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A History oi the County, its Cities, Towns, &c, 

A Biographical Directory of its Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers in the late Re- 
bellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent 
Men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Dallas 
County, Constitution of the United States, Constitution of 
the State of Iowa, Miscellaneous Matters, &c. 



1879. XHiNLLL 

Cf ~' UN IV L lit; II Y 



Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1879, by 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. G. 





In presenting this work to the people of Dallas county, we have reason to believe that we 
are placing it in the hands of its friends. A friendly disposition was manifested toward our 
representatives during its compilation, and we trust the volume in its complete form may be 
in no sense a disappointment, though we by no means claim for it perfection. If we have 
accomplished nothing more, we have, at least, rescued much important matter from oblivion. 
Ten years more would have made the record of many important facts and incidents, which are 
herein presented, an impossibility, for much of it was recorded only in the memory of the early 
settlers," and must have passed away with them sooner or later, unless recorded in some more 
enduring form for future generations. 

The first settlers of Dallas county have passed the mountain tops of life. Memory is one 
of the first faculties of mind which shows signs of decay, and even among those of the old 
guard still living, another decade would have found many a link rusted out from their chain 
of recollection. 

More than thirty-three years have come and gone since white men came to occupy and 
develop the highly productive lands of Dallas county. These years were full of changes and 
interesting history, and had more of the vigorous minds and ready pens of the early settlers 
been directed to the keeping of a chronological journal or diary of events during the earliest 
days of settlement, as a very few have done through the later periods, it would be a compar- 
atively easy task now to write a much more full, interesting and correct history of the county. 
In the absence of such records the magnitude of the undertaking is very materially increased, 
and rendered still more intricate and difficult by reason of the absence of so many of the pioneer 
fathers and mothers who were first to make settlements in the county and were eye-witnesses 
to these various changes and events, and who themselves were the important actors in the 
scenes. In this history we have endeavored to present to the reader a picture of the past and 

E resent of Dallas county, noting also many of the more important changes intervening. We 
ave labored to introduce him to the wigwams of its aborigines, to seat him by the hearth-stone 
of its pioneers, to trace the history of the county's organization, to complete a sketch of its 
leading institutions, as also of its towns and townships from their organization and establish- 
ment, and to represent the condition of the county while entering the last quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. 

This has not been so much the work of ourselves as that of Dallas county's own citizens. 
We have icompiled what many of these men and women have long known, and placed it in 
permanent form for the present generation and for those to come. We have not the confidence 
to presume that the work will contain no mistakes, for the fallibility of memory produces a hun- 
dred conflicting statements, and dates are slippery things to handle. Names will get twisted, 
and not a few things met with in preparing such a work are exceedingly crooked by nature so 
that they are unruly things to spread on paper. On these accounts errors will creep in, even 
with the best of care. Some of these will belong to our informants and some to ourselves. 
But we trust that a charitable public will not forget that " to err is human.". 

The sketches on the Northwest, and the articles, descriptive and historical, on Iowa, embrac- 
ing the first two hundred and fifty-six pages of the work, were prepared by A. B. Fulton, of 
Des Moines, and we doubt not will prove highly interesting and instructive, as showing the 
steps by which, within the present century, a vast region, inhabited by savages, has developed 
into mighty States. 

In our "War Record " we have endeavored to give, in epitomized form, the part taken by 
individual soldiers from Dallas county, with a full record of those who engaged in the service 
from this county during the late war. 

The especial value of much we have presented, particularly in our biographical department, 
will be patent a generation hence. It will, we trust, be endeared to hundreds of firesides. 

With regard to the important facts and incidents in the early history of the county we are 
especially indebted to Judge Lloyd D. Burns for the most valuable and reliable information 
given by important documents and verbal statements, and especially by his Centennial His- 
tory of Dallas county, which he had prepared by appointment of the Governor of the State for 
record, and a large portion of the first of which had been published in the Dallas County 


Gazette, 1877. On this important document we have relied for the principal information con- 
cerning the early history of the county. And it is exceedingly fortunate for all parties con- 
cerned that such a document was in existence, otherwise much of the early history would have 
been lost, and especially the political record during the first three or four years, as the records 
of those years are most imperfect, and Judge Burns is the only one found in the county who 
has kept anything of a fall record of that period. Articles of a similar character also were 
prepared by Mr. Benjamin Greene, and published in the Dallas County News a year pre- 
vious to the others above mentioned, from which, also, we have received important information, 
but were unable to get access to more than three numbers of the paper. 

We wish thus publicly to express thanks for these favors and for this valuable work in thus 
presenting the early records and history of the county, which service is not less valuable to the 
readers than to the publishers of this work. We desire, also, thus publicly to express our ap- 
preciation of the kindness which has been shown us in this enterprise. To the several hundred 
citizens who have co-operated with our representatives in securing the information which made 
the accompanying work a possibility, we tender our hearty thanks — to the Press of the county, 
especially to editors of the New Era and Dallas County News, for the use of files of papers and 
for general information; to Judge Jeremiah Perkins for Masonic history and important informa- 
tion regarding his town and the political matters of the county; to Mr. Cole Noel for aid in pre- 
paring the list of county officers, and other valuable assistance and information; to Mr. Thos. 
C. Walsh for generous aid and valuable statistics so freely rendered; to Mr. L. Swearingen, 
the county auditor, for free access to the records and for such liberal kindness displayed'to all 
our representatives; to all the county and town officials for similar acts of kindness and aid 
rendered; to the various pastors and officers of churches for the numerous and valuable sketches 
and statistics regarding their several churches; to the county superintendent, Captain Amos 
Dilley, and the various principals and teachers of the county, for educational reports and 
statistics, and to the various citizens in towns, townships and county who so kindly and will- 
ingly rendered us important aid in furnishing statistics and particulars regarding the early 
history and present condition of their respective towns, townships and localities, to all such 
we tender our heartfelt thanks. 

Whatever of satisfaction, instruetion, or enjoyment the perusal of these pages may bring to 
the reader, will be a gratification to 

The Publishers. 



The Northwest Territory: 
Early French Explorations in 

the Mississippi Valley .... 7 
Early Settlements in the 

Northwest 14 

The Northwestern Territory.. 22 

The Lousiana Purchase 26 

Indian Wars in the Northwest 34 
Sketches of Black Hawk and 

other Chiefs 42 

Early Navigation of WeBtern 

Rivers 56 

Archaeology of the Northwest 59 
Sketches -of Western and 

Northwestern States 67 

Expedition of Lewis and 

Clarke 86 

Sketch of Chicago 96 

History of Iowa : 
Descriptive and Geographical 

Sketch 105 

Geology of Iowa 117 

Economic Geology 125 

How the Title to Iowa Lands 

is derived 130 

Early Settlements and Terri- 
torial Organization 141 

Territory of Iowa 153 

State Organization 158 

Educational 162 

State Institutions 169 

Railroads 172 

Official Record 174 

The Judiciary 176 

Congressional Representation 177 

State Agricultural Society 178 

Centennial Awards 191 

History of Dallas County : 

Indian Affairs 257 

Geography— Descriptive and 

- Physical 264 

Geology 277 

Economic Geology 281 

Early Settlement 287 

The First Settler 287 

The Nearest Trading Point. . . 292 

Log Cabins 293 

APioneerMiU 294 

Going to Mill 296 

Incidents 297 

Organization 303 

County Seat 312 



History of Dallas County; 
The First Lot Fund Agency. . 314 

The First Assessment 316 

The Second Election 316 

The First District Court 318 

The First Grand Jury 318 

Judge James P. Charlton ... 319 

The Lost Records 320 

Petit Jury 322 

The First School 323 

The First Church 324 

Claim Clubs versus Claim 

Jumpers 324 

The Third Election 326 

The First Court-house 327 

Mormon Raid 329 

Presidential Election 332 

The First Water Mill 334 

The Owens' Mill 335 

The Pioneer Mimic 337 

A Cabin-raising 338 

A Pioneer Courtship 341 

A Pioneer Doctor 344 

A Fruitful Year 345 

A Hard Winter 346 

The First Post-office 348 

A Welcome Spring 349 

Flood of 1849 350 

Flood of 1851 351 

Second District Court 351 

Elections of 1849 352 

Gold-hunters of 1850 354 

General Prosperity in 1850 . . . 355 

The First Deed 356 

The Elections of I860 357 

The First Probate 360 

The First Ferry 360 

Valuation of Out-lots 361 

Statistics 361 

Third Presidential Election.. 362 

List of County Officers 366 

County Finances 374 

Bridges 377 

Poor Farm 378 

County Jail 379 

Stock-raising 379 

Agricultural Society 383 

Railroads 384 

Temperance 389 

Religious 392 

Educational 394 

ThePress 399 


War History: 
Dallas County War Record. . . 403 

Fourth Infantry 407 

Tenth Infantry 409 

Fifteenth Infantry 410 

Seventeenth Infantry 411 

Eighteenth Infantry 412 

Twenty-third Infantry 413 

Thirty-ninth Infantry , . 415 

Forty-fourth Infantry 425 

Forty-sixth Infantry 425 

Miscellaneous Enlistments... 426 

Second Cavalry 427 

Fourth Cavalry 427 

Ninth Cavalry 428 

Second Light Artillery 429 

Dallas County Soldiers' Union 431 
Sherman's March to the Sea. . 433 

Cities and Towns : 

Adel 435 

DeSoto 451 

Perry 457 

Dexter 466 

Dallas Center 473 

Redfleld 477 

Wiscotta 481 

Van Meter 482 

Minburn - 485 

Booneville 487 

Waukee 489 

Xenia 492 

Townships : 

Organization of 493 

Adel 496 

Boone 500 

Van Meter ... 503 

Adams 506 

Union 610 

Des Moines 515 

Washington 618 

Sugar Grove 522 

Linn 525 

Walnut 629 

Dallas 530 

Spring Valley 532 

Beaver 634 

Colfax 636 

Lincoln 638 

Grant 640 


Westward the Star of Empire 

takes its Way 17 

An Indian Camp 33 

Indians trying a Prisoner 49 

A Pioneer Winter 65 



Lincoln Monument, Springfield, 

Illinois 72 

Chicago in 1820 97 

Present Site Lake Street Bridge, 
Ohicago,1833 97 


Old Fort Dearborn, 1830 103 

The " Old Kinzie House " 103 

A Prairie Home 129 

Breaking Prairie 145 



Burns, L. D 820 

Caldwell, T. J 836 

Callvert, S. a: 352 


Chandler, W. H 423 

Conger, E. H 369 

Pattee, D. J 405 


Peppard, J. 441 

Pierce, G. G 387 

Van Meter, J. R 459 





Adams 664 

Adel(Clty) 443 

Adel (TownBhip) 588 

Beaver 633 

Boone 580 

Colfax 601 


Dee Moines 629 

De Soto (Van Meter Township) 570 

Dexter (Union Township) 553 

Grant 627 

Lincoln 613 

Linn 607 

Dallas 644 Perry (Spring Valley Township) 635 Washington 616 


Spring Valley 639 

Sugar Grove 620 

Union 556 

Van Meter (City) 672 

Van Meter (Township) 574 

Walnut 583 



Adoption of Children 203 

Bills of Exchange and Promis- 
sory Notes 195 

Capital Punishment 199 

Commercial Terms '. 208 

Damages from Trespass 201 

Descent 195 

Estrays 201 

Exemption from Executions... 200 

Fences 202 

Forms : 

Article of Agreement 209 

Bills of Sale 210 

Bond for Deed 217 

Bills of Purchase 207 

Chattel Mortgage 215 


Forms : 

Confession of Judgment 208 

Lease 214 

Mortgages 212, 213 

Notice to Quit 210 

Notes 207, 216 

Orders 207 

Quit-claim Deed 216 

Receipts 208 

Wills and Codicils 211, 212 

Warranty Deed 216 

Game Laws : 

Birds and Quadrupeds 217 

Pish and Fish Ways 218 

Interest 195 

Jurisdiction of Courts 198 


Jurors 199 

Landlord and Tenant 206 

Limitation of Actions 199 

Married Women 200 

Marks and Brands 201 

Mechanics' Liens 204 

Purchasing Books by Subscrip- 
tion 219 

Roads and Bridges 204 

Surveyors and Surveys 204 

Support of Poor 205 

Taxes ... 197 

Wills and Estates 196 

Weights and Measures 207 

Wolf Scalps 201 


Map of Dallas County Front. 

Statistics 183 

Constitution of the State of 
Iowa 220 



Constitution of the United States 240 
Practical Rules for every-day 
use 252 


Population of Iowa Cities 255 

The Pioneer 266 

The Northwest Territory. 



De Soto — Le Caron — Samuel de Champlain — French Adventurers — James Marquette — Louis 
Joliet — Embarkation to Explore New Countries — Lake Michigan and Green Bay — The 
' ' Ouisconsin ' ' — Indian Accounts of the Country — Discovering the Great River — Indian 
Name of the River — Joy of the Explorers — Interview with Indians on Iowa Soil — Feast-^ 
Speech of an Indian Chief— The Des Moines River — " Muddy Water " — The Arkansas — 
Return — Indian Nations — Marquette's Record — His Subsequent Voyage — La Vantum — 
Marquette's Death — Removal of His Remains — Joliet's Subsequent Explorations — Robert 
La Salle — Louis Hennepin — Chevalier de Tonti — De La Motte — Fort Crevecoeur — Henne- 
pin's Voyage — Falls of St. Anthony — Seur de Luth — Hennepin's Claims as an Explorer — 
Colonization of Louisiana — Dissensions — Murder of La Salle. 

The three great colonizing powers of the Old World first to raise the 
standard of civilization within the limits of North America were France, 
England, and 'Spain. The French made their earliest 4 settlements in the 
cold and inhospitable regions of Quebec; the English at Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, and at Plymouth, Massachusetts; and the Spaniards on the barren 
sands of Florida. To the French belongs the honor of discovering and colo- 
nizing that portion of our country known as the Valley of the Mississippi, 
including all that magnificent region watered by the tributaries of the Great 
River. It is true that more than one hundred years earlier (1538-41) the 
Spanish explorer, De Soto, had landed on the coast of Florida, penetrated the 
everglades and unbroken forests of the south, finally reaching the banks of 
the Great River, probably near where the city of Memphis now stands. 
Crossing the river, he and his companions pursued their journey for some 
distance along the west bank, thence to the Ozark Mountains and the Hot 
Springs of Arkansas, and returning to the place of his death on the banks of 
the Mississippi. It was a perilous expedition indeed, characterized by all 
the splendor, romance and valor which usually attended Spanish adventurers 
of that age. De Soto and his companions were the first Europeans to behold 
the waters of the Mississippi, but the expedition was a failure so far as related 
to colonization. The requiem chanted by his companions as his remains 
were committed to the waters of the great river he had discovered, died 
away with the solemn murmurs of the stream, and the white man's voice 
was not heard again in the valley for more than a hundred years. De Soto 
had landed at Tampa Bay, on trie coast of Florida, with a fleet of nine ves- 
sels and seven hundred men. More than half of them died, and the remainder 
made their way to Cuba, and finally back to Spain. 

Four years before the pilgrims "moored their bark on the wild New Eng- 
land shore," a French Franciscan, named Le Caron, penetrated the region of 


the great lakes of the north, then the home of the Iroquois and the Hurons, 
but a French settlement had been established at Quebec by Samuel de 
Champlain in 1608. This was followed by the establishment of various 
colonies in Canada, and the hardy French adventurers penetrated the coun- 
try by the way of the St. Lawrence and the lakes. In 1625 a number ol 
missionaries of the Society of Jesus arrived in Canada from France, and 
during the succeeding forty years extended their missions all along the 
shores of Lake Superior. 

In 1637 a child was born at the little city of Laon, in i ranee, whose 
destiny it was in the fullness of time to be instrumental in the hands of 
Providence in giving to the world a definite knowledge of the grandest and 
most fertile region ever opened up to civilization. That child was James 
Marquette, the descendant of a family of Celtic nobles. He entered the 
Society of Jesus when seventeen years of age, and soon conceived a desire to 
engage in the labors of a missionary among the Indians. He sailed for 
Quebec in 1666, and two years later founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie 
at the Falls of St. Mary. The winter of 1669-70 he spent at Point St. 
Ignatius, where he established another mission. Here the old town of 
Michillimackinac, afterward called Mackinaw, was founded. It was from 
Indians of the different tribes who came. to this mission that he received 
some vague intimations of the great river— the father of all the rivers. He 
at once conceived a desire to penetrate to the banks of the wonderful river, 
and carry his missionary work to the tribes which he had learned inhabited 
its borders. He applied to his Superior, Claude Dablon, for permission to 
"seek new nations toward the Southern sea." The authorities at Quebec were 
equally desirous of having new regions explored, and therefore appointed 
Louis Joliet to embark upon a voyage of discovery. Joliet was a native of 
Quebec and had been educated in a Jesuit College. He had at the age of 
eighteen taken minor orders, but had abandoned all thoughts of the priest- 
hood and engaged in the fur trade. He was now twenty-seven years of age, 
with a mind ripe for adventure. He left Quebec, and arriving at Mackinaw 
found Father Marquette highly delighted with the information that they 
were to be companions in a voyage which was to extend the domain of the 
King of France, as well as to carry the Gospel to new nations of people. The 
explorers, accompanied by five assistants, who were French Canadians, started 
on their journey, May 13, 1673. Marquette has himself recorded in the fol- 
lowing simple* language their feelings on this occasion: "We were embark- 
ing on a voyage the character of which we could not foresee. Indian corn, 
with some dried meat, was our whole stock of provisions. With this we set 
out in two bark canoes, M. Joliet, myself and five men, firmly resolved to do 
all and suffer all, for so glorious an enterprise." They coasted along the 
northern shore of Lake Michigan, entered Green Bay, and passed up the 
Fox river, carrying their canoes across the Portage to the " Ouisconsin," now 
called Wisconsin. At Lake Winnebago, before crossing the Portage, they 
stopped at an Indian village, which was the furthest outpost to which Dab- 
lon and Allouez had extended their missionary work. Here they assembled 
the chiefs and old men of the village and told them of the objects of the 
voyage. Pointing to Joliet, Father Marquette said: "My friend is an envoy 
of France to discover new countries, and I am an ambassador from God to 
enlighten them with the truths of the Gospel." The Indians furnished two 
guides to conduct them to the Wisconsin river. It is related that a tribe of 
Indians endeavored to dissuade them from pursuing their perilous journey 


by telling of desperate and 6avage tribes that they would meet; that the 
forests and the rivers were infested with frightful monsters; that there were 
great fish in the rivers that would swallow up men and canoes together, and 
of a demon who could be heard from a great distance, and who destroyed all 
who approached. Unmoved by these frightful stories, Marquette, Joliet, 
and their five brave assistants, launched their little canoes on the waters of 
the "Wisconsin, and moved slowly down the current. After a lapse of seven 
days, June 17th, 1673, they reached the mouth of the Wisconsin and glided 
into the current of the Mississippi, a few miles below the place now known 
as Prairie du Chien. Here, and on this day, the eye of the white man for the 
first time looked upon the waters of the Upper Mississippi. Marquette called 
the river " The Broad River of the Conception." The Indian name is derived 
from the Algonquin language, one of the original tongues of the continent. 
It is a compound of the words Missi, signifying great, and Sepe, a river. 

The explorers felt the most intense joy on beholding the scene presented 
to their enraptured vision. Here was the great river whose waters somewhere 
thousands of miles away flowed into a Southern sea, and whose broad valley 
was the fairest and richest in the world, but unknown to civilized man, save 
as an almost forgotten dream or a vague romance. They had solved one of 
the great mysteries of the age in which they lived. As they glided down the 
stream the bold bluffs reminded Marquette of the "castled shores of his own 
beautiful rivers in France." The far stretching prairies alternating with 
forests, on either side, were adorned in all the wild glories of June. Birds 
sang the same notes that they had sung for ages amid those " forests prime- 
val," while herds of buffalo, deer and elk were alarmed and fled to the dense 
retreats of the forest or the broad prairies beyond. Not until the 25th June 
did they discover any signs of human habitation. Then, about sixty leagues, 
as they thought, below the mouth of the Wisconsin, at a place where they 
landed on the west bank of the river, they found in the sand the foot-prints 
of man. Marquette and Joliet left their five companions in charge of the 
canoes and journeyed away from the river, knowing that they must be near 
the habitation of men. They followed a trail leading across a prairie clothed 
in the wild luxuriance of summer for a distance of about six miles, when 
they beheld another river and on its banks an Indian village, with other vil- 
lages on higher land a mile and a half from the first. The Indians greeted 
the two white strangers, as far as their ability permitted, with a splendid 
ovation. They appointed four of their old men to meet the, strangers in 
council. Marquette could speak their language. They informed him that 
they were "Ulini" (meaning "we are men"), and presenting the calumet of 
peace, invited them to share the hospitalities of their village. Marquette told 
them of the object of their visit, and that they had been sent by the French, 
who were their friends. He told them of the great God that the white man 
worshiped who was the same Great Spirit that they adored. In answer, one 
of the chiefs addressed them as follows: 

"I thank the Black Gown Chief (Marquette) and the Frenchman (Joliet) 
for taking so much pains to come and visit us; never has the earth been so 
beautiful, nor the sun so bright as now; never has the river been so calm, nor 
so free from rocks, whish your canoes have removed as they passed; never 
has our tobacco had so fine a flavor, nor our corn appeared so beautiful as we 
behold it to-day. Ask the Great Spirit to give us life and health, and come 
ye and dwell with us." 

After these ceremonies the strangers were invited to a feast, an account of 


which is given by Marquette. It consisted of four courses. First, there 
was a large wooden bowel filled with tagamity, or Indian meal, boiled in 
water and seasoned with oil. The master of ceremonies, with a wooden spoon, 
fed the tagamity to their guests as children are fed. The second course con- 
sisted of fish, which, after the bones were taken out, was presented to the 
mouths of the strangers as food may be fed to a bird. The third course was 
a preparation of dog meat, but learning that the strangers did not eat that it 
was at once removed. The fourth and final course was a piece of buffalo 
meat, the fattest portions of which were put into the mouths of the guests. 
The stream on whose banks took place this first interview between the 
explorers and the untutored Indians, after parting with their guides, was the 
Des Moines river, and the place of their landing was probably about where 
the town of Montrose is now located, in Lee county, Iowa. One of our 
sweetest American poets has rendered Marquette's narrative in verse, as 

" Came a people 

Prom the distant land of Wabun; 

From the farthest realms of morning 

Came the Black Robe Chief, the Prophet, 

He the Priest of Prayer, the Pale-face, 

With his guides and his companions. 
And the noble Hiawatha, 

With his hand aloft extended, 

Held aloft in sign of welcome, 

Cried aloud and spoke in this wise: 
' Beautiful is the sun, strangers, 

When you come so far to see us; 

All our town in peaee awaits you; 

All our doors stand open for you; 

You shall enter all our wigwams; 

For the heart's right hand we give you. 

Never bloomed the earth so Bayly, 

Never shone the sun so brightly, 

As to-day they shine and blossom 

When you came so far to see us.' 

And the Black Robe Chief made answer, 

Stammered in his speech a little, 

Speaking words yet unfamiliar: 
' Peace be with you, Hiawatha, 

Peace be with you and your people, 

Peace of prayer, and peace of pardon, 

Peace of Christ, and joy of Mary I ' 
Then the generous Hiawatha, 

Led the strangers to his wigwam, 

Seated them on skins of bison, 

Seated them on skins of ermine, 

Brought them food in bowls of bass-wood, 

Water brought in birchen dippers, 

And the calumet, the peace-pipe, 

Filled and lighted for their smoking. 

AU the warriors of the nation, 

Came to bid the strangers welcome- 

It is well,' they said, brother, 

That you came so far to see us.' " 

Marquette and Joliet remained at the Indian villages six days, and were 
then accompanied to their canoes by an escort of sixEundred Indians. In- 
stations were extended to the strangers to renew their visit, after which the 
explorers embarked m their boats and floated on down the stream, passing 
the sites of future great cities of the valley, and passing the mouths of thl 
Missoun and Omo rivers, and as far down as the mouth of the Arkansas. 


Marquette named the Missouri river Pekitanoui, or " Muddy "Water," oii 
account of the now well-known character of that stream. 

After extending their voyage to the mouth of the Arkansas, where they 
found a village ot the Arkansas tribe, they ascended the Mississippi to the 
mouth of the Illinois. They ascended the latter river to its source. Along 
this stream they found many villages of the Illinois, or Illmi, a large and 
powerful tribe, who were subdivided into five smaller tribes^the Tamaroasi 
Michigamies, Kahokias, Kaskaskias, and Peorias. The country between the 
Illinois and Mississippi rivers was inhabited by the three last named tribes. 
The Michigamies resided in the country bordering on Lake Michigan, and 
the Tamaroas occupied the territory now included in the counties ot Jersey, 
Madison and St. Clair, Illinois. Kaskaskia — also designated by the early 
explorers as " La Yantum " and " Great Illinois Town " — was the largest of 
the villages, containing, according to Marquette, seventy-five lodges. With- 
out the loss of a man, or any serious accident, the party reached Green Bay 
in September, and reported their discoveries. Marquette made a faithful 
record of what they had seen and the incidents of the voyage. That record 
has been preserved. The report of Joliet was unfortunately lost by the 
upsetting of his canoe while on the way to Quebec. 

At the request of the Illinois Indians, Marquette soon returned and es- 
tablished the mission of the Immaculate Conception at La Vantum. In 
the spring of 1675, on account of failing health, he started to return to 
Green Bay. While passing along the shore of Lake Michigan, conscious 
that he was nearing the end of his earthly labors, he observed an elevated 
place near the mouth of a small river. He told his companions that the 

{)lace was suitable for his burial, and requested them to land. On that 
onely and desolate coast, May 18, 1675, at the age of thirty-eight, James 
Marquette ended his last earthly voyage, and received burial at the hands 
of his devoted companions. Two years later some Indians of the mission at 
Kaskaskia disinterred his remains, and conveyed them in a box made of 
birch bark, with a convoy of over twenty canoes, to Mackinaw, where they 
Were reinterred at the mission church. The post was abandoned in 1706, 
and the church burned. The place of burial was finally lost, and remained 
lost for two hundred years. In May, 1876, the foundations of the old 
Jesuit Mission were accidentally discovered on the farm of one David 
Murray, with a number of church relics, the mouldering remains of the 
great missionary and explorer, and a cross with his name inscribed upon it. 
Joliet, after his return to Quebec, became again a trader with the Indians. 
His services were rewarded by the French government by the gift of the 
island of Anticosta, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Little after this is known 
of him. He died about 1730. 

The reports given of the discoveries of Marquette and Joliet, served to 
encourage other adventurers to engage in the eftort to extend their explora- 
tions. .Robert La Salle, a French navigator, who was born at Bouen about 
the year 1635, had long cherished a project of seeking a route to China by 
way of the Great Lakes. Before the return of Marquette and Joliet, he had 
explored Lake Ontario and visited the different Indian tribes. In 1675 he 
went to France and obtained from the government a grant to a large tract 
of land about Fort Frontenac, the exclusive right of traffic with the Five 
Nations, and also a patent of nobility. He laid before his government his 
desire to explore the Mississippi to its mouth, and take possession of all the 
regions he might visit in the name of the King of France. His plans were 


warmly approved, and he was provided with the means for carrying them 
into execution. In July, 1678, he returned to Fort Frontenac, soon after 
established a trading house at Niagara, and visited the neighboring Indian 
tribes for the purpose of collecting furs. He engaged the services of thirty 
mechauics and mariners and built the first ship for the navigation^ the 
lakes. It was called the Griffin, and was a bark of sixty tons. Having 
been ioined by Louis Hennepin and Chevalier de Tonti, the latter an Indian 
veteran, on the 7th of August, 1679, they launched the Griffin on Niagara 
river, and embarked for the valley of the Mississippi. They crossed Lake 
Erie and Lake St. Clair, reaching Green Bay, September 2d. For the pur- 
pose of relieving himself of some pressing financial obligations at Montreal, 
La Salle here engaged for a time in collecting furs with which he loaded the 
Griffin, and sent it in the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors on its return 
trip, with orders to return immediately; but the vessel was never heard of 
afterward. He waited until all hope had vanished, and then, with Father 
Hennepin, Chevalier de Tonti, the Sieur de la Motte, and about thirty fol- 
lowers, began again the voyage. They ascended the St. Joseph in canoes to 
the portage, and carried their barks to the Kankakee, a distance of six miles, 
descended the Kankakee and the Illinois until they reached an Indian vil- 
lage on the latter stream, at the expansion of the same, known as Lake 
Peoria. The village was situated on the west bank of the lake, and must 
have been passed by Marquette and Joliet on their voyage up the river in 
1673, although no mention is made of it by them. La Salle, Hennepin, Tonti 
and their followers landed at Lake Peoria, January 3d, 1680. The Indians 
received them hospitably, and they remained with them for several days. 
Here a spirit of discontent began to manifest itself among the followers of 
La Salle, and fearing trouble between his men and the Indians, they crossed 
the river and moved down about three miles, where they erected a fort, 
which La Salle named Fort Crevecoewr (heart-break) a name expressive of 
La Salle's sorrow at the loss of his fortune by the disaster to the Griffin, and 
also his feelings in the fear of mutiny among his men. The party remained 
here until in February, when Tonti was placed in command of the post, and 
Hennipin charged with a voyage of discovery to the sources of the Missis- 
sippi. La Salle returned on foot with three companions to Fort Frontenac 
for supplies. On his arrival he learned of the certainty of the loss of the 
Griffin, and also of the wreck of another vessel which had been sent with 
resources for him from France. 

Father Hennepin, with two companions, Picard du Gay and Michel Ako, 
on the 29th of February, 1680, embarked from Tort Crevecoeur in a canoe 
down the Illinois to its mouth, which they reached in a few days. They 
then turned up the Mississippi, reaching the mouth of the Wisconsin, April 
11th. Above this point no European had ever ascended. They continued 
the voyage, reaching the Falls of St. Anthony, April 30, 1680. Hennepin 
so named the falls in honor of his patron Saint. When they arrived at the 
mouth of St. Francis river, in what is now the State of Minnesota, they 
traveled along its banks a distance of 180 miles, visiting the Sioux Indians, 
who inhabited that region. The river, Hennepin so named in honor of 
the founder of his order. In his account of this voyage, Hennepin claims that 
they were held in captivity by the Indians for about three months, although 
they were treated kindly by them. At the end of this time a band of 
Frenchmen, under the leadership of Seur de Luth, in pursuit of furs, had 
penetrated to this part of the country by the way of Lake Superior. The 


Indians allowed Hennepin and his companions to return with the traders. 
- They descended the Mississippi to the mouth of the "Wisconsin, passing up 
that stream and down the Fox river, and so on through Green Bay to Lake 
Michigan. Hennepin went to Quebec, and thence to France, where, in 1683, 
he published an account of his explorations and a description of the region 
of the Upper Mississippi. In 1697 (two years after La Salle's death) he 
published an enlarged work, in which he claimed that he had descended the 
Mississippi to its mouth. His faithful description of the valley for a time 
gave him credit for veracity, but the impossibility of reconciling his dates, 
and other circumstances, are by the best authorities regarded as stamping 
his claim false. Before the time this work was published, as we shall see, 
La Salle had descended the Mississippi to its mouth. Hennepin explained 
his long silence as to his exploration to the mouth of the Mississippi, by 
claiming that he had feared the enmity of La Salle, who had ordered him 
to follow a different course, and had also prided himself upon his own claims 
as being the first European to descend the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. Father Hennepin died in Holland, about the year 1699. 

We now return to the further adventures of the brave and intrepid La 
Salle. He returned to Fort Crevecoeur in the latter part of the year 1680, 
to find that Tonti had been abandoned by Ms men, and obliged to take 
refuge among the Pottawattamies. He spent another year in collecting his 
scattered followers, finally succeeded, and on the 6th of February, 1682, he 
had reached the mouth of the Illinois. As they passed down the Mississippi 
La Salle noted the different streams tributary thereto. They erected a fort 
near the month of the Ohio, and- a cabin at the first Chickasaw bluff. On 
the 9th of April they entered the Gulf of Mexico. They reascended the 
river a short distance, founded the Fort of St. Louis, took possession of the 
whole valley in the name of France, and called it by the name of Louisiana, 
in honor of the king. 

La Salle, having accomplished much for the glory of France, now retraced 
his steps northward. After spending one year about the great lakes, actively 
engaged in laying the foundations oi French settlements in the new regions 
he liad discovered, in November, 1683, he reached Quebec, and soon after 
embarked for France. The government, with marks of great esteem, be- 
stowed upon him a commission placing under his authority all the French 
and natives of the country, from Fort St. Louis to New Biscay. An expe- 
dition, with four vessels and 280 persons, was fitted out for the colonization 
of Lousiana; it sailed August 1, 1684. Associated with La Salle, in this 
expedition, was Beaujeu, as naval commander. The mouth of the Missis- 
sippi was the objective point, but by mistake the fleet passed on northward. 
When the error was discovered La Salle desired to return, but Beaujeu per- 
sisted in advancing. Dissensions arose, and La Salle, with 230 colonists, 
disembarked. This was in February, 1685. A fortified post, which was 
called Fort St. Louis, was established, and attempts made at agriculture, but 
without success. Attempts were made to reach the Mississippi, which they 
thought near, but failed. La Salle and his followers traversed the wilderness 
toward New Mexico, and in January, 1687, by sickness and disaster, his 
party was reduced to thirty-seven. Some of these, following Beanjeu's ex- 
ample, revolted. La Salle, with sixteen men, then determined to reach the 
country of the Illinois. Two men, who had embarked their capital in the 
enterprise, were bitter in malignity toward the leader of this unsuccessful 
expedition. Their feelings found some gratification in the murder of a 


nephew of La Salle. The latter sought to investigate as to the death of his 
relative, but only shared his fate, as one of them fired upon him from ambush, • 
and the heroic La Salle fell, the victim of quarrels and dissensions among 
his own followers. This event happened after he had passed the basin ot 
the Colorado and reached a branch of Trinity river, in Texas. 

We have thus briefly outlined the part taken by this energetic and ad-< 
venturous explorer, in giving to civilization a knowledge of a region that 
was destined to constitute the richest and most productive portion of the 
American continent, if not indeed, of the world. 


Early French Settlements — Indian Tribes — Mission at Kaskaskia — Kaholria — Vincennes — Fort 
Ponchartrain — Fort Chartres — La Belle Riviere — La Salle — The English Claim ' ' From Sea 
to Sea" — Treaty with Indians in 1684 — English Grants — French and Indians Attack Pick- 
awillany — Treaty with the Six Nations — French and English Claims — George Washington 
— French and Indian War — Fall of Montreal — Treaty of Paris — Pontiac's Conspiracy-^ 
Detroit— Pontiac's Promissory Notes — Pontiac's Death — France Cedes Louisiana to Spain 
— Washington Explores the Ohio Valley — Emigration — Land Companies — The Revolution 
— Colonel Clark— Surrender of French Posts 'in Illinois— Surrender of Vincennes — Gov. 
Hamilton Taken Prisoner — Daniel Boone — Simon Girty — Virginia's " Land Laws." 

As the French were the first to explore the region known as the North- 
west, so they were the first to improve the opening thus made. The earliest 
settlements were in that part of the country east of the Mississippi and south 
of the Great Lakes, occupied chiefly by the' Illinois tribes of the Great Algon- 
quin family of Indians. The Illinois were divided into the Tamaroas, Mich- 
igamies, Kakokias, Kaskaskias, and Peorias, and were sometimes designated^ 
as the Five Nations. The three last-named tribes occupied the country 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers; the Michigamies the region bor- 
dering on Lake Michigan, and the Tamaroas, a small tribe, in the same region 
occupied by the Kahokias, and now embraced in the counties of Jersey, Madi- 
son, and St. Clair, in the state of Illinois. The French opened the way for 
colonization by the establishment of missions among these tribes, their efforts 
in this direction having been attended with great success in Canada. A 
mission was founded at Kaskaskia by Father Gravier about the year 1698. 
This at the time of the visit of Marquette and Joliet, in 1673, was the 
largest and most important of the Illinois villages, and contained seventy- 
four lodges, or about fifteen hundred inhabitants. By the early explorers it 
was called by the several names of " Kaskaskia," "La Vantum," and "Great 
Illinois Town." Here, in 1675, Father Marquette had attempted to christia&r 
ize the Indians by establishing the mission of the Immaculate Conception. 
For years it was nothing more than a missionary station, occupied only by 
the Nations and the missionary. About the year 1700 missions were also 
established at Kahokia and Peoria, the latter being near the site of old Fort 
Crevecceur. Another of the early French settlements was at Yincennes on 
the Oubache (Waba, now Wabash) river. Authorities disagree as to the 
date of this settlement, but it was probably about 1702. For many years 
this was an isolated colony of French emigrants from Canada, and several 
generations of their descendants lived and passed away in these vast solitudes, 
before either they or their savage neighbors were disturbed by the encroachr 
ments of an expanding civilization. During all this time they had maintained 
friendly relations with the natives. In July, 1701, a station was established 


by Dc la Motte on the Detroit river, called Fort Ponchartrain. "While these 
attempts to colonize the Northwest were in progress, similar efforts were 
being made by France in the Southwest, but without maintaining like 
friendly relations with the natives, for in a conflict with the Chickasaws, an 
entire colony at Natchez was cut off. As these settlements in the North- 
west were isolated but little is known of their history prior to 1750. In this 
year Yivier, a missionary among the Illinois, near Fort Chartres, writes of 
five French villages, with a population of eleven hundred whites, three hun- 
dred blacks, and sixty red slaves or savages. He says there were whites, 
negroes and Indians, to say nothing of hall-breeds. They then raised wheat, 
cattle, swine and horses, and sent pork, grain and flour to New Orleans. On 
the 7th of November, 1750, the same priest writes: 

" For fifteen leagues above the mouth of the Mississippi one sees ho dwell- 
ings, the ground being too low to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans the 
lands are only partially occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and 
red, not more, I think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come 
all lumber, bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease; and above 
all, pork and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, 
as forty vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans 
plantations are again met with; the most considerable is a colony of Germans 
some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five leagues above 
the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five or six leagues, are 
not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues further up is the Natchez 
post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners through fear of the 
Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee they raise excellent tobacco. An- 
other hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, where we have also a fort 
and a garrison for the benefit of the river traders. From the Arkansas to 
the Illinois, nearly five hundred leagues, there is not a settlement. There 
should be, however, a fort at the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which 
the English can reach the Mississippi. In the Illinois country are number- 
less mines, but no one to work them as they deserve." 

The fame of Robert Cavelier de La Salle was not achieved alone by his 
explorations of the Valley of the Mississippi, for, in 1669, four years before 
the discovery of the Mississippi by Marquette and Joliet, La Salle discovered 
the Ohio river, or La Belle Kiviere (Beautiful River), as the French called 
it. Being conversant with several Indian dialects, he bad learned from some 
Senecas of a river called Ohio which rose in their country and flowed a long 
distance to the sea. La Salle then held the belief that the river flowing to 
the west emptied into the Sea of California, and longed to engage in the enter- 
prise of discovering a route across the continent. He obtained the approval 
of the government at Quebec, but no allowance to defray the expense. He 
sold his property in Canada for two thousand eight hundred dollars, and 
with the proceeds purchased canoes and the necessary supplies. With a 
party of twenty-four persons he embarked in seven canoes on the St. Law- 
rence, July 6th, 1669. Crossing over Lake Ontario, they were conducted by 
Indian guides to the Genesee, about where the city of Rochester, New York, 
is now located. The enterprise did not receive the approbation of the Indians 
at the Seneca village then situated on the bank of the Genesee at this point, 
and they refused to furnish him guides to conduct him further. After a 
month's delay he met an Indian belonging to the Iroquois tribe on Lake On- 
tario, who conducted them to their village, where they received a more 
friendly welcome. From the chief of the Iroquois at Onondaga he obtained 


guides who conducted the party to a river south of Lake Erie. This proved 
to be a tributary of the Ohio. They descended it, and thence down the 
Ohio to the great falls where Louisville now stands. _ By virtue oi this dis- 
covery the French claimed the country along the Ohio, and many years after 
established military and trading posts at different points. One of these was 
Fort Du Quesne, erected in 1654, which was taken from them by the English 
a few years later and called Pittsburg, in honor of William Pitt, then prime 
minister of England. 

Notwithstanding the discovery ot the Ohio by the French under La Salle 
as early as 1669, the English claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific on the 
ground that her sea-coast discoveries entitled her to the sovereignty of all 
the country from "sea to sea." In 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Vir? 
ginia, held a treaty with Indian tribes known as the Northern Confederacy, 
to-wit: the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. The Tus- 
caroras being subsequently taken in, these tribes became known as the Six 
Nations, and the English assumed their protection. They purchased from 
them large tracts of land and aimed to obtain a monopoly of the Indian 
trade. The English government made grants of land west of theAlleghanies, 
and companies were formed for their settlement. France, seeing the Ehg- 
lish obtaining a foothold by planting trading posts in the Northwest, in 
1749 sent Louis Celeron with a small force of soldiers to plant in mounds at 
the mouths of the principal tributaries of the Ohio, plates of lead with the 
claims of France inscribed thereon. The English, however, still continued 
to make explorations and establish trading posts. One of these grants of 
England was to a company known as the " Ohio Company," and embraced a 
tract of land on the Great Miami, described as being one hundred and fifty 
miles above its mouth. Christopher Gist was sent by this company in 1750 
to inspect thier lands and to establish a trading post. In 1752 a small party 
of French soldiers, assisted by Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked this post 
and captured the traders after a severe battle. The English called this post 
Pickawillany — r the name being subsequently contracted to Pickaway or 
Piqua. The location of this post was doubtless near that of the present 
town of Piqua, on the Great Miami, about seventy-eight miles north of 
Cincinnati. Thus on the soil of what became a part of the state of Ohio 
was shed the first blood between the French and English for the possession 
of the Northwest. 

In 1744 the English had entered into a treaty with the Six Nations at 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, by which they acquired certain lands described as 
being within the "Colony of Virginia." The Indians subsequently com- 
plained of bad faith on the part of the English in failing to comply with 
some of the stipulations of the treaty. The Governor of Virginia appointed 
commissioners to hear the grievances of the Indians. They met at Logs- 
town, on the north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the present 
city of Pittsburg, in the spring of 1752. Notwithstanding the complaint of 
the Indians that the English had failed to supply them with arms and am- 
munition as they had agreed, they succeeded in obtaining a confirmation of 
the treaty of Lancaster. 

In the meantime the French were quietly preparing to maintain their 
claims to the country in dispute. They provided cannon and military storeB 
in anticipation of the coming conflict. The French were notified to give up 
their posts, but they failed to comply. Governor Dinwiddie finally deter- 
mined to learn definitely their intentions, and for this purpose selected Major 




George "Washington, then twenty-two years of age, as a messenger. "With 
Christopher Gist as guide, and four attendants or servants, "Washington set 
out through the wilderness on his perilous journey. He held a conference 
with the chiefs of the Six Nations at Logstown in November, 1753. He 
learned something of the condition of the French, but the Indians desired to 
remain neutral and were disposed to be. non-committal. Washington pro- 
ceeded to Venango, where there was a French post called Fort Machault. 
Here he delivered to the French governor Dinwiddie's letter, and received 
the answer of St. Pierre, the commander of the fort, declining to give up 
without a struggle. Preparations for war were made in all the English col- 
onies while the French continued to strengthen their lines of fortifications. 

It will thus be seen that what is known as the French and Indian war had 
its origin in this dispute about the possession of what is now one of the 
fairest and richest portions of our Republic. It resulted, not only in Eng- 
land maintaining her right to the territory in dispute, but in wresting Can- 
ada from France. It was a war of eight years duration, commencing with 
the attack of the French and Indians on the English post at Piqua in 17S2, 
and virtually ending with the fall of the city of Montreal in April, 17.60. 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara, and Quebec had all previously surren- 
dered to the English, the first two without resistance. After the fall of 
Montreal the Governor of Canada signed a capitulation surrendering the 
whole of Canada to the English. One post, however, that of Detroit, still 
remained in possession of the French. Major Rogers was sent from Mon- 
treal to demand its surrender. Beletre, the commander of the post, at first 
refused, but on the 29th of November, having heard of the defeat of the 
French arms in Canada, he also surrendered. September 29th, 1760, the 
treaty of peace between France and England, known as the treaty of Paris, 
was made, but not ratified until February 10th, 1763. Meantime the Northwest 
territory was entirely under English rule and settlements began to extend. The 
Indians who had been the friends and allies of the French during the war 
were not reconciled to the English, claiming that they had not carried out 
their promises. Under the famous Ottawa chief, Pontiac, they united in a 
general conspiracy to cut off all the English posts on the frontier. The 
Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawnese, Delawares and Mingoes, 
buried the hatchet in their local quarrels, and united to exterminate the 

Owing to treachery on the part of some of Pontiac's followers, he failed 
in the complete execution of his plans, but in May, 1763, several British 
posts fell, and many whites were victims of the merciless tomahawk. In 
the arrangement among the Indians it was agreed that Pontiac's own imme- 
diate field of action was to be the garrison at Detroit. He laid siege to the 
post May 12th, and continued it until October 12th. To obtain food for his 
warriors during this time, he issued promissory notes, drawn upon birch 
bark and signed with the figure of an otter. All these notes were faithfully 
redeemed. Being unsuccessful in reducing the garrison, the tribes generally 
sued for peace, but Pontiac remained as yet unsubdued. To Alexander 
Henry, an Englishman who visited Missillimacinac the next spring, he said: 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not yet 
conquered us. "We are not your slaves ! These lakes, these woods, these 
mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, and we 
will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like the white 
people, cannot live without bread, and pork and beef ; but you ought to 


know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided food for us 
npon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

Pontiae still entertained the hope that the French would renew the war, 
and finally conquer the English, and endeavored to incite the Indians on the 
Miami, and in other parts of the West, to continue hostilities. He applied,' 
but unsuccessfully, to the French commander at New Orleans. Being un- 
able to unite again- those who entered so eagerly into his original conspiracy 
for destroying the English settlements, he went to the Illinois country, where 
he made a stand, and had for a time the sympathy and co-operation of the 
French fur traders in that region. Soon, however, all but his immediate 
followers deserted his cause, and he then reluctantly accepted peace on the 
terms offered by the English. From this time he had but little influence 
with the tribes. He was killed by an Illinois Indian, while drunk, at Ka- 
hokia, in 1769. At the time of his death he was about fifty-seven years of 

Great Britain now held sovereignty over the entire Northwest, and to pre- 
vent Louisiana from also falling into the hands of the English, France by 
secret treaty, in 1762, ceded it to Spain. The next year the treaty of Paris 
formally gave to England possession of the Northwestern Territory. The 
English now began to prepare for settlement and occupation of the country; 
In 1770 persons from Virginia and other British provinces took up the 
valuable lands on the Monongahela and along the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Little Kanawa. In October of the same year George Washington with a 
party descended the Ohio from Pittsburg to the Kenawa, which last named 
stream they ascended about fourteen miles, and marked out several large 
tracts of land. Buffalo were then abundant in the Ohio valley, and several 
of them were shot by Washington's party. Pittsburg was then a village of 
twenty houses, the inhabitants being mostly Indian traders. 

The British government was inclined to observe a liberal policy toward 
the French settlers in the West. In 1763 the king, by royal proclamation, 
had forbidden his subjects from making settlements beyond the sources of 
the rivers which fall into the Atlantic ; but his subjects in the colonies were 
little disposed to observe this restriction. Finally, in 1774, Governor Dun- 
more, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration to the West. A number 
of settlements were made in the Ohio valley, the settlers often coming in 
conflict with the Indians. Several battles were fought, ending in the battle 
of Kenawa, in July, when the Indians were defeated and driven across the 
Ohio. During the years following, up to 1776, several land companies were 
formed, and engaged in extensive operations. One, called the "Illinois 
Land Company," obtained from the Indians large tracts of land on the Mis- 
sissippi river, south of the Illinois. An association, styling itself the "Wa- 
bash Land Company," obtained a deed from eleven chiefs to 37,497,600 acres 
of land. The War of the Kevolution interfered with these and many other 
similar schemes of speculation. The parties interested subsequently made 
efforts to have these land grants sanctioned by Congress, but did not succeed. 

In 1771, according to the best information we have, Kaskaskia contained 
eighty houses, and nearly one thousand inhabitants, white and black. Ka- 
hokia contained fifty houses, with three hundred white inhabitants, and 
eighty negroes. There were a few families at Prairie du Kocher, on the 
Mississippi river, opposite St. Louis. At Detroit, there were in 1766, about 
one hundred houses. This place was founded by Antoine de la Motte Ca- 
dillac, in 1701, and is the oldest town in the Northwest. 


When the "War of the Kevolntion commenced the British held Kar.bislua, 
Kahokia, Yincennes, Detroit, and other important posts in the West. Col. 
George Eogers Clark, a master spirit of the frontier, who was familiar with 
all the important movements of the British in the West, and also with the 
disposition of the Indians, formed a plan unequalled in boldness, for subju- 
gating these posts. He repaired to the capital of Virginia, Patrick Henry 
being then Governor, and presented to the authorities his plan of operations, 
which was approved by Governor Henry. He was accordingly furnished 
with two sets of instructions — one secret and the other open. His open in- 
structions authorized him to enlist seven companies to go to Kentucky, sub- 
ject to his orders, and serve three months from their arrival in the West. 
The secret order authorized him to arm and equip his troops at Pittsburg, 
and proceed to subjugate the country. Col. Clark succeeded in raising but 
three companies, but with these and a few private volunteers, he descended 
the Ohio as far as the falls, in the spring of 1777. Here he fortified a small 
island, known as Corn Island, and then announced to his men their real des- 
tination. Leaving a small garrison, on the 24th of June, during a total 
eclipse of the sun, he moved down the river. Under a burning July sun, 
with his chosen band, he marched to Kaskaskia, reaching that post on the 
evening of July 4th. Without the loss of a man on either side the fort and 
village were captured. He easily induced the Indians to give their allegi- 
ance to the American cause. They accompanied him to Kahokia on the 
6th, and through their influence the inhabitants of that place surrendered 
without resistance. The priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, hastily joined in 
rendering all the aid he could to forward the purposes of Clark. He estab- 
lished a government for the colonies he had taken, and then made ready to 
march upon St. Vincent, or Vincennes, as it is more commonly known. 
But Gibault offered to go alone . and induce the post on the " Oubache " to 
throw off the authority of England. Clark accepted the offer, and on the 
14th of July Gibault started on his mission. On the 1st of August he re- 
turned, with intelligence of entire success, the garrison at Vincennes having 
taken the oath of allegiance to Virginia. Col. Clark placed garrisons at 
Kaskaskia and Kahokia, and sent orders for the erection of a fort at the Falls 
of the Ohio, where the City of Louisville now stands. He also sent Eoche- 
blave, the former commander of Kaskaskia, a prisoner of war to Eichmond. 
The county of Illinois was established in October of the same year, by the 
Legislature of Virginia. John Todd was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel and 
acting governor. Courts were established, and the colony was provided with 
a government complete. The Indians acknowledged allegiance to the new 

_ While Col. Clark was arranging for the government of the Illinois colo- 
nies, the British Governor, Hamilton, was planning an expedition to move 
from Detroit down the Wabash to Vincennes, intending to recapture the 
posts which had surrendered to Clark, and thence extend his operations to 
Kentucky. He knew nothing of the capitulation of Vincennes until his 
arrival, when he found the fort in command of Capt. Helm, who had been 
sent by Col Clark to take charge of the garrison. Hamilton demanded the 
surrender of the fort, and being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, Capt. 
Helm surrendered to a superior force. On the 29th of January, 1879, Clark 
received intelligence of what had transpired at Vincennes, and of the in- 
tended operations of Hamilton. Having sufficiently garrisoned Kaskaskia 
and Kahokia, and dispatched a force down the Mississippi to ascend the Ohio 


and operate with the land forces in that direction, on the 5th of February he 
set out himself with one hundred and twenty men on his hard march to 
Vincennes. He reached the fort on the 22d, and was joined by the re- 
mainder of his command, which had come by water. He immediately com- 
menced his attack on the fort, and on the 25th Gov. Hamilton surrendered. 
He was sent as a prisoner of war to Virginia, where he was kept in close 
confinement, and thus failed to accomplish his purpose of uniting the In- 
dian tribes against the Americans. All the important posts in the North- 
west, except Detroit, were now in the hands of the Americans. Had Clark 
received reinforcements, which had been promised, he would doubtless have 
captured Detroit also ; but Virginia and the other colonial governments at 
this time doubtless had all they could do to attend to the operations of the 
war east of the Alleghanies. The Legislature of Virginia passed resolutions 
complimenting Col. Clark and his men, and in 1781 he was promoted to 
the rank of general. Previous to this he had taken part with Steuben 
against Arnold, when the latter invaded Virginia, in 1780. Subsequently, 
Virginia gave to Gen. Clark and his men one hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of land, wherever they might choose to locate it, north of the Ohio. 
They made selection of a tract opposite the Falls of the Ohio, between New 
Albany and- Jeffersonville, Indiana. Gen. Clark died near Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, February 13th, 1808. 

The years 1781 and 1782 were dark years in the history of the infant set- 
tlements of the Northwest, in consequence of the many outrages practiced 
by the Indians. Many deeds of cruelty were committed under the leader- 
ship of the outlaw, Simon Girty, occurring chiefly in the Ohio Valley. Sev- 
eral battles between the Indians and frontiersmen occurred north of the 
Ohio, while in Kentucky the famous Daniel Boone and his companions were 
engaged in protecting the frontier outposts. 

In 1783 the treaty of peace, which ended the Revolutionary struggle, was 
concluded, and by its terms the boundaries of the West were defined as fol- 
lows : On the north, to extend along the center of the Great Lakes ; from 
the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; thence to the Lake of 
the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi river, down its center to 
the 31st parallel of latitude ; thence on that line east to the head of Appa- 
lachicola river, down its center to the junction with the Flint ; thence straight 
to the head of St. Mary's river ; and thence down along its center to the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

For some time after the cessation of hostilities, General Haldimand, the 
British commander at Detroit, refused to evacuate, on the ground, as he 
claimed, that his king had not ordered him to do so. It shortly, however, 
passed under the control of the United States, and so remained, except when 
held by the British, through the surrender of Gen. Hull, for a few weeks in 
August and September, 1812. 

The war of independence had been fought and gained, and England, as 
"we have seen, had renounced her claim to the Northwest, but the Indian 
title was not yet extinguished. From 1783 to 1786 various treaties were 
made, by which the Indians relinquished their title to extensive tracts of 
territory. The individual States also held claims to the territory surrendered 
by Great Britain, and acts of cession were necessary to vest the title to the 
soil in United States ; but of this we shall treat more fully in another place. 
In 1779 Virginia had passed her "land laws," by which grants made to set- 
tlers were confirmed, and providing for selling the rest at forty cents per 


acre. Kentucky was included in the territory of Virginia until 1792. It 
was originally explored by Daniel Boone and his compeers about the year 
1769. Harrodsburg was founded in 1774, and Lexington a year or two 
later, when the news of the battle of Lexington was fresh in the minds of 
its founders. 


Territory held by States— Articles of Confederation— Objections of certain States— Delaware 
Resolutions— Action of Congress— Maryland— New York— Cession of Territory by States- 
Ordinance of 1787— Territorial Organization of the Northwest— Fort Washington— Wm. 
H. Harrison. Arthur St. Clair— Early American Settlements— New England Company- 
Gen. Rufus Putnam— John Cleves Symmes— Cincinnati Founded— Treaty with Spain- 
Division of the Northwestern Territory — Organization of the Territory of Indiana- 
Division of Indiana Territory— Territory of Michigan — Gov. Wm. Hull — Destruction of 
Detroit by Fire. 

At the time the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were pend- 
ing a number of the States held, or claimed, large tracts of territory not now 
included in those States. New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia, all held such territory. Vir- 
ginia claimed all that vast region which now embraces the States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota east of the 
Mississippi river. That State had made provision, by legislative enactment, 
to dispose of her lands to settlers. Certain States, claiming that the unoccu- 
pied western lands were rightfully the common property of all the States, in- 
sisted on limitixig the area of those States claiming western territory. This 
was a subject of warm and protracted discussion in the adoption of the Arti^- 
cles of Confederation. The delegates from Maryland, under instructions from 
the General Assembly of that State, declined, in the Congress of the Confed- 
eration, to sign the Articles of Confederation until provision was made for 
restricting the boundaries of the States, and vesting the soil of the western 
territories in the Confederation for the common benefit of all the settlers. 
Virginia had remonstrated against this course. On the 25th of November, 
1778, the act of New Jersey for ratifying the Articles of Confederation 
was presented in the Congress. Her delegates were directed to sign the arti- 
cles "in the firm reliance that the candour and justice of the several States 
will, in due time, remove as far as possible the inequality which now subi 
sists." The delegation from Delaware, after having signed the articles, 
on the 23d of February, 1779, presented sundry resolutions passed by the 
legislature of that State, among which were the following: 

"Resolved, That this State thinks it necessary, for the peace and safety of 
the States to be included in the Union, that a moderate extent of limits 
should be assigned for such of those States as claim to the Mississippi or 
South Sea; and that the United States in Congress assembled, should, and 
ought to, have the power of fixing the western limits. 

"Resolved, That this State consider themselves justly entitled to a right in 
common with the members of the Union, to that extensive tract of country 
which lies westward of the frontier of the United States, the property of 
which was not vested in, or granted to, private individuals at the com- 
mencement of the present war. That the same hath been, or may be, 
gained from the King of Great Britain, or the native Indians, by the blood 
and treasure of all, and ought, therefore, to be a common estate, to be 
granted out on terms beneficial to the United States." 


The same day, after the presentation of these resolutions, Congress passed 
the following: 

"Resolved, That the paper laid before Congress by the delegates from 
Delaware, and read, be filed; provided, that it shall never be considered as 
admitting any claim by the same set up, or intended to be set up." 

Eight States voted in favor of this resolution, and three against it. 

The State of Maryland still persisting in her refusal to ratify the Articles 
of Confederation, on the 30th of October, 1779, Congress, by a vote of eight 
States to three, and one being divided, passed the following: 

" Wheeeas, The appropriation of vacant lands by the several States, during 
the continuance of the war, will, in the opinion of Congress, be attended 
with great mischiefs: Therefore, 

"Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to the State of Virginia, to 
reconsider their late act of Assembly for opening their land office; and that 
it be recommended to the said State, and all other States similarly circum- 
stanced, to forbear settling or issuing warrants for unappropriated lands, or 
granting the same during the continuance of the present war." 

On the 19th of February, 1780, the Legislature of New York passed an 
act authorizing her delegates in Congress, for and on behalf of that State, 
by proper and authentic acts or instruments, "to limit and restrict the 
boundaries of the State in the western parts thereof, by such line or lines, 
and in such manner and form, as they shall judge to be expedient," and 
providing for the cession to the United States of certain " waste and uncul- 
tivated" territory. This act was fully carried into effect by her delegates 
on the 1st of March, 1781. 

On the 6th of September, 1780, Congress passed a resolution earnestly 
recommending the States having " claims to the western country, to pass 
such laws, and give their delegates in Congress such powers " as might 
effectually remove the only obstacle to a final ratification of the Articles of 
Confederation, and requesting the Legislature of Maryland to authorize her 
delegates in Congress to subscribe to the articles. 

On the 10th of October, 1780, a further resolution on this subjeet was 
passed by the Congress of the Confederation, as follows: 

"Resolved, That the unappropriated lands that may be ceded or relin- 
quished to the United States, by any particular State, pursuant to the recom- 
mendation of Congress of the 6th day of September last, shall be disposed 
of for the common benefit of the United States, and be settled and formed 
into distinct republican States, which shall become members of the Federal 
Union, and have the same rights of sovereignty, freedom and independence 
as the other States; that each State which shall be so formed shall contain a 
suitable extent of territory, not less than one hundred, nor more than one 
hundred and fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit; 
that the necessary and reasonable expenses which any particular State shall 
have incurred since the commencement of the present war, in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts or garrisons within and for the defense, 
or in acquiring any part of the territory that may be ceded or relinquished 
to the United States, shall be re-imbursed ; that the said lands shall be 
granted or settled at such times, and under such regulations, as shall here- 
after be agreed on by the United States, in Congress assembled, or any nine 
or more of them." 

In pursuance of the recommendation of Congress, of September 6th, 1780, 
several States made cessions of territory to the United States. Virginia 


ceded her northwestern territory March 1st, 1784, and by an act of her 
Legislature of December 30th, 1788, agreed to change the conditions of the 
act of cession of 1784, so far as to ratify the 5th article of the ordinance of 
1787, passed by Congress for the government of the territory. The dele- 
gates in Congress from Maryland signed the Articles of Confederation at 
the date of the cession of territory by New York, M arch 1st, 1781, thus 
completing the confederation. 

On the 23d of April, 1784, Congress passed a resolution for the govern- 
ment of the territory ceded by Virginia, which was superceded by the 
famous ordinance of July 13th, 1787, entitled "An ordinance for the govern- 
ment of the territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio," 
The first part of this important enactment provides for the temporary gov- 
ernment of the territory, and concludes with six "articles of compact between 
the original States and the people and States in the said territory, and forever 
to remain unalterable, unless by common consent." The provisions of these 
six articles are of such importance as to justify their insertion here in full: 

"Article 1. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly 
manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious 
sentiments, in the said territory. 

"Aet. 2. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to 
the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury ; of a proportionate repre- 
sentation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings accord- 
ing to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless 
for capital offenses, when the' proof shall be evident, or the presumption 
great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punishment 
shall be inflicted. No person shall be deprived of his liberty or property, 
but by the judgment of' his peers, or the law of the land, and should the 
public exigencies make it necessary for the common preservation to take any 
person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation 
shall be made for the same. And, in the just preservation of rights and 
property, it is_ understood and declared that no law ought ever to be made, 
or have force in the said territory, that should, in any manner whatever, in- 
terfere with or affect private contracts or engagements, lonaficle, and with- 
out fraud previously formed. 

"Aet. 3. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good gov- 
ernment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education 
shall be forever encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed 
towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from 
them without their consent; and in their property, rights, and liberty, 
they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars 
authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, 
from time to time, be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and 
for preserving peace and friendship with them. 

"Aet. 4. The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, 
shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of Amer- 
ica, subject to the Articles of Confederation,' and to such alterations therein 
as shall be constitutionally made; and to all the acts and ordinances of the 
United States, in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants 
and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal 
debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses 
of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the 
same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall be 


made on the other States; and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be 
laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the dis- 
trict or districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time 
agreed upon by the United States, in Congress assembled. The legislatures 
oi those districts, or new States, shall never interfere with the primary dis- 
posal of the soil of the United States, in Congress assembled, nor with any 
regulations Congress may find necessary, for securing the title in such soil, 
to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property 
of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed 
higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi 
and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be com- 
mon highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of said territory as 
to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may 
be admitted into the Confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor. 
"Aet. 5. There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three, 
nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Vir- 

finia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become 
xed and established as follows, to-wit: the Western States in the said terri- 
tory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and Wabash rivers ; a 
direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents due north to the ter- 
ritorial line between the United States and Canada, and by the said territorial 
line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The Middle States shall be 
bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Vincents to the 
Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the 
Great Miami to the said territorial line and by the said territorial line. The 
Eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line; provided, however, and it is 
further understood and declared that the boundaries of these three States 
shall be subject so far to be altered that if Congress shall hereafter find it 
expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of 
the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of 
the said States shall have sixty thousand' free inhabitants therein, such State 
shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States 
on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever; and 
shall be. at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government, 
provided the constitution and government so to be formed shall be republi- 
can, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles, and so 
far as can be consistent with the general interests of the Confederacy, such 
admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less 
number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand. 

"Aet. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the 
the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the 
party shall be duly convicted; provided, always, that any person escaping 
into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one ot 
the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to 
the person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

These articles, sometimes known as the "Compact of 1787," form the 
basis of the organization of the Northwestern Territory and of the several 
States into which it was subsequently divided. Although the original act 
of cession was adopted by Virginia in 1784, it will be seen that It was 
three years later before Congress agreed upon a plan of government. The 


subject was one of serious and earnest discussion at various times. At one 
time a motion prevailed to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition of 
slavery. Another proposition was agreed to by which the territory was to 
be divided into States by parallels and meridian lines, making ten States 
which were to be named as follows: Sylvania, Michigania, Chersonesus, 
Assenisipia, Mesopotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Polypotamia and 
Pelisipia. "When this plan was submitted to the legislatures of the States 
there were serious objections made, especially by Massachusetts and Vir- 
ginia. There were objections to the category of names, but the chief diffi- 
culty was the resolution of Congress of October 10th, 1780, which fixed the 
extent of each State at not less than one hundred nor more than one hundred 
and fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances might admit. So 
the subject was again taken up in 1786, and discussed during that year and 
until July 12th, 1787, when the ordinance finally passed, as stated above. 

An act of territorial organization was approved August 7th, 1789. Gen. 
Arthur St. Clair was appointed Governor, and "William Ii. Harrison Secre- 
tary. In 1788 a town had been laid out by John Cleves Symmes at Fort 
"Washington, and was named Losantiville, but afterward Cincinnati. The 
place was settled by persons from the New England States and from New 
.Jersey, but did not extensively improve until after Gen. "Wayne's defeat of 
the Indians in 1794. This became the seat of the new territorial govern- 
ment. The election of representatives for the territory was held February 
4th, 1799. As required by the ordinance of 1787, these representatives met 
at the seat of -the territorial government to nominate ten persons, out of 
which Congress was to appoint five to serve as the territorial council. The 
following persons were commissioned: Henry Vandenburg, of Vincennes; 
Eobert Oliver, of Marietta; James Findlay and Jacob Burnett, of Cincin- 
nati, and David Yance, of Vanceville. The first Territorial Legislature met 
September 16th, 1799, and on the 24th both houses were duly organized, 
Henry Vandenburg being elected president of the council. On the 13th of 
October the legislature elected ¥m. Henry Harrison as delegate to 
Congress. He received eleven of the votes cast, being a majority of one 
over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of the Governor. At this session 
thirty-seven acts were passed and approved. Eleven other acts were passed 
which the Governor vetoed. The greater part of the legislation of the ses- 
sion related to the organization of the militia and to revenue matters. The 
session closed December 19th, 1799. President Adams appointed Charles 
Willing Bryd as secretary of the territory to succeed ¥m. Henry Harrison, 
elected to Congress, and the senate confirmed the nomination. James N. 
Varnum, S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong were appointed to the judicial 
bench of the territory in October, 1787. 

Having briefly outlined the legislation which resulted in the formation of 
a Territorial government, we return to notice some of the earlier American 
settlements in the Territory. As elsewhere stated, a few French settlements 
had been made by emigrants from Canada and Louisiana, on the Ohio river 
and in the region known as the Illinois country, but it was not until after 
the Virginia cession that any permanent American settlements were made. 
Then several treaties were made with the Indians, in which they relinquished 
their title to large portions of the territory. The government made several 
large grants to companies and individuals, for the purpose of colonizing the 
country. One of these was to a company from Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut, called the New England Company, of a tract lying along the Ohio and 


Muskingum rivers, embracing 1,500,000 acres. Here the town of Marietta 
was laid out, in August, 1787, at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio 
rivers. Fort Harmar was built on the opposite, or west bank of the Mus- 
kingum, the year before. The New England Company sent its first party 
of settlers in the spring of 1788. They consisted of eight families, and 
some other persons, and all under the superintendency of Gen. Knfus Put- 
nam. The party, after a long and weary journey over the Alleghanies, and' 
down the Ohio, arrived at Marietta on the 7th of April, 1788. This little 
band had the honor of being the pioneers of Ohio, unless the Moravian 
missionaries may be so regarded. The settlement was first known as the 
" Muskingum," but on the 2d of July, 1788, at a meeting of the directors 
and agents of the company, the name was changed to Marietta, in honor of 
Marie Antoinette. 

In 1786, John Cleves Symmes, of New Jersey, visited the country be- 
tween the Miamies, and being pleased with its appearance, made application 
to the government for the purchase of a large tract of land, to be settled on 
similar conditions with those of the New England Company. The grant 
was made to Symmes and his associates the following year. Associated with 
Symmes, was Matthias Denman, also of New Jersey, who located, among 
other tracts in the Symmes purchase, the section upon which Cincinnati 
was laid out. Denman sold to Robert Patterson and' John Filson,each one- 
third of his location, retaining the other third himself. In August, 1788, 
they laid out the first portion of what, in a few years, became one of the 
great cities of the "West. Fort Washington was erected here in 1790, and 
Was for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military govern- 
ments of the Northwestern Territory. There were but few settlers here 
until after 1794, when settlers began to arrive rapidly. In July, 1815, the 
population was 6,500. 

In October, 1795, the treaty was signed between the United States and 
Spain, which secured to the former the free navigation of the Mississippi. 
After this the Northwest began to settle rapidly. During the next year 
settlements were made at various points along the Miami and Scioto rivers, 
including those at Piqua and Chillicothe. In September, of the same year, 
the city of Cleveland was laid out. 

The great extent of the Northwestern Territory, and the rapid increase 
of population at the beginning of the new century, began to render the effi- 
cient action of the courts impossible ; and to remedy this evil a division of 
the Territory was proposed. A committee in Congress, to whom the mat- 
ter had been referred, on the 3d of March, 1800, reported in favor of two 
distinct territorial governments, and that the division be made by a line 
beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami river, and running directly to 
the boundary line between the United States and Canada. The report was 
accepted, and an act passed, which was approved May 7th, of the same year, 
making the division. It provided, among other things, that from and after 
the next 4th day of July, " all that part of the territory of the United 
States northwest of the Ohio river, which lies to the northward of a line 
beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky 
river, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until it shall 
intersect the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for 
the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate territory, and 
be called the Indiana Territory." The same act provided, that until the Leg- 
islatures oi the Territories, respectively, otherwise ordered, Chillicothe, on 


the Scioto river, should he the seat of government of the Territory east of 
the line of division; and that Vincennes, on the Wahash river, should he 
the seat of government of the Indiana Territory. On the 3d of November, 
of that year, the Territorial Legislature met at Chillicothe. William Henry 
Harrison was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, and entered upon 
his duties in 1801. The new Territory then embraced all that region now 
comprising the States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that 
part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi river. Nearly _ the whole of it 
was at that time in the possession of the Indians. Soon after the arrival of 
Governor Harrison at Vincennes, he concluded several treaties with the In- 
dians, whereby large grants of land were obtained from the various tribes. 
By a treaty made at St. Louis, August 18th, 1804:* he obtained a relinquish- 
ment of Indian title to over 51,000,000 of acres. The year before the gov- 
ernment had obtained Louisiana from France, by purchase, and that being 
divided, the "District of Louisiana" (the "New Northwest'') was annexed 
to Indiana Territory, thus extending Gov. Harrison's authority over a vast 
domain, occupied chiefly by savage tribes. 

By an act of Congress, of January 11th, 1805, Indiana Territory was di- 
vided into two separate governments, and the new Territory of Michigan 
formed. William Hull was appointed Governor of the new Territory, and 
Detroit was designated as the seat of government. On the 30th of June 
the Territorial government of Michigan was to go into operation. When 
Gov. Hull, and the other Territorial officers, reached Detroit, they found the 
place in ruins and the inhabitants scattered. On the 11th of that month a 
fire had destroyed almost every building in the place. Gov. Hull adopted a 
new plan for rebuilding the town, and in population and importance it soon 
regained all it had lost by the fire. 

Other changes were subsequently made in the boundaries of the Western 
Territories, as new States were from time to time admitted into the Union, 
until finally, all that vast domain originally designated as the " Northwestern 
Territory" became "sovereign States. 


Discovery of the Mouth of the Mississippi — Founding of New Orleans — French Grant — John 
Law — The "Mississippi Bubble" — Territory West of the Mississippi— France Cedes to 
Spain — Spain Cedes Back to France — France Cedes to the United States — Right to 
Navigate the Mississippi — Particulars of the Negotiations With France — Extent of the 
Territory — Possession Taken by the United States — Division of the Territory. 

That vast region of territory once known as Louisiana, came under the 
jurisdiction of civilized men by the right of discovery — a right which has 
long been known and recognized among civilized nations, though often 
necessarily followed by conquest to render it effective. For two centuries 
the Spaniards had navigated the Gulf of Mexico, so far as we know, ignorant 
of the fact that it received the waters of one of the largest rivers of the 
world. About the year 1660 the French, who had re-established themselves 
in Canada, received some information of this great river, but did not discover 
its mouth until 1691, when, according to some authorities, La Sallo succeeded 
in reaching it. Iberville founded his first colony in 1699, but it did not 
assume importance until 1717, when the city of New Orleans was founded. 
In 1712 Louis XIV of France granted to M. Crozart a charter to the whole 
territory of Louisiana, which was so named in honor of the king. Under 


the leadership of John Law, in 1716, a company was formed at Paris and 
incorporated as the "Mississippi Company," which purchased Louisiana 
from the crown. The financial disasters in France caused by Law brought 
about the failure of his Mississippi scheme, and the explosion of what is 
known in history as the " Mississippi bubble." Louisiana was then resumed 
by the crown, and the commerce of the Mississippi was declared free. The 
French retained possession until 1762, when they ceded it to Spain, includ- 
ing the whole country to the head waters of the great river and west to the 
Rocky Mountains. The jurisdiction of France, which had continued for 
nearly a century, thus ended, until in 1800 Bonaparte, then first consul, 
induced the Spanish government to cede it back to France. During the 
time that Louisiana remained a Spanish dependency, that government 
claimed the exclusive right of navigating the Mississippi river. The free 
navigation of that river was essential to the prosperity and commerce of the 
United States. Spain then having jurisdiction also over the Floridas east of 
the great river, and that river for several hundred miles flowing wholly 
through the Spanish dominions, the question of its navigation south of the 
southern boundary of the United States became a serious one to our govern- 
ment and people. The people in the western part of the United States 
especially demanded the free navigation of the river as a right. But Spanish 
military posts enforced the collection of duties on imports by way of the 
river for the upper region. Boats descending were forced to submit to reve- 
nue exactions by Spanish authorities. These exactions were a constant 
source of trouble and disaffection, and led to a threatening state of affairs 
between the United States and Spain. Spain, however, by the treaty of 
Madrid, October 20, 1795, conceded to the United States the free navigation 
ot the river from its source to the Gulf, and also the free use of the port of 
New Orleans for three years as a port of deposit. 

The treaty of Madrid, however, did not quiet all troubles between the 
United States and Spain. In 1802, during the administration of President 
Jefferson, there was some apprehension of a war growing out of the continued 
disputes respecting the southwestern boundary. These disputes had led to 
many difficulties between the people of the United States and the Spanish 
authorities. These affairs, however, assumed a new aspect, when in the 
spring of 1802 the government of the United States received intelligence 
that, by a secret treaty made in October, 1800, Spain had ceded Louisiana to 
France. At this time Mr. Livingston was the United States Minister to 
France, and President Jefferson, soon after learning of the Spanish cession to 
France, wrote to Mr. Livingston in reference to acquiring the right to deposit 
at the port of New Orleans, and other matters which had been in dispute 
between the United States and Spain. In his annual message to_ Congress, 
in December of the same year, the President alluded to the subject of the 
Spanish cession to France. Congress passed resolutions asserting the right 
of navigating the Mississippi, and insisting upon the right to the use of a 
port or place of deposit. At that time it was understood in the United States 
that the Spanish cession to France included the Floridas, which, however, 
was not the case.- The policy of the President was to enter into a treaty 
with France for the purchase of New Orleans and the Floridas, and with this 
view, on the 10th of January, 1803, he appointed James Monroe minister 
plenipotentiary to France to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Mr. 
Monroe's nomination was confirmed by the senate. The instructions to the 
American ministers only asked for the cession of the city of New Orleans 


and the Floridas, together with the free navigation of the Mississippi ; The 
cession at this time of the entire Territory of Louisiana was not a subject of 
discussion. Mr. Monroe sailed from New York, March 8, 1803, and arrived 
in Paris April 1. 

Bonaparte was then first consul, and France was on the eve of a war with 
England. He supposed the American ministers were authorized to enter 
into more extended stipulations than they really were. Marquis de Marbois 
was directed to negotiate with the American ministers. Said the first con- 
sul to his minister, as recorded by the latter: 

"Irresolution and deliberation are no longer in season. I renounce 
Louisiana. It is not only New Orleans that I will cede; it is the whole col- 
ony, without any reservation. I know the price of what I abandon, and I 
have sufficiently proved the importance that I attach to this province, since my 
first diplomatic act with Spain had for its object the recovery of it. I 
renounce it with the greatest regret. To attempt to retain it would be folly. 
I direct you to negotiate this affair with the envoys of the United States. 
Do not even await the arrival of Mr. Monroe; have an interview this day 
with Mr. Livingston. But I require a great deal of money for this war, and 
I would not like to commence with new contributions. If I should regulate 
my terms, according to the value of these vast regions to the United States, 
the indemnity would have no limits. I will be moderate, in consideration 
of the necessity in which I am of making a sale. But keep this to yourself. 
I want fifty millions francs, and for less than that sum I will not treat; I 
would rather make a desperate attempt to keep those fine countries. To- 
morrow you shall have full powers. Mr. Monroe is on the point of arriving. 
To this minister the President must have given secret instructions, more 
extensive than the ostensible authorization of Congress, for the stipulation 
of the payments to be made. Neither this minister nor his colleague is 
prepared for a decision which goes infinitely beyond anything that they are 
about to ask of us. Begin by making them the overture without any sub- 
terfuge. You will acquaint me, day by day, hour by hour, of your progress. 
The cabinet of London is informed of the measures adopted at Washington, 
but it can have no suspicion of those which I am now taking. Observe the 
greatest secrecy, and recommend it to the American ministers; they have 
not a less interest than yourself in conforming to this counsel. You will 
correspond with M. de Talleyrand, who alone knows my intentions. If I 
attended to his advice, France would confine her ambition to the left bank 
of the Rhine, and would only make war to protect any dismemberment of 
her possessions. But he also admits that the cession of Louisiana is not a 
dismemberment of France. Keep him informed of the progress of this 

On the same day that Napoleon thus confided to Marbois his determina- 
tion, conferences began between the latter and Mr. Livingston. The Amer- 
ican minister had been in Paris about two years, endeavoring to obtain in- 
demnities claimed by American citizens for prizes made by the French 
during peace, but so far, without result further than vague answers. Mr. 
Livingston had become distrustful of the French government, and feared 
the Louisiana overtures were but an artifice to gain still further time. Soon 
after these preliminary discussions were entered upon, Mr. Monroe arrived 
in Paris, and the next day began his conferences with Marbois. Rapid pro- 
gress was made in the negotiations, for both sides had an interest in hasten- 
ing the matter. Mr. Monroe was surprised to hear the first overtures made 


bo frankly by the French minister, when he proposed to cede to the United 
States so vast a region of country, with the largest rivers of the world, in- 
stead of merely a town and an inconsiderable extent of territory. The offer 
embraced infinitely more than the American ministers were empowered to 
ask for, or accept. Their powers only extended to an arrangement respect- 
ing the left bank of the Mississippi, including New Orleans. But the mo- 
ment was a critical one with France, hostilities being about to commence 
with England. There was not time for further instructions from the gov- 
ernment of the United States before the opportunity would pass, perhaps 
forever. The American ministers therefore assumed the responsibility of 
treating for the purchase of the entire colony, or territory of Louisiana — an 
extent of country sufficient in itself for an empire. The terms were soon 
agreed upon. The United States was to pay for this vast acquisition the 
sum of fifteen millions of dollars. In the treaty of October 1, 1800, be- 
tween France and Spain, the latter had reserved the right of preference in 
case France should cede this territory to another power ; but here again 
FVance could not afford to wait. The treaty was concluded and subsequently 
submitted to the Spanish cabinet. They complained that no regard had 
been paid to their reserved right, and for almost a year that court delayed its 
approbation of the treaty. On the 10th of February, 1804, however, Don 
Pedro Cavallos, the Spanish minister, wrote to Mr. Pinckney, the American 
minister, that ''His Catholic Majesty had thought fit to renounce his oppo- 
sition to the alienation of Louisiana made by France, notwithstanding the 
solid reasons on which it is founded, thereby giving a new proof of his be- 
nevolence and friendship to the United States." The important treaty that 
gave to the United States this vast region, with all its wonderful resources, 
was concluded on the 30th of April, 1803, and four days later the instru- 
ments, in French and.English, were signed by the ministers. After affixing 
their signatures, the ministers rose and shook hands, each expressing his sat- 
isfaction with the result. Mr. Livingston said : " We have lived long, but 
this is the noblest work of our whole lives. The treaty which we have just 
signed has not been obtained by art, or dictated by force ; equally advanta- 
geous to the two contracting parties, it will change vast solitudes into flour- 
ishing districts. From this day the United States take their place among 
the powers of the first rank ; the English lose all exclusive influence in the 
affairs of America." 

The first consul, who had followed the negotiation with a lively interest, 
acquiesced in the result, and said to Marbois : " It is true, the negotiation 
does not leave me anything to desire. Sixty millions [francs] for an occupa- 
tion that will not, perhaps, last for a day ! I would that France should en- 
joy this unexpected capital, and that it may be employed in works beneficial 
to the marine. This accession of territory strengthens forever the power 
of the United States ; and I have just given to England a maratime rival 
that will sooner or later humble her pride." 

On the 22d day of May, 1803, England commenced hostilities against 
France by the capture of some of her merchant vessels, and on the same 
day Bonaparte gave his formal ratification of the Louisiana treaty of cession. 
In July, the treaty was received in the United States, and on the 20th of 
October, 1803, it was ratified by the Senate, by twenty-four against seven 
votes. The country ceded by this treaty, as estimated at that time, exceeded 
a million of square miles, all occupied by savages, except a few sparse settle- 
ments, aggregating from 80,000 to 90,000 inhabitants, about 40,000 of whom 
were slaves. The whites were chiefly French, or descendants of French' 


Congress, a few days after the ratification of the treaty by the Senate, passed 
an act making provision for the occupation and temporary government of 
the territory acquired. Eleven millions of dollars were appropriated as 
payment for the purchase— the remaining four millions being reserved, ac- 
cording to. a stipulation in the treaty, to indemnify citizens of the United 
States who had sustained losses at the hands of the French. The resolution 
for carrying the treaty into effect was sustained by the House of Represen- 
tatives by a vote of ninety to twenty -five. 

Even before the acquisition of Louisiana, it had been a favorite object of 
President Jefferson to have an exploring expedition sent across the continent 
to the Pacific Ocean, and in January, 1803, he had recommended an appro- 
priation for that purpose. The appropriation was made, and the enterprise 
was placed under the direction of Captains Lewis and Clarke. . The treaty 
with France," however, was ratified before the exploring expedition was ready 
to start. On the 14th of May, 1804, Captains Lewis and Clarke, with their 
companions, consisting in all of thirty persons, left the banks of the Missis- 
sippi on their long and perilous voyage of two years and three months, to 
seek out and give to their country and the world some more accurate knowl- 
edge respecting this vast region of country, of which civilization at that 
time knew so little. The expedition was -in every way successful, and the 
report made by Captains Lewis and Clarke enabled the government and peo- 
ple of the United States to form a better judgment of the immense value 
of the country acquired. 

It will be seen that the region acquired by the Louisiana purchase, com- 
prehended not only the present State of Louisiana, but all the vast region 
between the Mississippi river and th'e Pacific Ocean, and as far north as the 
British possessions. The great States of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Ne- 
braska, Kansas, the greater part of Minnesota, and several of our great Ter- 
ritories, are but parts of this purchase. 

On the 20th of December, 1803, in pursuance of authority given by act 
of Congress, Gov. Claiborne and Gen. Wilkinson took possession of the Loui- 
siana purchase, and raised the American flag at New Orleans. The Span- 
ish authorities there objected to the transfer, but early in 1804 they acqui- 
esced and withdrew. The newly acquired territory, by authority of Con- 
gress, was, on the first of October, 1804, divided as follows : All south of 
the 33d parallel of north latitude, was called the Territory of Orleans, and 
all north of that parallel became the District of Louisiana, and was placed 
under the authority of the officers of the then Indiana Territory. It so re- 
mained until July 4, 1805, when the District of Louisiana was'given a ter- 
ritorial government of its own. In 1812, the Territory of New Orleans be- 
came the State of Louisiana, and the Territory of Louisiana become the 
Territory of Missouri. On the 4th of July, 1814, Missouri Territory was 
divided— that part comprising the present State of Arkansas, and the coun- 
try west, being organized as the Territory of Arkansas. In March, 1821, a 
part of Missouri Territory was organized as the State of Missouri, and ad- 
mitted intothe Union. On the 28th of June, 1834, the territory west of 
the Mississippi river and north of Missouri, was made a part of the Terri- 
tory of Michigan, so remaining until July 4th, 1836, when "Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory was organized. This embraced within its limits the present States of 
Iowa, "Wisconsin , and Minnesota. An act of Congress, approved June 12, 
1838, created the Territory of Iowa, ambracing not only the present State of 
Iowa, but the greater part of the present State of Minnesota, and extending 
northward to the British Possessions. 






Gen. Harmar's Defeat— Gen. St. Clair— His Defeat— Gen. Wayne— His Victory— His Treaties 
With the Indians— British Posts Surrendered— Death of Wayne — Gen. Harrison— Tecum- 
se h— The Prophet— Battle of Tippecanoe— Tecumseh's Alliance With the British— Harri- 
son Appointed Brigadier-General— Perry's Victory— Gen. McArthur— Battle of the Thames 
— Tecumseh Killed— Peace With the Indians— Indian Titles Extinguished— Military Posts 
Established at Belle Point, Council Bluffs, and St. Peters— The Ricarees— Gen. Cass— 
Treaty at Fort Dearborn— Fort Atkinson— Grand Council at Prairie du Chien— Indian 
Outrages— The Militia Called Out— Gen. Atkinson— Policy of Removing the Indians West 
—Treaty With the Sacs and Foxes— Black Hawk— He Refuses to Comply With Treaties 
—Black Hawk War— Battle of Bad Axe— Gen. Henry Dodge— Black Hawk Captured— 
Taken to Washington— Keokuk— Black Hawk Purchase— Gen. Winfield Scott— Treaties 
at Davenport— Antoine Le Claire— Removal of Sacs and Foxes to Iowa— Gen. Street— 
Wapello— Maj. Beach— Sac and Fox Villages on the Des Moines— Gov. Lucas— Gov. 
Chambers— Visit of Hard-Fish to Burlington— An Incident— Speech of Keokuk. 

Almost every advance of civilization on the American continent has been 
made at the expense of more or less conflict and bloodshed at the hands of 
the savage tribes who were the occupants and owners of the soil prior to the 
advent of the white man. Passing over the conflicts of the colonists in the 
early settlements of the East, the later struggles of the pioneers of the '.< Dark 
and Bloody Ground," and the Indian wars of the South, we shall briefly 
refer to some of the troubles with the aborigines in the Northwest. "With 
the opening of the new country to white settlers it was necessary to establish 
military posts for the protection of the pioneers against the attacks of the 
Indians. In 1790, all pacific means having failed with the tribes north of 
the Ohio, President Washington sent Gen. Harmar with a military force 
against them. After destroying several of their villages, he was defeated in 
two battles near the confluence of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, and 
not far from the present city of Fort "Wayne, Indiana. In 1781 Gen. Arthur 
St. Clair was promoted to the rank of major general, and was entrusted with 
a command against the hostile Miamis. On assuming his command,.the 
last admonition of "Washington was, "Beware of surprise." Gen. St. Clair 
marched with his troops to the vicinity of the Miami villages on the Mau- 
mee. On the 4th of November, 1791, he was surprised in camp on the St. 
Mary's river, and his force of 1400 ill disciplined men was cut to pieces. He 
soon after resigned his commission. In this defeat St. Clair's loss was about 
600 men. The savages were greatly emboldened by their successes, and it 
was soon found that more vigorous measures were necessary. The Indians 
continued to commit outrages against the infant settlements. In some cases, 
doubtless, the whites were the aggressors, for "Washington in his annual mes- 
sage of November 6, 1792, recommended more adequate measures "for re- 
straining the commission of outrages, upon the Indians, without which all 
faciflc plans must prove nugatory." Attempts were made to treat with the 
ndians, but the attempted negotiations proved unsuccessful. 

After the unsuccessful and disastrous campaigns of Generals Harmar and 
St. Clair, General Anthony "Wayne, who had won distinguished laurels in the 
war of the Revolution, was, in April, 1792, promoted to the rank of major 
general, and made commander-in-chief in the war against the western Indians. 
In August, 1794, he gained a signal victory over the Miamis, near the rapid's 
of the Maumee, and compelled them to sue for peace. In the same year a 
fort was erected by his order on the site of the old "Twightwee Village" of 
the Miami tribe, where the city of Fort "Wayne is now located. It continued 
to be a military post until 1819. 


After his successful campaign of 1794, Gen. Wayne was appointed sole 
commissioner to treat with the Indians, and also to take possession of the 
forts still held by the British in the Northwest. He negotiated the treaty 
of Greenville which was signed by all the principal chiefs of the Northwest. 
By this treaty the Indians relinquished their title to a large tract of country. 
That characteristic determination which, during the war of the Revolution, 
had gained him the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony," impressed the hostile 
tribes with a dread of him which operated as a wholesome restraint. Gen. 
"Wayne also took possession of the British posts in the Northwest, which 
were peaceably surrendered, in accordance with Jay's treaty, and from this 
time there was assurance of peace on the frontier. He died in the garrison 
at Presque Isle (Erie), Pa., December 14, 1796. 

From the date of Wayne's victory up to 1809 the whites maintained com- 
paratively peaceable relations with the Indians. During this year, Gen. 
Harrison, then Governor of Indiana Territory, entered into a treaty with the 
Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawattamies, Miamis, Eel Eiver Indians and 
Weas, in which these tribes relinquished their title to certain lands on the 
Wabash river. About this time the noted chief Tecumseh comes into prom- 
inence as the bitter opponent of any more grants of land being made to the 

Tecumseh was a chief of the Shawnees, born on the Scioto river near 
Chillicothe, about the year 1770. It was said that he was one of three 
brothers who were triplets. The other two brothers were named Kum- 
shaka and Elskwatawa. Kumshaka is believed to have died while young, 
but Elskwatawa became the Prophet who co-operated with the chief in all 
his plans. His father, Puckeshinwa, had risen to the rank of chief, but was 
killed at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774. In 1795 Tecumseh was de- 
clared chief at or near where Urbana, Ohio, is now located. In 1798 he 
went to White river, Indiana, and his brother, the Prophet; to a tract of 
land on the Wabash. Tecumseh, by reason of his oratory, had great influ- 
ence over the savage tribes, and his plan was to unite all of them againBt the 
whites in a conspiracy, similar to that of Pontiac nearly half a century before. 
For this purpose he visited all the tribes west to the Mississippi, and upon 
Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. At the same time his brother, the 
Prophet, pretended to be directed by the Great Spirit to preach against the 
influence and encroachments of the white men. Their efforts to incite the 
Indians to hostilities were successful, and they gathered a large force of war- 
riors, making their headquarters at a stream they called Tippecanoe, near the 
Wabash river. 

Meantime Gov. Harrison was watching the movements of the Indians, 
and being convinced of the existence of Tecumseh's grand conspiracy, had 
prepared to defend the settlements. In August, 1810, Tecumseh went to 
vincehnes to confer with the Governor in relation to the grievances of the 
Indians, but demeaned himself in such an angry manner that he was dis- 
missed from the village. He returned to complete his plans for the conflict. 
Tecumseh delayed his intended attack, but in the meantime he was gather- 
ing strength to his cause, and by the autumn of 1811 had a force of several 
hundred warriors at his encampment on the little river called by the Indians 
KetKrtip-pe-ce-rvunk, or Tippecanoe. Harrison, with a force of eight hun- 
dred men, partly regulars and partly volunteers, determined to move upon 
the Prophet's town, as it was called. He encamped near the village early in 
October, and on the night of the 5th of November his camp was furiously 


but unsuccessfully attacked. On the morning of the 7th he was again 
■attacked by a large body of the Indians, but Tecumseh's warriors were 
completely routed, but not without a severe and hotly contested battle, and 
the loss of about 200 of Harrison's men. 

President Madison, in a special message to Congress of December 12, 
.1811, speaking of this engagement, says: 

"While it is deeply lamented that so many valuable lives have been lost 
in the action which took place on the seventh ultimo, Congress will see with 
satisfaction the dauntless spirit and fortitude victoriously displayed by every 
description of the troops engaged, as well as tlie collected firmness which 
distinguished 'their commander on an occasion requiring the utmost exer- 
tions of valor and discipline. . It may reasonably be expected that the good 
effects of this critical defeat and dispersion of a combination of savages, 
which .appears to have been spreading to a greater extent, will be experi- 
enced, not only in the cessation of murders and depredations committed on 
our frontier, but in the prevention of any hostile excursions otherwise to 
have been apprehended." 

The result of the battle of Tippecanoe utterly ruined the plans of Tecum- 
seh, for his arrangements with the different tribes were not yet matured. 
He was greatly exasperated toward the Prophet for precipitating the war. 
Had Tecumseh himself been present it is likely the attack would not have 
been made. The defeated Indians were at first inclined to sue for peace, but 
Tecumseh was not yet conquered. The breaking out of the war with Great 
Britain at this time inspired him with new hope, and his next endeavor was 
to form an alliance with the English. In this he succeeded, and was ap- 
pointed a brigadier general. He was entrusted with the command of all the 
Indians who co-operated with the English in the campaigns of 1812-13, and 
was in several important engagements. 

