Vandermast, Murry C. 
Vandruff, Wayne 
Vance, George L. 
Van Wyck, Charles D. 
Varian, Arthur J. 
A^arner, John P. 
Varner, l^ilton 
Vaughn, Lee W. 
Veale, Hugh F. 
Vega, William 
Vermulen, Fred W. 
Vidal, Samuel 
Visel, Nelson S. 
■ Vlasschaert, Leonard 
Vollhardt, Carl F. 
Voltz, Frank F. 
Von Allmen, Ernest 
Vuchevich, Peter G. 

W. 

W'agner, Clarence 
Waidler, Earl G. 
Waldow, Fred F. 
Walker, James E. 
-Walker, James L. 
Walker, Parker E. 
Walker, Robert E. 
\\'alker, Thomas B. 
Walkinshaw, James H. 
Wall, Charles A. 
Wallace, Charles 
Wallace, H. Lew 
^Vallace, Lyon B. 
Wallace, Woodson W. 
Walrath, Weston W. 
Walters, George S. 
Walters, Grover L. 
Ward, Samuel J. 
Ward, Welcome M. 
Warner, Ben C. 
Warner, Harry E. 
Warner, Leonard A. 
Warner, Ross A. 
Warren, Roy E. 
Warren, William H. 
Washburn, Walter 
Wasserman, Henry J. 
Waterman, Carl L 
Waterman, Sidney A. 
Waters, John 
Watkins, Cecil F. 



Watkins, Robert T. 
Watson, Hallie 
Watson, Harold 
Watson, Noble E. 
Watson, Robert \^^ 
Watters, Theo. H. 
^^'atts, John V. 
Weaver, Raymond E. 
Webb, \A'illiam P., Jr. 
Wehrly, John 
Weilenmann, Marvin J. 
\\'elin, Emmett D. 
West, Clyde 
^^'est, Frank G. 
West, Oscar C. 
West, Theo. 
West, Z. Bertrand 
^Vester, Lou J. 
Weston, R. T. 
Wetzel, Rudolph 
Whaley, Fleming \\''. 
Whalen, William J. 
V\'heately, Charles L. 
Wheeler, C. Paul D. 
White, Robert O. 
Whitne}', Bryant 
Whitney, Clyde C. 
Whitson, Robert A. 
Whitted, Edward E. 
Wickersheim, Earnest J. 
Wickersheim, Lyle W. 
Wickett, William H. 
\\'ilcox, John W. 
Wilcut, William L. 
Wiley, Lytle R. 
Wiley, Ross E. 
Wilke, Frank A. 
Wilkins, Rolla C. 
Wilkinson, Roland C. 
Willey, Albert M. 
Willetts, Thomas K. 
William, Ross E. 
Williams, Arthur 
Williams, Ballard 
Williams, Guwilyn E. 
Williams, Leslie A. 
Willis, Roy B. 
Willits, Coit F. 
Willits, Louis G. 
Willits. Thoinas H. 
Wilson, Alston J. 
Wilson, Guy A. 
Wilson, Mark C. 
Wilson, Samuel E. 
Wimer, George J. 
Winbigler, Ernest N. 
Winkleman, Rafael L. 



130 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Winney, William A. Wyneken, Alfred G. 
Winslow, Burt 

Winter, Frank E. Y. 

Winters, Albert C. ,^ ^ , 

Wisser, Lucien N. Yoern, Fred 

WoUaston, William N. ^"""'^tr^^^, ,\ 

Woodington, George Yost, Harold E. 

Woodruff, Virgil Young, Char es H. 

Woods, John A. Young, Chester L. 

Woods, Ralph A. Young, Clair E 

Woods, Wilbur J. Young, Edward C. 

Woodward, Carl Young, Edward 

Woodward. E. C. Young, Fred L. 

Woodward, Edwin Joung, Glenn A. 

Woodward, Noel L. Joung, Jasper G. 

Worden, F. L. Young, Leo A 

Worthy, Elmer T. Young, Ralph W. 

Wright, Fay L. Young, Sidney A. 

Wright, James H. „ 

Wuesthoff, Herbert C. ^• 

Wylie, John L. Zimmer, Joseph P. 



CHAPTER XXI 
SERVICE MEN'S RECOGNITION 

A monster celebration was held at Orange County Park September 9, 1919, 
to pay tribute to the service men and to lay the cornerstone of a memorial arch. 
The attendance was estimated at 30,000 people, with 5,000 automobiles. Three 
bands were present and discoursed appropriate music, adding much to the enter- 
tainment. R. L. Bisby, chairman of the Orange County War Service Recognition ■ 
Association, acted as master of ceremonies for the occasion. 

Following was the order of exercises for the celebration : 

10 to 11 a. m. — Band concert by Huntington Beach band. 

11 a. m. to 12 m. — Exercises of laying cornerstone. 
Star Spangled Banner. 

Invocation by Rev. Robert Williams. 

Reading of list of deposits in cornerstone. 

Presentation of gold trowel to Hon. Wm. D. Stephens, governor of California, 
by T. B. Talbert, chairman of the board of supervisors, for the Orange Qounty 
W ar Service Recognition Association. 

Laying of cornerstone and remarks by Governor Stephens. 

12 m. to 1 p. m. — Luncheon. Band concert by Anaheim band. 

1:30 to 2:15 p. m. — Massed band concert, Santa Ana, Anaheim and Hunt- 
ington Beach bands. 

2 :30 to 4 p. m. — Medal presentation exercises. 

Invocation, Rev. Robert Williams. 

America, by audience, led by Professor Gustlin. 

World War, by Rev. Robert Williams. 

General Pershing March, by band. 

Introduction of Governor 'Stephens by R. L. Bisby. 

Presentation of service medal to Clyde Slater by Governor Stephens. Other 
service men received medals at booth. 

Acceptance of same by service men. 

California, by audience, led by Professor Gustlin. 

4 to 6 p. m. — Band concert. 

4 to 10 p. m. — Dancing and social time. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 131 

Among the remarks by Governor Stephens, while laying the cornerstone 
of the memorial arch, were the following: 

"We would be remiss in our duty as citizens of America were we to forget, 
even for a brief instant, the memory of those who lie on the hillsides of France, 
beneath the poppies. The service men of this country performed achievements 
worthy of the greatest honor that the world can give them. The people who did 
not go to France, as well as those who came back, can honor the dead by living 
a life of service to their fellowmen and country, and thus win in a measure a 
small part of the glory which was theirs." 

In contrast with this helpful, patriotic attitude, the governor condemned 
Bolshevism as destructive of all government, and said : "Those who brook 
Bolshevistic utterances in this country are themselves traitors to their flag. There 
is now on the statute books of this state a law which the man who now stands 
before you succeeded in having passed — a law, which, if enforced by the officers 
of California, would stamp out every trace of Bolshevism." 

It is needless to add that such sentiments were vociferously applauded by 
the large audience gathered together to express its appreciation of the patriotic 
services of its returning citizen-soldiers. 

In introducing Governor Stephens to present the recognition medals to the 
service men, Chairman Bisby declared that Orange County was very proud of 
the fact that the Governor had given up all other calls for the day, and had joined 
with the people of Orange County in their recognition exercises. He then turned 
over one of the medals to the Governor who, expressing his thankfulness for the 
return of so many of the men, and glorifying the memory of those who rest in 
fields of poppies overseas, presented the medal to Lieut. Clyde Slater, who had 
accompanied him to the platform. 

In reply. Lieutenant Slater of Orange, who had been selected by the service 
men to represent them in receiving the typical medal, declared that the returned 
soldiers and sailors deeply appreciated the demonstration in their honor and the 
medals presented to them. He said the medals would be cherished, and kept 
always by the men as souvenirs of the day, expressing to them the fact that in their 
service they were backed up by the people at home. 

"We are here today," said Governor Stephens in his afternoon address, "to 
do honor to those men who have returned from war service, and never shall we 
forget those services, rendered in a splendid spirit and in a splendid way ; I onl)- 
wish that they could have had the opportunity to lick hell out of Germany. That 
is my only regret in the ending of the war. I am here today to salute the vetei'ans 
of the G. A. R,, the veterans of the Spanish War, and the veterans of the war that 
has just passed into history. 

"California celebrates today the sixty-ninth anniversary of her admission to 
statehood. AVith every commonwealth, entrance into the Union must have been 
'he occasion of profound rejoicing, for there was instinct in the pioneers who 
founded new states, a love of self-government which was incompatible with an 
inferior territorial status and which chafed under federal jurisdiction over local 
affairs. Such conditions were felt in an extraordinary degree in California, situ- 
ated on the western rim of the continent, peopled by bold and adventurous spirits 
and separated from the older states by desert wastes and formidable mountain 
ranges, across which as yet no railroad had found its way 

"As in courage and wisdom the pioneers discharged the problems of their 
day, so in equal patriotism and purpose, we must give the best that is in us to 
the right solution of the problems, that in our turn we are called upon to face, 
dealing with them loftily, not as partisans, but as Americans. California cannot 
escape this responsibility if it would, and I would not have it make such escape 
if it could. 

"We cannot better celebrate the birthday of our beloved state, we cannot 
better honor the memory of the gallant men and women who were the builders 
of the commonwealth, we cannot better honor the achievements, the patriotism and 



132 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

the loyalty of the men of California who are just returning from their noble 
service in their country's defense, nor can we better honor the proud memory of 
our heroic sons who gave their lives for their country's flag than by a united 
and whole-hearted support of whatever rightly makes for the lasting security of 
the republic, the establishment of enduring peace amongst the nations of the 
earth, and the creation of a new era in which all mankind shall know the happi- 
ness of a warless world." 

Rev. Robert Williams, who offered the invocation at the beginning of the 
exercises and delivered an address on the World War in the afternoon, spent 
several years of his childhood with his father's family in Orange, Orange County, 
Cal., the family afterwards returning to Wilkesbarre, Pa.' Reverend Williams 
went into the army first as an enlisted soldier, and afterwards served as a 
chaplain. 

In his address Chaplain Williams told how the American operations in France 
and Belgium grew little by little until the time came soon after Chateau Thierry 
when men and munitions were sufficient in numbers to enable Field Marshal Foch 
to take the offensive and keep going until the Germans were forced to sue for 
peace. After he had gone over the battles on such fronts as St. Mihiel and the 
Argonne, leading up to the victorious march of the Allied armies on to German 
soil, the speaker said : 

"To my mind the greatest victory of all was indicated to me as the Entente 
armies were marching into Coblenz. There the Stars and Stripes were seen 
waving over the double eagle of the flag of Prussia. That American flag, floating 
there, seemed to say that when the time came when the Prussian flag could be 
replaced by the flag of a German republic, guaranteeing that Prussian militarism 
was forever crushed, when that time came, then the American flag in Germany 
would come down, for we did not come into Germany as conquerors. We did 
not come with any idea of subjugating the people of the country. We came solely 
as an army representing a people whose unshakable conviction is that right must 
prevail over might in the world." 

The chaplain's address was spiced with anecdotes of the war, incidents 
humorous and pathetic that came under his observation, and in some of which 
he was a participant. He closed amid tremendous applause after making an 
earnest plea in behalf of the League of Nations. He said, in effect, that if the 
peace of the world were not made secure in the future, then the men who fought 
in France would have been betrayed. 

The records of the War History Department of the Doe Library, Berkeley, 
show this county's service men to have gained only seventeen citations ancl 
decorations, as follows; 1, Diedrich V. Burdorf, Fullerton, cited by America; 
2, Carl F. Burns, Santa Ana, Croix de Guerre ; 3, Pvt. Paul Cozad, Santa Ana, 
commended for bravery, cited by America ; 4, Major W. T. Crook, Anaheim, 
Croix de Guerre, Distinguished Service Cross, Distinguished Service Order 
(England) ; 5,, Corp. Ora J. Easton, Santa Ana, Distinguished Service Cross, 
decorated for bravery; 6, Jacob M. Fisher, Santa Ana, Medaille Militaire, Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross ; 7, Floyd L. Geyer, Santa Ana, cited by America ; 8, 
Ivan R. Gillaspy, Santa Ana, cited by America; 9, Sgt. John Guess, Jr., Elmond, 
Distinguished Service Cross awarded posthumously ; 10, Harold J. Henry, Balboa, 
Croix de Guerre; 11, Capt. Nelson Miles Holderman, Santa Ana, Distinguished 
Service Cross, Congressional Medal of Honor; 12, Lieut. Perry Schurr, Santa 
Ana, Distinguished Service Cross ; 13, Jay B. Taylor, Santa Ana, Croix de Guerre ; 
14, Jose Frank Velasco, Yorba, cited by America; 15, Allen C. Wallace, Anaheim, 
cited by America; 16, Pvt. Curtis Ware, Tustin, Belgian Croix de Guerre; 17, 
Joseph P. Zimmer, Placentia, cited by America. 

Genevieve Ambrose, secretary of the department, explained her difficulties 
in getting information, admitted that there were undoubtedly omissions and 
errors in the list, and asked persons discovering either to transmit the informa- 
tion and corrections to the department. The Santa Ana Register pointed out 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



133 



that there is no such post office in the county as "Ehnond," given in No. 9, and 
called attention to the following omissions : 

"Capt. Holderman, in addition to his American awards, received two Croix de 
Guerre decorations, one for bravery before the stand of the Lost Battalion and 
one for a part he played in that desperate historic fight. 

"The Distinguished Service Cross awarded Lieut. Elmer T. Worthy of 
Huntington Beach is not on the list. Neither is the citation given Sergt. Russell 
Coleman of this city listed among the seventeen." 

A cursory examination of a book entitled "With the 364th Infantry in Amer- 
ica, France and Belgium," a copy of which is in the Santa Ana library, disclosed 
the fact that there were at least nine Orange County men of that hard-fighting 
regiment who were "cited for exceptional bravery and meritorious conduct under 
fire," and are not in that list, as follows: 

Peter Laport, Fullerton ; Charley Lindley, Anaheim; INIilton M. Bolton, EI 
Modena ; Clifton E. Lowen, La Habra ; James H. Dickson, Placentia ; Frank J. 
Schrott, Anaheim ; John P. Holditch, Orange ; George L. Vance, Fullerton ; Ralph 
Huffman, Orange. 

Those who know of the esteem in which the work of Orange County's service 
men was held by the authorities believe that enough citations and decorations 
have been bestowed, if all were reported, to raise the county's rank to fifth or 
sixth instead of tenth, as the seventeen, which were reported, now make it. 



CHAPTER XXII 
THE COUNTY'S LIBERTY LOANS 

The five loans, called for by. the government to finance the war, were appor- 
tioned among the people according to the bank deposits in the respective communi- 
ties. R. L. Bisby kindly furnished lists of the apportionments to the communities 
of Orange County and of the liberal response made by each, as follows: 

First and Second Liberty Loans 

Subscriptions 2d Loan 

Town 1st Loan 2d Loan Subscribers 

Anaheim $49,450 $408,750 1,515 

Brea 14,800 4,000 47 

Fullerton 62,000 357,050 978 ' 

Garden Grove 1,600 22,550 149 

Huntington Beach 700 33,150 140 

La Habra 7,050 7,250 62 

Newport Beach 4,000 14,300 101 

Olive 1,400 8,100 37 

Orange 36,200 196,800 808 

Placentia 24,200 50,250 165 

Santa Ana 208,450 726,250 2,917 

Tustin 5,250 27,450 145 

Yorba Linda 8,000 42 

Orange County $415,100 $1,863,900 7,106 

Third Liberty Loan 

Over- 
Town ■ Quota Subscribed Subscribed 

Anaheim $ 188,000 $ 250,600 $62,600 

Brea 10,000 50,100 40,100 

Buena Park 3,000 13,550 10,550 

El Toro 12,500 25,100 12,600 



134 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



Fullerton 137,850 

Garden Grove 19,500 

Huntington Beach 27,100 

Lagiina Beach 5,000 

La Habra 14,100 

Los Alamitos 17,000 

Newport Beach . 8,250 

OHve 8,750 

Orange 181,100 

Placentia 29,000 

San Juan Capistrano 20,000 

Santa Ana District 755,000 

Stanton 4,000 

Tustin 31,600 

Yorba Linda 6,750 

Orange County $1,478,500 



240,900 


103,050 


33,500 


14,000 


70,000 


42,900 


10,100 


5,100 


42,300 


28,200 


41,250 


24,250 


18,300 


10,050 


16,400 


7,650 


237,650 


56.550 


38,500 


9,500 


23,750 


3,750 


901,150 


146,150 


6,750 


2,750 


37,700 


6,100 


15,100 


8,350 



$2,172,700 



$594,200 



Fourth Liberty Loan 



Town Quota 

Anaheim $ 394,150 

Brea 19,900 

Fullerton 272,550 

Garden Grove 34,650 

Huntington Beach 51,450 

La Habra 34,750 

Newport Beach 15.700 

Olive 19,300 

Orange 363,250 

Placentia 57,250 

Santa Ana 1,472,250 

Tustin 57,700 

Yorba Linda 14,250 

Orange County $2,807,150 





Over- 


Subscribed 


Subscribed 


$ 495,800 


$101,650 


81,900 


61,650 


416,300 


143,750 


55,850 


21,200 


68,000 


16.550 


54,350 


19,600 


36,300 


20,600 


23,200 


3,900 


418,600 


55,350 


75,550 


18,300 


1,806,800 


334,550 


70,200 


12,500 


28,500 


14,250 



$3,631,000 



$823,850 



Fifth Liberty Loan 

Town Quota 

Anaheim $ 282,100 

Brea 16,000 

Buena Park 8,550 

Fullerton 214,400 

Garden Grove 30,350 

Huntington Beach 37,600 

La Habra 25,900 

Newport Beach 12,400 

Olive 15,100 

Orange 271,800 

Placentia 43,900 

Santa Ana 1,072,050 

Tustin 40,500 

Yorba Linda 11,950 

Orange County $2,082,600 



Subscribed 


Subscribers 


$ 285,950 


1,325 


34,400 • 


220 


22,900 


139 


233,150 


658 


33,500 


200 


39,450 


291 


32,350 


158 


17,300 


198 


16,850 


103 


279,250 


1,395 


49,600 


81 


1,083,250 


2,680 


45,000 


225 


17,000 


160 


$2,189,950 


7,833 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 135 

CHAPTER XXIII 
RELIEF WORK OF ASSOCIATIONS 

There were four chapters of the Red Cross in active operation in the county 
during the recent World War, one in each of the following cities : Anaheim, Ful- 
lerton, Orange and Santa Ana. Each of these chapters, by its drives for member- 
ship, included a large part of the community, in which it was located, as members. 
The real work of the chapter, however, was done by a few score of people, mosth' 
women, some of whom devoted almost their entire time to the work. 

In answer to a request for information, the secretary of each of the chapters 
furnished a copy of the last report, giving a detailed history of the work of the 
chapter from its inception down to its close. These reports are highly creditable 
and deserve to be reproduced in the history without abridgement; but the most 
that can be done is to give the results without recounting the processes by which 
those results were obtained. 

Anaheim Chapter of Red Cross 

The Anaheim chapter of the American Red Cross was organized in April. 
1917, by the committee on organization. The officers then chosen served until 
the following October when some changes were made, as was also done at subse- 
quent elections. However, the treasurer, Mr. A. B. McCord, and the secretary, 
Mrs. Eva H. Boyd, served in their respective offices from the beginning until the 
end of the work. 

At the risk of overlooking some of the results in Christmas packages, canteen 
work, etc., we skip over to the financial statement, which covers the period from 
April 20, 1917, to May 1, 1919 and is as follows: 

RECEIPTS 

Membership $3,342.00 

Sale of Insignia and Materials 300.31 

-Miscellaneous Income 434.45 

Donations and Entertainments 4,379.83 

Monthly Pledges . .' 1,670.65 

Stanton Branch 411,84 

Salvage 180,43 

First Aid 15.00 

Home Service (loan returned) '. 45.00 

War Fund Drives 6,520.36 

$17,299.87 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Membership National Headquarters $1,684.75 

Salary, Collecting 1917 War Fund and Office 345.00 

Insignia Purchases 51.50 

Military Relief, Material Purchased 7,037.02 

Home Service 155.44 

General Expenses, Comfort Kits, Telephone, etc 973.09 

Canteen Service 381.41 

Salvage, Junior Red Cross , 40.00 

First Aid, National Headquarters 2.50 

Stanton Branch, 25 per cent War Fund, 1918 333.56 

Stanton Branch, Local 337.16 

$11,34M3 

Balance on hand. May 1, 1919 $ 5,958.44 

The work room report, July 1, 1917 to May 20, 1919, shows the following 
articles sent to the Pacific Division : Hospital garments, 3,240 ; refugee garments. 



136 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

267; knitted articles, 2,696; surgical dressings, 31,396; miscellaneous articles, 
1,083. 

Junior Red Cross Report 

The Juniors of Anaheim Chapter made and sent to the Pacific Division head- 
quarters 389 knitted articles and 524 miscellaneous articles. 

One thousand two hundred twenty-five garments were collected and made 
over into refugee garments. Since March 1, 1919, 150 refugee garments have 
been sent in and girls were working on 15 men's pajamas, 15 girl's petticoats, about 
20 knitted garments, to be finished before June 1st. 

Mr. J. A. Clayes, treasurer of the Juniors, reports the following financial 
condition : 
IMemberships, Salvage and Entertainments and Balance on 

hand, July 1, 1918 $ 335.38 

Receipts since July 1, 1918 101.40 

$ 436.78 

Expenditures, Materials 193.48 

On hand. May 1, 1919 $ 243.30 

There are twelve schools represented : ten public, two parochial. 

Report of Grammar School Juniors 

About 1,500 garments were sent to French and Belgian refugees. Many of 
these were in good condition, others were mended or made over by pupils. 

About 250 pounds of castor beans and 100 pounds of fruit pits were col- 
lected. Tinfoil, rags, rubber, etc., were collected and sold for aboiit $300. Three 
hundred sixty-five glasses of jam and jellies were shipped to Camp Kearny May 
19, 1919. 

FuUerton Chapter of Red Cross 

Following is a synopsis of the secretary's report of the Fullerton Chapter of 
the American Red Cross : This chapter was organized February 19, 1917, and 
included all of the territory in Orange County north of Anaheim, classified as one 
branch at La Habra and seven auxiliaries located at Brea, Buena Park, Pla- 
centia. West Orangethorpe, East Orangethorpe, Olinda and Yorba Linda. 

The officers of the chapter from the beginning were as follows : Chairman, 
J. R. Carhart, from February 19, 1917, to October 24, 1917; vice-chairman, 
Waldo O'Kelly from October 24, 1917, to October 25, 1918; G. W. Finch from 
October 25, 1918, until next election ; secretary, Mrs. E. L Fuller from February 
19, 1917, until April 1, 1918; Mrs. Ruth Talmadge from April 1, 1918, until 
October 1, 1918; M'rs. Helen Carhart from October 1, 1918, until next election; 
treasurer, E. K. Benchley from February 19, 1917, to October 25, 1918; T. Ead- 
ington from October 25, 1918, until next election. 

There is also a board of directors and an executive committee of such board ; 
otherwise the chapter is conducted along lines laid down in the charts sent out 
;by the National Headquarters, with committees appointed for the departments 
specified in the charts. 

A record of the work done is kept in the rooms of the Red Cross in the shape 
of production sheets and shipping receipts. The surgical dressing department 
made 82,043 surgical dressings. The garment department shipped 2.781 gar- 
ments and 4,000 knitted articles. The chapter doubled its quota in the first drive 
for second-hand clothing; but in the second drive it was not so fortunate. In 
the first war-fund drive the chapter's quota of $10,000 was oversubscribed $?,000 
and in the second drive its quota of $15,000 was oversubscribed more than $5,000. 
The two membership drives ran the membership up to over 3,000. A canteen 
service was organized in Fullerton with Mrs. J. B. Reeve as captain from August, 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 137, 

1918, until January 1, 1919, when Mrs. C. W. Crandall took charge and continued 
during demobilization. This department served about 500 meals each month 
during' its organization to the returning soldiers. 

For nearly a year the chapter was able to get quarters rent free ; after Janu-- 
ary 31, 1918, it had to pay $25 a month for quarters in the Schumacher Build- 
ing. The services of all officers have been donated, except about nine months of * 
Mrs. Fuller's time as secretary, for which $75 per month was paid. All other, 
work was donated, so that practically all the funds raised went for relief purposes. 

The civilian relief work was under the supervision of Rev. Clark H. Marsh 
until May, 1918, when he was called overseas to Y. M. C. A. work, since which 
time Miss Dean has been in charge of that important committee. 

Orange Chapter of Red Cross 

The Orange Chapter of the Red Cross was organized as a branch of the Los 
Angeles Chapter in April, 1917. It closed May 26, 1919, with 2,217 members. 
In the mepn*^ime it accomplished the following amount of work: Hospital gar- 
ments, 2,955; miscellaneous articles, 1,307; refugee garments, 8,600; surgical 
dressings, 102,038; pairs of knitted socks, 5,564; other articles, 2,284. 

Treasurer's Report 
receipts 

Donations and Entertainments $ 3,599.33 

Pledge Cards 3,707.50 

Gift Table Sales 542.70 

Dues and Other Receipts 9,341.55 

Total Receipts $17,191.08 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Running Expenses, 25 months, at $19.38 $ 484.50 

Materials and Other Disbursements 14,702.24 

Total Disbursements $15,186.74 

Balance with the L. A. Chapter $ 2,004.34. 

The following garments were made by different communities, clubs, etc:' 
Lutheran League of Olive, 148 ; Wednesday Embroidery Club, 203 ; Woman's 
Club, 261; Mrs. Bathgate, Villa Park, 396; Mrs. Lord, Villa Park, 1,145; Lu- 
theran League, 1,049; Olive Entre Nous Club, 86; P. E. O. Society, 102'; 
Woman's Republic, 174; El Modena Needlecraft, 745 ; Methodist Bible Class, 
20 ; Intermediate School, 67 ; Baptist Aid Society, 54 ; Orange Union High School, 
81 ; Birthday Club, 8 ; McPherson Thimble Club, 278. Total garments by auxil- 
iaries, 4,817. Balance by central society, 8,045. Total garments by chapter,* 
12,862. 

A long list of persons followed to whom certificates were awarded by the 
Los Angeles Chapter of the Red Cross for faithful work. 

The report closed with the acknowledgment of the many favors extended to! 
the chapter and the return of thanks for the same. 

Outside of and in addition to the work of the Orange Chapter of the Red- 
Cross, the Orange Union high school raised about $1,600 for a hospital ambu- 
lance. The original plan was to send an American-made ambulance over "to 
France, but, on account of the difficulty of transportation, the money was sent 
instead and was invested in an ambulance of French manufacture. 

Any record of the Orange Red Cross would be incomplete which did not 
make honorable and reverent mention of its president, Mrs. Carolyn M. Porter, 
wife of J. R. Porter, who by patriotic devotion to the duties of her office short- 
ened the term of her life, death occurring June 6, 1919. 



,138 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

^ Santa Ana Chapter of Red Cross 

The Santa Ana Chapter of the American Red Cross contributed the follow- 
ing amounts of relief during the war : 
: Contributions Quota Collected 

First War Fund $15,000 $25,143 

'Second War Fund 22,500 35,378 

Total War Funds $37,500 $60,521 

V Pounds of Clothing for Quota Collected 

'Belgian Relief • 1,500 8,230 

Drive in 1919 4,000 5,500 

Total Amount of Clothing 5,500 13,730 

Garments made, 16.950; garments knitted, 16,799; surgical dressings made, 
166,239. 

Aside from war funds, the chapter raised about $25,000. Red Cross dining 
room and shop made $5,700. 

The chapter carried on numerous activities, such as aid for the helpless 
during the influenza epidemic, home service work in which a separate oiifice and 
department were maintained. 

The Junior Red Cross of Santa Ana Chapter was recognized by Red Cross 
Division headquarters as without a superior on the Pacific Coast. Through its 
thirty-three schools, the Juniors invested $146,090.04 in war securities, raised 
$3,679 for Belgian and French orphans, $4,690.50 for Junior Red Cross work, 
$820.31 for Armenian relief, $3,127.50 for the United War Work fund, making 
total donations of $12,955.75; collected 2,272 new garments for foreign and home 
relief work and got together 27,435 used garments for foreign work and 3,776 for 
home relief, over 600 quilts, 41 afghans, made 1,680 new garments and 325 knitted 
garments, made 32 layettes, provided 180 sheets, 343 bath towels, 426 hand towels 
and 201 napkins, 717 handkerchiefs, 518 wash cloths, 37 treasure bags, 295 prop- 
erty bags, and various other articles, totaling about 1,000. 

The officers of the Santa Ana Chapter of the American Red Cross are as 
follows : T. E. Stephenson, chairman ; Mrs. A. J. Crookshank, vice-chairman ; 
T'red Rafferty, secretary; Harry L. Hanson, treasurer. 

The board of directors consists of twenty-two members and the work was 
apportioned among nine departments or committees. 

Salvation Army's Report 

, The relief work of the Salvation Army in Orange County was as follows : 
In May, 1918, $628.82 was raised for a war service ambulance. In August, 1918, 
$10,000 was collected in the county for Salvation Army war work. 

- In the United War Campaign the national allotment to the Salvation Army 
was $3,500,000 ; but how much should be credited to Orange County is not known. 
In March, 1919, $8,100 was raised in the county for the Salvation Army's home 
service work. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 139 

CHAPTER XXIV 

A CHAPTER OF TRAGEDIES 

The Killing of Sheriff Barton and the Capture of His Slayers 

By J. E. Pleasants 

In the year 1855 a team of horses was stolen from the Hardy brothers in 
Los Angeles, and the thief, Juan Flores, was captured, tried and sentenced to 
ten years in the penitentiary. 

The Hardy brothers, who were living on a part of the William Wolfskill 
place, were owners of several good draft as well as riding horses. They were 
doing considerable freighting, the business requiring good stock, and this class 
of animals was of great value. Their riding horses were of the native stock, 
but were selected for their speed and endurance, as they were often used to run 
races. 

In the" above-named year, one Juan Flores and a companion stole one of 
these freighting teams and probably intended to make for the Mexican border 
and sell the horses. Both Flores and his companion were captured and, after a 
trial, each was sentenced to ten years in prison. 

Two years after the event of the stealing took place one of the Hardy s had 
a load of freight to haul from Los Angeles to San Juan Capistrano. He made 
the trip without mishap and, arriving at his destination during the forenoon, deliv- 
ered his goods, and put his horses in a corral and fed them ; this done, he started 
out to see the town. A few hours later, as he returned to look after his animals 
in the corral, he noticed several men looking at them ; the nearer he approached 
he thought he recognized Juan Flores among the number ; this did not seem pos- 
sible, for he remembered it had been but two years since the episode of his having 
his horses stolen by him and he had received a ten-year sentence. Observing the 
approach of Hiardy the men went away and the matter was forgotten by Hardy 
for the time. 

It so happened that there was a Mexican woman in an adobe building 
adjoining the corral who had overheard the conversation of the men who were 
looking at the horses, and recognized Flores among them by his remarks, which 
were to the effect that the horses in question were the same that he had stolen 
and received his ten-year sentence for, and it was now a chance for him to get 
even by waylaying Hardy the next day when he was on his way home, kill him, 
and take the team to Mexico. His companions, looking upon him as the leader, 
consented to the plan. This talk frightened the woman and she did not know 
what to do, for if it were known that she had overheard the conversation her 
own life would be in danger, and at the same time she did not want to have 
Hardy murdered. Finally she went to Don Juan Forster, who was a medium 
through which many of the natives settled their differences, and related the con- 
versation as she had overheard it. It did not take Don Forster long to decide 
upon a plan of action. He found Hardy, told him the circumstances, but told 
him to keep quiet about it and that he would send a runner out that night to 
. notify the sheriff in Los Angeles to come out and capture the bandit. The runner 
was sent to inform Sheriff Barton, who immediately made arrangements to frus- 
trate the plans of Flores and capture all of the bandits if possible. 

The sheriff notified Hardy's two brothers, one of whom selected his best 
saddle horse and, after arming himself, joined the sheriff and his three deputies, 
all starting for Capistrano. Sheriff Barton was a typical frontiersman and had 
seen many desperadoes, and knew how to handle them. However, he took the 
precaution to make his will before he started out. Each man was armed with 
a double barreled shot gun and revolvers. They reached Carpenter's ranch and 
stopped there for dinner. That night they camped by the Santa Ana River, but 
the next morning were on the road very early and the ranch of Don Jose Sepul- 



140 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

veda was reached for breakfast. On the road the party came up with a French- 
man riding a mule; he stated he was on his way to San Diego and no objection 
was made to his joining their party. When the men went into the house for their 
breakfast they stacked their guns on the porch, and these were viewed with 
some curiosity by the hangers-on about the ranch. Breakfast over, the sheriff 
and his men came out, took up their guns without examining them, mounted 
their horses and resumed their journey towards San Juan Capistrano. At a 
point about midway from tlie Sepulveda ranch and San Juan some men, twelve 
or fifteen in number, were seen by the sheriff, who was riding in advance of 
his deputies, they being strung out along the road, with Hardy and the French- 
man on his mule, quite a distance in the rear. As soon as the men saw the 
sheriff they called to him not to fire upon them as they were friends. They came 
up rapidly and as they were near enough, fired, and with deadly effect, for the 
sheriff and his three deputies, after emptying their guns with no apparent effect, 
fell dead in their tracks. As soon as Hardy heard the firing he rode rapidly 
to the scene ; as he approached he saw the sheriff and his men lying in a heap 
together, dead. He thought he could do nothing alone, and, wheeling his horse, 
rode swiftly back towards Los Angeles. His fleet horse soon took him away 
from the bandits, who overtook the Frenchman, but did not molest him in any 
way, as they were after Hardy. It was fortunate that he had chosen their fastest 
horse, for the bandits soon gave up the chase. 

Reaching Los Angeles, he told the news of the killing of the sheriff and his 
men, and soon a party was being organized to go in search of the murderers. 
In Los Angeles excitement ran high, and it was some time before a party could 
be organized. In the American settlement at El M'onte, not far from Los Angeles, 
were several settlers who were used to the hard life of the frontier and were 
none too law-abiding; they wanted blood and were ever ready for a fight. These 
joined the posse from Los Angeles and soon, under the wise guidance of General 
Pico, a brother of Governor Pico, who was very cool in the face of danger, had 
an understanding that Pico's orders would be obeyed by all. The general decided 
to catch the men who had committed this wanton murder and he counseled caution 
among the men. 

After killing the sheriff and his men the bandits headed for San Juan Capis- 
trano, raided the store for supplies, as they were headed for the Mexican border, 
and possibly looking for Hardy and his team, who had in the meantime gone into 
the mountains and taken a roundabout way back to Los Angeles, which he reached 
a week later. When the pursuing party reached the town they found the bandits 
had fled, and then began one of the notable man-hunts in Southern California. 

The bandits made for the mountains by way of Santiago Canyon, were 
followed by Pico and his men, who tracked them to the top of a ridge where 
they could not get away, as it was found to be too steep. They had let down 
one of their horses with ropes, but it was killed in falling, and they then gave 
up all hope of escape. Flores abandoned his horse and, with two others, took to 
the brush on foot and made good their escape. One young man who was known 
by Pico, was called upon to give himself up and for the information he would 
give, was told he would not be prosecuted. He followed this advice, and after 
some parley the rest of the band were taken prisoners, bound hand and foot 
and turned over to the Americans in the party, who took them to a settlement 
on the present site of Olive. They were placed in an adobe house and kept 
securely bound and placed under guard. Pico went after Flores and the two 
others, and by his knowledge of the country, and being an expert trailer, soon 
captured the former, who was sent back to be kept under guard with the others. 
He, too, was securely bound and placed on the floor with the rest, and, as usual, 
the guard was posted over them. During the night Flores rolled over to one 
of the other prisoners, and with his teeth loosed the thongs that bound him and, 
this done, his own were taken off, and soon all of the men were free and made 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 141 

a break to escape ; they were all captured, with the exception of Flores, who made 
good his escape and headed for the mountains. 

A runner was sent to inform Pico of the escape and he was met coming 
in with the other two men, whom he had captured alone.. Upon hearing the news 
he was angry, for he had thought the Americans would surely be watchful and 
not let the prisoners get away. He was determined that these last two prisoners 
should not escape and, taking them to a large sycamore tree in the canyon, hung 
them. To show that he had done his duty and partly avenged the death of the 
sheriff, he cut off the ears of the bandits and sent them to Los Angeles, and then 
took up the trail of the chief conspirator. These bodies were left hanging, and 
it was some time the next year that the bones were buried. The writer buried 
some of them himself. The tree from which these men were hung is still stand- 
ing on what is known as the Modjeska ranch. 

Pico followed the trail of Flores for some days, seeming to know about 
where he would eventually be found. The news had spread to Los Angeles of 
the bandit's escape, and the citizens were thoroughly aroused, for Barton had 
been very popular. Flores thought to steal a horse at Los Nietos, knowing that 
Mr. Carpenter kept many good animals. He approached the place at night, and 
the dogs alarmed the owner, who was asleep on a stack of hay ; as he arose with 
a gun in his hands Flores could see by the bright moonlight that it would be 
useless to try to secure a horse there and so passed on. Arriving in Los Angeles 
he tried to obtain food and shelter, but such was the feeling that had it become 
known such aid had been given him the persons so doing would have been lynched. 
He then skirted the town and made for the Cahuenga Mountains. Pico followed 
him, and at a point about the present site of Hollywood, came upon his man 
almost exhausted, made him prisoner and brought him to Los Angeles and turned 
him over to the people, who erected two poles with a bar across, at the present 
site of the county court house, and hung him. The other bandits were taken to 
Los Angeles and shared the same fate. The last one of the band was captured 
in San Jose two years later and was returned for trial. After a year in the courts 
with the lawyers wrangling over the case, his attorneys had the case transferred 
to Santa Barbara County. 

The good citizens of Los Angeles had patiently stood the delay and thought 
that ju.stice would be done by the court, but when the case was ordered trans- 
ferred, took the law in their own hands and, taking him from the officers, made 
another "example" of him. There was no doubt of his identity, for when he 
was captured he was wearing the silver mounted belt that had belonged to the 
sheriff he had helped to kill. There are comparatively few men now living who 
can recall the incidents noted here. The writer, who is one of the oldest living 
American settlers of Orange County, was an eyewitness of the hanging of 
Flores. 

A Breach of the Law 
By Linn L. Shaw 

The only case of mob violence in Santa Ana history occurred August 20, 
1892, when Francisco Torres was hanged to a telephone pole at the northeast 
corner of Fourth and Sycamore streets. William McKelvey, foreman of Madame 
Modjeska's famous ranch home in Santiago Canyon, was brutally murdered July 
31, 1892, by this Mexican, who was employed as a laborer under him. Torres 
fled, was captured at Mesa Grande a couple of weeks after the crime and, brought 
to this city, where he was held for the murder, without bail, and was con- 
fined in the old jail on Sycamore Street, between Second and Third. McKelvey 
had many friends in this city and the officers, fearing trouble, placed Robert Cog- 
burn on guard at the jail. About one o'clock on the morning of August 20 there 
was an alarm at the jail door and a muffled demand to open it, which order Mr. 
Cogburn refused to obey. Immediately the door was battered in with a sledge 
and about thirty men, armed and masked, filed inside. Upon being refused the 



142 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

keys to the cell they forcibly took them from the guard, secured Torres and de- 
parted. Mr. Cogburn attempted to follow them, but, upon being invited to return 
to the jail at the point of what appeared to him a "horizontal telegraph pole, 
returned to his duties without any further desire to associate with his determined 
and systematic visitors. There was evidently no time wasted with the captive, 
and he was strung up to the pole, where the body remained as a gruesome sur- 
prise to early risers the next morning. An attempt was made to locate the per- 
petrators of the lynching through the grand jury, but no indictments were issued 
and the affair was quietly dropped in official circles. 

A Political Episode 

Perhaps the most notable political event in Santa Ana's history was- the 
physical undoing of Dennis Kearney, in the fall of 1879. This man was cam- 
paigning the state in the interest of the workingman's party and the anti-Chinese 
movement, which at that time was a formidable issue in California politics. He 
was popularly known as the "sand lot agitator," and, starting from his home in 
San Francisco, he deluged the state with a ceaseless flow of vituperation and plat- 
form blackguardism. .Up to the time of his arrival in Santa Ana he had been 
allowed to pursue his bullying style of oratory without molestation, as his own 
personality and the many followers who flocked to his support all over the state 
presented an aspect of brute force which no one seemed disposed to investigate. 
In his speech here, in addition to the usual program of abuse, he also in- 
cluded a number of false accusations against the McFadden brothers, who had 
operated a steamer from Newport to San Francisco, but had been compelled 
to sell it at a considerable loss to their stronger competitors, the Old Line Steam- 
ship Company, and it was this transaction to which Kearney devoted his slander- 
ous tongue. 

' Among the employes of the McFaddens was "Tom" Rule, a man of large 
stature, supreme courage and prodigious strength. The morning following the 
speech, as Kearney was about to take the stage for San Diego at the old Layman 
Hotel, he was confronted by Mr. Rule who demanded the name of the man who 
nad given him the lying information concerning his employers. Kearney recog- 
nized the nature of the trouble in store for him at once, and immediately lost 
the nerve which had been so proudly exploited by his followers. He timidly 
explained that he "would not give away his friends," and upon a second and 
more imperious demand for the name, commenced backing away from his unwel- 
come opponent, at the same time endeavoring to draw his revolver. Rule, who 
was unarmed, hesitated no longer, but struck the pride of the sand lots a heavy 
blow which landed him against the side of the hotel, from whence the once 
feared Kearney ran with great vigor and utter lack of dignity to the barroom, 
out through the dining room and across the street into a drug store, where he 
was overtaken by the now thoroughly aroused Rule, who pinned him to the floor 
and pummeled him quite severely. By a strange coincidence Kearney was rescued 
from his very mortifying position by one of the McFadden brothers, neither of 
whom had known of Mr. Rule's contemplated raid on their slanderer. None of 
his adherents had offered him the slightest assistance, and his departure was in 
marked contrast to his triumphant entry into the town the day before. In his 
speeches he had advocated hemp and mob law for the hated plutocrats and 
capitalists, but certainly did not relish an application of his own medicine. He 
had announced on his home sand lot platform, before departing on this campaign: 
"I hope I will be assassinated, for the success of this movement depends on 
that" ; but the sacrifice palled upon his appetite when the opportunity for which 
he had so eagerly petitioned presented itself in apparent good working order. 
This incident, which was at once heralded over the state, had the effect of imme 
diately diminishing Kearney's power and influence to an alarming extent, and he 
soon passed into history as a mere blatherskite. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 14'3' 

J\lr. Rule, who was the regular pilot at Newport Bay, was drowned a few* 
years later while attempting to cross the bar at the entrance of the bay in a row' 
boat, which capsized in the breakers. The hero of the Kearney episode was 
struck upon the head by the boat as it overturned and his body immediately sank, 
being recovered several days afterward just inside the bar. » 



CHAPTER XXV ; 

THE OIL INDUSTRY •* 

By William Loftus 

Some development work had been done in this county previous to 1896, and 
in the Dan McFarland well, located in the N. W. J4 of section 8 twp. 3 S. Range 
9 W. S. B. B. M., about ten barrels of oil per day was struck at a depth of less 
than a thousand feet. But the formations were so diflScult and expensive to^ 
drill with the machinery then employed that the well was abandoned, and the: 
field temporarily condemned. ' 

In 1896, E. L. Doheny — a name that will ever be prominent in the history 
of the development of the California oil fields as well as those of Mexico — was 
favorably impressed with the indications of oil. He obtained a lease with an 
option to purchase the lands now owned and operated by the Petroleum Develop- 
ment Company, which company is now owned by the SaritA Fe Railroad Com- 
pany. Mr. Doheny entered into a contract with the Santa Fe Company to operate 
the territory in partnership. He moved onto the property in February, 1897,; 
and the first well, which was drilled to a depth of about 700 feet, was completed*' 
and put on the pump in a few months. It was started off with a production ol 
about fifty barrels per day. This agreeably surprised Mr. Doheny as he, when^ 
making the contract with the Santa Fe, only predicted wells of a capacity of 
from ten to twenty-five barrels per day at such a shallow depth, but it was his' 
opinion that the quantity would increase with depth and that the formations- 
would carry oil very deep. Up to October, 1898, the Santa Fe and Mr. Doheny 
had drilled ten wells, all less than 900 feet deep, which was about as deep as 
could be drilled in this formation with the methods then employed. Their best 
well produced about 100 barrels per day. » 

The Graham-Loftus Oil Company commenced operations in this field in- 
October, 1898. They drilled the first well 650 feet deep, and could get no further. 
The well started off with a production of forty barrels per day. They encoun- 
tered the same difficulties in No. 2. Four strings of casings were struck within' 
the first 450 feet. The hole was then filled with water and drilled to 1,465 feet, 
with two strings of casings. This was the first well drilled full of water for the 
purpose of holding up the walls, as far as I have been able to ascertain, though* 
it may have been used before. The idea was not mine, but suggested to me by 
Frank Garbut in 1894, at which time I turned it down as impracticable. -It isi 
now used generally throughout the state of California, and I consider it the 
greatest of the three chief factors that have made the large production ofpefro-' 
leum oil in California possible. The other two are the double under-reamer and 
the steel drilling cable. 

The Graham-Loftus well No. 2 started with a production of 700 barrels per 
day and blazed the way for deeper and more productive wells. The depth has 
gradually been increased to over 4,000 feet, and the initial production to approxi- 
mately 20,000 barrels per day for a few days. 

In the fall of 1898 the Columbia Oil Company was organized and started 
operations on a lease from the Olinda Ranch "in Section 9, upon which they 
developed oil of about 32 gravity Baume. The oil appears to be the same as 
that in the old Puente wells about five miles northwest, and it is the opinion of 



144 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

well-informed oil men that the light oil belt is continuous between these two 
points. There has been very little development made in this strike, but wherever 
wells have been drilled they have proven productive. 

In 1899, Charles V. Hall, George Owens, Martin Barbour and James Lynch 
.leased fifty-eight acres of land from the Olinda Ranch in section 8. After 
drilling a hole about 400 feet deep, Owens, Barbour and Lynch, who were experi- ^ 
enced oil men, sold out their interests to C. V. Hall, whose experience consisted 
of a few shallow wells drilled in the city of Los Angeles, and who was conse- 
quently "not supposed to know a bad thing when he saw it." At about 1,500 feet 
h£ had a flowing well, and opened up what has proven to be the richest portion 
of the field. One well on this lease is credited with a production of about 
20,000 barrels per day for a few days. 

In January, 1894, the Union Oil Company of California purchased about 
1,200 acres from the Stearns Ranch Company in sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, Twp. 
3, S. range 9 W. sections 1 and 12 twp. 3 S. range 10, W., 100 acres of the east 
end of which they leased to the Columbia Oil Producing Company. This lease 
has proven very prolific producing property. To compromise a legal claim on 
the 1,200 acres, the Union Oil Company gave 200 acres from the west end, which 
has proven very productive also. It was purchased by the Brea Caiion Oil Com- 
pany. E. L. Doheny was the promoter of this company, which proved very 
• successful. 

The value of the oil deposit is not determined, however, by the product of 
a few large wells, but is estimated by men familiar with the business by the 
amount of oil sand and the per cent of saturation, which means the amount of 
oil per acre. In this respect the Olinda-Fullerton field is considered the best 
"in the state, which means the best in the United States. 

The proven area of this field is about 2,000 acres. Judging from my own 
"experience and the information I have obtained from others, I estimate the 
•average thickness of the oil and sand at two hundred feet. Geologists estimate 
^he saturation at ten per cent," which would give about 155,000 barrels per acre, 
or an aggregate of 310,353,000 barrels. Divide this by two for safety, and 
we will have the very considerable sum of 155,176,500 barrels. Throw off the 
odd figures and in round numbers say 155,000,000 barrels. 

When we take into consideration the fact that the probable oil area is double 
the proven, and the possible very much greater, we begin to appreciate the value 
of the oil deposits in Orange County. To date (1910) there has been produced 
approximately 20,431,481 barrels. The average price has been about sixty-five 
cents per barrel, aggregating $12,550,922. The equivalent in coal, at six dollars 
per ton, would cost $33,102,665, a saving to the consumer of $20,551,743. 

In 1910, the writer of the foregoing article said : "The evolution of the oil 
business has been very rapid, and in my judgment, will so continue. Machinery 
and facilities for drilling deeper will be employed and quantities of oil will be 
produced from greater depths than is now generally considered practicable." 
This prediction has been literally fulfilled in the intervening years since it was 
made, as can be shown by the increase in the assessed valuation of the county 
and by mentioning some of the important developments of the industry. 

Following are the county assessments for the past six years ; it will be noted 
that the greatest gains are in the years when there was the largest development 
in the oil industry. 

\l\t\l\l :.... $54,546,951 

915- 9 6 : 55,266,628 

1916-1917 57 532 66:? 

;9i7-i9i8 : :■.::: 69;68o:47i 

1918-1919 73 910 565 

1919-1920 ::::::::::: gmiSs 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 145 

The county assessor, in listing the oil wells for taxation, follows the law 
where it says, "Ail property in the state, . . . shall be taxed in proportion to its 
value." Some of the large producers have protested against his valuations; but 
the courts have sustained the assessor. The Standard Oil Company paid taxes 
on the production of its wells for the year 1919-1920, to the county assessor, 
$443,670.36, and to the county tax collector, $15,050.84, making a total of 
$458,721.20. For further proof of the development of the oil industry and 
of its great value to the county, note the following reports gleaned from the 
Santa Ana Register: 

The Union Oil Company opened up the Placentia-Richfield district in 
March, 1919, by bringing in an 8,000 barrel gusher on the Chapman property, 
which has been a regular producer ever since. 

March 21, 1919. Oil wells located in Orange County are producing 1,475,000 
barrels of oil a month. That, at the present price, means a value of $1,843,750 
a month, and $22,-125,000 a year, which is $1,625,000 more than the estimate 
of the Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce. 

April 14, 1919. The Union Oil Company's Chapman well is now regarded 
as the finest well in the state and the pride of the southern field. This great 
well has been throttled down to 2,500 barrels, the product coming through a J4 
dip nipple. The oil is testing 23 gravity and the cut is less than .6 of one per 
cent. The gas pressure continues and is now up to 300 pounds. The well is 
making close to a million feet of gas daily. Gas from the well is furnished 
Anaheim. 

August 18, 1919. A later account. At Richfield the Union's Chapman 
gusher has become the wonder of all Southern California. This great producer 
continues to increase daily until now the output has reached 5,200 barrels. 
Accompanying this tremendous volume of oil that is coming easily and quietly 
from a depth of 3,000 feet, is some 3,000,000 feet of gas. The oil is coming 
through a Iji inch opening, and if opened up the well would produce 10,000 
barrels as easily as it is now producing 5,200. 

August 14, 1919. Barney Hartfield of Anaheim, one of the owners of the 
Heffern well, said oil and gas at 2,385 feet indicated a good well then, but it 
was cemented up and bigger -stakes are being sought. The Heffern Company 
has over 500 acres under lease. It has refused $100,000 for the release of a 70- 
acre tract. 

September 10, 1919. Throwing oil and sand a distance of seventy-five feet 
above the derrick Kraemer well No. 1, of the Standard Oil Company, came in, 
adding a new gusher to the FuUerton field. It is estimated that this vvell is pro- 
ducing 5,000 barrels of oil daily. 

September 22, 1919. An experienced Pennsylvania oil man, reported to be 
very wealthy and with strong eastern connections, has leased for oil the prop- 
erties of M'ary J. Bond, M. J. Monette, W. K. Mead, H. D. Lyman and others, 
comprising more than 1,000 acres. These lands are located just east of El Mo- 
dena, four miles east of Orange and six miles southeast of the Richfield district. 

October 3, 1919. The Standard's Kraemer 2-1 well blew a charge of gas 
and oil out of the hole and covered about twenty acres of C. C. Chapman's 
choicest orange trees with oil. It also discharged large quantities of sand. 

October 13, 1919. The Chapman gusher is again referred to as the best pro- 
ducer in the state, having poured forth a million and a half barrels of 27 gravity 
oil since it came in the latter part of March. 

October 15, 1919. What promised to be another gusher was brought in on 
the O. M. Thompson property, one-quarter of a mile east and one mile south of 
the Chapman well. The oil forced its way up through the sand and mud to the 
top of the pipe ; but the men clamped on a cap and prevented its flowing for the 
time being. 



146 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

October 20, 1919. The Standard Oil Company and others have leased con- 
siderable acreage on the Huntington Beach mesa, though no derricks have been 
erected as yet. Some of the leases carry a cash bonus and a monthly rental as 
well as a share in the oil developed. Joe Simas of Seal Beach, in boring for 
water, opened up a small gas well, which he utilizes for light and fuel supply 
for his house and barn. 

October 24, 1919. A 3,500-barrel oil well was brought in by the Standard 
Oil Company on the Murphy lease on Monday. The well. No. 66, completed at 
2,833 feet, is the second largest well brought in during the yeai, and maintains 
the supremacy of the Murphy property as the greatest oil producing lease in 
the state. 

October 30, 1919. The well, reported fifteen days ago on the O. M. Thomp- 
son place as having been capped without letting it display itself, proves to be a 
5,000-barrel gusher, rivaling the famous Chapman well. 

November 18, 1919. The Heffern Oil Company, which heretofore has been 
an association, decided to incorporate with a capital stock of $5,000,000. The 
cost of the test well to date is $214,000, including $30,000 value of the Heffern 
leases. There are three drilling crews at work in the vicinity of Newport Bay. 
The Liberty Oil Company is cleaning out its well No. 1 at the head of the bay. 
Some oil was found at a depth of 2,100 feet when work was stopped. Now the 
company will go several hundred feet deeper. 

As proof that Orange County's oil production has not reached its limits, but 
is on the increase, note the following recent developments: 

The Petroleum Oil Company brought in Thompson well No. 2 on March 12, 
1920, with a reported flow of 3000 barrels and increasing. The company was 
expecting a gusher and prepared to care for the oil so that none of it would be 
wasted. Thompson well No. 3 came in June 1, 1920, with a flow of 650 barrels, 
which many believe too low an- estimate. 

The Kraemer well No. 2-5, which was brought in recently, is producing 
150 barrels of 26 gravity oil. The Thompson-Goodwin well of the Union Oil 
Company came in with a roar June 14, spouting oil over the top of the derrick 
and then sanded up. However, it started flowing again a steady stream which 
experts estimate at 1,800 barrels per day of 27 gravity oil. 

Spouting over the tops of the derricks, two wSls on the Standard Oil Com- 
pany's Sam Kraemer lease, in the Placentia-Richfield district, came in with a 
roar June 23, 1920. They are numbered 6 and 7. The yield of No. 6 has been 
estimated all the way from 1,000 to 3,000 barrels per day. No estimate was 
reported on the yield of No. 7, although it was said to be equally violent with 
No. 6. 

Early in August, 1920, Huntington Beach well No. 1 on the mesa was 
brought in with a small intermittent flow, which later became constant and in- 
creased to nearly 150 barrels of 24 to 26 gravity oil per day. This established 
the character of that section as proven oil territory. Immediately all land, not 
already under contract, was leased by some of the operating companies. The 
Newport mesa well and the well at Olive are about ready for testing early in 
September, although the drillers think they may have to go deeper. A new well 
is being started near Orange County Park, and others are being planned or 
drilled in different parts of the county, especially in or near proven territory. It 
is not always wise in argument to reason from a few particulars to a general 
conclusion ; but, producing oil wells are becoming so numerous and widely 
scattered, it is almost safe to conclude that the whole of Orange County is under- 
laid with oil sand, though it may be at different depths in diflferent localities. 

Other wells might be mentioned, but space forbids. However, the Brea 
Progress-Munger Oil News Service gave quite an extensive survey of the oil fields 
of Orange County and adjoining territory on June 26, 1920, prepared by Elwood 
J. Munger. A summary of this report shows 170 wells drilling, 930 producing, 
with a daily output of 76,000 barrels of oil, ranging in gravity from 14 to 27' 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 147 

and in price from $1.43 per barrel for the lowest gravity oil to $1.93 for the 
highest. While a large majority of the wells mentioned in the report are in 
Orange County, yet the inclusion of wells at Santa Fe Springs, Whittier, Monte- 
bello and other outside fields would prevent this county claiming all the credit 
for the fine showing in this report. If only half of the daily output reported, or 
38,000 barrels, be credited to this county, and if the average price received be 
$1.68 per barrel, which is the average between $1.43 and $1.93, then Orange 
County would receive a gross income of $23,301,000 from its oil industry each 
year. If, however, two-thirds of the daily output reported, or 50,666 barrels, 
be credited to this county, and if the average price received be $1.68 per barrel, 
then Orange County would receive a gross income of $31,068,391 from its oil 
industry each year. The latter sum tallies pretty closely with the estimate of the 
Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce. 

But, however estimated, the oil industry is clearly the largest asset of Orange 
County, and makes this county safe from light, heat and power troubles. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

THE CITRUS INDUSTRY 

By G. W. Sandilands 

The orange was born in India : when, history does not say. Thence it found 
its way into Arabia and Syria, and in the eleventh century was growing in Italy, 
Sicily and Spain, Europe's greatest citrus fruit regions. The sixteenth centnry 
brought the orange to America. Across the Atlantic the Spaniards brought it 
in their conquest of the new world. 

California saw the orange in 1769, or within the next few years after, for 
it was then that the Franciscans started north out of Lower California. In 
1792 oranges are known, by mission records, to have been growing at the San 
Buena Ventura Mission. San Gabriel Mission, near Los Angeles, had the 
most extensive grove. This was set out in 1804. In 1818 there were 211 fruit 
trees, oranges and others, at San Gabriel. Two small groves were planted in 
Los Angeles in 1834, the first outside of the Mission gardens. William Wolfskill 
set out two acres in 1841, the first intended for commercial use. In 1857, L. 
Van Luven, pioneer fruit man in the region now holding the great orchards of 
San Bernardino Valley, planted forty-five seedling trees. In 1865, 200 trees were 
set out at Crafton, near Redlands. 

Sacramento saw the first orange tree in the northern section in 1855. By 
1862 there were 25,000 citrus fruit trees in California. In 1870, the first seeds 
were planted at Riverside. However, the real era of the citrus fruit industry 
was started in 1873. It was in that year that L. C. Tibbetts, of Riverside, planted 
two trees from the Department of Agriculture, which secured a small shipment 
of trees from Bahia, Brazil. The superiority of the fruit of these trees was 
quickly recognized. The trees were named the Washington Navel, and in the 
next decade several thousand acres of Washington Navels were planted in Cali- 
fornia. The original trees are still living and are objects of interest to the 
people and visitors of Riverside. Some years ago one of these trees was removed 
from its original home to the grounds of the Glenwood Inn, and reset with great 
pomp and ceremony on the occasion of a visit of President Roosevelt, the 
distinguished visitor taking part in the work of transplanting. 

By Charles C. Chapman 

Orange County, as the name implies, gives splendid evidence of being the 
ideal section for the culture of the orange. It is as highly developed here as in 
any other part of the world. Indeed, I do not hesitate to say that the orange 
grown here has no equal. This is demonstrated by the fact that for years 



148 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COUNTY 

oranges from this county have brought the highest prices, in the most discriminat- 
ing market of the country, of any oranges grown in the world. 

The soil and climate of Orange County are splendidly adapted to the culture 
of the orange. Indeed, the Divine hand has been lavish in bestowing upon all 
Southern California, and upon Orange County in particular, rare natural advan- 
tages, perhaps greater than those enjoyed by any other section over which the 
flag floats. The magnificent mountain ranges not only form picturesque scenery 
and giant bulwarks to guard the fertile valleys, but are our great natural reser- 
voirs. Our coast is wa-shed by the boundless Pacific. Our climate is faultless. 
In fact, it is not too much to say that as to the fertility of soil, the charming 
climate and the scenery with its grandeur and beauty, it is not surpassed the 
world around. 

Not only are the climate and soil of this county adapted to the culture 
of the orange, but irrigating water is in abundance and rain is as plentiful as 
in any other section in Southern California. The temperature does not go as 
high in summer or as low in winter here as in the more inland sections. The 
extremes are not experienced, and, therefore, oranges are frequently held here 
upon the trees for many months after they are fully matured and without serious 
detriment to their texture, color or flavor. 

The splendid equipment for packing oranges now found in our packing 
houses is the result of a very considerable evolution in the orange industry. 
Ingenious men have invented machinery, as well as discovered new and improved 
methods of doing work in every department, from clipping the fruit from the 
tree to putting it on the market. 

The methods of handling oranges were very crude and simple at first. 
There was no uniformity of pack, or any method in general adopted by the early 
growers and packers. The only thought seemingly in the mind of the shipper 
was to get the fruit in some sort of package in order to ship to the consumer. 
During these early days Chinamen were generally employed to do the packing. 
The fruit was cut from the trees and piled up on the ground or in sheds, and 
the Chinamen sat upon the ground or floor and made selection as to size from 
the pile and put them in the box, sometimes wrapping them with the ordinary 
coarse brown paper, such as was usually found in the grocery stores of that day. 

Soon, however, enterprising shippers began to realize that if the fruit was 
uniformly sized it would pack more evenly and be more attractive. Some very 
simple and inexpensive machinery for doing this was invented. Perhaps the 
first machine for sizing of any pretensions was the one known as the California 
grader. This was a simple rope grader about ten feet long and worked by foot 
power. From time to time this was lengthened until some were made from 
twenty to thirty feet long, delivering fruit to bins arranged on either side and 
extending five to ten feet longer. 

Other sizers more complicated and with greater capacity and accuracy have 
been invented. There are two or three quite extensive factories in Southern 
California which make packing-house equipment for doing practically all work 
in the handling of the orange. There are now on the market washers, driers, 
poHshers, graders, sizers, separators and wrapping machines of several designs 
and at various prices. 

Progress has been made along all lines of the business. Uniform packages 
have been adopted for both the orange and the lemon. These ar€ embellished 
with lettering and designs printed in colors on slats and ends. Shippers have 
individual brands, and most shippers use elaborate and beautifully colored litho- 
graphic labels of these on the ends of the boxes. The orange wrappers have 
also been changed from the coarse brown paper to fine silk tissue, upon which 
richly colored designs or monograms are printed. Some of the most enterprising 
shippers use two-color prints on their wrappers, and some who cater to the 
best Eastern trade use beautifully laced and printed side curtains for the boxes. 
Thus we have now going from all our packing houses uniform and attractive 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 149 

packages. One shipper in Orange County even tags every orange of a certain 
brand with a little green and gold tag, a specially prepared machine being used 
for the purpose. In some packing houses the equipment is very elaborate and 
expensive, costing many thousands of dollars, and with a capacity of ten cars 
per day. 

The first orange trees put out in Orange County, as in Los Angeles and 
Riverside counties, were seedlings, the present popular varieties being unknown 
here. Much time was required for these to come into bearing, as the seedling 
is slower in this regard than the budded varieties. However, the time came 
when there were a few oranges ready for the market. 

The modern packing houses with their splendid equipment were, of course, 
unknown in that early day; nevertheless the fruit was, after a fashion, packed 
and shipped. It found a ready market and at such splendid prices that the 
culture of the orange became an attractive and established industry in several 
sections of the country. 

Very naturally an occupation which is so attractive as citrus culture soon 
interested many enterprising men. Some realized that other varieties than the 
seedling might prove more profitable. Immediately steps were taken to secure 
varieties adapted to the climate. The result in a few years was the introduction 
of a number of varieties which have proven productive and profitable and well 
adapted to our soil and climate. 

Among the standard varieties of oranges grown in this county, besides 
the Washington Navel, are the Mediterranean Sweets, St. Michael, Malta and 
Ruby Blood, Satsuma and the Valencia Lates. From 1886 to 1890 quite a run 
was made by the Mediterranean Sweets and many thousand trees were put 
out.- It was thought that this variety would supply the late spring demand, after 
the season of the Washington Navel had passed. It has proven a tender orange 
and not altogether satisfactory. One reason for this variety not being in more 
favor (though of late years it has very generally proven profitable), was the 
introduction of an orange that more completely filled the requirements of a late 
orange. This is the Valencia Late, which in many respects, as it has been 
developed here, is the best orange grown in the world. For more than twenty 
years it has made the record for prices received for California oranges. It 
has many excellent qualities which make it a most desirable and profitable 
orange for grower, handler and consumer. It is the best keeper on or off the 
tree, and therefore a splendid shipping orange for the autumn. It has been 
the most popular orange with growers for many years, and especially in Orange 
County, which seems to be able to produce this splendid variety more perfectly 
than any other section of the state. 

The writer has been informed by A. D. Bishop, an old and honored orange 
grower living near Orange, that the first orchard planted in that section, if not 
in the county, was by Patterson Bowers. He put out about two acres in 1873 
on the south side of what is now Walnut Avenue, a. street running east from 
the city of Orange and where the street descends into the bed of Santiago 
Creek. In 1874 B. River planted five acres of seedling trees. These trees were 
purchased from T. A. Garey, of Los Angeles, and hauled down in a wagon. 
The following year the remainder of the ten-acre ranch was set out with trees 
grown in the nurseries of D. C. Hayward and Joseph Beach at Orange. This 
orchard was on land platted by Chapman and Glassell and known as the Rich- 
land farm, and now a part of the city of Orange. This was soon followed by 
an orchard planted by a Mr. Dimmock and Joseph Fisher. This was located 
northwest of Orange. In 1876 Dr. W. B. Wall put out an orchard at Tustin. 
This was soon followed by orchards set out in that district by Samuel Preble, 
Mr. Tustin, Mr. Wilcox, Mr. Snow and Mr. Adams, old-time residents. 

In 1878 M. A. Peters and John Gregg planted orchards about one mile south 
of Orange from trees grown by themselves budded from trees purchased from the 
Garey Nursery in Los Angeles. 



150 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

The Gregg place is the one now owned by A. D. Bishop. Trees in good 
hearing condition are here whicli were budded in the nursery in 1876, now 
forty-three years ago. Some of the trees planted by Mr. Peters in 1878 are 
producing fruit equal to if not identical with the Valencias coming from 
Florida at a later date. 

The first orchard set out in the Placentia district was by R. H. Gilman. He 
put out forty acres in 1875 on what is still known as the Gilman randi on 
Placentia Avenue. William M. McFadden, about 1880, put out twenty acres 
further up the same avenue. The following year Dr. Tombs, whose property 
lay between Gilman's and McFadden's, put out several acres. These men 
planted seedlings and Australian Navels, as it was before the stock of the 
Washington Navels was on the market. 

Closely following the setting of the above orchards came Theodore Staley, 
Peter Hansen and Mr. McDowell into the neighborhood. These men set out 
small orchards, the two former on Placentia Avenue and the latter the orchard 
now owned by Mr. Klokke. For a few years thereafter there was considerable 
activity in planting orchards in this district. 

Even before any of the above orchards were put out there were scattered 
about in the yards of the residents of Anaheim a few orange trees. These were 
seedlings, but they demonstrated that what is now the northern part of Orange 
County was adapted to orange culture. Among the first, if not the very first, to 
put out orchards of any considerable size about Anaheim was a Mr. Knappe and 
Henry Brimmerman. 

It is thought that the black scale was brought in on trees from Los Angeles. 
We are to suppose, therefore, that growers from the very beginning of the indus- 
try were troubled with this pest. 

The red scale, which has at times done great damage to orchards, did not 
make its presence felt until 1884 and 1885. T. A. Garey, above mentioned, is 
supposed to claim the honor for having introduced it into California. Some, how- 
ever, say it was brought in by Mr. Hayward on Australian Navel stock which he 
brought from Australia. The fact, however, that this scale appeared in the San 
Gabriel orchards some time before it did at Orange would seem to disprove the 
latter statement. 

These scale pests soon became a real menace to the orange business and 
very early efforts for their destruction were made. About 1882, spraying with 
caustic washes, using fish oil as a base for carrying the alkali was pretty generally 
adopted. Little benefit, if any, was had from this spray, it not proving effective, 
and often doing damage to the fruit and tree. In 1885 Mr. Bishop invented what 
is known as the raisin wash. This was quite generally used until the invention of 
fumigating in 1889.. 

