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Full text of "History of the Ottawa valley"

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Cornell University Library 
F 1059O91 G71 



by J. L- G 





Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028900864 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



Ottawa Valley 



BY 



J. l>gourlay, a.m. 



A COLLECTION OF FACTS,, EVENTS AND REMINISCENCES 
FOR~OVER HALF A CENTURY. 



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1 0' ^^, 






Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and ninety six, by J. L. Gourlay, A.M., at the Department of Agriculture 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 




^^HE history of a country is the narative or story of the charac- 
ter and conduct of its prominent citizens or inhabitants. The 
succession of events they have been promoting or hindering, 
in which they have been the actors or participants, forms the 
theme and adventitious circumstances from the coloring of the picture. 
The topography of the soil, the salubrity or the reverse of the climate, 
occasionally come in as the local habitation on which they dwell and 
the atmosphere in which they breathe. Very little has been recorded 
of our fertile valley in past years and that little is scraps not available 
as history It fares no worse than other lands, whose early history lies 
deeply buried in obscurity and whose people's origin is unknown for 
want of records, or what are given as facts drawn from imagination or 
tradition where it is impossible to separate truth froui fable. Politicians 
have proposed to make it an Eden blossoming in beauty and filling the 
air with fragrance, provided we elect them to make their fortune at 
our expense but their promises were visionary and vanished away like the 
mirage of the desert as soon as the candidates were seated and in a con- 
dition to help themselves. To indolence and carelessness may be attributed 
the meagre information we possess regarding the origin,' progress, growth 
and decay of so many branches of the human race. Even the briefest 
correct records would be of signal advantage to posterity and to the his- 
torian. The migratory disposition of mankind makes it difficult to pre- 
serve such records even when they exist. Intelligent young people 
should keep short notes of stirring events that come within the range of 
their observation as these must be of interest and in the hands of one who 
could classify arid arrange and generalize they would not be heavy, but 
readable. The story of savage life is confined to the gratification of natu- 
ral appetite, idleness sleep and slaughter. If they observed any kind of 
laws they were not always in aid of the survival of the fittest. The 
history of such tribes is seldom written, or of much value if written.. 
We have some interest in the Indian tribes that roamed these parts, but 
few traces ' remain of them ; Algonquins, Hurons, Senecas have almost 
disappeared or at least greatly diminished, so that little reliable can be 
written of them to gratify curiosity, except we draw too extensively on 
the imagination. Many of the present rising generation with whom we 
have conversed can scarcely tell you of their great grandfathers or their 
grandfathers. We remember in youthful days the first inhabitants of 
the Ottawa country, on both sides of the river, who used to tell long 
stories of the red men, but we never met a vestage of encampment, 
to show that they had ever pitched a camp on the plains. Their wigwams 
were not bf a kind to require a foundation like more solid structures, as 



4 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

they were formed of little poles, set in a circle on the ground and con- 
verging their small points in the centre above, covered roun^ with white 
birch bark, to keep out the rain or snow, without an opening at the top to 
let the smoke escape, which had to make its way out by the door or 
other openings. When the tents were struck the bark was so light 
as to be easily rolled up and carried off, whilst the dry poles would do 
to cook the last animal to eat before they started out for the next halt- 
ing place. Their contact with civilization unmanned them, making 
them wards of the government, than a blanket became the door or 
screen of the tent. Cedar, ash and birch bark formed the staple with 
which their canoe fleets were built. Other tough timbers like oak and 
hickory were used for bows, arrows and clubs. Fish and the flesh of 
animals procured by the chase with wild vegetables, berries and other 
wild fruits were their prov-isibns. Dressed peltries were their clothing 
with a profuse decoration of feathers. To these hereditary wanderers the 
desolate forests were valueless except as hunting grounds or the home of 
the tameless fur bearing animals. They appeared very much the same 
to the first French immigrants, if we may judge froni a statement in a 
French man's letter to his French friends in the old land, in which the 
aspects of the country, its flora and funa, are grapically described 
thus : "You can see nothing but swamps, hear Aothing but frogs, and 
feel nothing but mosquitoes." Meadows have taken the place of swamps, 
large clearings have silenced the frogs, and mosquitoes are not so pro- 
ductive, or have betaken themselves to less civilized lands. We have 
conversed with the men who felled the first trees cut by the white men in 
this valley. We have not heard of a single trace of the march of Sam- 
uel Champlain with his little army of French men with their Ind'ian 
allies, whether he took the north shore, which is the more probable as it 
was the Indian trail, or the south shore, in making his way to Lake 
Huron and thence to the father of waters, or wherever he went to meet 
their Indian foes. The French did little or nothing in the settlement of 
the Ottawa country, except on the north shore, Two Mountains and 
Papineauville. The British, with a good sprinkling of U. E. L. Ameri- 
cans have taken up the whole valley. Almost all the .first settlers of 
Upper Canada were children of New England, refuges from the United 
States. 

These came in'after the war of independence and got land grants all 
along the line of frontier, from the Eastern Provinces to the Great 
Lakes, and penetrated back to the banks of the Rideau, and down the 
Mississippi to the Carp. The valley along the north shore. of the Ot- 
tawa river is beautiful lands, but it is only an average of six or seven 
miles, between the river and the Laurentian range of mountains. North 
of this range the land is good, but in small patches very broken, thinly 
settled, in a word, a wide sea of mountains and valleys, with lakes and 
streams innumerable, as far as the country has yet been explored and 
known. The south or Ontario side is now very populous, lots all owned 
or occupied worth holding. In our early recollections, what the people 
called half-pay officers held all the prominent place on the south shore, 
locating on the river bank till it was crowded full, then taking the rest 
of their large grants as near the other lots as they possibly could. 
Tier after tier of settlement followed, till all the best lots were occupied. 
Rivers were the channels of communication; and canoes and boats, were 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 5 

easily made in rude, strong ways, and served to convey men and 
freight with speed and safety, avoiding storms and squalls, and plying 
the paddle well on smooth water. We remember when a boy, perhaps 
twelve or thirteen, crossing with an old gentlemen, W. Nesbit, on a 
smooth sea in the morning to Aylmer. On our return in the afternoon 
the "waves were raging white." It fell to me to steer, as he could neither 
steer, row nor paddle but very poorly. He was ill to persuade to get 
in. The canoe was very large, dug out of an immense pine, fit to be 
the mast of some great Admiral. We embarked, got out a couple of 
lengths, when between two great waves she grated on a large bowlder 
that called forth a groan from the frightened old gentleman. The wind was 
in sailor phrase, on the larboard, blowing across the river, and too strong 
to face. To have run up the north shore would have put us alternately 
on the crest of the wave and in the trough of the sea, in a very danger- 
ous rolling position. We took the medium course, half against the wind 
trying to keep on three or four waves, so that we were breasting the 
wind and the waves, making steering and rowing anything but a plea- 
sure. Often by the blow of a heavy sea, the canoe quivering, we were 
thrown into a deep hollow between two large waves, the foaming crest 
of one dashing against the side of our craft, sending a shower over us. 
He would say "They're gathering on the shore to watch us go down." 
Trained from the cradle to trust in providence and fear no evil, the boy 
encouraged the old man. An unguarded dip would unship his oar, we 
shouted, "Hold up the blade and get it into the row lock again," and 
watched his stroke, we sailed about five miles on the north of the island 
and got under the lea of the land in comparatively calm water at the 
south shore- We took in our paddles and let her float down, whilst we 
breathed freely. We did thank the kind Providence for our safety, 
though we could not divest ourselves of the notion that it was a tempt- 
ing of that providence in not waiting for a calmer atmosphere and a 
smoother sea. This is one of many escapes we have made, which when 
we look back oti, we devoutedly thank the Lord for leading and deliver- 
ing us. We remember sitting enchanted with the narrative of pioneers, 
who told often in the funniest wittiest manner, sometimes with an ear- 
nest eloquence, always to our mind with originality, the hardships, priva- 
tions, difficulties, besetmentsv yes, suffering through which they passed, 
and over which they triumphed in such peculiar trying times. 

After this country had passed from the hands ofthe French into those 
of the British, the settlements began at once to be extended beyond their 
former bounds. Large parts ofthe eastern townships and the south shore 
of the Ottawa river were occupied by the British. The Scotch from 
highlands and lowlands generally clustered together, and filled places 
like Osgoode, Beckwith, Ramsay, Lanark, Renfrew, Bristol, Litchfield, 
Dalhousi, whilst Gloucester, Nepean. March, Huntley, Torbolton, Fitz- 
roy, Goulbourn, were takfen up by a mingled people of English, Scotch, 
Irish Welsh, whose rasping notes, enriched by Tipperary and Kerry 
brogues, the broad flat accents of Antrim and Down, together with the 
softer tones fra this side and fra yont the Tweed ; the tones ofthe Gorlos- 
nian mingled with those ofthe far down, making not so much a confus- 
ion of languages as of diaelects, burs, brogues and tones. Yet they were 
obliged to converse with and understand each other, or give it up. 
The conversations were rare, rich, entertaining, like the people, the cir. 



6 ' a I STORY 6f the Ottawa Valley. 

cumstances and the times. Of course they were all from the British 
Isles, one nation, no denying that, but diversified in disposition and 
modes of life as if they came from the ends of the earth. 

Ladies of some training and refinement have told how they passed 
the summer, when their husbands were away earning what would keep 
the wolf from the door in the coming winter. They would make lye 
from ashes, boil hard corn in the lye nearly all day, and when it soft- 
ened wash and boil it again in clean water, and when cooked suffii- 
ciently, eat it with milk if they had it, or with maple syrup if they had 
that article. Go back in' your thoughts to 1820, picture to yourself a 
shanty 14x20, and 8 feet high, scooped, standing in a- clearing of three 
acres, that clearing fenced by cutting down trees, so -that one! raiet an- 
other, and some stakes and long poles on these made it high enough 
for the purpose, brush being thrown in freely to close gaps'. Elms were 
preferred if they were available, as they stuck on the stumps,, by that 
means standing much higher than if they fell flat. This was' the brush or 
' slash fence. Withthis in view, look at the door of the dwelling and you 
see a smiling good-looking little woman with three pretty children, 
amusing one another at their play, the mother at her domestic employ- 
ment, or hoeing corn or potatoes among the stumps, and the wheat 
waving closely, all a rich color, as the land is full of potash, having been 
burned over recently and with this in view you have a picture of a new 
home in the bush seventy-five years ago. The cows, if she nad one, lod- 
ged at night at the bars, the entrance to the clearing, lived in the woods 
all day, and came in the evening again to be milked, if she forgot 
herself which seldom happened the bell would tell her wherea.bouts, or 
as she would obey the call of her owner whose clear voice would ring a 
long way in the echoing woods. The Government furnished a number 
of implements, indeed many things even to the door lock which was 
rarely locked at night throughout, the settlements. An old hoe that has 
survived when compared with the morden article looks as if it belonged 
to the stone age. A Huntley man once carried a number of these artic- 
les from Richmond the place of the distribution, some fixed on his back 
both hands full and a pot on his head, ran the gauntlet of a whole army 
of mosquitoes, not cutting his way through them, -but the reverse they 
piercing their way through his delicate Irish skin as he waded across the 
long swamps and bitterly complaining afterwards of his face and hands 
so unprotected and so perforated (the country was free trade then) the 
boys in expressing their sympathy would have it that they bit him 
through the pot. The fresh^ old country (Caucasian) blood had for 
them a new relish compared with that of the "red skin." The Ottawa 
Valley is well watered. Many of its rivers flow into the Ottawa river 
(called Grand river in the early times) nearly opposite each other. The 
Petite nation on the south a little below the Lievre on the north side of 
the Rid eau opposite the Gatineau, the Carp and Mississippi opposite the 
Quio, the Madawaska or the Bon Cheer, corresponding to the Colonge, 
while the Muskrat lake discharges its waters at the pretty village of 
Pembroke sometimes ealled the Indian river. But we could not discern 
from the C.P.R- a single stream worth naming on the north side for over a 
hundred miles falling into the Ottawa. This is owing to the nearness of 
the Laurentian range of mountains to the river bank and their height 
causing the flow of the chain of lakes on the summit to the northward 



HISTORY OF. THE OTTAWA VALLEY f 

and eastward whilst only rills come down, their face concealed by the 
green little gorges barely visible in the mountain sides. The Constance 
slowly flows into the Ottawa at the sand hills in Torbolton, the lake 
being only a few miles back. There is a string of lakes connecting with 
one another by creeks or outlets along R. R. between Pembroke and 
Mattawa on the south shore of the river occasionally turning a saw mill 
like Aumond creek now Klocks mills* Only in one place did we ob- 
serve anything coming south like a slide for planks in all that hundred 
miles. The Pitawawa runs into the Ottawa with some creeks that are 
nameless. The Castor with its many branches collecting in one be- 
comes a feeder to the nation. Mulberry creek, Stevens creek, the Jock 
and othdr little streams feed the Rideau. Bradley's creek runs into the 
Carp with many smaller ones. Many take their names from mil! owners or 
some one operating lumber on them or drowned in them. Some retain 
their Indian names which is very desirable and very proper, as commem- 
orating these aboriginal forest wanderers fast becomi.ng extinct. The 
land is of great variety from loose sands fit for glass ware to the thickest 
heaviest blue clay fit for pottery, bricks and tiles; said to be full of 
alluminum, which ought soon to be produced chtap enough to be used 
for roofing, the best yet discovered or applied. These lands were so 
thickly covered with forest trees standing near each other, and of 
so large a growth as almost wholly to exclude the sunshine from the soil 
in the leafy season "'when summer was green." Hardwood trees of fifty 
and sixty feet high were plentiful, some white pines there were whose 
height was found to be a hundred feet from the tops to the ground. 
• We helped to square one 73 feet long 24x25 inches, four straight lines over 
three hundred cubic feet and we have seen larger than this one. That 
piece on the ice in 1844 was worth fifteen dollars in planks, now at the 
mills it would be worth one hundred and fifty dollars. The density of 
these forests, the interlacing of the bows and their thick green foliage or' 
frondage account for the abundance of water then flowing in rills and for 
the disappearance of these wjaters when the country was denuded of this 
thick, close covering. These little river beds have disappeared before 
the plow and the present generation could hardly point out their place. 
Yet some of them with water not over three inches deep and twelve 
inches wide ran the whole summer. The cleared land has proved cap- 
able of producing all varieties of grains, grass and root crops. We have 
seen growing luxuriently the Alfalfa, or Lucerne clover, perennial rye 
grass, fescues foxtail, orchard blue grass, with every other kind named 
and nanieless. We once sowed a mixture of seven kinds of clover and 
eight kinds of grasses, and the experiment was a success. Fruits of every 
useful kind can be produced and are now grown in the various parts of 
the valley, from the wild strawberry to the flemish beauty pear. This 
last with a splendid orchard of apples of about fqrty varieties, a brother 
of the writer has succeeded in producing, beside old Glencairn, a beauti- 
ful sight to observe as you drive past, according to the expression of 
Judge Ross, who passes it slowly that he may take it all in and enjoy the 
beauty of the healthy looking trees in blossom and fruit season. The 
scenery of Chaudiere before its wild beauty was defaced by the axe or 
its sparkling waters were utilized in slides and mill races, was truly pic- 
turesque, almost indescribably grand. The rocky cliffs, green with the 
pedars and the pine to the rivers brink its volume of water tossed. 



8 HISTORY OP THE OTTAWA VALLtiJY 

broken, dashed into foam, that foam floating down like islands of pearls 
on the bosom of the dashing current, the whole surveyed from the brow 
of the hills on the east in the evening sun, to be comprehended, to be 
esteemed, to be capturously admired, must be dwelt upcJn- Thus Samuel 
Champlain saw it, Mirrick and Stevens saw it, thus Philemon Wright saw 
it before a tree was removed or an arch had spanned it except the 
rainbow in its natural grandeur,.in its virgin beauty, in its pristine sublim- 
ity. This is much the finest fall on the riyer. , The next in importance is 
the Chats Rapids about thirty miles west of the Chaudiere,'observed from 
an eminence on the east side ^facing the falls, the rivers rocky bed is 
dotted with islands covered \vith ever green pine and divided into 
many channels forming great cascades, the rushing waters dashing over 
the precip"itious rocks, foaming into the abyss below, filling the eye with 
the magnificence of the vision and the ear with the soft but thundering 
sound of many waters. Other rapids and falls on the majestic river are 
exceedingly worthy of the artists' pencil, where travellers linger to ad- 
mire the scenery, but these two surpass them all in sublimity or grand- 
eur. Niagara has a greater: volume of water, a fall much higher, a roar 
deeper and louder, but its solitary goat island is nowhere in comparison 
with the number and beauty of these Islands. How ineffable in majesty 
and glory must the hand be that formed them ail! "He cutteth out 
rivers among the rocks and his eye seeth every precious thing." The 
Dominion in its length and breadth has few places more beautiful or at- 
tractive for travellers to visit- 
Mr. Charles ShiFriff, with his grown up sons educated civil engineers 
with practiced eye and cultivated intellect, explored the Chats at the in-, 
stigation of the government, and decided to sell out at Port Hope and' 
make his home here. The offer of three thousand acres of wild land 
was an inducement, but the splendor of the whole scenery, the illime- 
table water power and the dreamy prospect of a ship canal to the 
Huron must have helped largely to the decision. It was easy, it was 
natural to picture to themselves a city covering all these banks, with 
factories of every kind where water power could economize labor by 
turning the great wheels of machinery. Fancy could easily conjure up 
fleets flying the Union Jack at the mast head, bearing through suth a 
city the precious produce of the measureless west to the sea girt isles of 
their fathers, and returning laden with the rich and beautiful fabrics, 
showing and displaying all the colors of the loom, with abundance of 
iron and steel, the cutlery of Sheffield, and the tin of Cornwall, to distri- 
bute from ocean to ocean over so long a- line of inland navigable waters 
to supply the ever increasing demands of half a continent. This was 
something attainable, not the dream of an ethusiast or a fevered brain. 
The young man, Alexander Shirriffmade an exploration to the Geor- 
gian Bay past Rice lake at their own expense and great labor, and 
reported to the British government a feasable highway to open up the 
country to the overcrowded population of Britain. But the huge debt 
of England, and the desire of a breathing time after so great wars, and 
the counsels of the Duke of Wellington, the worshipped hero of the Pen- 
insula and Waterloo, and as nothing was known of the vast region save 
this solitary survey,, a less costly plan was adopted and the ship canal 
deferred to a later date, which may yet be realised as the vast resources 
of the Ottawa valley, come to be developed, understood and known 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 9 

Sir, then Hon. J. A. McDonald, when some constituencies were to be 
won, and many to be obtained for contractors and from them for other 
purposes, gave out that the government was in an interesting state that 
at the fend of three months, a Chats ship canal would be brought forth 
gave a contract to make some holes in the rocks which was done at an 
enormous expense, then the base born monster was strangled in his 
birth. The people in these times did not look at the river above and 
below and ask why build a ship canal in the woods where no ship 
would c(3me ? But it served the purpose, was an excuse for getting the 
money and Pontiac though fooled and deceived, sticks to the party. 
The British people are credited with being a shrewd and intelligent, en- 
terprising, conquering race or conglomerate of races. All this is correct 
and it may be added that they are ultraloyal to their Queen, govern- 
ment and political leaders. But it may be conceded that they are the 
most easily led of any people. They will believe in the most extraor- 
dinary shams to please the leaders, or through that fatal delusion under 
which men believe the false as if it were true, and defend the grossest 
untruths as if they were gospel. In our early history it was not so. 
Jamie Johnston ran against the supporters of the family compact and 
the people in and around Bytown elected hini by an overwhelming ma- 
jority. Then in a drunken mood he resigned his seat and when sober 
came to take it and was ejected from the house, the same electors by an 
overwhelming majority left it at home. The same people ele'cted 
afterwards Mr. John Scott subsequently judge a liberal worth> man and 
were greatful to have such a representative. In the days of our child- 
hood we learned from our fathers that the men of the family compa;c;t 
were men of honor compared with their weale vascilating, selfish suc- 
cessors, whose eyes are only on gain at the public loss preparing them 
for political perdition in spite of all warning and the cries of oppression. 
Men would have blushed to offer or to receive a bribe. Of course 
the country was poor and the statutes few. But even now we have no 
law to punish defaulters in government -when they retire from office. 
There is no. end of lawsuits to punish tho"se who swindle the public purse 
but the government lose them all and arbitrations go in favor of defaul- 
ters. Since our credit has been established in England we have gone 
every year a few millions deeper in debt in the estimation of most people 
double or treble that of our improvenients. Legislators are mostly 
lovers of money and such never repent. Drunkards may leave their 
cups, lovers of pleasure their companions, even thieves may repent, but 
the lover of money never gets enough, never repents, never makes res- 
titution without which professed repentance is but a mere sham. The 
clergy of those days ,were .devoted men, they had no millionaires in 
whose sunshine they could bdsk, no societies in which they could work 
up to the top of thp'heap and so procure worldly influence and patron- 
age such was thus considered not merely unspiritual but immoral. 
When W. L. McKenzie's election was twice voided and he was per- 
mitted to take his seat for Haldiman after the third election to the same 
parliament he published in his message that the cost to him of the three 
elections was only five dollars. When Wilks assailed the wrong doings 
of the English parliament in the north Briton and his election was de- 
clared void his friends inscribed on their banner "North Briton No. 44, 
Wilks and liberty," and carried him in three times with increasing ma- 



16 HISTORY OF THE otTAWA VALLEY?' 

jorities- After they were compelled to let him take his seat he assisted 
in procuring legislation against the seizure of an Englishman's papers, 
which contributed to the welfare of his country. Ail parliamentary men 
are not plunderers of their country. 

The Burritts' began to explore the lands on the Rideau in the middle 
of the last decade of the i8th century. Mr. Wright came six or seven 
years later to Hull and cut the first trees on the north shore of this grand 
river west of Papineau settlement above two mountains. We have no 
land cleared more than one hundred years along the Ottawa west of 
Hawkesbiiry. Otters were plentiful on the streams. Beavers built 
dams with poles they cut, and formed hou.ses of poles and grass. 
Muskrats cut the thick, coarse grass that grew in the middle of the 
stream, drew it to their landing place, fed on its white roots using the 
stems for houses, under which they could get down the bank under ice in 
winter and help themselves to such provisions as came in reach. These 
little workers kept the streams clear of these grasses so that the currents 
ran freely, but their indiscriminate slaughter by the Indians, the care- 
lessness of the^farmers on the banks, the rank grass has grown up and 
obstructions abound and lands are overflowed to an alarming extent 
damaging the lands and injuring the health. The other wild occupants , 
have diminished or wholly disappeared, so that a beaver or an otter is not 
heard of within many miles of the highest up settlements of the lands. 
The floods killed fine oak and other forest trees. The Doininion Gov- 
ernment should deepen these streams for the health of the people. 
Three or four dollars a rod would take three feet deep out of the mid- 
dle of the stream. The people of this part of the Dominion have not 
got a grant of anything to improve the condition of the country that 
has supported Tories in all their straits. Men with India rubber boots 
could shovel out mud attWenty-five cents a yard- The authorities have 
been spendthrift with railroads why not do some other things for the 
people. What they waste wilfully in a year on the Experimental Farm 
to no purpose would deepen. all the streams in the flat lands and drain 
and make healthy the large tracts of country under their very eyes, but 
never looked at. How would it do to make the trial of d'oing a little stroke 
of justice to the inhabitants around the Capital ? Three feet deep cut out 
of the river bed below what it now is would carry offwater enough to let 
the lands dry up around and greatly benefit the farmers now suffering by 
draining their neighbors. Under yoqr view each farm resenibles arj 
embryo village with dwelling houses, barns, feeding houses silos. Most of 
the pioneers of 1818 are gone, and many born since have followed them. 
Some farms have changed owners. Most of them, however, are in the 
possession of the descendents ©f the original owners. The first occu- 
pants got their patents from the crown. The Simcoes, the Maitlands, 
Durhams, Gosfords heads figure on the old patents. From these the 
transfers has been made. Some have a long succession of mortgages. 
Here the law is loose, even defective. Every transfer the lawyer has a 
new search and the offence is piled up and no gain except the satisfac- 
tion of every- new lawyer as he executesthe mortgage. The early set- 
tlers were generally free from quarrels except when they indulged too 
freely in Jamaica. These were immediately quieted down and peace 
restored. Drink was freely used as if it were a necessity and so long as 
people kept in moderation it was not considered even a vice. Treating 



ktStORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLfiV-' il 

was consicjered an act of friendship. Moderate drinking very common, 
yet there was not much drunkenness. Profane swearing was by no 
means as common as at present. Lying, the vice of today was very 
rare. But now what man will you believe? "Even ministers they ha' 
been kenned in holy rapture great lies and nonsense baith to vend and 
nail't wi' scripture." The church has suffered more to-day by the false- 
hoods of the clergy than by intoxicating drinks. We do not give this as 
heresay, but as a subject, sad to say very capable of proof. Illegitimates 
were very few. Education was by voluntary subscription and well 
sustained. Boys got a good training for business and girls read fluently 
and wrote elegantly, whilst arithmetic was carefully taught and no such 
thing as the notion of denominational schools entertained. The idea 
originates and is largely cherished for the safety of the seats and to ab- 
sorbe the funds. Human beings greatly desire to_ be the dominant 
party forgetting that such a party is almost always tyrannical. The^e was 
great effort put forth to clear, and fence, and build. Some got up stone 
house?, but these being plastered on the stone become damp, and they 
had not got to the idea of building in bond timber furring and lathing 
which is the true plan, Some one recommended roughcasting the stone 
wall outside, which they did and secured a dry house. A properly built 
stone house is the most healthy, th^ most economical, the safest from 
tempests, and the most durable. After the temporary shanty, sided Iol,' 
houses became very popular. Several of these are yet standing and in 
good preservation. In the clearing of land very much was done by 
what they denominated a Bee. The people of the Ottawa valley need 
na description of what it is or was. For the benefit of others we may 
. say, it was a gathering of neighbors to pile up the logs of the burnt 
chopping that had been cut about 1 2 feet long. The teamster often 
chose the four or more men to follow his oxen, and with a long chain 
pulled in the logs from both sides, which the men rolled up in a pile 
and threw light ones on top. A team and a gang would log an acre a 
day The bee was according to the size of the chopping, provided they 
could command so many. The day was one of general feasting. The 
fatted calf or sheep was killed or the best beef procurable was well 
roasted with well boiled potatoes, the best of bread, buns, cakes, 
' crackers, also puddings and pastries, whilst tea and coffee flowed in 
equal .streams. One man had charge of the bottle, if he was judicious 
the people went home sober, if not there would be odd ones a little in- 
clined to nlirth, others measuring the road as we observe some measur- 
ing a twelve foot sidewalk in the evening., The day being over and gone 
and the work done, the young men washed off the .coal dust of the burnt 
logs, and dressed as they came in the morning, the oxen were cared for or 
sent home. The young ladies having got through the dish-washing and 
looking as bright as bottled ale, they began a hearty contest at "song 
about." The mnsic of the human voice divine "put life a:nd mettle in 
their heels," and dancing followed as a matter of course till the short 
hours had passed and the young gehtlemen each saw, "his Nellie home" 
from the entertainment. The ' United Empire Loyalists and all others 
followed up these customs. In after years it was thought impossible 
to have a bee without the liquor, either to log or raise a building, but 
Mr. Hugh Gourlay broke the spell and disappointed the preditions of 
the seers 'by having a splendid bee without the Jamaica spirits, and since 



12 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

that time enough the bees are less numerous than before they succeed 
without a drop of alcohol. They used to have qulltings too in these pri- 
mitive times and plays sometimes were substituted for dances. The 
pioneers followed the customs and plans of those who came from the 
United States, who knew so much more of the new country and how to 
succeed in it. They planted more corn than the farmers did in the fol- 
lowing age, which gave an opportunity to have evening husking bees. 
General Booth has plans for bringing together the young people that 
mating may take place on proper principles of fitness. These husking 
bees gave favorable occasions -at ^;imes to meet and get acquainted 
and paved the way for the more formal calls at her mothers where the 
' acquaintance thus formed could grow and ripen, happy matches often 
sprang up from these beginnings. The corn crop in these parts was not 
very large, and the ears should not be left to hang on the stalks very 
long, as in the Western States where they raised little else. It had to 
be housed as soon as ripe, and the animals were left to consume the 
stalks before winter set. in. So in the long nights of October and Nov- 
ember the fine moonlight, the buskers could convene and strip the ears 
whieh were disposed of on some dry loft or safe place till milling time 
came. They seldom used "Atolbrose" at these assemblys. A choice 
supper served all purposes. They had such a good time and went home 
before morning dawned. There must be marriages or the race must 
cease. One generation must pass away and another must come. Ever 
since Jacob went to see Rachel, and kissed her ruby lips, when they 
met at the well, and we are far from saying that, this was the first meet- 
ing or demonstration of the kind among our wandering species; jt is 
probable that the custom is as ancient as the race; nothing offensive, 
wrong or in bad taste could be said of the lovely, unstained and blush- 
ing Eve when she first opened her eyes on the dignified, manly form of 
her lover aud lord- in the pure innocence, submitted cheeks and lips to 
receive the salutation ag evidence of love at sight, without shame and 
with a modesty unsullied and becoming, the situation, and the circum- 
stances ; no stealthy invasion of a neighbors rights in the case ; so in 
this young world of the Ottawa Valley, when kindred spirits met, 
there were harmless and friendly greetings, "nemine contradicente." 

One institution of these early days has passed away. , The innumer- 
able places where a well can be had by sinking six feet, made it easy, to 
procure abundance of pure water. Jacob's well required a bucket with 
a rope to lift the water. "Sir thoii hast no 'antlema' and the well is 
deep. Instead of the long rope, a small pole with a limb near its thick 
end, set to hold the handle of the pail was used, and when skilfully man- 
aged served the purpose, but in unwary hands tin pails often gets off, 
and sank, to be raised by a fitting hook. But the spring pole was more 
common. A long thick cedar post, with the top prepared by a natural 
fork, or otherwise, to take the long spring pole that worked on a pin, 
was planted deep in the ground to be permanent and steady. The con- 
nection between the spring pole an\i the bucket, might be a rope or a 
chain, but was generally a small pole attached by a piece of chain* to 
the top of the spring pole and the heavy end had the bucket secured to 
it. The bucket was made of good oak staves, iron hooped with a 
strong iron wire handle, and hung there in the wind like a pendulum, 
The back weights on the spring pole would nearly balance the pole or 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. , 13 

bucket full of water making it more managable, The well was built 
inside with stone, and a platform on top, with a crib or a box two 
or three feet high, and sometimes a lid covering the mouth for safety. • 
There were early cases of drowning in wells reported, as we had then no 
papers printed, and anxious mothers going to church, or store, or to 
make friendly visits, warned their children "not to fall in the well, not 
go too near the fire till Ma comes back." Like the Indiana lady in the 
days of great meetings and "Jerks," when she rushed to the penitent 
bench to confess, she left her little Pauline with her husband back in 
the crowd saying : "Hush now and be a good little Pliney while mother 
goes up and joins Church." In the onward movement of the world, the 
wooden pumps appeared of bored pine, and tamarac in joints. Chain 
pumps were introduced but did not stay. Force pumps after this came 
to stay. In some cases the bucket was worked with a chain and wind- 
lass. Later they used a tin bucket, the size to draw water out of wells 
drilled in the rock with a valve in the bottom of the bucket, that was 
resting on a pin in a box that conveyed the water to the pail. A little 
house enclosed such a well, and the pulley at the top let the six feet long 
bucket rise out of the well, to be set on the pin that raised the valve. 
There was one artisian well on the farm of one of the earliest settlers, 
beyond the stony swamp that ran freely for some time. But they 
have not been numerous. One of the Bonaparts was said to propose to 
bore such wells to run in the desert, which it was thought would be a 
success, and turn the wilderness into fields of verdure and fertility, but 
the plan has not been carried out as far as we know. We have too 
much land yet more ea,sily managed. 

■ Education seems to have been after the Hebrew mode, taught in 
each family by some member of it, as there must have been some child- 
ren in the few families that first cast their lot in the land. Mr, Wright: 
of Hull and Mr. Billings of Gloucester had tutors. Mrs. Honeywell 
taught her own and some of her neighbors children in her own house. 
The Richmond colony having so many officers, succeeded in obtaining 
the money from the Home Government, to build a school and pay the 
teacher who was sent from England. It only lasted a year or two, 
schools were-indispensible. Governesses were employed by ■some, but 
except some retired army officers, very few were able to meet the ex- 
Dense. Many families kept a little school, some times two families of 
■elativ^s united and one girl taught her cousins, also with her own broth- 
ers and sisters. The people of a district talked the thing over often 
Dcfore they could get a schoolhouse built, and a private building vvas 
lometimes used temporarily. Every man stated how many he could 
lend, and pay for, if the aggregate came to twenty, the fees would be 
ive dollars a head, as one, hundred dollars and "go rourid with the 
itholars," was the renurrieration. This corresponded with the wages on 
he farm. Many teachers were no better qualified than farm laborers. 
There was nothing taught but elementary principles, equal to the 
amoiis Three R.R.R. One man thought if his boy could "add up a 
raction," that would do for him. Of course they did not all so express 
hemselves. Lumbering was in advance of settlements, and many 
armers worked in winter cutting timber, whilst others drew with their 
cams when they got teams, and the grown up boys were employed in 
his absorbing work. Younger children could be sent to school, and 



14 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

high qualifications in the teacher were not expected, nor considered 
essential. Many teachers were old feeble men, that were incapable of 
progress. Young men pushed on their studies, and rose to the needs of 
the schools, retaining their places and doing efficient work. The schools 
were small in accommodation, and they we're thinly attended at first, 
but perhaps in as good proportion as ever after, all was done on the 
voluntary principle- Every improvement of a public nature was so. A 
subscription was opened, and pushed to meet the crisis whatever it was. 
There are people so unenlightened yet, as to think that method prefer- 
able even to-day. This would make sad havock with our bureaus of 
public works, agriculture and so many other institutions, that we delight 
to honor; could we not have macadamised roads, canals, railroads,, built 
by private companies without government aid? Would they not 
be as well done, as efficient; as profitable an outlay, and useful to the; 
community, as on our modern plans, which all men admit to be unexam - 
pled extra vagrance and leading to national bankruptcy ? The law of his 
commonwealth compelled every head to teach his family to read and 
vi^rite his own language and observe the morality of the Mosaic law^. 
The doors and gates of their habitations proved this, and their elders, 
and other rulers ofthe tens and hundreds, were bound to see the law obeyed 
Can any family now plead that a similar moral obligation is not of bind- 
ing force? Is a commonwealth bound beyond this to compel the educa- 
tion of its people ? Is it not possible to combine efficiency with economy 
and improve on the present boasted system — without its extravagrance ? 
Some of the churches are mad upon Separate schools. If these schools 
waste the time ofthe children in beautiful trifles and keep them unfit for 
citizenship, except as hewers of wood and drawers of water, is the com- 
monwealth bound to interfere, fight the leaders of these denominations, 
and give, at the public expense, a more efficient and liberal education ? 
Is the Provincial Government to take the place ofthe parents and of 
the clergy and see this done? How strongly would the parents have re- 
sented clerical interference in these early schools, when three or four 
families would have been compelled to keep their children at home in 
such circumstances ? Should the present fire, kindled in the Separate 
school cause, lead to a commission of investigation and lay.bare the true 
state of things ; and should the Government of Quebec refuse to secure 
a liberal education according to the vvishes of the clergy ; will the grand- 
fathers at Ottawa interfer by gentle coercion ? Are the Cardinals not 
kindling a fire in the bramble that shall consume the cedars? Unfor- 
tunate Mercier's night schools, after giving great offence, fell and perished, 
when people that did not know peas from barley, dism issed him and his col- 
leagues from office. The Americans oppose church establishments, but 
work up a costly, and yet faulty school system. The Saxons of Eng- 
land are bound to free trade with a faulty church establishment- But 
they have begun to take down the church establishment ; the Americans' 
to take down the high tariff. Both are abusive to mankind and in time 
must be got out of the way. If a church establishment is good for 
England it cannot be bad for America. Freedom in education may 
prevail some day- If efficiency is maintained, economy is also secured. 
Would it be constitutional to make such changes? If the people see 



History of the ottawa valley. 15 

that such are beneficial they have the power to elect the men to make 
the changes. 

One century ago the Government here was mixed — civil and mili- 
tary — the country had been conquered. Officers were by appointment, 
not elective, and except the Municipal Council and members of Parlia-v 
ment most of them are appointive still or in in the patronage of the Gov- 
ernment, which it assumes, and without proper authority. Custom or 
habit is all they can plead. But so many of these long appointments 
have become so very offensive (some useless) and so costly, that they 
. are objectionable and demand reform. Our earliest settlements were 
formed of militery men, together with the United Empire Loyalists 
who had all, or nearly all, inherited their policy from the middle ages. 
The latter was the most remarkable as their progenitors had forsaken 
England because of the despotism of such a policy, but returned to it 
in the day of their power and burned witches freely when they should 
have turned the despotism out ot their hearts. The looseness of their ■ 
divorce laws is objectionable. They retained slayery until it was driven out 
by force. These and many others like our family compact create rebellion 
and the tyrannical enactments that cherish, or rather provoke the spirit 
of rebellion, as they cajl it, but the sustained struggle for plain common 
human rights as it should be called. All these show the humiliating in- 
consistency of fallen humanity. Besides these above named another 
class of people came and mingled with them in the settlements-^a class 
that wished to escape the grindings of their landlords and their agencies- 
These opposed high taxation and exhorbitaht outlay, and of course soon 
became marked men and fit subjects to be called rebels. What brought 
these men here? What have they to do advocating such questions? In 
a word what right had such rebels to brains or anything bordering on 
brains? But they are yet in existence and may as well be reckoned 
' upon in the estimate of the world's progress. The descendents of the 
men that have forgotten the wail of Flodden, the tears of Drumclog, the 
humiliation of Killecrankie and the long starvation of Londonderry ; 
the men that to avoid oppression buried themselves in the woods tO' 
better their prospects and those of their children, in order that they 
might be; owners of the soil, independent freeholders, and have a large 
interest in the government of their country, cannot be expected to 
coolly approve of misrule. In the first town meetings these gentlemen 
contended for the lightest taxation, and the honest outlay of the money 
of the people. -But they were too few to be felt ; never aspired after 
office, not even to be pound keepers, path masters, or collector of taxes. 
They succeeded in.havi;ng the work of the year past read at the follow- 
ing town meeting, sp, that they might judge who were worthy of re-ap- 
pointment to ofiEice and who were to be rejected or kept out, if that were 
pcssible'. The man who would have spent money to influence an elec- 
tion in these early days would have brought on himself the execration 
of these upright, single-minded, straightforward men. Should there 
-not still be the determination to oppose undue taxation and encourage 
economy in every department from the House 01 Commons to the 
Township Council ? 

The chain of hills lying east and west, begin at the Jock mclme a 
littie northward to near Bell's corners, then trend southward across the 



1 6 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

corners of.Goulbourne and March, still inclining southward and stretch 
into Huntley at Glencairn and Elmwood, covering the borders of 
March, Huntley and Fitzroy and Torbolton terminating at the Chats.' 
Occasional levels and breaks and nitches appear through which roads 
pass. They contain limestone and sandstone of various colors in great 
abundance, materials enough to build a London. Minerals also abound 
mica, plumbago and phosphates enough to enrich the soil to the height 
of land. Geologists assert that there is no coal in them. Then every 
one else to be deferential scholarly and fashionable sing the same song. 
But they are finding shale at Lake Temiscamingue that is said to burn 
nearly as well as coal. We submitted samples from my brother's farm. 
No. 7, 1st Con. March to Professor Chapman in Toronto, who termed 
it choral, but a Philadelphia coal merchant said my sample was exactly 
like the rocks above the coal beds in the Lehigh Valley in Pennsylvania. 
No one has the disposition or the money to bore and test, but it may 
yet be done. The artic explorers report abundance of coal in the north, 
but is not available for our use (?) Could a railroad be built and worked 
in such an inhospital climate to bring the treasure to our doors ? No 
doubt a contractor could be found to go into the job if there were mil- 
lions in it. The fellows that propose to go to James B4y or to Hudson's 
Bay are ready to go to the worse place in the universe for money, but 
it is much more economical to bring it from Pennsylvania or Nova 
Scotia than from the polar regions- The fact, however, that coal ex- 
ists in the. parts explored in the islands near the pole, explodsthe theory 
that it is below' the coal formation and that other wise theory that the 
southern part of the continent is a drift from the northern. Where did 
the north get the earth to send down ? No trace of the old factories for 
the manufacture of so much earth have been discovered. Perhaps like 
the inventors they have passed out of recognition like Hans Breitman's 
party. Fair ish that party now? Fair ish dat loafly colden cloud vat; 
hang on te mountainish prow, all gone avay mit te loccar peer. Modern 
geologians may overturn the notions of older geologists and get us 
coal on the north of Ottawa. They talk of coal oil or kerosene far 
north of the St. Lawrence in Quebec. The shale of Temiscamingue 
may be introductory to coal. The latter may lie deeper and no one 
has gone in search yet of the coveted article. But the iron rods will be 
pushed down after it ere long and then we will have a boom like the 
Africian gold fever in which all our unfortunates will make their for- 
tunes. If it would only crop up berore the elections would come off. 
how grand and glorious !,! The highest point of these hills is at the 
junction of Huntley and Fitzroy- From these summits you can get the 
most delightful views of the country extending on all sides The beau- 
tiful level fertile fields of Templeton, Hull, Eardley,Onslow on the north 
shore of the Ottawa River, with Torbolton, March, Nepean, Gloucester 
on the south shore of the river and north of the ridge on which you 
stand, presents to the eye a pretty expanse of valley lands- Then the 
thousands of magnificient buildings in city, town, village and farm, the 
shining spires and towers of public buildings, the workshops, bridges, 
highways, all giving evidence of an outlay of engineering and architec- 
tural skill, an amount of labor skilled, and other wise presenting an ex- 
penditure of thousands of millions in current money with the mer- 



HISTORY OF THE' OTTAWA VALLEY. 



17 



chants. In a rtight view from the brow of these hills, the display of light, 
gas, kerosene, electric, is positively wonderful to look upon in every 
direction. This outlook is on the north side with the dear blue waves of 
the flood rolling along bearing on their bosom to man and everything 
that breathes, health inspiring breezes, building up bone and muscle, en- 
richingthe blood, invigorating the brain, and the mind, contributing to the 
health and the pleasure ;of a race of men as hardy, patient and laborious," 
brave, intellectual and scholarly as are to' be found in any clime, or in 
any division of the human family on the face of the wide world. Our 
remarks apply to the dwellers on these hill sides and valleys and overall 
these extended plains without a shadow of exaggeration. Turn now 
your face to the south side landscape though your stand is not at so 
high an altitude as on the Laurentians, 20 miles north of it, 5fet the pros- 
pect is so fair so agricultural, and so dotted with original forests in 
clumps yet untouched, the clearings are so extensve, so well cultivated, 
so productive, luxuriating in waving meadows, golden grain fields and'^ 
green pastures, teeming with flocks and herds of improved breeds and 
of many varieties and lengthy pedigrees. In the summer season the 
gardens shining with flowers, promiscuously blending their bright tints in 
the distance and shedding their aromatic fragrance in the atmosphere 
around. A large number of little orchards blooming in the loveliness of 
paradise as a Persian would say, pretty and productive as possible. The 
unbroken woods abounded in wild plums and cherries, the latter choice 
lumber for furniture, stair building and such like, but should be more 
cultivated. The red plums offered so plentifully on our market are the lineal 
decendants of these wild isf^jcimens, so much admired by the youths 
when no other fruit except berries, wild currants and thorny gooseberries 
were visil.>le on the landscapes except the never failing hawthorn 
that blooms in the vale. We should not omit the fruit of the beech, 
oak butternut, hazel- and hickory. These furnished abundance to 
beast and bird ere any footprint but that of the roaming savage had left 
its impression on the soil of the country. When you consider the lati- 
tude and climate you may ask the explorer to point you out any country 
much superior on the great globe we inhabit. You can see almost with- 
out a glass the spires of churches between you and the St. Lawrence. 
Your view from these hill tops, one hundred years ago, would have 
shown fou an unbroken forest on every side as far as your best telescope 
could take in the range of your vision. Not an axe had been laid to a 
tree by a white man. The country on the south shore of the Ottawa 
from its eastern point for 250 miles westward is very good soil, stretch- 
ing southward to the Valley of the St. Lawr. nee, and westward to Lake 
Huron. But in the last 100, miles east of Parry Sound it isbroken, com- 
posed of mountains, rocky bills, valleys, lakes and streams — not much 
of a country for settlemtnc. The north shore aiong t!ie river bank is 
good landi but only a strip between the great river and the Laurentian 
range of hills. North of this range there are patches of good land, but 
so broken as to be what travellers describe the west side of this conti- 
nent an "* Ocean of Mountains.'" These are not high but plentiful, with 
lakes and streams unnumbered. \ The Ontario side of, the river boundry 
is well cultivated and very populous now, but in our early recollection it 
was largely occupied by what they tetrned half-pay officers of the army 



I^ PlSTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

and navy, all of whona received large tracts of land from the Govern- 
ment. Old soldiers of the ranks and others filled up the back country, 
wniist the officers occupied the river front. O'le' hundred acres was the 
Sir. lest grant made at that time, and the settlements extended back by 
slow degrees on the good lands. The stories o,f these original settlers 
were very entertaining to the new comers, especially to the yOung, on 
whose susceptible minds deep impressions were made, as everything was 
new, strange and interes^^ng The French were the first European 
settlers keeping the river banks and lake shores closely, though they ex- 
tended the line far westerly exploring rivers and lakes over the greater 
part of the continent. The British followed in the conquest of the 
country and its occupation. The country was one great unbroken forest 
close and dense, through which the sun scarcely penetrated to the soil, 
the high-land and swamp alternating lay in shadow except in small 
openings of swales and ponds fed by rills and small creeks, all of which 
soon disappeared as the lands were cleared and cultivated. The cleared, 
lands proved to be of rich quality as the forests fell to the axes and the 
songs of the labourers. These early days were disturbed by no bush 
fires. The dampness of the soil made it sometimes difficult to burn the 
brush of the choppings. A horse was an interesting sight ; very rare 
indecd.and men got rich by the labours of the oXj whose backs served 
often to carry loads of provisions. Many were the sighs of the exiles 
for their native lands, though they often denied that poverty brought 
them from their ancient homes, for they had plenty of it there. How 
intensely they listened as one told them that he ground wheat or corn 
in a pepper mill to make a cake on whifb he fed, whilst he looked for 
work or secured a bushel of potatoes to carry home on his back, 17 or 
25 miles, and plant for the next year's provisions. Some told how they 
had travelled hungry and weary to get ernployment and sent word back 
home to their wives that they had got work but _were doubtful if they 
would get paid for it. Lowrey's and Moorehead's carried whfat on 
their backs from the Rideau to Fitzroy and Huntley, at least 40 miles, 
for their seed, travelling along the south side of the Carp and staying 
over night at Harten's and Grant's. This was about 18 19 — years before 
our time. The great winter labour was choppling, then burn off and hoe 
or drag the wheat in the burnt land. In the end of the last century 
Mr. Philemon Wright explored the Chaudiere Falls, and in the second 
month of 1801 began his journey from Massachusetts via Montreal to 
Hull, fie commenced to clear land and build houses and mills. He 
was the first to employ the almost limitless water power. He chose 
J lull as his home and the scene of his opteratiohs, though the land was 
rough compared with other places, but it was covered with timber which 
was in his mind the prospect of a fortune. The Government of the 
times made him liberal grants of land, and almost everything else he re- 
quired. liJe was endowed with the best business capacity. We well re- 
trie.!nber a visit to his mill which was reputed then the best available. 
We came with a younger brother, th? best, teamster of ''his inches" in 
the land, with a yoke of three-year-old steers bred by Mr. Thomas 
Christie, half-bloods from some fine sire that Dr. Christie had got from 
Quebec to his Glencairn farm. We crossed the ice to Hull (or Aylmer) 
and came ciown ,to the Chaudiere mill. We were all night in the mill. 



■ •) HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY.. I9 

the Steers cliained in the shed. It blew a tempest in the night. We 
could not get our grist fpr several days and had to get home in the 
stQrm. We crossed the river on the ice to By-Town as the first wooden 
bridge had gone down the current for ever, from where it had stood some 
time before. JameS Morin.had walked to By-Town and brought back the 
nc vv^ tliat the bridge had fallen some time before this. He told the story 
that a "black man" was crossing when it broke down and ran for his life, and 
Morin affirmed that he was white when he reached the By-Town side, 
(if you demurred,) Well, as white as I am, which was not saying much 
for his own colour. The day was still stormy and very cold as we came 
home and we trotted our steers keeping up with a grey mare that led the 
way till we turned from her on the March road halting to feed them and 
warm ourselves. But darkness came on us on a road -we had never 
travelled, and the wearied steers turned in at a bars where a straw stack 
stood at a shanty door, the man, Mr. Mike Gleeson, came out of the 
shanty asking a question, and the two little fellows told their story. He 
chained the steers to eat at the straw stack, took the boys in before a 
blazing fire, the delight of their hearts on such a night. This act of hos- 
pitality has never been forgotten. What evoked our admiration on the 
Hull road was the beautiful rows of young maples Mr. Wright had 
; .planted on the sides of the highway, before and on each side of his fine 
, house in Hull, surpassing anything else visible on our whole journey. 
His depot or store of provisions never failed. Seed wheat, corn, 
potatoes, oats and peas served to supply the wants of all the surround- 
ing regions. He was always in funds to meet all exegencies. The Jamaica 
spirits were freely used in those times in Hull as the thirsty used to tell. 
Bob Boyle is reported to have asked the Squire ''Is my credit good for 
some drinks?" "Yes, Bob, for a puncheon." " Roll it out then." So 
Bob and companions had some enjoyment for a time. A box of pipes 
and a keg of tobacco completed the year's wages. So he vvent to the 
woods cheerfully to pay it with the ajfe and the lines. Treating was 
kept up by store keepers for many years, hut this ruinous practice has 
gone to oblivion. The first cellar was not yet dug in Chicago, and pork 
had to be brought from Gincinnatti, the great porkopolis, all the way to 
Hull, for the "Lumbering" Hull became the centre from which radiated 
colonies, if ,we may so say, to all points up the river on both sides. Small 
boats might land easily along the north shore all the way from the 
Gatineau to the falls. Many people as they came to the country entered 
for some length of time into the service of Mr. Wright till they got some 
money and some idea of the country and looked up lands. Officers of 
fhe army and navy seemed not to settle in or near Hull. Upper Canada 
was their field or place of attraction. Settlements were early formed 
up the n'orth shore of the Ottawa. , Waller, Day, RoUin, McConnell, 
I-folt, Esterbrooks, Bell, Taylor, Grimes, Heath, Chamberlain, Parker, 
Hill, Kenny, Conroy, Eagan, Doyle, Hurdman, Coutle, Church, Mc- 
Lean, Radmore, Aylen, Aylwin, Haworths, Pinks, Gordon, Stewarts, 
Sparks, Lusk, with many others in these primitave times. Towards the 
west end of Hull Brekenridges, Duncans, McCooks, Beoby, Meri- 
fields, Maxwells, Eadies. P. H. Church and De Cell were their physi- 
cian all their life among them. 'Dr. Church left great wealth, but Dr. De 
Cell not much, and burned his books that no one could collect after him. 



20 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Hull was the hub whence radiated so many to other parts, one after 
another especially between the mountain range and the river, till the 
leading road cut first to the lumber region and from which branch:s 
turned to the shanties, was all located on both sides to Eardly and Ons- 
low and Bristol. In the two former the hills trend southward and nar- 
row the land to a strip. Joseph Lusk had anumerous family ofsons'and 
danghteijs that married and filled up a large portion of the country. 
Joseph was an upright man and truthful. He told us of the kind of 
discipline he exercised. One daughter had a visitor her father did not 
like and forbade her, encouraging his visits, but they were continued, so he 
took a light trace chain and inflicted a few stripes on we suppose, what 
a young lady called "Henry Ward Beecher's part of the body" as the 
portion he thought was formed by nature to receive correction. We 
hope the stripes were not numerous nor heavy. He was not a stern 
man in the time of our acquaintance. The visits ceased, however, 
though the wrong party was punished. Were punishment, of course 
not too severe, resorted to more frequently in certain cases, there would 
be fewer ill-assorted marriages and much less misery inflicted on them- 
selves and others. Physiologists and stock breeders hold that certain 
animals should be employed for other purposes-than propagating their 
species. Pigeons are said if taken away aad left wild for a few years to 
lose all the rich colour of their improved condition and return to the 
dull leaden natural colour. Do^s the law not apply to the 
higher orders of creation? If the parents are not in harmony aboiit the 
upbringing of their offspring, will these left to grow not degenerate? 
Perhaps that is too strong a word for the negligent parents have degen- 
erated. Human nature requires eternal vigilance to keep on improving ; , 
rejecting the vile virulence of our fallen nature, and purifying it from all 
filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. 
Farther on in Eardley the Finlays, the Frenches and Merrifields, Col. 
McLean and'his family, Moores, Joseph and Wm. Veleau. Joe Veleau 
kept hotel in the woods in Onslowon the leading road to Ottawa, greatly 
frequented and patronized by the shantymen. Sometimes the boys paid 
their bills, but without cash they would have the drink and give their 
employer for it The business broke down at last, as Joe could not keep 
up the supply, and he told doleful stories of how he was broken down : 
One big Hirishman he fill tumbler, an he say der ma coo, Joe, one odder 
big Hirish he fill tumbler, he say here's luck, Joe, anoder big Hirishman 
he say here's fortune, Joe ; he no stan French, but de no money, de luck 
and de fortune soon broke Joe Veleau. Dr. Church had some very long 
drives in his extensive practice, and sometimes- halted for a dinner with 
Joe, whose wife was a pure blood Indian woman. Joe was very proud 
of her as a tasty cook and a shanty keeper, for his hotel was a log 
shanty even when we saw it. He introduced her to Dr. Church thus : 
Dr. Church, my wife; some lady, some squaw. William Veleau 
was a shoe maker and tvrought extensively for Andrew Howley's 
shanty men. The lumber road was past his place. The men wore his 
beef-skin moccasins and coarse' boots. His brother's tavern was near, 
and on Sunday some drouthy soul would take his horses and a sleigh load 
from the shanty of the men to visit William. When the drink had 
hold of him WSilliam would fight with his own skaidow. His wife was 



HISTORY 6F the dtt A*WA VALLEY. -' 

kll for peace, and would take hold of him— "Wealyaam, Wealyaam;" he 
would turn to shake her off with "aret a vateau — cosh, me no wile man." 

, William would sometimes drive to the shanty for supplies. The boys 
all rushed to shake hands with him — Mr. Veleau, how is your family ? 
All sick. How is that, Mr. Veleau ? Can eat no bread. Oh, sorry for 
that, Mr, Veleau ; got no flour. So the foreman would furnish the flour 
in pay for the work done for the men and charg^e them, then all was 
serene once more. No matter how sick a French Canadian is pork will 
cure him. The children were often sent to us saying mama he very sick; he 
want a little piece of pork, or my fadder she very sick ; she want a little 
preeserve. The French people, however, did not mix up in the settle- 
ments with the English to any great extent, but generally formed their 
own neighborhoods. The Quion Village was not formed early and was 
small until after the building of the "Chats Ship Canal," but the line of 

, settlement went on merely as a line, not spreading out till long after- 
wards, so that as the land pleased them they sat down beside one 
another on both sides of the line rather than go back from it. The line was 
prolonged with settlers into Bristol, which was chiefly taken" up by 
Scotchmen. Prominent among these was Mr. Wm. King, educated for the 
law, he, however, did not take^to it, but with a widowed sister, Mrs. Laird, 
and her two children, Mr. James' Laird and MisS Lair ', a very superior 
young woman, came and built a mill on a creek nearly mid-way west- 
ward in Bristol. Being a scientific man and well trained he was of much 
service to the new settlement, an! the Presbyterian congregation I ^re, 
giving a healthy tone to both. The land being goo ', settlers cavne in 
from Beckwith and Ramsey, filling up in a few years- But the line of 
road was continued into Clarendon, lurrtbering preceding occupation of 
lands, and the road being at first that cut to reach the shanty to get in 
provisions for the work, the timber roads crossing this as they led from 
the groves to the river or the creeks that could float it to the O.tawa 
River. Clarendon became a great attraction with its thick covering of 
white pine on its level good lands, and as the laws had not gotabo.c the 
Long Sault they could, as in Israel when they had no King, do what was 
right in their own eyes. Multitudes were driven into it, not so much 
from persecution as t6 enjoy immunity from the iricessent annoyance 
and torture of creditors, whose polite duns became very irritating. There 
were fellows so vicious among these creditors as to nickname the happy 
retreat of these .escaped victims " Rogues Harbour." Inspite of all these 
draw backs the place was not only popular but became populous, so that 

' Clarendon Centre soon became a village. Mr. Shaw kept .store in the 
place and gave it his name, arid it is now Shawville, through which 
runs the Chapleau & Church (now Pontiac) Railway. Still farther west 
Scotchmen flocked from Ramsay, and other parts of the County of 
Lanark to Litchfield, filling it with enterprizing farmers, many of whom 
lumbered and built beautiful houses and made fine farms, raising good 
stock of various kinds. , , , ., 

The Hon. Geo. Bryson & Sons lumbered extensively and built 
Colounge Village on the pretty river of that name, a village whose stpne 
buildings reflect the highest credit on father and sons. Their Presby- 
terian church, of stone, is an attraction and attended by all the com- 
munity. " So good and pleasant is it ibr brethren to dwell together in 



^^ HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEVt 

unity." We can only now outline this march of settlement, but hope to 
return to it, and do it more justice in a fuller extended notice at a future ■; 
day. 

Hull thus became one centre whence the people proceeded to form > i 
other settlements. Mr. Wright got lands for the hands that wrou^Hit for 
him, and they would build a little shanty, brush out and clear a little bit, 
then he got them their patents and when they wished to go clsc\vhcr>; 
he bought them out for a small sum or a little trading, and so became 
-possessed of immense land property, in addition to the i^rants made to 
himself, which were very large. Years elapsed after the young settle- 
ment of Hull was begun before any survey was made in any part of the 
County of Carleton, as it now exists, except one side of Marlboro. 

March was unsurveyed when its first inhabitants took up lands along 
the river bank. General Lloyd and Captains Monk, Edwards. Street, ■ 
Weatherly, Lieut. Reed, fthe Admiral) and his brother James, with Dr. 
Christie, Daniel Beatty and others covered the front of the township on 
the south shore of the river from the line of Torbolton to the line of 
Nepean about 1818. The ist concessions of March and Huntley begin 
on the town line between them. A post was planted in the centre of '' 
lh3 line and one at each side; thirty-three feet from the central post | 
to each side post. Every fiive double lots, fifteen furlongs, a road allowance 
was laid out as wide as a concession andat right angles with it. Settlei's 
came to the front of March about the time the others occupied the river 
bank. Frederick Richardson, Thomas Apres, Thomas Wiggans, George 
Clarke, Thomas Morgan, James Armstrong, Samuel Milford, A. Harper, 
Cassidy, Scarf, Sparrpw, Wilson, Christy, Jamieson, Draper, McMurtroy, V , 
John Armstrong, Killeen, Gardiner, Burkes, Bouchers, Walls, Edge, and 
settled along the south of March. John Sparrow purchased from 
Cassidy. My father bought but Harpeif and Milford in March and 
Roberts and Hyde in Huntley. Anthony Summerville, Jacob and John 
Graham, Hugh McCaughan, Wm. Nesbitt,' Capt. Logan, Robert Duncan 
and Joseph Davis filled in along the 2nd and 3rd concessions. 

Amusing stories were told by these folorn hopes of settlers. John 
Cavahagh cut down a very, large tree then cut a lot of small poles plac- 
ing them with one end on the ground, the other on the great log, slept 
many nights under these poles with his axe on one side and an old 
Queen Bess musket on the other. Such a dormitory could not be long 
used as it was not water-tight and there was not a barrel near that he 
could go into head foremost, like Diogenes, turning its staunch end to 
the weather in defiance of wind and rain. Sergeant Cowie, a little farther 
west, lengthened out his provisions by shooting. They said he never 
plucked duck or partridge, but burned off the feathers as he roasted them 
on the fire of burning brush. 

Mr. Alexander Workman, so long and favourably known, and filling 
so many places of honour and trust in the Capitol, settled on the 4th 
concession 25 and 26. Mr. Workman and his man were chopping, and 
as they took a breathing time they heard the sound of an axe they 
thought away in the distance ; so taking out their compass they started 
to brush and blaze a path to see what they might discover. After some 
time they reached the bank of the Carp and began to cut a tall elm to 
throw across for a bridge. The sound of their axes drew the other man 



ttlStORY OF tut OTTAWA VALLfiV. 23 

to brush and explore, so they met, and it turned out to be Mr, Cowic 
locating on the right or north bank of the Carp a concession below Mr. 
Workman. The latter remained only a fcvv years on the farm, but 
managed to teach a part of that time. He wrote a beautiful hand, and 
would take as much pains in writing to a friend or in keeping his books 
as in setting a copy in the old style to a tichool boy. He narrated some 
peculiar experiences he had in his time on the farm. One was a run, for 
Dr. Christie who could not be procured, being away on another call ; 
when Mr. Workrrian returned the boy was born and all right. John 
Zissca was born in the open field. The name indicates one-eyed, as he had 
lost an eye, but he seldom lost a battle, and when totally blind and guid- 
ed by a horseman on each side chroniclers say he never lost a battle 
when deprived of both eyes. He fell at la'st non tarn victus quam vin 
cendofessus. 

The splendour of the great bay, as well as the beautiful scenery of 
the Ottawa River bank, must have attracted to March the many ^officers 
as well as some civilians in 1818. Captains Cox, Landell and Stevens, 
in addition to those above mentioned, found room on the river front. 
But such large grants of from 800 to 2,000 acres, said to have been given 
Mr. Pinhey, could not be located on the river bank, and they agreed to 
divide the front among them and take the remainder of the gr.incs in 
other places. The survey had not been made, but Mr. John McNaui^h- 
ton and Hugh Falls rere excellent surveyors and genial gentleiricn, v/ho 
managed to arrange suitably to the satisfaction of all, so that from Capt. 
, Landell's at the Torbolton Corner down to the other corner the river ijrLiik 
was parcelled out to the satisfaction of all concerned. 

General Lloyd had no family, but his estate v.^ent to his ncph.cw, 
Mr. Lloyd Smith, who married Mi.ss Monk, now Mrs. McNabb. Anothrr 
sister is Mrs. R. Y. Green, whose late husband enjoyed a very higli place 
in the esteem of the people, was long Reeve of March, and whose sons 
are in the law and other professions in the city. The sons of Capt. 
Monk have been in the law, the army and Parliament, ver^ honourable 
men. Mr. Hamnet Pinhey, an English merchant, some times went as 
super cargo, was, at home on sea or land, He came rich to TiTarch and 
'settled among the army and navy officers, built a grist and saw mill on 
a little creek, and a church at his own cost, as his neighbours, officers of 
high rank, were not overburdened with wealth. The talents, wealth and 
enterprise of Mr. Pinhey were of great service to the young colony, as 
he was private ba'nker to the people before any banking was thought of 
in the new country. He had don6 some gallant service for the British 
Government with his little bark: Dressed as a, Spaniard he sailed 
almojt throtigh the French fleet, delivered his dispatches to the King of 
■ Prussia, and returned undetected and triumphant. Everyone honoured 
him. Gifted and unassuming he was in Parliaihent and the Legislative 
Council of Upper Canada. The lumber was exhausted, the creek dried 
up with the land clearing, the mill became useless, but the church is good 
to this day. Mr. Horace Pinhey, his eldest son, lived and died in the 
% old home. Many immigrants came in empty handed. Mr. Pinkcy sold 
'''" them lands, gave them time to pay, lent them money to purchase or 
took them for debts due him by others, and ^avc plenty of time, which 
was then a great accommodation. His interest was then only six or 



24 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

seven per cent. The writer's tather was often transferred to Mr. Pinhey 
in the many land purchases he made. He wa.^ frequently offered money 
at six per cent, if he wished to speculate, but he would not do so on 
borrowed capital. Mr. Pinhey. wrote all deeds to tliose who came, and 
prescribed for many sick folks till his nephew, Dr. Hill, came to practice 
in March — sometime after Dr. ' Christie left. The usual plan of pur- 
chase among the new comers was to buy at so much, pay an amount 
down and the remainder in yearly payments without interest. 

Dr. Hill married one and 'llr. John Pinhey the other of Mr. 
Pinhey's daughters. Mr. C. H. Pinhey, the late talented lawyer, was the 
youngest. Studious and obliging, he was our old school mate under 
Mr. Wardrope and Mr. Robb;ran a brilliant career at college and ranked 
high as a lawyer all his lifcji 

Several talented and distinguished men prepared for college in that 
old barn like frame building. The late judge, Robt Lyon, Esq., and the 
present judge, William Mosgrove, Esq., both talented, scholarly and in- 
fluential, together with Bakers, Moncks, ' Mallochs, O'Connors, Mc 
Larens, Chestnuts, afterwards Christies, Bishops, Grants, and a whole 
host in the law, medicine and other professions ran brilliant careers in 
the grammar school that had its early beginning in that' old building on 
Sandy Hill. We never meet the survivors of those times but with the 
most cordial greetings. They were manly, warm-hearted, generous and 
most obliging, and well conducted, with scarcely one exception. Many 
of them are gone. The four sons of the late Hon. Thos. McKay are all 
dead. One fell in battle in the east, a young officer so distinguished by his 
general conduct, and so much so in that action, several having fallen by 
his hand ere he was overpowered and dispatched, as to call forth an 
autograph letter from Queen Victoria of condolence to his sorrowing 
mother. The cheerffll, pleasant Joe Stephenson fell from a mast and was 
killed. John McArthur, we have not met since college days, when he 
related an incident worth mentioning. He had passed Bishop Strachan 
without the usual salute, whether in absent mood or not, he did not say, 
but the Bishop reported him to the Professors and he was called to 
answer to the charge. Forturnately for John, there had been a great 
procession of Oddfellows that day and he fell on the plea; that he had 
met so many Oddfellows, that he must have taken the Bishop for one in 
mistake. The plea was admitted; the Bishop himself not being able to 
suppress a smile. So he escaped with the gentle caution to "be more 
careiful." 

Capt. Weatherly sold a portion of his 1,200 acres of land to Mr. 
Didsbery, an English farmer who first imported .=hort horn Durhams and, 
Leicester sheep to March. The writer's father bought of these stocks 
and with some other importations began his improved stockraising. Mr. 
Tames Davidson of Nepean purchased some of the same animals. Mr. 
Didsbery sold the property to Mr. Berry, who started a brewery, and 
whose son, Mr.' W. Berry, carries it on successfully at present. 

Capt. Weatherly was a bachelor, and Tom, a son of Daniel Beatty, 
hired with him as cook, butler, man and companion. Once a hunting 
party called on the Capt-, who held them for lunch, (let the dogs rest) 
and to be sure that all was in order he made a look at the table Tom 
was spreading and says: "Tom, these plates f'on'tlook very shining." 



History oiF the oTtAWA valley. 25 

Tom stammered out with an oath: "Thev were as clean as water could 
make them. "Water" was a very favorite setter the Capt. had. He 
had a man blasting a well on the farm whose solid foundation had not 
much depth of earth. The enterprise was somewhat doubtful, an-l the 
captam made many visits to the work. After a blast on one Decision 
the man had contrived to moisten the dust, and the Captain rushed <iown 
the ladder to see for himself, and touching the damp material applied 
his finger to his tongue saying to the man with an innocent loo:.-, "I 
think It's a salt spring." Wcatherly sold all out afterwards and returned 
to lingland. Capt. Street was very popular in his native Britain a-, well 
as in the land of his adoption to which he did equal honor. Early made 
a J. P., he married many of the aspiring youths that wished to carrv out 
their honest intentions. His son, J. G. Street, was then very youn.^^ and 
his sister, afterwards Mrs. J. B. Lewis, but either the Capt. or the young 
Mr. Street managed to get the first schoolhouse built, at their owr 
expense for the people. Mr. J. G. Street, called Jock when a boy, still 
lives on the old property. One of his daughters, a beautiful girl, is now 
the daughter-in-law of Mr. John Heney. Her mother was the sister of 
R. Y. Green, Esq., very handsome inhertime- Dr. Christie of the navy 
had lands on the first concession of March next to Huntley on the P,..ken- 
hanri road. There is a little cemetery on the place in which they have 
buried for .three generations. This farm lies in a nitch in the spiir of 
hills commanding a splendid view of the country to the south. Jamie 
Clarke, one of the Dr.'s people, called it Glencairn under which name it 
is still known. Here Mr. Thomas A. Christie spent the greater part of 
his short life. Among other excellencies he possessed a commanding 
intellect, a great deal of genius, was very obliging, and greatly beloved. 
In these times when clearings were small the lands yielded the finest of 
crops and the animals grew and multiplied in the woods and beaver 
meadows as they now do in the richest pastures. Sergeant John Arm- 
strong spent some time in Hull, then drew 200 acres on the 3rd line of 
March. A schoolhouse was built on his land, long taught in by Mr. John 
Younghusband. A fine stone house has replaced the old wooden struc- 
ture. Two or three were union schools with Huntley, (supported by 
subscriptions,) one on the Huntley side, two on the March side and oc- 
cupied by Roman Catholic teachers for years, with only two Catholic 
families in their section. No cry then for Separate schools, Headley , 
built a little sawmill on a creek on the third line farther west which 
wrought while the timber and water lasted, then ceased. Mr. Gainsford 
has a steam mill near by. These are all the mills up to date. The fire 
of 1870 consumed these old union schools. Old Mr. Potter made some 
fine scholars in one of. these at Star's Creek. A fine stone house at 
James Watts succeeds another of these union log houses. Col. Burke of 
.Richmond was the first M. P. and also Crown's land agent and afterwards 
Registrar for the county when it was defined. Through him most 
,people got their grants from the government. The Bouchers lived in 
both sides of the township. John Wall, another old soldier, settled to- 
ward the west side of March. His son Tom Wall occupied the place 
after him. George Edge, or as the English called him, Hedge, was 
another of the army and taught school with a well preserved Irish ac- 
cent, ^is place was near the line of Torbolton and was termed Purga- 



z6 HISTORY 6F, the OtTAWA VALLEV. 

tory, it was so difficult to get through a swamp of such interininable 
length without ditch or bridge except a tree over a creek. A Bible 
agent said he had only got half way through Purgatory when he reached 
old age (Edgfe.) Capt. Bradley came from Richmond to the place now 
called March Corners. He traded with Mr. William Erskine giving him 
200 acres in March and ;^40 for lOO in Huntley that had a mill site on it 
which he gave to his son, who built a mill there, so Mr. Erskine, a very 
upright man, became neighbor to the Capt. Mr. Erskine was once 
summoned to court at Perth as a juror but it seemed to him a bootless 
trip as he had got his shoes worn out and was wearing the bare feet. He 
consulted the Capt. "Are you not made a constable," said the Capt.,, 
"Yes but I am not sworn into the office yet." The Capt. being a J: P., put the 
oath, then pulling off his boots, (perhaps his only pair) said : "Here, put 
these on and be off to reach in time; you will be under pay and be able 
to come home in a new pair and bring mine with you." This was like 
the Capt.'s disposition. He was generous, good-hearted and bound to 
be obliging. The clergy had not yet come to these young settlements, 
and the J. P. performed the marriage ceremony when required. The 
Capt. had a great birch tree left growing on the roadside, on which he 
nailed the notice of marriage antedated some weeks but tacked on late 
on Saturday night and he would marry them next day and send them 
away double on their life's journey. 

Mr, Draper had been some time in Nepean but came and settled in 
March. His trade was shoemaking, but he raised seeds and supplied 
,his neighbors around. He had a great family of sons and daughters and 
went with them up the Gatineau and prospered well in that region. 
Anthony Summerville living close by him had purchal-ed a wooden 
clock when they were first offered for sale with which he was very much 
pleased. He told them "when it comes to one she strikes one," and 
running over the whole figures wound up by saying "she never .strikes 
half a blow more or less than the exact thing." He was building a 
piece of wall for Mr. Pinhey to land his little boats at. Mr. Pinhey 
came down to look at it and being full of humor observing, hat it was 
somewhat uneven said to his son„ "Horace run up for the piumb, till we 
plumb it." "Plumb it, plumb it, plumb the debble, sir," said Tony, had I 
thought you were going to plumb it, sure I could have built it as fair as 
a." Here Mr. Pinhn- was convulsed with laughter and the last part of 
the sentence evaporate i into thin air. 

The Conleys came;, some of them lumberers; Rays, Scarfs, Savages, 
Davis', Gainsfords; Burkes, Kelleys, McMurtrays; some of whose sons are 
mechanics, merchants, doctors, successful in various occupations, but a 
lar^e proportion are still farmers. Most of all these came in between 
1818 and 1826. Forest Cauldwel sold to Thomas Morgan close "^y him 
and purchased from Lieut Campbell, 3rd line Huntley, lot 21; Canipbell 
going up to Litchfield and giving the name to Campbell's Bay, that 
pretty sheet of water lying between the island and the north shore of 
the Ottawa. His large family of sons and daughters are residing there still 
on the line of Pontiac R. R. John Jones, eldest of the family, a very ac- 
tive worker in the lumber, was returning from Quebec and the boat 
taking fire near Three Rivers, threw out his trmk and leaped after it, 
and tnough a fine swimmer, was drowned. TLe fi.mily went west. The 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. ^y 

Presbyterians in March have no church but go to the Carp, Stittsville 
and Bell's Garners. The EpiscofJalians have a stone church and parson- 
age east of the Corners which is a stirring embryo village. The lands 
are well cultivated. 

Mr. Pinhey was school inspector for some years, when these institu- 
tions were established on a very limited base, and very far apart in the 
Bathurst district. He made the tour on horseback, 'the roads admitting 
of no other mode of travel except on foot, which was much more com- 
mon._ , He would .dismount at tlie schoolhouse, and with the bridle rein 
on his arm, place a hand on each side of the doorframe, the horse looking 
in as if to examine the furnishings, to the great enjoyment of the young 
folks, who seldoni saw a horse in that early time. The gentleman would 
ask a little boy how to spell a word , of one syllable to which, the little 
man would address himself with energy, but his eyes fixed on the horse. 
After a short standing examination he would dismiss them with a benign- 
ant smile and very gracious words of which he had an abundant treasury 
at easy,, ready corhmand. He was a free, voluminous correspondent of 
the papers when printing was introduced. Afterwards when we occu- 
pied the wool sack of the editorial office we had many interesting com- 
munications from his nimble pen in the Aylmer Times. Teachers' quali- 
fications were not high in that period of our history. Mr. Pinhey .re- 
ported cases as samples to the early press like the following : A short 
engaging conversation was held, then the aspirant was asked to spell 
cabbage. He began, chabb-^ that will do, sir. I am very much in want 
of a gardener. Could you not stay and help me instead of going into 
that dreary work of teaching ?" Oh, sir, I can get £2^ a year and go 
around with the scholars." That was like the times. Teachers preferred 
that to farm work, the wages being about the same. They sent me to 
several schools but the honest teacher wrote my father a note stating 
that the boy would lose his time with him. So the boy had to dig away 
at home among the roots, square and cube, and from early dawn to 
breakfast commit to memory Murray's large grammer. 

Mr. Pinhey on the hustings when opposing Capt. Lyon represented 
himself as the Lamb, and his tovimsmen sometimes called him that and 
Paddy Whelan called him the Hon. Lamb. His hardest hit against 
Capt. Baker, vvho half unwillingly opposed him, was that he, the Capt., 
would make a good weathercock but he changed too fast for the wind. 
Elections then lasted a week, there being but one polling place in the 
county. Open house was kept for the entertainment of the free and 
independent electors,' and they were not dry places, not from any de- 
fect in shingles or scoops but irrespective of the natural rainfalls, the 
clear rimnihg sraoth branch of the Carp, and the sparkling water of W. 
Kemp's deep well. The fluids were conveyed in puncheons and huge 
barrels. Same of the thirsty ones termed it divine juice. One poor 
man had-promised against tasting it for some months. His ingenious 
neighbor found a way to avoid the breach of promise. The man had 
got a small loaf for one or two with him to dine on, so this friend made 
him break off what he required and poured into it from the bottle. 
"Now eat that," said>e. They understood it as only eating, not drink- 
ing by any . means. The bread, beef and cheese, with various kinds of 



28 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLeV. 

drinks, for a week's entertainment of so many voters and camp follower^, 
must have been of some moment in a financial point of view. 

After gaining one of these elections, Mr. Pinhey indulged in some 
poetical descriptions of the rare occurrences at the place of polling. We 
give from memory a couple of lines as a sample of the fun in such cases : 

"Thom Acres, as cunninj ab any pet fox, 
The bread and the cheese he locked up in a box." 

In after times when he was warden of the county he would sit and enjoy 
the debates, sometimes throwing in a word gleefully to supplement or 
balance the opposing parties, or restore good humor if irritation had ap- 
peared. We recollect at the first formation of the council of the county 
of Carleton, they had agreed to have a district surveyor Then the 
question of his salary was discussed. Some would borrow the $700 and 
pay in advance, others thought it should be earned first. The friends of 
the surveyor then fell on six months pay in advance. The mover dwelt 
on the fact that the surveyor could not live six months on the air. The 
seconder also in an eloquent speech said he could not live six months on 
nothing. The warden said he never knew a man that had or could live 
six months on the wind and thought they would all agree that no man 
eould live six months on rfothing. But he had known many a man that 
had lived well six or more months on credit. The motion was dropped. 
The history of Mr. Pinhey's life would be the history of his township, 
and county, and the whole valley, as he was a very great actor in all the 
movements of note during his busy life. Col. afterwards General Lloyd, 
Col. Edwards, Capt. Logan and others lived in quiet retirement on their 
farms and half pay otium cum dignitate, taking little to do with municipal 
or school affairs or anything but to finish a green old age in the peace 
and comforts of rural and religious seclusion from all the rush and con- 
flict in the busy world. The north of March like the south of Huntley 
and much land on both banks of the St. Lawrence has a very thin soil 
on the rock foundation, adorned with wild roses, orange lilies, blue- 
berries and shrubs in multitude, all so beautiful in their season. North 
Huntley and South March form the Carp valley of rich lands well culti- 
vated as any part of the Dominion. The Ottawa & Parry Sound R. R. 
runs through this valley. 

About i8i8 or 1819 the first settlers of the Huntley side of the valley 
were John Scott, William Erskine and WHliam Montgomery. The last 
cut the first tree. Their lands were soon the property of Lieut. Sans 
Bradley who built the little mill so long used there. John Cavanaugh 
came in 18 19, William Mooney in that or the following year. The first 
located on the 3rd line, the second on the 4th line. The Stars, James 
and George, came from Hull about the same year and Moses Wilson 
from Cavan, Ireland. George and Thomas Graham from North of Ire- 
land held lots 5 and 6, 1st concession Huntley. Evans, an Engli/hman, 
drew lot 9, which he sold to Afthur McEldowney. Thomas Ro!.ierts, a 
Welshman, had lot 10, which he sold to John Gourlay. James Morin, 
James H^olmes, SamuelHyde; the latter sold throiajgh Col. Ahern to John 
Gourlay. Richard Rivington sold to Pearson. David Mofifet.Jas. Hays and 
Michael Rivington filled up to the rock spur wherejthe land i.s wortiiicss. 
j Sergent Cowie settled west of the Carp village and'tsold to Robert Wil- 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VA' LEV, • 29 

son, whose numerous sons arc well established farmers around. One of 
them, Thomas, took to the tanning business, was very prosperous and 
is rich beyond most of his neighbors. His wife was a Miss Alexander. 
His family are all daughters that survived. Alexander Workman set- 
tled pro. tern, in West Huntley south of the Carp in'1820. A man the 
name of Cobourn wrought for him and his wife kept the house. One 
day she was taken ill. Mr. Workman came for Dr. Christie who was on 
a sick call in another quarter and Mr. Cobourn for woman help but be- 
fore any returned the boy was born and all well. Mr. Workman spoke 
of it as the hardest run of his life.. The Hodgins, Dornins, Argues, Alex- 
anders, Lowrys, Johnstons, Larretts, McEwaris, McKords, Hamiltons, 
WiUiams, Wiltons, Hustons, Kennedy's, Daleys, Irvins, Hogan.s, Gra- 
hams, all came in between 18 18 and 1824. Thomas Murdy and John 
Mannion came in 1825 and settled well up toward the south of the 
township on the 9th line. Hon Peter Robinson took interest in forming 
a settlenient and procured a lot for a church which the Catholics built 
after the canal work was finished. The next was an Episcopal church 
built by Mr. Alex Christie, stones furnished by W. B. Bradley from the 
quarry of R. Taylor. 

The Episcopal M-ethodist church at Booth's was the next built and 
the Presbyterian we.st of the Episcopal, and was consumed in the fire of 
1870. its successor is at the Carp village. Its succession of preachers 
was Bennet, Penman and McLaren. The village has three churches and 
a good school. It is a fine centre; stores, railroad station, mechanic's 
shops, post office, agricultural fair grounds and buildings in good con- 
dition. A. Workman was the first teacher in Huntley. The first school- 
house was at Mooney's where James Lpwry, a gentleman and scholar, 
as well as a superior teacher, long held sway. He married Miss Sally 
Ronan of Goulbourn, the belle of that age and the finest horsewoman 
then in the county. Recently in our rambles for information we had 
the pleasure of dining with her family. The conversation turned on 
Motley's "Rise of the Dutch Republic." It was an hour of entertainment. 
The acquaintance shown with that history, and especially by the eldest 
daughter, was highly creditable and particularly pleasing. History read 
to purpose must enrich the conversation. Should knowledge not be in- 
haled with every breath and diffused by every utterance ? The second 
schoolhouse was on lot No. 6, 3rd line, taught by Mr.. Johnston ■ with 
force of character. We visited it for two days when a very small boy. 
It is replaced by a stone building at Mulligan's. Mr. Reid had a post 
ofifice in March and Mr. Hopper one in Huntley in connection with his 
store and jewellery business. This was removed farther east and kept 
by Mr. John Graham for many year^, then it was located about midway 
between these two places where it now is. A post office Was established 
at the Carp village and another at the Fitzroy line and one in South 
March. Mails were only weekly for many years. Then they got to 
be carried tri-weekly, now they are daily delivered. March and Hunt- 
ley were associated for legal and ecclesiastical purposes for a long time. 
Rev. James Padfield, a very excellent man, was Church of England 
■ minister at first. He was .succeeded by Rev. John Johnston, afterwards 
Canon Johnston of Hull, ve^fy favorably known. Mr. Harper, Mr. Kerr, 
' Mr. Rolph and Mr. Butlea followed in March, and Mr. Godfry, Mr. Mc- 



30 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Morin, Dr. Codd in Huntley. Father Peter Smith of Richmond supplied 
back Huntley. East side of Huntley has much u.seless land, hard and 
thin covered with birch pines and swamps with no outlet. But its north- 
east corner can be matched with difficulty as to the excellent quality of 
the soil for thousands of acres. , 

The Grahams, Wilsons, Blacks, Burrows, Roes, Boyds, Hartrns, 
Daileys, Evoys have land in plenty of the best quality and in the highest 
state of cultivation. North of the town line opposite thes& the Richard-' 
sons, Robertsons, McCurdies, James and others exhibit fine buildings,^ 
well cultivated fields, large herds of improved stock of much value. We ' 
have recommended tree planting for the lighter soils. In former days 
when the country was covered with forests, the wild pigeon came thick 
as clouds in the spring and summer, rendering the air vocal with the ac- 
tion of their wings. Tliey were shot in great numbers. We have 
heard of fifty-two falling by one musket shot. We have not seen nor 
heard of a single one appearing in these parts for several years. Wild 
ducks and geese still come but in greatly diminished numbers. Par- 
tridges arc thinned out very much and rabbits are very rare. ' Deer and 
fur-bearing animals that were plenty are nearly all gone. Wolves were 
very numerous Sheep, deer, calves and some heifers became their vic- 
tims. Bears took pigs and calves. But we have not heard of wolves 
devouring human beings. It is told of an Indian belated who climbed 
into a beech tree to escape a pack and made it his shooting gallery for 
the night. As a wolf fell to his careful aim the others feasted on it whilst 
the Indian fired away. When daylight came the remnant disappeared 
and he thought he was safe to get home but his former visitors or a 
fresh lot were soon on his track in hot pursuit. He ran like an Indian 
butth";y gained on him and he had to stand at bay and defend himself 
as best he could occasionally with his back to the tree, splitting a skull 
with his sharp tomahawk. His squaw came to his aid in time. They 
cut, clubbed and made their escape reckoning twenty dead wolves as 
the trophies of their bravery. 

Savages are said to be truthful, being so free from the vices of po- 
lite life. Would they not stretch a little for self-glorification ? We give 
the substance of what wc have heard without denial, coloring or confir- 
mation. We had the honor, so called, of killing a wolf by laying poison 
on a sheep he killed, which he took and died. We had the great pleas- 
ure of saving a boy whose load of ashes had been upset on him on a 
hillside. His horses were held and his face was in the snow so that he 
did not suffocate by the dry ashes. My young brothers came up as the 
ashes were dashed off him- We thought him dead and carried him tp 
the sleigh and held his head in m)' lap whilst one drove and another put 
enow in his mouth. His breathing became perceptible as we drove the 
team at a gallop. We were soon at his home and had the satisfaction 
of seeing him restored. We wtre barely in time to save life. 

John Graham of the Bay got the north half of Sans Bradley's lands., 
James his son, died there and his family now live in the city. In 1833 
J )hn Gourlay came from Drumquin, Tyrone, Ireland, and settled in 
:\[ u'ch. His youngest son Hugh owns the old home, but lives in Hunt- 
ley where he built the finest farm house and planted the largest and 
most thriving orchard in all the Ottawa country. The other brother 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 31 

Williiam occupies the old Roberts farm to whirh he has added some 
more at a high price and has the whole in a fine state of cultivation. On 
this farm he has bred Durham cattle pure and unmixed, for about forty 
years. John Pearson, whose sons are dentists and lawyers and farmers, 
popular and successful men, holds these many years, the Richard Re- 
mington farm. 

The people of South March in those early times had no church 
building but were obliged to walk to the 3rd line of Hun' ley to worship 
and hear an occasional discourse from a Wesleyan preacher who em- 
braced it in the long rounds of a great circuit. When old enough to w ilk 
to these meetings we remember hearing some old men remark specially 
bf a young McDowell, that he was "no cripple." My father, a good old 
Presbyterian of the straightest sect, kept open house and entertained 
these laborers in the Gospel field, the Nankievilles, Loverns and others. 
In after years a Presbytery meeting was held in his house to examine 
Mr. James Smith for license. Quarterly meetings were sometimes held 
in a schoolhouse in a grove on one of his farms. He sometimes ques 
tioned us after the collection was announced and before we could reach 
home what each gave, which summed up, was over half the amount. 
He was dissatisfied with these collections wondering how the preachers 
kept soul and body together on such allowances. He had lurking sus- 
picions from ample reasonings with the Methodists that they" laid a 
little stress' on their good works whjch he maintained did not abotmd in 
liberal contributions. The Dominion Government legislate for eight hours 
as a working day but set an example themselves of working a hundred 
and twenty-nine hours at a stretch on the Separate School Coercion Bill. 
But these people did not overstretch their pretentions in piety by putting 
in the collection hat taken round in the schoolhouse or in the grove.' 

My parents were very anxious to stir up and collect into a congre- 
gation the scattered Presbyterians in March and Huntley. The under- 
taking was neither an easy task nor very successful. Mr. Hugh Falls, a 
surveyor, a man of education, a Presbyterian from near Londonderry, 
Ireland, assisted much in the Scripture readings and sermon reading, in 
the meetings held for prayer and . religious exercises from house to 
house over the settlement. They made appointments and kept up 
the.se for years. Meantime a process of training was going on in the 
family. Readings were to be done by the boys, the eldest superintend- 
ing the exercises, so that nothing was omitted or neglected. Examina- 
tions were held on the lessons and in this manner the leading truths of 
religion were impressed on the minds of the growing up boys. The 
truths concerning the Supreme Being; His unity, Trinity, spirituality. 
wisdom, love, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth. His eternity, 
omnipresence, government (or Providence} over jail His creatures, their 
movemerxts and thoughts, influenced, controlled, guided or prevented 
. in His ruling the works of His creation. One primary le.sson engraved 
on the minds of the youths was reverence for the Holy Name of the 
Deity. Another was the strictest truthfullness. Boys in youth are not 
perfect. Faults will be found and must be corrected. But the truth 
must be told without any hiding or even coloring of the circumstances,' 
or punishment proportionately severe would follow, to avoid which, as- 
sisted materially till the principle of truth telling formed a habit in the 



32 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

tnin^i. H-onesfg^k their little trading with one another was strongly en- 
ft>rcei aad their fea^ains must stand unless the other party willingly 
consented to g^ve up his claim. Our good mother's influence was en- 

' tirely against the use ©f alcohol and though it was kept as an entertain- 
ment for caBers it was soon omitted from the family groceries. Not a 
pipe was kept in the house. Our mother would not suffer one of us to 
mimic any oddity in any human being. Had the mother of "Ian Mc- 
Laren" (Rev. Watson) observed this principle, that religious buffoon 
would have furnished fewer subjects for laughter and ridicule, to his 
readers and treated with less profanity sacred themes, as well as the 
feelings of the less educated w'hose sincere hearts may be as priceless in 
the sight of God as his own heart, that can treat them with irreligious 
frivolity. But like Josh Billings by his bad spelling he has furnished, re- 
ligious fun and made a fortune and a great name. When the clergy 
like McDonald and Watson become novel writers, religion must be in want 
of a revival. The Bathurst Presbytery sent a minister to visit and preach 
on week days in school or private houses, and though they were flying and 
as they say, angelic, yet they were very highly esteemed and well ' at- 
tended. Mr. Bell, the oldest minister of Perth, Mr. Fairbairn of Ram- 
say, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Mann afterwards Dr. Mann of Pakenham, were the 
principle visitors of Huntley. 

Cousin Thomas Alexander was the only male member of these 

meetings that could "lead the singing." In his absence my mother. 

Mrs. William Alexander came to the place soon after these meetings 

began and she was a great assistance having a fine voice. The twenty- 

, four tune book was very interesting to us boys at that time with its illum- 
inations and birds painted in water colors. At this date everything was 
crude. The tools furnished by the Government were unwieldy com- 
pared with those of'the present day. Wheat, corn, oats and potatoes 
were the staple crops raised and almost the whole planting was done 
with the hoe. Mr. Thomas Morgan and his wife Mary used to tell how 
on the 4th and 5th of June they hoed in a bushel of wheat and threshed 
42 bushels off it This was enough for .a year's provisions and seed the 
following spring. This was grown on Lot 5, 1st concession March. Mrs. 
Morgan was greatly delighted to receive visits from the children around. 
She made very popular readings, recitation of poetry, setting the ex- 
ample herself She had early memorized large portions of Pope's 
"Homer" and Dryden's "Virgil." She recited these in fragments and 
scraps to draw out the young peoi-le so that everyone had to say his 

Eiece in prose or ,verse, tell some story historical, oratorical, whatever 
e was master of, to even pass muster on such an evening. Being from 
the south of Ireland, she was not acquainted with Burns, but we from 
the north supplied that lack which afforded her very unbounded pleasure 
as she loved the ludicrous. 

A very imperfect idea can now be .formed of the country in its phy- 
sical appearance dotted with specks of clearings, paths blazed from one 
to another, a single tree for a bridge or two poles together across the 
Kttle stream in the vast forests and swamps all but impassible. The toil 
of making a livhig was immense. There was anxiety lest frost should 
destroy the wheat and potatoes like there is now in Manitoba and the 
Morthwest. Anxiety was felt lest the crop should not be adequate to 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. ^ 

feed the parties depending on it ftjr.the year and whei? there was a fail- 
ure prices ran very high. Once or twice in the memory of some yet 
hving flour was $i6 and even $20 per barrel. PoA varied greatly m 
price, sometimes brinsing $40 a barrcL Otiber articles of provision 
brought much like present prices. Good foctory cotton cost »5 cents a 
yard and woollen j^oods were high whilst butter for k>»g years was sold 
at sixpence a poui.d. Beef quartees sold at thtee to fo«M- dollars a cwt, 
but stall-fed sometinies brought she to seven dollars Hve weight. 

The settlements were diiefly formed of people ft<«>m the British 
Isles, but they were greatly benefitted by tlie ex:»erienceof t4»e Yankees 
as the U. E. L. were called, who brought with them the knowledge ac- 
quired in the States, a country once a forest like that to which they 
came, but a century older. These people commanded respect for their 
shrewdness and competency in almost every department of lumbering, 
stockraising and agriculture. Pines, oaks, elms and ash grew on every 
rock, hillside or valley, and lumbering was the natural cabling of almost 
every man. The river banks were firit stripped as the pieces could be 
laid on the ice or bank by oxen. These could live in tbe bush in sum- 
mer, and on beaver hay, brush and sheaf oats in winter, and after draw- 
ing timber in the snow would be ready for the work of the small clear- 
ing in spring. Everything required for their work could be made of 
wood except the chain, staple and ring- Even the plow only required 
an iron point, and the cattle eo«ld go so close as to pass one on each 
side of the stump turning the laaul to the roots. The harrow, as late as 
our time, was often a tree fork, ami sometimes oj^k or elm pins supplied 
the place of iron or steel. An oak block was sawed off, split and formed 
into a mould board with its natural twist suiting exactly. Among the 
stumps and on stony land the oxen were preferred. They were famous 
for logging. Canadian ponies came afterwards to be used but they re- 
quired a man exclusively to handle the chain, and keep the traces in 
ofder in their turnings. 

At that tinie a good acre of new land would yield 40 bushels of 
wheat, 60 bushels of com or oats, 400 bushels of potatoes. The new 
burned land with its surface well broken with the drag would bear, sown 
broadcast, 1,000 bushels of tnrnips. Immense crops of timothy and 
clover hay were raised on that virgin soil. About the summer of 1835 
wc received a visit from the Rev. James B. Cairns, M. D. He was a 
man of, piety and marked devotion to the Presbyterian cause and was 
nxcivcli by my- father and mother with pleasure, nay delight and joy. 
.A Mv. Glen had been at the embryo village of Richmond some y»ars 
before this, but remained only a short while, but we never saw hitn d"f 
■ing his slay, except a few visits he made to Torbolton halting at Mr 
^lenry McBride's where he would gather a half dozen and'speaktothem. 
He never came irsto the region where we lived, he was before our time- 
Dr. Cairns preached and made some visits with my father, and arranged 
to preach again when they had had time to see what could be sub- 
scribed in order to have him stay, but the amount was small as tti^ 
people were few, scattered and not rich. He made a short stay in Tor. 
bolton where were a few gcQtch families, uut his missionary turii of mind 
led him to travel over most of the new settlenie:nts of the couniry, .find-' 
ing out nearly all the families of the Presbyterian name an'J lineage. On 



34 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

his return to Scotland and Ireland, he could tell to the delight of the 
astonished listeners, of almost all their distant relatives, and where they 
lived, and how theiy fared in this new world. He gave a great impulse 
to emigration, but he was not in the pay of the Government. 

Dr. Cairns was a great advocate of temperance and magnified his 
office on every possible occasion. He returned again to Canada and 
roamed round giving the accounts of his travels and visits, and causing 
considerable enjoyment to many by the freshest news from the old 
country relatives. An old lady in Torbolton was reported to hina as 
being fond of ale. On his visit he inquired if she still continued to use 
it; learning that she did, he made an early call, knocking before she was 
up. At this early unexpected knock she sprang up and in loose attire 
opened the door a few inches, and as it were with a single eye surveyed 

the Dr. who at once said, "You are Mrs. and I hear you always 

stick to your ale." "Aye, ye'l be that daft body they ca Dr. Caims ?" 
"Yes my name is Cairns." "Aye, aye, well awa' -wf ye then;" and 
closing the door she left the doctor to ruminate on his signal defeat and 
disappointment. A short time after I entered college at Toronto the 
Dr. came to the city and found I was there and hastening to see me 
asked if I was from March, reminding me of his visits and explorations. 
It was a very kind and friendly call and much and mutually enjoyed. 

Reuben Sherwood had the contract of the survey of Torbolton but 
the work was done by John McNaughton the great friend of Hugh 
Falls. In our early recollections these were our only surveyors for many 
years in these parts, both good and true men. The concessions and side 
lines in these townships wrere 66 ft wide. The plan was to plant a post 
in the centre of the road and one on each side 33 feet from it. These 
were the corner posts. Then 120 rods from these three more posts 
were driven into the ground dividing the first double lot of 200 acres 
frbm the next, and so it proceeded throughout. Any one could run a 
line dividing one double lot from another by setting up two pickets 
carefully at these posts, your pickets in a straight line from these must 
reach the Other posts, if the posts are correctly put in the earth- In 
halving a double lot you must chain across from post to post and plant 
your picket in the center. The form of Torbolton is almost triangular 
lying west of March on the south shore or right bank of the Ottawa 
river. It contains nearly 26,000 acres, a couple of thousand less than 
March, a gore like it. The side along the river is very irregular from 
the indentation of so many little bays. A French Canadian got a shanty 
on a point near the mouth of the Constance Creek, where he hunted and 
fished, and sang, and sold whiskey to- the raftsmen in summer and the 
teamsters in winter; but he could not be said to be a pioneer inhabitant 
or settler. He sailed up his canoe and stopped there, cultivating no 
land, following no trade, but with fish spear and hook and traps for the 
fur-bearers and grog he kept up there a while, and then disappeared 
leaving his ghost of a habitation sitting on the sand dry and deserted a 
desolated skeleton. Such shadows of humanity count for nothing in the 
history of any country. 

It appears to us that the first settler was a Mr. McLaren, brother of 
Mr. David McLaren who came here afterwards from Richmond. This 
Mr. McLaren had gone in his canoe to the post office to mail a letter to 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 5^ 

his mother in Scotland, and coming home with some provisions upset 
h"is canoe or fell out in some way and was drowned. A son of David 
McLaren's was also drowned in connection with lurnbering. Both bod- 
ies were found and buried. The writer in the Atlas speaks of the Brit- 
ish government granting 400 acres to a Rev. Mr. G en inTorbolton, but 
says land grants had ceased before any settlers can.e tothe place. Also 
he says Mr. Buckham met Mr. Glen in Richmond as they were about 
their claims. Mr. Buckham invited or took him to Torbblton, but as he 
lived only two years after, we have not heard that he located in Torbol- 
ton or secured the title to his lands. We have seen Mr. Buckham and 
were well acquainted with his son, the late John Buckham, a man of 
good repute, well known as a public man, and very much respected. 
Captain Baird came into the township two or three days before Mr. J. 
Buckham. The first came on Saturday and the other the' Monday 
following in the beginning of May 1824. These have claimed to be the 
first settlers who took theii: lands. ' Mr. Buckham bought 200 acres for 
$40 or ;^io. (H.C.) This was the first purchase. The Captain and two 
naval officers, the brothers Grierson, had the right to draw their lands 
for service in the navy. David McLaren came from Richmond to Tor- 
bolton, we suppose to his brother's place or near it He had been a 
merchant in the hardware in Glasgow, a man of refinement and some 
education. He managed his farm and taught school. Then, he was a 
man of thought and "became very usefulto his township in municipal 
affairs. He loved truth and uprightness. He was an eminent christian 
whose good opinion we esteemed more highly than that of most men, 
and he had the honesty to express it without hesitation when necessity 
called for it. He had read the Scriptures to purpose. His views were 
clear on salvation by grace, and the impossibility of salvation 'by the 
works of fallen man, the' redemption of the soul by the sacrifice of the 
Saviour and the renovation of the heart by the power of the Holy Spirit 
eniploying the Word of Truth as the instrumental cause, and the con- 
tinual perseverance of the renewed man in the ways of righteousness,' in 
the language of Sacred Scripture : "Grace reigning" royally; sovereignly 
"through righteousness to eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord." We 
conversed with him-frequently, enjoyed his friendship which we valued, 
and were persuaded that he *vas a man of the soundest mind in the 
whole comrnunity. It is a favor to be in a position to bear our testi- 
mony to his eminent parts, poHshed manners and his many good quali- 
ties. He' did not die so wealthy as some of his sons after him, but none 
were more respected than he. 

John McLaren, his eldest son, brought home gold, after a short but 
successful career in Australia. After, his return he married a wife 'pf 
great merit, a daughter of Captain Baird. He was very enterprising. 
He told us in some friendly visits, of his exploration in the forest between 
Kingston and Pembroke,, climbing trees, on some of the highest hilltops 
to get a view of the surroundings. He was hoping to find a mill site 
but nothing eligible appeared. He would have made the way out to 
market if a suitable site had existed with lumber to cqt. His early de- 
mise was a great loss to his family and country. We shall have occa- 
sion to speak of James in another connection. David is a merchant at 
Fitzroy Harbor doing very well for the place and the surroundings. 



3f» "IISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

William was our school and college friend, a careful student, an able 
and sound divine, now Dr. McLaren, Professor of Systematic Theology, 
in Knox College, Toronto. His wife is a sister of Dr. John Laing, a 
sound and able minister of the Gospel: One of their sons is a preacher 
in Eastern Ontario. One daughter is Mrs. Mowat, daughter-in-law of 
Sir Oliver Mowat, Premier, long honored in Ontario. Rev. Alexander 
McLaren is another son residing now in Hamilton, a genial, generous- 
hearted, and also a sound divine. Professor McLaren is at times orig- 
inal in the treatment of his subjects, but there is nothing shadowy in his 
ideas, but sound in judgment, an excellent authority, and a trustworthy 
Christian gentleman, whom we wish God speed, the greatest measure of 
success in his great work of training young men for the grandest em- 
ployment under the sun. As we cherished the be.st wishes for the hap- 
piness of the good father and mother, we entertain. the same for the off- 
spring with the utmost cordiality. 

The settlement of Torbolton was slow. Walton Slack, Robdrt Glen. 
John McMurtray and others occupied the east side of the Constance 
outlet at an early stage. The Slacks were a numerous family spread 
over the place. Mr. Rolston followed, married a Miss Little ii Huntley, 
got land in Torbolton and raised a numerous family of sons and daugh- 
ters. Some of these do business now in Osgoode. One daughter mar- 
ried Mr. Robert Pink of Hull They have done very well in Osgoode. 
Mr. John Smitjh, educated for the law, settled in this township at an 
early date, married Miss Ferguson of Fitzroy. Their eldest daughter 
married Dr. Hcnder-son. A son is salesman for the Bronsons in the 
lumber bu.sincss. We had a great regard for Mr. Smith as a superior 
man. He took much interest in the township and county councils, but 
was shortlived. Mrs. Smith and family reside in the city. 

Messrs. Headly and Weir settled back from the river which was 
inconvenient, as they had to carry wheat to the river where they could 
borrow a canoe, and go to mill at Mr. Pinhey's or LeBretain's at the Des- 
chenes now Britannia: then return and carry the flour home with store 
goods. Or they could fall on the other alternative of carrying it to 
Richmond, and afterv '>ls Sheriff's at the Chats, or Landons on the loth 
line at Carp. Th<'rc is a tradition of Mrs. Weir when her husband was 
from home, taking her two children to go in search, of a lost cow, but 
losing her way in the v/oods. She was crossing a creek on an old. log 
and putting the children before her they got over whilst the rotten bark 
gave way under her feet and she slid into the creek striking her head on 
the log. The water was not deep enough to drown, only sufficient to 
soak her clothes. She could not tell how long she lay unconscious, but 
waking up found the little ones amusing themselves on the bank among 
the leaves. Night coming on .she tied some rods together at the top, 
winding in what sticks she could gather as a place for them to sleep, 
which they did whilst she watched lest wolves should come on them. 
She heard, or fancied she heard them, but they did not come, and the 
next day her husband found her and they reached home, all anxieties 
greatly relieved. Andrew and William Hawley came in among the 
early ones and located on the sand hills. William married Miss Buck- 
ham. He was drowned soon after and his yvidow married Robert Bell, 
editor; surveyor afterwards, and M. P. for Russell. 



SiStbRV Of tilt 6tf aVvA VAttfiV* . if 

Gibsons, Richards, Munroes, Aldridges, Penneys, Youngs, Floods, 
i Shouldices, Taylors, Ross, Dolans, McDoncll's, Capells, Keegans, all 
settled in between 1824 and 1840. Some attempt to account for the 
tardy settlement of the township, because some lands were drawn by 
officers and held at a high price, but the people were not forthcoming, 
or able to buy lands at almost any price. After the flying visits of Mr. 
Glen and Dr. Cairns they were some years without any. Then Mr. 
Henderson, a U. P. from Scotland was the first settled among them, 
who with Rev. William Atkins of Sniith's Falls, formed a U. P. Presby- 
tery. This would be about 1847 or i'?48. We had then three Presby- 
teries on the same ground. The (U. P.) United Presbyterian, the Free 
• Church, Perth- and the "Kirk" Bathurst. The three met in Bylown al- 
most unconscious of one another's existence at the time and place. Rev. 
Mr. Henderson seems to have had an eye single to thje interests of the 
church but he did not remain long There was a lengthy interrcgnvm 
after his departure, during which time Fitzroy and Torbollon were 
struck with a revival. Mr, James Gabie, a young convert, and Rev. 
Mr. Vanderburgh, a middle-aged preacher, began the work in that quar- 
ter with great enthusiasm. John Baird said you could hear them pray 
an English mile away. The excitement grew and intensified creating 
a great noise at the time. Religion is the one thing needful, and the 
one thing fallen men dislike, nearly as much as they lo^ e its antPgonist 
sin. When a stir is got up, mati) are willing to hope for the best from 
such Herculean effprts as are som.etimes put forth for it. Some fancied 
themselves possessed with demons, or at least attacked by them. Mr. 
Watts, an old elder, told me of some cases, but we said, you do not be- 
lieve in .such possession now ? 'Oh, yes 1 do, but it was a lazy devil." 

The pious Presbytery of Ottawa were greatly stirred by the news 
and sent Rev. John McEwan to assist, investigate and report. He re- 
turned and made a fine report which was well received and engrossed in 
the Fresbytery Records. But he could only judge Irom appearances 
which were often deceitful and disappear leaving not a vestige behind 
them. The excitement died our, the fiery billows cooled down and the 
waters sought and soon found their dead level again. The last slate of 
some was no better than the first The preachers having left, Mr. Gabic 
went up the Gatineau, lost his ballast and was found dead, by a pistol 
shot whether by accident or not we can not tell. Vanderburgh left for 
the States with a pretty girl, his wife being old and less attractive than 
the other. We have heard that she is yet alive, but of him or the young 
lady we know nothing. The United Presbyterian Church and the Free 
Church in Canada became one in the city of Montreal. The excitement 
in Fitzroy. and Torbolton was about forgotten, when Rev. James Taite 
became pastor in Mr. Henderson's old field. Mr. Tait was a student of 
Knox College, Toronto, a talented theolbgian, a keen metaphj'sician and 
a sharp business man. His wife was from Montreal and took a long 
time to acclimatise at the Chats, at kast we thought so,from a visit made 
to our college mate after his marriage. He took well for some time but 
he was rich, independent, and could retire without burdening the church. 
He was not a higher critic, but an acur.e one. V/c offer a sample. The 
: Presbytery of Perth opened with a sermon generally by the retiring 
moderator, or someone ai-ipointed to take his place. They were often good 



3d HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEV i 

discourses. The Presbytery of Ottawa dispenses with all that now, and 
much else then observed and deemed right. (It is strange that they 
have not nominated Ian McLaren to one of the vacant chairs in Knox.) 
At this meeting Mr. Tait came in late, the sermon had made progress, 
he dropped into a seat we happened to occupy, gave attention for a 
while, then said in a whisper : "He has developed his voice very well." 
We nodded assent. "He has developed his stomach," the gentleman 
was becoming rather corpulent. After another lengthy paupe, "If he 
has developed his understanding as he has his voice and stomach, he is 
an able man;" all of course in low whispers. The last tinie we saw him 
he did not seem to observe us. He was armed for duck or deer shoot- 
ing, evidently bent on a raid upon the inferior portion of creation.^ 
Since his time Torbolton Presbyterians have not been very well supplied 
with preachers, .being vacant for long periods. Some, of the young men 
of Torbolton inform us that there is a degeneracy from the high quali- 
ties of the old pioneers. 

Have they not bone, muscle and brain enough for development? 
What they require is steady training, wliir'h is so largely in their own 
h^nds, that if attended to there can be nothing , to fear. We heard a 
lady of great intelligence say that in the many candidates they heard 
during a vacancy in her congregation, she thought it impossible that 
there were so many commonplace preachers in the Presbyterian church. 
We are sorry if such is the case. It is a well known fact that the Pres- 
byterian church is very careful in the education of her ministry. Profes- 
sors in colleges generally do their duty faithfully. 'But they can only 
cultivate or rather aid the youths in the cultivation of the powers they 
bring with them. A high notion of self and a disposition to go easy 
may account for these failures to interest the people or succeed in your 
calling., Our young 'men might dispense with bothj might work ivith 
head, hands and heart, and aivoid degeneracy and the severest criticisms, 
and be eminently usefuj everywhere. 