After the surrender of Detroit by Gen. Hull, August 18, 1812, Har- 
rison was appointed to the command of the Northwestern frontier, with a 
commission as brigadier general. As this was in September, too late in the 
season for a campaign, he did not assume active operations until the next 
year, by which time he was promoted to the rank of major general. After • 
Commodore Perry won his signal victory on Lake Erie in September, 1813, 
Harrison hastened with his command to capture Maiden. On arriving there 
late in September he found that Proctor, the British general, had retreated. 
About the same time Gen. McArthur took possession of Detroit and the 
Territory of Michigan. Pursuing the British army into the interior of Can- 
ada West, Harrison overtook Proctor at the Moravian settlements, on the 
river Thames, on the 5th of October. The British general had an auxiliary 
force of two thousand Indians under the command of Tecumseh. The battle 
was opened by the American cavalry under the command of Col. Richard 
M. Johnson, afterward vice-president of the United States. Early in the 
engagement Tecumseh was killed at the head of his column of Indians, who, 
no longer hearing the voice of their chief, fled in confusion. It has been 
claimed by some authorities that this celebrated chief was killed by Col. 
Johnson, who fired at him with a pistol. This, however, will remain one 
of the unsolved problems of history. The result of the battle was a com- 
plete victory for the Americans, with the capture of 600 prisoners, six pieceB 
of cannon, and a large quantity of army stores. 

This decisive victory over the combined forces of the British and Indians 
practically closed the war in the Northwest, and as a consequence peace 


with the Indian tribes soon followed. Other treaties were negotiated with 
the Indians by which they gave up their title to additional large tracts of 
territory. The settlement of the country progressed rapidly, and again an 
era of apparent good will prevailed between the whites and Indians. By the 
end of the year 1817, the Indian title, with some moderate reservations, had 
been extinguished to the whole of the land within the State of Ohio, to a 
great part of that in Michigan Territory, and in the State of Indiana. In 
1817 Gov. Cass, of Michigan, in conjunction with Gov. McArthur, of Ohio, 
obtained accession of most of the remaining lands in Ohio with some adjoin- 
ing tracts in Indiana and Michigan, amounting in all to about 4,000,000 of 
acres, and in 1819 Gov. Oass met the Chippewas at Saginaw and obtained a 
cession of lands in the peninsula of Michigan to the extent of about 6,000,000 
of acres. The next year a treaty was made at Chicago, then nothing but a 
military post, called lort Dearborn, with the Chippewas, Ottawas and Potta- 
wattamies, by which a large additional tract was obtained, which completed 
the extinguishment of the Indian title to the peninsula of Michigan south of 
the Grand river. By 1820 a nnmber of military posts were established far 
in the interior, and among them was one at Belle Point on the Arkansas, at 
Council Bluffs on the Missouri, at St. Peters on the Mississippi, and at Green 
Bay on the upper lakes. 

During the month of June, 1823, Gen. Ashley and his party, who were 
trading under a license from the government, were attacked by the Ricarees 
while trading with the Indians at their request. Several of the party were 
killed and wounded, and their property taken or destroyed. Col. Leaven- 
worth, who cpmmanded Fort Atkinson at Council Bluffs, then the most 
western post, took immediate measures to check this hostile spirit of 
the Eicarees, fearing that it might extend to other tribes in that quarter 
and endanger the lives of traders on the Missouri. With a detachment of 
the regiment stationed at Council Bluffs, he successfully attacked the Bica- 
ree village. The hostile spirit, however, still continued and extended to the 
tribes on the upper Mississippi and the upper lakes. Several parties of 
citizens were plundered and murdered by those tribes during the year' 1824. 
An act of Congress of May 25th of this year, made an appropriation to de- 
fray the expenses of making treaties of trade and friendship with the tribes 
west of the Mississippi, and another act of March 3, 1825, provided for the 
expense of treaties with the Sioux, Chippewas, Menomonees, Sacs and Foxes, 
and other tribes, and also for establishing boundaries and promoting peace 
between them. These objects were in the main accomplished, and by the 
treaties made the government secured large acquisitions of territory. Gov. 
Cass, in conjunction with Gov. Clark, of Missouri, attended a grand council 
of the tribes this year at Prairie du Chien to carry out the purposes of the 
act of Congress last mentioned. During his continuance in office as Gov- 
ernor of Michigan Territory, Gov. Cass made, or participated in the making 
of nineteen treaties with the Indians, and by them acquired lands in Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, to an amount equal to one-fourth 
of the entire area of those States. 

During the summer of 1827, when the commissioners appointed to carry 
into execution certain provisions of a treaty, made August 19th, 1825, with 
various northwestern tribes, were about to arrive at the appointed place of 
meeting, several citizens were murdered, and other acts of hostility were com- 
mitted, especially against the miners at Fever river, near Galena, by a party 


of the "Winnebago tribe, which tribe was one of those associated in the 
treaty. To quell these outrages the governors of the State of Illinois and 
the Territory of Michigan, made levies of militia. These forces, with a 
corps of seven hundred United States troops, under the command of General 
Atkinson, repaired to the scene of danger. The Indians, overawed by the ap- 
pearance of the military, surrendered the perpetrators of the murders, and 
gave assurances of future good behavior. 

For many years it had been the policy of the government to obtain a re- 
linquishment of the title of the Indians to all lands within the limits of the 
States, and as rapidly as possible cause the removal of the tribes to territory 
beyond the Mississippi. In 1830 the Chickasaws and Choctaws, occupying 
portions of the States of Alabama and Mississippi, agreed to remove, and 
in due time carried out their agreement in good faith. The same year a 
treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes, by which they agreed to cede their 
lands to the United States, and remove beyond the Mississippi. The prin- 
cipal village of these united tribes was located at the mouth of Rock river, 
on the east side of the Mississippi, near where the city of Rock Island now 
stands. Here had been an Indian village, according to tradition, for one 
hundred and fifty years. These tribes had owned and occupied the country 
bordering on the Mississippi, to an extent of seven hundred miles, from the 
mouth of the Wisconsin almost to the mouth of the Missouri. The Indians 
did not seem disposed to comply promptly with the terms of the treaty, and 
one band, under the noted chief Black Hawk (lfa-ka,4ai-me-she-kia-kiah), 
evinced a determination to keep possession of their old village. John Rey^ 
nolds, Governor of Illinois, construed their continued residence in the ceded 
territory as an invasion of the State, and under his authority to protect the 
State from invasion, ordered out seven hundred militia to force their re- 
moval, according to the treaty. This interference of the governor of Illi- 
nois with the duties belonging to the Federal Government, obliged the com- 
mander of United States troops in that quarter to co-operate with him, in 
order to prevent a collision between the State militia and the Indians. Fort 
Armstrong, on Rock Island, had been established as early as 1816, and when 
the Black Hawk trouble commenced, was in command of Gen. Atkinson, 
The Indians were overawed by this imposing military force, and yielding to 
necessity, crossed the Mississippi. Black Hawk, feeling exasperated at the 
harsh treatment his people had received, resolved to prosecute a predatory 
war against the white settlements. He united his band of Sacs and Foxes 
with the Winnebagoes, under the command of the Prophet Wabo-ki-e-shiek 
(White Cloud), and in March, 1832, recrossed to the .east side of the Missis- 
sippi. They murdered a number of defenseless families, and committed 
many outrages upon the settlers. The whole frontier became alarmed, and 
many of the settlers fled for safety. The governor of Illinois ordered out 
the State militia, which being joined by four hundred regular troops, con- 
stituted a force of about one thousand, under the command of Gen. Atkin- 
son. They pursued the Indians, and after a campaign of about two months, 
during which two engagements were fought, the war was brought to an end. 
The last, and the decisive battle of the war, is known in history as the bat- 
tle of Bad Axe, being fought on a small tributary of the Wisconsin of that 
name. This battle took place August 2d, 1832, and the force against Black 
Hawk was commanded by Gen. Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin. The Indians 
lost forty of their braves, and Gen. Dodge one. The Indians made but little 


further resistance, and Black Hawk's " British Band," as it was styled, he- 
came demoralized and fled. They reached the Mississippi and were making 
preparations for crossing when they were checked by the captain of the 
steamboat " Warrior," who discharged a six-pounder at them, although they 
had displayed a flag of truce. The next morning Gen. Atkinson arrived 
with his army, and made an attack, which the Indians were now powerless 
to resist. Black Hawk escaped, but was taken by some treacherous Winne- 
bagoe3, and delivered along with the Prophet, on the 27th of August, to 
Gen. Street, at Prairie du Chien. Two of Black Hawk's sons, the Prophet 
and other leaders, were also taken, and by order of the government were con- 
veyed through the principal cities and towns on the seaboard, in order that 
they might be impressed with the greatness and power of the United States. 
For some time Black Hawk was held as a captive, and then through the in- 
tercession of Keokuk, who had been opposed to the war, and had not par- 
ticipated in the hostilities, he was allowed to return to Bock Island, and per- 
mitted to join his people. Treaties were made with the offending tribes by 
which they agreed to compensate for the expense of the war, by ceding a 
valuable part of their territory on the west side of the Mississippi, and to 
immediately remove from the east side. The United States stipulated to 
pay to the three tribes annually, thirty thousand dollars for twenty-seven 
, years, and also to make other provisions for their improvement. By this 
treaty the United States acquired the first territory in Iowa which was 
opened to settlement, It is what is known as the " Black Hawk Purchase," 
and embraced a strip of territory extending from the northern boundary of 
Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, about fifty miles in widthj 
and embracing an area of about six millions of acres. This treaty was made 
on the 21st day of September, 1832, at a council held on the west bank of 
the Mississippi river, where the city of Davenport now stands. Gen. Win- 
field Scott and Gov. John Keynolds, of Illinois, represented the United 
States, and on the part of the Indians there were present Keokuk, Pashe- 
pah o, and about thirty other chiefs and warriors of the Sac and Fox nation. 
Within the limits of this purchase was reserved a tract of 400 square miles, 
situated on Iowa river, and including Keokuk's village. This tract was 
known as " Keokuk's Reserve," and was occupied by the Indians until 1836. 
when it was ceded to the United States. This treaty was negotiated by Gov. 
Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, and on the part of the Indians Keo- 
kuk was the leading spirit. This council was also held on the banks of the 
Mississippi, near the site of the present city of Davenport. The treaty stip- 
ulated for the removal of the Indians to another reservation on the Des 
Moines river. On this an agency was established, where the present town 
of Agency City, in Wapello county, is located. Out of the " Black Hawk 
Purchase" was conveyed to Antoine Le Claire, who was interpreter, and 
whose wife was an Indian, one section of land opposite Bock Island, and 
another at the head of the first rapids above the Island. 

General Joseph M. Street, the agent with the Winnebagoes at Prairie dn 
Chien, was transferred to the Sac and Fox agency on the Des Moines river, 
and in 1838 took measures for building and making the necessary improve- 
ments. In April, of the next year, he removed with his family from Prairie 
du Chien. His health soon began to fail, and on the 5th of May, 1840, 
Gen. Street died. Wapello, a prominent chief of the Sac and Fox nation, 
died in 1842. His remains were interred near those of Gen. Steeet. The 
stone slabs placed over their graves soon after, are inscribed as follows: 



Memory of 


Son of Anthony and Molly Street. 

Born Oct. 18th, 1782, in Virginia; 

Died at the Sac and Fox Agency, 

May 5th, 181,0. 


Memory of 


Born at 

Prairie du Ohien, 1787 : 

Died near the Forks of Skunk, 

March 15th, 181$ — Sac and Fox Nation. 

Wapello had requested that at his death his remains be interred near those 
of Gen. Street. 

After the death of Gen. Street, Maj. John Beach, his son-in-law, received 
the appointment as agent for the Sacs and Foxes, and filled the position to 
the satisfaction of the government. Major Beach was born at Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, Feb. 23d, 1812. After a course of study at Portsmouth 
Academy, in New Hampshire, he received at the age of sixteen, the appoint- 
ment of cadet at the West Point Military Academy, graduating in the class 
of 1832. Receiving his commission as Second Lieutenant by brevet in the 
First U. S. Infantry, of which Zachary Taylor was then colonel, he was or- 
dered to duty on the frontier, and was alternately stationed at Fort Arm- 
strong, Fort Crawford, Prairie du Ohien, and Jefferson Barracks, near St. 
Louis. His hearing having partially failed, in 1838, he resigned his com- 
mission in the army, and was, at the time of his appointment as Indian 
agent, engaged in the U. S. Land Office at Dubuque. He remained at 
Agency City, engaged in mercantile and literary pursuits until his death 
which occurred August 31st, 1874. ' 

At the time of Gen. Street's death, the Indians were occupying their res- 
ervation with their permanent, or spring and summer villages, as follows : 
Upon the banks of the Des Moines, opposite the month of Sugar Creek, 
was the village of Keokuk, and- above were those of Wapello and Appa- 
noose. The village of Hardfish, or Wish-e-co-me-que, as it is in the Indian 
tongue, was located in what is now the heart of Eddyville, where J. P. Eddy 
was licensed by Maj. Beach, the agent, in the summer of 1840, to establish 
a trading post. Not far from the " Forks of Skunk " was a small village 
presided over by Kish-ke-kosh, who, though not a chief, was a man of con- 
siderable influence. Poweshiek, a Fox chief of equal rank with Wapello, 
still had a village on the bank of Iowa river. 

It has been remarked above that Keokuk, who was the chief next in au- 
thority and influence to Black Hawk, was opposed to the war against the 
whites, and persistently refused to take part in the hostilities. When Black 
Hawk's attempt to defy the power of the United States resulted so disas- 
trously to the Indians, and they were obliged to cede still more territory, 
his influence among his people declined, and that of Keokuk increased. 
Black Hawk, however, retained a party of adherents, and for some time a 


sort of rivalry existed between the two chiefs, and this feeling was shared 
to some extent by their respective friends in the tribes. An incident is rela- 
ted by Maj. Beach to show how the traders were ready to take advantage of 
this state of things for their own mercenary purposes. 

When Gen.Harrison became President in 1841, John Chambers, an ex- 
congressman of Kentucky, was appointed Governor of the Territory, suc- 
ceeding Gov. Eobert Lucas. The governor was ex-offido superintendent 
over the Indians and their agencies. Gov. Lucas had favored the Black 
Hawk band, whose chief was .Hardfish. Accordingly when the new gov- 
ernor was appointed, both Keokuk and Hardfish felt that it would be some- 
thing of an object to gain his favor. The latter desired the new governor 
to pursue the policy of his predecessor, while Keokuk wished at least an 
impartial course. Keokuk requested the consent of the agent for him and 
his principal men to visit the governor at Burlington. As it was the policy 
of the government to discountenance such pilgrimages of the Indians, Maj. 
Beach suggested that Gov. Chambers might see proper to visit them at the 
agency. With this expectation Keokuk chose to wait. The Hardfish band, 
under the influence of some of the traders, were less patient. They hast- 
ened to Burlington in a large body, and on their arrival encamped near the 
town, sending to the governor a written notice of their presence, and a 
request for supplies. The governor answered, declining to accede to their 
request, or to hold a council with them. Hardfish and his men returned 
over their weary journey of seventy miles to the agency, very much dis- 
appointed. In the meantime the governor communicated with Major 
Beach, informing him that he would visit the agency soon, and requesting 
him to use his influence to prevent the Indians from making incursions 
. through the white settlements. When the governor fixed his time to be 
present, the bands were all informed, and it was arranged that a grand coun- 
cil should be held. When the day arrived all the Indians, except the Pow- 
eshiek band of Foxes, who were so far away on the Iowa river, were en- 
camped within a convenient distance from the agency. Long before the 
hour fixed for the meeting, the Hardfish party, arrayed in all their toggery, 
and displaying their richest ornaments, came in grand procession upon the 
ground. Having dismounted from their ponies, they formed in file on foot 
and marched into the agency headquarters, where the governor was to receive 
them. Hardfish and some of his principal men shook hands with the gov- 
ernor and then sat down. 

The reader will remember that at this time the nation was in mourning 
for the sudden loss of a President by death, and that Gov. Chambers had 
been one of the warmest and most devoted friends of Gen. Harrison, a fact 
of which Keokuk was fully advised. Chambers had been aid-de-camp to 
Gen. Harrison in the war of 1812, and they had ever after been as father 
and son. Keokuk was shrewd enough to make the most of this. 

The appointed hour for the meeting had passed, and the governor began 
to become impatient for the appearance of Keokuk. At last the sounds of 
the approaching bands were heard faintly floating upon the breeze. After a 
time the procession marched with slow and solemn tread into view, not ar- 
rayed in gaudy feathers, ribbons and trinkets, like the Hardfish band,' but 
with lances and staves wrapped around with wilted grass. No sound of 
bells responded to the tramp of their ponies, and instead of being painted 
in vermillion, their faces presented the sombre hues produced by a kind of 
clay they were wont to use on occasions of solemnity or mourning. Their 



appearace betokened sadness and affliction. Mr. JosiaL. Smart, the interpre- 
ter, informed Gov. Chambers that this was a funeral march, and that some 
one of their principal men must have died during the night. Even Hard- 
fish and his men were at a loss to account for what they saw, and wondered 
who could have died. At last Keokuk and his men dismounted and filed 
slowly and solemnly into the presence of the governor. Keokuk signed to 
the interpreter, and said : 

" Say to our new father that before I take his hand, I will explain to him 
what all this means. We were told not long ago that our Great Father was 
dead. We had heard of him as a great war chief, who had passed much o! 
his life among the red men and knew their wants, and we believed that we 
would always have friendship and justice at his hands. His death has made 
us very sad, and as this is our first opportunity, we thought it would be 
wrong if we did not use it, to show that the hearts of his red children, as 
well as his white, know how to mourn over their great loss; and we had to 
keep our father waiting while we performed that part of our mourning that 
we must always attend to before we leave our lodges with our dead." 

At the conclusion of this speech, Keokuk 'steppped forward and extended 
his hand. The hearty grasp of the governor showed that the wily chief had 
touched the proper cord. The result was, that the Hardfish band received 
no special favors after that, at the expense of the other bands. 


Black Hawk— Treaty of 1804 — Black Hawk's account of the Treaty — Lieut. Pike— Ft. Ed- 
wards — Ft. Madison— Black Hawk and the British— Keokuk recognized as Chief— Ft. 
Armstrong— Sac and Fox Villages — Black Hawk's ''British Band "—Black Hawk War- 
Black Hawk's old age — His death in Iowa — His remains carried away, but recovered^- 
Keokuk — Appanoose — Wapello— Poweshiek — Pash-e-pa-ho — Wish-e-co-ma-que — Chas- 
chun-ca— Mau-haw-gaw— Ma-has-kah— Si-dom-i-na-do-tah— Henry Lott— A Tragedy in 
Humboldt County— Ink-pa-du-tah— Spirit Lake Massacre— Expedition from Ft. Dodge- 
Death of Capt. Johnston and William Burkholder. 


This renowned chief, the "noblest Eoman of them all," was born at the 
Sac village on Eock river, about the year 1767. His first introduction to 
the notice of the whites seems to have been in 1804, when William Henry 
Harrison, then. the Governor of Indiana Territory, concluded his treaty with 
the Sac and Fox nation for the lands bordering on Eock river. Black Hawk 
was then simply a chief, though not by election or inheritance, of his own 
band of Sac warriors, but from that time he was the most prominent, man 
in the Sac and Fox nation. He considered the' action of the four chiefs who 
represented the Indians in making this treaty as unjust and refused to con- 
sider it binding. The territory ceded embraced over fifty-one millions of 
acres, extending almost from opposite St. Louis to the Wisconsin river. 
He claimed that the chiefs or braves who made the treaty had no authority 
to make it, and that they had been sent to St. Louis, where the treaty was 
negotiated, for quite a different purpose, namely: to procure the release of 
one of their people who was held there as a prisoner on charge of killing a 
white man. The United States regarded this treaty as a bona fide transact 
tion, claiming that the lands were sold by responsible men of the tribes, and 
that it was further ratified by a part of the tribes with Gov. Edwards and 


Auguste Choteau, in September, 1815, and again with the same commis- 
sioners in 1816. They claimed that the Indians were only to occupy the 
lands at the Sac village on Kock river until they were surveyed and sold by 
the government, when they were to vacate them. The treaty of St. Louis 
was signed by five chiefs instead of four, although Black Hawk claimed that 
the latter number only were sent to St. Louis for a different purpose. One 
of these was Pash-e-pa-ho, a head chief among the Sacs. Black Hawk him- 
self thus describes the return of the chiefs to Bock Island after the treaty: 

, " Quash-qua-me and party remained a long time absent. They at length 
returned, and encamped a short distance below the village, but did not come 
up that day, nor did any person approach their camp, They appeared to be 
dressed in fine coats, and had medals. From these circumstances we were 
in hopes that they had brought good news. Early the next morning the 
council lodge was crowded. Quash-qua-me came up and said that on their 
arrival in St. Louis they met their American father, and explained to him 
their business, and urged the release of their friend. The American chief told 
them he wanted land, and that they had agreed to give him some on the west 
side of the Mississippi, and som6 on the Illinois side, opposite the Jeffreon* 
that when the business was all arranged, they expected their friend released 
to come home with them. But about the time they were ready to start, 
their friend was let out of prison, who ran a short distance, and was shot 
dead! This was all'myself or nation knew of the treaty of 1804. It has 
been explained to me since. I find, by that treaty, that all our country east 
of the Mississippi, and south of the Jeffreon, was ceded to the United States 
for one thousand dollars a year!" 

The treaty was doubtless made in good faith on the part of the commis- 
sioners, and with the full conviction that it was by authority of the tribes. 
From this time forward Black Hawk seems to have entertained a distrust of 
the Americans. 

Although Spain had ceded the country west of the Mississippi to France 
in 1801, the former power still held possession until its transfer to the United 
States by France. Black Hawk and his band were at St. Louis at this time, 
and he was invited to be present at the ceremonies connected with the 
change of authorities. He refused the invitation; and in giving an account 
of the transaction, said: 

" I found many sad and gloomy faces, because the United States were about 
to take possession of the town and country. Soon after the Americans came, I 
took my band and went to take leave of our Spanish father. The Americans 
came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out of one door as 
they entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for our village 
on Kock river, not liking the change any more than our friends appeared 
to at St. Louis. On arriving at our village, we gave the news that strange 
people had arrived at St. Louis, and that we should never see our Spanish 
father again. The information made all our people sorry." 

In August, 1805, Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike ascended the river from St. 
Louis, for the purpose of holding councils with the Indians, and selecting 
sites for military posts within the country recently acquired from France. 
At the mouth of Bock river he had a personal interview with Black Hawk, 
the latter being favorably impressed with the young lieutenant. Speaking 
of this interview, Black Hawk himself said: 

"A boat came up the river with a young American chief, and a small 
party of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed Salt river. 


Some of our young braves watched them every day, to see what sort of peo- 
ple he had on board. The boat at length arrived at Bock Island, and the 
young chief came on shore with his interpreter, and made a speech, and 
gave us some presents. We, in turn, presented them with meat and such 
other provisions as we had to spare. We were well pleased with the young 
chief. He gave us good advice, and said our American father would treat 

118 \r©ll 

Lieut. Pike's expedition was soon followed by the erection of Fort Ed- 
wards and Fort Madison, the former on the site of the present town of 
Warsaw, Illinois, and the latter on the site of the present town of Fort 
Madison, Iowa. When these forts were being erected, the Indians sent down 
delegations, headed by some of their chiefs, to have an interview with the 
Americans. Those who visited Fort Edwards returned apparently satisfied 
with what was being done. The erection of Fort Madison they claimed was 
a violation of the treaty of 1804. In that treaty the United States had 
agreed that if "any white persons should form a settlement on their lands, 
such intruders should forthwith be removed." Fort Madison was erected 
within the territory reserved for the Indians, and this they considered an intru- 
sion. Some time afterward a party under the leadership of Black Hawk 
and Pash-e-pa-ho attempted its destruction. They sent spies to watch the 
movements of the garrison. Five soldiers who came out were fired upon by 
the Indians, and two of the soldiers were killed. They kept up the attack 
for several days. Their efforts to destroy the fort being unsuccessful, they 
returned to Rock river. 

When the war of 1812 broke out, Black Hawk and his band allied them- 
selves with the British, which was the origin of his party, at a later date, 
being known as the "British Band." In narrating the circumstances which 
induced him to join the British, he says: 

" Several of the chiefs and head men of the Sacs and Foxes were called 
upon to go to Washington to see the Great Father. On their return they 
related what had been said and done. They said the Great Father wished 
them, in the event of a war taking place with England, not to interfere on 
either side, but to remain neutral. He did not want our help, but wished us to 
hunt and support our families and live in peace. He said that British traders 
would not be permitted to come on the Mississippi to furnish us with goods, 
but that we should be supplied by an American trader. Our chiefs then told 
him that the British traders always gave them credit in the fall for guns, powder 
and goods to enable us to hunt and clothe our families. He replied that the 
trader at Fort Madison would have plenty of goods; that we should go there 
in the fall, and he would supply us on credit, as the British traders had 

According to Black Hawk, this proposition pleased his people, and they 
went to Fort Madison to receive their promised outfit for the winter's hunt, 
but notwithstanding the promise of the Great Father, at Washington, the 
trader would not give them credit. In reference to their disappointment, 
Black Hawk says: 

"Few of us^slept that night; all was gloom and discontent. In the morn- 
ing a canoe was seen descending the river; it soon arrived, bearing an ex- 
?ress, who brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Rock 
Bland, with two boats loaded with goods, and requested us to come up im- 
mediately, because he had good news for us, and a variety of presents. The 
express presented us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The news ran 


through our camp like fire on a prairie. Our lodges were soon taken down, 
and all started for Rock Island. Here ended all hopes of our remaining at 
peace, having been forced into the war by being deceived." 

Black Hawk and his band then espoused the cause of the British, who, as 
in the case of Tecumseh, gave him the title of "Gen. Black Hawk." But 
a large portion of the Sacs and Foxes, at the head of whom was Keokuk, 
chose to remain neutral, as well as to abide by the treaty of 1804. Of this 
party Keokuk was the recognized chief. The nation was divided into the 
"war party" and " peace party." Black Hawk maintained his fidelity to 
the British until the end of the war, and was the intimate friend and sup- 
porter of Tecumseh, until the death of the latter at the battle of the Thames. 

At the close of the war of 1812, Black Hawk returned to his village on 
Rock river, to find Keokuk still the friend of the Americans, and the recog- 
nized war chief of that portion of the Sac and Fox nation which had re- 
mained neutral. As stated elsewhere, a new treaty was concluded in Sep- 
tember, 1815, in which, among other matters, the treaty of St. Louis was rati- 
fied. This treaty was not signed by Black Hawk, or any one representing his 
band, but was signed by chiefs of both the Sacs and Foxes,who were fully an thor- 
ized to do so. This treaty was held at Portage des Sioux,and was a result of the 
war of 1812, with England. In May, 1816, another treaty was held at St. 
Louis, in which the St. Louis treaty of 1804 was recognized. This treaty 
was signed by Black Hawk and twenty other chiefs and braves. The same 
year Fort Armstrong was erected upon Rock Island, a proceeding very dis- 
tasteful to the Indians. Of this Black Hawk says : 

"We did not, however, object to their building the fort on the island, but 
we were very sorry, as this was the best island on the Mississippi, and had 
long been the resort of our young people during the summer. It was our gar- 
den, like the white people have near their big villages, which supplied us with 
strawberries, blackberries, plums, apples and nuts of various kinds ; and its 
waters supplied us with pure fish, being situated in the rapids of the river. In 
my early life, I spent many happy days on this island. A good spirit had care 
of it, who lived in a cave in the rocks, immediately under the place where 
the fort now stands, and has often been seen by our people. He was white, 
with large wings like a swan's, but ten times larger. We were particular 
not to make much noise in that part of the island which he inhabited, for 
fear of disturbing him. But the noise of the fort has since driven him away, 
and no doubt a bad spirit has since taken his place." 

The expedition which was sent up the river to erect a fort at or near Rock 
Island, consisted at first of the Eighth United States Infantry, and started 
from St. Louis in September, 1815, under the command Col. R C. Nichols. 
They reached the mouth of the Des Moines, where they wintered. In April, 
1816, Gen. Thomas A. Smith arrived and took command of the expedition. 
They reached Rock Island on the 10th of May, and, after a careful exami- 
nation, the site for the fort was selected. The regiment being left under the 
command of Ool. Lawrence, the work on the fort immediately commenced. 
It was named in honor of John Armstrong of New York, who had recently 
been Secretary of War. 

After the establishment of the fort and garrison at Rock Island settlements 
began to be made at and near the mouth of Rock river, on the east side of the 
Mississippi. Keokuk, as the head chief of the Foxes, with his tribe, in accord- 
ance with the treaties they had made with the United States, left in 1828 and 
established themselves on Iowa river, but Black Hawk and his "British 


Band" of about 500 warriors remained in their village and persistently 
refused to leave. The settlers began to complain of frequent depredations at 
the hands of Black Hawk's people, and feared that the neighboring tribes of 
Kickapoos, Pottawattamies, and "Winnebagoes, might be induced to join 
Black Hawk in a war of extermination. Finally, in the spring of 1831, Black 
Hawk warned the settlers to leave. These troubles culminated in the 
" Black Hawk War," and the final capture of the chief and some of his prin- 
cipal men, as related elsewhere. The Black Hawk War ended hostilities 
with the Indians at or near Bock Island. A garrison, however, was main- 
tained there until 1836, when the troops were sent to Fort Snelling. The 
fort was left in charge of Lieut. John Beach, with a few men to take care of 
the property. 

After his capture, Black Hawk and several of his principal men were 
taken to Jefferson Barracks, where they were kept until the the spring of 
1833. They were then sent to Washington, where they arrived on the 22d 
of April, and on the 26th were confined in Fortress Monroe. On the 4th of 
June, 1833, they were set at liberty by order of the government and per- 
mitted to return to their own country. 

In the fall of 1837 Black Hawk, accompanied by Keokuk, Wapello, Powe- 
shiek, and some forty of the principal chiefs and braves of the Sac and Fox 
nations, again visited Washington, in charge of Col. George Davenport, who 
by his influence with the Indians assisted the government in making another 
large purchase of territory in Iowa. This tract adjoined the " Black Hawk 
Purchase," and embraced 1,250,000 acres. 

After Black Hawk's release from captivity in 1833, he seemed unwilling 
to reside in any of the villages of the tribe. His band was broken up and 
dispersed, as stipulated in the treaty of peace, and he seemed to seek seclu- 
sion from his people. While the garrison remained at Bock Island, he 
usually lived near it, and often put up his wigwam close to the fort, where 
his vision could take in the beautiful country on the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi, which had been his home for more than half a century. But the time 
came when he must go with his people to the new reservation on the banks 
of the Des Moines. He was then in the waning years of his life, and the 
other chiefs of the nation seemed disposed to pay him but little attention. 
His family consisted of his wife, two sons and one daughter. He established 
his lodge on the east bank of the Des Moines, about three miles below the 
site of the present town of Eldon. Gen. Street presented the family with a 
cow, which was a piece of property which exacted much solicitude and care 
at the hands of Madame Black Hawk. His lodge was near the trading post 
of Wharton McPherson ; and James Jordan, who was also at that time con- 
nected with the post, had his cabin within a few rods of Black Hawk's lodge. 
This was in the summer of 1838, and the old chief who had defied the power 
of the United States and caused the expenditure of millions of treasure to > 
subdue him, was nearing his departure for a final remove beyond the power 
of earthly governments. Near his lodge, on the bank of the river, stood a 
large elm tree, with its spreading branches overhanging the stream, and 
flowing from its roots was a crystal spring of pure water. Here during the 
sultry summer days of that year Black Hawk was wont to repose and dream 
over the years of his former greatness and the wrongs that his people had 
suffered. At last, on the 3d of October, 1838, death came to his relief, 
and, according to the Indian idea, his spirit passed away to the happy hunt- 
ing grounds. 


^ The remains of Black Hawk were interred by his family and friends near 
his cabin on the prairie, a short distance above the old town of Iowaville. 
The body was placed on a board, or slab, set up in an inclining position, with 
the feet extending into the ground some fifteen inches and the head elevated 
above the surface some three feet or more. This was enclosed by placino- 
slabs around it with the ends resting on the ground and meeting at the top^ 
forming a land of vault. The whole was then covered with dirt and neatly 
sodded. _ At the head of the grave was placed a flag-staff thirty feet high, 
from which floated the American flag until it was worn out by the wind. 
Interred with the body were a number of his prized and long-treasured 
relics, including a military suit presented by Jackson's cabinet; a sword pre- 
sented by Jackson himself; a cane presented by Henry Clay, and another 
by a British officer ; and three silver medals — one presented by Jackson, one 
by John Quincy Adams, and the other by citizens of Boston. Near the 
grave a large post was set in the ground, on which were inscribed in Indian 
characters, emblems commemorating many of his heroic deeds. The 

gave and flag-staff were enclosed by a rude picket fence in circular form, 
ere the body remained until July, 1839, when it disappeared. On com- 
plaint being made by Black Hawk's family, the matter was investigated, and it 
was finally traced to one Dr. Turner, who then resided at a place called Lex- 
ington, in Yan Buren county. The remains had been taken to Illinois, but 
at the earnest request of Black Hawk's relatives, Gov. Lucas interposed and 
had them sent to Burlington. The sons were informed that the remains 
were in Burlington and went to that place to obtain them. While there it 
was suggested to them that if taken away they would only be stolen again, 
and they concluded to leave them where they thought they might be more 
safely preserved. They were finally placed in a museum in that city, and 
years after, with a large collection of other valuable relics, were destroyed by 
the burning of the building. In the meantime the relatives of the renowned 
chief removed westward with the rest of the tribe, and were finally lost to 
all knowledge of the white man. 


Keokuk (Watchful Fox) belonged to the Sac branch of the nation, and 
was born on Bock river, in 1780. He was an orator, but was also entitled 
to rank as a warrior, for he possessed courage and energy, but at the same 
time a cool judgment. He had an intelligent appreciation of the power and 
greatness of the United States, and saw the futility of Black Hawk's hope to 
contend successfully against the government. In his first battle, while 
young, he had killed a Sioux, and for this he was honored with a feast by 
his tribe. 

At the beginning of the Black Hawk War an affair transpired which was 
dignified by the name of the " Battle of Stillman's Eun," in which some three 
hundred volunteers under Maj. Stillman took prisoners five of Black Hawk's 
men who were approaching with a flag of truce. One of the prisoners was 
shot by Stillman's men. Black Hawk had also sent five other men to follow 
the bearers of the flag. The troops came upon these and killed two of them. 
The other three readied their camp and gave the alarm. Black Hawk's 
warriors then charged upon Stillman's advancing troops and completely 
routed them. This failure to respect the flag of truce so exasperated the 
Indians that it was with great difficulty that Keokuk could restrain his war- 
riors from espousing the cause of Black Hawk. Stillman's defeat was fol- 


lowed by a war-dance, in which Keokuk took part. After the dance he 
called a council of war, and made a speech in which he admitted the justice 
of their complaints. The blood of their brethren slain by the white men, 
while bearing a flag of truce, called loudly for vengeance. Said he: 

" I am your chief, and it is my duty to lead you to battle, if, after fully con- 
sidering the matter, you are determined to go. But before you decide on 
taking this important step, it is wise to inquire into the chances of success. 
But if you do determine to go upon the war path, I will agree to lead you on 
one condition, viz.: that before we go we will kill all our old men and our 
wives and our children, to save them from a lingering death of starvation* 
and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on the other side of 
the Mississippi." 

Keokuk so forcibly portrayed in other parts of this speech the great 
power of the United States, and of the hopeless prospect before them, that 
his warriors at once abandoned all thought of joining Black Hawk. 

The name Keokuk signified Watchful Fox. As we have seen, he eventu- 
ally superseded Black Hawk, and was recognized by the United States as the 
principal chief of the Sac and Fox nation, which, indeed, had much to do in 
stinging the pride of the imperious Black Hawk. In person he was strong, 

fraceful and commanding, with fine features and an intelligent countenance, 
[e excelled m horsemanship, dancing, and all athletic exercises. He was 
courageous and skillful in war, but mild and politic in peace. He had a 
son, a fine featured, promising boy, who died at Keokuk's village on the 
Des Moines. Keokuk himself became somewhat dissipated during the later 
years of his life in Iowa. It was reported that after his removal withhis people 
to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi, he died of delirium tremens, 
Iowa has honored his memory in the name of one of her counties, and one 
of her principal cities. 


Appanoose was a chief who presided over a band of the Sacs. His name, 
in the language of that tribe, signified "A Chief "When a Child," indicating 
that he inherited his position. It was said he was equal in rank with Keo- 
kuk, but he did not possess the influence of the latter. He was one of the 
" peace chiefs " during the Black Hawk War. During the last occupation of 
Iowa soil by the Sacs and Foxes, Appanoose had his village near the site of the 
present city of Ottumwa. His people cultivated a portion of the ground on 
which that city is located. He was one of the delegation sent toSVashing- 
ton in 1837, at which time he visited with the other chiefs the city of Boston, 
where they were invited to a meeting in Fanueil Hall. On that occasion he 
made the most animated speech, both in manner and matter, that was deliv- 
ered by the chiefs. After Keokuk had spoken, Appanoose arose and said: 

" You have heard just now what my chief has to say. All our chiefs and 
warriors are very much gratified by our visit to this town. Last Saturday 
they were invited to a great house, and now they are in the great council- 
house. They are very much pleased with so much attention. This we can- 
not reward you for now, but shall not forget it, and hope the Great Spirit 
will reward you for it. This is the place which our forefathers once inhabi- 
ted. I have often heard my father and grandfather say they lived near the 
sea-coast where the white man first came. I am glad to hear all this from 
you. I suppose it is put in a book, where you learn all these things. As 
far as I can understand the language of the white people, it appears to me 





that the Americans have attained a very high rank among the white people. 
It is the same with us, though I say it myself. Where we live beyond the 
Mississippi, I am respected Dy all people, and they consider me the tallest 
among them. I am happy that two great men meet and shake hands with 
each other." 

As Appanoose concluded his speech, he suited the action tp the word by 
extending his hand to Gov. Everett, amid the shouts of applause from the 
audience, who were not a little amused at the self-complacency of the orator. 
But few of the incidents in the life of this chief have passed into history. 
His name has been perpetuated in that of one of the Iowa counties. > 


"Wapello, or Waupellow, was one of the minor chiefs of the Sac and Fox 
Nation. He was born at Prairie du Chien, in 1787. At the time of the 
erection of Fort Armstrong (1816) he presided over one of the three prin- 
cipal villages in that vicinity. His village there was on the east side bt the 
Mississippi, near the foot of Rock Island, and about three miles north of 
the famous Black Hawk village. In 1829 he removed his village, to Musca- 
tine Slough, and then to a place at or near where the town of Wapello, in 
Louisa county, is now located. Like Keokuk, he was in favor of abiding 
by the requirements of the treaty of 1804, and opposed the hostilities in 
which Black Hawk engaged against the whites. He was one of the chiefs 
that visited "Washington in 1837, and his name appears to several treaties 
relinquishing lands to the United States. He appears to have been a warm 
personal friend of Gen. Jos. M. Street, of the Sac and Fox agency, and made 
a request that at his death his remains be interred along side of those of 
Gen. Street, which request was complied with. He died near the Forks of 
Skunk river, March 15th, 1842, at the age of 55 years. His remains, with 
those of Gen. Street, repose near Agency City, in the county which honors 
his memory with its name. The two graves and the monuments have re- 
cently been repaired by parties connected with the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad, whose line passes within a few rods of tnem. 


Poweshiek was a chief of the same rank with Wapello, and near the same 
age. He also was one of the chiefs who visited Washington in 1837. When 
the greater portion of the Sac and Fox nation removed to the Des Moines 
river, he retained his village on the Iowa river, where he presided over 
what was known as the Musquawkie band of the Sacs and Foxes. In May, 
1838, when Gen. Street organized a party to examine the new purchase made 
the fall before, with a view of selecting a site for the agency, the expedition 
' was accompanied by about thirty braves, under the command of Powesfaiek. 
At that time the Sacs and Foxes were at war with the Sioux, and after leav- 
ing their reservation these men were very fearful that they might be sur- 
prised and cut off by the Sioux. A small remnant of his band make their 
homo on Iowa river, in Tama county, at this time. He also remained the 
friend of the whites during the Black Hawk war, and the people of Iowa 
have honored his memory by giving his name to one of their counties. 



Pash-e-pa-ho, called also the Stabbing Chief, at the time of the treaty of 
1804, and until after the Black Hawk war, was head chief among the Sacs. 
He was also present in St. Louis at the making of that treaty," and was even 
then well advanced in years. It has been related that he laid a plan to at- 
tack Fort Madison, not long after its erection. His plan was to gain an 
entrance to the fort with concealed arms under their blankets, under a pre- 
tense of holding a council. A squaw, however, had secretly conveyed intel- 
ligence to the commandant of the garrison of the intended attack, so that the 
troops were in readiness for them. When Pash-e-pa-ho and his warriors ad- 
vanced in a body toward the closed gate, it suddenly opened, revealing to 
the astonished savages a cannon in the passage-way, and the gunner stand- 
ing with lighted torch in hand ready to fire. Pash-e-pa-ho deemed " discre- 
tion the better part of valor ", and retreated. 

Some time after the plot against Fort Madison, Pash-e-pa-ho made an at- 
tempt to obtain a lodgement in Fort Armstrong, though in quite a different 
way. Several of his braves had the year before, while out hunting, fell in 
with a party of their enemies, the Sioux, and had.lifted several of their scalps. 
The Sioux complained of this outrage to the Department at Washington, 
and orders were issued demanding the surrender of the culprits. They were 
accordingly brought and retained as prisoners in Fort Armstrong, where they 
had comfortable quarters and plenty to eat during the winter. Having fared 
sumptuously for several months, without effort on their part, they were re- 
leased on the payment of a small amount out of the annuities of their tribes, 
to the Sioux, The next fall Pash-e-pa-ho thought he might avoid the trouble 
of stocking his larder for the winter. So he voluntarily called on the com- 
mandant of Fort Armstrong, and informed him that while on a recent hunt 
he had unfortunately met a Sioux, and had yielded to the temptation to get 
his scalp. He confessed that he had done a very wrongful act, and wished 
to save the Great Father at Washington the trouble ot sending a letter or- 
dering his arrest; therefore he would surrender himself as a prisoner. The 
commandant saw through his scheme to obtain comfortable quarters and 
good boarding for the winter, and so told him he was an honorable Indian, 
and that his voluntary offer to surrender himself was a suflicient guarantee 
that he would appear when sent for. That was the last that was heard of 
the matter. Pash-e-pa-ho was never sent for. 

During the first quarter of the present century the Sacs' and Foxes were 
frequently at war with the Iowas. The latter had one of their principal villa- 
ges on tlie Des Moines river, near where Black Hawk died many years af- 
terward. It was here that the last great battle was fought between these 
tribes. Pash-e-pa-ho was chief in command of the Sacs and Foxes. Black 
Hawk was also a prominent actor in this engagement, but was subject to 
his senior, Pash-e-pa-ho. Accounts conflict as to the date, but the eviden- 
ces of the conflict were plainly visible as late as 1824. The Sacs and Foxes 
surprised the Iowas while the latter were engaged in running their horses 
on the prairie, and therefore unprepared to defend themselves. The result 
was that Pash-e-pa-ho achieved a decisive victory over the Iowas. 

Pash-e-pa-ho was among the chiefs present at the making of the treaty 
of 1832, when the " Black Hawk Purchase " was made. He was very much 
wiven to intemperate habits whenever he could obtain liquor, and it is prob- 
ble that, like Keokuk, he died a drunkard. 



Quite prominent among the Sacs and Foxes, after their removal to Iowa, 
■was a man known by the name of Hardfish, or Wish-e-co-rna-que, as it 
is in the Indian tongue. He was not a chief, but a brave who rose al- 
most to the prominence of a chief. He adhered to Black Hawk in his hos- 
tility toward the whites, and when Black Hawk died, Hardfish became the 
leader of his band, composed mostly of those who had participated in the 
Black Hawk war. When the Sacs and Foxes occupied their reservation on 
the Des Moines river, Hardfish had his village where Eddyville is now lo- 
cated. It was quite as respectable in size as any of the other villages of the 
Sacs and Foxes. Hardfish's band was composed of people from the Sac 
branch of the Sac and Fox nation. One John Goodell was the interpreter 
for this band. The name of Hardfish was quite familiar to the frontier 
settlers of Southeastern Iowa. 


When, in 1834, Gen. Henry Dodge made a treaty with the Winnebagoes 
for the country occupied by them in Wisconsin, they were transferred to a 
strip of land extending west from the Mississippi, opposite Prairie du Chien, 
to the Des Moines river, being a tract forty miles in width. The chief of 
the Winnebagoes at that time was Chos-chun-ca, or Big Wave. Soon after 
their removal to this reservation they were visited by Willard Barrows, one 
of the pioneers of Davenport, who had an interview with Chos-chnn-ca. 
He found him clothed in a buffalo overcoat, and wearing a high crowned 
hat. His nose was surmounted by a pair of green spectacles. Mr. Barrows 
held his interview with the chief just south of the lower boundary of the 
reservation. Chos-chun-ca was quite reticent as to the affairs of his people, 
and refused permission to Mr. Barrows to explore the Winnebago reserva- 
tion, being impressed with the idea that the whites had sent him to seek out 
all the fine country, and that if their lands were found desirable, then the 
Indians would be compelled to remove again. Mr. Barrows, however, with- 
out the chief's permission, passed safely through their territory. 


The greater portion of the territory embraced within the limits of Iowa, 
was once occupied by a tribe, or nation of Indians, known in history as the 
Iowas (or Ioways), who for many years maintained an almost constant war- 
fare with the Sioux, a powerful rival who lived to the north of them. The 
Iowas were originally the Pau-hoo-chee tribe, and lived in the region of the 
lakes, to the northeast, but about the year 1700 they followed their chief, 
Man-haw-gaw, to the banks of the Mississippi, and crossing over, settled on 
the west bank of Iowa river, near its month, and there established a village. 
They called the river on which they established their empire, Ne-o-ho-nee, 
or " Master of Rivers." For some years they prospered and multiplied, but 
the Sioux began to envy them the prosperity which they enjoyed, and with 
no good intentions came down to visit them. Sending to Mau-haw-gaw 
the pipe of peace, with an invitation to join them in a dog feast, they made 
great professions of friendship. The Iowa chief, having confidence in their 
protestations of good feeling, accepted the invitation. In the midst of the 


feast the perfidious Sioux suddenly attacked and killed the unsuspecting 
Mau-haw-gaw. This outrage was never forgiven by the Iowas. 


One of the most noted chiefs of the Iowas was Ma-has-kah (White 
Cloud), a descendant of Mau-haw-gaw. He led his warriors in eighteen 
battles against the Sioux on the north, and the Osages on the south, but 
never failed to achieve a victory. He made his home on the Des Moines 
river, about one hundred miles above the mouth, and must have been some- 
thing of a Mormon, for it is said he had seven wives. In 1824 he was one 
of a party of chiefs who visited Washington. He left his home on the Des 
Moines to go down the river on his way to join his party, and when near 
where the city of Keokuk is now located, he stopped to prepare and eat his 
venison. He had just commenced his meal when some one struck him on 
the back. Turning round, he was surprised to see one of his wives, Eant- 
che-wai-me (Female Flying Pigeon), standing with an uplifted tomahawk 
in her hand. She accosted nim with — " Am I your wife ? Are you my hus- 
band ? If so, I will go with you to Maw-he-hum-ne-che (the American big 
house), and see and shake the hand of In-co-ho-nee ", meaning the Great 
Father, as they called the President. Ma-has-kah answered: "Yes, you are 
my wife ; I am your husband ; I have been a long time from you ; I am 
glad to see you ; you are my pretty wife, and a brave man always loves to 
see a pretty woman." Ma-has-kah went on to Washington accompanied by 
his " pretty wife ", Eant-che-wai-mie, who received many presents, but saw 
many things of which she disapproved. When she returned, she called to- 
gether the matrons and maidens of the tribe, and warned them against the 
vices and follies of their white sisters. This good Indian woman was killed 
by being thrown from her horse, some time after her return from Washing- 
ton. In 1834 Ma-has-kah was also killed about sixty miles from his home, 
on the Nodaway, by an enemy who took a cowardly advantage of him. At 
the time of his "death he was fifty years of age. After his death all his sur- 
viving wives went into mourning and poverty, according to the custom of 
the tribe, except one named Mis-so-rah-tar-ra-haw (Female Deer that bounds 
over the prairie), who refused to the end of her life to be comforted, saying 
that her husband "was a great brave, and was killed by dogs", meaning 
low, vulgar fellows. 

Soon after the death of Ma-has-kah, his son of the same name, at the age 
of twenty-four, became the chief of the Iowas. His mother was Eant-che- 
wai-me, whose tragic death is mentioned above. He also visited Washing- 
ton in the winter of 1836-7, for the purpose of obtaining redress for injus- 
tice, which he claimed had been done to his people by the government, in 
failing to keep intruders from their lands, and in disregarding other stipu- 
lations of the treaty made with his father in 1825. 


When the whites began to make settlements on the upper Des Moines, 
the region about Fort Dodge and Spirit Lake was inhabited by Sioux In- 
dians, made up principally of that division of the great Sioux or Dacotah 
nation known by the name of Sisiton Sioux. When, in 1848, the govern- 
ment surveys of the lands purchased north of the Eaccoon Forks were in pro- 
gress, Mr. Marsh, of Dubuque, set out with his party to run the correction 


line from a point on the Mississippi, near Dubuque, to the Missouri river,, 
In this work he was not molested until he crossed the Des Moines, when on 
the west bank of the river, he was met by a party of Sioux, under the lead- 
ership of their chief, Si-dom-i-na-do-tah, who notified Mr. Marsh and his 
party that they should proceed no farther, as the country belonged to the 
Indians. The Sioux then left, and Mr. Marsh concluded to continue. his 
work. He had not proceeded more than a mile when Si-dom:i-na-do-tah. 
and his band returned and surrounded the party, robbing them of every- 
thing. They took their horses, destroyed their wagons and surveying instru- 
ments, destroyed the land-marks, and drove the surveying party back to the 
east side of the river. This, and other outrages committed on families who, 
in the fall of 1849, ventured to make claims on the upper Des Moines, led 
to the establishment of a military post at Fort Dodge in 1850. 

In the winter of 1846-7 one Henry Lott, an adventurous border char- 
acter, had, with his family, taken up his residence at the mouth of Boone, 
river, in what is now Webster county, and within the range, of Si-dom-i-na- 
do-tah's band. Lott had provided himself with some goods and a .barrel of 
whisky, expecting to trade with the Indians,, and obtain their furs and robes. 
In a short time he was waited upon by the chief and six of his braves and; 
informed that he was an intruder and that he must leave within a certain time. 
The time having expired, and Lott still remaining, the Indians destroyed 
his property, shooting his stock and robbing his bee-hives, s Lott and his 
step-son made their way to the nearest settlement, at Pea's Point, about 16 
miles south* and reported that his family had been murdered by the Indians, 
as he doubtless thought they would be after he left. , John Pea and half a 
dozen other white men, accompanied by some friendly Indians of another 
tribe, who happened to be in that vicinity, set out with Lott for- the mouth 
of Boone river. When they arrived they found that the. family had not 
been tomahawked, as he had reported. One little boy, however, aged about 
twelve years, had attempted to follow his father in his flight, by going down 
the Des Moines river on the ice. Being thinly clad, the little fellow froze to, 
death after traveling on the ice a distance of about twenty miles. The body 
of the child was subsequently found. The sequel shows that Lott was de- 
termined on revenge. 

. In November, 1853, Lott ventured about thirty miles north of Fort Dodge, 
where he pretended to make a claim, in what is now Humboldt county, He 
took with him several barrels of whisky and some goods, and he and his 
step-son built a cabin near what is now known as Lott's creek in that 
county. Si-dom-i-na-do-tah had his cabin on the creek about a mile west of. 
Lott's. In January, 1854, Lott and his step-son went to the cabin of the 
old chief and told him that they had seen, on their way over, a drove of elk 
feeding on the bottom lands, and induced the old man to mount his pony, 
with gun in hand, to go in pursuit of the elk. Lott and his step-son fol- 
lowed, and when they had. proceeded some distance they shot and killed Si- 
dom-i-na-do-tah. That same night they attacked and killed six of the chief's 
family, including his wife and two children, his aged mother, and two young 
children she had in charge — including with the chief, seven victims in all. Two 
children, a boy of twelve, and a girl, of ten years of age, escaped by hiding 
themselves. Some days after, the . Indians reported the murders at Fort 
Dodge, thinking at first that the slaughter had been perpetuated by some of 
their Indian enemies. Investigation soon revealed the fact that Lott and his 
step-son had committed the deed. Their cabin was found burned down, and 


a slight snow on the ground showed the track of their wagon in a circuitous 
route southward, avoiding Fort Dodge. Intelligence of them was received 
at various points where they had been trying to sell furs and other articles, 
and where the chief's pony was noticed to be in their possession. Having 
several days start, they made their way across the Missouri and 'took the 
plains for California, where, it was subsequently learned, Lott'was killed in 
a quarrel. It is believed by many of the old settlers of Northern Iowa that 
this outrage of* Henry Lott was the cause of that other tragedy, or rather 
series of tragedies, in the history of Northern Iowa, known as the "Spirit 
Lake Massacre." 


Ink-pa-du-tah, it is said, was the brother, and became the successor, of the 
chief who was murdered by Henry Lott. He is known to the whites chiefly 
in connection with the horrible outrages committed at Spirit and Okoboji 
Lakes in Northern Iowa, and at Springfield in Southern Minnesota. He, 
in connection with U-tan-ka-sa-pa (Black Buffalo), headed a band of about 
eighteen lodges of Sioux, who, in the spring of 1857, robbed the settlers and 
committed the most inhuman outrages, culminating in the massacres of the 
8th and 9th of March of that year. During the year 1856 a dozen or more 
families had settled about the lakes, while along the valley of the Little Sioux 
river at Smithland, Cherokee, and Liock Rapids there were settlements. 
Ink-pa-du-tah and his band commenced their depredations at Smithland, and 
passing up the Little Sioux made hostile demonstrations both at Cherokee 
and Rock Rapids, killing stock and carrying away whatever they saw proper 
to take, but committed no murders until they reached the infant settlement 
at the lakes. There, and at Springfield, a small settlement in Minnesota a 
few miles northeast, they killed forty-one, wounded three, and took with 
them as captives four women — Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Thatcher, Mrs. Marble, and 
Miss Gardner. Twelve persons were missing, some of whose remains were 
afterward found, having been killed while attempting to escape. Of the 
four women taken captives, two were killed on their night, Mrs. Howe and 
Mrs. Thatcher. The other two, Mrs. Marble and Miss Gardner, were some 
months after, through the efforts of Gov. Madarie, of Minnesota, and the 
Indian agent at Laqua Parle, purchased from Ink-pa-du-tah by employing 
friendly Indians to affect the purchase. By this raid and massacre the set- 
•tlement at the lakes was entirely swept away. All the houses were burned, 
arid all the stock either killed or taken away. At Springfield the settlers 
were somewhat prepared to defend themselves, having heard of the slaughter 
at the lakes. Seven or eight persons, however, were Tailed at Springfield. 

The winter preceding these massacres had been unusually, severe, and 
snow had fallen to the depth of from one to two feet.. In March all the 
ravines were filled with drifted snow, with a thick and heavy crust, so that 
travel in that region was almost impossible. For this reason those infant 
settlements were almost cut off from intercourse with the thickly inhabited 
parts of the country. It was, therefore, some time before the news of the 
massacres reached Fort Dodge, the nearest settlement. The messengers 
who conveyed the intelligence were Messrs. Bell and Williams, who lived on 
Little Sioux river. Messrs. Howe, Snyder and Parmenter, of Newton, who 
had attempted to relieve the inhabitants at the lakes with provisions, also 
Upon arriving there found all the settlers murdered. They, too, hastened as 
rapidly as possible to Fort Dodge and reported. Messengers were at once 


sent to Webster City and Homer to request the citizens to turn out for the 
relief of the frontier, and they responded promptly. Those two places fur 
nished forty men and Fort Dodge eighty. The force of 120 men was 
formed into three companies of forty men each, under Captains C. B. 
Kichards, John F. Duncombe, and J. C. Johnston. The battalion was 
commanded by Major W. Williams. On the 25th of March the battalion 
started from Fort Dodge, the snow still covering the ground and all the 
ravines being so gorged with drifted snow that in places it was necessary to 
cut their way through snow-banks from ten to twenty feet deep. ^ After 
marching thirty miles ten men had to be sent back, reducing the force to 
110 men. In the meantime a force from Fort Kidgely was approaching 
from the north. The Indians, expecting these movements, had taken their 
flioht across the Big Sioux river to join the Yanktons, in what _ is now 
Dakota. The troops, after almost incredible hardships and sufferings for 
eighteen days and nights, being without tents, failed to get sight of a single 
hostile Indian. They found and buried the bodies of twenty-nine persons. 
A number were burned in the houses by the savages, and their remains 
were foxmd in the ashes. The expedition lost two valuable citizens, Captain 
J. C. Johnston, of Webster City, and William Burkholder, of Fort Dodge, 
the latter being a brother of Mrs. Gov. C. C. Carpenter. They were frozen 
to death on their return from the lakes. Eighteen others were more or less 
frozen, and some did not recover for a year after. Several years after his 
death the remains of young Burkholder were found on the prairie, being 
recognized by the remains of his gun and clothing. When overcome by the 
cold he was separated from his companions, and his fate was for sometime 

From this brief account of Ink-pa-du-tah, it will be conceded that there is 
no reason to cherish his memory with any degree of admiration. He was 
the leader of a band comprising even the worst element of the Sioux nation, 
the best of which is bad enough, even for savages. The germ of the band 
of Which he was chief, was a family of murderers, known as Five Lodges, 
who, it was said, having murdered an aged chief, wandered away and formed 
a little tribe of their own, with whom rogues from all the other bands found 
refuge. At the time of these hostilities against the whites under Ink-pa-du- 
tah, they numbered probably over 150 lodges. They were constantly roving 
about in parties, stealing wherever they could from trappers and settlers. 
The subsequent career of Ink-pa-du-tah has been west of the borders of Iowa 
and Minnesota. 


Navigation of the Mississippi by the Early Explorers— Flat-boats — Barges — Methods of Pro- 
pulsion — Brigs and Schooners — The first Steamboat on Western "Waters — The " Orleans " — 
The "Comet"— The " Enterprise "—Capt. Shreve—The " Washington "—The "General 
Pike " — First Steamboat to St. Louis — The " Independence " the first Steamboat on the 
Missouri — Capt. Nelson — "Mackinaw Boats " — Navigation of the upper Mississippi — The 
"Virginia" — The "Shamrock" — Capt. James May— Navigation of the upper Missouri— 
Steamboating on the Smaller Rivers. 

We have accounts of the navigation of the Mississippi river as early as 
1539, by De Soto, while in search of the "fountain of youth". His voyage 
ended with his life, and more than a hundred years passed away, when Mar- 
quette and Joliet again disturbed its waters with a small bark transported 


from the shores of Lake Superior. At' the mouth of the Wisconsin they 
entered the Mississippi, and extended their voyage to the mouth of the 
Arkansas. Their account is the first which gave to the world any accurate 
knowledge of the great valley of the Mississippi river. Their perilous voy- 
age was made in the summer of 1673. The account was read with avidity 
by the missionaries and others about Lake Superior, and soon after a young 
Frenchman named La Salle set out with a view of adding further informa- 
tion in relation to the wonderful valley of the great river. His expedition 
was followed by other voyages of exploration on western rivers, but the nar- 
ratives of the explorers are mostly lost, so that very little of interest remains 
from the voyage of La Salle to the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
when the French, then holding Fort Du Quesne, contemplated the establish- 
ment of a line of forts which would enable them to retain possession of the 
vast territory northwest of the Ohio river. Regular navigation of the Ohio 
and Mississippi, however, was not attempted until after the Eevolution, when 
the United States had assumed control of the western waters. Trade with 
New Orleans did not begin until near the close of the century. A few flat 
boats were employed in the trade between Pittsburg and the new settlements 
along the Ohio river. The settlement of Kentucky gradually increased the 
trade on the Ohio, and caused a demand for increased facilities for convey- 
ance of freight. Boatmen soon found it profitable to extend their voyages 
to the Spanish settlements in the South. Freight and passengers were con- 
veyed in a species of boat which was sometimes called a barge, or bargee by 
the French. It was usually from 75 to 100 feet long, with breadth of beam 
from 15 to 20 feet, and a capacity of 60 to 100 tons. The freight was re- 
ceived in a large covered coffer, occupying a portion of the hulk. Near the 
stern was an apartment six or eight feet in length, called "the cabin", 
where the captain and other officials of the boat quartered at night. The 
helmsman was stationed upon an elevation above the level of the deck. The 
barge usually carried one or two masts. A large square sail forward, when 
the wind was favorable, sometimes much relieved the hands. The work of 
propelling the barges usually required about fifty men to each boat. There 
were several modes of propelling the barges. At times all were engaged in 
rowing, which was often a waste of labor on such a stream as the Missis- 
sippi. Sometimes the navigators resorted to the use of the cordelle, a strong 
rope or hawser, attached to the barge, and carried along the shore or beach 
on the shoulders of the crew. In some places this method was imprac- 
ticable on account of obstructions along the shores. Then what was known 
as the " warping " process was resorted to. A coil of rope was sent out in 
the yawl, and fastented to a tree on the shore, or a. " snag " in the river. 
"While the hands on board were pulling up to this point, another coil was 
carried further ahead, and the "warping" process repeated. Sometimes it 
was expedient to use setting poles, but this method was used chiefly in the 
Ohio. During a period of about twenty-five years, up to 1811, the mode of 
conveyance on our western rivers was by flat-boats and barges. It required 
three or four months to make a trip from Pittsburg to New Orleans. Pass- 
engers between these points were charged from $125 to $150, and freight 
ranged from $5 to $7 per 100 pounds. It cannot be supposed that under 
such circumstances, the commerce of the West was very extensive. 

Previous to the introduction of steamers on western waters, attempts were 
made to use brigs and schooners. In 1803 several ships were built on the 
Ohio, and in 1805 the ship "Scott" was built on the Kentucky river, and 


in the fall of that jear made her first trip to the falls of the Ohio. "While there 
two other vessels, built by Berthone & Co., arrived. All of them were com- 
pelled to remain three months, awaiting a sufficient rise in the river to carry 
them over the falls. In 1807 Mr. Dean built and launched a vessel at Pitts- 
burg. This vessel made a trip to Leghorn, and when making her entry at 
the custom house there, her papers were objected to on the ground that no 
such port as Pittsburg existed in the United States. The captain called the 
attention of the officer to the Mississippi river, traced it to its confluence 
with the Ohio, thence following the latter stream past Cincinnati and Mari- 
etta, to the new city in the wilderness, more than two thousand miles by 
water from the Gulf of Mexico! All these vessels were found inadequate for 
the purpose of trading on the western rivers, and were soon abandoned. 
They could not stem the current of the Mississippi. They were transferred 
to the gulf, and the commerce of the rivers was abandoned to Mike Fink 
and his followers, remaining with them until 1811. In this year Fulton and 
Livingston opened a ship-yard at Pittsburg, and built the small propeller 
" Orleans ", which was also furnished with two masts. She was a boat of one 
hundred tons burthen, and the first steamer that was launched on western 
waters. In the winter of 1812 she made her first trip to New Orleans in 
fourteen days. As she passed down the river, the settlers lined the banks, 
and the greatest excitement prevailed. The flat- boatmen said she never could 
stem the current on her upward trip. After her first trip, the " Orleans " 
engaged in the Natchez and New Orleans trade, and paid her owners a 
handsome profit on their investment. The next steamer was the " Comet ", 
and she was built by D. French. She carried but twenty-five tons, . and 
made her first trip to New Orleans in the spring of 1814. Soon after she 
was taken to pieces, and her engine used in a cotton factory. The " Vesu- 
vius ", of 48 tons burthen, was launched at Fulton's ship-yard in the spring 
of 1814, made a trip to New Orleans, and on her return was grounded on a 
sand bar, where she remained until the next December. This boat remained 
on the river until 1819, when she was condemned. The "Enterprise" was 
the fourth steamboat, and was built by. Mr. French, who built the "Comet.,", 
The "Enterprise" carried seventy-five tons, and made her first trip to New 
Orleans in the summer of 1814. When she arrived at her destination she 
was pressed into the service of the army, under Gen. Jackson, then at New. 
Orleans. She was very efficient in carrying troops and army supplies from, 
the city to the seat of war, a few miles below. During the battle of the 8th 
of January she was busily engaged in supplying the wants of Jackson's 
army. On the 5th of May following she left New Orleans, and arrived at 
Louisville in twenty-five days. 

In 1816 Captain Henry Shreve built the "Washington" with many im- 
provements in construction. The boilers, which had hitherto been placed in 
the hold, were changed by Captain Shreve to the deck. In September, 1816, 
the "Washington" successfully passed the falls of the Ohio, made her trip 
to New Orleans, and returned in November to Louisville. On the 12th of 
March, 1817, she departed on her second trip to New Orleans, the ice then 
running in the Ohio slightly retarding her progress. She made the trip 
successfully, and returned to the foot of the falls in forty-one days— the 
upward trip being made in twenty-five days. By this time it was generally 
conceded by the flat-boatmen that Fitch and Fulton were not visionary fools, 
but men of genius, and that their inventions could be turned to immense 
advantage on the rivers of the West. Steamboats from this time on rapidly 


multiplied, and the occupation of the old flat-boatmen began to pass away. 
On Captain Shreve's return to Louisville the citizens gave him a public re- 
ception. Toasts and speeches were made, and the " Washington " declared 
to be the herald of a new era in the "West. Captain Shreve in his speech 
asserted that the time would come when the trip to New Orleans would be 
made in ten days. His prediction was more than verified, for as early as 
1853, the trip was made in four days and nine hours. 

While these festivities were going on in Lonisville, the " General Pike " 
was stemming the current of the Mississippi for a new port in steamboat 
navigation. With a heavy load of freight and passengers she left New 
Orleans for St. Louis. On her arrival at the latter city several thousand 
people greeted her as she slowly approached the landing. 

Steam navigation commenced on the Missouri in 181 9, the first boat being 
the " Independent ", commanded by Captain Nelson. She ascended as far as 
Chariton and Franklin, at which points she received a cargo of furs, and 
buffalo hides, and returned with them to St. Louis. 

In 1816 Fort Armstrong was erected at the lower end of Rock Island. • On 
the 10th of May of this year Col. Lawrence, with the Eighth Regiment and 
a company of riflemen, arrived here in keel boats. Col. George Davenport 
resided near the fort and supplied the troops with provisions, andalso engaged 
in trading with the Indians. Most of his goods were brought from "Macki^ 
naw" through Green Bay, thence up Fox river to the "Portage", where they 
were packed across to the Wisconsin river, and carried down the Mississippi 
in what were called "Mackinaw Boats." The navigation of the npper Missis, 
sippi was confined to keel-boats until 1823, when the first steamboat — the 
" Virginia " : — from Wheeling ascended with provisions to Prairie du Chien. 
This Doat was three or four days in passing the rapids at Eock Island* 
After this, up to 1827, steamboats continued to ascend the upper Mississippi 
occasionally with troops and military stores. In this year Capt. James May, 
of the steamboat "Shamrock", made the first voyage with her from Pitts-. 
burg to Galena. This was the first general business trip ever made on the 
upper Mississippi by a steamboat. .Capt. May continued as master of a 
steamboat on this part of the river until 1834. 

The first navigation of any considerable portion of the Missouri river was 
that of Captains Lewis and Clarke, when in 1804 they ascended that river in 
keel-boats, or barges, 1 from its mouth almost to its source. Of late years 
steamboats have navigated it regularly to Fort Benton. Steamboat navi n 
gation has also been employed on many of the smaller rivers of the "West, 
including the Des Moines and Cedar rivers in Iowa. The introduction of 
railroads has superseded the necessity of depending upon the nncertain nav- 
igation of the smaller rivers for carrying purposes. The great water-courses, 
however, will doubtless always remain the indispensible commercial high, 
ways of the nation. 


Ancient Works — Conjectures — "Works of the Mound Builders in Ohio— Different forms and 
Classes— Mounds at Gallipolis, Marietta t and Chillicothe— Relics Found— Ancient Forfcifi- 
oations at Circleville and Other Places-^Pre-historic Remains in Other States— In Iowa- 
Excavation of Mounds — Elongated and Round Mounds— Their Antiquity— Who were the 
Mound Builders? , , ' 

<•■'• Scattered all over the great Northwest are the remains of the works of an 


ancient people, who must have been infinitely more advanced in the arts 
than the Indian tribes who inhabited the country at the time of the advent 
of the European. The question as to whether the Indians are the descend- 
ants of that people, the Mound Builders, is a subject of antiquarian specula- 
tion. One thing, however, is certain, that a people once inhabited all this 
vast region who possessed some considerable knowledge of the arts and even 
the sciences; a people of whom the Indians possessed no knowledge, but 
whose works have survived the mutations of hundreds, and perhaps thous- 
ands of years, to attest that they lived, and acted, and passed away. There 
have been various conjectures of the learned concerning the time when, by 
what people, and even for what purpose, these monuments of human ingenuity 
were erected. Their origin is deeply involved in the obscurityof remote an- 
tiquity. Neither history, nor authentic tradition, afford any light by which 
to conduct inquiries concerning them, and it is probable that no certainty 
upon the subject will ever be attained. Brief mention of some of these 
ancient works cannot fail to interest the reader. They are found distributed 
over the country generally from the Alleghany Mountains to the Bocky 
Mountains. They are more numerous and more remarkable, however, in 
some parts of the country than in others. 

Some of the most remarkable -fortifications in Ohio are at "Worthington, 
Granville, Athens, Marietta, Gallipolis, Chillicothe, and Circleville; also, on 
Paint Creek, 18 miles northwest of Chillicothe, and on a plain three miles 
northeast of the last named city. In some localities there are both mounds 
and fortifications, while in others there are mounds only. _ The mpunds vary 
in magnitude, and also somewhat in shape. Some are conical, ending sharply 
at the summit, and as steep on the sides as the earth could be made to lie. 
Others are of the same form, except that they present a flat area on the top, 
like a cone cut off at some distance from its vortex, in a plane coincident 
with its base, or with the horizon. Others again, are of a semi-globular 
shape. Of this description was that standing in Gallipolis. The largest 
one near Worthington is of the second kind, and presents on the summit a 
level area of forty feet in diameter. .There is one at Marietta of this kind, 
but the area on top does not exceed twenty feet in diameter. Its perpendic- 
ular height is about fifty feet, and its circumference at the base twenty rods. 
Those in "Worthington and Gallipolis are each from fifteen to twenty feet in 
circumference at their bases. A large mound once stood in the heart of the 
city of Chillicothe, but was leveled forty or fifty years ago to make room for 
the erection of a block of buildings, and in its destruction a number of relics 
were exhumed. Several smaller mounds were located in the same vicinity. 
They are found scattered in profusion in the vallies of the Miamis, Scioto, 
Hocking and Muskingum rivers, as well as south of the Ohio river. One 
of the largest is near the Ohio river, 14 miles below Wheeling. This is 
about 33 rods in circumference, and consequently between ten and eleven 
rods in diameter at its base. Its perpendicular height is about seventy feet. 
On the summit is an area of nearly sixty feet in diameter, in the middle of 
which is a regular cavity, the cubical content of which is about 3,000 feet. 
Within a short distance of this mound are five smaller ones, some of which 
are thirty feet in diameter. Some of the mounds mentioned, and others not 
referred to, have been excavated, either by the antiquarian or in the construc- 
tion of public works, and in most of them human bones have been discov- 
ered. Most of these bones crumble in pieces or resolve into dust shortly 
after being exposed to the air; except in some instances, wherein the teeth, 



jaw, skull, and sometimes a few other bones, by reason of their peculiar 
solidity, resist the effects of contact with the air. From the fact of the find- 
ing human remains in them many have inferred that they were erected as 
burial places for the dead. In some of them, however, which have been ex- 
amined, no human remains have been discovered, but pieces of pottery, stone 
hatchets, and other relics, are found in nearly all. 

Many of these mounds are composed of earth of a different quality from 
that which is found in their immediate vicinity. This circumstance would 
seem to indicate that the earth of which they were composed was transported 
some distance. A striking instance of this difference of composition was 
first noticed some sixty or seventy years ago, in a mound at Franklinton, 
near the main fork of the Scioto river. This mound was composed alto- 
gether of clay, and the brick for the court-house in that town were made of 
it at that time. In it were likewise found a much greater number of hu- 
man bones than is usually found in mounds of its size. The characteris- 
tics mentioned in connection with the mounds in Ohio apply to those gen- 
erally throughout the Northwest. 

Not so numerous as the mounds, but more remarkable as involving the 
principles of science, especially mathematics, are the fortifications, or earth 
walls, found in many places. They are .commonly supposed to have been 
forts, or military fortifications. They generally consist of a circular wall, 
composed of earth, and usually as steep on the sides as the dirt could con 
veniently be made to lie. Sometimes, though rarely, their form is elliptical, 
or oval, and a few of them are quadrangular or square. In height they are 
various; some of them are so low as to be scarcely perceptible ; some from 
twenty to thirty feet in height, while others again are of an intermediate 
elevation. The wall of the same fort, however, is pretty uniformly of the 
same height all around. They are likewise equally various in the contents 
of the ground which they enclose, some containing but a few square rods of 
ground, while others contain nearly one hundred acres. The number of their 
entrances, or gateways, varies in different forts from one to eight or more, 
in proportion to the magnitude of the enclosure. The walls are mostly sin- 
gle, but in some instances these works have been found to consist of two 
parallel walls, adjacent to each other. The forts are generally located on 
comparatively elevated ground, adjoining a river or stream of water. Their 
situation is usually such as a skillful military engineer or tactician would 
have selected for military positions. This fact would seem to strengthen 
the theory that they were designed and constructed for fortifications. 

The city of Circleville, Ohio, is located on the site of one of the most re- 
markable of these fortifications, and from this circumstance takes its name. 
There are, or were, indeed, two forts at that place, one circular, and the other 
square, as represented in the diagram on the opposite page. 

In this, it will be seen that a square fort adjoins a circular one on the east, 
communicating with it by a gateway. The black points in the square fort, 
opposite the gateways, show the location of mounds, each about three feet 
high. The circular fort consists of two parallel walls, whose tops are, ap- 
parently, about three rods apart, the inner circle being forty-seven rods in 
diameter. Between these two walls is a fosse, excavated sufficiently deep 
and broad to have afforded earth enough for the construction of the exterior 
wall alone, and no more. From this circumstance and others, the earth for 
the construction of the inner wall is supposed to have been transported from 
a distance. The inner wall is composed of clay, and the outer one of dirt 


and gravel of similar quality with that which composes the neighboring 
ground, which is another circumstance quite conclusive of the correctness 
of the conjecture that the material for the inner wall was brought from a 
distance. There is but one original opening, or passage, into the circular 
fort, and that is on the east side, connecting it with the square one. The 
latter has seven avenues leading into it, exclusive of the one which connects 
with the circle. There is one at every corner, and one on each side equi-distant 
from the angular openings. These avenues are each twelve feet wide, and 
the walls on either hand rise immediately to their usual height, which is 
above twenty feet. When the town of Circleville was originally laid out,' 
the trees growing upon the walls of these fortifications and the mounds 
enclosed in the square one, were apparently of equal size and age, and those 
lying down in equal stages of decay, with those in the surrounding forest, 
, a circumstance proving the great antiquity of these stupendous remains of 
former labor and ingenuity. Of course, the progress of modern civiliza- 
tion in the building of a city over these ancient remains, has long since 
nearly obliterated many of their parts. The above is a description of them as 
they appeared sixty years ago, when Circleville was a mere village, and be- 
fore the hand of modern vandalism' had marred or obliterated any of the 
parts. A somewhat minute description of these ancient remains is given, 
not because they are more remarkable than many others found in different 
parts of the Northwest, but as an example to show the magnitude of many 
similar works. Among others in the same State may be mentioned a re- 
markable mound near Marietta, which is enclosed by a wall embracing an 
area 230 feet long by 215 wide. This mound is thirty feet high and ellip- 
tical in form. This mound, with the wall enclosing it, stand apart from two 
other irregular enclosures, one containing fifty and the other twenty-seven 
acres, within the larger of these two enclosures there are four truncated 
pyramids, three of which have graded passage ways to their summits. The 
largest pyramid is 188 feet long by 132 feet wide, and is ten feet high. 
From the southern wall of this enclosure there is a graded passage way 150 
feet broad, extending 600 feet to the immediate valley of the Muskingum 
river. This passage way is guarded by embankments on either side from 
eight to ten feet high. In the smaller square there are no pyramidal struc- 
tures, but fronting each gate-way there is a circular mound. The walls of 
these several enclosures are from twenty to thirty feet broad at the base, and 
from five to six -feet high. Besides these, many similar embankments may 
be traced in the same vicinity. 

Squier and Davis, authors of that most elaborate work, entitled "The An- 
cient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley", estimated that there were in 
Ross county, Ohio, at least one hundred enclosures and five hundred mounds. 
They give the probable number in that State at from one thousand to fifteen 
hundred enclosures, and ten thousand mounds. These estimates are quite 
likely to be far below the actual number, as their investigations were made 
many years ago, when large portions of the State were yet covered with for- 
ests, and before any general interest had been awakened on the subject of 
which they treated. Among the remarkable fortifications in Ross county 
is one at Cedar Bank, on the east side of the Scioto river, about five miles 
north of Ohillicothe. It is of a square form, enclosing an area of thirty- 
two acres. The west side of this enclosure is formed by the high bluff bor- 
dering the river at this point. There are two gate-ways opposite each other, 
one on the north and the other on the south side. Inside of the enclosure, 



_ x « 

#Hlft-if Hilled 

Aft Q 





'jaw* tfiSfttofawti 


on a line with the gate-ways, there is a mound 245 feet long and 150 feet 
broad. The form of this work is shown by the diagram on the opposite page. 
When this work first attracted the attention of Mr. E. G. Squier, Dr. 
Davis, and others engaged in archaeological research, it was in the midst of 
a dense forest of heavy timber. Trees of the largest growth stood on the 
embankments, and covered the entire area of ground enclosed. About a 
mile and a half below, on the same side of the Scioto, are other fortifica- 
tions, both circular and square, even more remarkable than the one last de- 
scribed, on account of the forms and combinations which they exhibit. 
Another fortification in this county, in the form of a parallelogram, 2,800 
feet long by 1,800 feet wide, encloses several smaller works and mounds, 
which altogether make 3,000,000 cubic feet of embankment. 

A series of the most wonderfjil and most gigantic of these pre-historic 
works, is to be found in the Licking Valley, near Newark. They cover an 
area of two square miles. The works are of such vast magnitude that even 
with our labor-saving implements to construct them, would require the la- 
bor of thousands of men continued for many months. "Fort Ancient", as 
it is called, in Warren county, Ohio, has nearly four miles of embankment, 
from eighteen to twenty ieet high. 

Mounds and fortifications similar to those in Ohio are found in all the 
States' of the Northwest, and indeed, throughout the entire valley of the 
Mississippi and its tributaries. In the valley of the Wabash, in Indiana, 
are many interesting remains of the works of the Mound Builders. Near 
Kahokia, Illinois, there is a mound 2,000 feet in circumference, and ninety 
feet high. Many remarkable objects of interest to the antiquary are found 
in Wisconsin. Scattered over her undulating plains are earth-works, mod- 
eled after the forms of men and animals. At Aztalan, in Jefferson county, 
is an ancient fortification 550 yards long and 275 yards wide. The 
walls are from four to five feet high, and more than twenty feet in thickness 
at the base. Near the Blue Mounds, in that State, there is another work, 
in form resembling a man in a recumbent position. It is one hundred and 
twenty feet long and thirty feet across the trunk. At Prairicville there is 
still another resembling a turtle in shape which, is fifty-six feet in length. 
At Cassville there is one whiah is said to resemble the extinct mastedon. 
In some instances these animal resemblances and forms are much defaced 
by time, while in other cases they are distinctly visible. Fragments of an- 
cient pottery are found scattered about most of them. 

Scattered over the surface of Iowa, also, are to be found many of these 
monuments of a pre-historic race. The mounds especially are numerous, 
appearing most in that portion of the State east of the Des Moines river, 
but in a few instances west of it. Groups of mounds are found along Iowa 
river, in Johnson county, presenting the same general appearance with those 
in the States east of the Mississippi. Near the mouth of this river, in Louisa 
county, are the remains of an ancient fortification, with a number of mounds 
in the same vicinity, which have attracted the attention of the curious. In 
the vicinity of Ottumwa, Wapello county, are a large number of mounds, 
several of which have been examined. There is a chain of them in this last 
named county, commencing near the mouth of Sugar Creek, a small tribu- 
tary of the Des Moines, and extending twelve miles nortward, with distances 
between them in some instances as great as two miles. Two of them were 
excavated several years ago. One of them was about 45 feet in diameter, 
and situated upon the highest ground in the vicinity. The other was directly 


north about one-fourth of a mile. Its diameter at the base was about 75 
feet. In the center of this last named mound, was found, at the depth of 
four feet, a layer of stone, with the appearance of having been subjected to 
the action of fire. There were also found a mass of charcoal, a bed of ashes, 
and calcined human bones. A number of relics were also found in the 
smaller mound first mentioned. These examinations were made by several 
gentlemen of. Ottumwa. 

Mr. F. C. Eoberts, in a Fort Madison paper, writes of the examination of 
a mound situated about six miles north of that city, a few years ago. It is 
located on the brow of a hill, is of an elliptical shape, and small in size, 
being only about 30 feet long, and fifteen leet wide; its height was about 
six feet. The mound contained a number of separate compartments, con, 
6tructed as follows: First, there was a floor made of limestone, which must 
have been brought a distance of several miles, as none nearer could have 
been obtained. This floor was laid regular and smooth, the best stone only 
being used. Above the floor, with an intervening space of about twenty 
inches, there was a roof, also made of limestone. The sides of this vault, if 
it may so be called, seemed to have once had stone walls, but they were more 
or less caved in. It was also thought that the roof had originally been much 
higher. The compartments were made by partitions or walls of stone. Each, 
compartment was occupied by a human skeleton, and articles of flint and 
stone, as well as some bones of animals. All the skeletons of human origin 
were placed in a sitting position, with the knees drawn. up, and the head in- 
clined forward between them. The arms were placed by the side, and some- 
times clasped around the knees. Besides the human bones, there were those 
of some large birds and of some animal. Some of these were charred, and 
were found in connection with charcoal and ashes. There were numerous 
flint weapons, and small three cornered stones. 

In Clayton and other counties in the northeastern part of the State, the 
Mound Builders have left numerous monuments of their existence in that 
region in pre-historic times. The researches of Hon. Samuel Murdock, of 
Clayton county, have been extensive and successful in giving to the scien- 
tific and antiquarian world much information in relation to these works 
of an ancient people who once occupied our continent. He has collected 
a vast number of relics from the mounds in that portion of the State. 
After long and thorough investigation, he gives it as his opinion that in 
Clayton county alone there are not less than one hundred thousand arti- 
ficial mounds, including the two classes, the round and the elongated, 
the latter ranging from one hundred to six hundred feet in length. 
All of them, so far as examinations have been made, contain more or less 
skeletons. One which was examined near Clayton was estimated to have 
contained over one hundred bodies. From investigations made, .the infer* 
ence is drawn that the elongated mounds are of greater antiquity than the 
round ones. The skeletons found in the former are in a more advanced state 
of decay, and in some of them there <is scarcely any trace of bones. In 
nearly all the round mounds skeletons were found in a remarkably good 
state of preservation, and can be obtained by the thousand. These facts in- 
dicate most conclusively that the elongated mounds were the work of an 
older race of the Mound Builders, and that they were erected ages before the 
round ones were. The fact that human remains have been found in nearly 
all of both classes favors the theory that they were erected as receptacles for 
the dead. 





While workmen were excavating a mound for the foundation of a ware- 
house in the city of McGregor, in the summer of 1874, human bones were 
found, and also a stone axe weighing thirteen pounds. It was embedded 
twenty feet below the original surface. x 

As stated, the work of the Mound Builders was not confined to that por- 
tion of the State embracing the Mississippi drainage. Similar remains, 
though not so numerous, are observed on the western slope of the water- shed 
between the two great rivers bordering the State. Some five miles below 
Denison, Crawford county, in the valley of Boyer river, there is a semi-cir- 
cular group of artificial mounds. They are situated on a pla£eau, rising 
above the first, or lower bottom, and are about nine in number, each rising 
to a height of from five to six feet above the general level of the ground. 
Another similar group is located on a second bottom, at the mouth of Para- 
dise creek, in the same county. Human remains have been found in some 
of them. 

Having noticed briefly some of the various forms in which these stupen- 
dous works of men who lived far back in the centuries, whose annals have 
not come down to us in any written language, we can say now that the most 
learned have only been able to conjecture as to the remoteness of their an- 
tiquity. The evidences that they are of very great age are abundant and , 
conclusive, out how many hufidreds or thousands of years? This is the 
problem that many an antiquary would freely give years of study and inves- 
tigation to solve. The length of time which elapsed during which these 
works were in progesss is another of the unsolved questions connected with 
them, and yet there is abundant evidence that some of them are much older 
than others; that the process of their construction extends over a large dura- 
tion of time — a time during which the Mound Builders themselves passed 
through the changes which mark the monuments that they have left behind 
them. It is a well known fact that the manners and customs of rude nations 
isolated from intercourse and commerce with the world, pass through the 
process of change and development very slowly. The semi-civilized nations 
of eastern lands, after the lapse of thousands of years, still cling to the man- 
ners and customs, and the superstitions of their ancestors, who lived at the 
early dawn of our historic period. They use the same rude implements of 
husbandry, the same utensils in the household, the same arms in warfares 
and practice the same styles of dress — all with but little change or modifi- 
cation. The changes are only sufficiently marked to be perceptible after 
many generations have passed away. Situated as the Mound Builders were, 
we can but infer that they too passed slowly through the processes of change, 
and the works which they have left behind them thoroughly attest the truth 
of this proposition. Their older works appear to be more elaborate and 
more intricate, showing that the earlier workers were possessed of a higher 
degree of attainment in the mechanical arts than those whose works are 
more recent. The inference is that probably after long ages, they gradually 
retrograded, and were finally subdued or driven southward into Mexico and 
Central America, by the ancestors of the Indians, who came upon them from 
the northwest, as the Goths and Vandals invaded and subverted the Roman 
Empire. This final subjugation may have resulted after centuries of war- 
fare, during which time these fortifications were constructed as defences 
against the enemy. That they were for military purposes is scarcely sus- 
.ceptible of a doubt. This implies a state of warfare, and war implies an 
enemy. The struggle ended in ths final subjugation of that people to whom 


we apply the name of Mound Builders — their conquerors and successors 
being a race of people in whom we recognize to this day, traces of the 
Asiatic type. 

"We, another race of people, after the lapse of other ages, tread to-day, in 
our turn, on the ruins of at least a limited civilization — a civilization older 
than that of the Aztecs, whom Cortez foimd in Mexico. This great Missis- 
sippi valley was once a populous empire, millions of whose subjects repose 
in the sepulchers scattered in our valleys and over our prairies. "While we 
bow at the shrine of a more intelligent Deity, and strive to build up a truer 
and better civilization, let us still remember that we tread on classic ground. 


legislation in Regard to Ohio— Admission as a State— Description— Climate and Soil— Origin 
of Name— Seat of Government— Legislation in Regard to Indiana— Description— Lost 
River— Wyandot Cave— Seat of Government— Internal Improvements— Vincennes— Illi- 
nois— Admission as a State— Description— Productions— Towns and Cities— "Lover's 
Leap" — "Buffalo Rock"— "Cave in the Rock "—Michigan— The Boundary Question 
—Admission as a State — Description — History— Towns and Cities — Wisconsin — Descrip- 
tion—Climate and Productions— Objects of Interest— Towns and Cities— Sketch of Mil- 
waukee— Mmnesota— Description— Lakes— Climate and Productions— Natural Scenery- 
Red Pipe Stone — Historical Sketch — Towns and Cities — Nebraska— Description — Towns 
and Cities— Missouri— Organic Legislation— The "Missouri Compromise "—Description- 
Early Settlement— St. Louis— Other Towns and Cities. 


Ohio was the first State formed out of the territory northwest of the river 
Ohio, which was ceded to the United States by the General Assembly of 
Virginia in 1783, and accepted by the Congress of the United States, March 
1, 1784. This territory was divided into two separate governments by act 
of Congress of May 7, 1800. Ohio remained a Territorial government until 
under an act of Congress, approved April 30, 1802, it adopted a State consti- 
tution, and was allowed one representative in Congress. On the first of 
November of the same year the constitution was presented in Congress. 
The people having, on November 29, 1802, complied with the act of Con- 
gress of April 30, 1802, whereby the State became one of the United States, 
an act was passed and approved February 19, 1803, for the due execution of 
the laws of the United States within that State. 

The State embraces an area of about 39,964 square miles,, or 25,576,960 
acres. There are no mountains, but the central portion of the State is ele- 
vated about 1000 feet above the level of the sea, while other portions are 
from 600 to 800 feet in elevation. A belt of highlands north of the middle 
of the State separates the rivers flowing north into Lake Erie from those 
flowing south into the Ohio river. The middle portion of the State in 
great part is an elevated plain with occasional patches of marsh land. A 
large proportion of the State when first settled was covered with forests, but 
in the central part there was some prairie. Boulders are found scattered 
over the surface, as they are generally throughout the Northwest. 

The bituminous coal-field of the* State extends over an area embracing 
nearly 12,000 square miles. It occupies the eastern and southeastern parts, 
with its northern boundary running near Wooster, Newark, and Lancaster. 
There are also frequent beds of limestone, as well as sandstone well suited for 
heavy masonry. The most important of the other mineral productions is 


iron, which it possesses in great abundance. This is found running through 
the counties of Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Meigs, Vinton, Athens, and 
Hocking, in a bed 100 miles long by 12 wide. For fine castings it is not 
surpassed by that found in any other part of the United States. Salt 
springs are also frequent. 

The great river of the State is the Ohio, which forms its southern bound- 
ary, and receives the tributary volume of waters flowing from the Muskin- , 
gum, Scioto, and Miami, as well as those of many smaller streams. The 
interior rivers mentioned vary in length from 110 to 200 miles. The Ohio 
is navigable by steamboats of the first-class during one-half the year to Pitts- 
burg. The Muskingum is navigable by means of dams and locks to 
Zanesville, 70 miles from its mouth, and at times 30 miles farther up to 
Coshocton. On the northern slope of the State, beginning at the northwest, 
are the Maumee, Sandusky, Huron, and Cuyahoga, all flowing into Lake 
Erie, and all flowing their entire course within the State, except the Mau- 
mee, which rises in Indiana. The last-named river is navigable for lake 
steamers a distance of 18 miles. Lake Erie coasts the state about 150 miles 
on the north and northeast, affording several good harbors. 

The climate in the southern part of the State is mild, while in the north 
the temperature is equally as rigorous as in the same latitude near the 
Atlantic. Great droughts have occasionally prevailed, but the State is re- 
garded as one of the most productive in the Union. Indian corn, wheat, 
rye, oats, and barley, are the leading cereals. All the fruits of the temperate 
latitudes are generally abundant. The forest trees are of many kinds, includ- 
ing the several varieties of oak, hickory, sugar and maple, beech, poplar, ash, 
sycamore, paw-paw, buckeye, dogwood, cherry, elm, and hackberry. 

The State receives its name from that of the river which forms its southern 
boundary. It is of Indian or aboriginal origin. It is not easy to determine 
its real signification in the Indian language, but some writers have claimed 
that it means handsome or beautiful. This opinion would seem to be some- 
what plausible from the fact that the early French explorers called it La 
Belle Riviere, or the Beautiful River, having probably learned the significa- 
tion of the Indian name, and therefore gave it a French name with the 
same signification. 

Ohio was first partially settled by a few French emigrants on the Ohio 
river, while they possessed Canada and Louisiana, about the middle of the 
the last century. But these settlements were very inconsiderable until the 
year 1787 and 1788, when the Ohio Company and others from New England 
made the settlement at Marietta. The early inhabitants were much annoyed 
by the incursions of the Indians, who had successively defeated Gen. Harmar 
and Gen. St. Clair, in 1791 and 1792, but were themselves utterly routed by 
Gen. Wayne in August, 1794. Fort Sandusky, in the war of 1812, was suc- 
cessfully defended by Maj. Croghan, then but 21 years of age, with 160 men 
against the attack of Gen. Proctor, with 500 British regulars and as many 
Indians. Cincinnati was laid out as early as 1788, but there were only a few set- 
tlers until after "Wayne's victory. It then improved rapidly, having in 1818 
a population of upward of 9,000. Chillicothe was laid out in 1796, and in 
1818 had a population of 2,600. Columbus, the present capital, was laid 
out early in the year 1812, and in 1818 contained about 1,500 inhabitants. 
' Cleveland was laid out in 1796, and about the same time a number of set- 
tlements were made alongthe Miami. Until the legislature met in Colum- 
bus, in December, 1816, Cincinnati and Chillicothe had alternately enjoyed 



the distinction of being both the Territorial and State capitals. In 1814 the 
first State-house, a plain brick building, was erected at Columbus, the per- 
manent seat of- the State Government. In February, 1852, it was entirely 
consumed by fire, and was succeeded by the present fine State capitol, which 
had been commenced prior to the destruction of the old one. The conven- 
tion which formed the first constitution of the State was held in Chillicothe, 
in November, 1802. 

The following table shows the population of Ohio at the close of each 
decade from 1800 to 1870: 




























*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 30 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 
1870 includes 100 enumerated as Indians." 


Indiana was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territory which 
was ceded to the United States by the Virginia. It received a separate Ter- 
ritorial form of government by act of Congress of May 7, 1800, and "William 
Henry Harrison was appointed Governor. At this time it included all the 
territory west to the Mississippi river, including all now embraced in the 
States of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of 
the Mississippi. The seat of the territorial government was established at 
Vincennes. By act of January 11, 1805, it was divided into two separate 
governments, and that of Michigan created. Again, February 3,1809, that of 
Illinois was created. On the 19th of April, 1816, Congress passed an act 
to enable the people of Indiana to form a constitution and State government. 
On the 29th of June of the same year the people formed a constitution, and 
on the 11th of December, 1816, an act of Congress was approved admitting 
the State into the Union. The laws of the United States were extended to 
the State by an act of March 3, 1817. 