Fumigating with gas made from cyanide of potassium and sulphuric acid 
has proven the most effective method of destroying scale pests yet discovered and 
is used in all orange sections infected with scale. A. D. Bishop must have the 
credit for giving to the growers this splendid discovery. It has really been the 
salvation of the orange industry in Southern California. The division of ento- 
mology of the Department of Agriculture at Washington sent special agents here 
from time to time to discover some method, if possible, to destroy the scale pests 
which were becoming a serious menace. For several years experiments were 
made chiefly with sprays. These have proven unsatisfactory, in fact, practically 
worthless as an insecticide. 

There was trouble at first in fumigating because of the gas burning the trees 
and fruit. Then it was noticed that the injury was less on cloudy days ; so the 
tents were painted black. In their experiments Drs. W. B. Wall and M. S. Jones 
discovered that fumigating at night was even better than with painted tents, be- 
cause of the lower temperature at night. They accordingly associated themselves 
with A. D. Bishop and took out a patent on night fumigation, which soon was 
dubbed the "twilight patent." This patent was offered to the fruit growers of 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 151 

Southern California for $10,000 ; but they lacked one vote on the board of super- 
visors of Orange County to consummate the sale to the counties. The courts 
afterward a:nnulled the patent on the ground that darkness, or the absence of 
light, was not patentable. 

The first cars of oranges were shipped in 1883 by M. A. Peters and A. D. 
Bishop. These gentlemen sent two cars to Des Moines, Iowa. A few other cars 
were sent out from the county that year. The shipment for 1910 was 840,960 
boxes of oranges and 43,392 boxes of lemons ; that for 1920 was estimated 
2,000,000 boxes of oranges and about 300,000 boxes of lemons. 

Many hundreds of acres only recently set out will soon be in bearing, so that 
we may confidently expect to ship out of Orange County before many years from 
five to six thousand cars of the finest citrus fruit grown in the world. 

Crop estimators have used the returns of the Orange County Fruit Exchange 
for 1919 as a basis for estimating the value of the county's citrus crop for that 
year. This exchange, with headquarters at Orange, is the selling agent for eleven 
citrus associations, all located southeast of the Santa Ana River, except the one 
at Garden Grove, and handles at least seventy per cent of the crop in that territory. 
It is claimed that the territory northwest of the river produces fully as much fruit 
as that southeast of the stream. 

At the annual meeting of the exchange, February 9, 1920, the following direc- 
tors were elected for the ensuing year : D. C. Drake, Willard Smith, R. W. Jones, 
Wade Flippen, George B. Shattuck, Ed.Utt, E. B. Collier, E. D. White, J. O. 
•Arkley, D. E. Huff, A. E. Bennett. The board organized with D. C. Drake as 
president ; Willard Smith, vice-president ; L. D. Palmer, secretary, and A. E. Ben- 
nett, exchange representative. 

From the secretary's annual report it is learned that the exchange shipped 
2,622 carloads of oranges, of 462 boxes to the car, and 584 carloads of lemons. 
The shipments, divided according to varieties, were as follows: Valencias, 
1,152,145 boxes; lemons, 239,609 boxes; Navels, 42,073 boxes; sweets, 12,858 
boxes ; miscellaneous, 3,022 boxes ; total, 1,450,707 boxes. The returns from these 
shipments were $5,495,444.49, which is $1,261,525.42 more than for any previous 
season. 

The large acreage of oranges set out during the last five yv^ars will soon 
increase the orange crop for the county to five and six million boxes annually. 
In no other section in Southern California have so many orange trees been put 
out in recent years as in Orange County. 



CHAPTER XXVII 
BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The following description of the beet sugar industry has been largely gleaned 
from an article on that subject prepared by Truman G. Palmer, secretary of the 
United States Beet Sugar Industry, in 1913, three years subsequent to the publi- 
cation of the first volume of this history, and one year prior to the beginning of 
the recent World War. 

The earliest attempt to produce sugar from beets in the United States was 
made in Philadelphia in 1830 by two Germans named Vaughan and Ronaldson, 
but their efforts were unsuccessful. Eight years later David Lee Child erected a 
small factory at Northampton, Mass., and succeeded in producing a small quantity 
of sugar, for which he was awarded a silver medal which bore the following 
inscription: "The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. Award to 
David Lee Child, for the first beet sugar made in America. Exhibition of 1839." 

Due to lack of technical knowledge in both field and factory, the Northampton 
plant o^rated but one season. 



152 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

In 1852 Bishop Tyler, of the Mormon Church, purchased in France the ma- 
chinery for a factory^ shipped it by water to Fort Leavenworth, Kans., and hauled 
it by ox team from there to Salt Lake City. This effort was also a failure. Dur- 
ing the next few years, attempts were made to produce beet sugar in the United 
States as follows : Illinois, 1863-71 ; Wisconsin, 1868-71 ; New Jersey, 1870-76 ; 
Maine, 1876; but all these efforts ended in failure, which absorbed some $2,250,000, 
and ruined most of the men who attempted to establish the industry in America. 

The first American to wrest success from failure was E. H. Dyer, who erected 
a small plant at Alvarado, Cal., in 1879. Although a failure for many years, 
much of which time the plant was idle, it finally became a success. Several times 
it has been rebuilt and re-equipped with machinery and while running today, it 
never will pay interest on more than a fraction of the money invested in it. 

In 1883 the Federal Treasury needed money and Congress had become en- 
thusiastic about the possibility of producing our sugar supply at home, so our 
national legislature enacted a tariff bill which carried a duty of three and one- 
half cents a pound on refined sugar and two and one-half cents on raw. But no 
one knew what soil or climate were required for producing high grade beets, nor 
how to grow them, nor how to operate a factory, and the string of dismal failures 
reaching from ocean to ocean made capitalists cautious. Even when our Federal 
Treasury was overflowing in 1890 and sugar was placed on the free list, the bounty 
of two cents per pound, which was placed on domestic production, failed to attract 
capital, as did also the Wilson forty per cent ad valorem bill of 1894. 

However, when the Dingley bill of 1897 was passed and William McKinley 
made James Wilson secretary of agriculture, a new order of affairs was estab-' 
lished. Although the duty fixed on sugar imports was but fifty-two per cent of 
what it had been under the bill of 1883 and but six factories were in existence, 
the Department of Agriculture set to work to determine where favorable natural 
conditions existed, to learn and to teach the farmers cultural methods and to ex- 
ploit the industry generally. It was deemed wise that a great industry, destined 
to supply a large portion of the $400,000,000 worth of sugar which we annually 
consume, should be scattered as widely over the states as possible. To this end 
the Department issued a wall map, on which was traced the theoretical beet sugar 
area of the United States. This map was changed from time to time to corre- 
spond with increased knowledge of the adaptability of the country to this industry. 
The last statement of the Department concerning this subject shows that we have 
in the United States 274,000,000 acres, the soil and climate of which are adapted 
to sugar beet culture. If but a fraction of one per cent of this area were planted 
to sugar beets, it would furnish all the sugar we consume. 

Doctor Wiley and the Bureau of Chemistry and Doctor Galloway and the 
Bureau of Plant Industry were set to work ; a field agent was placed on the road 
to investigate conditions throughout the country and experiments were conducted 
in various states. As a result of the information and the inviting conditions set 
forth in the numerous bulletins and reports of the Department, in fourteen years, 
$84,000,000 has been coaxed into the industry, the number of factories has in- 
creased from six in two states to seventy-six in sixteen states, and the annual 
output has grown from 40,000 to 700,000 tons, or one-fifth of the total sugar con- 
. sumption of the United States, enough to supply all the people living west of the 
Mississippi River. As a result of the Newlands bill,. great areas of desert land 
have been reclaimed where sugar beets can be raised more profitably than can any 
other crop, and upon the expansion of this industry largely depends the success or 
failure of the great irrigating works which the Federal Government has con- 
structed at an expense of $80,000,000. 

James Wilson knew that the long haul freight charges ate up the profits 
of the far western farmers on low-priced cereal products when shipped to the East. 
They cannot successfully compete in the East with the farmers of the great 
Mississippi Valley who have a much shorter haul to market. But with alfalfa 
and beet pulp with which to fatten stock, they obtain two crops, sugar and live- 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 153 

stock, on which the freight charges are small in proportion to the value of the 
product. Sugar beets reach their greatest perfection when grown under irriga- 
tion and our farmers, especially in the irrigated A^'est, have found the crop to be 
one of the most profitable, if also the most difficult, which they can grow. Due 
to rotating other crops with sugar beets one year in four, thousands of farms are 
producing greater yields of such other crops than ever before. 

This industry now distributes $63,000,000 annually to American farmers, to 
laborers in the sugar factories and to laborers in coal mines and other American 
industries which furnish it with supplies, all of which money would be sent to 
foreign countres in payment for imported sugar, but for the establishment of this 
domestic industry. 

Since the industry was established up to 1913, it has distributed $400,000,000 
to American toilers, and when fully developed it will distribute $200,000,000 
annually to American industry. 

During the fourteen years in which the domestic beet sugar industry grew 
from 40,000 to 700,000 tons, the average wholesale price of sugar declined from 
$4.97 per 100 pounds to $4.12 per 100 in 1913, or seventeen per cent, despite the 
fact that during the same period the price of practically all other food commodities 
has increased from thirty-three and one-third to 100 per cent. When fully 
developed, this industry will still further reduce not only the price of sugar, but of 
all other food products through increasing the yield per acre. 

The German increase in yield per acre of wheat, rye, barley and oats has been 
eighty per cent during the past thirty years, as compared with an increase of but 
six and six-tenths per cent in the United States. German economists are a unit 
in attributing Germany's increase in yield to the introduction of sugar beet cul- 
ture which taught their farmers to grow a root crop one year in four in rotation 
with cereals, and thus out of $986,000,000 worth of these crops which Germany 
annually produces, $438,000,000 worth is due to the introduction of sugar beet 
culture. Even greater results than those obtained in Germany have been secured 
wherever sugar beet culture has been introduced in this country, and should the 
further expansion of the industry result in duplicating Germany's experience 
throughout the United States, our yield of these four crops, at present farm prices, 
would be worth $2,000,000,000 instead of $1,124,000,000, as at present (1913). 
In the language of Knauer, one of the foremost agriculturists of Germany: "It 
is our firm belief that increased beet culture is the greatest blessing for every 
land." 

To secure a heavy tonnage, fields to be planted to sugar beets should be thor- 
oughly fertilized. Barnyard manure is the best fertilizer, but in Europe it is sup- 
plemented with large quantities of commercial fertilizers. The beets exhaust only 
a portion of the fertilizer, leaving the balance, with a mass of fibrous roots, to 
enrich the soil for the three succeeding crops which should be grown before re- 
planting the field to beets. To teach the farmers the art of rotation and how best 
to grow beets and all other crops, each factory employs a scientific agriculturist 
and a corps of assistants who spend their time with the surrounding farmers. In 
1912 the actual cost to the factories for this educational work amounted to thirty- 
eight cents for each ton of beets sliced, or a total of nearly $2,000,000. So benefi- 
cial have been the results of this work, that Secretary of Agriculture Wilson de- 
clared that. a beet sugar factory is as valuable to the farmers of a community as is 
a government agricultural experiment station, which costs the public thousands of 
dollars to maintain. 

Sugar beets require deep plowing, ten to fourteen inches, or twice the usual 
depth. When using horses, farmers are inclined not to plow deeply enough to 
secure maximum results, and some of the factories have put in power plows 
which turn six furrows and harrow the land at the same time. They plow and 
harrow the land for $2.50 per acre, which is about one-half of what it costs the 
farmers to plow equally deep with horses. The traction engines also are used for 



154 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

hauling train wagon loads of beets to the factory. In some localities farmers are 
banding together and purchasing engines for plowing and hauling beets. 

Beets are drilled in rows, usually eighteen inches apart, eighteen to twenty- 
•five pounds of seed to each acre. Practically all the beet seed used in America is 
grown in Europe, but it has been demonstrated that superior seed can be produced 
in the United States. Sugar beet seed growing requires five years of the utmost 
skill, care and patience, from the planting of the original seed to the maturing 
of the commercial crop which is sold to the trade. The factories contract for 
their seed for three to five years in advance, sell it to farmers at cost price and 
deduct the amount from the payment for beets. 

When the beets are up and show the third leaf they should be thinned. Unless 
thinned at the proper time, the pulling up of the superfluous beetlets injures the 
roots of the remaining ones. Scientific experiments in Germany, where all other 
conditions were identical, showed that one acre, thinned at the proper time, yielded 
fifteen tons ; the next acre, thinned a week later, yielded thirteen and one-half tons ; 
the third acre, thinned still a week later, yielded ten and one-half tons; and the 
fourth acre, thinned three weeks after the first, yielded seven and one-half tons. 
The rows are blocked with the hoe, leaving a bunch of beets every eight inches. 
These bunches are thinned by pulling up the superfluous beetlets, leaving one in 
a place eight inches apart. The ideal factory beet weighs about two pounds and 
a perfect stand of such beets, one every eight inches, in rows eighteen inches 
apart, would yield forty-three and one-third tons per acre. The present average 
yield in the United States is about ten tons per acre, while the hitherto "worn-out 
soils" of Germany yield fourteen tons per acre, or forty per cent more than is 
secured from our "virgin soils." 

While the'beets are grov\'ing it is necessary to keep them free from weeds, so 
that they will get the full benefit of the sun and the strength of the soil. Where 
the cultivation is done with horse power instead of with the hoe, the rows are 
generally placed farther apart. After the beets have reached their maturity, they 
are plowed out and are then topped by hand, which consists in cutting off the top 
and that portion of the beet that projected above the ground, which was found to 
contain very little sugar. The tops are fed to stock, for which purpose they are 
worth three dollars per acre. 

In the United States, eight miles is the usual limit for hauling beets to the 
factory by wagon, while the supply of beets may be drawn from an area with a 
radius of fifty miles or more. To reduce the labor of unloading, the factories erect 
receiving stations on the railroads in the beet growing area and pay the same 
price for beets delivered at these stations as for those delivered at the factory. 
Tim Carrol of Anaheim invented the method of dumping the beets from the 
wagon into a chute that conveys them into the car ; a similar method is employed 
for dumping the beets from the cars into the bins at the factory. In 1912 the 
freight on the railroads averaged forty-five cents per ton of beets, and the receiv- 
ing stations with their dumping apparatus cost the factories about $2,000. each, 
many of them having from $40,000 to $50,000 invested in such stations. 

As the beets arrive at the factory, they are first weighed and then dumped 
into bins for storage or floated directly to the beet washers. AVhile being dumped, 
a fair sample both of the beets and of the loose dirt which the car or wagon con- 
tains is caught in a basket. These samples, properly tagged, are conveyed to the 
beet laboratory where they are trimmed, if not properly topped, and the differ- 
ence in the weight of the samples as received and their weight when trimmed and 
washed is called the "tare." Whatever percentage this amounts to, is applied to and 
deducted from the weight of the car or wagon load. A sample of these beets 
then is tested by the polariscope for its sugar content and its purity ; farmers often 
are paid a stipulated price per ton for beets of a given sugar content and twenty- 
five to thirty-three and one-third cents per ton additional for each extra degree 
of sugar which they contain. The tare rooms and the beet testing laboratories 




r ^ 



"T^'Vyfl 



nil d[|s B s' 1 a 3 





LOS ALAMITOS SUGAR FACTORY 




AN ORANGE COUNTY CHICKEN RANCH 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 155 

are open to any one, and in some localities the farmers' associations employ ex- 
perts to tare and analyze each sample of beets. 

The bins are V-shaped, about three feet wide at the bottom, twenty to thirty 
feet at the top and twenty to thirty feet high. As beets are needed, beginning at 
one end of the bin, the loose three-foot planks at the bottom are removed one at 
a time and, with hooks attached to long poles, the beets are rolled into the flume 
or cement channel below, in which they are floated into the factory. This is not 
only to save labor, but to loosen up the dirt which attaches to the beets, thus 
partially washing them. The water which is used m the flume is warm water 
pumped to the upper end from the factory. 

After being floated in from the bins or sheds, the beets are elevated from the 
flume to a washer., where they are given an additional washing before being sliced. 
From the washer they are elevated and dropped into an automatic scale of a capac- 
ity of 700 to 1,500 pounds. From the scale they pass to the sheers, where, with 
triangular knives, they are cut into long, slender shces which look something like 
"shoestring" potatoes. These slices drop through an upright chute and are packed 
tightly into cylindrical vessels holding from, two to six tons each ; the battery con- 
sists of eight to twelve vessels arranged either in a straight line or in circular 
form. Warm water is run into these slices, and coaxes out the sugar as it passes 
from each vessel to the succeeding one. After passing through the entire series 
of vessels, the water has become rich in sugar, of which it contains from twelve 
to fifteen per cent, depending upon the richness of the beets. It then is drawn 
off and is called diffusion juice or raw juice. This is carefully measured into 
tanks and recorded. As this juice is drawn off, the vessel over which the water 
started is emptied of the slices from the bottom, the leached slices containing 
from one-quarter to one-third per cent of sugar. These slices are called pulp, and 
by conveyors are carried out from the factory and deposited in bins, from which 
they are fed to stock as wet pulp or are conveyed to dryers where the water is 
evaporated and the dry pulp is sacked and shipped for stock feed. 

Warm, raw juice is drawn into the carbonatation tanks and treated with 
about ten per cent milk of lime — about like ordinary white-wash. This lime 
throws out impurities, sterilizes the juice and removes coloring matter. Carbonic 
acid gas from the lime kiln is forced through the lime juice in the tank, throwing 
out the excess of lime, converting it into a carbonate of lime or chalk. Tests 
are taken here by the station operator to show when the process is finished. 

From the carbonatation tanks the juice is pumped or forced through filter 
presses consisting of iron frames so covered with cloth that the juice passes 
through the cloth as a clear liquid, leaving the lime, and impurities precipitated by 
it, in the frame, .in the form of a cake. This cake, after washing, is dropped from 
the presses and conveyed out of the factory. It contains from one to two per 
cent of its weight in' sugar, which constitutes one of the large losses of the process. 
It also contains organic matter, phosphate and potash, besides the carbonate of 
lime, which makes it an excellent fertilizer, all of which is used in Europe on the 
farm, but so far is little used in America.- The juice passes through the Danek 
filters by gravity after having been treated with carbonic acid gas a second time. 

After a second, and sometimes a third, carbonatation and filtration, the juice 
is carried to the evaporators, commonly called the "effects," usually four large 
air-tight vessels furnished with heating tubes running from 2,000 to 7,000 square, 
feet in each vessel. A partial vacuum is maintained in these evaporators which 
makes the juice boil out at a low temperature, thus preventing discoloration, and 
to a large degree the destruction of sugar, which would be caused by high tem- 
perature. There always is, however, some unavoidable loss of sugar in this 
apparatus. The juice passes along copper pipes from the first vessel to the last, 
becoming thicker as it does so. It comes into the first vessel at ten per cent to 
twelve per cent sugar and is pumped out of the last one so thick that it contains 
about fifty per cent of sugar. 



156 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

After a careful filtration, the juice that comes from the evaporators and is 
called thick juice, is pumped to large tanks high up in the building and from there 
is drawn into vacuum pans. These are large cylindrical vessels from ten to 
fifteen feet in diameter and from fifteen to twenty-five feet high with conical top 
and bottom, built air-tight. Around the inner circumference they are furnished 
with four to six-inch copper coils which have a heating surface of 800 to 2,000 
square feet. Exhaust steam is used in the evaporators and live steam in the pans, 
the juice in both being boiled in a vacuum to prevent discoloration and reduce 
losses. As the syrup continues to thicken by this evaporation, minute crystals 
begin to form. When sufficient of these have formed, fresh juice is drawn in 
and the crystals grow, the operator governing the size of the crystals to suit the 
trade. If small crystals be desired, a large quantity of juice is admitted at the 
outset, while if large crystals are desired, a small quantity of juice first is admitted, 
and, as it boils to crystals, fresh juice gradually is added to the pan and the 
crystals are built up to the desired size. The operator of this pan, known as the 
"sugar boiler" is one of the most important men in the factory. The water fur- 
nished the condensers of these vacuum pans and the evaporator goes to the beet 
sheds and is used for floating in the beets. It amounts to from 3,000,000 to 
8,000,000 gallons every twenty-four hours, according to the size of the factory, 
and must be very pure. 

The mass of crystals with syrup around them and containing about eight per 
cent to ten per cent of water is let out of the vacuum pan into a large open vessel 
called a mixer, beneath which are the centrifugal machines. These are vertically 
suspended brass drums perforated with holes and lined with a fine screen. They 
are made to revolve about 1,000 times a minute, and the crystal mass of sugar- 
rises up the side like water in a whirling bucket. The centrifugals force the syrun 
out through the screen holes leaving the white crystals of sugar in a thick layer 
on the inner surface. These are washed with a spray of pure warm water and 
then are ready for the dryer. 

The damp white crystals from the centrifugal machine are conveyed to hori- 
zontal revolving drums about twenty-five feet long by five to six feet in diameter. 
These drums are furnished with paddles on the inside circumference, the paddles 
picking the sugar up and dropping it in showers as the drum revolves. Warm dry 
air is drawn through and takes the moisture out of the sugar, which now is 
ready to be put in bags or barrels for the market. • 

After the moisture has been thoroughly removed in the granulators or dryers, 
the sugar drops directly to the sacking room through a chute, at the lower end of 
which the top of the double bag is attached. The sugar flows directly into the 
sack, the flow being cut off automatically with each 100 pounds, when an endless 
belt conveyor passes the upright sack past the sewing machine at the proper speed 
and the product is sealed ready for storage or shipment. 

Five of the seventy-six beet sugar factories, reported by "Truman G. Palmer 
as being in existence in the United States in 1913, are located in Orange County, 
Cal., and are described by him as follows : 

Los Alamitos Sugar Company 

Los Alamitos, Cal. 
Erected 1897 Daily Capacity, 800 Tons of Beets 

EQUIPPED WITH AMERICAN MACHINERY 

Size of main building, 93 feet 9 inches by 261 feet; length of all buildings, 
2,144 feet; area of beets grown by independent farmers in 1912, 10,432 acres; 
grown by the factory, 401 acres. 

APPROXIMATE DISBURSEMENT SINCE ERECTION OP EACTORY 

Beets $4,321,443.87 

Wages and all overhead expense 1,208,100.99 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 157 

Fuel and all other supplies 1,314,930.61 

Experiments, insurance and other items 290,613.48 

$7,235,088.95 
Santa Ana Co-operative Sugar Company 

Dyer, Cal. 
Erected 1912 Daily Capacity, 1,200 Tons of Beets 

EQUIPPED WITH AMERICAN MACHINERY 

Size of main building, 66 feet by 266 feet; length of all buildings, 971 feet; 
area of beets grown by 226 independent farmers in 1912, 9,061 acres; grown by 
the factory, none. 

No disbursements up to time of this report. 

Southern California Sugar Company 

Santa Ana, Cal. 

Erected 1909 Daily Capacity, 600 Tons of Beets 

EQUIPPED WITH AMERICAN MACHINERY 

Size of main building, 67 feet by 265 feet; length of all buildings, 1,184 feet; 
area of beets grown by independent farmers in 1912, 10,000 acres ; grown by the 
factory, none. 

PARTIAL DISBURSEMENT SINCE ERECTION OF FACTORY 

Beets $1,224,996.35 

Wages and all overhead expense 307,000.00 

Freight on beets, sugar and supplies 309,900.00 

Fuel and all other supplies 337,369.51 

$2,179,265.86 
Holly Sugar Company 

Huntington Beach, Cal. 
Erected 1911 Daily Capacity, 1,000 Tons of Beets 

EQUIPPED WITH AMERICAN MACHINERY 

Size of main building, 65 feet by 260 feet; length of all buildings, 1,100 feet; 
area of beets grown by 300 independent farmers in 1912, 11,000 acres; grown by 
the factory, none. 

PARTIAL DISBURSEMENT SINCE ERECTION OF FACTORY 

Beets $1,100,000.00 

Wages and all overhead expense 225,000.00 

Freight on beets, sugar and supplies 300,000.00 

P\iel and all other supplies 230,000.00 

$1,855,000.00 
Anaheim Sugar Company 

Anaheim, Cal. 
Erected 1910-11 Daily Capacity, 500 Tons of Beets 

EQUIPPED WITH AMERICAN MACHINERY 

Size of main building, 58 feet by 275 feet; length of all buildings, 1,155 feet; 
area of beets grown by independent farmers in 1912, 10,069 acres ; grown by the 
factory, none. 



158 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

APPROXIMATE DISBURSEMENT SINCE ERECTION OE EACTORY 

Beets $ 653,575.09 

Wages and all overhead expense ^yl'^'m 

Freight on beets, sugar and supplies 7 n^onAnn 

Fuel and all other supplies oJfSnn 

Experiments, insurance and other items »o,1.5U.UU 

$1,309,084.79 

Only two of the five sugar factories in the county answered any of the ques- 
tions addressed to them by mail ; and even they neglected to mention the amount 
and value of their annual production of sugar. Following is a summary of the 
information received. 

The Los Alamitos Sugar Company was organized in 1896. It is a corporation 
of which the following persons are the officers : W. A. Clark, president ; J. Ross 
Clark, vice-president ; Henry C. Lee, second vice-president ; E. C. Hamilton, man- 
ager. Number of employees during sugar campaign 300; daily capacity of fa.ctory, 
800 tons of beets ; land produces ten tons of beets per acre ; water is supplied by 
artesian wells and pumping plants ; percentage of sugar in beets is high compared 
with that in other sections. 

The Santa Ana Cooperative Sugar Company was organized in 1911 and began 
active operations in 1912. The officers are James Irvine of San Francisco, presi- 
dent; C. A. Johnson of Huntington Beach, vice-president; Remsen McGinnis of 
Denver, secretary; S. W. Sinsheimer of Denver, general manager; E. M. Smiley 
of Santa Ana, manager. The daily capacity of the factory is 1,200 tons of beets. 
The average quantity of beets worked up annually is 100,000 tons. The sugar 
content in the beets is nineteen per cent. Water is supplied by artesian wells 
located on the company's own ground at the plant. 

Having thus failed to get the actual amount and value of the sugar produced 
in the county from the factories, the transportation companies, or any other local 
source, the writer applied to E. E. Kaufman, field agent of State Commission of 
Horticulture, and received a bulletin containing statistics on "California Crop Dis- 
tribution and Estimates for 1918." This bulletin shows that Orange County excels 
all other counties in the state in the production of sugar beets. It is credited with 
216,000 tons and Monterey County, its nearest competitor, with only 156,800 
tons. The bulletin gives no values — only quantities; but, by using the foregoing 
data and assuming that the factories received as much as the sugar equalization 
board recently fixed as the maximum price, we can approximate pretty closely 
the' value of the sugar produced in Orange County in 1918. If the beets in this 
county average nineteen per cent sugar, as the Santa x\na Cooperative Sugar (;!om- 
pany alleges they do, then the 216,000 tons of beets, grown in the county, would 
produce 41,040 tons, or 82,080,000 pounds of sugar; and if the factories received 
"ten cents cash, less two per cent aboard basis," as the sugar equalization board 
recently fixed the maximum price, or nine and eight-tenths cents per pound, then 
they received $8,043,840 for Orange County's sugar crop in 1918. The estimated 
value of the 1919 crop was $10,500,000. 

Late in June it was announced that the sugar company contracts for the season 
of 1920, would start with twelve dollars per ton as the basic price for beets 
testing fifteen per cent sugar with the price of sugar at nine dollars per hundred 
pounds, and for each additional per cent of sugar in the beets, fifteen per cent of 
the price of sugar would be added to the basic price .for beets. To illustrate by 
a suppositional example, let us use the sugar content of the beets, given by the 
Santa Ana Sugar Company, of nineteen per cent, or four more than the basic per 
cent, and the price of sugar, as fixed by the sugar equalization board of $9.80 
per hundred pounds, the equation would be $12.00 + 4 (.15 X $9.80) =$17.88, 
the price per ton of beets to the growers under such conditions. With sixteen 
inches of rainfall, in gentle showers that all went into the ground, to supply 
moisture where not provided by irrigation, and with good prospects for high 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 159 

prices for sugar, the outlook for a bumper crop of beets and a prosperous sugar 
campaign could hardly be brighter than on July 1, 1920. 

The sugar beet is said to be the most scientifically bred plant in the world. 
Beginning with a small, tough, woody root, found near the salt water in Southern 
Europe, which contained little more than a trace of sugar, it has been bred by a 
century's most scientific and painstaking investigation to yield a heavy tonnage of 
pure sugar equal to one-sixth of its weight in Germany and one-seventh in the 
United States. Notwithstanding this intensive cultivation and high development,- 
the sugar beet still retains its partiality for soils located near salt water, which 
doubtless accounts for the domesticated plants yielding good returns on the alkali 
soils near the sea coast in Southern California. There is also an indirect benefit 
from planting such lands to beets, in fertilizing, aerating and enriching the soil for 
other crops, that is said to be even more valuable than the direct benefit. But, to 
gain these advantages and produce our own sugar instead of buying it abroad, large 
investments of capital are necessary, some of which have been made, and must 
be maintained perpetually. Therefore, in justice to such investments and for the , 
good of Orange County and the country generally, it becomes the patriotic duty 
of every loyal citizen to protect the beet sugar industry from hostile legislation, 
and to encourage its legitimate development, to the full extent of his ability. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 
ORANGE COUNTY'S FRUITS, GRAINS AND VEGETABLES 

Fruits 

Orange County has such an infinite variety and wealth of products that it 
would be impossible to give a detailed account of each within the limits of this 
work. Fairly complete descriptions of the orange, walnut and celery industries 
have been presented; but only a brief reference can be made to some of the other 
more lucrative productions without undertaking to give an exhaustive list. 

Nearly every kind of fruit known to the temperate zones and many kinds 
from the torrid zone have been tried here with more or less success. Some seem 
to be well suited to the soil and climate ; but they are seriously handicapped with 
insect pests, which experts are learning how to eradicate. Some do better on one 
kind of soil than on another ; some prefer higher elevations than others ; and some 
thrive best inland and others near the coast. Practically all kinds of conditions can 
be found within the confines of Orange County ; and enterprising growers are 
constantly experimenting to find out just what conditions and localities are best 
suited to each kind of fruit. 

Although Orange County is not rated as an apple-growing section, yet con- 
siderable of this fruit is grown in some parts of the county. Apples do very well 
on the damp lands near the coast, provided the roots do not reach standing water. 
They also thrive as well in certain choice localities in the mountains, as they do in 
the famous apple regions farther up the coast. The statistician's report for 1910 
gives 12,795 bearing and 1,540 non-bearing trees, producing 511,800 pounds of 
fruit, worth $5,118. The Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce's estimate for 1919 
was $50,000. 

The apricot seems to be well adapted to the conditions that prevail in this 
county, with one exception. Occasionally the spring rains injure the blossoms and 
cause a light crop. Possibly this defect in the conditions may be overcome, or at 
least minimized, by continually selecting the most hardy and latest blooming trees 
for planting; but, even as it is, the apricot is one of the moderately profitable fruits 
of the county. A good crop of apricots, at the prices which have prevailed for 
several years past, will net the grower about $250 per acre. The number of trees 
credited to Orange County is 167,240 bearing and 23,370 non-bearing. The 
statistician for 1910 gave the dried apricots from that year's crop as 1,700,000 



160 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

pounds, worth $170,000; but he took no account of the fresh apricots that were 
marketed and consumed before the drying commenced. The pits amounted to 
105 tons, worth $12,600. The estimate for 1919 was $200,000. 

The avocado was discussed in the April, 1919, Bulletin of the State Com- 
mission of Horticulture in part as follows : 

"In Volume VI, No. 1 of the Monthly Bulletin, Mr. I. J. Condit of the Uni- 
versity of California, listed fifty-four varieties of the avocado that originated in 
California, and eighty-six of foreign origin, or a total of 140 named varieties. 
With this large number to select from, a real problem exists to determine the 
varieties that are best for California conditions. Already considerable experi- 
mental work has been done, and it is now known that there are places that are 
not subject to frost where certain varieties of avocado will do well. Commercially 
the industry is of little importance at present. Fruit sells in the larger cities of 
the state for exorbitant prices and seventy-five cents for a single fruit is a price 
that is frequently paid by the consumer. Prices have been so high that the fruit 
has not yet become generally known in this country, and there is no way of judging 
of its popularity, although most people who have tried it sound its praises." 

In the chapter on "Semi-Tropic Fruits in Orange County," C. P. Taft gives 
a complete account of experiments with the avocado and results obtained. He 
mentions one variety whose fruits weigh from two to four pounds or more each, 
which would be considerable fruit even though the price is high. As to produc- 
•tiveness he cites one tree, the "Taft," which produced over $500 worth of fruits 
in 1917 and over $600 worth in 1919. He says the "Sharpless" tree, owned by 
B. H. Sharpless of Tustin, has done equally well. Both are among the oldest 
trees in the county. 

In answer to an inquiry about the correctness of the report that his tree had 
produced $5,000 worth of fruits and buds, Mr. Sharpless supplied the following 
information : The Sharpless avocado was planted in 1901 and bore its first fruits 
in 1912, when it bore 2 fruits; in 1913, 20 fruits; in 1914, 75 fruits; in 1915, 250 
fruits; in 1916, 700 fruits. He says, "Now you will notice the crop has not been 
so heavy since 1916 ; but when I tell you that there have been 10,000 buds a year 
cut from the tree — and buds cut this year take off next year's fruit wood — it is a 
wonder there is any fruit at all. And $5,000 is the value of fruit and buds up 
to this year. It looks as though there were 800 fruits on the tree for next year, 
as the tree has the habit of the Valencia orange, which blossoms in April and 
May and the fruit does not mature until the following year." One dollar apiece 
or ten dollars a dozen is the price for the Sharpless avocado fruit. 

Bearing fig trees to the number of 2,500 were reported in 1910 ; but nothing 
was said about the quantity and value of the fruit produced. 

In the early '80s, the grape was one of the leading fruits in the territory now 
included in Orange County — especially in the northern part. The first vineyards 
were of the Mission variety, either planted by the padres or with cuttings from 
vineyards of their planting. These grapes were used principally for making wine. 
Later, Malaga, Muscatel and other varieties were introduced, some of which were 
used almost exclusively for making raisins. This locality acquired quite a reputa- 
tion abroad both for its wines and its raisins ; besides, a great many carloads of 
table grapes were shipped every season to the middle western states. In the latter 
part of the '80s some kind of a disease appeared in the vineyard at Anaheim and 
gradually spread over the vineyards of Southern California. It was most de- 
structive of the finer varieties, and completely wiped out the raisin industry of this 
section. The tonnages of grapes for 1910 was 490, worth $3,600. 

Grape fruit is highly prized by many people as an appetizer at breakfast and 
is therefore grown to a limited extent. The crop for 1910 was valued at $3,840. 

The lemon industry has not proved so attractive to growers as the orange 
industry, partly on account of the necessity for curing the fruit before marketing 
and partly on account of the sharper competition of the foreign article in the 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNfTY 161 

Eastern market. Relief was aiforded on the latter point by Congress raising the 
tariff on lemons from one to one and a half cents a pound; now more lemons are 
being planted than heretofore. The crop of 1910 amounted to 43,392 boxes, 
valued at $151,872. The value of the 1919 crop was $3,500,000. 

In comparison with the lemon crop, the size and value of the orange crop for 
1910 may be given here, although that industry is described elsewhere, as follows : 
oranges, 840,960 boxes, valued at $1,261,440. That of 1919 was valued at 
$12,000,000. 

. Very few people in the county have paid any attention to the growing of 
olives ; nevertheless there were 520 tons raised in 1910, worth $26,000. The 1919 
crop value, including olive oil, was $125,000. 

Peaches seem to require about the same conditions that apples and pears do 
and therefore thrive best in the same localities. The peach crop for 1910 was 
reported to be 575,250 pounds, valued at $5,752 ; the pear crop was 108,500 pounds, 
valued at $1,085. 

There are 1,270 bearing plum trees in the county, producing 38,100 pounds of 
fruit in 1910, valued at $762. The county is also credited with 17,320 bearing 
prune trees. 

A few scattered growers raised 8,000 crates of raspberries, in 1910, worth 
$8,000 ; there was also grown 19,000 crates of strawberries, worth $20,900. Berries 
of all kinds were estimated in 1919 at $125,000. 

Grains 

Grouping alfalfa under this head, because it is a forage plant and no sub- 
division has been made for grasses, we will take up that product first. Alfalfa 
is the main reliance of the farmers for green feed ; and it will grow anywhere in 
the county that other vegetation will grow. It is a deep-rooted, perennjal plant 
and will not thrive with standing water near the surface ; on the other hand it 
will not continue to grow vigorously on the mesa without frequent irrigations in 
the summer season. It cannot be pastured a great' deal, because the tramping 
injures the crown of the plant; but irrigate it once a month during the summer 
season and eight or nine crops of hay can be cut from it each year. Many of the 
fruit-growers have small patches of alfalfa near their barns ; but the large-sized 
fields can only be found in the dairy, or general farming section. The acreage and 
vield for 1910 were reported as follows: alfalfa, 4,000 acres, 20,000 tons, value 
$200,000. 

Barley is grown both for the grain and the hay. In the former case it is 
allowed to thoroughly ripen and is then headed, threshed and sacked ready for 
the market. In the latter case it is cut while the grain is in the dough and the 
leaves are still green, and is then raked and cocked. As there is no fear of rain 
in the summer season, the farmer takes his own time for baling or stacking the 
hay, as the unthreshed straw and grain together are called. More often the hay 
is baled out of the cock ; but even when stacked it is generally baled later. The 
statistician gives the following figures on the acreage and yield of the barley har- 
vested for grain in the county in 1910: barley, 34,120 acres, 27,296 tons, value 
$545,920. For 1918, 660,000 bushels or 15,840 tons. 

A third of a century or more ago there was considerable corn raised in the 
cultivated portions of the present territory of Orange County. They used to tell 
fabulous stories about the immense yields in the Gospel Swamp region southwest 
of Santa Ana. In fact, good crops of corn could be grown almost anywhere in 
the county, if irrigated on the upland, and can yet. In the article on livestock it 
is stated that the number of hogs had decreased in the county because the land 
could be used more profitably for other purposes than in raising feed for hogs. 
Well, here is corn, one of the best of hog feeds, that is not raised very extensively 
in a county which is adapted to its growth because the land can be used more profit- 
ably for other products. The statistician's figures for the 1910 crop are : corn, 
2,690 acres, 1,345 tons, value $40,350. For 1918, 36,900 bushels or 1,033.2 tons. 

■ 9 



162 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Oats are preferred by some people for horse feed ; but they are not so exten- 
sively grown as barley, because they are more liable to rust. However, the statis- 
tical report for 1910 gives the following figures: oats, 4,375 acres, 1,750 tons, 
value $52,500. 

Wheat is also one of the light crops of Orange County for the same reasons 
that corn and oats are light crops ; nevertheless there is quite a little of the hill 
land devoted to wheat as shown by the figures on the 1910 crop, as follows: 
wheat, 5,000 acres, 2,500 tons, value $87,500. For 1918, 5,600 bushels or 168 tons. 

Grain hay is given in the report without indicating the kind — barley, oats- or 
wheat — or how much of each kind is included. These three grains must, there- 
fore, be credited collectively in 1910 with the following additional yield : grain hay, 
25,350 acres, 16,742 tons, value $200,904. The 1919 crop value was $1,000,000. 

Vegetables 

This subdivision includes a great variety of products, some of which are 
grown for the wholesale market and others for the retail trade. The Chinese and 
Japanese gardeners and vegetable peddlers may be grouped in the latter class. 
It is doubtful whether the statistician got much of the data on the products 
peddled out by the growers, or even on that retailed through the local grocery 
stores. However, the same criticism may be applied to the other subdivisions, 
though to a less extent ; the report of products consumed at home or sold or 
bartered to neighbors must necessarily be incomplete. 

The county is credited in the statistical report with producing 38,000 pounds 
of asparagus in 1910, worth $1,900. 

The bean industry is becoming one of the important industries of this county. 
■ As an introduction to the subject, a paragraph is quoted from an exhaustive 
article by George W. Ogden, as follows: 

"The lima beans of commerce do not grow to maturity back east. Those 
you buy dry in the stores at all seasons are ripe beans and not green beans dried. 
They grow in only two places on the globe. Southern California and the island of 
Madagascar. The lima beans of commerce do not grow on poles, but run along 
the ground like sweet potato vines. Five counties in Southern California supply 
the United States and Canada with lima beans. England uses the Madagscar 
crop, so there is no competition anywhere for the growers of California. The 
California lima bean crop of 1910 amounted to 1,175,000 bags, a bag averaging a 
little over 80 pounds, and the gross returns to the growers was $5,000,000. Santa 
Barbara, Ventura, Los. Angeles, Orange and San Diego are the five lima bean 
producing counties of California, and within their confines is embraced all the 
land in the entire United States upon which this peculiar plant will bring its fruit 
to maturity." 

Thus is Orange County found to be in very select and exclusive company in 
this industry. The real beginning of the lima bean growing on a large scale dates 
back to 1886, when James Irvine, owner of tlie San Joaquin rancho, planted 120 
acres as an experiment. Although the industry was successful from the start, the 
farmers were slow in following Mr. Irvine's advice and example. In 1909 he 
had 17,000 acres of his ranch in beans, which is said to be the largest bean field 
in the world belonging to a single individual. Besides the San Joaquin ranch, the 
mesa about Huntington Beach and Smeltzer and the La Habra valley produce 
large quantities of beans. There were 28,000 acres planted to beans in the county 
in 1910 producing 210,000 sacks, worth $672,000. The bean straw makes very 
good feed, of which there was 550 tons^ valued at $2,200. The lima bean crop in 
1918 amounted to 473,000 bushels or 354,750 sacks ; all kinds, 696,000 bushels or 
522,000 sacks. The value of the 1919 bean crop (ninety per cent limas) was 
$3,000,000. 

Large fields of cabbage are grown in the winter season about Anaheim, Ful- 
lerton and other parts of the county; and the product is shipped East when the 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 163 

markets of that section are bare of fresh vegetables. The 1910 crop is reported 
at 5,900,000 pounds, worth $54,100. In 1918, 300 cars, worth $120,000. 

The celery industry, which is more particularly described elsewhere, yielded 
•in 1910 1,212 cars, worth $275,720. In 1919 the crop value was $100,000. 

The cauHflower crop amounted to 11,970 crates in 1910, valued at $5,985. 

Melons of every kind are grown in the county, of large size and fine flavor, 
and in sufficient quantities to supply the local demand. 

Peanuts do well in this county and are grown to a considerable extent between 
the tree rows of young orchards ; but, on account of the Japanese competition, they 
are not so profitable as some other kinds of crops. The crop of 1910 amounted 
to 60,000 pounds, worth $2,400. 

Peas are among the winter vegetables that are grown on the mesa near the 
foothills, wheire there is comparatively little frost. The quantity and value of the 
1910 crop were reported to be 160,000 pounds, worth $4,000. 

The most of the chili peppers are grown about Anaheim, which has acquired 
quite a reputation with this product. They are grown in rows like potatoes, requir- 
ing frequent irrigation, and are artificially cured in dry houses. The crop of 1910 
was reported as follows : chile peppers, green, 40 tons, worth $8,000 ; chili peppers, 
dry, 100 tons, worth $20,000. The Federal Bureau of Crop Estimates says that 
practically all of the chili peppers grown in the state are grown in Orange County. 
The estimate for 1919 is $1,125,000. First prize for chili -peppers at the recent 
Riverside County Fair was won by John B. Joplin of the San Joaquin Ranch. He 
won second prize for chili peppers at the Huntington Beach Fair. 

The soil and climate of Orange County are well adapted to the growing of 
potatoes — Irish potatoes, as they are called to distinguish them from sweet pota- 
toes. The potatoes grown in this county, particularly on the upland, are of me- 
dium size, with a smooth, clean surface, and cook evenly throughout, producing 
a mealy pulp not unlike crumbly cake or well-cooked rice. Two crops are raised 
each year, one from the early spring planting and the other from the late summer 
or early fall planting. The yield reported for 1910 was 250,000 sacks, worth 
$250,000 ; the 1919 crop had a value of $750,000. 

Credit is claimed on behalf of the late Thomas Nicholson of El Modena for 
introducing the sweet potato into the state. He shipped more or less of his 
product to San Francisco and from there the seed potatoes were conveyed to other 
parts of the state. He secured a silver medal for his product at the Columbian 
Exposition in Chicago. The crop for 1910 is given at 30,000 sacks for the county, 
worth $37,500. That for 1919 is valued at $200,000. "The sweet potato now 
ranks second in value among all the vegetables of the United States, having in- 
creased in this respect more than eighty per cent in the last ten years. The crop 
of 1917 was worth $90,000,000 and the crop of 1918 is estimated to be worth 
ahnost $117,000,000. In a recent conference at Birmingham, Ala., representatives 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and horticulturists and pathologists from 
the Southern States discussed every phase of planting, cultivating, storing and 
marketing the sweet potato. The time when it was allowed to decay in primitive 
dirt beds in the open fields has long since passed." — The Youth's Companion. 

Pumpkins make valuable food for stock — especially milk cows — and are 
grown everywhere the farmers wish. The average size is about that of a half 
bushel measure; but some of them grow so large that it takes two men to load 
one of them into, a wagon. Photographs of fields literally covered with them and 
labeled "Some Pumpkins" may be seen in almost any collection of picture cards 
in this part of the state. The pumpkins are generally sold by the wagon load 
for a lump sum to those who keep a family cow or two, but haven't sufficient land 
upon which to raise their own stock feed. They are not shipped any distance ; 
hence there is no record of the quantity grown in the county. 

Thousands of acres of land in the western and southwestern part of Orange 
County are well adapted to the growing of sugar beets. Besides suitable land 
the industry needs capital to provide factories to work up the product of such 



164 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

land. The first factory was established about 1896 at Los Alamitos by Senator 
W. A. Clark of Montana. As soon as the factory was provided the beets were 
grown and they proved to be the equal of any grown elsewhere. It was also dis- 
covered that one factory was entirely inadequate to work up all the beets that 
could be furnished. Another factory was therefore built south of Santa Ana about 
1908; and during the next three years three more sprang into being, one near 
Anaheim, another near Huntington Beach, and still another near Tustin. With 
the five factories in operation in 1918, they worked up 216,000 tons of beets 
grown in Orange County and a considerable tonnage grown in Los Angeles County. 
Orange County is credited in some of the published statistics with producing 
$10,500,000 worth of sugar in 1919, but probably $8,000,000 is nearer the mark. 

When once started, tomatoes will propagate themselves like weeds in this 
county; but, like other plants, the better the selection and care the better the 
product. So far as natural conditions are concerned, there is practically no limit 
to the quantity that might be produced ; the limit is in the profitable disposal of 
the product after it is grown. The crop of 1910 was reported as follows : fresh 
tomatoes, 2,568,000 pounds, worth $25,680; canned tomatoes, 20,000 cases, worth 
$30,000. The crop of 1919, including tomato seed, is valued at $350,000. 

The production of tomato seed for the marts of the world is being carried 
on successfully by the Haven Seed Company, now located south of Santa Ana. 
This company was established in 1875 at Bloomingdale, Mich., by the late E. M. 
Haven. The seeds of this company soon attained a world-wide reputation for 
purity and reliability which they still maintain to this day. A good name is a 
valuable asset in any business, so the company grew and prospered in its first 
location for many years ; but, notwithstanding its euphemistic title of Blooming- 
dale, the place was badly handicapped for growing plants by its rigorous winter 
■climate. 

Accordingly the Haven family moved to California in 1904, and made their 
first planting in 1910 near Tustin. Different tracts were leased year after year, 
but always of increased acreage, until finally a tract containing 100 acres was pur- 
chased on Edinger Street, just outside Santa Ana's southern boundary, and a 
half mile west of Main Street. On this tract, shortly after its purchase, an 
office building and a warehouse were erected and the headquarters of the company 
were established there. In 1918 a fine, large, three-story warehouse was built 
of hollow tile, strengthened with reinforced concrete pillars. This building will 
give ample room for cleaning, sacking and storing the seed ready for shipping, 
and will have a fairly even temperature throughout on account of its hollow tile 
construction. The building is equipped with modern machinery driven by elec- 
tricity. 

Three years ago, that is in 1917, the elder Haven died and left the business 
to his sons whom he had trained until they knew every detail of the work. The 
company was reorganized with A. B. Haven, the elder son, as president and gen- 
eral manager, and L. S. Haven, the younger son, as secretary. The company was 
capitalized at $100,000. 

In 1918 the company produced 75,000 pounds of tomato seed and about 
15,000 pounds of pepper, melon and miscellaneous varieties of seed. More than 
$50,000 was paid out in wages. In 1919 the company is harvesting 400 acres 
of tomato seed and 200 acres of lima beans, egg-plant, peppers, cucumbers, etc. 
It expects to harvest about 100,000 pounds of tomato seed and other kinds in 
proportion from the above acreage. That is, it expects to harvest 12,000 tons 
of tomatoes from which it will extract approximately 100,000 pounds' of seed 
or eight pounds of seed from each ton of tomatoes. 

As the price of everything has advanced within the last three or four years 
and still is unsettled, it is difficult to give what might be regarded as a fair average 
of the annual productions of the company. However, the round figures on sales 
for 1918 were approximately $200,000 for all kinds of seeds produced by the com- 
pany, and it would be reasonable to expect as much from the 1919 harvest which 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 165 

is not yet completed at the date of this writing, or even more from the increased 
acreage, noted above. 

As a further indication of the advantageous conditions of Orange County 
and the superior merits of its productions, tlie fact may be cited that this county, in 
competition with the whole world at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904, received 
twelve gold medals and four silver medals as testimonials of the superiority of its 
products exhibited there. Orange County took second prize of $250 for fine 
display of products at Riverside in October, 1919. The judges credited San Ber- 
nardino County with 92.8 points and Orange County with 90.8 points. Concerning 
the exhibit of this county, the Riverside Enterprise says: "The Orange County 
display is in a class by itself, both as to the products shown and the manner of 
their showing. It is a finished picture in a superb and worthy frame, a magnificent 
study in still life almost over-elaborated but saved from.that criticism by an auster- 
ity of arrangement that sugges'ts sureness of touch and certainty of selection. It 
suggests the studio rather than the farmstead, the salon rather than the show 
tent; but this is said in no spirit o'f detraction. When' such a display, so arranged, 
can be brought to the Southern California fair from the neighboring county, there 
is no longer any argument to be made against the claim that this is a sectional 
rather than a county fair. The artist who arranged the exhibit, for he has shown 
himself an artist — is D. W. ]\IcDannald. The setting of the display is sumptuous 
— redwood, heavy brown burlap, deep green velour hangings, brass fixtures and 
jardinieres holding ferns and admirable lighting effects. For the display itselt, 
it contains picked specimens of the fruits, grains and vegetables, as well as the 
mineral products for which Orange County is famous. There are also novelties 
like the Feijoa, a new fruit from Uruguay and the Chinese varnish nuts from 
which the so-called tong oil is extracted." 

Now, as promised- at the beginning of this chapter, the foregoing is by no 
means an exhaustive list of the fruits, grains and vegetables grown in Orange 
County; for instance, there are onion fields near Anaheim, whose rows stretch 
away in the distance almost as far as the eye can distinguish the plants from other 
vegetation, and there are many other products worthy of mention. Then, too, 
many plants, that in the East are grown in small beds in the garden or in the hot 
house, are here grown in large fields and in the open air. Enough, however, has 
been mentioned to substantiate the claim that Orange County can produce nearly 
everything grown in the temperate zones and many things indigenous to the torrid 
zone, and that, too, in almost limitless quantities. 



CHAPTER XXIX 

HISTORY OF THE CELERY INDUSTRY 

By George W. Moore 

Less than fifty years ago, the now famous peat lands of the Westminster and 
Bolsa country, known as cienegas, were regarded as worthless. These cienegas 
were tracts of swampy lands containing usually ponds of water in the middle, 
skirted around with a rank growth of willows, tules and nettles. During the rainy 
season the entire area of the cienega was overflowed. In the fall and winter 
these marshy lands were the resorts of millions of wild geese ; they were also the 
haunts of wild ducks and other water fowl, and were the favorite hunting grounds 
of sportsmen of that day. The early settlers counted the cienegas as so much 
waste land, or rather as worse than waste, for the drier portions of these swamps 
were the lurking places of wild cats, coyotes, coons and other prowlers, which 
preyed upon the settlers' pigs and poultry. 

Early in the history of the county the supervisors were petitioned to construct 
a ditch in this territory under the "Drainage Act of 1881," which authorized the 
cost and care of such ditch to be apportioned to the adjacent land according to the 



5 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

lefits derived therefrom. This work was undertaken in 1890 and was contested 
fore the board of supervisors and in the courts for about three years by those 
• and against the improvement. Finally the Bolsa ditch was completed; and 
it, with other drainage systenis since established, has turned thousands of acres 
comparatively worthless land into some of the most productive soil in the county 
d opened the way for the establishment of the celery industry in Orange County, 
.is industry has become famous throughout the world and, according to a local 
iter, raised the value of the land from $15 to $500 per acre; but without drain- 
; no celery could be grown on these lands and they would still be comparatively 
irthless. 

The following sketch of the origin and growth of the celery industry of 
ange County is compiled from the Santa Ana Blade's Celery edition of February 
1901 : "The first experiment in celery culture op the peat lands was made in 
?1, on a tract of land south of Westminster, known locally as the Snow and 
lams place, on which several thousand dollars was expended, but without satis- 
:tory results. E. A. Curtis, D. E. Smeltzer and others were the prime movers in 
.king the experiment, the outcome of which was such a flat failure that all but 
:. Curtis gave up the idea. Mr. Curtis' pet scheme came to fruition sooner than 
s anticipated, for about this time he entered the employ of the Earl Fruit Com- 
ly, and with the consent of the firm resolved again to give celery culture a trial. 

"The proposition had many drawbacks, not least of which was the scarcity of 
Ip to cultivate the crop and the entire lack of experience in the laborers avail- 
le. In this extremity Mr. Curtis bethought himself of the Los Angeles Chinese 
irket gardeners and their knowledge of celery growing, and at once entered into 
|otiations with a leading Chinaman to undertake the work of growing eighty 
•es of celery on contract, the Earl Fruit Company to furnish everything, includ- 
; implements needed in the cultivation of the crop, also money advanced for 
ital of the land and the supplying of water where needed by digging wells ; so 
it $5,000 was advanced before a stock of celery was ready for shipment. The re- 
t was fairly successful, notwithstanding the untoward experience of the Chinese 
lorers at the hands of white men, who worried and harassed the Celestials, both 
season and out of season, carrying their unreasonable resentment to the extent 
burning the buildings erected by the Earl Fruit Company, carrying off the im- 
ments used in the cultivation, and terrorizing the Chinamen employed to the 
minent risk of driving them away entirely and thus sacrificing the crop for want 
help to attend it. 

"All this risk and expense fell directly on the Earl Fruit Company, for returns 
- their investment could only come when the crop was ready for market, and it 
y easily be imagined that E. A. Curtis, as a prime mover in the venture, occu- 
d a most unenviable position. But Mr. Curtis kept right on, and overcame every 
stacle that presented itself, and to him is due the credit for demonstrating the 
jerior advantages of Orange County for the successful growing of celery and 
; introduction and establishment of an industry that has permanently added 
ndreds of thousands of dollars to the resources of the county. 

"The crop from the land thus experimented with was shipped to New York 
1 Kansas City and consisted of about fifty cars, a considerable shipment at that 
le, as prior to then a carload of California celery was an unheard of quantity, 
ere was, of course, not much profit made for that season after everything was 
d, for the items of expense were many and included all the loss and damage 
Tered while the crop was maturing and a bill of $1,100 paid an officer of the 
T for protection afforded the Chinese laborers while at work during the season, 
t it paid a margin of profit and proved beyond dispute that under favorable 
iditions celery culture might be undertaken with prospects /jf success, and this 
:t once established, the rest was easy." 

Celery growing developed into one of the leading industries of Orange Coun- 

The area of celery culture exceeded 275,000 acres and extended from the 
it lands where it was begun, over a considerable portion of the "Willows " a 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 167 

tract of land lying between the old and the new beds of the Santa Ana River, 
the scene of the squatter contest of over thirty-five years ago. 

Quoting from the April (1919) Bulletin of the State Commission of Horticul- 
ture: "The total movement of celery from' California for the season of 1917-18 
was 2,775 cars. Florida had the second heaviest shipments with 2,458 cars. New 
York ranked third with 1,739 cars. * * * The falling off of shipments from 
October to the first of January was due primarily to a short acreage. Discour- 
aged by slow transportation, unsatisfactory returns, and high labor costs, growers 
cut their acreage in two for the season 1918-19. Very heavy rains in September 
injured many fields in the Delta district of central California, which resulted in 
about twenty per cent damage. Stock in Southern California made slow growth 
and much of it was shipped while still small." Orange County's acreage was 
reduced by planting sugar beets or other crops instead of celery. The Santa Ana 
Chamber of Commerce estimated the value of this county's celery crop for 1919 
at $100,000; but the California Vegetable Union gave 100 cars at $800 per car, 
or a total of $80,000, as its estimate. 



CHAPTER XXX 
ORANGE COUNTY'S LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY 

Horses 

The aborigines and their successors, the Mexicans and Spaniards, paid little 
attention to domestic animals. Their nomadic mode of life was not conducive 
to the acquisition of flocks and herds. There was, however, one exception and that 
was the horse. This animal was such a help in traveling and hunting and so little 
expense to keep that nearly every person provided himself with a pony. In fact, 
in many places the cost of keeping was nothing, the animals running wild, getting 
their own living and propagating their kind. Whenever one or more was needed, 
the natives would round up a band of wild horses and lasso the requisite number. 
It is not strange that animals thus reared and treated should be hard to tame and 
never become entirely trustworthy. 

In later years the Mexicans, Spaniards and Americans, who succeeded the 
Indians, established an ownership over the different bands of horses, which owner- 
ship they maintained by branding and herding the animals. More or less friction 
arose between the owners of the different bands and also between them and the 
other settlers who were growing crops instead of raising stock. Various stories are 
told of the clashes between the farmers and the stockmen, which at this late day 
sound rather apocryphal. It is said that in one instance a Mr. Sepulveda, who 
owned hundreds of horses and cattle, came to take them away; but he was 
afraid to go near them, because some settler was picking them off with his rifle 
from a hiding place. In order to save their crops the settlers banded together and 
ran three hundred animals over a high bluflf near Newport, killing them all, and 
chased a thousand head into Mexico. 

With the incoming of better breeds these Mexican ponies were largely dis- 
placed or were improved by crossing with the other strains of horses. Of course 
there are still some Mexican horses in the county, handed down from generation 
to generation with little or no improvement ; but such animals are the exception to 
the rule that Orange County is well supplied now with good horses. The improve- 
ment, which would have come about gradually through the immigrants bringing in 
better horses, was greatly accelerated by the importation of thoroughbreds for 
breeding purposes. The late Don Marco Forster of Capistrano is credited with 
being the first, in the territory now included in this county, to attempt to improve 
his stock by the introduction of blooded stallions. He kept thousands of horses 
and sold them for all purposes wherever he could find a market. A number of 
other breeders were active in improving the horses of this section, among whom 



168 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

the most prominent were E. W. Squires, George B. Bixby, Walter K. Robinson, 
Jacob Willitts, R. J. Blee, J. H. Garner and George W. Ford. 

The Orange County Fair Association was organized In 1890 with a race track 
located southwest of Santa Ana. This track was considered one of the best in 
the West. Some of the records reported as being made on it were Silkwood, 
2 :07 ; Klamath, 2 :07^ ; Ethel Downs, fastest five-heat race ever trotted on the 
Coast. These records, and others not readily obtained now, gave the track and the 
county great praise abroad and stimulated the raising of blooded stock at home. 
As a result of this increased interest, some of the finest strains of thoroughbreds 
and fastest race horses have been produced in this county. Horses for other pur- 
poses have been improved in hke proportion until Orange County can justly take 
pride in all its horses. 

The county statistician in his report for 1910 gave the following figures on 
the horses of the county and other kindred animals, viz. : Horses, thoroughbreds, 
39, value $7,800; common, 7,649, value $780,000; cohs, 1,257, value $63,850; 
jacks and jennies, 2, value $1,000; mules^ 2,035, value $407,000. The county 
assessor in his report for 1919 gives all kinds of horses, 6,787, value $848,500; 
mules, 2,440, value $549,000. 

Although the work and activities of the people in the county, demanding 
horse power, have greatly increased since 1910, the number of horses in the 
county is now about 1,000 less than at that time. The reason is not far to seek. 
The gasoline engine has displaced the horse as a motive power. With 9,794 
registered motor vehicles and over 750 tractors in the county, each motor vehicle 
being propelled by an engine rated at from eighteen horsepower to sixty horse- 
power and each tractor by an engine rated at from ten horsepower to forty-five 
horsepower, it is easy to see why horses have decreased in the county instead of 
increasing in proportion to the increase of the work. Then, horses are too slow 
for this fast age ; even the best of them make a poor show at "keeping up with 
Lizzie." 

Cattle 

The cattle of Orange County passed through a very similar process of devel- 
opment to that described of the horses of said county. In the early days, when 
hunting for a living was being displaced by the pastoral life, some cattle were 
brought into this region from other states or countries. These animals may have 
been of poor quality or their offspring may have degenerated through a long period 
of abuse and neglect. At all events they were better fitted for perpetuating their 
existence under adverse conditions than they were for dairy purposes. Ownership 
of cattle was maintained in the same way as that of the horses, by branding and 
herding. The flocks and herds of the Spanish dons roamed over the hills and 
valleys which are now dotted with orchards and farms. Dependent almost wholly 
upon the variable rainfall and native grasses, the cattle industry of early times 
was subject to great fluctuations between afiffluence and poverty. It is related that, 
in periods of bountiful rains, the children of the cattle barons cut a swell in the 
educational institutions of New York and Paris ; but that, in periods of extreme 
drouth, hundreds of animals were driven into the sea to prevent their carcasses 
from breeding pestilence on the land. 

With the American occupation of the country came diversified farming and 
some precautions against the capriciousness of Nature. The diversified farming 
necessitated smaller holdings of land and permitted a denser population. Such a 
change, however, might not decrease the number of live stock, for, while the size 
of the herds would be decreased, the number of owners would be increased and the 
subsistence of the animals would be more certain. 

The Fletchers near Olive were credited with having made the first importation 
of blooded stock in the territory now included in Orange County. Later Henry 
West of McPherson shipped in a number of registered Jerseys, as did G. Y. Coutts 
of Orange still later, and there were doubtless other importers in different parts 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 169 

of the county. Whenever animals of high grade were brought into one part of 
the county, stockraisers in the other parts would breed .from them and thereby 
improve their own herds ; thus has the stock of the entire county been brought 
to a high standard of excellence. As corroborative proof of this claim, the stock 
sale of the Santa Ana Jersey Farm in December, 1909, may be mentioned. In 
order to reduce stock the owner, J. T. Raitt, sold 122 fine cows at prices ranging 
from $30 to $150 apiece, the average being $74 apiece. The total amount of the 
sales was $9,028; nevertheless the owner had a sufficient number of cows left to 
continue to supply his customers, over a large range of territory, with milk. 

The 1910 county statistics on this subject are as follows: Cattle, beef, 347, 
value $13,880; stock, 850, value $25,500; dairy cows, 5,141, value $257,050; 
heifers, 189, value $3,780; calves, 1,565, value $9,390. The assessment for 1919 
gives all kinds of cattle, 17,676, value $1,237,320. 

Cattle for beef and dairy purposes have no gasoline competitor ; hence they 
have more nearly kept pace with the increase of population in the county. The 
number of all kinds in 1910 was 8,092 ; that of all kinds in 1919 is 17,676, or an 
increase in number of more than 118 per cent. The value of all kinds in 1910 was 
$309,600; that of all kinds in 1919 is $1,237,320, or an increase in value of more 
than 299 per cent. Instead of the promiscuous herds of early years that continued 
to propagate their kind without let or hindrance, the cattle of late years are widely 
distributed in dairies and among families ; hence they are better bred and better 
cared for, thereby increasing their quality and value, as noted by the assessor in 
the foregoing statistics. In order to encourage the dairymen of the county to 
still further improve their stock, the supervisors bought five head of fine Holstein 
stock at a sale in Phoenix, Ariz., in February, 1919. These animals consist of a 
bull, three cows and a calf, all registered in the records of the Holstein-Friesian 
Association of America, giving the pedigree and achievements of their ancestors 
and their own names and stock numbers. They are kept at the county farm in 
West Orange. 

Sheep 

About thirty-five or forty years ago the sheep industry was one of the 
important industries of this section. Large flocks were located at differe'nt points 
of what is now Orange County and were herded over the intervening territory 
during the day and returned to the camp at night. Jonathan Watson, in the 
Santa Ana Canyon above Olive, had 25,000 head of sheep along about 1876 and 
there were other flocks nearly as large within the present confines of the county at 
that time. The industry declined, however, as the range was occupied for other 
purposes. 

The statistician's report for 1910 gives the following figures upon the sheep 
industry: Sheep, 18,030, vahie $63,105 ; lambs, 7,330, value $18,325 ; wool, 216,360 
pounds, value $25,963. The assessment roll for 1919 gives only 739 sheep worth 
$7,390. 

The sheep industry of this county has been annihilated. It is true there 
were 739 assessed in 1919 ; but this small band was temporarily in the county 
when it was listed by the assessor for taxation. The reason for the decline of the 
industry given in 1910, viz. : "The range was occupied for other purposes," did 
not tell the whole story, for, at the time that reason was given, there were 18,030 
sheep and 7,330 lambs being pastured in the hills of the county. Now those sheep 
have all cfisappeared and that range is not being occupied for other purposes: 
The other part of the story is that the low tariff gave the death blow to the sheep 
industry in this country. One of the elder Eyraud brothers, who pastured sheep 
in the hills east of El Modena for many years, told the writer that they lost 
$30,000 under the low Wilson tariff act during President Cleveland's last term; 
and one of the sons told him in 1913 that, if the new administration adopted 
another low tariff act, they would get out of the sheep business. This they did 



170 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

when the Underwood tariff act was adopted. Others did the same until there 
are no sheep left in Orange County. 

Thirty-five or forty years ago there were a few goats raised in some of the 
small canyons tributary to the Santiago Creek ; but with the removal of the regular 
residents from the canyons, the raising of goats in the mountains ceased. Within 
the past five years goat raising has taken a fresh start in Orange County, but this 
time the industry has broken out in spots over the valley section of the county. 
Recently the Department of Agriculture issued a bulletin urging the American 
people to turn their attention to goat farming as a means of reducing the high 
cost of living. One of the results of the awakened interest in the industry has 
been the increase in the price of goats. Where formerly goats sold from two 
dollars to five dollars now they bring from $50 to $200 a piece, because the demand 
has outrun the supply. The Huntington Beach News mentioned the following 
persons as being interested in goat raising in that community : L. T. Young, F. 
L. Snyder, George W. Wardwell, H. H. Campbell, Al. Clark and others. A. B. 
Collins of Villa Park is raising goats as a side line in connection with fruit grow- 
ing. He has a flock of thirteen goats of different ages, one of the bucks regis- 
tered and the other animals of good grade. 

Hogs 

Very few people, if any, in Orange County raise hogs for the market. Most 
of the stockmen and general farmers raise a small number each year for home con- 
sumption, and may occasionally market a few when they have a surplus. These 
few animals can be raised on the waste of the farm ; but the fruit growers can 
utilize their ground more profitably than 'in raising feed for hogs. 

The statistical report of the number an4 value of the hogs in the county in 
1910 was as follows: Swine, 1,037, value $12,444. The 1919 assessment roll 
shows 1,356, worth $27,120. 

Evidently the citizens of Orange County would rather buy their ham and 
bacon already grown and cured, than to buy high-priced feed for hogs or produce 
it on high-priced land, for the 1,356 hogs in the county in 1919 would make but a 
small part of the pork consumed annually in the county, to say nothing of the 
stock animals carried over from year to year. Only enough hogs are being raised 
to consume the waste from the canneries, the kitchens and the packing houses. 