Mr. John Sm.ith took us to see the old mast road, down wflich to 
the river, "were drawn the stately pines, hewn on Torbolton hills, to mast 
the fleets that rule the waveS.that wash the shores of the world. The 
pines left behind, that have escaped the axe and the fires of 1870, are 
few in number and easily reckoned. But the lands are good over the 
most of the township. Even the lowest lands, on account of the large ' 
.clearings and some drainipg, are beginning to be considered valuable. 
Mr. ^cKenzie, a young Bible agent, coming through to March reported 
to us that he had waded through a continent of mud, battled with mil- 
lions of mosquitoes, and was only half way through Purgatory when he 
came to old age (George Edge), and was not in raptures with the as- 
pects of the landscape. But this was nearly half a century ago He 
could not sec a finer country or a better common road than now con- 
nects' Crown Point with March Corners. The term Purgatory is never • 
now applied to the long swamp road, showing what ditching and bridg- 
ing can do to a road that was seldom dry a[l the summer through. For 
a long time Mr. John Buckham v/as the most eastern of the settlers and 
except Mr. Drummond beside him on the west side of the side line there 
were none near him. Mr. Gordon, married to a daughter of Mr. Wil- 
liam Gourlay of Fitzroy, resides south of these. Mrs. John Buckham is 



ttisTokV OP TH£ Ottawa vallEV 39 

still alive but not long expected to remain. She lives in the \o^ house 
once regarded as a fine one. Mrs. Young (Betsey) Buckham and Miss 
Jessie Buckham, her youngest daughter, wait on her at present. Mr. 
George Buckham has built a fine stone house beside the old house. He 
is a widower. His wife was Miss Young from Ramsay, siiter of Rev. 
Stephen Young, brought up in Ramsay. 

West of this is the great stone quarry where lies a fiel(1 of cnt stones 
for the would be ship canal. They, are too lari^e to be of use to the 
farmers that build around. Every thousand wasted 011 tli^m would, at 
six per cent, increase, be eight thousand to day. They lie tliere, not as 
a standing monument of the statemanship of the idol Sir John, wor- 
shipped by so many of our wise and sobpr-mindcd British Canadians. 
•Is it any use to pray for the conversion of the scores of dishonest incan- 
ables that infest the arena of our politics, whilst deluded people still take 
the bribes, and elect and re-elect such men ? One hundred and twcniy- 
nine hours of a session without adjournment to coerce Manitoba; with 
promises of office to their supporters, who never conld come back, tlicsc 
promises denied, whilst some of them are fulfilled, and the Cabinet 
ceasing to defend their acts, what a conditio., of things, and the Gov- 
ernor General has not dismissed them. A Lieut. -Governor and one or 
two cabinets were dismissed in Quebec because they were not of the 
blues, but ostensibly for some faults, but these faults multiplied by ten 
thousand could not disturb a feather on the back of the swans that Svvim 
so gracefully On the ponds of the public squares of our great Dominion. 
They have built a very pretty stone church in Torbolton and one at thj 
Chats. They used students in years gone by to teach their schools the 
six months in summer and considered it more profitable than other 
teachers the ten months or school year, as these young men were very 
conscientious and generally very efficient teachers. Education has been 
well attended to and cared for with ample provision in housfes. 

The society early formed was Presbyterian. Scotchm::n were the 
, most numerous, with some Irish, and the same holds still there, as other 
denominations have had little or no footing. The lands are in the ]-'OS- 
session of the descendwits of tKe first settlers. Some have married and 
acquired property there like Mr. Nesbitt, Mr. Blevvitt, Mr. Pearson an<l 
a few more. Mr.- Mills, as some others, came from Richmond and set- 
tled down to be a useful man like men of the JvlcLaren, Buckham and 
Smith order., The well fenced farms highly cultivated fields^ beautiful 
and well kept gardens, stock of all kinds well selected and fed, out- 
houses, barns and stables, and feeding houses, well planned arid substan- 
tially built; with tasty, comfortable, well constructed dwellings (a great 
improvement on bygone days), ornamental and fruit trees planted, 
roads well ditched and in fairly good passable order; altogether, prove 
to the observer a race of intelligent people, a condition of society far 
above mediocrity, showing evidences of thrift, vigor, industry and de- 
termination, other things being equal to attain in the future to a large 
measure of prosperity. 

Fitzroy was .settled from the north corner as its beginning at the 
Chats rapids. The simultaneous settlement of so many townships and 
the close analogy between them makes it difficult to decide which to 
treat of before another, and it is anything but an easy task to follow up 



4^ HISTORY OlF THE OTTAWA VALLEV 

i 

the current of events in a district for half a century. Mr. Charles Sheriff 
of whose family we have made some mention already, purchased land 
at first in the region of Port Hope from one Stevens, known as King 
Stevens. Governor Simcoe had sent a gun boat with the Stevens fam- 
ily and others from Fort Niagara, where they had to take refuge, and 
the King, as he was called, was born under a maple tree the night they 
landed. Mr. Sheriff used to tell how the maple tree was reserved i.n the 
deed of sale. But Stevens had to die when his time came and the, poor. 
mortal tree succumbed to the squall at its time too. Port Hope region 
seems to have been settled amongst the earliest portions of Upper 
Canada. 

Fort Niagara and Fort York were Indian Forts originally and the 
little harbor at the outlet 6f Smith's Creek seems to have had some at- 
tractions for boatmen, and a settlement was begun on the banks of the 
creek, along which the Midland railway riins, and on the slopes of which 
Port Hope was built. A thin line of the U. E. Loyalists was dotted 
along the north bank of the St. Lawrence and spots on the shore of Lake 
Ontario at first. Mr. Sheriff was from Leith, his native tow.,, near Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, where his family was connected with the notables of 
the city. Whether he did not relish the society at Smith's Creek or 
V whether the tempting offer of the Crown of 3,ck30 acres led him to decide 
and settle at the Chats, we know not. The atlas tells us the refrgees 
drove their cattle from Niagara round the lake shore to Port Hope, but 
gives no intimation of how they crossed so many unbridged rivers' and 
streams that empty into the lake in a range of nearly half its circijmf r- 
ence. The hope of seeing a Georgian Bay canal was held out to Mr. 
Shirriff. How many she;er delusions have the leading politicians of the 
last twenty years held out to men. The Duke of Wellington was a 
warrior rather than a statesman, or a civil engineer. Mr. Shirreff was 
wealthy and 3,000 acres added might make him feel like a Duke. But 
like Crusoe's cianoe, it was in the woods, and no tenants to raise from it a 
revenue. The unchecked growth of years stood in these forests ready 
to be converted into wealth, and being four or five years in advance of 
all others, Mr. Sherriff with his friends and retainers began the lumbering. 
The ship canal was in the thoughts of the few settlers on the-Ottawa, as 
much the safest from Yankee guns. But the push was too big for the 
debt of Great Britain at that time. 

We have no recollection of Mr. Charles Shirriff, but we have clear' 
remembrance of Mr. Alexander, Robert and Miss Shirriff in our school 
days. The latter we often met at prayer meetings in Donald Kennedy's 
and William Lough's. She was a superior wornan commanding much 
respect from all Classes; so lady-like and so kind-hearte<^. Many of the 
early settlers had to work in the shanty some time in winter and on the 
farms part of the summer, to procure provisions and clothing for their 
families. Mr. Shirriff, like Mr. Wright gave them employment which 
w'as at once beneficial to all. He cleared land, made timber, built 
houses and mills. Labor and capital were on friendly terms. We wei-e 
often at the Chats and made many a tour through the surrounding town- 
ships on a halfblood from the Irish colt, Sleepy Tom or Blucher, some- 
times by the swamp hotel and what is now Kinburn, somecirnes'by the 
9th Kne past McMillan's, at others on the loth by Landen's mill. Mr. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 4 1 

Alexander Shirriff explored the Ottawa to the Georgian Bay, gave Rice 
Lake its name and made report to the British Government, bearing the 
whole expense himself. One of their descendants, a highly respectable 

rntleman, said to us recently : "If I had now what he expended then, 
wo«id be of some value." Where can they construct a railway or 
canal to be out of the range of American guns, in a country of settle- 
ments one hundred miles deep and four thousand miles long ? Let us, 
have peace. They must have felt great disappointment at the failure of 
their wishes and expectations after such a labor and outlay of cash. 
They got charge of tihe Crown timber depot at the Chaudiere Falls, but 
that was small compensation. One of the brothers assisted Dr. Christie s^^.^ 
in starting and conducting the Bytown Gazette. Alexander was a bache- 
lor. In 1825, Messrs. McMillan and Dingwell built the first mill in Fitz- 
roy to cut lumber, and kept a little store in connection with it. This 
supplied the men employed and the surrounding neighbors. Mr Her- 
man Landen built a grist mill on the Carp, where it crosses the lOth line, 
the only place between Hartins and the mouth, where Mr. Shirriff erected 
one, that there ws fall enough and current to turn a millwheel. Lan- 
den had fought at Ogdensburg and Chrysler's farm, and was a man of 
influence, a Justice of the' Peace. He married several people, the first 
being John Wilson and Eliza Riddell. 

Mr. William and John Forbes came from Perth in 1820. John died 
soon c^ter, the first death in Fitzroy on record. About the same time 
came Mr. Andrew L) son, afterwards sheriff. He was a man of great 
intelligence and mucij enterprise. Mr.> Mohr came about the same 
year, took great interest in the progress of the township. Mr. George 
Larmonth conducted a store on the Chats bank, assisted by his gifted 
sister- He built a saw mill on the Mississippi that empties in above the 
harbor. In 1825 the McCormicks, Owens, Grants, Thomas and Henry 
Fraser, Gleeson, Haliday, Willis, Marshall and Keeting all settled on the 
banks of the Carp or near them. The McVicars, Russels, Ritchies were 
nearer Fakenham. The RodiSons, Loweries, Moorheads, Moorhouses, 
Armstrongs, and some others took upall the lands eastward tp the town 
line and into Huntley, south of the Carp. On its north side were 
Erasers, Gourlays, Laughlans, Stevensons, McMillans, Bairds, Greens, 
Fergusons, Gabies, Hodgins, Bradleys, Featherstons. Some came with 
some money, some with little, some empty handed. But rich or poor, 
the condition of the country and the roads made it necess&ry to walk on 
foot to Brockville, Perth^or Prescott, and carry home on their backs or 
shoulders, what they purchased. Women carried wheat to the mill. In 
winter several small grists would be taken on one ox sleigh. Their at- 
tachment to one another was close for when Mrs. Dickson lo-st her darn- 
ing needle, the settlement turned out in force and found it. They had 
not another among them. This brings up the story of the New Eng- 
lander who went to "dicker" an egg for a "darnin' needle," then asked 
the merchant to stand treat. He said it was not his custom, but he 
would. So they went, and when the drmk was prepared, he could not 
take it without an egg; so the merchant brought his egg, and when he 
broke it into the drink h? exclaimed : "Geehosaphat, it has two yolks. 
Guess you must give me another "daniin' needle." 

Tea sold very high in those times. They tell of a woman whose 



4^ History ot" the Ottawa ValleV 

two clat'ghterf^ were from home working, who brought her a nice present 
when they came home on a visit. But she was so much afraid of reviv- 
ing the old fondness for it, w ch she had about subdued, that she would 
not touch it. The pioneers mostly came to better their condition. They 
early learned to square timber. For ten miles back, they drew it to the 
Chats' bank and sold to the merchants that took it to market. Mr. Tufts 
is said to have been the first to run pine down the Chats xapids. John 
Gillon in after times, did great business in purchasing the farmers lots 
that were drawn there. He also made a market for all that the people 
rai.sed, and carried on his operations with vigor for several years. His 
credit was good, men had great confidence in him, and he got in their 
debt, and the fall in the price of pine left him unable to pay. My father 
proposed that they should release him from all obligations, and let him 
go on as before. 

John Smith, John Buckham and John Baird would agree to that, 
but it hung fire, as they saidof the old musket, Gillon left and no one 
took his place, and the village stood s]till, never recovered to this day. 
'^'^ej' lost the active man, the market and their money. 'VVAhether Sir 
John is looking down at it, or looking up, at it there is no ship canal at 
I lie Chats to this day nor likely soon to be. Whilst Mr. Char'es Shirriff 
lived at Fitzroy Harbor he turned his attention to build a church and 
schoolhffliise in one and the same building. Mr. Ramsay is said to have 
been their first teacher and a Miss Clarke taught first at Mohr's Corners, 
afterwards (Hubbell's Falls) Galetta. The Methodists are said to have 
been the first to preach in this new place. Preachers were easily made 
ready for the work in early times, and to the honor of the Methodists 
Ishey were the first in the field here. Like the potato bug for the leaves 
of the rising plant, they watched for the planting of the little colonies,, 
and in they went. Rev. Mr. Playfair is the name of the first. Mr. 
Adams of Fakenham followed. Rev. Mr. Alexander Mann* afterwards, 
Dr. Mann of Fakenham, favorably known all round, was their first Pres- 
byterian visitor. The first Episcopal minister was Rev. Hannibal Mul- 
kins, afterwards chaplain to the Kingston penitentiary, who returned to 
England and is a long time dead. William Owens was the first boy 
born in the township and the first girl was Jessie Dickson, afterwards 
Mrs. Lees of this city. Mr. Shirriff had the post office, for a long time 
the only one. Moses Holt brought the mail from Hull once a week in 
a canoe in summer and sleigh 'in winter. Mr. James Steene built a mill 
at Hubbell's Falls, but there are several now at Galetta, and churches 
and schools with considerable business carried on in the place. 

Kinburn is on the line of road to Fakenham and Arnprior and on 
the Parry Sound railway. Grants, Erasers, Croskerrys, Smiths, Ander- 
sons and Donaldsons are the principal villagers. Messrs. Neil, Steene, 
Fraser and Mohr have been the principal reeves. The brothers Elliott 
have long been clerk Mr. Taylor followed them in the same office. 
Surprising things were said of the toils of these early settlers. They 
carried store goods from Prescott and Brockville. Fancy, people' now, 
going alone SO miles, i'oilov. ing a road brushed out and bfazed and carry- 
ing through these solitary forests these neccs3;:ries of their lives. How 
it would try the nerves to go alone in such cir-jun-stances, or even i-n 
pairs or more. Or contetnpiate a solita.'-y traveOer getdng off the way 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 43 

and lost, having to spend the night on a beech tree, whose limbs growing 
out lower down its stem than other trees afforded the needed protection, 
and holding by these limbs' for verjr life whilst a pack of hungry wolves 
danced round to the sound of their own music. Such lodging and en- 
tertainment could hardly be regarded as either safe or enjoyable, yet no 
injuries were 'received. One young lady is reported as having on two 
occasions spent the night on a tree. She was called by the boys the 
angel of the swamp. 

We visited a young man in this township on the bank of the Carp, 
who was going to chop at a little distance, and seeing a young bear on 
a tree of thebeechfamily, with branches down towards the ground, and 
standing and wishing he had a gun, was surprised by the old mother 
bear and in his confusion ran and climbed the tree the cub was on, tak- 
ing his axe stuck in his clothes. The bear followed and he could not 
use his axe, but held by the branches. She, with her terrible claws, in- 
flicted seventeen cuts in one ieg and thigh, and some in the other; the 
blood flowed down on the bear and he fell at last faint with the loss of 
blood. His brother followed him soon after, and coming toward the 
scene discovered blood on his pants.' This had been rubbed off the 
glossy hide of the animal passing through the brush on the path. He 
came on his brother lying on the ground, picked him up, and carried him 
back home. His wounds were dressed and he recovered. Wfe saw and 
counted the wounds while they were still great unhealed gashes. He 
had when he could move about, a strap under one foot that with his 
hand he helped to lift forward the foot till it recovered somewhat from 
its stiffness. 

Some of our readers can furnish the name that has escaped our 
memory. A young girl got lost with her faithful dog' and was eight 
days away living on berries. She slept three nights under the same 
fallen tree. At last she thought the dog might take her out, and she 
scolded him ordering him home. He went reluctantly, every few min- 
utes turning to look at her, but at length brought her out. A Mrs. Mc- 
Caughan was lost a week and was found on the bank of a creek lifeless, 
in March township. We have had, as a boy, to search the woods for 
the cows daily but never got lost. Taught by our good mother to 
watjch the incline of the trees and the side on which the moss grew, and 
we could know our latitude in the darkest day. We have been several 
times close to bears and wolves, but never came to an encounter. We 
once saw in the twilight the white shining teeth of a wolf, but he did not 
press for a closer acquaintance and we mutually retired as from a drawn 
b?-*tle, withbut any blood letting on either side. 

Fitzroy has very much good land for meadow, pasture, grain and 
- root crops, perhaps not excelled on this continent. It cannot equal the 
western states in the production of corn, melons and peaches, and pork 
raising as corn i.^ plentiful there, and easily fed; but it can far surpass 
them in beef and mutton. Horses produced here are twenty-five per 
cent, better than those grown where lands are soft and spongy in winter, 
where their lower joints are soft and enlarged; but here they are clean 
and firm on summer dry pasture and winter clean snows. Chills, fevers, 
miasma are all unknown here, that are so fatal in the United States. 



44 HISTORY OF THE OtTAWA VALLEV 

But their phj'sinians kindly console their patients by telling them of the 
fearful rheumatisms of Canada, etc., etc. 

The higher criticism of our day did not trouble the pioneers. They 
might express their regrets, that differences of opinion existed about 
• Apostolic succession, adult baptism, that the Armenians held so many 
rich livings in the Church of England, L'.iat moderatism prevented the 
extension of the church in colonial fields white to the harvest, But the 
profound erudition of the Robertsons, Smiths, Briggs, etc., had not 
thrown its searchlight on the mistakes, blunders and prejudices, of He- 
brews and Christians; no, the genius of these profound thinkers has set 
the modern world on fire. What young talented preachers in all Anglo- 
Saxondom, would not blush to admit that creation was the work of six 
days, or that Moses wrote the Pentateuch? They will admit, with diffi- 
culty, that Moses may have been the redactor (editor) of the scraps and 
fragments, out of which that wonderful book is composed. He did give' 
the sap of his vigorous mind to learn all the wisdom of the Egyptians 
for nearly forty years, and was mighty in word and deed. He had also 
forty years, of learned leisure, in the employ of Jethro, with his flocks 
cro ^ing the herbage on the very slopes of Horeb or Sinai. Now it 
would be pedantic indeed, to sit in judgment on the style of that 
"primus inter pares," that first, and most sublime of all writers since the 
world began. The Reformed church of France produced some of the 
greatest preachers, orators, and writers, and one, not by any means the 
least pf them, Saurin at the Hague, asks : "Did such a narrative as that 
of Joseph E^nd his brethren ever flow from other pen in all the ages ?" 
Saurin could measure weapons with the great Fenelon or Bourdaloo W 
Massilon or Bosuet. 

True indeed, the Hebrew language has not been a vernacular for 
thousands of years, which renders it the more difficult to criticise and in- 
terpret as you must depend so much on Lexicons and scholars such as the 
Greens, Lightfoots, Buxtorfs, Gesseniuses, not to say the Owen's, Howes, 
and Melvilles. Yet, if it were a spoken living language to-day, it might 
not exhibit any more variance from the ancient formsj than the modern 
Greek Bible does from. the translation of the seventy in Alexandria or 
the Helenistic of the New Testament. In this year of grace one thous- 
and eight hundred and ninety six we read with great care the Books of 
Moses and Joshua and we are the more confirmed in the belief that the 
whole is a glo-dous Revelation of Divine truth, respecting creation, the 
early history of our race, the fall into sin and the begun recovery. > It, 
as a whole, spans more than two thirds of the history of human existence 
here below. Without it we had been left to conjecture, 'if indeed, our 
wretched existence as a race had been prolonged. Now as to the frag- 
mentary supposition. It is even too childish to be thought of for a mo- 
ment. They deign not to tell us who wrote these fragments. Adam, 
Enoch, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Melchisedeck, and Joseph, were pre- 
eminently, excellent men of renown on the best side of the humanity;the 
ancient Kings of Egypt, Philistia and Tyre were far from being iirdig- 
ious, but not one of them mentions a fragment, though they were many 
of them writers. Suppose those had left memoirs who was capable of 
composing Genesis from such scraps or volumes ? Could any of tliese 



HISTO&Y OF THE 0TTAWAV ALLEY 45 

ive US the important scrap about creation ? not eyen Adam till he 
ipened his eyes upon it and it was all over then. 

John Milton presents him questioning all creation to tell hrm of 
lis own origin. Thou Sun said I, fair light, and thou enlighten, eartu 
o fresh and gay, ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods and plain's, and ye 
hat live and move, fair creatures tell: "Tell if you saw how came I thus 
low here ?" Now if Adam, the nearest to the creation, andof it, made 
n his Maker's image in knowledge, uprightness apd purity could tell 
lothing — what antidiluvian or post diluvian can do any better ? Job 
.sks scientists questions, they will not easily answer. The Rosh — Arke — 
<nncipia — Caput — head, first, or the Kephalia — Bibliou — all refer to the 
)eginning. Can any one tell of the beginning but the Creator who then 
:ommenced his work ? What of the light, the work of the first day? 
-low long was the day ? How long did it take to create the light? 
A^hat is it ? Something separate from the sun as affected by it so that 
he shadow is darkness ? Does it flow in straight lines or in waves ? 
Does it travel or stand still ? We have heard all the theories about it. 
Do the theorists know any more than others? By the word of the Lord 
vere the heavens made and all the host of them by the spirit or brc th 



ct; 



)f his nriouth. Through faith we understand that the worlds. were fra: 
jy the word of God, so that visible things were not made of visible 
;hings. It is not evolution development, but creation. What do we 
enow about creation? Is it first forming or producing simple elements 
:hen combining them into the complex ? Time is a great thing in our 
jperations, because of our impotence- Is it so with our Creator who is 
jmnipotent and infinitely wise ? If a certain power is necessary to pro- 
duce a thing, an object, must it of necessity, be extended to millions of 
^'ears? Could it not be exercised at once ? But this is miracle, so it is, 
Dut you must admit that or die in ignorance. ' 'Tis a beautiful, fancy of 
Hugh Millar that Moses had a vision each day, and that day represented 
1 great period in creation That kills the sabbatical rest- There were 
plenty of ages in the eternity o' the past to cover all their speculations 
but that is not the order of Genisps arid so oft repeated in the command- 
ments of the law and the scores of repetitions with which the sublime 
record abound?. Calculating by astronomy you obliterate a beginning 
croing backward, and you never reach an end reckoning' forward- It' 
j^ou offere 1 a prize of ten thousand dollars for an essay that would prove 
bhe exact age of the earth, no sensible geologist, if there be such, could 
compete for it. Paul tells the Greeks, the invisible things of Him from 
the creation of the world are clearly seen being understood by the things 
that are made. His eternal power and Godhead. But they did not 
know Him without revelation. Take away revelation and in a little 
time no one could prove a creation. All the mighty thinkers have a 
great debt to pay — they have borrowed from revelation without acknow- 
ledging it. 

In that revelation we get whatever truth we know of or abort crea- 
tion and not in chemistry, geology, or astronomy. Revelation is the 
key to these. Without it they are shut up in the fogs of ages and the 
fancies and splendid imagery of the intellect. The inevitable conclusion 
is forced on men, that without the reve,aled scriptures, all theories of 
creation must be fanciful, baseless, mere conjectures. The bcriptures 



4*5 HISTORY OF T»E 0TTAWA VABEjEY 

prove their own inspiration of God, and in the words which tiie Holy 
Spirit teacheth. There could be much made out of the tradition of old 
time. Adam conversed or might have with Noah's father Lamech, .for 
a hundred years, Enoch, before his translation, lived one hundred years 
after Noah was born, and his father and grandfather nearly six hundred, 
years. Noah lived to the days of Nahor, Abraham's grandfather, and 
Shem till Isaac was a full grown man, but they may not have met and 
perhaps never .saw eacH other as Abraham left the country of Shem. 
There must ha^•e been much information conveyed from one to anotr.er 
in this overlapping of so many generations. We lay no stress on that, 
the scriptures are inspired the things written, Moses is the first who giveS ■ 
written books to be kept, and a copy was put into the Ark of the Covenant 
and that copy was brought out in the days of King Josiah. There may 
have been many copies in the hands of Priests and Levites, for they in- 
structed the people but this was the original in the clear hand writing of 
their greatest scholar, and prophet and was the words of the Lord God 
of hosts the king of glory. 

In Moses he selected the right man, for he testifies to Miriam that 
Moses was faithful in all God's house. Now we are not afraid to plant 
ourselves on the ground, that the whole histoiy and legislation, the or- 
ganizing of cliurch and state, the planting the heavens of the church and 
laying the foundations of the earth as a state, and saying to Zion, thou 
art mypeople that all was the work of God whilst the Word was the in- 
spired. — Word written for our learning that we, through patience, and, 
comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. Moses testifies that the 
agency of God is in all this revelation, legislation, organization and the- 
whole people who saw it all, and in the days of Christ, the indelible im- 
pression on the minds of the whole nation was embodied in, this: "We 
know that God spake with Moses." Moses and the prophets hold the 
same authority : all scripture the same authority. The baseless state- 
ment of the great' Hebrew scholar Briggs, that no sacrifices were offered 
in the desert, was quietly upset by a young girl, a Sunday school teacher, 
that very much cattle were driven out of Egypt, and multiplied in thej-. 
desert, and again that these cattle suffered from thirst before the rock 
was smitten to give them a drink. The early settlers of this valley be- 
lieved the writings of Moses and the prophets and the woi'ds of Jesus 
Christ. The tribes of Reuben and Gad had much cattle forty years after. 

A few prominent names may serve to represent. the teeming thous- 
•arrds now around us : Wrights, Reids, Pritchards, Blackburns, McClel- 
land.s, SymiTics. Gordons, Kenneys, Curries, Kings, Brysons on the 
north shore of tlie river, and the Shirriffs, Forbes, Dicksons, McVickers,- 
Grants, Frascrs, Gourlays, Alexanders, Wilsons, Lowrys, Robertsons, 
Stevensons, Baircls, McBrides, Cauldwells, Bearmans,. Davidsons,, Gra- 
hams, Kennedys, Louijhs, Lusks, McLarens, Buckhams, Smiths, Grier- 
sons, Moffats, Irvirij;.'^, Whytes, Browns, Blacks, Fails, Hustons, Stewarts, 
Simpsons, Crawfords, You;igs, Toshacs, Eadies, Hartins,Fentons, Thomp- 
sons, Duncans, Logans, Hamiltons, Hodgins, Johnstons, among so, many. 
oc'iicrs that represent groups of families, almost clans and tribes, that in;' 
scatixrcd settlements held fast their- religion till congregations were 
formed and ministers procured of Wesk-yan Meiihsflist, Church of Eng- 
land, .Presbyterian who helci forth the faithfiii word and among whom. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 47 

scepticism was unknown and unheard of. Yes, they planted the stnn- 
dard of the cross in these valleys, lived for truth and by it, and if need 
be die for it. The record of many of them is on high, and their followers 
believe, delight in, and defend the same Scriptures as -the rule and the 
only rule of their faith. We bear our testimony to the faithfulness of 
these pioneers. Many of their offspring are following their good example. 
But these men, before ministers could be procured, kept pure their faith. 
Would their grandchildren with all the advantages from ministers and 
churches, make as good a confession ? No doubt some would but with 
others; there is room for improvement. In bygone days when roads 
were impassible, little or no communication with the outside world, no 
railroad, nor macadamized road, lands to clear and fence, houses of 
every kind necessary had to be built, no improvement of agriculture but 
the crudest kind, heavy and unweildy, and human life in danger from at- 
tacks of wild animals: (John Gourlay in Fitzroy, carrying the floi'r_ 
and bran of a bushel of wheat from Landen's mill, encountered two 
wolves sucking the blood and eating'the neck of a deer, took up a club 
and drove off the wolves, then with the bags on his back, seized the deer 
by the hind foot and drew it after him on the light snow in the fall, and 
being a very large, strong man, dragged it home bathed in sweat; the 
wolves did not follow.) We say these people with all these difficulties 
to breast and overcome, were able to attend to their religion and main- 
tain the truth intelligently; with all the ad:vantages of a century, the most 
progressive of all t^e centuries of human history, with a vastly improved 
general education and every other facility of books, churches and minis- ' 
ters, this third generation ought to be asifar ahead of their grandfathers 
as the ratio of these corresponding advantages, in intelligence and true 
piety. Are they so ? Is there not a multitude given up to ease, idle- 
ness, worldliness, and even sensuality ? Oh, the happiness, the enjoy- 
ment men might attain to, did they give themselves to Godliness ! 

Some of the old families have disappeared. Some have gone to 
multiply and cultivate the orange groves in the Sunny South, some 
have gone into professions, others into business, but many of them are 
on the old farms of their grandfathers; stalwart sons of the soil. Their 
wives and sisters, the wives of others, retain a,t this day much of the vi- 
gor, freshness and good looks of former days. Wc speak of the children 
of the old generation of pioneers or white aborigines that entered in the 
early part of this nineteenth century on the subjucalion of the unbroken 
forests. The trees of these forests had grown to an immense size. There 
was a sad waste of the beautiful sidings, in preparing square timber for 
the British market which was then open to u& Chopping and clearing 
up the heavy timbered lands was heavy work. 'Churches were few for 
years. Farmers' houses were large shanties caulked with moss driven 
into the chinks between logs and scQops with a thin pointed handspike. 
The chinks between the logs on the outside were plastered with well-, 
wrought blue clay. Lim6 had not yet been burned on log piles as after- 
wards it was, and kilns were n«t thought ©f. Chimneys were very wide 
and low, causing free circulation of air, pare and wholesome, they had 
such a fine draught. If a stone c0»ld be found large enough to stand 
on the ground against the wall, it was set up; if not a piece of thin wall 
was built wiflb stomes* and bkic clay E»®rtar to keep the fire from the logs 



48 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

or w all of the building. Then, two crooked cedars were got and the 
ends pointed or thinned to drive into the chinks between th^ logs on 
each side of the stone work. The other ends pinned to the beam across 
the house about four feet in from the end wall. Cedars were cut the 
length for these lathf-. rtom one side to the other. The first lath was 
laid in a good bed ol clay mortar on the stone work on the back. Then 
the cedars flatted a little on their upper side, had a bed of mortar laid 
on and laths cut laid on them across the lath on the back; some of them 
nailed in the end to the crooked cedars, laid in plenty of mortar. When 
they reached to the level of the highest ends of these crooked cedars 
with the three sides or jsack and two sides they laid a lath in mortar on . 
the beam and formed the fourth side. So they built the chimney which 
they called a fireplace till they got above the scoops. The substitute 
they made for hair in the mortar was cut straw or beaver meadow hay, 
cut with the axe on a block, sometimes pounded to make it the more 
pliable. The back was kept straight with the house wall but the other 
thr£e sides were drawn in so that from, five or six feet wide at the bot- 
tom it would end in three by two feet at the top. The mortar was laid 
to give three quarters of an inch on the inside of the laths, and made 
smooth to be safe. They often caught fire but a cup of water thrown 
against it generally extinguished it. 

We have often so extinguished it. Mrs. Morin was entertaining 
Mrs. Milford at tea one evening when the shanty chimney took, fire. 
Mrs. Milford understood the business and was soon on the house-top re- 
moving the scoops and then pouring on the water as it was hai;ided up 
to her, soon quenching the fire. Taller houses, lime-burning and stone 
chimneys became popular, and Jimmie O'Meara and Luke Hogan, stone- 
masons, built for everybody. In a short time sided log houses and sided 
log churches became something to speak of and glory in. Sided log 
sehoolhouses became fine preaching places for a few years. Our pride 
and vanity have carried us to the other extremity. In the city we ex- 
pend far above our wants, v/hilst the poverty stricken appearance of the 
country church would indicate that it did not belong to the same denom- 
ination. Sometimes city ministers, with reverence be it spoken, of 
course, rarely, are suspected of lording it just a very little over their less 
fortunate country brethren; or the brethren are afraid to oppose anything 
these wish lest their popularity should be blanched. A baseless fabric 
of a vision ! But the appearance of smoke is pretty sure indication of 
fire. Is justice always kept in view in the proceedings of church courts? 
Enter not into judgment with thy servants ! Church loans are popular, 
as if it were a virtue to lend at low interest to encourage such architec- 
tural display. It looks like laying up treasure above. 

A Scotchman dying, is said to have asked a Free Church minister 
"If I leave twenty thousand pounds to the Free Church, would it benefit 
me anything in the other world ?" The cautious minister would not. 
'comm.it himself, but said; "It would be worth trying the experiment." If 
one cannot help being rich, would it not be a fine experimert long before 
he dies to help feeble congregations yearly? Henry }. Tilden left six 
millions to found libraries. Had he given the interest every year of 
that sum to assist feeble congregations in the denominatk)n he preferred, 
l.e might not only have got'to occupy the White House, but he would 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 49 

have been embalmed in the hearts and remembered in the prayers of 
millions, as the man that loved their nation and had built them a syna- 
gogue. A writer in the Canadian Churchhian makes out that wealth will 
enable you to become Knight, Baronet or Lord, or procure you any de- 
grees the universities can confer; provided always that you support the 
party enjoying the power. The early comers were contented with plain 
things in houses and churches, not because they were destitute of taste, 
or blind to elegance They were thinkers and workers who made the 
country what it is but what the actors of to-day are undoing. Fifty 
years ago the little Presbytery of Perth was formed chiefly of young 
ministers and elders who set themselves to build up their cause in the 
Ottawa Valley, which thing they did at an outlay of labor, perhaps 
without a parallel in the history of the church for some centuries. As a 
Presbytery they visited almost every congregation' and mission station 
from the Long Saultto Fort William, and from Dalhousieto the Desci;:. 
What grand, rides and drives they had. 

Once when waiting for refreshments at the well-conducted hotel of 
Mrs. McFarland, Pakenham, Sheriff Dickson, her- brother, a man of 
" great conversational powers, laid himself out to entertain us. The 
horse, that in saddle or harness held a conspicuous place in our work, 
was referred to, and the Sheriff recommended us never to buy or keep a 
horse that in trotting described a semicircle with his front foot, as he 
would be slower or sooner exhausted than one that lifted his foot and 
reached it forward in a straight or direct line; a useful hint in many a se- 
lection afterwards. On one occasion at Dalhousie, a gentleman tried to 
borrow his friend's horse to drive in advance to his place to be ready to 
receive the others when they arrived, but was refused. He then offered 
to bet that he could drive him as fast as the owner. Another brought 
out a tall rangy raw colt in long shafts, to save the hind foot from striking 
the cross bar, and asked him to get in which he did asking if the shaft 
was all one stick ? He was driven home half an hour in advance in 
time, to prepare for their reception. 

The settlers were far apart and had to travel often a great way but 
they did.it gladly and the ministers rode in pairs greatly enjoying each 
others society and the meetings, enterrainments and especiafly the; pic- 
turesque scenery of which the Ottawa country possesses a great and 
envious monopoly. The Oilaw^ river so broken with rapids before 
slides were formed had its Siid njonopoly of swallowing multitudes of 
poor raftsmen, and, sorry to say, some excellent men, particular friends, 
were engulfed in its waters. The Carp that runs through so many of 
these townships has it's legends though scarcely any cases of drowning. 
It was difficult to bridge this flat river as it overflowed its banks in 
spring and at high floods in the summer or fall, so there was a long way 
to cro.jsiay and few could give the time or money necessary for the out- 
lay, but it had to, be passed over as it cut so many farms in two.'jWhere 
a beaver meadow left no trees on the bank, it had to be 'crossed with 
canoe or float. Where tall elms grew near the. bank and were long 
enough to cross it; one was cut and the stump cut so that the tree re- 
mained on it; other trees vvere cut to connect it on each side with the 
higher ground a little from the water's edge, so they could walk along 
these and get over. Soiric could perform the feat easily and safely, and 



,50 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

Others did it with fear and caution. If one slid off by a mishap or rather 
a misstep and got wet, he had to run home and change his clothes, or 
hasten with his teeth chattering to his journey's end, unable to tell what 
happened except, ah ! the Carp, the Carp, but it was soon known to the 

enquirer. 

Some had to go on their hands and knees over the logs. Mick Dur 
lirm, a tailor, had to cross to do some work for a farmer, and as his 
"goose" could not swim he made it fast but forgot that his scissors and 
spectacles were in his breast pocket, and in the kind of frog leaps he 
made on all fours they dropped into the flood. He seemed in an awk- 
ward mood, and meeting an old gentleman full of humor who questioned 
him how he got over, he said allright, but the scissors had fallen out of 
his pocket. "What 1 did you lose your scissors ?" No, I left the spec- 
tacles to watch them. William Gourlay, some years ago, explored the 
river through mud, marsh and creek, through fernSj beaver grass and 
willows to Landen's mill and got the councils of Fitzroy, Huntley and 
March to contribute and they blasted some stone and took it down a 
little which was perceptible several miles back. But it must be dredged 
and it ought to be with public money, as it is too much for the land 
owners on the banks to bear all the cost. Because farmers, are not 
lumbermen or railroaders, have they no claim ? Some politicians have 
a deathless dislike to the farmers. This should be gotten over. They 
cannot do without the farmers, especially at voting time. 

Nepean seems to have had a line surveyed on its eastern side from ' 
Crosby to the Ottawa river. It got a local habitation and aname, as 
the philosophers say. In its defined form it contains over 60,000, acres, 
but \\hen its name was first given, it included all on the west side; Carle- 
ton, Lanark,, and Renfrew, or for t;hat matter, might extend to the Geor- 
gian Bay. Like it, the county of Ottawa is bounded on the north by 
the polar seas- It has a janus face, one front on the Ottawa, the other 
on the Rideau. The Ottawa front is called twelve, the Rideau fifteen 
miles long. The poor surveyor disappeared and' was never heard from. 
The last post he was said to have planted was at Dow's Swamp. John 
McNaughton finished the survey. Some surveyors started the idea 
aboiit forty years ago that the lines were not correct, that the iron ore 
in Hull had affected the compass, so they ran a few lines but found that 
the defect on the first was made up on the last, and the thing was aban- 
doned, the old lines being as correct as the new ones. In 1798, there 
is a reference to the first survey. That was the third session of the second 
J a.1 iaaient of George III. Afterwards Upper Canada was formed into a 
provmce. The United Empire or English Loyalists were numerous, and 
some had fought on the side of King George, and these with those who 
sympathized with them flocked into Upper Canada. The Government 
gave them claims they called tickets, to land, but the people not paying 
much attention to the U. E. L., pronounced them all in a word "Ueright" 
tickets ".8, These people, male and female, drew lands freely and in ex- 
tensive lots, as they were favorites, and they were anxious to people the 
land with such loyalists. These coming fn m the other side, where their 
opponents were called rebels, canse to associate loyalty with their tory 
iiotions; and tP oppose them, was, in their crude notions, to be a rebel, 



HISTORY OF THE ©TTAWA VALLEY 5 1 

the free application of which term has been disastrous to the welfare of 
the country. ' ' 

Rice Honeywell had fought on the American side, but after the war 
he was attracted by a young lady, daughter of a U. E. L. Tory at Pres- 
cott, whom he married and took to the Mohawk Valley where Ira was 
■ born. The new country and land easily procured, and the prospects 
every new country opens up, together with the wish of his wife to be 
near her people, led him to come to Prescott, where they both drew 
land. If a person disliked the place of his location .ticket he cpuld sell 
it, take the money aiid go where he chose. When Ira Honeywell was 
grown up his father offered him tickets for i,odo acres, in Nepean, if he 
would go and make good his claims, which he did, and exchanged the 
Mohawk and the St. Lawrence for the Ottawa Valley. He was the 
first white settler on the Ottawa in Nepean- He selected his place and 
built a shanty, and Aopped four acres in 1810. He came down the Ri- 
deau and must have borrowed help from Hull to build his shanty. Hull 
was ten years old as a settlement then. Mrs. Stewart of Beckwith told ; 
us that she and her husband cut and carried the poles, and built their 
first shanty, not a pretentious one. Mr. Honeywell became hungry and i 
weary and homesick, and returned to Prescott. He found a Miss An- ; 
drews of Welsh descent, whose bright eyes and pleasant smiles, and in- 
telligent conversation, he concluded would be worth more to him than 
half a county. He proposed; she accepted. So the young married pair 
started for their new home in the woods to burn their choppings, plant 
their first corn and potatoes, with some onions, mellons and cucumbers. 
It must have been hard labor for a pair so young to log, as the small 
would scarcely burn all the large logs, and they must have planted 
sor/ie rows among the logs. 

We record it to their honor that women did give so much aid in 
the hard labor of those trying times. In the February of 181 1 the 
young pair came on a jumper, drawn by a yoke of steers, bringing their 
household goods. Such animals were then the camels of the Canadian 
desert. They travelled through the new settlements to Merrickville. 
They spent a night in the last house between his father's and his new 
home. This was the house of Mr. Dow, the father-in-law afterwards of 
Mr- Billings. He was of Scotch extraction because he called his pkce 
Kilmarnock. The custom.of those tiroes was a friendly greeting, a wel- 
come to stay, and the best entertainment they could give you, free of 
all cost. This set the wanderer at bis ease for the evening, making the 
hospitality doubly precious. The only open way was down the ice of 
the Rideauto the Hog's Back Rapids. It was a trying business for them 
to get their steers through the snow in mid-winter and such a distance 
witho'jt a halting place or roof to cover them, or fire to warm them, ex- 
cept the burning of a dry tree in the winter wind; or a human voice to 
cheer them or break the monotony. 

The road he must have brushed out before going heme, ar.d we 
hope he had the forethought to leave some v- cedent to dry so as to 
give her a warm reception, when they kindied then- first fire in their 
wedded life, at their new home. Othciwisc, though they had arrived in 
safely, it would have been a co©l rc<,epfc:on. "I hey heroically addressed 
then selves to carve out a living aKd ssececded. The steers had to be 



^58 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

fed on tree tops till the leaves and grass appeared, then they enjoyed a 
paradise around that little clearing. His nearest neighbor was Mr. Brad- 
didi Billings, across the Rideau, who built a shanty, and lumbered in 
1810 with some men, but had not yet married. The first white man 
that settled near the Honeywells, vas a Mr. Draper, but he did not re- 
main long. Abram ' Dow selected and took possession of his farm on ' 
the Rideau front in 1813. The same year Roger Moore, uncle of David 
and Job Moore, long known as the richest of our lumbermen, settled in 
Nepean near by, and Martin Moore a brother of Roger, settled close to 
Honeywell, The pioneers delighted to call the Ottawa the "Grand 
River." Samuel Dow took up land in i8i6on Rideau front. After him 
came Johnathan Marble Dow with a family of five daughters and, two 
sons. The same year Lewis Williams with five daughters and three 
sons located near the Dows, and in the same row boat with him William 
Thompson with three sons and six daughters, settled on the^ farm on, 
the Richmond Road. 

His sons William and John Thompson went extensively into the 
lumber trade, creating a market for produce among the farmers, and 
were for many years the best stock-raisers and model farmers in the 
district. Andrew was a local preacher, but the family were all Presby- 
terians. One daughter was Mrs. Peter Whyte, whose husband was an 
extensive lumberer, who made his domicile in Pembroke. His son, 
Peter White, is the Honorable Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Another Miss Thompson became Mrs. Hickey, raised a large family of 
sons and daughters, well known and occupying respectable positions in 
the city. One sister was Mrs. Aylen, who after the loss of her husband, 
kept house for her brother John. Her son, William Aylen, was a very 
promising young man, very much liked, became heir to most of the 
wealth of his uncle, John Thompson, who died a bachelor. Mr. Aylen,, - 
after his uncle's death, married his cousin, the widow of Dr. Newton, 
whose mother was a' Miss Thompson, that was killed by a fall from a 
stage coach at Greriville. W. Aylen died young having no issue. Mrs. 
Haworth of Hull was another Miss Thompson whose family were in 
Hull. The sixth in our numeration was Mrs.. Radmer, also of Hull, with 
a large family of boys and girls. Mr. William Thompson, Jr., married , 
a Miss Doran of the village of Bytown. Some of his sons lumbered, }, 
some were in the employ of the Government. One daughter was a 
pretty school girl in our school visits. She is the wife of Hon. Speaker 
Whyte. William Thompson, the pioneer, died in December, 1833. 
John Thompson, another son, died in 1855, the other son William died 
in 1867. His wife survived him some years. All the sons-in-law of Wil- 
liam Thompson, Sr., were sailors, who ran away from the fleet or the 
merchantmen, that sailed into Quebec at the close of the long wars with 
France; wars that were almost interminable and nearly the destruction 
of both the nations. 

Peter Whyte, the shiner, was a familiar expression among the thous- 
ands in the lumber employ, but it must have been got up by some wag, 
for he was the reverse, took no stock in the party. Peter Aylen, another 
runaway sailor, was generally known as King of the shiners, as of neces- 
sity, he had so many of them in his employ, having lumbered so exten- 
sively on the Ottaiva and taken so .uauy rafts to Quebec. He built a 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY S3 

great frame house and a still greater stone bam, east of the Thompsons, ! 
on the farm now in the possession of Mr. John Heney. He had a large 
stone in the wall of the bam with P. A. V. cut upon it. The surmise i 
was that the V. represented the surname, for it was thought the sailors i 
took their mothers' names to avoid detection and being captured or ; 
punished for desertion; but we give it no consideration. Most of them ! 
were too fearless and too enterprising to adopt any such subterfuge. 

Iri 1815, the year of Waterloo, Mr. Chapman settled on the. Jock. 
Isolated and alone his highway was the ice in winter, and in summer he 
plied the paddle, and sailed his canoe to Merrickville and the Hog's 
Back. W. B. Byers, who got rich by lumbering, gave his name to a 
creek in his limits, purchased, built on, and greatly improved this farm. 
He raised blood stock, his Rescue, Black Jack, Maid of the Mist, etc. 
among the horses, and his Ayrshire cattle for a while famous in the 
county. This fine property was secured by the wealthy, retired lum- 
berer, the late David Hartin, whose family reside there. Captain Collins 
planted himself at the junction of the Jock and Rideau, built fine houses 
and died in a good old age, much respected. His son Samuel, married 
Miss Pollock, a very amiable lady who survived him some years. Moses 
Holt came to Nepean in 1814, and George McConnel the year after. 
Jehiel Collins kept the first store on the south shore of the river, Collin's 
landing, but the boats were rowed to strike the beach. But he sold to 
Bellows who bad assisted him in the store. Bellows made a little dock, 
and hence Bellow's Landing. This was at the foot of the Chaudiere 
Falls on the Flats. His sister kept house for him, but the coming man, 
an American, persuaded her to marry him, and tbey kept an hotel on 
the hill overlooking the Flats, where Chitty kept after him. The whole 
flat here has been long used as a great field for drying lumber piles. 

The two brothers Burrows drew the lands on which Bytown after- 
wards stood. They had come in the same boat witfi William Thomp- 
son. Mr. Nicholas Sparks bought it for less than four hundred dollars. 
We have said Moses Hoh located in Nepean, but was so short a time 
there as hardly to merit the notice. He went to Hull in a little time, 
tiien to Aylmer, then Des Joachim. He left Honeywell nearest the 
Flats. Roger Moore was west of him, and between him and William 
Thompson, George McConneU. Bill and John McConnell settled in 
HuH, to which George soon followed. Richard and Renaldo were the 
sons of John. Mrs. Robert Conroy was the daughter of Bill McConnell. 
Benjamin, a brother of Roger Moore, was drowned. Moses Holt was the 
first to keep and drive a stage, and carry the maiils by canoe or cutter, 
The Holts cut a figure as mail carriers in the United States. We were 
well acquamted with the Aylmer Holts. Our acquaintance with the 
Chapmans was not so extensive. 

One daughter, in our boyhood we remember, was fond of field 
sports. She plowed and harrowed the fields, a work unavoidable, and 
she drove a fine pair of Greys. She afterwards became the third wife 
of Hugh Fails the surveyor. She and her husband very often visited at 
my father's. During the war of 1812-181S, everything was high-priced. 
Flour rose very high, and was hard to procure. Wright would not spare 
any and Ho.itywell had to go to the front, and having procured three 
barrels, returned well satisfied that his difficulties were over. But in a 



54 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

day or two after he had got it home with his steers and jumper, in sum- 
mer, having brought it down the Rideau on a cedar float, he received a 
friendly visit from A. Dow of Rideau front, and his brother-in-law, Brad- 
dish Billings. They soon told him their message. He remonstrated 
that the flour had cost him so much time and trouble as well as money 
to bring it for his own use too. They laid him down fifty dollars, stating 
that each needed a barrel as much as he did, and they would take it and 
not starve. Viewing all the circumstances Honeywell agreed. We 
have seen flour sixteen dollars, but not so high as that price. 

Capt. Le Breton was said to have built a mill at the Chaudiere but we 
do not remember it. We have been at his fine mill at the Deschene Rapids. 
He was an Englishman, and all in his employ were the same He sold 
afterwards to Mr. Robertson, also an Englishman, with whose boys we 
went to school, and who took much interest in municipal affairs. South 
of the sandy hills William Bell settled on good land, had a family of 
boys and girls. We remember thfe first impression made on our young 
mind by his empty sleeve in the pocket of his jacket; the short jacket 
being much worn then. South of him Sergt. Vincent; I . '^houldice kept' 
a tavern towards Bearmans, Rob Boyd made carts whcic Strinson lived, 
carts for oxen with great hubs, flat iron bands put in to take a great 
axle-tree that could not be broken. They were beauties in their way. 

These were probably all here before 1820. About this time the 
complaint was, that so many location tickets were given for land in 
Nepean, that these were held and sold from one to another, that people 
went for free grants to other townships, and from twenty or twenty- 
two for four or five years no one came to locate. In consequence, 
tickets did not rise in value to any .great extent, and people bought and 
began to settle down. The O'Grady's, Hugh Bell, Geo. Sparks, John 
Davidson, Thomas Teirney, all came and settled in various places in 
the township, say frOm 1820 to 1822, Hugh Bell got his farm beside 
Bearman, east of the line, Rideau front, and gave his name to the corners. 

The early settlers had to canoe it to Montreal for their goods. 
Honeywell is .said to have gone and returned alone more than once. 
This must have taxed all a man's ability to get a canoe up the Rapids 
with the lightest load, while he waded in the edge of the stream, and kept 
his frail bark from being broken on the rocks. We can fancy the 
Moores, Honeywells, McConneJls, etc., going in pairs or companies with 
ease and success, but we pity the man who would' do the thing now. 
The times of these fathers of the country cannot be well compared with 
OUT times. We well remember in 1833 starting in a company of seven- 
teen t© reach the settlement in Huntley. We started from Bytown on 
the morning of the 1 2th of July. The Richmond Road was opened by 
the cutting of trees and brush, but the stumps were not extracted, but 
stood as obstacles to teams that got round as best they could. There 
were no waggons, a kind of ox carts only. The stumps in many cases 
were decorated with berry bushes that were loaded with their fruits, red 
and black, a great attraction to the young travellers. Some of the 
mothers carried their youngest in their aims. One man was ninety and 
his wife eighty. The man's hair v.'as stiii black, (dyes had not come into 
use then,) his wile's was gray. They iiad five sons and two daughters. 
:>TS»t youngest was a beautiful gui, then perba-ps 111 her teens. 



HISTORY OP THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 55 

The road was unditched in all its extent. There were patches of 
clearings on its sides. My mother was purse-bearer for most of the 
Mfty. My father had to remain with some others to try and get home 
(foe piuwder, as the Hoosreiss term k, n» easy thing; but a man witk a 
yoke of oxeii and cart brought potash for Mr. Robert Grant, and brought 
it on the cart, secured with all the ropes they had. But Mr. Culbert 
had to , cut withes when they got to the bush, which was very near, to 
bind it the more securely. The men who had not seen a withe twisted 
or used, wondered at his ingenuity and handiness. Some rotten trees 
had fallen and he cut them so easily to get theni out of the way, and 
restored the axe to its place, a hole in the tongue of the cart. Our 
company reached Mr. William Bell's at high noon. He was at his din- 
ner. The end of his empty sleeve was in the pocket of his short jacket.. 
He had lost an arm, and it being the first such caiee I had seen, made an 
indelible impression on my yOung memory. 

He sprang up, asked my mother if we would have dinner. She 
replied she thought most of the company, especially the younger ones 
would enjoy it. So we had a fine dinner. Mr. Bell pulled some young 
onions to please the children, more than half the party. Mother re- 
marked after we left that his charges were very moderate. We trav- 
elled on as directed to Malcomsons from that, past the Potash works. 
Some of our company went to see if it was not a distillery. Irish men 
were thep fond of poteen, of course they have reformed all that now. 
They reported that there was no means of smelling the cork, so, on we 
went. Many came to the roadside from their work to see us and hear 
from Ireland. Some of the grown up ones stood to talk, the others 
walked on. I encouraged a little brother from one berry bpsh to an- 
other, sometimes holding his hand, and others, groaning under the 
weight of him on my back. We reached a little log tavern, "Billy Brad- 
ley's", at what is now Hazledean, where we spent the night, on beds on 
the floor as usual. A grand procession of about sixteen miles, for the 
clearings were too small to let the sun shrivel up the road into short di- 
mensions as it may now, and wis had neither a flag nor whiskey bottle. 

We were (of course,) pretty girls and boys, with handsome married 
women and tall, sturdy men, all well dressed, so that we made a good 
innpression as we passed along the highway'. Farmers and their wives 
who were near the side of the way, came to see us if we would drink 
milk or water, or eat anything, enquire where we were from and \vhither 
we went. Looking back on. it from to-day we say these people had 
souls. The Jew was not to forget that he was a stranger in the land of 
Egypt. We held on our journey to Stittsville, then turned to the west 
along the third line of Huntley. Samuel Johnston had heard we were 
coming, or dreamed it.^for he met us two miles from his house and took 
us all there to dinner. ' After dinner, which was a very enjoyable one, 
all that had relatives, left to find them, some of whom came to meet 
them as they departed. Some of us stayed that night with Mr. and 
Mrs. John?ton. She was a Barton. All that were then married arc 
called and gathered to their people. William Holmes, the youngest of 
these, died a few weeks ago. AH the unmarried of the party are dead 
except my two brothers and myself. These details may have not a par- 
ticle of interest for my readers, but it being my first journey on foot in 



^$6 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

this Dominion, and the peculiarities and the incidents made such an inde- 
lible impression on my mind as to make it impossible to suppress it in this 
quiet narrative. 

Roderick Stewart, Robert Reid and George Bayne had the best of 
farms. The Richmond Road ran tlirough Mr. Stewart's. The city has 
grrown out on the Reed property as RocheSterville. The Experimental 
Farm has absorbed the Lewis and Kennedy lands, those owned by 
Donald and Alexander Kennedy, or a portion of all these. Sensible 
men ask what the Dominion Government have to do with agriculture, 
more than with education or the sale of liquor ? Let the provincial 
governments deal with it as with the others. It is one of the usurpations 
submitted to so cheerfully, by the large following of Sir John A-, elected 
on the occasion, when the people were smitten with political blindness, 
and seemed to follow wherever he pointed his wand. That Government 
did usurp the right to eell licenses, till snubbed by the Privy Council. Its 
successors, now in the agonies of conflict, to coerce in education, Mani- 
toba'would stick at nothing in that line. We have carefully consulted 
the farmers on every side; they are unanimous in their opinion, that it 
is an experiment ten times more costly than profitable, that it serves 
neither for ornament nor use, but only to assist in beggaring the people. 
No practical farmer can adopt its plans, unless he has an income behind 
it to carry out the projects, and then he would be the loser every year. 
A gentleman from Quebec said he need not take home his horses after 
they stood some hours in the equi-palatial stables of the Experimental 
as he would not be able to get them to enter their own poor establish 
ment under the whip. Sell the farm, and pension the experimenters, 
who would never earn their salt on that place. 

John Bower Lewis could aot make his farm pay, under the careful 
management of Thomas Clarke, and several good hands employed with 
him, and gave it up after making some loss, by his finest of shorthorns 
and sheep, and other stock. To get the plainest living off a farm now, 
you must work it yourself, at the rate of fourteen hours a day. The 
day may come when tampering with agriculture by the Dominion gov- 
ernment to make place, office and salary will be cheerfully abandoned. 
Mr. Stevensons' place lies next the Experimental Farm. It is now the 
property of Mr. and Mrs. McTierney, daughter and son-in-law of Mr. 
Ste\ enson. Mrs. Stevensoh is still alive, residing with her younge.st 
daughter and husband, Mr. Stewart Rev. Mr. Whillins lives opposite 
Mr. McTierney, on the upper end of the Stewart farm. Mr. Shillington 
has Johnston Brown's old farm and orchard. Messrs. Whyte, Taylor, 
Caldwell, Scotts, Booth, Baynes, Nelsons, Olmsteads, Nesbitts, Clarke's, 
Hoppers, Moffats, McFarlands, all good farmers, are largely in the milk 
business. John Dawson, nephew of the old bachelor pioneer, has taken, 
s^reat interest in municipal affairs, and with his sons, has recently bought 
out the store of the late George Arnold, of pleasant memory, who had 
kept it for, say fifty years. John Robertson began a store there, and 
one of his daughters kept it for some time. Kenneth' McKaskill held it 
a time, and went from it to Stittsville, to the store built by Howard & 
ThoiTipson, in which he was succeeded by Mr. Sproule. 

Mr. Arnold rebuilt after the calamitous fire of 1870, facing the west 
instead of the north as formerly. His sons have sold to the Dawsons 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY ' S7 

and live in the city. The old stone church (Presbyterian) seems tc have 
been all that escaped the fire. The people took refuge in it, and held 
It some days till they made provision for building again. The first ses- 
sion was composed of Geo. Arnold, Thomas McKay Robertson and 
Hugh Gourlay. The latter went to the Carp session, Robert Moody 
was chosen after Mr. Arnold. The church was a union of Presbyterians, 
Episcopalians, and Methodists. The subscription showed what each 
gave, so that if necessary, each could claim the principal without inter- 
est. Subscribers have lots in the yard ten by twenty feet, non-subscrib- 
ers could purchase such at ten dollars. It was not a mine of wealth like 
Beechwood. The union worked a long time, but broke up at length,. 
without quarrelling at least openly. The worst elements prevent the 
union in the church. Good Christians should not suffer this. Are the 
evil elements necessary ? Is division a necessity ? Should the love of 
truth and honesty not pervade all men ? Election to office should give 
a deeper sense of responsibility. Virtue is more honorable tlian vice, 
self-denial than indulgence, benevolence than selfishness. 

Election to office fills some with pride, self-conceit, arrogance, to en- 
able them the better to oppress, plunder, tyrannise and ruin, and 
haughtily, live on the earnings of their down-trodden fellowmen. Arc 
the clergy and legislators to be the leeches of society, casting aside the * 
fear of God, and making void the offices he has appointed for the well 
being of his intelligent creatures, and which such appointees ought 
honestly and truthfully to fill? Are the most untruthfn,! the most dis- 
honest to fill our parliaments and our pulpits ? What is to become of 
the nation if its leaders, are lovers of lies, wealth, strangers, brandy and 
wine; covetous, addicted, to every kind of immorality ? They teach lies, 
legislate the public money into the pockets of those who have not 
earned it, and act generally as if they had a license to violate all laws of 
God and man. "The curse of the Lord is in the house of the thief." 
Must our earthly gods so demean themselves, that the wicked curse 
them, and the good dare not defend them, without making themselves 
an abomination to the Lord. When they make themselves despicable ? 
What are men to do ? Copy their example we dare not on pain of per- 
dition. Men who have ''no fear of God before their eyes," are not ex- 
emplary before their nation. These men and their 'admirers and sup- 
porters generally, realise that their destruction comes from themselves, 
that fire comes out of the bramble and devours the cedars. David ex- 
presses himself thus, in dealing with his valient, fearless, but unscrupu- 
lous commander of the forces: "Let there not fail from the house of 
Joab, him that hath an issue, or that is a leper, or that leancth on a staff, 
or that falleth by the sword, or that lacketh bread." v 

-,. How they denou'nce the minister that touches these offenders. He 
is lio Christian. He is ignorant of the Scriptures. Vile slanderer. Is 
it sl&nder to speak the truth ? Is it jiist to suppress the truth by keep- 
ing silent ? Must true. men by lying, cover the wickedness of bad men ? 
This would be charity with a vengeance. When an M. P. tells you, re- 
garding the propoSfil of one on the side of his opponents to improve any 
thing, he is not sincere, he does not mean it, do you not conclude that . 
the man is showing himself, speaking what he has learned from his own 
party. Suopose the whole is acting, and only to get money, if the man 



SS tilSTORY OF THfe OTTAWA VALLET I 

I 

and his dishonest gains perish together, where is the profit ? You say, 
it serves such people right that choose such a "Ben Bakar" to represent 
them in church or state. True perhaps. But the deterioration goes on 
for an age, morals are obliterated, poverty reigns, ignorance and vice are 
enthroned, falsehood and injustice triumph. For a remedy, let the dolt 
of a do little clergyman study. Let the thieving politician restore just 
what he took, not even two fold. Let both be t'ruthful and honest and 
society will soon begin to prosper. The bad example of these is the 
plague of leprosy, that contaminates the multitude, that brings loath- 
some death to the unthinking and the unwary. The bribers and the 
bribed, should be marked out and not permitted either to get or give a 
vote for have a life time. The minister who employs his congregation 
four or five nights in the week in formal routine meetings, instead of 
pursuing their industry, and reading and collecting information, whilst . 
he leisurely writes and reads them, the popular themes on Sunday, 
should be sent to Georgia to hoe corn and raise melons. These are the 
jurors that pronounce a case "guilty but not proven." These are the 
men that extract the sdng from religion to make it so pleasant that all 
men speak well of them. 

Our politicians have contrived to multiply departments, that are of 
no advantage to the governed, model farms, that waste our means with- 
out returning an equivalent, models that could not be copied, except as 
fancy farms, bj' gentlemen of great wealth, who are not to the fore, or 
exceedingly rare, and who benefit only a few employees. The people 
are led by tlse nose for years then cursed for sending such representa- 
tives to the legislatures of their country. The pressure of these times 
will cause men to think and act. Reformation not revolution is now an 
absolute necessity. The observance of the one may save us from the 
other. The multiplication ot departments is the extention of patronage 
and the increase of supporting voters. The salaries of Government 
members and employees are out of alt proportion with the salaries or 
earnings of the people who are taxed to make up these high salaries. 
The salaries of the legislative and the executive, the employees and 
fees of the professions must be lowered," their numbers diminished and 
economy pursued or the country grown so large headed and top heavy 
will topple over and become a ruin. The early U. E. L. settlers were 
largely soldiers or sympathisers with them, the disbanded soldiers were 
the other large element in the population. Out of these arose the family 
compaqt. That has degenerated into despots and slaves, millionaires 
and paupers. Can these glaring facts be denied or explained away ? 

Could any one believe, that in a half century, such political and re- 
ligious degeneracy could take place, had his own eyes not witnessed it ? 
The high-handed thefts are no longer concealed, cabinet ministers de- 
fend them, and declare they would repeat them. This is a lamentable 
piece of our history. Let it be hoped it will never repeat itself here 
again. Many of the liberty-loving pioneers never anticipated this de- 
generacy. They came in one by one, or sometimes in small companies, 
andtook lot after lot, resolved on making a living, b.y good, honest in- 
dustry, voluntarily supporting their little schools, improving their roads 
and crosslay log bridges as they could, urging and labouring to keep 
taxation within reasonable bounds. In this they succeeded; but to a 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY Jg 

limited extent, for very much to their dislike, they saw a "Ben Bakar" 
rise and steal power and influence, involving their young country in 
fatal consequences. We can name several gentlemen, whose protests 
were heard, and helped to modify materially the condition of thin ^s, 
t3f»og*h Ifjere men have been in the minority in the Ottawa Vall/y. 
The present tone of the community is i-ising into an indication that th jse 
methods of plunder must be abandoned that honest men must be se- 
lected to be our standard-bearers, that tamely submitting to be insulted aid 
plundered is not a virtue. 

South of Bell's Corners dwelt a man of immense brain power, aid 
the most prominent man as merchant, lumberer, and farmer successful 
in all, and whose heart was as kind as his head was clear. His ashes 
have slept for years, but it does us good at this date to bear a true testi- 
mony to his undoubted talents and real genuine worth. John Robert- 
son was born in Perthshire, Scotland, and came to this country in 1827, 
and took up the land now occupied by his son, Thomas McKay Robcrc- 
son. Some of his sons are deceased many years. One of these, Ebcno- 
zer, gave early signs of the greatest promise as an enterprising business 
man, raised great expectations in his parent's minds, which, had he be mi 
spared, we believe he would have fully, met or exceeded. It seem .J 
the loss of him to his father was irreparable. It prostrated and nearly 
killed that man of great mind. We do not mean in speaking thus to 
say that John Robertson had no defeats or faults (all men have). But 
-to a thinking mind the excellencies hid the defects. It would never oc- 
cur to such to hunt them up. Some have dwelt on them, made much 
of them. But they had their own defects and blemishes, whilst they 
could not lay claim to one tithe of his towering genius. His wife was 
not like him, though a distant connection of his own. She was cool, in- 
telligent, kind-hearted, well informed and good, a woman ampng' a 
thousand. ^ John Robertson died about 1880. 

Thomas, one of the surviving sons, is on the fine old homestead. 
He is not young enough to become vain by any stat'iment of mine. 
But in my estimate he is a well balanced, steady man, not perhaps so in- 
'• genious or tentative as his father, but a good farmer. He is-kind-liearted, 
liberal minded, and sincerely upright. He has been long a widower, 
wish some children, modest like himself; the only daughter, an admirable 
housekeeper, and the boys excellent workers on the farm. George, one 
son, died ere he reached his manhood. George, the youngest brother, 
kept store for some time at Bell's Corners, and then went to Oregon, 
U. S. Mr. Robertson had two daughters. One was very fair. Shei 
married Wm. Goodfellow. I was not so well aquainted with her as 
with her sister Mary. She was considered at 16 or 17, the most beauti- 
ful girl in- the Ottawa country. She married Mr. James Brown, a lum- 
berer, and a widower, with a family of sons and a daughter, all of wliom 
did well. 

Mr. Brown lived but a short ;time, leaving his beautiful young widow 
with one bright boy, an infant then; but who developed into the enter- 
prising Eb. Brown, grocer, of Sparks strefet. Mr. Brown had two 
brothers, David and John. The latter married the second daughter of 
Rev. D. Evans, of Richmond; they Hved in the region of White Lake, 
lumberers. Mrs. Brown, after a number of years, married the widower, 



60 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Wm. Pollock, and has a large family of sons. Mr. Pollock died in 1892. 
We have regarded Mrs, Pollock as a woman of rare excellence, highly 
gifted, full of good sfense, and good works. John Robertson, of whose 
family we have spoken nothing but truth, of whose good qualities, we 
had the most intimate knowledge, began his life in Canada, after mak- 
• ing a little home for his family in Nepean, as an overseer of the vi^orks of. 
the Rideau canal. Thomas McKay and John Redpath, of Montreal, 
had the contract, and from their knowledge of Mr. Robertson's engineer- 
ing skill, employed him. 

The Perth silk-weaver soon showed his acquaintance with mason 
work, and brought the canal eventually to a grand success. Redpath 
and McKay had to cart home, in Mexican silver half dollars, etc., their 
part of the profits of the contract. Robertson had only good wages and 
a name worth much, and some experience. After the canal was finished, .< 
Mr. Robertson began storekeeping and lumbering. His acquaintance , 
with the Gilmours was of service to him. He often spoke of them with 
a warmth of affection you would hardly credit to a cool Scotchman. 
The field of his operation was on the Bonechere, west of the Round 
Lake. He has told us of losing himself in hunting groves and repeating 
aloud the Psalms, his heart beating to the sentiments they contained, 
and believing that his voice was more likely to chase the wild animals 
than attract them. This would occupy his attention till he came on 
some road or trace that led him to the shanty. He never was out over 
night. His accounts of the Gilmours gave me a fine impression of them 
before our acquaintance was made. But whatever Mr. Robertson did 
in other lines, he was intensely interested' in farming. He had great 
potash works, turned the leached ashes on the land, then dry ashes, 
buying from everybody around. 

One poor fellow lost his life walking into the hot lye. . He was> 
rescued, but lived only a few hours. Agricultural chemistry (Johnston's) - 
he had almost in his memory. He bought up almost everything printed 
in English or French on agriculture. He sent to London, England, for 
a ton of sulphate of ammonia for plant food on the farm or as a fertilizer. 
He under drained so much that some American, visiting the place, pre- 
dicted that when large clearings would be made, his land would be use- 
less in drought. He concluded the fulfilment of such predictions must 
be far, far away. Three large hemlock poles made the piping for his 
first drains, and he discovered 23 years after, that when he cut through ^ 
one, the poles were fresh and peeled like as if they had been cut in June. ^ 
Then he sawed plank to make boxes, two on edge, 3 inches by i^ and 
the cover 6 by I ^ nailed on. Others hollowed out the drain bottom 
and laid pieces, split like shingles, and a foot long, across; the ends rest- 
ing oh the bank, then covered all in. At length tiles came. My 
brothers have many drains with pieces across the earth hollowed out 
below for the water to run. Cheese making claimed his attention later, 
at which with 60 or 70 cows he was a success. He followed it up scien- 
tifically, found that ten pounds of milk made one pound of cheese 
twenty-five pounds of nfilk, one pound of butter. We have had no end 
of advice from the cabinet minLsrers to go iijto mixed farming as if they 
knew anything about it or as if it were something they had just dis- 



HISTORY OF TaE OTTAWA VALiK 6l 

covered.^ Such insincerity seems to pass current and serve their pur- 
pose and keep the shams in perpet'ial power. 

John Robertson had anticipated all this and fifty years ago de- 
clared it openly as nothing new. The hired girls milked 60 cows and 
Mr. and Mrs, Robertson made the cheese. A visit to his farm forty-five 
years since would have shown these lawyer-farmers the practical work- 
ing of what they have only read in periodicals. He kept so carefully 
accounts of all his outlay on the whole crops of the farm, that he could 
by a look at his books, give you at once a statement of what every hun- 
dred pounds cost that grew or was raised on the whole farm. He was 
very successful in the application of liquid manners, dropped or run 
from a barrel on his root crops. Ensilage and mixed grasses were the 
only things of our day that he had not tested. A description of the 
flora and fauna is not to be neglected in the history of any land, but the 
success of its hard working and close continuous thinking, and maturing 
plans for the performance by its people ought to be recorded for the 
benefit of posterity. We owe so much to the thinking men and 
women, as binds us to cherish their memory, and note their modes of 
successful action and operation. His land was swamp and had to 
be raised by drains that doubled its value. 

On returning home we discovered a whole cheese under the scat of 
our buggy. When speaking of it to his wife she said: "If ye hadn't 
been a favorite you would not have got it." Scotchmen are proverbial 
for the control of their emotions but he was a man of deep feelings. 
We have witnessed this on many occasions. But he disclaimed any 
svmpathy when the terrible fire swept all his buildings and crops away. 
fle said he had plenty in the bank. He never rebuilt the ruins. His 
religious views were clear and well defined, that in believing and giving 
credit to the truth that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, 
our sins are forgiven in his substitutionary sufferings, and that we ■ begin 
our life of righteousness from our forgiveness — that the invisible spirit 
leads us in that life of obedience — that the uncreated One is infinite in 
love, power, goodness, etc., carrying out his plans, in his works of crea- 
tion and providence and redemption; extending to every thing even the 
minutest in creation. But with this strong stand on the divine side, he 
was equally clear an the human side, holding that our responsibilities, to 
care, labor, and exertion, can never be shaken off; that every thing of 
duty within the bounds of human possibility should be performed. This 
is the creed of millions and should be that of the race. 

The Thompsons had to remove boulders for fences and drains, and 
level down hills and fill hollows, to make their lands the beautifiul 
level fields that almost smile in your eyes as you pass them. The 
Davidsons, Nesbitts, Grahams, Gourlays, Richardson, Morgans, Grants, 
Hartins, Bradleys, and a thousand others, had soils ready to the plow, 
more easily cultivated, in some cases richer in qua,lity; but John Robert- 
son, with his low-level, stiff, clay soil, was at once the most scientific, 
and the most successful agriculturist in the Ottawa Valley f The disas- 
trous fire of 1870, that ran over fourteen townships, swept away from 
him the labors of a lifetime- His splendid dwelling house, with barns, 
stables, feeding houses of every kind, were consumed; all save his live 
•>ock that roamed over unfenced fields, green turnips, crop plots, potato 



i6j2 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

fields, in that August drought, maddened with the pain of being un- 
milked for days as we saw them, and heard their bellowing groans that 
moved our pity to beg the hired girls, whom we met as we drove past, 
to milk them, for once on the ground, promising them pay for their 
trouble. We are always sorry to see these ruins as we pass, they wake 
up so many old associations and reflections. Between Honeywells and 
Bell's Corners, for several years the only settlers were. Capt. Le Breton, 
William Bell, Sergeant Vincent, Mr. Bearman, grandfather of the pres- 
ent generation, with his good old lady, both a little inclined to Quakeri- 
son, and Robert Boyd, carpenter, a thin line drawn o„t .scarcely within 
hearing distance of each other by the sound of a long tin horn. 

Nepean township covered the site of the city before there was a 
city, town or village. The first Mrs- Honeywell taught school for the 
very few families then in the place. Burrows seems to have taught a 
kind of military school for the children of the people under Col. By, 
who was a kind of governor, in his little coterie. But the first school- 
house was raised near Robertson's as he boarded the teacher or teach- 
ers free of cost for years. We remember he proposed to spend what he 
would have to pay in board, for his two grandsons, W. Goodfellow, and 
Ebenezer B. Brown at Ottawa, if we could procure him a fit teacher, 
and add this to his salary in the section. We-sent him the man and he 
was there over twenty years. Stories were told of a wooden church 
built and supplied at his own expense by a Mr. Burroughs, who was 
pious and preached free, a plan that highly recommends itself at this 
day could it be carried out. There was a lull in the canal works and 
Redpath and McKay built, with the idle men, the first stone church 
where St Andrew's now stands. The locks a;'d bridge were finished 
before we saw the country in 1833, and a litt!.- graveyard lay about 
where the church stands with a road lying south around it. But Hull 
was the graveyard for years, at the first for both sides. McKay was an 
elder respected highly in the church, and we often met John Redpath 
in synod; a very strong man. He afterwards went into the refining of 
sugar and left great riches. Thomas McKay was afterwards an Honor- 
able in the legislature of the provinces. 

Rev. McKenzie, of Williamstown, seems to have been the first 
Protestant or Presbyterian minister that preached in Bytown. He also 
baptised Thomas Robinson, the first boy born and baptised in the little 
village. Mrs. Friel, daughter of Daniel O'Connor, afterwards county 
treasurer, was the first girl born in Bytown. Lyman Perkins built his 
first blacksmith shop beside the little graveyard, and Donald McLeod 
built his in the country, beside Francis Davidson's, east of the stoney 
swamp. ^The Catholics working on the canal, formed a settlement and 
bulk a church farther east, near the present Methodist and Presbyterian 
church. South of Mr. Robertson's were two very unassuming farmers, 
James Mcintosh and Francis Abbott, The former left early, the latter 
raised a large family of sons and daughters. The sons located in various 
places and followed various occupations. One daughter married Mr. 
John Nelson, a very strong farmer in Nepean on the Rideau. . Their 
eldest son is Presbyterian minister in Bristol,. Quebec province. The 
family, so numerous, were very musical in you'.hful dayi. Mr. Marsde^ 
kn old salt that escaped from his ship and went round teaching vocal 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 63 

music, was wont to declare when the "Habbotts took hall the parts Hi 
was in my helement and the ole thing was 'evenly." They were a very 
agreeable pleasant family, the best of neighbors. 

"Frank" was till lately in office on the Rideau canal. Frank-^we 
like to use the term of boyhood, and he will not object — well,, we have 
been friends for many years, and never anything else, and we wish thee 
a long and happy career of many years yet, and then a happy exit and 
everlasting glory; and have we any old friends of those days that we 
would not associate with thee in the wish ? Not one. We are finding 
this Nepean a large place and much of it yet to survey. We go back 
to the Flats. Capt. LeBreton got thdse Flats. Some say he built a 
mill here. We have; no recollection of it, but we often visited his mill, 
at what is now Britannia, which had a great run of customers for"* many 
years. The Captain was English and patronized mostly his country- 
men in his employ, so that you could with your young ear distinguish 
several English dialects in the conversations among the hands. Britan-. 
nia. of to-day is a small riverside retreat where distinguished citizens re- 
sort to for fresh air and bathing. Houses with three or more rooms can 
be had for the season at moderate amounts, and people who live in good 
large houses in the city can get much closer together there and enjoy 
in wooden walls on the beautiful currents of the Deschenes rapids. We 
have several of these watering places within easy range of the city. 
Could some of our early pioneers rise from their dusty beds and shake 
off the daisies, and look at the luxuries enjoyed by their great grand- 
children, they would be wonderfully, charmed and delighted. 

Near the southwest corner of Nepean-lived Henry Warran, a Pres- 
byterian. He lumbered, and soon became so acquainted mth the river 
that he was a safe pilot for years. Some of his family live in the 
Gatineau country, but most of them went west. Samuel Courtney, 
whose sister in-law was Mrs. Thompson of the wealthy family in the 
shoe store business in Montreal, lived east of Warren, and Henry 
Bishop, father of Mr. Bishop, of Wellington street, had a fine place and 
sandstone quarries, out of which very much of the decoration of the 
parliament and other buildings of the city was produced, which lay be- 
tween Courtney's and Pollock's. The Tierneys settled west of the Da- 
vidsons. Their descendants are there, fond of fine horses and cultiva- 
ting very beautiful farm.s on that pleasant southern slope of the town- 
ship. Coming from Bell's Corners to the Scott settlement, you pass be- 
hind H^a re's and Watson's on the sandy hills, to Dan Hobbs, a well de- 
veloped Irishman, whose sons, with their brother-in-law, James Hof.g, a 
Scot, gave and took some hard and heavy blows in the days of the 
Shiners. One of the Watson girls married a young teacher, who was 
decidedly the best in methods and qualifications we ever met in a com- 
mon school in our days of superintendent. 

Pie developed the young Hares, (whose mother was a Shillington,) 
the Grahams and others, "into bright scholars, who afterwards became doc- 
tors, clergymen and profe-ssors, and their sisters, clergymen's wives of a 
superior order of intellect and refinement. Close by. Ho^bbs'. is, tkg. resi- 
dence of Isaac Plunkett, an o]d Irish — ne of Prench-Huguenoc extrac- 
tion. Orat;crs of the -riarns Kave tigured at the Irish bar, and on the 
bench for generations, The Plunketts, father, sons and grandsons, hivfe 



6| HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

developed well their farm, built good structures on it, and now furnish 
milk for city use, whilst John, one grandson, is making himself a name 
and a place in the grocery business on Wellington street. Close by him 
lived a Frenchman, Antoine Lemoine, an honest enterprising fellow, 
who married Miss Mary, eldest daughter of Thomas Lang. He became 
a Presbyterian with his wife, and raised a family of fourteen prosperous 
sons and daughters, two of whom are wives of two cousins, Nesbitts. 
The Lemoine boys, of say a dozen, all except one or two, stayed in the 
country, and have done much for its prosperity. Some of them are 
now in the United States. Several brothers of the Nesbitts, who all 
raised large families, occupy a great space of the country in their des- 
cendants, who have built fine durable stone houses and raised fine.ani- 
mals"^ John Nesbitt, who lived to be very aged, was long an elder in 
the church. 

John Clarke, some of whose sons are there and a multitude of grand- 
sons, was, long an elder. One son, John, was a great lover of horseflesh ;"'; 
in Clydesdale and American blood; enriched the people and himself by 
the great improvement in stock. The late Mr. Reilly of Richmond, ^^_ 
and the father of the writer, did also contribute largely to the improve- ' jf 'i 
ment of horses in the Ottawa valley from the days of Farmer and Hurd- ""'■ 
man of Hull. Stewart is now Hull's greatest horseman. John Thomp- 
son, James David.=on, John Clarke, Wm Gourlay, Richard Kidd, Thos. 
Graham, Hugh Gourlay, John B. Lewis and Thomas Clarke, have during 
40 years contributed the most to increase the value of shorthorns and to 
develop and popularize the Durhams as a valuable, profitable race of 
cattle. Didsberry, an Englishman, first introduced the stock on the 
Ottawa. Hon. Thomas McKay, Wm. Byers, John Gourlay and after" ' 

him Hugh Gourlay and Allen Grant have done most to popularize that 

valuable milking race, the Ayrshires. wm 

Plantagenet and Ramsay yearly present fine specimens of Ayrshire ;™"" 
stock, whilst the M. P. for Russell, Mr. Edwards, has perhaps the best 
. lot of Durhams now in the whole Ottawa Valley. Tiventy-five or thirty 
years ago Robert Kenney of Hull, sustained for years the highest repu- " ' 
tation in Durham stock and long wooled sheep. In this latter article, 
John Nesbitt, known as Lord John, was among the first to raise long 
wooled sheep of good size and quality. John Thompson, Hugh Gour- 
lay, Samuel Sisson, Thomas and Wm. Graham, William Gourlay of 

Fitzroy, Robert Alexander's sons and a few others have been the lead- 

ing sheep risers and with Robert Kenny of Hull, . and Wm. Kemp of 
Goulbourn, have all expended time and money and pains to produce 
the best in Cotswolds, Leicesters, Lincolns, and the families of the 
downs. Merivale is not a village but a succession of fine farm houses. 
John Nesbitt is now dead. Robert Baine, who is an elder, is a great, 
milkman, with a great family. One son is a mmister in A-shton. One 
was a medical student and died at college in Montreal, very much re- 
gretted as a fine young man. The late Thomas Clarke, son of Elder 
Clarke, was a very successful stock man, took great interest in the affairs 
of the township and county, and left a large family. James Caldwell 
has been a very eminent and successful man as farmer and milkman. 
His parents were most highly -especced for hdncsty, piety, good citizen- 
ship and general exceilenry. The family have all been pillars in th^ 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA . VALLEY 65 

Methodist church, and one of the most musical families In the land; they 
succeeded the Campbells now of Campbell's Bay, on their lands m 
Huntley. 

The late John Boyce was long a teacher of the first order in the 
Merivale schoolhouse, leaves a large family of enterprising people be- 
hind him. He also took a great interest in municipal affairs. About 
fifty years ago a Presbyterian church of sided logs was built in the 
centre of that rich settlement, and after occasional supplies for some 
time, the first minister ordained at Ashton, April, 1851, was installed 
there and for 17 years, ministered to the people with some degree of ac- 
ceptance and success. Many were added to the church, and five young 
men, who are talented and acceptable preachers in the church, were 
from that field. Many of the young men of those families in that field 
are good farmers, mechanics, merchants, and professional men. Their 
present pastor is the second they have had in forty years. Bell's Cor- 
ners; a part of the charge, has some faithful people, long ruled by Elder 
George Arnold, who is no more among them. T." Robertson and Mr. 
Moody are now their elders. The whole congregation is most flourish- 
ing with a fine new church in Merivale, and the old stone church at the 
corners is still true to the old Presbyterian cause. 

Mr. Whillans has another station with a little church on the Rich- 
mond Road, about three miles out of town, a little west of the John 
Heney farm, formerly that of Peter Aylen, whose P. A. V. still shows 
his. mark on the stone barn. This is a fine plain between the two lines 
of railway, the C- P. R. and the Parry Sound. Peter Aylen was a great 
lumberer and long known asking of the shiners. Peter, went afterwards 
to Hull, and was a specialty as a gardener, farmer, architect, and great 
engrafter and budder in the orchard line. This family consisted of three 
sonsand adanghter. Two of them were lawyers, one a doctor. Peter 
married the ejdest daughter of the late C. Symmes, Esq., and their fam- 
ily of sons are in prominent places, one being like his father very distin- 
guished in the law. The late Peter Aylen was a man of fine parts, of 
liberal education, a kind-hearted warm friend. His wife, is a sober-minded, 
well-balanced superior women of excellent taste and refinement. 

Hon. James Skead built a great steam saw mill on the river side, 
west of Aylen's old place, and carried on business for some time in lum- 
ber. Both he and his brother Robert lumbered extensively and were 
of great service to the country. James was a very honorable man, in- 
dependent of his title as a manber of the"tegislative council. His only 
son married Miss Mooi'e, daughter of David Moore of Hull, the wealthi- 
est lumberman on the Ottawa, next to James McLaren. The rest of 
his family were daughters, all beautiful. The eldest was Mrs. Wright. 
Their fine residence attracted the attention of all passers on the Aylmer 
road. One of Mr. Robert Skead's sons married Miss Brough and went 
to Manitoba, Another married Miss Munroe, the handsome daughter 
of a Presbyterian clergyman in the easte' n provinces, and is now engaged 
in mien mi:r'r;:y on the Gatineai', /not}>er son resides in the city and 
takes a great interest in the welfare of the church of which he is an es- 
teemed member and elder, also an employ of the Government. 

On the road leading to March Messrs. George Oaks,,William Purdie, 
Andrew Graham, lumberer, Thomas and John Graham, farmers. The 



66 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

former told the boys that he brouffht fifty pounds worth of fish hooks 
from Ireland when he came out, of course he could have matched Lord 
■Stanley of Preston. John Ncsbitt, farmer, one of the finest horsemen, 
(calle'd Lord John), was married to a Miss Davidson and had a large 
family of sons' and daughters. One son lives in the old homestead, mar- 
ried to a Miss Humphrl^y's. One lives in Torbolton, married to a Miss 
Watts. One resides near Richmond. They are all well-doing, manag-, 
ingfjtrmers. One dautrhter is Mrs. W. McBride, another is Mrs. David 
Wilson, and Mrs. Wm.'Gourlay of Fitzroy is another. They are all in 
most respectable circumstances. The youngest son of the last marriage 
is Mr. Colburn Nesbitt of Aylmer, .Que., whose wife is a Miss Pritchard, 
very prosperous in their affairs. 

One of the Shouldice family lives west of Mr. Nesbitt and with Mr. 
Christian, fills up to' the Messrs. Beatty at the to\yn line of March. Be- 
tween Mr. Hugh Bells, which escaped the fire with the church, and Mr. 
Chapman's, east of, the stoney swamp, a long thick bush, regarded as 
little worthless frog ponds, and swales, with stones protruding through 
whatever soil was not under, and even what was under water, the tim- 
bers swamp, elm, cedar, balsam, hemlock and small spruce unattractive. 
Next to this the Davidson settlement, where Mr. Francis Davidson with 
his large family of sons and daughters had large possessions and lum- 
bered extensively for years. Mr. Samuel Davidson took an active part 
in the direction of affairs in the township, being Reeve for many years, 
and of much value in the county council. They were all good farmers, 
with the best of land and the purest stock in cattle, sheep and hogs. 
Samuel and Hugh married sisters, daughters of Mr. John Bell, merchant 
from Clonis, Cavian, Irelan*. James married a Miss Alexander and 
they had a large family of sons and daughters. The eldest daughter is 
Mrs. Thomas Graham, her husband being the eldest son of Mr. John 
Graham, P. M., of Huntley. 

Some of the others are married in the city, as Mrs. Champhness 
whose husband is in the customs of Her Majesty in the city; some of the 
sons are farmers. Mr. Samuel Davidson's sons are druggists and dentists, 
in good practice here. Mr. Francis Davidson belonged to a very respect- 
able family in the north of Ireland, s'ome of his brothers talented Presby- 
terian ministers. Beyond this seitiement are Mackeys^ and Eadies. All 
these with their numerous neighbors contributed to the development of 
the country and the formation of society in the first half, especially the 
second quarter of the present century. Mr. Peter Campbell built a large 
stone house on the 2nd concession, Otcawa front, the best then in the 
whole range, as the shanties began lo be replaced,^ and was a resident 
for many years. The house is now in the possession of one of the 
Honeywells. Mr John, son of Wm. Bell, married a Miss Campbell. 
Opposite Mr. Campbell on Rideau front awelt Mr Dan Hobbs, with a. 
large family of sons and daughters. One daughter married James Hogg- 
a Scot, who widi tiie brotiiersin law, all powerful young men, got into- 
frequent conflicts wiih ihe. Shiners dealt and received many a heavy 
blow in these enjunnLcrs. The Shiners were raftsmen, chiefly Irish, em- 
ployed in the luiiib<.r, rough and ready for a conflict when mellowed 
with potieen. 'L'hty cropper tlit cars off a horse belonging to Mr. Hobbs, 
that might be sten mAuy a yc^r 5 iter o.i the highway bearing the marks^ 



HISTORY OP THE OTTAWA YALLBJK, 6f 

of these Vandals. They had to walk from the foot np to the head of the 
rapids in running their timber cribs, and were open for a challenge aay 
day. 

James Hogg who was fierce as an eagle and fearless as a Kon, was 
living near by and on hand to help to settle scores with the Shiners. 
These latter were in such bad order that many another daring spirit 
stepped in to help to give a good account of them when not too numer- 
ous. When whiskey was in they were not much in the habit of reckon- 
ing numbers on either side. In summer time the river was nearly 
covered with raits, that were being taken to Quebec, each having its 
swarm of hands, in some cases all the crew, Shiners, as they got on better 
alone than mixed, for they regarded the French, though co-religionists, 
as a kind of rivals that must be looked after and kept in bounds, as well 
as the landlubbers round these rapids or in the villages on the river. 

Bernard Hughes had a large family peacably disposed, avoiding the 
Shiners and mixing themselves up in no quarrels. Mess pork sometimes 
sold from forty to even fifty dollars a barrel, and the story was told of a 
farmer who had purchased a large stock of herrings in barrels, which he 
fed very freely to his men on the farm. The thing, to use the western 
phrase, became monotonous. Remonstrances were made in vain agaiiwt 
using them so often. One of the hands got a newspaper, a rare thing at 
that time, and folding up a rusty herring, started to show it to Judge 
Armstrong, highly esteemed as one of our first Judges, an honest pains- 
taking gentleman. The employer followed the man, begging, entreating, 
then energetically remonstrating wkh him to return as they neared the 
Judge's place ; On on 2 condition would he return, provided a weather 
was killed and the provisions diversified. They went on a little farther 
and the farmer at length gave in. They returned, the ftit sheep was 
dressed, part of it cooked for the evening meal, and the strike was de- 
clared off. 

Two brothers, Plunkett, one the grandfather of John, the merchant, 
on Wellington street, got their lands in Nepfean. Near the Plunketts 
were the Switzei-s, one of whom is a merchant now in town. The Evans 
of whom a son is storekeeping in Rochesterville, and a sister has prop- 
erty in quarry lime and stone. The oid gentleman is yet living who 
seemed to be a middle-aged man fifty years ago. He tells me he has a 
cousin a Bishop. His family were very intelligent and cultivated. 

The Leslie family are close by, one of whom was the sepond wife of 
Mr. Thomas Clarke, a fine wife and mother. One son, William, lived 
up the Gatineau, married a Miss Gibson of Masham. They were a nice 
family. A half sister, Mary Jane Lark, lived in our house for years, an 
upright girl, and came back with her husband to get married by me at 
Aylmer, she died in middle life. Mr. John Boyce was one of'the early 
teachers in Merivale, as they now term it was much interested inmunici- 
pal affairs afterwards. His family occupy good positions as able and 
independent farmers. Between' 1828 and 1833 Hugh Bell, the O'Grady's, 
Gfcorge Sparks, John Davidson, Timothy McCarthy, John Tierney, and 
Malcom McLeod, blacksmith, came to their lands. The writer in the 
atlas says, there were only five schools in the county in 1833, but he 
must have been misinformed. There were two in Huntley that year, 



§8 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEV 

two in March, one targht by Mf> Bish6p, grandfather of the Lawyer 
Bishop, and one at Capt. Streets. 

In Ntpean, there was one at Mr. John Robertsons, and one in the 
village of Bytown. Besides Mrs. Honeywell taught in her own house. 
Preacher Jones taught and preached in his first shanty in North Gower, 
and the Burritts settled at the rapids about three or four years before 
the end of 1800, and had children born there in the last century, one of 
whom at fourteen taught school and he was the second teacher they 
had. Then a Miss Burritt was a tutor in Mr. Braddish Billings and, a 
very young girl at that time, and the children of the surrounding fami- 
lies'were included in the little school. Then Mr. Shirriffhad one taught 
at the Chats which made eleven in 1833, for Mr. Shirriff had removed 
from there to Bytown to the Crown Timber office before 1833. 

It is a poor method of writing history if you have any regard for 
truth, to sit down in your easy chair and correspond with people at a 
distance for your material, to construct your work for posterity. Mc- 
Leods, Mowatts, Hamils, Steinsons, Colwels, Lemoines, and some others 
filled up to the border along Rideau front. After the canal was finished, 
many went and settled east of Davidson's settlement, and built the 
Catholic church close to which, and almost together stand a little 
Presbyterian and Methodist churches of brick, where one would do well 
were the people united. Along the Jock or Good Wood you meet 
Craigs, Monaghans, O'Mearais, Keives, Kilrays, Costalos, Cassidays and 
Conr.oys, Moylans, Quenlands and Watters, O'Grady's and Greens, 
Heffernans' Hoolaghans, Kelly's and McLaughlans, with many others 
who all set themselves to clear lands, build heuses and fences, accord- 
ing to the order of the times. Beyond this circle were the Hawleys, 
Latimers, Henderson, Browns and Nesbitts. T. G. Anderson came to 
Bell's Corners, then to Hintonburgh; McDonalds, Bradleys, James Smith, 
the great horsebuyer. 

He was going to a fair at Bell's Corners, his man wanted to go and 
purchase a cow which he would not permit, but set him to plant a new 
kind of potatoes he had got. The man worked away doggedly, planted 
a good part, then buried the rest in a pit, got to the fair and brought 
home his cow. James did not discover the thing till the mass of stalks 
discovered themselves by showing above gr6und, almost too late to dis- 
tribute them. The Lenaghans, Brennans, and Stapletons, moved in 
later. Mr. William Foster, whose son is a very successful tanner in the 
pretty village of Pembroke, resides here, whose brother Archibald 
Foster of the city, was once in the same region. The Gormans, 
McLeods, were fond of good stock, Durhams and horses. 

Michael Long brought the Blacksmith McLeod a nice piece of 
wood to get made into a pretty sleigh tongue and well ironed. When 
he saw it finished he thought it was reduced too light and said he 
wanted it so strong and solid. McLeod cut a thick elm pole and ironed 
it with the back on, Mike considered it would be fit to draw masts with. 
These were some of the jolly old stems from which the seedliiigs grew 
that cover so large a part of the h»ppy, ©Id, wealthy township of 
Nepean. How many others, as well deserving of a notice; must we 
leave out for want of space ? The Roman CAthoiics left the others far 
HI the rear, ia the inatter and buuneae oi chur<:h building. At Bell's 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 69 

Comers they had a union church, but they are all separate now, and the 
Presbyter; ans hold the old stone building which keeps togjether, but re- 
flects no ere dit on the builder. It was always connected with a church 
in the Nesbitt and Hopper settlement log at first, but replaced by a 
larger and better frame buildin? with a good congregation. They have 
only had two ministers in forty years, which speaks well for the people. 
Outside of the city there are four Presbyterian churches, lour 
Methodist churches, three Episcopal churches and one Catholic church. 
School houses were increased, as the population demanded, sections 
were formed, intellectual,'culture by good teachers, obtained, and en- 
joyed to gratificatioij. There may be some danger of the teachers be- 
coming a guild and proposing certain courses that rnay not be the best 
for human development. If any peculiarity of our mind should be 
neglected or not cultivated in the ^proper time and manner, the individ- 
ual AS not permitted to be what he would be under a better culture. 
The greatest care should be taken to let the mind unfold whatever may 
be in its nature rejecting th,e viqious. The endless school controversies 
are sapping the life of the community- 

We may yet have a government that will rigidly compel five and 
a half or six hour's a day with three hours on Saturday to the branches 
of study, necessary, to a proper education in the common school. It is 
not the church; gor is the church the common school. There is no 
room for the distinction between the civil and sacred, or the sacred and 
secular, except what the clergy get up for a special purpose. If we live, 
move and have our existence in the Great I Am which few will doubt or 
deny, then the boy, is in his line of duty during his study of Arithmetic, 
Geometry, and all mathematical science as far as the due proportion 
can be given them with a view to his calling for which he is being fitted 
and equipped as at his morning or evening or daily prayers. Is it not 
ba'neful that it is not so considered ? Is a religious education only con- 
sisting in the studies of the dogmas as they say of a particular sect, 
then no wonder that our strpets are vocal with neglected illbred children 
on Sundays. 

Their minds have not breadth, they are one sided and that often 
the worst side. Obedience is the first and most essential thing or prin- 
ciple to be taught, nay impressed on the childmind else its days will be 
few and vicious. Does our strife and quarrel arise from our clinging, 
closely to the only rule of faith or our divergence from it to our own 
theories ? Please reply. One man tells you there is no eternal punish- 
ment, another that there is no eternal happiness, but both are levened 
to the centre with the love of money and power. What care they that 
eternal life and eternal death are raj^ealed in the like terms and would 
not, otherwise, have ever bepn discovered. Let them have power lo 
tyrannise over men's right and liberties and trample them under their , 
feet. These men are one sided, their education was neglected or mis- 
formed. The parents, the clergy, the educators, are under fearful re- 
sponsibilities. The caricatures of humanity that we produce in' our 
home schools and colleges, produce all the disorder we groan under, 
keep mankind in the suds ovit of which they do not emerge like Wibcr- 
force (Soapy Sam) with clean hands. In England the governnient "ia 
preparing its own overthrow by a sectarian schoolbill as our govern- 



70 HISVOBV 0^ THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

Boent is m«ddKng to its hurt by the <is(M|3ati<on of a Provincial right, and 
it takes so long to correct bhinde#s and make reflections to no just pur- 
pose. 

At the end of the wars with the French, they had given I^apoleon 
Bonapvarte, the renowned Cersican, and Emperor of the French, a safe 
retreat and comfortable lodgings at the expense of the English, in the 
Isle of St. Helena, the large army was to be reduced to a peace footing; 
so those troops, that had served on this continent, being the last en- 
listed into the service, were the first to be disbanded. Canada having 
come into the possession of the English, as a part of the conquest from 
the French, was to be colonized, and the regiments thait had some notion 
of the country from their short residence in it seemed very willing to re- 
main and settle on the free grants of land then given toind,uce coloniza- 
tion. The officers and men of the 99th and the looth willingly accepted (/^ 
the grants as remuneration for the toils of soldiering, and with their 
pensions hoped to live comfortably and form a new community, a 
greater Britain under the old flag. So they chose Upper Canada, and 
were about to sail from Quebec, where they had been on duty for some 
time, when the Duke of Richmond then appointed Governor General of 
the new provinces sailed into that port. 

We had no Atlantic cable even in our dreams, no ocean greyhounds 
to waft intelligence as on the wings of the wind, some of us not then 
bora. We can only imagine the excitement caused > in the announce- 
ment by the Duke of Richmond himself, of his arrival, ^s the white sails 
were forled, and the anchor dropped in the roadsteads of the St., 
Lawrence, under the frowning guns of the great citadel. He was the 
first and-so far only Duke appointed Governor. All- was Richmond- 
Every hamlet even had a Richmond street and the soldiers sailing out 
were fuM of Richmond and determined with one. consent to call their 
new prospective city Richmond.; The very young port they sailed irjto ♦ 
below the Chaudiere Falls was called Bellow's Landing, but this, they 
threw to the wild tempestuous winds, and called it Richmond Landing. 
Here they moored their little boats and landed their families and house- 
hold goods (i. e., their knapsacks and carpet bags). The little store kept 
by Jehiel, son of Capt. Collins, furnished some things they required and - 
they pitched their tents over the plain, known" for some time as the 
Flats. Here was a collection of fine lac'ies, many of them very fair; 
and gallant gentlemen. 

Among the many beautiful girls, perhaps the most beautiful was the 
then little Miss Hill, that afterwards was the pleasattt wife of Edward 
Malloch, the M. P. for twenty years for Carleton. These colonists did 
not seem to see any attraction in the suiTolindings of the Chaudiere, a 
settlement where the city now stands Most of the place was a cedar 
ifwamp, of deep, thick mud, so soft and watery that the trees might be 
said rather to float than grow on it. T. M. Blasdell, Esq., tells us that 
there was fine duck shooting on the pond, or half lake, where Maria 
street crosses Lyon and Kent streets. He and a young friend had 
waited long one afternoon on the home-coming of the ducks, which for 
reasons unexplained, had prolonged their calls, but home they came at 
' last, were sighted and shot accordingly. But before they had bagged 
jlKeir game, or collected them out of the pond or "blind lake," night. 



HISTORY OF THE OTIAWA VALLEY. ^t 

with its thick darkness, fell npon them; and not knowing which way to 
procees in the dense woods, they concluded they muse remain till morn- 
'"g- A great swamp elm stood' by, against which they could lay their 
heads between the roots, and with leaves and i:oss make it tolerable. 
"^h^y got asleep ajid were awakened by the united vigorous crowing, in 
the hen roost of Mr. Nicholas Sparks, and starting with their bags at 
daylight, following the direction of the sounds, came out all right at'last. 
The Government Hill, and Ashburnham Hill, were then covered with 
hemlock, beech and maple. The, rest of the place was a .deep swale, 
fehrough wrhich years after, when the cows waded along Bank and O'Con- 
nor streets, they had to be washed before they could be milked. 

We never heard why these distinguished colonists chose the br.nks 
of the Jock in preference to those of the Rideau or the Ottawa. They 
arrived in the middle of August at the Richmond landing, having left 
Quebec on the 28th of July, i-8i8, passing and sakting the fine oian-of- 
war vessel at anchor, that had the Duke on . oard. Under Serjeant 
Hill, they organized to cut the road from_ the Flats, the place of their 
encampment to the Jock, ever since known as the Richmond Road. 
They kept within hailing distance of the river on their right hand until 
they reached the sandy hill, when the sight of the great bay directed 
them to the left, and at what was soon after. Bell's Corners; turned still 
more to the left till they struck the Jock, up which they kept their course 
till they reached the little falls, which Captain Lyons soon improved into 
a mill dam. The leaders of this'Richmond colony wcic : Col Burke, 
Mayor Ormsly, Capts. Lyon, Lett, Lewis, Bradley, Maxwell, Surgeon 
Cullis; Lieuts. Maxwell, Bradley; Sergts. Cunningham, Dempsey, D'ln- 
bar. Hill, McElroy, Spearman, Mills, Fit:^erald, Vaughan, with a long 
list of privates and a few civilians, such as, Joseph Hinton, Edwaia Mal- 
loch, Hugh Falls. Mr. Graham and David McLaren; soklier's, S. VV. and 
T. McFadden, Donald Mathieson, Jonas Btrry, M. Donaghue, James 
Greene, James Bearman, Wm Lackey, John McGuire,- Robert McMul- 
len, Alexander MeCasland, James Munce, D. Harrison, Wm. Copeland, 
Robert Birtch, Wm. Pender, John Withers, Pollock, McKinstry, Walsh 
Murrays, Withers, Stanleys and Denisons were men of the liiie. Read 
and Enough were both teachers. 

These were among the founders of the village and its environs. 
Lots were set apart for churches, graveyards, manses, parsonages, 
squares or parks, all on a, grand scale. Malloch was in the boot and 
shoe business, Hinton went to storekeeping, Malloch & Lyon, of the 
younger men the same. William Lyon followed dry goods. The Capt. 
had buih the first mill for flour and provender, and then took to carding, 
fuUing,, dying, shearing and pressing cloth, blankets and the hke of every 
variety. He kept the first stbre. Col. Burke, Capt. Lyon., Capt. Lewis, 
all were members of Parliament in turn. Some took to their trades as 
carpenters, tailors, blacksmiths, but the bulk took naturally to farming, 
and no better agricultural country could be selecte.-l than that they had 
chosen. Capt Maxwell imported and 'engaged in the improvement of 
animals, raising, selling and aiding his neighbors in improvement of their 
stock. So much were the animals esteemed that to say it was from 
Maxwell's stock made the sale the easier. Some years elapsed before 
tl»c^' l^wi a settled cleryytnan, and Capt. Maxwell being the most piously 



J2 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

mclincl, acted as a kind of chaplain in the new school house and read 
them the church service. The Captain and Sergeant McElroy were 
both reliable gentlemen, as in boyhood we often heard Mr. Falls tiie 
young surveyor, was in his early pricne, and was wont to enliven society 
with stories of interest, racy and thrilling. 

His stock seemed limitless which he retailed out with a liberal hand. 
We have not been able to collect all the names of the pioneers, but have 
done our best. Many of the officers ,and men of the ranks lived in and 
around Richmond. Some left for other parts as the country was ex- 
plored, and good land was found with.suitable openings, presented them- 
selves. Capt. Bradley obtained lands in March and other town.shifis. 
He exchanged with Mr. Erskine for a lot with a mill site. Sans Brar'le/ 
built on it and Mrs. Denison kept house for him for some years. The 
Capt. himself settled down vigorously to cultivate his farm. 

Captain Bradley discouraged lawsuits. But when a plaintiff was very 
urgent and must have a hearing, if the defendent seemed to be in the 
wrong grievously, he generally discharged two or three volts of electric- 
ity on the criminal, then heard/his defence. If there was room, he gave 
him the benefit of the doubt, and if any opening offered; gave a hearty 
broadside to the plaintiff. ■ Then as if forgetting that he held his club 
"in terorem" over the heads of both, he w6uld in the mildest tones ask 
the plaintiff what good it would do him to have the man fined and the 
money laid out on some rough crosslay in a swamp that none of them 
perhaps would ever travel. ' Plaintiff by this time was ready to chime 
in, "Well Captain whatever you think best." The captain woujd then 
conclude a general peace, make them shake hands and engage to live 
in concord, and avoid ever after such unseemly displays of ill . jelings in 
a quiet and peaceable neighborhood and country. 

C. Bradley went into farming in Gloucester. The captain and his sons 
were men of stature, handsome and well formed. The drift of our story 
has carried us down stream, but we return to state that the building of 
so many houses in the village for so many families could not be com- 
pleted in a tew days. Shanties could easily be raised and Scooped and 
made tight, but many were not content with shanties. Then boards 
must be sawed by men and whip saws, or be rafted and sailed down the 
Rideau from Burritts Rapids or Merrickville in cribs, and sailed up the 
Jock, Mr. French had built the first mill in Burritts Rapids some time 
before this, but there was no road nor means of drawing. The river 
alone was the highway. Think of boards drawn from the mill by oxen 
on two crotches, then put into cribs in the river, and pushed by poles, or 
towed by a log canoe or hurriedly constructed boat, and soldiers were 
not the best of oarsmen; then when brought up the Jock drawn to the 
sit« by ox teams on crotches again soaked full of water. Suppose the 
houses had all been built of round logs, everyone who had a family 
wanted a house; they had September, October and November in which 
to do the work and then the winter was on them. 

, The families were left in their tents between the Richmond Land- 
ing and Holts and Honeywells, and tiie men went to work. But to cut 
forty k^s and draw them to the place and raise one building, would be 
labor for twenty good strong men, even if the trees stood around the 
,*po^whe(« the building was to be raised. The balsam rafters were to 



<«ST«RY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 73 

be cut, peeled, fitted, and the boards to be sawed or got from a distance, 
shingles to be naade, a chimney erected of some kind, stones were not 
near and bricks were yet in the clay. How they mnnaged to get so 
many houses fit to be occupied by white people before the thermometer 
registered at zero, is' a mystery unsolved to this day. 'I'rnc, .=ome had 
to live in tents till the winter, and one soldier's wife, Osburn, was f">zcn 
or died, and was found frozen; also Denison, a soltlicr, was found frozen. 
Sergt.-Major Hill moved from his tent into his new house the day be- 
fore Christmas. Some were later in their tents. The Government fur- 
nished them a year's provisions, with implements of various kin'l.=; the 
old cross cut and whip saws, (one to every five men), were ofien used 
being lent all round. These old fashioned things formed the siibjjct of 
much coriversation of a pleasant nature in after times. 

The Duke of Richmond remained about a year in the conn'rv be- 
fore his death. He vs^as sent by the successors of a cabinet that had 
lost thirteen colonics, almost all that pertained to Englftnd, e.xcent Can- 
ada, then little esteemed, and 'the fortress of Gibralter. He was not 
highly spoken of nor was hisson-inlaw that had eloped with his daiiL,f'iter 
from Paris, at the close of the war; Sir Peregrin Maitland, goverr, irof' 
Upper Canada, whose name we remember reading on some of my 
father's deeds. The Duke must have had good . points, as grahVnde, 
which appeared in the wish to visit the people whose enthusiasm led 
them to call their youthful city after him. The Duke of Richmon ' was 
the only Duke we ever had as a Governor-General, not because of his 
excellence or celebrity. He is decidedlly ab.used by most writ> rs as 
"unpopular." — ''Dissipated" gambler, governed Ireland badly, ran 
into great excesses, great at the Derby on the continent — at the same 
time highly esteemed." 