Indiana is 278 miles in its greatest length from north to south, and about 
144 miles in width, and includes an area of 33,809 square miles, or 21,637,- 
760 acres. It has no mountains or great elevations, but portions south of 
White river are somewhat hilly. North of the White and Wabash rivers 
the country is generally level or slightly undulating. The rivers are gener- 
ally bordered by rich alluvial bottom lands, sometimes extending for several 
miles in width. Some of the southeastern counties in places present a 
rocky surface. The eastern part is generally heavily timbered, while the 
western is chiefly prairie. The State has a gradual inclination toward the 
Ohio, and most of the streams flow into that river. Lake Michigan borders 
the State on the northwest for a distance of about 40 miles, while the Ohio 
forms the entire southern boundary. In the northern part there are some 
small lakes. The Wabash is the largest interior river, and with its tributa- 
ries drains nearly three-fourths of the State. At high water it is navigable 


by steamboats as far as Covington. White river is its principal tributary. 
It rises in two branches in the eastern part of the State, the two branches 
uniting about 30 miles from the Wabash. The Manmee is formed by the 
St. Joseph's and St. Mary's in the northeastern part of the State, and passes 
off into Ohio. The Kankakee, one ol the sources of the Illinois, drains 
the northwestern pkrt of the State. Among other streams are the Tippeca- 
noe, Mississiniwa, Whitewater, Flat Eock, and Blue rivers. 

The State yields an abundance of coal, the great deposit being in the 
southwestern portion, and embracing an area of nearly 8,000 square miles, or, 
some twenty-two counties, in most of which it is profitably mined. There 
are also iron, zinc, gypsum, and lime and sandstone. Many quarries of stone 
yield excellent building material. 

Indiana is nqt without its natural wonders which have attracted the atten- 
tion of the curious. Among these is.Lost river, in Grange county. Th'is 
stream is about fifty feet in width. It sinks many feet under ground, and 
then rises to the surface at a distance of 11 miles. ^ Then there is Wyandot 
Cave, in Crawford county. In beauty and magnificence it almostrivals the 
celebrated Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. It has been explored a distance 
of over twenty miles. Its greatest width is about 300 feet, and. its greatest 
height 245 feet. Among its interior wonders are "Bandit's Hall," "JPluto's 
Ravine," "Monument Mountain," "Lucifer's Gorge." and "Calypso's 
Island." The interior is brilliantly sparred with pendant stalactites. 

The climate is milder than in the same latitude on the Atlantic coast, but 
somewhat subject to sudden changes. The soil is generally productive, and 
in the river bottoms very deep, well adapted to Indian corn and other kinds 
of grain. The alluvial bottom lands of the Wabash and its tributaries are 
especially noted for their fertility. The productions are the various kinds 
of grain, vegetables, and fruits common in temperate latitudes. 

Indiana has a large variety of forest trees. Among those indigenous to 
the State are several kinds of oak, poplar, ash, walnut, hickory, elm, cherry, 
maple, buckeye, beech, locust, sycamore, cottonwood, hackberry, mulberry, 
and some sassafras. 

Indianapolis is the capital, and is situated on the west fork of White 
river, in Marion ounty. The site was selected for the capital in 1820, while 
the whole country for forty miles in every direction was covered with a 
dense forest. Previous to 1825 the State capital was at Corydon, but in 
that year the public offices were removed to Indianapolis. The State-house 
was erected at a cost of $60,000, and at that time was considered an elegant 
building. It is now unsuited for the purposes of a great State like Indiana 
and will soon give place to a larger and more elegant structure. Indianapolis, 
in 1840,had a population of 2,692; in 1850 it had 8,900; in 1860 it had 18,611; 
and in 1870 it had 48,244. 

In works of internal improvement Indiana stands among the leading States 
of the Mississippi valley. Railroads radiate in all directions from Indian- 
apolis, and there is scarcely a place in the State of any considerable import- 
ance that is not connected, directly or indirectly, with the larger cities. ' 
Among her early improvements were the Wabash and Erie Canal, connect- 
ing Evansville with Toledo, and the Whitewater Canal, connecting Cam- 
bridge City with Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio. Of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, 379 miles are within the limits of Indiana. The Whitewater Canal 
is 74 miles long. Indianapolis is the largest and most important city in 
the State, and among theprincipal cities may be mentioned New Albany, 



Evansville, Fort Wayne, La Fayette, Terre Haute, Madison, Laporte, Jefier- 
sonville, Logansport, Crawfordsville, Lawrenceburg, South Bend and Michi- 
gan City. Corydon, the former State capital, is 115 miles south of Indian- 
apolis, in Harrison county. When the seat of government was removed from 
this place to Indianapolis, in 1834, it remained stationary for a long time, 
but within a few years it has become more flourishing, Vincennes, the an- 
cient seat of the Territorial government, is on the left bank of the Wabash 
river, 120 miles south of Indianapolis. It is the oldest town in the State, 
and possesses much historic interest, being first settled by the French about 
the year 1735. Many of the present inhabitants are of French descent. 
The seat of government was removed from Vincennes to Corydon in 1813. 
The following table shows the population of Indiana, at the close of each 
deqade, from 1800 to 1870: 




























* The above aggregate for 1860 includes 290 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 
1870 includes 240 enumerated as Indians. 


Illinois was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territory, which 
was ceded to the United States by the State of Virginia. An act for divid- 
ing the Indian Territory, was passed by Congress, and approved February 
3d, 1809. An act to enable the people of the Territory to form a constitu- 
tion and State government, and authorizing one representative in Congress, 
was passed and approved April 18th, 1818. By the same act a part of the 
Territory of Illinois was attached to the Territory of Michigan. The people 
having, on the 26th of August of the same year, formed a constitution, a 
joint resolution was passed by Congress, and approved December 3d, 1818, 
admitting the State into the Union, and on the 2d of March following, an 
act was approved to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United 
States within the State of Illinois. 

The extreme length of Illinois from north to south is about 380 miles, 
and its greatest width about 200 miles. It embraces an area of 55,409 square 
miles, or 35,459,200 acres. The surface of the State is generally level, with 
a general inclination from north to south, as indicated by the course of its 
rivers. There are some elevated bluffs along the Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers, and a small tract of hilly country in the southern part of the State. 
The northwest part also contains a considerable amount of broken land. 
Some of the prairies are large, but in the early settlement of the State there 
were many small prairies, skirted with fine groves of timber. The prairies 
are generally undulating, and in their native state were clothed in a great 
variety of beautiful wild flowers. The State is well supplied with minerals 
of greaj economic value. The region of Galena, in the northwest part, has 





for many years yielded vast quantities of lead. The coal fields cover an area 
of 44,000 square miles. There are salt springs in Gallatin, Jackson and 
Yermillion counties; and medicinal springs, chiefly sulphur and chalybeate, 
have been found in several places. Excellent building stone for heavy ma- 
sonry, are quarried at Joliet, La Mont, Quincy, and other places. 

Illinois possesses pre-eminent facilities for water transportation, the Missis- 
sippi river forming the entire western boundary, and the Ohio the entire 
southern, while Lake Michigan bounds it on the northeast 60 miles. The 
Illinois river is navigable for steamboats 286 miles. Bock river, though 
having obstructions near its mouth, has in times of high water been navi- 

fated for a considerable distance. Kaskaskia, Sangamon and Spoon rivers 
ave also been navigated by steamboat, but the construction of railroads has 
in a great measure superseded the necessity of this means of transportation. 
Among the rivers are the upper portion of the Wabash, which receives from 
this State the waters of the Vermillion, Embarras and Little Wabash. The 
principal tributaries, or sources, of the Illinois river are Kaskaskia, Des 
Plaines and Fox rivers. Lake Peoria is an expansion of the Illinois river, 
near the middle of the State. Lake Pishtoka, in the northeast part, is a lake 
of some importance. 

Illinois, extending through five degrees of latitude, presents considerable 
variety of climate. Peaches and some other fruits, which do not succeed so 
well in the northern part, rarely fail to yield abundantly in the southern part. 
The State has immense agricultural capabilities, unsurpassed, indeed, by any 
other State in the Union, unless it may be the younger State of Iowa. Among 
its agricultural staples are Indian corn, wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, butter and 
cheese. Stock raising on the prairies of Illinois has, for many years, been 
carried on extensively. All the fruits and vegetables common to the latitudes 
in which it is situated are successfully and abundantly produced. 

Timber is plentiful, but not very equally diffused. The bottom lands are 
supplied with fine growths of black and white walnut, ash, hackberry, elm, 
sugar maple, honey locust, sycamore, cottonwood, hickory, and several species 
of oak. Some of these also grow on the uplands, and in addition white oak, 
and other valuable kinds of timber. White and yellow poplar flourish in 
the southern part, and cypress on the Ohio bottom lands. 

As we have seen, Illinois did not become a member of the Federal Union 
until 1818, yet settlements were made within its limits about the same time 
that William Penn colonized Pennsylvania, in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century. These settlements, like other French colonies, failed to in- 
crease very rapidly, and it was not until after the close of the Revolution, 
that extensive colonization commenced. 

Springfield, the capital of Illinois, was laid out in 1822. It is situated 
three miles south of the Sangamon river, in Sangamon county, and is sur- 
rounded by rich and extensive prairies, which have been transformed into 
splendid farms. Large quantities of bituminous coal are mined in this 
vicinity. This city will ever be memorable as the home of Abraham Lincoln, 
and as the place where his remains are entombed. In 1840 it had a pop- 
ulation of 2,579; in 1850 it had 4,533; in 1860 it had 7,002; and in 1870 
it had 17,364. Since the last date the population has increased^ rapidly. A 
new and magnificent State capitol has been erected, and Springfield may 
now be regarded as one of the flourishing cities of Illinois. 

Chicago, on the site of old Fort Dearborn, is now the largest interior city 
of the United States. It stands on the shore of Lake Michigan, with the 



Chicago river flowing through it. As the great commercial emporium of 
the Northwest, a special account of this city will be given elsewhere. Among 
other large and thriving cities are Peoria, Quincy, Galena, Belleville, Alton, 
Eockford^ Bloomington, Ottawa, Aurora, Lincoln, Eock Island, Galesburg, 
Joliet and Jacksonville. 

The internal improvements of Illinois are on a grand scale. The rail- 
roads traverse almost every county, connecting her towns and cities with her 
great commercial city on the lake, and with the markets of the East. Besides, 
these, she has her great canal, from Chicago to Peru, uniting the waters of 
Lake Michigan with the Mississippi river. This canal is 100 miles long., 

A few striking features of. the natural scenery of this State may be men- 
tioned. Along the Mississippi are bold and picturesque bluffs, rising from 
one to three hundred feet. " Starved Eock " and " Lover's Leap " are eminen- 
ces on Illinois river, the former being a perpendicular mass of limestone, 
eight miles below Ottawa, and rising 150 feet above the river. It is so called 
from an incident in Indian warfare. A band of Illinois Indians took refuge 
on this eminence from .the Pottawattamies, but being surrounded by the 
latter, they all died, it is said not of starvation, but of thirst. Nearly oppo- 
site " Lover's Leap " is " Buffalo Eock," 100 feet high. Here the Indians 
formerly drove the buffalo, and with shouts caused them to crowd each other 
over the precipice. On the banks of the Ohio, in Hardin county, is " Cave 
in the Eock," the entrance to which is but little above the water. The cave 
ascends gradually from the entrance to the extreme limit, back 180 feet. In ' 
1797 it was the rendezvous of a band of robbers, who sallied forth to rob 
boatmen and emigrants. Other outlaws have since made it their abode. 

The following table shows the population of Illinois at the close of each 
decade, from 1800 to 1870. 






















*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 32 enumerated as Indians, and the same number 
enumerated as Indians in 1870. 


Michigan was formed out of a part of the territory ceded to the United 
States by the State of Virginia. It was detached from Indiana Territory, 
and become a separate Territorial government under an act of Congress ap- 
proved January 11, 1805. It remained for more than thirty years under a 
territorial form of government, but embraced a vast region not now inclu- 
ded in the State. During this time there was considerable legislation in 
regard to its boundaries, the most important of which was the adjustment 
of the boundary line between Michigan and the State of Ohio, in 1836. In 
January, 1833, a memorial of the Legislative Council of the Territory was 
presented in Congress, praying for admission into the Union as a State. 
The prayer of the memorial was not granted at that time, partly. oi> account 


of the disputed boundary question. Finally, on the 15th of June, 1836, an 
act was passed " to establish the northern boundary of the State of Ohio, 
and to provide for the admission of the State of Michigan into the Union, 
upon conditions therein expressed." One of the conditions was, that if a 
convention of delegates elected by the people of Michigan for the purpose 
of giving their assent to the boundaries, as declared and established by the 
act of June 15th, 1836, should first give their assent, then Michigan was to 
be declared one of the States of the Union. This condition having been 
complied with, Congress, on the 26th of January, 1837, passed an act de- 
claring Michigan one of the United States, and admitting it into the Union 
upon an equal footing with the original States. 

Michigan occupies two peninsulas, the southern one lying between Lakes 
Erie, St. Clair and Huron on the east, and Lake Michigan on the west ; and 
the northern one between Lakes Michigan and Huron on the south, and 
Lake Superior on the north. The northern peninsula is about 320 miles in 
extreme length, from southeast to northwest, and 130 miles in its greatest 
width. The southern peninsula is about 283 miles from north to southland 
2111 from east to west in its greatest width. The joint area of the two 
peninsulas is 56,243 square miles, or 35,595,520 acres. The northern penin- 
sula embraces about two-fifths of the total area. 

The southern peninsula is generally an undulating plain, with a few slight 
elevations. The shores of Lake Huron are often characterized by steep 
bluffs, while those of Lake Michigan are coasted by shifting sand-hills, ris- 
ing from one hundred to two hundred feet in height. In the southern part 
of this peninsula are large districts covered with thinly scattered trees, called 
"oak openings." 

The northern peninsula is in striking contrast with the southern, both as 
to soil and surface. It is rugged, with streams abounding in water-falls. 
The Wisconsin, or Porcupine Mountains, form the water-shed between Lakes 
Michigan and Superior, and attain an elevation of 2,000 feet in the northwestern 
portion of the peninsula. The shores of Lake Superior are composed of 
sandstone rock, which in places is worn by the winds and waves into many 
strange and fanciful shapes, resembling the ruins of castles, and forming 
the celebrated "Pictured Kocks." The northern peninsula of Michigan 
possesses probably the richest copper mines in the world, occupying a belt 
one hundred and twenty miles in length by from two to six miles in width. 
It is rich in minerals, but rigorous in climate and sterile in soil. Coal is 
plentiful at Corunna, one hundred miles from Detroit. 

The State is so surrounded and intersected by lakes as to fairly entitle it 
to the soubriquet of " The Lake State." There are a number of small lakes 
in the interior of the State, which add to the general variety of scenery, but 
are not important to navigation. The Straits of Mackinaw (formerly writ- 
ten Michilimackinac) divide the southern from the northern peninsula^ and 
connect the waters of Lakes Michigan and Huron by a navigable channel. 
There are a number of small rivers, the most important in the southern pe* 
ninsula being St. Joseph's, Kalamazoo, Grand, Muskegon and Manistee, all 
emptying into Lake Michigan; and An Sable and Siganaw, flowing into 
Lake Huron, and the Huron and Eaisin discharging their waters into Lake 
Erie. The principal rivers of the northern peninsula are the Menomonee, 
Montreal and Ontonagon. The shores around the lakes are indented by nu- 
merous bays. Several small islands belong to Michigan, the most impor- 
tant of -which is Isle Koyale, noted for its copper mines. 


The climate of Michigan is generally rigorous, except in proximity to the 
lakes, where the fruits of the temperate zone succeed admirably. The north- 
ern peninsula is favorable for winter wheat, but Indian corn does not suc- 
ceed well. In the southern peninsula, Indian corn is produced abundantly y 
as well as the winter grains. This part of the State is pre-eminently agri- 

Portions of the northern peninsula are heavily timbered with white pine, 
spruce, hemlock, birch, aspen, maple, ash and elm, and vast quantities of 
lumber are manufactured at the fine mill-sites afforded by the rapid streams. 
Timber is plentiful also in the southern peninsula, and consists chiefly of 
several species of oak, hickory, ash, basswood, maple, elm, linden, locust, 
dogwood, poplar, beech, sycamore, cottonwood, black and white walnut, 
cherry, pine, tamarack, cypress, cedar and chestnut. 

Northern Michigan abounds in picturesque scenery, among winch may 
be mentioned the " Pictured Pocks," composed of sandstone of various col- 
ors. They extend for about twelve miles, and rise 300 feet above the water. 
Sometimes cascades shoot over the' precipice, so that vessels can sail between 
them and the natural wall of the rock. This portion of the State every sea- 
son attracts large numbers of excursionists and pleasure-seekers, on account 
of its charming and interesting scenery. 

The State is named for the lake which forms a part of its boundary, and 
signifies in the Indian language, " Great "Water." The first white settle- 
ments were by the French, near Detroit and at Mackinaw, in the latter hall 
of the seventeenth century ; but these colonies did not progress rapidly. 
This territory, with other "French possessions in North America, came into 
possession of Great Britain at the peace of 1763. It remained under the 
dominion of Great Britain until the American Pevolution, when it became 
the possession of the United States. The British, however, did not surren- 
der Detroit until 1796. This region was chiefly the scene of the exploits 
of the celebrated chief Pontiac, after the expulsion of the French. During 
the war of 1812, Michigan became the theater of several of the battles ana 
many of the incidents connected with that war. At Frenchtown, in this 
State, January 22, 1813, occurred a cruel massacre by the savages of a party of 
American prisoners of war. Gen. Harrison soon after drove the enemy out 
of the Territory, and removed the seat of war into Canada, where he fought 
and gained the battle of the Thames. 

Lansing, the capital of Michigan, is situated on Grand river, in Ingham 
county one hundred and ten miles northwest of Detroit. It was selected for 
the seat of government in 1847, at which time it was surrounded by an al- 
most unbroken wilderness. The river here affords excellent water power. 
A new and handsome State capitol has just been completed. 

Detroit, situated on the river from which it takes its name, eighteen miles 
from the head of Lake Erie, is the largest city in the State. It was the 
capital until the removal of the seat of government to Lansing, in 1850. 
Historically it is one of the most interesting cities in the West. The French 
had here a military post as early as 1670. Three Indian tribes, the Hurons, 
Pottawattamies and Ottawas, had their villages in the vicinity. With other 
French possessions, it passed into the hands of the British at the peace of 
1763, and twenty years later it came under the jurisdiction of the United 
States, although, as stated above, it was not surrendered until 1796. June 
11th, 1805, it was almost totally destroyed by fire. Gen. Wm. Hull, first 
governor of the Territory of Michigan, then projected the city on a new 



plan. On the 18th of August, 1812, this same Gen. Hull surrendered it 
into the hands of the British, but the latter evacuated it September 29th of 
the same year. In 1870 the population was 79,577, and since then has rap- 
idly increased. 

Among the other important towns and cities in the State, are Grand Rap- 
ids" Adrian, Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Jackson and Monroe. 

The following table shows the population of Michigan at the close of each 
decade, from 1800 to 1870 : 




























*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 6,172 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 includes 4,926 enumerated as Indians. 


Wisconsin was formed out of a portion of the Territory of Michigan, but 
was originally a part of the Northwestern Territory ceded by the State of 
Yirginia to the United States. On the 12th of December, 1832, a resolution 
passed the house of representatives directing, a committee to inquire into the 
expediency of creating a Territorial government for Wisconsin out of a part 
of Michigan. On the 20 th of April, 1836, an act was passed and approved 
establishing a Territorial government. On the 20th of June, 1838, an act 
was passed and approved to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to estab- 
lish the Territorial government of Iowa. June 12, 1838, an act was passed 
designating the boundary line between the State of Michigan and the Terri- 
tory of Wisconsin. On the 6th of August, 1 846, an act was passed and 
approved to enable the people to form a constitution and State government. 
On the 21st of January, 1847, the people adopted a constitution, and on the 
3d of March of the same year an act of Congress was passed and approved 
for the admission of the State into the Union. By act of May 29, 1848, the 
State was declared admitted into the Union, to be entitled to three represen- 
tatives in Congress after March 3, 1849. 

The extreme length of Wisconsin from north to south is about 285 miles, 
and its greatest breadth from east to west is about 255 miles. It includes 
an area of about 53,924 square miles, or 34,51 1 ,360 acres. It is generally of an 
elevated rolling surface, with a large proportion of prairie. There are no 
mountains, properly so called, though the descent toward Lake Superior is 
quite abrupt, and the rivers full of rapids and falls, which afford valuable 
mill-sites. The great lakes, Superior and Michigan, lave the northern and 
eastern borders, besides which there are a number of smaller lakes, the most 
important of which is Lake Winnebago, southeast of the middle of the State. 
It is 28 miles long and 10 miles wide, and communicates with Green Bay 
through the Fox or Neenah river. In the northwestern part are numerous 
small lakes, with clear water, gravelly or rocky bottoms, and bold picturesque 


shores. The rivers generally flow in a southwest direction and discharge 
their waters into the Mississippi, which flows along the southwest border of 
the State for more than 200 miles. The most important interior river is the 
Wieconsin, which has a course of about 200 miles almost directly south, 
when it changes its course westwardly, and flows about 100 miles further to 
its junction with the Mississippi. At favorable stages it is navigable for 
steamboats 180 miles. The Bad Axe, Black, Chippewa, and St. Croix rivers 
are important streams for floating timber and lumber from the pine region 
in the northwest part of the State. The streams flowing into Lake Superior 
are small, but rapid, affording excellent mill-sites. 

The climate is severe and the winters long, but the State is free from the 
unhealthy changes which are common farther south. The south and middle 
portions form a fine agricultural region. "Wheat is the great staple produc- 
tion, though all kinds of small grain and Indian corn are raised successfully. 
Large portions of the State are well adapted to grazing and the dairy. The 
northern part of the State, about the head- waters of the Black and Chippewa 
rivers, and the sources of the rivers emptying into Lake Superior, has but 
limited agricultural capabilities, as in that region are many ponds and 
marshes, and also large quantities of boulders scattered over the surface. 

There are many objects of interest to the tourist and the lover of the 
picturesque. The rivers abound in rapids and falls. In St. _ Louis river 
there is a series of cascades which have a descent of 320 feet in 16 miles. 
The Menomonee river at Quinnesec Falls dashes down over a perpendicular 
ledge of rocks 40 feet, and has a fall of 134 feet in a mile and a hall. Among 
other noted falls are the St. Croix, Chippewa and Big Bull Falls in the "Wis- 
consin river. Along the rivers are many grand views of bluffs, rising from 
150 to 200 feet, and at one place in I&cliland county on the Wisconsin, 
where it passes through a narrow gorge, the cliffs have an elevation of from 
400 to 500 feet. On the Mississippi, in La Crosse county, the rocks rise 
500 feet perpendicularly above the water. 

The great lead region extends into the southwestern part of "Wisconsin. 
The deposit here is intermingled to some extent with copper and zinc, 
together with some silver. Copper is found in a number of places, and also 
some iron ore. The iron ores of the Lake Superior region extend into "Wis- 
consin. Beautiful varieties of marble are found on the Menomonee river and 
in other localities. 

On the upper "Wisconsin river, and other tributaries of the Mississippi, 
north of the Wisconsin, are vast forests of pine, and immense quantities are 
annually floated down the Mississippi to supply the markets in other States. 
Among other forest trees are spruce, tamarack, cedar, hemlock, oak of sev- 
eral varieties, birch, aspen, basswood, hickory, elm, ash, poplar, sycamore and 

Wisconsin was visited at an early period by French missionaries, and a 
settlement was made in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

Madison, the capital of the State, is situated on an isthmus between Lakes 
Mendota and Monona, 80 miles west of Milwaukee, and 132 miles northwest 
of Chicago. When the place was selected for the seat of government in 
1836, there were no buildings except a solitary log cabin. The State capitol 
is a fine looking stone building erected at a cost of $500,000, and stands on 
an elevation seventy feet above the lakes. The city overlooks a charming 
country, diversified by a pleasing variety of scenery. It has steadily and 
rapidly increased in population. 



The great city of "Wisconsin is Milwaukee (called at an early day "Mil- 
wacky") and next to Chicago may be regarded as the commercial metropolis 
of the Northwest. It is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan, about 
90 miles north of Chicago. Milwaukee river empties into the lake at this 
point. The city is situated on both sides of the river, and has one of the 
best harbors on the whole chain of lakes. The fine water power of the Mil- 
waukee river is an important element in its prosperity. Being a port of 
entry, the government has expended large sums in the improvements of its 
harbor, and in the erection of public buildings. 

In 1805 Jacques Vieau, a half-breed trader whose house was at Green 
Bay, visited the country at the mouth of the Milwaukee river for the pur- 
pose of trading with the Indians. This he did annually until in September, 
1818, when he brought with him a young man named Solomon Juneau, who 
became his son-in-law. The young man established friendly relations with 
the Indians, and in 1822 erected a block-house on the site of the present city 
of Milwaukee. He remained for 18 years the only permanent white resi- 
dent, being visited occasionally by fur traders to whom he sold goods. In 
1836, the village which has grown to be a large city, began to appear. • Jun- 
eau died in 1856, at the age of 64 years, having lived to see the place he 
founded grow to a prosperous and flourishing city. In 1836 the population 
was 275 ; in 1840, it was 1810 ; in 1850, it was 1 9,873 ; in 1860, it was 45,286 ; 
in 1870, it was 71,640; and at the present time (1878) it is estimated at 123,- 

Among other important towns and cities of "Wisconsin are Racine, Janes- 
ville, Oshkosh, Fond du Lac, Watertown, Sheboygan, Beliot, Kenosha, La 
Crosse, Wauwatosa, Manitowoc, Portage City, Platteville, Sheboygan Falls, 
Beaver Dam, "Whitewater, Port Washington, Green Bay, Mineral Point, 
Shullsburg, Monroe, Prescott, and Hudson. 

The following table shows the population of- Wisconsin at the close of each 
decade from 1800 to 1870: 




















*1, 054,670 



*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 1017 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 includes 1206 enumerated as Indians. 


The eastern portion of Minnesota formed a part of the territoiy surrendered 
by the French to Great Britain at the peace of 1763, and subsequently by 
the latter to the United States at the close of the Eevolution. The western 
portion is a part of the territory known as the Louisiana Purchase, ceded by 
France to the United States in 1803. . It received a Territorial form of gov- 
ernment under an act of Congress which became a law March 3, 1849, and 
was admitted into the Union as a State May 11, 1853. 

The extreme length of Minnesota north and south is about 380 miles, and 


in width is about 300 miles. It embraces an area of 81,259 square miles, or 
52,005,760 acres. The face of the country generally presents the appearance 
of an undulating plain, although it is the most elevated tract of country 
between the Gulf of Mexico and Hudson's Bay. There are no mountains, 
but the summits of the water-sheds rise to a height of nearly two thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. 

Minnesota is one of the best watered States in the Union, being drained by 
many rivers and dotted over with immmerable small lakes and some of con- 
siderable size. The great Mississippi has its humble origin as a mere rivulet 
in Lake Itasca. This diminutive stream, here but a few feet in width, first 
meanders in a northeasterly direction, receiving tribute as it passes from a 
number of other small lakes, when it changes its course to the south, and 
after meandering a length of six hundred miles in Minnesota, dashes its 
waters down over the Falls of St. Anthony, then flows along the border of 
the State two hundred miles further, and thence grandly pursues its course 
to the Gulf of Mexico. Several tributaries of the Mississippi drain the 
southeastern portion of the State. The Eed Eiver of the North drains the 
northern part, passing off into Hudson's Bay. It is the outlet of a number 
of lakes, among which are Traverse, Otter Tail, and Bed. This river also 
forms the westboundary of the State for about two hundred miles. That 
portion of the State sloping toward Lake Superior is drained by the St. Louis 
and its tributaries. St. Peters, or Minnesota river, has a total length of 
over four hundred miles within the State. Its principal branch is Blue 
Earth or Mankato river, which flows nearly north. The St. Peters, Crow- 
Wing and Crow rivers are tributaries of the Mississippi from the west. 

Lake Superior forms a part of the eastern boundary, and the Lake of the 
"Woods a part of the northern. Among other lakes of considerable size are 
Bainy, Bed Lake, Lake Cass, and Leech Lake. Devil Lake in the north- 
west part is about 40 miles long and 15 miles wide, and is said to have no 
visible outlet. Lake Pepin is an expansion of the Mississippi in the north- 
eastern part of the State, and is a beautiful sheet of water. The State abounds 
in small lakes which are mostly clear and beautiful. Owing to the multitude 
of lakes Minnesota seldom suffers from inundations, as they tend to ckeuk 
the sudden rise and violence of the streams. 

The climate of the northern part of Minnesota is severe, but in the 
southern part is not so rigorous as to prevent fair crops of Indian corn from 
being produced some seasons. "Wheat and other winter grains succeed ad- 
mirably in nearly all parts. In the valleys of the rivers the soil is excellent, 
and even the valley of the Bed Biver of the North is regarded as a fine 
agricultural region. "Wheat is the great staple and the facilities for manu- 
facturing flour are unsurpassed, as the water power is practically unlimited. 

A portion of the State is heavily .timbered with pine, and one of the great 
industries is the manufacture of lumber. Extensive forests of pine grow on 
the Bum, St. Croix, and Pine rivers, and on the shores of the Mississippi, 
below Pokegamin Falls. Taken, as a whole, however, Minnesota cannot be 
called a well-wooded country. The river bottoms furnish some very good 
growths of oak, aspen, soft maple, basswood, ash, birch, white walnut, linden 
and elm. In the swamps or marshy places are found tamarack, cedar, and 

Minnesota presents to the tourist many natural objects of interest, especially 
in her grand and beautiful scenery along the Mississippi and around her lakes. 
St. Anthony's Falls are celebrated, not so much for their magnitude as a 


cataract, as for their geological interest and the wild scenery connected with 
them. Like Niagara, the falls are divided by an island, with the larger 
volume of water passing on the west side. This west division is 310 
yards wide. The greatest perpendicular fall of water is but 1 6£ feet, but in- 
cluding the rapids the descent is 58 feet in 260 rods. The rivers of Minne- 
sota have numerous picturesque falls and rapids, and are in many places 
bordered with perpendicular bluffs of limestone and sandstone. 

So far as revealed by geological examination, Minnesota possesses no 
great mineral or metallic wealth. There is, however, a rich deposit of iron 
ore in that part of the State bordering on Lake Superior. A thin vein of 
lead was discovered by the geological corps of Prof. Owen on "Waraiu river 
and some copper was found, but not "in* place," having probably been car- 
ried thither by the drift. Stone suitable for building purposes exists in 
great abundance. In the southwest part of the State is a singular deposit 
known as "red pipestone." Of this the Indians made their pipes, and the 
place of its deposit was held in great sacredness by them. It is said that 
different tribes at enmity with each other, met here on terms of amity and 
smoked the pipe of peace. Longfellow has rendered this locality celebrated 
in " Hiawatha." It was here — 

" On the Mountains of the Prairie, 
On the great Red Pipe-stone Quarry, 
Gitche Manito, the mighty, 
He the Master of Life, descending, 
On the red crags of the quarry. 
Stood erect, and called the nations, 
Called the tribes of men together." 

The first white men who are said to have visited the country now embraced 
in Minnesota, were two fur traders in the year 1654. They returned to Mon- 
treal two years afterward and gave a glowing account of the country. This 
was followed by the visits of trappers and missionaries, and to the latter we 
are indebted for the first printed accounts of Minnesota. In 1805 an explor- 
ing expedition under Pike traversed the country. A military post was 
established at Fort Snelling in 1819. Excepting a British settlement at 
Pembina, which was not then known to be within the limits of the United 
States, no settlements were formed in Minnesota until after 1840. 

St. Paul, the capital of Minnesota, is in Ramsey county, on the bank of 
the Mississippi, 2070 miles from its mouth, and 9 miles by land below the 
Falls of St. Anthony. The first settlement was made about the year 1840. 
The population has increased rapidly, and as a manufacturing, commercial 
and business place it has assumed considerable importance. Minneapolis, a 
few miles above St. Paul, is a rapidly growing city, and is noted for its 
great water power and manufacturing resources. Among other important 
towns are Stillwater, Red Wing, St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, and Mankato. 
The following table shows the population of Minnesota at the close of each 
decade from 1850 to 1870: 











* The above aggregate for 1860 includes 2369 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 includes 690 enumerated as Indians. 



Nebraska is formed out of a part of the territory ceded to the United 
States by France by the treaty of April 30, 1804. It was erected into a 
separate Territory May 30, 1854, the limits subsequently being , greatly 
reduced by the formation of Dakota Territory in 1861, a right reserved in 
the act creating the Territory of Nebraska. It was admitted into the Union 
as a State, March 1, 1867. 

Nebraska is in its extreme length from east to west about 412 miles, and 
in breadth from north to south about 208 miles, embracing an area of 75,905 
square miles, or 48,336,800 acres. The greater portion of the State is an 
elevated undulating prairie with a "general inclination toward the Missouri 
river. There are no mountains or very high hills. The soil is various,, but 

fenerally fertile, except in the western portion near the base of the. Rocky 
loun tains. The bottom lands along the rivers are not surpassed in fertility 
by any in the United States, while the higher undulating prairie is equally 
productive with that of other western States. When the prairies are once 
broken they are easy of cultivation, the soil being light and mellow. The 
staple productions are wheat, Indian corn, oats, and other cereals common 
to the latitude. The climate is mild, as compared with that of the same 
latitude on the Atlantic. The summers are sometimes very warm, and the 
extreme western part is occasionally deficient in rain. Taken as a whole, 
however, this is destined to become one of the foremost agricultural States 
in the Union. 

Nebraska is deficient in native timber, but the older settled portions are 
dotted over with groves of artificial or cultivated timber, which is so rapid 
in its growth as to require but a few years to produce enough for the ordinary 
wants of the settler. The rivers and streams aie generally bordered with 

f'oves of native trees, including oak, walnut, hickory, cottonwood and willow, 
long the Missouri river in places are some heavy growths of cottonwood. 

The Missouri river forms the entire eastern boundary, and is navigable 
for steamboats throughout the whole extentof that boundary and for hun- 
dreds of miles above. Amongthe important interior rivers are the Platte, 
the Niobrara, the Republican Fork ot the Kansas, the Elkhorn, the Loup 
Fork of the Platte, the Big Blue and the Nemaha. These rivers are so dis- 
tributed, as, with their numerous tributaries, to afford admirable drainage to 
all parts of the State, and as a consequence it is free from marshes, conduc- 
ing to the excellent health for which Nebraska is noted. 

Bo far as yet revealed, the State is not rich in minerals. Coal, however, 
has recently been discovered in the southeastern part, in a vein sufficiently 
thick for mining. Near Lincoln are some salt springs of sufiicient magni- 
tude to yield large quantities of salt. On Platte river and other streams 
both limestone and sandstone are obtained of suitable quality for building 

Rapid progress has been made in the construction of railroads in Nebraska. 
Among them are the Union Pacific and its branches, the Burlington & Mis- 
souri River and its branches, and others, affording railroad advantages to a 
large portion of the State, and connecting the principal towns with the 
mam lines, east, west and south. 

Lincoln, the capital of Nebraska, is in Lancaster county, in the southeast- 
ern part of the State. Here are most of the State institutions. It is a 
thriving young city and is in the midst of a fine agricultural portion of tlic 
State. Near it, on a little stream known as Salt Creek, are a number of 



salt springs, and considerable quantities of salt have been manufactured. 
Railroads connect it witb all the great markets of the country. 

Omaha is the leading commercial city of the State, and is located on the 
west bank of the Missouri river in Douglas county. It is 18 miles by land 
above the mouth of the Platte river. The principal portion of the city is 
situated on gently rising slopes extending from the river to the bluffs. The 
elevatio'ns are crowned with fine residences, and command pleasant views of 
the river and valley, with the city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in the distance. 
Since the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad it has grown in popula- 
tion and wealth very rapidly. A costly iron railroad bridge spans the Mis- 
-souri river at this point. As a produce, shipping and general commercial 

?oint it is rapidly growing into prominence. It was the first capital of the 
territory and State, and takes its name from a tribe of Indians. 
. Among other important towns and cities are Nebraska City, Columbus, 
Kearney, Grand Island, Hastings, Plattsmouth, Tecumseh, and Niobrara. 

The following table shows the population of Nebraska by the census of 
1860 and 1870: 







In the agrgTeeate for 1860, the enumeration includes 63 Indians, and in that of 1870, the 
enumeration includes 87 Indians. 


Missouri was formed out of a part of the territory ceded by France to the 
United States in 1803. By an act approved March 26th, 1804, the French, 
or Louisiana purchase, was divided, that part embracing the present State 
of Missouri being at first designated as the District of Louisiana. The 
name was changed to Territory of Louisiana, by an act passed March 3d, 
1805, and again by an act of June 4, 1812, Louisiana Territory was changed 
to Missouri Territory. By an act passed March 2, 1819, the southern por- 
tion was detached and organized as the Territory of Arkansas. During the 
same year the people of the Territory of Missouri, through their Legislative 
Council and House of Eepresentatives, memorialized Congress for admis- 
sion into the Union as a State. On the 6th of March following an act was 
Sssed to authorize the people of the Territory to form a State constitution, 
issouri being the first State formed wholly out of territory west of the 
Mississippi, the question of the extension of slavery came up and gave 
rise to a stormy debate in Congress while the Missouri bill, as it was 
called, was pending. The propriety and expediency of extending that in- 
stitution to the new States west of the Mississippi, was powerfully and earn- 
estly contested, and resulted in a compromise restricting slavery to certain 
limits, and prohibiting the extension of slavery to certain territory. The 
bill, however, of March 6th, passed without restrictions. The people on the 
,19th of July, 1820, adopted their constitution, which was laid before Con- 
gress November 16th of the same year. The Senate passed a joint resolu- 
tion declaring the admission of the State of Missouri into the Union. This 
was referred to a select committee in the House of Eepresentatives, and on 


the lOth of February, 1821, Mr. Clay made a report. The House rejected 
the resolution, and on motion of Mr. Clay, a committee on the part of the 
House was appointed to join a committee on the part of the Senate to con- 
sider the subject and report. On the 26th of February, Mr. Clay, from the 
joint committee, reported a " Eesolution providing for the admission of the 
State of Missouri into the Union, on a certain condition." This resolution 
was passed and approved, March 2, 1821. The condition was that Missouri, 
by its legislature, should assent to a condition that a part of the State con- 
stitution should never be construed to authorize the passage of a law by 
which any citizen of either of the States in the Union should be excluded 
from the enjoyment of any of the priviliges and immunities to which such 
citizen is entitled under the Constitution of the United States. What was 
known as the " Missouri Compromise," was embraced in the act of the pre- 
vious session, which authorized the people of the State of Missouri to form a 
State constitution, and consisted of a compromise section in the bill by which 
slavery was to be forever prohibited in that part of the territory west of the 
Mississippi (except the State of Missouri), lying north of thirty-six degrees' 
and thirty minutes north latitude. Thus, after fierce and stormy debates, 
running through two sessions of Congress, Missouri came into the Union, 
and the exciting question of slavery was supposed also to have been settled. 
On the 10th of August, 1821, President Monroe issued his proclamation 
declaring the admission of Missoiiri completed, according to law. 

Missouri in its greatest length from east to west is about 285 miles, and 
in width from north to south, 280 miles. It embraces an area of 67,380 
square miles, or 43,123,200 acres. That portion of it north of the Missouri 
river is mostly undulating prairie and timber land, while that portion south 
of the Missouri river is characterized by a great variety of surface. In the 
southeast part, near the Mississippi, is an extensive area of marshy land. 
The region forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains is hilly and bro- 
ken. West of the Osage river is a vast expanse of prairie. The geological 
features of Missouri are exceedingly interesting. Coal, iron and several 
kinds of stone and marble for building purposes exist in great abundance. 
A vast region, in the vicinity of Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, produces 
iron of the best quality, and exists in inexhaustible quantity. It is also 
found in other parts of the State. There is also lead, which has been mined 
in considerable quantities. Copper is found throughout the mineral region, 
but is found combined with other minerals. Silver is also combined with 
the lead ore. The bituminous coal deposits are mainly on both sides of the 
Missouri river, below the mouth of the Osage, and extending forty miles up 
that river. Cannel-coal is found in Callaway county. 

Missouri possesses the advantages of two of the greatest navigable rivers in 
the United States — the Mississippi, which forms her entire eastern boundary, 
and the Missouri, which flows along her northwestern border nearly two 
hundred miles, and crosses the State in a south-easterly course to its junc- 
tion with the Mississippi. As both of these rivers are navigable for the 
' largest steamers, the State has easy and ready commercial intercourse to the 
Gulf of Mexico and the Eocky Mountains, as well as up the Ohio to Pitts- 
burg. Besides the Missouri, the State has several important interior rivers, 
to-wit : Grand river and Chariton, tributaries of the Missouri river from 
the north, and the Osage and Gasconade from the south ; also, Salt river and 
Maramec, tributaries of the Mississippi. The St. Francis and White river 


drain the southeastern part, passing from the State into Arkansas. The 
Osage is navigable for steamboats about 275 miles. 

Missouri as a State has many material resources, fitting her for becoming 
one of the most wealthy and populous States in the Union. The soil is gen- 
erally excellent, producing the finest crops, while those portions not so well 
adapted to agriculture are rich in minerals. The greater portion of the State 
is well timbered. In the river bottoms are heavy growths of oak, elm, 
ash, hickory, cottonwood, sngar, and white and black walnut. On the 
uplands also, are found a great variety of trees. Various fruits, including 
apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries and strawberries, are produced in the 
greatest abundance. Among the staple productions are Indian corn, wheat, 
oats, potatoes, hemp and tobacco. A great variety of other crops are also 

The State has an uneven and variable climate — the winters being very cold 
and the summers excessively hot. Chills and fever are common to some 
extent along the rivers. 

The earliest settlement in Missouri seems to have been by the French, about 
the year 1719. About that time they built what was called Fort Orleans, 
near Jefferson City, and the next year worked the lead mines to some extent. 
Ste. Genevieve was settled in 1755, also by the French, and is the oldest town 
in the State. Missouri's greatest commercial metropolis, St. Louis, was first 
settled in 1764, the earliest settlers being mostly French. 

Jefferson City, the capital of the State,, is situated on the right bank of the 
Missouri river, in Cole county. It is 128 miles by land, and 155 miles by 
water from St. Louis. The location being elevated, commands a fine view 
of the river, with the pleasant and picturesque scenery which is presented at 
this point on the Missouri. 

St. Louis, the great commercial city of Missouri, as well as of a large por- 
tion of the Northwest, is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi, 
twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 174 above the mouth of 
the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, and 1194 miles 
above New Orleans. The city enjoys many natural advantages as a com- 
mercial emporium, being situated nearly midway between the two oceans, 
and centrally in the finest agricultural region on the globe. With the 
greatest navigable river on the continent, affording her a water highway to 
the ocean, and to many of the large inland cities of the country, St. Louis is 
rapidly and surely going forward to a grand future. Her already great and 
constantly improving system of railways, is tending every year to open up to 
her larger fields of business and commercial intercourse. Of late years a 
strong rivalry has sprung up between St. Louis and Chicago, in regard to 
nopulation, etc., each claiming to be the third city in the Union. The in- 
crease of St. Louis since the war has been great, the ascendency being at an 
*>,nnual rate of about ten per cent. At this increase she is fast earning the 
"(oubriqnet of the " Future Great City." 

The site on which St. Louis stands was selected February 15th, 1764, by 
Laclede, as a post possessing peculiar advantages for collecting and trading 
In furs, as well as for defense against the Indians. For many years it was 
bnt a frontier village, the principal trade of which was in furs, buffalo robes, 
and other collections of trappers and hunters. A great part of the popula- 
tion was absent during the hunting and trapping seasons, so that the in- 
fancy of this city was almost a struggle for existence. As late as 1820, the 
population was but 4,598. The first brick house was erected in 1813. In 



1822, St. Louis was chartered as a city, under the title given by Laclede in 
in honor of Louis XV of France. In 1830 the population was 6,694, an 
increase of only 2,096 in ten years. In 1840 the population had reached 
16,469; in 1850 it was 77,950, including 2,650 slaves; in 1860 the popula- 
tion was 160,773 ; and in 1870 it was 312,963. 

Kansas City, one of the rapidly advancing young cities of the State, is 
situated on the Missouri river just below the mouth of the Kansas. In 
1870 the population was 32,260. Since that time there has been a rapid in- 
crease, both-in population and business. 

St. Joseph is one of the flourishing cities, and is situated on the left, or 
east bank of the Missouri river, 496 miles by water from St. Louis. It was 
laid out in 1843, and became an important point of departure ibr overland 
emigration to California and Oregon. In 1870 the population was 19,560, 
but nas rapidly increased since then. 

Among the important and thriving towns and cities are Hannibal, Spring- 
field, Boonville, Lexington, Chillicothe, Independence, Palmyra, Canton, 
Iron Mount and Moberly. 

The following table shows the population of Missouri at the close of each 
decade, from 1810 to 1870 : 


























*1, 721 ,295 

*The aggregate for 1860 includes 20 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 1870 
includes 75 enumerated as Indians. • 


Organization of Exploring Party — Departure — Osage Indians — Straijge Tradition of the Ori- 
gin of the Osage Nation — The Missouris — Old French Fort— Artificial Mounds— The Ot- 
toes and Pawnees— Indian Graves — The Ayauway Indians — Council with Indians at Cow* 
cil Bluffs — little Sioux River— Death of Sergeant Floyd — Great Sioux River — Red Pipe- 
stone Quarries — Buffalo and other Animals — Mountain of the Little Spirits — Council with 
the Sioux — Indian Idols — The Mandans — Winter Quarters — White and Brown Bears- 
Antelopes — Black Hills — First View of Rocky Mountains — Natural Scenery^-The Great 
Falls of the Missouri — Shoshones — Sources of the Missouri — Columbia River-r-The Tush-< 
epaws — Short of Provisions — Pierced-Nose Indians — Down Lewis River — The Sokulks— 
Great Falls of the Columbia — The Echeloots— Wooden Houses — Fingers as War Tro- 
pies -Sight of the Pacific — Fort Clatsop — Return — Arrival at St. Louis. 

In January, 1803, President Jefferson, in a confidential message to Con- 
gress in regard to Indian affairs, took occasion to recommend, among other 
things, the organization of a party to trace the Missouri river to its source, 
and thence proceed to the Pacific ocean. The recommendation was favor- 
ably considered, and Capt. Merri wether Lewis, was, on his own application, 
appointed to take charge of the expedition. Wm. Clarke was subsequently 
associated with him, so that this celebrated expedition is known in our his- 
tory as that of Lewis and Clarke. The incidents of this long, tedious, and 
romantic journey are worthy to be related as among the most interesting 


in the annals of American adventure. At that time all that vast region 
bordering on the Upper Missouri and its tributaries, as well as the regions 
bordering on the Pacific, were unknown and unexplored by white men. By 
the latter part of the year 1803 the party comprising the expedition was 
made up and ready to start. The highest settlement of whites on the Mis- 
souri river at that time was at a place called La Charrette, sixty-eight miles 
above the mouth. At this place it had been the design of Oapt. Lewis to 
winter, but the Spanish authorities of Louisiana had not yet received official 
information of the transfer of the country to tbe United States. For this 
reason the party remained in winter quarters at the mouth of Wood river, 
on the east side of the Mississippi. 

Besides Captains Lewis and Clarke, the party was made up nine young 
men from Kentucky, twelve soldiers of the regular army, two Frenchmen 
as watermen and interpreters, and a colored servant belonging to Captain 
Clarke — twenty-six persons in all. A corporal, six soldiers and nine water- 
men, in addition to the above, were engaged to accompany the expedition as 
far as the country of the Mandans, as there was some apprehension of at- 
tacks by the Indians between Wood river and that tribe. 

Three boats were provided for the expedition. The largest was a keel- 
boat, fifty-five feet long, drawing three feet of water, carrying one large 
square sail, and twenty-two oars. The other two were open boats, one of 
six, and the other of seven oars. 

The expedition started from the encampment at the mouth of Wood 
river on Monday, May li, 1804. Captain Lewis, who was at that time in 
St. Louis, joined the expedition at St. Charles, twenty-one miles oip the 
Missouri, which place they reached on the 16th. Here they remained until 
the 21st, when they proceeded on their voyage, reaching La Charrette, the 
last white settlement, on the evening of the 25th. The village consisted of 
but seven poor families. On the 1st of June they arrived at the mouth of 
the Osage, one hundred and thirty-three miles on their journey. The coun^ 
try bordering on this river was inhabited by a tribe known as the Osage 
Indians. They had a remarkable tradition among them as to the origin of 
their nation. They believed that its founder was a snail passing a quiet ex- 
istence along the banks of the Osage, till a flood swept him down to the Mis- 
souri and there left-him exposed on the shore. By the heat of the sun he 
was changed to a man. The change, however, did not cause him to forget 
his native place away up on the banks of the Osage, and he immediately 
sought his old home. Being overtaken with hunger and fatigue, the Great 
Spirit appeared, gave him a bow and arrow, and taught him to kill deer and 
prepare its flesh for food and its skin for clothing. When he arrived at his 
original place of residerfce he was met by a beaver, who inquired who he 
was, and by what authority he came to disturb his possession. The Osage 
replied that he had once lived on the borders of that river and that it was 
his own home. While they were disputing the daughter of the beaver ap- 
peared, and entreated her father to be reconciled to the young stranger. The 
lather yielded to her entreaties, and the Osage soon married the beaver's 
daughter. They lived happily on the banks of the Osage, and from them soon 
came the villages and nation of the Osages.- Ever since they entertained a 
• pious reverence for their ancestors, never killing a beaver, for by so doing they 
would slay a brother. It. has been observed, however, that after the opening 
of the fur trade with the whites, the sanctity of their maternal relations was 
very much reduced. 


The next tribe mentioned by the explorers was that of the Missourio, once 
a powerful nation, but then reduced to about thirty families. They finally 
united with the Osages and the Ottoes, and as a separate nation became ex- 
tinct. The Sauks, Ayauways (Iowas), and the Sioux are mentioned as being 
the enemies of the Osages, and as making frequent excursions against them. 
On the 26th of June they arrived at the mouth of the Kansas, 340 miles 
from the Mississippi, where they remained two days for rest and repairs. 
Here resided the tribe of Indians of the same name, and had two villages 
not far from the mouth of the river. This tribe at that time had been re- 
duced by the Sauks and Ayauways to only about three hundred men. The 
party at this stage of their journey, saw numerous buffalo on the prairies. 
On the 2d of July the party passed Bear Medicine Island, near which were 
the remains of an old tort, built by the French, the ruins of the chimneys 
and the general outline of the fortification being visible. On the 8th of 
July they reached the mouth of the Nodawa. The river is mentioned as 
navigable for boats some distance. On the 11th they landed at the mouth ol 
the Nemahaw. Mention is made of several artificial mounds on the Ne- 
mahaw, about two miles up the stream at the mouth of a small creek. 
From the top of the highest mound there was a fine view of the country. 
On the 14th they passed the Nishnahbatona river, finding it to be only three 
hundred yards from the Missouri at a distance of twelve miles from its 
mouth. Platte river and other streams, both in Iowa and Nebraska, are men- 
tioned and the country described with great accuracy. Along in this part 
of the country were the first elk they had seen. 

On the 22d oi> July the explorers encamped on the north (Iowa) side of 
the river, ten miles above the mouth of the Platte river, to make observa- 
tions and to hold an interview with the neighboring tribes. They remained 
here in camp until the 27th. Among the streams mentioned in this vicin- 
ity are the Papillon, Butterfly Creek and Moscheto Creek, the last named 
being a small stream near Council Bluffs. In mentioning them we use the 
orthography of the explorers, which in some instances diners from that now 
in use. The Indians who occupied the country about the mouth of Platte 
river at this time were the Ottoes and Pawnees. The Ottoes were much 
reduced, and formerly lived about twenty miles above the Platte on the 
Nebraska side of the river. They lived at this time under the protection 
of the Pawnees. The latter were also much dispersed and broken. One 
band of the nation formerly lived on the Republican branch of the Kanzas 
River. Another band were the Pawnee Loups, or Wolf Pawnees, who re- 
sided on the Wolf fork of the Platte. Another band originally resided on 
the Kanzas and Arkansaw, but in their wars with the Osages they were 
often defeated and retired to the Red river. Various other tribes living fur- 
ther west, are mentioned. On the 27th they continued their journey, and 
about ten leagues from their encampment, on the south (Nebraska) side of 
the river, they saw and examined a curious collection of graves, or mounds. 
They were of different heights, shapes and sizes. Some were of sand, and 
others of both earth and sand. They were snpposed to indicate the position 
of the ancient village of the Ottoes before they retired to the protection of 
the Pawnees. On the 29th they passed the spot where the Ayauway Indians, 
a branch of the Ottoes, once lived, and who had emigrated from that place 
to the Des Moines. Mention is here made of an interview with one of the 
Missouri Indians who lived with the Ottoes, and the resemblance of his 
language to that of the Osages, particularly in calling a chief inca. 


On the 30th of July the party encamped on the south (Nebraska) side ot 
the river._ At that place next to the river was a plain, and back of it a 
wooded ridge, rising about seventy feet above the plain. At the edge of 
this ridge they formed their camp, and sent an invitation to the Indians to 
meet them. From the bluffs at this point they mention a most beautiful 
view of the river and adjoining country. The latitude of the camp was de- 
termined by observation to be 41 degrees 18 minutes and 14 seconds. The 
messenger sent to invite the Ottoes returned on the evening of the 2d of 
August, with fourteen Ottoe and Missouri Indians, accompanied by a French- 
man who resided among them, and who acted as interpreter. Lewis and Clarke 
made them presents of pork, flour and meal, and the Indians returned presents 
of watermelons. The next morning (Aug. 3d) a council was held with the 
six chiefs who were of the party of Indians; they were told of the change 
in the government, and promised protection and advised as to their future con- 
duct. All the chiefs expressed their joy at the change in the government, 
and wished to be recommended to the Great Father (the President) that 
they might obtain trade and necessaries. They asked the mediation of the 
Great Tather between them and the Mahas (Omahas), with whom they were 
then at war. At the conclusion of the council medals and other presents 
were given to the chiefs, and also some presents to the other Indians who 
were with them. The grand chief of the Ottoes was not present, but to 
him was sent a flag, a medal, and some ornaments for clothing. The ex- 
plorers gave to the place where this council was held the name of Council 
Bluffs. The reader will remember, however, that it was above the present 
city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, and was on the Nebraska side of the river. 

On the afternoon of the 3d of August they resumed their journey, and on 
the 7th arrived at the mouth of a river on the north side, called by the Sioux 
Indians, Eaneahwadepon (Stone river), and by the French, Petite Hiviere 
des Sioux, or in English, Little Sioux river. The explorers were informed 
by their interpreter (M. Durion)that this river rises within about nine miles 
of the Des Moines ; that within fifteen leagues of that river it passes through 
a large lake, nearly sixty miles in circumference, and divided into two parts 
by rocks, which approach each other very closely. Its width is various; it 
contains many islands, and is known by the name of Lao d' Esprit — Spirit 
Lake. The country watered by it is open and undulating, and may be visited 
in boats up the river for some distance. The interpreter further added that 
the Des Moines was about eighty yards wide where the Little Sioux ap- 
proaches it; that it was shoally, and that one of its principal branches was 
called Cat river. The interpreter claimed to have been to the sources of the 
Little Sioux, and those who are familiar with the country about Spirit Lake, 
will concede that he described it quite accurately. The explorers speak of a 
long island two miles above the mouth of the Little Sioux, which they named 
Pelican island, from the large number of pelicans which were feeding on it, 
one of which they killed. They also killed an elk. On the 10th they passed 
the first highland near the river, after leaving their encampment at Council 
Bluffs. Not far from this, on a high bluff, was the grave of Blackbird, one 
of the great chiefs of the Mahas, who had died of small-pox four years be- 
fore. The grave was marked by a mound twelve feet in diameter at the base, 
and six feet high, and was on an elevation about 300 feet above the water. 
In the center of the grave was a pole eight feet high. Near this the Mahas 
had a village, and lost four hundred men of their nation, and a like proportion 
of women and children by the small-pox at the time that Blackbird died. 


After this dreadful scourge they burned their village, which had consisted of 
three hundred cabins. On a hill at the rear of the place where the village 
stood were the graves of the nation. On the evening of the 18th the ex- 
plorers were again visited at their camp by a party of Ottoes and Missouris, 
who entertained them with a dance. The professed object of their visit was 
to ask intercession for promoting peace between them and the Mahas,. but 
probably the real object was to share a portion of the strangers' provisions 
and liquors. 

The next day, August 20th, after passing a couple of islands, they landed 
on the north side of the river, under some bluffs — the first near the river on 
that side after leaving the Ayauway village. It was here that the party -had 
the misfortune to lose one of their men — Sergeant Charles Floyd. He had 
the day before been siezed with a billious colic. Before his death he, 
Captain Clarke, "I am going to leave you; I want you to write me a letter." 
Soon after making this request the brave soldier passed away. He was buried 
on the top of the bluff, with honors due to a soldier. The place of his inter- 
ment was marked by a cedar post, on which his name and the day of bis 
death were inscribed., About a mile further up on the same side of the Mis-, 
souri, they came to a small river, to which they gave the name of Floyd.river, 
in honor of their deceased companion. The place of the burial of Sergeant 
Floyd was but a short distance below where Sioux City now stands. During 
a great freshet in the spring of 1857, the Missouri river washed away a por- 
tion of the bluff, exposing the remains of the soldier. The citizens of Sioux 
City and vicinity repaired to the place, and with appropriate ceremonies,, re- 
intorred them some distance back from the river on the same bluff.; The 
same cedar post planted by his companions over his grave on that summer 
day more than hah' a century before, remained to mark the place of inter- 
ment up to 1857, although during nearly all this time the country had been 
inhabited only by savages. 

On the 21st of August the expedition passed the site where Sioux City 
now stands, and noted in their journal the confluence of the Great Sioux 
river with the Missouri. From their interpreter, M. Durion, they received 
an account of the Great Sioux river. He stated that it was navigable for 
more than two hundred miles, to the great falls, and even beyond them. The 
reader will remember that this was before the time of steamboats -on western 
waters. He mentioned a creek that emptied into the Great Sioux below the 
falls, which passed through cliffs of red rock, out of which the Indians made 
their pipes ; that the necessity for procuring that article had caused the intro- 
duction of a law among the nations, by which the banks of that creek were 
held to be sacred, and even tribes at war met at the quarries without hos- 
tility. These were what are now known as the " Bed Pipestone Quarries," 
in southwestern Minnesota. 

A few miles above the mouth of the Great Sioux, on the north, or Dakota 
side of the river, they killed a buffalo, a deer and a beaver. They also saw 
some elk. The place where the buffalo was killed they described as a beau- 
tiful prairie, and gave it the name of Buffalo Prairie. ' They mention on the 
south side of the river, a bluff of blue clay, rising to the height of 180 or 
190 feet. Several miles from this, on the south side of the river, Captains 
Lewis and Clarke, with ten of their men, went to see a mound regarded with 
great terror by the Indians, and called by them the Mountain of the.Litle 
Spirits. They believed it was the abode of little devils in human form, 
eighteen inches high, and having large heads; that they had sharp arrows, 


and were always on the watch to kill those who might approach their place 
of residence. The Sioux, Mahas' and Ottoes never would visit the hill or 
mound for fear of the vengeance of the Little Spirits. The mound, though 
extraordinary in its formation, they did not regard as artificial. From its 
top they could see large herds of buffalo feeding at a distance. 

On the 26th they passed the mouth of Yankton river, and, on landing, 
were met by several Indians, who informed them that a large body of Sioux 
were encamped near. On the 30th and 31st they held a council with the 
Sioux, and smoked with them the pipe of peace. The Indians exhibited 
their skill in dancing and various other amusements to entertain their vis- 
itors. These Indians were the Yankton tribe of the Sioux nation. Their 
grand chief was We-u-cha, or in English, Shake Rand. Speeches were 
made and presents exchanged. 

On the 1st of September the explorers passed Calumet Bluffs, and the 
next day Bonhomme Island, near which they visited some ancient earth- 
works, or fortifications, on the south, or Nebraska, side of the Missouri. 
They made a minute and careful examination of these works. They 
embraced nearly five hundred acres. A day or two after, on a hill to the 
south, near Cedar Island, they discovered the backbone of a fish, 45 feet 
long, in a perfect state of petrifaction. 

After several conferences with different tribes, and observations in regard 
to the country, its formation, and the different animals seen, on the 13th of 
October they reached a small stream on the north side, to which they gave 
the name of Idol Creek. Near its mouth were two stones resembling human 
figures, and a third like a dog. These were objects of great veneration among 
the Kicaras (Kicarees), who occupied the country in that vicinity. They had 
a legend that a young brave was deeply enamored with a girl whose parents 
refused their consent to the marriage. The young brave went out into the 
fields to mourn his misfortunes, and a sympathy of feeling led the lady to 
the same spot. The faithful dog would not cease to. follow his master. The 
lovers wandered away together with nothing to subsist on but grapes, and 
they were at last changed into stone, with the lady holding in her hands a 
bunch of grapes. When the Kicaras pass these sacred stones, they stop to 
make offerings of dress to propitiate the deities, as they regard them. Such 
was the account given to Lewis and Clarke, by the Eicara chief. As they 
found here a great abundance of fine grapes, they regarded one part of the 
story as very agreeably confirmed. 

On the 19th they reached the ruins of one of the Mandan villages. It 
had been fortified. This, they were informed by the Eicara chief, was one 
of several villages once occupied by the Mandans until the Sioux forced them 
forty miles higher up the river. In this vicinity they counted no less than 
52 herds of buffalo, and 3 herds of elk at a single view. 

About the 1st of November, 1804, the expedition reached the country of 
the Mandans, where they went into winter quarters. These Indians had 
raised considerable corn, some of which they presen ted to the party. During 
the winter they obtained a great deal of information in regard to the history, 
traditions, and manners and customs, not only of this peculiar and remark- 
able nation, but of other tribes Their huts, or cabins, were all completed 
by the 20th of the month, and the place was named Fort Mandan. It was 
on the north side of the Missouri, in a grove of cottonwood. The place, as 
ascertained by observation, was in latitude 47 deg., 21 min. and 47 sec, and 
the computed distance from the mouth of the Missouri was 1600 miles. 


During the winter they were visited by a great many Indians of the Man- 
dan and other tribes.' A few French and traders of the Northwest Fur 
Company also visited them. 

The party remained at Fort Mandan until April 7, 1805, when they 
resumed their journey. There were then thirty-two_ persons in the expe- 
dition, some of the party having returned to St. Louis. In this portion of 
the country they began to see numbers of white bear, antelope, and other 
animals, which they nad not seer lower down on the river. On the 12th 
they arrived at the mouth of the Little Missouri, near which they found large 
quantities of small onions, about the size of a bullet, of an oval form and 
white. The next day they passed a small stream to which they gave the 
name of Onion Creek, from the great abundance of that vegetable growing 
near it. Along this part of the Missouri were large numbers of bald eagles, 
and also many geese and brant. Numerous deserted Indian lodges were 
noticed, which they supposed to have belonged to the Assiniboins, as there 
were the remains of small kegs. That tribe was the only one in this region 
that then used spirituous liquors. They obtained it from the traders of the 
Hudson Bay Company, bartering their furs for it. Here many plants and 
aromatic herbs are mentioned, and some resembling in taste and smell sage, 
hyssop, wormwood and juniper. On the 26th they camped at the mouth of 
the Yellowstone, where game of various kinds was very abundant. Frequent 
mention is made of the burned hills along that part of the Missouri for some 
distance above and below the Yellowstone. Among the animals killed by 
the hunters of the expedition in this part of the voyage were several 
brown bears. On the evening of the 14th of May the men in one of the 
canoes discovered a large brown bear lying in the open grounds about three 
hundred yards from the river. Six of them, all good hunters, went to attack 
him, and, concealing themselves by a smatl eminence, four of them fired at 
a distance of about forty paces. Each of them lodged a ball in the bear's 
body, two of them directly through the lungs. The animal sprang up and • 
ran open-mouthed toward them. As he came near, the two hunters who had 
reserved their fire, gave him two more wounds, one of which, breaking his 
shoulder, retarded his motion for a moment. Before they could reload he 
was so near upon them that they were obliged to run to the river, the bear 
almost overtaking them. Two of the men sprang into the canoe, and the 
others concealed themselves in some willows and fired as fast as they could 
reload, striking him several times. The shots seemed only to direct him 
toward the hunters, till at last he pursued two of them so closely that they 
threw aside their guns and pouches, and jumped twenty feet down a perpen- 
dicular bank into the river. The bear sprang after them, and was within a 
few feet of the hindmost when one of the hunters on shore shot him in the 
head, and finally killed him. They dragged the bear to shore and found' 
that eight balls had passed through his body in different directions. 

On the 20th of May the party reached the mouth of the Muscleshell, a 
river of considerable size from the south. They were then 2270 miles above 
the month of the Mississippi, in latitude 47 deg., 24 min. Mention is made 
of what the French traders called Cote Noire, or Black Hills. On the 26th 
of May they had the first view of the Kocky Mountains, "the object," as the 
journalist remarks, " of all our hopes, and the reward of all our ambition." 
The view was obtained from what they called one of the last ridges of the 
Black Mountains. On the 30th they had reached that part of the river 
which passes through between walls of rocks, presenting every form of 


sculptured ruins, and having the appearance of being the productions of art. 
Of these objects of natural scenery they give a most glowing description. 

On the 3d of June the expedition reached a junction of two branches of 
the river, when they were at a loss to determine which was the true Mis- 
souri river. Parties, one under Captain Lewis and the other under Captain 
Clarke, proceeded to explore both branches by land. "The party under Cap- 
tain Lewis, on the 13th, reached the Great Falls of the Missouri on the 
southern branch, which determined the question. Onerfof the men was 
sent to inform Captain Clarke of the discovery. The explorers give a vivid 
description of the wonderful and beautiful scenery which is here presented. 
In the vicinity of the falls they saw a herd of at least a thousand buffalo, 
one of which they shot. Here Captain Lewis himself had an encounter 
with a large brown bear, from which he escaped by plunging into the river. 
Mention is made of grasshoppers at the mouth of Medicine river, about 
twelve miles above the Great Falls, in such multitudes that the herbage on 
the plains was in part destroyed by them. At that point the Missouri is 
described as being three hundred yards wide, and Medicine river one hun- 
bundred and thirty-seven yards wide. The party remained here until the 
15th of July, examining the surrounding country, constructing canoes, and 
making general preparations for continuing the journey. On that day they 
again embarked with eight heavily loaded canoes, encountering many diffi- 
cult places for navigating, owing to the rapids. Toward the latter part of 
July they reached a point where the Missouri is formed of three branches, 
one of which they called Jefferson, one Madison, and one Gallatin. Here 
the party divide and explore the several branches, partly for the purpose of 
finding the Shoshones, the Indians that were known to inhabit that region. 
On the 11th of August they encountered a single Indian on horseback, who 

S roved to be one of that tribe or nation. Captain Lewis, who had continued 
is course up the Jefferson, or principal branch forming the sources of the 
Missouri, reached a point where it had so diminished in width that one of 
his men in a fit of enthusiasm, with one foot on each side of the rivulet, 
thanked God that he had lived to bestride the Missouri. A few miles 
further on they reached the point where issues the remotest water — the 
hitherto hidden sources of that river, which had never before been seen by 
civilized man. They sat down by the brink of the little rivulet, and 
quenched their thrist at the chaste and icy fountain, which sends its modest 
tribute down to the great ocean thousands of miles away. Crossing over the 
the 'dividing line between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, at a 
distance of three-quarters of a mile, they stopped to taste for the first time 
the waters of the Columbia, here a stream of clear, cold water flowing west- 
ward. On the same day Captain Lewis succeeded in gaining a friendly in- 
terview with the Shoshones. Captain Clarke, with a part of the expedition, 
was at this time at the junction of the three branches of the Missouri, and 
Captain Lewis engaged a number of the Indians, with about thirty of their 
horses, to transport their merchandise and outfit to the Shoshone camp. 

The Shoshones are described as being a small tribe of the nation called 
the Snake Indians, an appellation which embraces the inhabitants of the 
southern parts of the Kocky Mountains and of the plains on either side. 
During the summer the Shoshones resided about the headwaters of the 
Columbia, where they lived chiefly on salmon. In their journal the explorers 
give a long and interesting account of the habits, traditions, and manner of 


life of this people. They found them honest, friendly, and ready to render 
them all assistance in their power. 

After purchasing twenty-nine horses from the Shoshones, the party on the 
30th of August resumed their journey toward the Pacific. On the 4th of 
September, after many difficulties in finding a practicable route, they came 
to a large encampment of Indians who received them with great cordiality. 
The pipe of peace was introduced and a council held. They represented 
themselves as a band of a nation called Tushepaws, a numerous people then 
residing on the headwaters of the Missouri and Columbia rivers. The In- 
dians shared their berries and roots with the strangers and received some 
presents. Several horses were purchased from them. On the 6th they 
reached a stream to which they gave the name of Clarke river, Captain 
Clarke being the first white man" who ever visited its waters. Theronte 
was a rugged one, and in many places almost impracticable, and to add to 
the difficulties of the situation, snow had been falling, so that on the 16th it 
was six or eight inches deep. The difficulty of procuring^ game or other 
subsistence made it necessary for them to kill several of their horses on this 
part of their journey, for food. They had a little of what was called portable 
soup which they used by melting some snow. This, and about twenty 
pounds of bear's oil, was their only remaining subsistence. They were now 
in a region where their guns were of little service, for there was scarcely a 
living creature to be seen in those mountains. Captain Clarke and six 
hunters searched the mountains all day for game but found none, and at 
night encamped on a small stream to which they gave the name of Hungry 
Creek. Their only refreshment during the day was a little of the portable 
soup. On the 26th, Captain Clarke and his hunting party encountered three 
Indian boys, and sent them forward to the village with some presents. An 
Indian came out to meet them, and conducted them to a large tent in the 
village, which was the residence of the great chief. After some introductory 
ceremonies by signs, the Indians set before the strangers some buffalo meat, 
dried salmon, berries and several kinds of roots. This, after their long 
abstinence, was a sumptuous treat. One of the chiefs conducted them to 
another village, two miles away, where they were received with great kind- 
ness and passed the night. These Indians called themselves Chopunish, or 
Pierced-Nose (Nez Perces). "With a few articles Captaiu Clarke chanced to 
have in his pockets he purchased some dried salmon, roots and berries and 
sent them by one of his men and a hired Indian back to Captain Lewis. 
The main body with Captain Lewis had been so fortunate as to kill a' few 
pheasants and a prairie wolf. As soon as it was known in the villages that 
the wonderful strangers had arrived the people crowded in to see them. 
Twisted Hair, the chief, drew a chart or map of the country and streams on 
a white elk-skin, which was of great service in guiding them on their course. 
From these Indians as many provisions were purchased as could be carried 
on their horses. After proceeding down the river some distance, they 
determined to continue their journey in canoes, which they set about con- 
structing. By the 7th of October the canoes were launched and loaded. 
The horses were branded and left with the Indians to be kept until their 
return. Accompanied by some of the Indians down Lewis river, the ex- 
pedition finally reached the Columbia on the 16th, having stopped at a 
number of villages on the way. The Columbia at the mouth of Lewis river 
they found to be 960 yards wide, and Lewis river 575 yards wide. Here 
they found themselves among a nation who called themselves Sokulks, a 


people of a mild and peaceable disposition. Fish was their principal article 
of food. On the 18th they resumed their journey down the Columbia in the 
presence of many of the Sokulks who came to witness their departure. 
They passed many different tribes who inhabited the borders of the Colum- 
bia, all of whom they visited in their villages and encampments, learning 
their condition, habits, history and mode of living. Wherever they halted 
large numbers of Indians gathered to see them, and generally manifested the 
greatest kindness and hospitality. All of them had pierced noses. 

On the 22d of October the party reached the Great Falls of the Colum- 
bia. Many Indians inhabited this portion of the country, and some of them 
assisted the party in unloading the canoes, transporting the goods around 
the falls, and in bringing down the canoes. At one place it was necessary to 
haul the canoes over a point of land to avoid a perpendicular fall of seventy 
feet. Some distance below the falls they came to a village of another tribe, 
or nation, called the Echeloots. Here they found the first wooden houses 
they had seen after leaving the settlements near the Mississippi. They were 
made of logs and poles, with poles for rafters and covered with white cedar, 
kept on by strands of cedar fibres. The inhabitants received the> strangers 
with great kindness, invited them to their houses, and came in great num- 
bers to see them. They were surprised to find that these Indians spoke a 
language quite different from that of the tribes above the Great Falls. 
Some of their customs, however, were the same. Like the tribes they had 
recently visited, they flattened the heads of their children, and in nearly the 
same manner. Among the mountain tribes, however, this custom was con- 
fined to the females almost exclusively, whereas the Echeloots subjected 
both sexes to the operation. On the 18th they came to another tribe where 
they saw a British musket and several brass tea-kettles which the Indians prized 
very highly. In the interview with the chief he directed his wife to hand 
him his medicine-bag, from which he drew out fourteen forefingers, which 
he said had belonged to the same number of his enemies whom he had 
killed in battle. These fingers were shown with great exultation, after which 
they were carefully replaced among the other valuable contents of the 
medicine-bag. This was the first "instance in which the explorers had 
observed that any other trophy than the scalp was ever carried from ,the 
field in Indian warfare. 

On the 2d of November the party passed the rapids which form the last 
descent of the Columbia, and tide-water commences. On this part of the 
Columbia they began to meet with tribes who had some knowledge of the 
whites, and from articles in their possession, it was observed that they had 
maintained some sort of trade or barter with the whites. The Indians here 
also began to be troublesome and were disposed to pilfer whenever an oppor- 
tunity offered, showing that in their intercourse with the whites they had con- 
tracted some vices that they are free from in the absence of such intercourse. 

On the 16th of November, 1805, the expedition encamped in full view of 
the Pacific Ocean, at Haley's Bay, as laid down by Vancouver. Their long, 
tedious and eventful journey to the Pacific having ended, they made prepa- 
rations for going into winter quarters. Some distance below the mouth of 
the Columbia, three miles above the mouth of a little river that empties into 
the bay, in a thick grove of lofty pines, they formed their winter encamp- 
ment Game was exceedingly plenty, and during the winter they were vis- 
ited by a large number of the Indians inhabiting the coast region. They 
called the place Fort Clatsop, from the tribe of Indians inhabiting the imme- 


diate vicinity. Here they remained until the 23d of March, 1806, when 
they commenced their return, by the same route. 

Before leaving, Captains Lewis and Clarke posted up in the fort a note 
to the following effect: 

" The object of this is, that through the medium of some civilized person, 
who may see the same, it may be made known -to the world that the party con- 
sisting of the persons whose names are hereto annexed, and who were sent 
out by the government of the United States to explore the interior ot the 
continent of North America, did cross the same by the way of the Missouri 
and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific ocean, 
where they arrived on the 14th day of November, 1805, and departed the 
23d day of March, 1806, on their return to the United States, by the same 
route by which they came out." 

It is somewhat singular that this note a short time after fell into the hands 
of a Captain Hill, while on the coast near the mouth of the Columbia river. 
It was delivered to him by some Indians, and taken to Canton, China, from 
whence it was brought to the United States in January, 1807. On the 23d 
of September, 1806, the party reached the mouth of the Missouri, and 
decended the Mississippi to St. Louis, arriving at 12 o'clock. Having fired 
a salute, they went on shore, where they "received a most hearty and hos- 
pitable welcome from the whole village." 

This is but a very partial and hasty review of that romantic and extraor- 
dinary expedition — the first exploration by authority of the government of 
the United States, of that wonderful region which of late years has attracted 
so much attention. It gave to the world the first authentic account of the 
upper Missouri and its tributaries, and of the rivers that flow from the west- 
ern slopes of the Rocky Mountains and seek the Pacific Ocean through the 
great Columbia. It imparted to civilized man some definite knowledge of 
the strange tribes whose homes were on the borders of those rivers; of their 
habits, traditions and modes of life; of the fauna and flora of a region hith- 
erto unknown, and of natural scenery' not surpassed in grandeur and sub- 
limity by that of any other part of the world. Other explorers have since 
revealed a portion ot the hidden treasures of that part of oner national do- 
main, but the pioneer expeditien of Lewis and Clarke, so successfully accom- 
plished, will always possess a peculiar and thrilling interest. 


First White Visitors— The Name— Jean Baptiste— John Einzie — Ft. Dearborn— Evacuation— 
The Massacre— Heroic Women— Capt. Heald— Capt. Wells— Scalping the Wounded— Ft. 
Dearborn Re-built — Illinois and Michigan Canal— Chicago Laid Out — Removal of In- 
dians — City Organization — Pioneer Religious Societies— Public Improvements— Location 
of City— Growth— The Great Fire— Rise of the New Chicago. 

The history of so great a city as Chicago, like that of London, or Paris, 
or New York, by reason of its commercial, financial and other relations to 
the world at large, is a history of world-wide interest. Not that Chicago 
may yet be compared in size, population or wealth with the great cities 
named, would we mention it in connection with them, and yet, considering 
its age, it is greater than either of them. In its ratio of increase in popu- 
lation, commerce, and general progress, it is to-day outstripping them. In 
what civilized part of the globe is Chicago not heard of, read ot,and known? 




If, so many centuries after the founding of Rome, mankind still feel inter- 
ested in the mythical story of Romulus and Remus, may not the present 
and future generations read with equal interest the more authentic story of 
the founding of a great modern city? 

The Jesuit missionary and explorer, Marquette, first visited the place 
where Chicago is located, in 1673. Again, in the winter of 1674-5, he 
camped near the site of the present city, from December until near the close 
of March. Upon his arrival, in December, the Chicago river was frozen 
over, and the ground covered with snow. The name is of Indian origin, and 
was applied to the river. By the French voy'ageurs it is variously spelled, 
the majority rendering it Chicagou. The place is mentioned by Berrot in 

In 1796, Jean Baptiste, a trader from the West Indies, found his way to 
the mouth of the little 6tream known as Chicago river, and engaged in trad- 
ing with the Indians. Here for eight years, almost alone, he maintained 
trade and intercourse with the savages, until, in 1804, Fort Dearborn, was 
erected, and a trading post was established by John Kinzie, who became 
the successor of Jean Baptiste. Fort Dearborn, as first constructed, was a 
very rude and primitive stockade, which cost the government only about 
fifty dollars. It stood on the south bank of Chicago river, half a mile from 
the lake. The few soldiers sent to erect and garrison it were in charge i©f 
Major Whistler. For a time, being unable to procure grain for bread, the 
soldiers were obliged to subsist in part upon acorns. The original settler, 
Jean Baptiste, or as his full name was written, Jean Baptiste Point au Sable, 
sold his cabin to Mr. Kinzie, and the latter erected on the site the building 
known to the early settlers as the "Kinzie House." This became a resort 
for the officers and others connected with the garrison. In 1812 the garrison 
had a force of 54 men, under the command of Capt. Nathan Heald, with 
Lieutenant Lenai L. Helm and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. 
The only white residents, except the officers and soldiers, at that time, were 
Mr. Kinzie and his family, the wives of Capt. Iieald and Lieut. Helm, and 
a few Canadians, with their families. Nearly up to this time the most 
friendly relations had been maintained with the Indians — the principal tribes 
by whom they were surrounded being the Pottawattamies and WinnebagoeB. 
The battle of Tippecanoe had been fought the year before, and the. influence 
of Tecumseh began to be observable in the conduct of the Indians. They 
were also aware of the difficulties between the United States and Great 
Britian, and had yielded to the influences brought to bear by the latter. In 
April of this year, suspicious parties of Winnebagoes began to hover abbiit 
the fort, remaining in the vicinity for several days. The Inhabitants became 
alarmed, and the families took refuge in the fort. On the 7th of August 
a Pottawattamie chief appeared at the fort with an order or dispatch trom 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, directing Capt. Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
distribute all the government property to the neighboring Indians. The 
chief who brought the dispatch advised Capt. Heald to make no distribution 
to the Indians. He told him it would be better to leave the fort and stores 
as they were, and that while the Indians were distributing the stores among 
themselves, the whites might escape to Fort Wayne. On'the 12th of August 
Capt. Heald held a council with the Indians, but the other officers refused to 
join him. They feared treachery on the part of the Indians, and indeed had 
been informed that their intention was to murder the white people. In the 
council Capt. Heald had taken the precaution to open a port-liole displaying 


a cannon directed upon the council, and probably by that means kept the 
Indians from molesting him at that time. Acting under the advice of Mr. 
Kinzie, he withheld the ammunition and arms from the Indians, throwing 
them, together with the liquors, into the Chicago river. On that day Black 
Partridge, a friendly chief, said to Capt. Heald: "Linden birds have been 
singing in my ears to-day; be careful on the march you are going to take." 
On the 13th the Indians discovered the powder floating on the surface of the 
water, a discovery which had .the effect to exasperate them the more, and 
they began to indulge in threats. Meantime preparations were made to 
leave the fort. 

Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, had been adopted by the famous 
Miami warrior, Little Turtle, and had become chief of a band of Miamis. 
On the 14th he was seen approaching with a band of his Miami warriors, 
coming to assist Capt. Heald in defending the fort, having at Fort Wayne 
heard of the danger which threatened the garrison and the settlers. But all 
means for defending the fort had been destroyed the night before. All, 
therefore, took up their line of march, with Capt, "Wells and his Miamis in 
the lead, followed by Capt. Heald, with his wife riding by his side. Mr, 
Kinzie had always been on the most friendly terms with the Indians, and 
.still hoped that his personal efforts might influence them to allow the whites to 
leave unmolested. He determined to accompany the expedition, leaving 
his family in a boat in the care of a friendly Indian. In case any misfor- 
tune should happen to him, his family was to be sent to the place where 
Niles, Michigan, is now located, where he had another trading post. Along 
the shore of Lake Michigan slowly marched the little band of whitesmith a 
friendly escort of Pottawattamies, and Capt. Wells and his Miamis, the lat- 
ter in advance. When they had reached what were known as the " Sand 
Bills," the Miami advance guard came rushing back, Capt. Wells exclaim- 
ing, "They are about to attack; form instantly." At that moment a shower 
of bullets came whistling over the sand hills, behind which the Indians 
had concealed themselves for the murderous attack. The cowardly Miamis 
were panic-stricken, and took to flight, leaving their heroic leader to his fate. 
He was at the side of his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the attack was made, and, 
after expressing to her the utter hopelessness of their situation, dashed into 
the fight.- There were 54 soldiers, 12 civilians and three women, all poorly 
armed, against 500 Indian warriors. The little band had no alternative but 
to sell their lives as dearly as possible. They charged upon their murder- 
ous assailants, and drove them from their position back to the prairie. 
There the conflict continued until two-thirds of the whites were killed and 
wounded. Mrs. Heald, Mrs Helm and Mrs. Holt, all took part in the combat. 
In a wagon were twelve children, and a painted demon tomahawked them 
all, seeing which, Capt. Wells exclaimed, " If butchering women and chil- 
dren is your game, I will kill too," and then spurred his horse toward the 
Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and papooses. He was pur- 
sued by several young warriors, who sent bullets whistling about him, killing 
his horse and wounding Capt Wells. They attempted to take him a prisoner, 
but he resolved not to be taken alive. Calling a young chief a squaw, an 
epithet which excites the fiercest resentment in an Indian warrior, the young 
chief instantly tomahawked him. 

The three women fought as bravely as the soldiers. Mrs. Heald was an 
expert in the use of the rifle, but received several severe wounds. During 
the conflict the hand of a savage was raised to tomahawk her, when she ex^ 


claimed in his own language, " Surely you will not kill a squaw." Her 
words had the effect to change his purpose, and her life was spared. Another 
warrior attempted to tomahawk Mrs. Helm. He struck her a glancing 
blow on the shoulder, when she sized him and attempted to wrest from him 
his scalping knife, which was in the sheath attached to his belt. At that 
moment the friendly Black Partridge dragged her from her antagonist, and 
in spite of her struggles carried her to the lake and plunged her in, at the 
same time holding her so she would not drown. By this means he saved 
her life, as he intended. The third woman, Mrs. Holt, the wife of Sergeant 
Holt, was a large woman, and as strong and brave as an amazon. She rode 
a fine, spirited horse, which more than once the Indians tried to take from 
her. Her husband had been disabled in the fight, and with his sword, wliich 
she had taken, she kept the savages at bay for some time. She was finally, 
however, taken prisoner, and remained a long time a captive among the In- 
dians, but was subsequently ransomed. 

After two-thirds of the whites had been slain ot disabled, twenty-eight 
men succeeded in gaining an eminence on the prairie, and the Indians de- 
sisted from further pursuit. The chiefs held a consultation, and gave the 
sign that they were ready to parley. Capt. Heald went forward and met 
the chief, Blackbird, on the prairie, when terms of surrender were agreed 
upon. The whites were to deliver up their arms and become prisoners, to, 
be exchanged or ransomed in the future. All were taken to the Indian 
camp near the abandoned fort, where the wounded Mrs.. Helm had previ- 
ously been taken by Black Partridge. By the terms of surrender no pro- 
vision had been made as to the disposition of the wounded., It was the 
understanding of the Indians that the British general, Proctor, had offered 
a bounty for American scalps delivered at Maiden. Here there was another 
scene oi horror. Most of the wounded men were killed and scalped. 

Such is a hasty glance at scenes that were witnessed on this then wild 
shore of Lake Michigan. Such were the experiences and the struggles of 
the heroic men and women who ventured forth into the wilderness to plant 
the germs of civilization, and to lay the foundations of future cities and 
States. The site on which now stands a city which ranks among the great- 
est on the continent, is consecrated by the blood shed by heroes on that 
bright 15th day of August, 1812. 

Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816, under the direction of Capt. Bradley,, 
and was occupied until 1837, when, the Indians having removed from the 
country, it was abandoned. 

Congress, on the 2d of March, 1827, granted to the State of Illinois every 
alternate section of land for six miles on either side of the line of the then 
proposed Illinois and Michigan canal, to aid in its construction, from Chi? 
cago to the head of navigation of the Illinois river. The State accepted the 
grant, and on the 22d of January, 1829, organized a board of canal commis- 
sioners, with power to lay out towns along the line. Under this authority 
the commissioners employed Mr. James Thompson to- survey the town of 
Chicago. His first map of the town bears date August 4, 1S30. . In 1831 
the place contained about a dozen families, not including the officers and soh 
diers in Fort Dearborn. On the 10th of August, 1833, it was organized by 
the election of five trustees — there being twenty-eight voters. On the 26th 
of September of the same year, a treaty was signed with the chiefs of the 
Pottawattamies, seven thousand of the tribe being present, and on the 1st 
of October they were removed west of the Mississippi. > The first charter of 


the city was passed by the Legislature of Illinois, and approved March 4th 
1837. Under this^charter an election was held May 1st, of the same year! 
A census was taken on the 1st of July, when the entire population was 
shown to be 4,170. The city then contained four warehouses, three hundred 
and twenty-eight dwellings, twenty-nine dry goods stores, five hardware 
stores, three drug stores, nineteen provision stores* ten taverns, twenty-six 
groceries, seventeen lawyers' offices, and five churches. It then embraced 
an area of 560 acres. At this date grain and flour had to be imported from 
the East to feed the people, for the iron arteries of trade did not then stretch 
out over the prairies of Illinois, Iowa, and other States. There were no ex- 
portations of produce until 1839, and not until 1842 did the exports exceed 
the imports. Grain was sold in the streets by the wagon load, the trade 
being restricted to a few neighboring farmers of Illinois. 

Of religious organizations the Methodists were the pioneers, being repre- 
sented in 1831, 1832 and 1833, by Eev. Jesse Walker. Their first quarterly 
meeting was held in the fall of 1833, and in the spring of the next year the 
first regular class was formed. The first Presbyterian church was organized 
June 26th, 1833, the first pastor being Eev. James Porter. It consisted at 
the time of twenty-five members from the garrison and nine from the citi- 
zens of the town. The first Baptist church was organized October 19th, 
1833 ; and the first Episcopal church, St. James, in 1834. The first Cath- 
olic church was built by Rev. Schofler, in 1833-4. 

The first great public improvement projected was the Illinois and Mich- 
igan canal, one hundred miles in length, and connecting Chicago with La 
Salle, at the head of navigation On the Illinois river, tt was completed in 
the spring of 1848. 

To the eye of an observer, Chicago seems to be situated upon a level plain, 
but in reality the height of the natural 'surface above the lake varies from 
three to twenty-four feet, and the grade of the principal streets has been 
raised from two to eight feet above the original surface. A complete sys- 
tem of sewerage has been established. The surrounding prairie for many 
miles is apparently without much variation of surfaee. Though it cannot 
be observed by the eye, yet the city really stands on the dividing > ridge be- 
tween the two great rivers that drain half the continent, and is about six 
hundred feet above the ocean. Chicago river, before being widened, deep- 
ened, and improved, was a very small stream. It has but very little per- 
ceptible current, and for several miles is very nearly on a level with the 
lake. It is formed by two branches, one from the north and the other from 
south, which unite about a mile from the lake. From this junction the 
stream flows due east to the lake. These streams divide the city into three 
parts, familiarly known as North Side, South Side, and "West Side. Bridges 
constructed upon turn-tables, or pivots, are thrown across the streams at 
many places. By swinging the bridges round, vessels are allowed to be 
towed up and- down the river by steam tugs, so that there is very little diffi- 
culty in the way of passing from one division of the city to another. The 
stream has been made navigable for several miles for sail vessels and pro- 
pellers, and immense warehouses and elevators have been constructed along 
its banks, where vessels are loaded and unloaded with great rapidity. 

We have seen that when the first census was taken in 1837, the city had 
a population of 4,170. By 1840 it had increased to only 4,470 ; in 1845 it 
was 12,088 ; in 1850 it was 28,269 ; in 1855 it was 83,509. The census of 
1870 showed a population 298,977. 


One of the gigantic public improvements of Chicago is that for supplying 
the city with water. Owing to the fact that the water in the lake, near the 
shore, was polluted by filth from the river, in 1865 a tunnel was cut under 
the lake, extending a distance of two miles from the shore. This tunnel is 
thirty-five feet below the bed of the lake. This work is regarded as an ex- 
ample of great engineering skill, and has proved to be successful. The con- 
tract price for this work was $315,139. Another great work is the tunnel 
under the Chicago river at Washington street, cut for the purpose of dis- 
pensing with the bridge over the river, and to obviate the necessity of the 
public waiting for vessels to pass. The contract price for this great work 
was $200,000. 

There are other great public improvements of the city, which with her rail- 
roads leading out in all directions, her immense lake shipping trade, and her 
Eopulation of nearly half a million people, show the greatness that Chicago 
as attained, all within so short a time. As she has been great in her prosper- 
ity, so also has she been great in her calamities. On the 8th and 9th of Oc- 
tober, 1871, this city was the scene of one of the greatest conflagrations 
known in the annals of the world — greater than that of London in 1666, 
when thirteen thousand buildings were burned. In Chicago twenty thou- 
sand buildings were swept away by the devouring element, with miles of 
magnificent business blocks, palatial residences, and costly ornamentations 
— all covering an area of over five thousand acres/ In all that part of the 
city between Harrison street and the Chicago river, and on the "N orth Side 
for nearly four miles to Lincoln Park, there was nothing to be seen but the 
ruins of a city that had suddenly gone down at the merciless bidding of the 
fire-fiend. It was a scene of desolation and ruin, and its announcement at 
the time thrilled a sympathetic chord which vibrated throughout the whole 
civilized world. Like the fabled Phoenix, Chicago rose again from her own 
ashes, but grander and more magnificent than she was before. Chicago is 
now, and has for some years been, the greatest pork packing and grain shipping 
market of the world. Her commerce is of immense proportions and reaches . 
to all lands where American trade is known. She is the commercial metrop- 
olis of the great Northwest, and the States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wis- 
consin and Minnesota, pour their tributes of wealth over thousands of miles 
of railroads into her lap. 




History of Iowa. 


Extent— Surface— Rivers— Lakes— Spirit Lake— Lake Okoboji— Clear Lake— Timber— Cli- 
mate — Prairies — Soils. 

Extent. — Iowa is about three hundred miles in length, east and west, and 
a little over two hundred miles in breadth, north and south; having nearly 
the figure of a rectangular parallelogram. Its northern boundary is the par- 
allel of 43 degrees 30 minutes, separating it from the State of Minnesota, 
Its southern limit is nearly on the line of 40 degrees 31 minutes from the 
point where this parallel crosses the Des Moines river, westward. From 
this point to the southeast corner of the State, a distance of about thirty 
miles, the Des Moines river forms the boundary line between Iowa and Mis- 
souri. The two great rivers of the North American Continent form the 
east and west boundaries, except that portion of the western boundary ad- 
joining the Territory of Dakota. The Big Sioux river from its mouth, two 
miles above Sioux City, forms the western boundary up to the point where 
it intersects the parallel of 43 degrees 30 minutes. These limits embrace an 
area of 55,045 square miles; or, 35,228,800 acres. When it is understood 
that all this vast extent of surface, except that which is occupied by the riv- 
ers, and the lakes and peat beds of the northern counties, is susceptible of the 
highest cultivation, some idea may be formed of the immense agricultural re- 
sources of the State. Iowa is nearly as large as England, and twice as large 
as Scotland; but when we consider the relative area of surface which may 
be made to yield to the wants of man, those countries of the Old World will 
bear no comparison with Iowa. 