Poultry 

In the early days this state abounded in nearly every kind of wild game. 
The swamps and lagoons near the coast afforded food and shelter to myriads of 
wild ducks and geese. These birds, in passing from one place to another, would . 
frequently alight in the grain fields and destroy more or less of the growing crops. 
In order to protect such crops and to provide meat for the table, a systematic 
war was made on these birds for many years. In some parts of the state pot- 
hunters were hired by the farmers to slaughter the wild game that was devastating 
their fields. Now this game is protected by game laws, which require a license 
for hunting, regulate the open seasons and fix the bag-limit for the various kinds 
m order to prevent such game from becoming extinct. Hence what could be 
obtained for the table by a few hours' hunting in the early davs must now be pro- 
vided through the rearing of domestic fowls. 

From quite an early date chicken raising, as it is commonly called has been 
followed m the territory now included in Orange County. It offered the quickest 
returns on the investment and the most ready support for families that could not 
wait for fruit trees to come into bearing or even for annual crops to mature In 
fact, eggs were legal tender through the seventies, and helped to tide manv a 
family over the dry spell of 1875 to 1877, before the irrigation facilities were well 
developed. Followed as a separate enterprise, poultry raising has proved profit- 
able or otherwise, according to the careful attention and capable management of 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 171 

those engaged in the business. It is a business, however, that can be sandwiched 
in with fruit growing, general farming and stock-raising without material loss or 
inconvenience to those industries. The fowls do better when they have consider- 
able freedom, including the range of the barnyards and alfalfa fields. Thus they 
pick up much of their living from the waste of the farm. The mild climate and 
green feed the year round are conducive to making hens lay more here than in 
the East, and to distribute their eggs more evenly throughout the year. This 
helps to equalize the price, and the large cities near by with their tourist popula- 
tion keep up the demand. As to the profits of producing hens' eggs for the 
market, one example must suffice. A careful record of all receipts and expenses 
of thirty-four hens, confined in a yard 22x150 feet and fed entirely on purchased 
food, showed a net profit per hen of $2.60 per year. Allowing more time and 
space for the care of the. fowls, the profits on a greater number ought to increase 
in proportion to the number. 

With the improved facihties of incubators and brooders, the raising of 
broilers for the market is a paying part of the business. It can be carried on 
all times of the year in this mild climate, and the demand is great. With so 
many people to feed in the cities, it is almost impossible to glut the market. This 
demand, too, is at our doors; there is no long haul of freights to consume the 
profits. The Jubilee incubator was manufactured at Orange for a number of 
years and the Santa Ana incubator was manufactured at Santa Ana. Other styles 
of incubators were shipped in as needed. 

In 1907 a poultry association was formed at Fullerton. Later in the same 
year the Orange County Poultry Association was formed, by a union of all the 
poultry men, and held an exhibition at the county-seat. Various exhibits have 
been held since that time, which have done much to improve the fowls of the 
county. 

The county statistician gives the following figures on the poultry and eggs 
of Orange County in the year 1910: Chickens, 16,500 dozen, value $115,500; 
ducks, 2,200 dozen, value $17,600; geese, 150 dozen, value $3,520; turkeys, 225 
dozen, value $4,500; eggs, 236,750 dozen, value $71,025. Total value of poultry 
and eggs $212,145. The Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce report for 1919 gives 
$1,500,000 as the value of poultry and eggs. 

Poultry raisers complained during the World War that chicken feed was so 
high and the price of poultry products was so low they couldn't make any money 
in the business ; so they sold out or ate up their flocks without replacing them, 
until after the war it was found next to impossible to collect enough broilers in 
a.day's ride to furnish a chicken supper for a church social. And eggs, follow- 
ing the law of supply and demand like other commodities, mounted higher and 
higher until a single egg sold for more than a whole dozen did in the same terri- 
tory thirty-five years ago, and a single egg sold for 100 per cent more in New 
York City than Henry Ford's character was rated at by a jury of his peers. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

THE BEE INDUSTRY 

By J. E. Pleasants 

The history of beekeeping in California is the history of beekeeping on the 
Pacific Coast, as the first bees to be brought west of the Rockies were those 
brought to California in 1857 by John S. Harbison. This shipment was brought 
by water from Pennsylvania to California via the Isthmus. Samuel Shrewsbury 
was the first man to bring bees into what is now Orange County. This was in 1869. 
He first kept them on the Montgomery ranch at Villa Park. In 1871 he moved 
them into the Santiago Canyon. Beekeeping as an industry has grown gradually 
until there are now about 10,000 colonies kept in Orange County. There are from 



172 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

75 to 100 practical beekeepers who make it their chief business. The average 
yield of honey during a good year is about 200 tons. This year (1920) there will 
be over 300 tons. The cash income from honey and wax, at the present prices, is 
something over $100,000 annually. The main sources of nectar supply are from 
the native mountain plants, such as the sages, sumac, wild alfalfa, wild buckwheat, 
etc., the sages being the best nectar yielders both for quantity and quality. There 
is undoubtedly no better or more delicately flavored honey in the world than that 
produced from the sages of Southern California. There is also a large amount 
of honey produced from the orange and bean blossoms of the valleys. The 
orange honey is white, and has the spicy flavor of the orange blossoms. The great 
economic value in honey production lies in the fact that such a delicate and whole- 
some food is produced from a source which requires no manipulation from the 
hand of man save the care of the bees. The vast quantities of nectar, commercially 
speaking, would go to waste were it not for the bees, and their presence in the 
orchards are a positive value in the production of fruit owing to cross-pollination. 

Orange County appointed its first inspector in 1902. At that time the "foul 
brood" had spread to over fifteen hundred stands, and these were scattered all 
over the county. The inspector, with the cooperation of the keepers, had, up to 
1910, about stamped out the disease and at that time it affected only about fifty 
stands. This means those stands that are handled, for there may be some in out 
of the way places that are not known to the inspector. However, the disease is 
now under control. This disease is known as the American foul brood, and it is 
known to have existed for more than eight hundred years, though it was not called 
the American until importations were made from Italy to this country. 

In 1905 a disease known and called the European foul brood was discovered 
in New York, and was so severe that it was certain death to the bees infected. 
It spread with such rapidity that it reached California in 1908, and was found 
in the San Joaquin Valley, north of the Tehachepi, and exterminated the bees 
in nearly every section of the Valley. Mr. Pleasants was sent from Orange County 
to that region to make a study of it in order to be able to recognize it if it made 
its appearance in this section. He found it was very disastrous and that it men- 
aced the industry in the state should it get beyond control. It has not made its 
appearance in this county up to the time of this report. 

J. E. Pleasants was in charge of the California honey exhibit at New Orleans 
in the winter of 1884-85, and it was there that he met with some of the most 
prominent men engaged in this business in the United States. He was appointed 
the first inspector for Orange County and has been continued in that positioji 
to the present time. He has made a study of the bee for the benefit of those 
engaged in the business, and has always had their hearty cooperation, the men 
working in harmony with him on every occasion. The men interested in the bee 
business in Orange County are in it for commercial purposes only, not frorii a 
scientific point of view. The county now has a "clean slate," but holds a quaran- 
tine on bees from any infected district. The duties of the inspector necessitate 
a thorough knowledge of bees, and he is expected to look into each stand in every 
apiary if possible. Even though the keepers know the signs of the disease ,they 
insist upon the inspector doing the work. 

It is a well known fact that bees save for the keepers, injure nothing, and 
for those engaged in the fruit business are a boon, as they carry the pollen from 
flower to flower and tree to tree. The valleys and canyons were the richest and 
best producing places in the early days, the best flowers were to be found there, 
especially the kind most needed, but when the settlers began to come in they 
wanted the ground to raise hay and other farm products, and this drove the bee 
men from their haunts, as the shrubs that were so abundant were grubbed out. 
This condition has been changing back to the old order again, the more fertile 
land in the valley has been sought out by the ranchers, and the places once occupied 
by the bees are fast returning to the original condition. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 173 

CHAPTER XXXII 

SEMI-TROPIC FRUITS IN ORANGE COUNTY 

By C. P. Taft 

The history of the semi-tropic fruits, other than citrus, in Orange County, 
-^i quite similar in most particulars to that of the other counties of Southern 
California. The first Spanish settlers introduced little that is still of especial 
value, except the Mission olive and grape, and there are yet some trees and vines 
in existence once planted by the padres. Other and better varieties have prac- 
tically superseded .them, and there are numerous vineyards and olive orchards 
which are profitable, but not to an extent to induce very extensive further planting. 

Of more recent introduction, if not yet of equal value, and quite successfully 
grown, are the avocado, or alligator pear, feijoa, many kinds of guavas, the 
loquat, cherimoya, persimmon, pomegranate and sapota. When Orange County 
was first organized the persimmon, pomegranate and cherimoya were known 
to a slight extent, planted by a few of the more enterprising citizens, and there 
are today in Anaheim, Orange, Santa Ana, Tustin and vicinity some specimens 
of each which are approximately thirty years old. The avocado, carissa, feijoa 
and sapota, in the county, are in a few cases over twelve years of age. 

While other semi-tropical trees and plants have been tried, it is the very 
fare exception that any have consented to live even a year, and only those men- 
tioned above have been sufficiently enduring and prolific to result in or to justify 
extensive . propagation. For instance, the banana, pineapple, eugenia, mango, 
papaya, etc., have been repeatedly tried, but as yet without satisfactory results, 
though it is not impossible that among the multitude of varieties of these fruits, 
there may yet be found some which will prove themselves adapted to this region. 
In fact, the avocado, which is now so full of promise, was long regarded as of 
very dubious value. The first trees grew well indeed, but bearing only in the 
rarest instances. 

It is not necessary to enter upon a detailed description of each of these fruits, 
such as may be found in almost all first-class nursery catalogues, but mention may 
he made in a general way of their special development. 

The loquat is in a way the most characteristic fruit of Orange County, for 
it is here that it has been most highly developed, and so far as yet ascertained, 
has reached a perfection unknown elsewhere, not only in California, but in the 
world. . At any rate, as a result of new varieties originated here. Orange County 
has the largest and best loquat orchards. Approximately from one hundred to 
one hundred fifty tons are marketed annually. Relatively this is not a large 
amount, to be sure, but it is the most and best of any. 

Of more recent introduction, the avocado or alHgator pear, is by all odds 
the most desirable fruit on the list. Attention has been especially called to prove 
that this superb and fascinating fruit can be grown in many portions of Orange 
County with great success. It is not unlikely that there will soon be extensive 
development of this industry, rivalling the orange; it may be, in value and acreage. 
Excellent and prolific varieties have been established and orchards of budded 
trees are making their appearance. There is every reason for believing, that by 
proper selection of varieties, the avocado may be made to mature fruit every 
month of the year and be a constant source of income and gratification. If it is 
so desired, the grower may confine his attention to varieties ripening at such a 
"time as he may regard the most profitable and market his entire crop in a few 
months. 

Persimmons, especially the Hachiya,' a Japanese variety, here attain a perfec- 
tion unsurpassed anywhere. While the market does not as yet absorb a very 
large quantity, th6 demand is increasing and from ten to twenty tons are mar- 
"keted from -Orange County each seasorij at good prices: ' A limited nufliiber of 



174 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

pomegranates also find a ready market, principally as a very interesting novelty 
to tourists, though they are not vv^ithout an intrinsic value. 

The feijoa sellowiana is the most recent introduction on the list and has 
not yet been tested on the market, nearly all of the fruit going to furnish seeds 
to nurserymen who wish to increase their stock. It has a most delightful flavor 
and perfume, as well as unusually excellent keeping qualities. It ripens in Novem- 
ber and December, at a time when fruit begins to be scarce. There is no doubt 
that it will prove very profitable and should be largely planted. 

Guavas of all kinds have their representative varieties, which find a con- 
genial home in many portions of the county and ripen according to variety, at 
all times in the year. They are mostly used to eat out of hand, but the largest 
and handsomest are principally used for jellies and preserves, for which purpose 
they are unsurpassed.- 

The carissa is a thorny bush, bearing an abundance of fragrant blossoms, 
more or less bright red, and very handsome fruits, which can be used for sauces 
much like the cranberry. The sapota is a large handsome tree, bearing somewhat 
fitfully, a considerable quantity of yellowish-green fruit about the size of a peach. 
Occasionally one finds a desirable variety, but most of the trees bear relatively 
poor fruit. The time for ripening is October, when other fruits are plentiful, and 
this puts it at a disadvantage. Thus it is not likely that even the best varieties 
will ever be much grown. The carissa, however, may develop into something more 
than a successful curiosity. 



During the nine years since the foregoing description of "semi-tropic fruits" 
was written, the status of the less grown fruits in Qrange County has changed 
relatively little. The avocado continues to take the lead and considerable planting 
has been done in spite of some drawbacks from frost, which injured some trees 
and nursery stock in the more exposed situations. New varieties from Guate- 
mala, by Mr. E. E. Knight of Yorba Linda, have proved quite adaptable and 
prolific, one, the "Linda," having fruits weighing from two to four pounds or 
more each. Other new kinds furnished by the department of agriculture, also 
from Guatemala, are being tested. Individual trees of the older planting have 
established new and remarkable records for productiveness, notably the "Taft," 
which produced over five hundred dollars' worth of fruits in 1917 and over six 
hundred dollars' worth in 1919. The "Sharpless" tree, owned by B. H. Sharpless 
of Tustin, has done equally well. Both are among the oldest trees in the county, 
and they give some idea of what to expect when trees of later planting attain 
bearing age. 

_ The persimmon has advanced considerably in the estimation of the public, 
which now takes all that are offered it at very good prices. There has been and 
is a good demand for trees, more than exhausting the entire available supply of 
nursery stock, of which there bids fair to be a shortage for several years. In 
Orange County the Hachiya, which is the best commercial variety, has rarely 
been known to fail after the trees have reached the full-bearing age, which is 
about eight years from planting. On the oldest trees the production amounts to 
400 pounds or more annually. 

Among the feijoas new varieties have been developed, which are not only 
larger, but extend the season -so that it now lasts from September to December 
inclusive, and the fruit is in increasing demand, not only for immediate con- 
sumption, but for preserves. 

The jujube, a recent introduction by the department of agriculture, is proving 
very well suited to this section, being both a vigorous grower and very prolific 
It IS likely in due time to take place among the standard fruits of Orange 
County. ° 

Originating in this county, a seedless sapota is the latest novelty to attract 
the attention of horticulturists. In addition to its seedlessness it has other very 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 175 

surprising characteristics, and it may be heard from again. The original tree 
has only lately reached the bearing stage; it is very prolific. 

Jis one object of this article is to show what semi-tropical fruits can be 
grown with confidence and profit, and what are at best only experiments, we 
will recapitulate: The avocado, loquat and feijoa are very desirable and may be 
grown extensively with good results financially. The persimmon and pomegranate 
also are reasonably desirable. The carissa and sajwta should only meet with indi- 
vidual favor and a few specimens be grown in every collection. 



CHAPTER XXXIII 
THE ENGLISH WALNUT INDUSTRY 

What is generally called the English walnut in this country should more 
properly be called the Persian walnut. Its scientific name is Juglans Regia. Be- 
cause of its thin shell and rich flavor it has been grown in the old world for 
many centuries. In America, however, it has not been very successfully grown 
except in parts of California. Not every kind of soil and climate, even in Cali- 
fornia, is suitable for securing the best results. The walnut requires a deep, 
rich loam, or even adobe soil, free from hardpan or standing water within reach 
of the roots. It also requires a mild and equable climate, such as is found in the 
southern part of the state near the coast. 

More than a third of a century's experiments seem to have demonstrated 
that the best conditions for the successful growing of walnuts are found in Orange, 
Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Barbara counties. The tree does not do well 
farther up the coast, while in the hot valleys of the interior it grows to an 
enormous size, but produces few nuts and those of an inferior quality. 

All the early planting of walnuts, both in Europe and the United States, 
was done with seedlings, and even now many such trees are planted, either 
to save the expense or because grafted trees are not always available. Many 
prefer the seedlings, for the results secured are as satisfactory, when they have 
been bred up to a high standard, as those obtained from the grafted stock. 
However, many growers prefer the grafted stock. According to some authorities, 
the Mayette type is not profitable and is only suited for high altitudes. Experi- 
ments show that these foreign walnuts do not grow as vigorously when grafted 
upon roots of their own species as they do on some of the American species. 

Professor Van Deman, in an article in the Rural New Yorker, says there 
are four species of native walnuts, Juglans nigra, Juglans cinerea, Juglans 
rupestris and Juglans Californica, upon all of which he has experimented, and 
he prefers the latter two, which are very much alike. Prof. W. J. Clarke, in 
the CaHfornia Fruit Grower, says: "The native black walnuts, strong, vigorous 
growers and self-adapted to the different climatic and soil conditions of the state, 
should be used as stocks upon which to graft or bud the less vigorous European 
varieties and their seedling progeny." 

The seed nuts are carefully selected from trees bearing the largest nuts 
of the desired variety and planted in layering beds, the soil of which is composed 
of equal portions of sand and loam well mixed. The nuts are spread evenly 
over the beds and covered to a depth of two inches with the same kind of soil. 
This layering is done in the latter part of the winter and the beds kept moist 
until the nuts germinate. As soon as the nuts crack open and the caulicle or 
root-stem appears, the nuts are transplanted to the nursery row, care being taken 
not to injure the caulicle. They are replanted two inches deeper than before 
to allow for settling of the dirt, and about four or five feet apart in rows at 
least thirty inches from each other, the soil having been prepared for their 
reception. Constant attention with the judicious use of water and the necessary 
cultivation bring forward the little plants until large enough to bud or graft to 
the desired variety. 



176 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

If, however, an orchard of seedlings is wanted, the right variety of nuts 
is selected for planting and the budding or grafting dispensed with. One suc- 
cessful grower, George W. Ford, of Santa Ana, took his selected nuts, when 
the time came, in April, for planting, put them in barrels and covered with 
water, letting them soak for forty-eight hours. The water was drained off and 
the nuts spread evenly over a surface and covered with wet sacks for another 
forty-eight hours, during which time they crack open and sprouts show, then 
they were set out in prepared beds, five feet apart, and were kept well irrigated. 
The nursery stock is usually one, two or three years old when transplanted 
to the orchard. The prevailing price for seedlings in 1910 was from ten to 
thirty cents apiece, while the grafted trees usually cost from fifty cents to $1.25 
each, or at the rate of ten cents per foot in height. On rich, heavy soil the 
trees are planted forty-five or fifty feet apart; but on lighter soil they are fre- 
quently planted forty feet apart. 

The quantity of water used in irrigating the trees, the number of times 
and the best season of the year to make the application, are questions that 
every grower determines for himself by observation and experience. There is 
more or less variation in the seasons and different kinds of soil require different 
kinds of treatment. As a general rule no more water is applied than is neces- 
sary to keep the trees in a thrifty condition. More than enough increases the 
expense and injures the trees and soil. On good walnut land, in seasons of 
average rainfall, one irrigation each year is all that is generally given. 

Mr. Ford stated that he had not plowed his walnut orchard for fifteen years. 
His production from 283 trees in 1909 was 28,040 pounds, for which he received 
twelve and a half cents, orchard run. Some of his trees yielded 300 pounds 
each. They weighed sixty-eight pounds to the sack. In 1910 the crop weighed 
fifty-eight pounds to the sack and he received fourteen cents orchard run for the 
crop. By careful experiment he had found that a "plow-hardpan" is formed by 
cultivating, and also that it breaks off the small shoots sent up by the roots to 
draw the necessary nourishment from the air. This retards the development 
of the tree to some extent, besides the nut is not as perfect. He had planted his 
trees the ordinary distance apart, but by cutting out every other tree, found his 
yield much greater. 

The California Walnut Growers' Association quoted the following prices in 
1918: 

No. 1 soft shell •. 28 cents 

No. 2 soft shell 25 cents 

Fancy budded 31^ cents 

Standard budded 29 . cents 

Jumbos 31^ cents 

The value of the 1919 crop for Orange County was estimated at $5,750,000. 
The monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture for April, 
1919, says : "More walnuts are raised in California than in any other state or 
country in the world." Table XI in the same bulletin gives the acreage and 
production of walnuts by counties in 1909 and 1918. The figures for the latter 
year only are quoted and for those counties only that produce a million or more 
pounds of nuts, as follows : 

Acres in Average Pounds Production 
County • Bearing per Acre in Pounds 

Los Angeles 15,572 757 11 794 000 

Of-ange^-- 12,350 1,283 15;849;000 

Santa Barbara 4,500 789 3 551 QOO 

Zt^'^^'J^ • • • ^^'^^"^ 6^^ 7;688>00 

The State ••••;•••. •■ 48,520 829 40,230,680 

Let the people of Orange County rejoice and be glad that California pro- 
duces more walnuts than any other state or country in the world, and that Orange 
County produces sixty-two per cent more of nuts per acre than Santa Barbara 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNfTY 177 

County, its nearest competitor, and thirty-four per cent larger crop than Los 
Angeles County, its n,earest competitor in quantity, notwithstanding its twenty-six 
per cent less acres in bearing. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

FARM BUREAU REPORT 

By Harold E. Wahlberg 

The Orange County Farm Bureau is just now closing its second year, which 
has been one of numerous activities and county-wide interest. Although located . 
in a county of intensive agricultural industry, a county well supplied with numer- 
ous other organizations, marketing, political, social and others, this infant organ- 
ization has made noteworthy strides notwithstanding. At the time of the last 
annual report the membership of the County Farm Bureau of Orange County 
numbered 704. During the past year several have fallen out, and still more 
liave been added, making a total at this writing of 827. This membership is dis- 
tributed throughout the county among thirteen Farm Centers, as follows : 

Anaheim 73 La Habra 83 

Buena Park 76 San Juan Capistrano 23 

El Modena 30 Tustin 65 

Fullerton 108 Villa Park 61 

Garden Grove - Ti West Orange 39 

Harper 66 W'intersburg 51 

Yorba Linda 79 

During the early part of the present year a systematic membership cam- 
paign was conducted under the leadership of the Farm Advisor, assisted by 
membership committees in each of the Centers. It is planned to have another 
membership drive in the early part of next year, with the end in view of doubling 
the present membership. 

Owing to the fact that the Farm Bureau has been a new organization in 
the county, and owing to the large number of other organizations and attrac- 
tions «vhich exist in this highly developed community, the Farm Bureau found 
existence in its early history rather doubtful but, with the cooperation of a 
strong Board of Directors, who have encouraged the Farm, Advisor from the 
very beginning, the institution has made great strides during the past year, 
and has established for itself a permanent home in the hearts and needs of the 
farmers of the county. There has been a continuous and untiring campaign 
of education to bring the farmer of this highly developed county to the appre- 
ciation of his need of such an organization as represented by the Farm Bureau, 
but now that it has established a firm foothold, there is no doubt in the minds 
of the officers of the organization that the Farm Bureau will become stronger 
year by year, and become the organization through which the farmers of the 
county will obtain their due representation and voice their sentiments as they 
have never been, able to do before. Especially, with the organization of a 
State Farm Bureau Federation, do the Farm Bureau members feel that their 
organization in this county, as well as throughout the state, is going to help solve 
the large problems and issues facing agricultural interests, and it is this one 
step in the experience and development of the Farm Bureau work that we feel 
will insure the permanency of the organization. Its mission as far as Orange 
County is concerned will be to take up the larger issues of legislation and repre- 
sentation among the other great classes of the state and nation. It is on this 
strong argument, as well as the projection of local county projects, that the next 
campaign for membership will be based. 

The average farmer of this county is a man of education and business ability, 
especially among the citrus growers, where we find a large percentage of doctors. 



178 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

educators and professional men, and necessarily the Farm Bureau has been 
called upon to present highly specialized subjects in its monthly meetings, and 
for this reason it is most urgent that the University, the Experiment Station and 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture be called upon to meet this specialized 
demand. It is not possible for the County Agent to become so specialized in all 
the industries of the county, which include orange growing, lemon growing, sugar 
beet, bean and truck crop growing, besides the many other highly specialized 
minor industries which have developed in the county. In order to do justice to the 
work, therefore, the Farm Advisor deems it necessary to meet these special 
demands by calling upon experts of the various state and government depart- 
ments,, which is a condition that has to be met by most of the southern counties 
of , this state where the crops grown are §0 highly ;specialized. 

Agriculturally speaking, Orange County may be divided into two main 
sections; the northern third specializes almost entirely, on citrus fruits and 
walnuts,' while the southern two-thirds is devoted to : growing beans, ;sugar 
beets, grains, as well as dairying. : As far as the Farm Bureau is concerned 
with relation of these two divisions, the interests and demands on' the Farm 
Advisor of these respective parts are widely different, and it has been his aim 
to meet them accordingly. ; ■ 

The high values of farming lands of this county, ranging from $200 to $5,000 
per acre, make intensive farming necessary. Double cropping is the general rule 
on most of the lands devoted to annual crops. The citrus sections present many 
highly specialized problems,- including soil fertilizers, control of tree diseases, 
including gummosis, scaly bark, oak rot fungus; control of orchard insects and 
pests, irrigation, drainage, cover cropping, pruning, rejuvenation of old trees, 
bud selection and numerous other phases. The Farm Bureau is endeavoring to 
meet these problems every day by educational meetings, field demonstrations and 
personal visits to the farm. 

In the southern farming section a wide range of conditions and problems 
confronts the farmer, the most important Of which are alkali reclamation, drain- 
age, irrigation, moisture conservation, soil and crop tests, seed selection and weed 
eradication. Like other counties in this portion of the state, Orange County 
presents agricultural problems of more or less local character. Projects which 
are proposed for general California conditions are not in main applicable to 
our local conditions. For example, our climatic and moisture conditions do 
not favor the growing of wheat; stock raising is carried on in a very limited 
way; sheep and hogs have not found much favor because of the scarcity of 
feed, = as well as higher returns brought by other crops. On the other hand, 
any project relating to the increase of citrus yields, bean or beet crops, have 
received the heartiest reception. 

The Farm Bureau and the Farm Advisor are endeavoring to cooperate 
with all the farm industries of the county, bringing to their attention the latest 
information on the various projects involved. This is being done by means of 
practical field demonstrations, showing the application of methods, or results 
brought about by scientific application. Excursions have been a popular means 
of bringing the Orange CoUnty farmer in touch with the best agricultural prac- 
tices. The Farm Bureau has conducted several excursions to the Citrus Experi- 
ment Station at Riverside, as well as local county excursions pointing out the 
best practices of practical farmers. 

Another educational feature of the Farm Bureau work is the -publication of 
a Farm Bureau Weekly, which is incorporated in the largest paper in the county. 
During the first year, the Farm Bureau issued a standard sized Farm Bureau 
Monthly, which reached only the membership of the Farm Bureau. In order 
to bring the purpose of this organization before a larger number of readers, 
the Board of Directors proposed a plan of supplying agricultural news items. 
Farm Bureau write-ups and other material of special interest to the farmers of 
the county, to the management of the Santa Ana Register, which has the largest 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 179 

circjjlation of the county, approximately 6,000 subscribers. By incorporating 
the Farm Bureau news in this paper each Wednesday of the week, the Directors 
of the Farm Bureau feel that the Farm Bureau will get a much larger oublicity 
for information which it can disseminate, which will be of greater influence 
throughout the county, resulting from the increased circulation. 

From time to time the County Itinerants, are called together by the Farm 
Advisor for the purpose of discussing the correlation of t:he, various depart- 
ments. These conferences include the County Horticultural Commissioner, 
County Librarian, County School Superihtendent, Forest Supervisor, County 
Sealer of Weights and the Farm Advisor. The County Horticultural Commis- 
sioner and the County Farm Advisor have cooperated yer}' closely with the 
extension of their work throughout the county, inasmuch as a large portion of 
the work of the Farm Advisor is with the horticultural interests of the county. 

When the Pacific Telephone Company raised its rates in ]\Iarch arjd May, 
1919, and also discontinued the free toll service between nearby towns, tjhe Farm 
Bureau initiated a movement to organize a county-wide mutual telephone associa- 
tion, through which they hoped to lower the rates, get more satisfactory service, 
and give a county-wide free toll exchange. After considerable agitation through 
the Farm Centers of the county, committees were appointed representing each 
district to work out a plan of organization. They soon got the business men of 
the county interested in this movement and, together with the Associated Cham- 
bers of Commerce, the Farm Bureau has appointed an Executive Committee and 
retained attorneys, who have obtained a. state charter and county franchise for 
the organization of a county mutual telephone association. The name of this 
organization is known as the "Farmers and Merchants Association." The com- 
mittee has had to surmount many obstacles during tlie'year in order to meet the 
opposition created by the telephone monopolists and the Railroad Comriiission, 
• but it feels now that it has progressed far enough along to start actual construc- 
tion and operation. According to present plans the first unit of the exchange will 
be constructed at Garden Grove. The Farm Center of Garden Grove is raising 
funds for the construction of this unit. It is expected that this will be extended 
over the entire county. The committees have worked out a feasible plan of 
finance, which may be paid out in monthly installments by the telephone users. 
When the organization and construction have been completed there will be 
approximately 10,000 phones in the system. 

As was reported in the last annual report of the Farm Advisor, considerable 
effort had been made by the Farm Bureau in proposing legislation for the con- 
servation of large quantities of water which are being annually wasted through 
the artesian belts of Orange County and other artesian sections of the state. The 
legislative committee of the Farm Bureau compiled a bill, with the assistance of 
its attorneys, which was presented by the assemblyman of this district, referred 
to the conservation committee of both the House and the Senate, and brought 
On the legislative floors several times during the session of the last legislature. 
The Farm Bureau sent delegations to Sacramento to work in the interests of 
this conservation law, Assembly Bill No. 6, but were met with a strong lobby 
from the opposing elements, backed by the wealthy gun clubs of the state. The 
bill met with a defeat of forty-two to twenty-five. This defeat, however, has 
only increased the determination of the Farm Bureau members of this county 
to see the same law through at the next legislature, and experience during the 
past year will give them better preparation for a continued fight. It is expected 
that this will be one of the issues taken up by the legislative committee of the 
State Federation of Farm Bureaus, as it is one of paramount importance in the 
arid regions of this state where water is of such high value and importance. 

A movement is on foot at the present time by agricultural interests of 
the southern counties for the conservation of winter precipitation and the protec- 
tion of the watersheds from which the irrigation water from our rivers and the 
underground strata originate. The Farm Bureau is lending its moral and finan- 



180 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

cial assistance with the other organizations of the county in bringing about a 
practical plan of conserving and storing the winter waters by means of retaining 
dams and reforestation. This is one of the vital issues before the county at the 
present time. 

Realizing the need of better transportation facilities, and the great demand 
that the future will make on eastern shipments, the farmers of the county, includ- 
ing the membership of the Farm Bureau, have assisted materially in passing the 
recent County Bond Issue for the purpose of developing Newport Harbor, the 
water shipping point of Orange County. Citrus associations and other marketing 
associations of the county are planning an immense development in eastern ship- 
ments of fruits, walnuts, beans and other products. With the development of the 
local harbor, direct steamer shipments can be made from this county to ea.stern 
points through the Panama Canal. 

Considerable educational work through the Farm Centers of the fruit sections 
has been given for the purpose of acquainting the producer with the require- 
ments of the new standardization fruit law which specifies the quality of all fruits 
as to color, ripeness, blemishes, size, etc. This law was created for the purpose 
of putting a better quality of fruit on the market, and protecting the consumer. 
The grower is given a standard to go by, and in most cases he will get a better 
price for his product, although there will be more waste than under the old 
system. However, this waste may be utilized for by-products. 

During the year a systematic Rodent Control campaign was carried on by 
the Horticultural Commissioner, cooperating with the Farm Centers located in 
the general farming and grain sections. Considerable publicity work was carried 
on by the Farm Bureau, and quantities of poison sold through this office. As a 
result the squirrel pest has been greatly decreased. The campaign has been very 
efficient and many thousands of dollars' worth of crops saved as a result. 

There are now about ten boys' clubs in the county under the direct supervision 
of Smith-Lever Agricultural teachers of the high schools. Several more clubs 
are contemplated for the coming year. These clubs are located at Huntington 
Beach and Fullerton. During the past year the Huntington Beach club boys have 
been raising pure-bred hogs very successfully. In some instances they have 
taken the lead in hog raising in the neighborhood. The Fullerton clubs have 
just been organized, and it is expected that they will take up pure-bred hog raising 
and home gardens. Two boys were sent to the State Conference of Agricultural 
Clubs at Davis in October. We have found that parents have become interested 
in Farm Bureau work through the boys who participated in agricultural club 
work. By extension of agricultural club work in the countv it is hoped to influ- 
ence a larger Farm Bureau membership. The club boys, during the year, have 
participated in a number of agricultural exhibits, .showing the products of their 
work. The future for the club work in Orange County looks very bright. 

The Farm Advisor has assisted seventy-two boys in growing home gardens. 
A Home Garden Campaign was started through the schools in the county in the 
early part of this year. The agricultural teachers in charge have asked the direct 
cooperation of the Farm Advisor. Seventy-two gardens were carried throuo-h 
the year. In some cases the boys or girls keeping these gardens realized fair 
profits, which have encouraged the work more than any other feature in its 
connection. Another Home Garden Campaign is being outlined by the Farm 
Advisor and the agricultural teachers in the county for the ensuing year. 

During the year the Farm Bureau has participated in two fairs, the Orange 
County Fair at Huntington Beach and the Southern California Fair at Rivet- 
side. At both of these fairs, booths were maintained by the Farm Bureau, giving 
information concerning the agricultural extension work in the county and offering 
information to the many farmers calling at the booth. This feature has proven 
to be not only of educational value to the farmer, but also has meant consider- 
able publicity for the Farm Bureau. The Directors have approved of making 
this a permanent, annual event. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 181 

A large area of the agricultural lands of the southern and western part of 
the county is subject to the rise of alkaline salts and high water table. The 
Farm Bureau has pointed out the best methods of meeting this situation through 
the installation of drainage systems. Numerous Center meetings have been de- 
voted to the discussion of drainage, special meetings have been called, commit- 
tees appointed, and as a result four districts are in process of organization, 
namely: Buena Park, Cypress, Buaro and Garden Grove. The Farm Advisor 
has called upon the Division of Soil Technology of the University for informa- 
tion and assistance in the organization of these districts, to which this department 
very nicely responded. The acreages involved in the above districts are as 
follows: Buena Park, 8,000 acres; Cypress, 4,000 acres; Buaro, 1,000 acres; 
Garden Grove, 4,000 acres. 

Orange County is one of the pioneers in the state for drainage work, there 
being already six or seven drainage districts in operation. With the intensive 
use of irrigation waters over the large areas in this county, the need of drainage 
would become more and more imperative. Investigational data taken in several 
districts of the county show that the surface water table is gradually rising, and as 
a consequence the alkaline salts are accumulating in great quantities year by 
year. In order to establish a permanent form of agriculture in the irrigated dis- 
tricts, the Farm Bureau is endeavoring to emphasize the use of drains for the 
carrying off of excessive waters and carrying away the alkaline salts in solution. 
Drainage has been one of the strong projects of the Farm Bureau, which is justi- 
fying its existence and showing the farmer the benefits which might be derived 
from .such an organization. It is the accomplishment of practical projects of 
this kind that will bring the Farm Bureau closer to the practical farmer. 

With the rising values of land in the Huntington Beach Mesa District, the 
farmers and property owners there have come to see the need of more intensive 
farming operations, but in order to bring this about they see the necessity of a 
better irrigation system and more water. At their request the Farm Bureau 
has called several meetings for the purpose of getting the sentiments of the people 
on the formation of an Irrigation District. A splendid source of water has been 
located in the near vicinity, the water rights of which have been filed on by a 
Farm Bureau Committee. The district is in the process of organization. There 
has been considerable opposition to the expense involved in the construction of 
an efficient distributing system, but it will be only a matter of time, after a 
number of educational meetings, when the farmer of this district will come to 
realize that a nominal expenditure per acre for the development of water on his 
land will pay interest in large returns, which he is not now enjoying. This 
district comprises approximately 3,000 acres. There is a supply of 500 miner's 
inches that can be used for distributing over this system. The approximate cost 
of construction will be about $100 per acre. 

Although the grain industry is small in Orange County, there is some 
hazard from fire during the dry season. There are about 20,000 acres of barle}' 
and wheat, not to mention the thousands of acres of grazing land, that need fire 
protection. The Farm Bureau is trying to emphasize the importance of diminish- 
ing this hazard, by providing efficient rural fire fighting apparatus and establishing 
them at strategic points. 

Besides the regular monthly Center meetings held at each Center, other 
special courses of meetings are planned for the edification of certain special sub- 
jects. In February, 1919, the Farm Bureau cooperated with the State Depart- 
ment of Education in staging a tractor school which operated three weeks. The 
first two weeks were devoted to class and shop instruction, the last week to field 
operations. An attendance of 250 enrolled. A citrus and walnut growers' insti- 
tute was arranged for December, to occupy a week, and was held at the Fullerton 
Union high school. 

The Farm Advisor calls upon experts from the various government and state 
institutions to meet the demands of the growers of these specialized crops. Dur- 



182 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

ing the year 213 meetings and demonstrations were held, at which 11,573 persons 
attended. Men from the College of Agriculture and Department of Agriculture 
assisted in seventy-three of these meetings. 

Seeing is believing. Never was this truer than in its application to Farm. 
Bureau work. The success of agricultural extension is in proportion tp the 
number of practical field demonstrations which carry the message home to the 
farmer. With this in view the Farm Advisor planned and conducted eighty-nine 
fiefcl demonstrations during the past year. Five thousand seven hundred sixty- 
four farmers came to these field meetings. As the work progresses these meetings 
are becoming more popular, as is shown by the larger average attendance at dem- 
onstrations this year than last. Among the subjects taken up during the year 
were : , . 

Eight cover crop demonstration plots were located in the citrus belt, covering 
275 acres. Five meetings were held with an attendance of 129. These plots show 
the effect of cover crops on the physical condition of the soil, the relation of 
time of seeding, amount of seed and amount of water used, to the yield. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry has given assistance in diseases of the potato 
and tomato. Demonstrations, showing the nature of various diseases, especially 
the Mosaic, Rhizactonia and other fungus, diseases in both crops have been held. 
The potato industry is very small in the county, but tomato growing for seed 
is reaching large proportions. 

Fusarium in peppers has been shown to 'i)e,a. soil disease requiring rotation 
of crops. This disease is becoming more serious each year. The pepper acreage 
is growing — about 6,000 acres this year. ■ 

Bean seed selection is one pf ovir most important projects, Growers in the 
past have given too little attention to the; quality and pedigree of the seed from- 
which they expect large returns. The attention of the, farmer is being brought 
to the need of better seed, and selection from vigorous,, prolific, pla.nts. 

A cow testing department of the Bureau has , been organized. There are 
fourteen members with 502 cows. The cow fester visits and tests each herd once 
a month. The County Agent is planning a series of cla,irymen's meetings to 
bring about a closer relationship between the dairies of the county and encourage 
the industry as much as possible. The, expansion of the dairy inditstry is "one 
of the solutions of the fertilizer problems in the, citrus belt. The time is coming 
when the farmer will consider the stock farm a necessary , adjunct to fruit 
growing more than he appreciates now. 

Five commercial poultry plants have been located for demonstration pur- 
poses in the county to cooperate; with the,, Poultry Department, of the University 
in keeping data as to egg production, feeds, etc. During the year there have 
been thirteen culling demonstrations. There are 11,000 birds mcluded in the 
five demonstration plants. The poultry industry in the. county is growing and is 
deserving of considerable attention in the way of flock improvement. The farmers 
are showing considerable interest in these culling demonstrations, and as a result 
we expect to improve the average flock considerably. Three poultry disease 
demonstrations were held at which an expert from the Pathological Department 
of the State College of Agriculture demonstrated the treatment fof chicken pox. 

As has been explained in a former paragraph, drainage is one of the most 
important projects before the Farm Bureau. Eight drainage demonstrations 
have been held and four special meetings. The area in the four drainage dis- 
tricts under way of organization is 18,000 acres. The Farm Advisor has con- 
tinually emphasized the necessity and advantage of drainage in reclaiming alkaline 
salts, the only practical means of properly carrying away the salts from the land. 
About one- fourth of the farm visits made by the Farm Advisor have been in 
relation to the problem of reclaiming alkaline soils. 

The economical use of water and obtaining the maximum duty of irrigation 
water is receiving considerable attention from the farmer in Orange County. 
Water is the limiting factor in the production of crops here. It is largely pumped 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 183 

and brought in through the expensive canal system, and therefore it behooves 
the farmers to arrange it so as to obtain its maximum duty, because of the high 
value of this water. In many cases the Farm Advisor has tested soils for 
moisture and found that either too much or too little had been used, owing to the 
wrong method of irrigation, or the time allowed for irrigation. The use of a 
soil auger has been advised in every orchard visited, to determine the depth of 
moisture, penetration, and the length of time for each application. Four soil 
moisture demonstrations were held during the year, at which the use of the soil 
auger, various methods of water application^ and the time used in running the 
water in furrows or checks were exemplified. 

With the aid of the Farm Account Expert from the University, 102 books 
have been 'started by the Farril Accountant or the Far in AdvisOr personally. It 
was found that most of the farniers of the' county are' employing one method'or 
another of keeping books, but in most cases their systems are niore complicated 
than the one suggested by the University. Eight Farm' Account Demonstra- 
tion meetings were held during the year, at which the farmer was instructed in 
the value of bookkeeping and the simplicity of the method recommended by 
the University. The Farm Advisor expects to place at least fifty books more 
in the county during the next two months. 

It is becoming a fact now that bud selection in trees is as important as 
cow testing in a dairy. The trees have to be bred up as well as stock, in order 
to obtain the best returns. The Farm Bureau has been alert to this necessity 
and has been guiding the orchardist along that line. Three orchards have been 
located by the Farm Advisor for the purpose of sliowing the value of hufl selec- 
tion, marking trees, and tree performance records. The citrus men of the 
county, especially, are mucl^,. concerned in this project. In going over the county, 
we can pick out one orchard after another in which the trees are not bringing 
the desired returns. Altliough every care has been given them in orchard man- 
agement they do not respond. Such trees in most cases have .been, developed 
from buds taken from non-bearing stock. The Farm Bureau expects to cooperate 
with the Plant Physiologist of the Department of Agriculture through the 
coming year arid bring before the farmers of the county all records arid data 
that may be furnished by the plots conducted by the Department. 

Among the most popular demonstrations that have been conducted by the; 
Farm Advisor , during the year are the pruning demonstrations, inasmuch as a 
large portion of the county is devoted tP horticultural interests. Six citrug 
pruning demonstrations, nine deciduous pruning, demonstrations, and one walnut 
demonstration were held during the year. At sopie -of these denipfistrations mem- 
bers of the Pomological , Departnient and the Citrus Experiment Station assisted. 
In the deciduous work the long system of pruning has been advocated over the 
old system of heading back. Demonstration trees have been located in four 
orchards of the county, where the comparison between the two systems may 
be observed. 

Two demonstrations were held showing the effect of arsenical poisoning in 
the control of the morning glory. These demonstrations have not given satis- 
factory results. The application of liquid arsenical poisoning has not proven 
to give any better results than a very deep cultivation. However, we have been 
able to show the farmer that he may use the poisoning as a substitute for culti- 
vation under our conditions here, but that he must not allow the growing plant 
to develop above the surface of the ground. If he would substitute spraying 
for cultivation, he must do the same with absolute regularity so as to finally 
choke the life out of the weed in question. 

The new liquid gas method of fumigation is revolutionizing the fumigation 
methods of the county. The Farm Bureau has been instrumental in disseminat- 
ing the latest information, both chemical and field methods, to the citrus growers 
of the county. The members of the Experiment Station Staff and United 
States Department of Agriculture, having this work in charge, have cooperated 



184 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

fully with the Farm Bureau during the year in promoting this new system. Two 
special fumigation meetings were held at which the new method of applying the 
gas was shown. 

The walnut growers of the county are facing a very serious pest in the codling 
moth, inasmuch as fifty per cent of the fruit of some groves has been infested. 
The Experiment Station has been working on a dust spray for the purpose of 
controlling the walnut worm. Six demonstrations were held during the year, 
showing the method of mixing and applying the arsenical dust spray for this 
purpose. 

A very destructive pest infesting the beet and garden truck fields of the 
county is the soil nematode. The Farm Bureau is conducting a demonstration 
plot in the sugar beet section in which substitute crops are being planted for 
the purpose of demonstrating their resistance to the nematode, and also their 
adaptability to the soil and climatic conditions of the county. With the coopera- 
tion of the Bureau of Plant Industry, it is hoped to work out a satisfactory 
system of rotation by which the nematode infestation may be overcome. 

A very satisfactory tractor demonstration was held in connection with the 
annual meeting of the Farm Bureau. Ten tractors were on the ground, showing 
many desirable features, and also demonstrating their class of work. Two thou- 
sand two hundred people visited this tractor show. The Farm Advisor is also 
arranging three special meetings at which repairing and the upkeep of the farm 
tractor will be discussed by University experts. 

During the last days of the war, last fall and winter, the Farm Bureau 
appealed to the barley growers of the county to plant a larger acreage to wheat. 
The farmers responded nobly. Instead of the average planting of 700 acres in 
the county as usual, they came forth with 4,400 acres, an increase of 600 per 
cent. The use of Defiance wheat has been urged, as it is quite rust resistant. 
The valley in which our wheat is raised is very subject to rust disease. The yield 
per acre in Orange County was very encouraging this year, in spite of the dry 
season generally experienced. 

The Citrus Experiment Station has made a survey of irrigation waters in 
Orange County for the purpose of determining the prevalence and degree of 
alkalinity both in well waters and rivers from which waters are taken. The 
Farm Advisor gave considerable time to collecting samples and getting the 
farmers and water companies in general to take advantage of this survey. Some 
injurious water was located through this analysis, and farmers warned not to use 
same in large quantities for irrigation purposes. 

The high values of land in the county make it practically impossible for 
the farmer to borrow to the extent that he may need help. He is limited to a 
$10,000 loan on a valuation not to exceed $400 per acre. This amount should 
be greatly increased, at least on citrus and walnut property. The Farm Advisor 
has assisted in placing six loans with the Farm Loan Bank during the year. 

The following is a numerical recapitulation of the Farm Advisor's activities 
during 1919: Miles traveled by auto, 13,380; miles traveled by railroad, 1,49S: 
office calls on agent, 1,362; letters written, 1,230; circulars and notices, 12,649; 
farm visits, 1,101; meetings and demonstrations, 213; total attendance, 11,573: 
telephone calls, 1,195. 

The Directors of the Orange County Farm Bureau have been the stanch 
support of the County Agent in his work. Whatever success has been accom- 
plished by the Farm Bureau has been due to their unqualified cooperation and 
determined efforts. Credit is also due the splendid cooperation of the Extension 
and Station Staff of the College of Agriculture, and also the Department of 
Agriculture. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 185 

CHAPTER XXXV 
POPULATION AND VALUATIONS 

The question about the growth of a community is always an interesting one 
for the inhabitants thereof. Hence various methods have been devised, and are 
in vogue in all communities, for estimating population at other times than when 
a federal census is pending. Such estimates are based on the school census, 
on the registration of voters, or on the names in a directory. Provision also 
has been made in the state law for a special census to be taken at intervals 
under control of the board of supervisors. To show the unreliability of such 
estimates, and even of a special census, let us give a few recent examples, as 
follows : 

Just prior to the harbor bond election, June 10, 1919, the county clerk pub- 
lished the number of voters registered in each precinct in the county. Applying 
the usual rule for estimating population from the registration, of two and a half 
people to each voter, the number of inhabitants in each incorporated city in the 
county would appear to be as follows : 

Population of Cities 

Names of Cities Registration Population 

Anaheim 1,998 4,99.^ 

Brea 432 1,080 

FuUerton 1,602 4,005 

Huntington Beach 745 1,863 

Newport Beach 557 1,393 

Orange 2,310 5,775 

Santa Ana 7,224 18,060 

Seal Beach 286 713 

Stanton 161 403 

If the total number of voters in the county, as registered by party affiliations, 

were multiplied by two and a half, the product would make the population of 
the county appear to be as follows: 

Population of County 

Names of Parties • 1919 1918 

Republican 12,169 11,715 

Progressive 144 141 

Democratic 5,679 5,477 

Prohibition 1,702 1,680 

Socialist 511 500 

Decline to state 2,861 2,565 

Total Registration 23,066 22,078 



Population of County 57,665 55,195 

The opportunity to compare an estimate of population with an actual count 
of the same is quite rare, for when the people have the count they do not need 
the estimate. There are, however, two instances in which an indirect comparison 
may be made, without any intention to flatter or disparage either place. In 1916 
a special census of the township of Santa Ana, which is of immense area, dis- 
closed only 16,602 people in the whole township ; now three years later the esti- 
mate based on registration gives the city itself a population of 18,060. In the 
same year, 1916, a special census of the city of Anaheim showed a population 
of 5,163 ; now three years later the estimate based on registration gives the city 
covering the same territory, a population of only 4,995. While the city of Santa 



186 HISTORY OF ORANGE COCNTY 

Ana has undoubtedly made a good growth in the past three years, it is hard to 
believe that she made the giant strides indicated by the foregoing figures at a 
time when the whole country was hampered by the restrictions of war. On the 
other hand it is absolutely impossible to believe that the city of Anaheim, without 
disaster of any kind and with all the evidences of prosperity, has actually lost 
168 in population during the same three years. These two examples, similar in 
length of time between the count and the estimate and in the method of making 
the estimate, will suffice to illustrate, by the opposite results obtained, the uncer- 
tainty of estimates of population. 

Since the foregoing discussion of estimates of population was written, a 
census of Anaheim township has been taken, under the authority of the board 
(if supervisors, which credits that township with a population of 9,241. Then, 
as if to disparage Anaheim's special census and the estimates of both cities, 
along came the federal census about August 12, 1920, with a population of 6,936 
for Anaheim township, instead of 9,241 reported in the special census, and ,5,526 
for the city of Anaheim, instead of 4,995 given in the estimate on registration, 
and with a population of 15,485 for the city of Santa Ana, instead of 18,060 given 
in the estimate on registration. ■ , . 

Most people have heard the old chestnut about the farmer who could count 
all his pigs except a little black one that wouldn't stand still long enough to be 
counted. It seems as though the counting of the people living in a given territory 
would be a comparatively easy task; so it would be, if the censustaker could 
always find everybody at home when he calls. There are certain data about 
each person, required in the enumeration, that he alone can give with any degree 
of accuracy ; hence the censustaker must often make a second or third visit 
before he can secure a personal interview with some of the people. The work 
of census taking is not so pleasant and profitable as to attract many applicarits, 
for the Government had difficulty in getting enough to fill the positions. How- 
ever, the field work has been completed and, while the results are not up to the 
expectations of most people, yet they show a consistent growth all along the 
line in Orange County. 

The population of the county, and of each of the nine incorporated cities, 
as given by each federal census back to the organization of the county, or at least 
as far back as each city's record goes, is as follows : 

County and Cities 1920 

Orange County 61,375 

Anaheim 5,526 

Brea 1,037 

Fullerton 4,41 5 

Huntington Beach 1,687 

Newport Beach 898 

Orange 4,884 

Santa Ana 15,485 

Seal Beach . . 669 

Stanton 695 

The population of each of the eighteen townships, as given by each federal 
census back to the organization of the county, or at least as far back as 'each 
township's record goes, is as follows : 

Townships 1920 

Anaheim 6,936 

Brea 2,515 

Buena Park 947 

Fullerton 5,037 

Huntington Beach 3,363 

Laguna Beach 363 

La Habra 1,911 

Los Alamitos . . . . ■ 620 



1910 


1900 


1890 


34,436 


19,696 


13,589 


2,628 


1,456 


1,273 


1,725 






815 






445 






2,920 


1,216 


866 


8,429 


4,933 


3,628 



1910 
4,051 


1900 
2,261 


1890 
2,917 


1,441 
4,984 
1,058 


"'995 
1,719 




499 


"253 





5,430 


3',293 


'2,721 


"967 
[1,501 


905 
6,680 


"801 
4,220 


4,023 

477 


3,300 
290 


l',8S4 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 187 

Newport Beach 1,300 

Orange , 8,134 

Placentia .' 3,619 

San Juan 1,064 

Santa Ana ..... VI ^lll 

Seal Beach . 669 

Stanton 695 

Tustin 1,681 

Westminster 4,181 

Yorba 563 

Such are the plain figures of the federal census of Orange County and its 
subdivisions, without comparisons, percentages or qualifications of any kind. Each 
]5erson can make his own comparisons or percentages, according to the point he 
wishes to make ; but they should not be made in any invidious spirit, for, as 
Admiral Schley said of the naval victory at Santiago de Cuba, "There's glory 
enough in it for us all." 

"Comparisons are odious," because they are too often made with- improper 
motives, to crow over or sneer at a competitor, without taking into account the 
real reason for his getting ahead or falling behind in the race. There is, however, 
a legitimate use of comparison in argument, "to point a moral or adorn a tale." 
For instance, the comparison of the growth of Anaheim with that of Orange, 
while they were typical "wet" and "dry" cities respectively, with practically the 
same area and other similar conditions, was a fair argument against the influence 
of the saloon upon the growth of a city. Orange, starting behind the "Mother 
Colony," caught up with and passed her in 1910, and would doubtless have con- 
tinued in the lead, had the conditions remained the same; but Anaheim, discard- 
ing her saloons and securing a sugar factory, together with the development of 
the oil industry in her vicinity, outstripped Orange in the 1920 census. In like 
manner the growth of Orange County might be compared with that of River- 
side County, its nearest competitor ; but the conditions of the two counties are 
not the same, and the comparison would serve no good purpose. 

Perhaps the best way to exhibit the material resources of the county and 
to show how they have been developed by the people, is to present the valuations 
of the property in the county and in its principal subdivisions, as fixed by the 
county assessor for the purpose of taxation. 

The present constitution of California, adopted in 1879, started out with 
the plan of requiring all property, with very few exceptions, to pay taxes for 
the support of the government. To this end, and to equalize the burden of state 
taxation pro rata among the counties, it was required that "all taxable property 
must be assessed at its full cash value." Biennially the legislature adopted one 
or more amendments to the constitution exempting large blocks of property from 
taxation. The county assessors throughout the state, in spite of efforts of the 
state board of equalization to hold assessments up to the constitutional require- 
ment, gradually lowered them to protect their constituents against paying an 
undue proportion of the state taxes. 

An amendment to the state constitution, authorizing the separation of state 
and local taxation, was adopted by the legislature of 1909, having been under 
consideration since 1905. This measure does away with the necessity for the 
same valuations among the counties on account of state taxes, since such taxes 
have been shifted thereby from taxpayers generally to public service and other 
corporations. On the other hand, it is immaterial whether assessments are high 
or low within a single county or district for local taxation, since, if they are 
high, the tax rate will be low, or vice versa, to raise the necessary amount of 
money ; but, of course, individual holdings within the county or district must 
be similarly assessed according to the quantity, quality and other conditions of 
such holdings. 



188 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Each county assessor, at least each conscientious, faithful one, being thus 
practically released from the obligation to assess property at its full cash value, 
tries to find a happy medium that will produce the necessary amount of taxes 
without too high a rate and that will appear to all reasonable taxpayers to be 
fair and just. Hence independent action among the counties must produce van- 
able results as to per cent, even if all could agree on the basis of "full cash 
value" ; but it is safe to say that property is generally assessed away below its 
market value in all the counties of the state. For instance, the Los Angeles 
papers, in announcing the amount of the 1920 assessment of their county, 
claimed that said amount was only forty-two per cent of the real value of the 
property tlius assessed. 

Following are the official valuations of the property of Orange County and 
its principal subdivisions, exclusive of operative property, which consists of 
public service and other corporations and is reserved for state taxation. What 
per cent of the full cash value of the property these valuations represent, depo- 
nent saith not ; but they answer very well as a basis for local taxation. 

Valuation of County 

Names of Items 1920 1919 Increase 

Operative Property $ 5,498,275 $ 4,548,930 $ 949,345 

Non-Operative Property 103,579,645 87,129,900 16,449,745 

Valuation of County $109,077,920 $91,678,830 $17,399,090 

Valuation of Cities 

Names of Cities 1920 1919 Increase 

Anaheim $ 3,017,415 $ 2,130,020 $ 887,395 

Brea 718,880 594,550 124,330 

Fullerton 19,558,695 20,015,805 -H57,110 

Huntington Beach 1,023,635 999,650 23,985 

Newport Beach 1,289,685 1,117,445 172,240 

Orange 3,034,980 2,311,580 723.400 

Santa Ana '. . . . 9,076,950 7,474,535 1,602,415 

Seal Beach 638,755 630,270 8,485 

Stanton 629,335 472,640 156,695 

Valuation of Cities $ 38,988,330 .$35,746,495 $ 3,241,835 

Valuation of High Schools 

Names of High Schools 1920 1919 Increase 

Anaheim Union $ 7,742,035 $ 5,384,590 $ 2,357,445 

Capistrano Union 1,723,215 1,723,215 

Fullerton Union 46,985,505 40,934,920 6,050,585 

Huntington Beach Union 5,677,400 5,154,980 522,420 

Orange Union 10,296,620 7,006,525 3,290,095 

Santa Ana High 9,076,950 7,474,535 1,602,415 

Total Valuations $81,501,725 $65,955,550 $15,546,175 

Valuation of School Districts 

Names of School Districts 1920 1919 Increase 

Alamitos $ 525,850.$ 425,710 $ 100,140 

Anaheim 4,885,070 3,500,980 1,384,090 

Bay City 1,009,555 959,145 50,410 

Brea * 6,478,200 5,669,210 808,990 

Bolsa 423,425 319,255 104,170 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 189 

Buena Park 1,958,710 1,789,370 169,340 

Centralia 627,025 459,490 167,535 

Commonwealth 639,470 406,155 233,315 

Cypress 430,100 335,715 94,385 

Delhi 1,131,970 1,242,120 *110,150 

Diamond 321,455 249,345 72,110 

El Modena 1,873,150 1,241,330 631,820 

El Tore 523,980 458,490 65,490 

Fairview 554,290 431,150 123,140 

Fountain Valley 597,030 491,610 105,420 

Fullerton 20,105,755 10,081,605 10,024,150 

Garden Grove 1,452,385 1,060,555 391,830 

Greenville 462,740 360,985 101,755 

Harper 500,235 387,320 112,915 

Huntington Beach 2,137,895 2,164,640 *26,745 

Katella 1,150,355 772,905 377,450 

Laguna 738,975 601,190 137,785 

La Habra 3,505,540 5,897,930' *2,392,390 

Laurel 705,200 867,015 *161,815 

Loara 1,049,625 646,460 403,165 

Lowell Joint 692,660 584,125 108,535 

Magnolia 656,985 464,245 192,740 

Newhope 177,900 167,580 10,320 

iMewport Beach 1,368,425 1,177,730 190,695 

Ocean View 838,030 595,535 242,495 

Olinda 3,856,445 3,632,345 224,100 

Olive 1,758,415 1,110,200 648,215 

Orange 5,304,105 3,803,645 1,500,460 

Orangethorpe 1,231,970 7,996,515 *6,764,545 

Paularino 349,550 266,940 82,610 

Peralta 335,505 206,825 129,680 

Placentia 7,536.820 6,787,660 749,160 

Richfield 721,575 199,390 522,185 

San Joaquin 4,738,720 3,598.880 1,139,840 

San Juan 1,479,570 1,200,230 279,340 

Santa Ana 9,076,950 7,474,535 1,602,415 

Savanna 196,390 151,055 45,335 

Serra , 243,645 207,970 35,675 

Silverado 164,440 146,025 18,415 

Springdale 430,600 377,520 53,080 

Trabuco 186,095 160,895 25,200 

Tustin 4,496,455 3,092,500 1,403,955 

Villa Park 1,360,950 851,350 509,600 

Westminster 664,290 566,530 97,760 

Yorba 974,150 819,730 154,420 

Yorba Linda 951,020 670,265 280,755 



Totals of School Districts $103,579,645 $87,129,900 $16,449,745 



*Decrease by forming new districts or other causes. 

The foregoing tables of population and valuations tell a wonderful story of 
Orange County's growth and development in the past thirty years. Only where 
many and varied natural resources abound and where the people are industrious 
and enterprising could such progress be made. The tables also show that the 
population and wealth are widely distributed over the county, thereby maintaining 
"the ideal state of a maximum of producers and a minimum of parasites, which 
■condition made France so prosperous before being devastated by war. The people. 



190 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

as a rule, believe in the eternal verities and practice the old-fashioned virtues, that 
make them dependable and good citizens in every way. They, almost writhout 
exception, own their homes and other property free of encumbrance, and figura- 
tively fulfill the prophecy of K-licah, when he foretold the glory, peace and victory 
of the church, as follows : , 

"But they sliall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and 
none shall make them afraid ; for the mouth of the Lord of hosts hath spoken it." 

Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce's Estimated Value of Important 

Products for 1919 

Apricots $ 200,000 

Apples 50,000 

Avocados 15,000 

Beans (90 per cent Limas) 3,000,000 

Bees and Honey 75,000 

Berries (all kinds) 125,000 

Celery 100,000 

Dairy Products 350,000 

Fish (salt water) 100,000 

Fruits (miscellaneous) 500,000 

Grain (barley, corn, wheat, etc.) 1,000,000 

Hay (alfalfa, barley, oat, bean, etc.) 2,000,000 

Lemons ■. 3,500,000 

Livestock ;. 1,500,000 

Loquats 37,500 

Nursery Stock 500,000 

Oil, Gasoline and Natural Gas 31,275,000 

Olives and Olive Oil 125,000 

Oranges j 12,000,000 

Peppers : : 1,125,000 

Persimmons 25,000 

Poultry and Eggs : . I,50o!o00 

Potatoes — Irish and Sweet 950,000 

Sugar and By-products 10,50oioOO 

Tomatoes and Tomato Seed. 350000 

Vegetables (miscellaneous) 500000 

Walnuts (California) " ' - 7:;o'oOO 

'^°^''' ■•••■••. , $77,152,500 

1913 Grand Total Production J39 7^0 qqq 

1914 Grand Total Production. [] 3l'800'000 

1915 Grand Total Production -jcVi 1 'cnn 



1916 Grand Total Production 4074^ ?9-? 

1917 Grand Total Production . 40,746,323 

1918 Grand Total Production. 



1917 Grand Total Production.' '.'.'.'..'. 1%.. „,, 



63,410,500 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 191 

CHAPTER XXXVI 

ANECDOTES AND INCIDENTS 

About, the, )-ear ,1894, \yhile the, superyisors vyexe, discussing the burden of the 
law library upon the litigants, one of the members got the title , twisted into "the 
lie lawbray" ; and so it clung to him. to the end pf the discussipn, in, spite of -his 
efforts to correct the lapsus linguae. In like manner, on another occasion, an old 
gentleman appeared before the board and offered to sell the county a piece of 
land in which it could bury its "indignant dead"." "You mean .indigent dead," 
suggested,, a supervisor. , "No,, I mean indignant . ^dead,", was the reply; so no 
further attempt was made at correcting the mispronunciation. , 

When the Orange County fruit growers had become very much alarmed at 
the havQc the red scale (a new parasite at that time), was making in the San 
Gabriel^ orchards, and questions of quarantine and other methods of protection 
were: under discussion, an aspir-aijt for the position of horticultural commissioner 
met a-n,i€mber ,of the board on the street with the peremptory prediction, "Mr. 
Supervisor, thena bugs must go." Suffice it to say that "them bugs" have largely 
gone, not because of the pronunciamento againstthem, .but because of the intelli- 
gent, persistent figbt against them, by the fruit growers— they have been "gassed." 

As the supervisors, composing the' third board, were making up their lists 
of trial jurors, in conipliailce with the orders of' the judge of the Superior Court, 
the member from the Fifth District quietly feriiarked that it would not do to 
include any Populists among those selected. "Why not ?" asked the member 
fromthe Second 'District, who, though a Democrat, was populistically inclined. 
"Because," -the Fifth member replied, "the law requires persons- selected for jury 
duty to have ordinary intelligence." It is needless to add that this sally provoked 
a hearty laugh, in which the Second member joined. 

Early in the history of Orange County the Bolsa drainage ditch was con- 
structed under the control of the supetvisors, as described in the chapter oii the 
celery industry. The two principal 6bjectors to the work were F. R. Hazard and 
J. L,. Holly. They fought the improvement at every step and took their case to 
the Supreme 'Court, but all in vain. A few years ago the former supervisor 
from the Fourth District was introduced to Mrs. Holly at a meeting of the Orange 
County Veterans' Association and received a rather equivocal greeting. "Armor !" 
she exclaimed, "I used to thirik you were the very devil." He replied: "Doubt- 
less you have heard that the devil is not so black as he has been painted. Besides, 
the development of that section of the county has more than justified the con- 
struction of the Bolsa ditch." "Oh, well!" she said, "It's all over now and we'll 
not quarrel further about it ; but it was pretty tough at the time." 

Tim Carroll, the inventor of the beet dump and pioneer nurseryman of 
-A.naheim, went before the board of supervisors, sitting as a board of equaliza- 
tion, to get the assessment, which Jake Ross had put upon his nursery stock, re- 
duced. He said his stock consisted of old stubs of palm, pampas grass and left- 
over trees that were not worth the cost of clearing the ground. The assessor 
pointed out that there were enough salable trees in the nursery to justify the 
assessment without taking account of the worthless stock; so the board refused to 
make any reduction. In taking his leave, the redoubtable Tim expressed his 
opinion of the personnel of the board by remarking, "The whole foive of ye 
haven't sinse enough to make one dacent supervisor." 

When the supervisors were considering a certain date to which they might 
adjourn, one of the members objected because that was the date set for President 
Harrison's visit to Orange County. "What interest can you, a Democrat, have 
in a Republican president's visit?" a bystander asked. "He's my president," -was 
the dignified answer. The rebuke in those three words silenced all levity and 
imparted a lesson in good citizenship without preachment. In a republican or 
representative form of government, the will, or choice, of the majority must be 



192 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

acquiesced in by the minority, in order to avoid factional strife. On the other 
hand the officer, thus chosen, should sedulously represent the whole people within 
liis jurisdiction. The president, for instance, should so conduct his administration 
that every citizen, without regard to party affiliation, would instinctively regard 
him as "my president," and not clannishly as the head of a political party. 

In a conversation with the writer over another subject, James McFadden 
casually mentioned the following incident as a reason why he thought he might 
have some influence with the editor of the Los Angeles Times in shaping the 
attitude of the paper toward that subject. Shortly after the Times was started in 
Los Angeles and had taken its stand against the closed shop, Mr. McFadden met 
Colonel Otis, its founder and editor, at the seashore and noticed that he seemed 
quite despondent. On being asked for the reason, Colonel Otis said that the 
Typographical Union had prejudiced and' intimidated the money market against 
his undertaking so that he could not borrow a dollar and he must have money 
to keep going until the patronage would meet the expenses. Mr. McFadden 
immediately offered to loan him the money and the offer was gladly accepted. 
Thus did a citizen of what is now Orange County help to establish the Los 
Angeles Times and foster it until able to go alone. Long since has the paper 
justified the wisdom of its founder, not only in its own marvelous growth, but 
also in the stupendous growth of its home city, which it has sturdily defended 
for nearly forty years against the blighting influence of the closed shop. Because 
of the city's open shop policy, millions of dollars have come to Los Angeles from 
the East for investment and other millions have left San Francisco and moved 
thither. Where large amounts of capital are invested in the industries, there 
thousands of workmen find employment and thus increase the population of the 
community as well as utilize the capital invested therein. If "he who causes two 
blades of grass to grow where one grew before is a public benefactor," much 
more is he who helps to establish institutions and maintain policies that oppose 
the domination of one class over another but encourage cooperation and helpful- 
ness among all classes, "and on earth peace, good will toward men." 

During the term of the second board of supervisors, the people of Anaheim 
got up a Fourth of July celebration and invited the board of supervisors to par- 
ticipate in the parade, which at that early date would consist entirely of carriages 
and other vehicles drawn by horses. When the marshal, who was superintending 
the loading of vehicles and getting them into line, looked for the barouche that 
was designed for the supervisors, he found that it had been appropriated by some 
other dignitaries, so he bundled the supervisors into the first conveyance that came 
to hand. After the parade had taken up its line of march, an urchin called out 
from the sidewalk, "Oh, look at that bunch of stiffs in the undertaker's runabout! " 
Immediately Supervisor Schorn had the driver stop the team, and the whole line 
of march, while he scrambled to the ground and disappeared among the pedestrians. 