"His son-in-law foisted on the country -to give him a sal u/— -the 
Duke holding the British Government in servitude." Thes-; writers 
might have reserved some of their fine expressions for others as highly 
deserving them. His visit to his son-in-law and daughter was in the 
summer of 1819. He determined to travel on foot over the route ad- 
vised by the Duke of Wellington as the location of the Rideau canal. 
Two attendants only accompanied him, carrs'ing his camp bed with 
the etcetras. He reached Perth and rested there on the night of the 
17th Aug. 1819. Next morning he started for Richmond as an exer- 
cise, a walk of thirty miles on a road only blazed and cleared of brush, 
one may consider, he had an interest in the place and people to 
undertake the like. He reached Sergeant Vaughan's tavern at dark 
and put up there whilst his two servant men plunged through the swale 
and struck Richmond at midnight. The news stirred the colonists as a 
stroke would a bee hive. They were in a fermentation. Every piece 
of Hoard, plank or flat stick to be found was carried by scores of willing 
hands to enable the Duke by temporary bridge to cross the gullies, 
taking them up and hastening forward for his comfort and safety. Had 
he let them they would have carried him the three miles through that 
slough. They got him down, in the forenoon he lunched and enter- 
tained in friendly converse, ordering a fine dinner in Col.-SergcanC 
Hill's to the leading people ; he wa.-^ -social among them, which thc^ 
wvb eftiovf-d. But at the sight of wacer he showed much nervousnc:is. 



H HISTORY or THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

He pflced bis ro©m all night steefJess, having refused to take the pte- 
scriptions of Dr. Gotlis, but he was niote cahn in the morning and todk 
some refreshment. He had arrange*! to reach Hull on the 20th 
Ai'gi.ist, and he va'ked d»wn past Co). Burk's to take the boat down 
the Jock or Good Wood to Chapman's farm, whers a «3giJO.i and two 
yoke of oxen sent by Mr. Wrigrht, were to ti*ke min tJ^roi'gh. He be- 
came more troubled at seeing the water and soon leaped out of the beat^ 
rushed v/iidly through the woods, and they owMtook hi^ri lyiiii? on the 
hay in Chapnsan's barn in a violent fit. Dr. CoDis was h-fO.*g"'»*t, awd he 
bled liim. A swift messenger was sent to Perth for another, but he 
died before anything could be done. Chapman drove his rei-iwins «o 
Hiiil on the waggon sent for him, and the boat sent, to meet him took 
the bcdy to Quebec, where he was buried with the honors becoming his 
rank. Chapman was rewarded with four hundred acres of land. 

Tlie hydrophobia was induced by the bite of his pet fox on his 
heel. His fauks and defects were forgotten in the kindnes3 of his vi.sit 
and entertsraiM»ent, and the sadness and' suddenness of his death, whicli 
threw a clowd over the villagers for some time after. Fie had given the 
name of his nej^ew, the Earl of March, to the unsurveyed township on 
the river at the dinner at Sergeant Hill's, the whole term of office in 
the country being only one year. Lumbermen like Mr. Wilson and 
others had lands round the village. Robinson Lyon, brother of the 
Captain kept hotel, was a fine horseman, but excelled all others at the 
violin. . He lived long in Richmond, then in Bytown, and finished a 
popular career in Ampri^r. 

The Government built a school in Richmond and paid one or two 
school masters for a year or two, fifty pounds a year, but soon witlwrew 
the grant. The schoolhouse was used for a preaching station for Catho- 
lics aad Protestants alike. The first to officiate in it was a priest, Mc- 
Donell, who was Bishop of Kingston before his end came. Mr. Heaiy 
a Methodist, was second. Mr. Glen, a Presbyterian, was third. Judg- 
iBg from the names, the Episcopalians mu.st have been tlie most n«n\er- 
ous as they built an Episcopaliaxi church befo e all others. Mr. Glen 
lived but a short time among them and seeaied to wear out in wA^ng 
swamps, travelling to Torboltoo, Kemptville, Prescott, and other places. 
Mr. Burns was the first Episcopal minister for seime years. Thek 
church and Mr. Pifihey's house- were buRt about the same time, »ti4 St. 
Andrew's Presbyterian church in Bytown. 

The Presbyterian cfeurch in Richmond was not built till Ahec the 
decease of Mr. Glen. It was a neat little frairie building on the line ©f 
street coming from North Gower, crossing the Jock ano tertMt«ating on 
the Rich'^iind and Perth Roads. Rev. David Evans was its firsi s^^ied 
pastor. Mr. Philips was then its prominent ruling elder from about 1S40 
to 1848 v/hen Mr. Evans removed to Kitley Corners. Rev. John Flood 
was the Church of England minister contemporary with Mr. Evans. Mr. 
Flood was born a Roman Catholic but became a member of the Episco- 
pal church, and being disposed to study, pursued his course with great 
disadvantages, reading with firelight and 'Tat pine" chips, instead of 'the 
dip of those times.' The pine chip was smoky but the rezinous odour 
was as, agreeable as incen.se and determination overcomes difificulty, 
Mr. Flood got merited credit for his perseverance and success. -He was 



HISTCHIY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 75 

'■ rftlic swpcrintendatrts of education in tlie county, and assisted in 
getting th« Grammar school at Richmond under way. A young Irish 
man from Belfast, John Bouland Finlay, Ph. D., a gifted scholar from 
t4« school ®f Dr. Cooke, -came to Richmond, and whilst visiting some 
ftie«<b, was introduced to Mr. Hinton and Rev. John Flood, and en- 
gaged as teacher of the Grammar school. Dr. Finlay has run a brilliant 
career. He became preacher in the Reformed Church in East Brooklyn, 
them went to Kittanning, Pennsylvania, and is now Colonel John Bou- 
land Finlay, Ph. D., L. L. D., D. C. L. He is a man of shining talents, 
fnJH of history, extensively read in the works of the fathers, overflowing 
with Irish and Scotch anecdote, also a sound and able divine. He di=- 
IflceS the application of the term Rev. to clergymen, considering it the 
usurpation of an exclusively divine title : "Holy and reverend in His 
name." Hearing of our career at Knox College, he came to visit us, 
and a lasting friendship then began and has continued. 

The Free church movement had given a great impulse and North 
Gower Presbyterians caught and acted on the inspiration, Dr. Finlay 
preadied to them and to the Huntley people severa,! times with great 
acceptance. The most prominent young Presbyters in this Perth Pres- 
bytery, at that time, had gone into the Free church movements about 
the ntiddle of their divinity course, and the demand for preachers was 
s« great that they did not return to finish their stlidies at Quee ' ; or 
Dundee or Edinburgh, and it seemed to us that they were slightly dis- 
posed to look askance at the qualification of those who had taken the 
time and advantage of a full course. However the Ph. D. was new to 
them and they tried to get up wit at its expense. But it was a well 
merited honor and the wearer was unquestionably beyond them in 
natural talents where the D. D. might come under the rule of the fisher- 
man's application on his mackarel barrel, one D. for damaged and D. D. 
for doubly damaged. These young clergymen were by no means de- 
fective in wit, humor, and fun, although Scotchmen that could look aw- 
fully sober and grave at the right time. 

Dr, Finlay is now a very accomplished author, which no one of his 
mimickers ever became. Dr. Finlay was called to a congregation and 
was leaving Richmond, a-nd a Rev. Mr. Lowry was applying for the 
place and submitted to an examination conducted by Rev. John Flood 
as superintendent. The Greek readings were in the Iliad which, when 
finished, was pronounced satisfactory by Mr. FloQd, but might, perhaps, 
have been a little better rendered. Mr. Hinton always full of humor, 
could not k)se so fair an opening, and requested Mr. Flood to give them 
the benefit of the finer interpretation of so beautiful a passage ? This 
slip of Mr. Flood was unfortunate as his readings in the classics from his 
beginning late in life were not extensive. However, he tried it, making 
many periods and failing a little in trying to do justice to the translation. 
Dr. Finlay who had been a success in the school said, Robert Bkck 
would translate it for them. 'He was the son of Sergeant Birch and was 
preparing to take orders in the Church of England. Robert waHced up 
in a dashing, off-handed, manly styie for a boy, took up the book read, 
transited or interpreted saii.sfactorily. Mr. Flood blushed red. Mr. 
Hinton declared himself well pleased witn the translatios. ,Hki*©n, 



7^ HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

Finlay, Birch, and those present, enjpyed the scene, Lowry did not safc 
fer but Bob was the hero. 

Some time after this a good thing happened in the Presbytery of 
Perth which some of the survivers yet remember. A student was be- 
inj ex \mined for license and was told to read and translate the first page 
in the thirteenth book of Virgil. The candidate said he had not read 
the book. But a young domine said no matter he can read. So he 
read. Now translate. He began and ran down easily till about half 
way when he caine to a dead stand.- One Presbyter rushed to his side 
to get him out of the slough but slid down the page with hesitancy till 
he reached the chasm. Another hurried to the rescue. Let me help, I 
am the best Latin scholar in the Presbytery. Here the poor candidate 
was sandwiched between these two great Latin scholars. The latter 
gentleman drew up at the same awful stand point. None seemed will- 
ing to imitate the noble Roman by leaping into or over the chasm. 
Can you furnish a supplement? .said the G. T. The candidate took the 
hint, fillel the hiatus and to the satisfaction of all finished the translation. 
The two learned gentlemen quietly resumed their seats well satisfied 
with the important aid they had rendered so timely. An aged minister, 
hearing of this case said : It reminded him of a car»didate on trial for 
ordination, who was cautiously admonished by an aged Scotch clergy-' 
man to be cxrcful to translate his Hebrew correctly, for if you make, 
mistakes or blun lers there is no one here fit to correct you. Mr. Flood 
was an indefatigable worker though not always in harmony with his' 
Bishop John, Toronto, who always ruled with a rod of iron and no slack 

The Bishop had issued a pastoral, in which he asked the , Roman 
, Catholics to unite with them in saving to them the clergy reserves, and 
ofifering them an equivalent when the Jesuits' estates woiild come up for 
legislation or adjudication. * Was the profoun 1 Protestant silence main- 
tained in Quebec ivhen $300,000 was legislated into the hands of the 
Jesuits, the quj,d pro quo in this case ? A Liberal wrote strictures on the 
, pastoral. Mr. Flood rushed to the rescue, to be reconciled to his bishop 
with the head of the Liberal who refused, to surrender his head to the 
block. In his next letter fvlr. Flood quoted Dr. Beggs. His friend ex-* 
amined the Edinburgh Witness, and found the quotation objections which 
Dr. Beggs demolished. This made hard ag-iinst him but his friend after 
correcting bis careless reading invited him to go on with the controversy, 
assuring him that while there was a shot in the locker he was welcome 
to a share of it. The 'thing proceeded no farther but the Bishop re- 
warded the attempt by a good promotion- The old "Admiral," his 
father-in-law, thanked the Liberal when they met as being the occasion, 
if not the cau.se of this clergyman's elevatidn. 
j/ Capt. Lyon, of Richmond was some time a parliamentarian. His 

family, largely boys, took te professions or mercantile life. They were 
all talented and William, who died a comparatively young man, was of 
the very highest type for ho' ~rable and manly conduct in every de- 
partment of the business of life. We had reason to know that his 
friendship was very sincere, true and valuaWe. In his early demise t ;e 
couwtry suhtAined a very signal loss. .G. B. Lyon, who added Fellows, 
/ long held tlie moet «iistiHg;'Hkh«^ ||il««e »t the \>*x\ And as a pw^Uc man 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 7y 

•nd M. P. We recollect laboring with might and main to prepare our 
lessons and gain time to hear him conduct cases at the court, admiring 
his eloquence and dignity of manner, even when . his opponent, Mr. 
Harvey was most abusive. Robert was our school mate, talented, 
amiable and very obliging ; was afterwards able at the bar, a representa- 
tive man in the legislature and a judge. His early death left Miss Foster 
a young widow to mourn his great loss. Some of the younger brothers 
are in the medical profession, one married a Miss Rieley: another JMiss 
Riley married Mr. Ea^on, and after his death, Mr. Martin, who has 
greatly distinguished himself in the law and in the legislature of Mani- 
toba as attorney-general of the Greenwav "^vcrnment, and more at Ot- 
tawa as M. P. Capt Lewis ran a parliai nt ly career like his fellow-offi- 
cers of Richmond. 

One of his sons, John Bower, was a man of high standing in the 
city and very deservedly so — his first wife was sister of John Street, of 
March, and his second, a sister of Zak Wilson, now high in Her Majesty's 
customs. Both were worthy of their high position. Mr. Lewis died 
young, having filled the important offices of recorder, mayor and M. P. 
Robert Lewis, like so many, followed lumbering. One sister was Mrs. 
W. L3'on and then Mrs. Lauder, the other is Mrs. Chas. Pinhey, of 
this city. Edwanl Malloch followed his honest calling so "carefully that 
he brought up his, family, f-iving them a fine education; two of his sons 
sat on the bench, and the. third Edward was merchant in Richmond in 
its best daj's. He married the then beautiful Miss Hill, afterwards gave 
up the store anil sat in parliament for over 20 years. One daughter 
married Rev. Mr. Milne of Smith's Falls; another is Lady Grant. One 
son was our schoolmate, was called to the bar and died young; the 
other is a successful physician. Capt. Lett died young in Richmond, 
leaving a widow and two sons, Andrew and William Pittman. The 
widow married Dr. Stewart and Jiad one daughter, tall and beautiful, 
who married Mr. McCraken, a successful lumberman. 

Andrew Lett married the talented and handsome MissEmily'Hyde, 
of Huntley, and lived there a farmer. One of his fair girls is Mrs. Dr. 
Baird. W. P. Lett married the second daughter of Mr. Joseph Hinton, 
of Richmond, and was long and favorably known in this city, as 
talented editor, brilliant and witty poet, and in his latter years as city 
clerk. Mrs. Lett lost her life by a railway accident, very much missed 
by a large circle of.friends. Mr. Jo.seph Hinton like Mr. Malloch was 
not a so'ldier but went into the storekeeping for years — a very kind, 
honorable man in business and in the affairs of the county, lived to a 
good old age, very highly esteemed by all wiio knew him. His son, 
■ the late Robert, \vas well' known in his native village and" Hinlonburgh 
and the city. His first wife was a Miss Burrows, his second a Miss 
Hyde, daughter of Thomas Hyde and the beautiful Mary" Somervillt, 
and his third Victoria, daughter of the late Lymain Perkins. Mr. 
Hinton's eldest daughter tnarried Mr. George Patterson, one of the 
earliest merchants of this city, and now consideraiile time dead. Mrs. 
Paltersun is still in health and vigor: The youngest Miss Hinton mar- 
ried our much esteemed friend, Donald Grant, fciir years a very success- 
ful manager for the Hon. Thomas McKay in his large business. Mr. 
Grant was a warm hearted friend, liberal with his pursQto good objects in 



78 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

early life, and ended his days a chief of police, the duties of which he 
discharged very faithfully and pleasantly. Mrs. Grant is a lady of 
superior excellence, has been so as young lady, wife and mother. She 
has sustained her loss, if we must so say, like an ancient Roman matron 
and she cannot have happier days than we wish her and the prosperity 
of her sons after her. • 

We never had the pleasure of acquaintance with Sergt. Major Hill, 
Edward Malloch's father-in-law, but he was very highly spoken of as a 
good benevolent man, who was exceedingly kind to the ea:rly mission- 
aries, who travelled the land on foot, through dense forests and dismal 
swamps, to supply the lack of services in those days and doubtless he 
has his reward. We never met Major Ormsby, but have had accounts 
of him as a magistrate performing marriages in early times; but sceptical :: 
as to their legality; for it is told of him that when a clergyman came 
from Perth to marry Miss Elizabeth Birtch to Donald Mathieson, and 
Miss Jane Campbell to ex-Sergeant John Dunbar, he got his own mar- 
riage repeated, or as the Irish then said, clinched to make it safe. The 
clergyman was Rev. Mr. Harris, of Perth, son of the dean of Dublin, 
Ireland. Perth and Hull were the only places could boast of churches 
and settled clergy, Harris and Ainsley. Sergeant P. McElroy seems to 
have had some education, though he did not take to school teaching, 
but went into trading, or mercantile life, and his sons and generations 
follow to this day. 

Captain Maxwell seems to have been the most devout man among 
them. He assembled the people on Sundays and read the services of 
the church, what Dr. Ckalmers called the beautiful pi^ayers of the Church 
of England. He did it well and was highly esteemed among his con- 
temporaries. A little note is told at his expense though only arising 
from adventitious circumstances. One very cold morning the Captain 
was reading the lessons for the day from the Old Testament, he had ' 
come to, "Spake unto Moses saying," "Pat McElroy put a stick in the 
stove." This parenthesis in a soft ur>der ton^e, the boys insisted must 
be in the origina:!. The C-aptam was a good agriculturist, very fond of 
well bred stock. For years k was sufficient to commend an animal to a 
distant former, to state that it came from Capt Maxwell's herd or flock. 
Two or three years after the founding of the village, came an Episcopal ' 
gentt^iaan from Athlone, Ireland. Thomas Sproule regarded as a very 
pious mftR and who stimulated tiie colony into erecting an Episcopal 
efeurdi; the first in a long distance on the south shore of the Ottawa 
river, except Perth wltidh.was about midway between it and the St. 
Lawrence. We once had the pleasure of spending a night with a por- 
tion ©f his kaaity on a farm between Richmond and the long swamp. 
We had been at Richmond mill with a few bags of wheat, drawn on a 
"long-bodied cart" and returning with flour and bran, etc., it became 
d«u-k. When we QOt a naiSe from the village, and in a grove a tree had 
faflen across the road and aay feveiy horse leaped over it and broke my 
cart axle, so there was nofebtsg for it but to undo the horse and find a 
lod^ng. 

In a little time a lig^rt m a. window attracted my attention a«id fa -V 
ing my way to the gase, feltowcd lay Che »iiiBWfii, the liouae wa;> aj n 
reached, ihe length of a good &»id £eMci 'tine soad. A yi>ut%£ gemiSisuiam 



HISTORY or THE OTTAWA VALLEY ;i9 

came out, very attentively heard my short statement of disaster, at ooce 
too> my horse to the stable, proposing to go with his lantern and p«rt 
my bags into a safe place, which he did. He then introduced me to his 
family of mother and sisters, a portion only of the family. Despite my 
remonstrances they persisted in serving up refreshments, which was i 
done with very good taste. Afterwards a sister conducted family wor- 
ship reading Isaiah, 32 chapter, in a sensible conversational becoming 
style and manner, mailing a running comment and offering an extem- 
porary prayer- Whether it was because it was the first I had heard 
from the lips of a woman or whether it was the Christian spirit it 
breathed throughout, or the aid afforded by the Spirit from above, I was 
then too young to determine, but it made an indelible impression on my 
mind : i The pure words, the petitions for Christian growth in the 
minds of the converted of the family, and the pleadings for those who 
had not yet experienced the power of divine grace, were to me themes 
for reflection many a day after. That highly gifted Christian woman, 
led us that night in the homage, the dependent creature owes to the in- 
dependent Sovereign Creator, from whom we receive all things and to 
whom we return nothing, but this fruit of our lips giving thanks to his , 
name. 2. The luxury of our, admission to converse with the Most High, 
the maker and possessor of heaven and earth. 3. The leverage given 
to our faith in the expectation, the assurance that the promises will be 
fulfille'd to us in the use of the heaven appointed means. There was 
the humble confession of our guilt, helplessness and illdesert, and a 
magnifying of tiie; infinite, jxire, holy One, in whose presence we were 
bowed together. Then the aid of the Holy Spirit was invoked to help 
us. We were led to shelter oursrlves under the man Christ, as an hid- 
ing place from the 'tempests of wrath we had incurred. Thanks were 
most sincerely given for the answers received and for other things sub- 
stituted for what we a.'^ed, which were in divine wisdom more suitable 
to us There was no Kniattng of the Most High and holy in the answer we 
^expected; but an evident disposition to wait His wise time, to reply and 
to bless. 

The young gentlesman showed me to my room, where, grate 
ful that I had fouixl s«ch a restiog place, instead of sitting all night 
on my 'broken cart in the woods miomentarily expecting to hear the 
growl of a prowler of the forest. Alter a sweet sleep in a nice bed and 
room, I was ©ut by the dawn, cut a maple pole, and had my axletree 
made by breakfast. Yom\g Mr. Sproule helped me to put it to the 
wheels and body, and we parted witti greater gratitude than could .be 
clothed in words of an'y laitigHage. One brother married Miss Hopper 
rf the family well-known in N-epeaa., and kept store at March Corners for a 
time, then at old Stittsvik, in the ibouse built by Howard & Thompson, 
and occupied for a time by Mr. McKaskill, who had kept at Bell's 
Corners' before the days of George Arnold. Another was deputy regis- 
trar iH the county office in this city. The youngest remained, we think, 
on the farm. They were a highly respectable family But meeting in 
my early teen's with that kind peiopie and that middle-aged lady of such 
gentle, ma-jestic, Christian spkk ; fifty years have not in their slow pro- 
gress ®r voiucritic swiftaess been able to obliterate the impression from 
nay samd. 



80 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

Ifthe Invisible Almighty Spirit can in a meeting, tor a mon>enti in 
this beclouded world, create such feelings, in sin-stained souls, what ^all 
be the divine delight when kindred redeemed spirits shall encompass that 
throne whereon the Man rcigneth; who was here below, "an hiding place 
from the wind, a covert from the tempest, as rivers of waters in a dry- 
place, and as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." Rev. Jdhn , 
Flood was long the incumbent, a convert from Catholicism. Mr Petit 
was his successor. He took rather a peculiar way of collecting his sal- 
ary. He posted up printed bills of the names of the contributors and 
what they had paid during the year. It gave offence but he survived it. 
, The Presbyterians built a little frame church but Mr. Glen did not re- 
main very long and after beii:ig some time vacant they secured the Rev. 
David Evans who was many years their pastor. He supplied Huntley 
and Fitzroy as a p?.rt of liis charge in connection with Richmond. 

After him came Rev. P. Lindsav then Rev. Wm. White. Mr. Mc- 
Cleland, whose amiable wife was a Miss Bailey from Aylmer, was their 
. pastor for some years. Fallowfield and the Jock above Richmond be- 
came the wings and under their present pastor are doing exceedingly 
well. They are made up of very intelligent, respectable families. They 
have a neat brick church at Fallowfisld and a good frame church at the 
Jock. Many interesting stories are told of the long, tiresomes travels of 
the early preachers through long", dark wbodr and deep, interminable 
swamps, the short sleeps and long fasts which were so kindly alleviated 
by Sergeant Hill, in whose hotel, they all, of every denomination,, 
seemed to find a kindly home, pleasant faces and refreshments of the 
best provisions and in the richest abundance. 

More than forty years ago a member of the Presbytery of Perth 
was sent several times to supply North Gower and too'k Richmond in the 
afternoon, occupying a school house in which Mr. Bryson, father of the 
dry goods merchant, taught the advanced classes. Though there was 
no tRtention to interfere with the rights of the kirk, then vacant, yet the 
Smiths, Browns and Jones were neither gtateful nor satisfied, and gave 
no attendance at tite altar. The Jock church is in the old Gordon settle- 
ment and is a well attended, flourishing congregation. The last preacher 
had Stittsvttle in connection, but it is supplied from the city by Rev. Mr. 
Danbey. The Methodist church has a long history in Richmond, and 
an extensive list of preachers, »vith very few of whom we have had the 
pleasure of acquaintance. The first Roman Catholic church was built 
about two years after the Episcopal. The first services ,vere held by an 
ex-chapiain of the army, Mr. Mcdonell, afterwards bishop of Kingston, 
but he seems to have b«w« but a wayfaring man at Richmond. Father 
Heron appears to have been their first settled priest: We never met him 
but were well acquainted with his successor. Father Peter Smith from 
County Cavaa, Ireland, who ruled there many years, and had both 
hands *"ull ©n naany a fair day held twice a year in the village. He was 
of gigantic stature, and when mounted on a splendid charger with a long 
whip, »r even on fo^ he was a terror to evil-doers. 

We recollect Rev. Mr. Smart of Brockville, who was almost equal 
to the p.-p4t in Iciigth if not in pounds avordupois, being taken down to 
the Spri^-jc beJow the city by Edward Malloch in his carriage and intro- 
docad t« Rtv. Mr. Smith. Rev. T.Wardrope remarked that if they qjjac 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEt,, 9^ 

relied Mr. Smith had the odds in his favor. Mr. Smith replied that they 
would not quarrel as Mr. Smart was in delicate health, but if he died 
while there he would give him extrenae unction. Father Smith often 
charged through on horseback to the ''BaHigibelines" in Huntley and 
like young "Lord Lochinvar that came out of the 'ves*, of all the wi<Je 
border his steed was the best." 

He was succeeded by Father Cullen, aiwd then xve believe, our cM 
schoolfellow, Father O'Connor. Sergeant Major Hill is said to have in- 
troduced the first cow into the new colony and to have brought hay from 
Burritt's Rar.ids, down the Rideau on the ice, and up the Goodwood to 
feed her, and in addition to supply plenty of brush from the tree tops for 
f -ttening purposes. Of course we do nbt question this, but ooe cow 
would not require much if they cut beaver hay and grew anything on 
the clearings. Great use was made of brush from tree tops arid the lerel 
lands .around were covered with elm, maple, oak and birch. , The mater- 
ial was better by far than the same kinds in Ohio and Indiana, where, as 
the Buck Eyes say, it is "very brash." As clearings grew larger they 
raised abundance for feeding purposes. The U. E. Ls. set the example 
in most things and kept their cattle running loose in sheds, maintaining 
that there was less danger of freezing than tied up in feeding houses. 
This plan has been abandoned almost universally now, and 9ie best 
farmers stall-feed. 

Salted meat, especially pork from the west, was the order of theday. 
Beef killed in the fall, salted, sometimes kept frozen, was packed in wheat 
straw for use. But years passed before butchers became popular. Game 
was very abundant. Deer, bears, rabbits and hares were very plentiful, 
and were shot and trapped at will, and there were no closed seasons. 
Venison was sent round as people succeeded in shooting, and the Ipenevo- 
lent principle was highly cultivated. Wild geese, and especially wild 
ducks in flocks, frequented the streams and lakes. But the most plentiful 
of all was the wild pigeon that came in spring, flying in clouds almost 
obscuring the sun. The woods were swarming with them all summer. 
Old muskets or shot guns as Americans say; were freely used and many 
were the victirns. Partridges drummed in the vicinity of their brooding 
mates, often within hearing of one another. River, lake, stream and 
brook teamed with fishes — these remain but not in such numbers; but 
the winged creatures have almost wholly disappeared. For a quarter 
of a century hardly a wild pigeon has been seen in hundreds of miles. 
An odd duck or partridge turns up, and a rabbit or a mink very seldom, 
but otter, beaver and martin are scarcely ever caught. The fox and the 
skunk are with us, but the racoon is nowhere hereabouts now. There 
was no effort for years to keep pure the breeds of cattle or sheep. Mix- 
niif-^ ,-i white-faced Hcrefords, and long-horned Devons with inferior 
bri-c'J:- ilirtwirig indications of the ancestry in a state of djsgredation, 
sr.rc tlie coa'.-non flocks on farms everywhere. Sheep averaging 3 lb. 
a clip, have given place to 'iome of 7 or 8 lb clir'=; and twice the weight 
in flesh, ffogs were lengthy in limb and snout. Berkshires, Yorkshires, 
at;d Suffolks were yet in the future, but now very conimon. It is not to 
be woMilered at if agriculture had not made much progress in a land of 
stiunps with plowing difficult and stump extractors uninvented, and afl 
implements in the most primitive state. 



ISZ HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Mrs. Stewart of Beckwith was unequalled in the land as wife, mother, 
church member, benevolent Christian and good neighbor. She lived to 
a good old age a model of excellence, helping the needy, strengthening 
the feeble-minded, supporting weak Christians and young professors of 
religion, with a kind word and an open hahd to everyone. The eldest 
daughter married her cousin, Neil Stewart, a worthy elder in the Beck- 
with church. The second daughter is the wife of Thomas Simpson, the 
third, who was Mrs. Dewar, died young; the fourth, Mrs. James Conn, 
who kept store long in Mr. Sumner's place, whose very enterprising sons 
since his early death, have built a fine stone store and dwelling house 
and do a large business; her daughter is now the widow of the late Dr. , 
Potter, whose brother is one of the most eminent physicians and large- 
hearted, trustworthy men in the city, and whose immense practice ac- 
cords well with the great range of his experience and ability. 

The eldest son, Sandy Stewart, lives at White Lake and is in the 
cheese business. The second, Neil, was long and favorably khown as 
farmer, owner of a small steam sawmill, and councillor and reeve of Goul- 
bourn. His youngest son John, married Miss Kennedy, eldest daughter 
of Robert Kennedy, the pious-ruling, influential elder in Ashton, sound 
in the faith, enthusiastic in the temperance movement, and indefatigable 
in the works of faith and labors of love. Mrs. Kennedy was a McDiar- 
mitl, a good woman; their family like that of Jacob's was thirteen; but 
strike his in that they were twelve girls and one boy. The last died 
young, the gins-married wisely, and are mothers of a numerous interest- 
ing offspring. The Episcopal church and the Methodist congregations 
at Ashton are not large or numerous, though of some' time standing. The 
Presbyterian was an offshoot from Beckwith and had been ministered to' 
in 'connection with that church since the disruption. 

The writer was the first ordained minister who, after three pleasant 
years of labor, gave place to Mr. P. Gray, an excellent and worthy man, 
who after some years went to Kingston and after a successful ministry 
died tliere. Their next minister was Mr. McKinnon, for a number of 
years, then Mr. McAHster, son of Elder McAlister of Kingston. Their 
next minister died with them when very young. They have now Mr. 
George Bayne, brought up in Nepean. From a very small beginning, 
the congregation has grown to be self-sustaining with a large and beauti- 
ful stone church. Some of the first elders are succeeded by their sons 
in office. , The growth has been steady not spasmodic and the future erf" 
the place may be considered as hopeful and prosperous. Appleton, a 
flourishing village on the Mississippi, has been associated with it for some 
years, with a good assembly of attentive hearers. James Wilson, near 
the centre of 'Goulbourn, was the first, like Mrs. Stewart, to plant and col- 
lect an orchard of any pretentions; but all seedlings of conaderable value. 
They sold well at Kcmpt's fair and Richmond fair as well as elsewhere, 
the taste of the people being not yet vitiated by more luxuriant and los- 
cious fruits. 

We remember well, perhaps fifty years ago when sent to get horses ■ 
shod by J«hn Barber, a famous work.aan in his line, in James Wilson's 
employ, awJmiring the you»g flourishing orchard a«d tbe large number 
•f beehives, as tbings were in that day and to be wandered at a.s sources 
9£ w«Altk,as wcH »s pieasant and ftttFact»v«. N«t far iiroin Wilsotv's. some 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 831 

of whose descendents we have mot on the Gatineau, dwelt the Cathcart ' 
family, distantly allied to the heroic general who had both linnbs shot ofi 
in the great battle in the Crimea and by his own request was lifted from ! 
his horse, and set on a piece of d stabled cannon, that he might give com- ' 
mands while he lived. He was ;i descendant of the famous warrior in 
the days of the peerless Nelson of imperisfeable memory. These Cath- 
carts, too, had seen service at Lundy's Lane and elsewhere, and their 
eoemies never discovered that they had backs. , 

They- were uniortiinate in worldly enterprise; fire smd lightning 
doing much dire work ©f destnici ion to the amount ®f many thousands 
of dollars in buildings and stock, including a new steam saw mill — all yery 
much regretted. EastM-ard on both sides of the Jock, you meet the 
Mackeys, Eadies, O'Grady's, Greens, Bennetts, Craigs, McBndes, Gam- 
bles, «nd further up the stream the Mortons and Shil-lingtOMS, ancestors 
of the doctor and druggists, and farmers nearby and in the city. There 
is a p>ost office at Hazeldean, \vth some workshops and a store. It i«a,y 
be called a village on the principle that Lever adopts the Inshenafi's vS- 
lage, "a blacksrriith shop, a Sunday school, and a pouud." Eagie«on's 
Corners had some resewsblance to a village twenty years ago.; b»t it is a 
deserted village containing wooden ruins, and two residents, Mr. Eagie- 
son and Mr. Scharf. The Goulbourn half of Ashtoa is better buik and 
rather larger than BeB's Corners. 

Goulbourn, in which Richmond is situated, was caffled after an 
English nobleman and contains about 55,ooo acres, very tnuck varied in 
quality of soil, not half of it fit far cultivation. Tke Kgfeter so8s would 
produce certain kinds ©f crops, but whilst land is plent^ul, it is vtnl^eiy 
that time and labour wiH be spent on a quality of soil so unproductive. 
That part of this township on the north end cailed Haj^edean was set- 
tled very soon after Richmond, or contemporary with it and Maiceh and 
Huntley. William Hod^ins, grandfather of the present M. ¥., wan ■ 
among the first. James Bell, who married the widow of Ad'yuiamtt 
Adams, "was very early planted on the hill beside Mr. Hodgirvs. The 
other brothers Hodgins went to Hantley and Fitzroy and lumbered. 
Abbot Lewis, blacksnjith, had his house and shop on the highest h^-tep 
on the north of Mr. Hodgins' His sons followed the same business, 
and were very ingenious mechanics. They went west. James Mufti^n 
opposite J. Bell has followed careful farming. John Young pMrchsMJcd 
Bell's fa:;m at a high price in the estimation of many but sold it much 
higher. George Morgan purchased higher still, but parted with it, as im- 
possible to make it pay now in the altered times and prices current. 
Robert Young long occupied the beautiful farm on the hill, butting »n 
the town line of March, where John Barber, blacksmith buik a pretty 
white sandstone house. John Young's house had bkie limestone corners 
and decorations, varying the white sandstone. John Culbert lived south 
of the north east branch of the Carp. Dr. Colar Church built a fine 
stone house east of R. Young, and .south of that. Billy BraeWey kept 
tavern, south of the Carp east of the 12th line. His sons, Joshua aad ■ 
Samuel occupied the same lands. William Kemp . south of that, th«« 
John McCurdy and Jackson Stitt at old Stittsville On the west siiJe op- 
posite the Bradleys and Kemp, Robert Grant got a large ferm aad kept 
store in our boyhood, as also William Hoslfins. Mr. Grant hoid no 



84 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

famil}'^ by t'le first marriage, but four sons and two daughters by his 
second. His first wife was a Miss Powell, his second a Miss Hardie. 

Mr. Hodgins had two sons, James, who died young, and John, the 
father of the M. P. for Carleton, and several daughters. One of these is 
the mother of the M. P. P. at present. Mr. Grant took great interest in 
municipal affairs, so a'^n ''id hi'^ son Robert, who is married to Miss 
Sarah, third daughter of Mr. W. Gourlay of Huntley. Robert is a prosper- 
ous scientific farwjcr. Joiin Grant is also a successful farmer south of 
Robert. The other two brothers, William and James are fine business 
men in har^iware, corner of Bank and Sparks streets in the city. One 
Miss Grant became the wife of John Gourlay, Huntley, the other is Mrs. 
Templeton, Winnipeg-, Man. South of John Grant, Charles Hartin on 
the old farm and mill site, son of David and Miss Malcomson, who is 
married to Miss Wilson, daughter of David Wilson of Huntley. On the 
Huntley side jTmes and John Hartin had fine farms. James Stitt lived 
above t'ne McG:c chapel. This is replsfced by a much larger brick 
building than the old' white frame church of former days. The Bradley's 
and Mr. Kemp married daughters of George Clark of Marrh. -Above 
Old StiU.s\ilie' Andrew Argue, Baker, and John Wright filled up to the 
pines. Wm. Cuthbert, farmer and local preacher, James Cherry and 
Joseph Magee lived n>;pr the chapel. James Walker and the Scharfs 
filled up from the town line of Nepean all the good land. W. Eagleson 
at the corner with a little store, with his vigorous wife, a Miss Shore, bid 
fair to get up, not only a business, but a village with blacksmith, shoe- 
maker, caroenter, weaver, etc , but all the little wooden cottages are rot- 
ting without an inhabitant. Eagleson and Scharf were the only two 
there when we passeu through some time ago, a deserted village, we are 
sorry to report. 

Thoma.s Alexander who sold 200 to my father, James Arthur, Jacob 
Stuart and James Birch, occupied the oasis in the pine desert, south of 
Stitisv ille. Then Mr. Crawford and Mr. Ford with many brothers of 
the Simpsons, Cherry, the tanner, and a few others, fill up to Ashton. 
All on the west side of the township, from north to south, except Elder 
Davidson, are Irish, , the Atlas to the contrary notwithstanding. Stitts- 
ville at th-; railroad station, is a thriving little place with three stores, a 
hotel, and several mechanic shops and tasty private dwellings. John 
Sumner, an Englishman, opened the first, and for a long time the only 
store in Ashton, then called Sumners' Corners. He had large potash 
works carried on, from which some have supposed the place took its pres- 
ent nam?. Donald McFarland kept the only tavern for many years in 
the place, a peaceable and quiet house. Neil Stewart, a son of John 
Stewart, of Brckwith, long time reeve of Goulbourn, was of highland 
descent; all the others were Irish by birth or lineage. When Sumner 
lef; for Carleton, James Conn took his place in store and post office. 
His wife was Janet Stewart, and his sons have built a great stone house 
for store and dwelling and have been the leading business men in the 
place ever since. The little stone church of the Presbyterians is re- 
placed by a sightly looking edifice. 

There is an Episcopal church there, the leading supi^orter of which, 
in its beginning, was Mr. Shore, whose wife was Miss Fanny Acres, of 
March. The Methodists arc not numerous in the place We are not 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY S5 

aware that any other denomination has any people there now. From 
Sergeant Vaughans to the Jock is a fine settlement. The pretty liitle 
Presbyterian church there, is well filled with an intelligent, cnqiiirit'g 
looking audience. The Shillington settlement extends towards the \ii- 
lage of Richmond with the Mortons and others. The Brownlees, south 
aid east'of this treiid.s towards North Gower. Mr McFadden, an old 
! oldier from Tyrone, who li\'ed near Ashton, was ahout one hundred, 
fi;>' a Sergeant Steinzell clcseby lived to be nearly a, hundred. Sun)ncr 
li.'id a little saw riiill on the Jock at Ashton, but was not of long duration, 
ami Mr. Neil Stewart built a sinall steam mill in its place but there 
was too little lumber to be much si!])ply. Mr. Stewart was not long 
lived, llis wife, Mrs. Stewart, was Miss Cram of Beckwith or Carlcton 
Pla'-e, a sweet-tempered, pler.s;uit ant^ excellent woman, who died be- 
fore him. 'J'hcy left a fine familw Mr. Shore carried on business in the 
wa^^gon ai'd carriage making. From .Archie Campbell, wlio v as '^'le of 
the curliest blacksmiths down to the present, there lias been a rucce-^ioii 
of workmen in e\ ery trade. Mr. Turner, who married a M.ss Craai, 
sister of Mrs. Neil Stewart, built and followed his business here for 
years. 

The Beckwith side of Ashton was occupied by the Clarks, 
Dnimmonds, McNabbs. The r.-csbyterian congregation was then com- 
posed of the hearers of Dr. Cooke of Belfast, Dr McDonald of F"erintosh, 
the apostle of the Highlands These spoke the gaelir and were among the 
warmest friends of the young minister. Others had been the hearers 
of Dr Burns of Paisley, then of Toronto. Some otliers came from hear- 
ing men of far less celebrity; but fancy the notions produced by learning 
these things on his first' visit around the little flock ! He had been talk- 
ing away to them as so ma ly plain country farmers, that aid not require 
any stilted language or scientific figures, or striking illustrations. He 
■had told them his story from the open bible without a scrap of paper be- 
fore him. They had forgotten the talents and the eloquence of the 
above old heroes and had given the. kindliest and closest attention. 
What was he to do now on his new discovery? The world of the past 
must answer. He must hold on his way ignoring the discoveries, ex- 
cept to stimulate to more careful study, a greater exettion to place 
eternal truth clearly and forcible lefore the minds of the audience. 
When the teacher was removed by the vote of the court, and the men, 
old and young, had remonstrated with their might against the change, but 
could not prevail to keep him, old men and full grown strong young 
men burst into tears. Among those still living who can attest this a.s 
true are, Dr. Wardrope and J. B. Duncan and Robert Kei nedy elder, 
SHtd Peter Campbell of Galetta. So much may be said for the soundness, 
kindness and goodness of the people of Ashton. 

The south branch of the Carp river, one of the many tributan^a of 
the Ottawa, rises in Goulbourn, in the lowlands above old Stittsville, a 
creek passing between it and the Canadian Pacific railroad, and winding 
through the farms of Messrs. Kemp, Hartin, Grant, etc., unites below 
the town line, in the first concession of March, with the north branch, 
which rises in Nepean, near the ■ oad, and runs westerly to the junc- 
tion. It was in our early recollection a clear stream, all its length except 
an odd tree across it, which was used instead of a better bridge for cross- 



86 HfSTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

mg on foot. Beaveiss, otters, minks, SMaskrats, were its aboriginal io- 
feabitants. Our first voyage on its placid waters was in a log canoe with 
WaKa,in Acres, to inspect his traps placed under the grass drawn on the 
banlK marking the landing of the muskrat, some of which he brought 
home. William Harper, then a boy, showed us the stumps and some 
dead poles with the marks where the beavers had bit them rou^nd with 
their teeth which then excited our boyish amazement, and still further 
when we heard that they drew these poles with their tails and dug clay 
»«d plastered the poles in the stream to make dams for their luxurious 
dwellings. The tail seemed to be a great and useful implement as well as 
tiw: teeth. 

The river now, for miles, resembles a long narrow lake grown full of 
taH coarse grasses. A dead sea. ,It is a government work for 25 miles 
to dredge it and prevent its being injurious as well as useless. Public 
and private roads suffer by it. The Hartin brothers had a saw mill on 
its south branch and cut as long as the timber lasted around it. They 
offered a site near the mill for a Presbyterian church and logs of white 
pine were sid-ed and laid on the ground. David claimed (he was but 
a boy then) that as he was giving the ground and would have to saw a 
good deal of the lumber he should have the choice of a pew when built, 
which they all cordially agreed to, except Jacob Stewart, who made a 
funoy objeetion "gee him the pulpit." The project was abandoned, 
Thc'Methodists built a log church close by, which the facetious James 
BeH termed "Mud street chapel." It is yet standing. Rev. Mr. Horner 
held revivals in it on the mode of prostration. Crowds attended and 
trouble and litigation followed. The mode was not adopted and the 
services of this evangelist have been dispensed with. The Magce chapel. 
9. neat Iktle whke church, further south, was erected, and beyond that, 
in a forest of giant maples, they had a camp ground at which we spent 
a week. We were often invited to lead their prayer meetings amid the 
greatest excitement we ever had to that time witnessed. 

Whole families from far away. Clarendon and Hull, and many 
other places were there encamped in board huts, tents an-d sheds. 
Many preachers were there, and many sermons daily delivered to the 
vast, attentive audience. Prayer meetings followed the sermon and 
were greatly, prolonged, some one leading till exhausted, his voice was 
lest in the responses and another started up to take his place. Often in 
evenings, continuing till midnight. Rev. Ben NankieviHe presided and 
with a long tin born summoned them from walk or conversation to at- 
tend the services. One night after eleven o'clock the preachers and 
other notables were very politely invited to take tea in the capacious 
tent of Brother McCurdy. Whilst doing great justice to the excellent, 
well- prepared refreshments, the doctrine of predestination was served up 
for discussion. Some one said the Presbyterians did not beliexe it 
themselves. Mr James Lowry referred them to me for a reply We 
admitted the docr,m*e, but said it was very inconvenient to d;scuss it 
then and there. However, they were in the mood for it, after a fine 
supper moistcHcd by old hyson. Questions were piled in upon the stu- 
dent from every quarter. W . Fitz B. Healey and James Stitt stood in 
the door, heWing by the frame, t© prevent their being hustled in and 
hurtdteds stood an^oiAad. All admitted the doctrine of fore knowlccl-ge : 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 87 

We maintained that it was so intimately connected with fore appoint- 
ment that they must stand or fall together on the ground; that we can- 
net possibly know that a thing exists if it does not really and certainly 
exist; that it is equally impossible to know that a thing will exist if its 
future existence is not fixed and certudn. 

Dr. A. Clarke has said that past, ^jresent and future are all present 
with the Deity. On this reasoning his present purposes are his past pur- 
poses, and what is right now to do or purpose could not be otherwise in 
past purpose or deed, and so for ever. That man acts willingly under 
the knowledge and purpose, as if there were not a providential rule that 
includes everything under it cannot be denied nor explained from our 
limited understandings, neither can we deny our own accountability. 
But said Mr. Nankieville, if a man is justified and sins afterward is he not 
unjustified ? We were at a standstill for a moment but replied- He re- 
pents and is forgiven, and restored to favor, as David and others. Justi- 
fication is not annulled or revoked- It is God that justifies and it must 
include the whole life. On that he took my hand. Lelf us get some 
£resh air? And off we went in the clear dawn of morning for a most 
pleasant walk and chat. He was i-eported to have had a number lof his 
bones broken m coal pits in England in youth, but he was a sound 
Christian man. General Booth is contriving ways to bring together the 
working young people of London and elsewhere for acquaintance in or- 
der to marriage. In this light this camp-meeting must have been a 
great success, for we were told that about 60 marriages took place 
rfiortly after it broke up- The Township of Goulbourn was like some 
ethers very rich in lumber at the first. This made a market for produce, 
especially oats and hay, which were raised in the richest abundance 
on the fertile portions of the soil. These were disposed of at the doors 
where raised, or within a few miles. 

But afterwards the farmers had to seek a market up the Ottawa, 
Madawaska^ Bonnechere and elsewhere, and drive with teams in winter, 
requiring from one week to three weeks, for the go and return, but it 
paid them as the prices were good. That market is no more, as it d<- 
mini^es yearly, and settlers near the limits can supply the demand 
The farmer is now in the hands of a few millers, who prepare rolled oats 
or meal to be consumed at home, or if it pay, sent to Britain- The elec- 
tric railroads in the streets diminish the demand for horses to be used- 
The distance to England, the style of horse ^required there, and the 
McKinley tariff have put farmers into such difficulties as now, not to 
raise 25 per cent of the colts they formerly did, and beef at $4.00 per 
hundred will not pay 25 cents a day to a man the year round; and his 
board, working his own farm, and with hired help, will leave him slightly 
in debt. Wheat and oats at a cent a pound when crops are good, and 
i}4 cents, when half crops, and hay at $8 a ton, make a striking con- 
trast with the prices and demands of forty and fifty years ago. We are 
HOt saying that the former days were better than these, and we have no 
controversy with the modern philosophers, who, provided with good 
salaries, are booming the rimes, and the goodness and progress of the 
world, we are only stating- things as they were, and are now, which is 
ofAy truth m history to which we have bound ourselves and from wfaick 



^•S mSTORY ©F TH« OTTAWA VALLEY. 

we wis mot knewingly swerv« to please friend or foe, ScKne oW names 
have dtsappeKred from the ^d farms altogether. 

f In other cases a father that owned 400 acres has left it to children 
and the farm now is one hundred acres to a man. In other cases tlic 
grandchildren are on the single hundred acres the grandfather tirewfrom 
tbe Government. If it be said, so much the better; let them cultivate 
four times as much as was done in the past. Good, if they can. But 
those who know the lay of the country and the flat fine lands that have 
BO fall of any extent for draining, and estimate how much it would cost 
to underdrain such farms and we ask what great use for any other kinds 
of drains will easily tell that the money for such underclrains. must he 
borrowed and the lands put under lien for 20 or 30 years to pay it back. 
Without such an improved system of agriculture our lands in the level 
Valley of the Ottawa will not yield half their strength to the faraier and 
his wife with their 14 hours a day of toil and an.xiety. We have what 
our ancestors had not. Ministers of agriculture and their well-manned 
departnsents; can they tell us anything about agriculture, except give us 
a few BnreUaKle statistics ? To our farmers this department is utterly 
useless but highly ornamental. They pay fdr it all in hard earned cash. 
The progress in labor-saving machinery in tliesc 60 or 70 vears has been 
very great indeed. They reaped with sickles and bound with their 
hands for 30 years, now the old scythe is no more except as a relic 
Mower, rakes, tedder, loader, horse fork, are all improvements to be 
grateful for; so is the reaper, and much more the reaper and binder;^ but 
tiae cost ©f these to the farmer is at a fair estimate five times theirivalue. 
Fifteen years ago $300 for a reaper and binder, which with interest at 6 
per cent., $380, then the instrument is done. 

If by foreign competition it is now $120, that is $60 too much, what 
reason or henesty is there in charging for a sewing machine $80 in one 
country where it is made and protected, and $25 in another country in 
competition? The castings of it are said to be worth $7.50, now per- 
haps $5. These men have become millionaires j'ou say. So they would 
had they sold at the factory at $25 and wealth would have been without 
robbery. At one stage of our recollection a man cbuld buy a farm and 
pay for it out of his own labor on the farm. Can he do it now ? A 
single horse top-buggy sold at|^22S; at about ten years after, such vehicles 
were sent in long trains after one pair of horses, and two men, in num- 
ber from ten to fifteen a»«i sold at $50, the principle difference being on 
the finish as they declared. We do not put in the plea that the manu- 
facturers of 96' are more honest and reliable than those of 45' 55' or 65'. 
We simply chronicle their doings as a spectator. 

The taxes coUectedthe first year in one township amounted to fif- 
teen dollars. The settlers from the Old Country were opposed to heavy 
taxation. And no wonder, as almost every month in the ycsr I'lcre was 
an officer to collect for something in the land of their nativity. They 
decidedly opposed the expensive, cumbersome machinery by v.-hich it 
was raised. We very weM remember some gentlemen had a method bv 
which all that was necessary could be obtained with the greatest econ- 
omy. But no, these men came late and the U. E. and the Captains who 
were J. P.s, had their methods and ihey contrived to follow them. Pre- 
judice, customs of our fathers, our habits, aM plead; then our stubborn- ' 



j HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 89 

ness to prefer our own plans to all others, and so many willing to be led 
without thinking, and so many man- worsiiippers, that could not turn 
f'-'^m the objects of their devotion to reform anything. Arguments, the 
fie rest, are lost on multitudes — dollars take them The old lady's argu- 
tnei against the education of her boy was to the point with so many: 
"Fii^j shillings stands a man more stead, than all the books that ere he 
rcaa." These ignorant, purchasable wretches, arc winked at because 
tbey belong to our party, or they count in voting for our party; pcr'raps 
enceuraged by men that wish to be thought of as honest and honorable. 
These early reformers would have had experts from a distance, to ijiake 
^e assessment according to the native value of the land, wild or unim- 
proved, and exclusive of buildings, slork, and all else, as these arise from 
the toil and industry of the laborer. This vaUiation to be permanent as 
the soil itself, as the matter once fairly adjusted would satisfy, and the 
expsRse ofasscssment.be avoided for ever after. 

If a farm or any lands became the site of towns or villages, the lots 
could be valued accordingly. But no man can point out the object to 
be £?fncd by assessing a house and lot a thousand times in as ni; ny 
years, except to reduce taxes, which they never do unless to give Lm- 
ployrrtent to idlers at the expense of the honest. The treasurer coul i be 
elected for five years giving good security for his behaviour. Allot the 
time for each section of the county to pay, and let everyone pay, ()r be 
canipelled to pay by the authority of the treasurer. There would then 
be no expense for collecting. How quiet, just and pure is such a ] Ian 
compared with the millions of perjuries, arid acts of dishonesty, pv ipe- 
trated by a bhnd adherence to the barbarous plans of the dark ages ? Is 
it pleasant that any party in church or state, should keep on the down- 
hifl course of degeneracy, dragging humanity through the slough, in- 
creasing the poverty as well as misery of the race, insensible to all ad- 
vancement, only tending to discord, hatred and anarchy, rtLtllion and 
bloodshed ? Are they reasoning or unreasoning people, who multiply 
offices to make retainers to pocket the people's money without giving an 
«*ulva!eHt; multiplying idlers to live on the labor and toil of their fcliows 
that a few may be enriched, and all patriotism and progress crushed out 
of humanity ? Soils do not change in value, permanent houses change 
as iktle, why then disturb this estimate from 3 ear to year, except to keep 
to ©Id customs? Some traditions of our fathers are good : such as in- 
uustry, truthfulness, honesty; but from the days of Nimrod to our tiays, 
men have arisen to interrupt our peace, retard our industries, tax our 
powers of endurance, and embitter and shorten our lives; that tl'ey may 
ride into power and glory on our backs, as if we were so, many beasts of 
burden, saddled and bridled for the purpose. 

Bewndless love is professed for our dear Motherland, but only "In 
word and'tongue," to catch votes and popularity. What do they love ? 
Her rock-bound, sca-be.'.ten coa.sts— her broad, fertile valleys and sunny 
biWsides, her daisies and pnmro.ses, her well selected, high-bred varietif s 
of animjils, her peace-loving, indu.strious, but manly and unconquerable 
^eopic,' their liberal policy by which they are increasing their commerce 
paying off their crushing national debt, diminishing pauperism every 
year, ff.creafng'their population and lessening crime, any or all these ? 
They love Downing street because there they can be Knighted, 



90 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Baronetted, Lorded, and how deWgKtfnl is that operation, to a fellow that 
began his career as a ceok or road cutter in a shanty, or a trapper in the 
rat catchino;- fraternity of Hudson's Bay, or a herring or seal fislier on the 
Labrador coast ? What will some men stick at if a throne is in view ? 
The English must be a mightily dcluiled people, that can listen to these 
hollow sounds of loyalty from men who tax the labor of their artisans 
and mechanics ten to fifteen per cent, higher than that of a foreign na- 
tion, and grant them patents of nobility^asa reward for their well-studied 
unfeigned hypocricy. If the Sovereign herself attended to the elevation 
of these unprincipled creatures above the common herd; when she" 
touched them with her little sword, or bound, on their politically gouty 
"lower extremity" the ribbon garter, she woulJ hesitate to perform the 
ceremony, on cases, that if well-known, should be in fetters. Salisljury 
is good at these things and Beaconsfiekl at his last fall is said to hav e 
elevated only five hundred of these single timbers. Combinations easily 
subdue individuals. Often very wdrthy men arc singled out for this ele- 
vation, but in nine cases out of ten it is the gentleman who has washed 
the soiled linen for the highly unprincipled leader. 

If these hfts in society cannot be, but at the sacrifice of the many, 
they should cease. Will the time ever come when men will not be daz- 
zled with such gorgeous shows, bowing the knees to such emjHy 
shadows? Of late years politicians have threatened us with that fero- 
cious beast "direct taxation." ^Oh! gentleman what have wc done or 
left undone, that you should iiijflict upon the generations to come such 
immeasurable, incalculable, untold miseries— -a yoke that could never be 
broken, never removed, but be crushing and galling to the last hour of the 
last man's life ? Calamity of calamities ! ! They will think before in- 
volving us in such disaster. It would load out county treasurers without 
additional pay and compel us to look after the outlay of the money in- 
stead of our continuing indolence. Every one would find out what was 
to be raised and for what paid out. Our customs gentry pensioned, and 
dismissed, with every sentiment of respect, and the places sol . 'Ihous- 
ands of offices demolished, and their overworked occupants retired on a 
yearly allowance. Then the degraded burners of kerosene would be 
compelled to pay seven cents a gallon retail, or discontinue its use, ex 
cept in the short-nights of summer. Lamentation and darkness would' 
cover the west end of the peninsula, and the oilmen would commit that 
awful felo de se, which ought to be carefully avoided. What would be- 
come of our investments to make for men shoddy wooiiens, and co^itly 
cottons, when we are such imbeciles that we cannot compete with ititcHi- 
gent men of other countries. Then we would have to pay twenty-five 
or twenty per cent of their present price for the goods, the other coun- 
tries would hasten to deluge our slaughterfields with, they would so re- 
joice at our degradation and ruin so blue. 

Foreigners would come and settle on our wild lands and we would 
be obliged to import Kroger arid a number of his Boors to teach us how 
to hold the power of squeezing money out of them, keeping them dis— 
no unfranchised till we got ihe wealth and they got death. We would 
be unable to elect a clever politician, arnl the work of the clergy in that 
line would be killed. The goveniaient have too much regard for our 
happiness, to suffer our country to enter such- a cycle of unmingled 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. gn . 

DOtrors, knowing that if they did, we would become so dementecl as i 
never to re-elect them. Parliament is become so popular since the return of 
the one man power and the oversight taken of us by the hierarchy that 
those resident in the county of the Capital, who know these advantages 
are preparing for the sacrifice to the number of ten devotees for Carle- 
ton-^Eight Conservatives, one opposition, and one temperance man. 
Our population has increased so uriprecedentedly in the last eighteen 
years that we now reach almost five millions. There may be in these 
two and a half millions wage-earners, and the business of the country has 
been conducted for the moderate sum of thirty-eight millions annually. 
Our borrowings have been so little during eighteen years that they are 
well within two hundred millions, and our interest only a little over 
twelve millions, making in all only fifty millions a year to meet interest, and 
running expenses of the Government, for a country stretching from the 
wild Atlantic to the mild Pacific, and from the American lines to round 
the pole, and to the countries down below the pole on the other si(ic ex- 
cept Alaska which the Yankees claim, but that they cannot detach from 
us, whilst we are a continent say what they will. 

Now we can point you out fifty countries, not one of which would 
make a patch to ours, that cost far more to govern them. Supposing ■ 
our estimates to be cbrrect-^-it costs our wage- earners an average ofoaly 
twenty dollars a year each to keep happy thousands of officers now in 
Her Majesty's customs; thousands of assessors, collectors and treasurers, 
and tens of thdusands of hard-worked, under-paid employees, besides 
Uncle Thomas and. Uncle Michal and a host of these book-burning oak- 
pocketing Frenchmen, cousins of our members, whose "iU-farred" names 
we cannot remember, and whose barbarous language no decent man 
should be asked to pronounce. Our guides have learned a lesson from 
Samson. The Philistines neglected him and his hair grew, and he gave 
them trouble; but they keep the country well-shaven for their safely. We 
give a bushel of wheat to thirty farmers that costs us five dollars worth 
of time to pick it off tlje stalks with our fingers, lest it should be injured 
by thrashing. We distribute peas in like manner that costs us a dollar a 
bushel to pick the black ones out and we enrich them with cleaner grain 
than they raise,. or will take the same trouble with. It has been found 
very difficult to bring about the abolition of slavery in the most enlight- 
ened nations, whilst it remains a sacred principle in others to this day, 
and polygamy is on the increase among white men even in America. If 
these things be so ill to eradicate, the same holds with habits that might 
be remorselessly uprooted. We have known a goodly number of men, 
that have done much and made considerable of sacrifice for the im- 
provement of this country. They have been the most maligned, misrepre- 
.=entcd, hated and abused. When they have corrected these baseless 
falsehoods that have been ' repeated again and again, simply to injure 
when the fabricators and slanderers knew that no one believed them. 

^ David, said, all men are liars. Alas! the conduct of most men con- 
firm and illustrate this truth, in their daily conversation. Oh ! if the 
Opposition get in you might as well have the lowlands under water and 
the hills volcanoes. People are thinking that things can be no worse 
and that they will not be bettcr.:d without a change. Legislation has 
cost much, and is worth little, much of it being not constitutional. Our 



92 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

protected manufacture's productions are costing miicli more than they 
are worth, and robbing the treasury, but furnishing some election funds 
for a government tlat they tliink deserves donations. 'Offices have been 
multipHed witliout stint or end. The hierarchy ride and domineer; tlieir 
sermons do not contain the tni'h either about tl;c decisions of the Pri\-y 
Council, or the position of the friends in Manitol^a. The leaders ofti c 
people cause them to err and they that arc lea by them are destroyed. 
The battle between church and state has been pretty well tlira.slicd out 
in this country and any -interference lo\v;uds a return to such a union 
Brill wake up a power that the church cannot control, if the Vatican were 
even transferred to Quebec. Sir Charles and his bTshops will soon secure 
the well-merited conicmpt they now labor for, as the heaven-inspired are 
not much in their favor. 

Gloucester is said to ha\'e had a first wh''e inl abitant in 1E03, a Mr 
Ferguson, on the Ottawa front, but he disappeared 'eaving no traces of 
his existence and no one has reported where he v.cnt. Ihe first actual 
settler was Mr. Braddisli Billings, a son of Dr. Eiilir.gs, a U. E. L., who 
had been a surgeon in the re\ olutionary army and ]>ad settled at Brock- 
viUe, 1792. Braddish, born in 1783, was nine years old when they came 
to this province, as the youth grew up he became like most of the early 
settlers fond of lumbering. Mr. Wright of Hull, had been in the busi- 
ness a few years and Mr. Billings, with a couple of men, took ont staves 
for him, oak at that time being very plentiful on the banks of the rivers. 
The Rideau bank from the Isthmus was covered with the finest of tim- 
ber, offering a field of enterprise unequalcd in value. You miglit cut 
what you pleased and where you found it most convenient, as no fees 
were charged for any timber of any kind growing on the soil of the 
lands known as British North America. The beautiful banks of this 
river were terraced by nature and must have attracted attention even 
when in forest, to such a young man so eminently practical as Mr. 
Billings. 

These slopes inclining to the west and south, showed eariy what they 
would become under the hands of the skilful and' industrioi s,» as they 
now appear in fertile fields and pleasant market gardens. Mr. Billings, 
with his men, built the first shanty against a rock where his fire could 
burn harmlessly all the long winter nights. His men ivere Ypnkees, 
Blakely, Moor, and Stowell. His supplies must have been brought from 
the St. Lawrence or from Hull but Mr. Wright supplied to some extent 
the new comers, but chiefly his own extensive business. Tiie river was 
navigable from Burritt's Rapids to Hog's Back Rapids for floats, scows, 
canoes, and such crafts of which they made good use, as tl.cre were no 
roads cut or blazed. He brought a cow down the bank and they sai'ed 
a scow on the water tying the cow to a pole at night, the men spending 
tlie night sleeping on the scow. The scovv got frozen in a'tiove Loi.g 
Island, and had to be secured by poles anJ withes mooring it to the 
shore to save it in the breakup in spring. TliCy Jiad to carry down their 
provisions from where the scow was held in the ice to the sh?rAy. The 
Billings were of old English descent. Bradclish was born at Goshen 
ngar Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Charles Billings has traced his family name throi^gh his English 
ancestry, back to German counts, of the same name, as the old Guelphs 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY, 93 

of the middle ages. The German counts of the name were nen of par- 
ticular eminence and manly chivalry. Rev. Mr. Dudiet of iJuckin^ham 
showed us parchments ver)- aged proving his ancestors in ;:^\ iiztrland 
to have been men of highly honorable name and position. .^ "1 'icsc docu- 
ments of much value can bring no wealth to tlicir owner in tho present 
generation. Still there can be nothing degrading or dishonorfi-lc in the 
line of connection with such an elevated class of ancesters, be t'cy ever 
so remote. In Germany, and the low countries, all the sons cif counts 
held the same exalted rank In other countries like England, the eldest 
son only inherits the title of the father. Count John of Nassau, bro'.ii.er of 
William of Orange, the Silent Prince, had six sons, patriots, heroe.=, c, ery 
one sacrificed his life for his country's liberties in the wars wilh the 
Spaniards. Another young Count Nassau, a commander in the nrmy 
of the patriots, fell mortally wounded and was made prisoner. Wl,i.n a 
priest was introduced he turned away his face on the bed. But thru ;','i 
the humanity of the Spanish general, when his cousins were invited to 
see him. on the promise that they would be safe, he met them and ex- 
erted himself to entertain them and impress on them that he gloried in lay- 
ing down his life for his country's cause. 

When he expired they brought his remains from the Spanish camp, 

the grief of his fellow soldiers in the camp was great and some of them 
enquired how he bore himself in so great .juffcnhgs. I'hey said he died 
like a Nassriij. If Braddish Billings had the blood of cents flowing in 
his veins, his clear head was not disturbed with lofty pi..-;ntions above 
his circumslanccs, but like a man of sound judgment, a practical business 
man, he built the first dwelling, as he had made the first timber in the 
township, 3'ct unsurveyed. Like a man of failh and sense too, he earfy 
began to provide for himself and his household. Patrick Hamilton and 
George Wishart, with ducal blood in their veins, would burn atthe stake 
rather than dishonor themselves by sacrificing their convictions. Their 
destruction became the eternal disgrace, shame and ignominy of their 
enemies. The young lady that became the wife of Mr. Braddish Billings 
was Miss Lamira Dow. Her father lived near Merrickville, called his 
place Kilmarnock, showing his Scotch origin, although Americanized. 
She was, s .y, 17 years old, when she married. Her birthplace was 
Cambridge, Washington county. New York. She had been an energetic 
teacher for some months, but she was told they had no money, and they 
would give her notes, but she must take wheat for her pay. She made 
np her accounts, took the notes in her pocket, walked thirty miles to 
Brockvillc, buttlie merchant would not cash them, nor give anything 
but goods, and that onl when the wheat was delivered. She walked 
home, collected the wheat in due time, drove it to Brockville, received 
her store pay and returned in safety. After coming home with Mr. 
Billings, young and beautiful as she really was, she stepped lightly and 
gaily into the corn-field, and assisted her husband in pulling and husking 
their first crop of a four acre field. Their shanty was built against a 
rock, which served as the back of the chimney, against which the logs 
burned all night through the cold of winter- The shanty has disappeared 
jon^ ago, but the rock with its dark brown face still remains visible. > A 
ll-,ousand mothers might be cited to tell how well they worked during 
that age in garden, field an 1 meadow. Would occasional mild exercises 



§4 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEVi 

of that kind injure the taper fingers and fair faces of their charming, 
grand-daughters ? A little browning in the flower garden is pleasant 
and healthy. Ladies are not averse to labor, even continuous and diffi- 
cult, provided it be in the Hnes that are customary and of high repute, 
and remunerative. 

They make, they cherish the customs and fashions. They will drive 
teams, ride steeplechases, take hurdle high leaps, do things "infra dig" 
' at times, and for which, they would blame Lord Rosebery. Mrs. Billings 
was no stranger to the canoe and paddle. Steam and electricity have 
nearly dispensed with the labor of man and beast, to say the least of it, 
in our labor-saving age. Billings tried to float in cribs from the Upper 
Rideau the lumber for his first farmhouse, ';'hich is yet standing in good 
shape. Seven dollars a month and board round was Miss Dow's salary 
as teacher. This style of boarding when houses of large size were on-ly 
one room,, was, or would be amusing to us in the present day. A young 
gentleman in Ohio, then an eloquent, distinguished lawj'er, now an emin- 
ent judge, told us of his experience "going round with the scholars." The 
males retired with candle light, kicked off their pants in bed, the (others 
.extinguished the lights, retired without light in summer and by' the fire-- 
light in winter. In the rising the one party got into the tights under 
cover; the other sat up, clothed and alighted on the floor in full dress ex- 
cept the boots. But in spite of crowded circumstances and early incon- 
veniences, the morals of those times were immeasurably higher than in 
our cities today. Miss Dow did not teach long, but she ppssessied the 
material out of which good wives are manufactured. Mr. Billings seemed 
to divine this and secured her in her teens. 

Many a pine tree grew on the borders of streams, that twenty feet 
long of its thick end could have been sided down to between thirty-six 
and forty inches by twenty inches. This, when excavated or dug out, 
to say, one and a half or two inches of a shell, made a good canoe, not 
easily upset but safej The bark canoe was very light, easily taken over 
rough places, but frail and easily broken up. On one of these sailing ex- 
peditions to Mr. Dow's and returning they collided with the c-{ioe of Mr. 
Tiberius Wright, son of the old. Squire, and father of Alonzo the M. P., 
and Mr. Billings' canoe was driven into the rapid so that it was out of 
his power to strike the beach, or land Mrs. Billing.s. Mr. Wright could 
render them no help, as they were carried down the swift dashing cur- 
rent. Mrs. Billings with her infant in her lap kept her seat as she paddled 
in the bow- Then as the water dashed into the canoe, she baled it out 
in the terrible emergency, as the little craft rolled arid tossed in the foam: 
ing waves, among the huge rocks, that every moment threatened their 
destruction. It was a narrow escape, rescued from the jaws of grim 
death. Mr. Wright leai>ed ashore from his canoe, and rushed down the 
banks in consternation, lest by his fpul, they should be engulfed among 
such swells and he was ready to aid when they struck the shore. She 
did not lose presence of mind nor faint till all was safe. Mr. Wright was 
profuse in his apologies as he felt so much in fault. We have not heard 
of any one since, red men or white, trying the experiment of such a run. 

For sevewl years Mr. Braddish Billings was monarch in Gloucester. 
Ira and Elkana, his brothers built in Nepean in 1813. Jonathan Marble 
Dow about the same time'in Nepean got lands, and died of cholera in 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 95 

J 832, the first year of that terrible plague. We found, on consulting 
Miss Sabra Billings, that she was the first girl born in Gloucester and her 
brother the first boy, that she was the young sailor on the rapids, in that 
canoe race. Looking at her fine face and majestic form with the corre- 
sponding vigor of thought and intellect, the ease and facility with which 
she conversed on so many topics, wc questioned whether we had met 
any one in this region to match her since her time. Hale, healthy and 
pleasant, she is not fastidious, voluntarily telling you her age, and gaily 
chatting on the events of early times, and the changes so many years ■ 
have witnessed. She has been a benevolent giver, and steady worker 
in the church, useful and ornamental in society. Leaving her pleasant 
dwelling on the hill side and reflecting on the interview, it seemed to bs 
an unsolved mystery, that a lady of such aspect, parts, and endowments 
should remain to this day, without blessing a husband and his home, 
with affection, congeniality, womanly dignity, and sobermindedness be- 
fitting a countess or a duchess. We saw with her, a sister seemingly 
much younger, a retiring, but very pleasant looking lady. It was agree- 
able to drop in and renew old friendship after an absence of some years. 
Mr. Elkana Billings, the lawyer, we remember in our school days, as a 
gentleman of talent energy, and fond of the young science of geology, 
then coming into notoriety. He left Byto>vn, and went to Montreal, 
where he published a geological monthly magazine very highly spok,en 
of among scholars. Some of the brothers are deceased. One is a strong 
farmer on part of the old lands. Mr. Charles Billings has also a fine farm 
but has been township clerk for years. We have seen his history of the 
family in M. S. or type-writing in which he traces his longline. He is a 
kind of thirty third cousin of Queen Victoria but he missed an introduction 
to her whefi in London so recently, though he brought home, a stone 
from' the old "l^erry walls away." <He had a grand tour of England, 
Ireland, Scotland, and France, and describes to the life the many scenes, 
places and points of interest, embraced in his extensive tour. 

We have been told on good authority, that a young gentleman 
asked Mr. Billings to give him perrnission to besiege the citadel of babra's 
affections, but whether the fortress was impregnable or not, she did not 
say, but said it would not suit, but she introduced him to one whom he 
married and the union was happy and productive of much good. If the 
history of the Billings' family were published it would be very readable 
and would throw much light on the history of their life and times in this 
young country of their adoption. The township lies in the corner of the 
county with Russell on the east, the Ottawa river on its north side, the 
Rideau on the west, and Osgoode on the south. For six or seven years 
Mr. Billings' neighbors were across the Rideau in Nepean and he was 
the solitary occupant, the monarch of the township. About the year 
1819 Capt Wilson of the navy, and Mr. Otterson came in, but they 
planted themselves southward on the right bank of the Rideau. The 
Capt. was a prominent, popular man, whose house was the resort of all 
travellers, especially those searching for farms and being well informed 
,and very communicative, he did good service to these strangers in <fi- 
recting where to find suitable localities on which to settle. 

Old Mr. Johnston, the father of that Johnston settlement Was di- 
rected to where his location ticket pointed, and when he returned, told 



\i6 UISIORY or THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 



^ 



ihe Captain he }>-io a harti sera ..Lie to find i^, and the Capt. wa.= so anrmseJ 
i*e caBed it"haril s--rabb!e" to this dsiy. Mr. and Mrs. O'Connor, the 
jirtiver and mother of the rich descen-rfwnts of that name, made the Cap- 
taki's their resting place, as weary an^l I'ootsor'", they carried their bag- 
ST'igje on their backs from Kingston; atvl Mrs. O'Connor was so deliglited 
with the jolly olH Captain, and the place where she was so rested and 
refreshed, that s!ie declared if ever they would be able they would buy 
the place, which they did afterwards, but sold it again. Contemporary 
with the O'Connors Cajit. Smith came in i82r, and took lands north of 
the Billing;s estate. Ke, like Mr. Billings, took much interest in municipal 
affairs and the commission of the peace, at once a popular and useful 
man. 

Gloucester contain*; 83,573 acres of land, and nearly all good. The 
MrKcnna, brothers, Irishmen, came in 1819, and whose offspring are 
s' '1 in the region. The Christian name Hugh seems to imply French 
connection or oriein. But in the middle ages there were intermarriages 
between French, Scotch, Irish and English from peasants to peers and 
princes, that the name as well as many oth.ers came to be international. 
John Holden came the same year with a nnmc^roiis family, and in pos- 
session of such help, took great contracts of clearing from Mr. Billings, 
thus making his the largest clearing in the township compared with 
which the others were little openings. Many of these first settlers lived 
to be very old people from whatever country they came. Several were 
drowned attempting to cross the ice in a dangerous state, in that rapid 
running Rideau; among others Mr. Hoiucii when about eight years in 
the country. About 1S22 the Holisters and the Carmans came and 
settled there. Bishop Carman the Episcopal Methodist clerg3'man was 
of this family, whose usefullness and energy is known in all the 
churches. ' 

The survey of the township was made about 1820, which aided 
much in the settlements, as the lots could be, identified, and the men 
knew where to improve and build. Cunningham, McFadden, Brush, 
Telford, and others, came in after the above names, and one encouraged 
another in clearing and raising such productions as they could use and 
.■^ell to advantage. Mr. Thomas McKay of New Edinburgh, got a little 
mill on the place he afterwards built, so fine and so large a building, and 
began to grind for the people and to purchase wheat to meet the de- 
inand of the settlers. The lumbermen, however, were the best purchas- 
ers of flour, pork, hay and oats, and lumbering was the principal business V 
of the country, that brought money in, and consumed the spare produce 
of the farmers. The Rideau river was not fordable in spring and fall, or 
at any high flood, and the current being swift was not inviting for canoes 
or any other crafts to ferry over. The people began to speak of the 
possibility of constructing a bridge. Rot the conversations, proposals 
and plans were many, before they could decide to get to work. At 
length the subscription was begun, e\ ( ry one contributing, according to 
his ability, and &iall)' the bridge was built. First it was known as the . 
farmer's bridge, as it was the voluntary subscription of the farmers fur- 
nisred the funds to build it, then Billings' Bridge, the name it still enjoys. 
V Krivaie enterprise is sltsw, but it is capay« of meeting all the de- 
war.i-'soiaray cetirttry. Our B®ar«js of Works with our »etfaods of 



j HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 97 

fitiaitce liave been dens of thieves preparing men to corrupt one another, 
drag down to poverty the millions, and themselves and their abettors to 
perdition. But these men, with their consciences burned out, thinkthere 
is no violation of the law of God in thieving from the nation because it 
IS not an individual man. That they do these things under forms of law, 
r,nd are Sustained by one another, make the offence \ite more aggravated. 
Should they be able to keep their supporters duped and deluded to the 
end, and with the aid of the clergy, escape the judgments of Rien, yet 
tkere is a judge they cannot escape. Our indirect methods rf raiang 
revenue, and the covetous people tbat handle it, work up innumerabte 
ways of wrong-doing, and from the vast inequality a few years make be- 
tween one class and another, that many forms of immorality and sin pre- 
sent themselves, and rich extortioners, and tlweves ru« great risks of 
assassination and robbery. 

Sanctimonious hypocrites are in the church for wealth, power and 
greatness; the authors and abettors ®f crime in the ^ate, a tariff so high 
as' to stir unprincipled merchants to cheat in the revenue, and officers to 
take bribes, and for every dollar's worth we get in improvements we 
pay five. The two old Conservatives, Washington and Hamilton, estab- • 

: Ijshed in the minds of the Congress of the United States, that by in- 
direct tax they could raise ten for one by direct tax, the same old-crj' 
was echoed by a candidate the other night in Montreal, which everyone 
knows is false. He reads the Bishop's progress and catechism. What 
have dur leading politicians done for their country between 1878 and 
1896 but contrive to transfer our earnings, the fruit of our toil, into their 
own pockets, leaving us the poorer every year ? Robin Hood and his 
merry men took from the rich on the h^hway and sometimes gave it to 
the needy, but our Hoods take it from the poor in imposts, and give it 

. to the rich in companies and combines under the name of governing us. 
They first vote their own salaries, then those of the officers under them, 
then fix that of the employees, and we ask discriminating men, compe- 
tent to judge, if the commonest employee in office is not able to Kve in 
as good a style as our best middle class farmers can ? 

Our history since 1878, shows that real estate has lost one t^rd of 
its value. They are become se conscience-seared, that tkey can, un- 
blushingly, defend the swindles in contracts, openly declarii^ they w31 
repeat them if they can. The hopeiessness of the case is, tbsrt the briberf, 
deluded, gerrymandered multitude keep them in office; endorse their 
outrageous, unrighteous, infernal frauds. Why is the cost of ruling us 

' so immensely oppressive? We are not unruly people. The Govern- 
ment is always in the law courts, and ten to one, always losing cases 
that should not be in law, and millions wasted on lawyers^hat earn them 

. nothing, but like the Irishman, "gain themioss." Two hundred and six- 
teen representatives, when forty would do better and more wb«|c. Most 
of these are lawyers who know how to ruin their clients, but nevTer ei> 
ricti them. But our strictures on such doings resemble the young noble* 
m,an who said, when asked to address an august assembly of the nobility, 

. that it would be "casting pearls before . .. ine." 

Poisoning, assassination, revolution, must ever be the result af mJ* 
rulcj and who is to blame for it all ? Does honest goveramcnt prevoke 
opposition ? Under the great chief, years ago, I<ord Raglan, • Daai^l 



98 I IST08.Y OF THE OTTAWA YAUtaV. 

©'C«fmdl, and o<^rs, such, cHd dtity at the poHs in Quebec anJ !!te 
supporters were elected. On the milk of our contractors, the Dominion 
"caUnes, s irfcs, knouts and bullocks" are raised, and we have a fine Aock. 
What weuW the dead M. P.'s of sixty years ago say if tliey saw oar 
present rulers in their golden chariots — Our hierarchial stretchep ? The 
provoked execrations, of our sun-browned farmers, and their toiling 
wives, careworn and exhausted by fourteen hours daily labor to keep 
out of the workhouse, and make ends meet, cannot but pursue a class 
of men, whose love of money renders them callous to every sentiment 
of humanity, invincible to honor, impervious to disgrace, swallowed up 
by covetousoess in church and state. From such monstrous vampirtes 
of hamanity, such land leeches, lovers of filthy lucre, good Lord deliver 
the people of this Dominion, and all peoples in like condition. Private 
companies take care of the outlay, and do not, if possible, follow a los- 
ing course. The bridge began to be built round the north side of the river 
and the community increased. 

, A school was begun in Mr Billings'. Miss Burritt taught in their 
heuse as a governess, but the children around were admitted till a 
proper schoolhouse could be erected. A post office was established, 
and a town hal), and little church followed. Mr. Collins next taught 
what they regarded as the first public school and was followed by Mait- 
land and Colquhoun, and others in succession. Attendance was very 
limited for years. The Methodists built the first church towards the 
south of the township. It was hoped that a village would have grown 
up in time, but the business of the country was chiefly lumber and 
potash, and no inducement was held out for years from any source till 
M. K. Dickenson took hold of the Island where now there is a thriving 
village- Presbyterians met in goodly numbers in houses, as in Capt 
Collins and others, where the young minister of Nepean officiated. 
The Hoodies, Blairs, Findlays, Cuddies, Blyths, Dunlops, many of them 
were members in Nepean, ("The church at the Beaver"), at Hoppers and 
Nesbitts. The distinction between labor and capital was unknown. 
Some lumberers were able to supply themselves but most had to be fur- 
nished at a ruinous per centage, and as prices fluctuated greatly, it was 
not uncommon for the hewer to bring home as much money as his em- 
ployer. Peace reigned between the parties. No strikes were ever thought, 
of. Now, the least thing creates a strike, and such barbarous savages 
a,re we that no reasoning will prevail to make us submit to arbitration. 

The settlements were formed by the U. E. L., always in the van, 
who saw, from their New England experience, a fortune in ' the intact 
forests, where they might cut and take away without let or hindrance. 
Good lands were discovered and possessed, and when surveyed, the titles 
9ec»red. They easily discovered where the best lands lay in the wide 
fields of their limits, (if that name is applicable to unsurveyed lands), and* 
they knew enough of a new country not to fear going farther into, the 
ferest to get the better situation. The new-comers from the old world 
bad everything to learn about land-clearing and stock-raising and build-; 
ing and even fencing, and had to acclimatize. He as a tenant was notj 
accurtomed t© command but to obey. In such cases, one naturally^ 
led, tiie other followed, voted with and for his leader. Tu these Am-J 
, (Vankees, ^e others cafted th«ra^ were aM««i anotker rlnmanlj 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VAIXEY. 99I 

in ^cers and raeo. The fonnrr with inest of the Yankees were Justfces 
©f the Peace, a title that pleas^ed them and gave ihem power and authtw- 
ity which wefe irresistible. 

They had one policy, held all offices, and soon were known as *%« 
family compact," holding the destinies of the multitudes which tiiey had 
governed from the first beginrring. ^gainst their doings there was no 
appeal nor redress, not even by laying tlieir petitions of grievances at 
the feet of the monarch, who was too hn away and under other influ- 
ences and other skies. This disastrous principle had produced two revo- 
lutiorw in England terrible and bloody, dethromng two despotic kings 
a«d securing equal rights to some extent for the down-trodden. A third 
was precipitated in America, which lost to the empire thirteen colon- 
ies, nearly all it possessed. This created a schism in the Anglo-Saxon 
race, the healing of which, though most desirable, may not be possible 
for many generatiojis. We have had several rebellions in these prpvinces 
caused by m^ish stubboriinciss of the domin^it party, detrimental to 
the peace, and disastrous to the pfospcrity o( our people, and always 
ending in conceding more by compulsion than at first demanded, and if 
given with a good grace, would have cost less of blood and treasure, 
prevented so many beartbumings and alienations of feelings and affec- 
tions, compacted and consolidated hi a Messed oneness and cordiality. of 
the whole community. 

When a ruling party or cabinet seik itself into the hands of design- 
ing men, whether clerical or political, it may reckon on opposition. 
They may throw the red brickbats of "rebel" and "disloyal" in perfect 
showers, at tiic beads of Oliver Cipinwell, William of Orange, and 
George Washington, but they cannot keep on the head of the little 
despot CharMe, nor save the little-minded James from exile, nor yet pre- 
vent the formation of a great rival, foreign nation, formed of their own 
kith and kin. When they have driven into banishment for a time, the 
men who dare to ask the rights refused their fellows and themselves, 
they are obliged to concede, though with a bad grace, these rights, and 
more, bring back the banished and reinstate them in their possessions, 
whilst their own reputations vanish into the obscurity of the rapparee 
and the assassin. How pleased would be the cabinet of the great 
stretcher to assign to prison and warder in Kingston, Laurier and Mc- 
Carthy, as former cabinets did their compatriots, to Niagara and Brock- 
ville;_but they may not be able. 

The terms "dlsioyal" and "rebel" are often thrown at the heads of 
the most reputable and valuable men in the community but they are 
too harmless to injure except by returning in the faces of these ;pelters 
themselves as we have witnessed during the last twenty years. Wilhe 
McDougal went to the nor' west and to the nor'west went he, says he to 
himself I'll feather my nest if the halfbreeds and I can agree." Colonies 
and Parliaments must cease to be the places, where needy designmg, 
knavish and greedy politicians may feather their neste. We ought to 
have some thing more independent than pensioners of the Bishc^s. We 
may as well abolish the pariiaments, and let the Bishops rale, then we 
will have legislation as it ought to be, bills drawn up m lajiguage, clear 
and forcible, logical and consistent, models of literary beauty and excel- 
Icnce The country would economise with no legislature to ^ppost on 



loo HISTORY OP THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

the Governor-General would not have to "fellowship" and to swallow 
whole, such cabinet ministers. , . I 

We once asked a very talented gentkmeHi wtio had then spent a 
jTood part of a long useful life, wliy hg had n'dt entered parliament ? His 
answer was peculiar : "that he WOuld then have to shake hands with 
people he would not spit on.** He was an aristocratic liberal. It took 
many years to make the roads even passable in Gloucester. One near 
the Rideau was only blazed and cleared of brush and poles. This led 
by Capt. Wilson's to Prescott through Kemptville, to travel with a 
jumper, or train on one horse, the other being more used by oxen. 
Some early bridges like at Cumming's Island were of slow construction 
where passengers had to. go on the stringers and animals had to ford it. 
Some drowning cases are reported. From Capt. Wilsons they had to ferry 
across the stream and travel down the Nepean side to Bytown, but the 
other road was blazed and could be used as . batter in winter than irt 
summer to Billings' Bridge, but from there to NeW Edinburgh was stony, 
muddy, crooked, and narrow and not much to speak of for many years. 
That to Green's Creek was little better for years after Clement Bradley 
and Benjamin Rathwcll, Robert Skead, and others, got lands on it. The 
road to Hawthorne, East Gloucester, and settlements round the Mer 
Blue was pushed, and the lands occupied between 1828 and 1836. 

What is called JaneviUe, was started by Sergeant Templetoft, 
Gtorge Sparks, and others. About 1833 Baily, Hill, Little, Low, Savage, 
and others, settled along the Russell road. Some of these little places 
have several names as, Ramsay's Corners, Taylorville. From 28 to 37, 
Mr. Gregor Stewart and Sergeant Johnston settled along here. Billings' 
Bridge became a stirring place, as we approach the middle of this cen- 
tury. Churches, schools. Town Hall, mechanics .shops, stores and busi- 
ness places were constructed whilst an impulse was giv:;n to business in 
general. Mr. Hugh Masson about the same time began to make his 
iron and steam ploughs, and perform many other operations in the busi- 
ness with marked success and acceptance to the public. Latterly he has 
taken to private banking on a nice little paying scale. He is a respected . 
citizen, a goo 1 neighbor, a genial, pleasant gentleman. His wife is a 
daughicr of Mr. Alexander Kennedy. Her mother was a Miss McDiar- 
mid of Lanark Co., near Carleton Place. , They had a numerous family 
of fine looking daugh'ers and some sons. The eldest son, a superior 
young man, died oflockjaw. He had cut his foot and the wound had 
healed and seenicd all riglit. He had come with several of his sisters to 
Aylmer, rendering iis a real kindness in a service of song at a church 
festival. They had fijie voices, cultivated them well, and never failed to 
do justice to tiie piece, and delight the audience. The value of that ser- 
vice was much cniianced by the good will with which it was rendered. 
A few days after tbi-, unfavorable symptoms appeared The skill of the 
physician was e.-chausted and was utterly unavailing. With great sorrow, 
we, among his other many friends, witnessed his extreme, excruciating 
agonies, which he endured with fortitude, meekness and patience, and 
t»e end was perfect peace. 

One of his sisters married John Anderson, a cabinet maker, then 

.afterwards a Presbyterian minister of unloubted piety. One married 

Mr. McMillan, long an efficient assistant to thac very able teacher. Dr. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEV. I©t 

Thorbvirn, and now principal of the CoHegiate Institute, which the Dr. 
held for about twenty years. Both very acceptable and successful head 
masters. Another married Mr. Mcintosh, a grammar school teacher, 
now an active insurance agent. Another married Mr. Dalglish, mer- 
chant. She died young. Another wedded Mr. Dewar, and went to the 
Sarnia region. One, we thought the finest, is unmarried. The younger 
bKsthers are bachelors. Three brothers of the Kennedys were elders in 
the church," devout men. Mrs. Robert Kennedy, a fine woman, good 
and true, was sister of Mrs. Alexander Kennedy, and Mrs. Donald Ken- 
nedy was Miss Buckham of Torbolton. Robert, the slirviver, is now far 
advanced in years and has alwavs borne a character eminently Christian. 
Mr. Bartram, of Her Majesty's Customs, resides on this side the bridge 
beside the store opposite the hotel. The buildings are good. The Pres- 
byterian church is not pretentious, but like what should be rather than 
the showy things, ttie age delights in. It was a chapel of ease to Knox 
church and was usually supplied by the wealthy city ministers, who took 
the fees these afternoons for the services rendered 

It has been recently settled as a charge under Mr. Morrison. From 
peculiar circumstances it was not subjected to the hard nursing, as were 
other places in tlie suburbs, that had to fight their way to every position 
they gained- Poor policy on the part of the clergy. The more church 
organizations in a city the better. No salary of a city minister should 
be all'jwed above two thousand dollars a year, and no country minister's 
salary below one thousand. With free manses this would be sufficient. 
The church should not pe^rmit the display of human pride usually made 
in the huge, useless church buildings which stand as monuments, evi- 
den-ing the neglect of human souls, and encouraging the disposition and 
the Christlessness of wealthy rninisteiis of religion. Has the church 
broken loose from her moorings to gorge one minister and compel ten 
others to put up with an equal sum among them all ? Or is he worth 
the ten doing the work of the ten ? The large loaf and the big fish argu- 
ments have a poiverful influence against church growth. The grand ini- 
pulse given by the Free church movement is followed' by an age of 
moderatism knd a breaking loose from the truths of pure religion, plea- 
sure taking the place of spiritual devotion. These things ought not so 
[ to be. T^ ^ , 

i A very loud and bitter cry was raised against patronage. Do'ibtless^ 

there was a cause- To fa.st and tithe may be faultless, but you need,; 
not boast'of it in your prayer, but should the clergy enjoin this and com- 
pel payment by law, it is a cur.se. Were patronage necessary, which we 
deny, it would be safer in the hant!s of an honorable layman, than in 
those' of a Bishop, or two or three domineering, despotic Presbyters. Is 
the ecclesiastic, who clandestinely calumniates you, destroying your in- 
fluence and livelihood, any better than the highwayman who demands. 
your purse? These men, powerful by wealth and cunning, rule among 
others who are only cyphers to be placed where they please. How 
often is the wicked justified and the jiist condemned? What stories of 
.blood, the history of the nations present in the murder of their best 
patriot citizens ! It is one thing to place a minister at the point of the 
bayonet, and another to deprive him of his just rights through an un- 
' justiSable partiality. . Inuendoes, misrepresentations, calumnies, and 



. »0B HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA V^JULEY, 

raasiug Httle storms of prejudice accomplish their low designs, like the 
honest Quaker with the objectionable dog. "Dog," said he, "I will not 
kitt thee, only give thee a bad name." So he cried in the street, bad 
dog ! bad dog ! The crowd took up the cry as mad dog ! mad dog ! and- 
the chase soon waxed warm and the dog lost his life. With what seem- 
ing detotion these men pray for what they have before determined not 
to receive ? . . . 

A false report may be circulated privately, and the party injured 
ay not know of it for years till it is past remedy. We heard of a case 
a devoted missionary whom we know well as a man far superior to 
his detractors, but a false report was got up apjainst him by his enemies, 
the man sent to investigate took the report of these fabricators, which, 
when the missionary heard, he took it so to heart that in a moment of 
weakness he left the place, and sickened, and died aEnong strangers in a 
strange land. Poor human nature is the same through the ages. The 
priests of the temple with the scribes and Pharisees, wearing all the in- 
signia of righteousness so far as the linen and muslin Would show, were 
not only capable of, but actually did condemn the Eternal Son of God. 
They have their congeners, alas, in the camp of the reformation. Truej > 
the authors of these monstrosities receive their reward but the down- 
trodden sufferer has to wait till the resurrection of the just perhaps, be- 
fore he is righted. Where men receive not the love of the truth," strong 
delusions possess them. Under these delusions they will employ ignor- 
ant young laymen to preach to the disgust of congregations that have 
not the courage to refuse their .pulpit, and the cause suffers. Students 
are over-wofked in their college course giving supplies, and often corne 
out without quaHfications for the work and the church licenses, and or-^ 
dains young men who cannot answer the simplest questions in ecclesias- 
tical history and divinity. We observe that young candidates read their 
Greek and Hebrew with too many periods, and translate with too much 
c^the sing-song hesitation to be able long to sustain a congregation. ' 

Mr. Billings, a very intellectual and practical man, having early 
secured plenty of land, such of his sons as preferred farming were 
k)cated conveniently near each other, round the Bridge, along the river 
bankj-and on the beautiful slopes so much like terraces formed by nature 
for the most desirable and eHgible sights as residences. Others of his 
sons, as we have seen, went into professions. None of them at present 
occupy the immediate site of the village but their lands stretch out on 
the east of it. , The farms are the finest lands, highly cultivated, furnish- 
ing milk frsm th.»ir fine stock, and vegetables from the fields, for city use 
at once enriching their farms -and furnishing the best prices at the most 
seasonable times for every kind of production. These farms are exten- 
sive gardens in which they raise every vegetable and fruit that can be 
profitably disposed. of in the growing city near them. The city is a 
steadily enlarging market and the supply is furnished all around, the 
areaex tending annually, larger and wider things being conveyed from a 
distance that some time ago would have been thought improbable or 
impossible to accomplish The demand and supply seem to keep pace 
wi& eaech other, as closely connected as cause and effect, which is na- 
t^acal, {feasant, useful and beautiful. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VAT.LET. !03 

u^ j°" ^'"'"gs' Bridge people had for a long time, to travel the road 
to hard scrabble up the river side, because of a swamp deep and wet 
lying east and south of the Bridge. They travelled round the swamp to 
the Johnston neighborhood turning, south-east and north-east to reach 
the Siveright and Fenton settlements, leaving Browns, Gambles,D;uncans, 
arid a multitude of others to the right and the southward- Further south 
still a vast settlement was forme'l, when the workingmen left the employ 
of the contractors on the canal. They built a chapei for their accommo- 
dation in the centre of the new settlement, which is a thriving farming 
*strict> ; After some years, the above-named swamp was cut through 
but only for a winter road, and was wa'ded in summer between ankle arid 
knee deep till it was made a passable road all the year round.^ It became 
a more direct way to Osgoode and to the St. Lawrence, or ks it was 
called the front at that time. 

Mrs. Fentoii, a \\idow, came in 182S to Gloucester with a numerous 
family of sons and daughters. James, the eldest son, married the widow 
Jury, who was herself a Hodgins. William, the second son, married 
Miss Siveright. Mr. Siveright in our early recollections, was a very old 
man, whose son James succeeded him on the farm and was Reeve of 
Gloucester for some years. One of Mr. William Fenton's sons married 
Sarah,^ second daughter of Mr. Thomas Symmes of Aylmer, whose fam-, 
ily is mentioned above. They are now in the Northwest. Mrs. George 
Fenton was the prettiest and most energetic of the very numerous family 
of Mr. Forest Caldwell of Huntley. They have also a numerous family 
doing business in many parts of the country around them. John, a con- 
siderable time a bachelor, married a sister of. Mr. William Cuthbert of 
Goulbourn, and was long clerk of the court in Huntley, a true, kind and 
obliging gentleman- Johnston, the youngest, was married to Miss New- 
ton, niece of the Thompsons on the Richmond Road, and sister to Dr. 
Newton, whose mother was killed by falling out of an omnibus at Car- 
rillon. They had no family. Mr. J. Fenton was Reeve of Huntley. He 
procured me my first appointment as local superintendent of schools. 
He was a friendly man, talented, and possessed fine business capacities. 
One of Mr. Fenton's daughters is Mrs. Fred Bearman. James JBearman, 
her eldest son, lives in the old-homestead. Mrs. Bearman was well ad- 
■ vanced in years, before her decease. Two of her sons, Fred and 
Thomas, are dead. Another son is in Western Ontario. One Miss 
Bearman is married to Mr. Watson of Sandy Hill. One is Mrs Bryson 
ofBryson & Graham. Mr. Graham's mother, Mrs. William Graham, 
is the granddaughter of Mrs. Fenton. A Miss McCullough, Mrs- Gra- 
ham's sister, was Mrs- George A^'iold, a good woman, highly valued by 
a8 who knew her- Mrs- Arnold's family of two sons and a daughter 
reside in the city. Mr. T. G. Burns married a daughter of Mrs. Fenton. 
They were long and favorably known as residents of Sandy Hill, Ottawa, 
when few houses were there. 

It was a pretty green common. Mr. Alexander Workman, merchant, 
and Mr. George Lang, the great old sign painter, sandwiched them on 
the street and "Mr. Elkana Billings. Mr. Justice Armstrong, and Mr. 
Joseph Coombs, having given up drugs in Osgoode, came to be jailer, 
were the neighbors, ^We had not yet got a governor of prisons.:, y Mr. 
yt^mBums, son of T. G. Bams, is in the civil service, deserving a high 



^ 104 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

position for his good qualities, both of head and heart. The original 
pioneer, the grandfather of the present generation of Bearmans, and his 
pious old lady were a little inclined to Quakerism, and were very much 
esteemed. ''Mrs. Fenton was a pious promoter of religion, took great in- 
terest in the first Methodist church built in that portion of Gloucester, 
whilst she lived with her son William. The pretty church on their land 
sprang up and flourished from this beginning. One of Mrs. Fenton's 
grand-daughters. Miss Burns, was married to Mr. Hugh Stalker. The 
other became the wife of Rev. Loverin, a Methodist clergyman, who 
often called at our old home, and with whom we had very pleasant asso- 
ciations in former days: Rev. Mr. McGill, a friend and colleague of ours 
' in Aylmer, married a Miss Fenton. A Scotch friend of ours, k widower, 
whose wife left him eight girls, married the widow of a sea captain, who 
had seven girls, to whom, when we said, it was a pity he had not some 
sons, remarked, that he would be able to furnish wives for a whole coun- 
try side. So did Mrs Fenton. The Fentons now are numerous, and 
enterprising, with the multitude of their connections. Mr Siveright had a 
second son who entered the army and rose pretty rapidly in the service. 
He became Equery and private secretary, holding the rank of major, 
to the Duke of Lucca, a Spanish Bourbon prince, who held him in high 
esteem, and, ere he quitted his service, conferred on him a patent of no- 
bility, creating him. Baron d'Everton in perpetuity and transferable to 
his heirs. 

He then returned to the Biltish service and was knighted; by his 
Sovereign, while Consul-General of the Ionian Islands, under the protec- 
tion of Great Britain at Cephalonia and Corfu, where he spent' several 
years. In 1871, he married'Georgina Mafy, eldest daughter of Sir John' 
Muir McKenzie, Bart. The Baroness died a short time before him. His 
death took place on the 9th day of October, 1884. Both sleep in a 
beautiful spot among the lonely tropical trees in the Island of Corfu, in 
that far distant land. As neither brother left any heirs, the title and 
honors go to the eldest son of their sister, Mrs. William Fenton. Her 
son will be known as Baron Fenton d'Everton, and rank among the no- 
bility. Sebright was the original name in English, but it was corrupted 
in the Gaelic, and they had to sign important documents in both forms 
of orthography. These facts we state on the authority of the copy, a 
certified translation of the patent of nobility, kindly lent us by the widow 
Mrs. James Siveright. She also showed us the photographs and litho- 
graphs of the graves and monuments in the cemetery in Corfu. The 
Siveright Fenton settlement is one of the most beautiful in the township. 
The lands are of the richest soils and capable of under-draining to the 
best advantage- 83,000 acres in round numbers the township contains 
besides the "Mer Blue" which, with a good deal more land under water 
in other parts of the township, could all, with some outlay, and a careful 
management be made to smile with fertility and productiveness. 

There was a great number of Justices of the Peace in Gloucester at 
an early day, of whom, when they met in commission, Mr. Braddish 
BilHngs, the original settler, was chairman. Mr. Doxy was clerk till 1855, 
since that up to date, Mr. Charles Billings has held the office- From the 
beginning of the county councils and township councils, the following 
^names have figured as Reeves : K'.Kianon, Billings, Tomkins, Grant; 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 10$ 

Brown, Blackburn, Siveright, McGuire, Cumrnings, Robillard, Hurdman; 
whilst Bradleys,- Smiths, Browns, Johnstons, Gambles and a host of 
others like Dpxys, Ottersons, Carmans, have held offices in the various 
departments., Several fine macadamized roads radiate from the environs 
of the city and run to Cumberland, Osgoode, and the interior, eastward- 
Some attention in some places is given to ornamental trees on the sides 
of the highways, and some large orchards are visible on these roads, with 
many small orchards or gardens of apple trees. Many farms are large 
and well, cultivated and fenced, with some fine buildings, and many 
others servicable and convenient with moderate outlay. The cemetery 
in the north, of Gloucester is the beautiful cemetery of Beechwood, a 
little way from the Ottawa bank. This is finely, tastily laid out for a 
place comparatively young. The forest is preserved as far as possible, 
and walks superbly graded, and smooth. Wheelmen might there break 
the record to their hearts content with impunity. 

About the year 1834, Mr. Charles Cumrnings bought land on the 
Rnssell Road, and settled down for a short tine, but after looking around 
and examining, he bought the squatter's claim from John Scott, about 
the year 1836, and called the place Cummings Island. At that time 
such a claim was called the good will. The Island is crossed by Rideau 
street, which turns up stream at the bank and here the bank is high and 
steep. A fine iron bridge now spans across from each bank to the Island 
wliich divides the river into equal streams- The road leading eastward 
to Cumberland has long been known as the King's Road and the Mont- 
real Road It had been cut out in the reign of Queen Victoria's male 
predecessors on her throne, and as it led toward Montreal to Hawkes- 
bury, it got the name from the most important place. The original bridg- 
ing of the river was only abutments at first with stringers laid on them, 
and for years uncovered by log or plank. People generally walked on 
the .stringers but the horses had to ford the stream. They were not near 
so high above the water as now. But the unbroken forest kept up the 
streams and rivers all summer. The volume of water was much larger 
than now. With a current running so swiftly from such a deep volume 
of water, it was no easy thing for women to pass on flatted stringers, nor 
even for men. They, required to be sober-minded or "level-headed." 

One man, Peter Kinmond by name, attemptitig to cross, fell off and 
was drowned before the eyes of his wife, who was powerless to help him 
in the least. She was a daughter of John Sharpe, sister of William 
Sharpe, afterwards a fine workman as a stonemason. The east corner 
with the pointed Gothic arched >vindows of the Presbyterian church in 
Aylmer is a standing monument of his superior skill and workmanship. 
He did very honest jobs in his day. He was a straightforward, upright 
man. A road from what is now the village of New Edinburgh ran past 
Beechwood Cemetery and formed a junction with the Montreal Road. 
From Long Island to New Edinburgh the settlement was formed on the 
east of the Rideau radiating froi'n Mr. Braddish Billings, the first of all 
the settlers. '. The belt for miles back to Green's Creek and far beyond it 
was covered with the finest timbers, a^id very soon became a vast lum- 
' bering region before men thought of surveying and bounding limits or 
any duties were paid to Government for the privilege of cutting such 
forests. Quebec was thus sup[)lied with the most merchantable timber 



too HlStORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

ever floated to its markets. All manner of supplies were drawn by axin^ 
on jumpers. V They also drew the lumber to the ice to be rafted, or to 
the banks if the current was rapid to be rolled in and rafied in calfti 
water. They were the most valuable of the brute crealiir(:»'"for labor 
on the farm, in summer living in the woods at night, and in \vinter fed 
on hay from the beaver meadows, corn stalks, sheaf oats, and sumnaer 
turnips; with yoke chain and crotch, could lay many pieces a day on the 
river. If fatally injured by accident, whether the bone broken was the 
leg or the neck, the flesh was good to be eaten and the skin could be 
dressed and worn for moccasins. The horns could summon to the sa- 
voury meal, or chase away the yelping pack from pursuing the startled 
elk. The road at first down the Rideau bank to the Ottawa was any- 
thing but a straight line. However,' by improvement from year to year, 
it has become a beautiful drive, an excellent country road. 

Before we leave the Island, Mr. Robert Cummings, tlie eldest son, 
and proprietor of the place deserves at least a brief notice. He has been 
popular since his boyhood, has filled every place of note in his township 
and county, except a seat in Parliament, for which he is eligible, and to 
which he would do no dishonor. We are not much acquainted with Mr. 
Cummings and know not his views, but if he is of our mind, the seat 
should be wiped and well dusted before he would occupy it, as so many 
have been soiled of late years by disreputables. The air is surcharged 
with microbes from Curran and othet bridges, mammoth swindles on 
railroads, canal locks, and contracts in every department, and boodle in 
every form, that the diseases of lying, perjury, dishonesty, are caught 
easily and soon become fatal; baffling all medical skill, and more than 
decimating the community. But death never catches these fellows un- 
awares, They have provided well for their own. That Mr. Cummings 
knows his own business and attends to it, his establishment manifestly 
indicates. He still continues to manufacture carriages, waggons, sleighs 
and cutters, though the business is not so lucrative as in former times. 
Combinations with large capital have pushed individuals into the back- 
ground. Still he is doing a good, legitimate business. His store is de- 
servedly well patronized, and doing splendidly for a locality so near a 
large city, with so much competition. He has no protection, no bonus, 
has asked no exemption from taxation in his municipality. Why is the 
attention of bonusing parties not called to such cases ? To bonus one is 
to put down another, and to bonus all of the same craft is to destroy the 
taxpayer. One such bonus only prepares the receiver to seek another 
and a third, for the lover of wealth is never satisfied. ^ 

He will rush from place to place as he hopes to get gainj If an M. P. 
so much the worse for his competitors. His influence will secure the 
more, and he has neither heart nor soul but that of a miser, Who would 
swallow whole provinces and be still as lean as tl»e lean kine or the 
blasted ears. He will start a factory . everywhere he gets a bonus and 
make the carts here turn out the wheelbarrows there, and the bobsleds 
in a third, or become insolvent, a thing so easily done arid so profitable. 
Will this immorality not bring any Ifnd to ruin ?— They bone us. Is it not 
reasonable that every man should have a fair right to the fruit of, his" la- 
bor, that he should not be compelled lo support the combinations of line 
i.,ost grasping and dishonest, that the competition should be on a fair 



HidTORV Of THE OTTAWA VALLEY. to; 

f«»t?ng SO that the best res'.ilts of brain and muscle should be rewarded. 
The bonus enables men to hold for higher rates, and extort with impun- 
ity. Extortioners shall not inherit the Kingdom of 'God. Perhaps they 
do not care for that but prefer their position in this life. Mountains of 
lead are lighter than the responsibilities that rest on the rulers that grant 
the bonus and encourage the iraud Might is discarded from being con- 
si^^ei'ed right, but, these quiet steals from the many to give to the few 
are samples of that old barbarous principle, and worse, for no chance is 
given to hold one's own withoivt violation of law, -which they are very 
quick to punish. Hew strange th9t a million of people who have votes, 
should so abuse tl. ir privileges ! should allow such oppression and share 
the crime ! ! Consumers should boycott the bonused swindlers. 

Mr. Rebert Cummings was Reeve of Gloucester for years and some- 
times warden of the county. Mrs. Cummings is a granddaughter of Mrs. 
¥empleton, ©ne of the earliest settlers in the township, and daughter of 
Mr. Borthwick of Borthwick Ridge and Borthwick Spring.s. Their chil- 
dren are very intelligent and enterprising, and, as an old chronicler 
w»ul^ say of them, are of a beautiful countenance. The Island is small, 
less than an acre, but in appearance it is simply lovely, with the soft, 
rm«rmur of the waters flowing round the sides of it, the bridge, spanning 
from shore to shore, at the base of the Sandy Hill, high and sloping on 
the west, fit to be terraced into the greatest beauty; to the eastward, 
Janesvitle, and the well cultivated valley of smiling farins and fine build- 
ings; and southward extending as far as the eye can see, an agricultural 
prospect not excelled anywhere; on the north the Ottawa river, the val- 
leys of Templeton and'Hull on both sides of the Gatineau, stretching up 
to the mountains, an amphitheatre in full view^ that at certain seasons of 
the 3'ear is an enchrmting scene of landsc3.pe.^^ The road was early cut 
from Janesville to Green's Creek. On this roadside lived a Mr. W. Hop- 
kins, the only carpienter in all that region for many years. He left a nu- 
merous nice family. An old Scotch minister introducing a sermon he 
preached at the funeral of an elder, said, he never had had the pleasure 
of preaching at the funeral of an elder before. Mr. Hopkins had the 
pleasure of making all the coffins to hide away the dead from the sight 
of the hving. These were at first, plain boards painted black. Then 
they covered them with alpaca, before more stylish vain things were in- 
troduced. Deaths were few among the early, hardy pioneers, except by 
drowning or killed in a chopping or the like. 