Swrface. — The surface of the State is remarkably uniform, rising to nearly 
the same general altitude. There are no mountains, and yet but little of 
the surface is level or flat. The whole State presents a succession of gentle 
elevations and depressions, with some bold and picturesque bluffs along the 
principal streams. The western portion of the State is generally more eleva- 
ted than the eastern, the northwestern part being the highest. Nature 
could not have provided a more perfect system of drainage, and at the same 
time leave the country so completely adapted to all the purposes of agricul- 
ture. Looking at the map of Iowa, we see two systems of streams or rivers 
running nearly at right angles with each other. The streams which dis- 
charge their waters into the Mississippi flow from the northwest to the 
southeast, while those of the other system flow towards the southwest, and 
empty into the Missouri. The former drain about three-fourths of the State, 
and the latter the remaining one-fourth. The water-shed dividing the two 


systems of streams, represents the highest portions of the State, and grad- 
ually descends as you follow its course from northwest to southeast. Low- 
water mark in the Missouri river at Council Bluffs is about 425 feet above 
low- water mark in the Mississippi at Davenport. At the crossing of the 
summit, or water-shed, 245 miles west of Davenport, the elevation is about 
960 feet above the Mississippi. The Des Moines river, at the city of Des 
Moines, has an elevation of 227 feet above the Mississippi at Davenport, and 
is 193 feet lower than the Missouri at Council Bluffs. . The elevation of the 
eastern border of the State at McGregor is about 624 feet above the level of 
the sea, while the highest elevation in the northwest portion of the State is 
1,400 feet above the level of the sea. In addition to the grand water-shed 
mentioned above, as dividing the waters of the Mississippi and Missouri, 
there are between the principal streams, elevations commonly called " di- 
vides," which are drained by numerous streams of a smaller size tributary to 
the rivers. The valleys along the streams have a deep, rich soil, but are 
scarcely more fertile than many portions of those undulating prairie " di- 

Rivers. — As stated above, the rivers of Iowa are divided into two systems, 
Or classes — those flowing into the Mississippi, and those flowing into the 
Missouri. The Mississippi river, the largest on the continent, and one of the 
largest in the world, washes the entire eastern border of the State, and is most 
of the year navigable for a large class of steamers. The only serious ob- 
struction to steamers of the largest size, are what are known as the Lower 
Rapids, just above the mouth of the Des Moines. The government of the 
United States has constructed a canal, or channel, around these rapids on 
the Iowa side of the river, a work which will prove of immense advantage 
to the commerce of Iowa for all time to come. The principal rivers which 
flow through the interior of the State, east of the water-shed, are the Des 
Moines, Skunk, Iowa, "VVapsipinicon, Maquoketa, Turkey, and Upper Iowa. 
One of the largest rivers in the State is Bed Cedar, which rises in Minne- 
sota, and flowing in a southeasterly direction, joins its waters with Iowa 
river in Louisa county, only about thirty miles from its mouth, that portion 
below the junction retaining the name of Iowa river, although above the 
junction it is really the smaller stream. 

The Des Moines is the largest interior river of the State, and rises in,, a 
group or chain of lakes in Minnesota, not far from the Iowa border. It 
really has its source in two principal branches, called East and West Des 
Moines, which, after flowing about seventy miles through the northern por^ 
tion of the State, converge to their junction in the southern part of Hum- 
boldt county. The Des Moines receives a number of large tributaries, 
among which are Raccoon and Three Rivers (North, South and Middle) on 
the west, and Boone river on the east. Raccoon (or 'Coon) rises in the vi- 
cinity of Storm Lake in Buena Vista county, and after receiving several 
tributaries, discharges its waters into the Des Moines river, within the limr 
its of the city of Des Moines. This stream affords many excellent mill 
privileges, some of which have been improved. The Des Moines flows from 
northwest to southeast, not less than three hundred miles through Iowa, and 
drains over ten thousand square miles of territory. At an early day, steam- 
boats, at certain seasons of the year, navigated this river as far up as the 
" Raccoon Forks," and a large grant of land was made by Congress to the 
State for the purpose of improving its navigation. The land was subse- 
quently diverted to the construction of the Des Moines Valley Railroad. 


Before this diversion several dams were erected on the lower portion of the > 
river, which afford a vast amount of hydraulic power to that portion of the ; 

The next river above the Des Moines is Skunk, which has its source in 
Hamilton county, north of the center of the State. It traverses a southeast 
course, having two principal branches — their aggregate length being about 
four hundred and fifty miles. They drain about eight thousand square miles 
of territory, and afford many excellent mill sites. 

The next is Iowa river, which rises in several branches among the lakes 
in Hancock and Winnebago counties, in the northern part of the State. Its 

freat eastern branch is Eed Cedar, having its source among the lakes in 
Gnnesota. The two streams, as before stated, unite and flow into the Mis- ■ 
sissippi in Louisa county. In size, Eed Cedar is the second interior river 
of the State, and both are valuable as affording immense water power. Shell . 
Rock river is a tributary of Ked Cedar, and is important to Northern Iowa, 
on account of its fine water power. The aggregate length of Iowa and Eed 
Cedar rivers is about five hundred miles, and they drain about twelve thou- 
sand square miles of territory. 

The "Wapsipinicon river rises in Minnesota, and flows in a southeasterly 
direction over two hundred miles through Iowa, draining, with its branches, 
a belt of territory only about twelve miles wide. This stream is usually 
called ',' Wapsie " by the settlers, and is valuable as furnishing good water 
power for machinery. 

Maquoketa river, the next considerable tributary of the Mississippi, is 
about one hundred and sixty miles long, and drains about three thousand 
square miles of territory. 

Turkey river is about one hundred and thirty miles long, and drains some 
two thousand square miles. It rises in Howard county, runs southeast, and 
empties into the Mississippi near the south line of Clayton county. 

Upper Iowa river also rises in Howard county, flows nearly east, and 
empties into the Mississippi near the northeast corner of the State, passing 
through a narrow, but picturesque and beautiful valley. This portion of 
the State is somewhat broken, and the streams have cut their channels deeply 
into the rocks, so that in many places they are bordered by bluffs from three 
to four hundred feet high. They flow rapidly, and furnish ample water 
power for machinery at numerous points. 

Having mentioned the rivers which drain the eastern three-fourths of the 
State, we will now cross the great "water-shed" to the Missouri and its 

The Missouri river, forming a little over two-thirds of the length of the 
western boundary line, is navigable for large sized steamboats for a distance 
of nineteen hundred and fifty miles above the point (Sioux City) where it 
first touches our western border. It is, therefore, a highway of no little im- 
portance to the commerce of "Western Iowa. During the season of naviga- 
tion some years, over fifty steamers ascend the river above Sioux City, most, 
of which are laden with stores for the mining region above Fort Benton. 
We will now refer to the larger tributaries of the Missouri, which drain the: 
western portion of Iowa. 

The Big Sioux river forms about seventy miles of the western boundary 
of the State, its general course being nearly from north to south. It has 
several small tributaries draining the counties of Plymouth, Sioux, Lyon, 
Osceola, and O'Brien, in northwestern Iowa. One of the most important 


of these is Rock river, a beautiful little stream running through the coun- 
ties of Lyon and Sioux. It is supported by springs, and affords a volume 
of water sufficient for propelling machinery. Big Sioux river was once re- 
garded as a navigable stream, and steamboats of a small size have on sev- 
eral occasions ascended it for some distance. It is not, however, now con-: 
eidered a safe stream for navigation. It empties into the Missouri about , 
two miles above Sioux City, and some four miles below the northwest cor- 
ner of Woodbury county. It drains about one thousand square miles of, 
Iowa territory. 

Just below Sioux City, Floyd river empties into the Missouri. It is a 
Bmall stream, but flows through a rich and beautiful valley. Its length is < 
about one hundred miles, and it drains some fifteen hundred square miles of 
territory. Two or three mills have been erected on this stream, and there ; 
are other mill sites which will doubtless be improved in due time. 

Little Sioux river is one of the most important streams of northwestern! 
Iowa. It rises in the vicinity of Spirit and Okoboji lakes, near the Minne- 
sota line, and meanders through various counties a distance of nearly three 
hundred miles to its confluence with the Missouri near the northwest corner 
of Harrison county. "With its tributaries it drains not less than five thou- 
sand square miles. Several small mills have been erected on this stream, 
and others doubtless will be when needed. 

Boyer river is the next stream of considerable size below the Little- Sioux. , 
It rises in Sac county and flows southwest to the Missouri in Pottawattamie, 
county. Its entire length is about one hundred and fifty miles, and drains 
not less than two thousand square miles of territory. It is a small stream, : 
meandering through a rich and lovely valley. The Ghicago and Northwest- 
ern Railroad passes down this valley some sixty miles. 

Going down the Missouri, and passing several small streams, which have; 
not been dignified with the name of rivers, we come to the Nishnabotna, ; 
which empties into the Missouri some twenty miles below the southwest 
corner of the State. It has three principal branches, with an aggregate, 
length of three hundred and fifty miles. These streams drain about five 
thousand square miles of southwestern Iowa. They flow through valleys of 
unsurpassed beauty and fertility, and furnish good water power at variouB 
points, though in this respect they are not equal to the streams in the north- 
eastern portion of the State. 

The southern portion of the State is drained by several streams that flow 
into the Missouri river, in the State of Missouri. The most important of; 
these are Chariton, Grand, Platte, One Hundred and Two, and the three 
Nodaways— East, West and Middle. All of these afford water power for 
machinery, and present splendid valleys of rich farming lands. 
# We have above only mentioned the streams that have been designated as 
rivers, but there are many other streams of great importance and value to 
different portions of the State, draining the country, furnishing mill-sitesj 
and adding to the variety and beauty ot the scenery. So admirable is the 
natural drainage of almost the entire State, that the farmer who has not a 
stream of living water on his premises is an exception to the general rule. 


^ In some of the northern counties of Iowa there are many small, but beau- 
tiful lakes, some of which we shall notice. They are a part of the system of 

histoby or iowa. 109 

lakes extending far northward into Minnesota, and some of them present 
many interesting features which the limits of this work will not permit us 
to give in detail. The following are among the most noted of the lakes of 
northern Iowa: Clear Lake, in Oerro Gordo county; Eice Lake, Silver Lake 
and Bright's Lake, in Worth county; Crystal Lake, Eagle Lake, Lake Ed- 
ward and Twin Lakes, in Hancock county; Owl Lake, in Humboldt county; 
Lake Gertrude, Elm Lake and Wall Lake, in "Wright county; Lake Caro, in 
Hamilton county; Twin Lakes, in Calhoun county; Wall Lake, in Sac 
county; Swan Lake, in Emmet county; Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county; 
and Okoboji and Spirit Lakes, in Dickinson county. .Nearly all of these 
are deep and clear, abounding in- many excellent varieties of fish, which are 
caught abundantly by the settlers at all proper seasons of the year. The 
name ' Wall Lake,' applied to several of these bodies of water, is derived from 
the fact that a line or ridge of boulders, extends around them, giving them 
somewhat the appearance of having been walled. Most of them exhibit the 
same appearance in this respect to a greater or less extent. Lake Okoboji, 
Spirit Lake, Storm Lake and Clear Lake are the largest of the Northern 
Iowa lakes. All of them, except Storm Lake, have fine bodies of timber on 
their borders. Lake Okoboji is about fifteen miles long, and from a quarter 
of a mile to two miles wide. Spirit Lake, just north of it, embraces about 
ten square' miles, the northern border extending to the Minnesota line. Storm 
Lake is in size about three miles east and west by two north and south. 
Clear Lake is about seven miles long by two miles wide. The dry rolling 
land usually extends up to the borders of the lakes, making them delightful 
resorts for excursion or fishing parties, and they are now attracting attention 
as places of resort, on account of the beauty of their natural scenery, as well 
as the inducements which they afford to hunting and fishing parties. 

As descriptive of some of the lakes of Northern Iowa, the author would 
here introduce some former correspondence of his own on the occasion of a 
visit to Spirit and Okoboji Lakes, in Dickinson county. At that time he 
wrote in regard to Spirit Lake: 

With a party of delighted friends — seven of us in all — we made the cir- 
cle of Spirit Lake^ Or Mwme-Wcmkon as the Indians called it. Starting 
from the village of Spirit Lake early in the morning, we crossed the upper 
portion of East Okoboji on a substantial wooden bridge about three hundred 
feet in length, a half mile east of the village. Going around a farm or two, 
we proceeded up along the east shore of Spirit Lake to what is known as 
" Stony Point." Here a point of land has been gradually forming, for, we 
do not know how many years, or even centuries, but large trees have grown 
from the rocks, gravel and sand thrown together by various forces far back 
in the past. From the inner edge of the growth of timber, a ridge of rocks 
extends some forty rods into the lake, gradually lessening until, at the fur- 
ther extremity, it only affords a dry foot-way by stepping from rock to rock. 
This point is said to be constantly extending and it is not improbable that 
in time, two lakes may be formed instead ot one. " Stony Point" is almost 
wholly composed of boulders of various sizes and shapes, brought together 
by the action of water, on either side. It is the resort of mnumerablobird|and 
water fowl of various kinds, including pelicans, black loons and gulls. When 
we approached they were holding high carnival over the remains of such un- 
fortunate fish as happened to be thrown upon the rocks by the dashing ol the 
waves. Our presence, however, soon cleared the coast of its promiscuous 


gathering of feathered tenants, but after we left, they doubtless returned to 
their revelry. 

"We continued our journey up the lake a mile further to the " inlet." Here 
a small stream makes its way in from the east, and, having high steep banks, 
all we had to do was to go round its mouth through the lake, the water being 
very clear, with a fine gravel bottom, and sufficiently shallow for good ford- 
ing. Just above this, a sand-beach extends for some distance, portions of 
which are covered with clumps of willows and other small trees. No heavy 
groves of timber border on the east side of the lake,, but scattered trees and 
small groves extend all the way along. The adjoining prairie land is gener- 
ally diy, rolling and well adapted to farming purposes. Several farms are in 
cultivation along the banks of this part of the lake. 

Nearly east of the north end of the lake, we crossed the Iowa and Minne- 
sota line. Our road led us about a mile further north, where it diverged 
westerly to the south bank of a pleasant little sheet of water, known as Loon 
Lake. This has an outlet connecting it with other small lakes, which lie 
near the head of Spirit Lake, and which were doubtless once a part of the 
same. In a pretty little grove on the shore of Loon Lake, in the sovereign 
State of Minnesota, we paused for our nooning. 

From Loon Lake the road turns southward, passing several miles through 
groves of timber that border the west shore of Spirit Lake. A number of 
clear and quiet little lakes are nestled romantically in the groves west of 
Spirit Lake with only sufficient room in many places for a roadway between 
them and the latter. Of these charming little lakes, the three principal ones 
are Lake Augusta, Plum Lake, and Hound Lake. In the formation of the 
last named, nature has indulged in one of her most singular and interesting 
freaks. It is something over a quarter of a mile in diameter, and so nearly 
round that the eye can detect no irregularity. The bank, all around, rises 
to the uniform height of about thirty feet, sloping at an angle of forty-five 
degrees, and giving the lake the appearance of a huge basin. A dense forest 
approaches on all sides, with large trees bending over the water, which is so 
deep down in its reservoir that the wind rarely ruffles its surface. There is 
no visible inlet or outlet, but the water is always deep and clear. It is 
indeed worth a day's journey to see this charming -little gem of a lake, 
reposing so quietly in the midst of its wild surroundings of lofty trees, 
tangled vines and wild flowers. 

Plum Lake is so called from the fact that there are many groves of wild 
plums around it. It lies between Lake Augusta and Round Lake. Near 
the north end of Plum Lake is a commanding elevation called " Grandview 
Mound." From the summit of this mound there is a fine view of Spirit 
Lake, and a portion of the surrounding country. There is every appearance 
that these little lakes were once a portion of the greater one that lies east of 
them, and they are now separated from it by a strip of land only wide enough 
in many places for a good wagon road, but it is gradually increasing in width 
from year to year. It is covered with a growth of cottonwood, soft maple, 
elm, wild plum, and other trees, with a dense profusion of wild grape vines 
clinging among the branches. The beach along the edge of Spirit Lake 
here is composed of gravel, sand and shells, with a ridge of boulders, rising 
and extending up to the timber, through which the road passes. 

Pound Lake, above mentioned, is situated in what is known as " Marble 
Grove," one of the finest bodies of timber to be found about the lakes, and is 
so named from its early occupant, who was killed by the Indians. It was in 


this grove, after the massacre, that the Indians peeled the bark from a tree, 
and with a dark paint, made a picture-record of what they had done. The 
killed were represented by rude drawings of persons in a prostrate position, 
corresponding with the number of victims. Pictures of cabins, with smoke 
issuing from their roofs, represented the number of houses burned. In the 
murder of Marble and his child, and the capture of Mrs. Marble, the Indians 
completed the annihilation of the settlement at the lakes, and thus left a 
record of their fiendish work. "Marble Grove" at that time was doubtless 
a scene of savage rejoicing over the perpetration of deeds which cast a gloom 
over all Northwestern Iowa, and which the lapse of years only could remove. 
From the south end of " Marble Grove " to the village of Spirit Lake, the 
road passes over undulating prairies for some three or four miles, with 
several new farms now being improved on either side. The principal groves 
of timber about this lake are at the west side and the north end, while a 
narrow belt extends around the other portions. The water is deep, and the 
wind often dashes the waves against the banks with great violence. At 
other times the surface is smooth and placid. 

There is a legend which we give briefly, for the benefit of those who may 
be curious to know the origin of the name of Spirit Lake. Many moons 
before the white man took up his abode or built his cabin on the shores of 
the lake, a band of Dakota warriors brought a pale-faced maiden here, a 
captive taken in one of their expeditions against the whites who had ven- 
tured near their hunting grounds. Among the warriors was a tall young 
brave, fairer than the rest, who had been stolen from the whites in infancy 
by the wife of Um-pa-sho-ta, the chief. The pale-faced brave never knew 
his parentage or origin, but the chief's wife called him Star of Day, and he 
blew not but that she was his own mother. All the tribe expected that he 
would sometime become their chief, as no warrior had proved so brave and 
daring as he. Star of Day, only, had performed deeds which entitled him 
to succeed to the honors of the aged Um-pa-sho-ta. But all the distinctions 
or titles that his nation might bestow, possessed no attraction for him while 
he beheld the grief of the beautiful pale-faced captive. He therefore deter- 
mined to rescue her, and also made up his mind to flee with her from the 
tribe and make her his wife. The maiden had recognized in the blue eyes 
and fair face of her lover, something which told her that he, like herself, 
was a captive. One night, while all the warriors were asleep in their lodges, 
Star of Day and the maiden slumbered not. He silently unbound the 
thongs which fastened her to the lodge frame. Only a few paces through 
the thick forest brought them to the lake shore, where, under the willows, 
his light canoe was in readiness. Soon the lovers were midway across the 
lake, but the Great Spirit who ruled in the wind and the water, as well as in the 
forest, willed that their home should be together beneath the waters where 
no Dakota should henceforth ever disturb them. And so a breath of the 
Great Spirit in the wind dashed a wave over the little canoe, and it went 
down with the lovers. Since that time no Indian's canoe has ever dared to 
venture upon the lake. ,Only the white man's canoe is always safe, for the 
spirits of Star of Day and the maiden still abide under the water, in a 
beautiful cave of shells, guarding only the white man's canoe from danger, 
as spirits ever know their own. From that time the Dakotas called the lake 
Minne-Waukon, or Spirit- Water. 

Ohoboji. — Okoboji is the most beautiful of all the lakes of Northwestern 
Iowa. Walter Scott could not invest the historic lakes of Scotia with more 


of the wild beauty of scenery suggestive of poetry and romance, than we here 
find around this loveliest of Iowa lakes. 

Okoboji lies immediately south of Spirit Lake, and is of very irregular 
shape. Its whole length is at least fourteen miles, but it is nearly separated 
into two parts. The two parts are called, respectively, East and West Okoboji; 
A wooden bridge has been erected across the straits, on the road from the 
village of Spirit Lake to that of Okoboji, the water here being ordinarily not 
over a, couple of hundred feet wide and about fifteen feet deep. "West Okoboji 
is much the larger body of water, stretching west and northwest of the straits 
some eight miles, and varying in width from one to two miles. As you pass 
around this lake, the scene constantly changes,- and from many different 
points the observer obtains new views, many of which might furnish inspira- 
tion to the pencil of the artist; The water has a deep sky-blue appearance, 
and the surface is either placid or boisterous,, as the weather may happen to 
be. .. The dry land slopes down to the margin on all sides. , v 

Huge boujders are piled up around the shores several feet above the 
water, forming a complete protection against the action of the waves, 
These rocks embrace the different kinds of granite which are found scat- 
tered over the prairies, with also a large ; proportion of limestone, from which 
good quick-lime is manufactured. This rock protection seems to be charac- 
teristic of all that portion of the lake-shore most subject to ; the violent beat- 
ing of the waves. But there are several fine gravel beaches, and one on the 
north side is especially resorted to as being the most extensive and beautiful. 
Here are immense wind-rows of pebbles; rounded and polished by the vari- 
ous processes that nature employs, and in such variety that a single handful 
taken up at random would constitute a miniature cabinet for the geologist, 
Agates, cornelians, and other specimens of exquisite tint and beauty* are 
found in great profusion, being constantly washed up by the water. The 
east end of "West Okoboji, at the straits, is some five miles south of Spirit 
Lake, but the extreme west portion extends up to a point west of Spirit 
Lake. East Okoboji is not so wide or deep as the other part, but is nearly 
as long. It extends up to within a quarter of a mile, or less, of Spirit Lake, 
and is now connected ,with it by a mill-race, being some four or five feet 
lower than that lake. At a narrow place near the npper end of this lake, a 
bridge some three hundred feet long has been erected on the road leading to 
Estherville. The Okoboji outlet heads at the south end of East Okoboji, 
and in its passage flows through three lakes called Upper, Middle and Lower 
Gar Lakes. These little lakes are so named because large quantities of the 
peculiar long-billed fish designated by that name, are found therein. This ; 
outlet has a rapid fall all the way to its junction with the Little Sioux river, 
some five miles below, and is about being turned to good account by the 
erection of machinery on it. This outlet is also the greatest of the fishing 
resorts about the lakes 

_ The groves around Lake Okoboji embrace over one thousand acres of goo(J 
timber. The larger groves are found on the south side, where the principal 
settlement was at the time of the Indian massacre. There are two or thref 
fine bodies of timber on the north side of "West Okoboji, and a narrow fringe 
of timber borders nearly all the lake shore between the larger groves. On 
the north side of "West Okoboji, near the west end, is a splendid grove of 
hard maple, of large size, while none of this kind of timber is found else- 
where about the lake. On the same side in another grove, we observed 
many red cedars of large growth. "We noticed one nearly three feet in 


diameter, and' a fine crop of young cedars, from three to ten inches high, 
have taken root along the shore. Burr oak seems to predominate among 
the various kinds of timber, and the groves on the south side are mainly 
composed of this kind, with considerable ash, elm and walnut. In many 
places the ground is covered with a dense growth of wild gooseberry and 
wild currant bushes, all now giving promise of a fine yield of fruit. Many 
plum groves are scattered about the lake, and grapes also grow in profusion. 
We noticed, however, that the wild crab-apple, so plentiful in other parts of 
the State, was wanting. 

. The land rises from the lake nearly all the way round, with a gradually 
sloping bank, to the height of some thirty feet, and then stretches away in 
undulating prairie or woodland, as the case may be. In some places, the 
unbroken prairie extends to the beach without a tree or shrub. A splendid 
body of prairie, embracing several thousand acres, lies in the peninsula 
formed by Lake Okoboji with its outlet and the Little Sioux river. Between 
Okoboji and Spirit Lakes, there is also a good body of prairie with some 
well improved tarms. A lake of considerable size, called Center Lake, with 
a fine body of timber surrounding it, lies between Okoboji and Spirit Lakes. 
In point of health, as well as in. the beauty of its natural scenery, this 
locality far surpasses many others that have become fashionable and famous 
resorts. A month or two in the summer season might be spent here with 
constant change, and a pleasing variety of attractions. The invalid or 
pleasure seeker might divide the time between hunting, fishing, driving, 
bathing, rowing, sailing, rambling, and in various other ways adapted to his 
taste or 'fancy. He could pay homage to Nature in her playful or her 
milder moods; for sometimes she causes these little lakes to play the role of 
miniature seas by the wild dashing of their surges against their rocky shores, 
and then again causes them to become as calm and placid as slumbering 

Clear Lake. — Clear Lake, in Cerro Gordo county, is among the better 
known lakes of the State, on account of its easy accessibility by rail, as well 
as its many and varied attractions. It is a beautiful little sheet of water, 
and as a pleasure resort has for several years been constantly growing in 
favor. This, and Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county, as well, as some 
others, are deserving of special description, but what is already given will 
afford some idea of the lakes of Northern Iowa. 

Timber. — One of the peculiar features of the topography of the north- 
west, is the predominance of prairies, a name of French origin, which sig- 
nifies grass-land. It has been estimated that about nine-tenths of the sutt 
face of Iowa is prairie. The timber is generally found in heavy bodies skirt- 
ing the streams, but there are also many isolated groves standing, like islands 
in the sea, far out on the prairies. The eastern half of the State contains a 
larger proportion of timber than the western. The following are the leading 
varieties of timber: White, black and burr oak, black walnut, butternut, 
hickory, hard and soft maple, cherry, red and white elm, ash, linn, hackberry, 
birch, honey locust, cottonwood and quaking asp. A few sycamore trees are 
found in certain localities along the streams. Groves of red cedar also pre- 
vail, especially along Iowa and Cedar rivers, and a few isolated pine trees are 
scattered along the bluffs of some of the streams in the northern part of the 
Nearly all kinds of timber common to Iowa have been found to grow rap- 



idly when transplanted upon the prairies, or when propagated from the plant- 
ing of seeds. Only a few years and a little expense are required for the 
settler to raise a grove sufficient to afford him a supply of fuel. The kinds 
most easily propagated, and of rapid growth, are Cottonwood, maple and wal- 
nut. All our prairie soils are adapted to their growth. 

Prof. C. E. Bessey, of the State Agricultural College, who supervised the 
collection of the different woods of Iowa -for exhibition at the Centennial 
Exposition, in 1876, has given a most complete list of the native woody 
plants of the State. Below we present his list. When not otherwise stated 
they are trees. The average diameters are given in inches, and when the 
species is a rare one, its locality is given : 

Papaw — shrub; 2 to & inches. 

Moonseed — climbing shrub; J^inch. 

Basswood, Lynn or Linden — 20 inches. 

Prickly Ash — shrub; 2 inches. 

Smooth Sumach — shrub; 2 inches. 

Poison Ivy — climbing' shrub; 1 inch. 

Fragrant Sumach — shrub; 2 inches. 

Frost Grape — vine; 2 inches. 

River Bank Grape — vine; 2 inches. 

Buckthorn — shrub; river bluffs; 2 to 3 inches. 

New Jersey Tea — low shrub; J£ inch. 

Red Root — low shrub; % inch. 

Bitter-sweet — climbing shrub; 1 inch. 

Wahoo — shrub; 2 inches. 

Bladder Nut— shrub; 2 inches. 

Buckeye — 20 to 30 inches. 

Sugar Maple — 20 to 24 inches. 

Black Maple — 12 to 18 inches. 

Silver or Soft Maple — 20 to 30 inches. 

Box Elder — 3 to 12 inches. 

False Indigo — shrub ; J£ inch. 

Lead Plant — low shrub; % inch. 

Red Bud — 6 to 8 inches. 

Kentucky Coffee Tree — 3 to 12 inches. 

Honey Locust— 12 to 20 inches. 

Wild Plum— shrub or tree; 2 to 5 inches. 

Wild Red Cherry — shrub or tree; 2 to 6 

Choke Cherry — shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 
Wild Black Cherry— 12 to 18 inches. 
Wine Bark — shrub; % inch. 
Meadow Sweet — shrub; 3^ inch. 
Wild Red Raspberry — shrub; % inch. 
Wild Black Raspberry — shrub! J£ inch. 
Wild Blackberry — shrub; % inch. 
Dwarf Wild Rose — low shrub; % inch. 
Early Wild Rose — low shrub; j£ inch. 
Black Thorn — 3 to 5 inches. 
White Thorn — 3 to 5 inches. 
Downy-leaved Thorn — 2 to 3 inches. 
Wild Crab Apple — 3 to 5 inches. 
Service Berry or June Berry^-3 to 5 inches. 
Small June Berry— shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 
. Prickly Wild Gooseberry— shrub; % inch. 
Smooth Wild Gooseberry — shrub; % inch. 
Wild Black Currant— shrub; J^inch. 
Witch Hazel— shrub; 1 to 2 inches; said to 

grow in N. E. Iowa. 
Kinnikinnik— shrub; 2 inches. 
Rough-leaved Dogwood— shrub; 1 to 3 

Panicled Cornel — shrub; 2 inches. 

Alternate-leaved Cornel — shrub; 2 inches. 
Wolf berry — low ehrub; % inch. 

Coral Berry — low shrub; Jjjinch. 

Small Wild Honeysuckle — climbing shrub; % 

Blackberried Elder — shrub; 1 to 2 inches. 

Red-berried Elder — shrub; 1 to 2 inches. 
This one I have not seen, but feel quite ' 
sure that it is in the State. 

Sheep Berry — shrub; 2 inches. 

Downy Arrow-wood — shrub 2 inches. 

High Cranberry Bush — shrub; 1 inch. 

Button Bush — shrub; 1 inch. 

Black Huckleberry — low shrub ; % inch; near 
Davenport, according to Dr. Parry. 

White Ash— 12 to 18 inches. 

Green Ash— 8 to 12 inches. There is some 
doubt as to the identity of this specieB. 

Black Ash — 12 to 16 inches. 

Sassafras — 3 to 18 inches. Said to grow in 
the extreme southeastern part of the 

Spice Bush — shrub; 1 inch. Said to grow in 
Northeastern Iowa. 

Leatherwood or Moosewood— shrub; 1 to 2 
inches. In Northeastern Iowa. 

Buffalo Berry— shrub; 1 to 2 inches. Possi- 
bly this may be found on our western 
borders, as it occurs in Nebraska. 

Red Elm— 12 to 14 inches. 

White Elm— 18 to 30 inches. 

Corky Elm — 10 to 15 inches. I have seenno 
specimens which could certainly be re- 
ferred to this species, and yet I think 
there is little doubt of its being a native •• 
of this State. 

Hackberry— 10 to 16 inches, 

Red Mulberry— 6 to 10 inches. 

Sycamore, or Buttonwood — 10 to 30 inches. 

Black Walnut— 24 to 48 inches. 

Butternut— 12 to 20 inches. 

Shell-bark Hickory— 12 to 24 inches. 

Pecan Nut— 12 to 20 inches. 

Large Hickory Nut— 18 to 24 inches. 

Pig Nut Hickory— 12 to 20 inches. 

These three last species I have not seen 
in the State, but from, their known dis- 
tribution, I have no doubt that they are 
to be found in the southern portions of 
the State. 

Butternut Hickory— 12 to 18 inches. 

White Oak— 20 to 80 inches. 


Burr Oak— 24 to 36 inches. Petioled Willow— shrub; 2 inches 

Chestnut. Oak— 5 to 10 inches. Heart-leaved Willow— small tree: 3 to 4 in- 

Laurel Oak — 5 to 10 inches. ches. 

Scarlet Oak— 12 to 16 inches. Black Willow— 3 to 12 inches * 

Red Oak— 15 to 20 inches. Almond Willow— 3 to & inches 

HazelNut-shrnb ; 1 inch. Long-leaved Willow— shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 

Iron Wood — 4 to 7 inches. Aspen— 6 to 12 inches. 

Blue Beech— 3 to 4 inches. Cottonwood— 24 to 36 inches. 

White Birch— 3 to 6 inches. Said to growin White Pine— a few small trees grow in North- 
Northeastern Iowa. eastern Iowa. 

Speckled Alder— shrub or small tree; 2 to 3 Red Cedar — 6 to 8 inches. 

inches. Northeastern Iowa. Ground Hemlock— trailing shrub- 1 inch 

Prairie Willows— low shrub; ^ inch. Green Briar— climbing shrub; Vi inch 

Glaucous Willow — small tree; 2 to 3 inches. 

Total number of species, 104; of these, fifty-one species are trees, while 
the remaining ones are shrubs. The wood of all the former is used for 
economic purposes, while some of the latter furnish more or less valuable 
fuel. # 

Climate.-— Prof. Parvin, who has devoted great attention to the climatol- 
ogy of Iowa, in a series of observations made by him at Muscatine, from 1839 
to 1859, inclusive, and at Iowa City, from 1860 to 1870, inclusive, deduces 
the following general results : That the months of November and March 
are essentially winter months, their average temperatures rising but a few 
degrees above the freezing point. Much ot the former month is indeed mild 
and pleasant, but in it usually comes the first cold spell, followed generally 
by mild weather, while in M arch the farmer is often enabled to commence 
his spring plowing. September has usually a summer temperature, and 
proves a ripening season for the fall crops, upon which the farmer may' rely 
with safety if the spring has been at all backward. May has much more 
the character of a spring month than that of summer, and " May day" is 
not often greeted with a profusion of flowers. The average temperature of 
May during thirty-two years was 59.06 degrees, while that of September 
was 63.37 degrees. Prof. Parvin states that during thirty-five years the 
mercury rose to 100 degrees only once within the region of his observations 
in Iowa, and that was during the summer of 1870. It seldom rises above 
ninety-five degrees, or falls lower than fifteen degrees below zero. The 
highest temperature, with very few exceptions, occurs in the month of Au- 
gust, while July is the hottest month as indicated by the mean temperature 
of the summer months. January is the coldest month, and in this, only 
once in thirty- two jears did the mercury fall to thirty degrees below zero. 
The prevailing winds are those of a westerly direction, not for the year alone, 
but for the several months of the year, except June, July, August and Sep- 
tember. August is the month in which the greatest amount of rain falls, 
and in January the least. The greatest 'fall of rain in any one year, was in 
1851 — 74.49 inches, and the least in 1854 — 23.35 inches. The greatest fall 
of snow for any one year, was in 1868 — 61.97 inches. The least was in 
1850 — 7.90 inches. The earliest fall of snow during twenty-two years, from 
1848 to 1869, inclusive, was October 17th, 1859, and the latest, April 29th, 
1851. The greatest fall was December 21st, 1848 — 20.50 inches. During 
that time no snow fell during the mqnths of May, June, July, August and 
September, but rain usually occurs in each of the winter months. 

The clear days during the time embraced in Prof. Parvin's observations, 
were thirty- two per cent; the cloudy twenty-two per cent, and the variable 
forty-six per cent. 


The year 1863 was very cold, not only in Iowa, but throughout the coun- 
try, and there was frost in every month of the year, but it only once or twice, 
during thirty years seriously injured the corn crop. When the spring is 
late the fall is generally lengthened, so that the crop has time to mature. 
The mean time for late spring frosts is May 4th; that of early fall frost is 
September 24th. The latest frost in the spring during thirty -one years, from 
1839 to 1869, inclusive, was May 26th, 1847; and the earliest, August 29th, 

Prairies. — The character of surface understood by the term prairie, is not 
a feature peculiar to Iowa, but is a characteristic of the greater portion of 
the Northwest. Dr. C. A. "White, late State Geologist of Iowa, in his re- 
port says : 

" By the word prairie we mean any considerable surface that is free from 
forest trees and shrubbery, and whieh is covered more or less thickly with 
grass and annual plants. This is also the popular understanding of the 
term. It is estimated that about seven-eighths of the surface of Iowa is 
prairie, or was so when the State was first settled. They are not confined to 
the level surface, but are sometimes even quite hilly and broken; and it has 
just been shown that they are not confined to any particular variety of soil, 
for they prevail equally upon Alluvial, Drift, and Lacustral soils. Indeed, 
we sometimes find a single prairie whose surface includes all these varieties, 
portions of which may be respectively sandy, gravelly, clayey or loamy. 
Neither are they confined to the region of, nor does their character seem at 
all dependent upon, the formations which underlie them, for within the State 
of Iowa they rest upon all formations, from those of Azoic to those of Cre- 
taceous age inclusive, which embraces almost all kinds of rocks, such as 
quartzites, friable sandstone, magnesian limestone, common limestone, im- 
pure chalk, clay, clayey and sandy shales, etc. Southwestern Minnesota is 
almost one continuous prairie upon the drift which rests directly upon, not 
only the hard Sioux quartzite, but also directly upon the granite. 

" Thus, whatever the origin of the prairies might have been, we have the 
positive assurance that their present existence in Iowa and immediate vicin- 
ity is not due to the influence of climate, the character or composition of 
the soil, nor to the character of any of the underlying formations. It now 
remains to say without the least hesitation, that the real cause of the pres- 
ent existence of pravries im, Iowa, is the prevalence of the annual fifes. 
If these had been prevented fifty years ago Iowa would now be a timbered 
instead of a prairie State. 

" Then arises questions like the following, not easily' answered, and for 
which no answers are at present proposed: 

. "When was fire first introduced upon the prairies, and how? Could any 
but human agency have introduced annual fires upon them? If they could 
have been introduced only by the agency of man why did the forests, not 
occupy the prairies before man came to introduce his fires, since we see 
their great tendency to encroach upon the prairies as soon as the fires are 
made to cease ? The prairies, doubtless, existed as such almost immediately 
after the close of the Glacial epoch. Did man then exist and possess the 
use of fire that he might have annually burnt the prairies of so large a part 
of the continent, and thus have constantly prevented the encroachments of 
the forests ? It may be that these questions will never be satisfactorily .an- 
swered;- but nothing is more evident than that the forests would soon occupy 
a very large proportion of the prairie region of North America if the prai- 


rie fires were made to cease, and no artificial efforts were made to prevent 
their growth and encroachment." 

Sous. — Dr. White has separated the soils of Iowa into three general di- 
visions, viz : the Drift, Bluff, and Alluvial. The drift soil occupies the 
freater portion of the State, the bluff next, and the alluvial the least. The 
rift is derived primarily from the disintegration of rocks, to a considerable 
extent perhaps from those of Minnesota, which were subject to violent gla- 
cial action during the glacial epoch. This soil is excellent, and is generally 
free from coarse drift materials, especially near the surface. 

The bluff soil occupies an area estimated at about five thousand square 
miles, in the western part of the State. It has many peculiar and marked 
characteristics, and is believed to be lacustral in its origin. In some places 
the deposit is as great as two hundred feet in thickness, all portions of it 
being equal in fertility. If this soil be taken from its lowest depth, say two 
hundred feet below the surface, vegetation germinates and thrives as readily 
in it as in the surface deposit. It is of a slightly yellowish ash color, ex- 
cept when mixed with decaying vegetation. It is composed mainly of si- 
lica, but the silicious matter is so finely pulverized that the naked eye is un- 
able to perceive anything like sand in its composition. The bluffs along the 
Missouri river, in the western part of the State, are composed of this ma- 

The alluvial soils are the " bottom " lands along the rivers and smaller 
streams. They are the washings of other soils mixed with decayed vege- 
table matter. They vary somewhat in character and fertility, but the best 
of them are regarded as the most fertile soils in the State. 

As to the localities occupied by each of these different soils, it may be 
stated that the drift forms the soil of all the higher plains and woodlands 
of the State, except a belt along the western border, which is occupied by 
the bluff soil, or bluff deposit, as it is generally called. The alluvial occu- 
pies the low lands, both prairie and timber, along the streams. It may be 
remarked that the alluvial soil composing the broad belt of "bottom " along 
the Missouri, partakes largely of the bluff soil, owing to continued wash- 
ings from the high lands or bluffs adjacent. 


Classification of Rocks — Azoic System — Huronian Group — Lower Silurian System — Primordial 
Group — Trenton Group— Cincinnati Group — Upper Silurian System — Niagara Group — 
Devonian System — Hamilton Group — Carboniferous System — Sub-Carboniferous Group — 

' ' Kinderhook Beds — Burlington Limestone — Eeokuk Limestone — St.- Louis Limestone — 
Coal-Measure Group — Cretaceous System — Nishnabotany Sandstone— Woodbury Sand- 
stones and Shales — Inoceramus Beds. 

In January, 1855, the General Assembly passed an act to provide for a 
geological survey of the State. Under authority given by this act, Prof. 
James Hall, of New York, was appointed State Geologist, and Prof. J. D. 
Whitney, f of Massachusetts, State Chemist. During the years 1855, 1856, 
and 1857, 'the work progressed, but was confined chiefly to the eastern coun- 
ties. A large volume was published in two parts, giving in detail the results 
of the survey up to the close of the season of 1857, when the work was dis- 
continued. In 1866 it was resumed under an act of the General Assembly 
passed in March of that year, and Dr. Charles A. White, of Iowa City, was 
appointed State Geologist. He continued the work, and in December, 1869, 



submitted a report to the Governor in two large volumes. From these 
reports we derive a pretty thorough knowledge of the geological character- 
istics in all portions of the State. 

In the classification of Iowa rocks, State Geologist White adopted the 
following definitions: 

The term " formation " is restricted to such assemblages of strata as have 
been formed within a geological epoch; the term "group," to such natural 
groups of formation as were not formed within a geological period; aDd the 
term " system," to such series of groups as were each formed within a geolog- 
ical age. 

The terms used in this arrangement may be referred to two categories — 
one applicable to geological objects, and the other to geological time. Thus: 
Formations constitute Groups; groups constitute Systems; Epochs consti- 
tute Periods; periods constitue Ages. 

In accordance with this arrangement the classification of Iowa rocks may 
be seen at a glance in the following table constructed by Dr. "White: 










Carboniferous • 


Upper Silurian 

Lower Silurian . 

Post Tertiary. . 
Lower Cretaceous ■ 

Coal Measures 
Subcarboniferous - 


Trenton . . 




Inoceramus bed 

Woodbury Sandstone and Shales 

Nishnabotany Sandstone 

Upper Coal Measures 

Middle Coal Measures 

Lower Coal Measures 

St. Louis Limestone 

Keokuk Limestone 

Burlington Limestone 

Kinderhook beds 

Hamilton Limestone and Shales . 

Niagara Limestone 

Maquoketa Shales 

Galena Limestone 

Trenton Limestone 

St. Peter's Sandstone 

Lower Magnesian Limestone 

Potsdam Sandstone. • • • 

Sioux Quartzite 

10 to 200 








Hwonicm Group. — The Sioux Quartzite Formation in this Group is 
found exposed in natural ledges only on a few acres in the northwest corner 
of the State. The exposures in Iowa are principally upon the banks of the 
Big Sioux river, for which reason the specific name of Sioux Quartzite is 
given to it. It is an intensely hard rock, breaking with a splintery fracture, 
and a color varying in different localities from a bright to a deep red. 
Although it is so compact and hard the grains of sand of which it was 
originally composed are yet distinctly to be seen, and even the ripple marks 
upon its bedding surfaces are sometimes found as distinct as they were when 
the rock was a mass of incoherent sand in the shallow waters in which it was 
accumulated. The lines of stratification are also quite distinct, but they are 
not usually sufficiently definite to cause the mass to divide into numerous 
layers. It has, however, a great tendency to break up by vertical cracks 


and fissures into small angular blocks. The process of metamorphism has 
been so complete throughout the whole formation that the rock is almost 
everywhere of uniform texture, and its color also being so nearly uniform 
there is no difficulty in identifying it wherever it may be seen. 

In a few rare cases this rock may be quarried readily, as the layers are 
easily separated, but usually it is so compact throughout that it is quarried 
with the greatest difficulty into any forms except those into which it naturally 
eracks. It has a great tendency, however, upon its natural exposures, to 
break up by vertical fissures and cracks into angular blocks of convenient size 
for handling. Except this tendency to crack into angular pieces, the rock 
is absolutely indestructible. ~No traces of fossil remains of any kind have 
been found in it. As shown by the table its exposure in Iowa is fifty feet in 


Primordial Group. — The. Potsdam Sandstone Formation of this Group 
hasa geographical range extending throughout the northern portion of the 
United States and Canada, and in Iowa reaches a known thickness of about 
300 feet, as shown in the table. It forms, however, rather an inconspicuous 
feature in the geology of Iowa. It is exposed only in a'small portion of 
the northeastern part of the State, and has been brought to view there by 
the erosion of the river valleys. The base of the formation does not appear 
anywhere in Iowa, consequently its full thickness is not certainly known, nor 
is it known certainly that it rests on the Sioux Quartzite. The rock is 
everywhere soft; usually a very friable sandstone, but sometimes containing 
some clayey material, and approaching in character a sandy shale. It is 
nearly valueless for any economic purpose, not being of sufficient hardness 
to serve even the commonest purposes of masonry. No fossils have been 
discovered in this formation in Iowa, but in Wisconsin they are found quite 
abundantly in it. 

The Lower Magnesian Limestone Formation has but little greater geo- 
graphical extent in Iowa than the Potsdam Sandstone has; because, like 
that formation, it appears only in the bluffs and valley-sides of the same 
streams. It is a more conspicuous formation, however; because, being a 
firm rock, it presents bold and often picturesque fronts along the valleys. 
Its thickness is about 250 feet, and is quite uniform in composition, being a 
nearly pure buff-colored dolomite. It lacks a uniformity of texture and 
stratification which causes it to weather into rough and sometimes grotesque 
shapes, as it stands out in bold relief upon the valley-sides. It is not gener- 
ally valuable for building purposes, owing to its lack of uniformity in texture 
and bedding. Some parts of it, however, are selected which serve for such 
uses at Lansing and McGregor. It has also been used to some extent for 
making lime, but it is not equal to the Trenton limestone, near Dubuque, 
for that purpose. The. only fossils that have been found in this formation in 
Iowa, are, so far as known, a few traces of the stems of Crinoids found near 

The St. Peter's Sandstone Formation is remarkably uniform in thickness 
throughout its known geographical extent. It is a clean grit, light colored, 
very triable rock; so pure in its silicious compostion that it is probable some 
portions of it may be found suitable for the manufacture of glass. It occu- 
pies the surface of a large portion of the north half of Allemakee county, 
immediately beneath the drift, and it is also exposed a couple of miles 


below McGregor, where it is much colored by oxide of iron. It contains no 

Trenton Group. — The lower formation of this group is known as the 
Trenton Limestone. "With the exception of this all the limestones of both 
Upper and Lower Silurian age in Iowa, are magnesian limestones — nearly 
pure dolomites. The rocks of this formation also contain much magnesia* 
but a large part of it is composed of bluish compact common limestone. It 
occupies Wge portions of both Winneshiek and Allamakee counties, together 
with a portion of Clayton. Its thickness as seen along the bluffs of the 
Mississippi is about eighty feet, but in Winneshiek county we find the 
thickness is increased to upward of 200 feet. The greater part of this 
formation is worthless for economic purposes, but enough of it is suitable 
for building purposes and for lime to meet the wants of the inhabitants. 
The worthless portions of the formation consists of clayey shales and shaly 
limestone. Fossils are abundant in this formation. In some places the 
rock is made up of a mass of shells, corals, and fragments of trilobites, 
together with other animal remains, cemented by calcareous matter into 
compact form. 

The upper portion of the Trenton Group, known as the Galena Limestone 
Formation, occupies a narrow strip of country, seldom exceeding 12 miles in 
width, but it is fully 150 miles long. It is about 250 feet thick in the 
vicinity of Dubuque, but diminishes in thickness as it extends northwest, so 
that it does not probably exceed 100 feet where it crosses the northern 
boundary of the State. The outcrop of this formation traverses portions of 
the counties of Howard, Winneshiek, Allamakee, Fayette, Clayton, Dubuque, 
and Jackson. It exhibits its greatest development in Dubuque county. It 
is not very uniform in texture, which causes it to decompose unequally, and 
consequently to present interesting forms in the abrupt bluffs of it, which 
border the valleys. It is usually unfit for dressing, but affords good enough 
stone for common masonry. It is the source of the lead ore of the Dubuque 
lead mines. The full thickness of this formation at Dubuque is 250 feet. 
Fossils are rare in it. 

Cincinnati Group. — The Maquoketa Shale Formation of this group, so- 
called by Dr. White, is synonymous with the Hudson River Shales, of Prof. 
Hall. It is comprised within a long and narrow area, seldom reaching more 
than a mile or two in width, but more than a hundred miles long, in the State. 
Its most southerly exposure is in the bluffs of the Mississippi river, near 
Bellevue, in Jackson county, and the most northerly one yet recognized is in 
the western part of Winneshiek county. The whole formation is largely 
composed of bluish and brownish shales. Its economic value is very slight, 
as it is wholly composed of fragmentary materials. The fossils contained in 
this formation, together with its position in relation to the underlying and 
overlying formations, leave no doubt as to the propriety of referring it to the 
same geological period as that in which the rocks at Cincinnati, Ohio, were 
formed. Several species of fossils which characterize the Cincinnati group 
are found in the Maquoketa Shales, but they contain a large number of 
species that have been found nowhere else than in these shales in Iowa, and 
it is th'e opinion of Dr. White that the occurrence of these distinct fossils in 
the Iowa formation would seem to warrant the separation of the Maquoketa 
Shales as a distinct formation from any others of the group, and that its true 
position is probably at the base of the Cincinnati group. 



Niagara Group.— The area occupied by the Niagara limestone Formafion 
is nearly 160 miles from north to south* and between 40 and 50 miles wide 
in its widest part. At its narrowest part, which is near its northern limit in 
Iowa, it is not more than four or five miles wide. This formation is entirely 
magnesian limestone, with, in some places, a considerable proportion of sili- 
cious matter in the form of chert or coarse flint. Some of the lower portions 
resemble both the Galena and Lower Magnesian Limestones, having the 
same want of uniformity of texture and bedding. It affords, however, 
a great amount of excellent quarry rock. The quarries at Anamosa, in Jones 
county, are remarkable for the uniformity 6t the bedding of its strata. 
Wherever this rock is exposed there is always an abundance of material for 
common masonry and other purposes. In some places excellent lime is 
made from it. 


_ Hamilton Group. — The Hamilton Limestone and Shales Formation occu- 
pies an area of surface as great as those occupied by all the formations of 
both Lower and Upper Silurian age in the State. The limestones of the De- 
vonian age are composed in part of magnesian strata, and in part of common 
limestone. A large part of the material of this formation is quite worthless, 
yet other portions are very valuable for several economic purposes. Having 
t a very large geographical extent in Iowa, it constitutes one of the most im- 
' portant formations. "Wherever any part of this formation is exposed, the 
common limestone portions exist in sufficient quantity to furnish abundant 
material for common lime of excellent quality, as well as good stone for com- 
mon masonry. Some of the beds furnish excellent material for dressed stone, 
for all works requiring strength and durability. The most conspicuous and 
characteristic fossils of this formation are brachipod mollusks and corals. 


The Sub-Carboniferous Group. — This group occupies a very large sur- 
face in Iowa. Its eastern border passes from the northeastern portion of 
"Winnebago county in a southeasterly direction, to the northern part of Wash- 
ington county. Here it makes a byroad and direct bend nearly eastward, 
striking the Mississippi river at the city of Muscatine. The southern and • 
western boundary of the area is to a considerable extent the same as that 
which separates it from the coalfield. From the southern part of Pocahontas 
county, it passes southeastward to Fort Dodge, thence to "Webster City, 
thence to a point three or four miles northeast of Eldora, in Hardin county, 
thence southward to the middle of the north line of Jasper county, thence 
southeastward to Sigourney in Keokuk county, thence to the northeast corner 
of Jefferson county, and thence, by sweeping a few miles eastward to the 
southeast corner of Van Buren county. The area as thus defined, is nearly 
250 miles long, and from 20 to 40 miles wide. The general southerly and 
westerly dip has carried the strata of the group beneath the lower coal- 
measure along the line last designated, but after passing beneath the latter 
strata for a distance of from 15 to 20 miles, they appear again in the valley 
of the Des Moines river, where they have been bared by the erosion of that 
The Kinderhook Beds, the lowest Formation of the sub-carboniferous group, 


presents its principal exposures along the bluffs which border the Mississippi 
and Skunk rivers, where they form the eastern and northern boundary of Des 
Moines county; along English river in Washington county ; alonglowa river 
in Tama, Marshall, Hardin and Franklin counties, and along theJDes Moines 
river in Humboldt county. The southern part of the formation in Iowa 
has the best development of all in distinguishing characteristics, but the 
width of area it occupies is much greater in its northern part, reaching a 
maximum width of eighty miles. The Kinderhook formation has consider- 
able economic value, particularly in the northern portion of the region it 
occupies. The stone which it furnishes is of practical value. There are no 
exposures of stone of any other kind in Pocahontas, Humboldt and some 
other counties embraced in the area occupied by it, and therefore it is of very 
oreat value in such places for building material. It may be manufactured 
fnto excellent lime. The quarries in Marshall county and at Le Grand are 
of this formation ; also the oolitic limestone in Tama county. This oolitic 
limestone is manufactured into a good quality of lime. The principal fossils 
appearing in this formation are the remains of fishes; no remains of vegeta- 
tion have as yet been detected. The fossils in this formation, so far as Iowa 
is concerned, are far more numerous in the southern than in the northern 

The Burlington Limestone is the next Formation in this group above the 
Kinderhook Beds, the latter passing gradually into the Burlington Lime- 
stone. This formation consists of two distinct calcareous divisions, which 
are separated by a series of silicious beds. The existence of these silicious , 
beds suggests the propriety of regarding the Burlington Limestone as really 
two distinct formations. This is strengthened also by some well marked 
palaeontological differences, especially in the crinoidal remains. The south- 
erly dip of the Iowa rocks carries the Burlington Limestone down, so that 
it is seen for the last time in this State in the valley of Skunk river, near 
the southern boundary of Des Moines county. Northward of Burlington 
it is found frequently exposed in the bluffs of the Mississippi and Iowa riv- 
ers in the counties of Des Moines and Louisa, and along some of the smaller 
streams in the same region. Burlington Limestone forms a good building 
material ; good lime may also be made from it, and especially from the up- 
per division. Geologists have given to this formation the name of Burling- 
ton Limestone because its peculiar characteristics are best shown at the city 
of Burlington, Iowa. The great abundance and variety of its character- 
istic fossils — crinoids — have attracted the attention of geologists and nat- 
uralists generally. The only remains of vertebrates reported as being found 
in it are those of fishes. Remains of articulates are rare in it, and confined 
to two species of trilobites. Fossil shells are common but not so abundant 
as in some of the other formations of the Sub-Carboniferous Group. 

The Keokuk Limestone is the next Formation in this group above the 
Burlington Limestone. In Iowa it consists of about fifty feet in maximum 
thickness. It is a grayish limestone, having usually a blueish tinge. It oc- 
cupies in Iowa a more limited area than any other formation of the sub- 
carboniferous group. It is well developed and largely exposed at the city 
of Keokuk. It is synonymous with the Lower Archimedes Limestone of 
Owen and other geologists. The most northerly point at which it has been 
recognized is in the northern part of Des Moines county, where it is quite 
thinned out. It is only in the counties of Lee, Yan Buren, Henry and Des 
Moines that the Keokuk Limestone is to be seen; but it rises again and is 


seen in the banks of the Mississippi river some seventy-five or eighty miles 
below Keokuk, presenting there the same characteristics that it has in Iowa. 
The upper silicious portion of this formation is known as the Geode bed. 
These geodes are more or less spherical masses of silex, usually hollow and 
.lined with crystals of quartz. The Keokuk Limestone formation is of great 
economic value, as some of its layers furnish a fine quality of building ma- 
terial. The principal quarries of it are along the Mississippi from Keokuk 
to Nauvoo, a distance of about fifteen miles. The only vertebrated fossils 
in it are those of fishes, consisting both of teeth and spines. Some of these 
are of great size, indicating that their owners probably reached a length of 
twenty-five or thirty feet. Several species of articulates, mollusks and ra- 
diates are also found in this formation. Among the radiates the crinoids 
are very abundant, but are not so conspicuous as in the Burlington Lime- 
stone. A small number of Protozoans, a low form of animal life, related 
to sponges, have also been found in the Keokuk Limestone. 

The next Formation in the Sub-Carboniferous Group, above the Keokuk 
Limestone, is what Dr. White calls the St. Louis Limestone, and is synon- 
ymous with the Concretionary Limestone of Prof. Owen, and the Warsaw 
Limestone of Prof. Hall. It is the upper, or highest formation of what Dr. 
White classifies as the Sub-Carboniferous Group, appearing in Iowa, where 
the lower coal-measures are usually found resting directly upon it, and where 
it forms, so to speak, a limestone floor for the coal-bearing formations. To 
this, however, there are some exceptions. It presents a marked contrast 
with the coal-bearing strata which rest upon it. This formation occupies a 
small superficial area in Iowa, because it consists of long narrow strips. 
Its extent, however, within the State is known to be very great, because it is 
found at points so distant from each other. Commencing at Keokuk, where 
it is seen resting on the geode division of the Keokuk limestone, and pro- 
ceeding northward, it is iound forming a narrow border along the edge of 
the coal-field in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jefferson, Washington, Keokuk 
and Mahaska counties. It is then lost sight of beneath the coal-measure 
strata and overlying drift until we reach Hamilton county, where it is found 
in the banks of Boone river with the coal-measures resting upon it, as they 
do in the counties just named. The next seen of the formation is in the 
banks of the Des Moines river at and near Fort Dodge. These two last 
named localities are the most northerly ones at which the formation is ex- 
posed, and they are widely isolated from the principal portion of the area it 
occupies in Iowa; between which area, however, and those northerly points, 
it appears by a small exposure near Ames, in Story county, in the valley of 
a small tributary of Skunk river. This formation as it appears in Iowa, 
consists of three quite distinct sub-divisions — magnisian, arenaceous and 
calcareous, consisting in the order named of the lower, middle and upper sub- 
divisions of the formation. The upper division furnishes excellent material 
for quicklime, and in places it is quarried to serve a good purpose for ma- 
sonry. The middle division is of little economic value, being usually too 
soft for practical use. The lower, or magnesian division, furnishes some ex- 
cellent stone for heavy masonry, and has proved to be very durable. This 
formation has some well marked fossil characteristics, but they do not stand 
out with such prominence as some of those in the two preceding formations. 
The vertibrates, articulates, mollusks, and radiates, are all more or less rep- 
resented in it. Some slight vegetable remains have also been detected in it. 
The Coal-measwre Group.— The formations of this group are divided 


into the Lower, Middle, and Upper Coal-measures. Omitting particular 
reference to the other strata of the Lower Coal-measure, we refer only to 
the coal which this formation contains. Far the greater part of that indis- 
pensible element of material prosperity is contained in the strata of the 
Lower Coal-measures. Beds are now being mined in this formation that, 
reach to the thickness of seven feet of solid coal. Natural exposures of' 
this formation are few, but coal strata are being mined in a number of local- 

The area occupied by the Middle Coal-measure is smaller than that of 
either of the others, and constitutes a narrow region between them^ The 
passage of the" strata of the Lower with the Middle Coal-measure is not 
marked by any well denned line of division. 

The area occupied by the Upper Coal-measure formation in Iowa is very 

freat, comprising thirteen whole counties in the southwestern part of the 
tate, together with parts of seven or eight others adjoining. It ad- 
joins by its northern and eastern boundary the area occupied by the Middle 
Coal-measures. The western and southern limits in Iowa of the Upper 
Coal-measures are the western and southern boundaries of the State, but the 
formation extends without interruption far into the States -of Missouri, Ne- 
braska and Kansas. It contains but a single bed of true coal, and that very 
thin. Its principal economic value is confined to its limestone. "Wherever 
this stone is exposed it furnishes good material for masonry, and also for 
lime. The prevailing color of the limestone is light gray, with usually a 
tinge of blue. The sandstones of this formation are xisually shaly, and quite 


The Nishnabotany Sandstone. — This formation is well exposed in the 
valley of the East Nishnabotany river, from which circumstance Dr. White 
has so named it. It is found as far east as the southeastern part of Guthrie 
county, and as far south as the southern part of Montgomery county. To 
the northwestward it passes beneath the Woodbury sandstones and shales, 
the latter in tarn passing beneath the Inoceramus, or chalky beds. It 
reaches a maximum thickness in Iowa, so far as known, of about 100 feet, 
but the exposures usually show a much less thickness. It is a soft sandstone, 
and, with tew exceptions, almost valueless for economic purposes. The most 
valuable quarries in the strata of this formation, so far as known, are at 
Lewis, Cass county, and in the northeastern part of Mills county. Several 
buildings have been constructed of it at Lewis, but with some the color is 
objectionable, being of a dark brown color. A few fossils have been found 
in it, being leaves too fragmentary for identification. 

The Woodbury Sandstones and Shales. — These are composed of alternat 
ing sandstones and shales, as the name implies, and rest upon the Nishna- 
botany sandstone. They have not been observed outside of the limits of 
Woodbury county, but they are found there to reach a maximum of about 
150 feet. Some layers are firm and compact, but the larger part is impure 
and shaly. The best of it is suitable for only common masonry, but it fur- 
nishes the only material of that kind in that part of the State. Some slight 
fossil remains have been found in this formation. 

The Inoceramus Beds. — These beds constitute the upper formation of the 
Cretaceous System in Iowa, and have a maximum thickness of about 50 feet. 
They rest directly upon the Woodbury sandstones and shales. They are 


observed nowhere in Iowa except along the bluffs of the Big Sioux river, in 
Woodbury and Plymouth counties. They are composed of calcareous mate- 
rial, but are not a true, compact limestone. The material of the upper por- 
tion is used for lime, the quality of which is equal to that of common 
limestone. No good building material is obtained from these beds. Some 
fossil fish have been found in them. 

Above all the formations above-mentioned rests the Post-Tertiary, or Drift 
deposit, which is more fully mentioned in connection with the Soils of Iowa* 


Coal — Peat — Building Stone — Lime — Lead — Gypsum — Spring and Well Water 1 — Clays — 
Mineral Faint. 

. COAL. 

Every year is adding to our knowledge of, and attesting the importance 
and value of our vast coal deposits. In some unknown age of the past, long 
before the history of our race began, Nature by some wise process, made a 
bountiful provision for the time when, in the order of things, it should 
become necessary for civilized man to take possession of these broad rich 
prairies. As an equivalent for the lack of trees, she quietly stored away 
beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures for the use and 
• comfort of man at the proper time. The increased demand for coal has in 
many portions of the State led to improved methods of mining, so that in 
many counties the business is becoming a lucrative and important one, 
especially where railroads furnish the means of transportation. The coal 
field of the State embraces an area of at least 20,000 square miles, and coal 
is successfully mined in about thirty counties, embracing a territory larger 
than the State of Massachusetts. Among the most important coal produc- 
ing counties may be mentioned Appanoose, Boone, Davis, Jefferson, Ma- 
haska, Marion, Monroe, Polk, Yan Buren, "Wapello, and Webster. Within 
the last few years many discoveries of new deposits have been made, and 
counties not previously numbered among the coal counties of the State are 
now yielding rich returns to the miner. Among these may be mentioned 
the counties of Boone, Dallas, Hamilton, Hardin, and Webster. A vein of 
coal of excellent quality, seven feet in thickness, has been opened, and is 
now being successfully worked, about five miles southeast of Fort Dodge,, in 
Webster county. Large quantities of coal are shipped from that point to 
Dubuque and the towns along the line of the Dubuque and Sioux City Bail- 
road. A few years ago it was barely known that some coal existed in 
JBoone county, as indicated by exposures along the Des Moines river, and 
it is only within the last few years that the coal mines of Moingona have 
furnished the vast supplies shipped along the Chicago and Northwestern Bail- 
road, both east and west. The great productive coal field of Iowa is embraced 
chiefly within the valley of the Des Moines river and its tributaries, extend- 
ing up the valley from Lee county nearly to the north line of Webster 
county. Within the coal field embraced by this valley deep mining is 
nowhere necessary. The Des Moines and its larger tributaries have gener- 
ally cut their channels down through the coal measure strata. 

The coal of Iowa is of the class known as bituminous, and is equal in 
quality and value to coal of the same class in other parts of the world. 
The veins which have so far been worked are from three to eight feet in 



thickness, bnt we do not have to dig from one thousand to two thousand 
feet to reach the coal, as miners are obliged to do in some countries. But 
little coal has in this State been raised from a depth grea+er than one hun- 
dred feet. 

Prof. Gustavus Hinrich, of the State University, who also officiated as 
State Chemist in the prosecution of the recent Geological Survey, gives an 
analysis showing the comparative value of Iowa coal with that of other 
countries. The following is from a table prepared by him — 100 represent- 
ing the combustible: 





Brown coal, from Arbesan, Bohemia. . . 
Brown coal, from Bilin, Bohemia 
Bituminous coal, from Bentheu, Silisia 
Cannel coal, from Wigan, England . . . 

Anthracite, from Pennsylvania 

Iowa coals — average 














In this table the excess of the equivalent above 100, expresses the amount 
of impurities (ashes and moisture) in the coal. The analysis shows that the 
average Iowa coals contains only ten parts of impurities for one hundred 
parts combustible (carbon and bitumen), being the purest of all the samples 
analyzed, except the Anthracite from Pennsylvania. 


Extensive deposits of peat in several of the northern counties of Iowa have 
attracted considerable attention. In 1866, Dr. White, the State Geologist, 
made careful observations in some of those counties, including Franklin, 
Wright, Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Winnebago, Worth, and Kossuth. It is 
estimated that the counties above named contain an average of at least four 
thousand acres each of good peat lands. The depth of the beds are from 
four to ten feet, and the quality is but little, if any, inferior to that of Ireland. 
As yet, but little use has been made of it as a fuel, but when it is considered 
that it lies wholly beyond the coal-field, in a sparsely timbered region of the 
State, its prospective value is regarded as very great. Dr. White estimates 
that 160 acres of peat, four feet deep, will supply two hundred and thirteen 
families with fuel for upward of twenty-five years. It must not be inferred 
that the presence of these peat beds in that part of the State is in any degree 
prejudicial to health, for such is not the case. The dry, rolling prairie land 
usually comes up to the very border of the peat marsh, and the winds, or 
breezes, which prevail through the summer season, do not allow water to 
become stagnant. Nature seems to have designed these peat deposits to 
supply the deficiency of other material for fuel. The penetration of this 
portion of the State by railroads, and the rapid growth of timber may leave 
a resort to peat for fuel as a matter of choice, and not of necessity. It there- 
fore remains to be seen of what economic value in the future the peat beds 
of Iowa may be. Peat has also been found in Muscatine, Linn, Clinton, and 
other eastern and southern counties of the State, but the fertile region of 


Northern Iowa, least favored with other kinds of fuel, is peculiarly the peat 
region of the State. 


There is no scarcity of good building stone to be found along nearly all the 
streams east of the Des Moines river, and along that stream from its mouth 
up to the north line of Humboldt county. Some of the counties west of the 
Des Moines, as Oass and Madison, as well as most of the southern counties 
of the State, are supplied with good building stone. Building stone of 
peculiarly fine quality is quarried at and near the following places: Keosau- 
qua, Van Buren county; Mt. Pleasant, Henry county; Fairfield, Jefferson 
county; Ottumwa, "Wapello county; Winterset, Madison county; Ft. Dodge, 
Webster county; Springvale and Dakota, Humboldt county; Marshalltown, 
Marshall county; Orford, Tama county; Yinton, Benton county; Charles 
City, Floyd county; Mason City, Cerro Gordo county; Mitchell and Osage, 
Mitchell county; Anamosa, Jones county; Iowa Falls, Hardin county; 
Hampton, Franklin county; and at nearly all points along the Mississippi 
river. In some places, as in Marshall and Tama counties, several species of 
marble are found, which are susceptible of the finest finish, and are very 


Good material for the manufacture of quick-lime is found in abundance in 
nearly all parts of the State. Even in the northwestern counties, where there 
are but few exposures of rock "in place," limestone is found among the 
boulders scattered over the prairies and about the lakes. So abundant is 
limestone suitable for the manufacture of quick-lime, that it is needless to 
mention any particular locality as possessing superior advantages in furnish- 
ing this useful building material. At the following points parties have been 
engaged somewhat extensively in the manufacture of lime, to-wit: Ft. Dodge, 
Webster county; Springvale, Humboldt county; Orford and Indiantown, 
Tama county; Iowa Falls, Hardin county; Mitchell, Mitchell county; and 
at nearly all the towns along the streams northeast of Cedar river. 


Long before the permanent settlement of Iowa by the whites lead was 
mined at Dubuque by Julien Dubuque and others, and the business is still 
carried on successfully. From four to six million pounds of ore have been 
smelted annually at the Dubuque mines, yielding from 68 to 70 per cent of 
lead. So far as known, the lead deposits of Iowa that may be profitably 
worked, are confined to a belt four or five miles in width along the Missis- 
sippi above and below the city of Dubuque. 


One of the finest and purest deposits of gypsum known in the world exists 
at Fort Dodge in this State. It is confined to an area of about six by three 
miles on both sides of the Des Moines river, and is found to be from twenty- 
five to thirty feet in thickness. The main deposit is of uniform gray color, 

128 HISTORY 01" IOWA. 

but large masses of almost pure white (resembling alabaster) .have been" 
found embedded in the main deposits. The quantity of tbis article is prac- 
tically inexhaustible, and the time will certainly come when it will be a 
source of wealth to that part of the State. . It has been used to a consider- 
able extent in the manufacture of Plaster-of-Paris, and has been found equal 
to the best in quality. It has also been used to a limited extent for paving 
and building purposes. 


As before stated, the surface of Iowa is generally drained by the rolling or 
undulating character of the country, and the numerous streams, large and 
small. This fact might lead some to suppose that it might be difficult to 
procure good spring or well water for domestic uses. Such, however, is not 
the case, for good pure well water is easily obtained all over the State,' even 
on the highest prairies. It is rarely necessary to dig more than thirty feet 
deep to find an abundance of that most indispensible element, good water. 
Along the streams are found many springs breaking put from the banks, 
i affording a constant supply of pure water. As a rule, it is necessary to dig 
deeper for well water in the timber portions of; the State, than on the 
prairies. Nearly all the spring and well waters of the State contain a small 
proportion of lime, as they do in the Eastern and Middle States. There are 
some springs which contain mineral properties, similar to the springs often 
resorted to by invalids and others in other States. In Davis county there 
are some " Salt Springs," as they are commonly called,- the water being found 
to contain a considerable amount of common salt, sulphuric acid, and other 
mineral ingredients. Mineral waters are found in different parts of the 
State. No one need apprehend any difficulty about finding in all parts of 
Iowa an abundant supply of good wholesome water. 


In nearly all parts of the State the material suitable for the manufacture 
of brick is found in abundance. Sand is obtained in the bluffs along the 
streams and in their beds. Potter's clay, and fire-clay suitable for fire-brick, 
are found in many places. An excellent article of fire-brick is made at 
Eldora, Hardin county, where there are several extensive potteries in opera- 
tion. _ Fire-clay is usually found underlying the coal-seams. , There are 
extensivepotteries in operation in the counties of Lee, Van Buren, Des 
Moines, Wapello, Boone, Hamilton, Hardin, and perhaps others. 


In Montgomery county a fine vein of clay, containing a large proportion 
of ochre, was several years ago discovered, and has been extensively used in 
that part of the State for painting barns and out-houses. It is of a dark red 
color, and is believed to be equal in quality, if properly manufactured, to the 
mineral paints imported from other States. The use of it was first introduced 
by Mr. J. B. Packard, of Eed Oak, on whose land there is an extensive de- 
posit of this material. 





■ da 


linln i 


130 histoky otf 10W4. 


Right of Discovery— Title of France and Spain— Cession to the United States — Territorial 
Changes— Treaties with the Indians— The Dubuque Grant— The Giard Grant— The Hon- 
ori Grant^-The Half-Breed Tract— System of Public Surveys. 

• The title to the soil of Iowa was, of course, primarily vested in the origi- 
nal occupants who inhabited the country prior to" its discovery by the whites. 
But the Indians, being savages^ possessed but few rights that civilized nations 
considered themselves bound to respect, so that when they found this coun- 
try in the possession of such a people they claimed it in the name of the 
King of France, by the right of discovery. It remained under the juris- 
diction of France until the year 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America was divided 
between France, England, Spain, and Russia. France held all that portion 
of what now constitutes our national domain west of the Mississippi river, 
except Texas and the territory which we have obtained from' Mexico and 
Russia. This vast region, while under the jurisdiction of France, was 
known as the " Province of Louisiana," and embraced the present State of 
Iowa. At the close of the " Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her 
share of the continent, and Spain came into possession of the territory west 
of the Mississippi river, while Great Britain retained Canada and- the 
regions northward, having obtained that territory by conquest in the* war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced within the 
limits of Iowa remained as a part of the possession of Spain, and then' went 
back to France by the treaty of St. Idlefonso, October 1, 1800. Oil the 
30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the United States in consideration 
of receiving $11,250,000, and the liquidation of certain claims held by citi- 
zens of the United States against France, which amounted to the further 
sum of $3,750,000, and making a total of $15,000,000: It will thus be seen 
that France has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory 
embracing Iowa, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved author- 
izing the President to take possession of the newly acquired territory and 
provide for it a temporary government, and another act approved March 26, 
1804, authorized the division of the "Louisiana Purchase," as it was then 
called, into two separate Territories. All that portion south of the 33d 
parallel of north latitude, was called the " Territory of Orleans," and that 
north of the said parallel was known as the " District of Louisiana," and 
was placed under the jurisdiction of what was then known as "Indiana 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3 r 1805, the "District 
of Louisiana" was organized as tlie "Territory of Louisiana," with a Terri- 
torial government of its owft, which went into operation July 4th, of the 
same year, and it so remained until 1812. In this year the " Territory of 
Orleans" became the State of Louisiana, and the "Territory of Louisiana" 
was organized as the "Territory of Missouri." This change took place 
under an act of Congress approved June 4, 1812. In 1819, a portion of this ' 
territory was organized as " Arkansaw Territory," and in 1821 the State of 
Missouri was admitted, being a part of the former "Territory of Missouri." 
This left a vast domain still to the north, including the present States of 
Iowa and Minnesota, which was, in 1834, made a part of the " Territory of 


Michigan." In July, 1836, flie territory embracing the present States of 
Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin was detached from Michigan, and organized 
with a separate Territorial government under the name of " Wisconsin Ter- 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved June 12, 1838 1 , on the 3d of 
July of the same year, the " Territory of Iowa " was constituted. It em-,, 
braced the present State of Iowa, and the greater portion of what is now 
the State of Minnesota. 

To say nothing of the title to the soil of Iowa that may once have vested 
in the natives who claimed and occupied it, it is a matter of some interest 
to glance at the various changes of ownership and jurisdiction through 
which it has passed within the time of our historical period: 

1. It belonged' to France, with other territory now belonging to our na- 
tional domain. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded with other territory from Spain back to 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by France to the 
United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by Con- 
gress for the newly acquired territory. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the "District of Louisiana," and 
placed under the jurisdiction of the Territorial government of Indiana. 

t. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the " Territory of Louis- 
iana," then organized with a separate Territorial government. 

8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the "Territory 
of Missouri." 

9. June 28, 1834, it became part of the "Territory of Michigan." 

10. July 3, 1836, it was included as a part of the newly organized "Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin." 

11. June 12, 1838, it was included in, and constituted a part of the newly 
organized " Territory of Iowa." 

12. December 28, 1846, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to. the claims of the Indians, Which it was very justly the 
policy of the 'government to recognize. The several changes of territorial 
jurisdiction after the treaty with France did not affect the title to the soil. 

Before the government of the United States could Vest clear title to the 
soil in its grantees it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by pur"- .. 
chase. The treaties vesting the Indian title to the lands within the limits' 
of what is now the State of IoWa, were made at' different" times. The fol- 
lowing is a synopsis of the several treaties by which the Indians relinquished 
to the United States their rights in Iowa: 

1. Treaty with the Sacs and Foaes, Aug. h l8%h.. — This treaty between 
the United States and the Sacs and Foxes, was made at the City of Wash- 
ington, William Clark being commissioner on the part of the United States. 
By this treaty the Sacs and Foxes relinquished their title to all lands in 
•Missouri, Iowa then being a part of Missouri. In this treaty the land in 
the southeast comer of Iowa known as the " Half-Breed Tract," was re- 
served for the use of the half-breeds of the Sacs and Foxes, they holding 
the title to the same in the same manner as Indians. This treaty was rati- 
fied January 18, 1825. 


2. Treaty with various tribes, Aug. 19, 1825.— This treaty was also made, 
at the city of Washington, by William Clark as Commissioner on the part 
of the United States, with the Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Menomonees, 
Winnebagoes and a portion of the Ottawas and Pottawattamies. This treaty 
was intended mainly to make peace between certain contending tribes as to - 
the limits of their respective hunting grounds in Iowa. It was agreed that 
the United States should run a boundary line between the Sioux on the 
north and the Sacs and Foxes on the south, as follows: Commencing at the 
mouth of the Upper Iowa river, on the west bank of the Mississippi, and 
ascending said Iowa river to its west fork; thence up the fork to its source; 
thence crossing the fork of Red Cedar river in a direct line to the second or 
upper fork of the Des Moines river; thence in a direct line' to the lower fork 
of the Calumet (Big Sioux) river, and down that to its junction with the 
Missouri river. 

3. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, July 15, 1830. — By this treaty the 
Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of country twenty miles 
in width lying directly south of the line designated in the treaty of Aug. 19, 
1825, and extending from the Mississippi to the Des Moines river. 

4. Treaty with the Sioux, July 15, 1830. — By this treaty was ceded to 
the United States a strip twenty miles in width, on the north of the line 
designated by the treaty of Aug. 19, 1825, and extending from the Missis- 
sippi to the l)es Moines river. Bj these treaties made at the same date the 
United States came into possession of a strip forty miles wide from the 
Mississippi to the Des Moines river. It was known as the "Neutral 
Ground," and the tribes on either side of it were allowed to use it in com- 
mon as a fishing and hunting ground until the government should make 
other disposition of it. 

5. Treaty with various tribes, July 15, 1830. — This was a treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, Sioux, Omahas, Iowas and Missouris, by which they ceded 
to the United States a tract bounded as follows : Beginning at the upper 
fork of the Des Moines river, and passing the sources of the Little Sionx 
and Floyd rivers, to the fork of the first creek that falls into the Big Sioux, 
or Calumet river, on the east side; thence down said creek and the Calumet 
river to the Missouri river; thence down said Missouri river to the Missouri 
State line above the Kansas; thence along said line to the northeast corner 
of said State; thence to the highlands between the waters falling into the 
Missouri and Des Moines, passing to said highlands along the dividing 
ridge between the forks of the Grand river; thence along said highlands or 
ridge separating the waters of the Missouri from those of the Des Moines, 
to a point opposite the source of the Boyer river, and thence in a direct line 
to the upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of beginning. The lands 
ceded by this treaty were to be assigned, or allotted, under the direction of 
the President of the United States, to the tribes then living thereon, or to 
such other tribes as the President might locate thereoh for hunting and 
other purposes. In consideration of the land ceded by this treaty the United 
States stipulated to make certain payments to the several tribes joining in 
the treaty. The treaty took effect by proclamation, February 24, 1831. 

6. Treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sept. 15, 1832. — This treaty was made at 
Fort Armstrong, byGen. Winneld Scott, and Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois. 
By the treaty the Winnebagoes ceded to the United States all their lands on 
the east side of the Mississippi, and in part consideration therefor the United 
States granted to the Winnebagoes as a reservation the lands in Iowa known 


as the Neutral Ground. The exchange of the two tracts was to take place 
on or before June 1, 1833. The United States also stipulated to make pay- 
ment to the Winnebagoes, beginning in September, 1873, and to continue 
for twenty-seven ^successive years, $10,000 annually in specie, and also to 
establish a school among them, with a farm and garden. There were also 
other agreements on the part of the government. „ 

7. Treaty with the Sacs amd Foxes, Sept. 21, 1832. — This was the treaty 
known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," which opened the first lands in 
Iowa for settlement by the whites. In negotiating this treaty Gen. Win- 
fiold Scott and Gov. John Eeynolds represented the United States. By it 
the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States a tract of land on the eastern 
border of Iowa fifty miles wide, and extending from the northern boundary 
of Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, containing about six 
millions of acres. The United States stipulated to pay annually to the Sacs 
and Foxes $20,000 in specie, and to pay certain indebtedness of^ the Indians, 
amounting to about $50,000, due chiefly to Davenport & Farnham, Indian 
traders, at Bock Island. By the terms of the treaty four hundred square 
miles on Iowa river, ineludingKeokuk's village, were reserved, for the use and 
occupancy of the Indians. This treaty was made on the ground where the 
city of Davenport is now located. The government conveyed in fee simple 
out of this purchase one section of land opposite Bock Island to Antoine 
LeClaire, the interpreter, and another at the head of the first rapid above 
Bock Island, being the first title to land in Iowa granted by the United 
States to an individual. 

8. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, 1836. — This treaty was also made on 
the banks of the Mississippi, near where the city of Davenport now stands. 
Gen. Henry Dodge, Governor of Wisconsin Territory, represented the 
United States. By it the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States 
" Keokuk's Eeserve," as it was called, for whieh the government stipulated 
to pay $30,000, and an annuity of $10,000 for ten successive years, together 
with certain indebtedness of the Indians. 

9. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, Oct. 21, 1837. — This treaty was made 
at Washington; Carey A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, repre- 
senting the United States. By this treaty the Sacs and Foxes relinquished 
their title to an additional tract in Iowa, described as follows: "A tract of 
country containing 1,250,000 acres, lying west and adjoining the tract con- 
veyed "by them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 1832. 
It is understood that the points of termination for the present cession shall 
be the northern and southern points of said tract as fixed by the survey 
made under the authority of the United States, and that a line shall be 
drawn between them so as to intersect a line extended westwardly from the 
angle of said tract nearly opposite to Bock Island, as laid down in the above 
survey, so far as may be necessary to include the number of acres hereby 
ceded, which last mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five 
miles." The tract ceded by this treaty lay directly west of the "Black 
Hawk Purchase." 

10. Treaty with Sacs and Foxes, same date. — At the same date the Sacs 
and Foxes ceded to the United States all their right and interest in the 
country south of the boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes and the 
Sioux, as described in the treaty of August 19, 1825, and between the Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri rivers, the United States paying for the same $160,000. 


The Sacs and Foxes by this treaty also relinquished ^,11 claims and interest 
under the treaties previously made with them. 

11. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, Oct. 11, 18J$.—Tba.s treaty was 
made at the Sac and Fox Agency, by John Chambers, as Commissioner, on 
behalf of the United States. By it the Sacs and Foxes relinquished to the 
United States all their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any 
claim or title, and agreed to a removal from the country, at the expiration of 
three years. In accordance with this treaty, a part of them were removed 
to Kansas in the fall of 18-45, and the remainder in the spring of 1846. 

The treaty of 1803 with France, and these several treaties with the Indian 
tribes, vested in the United States, jthe" title to all the lands in the State of 
I owa — subject, however, to claims set up under certain Spanish grants, and 
also, the claim to the " Half-Breed Tract," in Lee county, which claims were 
afterward adjudicated in the courts or otherwise adjusted. The following 
is a brief explanation of the nature of these claims : 

The Dubuque Claim. — Lead had been discovered at the site of the present 
city of Dubuque as early as 1780, and in 1788 Julien Dubuque, then resid- 
ing at Prairie dn Chien, obtained permission from the Fox tribe of Indians 
to engage in mining lead, on the west side of the Mississippi. Dubuque, 
with a number of other persons, was engaged in mining, and claimed a large 
tract, embracing as he supposed all the lead bearing region in that vicinity. 
At that time, it will be remembered, the country was under Spanish juris- 
diction, and embraced in the " Province of Louisiana." In 1796 Dubuque 
petitioned the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Carondelet, for a grant of 
the lands embracing the lead mines, describing in his petition a tract con- 
taining over twenty thousand acres. The- Spanish governor granted the 
petition, and the grant was confirmed by the Board of Land Commissioners 
of Louisiana. Dubuque, in 1804, transferred the larger part of his claim to 
Auguste Choteau, of St. Louis. On the 17th of May, 1805, Dubuque and 
Choteau filed their joint claims with the Board of Land Commissioners, and 
the claim was decided by them to be a clear and regular Spanish grant, hav- 
ing been made and completed prior to October 1st, 1800, and while it was 
yep Spanish territory. Dubuque died March 24, 1810. After the deaph of 
"(Dubuque the Indians resumed occupancy of the mines anql engaged them- 
selves in mining to some extent, holding that Dubuque's claim was only a 
permit during his lifetime, and in this they were sustained by the military 
authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the Land 
Commissioners. In the treaty afterward between the United States and the 
Sacs and Foxes, the Indians made no reservation of this claim, and it was 
therefore included as a part of the lands ceded by them to the United States. 
In the meantime Auguste Choteau also died, and his heirs began to look 
after their interests. They authorized their agent to lease the privilege of 
workjng the mines, and under phis authority miners commenced operations, 
but the military authorities compelled them to abandon the work. But little 
further was done in the matter until after the town of Dubuque was laid 
out, and lots had been sold and were occupied by purchasers, when Henry 
Choteau brought an action of ejectment against Patrick Malony, who held 
land under a patent from the United States, for tjie recovery of seven undi- 
vided eighths of the Dubuque claim? as purchased by Auguste Choteau in 
1804. The case was decided in the United States District Court adversely 
to the plaintiff. It wa,s, earned to the Supreme Court of the United States 
on a writ of error, where the decision of the lower court was affirmed. The 

hjsitobt qp iowa. 135 

Supreme Court held that Dubuque asked, and ithe Governor of Louisiana 
granted, nothing more thanpeaeeahle possession of certain lands obtained 
from the Indians, and that Carondelet had no legal authority to make such 
a grant as claimed. 

The Giard Claim. — The Lieutenant .Governor of Upper Louisiana, in 
1795, granted to one Basil Giard 5,760 acres in what is now Clayton county. 
Giard took possession and occupied the land until after the territory passed 
into the possession of the United States, after which the government of the 
United States granted a patent to Giard, for the land which has since been 
known as the " Giard Tract." His heirs subsequently sold the whole tract 
for $300. 

The Honori Claim. — On the 30th day of March, 1799, Zenon Trudeau, 
Aeting Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Honori 
a tract of land on the site of the present town of Montrose, as follows: "It 
is permitted to Mr. Louis (Fresson) Henori, or Louis Honori Fesson, to 
establish himself at the head of the rapids of the Biver Pes Moines, and his 
establishment once formed, notice of it shall be given to the Governor Gen- 
eral, in order to obtain for him a commission of a space sufficient to give 
value to such establishment, and at the samo time to render it useful to the 
commerce of the peltries of this country, to watch the Indians and keep them 
in the fidelity which they owe to His MajeBty." Honori retained possession 
until 1805, but in 1803 it was sold under an execution obtained hj one 
Joseph Bobedoux, who became the purchaser. The tract is described as being 
" about six leagues above the Des Moines." Auguste Choteau, the executor 
of Bobedoux, in April, 1805, sold the Honori tract to Thomas F. Beddeck. 
In the grant from the Spanish government it was described as being one 
(league square; but the government of the United States confirmed only one 
mile square. Attempts were subsequently made to invalidate the title of 
the Beddeek heirs, but it was finally confirmed by the Supreme Court of the 
United States, in 1839. 

The Half-BreeA Tract. — By a treaty made with the Indians, August 
4, 1824, the United States acquired possession of a large tract of land 
in the northern portion of Missouri. In this same treaty 119,000 acres 
were reserved for the use of the hajf-breeds of the Sac and Fox nation. 
This reservation occupied the strip between the Mississippi and Des Moines 
rivers, and south of a line drawn from a point on the Des Moines river, 
about one mile below the present town of Farnjington, in Van Buren county, 
east to the Mississippi river at the lower end of Fort Madison, including all 
the land between the two rivers south of this line. By the terms of the 
treaty the United States had a reversionary interest in this land, which de- 
prived the Indians of the power to sell. But, in 1835, Congress relinquished 
to the half-breeds this reversionary interest, vesting in them a fee simple 
title, and the right to sell and convey. In this law, however, the right to 
sell was not given to individuals by name, but to the half-breeds as a class, 
and in this the subsequent litigation in regard to the " Half-Breed Tract " 
originated. A door was open tor innumerable frauds. The result was that 
speculators rushed in and began to buy the claims of the half-breeds, and, 
in many instances, a gun, a blanket, a pony or a few quarts of whisky was 
sufiicient for the purchase of large estates. There was a deal of sharp prac- 
tice on both sides; Indians would often claim ownership of land by virtue 
of being half-breeds, and had no difficulty in proving their mixed blood by 
the Indians, and they would then cheat the speculators by selling land to 


which they had no rightful title. On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed land in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut diar 
mond, until at last things became badly mixed. There were no authorized 
surveys, and no boundary lines to claims, and, as a natural result, numerous 
conflicts and quarrels ensued. To settle these difficulties, to decide the va- 
lidity of claims or sell them for the benefit of the real owners, by act of the 
Legislature of Wisconsin Territory, approved January 16, 1838, Edward 
Johnstone, Thomas S. "Wilson and David Brigham were appointed commis- 
sioners, and clothed with power to effect these objects. The act provided 
that these commissioners should be paid six dollars a day each. The com- 
mission entered upon its duties and continued until the next session of the 
Legislature, when the act creating it was repealed, invalidating all that had 
been done and depriving the commissioners of their pay. The repealing 
act, however, authorized the commissioners to commence action against the 
owners of the Half-Breed Tract, to receive their pay for their services, in the 
District Court of Lee county. Two judgments were obtained, and on exe- 
cution the whole of the tract was sold to Hugh T. Beid, the sheriff executing 
the deed. Mr. Beid sold portions of it to various parties, but his own title 
was questioned and he became involved in litigation. Decisions in favor 
of Reid and those holding under him were made by both District and Su- 
preme Courts, but in December, 1850, these decisions were finally reversed 
by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Joseph Webster, 
plaintiff in error, vs. Hugh T. Beid, and the judgment titles failed. About 
nine years before the "judgment titles" were finally abrogated, as above, 
another class of titles was brought into competition with them, and in the 
conflict between the two, the final decision was obtained. These were the 
titles based on the " decree of partition " issued by the United States District 
Court for the Territory of Iowa, on the 8th of May, 1841, and certified to by 
the clerk on the 2d day of June of that year. Edward Johnstone and Hugh 
T. Beid, then law partners at Fort Madison, filed the petition for the decree 
in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, 
author of the " Star Spangled Banner," who was then attorney for the New 
York Land Company, which held heavy interests in these lands, took a lead- 
ing part in the measure, and drew up the document in which it was pre- 
sented to the court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, presided. The 
plan of partition divided the tract into 101 shares, each claimant to draw his 
proportion by lot,and to abide the result. The plan was agreed to and the 
lots drawn. The plat of the same was filed for record, October 6th, 1841. 
The title under this decree of partition, however, was not altogether satis- 
factory. It was finally settled by a decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, in January, 1855. 


In connection with the subject of land titles, an explanation of the method 
of public surveys will prove interesting to all land owners. These explana- 
tions apply, not only to Iowa, but to the Western States generally, and to 
nearly all lands the title to which is derived from the Government. 

Soon after the organization of our government, Virginia and other 
States, ceded to the United States extensive tracts of wild land, which, 
together with other lands subsequently acquired by purchase and treaty, 
constituted what is called the public lands, or public domain. Up to the 
year 1802, these lands were sold without reference to any general or uniform 


plan. Each person who desired to purchase any portion of the public do- 
main, selected a tract in such shape as suited his fancy, designating his 
boundaries by prominent objects, such as trees, rocks, streams, the banks of 
rivers and creeks, cliffs, ravines, etc. But, owing to the frequent indefinite- 
ness of description, titles often conflicted with each other, and in many cases 
several grants covered the same premises. 

To obviate these difficulties, in 1802, Col. Jared Mansfield, then surveyor- 
general of the Northwestern Territory, devised and adopted the present mode 
of surveying the public lands. This system was established by law, and is 
uniform in its application to all the public lands belonging to the United 

By this method, all the lines are run by the cardinal points of the com- 
pass; the north and south lines coinciding with the true meridian, and the 
east and west lines intersecting them at right angles, giving to the tracts 
thus surveyed the rectangular form. 

In the first place, certain lines are established running east and west, called 
Base Lines. Then, from noted points, such as the mouths of principal riv- 
ers, lines are run due north and south, which are called Principal Meri- 
dians. The Base Bines and Principal Meridians together, are called 
Standard Bines, as they form the basis of all the surveys made therein. 

In order to distinguish from each other the system or series of surveys thus 
formed, the several Principal Meridians are designated by progressive 
numbers. The Meridian running north from the mouth of the Great Miami 
river, is called the First Principal Meridian; that running north through 
the State of Indiana, the Second Principal Meridian; that rnnning north 
from the mouth of the Ohio river through the State of Illinois, the Third 
Principal Meridian; that running north from the mouth of the Illinois 
river, through the States of Illinois and Wisconsin, the Fourth Principal 
Meridian; and that running north from the mouth of the Arkansas river, 
through the States of Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin, the 
Fifth Principal Meridian. 

Having established the Standard Bines as above described, the country 
was then divided into equal squares as nearly as practicable, by a system of 
parallel meridians six miles distant from each other, crossed or intersected 
bylines east and west,. also six miles from each other. Thus the country 
was divided into squares, the sides of which are six miles, and each square 
containing 36 square miles. These squares are called Townships. The 
lines of the townships running north and south are called Range Bvnes; and 
the rows or tiers of townships running north and south are called Ranges; 
tiers of townships east and west are called Townships; and the lines di- 
viding these tiers are called Township Bines. Townships are numbered 
from the Base Line and the Principal Meridians. Thus the township in 
which Sioux City, Iowa, is located, is described as township No. 89 north, 
in range No. 47 west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. The situation of this 
township is, therefore, 528 miles (making no allowance for fractional town- 
ships) north of the Base Bine, as there are 88 townships intervening between 
it and the Base Line; and being in range No. 47, it is 276 miles west of the 
Fifth Principal Meridian, as there are 46 ranges of townships intervening 
between it and the said Principal Meridian. The township adjoining on the 
north of 89 in range 47, is 90 in range 47; but the township adjoining on 
the west of 89 in range 47, is numbered 89 of range 48, and the one north 
of 89 of range 48, is 90 of range 48, and so on. 


Some &f the -townships mentioned in this illustration, being on the Mis- 
gouri and Big Sioux rivers, are fractional. 

The lines and comers of the townships being established by compete 
surveyors, under the authority of the government, the next work is to sub- 
divide the townships into sections of one square inije each, making 3,6 sec- 
tions in each full township, and each full section containing 640 acres. Tte 
annexed diagram exhibits the 36 sections of a township: 






1 .' 




10 > 


12 ; 




15 : 


J 3 



















The sections are numbered alternately west and east, beginning at the 
northeast corner of the township, as shown by the diagram. 