A county free library was established by the board of supervisors on Decem- 
ber 9, 1919. 

For about fifteen years the Pacific States (formerly the Sunset) Telephone 
Company fought the Home Telephone Company to prevent it from entering 
Orange County, or from increasing its business after it had entered. Finally, 
with the consent of the Railroad Commission, it succeeded in mergin<' the two 
companies, that is. in absorbing the Home Company. The Railroad Commission 
also permitted the Pacific Company to raise its rates and to cut out the free switch- 
ing between exchanges. When, however, the Federal Government took over the 
wires and granted the same privileges to the telephone company, the state com- 
mission withdrew its consent and tried to maintain its control ;' but the courts 
ruled against it. While these questions were pending, the telephone company 
added twenty-five cents to each phone rate, making it $1.75 per month for a resi- 
dence phone and $2.75 for a business phone. This increase probably netted the 
company not less than $1,800 per month, or $21,600 per year, in this county alone 
without including the gain from the Home subscribers at the basic rates of $1 50 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 193 

for residence and $2.50 for business phones. Such an increase of rates and sub- 
scribers ought to have satisfied the company ; but no sooner was the Federal Gov- 
ernment's control of the wires established than the company added another quarter 
to the residence rate and a whole dollar to the business rate, making them re- 
spectively $2.00 and $3.75, under the plea that such were the Government's orders 
and the company could not do otherwise. Many individuals ordered their phones 
out and others exercised their constitutional right "to freely assemble together to 
consult for the common good."' After much consultation they decided to form 
a mutual telephone company, to be operated without profit, and applied to the 
secretary of state for a charter. Meanwhile lists were circulated and signed by 
more than half the company's subscribers ordering their phones out, some un- 
conditionally and others when the new company was ready to give them service. 
The charter was refused under the advice of the attorney-general, on the ground 
that the new company is not a stock company, as he understands the law requires 
such a company to be. A state charter was finally secured, however, and the first 
unit of the exchange is to be constructed at Garden Grove. 

The forming of districts for various purposes enables communities to secure 
some of the benefits of city government without taking over the whole responsi- 
bility. For instance, in going over the supervisors' minutes, the number of dis- 
tricts, other than school districts, was found to be approximately as follows, viz. : 
Five drainage districts, one sanitary district, seven lighting districts, one irrigation 
district, three library districts and seven protection districts. Where considerable 
money is needed to carry out the purpose for which a district was organized it is 
generally obtained by bonding the district. Take the irrigation district in the 
foregoing list as an example. The Newport Mesa Irrigation District contains 
nearly 700 acres of land on the Newport mesa between the boulevard and the 
blufifs overlooking the Santa Ana River. This tract was dependent on a neighbor- 
ing water system for irrigating water up to the season of 1919. Being unable to 
get water any longer from that source, the land owners were in a quandary as 
to how to save their trees and grow their crops, when Stephen Townsend of Long 
Beach came to their relief. He advised them to form a district and while they 
were doing so he put in a complete water system for them, consisting of a well, 
engine and pump near the river and steel pipelines to deliver the water all over 
the tract. When the district was formed, the people voted to issue $50,000 bonds 
with which to reimburse Mr. Townsend and thereby become owners of their 
water system. These bonds sold under competitive bids at a premium of $1,578 
to the Lumberman's Trust Company of San Francisco. 

A small district was formed November 4, 1919, called the Fullerton Irriga- 
tion District, and a full set of officers elected. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 
SOIL, CLIMATE AND WATER 

Following is the summary of the soil survey of the Anaheim Area of Cali- 
fornia, made by government engineers in 1916, but just published in 1919 by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture: 

The soil survey of the Anaheim area covers the most important agricultural 
part of Orange County, California, with smaller parts of adjoining counties. The 
area lies southeast of Los Angeles and fronts on the Pacific Ocean. It is bounded 
on the north and east by hilly sections that are largely too rough and broken for 
agricultural use. It is joined on the north by the Pasadena area and on the west 
by the Los Angeles area, which are covered by other soil surveys. 

The Anaheim area embraces three physiographic divisions — the inclosing 
broken hills on the north and east, remnants of somewhat elevated old valley 
surfaces or marine terraces, which lie along the base of the hills or border the 



I'M HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

acean front and, as the most extensive division, broad, rather smooth and gent y 
doping alluvial fans. 

Elevations range from sea level in some coastal sections to a maxmium o 
1,600 feet in the hill portions. A large part of the area lies below 100 feet and 
iiost of it below 200 feet in elevation. 

The Santa Ana River crosses the main part of the area, and the San Gabriel 
River crosses the western section. These streams directly drain only a small part 
of the area, owing to their built-up position, which makes the entrance of lateral 
streams difficult. Santiago Creek drains a part of the survey and flows mto the 
Santa Ana River, but the greater part of the run-off from the surrounding hills 
and main valley slopes is carried largely by minor independent streams. 

The area is thickly populated, and agriculture is by far the most important 
industry. According to the census reports the area in 1910 had a population of 
something less than 40,000, but the population has greatly increased in recent 
years. About sixty per cent of the population reside in the cities or towns, less 
than one-half living under strictly rural conditions. Santa Ana, with a population 
of 8,429 in 1910, is the largest city. There are a number of other cities and towns 
in the area ranging from several hundred to about 3,000 inhabitants. 
Transportation facilities are good. 

The area is well supplied with schools, telephones, -and other modern con- 
veniences. 

The climate is very pleasant and favorable to the production of a wide range 
of agricultural products. The average annual rainfall ranges from ten to fifteen 
inches in different parts of the survey, while the mean annual temperature aver- 
ages about 64 degrees Fahrenheit. Danger from frost influences the distribution 
of citrus and other fruits, the higher land being least susceptible to damage. A 
growing season of about ten months is available for sensitive crops, while the 
hardy crops can be grown throughout the year. 

The rainfall is confined to the winter months, and this has an important 
bearing on agricultural practices and renders irrigation necessary for many fruits 
and field crops which make their greatest growth during the summer season. 

The agriculture of the area is highly developed. Most of the products are 
highly specialized and are grown for export rather than for local consumption. 
Chief among the products are oranges, lemons, and walnuts, with some deciduous 
fruits. Beans are an important field crop, and large quantities of sugar beets are 
utilijed by local factories. Grain and grain hay cover large acreages. Subsidiary 
crops and industries, such as truck crops, dairying, and poultry raising, are locally 
important. The region is one of high average land prices. 

The soils of the Anaheim area fall mainly in three general groups — residual 
soils, old valley filling or coastal plain soils, and recent alluvial soils. 

The first group includes those soils derived in place by the weathering and 
disintegration of consolidated rocks, and usually occupies rolling or mountainous 
areas. Tillable areas are used largely' for grain and hay production. The residual 
soils are inextensive. They are classed with the Altamont and the Diablo series. 

The soils derived from old valley filling or coastal plain deposits are relatively 
extensive. They are grouped in the Ramona, Montezuma, and Antioch series. 
These series are intermediate in elevation between the recent alluvial soils and the 
residual soils. The Montezuma and Antioch soils are not important agriculturally. 
They are irrigated to only a small extent, being used principally for dry-farm 
crops, mainly beans and grain. The Ramona soils are irrigated in many places, 
and large plantings of citrus fruits have been made. Most of the orchards are 
still young. 

The recent-alluvial soils are the most important, both in extent and agricul- 
tural use. These soils are in places subject to overflow or accumulation of alkali, 
but, on the whole, are very valuable farming types, having a smooth surface, a 
deep, friable soil, and subsoil conditions favoring deep-rooted crops. The facilities 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 195 

for irrigation are good. These soils are grouped in tlie Han ford, Yolo, Dublin, 
and Chino series. 

Several groups of miscellaneous material also are mapped, one of which, 
muck and peat, consisting of cumulose deposits, is productive when drained. The 
other miscellanequs types, tidal marsh, coastal beach and dunesand, riverwash, 
and rough, broken and stony land are practically all nonagricultural. 

Irrigation is an important factor in the agriculture of the area, as most of 
the fruits and many other crops require it. In 1910 there were 2,215 irrigated 
farms, or about seventy per cent of the total number in Orange County. The 
recent alluvial soils are most extensively irrigated, although important parts of 
the old valley filling and coastal plain soils also are watered. 

Parts of this survey are affected by a high water table and consequent injurious 
accumulations of alkali. Most of the alkali land is tilled and used mainly for the 
production of sugar beets. Considerable eiifort has been made to reclaim the 
alkali lands and make them more productive. 



While the technical classification of the soils of Orange County, as given 
in the foregoing survey, may not be of much practical benefit to the tillers of said 
soils, the general information furnished therewith about them and other 
characteristics of the county is worth while to all who have not observed the facts 
and undergone the experiences for themselves. The soils of the county, composed 
of particles of air-and-water-slaked rocks washed down from the mountains, are 
of infinite variety and limitless depth without any hardpan intervening. The 
writer has removed pepper roots from a well twenty feet distant from the tree 
whose roots penetrated the brick curb thirty feet below the surface. He also 
has traced alfalfa roots to a depth of twenty-one feet. . Forty-five years ago 
"Prophet Potts" declared such soils were absolutely inexhaustible ; but now we 
know better. The soils, when first precipitated on the mesas and_ lowlands as 
disintegrated rocks, had no humus, or vegetable mold in them ; but the growth 
and decay of vegetation, once started and continued for ages, has supplied this 
ingredient to the top soil for a depth of several feet. Now, as this humus is being 
exhausted, the farmers and orchardists find it necessary to supply cover crops, 
straws and other vegetable matter to be turned into humus. Thus, with a good 
foundation to build on, the soil of Orange County can be kept inexhaustible by 
supplying it with the proper plant food when needed. 

Climate is "the temperature and meteorological conditions of a country.'' 
Temperature is "the state of a body with respect to sensible heat." Meteorology 
is "the science of the atmosphere and its various phenomena." The atmosphere is 
"the aeriform. fluid surrounding the earth." Hence, for all practical purposes, 
climate is the temperature of the air of a country. As an illustration of the 
volatile equalization of temperature, it has been stated that the entrance of a 
person into a room would immediately raise the temperature of every object in 
the room. Along the same line and assisting in the equalization of temperature, 
is the principle of the diffusion of gases, whereby different portions of air from 
various sources quietly combine and form a compound of mean or average tem- 
perature and of less harmful character than either of them might be, if laden 
with some foul, gas from which the other is free. The writer has frequently 
ridden, after rundown, through a strip of air warmer than the rest of the air 
through which he was traveling. This air was being warmed by heat radiating 
from a strip of warmer soil and had not yet mingled with. the surrounding air. 
When this radiating heat is great and from a large area of territory, the heated 
air above such territory rises and the cooler air rushes in, thereby creating wind, 
which hastens the equalization of the temperature and the purification of the 
atmosphere. The latitude of Orange County under a southern sky, its distance 
from the mountains, snow-capped in winter, and its proximity to the mild Pacific 
Ocean, the character of its soil for absorbing and radiating the heat of the sun, the 
direction of its prevailing winds and many other conditions, all tend to modify the 



196 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 



extremes of temperature and give to this county an equable climate. Doctor Coyle, 
moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly at Los Angeles several years 
ago, turned a neat compliment upon Southern California when he said it was "the 
land where three hundred and sixty-five days of each year were sunshiny and the 
rest were unusual." 

The chapter on Orange County's Water Supply gives the rainfall^ of the 
entire basin of the Santa Ana River for thirty years up to 1900. Following is a 
table of the rainfall of Orange County from July 1, 1900 to July 1, 1920. 



Sea- 
sons 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


Total 


1900\ 






.08 


.15 
1.46 

.21 
.25 

.32 

.14 

1.43 
.43 
.09 

1.27 
,19 
.63 
.02 

1.13 


4.00 

,49 

1.26 

5.39 

1.52 

.03 

.87 

1.20 

.17 

.55 

2.09 

2.31 

.86 

.22 

.43 

2.39 

.48 


2.76 

.01 

1.45 

.18 

4.96 

.87 

.80 

8.24 

.25 

,84 

.04 

1,42 

4,42 

2,90 

3,43 

,76 
2,43 


3.49 
1.47 
1.70 

.22 
1,16 
2,60 
5,73 
4.79 
6.14 
1.24 
4,68 

,19 
1,34 
7.03 
5.54 
12.23 
2.26 
1.20 

.80 

.72 


3.24 
3.08 
1.52 
1.72 
5.52 
1.77 
3.00 
2.78 
3.43 

.08 
3.53 

.18 
5.22 
3.81 
5.31 
1.55 
3.13 
3.66 
1.46 
3.82 


.48 

3.41 

7.41 

3.60 

4.57 

6.38 

3.28 

.23 

4.26 

2.06 

2.65 

4.00 

.55 

.88 

.40 

1.20 

.28 

5.15 

1.60 

4.67 


.57 
.19 
1.56 
.93 
.10 
.50 
.27 
.48 


.85 
,07 


.04 
,07 


12.90 


1901/ 
19011 






10.24 


1902/ 
1902\ 
1903/ 
1903\ 
1904/ 
1904\ 
1905/ 
19051 


.07 


.02 
.13 
.12 


.24 
.06 


16.44 


.14 
1,07 
1.55 

.11 


.06 
.30 

.10 


7.24 
14.44 
18.57 


1906/ 
1906\ 






.12 


19.18 


1907/ 
1907\ 






10,72 


1908/ 
19081 




.07 


1.45 
.04 


17,55 


1909/ 
1909\ 


.34 
.49 

1.92 
.32 

1.18 
.96 
.07 , 
.47 
.06 
.53 
.66 




13,29 


1910/ 
19101 






.95 

.25 
.27 
.74 
.17 
.21 
.36 
.3-7 
.80 


.03 
.03 
.20 
.11 

.01 
.02 


13,07 


1911/ 
19111 






.62 


8.92 


1912/ 
19121 






9,10 


1913/ 
19131 








16.81 


1914/ 
19141 


.02 






20.83 


1915/ 
19151 






18 98 


1916/ 
1916\ 






.52 

.01 

.67 

1.63 


1.51 

.18 
.84 


12.03 


1917/ 
19171 
1918/ 
19181 
1919/ 
19191 


.03 


.03 
.09 


10.91 

8.88 

16 07 


1920/ 









Average annual rainfall for twenty years from 1900 to 1920, 13.81 inches. 

Average annual rainfall for fifty years from 1870 to 1920, 13.84 inches. 

In the former period, prior to 1900, the average annual rainfall at Orange 
was 13.87 inches, or six hundredths of an inch more than that of the latter 
period, since 1900 ; but it is remarkable that the two averages shoulcj come so near 
together. It shows that, whatever variation there may be in the rainfall from 
year to year, it averages up like the manna did for the children of Israel: "He 
that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack." 
However, much better use has been made of the rainfall in the latter period than 
in the former. Large quantities of flood waters have been diverted from the 
streams near their source each winter and run on debris cones and waste land to 
fill the underground gravel strata and drain later into the streams lower down, 
or be pumped from the gravel basins for summer irrigation. The number of 
lumping plants in the county has increased from 509 in 1910 to 1,285 in 1920. In 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 197 

all probability the capacity of the individual pumping plants has increased as 
well as the number, for the county assessor valued the 1,285 plants at $3,855,000, 
an average of $3,000 apiece. The effect of this increase in pumping plants is seen 
in the increase of irrigated land in the county. According to a preliminary report 
by the Bureau of the Census, there are 86,060 acres of land in Orange County 
under irrigation. In 1910 the number of irrigated acres was 55,060, which sub- 
tracted from the present acreage shows a gain of 31,000 acres, or fifty-six per 
cent, in the ten years. But in 1910 the number of pumping plants was 509, which 
subtracted from the present number shows a gain of 776 plants, or 152 per cent, 
in the same ten years. That is, there has been a greater per cent of gain in pump- 
ing plants than in irrigated land ; which would prove that the increase in pumping 
plants was a sufficient cause for the increase in irrigated land. 

A number of citizens of San Bernardino, Riverside and Orange counties, 
realizing that more can be done towards conserving the winter flood waters of 
the Santa Ana River and preventing damage therefrom to riparian lands near 
the coast, undertook to form a conservancy district of the entire basin of the 
stream ; but the "Conservancy Act of California" was found to be of doubtful 
constitutionality and otherwise objectionable. The committee, which had been 
appointed to devise a plan for the formation of the district, accordingly submitted 
the question of the sufficiency of the act to Loyal C. Keller, T. \\'. Duckworth 
and L. A. West, district attorneys, respectively, of San Bernardino, Riverside and 
Orange counties. The opinion of these officials was to the effect that the boards 
of supervisors have no authority, either singly or collectively, to appropriate and 
expend money outside of their respective counties for flood control, and that the 
Conservancy Act of 1919 is unconstitutional, "because of the suffrage qualifi- 
cations therein contained and because of the basis of assessment therein set 
forth." Whether these objections will be overcome by future legislation remains 
to be seen. Meantime the good work of the Tri-Counties Reforestation Com- 
mittee, with federal and state aid supplemented by the water companies, can con- 
tinue to protect the watershed of the stream from destructive fires and to store 
its flood waters in the debris cones and gravel beds for summer irrigation. And 
the wells and pumping plants, which have multiplied more than two and a half 
times in the last decade, will continue to increase in number and usefulness. 

Thus with the three great requisites for success in agriculture and horti- 
culture, viz. : Fertile soil, equable climate and abundant water, Orange County is 
forging ahead with giant strides, as note the increase in annual productions from 
$12,294,694,' reported by the county statistician in 1910, to $77,152,500, reported 
by the Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce in 1919. 



BIOGRAPHICAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL 



WILLIAM H. SPURGEON.— The family represented by William H. Spurgeon, 
the founder of Santa Ana, is of English extraction, and has been identified with 
America for several generations. His father, Granville Spurgeon, a native of Bourbon 
County, Ky., engaged in agricultural pursuits in Henry County, that state, for some 
years and from there removed to Bartholomew County, Ind., in 1830, and became a 
pioneer farmer of the Hoosier state. Ten years later he took his family to Clark 
County, Mo., and there, too, undertook the development of a farm from raw prairie. 
Admirably qualified by nature for the task of pioneering, he led a busy life in the 
midst of frontier. surroundings that would have daunted a less adventurous spirit. In 
1864, he decided to come to California, and accompanied by his family, he crossed the 
plains in a prairie schooner drawn by mules. After a long, tedious journey they 
reached Solano County, and near what is now Cordelia, settled and- remained until his 
death, which occurred in 1867, a short time after the death of his wife, Lavinia (Sibley) 
Spurgeon, a native of Prince Edward County, Va., and of Scotch lineage. 

It was during the residence of the family in Henry County, Ky., that their son, 
William H., was born on October 10, 1829. When a babe in arms he was taken to 
Indiana, and thence in 1840 accompanied his family to Missouri, where he was reared 
and received a practical common school education. At the age of sixteen he became 
a clerk in a country store at Alexandria, where he was employed for several years. 
Shortly after the discovery of gold in California he determined to seek his fortune 
here, coming by way of New Orleans and the Isthmus of Panama. He spent four 
years in California, working in the gold mines, and met with financial success; he also 
served in the Rogue River Indian War. In 1856 he returned by way of Panama to 
New York City, and thence to Missouri, becoming connected with a mercantile busi- 
ness at Athens, where he remained for some time. 

The second journey made by Mr. Spurgeon to California was in company with 
his father and other members of his family across the plains in 1864. In 1867 he went 
to Los Angeles, and during his brief stay there his yvife, Martha (Moreland) Spurgeon, 
a native of Kentucky, died. Soon afterward he returned again to Clark County, Mo., 
and from there, in 1869, came to what is now Santa Ana. Upon his arrival he pur- 
chased seyentv-six acres of the Santiago de Santa Ana grant, which originally con- 
tained 62,000 acres. Immediately after buying this property he proceeded to lay out 
the present town of p^nta Ana, employing for this purpose Mr. Wright, a well- 
known surveyor and civil engineer. The name the town bears was given it by Mr. 
Spurgeon in honor of the old Spanish grant. When he located here there were but 
few trees in the entire valley and the country was covered with wild mustard so high 
that he could not look over it from horseback, and in order to view the valley that 
contained his purchase he climbed one of the sycamore trees. The town of Tustin 
had just been started and the Los Angeles and' San Diego stage road lay through the 
town and about three miles from Mr. Spurgeon's land. In order to get the stage to 
come through his purchase and to get a post office established he cut a road through 
the mustard at his own expense. He then built a small building of redwood on what 
is now the southwest corner of Fourth and Broadway, and in this conducted a gen- 
eral store, the first in Santa Ana, and it is said that all the goods contained therein 
at the opening could have been hauled away in a wheel barrow. As the population 
grew and the needs of the community became greater he added to his stock until he 
carried a large variety of general merchandise, and for eighteen years conducted a 
successful business, during which time he became widely known throughout this sec- 
tion as a reliable merchant and progressive citizen. 

Mr. Spurgeon put down the first artesian well in this section, which yielded an 
ample supply of water at 300 feet and supplied the town for some time, thus estab- 
lishing the first water works here. In order to induce settlers to locate at first he 
would give one lot to anyone buying one, and in that way sold a lot at the corner 
of Fourth and Main streets for fifteen dollars, and to induce the man to accept the 
bargain, he threw in another one of equal size adjoining. To show the wond~er£ul 
12 



204 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

growth of Santa Ana, this property has increased in value until it is now held at 

approximately $85,000; o a r u 

During his life as a merchant Mr. Spurgeon acted as agent at Santa Ana for the 
Wells Fargo Express Company, and also filled the office of postmaster. After the 
organization of Santa Ana as a city he was chosen a member of the first board of 
trustees and served as president of same. Scarcely an enterprise was organized for 
the benefit of Santa Ana with which his name was not identified, either directly or 
indirectly. For twenty-five years he held the lot where the courthouse stands for 
its present use, refusing many offers for it for other purposes. He donated the lot 
for the Spurgeon Memorial Methodist Church South. It was his privilege to see the 
city, started by his foresight and built up by the energy of such men as he, take its 
place among the representative cities of Southern California. How much of the 
credit due for this result is due to his wise judgment would be difficult to state, but it 
is a recognized fact that Santa Ana owes to no citizen more than it does to Mr. Spur- 
geon. He was always an advocate of good schools and every movement for the 
social and moral betterment of the community met with his cooperation. 

Realizing the necessity for the town to possess favorable banking facilities, Mr. 
Spurgeon turned his attention to the establishment of a bank and, with others, incor- 
porated the First National Bank of Santa Ana, of which institution he was chosen 
president, and during the term of his service the bank secured the solid financial 
basis upon which its subsequent prosperity has been built. He promoted the Santa 
Ana Gas Company, which he served as president, was a stockholder and director of 
the Santa Ana Gas and Electric Company, which succeeded to the business of the 
former company, and he was financially interested in the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation 
Company for five years, and for three years served as its president, and also as a 
members of the board of directors. As a home place he owned twenty acres of land 
at the east end of Fourth Street, part of which he sold to the Southern Pacific and 
to the. Santa Fe for depot and yard purposes. Realizing the value of transportation 
facilities he used all his influence to get the roads to extend their lines to Santa 
Ana. He later owned a tract of thirty, and also one of ten acres which he, himself, 
planted to walnuts. 

Mr. Spurgeon was always a staunch Democrat, and was chosen by his party to 
various positions of trust and honor. He served as a member of the state assembly, 
representing his district of Los Angeles County, this being before Orange County 
was organized. He served one term as supervisor before the partition of Orange 
County, and after the organization of the county was again elected supervisor, serv- 
ing as chairman of the board. He was an active member of the Merchants and Manu- 
facturers Association, and also of the Chamber of Commerce of Santa Ana. 

Mr. Spurgeon's farsightedness and keen perception is seen when supervisor of 
Los Angeles County. In the early days he was not slow to see that this end of the 
county was neglected and did not get the aid nor public improvement it was entitled 
to, so it was then the idea came to him that the proper way to get what was due 
in this end of the county was county division and a separate county, and in that 
case he saw that Santa Ana would no doubt be the county seat, and so strong was 
his desire in that direction and so certain was he of it, he kept the block now occu- 
pied by the court house for that very purpose, and would not consent to sell it to 
any one, although he had some splendid offers for it. His ambition was finally realized 
— Santa Ana as the county seat and his choice of block selected as the court house 
site was no longer a dream but became a reality, thus fulfilling his ambition. 

Mr. Spurgeon's second marriage occurred in Santa Ana on April 14, 1872, uniting 
him and Miss Jennie English, a native of New Madrid County, Mo., who came to 
this part of California from Santa Cruz County in 1869 with her parents. Her father, 
Robert English, first crossed the plains in 1850 from Missouri, and after some time 
spent in California, returned to his home. From there he subsequently moved with 
his family to Texas, from which place, in 1861, they crossed the plains from Red River 
to California by ox team, settling at El Monte. While on their tedious journey they 
were joined from time to time by different immigrants until their train numbered 
sixty wagons. They had several skirmishes with the Indians, but suffered no losses. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. English died in Santa Ana. Mr. and Mrs. Spurgeon became the 
parents of five children: Grace, the- wife of R. L. Bisby of Santa Ana; Lottie and 
Mary deceased; William H., Jr., is prominent in the furniture business in Santa Ana, 
and Robert Granville resides at Long Beach, having served in the U. S. Navy in the 
World War. 

On February 24, 1909, Mr. Spurgeon incorporated his property under the title 
of the W. H. Spurgeon Realty Company, the members of his family being associ- 
ated with him as directors of the corporation, and he himself being president until 




i-^ O-tLyC Occ/'^-i^'Uy-y- 



HISTORY OF ORANGT COUNTY 207 

his death on June 20, 1915. During the last years of his life the company built the 
W. H. Spurgeon Block on the corner of Fourth and Sycamore streets, the largest 
and most pretentious building in the city, a fitting monument to its founder. Mrs. 
Spurgeon survives her husband and continues to make her home in the city she has 
seen built up from a stubble field and in the development of which she has taken a 
woman's part, aiding and encouraging her husband in his ambition to see it a beau- 
tiful city with modern public improvements, with its paved streets, as well as being 
one of the principals in making it the seat of government of the county, a desire that 
was very keen and dear to them both. Her children are looking after the large 
affairs left by her husband, and by their love and devotion do all they can to shield 
her from worry and care. 

- The life of Mr. Spurgeon illustrates the possibilities which Southern California 
offers men of energy and judgment, where the opportunities for wise investments 
and large returns are even greater than they were in the early days. The record of 
Santa Ana's founder, who started with less than $1,000, is an example that is worthy 
of emulation and one that will encourage many another young man in his struggle 
toward success. In October, 1909, during the carnival of the Parade of Products 
held in Santa Ana, Mr. Spurfeon was presented with a memorial — a beautiful piece 
of art work done in colors with a pen, setting forth his identification with the county's 
interests. By a happy coincidence it was the eightieth year of Mr. Spurgeon's birth, 
the fortieth year of the founding of Santa Ana and the twentieth year of the organiza- 
tion of Orange County. 

NOAH PALMER.— The passing away in January, 1916, of Noah Palmer, at the 
age of ninety-six, closed a career whose value and service to the community, indeed 
to the whole of Orange County, would be difficult to measure. Intimately associated 
with practically every enterprise that concerned the early development of Santa Ana, 
it is perhaps in his especial ability as a financier that he was most closely identified 
with the great progress made in this section of Orange County. Possessed in an 
unusual measure of keenness and discernment of mind, he was always quick to grasp 
advantages, albeit he was of a conservative temperament, so that, although his judg- 
ment was quick and decisive, he was never led into developments of a speculative 
character. A pioneer of '49, it was his privilege to witness such a transformation 
throughout the commonwealth of California as can never again take place within the 
confines of the United States, so marvelous has been the change that has been wrought 
in those years. 

The Empire State was Mr. Palmer's native home, his birth having occurred Sep- 
tember 3, 1820, at Lowville, Lewis County, N. Y. His parents were Ephraim and 
Hannah (Phelps) Palmer, natives of New York,, and there they spent all their days. 
Ephraim Palmer came of a long and honored line of English ancestry, his forbears 
being of the Quaker faith, and he lived a well-rounded out life, reaching the age of 
eighty-eight years; the mother passed away in early womanhood, when Noah was 
but seven years of age. An older sister lived in Jefferson County, N. Y., and there 
Noah went to live after his mother's death. He remained there until he was eighteen 
years old, receiving a good education in the local schools of the vicinity. He then 
began life on his own account as a school teacher, continiiing in this profession 
for ten years, first in New York, until 1840, when he went to Indiana. Ita 1-849/ when 
the news of the discovery of gold in California went like wildfire over the country, 
even to the backwoods hamlets, Noah Palmer) like thousands of other young men, 
was fired with an ambition to seek his fortune in this new Eldorado. Joining the 
Isaac Owen missionary train he set out on the long journey, and for six long, weary 
months they slowly wended their way acress the plains and desert, a jburney that 
was fraught not alone with hardship but with many dangers. The hard work of 
mining, at Hangtown, now Placerville, however, proved too much for Mr. Paliner, 
so he; went to San Jose and began farming, later removing to Santa Clara, where 
he continued ranching for many years. In 1852 he returned East and wilh his 
wife and little daughter started back to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama, 
making the rough trip across the Isthmus on mule back, there being no railroad 
in those early days. The family established their home in Santa Clara County, and 
for a number of years Mr. Palmer was quite active in political life, being a leader in 
Republican circles. For four years he served as tax collector of Santa Clara County, 
and represented his district in the state legislature for one term. 

In August, 1873, Mr. Palmer came to Santa Ana, then only a small hamlet. 
There was little to attract one at that time, as there had been but little improvement 
of the surrounding country, and this offered but scant promise of the possibilities 
that eventually were unfolded. With that keen foresight that was ever a dominating 



?08 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

characteristic, Mr. Palmer felt that success awaited the pioneer here who had patience 
and perseverance, coupled with energy. He returned to Santa Clara, and on Decem- 
ber 1, of that same year, he closed a deal for 1765 acres, comprising a part of the 
old Santiago de Santa Ana grant, originally a tract of 62,000 acres. On his return 
to this locality he was accompanied by a number of his friends in Santa Clara, 
and to them he disposed of 1065 acres, giving them their choice of location. He re- 
tained 700 acres, and this he put under cultivation and produced some of the best 
crops ever seen in this section. This land was all within the corporate limits of 
Santa Ana, now all subdivided into town lots except forty-five acres. His friends 
built on their various properties, and also farmed with success for years. 

In 1882 Mr. -Palmer began his active interest in the banking field, for which 
his abilities especially fitted him. With W. S. Bartlett, Daniel Halladay and others 
he organized the Commercial Bank of Santa Ana, with Mr. Halladay the first presi- 
dent. After a very few years Mr. Palmer succeeded to that office, and held it until 
April 23, 1910, when he retired. He was one of the organizers of the Bank of Orange 
and served as its president until the bank was sold. He was also a director of the 
Bank of Tustin and of the Orange County Savings Bank — now the Orange County 
Trust and Savings Bank. He was active in the promotion of the Santa Ana, Orange 
and Tustin Railway and was the first president of the company. In each of these 
developments he was enabled to further the material progress of the county by 
stabilizing the financial foundation of the locality through his wise oversight, and 
by aiding those who were in need of capital to carry on the agricultural and horti- 
cultural developnient that has brought undreamed-of wealth to the county. 

While a school teacher in Franklin County, Ind., Mr. Palmer was married in 
March, 1843, to Miss Susan Evans, born January 28, 1824, in that county. She 
passed away on October 28, 1903, after a wedded life of over sixty years, in which 
there had been more than the usual share of eventful interest. Five children were 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Palmer, two of whom are living: Emma Palmer, Mrs. George 
• J. Mosbaugh, who is the mother of a son by a former marriage — H. Percy Thelan 
of Santa Ana; and Miss Lottie E. Palmer. Mrs. Almira A. Hewitt, the eldest daugh- 
ter, died in March, 1912, leaving three children, Fred P., William L., and a daughter, 
Mrs. Susy Deuel. Mrs. Mosbaugh and Miss Lottie E. Palmer are residents of Santa 
Ana, and through their loving ministrations the latter years of Mr. Palmer's well- 
spent life were surrounded with every care and comfort. 

WILLIAM N. TEDFORD.— Coming to Newport Valley, then in Los Angeles 
County, in 1868, William N. Tedford was the first settler of the Valley, as he and 
his family were the only Americans here at that time. Following him were Isaac 
Williams, Jacob Ross, Thomas Smith and Thomas Cozad, all of whose names were 
associated with the pioneer days of this section. 

Of Scotch-Irish extraction, the first representative of the Tedford family in 
this country was an early settler of Virginia, members of the family subsequently 
settling in Tennessee. This state was the birthplace of John Tedford, the father of 
our subject, and he continued the westward march of the family, removing to Ran- 
dolph County, Mo. While a resident of Tennessee he had married Miss Catherine 
Hannah, and there Wilfiam N. Tedford was born on August 16, 1826. At the age of 
five he aiccompanied his parents to Randolph County, Mo., where he grew fo man- 
hood. Here he was married. May 19, 1852, choosing for his companion Miss Nancy 
Jane Baker, the daughter of Isaac and Jane (McCullough) Baker, natives, respectively, 
of Kentucky and Tennessee. 

In 1864, twelve years after their marriage, and after five of their children were 
born, emulating the pioneer spirit of his forbears, Mr. Tedford, with his wife and 
family, started on the long journey across the plains with ox teams, reaching Solano 
County, Cal., in September of that year. Remaining there for two years, they re- 
moved to Monterey County, where they engaged in farming for another two years. In 
1868 they came to what is now Orange County, settling on sixty acres of raw land 
in Newport Valley which Mr. Tedford had purchased. Although the country was 
wild and barren, they set to work to improve the land and make a home, and it 
was their privilege to see the surrounding territory transformed from its uninhabited, 
desolate state to prosperous ranches and orchards. It is safe to say that none of the 
old settlers of Orange County rejoiced in its development more sincerely than did 
Mr. Tedford, who had been so closely associated with its earliest days, and who did 
his share in helping to make it the garden spot of the country. 

The following children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Tedford: Walter B.; Ed- 
ward; Mrs. Emma J. Maxwell, now deceased; Thomas F.; Mrs. Katie M. Felton: 
Mrs. Maggie L. Young; Charles L.; Mattie Susan, wife of Rev. C. R. Gray; George 



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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 211 

I., an3 Harry A., now deceased. The five eldest were born in Missouri, the younger 
children all being native sons and daughters of California. In 1899 Mr. Tedford sold 
his ranch to his son-in-law, E. W. Felton, and purchased a residence at Spurgeon and 
Third streets, Santa Ana, and here he made his home until his death, on November 9, 
1905, Mrs. Tedford surviving him until 1919. Always a Democrat in his political 
sympathies, Mr. Tedford took an active part in the affairs of his party, and among 
other offices of trust he served as supervisor of Orange County for four years. 

CHARLES C. CHAPMAN.— Genealogical records give the year 1650 as the date 
of the founding of the Chapman family in America by the arrival in the new world of 
three brothers from England, who became the progenitors of a numerous race that, 
taking root in Massachusetts, spread its branches throughout the growing colonies of 
the Central West. No representative of this family was more worthy 'than Sidney Smith 
Chapman, who was born in Ashtabula County, Ohio, in 1827. He followed the west- 
ward tide of emigration at an early age, settling in Illinois when he was a youth of 
eighteen and embarking in the building business. While he never achieved wealth 'he 
was singularly fortunate in gaining that which is far more enduring — the sincere regard 
of friends and the affectionate admiration of business associates. Into the building of 
houses he put the same integrity and the same patient industry that he put into the 
building of his fine personal character and his deep Christian faith. 

After a long period of labor as a builder in Macomb, 111., Sidney S. Chapman 
removed to Vermont, same state, in 1868 and later followed his trade in Chicago, 
where he and his first wife were charter members of the West Side Christian Church. 
During the World's Faii: his health failed and in October of 1893 he passed from earth. 
His life, as it was ordered, contained not only happiness, but also sorrow and dis- 
appointment. Whatever came to him he bore with simple dignity and quiet courage, 
seldom giving utterance to any words save those of hope. As a workman he was not 
content with the mere completion of a task, but strove to finish each contract with 
greater skill than he had displayed in previous efforts. He was a firm supporter of 
prohibition, and politically a Republican. To his descendants he left the heritage of 
a life that was a model of uprightness and simple devotion to duty. 

In 1848 S. S. Chapman married Rebecca Jane Clarke, eldest daughter of David 
and Eliza (Russell) Clarke, both natives of Kentucky, where the daughter also was 
born. The family of Mr. Chapman by this marriage numbered ten children, seven of 
whom attained years of maturity and five are now living, viz.: Charles C, whose 
name introduces this riarrative; Christopher C, an orange grower near Yorba Linda; 
Samuel James, who is engaged in^the real estate business in Los Angeles; Dolla, Mrs. 
W. C. Harris, whose husband is a well known builder and successful architect of Los 
Angeles; and Louella, Mrs. J. Charles Thamer, of Placentia. Cal. The eldest son. Col. 
Frank M., died in Covina, this state in 1909. Emma E., Mirs. L. W. B. Johnson, died 
in Illinois in 1888, leaving a son and daughter. The wife and mother passed away at 
the family home in Chicago January 2, 1874, and later her youngest sister became the 
wife of S.. S. Chapman, their union resulting in the birth of three children, Ira, Earl 
and Nina. After the death of her husband the widow remained in Chicago for several 
years, but subsequently removed to Los Angeles, where she died. 

During the residence of the family in Macomb, 111., Charles C. Chapman was 
born July 2, 1853, and in that city his education was secured, but he owes more to 
self-culture than to text-books, more to determination and will-power than to youthful 
opportunities. His first employment was that of messenger boy and he recalls carry- 
ing the message that announced the assassination of of President Lincoln. Later he 
clerked in a store and in 1869 joined his father at Vermont, 111., where he learned the 
trade of bricklayer. On- the 19th of December, 1871, he went to Chicago and imme- 
diately secured employment, first working as a bricklayer and in 1873 superintending 
the erection of several buildings, after which he engaged in the mercantile business. 
During 1876-77 he engaged- in canvassing in the interests of a local historical work in 
bis native county and during 1878 he embarked in a siinilar enterprise for himself a1 
Galesburg, 111., whence the office in 1880 was moved to Chicago. The business was 
first conducted under his own name and after his brother, Frank M., became a partner, 
the firm name was changed to Chapman Brothers and later to the Chapman Pub- 
lishing Company. 

As the business of the firm increased the plant was enlarged until it had em- 
braced extensive quarters and a large equipment. In addition to the management of a 
printing and publishing business the firm erected numerous buildings, including busi- 
ness structures, apartments, hotels and more than twenty substantial residences. Dur- 
ing the World's Fair they conducted the Vendome Hotel for the accommodation of 
many of the leading capitalists and business men of the country. The financial panic 
of that year caused very heavy losses to the firm. 



212 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

At Austin, Tex., October 23, 1884, Mr. Chapman married Miss Lizzie Pearson, 
who was born near Galesburg, 111., September 13, 1861, being a daughter of Dr. C. 
S. and Nancy (Wallace) Pearson. Two children blessed the union, namely: Ethel 
Marguerite, born June 10, 1886, now the wife of Dr. William Harold Wickett of Ful- 
ierton, and Charles Stanley, January 7, 1889. During January of 1894 Mr. Chapman 
went to Texas, hoping that the southern climate might benefit his wife, who was lU 
V Mi pulmonary trouble. Later in the same year he came to California with the 
same hope, but here, as elsewhere, he was doomed to disappointment. While the 
family were occupying their beautiful home on the corner of Adams and Figueroa 
streets, Los Angeles, Mrs. Chapman passed away September 19, 1894. Noble traits 
of heart and mind made Mrs. Chapman preeminent in family and church circles, 
while her accomplishments fitted her to grace the most aristocratic social functions. 
Her charming personal appearance, lovable nature and graceful manner won the 
affectionate regard of a host of friends. Earth held so much of joy in an ideal home 
happiness that she could not covet the boon death proffered, yet she accepted it 
with the fortitude that characterized her sweet Christian resignation to intense suf- 
fering through a long illness. 

The present wife of Mr. Chapman was Miss Clara Irvin, daughter of S. M. and 
Lucy A. Irvin, and a native of Iowa, but from childhood a resident of Los Angeles 
until her marriage September 3, 1898. They have one child, Irvin Clarke. Mr. and 
Mrs. Chapman have traveled extensively, both in this country and abroad. Both 
are members of the Christian Church, with which Mr. Chapman united at the age 
of sixteen, and in which he has held all the important official positions. For years 
he was a member of the Cook County Sunday-school board, a member of the general 
board, Y. M. C. A. of Chicago, also an organizer of the board of city missions of the 
Christian churches of Chicago. His identification with these various activities was 
severed upon his removal from Chicago, but he has been equally active in the West. 
He has been for nearly a score of years president of the Christian Missionary Society 
of Southern California, and has taken part in the dedication of forty churches, being 
the speaker and making the appeal for money, and in a special, as well as a general, 
way assisted many churches. He is a director of the Christian Board of Publication 
of St. Louis. The largest of his philanthropic enterprises are the building of a hos- 
pital at Nantungchow, China, and his contribution to the California School of Chris- 
tianity of Los Angeles. For years he has served as a member of the state executive 
committee of the Y. M. C. A., in 1914 was president of the state convention, and in 
April, 191S, was elected chairman of the state executive committee. He has been 
reelected annually since. He has served as president of the State Sunday School 
Association, and in 1911 was elected to represent Southern California on the Inter- 
national Executive Committee, and was vice-chairman of the Committee. In 1914 
he was reelected to both positions, and continues to serve on the Committee. In 1903 
he was appointed by Governor Pardee a trustee of the State Normal School at San 
Diego, was reappointed by him, and later by Governor Gillett, and still later by Gov- 
ernor Johnson, resigning after a service of ten years. In 1907 he was elected a trustee 
of Pomona College, serving until 1915. Upon the organization of the California School 
of Christianity, he was chosen a trustee and president of the board. 

Since coming to California Mr. Chapman has devoted much attention to building 
up the Santa Ysabel rancho near FuUerton, which, under his supervision, has been 
developed into one of the most valuable orange properties in the' state. The Old 
Mission brand, under which name the fruit is packed, has a reputation second to none 
in the best markets of the country, and prices commanded have been the record prices 
for California oranges since 1897. He also has other valuable orange ranches in 
the neighborhood of FuUerton. 

In politics Mr. Chapman is a Republican. He has served as a member of the 
state central committee, and in 1912 made an unsuccessful race for nomination for 
state senator. He was elected one of the first trustees of FuUerton, served as chair- 
man of the board, and was reelected for a second term. He is a director of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Los Angeles and of the Farmers and Merchants National 
Bank of FuUerton. He is interested in mining and in the oil business, and has large 
realty holdings in Los Angeles and elsewhere. The most important of these is the 
Charles C. Chapman Building, a thirteen-story office building, in Los Angeles. 

Mr, Chapman has been closely identified with the irrigation interests that lie at 
the foundation of success in fruit culture. He served as director and president of the 
Anaheim Union Water Company for several years. He has made the fruit industry a 
success, has encouraged others to greater efforts in the same business, and has proved 
a power for good in the development of horticulture in Southern California. He has 
borne his share in public affairs, in religious work and in social circles, as well as in 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 215 

his chosen occupation of grower and shipper of fruit. Activities so far-reaching, aspira- 
tions so broad and influences so philanthropic have given his name prominence, while 
he has become endeared to thousands of citizens through his humanitarian views, 
his progressive tendencies, his gentle courtesy and his unceasing interest in important 
moral, educational, religious and political questions. 

DANIEL HALLADAY.— Among the honored pioneers of Southern California 
who have contributed largely to the growth and advancement of this section of the 
state through their excellent business judgment and public-spirited service, the name 
of Daniel Halladay ranks high. Coming to Santa Ana in 1880, Mr. Halladay at 
once actively identified himself with the development of the locality, interesting him- 
self to some extent in agriculture, but it was in the world of finance that his greatest 
accomplishments were achieved. 

The lineage of the Halladay family dates back for several generations in the 
history of New England, and its representatives were always in the forefront of the 
progressive life of their communities. A native of Vermont, Daniel Halladay was 
born in Marlboro, November 24, 1826. His parents were David and Nancy (Car- 
penter) Halladay, both natives of the same state. Daniel Halladay's early days were 
spent at his birthplace, but when he was twelve years of age his parents removed 
to Springfield, Mass., later settling at Ware, in that state, and in these places Daniel 
received his education in the public schools. Always of a mechanical bent, at the 
age of nineteen years he apprenticed himself to learn the machinist's trade, continuing 
as an apprentice and journeyman for six years. During the latter half of this period 
he was foreman in the American Machine Works at Springfield, Mass., and the ma- 
chine works of Seth Adams & Company, in South Boston, Mass. After closing his 
work with the last-named firm he returned to his former position with the American 
Machine Works at Springfield, and while there he had charge of the construction of 
the caloric engine invented by John Ericsson, well known to history as the designer 
of the famous Monitor. During the World's Fair in London in 1851, it was a part 
of the American exhibit in the Crystal Palace, Mr. Halladay superintending its erec- 
tion and exhibition there. 

Returning to the United States, Mr. Halladay became a partner in a machine 
manufacturing concern at Ellington, Conn., but the connection lasted but a short time, 
Mr. Halladay then going to South Coventry, Conn., where he engaged in the manu- 
facture of machinery under the firm naime of the Halladay Wind Mill Company, 
the greater part of the machines turned out being of his own invention. The com- 
pany's plant was removed to Batavia, 111., in 1863, and here the business of the plant 
grew to a large volume, so that when Mr. Halladay decided to retire from it in order 
to come to California, he was able to dispose of it at a handsome figure. 

Locating at Santa Ana in 1880, Mr. Halladay entered at once into the upbuilding 
of the county, his clear vision making plain to him its great possibilities. Two years 
later, in 1882, when the Commercial Bank of Santa Ana was established, he was made 
its president, and this was the beginning of many years of service in the banking 
field, in which his wisdom, integrity and wide grasp had a large part in putting it 
on its present sound, progressive, yet conservative basis. After serving a* the bank's 
president for a number of years he was made vice-president, always keeping a guid- 
ing hand on the affairs of the institution. He was also one of the incorporators of 
the Bank of Orange, serving on its directorate until it changed hands; at one time 
he was a director of the Orange County Savings Bank. All of these institutions 
benefited greatly by Mr. Halladay's wise counsel, as was evidenced by their con- 
stant growth, both in number of depositors and amounts of deposits, and his sound 
judgment has left its impress on their policies to the present day. Interested in 
every project that made for the material progress of the community, Mr. Halladay 
entered enthusiastically into the plans for furnishing Santa Ana with illuminating 
gas, being one of the incorporators and directors of the Santa Ana Gas Company. 
He was also instrumental in the promotion of the Santa Ana, Orange & Tustin 
Street Railway, and was one of its directors throughout the existence of the company. 
Mr. Halladay's marriage, which occurred in Ludlow, Mass., May 3, 1849, united 
him with Miss Susan M. Spooner, born at Belchertown, Mass., and, like her husband, 
a descendaint of an old New England family. She passed away on December 26, 
1908, at Santa Ana. One child was born to them, a son who died in infancy. Mrs. 
Halladay was a charter member of the Presbyterian Church at Santa Ana and very 
active in its circles. Mr. Halladay spent the last few years of his life in retirement 
from active duties, although he always maintained a wide interest in the affairs of 
the community and nation, being particularly concerned in the cause of temperance, 



216 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

of which he was ever a stanch advocate. His death occurred on March 1, 1916, at 
his home on East First Street, being survived by his adopted daughter, Mrs. Susie M. 
Rutherford. 

THEODORE RIMPAU, FREDERICK C. RIMPAU.— The wealth of pioneer 
achievement and tradition featuring the glowing chapters of California history one 
is reminded of in the life-story of Theodore Rimpau, long the oldest citizen in point of 
years of residence in Orange County. He was born in Hamburg, Germany, on Septem- 
ber 28, 1826, the son of Johanas and Matilda (Henneburg) Rimpau, natives of Germany. 
He enjoyed, on account of his parents' social and financial circumstances, the advan- 
tages of a superior education, and unlike many who were destined for such a career 
as he later followed, he studied French, German and Latin, and later pursued a prac- 
tical business course. After putting in several years with a wholesale business concern 
at Hamburg, he decided to seek his fortune in the New World, and came to the 
United States in 1848. 

Leaving the Fatherland about the time of the great political upheaval striving for 
some of the very objects recently attained in Germany, Mr. Rimpau landed in New 
York, and was soon employed by a leading wholesale house; and it was while he was 
there, getting accustomed to the freer ways of the young Republic, that the news of 
the discovery of gold in California was heralded throughout the country. He took 
passage for San Francisco, via Panama, and from the Isthmus came on the first 
steamship that sailed for what was then called Yerba Buena. Immediately upon his 
arrival, he joined the hurrying throngs seeking the "yellow metal," and for a short 
time was fairly successful, but like many another who catered to the wants of the 
hazarding miner, he found the best way to riches through the avenue of trade. 

Mr. Rimpau soon formed a partnership for general merchandising in San Fran- 
cisco; and as he prospered, he branched out to the South. He opened another store 
in Los Angeles, in 1850, to which he gave all of his attention when he had been 
burned out twice in the Bay City; his partners, Schwerin and Garbe, returned to South 
America, where they had formerly lived. In December, 1850, Mr. Rimpau was mar- 
ried to Miss Francisca Avila, the daughter of Francisco and Encarnacion (Sepulveda) 
Avila, and a native of the City of the Angels. She died at Anaheim in 1903, the 
mother of seventeen children, seven still living: Frederick, of this review; Sophie and 
Marie L., all of Anaheim; Frank T., of Alhambra; James A., Benjamin A. and John L., 
of Los Angeles. 

In 1851, Mr. Rimpau closed his well-known Los Angeles store and started in 
the stock business on a tract of 800 acres of land owned by his wife, and originally 
a Spanish grant that had been in the Avila family for nearly 100 years, and part of 
which is still owned by the family; and there, on what is now within the corporate 
limits of Los Angeles, Mr. Rimpau followed stock raising until in the early '60's, 
when he moved to the San Joaquin ranch. For two years there were awful droughts 
throughout the state, and after his cattle died, he continued in the sheep business until 
1876, when another drought came, and his son, Adolph, to save the herds, drove them 
to Salt Lake City. 

Coming to Anaheim in 1865, Mr. Rimpau rented property for two years, after 
which he bought and planted twenty acres of land, where he later resided. He set 
out grapes, and manufactured wine; and this business he continued with success until 
1886, when disease destroyed all the vines. Then he planted orchards and walnuts. 
He foresaw that the wine trade, for various reasons, was doomed, and as early as 
1878 he established the dry-goods store which, as a flourishing concern, he turned 
over to his sons, Adolph and Frederick, ten years later. He sold half of his 800 acres 
of ranch and became a stockholder in the water company at Anaheim. 

Few men in this colony of intelligent and industrious Germans were more re- 
spected in their time than Theodore Rimpau; and the local chronicler dwells with 
peculiar pleasure on some of the personal incidents in his private life. His marriage 
ceremony, for example, was performed by Father Sanchez, one of the pioneer padres 
who traveled El Camino Real, or the King's Highway, from San Francisco to San 
Diego on foot. Mr. Rimpau lived so long and so happily with his good native wife 
that his friends could boast he was the first foreigner hereabouts to marry a California 
maiden and to celebrate with her a golden wedding. At one time he had three vessels 
engaged in coast trade, plying between San Francisco and San Pedro, but they were 
all destroyed by fire within a year. He died at Anaheim on October 3, 1913, aged 
eighty-seven years. 

FREDERICK RIMPAU was born in Los Angeles on March 13, 1855, the house 
bemg still owned by the Rimpau family, and growing up in Anaheim, to which town 
his foTTcs had removed, he attended the grammar school there. From his twenty-second 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 217 

until his forty-second year he clerked in stores in Los Angeles and Arizona, and for 
fifteen years he was a partner with his brother Adolph in the dry-goods store at Ana- 
heim. Selling out, he went into the real estate and insurance field, and today gives 
his attention especially to the latter. He is a director of the Anaheim National Bank. 

On November 4, 1885, Mr. Rimpau married Miss Nellie Smythe of Anaheim, a 
native daughter, whose parents are John S. and Josefa (Yorba) Smythe. They attend 
the Catholic Church. 

Mr. Rimpau belongs to the Fraternal Brotherhood, and years ago, for three years 
he was a member of the California National Guard, from which he was honorably dis- 
charged. He is an active participator in all civic movements, and deeply interested in 
Orange County and its smiling future. 

WILLIAM HENRY CROWTHER.— Throughout a long and useful life that 
left its impress upon various lines of activity, William H. Crowther won and main- 
tained the confidence of a large circle of associates, through his progressiveness and 
sterling traits of character. Coming of a long line of English antecedents, Mr. 
Crowther was himself a native of England, where he was born on October 4, 1837, in 
Yorkshire. His parents, John and Tamar (Bartel) Crowther, both natives of that 
part of England, passed their entire lives there. 

The country schools of Yorkshire furnished William Crowther his early educa- 
tion, and this he supplemented with a course at the mechanical schools at Leeds. In 
1857, at the age of twenty years, he immigrated to America, settling in Massachusetts, 
and here he followed the trade of blacksmithing and wagonmaking for several years, 
becoming a very proficient workman. Seeking another field for his activities, Mr. 
Crowther started on the long journey to the Pacific Coast by the way of the Isthmus 
of Panama, reaching San Francisco in January, 1864. Spending six months at Sacra- 
mento at his trade, he then located at Santa Clara, and there he engaged in business 
for himself for a number of years, manufacturing wagons, plows and a large line of 
agricultural implements. 

Coming to Los Angeles County in 1872, Mr. Crowther located at Anaheim, and 
there engaged in blacksmithing for some time, but seeing the great possibilities in the 
development of the agricultural and horticultural interests of this part of the country, 
he purchased 136 acres of land at Placentia in 1875. It was a raw, unpromising piece 
of land, used as a sheep range, and Mr. Crowther realized thoroughly the hard work 
that would be required before he could hope for even fair returns. Particularly did 
he see the necessity of irrigation, if settlers were to be attracted to this locality. 
He therefore entered actively into the development of waterways, and was one of the 
originators of the means of irrigation provided by the Anaheim Union Water Com- 
pany. For many years one of its directors, and for several terms president of the 
company, he was of invaluable assistance in the conduct of its affairs; also did black- 
smithing for the company during the first year and a half of its existence. 

In the meantime Mr. Crowther was also busily engaged in the development of 
his own ranch. Eighty acres were planted to English walnuts and about fifty acres to 
oranges and deciduous fruits, and through his unremitting care and intelligent culti- 
vation it became one of the best-known ranches of the district, its abundant yield 
bringing in a handsome income. Since so many years of his life had been spent in a line 
of work far removed from horticulture, more than ever was credit due to Mr. Crow- 
ther for the outstanding success he made in this new field. In his passing away on 
December 16, 1916, the community lost one of its stanchest citizens, and one who could 
always be counted upon to give of his time and influence to every good work. The 
ranch property is now equally divided between his sons, Walter H. Crowther, of 202 
Wilshire Avenue, Fullerton; Edward W. Crowther of Placentia, and his daughter 
Ruby, now Mrs. Albert Hitchen, of Beverly Hills, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Crowther's marriage united him with Miss Margaret Sproul, a native of 
Scotland, and they became the parents of four children: Sarah, who died aged forty 
years; Walter H., Edward W. and Ruby. Prominent in the ranks of the Masons, Mr. 
Crowther belonged to the Blue Lodge at Anaheim and to the Chapter and Com- 
mandery at Santa Ana, and the Shrine of Los Angeles. A loyal Republican, he took 
a deep interest in the affairs 'of his party, taking an active part in county and state 
affairs, and holding local offices of importance. He also gave his services generously 
toward securing improved educational facilities, being clerk of the Placentia school 
district, of which he was one of the organizers. 



218 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

JOSEPH EDWARD PLEASANTS.— Comparatively few of the men now iden- 
tified witii Orange County preceded Joseph Edward Pleasants in establishing asso- 
ciations with this locality, as he took up his residence here in 1861. He is one of the 
few remaining 'forty-niners in California. Among the first to bring stands of bees to 
this part of the country, for many years noted for its fine sage and orange honey, Mr. 
Pleasants has long occupied an authoritative place in that industry, being the first bee 
inspector of the county, a post that he has held continuously since 1902, and at the 
present time he is president of the California State Bee Keepers' Association. 

Missouri was Mr. Pleasants' native state, and there he was born in St. Charles 
County, March 30, 1839. His parents were James M. and Lydia (Mason) Pleasants, 
natives of Kentucky and Virginia, and both were of English ancestry. The mother 
passed away in 1848, and the following year the father, with his two eldest sons, 
joined an ox-team train consisting of thirty-two wagons for the long journey across 
the plains. There were about 120 people in the party, Mr. Pleasants being the young- 
est child in the company. The trip was a long, trying one, about twenty of the trav- 
elers succumbing to the cholera en route, and six weary months passed by before 
they reached their destination on the Feather River. The father engaged in mining 
for about a year and a half, later going to the Sacramento Valley, where he engaged 
in farming in what is now Solano County, Pleasants Valley, where he located, being 
named for him. 

In 1856 J. E. Pleasants came to Southern California, where he made his home 
with the Wolfskin family, studying under H. D. Barrows, whom Mr. Wolfskill had 
employed as a teacher for his family, the children of the neighborhood sharing in his 
instruction, according to the generous custom of the times. Mr. Barrows, who was 
a New Englander, and well trained in the pedagogical world of his native place, 
was prominently identified with the educational afiairs of Los Angeles for many years, 
serving on the school board for a number of terms. Coming to what is now Orange 
County in 1861 to look after some interests of Mr. Wolfskill here, Mr. Pleasants 
later purchased land, and he has since made this his home, a period of practically 
sixty years. While engaging in general farming, he was especially interested in raising 
line cattle and horses, and he raised many thoroughbred shorthorns, selling them to 
the Irvine Company. Among the first to become interested in the bee industry, he 
owned at one time over 400 stands, and this brought him a handsome income. 
One year he took thirty tons of honey from his apiary. He gave much time to the 
study of bees and particularly of the diseases that aflfect them in this climate, and it 
is safe to say that there is no one in Southern California who has done as much to 
advance this profitable industry. He was chosen to take charge of the California 
bee exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in New Orleans, 1884. When the 
office of bee inspector was created in 1902, Mr. Pleasants was unanimously made 
its first incumbent and he continues to serve up to the present time. In 1888 Madame 
Modjeska bought his ranch of 200 acres and he then bought 400 acres of land, his 
present place, which he devoted to the raising of thoroughbred stock. 

Mr. Pleasants' first marriage united him with Miss M. Refugio Carpenter, her 
mother being a native Californian. She passed away in 1888, and two years later 
Mr. Pleasants married Miss Adalina Brown, likewise a native of this state, born at 
Petaluma, Sonoma County, but grew up and received her education in Los Angeles; 
she is a daughter of Milton and Clarissa (Wing) Brown, natives of Kentucky and 
Illinois, respectively. They crossed the plains to Oregon in 1852 and two years later 
came down the coast to Sonoma County, and soon afterwards came to Los Angeles 
where they were pioneer ranchers. After his wife died Milton Brown made his home 
with Mr. and Mrs. Pleasants until a few days before his death at the hospital in 
Santa Ana in 1917, aged ninety-five years, six months. Mrs. Pleasants after reaching 
womanhood taught school for several years. She is intensely interested in early 
California history of which she has been a student and reader and is well informed 
and an interesting conversationalist. 

A member of the Bee Keepers' Club of Orange County and an active member 
of the State and National Bee Keepers' Associations, at the annual meeting in Los 
Angeles, February, 1920, Mr. Pleasants was elected president of the California State 
Bee Keepers' Association, a fitting honor to his years of study and research in 
bee culture. Mr. Pleasants has always taken a prominent part in the activities of 
these organizations, promoting in every possible way the furtherance of this industry. 
He has been a valued contributor to the various journals published in its interest in 
the United States and furnished the data for the chapter devoted to the subject 
appearing in this history. Now one of the oldest settlers in this county, he is living 
in comparative retirement at his home in Silverado precinct, and blessed with an 
exceptional memory, he can recall many interesting reminiscenses of the early days 
of Orange County. Occupying a high place in the esteem of his fellow citizens, Mr. 
Pleasants can look back upon a long, influential and well-spent life. 




j- 6 <^klUUiCUy^ 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 221 

GEORGE W. FORD.— Coming to Orange County in 1876, George W. Ford is 
known tliroughout Southern California as an authority in walnut growing, having made 
a special study of this industry and securing results not equalled by any other grower in 
the county. A native of Illinois, he was born in the neighborhood of Centralia on 
October 21, 1848, a son of John and Louisa (Youngblood) Ford, both descendants of 
old Southern families, who had settled in Illinois when it was a territory. In 1897 
they came to California and resided here during the remainder of their lives. They 
were the parents of ten children, nine of whom grew to maturity. 

The oldest child of the family, George W. Ford, was reared on a farm and was 
educated in the common schools of that time, attending about two months during the 
winter, and the remainder of the time after he was old enough to work, was spent 
in helping on his father's farm. From the time he was a lad of fifteen, Mr. Ford 
was filled with a desire to see California, having read an article in a paper, written from 
Anaheim Landing, and he made up his mind then to visit this section some time in 
the future. When he was a little older he worked for a time in a country store, also 
helping on the farms in the vicinity of his home, and one season while working in the 
harvest field he was overcome by the heat. His health began to fail and in March, 1875, 
he decided to come to California, on the advice of a friend, who had been in this 
state and knew the conditions to be found here by one seeking health. Arriving in 
San Francisco with less than ten dollars, this small sum had dwindled almost -to the 
vanishing point before he secured employment, but he was fortunate in completely 
regaining his health. 

In February, 1876, Mr. Ford came to Los Angeles County, first working on a 
ranch and then securing employment in a nursery, where he obtained his first experi- 
ence in that line. Having saved up a little money he decided to invest it in real estate, 
and secured five acres of land at Santa Ana, and upon this small tract he started the 
nursery business that was destined to become one of the largest in the state. From 
time to time he added to his holdings, in 1884 buying a tract of twenty-three and a 
quarter acres. At the time of the purchase it was but little better than a sheep pasture, 
but the extension of the city limits made it a valuable property. As the county set- 
tled up, his business increased in proportion and at one time he employed twenty 
men and did a business of over $30,000 a year. He made many of his own importations 
and sold in carload lots, shipping walnut trees all over California and to Australia, as 
well as many other fruit and ornamental trees, plants and shrubs. He was one of the 
first to bring the soft-shelled walnut to this part of the state, and in 188S he originated 
the Ford improved soft-shell walnut and continued year after year to improve the 
grade. In the cultivation of walnut groves he also made valuable contribution through 
his many and extensive experiments. He was one of the first growers to learn that the 
best results were obtained by allowing the orchards to remain unplowed, as he found 
that a "plow hardpan" is formed by cultivating, and also that it breaks off the small 
shoots sent up by the roots to draw nourishment from the air. He also found that 
his yield was much increased by planting the trees much farther apart than was the 
custom, thinning them out until they were at least sixty feet apart. 

Mr. Ford continued his nursery business until 1898, when he disposed of it at a 
good profit. In 1892 he erected his present home and spent much time in beautifying 
the grounds, having the greatest variety of ornamental trees and shrubs of any home 
in the county, among them being some extremely fine camphor trees. A stockholder 
in the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company, Mr. Ford worked in 1877 on the first 
ditch started by that company. 

Always a lover- of fine horses, Mr. Ford was for a number of years engaged in 
raising some fine racing stock, breeding some of the fastest horses ever sent out of 
the state. His horses were raced all over the Pacific circuit, and in the early days 
he did his own driving and won many races. In 1900 he bought the Orange County 
Fair Association race track, and for several years maintained it as a training and race 
course. It was considered one of the fastest mile tracks in California, and it was here 
that Silkwood, one of the best trotting horses of his day, made his record of 2:07. 

Coming here when Santa Ana was but a small, struggling village, Mr. Ford has 
seen it grow to be one of the most prosperous towns in Southern California, and in 
this development he has had no small part. Mr. Ford's marriage occurred in Los 
Angeles, when he was united with Miss Mary Teague, who was born on a farm adjoin- 
ing the Ford homestead in Illinois, and came to California in 1878. They continue to 
reside on their old home place, once a pasture, but now in the heart of the residence 
district of Santa Ana. 



222 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

DAVID HEWES. — In the annals of Southern California none of its citizens 
occupy a more distinctive place than the late David Hewes, whose name is indelibly 
associated with the great, progressive movements of the state, over a period dating 
from 1850 to his demise in July, 1915. A man of affairs, a successful financier and a 
Christian gentleman, his life was ever a power for good and an influence toward the 
highest ideals of manhood. His long and useful life of ninety-three years was replete 
with varied experiences that would furnish a volume of material for the biographer, 
rich in interest, but only the outstanding points of his career can be touched upon here. 
Born in Lynnfield, Essex County, Mass., May 16, 1822, David Hewes was the 
representative of one of the old families of that state, tracing his ancestry back seven 
generations to the patriot, David Hewes. The death of his father when he was but 
five years old, with the rather rigid discipline of the New England home, early gave 
him a sense of responsibility, and the habits of industry that formed the foundation ot 
his success in life. From the age of fourteen he supported himself and earned enough 
to secure his early education in West Reading Academy and Phillips Academy, and 
later he was enabled to enter Yale College. Meanwhile he had added his savings to 
the small inheritance left him from his father's estate and during his second year at 
Yale he invested his capital in galvanized iron houses which he shipped to Cahfornia. 
Leaving his studies he started on the long trip to the Pacific Coast, via the Isthmus 
of Panama, arriving at San Francisco in February, 1850. While he had not expected 
to remain in the West, the wonderful possibilities opening up at this period made him 
decide "to cast his lot with this new and untried land. Going to Sacramento he opened 
up a general merchandise store and from tlue first was successful, but in_ 1852, at the 
height of his prosperity, the city was practically wiped out by a conflagration, followed 
in January of the next year by a disastrous flood, so that Mr. Hewes left there prac- 
tically empty-handed. 

Realizing the possibilities of San Francisco as the future metropolis of the Pacific 
Coast, Mr. Hewes decided to locate there. At that time the beginning of the city's 
growth made necessary the leveling of the hills and the grading and filling of the 
streets and here he saw an immediate opportunity, though his limited capital made it 
necessary for him to begin operations on a very limited scale. It was not long, how- 
ever, until he increased his business and he was soon engaged in the prodigious task 
of reclaiming the harbor, filling in blocks that are now in the heart of the city's 
commercial center. To the present generation it is almost inconceivable that the shore 
line once extended to Montgomery Street, all this section being made land. It was 
most fitting that Mr. Hewes was called the "maker of San Francisco" since it was 
through his initiative and energy that the task was undertaken and accomplished. 

While not actively connected with the building of the first transcontinental rail- 
road, Mr. Hewes was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of the project and it 
was he who furnished the golden spike that marked the completion of the road. It 
was also he who planned the connection of the railroad company's wires with that of 
the Western Union, by which the taps of the silver hammer driving the golden spike 
were transmitted to San Francisco, thus signalling the accomplishment of this long- 
waited event. Many other activities occupied Mr. Hewes' attention in the following 
years, before his removal to Southern California, where he entered upon one of his 
greatest achievements — the development of the famous Hewes ranch near El Modena, 
in Orange County, which he gave the name of Anapama, "a place of rest." Originally 
a sheep ranch, and comprising over 800 acres, Mr. Hewes spared neither time nor ex- 
penditure in its development. A large part of its acreage was converted into a vine- 
yard, but when Orange County was visited by the blight, it went the way of all the 
other vineyards. Nothing daunted, Mr. Hewes at once set about to restore the ranch 
by planting citrus fruit and it became one of California's noted orange groves, remain- 
ing a part of the Hewes estate after Mr. Hewes' death, until January, 1920, when it 
was sold for $1,000,000. The famous Hewes Park, one of the beauty spots, of the 
Southland, was Mr. Hewes especial pride, involving an expenditure of many thousands 
of dollars. Formerly a barren hill top, this knoll is now a beautiful flower garden, 
through which are many walks and drives, its lovely terraces ornamented with rare 
trees and shrubs. From its summit may be seen Catalina Island, the Sierra Madre and 
Santa Ana Mountains, with the snow-covered summit of "Old Baldy" in the distance. 

