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Cornell University Library 
F 627H4 S65 

History of Harrison Countv, Iowa, inciud 


3 1924 028 914 038 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

















Entered, according to the act of CoDgresB, in the year 1888, in the office of the Librarian 
of Congress, at Washington, D. 0., 



Don't run ! I shall not be long-winded. Just hold a minute, as 
I have but a few words to say, and I always despise long intro- 
ductions to books as well as to sermons. I will make this brief. 
My intent has been, on each subject called up, to strike oil in 
five or ten minutes, and in case there was a failure, then to with- 
draw my auger and quit "boring." 

The following pages contain a brief, unvarnished narrative of 
many of those incidents which took place in the growth of this 
county, the greater part of which have been under my own im- 
mediate observation. Having tabernacled with the people of 
this county continuously for the past thirty-one years, recollec- 
tion unaided by records would enable me to bring out many of 
the past transactions, but in that set forth herein I have on 
every occasion verified by reference to records. 

At my age in life, I have no enemies to punish, and if per- 
chance there be in the body of this volume some remark which 
may not be commendatory to individual or individuals, be 
assured of the existence of the fact that the record will bear out 
the assertion. 

While much time has been spent in the preparation of this 


book, it is the hope of the author that in some time in the future 
some one will call to mind the facts herein contained, that Har- 
rison countj' as it now is, is materially different from Harrison 
county as it was, and that in consequence of the privations of 
the early settlers, many of those now residing in splendid homes 
are reaping the reward of the toils and privations of the parents 
who have passed to the other shore. 

I trust that this may meet with favor among the people with 
whomi have lived and mingled for nearly one-third of a century, 
but should the powers rule otherwise, I will bow in humble sub- 
mission to the verdict of the people, believing in the maxim, 
Vox Populi, vox Dei. 

Job. H. Smith. 

Logan, Iowa, May 11, 1888. 



Harrison County formerly being part and parcel of the French possession — 
When the same was ceded by France to Spain— When purchased by 
the U. S. — Cost of the entire purchase — When purchase was made — 
When the purchase was approved by the U. S. — Its status until 1805 — 
1812— and 1819 — Iowa a territorial orphan until 1834 — When becoming 
a part of the territory of Michigan — When part of Wisconsin — When 
forming a part of the territory of Iowa — When admitted as a State — 
The number in the order of admission — Harrison county named — For 
whom named — ^ Which General Assembly deSned the boundaries — ^The 
boundary — The names of the Commissioners appointed by the Legisla- 
ture to locate a "seat of justice " — When located — The name thereof, 
and by whom named — Contesting points — Number of acres of land in 
the county — The amount cultivated — Uncultivated — Number of acres 
of timber — Values of realty and personalty in 1885 — The streams that 
drain the county — Origin of names — Size of well developed mosquitoes 
in '47 to '67 — Source of the different rivers and streams — The fall in 
the Boyer from Dunlap to Missouri Valley — The quantum of water- 
power wasted by non-user— The difference in altitude between the 
Clinton bridge and Missouri Valley — Comparative altitudes of Wood- 
bine and New Jefferson — Where Allen and Steer creeks obtained 
names — Why the Soldier was named — The fall from Sioux City 
to Mondamin — Fall from Sioux City to Missouri Valley — Attempted 
description of the Boyer Valley — Average production — Jackson township 
as seen from J. T. CofEman's — The Soldier Valley — Little Sioux — At- 
tempted description of Missouri Bottoms — Nature at work making farm 
land along the bluffs — The lakes of the county, viz.: Smith's, Eound, 
Horseshoe, Noble's, etc. — Peculiarities of the soil — Different characters 
of deposits — Primary origin of the bluff material — Stone quarries in the 


county — ^Timber — Names of groves — Artificial groves — Agriculture in 
1847 to '57, and '58, '59 to '60— Values of corn, wheat and pork for first 
seventeen years — First kinds of machinery — Corn is King of the Slope 
— How manufactured into lard, tallow and muscle — Difference in times 
of ripening — The hog crop of the county in 1886 and '87 — Railroads get 
$57,500 for carting the same to market — The sales and shipments of 
the different stations in the county — Cattlemen, who are — The horse- 
men, giving names — Fruit growing in the county and the present status 
— Number of bushel apples grown in 1887 — Quantity of cherries, grapes, 
plums, etc — Rain-fall and temperature of the county, year by year, for 
twenty-five years, from 1861 (no place west of Des Moines has this.) 