The lands are sold or disposed of by the government, in tracts of 640 
acres, 320 acres, 160 acres, 80 acres and 40 acres; or by the section, half 
s«ction, quarter section, half quarter section and quarter of quarter sectjott. 
The annexed diagram will present a section and its sub-divisions: 



160 A 


80 A 



160 A 

160 A 


The corners of the section, and the corners at K, E-, S. and W. hare all 
been established and marked by the government surveyor in making bis 
sub-division of the township, or in sectionizmg, as it is termed. He does 


not establish or mark any of the interior jl&aes .or corners. This work is 
left for the county surveyor or other competent person. Suppose the la«t 
diagram to represent section 25, in township 89, north of range 47 -west, 
then the sub-divisions shown may be described as the northwest quarter !©f 
section 25 ; the southwest quarter of section 25 ; the southeast quarter of 
section 25, all in township .89 north of range 47 west of the 5th Principal 
Meridian. But these descriptions do not include any portion of the north- 
east quarter of the section. That we wish to describe in smaller sub-divis- 
ions. So we say, the east half of the northeast quarter of section %5; the 
northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 25, and tfi-e southwest 
quarter of the northeast quarter of section 2,5, all in township 89 north of 
range 47 west of the 5th Principal Meridian. The last three descriptions 
embrace all the northeast quarter of the section, but described in three 
distinct tracts, one containing 80 acres, and two containing 40 acres each, 

The Base Lines and Principal Meridians have been established by astro- 
nomical observations ; but the lines of sub-divisions are run with the com- 
pass. The line indicated by the magnetic needle, when allowed to move 
freely about the point ,of support, and settle to a state of rest, js called the 
magnetic variation. This, in general, is not the true meridian, or nort& 
and south line- The angle which the magnetic meridian makes with the 
true meridian, is called the variation of the needle at that place, and is east 
or west, according as the north end of the needle lies on the east or west 
side of the true meridian. The variation of the needle is different at dif- 
ferent places, but in Iowa the magnetic needle points about 9£ degrees east 
of the true meridian. The lines of the lands are made to conform as nearly 
as practicable to the jtrue meridian, but owing to the imperfections of instru- 
ments, topographical inequalities in the surface of the ground, and various 
other causes, it is absolutely impossible in practice to arrive at perfection; 
or, in other words, to make the townships and their sectional subdivisions 
exactly square and their lines exactly north and south and east and west, 
A detailed statement of the manner of sub-dividing a township into sec- 
tions would be too lengthy for this article. Suffice it to say, that the frac- 
tional tracts are all thrown on the north and west sides of the townships. The 
last tiers, or rows, of quarter sections on the north and west sides of a town- 
ship generally fall either below or in excess of even quarter sections. Where 
•there is a large district of country of uniform level surface, the errors of 
measurement are not likely to be so great, and the fractions in that case 
may not vary much from even quarter sections. 

All measurements are made in chains. A chain is a measure of four 
rods, each link being the hundredth part of a chain, and is so used in the 
field notes and calculations. For convenience in practice, however, the sur- 
veyor generaly uses a half chain, equal to two rods, or fifty links, but the 
purveyor's. reckoning U kept, and all his calculations are made in full chains 
of four rods, and decimal parts thereof. In the measurement of lines, every 
five chains are called an " out," because at that distance, the last of the ten 
tally rods or pins, with which the forward chainman set out, has been set to 
mark the measurement. The other chainman then comes forward, counts 
and delivers to him the ten tally rods which he has taken up in the last 
"jWjit," the forward chainman likewise counting the pins as he receives them. 
At the end of every five chains, the forward chainman as he sets the tenth 
or last tajly rod, calk, " out," which is repeated by the other chainman, 
and by the marker and surveyor, each pf whom keep? a feUy of the " opts," 


and marks the same as he calls them. Sixteen " outs," or eighty chains, 
make a mile. 

The corners of townships, sections and quarter sections, are marked in the 
following manner: 

On the exterior township lines, corner posts are set at the distance of 
every mile and half mile from the township corner. The mile posts are for 
the corners of sections, and the half-mile posts for the corners of quarter 
sections. They are required to be driven into the ground to the depth of 
from fifteen to twenty inches, and to be made of the most durable wood to 
be had. The sides of the posts are squared off at the top, and the angles 
of the square set to correspond with the cardinal points of the compass. 
All the mile posts on the township lines are marked with as many notches 
cut in one of the angles as they are miles distant from the township corner 
where the line commenced. But the township corner posts are notched with 
six notches on each of the four angles. The mile posts on the section lines 
are notched on the south and east angles of the square, respectively, with as 
many notches as they are miles distant from the south and east boundaries 
of the township. If it so happens that a tree is situated to supply the 
place of a corner post, it is "blazed" on four sides facing the sections to 
which it is the corner, and notched in the same manner that the corner posts 
are. At all corners in the timber, two or more bearing trees in opposite 
directions are required to be noted, and the course of each tree noted and 
recorded. The trees are "blazed" on the side facing the post, and the let- 
ters B. T. (Bearing Tree) cut in the wood below the blaze. At the quarter 
section corners, the post is flattened on opposite sides, and marked "£," and 
the nearest suitable tree on each side of the section line is marked to show 
the township, range and section in which such tree is situated. More recent 
regulations require four witnesses, or bearing trees, at the township and 
section corners, and two at the quarter section corners, if within convenient 

In the prairies, and other places where bearing trees could not be noted, 
quadrangular mounds of earth are raised around the posts, the angles of the 
mounds corresponding with the cardinal points of the compass. The 
mounds are required to be two and a-half feet high and four feet square at 
the base. The earth to form the mound at the section corner is taken from • 
one place to form the pit directly south of the mound; and at the quarter 
section corner it is taken directly east of the mound. The posts are squared 
and Notched as heretofore described. More recent regulations require 
stones or charcoal to be buried in the mound. 

In the timber the lines are marked in the following manner: All those 
trees which the line cuts have two notches on eaeh side of the tree where 
the line cuts it. These are called "station trees," and sometimes "line 
trees," or " sight trees." All trees within ten or fifteen links on each side 
of the line are marked with two spots or "blazes," diagonally or quartering 
toward the line. The names and estimated diameters of all the "station 
trees," with their distances on the lines, are noted. 

In the northwest part of Iowa, where the prairie so largely predominates, 
the landmarks, of course, are chiefly mounds and pits. The original stakes 
set by the surveyors have mostly been destroyed by the fires, but occasion- 
ally one may be found. Many of the mounds and pits have also been par- 
tially obliterated, but the experienced surveyor will generally identify them 
with very little trouble. A person in search of the landmarks on the prai- 


rie should provide himself with' a compass with which to trace the lines. A 
small one will answer the purpose of ascertaining lines approximately, but 
for finding the sub-divisions accurately, a good compass or transit and chain 
are required. 

The field notes of the original surveys furnish primarily the material 
from which the plats and calculations of the public lands are made, and the 
source from whence the description and evidence of the location and boun- 
daries of those surveys are drawn and perpetuated. The surveyors of the 
public lands were, therefore, required to keep an accurate record of the 
topography of the country, with a description of everything which might 
afford useful information. The crossings of streams, lakes, ponds, sloughs, 
etc., with their location on the lines, were all required to be carefully noted. 


Julien Dubuque— Spanish Lead Mines— Early Settlement at Dubuque— Settlement at Mont- 
, rose— Old Apple Trees— Fort Madison— Keokuk— First Settlement at Burlington— First 
Settlement in Scott County— Organization of Scott County — Murder of Col. Davenport- 
Band of Outlaws broken up— Some First Things— Territorial Convention— Subject of 
Pre-emptions— Missouri Boundary — Question of Separate Territorial Organization— Me- 
morials to Congress. 

The first white men who are known to have set their feet upon the soil of 
Iowa, were James Marquette and Louis Joliet, in 1673, as we have seen in 
a former part of this work. It was 115 years after the visit of these cele- 
brated French voyagews before any white man established a settlement, 
during which time several generations of the Indian tribes occupied the val- 
leys of the beautiful rivers of Iowa, or roamed over her broad prairies. Dur- 
ing all this time they doubtless kept alive among them the tradition of the 
strange Black-Eobe Chief and his pale-faced companions who came in their 
canoes to see their fathers so many years before. It was likewise a French- 
man, Julien Dubuque, who had the honor of making the first permanent 
white settlement. In 1788, having obtained permission from the Indians, 
he crossed the Mississippi with a small party of miners for the purpose of 
working lead mines at the place where the city is now located which bears 
<his namfe, the lead having been discovered a short time before by the wife 
Peosta, a Fox warrior. Dubuque was a native of France, but had emigrated 
to Canada and become an Indian trader. "While engaged in that business 
he reached Prairie du Chien about the year 1785, and with two other French- 
men, laid out a village which now constitutes the northern part of that city. 
As a trader he acquired great influence with the Sac and Fox Chiefs. Six 
years after he engaged in mining (1796), he wrote a very diplomatic peti- 
tion to the Spanish Governor ol Louisiana, Baron de Carondelet, to con- 
firm the Indian grant. The governor referred the petition to a merchant 
and trader named Andrew Todd, who recommended that the grant be con- 
firmed, with a restriction prohibiting Dubuque from trading with the 
Indians, without first obtaining Todd's consent in writing. With this re- 
striction the petition was granted. Dubuque, as was a common custom 
among the French traders, had married an Indian woman. He gave to the 
district embraced in his grant the name of the Mines of Spain, in 1796, in 
compliment to the Spanish governor. He remained engaged in mining, 
until his death, which occurred March 24, 1810. He was buried on a bluff 
near the present city, and at his grave was placed a cedar cross, hewn square, 

142 mSTOEf otf'iowA. 

atod about twelve feet high. On the arms of the cross there was, in French, 
an inscription^ of which the following is a translation: 



DIED MARCH 24TH, 1810, 


A number of Indians were afterward buried at the same place, and among 1 
them the chief Kettle and his wife, who both died some eighteen' years after* 
Dubuque. Kettle had requested his tribe to bury him and his wife in the 
vault with Dubuque. In 1828 their bodies were on the surface of the 
ground, wrapped in buffalo robes, protected from animals by closed walfe" 
and a roof. The cross and vault of Dubuque, it is said, were torn down 
about the year 1854, by some thoughtless boys, or perhaps men. The fan]* 
was built of roughly dressed limestone taken from the edge of the bluff only 
a few feet distant. But little more than is here stated is Known of the first 
White man who settled on Iowa soil. 

At the death of Dubuque the Indians claimed that the right, or lease of 
the whites to work the mines had expired, and but little more mining seems 
to have heen done there until after the Black Hawk "War.. "When attempts 
were made to engage in mining the military authority interfered to prevent 
intrusion upon the rights of the Indians. In 1829, James L. Langwortny, 
a native of Vermont, who had been engaged in lead- mining at Galena,- Illi- 
nois, crossed- over the river for the purpose of working the mines known 
then as the " Spanish Lead Mines." The Indians refused to give him- per- 
mission, but allowed him' to explore the country. "With two young Indians 
as guides, he traversed the region between Maquoketa and Turkey rivers. 
When he returned to the Sac and Fox village, he secured the good will of 
the Indians, and formed his plans for operating the miries. The next year, 
with his brother, Lucius H. LangWorthy, and some other miners, he crossed 
over the river and engaged in mining. In June, 1830, the miners adopted a> 
code of laws or rules, reported by a committee consisting of James L. Lang- 
worthy, H. F. Lander, James McPhetres, Samuel Scales and E. M. "Wreii>. 
They ereeted an independent civil government of their own, the first gov- 
ernment established by white men in Iowa. Some time after this the watr'* 
Department issued an order to Col. Zachary Taylor, then in command of the 
military post at Prairie du Ghien, to Cause the miners^ to leave the west side* 
of the river. Notice was accordingly given them and the order was rehi& 
tantly obeyed, but not until a detachment of trOops was sent to enforce it; 
After the close of the Black Hawk "War, and the treaty went into effect which 
allowed settlement, on and after June 1, 1833, the Langworthy brothers and 1 
some others returned and resumed their claims, and soon there was a con- 
siderable settlement at Dubuque. The first school house in Iowa Was 
erected there the same year, and before the close of the year there were five 
hundred white people in the mining district. At a meeting of the settler^ 
in 1834, the place was named Dubuque. 

Except the mining settlement! at Dubuque, the first traces of the 
white man in Iowa, are to be found in Lee county. On the 30th of 
March, 1799, Louis Honori Fesson obtained permission of- the Spa* 
ish government to establish himself at the head of the rapids of th# 
river Des Moines for the purpose of trading with the Indians. The 
place was at this time occupied by a half-breed Indian named Bed Bitfdy 


but known among the whites as Thomas Abbott. Subsequently the town 
of Montrose Was located on the ground where Fesson had his trading post 
and Ked Bird his wick-e-up. Settlers of a later day have felt much interest 
in the existence here of some full grown apple trees which must have been 
planted by some hand long before the Black Hawk "War. It has Been 
claimed by some that thefwere planted by Fesson as early as the beginning 
of the present century. Hon. D. W. Kilbottrne, one of the early settlers of 
Lee county, claimed that they were planted by Bed Bird some time between 
the years 1795 and 17 98. Mr. Kilbourne was personally acquainted with 
Eed Bird as Well as With Black Hawk and other noted Indians of the Sac 
and Fox tribes, and from them he received what he believed to be an authen- 
tic account of the origin of the " ancient apple orchard " at Montrose. It 
was the custom of the Indians once a year to visit St. Louis for the purpose 
of obtaining supplies of blankets and other articles. The half-breed, Bed 
Bird, then a young man, made his customary pilgrimage in the early spring, 
and on his return stopped a few days at St. Charles on the Missouri river. 
There a white man made him a present of about twenty small apple trees 
and gave him instructions' how to plant them. Ked Bird carried the trees 
borne with him and planted them near his wick-e-up, placing stakes around 
them. Nearly all of them grew and! remained to excite the wonder' and 
curiosity of succeeding generations of white men. 

In 1809 a military post was established where Ft. Madison is now located, 
but of course the country was not open to white settlers until after the 
" Black Hawk Purchase." In 1834 troops- were stationed at the point where 
Montrose is now located, but at that time the place was called "Fort Des 
Moines." They remained until 1837, when they were removed to Fort 
Leavenworth. At first they were under the command of Lieut. Col. S. W. 
Kearney, who was afterward relieved by Col. R. B. Mason. The command 
consisted of three companies of the 1st United 1 States Dragoons, Co. C, 
Cap*. E. Y. Sumner, Co. H, Capt. Nathan Boone, and Co. I, Capt. J. B. 
Browne. Capt. Browne resigned his position in the regular army in 1837, 
awd remained a citizen of Lee county. In 1838 he was appointed by <5-6v. 
Lucas as M aj. Gen. of Militia. He was also elected as a member of the first 
Territorial Legislature which convened at Burlington, and had the honor of 
being the^firstPresident of the Council and afterward Speaker of the House 
of Representatives. At the " Foot of The Lower Eapids " there was a place 
\**lach, prior to 1834, was known as " Farmers' Trading Post." In Septem- 
ber of that year a meeting of half-breed Indians and their assigns was held' 
in the old trading house then owned by Isaac C. Campbell. The object of 
the meeting was to petition Congress for the passage of a law granting them 
the privilege to sell and convey their respective titles to what was then 
known as the " Half-breed Reservation," according to the laws of Missouri. 
In attendance at this meeting were representatives from Prairie du Chein 
aftd St. Louis. At this time there were about nine families residing in the 
vieinity, and after the adjournment of the meeting the resident citizens re- 
passed to the saloon of John Gaines to talk over their prospects when the 
half-breed title should become extinct. They looked forward to the time 
when a city should grow up at that point. J ohn Gaines called the meeting 
to otfder and made a speech in which he said the time had now come' to 
agree upon a name foi' the town. He spoke of the chief Keokuk as' the 
friend of the white mam, and proposed his name for the future town. The 
proposition met with favor and the name was adopted. In the spring' of 


1837 the town was laid out and a public sale of lots took place in June. 
Only two or three lots were sold, although many attended from St. Louis 
and other points. In 1840 the greater portion of Keokuk was a dense for- 
est, the improvements being only a few cabins. In 1847 a census of the 
place gave a population of t>20. During the year 1832 Capt. James White 
made a claim on the present site of Montrose, and in the same year, soon . 
after the close of the Black Hawk war, Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jen- 
nings, Aaron White, Augustine Horton, Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson 
and Peter Williams made claims at Ft. Madison. In 1833 these claims 
were purchased by John and Nathaniel Knapp, upon which, in 1835, they 
laid out the town. The next summer lots were sold. The lots were subse- 
quently re-surveyed and platted by the United States Government. 

The first settlement made at Burlington and in the vicinity, was 
in the fall of 1832. Daniel Tothero came with his family and settled 
on the prairie about three miles from the Mississippi river. About the 
same time Samuel White, with his family, erected his cabin near the river 
at what is known as the upper bluff, within the limits of the present city 
of Burlington. This was before the extinction of the Indian title, for that 
did not take place before June 1st, 1833, when the government acquired the 
territory under what was known as the " Black Hawk Purchase." There 
was then a government military post at Rock Island, and some dragoons 
came down from that pjace during the next winter and drove Tothero and 
and White over the river, burning their cabins. White remained in Illinois 
until the first of the following June, when the Indians surrendered posses- 
sion of the "Black Hawk Purchase," and on that very day was on the ground 
and built his second cabin. His cabin stood on what is now Front street, 
between Court and High streets, in the city of Burlington. Soon after Mr. 
White's return his brother-in-law, Doolittle, joined him, and in 1834 they 
laid out the original town, naming it Burlington, for the town of that name 
in Vermont. The name was given at the request of John Gray, a Ver- 
monter and a friend of the proprietors. Thus White and Doolittle became 
the Romulus and Remus of one of the leading cities of Iowa. During the 
year 1833 there was considerable settlement made in the vicinity, and soon a 
mill was erected by Mr. Donnell, on Flint creek, three miles from Burling- 
ton. In 1837 Major McKell erected a saw-mill in the town. In June, , 
1834, Congress passed an act attaching the " Black Hawk Purchase " to the 
Territory of Michigan for temporary government. In September of the 
same year the Legislature of Michigan divided this purchase into two coun- 
ties, Des Moines and Dubuque. The boundary between them was a line 
running due west from the lower end of Rock Island. They also organized 
a county court in each county, and for Des Moines county made the seat 
of justice at Burlington. The first court was held in April, 1835, in a log 
house. In 1838 Iowa was made a separate Territory and Burlington was 
made the capital and so remained until after the admission into the Union 
as a State. The Territorial Legislature met for several years in the first 
church erected in Burlington, known as " Old Zion." In this same building 
the supreme judicial tribunal of the Territory also held its sessions, as well 
as the district court. 

The first white man to settle permanently within the limits of Scott 
county, was Capt. B.W. Clark, a native of Yirginia. He had settled and made 
some improvement on the Illinois side of the Mississippi, but in 1833 he 
moved across the river and made a " claim and commenced an improvement 






where the town of Buffalo was laid out. His nearest white neighbors on the 
west side of the Mississippi, were at Burlington and Dubuque. David H. 
Clark, a son of Capt. Clark, born April 21, 1834, was the first white child 
bora within the limits of what is now Scott county. 

Before the time, June 1, 1833, that the Indians were to give possession 
to the whites, Geo. L. Davenport had been permitted to make a claim. He 
had been a favorite with the Indians from boyhood, and for this reason he 
was permitted to go upon the lands while others were kept off. The land 
upon which a part of the city of Davenport is located, and adjoining or near 
Le Claire's reserve, was claimed by E. H. Spencer, and a man named Mc- 
Cloud. Mr. Le Claire afterward purchased their claim interest for $150. 

The project of laying out a town upon Mr. Le Claire's claim was first dis- 
cussed in the autumn of 1835, at the residence of Col. Davenport, on Eock 
Island. The persons interested in the movement were An toine Le Claire, 
Maj. Thos. Smith, Maj. ¥m. Gordon, Phillip Hambaugh, Alexander W. 
McGregor, Levi S. Colton, Capt. James May and Cob Geo. Davenport. In 
the spring of 1836, the enterprise was carried into effect by the purchase of* 
the land from Mr. Le Claire, and the laying out of a town to which the 
name of Davenport was given, in honor ot Col. Davenport. The survey 
was made by Maj. Gordon. Some improvement had been made upon the 
ground by Mr. Le Claire, as early as 1833, but none of a substantial character 
until 1836. 

During this year Messrs. Le Claire and Davenport erected a building 
which was opened as a publie house or tavern, by Edward Powers. During 
the same year John Litch from. Newburyport, N. H, opened the pioneer 
whisky shop in a log shanty on Front street. A ferry across the Mississippi 
was established by Mr. Le Claire, who was also the same year appointed the 
first postmaster, and carried the mails in his pocket while ferrying. The 
first white male child born in Davenport was a son of Levi S. Colton, in 
the autumn of 1836. The child died in August, 1840, at the Indian village 
on Iowa river. The first female child was a daughter of D. C. Eldridge. 
Alex. W. McGregor, opened the first law office in 1836. Eev A. M. Gavit, 
a Methodist minister, preached the first sermon in the house of D. C. Eld- 
ridge. At the close of the year 1836 there were some six or seven houses 
in the town. The Indians still lingered about the place. Col. Davenport 
still kept a trading house open on Eock Island, and furnished supplies. 

When the Sacs and Foxes removed from the lands embraced in the first 
purchase they settled for a short time on Iowa river, and after the second 
purchase removed to the Des Moines river, where they remained until the 
last sale of their lands in Iowa when they were removed by the government 
to Kansas. 

Scott county was organized and named in honor of Gen. "Winfield Scott at 
the session of the Legislature of Wisconsin in December, 1837. Major 
Frayer Wilson was appointed sheriff. The election for county commission- 
ers was held on the third Monday in February, 1838, when" the following 
, were elected: Benj. F. Pike, Andrew W. Campbell, and Alfred Carter. On 
the 4th of July, 1838, by an act of Congress, Iowa became a separate Terri- 
tory, and Eobert Lucas, of Ohio, was appointed the first Territorial Governor. 
He made the following appointments for Scott county: Williard Barrows, 
notary public; Ebenezer Cook, judge of probate; Adrian H. Davenport, 
sheriff; Isaac A. Hedges and John Porter, justices of the peace. D. C. 
Eldridge received the appointment of postmaster at Davenport. The first 


District Court met in Davenport in October, 1838, Hon. Thomas S. Wilson, 
of Dubuque, presiding. 

For two years a contest had been going on between Davenport and a place 
called Kockingham as to which should have the honor of the county seat. 
The fourth Monday of August, 1840, was fixed for holding an election to 
decide the vexed question. It resulted favorably to Davenport, the citizens 
of the successful town bnilding a court house and jail free of expense to the 

On the 7th of July, 1838, Andrew Logan, from Pennsylvania, arrived 
with a printing press, and on the 17th of September following issued the 
first number of a paper called Iowa Sim and Davenport and Mock Island 
News, the first newspaper published in the county. On the 26th day of 
August, 1841, the first number of the Davenport Weekly Gazette was issued 
by Alfred Sanders. 

One of the most exciting incidents connected with the early history of 
Davenport and Scott county was the murder of Col. George Davenport on 
Rock Island, July 4, 1845. The country on both sides'of the river had been 
infested by a lawless band of freebooters, with their supposed headquarters 
at Nauvoo. They had organized themselves into bands and engaged in 
horse stealing, counterfeiting, burglary, robbery, and murder. In some 
places men in official positions and of good standing in community were 
associated with them. On the fatal 4th of July, Col. Davenport's family was 
away at Stephenson attending a celebration when three men attacked him in 
his house, one of whom shot him with a pistol through the thigh. They 
then bound him with strips of bark and blindfolded him. They then made 
a search for the key of his safe but were unable to. find it. Returning to the 
wounded man, they carried him up-stairs where the safe was and compelled 
him to unlock it. The booty obtained was about $600 in money, a gold 
watch-chain and seals, a double-barrelled gun, and a few articles of minor 
value. Col. Davenport lived long enough to relate the incidents of the rob- 
bery. For several weeks no trace could be found of the murderers. Edward 
Bonney, of Lee county, Iowa, undertook to ferret out their place of conceal-; 
ment. About the middle of August he went to Nauvoo where he obtained 
trace of them by representing himself as one of the gang. On the 8th of 
September he arrested a man named Fox at Centerville, Indiana, and com- 
mitted him to jail there. On the 19th he arrested two others, Birch and 
John Long, at Sandusky, Ohio, and brought them to Rock Island by way of 
the lakes and Chicago. These three men were known at the west as leaders 
of gangs of desperadoes, but operated under different names. Three others^ 
were- also arrested as accessories, Richard Baxter and Aaron Long, near 
Galena, Illinois, and Granville Young, at Nanvoo. Aaron was a brother of 
John Long. On the 6th of October all of them were indicted by the grand 
jury of Rock Island county, except Fox, who had escaped from jail inlndi- 
ana on the 17th of September. On the 14th of October the two Longs were 
put upon trial, found guilty, and sentenced to be hung on the 27th of the 
same month. Birch, the greatest villain, turned State's evidence. Baxter 
was tried separately, convicted and sentenced to be hung on the 18th of No- 
vember. In his case a writ of error was obtained and a new trial granted, 
when he was again found guilty and sentenced to the penitentiary for life, 
where he died two years after. Birch took a change of venue to Knox 
county, and while awaiting trial escaped from jail. Upon the gallows John 
Long confessed all, but died a hardened wretch without sign of repentance 
or fear of death. 


Durino- the year 1834 settlements were made at various points besides 
those mentioned, in what are now the counties bordering on the Mississippi 
river, and soon other settlements began to extend to the western limit of the 
Black Hawk Purchase. 

The first post-ofiice in Iowa was established in Dubuque in 1833. Milo 
H. Prentice was appointed postmaster. 

The first justice of the peace was Antoiue Le Claire,' appointed in 1833, as 
" a very suitable person to adjust the difficulties between the white settlers 
and the Indians still remaining there." 

The first Methodist Society in the Territory was formed at Dubuque on 
the 18th of May, 1834, and the first class meeting was held June 1st of that 

The first church bell brought into Iowa was in March, 1834. 

The first mass of the Koman Catholic Church in the Territory was cele- 
brated at Dubuque, in the house of Patrick Quigley, in the fall of 1833. 

The first school house in the Territory was erected by the Dubuque miners 
in 1833. 

The first Sabbath school was organized at Dubuque early in the summer 
of 1834. 

The first woman who came to this part of the Territory with a view to 
permanent residence was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the fall of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of Hosea T. Camp, 
in 1832. 

The first meeting-house was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church, at 
Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubuque Visitor, issued May 11th, 
1836. John King, afterward Judge King, was editor, and "William C. 
Jones, printer. 

By the year 1836 the population had increased so that the people began 
to agitate for a separate Territorial organization. There were also several 
other matters in which they were deeply interested. In November, 1837, a 
convention was called at Burlington to take action. Some account of this 
first Iowa convention, and the action taken by it, will be of interest to every 
citizen of the State. 


On Monday the 6th of November, 1837, a convention of delegates from the 
several counties in that portion of Wisconsin Territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river, then sometimes called "Western Wisconsin, convened in the town 
of Burlington. Among: the principal purposes for which this convention 
was called were: 1. To memoralize Congress for the passage of an act 
granting the right of pre-emption to actual settlers on government lands; 
2. To memoralize Congress on the subject of the attempt then being made 
by the State of Missouri to extend her northern boundary line so as to 
embrace territory claimed as being a part of Wisconsin; 3. To memoralize 
Congress for the organization of a separate territorial government in that 
part of the Territory of Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. 

The following were the accredited delegates in the convention from the 
several counties: 

Dubuque County.— P. H. Engle, J. T. Fales, G. W. Harris, W. A. War- 
ren, W. B. Watts, A. F. Kussell, W. H. Patton, J. W. Parker, J. D. Bell, and 
J. H. Rose. 

Des Moines County.— David Eorer, Robert Ralston*, and Cyrus S. Jacobs. 


Van Buren County.— Tan Caldwell, J. G. Kenner, and James Hall. 

Henry County.— W. H. "Wallace, J. D. Payne, and J. L. Myers. 

Muscatine County. — J. K. Struthers, M. Couch, Eli Eeynolds, S. C. 
Hastings, James Davis, S. Jenner, A. Smith, and E. K. Fay. 

Lomsa County.— J. M. Clark, Wm. L. Toole, and J. J. Einearson. 

Zee County.— Henry Eno, John Claypool, and Hawkins Taylor. 

The officers of the convention were: President, Cyrus S. Jacobs; "Vice 
Presidents, J. M. Clark, and Wm. H. Wallace; Secretaries, J. W. Parker, 
and J. E. Struthers. 

The" following committees were appointed: 

To draft and report a memorial in relation to the right of pre-emption 

Messrs. Engle, Kenner, Payne, Struthers, Patton, Eorer, and Smith. 

To draft and report a memorial on the subject of the boundary line — 
Messrs. Eno, Claypool, Kenner, Ealston, Davis, Watts, and Toole. 

To draft and report a memorial on the subject of a separate territorial 
organization— Messrs. Korer, Hastings, Caldwell, Myers, Claypool, Einear- 
son, and Harris. 

The convention continued in session three days, and on the afternoon of the 
last day all the committees reported, and their reports were unanimously 


To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives : 

A convention of citizens representing all the counties in that part of Wis- 
consin Territory lying west of the Mississippi river, have assembled at Bur- 
lington, the present seat of government of said Territory, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration several measures immediately affecting their in- 
terests and prosperity. Among the most important of these is the passage 
by your honorable bodies, at the session about to be commenced, ot a pre- 
emption law by which the settlers on the public land shall have secured to 
them at the minimum price, the lands on which they live, which they have 
improved and cultivated without fear of molestation, or over-bidding on the 
part of the rich capitalist and speculator. It is a fact well known to your hon- 
orable bodies, that none of the land in Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, 
in what is called the " Iowa District," has yet been offered for sale by the 
government. It is equally true that that tract of country is now inhabited 
by twenty-five thousand souls, comprising a population as active, intelligent, 
and worthy as can be found in any other part of the United States. The 
enterprise of these pioneers has converted what was but yesterday a solitary 
and uncultivated waste, into thriving towns and villages, alive with the en- 
gagements of trade and commerce, and rich and smiling farms, yielding 
their bountiful return to the labors of the husbandman. This district has 
been settled and improved with a rapidity unexampled in the history of the 
country; emigrants from all parts of the United States, and from Europe, 
are daily adding to our numbers and importance. An attempt to force these 
lands thus occupied and improved into market, to be 6old to the highest bid- 
der, and to put the money thus extorted from the hard earnings of an indus- 
trious and laborious people into the coffers of the public treasury, would be 
an act of injustice to the settlers, which would scarcely receive the sanction 
of your honorable bodies. In most cases the labor of years and the accu- 
mulated capital of a whole life has been expended in making improvements 
on the public land, under the strong and firm belief that every safeguard 
would be thrown around them to prevent their property, thus dearly earned 


by years of suffering, privation and toil, from being unjustly wrested from 
their hands. Shall they be disappointed? Will Congress refuse to pass 
such laws as may be necessary to protect a large class of our citizens from 
systemized plunder and rapine? The members comprising this convention, 
representing a very large class of people, who delegated them to speak . in 
their stead, do most confidently express an opinion that your honorable 
bodies will at your present session, pass some law removing us from danger, 
and relieving us from fear on this subject. The members of this conven- 
tion, for themselves, and for the people whose interests they are sent here to 
represent, do most respectfully solicit that your honorable bodies will, as 
speedily as possible, pass a pre-emption law, giving to every actual settler 
on the public domain, who has made improvements sufficient to evince that 
it is bona fide his design to cultivate and occupy the land, the right to enter 
at the minimum government price, one-half section for that purpose, before 
it shall be offered at public sale. 


To the Honorable, the Senate and House of .Representatives of the United 
. States in Congress assembled: 

The Memorial of a Convention of Delegates from the several comnties in 
the Territory of Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, convened at Bur- 
lington, in said Territory, November 6, 1837, respectfully represent: 

That your memorialists are desirous of asking the attention of Congress 
to the adjustment of the boundary line between the State of Missouri and 
the Territory of Western Wisconsin. Much excitement already prevails 
among the inhabitants situated in the border counties of the State and Ter- 
ritory, and it is much to. be feared that, unless the speedy action of Congress 
should be had upon the subject, difficulties of a serious nature will arise, 
militating against the peace and harmony which would otherwise exist 
among them. At the last session of the legislature of Missouri, commis- 
sioners were appointed to run the northern boundary line of the State. They 
have recently been engaged in the work, and, according to the line run by 
them, there is included within the limits of the State of Missouri a consid- 
erable tract of country hitherto supposed to belong to the Territory of Wis- 
consin, and still believed of right to belong to it. The northern 
boundary line of Missouri was run several years ago by commissioners ap- 
pointed by the State of Missouri, and will cross the Des Moines river at a 
point about twenty-five miles from its mouth. This line, if continued on 
due east, would strike the Mississippi river near the town of Fort Madison, 
about ten miles above the rapids in said river, long since known as the Des 
Moines rapids; and this line, so run by the commissioners, has always been 
considered as the boundary line between the State and Territory. The pres- 
ent commissioners, appointed by the State of Missouri, giving a different 
construction to the act defining the boundary line of the State, passed up 
the Des Moines river in search of rapids, and have seen proper to find them 
some twelve or fourteen miles further up the river than the other commis- 
sioners of Missouri formerly did, and, selecting a point which they call 
the rapjds in the Des Moines river, have from thence marked out a line 
which is now claimed as the northern boundary line of the State. Were 
this line extended due east, it would strike the Mississippi river at the town 
of Burlington, some thirty miles above the rapids known, as stated above, as 
the Des Moines Eapids. 


Missouri was created into an independent State, and her boundary line 
defined, in June, 1820. At that time the country bordering on the Des 
Moines river was a wilderness, and little was known, except from the Indi- 
ans who lived on its banks, of its geographical situation. There was at that 
time no point on the river known as the Des Moines rapids, and at the 
present time between the mouth of the river and the Raccoon forks, a dis- 
tance of two hundred miles, fifty places can with as much propriety be desig- 
nated as the one selected by the commissioners of the State of Missouri. 

Your memorialists conceive that no action of the State of Missouri can, 
or ought to, affect the integrity of the Territory of Wisconsin; and standing 
in the attitude they do, they must look to the general government to protect 
their rights and redress their wrongs, which, for so long a period of time, 
existed oetween the Territory of Michigan and the State of Ohio relative to 
their boundaries, will, it is hoped, prompt the speedy action of Congress on 
this existing subject. Confidently relying upon the wisdom of the general 
government, and its willingness to take such means as will settle this ques- 
tion, the people of Wisconsin will peaceably submit to an extension of the 
northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, if so be that Congress 
shall ordain it; but until such action, they will resist to the utmost extrem- 
ity any attempt made by the State of Missouri to extend her jurisdiction 
over any disputed territory. 

We, therefore, pray that Congress will appoint commissioners, whose duty 
it shall be to run the line between the State of Missouri and the Territory 
of Wisconsin according to the spirit and intention of the act defining the 
boundary lines of the State of Missouri, and to adopt such other measures 
as in their wisdom they shall deem fit and proper. 


To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of a general convention of delegates, from the respective 
counties in the Territory of Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, con- 
vened at the capitol at Turlington, in said Territory, November 6, 1837, 
respectfully represents: 

That the citizens of that part of the Territory west of the Mississippi river, 
taking into consideration their remote and isolated position, and the vast 
extent of country included within the limits of the present Territory, and 
the utter impracticability of the same being governed as an entire whole, by 
the wisest and best administration of our municipal affairs, in such manner 
as to fully secure individual right and the right of property, as well as to 
maintain domestic tranquility," and the good order of society, have by their 
respective representatives, convened in general convention as aforesaid, for 
availing themselves of their right of petition as free citizens, by representing 
their situation, and wishe's to your honorable body, and asking for the organ- 
ization of a separate Territorial government over that part of the Territory 
west of the Mississippi river. 

Without in the least designing to question the official conduct of those in 
whose hands the fate of our infant Territory has been confided, and in whose 
patriotism and wisdom we have the utmost confidence, your memorialists 
cannot refrain from the frank expression of their belief that, taking into 
consideration the geographical extent of her country, in connection with the 
probable population of Western Wisconsin, perhaps no Territory of the 


United States has been so much neglected bv the parent government, so illy 
protected in the political and individual rights of her citizens. 

Western Wisconsin came into the possession of our government in June, 
1833. Settlements were made, and crops grown, during the same season; 
and even then, at that early day, was the impulse given to the mighty throng 
of emigration that has subsequently filled our lovely and desirable country 
with people, intelligence, wealth and enterprise. From that period until the 
present, being a little over four years, what has been the Territory of West- 
ern Wisconsin? Literally and practically a large portion of the time with- 
out a government. With a population of thousands, she has remained 
ungoverned, and has been quietly left by the parent government to take care 
of herself, without the privilege *on the one hand to provide a government of 
her own, and without any existing authority on the other to govern her. 

From June, 1833, until June, 1834, a period of one year, there was not 
even the shadow of government or law in all Western Wisconsin. In June, 
1334, Congress attached her to the then existing Territory of Michigan, of 
which Territory she nominally continued a part, until July, 1836, a period 
of little more than two years. During the whole of this time, the whole 
country west, sufficient of itself for a respectable State, was included in two 
counties, Dubuque and Des Moines. In each of these two counties there 
were holden, during the said term of two years, two terms of a countv court 
(a court of inferior jurisdiction), as the only sources of judicial relief up to 
the passage of the act of Congress creating the Territory of Wisconsin. That 
act took effect on the third day of July, 1836, and the first judicial relief 
afforded under that act, was at the April term following, 1837, a period of 
nine months after its passage; subsequently to which time there has been a 
court holden in one solitary county in Western Wisconsin only. This, your 
memorialists are aware, has recently been owing to the unfortunate disposi- 
tion of the esteemed and meritorious judge of our district; but they are 
equally aware of the fact, that had Western Wisconsin existed under a sep- 
arate organization, we should have found relief in the services of other mem- 
bers of the judiciary, who are at present, in consequence of the great extent 
of our Territory, and the small number of judges dispersed at two great a 
distance, and too constantly engaged in the discharge of the duties of their 
own district, to be enabled to afford relief to other portions of the Territory. 
Thus, with a population of not less than twenty-five thousand now, and of 
near half that number at the organization of the Territory, it will appear 
that we have existed as a portion of an organized Territory, for sixteen., 
months, with but one term of courts only. 

Tour memorialists look upon those evils as growing exclusively out of the 
immense extent of country included within • the present boundaries of the 
Territory, and express their conviction and belief, that nothing would so 
effectually remedy the evil as the organization of Western Wisconsin into a 
separate territorial government. To this your memorialists conceive them- 
selves entitled by principles of moral right — by the same obligation that 
- rests upon their present government, to protect them in the free enjoyment 
of their rights, until such time as they shall be permitted to provide protec- 
tion for themselves ; as well as from the uniform practice and policy of the 
government in relation to other Territories. 

The Territory of Indiana, including the present States of Indiana, Illinois, 
and Michigan, and also much of the eastern portion of the present Territory 
of Wisconsin, was placed under one separate territorial government in the year 


1800, at a time that the population amounted to only five thousand six hun- 
dred and forty, or thereabouts. 

The Territory of Arkansas was erected into a distinct Territory, in 1820, 
with a population of about fourteen thousand. The Territory of Illinois was 
established in 1809, being formed by dividing the Indiana Territory. The 
exact population of Illinois Territory, at the time of her separation from In- 
diana, is not known to your memorialists, but her population in 1812, one 
year subsequent to that event, amounted to but eleven thousand five hun- 
dred and one whites, and a few blacks — in all, to less than twelve thousand 

The Territory of Michigan was formed in 1805, by again dividing the 
Indiana Territory, of which, until then, she composed a part. The popula- 
tion of Michigan, at the time of her separation from Indiana, your memo- 
rialists have been unable to ascertain, but in 1810, a period of five years sub- 
sequent to her separate organization, her population amounted to but about 
four thousand seven hundred and sixty; and in the year 1820, to less than 
nine thousand — so that Michigan existed some fifteen years, as a distinct 
Territory, with a population of less than half of Western Wisconsin at pres- 
ent; and each of the above named Territories, now composing so many 
proud and flourishing States, were created into separate territorial govern- 
ments, with a much less population than that of Western Wisconsin, and 
that too at a time when the parent government was burdened with a 
national debt of millions. Your memorialists therefore pray for the organ- 
ization of a separate territorial government over that part of the Territory of 
Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. 


Territorial Organization — Members of First Legislative Assembly — Its Presiding Officers — 
Important Acts — The Great Seal of the Territory — Provision for Locating Seat of Gov- 
ernment — Some Prominent Members — The Boundary Dispute — Its Settement — Delegate 
to Congress — Territorial Governors — Death of Wm. B. Conway — Various Incorporations. 

Congress considered the prayer of the memorial favorably, and " An Act 
to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to establish the Territorial govern- 
ment of Iowa," was approved June 12, 1838, to take effect and be in force 
on and after July 3, 1838. The new Territory embraced "all that part of 
the present Territory of Wisconsin which lies west of the Mississippi River, 
and west of a line drawn due north from the head water or sources of the 
Mississippi to the territorial line." The organic act provided for a Governor 
whose term of office should be three years, and for a Secretary, Chief Jus- 
tice, two Associate Justices, and Attorney and Marshal, who should serve 
four years, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. The act also provided for the election, by the white 
male inhabitants, citizens of the United States, over twenty-one years of 
age, of a House of Representatives, consisting of twenty-six members, and 
a Council, to consist of thirteen members. It also appropriated $5,000 for a 
public library, and $20,000 for the erection of public buildings. President 
van Buren appointed Ex-Governor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be the first 
Governor of the new Territory. William B. Conway, of Pittsburg, was 
appointed Secretary of the Territory; Charles Mason, of Burlington, Chief 
Justice; and Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of 
Pennsylvania, Associate Judges of the Supreme and District Courts; Mr. 
Van Allen, of New York, Attorney; Francis Gehon, of Dubuque, Marshal; 



Atigustus C. Dodge, Eegister of the Land Office at Burlington, and Thom- 
as McKnight, Eeceiver of the Land Office at Dubuque. Mr. Yan Al- 
len, the District Attorney, died at Rockingham, soon after his appointment, 
and Col. Charles Weston was appointed to fill his vacancy. Mr. Conway, 
the Secretary, also died at Burlington, during the second session of the 
Legislature, and James Clarke, editor of the Gazette, was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. Immediately after his arrival, Governor Lucas issued a procla- 
mation for the election of members of the first Territorial Legislature, to be 
held on the 10th of September, dividing the Territory into election districts 
for thatpurpose, and appointing the 12th day of November for the meeting 
of the Legislature to be elected, at Burlington. 

The following were the names, county of residence, nativity, age, and 
occupation, of the members of that first Territorial Legislature: 





Van Buren. 



tt it 



Des Moines. 



ii i« 




New York. 


Des Moines. 




















New York. 



E. A. M. Swarzy 

J.Kieth , 

A- Ingram 

Robert Ralston 

C. Whittlesey 

George Hepner , 

Jesse B. Browne 

Jesse D. Payne 

L. B. Hughes 

J. W.Parker 

Stephen Hempstead. 

Warner Lewis 







Farmer. . 

Formerly in U.S.A. 









Wm. H. Wallace 

Wm.G. Coop.... 


La.urel Summers. . 

Jabez Burchard . . 

James Brierly. . . . 

Wm. Patterson. . . 

H. Taylor 

Harden Nowlin. . . 

Andrew Bankston. 

Thomas Cox 

C. Swan 

C. J. Price 

J. W. Grimes .... 
George Temple. .. 
George H. Beeler. 
V. B. Delashmutt. 

Thomas Blair 

James Hall 

Samuel Parker . . . 


Levi Thornton.... 
Wm. L. Toole. . . . 
Robert G. Roberts 
John Frierson. . . . 
S. C. Hastings .... 









Des Moines, 

Van Buren, 













N. C. 


New York, 

N. C. 

N. H. 

N. H 











New York. 




























Jesse B. Browne, of Lee county, was elected president of the council. He 
had been an officer in the regular army, was a gentleman of dignified 
appearance and commanding stature, being six feet and seven inches in 
height. "William H. Wallace, of Henry county, was elected speaker of the 
House. Some years after he held the position of receiver at the United 
States land office located at Fairfield. He subsequently removed to Wash- 
ington Territory, and at one time served as a delegate in Congress from 
that Territory. 

Among the acts passed were those for organizing the counties of Linn, 
Jefferson and Jones; for changing the name of Slaughter county to Wash- 
ington ; providing for the election in each county of a board of commission- 
ers, to consist of three persons, to attend to all county business, and acts 
, providing for the location of the capital and the penitentiary. The Terri- 
tory was divided into three judicial districts, in each county of which court 
was to be held twice a year. The counties of Lee, Yan Buren, Henry and 
Des Moines constituted the first district, to which Charles Mason, of Bur- 
lington, was assigned as judge. The counties of Louisa, Washington, John- 
son, Cedar and Muscatine constituted the second district, with Joseph 
Williams, of Muscatine, as judge. The counties of Jackson, Dubuque, 
Scott and Clayton constituted the third district, with Thomas S. Wilson, of 
Dubuque, as judge. 

Among the proceedings was the passage of a resolution by the council, 
instructing Wm. B. Conway, the secretary of the Territory, to procure 
a seal. In compliance with this instruction, on the 23d of November, 
Mr. Conway submitted to the inspection of the council what became the 
"great seal of the Territory of Iowa." The design was that of an eagle 
bearingin its beak an Indian arrow, and clutching in its talons an unstrung 
bow. The seal was one inch and five-eighths in diameter, and was engraved 
by William Wagner, of York, Pennsylvania. The council passed a resolu- 
tion adopting the seal submitted by the secretary, but it does not appear 
that it was adopted by the other branch of the legislature. In his communi- 
cation to the council presenting the seal, Mr. Conway calls it the " great 
seal of the Territory of Iowa," but the word "great "aid not appear upon 
it. This old territorial seal appears to have been lost in the removal from 
Iowa City to Des Moines. 

Under the act passed for the location of the capital, Chauncey Swan, of 
Dubuque county, John Ronalds, of Louisa county, and Robert Ralston, of 
Des Moines county, were appointed commissioners, and were required to 
meet at the town of Napoleon, in Johnson county, on the first Monday of 
May, 1839, and proceed to locate the seat of government at the most suit- 
able point in that county. They proceeded at that time to discharge the duties 
of their trust, and procured the title to six hundred and forty acres. They 
had it surveyed into lots, and agreed upon a plan for a capitol, selecting one 
of their number, Chauncey Swan, to superintend the work of erecting the 
building. The site selected was about two miles northwest of what was 
then the town of Napoleon, a place which now is not known as a town. 
The new town was named Iowa City, and the first sale of lots took place 
August 16, 1839. In November, 1839, the second Territorial Legislature 
assembled in Burlington, and passed an act requiring the commissioners to 
adopt a plan for a building, not to exceed in cost $51,000. On the 4th day 
of July, 1840, the corner stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies, Sam- 


ael 0. Trowbridge acting as marshal of the day, and Governor Robert Lucas 
as orator. 

This first legislative body which enacted laws for the government of the 
new Territory of Iowa held its sessions in the then unfinished Methodist 
church in Burlington, the lower story or basement being built of stone, and 
the upper story of brick. It was known in later years as " Old Zion." Of 
the members of that legislature several afterward held prominent official 
positions in the State. Two of them, Stephen Hempstead, of Dubuque, 
and James "W. Grimes, of Burlington, held the office of Governor. The 
latter also became prominent in the United States Senate, and in the 
National Cabinet. 

"William G. Coop continued to be returned as a member of one or the other 
branch of almost every General Assembly, up to the changeof parties in 
the election of James W . Grimes, as Governor. His later legislative career 
was as a member of the State Senate from Jefferson county. He was the 
Democratic candidate in that county against James F. "Wilson in 1856, for 
member of the constitutional convention, but was defeated bythe latter. He 
was a man of strong party attachments, being a Democrat in the strictest 
sense, but was faithful to his constituents, and honest in his discharge of duty. 
We recognize other names that were familiar in the subsequent history of the 
Territory or State, and among them, the following: Asbury B. Porter, who 
became the first colonel of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry during the Rebellion; 
Hawkins Taylor, of Lee county, who, during later years, has resided most 
of the time in "Washington City; "Warner Lewis, of Dubuque, who afterward 
held the position of Surveyor General for Iowa and "Wisconsin ; "William L. 
Toole, of Louisa county, after whom the town of Toolesboro in that county 
was named ; Laurel Summers, of Scott county, and others. In the organi- 
zation of this first Territorial Legislature party ties do not seem to have 
been very strictly drawn, for General Browne, who was chosen president of 
the council without opposition, and Colonel "Wallace, who was elected 
speaker of the house, with but little opposition, were both "Whigs, while 
both branches of the legislature were largely Democratic. Party lines were 
not tightly drawn until the campaign of 1840, when the young Territory 
caught the enthusiasm which characterized that contest throughout the 


One of the exciting questions with which the Territory of Iowa had to deal 
was that in relation to the southern boundary. The constitution of Missouri 
in defining the boundaries of that State had defined her northern boundary to 
be the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the Des Momes 
river. In the Mississippi river, a little above the mouth of the Des Moines 
river, are the rapids, which had been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or the 
Rapids of the Des Moines river. Just below the town of Keosauqua, in Van 
Buren county, there are rapids (though very slight and inconsiderable) also 
in the Des Moines river. The Missouri authorities claimed that the latter 
rapids were referred to in the definition of her boundary, and insisted on ex- 
ercising jurisdiction over a strip of territory some eight miles in width which 
Iowa claimed as being a part of her territory. At the first court held in Far- 
mington, Van Buren county, in April, 1837, by David Irwin, Judge of the 
Second Judicial District of Wisconsin, an indictment was found against one 
David Doose for exercising the office of constable in Van Buren county 


under authority of the State of Missouri. This, and other similar acts 
by Missouri officials, were the origin of the despute which resulted in demon- 
strations of hostilities, and very nearly precipitated a border war. Governor 
Boggs, of Missouri, called out the militia of that State to enforce its claims, 
and Governor Lucas, of Iowa, called out the militia of the Territory to main- 
tain its rights. About 1200 men were enlisted arid armed. There was no 
difficulty m raising volunteers, for the war spirit ran high. At this stage, 
however, it was considered best to send peace commissioners to Missouri 
with a view of adjusting the difficulties. Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington; 
Gen. Churchman, of Dubuque, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were ap- 
pointed and proceeded to discharge the duties of their mission. When they 
arrived they found that the county commissioners of Clarke county, Mis- 
souri, had rescinded their order for the collection of taxes in Iowa, and the 
Governor of Missouri had sent messengers to Governor Lucas with a propo- 
sition to submit an agreed case to the Supreme Court of the United States. 
This proposition was declined, but afterward both Iowa and Missouri 

Setitioned Congress to authorize a suit to settle the question. This was 
one, and the decision was adverse to the claims of Missouri. Under an 
order of the Supreme Court of the United States, William G. Miner, of 
Missouri, and Henry B. Hendershott, of Iowa, acted as commissioners to sur- 
vey and establish the boundary line. They discharged the duties assigned 
them, and peace was restored. 

In September, 1838, the election was held for delegate to Congress. 
There were four candidates in the field, to-wit: William W. Chapman 
and David Eorer, of Des Moines county; B. F. Wallace, of Henry county, 
and Peter H. Engle, of Dubuque county. William W. Chapman was elected 
by a majority of thirty-six votes over P. H. Engle. During the time that 
Iowa remained a separate Territory, from 1838 to 1846, the office of Gov- 
ernor was held successively by Kobert Lucas, John Chambers,' and James 
Clarke. Robert Lucas had been one of the early Governors of Ohio, and 
was appointed the first Governor of the Territory of Iowa by President Yan 
Buren. John Chambers had been a Representative in Congress from Ken- 
tucky, and a warm supporter of Gen. Wm, H. Harrison tor President in 
1840. After the change of the National administration he was appointed to 
succeed Governor Lucas. James Clarke had been the editor of the Gazette 
at Burlington, but at the death of Wm. B. Conway, Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, which occurred at Burlington, November 6, 1839, Mr. Clarke was ap- 
pointed his successor, and afterward succeeded John Chambers as the last 
Territorial Governor. 

The death of Wm. B. Conway, Secretary of the Territory, was an event 
which cast a gloom over the Territory. Prior to his appointment by Presi- 
dent Van Buren he had been a resident of Pittsburg, Penn. His remains 
were taken to Davenport for interment, and on the 9th of November a pub- 
lic meeting of the citizens of that place passed resolutions expressing the 
highest esteem both for his character as a citizen and as an officer of the 
Territory. His remains were taken to St. Anthony's Church where the 
solemn services for the dead were performed by Bev. Father Pelamorgues. 
On the 11th a meeting of the members of the bar of the Territory was held 
at Burlington, in which his associates in the profession also passed resolutions 
of respect for the deceased. Of this meeting Charles Mason was chairman, 
and David Rorer was appointed to present the resolutions to the Supreme 


Court of the Territory, for the purpose of having them entered on the record 
of the court. The deceased left a wife and one child. 

The first Territorial Legislature provided by law that " no action commenced 
by a single woman, who intermarries during the pending thereof, shall abate 
on account of such marriage; secured religious toleration to all; vested the 
judiciary power in a Supreme Court, District Court, Probate Court, and 
Justices of the Peace; made real estate divisible by will, and intestate prop- 
erty to be divided equitably among heirs ; made murder punishable by death, 
and provided proportionate penalties for other crimes; established a system 
of free schools, open to all classes of white children; provided for a system* 
of roads and highways; enacted a law to prevent and punish gambling, and 
in fact enacted a pretty complete code of laws, many of which still remain in 

Among the various institutions and associations incorporated were the fol-< 
lowing: The Wapello Seminary, in Louisa county; the Bloomington and 
Cedar River Canal Company; the Des Moines Mill Company, in Van Buren 
county; the Burlington Steam Mill Company; seminaries of learning in Fort 
Madison, West Point, Burlington, Augusta, Farmington, Bentonsport, 
Rockingham, Keosauqua, Dubuque, and Davenport; the Burlington and 
Iowa River Turnpike Company; the Burlington and Des Moines Transpor- 
tation Company; the Keosauqua Lyceum, and the Iowa Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company at Burlington. 


First Constitution— Proposed Boundaries— Changed by Congress — Rejection of Constitution 
by the People — Congress Repeals its former Provision as to Boundaries and Fixes the 
Present Limits— The Second Constitution— Its Adoption by the People— Election of State 
Offiers— First General Assembly— Seat of Government— Monroe City— Fort Des Moines-^ 
Final Permanent Location — Removal — Third Constitutional Convention— New Capitol- 
Case of Attempted Bribery in First General Assembly. 

By the year 1844 the population of the Territory had reached 75,152, and 
the people began to desire a State organization. In October of that yeara 
constitutional convention Was held at Iowa City, which formed a constitution 
defining the boundaries of the State as follows: 

"Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, 
opposite the mouth of the Des Moines river; thence up the said river Des 
"Moines in the middle of the main channel thereof, to a point where it is in- 
tersected by the Old Indian Boundary Line, or line run by John C. Sullivan 
in the year 1816; thence westwardly along said line to the 'Old northwest 
corner of Missouri'; thence due west to the middle of the main channel of 
the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the river 
last mentioned to the mouth of the Sioux or Calumet river; thence in a 
direct line to the middle of the main channel of the St. Peter's river, where 
the Watonwan river (according to Nicollet's map) enters the same; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said river to the middle of the main 
channel of the Mississippi river; thence down the middle of the main chan- 
nel of said river to the place of beginning." 

_ On the 3d of March, 1845, Congress passed an act providing for the admis-' 
sion of the State into the Union, but with boundaries different from those 
defined in the proposed constitution. By this act the State was to extend 
north to the parallel passing through Mankato, or Blue Earth river, in the 


present State of Minnesota, and west to the meridian of 17 deg. 30 min. west 
from Washington. These boundaries would have deprived the State of the 
Missouri Slope and of one of the grand rivers by which it is now bounded 
while in shape it would have been long and comparatively narrow. As a 
result, at an election held August 4, 1845, the people of the Territory rejected 
the constitution with the change of boundaries as proposed by Congress. 
The vote stood 7,235 for, and 7,656 against it, being a majority of 421 against 
the adoption. On the 4th of August, 1846, Congress passed an act repealing 
so much of the act of March, 3, 1845, as related to the boundaries of Iowa, and 
fixing the boundaries as now defined. On the 4th of May of that year a sec- 
ond constitutional convention had convened at Iowa Cify, and after a session 
of fifteen days formed the constitution which was sanctioned by the people 
at an election held August 3, 1846. The popular vote stood 9,492 for, and 
9,036 against the constitution at this election, being a majority of 456 in favor 
of it. A copy of this constitution was presented in Congress, and on the 
28th of December, 1846, an act was passed and approved for the admission 
of the State of Iowa into the Union. 

On the 26th of October, 1846, an election had been held for State officers, 
when the following were elected: Ansel Briggs, Governor; Elisha Cutler, 
Jr., Secretary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor, and Morgan Reno, Treas- 
urer. At this time there were twenty-seven organized counties with a popu- 
lation, according to the census, of 96,088. 

The first General Assembly under the State organization, convened at 
Iowa City, November 30, 1846. Thomas Baker was elected President of 
the Senate, and Jesse B. Browne, Speaker of the House of Kepresentatives. 
As the latter had been President of the first Territorial Council, so he was 
the first Speaker of the House when Iowa became a State. 

. The capitol building at Iowa City being at this time still in an unfinished 
condition, an appropriation of $5,500 was made to complete it. The boun- 
dary being so much extended west of the limits of the Territory when the 
capital was located at Iowa City, the question of removal and permanent loca- 
tion at some point further west began to be agitated, and the first General 
Assembly appointed commissioners to locate the seat of government, and to 
select five sections of land which had been granted by Congress for the erec- 
tion of public buildings. The commissioners in discharge of their duties 
selected the land in Jasper county, lying between the present towns of 
Prairie City and Monroe. The commissioners also surveyed and platted a 
town, to which they gave the name of Monroe City. Four hundred and fif- • 
teen lots were sold, the cash payments yielding $1,797.43, being one-fourth 
of the price for which they sold. When the commissioners made their re- 
port to the next General Assembly, it was observed that their claim for 
services and expenses exceeded the cash received by $409.14. The report 
was referred to a committee without instructions, but the location was never 
sanctioned by the General Assembly. The money paid by purchasers was 
mostly refunded. Meantime the question of re-location continued to be 
agitated at each session. In 1851 bills were introduced in the House for 
removal to Pella and Fort Des Moines, but both of them failed to pass. At 
the next session a bill was introduced in the Senate for removal to Fort Des 
Moines, which was also defeated on a final vote. In January, 1855, the ef- 
fort proved successful, and on the 15th of that month the Governor ap- 
proved the bill re-locating the seat of government within two miles of the 
Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, and providing for the appointment of com- 


missioners for that purpose. Under this act the commissioners made selec- 
tion of the present site. A temporary building was erected by an associa- 
tion of citizens of Des Moines, or Fort Des Moines, as it was then called. 
On the 19th of October, 1857, Governor Grimes, having been advised that 
the building was completed and ready for occupancy, issued a proclamation 
declaring the city of Des Moines the capital of Iowa. The officers with 
the archives of the State removed during the fall and winter, and on the 
11th day of January, 1858, the Seventh General Assembly convened at Des 

Moines. . 

Meantime a third constitutional convention hM been called to Irame a 
new State constitution. It convened at Iowa City, January, 19, 1857, and 
adjourned March 5th of the same year. Francis Springer, of Louisa county, 
was chosen President. The constitution as adopted by this convention was 
approved by the people at an election held August 3d of the same year, the 
vote being 40,311 for, and 38, 681 against it. It took effect by proclamation 
of the Governor, September 3, 1857. In this constitution the location of 
the seat of government at Des Moines was made a part of the fundamental 
law. In 1868 an amendment was made to this constitution, striking the 
word " white " from the clause defining the qualification of electors. The 
whole vote cast by the people on this amendment was 186,503, with a ma- 
jority in favor of striking out, of 24,265. 

The first capitol building erected in Des Moines being inadequate for the 
growing wants of the State, being too small and not sufficiently safe, an act 
was passed and approved April 13, 1870, providing for the erection of a 
new one. The following were constituted a Board of Commissioners to 
have charge of the erection: Grenville M. Dodge, of Pottawattamie county; 
James F. "Wilson, of Jefferson county; James Dawson, of "Washington 
county; Simon G. Stein, of Muscatine county; James O. Crosby, of Clay- 
ton county; Charles Dudley, of "Wapello county; John N. Dewey, of Polk 
county, and William L. Joy, of "Woodbury county. The Governor was 
also constituted a member of the Board, and President ex-officio. A. K. 
Fulton was elected Secretary of the Board. It was provided in the act that 
the plan to be selected should not be for a building exceeding in cost $1,500- 
000, and the sum of $150,000 was appropriated to commence the work. 
In the fall of 1870 excavation for the foundation was commenced, t 
and on the 23d of November of the next year, the ceremony of 
laying the corner stone took place. Gen. N. B. Baker was chief marshal 
of the day, and Governor Samuel Merrill delivered an appropriate address. 

The Board of commissioners experienced many difficulties in finding 
stone, especially within the limits of the State, that had been sufficiently 
tested for a building of such magnitude. The law required them to give 
preference to material obtained in the State, price and quality being equal, 
and they desired to comply with the spirit of the law. As a result, how- 
ever, some material was placed in the foundation, which being exposed, dur- 
ing the next winter, was affected by the weather, and the next season it was 
neccessary to remove a portion of the foundation, involving a large addi- 
tional expense. 

The Fourteenth General Assembly convened in January, 1872, and in 
March a joint committee was authorized to examine and report upon the 
character of the material used. They reported that unfit material had been 
placed in the foundation, and recommended its removal. An act was 
passed at this session appropriating $100,000 for the work in 1872, and 


$125,000 to be used annually thereafter for the prosecution of the work, 
but the whole cost not to exceed the limit of $1,380,000. The Board were 
required, however, to direct all' their action with a view to the completion 
of the building for $1,500,000. The same act placed the work in charge 
of a Board of commissioners consisting of five members, including the . 
Governor, who was also to be President, ex-oMcio. The following were con- 
stituted the members of the new Board: John G. Foote, of Des Moines 
county; Maturin L. Fisher, of Clayton county; Robert S. Finkbine, and 
Peter A. Dey, of Johnson county, and the Governor, as above stated. Ed. 
"Wright was appointed Secretary by the Board. This Board proceeded with 
the work in accordance with the general plan adopted by the former Board, 
• and when completed Iowa will have one of the finest and most substantial 
capitol buildings in the Union. 

Having presented a brief review of the legislation in regard to seat of gov- 
ernment, which, as we have seen, was inaugurated by the first General As- 
sembly, we return to that session. The contest between the two political 
parties for ascendency was at that time a very earnest one, and especially in 
view of the election of U. S. Senators. The two political parties in the 
legislature were nearly equally divided. The friends of the several candidates 
were present at the opening of the session to take part in the lobby branch, 
in behalf of their respective favorites. Keokuk county was represented in 
the House by Nelson King, a Whig, although his county at that time was 
regarded as "Democratic. * Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, was the prom- 
inent Democratic candidate for Senator, and the name of J.. C. Hall, also 
"of Burlington, was likewise favorably mentioned. On the afternoon of 
December 9th, Mr. King, of Keokuk county, by consent of the House, rose 
in his place and made a statement to the following effect: That since he had 
presented his credentials, and taken his seat as a member, he had been ap- 
proached by several different persons relative to the casting of his vote tor 
United States Senators; that several distinct propositions for the payment of 
money and other reward had been offered him, if he would vote for certain 
candidates, or either of them, as might be determined upon, which deter- * 
mination was to be made known to him previoiis to casting his vote for 
United States Senator; and that the said parties offering thus to reward him 
A 'fbr his vote, had promised to secure him from all blame or suspicion, by 
procuring written instructions from his constituents, urging him so to vote. 
He further stated that one Marshall had the day previously given him a five 
dollar note on the State Bank of Ohio, and told him to call on him at any 
future time, and he would give him one hundred dollars, or any amount he 
wanted. He said that Marshall had also surrendered to him two receipts 
for indebtedness — one for »legal service while he (King) had resided in Lee 
county, and the other in discharge of a claim of two dollars and fifty cents, 
held against him by one William Stotts. Mr. King having concluded his 
statement, Mr. Stewart Goodrell, then a member of the House from Wash- 
ington county, moved the appointment of a committee of five to investigate 
the charges made by Mr. King. The committee was subsequently increased 
to seven, as follows: W. J. Cochran, of Lee county; Stewart Goodrell, of 
Washington county; Alfred Hebard, of Des Moines county; Andrew 
Leech, of Davis county; Samuel Whitmore of Jefferson county; John L. 
Morton, of Henry county, and Robert Smyth, of Linn county. The com- 
mittee commenced their investigations on the same day that Mr. King made 
his statement. Marshall was arrested, and various witnesses were com- 



manded to appear before the committee to give evidence in the case, and the 
investigation which was commenced on the 9th of December, 1846, appears 
not to have ended until the 19th of January, 1847. Not until the 4th of 
February was any report made to the House, and then it did not show that 
the committee had arrived at any conclusions. The report and testimony 
were ordered to be laid on the table, subject to the further order of the 
House. The report was never called up. On the same day that Mr. King 
made his original statement to the House of the attempted bribery, a resolu- 
tion tendering him a vote of thanks, was laid on the table. Near the close of 
the session (Feb. 24) this resolution was called up, and a substitute offered for 
it by Mr. Smyth, of Linn, censuring both King and Marshall. The original 
resolution and the substitute were both laid on the table, and that was the 
end of the bribery case, which excited a great deal of interest among the pol- 
iticians and people of the State at that early day in her political history. It 
should be stated that Mr. Marshall was not a member of either branch' of 
the General Assembly. The developments on investigation were generally 
understood at the time to be quite as damaging to the party making the 
charge as to any other person. The legislature adjourned without electing 
United States Senators at that session. The next General Assembly elected 
George ~W. Jones, of Dubuque, and Augustus C. Dodge, of Burlington. A 
Clinton Hastings, and Shepherd Leffler, represented the State in the 29th 
Congress, 1846 to 1847, being the first Representatives in Congress from 


Public Schools — How Supported — State University — Its Presidents — Faculty — University 
Fund — Agricultural College — State Normal School — Other State Educational Institutions 
— Public and Private Colleges and Schools. 


We have seen that the first territorial legislature made provision for gen- 
eral education by organizing a system of common schools. The famous or- 
dinance of 1787 required that " schools and the means of education shall be 
forever encouraged," and this has been the policy of the government in the 
admission of every new State since that time, as evinced by the liberal 
grants of the public lands for educational purposes. 

The public schools are supported by funds arising from several different 
sources. In the first place, the sixteenth section of every congressional town- 
ship was set apart by the government for school purposes being one thirty- 
sieeth part of all the land in the State. Congress also made to the State an 
additional donation of 500,000 acres, and an appropriation of five per cent 
on all the sales of public lands in the State. The State also gives the pro- 
ceeds of the sales of all lands which escheat to it. The money derived from 
these sources constitutes the permanent school fund, and, including the 
proceeds of the land still unsold, will amount to over four millions of dol- 
lars. The interest on this fund is apportioned by the State Auditor semi- 
annually to the several counties of the State, in proportion to the number 
of persons between the ages of five and twenty-one years. The counties also 
levy an annual tax for school purposes, which is apportioned to the several 
district townships in the same way. A district tax is also generally levied 
for the same purpose. The money arising from these several sources consti- 


tutes the support of the public schools, and is sufficient to enable every sub- 
district in the State to afford from six to nine months school each year. 

While Iowa is fostering and building up many excellent institutions of a 
higher order, the glory of her educational work consists in her admirable 
system of common schools — her peoples' colleges. The superintendent of 
public instruction is the highest school officer of the State, and exercises a 
general supervision over its educational interests, so far as relates to the pub- 
lic schools. Each county has a county superintendent, who examines appli- 
cants for teachers' certificates, visits the schools, reports annually to the State 
Superintendent, and exercises a general charge over the schools of the county. 
Each civil township constitutes what is called a district township, which is 
divided into sub-districts, and each sub-district elects a sub-director. The 
several sub-directors in the district township constitute a board of directors. 
In towns and cities there are independent districts, which elect officers to 
manage their affairs independently of the district townships. 

The common school system has recently been greatly improved by the in- 
auguration of normal institutes, under the auspices of the superintendent 
of public instruction, and also by the establishment of a permanent State 
normal school at Cedar Falls. The total permanent school fund, November 
1, 1877, was $3,460,348.76. This is being augmented from different sources, 
and the interest only is applied toward the support of the common schools. 


By an act of Congress of July 20, 1840, the secretary of the treasury was 
authorized to set apart and reserve from sale not exceeding two entire town- 
ships of land in Iowa, for the use and support of a university. The consti- 
tution under which Iowa was admitted into the Union contained a provision 
requiring the General Assembly to take measures for the protection, im- 
provement, or other disposition of the land granted by Congress for the 
university, and to create from the proceeds of the same a permanent fund 
for the use of a university. A bill was passed by the first General Assembly, 
establishing at Iowa City an institution to be called the " State University," 
with such branches as, in the opinion of the General Assembly, the public 
convenience might thereafter require. The same act also granted for the 
use of the university the public building, with ten acres of ground, at Iowa 
City, the same to be used, nowever, for the purposes of the State government 
until the removal of the capital. By acts of January 15, 1849," and January 
16, 1849, two branches of the university, located respectively at Fairfield 
and Dubuque, were established, and placed upon equal footing, " in respect 
to funds and other matters," with the university established at Iowa City by 
the act of 1847. The branch at Fairfield was organized May 6, 1849. A 
site of twenty acres of ground was purchased and a building erected, upon 
which twenty-five hundred dollars had been expended. The building was 
almost destroyed by a hurricane in 1851. No aid from the State or the 
University fund was ever given in support of the branches. The board at 
Fairfield requested the termination of its relation to the State, and, in ac- 
cordance with this request, an act was passed January 24, 1853, severing the 
connection. The branch at Dubuque was never organized. The new con- 
stitution, which took effect September 3, 1857, provided that " the State 
University shall be established at one place, without branches at any other 
place, and the university fund shall be applied to that institution and no 


At a special meeting of the board, February 21, 1 850, it recognized the 
"College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Upper Mississippi," an institu- 
tion at Davenport established under the laws of the State as the " College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of the State University of Iowa," but with 'the 
express stipulation that such recognition should not render the university 
liable for any pecuniary aid, nor was the board tp acquire any control over 
the property or management of the medical association. Soon after this the 
medical college removed to Keokuk. This arrangement was terminated, by 
the operation of the new constitution. 

In March, 1855, the University was partially opened for a term of sixteen 
weeks, and there was an attendance of from seventy-five to one hundred 
students during the term. The first regular catalogue was published for the 
year 185d-7. At a meeting of the board, August 4, 1858, the degree of 
Bachelor of Science was conferred upon Dexter Edson Smith, being the first 
degree conferred upon a student of the University. .->■ 

- From 1860 to 1877, inclusive, the total number of ladies in the collegiate 
department was 2,994, and gentlemen 3,941; total number of ladies in the 
law department since its organization, 6, and gentlemen, 632 ; total number 
of ladies in the medical department since its organization 48, and gentlemen 

The presidents since its organization have been: 

Amos Dean, of Albany, N. Y., elected July 16, 1855. 

Silas Totten, D. D., LL.D., elected Oct. 25, 1859. 

Professor Oliver M. Spencer, elected August 19, 1862. 

Professor Nathan E. Leonard, elected June 26, 1866, as president pro 
tern., during absence of President Spencer in Europe fifteen months by leave 
of the board. 

James Black, D.D., elected March 4, 1868. 

Eev. George Thacher, elected March 1, 1871. 

C "W. Slagle, of Fairfield, elected president pro tern., June, 1877. 

J. L. Pickard, elected in 1878. 

The faculty of the University consists of the president, nine professors in 
the collegiate department, one professor and six instructors in military sci- 
ence; chancellor, three professors and four lecturers in the law department; 
eight" professor demonstrators of anatomy; professor of surgery and two 
lecturers in the medical department, and two professors in the homeopathic 
medical department. « 

The law department was established in June, 1868 ; the medical depart- 
ment in 1869; the chair of miltary instruction in June, 1874, and the depart- 
ment of homeopathy in 1876. 

From 1858 to 1876, inclusive, the General Assembly has made appropria- 
tions for buildings, and for the support of the University, sums aggregating 
$264,757. The Seventeenth General Assembly, by an act approved March 
22, 1878, made an appropriation, as an endowment fund, of $20,000 annually, 
and an additional appropriation of $10,000 for repairs of buildings, fences, 
walks and other purposes. On the 30th of September, the University held 
interest bearing mortgage notes amounting to $195,423.13; contract notes 
amounting to $10,357,74, and a fund known as the Saline fund, amounting 
to $4,106.85. These amounts, aggregating $209,887.72, constitute a per- 
manent fund, the interest of which goes to the support of the University. 
There were also, September 30, 1877, remaining unsold, 2,059.70 acres of 
University lands, and 3887.10 acres of Saline lan'Ss, making a total of 5,946.80 


acres, the proceeds of which when sold, will go to increase the permanent 
University fund. At five dollars per acre these lands will add to the perma^ 
nent fund $29,734, which amount added to the above will give to the Uni- 
versity a permanent endowment fund of $239,621.72. 


By an act of Congress passed in 1862, a grant of 240,000 acres of land 
was made to the State for the endowment of schools of agriculture and the 
mechanical arts. Under this act 240,000.96 acres were appropriated to the 
State; but as 35,691.66 acres were located within railroad limits, which were 
computed at the rate of two acres for one, the actual number of acres in the 
grant was 204,309.30. In addition to this grant Congress also gave its 
assent to the State to use for the same purpose the five sections of land in 
jasper county, which had been selected for the seat of government of the 
State. There were also donated in Story and Boone counties for the use of 
the institution 921 acres, making a grand total of 208,430.30 acres. This 
last donation of 921 acres was made by citizens of Story and Boone counties: 
■ The General Assembly passed an act which was approved March 22, 1858, 
establishing the Iowa Agricultural .College and Model Farm. Under this 
act a board of trustees was appointed, which at a meeting in June, 1859, 
received propositions for the location, and in July the offer of the present 
location in Story county, was accepted. In 1864 the General Assembly api 
propriated $20,000 for the erection of a College building, and in 1866 
an additional appropriation of $91,000 was made. The building was com- 
pleted in 1868. An office was opened in Fort Dodge for the sale of the Col- 
lege lands, and Hon. George W. Bassett was appointed agent for their sale. 
From the establishment of this agency in August; 1865, to November 1 1; 
1867, the amount received on sales of lands was $68,782.81, and the amount 
of interest collected on leases for the same time was $338,931.78, making a 
total of $406,714-65, which is a permanent endowment fund. 

The courses of study in the College, as revised in 1877, are as follows: 
1 — The Course in Science as related to Agriculture. 2 — The Course in 
Mechanical Engineering. 3 — The. Course in Civil Engineering. 4 — The 
Ladies' Course in Science. 5 — Course for Juniors and Seniors in-Special 
Industrial Sciences. 6 — Post-graduate. Courses of Study. 7 — The Prepar- 
atory Course. From 1872 to 1877, inclusive, the number of graduates of 
the College was 123. 

By the terms of the law, tuition in the Agricultural College is made for- 
ever free to pupils from the State, over sixteen years of age, who have re- 
sided in the State six months prior to their admission. Each Bounty in the 
State has a prior right of tuition for three pupils-, and additional pupils to 
the extent of the capacity of the College, are distributed by the board of 
trustees among the counties in proportion to the population. 

The following constitute ' the Faculty: — A. S, Welch, LL. D., President 
and Professor of Psychology and Philosophy of Science; Gen. J: L. Geddes, 
Professor of Military Tactics and Engineering; W. H. Wynn, A. M., Ph. 
D., Professor of English Literature; C. E. Bessey, M. S., Professor of Bot- 
any, Zoology, Entomology; A. Thompson, 0. E., Mechanical Engineering 
and Superintendent of Workshops; F. E. L. BeaL B. S., Civil Engineering; 
T. E. Pope, A. M., Chemistry; M. Stalker, Agricultural and veterinary 
Science; J. L. Bttdd, Horticulture; J. K. Macomber, PhysicsvE- W. Stan- 
ton, Mathematics and Political Economy; Mrs. Margaret P. Stanton, Pre- 



eeptress, Instructor in French and Mathematics; J. S. Lee, B. S , Assistant 
Professor of Chemistry; Mrs. M. B. Welch, Instructor of the English Lan- 
guage, and Lecturer on Domestic Economy; J. C. Arthur, M. S., Librarian, 
and Demonstrator of Botany and Zoology. There are also instructors in 
Yocal and Instrumental Music. 


. The State Normal School was established by the General Assembly, at Iowa 
Falls, in 1876, and under the law the property of the Orphans' Home, at that 
place, was transferred for the use of the Normal School. The first Board ot 
Directors organized June 7th, of that year. H. C. Hemenway, was chosen 
President; J. J. Tolerton, Secretary, and E. Townsend, Treasurer. At the 
same meeting Prof. J. C. Gilchrist, A. M., was elected Principal of the 

The' following constitute the Faculty:— J. 0. Gilchrist, A. M., Professor 
of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Didactics; M. W. Bartlett, A. M., 
Professor of Languages and Natural Science; D. S. Wright, A. M., Profes- 
sor of Mathematics; Miss Frances L. Webster, Teacher of Geography and 
History; E. W. Burnham, Professor of Music. 

During the second year 105 ladies and 50 gentlemen were in attendance, 
33 counties of Iowa being represented. By an act of the General Assem- 
bly, approved March 25, 1878, the sum of $13,500 was appropriated for the 
maintenance of the school for the next biennial period of two years, By 
the same act the board of directors were empowered to charge pupils a tui- 
tion fee of not exceeding six dollars per term, if necessary, in order to prop- 
erly support the school. 


There are also in Iowa the following educational institutions: 



Des Moines . 
Fayette .... 
Fremont. . . 



Humboldt . . 



Mahaska . . . 
Mahaska . . . 
Marion .... 


Poweshiek . 







Mount Pleasant 




Mount Vernon. 






College Springs 
Des Moines.... 



Burlington University 

Upper Iowa University 

Tabor College 

Iowa Wesleyan University. 

Whittier College 

Humboldt College 

Parson's College 

Cornell College 

Western College 

Oskaloosa College 

Penn College 

Central University of Iowa. 

Baptist College 

Amity College 

University of Des Moines . . 

Iowa College 

Griswold College 

Simpson Centenary College. 
Luther College 







Allamakee . . 

Allamakee . . 

Allamakee. . 

Appanoose. . 

Appanoose. . 





Black Hawk 

Black Hawk 

Black Hawk 

Black Hawk 

Buchanan. . . 

Chickasaw . . 

Chickasaw . ■ 















Delaware. . . 

Delaware . . . 

Des Moines. 

Des Moines. 

Des Moines. 

Des Moines. 

Des Moines. 

Des Moines. 
.Des Moines. 

Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 

Dubuque — 

Dubuque . . . 

Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . 



Dubuque — 

Dubuque . . . 


Dubuque . . . 


Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . 






Lansing. . . 





West Irving. . . 







Independence . . . 


Fredericksburg. . 






Clayton Center. . 





De Witt 

Olive Township. 











Burlington ..... 














New Vienna 


Table Mound... 


SherrilTs Mount. 




Grundy Center.. 


Webster City... 

Waukon Seminary >. . 

Sisters' School 

Mrs. Houghton's School 

Moulton Normal School 

Centerville Academy 

Tilford Academy 

Irving Institute 

Blairstown Academy 

Eclectic Institute 

Conservatory of Music 

Cedar Valley Institute 

Prairie Home Seminary 

Our Lady of Victory 

Notre Dame 

Bradford Academy 

Select School 

Graded School 

Osceola Private School 

Sisters' School ■ 

Sisters' School 

Sisters' School 

German School 

Riverside Institute 

Seminary of Our Lady of Angels 

Latin School 

Business College 

Sisters' School 


Southern Iowa Normal and Scientific Institute. 

Troy Normal and Classical Institute 

Lenox Collegiate Institute 

Petersburg Catholic School 

Mr. Gordon's School for both sexes 

Kossuth Academy 

Graff's School 

Young Ladies' School 

German- American School 

German Evangelical Zion School 

First German Evangelical School 

St. John's Convent 

St. Paul's School 

St. Patrick's School 

German Theological Seminary 

St. Joseph's College 

St. Joseph's Academy 

St. Mary's School 

St. Patrick's School 

Academy of Visitation 

St. Maria, (German) 

Private Primary 

Private Boarding School 

St. Francis 

St. Boniface 

Church School 

Church School 

Church School 

St. Peters' 

Epworth Seminary 

Church School 

Jefferson Academy 

Grundy Center Academy 

Guthrie County High School 

Webster City Academy 

Catholic School < 






Henry .-. . 
Henry . . . 
Henry . . . 
Henry . . . 
Howard. . 



Jasper . . 
Jasper . . . 
Jasper . . . 
Johnson. . 
Johnson. . 
Jones.. .. 
Jones. . .. 
Keokuk. . 
Keokuk. . 



Louisa. . . 
Lucas. . . . 
Mahaska . 










Muscatine .... 






Pottawattamie . 
Pottawattamie . 
Pottawattamie . 




Van Buren 

Van Buren 




Washington . . . 


Webster -. .-. 

Winneshiek. . . . 
Winneshiek . . . . 
Woodbury . ■ . .-. 

Alden. .- 

New Providence. . . 


Mt. Pleasant 

Mt. Pleasant 

Mt. Pleasant 

New London 





Prairie ^Xty 


Pleasant Plaine... 



Iowa Gity. 

Iowa City 



Baden. * 

Coal Creek 

German Township. 


Denmark ......... 

Cedar Rapids 

Grand View 


Hopewell. . . . ' 


Rose Hill 



Le Grand 

Le Grand 






Des Moines. . . 
Des Moines. . . 
Des Moines . . . 
Mitchellville. . , 
Couneil Bluffs. 
Council Bluffs. 
Council Bluffs. 
Davenport < . . . 
Birmingham . . 
Farmington . . . 



Ackworth. .... 
Washington. . . 
Fort Dodge. . . 
Fort Dodge. . . 



Sioux Cily. ■ . ■ 

Private School 

New Providence Academy 

Eldora Academy 

Female Seminary, and Howe's Academy 

German College. , 

German Primary 


Private School 

Root's Winter School 

Catholic School 

Lynnville Seminary 

South Side Academy 

Hazel Dell Academy 

Pleasant Plaine Academy 

Fairfield Academy, and Private School 

High School ; 

McClain's Academy, and St. Joseph's Institute'. 

St. Agatha's Seminary >, 

Anamosa Academy . '. 

Olin High School 

Baden Select School 

Friends' Select School 

German 'Lutheran School 

Algona College 

Denmark Academy 

Collegiate Institute 

Eastern Iowa Normal School >. 

Chariton Academy 

Hopewell Academy 

Select School 

Select School 

Knoxville Academy 

Albion Seminary 

Le Grand Christian Institute 

Le Grand Institute 

Stanford Institute 

Private School 

Cedar Valley Seminary ; 

Wilton Seminary, and Collegiate Institute 

Sisters' School, and German School. 

Business College 

Teachers' Normal 

St. Ambrose School '. 

St. Mary's School, (German) 

Business College 

Mitchell Seminary 

St. Francis' Boys School 

St. Franeis' Girls' School 

German School. . ■. 

Margaret's, and Sisters' Academy 


St. Anthony's, and Business College. 

Birmingham Academy . 

Select School 

Convent of St. Joseph, and Commercial College. 

Female Seminary, and Pecks' Normal 

Ackworth Seminary 

Washington Academy t 

Convent of Our Lady of Lourdes » . 

German School. -. 

Decorah. Institute, and Business College... ••• 

Catholic School 

German School 



Hospitals for the Insane— College for the Blind— Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb— Or- 
phans' Homes— Asylum forTeeble-Minded Children— The Penitentiary— The Additional 
Penitentiary— State Reform School — State Historical Society. 


The General Assembly, by an act approved January 24, 1855, appropri- 
ated $4,425 to purchase a site for a Hospital for the Insane, and $50,000 for 
the erection of a building. Edward Johnston, of Lee county; Charles S. 
Clarke, of Henry county, and the Governor (Grimes), were appointed to se- 
lect the location and superintend the erection of a building. They made 
the location at Mt. Pleasant, Henry county, and adopted a plan with suffi- 
cient capacity to accommodate three hundred patients. Henry Win slow 
was appointed to superintend the erection of the building. The building 
was not ready for occupancy until March, 1861. Within the first three 
months about one hundred patients were admitted. Eichard J. Patterson; 
M. D., of Ohio, was appinted Superintendent, and in 1865 he was succeeded 
by Dr. Mark Banney. From the opening of the Hospital to the 1st of No- 
vember, 1877, there had been admitted 3,584 patients, of whom 1,141 had 
been discharged recovered, 505 improved, ,589 unimproved, and one died. 
The total number discharged was 2,976, leaving 608 under treatment. 


In 1868 a bill passed the General Assembly making an appropriation of 
$125,000 for the erection of an additional Hospital for the Insane, at Inde- 
pendence, Buchanan county. A board of commissioners was appointed* 
who commenced their duties June 8, 1868. They made the location about 
a mile from Independence, on the west side of the Wapsipinicon river, and 
about one mile from the river. The building was ready for occupancy 
April 21, 1873. On the 1st of October, 1877, the Superintendent, Albert 
Eeynolds, M. D., reported 322 patients in the hospital. 


In August, 1852, Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself blind, established an in- 
stitution at Keokuk for the instruction of the blind. In January, 1853, the 
General Assembly passed an act by which the State adopted the institution 
at Keokuk, and on the 4th of April, of the same year, it was opened for the 
reception of pupils, at Iowa City. A board of trustees was appointed, with 
authority to receive propositions and make a permanent location. Liberal 
donations were made by citizens of Yinton, Benton county, and that place 
was selected. In October, 1862, the institution was opened at Yinton with 
twenty-four pupils. Up to 1878 about $285,000 have been expended in 
buildings and improvements connected with this institution. During the 
period of two years, ending November 6, 1877, about 135 pupils were 
in attendance. The faculty is presided over by Rev. Robert Carothers, A. 
M., as Principal 




This institution was established first at Iowa City, by an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, approved January 24, 1855. W. E. Ijaras was the first 
Principal. He resigned in 1862, and the board of trustees appointed Ben- 
jamin Talbot his successor. In 1868 commissioners were appointed to re- 
locate the institution and superintend the erection of a building, and the 
sum of $125,000 was appropriated to commence the work. It was located 
about two miles south of Council Bluffs, and connected with it is a tract of 
about ninety acres of ground. The main building and one wing were com- 
pleted October 1, 1870, and immediately occupied. On the 25th of Feb- 
ruary, 1877, the main building and east wing were destroyed by fire, and 
and on the 6th of August, of the same year, the roof of the new west wing 
was blown off and the walls partially injured by a tornado. About 150. 
pupils were in attendance at the time of the fire. About half of the classes 
were dismissed, reducing the number to about seventy. The institution re- 
mains in charge of Benjamin Talbot as Superintendent. By an act of the 
General Assembly, approved March 25, 1878, the sum of $40,000 was ap- 
propriated for the purpose of rebuilding and completing in a plain and svb- 
stantial manner the main building. 


In 1866 the General Assembly passed an act establishing three Homes 
for the soldiers' orphans, as follows: located at Davenport, Cedar Falls, 
and Glenwood. This was the result of a movement inaugurated by Mrs. 
Annie "Wittenmeyer, d*ring the civil war. In October, 1863, she 
called a convention at Davenport, to devise measures for the support and 
education of the orphan children of Iowa soldiers who had fallen in the na- 
tional defense. An association was formed, and provision made for raising 
funds. A sufficient amount of funds was raised to open the Home, and 
at a meeting of the Trustees in March, 1864, they decided to commence op- 
erations at once. A large brick building in Yan Buren county was secured, 
and on the 13th of July, of the same year, the executive committee re- 
ported that they were ready to receive pupils. In little more than six 
months seventy pupils were in attendance. The Home continued to be sus- 
tained by voluntary subscriptions until 1866, when it was assumed by the 
State and' the three Homes established as above stated. In 1876 the Homes 
at Cedar Falls and Glenwood were discontinued, and the pupils remaining 
in them removed to the Home at Davenport. The buildings at Cedar Falls 
were appropriated to the use of the State Normal School, and those at Glen- 
wood to the use of the Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children. September 
30, 1877, there were in attendance at the Home in Davenport 139 sol- 
diers' orphans, and forty-one indigent children, the Sixteenth General As- 
sembly having passed an act opening the Home for the admission of in- 
digent children. 


By an act approved March 17, 1876, an Asylum for. Feeble-Minded 
Children was established at Glenwood, Mills county. The buildings and 
grounds for the Soldiers' Orphans' Home were by the same act transferred 


to the use of the new institution, which was placed under the management 
of three trustees, who held their first meeting at Glenwood, April 26, 1876. 
The property having been repaired, the Asylum was opened September 1> 
1876, and the school organized on the 6th with only five pupils. In Novem- 
ber, 1877, the number had increased to eighty-seven. 


The Territorial Legislature by an act approved January 25, 1839, provided 
for the election by joint ballot of the Council and House of Representa- 
tives of the Territory, of three directors to locate the Penitentiary within 
one mile of the public square in the town of Fort Madison, and provided 
further, limiting the cost of the Penitentiary to an amount not exceeding 
forty thousand dollars. The same act authorized the Governor to draw the 
sum of twenty thousand dollars which had been appropriated by 'Congress 
for the erection of public buildings In the Territory of Iowa, to pay for 
materials and work on the building. The location at Fort Madison, how- 
ever, was coupled with a proviso that the citizens of that place and Lee 
county should execute to the directors a deed for ten acres of ground. All 
the conditions were complied with, and the erection of the building was 
commenced July 9, 1839. The- main building and warden's house were 
completed in the autumn of 1841. Since that time additions and other im- 
provements have been made. 


The Additional Penitentiary at Anamosa was established under an act of 
the General Assembly approved April 3, 1872. Three commissioners were 
appointed to make the location and provide for the erection of the necessary 
buildings. They met at Anamosa, June 4, 1872, and made selection of a 
site donated by the citizens. Work was commenced on the building Sep- 
tember 28th of the same year, and May 13, 1873, twenty convicts were 
transferred from the Penitentiary at Fort Madison to Anamosa. The entire 
enclosure embraces fifteen acres. 


On the 31st of March, 1868, an act of the General Assembly was approved 
establishing a State Reform School near the town of Salem, Henry county. 
A board of trustees, consisting of one from each Congressional district, was 
appointed. A proposition was accepted for the lease of W bite's Iowa Man- 
ual Labor Institute at Salem, the buildings fitted up, and on the 7th of Octo- 
ber, 1868, the first inmate was received from Jasper county. In 1872, an act 
was passed and approved providing for the permanent location, and $45,000 
appropriated for erecting the necessary buildings. The permanent location 
was made at Eldora, Hardin county. Inmates are admitted at ages over 
seven and under sixteen years. The object of this school is the reformation 
of juvenile offenders. 


This society was organized in 1856, under an act of the Sixth General As- 
sembly, "for the purpose of collecting, arranging and preserving books, 
pamphlets, maps, charts, manuscripts, papers, paintings, statuary, and other 


materials illustrative of the history of this State; and also to preserve the 
memory of the early pioneers of Iowa, their deeds, exploits, perils, and adven- 
tures; to secure facts relative to our Indian Tribes; to exhibit faithfully the 
antiquities, and to mark the progress of our rapidly increasing common, 
wealth; to publish such of the collections of the society as it shall from time 
to time deem of value and interest; to bind such publications and other 
books, pamphlets, manuscripts and papers as they may publish or collect; 
and to aid in all respects as may be within its province, to develop the his- 
tory of this State in all its departments." At that time the sum of $3,000 
per annum for two years was appropriated. The society is under the man- 
agement of a board of Curators, consisting of one member appointed by the 
governor from each congressional district, and of nine additional members 
elected by the society. The officers consist of a president, secretary, treasurer 
and librarian. , 


In May, 1854, the first rail was laid in Iowa, at or near high water mark 
on the bank of the Mississippi, in the city of Davenport. That year the road 
was completed to Iowa City, a distance of about 54f miles. The first loco- 
motive in Iowa was landed' at Davenport in July of the same year, and was 
called the "Antoine LeClaire." The road was then called the Mississippi 
& Missouri Railroad. The first rail was laid at Keokuk, on what was then 
called the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines & Minnesota Railroad, on the 9th day 
of September, 1856, and in October of the same year two locomotives for the 
road were landed at Keokuk from a barge which arrived from Quincy. 
They were cabled the "Keokuk" and the "Des Moines." 

In the meantime several lines of railroad had been projected to cross the 
State from points on the Mississippi. On the 15th of May, 1756, an act of 
Congress was approved makinga grant of land to the State to aid in the 
construction of railroads from Burlington to the Missouri river, near the 
mouth of Platte river; from Davenport, via Iowa City and Fort Des Moines 
to Council Bluffs; from Lyons northeasterly to apoint of intersection with 
the main line of the Iowa Central Air Line Railroad, near Maquoketa 
thence on said main line, running as near as practicable on the forty-second 
parallel across the State to the Missouri river, and from Dubuque to a point on 
the Missouri river at or near Sioux City. The grant embraced the sections 
designated by odd numbers six miles in width on each side of the four roads 
named. Where lands had been sold the State was authorized to select other 
lands equal in quantity from alternate sections or parts of sections within 
fifteen miles of the lines located. The law provided certain conditions to be 
observed by the State in disposing of the lands to the railroads for which 
they were granted. In consequence of this grant the governor called a spe^ 
cial session of the General Assembly which convened at Iowa City in July of 
that year, and on the 14th of the same month an act waB approved accepting 
the grant, and regranting the lands to the railroads named, on certain specir 
fled conditions. The roads, with the exception of the Iowa Central Air Line, 
accepted the several grants, and located their lines before April 1, 1857, that 
being a stipulation in the act of July 14th. The lands granted to the Iowa 
Central Air Line road were again granted to the Cedar Rapids & Missouri 
River Railroad Company. The act of Congress making this grant named 
no companies, but designated certain lines, in aid of which they should be 


applied, leaving the State free to dispose of the lands to such companies as 
would comply with the conditions. The state granted th& lands to the fol 7 
lowing companies: Burlington & Missouri Eiver Eailroad Company; Mis- 
sissippi & Missouri Eiver Eailroad Company; Cedar Eapids & Missouri 
Eiver Eailroad Company, and Dubuque & Sioux City Eailroad Company. 
These became the first land grant roads in Iowa. Several subsequent acts 
of Congress modified the conditions of the first act, especially with reference 
to changes in the lines of the several roads : . On the 12th of May, 1864, 
Congress made another grant of land to the State to aid in the construction 
of a railroad^ from McGregor to Sioux City. ' This grant embraced everv 
alternate section ten miles on each side of the proposed road, with the right 
to receive other lands for such as might be sold or pre-empted. 