Business alone, however, did not occupy all of Mr. Hewes' time and thought, 
despite the great enterprises in which he was always concerned. A lover of art, he 
spent much time during his European trips at the art centers, and his magnificent col- 
lection of pictures, statuary and frescoes was ultimately presented to the Leland Stan- 
ford University. A trustee of Mills College for many years, he gave generously to 
that institution, one of his gifts being the chime of ten bells that hangs in the belfry, 
and his benefactions to other schools and churches were legion. The owner of large 






^-^ao^' 




-HISTORY OF-ORANGE COUNTY 225 

holdings in San Francisco, when the earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed his building 
at Sixth and Market streets, although he was at that time in his eighty-fourth year, he 
at once made plans for rebuilding, the fifteen-story structure erected on the old site 
costing half a million dollars, and it is considered one of the best constructed buildings 
in that city. 

Mr. Hewes' first marriage, which occurred in 187S, united him with Mrs. Matilda 
C. Gray, and following this they spent two and a half years in Europe. It was on 
their return to America that Mrs. Hewes' delicate health made it advisable to seek the 
more balmy climate of Southern California, and they established their residence at 
Tustin, Mrs. Hewes passing away there in 1887. Mr. Hewes was again married in 
1889 to Miss Anna'L,athrop, a sister of Mrs. Leland Stanford, the next eighteen months 
being spent in Europe, Egypt, Palestine and other parts of the Orient. Mr. Hewes 
was again bereaved of his companion in 1892, Mrs. Hewes' death occurring in August 
of that year. 

A man of remarkable energy, until he was past ninety Mr. Hewes continued to 
drive his own horses and, went about the crowded streets of Los Angeles and San 
Francisco unattended, looking after his many interests. ' With a rich heritage of the 
best New England stock, he reflected in his character the unpretentious honesty and 
unswerving integrity of his forbears. His is a career that will never pass from the 
memory of those who have known him, for its influence will live for all time in the 
lives of those who have felt the impress of his upright manhood. 

ALBERT S. BRADFORD. — No one who has recently visited the attractive and 
instructive orange shows held at San Bernardino will fail to have been greatly im- 
pressed by the Orange County exhibits, arranged by Albert S. Bradford, president of 
the Pla-cenfia National Bank,- each under his scientific and artistic touch for the past ten 
years of differing and striking arrangement. He was born at Shapleigh, York County, 
Maine, on August 18, 1860, the son of William Bradford, a namesake and descendant "of 
the famous William Bradford, who came out on the Mayflower and later was governor 
of Massachusetts. A. S. Bradford's father married Miss Lucy Thompson, also a member 
of a Revolutionary family who stood by Washington and his laudable aspirations 
through the thick and thin of the war, or until independence had been attained. 

Albert S. Bradford was reared on a district farm where he had plenty to do every 
summer, although he enjoyed the usual school advantages of the rural districts in 
Maine during the winter; but, concluding that such a life would afford him little oppor- 
tunity for the future, he ran away from home at the age of fourteen and started to 
paddle his own canoe in the larger, if stranger world. Arriving m Boston, he secured 
employment in a market garden where garden truck was raised under glass, for Nvhich 
labor he received six dollars a month and his board. He remained there for a number 
of years; but he did something more than earn a living; he kept his eyes and ears open, 
he studied hot-bed culture and horticulture, and by conscientious application laid a 
broad and deep foundation of knowledge and practical experience of great value to him 
in later years. In 1881, he even started a business of his own in the outskirts of Boston. 
A venture of another kind, that of managing a summer resort, at Colchester on Lake 
Champlain, Vt., rherely proved beyond question what he was best fitted for. When, 
therefore, he established himself at Stoneham, Mass., and began to cultivate g'arden 
produce, he was able to give it his undivided attention and effort. 

About the time of the great boom in California, that is, in 1887, Mr. Bradford 
came to the Coast, stopping for a while at San Diego and then coming to Santa Ana, 
at that time in Los Angeles County, just in time to take a prominent part in the forma- 
tion of Orange County in 1889. At first, he was foreman of the Daniel Halladay ranch; 
but in J890 he located in what is now the Placentia district and acquired twenty acres of 
land on Palm Avenue — the Tesoro ranch — to which he added later, so that now he owns 
some fifty-five acres, all set-out to Valencia and Navel oranges, under his expert direc- 
tion brought to a high state of cultivation. Besides this, Mr. Bradford has other citrus 
land holdings, including oil-producing property. ^ 

He helped to organize the Southern California Fruit Exchange, and was a director 
in the same, although for a number of years he was an independent fruit packer and 
Owned his own packing house. Later he sold this to R. T. Davies, and hfe now packs 
through, him. For fifteen years he was a director- of the Anaheim Union Water Com- 
pany, and chairman_of the ditch committee, and he helped to organize the First National 
Bank and^he American Savings Bank of Anaheim, and is still a 'director in both. 

Mr. Bradford's place in California history is pleasantly assured, through his dis- 
tinction as the founder of the town of "Placentia. He bought sixty acres of land for the 
townsite from Richard Melrose of Anaheim in 1910, laid out the town and secured the 
right-of-way for the Santa Fe Railroad to build its line; and Placentia is now a busy, 
thriving town, with paved streets, modem business blocks and attractive homes, situated 



226 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

in the heart of the richest orange and oil section of Orange County. It has a modern, 
up-to-date grammar school and its own private water system for domestic service. The 
Placentia Domestic Water Works has one well ISO feet deep, and another 187 feet, with 
a modern pumping plant. Two large iron tanks hold 52,000 gallons, and a small tank 
contains 1,800 gallons, for the use of the packing houses. The largest street main is a 
six-inth pipe, and there are now 228 water meters installed. There are eight fire 
hydrants, and the town has a twenty-horsepower electric motor. It will be seen, there- 
fore, that with clear, pure water, the water system of Placentia compares favorably 
with that of any other place in the county. 

The Placentia National Bank of which Mr. Bradford is president was organized 
by him in 1911, and occupies a modern brick building of its own — some evidence of its 
almost phenomenal success from the start. He was organizer of Placentia Savings Bank 
and president of it and is also a director in the Standard Bond and Mortgage Company 
of Los Angeles, president of the Republican Petroleum Corporation, and director in 
the Orange County Automobile Association. He is chairman of the County Board of 
Foresters, and vice-president and director in the Southern Counties Gas Company, all 
of them representative business associations. Since 1909 he has had charge, as has 
been said, of the Orange County exhibit at the annual orange show held in San Ber- 
nardino each February, and for ten season has made a new and novel design. 

Mr. Bradford has been married three times. The first Mrs. Bradford was Miss 
Fannie R. Mead before her marriage, and she was a native of Winchester, Mass., and 
the daughter of Captain H. Mead. The latter commanded the U. S. Gunboat Monadnock 
during the siege of Fort Fisher, in the Civil War, and continuing to follow the high 
seas, he met a tragic death in the burning of his steamer oflf Cape Hatteras. Four 
children blessed the union: Elsie G., the only daughter, grew up to graduate from the 
FuUerton high school, and died on March 17, 1908. Hartwell A. and Percy L. became 
mainstays to their parents; but the mother, who passed away on January 9, 1910, did 
not see the patriotic service of the younger child, Warren M. Bradford, who served in 
France in the World War, as first lieutenant of the Twenty-third U. S. Engineers. 
His was the strenuous life of the able-bodied, idealistic and enthusiastic soldier, who 
never was willing to do the minimum possible, and it is not surprising that he was in 
several of the most important and famous drives. The blow to Mr. Bradford in the 
death of his devoted companion threatened to unnerve and incapacitate him; but 
through the endeavor to overcome the ill effects, he accomplished the great work of 
providing for the Santa Fe cut-oflf from Richfield to Fullerton, through Placentia, and 
also for the founding of the latter town. Hartwell A. Bradford graduated from the 
Colorado School of Mines, and has made a name for himself as a mining expert in 
both the United States and Mexico. Percival Loring Bradford was graduated from 
the Armour Institute of Chicago, as an electrical engineer; while Warren is a musician 
with proficiency on the piano and cornet. The second Mrs. Bradford was Ellen R. 
Mead who died November 23, 1918. The present Mrs. Bradford was Mrs. Winifred 
Wade Bryan, born in Missouri, the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Wade. 

Mr. Bradford is one of the most prominent Masons in California, having been 
made a Mason in Anaheim Lodge No. 207, F. & A. M., of which he was master three 
years. He was exalted to the Royal Arch degree in Santa Ana Chapter and was an 
organizer of Fullerton Chapter No. 90, R. A. M., and for three years was its high 
priest, although he did the work for five years. He is a member of the Grand Chapter 
of California and was deputy grand lecturer of the Nineteenth district. He is also a 
member of Santa Ana Council No. 14, R. & S. M. Mr. Bradford was knighted in 
Santa Ana Commandery No. 36, Knights Templar, and afterwards became a charter 
member of Fullerton Commandery. He is a member of Los Angeles Consistory, S. R., 
and also a life member of Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. O N. M. S., Los Angeles. Always 
a believer in protection and nationalism for Americans he is decidedly a Republican 
and has always been active and prominent in matters of political moment to the 
county and state. 

STROTHER S. BALL — During his forty years of continuous residence in 
Orange County, Strother S- Ball has witnessed the marvelous development of agri- 
culture and citrus culture in the county, as well as the growth of villages into up-to- 
date cities. He was born January 29, 1848, in Gentry County, Mo., the son of Hezekiah 
R. and Ellen (Stephens) Ball, the former a native of Kentucky. Mr. and Mrs. Hezekiah 
Ball were the parents of eight children, five of whom are living. 

In 1865, after the Civil War, the family migrated, by the ox-team route, to Arizona. 
The indomitable spirit of the pioneer possesse'd this hardy family to such a degree 
that they determined to migrate still farther westward until the Golden State was 
reached. In 1866 the family arrived in San Bernardino, where they remained until 
1880, when they located in what is now Orange County. 





c-*' 



HISTORY OF GRANGE COUNTY 229 

In 1881 Hezekiah Ball purchased 200 acres of land at the small price of fifteen 
dollars an acre. Here he followed general farming until his passing away in 1909. The 
land was subsequently divided and disposed of, Strother Ball receiving his share of the 
estate. Mr. Ball occupies an established place in the community where he has so long 
been a resident, and stands high in the estimation of a large circle of friends. 

RICHARD 'T. HARRIS,— A public official who made an enviable record that 
will long speak for both his high sense of integrity and his sagacity was the late 
Richard T. Harris, the first sheriff and tax collector, and the third treasurer of Orange 
Eounty. He was born in Richmond, Va., on February 15, 1859, the son of John 
and Grace Harris, now deceased, who were both natives of Cornwall, England, where 
they were also married. They located, on first coming to America, in Richmond, Va., 
but, attracted by the exciting news of the discovery, of gold in California, came out to 
California in 1860 and located in Grass Valley, Nevada County. For a while Mr. 
Harris followed mining there, and then he came to Healdsburg, Sonoma County, 
and from there to Santa Clara County. In the Centennial year of 1876, Mr. Harris 
settled in the Garden Grove district, which was then in Los Angeles County, and 
there followed farming. 

On reaching young manhood, Richard T. Harris entered the mercantile field, 

conducting a general merchandise store at Westminster. When Orange County 

was formed, he was one of those distinguished by his foresight and his helpful par- 

. tiripation in the hard work of the project, and naturally he was elected — by a majority 

: of 1,700 — the first sheriff and tax collector. Later he was elected county treasurer. 

, In each of these offices he served a term and became one of the best-known men 

in the county. He was also interested in ranching and devoted considerable of his 

time to growing walnuts, oranges and celery. Politically he was a stanch Republican. 

On July 3, 1888, at Westminster, Mr. Harris was married to Miss Maria S. 
Larter, a native of Ontario, Canada, the family home being only six miles from 
Niagara Falls. She was the daughter of Robert and Mary J. (Hansler) Larter, born 
in Norwich, England,- and Canada, respectively. Mrs. Harris accompanied her par- 
ents to Westminster in 1876, her father being one of the pioneer farmers there, and 
this was his home until his death. His widow survives, malting her home at West- 
minster. Mr. and Mrs. Harris were the parents of one daughter, Geraldine May, 
who passed away at the age of nine years. Mrs. 'Harris is a cultured and refined 
woman, well-read and well-traveled, and this, coupled with a retentive memory, 
makes her a very interesting conversationalist. She is also endowed with much 
business acumen, which stands her in good stead in the rhaiiageinent of the large 
affairs left her by her husband, a stewrardship of which she is giving a good account. 

Mr. Harris was a director in the Santa Ana Cooperative Sugar Company, and 
took a live interest in the establishinent of this plant which has- done so much to build 
up the county. He also served for a time as assistant postmaster at Westminster, 
and also started the telephone company there. During the early history of the oil 
industry in Southern California, he was one of the priine movers in the organization 
of the Fidelity Oil Company, and operated in the Whittier field. His ventures were 
successful and he retired from' that line with a considerable fortune. On his derhise, 
on November 28, 1911, the local newspaper said of him: "A man of business affairs, 
he was progressive, and had been active in the promotion of several enterprises that 
have benefited this city and county. That he was highly esteemed and enjoyed the 
confidence of the public is evidenced by the fact that he held county office at two 
different times." 

DANIEL KRAEMER. — :Among the famous pathfinders bringing civilization and 
progress to this promising corner of the Golden State, and the first white settler to 
pitch a tent in the Placentia district in Orange County, and the first white fatnily to 
.settle outside of the willow fence inclosing the Anaheim settlement, Daniel Kraemer, 
who passed to his eternal reward in 1882, deserves the lasting recognition of a reveren- 
tial posterity. Born at St. John, one of the most picturesquely-situated mountain, re- 
sorts in the Swabian Alps, Bavaria, not far from the renowned castle of Lichtensfein, 
on November 17, 1816, he cafne to America at the age of twenty-six, and located,»near 
Belleville, in St. Clair County, 111., where he took up farming. He also married there, 
and in that prosperous section of the Middle West his nine children were born. 

Two tedious trips were made between his Illinois home and Southern California 
before_ he made this section his permanent home; for he "first came West in 1865, 
bought his land, and returned to Illinois. The following year he came here again,, 
but once more found it necessary to return East. On his third trip, in 1867, he brought 
his family with him. To make the journey at that time meant to take the railway from 
St. Louis to New York, thence by boat to the Isthmus of Panama, after that by steamer 
to San Francisco, and next by boat to San Pedro, from which port the tourists took 
wagons overland to the ranch. 



230 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

When he first came here, in 1865, Mr. Kraemer purchased a portion of the 
original Mexican grant known as the San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana Rancho, his par- 
ticular part being designated the Peor Es Nada Rancho, named from a Mexican 
village then near by, and meaning in Spanish, "Worse than nothing." Its English 
name, however, was "The Cajon Ranch." This strip of land comprised 3,900 acres, and 
its original boundaries were what is now Placentia Avenue on the west, the J. K. 
Tuffree RancK on the north, the Richfield territory on the east, and the Santa Ana 
River on the south. Cattle and horses at first roamed freely there, but later the sheep 
herds crowded them out, so that really the latter made way for the farmer and the 

horticulturist. , , . ■ ,c,m j • 

This great ranch remained intact until the death of its owner in 1882, and since 
that time most of its acreage has been sold, so that the once princely domain consti- 
tutes a large portion of the present Placentia district. On his first trip here, Mr. 
Kraemer found a ditch, the Ontiveros, which ran eastward from the house he bought 
through what is now the district of Richfield, and then through Yorba, the intake being 
close to the old Trinidad Yorba house; and returning from the East in 1867, he dis- 
covered that the flow from this ditch, his only irrigation supply, was being seriously 
interfered with. He then built a ditch of his own to the Santa Ana River, which 
intersected the Ontiveros ditch, one and a half miles east of his home, and this 
was the first individual canal to be built in this section. He was also one of the 
projectors of the Cajon Canal, built in 1875, which carries water through all of the 
Placentia district, through Fullerton and Orangethorpe, and much of Anaheim. 

Mr. Kraemer showed his appreciation of popular education in helping to organize 
the Cajon School district, in 1874, the first district in this section, and .donated an 
acre of ground for school purposes. Five years later, this district was renamed the 
Placentia. He brought both the first mowing and the first sewing machine here, and 
before he laid aside his earthly labors, on February 6, 1882, he had splendidly im- 
proved between 400 and 500 acres of his vast estate. 

When Daniel Kraemer married, he took for his wife Miss Magdalena E. Schrag, 
a native of Battenberg, Germany, and of Swiss parentage; a most valuable helpmate, 
who died on January 3, 1889. One of their daughters, Elizabeth, died on November 
18, 1875. The other children are: Henry Kraemer of Placentia; Mrs. Barbara Parker 
of Anaheim; D. J. Kraemer of Brownsville, Texas; Samuel Kraemer, also of Pla- 
centia; Mrs. Emma M. Grimshaw of Anaheim; she has a daughter, M. Alice Grim- 
shaw, a teacher in the Anaheim public schools; Edward M. Kraemer of Olive; Mrs. 
Mary K. Miller of- Anaheim, and Benjamin, living on .the original Kraemer home place 
at Placentia. A son of Mrs. Miller, Edvvard L. Miller, is a graduate from Occidental 
College, and when the World War called for his services, he enlisted. He served 
twenty-two months with the now historic One Hundred Seventeenth Engineer Corps, 
was in six important drives, and six times went "over the top." 

MRS. MARY ORILLA KELLOGG.— It seems eminently fitting that the names 
of the early pioneers of California should be perpetuated in such a manner that their 
labors, in the days of trials and hardships, may remain an inspiration and encourage- 
ment to the toilers of today. Great honor is due the names of those courageous men 
and women who braved the perils of the overland trail in their untiring efforts to 
blaze a path and establish a civilization for the generations to come. In California 
and Orange County, the names of Benjamin Franklin and Mary Orilla Kellogg stand 
out prominently. 

By those who knew him during his active life, Mr. Kellogg is recalled as a 
man who contributed not a little to the permanent growth of the localities in which 
he elected to reside. No one knew better than he the terrors of the overland 
trail or more dearly won his right to be numbered among the most courageous of 
the western pioneers. He was born in Morgan County, 111., April 31, 1822, and was 
the youngest of six children. A descendant of a prominent New England family, 
his father, Elisha, was born in Massachusetts, and settled in Genesee County, N. Y., 
where he was judge and sheriff. Upon removing to Morgan County, 111., he built 
the first house in the county and did farming and stock raising on a large scal^ ~ I^ater 
he moved to Jo Daviess County, and there he died in 1844. He married Elizabeth 
. Derrick, who was born in Connecticut, and died in Jo Daviess County, 111. 

In his youth, B. F. Kellogg received but a limited education and was brought up 
to farm labor of the severest kind. In 1844 himself and brother Erwin went" to the 
Rocky Mountains in search of a silver mine, but, failing in their quest, secured a Gov- 
ernment contract and built Fort Laramie. They met with many uncanny and danger- 
ous adventures, which, however, did not diminish their enthusiasm for the West. Two 
years later found them en route to the. Pacific Coast as members of the Donner party, 
but few of whom ever reached their destination. The brothers parted from the original 




E[igSliTCiiiif!idBn!iliiir!fe-ttni.™;HiMirtCi 






^.-^-^<^>^ 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 235 

party at Donner Lake, and proceeded with others upon what proved to be a terrible 
and hauHtingly gruesome journey. At one time, while searching for the silver mine 
near Fort Laramie, they were attacked by Pawnee Indians, stripped of their clothes 
and robbed of all they had with them. So reduced were they that they had to eat 
walnuts and raw frogs. The brothers were at one time separated from each other, 
and during this time, B. F. Kellogg, in lieu of any kind of food, and on the verge 
of starvation, scratched the hair from his buffalo coat and ate the hide. In time 
he was found by his brother, who had gone in search of help, in an almost dying 
condition, and was succored by some friendly Indians whom they chanced to meet. 

Arriving in Napa Valley, Mr. Kellogg enlisted in General Fremont's army and 
served six months, and was honorably discharged in April, 1847. tie was also a 
veteran of the Mexican War. He engaged in mining with varying success, then 
turned his attention to farming in Napa Valley, and later in the vicinity of St. Helena. 
On September S, 1864, at White Sulphur Springs, he married Mary Orilla Lillie, 
who was born in Fulton County, 111., on July 15, 1832, a daughter of Luther and 
Orilla (Morgan) Lillie, natives of Connecticut. Her paternal grandfather, David 
Lillie, was also born in Connecticut, and settled first in New York, then in Ohio, and 
later in Indiana. In 1831 he located in Fulton County, 111., of which he was a pioneer, 
and where he died at the age of eighty-two years. He served as a soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary War and the Black Hawk War. Luther Lillie was a farmer in New York, 
Ohio and Illinois, and was also a millwright and machinist, and had shops in the dif- 
ferent places in which he lived. He settled in Illinois in 1831 at a time when the 
Indians were numerous and troublesome. He died in 1837 and his wife passed away 
in 1833, the mother of fourteen children. One son, Leonard G., came to California 
in 1850 and died in Napa Valley, and two daughters, Mrs. Rosana Evey and Mrs. 
Emeline Butler, came West in 1854 and 1855, respectively. 

Mrs. Kellogg was reared in Illinois and attended school in a little log school- 
house with slab benches, and later in a frame building. When she was twenty months 
of age her mother died, and when she was seven her father passed away, and she 
went to live with a family named Breed. From the first she was obliged to work 
hard between the rising and the setting of the sun, so that school was a luxury and 
leisure an unheard-of commodity. In 1853 she undertook to accompany her brother, 
Leonard G., his wife and their five children, and her sister, Mrs. Butler, to California. 
The experiences while crossing the plains are vividly recalled by Mrs. Kellogg at 
this day, and contained much of interest and adventure. The ox-teams were out- 
fitted at Farmington, 111., and they crossed the Mississippi at Burlington on May 3, 
1853, thence took the Platte route and the Green River route to Humboldt and the 
Southern pass route to Sacramento and Napa Valley. In the Napa Valley the brother 
built and operated a grist mill, and here Mrs. Kellogg lived until her marriage in 1854. 

On May 21, 1869, Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg brought their family of eight children 
to Anaheim, in the vicinity of which Mr. Kellogg bought 640 acres of land from the 
Stearns Rancho Company. This land was improved from the rough, built up with 
residences and barns, and fitted with wells and fences, and rendered generally habit- 
able. While these improvements were being made the family lived in a tent. There 
were no houses between their place and Los Angeles, nor were there any towns to 
the south of them. Disaster followed in the wake of all this industry, for the grass- 
hoppers and wild horses played havoc with the crops for three succeeding years. 
In time Mr. Kellogg became prosperous, and a prominent factor in the general growth 
of this locality. He gave each of his sons a tract of forty acres of land which they 
improved. Politically he was a Republican, and while in Napa County served as 
coroner and as school trustee. In Orange County, then Los Angeles County, he 
donated three acres of land for a schoolhouse and was one of the trustees for many 
years. The death of Mr. Kellogg, December 16, 1890, witnessed the passing of a 
thoroughly good man, and one who knew the value of opportunity and how to use it. 

After her husband's death, Mrs. Kellogg, with the aid of her sons, kept alive the 
interests of the home, and she now retains but eighteen acres of the original home- 
stead, and this is planted to walnuts and oranges. She has divided the portion of 
land left to her equally among her daughters. She is a Republican in politics, and 
in earlier years was a member of the W. R. C. and W. C. T. U., and is a member 
of the Christian Church. In that calm and splendid way known only to the pioneer 
women who have suffered much and endured patiently, she has reared to years of 
usefulness nine children, to any one of whom their mother is the embodiment of all 
that is true, gracious and approachable in women. H. Clay is a graduate of Wilson 
College and is a surveyor and civil engineer at Santa Ana; Mary E. became the wife 
of Byron O. Clark and lives at Paradise, Butte County; Erwin F. is deceased; Louisa 
13 



236 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

T is Mrs. L. A. Evans of Orange County; Leonard G. is in Guatemala; Edward L. 
is ranching at Van Nuys; Lillie M. married William Dunlap and is deceased; Clara 
E. became Mrs. Carl F. Raab and is deceased, and Carrie A. married Richard N. 
Bird of Los Angeles. , , , , ■ r 

A splendid type of pioneer woman, Mrs. Kellogg met the trials and hardships of 
the early years with patience and fortitude, and now in her eighty-ninth year, still 
retains a remarkable degree of vitality for one of her years, and is still greatly inter- 
ested in the development of the county where she has lived for over half a century. 
She has living thirty-three grandchildren and twenty-five great-grandchildren to call 
her blessed. 

DR WILLIAM FREEMAN.— Among the distinguished representatives of the 
medical profession in Orange County whose influence for scientific progress is still felt 
althouo-h as the result of years of unremitting application to his work- he has been 
retired°for nearly six years, is William Freeman, M. D., a native of Medina County, 
Ohio where he was born on January 6, 1841. He attended the public schools of his 
home district, but when seventeen removed to DeKalb County, Ind., and continued his 
studies in the Auburn Academy. Having been commissioned by the school authorities 
to teach, he took charge of a school the next year; but in 1861, at the second call by 
the Federal Government for soldiers he enlisted on September 5, and joined Company 
H Thirtieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He campaigned in Kentucky and Tennessee, 
as' a part of the "Army of the Cumberland, and saw stirring action in more than one 
important battle or engagement. These included the battle of Shiloh, Stone River, in 
which he received a gunshot wound through the right hand, and the battle of Chica- 
mauga, where he was permanently disabled by a shot through the body. He was laid 
up for a while in a Chattanooga hospital, from which he was transferred to Murfrees- 
boro, where he was compelled to stay for several months. At length he was taken home 
by his father on a stretcher, and on his recovering to a degree, he was made sergeant 
of sanitary police at Totten Field Hospital in Louisville. At the expiration of his term 
of enlistment, he was returned to Indianapolis and honorably discharged. To such 
men as Dr. Freeman, the Union owes its preservation today. 

Before he enlisted, our subject had commenced the study of medicine, and on 
once more regaining his civic freedom, he went back to Auburn, Ind., and again took 
up the subject under Dr. A. H. Larimore, a noted practitioner. When he was ready for 
a course of lectures, he went to the Cincinnati College of Medicine, and after the usual 
severe tests, he joined the graduating class of '67. Then he opened an office at Vevay, 
Ind., and later practiced at Madison, in the same state. Ambitious to still further 
perfect hi-mself, he pursued post-graduate work at Indianapolis, and once more resumed 
practice, first at Vevay and then at M'adison. 

Still suffering from the wounds he had received in the service of his country, 
and broken in health from overwork. Dr. Freeman left the Middle West in 1894 and 
sought relief in less frigid California. For two years he rested at San Diego, and when 
he had practically restored his health, he came to Orange County. He was attracted 
to Fullerton in particular, and there for eighteen years he enjoyed a highly remunerative 
practice. A man of foresight, anticipating the needs of the community, Dr. Free- 
man was one of the early promoters of the Fullerton Hospital, which became also an 
excellent training school for nurses. He invested in city property, and so showed his 
confidence in the future of Fullerton, and built a cosy residence, at the same time that 
he improved seven acres to oranges on Orangethorpe Avenue. Dr. Freeman removed 
to near Anaheim and bought eleven and a half acres on Santa Ana Street, where he 
set out oranges, there being some walnut trees on the place, and soon demonstrated 
his ability to succeed as a rancher. He remained there eighteen months then returned 
to Fullerton and bought twenty and a half acres adjoining his original seven; this 
he also set to oranges and kept it until 1918 when he sold it. In Fullerton, where he 
is a pioneer. Dr. Freeman had been health officer, administering his responsibility sO' 
well that no contagious disease was ever allowed to spread during the four years he 
served as first city health officer. He was one of the organizers of the Chamber of 
Commerce. In Anaheim he lent his experience and counsel in the direction of im- 
proved sanitation and greater assurance for public health. When in Indiana, he served 
his fellow-citizens for a couple of terms in the state legislature, and was also one of the 
directors of the Indiana State Reform School, and these experiences enabled him tO' 
be the more serviceable when he assumed citizenship in California. He was also for 
seven years on the Indiana Board of Pension Examiners. 

By his first marriage, Dr. Freeman became the father of four children — A. W. 
Freeman, an oil man of Oklahoma; J. A. Freeman, a produce dealer of Santa Barbara; 
W. A. Freeman, manager of the Mission Produce Company, at Santa Maria; and 




,^Aj(^i4 ^ A^^:^-tyC^^^^— 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 239 

Mrs. Fred Shaw of El Centre. At Whittier, he married his second wife, Miss Belle 
McFadden, a native of Illinois, who was reared in Mercer County in that state. Both 
Doctor and Mrs. Freeman are members of the Eastern Star, and the Doctor belongs 
to Fullerton Lodge, No. 339, F. & A. M. He is also a member of Malvern Hill Post, 
G. A. R., and was chief mustering officer under -Colonel Merrill, when he was depart- 
ment commander. He is hale and hearty, and looks back with pleasure to the arduous 
days in Indiana, when for twenty-five years he attended to his practice while riding 
horseback, often on wide circuits. Dr. Freeman belongs to the Christian Church. 

LEWIS FENNO MOULTON.— The steady increase in population and the tend- 
ency toward intensive cultivation of the land -have had much to do with the dividing 
up of the great ranches of the early Spanish grants into small tracts. Noteworthy 
among the few large tracts that still remain intact is the great Moulton ranch of 22,000 
acres which lies southwest or El Toro. Lewis Fenno Moulton, its original proprietor 
and owner, still directs its affairs with the ability and energy that have always char- 
acterized his undertakings. 

Prominent in the early colonial affairs of New England, the Moulton family has 
contributed many representatives who occupied important posts in the stirring political 
and military affairs of that day. One of the bravest of these was Gen. Jeremiah Moul- 
ton, who served with distinction in the Revolutionary War, and was one of the most 
zealous of the colonies' defenders. Sharing in this patriotic spirit were other members 
of the family, SamuelFarrar, who participated in the Battle of Concord, and Samuel 
Fenno, whose name is associated with the events that led up to the Boston tea party. 
In the second war with the Mother Country, Jotham Moulton, the son of Gen. Jere- 
miah Moulton, displayed the same spirit as his forbears, taking an active part in the 
conflict. Jotham Moulton, a physician by profession, married Lucy Farrar, and for 
many years they made their home in Bucksport, Maine. Among their children was 
J. Tilden Moulton, th« father of Lewis F., who was born in Maine in 1808. After 
graduating from Bowdoin College and Harvard Law School, and practicing his pro- 
fession in Cherryfield, "Maine, for several years, he removed to Chicago, 111., where 
for many years he occupied a place of distinction in its legal circles. In addition to 
his large practice he served as a master in chancery of the United States Court at 
Chicago, and was as well known in its journalistic circles, being one of the first 
editors of the Chicago Tribune. His high professional standing brought him into 
contact with all the great men of that day and locality, and among the friendships he 
prized most was that of Abraham Lincoln, who was one of his classmates" in law 
college. During his residence in the East he had been united in marriage with Miss 
Charlotte Harding Fenno, a native of Massachusetts, but who was reared and edu- 
cated in Connecticut. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Tilden Moulton were the parents of two children: Irving F., for 
many years vice-president and cashier of the Bank of California, but now retired, resid- 
ing at San Francisco, and Lewis Fenno, the subject of this sketch. He was born at 
Chicago on January 17, 1854, and spent the first years of his life in the parental homfr 
there, one of his early and cherished memories being of Abraham Lincoln, who fre- 
quently came to the Moulton home. Unlike his father, his inclination did not lie in the 
way of training for a professional career, and as soon as he had completed the grammar 
school Course he set about to earn his own living, the father's death when Lewis was 
but a young lad also making it expedient for him to learn to make his way in the 
world. His first work was packing shingles on Chicago wharfs, and later, after the 
death of the father, the family removed to Boston, Mass., and here he was empFoyed 
by a storekeeper to run errands, earning a dollar and a half per week. At the age 
of fifteen he began working on the old Daniel Webster farm near Marshfield, Mass., 
remaining there for three years. 

Feeling that the Far West offered greater opportunities Mr. Moulton started on 
the long trip to California in 1874, making the journey by way of the Isthmus of 
Panama. Locating at once at Santa Ana, then Los Angeles County, but now Orange 
County he began work on the San Joaquin ranch near Santa Ana, and subsequently 
went into the sheep raising business with C. E. French, continuing in this for several 
years. Going to San Francisco he established a wholesale slaughter house there, but 
this did not prove a financial success, so he returned after a short time to Orange 
County. He soon was able to start afresh, and it was but a short time until he vvas 
on the road to prosperity. His first purchase, about 189S, was a tract of 19,500 acres 
adjoining the San Joaquin ranch and extending to the ocean, and this has been in- 
creased by subsequent purchase until the ranch now comprises 22,000 acres. Mr. 
Moulton is extensively engaged in raising beef cattle for the market, mostly high- 
grade Durham Shorthorn cattle; so he is very naturally a member of the California 
Cattle Growers Association. -The acreage not required for pasturage is devoted to 



240 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

raising barley, wheat, beans and hay, Mr. Moulton leasing it to tenants for this 
purpose, from ten to fifteen farmers usually being engaged on the place. 

Every department of the business is systematically organized and conducted, 
the greater part of it under the personal supervision of Mr. Moulton, whose ability 
as a business head and executive has been one of the chief factors in the eminent 
success that he has made. A well-appointed office is maintained on the ranch, and 
there are two commodious residences, one of which is occupied by Mr. Moulton, 
while the other is the home of Mrs. M. E. Daguerre, who owns a third interest in 
the ranch, her husband, Jean Pierre Daguerre, having been Mr. Moulton's partner 
before his decease. Excellent barns and outbuildings, well-kept lawns and drives 
add to the attractiveness of the ranch, which is always kept up to the highest state 
of cultivation. While the responsibility entailed by the details of this extensive busi- 
ness absorbs the greater part of Mr. Moulton's time, he has always been active in his 
support of the Republican party, and is known throughout the county as one of its 
most generous and large-hearted citizens in his many benefactions. 

MRS. MINERVA J. FLIPPEN.— A liberal-minded, interesting native daughter, 
especially proud of the fact that her father was a forty-niner, is Mrs. Minerva J. 
Flippen, the widow of a well-known Californian, esteemed by all his associates. She 
is the daughter of Nathan Stanley Banner, who was born on the Catawba River, in 
North Carolina, in 1822, and the granddaughter of John Danner, who moved from North 
Carolina to Missouri, and settled as a farmer near Springfield. There his wife died; 
and in 1857 he crossed the great plains in an ox team train, and died in 1871 in Merced 
County in his eighty-fourth year. The Banners are of German extraction, the pro- 
genitor of the name in America, John Danner, coming to North Carolina before the 
Revolutionary War. Nathan S. Danner came across the plains from Missouri to Cali- 
fornia in 1849 as a gold-seeker, and mined in Marysville and the Sierra Mountains, 
down into Mariposa County, where he also had a store; and he was so successful that 
in 18S2 he returned East by way of Panama, to Missouri. There he was married that 
year to Miss Minerva Pearce, who was born in Tennessee in 183S, the daughter of 
Edmund Pearce, of English descent, and in the year 1857 he again came to California, 
once more traveling by way of Panama, and located on the Tuolumne River, in Stan- 
islaus County, where he engaged in farming and the raising of cattle. The flood of 
1862 washed away his house, cattle and farm implements, and even the farm became 
lost in the bed of the Tuolumne River; whereupon he moved to the Merced River, in 
1863. He first settled on an island, but the flood of 1867 covered it, and again he lost 
his crops; but he took his family away in a boat, and moved to Hopeton, six miles 
from Snelling. Here he farmed until October, 1872, when he and his family removed 
to Kern County, near Linns Valley, forty miles northeast of Bakersfield, where he 
followed stock raising; he improved a farm near Woody, and at Blue Mountain he 
opened the mine that is still being exploited. He set out big trees and otherwise 
improved the place, and went in for stock raising, although, since there were bear, 
deer and antelope in profusion, they had plenty of profitable hunting. Later he moved 
north into Tulare County, and owned a place on White River, where he resided until he 
died, in 1892. Mrs. Danner spent her last days with Mrs. Flippen, and died in 1911, 
aged seventy-four years. She had four children; John resides in Porterville; Minerva 
J., Mrs. Flippen, is the subject of our interesting sketch; Jefferson lives at Willows, Cal., 
and Lee J. Danner is also a resident of Orange. Of these, John Danner was born in 
Missouri, and the others are natives of California. 

- Minerva J. Danner was educated in the public schools of Merced County, par- 
ticularly in the district of Woody; and there she was married on May 10, 1876, to 
Thomas M. Flippen, a native of Virginia, who came to California when seventeen, 
accompanying his father. Archer Flippen. The latter had had a tobacco factory and 
three plantations in Virginia, all of which were destroyed by the Civil War; but h-" 
recuperated somewhat in taking up stock raising in California, near Woody. Mi. 
Flippen also engaged in the sheep raising business in Fresno County, then began 
raising stock in Linns Valley after his marriage; but in February, 1891, he traded his 
ranch for land m Orange County. The first ranch that he owned here was located 
near Olive, and there he went in for general farming. He set out walnuts, apricots 
and peaches, and three years later made a trade for the present Flippen place of 
twenty acres on East Chapman Avenue. He improved it in many ways, taking out 
the old trees and setting out Valencia oranges; and as he developed the valuable prop- 
^^u^'J^l became an active member of the Santiago Orange Growers Association, in 
which he also became a director. His lamented death, on May 19, 1913, at the age 
of^sixty-two years, cut short a very useful career, of benefit to himself as well as to 
others. • He was a director in the First National Bank of Orange, and a stockholder 
in the Farmess and Merchants Bank of Santa Ana. He was also a director in the 




O.^. ^l^^uA 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 243 

Orange County Mutual Farmers Insurance Company. He was made a Mason in the 
Bakersfield Lodge during the eighties. 

Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Flippen. Marion S. is an orange grower 
of this vicinity, as are also Wade H. and Lucian, while Jeffie is in the California Art 
Craft School at Berkeley, and Virginia, the youngest, is a student at Stanford. Florence, 
next to the youngest, is a graduate of Occidental College, and the wife of Donald 
Smiley of El Modena. Since Mr. Flippen's death, Mrs. Flippen has continued to run 
the ranch and to look after the business, assisted by her children. She is a member 
of the Presbyterian' Church and participates actively in the work of the several ladies' 
societies affiliated with that excellent congregational organization. 

CHARLES DEXTER BALl/, H.D.— Closely identified with Santa Ana and 
Orange County since 1887, Charles Dexter Ball, M.D., is recognized as one of its suc- 
cessful physicians as well as one of the stanch upbuilders of Santa Ana. He comes 
from English forbears, and his lineage is traced back to Wiltshire, England, and it 
was from that place that six Ball brothers came to America in 1635 on the ship Planter. 
Benjamin Ball, a grandson of one of these brothers, settled in Framingham, Mass., in 
1703. His grandson, Dr. Silas Ball, was a surgeon in the American Army during the 
Revolutionary War. ■ , 

: Dr. C. D. Ball's father was Seth F. Ball, grandson of the Revolutionary surgeon, 
and he was born in Leverett, Mass., in 1822, and died in Santa Ana in 1900. He was 
twice married, his first wife being Arvilla Field, who died in 1884, and he was later 
married to Mary E. Rogers, who survives him. Two children were born of his first 
marriage, Charles Dexter Ball of this review, and a daughter who died in infancy. 
The mother was a descendant of Zachariah Field, one of the grantees of the state 
of Connecticut, and of Benjamin Waite, preacher, guide and Indian fighter, who was 
killed in the Deerfield massacre in 1704. The French and Indian wars of New England 
presented no more daring and picturesque character than Benjamin Waite. Seth F. 
Ball came to California in 18S4 and remained for four years, after- which he removed 
to Canada. He resided there until 1894, and then returned to California and settled 
in Santa Ana, where his last years were spent. 

Charles Dexter Ball was born in Stanstead, Quebec, October 5, 18S9. He re- 
ceived his literary education at Stanstead Academy and the Wesleyan College of Stan- 
stead; later he studied inedicine at Bishops College in Montreal, completing his course 
and receiving his degree of M.D. iti,1884. He began the practice of his profession in 
his native city, but it became necessary for, him to seek a milder climate, and, he accord- 
ingly came to Southern California and settled in Santa Ana in September, 1887; This 
was before Orange County had been formed, and the territory was a part of Los 
Angeles County, and ever since that date he has been actively engaged in the practice 
of his profession here, and is now the second oldest practitioner in point of residence 
in Santa Ana. In 1912 Dr. Ball received the ad eundem degree from McGill Univer- 
sity, Canada. He has been closely identified with the movements that have made 
Orange County one of the best-known counties in the State, if not in the United States. 

Dr. Ball assisted in organizing the Orange County Medical Association in 1889, and 
later served as its president; he was also a charter member of the Southern California 
Medical Society, organized in 1888, and has filled the office of president; he also holds 
membership in the American Medical Association. He has seen Santa Ana grow from 
a small village into one of the leading small cities of the state, and has been owner 
of valuable realty holdings from time to time. 

In 1883 Dr. Ball married Lizzie S. Bates, and she died in August, 1888. On 
October 24 of the following year, in San Leandro, Cal., he married Emma L. Rankin, 
born in Richmond, Canada, on June 3, 1861, a daughter of Zera Rankin, of Scotch 
descent, and a prominent business rhan of Richmond. Mrs. .Ball's mother died when 
she was a babe of two months. In 1886 she came to California, and in 1888 she was 
graduated from the Oakland high school. Of this happy marriage four children have 
been born: Charles F. Ball, now first assistant chief engineer of the Holt Manufac- 
turing Company at Peoria, 111. He married on April 26, 1917, Miss Margaret G. 
Weeks, and they have a daughter, Margaret Elizabeth, born October 2, 1918; Dexter 
R. Ball is interning at the University Hospital in San Francisco; John D. Ball is a 
senior in the medical department of the University of California at San Francisco. He 
married Isabel Jayne on June 28, 1919; and Emma Arvilla Ball makes her home with 
her parents in Santa Ana. All of the children are graduates of the University of 
California, at Berkeley. 

Dr. Ball has always been a Republican and has taken an interesting part in 
political affairs of the state and nation, being elected a delegate to the Republican 
National Convention in Chicago in 1920 by a large majority. He has been president 
of the Abstract and Title Guaranty Company for thirty-five years, is a director of tiie 



244 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

First National Banlc of Santa Ana; president of the Santa Ana library board since 
1895; president of the Orange County Historical Society; a member of the Sons 
of the American Revolution, California Chapter; prominent in the Odd Fellows 
and Masons, holding membership in the various bodies of the latter in Santa Ana, 
and the Shrine in Los Angeles. He served in Los Angeles throughout the entire 
war as the medical member and referee of the Southern California District Exemp- 
tion Board No. 1, giving of his best efforts to help win the war. He and his family 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Public spirited and progressive, Dr. Ball has always been a leader in all enter- 
prises for the upbuilding of Santa Ana and has done all that was possible to advance 
the social and moral welfare of its citizens. He has built up an extensive practice and 
is well known in the medical circles of the entire state as an able and high-minded 
practitioner and citizen. 

CHARLES PARKMAN TAFT.— The ninth generation of the' Taft family in 
America is represented by Charles Parkman Taft, of Orange County, Cal., and he 
was born in Mount Vernon, Ohio, July 11, 1856. His father, Henry Cheney Taft, 
was a native of Uxbridge, Mass., and of Scotch descent, who married Hannah Sophia 
Parkman of Westboro, Mass. She represented the fifth generation of the Parkman 
family in America and was of English extraction. The various members of the Taft 
and Parkman ' families in this country have been prominently identified with the 
making of American history as statesmen, scientists and scholars, many of them 
attaining to places of prominence in the various localities in which they have lived 
and labored. 

Charles P. Taft is a thorough American, is a graduate from Racine College, 
Racine, Wis., class of 77, and after leaving college he taught school for two and one- 
half years, then cajme to California and spent a year looking about the state for a 
desirable place of residence. He then settled in Los Angeles County with his parents, 
on the ranch where he now lives, and has participated in the wonderful development 
ot what is now Orange County. Here he has twenty-three acres of land that he has 
developed from its primitive condition, and is carrying on experimental work in the 
propagation of semi-tropical fruits, meeting with very good results in his labors as thus 
far developed. He has done some valuable work in originating new varieties of 
loquats, avocados and feijoas, demonstrating that these varieties can be grown suc- 
cessfully as a commercial proposition. He considers his experiments are still in 
their infancy and is still deeply engrossed in his experimental work. The leader in 
his list is the well-known variety of the "Taft Avocado," which has proven to be a 
commercial success, and is being widely planted throughout Southern California. 

The numerous varieties of the loquat that he has perfected are listed under 
the names of the Premier, the Early Red, which is ready for market in February 
and continues until the middle of June; the Champagne, the best of all; the Advance, 
and the Tanaka, of Japanese origin, are the strains he has improved. 

Mr. Taft was united in marriage on July 17, 1888, with Miss Jennie McMuUan, 
of Oakland, and she has shared with her husband the esteem of all those who have 
the pleasure of knowing them. Of an unassuming nature, Mr. Taft has carried on 
his experimental work quietly at his ranch. Though engrossed with his labors he 
has never failed to assist all worthy movements for the building up of his adopted 
county by giving of his time and means to those ends. 

ISAAC R. WILLIAMS. — As one who contributed generously to the development 
of Orange County, Isaac R. Williams was well-known and universally honored as 
one of Its pioneer settlers, and his passing away, after a brief and sudden illness, on 
March 23, 1906, removed from the community one of its stanchest citizens, and one 
who had furthered every good cause during his long years of residence here. 

"c^""^^'^^"'^ *^s ^''- Williams' native state, and there he was born on June 
20, 1854, m Schuylkill County. His parents were Daniel and Jane (Rosser) Williams, 
both natives of Wales, who came to this country with their families at an early date 
and settled m Pennsylvania. Daniel Williams made the long journey to California 
in 1856, coming via the Isthmus of Panama, and after spending some 'time in San 
Francisco he engaged in gold mining in Nevada County. In 1858 his family joined 
him, and in 1869 they removed to what is now Orange County, where he settled on 
a ranch, and there made his home until his death in 1889, Mrs. Williams passing away 
the following year. 

As he was but four years old when the family came to California, and but fifteen 
when they came to Orange County, Isaac R. Williams had but little recollection of 
any other state. At the time he came here the county was but sparsely settled and 
ranching was yet in its infancy, and it was Mr. Williams' privilege not only to see 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 245 

the wonderful development of the ensuing years, but to take an important part in 
bringing these changes about. He early acquired a thorough knowledge of farming, 
and also was interested in stock raising. His first purchase was a tract of twenty 
acres at Buena Park, and for some time he was successfully engaged in dairying 
there. He increased his holdings from time to time in this district, and in after years 
devoted quite a large acreage to raising sugar beets, also raising cabbage and hay in 
large quantities, and he continued actively on his ranch until a short time before his 
demise. While Mr. Williams was a leading worker in the Republican party, he was 
in no sense a seeker for political preferment, but as a recognition of his capability 
he was four times appointed road overseer of his district, an office that he filled with 
much credit to himself and to the satisfaction of all. 

In 1874 Mr. Williams was united in marriage with Miss Catherine Hunter, whose 
parents were John and Mary (Downing) Hunter, and they were for a number of 
years residents of Canada. Mr. Hunter was the postmaster and the proprietor of 
a general merchandise store at Bobcaygeon, and was also interested in the milling 
business there. Mrs. Williams' family were of Scotch and Irish descent, and many 
of her near relatives were prominent in the professions of law and medicine, her 
own father being a highly educated men. Mrs. Williams, who was the eldest of a 
family of four children, came to Orange County in 1871, where her father was engaged 
in ranching near Fullerton until his death. Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Williams were the 
parents of three children: Annie Jane is the widow of William Goldie, and they 
were the parents of two children — Mrs. Clark of Fullerton, and Margaret of Buena 
Park; John Walter married Miss Viola West of Fullerton and they have two children — 
George and Velma. He acts as manager for his mother's ranch and resides in a com- 
fortable home on the property. He is popular in the ranks of the Fraternal Brother- 
hood and is one of the enterprising farmers of the Buena Park district, as is his 
brother, Daniel R., who assists him in the management of the place. The latter mar- 
ried Miss Grace Lucas, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lucas, and they are the 
parents of a son, Daniel R., Jr. They are planting a considerable acreage of the 
estate to citrus fruit, adding largely to its future value in this way, and besides the 
ninety-two acres of the home place they rent land in the vicinity, and thus carry on 
their ranching operations on a large scale. 

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE HELMS.— An old resident of Orange County 
whose life has been fraught with interesting events is Napoleon Bonaparte Helms, 
who was born in Missouri on April IS, 1844, the son of Huston and Nancy Helms, 
natives respectively of Indiana and Missouri. A pair of twins was granted these worthy 
parents, and our subject was one, his brother, Lafayette, who died in May, 1919, being 
the other. 

While yet a young man, Napoleon was to be found in Texas following the, enter- 
prise, in which so many young men of that day engaged, of stock raising. The Far 
West, however, soon proved more alluring to him; and when the opportunity was offered 
him to join a company of some fifty persons ihen being organized in Texas, each with 
the same ambition, namely, to reach California and the Land of Gold, he did so, and 
started on the venturesome trip. They trusted in the courage of their hearts and 
the strength of their arms, and believed that they would reach the desired-for haven, 
and perhaps that was why little out of the ordinary occurred on their journey of four 
months by ox-team, until they reached San Bernardino in November, 1859- There 
Mr. Helms made his home, working at various pursuits, and taking up farming by way 
of preference when he could. 

In 1867 Mr. Helms returned to Texas and with two uncles bought a herd of 
1,800 steers to drive to California on speculation. Cattle at that time cost about five 
to eight dollars a head, and it was predicted that the Medlin Train, so-called because 
of the name of the leader, would realize a handsome profit on the deal. Everything 
went well until they got about 120 miles from El Paso, in the Guadalupe Mountains, 
when they were attacked by the Indians; and while thev were overpowered to some 
extent, they lost only their cattle and all their horses. There were only sixteen men 
against eighty Indians, and they fought them two days. The ox-teams and their lives 
were saved by hard fighting, and in October, 1868, they reached California. 

At San Bernardino, in 1869, Mr. Helms married Miss Elizabeth Long, one of the 
attractive ladies then in this western country, and three children were born to them: 
William L., Isabelle T., wife of William Prichard, of Laguna, and Rosie Jane, wife of 
Joseph Glines, of Oakdale. Six years later, in 1875, Mr. Helms came to Los Angeles, 
novv Orange County, and located at Santa Ana, at that time a very small town with 
only one store for the accommodation of the few pioneers; and here, for twenty-nine 
years, he followed well drilling. Mrs. Helms passed away in October, 1914, at the age 
of sixty-five, beloved by all who knew her. 



246 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Now Mr. Helms owns a trim little ranch of five acres, highly cultivated and 
maintained in a manner such as would do anyone credit, upon which he conducts 
general farming and where he is visited by his many friends; and there, too, he discusses 
national politics, with the enthusiastic bias of a Jeflfersonian Democrat, but also as an 
American citizen who will always put the welfare of his community ahead of party 
triumphs, and who, therefore, never permits partisanship to afifect him in his attitude 
toward strictly local measures and movements. 

JOSIAH C. JOPLIN. — Among the men who have built up a reputation that is 
worthy of emulation and who have had the best interests of Orange County at heart 
is Josiah C. Joplin> He was born near Liberty, what is now Bedford City, Bedford 
County, Va., a son of James W. and Emily (Booth) Joplin, both natives of that state. 
The father, who was of Scotch extraction and a farmer by occupation, was born Novem- 
ber 14, 1807, and died in Kentucky in 1900 at the venerable age of ninety-three. The 
years between these dates were filled with hard toil and the endurance of trials that 
are incident to life in a frontier country. The family was first represented in the United 
States by Rafe Jopling who, with fwo brothers, James and Thomas Jopling, emigrated 
from Scotland in the eighteenth century and settled in Virginia. Rafe Jopling espoused 
the cause of his adopted country and sacrificed his life in the Revolutionary War. 
James Jopling, the paternal grandfather of Josiah C, was a nephew of this soldier and 
a planter in Virginia. The family originally spelled their name with the final g, one 
of the family, Dr. Josiah, for whom the subject of this review was named, being the 
first to use the present spelling, dropping the g. James W. Joplin was united in 
marriage in Virginia with Emily Booth, who was born there on June 4, 1816, and died 
in the same state August 2, 1869. Nine children were born to them: Thomas M., 
James Benjamin, Jesse, William, Josiah C, Ferdinand, Mrs. Betty Martin, Otho and 
Charles. The latter was accidentally drowned at Memphis, Tenn. 

Born in Bedford County, in the Old Dominion State, September IS, 1844, Josiah 
C. Joplin was reared on a farm and received the training accorded to children in the 
pioneer days. However, he had some educational advantages, though limited, in the 
private schools of that vicinity. He always improved such opportunities as were pre- 
sented to him and by careful and extensive reading became a well informed man. Six 
of the Joplin brothers served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, Josiah C. 
enlisting in March, 1862, in Company A, Second Virginia Cavalry. They were first in 
Colonel Ashby's command, in Stonewall Jackson's Valley campaign, until Colonel 
Ashby was killed at Port Republic. After arriving at Richmond, his regiment became 
a part of the First Brigade, under Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, and was in the engagement 
at Meadow Bridge, Va., when General Stewart was killed. He served under Generals 
Beauregard and Robert E. Lee, participating in the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, 
Richmond, and the Wilderness and others of equal importance. During his service he 
was slightly wounded in three different battles. 

After the war was over Mr. Joplin returned to Franklin County, Va., where the 
family had moved during hostilities. He remained there but a short time and then 
went to Mississippi and Arkansas, spending three years in these states. He eventually 
returned to Virginia, and spent three years there in agricultural pursuits. While there 
he was united in marriage with Rebecca C. Boyd, a native of Virginia, born June 
18, 1845, a daughter of Andrew Boyd. Her uncle, Hon. W. W. Boyd, was a member of 
Congress when Virginia seceded and he withdrew and joined the Confederacy and be- 
came a member of the Confederate Senate. The following children were born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Joplin: Andrew Boyd, John Booth, James A., William P., Joe and Otho, de- 
ceased. Four of the boys are located in this county, and James A. is at Parker, Arizona. 

In 1876 Mr. Joplin decided to remove his family to California and it was here 
that he found the land of "golden opportunity," for he found health and an opportunity 
to rear his children under a wider scope than he had found in the eastern country. He 
came direct to the present limits of Orange County, but then Los Angeles County, 
and has made this his home ever since. At the time of his arrival it was but sparsely 
populated and the thriving cities and towns of the present were but in their infancy. 
He located a 160-acre homestead in Belle Canyon, residing there seventeen years as 
a possessory claim before it was surveyed so he could file his homestead claim. He 
also purchased 320 acres from two settlers adjoining him and 286 acres from the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad, and this he put under cultivation, engaging principally in stock 
raising and. bee culture. 

It can be truthfully said that no man has been more interested in the development 

ot the county than Mr. Joplin, and through participation in every progressive mbve- 

ment he became well acquainted with every well-known citizen within its boundaries. 

He has willingly given of his time and means to promote the welfare of the entire 

county, and no man has ever been more loyal to its citizens, for he has always guarded 





e i^jf^^ 




IM^AXUU (3, 




HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 251 

well every trust reposed in him. One of the most important projects fostered by Mr. 
Joplin and which did much to advance the interests of the county was his connection 
with the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893. He personally collected an exhibit of the 
products of this county and his management of the exhibit there won for him much 
praise. So successful was he in this undertaking that he was chosen to superintend 
the exhibit of the county at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. Wiggins, who was the superintendent of exhibits from the seven southern counties 
of California, gives him credit for being the first to make a success of chemically 
processing fruits for exhibits. Mrs. Joplin prepared a special exhibit of domestic canned 
fruit, for which she received a medal and diploma at the World's Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago. 

Politically, Mr. Joplin has always adhered to the principles of the Democratic 
party, and although Orange County usually has been strongly Republican, he has 
served several consecutive terms as county treasurer. He was first elected in 1898, 
from January 1, 1899 to January 1, 1903, then he was again elected county treasurer 
in 1906 and has been reelected every four years, or in 1910, 1914 and 1918. The last two 
times he was elected at the primaries. When requests were made through the legis- 
lators to the State Legislature for an increase in salary, Mr. Joplin refused to ask for an 
increase, saying that the county was paying him enough. No wonder that he stands 
high with all parties. 

Mrs. Joplin by her many charitable deeds, kindness and modesty greatly endeared 
herself to the people of Santa Ana and Orange County, because she always stood for 
truth, uprightness and a high standard of morals, and_never failed to give substantial 
encouragement to all movements in that direction; thus she was universally mourned 
by everyone when she passed away on March 20, 1911. She was a faithful wife and 
mother, having always been the greatest help and encouragement to her husband in 
his ambitions and naturally very proud of his success and the political honors he had 
received. With the same high standard and principles in view she trained and reared 
her children to be God-fearing, law-abiding and useful citizens, and her great regret 
at passing was that she could no longer see to the ministering of comforts to them, 
and before her death she wrote and left a letter addressed to her children, admon- 
ishing them to live right and useful lives and follow the example of their father, 
who had gained such a high place in the estimation of the public. She had been ill 
for several years and knew that the end was coming, so in her loving and thoughtful 
way she made a. distribution of her keepsakes and household furniture and dishes, 
giving each one the things she knew they liked and that she wished them to have. 

Always active in the interests of education, Mr. Joplin was instrumental in the 
organization of the Trabuco and Olive school districts. He took an active part in the 
founding of Orange County and his Trabuco precinct obtained the banner, because all 
votes were for county division and the organization of Orange County, and not one 
vote against it. One of the organizers of the Humane Society of Orange County in 
about 1900, Mr. Joplin has been its president ever since and very active in its work. 
He was one of the organizers and president of the first Fish and Game Protective 
Association of Orange County, and was one of the promoters of the Santa Ana Cham- 
ber of Commerce, serving as director for several years. He is prominent in the ranks 
of the Odd Fellows and was one of four organizers of the Orange County Veteran 
Odd Fellows Association, serving as its first president, and takes an active interest 
in the Orange County Historical Society. Some years ago Mr. Joplin sold his large 
ranch and since then has bought two small ranches, comprising a little over 300 acres 
of land in Belle Canyon, and these he devotes to stock raising and horticulture. 

WILLIAM H. BROOKS — A very interesting pioneer who has the distinction 
of being the first white man to live at Laguna Beach, also of now being the very oldest 
living resident of this place, his first habitation being a cabin located back of where 
the present postoffice now stands, is William H. Brooks, rancher and mail carrier. 
He was born in Ellis County, Texas, on September 9, 18SS, the youngest son and child 
of Spencer Brooks, who was born in New York in 1823, went to Illinois a young man 
and there married Miss Sylvia Heminsway, a native of Vermont, where she was born 
in 1828, and who had gone out to Illinois in her youth. The family went to Texas and 
remained there two years, and not liking the country returned to Illinois and Winne- 
bago County, where Mr. Brooks was a stockman and farmer. There he died in 1857, 
but his widow came west to California and died at Laguna at the age of eighty-four 
years. One of the sons, Oliver S. Brooks, enlisted for service in the Civil War when 
he was sixteen, served three years, and he died at Laguna in 1897. 

William H. Brooks spent his boyhood and youth on the open plains of Kansas 
and Colorado, became an expert with the rifle, and knew Wild Bill, Buffalo Bill and 
all of the scouts of those early days. In 1875 he had left home at Burlington, Kans., 



252 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

and arrived in Los Angeles when the now flourishing city was but a Mexican adobe 
village with nothing to presage its future greatness. The family had moved out to 
western Kansas in 1861, and they operated a stage station on the overland stage route 
to California. Those were the days when the country was infested with Indians and 
many a time this young lad stood guard with the men of the station to protect the 
people from the red men, and he also experienced many narrow escapes with his life. 
After these early experiences it was but natural that he should want to come to the Far 
West in search of a permanent location. 

Arriving in Los Angeles County, Mr. Brooks went to Downey, at that time one 
of the most flourishing and wide-open towns in the Southland, and here he engaged in 
ranching. It was that same year that he wandered down to Laguna Beach on a 
hunting trip, and seeing the advantageous location for ranching he took up a gov- 
ernment claim of what is now the town site of Laguna Beach, and was joined some few 
months later by his brother, the late "Nate" Brooks. Some time later Mr. Brooks 
sold his holdings here to an uncle by marriage, Henry Goff, for the paltry sum of 
fifty dollars cash. At the time of the boom in the Southland Mr. Goff sold off much 
of the land in lots and small acreage. As Mr. Brooks took notice of the rapid trend 
of affairs towards the development of the place he began to buy back property as he 
could until he became owner of considerable town property. As the beach city grew 
apace he has sold off much of his holdings at very advantageous prices and invested 
m alfalfa land in Antelope Valley. 

In 1882 Mr. Brooks had finished his apprenticeship as a blacksmith under Hank 
Stow, of Anaheim, and established a shop of his own in Los Angeles, and for years 
he was the smith employed by the I. W. Hellman Street Railway Company when 
horses were used to draw the cars. His next shop was in Santa Ana, then at Laguna 
Beach, later at Calabasas and then Bakersfield. Mr. Brooks built the hotel and store 
at Laguna, but this was burned down in 1895, and it was then he went to Bakersfield. 
He served as constable of Laguna for twelve years, was deputy sheriff for two years, 
and postmaster for three years, and during his time he witnessed many interesting 
incidents that relieved the monotony of life at the little village. After being away 
for some years he returned in 1912 and took up his residence at Laguna, and since 
1914 he has been mail carrier there. Since 1919 he has been interested in ranching in 
Antelope Valley, where he and his sons own valuable land. 

On July 4, 1878, at Downey, W. H. Brooks was married to Miss Annie Clapp, 
born at San Jose, a daughter of Frank Clapp, a planter of Kentucky, where he was 
born. Her mother was Ruth Condit before her marriage. The family located in 
Alameda County, Cal., in 1856; Mr. Clapp died in Santa Ana in 1897,! and the widow 
died there in 1907. An uncle, Frank Hartley, was one of the officers who captured 
the bandit, Vasquez. Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Brooks: Josephine 
is the wife of Maston Smith, of Corona, by whom she has two children, William 
and George. By her first union with Harry Kelly she had seven children, six now. 
living, and three of these daughters are living and married and have five children. The 
next younger than Josephine is Robert F., who is married, but has no children; Walter 
R. married Miss Stevens, but they have no children; Clarence H. married Miss ThroU 
and they have two children, Eleanor and William; Roy, the youngest son, is not mar- 
ried. All of the sons live and farm in Antelope Valley. Mrs. Brooks is known to her 
intimates as "Aunt Annie," and she has the honor of giving the name to Arch 
Beach, the attractive strand to the south of Laguna. Both Mr. and Mra, Brooks are 
highly esteemed by all who know them in Orange County. 

MRS. HATTIE W. ROSS.— A highly-honored representative of a pioneer family 
of Santa Ana is Mrs. Hattie W. Ross, the rancher and landowner, whose home at 
1429 North Baker Street is always the center of warm-hearted hospitality. She was 
born at New Madrid, Mo., the daughter of Frederick W. and Virginia Maulsby, who 
were cotton planters, owning between 7,000 and 8,000 acres of choice Missouri land. 
Mr. Maulsby received his early education in the Southern Missouri Academy, and 
later was clerk of New Madrid County, Missouri. 

Miss Maulsby came to Santa Ana with a sister, Mrs. Kate Doyle, now of El 
Monte, arriving at Santa Ana in September, 1885. She thus saw both Orange and 
Santa Ana develop from their infancy. When the plaza in Orange was laid out she 
assisted in the entertainment. On August 18, 1886, at the old Doyle home near Santa 
Ana, she was married to U. J. Ross, oldest child of Josiah and Sarah Ross, who grew 
up in Santa Ana, but was born in Watsonville. He is now foreman for the Hammond 
Lumber Company in Los Angeles. Mr. and Mrs Josiah Ross came across the plains 
in an ox-team train in 1865 and settled in the Salinas Valley for a short time, coming 
down to Los Angeles County and settling in what is now Orange County a year 
later. Then there was for the most part only Mexican and Spanish settlers here, ana 





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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 255 

considerable trouble was had with the natives. The early settlers' grain would be 
endangered by the Mexican ponies, which were allowed to graze at random, and it 
was necessary to kill many of these ponies before the Spanish element took any meas- 
ures to keep their animals off the land they had sold to the early settlers. Josiah 
Ross came across the country in prairie schooners, and if anyone "had a story to 
tell," he certainly did. The wild mustard grew so tall that even when one stood on 
the driving board of the prairie schooner it was impossible to see over the fields. 
When dried, the mustard was used by the Ross family in place of firewood. Mrs. 
Eva Sweetster, sister-in-law of Mrs. Ross, was the first girl born in Santa Ana. 

Josiah Ross purchased 275 acres of land at one dollar an acre, and a part of this 
tract is now the home place of Mrs. Hattie Ross. The rest of the land is still owned 
by Josiah Ross' descendants. Mrs. Ross is the owner of an eight-acre grove interset 
with walnuts and apricots. Her house was built on this ranch in 1907. 

Four sons honor Mrs. Ross: Ernest F. is at home; Raymond married Miss Cora 
Huntington of Santa Ana; Melvin is married to Miss Cora Hazelwood, a Nebraska 
girl, and they live at Pasadena; and Carroll B. lives at honie, a graduate of the Santa 
Ana high school and an employe of the Hammond Lumber Company of Santa Ana. 
Ernest Ross hauled the first and last lcra,ds of gravel to builjd the beet sugar factory at 
Delhi, and he was given a gold locket by the company. Raymond Ross was in the 
United States Navy during the late war, and did valiatit service as a gunner on the 
U. S. S. "Dakota." 

GRANVILLE SPURGEON. — Prominent among the names worthy to be per- 
petuated in the annals of Orange County, and particularly in the development of the 
city of Santa Ana, is that of the late Granville Spurgeon, whose sterling life and 
character will ever leave its impress on the community in whose upbuilding he was 
so loyally interested for many years. 

The Spurgeon family traces its lineage back to England, the ea:rly representatives 
of the family settling in Virginia. The grandfather of our subject removed from the 
Old Dominion State to Bourbon County, Ky., during the days of Daniel Boone and 
other early pioneers, and here Granville Spurg-eon, Sr., was born and reared. When 
he reached young manhood he was married to Lovina Sibley, who was born in Prince 
Edward County, Va., and who was directly descended from a.n influential English 
family. Removing to Columbus, Ind., in 1830, Mr. Spurgeon engaged in farming 
near there, for atout ten years, when the family located in Clark County, Mo. After 
several years spent in agricultural pursuits there they removed to Alexandria, Mo., 
where Mr. Spurgeon engaged in the mercantile business and took a prominent part in 
the affairs of the community. It was during this period that Granville Spurgeon, Jr., 
the subject of this sketch, was born, on August 19, 1843, at Louisville, Ky., the family 
being on a visit there at the time. 

Granville Spurgeon was educated in the private and public schools of Missouri, 
and also had the advantage of a course in a business college in that state. In 1849 
his father had made the trip overland to California, and engaged in mining for 
eighteen months. As the years went by he again felt the call of the West, and in 
1864 he again set out on the long journey, this time accompanied by his family, five 
months being spent in crossing the plains. They settled in Solano County, Cal., 
and here both parents passed away. Granville Spurgeon remained in Solano County 
for two years, then with his brother Benjamin and a sister he went to Watsonville, 
Santa Cruz County. In November, 1867, these two brothers joined their older brother, 
William H. Spurgeon, in Los Angeles County, taking up land between Compton 
and Los Angeles. William H. left them the following year, purchasing a tract of 
seventy-six acres belonging to the old Santiago de Santa Ana Grant, and here he 
laid out the town of Santa Ana. On the death of Benjamin Spurgeon in 1870, Gran- 
ville Spurgeon joined his brother William H., entering into partnership with him, 
and from that date until his death, which occurred August 7, 1901, he was continu- 
ously identified with the development of Santa Ana, taking a prominent part in 
every undertaking and enterprise that gave this community its well-grounded, sub- 
stantial start and enabled it to take- its place' as one of the representative cities of 
Southern California, so that the name of Spurgeon will ever be indissolubly associ- 
ated with its history. 