Settlement — Who built the many artificial mounds — Mounds, where located 
and description — Stone sledges, hatchets, darts, tomahawks, stone 
or flint knives, and where found — Stone troughs and stone axes — Old 
bricks, 8 inches by 2 inches, found on the Locklin farm — None such 
ever seen in the West — Harrison county disputed territory as between 
the Sioux and Omahas and Pottawattamies — Battle between the Siouxs 
and Pottawattamies at Smith's Lake— Disappearance of the Indians — 
The condition under Indian ownership as compared with the possession 
of the dominant race — Indian graves — Indian mode of burial — Surface, 
tree and scaffold burial — Omaha tradition as to fording the Missouri 
river — Winnebago tradition as to Evil Spirit at Smith's Lake — Shaky 
foundation on which tradition rests — Indian trails in the county — Manner 
of Indian transportation. 


Indian villages— Squatters— Who was the first in the county — When 
the government townshipized the county — When the townships 
were seotionized — Definition of Squatter, and who were such — 
Squatters or Regulators, and how titles were supported — What was 
done to claim-jumpers — Jim Bates on the war-path — Who were the 
the Regulators, giving names — the first Mormon settlement, and when 
— The cheapness of Squatter Claims when the Mormon was leaving 
for the promised land — Description of the Mormon immigration days — 
Women drawing in harness like cattle in the yoke— Biography of Dan- 
iel Brown of Calhoun — Of Mr. John A. Parkin — Brown's quarrel with 
Brigham— Parkins' teams and cane mill— Names of settlers from 1847 


year by year, until 1856. Attempted description of the men of these 
times— "When land office first opened at Council Bluffs— Time when 
entries could first be made of Harrison county lands— The Shy- 
locks of the times— Early industries— Early Courts— Funny trials, 
rulings and practice in J. P. Courts— Dog case before L. D. Pate, a J. 
P.— Defendant found guilty of "dog slaughter "—Joke of Norman 
Hardy and G. R. Brainard on a newly married juror — Judge James 
Hardy's first marriage ceremony — John Rogers' court enters judgment 
against the " Youngest Wilson on the Pigeon "—Bolter and Mickel at 
trial on prairie court, and Mickel states that the Savior was murdered 
on Christmas day — Post roads and routes — Woodbine named by a 
woman — How soon the old stage coach vanished when the railroad 
came — The time the first railroad entered the county— Names of post- 
offices in county — Prairie life — Engine of the prairie schooner — The 
first corn cracker in the county — The statements of Grandmother 
Sally Young — Abun dance of game — The last bear killed in the county 
— The last buffalo — The beaver — ^numbers — their work — dams etc — 
Hard winter of 1856 and 1857 — The big fish caught in Sioux and Mis- 
souri rivers — James Henderson loses his taste for catfish — Chas. Gil- 
more's hunting stories — Saving the life of his wife — Pioneer customs — 
Country dance — shooting matches. 


The organization of the County— When — By whom organized — First elec- 
tion — Competing points for "seat of justice" — Number of voting precincts 
— Oath of an election board — Who bore the returns and vote — Where 
canvassed — First County offioers^Di vision of County into townships — 
Why named — Origin of name of Raglan township — Of Little Sioux — 
First division made by Brainard — When each to wnship was made and 
named — Washington township changed from west to east side of 
County, and why — Why name of Magnolia was given to " seat of jus- 
tice" — Hosier township named and name changed — Why Cincinnati 
was so named — Harrison township named, and by whom, and why — Dif- 
ferent kinds of land in County — Swamp land and number of acres — Six- 
teenth section and number of acres — 500,000 grant and number of acres 
— What was done with swamp lands — Manner of pre-empting — The 
number of acres given to soldiers as bounties — What the county judge 
required of pre-emptor — Elasticity of conscience of witnesses — How the 
settler was benefited by sales — County judgeship — The board of super- 