By an act approved August 8, 1846, Congress granted to Iowa the alter- 
nate sections on'each side of the Des; Moines river for the purpose of improv- 
ing the navigation of that river from the mouth to the Eaccoon Fork. In 
1847 the State organized a board of -public works. The board constructed, 
or partially constructed, dams and locks at some four or five points on the 
river, when with the approval of Congress, the lands were transferred to a 
company styled the Des Moines Navigation and Eailroad Company. At 
this time (1854) the board of public works had disposed of most of the lands 
below the Eaccoon Fork, and 58,000 acres above it, and had incurred an 
indebtedness of $70,000 over and above the proceeds of the sales made. 
This indebtedness was assumed by the company. In the meantime there 
were different and conflicting rulings as to whether the lands above the 
Eaccoon Fork were intended to be included in the grant. This led to a 
compromise with the Des Moines Navigation and Eailroad Company. The 
company took all the land certified to the State prior to 1857, and paid the 
State $20,000 in addition to what they had expended, and abandoned the 
work. Congress, in 1862, settled the question as to the extent of the grant 
by a definite enactment extending the grant to the north line of the State, 
and the General Assembly granted the remainder of the lands to the Des 
Moines Yalley Eailroad Company to aid in building a railroad up and along 
the Des Moines valley, and thus this road also became a land grant road. 

Under the several acts of Congress there have been granted to the State 
to aid in building railroads, an aggregate of 4,394,400.63 acres of land, 
including the grant of August 8, 1846, for the Des Moines river improve- 
ment, as follows: 

Burlington and Missouri Eiver Eailroad 292,806.41 

Mississippi and Missouri Eiver (now C. E. I. & P.) 482,374.3.6 

.Iowa Central Air Line (now Cedar Eapids & Missouri). .... 735,997.80 

Dubuque & Sioux City & Branch 1,232,359.15 

McGregor & Sioux City (now McGregor & Missouri Eiver). . 137,572.27 

Sioux City & St. Paul 407,910.21 

Des Moines Yalley.-. 1,105,380.43 

Total number of acres 4,394,400.63 

On the 1st of January, 187V, there were in Iowa 3,938 miles of railroad. 
, Since that time the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, as it is now called, has 
been extended from Algona to Sheldon, and several other lines have been 
'. constructed or extended, making over 4,000 miles of railroad in the State, 
with an aggregate assessed valuation of oveir $23,000,000. • Several very 


important roads in the State have heen constructed without the aid of land 
grants, while others are projected and will be completed in due time. 



Governors— Kobert Lucas, 1838-41; John Chambers, 1841-45; James 
Clarke, 1845. 

Secretaries— William B. Conway, 1838, died 1839; James Clarke, 1839; 
O. H. W. Stull, 1841; Samuel J. Burr, 1843; Jesse Williams, 1845. 

Auditors— Jesse Williams, 1840; Wm. L. Gilbert, 1843; Kobert M. 
Secrest, 1845. 

Treasurers - Thornton Bayliss, 1839; Morgan Keno, 1840. 

Judges — Charles Mason, Chief Justice, 1838; Joseph Williams, 1838; 
Thomas S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council — Jesse B. Browne, 1838-9; Stephen Hempstead, 
1839-40; M. Bainridge, 1840-1; Jonathan W. Parker, 1841-2; John D. 
Elbert, 1842-3; Thomas Cox, 1843-4; S. Clinton Hastings, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1845-6. 

Speakers of the House— William H. Wallace, 1838-9; Edward John- 
ston, 1839-40; Thomas Cox, 1840-1; Warner Lewis, 1841-2 ; James M. 
Morgan, 1842-3; James P. Carleton, 1843-4; James M. Morgan, 1845; 
George W. McCleary, 1845-6. 

Fvrst Constitutional Convention, 1844 — Shepherd Leffler, President; 
Geo. S. Hampton, Secretary. 

Second Constitutional Convention, 1846 — Enos Lowe, President; Wil- 
liam Thompson, Secretary. 


Governors — Ansel Briggs, 1846 to 1850; Stephen Hempstead, 1850 to 
1854; James W. Grimes, 1854 to 1858; Kalph P. Lowe, 1858 to 1860; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1860 to 1864; William M. Stone, 1864 to 1868; 
Samuel Merrill, 1868 to 1872; Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1872 to 1876; Samuel 
J. Kirkwood, 1876 to 1877; Joshua G. Newbold, Acting, 1877 to 1878; 
John H. Gear, 1878 to . 

Jjieutenant Governors — Office created by the new Constitution September 

3, 1857— Oran Faville, 1858-9; Nicholas J. Kusch, 1860-1; John E. 
Needham, 1862-3; Enoch W. Eastman, 1864-5; Benjamin F. Gue, 1866- 
67; John Scott, 1868-9; M. M. Walden, 1870-1; H. C. Bulis, 1872-3; 
Joseph Dysart, 1874-5; Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-7; Frank T. Campbell, 
1878 to . 

Secretaries of State — Elisha Cutler, Jr., Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 4, 1848; 
Josiah H. Bonney, Dec. 4, 1848, to Dec. 2, 1850; George W. McCleary, 
Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 1, 1856; Elijah Sells, Dec. 1, 1856,-to Jan. 5, 1863; 
James Wright, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867; Ed. Wright, Jan. 7, 1867, to 
Jan. 6, 1873; Josiah T. Young, Jan. 6, 1873, to 1879; J. A. T. Hull, 1879 
to . 

Auditors of State— Joseph T. Fales, Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850; 
William Pattee, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1854; Andrew J. Stevens, Dec. 

4, 1854, resigned in 1855; John Pattee, Sept. 22, 1855, to Jan. 3, 1859; 



Jonathan W. Cattell, 1859 to 1865; John A. Elliott, 1865 to 1871; John 

Eussell, 1871 to 1875; Buren E. Sherman, 1875 to . 

Treasurers of State— Morgan Reno, Dec. 18, 1846, to Dec. 2,1850; 
Israel Kister, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1852; Martin L. Morris, Dec i, 
1852, to Jan. 2, 1859; John W. Jones, 1859 to 1863; William H. Holmes, 
1863 to 1867; Samuel E. Eankin, 1867 to 1873; William Christy, 1873 to 

1877; George W. Bemis, 1877 to . 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Office created in 1847 

James Harlan, June 5, 1847 (Supreme Court decided election void); 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., May 23, 1847, to June 7, 1854; James D. Eads, 
1854-7; Joseph C. Stone, March to June, 1857; Maturin L. Fisher, 1857 
to Dec, 1858, when the office was abolished and the duties of the office de- 
volved upon the Secretary of the Board of Education. 

Secretaries of Board of Education — Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 1859- 
1863; Oran Eaville, Jan. 1, 1864. Board abolished March 23, 1864. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Office re-created March 23, 
1864— Oran Faville, March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867; D, Franklin 
Wells, March 4, 1867, to Jan., 1870; A. S. Kissell, 1870 to 1872; Alonzo 

Abernethy, 1872 to 1877; Carl W. von Coelln, 1877 to . 

Registers of the State Land Office — Anson Hart, May 5, 1855, to May 
13, 1857; Theodore S. Parvin, May 13, 1857, to Jan. 3, 1859; Amos B. 
Miller, Jan. 3, 1859, to October, 1862; Edwin Mitchell, Oct. 31, 1862, to 
Jan. 5, 1863; Josiah A. Harvey, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867; Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, Jan. 7, 1867, to January, 1871; Aaron Brown, January, 1871, 
to January, 1875; David Secor, January, 1875 to 1879; J. K. Powers, 1879 

to . . 

State Binders — Office created February 2t, 1855 — William M. Coles, 
May 1, 1855, to May 1, 1859; Frank M. Mills, 1859 to 1867; James S. 
Carter, 1867 to 1870; J. J. Smart, 1870 to 1874; H. A. Perkins, 1874 to 
1875; James J. Smart, 1875 to 1876; H. A. Perkins, 1876 to 1879; Matt. 

C. Parrott, 1879 to . 

State Printers — Office created Jan. 3, 1840 — Garrett D. Palmer and 
George Paul, 1849; William H. Merritt, 1851 to 1853; William A. Horn- 
ish, 1853 (resigned May 16, 1853); Mahoney & Dorr, 1853 to 1855; Peter 
Moriarty, 1855 to 1857; John Teesdale, 1857 to 1861; Francis W. Palmer, 
1861 to 1869; Frank M. Mills, 1869 to 1870; G. W. Edwards, 1870 to 

1872 ;E. P. Clarkson, 1872 to 1879; Frank M. Mills, 1879 to . 

Adjutants General — Daniel S. Lee, 1851-5; Geo. W. McCleary, 1855- 
7; Elijah Sells, 1857; Jesse Bowen, 1857-61; Nathaniel B.Baker, 1861 to 

1877; John H. Looby, 1877 to 1878; Noble Warwick, resigned; 

G. L. Alexander, 1878 to . 

Attorneys General — David C. Cloud, 1853-56; Samuel A. Eice, 1856- 
60; Charles C. Nourse, 1861-4; Isaac L. Allen, 1865 (resigned January, 
1866); Frederick E. Bissell, 1866 (died June 12, 1867); Henry O'Connor, 

1867-72; Marsena E. Cutts, 1872-6; John F. McJunkin, 1877 to . 

Presidents of the Senate — Thomas Baker, 1846-7; Thomas Hughes, 
1848; John J. Selman, 1848-9; Enos Lowe, 1850-1; William E. Leffing- 
well, 1852-3; Maturin L. Fisher, 1854-5; William W. Hamilton, 1856-7. 
Under the new Constitution, the Lieutenant Governor is President of the 

Speakers of the House — Jesse B. Browne, 1847-8; Smiley H. Bonhan, 
1849-50; George Tpmple, 1851-2: James Grant, 1853-4; Eeuben Noble, 



1855-6; Samuel McFarland, 1856-7; Stephen B. Sheledy, 1858-9; John 
Edwards, 1860-1; Eush Clark. 1862-3; Jacob Butler, 1864^5; Ed. Wriglft, 
1866-7; John Eussell, 1868-9; Aylett E. Cotton, 1870-1; James Wilson, 
1872-3; John H. Gear, 1874-7; John Y. Stone, 1878. 

New Constitutional Convention, 1857— Francis Springer, President; 
Thos. J. Saunders, Secretary. 


John H. Gear, Governor ; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant Governor; Josiah 
T. Young, Secretary of State; Buren B. Sheaman, Auditor of State; Geo. 
W. Bemis Treasurer of State; David Secor, Eegister of State Land Office j 
John H. Looby, Adjutant-General; John F. McJunken, Attorney-General; 
Mrs. Ada North, State Librarian ; Edward J. Holmes, Clerk Supreme Court- 
John S. Eunnells, Eeporter Supreme Court; Carl W. von Ceolln, Superin- 
tendent Public Instruction ; Eichard P. Ciarkson, State Printer; Henry A. 
Perkins, State Binder; Prof. Nathan E. Leonard, Superintendent of Weights 
and Measures; William H. Fleming, Governor's Private Secretary; Fletcher 
W. Young, Deputy Secretary of State; John C. Parish, Deputy Auditor of 
State; E^astus G. Morgan, Deputy Treasurer of State; John M.Davis, 
Deputy Eegister Land Office; Ira C. Kling, Deputy Superintendent Pub- 
lic Instruction. 


John H. Gear, Governor; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor; 
J. A. T. Hull, Secretary of State; Buren E. Sherman, Auditor of State"; 
George W. Bemis, Treasurer of State; J. If. Powers, Eegister of State Land 
Office; G. L. Alexander, Adjutant-General; John F. McJunken, Attor- 
ney-General; Mrs. Sadie B. Maxwell, State Librarian; Edward J. Holmes, 
Clerk Supreme Court; John S. Eunnells, Eeporter Supreme Court; Cart 
W. von Coelln, Superintendent Public Instruction ; Frank M. Mills, State 
Printer; Matt C. Parrott, State Binder. 



Chief Justices. — Charles Mason, resigned in June, 1847; Joseph Wil- 
liams, Jan., 1847, to Jan., 1848; S. Clinton Hastings, Jan., 1848, to Jan., 
1849; Joseph Williams, Jan., 1849, to Jan. 11, 1855; George G. Wright, 
Jan. 11, 1855, to Jan., 1860; Ealph P. Lowe, Jan., 1860, to Jan. 1, 1862; 
Caleb Baldwin, Jan., 1862, to Jan., 1864; George G. Wright, Jan., 1864, to 
Jan., 1866; Ealph P.Lowe, Jan., 1866, to Jan., 1868; John F. Dillon, 
Jan., 1868, to Jan., 1870; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 1, 1870, to Jan. 1, 1871; 
James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871. to Jan. 1, 1872; Joseph M. Beck, Jan.l, 1872, 
to Jan. 1, 1874; Wm. E. Miller, Jan. 1, 1874, to Jan. lj 1876; Chester 0. 
Cole, Jan. 1, 1876, to Jan. 1, 1877; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1877, to Jan. 1, 
1878; James H. Eothrock, Jan. 1, 1878. 

Associate Judges. — Joseph Williams; Thomas S. Wilson, resigned Oct*, 
1847; John F. Kinney, June 12, 1847, resigned Feb. 15; 1854; George 
Greene, Nov. 1, 1847, to Jan 9, 1855; Jonathan O. Hall, Feb. 15, 1854, to 
succeed Kinney, resigned, to Jan., 1855; William G. Woodward; Jan, 9, 
1855; Norman W. Isbell, Jan. 16, 1855, resigned 1856;, Lacen D. Stockton, 

history oy iowa. _ 177 

June 3, 1856, to succeed Isbell, resigned, died June 9, 1860; Caleb Bald- 
win, Jan. 11, I860, to 1864; Kalph P. Lowe, Jan. 12, 1860; Geo. G. "Wright, 
June 26, 1860, to succeed Stockton, deceased; elected U. S. Senator, 1870; 
John F. Dillon, Jan. 1, 1864, to succeed Baldwin, resigned, 1870; Chester 
C. Cole, March 1,1864, to 1867; Joseph M.Beck, Jan. 1, 1868; W.E. Mil- 
ler, October 11, 1864, to succeed Dillon, resigned; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 
1871, to succeed Wright. 


Joseph M. Beck, Lee county, Chief Justice; Austin Adams, Dubuque 
county, Associate Justice; William H. Seevers, Mahaska county, Associate 
Justice; James G. Day, Fremont county, Associate Justice; Jas. H. Roth- 
rock, Cedar county, Associate Justice. 



(The first General Assembly failed to elect Senators.) 
; George W. Jones, Dubuque, Dec. 1848-1858: Augustus C. Dodge, Bur- 
lington, Dec. 7, 1848-1855 ;' James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, Jan. 6, 1855-1865; 
James W. Grimes, Burlington, Jan. 26, 1858 — died 1870; Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, Iowa City, elected Jan 13, 1866, to fill vacancy occasioned by resig- 
nation of James Harlan; James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, March 4, 1866-1872; 
James B. Howell, Keokuk, elected Jan. 20, 1870, to fill vacancy caused by 
the death of J. W. Grimes — term expired March 3d; George G. Wright, 
Des Moines, March 4, 1871-1877; William B. Allison, Dubuque, March 4, 
1872; Samuel J. Kirkwood, March 4, 1877. 


>Twmty*wmth Congress— 181j6 to 181fl — S. Clinton Hastings; Shepherd 

Thirtieth Congress — 184-7 to 1849 — First District, William Thompson; 
Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirty-first Congress — 181)9 to 1851 — First District, First Session, Wm. 
Thompson; unseated by the House of Representatives on a contest, and 
election remanded to the people. First District, Second Session, Daniel F. 
Miller; Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirty '-second Congress — 1851 to iS<J&— First District, Bernhart Henn ; 
Second District, Lincoln Clark. 

Thirty-third Congress— 1853 to 1855 — First District, Bernhart Henn; 
Second District, John P. Cook. 

ThiHy-fov/rth Congress — 1855 to 1857 — First District, Augustus Hall; 
Second District, James Thorington. 

Ihirty-fifth Congress — 1857 to 1859— First District, Samuel R. Curtis; 
Second District, Timothy Davis. 

Thirtu-sixth Congress— 1859 to 1861-^-Fmt District, Samuel R. Curtis; 
Second District. William Yandever. 



Thirty-seventh Congress— 1861 to 1863— First District, First Session, 
Samuel ft. Curtis.* First District, Second and Third Sessions, Jas. F. Wil- 
son; Second District, Wm. Vandever. 

Thirty-eighth Congress — 1863 to 1865— First District, James F. "Wilson; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District, John A. Kasson; Sixth Dist,, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thirty-ninth Congress — 1865 to 1867 — First District, James F. Wilson; 
Second District Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District John A. Kasson; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Congress — 1867 to 1869— First District, James F. Wilson; Sec- 
ond District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District, William Loughridge; Fifth District, Grenville M. Dodge; Sixth 
District, Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Forty-first Congress— 1869 to 1871— First District, Geo. W. McOrary; 
Second District William Smyth; Third District, William B.Allison; Fourth 
District, William Loughridge; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth 
District, Charles Pomeroy. 

Forty-second Congress — 1871 to 1873 — First District, George W. Mc- 
Crary; Second District, Aylett K.Cotton; Third District W. G.Donnan; 
Fourth District, Madison M. Walden; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; 
Sixth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-third Congress— 1873 to 1875— First District, Geo. W. McCrary; 
Second District, Aylett ft. Cotton; Third District, William G. Donnan; 
Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson; Sixth Dis- 
trict, William Loughridge; Seventh District, John A Kasson; Eighth Dis- 
trict, James W. McDill; Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-fourth Congress— 1875 to 1877— First District George W. Mc- 
Orary; Second District, John Q. Tufts; Third District, L. L. Ainsworth; 
Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson; Sixth Dis- 
trict, Ezekiel S. Sampson; Seventh District, John A. Kasson; Eighth Dis- 
trict, James W. McDill; Ninth District, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-fifth Congress— 1877 to 1879— First District, J. C. Stone; Second 
District, Hiram Price; Third District, T. W. Burdick; Fourth District, H. 
C. Deering; Fifth District, Rush Clark; Sixth District, E. S. Sampson; 
Seventh District, H. J. B. Cummings; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; Ninth 
District, Addison Oliver. 

: Forty-swath Congress— 1879 to 1881— First District, Moses A. McCoid; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, Thomas Updegraff; Fourth 
District, H. C. Deering; Fifth District, Eush Clark; Sixth District, J. B. 
Weaver; Seventh District, E. H. Gillette; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; 
Ninth District, Cyrus C. Carpenter. 


On the 14th of April, 1853, the following editorial appeared in the Fair- 
field Ledger: 

" State Fair. — Iowa is an Agricultural State, but as yet her agricultural 
resources are but in the infancy ot their development. In some counties, 

* Vacated seat by acceptance of commission of Brigadier General, and J. P. Wilson 
chosen his successor. 


however, some attention has been paid to the organization of societies for the 

t promotion of the interests of agriculture. These several societies have had 

their annual fairs, and in this way much good has been done, but the growing 

importance of our agricultural and industrial interest now demands a more 

feneral and extensive arrangement. Let us then have a State Agricultural 
'air sometime in next October or November. Let some central point be 
fixed upon for an exhibition which will be an honor to our young State. It 
would not be expected that the first exhibition of the kind would vie with 
those of older States, where societies have long been established. But in a 
few years a well organized State Society with its annual fairs, would accom- 
plish the same good results that have attended them in other States. The 
mechanical arts, as well as the raising of stock or grain, might be brought 
to a high state of perfection. We suggest that this matter be taken into 
consideration in time, and let there be a union of all the county societies 
that are organized, With such as may be organized, for the purpose of hold* 
inga general Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition next fall." 

The suggestions of the foregoing article were heartily seconded by several 
papers of the State, and especially by the Iowa Farmer and Horticulturist, 
at Burlington. 

No definite action was taken until the 14th day of October, 1853, when 
at the close of the Second Annual Exhibiton of the Jefferson County Agri- 
cultural Society, that Society met for the election of a board of officers. 
At this meeting 0. W. Slagle offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the officers of the Society be instructed to take immediate 
steps to effect the organiztion of a State Agricultural Society and use their 
influence to have said Society hold its first exhibition at Fairfield, in Octo- 
ber, 1854. 

This resolution was adopted, and on the 21st of November, a notice signed 
by P. L. Huyett, 0. Baldwin, and J. M. Shaffer, was issued to the different 
county societies, inviting them to send delegates to a meeting to be held at 
Fairfield, December 28, 1853, to take part in the organization of a State 
Society. Pursuant to this call, the meeting was held, and delegates were 
present from the counties of Henry, Jefferson, Lee, Van Buren and Wap- 
ello. Communications from officers of societies, and one from Hon. James 
W. Grimes, were read, heartily approving of the movement. D. P. Ins- 
keep, of Wapello county, was chairman of the meeting, and David Sheward, 
of Jefferson county, secretary. A committee was appointed which reported 
a constitution for the society. The society was duly organized with the fol- 
following officers: Thomas W. Claggett, Lee county, President; D. P. Ins- 
keep, Wapello county, Vice President; J. M. Shaffer, Jefferson county, 
Secretary; C. W. Slagle, Jefferson county, Corresponding Secretary, and W. 
B. Chamberlin, Des Moines county, Treasurer. 

In addition to the above officers, the following were appointed a Board of 

Zee County. — Arthur Bridgeman, Reuben Brackett, and Josiah Hinkle. 

Van Buren County. — Timothy Day, Dr. Elbert, and William Campbell. 

Henry County. — Thomas Siviter, Amos Lapham, and J. W. Frazier. 

Jefferson County. — P. L. Huyett, John Andrews, and B. B. Tuttle. 

Wapello County. — R. H. Warden, Gen. Ramsay, and Uriah Biggs. 

Mahaska County. — Win. McKinley, Sr., John White, and M. T. Wil- 

Polk County. — Dr. Brooks, Thomas Mitchell, and William McKay. 


Des Momes County. — J. F. Tallant, A. K. Avery, and G. Neely. 
Louisa County. — George Kee, Francis Springer, and Joshua Marshal]. 
Muscatme County. — J. H. Wallace, James Weed, and John A. Parvus 
Dubuque County. — W. Y. Lovel, Orlando McCraney, and L. H. Lang 
Johnson County. — R. H. Sylvester, LeGrand Byington, and C. Saunders, 
Scott County.— J. A. Burchard, James Thorington, and Laurel .Summers, 

A resolution was adopted providing that the first State Fair be held at 
Fairfield, commencing Wednesday, October 25, 1854. A resolution was 
also adopted for the appointment of a committee of five to memorialize the 
General Assembly for pecuniary aid, and the following were appointed: 
George W. McCleary, of Johnson county; George S. Hampton, of Johnson 
county; David Korer, of Des Moines county; Ralph P. Lowe, of Lee 
county, and George Gillaspy, of Wapello county. 

At this meeting the following fourteen persons affixed their signatures to 
the Constitution, agreeing to become members: Charles Negus, J. M. 
Shaffer, D. P. Inskeep, Amos Lapham, J. W. Frazier, Josiah Hinkle, J. T. 
Gibson, Stephen Frazier, Evan Marshall. Thomas Siviter, John Andrews, 
B. B. Tuttle, Eli Williams, and P. L. Huyett. 

This meeting was held in the court house at Fairfield, and was not very 
largely attended, for at that time there was not a mile of railroad in the 


In accordance with the arrangement made at the organization of the So- 
ciety, the first annual fair was held at Fairfield, commencing October 25th, 
1854, and continued three days. The number of people in attendance was 
estimated at the time at from 7,000 to 8,000. The exhibition was considr 
ered a grand success. All portions of the State at that time settled, were 
represented by visitors* The fair was held on the grounds which have for 
many years been occupied as the depot grounds of the Burlington & Mis^ 
souri River Railroad. There was a fine display of stock, agricultural imple- 
ments, farm products, and articles of domestic manufacture. In the ladies' 
department there was an attractive exhibit of their handi-work. The nat- 
ural history of the State was illustrated by Dr. J. M. Shaffer's collection of 
reptiles and insects, and by a fine collection of birds shown by Mr. Moore, 
of Des Moines. The dairy was well represented, and a cheese weighing 
three hundred and sixty pounds was presented to Gov. Grimes by his Lee 
county friends. 

The most exciting incident of the fair was the equestrian exhibition by 
ten ladies. This took place on the afternoon of the second and the forenoon 
of the third day. The first prize was a gold watch, valued at one hundred 
dollars. It was awarded by the committee to Miss Turner, of Keokuk. 
One of the fair contestants was Miss Eliza J. Hodges, then only thirteen 
years of age. She rode a splendid and high-spirited horse, the property of 
Dr. J. C. Ware, of Fairfield. The daring style of her riding, and the per- 
fect control of the animal which she maintained, enlisted the favor and 
sympathy of the throng present in her behalf. The popular verdict would 
have awarded the prize to Miss Hodges. A purse of $165, and some other 
presents, were immediately contributed for the " Iowa City girl," as, the 
heroine of the day was called. Provision was also made for her attendance, 


free of all charge, for three terms, at the Ladies' Seminary at Fairfield, and 
one term at Mt. Pleasant, all of which she gracefully accepted. 

George 0. Dixon, of Keokuk, delivered the first annual address. Thomas 
W. Claggett was re-elected President, and Dr. J. M. Shaffer, Secretary. The 
second annual fair was appointed also to be held at Fairfield, commencing 
on the second Wednesday in October, 1855, and continuing three days. 

Such is a brief account of the humble beginning, and first exhibition 
of the Iowa State Agricultural Society, which has since grown to be one of 
the important institutions of the State, attracting to its annual exhibits 
many thousands of people, not only from all parts of Iowa, but from <fther 


The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874, passed " An act to provide for 
the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction of 
Fishways for the protection and propagation of Fish," also " An act to pro- 
vide for furnishing the rivers and lakes with fish and fish spawn." This 
act appropriated $3,000 for the purpose. In accordance with the provisions 
of the first act above mentioned, on the 9th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans of 
Ottumwa, Wapello county; B. F. Shaw of Jones county, and Charles 
A. Haines, of Black Hawk county were appointed to be Fish Commission- 
ers by the Governor. These Commissioners met at Des Moines, May 10, 
1874, and organized by the election of Mr. Evans, President; Mr. Shaw, 
Secretary and Superintendent, and Mr. Haines, Treasurer. During the 
first year the Commissioners erected a "batching house" near Anamosa, 
and distributed within the State 100,000 shad, 300,000 California salmon, 
10,000 bass, 80,000 Penobscot salmon, 5,000 land-locked salmon, and 20,- 
000 of other kinds. 

The next General Assembly amended the law, reducing the commission 
to one member, and B. F. Shaw was appointed. During the second year 
there were distributed 533,000 California salmon, and 100,000 young eels; 
in 1877, there were distributed 303,500 lake trout in the rivers and lakes 
of the State, and several hundred thousands of other species. During the 
years 1876 and 1877, the total number of different kinds distributed, and 
on hand, was over five and a half million. The Seventeenth General As- 
sembly, by an act approved March 23, 1878, appropriated $6,000 for con- 
tinuing the promotion of fish culture in the State. B. F. Shaw was con- 
tinued as Commissioner. 


The first legislative act in Iowa designed to promote immigration, was 
passed in March, 1860. The law provided for the appointment by the Gov- 
ernor of a Commissioner of Immigration to reside and keep an office in the 
city of New York, from the first of May until the first of December of 
each year. It was made the duty of the Commissioner to give to immi- 
grants information in regard to the soil and climate of the State, branches 
. of business to be pursued with advantage, the cheapest and best routes by 
which to reach the State, and to protect them from imposition. To carry 
out the objects of the law, the sum of $4,500 was appropriated to be ap- 
plied as follows: for the payment of the Commissioner two years, $2,400; 

182 aisTOET or iowa. 

for printing documents in' English, German, and such other languages as 
the Governor might deem advisable, $1,000, and for office and office ex- 
penses for the Commissioner, $1,100. Under this law, Hon. N. J. Knsch, of 
Scott county, who had previously been Lieutenant Governor, was appointed 
Immigration Commissioner, and in May, 1860, established an office in New 
York. The object of the law seems to have had special reference to foreign 
immigration. The Commissioner in his report to the Governor, in Decem- 
ber, 1861, gave it as his opinion, that the establishment of an agency in 
New York was not the most successful method of inducing immigration to 
a particular State. He thought far more could be accomplished at less ex- 
pense by the distribution ot documents. In February, 1862, the law was 
repealed, and the office of Commissioner of Immigration was discontinued 
May 1st of that year. 

The next effort put forth by the State to promote immigration was under 
an act passed by the Thirteenth General Assembly, in 1870. Hon. M. J. 
Eohlfs, of Scott county, had at the previous session introduced a bill in the 
House of Eepresentatives for the purpose, but the measure did not then 
succeed. At the next session he renewed his efforts with success. The law 
provided for the appointment by the Governor of a Board of Immigration, 
to consist of one member from each Congressional district, and the Gov- 
ernor, who was ex-officio President of the "Board. It also provided for a 
Secretary, to be ex-officio Commissioner of Immigration, and. to be chosen 
by the Board. Provision was also made for the appointment of agents in 
the Eastern States and in Europe, and for the publication and distribution 
of documents. To carry out its objects an appropriation of $5,000 was 
made. This was designed to pay expense of documents, salary of Secre- 
tary, and compensation of agents, the members of the Board receiving no 
compensation, except mileage for two meetings each year, to be paid out of 
the general fund. Under this law the following persons were appointed by 
Governor Merrill : Edward Mumm, of Lee county ; M. J. Bohlis, of Scott 
county; C. L. Clausen, of Mitchell county; C. Khynsbnrger, of Marion 
county; S. F. Spofford, of Polk county, and Marcus Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo 
county. At their first meeting, held in April, 1870, they elected A. R. 
Fulton their Secretary, and authorized him to prepare a pamphlet for dis- 
tribution, in the English, German, Holland, Swedish and Norwegian lan- 
guages. Many thousands of copies of a pamphlet entitled "Iowa: The 
Home for Immigrants," were printed in the several languages named, and 
distributed throughout the East and in European countries. Many other 
pamphlets and documents were also distributed, and several agents com- 
missioned. So successful were the efforts of the Board that the next Gen- 
eral Assembly appropriated $10,000 for continuing the work. The amend- 
atory law, however, reduced the Board to five members, including the Gov- 
ernor. The Board, as reduced, was composed of the following members: 
M. J. Rohlfs, of Scott county; S. F. Spofford, of Polk county; Marcus 
Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo county; C. Y. Gardner, of Pottawattamie county, 
and the Governor. The new Board continued the former Secretary, and 
pursued its work by the distribution of documents, through agents and by 
correspondence. After four years existence the Board of Immigration was 
discontinued, but not until it had doubtless been the means of inducing 
thousands to find homes within the borders of Iowa. 




TO JANUARY 1, 1865* 

No. Regiment. 

No. of 

No. Regiment. 

No. of 







































Iowa Infantry . 







































39th Iowa Infantry , 

40th " " 

41st Battalion Iowa Infantry 

44th Infantry (100-davs men) 

45th " " " " .... 

46th " " " .... 

47th " " " .... 

48th Battalion " " .... 

1st Iowa Cavalry 

2d " " 

3d " " 

4th " " 

5th " " 

6th " " 

7th " " 

8th " " 

9th " " 

Sioux City Cavalry t 

Co. A, 11th Penn. Cavalry 

1st Battery Artillery 

2d " " 

3d " " 

4th " " 

1st Iowa African Inf y, 60th U. S.J 

Dodge's Brigade Band 

Band of 2d Iowa Infantry 

Enlistments as far as reported to Jan 
1, '64, for the older Iowa regiments 
Enlistments of Iowa men in regi- 
ments of other States, over. . . 


Re-enlisted Veterans 

for different 


Additional enlistments 

Grand total as far as reported up to 
Jan. 1, 1865 
































* This does not include those Iowa men who veteranized in the regiments of other States, 
nor the names of men who enlisted during 1864, in regiments of other States, 
t Afterward consolidated with Seventh Cavalry. 
t Only a portion of this regiment was credited to the State. 















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. 793 
















































































1840. Voters. 

Kossuth . 


Linn. . . . 
Louisa. ■ . 
Lucas, . • 








Montgomery. . . 




Palo Alto".. . 


Pocahontas . ■ . 











Van Buren . . 
Wapello.. .. 





Winnebago. . 
Winneshiek. . 
Woodbury. . . 































• 2873 


















































Total 1353118U191792 674913 192214 43112 





























■ 4968 

































































Rep. Dem. Gr. Fro 



Rep. Dem. 




Rep. Dem. Gr. Pro. 



Rep. Dem. 



Allamakee. . . . 
Audubon... . 


Black Hawk... 




Buena Vista. . . 





Cedar ... 
Oerro Gordo . . 












Des Moines . . 
Dickinson. . . 
Dubuque . . . . 


Fayette ... 




Greene .... 









Humboldt. ... 






Total vote, 

































































J 67 
































































41 Z 











Jones . . . 
Lee . . . 


Louisa .. 
Lucas . 
Lyon .. . 
Mills. .. 
Monroe . 
Muscatine. .. 
O'Brien... . 


Page . 

Palo Alto ... 
Plymouth. . 
Pocahoutas. . 
Polk .. 



Shelby... . 


Tama. .. . 


Union. . . . 
Van Buren 
Wapello. . 
Warren .... 


WebBter. . 
Woodbury . 


Wright ... 


































































































































































































79353 34228 

10639 171332 


1877, 246,766; 1876 (including 9,001 Greenback), 292,454. 

Centennial Awards. 


Under the system of awards adopted at the Centennial Exposition of 1876, 
every article exhibited was placed in one of thirty-six groups, numbering 
from 1 to 36. The examination was not of a competitive character, but 
upon the merit of the article. Each article of merit was entitled to receive 
n diploma and a bronze medal of uniform value. The following awards 
were made to Iowa exhibitors: 


Wesley Redhead and Mahaska Coal Mining Company are accredited with 
samples of coal. The committee says: "Commended as samples of bitum- 
inous coal of Iowa." 


John Harvey, of Dubuque. — Report says a large and instructive exhibit 
of Galena lead ores of Iowa. 

W. P. Fox, of Des Moines. — Commended for an instructive exhibit of the 
stratified deposits of the State of Iowa. 

[Note. — In this group were shown fifty-five varieties from stone quarries 
in Iowa, prepared by Donahue & McCosh, of Burlington, in blocks six by 
nine inches square; also were shown samples of building and moulding 
sands, and three specimens of glass sands, twelve of fire and potters' clay, 
six or eight samples of mineral paint, and one sample of peat; also some 
fine samples of geodes from Keokuk. Judge Murdock, of Clayton county, 
exhibited a collection of relics of the mound builders. The most prom- 
inent one was his large collection of mound builders' skulls.} 


State of Iowa. — Commended as a very fine collection of cereals in the 
straw, beautifully cleansed; also grasses and seeds — sixty varieties — a fine 
collection beautifully arranged; also a collection of Indian corn, seventy 


Stewart & McMillen, of- Manchester, Delaware county, Entry No. 
880. — Commended for the best samples of 200 lbs. and 30 lbs. respectively, 
made at Newberg factory, Edgewood and Hebran. 


Stewart & McMillen, Entry No. 895. — Commended for clean, sweet 
flavor, firm texture and superior excellency generally, comprising samples 
of different creameries. 

[Note. — The general report of the committee on butter puts the yield of 
the United States for 1870 at 710,000,000 lbs. Messrs. Stewart & McMil- 
len had about ninety competitors, among whom were the best butter makers 
of the world. In addition to the centennial awards, they got the golden 
medal awarded by the national butter and egg association. Iowa creamery 
butter sells in the Philadelphia market readily with the -'gilt edged brand. 
The butter crop in Iowa is an item of interest, and the State owes Stewart 
& McMillen a debt of gratitude for their very active exertion at the centen- 
nial in raising Iowa butter to a level with the gilt edge manufacturers of 
the eastern States. Delaware county, IoWa, is to our State what Chester 
county is to Pensylvania.] - T 

Bryan & Curtis' butter, Strawberry Point, Clayton county. — Commended 
for fine quality and superior skill in manufacturing. 


Collection of woods by Prof. McAfee, Agricultural College. — Commended 
as a good State exhibit, containing 160 specimens arranged in vertical and 
transverse sections. 

J. C. Arthur, Charles City, No. 185.— Herbarium of plants; The her- 
barium contains species named and clasified, neatly mounted, labeled and 
one in duplicate. The duplicate collection ingeniously arranged for exhif 
bition on large sliding frames within a glass case. The whole accompan- 
ied with a printed catalogue. 


State of Iowa, No. 11.— Commended for a large display of its minerals, 
soils, native and cultivated grasses, its pomology in large variety, and col- 
lection of woods and a valuable collection of mound builders' relics. t: . 



Board of Education, Burlington, No. 76. — Commended for a creditable 
display of the work of pupils. 

_ State Educational Department, No. 77.— Eeport good exhibit of the sta- 
tistics of State school system and work of public schools. 

Board of Education of West Des Moines, No. 78.— A creditable exhibit 
of work of pupils. 



Skinner Bros:, Des Moines, No. 63.— Commended for excellence of ma- 
terial, good workmanship and beauty of form. 




John D. Metz, Dubuque, No. f 94:.— Blank books with patent ends and 
mode of stitching. Report an admirable made book aside from the patent 
improvement claimed. 



. Eli Elliot, West Liberty. — Short Horn bull, Baron French, No. 8. — Re- 
port. in. form, quality and useful characteristics he is entitled to rank as a 
superior specimen of the Short Horn breed. 

State of Iowa, Short. Horn Herd, No. 12. — One bull and four cows. The 
animals composing this herd, inrhigh excellence of form, quality and useful 
characteristics, are entitled to be ranked as first-class specimens of the 
Short Horn breed. 

, J. W. Jacobs, .West Liberty, No. 13. — Two cows, Maid of Honor and 
Lucy Napier, commended for high excellence of form and useful charac- 
teristics, entitled to rank as first-class specimens of the Short Horn breed. 

E. S. Wilson, West Liberty, No- 35. — Heifer, Louden Mirvine, for high 
excellence in form, quality and useful characteristics is entitled to rank as 
a first-class specimen of the Short Horn breed. 

E, S. Wilson, No. 36. — Emma . Down and heifer calf Centennial Mine. 
In;form and useful characteristics they are entitled to- be- ranked as first- 
class specimens of the Short Horn breed. 


Henry Avery, Burlington. — Commended for a collection of apples, 
among which Grimes' Golden Pippin, an excellent kind, is especially mer- 
itorious in size and flavor. 

David Leonard, Burlington, No, 16.— Commended for a valuable selec- 
tion of varieties very well grown, and especially for a seedling named 
Robinson, which promises-well for the northwest, both as respects to tree 
and fruit. ., 

No. 27. — Polk County, by- James Smith, Des Moines. Commended for 
160 varieties of apples, and for the very large number of valuable varieties 
and for the very superior manner in which they are grown; also for great 
care and correctness in naming. 

No. 30.— E. H. Caulkens commended for twenty varieties and their val- 
uable characteristics; also great excellence and beauty in growth. 

R. S. Willet, Malcolm. — Commended for 40 varieties of apples of gen- 
eral value and the superior manner of growth. 

No. 39, L. Hollingsworth, Montrose. — Seventy-five varieties of apples, 
commended for a large number of useful sorts and for the meritorious 
manner in which they are grown. 

No. 65, G. B. Brackett, Denmark.— Pears are Plate White Doyenne. 



These specimens of this old and important variety reach the highest stan- 
dard of excellence of large size and beautifully colored. 

No. 81, Wilson T. Smith, Des Moines. — Twenty varieties of pears 
commended for being well grown, and handsome collection. The Flemish 
Beauty and Beaurae Olangean being superior. 

No. 83, "White Elk Vineyard, Keokuk. — Eighteen varieties, creditable 
display of pears. The Beaurae Clangean having brilliant coloring. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society wax models of fruit. No. 209. — Three 
hundred varieties of apples in wax, of perfect accuracy and beautifully dis- 
played — the work of the Iowa State Horticultural Society. 

[Note. — There were in all 1020 specimens. The fruit furnished as 
models was by various members of the State Horticultural Society, crop of 
1875, the greatest number of which was by James Smith, of Des Moines, 
and to whom the nomenclature is mainly due; 610 of the casts were made 
by Mrs. Wm. Greenland, of Des Moines, and 410 of them by Col. G. B. 
Brackett, of Denmark. This was the most attractive display "made by 
Iowa, and was universally admired; and in this line Iowa can boast of as 
fine talent for accuracy as to model and coloring as is found anywhere. 
Two hundred of these casts were sold to and exchanged with the Japanese 
authorities, and are now doing duty in the archives of their government.] 

Iowa State Horticultural Society, No. 217. — September collection, report 
a very good collection, containing many varieties. 

[Note. — The Horticultural Society showed in May thirty-five varieties 
of apples of late keepers, also the summer varieties were shown in their 
season. The fall display was very fine, covering seven tables 35x6, and 
numbering about 335 varieties of apples, and filling over 2,000 plates.] 

"W. W. vVinterbotom, Fort Madison, No. 191. — Timothy grass seed. The 
seed is remarkably clean, and every way meritorious. 

H. C. Gordon, Davis county, No. 204. — His yellow corn was of peculiar 
weight and good quality, one ear weighing one pound and thirteen ounces. 

L. T. Chute, Manchester, No. 207. — The cereals and roots in the Iowa 
collection exhibited are a well grown collection of twenty-five varieties. 
Potatoes especially meritorious. 

State of Iowa, September exhibits of the crop of 1876, No. 208. — They 
make a collection of cereals, grasses and roots, exhibiting the ability of the 
State to produce these articles in the highest degree. 

The information contained in the notes is additional to that given in the 
official reports of the Exposition, and is furnished by Dr. Alex. Shaw, of 
Des Moines, who held an official position in connection with Iowa exhibits 
up to August 18, 1876. 

Abstract of Iowa State" Laws. 


Upon negotiable bills, and notes payable in this State, grace shall be al- 
lowed according to the law merchant. All the above mentioned paper fall- 
ing due on Sunday, New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any 
day appointed or recommended by the President of the United States or the 
Governor of the State, as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as 
due on the day previous. No defense can be made against a negotiable in- 
strument (assigned before due) in the hands of the assignee without notice, 
except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, due dili- 
gence must be used by suit against the maker or his representative. Notes 
payable to person named or to order, in order to absolutely transfer title, 
must be indorsed by the payee. Notes payable to bearer may be transferred 
by delivery, and when so payable, every indorser thereon is held as a guar- 
antor of payment, unless otherwise expressed. 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less than 
a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes only 
bear interest when so expressed; but after due, they draw the legal interest, 
even if not stated. 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree, in writing, 
on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater than ten 
per cent is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of ten per cent to the school 
rand, and only the principal sum can be recovered. 


The personal property of the deceased (except (1) that necessary for pay- 
ment of debts and expenses of administration; (2) property set apart to 
widow, as exempt from execution ; (3) allowance by court, if necessary, of 
twelve months' support to widow, and to children under fifteen years of age), 
including life insurance, descends as does real estate. 

One-third in value (absolutely) of all estates in real property, possessed by the 
husband at any time during marriage, which have not been sold on execution 
or other judicial sale, and to which the wife has made no relinquishment 
of her right, shall be set apart as her property, in fee simple, if she Burvive 

The same share shall be set apart to the surviving husband of a deceased 


The widow's share cannot he affected by any will of her husband's, unless 
she consents, in writing thereto, within six months after notice to her of 
provisions of the will. 

The provisions of the statutes of descent apply alike to surviving husband 
or surviving wife. 

Subject to the above, the remaining estate of which the decedent diod 
siezedj shall in absence of other arrangements by will, descend 

First. To his or her children and 'their descendants in equal parts; the 
descendants of 'the deceased" child or grandchild taking the, share -iof their 
deceased parents in equal shares aim ong them. '/:,-',.;, 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and no 
widow or surviving husband, 4hen -to- the parents of the deceased in equal 
parts; the* surviving parent, if either be dead, taking the whole ; and if there 
is no parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 

J ' Third. When there is a widow Or surviving husband j and no child ; or 
children, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the estate shall descend 
to such widow or surviving husband, absolutely; and the.>other-half of the 
estate shall descend as in other cases where there is no widow or surviving 
husband, or child or children, or descendants of the same.- 
" Fowrth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister,or descendants '-'of 
either of them, then to wife of intestate, or to her heirs, if dead, 'according 
to like rules. . <■..*-, 

'- Fifth: If any intestate leaves no child, parent, brother or- sister^ or de- 
scendants of either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, and do 
child, parent^ brother or sister (Or descendant of either of them) of such 
widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat to the State. . * 


No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at law. 
Every male person, of the age of ]twenty-one years, and every female of the age 
of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid will; it' must 
be in writing, signed by the testator, or by some one in his or her presence, 
and by his or her express direction, and attested by two or more competent 
witnesses. Care should be taken that ,the witnesses are not interested in the 
will. Inventory to be made by executor or administrator within fifteen 
days from date of letters testamentary or of administration. Executors' and 
administrators' compensation on amount of personal estate distributed, and 
for proceeds one-half per cent on overplus up to five thousand dollars, and 
one per cent of sale of real estate, five per cent for first one thousand dol- 
lars, two and one-half on overplus above five thousand dollars, with r suoh 
additional allowance as shall be reasonable for extra services. 
. Within ten days after the receipt of letters of administration, the executor 
or administrator shall give such notice of appointment as the court or clerk 
shall direct. 

Claims (othgr than preferred) must be filed within one year thereafter^ or are 
forever barred, unless the claim is pending in the District or Supreme Court, 
or unless peculiar circumstances entitle the claimant to equitable relief. , 

Claims are classed and payable in the following order: ' .', 

1. Expenses of administration. 
• 2. Expenses of last sickness and funeral. 


3. Allowance to widow and children, if made by the court. 

4 Debts preferred under the laws of the United States. 

5. Public rates and taxes. 

6. Claims filed within six months after the first publication of the notice 
given by the executors of their appointment. 

7. All other debts. 

8. Legacies. 

The award, or property which must be set apart to the widow, in her own 
right, by the executor, includes all personal property which, in the hands of 
the deceased, as head of the family, would have been exempt from execution. 


The owners of personal property, on the first day of January of each year, 
and the owners of real property on the first day of November of each year, 
a/re Viable for the taxes thereon. 

The following property is exempt from taxation, viz. : 

1. The property of the United States and of this State, including uni- 
versity, agricultural, college and school lands, and all property leased to the 
State; property of a county, township, city, incorporated town or school dis- 
trict when devoted entirely to the public use and not held for pecuniary 
profit; public grounds, including all places for the burial of the dead; fire 
engines, and all implements for extinguishing fires, with the grounds used 
exclusively for their buildings and for the meetings of the fire companies ; 
all public libraries, grounds and buildings of literary, scientific, benevolent, 
agricultural and religious institutions, and societies devoted solely to the 
appropriate objects of these institutions, not exceeding 640 acres in extent, 
aid not leased or otherwise used with a view of pecuniary profit; and all 
property leased to agricultural, charitable institutions and benevolent soci- 
eties, and so devoted during the term of such lease; provided, that all deeds, 
by which such property is held, shall be duly filed for record before the 
property therein described shall be omitted from the assessment. 

2. The books, papers and apparatus belonging to the above institutions; 
used solely for the purposes above contemplated, and the like property of 
students in any such institutions, used for their education. 

3. Money and credits belonging exclusively to such institutions and de- 
voted solely to sustaining them, but not exceeding in amount or income the 
sum prescribed by their charter. 

4. Animals not hereafter specified, the wool shorn from sheep, belonging 
to the person giving the list, his farm produce harvested within one year 
previous to the listing; private libraries not exceeding three hundred dol- 
lars in value; family pictures, kitchen furniture, beds and bedding requisite 
for each family, all wearing apparel in actual use, and all food provided for 
the family; but no person from whom a compensation for board, or lodging 
is received or expected, is to be considered a member of the family within 
the intent of this clause. » 

5. The polls or estates or both of persons who, by reason of age or in- 
firmity, may, in the opinion of the assessor,, be unable to contribute to the 
public revenue; such opinion and the fact upon which it is based being in 
all cases reported to the Board of Equalization by the Assessor or any other 
person, and subject to reversal by them. 

6. The farming utensils of any person who makes his livelihood by farm- 


ing, and the tools of any mechanic, not in either case to exceed three hun- 
dred dollars in value. 

7. Government lands entered or located or lands purchased from this 
State, should not be taxed for the year in which the entry, location or pur- 
chase is made. . . 

There is also a suitable exemption, in amount, for planting fruit trees or 
forest trees or hedges. 

"Where buildings are destroyed by fire, tornado, or other unavoidable cas- 
ualty, after being assessed for the year, the Board of Supervisors may rebate 
taxes for that year on the property destroyed, if same has not been sold for 
taxes, and if said taxes have not been delinquent for thirty days at the 
time of destruction of the property, and the rebate shall be allowed for such 
loss only as is not covered by insurance. 

All other property is subject to taxation. Every inhabitant of full age 
and sound mind shall assist the Assessor in listing all taxable property of 
which he is the owner, or which he controls or manages, either as agent, 
guardian, father, husband, trustee, executor, accounting officer, partner, 
mortagor or lessor, mortgagee or lessee. 

Road beds of railway corporations shall not be assessed to owners of ad- 
jacent property, but shall be considered the property of the companies for 
purposes of taxation; nor shall real estate used as a public highway be as- 
sessed and taxed as part of adjacent lands whence the same was taken for 
such public purpose. 

The property of railway, telegraph and express companies shall be listed 
and assessed for taxation as the property of an individual would be listed 
and assessed for taxation. Collection of taxes made as in the case of an in- 

The Township Board of Equalization shall meet the first Monday in April 
of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

The County Board of Equalization (the Board of Supervisors) meet at 
their regular session in June of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

Taxes become delinquent February 1st of each year, payable, without in- 
terest or penalty, at any time before March 1st of each year. 

Tax sale is held on first Monday of October in each year. 

Redemption may be made at any time within three years after date of 
sale, by paying to the County Auditor the amount of sale, and twenty per 
centum of such amount immediately added as penalty, with ten per cent, 
interest per annum on the whole amount thus made from the day of sale, 
and also all subsequent taxes, interest and costs paid by purchaser after 
March 1st of each year, and a similar penalty of twenty per centum added 
as before, with ten per cent interest as before. 

If notice has been given, by purchaser, of the date at which the redemp- 
tion is limited, the cost of same is added to the redemption money. Ninety 
days' notice is required, by the statute, to be published by the purchaser or 
holder of certificate, to terminate the right of redemption. 


District Courts have jurisdiction, general and original, both civil and 
criminal, except in such cases where Circuit Courts have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion. District Courts have exclusive supervision over courts of Justices 
of the Peace and Magistrates, in criminal matters, on appeal and writs of 


Circuit Courts have jurisdiction, general and original, with the Dis- 
trict Courts, in all civil actions and special proceedings, and exclusive ju- 
risdiction in all appeals and writs of error from inferior courts, "in civil 
matters. And exclusive jurisdiction in matters of estates and general 
probate business. 

Justices of the Peace have jurisdiction in civil matters where $100 
or less is involved. By consent of parties, the jurisdiction may be ex- 
tended to an amount not exceeding $300. They have jurisdiction to try 
and determine all public ofFensc less than felony, committed within their 
respective counties, in which the fine, by law, does not exceed $100 or the 
imprisonment thirty days. 


Action for injuries to the person or reputation; for a statute penalty; 
-and to enforce a mechanics' lien, must be brought in two (2) years. 

Those against, a public officer within three (3) years. 

Those founded on unwritten contracts; for injuries to property; for 
relief on the ground of fraud; and all other actions not provided for, 
within fire (5) years. 

Those founded on written contracts; on judgments of any court (except 
those provided for in next section), and for the recovery of real property, 
within ten (10) years. 

Those founded on judgment of any court of record in the United States, 
within twenty (20) years. 

All above limits, except those for penalties and forfeitures, are extended 
in favor of minors and insane persons, until one year after the disability is 
removed — time during which defendant is a non-resident of the State shall 
not be included in computing any of the above periods. 

Actions for the recovery ot real property, sold for non-payment of taxes, 
must be brought within five years after the Treasurer's Deed is executed 
and recorded, except where a minor or convict- or insane person is the 
owner, and they shall be allowed five years after disability is removed, in 
which to bring action. 


All qualified electors of the State, of good moral character, sound judg- 
ment, and in full possession of the senses of hearing and seeing, are compe- 
tent jurors in their respective counties. 

United States officers, practicing attorneys, physicians and clergymen, 
acting professors or teachers in institutions ot learning, and persons dis- 
abled by bodily infirmity or over sixty-five years of age, are exempt from 
liability to act as jurors. 

Any person may be excused from serving on a jury when his own inter- 
ests or the public's will be materially injured by his attendance, or when the 
state of his health or the death, or sickness of his family requires his ab- 


was restored by the Seventeenth General Assembly, making it optional 
with the jury to inflict it or not. 



may convey or incumber real estate, or interest therein, belonging' to her,; 
may control tbe same or contract with reference thereto, as other persons 
may convey, encumber, control or contract. 

She may own, acquire, hold, convey and devise property, as her husband 

Her husband is not liable for civil injuries committed by her. 

She may convey property to her husband, and he may convey to her. 

She may constitute her husband her attorney in fact. 


A resident of the State and head of a family may hold the following 
property exempt from execution : All wearing apparel of himself and 
family kept for actual use and suitable to the condition, and the trunks or 
other receptacles necessary to contain the same; one musket or rifle and 
shot-gun; all private libraries, family Bibles, portraits, pictures, musical in- 
struments, and paintings not kept for the purpose of sale; a seat or pew 
occupied by the debtor or his family in any house of public worship; an 
interest in a public or private burying ground not exceeding one acre; two 
cows and a calf; one horse, unless a horse is exempt as hereinafter pro- 
vided ; fifty sheep and the wool therefrom, and the materials manufactured 
from said wool; six stands of bees; five hogs and all pigs under six 
months; the necessary food for exempted animals for six months; all'flax 
raised from one acre of ground, and manufactures therefrom; one bedstead 
and necessary bedding for every two in the family; all cloth manufactures 
by the defendant not exceeding one hundred yards ; household and kitchen 
furniture not exceeding two hundred dollars in value; all spinning wheels 
and looms ; one sewing machine and other instruments of domestic labor 
kept for actual use; the necessary provisions and fuel for the use of the 
family for six months; the proper tools, instruments, or books of the debtor, 
if a farmer, mechanic, surveyor, clergyman, lawyer, physician* teacher or 
professor; the horse or the team, consisting of not more than two horses or 
mules, or two yokes of cattle, and the wagon or other vehicle, with the 
proper harness or tackle, by the use of which the debtor, if a physician, 
public officer, farmer, teamster or other laborer, habitually earns his living; 
and to the debtor, if a printer, there shall also be exempt a printing press 
and the types, furniture and material necessary for the use of such printing 
press, and a newspaper office to the value of twelve hundred dollars; the 
earnings of such debtor, or those of his family, at any time within ninety 
days next preceding the leVy. 

Persons unmarried and not the head of a family, and non-residents,' have 
exempt their own ordinary wearing apparel and trunks' to contain the same. 

There is also exempt, to a head of a family, a homestead, not exceeding 
forty acres; or, if inside city limits, one-half acre with improvements, value 
not limited. The homestead is liable for all debts contracted prior to its 
acquisition as such, and is subject to mechanics' liens for work or material, 
furnished for the same. 

An article, otherwise exempt, is liable, on execution, for the purchase 
money thereof. ' 

Where a debtor, if a head of a family, has started to leave the State, he 


Bhall have exempt only the_ ordinary wearing apparel of himself and family, 
and other property in addition, as he may select, in all not exceeding seventy- 
five dollars in value. 

A policy of life insurance shall inure to the separate use of the husband 
or wife and children, entirely independent of his or her creditors. 


A bounty of one dollar is paid for wolf scalps. 


.Any person may adopt his own mark or brand for his domestic animals, 
or have a description thereof recorded by the township clerk. 
, No person shall adopt the recorded mark or brand of any person residing 
in his township. 


When any person's lands are enclosed by a lawful fence, ; the owner of 
any domestic animal injuring said lands is liable for the damages, and the 
damages may be recovered by suit against the owner, or may be made by 
distraining the animals doing the damage; and if the party injured elects 
to recover by action against the owner, no appraisement need be made by 
the trustees, as in case of distraint. 

When trespassing animals are distrained within twenty-four hours, Sun- 
day not included, the party injured shall notify the owner of said animals, 
if known; and if the owner fails, to satisfy the party within twenty-four 
hours thereafter, the party shall have the township trustees assess the dam- 
ages, and notice shall be posted up in three conspicuous places in the town- 
ship, that the stock, or part thereof, shall, on the tenth day after posting 
the notice, between the honrs of 1 and 3 p. M., be sold to the highest bidder, 
to satisfy said damages, with costs. * 

Appeal lies, within twenty days, from the action of the trustees to the 
circuit court. 

Where stock is restrained, by police regulation or by law, from running 
at, large, any person injured in his improved or cultivated lands by any do- 
mestic animal, may, by action against the owner of such animal, or by dis- 
training such animal, recover his damages, whether the lands whereon the 
injury was done were inclosed by a lawful fence or not. 


An unbroken animal shall not be taken up as an estray between May 1st 
and November 1st, of each year, unless the same be found within the law- 
ful enclosure of a householder, who alone can take up such animal, unless 
some other person gives him notice of the fact of such animal coming on 
his place; and if he fails, within five days thereafter, to take up such estray, 
any other householder of the township may take up such estray and pro- 
ceed with it as if taken on his own premises, provided he shall prove to the 
Justice of the Peace such notice, and shall make affidavit where such estray 
was taken up. 


Any swine, sheep, goat, horse, neat cattle or other animal distrained (for 
damage done to one's enclosure), when the owner is not known, shall be 
treated as an estray. 

Within five days after taking up an estray, notice containing a full de- 
scription thereof, shall be posted up in three of the most public places in 
the township; and in ten days, the person taking up such estray shall go 
before a Justice of the Peace in the township ana make oath as to where 
such estray was taken up, and that the marks or brands have not been al- 
tered, to h"is knowledge. The estray shall then be appraised, by order of 
the Justice, and the appraisement, description of the size, age, color, sex, 
marks and brands of the estray shall be entered by the Justice in a book 
kept for that purpose, and he shall, within ten days thereafter, send a certi- 
fied copy thereof to the County Auditor. 

When the appraised value of an estray does not exceed five dollars, the 
Justice need not proceed further than to enter the description of the estray 
on his book, and if no owner appears within six months, the property shall 
vest in the finder, if he has complied with the law and paid all costs. 

Where appraised value of estray exceeds five and is less than ten dollars, 
if no owner appears in nine months, the finder has the property, if he has 
complied with the law and paid costs. 

An estray, legally taken up, may be used or worked with care and mod- 

If any person unlawfully take up an estray, or take up an estray and fail 
to comply with the law regarding estrays, or use or work it contrary to 
above, or work it before having it appraised, or keep such estray out of the 
county more than five days at one time, before acquiring ownership, such 
offender shall forfeit to the county twenty dollars, and the owner may re- 
cover double damages with costs. 

If the owner of any estray fail to claim and prove his title for one year 
after the taking up, and the finder shall have complied with the law, a com- 
plete title vests in the finder. 

But if the owner appear within eighteen months from the taking up, 
prove his ownership aud pay.all costs and expenses, the finder shall pay him 
the appraised value of such estray, or may, at his option, deliver up the es- 


A lawful fence is fifty-four inches high, made of rails, wire or boards, 
with posts not more than ten feet apart where rails are used, and eight feet 
where boards are used, substantially built and kept in good repair; or any 
other fence, in the opinion of the fence viewers, shall be declared a lawful 
fence — provided the lower rail, wire or board be not more than twonty nor 
less thah sixteen inches from the ground. 

_ The respective owners of lands enclosed with fences shall maintain parti- 
tion fences between their own and next adjoining enclosure so long as they 
improve them in equal shares, unless otherwise agreed between them. 

If any party neglect to maintain such partition fence as he should main- 
tain, the fence viewers (the township trustees), upon complaint of aggrieved 
party, may, upon due notice to both parties, examine the fence, and, if 
found insufficient, notify the delinquent party, in writing, to repair or re- 
build the same within such time as they judge reasonable. 

If the fence be not repaired or rebuilt accordingly, the complainant may 


do so, and the same being adjudged sufficient by the fence viewers, and the 
value thereof, with their fees, being ascertained and certified under their 
hands, the complainant may demand of the delinquent the sum so ascer- 
: tained, and if the same be not paid in one month after demand, may recover 
it with one per cent a month interest, by action. 

In case of disputes, the fence viewers may decide as to who shall erect or 
maintain partition fences, and in what time the same shall be done; and in 
case any party neglect to maintain or erect such part as may be assigned to 
him, the aggrieved party may erect and maintain the same, and recover 
double damages. 

Uo person, not wishing his land enlosed, and not using it otherwise than 
in common, shall be compelled to maintain any partition fence; but when 
lie uses or incloses his land otherwise than in common, he shall contribute 
to the partition fences. 

Where parties have had their lands inclosed in common, and one of the 
owners desire to occupy his separate and apart from the other, and the other 
refuses to divide the line or build a sufficient fence on the line when di- 
vided, the fence viewers may divide and assign, and upon neglect of the 
other to build as ordered by the" viewers, the one may build the other's part 
and recover as above. 

And when one incloses land which has lain uninclosed, he must pay for 
one-half of each partition fence between himself and his neighbors. 

Where one desires to lay not less than twenty feet of his lands, adjoining 
his neighbor, out to the public to be used in common, he must give his 
neighbor six months' notice thereof. 

Where ja fence has been built on the land of another through mistake, the 
owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and material 
within six months after the division line has been ascertained. "Where the 
material to build such a fence has been taken from the land on which it was 
built, then, before it can be removed, the person claiming must first pay 
for such material to the owner of the land from which it was taken, nor 
shall such a fence be removed at a time when the removal will throw open 
or expose the crops of the other party; a reasonable time must be given be- 
yond the six months to remove crops. 


Any person competent to make a will can adopt as his own the, minor 
child of another. The consent of both parents, if living and not divorced 
or separated, and if divorced or separated, or if unmarried, the consent of 
the parent ^awfully having the custody of the child ; or if either parent is 
dead, then "the consent of the survivor, or if both parents be dead, or the 
child have been and remain abandoned by them, then the consent of the 
Mayor of the city where the child is living, or if riot in the city, then of the 
Clerk of the Circuit Court of the; county shall be given to such 
adoption by an instrument in writing, signed by parties consenting, and stat- 
ing the names of the parties, if known, the name of the child, if known, 
the name of the person adopting such child, and the residence of all, if 
known, and declaring the name by which the child is thereafter to be called 
and known, and stating, also, that such child is given to the person adopting, 
for the purpose of adoption as his own child. 
The person adopting shall also sign said instrument, and all the parties 


shall acknowledge the same in the manner that deeds conveying lands shall 

be acknowledged. - ; -■ .•.:-.■ ■:. •< ■<> > 

The instrument shall he recorded in the office of the County Recorder, ,-,: 


There is in every county elected a Surveyor known as a County Surveyor, 
who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is responsible. 
It is the duty of the County Surveyor, either by himself or his deputy, to 
make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within his county as 
soon as may be after application is made. The necessary chainmeh and 
other assistance must be employed by the person requiring the same to* be 
done, and to be by him paid, unless otherwise agreed; but the chairimen 
must be disinterested persons and approved by the Surveyor and sworn by 
him to measure justly and impartially. Previous to any survey, he shall 
furnish himself with a copy of the field notes of the original survey of the 
same land^ if there be any in the office of the County Auditor, and his sur- 
vey shall be made in accordance therewith. 

Their fees are three dollars per day. For certified copies of field notes, 
twenty-five cents. 

mechanics' liens. 

Every mechanic, or other person who shall do any labor upon, or furnish 
any materials, machinery or fixtures for any building, erection or other 'im- 
provement upon land, including those engaged in the construction or repair 
of any work of internal improvement, by virtue of any contract with the 
owner, his agent, trustee, contractor, or sub-con tr re tor, shall have a lien, on 
complying with the forms of law, upon the building or other improvement 
for his labor done or materials furnished. 

It would take too large a space to detail the manner in which a sub-con- 
tractor secures his lien. He should file, within thirty days after the last of the 
labor was performed, or the last of the material shall have been 'furnished, 
with the clerk of the District Court a true account of the amount due him, 
after allowing all credits, setting forth the time when such material was fur- 
nished or labor performed, and when completed, and containing a correct 
description of the property sought to be charged with the lien, and the whole 
verified by affidavit. 

A principal contractor must file such an affidavit within ninety days, as 

Ordinarily, there are so many points to be examined in order to secure a 
mechanics' lien, that it is much better, unless one is acustomed to managing 
such liens, to consult at once an attorney. 

Remember that the proper time to file the claim is ninety days for a prin- 
cipal contractor, thirty days for a sub-contractor, as above;" and that actions 
to enforce these liens must be commenced within two years, and the rest can 
much better be done with an attorney. 


Persons meeting each other on the public highways, shall give one-half of 
the same by turning to the right. All persons failing to observe this rule 
shall be liable to pay all damages resulting therefrom, together with a fine, 
not exceeding five dollars. 


The prosecution must be instituted on the complaint of the person 

Any person _ guilty of racing horses, or driving upon the public highway, 
in a manner likely to endanger the persons or the lives of others, shall, on 
conviction, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisoned not 
exceeding thirty days. 

It is a misdemeanor, without authority from the proper Road Supervisor, 
to break upon, plow or dig within, the boundary lines of any public high- 

The money tax levied upon the property in each road district in each town- 
ship (except the general Township Fund, set apart for purchasing tools, ma- 
chinery and guide boards), whether collected by the .Road Supervisor or 
County Treasurer, shall be expended for highway purposes in that district, 
and no part thereof shall be paid out or expended for the benefit of another 

The Road Supervisor of each district, is bound to keep the roads and 
■bridges therein, in as good condition as the funds at his disposal will permit; 
to put guide boards at cross roads and forks of highways in his district ; and 
when notified in writing that any portion of the public highway, or any 
bridge is unsafe, must in a reasonable time repair the same, and for this pur- 
pose may call out any or all the able bodied men in the district, but not 
more than two days at one time, without their consent. 

Also, when notified in writing, of the growth of any Canada thistles upon 
vacant or non-resident lands or vacant lots, within his district, the owner, 
lessee or agent thereof being unknown, shall cause the same to be destroyed. 

Bridges when erected and maintained by the public, are parts of the high- 
way, and must not be less than sixteen feet wide.. 

■ A penalty is imposed upon any one who rides or drives faster than a walk 
across any such bridge. 

The manner of establishing, vacating or altering roads, etc., is so well 
known to all township officers, that it sufficient here to say that the first step 
is by petition, filed in the Auditors' office, addressed in substance as follows : 

The Board of Supervisors of County: The undersigned asks that 

a highway, commencing at and running thence and terminating 

at , be established, vacated or altered (as the case may be). 

When the petition is filed, all necessary and succeding steps will be shown 
and explained to the petitioners by the Auditor. 


The father, mother and children of any poor person who has applied for 
aid, and who is unable to maintain himself by work, shall, jointly or sev- 
erally, maintain such poor person in such manner as may be approved by 
the Township Trustees. 

In the absence or inability of nearer relatives, the same liability shall ex- 
tend to the grandparents, if of ability without personal labor, and to the 
male grandchildren who are of ability, by personal labor or otherwise. 

The Township Trustees may, upon the failure of such relatives to main- 
tain a poor person, who has made application for relief, apply to the Circuit 
Court for an order to compel the same. 

Upon ten days' notice, in writing, to the parties sought to be charged, a 
hearing may be had, and. an order made for entire or partial support of the 
poor person. 


Appeal may be taken from such judgment as from other judgments of 
the Circuit Court. 

When any person, having any estate, abandons either children, wife or 
husband, leaving them chargeable, or likely to become chargeable, upon the 
public for support, upon proof of above fact, an order may be had from the 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, or Judge, authorizing the Trustees or the Sheriff 
to take into possession such estate. 

The court may direct such personal estate to be sold, to be applied, as 
well 'as the rents and profits of the real estate, if any, to the support of 
children, wife or husband. 

If the party against whom the order is issued return and support the per- 
son abandoned, or give security for the same, the order' shall be discharged, 
and the property taken returned. 

The mode of relief for the poor, through the action of the Township 
Trustees, or' the action of the Board of Supervisors, is so well known to 
every township officer, and the circumstances attending applications for re- 
lief are so varied, that it need now only be said that it is the duty of each 
county to provide for its poor, no matter at what place they may be. 


A tenant giving notice to quit demised premises at a time named, and 
afterward holding over, and a tenant or his assignee willfully holding over 
the premises after the term, and after notice to quit, shall pay double rent. 

Any person in possession of real property, with the assent of the owner, 
is presumed to be a tenant at will until the contraiy is shown. 

Thirty days' notice, in writing, is necessary to be given by either party 
before he can terminate a tenancy at will; but when, in any case, a rent is 
reserved payable at intervals of less than thirty days, the length of notice 
need not be greater than such interval between the days of payment. In 
case of tenants occupying and cultivating farms, the notice must fix the ter- 
mination of the tenancy to take place on the 1st of March, except in cases 
of field tenants and croppers, whose leases shall be held to expire when the 
crop is harvested; provided, that in a case of a crop of corn, it shall not be 
later, than the 1st day of December, unless otherwise agreed upon. But 
when an express agreement is made, whether the same has been reduced to 
writing or not, the tenancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without 

But where an express agreement is made, whether reduced to writingpr 
not, the tanancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

If such tenant cannot be found in the county, the notices above required 
may be given to any sub-tenant or other person in possession of the prem- 
ises; or if the premises be vacant, by affixing the notice to the principal door 
of the building, or on some conspicuous position on the land, if there be no 

The landlord shall have a lien for his rent upon all the crops grown on the 
premises, and upon any other personal property of the tenant used on the 
premises during the term, and not exempt from execution, for a period of 
one year after a year's rent or the rent of a shorter period claimed tails due; 
but such lien shall not continue more than six months after the expiration 
of the term. 

The lien may be effected by the commencement of an action, within the 



period above described, for rent alone; and the landlord is entitled to a writ 
of attachment, upon filing an affidavit that the action is commenced to re- 
cover rent accrued within one year previous thereto upon the premises de- 
scribed in the affidavit. 


Sand 130 

Sorgum Seed 30 

Broom Corn Seed 30 

Buckwhect 52 

Salt 50 

Barley 48 

Corn Meal 48 

Castor Beans 46 

Timothy Seed 45 

Hemp Seed 44 

Dried Peaches 33 

Oats 33 

Dried Apples 24 

Bran 20 

Blue Grass Seed 14 

Hungarian Grass Seed 45 

Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or sold or 
delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to the con- 
trary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to wit: 

Apples, PeacheB or Quinces 48 

Cherries, Grapes, Currants or Gooseber's, 40 
Strawberries, Raspberries or Blackber's, 32 

Osage Orango Seed 32 

Millet Seed 45 

Stone Coal 80 

time 80 

Corn in the ear 70 

Wheat 60 

Potatoes 60 

Beans 60 

Clover Seed 60 

Onions 57 

Shelled Corn 56 

Rye 56 

Flax Seed 56 

Sweet Potatoes 46 

Penalty for giving less than the above standard is treble damages and 
costs and five dollars addition thereto as a fine. 


Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the amount 
and time of payment are mentioned : 

$100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown or order, one hun- 
dred dollars, for value received. L. D. Lowey. 

A note to be payable in anything else than money needs only the facts 
substituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus. 
Mr. F. H. Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

v F. D. Silva. 


W. TS. Mason, Salem, Illinois, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.50 $6 00 

2 Seamless Sacks " 30 60 

Received payment, 

A. A. Graham. 

$6 60 



Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus: 
$100. Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Eeceived of J. "W. Davis, one hundred dollars, for 'ser- 
vices rendered in grading his Jot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Beady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 

definition of commercial teems. 

-$ — ■■ — means dollars, being a contraction of II.. S., which was formerly 
placed beforeany denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ ■ stands for at or to ; lb for pounds, and bhl. for barrels ; ^ for -per or 
by the. Thus, Butter sells at 20@30c $ ft, and Flour at $8@$12 f bbl. 

% for per cent, and Jf iov'number. >. ., „• 

May 1. Wheat sells at $1.20@$1.25, " seller June."- Seller June meaDS 
that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering it at any 
time during the month of June. 

Selling snort, is contracting to deliver a certain amount-of-grain* or stoekj 
at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller 1 . has' not 
the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling "short" .to 
depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and fill 
his contract at a profit.- Hence the "shorts " are termed " bears." ! ' " 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain of 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, ex- 
pecting to make a profit by the rise in prices. The "longs "are termed 
" bulls," as it is for their interest to " operate " so as to " toss " the prices 
upward as mnch as possible. * ■ 


Iowai , 18—. 

after date — promises to pay to the order of '— , dollars, 

at -, for value received, with interest at ten per cent per annum after 

until paid. Interest payable , and on interest not paid when due, 

interest at same rate and conditions. 

A failure to pay said interest, or any part thereof, within 20 days after due, shall cause the 
wnole note to become due and collectible at once. 

If this note is sued, or judgment is confessed hereon, $ shall be aliowedas attorhey'ftes. 

No.—. P.O. , - -^-.* f 


—vs. — In Court of County, Iowa, , of • 

County, Iowa, do hereby confess that justly indebted to — ■ , in the 

sum of dollars, and the further sum of $— — as attorney fees, with 

interest thereon at ten per cent from , and — hereby confess, judg- 
ment against as defendant in favor of said , for said, sum,!, of 

$ ) ar >d $ — -as attorney fees, hereby authorizing the Clerk- of mo 

— — Court of said county to enter up judgment, for said sum against 

with costs, and interest at 10 per cent from , the interest to be paid—. 

Said debt and judgment being for . 


It is especially agreed, however, That if this judgment is paid within 
twenty days after due, no attorney fees need be paid. And — — hereby sell, 
convey and release all right of homestead we now occupy in favor of said 

so far as this judgment is concerned, and agree that it shall be liable 

on execution for this judgment. 

Dated , 18—. . 

The State of Iowa, ) 

County. ) 

being duly sworn according to law, depose and say that the fore- 
going statement and Confession of Judgment was read over to , and 

that — understood the contents thereof, and that the statements contained 
therein are true, and that the sums therein mentioned are justly to become 

dnc said as aforesaid. 

iSworn .to and subscribed before me and in my presence by the said 
. this day of , 18 — . , Notary Public. 


An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunderstand- 
ings and trouble, No particular form is necessary, but the facts must be 
clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a reason- 
able consideration. 

General Form of Agreement. — This agreement, made the second day of 
June, 1878, between John Jones, of Keokuk, county of Lee, State of Iowa, 
of the first part, and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second 
part — 

Witne88eth: That the said John Jones, in consideration of the agreement 
of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and agrees 
to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good and 
marketable condition, at the village of Melrose, Iowa, during the month of 
November, of this year, one hundred tons of prairie hay, in the following 
lots, and at the following specified times; namely, twenty-five tons by the 
seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the fourteenth of the 
month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty-first, and the entire one hun- 
dred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas "Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt fulfill- 
ment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts to 
and, agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per 
ton, for each ton as 6oon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is hereby 
stipulated and agreed, that the party so failing shall pay to the other, one 
hundred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and year first 
above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 

Agreement with Clerk for Services. — This agreement, made the first day 
of Slay, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight, between Keuben 
Stone, of Dubuque, county »of Dubuque, State of Iowa, party of the first 



part, and George Barclay, of McGregor, county of Clayton, State of Iowa, 
party of the second part — 

Witnesseth: That the said George Barclay agrees faithfully and diligently 
to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for and during the 
space of one year from the date hereof, should both lire such length of time, 
without absenting himself from his occupation; during which time he, the 
said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of Dubuque, will carefully and 
honestly attend, doing and ■ performing all duties as clerk and salesman 
aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects as directed and desired by the 
said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said Barclay^ 
the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one thousand 
dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon the last day 
of each month; provided that all dues for days of absence from business by 
said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum otherwise by the agreement 
due and payable by the said Stone to the said Barclay 

Witness our hands. • Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay, 
bills of sale. 

A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consideration 
to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The purchaser 
must take actual possession of the 'property, or the bill of sale must be ac- 
knowledged and recorded. 

Common Form of Bill of Sale. — Know all men by this instrument, that 
I, Louis Clay, of Burlington, Iowa, of the first part, for and in consideration 
of five hundred and ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, 
of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, 
and by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, his executors, administrators and assigns, my undivided half of ten 
acres of corn, now growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrell, in the town above 
mentioned ; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, belonging to me 
and in my possession at the farm aforesaid ; to have and to hold the same unto 
the party of the second part, his executors and assigns forever. And I do, 
for myself and legal representatives, agree with the said party of the second 
part, and his legal representatatives, to warrant and defend the sale of the 
aforementioned property and chattels unto the said party of the second part, 
and his legal representatives, against all and any person whomsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day of 
October, one thousand eight hundred and soventy-six. 

Louis Clay. * 


To John Wontpay: Ton are hereby notified to quit the possession of 
the premises you now occupy, to*- wit: 

[Insert Description.] 

on or before thirty days from the date of this notice. 

Dated January 1, 1878. Landlord. 

[Reversed for Notice to Landlord.] 



I, Charles Mansfield, of the town of Bellevue, county of Jackson, State of 
Iowa, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing health, but of 
sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be my last will and 
testament, in manner following, to-wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto to my eldest son, Sydney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, of bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself, 
in the township of Iowa, consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, with all 
the houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging; to have and 
to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand Dollars, in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio; and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in the township of 
Fairfield, and recorded in my name in the recorder's office in the county 
where such land is located. The north. one hundred and sixty acres of said 
half section is devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 

Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mansfield, 
five shares of railroad stook in the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and my one 
hundred and sixty acres of land, and saw-mill thereon, situated in Manistee, 
Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing, which said real estate is recorded in my name, in the county where 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my house- 
hold furniture, goods, chattels and personal property, about my home, not 
hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thousand Dollars of bank stock in 
the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and 
benefit of the home farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower, to 
which she is entitled by law — said farm being my present place of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the income 
from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson street, Chicago, Illinois, 
during the term of his natural life. Said building and land therewith to 
revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon the demise 
of my said father. 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, Vic- 
toria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to relin- 
quish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may re- 
vert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as the executors of this, my last 
will and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest 
son, Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be 
paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Bellevue, the 
residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, , 
for her use forever. 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and testa- 
ment, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, eight- 
een hundred and seventy-two. 

Charles Mansfield. 


Signed, and declared by Charles Mansfield, as and for his last will and 
testament, in the presence of us, who, at his request, and in his presence, 
and in the presence of each other, have subscribed our names hereunto as 
witnesses thereof. 

Petee A. Schenck, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. , iiiiiii 


Wheeeas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testament, 
1 do now, by this writing, add this codocil to my said will, to be taken as a 
part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna Louise, 
has deceased, November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three;' arid 
whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened Richard 
Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest and title in lands and bank stock and chattels bequea&ed to 
my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth day of 
March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. 

Charles Mansfield. ;| 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, Charles 
Mansfield^ as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testament. 
And we, at his request, and in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other, have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 

John C. Shay, Bellevue, Iowa. 

{Form No. 1.) 

SATISFACTION of mortgage. 
State of Iowa, ) 

County, j ss - 

I) , of the county of , State of Iowa, do hereby acknowledge 

that a certain Indenture of ■ , bearing date the day of , A. D. 

18 — , made and executed by and , his wife, to said on 

the following described Eeal Estate, in the county of , and State of 

Iowa; to-wit: (here insert description) and filed for record in the office of 

the Recorder of the county of , and State of Iowa, on the — — day of 

, A. D. 18 — , at o'clock . M.; and recorded in Book of 

Mortgage Records, on page , is redeemed, paid off, satisfied and dis- 
charged in full. . [seal.] 

State of Iowa, ) 

County, f ss - 

Be it Remembered, That on this — — day of , A. D. 18—, before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared 

— — , to me personally known to be the identical person who executed the 

above (satisfaction of mortgage) as grantor, and acknowledged • 

signature thereto to be voluntary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and : seal^ the day and year last above 

written. . 



Know all Men by these Peesents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by of 

county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

the following described premises, situated in the county of , and 

State of , to- wit: (here insert description) and do hereby covenant 

with the said that lawfully seized of said premises, that they 

are free from incumbrance, that have good right and lawful authority 

to sell and convey the same; and do hereby covenant to warrant and 

de'fend the same against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. To 

be void upon condition that the said shall pay the full amount of 

principal and interest at the time therein specified, of certain promis- 
sory note for the sum of dollars. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18, — with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said Mortgagee agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied upon 
the above described premises. It is also agreed by the Mortgagor that if 
it becomes necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a reasonable amount shall 

be allowed as an attorney's fee for foreclosing. And the said hereby 

relinquishes all her right of dower and homestead in and to the above de- 
scribed premises. 
Signed this day of — — , A. D. 18 — . 

[Acknowledge as in Form No. 1.] 


This Indentube, made and executed by and between of the 

county of and State of , part of the first part, and of the 

county of and State of part of the second part, Witnesseth, that 

the said part of the first part, for and in consideration of the sum of 

dollars, paid by the said part of the second part, the receipt of which is 
hereby acknowledged, have granted and sold, and do by these presents, grant, 
bargain, sell, convey and confirm, unto the said party of the second part, 
heirs and assigns forever, the certain tract or parcel of real estate, sit- 
uated in the county of and State of , described as follows, to-wit: 

(Here insert description.) 

The said part of the first part represent to and covenant with the part 
of the second part, that he have good right to sell and convey said prem- 
ises, that they are free from incumbrance, and that he will warrant and de- 
fend them against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever, and do ex- 
pressly hereby release all rights of dower in and to said premises, and relin- 
quish and convey all rights of homestead therein. 

This instrument is made, executed and delivered upon the following con- 
ditions, to-wit: 

First. Said first part agree to pay said or order 

Second. Said first part further agree as is stipulated in said note, that 


if he shall fail to pay any of said interest when due, it shall bear interest 
at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, from the time the same becomes due, 
and this mortgage shall stand security for the same. 

Third. Said first part further agree that he will pay all taxes and 
assessments levied upon said real estate before the same become delinquent, 
and if not paid the holder of this mortgage may declare the whole sum of 
money herein secured due and collectable at once, or he may elect to pay 
such taxes or assessments, and be entitled to interest on the same at the 
rate of ten per cent, per annum, and this mortgage shall stand as serarity 
for the amount so paid. 

Fowrih. Said first part further agree that if he fail to pay any of 

said money, either principal or interest, within days after the same 

becomes due; or fail to conform or comply with any of the foregoing con- 
ditions or agreements, the whole sum herein secured shall become due and 
payable at once, and this mortgage may thereupon be foreclosed immedi- 
ately for the whole of said money, interest and costs. 

Fifth. Said part further agree that in the event of the non-payment 
of either principal, interest or taxes when due, and upon the filing of a bill 
of foreclosure of this mortgage, an attorney's fee of dollars shall be- 
come due and payable, and shall be by the court taxed, and this mortgage 
shall stand as security therefor, and the same shall be included in the de- 
cree of foreclosure, and shall be made by the sheriff on general or special 
execution with the other money, interest and costs, and the contract em- 
bodied in this mortgage and the note described herein, shall in all respects 

be governed, construed and adjudged by the laws of , where the 

same is made. The foregoing conditions being performed, this conveyance 
to be void, otherwise of iull force and virtue. 

[Acknowledge as in form No. l.J 


This Article of Agreement, Made and entered into on this day of 

, A. D. 187-, by and between , of the county of , and 

State of Iowa, of the first part, and — ■ , of the county of , 

and State of Iowa, of the second part, witnesseth that the said party of the 
first part has this day leased unto the party of the second part the following 
described premises, to- wit: 

[Here insert description.'] 

for the term of from and after the — day of , A. D. 187-, at 

the ; rent of dollars, to be paid as follows, to-wit : 

{Here insert terms.] 

And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due and unpaid, or if 
default be made in any of the covenants herein contained, it shall then be 
lawful for the said party of the first part to re-enter said premises, or to 
destrain for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of 
forcible entry and detainer, notwithstanding the provision of Section 3612 
of the Code of 1873; or he may use any or all of said remedies. 

And the said party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the 
first part the rent as above 6tated, except when said premises are untenable 


by reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party 
of the second part, or persons family, or in employ, or by supe- 
rior force and inevitable necessity. And the said party of the second part 

covenants that will use the said premises as a , and for no other 

purposes whatever; and that — especially will not use said premises, or 

permit the same to be used, for any unlawful business or purpose whatever; 

that will not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said premises without 

the written consent of the lessor, under penalty of a forfeiture of all 

rights under this lease, at the election of the party of the first part; and 

that will use all due care and diligence in guarding said property, with 

the buildings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now are, or may 
at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, inevitable 
necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of the 

lessee, or persons of family, or in employ excepted; and at the 

expiration of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said 

covenants herein contained, will, without further notice of any kind, 

qiiit and surrender the possession and occupancy of said premises in as good 
condition as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, dam- 
ages by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, only excepted. 

In witness whereof the said parties have subscribed their names on the 
date first above written. 

In presence of 


, 18- 

On or before the— day of , 18 — , for value received, I promise to 

pay or order, dollars, with intesest from date until paid, 

at ten per cent per annum, payable annually, at . Unpaid interest 

shall bear interest at ten per cent per annum. On failure to pay interest 
within days after due, the whole sum, principal and interest, shall be- 
come due at once 


Know all Men by these Presents: That of County, and 

State of in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , of 

County and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said the 

following described personal property, now in the possession of in the 

county, and State of , to-wit: 

[Here insert Description.] 

And do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 

any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
and to said property being the right of redemption as herein provided. This 
conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, for 

the sum of dollars.- 

One note for $— , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18—, with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $— , due , 18—, with interest annually at per cent. 


The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any time any part 
or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said grantee may proceed 
by sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said 
notes, whether due or not, the grantor to pay all necessary expense of such 

foreclosure, including $ Attorney's fees, and whatever remains after 

paying off said notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of , 18 — . . 

[Acknowledged as in Form No. l.J 


Know all Men by these Presents : That of County and 

State of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, in hand paid by 

of County, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto 

the said and to heirs and assigns, the following described premises, 

situated in the County of- , State of Iowa, to- wit: 

[Here insert Description.] 

And I do hereby covenant with the said that — lawfully seized in fee 

situpleof said premises, that they are free from incumbrance; that — ha good 
right and lawful authority to sell the same, and — do hereby covenant to war- 
rant and defend the said premises and appurtenances thereto belonging, 

against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever; and the said - 

hereby relinquishes all her right of dower and of homestead in and to the 
above described premises. 

Signed the day of , A. D. 18 — . 


[Acknowledged as in Form ~No. l.J 


Know all Men by these Presents: That - , of County, State 

of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, to — in hand paid by 

> of County, State of , the receipt whereof — do hereby ac- 
knowledge, have bargained, sold and quit-claimed, and by these presents do 

bargain, sell and quit-claim unto the said and to — heirs and assigns 

forever, all — right, title, interest, estate, claim and demand, both at law and 
in equity, and as well in possession as in expectancy, of, in and to the fol- 
lowing described premises, to-wit: [here insert description] with all and 
singular the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto belonging. 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18 — . 

Signed in Presence of 

[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 



Know all Men by these Pbesents: That of County, and 

State of ■ am held and firmly bound unto of County, and 

State of , in the sum of dollars, to be paid to the said , his 

executors or assigns, for which payment well and truly to be made, I bind 
myself firmly by these presents. Signed the day of , A. D. 18 — . 

The condition of this obligation is such, that if the said obligee shall pay 
to said obligor or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at 
the time therein specified, of — promissory note of even date herewith, for 
the sum of Dollars. 

One note for $ — : — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ — ■—, due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $— : — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

And pay all taxes accruing upon the lands herein described, then said obli- 
gor shall convey to the said obligee; or his assigns, that certain tract or par- 
cel of real estate, situated in the County of , and State of Iowa, des- 
cribed as follows, to-wit: [here insert description] by a "Warranty Deed, 
with the usual covenants, duly executed and acknowledged. 

If said obligee should fail to make the payments as above stipulated, or 
any part thereof, as the same becomes due, said obligor may at his option, 
by notice to the obligee, terminate his liability under the bond, and resume 
the possession and absolute control of said premises, time being the essence 
of this agreement. 

On the fulfillment of the above conditions, this obligation to become 
void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; unless terminated by 
Jhe obligor as above stipulated. 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 


By the laws of Iowa, as amended by the Legislature of 1878, it is unlaw- 
ful to do any of the following acts: 


1. To kill, trap, ensnare, or in any manner destroy any of the birds of 
the State, except birds of prey and game birds, during the open seasons as 
provided by law; or to destroy the eggs of such birds as are protected by 
this section — except that' persons killing birds for scientific purposes, or 

? reservation in museums and cabinets, are not liable under this section, 
'enalty, $5 to $25. 

2. To shoot or kill any prairie chicken from Dec. 1 to Sept. 1, woodcock 
from Jan. 1 to July 10, pheasant, wild turkey or quail from Jan 1 to Oct. 
1, wild duck, snipe, goose or brant from May 1 to Aug. 15, deer or elk from 
Jan. 1 to Sept. 1, beaver, mink, otter or muskrat from April 1 to Novem- 
ber. Penalty, deer or elk, $25; the others, $10. 

3. To take or attempt to take at any time with trap, net or snare any 
bird or animal mentioned in Sec. 2, or to willfully destroy the eggs or nests 
of such birds. Except that beaver, mink, otter or muskrat may be trapped 


or snared during the open season, or at any time for the protection of pri- 
vate property. Penalty the same as in section 2. 

4. To shoot or kill any wild duck, goose or brant with any kind of gun, 
except such as is commonly shot from the shoulder, or to use medicated or 
poisoned food to capture or kill any of the birds mentioned in section 2. 
Penalty, $25, and thirty days in jail unless sooner paid. 

5. To shoot or kill for traffic any prairie chicken, snipe, woodcock, quail 
or pheasant at anytime; for one person to kill during one day more than 25 
of either kind of said birds; to ship or take out of the State any bird 
mentioned in section 2, deer or elk ; to buy, sell, or have in possession any 
such bird, deer or elk during the close season, except the first five days. Pen- 
alty, deer or elk, $25 ; others, $10. 

6. For any person, firm, or corporation to have in possession,- at one 
time, more than twenty-five of either prairie chicken, snipe, woodcock, quail 
or pheasant, unless lawfully received ior transportation; to ship to any per- 
son in the State in one day more than one dozen of the birds mentioned in 
section 2; and in case of shipment an affidavit must be made that the birds 
have not been unlawfully killed, bought, sold, or had in possession, and are 
not shipped for sale or profit, and giving name and address of consignee 
and number of birds shipped, and a copy of the affidavit shall accompany 
the birds, etc. Penalty, same as in section 2. The making of a false affi- 
davit is perjury. 

7. For any common carrier, its agent or servant, to knowingly receive 
for transportation any bird or animal mentioned in section two, during the 
close season (except the first five days), or at any other time, except in the 
manner provided by law. Penalty, $100 to $300, or 30 days in jail, or 

8. The having in possession during the close season, except the first five 
days, of any bird mentioned in section 2, deer or elk, is prima facie evidence 
of a violation of the law. 

9. Prosecutions, except under section 1, may be brought in any county 
where the game is found, and the court shall appoint an attorney to prose- 
cute, who shall be entitled to a fee of $10; and the person filing the infor- 
mation to a fee equal to half the fine imposed on the defendant; both fees 
to be taxed as costs. The county is, however, in no event liable for either. 


10. To catch or kill bass or wall-eyed pike from April 1 to June 1; sal- 
mon or trout from November 1 to February 1. Penalty, $5 to $25. 

11. To use any seine or net for the purpose of catching fish, except 
native minnows, and except by the fish commissioner for propagation and 
exchange. Penalty, $5 to $50 for first offense; $20 to $50 for second. 

12. To place across any river, creek, pond or lake, any trot line, dam, 
seine, weir, fish-dam, or other obstruction, in such manner as to prevent the 
free passage of fish, except under the direction of the fish commissioner, and 
except dams for manufacturing purposes provided with fish-ways. Penalty, 
$25 to $100, or 10 to 30 days in jail. 

13. To continue any dam or obstruction heretofore erected, for an unrea- 
sonable length of time, after the 6th day of April, 1878, without having 
fish- ways provided therein. Penalty, $5 to $50 for first offense; $20 to $50 
for the second, and the dam abated as a nuisance. 


14. Persons raising or propagating fish on their own premises, or own- 
ing premises on which there are waters having no natural outlet, supplied 
with fish, shall absolutely own said fish. No person shall take, or attempt 
to take, fish therefrom without consent of the owner. Penalty, $5 to $25, 
or 30 days in jail. 

The "close" season is when killing is forbidden; the "open" season is 
when it is not. 


The business of publishing books by subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not authorized by the publisher, in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the follow- 
ing statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the book 
named, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to psiy the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described by the pro- 
spectus and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before 
subscribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 
and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he is usually paid a commis- 
sion for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the con- 
ditions upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the 
, publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription 
conditional, or modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out 
by the prospectus and sample, in order to bind the principal, the sub- 
scriber should see that such condition or changes are stated over or in con- 
nection with his signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as xoritten is, that they can 
not be altered, varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be 
done in writing: It is therefore important that all persons contemplating 
subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after the 
subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode and have no autlwrity to do it any other way to the pre- 
judice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
matter. They can not collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their business. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is; and if they cannot read them- 
selves call on some one disinterested, who can. 