With his brother, W. H., Granville Spurgeon conducted the first mercantile estab- 
lishment in Santa Ana, and for many years this was the leading establishment of the 
town. Later he established a thriving fire insurance business, continuing in this for a 
number of years, finally disposing of it at a good profit on account of his health. In 
later years he purchased a tract of 100 acres of peat land, devoting this to the produc- 
tion of celery. This was at the period when celery growing was at its height in 
Orange County, and Mr. Spurgeon was most successful in raising some of the finest 



256 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

celery ever grown here. During his early years here he acted as agent for the Wells 
Fargo Express Company, and later was appointed postmaster of Santa Ana, an office 
he filled for a number of years with the utmost satisfaction to the community. In 
fraternal circles Mr. Spurgeon was prominent in the ranks of the Odd Fellows, the 
Encampment and the Rebekahs, serving for sixteen years as treasurer of the subordi- 
nate lodge. While a believer in the principles of the Democratic party, he was essen- 
tially too broadminded to be swayed by mere partisanship, especially in local politics. 
At the time of his death, in 1901, he was one of the oldest residents of Santa Ana, 
and in his passing this city lost one of her stanch upbuilders and one who occupied 
a distinctive place in her development. Commencing life without means, Mr. Spur- 
geon's habits of thrift and industry, coupled with good business judgment, enabled 
him to amass a competency, and his life presents a record well worthy of emulation. 

Mrs.' Spurgeon, who before her marriage was Miss Frederica Reinhold, is a 
native of Milwaukee, Wis., where she received an excellent education. Coming to Cali- 
fornia in 187S on a pleasure trip she met Mr. Spurgeon, at that time a leading mer- 
chant of Santa Ana, this acquaintance leading to their marriage the following year. 
They took up their residence in the house at Sixth and Main streets that Mr. Spur- 
geon had erected for his bride, and this remained the family home during his lifetime. 
After his death Mrs. Spurgeon disposed of the property and purchased her present 
home on North Broadway. Now among the oldest settlers of Santa Ana, Mrs. Spur- 
geon well remembers the early days of this now prosperous city, when what is now 
the finest residential section was a wilderness of wild mustard, and bearing little prom- 
ise of the beautiful shady streets, attractive homes and well-kept lawns of today. A 
continuous resident of this city for forty-five years, with the exception of a year spent 
at Manitou, Colo., for Mr. Spurgeon's health, Mrs. Spurgeon has always taken the 
deepest interest in the welfare of the community, and, like her late husband, has 
shown a public spiritedness that has meant much to the advancement of the social 
and moral good of the whole neighborhood. 

Of the two adopted daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Spurgeon, May S. is the wife 
of R. H. Ballard, president and general manager of the Southern California Edison 
Company, and they reside in Los Angeles. They have one daughter, Harriet, who is 
attending Vassar College. Helen S. is training for a professional nurse at the Good 
Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles. 

JUSTIN M. COPELAND. — Among the well-known educators who deserve the 
gratitude of posterity may well be mentioned, and in foremost place, the late Justin 
M. Copeland, a native of New Hampshire, where he was born on St. Patrick's Day, 1835. 
His father, the Rev. David Copeland, was a Methodist minister and became a pioneer 
clergyman in Southern Wisconsin. Justin M. began his education at Kent's Hill Semi- 
nary, Maine, later attended the Middletown College, in Middlesex County, Conn., and 
finished at Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis., to which town his parents had moved 
in 1857. When fifteen years of age he commenced his teaching in Maine, where he 
taught a term of school in Winthrop; then he taught in Connecticut, later in Wis- 
consin and then moved to Odell, 111., where he taught for two years. On his return 
to Wisconsin he served for several years as an instructor at Fond Du Lac, next going 
to Kansas, where he purchased a farm near Derby which he worked in summer, while 
he taught in winter. In 1876 he went south to Key West, Fla., and there conducted 
a school for two years, when he returned to his ranch near Derby, Kans. 

In May, 1881, he came west to California and settled in Old Newport, now Green- 
ville, and for two years he taught the district school. He also taught in other places 
in Orange County, among them Villa Park, Trabuco, Aliso Canyon, New Hope and 
Newport, and only when his eyesight failed him, and he could no longer do justice to 
the work, did Mr. Copeland give up a work very dear to his heart and in which he 
had been so signally successful — a wonderful career, having taught over forty years. 

On September 7, 1860, in Chicago, at the home of the bride's brother, Henry 
French, Mr. Copeland was married to Miss Mary E. French, a native of South Chester- 
ville, Franklin County, Maine, who Was born March 20, 1836, the daughter of Isaac 
and Eliza (Brown) French, worthy Yankee farmer folk of good old Maine. Four 
brothers of the French family came from England to Massachusetts in 1620, in a ship 
of the Mayflower party, and later some of the brothers went to New Hampshire and 
then to Maine. Mrs. Copeland's Great-grandfather French came from New Hampshire 
to Maine, and her grandfather, Joseph A,, and two brothers were among the founders 
of South Chesterville, Maine. Mrs. Copeland had two brothers in the Civil War, 
Captain Henry French, and Joseph French, who was in a Maine regiment of cavalry 
and who now lives on the old Joseph French place. She attended Kent's Hill Semi- 
nary, and when a young lady came west to Chicago, where she resided with a sister 
and a brother. She had made the acquaintance of Justin M. Copeland while the Rev. 




I 





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Engily CanipliEllBrrjlJisi-s forliisL'jrac RECOi-ii Cl' 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 261 

David Copeland was on that circuit and the acquaintance continued and resulted in 
their marriage. 

On retiring from the pedagogical field, Mr. Copeland purchased 100 acres of land 
in Orange County, which he disposed of to advantage during the early days of the 
great boom; and later he purchased twenty acres handsomely set out as an orange 
grove at Riverside, which has since proven very valuable ranch property. This ranch 
is now in charge of their only child, Joseph Eugene, who is a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Southern California, and married Miss Carrie Wilson, daughter of J. A. Wilson 
of Santa Ana. Mrs. Copeland is also the owner of a walnut grove on Grand Avenue, 
Santa Ana. In March, 1915, at the ripe old age of eighty, Mr. Copeland passed to his 
eternal reward, rich in the esteem and affection of those who best knew him. Mr. and 
Mrs. Copeland were firm believers in cooperation, hence they were members of both 
the local Citrus Association and the Santa Ana Walnut Growers Association, since 
their organization. 

Mrs. Copeland belongs, as did her exemplary husband, to the First Presbyterian 
Church of Santa Ana, in whose religious and social work she participates as best she 
can for one of her age. Public-spirited to a remarkable degree, she also took a very 
active part in the work of the Red Cross during the recent war, and at the age of 
eighty-two knit not less than ISO pairs of socks for the soldiers. 

THOMAS J. WILLIAMS.— A native of Wales, Thomas J. Williams, one of 
Orange County's honored pioneer ranchers, brought with him to this country the 
sturdy characteristics of his Welsh forbears, the Williams family being men of power- 
ful physique and long-lived, some of them living past the century mark. Mr. Williams 
was born at Carmorden, Glamorganshire, Wales, April 23, 18S2, the son of John 
and Martha (Binon) Williams; the father was a farmer as was the paternal grand- 
father, John Williams, who lived to be 104 years old. Mrs. Martha Williams' father, 
Thomas Binon, was a carpenter of Glamorganshire, Wales, and also lived to be 104 
years old. There were two sons and six daughters in the Williams family, Thomas 
J. being the sixth in order of birth, and the only one in America. He had only fair 
educational advantages, as there were no public schools in their locality, and every 
family had to pay tuition for each of their children, so in the case of large families, 
schooling was something of a luxury, and, too, his schoolhouse was seven miles away. 

In early youth, Thomas J. Williams was apprenticed for four years to learn the 
blacksmith's trade, receiving as payment his board and clothes. His training in this 
work was very thorough, and included plow work and horseshoeing. During the haying 
and harvesting season he worked on the farms of the neighborhood, one year swinging 
the scythe and cradle for sixty-seven days straight. In those days their agricultural 
implements were very primitive, and the first threshing machine Mr. Williams ever saw 
he owned and operated — a flail — and the first mowing machine he was familiar with 
was wielded in the sweat of his brow in the form of a Welsh scythe. 

On December 25, 1870, Mr. Williams was united in marriage with Elizabeth 
Williams, who was no kin, although of the same name. She was born in the same 
shire as her husband and educated in the subscription schools. Her parents were 
James and Mary (John) Williams and she was an only child. The father was a farmer 
in Wales and passed away in her early childhood. Her mother married a second 
time to David James and they came to San Bernardino in 1853, where they farmed 
for a number of years; Mr. James passed away at San Bernardino, and the mother 
spent her last years at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Thomas J. Williams, passing 
away at the age of ninety years. 

In 1872 T. J. Williams decided to try his fortune in America, and'accompanied 
by his wife and infant son, James, landed at Castle Garden, May 3, of that year. They 
went directly to Newark, Lincoln County, Ohio, and lived there for about five years, 
Mr. Williams working in the rolling mills there, making iron railroad rails. While 
in Newark he became a naturalized citizen of the United States, and cast his first vote 
for Rutherford B. Hayes as president. In 1876, they came on to California, reaching 
San Bernardino December 26, remaining there until the following April, when they 
located in the New Hope district, now Orange County, then Los Angeles County, rent- 
ing land belonging to the Rancho Los Bolsas. For six years he farmed on rented 
land then purchased twenty acres of land, later investing in two more twenty-acre 
tracts which comprises his present well-kept ranch of sixty acres. For four years he 
raised' corn and hogs, but had to sell his meat as low as two and a half cents a pound. 
Later he engaged in dairying and general farming, growing alfalfa, barley, corn, beets, 
notatoes and chili peppers, and has set out an apple orchard of three and a half acres, 
besides a family orchard. He has put down two wells, one ten-inch and one seven- 
inch, and has two pumping plants run by electric power, producing 100 inches of water. 



262 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

sufficient to furnish ample irrigation for all his land. He also has a well, windmill and 
tank for domestic purposes. 

Mr. and Mrs. Williams have had eight children: James, born in Wales, died in 
Newark, Ohio; John J., born in Newark, Ohio, died at San Pedro at the age of forty- 
two, leaving a widow; Mary Ann, now Mrs. Swindler of Anaheim, is the mother of 
four children; Thomas died at the age of nine years; Martha is the wife of Will De- 
venney, a rancher of Orange County; Elizabeth is the wife of Fred Mersel, an orange 
grower and rancher of Santa Ana; they have one child; George is in the U. S. Navy, 
having served in Asiatic waters and now in the Philippines; he married Miss Irene 
Lee of Santa Ana and they have one child living; Margaret married Henry Devenney, 
a rancher at Wasco, Kern County and they have one child. 

In the early days, Mr. Williams was well acquainted with the McFadden brothers, 
John, Robert and James, those pioneers whose names will always be associated with 
the early development of Orange County. He was connected with the construction of 
their railroad, the Santa Ana & Newport, and also worked at loading and unloading 
their boats which ran between San Francisco and Newport. Always public spirited 
and progressive, Mr. Williams helped organize Orange County and has always been 
keenly interested in its development, and is now a promoter of the Santa Ana River 
Protection District. While a supporter of the Republican party, he is inclined to be 
liberal in local affairs, voting for the best men and measures. He served four years as 
constable of Westminster township. Mrs. Williams is a member of the Church of 
Latter Day Saints. Mr. Williams still looks after twenty acres of his land, which is 
devoted to apples and alfalfa, and rents out forty acres. He and his family stand 
high in the whole community, a tribute to their more than forty years of useful 
citizenship. 

ROBERT EDWIN LARTER.— Numbered among the leading citizens of the 
Westminster district, Robert Edwin Larter has occupied a place of prominence for 
many years in the agricultural, commercial and financial interests of Orange County. 
A native of Canada, he was born in the Province of Ontario, ten miles west of Niagara 
Falls, September 7, 1861. His parents were Robert and Mary J. (Hansler) Larter, the 
latter a native of Canada;' the father was born at Norwich, England, and came to 
Canada with his mother when a boy of fifteen. He was a millwright and cabinet 
maker, and later became interested in farming. He became prominent in the politics 
of his locality, being a man of excellent judgment, and served on the township and 
county councils of his Canadian home. In 187S he made a trip to California, and while 
here he bought 160 acres of land; returning to Canada he remained there until the 
fall of 1876, when he came with his family to make California his permanent home. ■ 
This was just after the completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad, and his land lay 
in what was then Los Angeles County, this being some years before the organization 
of Orange County. It was peat land, and was then a. morass of willows, tules and 
blackberries, and it took much hard work to put it under cultivation, but it eventually 
became very productive. Robert Larter passed away in 1904; his widow survives 
him and resides at Westminster, having reached the age of eighty-four. 

The first fifteen years of Ed. Larter's life were spent in Welland County, Ontario, 
his birthplace, and there he received his early education, attending the schools at 
Westminster after the family removed here. He early began to work, however, help- 
ing his father reclaim the swamp lands of their farm and breaking the virgin soil, 
and this practical experience he found to be of great value later in life when he took 
up farming on his own account. He purchased 120 acres of land and devoted it to 
general farm'ing and dairying, in which he was very successful, also engaging in the 
celery industry when that business was at its height. Business acumen and wise 
investments have added to his capital and he now enjoys an affluence, the reward of 
industry and intelligence. Always public spirited, Mr. Larter has for years been 
prominent in the affairs of the community. A stanch Republican, he was chosen some 
years ago to represent that party on the board of supervisors, an office which he filled 
with great satisfaction to his constituency. He is now a member of the County 
Republican Central Committee, and prominent in all the councils of the party. He 
has always been interested in the cause of education and has given of his time to help 
raise the standard and equipment of the schools here, having served on the Hunting- 
ton Beach Union High School Board. He was on the building committee of the 
Orange County Court House when that structure was under way and was prominent 
in the establishment of the Talbert Drainage District and the reestablishment of the 
Bolsa Drainage District. An authority on financial affairs in the locality, he is a 
director of the Farmers and Merchants Bank of Santa Ana. In fraternal circles he 
is a charter memher of Westminster Lodge No. 72, I. O. O. F. 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 263 

Mr. Larter's marriage, in April, 1889, united him with Miss Pearl Kiefhaber, 
who was born in Indiana, but who came to Westminster with her parents when 
but a child. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Larter, two of whom passed 
away in infancy. Those living are Marie L,., the wife of Orel C. Hare of Westminster, 
whose review appears elsewhere in this work; and Lutie, who is Mrs. Will McClin- 
tock, her husband being a rancher at Garden Grove. 

HENRY OELKERS — In naming the pioneers of Orange County any list would 
be incomplete without special mention of Henry Oelkers, who for nearly forty years 
was identified with the wine industry of Anaheim. He was born near Hamburg, Ger- 
many, February 17, 18S6, and received his education in that country. 

In 1882 Henry Oelkers immigrated to America and settled at Anaheim, where 
he obtained employment with his uncle, William Konig, now deceased, who came to 
Anaheim from Germany in 1859- Mr. Konig purchased twenty acres on South Los 
Angeles Street, where the Southern Pacific Railway depot is located. Here he planted 
a vineyard, erected a winery and continued to manufacture wine for many years. The 
land has greatly increased in value and is now built up with residences and business 
blocks. William Konig was very public-spirited and always willing to support every 
worthy movement that had as its ultimate aim the upbuilding of .the best interests 
of Anaheim. One of his most noted acts — one that expressed in a very substantial 
way his keen interest and pride in the civic affairs of Anaheim — was the donation of 
the site of the public library. Being an able and successful business man, possessed 
• of sound judgment and executive ability, William Konig was recognized by his fellow 
citizens and duly elected to the important office of trustee of Anaheim, which he filled 
with great satisfaction to his townsmen and credit to himself. He passed away in 
1911, mourned by a host of friends. 

Henry Oelkers was associated with his uncle from 1882 to 1911, where he learned 
the business of winemaking and grape culture, eventually becoming the superintendent 
of his plant. In recent years he has been engaged in pruning and grafting and other- 
wise caring for orange and lemon groves, and is recognized as an expert in his line 
of work. During his nearly forty years of residence in Orange County he has wit- 
nessed marvelous changes — the development of the citrus industry, the growth of 
small villages .into up-to-date and prosperous cities and the wonderful development of 
the oil fields. 

In October, 1914, Henry Oelkers was united in marriage with Lisette Pohl, a 
native of Germany, but for a number of years a resident of Chicago. She had a son 
by a former marriage, who is now known as George Oelkers, now attending the Poly- 
technic High School in Los Angeles. 

Fraternally, Henry Oelkers is a member of Anaheim Lodge No. 199, I. O. O. F. ; 
Concordia Singing Society; charter member of Lincoln Hospital of Los Angeles, and 
religiously belongs to the Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church. 

JOHN B. NICHOLS — Well known in Santa Ana as an attorney-at-law, John 
B. Nichols is a native of Fond du Lac County, Wis., and is the son of Thomas and 
Clarissa (Brown) Nichols, both deceased. Thomas Nichols was born in the State of 
New York and his wife was a native of Maine, their marriage being solemnized at 
Albion, Edwards County, 111. The parents died when John B. was a sWiall boy, and 
as a consequence he went to live with an uncle in Edwards County, 111., for a few 
years, but ever since he was twelve years old he has made his own way in the 
world. He returned to his native state and worked out on farms near Fond du Lac 
and lived with an uncle there until he was about fifteen years old, then returned to 
Illinois. His elementary education was received in the rural school of his district 
during the winter time, as he was obliged to work on the farm during the "other 
seasons of the year. He finished his high school course at the Albion high school, after 
which he attended the Southern Illinois State Normal University at Carbondale 
from which he was graduated- Later he entered the University of Illinois at Cham- 
paign, working his way through this institution by teaching school, and after grad- 
uating he engaged in educational work in that state. 

In 1897 Mr. Nichols came to Santa Ana, where he was principal of what is now 
the Roosevelt school three years, afterward becoming principal of the schools at 
Orange. From 1903 to 1907 he filled the post of superintendent of schools for Orange 
County, elected on the Republican ticket, and then moved to Oxnard, Ventura County, 
where he was principal of the Oxnard schools. Later Mr. Nichols went to Los 
Angeles County, where he accepted the position of principal of the Union high school 
at Compton, where he remained two years. 

In the meantime Mr. Nichols had been improving his spare moments by reading 
law, having always cherished a desire to enter the legal profession. While living at 
Urbana, III., he took part of a course in law and finished his course in Los Angeles 



264 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

and was admitted to the bar in 1915, first practicing his profession in Los Ange 
On February 1, 1919, Mr. Nichols returned to Santa Ana, where he opened 
office and has since prosecuted his profession in this city. 

Mr. Nichols has been twice married; his first marriage was solemnized at Alb: 
111., when he was united with Miss Jane Marriott of that city. She passed awaj 
1903 at Santa Ana, leaving five children: Claude W.; Nora, Mrs. D. D. Dawson; Ec 
Mrs. Lucien Wisser; Ruth, Mrs. C. O. Harbell, and William H. The second marri 
of Mr. Nichols, in Orange, in 1908, united him with Miss Mary S. Schofield. In 
religious associations Mr. Nichols is a Methodist. In politics he is a Republic 
and fraternally is a Knights Templar Mason, affiliated with the Santa Ana lodges. 

DOMINGO AND MARIA BASTANCHURY.— Among the pioneer settlers 
what is now Orange County, the names of Domingo and Maria Bastanchury will ne 
be forgotten, for they were liberal supporters of all movements that had for their ; 
the betterment of local conditions and the upbuilding and development of the i 
county. Of foreign birth, Domingo Bastanchury first saw the light of day at Aldu( 
Basses-Pyrenees, France, in 1839, the son of Gracian Bastanchury. Domingo never 
the opportunity to obtain an education, as he had to work hard from a very early £ 
but what he lacked in book knowledge he made up in business sagacity, and from 
humble sheep herder he rose to a position of prominence and wealth in his chosen he 
place. When a young man of twenty-one he left home and friends and came 
America, for he knew that brighter opportunities awaited the man of energy and ju 
ment than were to be found in his own home locality in the Pyrenees. His objeci 
point was California and he left on a sailing vessel that took six months to make 
journey from his local port around Cape Horn to California. The ship encounte 
many storms and the passengers suffered many hardships, but they bore them all v 
fortitude and eventually landed in the land of their hopes — California. 

Arriving here in 1860, Mr. Bastanchury worked as a sheep herder for wages : 
after several years in that capacity he gradually acquired a band of his own and as th 
increased he became independent; at one time he was the largest sheep owner in '. 
Angeles County, having from 15,000 to 20,000 head that were grazed all over the soi 
ern part of the state. During the dry years when feed was scarce he- would take 
flocks into the mountains and try to save them from starvation. At other times 
sale of wool was so slow on account of the tariff conditions that after it had b 
kept for two years it had to be sold for two cents per pound. What that meant to 
sheep men, no one but themselves knew. As the ranges were diminished in size 
ranchers who began to grow, various kinds of crops the sheep men gradually went 
of business and Mr. Bastanchury acquired large land holdings in what is now Ora 
County. He had 1,200 acres south of Fullerton and later had 6,000 acres northwest fi 
that city. There still remains of the original acreage 3,300 acres. The family toget 
have 3,000 acres planted to citrus fruits, the largest individual citrus grove in the wo 
All the development of the large tract has been accomplished within the past 
years, as prior to 1910 it was grazing land or barley fields. This work was done 
the Bastanchury brothers, Gaston A., Joseph F.. and John B., who comprise the Basi 
chury Ranch Company, now owners of most of the property. 

Domingo Bastanchury was united in marriage in Los Angeles, on July 16, 1 
with Miss Maria Oxarart, who was born in 1848, in the same place as her husband 
who came to California in 1873. Her parents were John and Martha Oxarart, farn 
in Basses-Pyrenees, who raised grain, cattle and goats. The daughter obtained a lim 
education in her native home, but after coming to America she attended school a 3 
to perfect her English. Mrs. Bastanchury shared with her husband all the trials 
hardships incident to pioneer life on the plains of Southern California and while 
was in the mountains with his sheep she was alone with her little family, her nea 
neighbors being several miles away. She well remembers the country when there 
no sign of the present town of Fullerton; all trading was done in Los Angeles or / 
heim. The whole country was devoted to grain raising and to the raising of st^ 
with the exception of the grape industry that was being developed about Anahi 
Then came the making of wine, one of the industries of note in the state at one ti 
There were only two houses between her home place and Los Angeles, and wl 
now hundreds of autos travel the main road between Los Angeles and Fullerton 
the early days there would not be more than one team a week. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bastanchury became the parents of four sons: Dominic J., ■ 
owns and lives on his 400 acres near La Habra which is planted to walnuts and ci 
fruits; Gaston A., manager of the Bastanchury Ranch Company; Joseph F., and J 
B.. all of whom reside on the ranch and assist in its care. It is marvelous to res 
that when so much land is continually changing ownership that this large holdin 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 269 

still intact and under the highest state of development, all accomplished by the young 
men who have grown up in Orange County. On July 21, 1909, Domingo Bastanchury 
passed away at his ranch home, the house having been erected by himself and his 
good wife in 1906, and was counted one of the show places of this section of Orange 
County. Mrs. Bastanchury makes her home on her 200 acres and is in the enjoyment 
of the best of health and enters heartily into all movements that mean progress and 
better living conditions in the county. Much of the prosperity now enjoyed by the 
family is due to the capable management and foresight of this pioneer woman who has 
been a witness of the wonderful transformation of the county and Southern California 
since she first settled here, a young girl. She believes in living and letting live and 
when she can aid any worthy enterprise for bettering local conditions she is ready and 
willing to do so. Now in the evening of her days she can look back upon a life well 
spent and forward without fear, for she has done her part to make the pathways of her 
descendants smoother than the paths she once trod and to prepare them for the 
tasks that lead to success. 

D. EDSON SMITH. — A well-known pioneer, highly esteemed for his scholarship 
and long years of fruitful labors, is D. Edson Smith, of West Seventeenth Street, 
Santa Ana, whose accomplished wife is almost as favorably known for her art studies 
and work, particularly in experiments with architecture. He was born in Dorset, 
Bennington County, Vt., on January 11, 1839, and came westward with his parents 
when he was only a year old, residing successively in ten different states. He was a 
member of the first class to be graduated from the University of Iowa in 18S8, and 
for a while taught school in Missouri, and next served as a teacher eighteen miles 
southwest of Syracuse, N. Y. He also taught in Pennsylvania, and at the close of 
the Civil War he was engaged by the Freedman's Bureau to instruct some of the 
freed slaves in Virginia and North Carolina. 

In 1867 he settled in the Oneida Community in New York State, where the colony 
made iron and steel devices, and also silverware, and there he remained until 1881, 
when he came to California and purchased a home. He went back to New York 
for a year, but in 1883 he returned to the Coast and the Golden State. 

For ten years he was secretary of the Pomological Society of Southern Cali- 
fornia, and he became well-known throughout the Southland as the editor of "Re- 
pute." He also edited work for the month department of the Rural Californian for 
three years, and then he published an article entitled, "Ten Acres Enough," in which 
he set forth the argument that in California ten acres handled properly was sufficient 
for any man to take good care of, and quite as sufficient for his prosperity. This 
article was widely copied, and gave Mr. Smith national fame. In 1901, Mr. Smith was 
sent to the Buffalo Exposition to represent the Rural Californian. A son of Mr. 
Smith having become manager of the Oneida Community silverware factory, with 
his headquarters at Niagara Falls, Mr. Smith spent some time with him during the 
Exposition visit. . 

The purchase made by Mr. Smith in 1881 included ten acres, which he developed 
so cleverly that it became known as the Model Ranch. Then he sold his land, and 
rrioved into town. The removal involved their building a new home, and Mrs. Smith, 
who had made a special study of architecture, particularly the antique, designed 
their dwelling and created a structure that was so notable as to attract wide attention. 
The first Mrs. Smith was Miss Sarah Frances King before her marriage, and a mem- 
ber of a long-honored family in the Empire State, and their one living son is Eugene 
Deming Smith, who is at present in San Francisco as manager of the office there for 
the Oneida Community. The present Mrs. Smith, to whom he was married in May, 
1888, was Ellen Frances (Hutchins) Reid, the mother of Ransom Reid, who was for 
twenty years superintendent of the water works of Santa Ana. 

The Smiths, of which our subject is such a worthy representative, date back to 
the Pilgrini Fathers and the famous Preserved Smith, who came from England and 
brought so much that was desirable to the New World. What enviable blood they 
transmitted to Mr. Smith, with all of noble and ennobling sentiment, such as emanates 
from a sound body and a sound mind, may be judged when it is stated that now, in 
his eighty-second year, Mr. Smith is far more supple than the average man of thirty. 
He can stand on the edge of a brook, for example — and the writer of these lines has 
witnessed him in the operation — and so lower his head to sip the purling water-that 
he has no need of flattening out his body to get a drink, and having thoroughly studied 
the laws of nature, he affirms that any man can be young at eighty who eats and other- 
wise lives correctly. 

Mr. Smith was a resident of this section when it was a part of Los Angeles 
County. He served as president of the Santa Ana Va:lley Irrigation Company for a 
number of years, and was one of the organizer's of ihe Southern California Apricot 
Growers Association. 
14 



270 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

GEORGE McPHEE — Orange County is to be congratulated upon having 
its sealer of weights and measures, George McPhee, a man of true worth and 
questioned probity of character, one who has filled this important post for six yi 
with credit to himself and to his constituency in the county. Mr. McPhee was t 
October 19, 1856, in Kent County, New Brunswick, the son of George and Rox 
McPhee. The father was a millwright and George assisted him in the work i: 
1881, when he migrated farther westward in the great Dominion of Canada, stopj 
at Winnipeg, Manitoba, but subsequently locating at Birtle, where he conducte 
hotel for six years. 

In 1892 he arrived in California, locating at Elsinore, Riverside County, wl 
his brother conducted a newspaper. Here he remained until 1896, when he came 
Santa Ana and purchased an interest in the Santa Ana Blade, serving as the 
editor of this progressive publication for sixteen years. His wise, conservative 
patriotic editorials and the high ideals of citizenship advocated by the Blade wiel 
such a potent influence in moulding public sentiment in the county that to his effc 
can be attributed the effectual solution of many of the county's diifficult proble 
In 1911 Mr. McPhee was nominated by acclamation for city councilman; he m 
no campaign, but was elected by a splendid majority, and at his second election 
led the field in number of votes received. During his two terms of four years e; 
as councilman, Mr. McPhee was a member of the committee on public buildings ; 
city affairs. He was always greatly interested in every worthy movement that '. 
as its aim then upbuilding and betterment of civic conditions in Santa Ana; dur 
the years that he served as councilman many public buildings were erected, miles 
street pavements constructed, an ornamental lighting system installed and the ( 
grew by leaps and bounds. 

In 1914 Mr. McPhee received the appointment of county sealer of weig 
and measures, and so efficiently has the work of this department been conducted t 
Orange County was recently complimented, by the state sealer of weights < 
measures, as being the banner county of the state in this line of work- The pack 
houses and factories of the county co-operate with Mr. McPhee in the prosecut 
of the work, which greatly aids him in the operation of his department. He belie 
in educating the public to the importance of this work and in conducting a campa 
along this line. 

In 1888 Mr. McPhee was united in marriage with Miss Martha Anderson 
native of Ontario, Canada, and three children have been born to them: Barry 
who is connected with the Edison Company of Santa Ana, married Miss Helen N( 
C. Ross is a prominent musician of Santa Ana and his marriage united him w 
Miss Grachen Denman, of Los Angeles; Muriel is married and resides in Seat 
Wash. Fraternally Mr. McPhee is a member of Santa Ana Lodge No. 794, B. P. 
Elks; also of the Modern Woodman of America. 

HERBERT A. FORD.— A prominent citizen of Orange County, and one v. 
had been a factor in both the mercantile life of Fullerton since its inception as a sir 
settlement, and who also developed a tract of land to oranges and walnuts which 1 
since become one of the finest residence districts in the city, Herbert A. Ford wa 
native of Michigan, born in Wright, that state, on May 12, 1859. His parents w 
David A. and Jane Ford, both born in New York State, the father, now ninety-ti 
living in Garvanza. 

In 1884 Mr. Ford came from Dakota to what is now Orange County, first settli 
in Placentia, where he followed horticultural pursuits and worked as a ranch manag 
When the town of Fullerton was started, in 1887, he located there and started the fi 
store, with Mr. Howell as a partner for one year, under the firm name of Howell 
Ford. Later he bought his partner out and continued the business alone. During t 
time he had purchased twenty acres of land on West Commonwealth Avenue, from i 
Pacific Land and Improvement Company, and also set out several orange and wall 
groves in the Fullerton district on shares for this company. 

The marriage of Mr. Ford in 1889 united him with Carrie E. McFadden, daugh 
of that honored pioneer, William M. McFadden, who is mentioned elsewhere in ( 
history. Three sons blessed their union: Alvin L., dairy inspector of Kern County, 
married and has a son, Herbert Alvin; Maurice E., who saw service in France 
eight and one-half months in the late war in the Three Hundred Sixteenth Division, 
at home; and Herbert A., a dentist of Fullerton; he was first lieutenant in the Deti 
Review Corps, U. S. A., stationed at a camp in Georgia. 

Mrs. Ford is an active member of the First Methodist Church of Fullerton, a 
of the W. C T. U.; she is past matron of the Eastern Star, and a member of l 
Ebell Club and the Placentia Round Table, as vvell as prominent in Red Cross w( 
dunng the war. Since the death of her husband, which occurred in 1894, Mrs. F( 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 271 

has subdivided the original ranch of twenty acres, known as the Orcliard Subdivision, 
and the property has all been sold off under her personal management and is now the 
choice residence district of FuUerton, many fine homes adorning the tract. Mrs. Ford 
completed a beautiful bungalow on a portion of the land which she retained, and 
there she makes her home, taking an active part in the social, church and club life of 
the community which she has seen grow from such small beginnings to its present rank 
as one of the most beautiful towns of Southern California. 

MRS. PEDRILLA P. PFEIFFER.— For nearly half a century a resident of 
Orange County, Mrs. Pedrilla P. Pfeiffer, widow of the late John A. Pfeiffer, one of 
the county's most honored citizens, now makes her home at 127 North Grand Street, 
Orange, where, now in her seventy-ninth year, she maintains an active interest in the 
progress of the community. 

Born February 13, 1842, at Shelbyville, 111., Mrs. Pfeiffer was the daughter of 
Robert and Hannah (Way) Parrish, natives, respectively, of Virginia and Indiana. The 
father was a wagonmaker by trade, and for many years conducted a shop at Shelbyville, 
where he was a well-known citizen. He passed away when Mrs. Pfeiffer was but 
six years old. Of a family of six children, Mrs. Pfeiffer is the only one now living 
and the only one to take up residence in California. She grew up at Shelbyville, 
attended the public schools there, and at the age of twenty, on April IS, 1862, she 
was united in marriage with John A. Pfeiffer. 

A native of Germany, Mr. Pfeiffer was born at Muehlhausen on January 25, 
1837. His parents were farmers in moderate circumstances, but gave their son all the 
educational advantages possible, and he early developed ambitious tendencies, feeling 
that America offered greater opportunities. In 18S0, at the age of eighteen, he took 
passage on a sailing vessel from Bremen, and after sixty-six days reached New York. 
Going on to St. Louis, Mo., he secured employment in a store, improving his spare 
moments by attending a business college, realizing how this additional training would 
help him to advance in business. Securing a position with the mercantile establishment 
of Gen. W. F. Thornton at Shelbyville in 1855, at the modest sum of $200 a year, his 
worth was soon recognized, and he was rapidly advanced to a position in the banking 
house of General Thornton, and was steadily advanced to a salary of $200 per month 
and the post of caghier, an office he filled with unqualified success for twenty-eight 
years. As a mark of the confidence reposed in him by his employer, upon the death 
of General Thornton, Mr. Pfeiffer was made administrator of his estate, without bond, 
and he settled up all the complicated details of this large business in a most satisfactory 
manner. At the breaking out of the Civil War he was running a mercantile business of 
his own, but he sold out and offered his services to his country. On account of partial 
disability he was placed as a sutler. 

His health somewhat impaired by the heavy responsibilities of so many years. 
Mr. Pfeiffer and his family went to San Antonio, Texas; there he outfitted and trav- 
eled over the frontier for a time. Returning again to Illinois he resumed his position, 
but in September, 1881, brought his family to California. Settling in Villa Park pre- 
■cinct, then called Mountain View, he purchased thirty-two acres. At that early day 
both agriculture and horticulture were in their experimental stages, and it was not 
yet fully determined to what products the soil was best adapted. Many vineyards 
were being set out, however, and Mr. Pfeiffer set fourteen ficres of his ranch with 
grapes. Like everyone, his vineyard suffered from blight, and he rented the ranch, 
moved to Highland and for two years ran a grocery store, during the building of the 
hospital. Returning to the ranch he planted vines a second time, but was unable to 
root out the disease, and gave up his efforts. 

After this discouraging circumstance Mr. Pfeiffer disposed of his land and 
removed to Orange, where he erected two bungalows on North Grand Street, in one 
of which Mrs. Pfeiffer still resides. He was prominent in the ranks of the Odd Fel- 
lows, having been a charter member of the lodge at Orange and treasurer of it from 
the date of its organization for many years. He was also a member of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. In 1916 Mr. Pfeiffer suffered an attack of paralysis from 
which he never recovered, his death occurring on August 23 of that year. An upright, 
energetic citizen, Mr. Pfeiffer was loyal to every trust reposed in him and his memory 
will ever be cherished by the many friends who appreciated his sterling character. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pfeiffer were the parents of six children; two passed away in 
infancy during their residence in Illinois; Henry O. died in San Diego at the age of 
twenty, and August died at Highland at the age of nineteen; MoUie Mable is the wife 
of Arthur S. Barker, a real estate dealer at Los Angeles; they have one son, Russell 
A. Barker, who served in the World War, seeing active duty in France; Mrs. Ada 
Meine is a bookkeeper for a Los Angeles firm. During their residence at Villa Park, 
Mr. and Mrs. Pfeiffer were active members of the Neighborhood Church there. Since 



ni HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

coming to Orange Mrs. Pfeiffer has affiliated with the Christian Church at that place, 
having been reared in that faith. A Rebekah, she has been a faithful member of its 
ranks for many years in Orange. 

MRS. ELIZABETH LAMB. — An extensive land owner, well endowed with this 
world's goods, and highly respected and loved for her many beautiful and sterling 
traits of character is Mrs. Elizabeth Lamb, widow of the late William D. Lamb, promi- 
nent pioneer citizen of Southern California. Her life has indeed been rich in varied 
experiences in that sort of interest and adventure that was the accompaniment of pio- 
neer days, nor has it been unmixed with hardships, some of them being almost unbe- 
lievable. 

Mrs. Lamb is a native of England, her birthplace being at Billings, Lancashire, 
June 24, 1850. Her parents were John R. and Sarah (Jolley) Holt, also of English 
birth. The father was a wheelwright and joiner and he followed this line of work 
for a number of years in his native land. They were the parents of nine children, 
and when Elizabeth was thirteen years of age she came to America with two sisters 
and a brother. They sailed from Liverpool in May, 1863, and even then Elizabeth's 
adventurous experiences began. After seven weeks of storm and calm they finally 
landed at Castle Garden, New York, coming across on the old condemned sailer 
"Antarctic" which was sunk on the return voyage. Their destination was Utah, and 
they made their way across the country as far as Omaha by train, thence to Salt 
Eake City by ox team, arriving there six months after their departure from Liverpool. 
Here they located, and later Elizabeth made the acquaintance of William D. Lamb, 
to wEom she was married on October 12, 1868. Mr. Lamb was then only nineteen 
years of age, but his life had been filled with arduous experience, even at that time. 
Born in Onondaga County, N. Y., he was left motherless at the age of four, and 
lived for a time with an uncle near Grand Rapids, Mich. When he was eleven years 
old he set out to make his way alone, working his way through to Omaha on railroad 
grading work. When he was about fourteen years old his father came up from the 
South and the two crossed the plains in a Mormon freight train. At that time he had 
not even learned to read, for his life had been so full of toil that there had been no 
time for schooling, but after reaching Salt Lake City he managed, even in the midst 
of many duties, to learn the alphabet and acquire the rudiments of an education. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Lamb remained in Salt Lake City for a time, 
and there their eldest daughter, Mary, now Mrs. E. J. Levengood, was born. Then 
they decided to locate in California, and wheii they arrived here Mr. Lamb earned a 
living by chopping and hauling wood on what was later the Lucky " Baldwin ranch, 
Mrs. Lamb and her little one making their home in their covered wagon. They then 
moved on to El Monte and tried farming there, but there was a long season of drought 
and all their corn and other produce was dried up. Their next move was to Azusa, 
where they lived in the canyon, afterwards named Lamb's Canyon for Mr. Lamb. 
Here two of their children were born, but they lost both of them and they were 
buried there. Mr. Lamb next bought a squatter's claim of 160 acres four miles 
from Huntington Beach, but in 1879, after they had lived there four years, Ijtigation ' 
arose and he and other claimants to adjoining tracts were dispossessed, the Los Bolsas 
Company winning the suit. His next purchase was forty acres of the Stearns ranch 
at Newhope; here they settled, made many improvements and prospered. They sub- 
sequently added to their acreage, and Mrs. Lamb still owns the old home of 120 
acres there. The next purchase was 220 acres at Garden Grove and, in 1892, he 
closed the deal for 720 acres of the Los Bolsas ranch at a very reasonable price, 
and here Mrs. Lamb now makes her home. At first they only ran cattle on these 
lands, but they have now been brought up to a high state of cultivation. They were 
always among the most progressive farmers of the community, as their place was 
always equipped with the latest inventions in farm machinery that could be obtained, 
and the example of their enterprise meant much for the progress and welfare of their 
neighborhood. . , 

For several years Mr. Lamb was the resident manager- of the Los Bolsas Land 
Company and other large ranches, and through his work much improvement was 
made on the tracts under his charge. He early saw the necessity for drainage and 
irrigation, and with several associates purchased a dredger, the first of its kind in 
this territory, and thus completely revolutionized the early methods of carrying 
on this work.. In no instance^ perhaps, is his perseverance and progressive spirit 
more plainly shown than in the fact that after he had embarked in business for him- 
self he employed a man to keep his books, and paid him an extra salary for his per- 
sonal instruction in reading, arithmetic and the general principles of business this 
arrangement continuing for three years; after that he was able to superintend every 
detail of his extensive business interests for himself and with marked success Mf 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 277 

Lamb passed away in March, 1911, and is buried at Santa Ana. Like her husband, 
Mrs. Lamb had only the most limited opportunities to secure an education, but this 
was fully made up through the practical business experience and "hard knocks" of 
pioneer days. She has always been a woman of great business and executive ability, 
and ever shared with her husband the burdens and responsibilities of their great under- 
takings, and much of his success was due to her splendid judgment and management. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lamb were the parents of nine children, five of whom are living: 
Mary, now Mrs. Edward J. Levengood of Pomona, was first married to William 
Hamner, by whom she had two children, Jessie M. and Anson; Wm. Anson and Vina 
died in childhood; Arthur, now deceased, married Mary Stephens and had one son, 
Leo Ford Lamb, who resides in Los Angeles; Walter D., a rancher near Santa Ana, 
married Gertrude DuBois, a daughter of Valentine DuBois of Santa Ana, and they 
have two children, Mrs. Velda May Squires and Kenneth; Laura is the wife of Gregory 
Harper, and they have two children, Ivan H. and Harold L.; Hugo J., a rancher near 
Huntington Beach, married Effie Stockton, and two children have been born to them, 
Lois and Alice; Earl A. is also engaged in ranching near Huntington Beach; he mar- 
ried Etta Bradley, and they are the parents of three children, Rachel E., Wm. G. and 
Alvan; Robert died at the age of four months. 

Mrs. Lamb makes her home on her 720-acre ranch southeast of Huntington 
Beach, her son-in-law and Slaughter, Mr. and Mrs. Gregory Harper, living with her, 
and she is active and interested in the management of her properties and extensive 
business interests. A woman of great force of character, withal kindly and consider- 
ate, she is greatly beloved by her family and a large circle of friends. A true type of 
the pioneer woman, her life is a record of accomplishment and good deeds that will 
leave their beneficent influence on the generations to come. 

WILLIAM WENDT. — A distinguished American artist who has added lustre to 
the rapid development of art in California is William Wendt, who was born in a little 
village in the north of Germany on February 20, 1865, and came to America at the 
age of fifteen, when he took up his residence in Chicago. He attended the public 
schools, and became interested in commercial art, spending a number of years in the 
shops, together with Gardner Symons. 

In 1893, Mr. Wendt contributed to the Chicago Society of Artists Exhibition, 
and was awarded his first recognition in the granting of the Yerkes prize. He main- 
tained a studio at Chicago, and spent the following year sketching near San Jose, in 
California. Later, he made another trip to California, this time to Los Angeles, after 
which he returned to Chicago and planned with Mr. Symons a tour of Europe. With 
the exception of two terms of study in the evening classes of the Chicago Art Insti- 
tute, Mr. Wendt is a self-taught artist. 

Proceeding to Europe, Mr. Wendt spent fifteen months in the galleries of London 
and other English centers, and in painting scenes of rural life in England; making his 
headquarters at St. Ives, Cornwall. Leaving his companion still luxuriating in British 
art environment, Mr. Wendt returned to America, and with his foreign subjects made 
an unusual exhibition at the galleries of the Art Institute in Chicago. A second trip 
to Europe was extended to a survey of the galleries and art fields of Hamburg, Berlin, 
Munich and Amsterdam and Paris, returning to America in 1904 to devote himself to 
American landscape painting. Mr. Wendt contributed to the St. Louis Exposition in 
1904, and received the silver medal; and the same year he was awarded the Kahn prize 
at Chicago. In 1897 he had been given the Young Fortnightly Prize, and in 1901 the 
bronze medal of the Buffalo Exposition. The next year he was given honorable men- 
tion at the exhibition of the Chicago Society of Artists. 

In 1906, Mr. Wendt moved to Los Angeles, and for seven or eight years was 
president of the California Art Club. He exhibited at the Museum in Exposition 
Park, which museum later purchased his picture, "The Land of Heart's Desire." 

For many years, Mr. Wendt has been associated with the art development at 
Laguna Beach, having painted in that locality for the last seventeen years, and in 
1918 he erected a well-planned studio at Arch Beach about a mile south of Laguna 
Beach, on the Coast. The studio is more than a working place, it is a retreat from 
the humdrum of everyday activities, for Mr. Wendt feels he has found at Laguna 
the opportunity for seclusion sought for during many years, and he expects here to 
complete many of his dreamed-of pictures, and to accomplish the height of his ambition. 
Besides having been made an associate of the National Academy of Design, in 1913, 
Mr. Wendt is a member of the National Art Club of New York City, the Chicago 
Society of Artists, the California Art Club, and the Laguna Beach Art Association 
and Federation of Arts, Washington. In addition to the honors already referred to, Mr. 
Wendt received the fine arts prize of the Society of Western Artists in 1912, the silver 
medal of the Panama Exposition in 1915, the Wednesday Club Medal prize, St. Louis 



278 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

1910, and the grand prize of the San Diego Exposition of the same year, the Kirch- 
berger prize, American Artists Exhibition, Art Institute of Chicago, 1913, and the 
Clarence A. Black prize of the California Art Club in 1916. He is represented in perma- 
nent collections of the Chicago Art Institute, the Friends of American Art, the Cliff 
Dwellers, the Union League of Chicago, the Athletic Club of Los Angeles, the Cin- 
cinnati Museum, the Art Association of Indianapolis, the National Arts Club, New 
York, and other museums and clubs. 

In June, 1906, the same year in which Mr. Wendt became a resident of Los 
Angeles, he was married to the noted sculptor of Chicago, Julia M. Bracken; their home 
is at 2814 North Sichel Street, Los Angeles. 

According to a writer in the Chicago Tribune, under date of May 16, 1920, the 
four favorite pictures in the Chicago Art Institute are, first, "The Song of the Lark," by 
Jules Breton; second, "The Silence of Night," by William Wendt; third, "The Flower 
Girl in Holland," by George Hitchcock; and fourth, "The Home of the Heron," by 
George Inness — usually rated the greatest of American landscape artists. "The Silence 
of the Night," which may perhaps rank as Wendt's masterpiece, was presented to the 
Chicago Art Institute by a number of the friends of that museum and school; another 
canvas by Mr. Wendt also hangs in this noted gallery, a landscape entitled "When All 
the World is Young," painted at Topango Canyon, California. 

JAMES R. KELLY.— In the passing away of James R. Kelly on April 17, 1908, 
Orange County lost one of its stanch citizens whose labors for the development of this 
locality in striving to enhance its progress and develop its resources entitle him to a 
prominent rank among its early residents. 

The lineage of the Kelly family is traced back to three brothers and a sister who 
were born in Ulster, in the north of Ireland, and who came to America between the 
years of 1720 and 1730, so that they have an honored history of nearly two centuries on 
this side of the Atlantic. One of the brothers. Col. John Kelly, was accompanied by 
his wife, who before her marriage was Margaret Armour, also a native of the Emerald 
Isle. The young couple became pioneers of Pennsylvania, settling in Bucks County 
as early as 1760, and there they remained all their lives. An ardent lover of liberty, 
John Kelly was ever devoted to the land of his adoption, and when the Revolutionary 
War broke out he at once offered his services and joined in the conflict. It is needless 
to say that he suffered many dangers and privations during that long siege, but he 
never wavered in his loyalty to the cause he had espoused and through his courage 
and patriotism he rose to the rank of colonel in the Continental Army. 

Colonel and Mrs. John Kelly had a family of nine children, and one of their 
sons, John, who was for many years a resident of Juanita County, Pa., married Miss 
Rebecca Clarke, a native of Scotland, and their son, Moses Kelly, married Miss Eliza- 
beth Patterson and reared a family of ten children in Juniata County, Pa. The seventh 
of their children was James R. Kelly, of this review, who was born near Mifflintown, 
Pa., June 28, 183S. 

Educated in the public schools of Juniata County and trained to a practical knowl- 
edge of agriculture, James R. Kelly became one of the intelligent and prosperous 
farmers of his native county, where for years he devoted himself to his chosen occu- 
pation, save for the period of his service in the Civil War. Upon retiring from 
general farming he removed to Kansas and established a home at Lawrence, Douglas 
County. Three years later, in 1888, he came to Southern California and purchased 
a lot and built a home at 528 Walnut Street, Santa Ana, where he resided until his 
death. Immediately after his arrival he identified himself with the fruit-growing busi- 
ness and soon became familiar with every department of the leading industry of the 
locality. On his ranch he raised apricots, oranges and walnuts. It was his aim to 
grow only fruits of the choicest varieties, so that the products of his grove might 
command the highest prices in the Eastern markets. 

Mr. Kelly's marriage on March 18, 1869, united him with Miss Jane Robinson, 
a native of Juniata County, Pa., and a daughter of George and Priscilla (Laird) Robin- 
son, both of Scotch-Irish ancestry, but born and reared in Juniata County. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kelly were the parents of three sons: Frederick M., who was educated at the 
University of Michigan, is an assayer and chemist; he is one of the leading citizens of 
Needles, Cal., where he has been postmaster for many years. He married Miss Pearl 
Glenn of Springville, Iowa, a granddaughter of the first white child born in Chicago, 
and they are the parents of two sons, Robert Glenn and Fred; George Patterson Kelly, 
who was also educated at the University of Michigan, practiced law for a number of 
years in Chicago and while there married Miss Agnes K. Gavney of Aurora, 111. George 
P. Kelly passed away in 1915 at Santa Ana and his wife died in 1919, leaving one son, 
James T.; R. Bayard, born at Juanita, Pa., March 13, 1880, attended the public schools 
of Santa Ana, took bookkeeping and telegraphy and was employed at Needles fot eight 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 279 

years, then returned to Santa Ana and was a successful walnut grower of the Tustin 
district until selling in 1919. He was married in 1915 to Miss Magdalena Lauterbach, 
who was born at Buffalo, N. Y., but who has been'a resident of California since 1904. 
They are the parents of one son, Robert. Mrs. James R. Kelly passed away at her 
home in Santa Ana, April 6, 1919, at the age of about eighty-three. 

Like his forbear of Revolutionary days, James R. Kelly was intensely patriotic and 
any mention of his life work would be incomplete without recording his war service, 
which put to a severe test the qualities of courage, patience and endurance possessed 
by him to a remarkable degree. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War Mr. Kelly 
offered his services to the Union and on July 25, 1861, he was accepted as a member 
of Company A, First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry, enlisting from Juniata County. 
This regiment was ordered to the front at once and became one of the most famous 
fighting units of the Federal Army. In the charge at Cedar Mountain Companies A, 
B, C and D went into action with 264 men and came out with only seventy-two able 
to report for duty. Mr. Kelly held the rank of first lieutenant in Company A and 
owing to the frequent absence of the captain was often called upon to command the 
company. In the battle of Shepherdstown, July 17, 1863, an exploding shell struck him, 
cutting an artery in his leg and leaving a painful wound. On another occasion he 
was slightly injured in battle. While in a cavalry skirmish at Samaria Church, Va., 
June 24, 1864, he was taken prisoner and confined in the famous Libby prison. Later 
he was transferred successively to Columbia, S. C, Macon, Ga., Belle Isle, Savannah, 
Ga., and Charleston, S. C, remaining in these prisons until the close of the war with 
the exception of two brief periods when escape had been rendered possible by the 
ingenuity of the prisoners. However, in both instances he was recaptured. It was 
characteristic of the man that he never complained in the midst of hardships that would 
have daunted any but the bravest of spirits. On the other hand, he was quick to note 
any humorous incidents that occurred and his cheerful disposition was a ray of sun- 
shine to others in hours of trouble. When he was mustered out, April 25, 1865, he 
returned to his Pennsylvania home with the esteem of his superior officers and the 
friendship of his comrades. After the organization of the Grand Army of the Republic 
he identified himself with that work and never ceased to cherish, affection for the 
"boys in blue." Politically he voted with the Republican party and during his resi- 
dence in Pennsylvania he filled local offices. Early in life he had become a member 
of the Presbyterian denomination, and after coming to Santa Ana he officiated as an 
elder in the First Church, to whose philanthropies and missionary enterprises he was 
a generous contributor. 

DR. JOHN McCLELLAN LACY.— Whenever the historian shall essay to tell the 
story of Santa Ana, he will find it a pleasureable duty to narrate again the career of 
Dr. John McClellan Lacy, the pioneer physician, who did so much in many ways for 
the welfare and advancement of the town. He was born at Huntsville, Ala., on Wash- 
ington's Birthday, 1837, the son of Thomas H. and Mary E. Lacy, Southern planter 
folks who moved from Alabama to Arkansas, when John was eighteen years of age. 
And there, in 1861, Thomas Lacy died, the father of three boys and eight girls, worthy 
descendants of a family tracing its ancestry back to France. At that time, the name 
was de Lacy; but when the Huguenots came to America on account of religious 
persecution in France, this branch of the family, coming with them, changed the name 
to simple Lacy. Mrs. Lacy was a McCIellan, and her mother's maiden name was 
Wallace; and she was able to trace her ancestry to Sir William Wallace of Scotland. 

John McCIellan Lacy attended the grammar school in Huntsville, Ala., and when 
old enough to do so, read medicine with Dr. William B. Welch in Arkansas. He later 
was graduated from the St. Louis Medical College, and still later took post-graduate 
work at the University of Nashville, Tenn. 

When the Civil War broke out, Dr. Lacy volunteered for service in the Con- 
federate Army as surgeon to an Arkansas regiment, and from 1861, he marched and 
fought for four long, hard years. He had farmed and shipped cotton, while reading 
medicine, and so was able to hold his own in the arduous campaigning. 

After the war. Dr. Lacy practiced medicine in Arkansas and the Indian Territory, 
(later Oklahoma) and in 1879 came to California across the great plains. He made the 
journey in wagons, and was eight months on the road; and he and his party had many 
interesting experiences with the Indians, and other adventures by the way. 

At Cane Hill, Ark., on April 3, 1861, Dr. Lacy married Miss Eliza P. Bean, daughter 
of Mark Bean, and his wife, Nancy J. He was a wealthy cotton planter and factory 
owner, and was honored by his fellow-citizens with election to the state legislature 
as a representative from Washington County. Several children blessed the fortunate 
union. Margaret M. is the eldest daughter; and the other children are Mary L., Mrs. 
William P. Vance; Maude L., Mrs. Newton Pierce; Lela, Mrs J. E. Vaughan; Laura 



280 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Iv., Mrs. J. W. Murray; and Mark B., who married Genevieve Waffle. Dr. Lacy s 
youngest brother was sheriff of Orange County for sixteen years. 

A Democrat in matters of national politics, Dr. Lacy was a member of the city 
council. He belonged to the State and County Medical Societies, and served for a while 
as city health officer of Santa Ana. He belonged to the First Presbyteriari Church, and 
was a Mason, having joined that order in 1860, and a member of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. When he died, on February 2, 1913, at Santa Ana, he was almost 
seventy-six years of age. 

Old-time friends of the deceased bore the casket, and the Rev. J. A. Stevenson 
paid the departed such a tribute as he deserved. He said, in part: "The working 
days of the physician are restless days. He knows no hours that are his own. He 
is the servant of suffering humanity, morning, noon and night. No man knows the 
weary hours that are contributed by the men that are tired almost to death. But 
when the restless days and nights of Dr. Lacy's working time were gone he knew a 
harder restlessness in the times of his own sickness. The days were long, and the 
nights were longer, and pain and suffering were there. Then out of the restlessness 
of life, God called him to the rest of a blessed eternity. Dr. McLaren has made im- 
mortal the 'Doctor of the Old School.' But thank God we do not have to hasten 
to the distant fields of Scotland nor into the pages of literature to find the splendid 
hero. The cultured, kindly, unassuming, uncomplaining, self-forgetful Christian gen- 
tleman, Dr. Lacy, was an honor to the Church of Christ, a benediction to this com- 
munity, and an adornment to the medical profession." 

MRS. EROLINDA YORBA.— A distinguished, highly esteemed representative of 
one of the oldest and most historic families in California is Mrs. Erolinda Yorba, the 
well-to-do widow of Vicente Yorba, whose family settled along the Coast at a very 
early period. His parents were Bernardo and Felipa (Dominguez) Yorba, born in San 
Diego and Los Angeles, respectively. Bernardo Yorba was the holder of grants aggre- 
gating over 165,000 acres, given him by the King of Spain. These grants were La Sierra, 
in Riverside County, and Rancho San Antonio Cajon de Santa Ana, in Orange County; 
and just how historical the character of the founder of this family was, may be gath- 
ered from the reference to him by his contemporary, Harris Newmark, the Los Angeles 
pioneer, who says in his personal reminiscences, "Sixty Years in Southern California." 

"Bernardo Yorba was another great landowner; and I am sure that, in the day of 
his glory, he might have traveled fifty to sixty miles in a straight line, touching none 
but his own possessions. His ranches, on one of which Pio Pico hid from Santiago 
Arguello, were delightfully located, where now stand such places as Anaheim, Orange, 
Santa Ana, Westminster, Garden Grove and other towns in Orange County — then a 
part of Los Angeles County." In McGroarty's Mission Play, one of the leading char- 
acters is Josefa Yorba, the grandmother of Vicente Yorba, who was selected because 
of her beautiful character and many deeds of kindness. 

As early as 1835 Bernardo Yorba settled and built his home — a ninety-room 
adobe — at what is now the town of Yorba, and a part of the old building is still stand- 
ing. In it was a crude jewelry shop, harness shop, saddlery, blacksmith shop and a 
general merchandise store; in other words, it was a miniature city, known all over 
Southern California. It was a more or less dreary section then, and these worthy 
pioneers improved the land and the surroundings at the cost of their own lives and 
health. For a long time the well-known Yorba adobe sheltered the growing family, 
but the enterprising father never lived to see all the transformations he and others 
associated with and guided by him brought about. Bernardo Yorba died on November 
20, 1858, and thus followed to the grave his devoted wife and companion, who had 
passed away seven years before. 

Vicente Yorba, one of the youngest of the family, was born at Yorba on February 
3, 1844; and being early thrown upon his own resources, he in time amassed consider- 
able property. He owned, for example, a fine ranch of forty-four acres on the north 
side of the Santa Ana River, and another ranch of 343 acres at Yorba. The old home 
ranch upon which Mr. Yorba passed away came to be noted for its walnuts, its vineyard 
and its alfalfa, and was especially famous for its productivity. The other property, 
on the- south side of the river, was given up to general farming and the raising of 
walnuts. Upon Mr. Yorba's death, the family moved to this last-mentioned ranch, and 
there erected a large and modern residence, in which they have since resided. Although 
Mr. Yorba was very optimistic in his belief of a great future for Orange County, yet in 
his most optimistic moments he could not have dreamed of the wealth so soon to be 
brought from the depths under these lands; and on his original home place the Union 
Oil Company is now sinking wells for oil, and have been rewarded with an excellent 
showing. 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 285 

On October 25, 1876, Vicente Yorba was married to Miss Erolinda Cota, a native 
of Los Angeles and the daughter of Francisco Cota, another well-known native, whose 
family owned the Spanish grant, Rancho de Bellona, what is now the site of Venice. 
Her mother was Martina Machado, and her grandmother a Sepulveda. She was edu- 
cated in the parish schools of Los Angeles, and there received such an excellent train- 
ing that, while prepared to manage her own business affairs, she was also enabled to 
maintain the refinement characteristic of the highest social breeding, and to preserve 
a striking and natural beauty of feature, form and demeanor, scarcely altered since Mr. 
Yorba died, on February 24, 1913, on the ranch to the north of the Santa Ana River, in 
his fifty-ninth year. Mrs. Yorba is a member of the Catholic Church at Yorba, and is 
the center of an admiring and devoted circle. To Mr. Yorba's public-spiritedness is 
largely due the establishing of the well-equipped school at Yorba, on which he was a 
trustee for many years until his death. 

Six children blessed the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Yorba: Hortense M. is the 
wife of Porfirio Palomares, an extensive landowner of Pomona, now residing at Oxnard; 
Mantina L. is the wife of Lorenzo Pelanconi, and resides at Hollywood; Mary L. is the 
wife of Ignacio Vejar of Pomona; Ubenia Juanita married George Wents and lives with 
her mother; she has one child, Erolinda Dolores; Bernardo was in the Fortieth Heavy 
Coast Artillery, where he was assistant observer, and was in New York, on his way to 
France, when the armistice was signed, when he returned home and is now assisting 
his mother; he is married to Miss Edna Leep of Nebraska; Vicente Francisco married 
Lidella Walters of Placentia; they have one son, Vicente Samuel, and also reside on the 
Yorba ranch. 

Since the death of Mr. Yorba, the family continue to reside on the ranch which 
is owned by Mr. Yorba and which they have greatly improved with an irrigation system 
and with Valencia orange orchards. Here they dwell together in harmony, each 
assisting and cooperating to the mutual advantage of all. With the mother at the head 
of affairs — an honor her children lovingly accord her — she is ably assisted by them 
and they in turn appreciate her confidence and shower on her their love and devotion, 
thus relieving her from much unnecessary worry and care. 

JUDGE CHRISTIAN C. STOKER.— An efficient, popular public official with 
a very interesting war record is Judge Christian C. Stoner, a native of Blair County, 
Pa., where he was born on December 27, 1844. He is the son of Jacob E. Stoner, a 
native of Lancaster County, Pa., who in 1849 rernoved to Noble County, Ind., where 
he was a pioneer farmer. In 1873 he pitched his tent in Cloud County, Kans., and 
there he continued to farm until he died, honored of all men. He had married Polly 
Cowen, a native of Blair County, and she also died in Kansas. They had six children, 
and the subject of our sketch was the fourth in the order of birth. 

Reared in Noble County, Ind., on a farm, C. G. Stoner went to a log-cabin school 
house and sat on slab benches; later, he enjoyed more comfortable quarters in a frame 
school building, but left school to volunteer for service in the Civil War. In 1863 he 
entered Company B of the Eighty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered 
in at Kendallville, and sent to join Sherman's Army at Chattanooga. As a part of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps, he was wiih Sherman until the close of the war, and partici- 
pated in the battles of Resac, Dallas, Dalton, Snake Creek Gap, Buzzard's Roost, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Peach Tree (where General McPherson fell), Jonesboro, Goldsboro, 
Bentonville and other notable places. He never received a scratch or wound, nor was 
he ever in a hospital; but of five relatives who enlisted when he did, he was the only 
one to return. A brother, David, was in the same regiment and was killed at the Battle 
of Bentonville, N. C. With his comrades he marched to Richmond and then on to 
Washington, D. C. ; and there, he took part in the Grand Review. At Louisville, Ky., 
in July, 1865, he was mustered out, and returned home. 

After the war, Mr. Stoner went to the home school for a couple of years, and 
when there was a vacancy, he taught there. He remained for two years, and "brought 
order out of chaos'!; then went to Wolf Lake high school, and after that taught for 
another two years. In 1873, he removed to Kansas, near Concordia, Cloud County, and 
took a homestead of 160 acres, where he engaged in farming. 

Seven years later, the citizens of that district selected him to teach school, and 
for three years he trained the young idea how to shoot; was justice of the peace of 
Nelson township for fifteen years, and was probate judge of Cloud County for two 
terms, being elected in 1890 and reelected in 1892, and served until January, 1895. 
In 1896, he was elected a member of the Assembly of the Kansas State Legislature, and 
served there during 1896 and 1897. His legal knowledge enabled him to be particularly 
valuable to his constituency; for while he was probate judge only two cases he had 



286 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUxXTY 

decided were appealed, and in each of these instances the higher court sustained his 
decision. 

About 1904 Judge Stoner removed to Lincoln County, Kans., and tor hve years 
owned and edited the Lincoln Sentinel. In 1909 he located in Orange County, Cal., 
and bought an orange grove near El Modena, which he managed for two years, then 
disposed of the property, and retired. He was a city trustee for six years, and durmg 
that period was chairman of the board, or acting mayor, for four years. The night 
his term was up, the Judge was appointed city recorder, in April, 1918, and he has held 
that responsible office ever since. 

While in Indiana, in August, 1867, Judge Stoner was married to Miss Rachel A. 
Winebrenner, a native of that state, and by her he has had three children. Barbara Ellen 
is Mrs. Secrist of Long Beach; George, a graduate of Lincoln College, Kansas, took 
a course at the University of California and is now a teacher in the Orange high school; 
and Peter is a graduate of the State University at Berkeley and is a teacher in the high 
school at Pasadena. Judge Stoner is a member of Gordon Granger Post No. 138, and 
is at present the commander of the post. He was aide-de-camp on National Com- 
mander Somer's stafif, in 1918. He belongs to the Christian Church, where he has been 
an elder for many years. 

DAVID CLARENCE DRAKE.— An authority on citrus culture in California, and 
a prominent factor in the development of the industry in Orange County, is David 
Clarence Drake, whose advice, as that of a sensible man of original ideas, is often 
sought by growers. He comes of an interesting family, long associated with the 
history of Long Island, and has identified himself in an enviable way with the history 
of the Golden State. 

He was born at Southampton, Suffolk County, N. Y., in 1864, the son of David 
R. Drake, who was born at Roxbury, Morris County, N. J., and reared on Long 
Island becoming a sea-captain, thereby maintaining an interesting tradition from the 
time of the English renowned explorer. For more than thirty years the master of a 
whaler, he sailed out of Sag Harbor, L. I., and also New Bedford, Mass., into the 
various oceans of the globe, touched at many foreign ports, and thus grew familiar 
with important places all over the world, and was indeed a well-traveled man. About 
fifty years ago, he quit the sea and retired to his home at Southampton. He had 
married Harriet Fithian, a native of that place and a member of an old Long Island 
family of Welsh descent, and three children had blessed their union. Two are still 
living, and our subject is the only one in California. 

Brought up in quaint old Southampton, L. I., David C. Drake was educated at 
the grammar schools of that neighborhood, and also at the Southampton Academy, 
after which, for a couple of years, he attended the Franklin Literary Institute in Dela- 
ware County; then entered Eastman's Business College at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., from 
which he was graduated in 1882; the pleasure of his studies leading him to move west 
to the Pacific Coast, and to study for two years in the Van der Nailen School of 
Engineering at San Francisco, where he took a course in railroad engineering and 
surveying, and was duly graduated with honors. 

On his return East and to Southampton, Mr. Drake married Miss Harriet Ford- 
ham, who had also been born in that town, of an old and prominent family; and he 
then engaged in the raising of fruit for the New York City market, and also for the 
summer trade at Little Newport, L. I. This essay in horticulture he continued until 
1896, when he sold out, came west to California, and pitched his tent at Pomona. It 
was in truth but a temporary camp that he established, for he then traveled all over 
the state, and up and down the Coast, even into British Columbia, getting first-hand 
impressions of the great West; at the end of which varied enviable experience, he de- 
cided that Orange was most to his liking, and ever since he has been closely asso- 
ciated with the fortunes of the fast-developing place. 

He purchased his three acres on East Chapman Avenue, Orange, and made all 
the necessary improvements, set it out to oranges, and built his handsome, comfortable 
residence, and made of the whole a beauty spot. He also bought thirty acres of raw 
land at the corner of Seventeenth Street and Holt Avenue, where he set out twenty 
acres of Valencia oranges and ten acres of lemons. 

For many years Mr. Drake was a director in the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation 
Company, and assisted in bringing that popular concern to its present state of high 
efficiency. In 1897 he joined the local organization of citrus ranchers, the Santiago 
Orange Growers Association, and in 1898 they built their first packing house in 
Orange — the parent association from which have sprung eleven different citrus asso- 
ciations in this vicinity, and resulted in the final formation of the Orange County 
Fruit Exchange. Mr. Drake, after having been a director in the Santiago Orange 
Growers Association, is now its president; and he is also president of the Orange 



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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 289 

County Fruit Exchange, which handled over five million dollars' worth of business 
in 1919. For six years Mr. Drake was trustee of the city of Orange, and all that period 
he was president of the board, or mayor of the town. He started, with his associates, 
the building of sewers, and bought the present sewer farm, and they were starting 
the improvement of streets and sidewalks when he resigned. In national politics, he 
is a stanch Republican. A member of the First Presbyterian Church at Orange, Mr. 
Drake has been an elder there for the past twenty years. He was made a Mason in 
Orange Grove Lodge, No. 293, F. & A. M., and belongs to the Fraternal Aid Union. 