visors and who first elected— County debating society — The same abol- 
ished when — Resolution of the board giving county bounties to soldiers 
enlisting— The subject of giving all swamp lands in the County to the 
C. & N. W. R. R., if road located down the Boyer — Purchase of Poor 
Farm — The poorest farm in the County — Cost of Poor Farm — Present 
income from use of same — Geological survey of County by Fox, and the 
swindle, and who got the "swag" — Rodding court house — Present 
indebtedness of County — When bonded— How the county order business 
was manipulated — Early currency of the County — Wild Cat banks and 
Red Dog money — " Jakey" Pate trading with the boats — Why Sandy 
Point was named — Prosecuting attorneys — County judges — ^Treasurers 
— Clerks of courts — Arrest of, Capt. Hill and attempted trial and kid- 
naping — Recorders — Superintendents of schools — A.uditors — Sheriffs — 
Representatives — Neely's statement what the population of his county 
was — Hon. Geo. Richardson slandered — State senators — Judges of courts 
— Railroads— Number of miles — When first railroad was within 1,000 
miles of Harrison county — Price of produce before railroad and after — 
Effect of the location of Government cavalry at Sioux City on the price 
of corn — Old Cornelius Dunham preparing for the railroad — His trip 
to Chicago — His fat cattle in the market — His wanting a fine-tooth comb 
— How he got his stock so fat — Agricultural society for the past thirty 
years — Present location and buildings — Money received and paid out for 
premiums — Present officers — County buildings — Cost of same — Crack- 
ing of county safe at the Magnolia, in 186S — Cracking of county jail — 
Prisoner escaping from Capt. Holmes — The Irishman which bid Jno. 
G. Downs good night — Growth of population — Residents of the county 
from the different states — Foreign population — Which county has the 
greater representation — Who will furnish the coming American citizen 
— Vote of the county from '54 to '87— Peculiar intermixture of Green- 
backers and Democrats — Prohibitory vote on constitutional amendment 
June 27, A. D. 1882, by townships — Judge Day beheaded— Prohibition 
vote in 1870— Vote on " hog law " in 1868— Vote on Magnolia high 
school in 1871— County seat wars from 1853 to 1887 — Two and three 
cornered fights — Vote between Magnolia and Missouri Valley in 1870 — 
Vote in 1875 and the majority for Logan — Joe H. Smith rises to explain 
—Farmers' Clubs — Harris Grove — When organized — Members — Object — 
Elk Grove club — When organized — Members — Mill Creek Club — When 
organized and names of members — Grasshoppers— When first appeared- 
— Dates of coming — Abundance and devastation of crops — Hatching and 


destruction of crops — How captured — Time of winging and their depart- 
ure — Medical societies— Newspapers published in County— Pirst news- 
paper—Where printed— Names and number at the present. 


Murders and murder trials in the County— The first person murdered in the 
County after the first white settler located— Murder of one of La'Pon- 
teur's wives— Murder of Indian at Sandy Point by Wm. Brown— Old 
Yellow Smoke— Acting as county superintendent of schools- Murder of 
Yellow Smoke at Dunlap— Ike DePew's race and sweat when chasing 
and being chased by the old Indian— First petit jury — First grand jury 
— First trial — Trial of W. B. Thomson for the murder of Norwood — 
Trial of Elias Shook for the shooting of a claim jumper — Trial of Jim 
Triplett for poisoning his wife — Bad conduct of jury and their dis- 
charge — Trial of James M. Long for shooting and killing Ad. Kuppy — 
Trial of Wes. Meecham for murdering Geo. Medford — Conviction of 
Henry Ackerman for bigamy — Trial of Lou Weirich for thrusting a 
butcher knife into the heart of Steve Ide — His pardon, and by whom — 
Trial of James A. Bonnell, alias " Big Jim," for rape — Attempted 
lynching of "Big Jim" and failure — His condition — Trial of Artemus 
Baker for murdering a young Mr. Crow, son of Stephen Crow, near 
Woodbine — Trial and incidents of the case of the State vs.' Wm. 
Sloan — Conviction — Sentence — Reversal in Supreme Court — Trial of S. 
A. Broadwell — ^The visit of the Governor. His ambition and fall — ^Trial 
of Alex'r Smith on charge of assault with intent to commit rape — The 
Case of Dunham vs. Hester & Dennis — Dunham's manner of training 
his witnesses— Robert Hall vs. James Mathers — the divorce case of 
Zaver vs. Zuver — Gillingham vs. Gillingham — Divorce case of Pate vs. 
Pate — an attorney's idea of " irapotency " — Makepiece replevitiing a 
child and " Habeasing" a calf — The poor boy, orphanized so that he 
had but one father in Dakota — James Butler's examination as applicant 
for license to practice law — His theory of " mixed property '' — The 
attorneys of the county — Wyatt '• drubs " Elder Guylee — W. W. Fuller 
Hon. Henry Ford— Hon. Alex. Brown — Capt. G. S. Bacon — Mickel — 
Tommy Brannan — Frank Griffin — Frank Wolfe — His disbarment — G. 
W. Thompson— Hon. L. R. Bolter— Major Chas. MacKenzie— Mr. J. W. 
Barnhar^-Mr. H. A. Roadifer— Mr. S. I. King— Mr. A. L. Harvey—' 
Capt. W. M. Magden— Mr. J. A. PhiUips— Mr. C. R. Bolter— Mr. C. A. 
Bolter— Mr. L. Brown— Mr. M. Holbrook— Mr. S. H. Cochran— Mr. C. 


Arndt— Mr. J. A. Berry, Mr. Thos. Arthur— Mr. P. W. Cain— Col. F. 
W. Hart— Mr. L. Bassett— Mr. J. A. Traver, Mr. James Dewell and Mr. 
John McGavren— Mr. M. B. Bailey — Mr. F. M. Dance, L. J. Birdsey, 
and Joe H. Smith. 