Constitution of State of Iowa. 

We, the People of the State of Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the 
blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Sim for a corv- 
tinuation of those blessings, do ordain and establish a free and independ- 
ent government, by the name of the State of Iowa, the boundaries whereof 
shall be as follows: 

Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, 
at a point due east of the middle of the mouth of the main channel of the 
Des Moines river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said 
Des Moines river, to a point on said river where the northern boundary 
line of the State of Missouri — as established by the Constitution of that 
State, adopted June 12, 1820 — crosses the said middle of the main channel 
of the said Des Moines river; thence westwardly along the said northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established at the time aforesaid, 
until an extension of said line intersects the middle of the main channel of 
the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said 
Missouri river, to a point opposite the middle of the main channel of the Big 
Sioux river, according to Nicollett's map; thence up the main channel of 
the said Big Sioux river, according to said map, until it is intersected by the 
parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude; thence east 
along said parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty, minutes, until said par- 
allel intersects the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said Mississippi river, to the place 
of beginning. 

Article 1. — Bill of Bights. 

Section 1. All men are, by nature, free and equal, and have certain in- 
alienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and 
liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and 
obtaining safety and happiness. 

Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is 
instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they 
have the right, at all times, to alter or reform the same, whenever the pub- 
lic good may require it. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall make no law respecting an estab- 
ment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; nor shall any per- 
son be compelled to attend any place of worship, pay tithes, taxes, or other 


fates, for building or repairing places of worship, or the maintenance of any 
minister or ministry. 

Seo. 4. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any 
office of public trust, and no person shall be deprived of any of his rights, 
privileges, or capacities, or disqualified from the performance of any of his 
public or private duties, or rendered incompetent to give evidence in any 
court of law or equity, in consequence of his opinions on the subject of re- 
ligion; and any party to any judicial proceeding shall have the right to use 
as a witness, or take the testimony of any other person, not disqualified on 
account of interest, who may be cognizant of any fact material to the rase; 
and parties to suits may be witnesses, as provided by law. 

Sec. 5. Any citizen of this State who may hereafter be engaged either 
directly or indirectly, in a duel, either as principal or accessory before the 
fact, shall forever be disqualified from holding any office under the Consti- 
tution of this State. 

Sec. 6. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation ; the 
General Assembly shall not grant to any citizen, or class of citizens, privi- 
leges or immunities, which upon the same terms shall not equally belong 
to all citizens. 

Sec. 7. Every person may speak, write and publish his sentiments on 
all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right. No law shall be 
passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, ov of the press. In all 
prosecutions or indictments for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to 
the jury, and if it appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous 
was true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the 
party shall be acquitted. 

Sec. 8. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 

papers, and effects, against unreasonable seizures and searches shall not be 

violated; and no warrant shall issue but on probable cause, supported by 

• oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and 

the persons and' things to be seized. 

Sec. 9 The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate; but the Gen- 
eral Assembly may authorize trial by a jury of a less number than twelve 
men in inferior courts; but no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law. 

Sec. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, and in cases involving the life or 
liberty of an individual, the accused shall have a right to a speedy and pub- 
lic trial by an impartial jury ; to be informed of the accusation against him; 
to have a copy of the same when demanded; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for his own witnesses; and to 
have the assistance of counsel. 

Sec. 11. All offenses less than felony, and in which the punishment 
does not exceed a fine of one hundred dollars, or imprisonment for thirty 
days, shall be tried summarily before a justice of the peace, or other officer 
authorized by law, on information under oath, without indictment, or the 
intervention of a grand jury, saving to the defendant the right of appeal; 
and no person shall be held to answer for a higher criminal offense, unless 
on presentment or indictment by a grand jury, except in cases arising in 
the array or navy, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war 
or public danger. > 

Seo. 12. No person shall, after acquittal, be tried for the same offense. 


All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except 
for capital offenses, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great. 

Seo. 13. The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, or refused 
when application is made as required by law, unless in the case of rebellion 
or invasion, the public safety may require it. 

Sec. 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No. 
standing army shall be kept up by the State in time of peace; and in time 
of war no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than 
two years. 

Sec. 15. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house 
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war except in the manner 
prescribed by law. 

Seo. 16. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. ' No 
person shall be convicted of treason unless on the evidence of two witnesses 
to the same overt act, or confession in open court. 

Sec. 17. Excessive bail shall not be required ; excessive fines shall not be 
imposed, and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted. 

Sec. 18. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just 
compensation first being made, or secured to be made, to the owner thereof, 
as soon as the damages shall be assessed by a jury, who shall not take into 
consideration any advantages that may result to said owner on account of 
the improvement for which it is taken. 

Sec. 19. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any'civil action, on 
mesne or final process, unless in case of fraud ; and no person shall be im- 
prisoned for a military fine in time of peace. 

Sec. 20. The people have the right freely to assemble together to coun- 
sel for the common good; to make known their opinions to their represen- 
tatives, and to petition for a redress of grievances. 

Seo. 21. No bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed. 

Sec. 22. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become residents of this 
State, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment, 
and descent of property, as native born citizens. 

Seo. 23. There shall be no slavery in this State; nor shall there be in- 
voluntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime. 

Sec. 24. No lease or grant of agricultural lands, reserving any rent or 
service of any kind, shall be valid for a longer period than twenty years. 

Seo. 25. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or 
deny others, retained by the people. 

Article 2. — Eight of Suffrage. 

Section 1. Every male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty- 
one years, who shall have been a resident of this State six months next pre- 
ceding the election, and in the county in which he claims his vote sixty 
days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or hereafter 
may be authorized by law. 

Seo. 2. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of 
the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their 
attendance at such elections, going to and returning therefrom. 


Sec. 3. No elector shall be obliged to perform military duty on the day 
of election, except in time of war or public danger. 

Sec. 4. No person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United 
States shall be considered a resident of this State by being stationed in any 
garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station within this State. 

Seo. 5. No idiot or insane person, or person convicted of any infamous 
crime, shall be entitled to the privilege of an elector. 

Seo. 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot. 

Article 3. — Of the Distribution of Powees. 

Section 1. The powers of the government of Iowa shall be divided into 
three separate departments: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial; 
and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one 
of these departments shall exercise any function appertaining to either of 
the others, except in cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted. 

Legislative Department. 

Section 1. The legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives; and the style of every law shall be — "Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the State of Iowa." 

Sec. 2. The sessions of the General Assembly shall be biennial, and 
shall commence on the second Monday in January next ensuing the election 
of its members; unless the Governor of the State shall, in the meantime, 
convene the General Assembly byproclamation. 

Sec. 3. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen 
every second year, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on 
the second Tuesday in October, except the years of the Presidential elec- 
tion, when the election shall be on the Tuesday next after the first Monday 
in November; and their term of office shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election, and continue two years, and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 4. No person shall be a momber of the House of Representatives 
who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; be a free white 
male citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this 
State one year next preceding his election, and at the time of his election 
shall have had an actual residence of sixty days in the county or district he 
may have been chosen to represent. 

Seo. 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four yeprs, at tin same 
time and place as Representatives ; they shall be twenty-five years of age, 
and possess the qualifications of Representatives, as to residence and citi- 

Sec. 6. The number of Senators shall not be less than one-third, nor 
more than one-half the representative body; and shall be so classified by 
lot, that one class being as nearly one-half as possible, shall be elected every 
two years. When the number of Senators is increased, they shall be an- 
nexed by lot to one or the other of the two classes, so as to ke«p them as 
nearly equal in numbers as practicable. 


Seo. 7. Each House shall choose its own officers, and judge of the quali- 
fication, election and return of its own members. A contested election 
shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law. 

Seo. 8. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to transact 
business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may 
compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such 
penalties as each house may provide. 

Seo. 9. Each house shall sit upon its own adjournments, keep a journal 
of its proceedings, and publish the same; determine its rules of proceed- 
ings, punish members for disorderly behavior, and with the consent of 
two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense; and 
shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the General Assembly 
of a free and independent State. 

Sec. 10. Every member of the General Assembly shall have the liberjty 
to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think 
injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent 
entered on the journals ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either 
house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be 
entered on the journals. 

Seo. 11. Senators and ^Representatives, in all cases except treason, felony, 
or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during the session 
of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same. 

Sec. 12. When vacancies occur in either house, the governor, or the per- 
son exercising the functions of governor, shall issue writs of election to till 
such vacancies. 

Seo. 18. The doors of each house shall be open, except on sueh.occas^ 
sions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy. 

Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjpurn 
for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they 
may be sitting. 

Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house, and may be amended, al- 
tered, or rejected by the other; and every bill having passed both, houses, 
shall be signed by the Speaker and President of their respective houses, 

Seo. 16. Every bill which shall have passed the General Assembly, shall, 
before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor. If lie approve, he 
shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to the 
house in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it; if, after 6uch reconsideration, it again pass 
both houses, by yeas and nays, by a majority of two-thirds of the members 
of each house, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor's objec- 
tions. If any bill shall not be returned within three days after it shall 
have been presented to him (Sunday excepted), the same shall be a law in 
like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly, by ad- 
journment, prevent such return. Any bill submitted to the Governor for 
his approval during the last three days of a session of the General Assem- 
bly, shall be deposited by him in the office of the Secretary of State within 
thirty days after the adjournment, with his approval if approved by him, 
and with his objections, if he disapproves thereof. 

Sec. 17. No bill shall be passed unless by the assent of a majority of 
all the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly, and the 
question upon the final passage shall be taken immediately upon its last 
reading, and the yeas and nays entered upon the journal. 


Seo. 18. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the 
public money shall be attached to and and published with the laws at every 
regular session of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 19. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of 
impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. "When 
sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation; and 
no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the 
members present. 

Sec. 20. The Governor, Judges of the Supreme and District Courts, 
and other State officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor 
or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or 
profit under this State; but the party convicted or acquitted shall neverthe- 
less be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment according to law. All 
other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors and malfeasance in office, 
in such manner as the General Assembly may provide. 

Sec. 21. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which 
he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under 
this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall 
have been increased during such term, except such offices as may be filled 
by elections by the people. 

Sec. 22. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, 
Or this State, or any other power, shall be eligible to hold a seat in the 
General Assembly. But offices in the militia, to which there is attached 
no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmaster, whose 
compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, or notary 
public, shall not be deemed lucrative. 

Sec. 23. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of pub- 
lic moneys, shall have a seat in either house of the General Assembly, or 
be eligible to hold any office of trust or profit in this State, until he shall 
have accounted for and paid into the treasury all sums for which he may 
be liable. 

Sec. 24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence 
of appropriations made by law. 

Sec. 25. Each member of the first General Assembly under this consti- 
tution shall receive three dollars per diem while in session; and the further 
sum of three dollars lor every twenty miles traveled in going to and return- 
ing from the place where such session is held, by the nearest traveled route; 
after which they shall receive such compensation as shall be fixed by law; 
but no General Assembly shall have the power to increase the compensa- 
tion of its members. And when convened in extra session they shall re- 
ceive the same mileage and per diem compensation as fixed by law for the 
regular session, and none other. 

Sec. 26. No law of the General Assembly, passed at a regular session, 
of a public nature, shall take effect until the Fourth day of July next, after 
the passage thereof. Laws passed at a special session shall take effect 
ninety days after the adjournment of the General Assembly, by which they 
were passed. If the General Assembly shall deem any law of immediate 
importance, they may provide that the same shall take effect by publication 
in newspapers in the State. 

Sec. 27. No divorce shall be granted by the General Assembly. 



Seo. 28. ~No lottery shall be authorized by this State; nor shall the sale 
of lottery tickets be allowed. 

Seo. 29. Every act shall embrace but one subject, and matters properly 
connected therewith; which subject shall be expressed in the title. But if. 
any subject shall be embraced in an act which shall not be expressed in the 
title, such act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be ex- 
pressed in the title. 

Sec. 30. The General Assembly shall not pass local or special laws in 
the following cases : 

For the assessment and collection of taxes for State, county, or road pur- 

For laying out, opening, and working roads or highways; 

For changing the names of persons; 

For the incorporation of cities and towns; 

For vacating, roads, town plats, streets, alleys, or public squares; 

For locating or changing county seats. 

In all the cases above enumerated, and in all other cases where a general 
law can be made applicable, all laws shall be general, and of uniform ope- 
ration throughout the State; and no law changing the boundary lines of 
any county shall have effect until upon being submitted to the people of 
the counties affected by the change, at a general election, it shall be ap- 
proved by a majority of the votes in each county, cast for and against it. 

Sec. 31. No extra compensation shall be made to any officer, public 
agent, or contractor, after the service shall have been rendered, or the con- 
tract entered into;, nor shall any money be paid on any claim, the subject 
matter of which shall not have been provided for by pre-existing laws, and 
no public money or property shall be appropriated for local or private pur- 
poses, unless such appropriation, compensation or claim, be allowed by two- 
thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 32. Members of the General Assembly shall, before they enter 
upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following 
oath or affirmation: " I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 
that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitu- 
tion of the State of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of 
Senator (or Representative, as the case may be), according to the best of 
my ability." And members of the General Assembly are hereby empow- 
ered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation. 

Sec. 33. The General Assembly shall, in the years one thousand eight 
hnndred and fifty-nine, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-seven, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, and one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-five, and every ten years thereafter, cause an 
enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of the State. 

Seo. 34. The number of Senators shall, at the next session following 
each period of making such enumeration, and the next session following 
- each United States Census, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the 
several counties according to the number of inhabitants in each. 

Sec. 35. The Senate shall not consist of more than fifty members, nor 
the House of Representatives of more than one hundred; and they shall 
be apportioned among the several counties and representative districts of 
the State according to the number of inhabitants in each, upon ratios to be 
fixed by law; but no representative district shall contain more than four 


organized comities and each district shall be entitled to at least one Repre- 
sentative. Every county and district which shall have a number oi inhabi- 
tants equal to one-half the ratio fixed by law, shall be entitled to one Rep- 
resentative; and any one county containing in addition to the ratio fixed 
by law one-halt' of that number, or more, shall be entitled to one additional 
Representative. No floating district 6hall hereafter be formed. 

Sec. 36. At its first session under this Constitution, and at every subse- 
quent regular session, the General Assembly shall fix the ratio of repre- 
sentation, and also, form into repsesentative districts those counties which 
will not be entitled singly to a Representative. 

Sec. 37. When a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district 
shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirely sepa- 
rated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be 
divided in forming a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district. 

Sec. 38. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members thereof 
shall vote viva-voce; and the votes 6hall be entered on the journal. 

Article 4. — Executive Department. 

Section 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested 
in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of 

Sec. 2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the 
time and place of voting for members of the General Assembly, and shall 
hold his office two years, from the time of his installation, and until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. There shall be a Lieutenant-Governor, who shall hold his office 
two years, and be elected at the same time as the Governor. In voting for 
Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, the electors shall designate for whom 
they vote as Governor, and for whom as Lieutenant-Governor. The returns 
of every election for Governor, and Lieutenant-Governor, shall be sealed up 
and transmitted to the seat of government of the State, directed to the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall open and publish them 
in the presence of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 4. The persons respectively having the highest number of votes, for 
Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, shall De declared duly elected ; but in 
case two or more persons shall have an equal, and the highest number of 
votes for either office, the General Assembly shall, by joint vote, forthwith 
proceed to elect one of said persons Governor, or Lieutenant-Governor, as 
the case may be. 

Sec. 5. Contested elections for Governor, or Lieutenant-Governor, shall 
be determined by the General Assembly in such manner as may be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 6. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor, or Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, who shall not have been a citizen of the United States; 
and a citizen of the State two years next preceding the election, and 
attained the age of thirty years at the time of said election. 

Sec. 7. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the 
army, and navy of this State. 

Sec. 8. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of gov- 
ernment, civil and military, and may require information in writing from 


the officers of the executive department upon any subject relating to the 
dnties of their respective offices. 

Sec. 9. He shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed. 

Sec. 10. When any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no 
mode is provided by the Constitution and laws for filling such vacancy, the 
Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy, by granting a commission, 
which shall expire at the end of the next session of the General Assembly, 
or at the next election by the people. 

Sec. 1 1 . He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General As- 
sembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the 
purpose for which they shall have been convened. 

Sec. 12. He shall communicate, by message, to the General Assembly, 
at every regular session, the condition of the State, and recommend such 
matters as he shall deem expedient. 

Sec. 13. In case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to 
the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the 
General Assembly to such time as he" may think proper; but no such ad- 
journment shall be beyond the time fixed for the regular meeting of the next 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. No person shall, while holding any office under the authority of 
the United States, or this State, execute the office of Governor, or Lieuten-; 
ant-Govemor, except as hereinafter expressly provided. 

Sec. 15. The official term of the Governor, and Lieutenant-Governor, 
shall commence on the second Monday of January next after their election, 
and continue for two years, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. The Lieutenant-Governor, while acting as Governor, shall receive the 
same pay as provided for Governor; and while presiding in the Senate shall 
receive as compensation therefor, the same mileage and double the per diem 
pay provided tor a Senator, and none other. 

_ Sec. 16. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commuta- 
tions and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses except treason and cases 
of impeachment, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law. 
Upon conviction for treason, he shall have power to suspend the execution 
of sentence until the case shall be reported to the General Assembly at its 
next meeting, when the General Assembly shall either grant a pardon, com- 
mute the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall have power to re- 
mit fines and forfeitures, under such regulations as may be prescribed by 
law; and shall report to the General Assembly, at its next meeting, each 
case of reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted, and the reason therefor; 
and also all persons in whose favor remission of fines and forfeitures shall 
have been made, and the several amounts remitted. 

Sec. 17. In case of the death, impeachment, resignation, removal from 
office, or other disability of the governor, the powers and duties of the office 
for the residue of the term, or until he shall be acquitted, or the disability 
removed, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor. 

Sec. 18. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be president of the Senate", but 
shall only_ vote when the Senate is equally divided; and in case of his ab- 
sence, or impeachment, or when he shall exercise the office of Governor, the 
Senate shall choose a president pro tempore. 

Sec. 19. If the Lieutenant-Governor, while acting as Governor, shall 
be impeached,' displaced, resign, or die, or otherwise become incapable of 


performing the duties of the office, the president pro tempore of the Senate 
shall act as Governor until the vacancy is filled, or the disability removed; 
and if the president of the Senate, for any of the above causes, shall be ren- 
dered incapable of performing the duties pertaining to the office of Gover- 
nor, the same shall devolve upon the Speaker of the House of Representa- 

Sec. 20. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of 
the State of Iowa. 

Sec. 21. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the 
authority of the people of the State of Iowa, sealed with the Great Seal of 
the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of 

Sec. 22. A Secretary of State, Auditor of State, and Treasurer of State, 
shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office two 
years, and until their successors are elected and qualified ; and perform such 
duties as may be required by law. 

Article 5. — Judicial Department. 

Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, 
District Court, and such other courts, inferior to the Supreme Court, as the 
General Assembly may, from time to time, establish. 

Sec. 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of three judges, two of whom 
shall constitute a quorum to hold court. 

Sec. 3. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the quali- 
fied electors of the State, and shall hold their court at such time and place as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. The judges of the Supreme Court so 
elected, shall be classified so that one judge shall go out every two years ; 
and the jndge holding the shortest term of office under such classification, 
shall be Chief Justice of the court during his term, and so on in rotation: 
After the expiration of their terms of office, under such classification, the 
term of each judge of the Supreme Court shall be six years, and until his 
successor shall have been elected and qualified. The judges of the Supreme 
Court shall be ineligible to any other office in the State, during the term ' 
for which they have been elected. 

Sec. 4. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in 
cases in chancery, and shall constitute a court for the correction of errors at 
law, under such restrictions as the General Assembly may by law prescribe; 
and shall have power to issue all writs and process necessary to secure jus- 
tice to parties, and exercise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial 
tribunals throughout the State. 

Sec. 5. The District Court shall consist of a single judge, who shall be 
elected by the qualified electors of the district in which he resides. The 
judge of the District Court shall hold his office for the term of four years, 
and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified ; and shall be 
ineligible to any other office, except that of judge of the Supreme Court, 
during the term for which he was elected. 

Sec. 6. The district Court shall be a court of law and equity, which shall 
be distinct and separate jurisdictions, and have jurisdiction in civil and 


criminal matters arising in their respective districts, in such manner as shall 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be conser*- 
vators of the peace throughout the State. 

Sec. 8. The style of afl process shall be " The State of Iowa," and all 
prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the 

Sec. 9. The salary of each judge of the Supreme Court shall be two 
thousand dollars per annum; and that of eacli District Judge one thousand 
six hundred dollars per annum, until the year eighteen hundred and sixty; 
after which time they shall severally receive such compensation as, the Gen- 
eral Assembly may, by law, prescribe; which compensation shall not be 
increased or diminished during the term for which they have been elected. 

Sec. 10. The State shall be divided into eleven judicial districts; and 
after the year eighteen hundred and sixty, the General Assembly may re-or- 
ganize the judicial districts, and increase or diminish the number of districts, 
or the number of judges of the said court, and may increase the number of 
judges of the Supreme Court; but such increase or diminution shall not be 
more than one district, or one judge of either court, at any one session ; and 
no reorganisation of the districts, or diminution of the judges shall have' 
the effect of removing a judge from office. Such re-organization of the dis- 
tricts, or any change in the boundaries thereof, or any increase or diminution 
of the number of judges shall 'take place every four years thereafter, if nec- 
essary, and at no other time. 

Sec. 11. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be chosen 
at the general election; and the term of office of each judge shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after his election. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the election 
of an Attorney-General by the people, whose term of office shall be two 
years, and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified. 

Sec. 13. The qualified electors of each judicial district shall, at the time 
of the election of District Judge, elect a District Attorney, who shall be a 
resident of the district for which he is elected, and who shall hold his office 
for the term of four years, and until his successor shall have been elected 
and qualified. 

Sec. 14. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide for the 
carrying into effect of this article, and to provide for a general system of 
practice in all the courts of this State. 

Aeticle 6. — Militia. 

Section 1. The militia of this State shall be composed of all able-bodied 
male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such 
asare or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of the United States, or of 
this State; and shall be armed, equipped, and trained, as the General Assem- 
bly may provide by law. 

Sec. 2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms 
shall be compelled to do military duty in time of peace: provided, that such 
person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemption in the same 
manner as other citizens. 


Sec. 3. All commissioned officers of the militia (staff officers excepted) 
shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and shall be 
commissioned by the Governor. 

Article 7. — State Debts. 

Section 1 The credit of the State shall not, in any manner, be given or 
loaned to, or in aid of, any individual, association, or corporation; and the 
State shall never assume, or become responsible for, the debts or liabilities 
of any individual, association, or corporation, unless incurred in time of war 
for the benefit of the State. 

Sec. 2. The State may contract debts to supply casual deficits or failures 
in revenues, or to meet expenses not otherwise provided for; but the aggre- 
gate amount of such debts, direct and contingent, whether contracted by one 
or more acts of the General Assembly, or at different periods of time, shall 
never exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the 
money arising from the creation of such debts, shall be applied to the pur- 
pose for which it was obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted, and to no 
other purpose whatever. 

Sec. 3. All losses to the permanent, school, or university fund of this 
State, which shall have been occasioned by the defalcation, mismanagement, 
or fraud of officers controlling or managing the same, shall be audited by 
the proper authorities of the State. The amount so audited shall be a per- 
manent funded debt against the State, in favor of the respective fund sus- 
taining the loss, upon which not less than six per cent annual interest shall 
be paid. The amount of liability so created shall not be counted as a part 
of the indebtedness authorized by the second section of this article. 
' Sec. 4. In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, the 
State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend 
the State in war; but the money arising from the debts so contracted shall 
be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, 
and to no other purpose whatever. 

Sec. 5. Except the debts hereinbefore specified in this article, no debt 
shall hereafter be contracted by, or on behalf of this State, unless such debt 
shall be authorized by some law for some single work or object, to be dis- 
tinctly specified therein ; and such law shall impose and provide for the 
collection of a direct annual tax, sufficient to pay the interest on such debt, 
as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt, 
within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof; bnt no such 
law shall take effect until at a general election it shall have been submitted 
to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and 
iagainst it at such election ; and all money raised by authority of such law, 
shall be applied only to the specific object therein stated, or the payment of 
the debt created thereby; and such law shall be published in at least one 
newspaper in each county, if one is published therein, throughout the State, 
for three months preceding the election at which it is submitted to the peo- 

Sec. 6. The Legislature may, at any time, after the approval of such 
law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance 
thereof, repeal the same; and may, at any time, forbid the contracting of 


any further debt, or liability under such law; but the tax imposed by such 
law, in proportion to the debt or liability, which may have been contracted 
in pursuance thereof, shall remain in force and be irrepealable, and be an- 
nually collected, until the principal and interest are fully paid. 

Sec. 7. Every law which imposes, continues, or revives a tax, shall dis- 
tinctly state the tax, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall 
not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object. 


Section 1. No corporation shall be created by special laws; but the 
General Assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all 
corporations hereafter to be created, except as hereinafter provided. 

Sec. 2. The property of all corporations for pecuniary profit, shall be 
subject to taxation, the same as that of individuals. 

Sec. 3. The State shall not become a stockholder in any corporation, 
nor shall it assume or pay the debt or liability of any corporation, unless 
incurred in time of war for the benefit of the State. 

Sec. 4. No political or municipal corporation shall become a stock- 
holder in any banking corporation, directly or indirectly. 

Sec. 5. No act of the General Assembly, authorizing or creating corpo- 
rations or associations with banking powers, nor amendments thereto shall 
take effect, nor in any manner be in force, until the same shall have been 
submitted separately, to the people, at a general or special election, as pro- 
vided by law, to be held not less than three months after the passage of the 
act, and shall have been approved by a majority of all the electors /oting 
for and against it at such election. 

Sec. 6. Subject to the provisions of the foregoing section, the General 
Assembly may also provide for the establishment of a State Bank with 

Sec. 7. If a State Bank be established, it shall be founded on an actual 
specie basis, and the branches shall be mutually responsible for each others' 
liabilities upon all notes, bills, and other issues intended for circulation as 

Skc. 8. If a general banking law shall be enacted, it shall provide for 
the registry and countersigning, by an officer of State, of all bills, or paper 
credit designed to circulate as money, and require security to the lull 
amount thereof, to be deposited with the State Treasurer, in United States 
stocks, or in interest paying stocks of States in good credit and standing, to 
be rated at ten per cent below their average value in the city of New York, 
for the thirty days next preceding their deposit; and in case of a deprecia- 
tion of any portion of said stocks, to the amount of ten per cent on the 
dollar, the bank or banks owning said stocks shall bo required to make up 
said deficiency by depositing additional stocks ; and said law shall also pro- 
vide for the recording of the names of all stockholders in such corporations, 
the amount of stock held by each, the time of any transfer, and to whom. 

Sec. 9. Every stockholder in a banking corporation or institution shall 
be individually responsible and liable to its creditors, over and above the 
amount of stock by him or her held, to an amount equal to his or her re- 
spective shares so held, for all its liabilities, accruing while he or she re- 
mains such stockholder. 


Sec. 10. In case of the insolvency of any banking institution, the bill- 
holders shall have a preference over its other creditors. 

Sec. 11. The suspension of specie payments by banking institutions 
shall never be permitted or sanctioned. 

Seo. 12. Subject to the provisions of this article, the General Assembly 
shall have power to amend or repeal all laws for the organization or creation 
of corporations, or granting of special or exclusive privileges or immunities, 
by a vote of two-thirds of each branch of the General Assembly; and do 
exclusive privileges, except as in this article provided, shall ever be granted. 

Article 9. — Education and School Lands 
1 .- — Education. 

Section 1. The educational interest of the State, including common 
schools and other educational institutions, shall be under the management 
of a board of education, which shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor, 
who shall be the presiding officer of the board, and have the casting vote in 
case of a tie, and one member to be elected from each judicial district in 
the State. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be eligible as a member of said board who shall 
not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and shall have been one year 
a citizen of the State. 

Sec. 3. One member of said board shall be chosen by the qualified elec- 
tors of each district, and shall hold the office for the term of four years, and 
until his successor is elected and qualified. After the first election under 
this constitution, the board shall be divided, as nearly as practicable, into 
two equal classes, and the seats of the first class shall be vacated after the 
expiration of two years; and one-half of the board shall be chosen every 
two years thereafter. 

Sec. 4. The first session of the board of education shall be held at the 
seat of government, on the first Monday of December, after their election; 
after which the General Assembly may fix the time and place of meeting. 
' Sec. 5. The session of the board shall be limited to twenty days, and 
but one session shall be held in any one year, except upon extraordinary oc- 
casions, when, upon the recommendation of two-thirds of the board, the 
Governor may order a special session. 

Sec. 6. The board of education shall appoint a secretary, who shall be 
the executive officer of the board, and perform such duties as may be im- 
posed upon him by the board, and the laws of the State. They shall keep 
a journal of their proceedings, which shall be published and distributed in 
the same manner as the journals of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. All rules and regulations made by the board shall be published 
and distributed to the several counties, townships, and school districts, as 
may be provided for by the board, and when so made, published, and dis- 
tributed, they shall have the force and effect of law. 

Sec. 8. The board of education shall have full power and authority to 
legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to common 
schools, and other educational institutions, that are instituted to receive aid 
from the school or university fund of this State; but all acts, rules and 


regulations of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed by the Gen-; 
eral Assembly; and when so altered, amended, or repealed, they shall not 
be re-enacted by the board of education. 

Sec. 9. The Governor of the State shall be, ex-officio, a member of said 

Sec. 10. . The board shall have no power to levy taxes, or make appro- 
priations of money. Their contingent expenses shall be provided for by the 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 11. The State University shall be established at one place, without 
branches at any other place, and the university fund shall be applied to that 
institution, and no other. 

Sec. 12. The board of education shall provide for the education of all 
the youths of the State, through a system of common schools; and such 
schools shall be organized and kept in each school district at least three 
months in each year. Any district failing, for two consecutive years, to or- 
ganize and keep up a school, may be deprived of their portion of the 
school fund. 

Sec. 13. The members of the board of education shall each receive the 
same per diem during the time of their session, and mileage going to and 
returning therefrom, as members of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business, but no rule, regulation or law, for the regulation 
and government of common schools or other educational institutions, shall 

Eass without the concurrence of a majoiity of all the members of the 
oard, which shall be expressed by the yeas and nays on the final passage. 
The style of all acts of the board shall be, " Be it enacted by the board of 
education of the State of Iowa." 

Sec. 15. At any time after the year one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-three, the General Assembly shall have power to abolish or re-organize 
said board of education, and provide for the educational interest of the State 
in any other manner that to them shall seem best and proper. 

2. — School Funds and School Lands. 

Section 1. The educational and school funds and lands, shall be under 
the control and management of the General Assembly of this State. 

Sec. 2. The university lands, and the proceeds thereof, and all moneys 
belonging to said fund shall be a permanent fund for the sole use of the 
State University. The interest arising from the same shall be annually ap- 
propriated for the support and benefit of said university. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, 
the promotion o f intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improve- 
ment. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be, 
granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which 
may have been, or shall hereafter be, sold or disposed of, and the five hun- 
dred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an act of 
Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several 
States of the Union, approved in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-one, and all estates of deceased persons who may have 
died without leaving a will or heir, and also such per cent as has been, or 
may hereafter be, granted by Congress, on the sale of lands in this State, 


shall be, and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with 
all rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the General As- 
sembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of 
common schools throughout the State. 

Sec. 4. The money which may have been, or shall be, paid by persons 
as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds 
of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal 
laws, shall be exclusively applied, in the several counties in which such 
money is paid, or fine collected, among the several school districts of said 
counties, in proportion to the number of youths subject to enumeration in 
such districts, to the support of comrnen schools, or the establishment of 
libraries, as the board of education shall, from time to time, provide. 

Seo. 5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, 
improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may here- 
after be reserved, or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, 
to this State, for the use of a university, and the funds accruing from the 
rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose afore- 
said, shall be, and remain, a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be 
applied to the support of said university, for the promotion of literature, 
the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. 
And it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to pro- 
vide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the 
funds of said university. 

Seo. 6. The financial agents of the school funds shall be the same, that 
by law, receive and control the State and county revenue, for other civil pur- 
poses, under such regulations as may be provided by law. 

Seo. 7. The money subject to the support and maintenance of common 
schools shall be distributed to the districts in proportion to the number of 
youths, between the ages of five and twenty-one years, in such manner as 
may be provided by the General Assembly. 

Article 10. — Amendments to the Constitution. 

Section 1. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be 
proposed in either House of the General Assembly; and if the same shall 
be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two 
houses, such proposed amendment shall be entered on their journals, with 
the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the Legislature to be cho- 
sen at the next general election, and shall be published, as provded by law, 
for three months previous to the time of making such choice ; and if, in the 
General Assembly so next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or 
amendments shall be agreed to, by a majority of all the members elected to 
each house, then it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to submit 
such proposed amendment or amendments to the people in such manner, 
and at such time as the General Assembly shall provide; and if the people 
shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of 
the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly, voting 
thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Consti- 
tution of this State. 

Sec. 2. If two or more amendments shall be submitted at the same 


time, they shall be submitted in such manner that the electors shall vote for 
or against each of such amendments separately. 

Sec. 3. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy, and in each tenth year thereafter, and also at such 
time as the General Assembly, may, by law, provide, the question: " Shall 
there be a Convention to revise the Constitution and amend the same?" shall 
be decided by the electors qualified to vote for members of the General As- 
sembly ; and in case a majority of the elector's so qualified, voting at such 
election for and against such proposition, shall decide in favor of a Conven- 
tion for such purpose, the General Assembly, at its next session, shall pro- 
vide by law for the election of delegates to such Convention. 

Article 11. — Miscellaneous. 

Section 1. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall extend in all 
cases (except cases in chancery, and cases where the question of title to 
real estate may arise), where the amount in controversy does not exceed one 
hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any 
amount not exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Sec. 2. No new county shall be hereafter created containing less than 
four hundred and thirty-two square miles; nor shall the territory of any or- 
ganized county be reduced below that area, except the county of Worth, and 
the counties west of it, along the northern boundary of the State, may be or- 
ganized without additional territory. 

Sec. 3. No county, or other political or municipal corporation shall be 
allowed to become indebted in any manner, or for any purpose, to an amount 
in the aggregate exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable prop- 
arty within such county or corporation — to be ascertained by the last State 
and county tax lists, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness. 

Sec. 4. The boundaries of the State may be enlarged, with the consent 
of Congress and the General Assembly. 

Sec. 5. Every person elected or appointed to any office shall, before en- 
tering upon the duties thereof, take an oath or affirmation to support the 
Constitution of the United States, and of this State, and also an oath of 

Sec. 6. In all cases of elections to fill vacancies in office occurring be- 
fore the expiration of a full term, the person so elected shall hold for the 
residue of the unexpired term; and all persons appointed to fill vacancies in 
office, shall hold until the next general election, and until their successors 
are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall not locate any of the public lands, 
which have been, or may be granted by Congress to this State, and the lo- 
cation of which may be given to the General Assembly, upon lands actually 
settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim of 
such occupant- so exempted, shall not exceed three hundred and twenty 

Sec. 8. The seat of government is hereby permanently established, as 
now fixed by law, at the City of Des Moines, in the county of Polk, and the 
State University at Iowa City, in the county of Johnson. 

constitution of the state of iowa. 237 

Article 12. — Schedule. 

Section 1. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the State, and 
any law inconsistent therewith shall be void. The General Assembly shall 
pass all laws necessary to carry this Constitution into effect. 

Sec. 2. All laws now in force, and not inconsistent with this Constitu- 
tion, shall remain in force until they shall expire or be repealed. 

Sec. 3. All indictments, prosecutions, suits, pleas, plaints, process, and 
other proceedings pending in any of the courts, shall be prosecuted to final 
-judgment and execution; and all appeals, writs of errors, certiorari, and 
injunctions, shall be carried on in the several courts, in the same manner as 
now provided by law; and all offenses, misdemeanors and crimes that may 
have been committed before the taking effect of this Constitution, shall be 
subject to indictment, trial and punishment, in the same manner as they 
would have been had not this constitution been made. 

Sec. 4. All fines, penalties, or forfeitures due, or to become due, or ac- 
cruing to the State, or to any county therein, or to the school fund, shall 
inure so the State, county, or school fund, in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 5. All bonds executed to the State, or to any officer in his official 
capacity, shall remain in force and inure to the use of those concerned. 

Sec. 6. The first election under this constitution shall be held on the 
second Tuesday in October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven, at which time the electors of tbe State shall elect the Governor 
and Lieutenant Governor. There shall also be elected at such election, the 
successors of such State Senators as were elected at the August election, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, and members of the 
House of Representatives, who shall be elected in accordance with the act 
of apportionment, enacted at the session of the General Assembly which 
commenced on the first Monday of December, one thouasnd eight hundred 
and fifty-six. 

Sec. 7. The first election for Secretary, Auditor, and Treasurer of State, 
Attorney-General, District Judges, Members of the Board of Education, 
District Attorneys, members of Congress, and such State officers as shall 
he elected at the April election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven (except the Superintendent of Public Instruction), and such 
county officers as were elected at the August election, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-six, except Prosecuting Attorney, shall be held 
on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
eight; Provided, that the time for which any District Judge, or any other 
State or county officer, elected at the April election in one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-eight, shall not extend beyond the time fixed for filling 
like offices at the October election in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty -eight. 

Sec. 8. The first election for Judges of the Supreme Court, and such 
county officers as shall be elected at the August election, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, shall be held on the second Tuesday 
of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine. 

Sec. 9. The first regular session of the General Assembly shall be held 
in tbe year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, commencing on the 
second Monday of January of said year. 

Sec. 10. Senators elected at the August election, in the year one thou- 


sand eight hundred and fifty-six, shall continue in office until the second 
Tuesday of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, 
at which time their successors shall be elected as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 11. Every person elected by popular vote, by a vote of the General 
Assembly, or who may hold office by Executive appointment, which office 
is continaed by this constitution, and every person who shall be so elected 
or appointed, to any such office, before the taking effect of this constitution, 
(except as in this constitution otherwise provided) shall continue in office 
until the term for which such person has been or may be elected or ap- 
pointed shall expire; but ho such person shall continue in office after the 
taking effect of this constitution, for a longer period than the term of such 
office, in this constitution prescribed. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly, at the first session under this constitu- 
tion, shall district the State into eleven judicial districts, for District Court 
purposes; and shall also provide for the apportionment of the General As- 
sembly, in accordance with the provisions of this constitution. 

Sec. 13. The foregoing constitution shall be submitted to the electors of 
the State at the August election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven, in the several election districts in this State. The ballots at such 
election shall be written or printed as follows : Those in favor of the constitu- 
tion — "New Constitution — Yes." Those against the constitution, "New Con- 
stitution — No." The election shall be conducted in the same manner as the 
general elections of the State, and the poll-books shall be returned and can- 
vassed as provided in the twenty -fifth chapter of the Code; and abstracts 
shall be forwarded to the Secretary of State, which abstracts shall be can- 
vassed in the manner provided for the canvass of State officers. And if it 
shall appear that a majority of all the votes cast at such election for and 
against this constitution are in favor of the same, the Governor shall imme- 
diately issue his proclamation stating that fact, and such constitution shall 
be the constitution of the State of Iowa, and shall take effect from and after 
the publication of said proclamation. 

Seo. 14. At the same election that this constitution is submitted to the 
people for its adoption or rejection, a proposition to amend the same by 
striking out the word " white," from the article on the " Eight of Suffrage," 
shall be separately submitted to the electors of this State for adoption or 
rejection, in manner following, viz : 

A separate ballot may be given by every person having a right to vote at 
said election, to be deposited in a separate box; and those given for the 
adoption of such proposition shall have the words, " Shall the word ' white ' 
be stricken out of the article on the 'Eight of Suffrage?' — Yes." And 
those given against the proposition shall have the words, " Shall the word 
'white' be stricken out of the article on the 'Eight of Suffrage?' — No." 
And if at said election the number of ballots cast in favor of said proposi- 
tion, shall be equal to a majority of those cast for and against this constitu- 
tion, then said word " white " shall be stricken from said article and be no 
part thereof. 

Sec. 15. Until otherwise directed by law, the county of Mills shall be in 
and a part of the Sixth Judicial District of this State. 

Done in convention at Iowa City, this fifth day of March, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and of the independence 
of the United States of America, the eighty-first. 



In testimony whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names: 


Timothy Day, 


David Bunker, 
D. P. Palmee, 
Geo. W. Ells, 
J. 0. Hall, 
John PI. Petees, 
¥m. H. Wabeen, 
H. W. Gbay, 
Robt. Goweb, 
H. D. Gibson, 
Thomas Seeley, 
A. H. Maevin, 
J. H. Emeeson, 
R. L. B. Claeke, 
James A. Young, 
D. H. Solomon, 

Th. J. Saundees, Secretary. 

E. N. Bates, Assistant Secretary. 

M. "W. Robinson, 
Lewis Todhunteb, 
John Edwards, 
J. 0. Teaee, 
James F. Wtlson, 
Amos Haeeis, 
Jno. T. Clabk, 
S. Ayees, 
Haevey J. Skiff, 
J. A. Paevin, 
"W. Penn Claeke, 
Jeee. Hollingwobth, 
Wm. Patteeson, 
D. W. Peice, 
Alpheus Scott, 


Edward Johnston. 
Francis Springes, President. 

Constitution of United States. 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common 
defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and owr posterity, do ordain, and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall he vested in a 
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors 
in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age 
of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, aiid 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall 
be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective 
numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free 
persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and exclud- 
ing Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumer- 
tion shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress 
of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such 
manner as they shall by law direct. 

The number of shall not exceed one for every thirty thou- 
sand, but each state shall have at least one representative, and until such 
enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to 
choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 
one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Caro- 
lina five, and Georgia three. 

When vacancies nappen in the representation from any State, the execu- 
tive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker, and other officers 
and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Sen- 


ators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be, into three classes. The 
seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of 
the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; 
and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one- third 
may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation 
or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

JNo person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty 
years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be president of the Senate; 
but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tem- 

Eore, in the absence of the Yice-President, or when he shall exercise the of- 
ce of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sit- 
ting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the Pres- 
ident of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no 
person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, 
trust or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, never- 
theless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment 
according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Representatives, shall be prescribed, in each state, by the Legislature 
thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such reg- 
ulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint 
a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the elections returns, and quali- 
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum 
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and 
may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such 
manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
bers for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel 
a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and, from time to time, 
publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require 
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any ques- 
tion, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than threedays, nor to any other place than 
that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 


Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of 
the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach 
of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session 
of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and, 
for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any 
other place. 

No Senator or Eepresentative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office, under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments.whereof shall have 
been increased during such time; and no person, holding any office under 
the United States shall be a member of either house, during his continuance 
in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with . amendments, 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representaties and the 
Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the 
United States ; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, 
with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who 
shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider 
it. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass 
the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of 
that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both 
houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons 
voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house 
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten 
days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same 
shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by 
their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate 
and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn- 
ment), shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before 
the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by 
him shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts, and 
provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; 
but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 
standard of weights and measures; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current 
coin of the United States; 


To establish post-offices and post-roads; 

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited 
times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, 
and offenses against the law of nations; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con- 
cerning captures on land and water; 

To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years; 

To provide and maintain a navy; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for 
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of draining the militia, according to the discipline 
prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district 
(not exceeding ten miles square), as may, by cession of particular States, and 
the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent 
of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of 
forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Consti- 
tution in the government of the United States, or in any department, or 
officer thereof. 

Seo. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the 
Congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax 
or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for 
each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. 

No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the 
census, or enumeration, hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No 
preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the 
ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels, bound to or from 
one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appro- 
priations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipt^ 
and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. 

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent 
of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind 
whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 


Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make 
anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; pass any 
bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of con- 
tracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duties 
on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing 
its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by 
any State on imports and exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the 
United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of 
the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. "The executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four 
years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be 
elected as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and 
Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress ; but no 
Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit 
under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for 
two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same 
State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted 
ibr, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and cer- 
tify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government oi the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, 
in ' the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the 
greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a major- 
ity of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if there be more than 
one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the 
House of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them 
for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest 
on the list, the said house shall, in like manner," choose the President. But 
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representa- 
tion from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall con- 
sist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority 
of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the 
choice of a President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the 
electors, shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or 
more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the 
day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 


~No person, except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States 
at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office 
of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not 
have attained to the age of thirty- five years, and been fourteen years a resident 
within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resig- 
nation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office, the 
same shall devolve on the Yice-President; and the Congress may, by law, 
provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the 
President and Yioe-President, declaring what officer shall then act as Presi- 
dent, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensa-, 
tion, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for 
which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that periodj 
any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following 
oath, or affirmation: 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, 
protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy 
of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called 
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, iii 
writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon 
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall 
have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United 
States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he 
shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall 
appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the 
Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appoint- 
ments are not herein otherwise provided 'for, and which shall be established 
by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior 
officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or 
in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen dur- 
ing the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at 
the end of their next session. 

Seo. 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of 
the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures 
as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinay occasions, 
convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between 
them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such 
time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public 
ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, ana shall 
commission all the officers of the United States. 

Seo. 4. The President, Yice-President, and all civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of 
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 


Article III. 

Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in 
one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from . 
time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

; Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, aris- 
ing under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, 
or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambas- 
sadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and 
maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a 
party; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citi- 
zens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens 
of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between 
a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have orig- 
inal jurisdiction. In all other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court 
shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; 
and such trials shall be held in the State where the said crime shall have 
been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall 
be at such place or places as the Congress may, by law, have directed. 

Sec 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and com- 
fort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, bul 
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except 
during the life of the person attainted. 

Aeticle IV 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State, to the pub- 
lic acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Con- 
gress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records 
and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and 
immunities of citizens in the several States. 

A person charged, in any State, with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of 
the Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, 
to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws, thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, 
be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim 
of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Seo. 3. New States may be admitted, by the Congress, into this Union; 


but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, 
or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States con- 
i cerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the 
United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4. The United States sball guarantee to every State in this Union, 
a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against 
invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when 
the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

Aeticle Y. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the 
Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for pro- 
posing amendments, which in either case shall be valid to all intents and 
purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 
three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, 
as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Con- 
gress; provided that no amendment, which may be made prior to the year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any, manner affect the first 
and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, 
without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

AH debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption 
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under this 
Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made 
in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the 
judges in every State, shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution 
or- laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of 
the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath, or affirm- 
ation, to support this Constitution; but no. religious test shall ever be re- 
quired, as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 

Aeticle YII. 

The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the 
establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the States present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 



hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States 
of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscrihed 

our names. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gokham, 
Rufus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 


New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
Wil. Livingston, 
"Wm. Patebson, 
David Breabley, 
Jona. Dayton. 

B. Franklin, 


Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Cltmee, 
Jaeed Ingeesoll. 
Gouv. Moeeis. 

President and Deputy from Virginia 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Beoom, 
Gunning Bedford, Je., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M'Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos, Jenifer. 

John Blair. 
James Madison, Je. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

South Carolina. 
J. Rutledge, 
Charles Pincknet, 
Chas. Coteswoeth Pinokney, 
Pierce Butlee. 

Wn-LiAM Few, 
Abe. Baldwin. 



To the Constitution of the United States, ratified according to the provisr 
ions of the Fifth Article of the foregoing Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of speech, 
or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to pe- 
tition the government for a redresss of grievances. 


Aetiole II. 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, 
the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. 

Aetiole III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the 
consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed 
by law. 

Aetiole IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and 
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated ; 
and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the per- 
sons or things to be seized. 

Aetiole V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual 
service, in time of war, or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same "offense to be twice put in jeapordy of life or limb; nor shall 
be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall 
private property be taken for public use without just compensation. 

Aetiole VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy 
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accu- 
sation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compul- 
sory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance 
of counsel for his defence. 

Aeticle VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, 
tried by jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States, than according to the rules of common law. 

Aetiole VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
and unusual punishments inflicted. 


Article IX. 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be con- 
strued to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to 
the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United shall not be construed to extend to any 
suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign 

. Article XII. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot, for 
President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves; they shall name, in their ballots, 
the person voted for as President, and, in distinct ballots, the person voted 
for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted 
for as President and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the 
number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign. and certify, and trans- 
mit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to 
the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in pres- 
ence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, 
and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest num- 
ber of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have 
such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not ex- 
ceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Rep- 
resentatives shall choose immediately by ballot, the President. But, in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation 
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of 
a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all 
the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representa- 
tives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve 
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice- 
President shall act as President, as in the case of the death, or other consti- 
tutional disability of the President. 

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall 
be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number 
of electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two 
highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President ; a 
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of 
Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 

But no person, constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President ot the United States. 


Article XIII. 

1. Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within 
the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 

Article XIV. 

1. All persons born, or naturalized, in the United States, and subject to 
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the States 
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall 
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor 
shall any State deprive any person of life liberty, or property, without due 
process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States, ac- 
cording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons 
in each State, excluding Indians not taxed ; but whenever the right to vote 
at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President 
of the United States,' Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial 
officers of the State, or members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any 
of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridge, except for participation 
in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of representation shall be reduced in 
the proportion which the whole number of such male citizens shall bear to 
the whole number of male citizens, twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be Senator or Representative in Congress, or elec- 
tor of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, 
under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken 
an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or 
as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer 
of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion, against the same, or given aid and com- 
fort to the enemies thereof ; but Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of 
each house, remove such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States authorized by 
law, including debts incurred for the payment of pensions and bounties for 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 
the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation 
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any 
claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but such debts, obliga- 
tions, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, 
the provisions oi this article. 

Aetiole XV. 

The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 


How to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price are 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which will 
be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost price; 
the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule — Multiply the given sum of gold, by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Rule. — Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner's share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quotient 
will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent, the result will be each 
one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 
A short and simple method for finding the net weight, or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is generally assumed that the„gross weight of Hogs diminished by 1-5 or 20 
per cent, of itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by % or 25 per cent, 
of itself equals the gross weight. 

To fine the net weight or gross price. 

Rule. — Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Rule. — Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cupic feet by 6308, 
and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct answer in 
bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or by 4i 


ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the 
answer in bushels. 

Note. — In estimating corn in the ear, the quality and the time it has been cribbed 
must be taken into consideration, since corn will shrink considerably during the Winter and 
Spring. This rule generally holds good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided 
it is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all in 
feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one decimal 
place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31£ gallons. 

Sow to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — -Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length (all in 
inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the tens; multi- 
ply by short method, and this product again by 430; point off one decimal 
place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to measure scantlings, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together (the 
width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide the pro- 
duct by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the pro- 
duct by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a remain- 
der); the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, add 
them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in a floor or wall. 
Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and divide 
the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

How to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22J. 

The number ot cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height and 
thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick; hencej it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, but 
it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the shin- 
gles are exposed 4£ inches, or by 7 l-'S if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 

To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths); at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths); at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths); at one-half pitch, by 
.71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from the apex to 
the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be taken into 

Note. — By %ox% pitch is meant that the apex or comb of the roof is to be % or J£ the 
width of the building higher than the walls or base of the rafters. 


How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, and 
remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic feet; 
multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find the 
number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of ear com 
to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step._ Now, an 
ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on the 
average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to walk 
in a straight line; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line straight 
ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote; and, in walking, keep 
these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious 
contrivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct 
yard measure. 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of the 
left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the left 
arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre, the width being 

Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 

How to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of 
rods being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, and 
remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 
Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

How to find the diameter, when the circumference is given. 
Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find how many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout will contatn when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply by 
the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find- the solid contents in feet. 
Rule. — Multiply the'depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and then 
multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 


To find the number of feet of timber in trees with the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in inches, 
by twice the length, in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1-10 to 1-15 
according to the thickness of the bark. 

Howard's new rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest on 
any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal point 
two places to the left; for ten times that time, remove the point one place 
to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three places to the 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 
Note. — The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting the rate; thus 3 per cent, per 
month, inverted, becomes % of a month, or ten days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 3-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, by 
400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


The following table presents the population of thirteen of the principal 
cities of Iowa for the years 187Q, 1875 and 1878— the population for the last 
named year being, in the main, estimated: 

Pop. in 1870. Pop. in 1875. Pop. in 1878. 

Des Moines 12,035 14,443 25,000 

Burlington 14,930* 19,987 25,000 

Davenport 20,038 21,234 26,827 

Dubuque 18,434 23,605 27,500 

Keokuk 12,766 11,841 15,000 

Cedar Rapids 5,940 7,179 11,350 

Iowa City 5,914 6,371 8,000 

Council Bluffs 10,020 9,287 11,000 

Clinton 6,129 7,028 9,000 

Muscatine 6,718 7,537 8,000 

Sioux City 3,401 4,290 6,000 

Ottumwa 5,214 6,326 10,000 

Marshalltown : . . . 3,288 4,384 6,416 

Fort Madison, Mt. Pleasant and Waterloo are, probably, entitled to appear 
in the above table, as each of them, doubtless, has a population or over 
six thousand. 


Includes whole township. 


In the heart of the grand old forest, 

A thousand miles to the West, 
Where a stream gashed out from the hill side, 
. Thej halted at last for rest. 
And the silence of ages listened 

To the axe-stroke loud and clear, 
Divining a kingly presence 

In the tread of the pioneer. 

He formed of the prostrate heeches 

A home that was strong and good; 
The roof was of reeds from the streamlet, 

The chimney he built of wood. 
And there by the winter fireside, 

While the flame up the chimney roared, 
He spoke of the good time coming, 

When plenty should crown their board — 

When the forest should fade like a vision, 

And over the hill-side and plain 
The orchard would spring in its beauty, 

And the fields of golden grain. 
And to-night he sits by the fireside 

In a mansion quaint and old, 
With his children's children around him, 

Having reaped a thousand-fold. 

History of Dallas County. 


The tract of land now known as Dallas county was included in the territory 
which the Sac and Fox Indians ceded to the United States Government in 
the treaty of October 11th, 1842. This treaty was negotiated at the Sac 
and Fox Agency, now Agency City, and was ratified by the Senate, without 
an erasure, on March 23d, 1843. 

The council at which this treaty was made lasted about one week. Gov- 
ernor John Chambers, of Iowa Territory, was the commissioner on behalf 
of the United States Government, and a number of Indian chiefs were 
present, the principal ones of whom were Keokuk,- Appanoose, Poweshiek 
and Pana'ssa. 

It was an important treaty for our government, and especially so for the 
organization and prosperity of our State and county; and yet it was a diffi- 
cult one to make, and at one time during the council-meeting it seriously 
threatened to prove a failure. 

The Indians demanded the ■ reservation of a certain tract of land, and 
positively refused to treat peaceably without this stipulation. While on 
the other hand, the instructions of the government were positively opposed 
to any reservation. 

The principal cause of this difficulty on the part of the Indians, doubtless, 
was their profound regard for a white man who had been to them a true friend 
in need; their determination to fulfill their promise to his family after his 
death, and their sacred regard for his last resting place, made it hard for 
them to yield. But in order to properly understand the points of differ- 
ence between these two parties, and be able to give an intelligent history 
of this important negotiation, it is necessary to go back several years. 

In 1835 Gen. J. M. Street, who had been Indian agent among the Winne- 
bagos since 1 827,was removed to the Sac and Fox Agency, first at Pock Island, 
and, in 1838, at Agency City. Gen. Street was a great favorite among the' 
Indians, and they were accustomed to call him their father. This gentle- 
man died in May, 1840. His family procured an air-tight coffin, and an- 
nounced their intention of burying his remains at Prairie du Chien, where 
some of his relatives were interred. The chiefs held a council and remon- 
strated, offering any part of their country which might be chosen as Gen. 
Street's burying-ground, and adding that if their wishes were complied 
with, they would give to Gen. Street's widow a section of land, and a half 
section to each of his children. Accordingly Gen. Street's remains were 
interred near the Agency, and no reference was ever made to the land 
promised until the time of this treaty. 

17 • 


About the evening of the second day of the treaty-council, one of the 
government officers came to Gen. Street's son, Win. B. Street, now of 
Oskaloosa, then employed at the Agency, and said, "I do not think we will 
succeed in making a treaty." "Why?" "Because," said the officer, "the 
chiefs demand a reservation of one section for Gen. Street's widow, and a 
half-section each for her ten children, and also a half-section each for Smart's 
two children, who are half-breeds. The instructions of the government are 
opposed to any reservation, and positive against reservation for half-breeds." 

Mr. Street not wishing a treaty to fail for any such reason, held a con- 
sultation with some of the principal chiefs, telling them he did not care for 
any reservation, and his brothers and sisters were all in another territory, 
that he thought they would willingly relinquish the offer of the chiefs, and 
as for any obligation they were under to the Smart children, they could 
pay that in money. 

Keokuk and some of the others assented reluctantly, but old Poweshiek 
insisted that all the reservation they desired should be demanded. Mr. 
Street remonstrated with him as to the result in failure of the treaty, and 
again told him he did not care for the reservation. " What, do you decline 
the gift?" said the indignant old chief — for this was considered an insult 
among Indians to refuse a present. Mr. Street informs us that Poweshiek 
refused to speak to him for six months afterward, when one day, while 
Poweshiek was a little merry under the influence of whiskey, Mr. Street 
presented the old chief with a pony, and again they were good friends. 

Finally the Indians demanded the reservation of a single section, to be 
given Mrs. Street. Gov. Chambers would not consent. Then old Keokuk, 
rising, addressed the council thus: "There lies," said he, pointing to the 
grave of Gen. Street, " there lies the grave of our father, the best white 
friend we have ever had, and without the reservation, this land shall never, 
never be sold while a single one of our tribe remains." On the next day 
Gov. Chambers agreed to the reservation of one section, and directed the 
Indians to make choice. They selected that on which the Agency build- 
ing was situated, and including Gen. Street's. grave. 

Again the commissioner halted. He claimed the government had spent 
some $3,000 or $4,000 in improving that section, and he could not allow , 
that to be reserved. The Indians then proposed to pay for the improve- 
ments, which they afterward did, paying $2,500, which was considered a 
fair valuation at that time. The treaty being thus concluded, Keokuk re- 
marked to the commissioner that if the Senate changed it by a single 
scratch of the pen, it would not be agreed to by the Indians. It came be- 
fore the Senate. A motion was made to strike out the reservation. Keo- 
kuk's remark was repeated in the Senate. And on March 23d, 1843, was 
ratified an Indian treaty for the first time in the history of the Senate 
without an erasure. By this treaty a tract of land comprising probably 
more than two-thirds the present State of Iowa was transferred to the 
United States, for which the Sac and Fox Indians were to receive $800,000 
in good State stocks, on which the government should guarantee five per 
cent interest per annum. In the words of the treaty, they "ceded to the 
United States all their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any 
claim or title." It was stipulated that they were to be removed from the 
country at the expiration of three years, and all who remained after that 
were to remove at their own expense. Part of them were removed to 
Kansas in the fall of 1845, and the remainder in the spring of 1846. 



In consequence of this peaceable arrangement, the early settlers of 
Dallas county encountered no difficulty with the red man, and the historian 
has to record no price of blood paid for the possession of their primitive 

Few Indians ever put in their appearance after the work of settlement 
had once thoroughly begun. 

Mr. William B. Street, of Oskaloosa, spent the years from 1828 to 1843 
among the Indians ot the Northwest. From 1839 to 1843 he resided at Old 
Agency, near Agency City, and to him we are indebted for a number of 
interesting facts in regard to Indian names and history. 

By the various treaties made with the Sac and Fox Indians, the govern- 
ment paid these $80,000 per year, by families. Mr. Street was disbursing 
clerk for John Beach, Indian agent, during the year 1841, and still retains 
in his possession the receipts for the part payment of the annuity, in his 
own handwriting, and the marks of the chiefs in signing. We give an 
extract including the names of part of those Indians who at that time were 
living at Kish-ke-kosh's village, in what is now Mahaska county. 

"We, the chiefs, warriors, heads of families, and individuals without fam- 
ilies, of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, within the same agency, acknowl- 
edge the receipt of forty thousand dollars of John Beach, United States 
Indian Agent, in the sums appended to our names, being our proportion 
of the annuity due said tribes, for the year 1841 : 

Kish-ke-kosh 1 


Pas-sa-sa-she-shiek. . 



Ka-ke-wa-wa-te-sit . . 

Much-e-min-ne 2 




And fifty-nine others. 





















































71 30 

106 95 

55 65 

17 82 

71 30 

53 47 

71 30 

71 30 

106 95 

124 78 

"We certify that we were present at the payment of the above mentioned 

paid to the several Indians, in specie, and 

amounts, and saw the amounts 

that their marks were affixed in our presence 

(Signed) JNO 

, this 19th of October, 1841. 


TJ. S. Indian Agent. 


Lieut. 1st Dragoons. 



'• We, the undersigned, Chiefs of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, ac- 
knowledge the correctness of the foregoing receipts. 

KEOKUK, 6 his X mark. 
POWESHIEK,' his X mark. 

■ Kish-ke-kosh means ' ,f The man with one leg off." 

= Much-i-min-ne means "Big man". sMus-qua-ke means "The fox". 

3 Wa-pes-e-qua means "White eyes". 6 Keokuk means "The watchful fox". 

■tWa-pe-ka-kah means "White crow". ? Poweshiek means "The roused bear." 


According to the stipulations of this treaty, the government secured 
the right to extend the limits of emigration westward from the old bound- 
ary line, passing north and south through Locust Grove, Jefferson county, 
to a new line established farther west, extending north and. south through the 
meridian of Eed Kock, Marion county, and the Sacs and Foxes were entitled 
to occupy a territory west of this temporary line until October lltb, 1845, 
when they must again move westward to their reservation in Kansas. 

During the month of May, 1843, nearly all of the Indians were removed 
up the Des Moines river, and took possession of their new home, in the 
place which soon became known as Keokuk's village, situated about three 
miles southeast of the present capital of the State, and in that vicinity they 
remained until the three years had expired, and the time for their final 
removal had come. 

But even before they left their old camping grounds, the tide of emigra- 
tion was rapidly pressing in upon them. The day was also fixed upon by 
the treaty, for the Indians to give up the right of occupancy of all the ter- 
ritory east of the Eed Kock line, and for emigrants to move westward and 
occupy the newly vacated lands. 

Those expecting to make settlements on the "New Purchase," were for- 
bidden to come on the reserve until the time of its delivery into the hands 
of the government by the Indians, May 1st, 1843. Dragoons were sta- 
tioned all along the border, whose duty it was to keep the whites out of the 
country until the appointed time. For some weeks previous to the date 
assigned, settlers came up into the new country, prospecting for homes, and 
were quietly permitted to cross the border and look around, so long as they 
were unaccompanied by wagon and carried no ax. This latter weapon was 
sometimes placed without a handle in the knapsack of the traveler and an 
impromptu handle fitted in by a penknife when necessity called for its 
use. During the last few days of April the dragoons relaxed their strict 
discipline and an occasional wagon slipped in through the brush. The 
night of April 30th found some scores of" newcomers on the ground, who 
had been prospecting the country, who had decided mentally what claims 
they would make, and had various agreements among themselves. These 
settlers were mostly along or near the Des Moines river, it then being 
thought that prairie land was not half so desirable as the river and timber 

As it neared midnight on the morning of May 1st, settler after settler 
took his place upon the border of his claim with his bunch of sharpened 
stakes and lantern, or his blazing* torch, and when it was thought twelve 
o'clock had arrived, there was some lively surveying by amateur engineers 
in the dark.. The claims were paced off, and strange to say there were few 
cases of dispute, the matter having been pretty generally understood on 
the preceding day. Some of the claims were pretty large, more, in fact 
than the law suffered the claimants to hold, some of whom were not un- 
mindful of the wholesome advice of a mother in Hoosierdom, who possibly 
lived in a later day, but who counseled " Git a plenty while your gittin," 
to which the settler added, "and git the best." 

The memorable midnight of that "last day" of April, 1843, dark as it 
may have been, opened to the welcome dawning of a glorious " May day " 
in the prosperity of this heaven-favored land as the crowds of anxious emi- 
grants, so long held in check by the old boundaries, began to cross the line 
in multitudes and press forward to "possess the land" and secure their 


claims of 320 acres each in this goodly heritage. It was a rapid successful 
movement in the advancement of emigration and civilization, which gave 
evident and assuring proof of the wisdom of the government in promptly 
securing the title to this valuable territory. It is estimated that before the 
nightfall of May 1st, 1843, there were nearly one thousand of such claims 
occupied by pioneers, and including in the count the families and attend- 
ants of these, in so short a time an aggregate population of about four thou- 
sand souls had .crossed the old limits to find homes in the new possessions, 
and convert the Indian's hunting ground into the white man's earthly 

Thus by this memorable treaty of 1842, was thrown open for occupation 
and cultivation all the rich territory of western Iowa, with great tracts 
more to the westward. 

It is to this treaty that the present citizens and property owners of Dallas 
county, and of all these productive counties round about, are indebted, in a 
great measure, for their comfortable homes, their fertile fields, and their 
valuable estates in this "beautiful land". 

From the spring of 1843 until the fall of 1845 the Indians remained 
quietly and peacefully enjoying their newly defined camps and hunting 
grounds, neither disturbing nor being disturbed by their white neighbors; 
and true to the instincts of their nature, while living at peace with their 
neighbors, they inclined to revel in a fruitless life of indolence and debauch. 
They were restrained from trespass on their eastern border only by the 
imaginary Red Rock line of reservation, which effectually and distinctly 
separated between civilization and barbarism. On the other hand, for a 
short time longer, they were permitted to rove at will westward and north- 
ward over these yet uncultivated and seemingly boundless prairies, and 
seek to gratify the desires of their wild, rude nature in hunt, and chase, 
and war-dance, while taking their last farewell of this beautiful, broad do- 
main, which for years had been their dwelling-place, and so lately they had 
called their own. 

During this same period, in all the territory east of that temporary line 
of reservation, the work of civilization was steadily and rapidly progress- 
ing. Active, daring, energetic people from nearly every quarter were 
crowding to the front, occupying and cultivating the fertile land and set- 
tling the " New Purchase " with representatives from almost every State 
and nation on the globe. The farming lands were being taken up rapidly 
by the constantly increasing number of pioneers. Important improvements 
of the essential kind were being made in every part, 

Cabins and mills were being built and roads laid out; schools and places 
of public worship were being talked of and provided for by the enlight- 
ened and devout citizens; and the general cultivation and improvement of 
the country continued progressing at a rapid rate. 

In order to the improvement of a pioneer home in the West, in those days, 
timber for fuel and fencing and shelter was considered the material thing 
in importance, second only to the " staff of life,", and therefore the timber 
lands and tracts of prairie adjoining were almost invariably taken first, 
since these were considered by the early settlers to be the cream of the 

But in this regard, experience, the effectual teacher, soon worked a rad- 
ical change in the minds of men. When they began to test the fertility 
and richness of the prairie soil, they soon found that it was much easier 


and cheaper to haul timber and prepare shelter and dwell in the fresh, pure 
air on the bleak, yet fertile, prairie, feeling sure of an abundant crop with 
less labor from a large acreage, than it was to have the best advantages of a 
timber location, and spend time, labor and money in clearing and grubbing 
and fertilizing, and then fall short in the yield per acre, and be confined to 
a limited area of farming land. 

The timber settlers slowly but surely became convinced of the fact, and 
began to reach out and secure, in some cases, large tracts of the prairie 
land adjoining them, thus combining these two important elements in one 
large estate, and securing some of the very finest farms in the country. 
"While on the other hand, very many of the first settlers on timber claims, 
from want of means, or fear of failure in speculation, did not become awake 
to the real importance of this until the best sections adjoining them were 
all taken, and they were compelled either to go out, perhaps miles from 
their homes, to secure more farming land for their increasing families, or to 
remain shut in upon their original claims. 

In different localities throngout our State, many of the first settlers, and 
best of men, have thus been compelled either to sell their comfortable, hard- 
earned homes when the " boys grew up ", and " move out west for more 
land", or they have found out at last, perhaps, that they are "timber poor", 
with limited income and meager support in return for their faithful, arduous 
labors, while many of their wealthy prairie neighbors, who only a few years 
before were their hired hands working by the month or the day for small 
wages, are now prosperous and independent on their large prairie farms, 
which yield them bountiful incomes. 

Others, again, soon discovering their mistake in choosing river or timber 
locations for agricultural pursuits, disposed of their claims as soon as possi- 
ble at reasonable profits, to their adjoining neighbors, or later arrivals, and 
moved on toward the front better prepared by experience to make new and 
more judicious selections. 

Thus the work of settlement and improvement in the new country steadily 
progressed, and as the close of the three years drew near, crowds of emi- 
grants were again beginning to linger near the western limits longing for 
the appointed day to come when the last barrier of restraint would be 
taken away, and the boundaries of emigration would be extended almost 
indefinitely westward. 

October 11th, 1845, the much desired day came at last, bringing to the 
yet unsettled pioneer th'e welcome privilege to choose from all the goodly 
land before him, his future home. But to the poor Indian it brought the 
solemn warning that his lease of home was gone, and in keeping with his 
record of the past, he must again move on into western wilds, and seek 
there a new home congenial to his wild, untutored nature, leaving his cher- 
ished hunting grounds, so long possessed and enjoyed by him, to pass into 
the hands and under the full control of his pale-faced neighbor, soon to be 
stripped of all that was attractive and dear to the red man's heart. 

In accordance with the stipulations of the treaty, the greater part of the 
Indians were removed, at the expense of the government, in the fall of 
1845, and those who remained until the spring of 1846 were conveyed in 
United States government wagons to a point on the reservation about sev- 
enty-five miles southwest of Kansas City, to join their comrades who had 
gone before. Some of their bark-covered huts still remained after the 
white settlers came, and the graves covered by a roof of rude slabs were 


yet to be seen; but all these soon disappeared to be remembered only as 
things of the past, and now alm'ost every Indian relic is gone, save as the 
plowman turns from under the soil an occasional arrow head or hatchet of 
stone and lays it aside on his curiosity shelf as a memento of barbarism. 

Thus the Red Rock line of reservation had served its time and purpose 
in marking the western limits of the white man's domain, and in protect- 
ing the red man in his rights of home against the advancing strides of em- 
igration until his allotted time had come to move westward again on his 
roving mission, and add one more proof that his race is fast passing away 
and must eventually disappear before the restless march of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, as did the traditionary mound builders give place to the preda- 
tory red man of later times. 

"And did the dust 
Of these fair solitudes once stir with life 
And burn with passion? Let the mighty mounds 
That overlook the rivers, or that rise 
In the dim forests crowded with old oaks, 
Answer : A race that long has passed away 
Built them. The red man came — 
The roaming hunter tribes, warlike and fierce — 
And the mound builders vanished from the earth. 
The solitude of centuries untold 
Has settled where they dwelt. The prairie wolf 
Howls in their meadows, and his fresh dug den 
Yawns by my path. The gopher mines the ground 
Where stood their swarming cities. All is gone — 
All; save the piles of earth that hold their bones, 
The platforms where they worshiped unknown gods." 

Thus as those traditionary mound builders were forced to give way to 
the plundering red man of later times, so must he give place to his pale- 
faced successor, and his night of ignorance and superstition in which he 
so delights to revel, must give place to the approaching light of intelli- 
gence and civilization as truly as the darkest shades of midnight are dis- 
pelled by the approaching light of day. 

When the last barrier of restraint was thus removed, the tide of emigra- 
tion so long held in check, began to come' in at a rapid rate over these 
prairies, and thus it has continued to roll wave after wave in rapid succes- 
sion until it has reached the western shore, carrying with it the energy and 
talents and enterprise of nations, and washing to the surface the gold from 
the mountains and valleys on the Pacific slope, itdias enveloped our land 
in the mighty main of enterprise and civilization. 

While the hapless Indian, driven by the advancing tide from shore to 
shore over this mighty continent, is caught at last in the billows and drifts 
with the tide, clinging only to the floating driftwood of his own shattered 
bark of barbarism and superstition as his last faint hope before being lost 
in the surges and sunk in oblivion. 

And thus he soon will perish to be remembered only as a historic name, 
unless rescued from his uncivilized, savage condition by omnipotent power, 
through the humble instrumentality of human sympathy and christian 

After the way had thus been opened by that ever-memorable Indian 
treaty, emigration began at once to spread rapidly toward the northwest 
along the borders of the Des Moines and Raccoon rivers, and claim after 
claim was taken, cabin after cabin was erected, settlement after settlement 


was made by pioneer emigrants, who quickly occupied the highlands west 
of the Fort, and continued gradually venturing out still further into the 
newly vacated wilds, settling here and there in the edges of the woodlands 
which skirted the Raccoon river, until in the early spring of 1846 its forks 
were reached and passed, and the enterprising sound of the white man's ax 
was heard echoing from every side, as with busy stroke he felled the trees 
and prepared the logs for his humble cabin home. 

Before many days had past the curling smoke was seen rising through 
the tree tops from many such hopeful, happy pioneer homes in this western 
wild; and within those rustic walls were found thankful hearts, cheerful 
faces, welcome voices and liberal hospitality, which displayed on every side 
an air of contentment and prosperity, and made " assurance doubly sure " 
that the great work of the settlement and cultivation of this fertile land 
was. actually begun by the white pioneer, even within the present territory 
of Dallas county, and that it would be thoroughly carried on to the west- 
ern border. 


Dallas is one of the central counties of Iowa. It was named in honor 
of the Hon. George M. Dallas, of Pennsylvania, then Vice-President of the 
United States, and of distinguished revolutionary stock. It is situated in 
the fourth tier of counties, numbering from the southern boundary of the' 
state, and is number live from the Missouri river. It is bounded on the 
north by Greene and Boone; on the south by Madison ; on the ea6t by Polk; 
and on the west by Guthrie county. It is about twenty-four miles square, 
containing an area of 576 square miles, or 368,640 acres of surface. 

It contains congressional townships Nos. 78, 79, 80 and 81 north of 
ranges Nos. 26, 27, 28 and 29 west of the fifth principal meridian. These 
are divided into sixteen civil townships, each six miles square, whose bound- 
aries correspond with those of the congressional, and are known by the 
following names: Des Moines, Beaver, Spring Valley, Dallas, Lincoln, 
"Washington, Sugar Grove, Grant, Walnut, Adel, Colfax, Linn, Union, 
Adams, Van Meter and Boone. All of these townships are within the 
boundary of the middle and lower coal-measures of Iowa. 

Five of the above named townships, as will be easily recognized, took 
their names from presidents and vice-presidents, five from physical peculiar- 
ities of timber or water, and three from names of prominent citizens. Adel 
took its name from the county seat, Des Moines from the name of the river 
flowing through, and Union from the fact that the Middle and South Rac- 
coon rivers unite within its borders. 

The county was finally divided into these sixteen civil townships, with 
their respective boundary lines the same as those of the eight congressional 
townships as above described. The various townships, however, passed 
through numerous changes with regard to their respective boundary lines 
from the time of their first organization until the present, which changes 
are described more fully under the history of the respective townships. 
They were settled in their present form only a few years ago. 

Elevation. — The county lies high and dry, being situated partially on 
the east slope of the great "Water-shed" or dividing ridge between the 
waters of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The elevation above the sea 
at four different points upon its surface, as given by the chief engineers of 


the two railroads passing through it are as follows: De Soto, 868 feet; 
Perry, 966 feet; Adel, 1074 feet; and Dexter, 1128 feet. An elevation a 
short distance southeast of Pilot Lake is said to be the highest ground in 
the county, exceeding any of the above montioned measurements, and pre- 
senting a fine view of the surrounding county and general surface of the 

Surface. — The general surface of Dallas county is that of a beautiful, 
undulating Iowa prairie. It is slightly diversified in its general aspect, 
owing to the underlying coal-measure formation, yet it is quite symmetrical 
in its different parts. The greater portion is sufficiently level to afford the 
best of farming lands, and at the same time is rolling enough for good 
drainage. * 

It is somewhat broken and bluffy in different localities -along the rivers 
and rnnning streams, especially in its southwestern portion in the vicinity 
of the South Raccoon river. From the divide between this stream and the 
North Raccoon river the general surface gradually rises until it passes the 
southern border of the county and shows a tract much more broken and 
hilly than that of the northern portion. 

In some places the prairie lands are also quite elevated, especially on the 
divides between the different rivers and streams, but these are never broken 
or rough enough to interfere in the least with agriculture. They gently 
descend with beautiful, productive bottom lands, and then gradually ascend 
again into fertile rolling prairies. 

With the exception of a portion of the southwest corner, the general 
surface of the county inclines gently from the northwest to the southeast, 
forming part of the east side of the " Great Water-shed", and is crossed in 
that direction by numerous streams at convenient intervals, which are bor- 
dered by belts of valuable timber-lands, thus affording an abundance of 
wood and water. The inclination toward the southeast is sufficient to give 
these streams considerable fall, producing rapid currents, which have caused 
the larger ones to erode their beds in many places to a depth of from one 
hundred to two hundred feet below the general level of the uplands, and 
have produced flat sandy valleys of considerable width, which are bordered 
by declivities in many places quite abrupt. The northern portion is suf- 
ficiently rolling to be well drained, and affords some of the best of farming 

While west of the North Raccoon River, the surface in many localities de- 
scends into broad shallow depressions corresponding with the basin that exists 
in the coal-measure strata in'that section; and then on toward the northwest 
and south it rises again, more or less abruptly into high, rolling arable lands 
of a superior quality, while the strips of land lying between the South 
Raccoon River and the southern line affords some of the very best farming 
land in the county. 

The large tract lying east of the North Raccoon river, which comprises 
nearly one-half of the county, abounds in rich arable land, high and slightly 
rolling, yet it is sufficiently watered and drained by numerous small streams 
that flow through it and empty into the Raccoon and Des Moines rivers. 

The valleys along these streams are cut to a considerable, depth into the 
deposits belonging to the middle coal-measure. 

In the extreme northeast corner of the county, the surface then dips 
down into the broad valley and timber bottoms of the Des Moines river, 


which passes diagonally across the corner, leaving only a very small strip of 
prairie land on the east side of that river within the county limits. 

Water and Drainage. — The county is well drained and admirably sup- 
plied with good water, so situated as to be easily accessible in the various 
localities and its natural drainage system could scarcely be more complete. 

It has four good rivers, viz: The Des Moines, and the North, Middle 
and South Raccoon rivers, besides numerous other minor streams of con- 
siderable importance flowing at convenient distances to accommodate the 
entire county. In fact every township in the e'ntire county lias at least one 
river or large creek flowing through it. Eleven of the townships have 
rivers, and many of them have several important streams passing through 
them, so that there are comparatively few sections of land in the county 
without running" water in abundance for agricultural purposes. 

No better advertisement could well be given the county for stock-raising 
and farming purposes than the statement of the fact that with its fertile 
prairies and valuable timber belts, it is also well supplied with living water, 
and thoroughly drained, so as to readily and safely dispose of the greatest 
freshets during the rainj' seasons. 

Des Moines River. — -This river flows for a distance of about five, miles 
through the northeastern corner of the countj' - , intersecting the north line 
of Des Moines township a little east of the center, and flowing oat through 
the east line of the same township a short distance south of the center, thus 
cutting off from that portion of the county a three-cornered piece contain- . 
ing about six sections of land, or 3840 acres. 

The average width of its channel within the county bounds is about 
thirty rods, and its average depth from three to four feet during low water, 
while at certain times of the year it rises to a mighty torrent. There are 
numerous shallows in the channel, which prevent the navigation of crafts of 
any size. It has a considerable decline to the southeast, with an average 
slope per mile of two feet four inches, by railroad level, through this section 
from Fort Dodge to Ottumwa, which makes its current rather swift. Its 
channel, for the most part, flows over a pebbly bed, which makes it easily 
fordable wherever the banks on either side will permit. Its banks are com- 
posed of alluvial deposits. Its bottom lands are from one-half to two miles 
wide in Dallas county, and are frequently overflown. These lands produce 
some valuable timber, such as walnut, sugar maple, and cottonwood, while 
on the higher bluffs are found some excellent oaks and hard woods of differ- 
ent kinds. Where there is no timber growing these bottoms are of wonder- 
ful fertility. The channel flows through the lower coal-measure strata, and 
the bluffy banks in section 14 afford three good coal mines, all in working 
order, and yielding a very good quality of coal. This river has its source in 
Minnesota, but enters Iowa before attaining any importance, and flows 
almost centrally through the State from northwest to southeast, emptying 
into the Mississippi at the extreme southeastern corner of the State, and 
thus passes through a large tract of the finest land in the State, watering and 
draining a greater area than any other stream within her borders, and is ap- 
propriately called "Iowa's finest river." Its only tributaries from this 
county are the Raccoon river and Beaver creek, both of which empty into 
the Des Moines after passing the eastern boundary of Dallas and entering 
Polk county. 

Raccoon River. — This river, doubtless, derives its name from the fact that 
formerly so many of these animals were found along its borders. The main 


body of this stream, from its forks in Van Meter township, in section 21, 
township 78, range 27, flows nearly in an easterly direction, and extends 
but a short distance before passing the east line of the county, about one 
mile and a half from the southeast corner, emptying into the Des Moines 
river in Polk county, southwest of the State Capitol. 

The length of its channel, within the boundaries of Dallas, is about ten 
miles, flowing through the southern part of Boone township and the south- 
ern part of the east half of Yan Meter, supplying all that section with fine 
water and mill privileges, as well as with an abundance of good timber from 
the broad belt of heavy woodlands along its banks. During low water the 
average width and depth are not very great; but during freshets and rainy 
seasons it often swells to an immense size in order to carry off the drainage 
from a large scope of country lying northwest of it, through which its 
branches and their tributaries extend. This immense flood of drainage, 
flowing in so suddenly, frequently causes it to overflow its banks and flood 
the bottom lands along it to a great width. Its banks are of alluvial 
deposits, and its bottom lands, sometimes extending on either side to con- 
siderable distance, are either covered with a heavy growth of good timber, 
or afford the most productive farming lands. 

The channel, for the most part, flows over a pebbly, sandy bed, rendering 
it easily fordable in many places. Its fall is not so great, and its current 
not so rapid, as that of either of its branches, and therefore its good mill 
■ sites are'not so numerous as theirs. According to railroad level, the aver- 
age slope of its channel from the forks to its mouth, a distance of about 
twenty miles, is two feet eleven inches per mile. Nevertheless, within the 
ten miles length in Dallas county its course is interrupted by two mill 
dams, and its channel is crossed by three good bridges, one Howe truss rail- 
road bridge at Booneville, built by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad Company in 1869, and two good wagon bridges — one an iron 
bride near Booneville, and the other is a wooden bridge at Van Meter. 

The only tributaries to the main body of this river, flowing into it from 
this county, aside from its branches, are Sugar, Johnson, and Walnut 
creeks, each flowing into it from the north. The first two of these empty 
into it within the bounds of Dallas county, aud the other in Polk county. 
Above the forks the main branch is generally known as the North Raccoon 
river, and is so called by the citizens; while the South Branch is commonly 
considered as its tributary. 

North Raccoon. — This river, when considered as the main branch, is the 
most important stream in the county. It has its source away to the north 
above Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county, flowing in an easterly course 
for miles through the level open prairie as far down as Sac county where it 
gradually becomes skirted more and more with a belt of timber and bluff 
lands until it reaches the northwest corner of Dallas, and runs diagonally 
through the entire extentof the county, passing out at the southeas^ corner 
in the form of the main branch as above described, and thus bountifully 
supplying a large tract of the finest land through the central portion of the 
county with good water and timber and drainage facilities. 

In its meandering course, it flows through about fifty sections of land in 
Dallas, on almost any one of which, it is estimated, could be obtained a 
head of six feet fall, thus affording mill sites and water power in abundance. 
These numerous natural privileges, however, have not been utilized very 
extensively, as it has only three mills on its banks above the forks. The 


supply of water in this river is constant and reliable, as it is furnished 
chiefly by living springs issuing from the gravel beds and bluffs along its 
banks. Its bed is composed mainly of sand and coarse gravel resting upon 
an almost impenetrable hard-pan of blue clay, which renders it free from 
dangerous and offensive mire holes and easily bridged or forded. This 
stream is spanned, above the forks, with one iron and five frame wagon 
bridges, and it is expected that the new railroad bridge at Adel will soon 
be added to the number. 

Its channel within the boundaries of the county above the forks, for a 
stream of so great length, is neither very wide nor very deep during low 
water, as it abounds in shallows; but during the wet seasons and spring 
freshets it rises very high in a short time, often overflowing its banks and 
flooding its entire bottom. From Jefferson to its forks, it has an average 
slope of four feet per mile, which causes its current to run very swiftly, and 
produces many valuable water powers. Its banks in most places are high 
and are chiefly composed of alluvial deposits, while along nearly its entire 
length through the county this stream is skirted with a belt of heavy tim- 
ber, which varies in width very greatly in different localities. Its valley, 
through this region, is excavated out of the heavy surface deposits and 
middle coal-measure through which its channel flows. In some places the 
valley reaches a depth of 175 feet below the level of the uplands, and in 
many places extends out from the river on either side in capacious bottom 
basins, surrounded by a chain of bluffs which roll back into high beautiful 
prairie, or gradually descend again into broad fertile valleys. These bottom 
basins along the river afford some of the most productive lands and valua- 
ble farms in the county. The principal affluents to this river above the 
forks within the county lines, are Hickory and Frog creeks, and Miller and 
Butler branches. 

South Raccoon.— This stream rises to the northwest, near the west line 
of Guthrie county, and enters Dallas about four miles from the southwest 
corner, then meanders through the south part of the county in an easterly 
direction until it unites with the north fork and main branch in section (21) 
twenty-one, township (78) seventy-eight, range (27) twenty-seven, in what 
is now known as Yan Meter township. It flows through a very line agri- 
cultural region, perhaps the finest in the county, the deep black soil of the 
valleys and bottom lands being of a most productive character. The river 
has a gravelly, solid bed, and its banks are composed of alluvial deposits. 
Its channel is not quite so wide or so deep as that of the North Kaccoon, 
but its fall is even greater, its current much swifter and its mill privileges 
more abundant. 

It is generally conceded that it affords some of the very best mill sites 
and water privileges in the State; still comparatively few of these have 
thus far been utilized. 

The supply of water in this stream is also constant and reliable, being 
fed, principally, by numerous and unfailing springs issuing from the bluffy 
banks and gravel beds all along its borders. 

On every mile in length of its channel it would be easy to secure a head 
of from six to eight feet of water power. During low water its channel 
abounds in shallows, and its average depth is not very great; but when the 
freshets and rainy seasons come, it rises very rapidly on account of the 
large amount of drainage poured into it from the surrounding hills and ra' 
vines, and numerous affluents on either side. These frequently cause it to 


fill its banks in a few hours time and very soon to overflow them, flooding 
the bottom lands in great tracts on either side. Then it as quickly falls again 
to its natural size, but never runs too low for effective and valuable water 
power in constant supply. 

During each year its channel carries off an immense quantity of drain- 
age from its surrounding country. This, with the constant wearing of its 
rapid current, has caused it to erode its bed in many places to an unusual 
depth, and has made for it a broad, fertile valley, extending out here and 
there in large basin bottoms. 

This stream is also skirted with a belt of valuable timber, varying greatly 
in width in the different localities, and in some places it is bordered with 
high bluff hinds which afford some of the finest timber, as well as pic- 
turesque and attractive scenery. 

It has four good grist mills and one woolen mill on its banks, and is 
spanned by two iron and one frame bridge, which number is soon to be in- 
creased by another iron bridge. 

The tributaries to the South Raccoon are the Middle Raccoon river, the 
Panther, Bear, Bulger and Cottonwood creeks, being the principal ones 
within the county limits. 

Middle Raccoon. — This river has its source in Carroll county, and enters 
the west side of Dallas, a little less than a mile north of the southwest cor- 
ner of Linn township, in section 31, township 79, range 29, flowing then 
in a winding course southeast until it empties as the chief tributary into 
the South Raccoon in section 9, township 78, range 29, in what is known 
as Union township, near the village site of Wiscofta. It flows through a 
fine region of country, but only for a short distance within the boundaries 
of this county. It is in its general characteristics and surroundings very 
much like the other branches of the same great river and affords some ex- 
cellent mill privileges and water powers, of which but a few have yet been 

Its current is very rapid, its bed sandy, its channel narrow, and its bot- 
tom lands are productive and valuable. It is bordered with a belt of good 
timber, and is quite bluffy in many places along its banks. It is spanned 
by only one bridge within the county bounds, which is situated at Redfield; 
while it has three good grist mills —one at Redfield, and the other two near 
the west line of Linn township. Its main affluent, within the county, is 
Mosquito creek, which empties into it from the north about midway in its 
course within the county. 

Creeks are to be found in plentiful supply in Dallas, as may be inferred 
from the above description of different rivers and their tributaries. These 
are well distributed throughout the different parts of the county, affording 
plenty of water and drainage in the various localities where the rivers do 
not extend. 

The names of such as are of any special note in the county are Mosquito, 
Panther, Bear, Beaver, Walnut, Sugar, Johnson, Hickory, Frog, Bulger, 
Cottonwood and Slough creeks, and Miller and Butler branches. A few of 
these deserve especial notice. 

Mosquito Creek has its source in a little lake, or pond, in the north part 
of Guthrie county, and runs southeast in a winding course entering Dallas 
at the northwest corner of Lincoln township, and passing on down through 
that and Linn townships, it empties into ,the Middle Raccoon river a little 
above Redfield. 


In its course it passes through an agricultural region of great fertility. 
Through Linn township it is skirted with a belt of good timber, which 
consists principally of soft maple, elm, and swamp ash in abundance. It 
"did afford a good many white ash, but these have mostly been cut off by 
the first settlers. It is also well supplied with fish of the smaller varieties, 
and affords a number of coal mines. It has several frame wagon bridges, 
one just above the mouth, and affords some good mill sites. 

At a very early day a company of hunters finding occasion to camp over 
night near the banks of this creek, were so completely beseiged with mos- 
quitoes during the night, both they and their horses, that they then and 
there christened the stream Mosquito creek, and ever since it has been 
called and known by that name. 

Panther Creek rises in the northwestern part of Dallas county, its be- 
ginning being the outlet for Pilot lake, in Lincoln township, before that 
lake was drained, and then winds in a southeasterly course through Colfax, 
into Adams township, and empties into the South Kaccoon river near the 
iron bridge. This creek runs all the way through a fine prairie country, 
except a few miles in the last of its course, where it becomes somewhat 
heavily timbered, and affords water and drainage facilities for a large tract 
of country. It is said that, at an early day, a company of hunters killed a 
large panther at some point along this stream, and thus it was afterward 
referred to as " the panther". And viewing it from the high lands on either 
side it seems to creep along slyly in its winding course, down its valley 
through the prairie grass and bushes, not unlike the trail of a stealthy panther 
after his prey. 

, In the spring of. 1846, soon after their arrival in Dallas county, John 
Wright and his brother-in-law, Greenbury Coffin, were out on a hunt in the 
vicinity of this stream, and were strolling through the tall grass and under- 
brush, when suddenly they came upon a large panther, which at once 
showed fight and manifested no disposition in the least to retreat. . 

The only hope for the hunters in this critical situation, was to bravely 
and cautiously meet the wild beast on her own ground, and either prove 
themselves masters of the situation, or be torn to pieces and devoured, as 
they were already too close upon her when discovered to have any chance 
to retreat. Wright, however, was a fearless frontier hunter, and not easily 
thrown off his guard. 

The instance of danger at once revealed to him the mode of escape. 
Quick as thought he drew a " bead " on her eye, sent a bullet whizzing 
through her brain, and the next instant the savage beast lay dead in her 
tracks. To the cantion of Coffin, to " be careful " while taking his aim, 
Wright cooly responded when the panther fell dead, " I am always sure of 
my aim when necessary." 

From this romantic incident in frontier life the stream derived the name 
of Panther creek. 

Bear Greek rises in the southwest corner of the county, and flows north- 
east through some of the richest and most productive farming land in the 
county, until it empties into the same river from the south, about a mile 
west of the mouth of Panther creek. The Bear and the Bulger creeks are 
the only streams of any importance in that part of the county south of the 
Eaccoon river; but they water a magnificent region, and drain a very fer- 
tile soil. 

Beaver Creek rises among the ponds and sw.amp lands in the northwest 


part of Boone county, and crosses the north line of Dallas about two miles 
west of the middle in Spring Yalley township, a little northeast of the 
town of Perry. 

It flows then in a tortuous course to the southeast, across the northeast 
corner of the county, and passes out of Dallas about the middle of the east 
line of Grant township, emptying into the Des Moines river in Polk county. 
This creek, during most of its course through Dallas, runs through open 
rolling prairie with occasional belts of light scrubby timber and brush land 
skirting it here and there. It has two affluents of some size within the 
county boundaries. The Little Beaver creek flows into it from the north, 
and Slough creek from the south, each emptying into it in Beaver township, 
about two miles apart. 

These two streams, flowing into it from opposite directions, show that it 
runs through a broad, fertile valley, draining a large acreage of very fine 

Lakes. — The northwest part of Dallas county also affords a number of 
small lakes and large ponds, but not enough of them to render the land 
around sour and unproductive, as is the case in so many localities further 
north. These bodies of water lie out in the midst of a broad, high prairie, 
scattered here and there as so many convenient little basins, holding suffi- 
cient water, during the greater part of the year, to accommodate the thirsty 
herds from prairie range, or pasture fields, that come to slack their thirst 
from the refreshing contents. Many of these, then, are both useful and 
ornamental, and serve the purpose for which they were placed there, while 
the land around them is generally both fertile and valuable. Some of these 
become dry during the warm summer months, but others contain a sufficient 
quantity of water during the entire year to afford a good many fish. 

The water in these lakes and ponds is supplied from the rain-falls and 
drainage from the surrounding country; and the bottoms of their basins 
are underlaid with this impenetrable hard-pan which does not allow the 
contents to soak away, and the pure atmosphere of the prairies keeps the 
water, thus confined, from becoming stagnant. In the eastern part of the 
county, in some places, these ponds are rather too thick for convenience or 
comfort, and are surrounded with too much low land to be profitable, which 
tend to depreciate the attraction and value of the land in those localities 
for farming purposes. Two of these lakes are worthy of special notice. 