PETER HANSEN. — Horticultural enterprises have engaged the attention of 
Peter Hansen for a long period of successful activity, and by means of his skill in 
this field as well as his perseverance and industry, he has added another name to the 
list of prosperous fruit growers of the county and has furnished additional evidence as 
to the adaptability of the soil to such pursuits. He is now the only surviving member 
of the pioneers who settled in the Placentia district as early as 1867, a worthy repre- 
sentative of those hardy and intrepid settlers. 

A native of Denmark, Mr. Hansen was born at Varde, Jylland, on Christmas Day, 
1838. His parents were farmers, so from a lad he made himself useful about the farm, 
in the meantime receiving a good education in the excellent schools of Denmark. Being 
the next to the youngest of a family of five children, he remained at home and assisted 
his parents until he entered the Danish army and served the required two years' time, 
when he again followed farming until the breaking out of the Slesvig-Holstein War. 
He was called to the colors, and immediately responding, he became a member of a 
cavalry regiment of the Danish army and served as a corporal until the close of the 
war. 

Immediately after his discharge, Mr. Hansen resolved to emigrate to the United 
States, so in the fall of 1865 we find him making the long journey via the Isthmus of 
Panama to San Francisco, where he was employed for two years. Having heard favor- 
able reports from Anaheim and vicinity, he came by boat to San Pedro and on to Los 
Angeles; The present metropolis of the Pacific Coast was then a small hamlet built 
around the plaza, with only a few houses and one hotel. .He came on to Anaheim, 
where he was employed by Tim Boege at teaming, hauling freight to Los Angeles and 
Anaheitri Landing, the latter now being known as Seal Beach. In the meantime he 
invested his savings in 106 acres of raw land at Placentia, then Los Angeles County; 
it was virgin land in what was then a wilderness, for which he paid the small sum of 
fourteen dollars per acre. He cleared the land of brush and wild mustard and planted 
rye, wheat and barley. In those days game of all kinds was abundant, and the wild 
horses aiid cattle that roamed the plains caused Mr. Hansen much trouble, invading his 
ranch and destroying his crops. He purchased one of the first threshing machines used 
in his district, a stationary machine run by horsepower, drawn by eighteen horses, and 
the first year his crop yielded enough to pay for the machine, which he used all over 
the country threshing for others. He next set out, his ranch to grapes and built one 
of the first wineries in the county, a brick structure 40 by 100 feet in size. After 
making wine for many years and selling it in casks to people who came from miles 
around to purchase it, he took out the vines and planted seedling and Washington Navel 
orange trees; later he budded his trees to Valencia oranges, his present orchard. To 
his brother Charles, who came from the East and worked for him on the ranch, Mr. 
Hansen gave fifty-three acres of the property. The brother died in 1903. In later 
years Mr. Hansen deeded a large part of his holdings to his children, retaining enough 
property to give him a competency for his retired years. 

Mr. Hansen's wife, who before her marriage was Christine Jensen, was a native 
of Abenrade, Slesvig, their marriage being solemnized at Orangethorpe in 1874. An 
able helpmate and a loving wife and mother, her death on March 14, 1900, made an 
irreparable breach in the family circle. She left five children, as follows: Mattie is the 
wife of Arthur Edwards of Placentia, and the mother of two children, Gladys and 
Hugh; Anna married Horace Head of Santa Ana and they have two children, Melville 
and Iris; George, who lives at Placentia, is married and has four children, Christine, 
Ernest, Robert and George; Charles L. also lives at Placentia; Christine is the wife of 
Walter C. McFarland of Placentia and they are the parents of one child. Forest 
Walter. Mr. and Mrs. McFarland- own and reside in the old Hansen home, over which 
Mrs. McFarland presides gracefully, showing her loving care and devotion to her 
aged father, who appreciates her ministrations to his comfort and happiness. Mr. 
McFarland served in the World War in the Three Hundred Sixty-third Infantry at 
Camp Lewis until he volunteered in the Signal Corps, Aviation Section, being stationed 
at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, and at North Island, San Diego, Cal., until after the 



290 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

armistice, when he was honorably discharged, returning to the peaceful pursuit of 
farming. In early days Mr. Hansen was a school trustee at Placentia and was one of 
the twelve men who founded Balboa Beach, in which he has always been deeply 
interested, and where he owns a fine residence, to which his fondness for the ocean 
causes him to make frequent visits. He was also one of the founders of the Anaheim 
Union Water Company. Fraternally he was a member of the Anaheim Lodge of Odd 
Fellows. Accompanied by his daughter Christine, in 1902 he made' a trip back to his 
native land, from whence he came a poor boy, but richly endowed with the natural 
characteristics that Dame Nature is pleased to reward — indomitable energy and a spirit 
undaunted by the difficulties encountered on the road to life that leads to success. 

HUBERT ISAAC. — A most interesting pioneer, partly on account of his early 
history as a railway man and a miner before he came to California, is Hubert Isaac, 
distinguished to all who know him for his foresight and his strict integrity. He was 
born at Milwaukee, Wis., on February 26, 1856, the son of Francis Joseph and Anna 
(Schreiner) Isaac, natives of Aix-la-Chapelle; and grew up to do farm work. Going 
to Hancock, Mich., however, he joined a train crew, first as one of the operatives on 
a freight train, then as a baggageman, and then on a passenger train, on the Mineral 
Range Railway. For the next four and three-quarter years, he was employed in the 
Black Hills, weighing ore in the mining country, when he pushed on the California, via 
Cheyenne, Wyo., in 1879. He stopped at Los Angeles, but ran out to see El Modena, 
with friends, on a hunting trip. 

He chanced to meet there David Hewes, the well known pioneer who has left 
behind him such a record for doing things, and as he needed some one to do carpenter 
work, he entered his employ. His first job was to build a corral enclosing a space of 
half an acre; and when this was satisfactorily finished, friendly relations were estab- 
lished and he continued to work for Mr. Hewes steadily for a year and a half. He 
was then under the direction of Henry Young, the first foreman of the great Hewes 
Ranch, on which ranch Mr. Isaac was also foreman twice. Later, he returned to Mr. 
Hewes' service, and was with him for twenty-seven years and nine months, so that it 
may safely be said that he was one of Mr. Hewes' most trusted employees. 

Mr. Isaac bought eleven lots in El Modena before the "boom," and there he 
built thirteen houses, which he rents to others. Altogether, he owns forty-two lots, 
and is the largest taxpayer in El Modena. Personally, Mr. Isaac is known for his sym- 
pathetic nature, his keen insight into daily life, his sense of justice, and his desire 
to do right and to see that righteousness is done. In many respects, while ultra- 
conservative perhaps, he represents the dependable type of safe citizenship and financial 
endeavor, and enjoys, as he well merits, the esteem and confidence of his fellow-men. 

RICHARD ROBINSON.— One of Orange County's oldest pioneers, Richard Rob- 
inson is living retired at Garden Grove, after a well-rounded life filled with many 
adventurous experiences, having reached the age of ninety-three years. Born in the 
township of Edwardsburg, Grenville County, Ontario, Canada, September 9, 1827, Mr. 
Robinson was the son of Isaac and Margaret (Moses) Robinson, both natives of 
Ireland, who soon after their marriage there in County Tyrone, came to Cariada, and 
here all their nine children were born. Isaac Robinson was a shoemaker by trade, but 
followed farming to a great extent, owning a farm of 260 acres. He was killed by a 
horse when Richard was only sixteen years of age; the mother lived to be ninety-two 
years old. Richard early learned the shoemaking business and from the time he was 
sixteen years old he took his place in the world as a breadwinner for the family. He 
ran a shop on the home farm, often working in the fields all day and then at shoemaking 
until late at night. Necessarily his schooling was limited, both from his lack of time 
and from the scarcity of educational opportunities, as in those days they had only 
subscription schools, maintained by the people of the community, the teachers boarding 
'round among the families. 

When he reached the age of twenty-four; Mr. Robinson made up his mind to try 
his fortune in California, and accordingly sailed from New York on the "Fannie Major," 
which was bound for San Francisco around the Horn. While off the coast of Brazil 
they encountered a severe storm in which the top main mast of their vessel was 
broken oflf and they had to put in to San Salvador for repairs. While there Mr. Robin- 
son saw slavery in its worst form and has yet vivid memories of some of the horrible 
conditions that accompanied it in that country. Proceeding on their journey they 
doubled Cape Horn and again encountered a terrific gale which lasted for several days 
and nights during which every sail was torn to shreds. Although it was the latter 
part of June, zero weather prevailed and every hour it seemed as if they would surely 
be swallowed up by t'he angry waves. After miraculously escaping from being dashed 
to pieces on the rocky coast of Patagonia, they finally reached Tocawanda, Chile, 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 291 

where they procured an entire new set of sails and then continued the journey to San 
Francisco, reaching there in September, 1852, after a voyage of five and one-half months. 

From San Francisco Mr. Robinson went up to the mines on the Yuba River, later 
going on to Placerville, where he mined with considerable success, clearing up some 
money. Here he was married in March, 18S4, to Miss Letty Bolton, the daughter of 
Richard and Lucretia (Redmond) Bolton, natives, respectively, of Ireland and Canada. 
She was also born in Canada, only about twelve miles from Mr. Robinson's birthplace, 
although they had never known each other until they met at Placerville. She had come 
across the plains in 1851 with the family of her brother-in-law, John Johnson. Later 
Mr. and Mrs. Robinson went up into British Columbia, where he mined for a time on 
the Fraser River, but did not meet with much success. In 1859, with his wife and 
child he went back to Canada to visit his old home, returning in 1862 to California, 
making the trip, both going and coming, by way of Panama. On reaching here he 
settled in Sonoma County with his wife and three children, twins having been born to 
them during their stay in Canada. Here Mr. Robinson purchased a farm of 230 acres 
five miles from Petaluma, and improved it, building a dairy barn that was at that time 
the finest in the county. Here he contracted tubercular trouble and, not being able 
to stand the heavy fogs, he sold out and bought a 200-acre farm in Colusa County, 
farming it for three years and completely recovering his health. 

In 1884, Mr, Robinson removed to Garden Grove where he has since made his 
home. He purchased seventy-five acres of land here and farmed it for a number of 
years, but he disposed of all of it except five acres where the home stood many 
years; he has a remarkably good memory and keen mind for a man of his years and 
enjoys recalling the interesting events of his past life. Mrs. Robinson died on August 
23, 1920, aged almost eighty-nine. Mr. and Mrs. Robinson had nine children, eight of 
whom grew to maturity: Isaac resides in Stockton and is deputy county treasurer and 
tax collector; Chester Allington lives at Ascot Park, Los Angeles, and has five sons, 
one of whom, Capt. Ralph Redmond Robinson, was with the Marines throughout the 
whole campaign in the late war. He was with the detachment of Marines that was a 
part of the famous Second Division and was in action at thei Argonne, St. Mihiel and 
Champagne, where he saw terrific fighting. He is still serving with the Marines and 
is now stationed at Port au Prince, Hayti; Forest Wellington died at the age of 
thirty-three years, leaving one son, Chalmers, who is an oil man engaged in the Fullerton 
field; Mina Anna is the wife of Harvey V. Newsom, a rancher at Garden Grove, whose 
sketch appears elsewhere in this work; Frank Bolton resides in Los Angeles; his son, 
Ray Albert Robinson, who is a crack shot, became a captain in the war, training troops 
at Quantieo, Va. He was aide-de-camp to General Butler and while stationed at Brest 
on General Butler's staff, he lived in Napoleon's old house there. He is still in the 
service at Quantieo, Va. ; Addie May is the wife of Capt. Joseph Newell, who is captain 
of the largest supply ship in the U. S. Navy; they reside at West Newbury, Mass.; 
Richard Byron has a ranch of forty acres near Gait; Porter died at the age of four 
years at Colusa; Alice Bertha, the youngest of the family, resides with her father. 

A few years ago Mr. Robinson came near losing his life in a railway accident, and 
was laid up for a year. The accident happened while he was crossing the railroad 
trackg at Santa Ana, and by a curious coincidence he had just been on a jury in a case 
brought to recover damages for death and injury sustained to a family who had met 
with the accident at the same railway crossing in Santa Ana. For many years Mr. 
Robinson was a stanch Republican, casting his last vote on that ticket for James A. 
Garfield as President, but since that time he has been a consistent Prohibitionist. He 
was converted at the age of nineteen and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at Garden Grove. Always on the side of that which made for the uplifting 
and improvement of the community, Mr. Robinson has ever stood high in the esteem 
and respect of a large circle of friends. 

MRS. SUSAN BELT. — Of Southern lineage, but of uncompromising Union 
allegiance, Mrs. Susan Belt, an Orange County pioneer and widow of James H. Belt, 
is a woman possessed of great strength of character and executive force. . Her husband, 
who came of a fine family, was born in Johnson County, Ark., in 1840. His grandfather, 
Middleton Belt, the founder of the American branch of the family, was' a native of 
England who settled in Maryland and afterwards removed to Tennessee, where he 
settled and reared his family. The father of James H. Belt, Dotson. Belt, was probably 
born in central Tennessee, and his mother. Miss Penelope Laster before her marriage, 
also was born there. The parents were planters, and James H. followed in the footsteps 
of his father and became a successful cotton grower. At the outbreak of the Civil War 
his sentiments were strongly with the Union, and perceiving that he would be con- 
scripted he left home, taking his best horse, started for the Union lines, and with his 



292 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

handkerchief tied to the ramrod of his gun approached the picket line. He enlisted in 
Company L of the Fourteenth Kansas Cavalry and served until the close of the war. 
In the meantime the home folks, because of their Union sentiments, suffered terribly. 

Mrs. Belt recalls some very exciting incidents that she underwent also during those 
trying times. She and her seventy-five-year-old father were making garden in the 
spring of 1863 when a band of bushwackers rode up and began shooting at them. 
Eight shots were fired at her father and little brother, and the father was killed by the 
bullets of the guerillas. Mrs. Belt's maiden name was Susan Brown, the daughter of 
Reuben and Martha (Hines) Brown, the father a native of Maine and mother born 
in Tennessee. Her parents settled in Missouri after their marriage and the father 
became a farmer and stockman. Mrs. Belt was born in Missouri, September 10, 1844, 
the youngest girl and the eighth child in order of birth in a family of ten children, and 
was three years old when her parents moved to Sebastian County, Ark. She received 
her education in the subscription schools of Arkansas, and July 31, 1863, was united 
in marriage with Mr. Belt. It was thought that the war was about over, but her 
husband had to go back to the lines and was in several battles after that. He was in 
the Western army and was honorably discharged after the close of the war. Mr. and 
Mrs. Belt moved on to eighty acres of land in Sebastian County, Ark., given them by 
Mr. Belt's father. He prospered while there, but suffering from the after eflfects of 
the measles, which he contracted in the army, and which as a result of taking cold 
settled in his eyes and on his lungs, came to California for his health during the seven- 
ties, accompanied by his family. They settled at Bakersfield where they were taken 
with chills and fever, and from there went into the mountains near Tehachapi and 
remained a year and a half. Recovering their health they came to Los Angeles County, 
and later settled in the vicinity of Santa Ana, where Mr. Belt bought twenty acres of 
raw land on the river. Mr. and Mrs. Belt became the parents of four sons, William, 
Joseph, Henry and Jasper, and four daughters, Emma, Cora, Bertha and Maude; of the 
eight children, five are living. She has one granddaughter. Fay L,. Sutton. 

Mrs. Belt is an interesting conversationalist; her reminiscences of early days, with 
their halo of romance and adventure, is an ever interesting topic of conversation. She 
has a large circle of friends by whom she is highly esteemed, and her comfortable home 
is noted for its good cheer and hospitality. In her political sentiments she is a stanch 
Republican, and a member of the Woman's Relief Corps, while Mr. Belt was a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

CHARLES LORENZ.— In the early period of Anaheim's history, Charles Lorenz, 
now deceased, located in this now up-to-date city of Orange County, his advent being 
on October 22, 1859, soon after the town site was first laid out. He was born in 1814, 
in Crossen, Germany, but removed to Berlin while quite young. He learned the trade 
of a machinist, and so thoroughly did he master the intricacies of that line of work 
that he became an expert, and to him belongs the honor of having constructed the first 
locomotive in that section of Germany. 

In 184S Mr. Lorenz was united in marriage with Louisa Schidler, the ceremony 
being solemnized in Berlin. During the year 1850 he left Germany, intending to come 
to California, but after being on the sailing vessel about six months decided to latid in 
South America, where he spent two and a half years in Valparaiso, Chile, and five and 
a half years in Concepcion. While there they learned to speak Spanish and this helped 
them after coming to California. His youngest daughter, now Mrs. Louisa E. Boege, 
was born in Valparaiso in 1852; the eldest daughter, Mrs. Elmina C. Dorr, was born in 
Berlin, Germany, in 1848. During the early part of 1859, Mr. Lorenz, accompanied by 
his wife and two daughters, sailed from Chile for California, landing at San Francisco, 
where they remained but a few months and, later stopped a short time at San Luis 
Obispo. In October of the same year he arrived in Anaheim, coming from San Pedro 
with a twelve-mule team, and he soon opened the first blacksmith shop in the new 
town. In March, 1860, he purchased twenty acres on South Lemon Street, where he 
planted a vineyard and made and sold wine. He helped organize the German Meth- 
odist Church and was an Odd Fellow. Later on Mr. Lorenz sold all but one acre of 
his land, and here his two daughters now reside. He lived to the advanced age of 
eighty-five, his death occurring in 1902, his wife having passed away in 1885. 

His daughters, Mrs. Louis Dorr and Mrs. Henry A. Boege, are among the pioneer 
citizens of Anaheim, having come here over sixty years ago. At that time the country 
between Anaheim and San Juan Capistrano was a wilderness, as was the territory 
between here and Los Angeles. 

^ LOUIS DORR, a native of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, married Elmina. 
Charlotte, the eldest daughter of Charles Lorenz. He left his native country when a 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 295 

young man to reside in England and afterwards went to Australia. In 1862 he arrived 
in Anaheim, where he was engaged as a bookkeeper; he also owned a vineyard and 
made wine. Mr. and Mrs. Dorr were the parents of seven children, five of whom are 
living: Louis, the oldest member of the family, is a forest ranger and resides near 
Palmdale; Charles is a miner at Tonopah, Nev.; Agnes and Dorothy are living at Los 
Angeles, where they conduct a cafeteria; and Arthur is a mining man and is in Mexico. 

Mr. Dorr passed away in 1895. Mrs. Dorr lived in San Francisco and in Los 
Angeles for about fifteen years, then came back to Anaheim and has lived here ever 
since and has been a witness of the wonderful growth and development of the county. 

HENRY A. BOEGE was united in marriage in 1871 with Louisa Emilie Lorenz, 
the youngest daughter of Charles Lorenz, the ceremony being performed at the 
Lutheran Church, Anaheim. He was a native of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and 
came to Anaheim when nineteen years of age. He opened a butcher shop and also did 
teaming and freighting. At one time he owned a vineyard west of Anaheim. Later on 
he superintended the ranch of his father-in-law and at one time was engaged in street 
work for the city of Anaheim. His death occurred in 1893. He was a member of 
the Odd Fellows Lodge. 

JOSEPH P. desGRANGES. — Numbered among the oldest settlers of what is now 
Orange County and one of the few remaining pioneers of Fullerton, who has become 
a leader in horticultural circles and is regarded as an authority on the early history 
of Orange County, is Joseph P. des Granges, the rancher of East Chapman Avenue, 
Fullerton, whose philanthropic sympathies and patriotic sentiments have made him 
popular among all know him. He was born at St. Louis, Mo., on June 8, 1858, and 
with a brother came to Anaheim on May 1, 1873. Los Angeles was very primitive at 
that time, the United States Hotel being one of the very few brick buildings in the city. 

The des Granges family are of old French-Huguenot stock. Early members of the 
family who, as the name indicates, were landowners of France, were obliged to flee for 
their lives from their native land at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
They first found refuge in Switzerland, but later settled in Prussia, where the family 
thrived in their new surroundings. Otto des Granges, the father of our subject, was 
a university man and a civil engineer by profession. Locating at St. Louis, Mo., he 
becarne extensively interested in manufacturing, establishing an iron manufacturing 
plant. His wife was in maidenhood Miss Josephine Harff. 

As early as 1871 Otto des Granges came to San Francisco, soon afterwards coming 
down to what is now Fullerton, then in Los Angeles County. Here he purchased eighty 
acres of raw land, and with the help of his son improved it and brought it to a high 
state of cultivation, and here the parents resided until their demise, the father at the 
age of ninety, the mother surviving until 1914, when she passed away at the age of 
eighty-six. Of their family of four children, Joseph was the third in order of birth, and 
he was fortunate in receiving a good schooling during the residence of the family in 
St. Louis, Mo., before their migration to California. 

Joseph was only fourteen years of age when he began to assist his father in the 
development of their California ranch, and very naturally he learned a good deal for a 
boy of his age. The land was in its primitive state, covered with sunflowers and 
mustard of an unusual height, and they truly found here in the West a wild, open 
country, with plenty of elbow room. They raised barley and other grains, and later 
established a system of irrigation. That the best obtainable in irrigating facilities were 
eventually theirs may be inferred when it is known that Joseph des Granges was 
instrumental in having Anaheim equipped with the modern electric light system when 
Los Angeles was the only other city in this locality so favored. The first light plant 
which he constructed was a great success, and this was followed by others. Mr. des 
Granges also built and established a grist mill at Anaheim, in fact, he conducted a feed 
mill and store there for about ten years, and thus early played an important part in the 
mercantile world. 

Having continued his ranching ventures, Mr. des Granges owns at present twenty 
acres of the original tract, set out to Valencia oranges and walnuts, and he markets, 
his oranges through the Placentia Orange Growers Association. This year he also' 
picked some four and a half tons of the finest Japanese persimmons in the county 
from young trees just coming into bearing. He exhibited them at the University of 
California Fruit Exhibition and received the second prize. 

On March 23, 1904, Mr. des Granges was married to Miss Genevra Estabrooks, 
the daughter of George Melvin and Eliza B. (Paige) Estabrooks, born in New Bruns- 
wick and Maine, respectively. The father was an expert millwright in the construction 
of water-power mills, and he removed to Stillwater, Minn., where he followed his trade; 
both he and his wife passed away there. Of their three children, Mrs. des Granges 



296 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

was the youngest; after her graduation from the Stillwater high f^^°°l^\h^^;S'rton 
teaching in the public schools, as well as teaching music^ In 1900 ^^^"'"^^^"i^"^ "^"^ 
where she has since made her home. A cultured and refined ^°'"^"' .^J^^^.f^f disoense 
fully over her husband's home, where they entertam their many friends and dispense 
a true, old-time California hospitality. One child has blessed this umon Josephine 
who attends the Fullerton high school. By a former marriage, Mr. des Oranges has a 
son, Harry E., who has a battery and ignition works at Los ^atos. 

Mr. des Granges has seen many changes since coming to this region m 1»/J. in 
fact the most optimistic resident of those days could not have conceived the wonderful 
transformation that has taken place, with the increase in larid values from fifteen and 
twenty dollars an acre to $5,000 to $6,000. It is to men like Mr. des Granges, who 
were not afraid to venture and work, that Orange County owes much of its present 
development and greatness, so in this section he is indeed a pioneer of pioneers. 

CHARLES O. RUST.— A "captain of industry" who contributed something 
definite and important to the development of the commercial interests of Southern 
California, is the late Charles O. Rust, who was vice-president of the Wickersheim Im- 
plement Company of Fullerton, who resided on his ranch at 619 North Palm Street, 
Anaheim. He was born at Crescent City, then in Mendocino, now in Del Norte County, 
Cal., on November 26, 1858, the son of Carl F. Rust, who had married Miss Sophia 
Horn, like himself a native of Germany. His father came to California in pioneer days 
and located in that part of Mendocino County, where he busied himself transporting on 
the backs of burros those supplies so much needed by miners, and which had to be 
brought from Crescent City. Later he was in the general merchandise business in 
that town, and only in 1861 succeeded in getting south to locate in Anaheim. He was 
one of the original colonists and purchased forty acres of land on North Palm Street, 
where he had a vineyard set out and as soon as they began bearing he located on his 
ranch in 1861, and began the making of wine from his vineyard, but he was not allowed 
to long enjoy the fruits of his labors for in 1868 he passed to his eternal reward. He 
was a tanner by trade, and had the repute of having established the first tannery in 
Los Angeles, now Orange County, setting it up on his home ranch. He bought the 
hides from the Spanish, had ten vats sunk into the ground, and from the neighboring 
mountains brought the oak bark for tanning. Two children were born to this worthy 
couple — one being Chas. O., our subject, and the other a daughter, now Mrs. A. S. 
Browning, of Los Angeles, who was born on the old ranch at Anaheim. 

Educated in the schools at Anaheim, the first teacher Charles had was Professor 
Kuelp, although afterward he went to a school in Anaheim taught by the late J. M. 
Guinn, the historian. He finished his studies in Los Angeles and San Francisco, and 
in 1878 returned to the ranch at Anaheim. During his forty years' residence there he 
made much of the best wine and brandy for which Orange County was noted. After 
the grape disease killed the vines he set the ranch out to oranges and walnuts. The 
greater part of the twenty acres is now in full-bearing Valencia oranges and walnuts, 
all of which trees were planted by him. The mammoth sycamore trees on the place, 
however, were set out by his father, and are today a beautiful memorial of the old 
pioneer. Mr. Rust owned other valuable real estate in the county, including a fine 
orange grove of twenty acres one mile west of Fullerton and he also owned valuable 
property in Los Angeles. He helped to organize the Anaheim Citrus Fruit Associa- 
tion^ and served on its board of directors. He was also a director in the Orange 
Growers Exchange of Orange County and as stated above was vice-president of the 
Wickersheim Implement Company. 

When Mr. Rust married, he chose for his-wife. Miss Kate Snedaker, a pative of 
Iowa, born near Guthrie Center. Her father was Samuel Blair Snedaker, who was born 
near Great Bend, Pa., in 1811, descended from old" Knickerbocker stock, the ancestors 
having immigrated from Holland to New York in 1632, locating in what is now Flat- 
bush, Brooklyn. Some of the ancestors on the Snedaker side were in the Colonial and 
Revolutionary wars, while Samuel B. Snedaker's mother was a native of En-^land He 
was reared on farms at Clyde and Lyons, N. Y. After his first wife died he removed 
to Cincmnati, Ohio, where he became captain of a packet boat running on the Ohrind 
M,ss,ss,„n, r,v..« t. M„„, n.,..„„ i„ New Orleans he was marri^ed a second time 




in 1862, he brought his family across the pla ns in a train ofs.v., ' 'r^' ^"='' 

the Indian troubles they reached California slfel^ and he was for a ^'T""' ^^ .'"''' °^ 
hotel business at San Andreas, Calaveras County In m^f hi f J ,^"?*^ed in the 
children. He finally located in San Fra^^i^rl^hei-hfiS'Lgi^l^StTniS: 




Jh? by EG Williams & Bca NY 






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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 301 

business until he retired, coming to Anaheim in 1881, where he spent his last days in 
tne home of his daughter, Mrs. Rust, passing away in 1897. Mrs. Rust was the young- 
est child and received her education in San Francisco. After graduating from the 
Rincon school she was engaged in teaching in Calaveras County for two years, until 
1881, when she came to Anaheim with her father and sister and here she met and 
married Mr. Rust. Their union was blessed with two children. Percy was educated 
at Belmont Military Academy and is married to Ruth J. Hauser; they have two 
children, Ruth Jacquelin and Chas. Warren. , Elsa is a graduate of Marlborough School, 
Los Angeles, and Columbia University, New York, receiving the degree of Bachelor of 
Science degree from the latter institution. 

The family are members of the Episcopal Church. For twenty years Mr. Rust 
was a trustee of the town of Anaheim, and for most of the time served as mayor, or 
chairman of the board and during his service marked the beginning of public improve- 
- ment in Anaheim, which has resulted in making it the beautiful and modern city it is 
today. He also served for many years on the school board; was a director of the 
Anaheim Union Water Conjpany; a member of the Board of Trade of Anaheim, and 
also of the Mother Colony Club. He was a charter member of Anaheim Lodge No. 
1345, B. P. O. Elks. Politically he was a stanch Republican. He passed away in Oak- 
land, where he and Mrs. Rust had gone for the cool climate of summer, on October 7, 
1920, mourned by his family and friends. In his death Orange County and Anaheim 
lost one of its best citizens and upbuilders. Since his death Mrs. Rust resides at the 
old home and aided by her children looks after the affairs left by her husband. 

JOSEPH P. MOODY.— The ranch and residence of Joseph P. Moody are situated 
one mile west and north of Cypress, in Orange County, Cal. Mr. Moody is one of the 
well-known and highly respected stock and poultry men in his section, and has been 
engaged in the poultry business since 1914. His thirty-one acre ranch is well tilled and 
highly productive, and his poultry stock consists of about 700 single-comb White 
Leghorns of the best laying strain. His poultry house, 118x20 feet, has a cement 
floor and is up to date in every way; he pumps his water and grinds his feed by 
electricity. Twenty-three acres of his ranch are in alfalfa and a good family orchard. 
He has resided in Orange County and on his present ranch since 1896, and has been an 
active and progressive rancher from the first, buying his land when it was in almost a 
wholly unimproved state and bringing it up to its present state of productiveness. 

Mr. Moody was born in Carthage, Ohio, November 20, 1848, and is the son ol 
Henry and Nancy Moody, natives of Kentucky and Ohio, respectively. The father 
crossed the plains with others in the memorable year of '49, making the journey over- 
land without serious mishap in about five months. In 1850 he returned to his family in 
Ohio, and in 1852 made his second trip to California, this time by water via the Isthmus, 
and accompanied by his wife and two children. When within one day of landing at 
San Francisco his wife died and was buried at sea, June 5, 1852. He again engaged 
in the occupation of mining, as he/ had done upon his previous visit to the state, and 
continued the occupation several years. In course of time he married Mrs. Murphy, 
by whom he had two children; Stephen H. and Mary, who is now Mrs. Brewster. He 
died in 1894. 

Joseph P. Moody was three and a half years old when his mother died at sea, and 
he was reared by Mrs. Catherine Alderman of Grass Valley, Nevada County, Cal., a 
, most worthy woman. Because of surrounding conditions Joseph's early education was 
somewhat neglected, nevertheless he acquired a practical training for business purposes, 
and is a self-made man both from a business and educational standpoint. While his 
younger life was spent in agricultural pursuits he did little manual labor, always taking 
up some pursuit in which he had the oversight and direction of/ others. He engaged 
extensively in the sheep-raising industry, having as many as 2,500 sheep in one flock, 
and in ranching near Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo County. 

His marriage in Elmira, N. Y., in 1872, united his destiny with that of Miss Martha 
McClary of that city, and of their union ten children were born, namely: Charles E., 
William H., Lottie J., Mary E., Arthur J., Joseph E., Grace J., Earl J., Harriet N. and 
Clara M. Joseph E. is a minister in the Christian Church, and has been a successful 
missionary in India for five years. Mrs. Moody died, aged forty-four in September, 1892, 
and Mr. Moody again entered the state of matrimony in August 30, 1893, being united 
with Miss Elizabeth Alderman. A daughter, Catherine G. by name, was born of this 
union. Mrs. Moody is a native of Grass Valley, Cal. She was born on May 23, 1852, 
and is the daughter of Samuel and Catherine Alderman, early California pioneers who 
came to the state about the time that Mr. Moody came, and. ran a dairy ranch in 
Nevada County. Of the nine children in the Alderman paternal home, seven are 
living. In their church associations Mr. Moody and his family are members of the 
Christian Church. 



302 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

RICHARD W. JONES. — Closely connected with the commercial, political, horti- 
cultural and humanitarian undertakings of Orange County for the past thirty-six years, 
Richard W. Jones is one of the "old-timers" who has seen the wonderful transformation 
of Southern California from a sparsely settled section to a district that is not equalled 
by any in the entire state. A native of Wales, he was born at Carnavonshire, on October 
30, 1854, the son of John and Mary Jones, both natives of that country and where the 
last days of their lives were spent. Orphaned early in life, his mother dying when he 
was but one year old and his father four years later, the lad was reared by his grand- 
parents until he was eleven, when he was thrown upon his own resources. He worked 
upon farms in his native land until he was seventeen years of age, when he went to 
Liverpool, and then, in 1878, decided to try his fortune in America. Arriving here he 
went to Columbia County, Wis., and there followed farming for six years, coming to 
California and to what is now Orange County in 1884. One year later he became a 
foreman on the David Hewes ranch at El Modena and after he had demonstrated his 
ability to look after such a large property and bring it to a high state of development, 
he was made manager, remaining on the place for twenty years and having a great 
deal to do with its early improvement and development as the years passed. He had the 
entire confidence of Mr. Hewes, who approved his methods of planting, harvesting and 
marketing the products of the great ranch. This ranch was once a sheep range of 800 
acres, which Mr. Hewes bought in 1880 for from $20 to $30 per acre, and then set 
about to make it one of the beauty spots of the state by spending thousands of dollars 
on Hewes Park and in carrying on the most up-to-date methods of ranching. It is 
conceded by those who know that Mr. Jones was the genius who perfected the plans 
and superintended the work and gave the impetus to its popularity. 

While employed by Mr. Hewes, Mr. Jones had bought a ranch of thirty acres in 
El Modena precinct and begun its development; this land he added to until he now owns 
forty-six acres, thirty of which is fully improved and brings in handsome returns. On 
his ranch he erected an attractive house, the green foliage of the foothills forming a 
picturesque background for its white exterior, making a beautiful setting for the 
residence. The land lies in a sheltered cove, in what is known as the "frostless belt," 
making it one of the best locations for a citrus grove in this section of the county. 
Here, with the aid of his son, Marion E., he is carrying on horticultural pursuits that 
bring in handsome yearly returns and enables him to enjoy life to its full. 

On June 20, 1895, at McPherson, R. W. Jones was united in marriage with Miss 
Clara J. McPherson, a member of a Scotch family tracing their lineage in America 
back to the sixteenth century. Her father, William Gregg McPherson, migrated from 
Illinois to California in 1859, crossing the plains, with ox teams, and after his arrival 
he engaged in mining near Downieville, meeting with more than ordinary success. He 
then returned to Chicago and married his first wife, Miss Harriet Crowell, and four 
children were born of that union: Edwin H., William Gregg, Clara J., Mrs. Jones, and 
Frederick; Mrs. Jones'now being the only survivor. 

Returning to California Mr. McPherson lived at San Jose, and there his daughter 
was born, and while there he found the m_ost profitable employment he could find was 
teaching school. From San Jose he moved to Westminster in 1871, in order that his 
growing family might have the advantages of school and church in the new Presby- 
terian colony. In 1873 he bought forty acres at McPherson, named in honor of the 
colony of McPherson relatives, of whom there were over fifty at one time, and while 
he was developing his property he employed his talents as a teacher and thus endeared 
himself to many of the young men and women of the locality who received instruction 
from him. During his residence at McPherson he was the magnet that drew many 
emigrants from the East to California, and not a few settled here in Orange County. 
He was a man of much public spirit, desirous of doing good in order that good might 
be accomplished. He passed to his reward in 1908, deeply mourned by all who had 
known him. Mrs. Jones' mother died in 1876. 

A native daughter of the Golden State, Mrs. Jones is deeply interested in all move- 
ments for its upbuilding, is a woman of unusual attainments, and has been a true help- 
mate to her husband in the highest sense. She is one of the foremost women of the 
county, has given freely of her time and talents to uplift work and humanitarian move- 
ments, and her influence and kindly deeds have been known far beyond the confines of 
her home environment. She was a leader in club circles, and in church and charitable 
enterprises is known throughout Orange County, and in fact the entire state of 
California. She is president of Orange County Sunday School Association, and one of 
the officers of the Los Angeles Presbyterial, and has been a delegate to the national 
conventions. 




""'"Zf^? 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 305 

Mr. and Mrs. Jones have been active in the many cooperative enterprises that have 
had such a direct bearing on the rapid growth of this district, and have ever lent a 
helping hand to every project designed to assist and enhance the public welfare. They 
became the parents of two children, only one of whom, Marioui E., reached maturity. 
He is married to Elva May, and they reside upon the home ranch and assist in its 
management. For thirteen years Mr. Jones served as a trustee of the Orange Union 
High School; for twelve years he was a director in the John T. Carpenter Water 
Company; and he is a director in the Orange County Mutual Insurance Company, the 
National Bank of Orange, the McPherson Heights Citrus Association and the Orange 
County Fruit Exchange. In political matters he is a Republican and believes in pro- 
gressive movements for the salvation of the country, for ours is an age of advancement 
along every line of endeavor. 

WILLIAM M. McFADDEN.— The name of William M. McFadden is worthy of 
enrollment among the very early settlers of Orange County who foresaw its great 
possibilities and put their shoulder to the wheel to develop the opportunities by which 
they were surrounded. A pioneer of California who came hither by way of Panama, 
and for twenty years an educator in its schools, he was one of that sturdy band of men 
who pushed westward to aid in the development of our wonderful state and at the 
same time to find greater opportunities for themselves than were to be had in the 
more populous East; and in enduring the privations to be found in a newer civilization, 
and each doing his bit to build up whatever portion of the state they cast their lot with, 
these men have builded even better than they knew, and California today stands ready 
with all praise for their unselfish strivings. 

William M. McFadden was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., on February 19, 1842, and 
was a graduate of the West Pittsburgh high school and the Curry Normal Institute, 
as well as the Beaver Academy, at Beaver, Pa., and later, the commercial department 
of Wellborn College at Louisville, Ky. During much of this time, he paid his own 
tuition, with money which he had earned thiough teaching school, and this circum- 
stance alone affords a key to at least one side, and a very important one at that, of 
his mental and moral make-up as a prospective pioneer and pathmaker. 

In 1863, the young school teacher came to California, and for four and a half 
years he taught in the Alameda County district schools. Then, in 1868, he came to 
Southern California, and continued teaching in Los Angeles County, living for eleven 
years at what was then called North Anaheim, now Placentia, while he kept school at 
what was known as Upper Santa Ana. During a portion of that time he served as 
superintendent of schools of Los Angeles County, where he was also a member of the 
board of education for two years, the second year serving as president of the board; 
and later he was president of the high school board of Fullerton, and superintendent 
of construction of the first high school building in the county, erected in Fullerton. 

In January, 1869, Mr. McFadden became interested in horticulture, and purchased 
ninety-two acres from the Stearns Rancho Company, which he set out to oranges and 
walnuts; later, as the trees began to bear, shipping yearly about twenty-three carloads 
of oranges and two carloads of walnuts. He was one of the first to raise oranges and 
walnuts here after the development of water, and was rather naturally one of the origi- 
nators of the Fullerton Walnut Growers Association, which in turn levied upon him 
for its president for years. He was the second man to grow oranges in the Placentia 
district, and one of five shippers who organized the Southern California Orange Ex- 
change. When he started his orange culture in the Placentia district, Mr. McFadden 
secured oranges from Mexico, and the seeds of these were planted in seed beds and 
watered from well water; the plants were then budded to Australian Navels and later 
to Washington Navels. 

Among other important development projects, Mr. McFadden was one of the 
original promoters of the Anaheim Union Water Company, the other man associated 
with him being R. H. Oilman, J. W. Shanklin, Wm. Crowthers, J. B. Pierce, P. Hansen, 
and Henry Hetebrink. The building of this ditch was an important event in Mr. Mc- 
Fadden's life-work, and has been a decided factor in the further development of the 
county, for these pioneer irrigation projects laid the foundation for the present intensive 
cultivation everywhere to be seen throughout the county. In this company Mr. Mc- 
Fadden served as president, and was also for years a director; and he was one of the 
organizers, secretary and director of the Cajon Irrigation Company, later merged into 
the Anaheim Union Water Company. He was intensely interested in every project that 
had for its aim the development of the county; and as an enthusiastic advocate of 
popular education, he built with his own money the first school house at Placentia, in 
what was then called the El Cajon district, and served on the school board for years. 

Mr. McFadden was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Kansas 
City when Bryan was nominated, and he was also a member of the notification com- 



306 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

mittee — a reasonable honor, considering that he was one of the prime movers in organ- 
izing Orange County, as he became among its most philanthropic citizens. 

At Alameda, in 1866, Mr. McFadden was married to Miss Sarah Jane Earl, who 
had come to California via Panama when she was eighteen, and had already taught 
school for two years. She had eight children, all but one of whom were born in the 
Placentia district in Los Angeles County. Those still living are Carrie E., now Mrs. 
Herbert A. Ford, Clarence, Thomas, Ralph and Robert. Will E. died in 1912, aged 
thirty-nine, leaving a wife and a daughter. The others, a boy and a girl, died in 1875. 
This relation of the birth of the children to Placentia district is of more interest when 
it is recalled that it was Mrs. McFadden who gave it the name of Placentia, in which 
district she came to be a charter member of the Placentia Round Table, the woman's 
club. This organization erected the first woman's club house in all Orange County. 
She was very active in all forward movements, and participated eagerly in whatever 
contributed to the upbuilding of society as well as the building up of the nearby places; 
and she lived to witness much of the wonderful development of Southern California. 
She died on August 18, 1908, at Fullerton, six years after Mr. McFadden, on July 21 and 
in the same town, had passed away, honored in particular by the Masons, whose 
ancient fraternity he had joined as a member of the San Francisco lodge, later demitting 
to Anaheim Lodge; he instituted and was the first master of Fullerton Lodge. He 
was also a member of the Chapter and Commandery in Santa Ana. Mrs. McFadden 
was the first matron of the Eastern Star Chapter at Fullerton. 

MRS. MARIE EUGENIA DAGUERRE.— The beautiful family life of France 
perhaps find its fullest expression in that picturesque mountain district, known as the 
Basses-Pyrenees, and in this wonderful, healthful climate the children are reared with 
exceptional care, and especially is the highest standard of morals established, and thus 
the honor of the family altar is kept sacred. Here in this corner of Sunny France, not 
far from the border of Spain, was the birthplace of Mrs. Marie Eugenia Daguerre, the 
owner of a third interest in the great Moulton ranch at El Toro. Born at St. Pierre 
de Yrube, near the famous old fortified city of Bayonne, Mrs. Daguerre before her 
marriage was Maria Eugenia Duguet, her parents being Baptista and Elizabeth (Uris- 
buru) Duguet, who were farmers for many years in that part of France. The fourth 
of a family of six children, Mrs. Daguerre is the only one living and the only one to 
come to America. She was educated in the convent at St. Pierre de Yrube, and in 1874 
sailed from Havre with the Amestoy family, landing at New York, They continued on 
to San Francisco and then to San Pedro by boat, reaching Los Angeles, June 24, 1874, 
and located on a large ranch at Rosecranz, now Gardena. Here Mrs. Daguerre con- 
tinued to make her home with the Amestoys until her marriage, at the Amestoy resi- 
dence, to Jean Pierre Daguerre on October 7, 1886. 

Mr. Daguerre was also a native of Basses-Pyrenees, Hasparren having been his 
birthplace, and he came over on the same boat as Mrs. Daguerre, being eighteen years 
of age at the time. Here he was employed with the Amestbys in the care of their 
stock, so became thoroughly experienced in this work, continuing with them for eight 
years, when he resigned to begin stock raising on his own account. Making his way 
to San Juan Capistrano he formed a partnership with Don Marco Forster as sheep 
growers. After his mari-iage Mr. Daguerre and his wife went to El Toro, where he 
continued actively in the sheep business for several years. After dissolving partnership 
with Don Marco Forster, Mr. Daguerre formed a partnership with Mr. Lewis F. 
Moulton on his extensive ranch of 22,000 acres, the business being conducted under the 
name of Lewis F. Moulton arid Company. The partners met with phenomenal success, 
and after the death of Mr. Daguerre on May 5, 1911, Mrs. Daguerre, who had been a 
true helpmate in sharing the business responsibilities of her husband, continued in the 
partnership, and still owns a third interest in the ranch. The Moulton ranch is one 
of the largest and most profitable in Southern California, and upwards of fifteen tenants 
are engaged iri raising beans, grain and hay on its extensive acreage. In addition the 
Moulton Companj^ is engaged in raising beef cattle on an immense scale, their herd of 
high-grade Dufhams being one of the finest in the county. 

Mi", and Mrs. Dagueri-e were blessed with six children, the two younger of whom 
passed away in infancy. -Domingo Joseph, who after the death of his father assisted 
Mr. Moulton and took an active part in the aflEairs of the company, was a, well, liked 
and popular young man displaying splendid traits of character and much ability, when 
his promising Career vvas cut short by influenza, January 11, 1919, at the -age of thirty- 
otte; the three daughters are Juanifa, Grace' and Josephine. - 

Mrs. I)agiierre resides in her comfortable residence, on the. Moulton ranch with 
h'er three^loving daughters, wh.osho.vver oil her their aflfectionate care and. devotion,, and 
3.ssisf i'er iii tf/e nianagement of the. large interest^ ^eft,l)y .her .hy,sband, thus doing all 
they can ;to shield her from unnecessary worry and car.e. .Whjle far, .from l^€;r native 





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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 311 

land, Mrs. Daguerre has never had cause to regret her choice in establishing a home in 
this beautiful Southland, whose resources rival that of any other country. The family 
take an active part in civic matters and are strong protectionists and Republicans. 
They are liberal and enterprising and give their aid to all matters that have for their 
aim the upbuilding of the county and the enhancing of the comfort and happiness of 
its citizens. 

MRS. WYRAM L. KNOWLTON.— More than one romantic chapter in the his- 
tory of California is recalled by the records of Mrs. Wyram L,. Knowlton and her 
interesting family. She was born in Yorba, Los Angeles County, in 18S9, the daughter 
of Ramon H. and Concepcion (Bustamente) Aguilar, and was named Nicanora. Her 
father was a native of Spain, born in 1801, and the son of Jose M. and Dolores (Villa- 
viciencio) Aguilar, who left his native land when Ramon was a baby and settled on a 
grant of land in Lower California. The father of Jose M. was tailor to the King of 
Spain and he was given a large grant of land in Lower California for his fidelity, and 
this was in turn handed down to his children at his death, Jose M. being given the 
Guadalupe grant as his portion. The ancestors of the family were among those who 
assisted the padres in founding the early missions and they later returned to Spain, but 
eventually settled in Lower California, from which place members of the family mi- 
grated to California and helped to lay the foundation for our present commonwealth. 
Jose M. Aguilar was a man of wealth, as it was counted in those days, and he. spent 
liberally of his means to uplift the native Indians, an ambition that was always upper- 
most in his soul. He died when Ramon H. was a small child. 

Ramon Aguilar lived in Lower California until 1827, when he migrated to Cali- 

• fornia and here he was married to a native daughter of the West, and by her had fifteen 

children, all born in California, and nine of them grew to years of maturity. Those 

still living are Mrs. Nicanora Knowlton, Mrs. T. A. Darling, Mrs. Edward Crowe, 

R. F. Aguilar and Mrs. Herman Fesenfeldt. 

Nicanora Aguilar was united in marriage in 1896, in Orange County, with Wyram 
L. Knowlton, a native of Wisconsin, born at Castle Rock on December 4, 1853. He was 
educated in Wisconsin and lived in Iowa for some years and migrated to California in 
1889. He became the owner of considerable land in Orange County, which he sold off 
from time to time, having improved it in the modern manner of the period, only retain- 
ing ten acres, the home place of the widow today. This couple had one daughter, 
Laura, a graduate of the Anaheim high school and now the wife of Paul V. Domen- 
guez. Mrs. Knowlton busies herself with the care and improvement of the ten acres 
she owns, assisted in the operation of the place by her <laughter. Mr. Knowlton was a 
member of the Fraternal Brotherhood and was a liberal supporter of all movements 
for the upbuilding of his adopted county, and was held in high esteem by all who had 
the pleasure of knowing him. His widow and daughter are equally liberal and have a 
wide circle of friends. 

WYLLYS W. PERKINS. — An able, efficient man of business, who was never 
known to be afraid of hard work, is Wyllys W. Perkins, the retired rancher, residing at 
806 Spurgeon Avenue, Santa Ana, whose financial success began the day when he 
formed a partnership with his brother, Charles H. Perkins, formerly a wholesaler in 
New York state. He was born in Oconomowoc, Waukesha County, Wis., on May 23, 
1860, the son of Charles H. Perkins, a native of Windsor, Conn., where he married Miss 
Elizabeth Hinsdale. They came out to Wisconsin in the early forties, and while Mr. 
Perkins farmed, he and his good wife also kept a general merchandise store at 
Oconomowoc. Wyllys is the youngest of seven children in the family, and when five 
years old was brought by his parents to the vicinity of Grand Rapids, Kent County, 
Mich., where his folks went in for farming and the raising of fruit. He attended the 
common schools of Kent County, and under the wholesome conditions even then 
prevalent in Michigan, received an excellent preparation for the battle of life. 

When fifteen years of age, Mr. Perkins left Michigan to join an older brother, 
Clarence, at Burlington, Kan., and for two years he was witl^ him on a stock farm at 
Strawn. He worked on the ranch during the summers, and in winter time went to 
school nearby. After two years of outdoor life, however, he returned to his home in 
Michigan and entered the Commercial College at Grand Rapids, where he took a two 
years' business course. On coming west again to Kansas, he went to work for a short 
time for the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad Company, when he again shifted, this 
time to La Junta, Colo., at which place he was given a responsible post with the 
Atchinson, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. He had charge of coal bins until he found it 
possible to make still another move — to California — when he fired a locomotive at 
Eureka, in Humboldt County, on the Boner & Jones logging railroad. 



312 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

.At the end of a year he went to San Luis Obispo and was with the narrow-gauge 
San Luis Obispo and Port Harford Railway, where he fired for six or eight monttis, an 
then he went to Mojave and secured a position with the P. I. Radway, now a part oi 
the Santa Fe system. He was next promoted to be an engineer on a switch engine in 
the Southern Pacific yards in Los Angeles, and switched for that company tor eight 
months. Later he became a locomotive engineer for the Los Angeles & Pacihc Rail- 
way, and for a couple of years ran a passenger train from Los Angeles to Santa Monica. 
After that he went to the Santa Fe Railroad and for seven years ran both passenger and 
freight engines, mostly between Winslow and Williams, in Arizona, but also as far as 
Albuquerque, N. M. 

During this time, at Grand Rapids, in 1884, Mr. Perkins was married to Miss Clara 
Lee of that city, and for a while he made his home at Winslow, although he started 
housekeeping at Mojave. He first became fireman at the roundhouse, and ran a 
general merchandise store in connection with his railroad work at Mojave. He fol- 
lowed railroading until 1894, when the great A. R. U. strike occurred, and he was 
discharged for refusing to run the engine of a striker. 

He then came to Orange County and spent six or seven months looking around, so 
that he made no mistake when he finally settled at El Modena, where in 189S he 
purchased ten acres of unimproved land. His brother, Charles H. Perkins, now eighty 
years old, and residing at 911 Spurgeon Avenue, Santa Ana, was then extensively 
engaged as a dealer in wholesale fruits in New York, and bought California fruit and 
honey; and while visiting California on business he came to El Modena to see his 
brother and the ten-acre ranch, and there proposed a partnership to be known as the 
Perkins Bros. They bought more land, and soon had 160 well-improved acres, in the 
El Modena precinct. They also acquired a ranch at McFarland, in Kern County; but' 
they traded it for more land in Orange County. 

For several years, also, Mr. Perkins was in the seed and nursery business, growing 
rose bushes on a commercial scale; and later Perkins Bros, specialized first in flower 
seeds, and then exclusively in rose bushes. They produced and shipped as high as 
five or six car loads a year, and this enterprise proved decidedly profitable. In 1917 
the firm dissolved, and since then Mr. Perkins has sold so much of what he once had 
that he has left only two ranches, both in the El Modena district, the one of thirty-one, 
the other of ten acres, and has retired to live in Santa Ana. Mr. Perkins helped 
organize, and is still a stockholder in the Villa Park Orchards Association. 

Eight children blessed the union of Mr. Perkins and his wife. Elizabeth, the 
eldest, lives at home; Frank died in Arizona when he was five years old; Winnifred 
and Wyllys, W. Jr., are twins — Winifred is the wife of William Thomas, a mechanical 
engineer, residing at Los Angeles, and Wyllys is married and lives, as a rancher and an 
orange-grower, at McPherson. Dixie, a trained nurse with an enviable record for 
service in France during the late war, keeps house for her father. Arthur and Archie 
are also twins; the former is in the Agricultural College at Corvallis, 0.re., and Archie 
attends the high school at Santa Ana. And Clara is in the grammar school of the 
same city. Mrs. Perkins died March 19, 1906, and he married a second wife, Miss 
Fannie Parker, of Grinnell, Iowa, who also died— on December 10, 1919. 

Mr. and Mrs. Perkins were active in building up the Community Church established 
at Villa Park under the auspices of the Congregational denomination, and since his 
removal to Santa Ana, he and his household have supported and attended the Congre- 
gational Church at Santa Ana. He is prominent in the Orange Lodge of Odd Fellows, 
where he is a past grand, and with a frank, sincere, winning disposition, is influential 
in many ways, and often in times of emergency, for good among his fellow-men 

ROBERT HENRY ENGLISH—A native of Ireland, the years of whose young 
manhood were spent in Canada, but whose residence in the Unked S^at^ covered a 
period of more than forty-five years, is Robert Henry English one of Orante r^nnt ' 
stanch pioneer citizens, who had a large part in the early development ortll^>r 
coming here as he did, when the country was practically aw Ider^ss He 'f'^' 
in County Carlow, reland, about twenty miles from Dub" nlSSOthr , 

Thomas and Esther (Agar) English. The father, who was a farmer t, , " .°* 

same county, but was of English ancestry the mother Z.l i *.''™"' ^^= ^orn m the 

In 1860 the family came to Canada, setlng near Woodstock On;^^' ^ "'I'? °^ ^'''^"^• 
English engaged in farming. Woodstock, Ontario, and there Thomas 

Robert H. English grew up on his father's farm, learning to heln witt, ., . 
work while he attended the public schools of the vie nitv When h. ^'}^ }^^ farm 
of sixteen he entered the employ of the firm of Oswaw\ Sterson 'T^^ •*''' "^" 
foundrymen, at Woodstock. Being apt at merhlnT, if ^^""^"O"' ™achmists and 
machinist and foundryman, and als^ .rrn^^ ZtT:J:i^:T..^-TJJ:, rtSn"^ 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 313 

the stationary engine in the plant of Oswald & Patterson the last year or two he was in 
their employ. He remained a trusted employee of this firm for nearly eight years, 
during which time he was united in marriage with Miss Matilda Meadows. 

In 1873 Mr. English moved with his family to Platte County, Nebr., and was there 
during the terrible "grasshopper years" of 1873-4-S, when these pests were so numerous 
that they actually darkened the sun. Mr. English's crops were entirely eaten up and 
it was then that his knowledge of machinery stood him to good advantage. He 
purchased a steam thresher and began operating it, and was thus able to earn a living, 
even in the face of the severe financial loss the failure of his crops had caused. He 
was determined to seek a better country, however, so with his family he came to 
California, reaching Los Angeles February 23, 187S. They soon came down to what 
is now Orange County and Mr. English purchased land and began at once to make 
improvements. Always with a decided penchant for doing things on a big scale, he 
continued to buy land and at one time owned five different ranches, aggregating 388 
acres. For several years he farmed 2,500 acres of land on the Bolsa Chico and the 
mesa at Huntington Beach to barley. On much of the land purchased by Mr. English 
reclamation work was necessary, and he spent much time and labor in bringing his 
holdings up to a high state of cultivation. 

While Mr. English's interests were largely in the field of agriculture, he also 
engaged in other lines of work that have contributed to the development of the material 
progress of Orange County. In 1886 he engaged with Grant Brothers as a sub- 
contractor and helped on the grading of the Santa Fe Railway as far south as the San 
Joaquin Ranch, now the property of James Irvine. He also continued to operate steam 
threshing outfits in Orange County from the time of his arrival here until 1912. In 
that year he went to Santa Ana and for four years was street superintendent there; 
during his incumbency the city of Santa Ana put in seventeen and a half miles of gravel 
and oil streets and eleven and a half miles of macadamized streets. 

Mr. and Mrs. English became the parents of five children: William H. resides in 
Santa Ana; Susan M. is the widow of the late Frank J. Johnson and lives at Los 
Angeles; Ida May is the wife of Duncan E. Sova of Los Angeles; Fred J. and John T. 
are twins. The former is a prosperous ranchman in Bolsa precinct; he married Miss 
Ida May Hickey of Perris,' Cal., and they have one son — Frederick Gerald. John T. 
married Miss May Jacobsen of Orange and they are the parents of two children' — 
Harold R. and Ella Marie. Mrs. Robert H. English passed away December 27, 1916, 
and Mr. English survived her until October 6, 1920, when he died at the residence of his 
son Fred. Mrs. English was a member of the Episcopal Church, as were the parents 
of Mr. English, but he embraced the doctrine of the Baptists. In political matters he 
was an independent, preferring always to consider the qualifications of the candidate 
and the principles at stake, rather than adhering to strict party lines. Fraternally he 
was a member of the Maccabees and the Fraternal Aid Association. 

SAMUEL B. EVERETT. — For nearly half a century Samuel B. Everett has been 
identified with the agricultural interests of Orange County, in the vicinity of West- 
minster, having located there December 1, 1875. He is a worthy descendant of an 
honored New England family and is justly proud of being a grandson of Eleazer 
Everett, the young patriot who served his country during the Revolutionary War. 
Eleazer Everett was stationed at Boston Harbor, afterwards at Providence, R. I., and 
when he received his honorable discharge from Captain Heath's company on April 8, . 
1778, after three distinct enlistments, he was but nineteen years of age. He was among 
those that witnessed the death of the noted British spy, Major Andre, in 1780. 

Samuel B. Everett was born in Francistown, N. H., November 10, 1840, the son 
of Williard and Frances S. (Dodge) Everett. The family moved to what is now 
Metamora, 111., in 1843, becoming pioneers of Woodford County, and there carved out 
their future from the virgin soil. Both Mr. and Mrs. Everett were school teachers and 
took such pride and pains in the careful and thorough instruction of their young son, 
that he received a more liberal and extensive education than most young men of his 
day. During the dark days of the Civil War, when the disruption of the Union, for 
which his grandfather,. Eleazer Everett, had fought, was threatened, the patriotic young 
grandson determined that the Union must be preserved at all costs, and proved that 
he was a worthy descendant of his illustrious grandfather by joining Company G, 
Fourth Illinois Cavalry, serving for two years and ten months in the Western depart- 
ment of the army, during which time he was in many engagements with the enemy, 
but escaping without a scratch. 

On September 3, 1867, in Oberlin, Ohio,' Samuel B. Everett was united in marriage 
with Miss Clara Specs, a native of Ohio, and a teacher in Natchez, Miss., where they 
met. Three children were born to them: Arthur taught school in Southern California 



314 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

for twenty-two years; he married and became the father of three daughters and two 
sons, his death occurring in 1916 through an accident; Clara E. and Clarence B., twins, 
both died in infancy. Mr. Everett lived in Livingston County, 111., about eighteen 
months after his marriage, then removed to Fremont County, Iowa and thence to Ida 
County in that state, where Mrs. Everett passed away. In 1874 Mr. Everett returned 
to Woodford County, 111., and there on September 13, his second marriage occurred, 
A'hen he was united with Miss Sarah Lamson. She was a native of New Hampshire, 
born there on May 1, 1841, and in 1854 came to Metamora, 111., with her parents. 
William and Sarah (Starrett) Lamson. The father, who was a glass worker in New 
Hampshire, engaged in the brokerage business after coming to Illinois and there ac- 
cumulated a competency. He removed to California in 1877, and both he and his wite 
passed away here. 

Two children were born of Mr. Everett's second marriage, William and Justin, both 
now deceased, named after their mother's brothers who served throughout the Civil 
War. They resided in Iowa for a year after their marriage, coming to California in 
187S, William Bradford Lamson, Mrs. Everett's brother, a four-year veteran of the 
Civil War, having come to this state in 1873. They first located at Westminster, but in 
1876 they went to live on a forty-acre ranch, where they followed general farming for 
a number of years, during which time Mr. Everett was interested in the dairy business, 
having at one time twenty-five head of dairy stock. After disposing of his ranch Mr. 
Everett moved to his present place in 1884, an inheritance from his wife's father of 
fifty acres, where he has continued general farming. They have sold ofl from time 
to time until they have the original home place of five acres. 

Mr. Everett is an honored member of Sedgwick Post, No. 17, G. A. R., while his 
wife is a member of the Women's Relief Corps. In religious matters Mr. Everett is a 
member of the Seventh Day Adventist Church and was the first elder of the church 
at Garden Grove; Mrs. Everett is a Presbyterian. 

LINN L. SHAW — The steady growth and the increased prosperity of Orange 
County is directly the result of the early settlers in this locality, who have spent the 
better part of their lives in developing its latent resources and in building up a com- 
munity which socially and economically ranks with any in the state and has during 
the years attracted the better class of citizenry to help in the further advancement 
of this ideal home community. Prominent among these pioneer citizens is Linn 
L. Shaw, of the realty firm of Shaw ,& Russell, who for nearly thirty-five years has 
been identified with the progress of Santa Ana. 

Descending from sturdy New England stock, Linn L. Shaw was born at Mar- 
shalltown.'Iowa, July 29, 1866, his parents being Chancy and Mary (Morrison) Shaw, 
both of whom were natives of Maine. Attending the grammar and high schools of 
Marshalltown until the age of fourteen, Mr. Shaw left the schoolroom to learn the 
printer's trade, apprenticing himself to a local paper in his home city- Continuing 
there until he had become proficient in his chosen work, in 1883 he went to Plank- 
ington, S- D., and later was at Mitchell and Sioux Falls, in that state, spending in 
all about three years there. Returning to his Iowa home in 1886, he found quite a 
number of its residents preparing to go to California, as that was the beginning 
of the great boom periods of the Golden State. An opportunity oflfered to secure 
free transportation to the coast by accompanying a shipment of fine horses of 
' several prominent citizens of Marshalltown who were removing here, and Mr. Shaw 
at once availed himself of this chance. Arriving at Los Angeles he worked for a 
few weeks on the Los Angeles papers, but hearing of the new town of Santa Ana 
he decided to try his fortune there, and locating there in December, 1886, he has 
since made it his home. Clerking for a time in the music store of A. L. Pellegrin, 
he was soon offered a position on the Pacific Weekly Blade. The next year, when the 
Daily Blade was started by A. J. Waterhouse, who had been one of the founders of the 
Weekly Blade, Mr. Shaw was made city editor of the daily paper, a position he held until 
the dissolution of this journal in 1889. 

Mr. Shaw's next connection with the printing business was as proprietor of a 
printing plant, which he afterward disposed of, retaining the position of foreman 
until 1893, when he purchased a half interest in the Orange County Herald, conducting 
this as a daily and weekly until 1903, with E. S. Wallace as a partner. In the mean- 
time, in August, 1902, Mr. Shaw was appointed postmaster of Santa Ana, and the 
increasing duties of this office was one of the prime reasons for the disposal of the 
Herald, which was absorbed by the Blade. Conscientious and efficient in the discharge 
of this important office, Mr. Shaw served as postmaster until 1913, directing the postal 
affairs of the district with judicious economy, yet keeping the service up to a high 
standard. 





^^ 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 317 

In 1917 Mr. Shaw formed a partnership with Roy Russell in the real estate 
business, and this firm has taken a prominent place among the realty dealers of this 
vicinity, dealing in high-grade properties and handling a large volume of business. 
Mr. Shaw's long residence here and his consequent familiarity and thorough under- 
standing of soils and land values of Orange County, combined with his enviable 
reputation for square dealing, give him a deserved prestige in the realty world. 

On February 5, 1889, Mr. Shaw was married to Miss H-ope E. Grouard, the 
daughter of Benjamin F. and Dr. Louisa (Hardy) Grouard, pioneer residents of Santa 
Ana, whose decease occurred many years ago. Four children were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Shaw: Faith, Ted, Marjorie and Carol. 

A stanch Republican, Mr. Shaw has always been deeply interested in politics, 
and a familiar figure, not only in local affairs, but political councils of the state, at 
one time holding the office of vice-president of the State League of Republican Clubs. 
A leader in fraternal circles,. Mr. Shaw has twice been master of the Santa Ana 
Lodge of Masons, a charter member of the Elks, the first council commander of the 
Woodmen of the World and a member of the Maccabees. 

PATRICIO YRIARTE. — For many years one of the largest sheep raisers in 
Orange County, Patricio Yriarte, spent the later years of his life on his large ranch in 
the vicinity of Brea. Born in Spain, in the Pyrenees region, on March 17, 1861, he 
received his education in the schools of his home neighborhood, remaining in his 
native land until young manhood, when he decided to seek his fortune in America. 
Reaching New Orleans April 2, 1885, Mr. Yriarte came across country to Los Angeles 
later the same year. 

Settling in what is now Orange County he became a sheep raiser and for a number 
of years he ran large bands, grazing them on the land that is now Yorba, Yorba Linda 
and the San Joaquin ranch. As the country began to be more thickly settled and the 
grazing area reduced, Mr. Yriarte decided to give up this business in 1897. He then 
leased land in the neighborhood of the present home and farmed it to hay and" grain. 
In 1905 he purchased his ranch of 160 acres southeast of Brea; here he conducted exten- 
sive ranching operations, raising corn, grain, hay and domestic stock. Besides his own 
holdings he also rented large acreages, at one time have 1,200 acres under cultivation. 
He took up his permanent residence on his Brea ranch in 1905 and here he resided 
for the remainder of his life. 

On May 6, 1883, Mr. Yriarte was married to Miss Pascuala Arrese, who like 
himself was a native of Spain, born May 19, 1861, and reared in the same locality, and 
receiving her education there before her migration to America. Mr. and Mrs. Yriarte 
were the parents of five children: Felix, who is with' the Union Oil Cornpany at 
Brea, married Celestina Lorea, who -was also born in Spain and who came tO' America 
and made her home on the Yriarte ranch Until her marriage; they are the parents of 
four children — Mary, Jose, " Pauline arid Margaret; Agusti'n is the manager of the 
Yriarte estate and makes his home on the ranch; his wife is Lorenza Lorea, who made 
the trip alone from her native Spain, arriving here December 18, 1909, and making her 
home on the Yriarte ranch until her marriage to Agustin on October 4, 1916; three 
children have come to bless their home: Julian, who is with the Standaird Oil Company 
at Whittier, married Miss Inez Dolly, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Dolly of Whit- 
tier; Ysabel resides on the home ranch with her brother Agustin; Mary makes her home 
with her brother Felix at Brea. Agustin and Julian Yriarte are members of the B. P. 
O. Elks, the former at Anaheim and the latter at Ayhittier and of the Knights of 
Pythias at Brea. 

In 1904 Mr. and Mrg. Patricio Yriarte, with four of their children, made an ex- 
tended trip abroad, visiting their old home in the Pyrenees of Spain and spending ten 
months on the trip. On returning home they took up their residence on their ranch 
and here Mrs. Yriarte passed away on March 17, 1915, on her husband's 'fifty-fourth 
birthday, the death of Mr. Yriarte occurring but a few weeks later, on' April 19, 1915. 
In 1910 Mr. Yriarte erected the Yriarte Building in Anaheim, on Center Street, next 
to the Valencia Hotel. On November 24, 1905; Mr. Yriarte becalhe an Ame-ricari xitizen, 
having received lj(^,., final papers that year. During his many, years, of residence in 
Orange County he was loyal to all movements that had for their aim the betterment of 
conditions in general, and the advancement of moral and social conditions. , : 

After the death of Mr. Yriarte the 160-acre ranch was apportioned equally among 
the children, but it is still known as the Yriarte ranch, being left in one body of land. 
Sixty acres of the ranch, owned by the sons, is now devoted to citrus fruit, having been 
set out by Julian and Agustin Yriarte. The whole acreage is kept up to a high state 
of productivity and is one of the valuable properties of the Brea district. 