Mr; Farrel furnished the boards cut at the Rideau Falls, before the 
Hon. Thomas McKay purchased these Falls with so much surrounding 
lands, and the boards were of the very first quality of lumber, worth then 
$6. or $7, or in the hands of some, as high as $8 a thousand, the latter 
then considered rather high for honesty. But a couple of men in the 
woods and a teamster with a 3'oke of oxen and a crotch, could keep a 
littk mill sawing, and the raw material cost nothing but the bringing to 
th& mill door- Prices, of course, must be advanced, as the prepanation 
costs more, but we cannot see a sufficient reason for the very high prices, 
excepting to make the fortunes that are made 1 the business. We also 
maJBtain that the people who amass these foiames would be happier 
with the half or the fourth, whilst the purchasers would be in a little bet- 
ter circumstances and be able to use the more, consequently to contribute 



io8 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 



the more to the wealth of the merchant. The immense credit business 
under which the people groan is ruinous, because ever)' bad debt has to 
D^ niet by the honest men who pay one hundred cents to the dollar. 
Whereas, if the credit was stopped people could get the cash to transact 
business with as readily as, pay and take on anew, and be always one or 
more years behind.. On this honest plan twenty-five per cer.t. would be 
saved at the fountain of supply, and making allowance for the middle- 
men, the last purchaser would net twenty per cent, on his annual outlay. 
^ On this Economical principle, and economy , is no disgrace, twenty 
, years would show much money saved. 

jj^Lvvcen Cumming's Island and Green's Creek, the fine lands soon 
became settled and occupied. Clement Bradley, son of Capt. Bradley 
of March, became a permanent resident and fanner. One of his da\ighters 
was Mrs. Snow, whose husband was a P. L. S., and lived on the Hull 
road, about the spot where Mr. Holland, the tanner, formerly lived. 
They raised a large family, most of whom are well known in the city. 
Mr. Bradley was a man of good repute all his life. , Mr. Carson was a 
neighbor with a large fine family. The same may be said of Mr. George 
Lang, Thompson, McKegg, and Spears. Mr, Barricle first built a wharf, 
then kept store in town in- our school days. Robillard first lumbered, 
then furnished lime, then great building stone, from his quarry; went to 
Parliament and retired. Mr. Graham was farmer, then called the potato 
man, from his dealing somewhat extensively in that good and useful 
root. The Hon. James and his brother, Mr. Robert Skead, had fine 
farms on this road at a later.date. ^They lumbered very extensively, 
but sold out afterwards. Mr, Simpson now lives there in the fine old 
stone house, tin-roofed, in a forest of lilacs. Mrs. Simpson is a highly 
accomplished woman, possessing the fine conversational turn of her 
father, the doctor, at Hawkesbury. He has been physician to the house 
of the Hamiltons fro'm the Judge's days for three generations. We write 
from a very brief, casual acquaintance with, Mr. and Mrs. Simpson in 
which we were highly pleased and entertained. Mr. Simpson furnishes 
dimension stones from his fine quarry in the farm, and ships on the river 
side, ijorth of the place. John Hamilton lumbered extensively, on the 
Gatineau, whose farms and limits are now held by W. C. Edwards, Esq., 
& Co., who bought them out some ^ears ago and now conclutts tfie 
business on a very extensive scale in those regions. 

Beyond Mr. Simpson's, further east, is the site of one of the oldest 
settlers in the township, Benjamin Rathwell, who was a local preacher 
for years, highly esteemed, also a good farmer too. He met his death in 
the harness going to a meeting in Cumberland; a log standing or reach- 
ing out in the narrow cut road in the close wood, against which he was 
struck driving past, inflicted a fatal blow from which he did not raHy 
but very soon expired. Between the farms of these two last mentioned 
gentlemen, you ascend from either side the highest elevation in the 
township. Here you stand on a level with the tops of the highest pine 
trees in the hills of the surrounding country.' On the north is the ma- 
jestic river and half, as it were, of the Ottawa Valley in view risv«g to 
the Laurentian range of hills and stretching east and west as far as your 
vision ranges over Ottawa county and towards Two Mountains, a pan- 
orama of lovliness. On the south the range of your vision is the sonsib'.e 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. ' 109 

horizon. You take in the whole level country to Cornwall, Frfescott , 
arid Brockville along the St. Lawrence. Looking westward you see the 
spires of the churched,- the prominent buildings of the city and away to- 
wards the west side of the cOurity. Half a mile off on the east is a large ■ 
old orchard, andat your feet, several pretty young orchards, not large 
but seemingly healthy and thriving, indicating that they may be culti- 
vated with success. This is one of the best positions from which to get 1 
a surpa.ssingly interesting view of a whole region of country without 
break or interruption. It enhances one's idea of the riches of the lands. 
our people possess, and if many of them would only look at, it would , 
-^ive them a moreprofound view of their responsibility , to" see that our 
country is governed by a class of rtien, possessed at least, of intelligence 
and honesty. The farmers of.this region mu.st be eminently successful, 
if we are to judge by fine buildings, the fertile fields in their summer 
bloom, the great milk herds that cover their deep green pastures, the 
large teams and milk waggons driving to and from the city on the fine 
macadamized road that stretches into Cumberland. The pioneers have 
left an intelligent, enterprising race behind them to inherit their really 
valuable possessions. With a soil so rich and productive, an atmosphere 
so clear and salubrious, a market for their products so near and so steady, 
religious advantages so convenient, these people should write the Divine 
truths of the Revelation of God, if not on their gates and doors, as was 
commanded of old, at least on the hearts and memories of their off- 
spring, that they may guard their riglits, civil and ecclesiastical, with eter- 
nal vigilance. 

The Ru.ssell road lies south of the King's or Montreal Road, running 
from Cumming's Island through Eastman's Springs to Russell and Dun- 
canville, and thence to the St. Lawrence. Ramsay's Corners or Taylor- 
ville lies on this road nearly midway between the Island and Eastman's 
Springs. Here there is a nice little Presbyterian church, and post office 
Tlie Plymouth Brethren hold their meetings in a schoolhouse at the Cor- 
ners. Tl.ey.are nearly all preachers, though only one occupies the plat 
form at a time. We think they ought to set some apart to teach, who 
could give themselves largely to prepare food for the others. Beaten oil 
for the lamps is the best of all. East of this is another little Presbyterian 
church with a good attendance. It is a little to the right of the road 
souThward. Here we met old friends from Huntleyjthe Hustons, Boyds 
and others, all doing >vell in that place. One of the Boyd family has a 
fine establishment at the Springs, of mills, store and shops, etc. We 
were entertained too in the family of our old friend the late William 
Sharpe, glad to make the acquaintance. of his family for his sake, as we 
held him in high esteem as an upright man. The Crowls, one of whom 
is a clergyman, another a good teacher; and the Lilicos, one an elder, 
live near the church. 

In early times Mr. Duncan was the only one who made and fur- 
ni^ed the oatmeal, so highly prized and ex'tensively ;Used by sensible 
people. Rev. Dr. Rentoul, a professor from Australia, at the Pan Pres- 
byterian Council in Toronto said, (and he is a very eloquent and very 
talented divine), tha^; he had travelled, some in both hemispheres and 
many parts of the Globe, and the best men he met anywhere were raised 
ta. porridge and the shorter catechism, Mr Duncan rnust have held the 



•■■O HISTORY WF THE OTTAWA VALiaET. 

ssMne confession of faith as the Professor. At aH events he fomMcd 
the stuff the porridge is made of, and left his name to the villagp. Re- 
cently we met a Rev. Mr. Duncan, a descendant of his, the field of whose 
labor is in western Ontario; a man, if we mistake not, who will be heard 
from. Mr. Loux, afterwards M. P., ] rchased the mill', and his son con- 
' ducts the bu.siness up to date. Rev. Mr. McDiarmid supplied these little 
ckiirches for years, then Rev. George Bayne After his removal ,to Ash- 
toB, Rev. Mr. McCauley, who is now with them. On this ro_ad from 

Janesville were very earh' settled : George Sparks, brother of Nicholas 
Sparks of tlie city and father of the surveyor, James McLay, John Whil- 
lins, father of John, Thomas and George; Mrs. W. Shari>e and otb rs; 
William Whillins of the Workman store is a descendent. Thomas Whil- 
lins is father of the two clergymen, one in Nepean, the other in the east- 
ern townships. This table land lies west and south of the great quag- 
mire swamp, known as the Mer Blue, a little continent of peat, mud; v 
deep, damp and shaky, covered with cranberri.es growing wild, and ^ 
whose cultivation no one has yet attempted. They are gathered by 
parties wl o often hang out a flag that they may keep in sight, lest they 
lose their latitude and longitude. Mr. Alexander Anderson, long ar.d 
favorably known as an esteemed elder in Knox Church on Daly street, 
before the division of that congregation, lived in this quarter. Some of 
his family are here, .some in and around the city. We knew him in our 
school days and regarded him as a good and true man. 

Law, Little, Bailey, Savage, Hill, McGregor, Payton, Findlay, 
Johnston, Bradburn, Bailantyne, Dowal, Dempsey, Tremblay, Kelly, 
with many others, located along the lines of these roads and towards 
the bank of the Ottawa river. The village of St. Joseph has a church, a 
school, some stores, hotels, a smith's shop and perhaps some others. The 
nuns on the west ®f it have a great farm, a fine house and mill, vast 
flocks of sheep growing long wool late ia June; roam the large fields. 
The sheds are long enough to adorn show-grounds. The settlement is 
French. The few English are at a great loss for want of a school as they 
do not amalgamate. Cyrville, on the Russell Road is a very insignificant 
village. Its site was taken up by two brothers named Cyr. The French 
around these places seem to be very industrious. Dupuis, a medalist, 
has seen service at Chatagnay, where a handful of French chased sev- 
eral times their number of Americans in a fog. This was a source of 
great glory to the French, showing their valour, and not very diahononng 
to the Americans as they only committed the blunder of coming' out 
and losing themselves i« the mist that magnified the size and the num- 
ber of their enemies. They were bewildered in a strartge land. The 
French were very brave for so small a detachment of troops. They 
have merited and we have ^ven them great credit for the gallant stand. 
they took, at»d the heroic display they made of their fighting quaNttes. 

Gideon Olmstead early planted himself in Gloucester. Some of the 
Olmsteads are in Nepean, some in Hull. Others we found in Letchfield 
when we bad a ramble in that part of the Valley. Gideon, among the 
Christian names still survives in their families. The' Eastman's Springs 
take their nan»e from the proprietor. They rise in a large swan>p that 
aids in fcedtng Bearbrook. They say tbey possess several kinds of 
medicinal waters, and multitudes of vi aft a fs ewfoy very highfy tfae tiH* 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. Ill 

they spend at the place. When out west we were enquiring at a dnic^ 
store for a species of water, termed in the Hoosier dialect, Blue Lick. A 
gentleman standing by and hearing the conversation, and as the drug- 
gist had not the article, said he could make it or give the recipe, viz : 
Take a pail full of soft water from the cistern, put into it six eggs laid by 
a deceased hen, well beaten, stir long and carefully, then shake up well 
before drinking. Still the people had great faith in the Kentucky Blue 
Lick and drank of it freely, certainly not so much for pleasure as health. 
Around this part of the township crop up names like Sims, Hall, Tie, 
Clarke, Kettles. 

The township was organized in 1832, postmaster, poundkeeper, town 
clerk, assessors, collectors, pathmasters and constables were appointed or 
perhaps elected. The court had made the appointments up to this time. 
The first tax collected the first year was fifteen dollars. The south end 
of the township was settled by the workmen from the canal, scattering 
over the land pretty near each other. Browns, Gambles, Lees, Majors, 
McKennas, Telford, Skiffingtons and Johnstons, took up the lands their 
descendants still occupy. It is a fine plain of agricultural land, and the 
people with anything like a fair opportunity might accumulate a remun- 
eration for their labor. The manufacturer holds a high place in the 
hearts of the governing body in our land. He is largely protected and 
alw ays claiming far more. Combines of merchants fix their prices and 
furnish only what will keep theSe prices up. The machine takes our 
money and builds the railroads and equips them for the companies, and 
they dictate what we must pay in freight and fare on the investment of 
our own money in their possession, and as we have said above, one me- 
chanic bonused to the detriment of another not so favored. (We can 
give names.) Farmers are producers, but nobody, in the estimation of 
the powers that be, but let the farmers take their stand and send twenty- 
five or thirty members to the House, and before two years you will see 
a change. But farmers are kept poor by too much labor, and too low 
prices to pay, and are presumed to be unworthy of pains or trouble on 
their behalf Let them hew wood and draw water forever. A boy with 
pipe and soap suds can blow a bubble that will look rainbow-colored 
as it floats so as to attract the eyes of a whole crowd till it breaks. There 
are men who can place so vividly before themselves and their fellow- 
men, future prospects that they readily enibafk in the projects. The 
disasters of the past do not warn them. They have neither eyes nor 
cars for them. The half par stock and the half pay earnings of the ' 
Canadian Pacific ought to teach, never to permit a Government to give 
another dollar to a public railway which is the property of, a private 
'company. A speculation that will pay can command a large number; 
what will not pay should not be done. 

The Methodists built the first church in South Gloucester, a very 
'.mpretentious structure. The sect was only young at that time and the 
zeal of early days was much cherished. Of Israel in the wilderness it 
was said : "I remember thee, the kindness of thy youth, the love of thine 
espousals when thou wentest after me in the wilderness, in a land that 
was not sown It was customary too at that time tor other denomina- 
tions to assist the one that had rcsoludon and courage enough to 
build the first church in the place and support religious ordinances. 



112 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Would it not be well if true charity were more manifest among the men 
of all creeds ? Many people travelled far to hear the truth from a man 
after their own desires. The Curries, Pinks, Davis's, came from near the 
mountain range of Hull to Mr Cruikshanks at Bytown. The first, Mr. 
and Mrs. Pritchard rode on horses from North Wakefield to the same 
St. Andrews' church. It was expected that s. village of note and some 
pretentions would spring up on the east side of Long Island, but beyond 
the shanties first built during the days of construction of the canal, it 
never attained to anything. The tendency then, as now, was to the 
town or city. Can men of enterprise be blamed for doing what they 
deem best and most profitable, especially if their genius or temperament 
inclines them in that direction ? , ■ ' 

A few years on the farm satisfied Mr. Workman, that it was not the 
sphere in which to exhaust his energies, and the event showed that his 
judgment was not at fault. Many who would have made good farmers, 
had they followed it up with persev erance, are now in the cities doing 
very little. Some are good for nothing anywhere. Some of the old 
settlers have disappeared from Gloucester leaving scions on the farms to 
preserve and perpetuate t^^eir names on the old places. The Dunlops 
are mostly in the city, i iie Moodies in and around the city in various 
occupations. So it may be said of the Cuddies, Blyths, Blairs, Findlays, 
who could have been successful at any employment on the farm, in the 
shop behind the counter, or anywhere. Having far to travel to the 
churches some sold out and purchased in more convenient places, or 
they went into business more suited to their capacities. Schools multi- 
plied to meet the growth of the population. With the extensive clear- 
ing of the woods of the country, the development of business and the in- 
crease of population, church accommodation must be provided. At first 
the buildings were log, then frame, finally brick and stone, where the 
people were sensible enough to erect such. M. K. Dickenson, Esq., 
M. P., gave a great impulse to Long Island. The village of Manotick 
owes its existence, or is very largely indebted "to his energy, skill and 
enterprise. 

Rev- James Whyte was the first Presbyterian mdaister settled in the 
village and its environs. Its present pastor is Rev. William Findlay, 
formerly of Portland and Cantley. All around is a fine agricultural '^ 
country. But that particular department of our industry has been far 
below par for several years past, and there are no signs of<its rising into 
any activity. If all men are created equal, they soon show grasping and 
holding fast what they seize, a most marked inequality. The burden of 
taxation is chiefly borne by those whose means of living, property or in- 
come is- visible to the assessor- Tax is levied on the most poverty- 
stricken they can collect from, and on all classes till they reach above 
mediocrity; from that upward they seem to be lightly laden with the ex- 
penses of governing country or city. This is a manifest injustice; a 
wicked, senseless, despotic course, grinding the industrious inhabitants 
of the country to pauperism. The hardest men you meet arc those who 
hold in the miser's grasp their w-ealth which they have made in t'jiat 
border land, between a fair living profit and a wild unwarrantable, un- 
just extortion. One cent a yard extra on one million yards ©f cotton 
.;oods will net the extortioner ten thousand dollars. If he sells a«Jjr 



HISTORY OF THB OTTAWA VALLEY. II3 

one-tenth of that it wSi be one thousand. He may not smack hfs Ups so 
sweetly oh the little as on the much, but the imqtntous principle is tire ' 
same, and the merchant who lives in this fraud shuts himself out of tihe 
best society in the universe. This rule is of univeisal application. II is 
in the power of every man to be honest. The exceptions are when by 
fleecing and fraud and oppression, they are impoverished, and disabled, 
and driven into acts they at one time abhorred. This is no excuse for 
dishonesty. Better die in the poorhouse where their extortioners must 
bear some at least of their upkeeping than be dishonest 

But such is the idc^atrous disposition of our fallen humanity, that 
men will worship wealth in the hands of fools, mad men, the most noted 
scoundrels, yea, the father of lies himself; and hence the tendency to get 
wealth by any means the most unfair. Strikes have been instituted to 
meet the overreaching employer but they are illegimate and almost al- 
ways fail of their object, and when the toiler is reduced to starvation, 
and the capitalist circumvented the strike has to be called off and some- 
times the wages are lowered, and always rtie time lost is more than the 
rise in pay can equai. There are samples of cmpk>yers acting honorably 
with their hands. We never met a man who bad been in the employ of 
the late Alexander Christie who would not gladly eater it again. We 
have heard of landlords in tfee Old world who got up improvements on 
their estates to give work and wages in hard times, to avoid or relieve 
distress; — all parties are gainers in such cases. There are cravens, ill- 
tempered and lazy, who wM five on the labors of others as indigent as 
themselves. Some fellows are mean enough to let their wives provide 
for thein. 

The inequality among us sixty years ago was not half so disqemable 
as now. When prices had fallen in Quebec the hewer would bring hcihe 
as much for his year's toil as the lumberer for all his planning and strug- 
gling for a fortu«e. Now a timber limit is a fortune witfeoat touriiirig it 
with your hand. The eariy settlers raised the she^ asd made their own 
woollen clothing and blankets, and many did their own tailoring from 
necessity. The border tariff was very low. Mes were able to purchase 
farms and pay for them in a few y«ars by their Vebors. The rich man 
did not come to poverty, hat the poor roan imprtwed and became richer. 
Now we find the poor man growing poorer, and the rich man grows 
richer. "HotBes" and pooa: bouses are becoming the order of the day. 
Should the cooHtry continue a few more years on the down-grade and 
sinking so deeply ia debt, b«ikn^fe;y mast foHow. It must surely ap- 
pear a mighty mistake to tresrt the peoj^ of these provinces as if they 
were as rich as the old Roenajis, when tynait warriors, great commanders, 
kings, and emperors wkh their panoplied legends, had conquered all the 
barbarians over the earth; gathered their wealth, spoils and plunder 
home to the eternal city; leaving them hungry, houseless and naked, but 
giving them in exchange, Roman civilization and the knowledg^e of 
wearing Roman clothing when they could get it, a career which poster- 
ity has held in everlasting contempt and condemnation; and which 
orators can hardly find language to point in colors sufiicientiy cloudy 
dark and gloomy and which never man has been found to justify. 

Could any greater blunder be committed than to make the salaries ^ 
of our rulers, legislators, jtf<;Jges an .1 government employees, so iar oat of 



114 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

proportion with the salaries, incomes, and earnings of others of the mul- 
titude. This entirely modem usurpation stands in contrast with the 
early policy even of the family compact. Members' fees or wages were 
low. There was not one employee for ten now. Their wages was in 
keeping with the times. One article could be pointed out so protected 
as to enable the producer to sell at three times the value m the markets 
of the world. We had a world of pity for the negro in bondage and a 
tvorld of indignation for his owner, but the distribution of money and 
office among a few leaders and some dergy. and over two and a halt 
millions of "hereditary bondsmen," keep the yoke on the neck of hve 
millions. One half million lives on the other four and a half "li'lions. 
These latter might be free but most of them love their chains. We do 
not know one man on a hundred acre farm that saved above his out- 
lay one hundred dollars a year for the last fifteen years above his neces- 
sary expenditure, nor a farm that has yielded one per cent, on the 
money invested. Some can scarcely pay their taxes. Will there be a 
reckoning ? Will the dupes wake up ? The judgment is commg for 
these political gamesters, and, as the employer said to the carpenter, 
there will be no putty there that day. If the righteous scarcely be saved 
where shall the ungodly and sinner appear. 

Osgoode, like other portions of the co'intrv that were first explored 
by lumbermen for lumber purposes, then for settlements, being far back 
from the St. Lawrence, was naturally laier in its being occupied. Ne- 
pean and Gloucester were ten years later than Hull in their settlement. , 
The beginning of Richmond village and the Township of Goulburn 
about nine years after Nepian and Gloucester. The filling up after these 
beginnings, came very gradu :lly and slowly. Osgoode v as among the ^ 
last in the county of Carlcton to be taken and inhabited. Swamps 
formed no obstacle to winter lumbering provided the streams, could 
float the pieces, the wealth of the timber crop could be easily secured. 
Lumbermen selected' and marked out the choicest portions of the lands 
and kept^ them in view for use as future farms- With the light canoe 
paddles and a couple of guns, a party of young fellows could explore as 
far as the navigation permitted the opportunity, and could portage past 
rapids that they could run down on their return trip, and so spy out the 
lumber groves on the face of the country, especially near the streams, as 
short drawing was the secret of much profit. In these explorations they 
required little provisions as game was so plentiful in these new realms. 
They could sleep in their canoe, staked oiit in the water a Httle from the 
shore, secure from danger in the stream.. Or they could swing them- 
selves high up in hammocks on poles high above the reach of prowlers 
or nightly depredators in those days of wild exciting adventure. Gen- 
tlemen from the settlements of Glengarry and Cornwall explored the 
Nation and formed settlements on its banks- The Castor was found to be 
one of its tributaries up which a party sailed near to its source behind 
Prescott 

•Here were extended plains on the banks of these little rivers just 
covered with white pine and white oak lumber of the most excellent ; 
qualky in the world, and in the greatest abundance; yes, in profusion;? No 
timber duties or fees were yet thought of being exacted by the Govern- 
ment, though they came to be reserved in the Patents afterwards, as re- , 



History op the ottawa valley. 115 

garcjs white pitie"trees as well as mines of gold and silver. These treas- 
ures that cost only the preparation, could easily be floated on these 
smooth streams to the Ottawa river, then to the Quebec market. The 
keen eyes of the explorers soon detected money in abundance in these 
inviting fields, and made up their minds to pursue the business. Sur- 
veyor McDonald had run the lines on the south and east of it, in laying 
out the townships on these sides of it, whilst the Rideau river and the 
town line of Gloucester bounded the other two sides. He probably 
gave it the name before a man had cut a stick within its bounds. The 
U, E. L. made settlements along the St. Lawrence frontier, taking up or 
drawing as it was termed the lands from the Crown, granted so freely to 
all early settlers. As many of them had borne arms in the Revolutionary 
war, on the side of the British, they were specially favored, for they had 
to leave the United States and seek the protection of those they had 
fought for under the old flag. Some of these were daring spirits, fine 
horsemen, very much at home in the saddle. Little consideration was 
given to the horses killed, provided these young troopers accomplished 
the scouting they were sent on, and carried the despatches ia quick time 
that were entrusted to their keeping. The emergency must be met, the 
threatened attack baffled or warded off, the junction formed of the scat- 
tered forces at any cost. The sacrifice of oi;ie life niight save a troop or 
a squadron. Archibald McDoncll was one of these fearless, courageous 
youths that in the war of 1812 — 15, distinguished himself as an officer of 
militia in his native Glengarry. His father had fought in the ranks of 
the King's forces south of the line- His mother was a daughter of 
Alexander McDonell, bprn in the region of Albany, New York. They 
had to make their escape and settled in Cornwall, named after General 
Lord Cornwallis, whose career reflected but little glory on the arms of 
his country. 

OsgOode takes its name from a distinguished Englishman. Archibald 
McDonell was promoted for his bravery and rose rapidly, and often bore 
despatches from one commander to another- He had many hairbreadth 
escapes, hard hot rides on duty, and is reported to have killed two 
horses on the sarfie night, and to have been forty-eight hours at a stretch 
in the saddle At the close of the war he had to givfe up these rather 
lively trips on horseback. He b.etook himself to lumbering and after 
spending some years at that, to farming. He drew 800 acres in Osgoode 
and his wife being of U. E. L. descent drew 200, making a thousand, a 
nice little farm. The McDonalds and McDonells seem at one time to 
have been all or nearly all the population of Glengarry. Hon- John 
Sandfield McDonald was of Cornwall, Glengarry- He was one of our 
honest politicians. It is sad to think that such men are so londy and so 
rare. Mr. William York i.s said to have left home on the same day with 
Col. McDonell and to Have reached on the same day, and settled not 
far away, though they did not meet for some time, each thinking he was 
the lone setil^r. Tiifs was about 1827. Richard Hall and Samuel 
Loney came in 1823. The next year Robert Grant came. Peter McLaren 
in 18-32, Squire Hanna, and Serijeant Mcintosh, Duncan Cameron, John 
McNabb, Henry Brown, Tho.nas Bailey, an Englishman, John Fedinger, 
Harris and Hood located near the Rideau. Cas.sidy brothers and a few 
others were all that came till after the finishing of the canal. » Thentherc * 



, tl6 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

was an influx that scfv!:tcred Over and occupied large tracts. Four, six 
or eight were reqgired to raise even a shanty, so they had to help each 
other- The rest of their labors were lonely, each single man in his little 
clearing till they got families. ' 

With so many miles of impenetrable, thick bush between, is it won- 
derful that these early settlers of Osgood? were ignorant of B;. "^own, that 
was only beginning to be made out of Cork's . Town, shanties built to 
house the workers on the canal? These were superseded soon after by 
better buildings. They knew nothing of the Ottawa above their Nation 
river, the outlet into the Ottawa, down which they sailed their timber as 
best they could till they could band all together in a raft. Tows, cribs, 
mullnets, and loose in single prices almost all forms were adopted to get 
the pieces floated to form the rafts for market They found work 
enough to clear lands, raise crops, and support life in their new homes. 
They went to a mill as far as Dickenson's Landing on the St. Lawrence. 
Chryslers afterwards was considered near. These, of course, were visited 
only from necessity. They economised clothing and had litte inter- 
course with the outside world for some years. If they heard in the great 
distance the rumbling sound of blasting rocks in the Rideau canal they 
supposed it to be the distant thunder, foreboding the nor'western squall 
so very common sixty years ago in these parts of the country Isolated 
so completely on the banks of their little. river highway, so magnificently 
stocked with fish, fowl and fur-bearing animals, they had not yet heard 
of the birth of the little hamlet that was to be the future capital of this 
large and lengthy Dominion, whose present fifty thousand inhabitants 
may soon number half a million. Their fine road in winter enabled them 
to travel in sleighs, round to the St. Lawrence. They canoed the same 
highway in summer. They spun, wove and made their clothing and 
blankets, dressed skins and made caps, mitts and moccasins. They 
raised their own hay, oats, potatoes, turnips, onions and cabbage; made 
their cheese and butter, rai.'^eH their be'ef, mutton and poultry; and lived 
very much like the sons oi Irish Kings. Chrysler's mill was almost in 
their neighborhood in war times, and Chataguay was not far away. 
These were the scenes of the success of the Vtiltigiiers and the Glen- 
garries, under Col. McDonell, as the fields of fame. 

Wilkinson, the American, had been sent to take or invest Montreal. 
Hampton was following with succour to the number of several tliousand. 
To prevent the junction of these forces, De Salabery was sent, to harass 
them to the best of his ability. His three hundred m.en were the Cana- 
dian fencibles and Voltiguers. Reaching Allen's Corners, he got infor- ■ 
mation that the Yankees were not far off, and he hastily constructed a • 
block house of the few logs from the chopping, and with tree tons, and 
brush and stakes,, resembling an Arabian Zeraba,.a brush fenee of thorns, : 
tops out; and sent out scouts to see how near and how strong the enemy ■ 
might be. De- Salabery knew it not, but Lieut.-Col. McDoncl! had just 
reached the fords of the Chataguay river. This was said to be the 
finest, fastest march of the war, being onehundrcti and seventy miles in 
sixty hours with the poorest accommodation of Loats for rowing among 
the islands of the lake, and the most wretched roads, he led his six liun- 
dred men and about fifty tru.sty Indians, on which little band lyr.v<\ was 
advancing. At this critical point De Salabery 's men retreated or fell 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. II7 

back on him in hot haste "describing the force that would be instantly 
upon them almost producing a panic. De Salabery held his boy trump- 
eteretight by the collar, to prevent a runaway, and inspired him with 
courage, ordering .him to sound the advance with all his might, which 
he valiently did. This not only quieted the men who had fallen back on 
his second line^ol defence, but it was so that they formed quickly to re- 
ceive the charge of Purdy with his four thousand men, and ready to sell 
their lives as dearly as they could. The sharp ear of McDonell heard 
the call giving it the true intrrpretation as, a mighty cry for help, or- 
dered his men to cheer with all their lung power, and sent his fifty In- 
dians to scatter in the woods towards their -friend.s, and whoop for their 
lives, which they did to purpose. The American commanders hearing 
the unhearthly whoops and yells of so long aline of Indians, the sounding 
of so many bugles and hearty cheering of the little army at both ends so 
far apart and the Indians in the middle, considering tliemselvcs in emin- 
ent peril, and that an overwhelming force was about to be precipitated 
upon them', halted the van, then broke and retreated somewhat dis- 
orderly, a kind of Bull's run. 
I The bravery of our boys.. that has never been called into question, 

would ha\'e no doubt sustained them, and they might have conquered 
four or five times their numbers; but the American boys being off their 
own soil, did not wait to try. , De Salabery with his boy buglar, and' 
McDonell with his strategy, and their strong-voiced followers, were worth 
an army. De Salabery was every inch a hero, and his gallant little 
trumpeter, with trusty comjjanies would have covered themselves with 
glory as they did, without firing a shot, but with the greatest advantages, 
instead of brush fences, what i..r'iS|)cct had'they against fifteen or sixteen 
times their numbers ? The liinely arrival of the unlooked for hero Mc- 
Donell, his keen ear, quick intellect, and ready application of his soldierly 
resources, saved De Salabery ar,d his little force from annihilation, and 
won for the little arm.y undying renown. The memory of such men is 
imperishable. Time never eclipses the sun of their glory. The memory 
of De Salabery is'perpetuated in a monument erected to him and lately 
unveiled in the presence of some of his young lady de.-)Cenderits. Col. 
McDonell's is not so much cherished in cold marble, as in the warm 
hearts of a living, liberal, numerous offspring, highly esteemed by all 
who know them, the noblest monuments. The strangest part , of the 
thing was, that the contracted, self-conceited governor of thi- country in' 
that day, took to himself the credit of thus rolling back the waves of 
Yankee aggression, never even mentioning the name of McDonell in his 
despatches to England. 

We had some peculiar rulers in tho:«2 times. Sir James Craig's 
character is given as "sinister, stubborn, ill-natured and proud." He 
appointed juiiges to sit in the legislature, and when that was opposed, he 
dissolved the I'lo'i^-e and sent them to the country, and they came back 
stronger with increased majorities. He tried it again but with worse 
effect, suspended newspapers, tried to have their editors punished in Eng- 
land, but they refused there to consider trie aces treason, s Craig was a 
great disciplinarian. His successor, Sir George Frevost, "self conceited, 
very untruthful," whose vacillating policy is credited with many' of the 
reverses of that campaign. Alas ! falsehiJod seems to be perpetuated 



H8 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. : ' 

■i 

down among our politicians in overflowing measure, having inherited it 
from their father who was a "liar from the beginning and abode not in 
the truth." Governors must havemade lying somehow respectable, for 
there are many members of the House who are such known stretchers 
that no one believes them even if they stumble on the truth at odd 
times, and the brazen-faced fellows that stump the country, can stand 
and tell the most glaring falsehoods, knowing well that any informed 
man must reject their trash. How the abyss is enlarging itself for these 
fellows ! HOw sad and humiliating to think, that men for a little unreal 
distinction in this world, voluntarily bind themselves in chains of ever- 
lasting darkness, of heat without light for ever and ever. Governor 
Gower is scarcely mentioned fexcept in the name of an odd township, 
or street of some city. Queer stories are told of that war. The Ameri- 
can, General Swift, killed in an engagement with General Evans, had in 
his pocket silver spoons looted from the house where he dined. Parlia- 
mentarians go not into such petty thieving but do it on a grand scale or 
on wholesale principles. When the uprising comes and these poor, 
false-hearted plunderers are shot down or stabbed in tbe heart, will any 
tears be shed over their wretched, rotten carcases ? Will men not raise 
their thanksgiving to Hea\en for such deliverance and say, "Thou ha=t 
given them blood to drink for they are worthy." It is very unpleasant 
to have to write these things but the truth demant's that they should / 
not be concealed nor passed over without notice. The life of Col. Mc- 
Donell had so many such incidents in it, and he had seen so much ser- 
vice that the brief notice here given, had it been omitted, would have 
left a blank in this short historical sketch that nothing else was capatle of 
filling or compensating for its absence. 

The grist mill of Mr. McLaren was at their doors, and things were 
beginning to look up m 1833, the first year I breathed the air of my 
adopted Canada, then a very little boy. Hugh McKenpa and James 
Telford used to tell a good story of a discovery they once made. Each, 
man owned a steer of fair proportions and the pair did the work of both 
fa'rms, regarding themselves no doubt, as near relations being so much 
under the same yoke. A new road had been cut through South Glou- 
cester from the Rideau bank to the Johnston and Fenton settlement. 
Horned cattle roamed the woods in summer for their health and enter- 
tainment. These steers in the leafy grove came'out on thisnew cutroad 
and followed it eastward to its end, and turning southward, buried them- 
selves in the woods and were Lost to their owners. These together soon 
gave chase, watching their tracks, and found t'lemselves at the road end 
without getting a sight of their oxen. The fresh foot marks, as they left 
the road and made a path, rather a trail, in the fresh mud so black and 
.soft, led them to follow After travelling what they thought, a long dis- 
tance, and. despairing of finding or overtaking them, they began to ob- 
serve some increase in the foot marks before them, forming a pathway. 
They could not tell whether deer or cattle had formed the' company . in 
which they supposed theirs mi:st have mingled. Finally they reached 
the clearing of Col. McDpnell, and found their steers with his stock. 
Here was something unexpected, domestic animals, a clearing and better 
.-till, tt neighbor they had not heard of nor dreamed of till this hour. 
After a night of friendly intercourse they returned next dayby the way 



, HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. lig 

they came, with the truant steers before them. The enterprising Col. 
McDonell collected his neighbors, only five or six families in all! and 
they agreed to cut a road leading to that cut by the people of Gloucester. 
They_ followed the ox track, sent one boy before, whistling, singing, 
shouting, and they brushed the road and blazed it after him, avoiding 
too abrupt turns. This new road became their winter road to Bytown 
for all their new settlement, where they got milling done at McKay's, 
New Edinburgh, and Wrights in Hull, and where they procured supplies 
for their little store. Capt Le Breton had built on the Fiats but soon 
after, went to Britannia. The road having been now cut through con- 
necting Osgogde's new settlement with Bytown, it was travelled on horseT 
back in summer and began to be improved in its worst places, so it be- 
came the highway to market; mill and store. 

Peter McLaren like Sans Bradley was a confirmed bachelor. The 
first death reported in the settlement is that of Colin Campbell. All the 
men in the place attended the funeral, half of them carrying the coffin 
at a time,' relieving each other. The road had only been cleared of the 
brush to the little graveyard on the bank of the stream. They had 
several falls over logs and roots, but the box coffin held together until 
they accomplished their sorrowful and heavy task. Kenmore was named 
after Mr. McLaren's native place. Here Mr. McTavish was first Post 
master and held office for many years. Soon after Campbell several 
other deaths followed. A stranger was killed by the fall of a tree. 
Many of the new settlements had no deaths to record for many years. 
The bulk of the early adventurers were hardy, healthy people, and the 
change of climaW^ seemed to toughen and make them more vigorous. 
The Roman Catholics seem to have raised the first church. The Me- 
thodists the next, and secured the services of Rev. Thomas Carroll, who 
preached to them before the church was built and seems to have been 
very popular. The man of the Atlas said Rev. J, Cruikshanks looked after 
the Episcopalians, but here as, elsewhere, he is ill-informed, which snows 
that people should know whereof they write. Rev. J. Cruikshanks was for 
many years minister of St Andrew's church, Bytown. No doubt he oc- 
casionally preached in Osgoode and looked after the interest of Presby- 
terians as the ministers did in those times, though now they get little re- 
cognition for services performed so long ago, but they seek not glory of 
men; their record is on high. , , 

The settlement was pre-eminently Scotch as the names sufficiently 
indicate. Mr- Cruikshanks married several, among them, Mr- T. Far- 
linger and Miss York. But John McNabb and Grace McDonell walked 
into Bytown for the purpose, without waiting for a stray clergyman. 
Mr. Cruikshanks married Mr. Duncan Cameron and Miss Margaret Grant, , 
The filling up of the township was slow at first for some years, but the -, 
rich soil soon attracted settlers as the information spread. Then with 
the new-comers arid so many marriages of the grown up young people 
of the families, the lands became occupied so that scarcely a vacant lot 
remained, and few parts of the country show greater evidences of care 
and industry, Metcalfe and Vernon are thriving villages and consider- 
able business is done in them. The former has a Mechanic's Institute, 
with the seeming diaf)osition in the people to keep up with uhe intelH- 
eence and progress of the age^ Many changes have be.- made in 



I20 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY, 

these parts. The Johnstown district covered from below Prescott to the 
Ottawa river, "and all westward was unexplored- The next change was 
to form the Dalhousie district, after that the Ottawa district, then tae 
county of Carleton. Archibald McDoncll was squire, Col., Assist.-Adj.- 
General, and was representative in the large district meetings. After 
the organization of township and county councils, Arthur Allen, Esq., 
was Reeve of Osgoode for many years, after him John Dow, Esq., served 
for about the same length of time in the councils. The Reeves took 
much interest in the schools, which multjplied in number with the growth 
of the population. Lands were cleared of stumps, some draining done, 
and some improvement in slock raising by the introduction of new 
blood, so that the old races of part Devon and VVhitefaced Herefords 
were superseded by Durham and Ayrshire strains or a trend in that di- 
rection. They got their clearings enlarged and well fenced, log' shanties 
gave place to frame, brick and stone houses- At first people plastered 
stone houses on the stone walls and the cold climate made damp sweat- 
ing walls from tlie stove heat. Some one recoaimended rough casting 
the outside walls which prevented this dampness- .But all properly built 
stone houses are made air tight with mortar and bond timber which 
built in is furred up with good strips, then lathed 'and plastered. This 
makes two air-ti^ght walls with dead air between and no house can be 
drier or more healthy- Then their' coolness all through summer is of 
great moment. The prejudice of men to the contrary notwithstanding, 
a stone house is the best, the healthiest, and the most durable p^ all, 
buildings of which we have knowledge. 

The Rev. Mr- Lochead was superintendent of schools as soon as 
there was such office instituted, and greatly encouraged education. 
About the time of his leaving, a church v/as organized in Metcalfe vil- 
lage. Rev- James White was successor to him in church and schools, 
and a worker in both- He moved to Manotick, and after some years 
there, he breathed his last- Mr- Ira Morgan had written something he 
requested and held his hands whilst the spirit took its flight to the spirit 
land. About this time Mr- Lockhead was actively engaged' in North,. 
Gower, after which he retired, living some years in Almonte, where his 
son, Cameron L., kept store. After this he retired to live with his 
youngest daughter, Mrs. Hugh Gourlay, at Elmwood in Huntley. Here 
he preached at the funeral of one who had been a most sincere Calvinist, 
John Gourlay, who died in his eighty-ninth year. He was born in Tull- 
yard, did business for some years in the town of Drumquin, County of 
Tyrone, Ireland, where the writ.;r was born. He had property in lands 
one mile out of that town where he built and planted, then sold out and 
came to Canada in 1833 and settled in March. His wife, Jane Lowry, 
had died in her eighty-fourth year, preceding him five years, a spiritually 
minded good wife a.\i'i moLher, and devout follower of her beloved Sav- 
iour. She left a memory to be cherished by every child she brought up. 
Her husband and herself v.'ere industrious, upright and successful. He 
left behind him an honest, crjihia], irreproachable character; a legacy 
which his children regarled as far superior-to wealth, splendor and glit- 
ter. Mr. Lochead lived some years there and was .buried in Almonte. 
His wife, a Cameron, survived him several years and now sleeps by her 



HISTORY OF tHE OTTAWA VALLEY. r2I 

husband. Mr. Ira Morgan became Reeve of Osgoode in 1870, asxl held 
the post for years. He wa-^ a successful man, took deep interest in agri- 
cultur-?, stock fairs and the s^ -neral progress of his province. He was a 
popular man, whose sudden flcath was felt and deeply regretted. 

James Grant, a son of the pioneer, wasthe first young school teacher 
in Osf^oode.. His school liouse was a log shanty, roof scooped, -floar 
and : jncbes, home-made split basswood with ornamental corners, and 
door and windows without panel or stain. But the work was said to 
l-ave been o:oodiboth as regarded the building and the l.ca£3iKig After 
the embryo store of Col. McDonell, the first rcj^uiai' tiling <*i" tKe kind, 
was in a good, scooped log siiant}-. It was hotel in-i ^:»-s , <iru^, dry- 
goods, groceries and liquors, a general assortment kcr* by t*fO gentle- 
men, afterwards, well known in Bytown, Joseph Coombs, Jailor, and 
Richard Stathem.on Sussex street for many years. Some wags in those 
times would talk of being able to carry at once on their backs the dry 
goods in one of these young stores. They were not long so. Allison, 
the historian, describing the Polish nobility to the number of thirty 
thousand, assembling on horseback to elect a king, presents these aristo- 
crats as each carrying on his back all his wealth in rich furs and jewelry.. 
Each expected to be elected, king like the Americans. Someone said 
no thorough going American ever suicides as everyone hopes, to be 
President soijie day. The land was damp, the roads without a ditch, and 
it was hard except in winter to stock a store. Sales were slow, custom- 
ers few, and credits good. You might carry some on horseback or on 
your own back, but wheeling there was none for.sofne years after. 

These stalwart old men, McDonells, Stewarts, Campbells, Camerone, 
Grants, Robertsons, Dalglishes, Rodneys, McEwans, made a fine impres- 
sion upon us in youthful days, as able, hardy, healthy, vigorous citizetis; 
but they have all passed away with many others' we cannot now name, 
though as deserving of a placB as any in our brief little historical record. 
Printers are a very superior race of men but they sometimes make you 
say 'foundation' for 'fabrication,' Dr. John Owen, the prince of theolo- 
gians, was a luminous as well as a voluminous writer, but he had great 
trouble with the proof sheets of his works. The -printers could manage 
his latin but so many Greek and Hebrew words came up in his exposi- 
tions and theological treatises that made difficult work for the printers, 
and for his corrections; but someone having heard of these troubles, and 
having seen an edition of .the Scriptures where even misprints escaped 
the redactor, decided that the Dr. must find consolation that he fared no 
worse than the most sacred of books had done in the pnntcrs' hands. 
Instead of 'Princes have persecuted me,' the men of type made it, 'Prin- 
ters have persecuted me.' They had to be endured in these ages since 
the discovery of the art, as a great improvement on the manuscript vol- 
umes of antiquity. It met a furious opposition from the men whocopied 
and whose work it superseded and wrecked. 

The people ®f Metcalfe have built a splendid hall in their viHage, 
and were preparing to have it opened by Mr. Ira Morgan, who had been 
one of their valued public men, but his sudden death by the electric car 
»n Elgi« street, threw a pall of horror and sorrow and surprise over the 
the commanity. They carried in his remains as they were taking him 
totbc cemetery. Mrs. Morgan resides in the city, an amiable kdy, wh© 



122 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

had been married only fourteen months when she suffered so Ic^enly-felt 
a bereavement, in which phe had the sympathy of the whole community. 
A. T. Baker, Esq., M. P. P., succeeded Mr. I. Morgan as Reeve, for sev- 
eral years a gentleman of great popularity and enterprise. The schools 
had reached twenty in number for some years before this time and the 
buildings were greatly improved in appearance and accprnmodation. 
Farm houses n altiplied. Young families live near the old homes of their 
childhood. Most of the children And grandchildren of the pioneers arc 
still their representatives on these old farms. Some have gone to the 
city and to the west, or got into situations suitable to their tastes and ' 
capacities. The villages are growing and business is on the iiurease. The 
best history of a place is the success of honest industry of the people, 
and the fortitude with which they endure and pass through trials and 
tribulations when they come upon them. Kenmore has some fine shops 
producing good agricultural implements. Under-draining, a necessity al- 
most everywhere, is essentially so in these level plains, like what Ameri- 
cans out west call "bottom lands." By this s niple process of letting 
out the water the heavy clays loose much ot their a ihesiveness, become 
. more porous, drink in -much of the rains that leave the ammonia, the plant 
food in soil, as they filter or leech through. 

Besides this the v»ater running all winter from the lower earth pre- 
pares that on the surface for imbibing the snow water in the spring, in- 
stead of its lying on the thick, wet soil till evaporation in the sun carries 
it away, making the seeding so much later, and keeping the soil several 
degrees colder. Then drained land is ready for every shower which 
disappears under the roots of plants, instead ot lying visible till absorbed 
in the atmosphere. This gives niitrition to the plants instead of sadden- 
ing and turning the soil into an acid condition, injurious to plant life. On 
this common sense plan of agriculture, the land, being warm and dry, can 
be seeded early, the plants will be better noiirished and mature in some 
less time, and be very much better in quality and weight than on wet, 
carelessly tilled soil, with a shade less cost of labor. Farmers cannot 
now give working men twelve dollars a month and board all the year 
with \\1 eat below seventy cents a bushel, and beef and pork, four and a 
half to five cents a pound, everything else in proportion. AH that can; 
t)ossibly be done by machinery must be so done arid the 'land better' 
cultivated. 

The experiment might be tried, of giving double or treble cultiva- 
tion and leaving more in grass, so that with good dressing, the quahty 
and bulk of the returns might be greatly increased. The land being put 
into far better condition would be more satisfactory to the owners and 
operators. A friend of ours remarks that the satisfaction of looking at 
animals well-formed, thriving, improved breeds is a compensation in part 
at least for the care bestowed and the provisions expended on the ani- 
mals. It will require great labor and much outlay to improve the land 
sufficiently, but the stock taken in one's own farm may pay better tljan 
taken anywhere else, and will not be exposed to burglars or bank robbers, 
or the bursting of other bubbles that are only lotteries. The Govern- 
ments of most countries have become too burdensome for the poc»r men- 
dicant multitude to long endure. Some talk of, the government of the 
peopk, by the people, and for their benefit. Is that the case ? Is it not 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1 23 

for the wealthy, and by the wealthy ? Oligarchies go under the soft 
name of democracy. Every man seems approachable by money. The 
people are the source of all income and thos&that rule in city and coun- 
try, are the tax collectors, and so lordly and with so much dignity they 
do pocket it 

Rev- Lyman Beecher is reported in a prayer to have said, "grant 
that we may never despise our rulers and grant that they may not so act 
as that we cannot help it." It is sad" pitiably. sad, that men elected to 
high posts of honor throw away all responsibility and honesty, compel- 
ling people to treat them with merited contempt; ministers of the Gos- 
piel and ministers of the Crown to be capable of uttering untruths and 
doing dishonest deeds, destroy at once in the minds of many all regard 
for religion and civil liberty, make agnostics, socialists and infidels in 
crowds and thousands. Instead of building up the church and renovating 
the state, making society healthy and happy, they do all they can to dis- 
solve the fabric of society and bring dire confusion. The low state of 
morals and positive irreligion among public men flamirg out in tiieir 
public actions, has driven people to the conclusion that they are actuated 
by no principle, but hold truth, honesty and righteousness in' contempt. 
This naturally produces Patrons, P. P. Associations; oppositions of everj' 
kind. It is surely a plain, palpable fact that if the leaders of a legislature 
would begin their career by an honest endeavor to do justly and keep to 
truth, there would be no oppositions, except by. men without principle 
that could not long be maintained or supported. Would men of the 
mehta-1 calibre of Hons., Louis Joseph Papineau, William Lyon MtKen- 
zie, Robert Gourlay. not to mention sur.h riminent names as Chancellor 
Blak^, Hon. Edward Blake, Baldwin, La Fontaine, Rolph, Nelson, 
Brown. Dorion, Sicotte, J. S. McDonald, Alexander McKcnzie, Wilfrid 
Laurier, Sir R. Cartwright. and not least, Mr. Dalton McCarthy, with a 
host of other giants in intellect, politics, law and literature — would men 
like these stake their reputation on going into opposition to a Govern- 
ment that was endeavoring to govern a people, many or few, iacorrupt- 
ibly and honestly ? 

If the people who furnish the public money and control the elec- 
tions, could be induced to think what misery they are entailint:; on their 
own offspring for long continued generations, they surely would be in- 
duced to make a change in the leaders of their parties. If half our em- 
ployees were pensioned off, half the boardsof Government dismissed and 
abolished; the Senate discontinued, and the representation reduced to 
one half in the Dominion and the provinces, all permanent salaries much 
reduced, and the business of the country simplified, things would begin 
to return to a normal or a reasonable course, and a healthier tone would 
be felt. We are top-heavy. The country cannot endure the burdens 
now upon its back. It is' the last ounce. Should any party, Tory, Re- 
form, Patron, Protestant Protective Association or any other, delight in 
bringing oa a reign of terror ? These Michaevils, Ahithophels and Judas 
Iscariot will have a hot time hereafter and even here .sometimes fire 
comes from one party and devours the other. The prophet is commis- 
sioned to say "I'wiU kindle a fire in the house of Hazae! and it shall de- 
"our the palaces of Ben4»aded." This would be a deplorable state of 



124 HISTORY OP THE OTTAWA VAEtET. 

That such men are prosperous and so powerful for evfl, seems to re- 
flect on the Government of the world; but not more so than that Islaaa^- 
ism gained a large portion of the human race. Or that Gengis-Khan and 
Timour or Tamarbme conquered so many tribes and his descendents 
held the sceptre till their overthrow so recently at Delhi, where the fa- 
mous Major General Nicholson lost his life in storming the city, himself 
the great prominent figure leading on the heroic few that entered the 
breach and drove before them the hoards of sepoys, as he sat terribly 
disabled, and cheered them as they delivered their running fire and 
cleared the place of its scores of thousands- A number of the Hindu 
priests called at the camp of Major General Nicholson, some years 
earlier than the revolt and asked to be shown the General's tent On 
being conducted into his presence they prostrated themselves and per- 
formed their devotional services to him as if he were some divinity. He 
looked at them till they concluded. He then ordered each priest to re- 
ceive a number of stripes of a moderate order on the bare shoulders for a 
punishment, charging the sergeaint to see that it was not severe, then or- 
dered them into his presence and explained to them that he was a man 
like themselves, and that their actions were rank idolatry, and none should 
dare to worship any but the ti'ue God. Nevertheless a sect was organ- 
ized among thtm, called the Ni-col-Seens. The curse of the Lord is in 
the house of the thief though he know'it not in his wealth and diversified 
delights. 

Osgoode has now a great number of post offices, with facilities for 
daily mails to most, of them. There is a large mileage of macadamized 
roads running through various parts of the township and in a good s 
of repair for travel. A daily stage runs between the city and Metca..^,. 
The Bytown and Prescott Railway, now the Ottawa and St Lawrence, 
lies on the west side of the township and east of the Rideau river. This 
w^s one of the earliest built roads in the Dominion. The able president 
of the company, the man who engineered it through difficulties all but 
insuperable, was the late talented Robert Bell, Esq.," for several years 
M. P. for Russell. Mr. Bell began his career as a surveyor or civil en- 
gineer, and excellent he was at that employment ^ He became editor of 
The Packet which he purchased from its fouader, Mr. Harris, who was aj>- 
pointed Crown Land Agent for Renfrew. Henry J. Friel, Esq., who was 
sometime after Mayor of Ottawa, was associated with Mr- Bell. The 
latter bought out the paper and became sole proprietor and editor, and 
changed its named to The Citizen. Mr. John George Bell was the assist- 
ant editor and manager of The CitizeniA. his short Hfc. His father, Mr. 
John Bell, was a merchant from Clonis, County Cavan, Ireland.' Mrs. J. 
G- Bell was a Miss De Ortell from Quebec. Two of his sisters are the 
widows of Mr. Samuel and Mr. Hugh Davidson, gentleraen who were 
highly respected in their lifetime. The former, an upnight man, was 
Reeve in his township and county for many years. The railway far more 
tijan the paper taxed Mr. Bell's ingenuity and energies to the utmost. 

The Government of that day had not learned the happy art of bor- 
rov> ing in England and involving the country beyond remedy in debt to' 
make railway kings, cotton and woollen princes, and 'unholy combines 
against the multitudes. Free road beds, free importation of .aterials, 
and ten thousand dollars a mile out of the public funds, borrowed with a 



' HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 125 

blue prospect of ever being repaid, were not then common, with millions 
of acres of land, free even of taxes, all handed over to irresponsible cor- 
porations with the power of taxing the public as they please in their 
carrying traffic. These with innumerable other advantages are given 
under forms of law. In other countries wealthy men form companies 
and carry out great enterprises under Government control and regula- 
tions, and increase their wealth, just as men embark in business without 
the bonus, to beggar the people and enable them to dictate prices. 

In many cases these bonuses are barricaded so as their very work- 
men cannot seize for the arrears of wages. Such a state of things deeply 
and dangerously corrupts the morals of a people; influences their leaders 
for evil, thinking that what is the practice in high life, cannot be so bad 
alter all for imitation by poorer people. The Government absolutely re- 
fused to let a private company touch the C. P. R. when that company 
had a number of names in it, possessing great wealth, and in their hands 
the road would not have cost the country half what it absorbed as it was 
eventually constructed. The Montreal Star raged with fury at the small 
pickings of some rascals connected with the poor Mercier cabinet; now 
he is well pleased, employed with the present Quebec men who will not 
lower their salaries, nor economize, nor dismiss useless officers, nor abolish 
the Legislative council, though they have to borrow at unreasonable rates 
and tax Montreal directlyto pay the interest. This is a humiliation for 
the despots that dismissed a cabinet for a trifle, because opponents. 

Mr. Bell and his company had not wealth enough to build a road 
but had to borrow from the banks. ' Lumberers, merchants, farmers, en- 
c'orsed his paper and when the notes matured, retired them by new made 
ones. We had these facts from some of his endorsers. He told us himself of 
a Welsh company, "Ebwyvale,'"' we think he called it, which aided him 
c;ieatly with good, kind treatment, and suffisred not in the transaction. 
The banks, especially the Quebec, were friendly and were no loosers. 
His friends were legion, and we never heard a man spleak of him< but 
wished him success. Many a one spoke to Mrs. Bell of the seeming im- 
possibility of carrying it through, for obstructions insuperable, rose before 
the minds of many, but she always replied : "Robert is adequate to the 
task." She was like many that adorn our pages, a superior woman. No 
otlier man then in the land except Alexander Christie, who was em- 
ployed about the same time on the New York and Erie, could engineer 
such an undertaking in the circumstances. It was navigating a craft 
against adverse winds oh mountain billows^ He was among the intcllec- 
tuaf giants of the age. He sacrificed much in the undertaking, but he 
completed it wit!' honor- His company decreed him a dinner at the con-' 
summation. Many old Scotchmen and Irishmen were at the banquet. 
Temperance had not made great inroads" or encroachments then on the 
rights of man. To become mellow was only a veniel sin. They could 
steep the thistle, or drown the shamrock, or float the rose without note 
or comment from prying outside inter-m.eddlers. When the ''whistle 
was wet," the "clay moistened", the stern disposition softenpd down con- , 
siderably. Pat, John and Sandy surrounded him. Theii congratulations 
were honest, fricnrJly and warm as the hearts from whence they issued, 
and taking i is freely extended hand in their firm grasp. One old Scot 
taking him for a countryman of his own and for the honor of the_ old 
knolls and hillsides said : "Misther Bell, folk iv^ry whar ken that we're 
the saat o' the earth." 



126 aSTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Bell had head and intellect to be the first minister of the Crewn in 
any country. He was very benevolent, possessed great conversational 
fKDwers, and sparkled with anecdote to overflowing;. Some of our readers 
will perhaps remember that the Grand Trunk took its straight line three 
miles to the north, leaving Kingston out in the cold. The connection 
had to be made by "Buss." Mr. Bell had got hold of the «ioor and his 
foot on the step going in, when at a glance he saw some Cabinet minis- 
ters, and the fine face and well- developed form- of the Hon. GeOrge 
Brown at the other end. "Oh," said he, "you are all honorables here." 
Come on Mr. Bell, said Hon. George. If Sir Edmund Head remains a 
littje longer yoa will be an Hon. too. How many do you think he has 
made already? T would have to count them, said Mr. Bell. Well, 
thirty-nine, said Mr. Brown. It reminds me, -Mr. Brown said, of the law 
lord in Scotland, Chief Justice Kaims. He had just married his fourth 
wife, and was goinp down Princess street, Edinburgh, when an old apple 
woman at a corner raised her pious hands in devotion and said : , "Gid 
spare you Lord Kaims." His Lordship stopped and looking very keenly 
at the old lady, said, "Why do you say that, my good woman ?" "Ah ! 
gin ye leeve lang enough, ye'U mak' us a' leddies." 

Lea\ ing the Union station, Ottawa, the first stop is made at Chaucl- 
iere Junction. The old origmal line between it and Ottawa is little used, 
as trains do not leave Sussex street now as of yore. A fcv\' minutes 
brings you to Gloucester station, a mere halting place, as no business or 
buildings worth any mention appear. The next is Manotick in the swamp 
of old, rot much meets you but mosquitoes. This is the shipping place 
for the village of Manotick three Tiiles off. The place around is good 
for agriculture and stock raising. Osgoodc station is some miles farther 
south on a fine plane of land. It appears to increase with comfortablje 
buildings, shops, barrel factory, hotel, school and churches. Dr. Allen is 
physician. Rev. J. Lockhead preaches Sunday evenings. Rev. Wm. 
Lockhead, his brother, was ordained at Renfrew, spent some years there, 
then removed to Fenelon Falls. After many years there he removed to 
Mandauman, where the late Rev. James Chestnut cfficiated. A fine 
country road connects Osgo6de station with Wellington. The road ter- 
minates at Prescott, but has been swallowed up by that pelican of the 
Canadian desert, that has shown sudi a vampire appetite .for Httle rail- 
roads, lands an'd money. It would have swallowed the Grand Trunk 
but for its length which would have been like the eel with the crane. We 
doubt if any man can teM what that road has cost, but if ithas beggared 
us with debt, it has made several millionaires. According to the rqiason- 
ing of a Cabinet minister, it was te carry the coinn erce of the cast. 
With its transcontinental, double oceanic route, it wiH y robably close or 
dry up the Shcz Canal, and by its so often breaking bulk, enrich the day 
laborers at each end, ke«f»inf[ so many more men in the country, and in- 
creasing l«rgely the home ntarkct. The kindness of our Government to 
railroads and hanks is proverbial; and should command the gratitude of 
the woricing classes, or if they had not five cents in tke pocket of their 
1. gged pants,%bccause they wellkaow that tfce co«ntry is rich and tJwt 
ttieic is plenty pried up in the banks for an> election to secure for r^ee* 
sentatives the fnends of the wealthy, who can in turn buy so much sqom 
from tlie .poor producers. , 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 12/ 

s • Quebec is looking up the high salaries of their officials, enabling them 
to buy so much more provisions from the farmers that they will soon < 
wipe out their little debts of $30,000,000. The habitants, but especially 
The Mo7ttre(U Star, are to be congratulated on their wisdom and steady 
perseverance in the choice of such wise and upright legislators. Real 
estate will soon increase in value, though it sadly deteriorated. The Os- 
goof'n people, say two-fifths, have fallen off in fifteen years, every dol- 
lar hi jught down to sixty cents. How pleasant it must be to have a 
policy supported by your friends that in eighteen years has reduced 
your lands two-fifths in value and in five years more will bring them to 
one half. Wild lands are an exception for the grants to the railroads, 
■.t one dollar an acre, were bought back at two dollars" an acre, because 
the gdvemment so badly needed these lands for prairie preserves, to en- 
courage the increase of wild game; and cash was plenty. The average 
salary of the clergy would not reach the average pension of the retired 
employees of the Government, whilst the average wage of laborers, with 
no hope of pension, will not go half way. Reform is much reeded to 
keep orr top-heavy system from toppling over altogether. The growth 
of families have enabled them to improve school houses and dwellintj 
bouses in spite of the depression and bad times, and it is said that aeon- 
tract has been let to remove mud from the Castor at $500 a mile. We 
have not learned the particulars. The government that builds railroads 
should Often these streams as so much of the health of the country is at 
stake. They would build to Jame.s' Bay or Greenland, and borrow $300,- 
, DC 0,000. but they would not improve the flooded streams by a few 
thou'^rinds. 

The people of Osgoode may be congratulated on the fact, that with 
t!ie majority of the people of these provinces, they have no sympathy 
with these false principles and do not endo'rse them. It is ptrange that 
poliiici^ns cannot keep to the truth- Can falsehood be a foundation on 
which to conduct the government of a people ? We remember a Judge 
from Michigan, Ftumping in New York, pointing to the low wages and 
the starving condition of the working people across the line in Canada, 
when nine-tenths of his audience could have contradicted him on the 
spot. Their working people then had sixty cents a day without board 
inthc fall and nothing tj do in the winter. This we know and can g-ive 
t: c ON idence, Wc can gj' e a case in the church courts; a clergyman, 
tlie cl airman of a con.riiL.ee, appointed to get the arrears of salary col- 
li c!c'', gave in writing, the statement, that there was no sum specified »r 
promised to the minister by the congregation; consequently they did not 
owe anything. One member of the court had moderated the caH, 
\vnui [^ the amount to be paid. The brethren had sustained the call, and 
induced the man an;! settled him in the congregation; yet these men 
sat I ute, when they knew he was falsifying, and adopted this mon- 
stro: • ly false report, and engrossed it in their records. If this should be 
called in question we can produce the records. Politicians makeitfer-' 
ible and Lshionable, to kill with this dry rot, every principle of truti', 
ji;stice Jxrid honor in the community. The clergy follr ' the politicians. 
Al' ir.e £l:o'.v and glitter of the co'.intless victories of the Romans could 
iio.': supper. ;.' i despotisms of the Eiuperors, aHthe gay clothing of the 
CcvJJiers coul-J not prevent a revol'.:tion, which alone saved the country 



128 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

and Wttd it owt »f the low c'egra''ati(>n in which the impure kings, 
queeBS, Prince Ruperts, etc., had involved it, by almost proaiiscuous inEer- 
course of tlie sexes, court beauties, and ladies and gentlemen of fashion 
and style. 

iFalse leaders in the state deceive, impoverish and enslave; false 
leaders in the church make merchandise of their hearers. We have 
found many ready, even in the Ottawa Valley and city, to condemn the 
vices of the leaders, that act only as deceivers for their own gain; but 
they have hardly the moral courage to dismiss these men and get better 
ones. Some get soothed up, and the purchasable get bought up, and 
the wretched degredation goes on, till the stubble and brush get dried up 
.so that the application of the match produces a conflagration. The de- 
ceivers are cast off. New men man the .ship and a prosperous voyage 
begins, the nation is lifted to a higher plane, or experiences a renovation, 
Uionest men look back, make comparisons, aud ask themselves how or 
why they endured, so long a humiliation so deep and- so shameful ? Our 
community is sunk very low in its morals- The love of money never 
seemed to us so great or so intense, and men never before seemed to us 
so unscrupulous m the means of acquiring it- Nothing could be more 
disgusting or appalling to an honest mind, than the way public funds are 
wasted on the vilest scum of the community. If the people have taken 
a stand for reform, it was not till "the last hough was in the pot," till the 
treasury was empt^', deficit after deficit was run or suffered, all sources 
exhausted, even that of borrowing scarcely possible. The prodigal's 
rags carefully examined may lead to a' new resolution in favor of a re- 
formation. It may be admitted that when the burglars have done their" 
horrid work of breaking up and carrying away our all, it is not easy to 
face the butcher and the baker, the coal man, the tailor, the doctor, the 
coal oil agent, not to mentiprl the grocers and drygoods men. 

The country is reduced to the deepest poverty, and sunk over- 
whelmingly in debt, and nine-fenths of the money is stolen from us, and 
is in the possession of the millionaires who own the railroads, and we 
may say the canals into the bargain, especially the Tay canal. The 
people are largely to blame. They know that to elect such vultures is 
to debase their country antl themselves. If those who are now elected 
would take for their model the Long Parliament and investigate the ras- 
cality of which some yet left in the House are so deeply implicated in, 
and measure out their dues to the tyrants, expose their fraud and de- 
ceit, they would elevate the state into a healthy condition. King 
Charles I. raised loans by Privy seal. Our Charlies raise loans in Eng- 
land and put us ip for them without benefit, except the privilege of pay- 
ing very sweetly for the seat on their car, or walking behind their chariots. 
Their promises amounted to nothing as there was no perfomaance. Mag- 
nificent improvements, increase of wattes, short hours of work; in a word, 
from three to five times the outlay necessary to house these employees; 
and the same proportion between their salaries and the earnings of tite 
whole people that support them. ' Let us have things is proportion. 
We do not cry, down wages, nor is it any advantage to cry thetM up. ff 
the farmer cannot pay the hired help he must cease to employ. Rewards 
shauld bear a relatios te tbe performances. The inaiMjitactorer sfaould 
not recei\'C more for his invostments tba«i in the ratio of tbe laborer eoa- 



HISTORY OF THE- CTfTAWA VAIJ.BY. I29( 

' ftoyc6, ~ the mercbant and his cteAs, tf»prces o^Urb wares, not whast he 
ca« get but what they are worth. Inventions that are^not labor-saving, 
are abandoned as unprofitable, as such always should be- Then why 
not establish this proportion throaghout the conunuinty from the Gov- 
ernor-General's salary, through aM classes of the employed to the day 
laborer, also the washing woman atid the sewing girl ? Multitudes of 
both sexes now pi-efer the )d»or of propelling tben»selves on wheels to 
sitting on the saddle, or the soft cit^ioned cwriages, and thousands 
more wowld do so but for the extortion of the wheel makers. Whatever 
our pretentions be we are all laborers. Can morality in business then not 
be restored ? Must it be lost sight of, and injustice, and ftaud, and 
falsehood forever reign ? 

In our readings we learn that in the good old tin»es in merry Eng- 
land, when they dare not publish a translation of the Scriptures in the 
Anglo-Saxon, few of the people could read, and scholars were driven 
irvflB the coimtry and had t© escape to the Netherlands or Geneva. 
These reformers were determined to get the Scriptures in the hands of 
their countrymen, and they published what was known as the Geneva 
BA>le, which was very much esteemed by the whole people. John 
Wickliff prepared a version in his mother tongae, and every reformpr 
followed in his wake, full of anxiety to stimulate the intellect of the 
I»eople by this most pov.'erful weapon, trusting that friends of truth, sea 
captains and others, wouid get them into circulation; and so from Geneva 
tbey sent i* forth, a judicious translation, the work of the refugee':, from- 
English intolerance. In spite of the scholarly attainments of the transla- 
tors, and the watchfulness and care of the proof readers, an error in the 
pf'nfifig in one edition escaped them.. It may not have been attended 
to after the correction, and made bad work with that edition. The pun- 
ter p«t place for peace. "Blessed are the "plaee" nMikers." This aprnJies 
so Irtcrally to the Domtnioa, fr«m its beginning under Joh» A. McDon- 
ald to its death under Dr. Tupper, that it might be chunied that they 
were brought up en this and other erroneous editions. 

Another English ecjition omits "not" after 'thoa sbalt' in the sevenfli 
commandment, an emmission very fatal but perhaps not inapplicable to 
s«ne cases, like the 'place makers' to them all. Oaf despoiled inteSects, 
ckformed lawyers, despairing politicians, all the defeated, cBsappoirited, 
desperate cases, have found great clemency from those cabinets for 
many years, under fine premiers. "Place-making" has been the funda- 
mental part of their system. They have made places by the thousands 
that are not only not required, but injurious, and filled them with incap- 
ables or worse in many cases. The Bench and the Bar, the Custom 
House, the Post Office, the inspectorships of everything, the multiplica- 
tion of departments and employees, almost without number or end, over 
ahawdful of people, entirely inadequate t® bear such a load. The place* 
arc fat places, for these unprincipled plunderers have had nothing in view 
for the wetfare of any in the land but themselves, and to make supporters 
of their own, to keep them forever in office and power, has been t^feir 
aim and sap^-eme effort.* Having sacrificed our belovL J liberty, it scatm 
we must have ruiers and judges, but is it so, that they must be o«t of aft 
proportiew wkk aH other men in the communrty th-.*: have to r«#»e tMs 
support; as woU as their own, in such contracted, 3trais>''iten««l and lisaHed 



I30 HISTORT OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. 

ctrcmnstances ? Against this there must be revoh, unless the people 
can be kept in profound ignorance of these things. Real estate has 
fallen over one-third, produce of every kind nearly one half, population 
almost standing still- ' How are these huge salaries to be raised ? That 
pet organ, The Montreal Star, says they have pocketed nearly one half of 
the $300,CKX),ooo borrowed from England. So little truth is told in the 
press, people may not credit this. But we have endowed so many 
knights, baronets and lords, or rather they have endowed themselves at 
our expense, that the Dominion is a combination of pride and poverty, 
aristocrats and serfs, millionaires and paupers. We can neither live in 
the land nor leave it. Notices of farms for sale have stood till the posts 
that bear them up are nearly rotten, and no one to buy them. But if 
they cannot sell the lands, and the stock and other produce bring them 
nothing, thousands of them aH-e so low bred as to take bribes and sell 
themselves for a few dollars, or the promise of some improvement to 
purchase a constituency. Some times these promises were not kept, but 
made to serve the purpose of elections. It may yet come to be known 
that all these large salaries of these- hirelings are raised by the people, 
and they may some, day ask these lords of creation to step down from 
their high perch and come nearer in equality. The most glaring injustice 
is manifest in making places of emolument, when the work is not done, 
nor required, and the pay is taken out of the poor, scanty rewards of 
Sewing women and girls, whose labors are so poorly rewarded, and out 
of the farmer whose crops will not pay half what they cost to raise them 
at high wages. 

Our youth must be taught pao^?«a»sre , that the good name of our 
country be not trailed in the mire by every scandal-monger; trained to 
keep a good conscience fitted for the government of self as well as of the 
multitude. No man should be promoted to rule, who does not fear God 
and hate covetousness. In order to do this, the same principle should 
pervade every soul of the electorate, according to the great legal authori- 
ties, such as Lord Brougham, the elected and the constituents are one as 
he is chosen to represent them. They are accountable to one another, 
and all accountable to the Supreme Ruler. There is, we fear, a vast de- 
parture from the simplicity of the earlier times. Men seemed to be 
more honest, true and sincere then than now, It could not be attributed 
to the influence of preachers as they were very thinly sown in the land at 
that time. The people must have been trained in good principles as 
they lasted during that generation. Our members of Parliament >vere 
hreproachable. They had not an accusation of fraud or falsehood laid 
to.their charge. In time, bad votes were put in. and bad representatives 
elected. Needless offices have been invented by the great schemers, 
and burdens, £;t'i''voiis to be borne, have been laid on all who do not dis- 
honestly conceal their property from the assessor. 

In the days when Kev. John Carroll preached to a few Wesleyans 
in O^oode, and women rode twenty-five miles on horses to hear Rev. 
Mr. Cruikshanks, there wore earnestness and truthfulness in the hearts of 
tf»« settlers and many of t'em are so yet. We remember in these times 
tticy told of a ^de^'oted minister visiting his people and about noon he 
reached a house, whcic 'he lady said she would ask him to dinner, but 
ibe mtAy bad herrings, i lo assured her nothing ceuld please him better. 



HISTORY OF TBE OVCAWA YMEbEY. I3I 

He was i»ighly entertamed and very kindiy treated. The w««wm iwring 
Uncovered bis refined taste feasted hkn in bis caHs after on the deiectabie 
finny tribes from the coast of die icc-bouad, sea-beaten Labrador. Few 
people are so thougbtful in these degeaerafee days. 

We hSave reconsmended tree pkurting in every townslrip along the 
Ottawa. Every road should be decorated. Every acre of poor land 
covered with young, healthy trees. Those rarieties that grew on these 
plains in a state of nature ^louW be re-introd»ced wherever possible 
and at the earliest convenience, as they would thrive and conie to perfec- 
tion in a soil where they were fo«nd so choice, beautiful and mature 
sixty years ago. The sensible farmer who adopts this plan will lay up 
for his children what he cannot now dream o(, realise or estimate, There 
is no mineral or metal, salt or soapstonc, neither nickel npr mica, not 
eveji what may be termed up-land in Osgoode- But there may be un- 
told wealth in aluminum with which the clay soil abounds. This doubt- 
lew will yet be produced at a reasonable cost. Then who can estimate 
its value in a country so far from the sea coast ? It is likely to be avail- 
aMe f»r many purposes, and as it is free from rust when free from salt, it 
is likely to be more durable than ether metals. We have not heard of 
ainy abjections to the aluminum boats' in the Arctic explorations lately 
naade. Probably they were not much in salt water during that brie-f 
expedition. " " 

Osg'oode has done much in the erection of churches. The Roman 
Catholics have one, the Methodists two, the Baptists two, the Presby- 
terians five. Many good bridges have be^n made and the roads have 
been greatly improved. The Castor has so many branches and small 
trUjutaries that a vast nunvber of bridges of large span are required and 
many little ones. Most of the large families who planted themselves 
here at the first, are still well represented. Some have migrated to the 
city and gone into successful business operations. Some have gone to 
the west. Most of them are very industrious. Hope is entertained of 
much good resulting from the deepening of the feeders of the Castor; 
and the removal of obstructions which would greatly improve the land 
•n its banks and'let off the waters from the flats. In dropping seasons 
a kind of iron rust shows on the straw which must lighten the 5'ield and 
injure the feeding qualities. Draining will cure thi.e or prevent it, and 
no part more requires this attention. Thousands of acres are growing 
blackheads, sweet flag and willows, and unfit for any purpose. Carleton 
people havd burned with loyaky to the Government They have elec- 
ted the men that others cast o»t and the party has not given them a 
, rabbit in return for their devotion. Could the man of the Tay canal 
wko has experience in opening waterways, not secure a grant of a few 
diousand« to op«« the Castor and the Carp ? Twenty-five thousand to 
n,ek stre«m would do much and the people could ftirnish the remainder 
wf*ii s«ch encouragement. One cent a head on the Dominion would do 
it "These people have paid into the treasury indirectly for nearly a cen- 
tury and have never been refunded one dollar. If governnienls exist 

■ for tlie good of the people what have we got ? If for thems. ■ cs what 

■ are they worth to us ? They expend on the agricultural farm or Experi- 
mentalFarfn in half a year what would drain these rivers to perfection, 

: ftviog farmers dry lands on their bank?. What does the Experimenteii 



132 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Farm do but spend for us ? At the last Fair in Ottawa the farmers were 
far m advance of them in the fruits of the land and of everything except 
decorations.'*, This wart must be got offthe face, or it may turn to a can- 
cer of an incurable nature with the Government. No man can be got to 
say that he considers it a benefit, but a fraud on the country. We have 
asked the question of a multitude and get answers in the negative. It s 
no use. It is a, waster to destroy. It is a very nice home for place men. 
These are the replies you get. If it were a government contractor did 
the work he would eet a quarter of a million and net two hundred thous- 
and on the job. Bui; it can be let by auction in fair competition. 

Carleton never required any attention to keep it in line, so they can 
expend elsewhere without a fault being found by these patient people. 
Should admirers of Government say, let tljose benefitted make the out- 
lay. Very weM, dismiss the Board of Works, the Board of Agriculture, 
other boards and offices that are useless. Ltt the Experimental Farm 
sustain itself or cease to waste our substance as they now do, and the 
farmers will attend to themselves, and the wealthy will build railroads 
and canals, where they pay and. are required- Contractors employ 
Italians, Fins, Chinamen, and would employ Kurds if it suited, and let 
their countrymen starve if money can be made by it on their fat jobs. 
Our paternals have certain tried parties on hand to keep the others in 
line and themselves ever in place. Is the Board of Agriculture a benefit 
to the farmers ? Do they not expend far more on themselves and their 
employees than they give to the societies ? Can the farmers not sustain 
their own shows if they are profitable ? Does the money wasted on the 
Board and officers not come first out of the farmers' purse ? > Does one 
hundred and fifty expended on the Board procure fifty to tne farmers 
out of the two hundred paid in? If the people are the source of all taxa- 
tion, then all that live on them are parasites. Is the oak anything the 
better of the mistletoe ? But your principles applied would dissolve civil 
government ? Not necessarily. It would dissolve the thieves that keep 

us in the rankest poverty and oppression; that keep themselves in power 
by our money. We would denounce Mercier but would we sparer Tail- 
Ion ? Would society be the loser if half the Government of Europe and 
two-thirds of Asia, and three-fourths of America were dissolved and su- 
perceded by honest men ? We have no spleen to gratify against free 
government, honest administration, correct adjustment of the burdens 
that must be borne. Who at this hour has a doubt that the machinery 
of Government is too complex to be long endured unless at the expense 
of what men hold dear ? It seems that a new course must be adopted ' 
and pursued. A generation must be trained to reform the abuses under 
which we labor, or the best citizens will leave the land. A generation 
of school teachers is wanted free from cost, who would look at things as 
they are and then as they ought to be, and try to apply the remedy. No 
one should object to religion in the school, but generally those who have 
the least, cry the loudest. But when there are so many things to be 
taught, little time can be given to one thing, and the thing siiowld be, 
not a fancy but a fact. Is it religion in a boy to smash your window^ 
injure you, steal from you ? Then the teacher and trustees should make 
good the losses, else they make the old Hkg of religion cover tbe vices tt 
m the bottomless pit. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 153 

The name of religion should not cover deep, deadly iniquity, and 
tiwjse who so employ it should be withered by the contempt of honest 
men. Had my teacher of Caldee or of Syriac 1 een a Babylonian or a 
Damascene must I worship Nebuchadnezzar's golden image ? If my 
teacher of Arabic was a Musselman, must I therefore embrace Islamism ? 
Pi'.rt of my Hebrew I learned from a Jew, was I then under any neces- 
sity to become a Jew with Mr. Hirchfelder ? Or remain a Christian 
with Dr. Rintoul ? Why was I to have been sent to a young Catholic 
priest to study my first Latin? Had you asked my father to avoid 
the danger of my being proselytised to Romanism, he would have smil- 
ed. Bytown grammar school was got up in time, but it was all the 
same. We yield to no man in maintaining the necessity of religion, 
but the home is the place to begin and cherish it, else the school cannot 
do it. It may be a help, but it cannot take the place of home and the 
church if they neglect it at home. The fault then is in the clergy, who 
should look after it carefully. A Cardinal at Toledo or Saragossa in 
teaching me Spanish would not make me embrace his religion more 
than his country. There is so much folly put forth by Protestant min- 
isters, often only for popularity about religion in the schools and only 
reading a passage of Scripture and a prayer prepared for the occasion. 
It is a fine, theme for splendid eloquence, righteous indignation and re- 
ligious enthusiasm. Such clergy take so great interest in family train- 
ing, church training, stirring up souls for truth and godliness everwhere, 
that killing and lying and stealing, swearing, drinking and Sabbath pro- 
fanation are all disappearing, and Scriptural knowledge as spiritual life 
and the highest morality in politicians and electors and judges and 
traders shine in their -glory. " Oh, enter not into judgement with thy 
servants." 

We have had converse with the inhabitants of Osgoode and found them 
better developed in many things than the people of some other parts. 
They give some attention to the politics and government of the country. 
To the industry of the people they justly trace the derivatio.n of the 
means of liquidating all expenditures ; that industry may be plied in the 
fields, the forests and the mines, the foundries and the factories, the 
stores, the banks and the workshops. Now every source of wealth of' 
profit and. of gain should contribute its just and fair proportion to the 
expense of conducting the governnient of the country. If some fool 
had said that Canada should not be made a slaughter market for the 
goods of other countries, it would have been laughed to scorn, and 
treated as the ravings of a disordered brain, and its author regarded as 
not safe to be out of an asylum; but Sir John McDonald declared it and 
the raipt admirers of that great one have echoed it over all the lands 
and its reverberations are heard after the worms have devoured his 
body. Yet it is a ^..^erable, worthle.s3 fallacy, and not the product of a 
mind that had understanding. But express this in the hearing of his ad- 
mirers and they would burn you on a brush pile. Some of our merchants 
make a slaughter market of our city continually. Is it injurious to 
those who buy at half-price ? Is it injurious to the over-stocked mer- 
chant to be able to use the cash instead of the useless stock ? If the 
manufacturer over-produce or the merchant overstock, they will soon 
learn to d« better. Mort people profit, or at least le«m by their own 



IJ^ HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

kfcwKleis; if not, let them get out of the way of abler men.- Others 
may succeed'wbere they failed. A wholesale merchant or manfactiirer 
may be abie to distribute the unsold balance of his overstock arnong 
his steady ctistomers at the slaughter price, benefitting himself with them 
and the-customers all round, orhe may send it abroad,doing good all round. 
Sfr John's cttrse is a blessing in disguise, but he preferred to curse us 
without rather than bless us with it. 

What showers of blessings these men have given- us in i8 years 
amce 1878 ? What curses they have turned away from us ? Individuals 
have been bribed, whole constituencies have been bought,' seats in Par- 
liament stolen, judges have soiled their ermine, penitentiary birds ap-^ 
pointed returning officers, ballot boxes s'uffed, villainous gerrymanclcrs, 
diab(rfical franchise acts, senatorial appoiitments one-sided, and the- Inst 
efforts to make way for a hierarchical establishment and union of cliurGh 
and state, and now beaten by their own friends, with the mark of Cain 
•n their Ijtow, and four hundred appointments in their arms, they have 
been ignominiously kicked downstairs, rn a worse plight than were the 
men of the Pacific scandal. Thp new Government may do better for us 
but Conservatives are nearly unanimous in declaring that we can be no 
worse. Such is history in 1896. Our best men in the land li^ave had so 
great cause for humiliation that such black hearted villainy could be ]5cr- 
formed or even conceived by men in human shape, that men under the 
flag erf English civilization could be so lost to every sense of honor, truth, 
justice. Christian principle, and manly conduct, as to debauch a wiiolc 
land and hold up its people to the contempt of Turks, Kurds and Mata- 
beies. Heaven gave us a government in anger and took it away in 
wrath? We are sure many a prayer was offered for its rcii'oval and to 
be substituted by a better^ prayers that have been mercifully answered. 
Our own earnest prayer is that these men now chosen may fear God, 
love truth and honesty, hate covetousness, reform the l;a\s and the 
whole system of administration, that the land may have resr, fpr many 
years from the oppression, deceit,. hypocritical misrule, misery and de- 
gradation so long endured. 

Osgoode possessed in Rev. W. Lochead a good organizer. The 
young of the congregation were well instructed. He caiiic tiifre an 
erdained minister. He had spent some years in Aiban\- and Cherry 
Valley, N.Y. His bearing was always dignified and gentl -manly. His 
discourses were clear, sound, forcible and expository. He formed the 
congregations in Osgoode and Gloucester about 1847. The conprcsation 
gr^w and prospered. He went to North Gower about 1858. He re- 
mained in North Gower until he retired from preaching. He was 
scholarly but very unassuming. The great Brooklyn orator. Rev. 
Henry Ward Beecher began to call his Wednesday evening exercises 
talks. ' These prayer meeting Exercises were very edifying. Whatever 
vagaries he held in theory no one ever doubted that he was possessed 
erf extraordinary endowments. His great popularity made him a fit ob- 
ject for imitation by men of far lighter calibre, and was pernicious to 
those who thought by copying him to become famous some day. A. 
luxuriant crop of self styled evangeHsts. sprang up, not to preach, which 
they couW not do, but to talk., They gave no exposition of Scripture,, 
bHt their own theories. These evangelists from Moody to Clarke, took 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1 35 

only saKerit points, at the expense of all others, to catc'i tne attention of 
those on the lookout for innovators. Conversions easily made were re- 
ckoned in great numbers. Contributions flowed in streams. Times 
were good. Temples were built in the great cities of the east and 
west. We were on the point pf having a new sect of Moody's disciples, 
but a rumor that Moody was baptised atted unfavorably. He kept aloof 
from all sects and parties, was a religionist of his own kind. When he 
went to enlighten the Scotch the clergy all united with him, so he could 
not do in Edinburgh as he would in Boston and Chicago. 

The evangelists soon became enriched, after which they modestly 
retired to their castellated mansions, newly constructed and furnished, 
and the conflagration over, they became' as mute as the harp on Tara'.s 
wall, except when lured out by invitation to make a pleasant visit for a 
week or two. Not that they are less interested in the evangelization of 
the world but that their wants are not so pressing, having been amply 
provided for in that season when the heat of the crucible dissolved the 
precious metal- Many of our young crafts were caught in the eddy and 
sailed round with the current. Ease is sweet Rest is pleasant. Much 
study is a weariness to the flesh. It is not uncommon to hear one minis- 
ter abuse another that shows any anxiety to be constantly laboring. It 
is a rebuke upon their own indolence. Give such gentlemen money 
enough and they will enjoy the "otium cum dignitate," with a becoming 
gracefulness, and take plenty of exercise for health in the curling clubs. 
This may be in accordance with the fitness of things- The evangelists 
studied manner, studied it for the best effect, and they made their man- 
ner taking. Their matter judging from Moody's published works, was 
tame, common place in the extreme. It is a great saving of time when 
manner takes best with popular audiences, and his were always popular 
audiences. 

In the year 1858 or. about that time Rev. James Whyte was called 
to Osgoode, ordained and installed. He very soon established his repu- 
tation as a great worker. He held a prayermeetlng in some part of the 
congregation during six nights of the <veek. He greatly excelled in this 
kind of pastoral labor, and consequently had little time to study sermons, 
and they will not come without study- His sermons were, of necessity, 
hke his evening addresses or Beecher talks. We do his memory no in- 
justice by stating the facts. Fault was found with the occasional sermons 
he preached before Presbytery for their not' having been thought ont- 
His contemporaries who are yet alive can correct me if I am wrong. 
Very few men can think in the crowd, and quite as few on their legs in 
. the pulpit. The lamps were tb be fed with beaten oil, which is as it 
should be. Dr. Mason told his students if they wrote two sermons in 
the week for a few years they would write themselves fools. Can the 
turbine wheel revolve if< the water supply is not kept up in the dam ? 
Congregations that are neglected perish for lack of knowledge. Those 
that have too many meetings become dyspeptic for want of time to study 
Scripture, think, digest and apply what they read and hear. One might 
*have twenty Bibles in his possession, and know nothing of their contents 
for want of reading. One niiyht have a great library and be ignorant of 
the contents of books and of their authors, treasuring iip nothing valu- 
able in his mind. Excitement, is !io(; t' c life but often the death of re- 



, t^ HISTORY «F THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

%»em ill 'the soul. In the early times sermons were preached at the 
o^ni«fp of Presbytery. They are sdll in the United States, and com- 
murtiwK are held there, but nothing of the kind have we had here in all 
these years; and benedictions are more frequent than prayers, or about 
as frequent. 

We have heard fashionable prayers for the guidance of the Holy 
Spirit in things they had prejudged and made up their minds ori long 
before. Such prayers need pardon. Men like Findlay, Gray, At!-; ins, 
Wardrepe, Duncan, McMcekin, Melville, and a few others would bring 
out somiething profitable to the congregation and the members of the 
Presbytery. Dr. Boyd, Messrs, Gegie, Fairbairn, Wilson, McLaughlan, 
outsiiie the Presbytery of Perth, were worth hearing. Dr. John Bayne 
of Gatt was the ablest preacher in the synod in his day and generation. 
Drs. Willis and Burns were not inferiortohim.buttheirbusiness wasmore 
thetrainingforthe ministry, which they did well and faithfully too. The 
first pastor went from Osgoode to North Gower, the second went to 
Miinotick. The third, Mr. McKay, was too short a time here to make 
much impression. ' The same may be said of Mr. Cawlder and Mr. 
H»jfhs who went to Chelsea and after six months went west. Their 
present minister is Mr. Goodwillie, who has now a field of over one hun-, 
d«sd and sixty families. His eldest son, a fine boy, was taken away by 
death. His second s©n is a pretty, young boy- Mrs. Goodwillie is a 
superior woman, taking much interest in the congregation and- the Sun- 
day school. Osgoode is to be congratulated on its general prosperity. 
It would be of great service to get from some of the older people, their 
views on the different methods of their preachers. Some are of opinion 
that the church has parted her hawser, and been blown out of port by 
adverse winds, and is dangerously drift ng upon the shoals and quick-, 
sands of other denominations, and pe'rilously near shipwreck. 

It grates sadly on our ears to hear Presbyterians say that Presby- 
terianisra is dcgeiierating. One man says, 1 despair of hearing the Gospel 
preached in our pulpit; another says : Well, we thought our minister, 
could not hunt up a poorer preacher than himself, but he found one; 
Another still, that his pneacher has a she wer of words but little in them. 
A reply to them all may be, to be carefil not to confound Presbyterian- 
ism with its lame arvd blind advocates ard defenders. These men may 
have their backs to it, and you may be in their shadow, and its light may 
fee obscured from you urkder such an eclipse, like the dark moon obscur- 
ity the sun's light from a part of the earth by her pas.sage between. If 
you doubt this turn to j'otir New Tcstanent, and see how much tne 
Rg^ of that which was made glorious W;is darkened by the sanctimoni- 
ous hypocrites, who monopolized the piety of their times, as sitting in 
Moses seat, as the only true expositors of the God-given system of 
truth, and you will not be surprised tha; men in sheep's clothing mak* 
mepchandise of you to-day. Thcj' may take a<\ay from you the key of 
knowledge as their pre<iecessors ilid from others, but you have a remedy. 
We once knew a case when the prcacl-.tr was telling thtm old stories and 
trying in ti\e pulpit, some went out, staid a while and came in agam.the 
othcfs did not return tiH the n^inister came out, like the actor ic was, 
»»d r«sfaed to ask after the w cU'are of tl e famih'l He was tnli.. . tbcy 
wore pretty well, but would be much be. ter if they liad inort: G&spd 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 137 

a»d fewer old Stories told them from the pulpit, and ended by giving 
him his choice to reform or they would go elsewhere. The reformation 
began in the pulpit the next Sunday and continued. Truth is infallible, 
but the men who administer or hide it are not. The people can either 
reform or dismiss them, or go elsewhere. No man should oppose re- 
form. A ,very penetratmg lay-man says, not under his breath, that 
thirty-five per cent, of the preachers should have some other occupation 
and about five or six percent, are fit to supply respectable congregations. 
We do not say this witness is not true; There is surely a remedy. Let 
salt be cast into the water. Let the love of truth be cultivated. Men 
are their brothers' keepers. The man .who will not prepare his sermon, 
has no right to preach, and is not called to preach. Is every kind of 
trash and rubbish to be trailed n.to the pulpit and eternal truth excluded, 
or made to blush in company with such filthy dreams? "When a nation 
is punished for its sin, 'tis in the church the leprosies begi'n." Steps 
should be taken to drive out the pharasees or hyprocrites. Purge out the 
old leaven. One of our strong congregations, in this vale of which wo 
write, had an able preacher for years, but he did not visit enough ; then 
they got another who was great on the •, isitin? but nothing at the I'esk. 
They were not backward in requesting his removal. They mag' ified 
his visiting powers, not forgetting the preaching powers of the i< r.ner. 
Wt suggested that they keep him and bring back the other oni.-, but 
they thought wc were jesting Like a young preacher we remember in 
the south who could read a fine sermon, and a. young elder who could 
word a fine prayer. A young lady who heard them recommended that 
they should go together and each do what he could do best. 

North Gower is one of the three gores in the County of Carleton con- 
taining' about 33,000 acres. It is all occupied at this writing except 
what is worthless or useless, of which there is very little. Tlie features 
of the landscape resemble other places. It was a great field for lumber- 
ing. The first lumberers were U-E. Loyalists who explored its groves 
and prepared square timber for market. It was driven loose or a few 
stitks netted together on Stevens! Creek to the Rideau and Ottaw ;, then 
put in cribs. These cribs might be in width whatever they chose. There 
were no slid.* at rapids to limit them, as such improvement.s liad not 
begun to be made at such an early stage in our hi.stor\', and cribs on the 
Rideau could only be formed after the canal was built, as they would 
have been sent into single timbers pitching into the Ottawa over the "falls 
.at New Edinburgh, ts length was that of the pieces cnjupo'^ing it, 

which were generally assorted to match, or nearly so. The floats on 
the sides were generajly round sticks bored to take two and a half inch 
pins to secure the cross pieces (traverses) five or six of which were on 
each crib that held the lot together with three pieces of loading on top, 
one an each side and one on the centres. The oars were worked on the 
pieces on the sides, but these were only used to row out to run the 
rapids or the slides. The cribs banded together formed the raft. Thn 
oars were long, the men using them stood one on each side of the load- 
ing timber in the middle of the crib- This middle stick had a row-lock 
on eacb end for the men to steer by. Oak rafts had to be floated by the 
latest material and the ends grubbdd and withed to the traverses, and 
were not loaded an. In narrow creeks timber or logs had to be driven 



138 Hi:.TORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

loose, groit care beingj taken m prevent jams. This was a long piece 
Cfossinp; from bank to bank and detainm^- all behind it. Sometimes a 
pteee had to be cut to let the lo^s free, and it was not very safe, but the 
best had to be done. In the early times when the timber was growing 
near the river or on level lands, oxen cOuId draw it on a crotch from the 
stump to the ice, but when it had to be brought a distance horses were 
better. A bob-sled, with a bunk on the back or middle beam, and the 
piece was drawn with one end on tlie bunk arid the other on the road. 

In course of time Mr. Robert Frascr of Cunberland, a man of gen- 
ius, proposed to use a sleigh at each end. P e had to fight the battle 
that every reformer and inventor ha\e to fi>^hr. 7 lie lumberers were 
very Conservative and proposed the usual difficulties of filling hollows, 
levelling r»ads. He met them all, by the consideration of the use of 
draught with two or three or four pieces for one. An old lumberer at 
Lochabar saw the improvement at first description and adopted it. Mr. 
Robert Kenny of Aylmer and his son j fell in with it. The Hurdman 
family, his brothers-in-law took it up and the timber hauling was revolu- 
tionized. But the time of square timber was passing into that of logs 
and sawed lumber. The bobs were made with short runners six inches 
wide shod with steel and slid on the snow leaving scarcely a mark. A 
pair of horses are said to draw four pieces of one hundred feet each as 
eayily as one piece of the four dragging on the road; that would be on 
the old reckoning ten tons. Mr. Fraser did not get half the credit he 
merited for his discovery. For as we happen to know well he is a man 
of intellectual pith and power and possessed of good principles and has 
raised a family that we believe will do him credit. One of his sons has 
made an impression as a scholar and close student now in the Queen's 
University, Kingston. 

Some say the Gowers took their name from their forrhs, others from 
.some English nobleman, which is more probable, but of very little con- 
sequence. Lumberers were the first settlers, others followed as the way 
opened and they could secure their lands. Lumber was the chief source 
of wealth all over the land. Pota.sh followed from the land clearing, the 
labor in both cases being very well rewarded. The Rideau formed one 
boundary of the township. The survey of Marlboro made by de Pen- 
sier twenty five years before, fixed its southern limit. The settlements 
were made from different points at first and it is said the pioneers lived 
for years on their new lands before the people of one settlement became 
acquainted with those of another, from isolation and the dense woods 
between. Those making timber within hearing of the great pines they 
cut, made their first acquaintance in the Quebec market selling their 
lumber, or at their meeting on the river sailing down to market. Shanty 
roads, those cut for the lumbering, were their only roads for years, ex- 
cept the rivers for canoes and boats in summer. At the junction of 
Stephens' Creek with the Rideau, the first land was taken up by Richard 
Garlick, viz : Lot 24, on the 1st Concession. Then beside him Sabra 
Beams. 1 and Stephen Blanchard, all of U. £- L. descent, settled down 
on their lands after lumbering two years from 1820 before bringing in 
Ack families. Rev. Peter Jones, a retired Methodist preacher, aad 
Annie Eastman, his wife, of U. E. L extraction, drew lands at the site 
of th€ future village of North Gower, built a shanty that was his home, 



T HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 139 

9cIm(^, and charch. He cleared land and cropped it, taught school and 
neeaehed, the audience room being his own shanty. The shanty wasa 
fine scooped building with ornamental corners, the floor planks of split 
basswooa/ The attendance at church and day school was thin. 

The Garlick settlement claimed the first schoolhouse, scooped log, 
and respectable, and taught by a Mr. Gove, an American. Their nearest 
neigh^-'ors were the people of Burritt's Rapids on one side, and Rich- 
mond on the other. The next schoolhouse was both school and 
preaching house, built near Mr. Jones', where a Mr. Hazleton, who was 
very lame, said to be fit for nothing else, taught for years. Perhaps his 
infirmity was neither his f<iult nor detrimental to his calling- He may 
not have been a "lame teac'rer." The boy said to his mother, "There is 
Dick, the lame preacher," w ho hearing it, corrected him by saying : "No 
it's lame Dick, the preacher." A lame foot or a wry neck in a Prince, 
though unfortunate, would not militate against his claims to royalty. 
Hazleton got twenty-five pounds a year, and ''board round with the 
scholars." This was then considered a good remuneration. Sometimes 
farmilies were put to somewhat of a disadvantage in those days when 
first coming out to this country. An emigrant family purchasing irom 
a settler. had to live with the out-going family for weeks in a shant}-, i8 
by 24 feet in a single apartment. 

The lumberers and their hands soon discovered the quality of the 
lands, and settlements follow ed. The river was the boundary of North 
Gawer on one side, and the .survey of the town line on the norih of 
Marlboro in the end of the last century marked out another- De Pen- 
sier had been the first surveyor, followed by Steadman, who laid out 
several townships around. Roads by which supplies were got to the 
shanties and timber road.s connecting shanties with rivers and creeks, 
were long their only Toads. Many brothers of the Eastmans settled in 
the township and built the first steam mill. Two of these brothers were 
killed with some of tlur .nen by the explosion of the boiler of the mill 
engine. Between 1822 and 1826 the Ewans, Christies, Covall.s, Mains, 
Myers, Clar-kes, Ca.ssidays, Wallaces, came. Beaman brought with him 
Snay, Hazleton and Riclly- Mr. William Thompson had come to 
iSouth Gower in 1817 and in 1826 came tO'North Gower. After residing 
some time here he visited oK! Scotland and sailed in the first steamer 
ever b'lilt on the Clyde. He had to bring from the South Gower his 
neighbors to help him to raise a frame barn, so few were the settlers 
around him: When he moved in, there Was neither school nor church, 
m^l nor smithy, store nor postoffice nearer than Richmond on the one 
side or Burritt's Rapids ou the other. 

James Lindsav came in 1829. Mr. Lindsay Vi'as born in Lanarkshire, 
Scotland in 1802. His father, brothers arid sistcrp, a very numerous 
family, settled in R^insay. James went to a store in Ogdensburg, N. Y.; 
where he soon showed business capacit>, was well likcil and respected. 
The firm was so j^eased with his management, business capacities and 1 
powers, that they built a stare in Waddir.-.^ion, east of Ogdensburg on 
«be St. Lawrence, and sent him there, au.-i he uade them profit for some 
yeArs- Tl.e village and surroundings, a br^e Scotch settlement, ,7.<ept 
jjheir coniiccKons ecclesiastical wiin the ch'.irch in Canada for a long 
time ana with great reluctance biok^ ii up to connect witii the American 



HO HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Presbyterian church, had their ministers Mr. Morrison and then Mr. 
Robinson from Canada. The proclamation of free grants of lands by 
Go\ ernor Simcoe, a:id the building of the Rideau canal created an anx- 
iety in people to visit the country through which the navigation was to' 
be opened. Mr. James Lindsay came and explored, then considering 
that it would be a rising place, and determined to take part in its ad- 
vancement, came with his wife and one child in the year 1831. He 
built what has long been known as Lindsay's wharf, and in connection 
with keeping the wharf he betook himself to farming with perseverance. 
The property lies south of Wellington and Steven's Creek. • All his fanfi- 
ily except the eldest were born in Narth Gower. Of his four sons one 
is a merchant in Manotick, another' a merchant in Kars. Two are farm- 
ers. One still looks after the wharf One of his daughters is Mrs. W. 
T. Pierce of Marlboro. The other is Mrs. T. Martin of Kars. He lived 
to be 88 years of age and is buried in North Gower at the Presbyterian 
church close by the old home. 

Rev. DavJd Evans first attended to tho Presbyterians in these parts, 
and Rev. John Flood to the Episcopalians, bdth living at Richmc'nd. At 
the disruption the people allied thenm.selves with the Free Church. Wil- 
liam Thompson died at the age of 96. His son Gilbert became an elder 
and took an active interest in the Free Church. We often supplied them 
while a mere boy preacher and was entertained hospitably hy Mr. G. 
Thompson. He was not very fond of read sermons, and told us of an 
old Scotch elder who wished much to cure his minister of the fault, so as 
he found the minister coming in to visit him, rushed to the table- and 
began to look at the words of Isaiah. Well. John, said the minister 
what do I find you at ?■"' Prophesying, sar. "Oh! John you are only 
reading the prophet." Ah ! then if you call it preaching when you are 
reading it off your paper, I may call it prophesying when reading the 
prophet. Mr. Thompson was in fair worldy circumstances, but a good 
man and much happier than the worldling. After some years. Rev. W. 
Lockhead organized the church, and was succeeded by Mr. McKiblon, 
and he by Mr. Stewart, who was succeeded by Mr. Lochead the present 
pastor. Their first Methodist minister was Mr. Jones, then Mr. Farr, 
then Mr. Williams, but one cannot give the succession without searching 
up their records; they change so often one is tempted to quote the lan- 
guage of a young lady wit when asked what was her native place, said 
she had no native place. She was the daughter of ,a Methodist 
preacher. 

Some school teachers got £2^ a year and board around. Such as 
hailed from the Emerald Isle were deeply immersed in the mysteries of 
arithmetic. Hathaway was the name of another who wielded the 
birch, governing the motions and manners, as well as moulding the no- 
tions and minds of ih ; youths of both sexes. The country seemed un- 
healthy for some years. Some died of small-pox, many of ague, which 
seems to have been very acute. The flooding of many parts of the Ri- 
deau by so many dams connected with docks on the canal, which killed 
the trees, caused so much deconaposition of vegetable material, produc- 
ing malaria of a marked type. A number suffered long and some suc- 
cumbed to the disease, for instance, Reilly. Then remedies were little 
known, nor readily applicable in districts with few physicians, and so 



' HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. I4r 

thmly peopled. Quirilne, sulphate of iron, capsicum, were rarely within 
reach and not well known at that early time. The road from Richmond 
landing to Richmond village had been recently cut out connecting By- 
town with Richmond. The road from Chapman's past Capt. Collins and 
the Do,v settlement on the left bank of the Rideau, was opened and pas- 
sible. The road from N^w Edinburgh by Cummin^s' Bridge and Bil- 
lings' Bridge on the right bank of the Rideau to Capt. Wilson's and 
through Kemptville and Spencerville to Prescott was travelled, whichi is 
nearly saying enough for it as horses in the saddle could get over it, but 
the waggon wheels went deeper tban was desirable in so many places, 
ditching being in its infancy, clearings very small and few, and so much 
of the country if not swampy at, least very leve.l in thick woods. Earlier 
the road from Burritt's Rapids to Kemptville had been opened and a 
scow ferry at the latter was available for crossing- The road through 
Marlboro by Pierce's to Kemptville was not such deep mud and was 
opened to Stevens' Creek and round a number of large swamps .and by 
Brownlee's to Richmond. 

There was now in the estimation of the people of those days good 
open communication between the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa on both 
sides of the Rideau. Before Bytown was thought of or Col. By had 
come to the countrj', Richmond was a village, the important centre of a 
new settlement, with hundreds of people, officers and men of the army, 
with Col. Burke, the Crown land agent, for the benefit and convenience 
of the settlers. A road was opened through the long swamp to Jackson 
Stitts' who was a soldier, and this road was prolonged as the third line of 
Huntley to the Chats. Hugh Bell's was connected with Stittsville by 
Robertsons and what is now Hazledcan, though far from pleasant for man 
or beast, from the tough, thick, soft blue clay. But they v/ere a vast im- 
provement on the original blaze with a tree across a creek, which had 
served hitherto for the most daring as well as the most delicate of our 
rural population to cross where the wading was too deep for eomlort, 
profit or pleasure. The lands are not too level but dry and fit for tillage. 
The creeks are snia 1 except Stevens' and no lakes or pond of any note. 
Does this in any w ay account for the entire absence of Baptists or river 
brethren in that locality ? The Methodists, Episcopalians and Presby- 
terians seemed to ab.'^f>rb the inhabitants as there are very few of other 
denominations in the townsiiin. 

it was now expected that Richmond having open connection with 
the siirrounding settlements so fast filling up, would soon become a city, 
or at least a town of some magnitude-. It had so many army officers 
and men of genius, intelligence and wealth, maintaining order, discipline , 
and activity; the results were not fully realized. It failed to attract 
business people and to grow. Lumber absorbed the attention of every 
oac, clearings enlarged and crops were raised, hay, oats, pork aT>d flour, 
with the lumber maket in view. Some fine houses have been recently 
erected, but the place looked nearly as well fifty years age »s to-day. 
There were some very energetic men among its early inhabitants. The 
Lyons, Mallochs, Hintons, Maxwells, Wilsons, McElroys and many 
ethers made their mark. Besic' -s these were many very successful farn>- 
ers in the environs of the young village. There were many hangers on 
amdi hard drinkers, men tlwt never come to ranch anywhere. They 



T42 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. j 

worship wealth and the shadows of greatness, bask in the smi'c "of the 
great copy in a crude way their frivolities, and when their little ignoble 
race is run, they leave an example worthy of execration and are soon 
forgotten. Bytown grew slowly but went on without a boom, and but 
for the degradation from the drinking habits would have riseri far above 
its attainments. Rum-sellers never rise to the dignity of respectability. 
No country can prosper that legislates to enrich the few at the expense 
of the many, or ever rise to a place of eminence- For the riches are 
obtained on principles of immorality and the possessors lie under the 
curse of the Lord that is in the house of the thief. 

How can money, made by selling drink, do good? How can money 
made by fraud and injustice, thrive, increase and do good to its )90sses- 
sors ? Society should put down the business of fraud in every form it 
takes, should refuse to employ men that drink, should refuse to elect not 
merely dishonest politicians but doubtful ones. Rulers profess great 
interest in education, but they would reduce our best systems to barbar- 
ism if permitted. Their places and emoluments are more to them than 
all else. The people deserve it, they are so pleased to be imposed on. 
Then we have the cry of the necessity of religion in the schools. We do 
need it there as it is so left out of the homes and only scientifically 
touched in thechurches. But the so-called godly schools send forth the 
worst samples. We will have no education worth the name till a reno- 
vation is experienced in the family, and youths are trained to love truth 
and honesty instead of the young reprobates they now are, destroying 
property for their vicious amusement. There are some educated 
thinkers that are beneficial to their kind, others are ingeniously contriv- 
ing the ways of imposing heavier burdens on the people, already galled 
with the weight of their yoke. Our cities are overloaded with paupers 
or idlers, so that with our extravagance in education, the many are un- 
able to bear it, and the few keep them, deluded by very many ways and 
means. Our governments in city and country are a terror to well-doers. 
Richmond had two half yearly Fairs established at an early period, that 
were of signal service to all the farmers around, as they could there buy 
and sell cattle, sheep and horses to great advantage. 

Towards evening these Fairs became the most noisy when fists and 
sticks and whip handles were freely used. Often the portly form of 
Father Smith, with or without a horse, but seldam without? whip, which 
he did not scruple to use in cases of necessity, (that were not few), but he 
managed to scatter those who delighted in war. Bytown was infested 
at the same time with the Shiner tribes under the same curse of whiskey. 
These gentlemen were em-ployed in the lumber trade and during their 
visits here in summer with their rafts, and in winter to hire and go to the 
woods made no end of broils and quarrels at the bottom of all which 
was the liquor. We have seen accounts of these people written by those 
who never saw one r,f them, declaring them to be Orangemen, which 
they never were, but their antagonists. We had a treat to an account of 
them uniting Willi Orangmen to kill off tlie French Canadians, a state- 
ment whicli the Great Stretcher himself could hardly equal. One in 
sober reason asks why such unhlushing contradictions of facts can be 
harbored in an)' rational mind, iioi; to .say jiet into print. The Shiners 
u'ere raftsmen generally from ihe Emerald Isle, who were capable of a 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 143 

pretty good fight when half drunk, or as they said, "three sheets in the 
wind" They were a terror for years to people going to mar :ct in town. 
They were at enmity with the Canadian French nearly as much as with 
the Protestant fellow craftsmen, wishing the monopoly of the' shanty 
business to be in their own hands, if that had been a possibility. These 
two races or the portions of them, not the most remarkable for their up- 
bringing, with a sood sprinkling of rather loose Protestants, kept the 
place in a state of turmoil for years. Men and even horses carried for 
life the marks of these entertainments. An old horse of the redoubtable 
Dan Hobbs had both ears cropped and could be seen for many years 
after the quarrelling had been put down,, by the force and strong hand of 
the law in some cases. There is yet room for improvement in these 
places. Drunkenness has diminished but lying has greatly increased. 
How about dishonesty ? North Gower was not so much exposed to 
drink and rowdyism. Its villages were of a much later formation. Edu- 
cation was better attended to at an early date. The settlements were 
formed later. Men with better principles formed the basis of society, 
and there was less dregs among the strictly farming classes, than where 
so much promiscuous business was necessarily carried on. The lands 
were a little more rolling than other piarts and so were dry and ready 
early for planting when clearings were small, and little of the forests was 
'■^claimed. These lands were very productive. 