Pilot Lake was formerly the largest and most important of these bodies 
of water in the county until a few years ago it was drained out entirely. 
The principal part of its basin is situated about the middle of the north 
half of section (10) ten, with a small portion, perhaps about ten acres, reach- 
ing north upon section (3) three, township (80) eighty, range (29) twenty- 
nine, now known as Lincoln township. The entire basin covers an area of 
about one hundred acres, swamp land and all included, and sometimes the 
water rose in it so as to cover nearly this entire surface; but in its average 
state, before being drained, its water surface covered about eighty acres, 
while its depth averaged from five to eight feet. It also contained a good 
many fish of different kinds, and was a great harbor for wild game, as also 
a favorite resort for hunters. 

The water in it was furnished entirely by the rain-falls and surface drain- 
age, and its bottom was underlaid with that white clay hard-pan which held 
securelv whatever of water fell or ran into it until an outlet was furnished 
through its banks. 


Until a few years ago it was an ornamental and attractive little lake, when 
Mr. E. M. Jones, the present owner of the lake-basin and lands adjoining, 
in July, 1876, cut a drain from a low point on the east side, across in an 
easterly course to the Panther creek, a distance of about three-quarters of 
a mile, which soon carried off all the water and left the basin as dry as the 
surrounding prairie; so that now it is necessary to dig from three to five 
feet below the surface in order to secure water. No indications of springs 
have been discovered in the bottom or around its banks. Mr. Jones feels 
confident that in a few years, when he has succeeded in draining it a little 
more thoroughly, so that the rain falls and surface floods can be carried off 
more rapidly, and the surface becomes moulded and purified by the atmos- 
phere, he will have, in this lake-basin, a tract of the most productive and 
valuable land in all that vicinity, with comparatively little extra work or 

Since it was thus drained a great many bones of buffalo skeletons have 
been found strewn over the bottom of the basin in various places. It is 
supposed that the hunted animals, having given out, or been wounded in 
chase, had rushed into the lake for water, or perhaps to take refuge from 
the closely pursuing wolves, or dogs and hunters, and that, being unable 
from exhaustion to rejoin their herds, they have died there and become 
buried in the waters. Dr. Akin, of Minburn, Sugar Grove township, has 
now the skeleton of a buffalo's head found on the bottom of this lake- 
basin after its drainage, and treasures it as a choice relic of buffalo bar- 

The lake, and adjoining land on the west and south sides, were formerly 
owned by William Clarke, who built a small frame two story house, about 
16x24 feet, on its western shore, and in this kept hotel on the old stage , 
line passing through that place, some thirteen or fourteen years ago. In 
that small house, we are informed, he has accommodated in those days of 
frontier life, as high as forty guests at one time with meals and lodging. 
Mr. Clarke finally disposed of this property, and it afterward came into 
the possession of the present owner, Mr. E. M. Jones, a well informed and 
courteous gentleman, to whom we are indebted for liberal hospitality and 
valuable information regarding this vicinity. 

Swan Lake is situated on sections (27) twenty-seven and (28) twenty- 
eight, township (81) eighty-one, range (29) twenty-nine, now known as 
Dallas township, and is also an attractive little body of water. It covers 
about one-half section of ground, considering all the low lands included 
witlmi the rim of its basin, and in the center of this low tract there is an 
area of about eighty acres of water surface, which constitutes the lake 
proper. In depth it will average nearly five feet of good clear water. The 
shallower portions in some places are grown up with large rushes, but the 
greater portion of it presents an open surface, and is altogether a beautiful 
little body of water. It has an outlet into the Elm slough, and thence into 
North Raccoon river in the northwest corner of the county. The lake lies 
out in the midst of a level prairie, with no timber near it, and is sur- 
rounded by a fine tract of country. It affords a good supply of fish, prin- 
cipally large, black bass and sun, or pumpkin-seed fish, and is a favorite re- 
sort for wild ducks and geese, as well as for hunters from various parts of 
the country, who come sometimes great distances to enjoy the choice sports 
of gaming and fishing which it affords. If it were drained like Pilot Lake 


has been it doubtless would afford a similar display of buffalo bones and 
skeletons strewn over the bottom of its basin. 

Sloughs. — This county, very fortunately, has comparatively few of those 
unapproachable sloughs and tracts of swamp lands so often found on exten- 
sive prairies. The sloughs throughout the county are generally a good dis- 
tance apart, leaving a broad strip of well drained farming land on either 
side. They are mostly broad and level, with sufficient fall to carry off the 
drainage and prevent water from standing in them very long, while their 
channels do not wash deep narrow drains in the center as is the case in 
many other places. The greater portion of the slough lands in Dallas county 
could be easily drained and made tillable. They would then become some 
of the most productive farming lands in the county, and would still answer 
the same purpose of drainage for which they are now prized, at the same 
time producing abundant yields of hay or other products. 

In some places they spread out in the shape of broad, level bottom lands, 
gradually widening and sloping down toward the valleys of the neighboring 
rivers or other running streams. The soil of these slough lands is some- 
what sandy, but is fertile and easily tilled when once drained and broken. 

Well Water. — In most localities throughout the county good well water 
is easily obtained, at a moderate depth below the surface, in great- abund- 
ance. Even on the high lands good wells are secured at a depth of from 
twelve to twenty feet, which furnish an almost unfailing supply of clear, 
cold lime water. Less frequently it becomes necessary to dig thirty and 
forty feet, and occasionally deeper before meeting with the same results, 
accordingly as the well-digger is fortunate in starting in the right place to 
strike a good vein. Here, as in other localities, of course, these water veins 
underground vary greatly in depth, and sometimes only a few rods from a 
good well fifteen or twenty feet deep, it may become necessary to dig twice 
or three times the distance in order to find plenty of water again, and vice 
versa, so that it is difficult to give an average of depth. But in this county, 
as a general thing, plenty of good well water is more easily obtained than 
in most places throughout the State, and though sometimes it is necessary 
to go down to quite a depth, the excellent quality of water secured well re- 
pays the digging. 

,. Springs.— Dallas county is fortunately favored with springs. In fact 
nearly all the rivers and running streams within the county bounds seem to 
be fed principally by living springs issuing out of the bluffs, and ravines, 
and gravel beds all along their banks. They are so numerous and close 
together in many places along the rivers as to present the appearance of 
one continuous sheet of water running down the side of the bank into the 
channel, as if pressed out from a spongy spring-bed beneath by the im- 
mense weight of earth above. At other places they appear springing up 
and gushing out near the water's edge, or back in the ravines, sometimes at 

freat distances from the river, and even well up on the sides of the bluffs 
tie springs are often seen boiling out and rippling down in crystal streams 
of clear cold water, and hurrying on to pay their tribute to the rivers. 

Thus there is no scarcity of good spring and well water in Dallas county, 
which is generally easily obtained, excellent in quality and unfailing in 
quantity. The county also affords some springs whose water possesses 
mineral qualities worthy of note. 



Salt Spring. — Near the head of a ravine in the southwest corner of the 
county, in Union township, there is a spring the water of which is strongly 
impregnated with salt. Around it is a level surface of about an acre, 
which it is supposed was worn down in this form by the continual tramping 
of deer and buffalo and other animals that had gathered around it to secure 
the salt element contained in the water. 

Roads and paths leading into it from different directions are yet easily 
traced as the marks of approaches of wild animals to it in early times. 

It is located near Lemuel Maulsby's, about section 18, and is quite a 
large spring. 

During wet seasons a stream of considerable size issues from it, sufficient 
to turn an overshot wheel of considerable dimensions. 

The deposits found by it are of a saline character, and the water is quite 
brackish; but no perceptible salt taste to it. 

The water of this spring has never yet been utilized for any special purposes, 
though there is evidently quite a salt element contained in it. 

Sulphur Spring. — -In Union township, a little more than a mile east of 
Wiscotta, on section 2, there is a spring that is strongly tinctured with 

It covers an area of several rods square, including the boggy land around 
it; and the stream of water issuing from it constantly and flowing into the 
South Raccoon river a few rods below, is some two or three feet in width, 
sufficient to turn a good sized overshot wheel. 

It is doubtless a valuable spring for medicinal purposes, and is consid- 
ered by various physicians to contain better medicinal properties than many 
other such springs of considerable notoriety in the country. But its waters 
have never yet been utilized for such purposes, nor have its medicinal prop- 
erties ever been thoroughly tested by anyone so as to learn the real value. 

There are also numerous small springs around it of similar character; 
and still further east of it, important springs occur more or less frequently 
on either side of the river during its entire course in the county. 

Timber. — Dallas county is also fortunately favored with timber, well dis- 
tributed and conveniently located to the prairie and farming lands, so as to 
be easily accessible from almost any locality within its boundaries. 

All the rivers during their entire length within the county are bordered 
with belts of timber. Many of their tributaries are also skirted with 
woodlands along the greater part of their course. 

Beautiful groves are dotted here and there, some of them occupying 
quite elevated positions, and others bordering on the low lands, which tend 
to relieve the monotony and dreary aspect so prevalent on our broad, bleak 
western prairies. 

There are a great many varieties of timber found', such as oak, hickory, 
sycamore, walnut, hackberry, linn, elm, sugar maple, soft maple, cotton- 
wood, swamp ash, and in some localities white ash, etc. Along the river 
bottoms and low lands it chiefly abounds in the soft woods with a moderate 
per cent of hard wood trees occurring among them more or less frequently 
in different localities, while along the higher banks and bluff lands are 
found the more valuable hard woods suitable for fencing and building pur- 

The heaviest and finest timber in the county is found, perhaps, at the 
junction of the North and South Raccoon rivers and around in that vicin- 
ity throughout the center of Van Meter township. In many places, the 


best hard woods of the old growth of timber have been pretty well culled 
out, and in others quite thoroughly cleared off, leaving a plentiful supply 
of the less valuable soft woods. But the second growth is rapidly increas- 
ing, and is furnishing, as an average, a better quality of timber than that 
which preceded, and it is estimated that the increase in growth will exceed 
the annual waste and consumption for all purposes; so that there need be 
no fear of the citizens suffering from want of fuel, and fencing, and shelter, 
especially since coal and lumber are becoming so plentiful and cheap, found 
almost at their very doors; and since about one-tenth of the entire county 
consists of good timber lands to be had at reasonable prices. 

Even 'those who were born and raised in a timber country, and 
who have spent their prime of life in the woods can find here a timber 
home quite congenial to their nature, and also joining this they can secure, 
for as large a family as they choose to raise, a fertile tract of farming land, 
all grubbed and cleared and ready for the plow, which, with a moderate 
amount of labor and judicious management, will furnish a comfortable 
home and liberal income as the reward of faithful industry and prudence. 

Along the South Raccoon river east from Wiscotta, and in Adams town- 
ship, around and in the vicinity of the mouth of Bear and Panther creeks, 
is a large body of heavy, valuable timber; and on the North Raccoon 
river, near the Union of Miller and Butler branches with that stream, there 
is a broad belt of fine timber land. 

In these days, however, timber is not prized so highly as it was a few 
years ago, since railroad facilities and coal mines have rendered fuel, and 
fencing, and building material so plentiful and cheap; and as a consequence 
the price is considerably reduced, and the opportunities for purchasing in- 
creased. The average value of good timber land in the county is about 
twenty dollars per acre, and a fair quality can be purchased for even less. 

Prairie is the prevailing characteristic of the county. It is abundant in 
quantity and mostly all excellent in quality. 

In so large a tract there must alwa3^s be some that is of an inferior qual- 
ity. HoweVer, there is a comparatively small per cent of poor prairie land 
in this county, and among so much that is good it is a difficult task to des- 
ignate that which is best. On nearly all the divides between the rivers and 
running streams are found large tracts of beautiful, rolling prairie lands 
well drained, easily cultivated, highly productive and conveniently located 
to water and timber, and mills and'markets. 

Perhaps some of the choicest farming land in the county is found be- 
tween the Raccoon river and the southern - border of the county. Some 
portions of that, however, are rather broken and hilly. While north of 
that stream and all to the west of the North Raccoon river on either side 
of Panther and Mosquito creeks, up to the north line of the county, there 
is a large tract of as fine productive prairie land as could reasonably be de- 
sired. Some portions of this are quite elevated and rolling, but never 
enough so to interfere materially with easy cultivation and improvement, 
while it possesses some broad, beautiful valleys and low lands of excellent 
quality. Nearly all the prairie on the east side of the North Raccoon is 
pretty much of the same character, only perhaps a little more elevated, and 
not so rolling as an average. 

The tract contained between the North Raccoon river and Beaver creek 
is the largest body of prairie, unbroken by any running stream of much 
size ki the county. It lies high and dry — except in some localities where 


the ponds are a little too thick — enough rolling generally for good drainage 
and a very productive soil. 

Along the Beaver creek and Des Moines river there is some excellent 
valley land, and in many places throughout the northern and northwestern 
part of the county are still fine tracts of prairie unimproved, affording fa- 
vorable opportunities for those wishing to procure desirable farms in a good 
county with productive soil. 

The Climate is wholesome, invigorating and pleasant for this latitude, 
both winter and summer. The winters are generally long, with rather an 
even temperature, sometimes changing quite suddenly from cold to warm 
and back again to extremely eold weather within a few days. But these 
sudden changes are the exception rather than the general rule, so the cit- 
izens soon become accustomed to them, and consider it not half a winter 
without them. This region is subject to an average and occasionally a 
heavy fall of snow during the winter season, which is usually accompanied 
by sharp, healthful frosts. But as a general thing the mercury remains 
above zero, seldom reaching more than twelve or fifteen degrees below, and 
very rarely falling to twenty and twenty-five degrees below zero. 

Strong, sharp, chilling winds sweep over the broad prairies and down the 
valleys during the winter and early spring months, but these become m&di- 
fied to gentle, bracing, welcome breezes during the later spring, summer, 
autumn, and early fall months; and within the past few years the winters 
have become greatly modified from the reputed coldness of earlier days to 
the milder temperature of a more southern clime, so that many of the 
older settlers having become accustomed to exposure in driving storms and 
blustery weather during the hardships of frontier life, rather incline to 
look upon these open, mild winters as intruders, coming out of season and 
out of place, and they begin to " long for the good old days of yore," when 
neighbors must become congenial and accommodating in order to keep 
from freezing or "starving to death, and when storm-staid strangers will be 
made welcome guests at the fireside. 

The later spring, summer and autumn months are generally delightful 
and sain brio us. 

The prairie winds, which become mild and almost constant, are fresh and 
bracing, regulating the temperature and purifying the atmosphere. 

During the months of July and August they sometimes seem rather mild 
and motionless, allowing the sun's rays to beam down unhindered for awhile, 
and to occupy thefield with almost undisputed sway, thus producing a fewdays 
of hot, sweltering harvest weather, which cause the citizens to place something 
of a proper estimate on the value and usefulness of the county's beautiful 
shade trees and excellent water. Then these few sultry summer days are 
soon followed by a glorious "Indian summer" of balmy autumn days, 
which are aptly fitted to brighten the pathway and " cheer the heart of man." 
The county has rain and wet weather enough to water the crops and produce 
a healthy growth of vegetation. But thus far, very fortunately, it has been 
out of the track' of any seriously damaging storms or destructive tornadoes. 

According to the climatological chart, the county has an average rainfall 
of 38 inches, but this seems to be a little exaggerated. 

Health in Dallas county is generally good, and the citizens are usually 
robust and healthy. 

Ague is now becoming quite rare, and the county is comparatively free 


from any climatical diseases peculiar to its limits. There have been some 
cases of sickness this fall from malarial diseases in some localities, a num- 
ber of which have proven fatal. Here, as in all other places, people will 
sicken and die occasionally, and no one particular climate or locality seems 
to be full}' adapted to all persons. 


Desiring to give the best authority on this subject, the following account 
has been carefully compiled and partly quoted from Prof. White's official 
report on the geological survey as State Geologist of Iowa in 1870. 

The Geological Formations found in Dallas county belong to the post- 
tertiary and coal-measure periods, and are of the simplest character. 

The Post-tertiary Drift is spread generally over the entire county, 
and is of variable thickness, estimated at from ten to fifteen feet. On the 
North Raccoon river, above Adel, the bluffs in many places are largely 
composed of these deposits; but its minimum thickness is found along the 
stream to the south where the drift has been extensively denuded. 

The drift is made up of blue clays, representing the original glacial de- 
posits and gravel beds; besides boulders, pebbles and "sand pockets" with 
occasional fragments of coniferous wood are distributed through its mass. 

In excavating for water, these "old forest beds" are frequently encoun- 
tered, and in some cases the trunks of quite large trees have been discovered 
in a very perfect state of preservation. The loose materials form a consid- 
erable, though unevenly distributed, portion of the drift, and one that is 
co-extensive with the unmodified deposits in the uplands. In the valleys, 
these deposits have been still further modified by the currents confined in 
definite channels and producing the varied phenomena displayed in the 
terrace 'formations bordering the larger water-courses. 

Terraces of this kind occur in various parts of the county along the 
larger streams. 

In the valley of the South Raccoon, especially in the vicinity of Redfield, 
there are three or four distinct benches, besides the intervale lands which are 
still subject to periodic overflow. 

The highest of these benches has an elevation of nearly forty feet above 
the river, and forms a level plain about half a mile wide. 

Upon it are several oblong mounds eight to ten feet high. These mounds 
are composed of gravel, and are subtantially of the same material as the 
terraces on which they rest. They were probably formed when the waters 
ot the river occupied a higher level, and were thrown up as gravel bars 
when this bench formed the flood-plain. 

There are two other terraces just below this one, with elevations respect- 
ively ten to fifteen and twenty feet above the river. 

The higher and best defined benches are composed chiefly of coarse 
gravel and sand, while the lower ones, or intervale bottoms, are principally 
made up of finer sand and sediment washed down and deposited by the 
annual freshets^ 

Those tearaces occupy the wide recess formed by the junction of the two 
rivers in this vicinity, and greatly enhance the beauty of Redfield's sit- 

There is another series of such terraces, though not so regular and beau- 
tifully defined, in the valley of the North Raccoon. Adel is built partly 


upon the higher of these benches, which is twenty to thirty feet above the 
river, and all are composed of pretty much the same material as those 
already described. 

Similar formations are also found in the northern part of the county, 
where the valley presents three or four benches remarkable for their grace- 
ful conformation. The intervales or alluvial lands are limited in extent, 
being entirely confined to the narrow belt immediatelyjaordering the streams, 
and are mainly important for the forest growth they support. 

Coal-measures. — The only consolidated strata found in the county belong 
to the coal-measures underlying its entire area. The portions of these strata, 
as seen at the surface, comprise the upper beds of the lower coal formation, 
the entire thickness of the middle formation, with the lower beds of the 
upper coal-measure. These latter appear only in the southwest part of the 

The Lower Coal Formation occupies the larger portion of the northern 
half of the county. 

On the South Raccoon its upper beds crop out to view over a limited area, 
partly hemmed in by the succeeding strata of the middle coal-measure. 
This area possibly has an intimate connection with the similar border out- 
crops of the middle coal-measure in the counties to the southeastward. 

On the Middle Raccoon, a short distance below Kedheld, on section 9, 
township 78, range 29, a bed of coal nearly three feet thick crops out in 
the banks and evidently belongs to this formation. It is doubtless the 
equivalent of the bed now so extensively mined at Des Moines, differing 
only in that it has a less number of clay partings. The products of this 
bed are of fair average quality, and its value will increase in proportion to 
the increasing demand for mineral fuel in this section. This bed, how- 
ever, rapidly disappears beneath the river to the westward as does also the 
one on South Raccoon below Redfield. 

On the right bank of the river at " hanging rock ", a short distance above 
the mine, the sandstone forms an abrupt and picturesque bluff about forty- 
five feet high, where the shales and sandstone overlying the coal are best 

At Newport mills on South Raccoon, half a mile southeast of the Red- 
field mine, some ten feet of micaceous sandstone is exposed, which corres- 
ponds with similar deposits underlying the coal-bed at Des Moines, indi- 
cating that a similar bed exists in the adjacent bluffs on the right side of 
the river, and also on the north side of the valley, which possibly may be 
reached by shafting. 

In the valley of the North Raccoon there are but one or two exposures 
of lower coal strata at present known, and these are comparatively unim- 

A thin seam of this coal has been found in section 16, township 81, range 28, 
on a branch, near J. II. Roberts. Another similar exposure of a four-inch 
coal-seam occurs on the left bank of the river, in section 17, township 81, 
range 28, on the land of Hiram Harper, and a heavier bed is said to out- 
crop in the bed of the river at that place, as is indicated by the fragments 
of coal being washed out and deposited on the sand bars by the freshets. 

It is altogether probable that other and workable coal-beds of a similar 
character will be found in this part of the county, but they are doubtless 
buried quite deeply under the drift. 

Yery few fossil remains have been found in any of the strata of the lower 


coal-measures; but such animal remains as have been found are almost 
invariably of marine origin. 

Middle Coal Formation. — This is the prevailing formation in the 
county, and probably embraces in its outcrops nearly one-half of the area 
of the county. 

In the main valley of the Raccoon river the strata dips gradually to the 
westward, carrying the lower member of the middle coal formation down 
to a level very little above the river at Rocky Ford, on the eastern border 
. of Dallas county. 

On section 26, township 78, range 26, the uppermost layers of the lower 
division appear in the right bank of the river, where the fossiliferous lime- 
stone layers, overlying the Panora coal, present their lithological and 
palaeontological characteristics. 

This exposure is capped by a four-foot bed of sandstone, forming the 
upper bed of this division. There is no definite evidence that the Panora 
coal appears here above the river level. 

The next exposures of rock are found in the bluffs bordering the south 
side of the valley, a little above the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. 
bridge, in sections 26 and 27, township 78, range 27, near Mr. Colton's. At 
this locality the middle division has almost a complete representation, being 
capped by the lower member of the upper division. 

At De Soto, five miles west, almost the same series of strata are met 

The upper beds of the section are well exposed just above the railroad 
track in the bluffs on the south side of the river on section 26. 

The Marshall coal, with all the lower beds included, is finely displayed 
in a ravine a few hundred yards west of the former exposure in section 27, 
displaying a. strata of about seventy feet thickness. The bed here furnishes 
a good quality of coal, but is only from two to six inches thick, and is too 
thin for profitable working. 

At Yan Meter, north of the station, a seam of the Marshall coal, not 
more than six inches thick, outcrops in the left bank of the South Raccoon 
river, where a fine section is presented of the accompanying strata. This 
includes some twenty-five feet of shales inclosing a limestone layer between 
the coal and the bed of the stream, and also shows the sandstone at the top 
of the middle division. 

On Bulger creek, in the vicinity of De Soto, the upper layers of this 
sandstone are again seen in the bed of the creek, supporting some eight 
feet thickness of shales, including the lower carbonaceous horizon of the 
, upper division. There are numerous beds of similar character in this vi- 
cinity. To the westward of De Soto the strata continues to rise until it 
reaches the vicinity of Redfield, and then it has a very considerable west- 
erly dip, which carries the lower coal-measures beneath the level of both 
rivers, while the middle formation appears again in the valiey sides pre- 
senting successively its three divisions as you ascend either stream to the 

Two miles northwest of Redfield, in the south side of the valley of Mos- 
quito creek, in sections 34 and 27, township 79, range 29, the Panora coal 
crops o»t in a bed about six inches thick, and about thirty to thirty-eight 
feet above the Middle Raccoon River, on 'the lands belonging to Messrs. 
Parker and Piatt. The bed here dips again rapidly to the westward and 
disappears beneath the Middle Raccoon, half a mile west of Parker's 


mine. In this locality there are several beds of similar character, and 
farther up the stream still higher and higher strata are successively en- 
countered, consisting of shales and arenaceous deposits which belong to the 
two lower divisions of the formation, and appear at frequent intervals in 
low bluffs on the north side of the stream. 

Near the west line of the county, some two miles southwest of Parker's 
coal mine, a vertical exposure, about eight feet high, of the upper beds of 
the middle division, is beautifully exhibited in a high bluff skirting the 
left bank of the river. 

The highest bed found in this locality appears near the top of the expos- 
ure where a thin seam about six inches thick of Marshall coal outcrops be- 
neath a thin ledge of sandstone, and immediately above the sandstone the 
lower carbonaceous horizon of the npper division appears. 

All that vicinity is well supplied with coal-beds belonging to the middle 

On Mosquito creek, seven or eight miles above its mouth, the Panora 
coal outcrops in the southeast quarter of section 31, township 80, range 29, 
where it has been worked by stripping off the shales and drift material. 

A coal vein in this locality from twelve to twenty inches, and in places 
two feet thick, has been opened, and is being successfully worked. It 
yields unusually hard coal, but is not of so good quality and is rather diffi- 
cult mining. The outcrop at the water's edge was first discovered by 
George Martin and Lem. Southerland, and it is now yielding a good sup- 
ply. The highest point of the cut now opened is twenty-four feet. 

Coal is found on Mosquito creek during almost its entire length through 
Lincoln township, and there are strong indications of its existing still 
further up, but no veins have yet been definitely found. There is evidently 
much more and better coal further under this; but it has not yet been 
found as no one has sought diligently for it any deeper. The overlying 
bituminous shale and bands of earthy limestone are richly stored with fos- 
sils usually found associated in this horizon. 

On the North Raccoon the first rock exposures above its mouth are ob- 
served in the vicinity of Adel. A vertical thickness of forty feet of strata 
belonging to the upper part of the middle division is exposed on Miller's 

This includes a thin seam of coal near the top, which is but the repre- 
sentation of the Marshall coal. On Hickory creek, about one mile and a 
half north, the same beds are again met with, presenting nearly the same 
characteristics; but showing the entire thickness of the upper sandstone of 
the middle division, and the lower carbonaceous horizon of the upper di- 

Half a mile north of Adel, in the bed of Butler's branch, a thin bed of 
coal has been opened which is overlaid by two feet of black carbonaceous 
shales and about the same thickness of arenaceous shales, with a soft heavy 
bed and shaly iron-stained sandstone, containing obscure vegetable re- 

The black shales immediately overlaying the coal present an interesting 
fauna, and afford a great variety of fossil remains. The same beds are 
again met with about three miles further north, where they appear at an 
elevation very little above their position at Butler's branch. 

In a ravine about four miles northwest from Adel, in the southeast quar- 


ter of section 12, township 79, range 28, a thin bed of coal outcrops at an 
elevation of aboufforty feet above the North Raccoon. 

This bed has been worked for several years with good success. It is 
from twelve to twenty inches thick, and about seven feet beneath the coal 
there is a ledge of rather hard, gray sandstone. 

Half a mile southeast of this, about fourteen feet above the level of the 
river, a two or three-foot bed of coal outcrops, and in the opposite side of 
the ravine a ledge of gray, shaly sandstone is seen, which probably belongs 
to the same bed. This exposure has not been regularly opened. 

The strata at this locality has a slight westerly inclination. 

Six miles southeast of Adel, near the head of Sugar creek, in sections 5 
and 6, township 78, range 26, are to be found exposures of the upper and 
lower beds of the middle and upper divisions. This section also affords 
Bome valuable sandstone as well as a variety of interesting plant and fossil 

A short distance below this, in the low bluffs on the opposite side of the 
stream, at an elevation of about twenty feet above the Marshall coal, there 
is an outcropping of sandstone, about eight feet thick. In this bed there 
are one or two layers sufficiently durable to be used in ordinary masonry, 
but the mass of the bed is of no value for this purpose. 

£)n Walnut creek, in the northeast quarter of section 16, township 79, 
range 26, a vein of Marshall coal about ten inches thick has been opened, 
which is said to be of excellent quality. It is overlaid by arenaceous clays, 
capped by a four-foot bed of soft, shaly sandstone, and containing imperfect 
remains of ferns and animal fossils. 

The Upper Goal Formation occupies a quite limited area in Dallas coun- 
ty. The outcrops of this formation are confined to the southwestern town- 
ships below the South Raccoon river. 

In the valley of Bulger creek, some four or five miles southwest. of De 
Soto, on the line of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R., quite an 
extensive exposure of limestone calcareous clays present a vertical thickness 
of about sixty feet of unequivocal upper coal strata. These strata are seen 
in the cuttings along the railroad, and for a half mile or more present a 
very perceptible westerly dip. 

It contains a great variety of shales, clays, and fossiliferous limestones. 
Upper coal-measure limestones are met with in various localities on the 
tributaries to Beaver creek, west of Bulger, in the southwest corner of the 
county, which furnish several excellent limestone quarries, and an abundant 
supply of superior building-stone. 


In the supply of fuel and building materials, Dallas has a very fair pro : 
portion, even greatly superior to many of its surrounding counties, not only 
of timber, but of coal, stone, gravel, sand, lime, brick-clay and other 
materials necessary for building purposes. All of these are quite conven- 
iently distributed 'for the supply of different localities. 

Coal is the most important mineral product of the middle coal-measure, 
as is apparent from the preceding description; and by far the greater num- 
ber o? exposures of tnat valuable mineral, within the county, belong to the 
thin deposits of that formation. 

These deposits, however, are quite limited in number and extent of pro- 


duction as compared with those of the lower coal-measure; but their quality 
is greatly superior. They afford a much purer and more valuable coal, as 
they contain comparatively little pyrite or other impurities, and therefore 
they are being mined more or less extensively to supply the local demands 
for special purposes, which require the use of pure coal. Some of these 
beds are too thin to be opened and worked with any degree of profit, while 
many, others are considered sufficiently thick, even at twelve to twenty 
inches, to be quite extensively mined with good profits; and the local 
demand for coal is being largely supplied with coal from them. Should 
this supply threaten to fail, there is still an abundance on reserve in the 
lower formation, which can be secured by adding a little more labor and 

In many places throughout the county, the upper bed of the lower form- 
ation is brought to the surface, which affords a fair quality and plentiful 
supply of coal two and three feet in thickness. It is thought probable, too, 
that in the northern portion of the county especially, still lower beds in the 
productive measures will be discovered not far from the surface. 

"When the demand for mineral fuel increases so as to warrant the neces- 
sary expenditure, these lower coals will be reached by shafting, and heavy 
coal deposits will be opened at depths varying from a few feet to one hun- 
dred and fifty feet below the surface in the valleys. 

Since the geological survey was made from the report of which the above 
account was taken, several important coal mines have been opened, and 
quite a number are now in working order in the county. These are prin- 
cipally all thin veins near the surface belonging to the upper coal-measure, 
averaging in thickness from two to three feet, and yielding a fair quality of 
soft coal; but they^are not very extensively mined, as they onjy supply the 
local demand. 

Coal Mines. — Caldwell's bank is, perhaps, the most extensively worked of 
any of these surface veins in the county. It is situated near the Middle 
Raccoon river, about eighty rods south of "hanging rock ford", on section 
4, township 78, range 29, not far from the town of Redfield. 

The vein, as now being worked, is from three to three-and-a-half feet in 
thickness, and yields a very good quality of soft coal, similar to the Des 
Moines coal. 

^ The bank is opened on the high table-lands, with its entrance into the 
side of the hill, and the vein here has quite a downward dip. 

Sixteen hands are now working in it, and mining, as an average, about 
three hundred and fifty bushels of good coal per day. 

It is estimated that on the flat land below Redfield, by shafting about 125 
feet below the surface, a vein of four to six feet in thickness can be secured 
- of a much better quality of coal than is found so near the surface; but no 
definite steps have been taken yet to secure it. 

The "Wiseotta cool bank is situated about eighty rods east of Caldwell's 
bank, on the north side of the Middle Raccoon river, on what is known as 
the Redfield land, and near Wiseotta. 

It has also a vein about three to three-and-a-half feet in thickness, which 
is thought to be the same vein as that opened at Caldwell's bank, only cut 
off by the river, or, perhaps, taking a downward dip beneath the river. 

The opening of this one, however, is about ten feet higher than the other, 
and the vein lies nearly level, so that the entrance goes almost directly into 
the hill, showing no dip at this locality. 


It is not being rained very extensively. It was opened some time ago, 
and small quantities were taken out, but for several years it was allowed to 
remain idle until this winter, when two men again opened it, and are now 
working it on a somewhat limited scale. The coal is of about the same 
character as that across the river. 

Still further down the South Raccoon river, and a short distance from its 
banks there are two other coal banks open. 

Payton's bank is situated near George B. Warden's farm, on section 2, 
Union township, and shows a vein of about the same quality of coal about 
two feet in thickness. This bank is not being worked very extensively as 
the local demand is not very great and sales are light, there being no con- 
veniences for shipping. 

Marsh's bank is still further down the river, in Adams township, 
with about the same thickness of vein, and nearly the same quality of 
coal. This is the only bank opened in Adams township. But there are 
doubtless great quantities of coal all along these bluffs. This one is also 
being mined to some extent. 

Northwest of Redfield, in Linn township, there are also live coal banks 
now being mined to a considerable extent. 

Maulsby's bank, situated in the southwestern part of Linn township, on 
the north side of the Middle Raccoon, shows a two-foot vein of coal a short 
distance below the surface, and of about the same . character as that found 
at Wiscotta. 

Underneath this vein, about thirty-six feet, another vein some four feet 
thick is feund by prospecting; and just under that again is found an excel- 
lent fire clay for potter's use. 

Howell's bank is a little to the south of this in the same locality and 
shows, in the main, about the same general characteristics. It is probably 
part of the same vein, and underneath it about the same distance a similar 
bed of fire or potter's clay appears. 

Bailey's bank, a short distance west of this, and George Duck's bank, 
still west of that a little further, about in section 29, each reveal a two-foot 
vein of pretty much the same quality of coal; and the mines present about 
the same general characteristics as those before described. 

Near the west line of the county, on the south side of the Middle Rac- 
coon river, near Harvey's Mill, the same two-foot vein of coal appears in 
the mine of D. Lewis, on section 31; and a bed of fire-clay underlies the 
lower vein some forty or fifty feet below the surface similar to that found 
beneath all the others. 

None of these mines are worked very extensively, however, only from 
four to six men are engaged in them. 

The largest coal mine in the county, and the one most extensively 
worked, doubtless, is the one at Van Meter, owned apd worked by the 
"Chicago and Van Meter Coal Company." J. L. Piatt, president; John 
Walker, superintendent; John Honicker, clerk and cashier; Ira S. Hall, 

The shaft is 257 feet deep, and is located northwest from the town of 
Van Meter, about thirty rods from the town limits and about the same dis- 
tance south of the main Raccoon river, just below the forks. 

The mine was first opened by Messrs. Boag and Van Meter, who com- 
menced sinking a shaft in 1878, and afterward sold out to the present 
owners. The vein runs from two-and-a-half to four feet in thickness, and 


yields a good quality of coal. From the bottom of the shaft they have 
thus far worked principally north toward the river, and find a slight in- 
crease in thickness of the vein. 

The coal is elevated by steam power, and there are now about fifty men 
engaged in the mine. They are mining at the rate of abont one thousand 
bushels, or thirty-six tons of coal per day, but are capable of turning out 
two thousand five hundred bushels, .or ninety-six tons per day. Lump coal 
sells at nine cents per bushel, and nut coal at eight cents per bushel at the 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad Co. take two flats, or twen- 
ty-four tons per day from this mine'for their own use; and besides there is 
sold at the mine six or seven hundred bushels per day to the farmers, and 
vicinity round about. 

The "Pioneer Coal Shaft" is located in Des Moines township, on section 
14. It is owned by Frank "West, of New York, and was first prospected 
in 1870. 

The shaft is 40 feet deep, and the coal is elevated by horse power. The 
vein is from two to two-and-a-half feet thick, and about twenty feet below 
it there is another vein three or four feet thick. Beneath this again is 
found a fine bed of fire-clay for pottery. 

It is now being worked quite extensively, considering its location, but it 
is too far from any railroad to be run on a large scale. 

This mine and the one at Yan Meter are the only shafts of importance 
in the county. 

In the same section there are also two other mines of about Jhe same 
character as those mentioned in the southern part of the county. On Mil- 
ler's branch, northeast of Adel, a bed was opened some time ago which shows 
a vein of eighteen inches to two feet in thickness. But that one has never 
been worked systematically. 

On Mosquito creek, in Lincoln township, on section 31, a mine of con- 
siderable importance is being worked. This one has been previously men- 
tioned. Other mines of some importance may have been omitted, but the 
above is sufficient to show that Dallas county is almost completely under- 
laid with one continuous bed of coal, which can easily be secured in unfail- 
ing supply, and which is sure to make it one of the first counties in the 

Building Materials. — Next to coal good stone is the important product 
of the upper and middle coal-measures for the improvemnt and develop- 
ment of a county. In this respect, also, Dallas is fortunately supplied, 
both witK sandstone and limestone of good quality for building-stone and, 
lime manufactory. 

Much of the sandstone found here in the middle coal formation, how- 
ever, is not very suitable for building-stone, but some of it, and also the 
thin bands of impure limestone afford a tolerable substitute in the absence 
of better materials, while the sandstone between the two upper divisions 
of this formation sometimes affords a very fair freestone, which is durable 
and quite extensively used for building purposes. 

This bed of freestone is extensively quarried on Hickory creek near 
Adel, and is largely used for building in that vicinity. 

It is said to be one of the best quarries of this kind in the State. 

The limestone of the upper coal-measure, however, furnishes the main 
supply of stone for building material. This quality of stone is found ex- 


tensively in the southwest part of the county, also on Mosquito creek, and 
in other places throughout the comity. 

On Bulger creek, near De Soto, t*lie same quality of stone is found as 
that so highly prized just across the line in Madison county. 

"Bear Creek Stone Quarry," in Adams township, on section 28, is per- 
haps the most extensive quarry now being worked in the county. 

Some of the stone used in building the new State capitol was furnished 
from this quarry, and a great deal of building-stone has been shipped from 
it to different parts of the State. 

Several years ago a railroad track was laid out to it from the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, for the purpose of shipping building-stone, 
but lately that road has not been used very much. There are from twenty 
to thirty hands at work in this quarry most of the time, and are thus quar- 
rying quite extensively. This quarry furnishes a very good quality of 
limestone, and contains an extensive bed of valuable stone. 

There are numerous other good limestone quarries in different parts of 
the county along the various streams and bluff lands, conveniently situated 
to most localities in the county, and sufficient for all practical purposes. 
The flat sandstone, however, is not found so extensively here as it is in 
many other localities, but its place is well supplied with an abundance of 
other kinds. 

Quicklime. — The upper coal-measure will furnish an almost unfailing 
supply of material for the manufacture of lime when the supply from 
other sources is exhausted. Thus far the drift has afforded a plentiful sup- 
ply of limestone boulders, known as the "lost rocks,". which furnish some 
of the very best quicklime manufactured here, being much stronger and 
more valuable than that derived from the limestone of the upper coal- 
measure. These boulders, however, are generally large and difficult to 
handle, being often of many tons weight, and the labor of removing and 
preparing them for the kilns frequently requires a greater outlay of time 
and expense than it would to quarry them; but this seems to be .fully re- 
compensed by the superior quality of the lime they produce. A large sup- 
ply of these limestone boulders is found on Sugar creek, in Boone town- 
ship. The fact that these exist so numerously in this section, Prof. -White 
says, "is probably owing to the much greater) degree of denundation to 
which the drift was subjected along the lower reaches of the Raccoon in 
the process of the erosion and deepening of the valleys, which swept away 
the larger portion of the finer materials of which these deposits were in 
part composed, leaving beh nd only the boulders and coarser materials, as 
they are now found." 

Clay for the manufacture of brick and pottery is found in good supply. 
The superficial deposits, in various localities, afford plenty of good clay and 
other material for common brick of the finest quality, and in the under 
clays of the coal beds, in various parts of the county, is found excellent 
clay for potter*' use, and fire-brick purposes. 

Not much of this latter clay, however, has yet been utilized, though it 
is abundant in the county. 

Sand and Gravel are found plentifully distributed along the beds and 
valleys of rivers and running streams. 

Beautiful stones, shells, pebbles and choice' geological specimens of var- 
ious kinds are found in great variety, scattered through the numerous gravel 
heds and rocks of the quarries aloug the streams. Not many sand banks are 


found on the uplands,but on the lowlands along the rivers and running streams, 
especially in the bends and shallow beds of the rivers, great bars are washed 
up by the freshets, of choice sand for plastering and building purposes. 

Soil. — On the uplands the soil of Dallas county in general is a rich, 
black, vegetable loam, averaging from one to three feet thick. 

In the valleys and lowlands is found a greater per cent of sand, and also, 
as an average, a much greater depth of soil, of a somewhat more fertile 
character, while on the terraces, or second bottoms, is found a warm 
gravelly soil such as usually exists in similar situations throughout this 
region. As will be remembered, Dallas was the banner county of the ban- 
ner State on soils represented at the Centennial Exhibition, in 1876, and 
carried off the first premium. 

This specimen of soil was procured from the valley of the main Raccoon 
river, in Boone township, on the north side of the river, not far from Mr. 
Flinn's farm. It was taken out by Prof. Fox, one of our former State Geol- 
ogists, and prepared by him in a large glass tube, six feet in length, and 
about ten inches in diameter; which tube was filled with earth in the 
exact order in which it appeared in nature. This column showed at the 
top about four feet depth of rich black soil, underneath which was a two- 
foot layer of yellow clay, showing a somewhat shaly, rocky substance at the 
bottom It was placed in the Agricultural Hall at the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion, in connection with similar representations from numerous other 
counties of the State, and over all received the first premium. 

Roads in Dallas county are generally good, and easily constructed in the 
greater part of county. During the wet seasons, in some localities, they 
become very muddy, and even quite mirey, and almost impassable; but this 

fenerally lasts but a short time, as they about as quickly dry off again, 
here is sufficient sand and gravel in the soil of the valleys and lowlands 
to enable the water to soon drain off; and the highlands are so thoroughly 
drained by nature that the rainfalls are not permitted to remain very long 
at one place on the surface. 

Excep't in the early spring, after a heavy rainfall in the morning, the roads 
in the afternoon become sufficiently passable to haul good , loads without 

There are some steep hills met with in traversing the roads along the 
rivers and bluff lands; but 11 these can be made very passable by work- 
ing them, as these hills furnish the best of material for constructing 
roads. _ Those portions of the county where numerous ponds exist are the 
most difficult parts to furnish with good roads at all times of the year, 
especially where there is not sufficient fall for drainage. 

The old State road from Davenport to Council Bluffs traverses the county 
almostcentrally from east to west, passing through Adel and Redfield, and 
extending over a distance of twenty-five miles and eight chains within 
the bounds of Dallas county, it being the first public highway established 
in the county. 

With regard to the establishment and opening of said road through this 
county, the following order appears on the minute book in the Auditor's 

State of Iowa, ) 

Dallas County. ) Monday, October 8, 18*9. 

Commissioners of said county met pursuant to law, this 8th day of October, A. D. 1849. 
Present Messrs, Tristam Davis, 0. D. Smalley, and Wm. W. Miller, county commissioners, 
and S. K. Scovil, clerk of board of commissioners. 


That, whereas John Wright, Jesse Richman and John Wyckoff, commissioners appointed 
by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa, at their second session, approved January 12, 
1849, to locate and establish a State road, commencing at the west line ot Johnson county, on 
section No. 31, township No. 79 north, range No. 8, west of the fifth principal meridian, 
and ending at the west line of Dallas county, on section 6, township 78, range 29, report that 
they met at the house of John Wyckoff, on the 29th day of June, 1849, having been severally- 
sworn, proceeded to locate and establish the said road according to law. The whole length 
is 136 miles and 8 chains. The distance the road runs in Dallas county is 25 miles and 8 

Therefore, it is considered and ordered by this court, that the report and plot of said com- 
missioners as returned be accepted, recorded and filed in the office of the clerk of the board 
of commissioners, and so much of said road as runs through the county of Dallas be and 
forever remain a public highway; and that the same be opened and kept in repairs according 
to law. 

For a long titne this old State road served as the only public highway in 
the county on which any pnblic work or money was expended to keep it in 
repairs, and it is still one of the best and most extensively traveled roads 
in the county, as most of the travel and emigration westward by wagon from 
Davenport to Council Bluffs pass over this old thoroughfare. Good roads 
are now laid out in most parts of the county, on most of the township and 
section lines, greatly facilitating travel in every direction. 


But to return to the early settlement of this tract of land now known as 
Dallas county. 

After the last period of Indian occupancy of these lands had expired, on 
October 11th,- 1845, as was before stated, emigrants were at liberty to go 
up the Des Moines and Raccoon rivers, or any place west, to select and se- 
cure their claims on the public domain of now western Iowa. 

In the enjoyment of this liberty, therefore, during the fall of that year 
the more adventurous of the land-viewers and claim-seekers came out this 
far, looking at the country and hunting the best localities in order that 
they might be better prepared to make an intelligent and satisfactory selec- 
tion before settling permanently on a claim. But nearly all of these either 
returned again without taking any definite steps toward settling here, or 
else went further on viewing in other places, while some, perhaps selected 
such claims as would suit them best if they should afterward decide to 
move here, and then returned to their homes farther east without making 
any arrangements for securing them, intending that if they found no bet- 
ter prospects elsewhere, they wonld come back in the spring and make a 

A very few, however, did select their claims that fall and remained long 
enough to secure them by building a craim-pen, as we learn from some of 
the old settlers themselves who are still living in the county. 


As to who was the veritable " First Settler" in this county, accounts dif- 
fer widely. Though the various statements regarding this are almost 
legion, yet no two .of them seem to' fully correspond when placed side by 
side. And after examining so many authorities and interviewing a num- 
ber of the oldest settlers now living in the county, with regard to this 
much vexed question, it may not appear very singular if the following 


statement of the case should differ, in some particulars, from all the rest. 
It is impossible to get at all the facts, and therefore very difficult to relate 
the circumstances just as they occurred; but so far as we have been able 
to learn, after careful and diligent investigation, the facts are about as 
follows : 

"Sometime during the fall of 1845, not long after the Indian title was 
extinguished, two brothers, Daniel and Lewis Stump, came through the 
south part of the county prospecting, and finally selected and staked out 
claims in what is now Yan Meter township, a short distance below the 
forks and north of the Raccoon ri'ver in the well known Stump bottom. . 

"They were, of course, in a very uneasy position during that fall in at- 
tempting to settle here so early, as the Indians were still here; though 
their title had run out they had not been removed to their reservation in 
Kansas when the Stump boys came, and these pioneers were in some dan- 
ger of being driven from their claims. 

" They remained, however, and dnring the early part of that winter made 
rails for fencing, and built a cabin on their claim, sixteen by eighteen feet, 
one story high, and sometime dnring the following February, 1846, their 
sister Mary came on with their brother John and kept house for them." 

These are the only ones of whom we have found any authentic account, 
who came in the fall of 1845 and remained on their claims. John Wright 
also came and selected his claim early in the winter of 1845, but returned 
again soon to the East, and moved out with his family in March, 1846, set-. 
tling first within the present limits of Van Meter township, but soon after- 
ward moved into what is now Boone township and settled near where J. C. 
Goodson-now lives. 

Sometime in January, 1846, Samuel Miller and his brother "William 
Wilson Miller, then residing in Jefferson county, Iowa, and Eli Smithson, 
of Fort Des Moines, and son-in-law of Wm. W. Miller, came through here 
to look at the country and finally took claims in and adjoining the timber 
on the opposite side of the North Raccoon river, east from the present site 
of Adel. 

None of these, however, remained here long at that time, but returned 
again to their homes, and on the 12th day of March following, Samuel 
Miller returned here with his family, arriving about noon of that day, and 
settled permanently on his claim which he had selected some two months 
previous, in what has since been known as the Miller settlement, in honor 
of which a branch near there now bears the name of Miller's Branch. 

Soon afterward, on the 25th day of March, of the same year, W. W. 
Miller and family, accompanied by his son, John Miller, and his son-in- 
law, Eli Smithson, and perhaps others, returned and settled on their claims 
as before selected, John Miller taking, as at least part of his claim, the 
principal portion of the land on which the county seat now stands, and af- 
terward turned over to the county his claim on what is known as the "town 
quarter," when the seat of justice was finally located here by the county 
seat commissioners. 

Early in February, 1846, Levi Wright, and his brother James Wright, 
deaf mute, came to the Stump cabin, and finding the door and windows 
(or light-holes) securely barred against the Indians, in the absence of the 
inmates — who had gone to the woods to work, or on a hunt — the Wrights 
found entrance to the cabin by climbing in through the roof and patiently 
awaited the return of their host. 


They remained at the Stump cabin a few days, and then went a short 
distance to the west, across North Raccoon, and took claims near the forks 
of the Raccoon river, on section 16, township 78, range 27. 

They then built a claim cabin, made a few other improvements on their 
claims «md soon afterward returned to their former home in Polk county. 
In April of that year they returned here. Levi brought his family along 
with him and settled on his original claim, where he still lives as one of 
the oldest settlers now in the county. Tristram Davis and John Longmire 
also made their claims in February, 1846, but returned again to their former 
homes and arrived here with their families on the 18th of May following, 
in company with a number of others. 

During the spring of 1846 small settlements were made in some four or 
five different localities in the county. 

There was one, as just referred to, in the southeast part of the county 
within the present boundaries of Boone and Van Meter townships, which 
consisted in the main of the Stumps, the Wrights, George and Shubal 
Haworth, who laid claims and settled on the land now owned and occupied 
by John Barto. William and John Ellis also came in February of this 
year, selected their claims, made some improvements and went back, re- 
turning here in April following with their widowed mother, Mrs. Sarah 
Ellis, and her large family of eight sons and two daughters. They settled 
on the claim previously taken by the boys, and prepared a comfortable 

About the same time, or soon afterward, Noah Staggs, Henry Garner, 
Mr. Clark, Henry Stump and the rest of his family, Greenbury Coffin, 
William P. McCubbin, James W. Black, John Juvenaugh, Henry Busick, 
George Gresham (1847), John Johnson (1847), William Brown, James 
Moore, John Crane, Nathan Moore, and others, settled in that vicinity 
during that spring, summer and fall, increasing that settlement to quite a 
community, though considerably scattered. 

In the spring of 1846, also, a small settlement was made north of the 
South Raccoon in what is now Adams township, consisting in the main of 
John Longmire, Tristram Davis, George S. Hills, John Davis and Levi A. 
Davis, all of whom came with their families May 18th, and settled on and 
adjoining sections 10 and 11. 

Archibald Crowl and others joined their number soon afterward. 

Along the North Raccoon, also, in the central part of the county, and 
principally near the present site of Adel, there was quite athriving settle- 
ment during the spring and summer of 1846, consisting chiefly of Millers, 
the most of whom were among the first settlers in the county. 

There was a host of them who nearly all settled in one vicinity, Samuel, 
Isaac, Eli, William W., John, Martin W, and Jesse K. Miller, besides Eli 
Smithson, Isaac Tribby, William Galway, Joseph C. Corbell, and others. 

Their number was rapidly increased so that 'this settlement soon became 
the largest in the county, as it had the good fortune to secure the location 
of the county seat near at hand. 

In the northeast corner of the county, near the Des Moines river and 
within the present bounds of Des Moines township, O. D. Smalley settled 
May 18, 1846, 6n the northwest quarter of section 26, and for a good while 
held sole possession of that part of the county as one of its earliest pio- 
neers. He was re-enforced that fall, however, by a number of pioneers. 



John and David Spear settled near him on section 11, in September, 
1846. Jerry Evans settled on section 2, August 15, 1846. Judge McCall 
settled on section 12, in September, 1846. Samuel Ramsey settled on sec- 
tion 26, in October, 1846, and Judah Learning settled on the southwest 
quarter of section 23, March 1, 1847. 

Others, doubtless, should be added to the foregoing list,' whose names, 
dates of arrival and places of settlement we have been unable to obtain, 
but the above named persons — with the respective households of those who 
were then fortunate enough to have such blessings — constituted the princi- 
pal portion of the inhabitants of Dallas county during the year 1846. 
The entire list of inhabitants at the close of that year would not number, 
perhaps, more than sixty or sixty-five persons. 

To one looking back over the situation at that time from the present 
standpoint of progress and comfort, it certainly does not seem very cheer- 
ing; and yet, from the testimony of some of these same old settlers them- 
selves, it was the most independent and happy period of their lives. 

At that time, it certainly would have been much more difficult for those 
old settlers to understand how it could possibly be that thirty-two years 
hence the citizens at the present stage of the county's progress would be 
complaining of hard times and destitution and that they themselves, per- 
haps, would be among that number, than it is now for us to appreciate 
how they could feel so cheerful and contented with their meager means and 
humble lot of hardship and deprivation during those early pioneer days. 

The secret doubtless was that they lived within their means, however lim- 
ited, not coveting more of luxury and comfort than their income would 
afford, and the natural result was prosperity and contentment, with always 
room for one more stranger at the fireside, and a cordial welcome to a place 
at their table for even the most hungry guest. 

During the year 1847, and the early part of 1848, there was quite an in- 
crease of emigration, and not only the different settlements already made 
were reenfored, but also new ones were started in various other localities, 
so that the work of improvement and enterprise continued to move grad- 
ually forward. Some of these newcomers were as follows : J. 0. Goodson, 
"William D. Boone and others settled in what is now Boone township. S. 
K. Scovell, Horatio and Barney Morrison, Chelsea Shelton, Isaac Magart, 
James A. and Thomas Butler, " Chris." Fowler, "Jeff." Jones, Bud Lathrop, 
Thomas J. Drummond, William C. and Daniel James, Anderson Kelley, E. 
J. Fowler, Ira Sherman, John and Valentine Cline, Benjamin Greene and 
others settled near Penoach, in what is now Adel township. 

In the fall of 1847 George P. Garroutte settled on the North Baccoon, 
very near what proved to be the geographical center of the county; and 
early in the preceding spring, Harvey Adams, Zebin Babcock — better known 
as " Squire Babb " — and Judge Lloyd D. Burnes were the first settlers in 
what is now Sugar Grove township, all coming about the same time. 

Not lone afterward, Adam Vineage, with his family, John Bevens, a sin- ' 
gle man, Milton Randolph, J. V. Pierce, and perhaps others, settled in the 
same vicinity. " Dutch Henry " also came to Sugar Grove township about 
this time, remaining for a while, but making no permanent settlement. He 
finally ventured off by himself to"ward the north and took a claim, on the 
edge of the prairie west of Perry. 

During the summer of 1848 the first settlement was made in what is 
now "Washington township, by John Sullivan and sons, who were soon fol- 


lowed by James McLane, Jacob "Winters, Samuel Mars, John S. Sammies 
and others. 

Union township was also first settled in the spring of 1848. About Feb- 
ruary of that year, Humphrey Smith (more commonly known as "Yankee" 
Smith), and his son-in-law, Henry Owens, settled near the mouth of Cotton- 
wood creek, where they put up a mill in company, on section 11, on the 
South Kaccoon river, known as Owen's mill. 

This mill, however, only endured for a few years, when it was swept away 
entirely by the flood. 

In February, 1848, Leroy Lambert, now of Adel, settled on section 6, 
near the west line of the county, and in October of that year, David Daily 
came and settled on section 4. About 1850 John W. Hayes, Elisha Mor- 
ris, Mr. Wilcox, John F. Willis, Uriah Stotts, and perhaps others, joined 
their number. Mr. Stotts had come to the county in 1847, and settled in 
Van Meter; but moved to Union township in 1850, and settled on section 
8, where he still lives. 

George B. Warden also came to the township about this time, or perhaps 
before, and located on section 1, three miles east of Kedfield, His present 
home. Previous to this he had lived two years in Adel. 

In 1850, also, Samuel Carpenter, James Brookes, W. W. Harper and 
others located near this settlement just across the line, in what is now Linn 

The Cavenaugh brothers, Patrick, Thomas and Michael, entered the land 
on which the town of Kedfield now stands, in the year 1850, and laid out 
the town of New Ireland on that site in 1852-3. They afterward sold the 
town site, and large tract of land adjoining it, to Col. James Eedfield, his 
brother, Luther, and the colonel's father-in-law, Thomas Moore, about 1856 
or 1857. 

During this time, in other parts of the county, and especially in and 
around the first settlements, the population and improvements had been 
increasing so rapidly that it is impossible to find trace of their names, 
locations and dates of arrival. If enough has herein been given to indicate 
to some degree at least, the order in which the different parts of the county 
were first settled, with a partial list of the first settlers in each locality, the 
aim intended has been accomplished. 

Thus we find that during the fall of 1845, and early in the spring of 
1846, pioneers began to ascend the highlands west of Fort Des Moines, and 
continued gradually extending the new settlements out still further along 
the woodlands bordering the main branch of the Raccoon river, until they 
soon passed its forks and began to follow these up still further to the north 
and westward, generally settling close to the rivers and timberlands which 
skirted them, and finding no decrease; but rather an improvement in the 
value and attraction of the land as they advanced. 

During that and the following years the work of improvement thus be- 
gun, continued gradually progressing until it has attained to its present 
stage of advancement with the growth of thirty-three years, and many of 
Dallas county's earliest settlers still live within its bounds to enjoy some- 
thing of the fruits of that growth of years which tbey have helped to make. 
In those early pioneer days, however, the outlook was not altogether a 
cheerful one. 

There were none of the conveniences and facilities of the present then 
with which to aid and comfort the settlers. 


During the year 1846, and perhaps not until some time afterward, there 
was not a public highway established and worked, on which they could travel. 
And as the settlers were generally far apart, and mills and trading points 
were at great distances, going from place to place was not only very tedious, 
but attended sometimes with great danger. USTot a railroad had yet entered 
Chicago, and there was scarcely a thought in the minds of the people here 
of such a thing ever reaching the wild West; and, if thought of, people had 
no conception of what a revolution a railroad and telegraph through here 
would cause in the progress of the country. Then there were less than 
5,000 miles of railroad in the United States, and not a mile of track laid 
this side of Ohio; while now there are over 100,000 miles of railroads 
extending their trunks and branches in every direction over our land. 

Supplies, in those days, came to this western country entirely by river 
and wagon transportation. Mail was carried to and fro in the same way, 
and telegraph dispatches were transmitted by the memory and lips of emi- 
grants coming in, or strangers passing through. 

There was not a mill, store, post-office, school-house, church, road or trad- 
ing point then in the entire county. 


Fort Des Moines was the nearest trading point where mail matter, cloth- 
ing, groceries and the necessary family supplies could be secured, and the 
stock in trade at that point was oftentimes not nearly sufficient to supply 
the urgent demands of the settlers. 

It was, at that time, a very small place, with only a single row of cabins 
extending along the west bank of the Des Moines river, and another row 
extending along the north bank of the Raccoon river, forming an angle 
between the two rivers, little dreaming that before many years it would 
bear the honored title of the Capital of Iowa. 

These cabins had been built for the accommodation of the garrison, and 
in them all the business of the place was then transacted. In one of these 
cabins, on "Coon Eow," occupied by P. M. Casady, the post-office was 
kept, he being the postmaster of that general delivery. 

The mail matter was kept in a dry goods box marked " Phelps & Co., 
Fort Des Moines, Iowa," from which he gracefully distributed the precious 
missives to the anxious inquirers, who had traveled, perhaps, many weary 
miles on foot to receive from the rude box the long delayed letter that 
brought a message of love from the dear ones far away. 

The place being so small, and the means of transportation to it being so 
limited and irregular, they were unable to supply, regularly, the now in- 
creasing demand from all around them, and settlers in these parts thought 
themselves happy if they were not compelled to go on far beyond there to 
Oskaloosa, Keokuk or Burlington to obtain the necessaries of life. 

Corn, the staple article among the pioneers as food for man and beast, 
was a scarce, high-priced article then in the new country, especially where 
the first crop had not yet been raised. 

In order to secure this and other necessary provisions they were often 
under the necessity of going to Oskaloosa, and sometimes as far down as 
the Mississippi river to Keokuk and Burlington, a distance of about two 
hundred miles, to supply the wants of their pioneer homes. After store& 
and trading points began to be established in this county, the merchants 


for many years were in the habit of going to these distant points on the 
rivers to purchase their stocks of goods and bringing them through by 
wagon transportation. 

Occasionally a number of families in a community would club together, 
make out a list of what they needed and send off to the trading post as 
many men and teams as necessary, or as could be obtained to procure and 
bring home supplies for all, and thus to a great degree they worked to- 
gether, and to one another's interest as one great family. 

In this way, also, they took turns in going to mill, to the stores, for the 
mail, etc., and when a cabin was to be raised, or a neighbor assisted in any 
way, all, within reach or hearing, turned out with one accord, quite willing 
to lend the helping hand and enjoy in common the feast and frolic that was 
sure to accompany all such gatherings. 

In this isolated condition, pioneer life here, as elsewhere, was one of 
stern realities and serious trials, especially for the sick and aged ones, while 
so far removed from points of supply, and almost completely cut off from 
communication with the outside world. If a stranger from any distance 
came into the new settlement he was treated with unusual cordiality, and 
questioned with unabating zeal, with regard to the great world-matters 
without; and if he saw fit to accept the urgent invitation of the settlers to 
share their humble hospitality in welcome for many days, he might rest 
assured that he must pass through that long siege of incessant question- 
ing by the inquisitive settlers, from which he, doubtless, would derive as 
much pleasure and profit as they. 

The claims occupied by the first settlers were supposed to contain about 
320 acres; but these were run off "by guess," and as a consequence often 
included two or three times that number of acres. The general improve- 
ments on these, for a long time, consisted of old-fashioned worm fences 
made of rails split by the settlers themselves, and snug, though humble, 


Of these pioneer log cabins and their general furniture, one of Dallas 
county's old settlers says: 

" These were of round logs notched together at the corners, ribbed with 
poles and covered with boards split from a tree. A puncheon floor was 
then laid down, a hole cut out in the end and a stick _ chimney run up. A 
clapboard door is made, a window is opened by cutting out a hole in the 
side or end, about two feet square, and it is finished without glass or trans- 
parency. The house is then < chinked ' and ' daubed ' with mud made of 
the top soil. 

"The cabin is now ready to go into. The household and kitchen furniture 
is adjusted, and life on the frontier is begun in earnest. 

" The one-legged bedstead, now a piece of furniture of the past, was made 
by cutting a stick the proper length, boring holes at one end, one-and-a-half 
inches in diamater at right angles, and the same sized holes corresponding 
with these in tlie logs of the cabin the length and breadth desired for the 
bed, in which are inserted poles. 

'' Upon these poles clapboards are laid, or linn bark is interwoven consec- 
utively from pole to pole. Upon this primitive structure the bed is laid. 
The convenience of a cook stove was not thought of then, but instead the 


cooking was done by the faithful housewife in pots, kettles and skillets, on 
and about the big fire place, and very frequently over and around, too, the 
distended pedal members of the legal sovereigns of the household while 
the latter were indulging in the luxury of a cob pipe, and discussing the 
probable results of a contemplated elk hunt up and about Walled Lake. 
These log cabins were really not so bad after all. 

''We have seen a good deal of solid comfort about them which, we pre- 
sume to say, in many cases money could not purchase for the millionaire. 
Still, as ' contentment is happiness,' wherever one is the other must fol- 
low, as a matter of course, whatever may be the condition or location in 


The first water-power grist mill built west of the Eed Rock reservation 
line in Iowa, was built and run by John D. Parmelee, on Middle River, iu 
Warren county, some ten or fifteen miles southeast of Fort Des Moines. 

It was both a saw and grist mill and, for a long time, made the meal, 
flour and lumber for all the region now included in Warren, Madison, Polk 
and Dallas counties, and sometimes for settlers living even in more distant 

To a good extent, this mill, on account of its convenient location and ca- 
pacity for grinding, stopped the rush of travel to Oskaloosa from these 
parts, especially of all those who had found it necessary to go there for 
milling purposes and breadstuff's ; and being the only mill in all these parts 
as a consequence it was crowded night and day with anxious customers, 
each desiring to get his grist done first so as to return home. 

On account of the great rush of work it had to do, and possibly because 
it was not built and run altogether in the most systematic and commenda- 
ble manner, this mill finally got so completely out of repairs that they 
were compelled to stop running it. This brought a sad state of affairs for 
the settlers in the communities and country around about, who were now 
in the habit of getting all their grinding and sawing done at this place. 

Something must be done to put it in running order again so as to accom- 
modate the customers. 

Finally Judge L. D. Burnes, the pioneer mill-wright, was sent for to put 
it to rights again, and after a two weeks siege o,f as thorough repairing as 
the circumstances and conveniences would permit the mill was again found 
in running order, to the delight of the owner and the eminent satisfaction 
of his numerous and dependent customers. 

With regard to this circumstance the judge gives the following interest- 
ing account: 

"The miller, poor Mordecai Disney, seemed to be overwhelmed with 
trouble, at times, to know what to do amid the babble around him, and 
this deserving class of people are apt to get, as a general thing, more curs- 
ings than blessings anyhow. 

" Poor Disney had learned to make the most of his position under ordi- 
nary pressure, but this was rather too much for his trained equanimity, 
and he would get off, now and then, some of the most chilling expletives 
that we ever heard. 

" This mill was finally run down with constant overwork and no care, and 
and it became so relaxed that it stopped business altogether. This was a 


terrible blow to the settlers, as its stoppage implied the going away off to 
Oskaloosa for breadstuffs. 

" Several machinists were called in but the patient got worse and worse. 
We were finally called to the sick bed of this frontier mill in consultation. 
We found the patient completely prostrated, its nervous system was sadly 
out of sorts. We administered alteratives and cardiacs. 

" The patient, under this radical treatment, and in the course of two weeks, 
got entirely well and was ready to go to work again with increased vitality. 

" But, alas! when we were ready to try the ability of the convalescent mill 
to eat corn, we were brought to realize the fact that 

" ' Life is a drama of a few brief acts, 

The actors shift, the scene is often changed. 
Pauses and revolutions intervene, 
The mind is set to many and varied tune 
And jars and plays in harmony by turns.' 

"John D. Parmelee was not in calling distance to come and see the ex-pa- 
tient survive. 

"John ha"d put in most of his time, during the sickness and convalescence 
of the mill, up at the Fort as a zealous votary of the fiery god Bacchus. 
The excellent woman and wife, Mrs. Parmelee, sent Jack, an old bachelor 
domestic, to go up to the Fort and bring John D. home to 'see the mill 
start.' Jack went, but delayed his coming. Another messenger was sent 
by the good woman to hasten Jack's return. 

"The second messenger found John D. and Jack on a protracted 'bust,' 
deaf to ell entreaty. John refused to come home to 'see the mill start.' 
The second . messenger, too, was soon overcome by the furious god, and 
joined in the debauch. The miller, Mordecai Disney, was finally sent up 
to the Fort to bring back the three loyal disciples of jolly John Barleycorn. 
He was successful, and John D. saw ' the mill start ' out with new life 
and vigor, to his perfect satisfaction, muttering all the while to himself: 

' ' ' There is a tide in the affairs of men 

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.' 

" Suddenly John D. yelled out at the top of his voice, ' See boys, how 
she chaws!' " 

This mill, being again repaired and ready for effective service, was not 
long in regaining its former rush of custom from the citizens of the 
frontier who were anxiously waiting for this event, and the settlers of 
Dallas county for a long time got most of their milling done there, until 
others were erected and prepared for service nearer home. 

Of course, at the very first, all sorts of means were resorted to for grind- 
ing and grating corn as the staple article of food; and not un frequently it 
was boiled whole, and prepared in various ways which the ingenuity of the 
hungry ones would devise in the absence of better means. 

Hand mills and horse mills of various kinds were also constructed and 
procured, some of which would serve for the accommodation of several 
families by turns. 

One of these horse mills was constructed by Samuel Miller, and started 
in use December 24, 1846, being, perhaps, the first one of the kind in the 


county. It was called the " Stump Mill," as it had one small set of hurrs 
prepared and fastened on a stump, and constituted a regular old-fashioned 
"corn cracker," run by horse power. The event of starting this mill 
afforded an occasion of a great Christmas jollification the next day among 
the settlers of that vicinity. 

This little mill was a great convenience in that neighborhood, and did 
the corn grinding for many a pioneer home. In 1848 Mr. Miller sold it to 
Buel Lathrop, who moved the burrs up to his claim on Hickory creek, and 
built the first water mill for grinding corn in the county, using what he 
could of the old "stump mill" for its construction, and with it did some 
grinding for the surrounding community, but seems to have been too neg- 
ligent and too much occupied in advocating Mormonism to accomplish 
very much as a pioneer miller, so that his mill soon ran down and stopped 
grinding altogether. But a fuller account of this mill will be given fur- 
ther on, under proper date. 

After this, both grist and saw mills gradually increased in number in 
the county until they became quite numerous, and milling privileges 
became reasonably convenient to most of these settlements. 


Going to mill in those days, when there were no roads, no bridges, no 
ferry boats, and scarcely any conveniences for traveling, was no small task 
where so many rivers and treacherous streams were to be crossed, and such 
a trip was often attended with great danger to the traveler when these 
streams were swollen beyond their banks. But even under these circum- 
stances some of the more adventurous and ingenious ones, in cases of 
emergency, found the way and means by which to cross the swollen streams 
and succeed in making the trip. At other times, again, all attempts failed 
them, and they were compelled to remain at home until the waters snb- 
• sided, and depend on the generosity of their more fortunate neighbors. 

One bold attempt of this kind, which failed of success, is described in 
the following account by Mr. Greene, in the Dallas County News: 

"The Ellises had been on their claim but a few months when it became 
necessary to go to mill, for, though hominy is a pretty good substitute for 
bread, the corn they brought with them was about out, and not only had 
they to go a hundred miles to mill, but they had first to work to buy the 
grain when there. It was common to be gone three or four weeks on such 
a trip. At the outset, in this case, North Raccoon, then 'out of its banks,' 
had to be crossed. They had as yet no ferry boat, not even a canoe, and 
wagons, yokes, chains and camp furniture, had to be taken over on a log 
raft. The central current, too deep for setting poles, swept them a long 
way down stream. The wagon had thus been crossed and debarked in 
shallow water, the four oxen driven across, yoked and chained together,!, 
the 'traps' were being loaded upon the wagon, when the oxen, with 
bovine stubbornness and stupidity, took it into their heads to return. 
When they struck the main current, it swept them irresistibly down 
stream. They soon became entangled in their chains and the floodwood. 
Thus they struggled and strangled for several hours, till all but one gave 
up and seemed to have a through ticket for the Mississippi. ' Old Ben ' 
(the boys, to this day, can scarcely refrain from both laughing and crying 
when they relate it) would paddle for the west bank whenever he came 


round in sight of it. They finally got fast in some drift, and made no ef- 
fort to get loose. 

"Isaac Ellis (next younger than William) stripped and swam a long dis- 
tance to them, and with a pocket-knife he carried with him cut the how 
keys, unyoked the oxen, and got them all safely to land. 

"Late in the night, naked, hungry, tired and scratched, he called at the 
cahin for the boys to bring him out some clothes. 

"Isaac Ellis will be remembered by those only who were here more than 
twenty years ago. About that time he went west of the Missouri, hunted 
with the Indians, and supplied for some time several stations of the over- 
land stage company with deer, buffalo, and other wild meat. When last 
heard from he was with the Indians in British America. 

"Of Wm. Ellis — sound, joyous, whole-souled Will — little need be said. 
Who that lived here within twenty-five years of the first settlement did not 
know him? Who has not shouted at his uproarous merriment? Who was 
not gladdened by his constant cheerfulness? And let cynics say 'every 
man has his price ' ; those who best knew the subject of these comments 
will point to him and answer, ' There's an honest man.' 

" It is significant that the mother of this large family of boys says ' thee 
and thou.' " 


The above sketch will aid the reader in gaiuing some knowledge of the 
hardships and trials of the early pioneers, and of the difficulties and dan- 
gers under which they labored in order to gain an honest livelihood. 

Some of the difficulties of traveling from place to place in those days, as 
also the unpleasantness and sometimes dangers attending their travels, are 
nicely illustrated by the following from the same writer: "In February, 
1846, William Ellis and George Haworth set out to follow the Raccoon 
river on the ice, from Des Moines up to Stump's cabin, about twenty miles 
by land. After a hard day's travel (not less than twenty-five miles) they 
found themselves, at dusk, not more than half way. They now attempted 
to cross the country, but the dry weeds were so high and so dense that this 
was given up and they had to camp for the night. But they had neglected 
to take any matches with them, and the only alternative to an all night's 
travel was to ignite some dry grass by firing their guns into it. 

"This was effected after the expenditure of a good deal of patience and 
powder, and they carried their fire to the timber, some half a mile away, 
where they spent the winter night with what comfort they could." 

This was the first trip of these parties to Dallas county, when they came 
and laid their claims, as before mentioned, and soon afterward returned, 
and the following month moved out here with their folks and settled on 
their claims as before selected — Ellis on the land now owned and occupied 
by Joseph Otterman, and Haworth on what is now the Barto farm, or 
" Haworth Point " — and through life, doubtless, they will not forget that 
pioneer adventure. 

Previous to this, however, some time in January of the same year, a no 
less singular, but rather more successful, expedition — so far as speed and 
ease in travel is concerned — was made up the same river road on the ice by 
John Wright, the frontier hunter, and his cousin, "Deaf Jim" Wright, in 
a one-horse " pung." 

Of John Wright it is said: "His rifle and his bottle were his delight and 


consolation." He was brave and reckless, having little sympathy with the 
ways and customs of civilization; yet generous to a fault, always kind and 
true to his friends, but to his enemies, bitter, malignant and revengeful. 

His cousin, "Deaf Jim," was the skilled mimic of the settlement, who 
had the power of so accurately personating various persons in their striking 
peculiarities, even on short acquaintance, that the subject was readily rec- 
ognized. He was, therefore, just the man for sport at a public gathering. 


The first death of a white person in the county occurred in the winter of 
1846-7; that of William Coffin, father of Greenbury Coffin, and father-in- 
law of John Wright. 

The deceased was a blacksmith by trade, and though well along in years 
when he came here, faithfully worked at his anvil and forge set up on tfie 
open prairie until a shop was built, sharpening ploughshares, mending 
broken articles, and doing other small jobs of smithing, to assist in "earn- 
ing his bread by the sweat of his brow," and by the exercise of his strong 
right arm, until finally called away from labor to rest. He died in the 
Stump cabin, of old age, and was buried in the "Clayton grave-yard," in 
what is now Boone township. 

The coffin, or box, in which he was buried, was made of puncheons split 
ont of large logs, and dressed and fitted by Levi Wright, Noah Staggs and 
other neighboring settlers as best they could under the circumstances, and 
his remains were lovingly laid in their last resting place with decency and 
respect by the hands of those who had been friendly and true to him in life. 

Thus this memorable Stump cabin was not only the first house built, but 
also was the place where the first death occurred in the county, and there- 
fore afforded both the first place of entertainment for the living, and prepa- 
ration of the dead for the silent tomb. 


This Stump cabin was also the home of the first white woman who lived 
in Dallas county. Early in the year 1846, perhaps in February, Miss Mary 
Stump came and kept house in it for her three brothers, until" their father, 
Henry Stump, and the rest of his family came on soon afterward. 

She has the honor, also, of being the first white woman married in the 
county, and hers was the first marriage ceremony performed within the 
county limits. 

She was united in marriage with George Haworth, on the second day. of 
September, 1847, by J. C. Corbell, Esq., who was the first justice of the 
peace to perform such a ceremony in the county, and this was his first ex- 
perience in that line. 

Whether this marriage occurred in the Stump cabin, or in the new hewed 
log house of the bride's father, we have not been able to ascertain defi- 

The bride and groom were of even ages, each twenty-four years, and were 
nearly of like dates as early settlers of the county, as Mr. Haworth also 
came early in 1846, and settled within the present limits of Yan Meter town- 
ship, where he and his affianced bride lived in prosperity and comfort until 
a few years ago, they moved to a new home, about two miles north of Adel. 

Their old homestead is now known as the John Barto farm. 


They are still living, each past the age of fifty -five, well entered on the 
decline of life; and while now gone on a trip to Oregon, with gratitude,, 
can look back over more than thirty-one years of married felicity and pros- 
perity passed in Dallas county, Iowa. 


Of the early settlers were not so numerous and varied as at present, but 
they were no less enjoyable and interesting. 

Hunters now-a-days would be only too glad to be able to find and enjoy 
their favorable opportunities for hunting and fishing; and even travel hun- 
dreds of miles sometimes, counting it rare pleasure to spend a few weeks- 
among the lakes, and on the wild prairies and woodlands, in hunt and chase, 
and fishing frolics, where not half so good hunting and fishing sport was 
furnished as was in this vicinity twenty-five or thirty years ago. There- 
were a good many excellent hunters here at an early day, too, who enjoyed 
thesport as well as any can at the present. 

Wild amimals of various kinds were found here in abundance during the 
time of the early settlement. The prairies, and woods, and streams, and 
various bodies of water, were all thickly inhabited by more than Indians- 
before, and even for some time after the white man came. 

Deer, turkeys, ducks, geese and various other kinds of choice game were- 
plentiful, affording freely and at the expense of killing what are now con- 
sidered the choice and costly dishes in the restaurants. The fur animals 
also, were abundant, such as the otter, beaver, mink, muskrat, raccoon, pan- 
ther, fox, wolf, wild-cat and bear. 

Deer and elk were quite numerous on these prairies for some time after 
the first settlements were made. These various kinds of game afforded not 
only pleasure, but profit for those among the early settlers who were lovers- 
of hunt and chase; and skillful hunters were not scarce in those days in 
proportion to the number of inhabitants. Many interesting incidents and 
daring adventures occurred in connection with these hunting excursions, 
which the old settlers who still remain seem never tired of relating. It is 
difficult to reproduce these scenes now, and present the incidents with their 
original "pith and point" as those most intimately connected with them 
have nearly all passed away, and these stories must have passed through 
many minds and mouths before reaching us, and therefore have become- 
more or less colored in passing, so that as related now they might not be- 
easily recognized as the same stories by the original actors. 

In point, we quote a part of an article on "old times,'.' as published in 
The Dallas County News, February 2d, 1876, at that time published by 
S. H. Greene, which will give some idea of the customs and sports of the- 
early settlers. 

"The capture of elk calves was, in those early days, a favorite pastime, or 
business, rather, for there were visions of wealth to be derived from their 
sale. In these adventures John Wright was the natural leader and captain. 
The outfit consisted of teams and covered wagons sufficient to convey pro- 
visions, camp equipage, etc., and to bring home the proceeds of the chase. 
Cows were taken along to furnish milk for the young elk ; sometimes the 
expedition would be gone a month or more. From Greene county to the- 
head-waters of 'Coon was the favorite hunting ground. The hunting was 
done on horseback. And first the old elk must be found, which was done- 


by looking over the surrounding country from some high point and then 
with the aid of dogs to thoroughly search thereabout for the hidden calves. 
These were usually found in the tall grass surrounding the ponds that so 
abound in that part of the State. When the calf found that he was observed 
he would spring from his hiding place and run with the spewed of a race 
horse, and if two or three weeks old it took good ' bottom ' to overtake 
him in those bogs and ponds. Many a good farm horse was ruined in the 
•effort; rarely a very young calf was captured by springing upon it in its 

" On one of these excursions John "Wright saw some dark object at a 
distance and determined to interview it. It proved to be a half grown 
black bear. It fled. Wright gave chase, and coming up with it, he aimed, 
by a flying leap from his horse to grapple with and prevent its escape. 
As our hero came down, Bruin turned and received him in a cordial 
•embrace. He was now in his element and glory, and after a protracted 
struggle, in which one of his hands was badly lacerated, besides getting 
sundry smaller bites and scratches, he bound his captive and took him in 
triumph into camp; and subsequently, on his way home, he passed through 
Adel with this pet and a score or more of young elk. The last known of 
John Wright he was on his way to the Far West. 

" These elk sadly disappointed us all. Theoretically they were most use- 
ful domestic animals, for the shambles, for the plow and cart, carriage and 
course, possibly for the dairy — why not? As thus: in size and form, in 
hoof and horn, they were own cousins to the reindeer — that indispensable 
.adjunct to arctic humanity. Their speed and bottom had been proven in 
many a hard half day's heat; their beef was as that of the ox. They conld 
winter where the mule would freeze or starve, and so easily domesticated! 
— take a young one that never saw the face of man, carry it in your arms a 
hundred yards and it would follow you through water or fire. But they 
turned out unmitigated nuisances. They would neither work nor play. 
The trial was fair and conclusive. In the spring of 1851 much valuable 
time which had else been devoted to 'seven-up,' euchre and kindred in- 
dustries, was spent in Adel, in breaking them to harness and saddle; and 
Elisha Morris, then well known in sporting circles, harnessed a span of two- 
year old bucks to a light buggy and started for some eastern emporium 
where it. was thought the unique turn-out would command bags of gold. 
Eight days' drive took him to Oskaloosa, where he was fain to swap the 
whole rig for a horse that he sold for some eighty dollars. His verdict 
was, 'they won't work; they are too much like a d — d Indian.' They 
were utterly lawless, going without let or hindrance into field and garden, 
and doing mischief out of sheer wantonness. They seemed aware that a 
horse, not familiar with them, would stampede at sight. They would curve 
the neck, throw up their huge horns, set the hair forward and snort to 
increase the fright. Runaways from this cause were frequent. At certain 
seasons of the year the males were as dangerous as mad bulls. A son of 
Dr. Bush, at I)es Moines, was attacked by one, his abdomen ripped open 
so that his bowels protruded; the boy recovered — the brute was destroyed. 
' Sic transit gloria ' elk. 0. S." 

Fish. — The streams and lakes, also, afforded fish in great variety and 
abundance, which were caught by quantities in extemporized traps by the 
•early settlers, and were feasted on by them witli a relish. 


These fish traps were generally considered as public property, and when 
once established in good working order they secured a bountiful supply of 
choice fish, of which the neighboring settlers partook in common. One 
of these traps was located on the shallow just below the site of J. Ii. "War- 
rington's mill, in Sugar Grove township, and proved a success in catching 
fish for the entire community. Sometimes as high as one hundred and 
fifty fine fish have been taken in at one time. 

Another of these traps was located at Eocky Ford, on the Middle Rac- 
coon river just above Isaac Fee's farm, in what is now Linn township. 
This one supplied all that community with fresh fish in abundance. So 
also there were several other similar ones in various localities extempo- 
rized by the early settlers, as the occasion required, and placed in the most 
suitable location for the convenience of all concerned. There being no- 
mill-dams then on the streams to muddy the water or prevent the fish from 
coming up the channels, the water was so clear and the fish so plentiful 
that they were easily secured by the settlers going out in canoes and dug- 
outs and spearing them. In this way great quantities were caught, afford- 
ing both pleasure and satisfaction to the fishermen. 

These various incidents and occurrences, in connection with the early 
settlement and pioneer life in the county, are of intense interest, and might 
be further dwelt upon at great length, especially by anyone who was fa- 
miliar with the scenes and intimately connected with many of the occur- 

The lives of those early settlers, while frought with dangers and dis- 
couragements and inconveniences, still had their bright spots of encourage- 
ment and joy. 

On account of the high price of corn during the first years, and the 
great inconveniences of procuriftg it at distant markets, they were com- 
pelled to be economical and judicious in the use of it, and used every 
means and effort within their power in making preparation the first year, 
so as to be sure of a crop the following year; and for this labor and care 
they were almost invariably rewarded with an abundant harvest. The la- 
bor, care and anxiety of one year was generally repaid with prosper- 
ity, peace and plenty during the next, and the majority of the pioneers 
found more pleasure in thus having a plentiful supply of the necessaries 
of life and being able to give of their substance when the occasion re- 
quired, to those in straightened circumstances around them, than in being 
dependent and needy themselves, and thus being on the receiving list. 
Oftentimes, indeed, such persons had the privilege of realizing the truth 
and beauty of our Saviour's sweet words of comfort, " it is more blessed to 
give than to receive." 

While the early settlers were generally industrious, honest, generous and 
sympathetic, moving along peaceably in the even tenor of their ways about 
their daily duties, and usually temperate in their habits; still their customs 
and habits were not altogether of the same character as those of the pres- 
ent day. 

Customs and habits that are now looked upon as quite improper and de- 
grading by society generally, though practiced still by a large per cent of 
the inhabitants, were considered by many of the early settlers as not so 
very much out of place, while others of their number — perhaps no smaller 
per cent in proportion to the population than at present — were faithful to 
shun and frown down upon all such improper conduct. Still a good many 


of them seemed to deem it eminently proper and quite essential in starting 
off on a journey to take with them a handy -flask in their pocket, and some- 
times the "wee brown jug" in their wagons, well filled with something to 
keep them warm and in buoyant " spirits," and also to have something 
along with which to accommodate tbeir particular friends of like tastes and 
longings whom they might accompany or meet with on the way, and thus 
be able to sustain their cherished title of "hail fellows well met." 

The following little incident as related by Judge L. D. Burnes furnishes 
a good illustration of that phase of pioneer customs: 

" We and Squire Babb were returning from a business trip to the Fort in 
the winter of 1847-8. We met Corbell on the ridges east of the site of 
Waukee, going to the the Fort on horseback, for the mail. We had never 
seen Corbell before. Babb had seen him only once, but had no acquaint- 
ance with him at all. They stopped mutually and eyed each other for a 
moment. Squire Babb addressed Corbell thus: 

" ' It seems to me, sir, that I have seen you before.' 

" 'No doubt of it, sir,' replied Corbell, 'I'm Squire Corbell, of Dallas 
county, have just been appointed postmaster in Penoach by the commis- 
sioners of the General Land Office, sir, and I'm goin' down to the Fort for 
the mail matter. What might your name be?' 

" ' My name, sir, is Squire Babb. I have just come to your county to 
seek a little rest. I have held many official places of honor and trust in 
my. day. I was appointed by the legislature of the State of Indiana, one 
of the re-locating commissioners to re-locate the seat of justice of Foun- 
tain county, Indiana, and sir, ' By this time Squire Babb was out of 

the wagon and Corbell was off his horse. They rushed toward each other; 
they clasped hands and tangled congratulations followed. Squire Babb 
had brought with him from the Fort a jdg of pretty large capacity, well 
filled with sweetened hoiniletic elaborator, and in order to cement the 
friendship just formed' with Corbell, he lifted it from its hiding place in 
the wagon, and with an introductory speech on hygiene, that was inter- 
larded with affirmative responses from Squire Corbell, it was gracefully 
given to the latter, accompanied by this laconic sally, ' Squire, let us drink 
to a better acquaintance in Dallas.' Corbell taking the jug, replied, ' I 
will never refuse a friend, sir, in such trying times as those.' Babb then 
politely turned his back, and Squire Corbell proceeded at once to flood his 
epiglottis. Squire Babb now took the jug, saying, 'here is to my friend, 
Squire Corbell, great Jupiter, prithee,' he then threw back his head, poised 
his jug on his pouting lips, a long gurgling current coursed its way toward 
his plastic epigastrium, and the jug was grounded. Squire Babb then 
continued the colloquy: "'Now, Squire Corbell, I beg of you not to men- 
tion my name in connection with any office whatever. I have come to Dal- 
las with no such purpose. I want the good people of Dallas county to let 
me enjoy the sweets of private life on the mellifluous waters of the classic 
'Coon, the one great object I had in coming here. Yes, sir, yes, let me 
hunt the bear, the elk, the deer, and trap the pretty fur-coated tribes of the 
woods and waters, and office may go begging for me.' Squire Corbell 
could hardly see how it was possible to comply, and would not promise 
Squire Babb. They drank again, they mounted and parted with a wave of 
the hands." 

We see by the recital of this little incident by what means, in two. many 
cases, office, popularity and position were gained even by those who were 


utterly unworthy of any such public trust; and honesty and candor compel 
the statement that, in this regard, very little if any change for the better 
has occurred even until the present day. 

Though, perhaps, not practiced so openly and above board, yet the deadly 
deceitful work of the evil practice still prevails. 

Too long and shamefully that accursed fiend of intoxication- has been the 
means of placing in many of our important offices of State and positions 
of public trust, men who were utterly unqualified and unworthy, to the de- 
triment and disgrace and threatened ruin of our cherished government. 

May the day speedily come when this destructive, deadly fiend shall be 
robbed of his power, and when public men and officers shall be measured in 
the campaign, and at the ballot box, not only by their intellectual qualifica- 
tions and statesmanship, but also by their firm adherence to the strict prin- 
cipals of temperance in all its forms, and when society shall demand the 
same of all its members, male or female, high or low. 

But we are deviating, and already with regard to many of these inci- 
dents and occurrences have been anticipating as to dates, we must there- 
fore turn to other items equally interesting and important under the early 
history of the county, which are, perhaps, of a somewhat different charac- 
ter; and the aim hereafter will be, as nearly as possible, to weave the 
various items and events in their chronological order. 


With regard to the origin of dividing individual States into county and 
township organizations, which, in an important measure, should have the 
power and opportunity of transacting their own business and governing 
themselves, under the approval of, and subject to, the State and general 
government of which they each formed a part, we quote from Elijah M. 
Haines, who is considered good authority on the subject. 

In his "Laws of Illinois, Relative to Township Organizations," he says 
the county system " originated with Virginia, whose early settlers soon be- 
came large-landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, living apart in almost 
baronial magnificence on their own estates, and owning the laboring part 
of the population. Thus the materials for a town were not at hand, the 
voters being thinly distributed over a great area. 

"The county organization, where a few influential men managed the whole 
business of the community, retaining their places almost at their pleasure, 
scarcely responsible at all, except in name, and permitted to conduct the 
county concerns as their ideas or wishes might direct, was moreover conso- 
nant with their recollections or traditions of the judicial and social dignities 
of the landed aristocracy of England, in descent from whom the Virginia 
gentlemen felt so much pride. In 1834 eight counties were organized in 
Virginia, and the system, extending throughout the State, spread into all 
the Southern States^ and some of the Northern States; unless we except 
the nearly similar division into 'districts' in South Carolina, and that into 
'parishes' in Louisana, from the French laws. 

" Illinois, which, with its vast additional territory, became a county of Vir 
ginia, on its conquest by Gen. George Eogers Clark, retained the county 
organization, which was formalty extended over the State by the constitu- 
tion of 1818, and continued in exclusive use until the constitution of 1848. 

" Under this system, as in other States adopting it, most local business was 


transacted by those commissioners in each county, who constituted a county 
court, with quarterly sessions. 

"During the period ending with the constitution of 1847, a large por- 
tion of the State had become filled up with a population of New England 
birth or character, daily growing more and more compact and dissatisfied 1 
with the comparatively arbitrary and inefficient county system. It was 
maintained by the people that the heavily populated districts would always 
control the election of the commissioners to the disadvantage of the more 
thinly populated sections — in short that under that system, ' equal and 
exact justice ' to all parts of the county could not be secured. 

"The township. system had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates back to 

" The first legal enactment concerning this system, provided that, whereas, 
' particular towns have many things which concern only themselves, and the 
ordering of their own affairs, and disposing of- business in their own town,' 
therefore, ' the freeman of every town, or the majority part of them, shall 
only have power to dispose of their own lands and woods, with all the 
appurtenances of said town, to grant lots, and to make such orders as may 
concern the well-ordering of their own towns, not repugnant to the laws 
and orders established by the General Court.' 

"They might also (says Mr. Haines) impose fines of not more than 
twenty shillings, and 'choose their own particular officers, as constables, 
surveyors for the highways, and the like.' 

" Evidently this enactment relieved the general court of a mass of munic- 
ipal details, without any danger to the power of that body in controlling 
general measures or public policy. 

" Probably also a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt for the 
control of their own home concerns. 

" The New England colonies were first governed by a ' general court,' or 
legislature, composed of a governor and a small council, which court con- 
sisted of the most influential inhabitants, and possessed and exercised both 
legislative and judicial powers, which were limited only by the wisdom of 
the holders. 

They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and decided 
civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal regulations, and, 
in fact, did all the public business of the colony. 

" Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in the first 
constitution of Connectiut, adopted in 1639; and the plan of township* 
organization, as experience proved its remarkable economy, efficacy and 
adaptation to the requirements of a free and intelligent people, became uni- 
versal throughout New England, and went westward with the emigrants 
from New England into New York, Ohio and other Western States." 

Thus we find that the valuable system of county, township and town or- 
ganizations had been thoroughly tried and proven long before there was 
need of adopting it in Iowa, or any of the broad region west of the Missis- 
sippi river. But as the new country soon began- to be opened, and as 
eastern people continued to move westward across the mighty river, and 
form thick settlements along its western shore, the Territory and State and 
county and township and town organizations soon .followed in quick site- 
cession, and these different systems became more or less modified and 
improved, accordingly as deemed necessary by the experience and judg- 


ment and demands of the people, until they have arrived at the present 
stage of advancement and efficiency. 

In the settlement of the Territory of Iowa the legislature began by 
organizing counties on the Mississippi. As each new county was formed 
it was made to include, under legal jurisdiction, all the country bordering 
west of it, and required to grant to the occidental settlers electoral priv- 
ileges and an equal share in the county government with those who prop- 
erly lived in the geographical limit of the county. The counties first 
organized along the eastern border of this State were given, for a short 
time, jurisdiction over the lands and settlements adjoining each on the 
west, until these different localities became sufficiently settled to support 
organizations of their own; and finally, at the first session of the legisla- 
ture, after the Indians sold out, the newly acquired territory, including all 
Northwestern Iowa, was laid off into counties, provisions were made for 
their respective organizations when the proper time should arrive, and 
these were severally named. 

Dallas was organized as a county, then, in pursuance of an act of the 
State Legislature of Iowa, approved February 16, 1847. In order to com- 
plete this organization, under the old Territorial law then in force, it was 
necessary to elect three county commissioners, one county commissioners' 
clerk, one clerk of district court, one treasurer and recorder, a sheriff, sur- 
veyor, judge of probate, prosecuting attorney, coroner, sealer of weights 
and measures, and a school fund commissioner, with the required number 
of justices of the peace and constables. For this purpose, at the same ses- 
sion of the legislature, a sheriff was duly appointed and a special election 
was provided for, to be held on the first Monday of April, 1847, at which 
the county officers and such justices of the peace and constables as might 
be ordered by the organizing sheriff, should be elected. The county officers 
elected under the provisions of this act were to hold their respective offices 
until the first Monday of August, 1847, and the justices and constables 
were to hold theirs until the first Monday of April, 1848. 

Eli Smithson was appointed organizing sheriff, to hold office until his 
successor was chosen, on Monday, the fifth day of April, 1847. 


as thus provided for by law, was