318 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

WALTER M. PARKER. — Prominent among those whose memory will long be 
kept green, both by those who knew him personally, and could themselves appreciate 
his rare worth, and also by those who are always ready to honor the pioneer and path 
breaker to whom posterity is necessarily indebted for many blessings, was the late 
Walter M. Parker, a native of Stockton, N. Y., where he was born on May 7, 1844. 
His father, Leonard Parker, also now deceased, was a native of Hamburg, Erie County, 
N. Y., where he first saw the light on March 1, 1818. He married Catherine Kennedy, 
who was born in Montgomery County, N. Y., on October 22, 1820. Leonard Parker 
passed away, on April 3, 1902, and his wife died twelve years before, on the fifteenth of 
October. They were married at Stockton, N. Y., on September 16, 1838, and came 
with their family to Anaheim in 1871, Mr. Parker taking up the work of a vineyardist. 
Still later he cultivated oranges, owning a sixty-acre ranch; whereas they had raised 
cattle and sheep in earlier days. They had ten children. 

Walter Parker went to the public schools, and when he was old enough, became 
a veterinary surgeon. After coming to Orange County, he set up a regular practice, 
and in that scientifically interesting and humane field continued for many years, 
accomplishing no end of good in the relief of the dumb animal, and getting to be 
very well known beyond the confines even of the county. He also owned a fruit 
ranch of forty acres, made raisins, and built the first raisin drier in Orange County. 
He was best known, however, as a veterinary surgeon. Later he located at Iowa 
Park, Tex., where he engaged in the rasing of cattle; and there he died on May 
14, 1908. 

He had been in the Civil War as a member of the Seventeenth Illinois Cavalry, 
and at Richland, now Orange, then in Los Angeles County, on June 28, 1873, he 
was married to Miss Barbara Kraemer, a native of St. Claire County, 111., and the 
daughter of Daniel Kraemer. She has always been the center of a circle of devoted, 
admiring friends, and is as popular today with her stories of experience with the 
Indians, who were friendly, in the early days of Anaheim. One daughter, Miss 
Elenora A. Parker, is a teacher in the Anaheim public schools. 

ELIJAH P. JUSTICE.— A pioneer not alone of Orange County, but of the state 
of California, Elijah P. Justice, one of the county's most honored old settlers, is 
now living retired with his excellent wife, who has proved such a capable and courage- 
ous helpmate, on the Justice ranch near Westminster. Despite the fact that he has 
reached his eighty-second birthday, Mr. Justice possesses a truly remrakable memory 
and can recall names, dates and incidents, and describe with graphic detail the perilous 
happenings of his journey across the plains. A native of the Hoosier State, Mr. 
Justice was born in Pulaski County, Ind., November 10, 1838, and there he spent 
the days of his early boyhood. In 1853, when a lad of fifteen, he went to Texas with 
his father, remaining there for four years, then starting across the plains with ox 
teams for California. At that time there were many warring bands of Indians scat- 
tered over the plains, and time and again they were set upon by these marauders. 
They lost practically all of their cattle and barely escaped with their lives. In addi- 
tion they encountered innumerable other hardships, and it was with a great sense ot 
thankfulness that they finally reached the settlement at San Bernardino. Later Mr. 
Justice became a freighter, and for these rough and hardy plainsmen even the Redskins 
had respect, for the freighters feared nothing and took no chances in being surprised 
by the Indians. Mr. Justice recalls vividly how at a certain place in Arizona a 
number of freighters encountered a band of hostile Redskins, and the battle that 
followed was a victory for the freighters, who counted seventy-two braves killed by 
their bullets. 

A native daughter of California, Mrs. Justice, too, has passed through many 
of the strenuous experiences that were typical of the pioneer days of the state. She 
was before her marriage to Mr. Justice Miss Martha Adeline Cotman, and she was 
born November 24, 1853, in San Diego County, near the San Luis Rey Mission. Her 
parents were John and Mary (Bohna) Cotman, natives, respectively, of Louisiana 
and Arkansas. Mr. Cotman came to the state in 1852, later meeting an accidental 
death. Mrs. Justice was the eldest of the Cotman children, and her mother's second 
marriage, which did not prove a happy one, made her childhood full of hardship, 
and she had very few opportunities for education or other adi^gjtages. She made 
the acquaintance of Mr. Justice at Azusa and was married to hiST on September 26, 
1869, when she was not yet sixteen years old. Throughout all the years of their early 
struggles, when there were many hardships and days of toil, she has ever been ready 
to aid and encourage, and much of the prosperity that , they have attained is due 
to her wise habits of thrift and conservation. Generous and hospitable, she has 
rounded out more than a half century of wedded life, and is much beloved by a large 
circle of children and grandchildren. Ten children have been born to Mr. and 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 319 

Mrs Justice: Clara is the wife of P. L. Glines of Covina, and is the mother of four 
children; Martha is the wife of George Yost, a raisin grower near Fresno, and has 
three boys; Laura is the wife of Roy Richards, an employee of the Salt Lake Rail- 
road; they have two children and reside at Long Beach; Oliver P. married Miss 
Lulu Fisher and is a freighter and farmer at Merced; they lost their only child 
through an accident; Leona died at the age of eighteen months; Wiley Wells is 
employed on the Irvine ranch; Jesse A. was killed in an automobile accident Janu- 
ary 1, 1918; Roy C. is employed on the Emery ranch as an engineer and machinist; 
Rhoda V. is the wife of George Taylor, a machinist; they have four children, and 
reside at Huntington Beach; the youngest is Benjamin Franklin. Mr. and Mrs. 
Justice have one great-grandchild. 

After reaching San Bernardino at the end of his journey across the plains, 
Mr. Justice remained there for about two years, locating in the vicinity of Azusa 
in the fall of 1859. The outlook there was far from encouraging, as the plain was 
covered with cactus and sage brush, but Mr. Justice obtained title to a tract of land 
there and started in to cultivate it, but his water rights were illegally cut off. Being 
unable to get the matter adjusted satisfactorily, he deemed it best to dispose of the 
Tand, and he removed to El Monte, renting land there which he devoted to stock 
raising and general farming for four years. In 1882 he disposed of everything but 
his cattle, which he drove to what is now Orange County, locating in the vicinity 
of Westminster, and here he has since made his home. There were very few settlers 
here at that early day, the place being almost a wilderness, but with true wisdom 
and foresight Mr. Justice perceived that the soil could be made to yield abundantly if 
given the proper cultivation. His first purchase was a tract of forty acres, at that 
time covered with tules and willows, for which he paid only twenty dollars an acre, 
the same land now being valued at more than $500 an acre. At the time he bought 
the land it was so wet that he lost many of his cattle, the ground being too soft to 
bear the weight of the animals. It took much hard labor to drain this land and bring 
it under cultivation, but Mr. Justice's judgment has been amply rewarded in the years 
of abundant returns he has received. It is to men and women of the stamp of Mr. 
and Mrs. Justice that Orange County owes a great debt for the transformation that 
has come about through their faith in its possibilities and the willingness to work 
to bring about these results. 

RALPH A. PATTERSON, FRANK E. PATTERSON.— For the past forty years 
partners in the ranching business, and later as house movers, Ralph A. and Frank 
E. Patterson have for fifteen years lived on their well-kept ranch of thirty-five acres 
one mile east of Bolsa, and four miles west of Santa Ana. Of sturdy Eastern lineage 
on both sides, their parents were William A. Patterson, a native of Newark, N. J., 
and Sarah. Jane Crowell, whose forbears were among the old families of New Hamp- 
shire. The town of Paterson, N. J., was named for William A. Patterson's grand- 
father, who was a silk manufacturer there, there being a slight change in the spelling 
of the family name. William A. Patterson came to Ogle County, 111., when a young 
man, and engaged in farming, and there he met and married Miss Sarah Jane Crowell, 
whose parents had moved there from New Hampshire. During the Civil War, he 
enlisted in the Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry and served with distinction in 
the Union Army. At the Battle of Gettysburg the great siege gun, "Monitor," exploded, 
and a piece of the gun struck him in the left leg and he was crippled for life. 

After the war was over, Mr. Patterson and his family moved to Nodaway County, 
Mo., and there carried on farming, specializing in the raising of broom corn and 
the manufacture of brooms, in which they made a good success. As is well known, 
certain localities in Missouri continued even for several years after the war to be 
divided in sentiment and allegiance to the Union. The Patterson boys were often 
singled out as the subjects for derision and revenge, and the Copperheads would seek 
to plague them by calling them "Yanks," which the Patterson boys usually ignored, 
but when the term began to be prefaced by opprobrious epithets, they decided that it 
was time for a battle royal, and it is related that the Patterson boys never came out 
second best in one of these encounters, and, incidentally, the whole, locality began 
to have a wholesome respect for "Yankee" principles, as inculcated by the massive 
fists of the Patterson boys. Three children were born to Mr. and Mrs. William A. 
Patterson in Ogle County, 111., and two in Nodaway County, Mo.: Charles, a light- 
house keeper in Oregon, died July 18, 1919, at the age of sixty-three, leaving four 
children; Frank E., born March 21, 1859, is a partner of R. A. Patterson; Ralph Aus- 
tin, of this review, born September 1, 1861. Watts Turner died at Bolsa, where he 
was a rancher, leaving a widow and two stepchildren; William H. M. died at Santa 
Ana, leaving a widow and two sons. 



520 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

The Patterson family came to California from Nodaway County, Mo., in 1881, 
md settled at Westminster. Ralph A. soon began ranching on his own accotmt, locat- 
ng at Carlsbad, in San Diego County, where he was extensively engaged m gram 
■armin.' for twenty years. He then sold his holdings there, consisting of 480 acres, 
= nd came back to Bolsa precinct and bought his present place of thirty-five acres, 
which he and his brother Frank have farmed ever since. They have put down a 
len-inch well 214 feet deep, and have installed a pumping plant with an eight- 
liorsepower engine, which furnishes fifty inches of water for irrigation and domestic 
purposes, also another four-inch well, pumped by a windmill. A comfortable resi- 
dence and barns have been erected, and a house moving shop, this having been, a 
side line with them for a number of years, doing business in Orange County on the 
west side of the river. The farm is largely devoted to garden truck, specializing in 
sweet potatoes, melons and carrots. For twenty years he was employed at threshing 
in Riverside, Orange, San Bernardino and San Diego counties, and gained a wide 
acquaintance thereby. 

Ralph A. Patterson was married first in 1888 to Miss Lydia Dumphy, who passed 
away in 1890, her infant son, her mother and herself all dying within a few hours of 
the grippe. Mr. Patterson's second marriage united him with Miss Mamie Payne^ of 
San Diego; she died in 1901, at the birth of her second child, the infant also living 
but a few hours. Her eldest child, George A., is a student at the Santa Ana high 
school. Mr. Patterson's present wife, before her marriage was Miss Hallie M. Fill- 
more, and she is the daughter of William and Eliza Fillmore; she is the mother of 
five children: Charles T., William E., Hattie Jane, Hazel, deceased, and Lloyd Fillmore. 
Frank Patterson has never married, but makes his home with his brother, with whom 
he has been associated in business for forty years. Both brothers are steadfast and 
consistent Republicans. 

MRS. ZORAIDA B. TRAVIS. — An estimable and exceedingly worthy represent- 
ative of one of Orange County's most distinguished families, herself a descendant of 
aristocratic Catalonian Spanish ancestors, is Mrs. Zoraida B. Travis, a daughter of ■ 
Prudencio Yorba and a granddaughter of Bernardo Yorba. His father was Antonio 
Yorba, a soldier under Commander Fages who landed at Monterey, lived for a while at 
the Monterey Mission, visited Yerba Buena, and finally came south to the Santiago 
Creek, and in time obtained title to the rich grant, "El Cafion de San Antonia de Santa 
\na de los Yorbas." 

Bernardo Yorba received a grant from the King of Spain embracing about 180.000 
acres, extending from nearly the present site of Riverside west to the ocean. As early 
as 1835 he located his home on the north side of the Santa Ana River in Santa Ana 
Canyon, and there built his commodious residence, famous in those days for its liberal 
hospitality. It was a very large adobe building, containing ninety rooms, and many 
were the activities carried on beneath its widespread roof. The various members of 
the Yorba family were highly intelligent and highly esteemed; the most celebrated for 
her many charities and kindness was the great-grandmother, Josefa Yorba, a much- 
loved woman, who in McGroarty's Mission Play was selected as one of the leading 
characters. In 1887, the period when so much attention was directed to California and 
its realty, the Supreme Court of the United States confirmed title to the Yorba lands, 
Bernardo Yorba having passed away in 1858, while his devoted wife had passed to the 
Great Beyond seven years before. 

Prudencio Yorba was a son of Bernardo Yorba by his marriage to Felipa Domin- 
guez. He was born at the old adobe homestead, June 11, 1832, where he grew up, and 
from a boy learned how to farm and raise stock successfully. His schooling was 
obtained at the school at San Pedro. He was married August 4, 1851, to Dolores 
Ontiveros, who was born on the Coyote ranch in the La Habra Valley, August 4, 1833. 
Her father, Juan P. Ontiveros, was a native son, born in what is now Orange County, 
and he married Martina Ozuna, born in San Diego, who also came of a very old and 
prominent family. They farmed here for many years until they removed to Santa 
Maria, Santa Barbara County, where Mr. Ontiveros purchased the Tepesquet ranch and 
there engaged in ranching until his death. An extensive and successful sheep raiser. 
Prudencio Yofba became the owner of a large ranch in the vicinity of Yorba, where 
he resided until his death on July 3, 1885, his widow surviving him until November 24, 
1894, having devoted her life to her family. 

Of the twelve children born to this worthy couple, eight are still living, among 
whom Mrs. Zoraida Travis is one of the youngest. She was born on her father's farm 
near Yorba and as a girl received an excellent education, attending St. Catherine's 
Convent at San Bernardino, where she completed her studies. On October 20, 1898, she 
was married to J. Coleman Travis, the ceremony occurring at her old home. Mr. Travis 
was a native of Alabama, where he was born on August 8, 1853, at Gainesville, near 




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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 325 

obile. Impelled to leave the South on account of the disastrous effects of the Civil 
ar, the Travis family came to California via the Isthmus of Panama, arriving in Los 
igeles on Washington's Birthday, 1869. His parents, Amos and Eliza Ann (Cole- 
in) Travis, were natives of Georgia and Alabama, respectively, and came of prominent 
uthern families. For a time they resided in Los Angeles and engaged in orange 
Iture on Eighth Street, between San Pedro and Alameda streets. In 1871, however, 
; family moved to Santa Ana, and a short distance north of the present site of Orange, 
nos Travis laid out the famous tract of about 800 acres. 

For a number of years, J. Coleman Travis was superintendent of the plant of the 
nta Ana Valley Irrigation Company, and in this capacity he played an important part 

the building up of the plant and in the construction of its canals and ditches. Mr. 
avis also became the owner of a ranch of sixty acres on Tustin Street, near Orange, 
lich they developed and set to oranges, going through the discouraging days when 
5 fruit was ruined by pests, before the experts were able to control them. While 
ing there their five children were born, four of whom are living, J. Coleman, Jr., 
ite, Zoraida and Amos. Later Mr. Travis sold the greater part of this ranch and pur- 
ased the Esperanza ranch of 249 acres, a part of the old Prudencio Yorba place, 
rs. Travis' father having named the ranch Esperanza for a daughter who had passed 
fay just before he moved onto this ranch from his old home. Then they located 

Santa Monica, where they resided until 1917, coming then to the Esperanza ranch, 
r. Travis began developing this property, but was not permitted to carry out his 
ms, for this estimable man died on June 19, 1919, his body being interred at Fair- 
ven Cemetery, Orange. He was a man of pleasing manner and very affable and 
IS endeared to every one, and particularly to his family, to whom he was a devoted 
sband and a loving father. He was fond of outdoor sports and insisted on his family 
joying many outings, and also on his children learning to swim and to be proficient 

other athletic sports. He was especially fond of hunting and fishing and was a 
;mber of the Orange County Fox Hunting Club, excelling as a rider and marksman, 
r. Travis was always very interested in the building up of Orange County. He was 
deputy assessor of this district when it was still Los Angeles County, and he took a 
ominent part in the county division and the organization of Orange County in 1889. 
is to men of J. Coleman Travis' type that much of Orange County's present greatness 
d development is due, because with other early settlers he gave generously of his 
ne and means to all objects that had for their aim the improvement of the county 
d enhancing the comfort of the people; and thus those early pioneers paved the way 
r the opportunities and pleasures of the present-day citizen. 

Mrs. Travis continues to reside on the Esperanza ranch, looking after her affairs 
d the training and education of her children. She has an abundance to do and her 
ne is well taken up, for she still owns the 344-acre ranch that she originally inherited 
)m her father's estate, a part of the old Bernardo Yorba ranch. So it is indeed for- 
nate for herself and her family that she was endowed by nature with good judgment, 
abling her to manage and develop her property and enjoy her inheritance. A cul- 
re'd woman, with a taste arid appreciation for the beautiful which finds expression 

her home, Mrs. Travis, in her graceful, charming manner, dispenses an old-time 
.lifornia hospitality, and her ranch hotiie continues to be a center for social gatherings 
d family reunions. 

GOTTFRIED KLOTH. — Among the many naturalized German-American citi- 
ns at Orange, Gottfried Kloth is worthy of special mention. He is a retired rancher 
d cement worker who, in 1920, sold his interests to his son-in-law, Benjamin 

Dierker, to retire from the more active duties of life. Mr. Kloth was born iri 
ettin, Germany, December 15, 1850, a son of Christian Kloth, who owned a farm 

300 acres in that ■ country, and there married Fraulein Mana Dreyer, and they 
;re the parents of four children who grew to maturity. Christian Kloth was married 
ree times, and was the father of twenty-three children. 

■: Gottfried Kloth is the oldest child by the second wife, and has one own brother 
d two own sisters. He grew to maturity in his native land, received a good 
ucatiori, and w-as confirmed in the German church. His marriage occurred in his 
five ■land iri 1873, and united hitti with Huldah Trettin, also born in Germany. He 
IS the owner of an eleven-acre farm, 'which he disposed of before coming to America 
th his wife and four children. 'They sailed from Bremen on the Steamship "Sillare" 
■the Hamburg American Ifne, and landed at New York, in May, 1880, going at once 

Young Arrterica, Minn,, i^the' place of their destination. Here Mr. Kloth purchased 

eight'y-acre farm; reaped two crops off of it; and came to California in 1882. : Fred 
rUek' 'arid the BolchardS," of ■ Orange, "relatives iof his wife, caused them, to consider 
-ange as 'a 'futtire 'home. -'Mr. Kloth worked a^t: the' cement business at Orange 
F.twe'rity-'three- 'years, 'in- the employ of the Santa Ana' 'Water Company, and the- El 



326 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

Modena Water Company, manufacturing cement pipe and cement ditches. He pur- 
chased a ten-acre ranch near Olive, operated it several years, then disposed of it, and 
in 1910 bought the ten-acre place he sold in 1920. The oldest trees on the last place 
are sixteen years old, and the youngest ones are seven years old. He planted all 
the trees on the place except three acres, which were six years old when he bought 
the place. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kloth's four children were all born in Germany: Emma became 
the wife of Joe Derson, and they were ranchers at La Habra. She died in 1908 and 
left a child, Leona, whom Mr. and Mrs. Kloth reared, and legally adopted, April 2, 
1920. She was two years and two months old when her mother died, and is now 
fourteen years of age. Lena is the wife of Henry Franzen of Riverside, a hardware 
merchant, and they have three children; Rosella married Benjamin F. Dierker, a 
rancher at Orange, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this work; they have four 
children, two boys and two girls; Herman is single and farmed the home place for 
his father. 

Gottfried Kloth has helped build three Lutheran church edifices at Orange, the 
last one erected at a cost of more than $42,000, and he advocates the cause of tem- 
perance and is a consistent Christian. He and his good wife have been hard 
workers and deserve a rest after such arduous and useful lives. Much credit is due 
Mr. Kloth for the success which he has won by a life of industry and integrity. 

JAMES S. RICE. — Back to an enviable ancestral record, James S. Rice of Tustin. 
one of Orange County's early citizens, can trace his lineage. Of English descent, the 
first representative of the family settled in Massachusetts, and here Harvey Rice, the 
father of James S., was born at Conway, on June II, 1800. After his graduation from 
Williams College, well-known as the alma mater of President Garfield, when a young 
man of twenty-four, he decided to try his fortune at Cleveland, Ohio, then a little 
frontier town of only 400 inhabitants. Reaching there without funds or friends, he 
began his career there as a teacher, being one of the pioneers of that profession in that 
vicinity. With true foresight he invested his first earnings in real estate, and when, 
in later years, this land increased in value it made him a wealthy man. He took 
up the practice of law and became one of the leading lights of his profession during 
his long career. He was a leader among the public-spirited citizens of his day, and 
several of Cleveland's most noted monuments were promoted through his influence, 
among them the Perry monument and that of Geo. Moses Cleveland, the founder of 
the city. His early work as a teacher always gave him an added interest in educa- 
tional matters, and he was ever at the forefront in every movement that made for 
progress in those lines. He was the author of the original common-school law of 
Ohio, a law that has been copied in many states. As a recognition of this service 
and his many years of disinterested work on boards of education and boards of 
charity, a life-size bronze statue of him was erected in Wade Park at Cleveland, 
largely paid for by pennies from the school children of the state. In the early fifties 
he represented his district in the state senate and made for himself a high place 
among the legislators of that period. Educator, legislator, historian, he passed away 
at the age of ninety-one years, full of honors. Mrs. Rice, who was Maria Fitch, a 
daughter of Col. James Fitch of Putney, Vt., died in Cleveland, aged seventy-seven. 

Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Rice were the parents of five children, and of these, James 
S., the subject of this review, was next to the youngest. He was born at Cleveland, 
Ohio, October 31, 1846, and was educated in the schools of Cleveland and at the 
Western Reserve College at Hudson, Ohio. He completed the classical course and, 
in accordance with his father's wishes, was looking forward to a legal career, but 
decided to enter business instead. In company with an elder brother, already estab- 
lished in the house furnishing business, he remained a partner for eleven years, until 
in 1874, in search of health and a warmer climate, he made a trip to California to 
visit his brother-in-law, James Irvine, the original owner of the San Joaquin Rancho 
in Orange County. He remained here for three months, and then returned to Cleve- 
land. He was so well pleased with what he saw of the Golden State, however, that 
he decided to return, reaching here on January 18, 1877. He went into the stock' busi- 
ness with James Irvine, raising cattle and hogs on the San Joaquin Rancho, but that 
year was extremely dry and they had no feed for their stock, the sheep dying by the 
thousand. He was then living at the old San Joaquin ranch house at the head of 
Newport Bay, the first plastered house in Los Angeles County, remaining there six 
months. He next purchased some land of Peter Potts at Tustin, and started an 
orange grove, and later he bought a tract of fifty acres north of Tustin, part of 
which he still owns. He paid fifty dollars an acre for this land, and set it to Muscatel 




f-flt? '■" F r. lAfilK^rn-- ■»- ' 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 329 

grapes, from which he averaged $200 an acre for several years. During the boom of 
1886-1887 in this vicinity, he sold quite a portion of his land, some of it at the rate 
of $4,000 an acre. Land values, of course, receded after this abnormal inflation, and 
Mr. Rice was compelled to take back some of it. He erected a fine three-story resi- 
dence on his property, and now has a twelve-acre orange grove that has been brought 
up to the highest state of cultivation and productivity. 

Mr. Rice's marriage, which occurred in Cleveland, Ohio, united him with Miss 
Coralinn Barlow, the daughter of Gen. Merrill Barlow, an eminent lawyer of that 
place, who was quartermaster general of Ohio during the Civil War period. A brother 
of Mrs. Rice is Hon. Charles A. Barlow, of Bakersfield, who has been one of the 
most prominent figures in the oil development of Kern County. Mrs, Rice was an 
exceptionally talented woman, a singer of note, having had an excellent musical edu- 
cation, and her gracious hospitality made their home the social center of a large 
coterie of friends, among them Madame Modjeska. She occupied an individual place 
in the community, to which her death, in November, 1919, came as a distinct loss. 
Mr. and Mrs. Rice were the parents of four children: James Willis, a rancher at Tus- 
tin, married.Miss Rubel Martin, and they have two children; Merrill and Harvey are 
both deceased;! the youngest son, Percy F., is an inventor. 

In politics Mr. Rice has always been a stanch adherent of the Democratic party 
and prominent in the local affairs of the organization. He is now chairman of the 
Democratic County Central Committee. 

WILLIAM THOMAS BROWN.— An early pioneer in the commercial world of 
Orange County, enjoying the distinction of having been the first president of. the 
Fullerton Chamber of Commerce, and a pioneer advocate of the most enthusiastic 
sort of good roads, able to boast with pride that he actively participated in giving 
Fullerton her fine thoroughfares, renowned as among the best in all the state, William 
Thomas Brown, a native of Georgia, represents very ably the handsome contribution 
made from time to time by the South toward the development of the Southland in 
California. As president and general manager of the Brown and Dauser Company, Mr. 
Brown is not oiilya force in the lumber field, but influential at all times, and in the 
right way and most needed places. 

He was. born at Macon, Ga., on September 18, 1852, the son of Dr. William A. 
Brown, a. physician and surgeon who practiced for years in Georgia and first came to 
California ten years after the arrival of our subject here. Dr. Brown married Miss 
Salina J. Jenkins, a native of North Carolina and she became the mother of seven 
children, among whom William Thomas was the fourth oldest child. He was educated 
in private schools in Winchester, Texas, and for three years was in a drug store in that 
state.. Coming to California in 1873, Mr. Brown spent the first ten years as agent and 
operator for the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, and then for a year he was 
secretary- of the Santa. Ana Valley Irrigation Company at Orange. In- 1881 he pur- 
chased a ranch of twenty-one and a half acres on North Main Street, half-way between 
Orangeand Santa Ana,. where he spent a couple of years farming, and then he entered 
the lumber field, becoming interested in the Anaheim yard of the J. M. Griffith Lumber 
Company. He' assumed the rnanagement, a position he filled with success for a period 
of sixteen years, and it is self-evident that he not only mastered the business there, 
but also had much to do vifith giving the development of the lumber business in general 
in Orange County the right turn and the needed impetus. 

In 1899 Mr. Brown incorporated the Brown and Dauser Company and purchased 
the T. S. Grimshaw lumber yard in Fullerton, and here he has since been in business. 
In about 1904 he purchased Mr. Dauser's interest and devotes all of his time to thf 
management of the business, being president and manager of the company. It is the 
oldest yard in Fullerton and has a fine planing mill; and it demands the services of 
fifteen men. Besides the Fullerton yard, the Brown and Dauser Company have two 
other lumber yards— one at La Habra, the other at Brea. As a live member of the 
Fullerton Board of Trade,' Mr. Brown riiay look back upon the community in which 
he has become a commanding figure with mingled feelings. When he was the first 
agent for the Southern Pacific at Santa Ana, the station was in an old caboose. The 
next spring the new depot was completed and he was agent at Santa Ana from Decem- 
ber, 1877, until March, 1881. 

When Fullerton began the agitation for good roads it required much effort awd 
time to persuade many of the taxpayers that better and the best roads were the greatest 
of assets and after the bonds were voted Mr. Brown was appointed a member of the 
commission that had charge of the construction, and that finally gave Fullerton pave- 
ments such as many larger municipalities do not boast of. He has always been a 
Democrat in national political affairs, but a Democrat who willingly threw aside his 
partisanship in the consideration of local affairs. Mr. Brown still continues his interest 



330 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

in horticulture, for he not only owns his oi-iginal ranch on North Main Street, but owns 
two other ranches devoted to citrus culture. 

On April 17, 1878, Mr. Brown was married at Wilmington, Cal., to Miss Isabella 
Campbell, a daughter of William and Katherine Campbell. She was born at London, 
Canada, where she was reared and educated, coming to California in 187S. She passed 
away in 1893, leaving six children: Lottie M. is the wife of Dr. H. C. Stinchfield of 
Los Angeles; Catherine B. is Mrs. C. L. McGill of La Habra; Mabel G. is Mrs. Butler, 
also of La Habra; the second, fifth and sixth of the children are Albert W., W. Grant 
and Helen Brown, the latter living at home. Mr. Brown was married a second time, 
the ceremony taking place at Anaheim, on October 9, 1895, uniting him with Alice 
Beaizley, a native of Australia, born at Sidney of English parents. Her mother died 
when she was a little girl and she came to California in 1870 with her father, Rev. 
Theophilus Beaizley, a minister in the Presbyterian Church. 

Fraternally Mr. Brown was made a Mason in Wilmington Lodge, F. & A. M., in 
1875, but is now a member of Fullerton Lodge No. 339, F. & A. M., and with his 
wife is a member of the Order of Eastern Star. He is also a member of the Knights 
of the Maccabees in Anaheim. Intensely interested in the growth and development 
of Orange County, he has always been a member of the local civic bodies and for 
six years was the representative from Fullerton in the Associated Chambers of Com- 
merce of Orange County. 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK, TUSTIN.— The history of the finance and the finan- 
cial institutions of a community are an index to its growth and development as a 
whole, and the First National Bank of Tustin, Cal., has been conspicuously successful 
since its establishment, February S, 1912. Organized with a capital of $25,000, its 
volume of business grew from its inception to a marked degree, and judicious man- 
agement increased its capital to $50,000, with deposits amounting to $286,887.96. W. C. 
Crawford was the first president of the institution and C. J. Cranston its first cashier. 
Its present officers are: C. E. Utt, president; John Dunstan, vice-president; C. A. 
Vance, cashier; W. S. Leinberger, assistant cashier; directors: C. E. Utt, John Dunstan, 
Sherman Stevens, V. V. Tubbs, I. L. Marchant, C. A. Miller and C. A. Vance. ' 

C. A. Vance, cashier of the bank, has displayed his perfect knowledge of the 
banking business in the creditable manner in which he has filled his important position. 
He is a native of Kansas, and in 1912, having disposed of a bank in his native state, 
removed to Chula Vista, Cal., where he organized the Chula Vista State Bank. He 
sold this bank in August, 1916, and January 1, 1917, located at Tustin. 

William S. Leinberger, assistant cashier of the bank, is a native of Nebraska, and 
was born in 1883. He is the son of L. F. and Kate Leinberger, natives of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio, respectively. He was reared and educated in the public schools of his native 
state, and in 1910, at the age of seventeen, migrated to California, first locating at 
Alhambra, Cal., graduating from the business college there, later teaching bookkeeping 
there for a year. He then was with the Alhambra Savings Bank until he took his 
present position as assistant cashier in the Tustin First National Bank. 

JOHN O. FORSTER. — Prominent among the ranchers, business man and polit- 
ical leaders of San Juan Capistrano must be mentioned John O. Forster, who was 
born at Los Flores, San Diego County, on August 14, 1873, the son of Don Marco 
Forster, who married Guadalupe Abila, a daughter of Don Juan Abila, once the owner 
of the San Miguel Ranch. Don Marco's father was the famous John Forster, or Don 
Juan, who was born in England, migrated to California during the Spanish regime, 
and married Ysidora Pico, a sister of Pio Pico, the last governor of California under 
:he Spanish regime. Don Marco was born in Los Angeles in 1839, and became one of 
che largest landholders in Orange County, owning 15,000 acres of very choice hill, pas- 
ture and grain land. Before the Eastern settlers came, father and son carried on a very 
extensive business in the raising of cattle, sheep and horses, allowed to roam over their 
vast estate, and they had as many as 5,000 head of horses and five times that number of 
head of cattle. Fences were then unknown, and cattle and horses ran wild. Santa 
Margarita Ranch, as the property was designated, included many thousands of acres 
of rich land, and was one of the choicest and most productive of the old-time estates. 
Pio Pico also owned a large estate near Capistrano, some of which, joined to a part 
of the Forster property, made more than a handsome holding, 

Don Marco Forster died in 1904, the father of six children, among whom John 
O. was the third in the order of birth. The others were Marco H., Frank A.— a part- 
ner in various enterprises with our subject— George H., Ysidora, the wife of Cornelio 
Echenique, and Lucana, later Mrs. Thomas McFadden of Fullerton. When Don Marco 
passed away. John O. Forster was made an executor. 

Romantic was the career of the founder of this virile family, Don Juan Forster, 
who was a captain of one of the. fine old sailing vessels of early days, married into a 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 333 

long-established and wealthy Spanish family, and so later came to control one of the 
most noted principalities of pre-pioneer days; and equally romantic has been the history 
of Don Juan's renowned ranch. The ranch really included three old Spanish grants, 
the Santa Margarita, the Mission Viejo, at San Juan Capistrano, and the Trabuco, each 
with its own romantic history. The two first-mentioned originally belonged to the 
Picos; but in the forties John Forster, having captured the heart of Don Pico's sister, 
secured the ranches also. John Forster became esteemed and powerful as Don Juan; 
and on his death left such a heritage that it would have required in the days of no 
irrigation a small fortune to manage, and manage successfully. As it was, his heirs 
assumed indebtedness to keep the property; and when much of it was heavily mort- 
gaged, it passed into the hands first of Charles Crocker, then of James Flood, and 
finally of Richard 0'N.eill. 

John O. Forster attended the public schools at San Juan Capistrano, and later 
studied at St. Vincent and Santa Clara colleges. Then he went to work on his father's 
ranch, caring for his cattle, and after that, for four years was proprietor of a general 
merchandise store and was postmaster at San Juan Capistrano. In that old historic 
town, too, he was married in 1900 to Miss Mae Marshall, a native of Virginia City, 
then residing at Reno, Nev., a lady who has proven the most helpful of life-mates. 
Mr. Forster has become the prime mover in the San Juan Capistrano Walnut Associa- 
tion, and he is also interested in the Capistrano Water Company. He belongs to the 
Mission Church, and for eighteen years has been a member of the board of trustees 
having charge of the grammar school. In 1901 he erected his comfortable home, amid 
some seventy acres of walnuts. 

Frank A. Forster, John's brother, who was born at Los Flores on December 7, 
1871, is in partnership with John and other members of the family, the children of the 
long-honored pioneers thus preserving a pleasant tradition of early days. With com- 
mon interests and generous sympathies, these thoroughly representative Californians 
are able to accomplish enough to give new force to the old adage, "In union there is 
strength," and to renew the assurance that property and wealth need not and ought 
not to be a bone of contention, but rather a source of felicitation among near of kin. 

HON. Z. B. WEST. — Orange County has never failed to appreciate the worthiest 
of its judiciary, and distinguished among these who have deserved the highest esteem 
and confidence may be mentioned Hon. Zephanian B. West, the efficient and popular 
judge of Department One of the Superior Court, at Santa Ana. He was born in Wayne 
County, 111., on March 1, 18S2, and first came to the Golden State in the great "boom" 
year for Southern California, in 1887. His father was Samuel West and he married 
Miss Margaret A. Hoover. To this union there were born nine children, five boys and 
four girls. They settled and did yeoman work in pioneering in Southern Illinois, 
encountering every hardship incident to making a farm and a home in a new and 
unsubdued wilderness country, such as that was at that time. They were very poor 
and upon the subject of our sketch — he being the eldest of the .children — the burden 
of assisting in supporting the family fell very heavily, but ever mindful of his duty as 
a faithful son, he manfully remained with his parents and shared their burdens and 
hardships until he was twenty-one years of age; then launched out in pursuit of an 
education for which he had longed and thirsted; and without aid from any one, even 
to the extent of one cent, he pressed on and by self-denial, with indomitable energy, 
optimistic courage and the greatest sacrifice, completed the education he so much 
desired and began his professional career which has moved onward to higher and 
more worthy attainments and to his present important and influential position. 

Mr. West graduated in 1876 from the National Normal University of Lebanon, 
Ohio, upon the completion of the full teacher's course prescribed by that splendid 
institution with the degree of B.S., and three years later from the Central Normal 
College of Danville, Indiana, with the degree of A.B. He then read law in Illinois 
and was admitted to the bar, upon examination before the Supreme Court of that 
state, in 1885. He was thus well grounded in legal subjects before he left his native 
state to push out into the world. 

Coming to California, he settled at Santa Ana and here opened a law office for 
general practice; was city attorney for seven years, and conducted the legal proceed- 
ings by which the Santa Ana Water Works were installed — Santa Ana being the 
second city to take such action under the municipal law as it then stood. He was 
chairman of the Board of Education of Santa Ana for four years, and served five 
years on the State Normal School Board, and was acting in that capacity when the 
Normal School at San Diego was erected. He was also appointed by the Board of 
Supervisors district attorney of Orange County, to fill a vacancy for two years, and 
at the general election in 1902, when he had well established a wide reputation for 
clear thinking and honest, fearless dealing, he was elected judge of the Superior Court 
16 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

i years, and has since succeeded himself each consecutive six years; so when he 
:s his present term he will have served in that high office twenty-four years. In 
on to his undergraduate work, the real foundation laid for much of this public 
e was Judge West's experience as an Eastern pedagogue. He was superintendent 
ools of the city of Fairfield, 111., for two years, and county school superintendent 
lyne County, III, for five years, and was engaged in school work altogether for 

fourteen years — a part of this time before he had graduated from college, 
^t Fairfield, 111., on May 20, 1885, Mr. West, who is of English and Scotch-Irish 
It, married Miss Elizabeth E. Wright, a daughter of Stephen and Emma Wright, 
glish ancestry; and their fortunate union has been further blessed by the birth of 
lildren: Lulu A. West married R. Victor Langford, and Z. Bertrand West, Jr., 
;d Miss Linna Yarnell. The other children are Marguerite E., Frank Gordon and 
nd C. West. Judge West is a member of the First Baptist Church of Santa Ana, 
as superintendent of the Sunday school for almost twenty-eight years. He is 

valued and influential member and also of the Men's Club of that Church. 
?he Judge is a stanch, broad-minded Republican, and has unbounded confidence 

principles of that great party. He has been initiated into three branches of 
iry, knows the mysteries of two branches of the Odd Fellowship, is a Maccabee 

member of the Fraternal Brotherhood. This interesting career, so typical of 
can progressive manhood, is of double appeal, for it reveals the many-sidedness 

Judge and easily explains his broad sympathies and his ability — so widely appre- 

by both the legal fraternity and the public in general — to enter into almost every 

of social, business and political life, and so render justice far more surely than 

have been possible had he not run the gamut. 

VILLIAM J. EDWARDS. — A resident of Orange County for more than forty- 
ars, William J. Edwards has contributed a large share to the development of 
Westminster district, where he continues to make his home. Born in Derinda 
ship, Jo Daviess County, 111., April 22, 1858, Mr. Edwards grew up there on 
ther's ISO-acre farm, attending the schools of the neighborhood. His parents 
Samson and Diana (Rogers) Edwards, of whom mention is made on another 
n this history, 
loming to California in 1874, John H. and William J. Edwards rented a tract 

acres of land in the Westminster district, which they farmed in partnership, 

in on a large scale in raising grain, potatoes and live stock. After five years 
.rtnership was dissolved, William J. carrying on the ranching alone and meet- 
ith great success, later renting 160 acres from his father, which he farmed for 
1 years, then bought it. He had purchased his present place of forty acres in 
md gave it to his three older children, but' in 1914 and 1915 bought it back. He 

the owner of the original Edwards homestead of forty acres, which he purchased 
6. He also has owned and improved three other ranches in the Westminster 
^intersburg precincts, and had 1,280 acres of land in Arizona, near Casa Grande, 
roperty at Seal Beach. In 1914 he erected his attractive bungalow on the Santa 
[untington Beach Boulevard, which he has named "The Tortoise Shell." 
n 1878, William J. Edwards was married to Miss Ella Johnson of Garden 
, born in Solano County, the daughter of Irvin and Elizabeth Johnson, who 
there from Missouri. She passed away in 1891, leaving five children: Ernest 
m, a rancher near Bishop, Inyo County, is married and has five children; Eliza- 
,illian is the wife of Glenn L. Baker, a rancher in Tulare County, and she is the 
r of six children; Harry James resides in Hemet, and has two children; Frances 
;tta is the wife of J. W. Stufflebeem, a rancher at Visalia, and they have one 

Bessie Ellen is the wife of George Harris of Lemon Cove, and she has one 
by her first marriage with James Harvey. Mr. Edwards' second marriage, 

occurred in 1892, united him with Miss Nettie Kelley, born in Nebraska, the 
ter of John and Mary J. Kelley, both now deceased. Six children have been 
:o them: Eugene J. is a rancher near Wintersburg and has one child; Cecil 

is the wife of Benjamin Craig of Phoenix, Ariz., and has two children; Sylvia 
I is the wife of Albert G. Kettler, a rancher of Buena Park; Ben Samson, Rufus 

and Nettie Adelaide are at home. 
)f late years, Mr. Edwards has been interested in the citrus and walnut industry 
: now has twenty acres devoted to orchard, his Valencia grove now being four 
old. Although always a very busy man, with many business interests, he has 
allowed himself to become so absorbed in business cares as to forget that a 
able amount of recreation is a necessity in everyone's life. A number of years 
; had a wagon fitted up especially for camping trips, with sleeping and cooking 
es ingeniously arranged. With his family he has taken many camping trips in 
agon, one trip several years ago being through the Yosemite Valley. Mr. Ed- 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 337 

wards has had the wagon mounted on a Ford chassis so that it is now more of service 
than ever, especially for long trips, and during the early part of the year 1920 he 
drove it on a long camping trip in the mountains. Mr. Edwards is a member of 
the Westminster Drainage District and of the Lima Bean Growers' Association of 
Smeltzer. An independent, both in religious and political matters, he has lived a 
consistent, upright life, following his own creed of justice and honesty in all his 
dealings with his fellowmen. He helped to make the division of Orange from Los 
Angeles County, and has lived here all those years. 

HIRAM CLAY KELLOGG. — Perhaps no one does more to help in the develop- 
ment of a new country and particularly to benefit future generations than the efficient 
civil engineer, and for this reason the name of H. Clay Kellogg of Santa Ana, is 
indelibly associated with Orange County. His works will live as monuments after 
he has passed hence. From the earliest days of the county up to the present time, and 
not alone in this section is his work known, but throughout the state and beyond its 
confines he has long been recognized as one of the most able men in his profession. 
The favorite saying of the famous educator, Horace Mann, "We should be ashamed to 
die until we have done something to help the world," is one of the favorite maxims 
of H. Clay Kellogg. A native son of California, he was born near St. Helena, Napa 
County, on Admission Day, September 9, 1855, the eldest son and child of Benjamin 
Franklin and Mary Orilla (Lillie) Kellogg, both descendants of old New England 
families who were among the pioneer settlers of Illinois. A sketch of the family is 
given on another page of this history. 

Even in his early years Mr. Kellogg manifested a decided inclination towards 
the profession of civil engineer, and he was fortunate in being privileged to obtain the 
necessary education and training to perfect himself in his chosen calling. In 1879 he 
was graduated from Wilson College (now extinct) at Wilmington, Cal. During the 
time he attended this institution, through the friendship of Captain Smith, the engineer 
in charge of this section of the Coast Survey, Mr. Kellogg was fortunate in being 
employed to work out the triangulations of the survey of the Wilmington and San 
Pedro harbors and was furnished the necessary instruments for that purpose. After 
completing his course in the college he did not engage in his profession for about 
four years as he had taken contracts to set out vineyards at Anaheim, Placentia and 
Pasadena, this being the period when the grape industry was at its height in Southern 
California. 

Mr. Kellogg's first important contract was the laying out of the town of Elsinore, 
in Riverside County, in 1883. The following year he was made chief engineer of the 
Anaheim Union Water Company, just organized, and ever since that date he has been 
employed as engineer or consulting engineer for the company. He held a like position 
with the Anaheim Irrigation system until the district was declared invalid. In 1885 he 
was chosen to fill the office of deputy county surveyor of Los Angeles County. In 
1888 he surveyed and built the railroad running from the center of San Bernardino, 
through Colton to Riverside and operated it for eight months. This is now a part of 
the Southern Pacific system. In 1886-87 he laid out South Riverside, now Corona, 
remaining as- engineer of its water system until 1900. In 1894 he was selected for the 
important post _of constructing engineer of the dam at Gila Bend, Ariz., where he 
remained until the completion of the work. 

Upon his return to Orange County, which section of the state has been his home 
since the year 1869, he was elected county surveyor, serving until January, 1899, when 
he was elected city engineer of Santa Ana. The work before him was the development 
of the sewer system of the city, a task that he was most competent to undertake and 
which he completed to the satisfaction of everyone. In 1900 he went to Honolulu, 
where he was engaged as chief engineer by the Wahiawa Water Company, and built 
two immense reservoirs by damming up both forks of the Kaukonahua River, running 
each side of the Wahiawa Colony; he also constructed a canal from the mountains to 
irrigate the colony and as an adjunct to the reservoirs, one of these having a capacity 
of 2,500,000,000 gallons. The waters of these reservoirs irrigate the lands of the 
Wahiawa Agricultural Company, being carried by a canal seven miles in length. In 
1905 he was employed as consulting engineer to make a report on, and revise the plans 
of the Naunna dam above Honolulu and this dam has been constructed on his plans. 

Upon the organization of the holding company for the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation 
Company and the Anaheim Union Water Company, known as the Santa Ana River 
Development Company, to look after the water supply and protect the water rights, 
Mr. Kellogg was employed as engineer, and still holds that important post. His duties 
are to measure the water each year from the source to the intake of the canals near 
the county line in Orange County and make such necessary investigations for lawsuits 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

;h occur in the protection of their rights, and in this field he is recognized as an 
ority and always called upon for expert testimony. In 1906, when the Newbert Pro- 
on District was organized to control the water of the Santa Ana River from Santa 
to the ocean, a distance of ten and one-half miles, he was appointed engineer and 
holds that position. In 1910, after a period of twenty years, he returned to Corona, 
nged for and built the storm drains and sewer system for the city, two previous 
npts having failed. 

Mr. Kellogg has constructed many miles of paving and built bridges in various 
s and counties in Southern California, and has built up a clientele second to none 
ly other engineer in the state. With a decided talent for architecture, he designed 
attractive residence at 122 Orange Street, Santa Ana, which has been his home 
I number of years. During the year 1918-19 he constructed a beautiful mausoleum, 
200, of concrete, marble and bronze, at Oakland, Cal., a credit to Mr. Kellogg as a 
ler, and had he not chosen the profession of engineering, he doubtless could have 
fame and success in the architectural field. 

Mr. Kellogg has been twice married; his first union was with Miss Victoria Schulz, 
tive of Iowa. She passed away in 1891, leaving a daughter, Victoria Sibyl, who was 
uated from the Westlake School for Girls in L,os Angeles. She is the wife of 
h R. Michelsen, born in Los Angeles, a mechanic who works in steel, but with a 
ig penchant for raising poultry. They have two bright children, Ralph Copeland 
Charlotte Augusta. Mr. and Mrs. Michelsen reside in Orange County. In 1895, 
ortland. Ore., Mr. Kellogg was married to Miss Helen V. Kellogg, a native of 
;onsin, who spent her early life in North Dakota, and is a graduate of the high 
normal schools and of the State University of North Dakota, a talented lady 
presides over the family home and is an invaluable helpmate to her gifted husband, 
union has been blessed with four children — Helen, Hiram Clay, Jr., Leonard 
iklin and Oahu Rose. 

In fraternal circles Mr. Kellogg is a Mason, having been made a member of 
a Ana Lodge, No. 241, F. & A. M.; and he belongs to the Chapter; the Council, 
■e he has been illustrious master; the Commandery, in which he is a past eminent 
Tiander, and is a member of the Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., in Los 
;les. For years he was prominent in the Native Sons of the Golden West, serving 
resident of the Invincible Parlor, and also held the office of deputy district grand 
dent for fourteen years, and is now among the oldest of the Native Sons of Cali- 
a. He has always been prominent in the affairs of the Technical Society of Civil 
neers of the Pacific Coast. Notwithstanding the busy life he has led, H. Clay 
Dgg has never neglected his duties as a citizen of the county, but has given of his 
and means to further those projects that have had as their aim the betterment of 
1 and civic conditions and in all such work he has had the active cooperation of his 
and they have a wide circle of friends wherever known. 

JOHN H. EDWARDS.— Now living retired at Santa Ana, John H. Edwards 
pies a distinct place among the honored pioneer ranchers of Orange County, as 
:Iose to half a century he has been identified with its progress, and through 
.ggressiveness and energy liberally contributing to every enterprise, not only of 
wn neighborhood, but of the whole country round about. 

While the greater part of his life has been passed in California, Mr. Edwards 
native of Wisconsin, and there he was born near Hazel Green on October 16, 
His parents were Samson and Diana (Rogers) Edwards, honored residents of 
ge County for many years, a sketch of their lives being found elsewhere in 
history. During the early boyhood of Mr. Edwards, his parents removed to Jo 
ess County, 111., and there he remained until early riianhood. Then, in 1874, he 
to California with his father, Samson Edwards, and located near Westminster 
range County, and there they rented a ranch, which they cultivated together until 
H. was twenty-one years of age. He then entered into a partnership with his 
ler, William J. Edwards, and for a number of years they were engaged in ranch- 
leasmg land which they devoted to corn, barley, potatoes and live stock They 
maintained a dairy and conducted a meat business, running wagons over a wide 
; of territory, and as they were energetic and progressive, they soon became 
rs in the agricultural development of the Westminster section. 
In 1882 Mr. Edwards purchased a ranch of his own near Westminster and 
he made his home until his removal to Santa Ana. His original purchase was a 
of forty acres, and this he added to until he owned 270 acres of valuable land 
mnection with his ranching Mr. Edwards conducted a thriving butcher business 
number of years. In 1907 he rented the land to his two eldest sons, who have 
given the ranch their careful attention, keeping it up to the same high state of 
ation. Despite his busy life in the early days of development of Orange County 





^yB-^^Z^.'^^di^ 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 341 

Mr. Edwards was always keenly alive to the need for betterment of conditions in 
his community, and to any measure that was of present or future value to' the county. 
As one of the directors of the Smeltzer branch of the Home Telephone Company, 
he was instrumental in the establishment of the telephone system connecting his 
neighborhood with the larger centers of the country. He was also a director- of the 
Bolsa Tile Factory, whose products were a much-needed factor in the development 
and improvement of large tracts of land in Orange County. 

Mr. Edwards' marriage, which was solemnized at Los Angeles, united him with 
Miss Julia A. Penhall, a native daughter of California, whose father, Uriah Penhall, 
was a pioneer of the Golden State, coming here in the early days and engaging in 
mining. Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Edwards: Reuben W., Lloyd 
E., Daisy M., wife of O. J. Day of Westminster, Mildred N. and Glen W. 

MONSIGNOR HENRY EUMMELEN.— If California the Golden, famed to the 
wide, wide world, is noted for anything besides its matchless climate and all the advan- 
tages to health and human happiness arising from that priceless blessing, it is that 
the great commonwealth is an empire of favored homes, a place where one may find 
peace and contentment, in an environment of uplift and hope, if one is disposed to be 
contented, happy and prosperous anywhere. For this second blessing — an advanced 
and assured state of society — .Californians are indebted to various agencies long and 
strenuously at work; chief among which have been the untiring ministrations of the 
scholarly and faithful clergy, working unselfishly year in and year out to make the 
world a better place to live in, and California, perhaps, the choicest corner of all. 

Eminent among these leaders of church work who have thus dedicated themselves 
and all that they control or direct to the public good, and often to the good of a public 
not always exactly in accord with them, may well be mentioned the Very Reverend 
Monsignor Henry Eummelen, distinguished years ago as the youngest Monsignor 
in the United States or Canada, and now a natural leader among the prelates of Santa 
Ana, who was born in the city of Lutterade, province of Limburg, Holland, on De- 
cember 8, 1862 — a day doubtless serenely quiet in staid old Netherlands, but a date 
memorable for the beginning of General Grant's operations against Vicksburg, which 
riveted anew the attention of the Old World on America. His father was John 
Mathias Eummelen, who had married Miss Maria Elizabeth Demacker; and being- 
God-fearing folk, and having noted the early aspiration of their first-born to conse- 
crate himself to the service of the Almighty, they afforded him every opportunity to 
prepare for the priesthood. For a while he attended the Jesuit College at Sittaert; 
Holland, but after four years, when he was just sixteen, he came to this country with 
his parents. 

At Teutopolis, 111., he resumed his studies, and remained for another four years 
at the Franciscan College, and then, for a year, .he taught school. When he matricu- 
lated again, it was at the seminary at Mount Angel, Marion County, Ore., but since 
the Benedictines were not prepared to take secular students, he went to Vancouver, 
Wash., on the application of Bishop Junger, and taught at the college there for two 
semesters. He then went to New Westminster, B. C, where he joined Bishop Durieu 
in missionary work among the nine different tribes of Indians. 

Impelled by the desire to resume his studies and reach his goal, Mr. Eummelen 
went for a while to the Ottawa University; and, as his parents had removed from 
Nebraska to California, he came to Bishop Mora, the first Bishop of Monterey and 
Los Angeles, who sent him to Santa Barbara to finish his theology under the famous 
Very Reverend Father Bergmeyer. When the latter gave up teaching, Mr. Eummelen 
came south to Los Angeles and taught languages at St. Vincent's, at the same time 
that he pursued his theological studies; and on the removal of his parents to Kansas, 
he accompanied them, to look after their affairs. Bishop Fink, of Leavenworth, was 
only too glad to welcome him to his diocese, and asked him to become a priest under 
his jurisdiction. 

Our subject was thus ordained to the priesthood in Leavenworth on February 28, 
1890, by Bishop L. M. Fink, and said his first mass in the Sacred Heart Church at 
Newbury, Kans., on the second of March following, in the presence of his parents 
and other relatives, and his first charge was that of assistant at the Cathedral. Sub- 
sequently he had to attend different missions in eastern Kansas, as a result of which 
the arduous pioneer work of those early days proved altogether too much for his, 
or the average man's, strength. His health broke down, and he was advised by his 
physicians to move west again to the Pacific Coast. 

Knowing Bishop Durieu of Vancouver personally, he went to him and there, 
as the only secular priest in the diocese, he labored for nine years, and during that 
time he made it possible to enlarge the Church of the Holy Rosary, which has since 



342 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

become the Pro-Cathedral, and he erected the parochial school and St. Paul's Hos- 
pital. Not being able, however, to live any longer in that climate, he came to Southern 
California and took up his abode in San Diego, vifhere he spent three years in the 
drearisome effort to recuperate his health; and, again feeling stronger, he volunteered 
his services to Bishop Conaty of Los Angeles. The Bishop sent him to the Imperial 
Valley, and there, during three years of hardships in a pioneer country, he built no 
less than four churches. He was then sent to National City, and there erected a 
church; and he also caused one to be built at Otay. As far back as 1896, at the 
time of the patronal feast of the Church of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, Bishop 
Durieu, on October 3, had Pope Leo XIH, in recognition of Father Eummelen's 
worth, ability and eminent services, appoint him a Monsignor, and the year previous 
he had been made an Honorary Canon of the Holy House of Loretto; and with all 
the years of added experience, accomplishment, prestige and influence, the Monsignor 
was given his present charge, in 1913 — the important parish of St. Joseph's Church 
at Santa Ana. 

On March 2, 1915, occurred the silver jubilee of Monsignor, or plain Father 
Eummelen, as he prefers to be called, and never, perhaps, has Orange County so 
honored itself in a similar way as in the proper celebration of the event — a celebration 
that took on more significance on account of the history of the flourishing parish. 
The first Catholic Church of Santa Ana was built and dedicated in 1887, and it was 
then called the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary. It was ministered to at first by 
priests from Anaheim, but later it had its own pastors — notably the Rev. Fathers 
Byrne, Grogan and Remhardt. In 1896 the little Church was completely destroyed 
by fire. The congregation rebuilt at once, and the new church was dedicated the 
same year. After the burning of the first church, the congregation was again attended 
from Anaheim, until July, 1903. 

After successive pastorates by the Rev. Father Joseph O'Reilly, the Rev. Father 
John Reynolds and the Rev. Fathers F. X. Becker and P. Stoeters (under whom the 
old debt hanging over the church was paid off), Monsignor Eummelen took charge 
in April, 1913, of St. Joseph's congregation, and he not only enlarged the church, 
but also the parochial residence. Now, after its enlargement and restoration, the 
church's interior presents a fine appearance. The furniture, though not ostentatious, 
is very pleasing, and contributes to the devotional spirit characterizing the place, 
and among the useful adornments are beautiful "Stations of the Cross" of very large 
proportions, painted in oil on canvas, and real works of art. This artistic work was 
done in the church building itself by the young Belgian artist, M. Ravenstein, who. 
received his education in the art schools of Germany and France. 

He also built the schoolhouse and established the parochial school. He is now 
completing a large addition to the school, which will give an additional seating capacity 
for seventy-five pupils. The school and high school are under the supervision of the 
Sisters of St. Joseph of Eureka, Cal. Preparing for future growth he has purchased 
a block of five acres of land one block north of the present site, on which he plans 
to build a new church at a cost of $100,000, then the present church and school build- 
ings will be devoted exclusively to the use of the Mexican population of the parish. 

During the eight years Monsignor Eummelen has been in charge, eight girls 
from the parish have joined the Sisterhood and two of the young men have become 
ecclesiastics, and the Knights of Columbus and kindred church societies are in a very 
flourishing condition. The school has been brought to a high standard and is not alone 
patronized by members of the congregation but by children from families of other 
denommations, who appreciate its high moral standard. It is visited by the county 
superintendent of schools, who gives it the highest commendations. He has been 
very active in the building up of churches and congregations in California, and in this 
diocese he has built eight different churches. Monsignor Eummelen also takes an 
active part in civic affairs as well as in the growth and development of the county. 
Every worthy movement that has for its aim the improvement or upbuilding of the 
county receives his hearty cooperation and support. During the late war he took 
part in the different drives for Liberty Bonds and other war funds, and was one of 
the four-minute speakers. He also organized the Catholic Homeseekers Information 
Bureau of the United States, with headquarters in Los Angeles. Fraternally, he is a 
member of the Knights of Columbus and the Santa Ana Lodge of Elks. 

On the occasion of the Jubilee referred to, a poem, by Clarice C. Keefe, entitled 
"Pastor Fidelis," was dedicated to the jubilarian, and. there were religious ceremonies 
at St. Joseph's Church, which' began at 10 o'clock in the morning with solemn high 
mass. The procession proceeded from the rectory, led by the acolytes with their 
lighted candles, while three little girls dressed in white, carried before the jubilarian 



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 343 

a white velvet cushion, upon which reposed a silver wreath of the symbolic wheat and 
grapes, and the Monsignor entered the church of which he had been the beloved pastor 
for two years, attended by the Right Reverend Bishop Conaty and the other clergy. 
The wreath was the gift of Father Eummelen's sister. Sister Mary Elizabeth of the 
Franciscan Convent in Chicago, who with his niece. Sister Mary Stanislaus of Tucson, 
were privileged to be present at the Mass. The two small nieces of Father Eumme- 
len, Gertrude Wiedenhoff and Marie Rudolph, and little Catherine Mallen had the 
honor of carrying the wreath. When the three little maidens presented the wreath 
they made a pretty poetical address. 

Immediately upon entering the sanctuary, the Bishop began the ceremony of 
blessing the church, whose present beauty bears witness to the energy and generosity 
of its rector. Following the blessing, solemn high mass was sung by Father Eumme- 
len, assisted by the Rev. C. M. Raile as deacon, and the Rev. Father Golden as sub- 
deacon. Rev. Frank Conaty was master of ceremonies. The Right Reverend Bishop 
was attended by the Rev. Father Burelbach and the Rev. Father Hummert as deacons 
of honor. Father Theophilus, O. F. M., of St. Joseph's Church, Los Angeles, a boy- 
hood friend and schoolmate of the jubilarian, preached the sermon, which so eloquently 
portrayed Father Eummelen's career during the past twenty-five years. The Rt. 
Rev. Thomas J. Conaty, Bishop of Monterey ahd Los Angeles, followed with another 
sermon, and then the litany of the saints was chanted by the clergy, the music being 
under the direction of Father Fahey. Before the congregation left the Church, a 
committee of men of St. Joseph's Society, consisting of J. M. Maag, J. W. Hageman 
and Henry Cochems, stepped to the railing and presented the Monsignor with a well- 
filled purse as a slight token of appreciation from the parish. A banquet followed, 
with toasts by L. M. Doyle, Mayor Ey, Father Fahey, Father Burelbach, Father Theo- 
philus, Father Dubbel, Dr. Jos. Sarsfield Glass, then pastor of St. Vincent's, Los An- 
geles, and now Bishop of Salt Lake, Father Neusius, Bishop Conaty, Judge Thomas of 
the superior court. Father Campbell, and the guest of honor, Monsignor Eummelen 
himself. The receipt of many telegrams added to the pleasure of the event. 

LEWIS AINSWORTH. — A prominent business man of Orange, whose healthy 
influence was felt far beyond the confines of both county and state, was the late 
Lewis Ainsworth, who passed away on March 22, 1914, in the eighty-fifth year of his 
age. He was born at Woodbury, Vt., in 1829, and came to Jones County, Iowa, with 
his parents when he was sixteen years of age. They made the trip by way of the 
rivers and lakes to Illinois, and then continued to Iowa with the aid of teams. In 
the Hawkey e State they entered Government land; and with from four to six yoke 
rf oxen hitched to a plow broke the prairie and improved their farm. Under this 
lowan environment the lad Lewis grew up. 

In the stirring year of 1849 Lewis Ainsworth crossed the great plains, with other 
Argonauts, in an ox-team train, and having arrived safely in California, mined for a 
couple of years. Then, in 1852, he returned East by way of Panama, and on April 
24, 1852, was married to Miss Persis Bartholomew, a native of La Moyle, Vt. She 
came with her parents to Illinois when she was seven years of age, and located at 
Buffalo Grove, now Paola, and two years later the family moved to the neighborhood 
of Monticello, Jones County, Iowa. She was the daughter of Daniel Bartholomew, 
who died in Iowa, and Augusta (Simmons) Bartholomew, who passed away in Napa 
Valley, Cal. Mrs. Ainsworth received a good education in the schools of Vermont, 
Illinois and Iowa, and so was a real helpmate to her husband. 

The same day of their marriage, Lewis Ainsworth and his bride started across 
the plains with a horse team and wagon, on a trip which had been recommended for 
her health; and although she left home an invalid, she could walk and was quite well 
before the end of the journey. They remained at Jacksonville, Ore., for two years, 
and then, in 1856, returned to Iowa by way of Panama. They took the steamer John 
L. Stevens from San Francisco to the Isthmus, and the George Law from the Isthmus 
to New York; this ship sank on her next trip, with a loss of 365 persons. 

Mr. Ainsworth remained on his Iowa farm of 640 acres until 1859, when he again 
came to California and brought his wife and two children, traveling via Panama. He 
spent ten years at Weaverville, in Trinity County, where he was engaged in mining 
and in the wood and timber business, and in 1869 returned to Iowa by the newly- 
established railway lines. Once more he took up agriculture on his Iowa farm, but in 
1877 he sold the farm, and moved to Glasco, in Cloud County, Kans., and there bought 
several sections of land for the growing of corn and raising of cattle and hogs, which 
he shipped to the Kansas City markets. In 1888 he removed to Salem, Ore., where he 
remained until 1889, when they returned to Kansas; and there, with his sons, he started 



344 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 

the Ainsworth Bank and ran it until 1900, while he continued to reside there and to 
prosecute other business interests. 

Mr. Ainsworth had been coming in winter time to Southern California, and m 
1900 he moved to Orange, and bought a town home and a block of ground. Soon after 
that, with the aid of his children, he started the Ainsworth Lumber Company, and 
with the first planing mill there, they made a quick and lasting success. He built the 
Ainsworth building, was also a stockholder in the First National Bank of Orange, and 
in the Orange Savings Bank, and was both a builder up and an upbuilder of the city 
and county. Although never a church member, he was a true Christian, and for over 
forty years had been an Odd Fellow. 

Mrs. Ainsvvorth, now eighty-four years of age, has survived her husband, and 
is widely esteemed by all who know her. She is a member of the Christian Church 
and the Gordon Granger Post, W. R. C, and she continues to reside at the old home 
on East Chapman Avenue, where her devoted children lighten her labors and shield 
her from care. Mr. Ainsworth had made thirteen and a half round trips between 
California and Iowa, and Mrs. Ainsworth made eight and a half trips. For many 
years she has had the commendable hobby of clipping items of particular interest 
from the newspapers and pasting them into scrap books, and in this way she made 
two large books of the Spanish-American War. She has also made fourteen of the 
World War, besides nine volumes of soldier-boy letters; she began her scrap-book 
making in 1877, making one every year, excepting years of war, and has made over 
sixty books in all, and it is probable has never had a rival in California. The three 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Ainsworth are: Frank L., Mitt O. and Mrs. Ina Butler, all 
residing in Orange. 

GEORGE J. MOSBAUGH. — Among the most interesting personalities of Orange 
County must be mentioned that of George J. Mosbaugh, for some time secretary of 
the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company, and later president of the Commercial 
Bank of Santa Ana. He was born in a log house on a farm near Cicero, Hamilton 
County, Ind., on May 17, 1840, and was reared on his father's farm. His father was 
Conrad Mosbaugh, born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, where he grew up and 
learned the weaver's trade. He was also married there, on September 1, 1836, to 
Anna Maria Brehm, and together, the following year, they started for America. They 
were accompanied by Grandfather Joseph Mosbaugh, or Mosbach, and his entire 
family. In 1837 they bought land and settled in Hamilton County, Indiana, where 
they made a clearing and built a log house, with its mud and stick chimney, from 
the native hardwood timber, affording them a rude but hospitable home. Joseph Mos- 
bach was born at Offstein, Hesse-Darmstadt, in 177S, and was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. He married Justina Rasph, who was born in 1781, and they had seven children, 
and all came to America in 1837. The name was originally written Mosbach, but about 
1848 an uncle named Franz began to write it Mosbaugh, on account of the various 
mispronunciations given the name by English-speaking people. Thereafter, the rest 
of the kin followed his example. Excepting said uncle, Franz, who was a shoe- 
maker, all the Mosbaughs followed farming. 

George Mosbaugh attended the district schools in the pioneer days of Indiana, 
became a teacher, later a soldier in the Civil War, and after the close of the war 
resumed his studies at Boyd's Business College at Louisville, Ky., and later studied 
at the State University of Indiana. After graduating there, he became the proprietor 
of a commercial college at Terre Haute, Ind., known as the Terre Haute Business 
College, and still later became proprietor of the Bloomington, 111., Business College. 
But, before entering upon his career as professor in business colleges, his first experi- 
ence was as a teacher in the district schools in Hamilton County, Ind. He was 
thus engaged in 1862 when he enlisted in the Fifty-first Indiana Volunteer Regiment 
under Colonel Streight, but did not enter the service for the reason that the recruiting 
failed to raise the necessary quota of men, and the recruiting officer and himself 
enlisted as privates in another Indiana regiment. Mr. Mosbaugh then went back to 
his public school and finished his term of teaching, and after that became a student 
at Bryant's Business College in Indianapolis, Ind. He was engaged in a mercantile 
establishment in Indianapolis when in May, 1864, he enlisted in Company D, One 
Hundred and Thirty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and he assisted in guarding 
the bridge across the Tennessee River, on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railway, and 
in doing picket duty at Bridgeport, Ala. He was honorably discharged by reason of 
the expiration of the term of his enlistment on September 5, 1864. After that he took 
up business college work and conducted the schools already mentioned. 

While he was managing the business college at Bloomington, Mr. Mosbaugh 
went to Indianapolis, and on November 2S, 1868, was married to Miss Melissa J. Har- 
fty, a native of Indiana. She died at Santa Ana on October 9, 1896, leaving three 









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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 349 

children. Edwin H., who was for many years chief of the Redlands Fire Depart- 
ment, is now assistant chief of the department at Riverside; Maude M. is the wife 
of Dr. J. F. Galloway, the dentist, at San Pedro; and Marie is bookkeeper for a Sau 
Diego automobile and tire company. 

Mr. Mosbaugh was married a second time, on May 16, 1900, when Mrs. Emma 
(Palmer) Thelan, the widow of the late Charles C. Thelan, became his wife. Mr. 
Thelan was a pioneer harness maker of Santa Ana, and they had one child, H. Percy 
Thelan, of Santa Ana. She was the daughter of^ Noah and Susan (Evans) Palmer, 
and was born in Santa Clara County, Cal. Mr. Palmer was a native of Lowville, 
N. Y., while Mrs. Palmer came from Indiana; and they were married