The village of North Gower, one of the pretty villages of the town- 
ship, was at the first begun by; Mr. Johnston who 07ened a store and 
hotel, that for years he conducted with vigor and success. This induced 
others to get lots and build. Very soon there were carpenter, black 
smith, shoemaker shops in fine form and plenty of employment for 
workmen. Mr. Andrews, one of several brothers, introduced tin and 
sheet iron business, which, to the advantage of all, he has conducted 
with persevering success. The postoffice was early started, then a tele- 
graph office, town hall, chefese factory, school and church accommoda- 
tion has kept pace with the growth and requirements of the place. The 
churches, Methodist, Presbyterian and Episcopal are all respectable 
buildings, suited to tlie wants of the com.munit3', and in keeping with 
thfeir means and general wealth. , The Methodists had greatly the start 
in this township. Rev. Peter Jones among the fir.st settlers preached to 
them, baptized the children, married the young people, securing the first 
and strongest claims on their attentions and affections. Rev. Mr. Farr 
first travelled the circuit, followed by Rev. Mr. Williams. The brethren 
in Huntley called him the blacksmith. His nam_e sounds of Welsh ex- 
traction. His father worked in the business. The trade in Wales was 
very respectable, ^hich every trade ought to be when properly con- 
ducted. Human pride drives men to disdain a lawful calling. Pride is 
dangerous, degrading and debasing the soul. It is of the Wicked One, 
was'not made for man. The blacksmith made t'le weapons of war, aad 
in princely banquets and fe.sti\als his seat was nea.r those of the king and 
queen. TheW'elsh were a sensible people. A good blacksmith is better 
than a bad king or a bad clergymen. , Pride is deeply bedded in fallen 
humanity. The prouder they are the less they have to be proud of. 
Governors, nn-i s ers and multitudes use this moSt objectionable term. 
In most of its applications gratitude would surely be preferable on tihe 



144 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. 

Kps of a ruler or from the sacred desk. The new woman was holding 
forth that when they got the reigns in their hands there would be no 
bribery.* at elections and they would have a fair 'count'. Her boy 
brother asked in bis innocence : "Would not a fair 'duke' suit some of 
you as well ?" Some clergymen are recommending to their brethren 
the religion of Shakespeare, and even caricatures of the religious experi- 
ence of his pious countrymen and women by Ian McLaren, are strongly 
recommended to ministers, as well as Dickens and Thackeray, and many 
others quite as pious as these, so that if our young ministers follow these 
exhortations, what noble samples of piety our pulpits will soon exhibit ? 
Welshes, Rutherfords and McGhines ! 

After Mr. Evans left for Kitley's Corners and the people of North 
Gower espoused the cause of the Free Church. The Thompson brothers 
and sisters took, a very active part and great interest in the little strug- 
gling station that could get only partial supplies, generally voluntary 
services, rendered by members of Presbytery. Congregations then wil- 
liagiy sent their ministers tv/o to four Sundays in the three months be- 
tween meetings of Presbytery. Home missionaries were so few as to be 
rardy available. These supplies though only keeping the places from 
Mtter destitution, were received with gratitude lay the people. The 
meetings were well attended. Gilbert Thompson entertained the preach- 
ers, as w-e weH remember staying with him often. The proper organiza- 
tion of the Ptesbyterians into a congregation was by the Rev. W. Lock- 
bead at Gower Corners before it could be called a village. Wellington 
and Osgoode stations were united with it as a congregation. The first 
birth in the township was in the family of Peter Jones. The first mar- 
riage is in dispute. Some say Hugh Mcintosh and Rhoda Eastman. 
Others say Levi Eastman and Margaret Buchannan by Rev. P. Jones, 
was the first in the township. The other couple went to live at Merrick- 
vHle. The Eastmans were ntttnerous. 

The Beaman family was large, sevel-al of whom lost their lives by a 
boSer exf^osion JH their steam' mill. Several of their hands were killed, 
at the same time. It was a great wreck, a lamentable affair. There 
w^ few settlers up to 1824, between that and 1828. The Christies, 
McEwans, C«>vells, Cassidays, Qarkes, Wallaces, Mains, Myers came in 
and fiHed ap tke place and assisted much in its progress and general early 
devciopnvent. Wellington village on the left bank of the Rideau and 
north of Stevens' Creek has a respectable appearance, a fine site, a little 
rolling with a pretty sheet of water on its east side, between Lindsay's 
whaK and the bridge. Recently, an iron span has been put into the 
wooden bridge, greatly improving it for the communication with Os- 
geode. The common country roads here are good with the finest farms 
stretching out on every side. In business this village has had neither 
boom nor stagnancy. Its situation is such tl^at its increase and growth 
can hardly conflict with the development of other places, occupying a 
kind of central position from North Gower village, Mmotick, Richmond, 
Osgoode .station, Kemptville and Burritt's Ranids. Its environs are fa- 
vorable to its enlargement, and itsshippinq; facilities far exceed most of 
its neighbors. In m,unicipal affairs the Cr.iigs, Callandars, Coles, Lind- 
"Hys, Fentons, McEwans, Ari-ircws, Wallafces, Hartwells, Blakeleys, 
I!a«gs, Mackeys, Ronaii.s, Grahams, and many others have been very 



OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 145 

fam?Tiar Rames iBgwing on their rcAh for many years past The vShge 
of Manotick, the indtao name for Long Island, is the youngest of tlie 
villages. It occupiefs the con»ers of four townships. OsgooAe, Glooces- 
tcr and Nepean have each a portion birt North Grower the greatest part. 
It ©wes little to any of them. Qothier seemed the chief occupant of the 
Isiand, but did nothing to help the village till M. K. Dickenson, who 
found but o«€ log house on the lower part of the Island, came and pur- 
chased the place. He was a vigorous member of the Forwarding Co^, 
»t Ottawa before he sat for Carleton in the House of Commons, or went 
to build his little city- He is grandson of the pioneer gentleman, who 
l*"^ ^go gave his name to Dickenson's Landing at the Rapids on the 
St. Lawrence- He has been Mayor of our city and was always a man 
of success. His village is three miles from the Manotick station and 
about fifteen miles from the city. 

The other inhabitants of the south ef the Island, Tighes and Dough- 
Beys, did not take to town building. The place is fine for business and 
growth. The Presbyterian minister. Rev. James Whyte, labored here 
for some time and died here. Rev. Mr. Findlay is the present pastor. 
He came from Cantley and Portland. Mr. Dickenson's energy, enter- 
prise and wealth drew others to the place, so that he is the source of its 
progress and business activity. Tree planting has not found much favor 
yet in North Gower but it will. Dr. Johnston is said to have written to 
soeae of the few papers of his time, after a visit to Edinburgh, how ab- 
swrd it was for the Scotch to talk of hanging their criminals on trees; that 
be had not seen one between that city and the Tweed big enough to 
suspend a good sfeed boy on. The landed proprietors stoutly denied his 
statements, bat begaa to pkmt profusely, and very soon the highways 
and farms were fringed on their borders with whatever would grow of 
oak, ash, yew, spruce, larch, birch and pine down to the poplar aiid syca- 
nKjre of the vale. What a revolution to witness ! It is still told by the 
very old pcop4e that in those fine old times the criminal was mercifuHy 
permitted to erajoy the melancholy satisfaction of choosing the beautiful 
tree he was to adorn, dancing for a while with nothing under his feet. 
Oae young hopeful, when conducted by his faithful attendants to the ' 
^appy spot, is said to have chosen a very young one, a mere twig; when 
femo«strated with by his friends to choose a fitter one for the purpose, 
as that was but a rod, and too young to bear his weight, stuck firmly to 
his choice assuring them that he was in wo hurry and would wait with 
becoming patience till it grew up- 

They should try the planting of trees in these parts for though we 
have not dreamed of their being used for such base and ignoble purposes 
as stated above, yet they may be found very useful before the end of 
the next century. They wfll fill up a gap widening every ye.ar between 
the demand and the supply- This yawnmg and widening must continue 
untathe aluminum age is reached, when it will take the place of iron, 
tin and lumber. As it is about the specific gravity of heavy hardwood, 
it could be rolled as thin as sheet iron ©r tin naiied to studding, o'ltside 
and msiuc, making the most beautiful walk, partitions and the roofing 
for flat roofs on girders of the same metal; even doors, can be made of it. 
And by that titae we will have glass, tw'oand-one-half or three inches 
thick for windows, or even dcorsj which the well-bred boys from our 



146 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEt. I 

most Christian schools, will not be able to smash without putting them- 
selves to too much labor. What would transpire then; when our rapids 
and great falls have furnished light, heat and locomotion, dismissing the 
horse and cultivating the soil, perhaps propelling our bicycles to rest our 
feet ? They 'will serve for ornament and cooling shade, attracting show- 
ers, arresting and breaking the force of wind currents, breathing out 
oxygen in the summer sunshine, exhaling nitrogen in the darkness to 
feed other plants, enriching the air andtheearth, dividing the "lights.and 
shades, whose well accorded strife gives all the strength and color of our 
life;" diffusing health, pleasure and beauty all around. 

In all these parts the school actommodation is adequate to the de- 
mand and the increase of the population. The subject of education 
should hold a much higher place in the minds of parents than it has at- 
tained to. It is useless to call the attention of the clergy to it for they 
have too much to do to keep the attention of the people away from their 
own neglects of study by contriving meetings for every night — boy. 
meetings, girl meetings, old women meetings, old men meetings, Chris- 
tian Endeavor Societies, Christian associations that are sometimes secu- 
lar under a fine name. Then, a subject so popular with legislatures and 
with the clergy; the workingman, his long hours and low wages. Did 
they give themselves to the training of the young in the principles of 
Christianity, they would have to learn it themselves and leave their popu- 
lar subject, and the people might seek or go into other denominations, 
and their salaries take the dry rot. ' People are allowed to neglect their 
children, to hand them over to professional Sunday school teachers, 
whose theology is the latest fad, picked up in these Christian gatherings, 
where even preachers rail at old theology, and eulogize the descent of 
man, or, the ascent of man, or the second probation, or the injustice of 
eternal punishment. All heathen. Pagan and Mohammaden nations 
hate Christianity, as many hate in Christian nations, and would with fire 
and sword rid the earth of it if they were able. Their conduct, is enough 
to make Christian blood boil and indignation overflow in denunciations, 
when they restrain bullets and shells. 

There are professing Christians who would affect to be shocked if 
you expressed a doubt in their hearing, of the final Salvation of the 
bloodiest Kurd, coming from butchering old women and young infants 
in Armenia. They practice what they preach, professing the salvation 
of the heathen, they save their money from all missionary fads, leaving 
the Creator of these natural brute beasts to do with them as he pleases. 
The Greek church in Russia denounces and persecutes the Riscolnicks 
dissenters. The Catholics doubt the salvation of Protestants. Many 
Protestants, alas, pay them back. Some make a hobby of some rite 
to be observed after a particular manner or form. Others cling to some 
■ form of ordination or appointing its ministers. Some hang to theories 
about the rights, duties and powers bf the civil magistrate. Others for or 
against lay patronage. Some delight in talkative meetings. Others in 
the frisky tramp, the fife and drum. What, a pretty figure the human 
family cnts at present on the face of the world ! How disgraceful to its 
name ! Teachers are becoming extra\agant in cities, and the outlay on 
then^^ is becoming burdensome for wHac they give in return. The press 
is beginning to speak freely on it in Toronto and elsewhere. The 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. I47 

CTrtravagance m kgtshition, m the executive, m the administration of the 
laws, the Board of Works, everywhere, that the means of living to the 
most is g^atly diminished. There is hardly a day of the week that 
there is not a beggar at my door, some days several. Politicians have 
cried up the working man so high that he regards himself as 99 precious 
that he cannot work on a farm but at a wage ruinous to the farmer, who 
is now resolving to work less land and do without them. Then the cities 
are crowded and no work of any note worth the outlay. Th. v abhor 
soup kitchens, but would do useless snow shovelling well. T ere are 
many who are not parasites, whose hundreds arid thousands are not 
filched out of the people's pockets, who are oppressed to keep up the 
parasites in the persons of cheating, renters, extortionate rates, or empty 
tenements, a property that w-ill not sell as there are no buyers, and popu- 
lation is being thinned out of city and country. 

' Now a good education would do good to our rising youth, but judg- 
ing from a number of samples we meet in the city, that education has 
been thrown away on, and has made them much worse than the most 
ignorant in the land. Our police force is like that of Montreal or New 
York. They can worry and annoy peaceable citizens, but cannot make 
an arrest of rowdies, for that would break the record of their measured 
tramp, and no moderate policehian would so disgrace himself. We sup- 
pose cities in their wisdom keep these forces, not because they are useful, 
but ornamental, and people will pay well for an ornament. We now 
remember a young teacher, Mr. Fannen, who impressed us ©n our first 
visit to his school. He was the right man. We asked him to hold^a 
public examination en a fixed day. Many teachers came. The ex- 
amination passed oiif so satisfactorily that the j^oung teachers that were 
present saw fit to take hints from his plans and methods, and in three 
months evidences of improvement in the schools were visible. 

The Hares, Bells, Watsons, Grahams and others were trained there. 
One of the Hares is at the head of a fine ladies' college at Whitby. One 
was an esteemed professor in Guelph Agricultural College. His widow, 
quite young yet, Hves near by, and her brother, Dr. Graham, is a very 
distinguished and successful man in the South. Another brother is a 
partner of Bryson in the dry goods business, etc. Mr. John Robertson 
of Bells Corners wished for a man that could train two of his grandsons 
for commercial life. He proposed to give in addition to the salary of 
the section what he would have to pay for the board of the boys in the 
city, for the satisfaction of having them under his own inspection- We 
sent him the man who taught there nearly a quarter of a century, training 
a multitude for high positions in the business of society and the world. 
Several of his boys are doing business in the city among whom we may 
mention Mr. E. B. Brown on Sparks street, and Mr. F._A. Scott on Wel- 
lington street, the Messrs. Arnold, retired; Mr. Moody, blacksmith; Baker 
and his brother, Mr. Moody the undertaker and others, besides many 
enterprising farmers around Bells Corners. Many of the young ladies 
trained in these schools have taken high and honorable positions in the 
community. Teachers should encourage pupils to collect and bring with 
them to school botanical specimens, so many days in the month for 
comparison and general information in that department They could 
]miy under contribution grasses, -herbs plants, liowers, shrubs, arbours* 



148 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

orchards and forests, as well as fields, meadows and gardens. :To these 
they might add geological specimens in abundance. The thing would he 
a training to the young minds so employed, and lose no time but wake op 
a curiosity in them as well as arouse their powers of observation, com- 
parison and classific.'xtion, that would in time astonish the teacher, and 
be of enduring benefit to all concerned, but especially to the young 
people. 

There should be a little more freedom in the course of education. 
The state of grades is too much like a broken limb set in plaster of paris. 
A boy must take the course or quit the school. Exercises are good but 
most of the great runner?, football players, curlers, etc., have^a "kick in 
their gallop" quite unbecoming scholars not to mention the clergy. How 
many children we meet in the streets wearing glasses. The defect may 
be largely owing to neglect in tempering the light in the home and the 
school to suit them. Or it may arise from not educating the eyes to dis- 
cern the tints and shades in colors, and in the light in their varieties and 
objects, in their varied shapes and forms, a development to the sense of 
sight, a training of no mean significance. People are often set down as 
ignorant, unthinking; few removes from barbarism or the savage state, 
simply from neglect in their early school days; a fault which was cer- 
tainly not so much theirs as of the system that put them in the hands of 
poorly qualified guides. These very people with a little care bestowed 
on them at the proper time would have become ornaments of humanity, 
shedding light, lustre and refinement on large circles of society. 

The child goes to school ivith qualities of mind capable of receiving 
treasures of learning, stores of information without which the soul, could 
not, well, could hardly at all, exercise its uncommon, its wonderful en- 
dowments- The manifest use of education is to enable us to improve 
our powers, to properly use the wealth at our disposal for the best of 
purposes, self-government and the perfect control of all our faculties, 
capacities, powers and endowments- These are the opposite of empty- 
hoadedness. Stores of facts treasured up in mind and memory, to be 
held in readiness for future use, when called up by the power of the as- 
sociation of our ideas. But this requires time, attention, application, 
memorising. No royal rdad. to learning has yet been discovered. At 
least none has been set open to the race by the greatest geniuses it has 
ever brought forth. To have the right kind of teachers in the schools, 
the proper teachers in the church, might suppose judicious parents "to 
keep children under proper control at home, to communicate information 
of the genuine stamp, in the most winning manner, at the most season- 
able period, when the young mind is in the mood and season of investi- 
n'atioti, with the brain flexible, the imagination budding into open activity, 
the memory retentive, and circumstances favorable for giving the start 
ir, the safe direction in. early youth, and keep undeviatingly on the true 
path in early manhood, so preparing to bear the best fruit in old 
age, t!»*t in our brief passage across this globe, we may compel the testi- 
rsony thoit we have done good as we had opportnnity. Is there a possi- 
bility of <kMng better than by laying op corn in the year? of plenty, 
against the tinie when blasted ears and lean kine, so properly pictarc the 
yemts «f fanakie ? Do we too strongly or elaborately set forth the ad- 
of a oawect, liWral, truthful education ? Its vast importance 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. I49 

is shown and established in so many ways by the necessities of ^ouf na- 
ture which otherwise can never he met or satisfied, that the energies of 
the soul, and the energies of life, should be aroused that it might ? iend 
its forces, its keenest attention, continued industry, its untiring applica- 
tion, to consummate a work so indispensable, so desirable, so profit- 
able. 

If there is a single subject within man's journey across this earth, 
in the description of which, unvarnished truth resembles rhetorical bom^ 
bast, it is that of heaven-originating, heaven-inspiring and heaven-tend- 
ing education. It is the work of a lifetime. We beein it with our first 
impressions and we learn till the last conscious hour of life. Can the 
mind be too early impressed with correct ideas, wisdom, the love of 
truth, when the price thereof is above rubies ? Wealth may cast its eyes 
on another and desert us. The tarnished gold may take wings' and fly 
from us. Diamonds may consume in the fire. But true learning shall 
have an endless reign in earth and Heaven. We can say this in the 
history of this township, which is at least not behind in the work of edu- 
cation. If our words of encouragement could stimulate the youths of 
our valley to reach the highest, brightest, noblest attainments in pure 
correct learning, it would be to us indeed, the highest gratification. 
Words cannot adequately set forth the worth of honesty. No line of 
arg'ument can, with sufficient force, impress its importance on the young 
mind. To secure it early and then hold it fast with all our might, as our 
v«ry life, that we may be able in old age to look back on a career of 
scores of years, spent in a world where there are some rough characters, 
speaking mildly, and be able to challenge them to produce an instance 
or case, in which you have neither cheated, over-reached, nor taken of 
any of them an undue advantage. You may say we have wronged no 
man, we have corrupted no man, we have defrauded no man, and wind 
up with the sublime exclamation, " Yet not I, but the grace of God 
which was within me." Thanks be to God there are some such men on 
the earth. What is there to hinder the millions to enter at an early stage 
on such a course and follow it to the end ? There is more enjoyment to 
youth stored up in cultivating the love of truth and justice, than they 
know of yet. There is nothing but danger and positive dishonor and 
misery in vicCf gambling, the love of lies and the course of the worid. 
Why should youths suffer themselves to be fettered by these, when the 
ennobling gifts of heaven are lield out to them for acceptance? Treasures 
s» rich and imperishable should be the first things secured by our youth 
in the home and school, the first indelible impressions traced on the im- 
mortal mind, the first spiritual indentations made on the immaterial soul. 
Lying and stealing are the most despicable and contemptible traits in 
depraved man, alas, regarded only as defects, because they art. almost 
miiversaL The love of truth planted within, will renovate and raise up 
oor nature trom its ruins, become at once the law of action, bursting our 
chains, -establishing us in erect manhood, and giving, to our words and 
actions the ring of the true metal. The opposite course may be ex- 
pressed in the words of the poet: "Tyranny sends the chain that must 
abridge the noble sweep of all their privilesjes ; t>ives libeity the last, the 
ne«tal ^ock, slips the slave's collar on and surfp's the lock." Our young 
be trained to ^peak truth one with anothci, and co be honest. 



I$0 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Mariboro lies southwest of North Gower and southeast of Goulboum 
aad is bounded on the southwest by Montague, in Lanark, and divided 
from Oxford on the southeast by the Rideau. A line drawn <frora its 
southern point northward to Graham's Bay, would cut the county into 
two almost equal parts. The best land in the township lies in two belts 
one on the river bank, the other along the line of North Gower. The 
Rideau belt was first settled by the adventurous sons of New England, 
who preferred loyalty to George III. to the new republic of the thirteen 
colonies under the Stars and Stripes. Surveyor Steadman seems to 
have surveyed or laid out its bounds, running its concessions parallel with 
the Rideau stream. Mr. Depencier appeared earlier than' Steadman, 
who served under him. These U. E. L. gentlemen at that time must 
have had some acqaintance with the Jamaica, for they report having had 
a five gallon vessel with them to soften down and overcome the hard- 
ness df the work. A large part of the township is a flat rock bottom 
with a covering of earth rather light for deep ploughing. The survey of 
most of the place was made between 1790 and 1800. 

I" 1793 three brothers, Burritt, came and took up land along the 
bank of the river. They were refugees from Connecticut and became 
the founders of the Biirritt's Rapids village and surrounding settlements 
of Marlboro. Mr Hard was with the Burritts in the army, lost his father 
in the war under General Burgoyne, commander on the side of the Brit- 
ish. The Burritt family had divided like the Irish Hamiltons for King 
James and King William; some fought for others against the Revolution. 
Whatever king was victor the Hamilton estates were safe, and the others 
eould be reconciled or pardoned, not exactly so with the Burritts. They 
all drew lands and farmed the Marlboro settlement, before Philemon 
Wright had explored the Chaudiere Falls, or any white man had cut a 
stick around its seething, foaming waters. We hdve heard from old 
people, or read in letters Lrjwn with age, of the influence of the Burritts 
ia those old times. They were a kind of rulers. Their monarchy of 
course was limited, as no white man was on the north of their commun- 
ity, except the servants of the Hudson Bay Co. If the multitude of 
people is the wealth of the king, their kinghood was small. They were 
highly respectable men, and if not bloated with riches, they were 
scholarly or capable of it, as their friend the learned blacksmith, , Elihu 
Burritt, undoubtedly was. 

Brockville was their nearest market, a small place then, and Prescott 
a mere hamlet. The tameless savage roamed through the pathless 
forest, or paddled his light canoe on lake and stream, but of white men 
they were the most advanced. Woodlands covered the sites of Hull 
and Ottawa, and the lumber for our prettiest and most superb dwellings, 
as well as the clierry, walnut, ash and the curly -maple for our choicest 
furniture, were then in the live trees. Much of their visiting to maricet 
and store had to be made on foot. ' Or if Montreal or Kingston was to 
I be reached, the' light canoe or bateaux must do the work. We have 
been told of extreme cases where dry cedar logs formed a crib on which 
to cross the Ottawa. George Graham told of losing his paddle in his 
fierce fight with mosquitoes, and was then compelled to fold his coat 
under hLs chin, and, lying flat on his face, paddled the rest of the way 
with his hands, fearing every moment a wind rising to blow him some 



^HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 151 

ether way, or off his crib if the waves rose high. Perhaps some of these 
narrations were gotten up to excite or minister to the marvellous in Our 
wondering minds, who were inexperienced in such strange incidents. In 
1796 Mr. Butler and Richard Olmsted, brothers-in-law, Americans, but 
not U- E. L's., hearing of the valuable lands offered in free grants by 
Governor Simcoe's proclamation, which was told all over the Mohawk 
Valley, came and settled down to make their fortune in the new country. 
A canny Scotchman, David Grant, girded himself to the task like hun- 
di-eds of his countrymen that came into the Hudson Bay' Company's 
service, came and settled down to farming in the year 1798. 

Burnside, Lacey, Norton and Fisher were all that came for about a 
dozen years. The small community went on clearing, building, fencing 
and improving, and as they had little or no trouble with the Indians, who 
were generally peaceable, they had nothing t® disturb tiieir peaceful 
years. In 1799, if the report be correct, Stevens and Merrick went to 
explore the Chaudiere, with heads full of notions of mill sites, but were 
in doubt whether the place would attract settlers. This is the Stevens 
said to have been drowned in Stevens' Creek. Merrick returned from 
the Ottawa to settle ontheRideau Falls and found Merrickville. The 
Burritts and Hurds became captains, colonels and lieut-colonels in the 
militia, that in all the townships of the county were in a measure organ- 
ized and ready to be called to do service if necessity arose. Some of the 
young men of the country fell in the service or died of wounds received 
in battle. Municipal honors were conferred freely on these early hardy 
settlers, though none of them seem to have cared for parliamentary 
honors, which were alike open to them. Dr. Church, M. P., father of 
the popular Dr. Clarence Church of Ottawa, and brother of Peter H. 
Church, M. D., of Aylmer, resided in these parts. Clarence married the 
beautiful Miss Larue. The late Judge Church of Montreal, was born at 
Aylmer and was very popular in his short life. The Burritts and Hurds 
ruled many townships for many years. 

Marlboro was top heavy with Justices of the Peace. Officers and 
U. E. Loyalists generally got the appointment. It pleased them and did 
n» great harm to the people. The Government of that day thought it 
good to multiply these appointments though the qualifications were not 
always up to the mark. These exercised great influence over the new- 
comers Most of these magistrates were of the old Tory policy. So 
were George Washington and most of the members of Congress of his 
time, though they rebelled against' the Government of Britain- Both 
the rebels and the refugees or U. E. L;'s were of the same stripe. To 
oppose either branch of this loyal party was to be a rebel. Of course 
no other party could govern a country. No other party should pretend 
to be a thinker, a scholar, or anyt,hing but mere serfs. 1 Burritts Rapids 
began to rise into the appearance of a village. Mr. French, father-in-law 
of the late Robert Blackburn, Esq., M. P., built the first mills on these 
little rapids that gave so nice a water power. This gave an impulse to 
the business of the little place, supplying lumber an.d milling, but exqept 
in winter on the ice, the crossiiig had to be by ferry, scow, small boat or 
canoe, which was inconvenient. Consultations were held and bridge 
building became the theme of conversation at mills, hotels, and corners, 
and in the homes of the .settlers generally. , Thirty years had come and 



l«ISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

since tke BcHTitts cans* to the place anS it was time abridge shouM 
apan the stream and put their little kingdom in communication with the 
t«fe<s beyond the river. The people must build it by their own sub- 
scriptioas so that all that were interested and able on both sides must 
gpive abeifxng band.ifthe thing was ever to be done. ^ 

In 1834 the first bridge was built on the Rideau by subscription, but ^ 
ti»e Court at Perth gave some assistance. The people soon becdme 
wards of tlfte Government, and everything got in that manner w'as like a 
gift, as if it bad not to be raised indirectly from the people- The muni- 
cipal council became a vast improvement on the old plan. The bridge 
was of immense service to the settlers. People travelled up and down 
tfee river banks to get across with teams. Oxen* were the teams for some 
tifi»e and jumpers the winter sleighs. Some enterprising young fellows 
tiieught they could plough among the s'umps with horses. At first they 
hskrrowed the land with horses, whilst the oxen still did the ploughing. 
The first horses were light and swift for .such work and in contrast with 
the pony built Canadian, known as Yankee horses, though the Ameri- 
cans themselves admit that tlieir best trotters are traced back to Cana- 
dian sires. These again are traced to the Arabs and Barbs of the ages of 
the C«i«ades,, when French, JEnglish and continental Europe were pre- 
ci]»(tated on A.sia, and returned not only with Arab horses but with large 
expeacnce otherwise collected, such as, urbanity of manners, better ac- 
quainta«ce with other branches of the race, the valor of Saracen soldiers 
under such leaders as Salad in 

There was very little attention paid to stock-raising in mediaeval 
Europe, except that the French and English began to cultivate the 
jrace breeds that have in modern times come to such perfection. The 
Canadian horses must have had some strain of the imported Arabs as 
tiiey were fast and very serviceable. They were very moderate priced. 
Thirty dollars would be an average price and forty was counted a high 
price for a fine horse then in Montreal- The first child bom in Marlboro 
was Edmund the son of Stephen Burritt, and the first girl was Harriet, 
(fciughter of Edmund Burritt. These were the first children born in the 
county, which was then the Johnstown district. The Depencier family 
had left but a son returned and Mr. Harris came with him in 1816 and 
settled on lands. Mills from the Richmond colony, and their friends the 
Goods, about two years after located in Marlboro from GouJboum. 

Dempseys, Dunbars and Moores from the same place, up to 182O. 
John Pierce, a genuine Irishman, came in 1826, settled on a beautiful 
plain, but very far from other inhabitants. John Pierce, a son of his, 
was the first Reeve of Marlboro after the municipal act was passed, and 
came into force. They kept hotel from early times, a very respectable 
place to halt, rest and refresh at. Stephen Burritt was the first Justict 
of the Peace. He had authority to celebrate marriage. Mr. Olmsted, 
an American, had come and opened an hotel, and his two daughters, Polly 
and Charlotte, were the first that Burritt united with two Americans, 
Slocum and Seaton. The Mackeys were northern Irish, who came and' 
settled not far from Pierce. One was reeve after Pierce. Some of them 
are Ih Nepean and elsewhere lliey must have been inteiligent aod 
managing peop!(- A son of one faniily in Marlbor® studied for the Pres- 
byterian cWurch, a ver3' pruimsing young man, became a fine sehokir 



I HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. I S3 

wi^ abilities far above mediocrity. His life was brief, not living long 
enough to be settled in a congregation. He was highly -esteemed,- and 
his loss was much regretted by his fellow students as well as friends and 
acquaintances. Reeve Mackey, like his predecessors, was a man of 
talents and ability. 

_ This township was then in advance of perhaps all others in stock- 
raising. , At least they had introduced shorthorns aud were improving 
the common stock by this introduction of new blood. As far back as 
1851, a shorthorn sire was used and sold by auction, the society not 
wishing to keep him too long, Mr. Mackey bought him at a very moder- 
ate price. This news was conveyed by a Mr. Simpson of Golilbourn to 
a Mr. Gourlay-of March, who at once drove up and secured him, Mr- 
Mackey generously handing him over at what he cost him at the sale. 
This fine animal greatly increased the value of stock to these March 
people, who had purchased some of the' same kipd from Didsbery in 
March, be having imported some from England. This was about the 
time John Thompson purchased the Langley st(>ok and James Davidson 
bought the pure white Durham calf from Didsb< ;y that he kept for years 
and then sold tq John Thompson. It afterwards passed into the posses- 
sion of John Clarke, Nepean, and was estimated as having increased the 
valae of stock over ten thousand dollars in thirteen or fourteen years. 
Hon. Thomas McKay had introduced Ayrshires, but the finest animal, of 
that family was brought from the Gilmours, Quebec, calved on the ship 
from Scotland, a savage creature, but the most beautiful that had ever 
appeared at the agricultural exhibitions in the county. 

About 1830 the; Harbesons came. Three gentlemen held the office, 
of town clerk for nearly half a century, Burritt, Johnston and Wiggins. 
After the new municipal act the Reeves were : Pierce, Mackey, Kidd, 
Connor, Mills. ' Most-of the Burritts have gone from their old home. 
One became county registrar in, the city, some are in the woollen busi- 
ness in New Edinburgh. One or two remain in the old homes at the 
Rapids. The Reids, McCordicks, Waldos, came about the finishing of 
the canal. Sowle began the instruction of his neighbor youths in night 
schools. This could only be temporary and about- the year 1822, a 
school house was built of logs of course. This was afterwards purchased 
for a dwelling by Major Campbell and a much better erected in its stead. 
Henry Burritt, a boy of 14, was the first teacher. The laws in that 
period were not very strict nor very rigidly enforced. But we have 
known boys far superior to advanced men in our experience of superin- 
tending school. 

The fii-st attempts at education outside the fataily circle was by 
night school, a method that has not received enough of attention. Half 
grown people that cannot be spared from farm or kitchen in the day- 
time, might receive' great advantage from such short hours' training. 
The attention can be better cultivated, being more shut up to the subject 
in the lamplight from the surroundmgs. A politician in these lands 
whose principal offence was that he died poverty-stricken, which is worse 
than plundering the public purse and die rich, agaiii.st whom the trials 
broke down in court, as he "had the consent of his cabinet for his acts, 
which were not felonious; seeui.u;" the neglected condition of the young 
men of his province, encouraged night .scuools, and gave some pubHc aid 



154 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

to the teachers to help on the work. He compelled those in the employ 
of the Government to pay their bills or leave. His talents and good 
deeds Went for nothing. The "less righteous" party. was the stronger, 
and the greater plunderers prevailed. But from this small beginning in 
Marlboro public edudation rose with the necessity of the population, 
and has been kept in a state of efficiency. The Episcopalians built the 
first church, and they got occasional supplies from Mr. Patton of Kempt- 
ville. Merrick erected his saw mill at the Falls of Merrickville about the 
third year of the settlement, three or four years before the Wright mill in 
Hull. The Presbyterians of Marlboro have no church but come to Is orth 
Gower. These townships are associated for court purposes. The canal 
has one lock at Burritt's Rapids, which is thirty-five miles from Ottawa 
and ten miles from Kemptville, the nearest railway station. It is no part 
of our business as a narrator of events to tell the farmers what they 
should sow or plant but from travels and observations we find forest trees 
diminishing and prices largely increasing. Suggestions are not dictations. 
Recommendations are not commands, free men can act as they please. 
If they are afraid of failure they will not try experiments. 

Marlboro offers the fairest test to prove how that a thin soil on a 
limestone bottom, can be made to pay under forest and orchard. We 
have not got all the data to prove the point in either the fruit or the 
lumber, but we know of apple trees not twenty-five years planted, that 
net two dollars a tree in good years. This is good interest on the plant, 
rent and trouble. The land can be cultivated close to the trees, and if 
fruit and forest trees were alternately planted in rows thirty-six feet, six 
feet every way under each tree may be left and kept clean with the hoe 
or buckwheat. The forest trees could be left till well grown except ne- 
cessity demanded their being cut. It may cost twenty-five cents each 
to get a young forest tree raised and planted, black or white walnut, 
oak, hickory, maple, cherry, elm, pine or basswood. That at 5 per cent, 
compound interest will double, say in fifteen years 50 cents, in 30 years 
$1, in 45 years $2 and in 60 years $4. This may appear like looking a 
long way ahead, but the capital laid out is small, and that, one's own 
labor. The rent of the land under the trees would be very, little, not 
a cent a tree. Cultivation vyould secure a greater growth. But if not 
fit for cultivation, only forest land, the rent would be still less as grazing 
land. It is not easy to ascertain the growth of trees without measure- 
ment followed up for years. 

Mr. John Nelson of Nepean on the Rideau banks, told us of a little 
oak he was going to cut for a train stake but his man remonstrated that 
it was too small stripped of its bark to fill an inch auger hole, and he let it 
stand. It is growing still and is about forty years old. He refused six 
dollars for it and it still grows. Hickory would be as valuable, and 
, maple with its sugar producing qualities as well as its value as lumber for 
furniture, flooring and other things would equal butternut. Cherry, 
white pine, ash, ceddr, all which grow well on rocky land might prove 
equally valuable. We are estimating on present prices. Who can tell 
wliat advance they will make in .sixty years? You might content yourself 
with 4,000 or with 16,000 forest trees on 100 acres with some thousands 
of fruit trees among thejTi, which would have their bearing powers ex- 
hausted ere the forest trees had reached their time of cutting. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY, [ 155 

Iw sixty years these forest trees would on the present rale of prices 
be worth about $30,000, and their cost, rent and labor about $20,000, 
giving you the crops for the working- There is no danger of the supply 
exceeding the dennand. It might easily in fruit trees but wot in the 
forest varieties. It is unnecessary to dwell on this theme. A word is 
sufficient to the wise- But who will adopt it on even a small scale ? A 
wise man would only cut from neces-^'ty, as trees whe,n a good size grow 
much larger every year than when small as everyone knows. The finest 
forms and the choicest qualities should be selected as the most merchant- 
able and the most profitable. The good, the beautiful and the usjful 
could be cultivated to be enjoyed. Why should not men come to know 
the qualities of the soil and use the knowledge thus obtained to the best 
advantages and the most profitabl 'ids? This is according to the order 
of nature and the fitness of things. 

The soil alone can do nothin^ffor itself or you, but would remain a 
Sahara for ever, or grow, grass, weeds, shrubs, forests wild and irregi:lar. 
Earth cannot transform itself into vegetable, but plant the vegetable 
seed or plant and it begins to dissolve the mineral and absorb it arid 
convert it into vegetable forms and lift, feeding itself on the very rocks 
that decompose under this vital power, are incorporated into and become 
vegetable. Chemistry has not told us how she would return the vege- 
table into the mineral. It belongs to a higher order, maintains its or- 
ganization, nourishes itself, appropriates to its use what previous to ex- 
perience and knowledge of the case, would have been pronounced 
impossible. The animal again consumes the vegetable, appropriating 
and distributing to every part of its whole organization. The plant 
incorporates the crystals, the animals the plants- Hence rocks faU to 
dust, and sloping hillsides dissolve into vegetable forms in beauty colors, 
figures evoking admiration, creating appetite and affording the greatest 
gratification. 

The ambient atmosphere with its golden sunlight, genial heat and 
mollifying moisture acts on crystal, vegetable and animal, contributing to 
the onward progress of things, causing the most tender and delicate as 
well as the most hardy, rugged and' robust specimens of vegetable life to 
germinate from their seeds, and bursting the clod to irjhale wit]i its leaves 
as lungs the air, light and heat, to circulate the sap as blood in the veins 
and'dissolving and digesting with its roots as stomachs, the crystalline 
earth carrying on the process of development day and night incessantly. 
All these forms of life wither, decay and die and are translated into other 
forms or as the old Roman has it : "All things revolve, into all thing.s." 
The' 'o not make themselves. Visiting the rocky hills around the 
Mattaw a we saw red pines very tall standing on large rocks with so 
little earth that you would ask where is their visible means of support ? 
There has been a great effort in our age by scientific philosophers to dis- 
cover the origin of life, and so much has been said and written, that one 
looking at these trees on these rocks 's thrown into reflections as to their 
derivation of nourishment to be able to exist in such unfavorable locali- 
ties. You fall back on your readinpjs of the productions of the savants 
of the modern schools of Europe as well as those of America, and ask 
what light they shed on these king'loms of nature, if you may so call 
them, and what secrets have they brou^'ht into view by their hermcti' 



15^ HISTORY air THE OTTAWA VALLET. 1 

caily sealed cucumbers and bottled hay tea, and you find the philosopfcew 
with all their instruments and fine terms unsatisfactory. Protoplasm 1 
delectable term the scientific philosophers glibly employ to cover an un- 
known quantity. About forty years ago an anxious enquirer wrote to 
The Herald and Presbyter of Cincinnati asking : "\yhat is protoplasm ?" 
The learned editor replied ab ignorantio. We do not know-" 

Prof- Huxley, pen in hand, sitting in his laboratory, with his big jar 
of protoplasm sealed up and labelled, "not to be opened," writes thus : 
"Life must proceed from life, and this idea is victorious along the whole 
line of modern biology." These gentlemen will not deiine protoplasm. 
They seem to have reached the lowest strata, the indefinable, the ne 
plus ultra, the foundation of creation. Yet the word must be plastic, 
mouldable, some thing, of seme kind, even if it should be inaudible, intang- 
ible, invisible and incomprehensible, yet thinkable according to these 
scientific authorities. A Philadelphia chemist of some note thinks it 
m«st have been the origin of the earth, and of all creation, from the mite 
iavisible to the most unwieldy elephant, or the greatest sea monster of 
ti»e mighty deep. The thing would be worth investigating could it only 
be accomplished. 

It resembles the soul of Socrates, 'which he wished his disciple not 
t© confound with his carcase. Protoplasm is not the oiginism, soul, 
body, life, but something else which can not be discovered, detected or 
determined, at least by our senses. "The vulture's eye hath not seen it." 
Suppose a grain of wheat is placed in the earth at a favorable time when 
and where it will be susceptible of moisture, heat, air, light, some visible, 
some invisible, actings on the seed by which it puts forth a germ, goes 
down and forms rootlets in the soil, at the same time it pushes a bud into 
the .air, bursting the clods and developing in the light. Is protoplasm 
the substance within the bran, hull, shell or envelope, or is it some- 
thing without, above and beyond the starch, gluten, flour, that the seed 
contains ? Is it one or all of the environments, elements so seemingly 
necessary to its existence ? Or is protoplasm a romantic term evolved 
from the fertile protoplastic brain of the learned scientific philosopher, a 
term invented to cover our profound ignorance and conceal the truth? 
Should we subject the animal kingdom to investigation the thing may 
be more complicated, but the reasoning will be nearly the same, consid- 
ered analogically. , 

The female bird, whether it be the humming bird or the ostrich, lays 
an egg. That egg with the application of heat and other surroundings 
soon shows a living creature within, which in due time bursts the shell, 
issuing from its dark confinement into light and liberty. Protoplasm 
must be within the shell or without it. People of ordinary intelligence 
can admit that the little being is sustained by the substance within which 
no more solves the mystery of its creation than the starch of the grain 
of wheat solves that of its springing to life; but when the shell is broken 
and the bird picks up its nourishment they cannot see how it is fed by a 
pr»toplasm outside the shell or prison walls while they are unbroken, 
and to which hitherto it has been forbidden access. Seeds are, tc all 
appearance, dea'' matter till placed in conditions where they aresuscept- 
i;jle of vitality. The egg, if left a certain time, will become incapable of 
lite in tte oiost fa\ ored conditions. The same holds of the healthfest 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1 57 

pl»it seeds, if proper conditions are wanting, though they ma^• endure 
to a period more remote. The fact of possible vitality is not questioned 
in these cases. But where is protoplasm ? What light does so learned 
a term throw on the origin of life ? Is it the 'cause or the occasion of 
life? Is it any discovery ? Such a dream of philosophers may remove 
the cause a little farther back into the dark mystery, but gives no solu- 
tions. The visible beginning of the chicken was the egg, of the ^ plant 
\yas the seed. To trace these back a thousand generations thfbws no 
light on the origin. Protoplasm may serve as a.fittle play of the imag- 
ination, but 'as none of our senses cognise it, and it gives no explanati'on, 
it cannot be science ; for science professes to be knowledge, therefore 
protoplasm is fancy. 

Investigations show protoplasm to be a nonentity. Creation con- 
fronts the protoplast and he is silent before the only wise, true, good, 
Omnipotent Creator in whom all beings have their existences. He 
makes, preserves, governs every creature and every act. All are his 
offspring. Their works are his An invisible life-giving agency must be 
admitted and to call this protoplasm is low, vulgar, barlDarous, utterly be- 
neath and unworthy of the name of a scientific philosopher. It is not 
like the genius ofan Englishman, nor of a Roman, nor even of a Scythian. 
Why attribute to plastic matter what it lays no claim to ? It is not only 
pleasant and entertaining, but intensely interesting to sit and listen to 
the Huxleys, Tyndalls, Hamiltons, Murchisons, and an almost innumer- 
able host of Scholars, when they learnedly and eloquently talk on the 
phenomena of mind and matter and investigate the origin ®f life; but 
dreams are not science, the loftiest theories are not knowledge, the most 
sablime flights of fancy are not ascertained facts, however charming or 
delightful they may be te hear or read. 

They sa)"-, like produces like, and men do not gather grapes of thorns 
or figs of thistles, but if creative power be left out, all the efforts in the 
laboratory must ever be absolutely abortive. It is reported, that when 
the bees lose a queen they will gather the essences of certain herbs and 
flowers and apply them to the egg in the comb during the state or time 
•f incubation, and the young queen eventually appears. These are only 
the visible applications of materials, that without the aid of creative 
power woiild be utterly inadequate to accomplish the end in view. The 
mysterious communication of life no created man knows, perhaps no 
angels' eyes have ever witnessed the secret. Investigation is in many 
things legitimate, ^nd in certain conditions not forbidden, and may in- 
crease our knowledge, even vivisection, though very unpleasant and to 
the popr animal painful, may not be a sin. But when we have hatched 
a theory and dreamed over it foir years, then dogmatise over it as a cer- 
tainty, we centribute nothing to science except to bring it into contempt. 
We have made this little digression because even in botany feundation- 
less theories arc laid before young studen,ts who are not prepared to op- 
pose them, but whose tendency is to hide the glory of creation under 
some mi-serable subterfuge. Scientisks are regarded as thinking men, by 
way of eminence; why should they lose themselves in idolatry, in a 
wilderness of speculation, and mere inventions about the origin of life, 
which they cannot discover in their alembics nor comprehend in the 
mightiest stretch of their intelligence, but which shine in the kght of 



lJ8 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. i 

Revelation to the eye of the soul. "Throuj^h faith we understand' that 
the worlds were framed by the Word of God, so that things which are 
seen were not made of thinf:js which do appear." 

Man should use his understanding^ to employ the forces of nature, 
which his intellig^ence may direct to great advantage. The fissility of 
rocks shows that tree roots may penetrate them, shape themselves to the 
openings, and with no visible appearance of support, maintain themselves 
erect,.wave their green flag all summer, grateful for the drenching deluge 
that washed their stems and leaves from insect pests, mollifying the soil 
and the very rocks on which they thrive and flourish. In the great la- 
boratory of nature these workmen convert earth crvstal and rock into 
living vegetable fibre, adaptable to so many nameless purposes and uses 
in our business economy. The more congenial the soil, the ^re;i r the 
profits will be. We have no doubt that the workmen on the Central 
Canada railroad by their reckless fires consumed more than a million 
dollars' worth of forests in the year 1870, to the people of Carleton. But 
that absorbing, consuming forty cents on the dollar concern, never pro- 
posed them any recompense. Their vast traffic in freight from India 
and China has done wonders for this Dominion. 

Judicious labor timely employed representing^ cash will be paid with 
compound interest in fruit and forest trees well planted and kept. For 
fences, plant a row of maples round the place 11 feet apart. This is not 
half the labor of planting posts, and the trees will grow where posts will 
not stand. Surround these with a- wire fence attached to a strip one by 
two inches, six feet long, set against the trees, tied with a tarred cord, 
and a pad to save the tree bark a;nd to hold the wire fence in place. The 
wind will not disturb the trees. Maples are sure growers and sugar 
producers. This mode of fencing is cheap and durable. Stone hoilses 
are the best for farm or city. They are less expensive than brick, and 
ten times as enduring. Clean cut rock;vork. well built, three stories 
high and flat roof, well furred inside and carefully plastered, will never 
go out of style. It is sightly, salubrious, satisfactory, comrnodious and 
comfortable. The science of grafting is well known, and perhaps as old 
as antediluvian times. The husbandman Noah likely understood it well. 
Fit the growth of last year to the stock, wood to wood and bark to bark, 
carefully cut and make airtight with grafting wax, composed of an equal 
weight of tallow, beeswax and resin, dissolved together and applied to 
the wounds. The wax may be put on hot or cold. The Christian life 
is engrafting into the living stock, and its goal is the house not made with 
hands. 

If one confines his planting to valuable forest trees, he may plant 
four times as many in the straight lines. Over 16,000 may g^o\v well on 
ICO acres, and 33 feet between the lines. After ten years' cultivation 
the farm h enriched and the young trees well up. 100 acres may be cut 
into ten lots for pasture, each field to be eaten three days in the 30 days. 
100 cows may be fed on it fr«)m May iSth till Oct. 1$., provided that the 
dressing is scattered with a light harrow within a week after the. cattle 
leave it. The great provincial park on the north may supply pine and 
other lumber as well as preserve game and a grand water supply. But 
how great will be the demand in the coming age's, of which ours is the 
precursor ? We fancy there is a fortune in sight for the man who baa 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY.- Ijp 

the genius and courage to work it out. Our early settlers possessed and ~ 
cultiv^ed a high moral tone and spirit.' People seldom lied one to. 
another. Charges of fraud or dishqnesty were very few and rare. The 
usual percentage of the people would get into dc;bt and perhaps not 
make the greatest effort to get free; move to another place, and be un- 
able, or forget to liquidate if more prosperous. But with these few ex- 
ceptions little fault could be found with the conduct of the people in 
general. They were kindly disposed to one another, and were generous 
and hospitable in their treatment of strangers from other lands. An o^en 
door, a friendly greetinf^ and ample entertainment awaited the wayfarer, 
and when rested t.nd refreshed and all the news he had was extracted 
he was forwarded on hi ; journey and furnished with all the information 
respecting footpaths in the woods, new brushed out roads and way marks. 
Thieving, burglary, mob violence, were unheard of and whether it arose 
from our being so top-heavy with magistrates, but therfe were very few 
cases of assault. 

Few misunderstandings arose among them. Too much whiskey 
might cause a free fight, but the quarrel was made up when the drink 
was out, and frieadship at once restored. There was too much "harmless" 
Sabbath visiting. The sparse condition of the settlements accounted for 
this, for there were few or no ministers for a number of years, and the 
good morals cannot be attributed to that useful and .necessary class of 
men. Families maintained their religion and morality that had not a 
visit from a clergymen in a quarter of a century. We had no cry about 
religion in the schools, and no mobs of those school religious scamps to 
injure person or property as now. Tt is amusing to hear of what city 
ministers have travelled on horse back, who perhaps never. kept a horse 
two years of their lives, and elders telling of long rides that they made 
once in a twelve-month, or half a dozen times in a long life, whilst those 
who have had many long wearisome rides, say not a syllable about 
them. Some young writers delight to image out some wonderful minis- 
ter who has done so and so. Editors should clip these ten feet long fox- 
tail stories, or the old ministers should correct the idolatry when imagina- 
tion only has furnished the statements. Good morals were cultivated 
before the anxiously looked for ministers arrived. 

In the absence of the clergy the Justices of the Peace performed the 
marriage ceremony. But the people and the magistrates themselveshad 
little faith in these performances, for when a minister came, the fact that 
they were legal did not prevent a J. P. from having it repeated. There 
were some very head-.strong or high strung people in thg.t age, who 
thought that every Christian rite ought to belong exclusively to, their 
party or favored denomination. Politicians are full of sucih an idea as 
well as religious sects. How could there be a thinker or one of any 
note outside of their favored circle ? Would not' the nation perish if 
their party were not its rulers ? How would anyone dare to speak of 
piety existing outside the walls of their denomination. Of course they 
are the peo|,lc, and wisdom will die with them. Loyalty is always asso- 
ciated with their policy. Loyalty to the nation and loyalty to the tyr- 
ranical ruler, iire two things which some are unwilling to distinguish. 
Each pHri-\- lias the same right to charge rebellion on the other because 
loyalty is so ill defined. 



l6o HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Some would say Charles Stuart was very loyal when he was ruling 
vithout a Parliament and levying war 'on his people. Otlicrs would say 
Oliver Cromwell was loyal when he made the enemies of England quail 
before his "army, whose back no enemy ever sa>v." Little minds clad 
in the panoply of their own authority regard all differing from them as 
rebels and delight to call rebel vociferously. . Granting these excellent 
men all they claim of loyalty in their own bosoms to what they deem 
the object of loyalty, they may not possess that superior principle that 
would grant equal rights to others who may be as anxious for the true 
prosperity of their country as themselves can be. Men may be clear- 
sighted,'' profound thinkers, much more loyal when necessity arises, than 
those haughty spirits whose throats and lips are ever booming forth 
their loyalty^ 

John Churchill, the undaunted warrior Duke of Marlboro, with 
whose title the township was honorably named, possessed a very pecu- 
liar kind of loyalty. The traitorous deeds of this uncompromising parti- 
zan were not known till long after his great name as a hero was estab- 
lished. "Tell me one good deed that Cromwell ever did ?' said Dr. 
Johnston to the old laird, Bosweil. "Gad sar, he ?art kings ken that they 
had a lith i' ther neck. James Stuart had so revolutionized the army 
and navy, and even the universities by injudicious dismissals and ap- 
pointments, that the best blood of his country, the ablest men of his 
empire took such a stand against, tl;iat he ignominiously abdicated his 
throne and kingdom. Loyalty to the despotic king and to the rights^ 
of free men, could not dwell together in the same mind. Marlboro pre- 
ferred James to William the liberator, whom he regarded with the most 
uncompromising and deadly hatred. A politician of the mould and 
cast of James and Charles, he could see nothing to admire m the policy 
of the Dutch English William, and he carried his bitter enmity to such a 
pitch as to betray his country. 

Learning that a small expedition was to be sent to the coast of 
France to try and regain what Mary Tudor had lost, he sent a messenger 
to notify the abdicated James, who' at once communicated with Louis 
and preparations were made to slaughter the troops as they were being 
rowed in the boats from the squadron to the shore. A fire was opened 
on them with deadly effect from masked batteries and before they could 
return to the protection of the ships, many lost their lives. Marlboro in 
rendering the attempyt a failure besmeared himself with the blood of his 
countrymen, and covered his memory with an infamous stain. This base 
act pnly saw the light when access was had to the papers of James after 
Marlboro had become a hero and fattened the plains of the low coun- 
tries with the blood of almost countless thousands, and was himself 
numbered with the dead. Had one dared to hint that John Churchill 
was a traitor or disloyal, how many, ignorant of the fact, would have 
rushed to smash his head. What a cry, disloyalty ? and traitor ? But 
these have been used too often and by the wrong party. Limited mon- 
archy is one of the mildest forms of government. Responsible govern- 
ment for the people by the people, is safest, but people require care and 
training to be able to maintain these sacred rights and privileges There 
are so many mercenaries, venal souls that will take bribes, home-bora 
slaves that are beneath contempt except for their votes. Their purchasers, 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VAIXEY. l6l 

slaYe-owners, ^am^tes^ hold ap their brazen faces as if bribery were 
a virtue. "Unreasoning/' they apply freely to their liberal opponents. 
In what light are these bribers \ iewed by all honest men ? They are 
low, mean, sneaking thieves that tiade in souls and slaves of men- 
Honor, honesty, truthfulness, they abhor utterly unless their vile weapons 
cannot be employed to advantage. The men who act on this low, cun- 
ning putrid principle that debauches a human soul into such corruption, 
resemble church and barn burners, and the robbers of widows and 
orphans. Whether they buy the man, city, county, or whole province, 
it is the same rankling iniquity. Injustice is the same in little or much. 

One infallible rule of faith denounces these as crimes. Hebrew 
morality forbids gifts as blinding the-eyes. Even the old Trojan objects 
to the gift of the wooden horse as a dangerous and injurious present. 
The present is the special ground of fear. The man or party that offers 
the present or favor for support is surely far more than doubtful; he is 
dishonest. Is it strange that fire should consume such captains and their 
followers? It is not left to Hannibal to destroy all the kr.iwbts. The 
people of Marlboro were a long time very few, and one in politics, so that 
bribery was long unknown, and. if the people of that age had been mod- 
erate, and not provoked and raised an opposition, there would have been 
no room for bribery, but now the thing has become intolerable, and if 
persisted in, will create a rebellion, such as the land should never have 
to witness, not to say endure. Beecher, in dealipg in a sermon, with the 
New York judges, said if he held the gate of Heaven in his hands, and 
9ne of them came for admission, he would slam it in his face. 

There was a minister in the Old \V orld whose hired man used to 
dig the potatoes on Sunday to have them fresh for dinner. His brethren 
were disturbed about it, but how would they stop it One said, let me 

try ? So they were dining with him, and Dr. A told a strange dream 

ke had. "I had died," said he, "and was going to Heaven, and at the 
gate was asked, ''Who are you ?" "I said, Dr. A^ and wish admis- 
sion." ''You cannot get in with that package." I looked and sure 
enough, there I had under my arm a bundle of manuscript sermons. 

On my way back I met yourself, Dr. T , and said Dr. T where 

are ycm going ? You said, to Heaven. I said, you can never get in 
with that on your back. "What had I on my back? — a bag of potatoes. 
WiM that gate be open to these impenitent sharpers who take every 
opportunity to humiliate their country and corrupt one another ? 

Such men as the heroic Duke have been used in the hands of an 
overraling Providence to destroy the power of the foes of Great Britair., 
but had SHch men been let carry out, their own intentions, they wouk* 
have been the greatest foes their country, ever encountered; her tyranny 
would have been complete and the unrepented transgressions of her . 
monarchs, and their aristocracy following in the foo'tsteps of their wicked- 
ness, had caUed down the vengeance of Heaven for her ruin, whilst 
another nation had been raised up to take her place, leaving her in the 
degraded position of one of the basest ©f kingdoms. The men whose 
ancestors held their country together in defiance of her foes abroad and 
her tyrants and despots at home who set her name higher on the roll of 
fan.e than ancient Rome ever was, and made the name of an English 
man so much more respected abroad than a citizen of that republic who 



l62 HISTORY OF THfi OTTAWA VALLEt. 

are cursed at this day by those foxes in lambskins and wdlves in sheefjs 
clothing who are not ashamed to credit to their party all the fruits of the 
labors of others. Under the policy of thb hbuse bf Stuart,'' Englahd 
would have been a dependency of France or Spain, and far from leading 
the nations of the earth in her Wake to elevation and improvement as at 
this day. The leading spirit in Brockville when Marlboro was laid out 
for settlement and was being filled up, was Sir Jonas Jones. The Sher- 
woods, Presbyterians, were leading people. Their young men, like the 
Shirriffs.of Fitzroy, were educated engineers, and got large contracts of 
surveying townships from the Government. 

Judge McLean came to Brockville after them and his grandson is a 
distinguished lawyer in the city. Rev. Mr. ^Smart from the Congrega- 
tional church, England, was minister in the Presbyterian congregation 
of Brockville. A son of his was Judge Smart in Upper Canada. Rev. 
Robert Boyd, afterwards Dr. Boyd, was a student of Belfast, Ireland, 
who came a licentiate to Prescott, was called and ordained there and 
preached to them between fifty and sixty years ere he was called away 
to his rich reward. He was abundant in labors for the conversion and 
edification of souls. He travelled far and near over the new settlements 
preaching where he could collect an audience- He often married people 
in these tours- The law had let squires do the same- But it began to 
be whispered that Mr. Boyd's marriages were not legal. The same idea 
was mooted in Ireland. But the British Parliament put it down by 
legalizing Presbyterian marriages. Some audacious parties put one 
forward as a stalking horse to test the case by prosecuting Mr. Boyd, 
who took steps to defend himself. As the case was novel and time short, 
Mr. Boyd went to Brockville with such preparations as he could make. 
The juslge evidently wishing to be fair and just, asked Mr. Boyd if he 
would refrain from performing marriages tiH the next sitting of court, to 
give time to consult authorities. The minister promptly complied w^h 
the proposition of His Honor the Judge. Some people asked Mr. Boyd 
to go to the Islands in the Lake as neutral ground, and marry them 
there. He refused saying, the word of a gentleman must not be broken- 
A great lawyer of Liberal mind in the west of Upper Canada, a U- E. L., 
l;)eard- of the case and was mortified that a good, hard working youivg 
minister should be caught in such a trap. This gentleman had never 
met Mr. Boyd, but his clear, honest legal mind was at once moved m 
his behalfto search up all the law points that miglit favor his case- He 
drew up and sent him a fine brief referring to enactments, court decisions, 
books and pages. Furnished with such a document, Mr. Boyd made 
himself master of the details, as far as he could have access to the works 
pointed out, and came up to ceurt clad in armour to the teeth, to plead 
his own cause. The French proverb has it that a man who pleads his 
own case has a fool for his client. Dr. Boyd was no fool theugh at that 
time a young man. When the case w'as called and opened by the law- 
v(.r OH the side of the prosecution, Dr. Boyd took up his defence and 
the papers carefully written with his own hand, with notes to keep to 
the points. (He always preached without notes, sermons of some length 
and well thought out) He bow ed to the Court took up and entered on 
his defence without a lawyer to the astonishment of some, stated his 
pbsition, repeated sonse of the enactments and ga^^c the references. 



■J 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. * 1 63 

Some, gentlemen of the law present, many were there from a distance 
as the thing was known, gave assistance; getting the books, looking^ the 
pages, sometimes reading to give him breathing time. For aH this he 
was exceedingly grateful. The speech bristled with points, was in some 
parts exhuberant with humor, of which he had a rich fund, he then 
summed up and left it to the court. The Judge congratHlated him on 
his success, admitted that he had made good his claim, established his 
rights and accordingly decided in his favor. The fearless bra-'ery, the 
manly bearing, yea, the magnanimity of the little man in ths face of 
such a crowd, delighted almost every one present. His oppone s were 
astonished. His friends were in transports with his able, eloquent ccfence; 
his free, ready use of the points of law, but above all the upright and 
kindly decision of the Judge, wliich set at rest the rights and legality of 
Presbyterian marriages ever after. They warmly congratulated him as 
having achieved a triumph. Six marriages that had been arranged in 
the interval awaited him. We have noticed before m this history the 
purpose of marriage written out, dated three weeks 'back, nailed to a 
large birch tree that long stood on the third line of March. It was posted 
at II o'clock on Saturday night, and the couple married next morning 
to save time and sent home through the woods doubled or the two made 
•ae. All very legitimate, not one called it in question- But t® compel 
a yeung Presbyterian minister who had speMt eight of the best years of 
his Ufe in cultivating talents for the mission work of his Master, to take 
the oath of allegiance before he could legally celebrate matrimony, when 
an Episcopal minister or a Roman Catholic priest was not required to dp 
so, all three being born British subjects, is rather arbitrary, to say the 
very least of it. 

If you doubt our statement y®u can find a record in the hand- 
writing of the late Col. Burke in the ^Registry office of the county, of 
Carleton in the spring of i8Si- If the thing were a competition before 
competent judges, then let the best charger clear the hedge and no more 
be said. But to impose burdens on one whilst another is eased is con- 
trary ta Scripture, which Christian nations and peoples profess to respect, 
aad contrary to reason, which distinguishes man from brutes. The man 
who wHi not recognize his obligation to Scripture and reason, is a ferrae 
n^tur/u in humanity, a wild beast, a persecutor, a Moslem in civilization. 
But Presbyterians were not rebellious. They were loyal. They were 
Monarchists under British rule. They waited patiently for brighter and 
better days. Unhappily they are politically divided. This arises from 
their freedom. The clergy do not, dare not coercej except in individual 
cases or cliques, some^isQes formed to the great detriment of the church. 
Churches discover that domineering is uriprofitable. Politicians will find 
k Mnremuijerative some day. 

The atmosphere has greatly cleared in the last fifty years. Prejudices 
die hard yet they dk, and never can be resurrected. Humanity rarely 
recedes from its conquests. The savages of the New Hebrides could 
not believe that water could be found by digging, but when they saw 
the clear water, they drank it, and when Dr. Paten told them the water 
was for them they g9t him coral rocks to build it up. All the Presby- 
terians in the worid are not much short of 100,000,000. If they were one 
in politics in every nation they could have a healthy influence on 



1«4 HKTcaiY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

governments. For years the tax collected in a township at first was 
littk. There was no opposition to it, but to its application, especially 
when those proposing it were men of standing. Men of wealth generally 
lead. The crowds do not reason, they only follow. The wisdom of a 
poor man is not esteemed. Neither is there a more arbitrary tyrant 
than custom, nor anything worse to be got rid of than a fixed habft 
either of body or mind. 

Sixty years ago or more there were men proposing to assess or 
value lands according to their natural qualities, and let that remain per- 
manent. If one man underdrains, removes boulders, levels fields, makes 
good buildings and fences, his industry should not be taxed; and the 
property of the careless, indolent, escape its due share of the necessary 
public expenditure. There is no more reason for repeating the valua- 
tion every year than every month. Land near a city is' of more value 
than the same quality more remote from it. The same holds with locali-- 
ties in the city, town or village. Every one taxed should pay the treas- 
urer, whose powers should be well defined.' Why should we resist 
reform ? A fixed value would save frauds, lying, perjury, permitting 
society to enjoy a healthy moral tone. Direct taxation for all necessary 
outlay is far the most economical, as well as the just method of raising 
the necessary expenses of a nation, province, or township It would give 
us knowledge of the outlay, rid us of the leeches, discourage the race 
for. office, diminish the tramps, encourage honest industry, genius and 
invention, set proper limits to ambition, and conduce mightily to the 
peace, progress and moral welfare of human society. Farmers, mechanics, 
day laborers cannot retire at the age of forty-five or fifty on a pension — 
no they work till eighty to pension the well paid employee. 

The aristocracy, the plutocracy, the clergy, the ambitious, the 
schemers, idlers and others of a place or country wish to govern, 
especially if money can be obtained through it. The history of every 
country we know of proves that men of honesty should be on their 
guard lest these cunning men wheedle them out of their rights, which 
they hesitate not to do when opportunity offers. There are honorable 
exceptions in most pf these classes, but they are not the majority. If 
we express ourselves strongly, you will see our warrant for it in the 
reigning corruption and fraud everywhere. We would pension all dis- 
missed from office, say on one-third of their present salary, that pension 
to diminish 3^ per cent, per annum till ended. If they raise a cry we 
meet it. They went voluntarily into office, and they have the time, 
their head and hands to work for support; whilst the toiling farmer, and 
day laborer are not making annually what their pension equals, and they 
are not bound to slave eternally, to keep these idlers imitating the dig- 
nity and display of the vain aristocrat. The average salary of the best 
educated clergyman in any sect is not equal to the commonest employee. 
Some of the former do not earn a third of what they get, whilst others 
do not get a tjiird of ivhat they earn. Of the latter, the less said the 
better, about their earniRgs. We witnessed the threshing of wheat on 
tfee Experimental Fnrm, that must have cost $5 or $6 a bushel picked 
off with the fingers- Can 5,000,000 of people bear that with a debt of 
$300,000,000 and $38,000,000 annual outlay with 12,500,000 interest ? 
■fea dollars a year paid on every soul in the Dominion, except these 



tllSTORV OF THiE OTTAWA VALLEY. ' 1 65 

hirelings that pay no taxes. The system has made millionaires and 
mendicants. Tupperism dies with violence. Such legislators are not 
fit to be pound-keepers. ' 

THE NORTH SHORE OF THE OTTA,WA -- --r^- 

We have mentioned in a preceding page the arrival of Mr. 
Philemon Wright in Hull. Afterwards he was appointed to a seat in the 
Parliament in Quebec; for there was scarcely an election as the county 
had only his own little- colony of less than a hundred souls, and judges, 
etc., were appointed to sit in the Legislature in those times. He reported 
to the Government that he had between 1796 and 1799 explored both 
banks of the St Lawrence and the Ottawa as far as the Chaudiere. Falls. 
His report is the history of Hull in its beginnings and progress. Mr. 
Wright, after considerable difficulty, secured two respectable men to ac- 
company him on the exploration. They halted at the great falls and 
went back to examine the quality of the land, cutting long small trees 
and lodging them in large ones that they might climb and get a view of 
the country. Had they climbed the barrack hill or Rockcliff they could 
have seen the level, country to the mountains- The tall thick forest hid 
the mountain range out of view from the level of the shore of the river. 
They must have come in a canoe, though he does not describe it but he 
speaks of the smoothness and depth of the river. 

From Montreal he could not have come on foot to the Chaudiere 
for there were so many rivers to cross, not fordable anywhere near their 
outlet at the Ottawa. Had they brushed and blazed a road from the 
Falls north, they could have had a panoramic view of the whole valley 
and the river from the Chats to Grenville, as we have often seen it. From 
the heights of our city you can take in the range of your vision nearly a 
hundred miles of mountain, river and valley- They returned to Mont- 
real, reported their discoveries to the gratified people and went on to 
Woburn, Mass.,- where the narratives of the men made such impressions 
that he was able to employ without difficulty twenty-five men and induce 
five families to begin the settlernent- They left Woburn, February 2nd, 
1800 and on the 13th reached Montreal. After a short stay they pro- 
ceeded about 15 miles a day, sleeping at the houses ol the habitants at 
nights. They had considerable trouble with teams and their wide 
double sleighs on the train roads, keeping one animal in the snow alter- 
nately to keep from wearying one out. The trip to the head of the 
Long Sault is minutely described, and how they camped out with great 
fires, and the woman slept in covered sleighs, the men with blankets 
over them around the blazing fires. The men were happy without a 
landlord to collect fees or complain of extravagance. 

The fornier journey had been by water, and they knew nothing of 
the ice, and so kept some running on before them, cutting to make sure 
of their safety. He speaks very highly of an Indian, a good savage 
with his wife and child, who wondefed at the animals, having seen 
nothing but wild ones before that time. He left his wife and child in 
the woods and became their guide to Hull. They camped on the bank 
in the open air about si.x or seven nights- The banks weretwenty feet 
high, so they had to l.;avc their teams and sleighs on the ice and climb 
the banks, cut the wood for tlu-ir fucs. cook supper and breakfast and 



_l65 . HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

enough for dinner en the way. They arrived on the 7th of March, a 
month iLod five days from the start. The belt of table land between 
the river and the range of mountains on the north, is perhaps, unsurpassed 
in beauty and fertility on this continent. The rich, dark, deep, alluvial 
soil with its clay bottom, protected by a chain of hills, 1,750 feet above 
the sea level, according to Sir William Logan, with available passes into 
the back country, a land so likely to reward the toil of the cultivators 
must have appeared to one brought up in the hills and narrow valleys 
of New England, as the shadow at least of an agricultural paradise. - It 
was an untouched, unbroken forest of the finest lumber; white pine, white 
oak, cherry, white w,alnut, sprjce and maple, (bird's eye and curly,) in 
groves enough to delight the eye and fill the mind of a sharp lumberer 
with dreams of wealth fairl)' incalculable. 

This was the enchanting scene presenting itself to the eye and 
mind of Mr. Philemon Wright, a man between 36 and 40, in the very 
prime of life and mature judgment. The timber on the stump was worth 
four times the price of clearing the land, and the ashes of the refuse 
worth twice the clearing and fencing. His practiced eye took in the 
whole as equalling the broad acres of an English dukedom. Obstacles 
thers were seemingly insuperable, but to the descendant of the Kents 
that followed Harold, the second to the defeat of Dane and Norwegian, 
yielding at last, it is true, on the field of Hastings, but not so much van- 
quished as wearied with conquest; was not to be deterred with difiicul-, 
ties. He was of Kentish blood though somewhat Americanized. Valor 
is not lacking in his posterity for everyone knows that the Gatineau's 
monarch, if an i«sult were olTered, could sway his sceptre with undaunted 
ancoocern, in c?»4m defiance of the foe. He reports that everyone took 
a hand at cutting down the first tree. Thus began and continued the 
cleamig away of the woods and building habitations for man and beast. 
The sounds of the axe and falling of trees brought the Indians from their 
sugar making. 

Two chiefs from tribes on the Lake of Two Mountains, looked on 
everything with astonishment, got treated to a good horn, as Conroy 
woutd say, of Jan»aica rum, and all returned to their sugar making full 
©r glorious. Tbey made friendly visits for about ten days, receiving 
presents and returning others of sugar and venison. Gifts blind the 
eyes. There was no old Anchises to interpose his ''^Timeo Donaios et 
dona fereiitis!' The unlimited maple forests ran sugar for the evapora- 
tion, deer flockfd in plenty to be shot for the occasion. This pleasant 
state of things was not of long duration far the aborigines began to see 
that their sugar groves would disappear and the deer become thinned 
OHt and become less familiar; so the chiefs assembled and taking George 
Brown, a fornier clerk in the Indian department or Hudson Bay Co., 
who had a sq»aw for his wife, as an interpreter, marched in procession 
to demand the reason of these innovations, cutting their woods and pos- 
sessing their lands. Mr. Wright was up to the exigency giving his 
authority f«r everything. They expressed their astonishment that their 
{rest factor King George over the waters, would, without c®nsulting 
ti»em, pcniA anyone to cut down their sugar plantations and chase 
aw^ their ^ame. They had possessed these lands, rivers and falls^ for 
, llw past g>;:)QMrt»Ofls, and their families wanted support as well as his— all 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 167 

reasonable. He stated that he had documents showing his right to everything 
and if disturbed Sir John Johnston would pay him out of their pensions. They 
feared his hunting and fishing would injure them. He showed them his tools 
and convinced them that they were not for these purposes and that he would 
protect their wild animals. They objected to his guns. He showed them that 
hawks, squirrels, bears and wolves must be killed, to save fowls and domestic 
animals. Maintaining some dignity, and using soft answers and assuring them 
of a market at Hull, free from the dangerous navigation to distant Montreal ; 
for the sugar and venison, fish, etc., with the advantage of his mills for their 
provisions. The Indian as well as the Grit saw the advantage of the nearest 
market without competition, so to save labor and rations they agreed. They 
were supplied once more with the Jamaica and went home happy. They 
brought him a lot of sugar and other things and took twenty dollars, offering him 
all their lands for thirty dollars, which he refused. They held that the lan^Js 
were as merchantable as the sugar, but he denied their rights to lands as wan- 
dering tribes. After going to Montreal and consulting Sir John Johnston and 
others, he brought back the reply, that the yearly presents were the pay for their 
lands, and they must not disturb the colony. They then made him a chief, 
that with the other chiefs all disputes could be settled. 

The savages preferred arbitration to hostilities. Mr. Wright was put 
through the form of coronation by these barbarians. All kissed one another on 
the cheek, with a great number of other ceremonies, after which they dined to- 
gether ; and Mr. Wright records it, that for twenty years they had regarded justice . 
and equity beyond any people of his acquaintance. We accept this testimony 
of Mr. Wright as correct. Could such be said of the politicians of Quebec and 
the Dominion for as long a period, our people had not been submerged in a 
deluge of unparalleled corruption, so disastrous to our prosperity. Unblushing 
falsehoods would not as thick vapour fill our atmosphere, and the land would be 
to-day $200,000,000 less in debt. The writer of the Atlas with his usual reck- 
lessness says : " The Indians feasted Mr. Wright and party for a week on all 
the delicacies of an aboriginal cuisine from roast dog and muskrat to broiled 
rattlesnake and skunk." This author must have been an expert in natural his- 
tory, or the tribes like St. Patrick, must have exhausted the stock, or imported , 
them for that state occasion, as rattlesnakes have not been common in the pro- 
vince of Quebec since or before that time. 

Mr. Wright says it cost $3 a day for men to go up and down the river to 
Montreal for provisions, describes the Rapids and the toil of towing up the sides 
of these among the rocks, as no easy task for men. He spent the year i"8oo in 
chopping, raising vegetables and roots, and lost 1,000 bushels of potatoes by 
rot in too deep covering in winter. In 1800 he sowed 70 acres of fall wheat 
and prepared 30 for spring wheat and peas. He took his hired men home to 
Woburn, but they returned that winter and took up good land in Hull from 
choice, and he sowed his spring wheat in March. This was very early for this 
latitude. One year only in the 70 or 80 succeeding years could that have been 
done. We remember in the fall of 1833 the first snow fell on the ist of Decem- 
ber and about the 22nd of March in the year following, cows were 
picking up something in the fields, but there was no seeding for a month later. 
Ploughing has once since that b?en done in March and only once, whilst once 
or twice ploughs have been going in December. He reckoned 3,000 bushels of 
wheat off 100 acres, and one measured acre threshed a yield of 40 bushels. He 
encouraged settlement by selling lands. He began to build mills, as there were 
none nearer than 80 miles. He also spent about i8oo on the survey of the 



l68 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

township, containing nearly 82,500 acres. Saw mill and other buildings cost 
him £1,300 and a hemp mill £300 more, and lost by fire the same year £1,000. 
Some of his hemp grew 14 feet high, sold a 100 bushels of hemp seed in Mont 
real at a fair price, but had to send the hemp to Halifax to get it sold. 

His first blacksmith shop was built in 1804. Next year from Massachu- 
setts, he brought in some valuable stock and spent as much taking his flour to 
Montreal on ox sleighs as the flour brought him. He built distilleries and brew- 
eries, but having no export market and had now exhausted his wealth, he lent 
seed grain and exchanged it for work, but his home market was insufficient. 
The south of the Ottawa river opposite him was an unknown forest for at least 
30 miles. No raft had been taken down to Quebec, and as he explored, talked 
with the inhabitants, who declared it impossible ever to do the like. He pre- 
pared his timber, and spending 36 days on what he could have run down in 36 
hours when they understood how to run in bands clear of the rocks, but got to 
market, made sale and returned to spend the proceeds in re-building what had 
been burned down. 3,000 bushels of wheat cost him $2,000 to raise, and on 
account of war prices he was offered $9,000 for it. He continued to lumber in 
winter and float to Quebec, and keep the farms operated bv placing some in one 
department and some in 'another. White pine and oak were of the finest quali- 
ties. Oak squared had to be withed up by the ends to keep it afloat with 
lighter materials because of its specific gravity, or loaded on white pine cribs. 
Very many cases of drowning were reported at first from the unimproved state 
of the river, and so few were acquainted with the dangers. Pilots had to be 
trained on the river, and it took time and practice to get sufficient acquaintance 
with the dangerous parts to steer clear of them, but this was overcome by 
patience and perseverance. Great risks were taken for high rewards and pilots 
became plentiful. 

As the rivers became improved and better known, the loss of human life 
became yearly much lessened. In 1808 his mills were burned with much sawed 
lumber ready to take to market. There was no insurance yet, and the loss was 
a sad blow, not only to the proprietors, but threatened the ruin of the settle- 
ment ; as so much flour and grain of every kind was consumed and so little 
saved that famine seemed to stare them in the face. So many settlers depended 
on Mr. Wright for employment to earn provision for their families, and seed to 
sow and plant on their lands ; but it threw them back more upon their own re- 
sources, to preserve seed, corn and seed of every kind. The square timber of 
course being afloat could not be injured by the fire, was hastened to market, 
and with the proceeds he soon rebuilt mills and houses in better style and adap- 
tation to their end than were their predecessors. Mr. Wright was irrepressible, 
his energy and determination, and with the labors of so many hands well direct- 
ed, the place soon appeared superior and more prosperous than before. With 
so many houses built for his people, the place soon began to be known as the 
village of Wright, or Wright's village. Some fine stone houses built for his sons 
are fine houses still. Had they been brick they would have shown a strong 
trend towards turning to clay, and wooden houses would have looked very old, 
frail and warped, but the stone structures remain as the workmen left them, 
safe, solid and enduring. This was the embyro of the city of Hull, but many 
years elapsed ere it took on the appearance of town or city. Some of Mr. 
Wright's sons afterwards built on beautiful sites on the Gatineau, on both sides 
of the river. Some of the grandsons occupy lovely spots up the river as far as 
Northfield, opposite Mr. Hastie, whose farm and buildings, like theirs, are very 
excellent, well cultivated and productive. Mr. Philemon Wright built his own 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1 69 

-dwelling house on a pretty elevated spot, with the Ottawa in front on the south, 
-and an outlet of the river that runs to the Gatineau on the east, as the Hull 
road ran westward from the Gatineau point to the head of the turnpike, after- 
wards Aylmer. 

This was long the finest house in the township, and was occupied in after 
years by Mrs. Judge Scott, the granddaughter of the pioneer. Her father, Mr. 
Tiberius Wright, had six sons. Alonzo, " king of the Gatineau," was one. Their 
mother was a Miss Ricard, sister of Mrs. Charles Symmes of Aylmer. Mrs. 
Scott was his only daughter, a very highly esteemed lady. From the Gatineau 
Point you had as hotels Bedards, Williamsons and Mooseaus stretching west- 
ward. Mr. Philemon Wright according to accounts drew from Government 
13,000 acres of land. He brought with him several families. Aliens, Morrisons, 
Routleys, Brighams, and others, all loyalists as distinguished from the rebels, 
revolutionists that formed the United States — all these drew large portions of 
lands. LoyaUst was a splendid title in our early history, and has been claimed 
by many most exclusively, and who most falsely and knavishly hurl the term 
rebel and annexationist at the heads of men who oppose them in some things, 
but whose honesty and loyalty dare not be called in question, except by men 
that have themselves signed annexation manifestoes, burnt parliament houses, 
and led mobs to pelt with eggs and stones the best of governors. It had a de- 
terrent influence for a time, but the folly has been carried so far that it is useless 
and has ceased to frighten children. If you give the lazy designing wretches 
plenty of money, they will roar out loyalty by the ton, but they would be the 
first to skulk to the woods if real danger threatened the country. 

A hundred years ago, in Governor Simcoe's time, land was worth little and 
there was not much limit set to draughts of land. Eight hundred, one thousand 
or more acres would be drawn by an officer. Women drew largely at that time. 
It was a common custom for a man working foi Mr. Wright to cut some brush 
and poles, build a small shanty, then get his title, and sell to Mr. Wright for a 
small sum or a few things from the store for use. Mr. Wright is said to have 
owned in all about sixty-three thousand acres. On your way westward you as- 
cend the hill on the top of which is the old cemetery, in which many of the 
Wrights, old Mr. Sparks and many others sle.ep. It was long the place of sepul- 
ture for the settlements on both sides of the river. Here stood the toUgate after 
the road was macadamized, and as the ministers passed free the keeper was 
very polite to them. A brother of one of these used to drive his young lady 
friends in a double rig very frequently, and as he resembled the minister ihe old 
gentleman would politely touch his hat to let him pass, which he sometimes did, 
always paying on his return, which so impressed the tollkeeper that he not only 
entertained the highest opinion of his honesty, but became a medium to impress 
it on many others. 

The next house on the right going west was the old Benedict building, a 
frame structure, built very early but yet standing weather beaten and warped 
by wind storms. Here Mrs. Robert Stewart was brought up. On the same 
side further on Messrs. David and Job Moore resided. The most magnificent 
dwelling house and grounds, beautified with evergreen trees, etc., the work of 
the late David Moore, the richest of the lumberers On the Ottawa, that now re- 
main outside the city, will not only delight the eye of the passer by, but stand a 
monument of the wealth, taste, skill and enterprise of the younger David Moore. 
The thinking man may ask in passing, why expend so much on a single object 
that at the hammer would not bring one fourth of the outlay ? Such a building 
requires more wealth to keep it up than falls to the lot of one member of a 



17° HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

family. It may gratify the taste or the pride of humanity, but it is not com- 
mendable. Most men condemn it as their own folly at last, 

The middle age Tory blundering of the Earl of Bute, Premier of George 
III, had lost the thirteen Colonies to the Empire in spite of the remonstrances 
of the best friends of England, the Chathams, Burkes, Sherridans, Broughams 
and such like men, who told them they could not conquer America, biit their 
concilatory counsels were cast to the winds by the brute majority, led secretly 
by proud churchmen ; as the brute majority so led in our days has ruined the 
country, plunged us overwhelmingly in debt for great works, which are given 
away to irresponsible corporations, who would, if suffered, soon remove the last 
vestiges of our liberties. It was considered the best disposition that could be 
made of the wild lands, worthless without settlers, but rich in forest treasures, to- 
make grants' of it to hardy colonists, whose grandsons and great grandsons have 
suffered therriselves to be led by designing political cunning foxes, with all kinds- 
of false issues to delude them, and themselves millionaires, bring us to the verge 
of ruin. The most wretched land policy has been pursued— our wild lands- 
given to corporations or ranchers, large portions taken back at four times their 
value and left unoccupied, our country put in debt for the cash borrowed and 
given away ; that is, divided among our borrowers. It was not so in the early 
days. The lands were freely given to actual settlers or such men as encouraged 
such and did much to improve the country. The timber limits were given for 
at least the last eighteen years to the supporters of the Government at a njere 
nominal value, say, four hundred dollars for a limit that was sold a few days 
after for seventeen thousand dollars. As evidence of how things were done, we 
had a trifling transaction with the Government, and not being a supporter we 
could not get a hearing from the commissioner, though we had gone to the then 
seat of Government to transact the business. The next Cabinet arranged it 
satisfactorily. The family compact .was scarcely dead at this time, and the idea 
was to make it all but impossible for any others but supporters of the party 
policy to succeed in anything. Considering the venality of fallen humanity, it 
is easy to see how many on the score of gain will support a party with or with- 
out a policy, or with one of the worst kind. At the time we write of the coun- 
try was young ; settlements were only beginning to be formed and lands were 
granted on the easiest terms. Field officers of the army got i,ooo acres, cap- 
tains 700, lieutenants and ensigns 500, non-commissioned officers and men of 
the .line 400 acres each. -The land was of no value till settle- 
ments could be formed and the country improved, then it would sell. 
The military government had nothing to control it but a house of 
lord chief justices and lord bishops. At the time we write the income of tjhe 
Lower Province was about 20,000 pounds and the outlay 39,000. Sir Robert 
Milnes strongly recommended the cultivation of hemp. But the French did not 
care for hemp in so bad repute in some families, and much preferred wheat, 
virhich they could handle and use to much better advantage ; if they could not 
nave it ground into flour, they could boil it for soup, which was not unpalatable. 
Lord Dorchester was governor-general, formerly Sir Guy Carleton. Land 
jobbing now began in earnest. Mr. Wright being a member of the house 
had deservedly much influence with the Government, and materially 
helped the settlers. Very many got their lands and patents from the Crown 
through his hands. There was an immense amount of treasure in the living, 
forest which if only sold as the land was cleared must have realized great siims. 
This led to spending freely, no thoughts of hard times coming. Now the people 
tell plainly that they were better off 40 years ago than to-day with all their clear- 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 171 

ings,*Mmprovements, crops, stock and buildings. The .Dominion Gov- 
ernment for nearly two decades have as good as given away our^timber 
limits, helped the favored few at the expense of the toiling many, and 
e'l c niraged pauperism. 

West of Mooseau's spread along dwell the Aliens', Edward Wright, 
W illie Wright that married Miss Skead, Thomas Roberts the Welshman. 
Mr. Latchford, a genuine Irishman, finely instructed in gardening and 
agricultural business, conducted a large farm in all branches of its oper- 
ations for many years with great satisfaction and success for Mr. R'iggles 
Wright. Mr. James Widsworth, lumberer, lived on the north of the 
turnpike. The famous preacher of Philadelphia, Dr. Wadsworth, was a 
cousin. His sermons published after his death are the most readable 
compositions of the age, rich in gospel truths, full of illustrations of the 
higher type. Suffice it to say of these discourses that they were to the 
reading world of America what the sermons of Dr. Guthrie were to the 
British Isles — richly instructive and entertaining. Mr, Wadsworth had 
one daughter by his first wife. His second wife he rescued from the 
nunnery. She had been sent to this city, and coritrived to get him 
word, and between them she made her escape and he married her im- 
mediately. They are both dead some time, and are said to have made 
a charitable use of their wealth. Miss Wadsworth was afterwards Mrs. 
Thomas McKord, a son of Mr. Justice McKord of Aylmer. The Judge 
was very talented and full of humor. Meeting me one day in a violent 
snow storm at the post office, calling my attention to the contrast in the 
color of our noses, said that his was so saturated with brandy that the 
flakes fizzled off it like raindrops off a hot iron, whilst they stuck to mine 
till thawed off -by the natural heat. He had passed a judgment on a 
case of some importance and wished me to write an editorial notice of 
it in the Times and sent a volume of Chitty with the places marked xin 
which he based his decision, and the book was to remain until he sent 
for it. The notice was satisfactory, but the book was forgotten- Meet- 
ing sometime after, we remarked that we hoped he would not consider 
that be had lost the right to claim the book because he had left it so 
long ; when he said abruptly : "Did you see the notice in the window 
of my office that whoever had the first volume of Chitty should come and 
take the second, as it was useless alone." We expressed great sorrow 
that we had riot seen it in time. 

S-bortly after Pontiac was erected into a county, an electi©fl was 
held • vhen Thomas Fenwick and Thomas McKord were both scrutineers 
for Oi af the candidates, whom the people did not admire, and as in that 
period ®f our history an election was not hurried through in one day 
with indecent haste, but lasted several days, the boys thought of giving 
an entertainment to the two yoi'ng lawyers; so with baskets of fowl and 
decanters of brandy tkey act off, the lawyers suspecting nothing, and 
found a fine tent in the thick cedar swamp. After the repast a»d their 
thirst assuaged with the brandy, of which poor Fenwick had a delicate 
fondness, they found they were prisoners with pickets t© guard theoi 
weM armed. Thinking discretion the better part of valor, they submitted 
with a bood grace, knowing well that the member would be elected 
without them, though not the o;)e they came to aid and secure. The 
report soon came down and there must be some notice »f it in the most 



i;^ HISTORY &¥ THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

modest style 'in Tk€ Times, and as they had been complimenting each 
•tfaer in the court in a tough case some time before, and the judge, W. 
K. McKord, Esq., was the father of the one, and greatly admired the 
talents of the other, he let them have it out, so they were a little distant 
for a few weeks, but Tke Times declared that Pilate and Herod were 
m«de friends. When they got free and came down they saluted each 
other as Pilate and Herod till the novelty wore off. Mr. Thos. McKord 
supplied his readers with a finely written digest of the laws of Quebec. 
He died a young man. Miss McKord, daughter of the Judge, whose 
mother was an Arnoldi, married Judge Powlett To return to our local 
course : The great Conroy farm lay south of Sheriff Coutlies down to 
the Rapids where their large sawmills and lumber yards stand. Mrs. 
Conroy, who was the daughter of William McConnell, managed this 
great farm with marked ability for many years, securing from it large 
profits. Mr. Robert Conroy was from Maharafelt, Ireland. He said 
that was "his calf ground." He was very extensively and successfully 
employed in lumber, merchandise, hotel-keeping, and other public- 
spirited undertakings, went often to Quebec and made- much wealth. 
They lived in a fine house in the village, where they built several houses, 
had a magnificent garden and fine grounds, and were both long-lived. 

North of this were the Hurdmans' farms and dwellings'. They lum- 
bered extensively and with much success. William married Miss Smith, 
a daughter of Col. Smith of Gloucester, and owns the fine set of saw mill 
buildings on the rocks between Eddy's and the "Kettle," as the great 
falls was formerly called. Some of the younger brothers married 
daughters of Mr. Thomas Eraser of Eitzroy. A sister of the Hurdmans' 
married Mr. Robert Eraser of Cumberland, a woman of fine qualities and. 
an excellent wife and mother. Robert Eraser is a man of genius and 
undoubted talents ; though not among the wealthy, yet far superior to 
many in the truthfulness and honesty which are such rare graces among 
the rich and great- North of the Hurdmans 'were the Aylwin family, 
whose brother was the able politician and judge whom we often saw at 
Aylmer at court before the appointment of Judge Mc;Kord. East of 
his farm were Mr. Radmir, and Routleys, Eitsimmons, Curries, Moffets, 
Pinks, Haworths and McHarveys, covering a large space to the moun- 
tain side. Coming east of these you pass the farms of Duncans, Bene- 
dicts, Hon. R. W. Scott, till you reach the large Brigham stonehouse 
and farm The old English gentleman, Mr. Farmer, lived close by here 
a considerable time in the early history of the place, famous for the 
cattle and horses he imported from England and introduced here, and 
the ."tone-wall fences he built, improvements which even then cost too 
much to pay in the line of agriculture. Returning up the Aylmer 
Road westward to Mr. Eoran's large stone house, Olmsteads' and 
Renaldo McConnell on the river front, an honorable man, whose wife 
was a daughter of Rev. Meech, sometime the minister of the old Presby- 
terian Church, the first of the family in the Ottawa County. Mr. Mc- 
Connell went to the Mattawa and was drowned ; his widow still survives, 
and his son is an excellent business man, dwelling in a lovely spot on 
the river I ark, looking on the elevated range of fhe Laurentians across 
the river. The house is in a red pint grove, ami Mrs. McConnell is a 
fine sample of a good looking-lady, wife and housekeeper. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1/3 

Richard McConnell built like his neighbor (JohrrForan) a fine stone 
bouse, with a beautiful foreground to the road, well planted, now a fine 
grove. He lumbefed extensively in square timber, white and red pine, 
whilst Mr. Renaldo and his brother-in-law Mr. Meach, sometimeb took 
out a whole raft of red pine spars, which they some years sold at an 
average of thirty dollars each, at other times as low as ten, one year 
make largely then others lose heavily. Judge LaFontaine lived west of 
Mr. R. McConnell, then Bell, the Grimses, Chamberlain, Heath, Egan 
arid Wright, one of whose sons was an esteemed physician, lately 
deceased. Above these on the next line was Robert Kenney, a very 
strong farmer, lumberer, man of general business, a gentleman well in- 
formed on most subjects, especially on agriculture and stock raising, at 
which he led the way in his county in almost every department. Mr. 
Kenney was well read and of sound mind on most religious subjects, 
and a great friend to education, ready with sound advice and open purse 
when necessary. He was for some years confined to his home, being 
rather fleshy and unable to get about. He did not lose control of his 
locomotive powers, although inclined to be rheumatic. It has afforded 
the writ,er great pleasure in having the opportunity of spending whole 
Sunday afternoons with him in discussing great truths. He died recently 
at a good old age leaving a good reputation behind him. John Gordon's 
farm_ and R. Kiock's lie behind these. 

"Simon Hill, whose farm is north of the village, was very aged in my 
young days. He lumbered in early life and furnished lime to builderis 
in after times. His son William went to Australia. His daughter mar- 
ried first Mr. Kenny, then after his death, Mr. Joseph Neil. They have 
the old farm since her father's demise. Mr. Charles Symmes owned the 
land on which most of the village of Aylmer is built. He was very 
popular, held many offices being mayor of the village and county. He 
sold many of his village lots in Constitue. You paid interest at 6 per 
cent, on the value, and redeem when you please or never if you paid the 
interest. If you left, the buildings and imjDrovements remained the 
property of the first party that sold. As a citizen he was much esteemed. 
Miss Symmes married her cousin, Henry Symmes, t\'ho with his brother 
lumbered. They had a large family. The second Miss Symmes was 
Mrs. P. Aylen, whose sons are doing well in various professions. The 
third daughter was Mrs. Cruise, whose daughters married gentlemen in 
theemploy of the Government. 

One son is, as was his father, a very distinguished lawyer in HuH. 
Some of his brothers are civil engineers and were long years in the sur- 
vey of the Canadian Pacific Railway. One of Mr. Charles Symmes' 
sons resides in' Ottawa and holds a government appointment at the 
slides. Tiiree others reside in Aylmer. Edmond spent some years in 
British Columbia and returned to his old home in preference to the 
wilds of the west- Thomas is on the north of the village, largely em- 
ployed in gardening and supplying the city with fruits of various des- 
criptions Tiberius occupies the pleasant old homestead in the centre 
of the village. The youngest sister died very young. They are all like 
their parents, biglily respected and esteemed and very inoffensive citizens. 
On the west, of ihe village Mr. Harvey Parker had a farm. He was twice 
married, had a number of children and lived to be far advanced in 



174 HIi. , OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

years. Beside him was Peter Aylen's farm. We have seen him before 
in the settlement of Nepean. He was known as king of the Shiners 
during^ his kimbering operations. Originally a sailor, we do not know 
from what -'art of the British Isles he hailed, but he was a well-read old 
gentleman when we made his acquaintance; a thinker and not deficient 
in natural oratory, that sometimes came out on the hustings at election 
contests and never failed to make an impression. But he belonged to 
the party that had long and up hill work ere it got much foothold in 
■this country, if yet it may be said to have attained such a position. The 
hereditary policy of the Stuarts, intensified by the inhumanity of the 
Mc.lici, which separated society into the two very natural div'isions, des- 
potic, absolute tyrants, and abject, unreasoning, soulless slaves; had so 
deeply burned itself into men as to be almost irradically established. 
Power, wealth and display always on the side of the oppressor, carry 
the unthinking, mostly the many, against the lovers of freedom and 
fair play, so that it requires eternal vigilance to keep nations from des- 
cending into the rude conditions of barbarism. 

Were the Stuarts and the Bourbons and bhe Bonapartes happy in 
the spoliation of the races ? Are the plunderers of a people happy in 
surveying the ruins they have made ? The flourishing, peaceful prosper- 
ity of a country or a people, helped by the consciousness that you have 
done your duty in aiding them to that enjoyment, ought to be con- 
sidered the highest rewards by rulers, politiciansy teachers and the people 
themselves, who embark in these developments in the progress of nations, 
society, and felicity of humanity in general. The contrast between- 
Kossuth and Georgy, between Napoleon Bonaparte and Guizot, Crom- 
well and Charles Stuart, William Henry Nassau Prince of Orange and 
Louis XIV Bourbon of France; . the contrast between Catharine de 
Medici and Mary Stuart of the Revolution, show clearly if anything can, 
that the lover of truth, justice and honor, occupies an elevation im- 
measurably above that of the low thieves that plunder the nation 
through the public treasury, trample on the liberties of their own flesh 
and blood, inhumanly butcher men made in the image of God, if they 
stand in the way of their ambitious designs. 

The "Austrian butcher", as they termed the General Hanau, who by 
the aid of Russia, had then overcome the patriot Maygars, in his visit to 
England, had to be protected by the police from the brooms of the fac- 
tory hands as His brutal Excellency inspected the places of business, 
distilleries, breweries and workshops. Their brutal violence provokes 
revenge in the minds of the most peacably disposed. The Abimelecks, 
Absaloms, Zimris, in Jewish history with Jeroboam, the son of Nebat^ 
were not set forth to be copied any more thain tke Richlieus, Borgeas 
and the Jeffries, or the Beatons, Sharps and Lauders. Many of the first 
settlers, though not claiming perfection for themselves, were mightily 
opposed to the principles that composed these characters, and were very 
little afraid to express their views. . 

Among these people there were several ladies well trained as weH 
as highly educated, who were models in many ways. They were the 
wives of professional men, and their taste, tcct, management and mat- 
ronly movements so silent, so pleasant, of husband and household placed 
them, if we be permitted the expression, more among the angels, than 



HISTukY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 175', 

among the refined sinners of our race. Attend a party at ont of their 
houses and you could see and judge for yourself. The larly would be 
in the place, and at the time, to receive and warmly welcome every 
guest, and order the attentions necessary. The guests would be so. selec- 
ted as to be delighted to meet in such a congenial atmosphere. The 
leaders in the conversation were well chosen and freighted with interest- 
ing subjects, free from controversial tinge and tendency. That harmony, 
humor, healthy instruction and improvement were the natural inevitable 
result. Then at the table she would contrive to place a lady modestly 
talkative and silver-tongued, by the side of a taciturn gentleman. She 
would mate a voluble gentleman with a sweet amiable lady of not too 
great a flow of words. Tn such arrangements there were no feelings of 
restraint, but a flow of sjul-gentle and genial as a river with a free cur- 
rent without a cataract in its whole course. When we resided in Indi- 
ana we remember a display not unlike the above. We were very 
shaky with the "cliills" fever and ague, and going to a meeting of the 
Presbytery, our steps were tottering truly, but a young man just a 
short time before ordained to the ministry, saw, and rushing up seized 
our satchel and carried it off against our but feeblereinonstrance. When 
seated most of the members came to enquire after the health, frightened 
we suppose by the evidence given by the countenance, an act of kind- 
ness that left indelible impressions. Two of our doctors were sent to 
the best house in the little place as the custom is to show the greatest 
kindness to the best established and richest ministers, which ho doubt 
their superior talents commarid. Qnc of the doctors was a man of great 
weight in the church, (300 lbs avoird.,) but he was a great audible res- 
pirator. The other doctor was thin, delicate, sensitive and nervous, who 
could not sleep beside such a man. The next day after so sleepless a 
night he was poorly and as the train was to pass down he asked leave of 
absence which was kindly given. Your humble servant also got early 
leave for the same just reason. 

So the moment we were clear of the place, going to the Station, he 
, told us his grievance in which we cordially sympathized. He had been 
frightened sleeping with an old clergyman, who was often entertained at 
his father's. It was moonlight and the old gentleman's hair being long 
scattered over the pilSow in the silver light, and his snore corresponded 
in the like longitudes, the boy fled in terror to his mother's room, and 
could never get over his horror at the avee-inspiring verberations of the 
uvula in the air current rushing from the lungs. Now, said the Dr., 
it may be my weaki»ess, but you have invited to your city the Presby- 
tery to hold its next meeting. How can you arrange for these strong 
breathers ? Oh ! we can meet the case. So for this indomitable snorer 
we got a room in the best house of our people, this great Dr., and if need 
be mated him with a fine old elder, who always was at meetings with 

his ear trumpet. Dr. M came to our house and found these two 

had been located, and declared it the most fitting of arrangements as he 

said : " The elder could not hear thunder and Dr. F could not wake 

him nor prevent his going to sleep by his loudest reverberations. The 
arrangement was so complete that it never called forth a remark and 
Dr. M remained with us during the meeting which lasted for sonae 



17^ HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Mr. John Gordon, a very original character, was a shoemaker. His 
wife waa- a daughter of the Presbyterian minister, Mr. Meach, a very 
peaceable and amiable women. Their large family were all gently dis- 
posed as they grew up and betook themselves to various employments.' 
The daughters married well, one 'became the wife of a Presbyterian 
clergymen. Mr. Gordon, being brought up a Presbyterian thought the 
Presbyterians of Hull too frigid for his own somewhat fiery temperanaent 
to be congenial companions in ecclesiastical fellowship, and Methodism, 
being then, as it were, grown up from an infancy a quarter of a century 
before, he threw himself into it with the rapt enthusiasm of a Savanarola 
or a Luther, embracing with it the temperance cause, then in its swad- 
dling bands. He labored as a layman and artizan indefatiguably in both 
these fields the greater part of a long life. He was sometimes carried 
away by appearances, as some good people are, and when they are un- 
deceived are very sorry they cannot repair the injuries they have done 
the sincere but unostentatious. Shallow people cannot detect sincerity 
but they hail the easily assumed appearance . if there is money in the 
background. John was not shallow nor cowardly. He filled the office 
of constable, of the superior courts and overtook many a swift-footed 
fugitive from justice. With both hands so full of business he could not 
always please his brethren in everything and was at times subjected to 
church trials or discipline, but it generally happened that if one court 
punished, the higher to which he appealed reversed it. 

We have this on the authority, of his talented son, who distinguished 
himself in McGill College, and continues to do so in his practice at the 
Bar. The following, however, we have from a superior source of infor- 
mation, which we are at liberty to disclose if it is contradicted or called 
in question. His brethren ecclesiastically pressed a point and would 
have him brought to trial; he modestly declined their jurisdiction, but 
said he would not be unwilling to be tried by outsiders. So it was de- 
cided to elect a court to consist of a sheriff and two lawyers. The sheriff 
was a Roman Catholic, one lawyer was a kind of Universalist pro- 
fessedly, the other professed nothing except perhaps French infidelity. ■ 
The first gentleman, on hearing the accusations and the defence, said he 
thought the sin was pardonable, and his church, the Catholic, had a 
broad breast, and if he would cast himself into the bosom. of that church 
and confess his faults they would absolve him, confirm to him all the 
profound affection of that church in all its length, breadth and depth ; 
The second referee or judge in the case said he concurred in the opinion 
of the first and believing in the salvation of all men, even the worst, he 
concluded that if the subject was penitent, he was not beyond the reach 
of forgiveness. The third said that he once sympathized with French 
infidels of a particular school, but he had been converted from that to 
Calvinism, and he now believed in eternal punishment John Calvin 
had barned servetus (which he was not then bound to prove; and he 
thought some sinners merited that and should get their describing. The 
case before them was such. He was a great transgressor and justly 
merited everlasting burnings. This could only be regarded as a demiwrcr 
or a protest as the other two agreed. Though this whole farce tnaj 
seems incredible, yet to those who knew the parties, it is perfectly" chaur 
acteristic of every one of them. If he went through this mock trial il | 



mSTOKY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 177 

was to co n fo uw d his accusers; for we know hhn too imtimately, to believe 
tlat he woaid caricature religion. We visited him in his last illness and 
were impressed with the clearness of his religious views. He spoke', 't 
is true, against the despotism of the clergy but a message he sent by us 
to a fecial friend of his in the city, is, of some note. "Tell — that there 
is no more of John Grordon here now, there is nothing but the grace of 
God, no self-righteousness left, no looking for salvation but through the 
great sacrifice of the only Saviour and mediator." 

With some faults, and who is faultless, he had many fine points in 
his character. Peter H. Church, M.D., was long a leading character, 
exercising great influence, besides the healing art, of which he was a 
master. His father was a U. E, L. from New England. Mr. Wright in- 
duced hkn and Dr. DeCell, his student, to come from Merrickville to 
HulL Mrs. Church was a Mei -'ck, a sensible, excellent woman- The 
Dr. told us as many tales of li.ose early times as would fill a volume. 
He was so poorly supported at first as to discourage him much, and he 
concluded to move away, but the news got out and they subscribed at 
once to prevent the move. The Wrights, Captain Dey, who resided 
near where Sheriff Coutley has long lived, Esterbrooks, the McConnells, 
Eadies, Grimes, in short the whole settlement subscribed an annual rate 
on every man, whether they were sick or whole, needed him or not. 
This induced him to remain, and put his services at their disposal night 
or day for a long time. He was a generous soul, a fine sample of a man. 
He used to say that many a doctor came and "hung out his shingle," 
but soon left, as Church was everybody's physician. He became very 
rich in the loDg run and had three fine sons educated for his own pro- 
fession. We called on him for a subscription for a church then being 
buflt. He said he had spent his life building up churches, but be gave a 
good subscription in piles of stones ready quarried. Color, his eldest, 
married Miss Hodgins and they raised a large family of doctors and 
dentists. Levi Ruggles, at his mother's instigation, added the study of 
Jaw to his other eminent attainment, and though one of the finest of 
surgeons went into the practice of law in connection with Mr. Carter, of 
Montreal. Carter & Church was the law firm in Aylmer, where he 
practiced successfully for years. He married the highly educated and 
refined Miss Bell, of London, England, daughter of a gentleman of the 
larw ar>d niec? of General Bell. She was of pleasing manner, refined 
taste and elegance. The young talented lawyer soon entered politics 
and became a cabinet minister in the Quebec Government, which post he 
fiUed (the law firm in Montreal was Chapjeau and Church) with ability 
and credit for many years. He was created a judge and adorned the 
bench as talented, upright and impartial. He died comparatively young 
leaving twp daughters and a son with tbeir bereaved mother to lament 
their loss amid the sympathy of the multitudes. Howard Church, a 
very >vhole-souIed young man had married and settled down to his 
practice in Aylmer, when he was taken with typhoid fever, a disease he 
so much dreaded in his youth, and died long before his father and 
mother. Robert A. Young was a gentleman of refinement- and notary 
who contributed much to the advancement of society in the rising' vil- 
liage. Vlrs, Younq . ,ts Miss Norman, daughter of Richard Norman, a 
retired banker of London, England. Dr. Church was in the habit of 



1/8 lUS T URV OF THE OTTAWA VAXLET. I 

sayit^ Aat rfre was the nearest perfection of any woman he ever saw, 
■ sweet in temper, amiable and kind and good. Her only brother is 
Cannon Norman, of Quebec and Montreal, very highly esteemed as a 
gentleman and a divine. Mrs. Young was dying of consumption and 
Mr. Young ruptured a blood vessel, and both were buried together m 
the Mountain cemetery of Montreal. It was a great bereavement to a 
large family of very young children whom they left very rich. 

Captain James Blackburn came into Hull about 1832. He was the 
first to navigate a stdm boat, between Aylmer and the Chats, calling 
at March, Torbolton and Quyon, and some other places on the route, 
but would land a passenger almost anywhere, sending a boat to the 
shore. The Lady Colbourn, the Emerald, and one or two others, be- 
fore and after these have plied on that fine sheet of water. Captain 
Walter Findlay and Capt. Leech were some time in the service. Ca:pt 
Cummingwas a long time in the employ of the Union Forwarding Com- 
pany, and like the others, his predecessors, was very popular- Mrs. Cum- 
ming was from Kingston, esteemed a great beauty when she came to 
Aylmer. She still survives by many years her husband, and with her 
children ; some of whom are married here, Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. Henry, 
another is in Montreal. We remember a beautiful boy died in Aylmer, 
and one son, we think, survives. Mrs. Capt. Findlay was a Miss Mc- 
Caskill, daughter of the very popular merchant of Bell's Corners and 
Stittsville, Capt. Blackburn had a turn for politics and was elected -in 
1834 two years after he came to the country with a Mr. Bowman. Jas, 
Johnston, Daniel O'Conner, and Peter Aylen, sr., were the principal 
speakers on the hustings, and made it very hotforthe other side. Politics 
ran high just then, for about that time J. L. Papineau, the patriot, with 
some, the arch rebel in the estimation of others was in the zenith of his 
power and manhood. The Captain was a genial soul fond of games- 
giving them a kind of respectability, initiating old and young into their- 
_my.steries. He was very popular on the lake and on the land. Glasgow 
• was his birthplace in July 22, 1799. After being merchant, river cap- 
tain and M.P., he went to Illinois and died of cholera in Bairdstown, of 
that state in 1851, and was buried there. Mrs. Blackburn was a si.ster of 
the late Sir James Campbell, firm of J. and W. Campbell, of Gl^isgow 
He never forgot the captain's widow or ber family. She died in Ottawa 
not long ago, after residing some years with her daughter, Mrs. Chen.p- 
• ell, whose polite husband was Henry Chepmell, son of an English 
'"iiiirch clergyman. A daughter Jesse was a Mrs. Hamilton. He was 
drowned, and she went to tiie western states and married there. Our 
acquaintance with them was of the -pleasantest kind for y^ars. One 
daughter wf-s a Mrs. Atrill, whose little daughter Bessie went to the 
Ladies school taught by the JMisses Fenwick in Aylmer, a dear gentle 
amiable child. We believe they left Ottawa years ago for Montrea' 
Mr-i. Capt. Blackburn's nephew is Mr. Campbell-Bannerman, which lattcr 
name he took as great wealth accrued to him by his mother's family in 
the name Bannerman. He is a member of Mr. Gladstone's cabinet, and 
said to be the most able and pains-taking war minister England has had 
for years. We wish him a long and peaceful reign, for im. happiness 
and the fame and the glory of the grano old mother land, to which we 
wish profound peace for long ages to copie. 



; HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1^ ' 

Mr. John Egan was long one of the leading kwnbepmen atid- raei^ 
chants of Aylmer; an M.P. also for years. He was of commanditrg as- 
pect and very gentlemanly der-'^anor. He was called away while still 
in the prime and vigor of life. Mrs. Egan is also some years gone. The 
family live in the city. One daughter, Mrs. Thistle, is a widow very 
voung yet. The sons are wealthy and prosperous. The ladies are very 
refined and highly respected by all. Besides the stores of the lumber- 
men. ■ Messrs. Prentiss, two McLeans and Devlin, father of the rising 
M.P. for Ottawa County, were all sutcessful in their time as storekeepers 
in greneral. Holts, Boultons, Conroy.s Klocksand some others furnished 
. ample hotel accommodation. Mr. Murphy, and after him Mr.Haldane, 
governed the jail for years successfully. Mr. Thos, Fenwick. a brother 
of Dr. Eenwick of Montreal; Mr. Thos. McKord, son of Mr. Justice W. 
K. McKord, Mr. Peter Aylen, scholarly and talented, with Mr- DeLisle 
and Mr. Flemming, did the pleading at the bar ivith great efficiency and 
often with eloquence, wit and humor in abundance. Thomas Fenwick 
could get the truth out peculiarly at times. He had a case of deer shoot- 
ing between two hunters and he asked the poor fellow on the stand was 
it a "ferag Naturae" yes;, a wild beast, yes. Mr. Thompson after a num- 
ber of years left and settled on Sussex street in Ottawa. Mr. Lindsay 
for years furnished the bushmen and farmers with axes in fine temper 
and form and' abundant in number. His son, T. Lindsay, though young 
but full of the business principle, bids fair to be one of our princely mer- 
chants in the city if spared. 

James Walker, Thomas Smith and the Blewitt brothers were long 
the men of the anvil, hammer and sledge, attending to the wants of man 
and horse to the entire satisfaction of the large community. ,Mr. M. 
Marion, blacksmith of French-Canadian parentage, made fine use of his 
anvil at the corner of Aylmer and Deschenes roads, for on the vi.sit of 
the first Governor-General to Aylmer they fired from it the royal salute ' 
of the twenty-one guns. We hear that he is now hale and hearty at 
Edmonton, N. W, T. Mr. Smith is now deceased. Capt., Dey left, his 
son became a judge in Montreal before we were grown up enough to 
cross the river, and we thought he was succeeded in the place by Mr. 
Snow, but we have been corrected on that by Mr. W. Hurdman', >vho 
was a near neighbor. It is Sheriff Coutlee who occupies the old Dey 
place and has enjoyed it a long time, and cultivated with much good 
taste fruits and flowers, especially the latter, naturalizing wild flowers 
and sfending them for decoration to parties where they were greatly 
admired. He was also a kindly .distributor of such curiosities. Mrs. 
Coutlee was a Miss Clegg, and they brought up a fine intelligent family. 
James Bailey, a long time the undertaker, "shawed the dead into their 
. last dresses." He-was very ingenious as a cabinet maker, extensively 
read and a man of thought* One of his sons is a cler[.ymen now in the 
United States. Several of his daughters married clergymen. One was 
Mrs. Nelson of Bristol. One was bome time in Richmond, now in Tor- 
onto. When treating of Richmond we entirely omitted to mention Rev. 
Mr. Lindsay, who married Miss McElroy, and was a number fj{ years 
pastor there; also Mr. Bcnnet who owns the old L>on mill and farm, a 
great stock raiser in heavy draught horses as well as cattle and sheep, 
etc. J. J. Roney was long the siii:crintendent of schools for Ottawa 



l8o ! HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. , 

county, but even men grow old and wear out. He was succeeded by 
Boulton McGrath, a great mathematician, full of originality^almost to 
explosiveness. Ilis field isnearly as large as a European kingdom and 
to the shame of the Government be it spoken, his salary is as meagre as 
his labor is immense. 

The summer of 1854 Aylmer was threatened with fire from the 
woods, which brought all the male inhabitants 'to the rescue, with all the 
Frenchmen who had ponies and water barrels. A large belt was care- 
fully watered and watched, and the danger passed away or was avoided- 
This brought the thinkers of the place together, and several questions 
were asked, considered and answered. One said., Why is nothing better 
than a common school in a thriving village like this ? Before the people, 
returned home it was resolved to call a meeting and try to organize arii 
academy. Meetings were called,, well attended, and many things Gon'" 
sidered — adjourned and m.et again — so during the winter a great lecturer 
came there, Rev. Dr. West, vvho, when consulted,' gave great encourage- 
ment to the enterprise. Finally a governing body was organized, con- 
sisting of C. C. Symmes, Esq., mayor of the village; Peter Aylen, jr., 
Robert Kenny, T. B. Prentiss, R. A. Young, Richard' M-iConnell and J. 
L Gourlay. The last was elected president, and Mr. Symmes secretary-- 
treasurer. Application was made t6 the Government of Upper and 
Lower Canada for ah act of incorporation w'iich was granted, and an 
endowment of .£100 annually or $400. It was called the "Aylmer 
Academy." It was not a separate school, yet the Hon; Mr. Chanveaa 
persisted in so calling it in his reports, against all remonstrances on our 
part- Roman Catholics availed themselves of its advantages. The ob- 
ject and' aim was to make it a proper connecting link between the com- 
mon school and the college or university. The higher branches of 
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, English grammar and the Latin and 
Greek classics and elocution, etc., were taught eflSciently and most care- 
fully and steadily since it was opened, and we hope will long continue 
to be so taught. 

They employed a succession of well qualified teachers. Among 
others may be mentioned Messrs. Shelden, Lochead, McGrath, Reid, 
Sheldon again after he had become a lawyer, Miss Lizzie Symmes and 
other?, all well qualified and very careful, painstaking and'faithful in the 
execution of their work. A great amount wa:s expendedi and an effort 
made and well sustained to get the building in order, which commended 
the instruction far and wide beyond the bounds of the county. It was 
to be a place of thorough training and it fully met the expectations. By 
the persistent '-ffor'.s of the directors and kindly responses of the people, 
or as Mr. R. McConncil, one of its efficient managers, said : "by the 
per.=;e crance of the saints," it was got out of debt- We ' never could 
learn in thirteen years reportii.g and drawing the endowment and paying 
it over to the teacher, why the educational department persisted m 
keeping that word "Protestant" in their printed annual reports. Nor 
can we see to this day how the knowledge of arts, sciences, languages, 
etc., can be affected by the religion of the teacher, whether Protestant 
or Catholic. There must be some other reason for that settled deter- 
mined disposition to maintain separate schools. Quebec has no national 
schools, they are either Catholic or separate, The Government shouki 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. l8l 

not have anything to do with them. Let the churches look after them. 
This would remove a great bone of contention from the state, and effect 
a great economy in the outjay of the funds. Six thousand years have 
not been a sufficient time to teach the millions, that the money comes 
out of their own pockets, to make princely merchants, bloated specula- 
tors, Knights, Baronets, railway kings, fat lawyers; that give the great 
endowments t-> colleges, and the extravagantly high salaries to cabintets 
and their far too numerous employees, that make cunning, crafty, easy- 
going clergyrrien increase to 200 lbs., sometimes 300 lbs. avoird., so that 
they have grent weight in the courts of the church, and wonderful popu- 
larity among the fashionable, pleasure-loving multitudes of r^omenal 
Christians. 

If ten men can agree on a truth, why not ten thousand or ten 
thousand million ? If there is ground for one man disagreeing from the 
, multitude the same holds of every other man of that multitude, conse- 
quently there can be nothing certain. We are all afloat. ' If men do 
, not bring the same qualifications to the study, is that the fault of the 
truth ? Is not truth ever the same? Ever new, always a representation 
of things as they are, never otherwise. .The vfery highest authority in 
the Catholic Church, the Pope himself, instructs his people in the United 
States to abandon the feeble separate school for the national, and tha- 
the strong schools must have teachers qualified as public national 
teachers. This is good common sense. It is far reaching if properly 
carried out, and. will abolish all separate schools the world over. If the 
children of the feeble schools will not be injured, neither will they of the 
strong. How profitable would union be instead of division in education, 
politics or religion ? It would imply the breaking up of habits long 
cherished, deep-rooted, in which- men are brought up from generation to 
generation. It would dissipate to the winds, prejudices that have fes- 
tered and eaten like cankers in the souls of millions — relax the firmest 
grip on money bags, open the tightest fist, unlock"the miser's hoards, and 
with the diffusion of knowledge would be the increase of love and enjoy- 
ment. How many little things irritate and injure when they do no good; 
but rivet the chains of slavery in some of its myriad forms on so many 
that should be free to follow a lifelong career of education and industry. 
We have recommended the Protestants of Quebec to give up their sep- 
arate schools and insiston- all schools being national, as the only practi- 
cal thing for a country so thinly settled. It would be a great" saving. 
Schools are within speaking distance of one another, whilst those in 
attendance are by the very system taUght hatred to one another. ' We 
recommend the same to the Catholics of Ontario. It applies to Manitoba 
and every other province. The votaries of separate schools may grind 
their teeth and shut their hard fists and knock down our recommenda- 
tions, and turn and kick them for falling, but facts remain the same. The 
mind is not nourished on foundationless fabrications, fictions and pagan- 
ish prejudices. Education, the moulding of the infant mind, is largely 
in the hands of the parents. It is always found that through whatever 
vicissitudes man passes he never loses the mould, mental or spiritual, 
impressed on him by the hands of his mother. She should therefore be 
capable of giving the right form of mind, suited to the obligations of the 
present as well as to be capable of the joys of the future. 



l82 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLE7, 

Education is an essential work, a work of life, and when men ate 
willing to meet the expenses of giving youth the start, is it not mortal 
sin to retard the progress or to sow seeds of discord in youthful minds, 
just budding into a useful development ? Theatrical fooleries were kept 
out of the Aylmer Academy. Solid learning was the aim. Vices were 
punished with suspension. Penitence procured a restoration. Ever}'-- 
thing was required to be done decently and in order, and the results have 
been most encouraging. Aylmer, when we first saw it in winter snows, 
was a very little place, with unpretentious wooden buildings, no 
churches, schoolhouses, court house, no f ra 'd stone structures to decor- 
ate or adorn, or convey to the visitor, srch an idea of wealth, comfort 
and refinement as those of the present day. The wharf, to wliich the 
small steamer, Lady Colbourn was tied up, was scarcely visible above 
the ice and snow. That beautiful macadamized road, affording such a 
a fine drive to Sabbath breakers and gamblers from the city, had not 
been hatched in the brain of any of its wealthy promoters. It was how- 
ever, the centre of young energetic men, indicating powers sufficient for 
great development. , ' 

The Symmes, Conrovs, Aylens, Cha,mberlains, Hills, Heaths, 
Wrights, Holts, Boultons, McLeans, Egans, Eadies, Kennys, Grimes, 
Prentiss, Thompson, Kfocks, Parkers, Dr. Church, Richies; some earlier, 
some later, either lumbered, or kept store or hotel, tanned or rnade 
mocassins. We were under a mistake about Mrs. Conroy; she was not the 
sister but the cousin of Mr. R. McConnell, a daughter of Mr. William 
McGonnell, who lived where Bell afterwards lived. Bell was of French 
extraction, descended probably from a British soldier of that name as 
many of them married French wives like W. B, Bradley of Huntley. 
Most of the first houses were logs that anyone could hew in a day or 
two's practice, but many were left round and anyone could chink and 
plaster the spaces between. No Pat Mularkey of the trowel craft was 
needed; no John Wljelan to build chimneys. The stovepipe could be 
put through the roof, scoops ot shingles. Mark Cuzner was required to 
i.iake tin or sheet iron stoves and pipes, even from the first dawn of it? 
civilization. Shingles were made by hand and so good as to last 30 
yearsr 

On the west of Aylmer were the Parkers, Holts, Breckenridges, 
Moores, McCooks, Taylors, Neils, Cars, Merifields, Lusks, and ranging 
north -of these, the Ferris, Maxwells, McClellands, Erones, Duncans, and 
near the m.ountains, Haworths, Moffetts, Pinks, , Currys, Davies, BJairs. 
Hurdmans lived east as well as west of the village. Olmsteds, Aliens, 
and Roberts the butcher, first in the village then beside the graveyard of 
Hull, then the oldest in the valley west of the city. Roberts came from 
Wales to Huntley, then Aylmer and Hull. His sons Hved at the Carp, 
in Ottawa, and Montreal. Mr. J. F. Taylor when a young man, was 
bookkeeper for Mr. Wright. A good story is told of him. Mr. Wright 
came in very much annoyed at a man vapouring round insulting every- 
one. He had been evidently "set up" as the fumes were quite dis-. 
tinguishable. Mr. Wright mentioned what he deserved. Young Taylor 
thought he was in some measure, bound to see his master's wishes car- 
ried out, and asked if he wished him "laced." Wrii^ht podded in the 
affirmative. Taylor hung up his coat, walked out and laid him over a 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLF' T83 

few times till he "caved in", cried, "enough" and promised to reform his 
manners. Taylor came in, put on his coat and returned to his pen with 
as much composure as if he had been assisting his sweetheart down the 
'^teps of Holt's old stage. After this was known, the most obstreperous 
subsided if only, threatened with a visit from James F. Taylor. When 
the writer became acquainted with him, he was a very quiet, sober regis- 
■ trar, Hving with his second wife, a very agreeable lady, formerly Miss 
Eady. Mr. Taylor was a member of the Methodist church, but too 
sober forthat proverbially restless, energetic community. For ages 
'vhat is now, the province of Quebec, had no registry office for deeds or 

iiortgages. We think Mr. Taylor was the first of the race of registrars 
in the county of Ottawa. Hitherto all conveyancing was done by 

lotaries, or as the Scotch would have it, "writers to the signet." 

Twenty mortgages might be piled upon a place and the purchaser 
could not know unless the notary gave him the information, which was 
rarely vouch.«afed. English men bought farms from the French owner?, 
not suspe,cting mortgages, and after paying the principle a mortgage 
would turn up, and they would pay it rather than lose their investment. 
Then another would crop out and be paid likewise. Soon the grievance 
was discovered, aid the legislature was compelled to provide the remedy. 
After this all had to be recorded to give them validity. Aylmer had a 
large number of French in it§ population, but they did not take to farm- 
ing in the beautifullands lying between it and -the mountain. As you 
go past Ra'lmers anil Simmond's to the mountain, nothing can be more 
inviting to the lover of agriculture than such a soil. In all that fine belt 
of country from below Lochaber to Portage du Fort, the farmers became 
rich while lumbering lasted. Their hay brought them from $15 to $20 a 
ton more or less; their oats 40 to 50 cents a bushel. Teams drew in thi.; 
shanty at $1.50 and their keep, and men drove their oats and hay to the 
.shan'ies, covering three or four dollars a day and upwards when they 
'"urnished their own provisions. We had not then reached the pitches 
of refinement we have reached and left in the rear since. Tariffs were 
moderate and the much talked of family compact was mild compared 
with the party that succeeded them. The- little finger of the present is 
t'licker than the whole body of that administration. 1 

Enrdlcy townsliip, the west of Aylmer, may be regarded as a con- ' 
tinuation of tlie settlement begun in Hull. Some names already men 
rioned belono- to tliis region. Additional names may be given as the 
Findlays, Kiddcrs, Walkers, McAlisters. Prominent among these as a 
central figure wa.s Colonel McLean, an old Hudson's Bay Co- man, 
Highlander by birth, m figure tall, erect and majestic, a genial friend, 
highly intellectual, and brimful of stories of the ice-bound north, its fur- 
hunting fraternities, wild goose chases, fishing, canoeing, esquimaux 
dog sledging snd snowshoeing, in all of which he had been trained and 
'.;.'<perienced from his initiation until his becoming a factor in the com- 
pany. . He settled down to farming in Eardley, tried some experiments, 
discussed ^\•ith his neighbors the depth of ploughing, the quantities of 
seeds to the acre. He set the example of doubling the quantity ol 
clover seed to the acre, and found that it grew finer and taller, the stems 
supporting one another, so that a chip basket thrown oh it was upheld 
without sinking perceptibly down, that the animals would eat it without ^ 



t84 HISTORY OF THE* OTTAWA VALLEY 

* 

rejecting any, and that the roots if dug up and cleared of the earth 
would in some cases produce 20 tons weight to an acre, unfolding, the 
value of so much vegetable to be decomposed by ploughing down in 
the soil. He told us of a journey he once made on snowshoes from 
Hudson's Bay to Lachine in 14 days. His weapons were a light fowling 
piece, tomahawk and jackknife with flint, watch and compass, soft deer- 
skin clothing and mocassins and mitts protected him from the weather. 
When he found at night a dry pole or tree he set it on fire and camped 
beside it, sleeping in boughs for the night- The burning tree was a pro- 
tection against wolves, though he seems to have met with none, knd 
bears were then in their caves, as they generally are during winter 
weather- He sometimes had to turn from his direct route on account of 
hills too steep to climb on snowshoes, or streams dashing over precipitous 
rocks, and that sometimes for a long way, did not foi-m ice stro.g enough 
to bear his weight to cross over. Game was by no means abundant, 
and he had to economize his pemican and other provisions. The 
reader may form an eitimate of such a trip. A strong man, in addition 
to his weapons, loaded with two weeks' provision, and alone on such an 
excursion, through an unbroken forest for fourteen day's ■ and nights. 
The object was to bring a message to Governor Simpson, of impending 
dangers to the company, that steps might be taken to a!void. Men had 
not dreamed of telegraph wires or ocean'pables, and the St. Lawrence 
was as little navigable in winter as Hudson's o^- Davie's' straits. Col. 
McLean had four sons and one daughter who married my old school- 
mate and warm friend, Mr. Gharles Stewart. 

He was born at Vankleck Hill, a nephew of William Stewart, Esq., 
M. P. for Ottawa, Mr- Roderick Stewart and Mrs: John Durie, st. He 
possessed undoubted talents, but was a little too fond of amusements 
• with the 'boys, letting slip the time which 'might otherwise have been 
utilized, but he generally managed to navigate through. Rev. John 
Robb, the teacher, though gifted with a critical ear, was dull of hearing, 
and Chariie never failed to take advantr.ge of a whisper, especially iri 
translating a perplexing complicated sentence bf Livi, describing Hanni- 
bal's climbing and cro-sshig the Alps. Ht would manage the construction 
and translation with ene'rgy and sometimes elegance. He was a true 
and trusty friend in those young days and *ould warn you faithfully to 
beware of those who met you with a bland smile, when they are back- 
biters and detractors. Anyone who has noted carefully the condition 
and actings of his fellow-men, can hardly refuse to endorse the idea in 
the words of Thomas Boston: "That this world is, a wilderness, in which 
the clearest light men can carry with them, will not frighten away the 
wild beasts that inhabit it, and simply because they," are men and not 
wild beasts." He detested hypocricy as we ever did and honestly 
warned you against being deceived. He went to Chicago during our 
college days, and, sorry to say, we never saw him afterwards. The Col's 
eldest son, John Warren McLean, married Miss Bolton of Aylmer, and 
died m middle age leaving the young widow and some childrfcn. ' The 
young widow afterwards marriedlrvine Allen, a young lawyer, whose 
brother Sam was drowned in the'Lievre, found with his feet entangled 
m the brush of a fallen tree top and his head in the water. He had eone 
on a survey. * 



« 

HiSTOkY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 185 

William, the eldest, met his death by drowning likewise. He was 
the priginal proprietor of t\\QAyimer Tunes, ' His sons publish a spirited 
paper in Carleton Place. James Allen, the youngest brother, went to . 
ihe Fraseir river or British Columbia to dig gold, and we hear, made 
money and lost it over and over again- Mr. Plector McLean lives in 
the old homestead. He ran as one of three for the Commons, and 
when the election was voided, people said had he run again he would 
have been successful. Mr. Brysorl of Coulonge carried it. One of the 
sons lives in Ottawa, and one is in British Columbia, whilst his wife and 
two very nice children reside in- Ottawa. Farther wefet and about the 
line of Orislowrlived some brothers, Frenchmen, named Veleau. Wm. 
Veleau was a shoemaker. His wife said : "My Willyam he smart, Ife 
very smart man, that time he's not sick." Joe, liovvevcr, was the pink of 
the family. He kept a "bush tavern" and "did the honors right lordly. 
Mrs. Joe Veleau was of Indian, blood as pure as could be. Introducing 
her to Dr. Church, or speaking of her excellencies to the fine old physi- 
cian, he said : "Dr. Church, my wife some lady, some squaw," evidently 
meaning that she was a lady ever.' if she was a squaw. The place was a 
great resort of the French engaged in making timber for the Quebec 
market and for the Irish Shiners. Shantymen of all creeds patronized 
Joe Veleau, who did a striking credit business in the whiskey line. 
Sometimes he. succeeded in getting|from the boss what the men owed 
him, but not always. The bulk of the hands employed' were unmarried 
and the- rest of them had left their wives in the Old Country till they 
could be brought over the sea. Most of them were never troubled with 
money on their pers.pns. They got their pay generally on the raft at 
Quebec and spent the most of it there. Some of them did not save 
enough to pay Dr. Van Courtlandt or De Celle or Church, to cure theiji 
and fit them to go back to the wdods in September. In passing up and 
returning they drank deep potations at Joe Veleau's tavern. One would 
raise his glass and say, "Wei! Joe, here's luck." -Another, Joe here's 
fortune. But the silver was not forthcoming and Joe assured the callers 
that luck and fortune had broken him. i 

Just west of this in Onslow lived a man whose name we did not 
learn, known as Andrew, the Swede. We have seen some of his family. 
One daughter was drowned, although reckoned a great ^nd daring 
swimmer. The Quyon village was not then founded, except a house 
or two, but it has gradually grown to a nice village. It was helped a 
little by that crazy extravagant folly of the government in giving A. P. 
McDonali a contract to build a ship canal at the Chats' Rapids and 
waste about a million. Strong inducements were held out to build 
houses, to be used as boarding houses for the wprkingmen, and then 
wheri the county was pleased with the bright prospects of a ship canal 
the whole thing was dropped and the people rem.ained, and betook 
themselves to other callings. It recovered in time, the effects of the 
wet blanket thrown over it, and became a healthy, enterprising, little 
community. Two years ago in passing through it, we observed many 
shops, hotels, and very neat commodious dv^elling houses, indicating a 
healthy progressing people. At an .early date the Union Forwarding. 
Company built a warehouse, and freight and baggage were elevated by 
a pony turning a shaft up to the level of the R R. track on which they 



l86 TTSTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLBV. 

were taken by a ;.aiidem horse team on an elevated picturesque railway 
to tije ferry boat that crossed to Arnprior and up to Portage du Fort, 
whence they were conveyed over land to Musk Rat Lake, and by 
steamer to Pembroke. Three parallel lines of railways cover the sante 
country now. On the north shore the Chapleau & Church Railway. On 
the south fhore the C. P. R. and the Parry Sound Railway. The soil on 
both sides of the Ottawa is rich, deep and of excellent quality up to the 
Laurentian hills on the north shore and to Fort William. But it requires 
deep draining and a high style of cultivation to make it as productive as 
it is capable of becoming under such treatment. Open drains are com- 
mon on both sides of the river but only careful farmers are making 
covered drains. These keep the run of water all winter, changing the 
nature of the soil, and enabling the hands to work two full weeks cadicr 
than on the undrained land. It must be honestly admitted that farmers 
are very severely tried with the badness of the times, the low prices for 
produce, and the outrageous prices they pay for coal oil, binding twine 
and, machinerj'. They should, however, drain a field every year in the 
best possible manner. Of course we are bound up in winter and otir 
summer, season is short and crowded with business. Cheap drains can 
be made, but deep ones are far the most profitable. One of six feet 
deep will take away twice as much water as two, four feet deep, or per- 
haps as much as three. The, land will endure drought much better and 
■ven heavy summer rains, the soil being so much more porous will ab- 
sorb from the atrhosphere or drink in the rains without injury to the 
crops. The lands are well adapted to raising all kinds of grain, and of 
the best quality for clovers and grasses of almost every description; 
Cattle, sheep, hogs and horses, have done well from the earliest settle- 
ments to the present time. Few diseases trouble them, and they can 
be bred or grown to as fine a size and form as in any country in the 
world, and at as reasonable a cost or expenditure. 

It was a long time after the first settlement before what is now the 
city of Hull was even a village. Its growth was very slow. The pion- 
eers took to clearing land and making farms, Mr. Wright carrying on all 
the business-. Having so much land, he was as it> were, located in the 
midst of the earth, and except to house workmen and helpers, he was 
not disposed to trouble himself about building a city. Very few houses 
were built for many years. We recollect when only two houses stood 
on what is now the principal street. The people wanted land they could 
call their own forever, Mr. Wright's own dwelling, then the most 
beautiful house in the country, was on that pretty elevation above the 
present tollgate- Mrs. Judge Scott, whose husband was a very distin- 
guished gentleman of the law for some time in Bytown, resided in it 
with her daughter for years. Mrs. Ruggles Wright lived in one of the 
new stone houses built as the beginning of the city of Hull. Mr. Tiberius 
Wright was on the east side of the Gatineau, where his son Alonzo 
occupied. Mr. Christopher Wright dwelt near Chelsea on the hill above 
what was called the rafting ground, this side of which stands the little 
village of Ironsides. Mrs. C. Wright, his second wife, was a daughter 
of Mr. James Armstrong of March, our next neighbor. He was a clear- 
headed man, full of entertaining stories of the early history of the settle- 
ments, as well as that of his native Cavan, Ireland. He was no dishonor 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEt. 1 8; 

to the land either of his birth or of his adoption. He and my father 
were g^reat adepts in the science of numbers. Discovering mv growing 
fondness for the same, his genius led him to search and send us many a 
puzzler, and was tickled and pleased to get the solution written out and 
sent him. Mrs. Tiberius Wright, Jr., has a fine large fannily of cbi! ren 
and live south of the homestead. The home of Mr. Aionzo Wr j^ht, 
M. P.. for a long time in Ottawa county, is well-known to rich and poor. 
A magnificent frame house with a large well-stocked conservatory, and 
the most beautiful surroundings, well becoming the monarch of the 
Gatineau, who dispenses the hospitalities in a style and manner little 
short of princely grandeur- The large farm on the east bank of the river 
is very fine indeed, exhibiting several naturl terraces, all facing the 
southwest, and whether garden- or orchard, cultivated fields or pastures 
and meadows, present an aspect so picturesque, on so grand a scale, and 
with such taste, showing as it were the artificial finish of, a master's hand. 
His fields of the finest cows, his stables of blood horses, and what some 
greatly admire (though we never could), a perfect stock of dogs— some 
lion-like in their huge size, all indicating immense wealth. 

The Sparks's' wealth vvas prodigious. North of Mr. Wright the 
Main family reside, -grandchildren of the late Mr. Andrew Main, so lon<j 
a successful merchant in Ottawa. They lost their father years ago and 
a son was drowned below Eaton Chute. The widow was a Miss Hamil- 
ton. She has a large and fine family. They did not belong to the 
early inhabitants. On the west side opposite the Wrights, were the 
Steeles, Brooks, Hudsons, Churches, Sheffields, Chamberlains and many 
others had taken lands on which afterwards the villages of Chelsea and 
Ironsides were formed. Andrew and David Blackburn migrated to Hull 
in 1829 and settled above Chelsea, Andrew on the west side. David 
took lot No. II on the nth range and 11 on the I2th range. They 
sailed from Glasgow on the 9th of July of that year on the brig Amity; 
Captain E. Roy, and in fiftyTone days reached Montreal. In two days 
more they got to Byto^m. Col. By was then on the canal works. They 
made application to the land agent. Burrows, and furnished with a list of 
vacant lots, were directed to Mr. Chamberlain. They were ferried over 
in a log canoe to see and take the lands. The next year Andrew a.ssisted 
the Chamberlain brothers to make their first timber, floated down the 
river above the bridge. Andrew's wife was a Mi.ss Pollock, and the\ 
raised a fine family of sons and daughters. One daughter is Mn;, 
Thomas Brown, who has two beautiful' children. Her husband is a fine 
prosperous man, besides a legacy is left her in the old land. Twenty- seven 
of the relatives are buried in the cemetery at Cantley. David Blackburn' 
the only surviving brother, is in wonderfully good health, considering 
his broken limbs and his diiificulties of locomotion. He is a cheerful, 
good old Christian, with a high appreciation of the value of religion. 
When a boy preacher, we remember meeting him at Wakefield, to 
which he walked or rode, and led the singing many a day. He is the 
only elder in the congregation in Cantley at the present time of writing. 
He told us he and his people were the only family six miles north of 
Mr Tiberius Wright and wife, who were then healthy, vigorous people, 
living where their son now resides. In the year 1831 Horace King 
brought a gang of hands to cut logs for the Hamilton mills at Hawkes 



l88 ' HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

bury. Mr. Justice Hamihon and son were a lifetime lumbering. Lum- 
bering now began to be pushed with a vengeance on the Gatineau. 
Wright, Chamberlain, Hall, Hamilton, Leamy, McGoey, Gilmour and 
many smaller concerns, secured all the limits thought to be worth taking 
ip; and bftught from the Government all the best of the lands available, 
o make farms for horses and oxen in summer time. Afterwards to raise 
shorthorns and others for beef, these farms were well cultivated. Dwel- 
lings, stores and all necessary buildings were erected, giving to each 
establishment the aspect ofa village. Mr. James McLaren, then a young, 
intelligent, aspiring man, saw a mill site, with a little thing in the way of 
a saw mill, which he purchased from a Frenchman, and began his mil- 
lionaire career. He bought logs from farmers along the river banks for 
75 miles, or as far as he could procure them, giving a fair price in cash 
or goods as they chose. He soon furnished flour and then oatmeal for 
the whole region above him on the river, and then drygoods and 
groceries. Next he set to spinning and weaving, becoming in a few 
years an extensive manufacturer, long before protection, for he was a 
Liberal, and was generally if not always successful. He died at Buck 
ingham some time ago leaving $6,000,000 or over and daily increasing. 
He built the great mills at Ne>v Edinburgh, which were burned before 
his demise. He purchased the Buckingham mills and acquired very 
large timber limits on the Lievre as well as the Gatineau. He stood 
very high in the estimation of men whose opinions were of much 
value. 

According to the account of Mr. David Blackburn, his father, Mr. 
Andrew Blackburn, was born at Kilbarchan, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 
December 9th, 1770; and his mother, Miss Isabella Lenox, born in Ster- 
ling, August, 1775. He died 29th April, 1855, and his \yife in January, 
i860, buried in CJantley cemetery. The father and two sons, Andrew 
and David, came out the same year together, and the mother and a 
younger brother, father of Lenox, came out the next year, 1830. James, 
the M. P., and the Capt. came out in 1832, the year of the first great out- 
burst of cholera in the British Isles. Janies was born in Glasgow, July 
22,1799. He married Miss Campbell, sister <of Sir James Campbell of 
Glasgow, as we have already narrated. The Blackburns were the highest 
up white settlers on the Gatineau in their time of location. John Knox 
Blackburn and his cousin, Lenox Blackburn, very excellent and intelli- 
gent young men, are yet unmarried. Mr. Robert Blackburn, now de- 
ceased, resided in New Edinburgh, where his family still reside. Hfe 
.was the wealthiest of all the relatives of that name, 

Mr. Ash was one of the early teachers in Chelsea. We baptized 
some of his children. He is long dead but his widow survives. Most 
of his children are married and in different parts of the country. Mv. 
Elder and his wife were early in among the settlers of Hull. He is dead 
some years, but she was alive at the house of her son-in-law, Mr. 
Mclntyre, near the Sixes, when we used to meet there. She is' the 
mother of Mrs. Reid, who has the post office above Eaton chute. Mrs. 
Eider must be nearly one hundred years old. About the year 1830, a 
Mr. William Davis came to the Gatineau beside' Mr. David Blackburn 
He had five sons and three daughters, one of whom Mr. Blackburn 
married. She is some time dead, but her son has a fine f«imil'> of sons 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1 89 

and daughters with whom Mr. David lives very happily in his old age. 
He persists in hoeing in the garden in summer, and following up the old 
honest industry. William Davis, the oldest son of the family got lost 
m the woods shortly after they located there and the people turned out 
with guns and horns to search for him but. were unsuccessful in their 
hunt. In his wanderings he came at last on a creek bank and turning 
down the stream till he reached the Gatineau, following it till he came 
out at Mr. Tiberius Wright's. An old writer savs if you want to find 
the ocean, "take a river by the hand and follow it down/' William 
must have had a rough pa.ssage over fallen trees and tha-ough brushwood 
but he seems to have seen no wild beasts, nor met with any accident; ' 
°"* h'skind reception and ready refreshments from the hospitable hands 
of Mrs. T. Wright must have been sweet after about sixty hours fasting 
d.nd exercise. A vigorous young Englishman can endure a good deal. 
We are willing to accord .the like powers to a Scotch or Irishman. 

Mrs. Blackburn, the present daughter-in-law of David, was the 
widow of his nephew before his son married her, which shows the esti- 
mate in which she was held by the Blackburn family. -Her sister is the 
wife of Mr. Davis, a son of the old pioneer, with a large family of nice 
children. Mr. Thomas Kirk from Londonderry, Ireland, came to the 
Gatineau shortly after the Blackburns and got land on both sides of the 
river and at a place where the stream is flat and placid for some distance, 
a thing not very common on that rapid river; there he established what 
was long known as Kirk's ferry. Teams and loads were ferried on a 
scow. ''That seems to have ceased as nothing larger than a small boat 
has been seen there for years. Mrs. Kirk was a Miss Greenj whose 
brother was a shipping merchant of Londonderry. Their family con- 
sisted of eight daughters and two sons. The eldest son was a surveyor 
and dwelt at Stratford, Ontario. On a visit there we met a son of his, 
an intelligent yqung man; his father was out of town at the time. 

John Kirk, the other son, married a Miss Brooks and lived on the 
right bank of the river opposite his father. They are both dead .some 
years. Two daughters of theirs are married to two brothers by the name 
of Green, their grandmother's maiden name. One lives in Hull city, 
the other in Chelsea. They are very intelligent young men, employed 
in the lumber at present but well qualified for any employment. The 
ladies are very accomplished and pleasant women. Another sister is 
Mrs. Brooks at Lowe, One of their brothers lives near Desert and the 
other at Detriot, Michigan, U.S. Mr. Kirk's eldest daughter was Mrs. 
Eaton, now in the United States. The second was Mrs. John Steven- 
son who had nine daughters and three sons. The sons are on and near 
the homestead. One daughter is Mrs. Hutton near Desert with a fine 
family, one is Mrs. Samuel McClelland also a fine family, another is Mrs. 
Blyth of the city. Some young members are at home yet unmarried. 
Mr. Hutton was in the employ of the McLarens in the lumber business. 
He is now a very successful, farmer. 

Another of John Stevenson's daughters is Mrs. Paterson, who lives 
on the river bank a few miles east of the Peche, where a son is now a 
merchant. The third daughter of T. Kirk became Mrs. Ricar aunt by 
marriage to Mr. Wright ex-M.P. The family we believe live in the 
U.S. The fourth daughter became Mrs. William Strachan. She is the 



I90 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

mother of seven sons and three daughters. Two of the sons are dead. 
One was Drought home ill and died. Another was sujierintending a 
large gang in a quarry and was blown up and his remains brought home 
for burial. Two brothers and one sister live with their mother, now a 
widow. One is doing well in the Western States. Two live east of 
Cantley. Thomas is married to Miss Church, and Alexander to Miss 
Earle of Wakefiuld. One daughter is Mrs. Charles Pink, at the moun- 
tain, Hull; the other lives up the Ottawa. Widow Carman is the fifth 
Kirk daughter, has five sons ar.d four daughters, all married but one 
and live in various parts around about. Mrs. Heney was the sixth. 
Mr. Heney is one of our wealthy citizens. Tl^eir eldest daughter died 
very young, very highly spoken of, and one son was drowned, a young 
man of fine parts and very much esteemed. The other son is lately 
married to Miss Street, daughter of the well-known John Street, son' of 
the old Captain of Maich. One married daughter lives in New Bruns- 
wick, one in the eastern townships, and we think two at the St. 
Lawrence, whilst the j'oungest, best and beautiful one is but recently 
married. The seventh daughter of Thomas Kirk was drowned in the 
Gatineau, a dangerous river, from its steep rugged banks. "She was the 
loved of all, yet none o'er her low bed may weep." The eighth was 
Mrs. Cliamberlain, lived as Kazabazua, died young. Mr- Chamberlain 
afterwards married Miss Stevenson, daughter of Thomas Stevenson. 
She is now a widow with a son and a daughter, both young. 

On the same side of the river with the Eaton chute, between and 
opposite Mrs. Reid's post office, Mr. Paterson resided, who died recently. 
He began life on the Gatineau as a teacher, and followed it for years 
successfully, and then settled down as a farmer. One of his sons is at 
McGill College preparing to be a Presbyterian Minister. One lives at Buck- 
ingham. One on the homestead with his mother and two sisters and his 
wife, v/ith a daughter and two sons, very pretty, well behaved children, 
and their mother, grandmother and aunts are all very sup>erior women. 
The family are all very liberal in their views regarding other demonin- 
ations, but distinguished Presbyterians never disturbed by the short- 
lived spasmodic efforts of others trying to get a foothold where they 
have none, and almost lio people without prosyletising. A young 
energetic farmer and miner, Mr. Wilson lives near them and the Messrs. 
Blackburn. He has built a fine house and seems very prosperous. His 
wife is a Miss Cooper of the neigbhorhood. They have several children. 
Mr. Davis, a son of the old, pioneer, lives close by on the main road from 
the city. Mr. Prudhomme keeps store and hotel close by, a very oblig- 
ing Frenchman. Some years ago a Mr. Brown lost his life and drowned 
his team attempting to cross at one of these ferries. The banks are as 
we have said very steep, and Mr. Brown drove his team down and the 
horses got on the scow, and the wheeh struck with force but did not get 
on. and the ferry-man either had not made it very secure, or the shock 
drove it from hs moorings, the waggon went down between thebat^ and 
the boat, taking horses and man with it, and there was not help or 
means to save the life of either man or animals. 

There is a fine macadamized road on the west side of the river frofB 

Hull to Wakefield; and a fairly passable road on the cast side and both 

., olonged over a hundred miles north ; but the river is bridgeiess to ite 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. I9I 

source except the one bridge at Mr. Alonzo Wright's, two miles this side 
of Chelsea. The people think it too expensive to build bridges even 
where they are much needed. The government of Quebec are so 
greedy, that all that can be raised in revenue cannot half satisfy that 
greed, and since it was a province the men of all shades in politics, 
brought up in the same extravagant school, have run it so hopcIe.ssl.y in 
debt that nothing of any consequence can be obtained for roads or 
bridges excepting where the creamy rich milk-producing contractors can 
afford to nourish the sucklings of the legislature. The helpless people 
cannot be taught that public works cone by governments cost' double 
what they would by private enterprise. 

We should have said Willi,am and Andrew Blackburn are unmarried. 
John Knox Blackburn has a fine wife and a fine boy. We made a mis- 
take in the name. At Cantley proper the store "is run" by the Messrs. 
Brown, a blacksmith shop by a Mr. Brown, married to a Miss Brown, 
daughter of Andrew on the river bank. The widow Brown is a sister of 
Mr. James Walker, formerly of Aylmer. David and Andrew Brown are 
brothers of Thomas, noted above, the wealthiest, but the others are good 
comfortable farmers. Mr. McNeil is a mill owner. The Gows, Thomp- 
sons and Mulligans are good farmers. East of these is the Catholic 
church. A large French and Irish settlement is exten'ded towards the 
Lievre. North east of it Portland has a few settlers and a Presbyterian 
church that was supplied some years by Rev. Mr. Borthwick, afterwards 
by^Rev. Mr. Findlay in connection with Cantley Presbyterian clurch. 
These have been more recent than some others in the county that vvill 
come in for consideration in good time if we are well and able to ro it. 

Several brothers named McClelland, very intelligent and comfor- 
table farmers, with large well brought lip families, strictly temperate, 
youths of both sexes, that must do well and make the world the better 
for having lived in it. John Smith keeps a nice little store beside the 
church facing to the west towards Mr. Cooper's. Mr. Smith is reputed 
as most honest in his line of business, and the least disposed to ex- 
tortionate prices. Good men ought to pray that sUch men may be 
multiplied by the thousand. We have many times visited the United 
States, eastern, middle and western, and wc have been over this Domin-. 
ion from the City of Quebec to Sarnia many times, and the impression 
made upon us is indelible that the percentage charged by most mer- 
chants and traders in the United States and British America, are, when 
compared with that of the like business men in the British Isles, simply 
extortionate. If a fortune is not made in 25 or 30 years, it is a dead 
failure. Now if, one man can accumulate $100,000 or $500,000 or $1,- 
000,000 or ten millions in a few years, how many are kept grinding in 
poverty to permit such amassing of wealth in one or a few men's hands ? 
Extortion is in men's esteem generally confined in money lenders and 
bankers and companies proverbially soulless. Does it not appear very 
conspicuous in lumber nierchants, dry goods men, railroad men, specu- 
lators in stocks, men not at all defective in the feelings of humanity but 
formed by habit to these high charges, and when the choice comes be- 
tween loosing or selling others out of house and, home, it takes th' m a 
ver^ short time to decide. They see as clearly as noon day the ha.rd- 
ship.^, self-denials, and even sufferings people endure, compelled to kve 



192 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

from year to year without becoming a dollar richer, but often many 
poorer; but the thing is too common to be noticed or make any im- 
pression. We have referred to a few callings, but it applies everywhere 
lawyers, doctors, mechanics, any man who charges more than a living 
profit on his labor and risks. It is true of men'who are able and do not 
aid according to the requirements, good objects as well as give in chari- 
ties and counsel to industry when they are not able to aid. Does it add 
to the happiness of humanity, that a few are unreasonably wealthy, and 
a million unreasonably pinched with distressing poverty? We hail as a 
heaven-given boon to society the man or the woman, the lady or gentle- 
man who canwith quiet calm, loose or cut the gordian knot; that the 
tyrant custom has formed and help with their gentle, or their strong 
bands, or contrive, invent or in any wise legitimately encourage to a 
bettering of the condition, by finding employment or starting new in- 
dti'^tiies, so that people can make a living, and at the same time cultivate . 
in their souls a higher ideal, of the dignity of an intelligent being 
formed in the image of the glorious Creator. 

Thank heaven there are samples of the race coming to the front, ' 
who are destined to give a new trend to the world's history, and a new 
aspect to human society. This wi.sdom that stimulates to honest labor, 
or that in vents, time and labor-,saving instruments is from God, and 
should be respected as His gift. But the talent to rob, to deprive of the 
means of living, to impoverish, or prevent meri from making ends meet, 
paying lawful debts, rising honestly in the world, is to pervert the God- 
given talents from their proper use, and to employ them in the service 
of the enemy. Shall we take the talents that God gives herewith to 
work for Satan ? Is this not to pervert the history of the race. Is it not 
to inflict untold misery on the race ? What multitudes of parasites the 
race exhibits, leeches that would prefer to explode rather than not ex- 
tract the last pound from the victims ? If this should be considered a 
digression, we make no apology for it; since myriad voices over the 
earth call so loudly for it as a remonstrance of the million against the 
hundred. Going northward on the east of the river you pass the Stery 
settlement and Easy's, all reliable and good industrious farmers. Mr- 
and Mrs. Story are well advanced in years, but active for their time. 
Most of the family are married and settled around. These old people, 
like the Widow Smith and the several others, were among the pioneers 
in this quarter. WUson's Corners is so named from Mr. Wilson, who 
keeps a little store there. Mr. Wilson is from the Chats, son of one of 
the earliest settlers of that place, and a connection of the Sheriff's, the 
first possessors of the bank of the river at that beautiful falls. 

Mr. Story carries on a blacksmith business, and Mr. McGlashan 
carriage-making at the Corners, both successful men in business. Mrs. 
Wilson was a Miss Boucher from March, Ontario; Mrs. Storey was a 
Miss Smith from Aylmer, and Mrs. McGlash.7.n was Miss Brown from 
Cantley, each possessing considerable merit as wives and mothers. We 
ascend a high hill and are in the Stevenson neighborhood, and they are 
a host and occupy both sides of the Gntiiieau for milesi Opposite Mrs. 
Reed's post office res ded a very honcsi, honorable man, Mr. Patterson, 
who died recently. He began his career as a teacher and followed it up 
with perseverance and success for several years. Mrs. Patterson tkoueii 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. I93 

well advanced in years only died lately. They have had a larg[e family 
most of whom survive. One son with his wife, a little daughtc and two 
sons live with his mother and two sisters in the old homestead, a beauti- 
ful place on the river side below Eaton Chute. One son lives in Buck- 
ingham, ajnd one is at McGill College preparing for the Presbyterian 
ministry. He is a studious young man of talent. The family were 
sober-minded Presbyterians, never carried away by the noisy demon- 
strations sometimes got up in their surroundings. Mrs. Patterson and 
Mrs. Smith were sisters- Mrs. Boon with a large family of daughters 
and some sons, was among the early settlers np the Gatineau. Her 
husband with several relatives are buried at Cantley cemetery, where 
very recently Mrs. Boon sr., was interred, a very old lady. Mrs. 
Stevenson and Mrs. Cooper are sisters, whose brothers, the Maxwells, 
occupy the west bank of the river not far from the Cascades. Mr. James 
Reid now resides at the Cascades and one of his sons keeps store there, 
another is on the old homestead. 

Mr. Reid is one of the few that first associated together to form a 
congregation of Presbyterians in Wakefield. Mashstm was at first a 
preaching station in connection with Wakefield, which has the honor of 
being the first organized Presbyterian church in the county of Ottawa. 
Hull had a Congregational church. The Kirks, Reids, Gordons, Max- 
wells, Stracbans, Pattersons, Stevenson.s, Moncriefs, McLarins, Fairbairns, 
Pritchards, Nesbitts, Gibsons, McNairs, Duncans, and a multitude of 
others we could mention, formed the congregation at first about the 
year 1846. That is about 46 or 47 years of age. , The eldership was 
composed of Strong men who were well read in Script'ire and the prin- 
ciples of the Presbyterian church. James Reid, Thomas Stevenson, 
John Pi^'tchard, Foster Moncrief, John McNair, Thomas Duncan, M. 
Kennedy. Their first pastor was Rev. John Corbett, a student of Bel- 
fast, the school of Cook, Edgar, Hannah Kairns and others. Mr. Corbett's 
attainments were of the moderate order, yet the church grew under his 
ministry. Masham from a little station developed into a large one. Wake- 
field church at the Peche was a long time the largest portion. Now 
Masham is the greater. It is a fine church and a wealthy congregation 
in appearance. 

The settlement has good land, well cultivated and exhibiting all 
agns of prosperity. The great disruption of 1844 in Scotland was car- 
ried to Canada and a series of services were held by deputations from 
the Kirk and the Free Church. Wm- Burns^ afterwards the first mis- 
aonary to China, travelled over the provinces, preaching everywhere, he 
could, not so much as a Free Church man, as a great revivalist, for which 
there was necessity and his faithful labors were greatly bles-sed to many. 
Rev. John McT . ish preached in English and Gaelic and was a great 
juccess- Rev. John McDonald also Rev. Thomas McLachlan and many 
others came. . The res»lt was that at .the next meeting of the .Synod, 
the thing was discussed, and they divided, 39 remaining with the estab- 
Kshment and 23 leaving and forming the Free Church of Canada. Mr. 
Thomas Wardrope, a student of Queen's, Kingston, who had not com- 
pleted his course, but was then teaching the Grammar school ju'st 
founded in Bytown, and united with the Free Church, and was caikii 
by that party to be pastor of Sandy Hill church, Daly street. He waf 



ISgiJ. HTSTOICY (W THE QOTit'WA VALLEY. 

ordamed m fthe little stone church then owned by the MetiuKltats iv 
'Upper Town as it was then called) by the Presbytery of Kir^gstor., 
Two ministers from that Presbytery, Rev. Mr. Gordon of ChtiK-r-t'qtie, 
and Rev. Mr Smart of Brockville, with Dr. Robert Bums from Toronto, 
and Rev. Andrew Melville, just arrived from the Free Chirtxh C'f Scot- 
land formed the Ordaining Presbytery. Dr. Burns preached, presided 
and put the questions to the young minister, Mr. Melville oiTcred the 
ordination prayer, which Dr Burns afterwards conrimented on for it.". 
peculiar excellencies, Mr. Smart gave the charge to the minister, Mr. 
Gordon to the people. Dr. Burns took great care that everything was 
done to avoid the possibility of litigation. When the minister signified 
his acceptance of the call, Dr. Burns, at the proper time, requested Mr. 
Smart to go outside the door and proclaim three times that if any otic 
objected to the ordination he must do it then. The gentleman btUv, 
English, and from the Congregational Church originally, and unacquairti 
ed with the Scotch mode of procedure, returned and reported that he 
found no one at the door to address. The Dr. told him to go and make 
his proclamation even if he found no one, which he did, atnd retitroed to 
attend to his other duties. In his address to the pastor he said yon aero 
not to be a sheep thief stealing out of other men's folds. It was our privi- 
lege to be a school-boy in By-Town then, and be present at this meeting. 
No thought was taken of the organization of congregations. The first 
Free Church Presbytery formed here was that of Perth, and the first 
ordination in it was the Rev. John Corbett He had been called to 
Pembroke and preached there a day or two, but some one had naode a 
remark that reached him, and he ran away to By-Town without giving 
them time to make a respectable opposition to his qualifications. He 
v/as taken to task by the" Presbytery for his precipitancy. Mr. Wardtwpe 
had to act as a kind of Episcopos, directing the niovements of such 
ministers as came his way, so Mr. Corbett was sent to Wakefield and 
was accepted there. Mr. Wardrope moderated his caU as be afterwards 
did one for me atAshton, and another after that at Ayltner. Mr. Johnston 
of Ramsay, Mr. Melville of Perth, and Mr. Findlay of Datho»ttsie,(having 
come from the U- S.,)formed the Presbytery for Mr. Corbett's ordina- 
tion, Mr. Wardrope, the clerk, being absent. It was the Hsual custom 
to put the salary promised the miniver iti the caS. In twenty years 
experience in that Presbytery we never knew it to be omitted. Such a 
call would not be sustained, but ser>t back to be completed, or wotrid be 
rejected by the Presbytery altogether. The salary was four hutidred' 
dollars, a small amount compared with our days The congregatioRn ever 
got any aid in raising the ministers salary. There was nodtkif provided 
yet by the church to assist the feeble. Mr. C»rbett told us that John 
Supple of Pembroke, when they met, always left ten dollars rolled up in 
his (Mr. Corbett's) hand at parting, which was thoughtful and kind, being 
much.needed, as his salary was very small for years, or during his stay 
■ with them. The settlers were not wealthy for 'Some years, and they 
had much hard work clearing land, cutting saw logs, nnaking tirnber, 
securing clothing and provisions for young numerous families. The 
• place was healthy and prolific in raising loyal .subjects to her Britanic; 
:Majesty. Some of the ncof^le, like the Pritciiarcis and Curries, bad c««*€ 
frequently if not preti/ regularly to St. .'In.ir.w's to hear the Rev. 
John Cruickshanks m By-Towa. For the aew aaioi^er the 



\g HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. I95 

could raise only a very limited salary, but they seemed always to do 
their best. Mr. James McLaren always did a great deal of good for the 
congregation and very much for the ministers salary. One advantage 
they always had a good working session. Some of these yet live but 
are far worn, like Messrs. Reid, Kennedy, Stevenson, whose days are 
tiearly at an end, but their fidelity to their Great —aster and his glorious 
cause, will soon be far more than rewarded with crowns of glory. Some 
have died recently, though many are still yet alive. Abraham Pritchard 
is an elder in Hull. Thomas Stevenson is still about; his wife is a Trk- 
chard and there are two or three generations we can point out that 
seem to be worthy of such a pious ancestry. We wish the.m and their 
excellent, sound and generous-hfearted minister *and his very superior 
wife, the greatest sr;iritual and temporal prosperity. Having so often 
met so many of these people, elders and members, and knowing their 
soundness of views in redemption through the blood of the Lamb, we 
can freely indulge in. such wishes. Jt is quite a desirable k>cality. The 
scenery is picturesque in the extreme, hills and dales, niountains and 
valleys, table lands and plains, lakes and streams, abounding with the 
finny tribes, a rich diversified fiora ^nA fatina of the region, fcrtil* softs, 
salubrious climate, all these in the possession erf" a race of Britons; kealdiy 
hardy, intelligent, and by the way, good-looking. Such is Wakefield. 
Such is Masham. Can it be controverted. The Gatineau VaHey rail- 
road forced through so rough a country, is supposed to be of great ser- 
vice. It will carry freight and passengers more speedily than the oW 
plan, but there is not much to transport south so long as hwabering 
continues. 

It would not pay to carry lumber as the river is such tfeat k costs 
Kttle to float down logs and not one of them need be Itist. The current 
of the water will perhaps avei^age five miles an hour. Merchants wifl 
, get their fi-ci;^ lit quickly, but they will be kept high and dry »f customers^ 
unless they sell near the Ottawa prices. One can c®me down in the 
morning and make his purchases in the city and return ki the evening. 
The farmers used to keep many horses sometimes waggoning and sleigk- 
ing up goods, then in the winter drawing logs, whilst in the sureinaer 
they did their fai;m work. These are ne more on the road, and black- 
srniths get no such arriount of horse-shoeing and waggon repairing and 
sleigh-shoeing as formerly Many workmen are disnijssed, and things 
are tamed down from the busy bustle of other days, when the public 
roads were almost double tracked with heavy teams. New modes of 
farming must be adopted to suit the great changes. 

North Wakefield is a neat little village on the river bank with tbe 
store of Andrew Pritchard latterly in the hands of his son-in-law Blair, 
very lately deceased, a fine young man who was highly esteemed. The 
hotel is kept by Mr. Moore. There are some churches. Rev. Boyd, a 
Calvinistic Episcopalian, resides south of the village, a very well 'inferm- 
ed and friendly gentleman, who assures us that most of the mi!>isters of 
that 'denomination are Calvinists. Mrs. Andrew Pritcherd and some fflf 
her numerous faniily still reside in the place. She, was an Eady fr©m 
Hull, or Aylmer- Above this on the west side is the old McAfee- settle- ^ 
ment. The fatli. r was a great a friend of ours in youthful days, and his 
son in Alwin was not less so. The next place of halting is Farrelton, 



196 HISTORT OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

directly north of Mr. McGoey's home, with a fine stone Catholic Church. 
South 'of this is a scattered settlement penetrating into the hills, taking 
up such lands as are arable, and with what aid they get from the lumber- 
ing, carving out a living as best they can. The girls as they grow up 
come to the city and r K employment in various ways, and the boys go 
to the 'United States in many, if not most cases, thus depleting the 
country of its vigorous healthy young citizens, to build up a fortune for 
themselves, whilst they make as far as they can a prosperous country 
for our neighbors. We have in these hills iron, phosphate and mica. 
We dig no iron now, nor phosphate, but what comes with mica and the 
latter is not taken out so briskly as some time ago. W^hat is the matter? 
No market. War without peace in tariffs, has shut the markets. Would 
a typhoon or a cyclone wake up our government ? 

The Early settlers of Wakefield and Masham were nearly all raised 
and trained in the Irish Presbyterian church, one of the best schools for 
forming the minds of orderly Christians. The Scotch element was small 
hut good. The congrega.tion was self-sustaining from the first. There 
was no Home Mission fund to draw on and no station to associate them 
with but the shanties above them and the new formations of .settlements. 
Grou-'ing congregations was the plan to secure a living to the minister, 
but they had no station available. The modern plan of grouping in some 
cases is to secure the more money from the Home — ission, or the aug- 
mentation funds. * 

Mr. James McLaren's milling, store-keeping and manufacturing, 
brought in a goodly number that still remain and give good aid, but Mr. 
David McLaren has moved his, family to Ottawa since his father's death, 
which diminishes the number in attendance. The Episcopalians and 
Methodists have churches in these villages in a flourishing condition. 
The whole region. of country is well adapted for summer residences and 
for tourists and painters. They could hardly light on a spot that would not 
afford a sketch of scenery worthy of the best developed talents. The 
scenery on the Baltimore & Ohio, the Panhandle, the Catawissa and the 
blue ridge of Virginia are greatly admired, 90 are the hills of New Hamp- 
shire, the green mountains of Vermont and the Banks of the Andro- 
scogan, but we question if any of these could take the palm from the 
Gatineau country hills, lakes and Streams for over a hundred miles. We 
have not crossed the Rockies, but we have seen nothing so wild in all 
states this side the father of waters as to excel the beauty of these 
northern acclivities. 

Health seekers will soon discover that it is the land for them to 
visit. Its splendid springs, fine lake fishing, and shooting in the moun- 
tains, the healthy nutritious vegetables, and the mutton and beef, 
turkeys, geese, ducks, and poultry of all kinds, with fresh eggs, milk and 
the best butter and cheese are enough to attract in great numbers. 
Houses of entertainment are plentiful, but ere long far superior struc- 
tures will be prepared, and their visitors and occupants will not be few. 
Then 'the doctors must not be left out. To begin with Chelsea, which is 
fairly among the hills. Dr. Davies stands so high in his profession with all 
that know him, that it suffices to say that he is physician to the Kirig of 
the Gatineau, who has deservedly passed on him the highest encomiums. 
The doctor is a hard working man, with wide range of travel and a vast 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA. VALLEY. I97 

practice. Mrs. Dr. Davk is a Pritchar,d and weH sustains the « linofetrjs- 
ive respectability of her ancestry. They have at WakefieW Br. \ 
Stevenson, a son of elder Thomas Stevenson, whose good eld lady is a 
Pritchard and aunt of Mrs. Dr. Davis. Dr. Stevenson stands very high 
in his calling and in the esteem of the multitude. He is favorably known 
far and near as an excellent and a safe and skitful practitioner. The 
honest well-established reputation of these physicians makes it safe for 
stranojers who may have to consult them. The hotels of Mr. Moore and 
Mr. Dunn and others at Chelsea, and Mrs. Johnstone and others at 
Pcche furnish the best entertainment. 

Our first visit ta this region above North Wakefield was made on 
horseback about the September of 1856 in cempany with John Corbett. 
The occupants were thinly spread out between Parrels and old Mr. 
Brooks, the father of the multitude of that name now settled round 
about the old place in Lowe. The old gentleman and his good old lady 
entertained us very kindly, and utterly refused to take any remuneration 
as we were on a mission to the upper settlements. Many of these people 
were our old neighbors. Having spoken before a great audience in our 
boyhood, or college days, and been reported to the papers in rather rose-, 
colored style by a young friend who now lives in K v Edinburgh : A 
Botice that created a summer's controversy between the Bj^own papers, 
a poetic defender referred to us as the boy preacher. When the Upper 
Gatineau people heard of the boy preacher being available for a visit, 
sent him the politest kind of invitation to come and spend some days 
among them. We were in the habit of playfully speaking of our friend 
and travelling companion as the vicar- Well, the vicar rode a peny 
larger of course^ than a Cotswold sheep, with a profuse decoration «f 
hair, 'i'lie little fellow ambled along at the Irishmjin's "three feet gallop" 
whilst ours was a dark grey, tail and lengthy, from a "Messenger" sire, 
and a French-Canadian dam. He was a very fast but rough tretter, 
and was sold to one who loved the turf and became a great prize- 
winner. 

Lowe then was a forest with few patches cleared. In rainy weather 
it is \et very deep and dirty in places; then it was nearly impassible, one 
held the horses at the gully whilst the other got through on logs and 
roots. One horse was sent through and caught by the first man, the 
other sent after at a safe distance, and followed not too closely by the 
other man. Tlie little horse half waded, half swam, the taH one threw 
mud high and far in his passage through. The saddles had to be care- 
fully wiped with leaves to allow a remount; sometimes we took the .nar- 
row path round these deep pits, through the tall brush, pushing through 
between a large tree and a high perpendicular rock, with our toes held 
pretty near the ears of the horses to keep from being rubbed off. Fire 
often flashed from the shoes as the horses climbed the steep rocks. We 
reached the Gilmour farm and took tea with Mr. Lunam, now an elder 
near Campbell's Bay, a very aged man. by this time but still living. We 
reached the Hamilton farm before dark and spent the night with a very 
hospitable couple with no family, Mr. William Leslie and his wife, a Miss 
Gibson from Masham. A few settlers like the Keeleys, Chamberlains, 
Gabies, were thinly drawn out along the road from Stag Cretk and 
Lowe. 



198 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Kazubazua was only the stream with its natural stone bridge. The 
present site of the village was not cleared then, but was a beautiful pine 
forest, with unlimited supi^^ly of blue-berries on the sandy plains. Mr. 
Andrew Pritchard built a mill and dwelling on the little river bank where 
his son Andrew now does business. He is a very kind, obliging, good 
business man. His wife is the handsome daughter of Sergt. Brock of 
Aylwin and they have very pretty children. We can speak personally 
of their kindness and polite attention when we lived near them. We 
remember calling the attention of the yicar to a tree standing on a bare 
stone and that sitting on a large flat rock. The roots went down around' 
the stone and entered the fissures of the rock, mooring it there in the 
most secure manner to the soil, if such it can be called. There it stood 
waving its green flag in lights and shades, in storm and calm, living and 
thriving in health and vigor in spite of such hard and harsh nursing. 
Such a lesson in botany. We did not speculate on how the seed ger- 
minated on the cold barren stone and struck its rootlets around it with- 
out dying in* the drought, or whether the earth once covered it but was 
washed off by the rains of years. That remarkable tree had inhaled the 
heat of many a summer, imbibed its rains and dews, weathered many a 
■ wintry blast and pelting ice storm. The cold bare stone on which it sat 
could not be removed without cutting away more than half its roots; 
then a sudden squall would have laid its head in the dust. It suggests 
how the branches of the race who have received revealed religion, have 
held with the most unrelaxing grasp the sacred Scriptures. Without 
these the lining preacher would be a shorn Sampson or a dead branch 
in the vine, it is the oil to his lamp. It is the fire to his gfehius, the life 
01 his life, his spiritual wealth, his treasury. It can decide controversies 
lor those who would not admit human authority. It inspires with the 
• love of freedom and development. Without it the most elevated, civil- 
ized races would descend from the fair ahd heakhy regions of enlighten, 
ment, to the feted, dismal, deep swamps of barbarism. Truly to receive 
it is to receive itsDiiine Author. We could not now point out the lo- 
cality of that peculiar tree. The mountains and hills of this region were 
then covered from base to summit with the gumnay balsam, the curved 
ki oUy spruce and the evergreen pine. 

Years ago tie devouring; fire ran over and consumed those lovdy 
.=ceiics laying bare the rocks, strewing them with black burned brands, 
stiisrips and shattered fragments, leaving them for a time a perfect deso- 
lation. But nature has kindly come to the rescue, and clothed tiie naked 
waste with balm of Gilead and poplars, pretending to rival neither in 
beauty nor value their predecessors, but a vast improvement on the bare 
jag-ged rocks and ru,gg,ed cliffs, and if not again consumed, wiH become 
forests of pulpwood, when the spruce and fir families have been ex- 
hausted. Leaving Pritchards you pass Chamberlain's house and smith- 
shop and across the chasm into the village witli its little Methodist 
church and the stores of Irwih and Grace; the tiotels of Barton, a 
Huntley man, and Marks, a Fitzroy man, and Snub, a liberal-minded 
French Canadian. 

Mr. James Robb, whose wife is a daughter of Elder Thomas Steven- 
son, pu' chased the cast portion of the. Gilmour farm, and the Joint 
brothers the west part Both these families were very obliging and 



I HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 1 99 

accommo'^atinp; \Vc held meetings on Sabbath afternoons and week 
evenings in the sdiool house on their lot. From this in the break-up ot 
the roads we were taken to visit a sick man up near Thorn, and having 
come on wheels without our furs in the sunshine, Mr. Marks generously 
wrapped us in his huge coon coat and at 3 o'clock in the morning after 
the roiigl-.est of drives that we remember, we reached the home and 
found the inmates old hearers from Ashton, Simpson by name. We 
talked long and pleasantly. We had to write his will, having some vo- 
cation in that line, but he revivpd and we understand he is still alive. A 
Mr. Anderson from Fitzroy has raised a large family of sons and daugh- • 
ters in the village. One son married a Miss Pritchard and has built ,a 
pretty house in the place. The other sons are farmers and mechanics 
living around Mr. Shipman's; the last house on the north side. Mr. 
Reid who had kept store in Lowe for some time has commenced at the 
new station. 

The railway gives Such accommodation to travel that these mer- 
chants must meet the emergency of the people coming to town for 
bargains. T. Lindsay, fresh from the country, is drawing crowds on 
Wellington street. They must encourage the growth and make the vil- 
lages meet soon though they be on the sandy plain.s, where the dead 
pines are swept off in the early winter for fuel, and the blueberries do 
so abound in their proper season and time. Going west from the railway 
you soon reach the bank of the Danford Creek, a branch or a tributary 
of the Kazubazua. Along this creek the road runs for miles. T'be 
settlement is pretty old for that part of the country. Shipman is a 
grandson of the Shipman, th~B first owner of a mill on the falls at Almonte 
60 years ago, when Wylje was Ion? the only storekeeper in Ramsay at 
that place, both reputed honest and honorable men in their times and 
employments. The Wiggins are connections of the local preacher of 
Ayhvin. Heneys are related to those of the city. The McKinnons, 
Mitchells and Camerons from that side also. The Milfords from Hunt- 
ley and the Howards and Hodgins are from Fitzroy. Then you have 
the Minors, Johnstons, Jamiesons and Cluffs, all from Ontario and 
farther southwest the Simpsons from Ashton. The farms have passably 
good buildings, respectable, and the fields generally in a good state of 
cultivation. Crops often fine, hay in all the samples of hardy grasses js 
very abundant, oats, barley, rye, even spring wheat and Indian corn can 
be made profitable crops on the elevated table lands and fertile valleys. 
This kind of country gives the greatest facilities for underdraining with- 
out which the fairest soils under the sun do not yield their full strength. 
A species of tile for which there is ample material could be, made, for 
covering a drain hollowed in the centre, say ten inches wide, twenty-four 
inches long, slightly arched and to lap at the ends ready to take the 
earth filling. Should men' .start industries of this kind to advantage the 
farmer and pay the tilemaker, and develope the resources of the soil in 
their fulness' drdrag along for another cycle without deviation from the 
old beaten paths ? The numberless streams, outlets of countless lak-es, 
that with swift currents have cut deep their channels, giving such facili- 
ties, surely the genius of the people, stimulated by necessity will make 
the'demand and the provision to supply the demand. Such a tile could 
be made flat on each'side.say about two irxhcs, to lie on the earth bank, 



'SCO HISTORY OF tHE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

and arched up by say two inches high in the middle. The centre of the 
draiq. could be pared out two or three inches below th.e sides and leave 
space for a good current of water to flow all winter. The fields would 
be in condition for cultivating two weeks earlier, the nature of the soil 
changed and the results of careful labor perfectly surprising. 

Opposite the region we have taken our readers over, and east of the 
river, John Robert McConnell and his wife a Miss Adams, own a farm 
of three or four hundred acres of fine land, with thousands of acres of 
rocky pasture that can never be purchased except it contains mineral. 
The McConnells are like most of the people around them, northern Irish, 
though many of her people are in good government ofifices in England. 
He was sick all the first winter we spent there and being a worthy and 
honored elder in the congregation we saw them very often and were 
most favorably impressed with the excellency of their character and 
upright Christian principles. Mr, McConnell was agent in the north of 
Ireland for a nobleman there, doing a good business, travelling often to 
England, making sales of cattle and the like at which he was an expert. 
When they came to this quarter they bought the fine farm on which 
they have dwelt for several years. They would willingly sell it as they 
cannot manage it but by hired help which is too costly a luxury in our 
times. The restrictions put on commerce are such that what the farmer 
sells brings him nothing in return. What he uses or consumes has to 
make the fat livings for others who fatten on our revenues whilst the 
toiler slaves away on an income for his labors that his -torm enters laugh 
at. Will the day of these poor old "hayseeds" ever come ? Or are the 
farmers forever to be the hereditary bondsmen for political tricksters ? 
Well, we think Mr. McConnell would be as happy as secretary for Lord 
•Londonderry as the independent freeholder' of the county of Ottawa, 
with an estate free for ever which in some places would be worth an in- 
dependent fortune. His farm to a man with a family of boys would be 
a great boon, a very fine thing. Mrs. McConnell is a finely balanced 
woman, gifted with poetic humour and not only educated but trained. 
Her retiring nature prevents her from being known among poetical 
writers. At the urgent instigation of her. husband she read me some of 
her pieces — paintings of events and occurrences in the surroundings, 
which were true poetry, really bcau-.iful. They would not disgrace some 
of the most highly esteemed poets in genius and choice of language, not 
only in t'le "Bonus Homerus dormitoV moods, but in their brighter, more 
elastic an.:! ecstatic states of mind, when the afflatus is the morehappily 
felt and acted upon. 'The Burial of Sir John Moore", "The Fall of 
Senecharib" or "Lord Lochinvar", would not outshine some of her 
modest pieces that few have ever heard. She would not have let tfaem 
appear but at the urgent request of her husband. Hers resembles tfee 
genius of Burns in vv-orkiiig up little occurrences, that ever.y one might 
do, but that scarcely any but those gifted in that particiJar line ever can. 
The poetic vein is admirable but the fine conjugal care bestowed oa her 
husband in his feeble health, was most endearing and commanded tiic 
respect and esteem of every one. 

We regarded these people as those that would have been of signal 
aid in other societies but so far from every o le where the> are located as 
to be shut off from doing the good in their power, in other circumstances.* 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. 20I 

Several people on that river are alike thrown out of circles they might 
so well adorn, and offices they might so eminently fill. But it may be 
for the. good of some, even many, that they are there- They keep a 
large rowboat for a ferry but the banks are very steep in the winter to 
take loads up and down. The ice is generally good as the current is not 
swift. There are several places where the river could be bridged, but 
the cost to the farmers would be very heavy and the province is hope- 
lessly in debt by the squandering of senseless politicians, that no such 
thing can be expected of them. Government aid is always a question- 
able plan as the money must in the long run come out of the pockets of 
the people, and on the indirect imbecile plans our people have been so 
long trained into, and they are so stagnant as not to be capable of seeing 
that it costs them now three times as much to furnish the means in- 
directly as directly, but they are so cast iron in mind that they cannot 
be induced to look at their own interest, or that of their country so 
blinded are they by party prejudice. They can give no reason for their 
conduct yet each cultivates more self-importance than twenty men that 
can give a reason. 

Mr. McConnell has been very useful as an elder in the congregation 
in the days of his vigor. We regarded him as a "primus inter pares" in 
that field where such men were much needed. He knows how to pro- 
duce the best of crops and raise the best of cattle, but he is near the 
time when the grasshopper becomes a burden, when the strong men bow 
themselves and those that look out of the windows be darkened. He is 
a man of extensive reading and thought, converses well on most sub- 
jects and is very social in disposition. His acquaintance with relisjisiis 
principles is extensive but his hearing is defective which is against tbe 
free flow of conversation, and troubles him a good deal in the cfearcfe 
meetings. There is nothing narrow or contracted about him. His 
reading is from the best sources on both sides in p<^itics and his heart 
is large enough to love his neighbor as himself and with a pure heart 
fervently. He amd his wife are the most enlightened and devoted 
Christians we had the pleasure of being acquainted with in that mission 
fieW. When in his vigor he must have been a model man as his wtfe is 
a very superior woman. 

West of the river northward is the fine farm of Mr. Heney, a com- 
f«»table farmer, whose lands extend to the road joining Sergeant Brock 
on the old Hamilton farm. He has been successful in raising a stock of 
Shetland ponies, very pretty and fine little drivers. There is but one 
farm occupied between Kazabazua and his place that of the late Robert, 
Reid, an elder in the church at Aylwin. Only one daughter survives of 
Mr. Reid's 'family. West of Mr. Brock towards the new railroad the 
land is good. The first farm is that of Mr. Robert McAfee, an estimable 
elder in the church, a man of very liberal disposition and a trusty friend- 
His kindly wife is a Miss Nelson from Masham, a connection of the 
Nelsons of Nepean. They have a fine family of sons and daughters. 
Tbe eldest son is married, has a nice wife and children. A son is is 
WakefieW in the McLaren store, and another at McGill College. Above 
iutm on the next range Mr. Morrison, wife and some fine healthy boys. 
On one side of them Mr. Anderson, wife and one fine boy. His father- 
in-law Mr. McCambly, wife and granddaughter, Miss Cooke, are very 



a02 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

musical. One son of Mr. McCambly is on the same clearing. Farther 
north, Mr. McNaily and' large farr^ily inclining to learning and teaching. 
Stephen Orr, brought up in March, moved- and settled there with a large 
family., He is in good circumstances. Mr. John McAfee and a large 
family of sons and daughters, some of them settled around him, an 
honest old couple they are. One son is a blacksmith in the village. 
Some other mechanics occupy the village. All of them keep cows. Hay 
is easily procured which is a great convenience betimes. On the south 
side of these is Mr. Molyneaux, whose brother fell in the American Civil 
War, and whose father after untiring efforts, got a pension from the 
United States. He has been twice married and-hasa large family. Mr. 
Erwin is another farmer close by. Then Mr. Bigley, with three beauti-, 
ful girls and some fine boys. A Mr. Draper from March went early to 
locate in that quarter with a large family of sons and daughters, most of 
them married, such as Mrs. Graham, Mrs. McConnell, Mrs. Wigans. 

Mr. Ellard of Pickanock, has a store in Wigan's place. But Mr. 
Ben Reid has been the leading business man in the place, with a large > 
family of sons and one daughter married, and residing in the city. The 
sons nearly all take to the mercantile life, and are very succes.sful too. 
Ben Reid's is about the only farm we knovi? there, level from end to end 
and not broken by rocks and mountains. W. Reid, his brother, is a 
farmer, but his very excellent wife was taken from him some time ago. 
They had three sons and a daughter. She is Mrs. Dr- Gordon, a very 
beautiful and good woman, with nice children. The Doctor is a very 
successful physician, stands deservedly high in his profession, and is also 
a kind, w;orthy, friendly gentleman. W. McConnell is now very ad- 
vanced in years and has several sons and daughters married and living 
round about him. A fine settlement is beyond the river opposite Ayl- 
win. Ogilvie, McCanns, Mulligans, sons of Thomas Mulligan of 
March who died lately, form part of it. Then further south is Mr. Quinn 
who is now rich through mica mines, sold at a fine advantage. Oppo- 
site Mr. Quinn lived an Episcopal clergyman, who went home to Eng- 
land at 70 or more and brought out a young wife.' We believe he is 
removed. There is an island in the river between them, where a bridge 
might be stretched across to great advantage. 

The Littles beside the Aylwin church are very substantial farmers 
and generous, kind, obliging men. Orw of their sisters, an industrious 
young woman, is married to Mr- Moody, a connection of the Moodysin 
this city and Nepean. They reside near the Pickanock on fine. land. 
Some beautiful hills stand round insight from Aylwin. The place, is a 
paradise for health. What John McMahon said of Aylmer to a newly- 
come resident ts very applicable to this region : "Aylmer is a very 
healthy place. No priest ever died here yet." In our excursion there 
nearly 40 years ago we started up in a bark cartoe and landing on the 
point at a bend or curve in the stream, we saw a whole fleet of both 
bark and log canoes after the service in a little log church. Mr. Thos. 
Mulligan invited all present to dine with him and have a service after- 
wards. We sailed up, and Mrs. Mulligan, a very kind, hospitable lady, 
had dinner waiting; splendid potatoes of large growth, and Down's 
mutton, with a fine variety of all other good things, to which, k seemed 
to us, they did very ample justice. After the large crowd was served. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 20^ 

the religious services began, many standing outside for want of room. 
Then we sailed 'down to Aylwin in rain, landed in darkness, found many 
in the schoolhouse who stood on the benches, affording as much accom- 
modation as possible, but when the desks were covered with youths, 
their was limited standing room for the wet subjects from the canoes.' 
The light was one dip, a sixteen, like a dim religious light, but it was 
very interesting to meet so many old acquaintances. No injury was 
sustained by the rains. Looking over the audience old Mr. Draper's 
tall iTg' ire was towering above the rest. The greetings were long and 
pleasan'j at the close as we scattered to their homes for the night. The 
most lasting impressions were made upon us by that visit. The wild 
. grati'.letir of the scenery, th^ deep interest of the settlers that brought 
them far and near to the meetings ; above all, the opportunity of telling 
tiiem the stor3^ of Redemption were all most delightful. 

Leaving Aylwin and passing the McAfee place, lives Hugh Bigley,. 
whose wife is a daughter of Mr. John McN/air, formerly plder in Mashara 
or Wakcfielti. They have a good-sized family, chiefly girls, some mar- 
ried. Mr. B'igle'y is a sctiolar and does some, surveying, not legally, but, 
for the accommodation of those who wish to know the bounds of their 
lands to looate the discoveries of minerals and such like. North of this 
settlement is the little church building of the Episcopal church, and be- 
side it a Scotch family, Cram from Beqkwith region, a successful farmer, 
with a large family. Still further north above the schoolhouse is James 
Stanger, for whom we signed papers to secure a free grant farm, as he 
had twelve children alive- He got the location papers, we do not know 
where he secured the lot. Isbister, an old PTudson's Bay man, lives near 
hkn. A. M'.rks keeps hotel further north. in the hills. He is a brother 
of Marks at Kazabazua and must do a good deal of business, having no 
csmpetitien. North east of this Mr. \V. Mitchell i'rom Huntley with a 
! a rgn: family. His eldest daughter i;? a Mrs. Mulligan, and has a fi»e 
family of sons and , daughters. They have a fine place and are very suc- 
c;.ssful in farming, bee-keeping and general business. 

The Pickanock is a rough-looking creek running east into the Gat- 
ineau. Tliere is a great high log bridge leading to the hill top, where ' 
the great hotel stands. Mr. EUard is the stirring spirit who gives vitality 
to most movements and enterprises at the Pickanock. His .first wife 
was a widow Wright. His second and present wife was a Miss Miller 
a sister of Mrs. Hastey, whose husband is a brother of Mr. Hastey in the 
city and a cousin of Mr. Thomas Patterson, of Her Majesty's Customs. 
Mr. Elkrd's family are all of the second marriage. Everyone you talk 
to there calls him the most enterprising man on the river. His policy 
• seems to be not to build a village round his store and hotel, as he permits 
only one of a trade to live near him. One blacksmith, one carpenter, 
one shoemaker, one tailor only heJ:olerates. Some that built on this lot 
without deeds can neither get the deed nor sell the houses when they 
lca\ e except to someone of their own craft. He mig'it rent them houses 
or give them a reasonable sum for indemnity for their outlay when they 
have to leave him. He has opened a new store in competition with the 
Reids at Aylwin, where Wiggins lately had his store and harness shop. 
This will make it lively at Aylwin. At Pickanock the roads diverge t© 
Desert, runnmg nearly parallel. One on the west is by a lake called 



204 HISTORY or THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

the Blue Sea or a series of lakes. The other is more or less on, the 
river bank. Take which you will you would soon, , like the Yankee, 
wish you had taken the other. The country is thinly occupied on both 
sides. Mr. EUard has not encouraged a village around him, perhaps for 
the reason that there is one a mile or two from him. He has a little 
Episcopal church near him. But there is a large Catholic church in the 
Victoria village close by. The Grace store and post office seems the 
principal store but there are many workshops, and the village has the 
appearance of cleanness, activity and thrift about it, a. pleasant place to 
drive through. 

Beyond this is a long range of country considerably broken but oc- 
cupied. Sometimes the residents are in sight of each other, in other 
parts not so near, and the vision obscured by hills around which the 
road takes many a wind and turn. We observed some very pretty 
yftung white oaks at intervals on the sides of the highway, which we 
greatly admired as we rode past. Why do farmers and others neglect 
to plant and cultivate oaks, hickories, elms and maples on the roadside ? 
A gentleman remarked of a young lady visitor, who found some of his 
family indisposed, and took an interest in helping them to convalescence, 
that she was not only useful but highly ornanBcntal. These trees would 
be decorative first of all and farms would seU better if their borders 
were so fringed with these vigorous growers. Then their lumber would 
be of great value in time- We could point out some oaks that a friend 
had taken great care of and that have grown rapidly in late years. They 
have not all grown alike but some of them in forty years, frorn rods, 
have become fine trees 50 to 60 inches girth a foot above the ground. 
One of these would rip up into a great many piieces for a carriage-maker 
or thesidifigsofthe but cuts would make the choicest pannelHng for win- 
dows, doors, wainscotting for'dining-rooms of solid stoirie houses. Build- 
ings that with people of understanding must become a thousand times 
more oopular than prejudice has suffered them to become hitherto. 
Maple s in a few years would become as valuable as milk cows in spring 
time. Plant gentlemen ! You cannot regret it in a country strippwd for 
fuel and denuded by forest fires, of its wealth aad fjiory, and guard 
against fires ss you would your fields of ripe grain. 

On the wayside beyond Victoria, in a little square enclosed on three 
sides, stands a great cedar cross where we are told many prayers were 
said in times past. It seems to have fallen into disuse; one arm is gone 
and the rest looks very dilapidated, almost ready to falH. It suggested 
the story told of the Duke of Gordon, and an old tenant of his who came 
to plead with hira against his bailiffs who had beea giving Sandy endless 
trouble. The Duke was out when he called, but the Duchess being a 
lady of great excellency and kind-heartedness invited the respectable 
looking old farmer to wait till the Duke came in. The Ehikes of Gordbo 
ire said to have been very happy in their marriages. WeM, the Duke 
came in and heard of the old tenant's trouble and prfl>mptly promised 
redress. Then the'kind Duke invited him to stay ankd dine,' an invita- 
tion which he thankfully accepted. So after dinner th« Duke took bins 
to see the rooms and in one apartment was an image of a saint, for the 
Duke had hot yet joined the Refenaets, so the oid farmer asked for ess- 
planatioBS which my Lord Duke freely gave hiai, alleging that the 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. 205 

worship was not of the saint, bnt to get her intercession. Ah ! said the 
old Reformer, "that was gist my trouble. I gaed to little Sany Gordon' 
and to muccle Sany Gordon, and ifl had na come to yer Great Grace 
yer sel, I would ha I -een driven out of house an hame. Go to Christ 
himsel, never mind tna interlopers." The story runs that the Duke took 
the matter into consideration and joined the Reformers forthwith. If the 
prayer reached the proper place it matters little about the rotting stick; 
great benefits will result to the earnest petitioners according to His riches 
in glory. The watering places are abundant, not to be driven through 
as in some parts but where you dip your pail and refresh man and beast. 
Teamsters nearly all carry their pails with them. We have seen where 
a pi-'e has been laid in a bank and connected with a box where a supply 
was kept up the year round at a very trifling expense : A wooden box 
pipe 2x2 inside with an iron pipe to connect it with the box or watering 
trough. The water runs over and down the ditch of the road. It is a 
great accommodation, and calls forth the gratitude of most travellers. 
Having taken you past these artificial wells that exist in our imagination 
but whose originals in nature are abundant for the opening up, we take 
some pleasure in bringing you to the habitation of a Scotchman, a Mr. 
' Bean, whose store and post office you pass, and whose little children are 
among the prettiest, most sprightly, intellectual and kindly, we have, 
met with for their years and opportunities. Mr. Bean has lost a first and 
second wife and is still a young man. He is very successful in trading, 
having spent years in Montreal and gained a varied experience, he came 
here and established a business and a reputation. It is a little Presby- 
terian settlement. 

McGee,' Mclntyre, and the Thompson brothers are across the river, 
also Wilsons, Shouldices and others. Fifty people could be convened 
at 7 p. m. on Sabbath evenings, of the most attentive hearers. Two or 
three miles bring you past as many dwellings and a French hotel, and 
you reach Mr. D. Brock's, a fine old gentleman offew words, being dull 
of hearing. Mrs. Brock and Miss Brock are among the most agreeable 
and energetic of that whole region. The snow-white table linen, the 
tastily-served-up viands, and the good grace with which you were in- 
vited would create an appetite independent of the rolling hills, the Cas- 
cades, the wild woods, and the muscular exercise in steadily holding your 
seat secure behind your nettled steed. This is the place, say travellers, 
for the best dinner on the road. It will be a grand place for summer 
tourists as there can be no healthier spot on the American continent. 
Here the valley begins to widen on each side of the stream. 

Mr. James Wright, who when a boy at school, was for years our 
next door neighbor, occupies with some of his brothers a most pleasant 
stretch of land, on the east side. The Wrights, Clellands and Grants 
and some others have their fine farms on the plain, stretching miles in 
length and .some depth to the hills which embosom them on the east, 
north and south, while the valley dips towards the west to the river 
bank. The soil is alluvial, deep, and fertile. Mr. James Wright lost his 
excellent wife some time ago, and has no family except by adoption. 
We made reference to the Gordon name above. We had a grandmother 
Mary Gordon on the paternal side and a grandmother, Rebecca Gordon 
on the maternal siBe, whom we never saw, but they are reported to us 



206 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

as having been the most earnest Christians in their conj^resfations. Two 
of our great grandfathers were John Gordon and James Gordon, sound 
intellectual seceders, and so liberal' and so far removed from bigotr>'^ .^s 
to be church-wardens in the English churches in their parishes, Presby- 
terians being sometimes the majority. This order of things kept peace 
on the detested tithe question which they were through long ages com- 
pelled to endure. They were Whigs, hard, level-headed, admiring a 
policy which Chatham, Burke, Fox and Sheridan and other gfeat intel' 
kcts were not ashamed of. Call them fo^il-eaters if you will, but e\ert 
rat soup was a luxury before the boom was broken in the Foyle below 
the maiden city. They hailed the advent of Dutch William and that 
rarest and best of princesses, whose true history has yet to be given to 
the reading world- Motley calls special attention to the battered helmet 
of Williams (in theNethcriands), whose stingy Queen would not replace it 
by a new one. The Gordons from Aberdeen and their friends of those 
times endured many a privation, suffered many a hard blow and lost 
many a fine colt and fat steer, in turning lands into smiling gardens arid 
fields of verdure and fertility, on the inhospitable slopes of the black, and 
till their coming, barren north of the Green Isle. 

We are grateful that we can look back to men worthy of so much 
honor who were lovers of freedom almost to idolatry. We look in vain 
for perfection in any man but the men of this name have obtained as 
high a position as any others in all the walks of life, literature, legislation 
and religion in the empire. Lord George said some hard things against 
the Government of his day and against the French Queen, but he was 
not then himself, his great talents were blighted and he: deserved better 
treatment than he received. Had an Oliver not the despotism of 
his times and compelled respect at home and abroad for the name of an 
E iglishman; had William not taught them toleration and lifted them to 
e,uipire and above the fear of enemies, England would have been today 
a fourth-rate power instead of holding the destinies of the nations in her 
hands as she does. The Gordon of our day who has only touched our 
soil is proving himself to be among the most elevated of intellects and 
the best ballasted of statesmen. The wisest a!nd most talented and up- 
riglit government on earth, under the most powerful and best beloved of 
sovereigns, in choosing such a man to govern the Dominion, has said to 
the world : 

"This is the man the British Empire delights to honor. He 
has thus far shown that he is. worthy, and there is not a man in this Dom- 
inion who has seen him, heard him or read of him, but endorses the 
wisdom of the choice and delights to honor the man as the most fit and 
suitable for the situation. It is also very gratifying to see in the press of 
our neighbors that they hold the same estimate of the noble Earl of 
Aberdeen. Then the Countess of Aberdeen is the image of healtb and 
happiness, so humane and so queenly; so gifted and so affable, with the 
endowment that would grace an Empress, and yet the gentleness that 
so deeply sympathizes with the daughters of toil, that she can without 
descending, inspire their minds and teach them how to better their con- 
ditions and rise with the progress of civilization and refinement Of this 
magnanimous self-denying Countess it may be truly said in the words of 
a distinguished nobleman : 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLETi 2Qff 

"Polite as all her life in courts has been, 

And good as she the world had never seen." - ; 

When we look at the system of the universe, lift up our eyes to the 
myriads of stars so hidden from the day, and ask ourselves were we on 
the most distant of these now within our range of vision, perched on its 
loftiest mountain summit, could we see other worlds as far .beyond, that 
are now hidden from our view ? If so, in whatever direction we roam, 
and wherever we turn our eyes, unlimited space occupied by archipela- 
goes of starry worlds, unfolds itself, then how inconceivably infinite and 
glorious must the Creator be whom the heaven of heavens cannot con- 
tain ? How infinitely great beyond conffeption are the perfections of 
that Being who can form countless (at least by us) millions of intellects 
like those we have faintly attempted to describe, bring them tbgetlier, 
qualify them for the supreme ,work of government and providentially 
confer them on a people so little deserving of such favors ! We hail 
their advent among us as a luminous epoch in the history of our j'oung 
Dominion. Could our humble pen give an adequate description of their 
excellent qualities or do full justice to their heads and their hearts, it 
would be the most, luminous page in our feeble effort to write a correct 
history of the Ottawa Valley, to which their Excellencies have come to 
sojourn and from this centre to govern, influence and bless 5,000,000 of 
people. If in the sacred v/ords of the sublime prophets our governments 
would "cease to do evil and learn to do well," if our people would influ- 
ence their friends in other lands, we might have accessions to our num- 
bers during the administration of the Earl of Aberdeen, as would actually 
increase us by millions. Hearing daily the statements of the people 
freely expressed — there is but one wish, one hope, one. desire, one 
prayei, that His Excellency's government during his term of ofiice may 
outshine that of all his predecessors in the happiness of his noble family, 
honest government in this Dominion, and having done their work well, 
may retire in health and, wealth, bearing- with them the blessings of a 
grateful people too fill the highest place and enjoy the highest honors 
within the gift of the exhalted sovereign of our great empire; and when 
full of days and a glorious career of doing good has been run, and their 
offspring has been fitted to take their place, that they "shall shine as the 
brightness of the firmament and as the stars for ever and ever." 

Returning from our pleasant ramble among the Gordons, many of 
whom occupy your river banks, we introduce you to Mr. Hastey, whose 
pleasant family hospitably entertained us. He has a fine large farm of 
beautiful fertile lands, and' he cultivates extensively. He has a great , 
stock of fine cows. He took us through his fields where the crops were 
very abundant. He lives about twenty miles from the Desert, the 
highest up village as a market place or depot for trading on the Gatineau 
river. At this place the sensible growth of the river and the wearing 
away ofits banks are very visible. The banks must be hundreds of feet 
further apart than they were when the first buildings were erected by the 
lumberers. At Aylwin they have had to bridge several cuts in the 
banks that carried parts of the public highway irito the stream. Quick- 
sand abounds in the bottoms of the banks, easily dislodged and the 
overflow in the spring and rapid current carries away the deposits. , 



208 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VAIXEY. 

From this farm northward the settlers are few till you reach 
Bouchette, a pretty little village, chiefly French, with a large well built 
Catholic church at the south end of the high hill top. The priest has a 
very fine, well-kept garden before his house, the best garden along the' 
riven showing a commendable taste, an extensive knowledge of small 
fruits and flowers, and great care and painstaking in designing and set- 
ting them off to the best advantage. If John Milton taught the English 
gardening, the priest of Bouchfette teaches his people practically the 
same, and the passers-by carry off a good impression of the intelligence 
and industry of the priest, as well as a conviction that even very far 
north many valuable things can be raised in gardens to the best advan- 
tage. The village occupies a great elevation above the river, the houses, 
being nearly all frame, are well painted, and the little place seems to be 
a!i\ e with artizans and mechanics. One solitary house passed, nearly a 
mile north of the village, and you ^nter a place of rocky woods like a 
defile and emerge on the clearing of that fine old farm at Sixes, known 
as the Hamilton farm. Now it is the Edwards farm, well cleared, well 
fenced, and wrought up to the highest state of cultivation, at least for 
these parts. The stock was originally the red, long and small horned 
Devons, quiet feeders, good milkers, moderate-sized cattle.' Latterly by 
crossing with short-horned Durhams they have grown to be large, well- 
formed and fleshy. The steers at 3 to 4 years old made splendid beef 
for the shanties. A few hogs only appear but poultry of all kinds from 
the large turkey and goose to the smallest chicken, seem to be exten- 
sively raised. These With calves, yearlings, etc., looked very fine, show- 
ing great care and attention. 

A friend travelled with us once who examined the very large stock 
of all ages,, and pronounced them as in fine condition and highly credi- 
table to those who had them in charge. Mr. McCallum of Cumberland 
spent some time on the farm; some time ki the woods superintending 
operations both summer and winter He is a man of intelligence, 
adapted to the position. Mr. Roddick is always there having charge of 
the store, post office, farm, and all else in the establishment. He is a 
gentleman thoroughly qualified at home in every department. He pos- 
sesses high attainments, a reader and thinker; everything on the place 
exhibits his skill, taste and refinement. Miss Clelland was hoi'sekeeper, 
with a younger assistant, who has since married her broth-.-ir. A better 
cljoice has rarely been made as everything seemed as orderly kept as if 
they expected compariy or the proprietor to drop in at any moment. 
Everything seemed to indicate that it was one of the pleasantest of dwel- 
ling places. Mr. Roddick is a brother of Dr. Roddick, a very successful 
physician in Montreal. One would naturally ask why this bachelor 
brother exiles himself from the society and the employments of a city 
for which he seems so well adapted, to the solitude of a farm and little 
store, away from church and almost from the habitations of men. He 
has of course very active employment, so many callers at the store, and 
se many hands on the farm, with all the management necessary at such 
a depot. We admired his Christmas decorations of the parlor that re- 
mained for weeks on exhibition, chiefly colored prints pinned up; his 
choice ofbooks for select reading proving the companionship he chooses. 
When D'Arcy McGee was told by an ignorant opponent in our Houwe 



r 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 209 



of Commons, that his eloquent speech was copied or plagiaristed from 
Sheridan; he, when an opportunity offered for defence, told the hon. 
gentleman that his statement was unfortunate as Sheridan had only- 
three speeches reported or printed, and these were delivered in connec- 
tion with the trial of Ws^rren Hastings and would not apply; but that in 
any case he preferred the company of good books to th^t of middling 
men. Mr. Roddick's spare time could be well employed though it 
seemed to us that his time was largely if not completaly mortgaged be- 
fore it came into his hands. The books were within easy reach, so that 
the odds and ends of time could be well employed. A son of Mr. Mc- 
Callums's, an active young fellow, was then on the farm assisting in the 
management of the large stock that appeared in so healthy and thrivinf- 
a condition. We could not help thinking that W. C. Edwards & Co. 
were to be congratulated on having so many reliable Presbyterians in so 
ma.ny places of trust and importance in so extensive a business. Leaving 
this Edwards farm, in a little time you are again in the rocky hills, sandy, 
gravelly, much broken, in a word, useless, unless the hills contain 
minerals not yet discovered. 

Passing these you come out on a level plain of some extent with 
good farms extending from Mr. Hutton's on the east, on the river bank 
to the west side of the block of table land, where Mr. Murphy keeps 
hotel and general entertainment for travellers. This land is like the 
Hastey and Wright farms, very good and productive. Creeks are nu- 
merous but not deep gorges, in many parts easily reached by stock in 
the pastures, clear limpid running streams. The surrounding swamps, 
furnish cedar in abundance for the best of fencing. Everything is easily 
taken to market here, as the Desert is only an hour's drive from this 
locality. The country beyond is hilly, rocky and barren for some dis- 
tance and the farms of sandy land are occupied chiefly by French people 
and Indians as the country round the Desert is an Indian reserve land 
regulated in sales chiefly by the priests of the Catholic church to which 
the Indians belong, or such of them as have made any move from their 
original savage superstitions. The soil is poor, n6t fit t« produce grey 
peas, but the aspect is not oneven, no hills of note for several miles. 
What the ground fails to produce is made up by the employment in the 
lumber business during winter months when wages are good and there is 
plenty of employment. 

Situated 100 miles north of the Ottawa river, k could not be thought 
likely to raise cereals to great advantage, but much farther up on good 
land, patches of which can be found here and there, every kind of crops 
are produce.d giving good returns per acre. On account of the size of 
the county and county town lying on the river Ottawa, courts have to 
be held sometimes in very inadequate halls or rooms but with a jail in 
the front. They are not so inconvenienced as were some of the counties 
in the United States. The pleasant old Judge McClung told of a time 
in Ohio when there was neither jail nor court house in several counties 
in the state, and A judge held court in' a barn, and the stable close by vvas 
devoted to hold the prisoners with a constable at the back to guard the 
little box opening or out-put, and outside in front, to guard the door two 
constables held their vigilant walks. The attendance was large as a case 
of some moment was to be tried, Tlie judge was very attentive to tbe 



2IO HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

evidence, as judges generally are, and at the close when he summed np 
and gave judgment, assigning the reason on which he based it in forcible 
and vvell-t\ eighed language; the satisfaction of the people with the ver- 
dict found expression by a man far back in the barn shouting out: "Well 
done gimlet e\'es." (The Judge had a crooked eye.) The profound 
silence thatfoilowed this outburst of applause was broken byJTis Honor 
asking sharp])-, Who is that interrupting the court ? Again the silence 
tliat might be felt was broken by tbe same voice confessing more softly, 
"\V;;lt i guess it must he this old boss." "Mr. Sheriff," said the judge, 
"take that old horse to the stable," which of course was done accordingly 
and the business of the court proceeded without further interruption. In 
young countries and settlements inconveniences must be endured' until 
things can be bettered by the improving times and circumstances. 

The village of Desert is the most northerly in the county and the 
terminus of the Gatineau Valley Railway. It seems to have been orig- 
inally built on the bank of the Gatineau at the junction with the river 
Desert. Ihere is a large Catholic stone church built there. Hall and 
other lumberers seem to have pushed their way and their business up to 
that point, and to have secured all the limits of value at an early day. 
Mr. Logue's store is the greatest in all that region. The others may be 
called ap]:cndages of the lumber business. The Desert must have been 
early explored and navigable for canoes. We have heard stories from 
some oki Hudson's Bay men who ran awg.y from the company, using it 
to escape down stream. A white man was generally contented with one 
or tv.o squaws, a middle-aged and a young one. Warren Hastings swore 
in his defence in the House of Commons that he was astonished at hk 
own moderation when the "Begum" treasures were so gre.it a temptation 
and piled up to lie idle or to no purpose. As you enter from the south 
Mr. Baxter, whose wife was a Miss Baird, a daughter of John Baitd of 
Fitzroy, and who has a sawmill down west of his new comfortable dwel- 
lin;^, occupies the left hand side of the street, a man of business talent 
and etiter[)rise. On {he right hand is Mr. Chapman, chiefly employed 
"A'ith lumber. Mr. Moore, a bachelor, works at the carpenter trade and is 
an intelligent man though not in very good health. They have a beauti- 
i'ul hniis;,' and are very nicely situated. 

Tlie Edwards lumbering firm have a fine house, any amount ©f 
stables, great yard, store and post office with all necessary equipments 
for a great establishment. Mr. and Mrs. Smith arc the managers of the 
phice, and better, we think, could not be selected. He is a very active 
b'jsiiicss man, well adapted to the place and the employment, and Mrs. 
Sipith is full of energy, keeps a clean tasty house, and with a smile and 
a kind word is renciy to meet and entertain you. Mrs. Moore has a fine 
house V, here the fam.ily, chiefly daughters, reside. They are refined, 
m.usical young ladies, and do much for the Kttle congregation m the 
place. Mrs. Moore keeps an hotel in another part ©f the village. It 
stretches down to the bank of the Desert river, over which there is a high 
strong bridge, and along the north bank a continuation of the village. 
Several stores, workshops of carpenters and blacksmiths' shops fill up 
here and there along the lines of the dwellings and stores. The site is 
pleasant for a vili-i.^e, and it may grow to a larger place if circumstances 
favor it as the terminus of the railway. -One or tw© dements are lacking. 



\ HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 211 

The region for several miles is Indian territory, and now that their father, 
Sir John A. Macdonald, is dead, these orphans are under trustees, and 
can not alienate or sell the lands. The other and worse drawback is the 
poverty of the soil of the whole surrounding country. There are fertile 
spots here and there taken by lumberers, then sold to some of their 
trusiy ^foremen or workers who have earned the money and secured the 
property. These people can raise pienty and make a good livelihood, 
but the country will not bear many inhabitants and there are no feeders 
to build up a place. To talk of carrying on the railroad to James' Bay 
is another of those deceitful plans of plunder, of which so many have' 
been practised, unfortunately, of late years, with' such success for the 
schemers and so disastrous to the pioneers of the country. The country 
is going into debt annually to enrich corporations- Could anyone tell 
the traffic to be brought from James' Bay ? Uncaught fish and animals, 
(the latter very few, not even running foxes), and as for shingles on the 
stumps there are no stumps for them to stand on. Explorers have found 
nothing but stunted cedar shrubs, white birch rods, and spruces that 
could not be dignified with the name of poles because of their insignifi- 
cance. On the north side of the Desert river on an elevation of sandy 
soil with good fields surrounding, stands the Gilmour farm more than 
half a mile from the mouth of the stream. "It is a fine place with build- 
ings for all purposes. The stone dwelling houses, warehouses, stables, all 
in good repair. Mr. and Mrs. Miller kept the place for years. They 
have left for a farm some miles back from the Gilmour bank on the east 
side. It is said to be a good place but far away. They are Presbyterians 
and have a family of fine children. They are intelligent, friendly, pros- 
perous people, and their removal is a loss to the Presbyterian cause; for 
though they do not leave the church they cannot attend regularly. Mr. 
Quail was at the head of the store and books when we saw him, and he 
has since married Mrs. Miller's sister. This is a judicious arrangement 
as she is clever, energetic and a good housekeeper. 

We visited in company with a kind friend the lai^e establishment of 
Mr. James Maclaren, some miles west on the same river bank, a beautifid 
place well kept. A new married pair from Masham reside there; his 
brother was a, foreman in the shanty for that wealthy firm. Mr. Mc- 
Laren has since died leaving his whole family millionaires. The business 
is rK)t carried on so extensively as the burnt mills at New Edinburgh 
have not been re-built, but they do a large business still on many of the 
numerous limits that that man of so irrepressible enterprise secured in 
h*s day. We were pleased with the business capacity and talents of these 
young people, sorry that we cannot recollect their names as we write. 
The gifts and talents and fitness of individuals in the world not being 
their own but divine endowments, ought to be esteemed by all men as 
excellencies in their fellow men. Every man or every one seems fitted 
to the place and duties to be performed in the work of the world. The 
Goverrior of the world being every where present, has in his hands all 
these parties that he may accomplish his designs by them during the 
days he has alottcd to these hirelings on the earth, he has created and 
governs and each one deserves his due mead of praise at the hands of his 
fellow creatures. The Presbyterian cause is feeble at the Desert, but 
M:ore numerous than the Methodist or the Episcopal church. They have 



*I2 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. 

a student in summer from the college, who is very acceptable, as young 
men generally are now, but in winter they get only a monthly supply in 
connection with Aylwin. Aylwin, however, is not pestered with supply 
on the day, thus vacated from lay nonsense as some other places near 
the city, whose mutterings are loud enough to be heard if the parties 
concerned have ears to hear. The railroad is nearing the Desert and 
the public road is less and less travelled. Blacksmiths along it are dis- 
missing their extra help, able to do the diminished business themselves. 
The convenience is great to travellers, as they can come to the city in 
the morning, do their shopping at Lindsay's or elsewhere, see their 
friends, enjoy a day in the city, and get home and be nothing out of 
pocket on the purchases. 

The Roman Catholics at Desert must be more numerous than the 
other denominations taken together. Most if not- all the Indians are of 
that communion. The Presbyterians come next though at a vast dis- 
tance as to numbers. They are associated with Aylwin in winter and 
get a student from McGill in summer- In the student's absence they 
get a day in the month in winter of supply, and are acknowledged a part 
of that Aylwin field. Aylwin was first supplied from Wakefield by Mr. 
Corbett, then by Mr. Whyte, after which for say, a quarter of a century, 
they have had settled ministers or missionaries aided by home mission 
funds. The railroad passes far enough behind Aylwin to be of little 
use to it in regard to growth or development as a village or town. 
Freight is carried by rail at about the same rate as by teams. These 
latter with sleighs, wagons, etc., arc laid aside but it is a great conveni- 
ence for passengers. In comfortable cars they can in one day do all 
their shopping, and return home from the city, instead of the old three 
days, two on the road in storm and calm, and one in the city. Mr. 
Beamer proposes to take the road to the south of James' Bay, which of 
course, he can easily do with a strong government at his back. This 
happy Dominion has few private railroad companies. Companies get 
their charters. They are friendly to the Government, but have no money 
so tlie government gives so many thousand dollars a mile, and whatever 
is necessary for equipment, then the endowed company chaises the 
public high freight and the people with a smile of pleasure submit. Pro- 
tective tariff enables the manufacturer to sell at the rate of the imported 
article and the tariff or duty, and we purchase at his rate and pay the 
duty afterwards to support our generous government. Hence the rail- 
road men and the manufacturers and bankers and etc., are a part of the 
governing body and we, like the Romans of the days (rf the Empire, are 
happy and contented. 

We have not tiav-lled far above the Desert, consequentfy cannot 
write much history of a country yet uninhabited and which is not likely 
ever to be inhabited. If we are to judge from maps in our possession. 
which we purchased at the sale of the late Mr. John Egan, and conducted 
by Mr. Doyle the country is so covered with lakes, ponds and rocky 
hills that neither settlements nor railroads are likely to be soon found 
there. The forests are dwarfed after you pass the timber limits, now 
held and worked, that they are of no value and would not pay for cut- 
ting and transporting to any city of the land. The very few who have 
snowshoed the country, report unfavorably of its capabilities and tO 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. , 21 3 

push a railway into such a region where nothing is needed to be taken to 
it and nothing to be brought from it, would be not merely to get money 
under false pretences and throw it away for nothing and to no purpose, 
but would prove that the projectors and those who furnished them the 
means were fit subjects for certificates of lunacy or, altogether stark mad. 
One thing might be done with that country. The enterprising govern- 
ment of Quebec who have so thoroughly economized since the last elec- 
tion, might make it a. park or grand preserve. Running a line east and 
west above the settlements and timber limits, say 500 miles in length 
and 500 miles north, 250,000 square miles, could be set off as a park for 
the preservation of game forests such as they are, and protect the waters 
as the sources of our rivers. This would be a public enterprise that 
would immoj-talize them through the ages. It would be a field for the 
exercise of patronage, where disappointed politicians could be placed as 
forest rangers, game-keepers, inspectors of fisheries, fish hatchers and 
constables or mounted police. How many offices they could rriake and 
fUl. Let Mr. Beamer once get into it with his railway and there is an 
end to all these projects. Or let another election come and Mercier be- 
come the premier their chance is lost forever. They may not entertain 
the project suggested from a humble source, but we would be direlect in 
our duty as a citizen did we not offer the proposal. 

The Protestant churches at the Desert are not pretentious. The 
Babel building fever has not taken so deeply in the country places as in 
the cities. "Towers that brave the skies" have been raised in our cities 
so that the congregations have all they can do for 30 or 40 years to pay 
interest and principle, without caring much for the feeble country scat- 
tered congregations, whose hard-worked ministers get a fourth or a fifth 
of what is lavished on their more talented brethren in the happier city 
homes. The questio;i might be asked, with some show of propriety too, 
if these brethren lodged in these palatial mansions show much concern 
for the country cottager with his large family and the wolf within a rod 
of his door? Did the giant preacher of Brooklyn care muph for the poor 
brother in tribulation when he expended $300,000 on the bea.utiful estate 
on the Hudson that would not now bring $40,000? SIj' William D ivvson 
hints that the descendants of Noah must have been irlfluenced by the, 
traditions pre.servred in the family of the immense cities and fine huge 
piles of castles and towers built by the antediluvian giants. He might 
have drawn the parallel between the tower in the Plains of Shinar, and 
the bulky jurai)les of stone a,nd- lime, the embodiments of the pride of 
Pagan and Christian structifres; uncalled for by any religious necessity 
of either ancient or modern times. The proud abettors of these un- 
wieldy structures are fond of quoting the Temple, a place to which the 
males went only three times a year. Why not refer to the synagogues 
in which the people were taught the Scriptures every Sabbath day. If 
these proud architects, projectors and builders when they leave us should 
find their destiny in the place of the giants, the philosopher Wallaston, 
would say it was according to the "fitness of things," The ministerial 
garb is not always a proof of Christianity in the man, and few will ever 
acknowledCTe that a great church is a proof of deep piety in the congre- 
gation. The Presbyterian'church, so grand in the city, so plain in the 
country, would not be considered by a stranger as of the same family. 



214 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Generally speaking there is hot any rtrfe. Congregations do abont as 
they like, one man rules the whole combine. The many agree to the 
proposal. Should the people support the missionary, which they gener- 
ally do, so far good; should it be otherwise, he has nothing 'to fall back 
on' for support. There is a principle of cohesiveness essential to the 
well-being of society, that principle isnot selfishness, and till that principle 
is better cultivated the Presbyterian church cannot thrive in some parts 
of the world. There are some congregations that never had a Presby- 
terial visitation in their history; the district we write of is in that category. 
The people are kind by disposal but the organizations are not very com- 
plete and in any organization one sinner may destroy much good. A 
little attention and encouragement aid people greatly, whereas neglect is 
very detrimental, for everyone is happy in the discharge of duty and not 
often otherwise. Many accidents have happened on the railway thus 
for several havfe lost life or limb and one poor fellow both limbs. They 
could not be set and had to be amputated, others have been set and re- 
covered. The story is told of a Scotch boy whose leg was broken and 
the doctor set it and he was doing well, but the boy's mother was not 
contented. She wished to get a bone-setter, Rob. McPherson by name 
in the hills, to see it. The leg was nearly well but she got a bed in the 
cart and the boy in and drove to the place. They lifted the boy out and 
laid him on the floor and the surgeon examined the leg and pronounced 
it doing well. He was lifted into the bed on the cart and driven home. 
The old lady expressed much satisfaction with Rob's skill, the boy said 
aye to all, but as they neared the house, she repeated her eulogies on 
Rob, and the boy said aye. "But a' was na sick a fool as to let him 
handle the sair leg." The railway authorities are, however, content to 
leave them in the doctors' hands. 

What (ve have said of the other parts of that- river and h31 country 
is very applicable to Desert, so well filled with places of entertainment 
for those seeking health and rest. The young physician,. Dr. MulHgan, 
and his very pleasant young wife are an acquisition to the place. The 
doctor is building up an excellent practise and name in the village and its 
environs. There is more level country visible from an elevated stand- 
point here than perhaps in the hundred miles to the great Capital itself. 
Much of it is liglit soil requiring fertilizers, but there is no question of the 
excellent productions to be raised in the suiTounding localities. The 
waters arc pure and clear and abundant, and the finny tribes plentiful for 
the taking without let or hindrance. The game of the hills and dales is 
like that of kindred mountain and valley scenery. It would require a 
close union among the denominations to make it possible to sustain reli- 
gion. All the Protestants would not be able to maintain one minister; 
h<-,\v must it be with so many. The arguments for union appeal ivith 
great force to that part of h'lman nature, the most sensitive of all the 
nervous system, the pocket. It is not easy to write the history of a place 
and people, whilst the actors are busy on the stage. The late talented 
and now much lamented Alonzo Wright, so long the M. P. for Ottawa, 
in our late conversation whilst he ordered his vehicles round the buildings 
and drives several times, pbserved that it was too early to write the his- 
tory of Hull. Many of its actors are still alive and are likely to live long 
and happily. After Mr. Ainsley's time the sefints have been cared for by 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 21$ 

the Rev. Adam Hood Burwell, who was Episcopal preacher in Bytown- 
Mr. Burwell was apparently a warm-hearted Christian, who was carried 
by the enthusiasm of the times in favor of second advent views which 
took more deeply in Hull than in Bytown, and met with a thousand fold 
more opposition, not from the denominations so much as from the mob. 
A little before this time peculiar utterances had been heard in Rev. 
Edward Irving's church that astonished so many as a new revelation, of 
the spiritual gifts that the church might expect everywhere as a faithful i 
church. Mr. Burwell entered into these views with a vigor and freshness 
that was to say the least of it, very remarkable. He hastened to publish 
his views in some rather well-written pamphlets. These came into our 
hands among our earliest readings, and compelled attention to the no- 
tions for the fulfillment of prophecy as taken from Daniel and the Reve 
lations. .Edward Irving was a very able divine and possessed a most 
thorough acquaintance with the language, literature and theology of his 
country- His style was clear, forcible and attractive, whilst assistant to 
Dr. Chalmers and after he settled in his congregation in the Capital of 
the empire. He was run after by the wealthy and the whimsical, and 
his congregation thought if the church ever needed the gifts of tongues 
she needed them now, to go into the world for the conversion of the 
millions- Mr. Burwell going a .step farther maintained that to de:;y tht 
necessity of those gifts, was equal to sin against the Holy Spirit, their 
author. A man of fervor, Burwell, declared to his people from the pul- 
pit, and in the parlor, shop and store, his newJv-found views that struck 
most people with the force of all new ideas. His success in Hull seemed 
considerable, several influential people becomingobedientto the new faith. 
There was nothing in all this unreasonable, at least nothing to stir up 
opposition. Every man ha.s a right to think if he has a right to live or 
be considered an individual. A man is as responsible for his belief as he 
is for his actions, as everyone of us shall give an account of himself unto 
God. But no man has a right to judge another as to what he shall be- 
lieve. Nevertheless the mob in Hull undertook to dictate to those who 
took up the new opinions, or at least to greatly disturb their meetings. 
The late Andrew Leamy, a famous old warrior, took sometimes an active 
hand in these troubles. Often from sharp and angry words they went to 
blows, marking each others faces very picturesquely. 

A Mr. Orr was very severely handled and it was doubtful if he 
would recover for some time. He never recovered fully. His head was 
badly mauled and he was slightly deranged during his life, and rambled 
about with a long tin horn as his trumpet, considering himself the Angel 
Gabriel sent to warn men of their doom. We have heard this once in 
our time at Bell's Corners and were informed by the late George Arnold 
that he was the Angel Gabriel who was blowing it to gather sinners, the 
stock of which never run out, to hear his warnings. Hull was Catholic 
and Episcopalian in its early days, few Methodists or Presbyterians 
showed in it till very much later on, and whilst only a few in the town- 
ship bfecame evangelists a Mr. Pink and a Mr. Lucas, there was quite a 
number in Hull village that embraced the doctrines and organized the 
congregation, and a.s Mr- Lucas was wont to s\y; "we of the Apostolic 
church," so they had apostles and prophets ^nd even angels. Dr. Mc- 
Laren was long known as the angol of the swamp. 



2i6 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

It was never so rank in the Presbyterian church as to be considered 
a heresy, and no man was persecuted if he did express the wish of the 
liope that he might live to see his Saviour in the flesh. It was considered 
far too visionary to be of any importance as a doctrine or a truth. No 
temporal kingdom could equal the kingdom of the universe over, which 
the Messiah reigns since His resurrection and ascension to glorv- He 
came first to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself. He will come 
again without sin untO salvation, and to judge the world, but there is no 
third coming taught in the Scripture revelation. The objectionable 
thing was the opposition these men met with in carrying out their devo- 
tions. Sneers and ill names are not pleasant to be borne, but when mobs 
proceed to violence there is great injury, and no good purpose could be 
served by such conduct, either to the rioters themselves, or to the 
churches' they claim to champion and very great injury done to their 
fellow Christians they so unreasonably oppose. The lumber trade 
brought many ungovernable people to the Chaudiere in those early times. 
The Irvingites had after Mr. Burwell's departure a Mr. Roberts, an ex- 
ceedingly tall man, for the pulpit, but he was not succcessful in building 
up a congi'Cfjation, and since his time no revival of the party seems to 
have taken place. The Episcopal church was always in an organized 
state in Hull. Sometimes it was associated with Aylmer, and the min- 
ister resided on the way between. Latterly Canon Johnston lived per- 
manently in Hull, giving up Aylmer. The Presbyterians came in by 
families and got an organization formed in connection with the west end 
of Ottawa, now known as Erskine church, and Rev. Joseph Whyte was 
their pastor for several years Then the Hull congregdtion was asso- 
ciated with Chelsea, under Mr. Dempster deceased, who was a very effi- 
cient pastor, and Chelsea was associated with Cantley. Hull with mis- 
ionary aid got along alone. Some time ago Rev. Mr. Scott was settled 
there and still resides there as their pastor. Great improvements have 
taken place.in Hull in 50 years. From a mere hamlet it has growm to a 
city with considerable manufactories. Its quarries have supplied stone 
for buildings in Ottawa. Eddy has from vast lumbering become an 
immense paper manufacturer. Stores, .shops, mills, especially the 
Hurdman lurnber mills, and many enterprising business establishments 
have been got up and improvements seem the order of the day. 

The Presbyterian congregation of Hull was begun with the colony. 
.Mr. Wright began to plant here in the beginning of the century. It was 
of the Congregational type as New England Congregationalists were 
.:alled by that name, having the same truths and having elders as 
rulers in the church almost corresponding to the sister denomination. 
This form of government had some advantages in a new colony of fami- 
lies as there are no hindrances in the way of a minister engaging with 
the people and laboring among them. It is not so compact and script- 
ural in the relation of congregations to one another as the Presbyterian 
but it is democratic and opposed to hierarchical despotism. Desf)ots, 
unjust and untruthful ministers will be found in all denominations, in 
spite of their eternal vigilance to avoid it. Under snch men the. people 
suffer a great loss of spirituality, even more than when without a minister, 
because these creep in and brino- with them, if not pernicious doctrines, 
practices that stealthily corrupt the people. The men who preach truth 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. SI/ 

and justice in the pulpit do right, but when these same men act falsehood 
and injustice in the week between the Sundays, they prove that they 
have taken the scribes and Pharisees for their models and not the King 
and head of the church. The gold ring and the gay clothing, are as of 
old, doing great injury to the life of the church. Vital religion becomes 
a stranger in the city and in the country. The congregation in Hull 
was not large but it had some good men like the Deys, Esterbrooks, 
Rollin the Tanner, Symmes, Hill, Church, Stewart, Pinks, Curries, 
Moffats, Davies, Blairs They built a little stone church on a site given 
by Truman Waller. Their first minister from the United States was a 
trial if possible to nurture a congregation. They told us there was a 
lack of congeniality between him and the people, and he soon returued 
to his own land. Another came and was much liked, but the field was 
too limited for the gifted man, whose talents commanded soon after a 
wider scope and range. As in the world of corpmerce foes will be im- 
potent in the face of highly exalted gifts and shining talents. They 
shame, yes, frown down opposition. This second man was induced to 
leave and goto a field of greater usefulness, for which the people were 
extremely sorry. A third came and remained, of whom there is more 
.known, whose descendants are in the country. Rev. Mr; Meach waS 
their preacher for several years.. His salary was small as the people 
were few and scattered widely, but he easily procured lands and gave 
the farm and the lake his name to this day, Meach's Lake and Meach's 
farm is now occupied by a very respectable and upright Scotch family, 
by the name of Russell. 

The Deys went to Montreal where one was appointed a judge after- 
wards. Rollins and Esterbrooks went to the Western States. Other 
active workers left for more inviting fields of enterprise. The congrega- 
tion was scattered, not by the despotism of church courtsor bishops, not 
by internal strife or dissentions, but by the want of numbers and a 
leader. If a fortune heaves in sight, or a prospect of bettering their con- 
dition opens up, people will leave the most pleasant homes and break 
up very endearing ties of kindred to secure the end. Are they to be 
blamed? The fiery eloquence of Edward Irving had set old sedate 
London in excitement, some thinking the Pentacostal days were to re- 
turn and that the miracle workers were to be sent out to turn the nations 
into a state of Paradise. Rev. Adam Hood Burwell eloquently and 
ably propagated these notions, and one or two Presbyterian families or 
heads of families were pleased with the viewS' he advanced and for a 
time joined the party. Mr. Ruggles Wright opposed these views and 
refused his hall for their propagation. Mr. Alonzo Wright did not join 
them, but fiercely opposed the mobs, sometimes led by his uncle, Mr. 
Andrew Leamy who handled them roughly. Some Presbyterians like 
the Curries travelled on foot to Bytown to hear Mr. Cpuikshanks; so the 
poor old Hull church was deserted and forsaken. Mr. Irving was a 
cousin of our esteemed friend, Mr. A. Irving of Pembroke, (to whom we 
are indebted for special favors, and of whose genuine kindness as well as 
intellectual superiority and genius we can hardly speak too highly,) was 
a most popular young man when assistant to Dr. Chalmers the great 
Scottish divine of that day, and now in the metropolis of the world of 
letters as well as statesmanship, was carried on the crest of the wave of 



2l8 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

that novel tide that had set in, and without enquiring why these gifts 
had ceased or been withheld by an all-wise ruler, thought the utterances 
in his coni^regation might be the beginning of a time, of enlightenment 
and conversion of immeasureable extent, aind results the most nrioment- 
ous and extraordinary. He evidently like other leaders of ability and 
full of fervor had no idea of forming a sect. For a time a considerable 
class were taken with them. Brilliant minds with vivid imaginations^ are 
easily carried away with new things in religion, and these fresh things 
.seemed to introduce the most important and glorious events ever recorded 
in the history of humanity. Mr. Burwell published here in full sympathy 
with the movement. Like Dr. Gumming of London he went into the 
idea of the fulfilment of prophecy, a very taking and entertaining subject 
to many minds- He had only a few in Bytown but a great many in 
Hull, from the river to the mountain and from Aylmerto the Gatineau 
Poitit, his disciples were numerous- Their offices were as numerous as 
they could get names to cover in the New Testament, so that a convert 
could scarcely fail to get an office. This is one of the pecliliarities of 
liitle sects to try to gain popularity, passing every proselyte through a 
kind of coronation, so that they rise about fifty per cent, in their own 
estimation when they thus discover what splendid pedple they are; by 
being employed in something visible and tangible. Were the rulers of 
the churches as anxious for the spiritual welfare of the people as for the 
increase of their numbers and the outward forms of religion, they would 
be revolutionized for good. 

We are so much taken with externals that to tell us we have a 
handsome face and fine figure, we are more pleased than with coarse 
features and uncomely form, with a profusion of intellectual abilities. 
Such is our nature or rather such is it become. In how many minds is 
the noisy rush of the crowd and its excitement preferred to the duties 
and delights of the closet and the careful contemplation of truth in re- 
tirement. The Creator of man delights in truth in heart and can there 
be truth in the inward parts unless the truths pf the Revelation are planted 
there ? The mind lives by these truths no matter what the sect to which 
the man is attached. Spiritual nourishment is preferable to the noise of 
the street pwner and the prayer on the house-to?, or the Molah on the 
top of the Mosque. There was some petty persecution of these some- 
what deluded people, that was disgraceful and which Alonzo Wright did 
li s utmost to put down. Mr. Wright could not resist the blandishments 
of Sir John A. Macdonald. But he retired disgusted with the immorali- 
ties of the parties, in making a set of millionaires by reducing the honest 
iihabitants to the low level of mendicants, controlling the constituencies 
and keeping power in their hands. 

In our last drive together he kindly proposed to place his papers on 
the early history of Hull at my disposal and wished he were able to have 
aided me still farther. He was a student in his youth and in his early 
marri?rl life, which was very happy, he was an omniverous reader. His 
bosoin fi^iend, the distinguished lawyer, Peter Aylen, used to tease him 
on beiiig so devoted to the luminous (voluminous) pages of Gibbon, the 
decline and fall of the Roman Empire, that he had tim"e for nothing else. 
His communications to the ^j'/7«^r 'A>«« in its best days, " woke up a 
deep interest. His wit, humor, elasticity of thought, and the wide range 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 219 

of his knowledge mad* his articles very readable. His style wasVigor- 
ous and clear, among the best compositions in our language. He was 
capable of holding a high place among our finest literary writers. He 
seldom spoke in the House, but he distinguished himself and made the 
best impression on the audience. In private life he was very friendly 
and kind-hearted on all possible occasions making you feel at home and 
at your ease, and affording you very much enjoyment in his society. 
Swallowed up in his parliamentary career, he took to no enterprise ex- 
cept to enjoy himself on his beautiful fertile farm and among the multi- 
tude of his pretty animals, highly fed and well diversified in classes, 
kinds and breeds. His stocjc is traceable up the river on the various 
farms freely distributed for improvement of the cattle of the settlements. 
He is very much missed and great sympathy is expressed for his wife 
who must feel the loss beyoad all others. One of his brothers lives south 
of his place on the river bank with a large family, chiefly daughters. Mr. 
R^i.?gl2s Wright was the only one of the family that lived in the village, 
now the city of Hull. His sons were numerous. Some are in the United 
States. Mr. Charles has been long and favorably known and highly 
respected as a resident of the Island, where he has carried on vast works 
in stone, lime and cement for a lifetime. Another brother is fond of 
mining. He lives in the city and is interested in several gold mines, and 
has passed many thousands through his hands. We take great interest 
in him and wish his gold finding may be a great success. Were the 
Wrights altogether they would be a host. The pioneer and two of his 
grandsons have been members of Parliament. The M. P.'s are both 
gone. Some of them should write their history foi" the benefit of future 
generations- If we have omitted anything essential in these cases we 
shall be happy to insert in our second volume should we be enabled to 
get it through the press. We shall be glad if any of our numerous friends 
whose case may have been overlooked will set us right by giving us the 
particulars for correction. 

The Presbyterian congregation of Aylmer met at first in the com- 
mon schoolhouse, then they got the free use of the town hall which was 
the property of Mr. Symmes. This they fitted up with the old pews 
and pulpit from the old stone church at the Messrs. Hurdman property. 
When the Methodists, who had used the same hall, built their church, 
they invited the Presbyterians to use the basement with themselves, but 
at different hours, so the pulpit and pews were taken up there till the 
new Presbyterian church was built, and we suppose they are there still. 
To enable them to build the new church, which required to be more 
costly than they- were able to meet, they concluded to get a bill passed 
in the Legislature of Upper and Lower Canada, to enable them to sell 
some property on .which the old church stood, that had been erected by 
the early settlers from New England in thefirst quarter of this nineteenth 
century. Alanson Cooke, Esq., luniberman, was our M. P. for the 
county of Ottawa at that time and took charge of the bill. It had been 
read in the House and had reached the private bills' committee when it 
was killed by the member for Carleton who had the majority of Episco- 
palians on the committee. The member for Sherbrooke, whovvas a 
judge afterwards a:nd had charge of the bill in Mr. Cooke's absence, 
wrote us the fate of the bill, advising us to take advantage of a temporary 



--20 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

act then in force, that enabled trustees or those in possession of 
church lots, graveyards, etc., that had no provision in their deeds for a 
succession oftristees, to meet and according to the specified formalities 
appoint such, lodging the records with a notary, which they did, and it 
was to have the power and force as a clause in the original deed. The 
manse was occupied by the Episcopal minister, then in Hull and Aylmer, 
who had got the use of it for ten years on condition of building a kitchen 
to the frame house and a stable. They were both of cedar logs and the 
kitchen was a hideous caricature of round logs with their ends not cut off 
at the corners. The member for Carleton, and perhaps the clergyman, 
thought that the deed had lapsed, and being in possession they could 
claim the property, hence the fight that threw out the bill. Having met 
the case and supplied the defect in the deed by the provisions pointed 
out by our learned friend, the congregation determined to sell and got 
an order in court to that effect. The minister withstood and was dispos- 
sessed by the sheriff. As he was put on the street a gentleman went in 
who was married to a granddaughter of the original donor, Truman 
Waller, and claimed that his wife was heiress and having purchased the 
good will of the other grandchildren of Mr. Waller, considered his claim 
unimpeachable. Mr. L. R. Church conducted the case very ably, though 
it was his first one, but could not prove a conspiracy as the deed was 
good and the supplement that remedied the defect lawful- When Mr. 
Hughes took possession forcibly, the writ to eject the minister was 
amended to include all others. So when he was put on the street and 
the place locked he broke in but was imprisoned for a night and let out in 
the morning. The congregation paid the cost for the minister, who con- 
sidered himself terribly persecuted by these Presbyterians, but they let 
Mr. Hughes pay his own, which was $125. The Presbyterians sold the 
property to the Hurdmans, who removed the, old buildings and fences, 
incorporating the site or land with their farm around it and the proceeds 
went into the new beautiful church in Aylmer, built more than thirty 
years ago. That church was planned, the materials collected for it, the 
contracts made, the funds gathered by subscription in the other congre- 
gation connected with it, and in Ottawa and Montreal, by the minister 
they then had; and whose salary ran in arrears and he would not let it be 
raised by coercion, though a very gifted lawyer proposed to bear the 
expenses of the court, if only permitted, This is a great fault with some 
ministers. They trust too much to the honor and honesty of the people 
and they would not be deceived if their brethren were not unfaithful and 
untrustworthy in such cases in the duties they owe one another. No 
presbytery is guiltless that permits a congregation to withhold his rights 
from their minister. What language can depict their conduct when they 
encourage the injustice ? How can they look for blessings when their 
conduct is such to a brother minister ? 

The story of the Kirk minister and the boy at the little rill will here 
be appropriate. The story runs that this good minister was visiting the 
members of his congregation and in crossing a small creek, ('a bit burnie') 
met a boy who had swept and gathered- together the sand, muck and 
dust available at a turn of the little run. The minister says : "Well my 
lad, what are you doing here?" "I'm making a kirk, sar." "Have you 
a door to it?" Aye yondher it is, pointing to an opening in the end of 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 221 

the heap. "And windows ?"'■ A.ye, sar, pointing to scores he had made 
in the sides raised a little above the level. "Have you got pews and a 
pulpit?" "Oo aye, Di'nt ye see them there ?" pointing to scTne ridges 
he had raised in the heap or formation, and a mound at the end hollowed 
out to stand in. O yes, I see they are all right, but have you a minister 
and congregation to occupy it ? "Na, sar, I ha na gotdhi'i" enough yet 
to mak them." 

How much sordid dust is sometimes collected in ministers and con- 
gregations ? To dust they soon return but are not troubled about it or 
they would strive to do better. In the formation of congregations the 
moulders are like the Scotchman, "beggin his dike he had ta tak sic 
stanes as were on the grun." TTie young minister is left to organize the 
young congregation. Of course in the estimation of most of the people 
he is far fitter than an old minister. There is no supervision. He may 
get on well or ill. If the latter, he can be sent off, and his brethren will 
sympathize with the unruly that make the place to hot for him to Uve 
there. Many in the congregation are pcacably disposed and not of suffi- 
cient courage .to exercise healthy, public opinion in the community. 
They pay their dues allright and would like others to do the same , espe- 
cially to the minister, but they fear to get into trouble if they should in- 
sist, so they are quiet, and neutral and two or three sons of Belial rule the 
flock and would make war if resisted. Should they happen to have 
wealth, the others say if they leave or do not pay, we are helpless and 
plenty of ministers will so far forget their duty as to take part with these 
adversaries against their ordained brother. It would tend greatly to the 
church's peace, safety and growth if these adversaries could be con- 
trolled. The young niinister is unable to rule these men and so they 
rule the congregation and all stibmit. The ministers give him no aid 
lest their popularity should wane with the rich. We know of only one 
Presbyterial visit round all congregations in the Ottawa Valley for 50 
years- 
Some were never so visited since they were formed. This is not 
true Presbyterianism. It is dishonorable to the name and disastrous to 
the welfare of that fine old cause. The yourvg minister may be much to 
blame because he lets men neglect their duties; To pay what they 
promise is a duty, and whilst it woald be counted selfish hj the minister, 
and he fears thart, yet he is guilty in letting a naan neglect to pay. up his 
debts. Men should not be let do wrong if possible. Ministers will k>se 
and suffer rather than compel payment. The men who are bad pay or 
pay not are the men to give him the worst name whilst they cheat him 
and make him all the trouble. These adversaries exercise tyrannical 
rule in many places. It is a more serious thing than most men are aware 
of, to become an enemy or adversary of a good man or a good cause. 
When the kingdom of Israel was at its greatest height and glory in the 
days of King Solomon, and the Hebre^vtongue was in its greatest purity, 
Solomon said to Hiram, King of Tyre : There is not an adversary, 
(Satan in Hebrew), and again later in his life the Lord stirred him up a 
Satan, Hadad the Edomite, and again God stirred him up an adversary, 
(Satan) Razen who fled from the King of Zobah and became caot lin of 
a band and reigned in Damascus. He was a (Satan) adversar)^ to Israel 
aU the days of Solomon. This term is the name in the New Testament 



1822 HISTORY OF THE OTTAV... v^.i^LEY. 

given to the greatest enemy of man, the one that fills the hearts of men 
and women to lie even to the Holy Spirit. He troubled Job and. David 
and figures extensively in the Old Testament times as the serpent, called 
in the New Testament the old serpent, the devil, and Satan that dcceiv- 
eth the nations — the dragon who is Satan. Christ calls Judas Iscariot 
Satan and Peter, Satan, because under his influence in making opposition 
to his Master. Now who would like to be under such influence? Good 
men forget themselves, permit Satan to deceive them by carelessly mis- 
judging or not properly governing themselves, their temper, appetites, 
passions and actions; Satan thereby getting an advantage of them, and 
would sift them as wheat, lead them captive at his will, suggest doubts> 
about God's words or promises and threatenings, and reigns over them 
by usurpation. He is a king, has a kingdom and is going about continu- 
ally and silently, but like a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour. 
But he may be resisted and drix'en off, get no place and run off — but if 
men let any one sin reign in them, Satan holds the citadel and though he 
may not conquer the whole yet he may hold a "cabul", a border city in 
a man's empire till dispossessed. In wicked men he reigns supreme and 
without a rival. The condition is terribly dangerous, lie is an unclean 
spirit in one, a lying spirit in another, teaches one extortion, another 
usury, fills one with pride, another with meanness, and low cunning and 
deceit. "We are not ignorant of his devices." We should make against 
him the strongest resistance, wrestle against principalities and powers, 
against the rulers^ of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wicked- 
ness in high places. 

Mr. Samuel BeE was one of the successful men ef Aylmer. He 
entered the employ, of Mr. R. Conroy on his arrival in this country from 
his native Ireland. Mrs. Klock and Mrs. W. Kenny were sisters of his, 
atxs another who lived up the Ottawa, and some of whose family we 
have seen up the Gatineau. Mr. Bell soon displayed his capacity for 
business and accordingly was at once promoted. He purchased aM kinds 
of produce from the surrounding farmers, for special use in the business 
of the hotel, store, mill, farm, shanty, and also for ready sale on his 
own account to purchasers, always doing something to his own advan- 
tage, without prejudice to the interest of his employer. He soon ac- 
cumulated money to lend. In a country where so much lumbering was 
done, on a smaH, as well as a large scale, there were many ready to bor- 
row, and being often so much in need to get their timber out and down 
to Quebec market, they were willing to give any interest demanded. Mr. 
Allen was always speculating and would give five dollars for a loan of 
fifty for a month. Samuel Bell, Robert Stewart, Dermody, young John' 
McCooke and Robert H. Klock had always some to lend and the custom 
of this enormous interest hid from sight the crime of usury. A teamster 
would come from the shanty with his due bill and Doyle, Egan's chief 
clerk, would affect not to have the money, so Dermody would go out to 
borrow it and return with the report that he could get it but the nmn 
must have so much; the teamster would think of the trouble of conaing 
for it again, perhaps the ice being too bad to get across, and would con- 
sent to submit to the shave. The.=e men made money in this cfuestion- 
able manner. Mr. Bell in his managing way made many thousands. 
Dermody told of the beginning of his wealth ki the Old Cauntey. 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 223 

Gentlemen who were raising fine sheep, would instruct their herdmen 
not to raise more than one lamb on the dam, so one of the twins was to 
go for what the herdman could get as his own profit, and Mr. Derrnody 
got these for little and fed them well so that they sold to giod judges, 
nearly as high as their twin brothers or sisters from the rich man's flock. 
The art of making and saving once learned, the ivay to wealth is open. 
Rich men are aot the happiest though almost everyone aspires after 
wealth. Sam. Bell accumulated many thousands. He married very late 
in life the widow McLaughlin but left no issue. She had no family and 
after his death married Mr. Thomas Beatty on the south shore of the 
Ottawa, having taken a compromise out of Sam's fortune. 

Mr. Robert Klock was the chief executor of Sam Bell and fell heir 
to a large share of the wealth, but the other relatives were provided for 
and none of them forgotten. Mr. Robert H. Klock's wife, a good 
woman; was a sister of Mrs. Lindsay, another good woman; and Mr. 
James Klock, his brother, whose agreeable wife was a Miss Boulton, 
daughter of the well-known Mr. Boulton of Aylmer who long kept a re- 
spectable hotel on the corner, both brothers took to contract lumber- 
drawing like many others and made money. Afteir their uncle's death 
Mr, Robert Klock got limits and wrought in the square timber business 
for years, selling in the Quebec market. Tho^e who supported his 
policy and could make interest could secure from Sir John A Macdonald 
timber limits at the merest nominal prices. Mr. Klock like many others 
got into his good graces and benefitted accordingly at the public-expense. 
The settled policy was, make a little aristocracy of wealthy men at the 
sacrifice of the millions. What a world the future will be for those mil- 
lionaires and bankers who keep their agrents turning the crank and grind- 
ing human beings to powder at their eight or nine per cent, with their 
large dividends for so little labor, and others bearing all the burden of 
taxation. These are evils under the sun that sensible men, not cranks 
and thieves, could remedy if they would. No governing body has any 
right to give away to favorites the property of the people, if that is any- 
thing but a na;r,e gotten up for popularity. The people are kept in ignor- 
ance of these things by the newspaper organ of their party and filled 
with lies against their opponents, and their prejudices will not permit 
them to read the other side. Robert Klock planned, James Klock helped 
him to execute, worked harder too, but did not secure so large a share «rf 
the fruits. Mrs. R. Klock died some years ago. His death was more 
recent. His family are highly spoken of. One son is a physician in the 
city in good repute with a good practice, increasing daily, which he well 
merits- Two others live at what is now Klock's Mills, where they have 
a beautiful little village, which seen from the C. P. R, looks very finely 
situated and thriving-like. Of course it is chiefly for their own residences 
and the people they employ in their large lumbering business. The 
place was formerly known as Aumond's Creek. The papers reported a 
sale of Klock's limits made some time ago amounting to nearly three 
hundred and fifty thousand dolhrs; not a trifling sum for the riches in 
'lumber grown without any outlay on the public domain. Mr. Joseph 
Aumond formerly of this city, took up large limits and worked them for 
years in that quarter, following the McConnells who seem to have been 
the first to get to the Mattawa country from which they brought square 



n4 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEV. 

timber and red pine spars in g^at abundance. Robert, the eldest, is a 
member of parliament, the youngest is in the old home in Aylmer. One 
of their sisters is married to Dr. Church, a grandson of the far-famed P. 
H. Church, M. D. The other is married to a Presbyterian clergyman in 
western Ontario. Mr. James Klock's family are nearly all around them. 
One daughter is Mrs. Dr. Church. One son, a doctor, as fine a looking 
man as any we have seen on the Ottawa, when we last met him at 
Campbell's Bay. He is since married and has a fine practice at t,hc 
Quyon and around it. 

About 1868 Dr. Freeland took charge of the Presbyterian congrcga 
tion of Aylmer and was doing a good work in Bible instruction among 
the young people of that place. He was a talented preacher deserving 
of a much better field. The brethren were so pious, however, that they 
harassed him nearly to death on the score of some old rumour or gossip 
of old wives' tongues that was perhaj.s over a quarter of a century old 
and which they could make nothing of after a good deal of fuss and 
smoke but no fire. The liberal education and commanding talents of the 
poor old gentleman combined with his energy in his work roused some 
opposition in little minds but he was j>ennitted to go on with his work 
till one day comin^gin snow blind or sun blind he walked into an open 
cellar and in the fall broke a limb. He was taken down to the hospital 
in the city for treatment, and when we saw him the bones had been set 
and the leg in a kind of box with charcoal on each side of it, but it never 
recovered and he died. He was succeeded by a young man not long 
ordained and married, who spoke out audibly of what a work he was 
going to do there. We heard him ourselves. His vaporings soon evap- 
orated, and he left without making the promised impressions or being 
considered very extraordinary. An old fellow student, Mr. Jamieson, 
was there for some years. After him came a fair sample of an Irishmaa 
reputed a good preacher, who after a few years went to the Northwest. 
Since that they have had students a»d missionaries till of late they have 
had a young man ordained who is well reported for his talents and 
indnstry. 

The Church of Elngkwvd was organized as the first of all denominations 
in Hull ssnaetime betweea the first Ranting ©f the colony in 1800 and the 
thin scattered settlements in Marda and Huntley and Richmond in 181I. 
The Hull eongregatkm took mswch Episcopalians as were in Nepean 
and Gloucester at that time, and Rev. Amos Ainsley ministered to them, 
going up sometimes to March to hold services in the little church burtt 
by Mr. Pinhey on bis own fsetm. Bytown wa« not yet laid out, nor 
tiwught of, beyond the little koding at Collins' first store, afterwards 
ealled the Richmond landing. Mr. Sparks bought in 1826. After this 
Col. By came and located the canal. Shanties began then to be raised 
and Corkstown was named. Then came Rev. Adam Hood Burweli, who 
seems to have largely filled the j^ace of Mr. Ainsley who was not there 
in 1833, Mr. Burwdl must have labored much among the Hull people 
as there was no village, only the settlemient on the farms around Mr. 
Wright, whose possessions wcrtt so large as to leave him almost alone ira 
the earth, so many people were taken with Mr. Burweli, who- stiH re- 
mained in the Church of England though propagating what afterwajrds 
was called Irvingism. 



' HISTORY ©F THE ©TTAWA VALLEY. 825 

A constderabDle time elapsed before Mr. Johnston, afterwards Carjon 
Johnsten, ©waoe to Hull. In the interval, the people seemed to avail 
themseives of the Services ©f Mr. Meach, the Congregatioaal-PresbyterisBn, 
as tbe CQ^neeting Un>k between Mr. Ainsley and Mr. Johnston, aboat 
1840, wh© reiaained and resided first in the old Presbyterian manse, ^en 
bwik him a storae house opposite Richard McConnell, which Mr. Radnaer 
bought, and Mr. Johnston resided the rest of his days in HuW. The Epis- 
copalians boiit a fine stone church in Aylmer, long before the Methodists 
and Prc^>yteria»s goC theirs erected, which were built nearly aboat the 
sai»e time, the former a Bttle in advance of the latter. The Methwdists 
had a little stone church d®wn the road, now a dwelling near the Grimes' 
before Aylmer sprang up to be a place. They had in early times used 
9choo.lhoi»9es and private dwellings for their meetings. In our recollectt»H 
ihey had Messrs. Huntington, Robinson, Sanderson, J®hnstcn, (lM?©tijer 
of the judlgeX two Armstronjfs, with others whose names we do B©t re- 
member now. Tie,.' peeple seemed t® be more in and around Aylnaer 
towards the mov.ntain. They had. few in the eastern part of the towm- 
ship and no gatluring in the city ©f Hull in early times, or the place the 
city now occupies. in our time a couple of young men came down 
fpooa the country to arrange for the time' of a marriage. My family 
sent them to Mr. Sanderson. I was in Montreal asod could not do it 
The young gentleman introduced the prospective groom. Yes, said he, 
Mr. Sanderson, I want you to put me through, I never did the like be- 
f®re. So he was put through in due course. . 

The agricultare of the north shore was not wrought up beyond tbe 
ordinary. They were contented with the fine crops that the new stumpy 
fields produced as supply for the lumber business that swallowed up aBl 
dse. The cattle were the common breeds from the Eastern States. Mr. 
Wr^>t brei^yt some improved stock, but Mr. Farmer, an Eaj^siMnaa, 
iBtp©d»ced some from England, but the stock was not kept wp by a suc- 
cession of thoroughbred sires, and half-breeds degenerated, as is ususd m 
such cases. The lumbering called attention more to horses as the, tin*ber 
had to be drawn some distances and the heavy horses Farmer had 
imported, greatly increased the size and weight for the heavy work. A 
multitude of fine large colts were raised from a farmer horse of Hurd- 
man's. This style of horse soon came into good demand and brou^ght a 
big^ pwce as best fitted for lumber-drawing and carting overland between 
steamboats. On the south side of the river light horses of good style 
and swift footed were introduced, greatly admired by the yourkg people 
for tbe saddle and sleigh as well as for the plough. The heavy-buflds 
soon became more popular. Reilly and Wilson of Richmond introduced 
first Dragons, then Clydes. John "Young, but especially John Clarfce, 
broi*ght the heaviest and finest of all. In a short time farms were cov- 
ered with great twelve to sixteen hundred weights up to fifteen or twenty , 
in number without a roadster among them,_ 

During the civil war in the Unite^l States Canadians exported far 
into the L;M)«sands, war horses and great draught horses, a fine one bring-. 
ing four hundred dollars in the city of New York. Americans with great 
wealth will give high prices for valuable horses. There is no better 
cowntry in the world to raise and grow choice horses than the valley of 
tiie Ottawa. Their lower joints are clean and well- formed for endurance, 



JOC HiSTORr OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

Tbe pasture tands are dry, the grass good, and colts are seldom in tlie 
Hiud, and the dry snow of winter is so much more favorable than slop 
and slush in fields and yards. A horse raised here will sell in New York 
at about a fourth to a third more than one of like proportions raised in 
the middle states. Wages in the early times was more in proportion to 
prices than in after times or at present. No farmer can now pay high 
wages without giving his own time for nothing. The stumpers harangue 
us on mixed farming which they have read from papers or heard from 
others, but their mixed farming like their two row'barley is only to di- 
vert attention from more important issues. Prices are 'about half what 
they were forty years ago. With cheese at seven cents and butter 
at fourteen, mixed farming comes to grief. The hired man has the best 
of it. His wages a-re higher than formerly and the same money will 
procure him double what it did then, whilst the farmer gets only half 
wkat he was woat to get and the men clamour for shorter hours which 
he cannot give them. One hundred dollars a year with board was 
coH-nted good wages for many years -and the man's family lived as well 
as hts employer's, but to bring Wdges to ten or twelve cents an hour is to 
shut out labor. Now the vote is hunted up by the politician and the 
laborees govern the country. Newspapers are wild, extravagantly wild^ 
on high wages. The hired man must get time to read the papers, whilst 
the faraaer has none. The farmer must educate the children of the 
hired raan, then he must give him a wage his land will not pay, the next 
will be a pension. 

When tbe franchise was confined, many people were not discovered , 
or known, now they have got to enjoy great prominence. Let us be 
devoutVy pratefisl for the reformation. We read of millions collected in 
the cities in a state of demi-starvation asking to be led to war rather 
than starve. It would be safer to work for moderate wa^es on the farm. 
Not to naention the sacrifice of human life and the namclesi horror of 
the battk-field, tiftis would be the most effectual way of wasting and con- 
suming the earnimfs and savings of ages, and should they survive the 
cai-nage, they could make fame the order of the day and the glory of 
butchering' their fellow men, the theme of their exultation, when wealth 
was annihilated and the smoke of the cities they had left in ashes was 
ascending the skies. The condition of the farmer who has his all in- 
vested in land stock and implements must be more the object of the 
politician and the newspaper man, whilst they neglect in no wise the 
conditio* of Hae laborer and his offsprinj^j. The farmer has a vote worth 
iooking after. If workingmen would not play so much at knighthood 
and union cotabinations, but stick to their work and be content with 
their wages, spend far less on railroad excursions, especially, if they 
would avoid puMie shows, gambling arid the saloon,- things and places 
not only unnecessary, but injurious, and which sensible people avoid as 
poison; they would be in better condition and society, would breathe 
mere freely and wars become unneces.-^ary. . They should shun the 
thingsthatstealawaytheir time, money and character, unfit them for 
tkeir occupations, and entail oh them and theirs the greater misery. If 
tikc reflective side of Christianity, the sober honest thinking, is as im- 
potant as the active, tbe boisterous, the bustle of work, the impetuosity 
^'—^—^ — ^^ so much show and carries so many off their feet, and even 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLET. 227 

lose their head, then surely the working away quietly wMi head and 
hands, saving all that can be made out of our toil »nd labor, cultivating 
contentment with our lot and economising the rewards of our efforts is, 
if not the only, certainly the brightest hope before ns of bettering and 
improving our condition. It is not the high wages for half time, but the 
steady employment that compensates best. Twenty-six dollars a month 
without board for six months if the man is idle six months, should be 
board himself at twenty-five cents a day, would leave him only sixty- 
four dollars and seventy-five cents, which is less than twenty-five cents a 
day, which is seventy-eight dollars. American farmers do oot employ 
men six months in the year generally. One ' quarter dbllar a day and 
board is better than their employ. This looks small but can you pro- 
duce a farmer fvho will get so much in the year outof his labor and three 
per cent, on his investment? We remember men working well in tb« 
harvest fields for five dollars a month with board. The farmer's working 
hours are longer than his man's and his reward much less if his stock in 
the farm be taken into the account. The newspaper man and the politi- 
cian should find out the farmer's gains in the year on his investment and 
his labor, if they did they would begin to devise means to save him a 
little from beanng so much of the burden of so many high-salaried men 
in the Dominion. The farmer ha^ some stake besides his vote which 
the politicians of the past have done their utmost to make worthless. 
Ocean cables, steamships, railroads, that have made so many millionaires, 
have so swallowed up the capacities of our politicians that they think 
not of the wrongs they have inflicted, the debts they have involved us in 
and the discouragements thrown in the way of the people, making pro- 
gress as they would if their burdens were made lighter. The gorgeous 
idea of protection by which the people's pockets are emptied into die 
lap of the manufacturer without contributiug one cent to the revenue, 
the price of the product being as high as that of the imported article 
with the revenue added has so deluded and intoxicated the politician 
that he is quite incapable of reasoning, they have seen everything , 
through colored glasses or seen it double. The farmer's wealth is doubled, 
his produce doubled, the prices doubled, the home market doubled, 
wages doubled, contentment and happiness doubled. The wealth of the 
manufacturer increased forty fold and the country has been so prosperous 
that there is no room to pile up the fruits and the goods. This lesson 
has been tanght everyone from the editor to the newsboy and the drain- 
digger. They sing in "chorus the wealth and prosperity of the people in 
which they are joined, by the man shivering over her sawhorse and begging 
for work. The prosperity of the country became the watchword of half . 
the community, if you contradicted them they gnashed on you with 
their teeth. It, was rolled along from Newfoundland to Vancouver's 
Island. It was rolled along the valleys and over the mountains up to 
the clouds, but it smelt ojf Bishop Cameron's inspiration, could not be 
admitted, but was huried back in the faces of its inventors to their utter 
confusion and the opposite inspiration was inhaled by honest men, and 
men of truth, and in the quarters where least expected, and the reply is a 
lesson the most striking, and except to fools, the most instructive of any 
thing in the whole land for years. To deceive men is inexusable, yea, 
unpardonable It is the blind leading the blind, and deep is the ditch in 



228 . F'^TORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

which they land. The meeting of the two leaders after the election was 
Kke that of the banker and the lawyer after the defeat of their party. 
They met in the parlor of the hotel as described by the western editor. 
"Joe fell on the Major's neck and the Major fell upon Joe's neck and 
they both wept and Joe said to the Major this is h— 11." Th6 defeated 
gentry feel as if in a scene of enchantment as if they found nothing real 
anywhere Their occupation is gone to return no more. They are not 
likely to cry up the prosperity of the country. Everything they contem- 
plate is sure to put forth as a mirror their great disasters. The best thing 
they can do will be to turn their attention to the condition of their 
neighbors whose yearly contributions indirectly have swelled their store 
of wealth, and lend them at 3>^ per cent, as they receive about that for 
bank deposits or say 4 per cent, and encourage the draining, stumping, 
removing stones and levelling of their fields. This will improve the 
farms and make the country improve in every respect around them. 
It will turn barren land to productiveness, brown fields to verf'uie, and 
instead of scanty returns they will yield bountifully. It would greatly 
encourage the improvement of stock and give a new impulse to the 
farmer to better his condition, stimulate his genius to Teach a higher 
standard of agriculture, raise and feed better animals, and more profitable 
crops, evoke something in his nature favorable to himself and to the gen-, 
era! benefit of his .race. This would be to retaliate on themselves for 
their selfish love of money, starve the appetite for usury and would also 
wake upa forgivenness in thepeople once fleeced but now befriended 
in their day of need. It would do more, even produce gratitude for their 
generosity as a proof that their repentance was really j:(enuine, and put 
tibe humble farmer a step or two on the way to prosperit)' if not inde- 
pendence. Their lands thus cleared of stumps and stones, well under- 
drained, subsoiled and top-dressed, would soon yield in richest produc- 
tions more than would pay back the loan as well as reward the owner 
a»d tiller of the soil besides greatly improving it for the time to come. 
What an advantage it would be to mtchanics and small traders to get 
littie sums in their pinch at a moderate rate. Money is generally 
locked up in banks where they lend at 8 or 9 per cfent. giving dividends 
of sixteen per cent- or over free from any taxation to either Government 
or municipality, and where these poor men cannot borrow except .to 
their utter ruin. The institutions should be held to five per cent, or 
taxed two per cent, on their whole stock and restricted to not more .than 
seven per cent, on their short loans. The corporations make rules, their 
servants or employees must carry them out, and usury, fraud, and often 
oppression, freely follow. No institution should be permitted unlimited 
power to extort above what is just and equal from the community. 

For two years the whole land iias 1 ten convulsed over the Manitoba 
School Bill of 1890, drawn up by Mr. M .rtin, afterwa.rds M. P. for Winni- 
peg, and who defended it with great ability in the Dominion Parliament. 
It was displeasing to the bishoiis and tl'.ey procured an appeal to the 
Privy Council. That highest tribunal in the empire decided that it was 
constitutional. A second appeal was sent and decided that the minority 
had an appeal to the governor-in council in the event of a grievance. 
The Government- hypocritically, as themselves and suppoikrs have 
amply proved since, to keep the solid Catholic vote, took up the matter 



V 

HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLETT. 329 

as if the Priv}^ Council had commanded them to legislate, roerciog thj 
government of Manitoba to enact a separate school law. In two elections 
the people of Manitoba refused to do this. Then arose dissension in the 
B Dwell Cabinet. One half supported the •Premier, the other was in revolt, 
declaring the .Premier's incapacity to lead such talented statesmen. The 
Premier described these as "a nest of traitors." The leaders in the ne.-,. 
were Hon. G. Foster, and Sir C. H. Tapper, their object being to bring 
Sir C. Tupper, Bart., to become Premier after the dethronement of Sir 
McKenzie Bowell. VvHien it was found the Bart., was likely to :ome 
thoy returned to their allegiance. So the Carons, the Angers, all the re- 
voiters returned and became a happy family, reconciled and cemented 
, together in undying friendships, all agreed on coercion. A sixth unne- 
cessary extra parliament was called to pass the bill which, with Hercu- 
lean labor they got only to a second reading and the session did nothing 
but under the forms of law relieve the country people of about half a 
million of dollars. 

Hon. Clarke Wallace disgusted with coercion, resigned office and 
emoluments, bijt the others clung to the thousands with the fidelity of 
true money grabbers, their watchword being, no surrender. Hon. Clarke 
Wallace was beginning to secure popularity when he went back on him- 
self and lost cast in North Grey. There he threw overboard coercion, 
planking it on the Liberals who always repudiated k. Politicians who 
build and destroy what they have built, are to be pitied as well as laughed 
at, as they prove themselves too shaky for any but idiots to put confi- 
dence in. Quum Deus vult perdere primum dementit. The ninety-nine 
hours' session showed the calibre of the Baronet The profundity of 
the motions and resolutions of Foster and the windy Baronet, show that 
if they have lost their thousands attached to office, they will shift hun- 
dreds of thousands from the almost empty pockets of the Canadians to 
the rather full pockets of the members. How little regard for.one another 
these men show ? No sooner is the Baronet elected by the inspiration 
of Bishop Cameron, than he kicks out Foster and takes the lead of the 
House. How could such a man expect an orderly patient hearing from 
.any meeting he should address. He was not able to dislodge the Pre- 
mier till the parliament expired, then he became a kind of de facto pre- 
mier for a few short weeks. Oh! how he regrets relinquishing the 14,000 
a year with the pickings in London. His elevation and fall were s(j near 
together that the great \. L \. elevated above the clouds in such sunlight 
was plunged into the thick darkness in the cold storage of opposition. 
Hannibal sitting in the burnt ruins of Carthage was bhly a beginning to 
this The parliament expired, the adverse election tipped the scale and 
all was lost. Truthfulness they never knew but have been speaking the 
opposite since they were bom. Honesty, if they were ever instructed in 
it, has been under an irredeemable mortgage since they entered on man- 
hood, and honor is a word that never figured in their vocabulary; but as 
Horace Greeley once said of some of their politicians. "It is no use to 
kick a dead ass." The defeat was a calamity. "The "traitors" with the 
Baronet at their head thought they would sweep the Dominion in the 
election and establish a perpetual reign of pride and poverty for another 
cycle of delusions. The Tuppers regarded themselves as our hereditary 
rulers and all the millions as hereditary bondsmen They had broken 



230 HISTORY OF THB OTTAWA VALLEY. 

thi, compact and filled afl openings in the Senate and on the Bench with 
disappointed politicians who were ready to sustain them in every thing 
s.iJt up to the Senate or the courts as the records of the country clearly 
show. No one would charge the judges with perverting judgment only 
t'lfi evidence was so clear on the suitable side that the decision was made 
es!».]v The reports of minorities were never made by the friends of the 
Government. This spoke volumes for the appointments. Fallen human 
nature presents many peculiar features. The juror was in a corner on 
the trial of the bishops in the days of James IL If he favored the 
bishpps, he brewed no more for the king, ifhe favored the king he brewed 
no more for the bishops. The Government charged the Liberals with 
obstruction in the last session, now they are charged with the same. 
This last obstruction had money in it. That was the brewer's trouble. - 
If obstruction was wrong for one it was wrong for both. 

On the Coercion Bill men voted for the first reading and against the 
second there seemed to be nothing sincere in them throughout They 

! do in power and undo it in opposition. We have contended for a great 
abbreviation of the legislating material to below one half A gentleman 
of this city thinks thirty-three per cent, of the clergy should be at some 
other honest calling, we think fifty per cent, of our M. P. gentlemen are 
very unfit to legislate. Some portions of the race are more for orna- 
ment than use, these for neither and very expensive as a luxury. There 
seems to be lack of judgment in being up to public gaze, wasting time, 
debating the' folly of making offices and appointments which could not 
be constitutionally admitted and filled. The country it is admitted, has 
run down for many years and it may take double the time to get it in 
good running order again. The railroad companies, navigation compan- 
ies, manufacturing companies and numerous combines have been related 
90 nearly in affinity or consanguinity with the Government and its sup- 
porters tha^^little or no hope could be entertained of anything for the 
farmer but what could be ground out of him. He asks no favors at the 
expense of his fellow laborers, only that his labor shall receive a fair r 
ward not inferior to that of the mechanic and the hard-worked employe 
of Government, but to get less for his toil and no per centage on his in- 
vestment in land stock and machinery, whilst he contributed to thv;- 
wealth or the idleness of others in any other place or calling. Most of 
the improvements of the country have been done at the farmers' ex- 
pense. He has been the strong beast of burden for every government 
to pack, till now like the old hcrse, with ringbone and spavin and spring- 
halt, galled back, fretted breast and din^inished grinders, he lies down 
under the load and the whip of his oppressor. They have made the 
country pay for the railroads, handed them over to parties, powerful 
enough to tax their produce all it can endure. Every man in every 
kind of business, office or calling, likes to have the lion's share if possible. 
The 25,000,000 acres made as a grant to the C. P. R. has not been 
patented but as sold. 

Sir John and the other cunning foxes knew that little of it would be 
sold during the twenty years' exemption from taxation So they waited 
for discoveries that they might secure the best and out-hector himself 
They hold lands high and wait till settlers have made them valuable. 

They had friends at court. Adversity is no use to many people, the 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 23t 

mortar and the pestle are in vain, madness is in their hearts. But they 
will work out their own destruction The passing wonder is that people 
gifte(' with intelligence can ever let such men be leaders or ever be 
induced to follow them. Someone has said that a man who could not 
tell pease from barley should not be at the head of the agriculture of the 
country. In the United States an expert in the milk business testified 
that he could not tell cow's milk from mare's. But a mini.stcr of rail- 
roads should know a locomotive from a wheelbarrow, and the minister 
of marine and fisheries should be better acquainted with the finny tribes 
than to confound a mudpout with a whale. 

In education the north shore of the Ottawa is not in a state of effi- 
oncy except in very few places. The idea of a separate Protestant 
school is a blind only. There is no provincial school system. It is only ; 
religion that is tauEjht in the common school, if that term can be em- 
ployed. A distinguished lawyer said the boys were very polite as he 
met them, pulled off their caps and bowed their salutation,' but when he 
asked them in French what they were studying said in the politest way, 
"petit catechism." The great defect in common branches of an educa- 
tion so apparent, must have moved the late Premier Meraier to establish 
night schools, which was deeply interested in, both in city and couijtry, 
but which on his dismissal disappeared like a vision in sleep, or the melt- 
ing snow in the spring. 

The counties around Ottawa were among the earliest to form agri- 
cultural societies and, show fairs were held every fall. Township societies 
and fairs were organized and were dmost exclusively in the 'interest of 
the farmer and mechanic, who were the producers and inyentors of ma- 
chinery and instruments of service in farm, garden, dairy, and cheese 
and butter-making. Of late years these have greatly degenerated and 
are now much against l4ie farmers' interest. A few stock raisers that 
feed a few animals beyond all bounds and cart them about from city to 
city and fair to fair are carrying away the prizes among them and shutting 
the farmers up to their township showSj as they can not afford to feed a 
few animals to bursting, that they might compete with professional 
breeders, but be useless on the farm as brood or milch animals aijd even 
too fat for butchfer's purposes. Fast hoises are valuable for special pur- 
poses but when they are used for racing and gambling it is a perversion 
from legitimate use to shameful abuse of the animal and still more de- 
grading to the degenerate souls that win or lose money on them. The 
legitimate exercise of these fleet steeds is very entertaining to onlookers 
and even a young Lochinvar may carry off a willing bride to rouse the 
enthusiasm of the party and defy their fleetest steeds to capture her, and 
she too may be better mated than with a soulless body or booby as you 
please; but the betting can be avoided and save young people from the 
facile iesensus avermis of gambling under the very eyes of the law and 
the eyes of the House of Commons. Things that belong not tp the de- 
corative, good, or the useful should not be encouraged. It may pay the 
large stock raiser and the fine horse fancier but the public purse should 
not be dived down into too far for this kind of gratification. Our purse 
is light and cannot meet such demands. In i8 years we have gone in 
debt an average of about $16,000,000 a year. The interest costs us 
nearly $3 a head on every soul in the population annually. Is it a time 



232 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

t® be liberal to gamblers at fairs or anywhere else ? But we observe 
there is hope of improvement. Adversity has its blessings not to be 
despised. The men that wrecked themselves by recklessly borrowing 
these past years are now out of position and crying loudly, bitterly 
against the Government borrowing. The morals of some men change 
with the change in their circumstances, but their advice is now good. 
Now, whatever may be said of fat or lean cattle the object of a fair 
should be the encouragement of the competitors to improve stock, prod- 
uce, machinery. The comparison at the fair may help this and the pere- 
grinating exhibitors need not be shut out, nor should the manager ex- 
clude the farmer exhibitors. 

Great cities that are so largely the gainers by these exhibitions 
should contribute the necessary funds and not have the audacity to come 
to any government to ask $50,000 for an exhibition. They know well 
that it must come largely out of the farmers that reap only the benfit of 
the sight-seeing. Our people are getting like the Romans that required 
only bread and shows. Fireworks, music, racing, are all fine in their 
proper place and way, but they cost us too much like the whistle. Were 
we out of debt instead of being overloaded with it we might indulge in 
outlay. Four million nine hundred thousand of our people need to 
economise and benefit nothing by such like outlay. The estimates as- 
tonish the Opposition but after the present year whose outlay they caused 
when in power, they will likely be as much astonished as the other. Let 
the talk about economy induce the cities' to drop their demands. 

Imported stock for improvement came into the country before a 
fair was held for their exhibition. Has the Experimental Farm increased 
the productiveness of the farms in its environs ? Would these lands 
become less fertile were all these fancied aids abolished ? If we could 
get the report of alltlie prizes given in the great central fairs like Toronto, 
Ottawa and Montreal, and locate round each of these centres what they 
get and the proportion spent on mountebank part and on the outside 
exhibitors that travel from fair to fair with stock and machinery, it would 
show things in a clearer light. So much encouragement to vice, so much 
thrown uselessly away, squandered on worse than folly, when we have 
to borrow to pay our anrjual interest to English lenders. There is also 
much destruction of human life that no value can be set ,upon. All is 
vanity and vexation of Spirit. 

In a valley next neighbor to the Ottawa Valley there is a delightful 
spot named Chautauqua. It is very picturesque, abounding in mountain, 
valley, hill and dale, river and rill, with f^roves and gardens, green mead- 
ows and golden grain, fields wavini?- with tall green corn, tents and cot- 
tages on the sunny slopes, and in the shady groves, the sweet summer 
resort of the literati and the religious, the man of business and the lady 
of fashion. The gentleman of leisure and of learning meets the gentle- 
man of unbounded wealth, and the gentleman in delicate health seeking 
pleasure or robust vigor in the cooling breezes or leafy green shades, in 
the hazel dells or the tufted firs that crown the brows of the lofty moun- 
tains. The societies prescribe courses of reading and studies for gradu- 
ates, under-graduates, post graduates and all classes and kinds of readers. 
Lecturers on all kinds of subjects frequent it in summer. It is a sort of 
finishing school for those who wish to establish their fame as little short 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. ^33 

of world-wide renown. Inter alia in 1896 it received a visit from 
Bishop Vincent of the Methodist Episcopal church, concerning whom, a 
very reliable writer to the press of Philadelphia, reports a lecture, deliv- 
ered to an audience of a thousand people in which he read with appr. )ba- 
tion from what he called a very refined and most Christian woman, 
charging Mary with being a sinner and the child Jesus with being born 
in sin, and the sin put upon the church as a miracle. She repudiates the 
doctrine of the Trinity as not known till 511, A. D., denying the necessity 
of the atonement. The bishop said he personally believed in the divinity 
of Christ, but dwelt not on it nor a word on the Trinity but sternly de- 
nounced preaching dogma from the pulpit. All that people needed was 
to receive Christ, as a man to be saved, not troubling themselves about 
the miraculous statements in the Scriptures. The Bishop seems to 
know more about the fine qualities of his correspondent than of the 
teachings of the New Testament. These two sinners direct a united 
attack on the humble Virgin, a thing easily done as she was not present 
to defend herself. Why these brilliant spirits remain in the Christian 
church is a wonder, when Islamism and Confusianism are open to tliem 
and the Chinese Duke Li, could have fraternized with them if not too 
old, and established them a'gainst the dogmas of Christianity, of which 
they seem to be hopelessly innocent. People of common attainments 
discover the dogma of the Trinity in the writings of Moses, Samuel and 
David, existing long before the New Testament was written or the pro- 
ductions of theology in systematic order by Augustine, Calvin or Hodge 
and a thousand others. If we believe Moshiem, Waddington and otherf 
5 1 1 A. D. or the sixth century was not more remarkable than others for 
display of genius or great scholars to invent dogma!. Was it a revolt 
from the extreme of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin which 
wafted this pair to the other extreme of charging home impurity. It 
is quite as dangero'ig to believe too little as too much. The narrative o( 
Mary is true indicating no sin and np disposition to deceive the ages. 
Christians as well as Jews admit the mysteries of their religion. Religion 
without mystery could not be true. Our existence is a mystery — the 
union of soyl and body, the influence of the one on the other, the associa- 
tion of our ideas are all inexplicable mysteries. The generation of Eve 
from Adam without a mother was as extraordinary as the generation of 
Jesus from Mary without a father. Each is a creation. "A body hast 
thou prepared me." Jesus Christ is the head of the new creation, "the 
first-bom of every creature", the first begotten from the dead. He is 
before all things and by him all things consist. Adam was first formed 
then Eve. He called their name Adam in the day when they were 
created. Ever since the wife is called by her husband'5 name while he 
lives and she as a widow after his decease. The captive girls of the 
Midianites were "Nepesh Adam" human souls, daughters of Adam Nunb. 
The portion of Adam is formed into the lovely beautiful Eve. The por- 
tion of Mary is formed'into the human body of the Mediator God mani- 
fest in che flesh. Their is no isin in- either. Each is created by the 
hand of God himself, the Spirit that garnished the heavens. The second 
man is the Lord from heaven, the union of the divine and human na- 
tures, in the Mediator, in contrast with the first man of the earth earthy, 
Without this union Jesus could not be a Saviour. He is fa.irer than the 



23-t HlSiOkV OF THE OTTAWA VALLHY 

sons of men. Grace is poured into his lips and to him the Spirit is give* 
without measure. Stephen spake of Moses as exceeding fair. The face 
of Jesus Christ did shine as the sun. His mouth is most sweet, never 
man spake like this man. He is. King of Kings and Lo.rd of Lords. He 
must reign till death is destroyed. He died for our .sins, put them away 
by his sacrifice, obtained eternal redemption for us, reigns in Heaven, 
makes interce.ssion for us there to the Father. There may be men that 
cannot s'ee tlie grandeur of Christ nor the glory that encjrcles him and 
his work, and yet talk of refinement, in a woman capable of pouring 
torrents of abuse on the most blessed among women, and the most sub- 
lime and soul-satisfying doctrines of Revelation. Such refinement ! Such 
Christians! Can they be descended from Adam and Eve or are they 
not from an inferior source, a less worthy origin ? We may defy any 
one to tell the story of Mary and the mysterious birth as that is told if 
there were a sin to hide. Fancies never change facts.' God saw in the 
future the race as fallen and it pleased Him to provide a remedy. Was 
it not meet that one in the nature that had sinned and fallen sheuld raise 
it again ? "Made of a woman, made under the law to redeem them that 
were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons." 

Elizabeth says "the mother of my Lord." Is it likely that a refined 
woman, that would even dare to speak lightly of the mother would value 
the aidvocacy the intercession of her Son ? Her prayer would be vain 
even if her ribald language did riot bring her under execration. Human- 
ity, education, refinement, high Christian principle, the modesty that w 
highly adorns the female; all protest to high Heaven against such un- 
clean thoughts from the heart, clothed in such language from the lips 
and the pen of a woman whose sex Jesus Christ has so exalted and 
adorned in the hidden man of the heart with godliness showing itself in 
good works, In that beautiful form,, unequalled in the wide range of 
creation,-the woman, should there not be cultivated, that which excels 
all the glorious beauty of. outward form, the variegated shades of the 
rainbow, the gorgeous radiance of the setting sun, the roses of Sharon or 
Cashmere, the complex excellency of vision shining out from the con- 
trasts of the most complimentary colors in the richest flowers, wild or 
cultivated, over the face of this blessed world, "the ornament oi a meek 
and quiet spirit which in the sight of God is of great price." This too 
will endear her to her race and kind, make the plainest face to Woom in 
the eyes of the husband and he will kiss the cheek, be it white, rosy, pale, 
olive, brown or black, with an admiration unfathomable. This beauty of 
the soul will bring the brightest beams from the dullest eye, and the 
moulding, heaven-tending influence of such a woman will brighten her 
own sweet home and greatly contribute to the elevation of society 
where that influence can be exerted. Set the most rigid bounds to your 
feelings which words cannot express, and they will burst their barriers as 
the image comes up in your thoughts of a woman once exceedingly 
beautiful, wise and prudent, always sweet, gentle and kind, whose piety 
never blanched, and whose fortitude never failed, but whose removal 
from your hearth and home, impoverished you more than if millions had 
been stolen from your treasury. Lord Littleton said of his trea»u-e : 
'Polite as all her life in courts had been and good as she the world bad 
never seen.' 



«bSTORY or THE OTTAWA VALLEY, 235 

Our readers ivill excuse us if we do not polute our thoughts or our 
pen and pages, with a description of the contrast. We pity and- pray 
for the repentance of a woman who can unsex herself and pervert facts. 
She is a dangerous leader of women. A bishop capable of endorsing 
such imbecility, such extravagance, is in danger of being reckoned a 
demagogue. His elevation has turned him giddy. He had been safer 
in the simplicity of the primitive church than lording it in this manner. 
These two people are offenders against the good taste of refined society 
and should be denied admission to it anywhere. Had the bishop and his 
much admired correspondent been trained in a knowledge of that little 
catechism gotten up by some sensible Englishman at old Westminster, 
the one would have had her mind too clear and sound to have written 
such a bungle of a letter, and the bishop, even a tulch.an, would have 
understanding in revealed truth too profound, to occupy a position for- 
bidden in Scripture or put forth such false doctirne'as salvation by a man 
only. His thoughts of inspired truth, and- of its eternally binding author- 
ity, would have produced a fear of the Lord which is the beginning of 
wisdom in which he seems deficient. That woman (should be a lady) 
ought to reconsider her rash judgment about the Creator. Is anything ' 
too hard for him. Sarah bears in her 91st year. A Virgin brings forth 
Immanuel. The bishop should reconsider his divinity and repent in 
dust and ashes and reform his teaching lest his wall of hay and stu'uble 
be burnt to ashes. 

• •* Almost in harmony with the foregoing, a little later in this year, 
1896, another clergyman from the Isles of the ocean visited the east end 
of our valley, sounding a note of warning in favor of evolution as in ac- 
cordance with all science. Is science the knowledge of facts, as found 
by. experience ? It must be in its infancy requiring greater develop- 
ment ere it can be reconciled with ascertained facts. , This Wesleyan 
orator is not very sure whether man grew by evolution into his present 
form, and. then stood still or rather took to degeneracy, for giants seldom 
appear in our race in modern centuries. This law, if it be a law of evo- 
lution, has been inoperative for six thousand years in our own experience 
as a race and people as we all resemble one another; no branch striking 
out to leave the others, by taking on and budding wings or horns, or de- 
veloping more in hands or feet, or taking on more beautiful hies of 
colour, or adding another to the five senses already developed. E\ olu- 
tion has in our own species stood still, for say, six thousand years. The 
same is true of the monkey tribes that are nearest to us in resemblance 
of the brute creation. Among these there is only improvement, not evo- 
lution. This Professor thinks Adam and Eve were created but is not 
sure. 

Care in matching and assortment, climate and food, make great im- 
provement in creatures. We have no evidence in our history of one 
animal becoming another by evolution. Some old sj)ecies may drop out 
but we know of no new ones appearing. There may be degeneracy. 
These (nepioi) children of sciencedo not mean any insult by their nursery 
stories, but having wealth and leisure can entertain the lovers of novelty' 
who are not prepared to combat them and care nothing whether they 
are true or faLs> . Sir William Dawson, the monarch of the whole empire 
of modern re.<iearch and the prince of scientists in all his carefully written 



236 HISTORY Of THii OTTAWA VALLEY. 

works never looks on evolution in any other light than that of improve- 
ment or development, of which every plant and animal are capable. 
Shallow thinkers are so pleased with phantoms of discoveries as to be up' 
and ready to proclaim them on the house-tops. So much passes f©r 
science which is only on the hypothetical side of it -that not a few are 
intoxicated with these' fantastic forms that like atmospheric vapors arc 
ever changing their forms as the wind blows them swiftly away into the 
domain of dreams and cloiidland. These authors and lecturers are not 
without interest as they treat of subjects much better than novels and 
are often eloquent, suggestive, entertaining; assisting in their place the 
observer and the experimenter. 

An old Covenanter lady in Pennsylvania objected to having the 
Psalms of David exchanged for light hymns as they would run through 
the heads of the children like Robin Hood's ballads. What we demur 
to in these theories is their unfounded condition. If the account of crea- 
tion given by Moses is incorrect why do they not give a correct one ? 
They swing their battering rams against the walls of his fine old fort or 
. citadel but they have not moved a stone and the defenders feel so safe 
that they hang out no bed of feathers or a sack of chaff to deaden _ the 
blow of the ram's head. An old Hebrew, though not a very spiritual 
man, would say to these men, "We ktiow that God spake by Moses"^ but 
we know not whence ye are. An old Scotchman praying before bed- 
time (was heard by two young preachers passing his door in the moon- 
light who had themselve.s officiated in the church of which the old man 
was an elder) for the spiritual wants of the flock confessed that "they 
had been fed with an empty spoon that day." 

This English evolutionist Wesleyan Professor and the ri.mericaa 
Episcopal Methodist Bishop require a careful overhauling, such as the 
Presbyterians gave Drs. Smith and Briggs, or the infidel dogmas they 
teach will lie at the doors of their denominations. There will not be a 
jeer uttered by a sincere Christian at the loudest stroke of the ecclesiasti- 
ca!l rod on tht backs of such wise scientists'. One objects to the dogma 
of cre'ation, the other on redemption, for if Jesus had been a sinnfcr he 
could not have been a Redeemer- The man or the woman who would 
read the first chapter of the Gospel by Matthew, and the first and second 
chapters of the Gospel by Luke, weigh the announcements of the, angels 
and the expressions of Elizabeth and Mary, the just character given to 
Joseph and then entertain rloiibts and remain sceptical, are among the 
most hopelcs-; and incurable cases in our unfortunate fallen and degraded 
race. Peo, >!c r?; Ik of hones tdo.i bts. That looks like a blind leader, a sleepjing 
sentinel, an honest thief, a white negro. It is impossible for the true 
God to lie, is it honest to doubt His word ? Christianity triumphant in 
the face of all opposition for nineteen hundred years and stronger to-day 
than ever is a standing miracle, a tei=;timony to the truth, a fulfillment of 
the prophecies going before for long ages by inspiration, and prophetic 
from the Most High God, the M;ikcr and possessor of Heaven and earth. 
The man .who doubts that these starry Heavens around us were created, 
the man who doubts the divinity of the Son, of God and the humanity 
ot the Son of Mary, and presumes to teach men, must rank far below. 
the very least in the Kingdom of Heaven. Physic is better for such thaa 
metaphysics. 



nrsTtxRT or ttie Ottawa valley. 237 

Th© wsman who cara ■wrflc'siitcfe owtrwths of the humfele, in-feeUectW 
sablime Mary, so full of gratcc aed truth, who asked of the angel how 
she could be a mother, whilst a pure girl in her virginity, and was told 
that it must be a creation by that Spirit that "garnished the Heavens," 
and said, "behold the handmaiden of Jehovah. Be it unto me according 
to thy word," whose whole conduct is so blameless throughout h-er his- 
tory that could utter from tongue or pen such low vulgar falsehoods, 
were she a duchess or a princesSj is too low to fall. Chautauqua as a fa- 
mous summer resort cannot continue to collect such spirits and maintain 
its character for even wQrldly respectability, spirits that administer the 
bateful poison of such low degrading, debasing polluting filthiness. O, 
Qiautauqua, Chautauqua, strike thy tents, burn thy cottages, leave thy 
pretty plains and sunny slopes to the ranch or the ploughman and the 
visie dresser, rather than be the hot-bed of lying heresies, that would root 
grow and ripen, in the minds of thy visitors to their destruction, and 
would shut them with the dogs and without the walls of the great Jeru- 
salem. , Withqut the city, yea the maker of a lie, the lover of a lie, will 
be cast into the abyss, the lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second 
death, whatever worlds of meaning may be contained in that most ter- 
rible of tprribles the second death. Audacious woman who had the 
hardihood to write such loud and bitter falsehoods against an innocent 
woman, one of thine own sex, to condemn the just, and make thee an 
abomination to the Lord; should thy civilized sisters of every Ian.' pour 
cm thee the sulphuric acid of their virtuous indignation? Nay, thej' will 
pray for thee if perhaps the thoughts of thy heart may be forgiven thee. 
Thy utterances are from the gall of bitterness within thee„poor deluded 
sister. O, ecclesiastical dignitary, lord over God's heritage, elevated 
above thy brethren to be a model for them to copy, is this thy commis- 
Mon, to read, approve and endorse a sickly letter from a distracted fe- 
male, the product of a dyspeptic stomach, or an hysterical brain, instead 
of the divine incorruptible Word. A prophet may tell his dreams, maj' 
hide himself in an inner chamber but the teacher of lies shall be stopped. 
Drop thy reveries, cast thy mitye in the dust, gird thee with > sackcloth, 
sit in ashes, till thy spirit att.ain the humility, sobriety and common 
sense, essential to the preaching of the Holy Word. 

Dr. Harper of Chicago lectures at Chautauqua after Bishop Vinceat 
He afifirms that God could not make a man of Semitic blood that would 
ivalk uprightly, so of natural consequ,ence these sons of Shem could not 
give us the truth.. Is the Shemite any worse than himself surrounded as 
be is with light, refinement of society, civilization, laws and cust®ms ? 
Jeremiah, Daniel, Queen Esther, and the Messiah the Prince, were of 
that race. Did any of these warn iis against errors in the Scriptunes ? 
Did Jesus Christ confirm the truth of such Scriptures as fellows hke these 
doubt about. These doubters will draw disciples after them but they 
will not be followers of the Lamb. Joe Smith and Herbert Spencer tried 
their hands at making a new Bible but failed.' Harper might try the 
task. Why set himself up to teach a Bible that he doubts the truth of ? 
The professors and trustees of colleges repudiate with indignation the 
sale of degrees but who ever obtained a degree without the being forth- 
coming before or after. If they would not be so lavish of their parch- 
meHts in certifying to qualities not possessed and attainments never 



HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLBY 

re«dj«i, the community wouid not be so pestered \vith doctors ignorant 
of the first elements of evidence. Christ knew that the ancient Scrip- 
tures would be attacked by these ravening wolves in sheeps' clothing 
and fortified in advance what might seem the most obscure and weak in 
the eyes of men. Instance the case of Jonah which we have heard 
mockers and scoffers term "the big fish story." The unbounded impu- 
dence in which he says, God has done his best with these men, but that 
they could not give us the Scriptures free from scientific errors, is only 
equalled by his deplorable ignorance of the Scriptures and the power of 
God. Can God not bring truth out of the mouth of the Father of Lies ? 
"All that a man hath will he give for his life." Is he ignorant of the fact 
that "holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit," 
that Scripture is not given in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, 
but which the Holy Spirit teacheth, {the ta grammata) the things written. 
The dark, unutterably profound, ignorance of the Bible these people 
show is deplorable. How they dare and defy the Omnipotent to arms ! 
How they would curtail and limit His power ! God is long-suffering, but 
they may some day feel this power, they now mock and despise.' It is a 
misfortune that people so ignorant and self-conceited should visit these 
beautiful valleys, poisoning the minds of audiences with these perniciou.s 
soul-destroying blasphemous heresies. The certificate of a college or 
university to their learning, of which perhaps they know nothing, gives a, 
sanction in the eyes of the vulgar, to the rubbish with •vhich they build, - 
the smoke of which may yet suffocate them. Wandering stars to whom 
may be reserved the blackness of darkness, may with their dark light- 
nings delude and ensnare the unconverted and the ungodly. Or repent- 
ance unto life may be given them — who can tell ? Grace is a mighty 
monarch and reigns through righteousness to eternal life by Jesus Christ 
our Lord. 

'A visitor, a distingiiished clergymen from the Isles of the ocean, 
(Emerald I.=le) in this year of grace, made a detour through our pleasant 
valley, bringing with him to us the salutations of his church delivering 
us some discourses on the most precious subjects, elegant in diction and 
eloquent in delivery. He belongs to the highest class of intellect and 
though modest and unassumifig, one of the most finished and polished 
orators we have heard in the Ottawa Valley. The sermons were far 
above any ever delivered in this city by anyone. In discussing truths 
the most sublime with the earnestness, fervor and eloquence becoming 
them, his language was so fitly chosen, so beautifully arranged and so 
thoroughly Anglo-Saxon as to make him clearly, easily understood by 
everyone, even moderately acquainted with our English tongue. His 
reading of the Scriptures conve>ed a larger, clearer, grander meaning 
than that of an ordinary reader. Even the church intimations were read 
with a new force and excellence grandly superior to the common meth- 
ods. His text was from the song of Solomon, "set me as a seal on thy 
heart, as a seal on thine arm, for love is strong as death, burning coals of 
God." A sublime exposition of the passage followed. He was not 
afraid nor ashamed to proclaim his pure orthodoxy, which was more 
practical than the so-called practical preaching of these parts, and that! 
vast crowd recei\ ?n it with breathless attention, showing at once the ( 
power that the doctrines of grace can have when preached with unctia*! 



HISTORY or THE OTTAWA VALLBY 239 

|»i the feces of the waiting thousands there testified. In his loftiest flights 
the impassioned orator never threw his words in clusters, as we have 
'often heard, causing an unintelligible blank, greatly obscuring their 
naeaning. On the contrary the articulation was so distinct, so clear that 
you fancied every letter shone forth in every well-weighed word that 
was used throughout the whole, whilst the tone and accent filled the ear, 
kindled the fires of the soul in a rapture of enthusiastic delight. His sub- 
liHje thoughts^ of God which he uttered with a faith so profound and a 
pathos so intense and a tender affection in such sympathy with his 
hearers as to make us feel, if we did not utter aloud with Jacob, "This is 
none otherthan the house of God and this is the gate of Heaven. This 
kind of preaching disarms the higher critic, makes ashamed the cold 
formalist, warming up the heart to inwardly avow undying love and 
eternal obedience. It was the best we ever heard in any place we have 
travelled on this continent. There was no hunt after metaphors, no 
far-fetched illustrations, no smatterings of science, but the man, the 
speech, the actions, all living, all natural, all becoming the pulpit and the 
messenger of the King of Kings, the author of life eternal. We were 
pleased, edified, electrified, with our eyes on the preacher and our hearts 
in our eyes. ' If Irish Presbyterians raise such boys and their colleges 
give such theology and polish, that nation will soon be in the Presby- 
terian church. Knox church was full and all were captivated. The 
preacher put his soul into the theme and they gave it a hearty reception 
It was the water of life from the throne and they drank it. It came in 
power and the Holy Spirit. They wash their robes in the blood of the 
Lamb. God demands obedience, commands us to believe in the name 
of His Son. To receive him for salvation is obedience, is receiving the 
atonement, sealing the truth. The atoning blood covers our failures 
every one. His divine nature sustained His human, and he ransomed, 
redeemed, purchased us,^and Heaven for us. The Spirit by the Holy 
Word creates faith in us. Christ's obedience is His and our righteous- 
ness. All are ours and we are Christ's, He in us by faith. The Father 
is reconciled to us by the atonement and we to Him by receiving it. ^The 
lords of Philistia said David would reconcile himself to Saul with their 
heads. They had more soul and sounder divinity than the lecturers of 
Chautauqua. Salvation is by ransom. To redeem He came under the law. 
Salvation was proclaimed first in the promise of the Father, then wrought 
out by the Son, and is now applied in the Gospel by the Spirit, includ- 
ing the Crown, Kingdom, Inheritance, Glory, God Himself; thy God thy 
g^ry. Knowledge of God in us is Heaven begun, eternal life. "One 
greater man restores us and regains the blessful seats." Rev. McCaughan's 
visit refreshed many. It was the bundle of myrrh, his godly doctrines 
gave power to the feeble, inspired more courage in the strong, dismissed 
doubts, made the dumb tongue sing. It was infusing the truths of 
heavenly life, expelling the poisonous errors of death, the sweet aroma 
of the lea\ es and blossoms and fruit of the Tree of Life from the atmos- 
phere of the New Jerusalem, incomparably superior to the "Sabean 
odours wafted from the spicy shores of Araby the blest." We can oiriy 
;give a passing glance to this most distinguished of our visitors in these 
j brief annals, whilst he deserves the fullest acknowledgement as an elo- 
'quent orator and clear-headed sound divine. , 



240 HISTORY OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY 

Mr. Renaldo McConnell was the only one we knew of hereabouts! 
that tried to domesticate the fur-bearing animals, minks, beavers and 
otters, but his bounds were too limited and his wooden walls too in- 
secure to confine these coy, cute creatures. They stayed some time but 
diminished and disappeared. Deer parks are not uncommon in any 
country but they have not received the attention that insures success. 
A domain might be fenced with a cedar hedge that in twenty-five or 
thirty years would be secure, provided the gaps were prevented or kept 
filled. Or a row or double row of trees, indiginous to the soil, could be 
planted at a very moderate cost, cutting down on the sides those likely 
to fall on it by storms. All in the line, which need not be a straight 
line, could be marked and left and the spaces between filled up with 
suitable young trees. The young trees might be planted on the surface 
spreading the roots and covering with surface earth. This we have 
found to , be the best plan. Booms could be stretched a :ross' streams 
and rock difficulties overcome, amphibious animals could dive under or 
crawl over booms but would return again and only a few that you cared 
to retain would climb the hedge and get away. Ontario could enclose 
such a preserve on her north territory. The Americans have legally 
prohibited deer-killing till it is said they have immense herds of Moose 
and others along the norwestern states but they have permittea the anni- 
hilation almost totally of the Buffalo. The poled Angus or black Galo- 
way furnishes a hyde not a bad substitute for the Buffalo robe. The 
question of profii has to be considered but excepting rapacious and dan- 
gerous predatory creatures regard should be had to the preservation of 
the fauna of our country with such a northern belt suitable for that 
purpose. 

In this first volume we have stated the facts not intentionally to the 
injury or the advantage of anyone. Write us if any correction is ne- 
cessary, and for information in Volume 2nd, which will begin with the 
early days of Bytown, for which much is collected and written. Having 
lived in the valley from childhood and been'famlliar with it from Mont- 
res^l to Mattawa and from the Gulf St. Lawrence to the Huron, we ask 
information from correspondents on the upper and-lower Ottawa that *iw 
may furnish a record of facts and events that should not be lost from the 
fenerations to come. , 



DIFFICUIvTIBS OF RBlvIQION. 



THE first great difficulty in religion is that humanity has broken the restraints 
of law and separated itself from God. The vessel has parted its cable, left 
its anchor and is driven by adverse winds of passion upon trackless seas, 
with dim hopes of regaining its former anchorage, or re-uniting the broken strains 
of the cable that bound it to the peaceful shore. Yet in the deepest degradation 
and widest wanderings, man cannot wholly forget his origin. Unhappy creature, 
he can neither forgive his offences nor renovate his debased nature. Alienation 
from God is atheism, and yet atheism is abhorrent to his mind. He has strug- 
gled through the ages to give himself a religion and failed utterly to even satisfy 
himself. Beginning with Cain, who struck out from the family religion, down 
to Herbert Spencer, how many vain attempts have been made and systems pro- 
posed, to meet this confessed want? The religions that cover the earth are an 
insult and an abhorrence to the unknown God, whom men ignorantly worship. 
Despoiled man sought to clothe himself with leaves at the beginning ; in 
subsequent ages he has wrapped himself in any rags that come in his way ; to 
slake his burning thirst he plunges into the most polluted waters ; endeavoring 
to find his way home, buries himself in frightful deserts, a " waste howling wild- 
erness." If truth has not had a lodgment in his mind in his early training, the 
greater evolution in his talents, the more he mingles with the world, in the more 
sovereign contempt he holds religion. He professes to know almost nothing of 
his soul, less still of a future state, and least of all the Author of his being. Two 
thousand years ago, the Greeks had an altar to the unknown God, evidently 
thinking He ought to be worshipped. Agnostics scarcely believe that now. 
Paul showed the Greeks that this ignorance was inexcusable in the face 
of the visible creation. Had specimens of those Greeks been frozen 
and laid away above the snow line in the mountains to be waked from that 
catalepsy in the genial light of the 19th century, would ^they present a more 
antique appearance than some modern thinkers? What has the religions of 
China, Hindostan and the neighboring countries done for their votaries ? The 
star worship of the Assyrians, the sun worship of the Persians, the polythism, as 
it may be termed, of ancient Greeks and Romans ; the idolatries of Scythians 
and savage Scandinavians accomplished no more for these nations than kissing 
the dust from the feet of hideously stupid idols does for the degraded, swarthy 
African. Home spun theories of religion never satisfy men, though they would 
delight to be their own Saviour. Elevated natures — Moral Esthetes, tax their 
imaginations largely and fancy they find God in his works. The lofty mountains 
infinitely variegated, that cast the long shadows over the plains in the morning 
and evening seem to strike them with wonder. The beauty of the green woods, the 
flowery meadows, the waving corn and the golden grain kindle a kind of enthusi- 
astic devotion ; the ocean lashed into tempest, rolling its foaming billows as if 
to overwhelm the earth with its funnel shaped waterspouts, etc., raised to the 
clouds by the furious monsoons from the burning desert, present a kind of savage 
grandeur to the eye and the mind. The surpassing magnificence of the starry 
heavens, (a revelation of the infinite) contemplated in the calm clear evening with 



242 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

allthe iaterest modem discovery throws us, presenting countless archipilagos of 
systems like our solar system, must fill the mind with profound reverence and carry 
it away in ecstasy. Finding everything so full of God they suppose they have 
found rehgion. Often there is a terrible recoil. Everything is full of God but 
themselves. They discover that all the impressions made by the beauty and 
grandeur of nature are not religion. Leaving the fantasia of imagination that 
never regenerates the soul, we might turn to the thinkers, the philosophers, who 
profess to explain everything but often end in doubting everything, and see what 
they bring forth. Spinoza, Hume, Strauss, Hegel, Renan, Spencer, in the dif- 
ferent countries of Europe, have sought to give a religion or a philosophy equiva- 
lent to a religion. Have they succeeded ? The drift of their teaching is to de- 
stroy a belief in the external world. They say we do not see objects only the 
light that shows them or their images, or that mak^s the sensation or impression 
in the organs and the idea in the mind being unlike, so far as we know the object 
of vision ; these objects may have no existences and everything may be reduced 
to mind. As to creation Herbert Spencer has only the atomic theory of Epi- 
curus to propose. Atoms falling in straight lines with the semi-velocity could 
never strike each other to form globes. If they fall in oblique line, what gave 
the turn ? Was the law of gravitation then in existence, are questions they are 
in duty bound to answer. They may have done great thinking and contributed 
something to the stock of knowledge ; but so far as giving a religion to man is 
concerned they fail utterly and are merely destructives. 

The human mind in healthy exercise exhibits its qualities, endowments, 
termed its' powers or faculties. Is it composed of these ? Is it not one and in- 
divisible, acting in so many directions or channels, imagining, judging, willing? 
Circumscribed limited, it may be very active pressing on to the highest culture. 
No field of observation should be so attractive to it as that of religion. This is 
our salvation. If we have a vestige of doubt to eradicate it, we should examine 
the Book claiming to be the only rule of faith and duty, the sovereign guide of 
our life and destiny ; hear its statements. Consider the times, places, circum- 
stances of its commg to us — interrogate history, philosophy, science, be unspar- 
ing in our researches but honest in our convictions on a point so vital. In true 
religion, God communicates his will or law to man for his obedience. Obedience 
supposes command. The rejection of this is atheism, depriving us of all belief. 
This implies that God is sovereign and yet free — that His spirit can make him- 
self understood by ours — that we are free agents and yet dependent — that he 
admits our prayers to influence His will and hold a place in His divine ggvern- 
ment. Can we comprehend these things. Yet these are the postulates of 
rehgion. Reject them and you have no religion. In the domain of miracles 
and mysteries the mind is at sea. They are indescribable as life it- elf is. Our 
existence is a mystery ; the comprehension of thoughts flowing from mind to mind ; 
how impressions are made upon us by external objects — how we think, will love, 
hate, are all mysteries. We ask no explanations of these things, take them as 
self-evident truths necessary to our being. Is there any royal road to religion ? 
I will believe the Bible to be the word of God, and the only rule of faith till they 
prove it false. Will they do so ? Dr. Briggs has not proven a verse or sentence 
in the Penteteuch to be not written by Moses. Could he uproot the references to 
Moses in both Testaments, the remains would be too fragmentary for even such 
a redactor as himself to construct an intelligent revelation. Is it not surprising 
that any scholar having read the Scriptures should father such an objection ? 
In his higher criticism he holds that they offered no sacrifices in the desert. 
This fallacious statement few would trouble themselves to contradict. To attack 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 243 

part of Revelation is to attack the whole, and to shield him is to place the 
church court in antagonism 10 the whole of Christianity. Let us resume— a 
true religion must be mysterious. Its very sublimity makes it the more so. The 
tallest pines and the loftiest towers project the lengthiest shadows. In order to 
commend itself to' mankind must Christianity tamely and complacently divest 
itself of miracle and mystery? Why, its strength lies in its infliixibility. Myster- 
ies and miracles do not themselves convert, but they accompany and seal the truths 
that do. The cup may convey to the parched Hps of the fever stricken patient the 
remedy prescribed by the kind physician, but the cup cures him not. The rift in 
the strata of rock may keep the little rill coming from the spring deep in the 
mountain side so that the traveller can refresh himself — without this opening it 
had run hidden under the rocks and lost itself under the sands. The purest of 
the sons of men could not redeem from eternal death, make atonement for son 
or forgive, the transgressions of others ; but if the Son of God will unite his 
divine nature with the human nature then, the divine man, the God man can do 
these things not as man but as God man mediator. The altar sanctifies the 
gifts. The God sustains the man. It is most important to know that the word 
of God is the means of our regeneration, that we are born of the Spirit, born of 
God, pass from death to life ; does it so concern us to know how this seed oper- 
ates on the heart, how the spirit performs his creative work ; the grand design 
of a revelation is the conversion, sanctification and salvation of men ; the truths 
revealed accomplish this. Of what use would the things concealed ' from us be 
except to gratify a vain curiosity which heaven will never indulge. Revealed truths 
have a bearing on our salvation ; we have no reason to suppose that what is kept 
secret from us has the least relation to our salvation. To let the word of Christ 
dwell in us richly, to sustain our spiritual life by every word that proceedeth out of 
ofthemouthof God, is a life's work. Were this life triple the length it now is, what 
time have we for anything else ? Moses hushed this tendency in his day. "Secret 
things belong to the Lord, but these that are revealed belong to us and to our chil- 
dren forever." In the early ages there were men to whom revelations from God 
were mopt welcome, and whose desires centred on a coming Messiah, but whose 
bodily eyes did not, like Simeon's, see that salvation. Since the advent of Christ 
there have been multitudes to whom a crucified Saviour was most precious and 
regeneration most necessary. If mysteries and miracles are difficulties we be- 
lieve the first disciples understood them no better than we do ; could grapple 
no better with them than we can. But they were saved. Converts were made 
, among the ignorant, the learned, the sages ; dhd on tribunals, and on thrones, ' 
as well as among soldiers and slaves. History does not record that one gener- 
ation understood these things better than another. Did this obscurity render 
them unhappy, when every truth essential to their salvation was radiant with 
light and glory? Let us receive into our hearts the same sublime, pure, yet 
simple truths, and they will save us. 

We have seen that religion and mystery are inseparable — that the truths, the 
mysteries envelope are easily understood whilst it would be unjust and unreason- 
able to demand an account of the mysteries which do not bear on opr salvation 
even remotely and the knowledge of which if even possible would serve us no 
visible purpose. Human religions have had their origin in and many of them 
have been associated with deeds revolting and loathsome. On such grounds the 
enemies of Christianity have charged it with avoiding investigation and research 
and assert that to remove the veil would be to discover its weakness. Iliis 
charge is false. Men can readily discover whether it springs from the spirit of 
truth or from the spirit of error. How could men receive a religion as divine 



244 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

that concealed the evidences or its divinity. The sacred scriptures purport 
to be spoken and v\^ritten by men moved by a divine impulse at par- 
ticular ages of our history and are to be judged by the same laws of evidence as 
other writings. If they endure the test receive them, if not turn to the wisdom 
of the sages and get from them what revelation has not been able to supply. 
The scholarly attainments of the first writer, Moses, cannot be called in question 
— he was no dupe nor could he so easily deceive the Egyptians were he so dis- 
])osed. No doubt existed in any mind that God was with him in the presence 
of the signs and wonders he did, Jesus Christ did nothing, taught nothing in 
secret, but openly. This ihing was not done in a corner. Bacon's idols of the 
grove and the cave had no place in such minds. Religion was thus established 
by argument, persuasion and the power of the invisible spirit of the Lord. 
Christianity is therefore the religion of conviction, not of the sword and power 
and authority It is spoken as to wise men, and they are to judge of its excel- 
lency. Nothing so persuasive as an atonement — the crucifixion becomes the 
divine power in the soul. The Holy .Writings so clearly show man's sinful con- 
dition, so fully describe the remedies and their effectual application as to produce 
on the mind the most indellible impression of their divinity. Morality violated 
and down trodden was elevated and established on its true foundation. The " do 
and live " of all human religions, the impossibility with man was met by the 
" live and- do " of truth. Christianity first gives life, the basis oi all moral and 
Spiritual action. Love, Uie source of this life, never sets bounds to its conquests 
or the possibility of its labors having an end. That would be unhappiness. Love 
holds an eternal reign in every soul that has passed from death to life. It is neither 
vanquished nor wearied with conquering. This religion heralded from heaven 
in the light of day established by notable miracles and surrounded by monu- 
ments to this day is the lands of its birth and its adoption founds its character- 
istic on argument. When you demonstrate a point to a proper degree it should 
be received without dispute. But suppose it contained a contradiction. Sup- 
pose a proposition evidently false should never-the-less be true — then evidence 
would not be a characteristic of truth and no religion could be proved true — for 
what evidently seemed false was true and vice versa. A line the diameter of a 
circle is shorter than a line the circumference of the same circle reverse this and 
you have no evidence to prove anything in mathematics. We cannot see that 
even miracles could render a religion credible that contained absurdities. If 
there is anything capable of taxing the powers of the most logical reasoner it is 
that of the Trinity, one God in three persons. With great humility should such 
a subject be contempleted. 

Christians generally agree on the doctrine of the Trinity. The unity of God 
as well as His eternal power is manifest in creation. Revelation unfolds his 
personality as well as his unity. The Son becomes incarnate, whilst the Father 
who is with him does not. The Father upholds the honor of justice whilst the 
son who is with him becomes obedient unto death on the cross. The Holy 
Spirit does not become incarnate, but proceeds from the Father and the Son, 
whilst the Father and the Son do not proceed. These truths are far above 
reason, but do not oppose or revolt it. We do not say there are three essences 
and but one essence in the same sense in the divine nature, nor three persons 
and yet but one person in the same sense. Can we say that we have a clear 
conception of either the essence or the personality. When we say the eternal 
Son of God becomes man and so was and continues to be God and man in two 
distinct natures and one person we neither define nor pretend to comprehend 
that union more than that of soul and body. We do not attempt to define the 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 245 

nature of the work of the Holy Spirit on human souls any more than we would 
try to define Himself the illimitable. The most exalted reason cannot reach 
these sublime doctrines, but it is not offended with them and does not revolt against 
them. There is no absurity or contradiction in these revelations, nor the state- 
ments we make of these doctrtnes. A contradiction to us is the opposition of two 
two known ideas or that a thing is what it is not. I have the evidence of sight 
and touch that this paper on which I write and this pencil with which I write are 
not the same thing or that the one is not the other. To reverse this would be to 
me a contradiction. The finite cannot grasp the infinite. A human mind is so 
limited in its conception of the essence and the personality of the self-existing 
being that a contradiction in these revelations is to it impossible. There- 
fore, it is very unsafe, very hazardous, to say there is a contradiction in points 
on which his knowledge at best is but confused. When we consult what God 
has revealed of himself to us we find there is in Him what is so far above us as 
to be a foundation for the belief that in the Divine nature there is a Father, 
Son and Holy Spirit. In one aspect three, in another one, and yet how three 
and but one surpasses the limits of our intelligence — the mystery we know 
nothing about, believe nothing about as respecting which we are not conscious 
of having any responsibility. You may ask why believe these doctrines ? 
They are revealed to us. Each acts a great part, lakes a deep interest in our 
salvation. The Holy Father in infinite wisdom and love planned our eternal 
felicity. The Son with natural and supernatural affection bare our sins. The 
Holy Spirit with ineffable tenderness communicates spiritual life and nourishes 
it in us to fit us for eternal felicity. All this creates in us gratitude, admiration 
and love ; turns us from transgression and enables us to work out our salvation. 
Who does not need to believe these doctrines ? Are they not essential to our 
happiness ? Must our souls, made in the image of God, perish for lack of know- 
ledge ? The very doctrine of the divine purposes in which rash and restless spirits 
have been plunging for more than eighteen centuries must be proclaimed, that 
men may make their " calling and election sure." The profound darkness of 
these mysteries gives us no trouble, whilst the truths they envelope bear strictly 
on our salvation, are deluged with a prodigality of light almost dazzling the soul 
in the effulgence of their glory and beauty. " Light is sweet and it is a pleas- 
ant thing for the eyes to behold the sun," and the green fields of earth and the 
blue expanse of Heaven are not unhealthful in their endless variety. Christianity 
has no contradiction, whilst it furnishes arguments in limitless variety accom- 
panied by the clearest evidence for our increase of knowledge in its sublime 
doctrines, and guards against our overstepping the limits of our mind in our in^ 
vestigation and researches. Argument supported by evidence establishes truth, 
but to disregard evidence as characteristic of truth would be to extinguish our 
knowledge and so no truth could be established. On this point if evidence car- 
ried no conviction we could be under no obligation to receive the teachings of 
any religioh because we are not obliged to receive an absurdity. Constituted 
as we are we cannot believe an absurdity unless under strong delusion for it 
revolts our reason and contradicts the evidences of our senses. Some think 
religion should be an endless day, a blaze of sunshine without cloud or shadow, 
darkness or eclipse— that the goodness of God engages him to give us a religion 
free from difficulties or stumbling blocks, radiant with truth and easy of compre- 
hension. May not most of the hindrances be of our own formation. We^ do 
not leap into the world with our faculties full blown. The mountain summit is 
reached by climbing. Inactivity is not enjoyment. Faith the greatest source 
of our knowledge is far above gold or rubies or diamonds. Bless your God 



246 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

then who has given you the easy light in which to secure the precious gems 
of truth ; and the clouds and shadows even the night of mysteries when reason 
itself enjoys repose and the opiate of sleep wraps it in the softest coverings 
whence it awakes like a giant refreshed from the grandest pursuits and the high- 
est enjoyments. 

It is useless to waste time reviewing the religion of China, Hondoston Africa 
and the Isles of the seas. They are not even moral Confucius, the hoary sages 
of India, Zoroaster and many others have not left indelible impressions of 
even a negative morality on the races and nations that claimed them as leaders. 
Islamism the nearest of human religions to Christianity, has borrowed all its 
moral principles from the Christian scriptures. Mahomet it is said could neither 
read or write. But he professed to have conversed with the Angel Gabriel for 
many years. Sergius, the monk, a runaway from the Christians, may have done 
more for him than the angel, in writing the fugitive scraps , that his successors 
collected, with additions and amendations that compose the Koran. Yet this 
religion of the false prophet is not fttted for the nations, carrying with it poly- 
gamy and despotism, antagonistic to freedom, progress and civilizaiion. Its 
good points are belief in one God, Creator and Governor and its hostility to 
idolatry. The Jewish religion, whilst admitting proselytes, made no pretensions 
to universality. It preserved among a people the knowledge and worship of 
the one living and true God till the coming of Messiah the Prince, the promise 
of the prophets and the desire of all nations. Human religions are unprofitable 
and vain.^ They impose on the neck a yoke too severe, grievous and unendur- 
able. Happiness as the reward of labor is the point where they all terminate. 
The more one in conscience undertakes to obey'the law the more he discovers 
he has to do. He must repent, he must pardon himself — he must regenerate 
himself — efface sin from his nature, compel himself to love God, or there is for 
him no hope in any of these human religions. Can he do these ; can the con- 
demned criminal grant his own pardon and walk out to liberty ? Without this 
there is no religion. The anguish of soul must be great when he turns in 
vain to aH created beings for aid.- The entire universe cannot fill the desires of 
his heart. The uncreated God now comes to his aid with a religion suited to 
fill all his empty desires, all his famished soul requires^Redemption from bond- 
age, atonement for offences, justification from guilt, regeneration of nature, and 
transformation into the image of the l^eavenly ; finally resurrection and eternal 
hfe. This blessed religion was at first committed to a few simple fishermen, who 
quitted their nets and boats, to learn it, and then announced it to the nations of 
the earth. They made no pretensions to influence, power or wealth, to Hterature, 
philosophy or eloquence. They told the story of love. Their Master's life,teachings 
and death, they simply exhibited to the multitude and they recognized in Him 
what for three thousand years the famished souls of men had craved in vain ; 
" His disciples multiplied in Jerusalem daily and a great company of the priests 
were obedient to the faith." Synagogues, schools and privata houses were 
thronged with devout, enquiring worshippers : idol temples were deserted, 
schools of philosophy emptied, the wisdom of sages thrown into the shade, fires 
died out on the altars, and three centuries later when Julien the Emperor sum- 
moned the pagans of the world to meet Him and revive the old religion. He 
was met at the shrine by a solitary priest carrying a single goose under his arm 
for an offering. Did these uneducated fishermen construct this system from 
their own wisdom, or did they receive it from Heaven ? This religion reconciles 
reason and faith, love and fear, grace and justice, liberty and obedience, ex- 
hibits truth entire, claims a universality of application and is adapted to eveiy 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 247 

creature. The difficulties are — how are we to be put in possession of it ? If 
God will give a religion to man, it must be communicated ; it must be revealed. 
We may suppose that God was free either to give or not to give man a religion ; 
unless we suppose that in creating man in His own image He bound Himself to 
give him the means of being happy. A revelation from Him would commend 
Itself to J.1S and to act consistent and like Himself. He wouldfurnish the means 
of knowing and deciding that it was His own word. There is a company of 
people in the world .called Christians. They have been here more than 1800 
years. Their existence need not be proved, but may be freely taken for granted. 
They have writings called scriptures which they have preserved with the most 
sacred and scrupulous care. Another class or race of men exist in the world 
called Jews or Hebrews, whose history is interwoven with the history of the 
nations for about 4,000 years. This fact we need not wait to, prove. These 
people have Scriptures that they have preserved pure and entire' with the most 
religious care and exactness which is easily proved. The Jewish Scriptures are 
termed the Old Testament, the Christians the New Testament. They are called 
the word of God and contain and teach what we are to believe concerning Him and 
what duties we owe to Him and to our fellow men. Is it difficult to know that 
these scriptures are from God ? He has taken care to engrave His character on 
the record. A large class of men take the book and examine its contents with honest 
heart and find that the wants of their nature are so well described, and the pro- 
visions made for them are so ample, and they feel their inner nature so satisfied and 
renovated by the power and influence of these holy writings, they enjoy a peace 
and happiness that no philosophy or science can ever give. They accept the 
teachings and work of Christ as all sufficient and bless Him from the depths of 
their souls for such favors. This is one way opened into the citadel of faith ; 
a path trodden by the great bulk of the saved. The other method, is to come 
with an honest heart scholarly preparations, and investigate the evidences that 
lie open to all enquiries concerning the book, and their authors, whether they 
are the genuine productions of these men, were written at the times specified 
and have been transmitted pure and uncorrupted to us. These two paths may 
be termed the highways of the ages opened to men into the demain of faith. 
Should these be set aside, despised neglected, on the plea that God should con- 
vert us in a moment by a miracle, or some means not indicated by himself it 
would be to demand of him more than he has engaged or bound himself to fur- 
nish. If he determined to save us by knowledge or wisdom, it must be left to 
himself what communications to make and what means we should employ 
to possess ourselves of this knowledge. He has done more for us than for elect 
angels, who learn by the church his matiifold wisdom desire to look into these 
mysteries but cannot fathom them. To refuse the truth till the mysteries should 
be solved would be to reject it forever. Nature is full of mysteries but practically 
they give us no trouble; why should we treat religion otherwise? Our nature 
is very limited but we do not complain that we have only five senses instead of 
twenty, making the range of our sensations four-fold greater than it now is and 
vastly multiplying our thoughts and ideas. We have very limited notion of 
light but it is associated with darkness. Light is very sweet and pleasant, but 
did it ever enter our heads to object to the idea of darkness ? The night is es- 
teemed and valued by everyone. It is rest for the weary. It wraps the memory 
of sorrow and pains'in a soft thick vail of oblivion. It reveals immensity to the 
eyes of the beholder and gives the man of science ineffable dehght as he tries to 
estimate the size and distances of these mighty orbs. To the mind hallowed, by 
truth the pight of mysteries gives exquisite dehght unfolding the immensity of 



248 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

the being who has bowed the heavens and condescended to converse as it were 
with his creature without undue famiHarity. 

The feebleness of our knowledge is accounted for in the narrow limits of 
the human mind. We are thinkers, it is true, but a little application shows us 
that in the region of thought we are very circumscribed. We can attend to a 
subject more or less closely, but how often is the train of thought broken up or 
interrupted by other fugitive thoughts obtruding, and we detect ourselves away 
from the point and must return. If the mind attempts several subjects or trains 
of thought at the same time it is overpowered and can do justice to none of 
them. Dissipation weakens the mind, and we would regard him as a prodigi- 
ous man who could attend to several subjects at once. We hear of cases like 
Julius Caesar's dictating to several writers at the same time, but some allowance 
must be made for the hireling panegyrists of the times. Experience will show 
any of us that to treat a subject properly thought must be concentrated, all else 
must be shut off, and we must be deaf to sounds and blind to surrounding ob- 
jects if we are to attend to the one thing, not to speak of several things at the 
same time. If you consider that excellence of the mind we term the affec- 
tions, the appHcation is much the same. In the words of One who knew the 
mind better than all others we read, " No man can serve two masters," a per- 
son cannot indulge a number of passions at once, as the one will overturn the 
other. The love of money and the love of pleasure or glory antagonize one 
another or take the mind by turrls, but some one is sure to be in the ascendancy. 
The mind may be absorbed in a subject so much as to wholly exercise itself in 
that one channel, leaving the other faculties idle, as if they existed not, or it 
could not employ itself in any of them, and the man may be for the time a 
thinking or a feeling being and completely so. Or if you turn to the external 
senses or the sensational part of your nature, the impression made on the organ, 
say the odors of the roses or some very rich perfume, the sensation wholly occu- 
pies you for the moment and you have no room for anything besides ; or the- 
vision of a landsape or beautiful scenery, like a magnolia grove or a flowering 
poplar, or a peach orchard in full bloom, your attention is completely engaged 
with the vision or the scent to the exclusion of surrounding objects. The same 
may be remarked of the charm of exquisite music and many other things. It 
is said that a pain tolerable in the day is insupportable in the darkness because 
the mind turns its power on it, other attractions being wanting to distract or 
divide the attention. All this applies so well to the subject of religion that, as 
we see persons employed in any profound study like scientific subjects, they find 
the progress very slow, and if slow in these human sciences how much more so 
in the abysmal depths of the mysteries of religion. 

The narrow limits in which the mind is enclosed, and the manner in which 
it is distracted, having some fugitive thoughts ever tugging at it, asserting their 
claims to attention — the thoughts on cares of the body, health, comforts, the 
provision for the future, all urging a warfare within, a struggle for the ascend- 
ancy-^is it at all astonishing the slow progress it is capable of making in the 
knowledge of abtruse subjects ? Another reason of the limits of our knowledge 
is that these mysteries of religion are calculated to strike our minds with the 
greatest astonishment, and to overwhelm it with a deep sense of its own insig- 
nificance to grapple with such subjects. What do they treat of but that which 
is most impenetrable ? They treat of the divine essence, His inimitable attri- 
butes, the perfections of the Uncreated One, whatever has "been considered the 
most immense, grand and inspiring in his exalted nature ; what is the most ele- 
vated and sublime j what has excited the wonder and commanded the admira- 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 249 

tion of the best balanced, gifted and mighty endowed minds in all ages. Can 
creatures limited, confined, have any other than confused notions of communi- 
cations made to them from the infinite mind? I'his holds not merely in our 
preserit state, whilst we see but through a glass darkly, but we can never be 
anything but creatures finite and circumscribed, whilst God is always infinite 
and beyond all comprehension. The limited can never reach the illimitable. 
Canst thou by searching find out God; canst thou find out the Almighty to per- 
fection? Who maketh Arcturas, Orion, Pleiades and the chambers" of the 
south? Who doeth great things past finding out and wonders without number? 
He goeth by me and I see him not ; he passeth on also but I perceive him not. 
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth ? Declare if thou 
hast understanding who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest, and 
wbo hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the foundations thereof 
fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; when the morning stars sang 
together and all the sons of God shouted for joy ! Or shut up the sea with 
doors, when it broke forth as if it had issued out of the womb ! When I made the 
cloud the garment thereof and thick darkness the swaddling band for it, and 
brake up for it my decreed place and set bars and doors, and said hitherto shalt 
thou come but no further, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed. Should it 
astonish us that creatures confined to a small portion of this earth cannot sound 
these depths ? Is it not laudable to attempt it ? Sometimes with impatient 
wing we take the flight, but when we have exhausted our strength and found no 
resting place we return with weary wing to the ark. In other words, let us rest 
Securely on the Rock that is higher than we. Moses prayed to behold the divine 
glory. ^ Paul, that he might proclaim the unsearchable riches of Christ. Let us, 
with these mightiest spirits of our race, seek to know what we are capable of at- 
taining to of this incomprehensible Being, that we cultivate more exalted ideas 
of His immensity and grandeur. It would indicate want of sense and defect in 
the understanding to be dissatisfied with religion, because we cannot compre- 
hend its infinite Author and the deep things it contains of Himself Are we dis- 
pleased that we are creatures endowed with inteUigence ? Do we not thank the 
Son who has given us an understanding that we may know him that is true? 
Shall we not brighten up our enquiries and push our investigations as far as our 
powers will permit with the hope of seeing one day face to face and knowing as 
we are known. 

Another cause of the obscurity of our knowledge is that the simplest truth 
and the least complicated objects have depths beyond the " reach of thought," 
because there is no object .in creation, no truth in all the fields of knowledge 
that is not bound by one end, if we may so say, to infinity, and how can the 
mind comprehend these unless it can comprehend that infinity? Here I am 
placed in the centre of multitudes of things foreign to me — sights, sounds, odors, 
flavors, lights, shades and figures to all appearance the least complete possible, 
but in depth- they transcend the power of my thought. The sensations they 
produce stir up a series of inquiries in the mind that I cannot answer ; difficul- 
ties that I cannot solve; obscurities that reason cannot illumine. Impressed 
with these sensations and perceptions, I ask myself: Is this knowledge of these 
actions real or only fanciful?* Have these things a real existence independent 
of me, or are they only impressions or fancies in my mind? Is the idea of the 
object in my mind like the object ? Some reputed philosophers question the 
existence of the external object. Cannot the author of all this produce these 
impressions and form these ideas in my mind without the presence of surround- 
ing objects ? On the contrary, will a being who is truth itself and possessed of 



250 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

such creative powers deceive me by giving sensations and perceptions of ad- 
ventitious objects that have no real existence? Contact with the objects pro- 
duces impressions ; these impressions remain, I am compelled to beheve, in 
their existence or renounce my common sense because they surround me, but I 
cannot comprehend the simplest of them without comprehending that infinity 
to which they are so mysteriously united. Myriads of other things come up for 
discussion that I cannot settle. But is it not safe for me to conclude that the 
evidence they present is satisfactory and ihat without further question I should 
believe and receive that evidence on which their real existence is fully estab- 
lished ? The Supreme Being alone can see all the evidence, know all circum- 
stances and relations that connect the minutest of His works with himself — 
" Known unto God are all His works from the foundation of the world." The 
subjects on which religion leaves so much obscurity do not rest on simple prin- 
ciples that can be comprehended in an instant. Subjects require more or less 
time to unfold them according to their nature. The ablest calculator cannot 
make a demonstration of a comphcated problem in a moment. He must have 
time ; perhaps must do it in parts or sections ; and if the onlookers are dull it 
will t?ike the longer time to make his explanations clear to their capacities. 
One has to prove to himself by a succession of ideas what he cannot take in by 
a single view. A man on a mountain top can take a survey at a glance of a 
great stretch of country on the level plains below compared to what he could 
on foot, or even at a high rate of speed. The infinite intelligence of the mys- 
terious Being who created all things has every evidence ; all things open before 
him, from before the birth of time till time shall be no longer, far more perfectly 
than a single thought can be in our mind. We cannot suppose a succession of 
ideas in the infinite mind. All time is before Him. I am is his memorial to all 
generations. Great divines have supposed that He had all possible plans before 
Him when He made the universe, and that He chose the best. We think the 
supposition destroys itself; imperfect plans could have no place in a perfect in- 
finite intelligence. Were religiop cumbered with the details of abstruse doc- 
trines, and we were required to study all the e, would a thousand years suffice 
for such an effort? Suppose one wished to commend the excellency of a system, 
say the Copernican or Newtonian astronomy, and I should furnish a dozen other 
systems, we can only judge by a careful comparison — now apply this to the uni- 
verse; when could the comparison be made, and what bearing would it have on 
our duties, and, absorbed as we are in cares and anxieties, what attention could 
we give to such vast designs ? Religion reveals but very imperfectly its myster- 
ies, and maintains a discreet silence upon myriads of doctrines, because not 
one of them is required to be known in order to the discharge of duty, and to 
study these with our present powers would be like asking us to point out objects 
in the blue heavens in a cloudless day or in the dark, unfathomed caves of 
earth or ocean. Who ever could explain the work in our inner nature of that 
mysterious spirit from on high of the wind that bloweth where it listeth through 
the limitless universe in an instant ? Our restless curiosity has not been grati- 
fied by revelation that would lead us to multiply speculation to infinity and turn 
us not only from doing good to others but from bringing our thought into obedi- 
ence to Christ and purifying our souls in obeying the truth. The very restric- 
tion of our knowledge is a standing monument of infinite wisdom. 

This contracted, fleeting life is inseparable from losses, trials, sorrows, suf- 
ferings, miseries. Prisoners of hope we are, it is true, but exiles, aliens, foreign- 
ef,s an,d strangers in a foreign land. The objections against religion a,ndjthe 
objections against the complications of our calamities are capable of nearly the 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 25 1 

same answer. It is that we are still clothed with material bodies — that the 
fearful festering wounds of sin are not yet completely healed — that reason is en- 
slaved — the circle of our thoughts contracted — the soul hungering and thirsting 
for knowledge ; its true aliment is affected at every step in its investigations, 
fettered, imprisoned — wingless to take its lofty flight from a world where selfish- 
ness reigns supreme; smitten with blindness it knows not itself much less the 
infinite. Truth is so sublime, and the soul is so little that tropes, metaphors, 
images, figures, are essential to teach us to know even in part. Yet, how feeble 
these are to the realities. What is a kid for a sin's offering to the sacrafice on 
Calvalry? What is the white robed high priest with his jewelled breast and 
shoulders representing the twelve tribes to the Great High Priest of our religion, 
Christ Jesus, who is passed into the Heavens having obtained eternal redemp- 
tion for us? We are children here, but manhood is to be reached and then 
placed in the midst of the most exalted environments, we shall not so slowly 
proceed in our acquirements. We might here take a lesson from the fiery Tish- 
bite. He ran before the chariot of the unworthy monarch to the entrance of 
Jesreel, and receiving there a notice that his head would not stand on his body 
by that time next day, he then fled for his life, and when at considerable dis- 
tance, wearied out, he threw himself down to sleep under a juniper tree and 
prayed for death. Had he any will to make ? Anything to bequeath ? A 
cloak and belt — he would give his flesh to the vultures and his bones to the 
jackals- — he seems not to know yet of his translation. Ready he was to leave 
his woes and sorrows and the warfare with the Queen, who was disappointed at 
not finding him to slake her thirst with his blood, then rather pleased that he had 
exiled himself from her dominion. He had kings to anoint and a piophet to 
train ere he stepped into the chariot of fire and took up the reins for his serial 
flight to a crown and throne. At the translation, when the whirlwind subsided, 
Elisha took his mantle and returned homeward, wailing out his regrets for the 
master ne had lost. Did Elijah regret the world he left? Did he mourn his 
departure ? Had he to gather up all his strength and resolution to meet what 
was like death and resurrection too — to summon all his fortitude to grapple 
with the last enemy? Alas ! How we have to tear ourselves away — wrench 
ourselves off as if plucking up trees by the root — our attachment is so great we 
must be torn away. Is Heaven so uninviting — Heaven, the city of the perfec- 
tion of knowledge, love, obedience and felicity, the great central kingdom of 
God's dominions around which revolve all these central suns with all their plan- 
etary systems, like so many archipelagos — so little enchanting that sinners can- 
not drop their burdens, enter the strait gate and follow the highway where the 
ransomed of the Lord are hastening onward to glory eternal? Embruted men 
to whom the perfection of beauty has no attractions ! The rum shop — that 
covetousness which is idolatory — the love of gain, to gratify which they make 
their wealth a leverage to oppress and extort their mites from the poverty 
stricken of their own species — these, and the ten thousands of others that might 
be named, carry them headlong. They not only do not give to the needy as 
commanded but contrive to rob them of the product of their toil. This high- 
handed robbery is chargeable against governments in kingdoms, states and pro- 
vinces, against manufacturers and merchants, combines, bankers and money 
lenders, against every form of extortion in the hands of rich or poor. Then, 
how speech and language is corrupted and polluted with blasphemous expres- 
sions, oaths and curses without number. What a vehicle to pollute one another 
is conversation corrupted by the vileness of the heart from which it comes and 
contrived and uttered to produce laughter and amusement absolutely indelicate 



252 DIKFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

and calculated only to offend the ear of innocence. Wars are looked upon as 
horrible because thousands are slain and other thousands wounded, and nations 
are plundered and spoiled, both the conquerors and the vanquished, but drunk- 
enness and riotous living are the common occurrences and scarcely rebuked. 
With what eagerness do some, and with what deliberation do others place them- 
selves in that catalogue of whom it is declared they shall not inherit the king- 
dom of heaven. What an exi^erience will it be to those to see the victims of 
their fraud, rapine and cruelty pardoned, purified and admitted to Heaven and 
they themselves left out. The door of repentance is open and the way of re- 
formation is possible. The greatest difficulties of religion are of our own mak- 
ing. They are, in the practical part of religion, so clear, plain and palpable. 
Lives there a man who docs not know that liars shall go into pardition — that 
deceit, extortion, fraud and a host of like evils are crimson in color. The diffi- 
culties of the speculative pale before the degradation produced by these practi- 
cal defects in their degrading, dehumanizing influences on society and the 
world. 

SJ.iI The objectors to religion because of its difficulties should present one free 
from or with at least fewer difficulties and we would gladly receive it. The doc- 
trine of the Trinity is very mysterious we fully admit. The object of our ador- 
ation is one God in three persons. The union of the divine and human natures 
in the person of the mediator is a depth unfathomable, but what sinner can 
afford to reject, what sinner does not need to believe in, a mediator so qualified 
and suitable ? The manner in which the divine Spirit operates upon the soul 
IS indescribable, ineffable ; but who will deny the necessity of his work in the 
renovation of our nature and its preparation for the cellestial state. The plans, 
purposes, foreknowledge, designs, decrees, of the Eternal Father are declared 
to us in the sacred Scriptures. These no created inteUigence can fathom or 
comprehend. The lovers and defenders of religion are not all of gigantic in- 
tellects, perhaps cannot state arguments in the clearest light or arrange their 
evidences and proofs in the most perfect order. They may not be able to sat- 
isfy every inquirer, for some are not easily satisfied. They may not be able to 
see alike the same points of doctrine, so that forbearance and meakness is often 
taxed in the best tempered men. The golden rule is not always observed. 
These things are often used against religion. Collect then all the difficulties 
we admit, add to them if you please those we do not admit, and form your sys- 
tem. We shall then request you to show us in opposition to this a system 
which is not loaded with greater and more inextricable difficulties. Do you 
prefer atheism, and say we cannot prove the existence of God ; how do you 
account for time, space, forms ? Here are mysteries infinitely less defensible 
to rational beings than those of religion. " The invisible things of Him from the 
creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are 
made, even his eternal power and Godhead, so they are without excuse." 

Do you oppose the doctrine of a Providence preserving and governing all 
creatures ; their movements and actions ; alleging that all things are under 
laws and do not require intervention or supervision ? Did you ever know laws 
to execute themselves ? Should you prepare statute books and pile them as 
high as Ben Lomond they would lie there harmless for ever as to execution. 
Whence come the laws that you speak of? Are they created or of eternal ex- 
istence according to the fitness of things ? Perhaps you think that to notice the 
little concerns of the world is beneath the dignity of an uncreated and eternal 
existence? Remember that if thefr creation was not unworthy of Him neither 
is their care and government. Could infinite wisdom and power create beings 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 253 

that would be ungovernable? Would He create intelligent moral beings except 
axcording to laws the observance of which would be the virtue and felicity of 
these beings and His own gloiy ? What can you conceive to be a duty that 
IS not prescribed ? Speaking of laws and revelations :— Can you suppose that 
shepherds, poets, tentmakers, fishermen, husbandmen, vinedressers, and if you 
will historians and warriors, have been able of themselves to speak of the origin 
of the world, the formation of man, the philosophy of his nature, its desires and 
duties, the perfection of God, government and history, in a style far more sub- 
lime and much better sustained than all the sages of the East, the wise men of 
Greece, and the philosophers of Rome ; names that made antiquity venerable, 
and whose fame has not yet died away in the world. If you say the rehgions 
are alike, or there is no authority but our own—" that man made his own tem- 
ple." How then account for the preservation of the holy writings ? The anxi- 
ety in man to teach truth to his species; in fact to carry it over the broad earth 
in the face of the most overwhelming difficulties ? How would you account for 
that fearlessness of men, otherwise timid, braving all dangers, sacrificing life 
Itself where the maintenance of truth is concerned ? How do you account for 
the progress of h.:man society in all lands where truth has been planted, a pro- 
gress you look for in vain where Christianity is not in advance of it? Despot- 
isms disappear before liberty, the captive set free, and that blot of humanity, 
slavery, destroyed. Investigate all the religions in the world, where will you 
find a light without darkness, a day without night? If the difficulties in religion 
were multiplied — its doctrines less clearly proved, our knowledge more circum- 
scribed and limfted — we should receive it with deepest gratitude as infinitely 
preferable to all other systems to which the human attention has ever been di- 
rected. The bare possibility of its truth should lead us to embrace it, to avoid 
the evil and secure the good. The Christian religion proves itself from God 
and claims for its author the homage of every man and woman of God's crea- 
tion. Can a rational creature take any other part than admit the force of the 
reasoning supported by evidences so cogent ? We must receive this rehgion or 
"make God a liar" by rejecting His own testimony of His own Son. If the 
truths of God were generally, not to say universally received, how soon they 
would change the face of society? Every man would speak truth — hypocrisy, 
fraud, injustice, violence and wars would cease — contentment, kindness, love 
to God and man, would have a glorious reign. Should not this hold in the 
British Empire? Should not party strife disappear that all professing Chris- 
tians should be one — then as the Indian Empire of England is largely Mahcm- 
cdan, and to ,the Christian and Mahomedan there is but one God, the Creator 
and Governor, should there not be one Lord Jesus Christ, the Redeemer? 
Could not the resources of our intelligence and wealth be employed under God 
to accomplish this unity of Christianity among ourselves and the conversion of 
our fellow subjects for the honor of the kingdom of Christ, the prosperity of the 
British Empire and the regeneration of society over those parts of the world. 

Faith is a deep mystery in religion. We occupy a day between two dark 
nights ; the night of the past and the night of the future, both cloudy, shadowy 
and gloomy. The revelation of truth covered nearly 4,000 years. Is it a small 
task to dig up facts connected with these truths on which our faith rests from 
the rubbish of traditions, and from the systems of bitter enemies, captious, so- 
phistical, fraudulent, in the mists that have condensed around them during 
these cycles of rolling years ? Do we wish to satisfy ourselves of the reality of 
future felicity? We must plunge in quest of it into periods that do not yet 
exist; project our enquiries into ages to come and walk by faith not by sight — 



254 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

leave our kin and country like the patriarch for parts unknown and create for 
ourselves new orders of things now too shadowy to have any real existence. 
" Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." 
The history of so many tribes of our race is so obscure, fabulous, fragmentary, 
and has to be raked up from monuments scattered over many lands, stones, 
bows, marble slabs, pottery and such characters, to read and decipher, as have 
tried the patience and scholarly attainments of our most talented and educated 
men. Amid all this confusion and uncertainty, the volumes of Revelation 
spoken and written "at various times" are complete, perfect, infallible, every 
word of which is pure, and the very life and nutriment of the human soul. 
Nothing has been added to it; nothing taken from it in all the transcriptions, 
nothing changed, nothing lost. To the faith in its truth we immolate all the 
theories of human religions, all the systems of human reason, all the pleasures 
of sense. We have learned to believe in the incarnation, the atonement, the 
resurrection and ascension, and we hope, in virtue of these great facts, we shall 
be delivered from the bondage of sin, and have an entrance ministered to us 
abundantly into the everlasting kingdom, to partake in the felicity and glory of 
the blessed God — to these hopes we sacrifice the charms of the visible creation, 
the wealth of the universe, the pliantasia of greatness, the kingdoms of the world 
and all their fading glory. The mind is as capable of believing as it is of rea- 
soning or loving, or even of thinking — these pecuHarities are in harmony not in 
conflict. The initiatory point of faith seems clearly to be the evidence of the 
senses or of the object in contact with our sensitive nature. We see, hear, 
touch and regard as real existences the objects with which we come in contact. 
To these experiences of our own we add that of others — we see with their eyes, 
heai with their ears, walk with their feet, think and reflect with their minds, and 
thus increase our knowledge, multiply our universe and reach or grow up to the 
measure of the stature of well-informed beings. This second species of evi- 
dence rests on testimony that is the testimony of others, as distinguished from 
the testimony of our own senses. One mind comes in contact with another, 
recognizes its usefulness, submits to its authority and receives its testimony, 
which takes rank with our own experience. Let us try to illustrate. On a ser- 
ene night, when myriads of stars sparkle in the blue expanse, two men occupy 
a point of observation. One lifts his eyes to the sublimity of the boundless fir- 
mament, where the gorgeous splendours of the starry vault fill him with admira- 
tion. Their magnificence, mysterious manifestations and glory furnish such 
awe inspiring evidence of that Infinite One, who in wisdom formed them all, 
that he stands impressed with that profound reference such a spectacle is cal- 
culated to produce. Here are abundant evidences of the object or of the 
senses on which faith is founded. His companion, with a mind gifted, cultivat- 
ed, profoundly reverent, capable of great emotion, yes, ecslacy, stands a 
stranger to all this captivating vision, manifests not the least enthusiasm amid 
such transcendent glory. In vain has he devoted his mind to thought, in vain 
cultivated superior talents, to stand statue-like in the centre of such a scene. 
He is blind, he has never seen the light, has not an idea of a color in the rain- 
bow, cannot paint one tint of the rose whilst enthusiastically admiring its fra- 
grance. " Not to him returns day, nor the blest approach of even or morn." 
Ignorant of what has kindled up the mind of his friend, of the felt delight and 
what inspired it, he must wait the revelation to produce in him a kindred faith 
— a rapturous emotion, a corresponding admiration. Excepting this defect, 
both possess the like susceptibilities, are capable of the like faith in the exis- 
tence of these objects. The blindrman may form an idea of space or distance 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 255 

by pacing the earth, hearing sounds near or remote, but has not a conception 
of Hght, shade or beauty. His friend may convey to him an idea of these celes- 
tial globes, their magnitudes, distances ; but not a notion of the radiant glory 
in which they shine. The glowing description arrests his attention, stimulates 
his curiosity, wakes up his thoughts ; he concentrates his mental resources, cal- 
culates distances, admires the greatness and the order in their revolutions. 
Everything is new, striking, original, his faith grows with every flash on his 
mental vision — what a labor you say to form an obscure idea of what his friend 
by only opening his eyes can discover in the highest perfection. Are we sure 
that the eyes of his mind have not seen the grandeur of the universe in all but 
its sparkling colors, and the greatness of the effort to form this notion the more 
deeply rooted is his faith. On the other hand, the impression is not so pro- 
found, he can renew it at a glance, but the glory vanishes on shutting his eyes 
— and the reward generally accords with the labor. It costs the other far more 
and will prove worthy of the expenditure. He receives with avidity the testi- 
mony, believes in it and endeavors to forin in his soul an adequate idea of the 
visible heavens. Here we find the philosophy of the human mind in accord 
and harmony with the sacred word: "Blessed are they that have not seen and 
yet believed." No illustration is perfect. Bat those who have not seen their 
Saviour in the flesh, nor witnessed the miracles by which he attested his mis- 
sion and doctrines, must think, study, adopt a course of de'ep, serious reflection, 
suspend their pleasures, set aside for a time their worldly avocations to gain 
impressions of truth and cultivate this noble faith. In a word, it has pleased 
our Sovereign Creator so to constitute us here and to represent our career on 
earth as a race we must run, a warfare, we must accomplish, a victory we must 
win a kingdom, we must take by force and violence, and the principle that must 
actuate and govern is faith. " This is the victory that overcometh the world, 
even our faith." This is better adapted to the state of probation in which we 
are placed. The faith that rests upon the direct knowledge of the objects costs 
but little to examine them — but a look — but that which requires much labor, 
which lodges the truth within us, giving us so much nourishment and vigor to 
the mind must be much stronger faith. Hence divine truth is "full of faith and 
worthy of all acceptation." Faith is so natural to the mind that all inventors 
of human religions have given it the highest honor by placing it at the founda- 
tion of all their systems. Nothing can be more scientific, more reasonable, as 
it is not the pecuUarity of privileged natures but the common heritage of the 
human race. It may be stronger in some exalted characters than in others less 
elevated ; the objects are nearer, more vivid, whilst the evidences are alike open 
to all. Who does not believe that there is a city called London ? They have 
never been there, but they have heard of it so often, read so much about it, that 
they know more doubt it than if they had lived there twenty years. But to 
believe a strange truth that few have heard is not so easy, especially if the mul- 
titude rejects it — this puts one to the greater test — this shows the dignity and 
the grandeur of faith. GaHleo and Newton, Descartes and Locke, among 
many others, at great labor enriched Iheir minds with grand truths, and, as the 
reward of their researches, cultivated and enjoyed such powerful faith as en- 
abled them to dispense with the assistance of the crowds of their contempor- 
aries. When the mind would bathe in the ocean of thought and is in danger 
of being carried away in the waves by the und>er-tow of doubts, then appears 
the value of faith which enables it to swim through the swells and the foam of 
the billows to the beautiful and tranquil beach of truth and certainty. If the 
mind is not an empty vessel to be filled with truth it certainly has a receptivity 



250 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

into which truth may be showered from the bright clouds of rc'elation which it 
has the power of absorbing, holding, enjoying and being enriched and carried 
forward in the light and sweetness of it to the accomplishment of all its designs 
and commands. Truth is the light of the mind. It may be said, when we have 
reasoned out a subject from the premises to the conclusion, what more do we 
want? Much more; the way may be long or the route circuitous, the mind 
wearied with a long induction of particulars, and if doubt disturb not in the 
course reason leaves the truth without you ; whereas, faith plants it within, in- 
t«rweaves it with our nature, vivifying and invigorating it, giving it a triumph 
over the most stubborn doubts and difficulties. " Seeing is believing," they say, 
but great must be the difference between vision and faith without the presence 
of the objects. In the long history of the race the mightiest deeds have been 
done by the men of faith. Such men have secured for themselves the estima- 
tion of others — their faith has been the strength of the weak and the salvation 
of the fainting, and men and nations nave been mighty or feeble in proportion 
as they have cultivated or neglected this great virtue. 

In great emergencies in fearful crises the victory has always been to him 
who had faith and who hoped against hope. Last year they lionized Columbus 
who gave Europe the New World. That intrepid hero animated by a strong 
faith went from one sovereign to another, begging an outfit and in return offer- 
ing them a world, fie refuses to be turned aside by the ridicule and the con- 
tempt of courtiers and buffoons till he got from Ferdinand and Isabella his little 
fleet that he might realize his dream. . Battling'for months amid the wastes of 
ocean, amid the dangers of of an adventurous navigation, amid the cries of a 
mutinous crew, seeing his death written in the angry eyes of his sailors, he keeps 
his faith, he lives by his faith, and asks only three days, the last of which pre- 
sents to him this conquest." Consult the pages of history, the warriors of an- 
tiquity. Gideon is called to raise an army of peasants to drive out the invading 
foes of his country. He asks evidences that he may be successful ; he believes 
in these evidences, and when his army is reduced to 300 men his faith is not 
diminished. As directed, he takes his servant and glides steathily to the camp, 
hears a dream narrrated and intrepreted, and with the faith and courage of a 
hero he gave the word and three hundred trumpet blasts, threw his enemies into 
a panic, and in the light of 300 lamps they thought a huge army was upon them, 
and the war cry, the sword of the Lord and of Gideon, terrified them, so that in 
the darkness they slew one another. The faith of Gideon and his heroes became 
contagious — the people of the land rose to the greatness of the occasion and 
hotly pursued the fugitives till they made an end of their enemies. Another 
intrepid leader with three hundred heroes appears in the history of the Greek 
struggles for liberty. Leonides, King of Sparta, with three hundred men was 
sent to defend the pass of Thermopylae, between the mountain and the sea 
against 800,000 persians. It seems most unreasonable and unjust to send such 
a handful of noted warriors to immolate themselves in the pass. The king sent 
back the allies retaining only his 300 heroes who were to conquer or perish. 
Lofty souls they determined to set an example, not to the Greeks alone, but to 
the men of all ages by courage the most heroic and deeds, the most daring and 
splendid on the battle fields of the world. The Persian said : " Deliver us your 
arms." The Spartan said, " Come and take them." The Persian said his fol- 
lowers were so numerous that if they let fly their arrows toward the sun they 
would darken his light. The Spartan said, " The Greeks can fight in the shade," 
Could it be anything but a mighty natural faith that sustains such intrepid heroes, 
till one alone was left alive to tell a tale of such thrilling interest ? It is held, 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 257 

too, that this natural faith gives men a presentiment of victory and its diminution 
a presentiment of defeat as they enter the battle field and engage in the deadly 
conflict, a presentiment that reaHzes itself. There are forms of government and 
of poHtics that have long endured, not because they are the best adapted to the 
people or the times, but because the people are accustomed to them, believe in 
them and hold them fast in their convictions. There are people that hardly 
change the form of their clothing from generation to generation for centuries. 
The ancient Romans are said to have believed that they could build a city that 
would last forever, an idea perpetuated from age to age which may have aided 
them in their great conquests. They never treated with their enemies but as 
victors. When they purchased a peace with Brenus the Gaul for so many 
pounds weight in gold and the chief threw his great sword into the scale vowed 
he would have the weight of it extra, they took back the gold to the treasury and 
renewed the war. When Hannibal the Carthagenean h^d beaten them at Can- 
nase and sent two bushels of rings worn by Roman Knights slain in that battle to 
Carthage as a trophy of the victory — when the imprudent Varo has lost them an 
army and escape to Rome they gave him a vote of thanks in the Senate because 
he did not despair of the safety of the republic showing how much importance 
they attached to faith. Laws the most unjust, even barbarous, are passed and 
people are attached to them and preserve them intact for ages. What else 
keeps the antagonist policies of nations but the faith of the parties in them? 
Faith often attaches itself to an individual and a man will lead a multitude in 
politics or war. They do not weigh the reasons, they only believe in the men 
and obey them and their weakness is turned to strength by such a faith. Riche- 
lieu, Carour, Palmerston, Beaconfield, Gladstone, may be named among states- 
men; among warriors, William of Normandy, Cromwell, Conde, Parma, the 
Nassaus, Marlboro, Bonaparte, Wellington, Ney and others ; among seamen, 
Blake, Nelson, De Winters, etc. — characters wonderful, gifted and mighty, who 
divided the empire of the world of men among them in their times and countries. 
They understood the men they controlled and the sublimity of their faith car- 
ried them through their vast achievements. Faith has been the principle of the 
greatest deeds the world has witnessed. Credulity is not faith. Men may re- 
port what is not true so often that they almost believe such things. It is delus- 
ion. Faith does not absolutely require truth for its basis, but what is not true 
cannot last, must be discovered and give way to something new though errone- 
ous. Human religions being pure inventions of men, must in the growing light 
of years and ages be discovered as baseless, and be abandoned for something 
supposed to be better, and the superstitious notions held by many are but the 
dregs of old cast off beliefs of former times, that cannot bear the light of more 
intelligent ages. Such Pagan relics oppress instead of strengthening the mind. 
They were tyrannical to the moral perfections of man. They were a stagnant 
pool in which intellect could make no advancement and no improvement in 
moral culture. The true religion proposes the renovation of the mind. Except 
a man be born of. water and of the spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of 
God ; and further proposes that we should find the greatest happiness on earth 
in the regeneration of our nature, "He that believeth on him is not condemned." 
" He that beHeveth not is condemned." " Great peace have they that love thy 
law. " Great happiness there is in the growth of faith. It is most strange that 
men with such cravings for the Infinite should be capable of idolatry have been 
entangled in more refined science of politics, which have swallowed their whole 
devotions. How many in our lands make politics their religion ; smile at the 
mysticisms of Christians forgetting that their mysticisms are less tender, not at 



258 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

all spiritual and far more inconceivable to thinking men. Appearances may be 
deemed real, but when found unreal enthusiasm ends in disgust. When faith 
dies or its foundations dissolve the man is deeply grieved and humiliated to 
think he had committed himself to a baseless faith that deserted him in the hour 
of need. Would it not be infinitely preferable to cast it away and take a faith 
that never will desert you, but make you conqueror and more than copqueror 
through Him that loved us. All men should make themselves acquainted with 
this faith and if it possess excellencies above others, give it the preferance. In 
Christian lands the evidence of its importance and excellencies are very manifest. 

The greatest, the most absorbing characteristic is that eternal salvation is 
suspended on it. If thou shalt confess with my mouth the Lord Jesus and shak 
believe in thy heart that God had raised him from the dead thou shalt be saved. 
Many other passages .confirm this fact. Salvation is inseparably connected with 
faith. He that believeth not shall be damned. This faith stands in contrast 
with faith in all other religions in that it changes the whole life of man and pre- 
pares him for salvation, which begins here on earth and is consummated in 
glory and eternal life. Faith saves us only by receiving the truths of the gospel 
into the mind that regenerate and refine it. Truth lies out of the mind, are no 
part of it, till faith brings them in and enables it by repentance to retrace its 
steps backward to obtain and cherish the convictions of its great need of salva- 
tion and of God's willingness to confer salvation upon it. The soul thus pene- 
trated by the truth is freed from the ffiars and the terrors of divine retribution, 
joy and peace spring up where trouble and sorrow reigned and the sinner par- 
doned emancipated has all the powers of the mind and heart turned towards his 
benefactor. The man under the clear impression that he is forgiven can now 
forgive that is loved, can in return love his father in heaven and his brethren on 
earth. They can " bear one another's burdens and so fulfil the law of Christ," 
since a loving saviour has borne " their sins in his own body on the tree." Can 
such a one stray from the path of life when it is a highway smoothed for his feet 
can he fail in benevolence who is conscious of having received everything he 
possesses. He willingly submits to that government which he knows is con- 
ducted by the wisest of Beings, offers his supplications to him who gives them a 
place in his imperial rule and whose very spirit teaches how to pray and 
" maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered." " This 
is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith." Revolutions inhuman 
souls are so very mysterious that those who were the greatest persecutors became 
the most forgiving, the greatest haters the most affectionate, the most patient, 
pains-taking instructors of the ignorant and ungovernable. Humility takes the 
place of pride, and a man becomes all things to all men that he may win them 
to this religion in order to their salvation. 

Faith is instrumental in lodging truth in the inward parts and then the life 
is one of faith. The great apostle says " The life I now live in the flesh I live 
in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me." Is the 
man of faith misre})resented ? Is he provoked to anger, wrath, revenge ? Is he 
encompassed by ungodly men, who are rich while he is poor ! Will he envy 
them ease, wealth,- pleasures ? His well grounded faith in that Providence who 
rules and reigns accounts foi his submission, patience and tranquility. " We 
know that all things work together for good to them that love God ; to them 
that are the called according to his purpose." Had faith only a finite object 
to rest on its success would be limited, its triumphs bounded ; but when its 
foundation and author is God, who includes in himself all principles, regulates 
and sustains all^ how could such, a faith fail? The believer is to call on God 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 259 

in trouble, who will hear and deliver his soul, and he shall glorify God. Be- 
sides, he knows that he must, through much tribulatiop, enter the kingdom of 
Heaven. The eye of faith sees the refuge ; strength, present help in trouble— 
with such encouragement, such succor in view, can he fail to cultivate what is 
beautiful, lovely, pure and of good report in the whole field of morals ; in a 
word, can he fail to work out his own salvation when God works in him both to 
will and to do of his good pleasure. Love may be called a characteristic of 
faith, or a quality, to speak philosophically. In scripture " faith worketh by 
love." Faith that takes in the truths which regenerate our natures manifests 
itself especially by love. The man who loves never calculates or measures the 
extent of duty. He would doubt its existence could he set bounds to its oper- 
ations and say I can go no farther. Love shows itself in obedience. The ob- 
ject of his love being the Infinite, the unconditioned he gives the rein to love so 
that if the scene of his operations were too confined he would seek wider fields, 
new fields to conquer, that he might luxuriate in his new element, as in former 
times he may have done in vices, Love is its own reward ; exercise inflames 
it ; the more we love the more we desire to love. It generously sacrifices, and 
nothing is so enjoyable to the soul. Fire draws from the circumambient air 
to feed its flame and intensify its force and brightness. Love is inflamed to a 
greater degree by its own motions. The more truths you imbibe the more faith 
grows. Creation, Providence, revelation are three fields in which faith gathers, 
information spreading its roots deeply in each field acquiring a vigor and a 
force to be embodied to carry out the principle of active obedience. Almost 
any kind of knowledge, but especially heavenly knowledge, creates a thirst for 
more. Faith impels us on to the gratification of our desires, and love mingles in 
all the researches, making the exercise both easy, refreshing, profitable and de- 
lightful. There is virtue in the very desire, as it attracts the mind to the source 
of knowledge, the supreme beauty. Faith fills all the capacities of the soul; is 
the source of all that is grand and noble in action, because Christ is its author 
and finisher, a foundation immovable and eternal. No soul, nor any portion of 
the soul, could be barren under such an influence which widens, deepens, 
lengthens and prepares it to make a divine increase and growth. Faith eman- 
ates from the Saviour, who sheds it into our souls and cherishes it there to per- 
fection. Can a ransomed soul fail to love? He who commands obedience be- 
came obedient unto death for us — how attractive that makes obedience and 
how much delight is it capable of yielding when we discover our nature purified 
in the process. The obedience of faith is the forerunner of future glory. It 
brings the future to be present. The holy activity of Jesus Christ in bringing 
life and immortality to light by the Gospel has been such a mighty example 
that Paul was willing to endure all things for the elects' sakes, that they might 
obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory. Christianity, 
eternally young instinct, with its author's life, fills its votaries with a faith un- 
conquerable to carry through the great enterprises according to the command- 
ment of the everlasting, God to make known his truth to " all nations for the 
obedience of faith" and to extend and establish his empire over the whole 
world. We go back to the early days of the history of our holy religion and see 
how he that was to come projected his shadow back to the days of Eve and 
Abel and how the faithful put " their trust in the shadow " and, nourished by a 
faith the most unfeigned and heroic, they performed the mightiest deeds record- 
ed in the world's history. Add to that the history of the struggles of the church 
for nineteen centuries against all the world. For nearly three hundred years, 
with no weapon but faith, she withstood the potentates of the nations and their 



26o DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

armies — bled at every pore — her apostles and bishops, her Pauls and her PolH- 
carpes were beheaded or burnt ; her confessors and her martyrs bore their tes- 
timony in the face of opposition the most barbarous, and magistrates the most 
severe, terrific and unrelenting ; and they loved not their lives even unto death. 
Upon such a survey who can help concluding that if there be any principle 
that can stimulate to deeds the most noble, the most exalted and praiseworthy, 
and to trials and suffering ineffable and the most excrutiating, it can be no 
other than Christian faith. This is the victory that overcometh the world, even 
our faith. We have no sympathy with hero worship ; we condemn it as un- 
worthy of man. Peter said: "I am a man"; the angel said: " see thou do it 
not, worship God." We have occasionally apotheoses in the church and min- 
isters sometimes slightly adored and others, even as good or better, dispised. 
These things are simply abominable. But casting all this to the winds we may 
sec in the energetic work of the church, in all her branches, a proof beyond all 
controversy, the vitality, energy and activity of the principle of faith in all its 
subjects and votaries. Beyond this there is satisfaction and a certainty in faith. 
We do not refer to the external evidences of r^ihgion which have multiplied in 
the ages, which the agnostics and sceptics of these times treat with a supercili- 
ous contempt, and which perhaps not many in a thousand trouble themselves to 
look at. No j we refer to the evidences the Christian has in his own mind, 
which everyone can reach and lay his hand on ; the love of Christ in liis ^oul, 
which raises his faith above, every other belief. Can you prove to the true 
Christian that he does not love God? He may not be able to convey to you 
proofs satisfactory, because feelings cannot be expressed in words, nor can 
words drive them away. That which has given him fhe power to love God 
must be from God. Christianity gives him that power, therefore it must be the 
truth. If God by this gives a man power to love.him, will you venture to per- 
suade him that he does not know the truth? We have established facts that 
faith springs from truth taken into the heart. Faith cometh by hearing and 
hearing by the word of God. Ye great scholars, profound thinkers of the nine- 
teenth century, restlesslyactive spirits, who have unlimited faith in your money- 
making powers, in combinations and syndicates to fill your houses with treasures 
— you have faith in the power of the viewless winds — of the waterfalls, steam 
and electricity; you have faith in chemistry to dissolve or combine the elements 
in the composition of the globe ; sever the precious metals from the dross ; the 
aluminum from the thick clay; you believe in gravitation and astronomy ; in' 
cultivating the earth and, navigating the seas. Many of you believe in almost 
everything but religion. You have human faith but not divine faith — natural 
faith, but not Christian faith. Your form may be of the finest mould; your talents 
of the highest order; intellects clear and vigorous. Your career may be a model ' 
of success. Your wealth miUions.' You may be princely merchants, sagacious 
statesmen, shrewd politicians, prosperous bankers, successful manufacturers, 
talented lawyers ; whatever may be your occupation or employment, you may 
acquit yourselves well, faithfully and with credit, but what will you do with all 
these things in a few years if you be without that saving faith. Can you not 
examine this faith and consider well those heavenly truths that feed it and give 
it health and vigor and beauty? What we may say cannot cause you to em- 
brace it. That must be your own voluntary act. Arguments do not convert 
men. Life communicates life. God converts, using the means of his own 
choice. But is the faith we speak of worthy of no consideration ? Should the 
revealed truth of God be refused or lightly esteemed? Is the human soul, the 
highest part of the creation of God, unworthy of eternal life?- Can a prudent 



DIFFICULTIES 07 RELIGION. 261 

man object to a single sacrifice religion demands? Are fraud, falsehood, cruelty, 
oppression and wrong preferable ? Is there anything shameful the Gospel re- 
quires you to believe or practice ? " It is the power of God to salvation to 
every one that believeth." Paul says to the Saints at Rome, " Now unto Him 
that is of power to establish you according to my Gospel and the preaching of 
Jesus Christ according to the revelation of the mystery which was kept secret 
since the world began, but now is made manifest and by the scriptures of the 
prophets according to the commandments of the everlasting God made known 
to all nations for the obedience of faith. To God only wise be glory, through 
Jesus Christ for ever. Amen." 

The faith of many is dim and feeble when it should be clear and powerful, 
because of the abuse of the distinction between moral evidence and mathemat- 
ical evidence. Yo'u have a clear idea that two even numbers added together 
the result is an even number j that the radii of a circle are equal to one 
another ; that the spokes of a well-balanced wheel are of equal length. This is 
mathematical, or if you will, mechanical evidence. An even number multiplied 
by itself produces an even number. This is a clear notion of the subject. 
Moral evidence on the other hand is founded on testimony worthy of credit. 
Why shoald this evidence not be as strong as the other ? That there is such a 
country as Hindostan arid such a city in that country as Delhi I have not the 
least doubt, though I know personally nothing of either by my own observation or 
experience. I have read that a great general, the brave Major-General Nichol- 
son, stormed Delhi with a party of British troops, drove out the thousands of 
Sepoys and received the wounds that occasioned his death. I can only be per- 
suaded of the existence, say of Delhi, by a kind of evidence that I may call 
moral, but to me as certain as any other. Could all the travellers and writers 
conspire together to deceive me as to the existence of the capital of that em- 
pire of the great Timoor or Tamarlane ? You can no more convince me of 
this than that you Qan convince me that two and two make five. You could' 
not destroy nor even weaken the testimony of which an intellig«fnt man is con- 
vinced that Hindostan exists, and that Delhi, a city in that country, exists, 
if the existence of Delhi is illusory, that two and two make four is also illusory, 
and the existence of a city cannot be proved to the man who has not seen it. 
On such principles we could not believe that Demosthenes or Cicero existed; 
Hanibal or Fabius existed. We should not have a shadow of the past that would 
not be swept away into the gulf of annihilation. The common senseof men 
compels the admission that moral evidence is as sound, as firm, as rehable as 
mathematical evidence. This may disabuse the mind that evidence changes 
with the objects. By the same kind' of evidence that we prove the existence 
of great historical characters we prove the existence of the noted scripture 
characters and by no other, and objections, if they hold to one case hold with 
equal tenacity to the others. The truth of a fact depends not so much on the 
nature of the fact as on the evidences by which it is supported, provided it 
does not imply a contradiction. It may be admitted that stronger proofs are 
necessary to form and establish the belief in exti:aordinary events than m those 
of daily occurrence— to induce the belief that a man of great wealth or of ex- 
traordinary talents and learning is humble rather than proud of his gifts— that 
a friend is as faithful in adversity as in prosperity, than that he is less so. But 
must it not be admitted that what is proof of ordinary facts or events is proof 
of extraordinary. Evidences apply alike to the natural and to the supernatural. 
Is it not most unreasonable to admit argtiments and evidences as valid in the 
one case and not in the other? The stoutest objectors to moral arguments and 



202 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

evidences urge the abuse of the distinction on the plea that there is so much at 
stake. Oh, ilf religion be not true, if we are being deceived by designing char 
acters — all is lost, all is vain. Might it not be urged that the men who give the 
most attention to religion are certainly as happy if not as successful a-s those 
who neglect it ? We hear no complaints, no self-reproach, no loud and bitter 
cry among the neglectors of religion, that they have taken no pains to assure 
themselves that there is nothing in it, by carefully examining its claims and 
weighing with keen discrimination the evidences by which it is established. If 
religion is a dream it is so pleasant a dream that one never awakes from it with 
a guilty conscience, never reproaches himself with wasting the energies of an 
immortal soul in doubts of its own existence or that of its Lord, or of having 
deceived himself with an irrational, vissionary, baseless faith. The Christian 
religion is inflexible by its strength. The strong evidences,, the powerful argu- 
ments which sustain it are so abundant and varied that it can with magnanimity 
dispense with fraudulent, fanciful feeble arguments as unnecessary, even injur- 
ious. The eminent Geerge Whitefield is reported to, have said, " Christianity 
has truth for its bases, heaven for motives, hell for threatenings, and eternity 
for arguments." The preacher may use great discrimination, collect the most 
invincible proofs, employ the most powerful reasonings to establish his doctrines, 
produce living impressions and league together himself and the possessors of 
faith to cheerfully wave their banners peacefully, maintain their stand in calm 
defiance of defeat from any combination, heathen, pagan, mahomedan, ration- 
alist or errorists of any description in the universe. Some object that circum- 
stances and details have not been minutely given by the sacred writers. It 
might suffice that it is the communication of divine wisdom who has kept back 
nothing profitable. The mind is not burdened with non-essentials. Inquisitive 
geniuses, have you any doubt about the facts (you have scanty details) of the 
battles of Hastings, Cressy, Agincourt, Australitz, Waterloo, Flodden, Bannock- 
burn ? Any doubts that Hannibal, Alexander, Cyrus and Caesdr existed, though 
we have few details, and some doubtful? Your regrets shotld be rather that so 
little attention is given to the myriads of facts so well established that so great 
ignorance of holy writing prevails, that minds are so barren of true knowledge, 
and so full of fancy, fable, superstition, that there is little intellectual and moral 
development and so much consequent poverty and misery. Can we have a 
natural, vigorous growth of faith whilst the sources and feeders of it are so neg- 
lected ? We are ignorant of ourselves, and it is a most difficult task to under- 
take to know ourselves. The estimate men generally form of their own charac- 
ters is an inexhaustible source of ridicule. Self blinded men are multitudinous.. 
The most imperfect men form and express estimates of others bodily and intel- 
lectually as if they had concluded that they were only blocked out, or that the 
scaffolding of such creatures had been only set up whilst themselves were su- 
perb — perfect in mind and body. Most tender of themselves they fall foul of 
the whole human race. Here and there a hero, or a beauty, or a millionaire may 
command their adoration. How many heavy phlegmatic characters fancy 
themselves philosopers possessing an understanding uncommon, enlightened, 
accurate, clear, refined, and this opinion is so profound and deep-rooted that 
the forces of an empire combined could not drive them out of it. Politicians 
believe their policy alone true, worthy to be held and acted upon, and that the 
nation must perish should the reins of government get by a possibility into the 
hands of their opponents. When such a calamity takes place and the dreaded 
predicted horrors occur not, they never become wiser by the events but con- 
tinue to propagate the deceit to future generations. The history of the British 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION 263 

Empire is full of illustrations of this melancholy fact. Advanced as are the men of 
the Anglo-Saxon world, what laughing-stocks they make of themselves to the less 
civilized world in tliis respect. Let a party but get defeated in an election, 
nothing short of civil war will suffice to reinstate them in power. Englishmen 
who laughed at the late civil war (unpleasantness Americans call it) in America 
are not quite out of the woods themselves. To our shame be it spoken, but 
with reverence to the clergy, that " for the good of the church " they never fail 
to inflict, if fairly in their power and not injurious to their own popularity, the 
heaviest penalties — the most unheard of cruelties. 

Who has not met with men of the least developed minds, not to mention 
cultivated or educated minds, who set themselves up as capable of deciding 
what is for the good of the church and society, men who give endless trouble. 
Their self-conceit is marvellous. They think themselves humble, gentle, lamb- 
like, benevolent. You hint their defects — their talents cover everything — or 
that no one oifers them incense but themselves — they cannot help the wretched 
taste of the age — ^great men are calumniated and(misunderstood while they live. 
You happen in with a company of slanderers and take a stand against their 
vice, all at once the party will be every one of your opinion, the most hypocrit- 
ical will assume the garb of the most innocent, each thinking himself in no 
sense whatever such a sinner as he condemns. Such is our vanity — we cannot 
believe that we are in any sense what we are. If any of our readers think we 
are only indulging in a little play of the imagination, no stronger proof could be 
adduced, of the point we are demonstrating, that it is extremely difficult for a 
man to know himself. If we would examine ourselves, and not be always 
abroad engaged with external things, and ask whether our good deeds arose 
from sincere or selfish motives — whether our faults were mere surprises or from 
iniernal corruption, we would soon know whether we would deny the truth with 
Peter, or die for it with Stephen. We refuse to see ourselves in the portraits 
others draw of us. How greatly we admire the courage of preachers who are 
gone, but do we tolerate from the lips of the living what we admire in the dis- 
course of the dead? Elijah, Nathan, John the Baptist, Stephen, John Knox, 
Massilon, are heroes, but let the men of to-day take such a stand — how auda- 
cious ! what presumption ! Preach the pure truth and take " the sack." We 
know some who have done so more than once. Do preachers grow wise by 
experience and their sermons become harmless? Will congregations prefer the 
stillness of the grave to the activity of imbibing Christian doctrines and prac- 
ticing Christian virtues ? " Character" is the Diana of these days. " It was 
not the words of Paul but the character behind them that produced such effect 
on his audience," says a young modern. How unsafe is such teaching ? We 
hold that it is the incorruptible word that God appoints as the means of con- 
version and which produces character. Our esteemed young friends fresh from 
our schools of learning should be better acquainted with Paul, whose " speech 
and preaching were not with enticing words of man's wisdom but in demon- 
stration of the spirit and power." " Which things also we speak, not in the 
words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth." The 
glory of God and the salvation of souls are the motives impelling youths into 
the ministry. Paul preached Jesus Christ, not his own character. Christ 
opened to,men the scriptures. Character, science, history, may be all used as 
illustrations. We have known old preachers who have cunningly, carefully 
avoided doctrines and preached the characters of apostles, prophets, patri 
archs, and were very happy in their work for long years, but such old kings 
will not be admonished. We are so hobest in justifying ourselves if not in con- 



264 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

demning others that the admonition of our best and most faithful friend would 
turn us against him. To have discovered our weak points makes him detested. 
Now the man of faith has a very full discovery of his condition as exactly like 
that of other men, except that this precious faith enables Him to more fully un- 
veil himself, that he may seriously and resolutely use all available means for 
his thorough reformation. His faith must gVow by cultivatton to fill up till 
there be no room for its enemies in the same mind. The destiny of the believer 
is to be changed into the image of the heavenly, "to be filled with all the ful- 
ness of God." Faith anticipates the future. Had we only to open our eyes to 
see the objects faith would be simply easy — but when we must read, reflect, 
pursue carefully a long course of study, consult men of learning and experience, 
suspend our labors and pleasures, investigate, meditate, assure ourselves that 
we are not imposed upon by designing men ; showing most clearly that our ex- 
ercises and effort correspond and are in fit proportion to our condition, regard- 
ed as a state of probation in this world. 

Night of futurity we regard as a justifiable expression, because we know so 
little about the future. Could we open our eyes to the dehghts, joys and 
pleasures of Paradise flourished full iiilo our view? Would it be difficult to 
sacrifice the pleasures of the world to secure them ? But it requires the forti- 
tude of a marljr, and in the" strictest propriety of speech all Christians are 
martyrs, to immolate all that is considered valuable on the earth, on the truth 
and fulfilment of the promises of a future felicity. When we consider how sen- 
sible things engross the whole capacity of the mind, and that the more remote the 
object ofattainment may be the less calculated is it to impress, and as so little, if 
anything, is left of power to attend to abstract truths, and such truths, when ihe 
objects of their contemplation are involved in a night of cloudy and thick, deep 
oblivion, where the promises, like the flashes of lightning in a tempestuous 
night, throw a vivid and lurid glare at intervals, as if to light us across the 
chasms, or as if to span or contract the distances between the promises and 
their complete fulfilment. We are told of a felicity that is eternal, but we see it 
not and know little if anything of what it consists. We are informed of a great 
eternal Father who has promised it ; but he is the invisible one whom no man 
hath seen or can see. We must go from principle to principle, from promise to 
conclusions, to arrive at a fixed assurance " that He is, and that He is the re- 
warder of all them that dilligently seek Him." This involves us in a greater 
difficulty. It is an entrance into the'idea of which He is — the unsearchable in- 
finite existence whose immeasureable vastness overwhelms and confounds our 
limited intelligence. We have an idea of time from the succession of day and 
night and the seasons of the revolving year, but we have not a clear idea of our 
eternal duration. We have no difficulty in receiving the testimony of our Cre- 
ator that our soul is immortal and eternal. We are assured that our bodies will 
be raised spiritual and incorruptible. But have we any idea of a spiritual body 
or any adequate conception of unknown faculties, an unknown economy of new 
heavens and a new earth wherein righteousness dwelleth? Can I give any des- 
cription of one race whom I have never known or conversed with ; or of that 
still more exalted angelic society who are to be my associates in the glorifica- 
tion of my great King Creator? I imagine I picture to myself a state of happy 
unmingled bliss, dreams of enjoyment ineffable, subUme, but when I attempt to 
delineate them I am told they bear no proportion to anything in the-whole wide 
range of human knowledge in our present state. We form most extravagant 
notions of human greatness. To sit in the seat of a president, or wear a daz- 
zling crown, or occupy a throne, and sway a sceptre over millions of our I^ellow 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 26^ 

men, what motives to do and dare and endure. Ambitious men would secure 
immense wealth, become men of great consi eration, lame, power, influence, 
renown. Put these all in one scale with all that sheen and tinsel you can at- 
tach to them; then, in the opposite scale, attach a crown of glory, an inheritance 
in heaven, a kingdom appointed us by the King of Kings — who would not es- 
teem the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt, choose 
and receive a kingdom that cannot be moved, look for a city that hath founda- 
tions whose builder and maker is God? But who do choose these enter the 
strait gate, choose life halt or maimed? The most vehement disclaimers 
against God's making choice among us for salvation, are the very men who neg- 
lect and despise salvation. What a consolation, what gratitude should it gen- 
erate in our hearts to be able to survey with the eyes of faith, the apostolic, the 
prophetic, the patriarchal, the antideluvian ages, to go to the beginning of the 
creation of God and examine the evidence on which religion securely rests, and 
tearing up incredulity by the roots, and making study supply the place of expe- 
rience, snd hope the place of vision, we sacrifice sloth, languor, pleasures and a 
thousand other evils to the claitns of truth,' that we may live by faith and pray 
without ceasing ; that we may multiply opportunities of doing good to all men 
as we have opportunity, especially to those who are of the household of faith. 

One of the most mysterious doctrines of religion, and one that creates the 
gi:eatest difficulty in very many inquiring minds, is the application of truth to 
the soul. The production of faith in us, our embracing Jesus Christ as our 
only Saviour, and the resultant connection with his flock, the church all com- 
bined, may be attributed to the Holy Spirit as his divine work, as the applica- 
tion of redemption, the regeneration of the soul. It is set out to us in the Holy 
Scriptures under various names, such as being born again, born of the Spirit, 
born of God, a passing from death to life, conversion, and also other expres- 
sions to the like purpose ; as renewed in the spirit of ybur mind, created anew 
in Christ Jesus unto good works, etc. Nothing in the physical world can be 
adduced to set it forth o appropriately as these expressions, since it is a spirit- 
ual change, or as the apostle says, " to open men's eyes and to turn them from 
darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God." No subject of this 
change can give a clear account of the work in his own mind. Every portion 
of our nature is more or less affected in the transition, sensational, emotional, 
intellectual, spiritual. " The wind bloweth where it listeth and thou hearest the 
sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh or whither it goeth ; so is 
everyone that is borri of the Spirit." With the forming of Christian faith in the 
niind begins the passage from death to life. Faith is the bond of union with 
the Lord. Born in sin by nature, a child of wrath, sitting in darkness, dead in 
sin — he is made alive ; called out of darkness into God's marvehous light — 
men are thus " made kings and priests to God." The change of the soul agrees 
with the change in the condition, so he is to " walk worthy of God, who hath 
called him to his kingdom and glory." The spirit of God comes on the man, 
gives him a new heart, expels the low grovelling notions, fills him with grace, 
produces in him a magnanimity assortable with the elevation, the dignity, the 
grandeur to which he is called of God. When the young Benjamite came to 
consult Samuel, the prophet, on a trivial point, he went away a king annointed. 
But how can that uncultivated, country youth assume the regal functions, main- 
tain the dignity and polish of the palace, the discrimination of the judge, the 
sagacity of the statesman and the marshal valor of the warrior? Samuel said, 
in parting with him, " the spirit of the Lord will come upon thee — and thou 
shall be turned into another man." There are the most ample gifts and quali- 



266 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

fications for the imperial splendor. Besides these heavenly endowments the 
king in Israel must write with his own hand the law of Moses, and read in^it all 
the days of his life. There would be a cultivation of legal knowledge and talents, 
and it is but natural to conclude that, as a careful student, he could readily ac- 
quire all necessary information for performing all the functions of royalty. A 
man in becoming a Christian is not, like Saul, made another man, but a new 
man. The Holy Spirit, in planting the truth in the soul, impresses it profoundly 
with the necessity of the study of the whole revealed will of Gbd, by which it is 
nourished as a babe with pure milk. The unconverted sinner is low born, his 
father is an Amorite, his mother a Hitite ; his thoughts are low, sensual, grov- 
elling ; he must be born from above, to a state of grace, elevated, sublime ; his 
thoughts raised, purified by the " wisdom from above." The same gracious 
spirit that created the human nature of Jesus Christ creates men anew to Christ 
Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that they should walk 
in. This noble biith gives them a high descent, the blood royal of Christ 
flows in their veins, and as He is so are they i " each one resembled the chil- 
dren of a king." It is sometimes objected that the Orientals abounded in the 
most striking figures of speech, but are the figures not the most appropriate, 
placing the facts in the clearest and most striking light, conveying to the mind 
the most convincing, pleasing, satisfying reahties ? Do you express astonish- 
ment at such a change produced by the spirit of God in the soul? Consider 
the change on an infant born into the world in respect to sight, hearing, respira- 
tion, nourishment, and almost all its sensations; is it not a new mode of exist- 
ence, compared with its previous state? A Christian gives himself to be led by 
the Spirit, taught by the Spirit, guided by His counsel, moulded or conformed 
to the image of the Son of God. What idea can I form of the union between 
my soul and body ? Of the mode of subsistence of my soul when it leaves the 
the body? How do I know my soul? Is it by idea, or sentiment, or experi^ 
ence or its operations? How do I think ? Is it by the use of the brain, the 
nerves, or all the parts of the body and soul combined ? Does the loss of a 
hand or foot impair the thinking power? Can sensations be conveyed to my 
mind other than through the bodily organ? I may use these impressions to in- 
crease my] knowledge by reflection, abstract, thought and comparisons. How 
do I imagine and propose hypothesis, collect facts and arrive at conclusions. Or 
deduct these from the various objects around, as the works of God and evi- 
dences of His power, wisdom and goodness, and so inerease my information ; 
but how is the lesson communicated ? What is to prevent my believing that I 
shall hear, see, think and converse with others when the body is reduced to 
dust and is no more in form till raised again from the dead ? If a crucified 
Saviour and a crucified penitent thief could meet in Paradise, then there is no 
room for doubt of the capability of the soul for knowledge, action and enjoy- 
ment, whether in the body or out of the body. 

The gmus of the Christian religion supposes that a man should make the 
best use of his reason, not by renouncing but by exercising it, to enable him to 
decide that no claims can be so strong on him as those of his Creator, and that 
the true use of reason is to lead him to God. It is, impossible, perhaps, to 
demonstrate the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. Jesus Christ has 
brought it clearly to light. The like may be said of the doctrine of Providence, 
it is -so complicated, difficult and mysterious. - Jesus Christ has shown us that 
our Heavenly Father feedeth the ravens, numbers the hairs of our head, pro- 
vides for the animate and governs the animate and inanimate creation. What- 
ever dislike men may have in submitting to human authority, can they hesitate 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 267 

in submitting to ihe authority of God, when that is the condition of entering 
His Kingdom? It is a revolution in man's ideas turning from error to truth, 
darkness to light, from disobedience to obedience, or the wisdom of the just. 
The spirit is the author of this change in the mind, and the instrument he em- 
ploys to produce it is the Scriptures, which make men wise unto salvation. The 
appointed means are so far above human reason, that it never, unaided, could 
have attained to such a lofty height. Who could think that God would send 
his Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin to condemn sin in the flesh ? 
Who could imagine that the spirit of God would inspire meii in our sin-blighted 
race to write the will of God for our guidance and associate it with the history 
of so many nations for more than two-thirds of the whole period of human exist- 
ence here below and make it the means of the regeneration of that sin-laden 
race? That the spirit should come and enter into the soul, festering with en- 
mity against God as a dead body with mortification and putridity and make it 
clean, through the word, and pure through faith, and then to obey from the heart 
the form of doctrines delivered us ? These things could never enter the heart 
of man. Hence the authority of God was necessary to impress these things 
upon us— reason, darkened reason, in its highest efforts was totally inadequate 
to the task. Can men be called Christians who attach themselves to virtue and 
cultivate moral truths on the greatest-happiness principle (Bentham) or when it 
assorts with their worldly-mindedness ? They take no reckoning of the future 
world. Christianity refines our taste that we may attain to pleasures worthy of 
the excellency of the mind, and more compatible with the exalted nature of 
religion. The love of money and the love of religion cannot exist long in the 
same mind : one must destroy the other. How can men worship in spirit if 
their heads (not to say their hearts) are'full of consuls, bonds, stocks, extor- 
tions, corners, limits, bills of exchange, ships (like the carnal Jews with their 
sheep, oxen and doves) — winds and waves trouble them, the state of commerce 
and the favor of the wealthy. Religion says : If the Lord will, we shall do this 
or that. A proper trust in the divine will and providence elevates the soul 
above trusting in man or in means, and teaches him to treat his fellow men 
with the love becoming those created by the same God, governed by the same 
providence, possessing the same excellence and the same meanness ; not cor- 
rupting with bribes nor fleecing them as sheep, nor treat them as worms of the 
dust nor wild beasts of the desert. It is very difficult to believe that a double- 
minded double-faced man can be a Christian. No class of men was so de- 
nounced by the Saviour, and no class of men so likely to perish as these 
enemies of truth. All things are possible with God ; but to be a self-righteous 
pharisse or hypocrite is extremely dangerous. A double-minded man is un- 
stable. That the Holy Spirit can change a soul from the earthly to the heavenly 
in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, is not to be doubted ; but a man to 
neglect his salvation on this ground is to mistake the economy of the Holy 
Spirit, as well as the accountability or free agency of man, two things closely 
connected. The Holy Spirit is the mover of the men who wrote and the in- 
spirer of what they wrote. Now, if God intended to save men in spite of them- 
selves, and without their efforts, would he have given them the Scriptures ? On 
such supposition they would be useless. They declare they were written for 
our learning. The one implies the other. Then we must learn them or perish 
for lack of knowledge. We could not know what to believe concerning God or 
what duty he requires of us without their teaching. The promises, according 
to Peter, make us partakers of the divine nature. - " My doctrine shall drop as 
the rain." The spirit gives men dispositions to acquaint themselves with God 



268 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

in the way of wisdom. They reason on the things he has made and infer Irom 
them His eternal power and Godhead. The study of His glorious perfections 
in His own revelation is the duty not only of scholars but of every intelligent 
soul. 

The Scriptures clearly teach that when the Holy Spirit applies redemption 
to man's mind He requires of man a corresponding operation. Man is nowhere 
in the whole Scriptures regarded as inanimate or irrational. He is set forth as 
a free agent, or at least an accountable agent, and his very accountability rests 
on his freedom. That fainous old father, St. Augustine, teaches that " God 
who made us without ourselves will not save us without ourselves." The work 
of the Spirit and the duty of man are clearly defined. To-day^ if you will hear 
His voice. Here is the work of the Spirit. Harden not your heart. Here is 
the duty of man. A new heart will I give you. Make you a heart. I will 
take away the stoney heart out of your flesh — keep the heart with all dilligence, 
for out of the heart are the issues or springs of life. Can language set forth 
more clearly the work of the Spirit and human duty? Wash you, make you 
clean, is a specific command ; then will I sprinkle clean water upon you and 
ye shall be clean — a clear special promise, and how often fulfilled? Work out 
your own salvation, etc. For it is God that worketh in you both the will and 
the deed. Behold I stand at the door and knock. If any man hear my voice 
and open the door I will come in to him and sup with him, and he with me. 
How well defined both works are there. I will pour out my spirit upon you. 
Grieve no.t the Holy Spirit by whom you are sealed unto the day of redemption. 
God gives light unto men's minds and creates an atmosphere of light for these 
eyes, and the reason is given, that they may know the hope of his calling and 
tile riches of the glory of "his inheritance in the saints. The brightest eyes are 
useless in the thick darkness, and the clearest light is equally useless to the man 
who is without eyes or sight to see and admire that hght and going about grop- 
ing his way or seeking some to lead him by the hand. Such a procedure would 
be as rational as to refuse to receive, believe and obey the Holy Scriptures. 
Yet nothing-is so common. At the same time, what should call for such grati- 
tude on the part of a good man as to see men receiving, believing and obeying 
the truth; what in the history of the race stands out so prominently as the un- 
dying efforts of men for the renovation of the race ? It is scarcely equalled by 
that fiendish love of money that prompts some to corrupt, rob and plunder, and 
degrade, at least as far as in their power, their own species. Why give man a 
positive law, and stamp sin and righteousness in such burning characters, but 
to stimulate him to avoid the one with the hatred of death and cleave to the 
other with the love of life. Why have some men been impelled to search the 
whole revelation of God to find out what they are expected to believe concern- 
ing Him, and to disseminate the result of their investigations for the benefit of 
their kind, but that they have received a divine impulse from the Holy Spirit. 
Multitudes can neither bring the time nor the necessary talents to the work, 
but their souls are too precious to be left untrained and ignorant of themselves, 
the great Creator, and the work of redemption and of grace. The Spirit is the 
great sower, the Scriptures the holy seed, and the human race the field of labor 
and harvest. The Great Shepherd was despised and rejected of men, and 
many of the under shepherds fare no belter. Their systems of divinity may be 
called gloomy, horrible, appalling, and their tempers hard, stern, cruel, ferocious 
epithets generally preferred in.twos and threes by their enemies, to distinguish such 
men who have given the clearest evidence that the world is the better for their 
having lived in it — which can hardly be said of their detractors- Thefr aim was, 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION 269 

and they seldom missed their mark, to give the world in their great essays and 
sermons a knowledge of the blessed work of the Spirit in the soul, the purifying 
power of the blood of Christ, the mighty efficacy of divine grace, and the great 
victory of faith. It was well for the world that Moses and SamueL Uved, that 
Noah, Daniel and Job lived in it, who all co-operated with the Holy Spirit as 
soon as they knew him. Perhaps they were barbarous characters. Moses 
gave back the blow like that of a battle-axe on the task-master. Samuel cut a 
captive king in pieces. The fiery Tishbite slaughtered a host of false, deceiving 
prophets. Ferocious in the estimation of a school of refinement he might be, 
but he obeyed the impulse of the spirit every time it came upon him, and he 
with the others has left us an example worthy of the cause they espoused. 
Paul was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision, but followed where the Spirit 
led and refrained where He forbid. His ferocious temper consented to the 
death of Stephen, and if too proud to throw the stones that put the martyr 
asleep, he kept the raiment of thepi that slew him. James and John may not 
bring down • fire on displeasing people. Jesus himself demands why he is 
smitten undeservedly. Even Sampson, who is not painted as a model by any 
means, yields to the impulses of the Holy Spirit, and with all his faults is a man 
of love and prayer. The apostolic fathers, like Policarp and Origin, and the 
Christian fathers, like Jerome and Augustine, also many of the schoolmen, have 
left the noble testimony of their obedience to the truth under the guidance of 
the Holy Spirit. The reformers, on whom much mud is thrown since their days, 
and we presume very unjustly, and by men not very angelic themselves : the 
reformers waked up the slum.bering nations to think and act as men had not 
done for a thousand years. The Bourdalons, Masselons, Fenelons and a host 
of nameless millions aided in carrying these principles deep into the hearts of 
men in all societies of Christendom. It should be carefully considered that it 
is the command of God to receive the truth in the love of it; and that what- 
ever difficulties are encountered in obedience to this command are more than 
counterbalanced in the opposite direction. We escape the strong delusions ju- 
dicially sent on them that believe a lie, and the fearful consequenees of that sin. 
The good sense of men will at once admit that talents and endowments are 
given to be occupied. It is the wisdom of the recipient not to bury, but to 
multiply them. Whatever graces are bestowed are to be improved, not neg- 
lected. Whatever convictions are produced are not to be obliterated or worn 
out, but acted upon and deepened. Else alt these shall be withdrawn, and the 
talent taken from him and given to the man who has improved his five to ten : 
and God shall send strong delusions, that they who received not the love of 
the truth may believe a lie. Then woe to the careless creature when the Spirit 
departs from him ! It should not be imagined for one moment that because the 
Spirit is omnipotent that He will overcome our obstinacy and save men in defi- 
ance of their resistance and neglect of the use of their own natural gifts. Why 
are the means of grace so liberally supplied? Why are favorable opportunities 
afforded but that they should be seized and improved to secure the great desir- 
able benefits. The loss and removal of these might well throw men into despair 
and overwhelm them with horror of being castaways. Reprobatfe silver should 
men call them, because the Lord hath forsaken and despised them. The dis- 
covery will yet be made that wealth will not save nor mendicity destroy, though 
the rich may fear no danger, for his abundance can purchase honor, and with 
these two he needs nothing; and the poor may be so downcast as hardly to 
look for salvation ; but the beggar may be carried to Paradise, and the rich 
man buried in torments. Chastisements are from love and lebukes, and threat- 



270 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

enings are to deter from and prevent sin produce genuine repentance and refor- 
mation of life. From the proper use of these the best results follow, witness 
Nineveh spared for a time ; but if men will not repent, if the prodigal will not 
return; what then but a fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, 
that shall devour the adversaries. Belshazzer and Simon Magus', are exhorted 
to repent. It might be a lengthening out of tranquility to the one, and perhaps 
the thoughts of the heart of the other be forgiven. But of, how much sour pun- 
ishment than death without mercy, shall he be thought worihy who hath trodden 
underfoot the Son of God and counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith He 
was sanctified an unholy thing and hath done despite unto the Spirit of Grace ? 
Why is the Holy Spirit given as a teacher if we are not to learn of Him? Why 
is the knock on the door but to call attention to the one who knocks, that we 
may receive him to be our guest? One thing essentially necessary to conver- 
sion, we must be enlightened. We must know the truths of religion. It is not 
necessary to be a philosopher to know the truth. The commonest minds are 
capable of understanding enough for their salvation They need not be en- 
cumbered with curious questions that are agitated to no profit among men. Re- 
fined reflection and profound investigation far above the comprehension of or- 
dinary and uncultivated minds are not essential to salvation. But all men will 
admit that we ought to receive instruction according to our meang, capacities 
and situations in life. A Christian should be a Christian not so much because 
he is born of Christian parents, though that is a strongreason and to be grate- 
fully acknowledged, but also because he has been educated a Christian, and 
much more, because the truths that make him a Christian have come to hira 
from God. The Gospel reveals a God that may be known. This is life eternal 
that ihey might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom he hath 
sent, all the declarations of agnostics to the contrary notwithstanding. We are 
required to prove all things and hold fast that which is good. This developes 
another principle the effects such truths have on the mind, they transform it and 
produce an influence altogether divine. He that saith I know him andkeepeth 
not his commandments is a liar. " If ye know these things happy are ye if ye 
do them." The attention to be given to truths is not to gratify curiosity, but to 
better the soul. Now, a little attention to our own human constitution will 
show us that the earlier in life we begin our acquaintance with truth and its 
great author, the easier will be the attainment, and the mightier the results. 
Religion is not a spasmodic thing to be taken up and dropped again easily, but 
a vital principle in us that notwithstanding failings and frailties, holds on its 
way, and by repentance and renewed strength, shows virtue predominant over 
transgression, and in the end victorious. But if we heed not these peculiarities 
of our nature and defer the work, we risk the forfeiture of the grace, and render 
our conversion very suspicious ; if not blight and destroy its prospects altogether. 
We are spirits lodged in material bodies and on the temperature of that mater- 
ial, depends very much our progress. We should not let our system decay nor 
our memory or other powers weaken till we had made at least respectable at- 
tainments. 

We have referred to the work of the Spirit and the duty of man. We can 
set no limit to the work of the Spirit. Human duty is more within our vision 
yet indefinite. If we suppose for a moment that we can do all required to qualify 
us for felicity, we dishonor the work of God, deceive ourselves and make re- 
ligion destitute of its divine element, a body without a spirit. If we claim merit 
for our deeds we forget what duty demands of the unprofitable servants and 
pour contempt on the merits of the atonement. If Job said he was perfect it 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 



27J 



would prove him perverse. A half Saviour or a half Sancdfier is unknown to 
Scripture. It would be to do despite to the one or the other. Conversion must 
be the work of the Spirit in the soul ; for it is born of the Spirit, born of God. 
It is clearly taught that there are works of God on the minds of men that do 
not rise to a new creation or a new birth. The people at Sinai readily declared 
that they would do all the commands and be obedient, and their speech was 
approved as excellent, well spoken, but it was only profession, for the reader of 
the mind said : — Oh that there were such a heart in them that they would fear 
me and keep my commandments. Moses refers to the hypocricy of the speech 
afterwards, when he told them after all they had seen arid heard, God had not 
given them a heart to understand, nor eyes to See, nor ears to hear until this 
day. Their devotion, like many professed conversions, lasted not even forty" 
days. Stephen told the people :— Ye resist the Holy Ghost as vour fathers did. 
They were-uncircumsised in heart and ears, yet there was a work done upon 
them, and had it been intended to convert, it must have accomplished its ob- 
ject ; but it was not mighty enough for that. There must be operations of the 
Spirit that men resist. Men have believed and were baptised in the early church 
and not renewed, but remained in the gall of bitterness and in the bonds of 
iniquity. There is a work of the Spirit on the soul that always succeeds ; pro- 
ducing conversion preservation in the faith, and eternal salvation. This work 
is called the exceeding greatness of his power to us ward who believe, according 
to thp working of his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ, when he raised 
him from the dead. Various are the conjectures of men regarding this, some 
think our free will must be so respected as not to be touched ; or that we must 
be taken in some good happy mood, when we willingly yield and are converted. 
Sdme think arguments placing the truth before the mind in clear light are Suf- 
ficient to secure Our coftipliance, so jealous are many about the prerogatives of 
the soul they would rather iiave nothing to do with conversion ; than tha!t these 
confines of the mind should be overstepped by the converting Spirit. We prefer 
the testimony of the Spirit to all the reasoning of philosophy on the subject. It 
is a mighty power that can raise the dead; and conversion is wrought by the 
efficacy of the might of his power, and compared with raising the dead to life. 
This is an irresistible efficacy of grace. It is the healing of the soul by the Great 
Physician. It is the taking possession of us by the Spirit, and keeping us by 
the power of God through faith unto salvation. But to suspend regeneration 
on our free will, or our good moods, would not be the work of faith with power. 
Could the gospel be refused by our free will it would not be the power of God 
unto salvation. In this great work our faith does not stand in the wisdom of 
men, but in the power of God. It is, begun with power, carried on with power, 
and perfected with power. If a thing is done with power, Iree will and moral 
suasion are out of the question. Arguments may be used to advantage, motives 
presented and their force felt, even violence be employed, for the violent take 
the kingdom by force, but it is a pleasing violence, like the smiting that was an 
excellent balm ; the cords of love, the bands of a man; a drawing that makes us 
ruii after him; this love becomes irresistible, so pleasant that we are not con- 
strained, but respond willingly, attracted into his blessed ways. How is it that 
we are not led into temptation but delivered from evil ? By the power of our 
own will or the arguments and evidences presented against such a course? By 
a mightier power of Him than is in us. Greater is He that is in you than he 
that is in the world. There is a circumcision made without hands, in putting 
off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ. This is of 
the heart and ears. This is the immediate power of God. Things not made 



272 DIFFICULTIES OP RELIGION.^ 

with hands, the renovation of the soul, the human nature of Christ, the house 
eternal in the heavens, the new Jerusalem, the city that hath foundation whose 
builder and maker is God. Our faith is the victory that overcometh the world, 
but Jesus is the author and finisher of our faith, and faith is the gift of God. 
When we hear of victory it is by the blood of the lamb, the word of our testi- 
mony ; with the spirit mortifying the deeds of the body, or grace reigning as a 
monarch through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord. 
When saints triumph over the world, the flesh, the devil, death, hell, they ex- 
claim with the apostle, thanks be to God that giveth us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ. Our beheving persevering to the end, being delivered from 
the body of death, all are summed up in, I thank God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Augustine draws the contrast between Adam free from sin yet tempted 
by a seeming good to transgress and a poor sinner full of corruption, but who 
has obtained a little grace in conversion, but whose whole envirqnments are 
trials such as Adam knew nothing of, holds out generally against the many 
temptations, whilst Adam was overcome by one only. These difficulties are 
removed by one consideration : the mighty power of God works in him and 
keeps him through faith unto salvation. If man is sold under sin a child of 
wrath under the spirit that works in the children of disobedience, if there be any 
real liberty compatible with that state, and freedom till the son makes him free, 
then we are as deeply interested in knowing and holding the fact as anyone, 
and facts are not to be objected to. Let us make the most of it for we shall be 
held accountable for such freedoni. We have never denied this liberty, but we 
have not been able to see that it had a great, extent, a wide latitude, or a very 
lengthy range. We were awarded many prizes in the field of mental and moral 
science, having consulted many authors, and have been forced to the conclusion 
that the limits of our freedom are circumscribed till the Son makes us free, then 
are we free indeed. But there piust be a method by which the spirit governs 
the mind, will, and all else included, sweetly, pleasantly, divinely, without 
overturning by the roots the nature he has given. Surely he can govern his 
creatures and their actions without violence to their, nature. The human na- 
ture of Christ was always obedient to the Father, fulfilling all righteousness, 
and if in anything he cannot have his request, there is no rebellion. " Thy will 
be done." He was most free in the sense we claim freedom for our will. Could 
the precious promises be fulfilled if there were not a way of governing all instru- 
mentalities? Men's souls that will are such, the human nature of Jesus Christ 
was an instrumentality by which the spirit of God carries out his plans and de- 
signs. What is freedom or real liberty ? Is it when a man does of his own in- 
clination actions as inferior creatures do ? Or when he does them from choice 
because reason says they ought to be done ? Are they not free because done 
from choice and with full knowledge and untrammelled choice? We fail to see 
any conflict here between the mind so acting and the Spirit energizing in us the 
exceeding greatness of his power, or the might of his power, as wrought in the 
resurrection of Christ. Theophilcat and Chrysostom have said, especially the 
latter, that it requires a greater power to convert the soul than to raise the 
dead — a far more wonderful work to persuade a soul to believe in Christ than 
to call the dead to Hfe by a word. Those who have the experience of this 
mighty work in their hearts now can easily persuade themselves of what may 
and can be done in them and for them hereafter. Should a man still say, l 
cannot see through such difficulties— how can these things be ? We can only 
remind him that we are treating of what takes place here on earth ; we dare 
not speak of what we do not know, but only as we draw from the treasury of 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION* 273 

the Holy Writings, It would avail you little to take you out and show you the 
growth or development of the objects in the animal, the vegetable and the min- 
eral kingdoms. You would admit that these things grow and that every object 
in these kingdoms of nature lives and moves and has its existence in the Creator 
of all. Were you to stand in a forest, you could, we suppose, observe trees of 
all ages from- a thousand or more years to the seedling of last spring. You 
would admit that it required an amount of power corresponding to the age and 
natdre of each to produce it; you would admit, in the education of our age, 
that the power sup^jlied in all these years to such a variety could be applied in 
a moment by and from the same source. But you would cry, that would be a 
miracle. We admit it. But is it unlike a miracle that the pure spirit of God 
should come and take possession of a soul at enmity with heaven and root up 
the bitter roots of sin, break up the fallow and sow the seeds of truth, and gar- 
ner the grand harvest in heaven. 

The good will of God to men is abundantly referred to in the Sacred Writ- 
ings. The power by which a man is led to turn from error, and believe the 
truth is strongly stated and dwelt on by the sacred writers. Unite these two, 
the good will and the omnipotent power wnich that will exerts in us, and you 
have established a strong ground of consolation to the refugees of hope.- If 
G-od be for us who can be against us? The very central doctrine of our reli- 
gion is that Christ died for our sins, and was raised again for our justification. 
The power that raised Him up will raise us up and present us faultless before 
the presence of His glory with exceeding joy. Has the spirit wrought faith in 
us now? That implies forgiveness, deliverance from the power of darkness, 
translation into the kingdom of His beloved Son. The apostle gives thanks to 
the Father who has made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the 
saints in light. We cannot form a conception of the power that raised Christ 
from the dead to glory, any more than of that glory to which he was raised. 
We can understand that there is a proportion between the power and that glory 
though we cannot measure the extent of either. We quiet our doubts about 
these wonders by asking, is anything too hard for the Lord, or impossible, or 
even difficult ? He shall change our vile bodies and fashion them like unto 
his own glorious body, according to the mighty working whereby he is able to 
subdue all things to himself Superabundant proviii^ion is here made f6r soul 
and body. Peter lays down in beautiful order : Elect according to the fore- 
knowledge of God the Father, to obedience, through sanctification of the Spirit 
and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ, begotten again, by the resurrection 
of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, 
and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you, who are kept by the 
power of God through faith unto salvation. The first creation declares the 
eternal power and Godhead, the second the exceeding greatness of His 
power — the hyperbole, the ineffable, super excellent, overcoming might of His 
power, by which souls are converted, carried through the preparation and qual- 
ifiedto sustain a far more exceeding and an eternal weight of glory. The gos- 
pel exceeds or excels the law in glory. The weakness of God is stronger than 
the might of the strongest of men. The same word is used of the love of Christ 
that passeth knowledge. He is able to do exceedingly abundant above all that 
we ask or think. Isaiah says : He calleth them all (the heavenly worlds) by 
names, by the greatest of His might, for that he is strong in power not one fail- 
eth. Greatness of might, strength of power, this is the Hebrew mode of doub- 
ling to express great power. What admiration for God must these expressions 
create in the soul; He has bound himself by His good will to employ such sur. 



274 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

passing all conquering energy of His power to bring us to salvation. All this 
power is to usward who believe. How moving, how invincible. We are not 
mere spectators, we are interested. The prayer of the apostle is that we may 
know it, as a super-excelling, all-conquering power to usward. Peter has it : 
The Lord is long-suffering to usward, not willing that any should perish, but 
that all should come to repentance. To us a child is born, to us a son is given. 
The exceeding greatness of His power to usward is an extraordinary, a most 
astonishing expression. It implies the utmost exertion or exercise of the per- 
fections of God for our salvation. It throws a burning light On the awfulness of 
sin calling for such a remedy the power that worketh in us, and the power by 
which He subdues all things compared, will show that the power working on all 
believers equals the power put forth in all else in the wide creation. The grace 
of God to men, the salvation by Christ, and the apphcation of it by the Spirit, 
form a stage on which all the divine perfections are exhibited to the uttermost. 
To even wicked men he shows riches of mercy; but riches has reference to 
numbers, but to saints the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward 
us through Christ Jesus. The brightness of the new creation throws the old 
into the shade, the glory that excelleth makes the other as no glory. The new 
heavens are so absorbing that the old is forgotten. Every reading of the scrip- 
tures gives a new discovery of the beauty of truth that takes the place of former 
impressions. The Spirit unveils or reveals the facts more clearly to the under- 
standing. This greater manifestation would seem by its greater brightness to 
indicate as if it were the first time come upon the mind, but it is only the 
brighter manifestation covering from view what was less manifest. Speaking 
after the manner of men, God seems reluctant to punish. What if God, willing 
to show His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much long- 
suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction and that he might make 
known the riches of His grace on the vessels of mercy which he had before pre- 
pared unto glory. Judgment is his strange work. He delights in mercy. The 
grand reason is love. Nothing commands strength like love. Thou shalt love 
the Lord thy God with all thy strength. He loves with all His strength. I 
I will rejoice over them to do them good with my whole heart and with my 
whole soul. Moses thus interceded : Let the power of my Lord be great, ac- 
cordirig*as thou hast spoken-; saying, the Lord is long-suffering and of great 
mercy ; pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquities of this people, according to the 
greatness of Thy mercy. Mercy is power. Mercies are ifiultitudinous, riches 
are arithmetical. Power is (megethos) bulk size immensity. Did a king possess . 
power in himself to conquer all enemies without armies or navies and to rule all 
meri with equity what a power he would be. God is such a power, absolutely 
irresistable. The Judge of all the earth cannot but do right. Therefore hatb 
he mercy on whom he v/ill have mercy. Who hath resisted his will? All souls 
are his. All need forgiveness and mercy. What encouragement to sinners to 
seek forgiveness since this mightiest of sovereigns has pledged the mightiness of 
his omnipotent power to bring men to glory. When you say forgive our tres- 
passes what argument do you use ? Thine is the kingdom, the power and the 
glory. Sovereignty, dominion, strength, honor and glory are his ; but of all 
these he will abundantly pardon, renovate and bring to glory everlasiing. If 
the spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the> dead dwell in you. He that 
raised up Christ from the dead shall quicken your mortal body by His spirit 
that dwelleth in you. Therefore, we on whom such favors are bestowed must 
with the spirit mortify the deeds of the body, that we may live. Salvation must 
answer to the work that fits (or it, The glory of the new heavens must corres- 



blFl'tCtL'rifcS O* feELIGl0^f. 2)g 

pond to the exceeding greatness of the work; the inhabitants must be assimi- 
lated to the image of the Creator. A proportion is observed in the putting 
forth of strength, or power, according to the work to be accomplished. The 
baffled magicians said it was the finger of God. Chiist used the same expres- 
sion before the sceptics he encountered. With a strong hand he brought Israel 
out of bondage. Thou hast a mighty arm, strong is Thy hand and high is Thy 
right hand. Mary says: He hath showed strength with his arm; how the ex- 
ceeding greatness of his power, the might of his strength, all divine perfections, 
are engaged to bring men to glory. Well may they run the race;; bought, born 
of the Spirit, justified, sanctified, and they will be glorified. 

The salvation of man is the stage on which all the divine perfections are 
manifested. Wisdom, love, grace, power shine forth simultaneously. Exceed- 
ing greatness of power shows itself in the working of faith in us at the first. 
Conversion is the effectual working of his power. The believers in this passage 
are hedged tn with exceeding greatness of his power following ; and the fair 
construction of the sense must be the production of faith. It is compared with 
the power in the resurrection of Christ. The foregoing richness of glory, of in- 
heritance, in the saints, refers to heaven, where the saints are perfect. Believers 
are on their way to that perfection. Faith is lost in sight then and there, but 
it supplies the place of sight here on earth. When that which is perfect is come, 
then that which is in part shall be done away. We believe, now, therefore, the 
power by which we believe is now present. He refers not to a future resurrec- 
tion but a present believing. The reference to the resurrection of Christ is in 
the past ; he uses the present to usward who believe. Paul must include him- 
' self among these believers. Was his conversion not one of the most marked in 
all history ? H-e is met and conquered in the zenith of his persecuting power. 
The glory of that light persuaded him ; he willingly yielded to his convictions. 
O, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision. I was made 
a minister according to the gift of the grace of God given unto me by the effec- 
tual working of his power. His conversion is expressed by his receiving grace 
and apostleship. They are almost, always associated, sometimes exchanged. 
At conversion Christ says to him, " stand upon thy feet, for I have appeared 
imto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness, both of these 
things which thou hast seen and of those things in the which I will appear 
unto thee." Here his conversion is expressed by his apostleship and the narra- 
tive of his conversion includes his call to preach, and the revelation to Ananias, 
shows what he would suffer. He tells Timothy how exceedingly abundant the 
grace of God was in converting a blaspheming prosecutor, mdd to excess against 
the church. To the Ephesians he tells of his conversion and ministry, accord- 
ing to the effectyal working of His power, and he makes a corresponding state- 
ment to the Romans. To the Galatians he says he was made an apostle by 
Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised-hira from the dead. You doubt 
not then of the power that converted the persecutor; the same power converted 
you, with perhaps some difference of circumstances. Peter calls it the like 
precious faitli with us. The conclusion is ligitimate, and also inevitable, that 
every conversion is by the same power of the Spirit in all ages. The connection 
of the words with the foregoing is a second reason here. The object was to en- 
courage them to labour and qualify for glory. Believers were few, enemies and 
discouragements many, and the operation of grace being similar great encour- 
agement is given to persevere in the life of faith. People that have no doubt 
of the resurrection, doubt of their power to persevere ; as if some sin would be 
their destruction. I shall one day perish by the, hand of Saul. It may be said 



276 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

the blessed Spirit is profiise in these encouragements. Th6 innerman is renewed 
day by day. Afflictions are light, of short duration, and it is blessed to endure. 
Be renewed in the Spirit of your mind ; in righteousness ; put on the new man. 
You are kept by the power of God, through faith unto salvation. Now if such 
a power must keep them I'rom falling must not such a power make them believ- 
ers? It is easier to preserve life than to raise from the dead. It is worse to 
reconcile enemies than to keep friends. If Christ died for the ungodly, will He 
desert the godly? If love led Him to make the sacrifice, and deliver us from 
bondage, will love fail to reap the fruits ? The work becomes easier as we ad- 
vance, and to add glory is but to give a new degree to grace already given. To 
fill us with a knowledge of these things is the aim. How liltle could we know 
of this power in our own experience, had we not the Scriptures to meditate on 
and from which to draw our information ? It is perhaps in spiritual life as in 
natural or physical. We must reflect that we are sustained by a divine power, 
but what note do we take of it? We scarcely observe our natural growth, pay 
no attention to health in our normal state; any more than bestow a thought on 
the free air we inhale, or the pure sunlight which invigorates us. We are so 
absorbed in other things, we pay Httle attention to the majestic rivers when they 
are not in high flood, or to the endless variety and development of vegetation 
so useful and necessary over the landscape. Thankfulness should abound to 
the Author who has made these records to sustain our spirits in strength and 
vigor instead of feebleness. Augustine thinks we must thank ourselves if our 
own will and not the divine will is the cause of our conversion. It must be ad- 
mitted on all sides that whilst we are bound to work out our salvation with fear 
and trembling ; that it is God that worketh in us, both to will and to do, of His 
good pleasure and that no greater sin than ingratitude can well be imagined. 
Scripture treats man fairly, wheje it exhorts him to vigilance in the practice of 
every virtue in the present and to prepare for the future without arrogating any- 
thing in his own merit. To strengthen this most innportant point, we have but 
to consider what follows. The power that set Christ at the right hand of the 
Father, far above all thrones and dominion, and every name in the universe. 
Then the raising souls to life from the dead and delivering them from the do- 
minion of Satan ; and the power of darkness ; and bringing them into the mar- 
vellous light of His own life. According as His divine power hath given us all 
things that pertain to life and godliness. Now, in setting Christ on His throne 
He has given Him a kingdom, for He says He has overcome, and is seated 
with His F'ather on His throne, and the victor shall (says he) sit with me on 
my throne. The king is the head of the nation, Christ is head of the church, 
consequently the King. Anticipating the resurrection ; the Psalmist frequently ' 
refers to Him as the King of Zion, the King of Glory. Since the ascension of 
this King to glory, the church is under the dispensation of the Spirit, who re- 
covers souls to Christ, one by one, not like an earthquake shock by the tramp 
of armed hosts precipitated on one another with the confused noise of the war- 
rior and garment rolled in blood. Regeneration is the baptism of the holy Spirit 
and spiritual fire. There is no fourth person in the Godhead, and any appeal 
beyond the Spirits work no second probation in scripture, and no need of a 
further dispensation to prepare human souls for glory. Several parallel passages 
confirm all those grand ideas of this power. The force of the reasoning cannot 
be evaded. Eternal life is the gift of God. Conversion is the baptism of the 
spirit ; and the power of God preserves the believer to eternal life. If it was 
impossible that death and the grave could hold Christ, it is impossible that sin 
and Satan can hold a soul ; when the good pleasure of the persons of the Trinity 



btt-pICULTIES OF RELIGION. 277 

gives to this soul a light above the brightness of midday sun, it will burst the 
barriers and volunteer into the service of Christ and begin the work of its sal- 
vation. The f-pirit giveth life and life displays itself by activity. If it be said 
that these strong expressions are oriental figures, of speech ; we reply. Fire is 
a figure, but if not put out it may becoipe a conflagration and represents great 
destruction— endless sufferings. The furnace that purifies the precious metals 
represents trials and purification. Strong figures indeed, but their meaning is 
clear, their significance great, or they mean nothing. If the preparation for, 
and the preservation to glory is not accomplished by the power of God, by what 
is it done ? The words are inspired by the Holy Spirit, who knows what to 
employ ; words which the Holy Spirit teacheth. To be the subject of this divine 
work is the highest favor conferred on man, and it works agreeably to our- con- 
stitution given us by the Creator. The difficulties of Christianity may be im- 
mense in its depths, unfathomable, but can anything take its place ? To what 
shall we turn ? Has this religion the words of eternal life ? Then bless your 
God from the depth of your soul that He has given it, and in it, explained with 
satisfactory clearness, what would otherwisebe inexplicable. 

^ In the whole system of the Christian religion there is no doctrine to some 
minds so full of difficulty to comprehend as that of punishment, and that such 
punishment should be eternal and before appointed and predetermined. The 
enemies of Christianity place it in clear and well known expressions, "that, God 
created men to damn them," and persist in maintaining that Christians believe 
and teach such a doctrine. The same parties hold that safety from punishment 
and preparation for felicity depend on our own choice. The strange thing is 
that so few make the choice. We have not met with such characters nor have 
we found them in history. They do make siich a choice, but not of them-elves, 
till a mighty work has moved them to it, some as Saul of Tarsus or John Bunyan 
of Bedford ; others like Jeremiah or John the Baptiste, Nathaniel and others in 
every stage and state between these extremeties. Hence churches, schools of 
learning, missions, and a world of outlay of wealth, labor and patience as out- 
ward efforts additional to all divine labors to move towards this accomplishment. 
Why all this ifa wish can save us ? What sect in Christendom that is not put- 
ting forth effort ? Does not this universahty of effort imply a divine work as its 
basis ? God works in us and we respond or we oppose, and the disease is mental 
or moral, not physical. Some reason thus : " After one has formed habits of 
sin he is not responsible. " How would one of our judges treat a criminal who 
had accustomed himself to quarrelling with men till he could not keep his hands 
from shedding blood? Would he say the more he was addicted to crimes, the 
less responsible he became to society ? Is a man not responsible when he cannot 
cease from sin? Men will not come to be saved nor receive the love of truth, 
nor incline their hearts to wisdom. They oppose the express will of God as to 
repentance or faith, or sanctification. Men have nothing to do with the secret 
will of God, but with His commands. He has, connected obedience with salva- 
tion. Let men not sever this connection. 

It was revealed to Paul that he would reach Rome and appear before 
Csesar, but he took great pains about the ship, the health of the passengers and 
the sailors and the landing to fulfil the prediction. What calamities God suf- 
fered them to endure with>the loss of the ship and cargo, and all but the precious 
lives of the people. He knows how to deliver the godly and punish the wicked. 
Dr. Campbell charges the God of the Old Testament with inciting Abraham to 
murder his son— he will charge Him in his next lecture with the murder of 
Christ, because He did not answer His prayer to save Him from that hour. 



2)8 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

To some minds the trjal of Abraham's faith as ranking with the patience of Job 
is an event the most sublime in the ancient world. The author of that faith 
knew what it could endure and for others benefit, as well as that of Abraham 
and Isaac, he tried it and stayed his hand when raised to make the last act of 
the sacrifice. It tells to all ages of the world that the God of the Old Testament 
would do in the fulness of time, even for men a little more profane than the 
learned professor. He would probably say all these things were done by the 
Devil, but did the latter not ask permission from Gbd before he dared stir up 
the enemies of Job, or of Ghrist to carry out the counsel of God. Talents so 
very respectable should not be wasted beating the air in promulgating doctrines 
nobody can believe, and attacking the strongholds of truth, when he. might as 
well attack the subUmeties of the firmament. His mind was perhaps, lost bal- 
last, in his wide wanderings through the waste howling wilderness of Hitlite 
migration. But to return — " God has ordained the reprobate to dishonor and 
wrath for their sins to the praise of his glorious justice." (W. C. F.) — " foreor- 
dained them to dishonor and wrath to be for their sin inflicted to the praise of 
the glory of his justice." (L. C.) This is very different from " creating men to 
damnation" or compelling them to sin and delighting in their destruction. "Jhe 
i more criminal the culprit the more deserving of punishment. If to punish ill 
desert is not unjust, it cannot be unjust to determine to punish or predetermine 
to punish. Nations legislate to punish individuals for crimes and the persons 
may not be born for ages after, and no one objects to the law as sinful, or its 
execution as unjust. The liability to punish is in the breach of the law. The 
legislature is not the authority of the sin. It lays no physical disability in the 
way of the offender. That it is ignorant of the transgressor in advance does 
not in any wise interfere with the conditions of things. This applies in the 
destiny of the dregs of humanity to the rewards of their evil deeds. Benhadded 
the Syrian, with thirty-two confederates, kings, marauders and plunderers, were 
wantonly attacking Israel. Ahab, after a very decisive victory, made a league 
with him and sent him away safely. The prophet tells him, forasmuch as thou 
has let go out of thy hand a man whom I appointed to utter destfuction, there- 
fore thy life shall go for his life, and thy people for his people. That wicked 
king had repeated evidences of divine goodness, to have attached him to virtue 
and obedience, but headstrong adherence to idolatry works ruin. The Syrian 
king comnnanded his captains to fight only with Ahab, the man that had showed 
him mercy. Ahab would in spite of warnings overthrow the predictions, fight 
in disguise and leave the king of Judali to be the victim ; or save his hfe by 
ignominious fight. The stone from the sHng makes a dent in the giant's temples, 
the arrow at a venture finds a crevice in the armor, king's necks are not invul- 
nerable. 

Pharaoh will follow into the sea if it should be his destruction. Who hath 
hardened himself against God and prospered ? Multitudes take no interest in 
truth, despi-se all warnings and rush headlong to destruction. Saul seems the 
only one in the company saved on the way to Damascus ; though the light shone 
gloriously to the eyes of all. Hazael brings a soothing message to the sot Ben- 
hadded and the next day suffocates the man capable of recovery. How quickly 
sinners mature in crime. Is thy servant a dog that he should do this great 
thing ? Yes, dog, lion, tiger, if need be, to secure a crown or dominion. A 
kingdom, even a vineyard, a Herodias, one wedge of gold, will prove fatal, and 
men prepare themselves for destruction, whilst God prepares the vessels of 
mercy for the glory he has ordained them. There is a strong disposition in men 
to turn their thoughts from the transgressors to find fault with the punishment 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 279 

not the sin. Even reverend and learned doctors have engaged all their resources 
of reason and logic to prove that Esau and Judas Iscariot will be saved. Could 
thy establish this point they would end all controversy and all further effort in 
religion; for if Judas is not in perdition there is no danger of any one and no 
perdition to avoid, no distinction between virtue and vice. Dr. Adam Clarke 
established that all knowledge with God is present knowledge. Archbishoj) 
Tilotson poured oceans of contempt on the idea and asked how it explained 
things ? But with the leave of the archbishop we think the Dr. the more philo- 
sophical. For if eternity is present with the great I Am then what was, and is, 
and is to come are all before him, and if it is just to punish them it is just to 
determine to do it, or as we say of the past in predetermining to do it. The 
difficulty disappears. The present knowledge of present events proves their 
existence, as the foreknowledge of things proves their future existence or the 
knowledge of things past that they existed. Their existence, however, depends 
not on the knowledge of them, but on the power that produces them ; but it is 
positive proof that there is nothing accidental or contingent with God. It proves, 
moreover, that there is no injustice in the punishment of men, who before God, 
are not only sinners ; but like Ahab and others remain impenitent, obstinate 
and determinate in the face of all warnings, threatenings, mercies and favors. 
The remedy for sinners is returning to God at his invitation and repent and 
believe the gospel, and do works ment for repentance. Why do sinners persist 
in their transgressions ? Why delight in provoking the most merciful God, to 
cause his indignation to burn like fire against them, when they might break off 
their sins by repentance and obtain mercy ? 

Why fill up their lives with practicing all manner of rebellion, and then 
find fault with that righteous government that will bring every word into judg- 
ment, should sinners prefer to have God against them than on their side ; and 
to continue to fill up the measure of their sins, till wrath shall come upon them 
to the utt^most ? Acquaint thyself now with God and be at peace. 

Science in our day is proud and hauty, flinging up its heels against Scrip- 
ture and declaring itself wise above what is written. If science were well es- 
tablished or had an immovable foundation, its claims would be less pretentious 
and more admissible, but the ascertained facts are few and easily reckoned. 
' Its theories are legion, and young men are carried away with the lofty and elo- 
quent speculations of learned writers without waiting to weigh or measure, or 
perhaps bringing with them the capacities to discriminate in the case. As- 
tronomy since the days of Copernecies, Kepler and especially Newton is among 
the best established branches of science, and except Newton's principle of 
gravitation it professes only to be out on the highway or the hilltops of discov- 
ery. Medical science is kindly feeling its way to relieve human suffering, hav- 
ing done much yet confessing itself face to face with inaccessible mountains or 
arrested by chasms and gorges, over which it can yet throw no bridge on which 
to cross to the other side. Geology having shifted its foundations so often 
within half a century cannot lay much claim to science much less tell how things 
were created or what creation is, whether done in the analytic or synthetic 
process. Yet the pride of our human depravity is such that the sciolists sit in 
judgment on Revelation, instead of admitting that they themselves are the 
criminals not the judges. "Agnostics glory in their shame, they ought to, and 
they do know better. Men of sense admit gladly every fact estatilished by honest 
investigation and careful experiment, conceding all legitimate claims of human 
authority whilst deeply deploring the self-sufficiency that sets aside without cere 
mony the highest authority. They admit grudgingly that the Word of God is 



28o DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

contained in the Scriptures, but hesitate to take the Scriptures as the Revelation 
of God. They would divide and sub-divide, and alter and subtract, showing 
what is human, what divine, what is inspired, what not, what is more, and what 
is most inspired. They are such metaphysicians, such hair splitters, such 
judges of what revelation ought to be and ought not to be. They have not yet 
ventured to drop out the parts not inspired, as they think, nor divided the hu- 
man parts from the divine. They are only hinting such things, yet hoping for 
some J)old editor to spring up that will do What they are feeling the way to and 
wish accomplished. Paul writing to Timothy speaks of the writings held by the 
Jews as the Law, the Prophets, and Psalms, as the " Holy Scriptures, " and 
that " all Scripture "referring to these " is given by Inspiration of God " (Theop 
neustos). Now one would suppose that to be sufficient ; but Peter tells that the 
,' Prophesy came not of old time by the will of man, but holy men of God spake 
as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. " Paul also certifies us that he taught 
'' In the words which the Holy Spirit teacheth, " as in contrast " with the words 
which man's wisdom teacheth. " Men have labored to make Christianity ra- 
tional and scientific, but then they find it useless, resembling that remarkable 
creature among insects that when it looses its sting dies. It may be mortifying 
to human pride to admit that the foohshness of God is wiser than their wisdom, 
and the weakness of God far above their strength, but such is the case. It 
pleases God by orthodox doctrines to impart to men faith, and by the " foolish- 
ness of preaching to save them that believe. " Scientific Christianity has made 
no converts and it is not to be expected that it ever will. Who will dare to say 
how far God's inspiration goes and where it ends ? All Scripture (Pasa Graphe] 
and (Ta Grammata) the words of the original, Hebrew and Greek are inspired, 
breathed into the writers from God, not merely the thoughts, or as we say, the 
sentiments and ideas, but the words. He shall tell thee words whereby thou 
and thy house shall be saved. Words may be called the clothing of our thoughts; 
but more so, as we cannot tnink without language, the act is the embQdiment of 
the intention. God has given a commission to the true preacher, not to the wise 
nor speculate, but " Preach My Word. " Obedience is here in demand and will 
be found more successful than the noblest oratory, the most eloquent deHvery, 
the most etheral speculations of philosophy, the most refined human ingenuity. 
The church, the whole church, should set its face against the employment of 
such speculative professors whose rarified imaginations carry them away from 
the sound doctrines of Scripture, to indulge in fable and fancy. It may seem 
harsh to dismiss a professor ; but the injury to the churcli by leading its young 
men into the atmosphere of speculation, which, however pleasing to them for a 
lime, must end in ruin to themselves, and greater destruction to the church ; for 
whilst proihising apparent liberty is only bringing her children into bondage. 
These unstable souls carried about by every wind of doctrine- soon produce 
much instability in others and under the notion of originahty produce " original 
nothings."- These men make difficulties in religion where none exist, call on 
ques.tion the best established facts, throw their lightweight into the scale of men 
of corrupt minds, who handle the Word of God deceitfully and make merchan' 
dise of their hearers. Many men of wealth dabble in science and make it the 
rage, when most of their lucubrations are only science falsely so called. Then 
it has become very meritorious to push out large volumns of endeavors to re- 
concile scietice and scripture since the days of Dr. Chalmers, Hugh Millar and 
Professor Hitchcock. The estabHshed facts of science are not, cannot be in 
conflict with Scripture, and need no reconciliation ; whilst most people will ad- 
mit the impossibility of harmonizing what are not facts with scriptural truths. 



DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 281 

Perhaps, the most rational idea that we can form of the Supreme Being, the 
Living God, is that the past and the future are with him as is the present, if it 
is even comprehensible by our finite rational minds. We bring up the past in 
memory and recollection, but to the infinite mind all is clear standing before 
Him from eternity. We take in the future periods by projecting our thoughts 
forward and anticipating times and events from our experience of the past; but 
to Him the future is present, one day as a thousand years, and a thousand /ears 
as one day. Then this idea is the most philosophical, it being infinite in every ■ 
perfection requires nothing like our memory, as everything is open before Him, 
and the future as the present, comprehended in His infinite wisdom as well as 
His eternal existence. The past, present and future are only applicable to 
created being who had a beginning and many of whom have an end. This idea, 
rational and philosphical, is the scriptural notion we have of God. He knows 
the thoughts of our minds before they are formed there, as well as in their pre- 
sent existence. He accommodates His revelation of Himself to ns according 
to the mode of speech in the language given us in our constitution as rational 
creatures. The use of such terms might not be necessary to spirits or disem- 
bodied souls. We cannot tell. A thousand years as a watch in the night or 
as a moment. He is the same yesterday, to-day and forever. I am is His 
memorial to all generations. Before Abraham was I am. This eminently cor- 
rect idea kept before the mind will relieve it from any difficulty arising out of 
our crude notions of God's dealing with men in affliction dispensations, chastise- 
ments, punishments, and the like, where we would err from scanty knowledge of 
the cases in question. It may also quiet our minds on what is so great a 
stumbling block to some not very clear or profound thinkers about divine pur- 
poses and decrees. It is not considered unjust or partial to call men now to 
the fellowship of the Gospel, and unite them to Christ in this calling. We have 
not heard of any plea of injustice set up against the conversion of many souls in 
ministrations of the Gospel, whilst all are not converted. It will not be con- 
sidered unjnst to punish wicked men in the judgment for unrepented sins. Nor 
can it be unjust to so determine beforehand humanly speaking. " Known unto 
God are, all His works from the foundation of the world. " The narrow limits 
of our knowledge and the employment of language suited to our capacities 
should not be a reflection on the nature and actions of the Diety. The past 
and the future being wrapped up in the present with Him, it is not unscientific 
tQ say that an hour and ten thousand years are the same to Him, that limit and 
succession have no place or application to Him. The Christiati has no quarrel 
with science, as it establishes truth, he only objects to the falacies imposed on 
him by the" would be scientist. The word infinite must be applied to every 
perfection of the Supreme Creator, Ruler and possessor of the universe, else we 
could suppose a being infinite in every attribute, and that being must be un- 
created, one who inhabits eternity, Who can learn nothing from any creature He 
has produced and cannqt be over reached by anyone nor deceived by appear- 
ance like those who see through a glass darkly -and are but of yesterday and 
know nothing. He is infinitely wise in counsel and excellent in working. Our 
difficulties regarding His plans and their execution arise from our limited ac- 
quaintance with Him, our too contracted notions of His perfection and our 
inflated and exorbitant ideas of ourselves, our fancied powers and rights. And 
what have we that we did not receive ? Our knowledge and the language that 
exhibits it to others are all given us, lent us by Him in whom are hid all the 
treasures of wisdom and knowledge. The only remedy for a smner is a return 
to God by Jesus Christ, a careful, diligent investigation, a profound search 



282 DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGION. 

of the Revelation of God to man, the Holy Writings of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, every word of which is God-inspired and necessary to the new life of the 
man who hves not by bread alone but by every word that procedeth out of tile 
mouth of God. Let us not try to leach God how to govern, but as children 
learn of Him who is meek and constitutes Himself our teacher and guide, and 
we shall find rest for our weary laboring souls, transformation into the image of 
His Son, be madefpartakers of the Divine nature and bear the image of the 
Heavenly and wear a crown and eternal weight of glory. 

This crown of glory is not placed carelessly on the heads of men as a mere 
gratuity, nor yet given as a reward of their own unaided labors. The invitation 
is given to lost men to believe in Christ as the only begotten eternal Son of 
God. They comply, receive Christ, who dwells by faith in their l^earts and at 
once they begin to bear much fruit. This is their Father's will. This is carry- 
ing out the Father's design, conformity to the image of His Son. The word of 
truth which they receive is the instrument. The invisible Spirit of God is the 
efficacious originator and internal worker in this human temple, presenting the 
attractions of Christ and the salvation He offers or brings with Him into the 
heart and soul, showing the hatefulness of sin as enmity against God, the ne- 
cessity of spurning and avoiding it on the one hand and of preparing for glory, 
honor and eternal life on the other. Does his faith grow, his love burn with_ a 
vehement flame, his hope heave and cast its anchor in heaven, his humility 
deepen and extend in view of his deUverance from sins so agrivated, his love 
expand in length, breadth, depth and height, corresponding in some measure to 
that love which creates it, his zeal for the conversion of sinners increase and 
grow, his principles take a deeper root within his soul, his readiness to show 
mercy with cheerfulness unfold itself, these and the like graces prove that his 
calling and election is being made sure, that he is now chosen to salvation 
through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the Truth. He has no disposi- 
tion to paraboHse or allegorise the Words of God on the narrative of the creation 
and the unhappy fall of man, like the pretending scholars of the Old Testament, 
the Workmans and the Sampsons, to whose double thrones the Old Testament 
will not bow. Where were these wits when the foundations of the earth were 
laid ? The believer cannot leave the Word of God, and entertain the fables of 
worldly wise interpreters like these modern critics. If the framing of the 
world by the Word of God is allegorical so is the ark and the deluge, so is 
Abraham's departure from Misopotamia and sojourn in Canaan, so is the story 
of Joseph, the burning bush, the passage of the Red Sea, the desert wanderings, 
subjugation of Palestine, the Temple, the Captivities; all written not for our 
learning but for our entertainment, like the Arabian Knights, Robison Cruso, 
and the heart of Midsothian. O bewildered scholars ! Has your much learning 
made you mad ? Is it wonderful that there are few conversions, that the 
most earnest preachers of truth cry over their li