The names of all the persons living in the county "who were in the Mexican 
war — Hamilton's defeat on the Willow River — Those in the fight — 
Shadley on the retreat — His misfortune — Holding prayer meeting — 
Shadley's prayer— Part of the whites run into canebrake — The retreat — 
Casualties of battle — Indians stealing horses — Amos Chase shooting the 
Injun — Red Man's run for Nebraska — Meeting at Council Bluifs — The 
Indian's mode of proving an alibi— Joe. Copeland drawing an old 
musket and shooting at venture — The fall of humanity and chickens — 
The Doctors at Logan extracting shot from a citizen — I'irst thoughts of 
a people on hearing of the firing on Sumpter — First braves stay at home 
and make money — The scenes of the old recruiting days — Those who 
were Democrats and how some were converted — Those who first enlisted 
— The entire enlistments in the county — Scare in 1862 at Sioux City — 
Co. C organized — Roll thereof — Leaving for the South — Parting scenes 
— Knights of the Golden Circle — Where they met — when? — Boys of Co. 
B, Fourth Iowa — Boys of the Second Iowa Battery — Boys of Co. A, Fifth 
Iowa Cavalry — Boys of First Nebraska Cavalry — Boys of Co. H, Fif- 
teenth Iowa Infantry — Boys of Co. K, Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry — 
Boys of Sixth Iowa Cavalry — Ninth Iowa Cavalry — North Border 
Brigade — The men drafted in Harrison county — When— Prices paid for 
substitutes — Joshua Lane, of Little Sioux taking an emetic to make 
"sick come" — Dan Shearer giving the scheme away — Who drew the 
names from the Box at Council Bluffs at time of draft in 1864 — Examin- 
ation before County Board of Surgeons — ^The terrible sickness and 
defdrmity of the people — Hearing lost — Hernia and lung diseases so 
prevalent — Men running for Colorado —List of all soldiers in county — 
Their commands and present postoflBce address. 


Who entered the land on which the Towns of Logan, Woodbine, Dunlap' 
Missouri Valley, Magnolia, Modale, Mondamin Little Sioux, River Sioux 
and Calhoun were located — When these town sites were laid out — The 


growth of these places since by decades— Description of each of these 
places — Their schools, churches, business men, secret societies, time of 
incorporation, character of city government, etc. 


Pioneer school— Who taught the first school in the county— The early teach- 
ers—How the schools were managed— What power had authority over 
the teachers— By whom examined — When County Superintendent's 
office was created — ^The early "threshing machines" in the schools — 
The comparative difference between schools of that period and the pres- 
ent—The " fuss " and " feathers " of the present— Dress parade at close 
of terms — Who taught the first common school in the county — Where— 
The growth of the common school system in the county — ^ThQ cost of the 
different school buildings in the county— Missouri Valley at the head — 
Dunlap school building — Logan school building, when built and corps 
of teachers — Magnolia schools — Number of persons of school age in the 
county — Number of persons of school age who have been enrolled as 
scholars in the common schools — Total cost of school buildings in the 
county — Taxes paid by the taxpayers for the support of the schools — 
Tax equals one-half of all the tax paid — Names of the different Boards 
of Directors in the county for schools in incorporated towns — Missouri 
Valley and teachers — Dunlap and teachers — Logan and teachers-^Little 
Sioux and teachers — Mondamin and teachers — Has the quantum of 
expenditure equalled the expectation of the taxpayer — Woodbine Nor- 
mal — Teachers Institutes — The years the same have been in active run- 
ning order — Who benefited, etc. 


First church organization in the county — Methodists at Harris Grove — At 
Magnolia — At Woodbine — Dunlap — Little Sioux — Missouri Valley — 
Logan — Value of church property in the county — Number of church 
buildings — Parsonages — Values — Number of membership — Number of 
charges — Number of Sunday-school scholars — First Congregational 
church organized in the county — Rev. Luddon — Rev. H. D. King — First 
church erected in the county Congregational — Number of Congrega- 
tional church buildings in the county — Congregational church at Olm- 
sted and then removed to Dunlap — Rise and growth of this chrjfch — 
First class at Olmsted — Names of members — Pastors from 1S58 to 1888 
— Who have passed away of this class in the past thirty years — Congre- 


gational church at Mondamin— At Soldier River— First Baptist church 
in Logan— When organized— When church building was completed— 
Constituent members— The growth of the church— Numjjer of members 

Number of Sunday-school scholars — When parsonage was built and 

cost— Value of church property — Pastors since organization of church 

First Baptist church at Woodbine— Who constituent members 

When first organized — When the church building was completed 

—Character of the church building— The liberality of certain person 
—Present Eldership of the church — Number of members— Pastors in 
charge since organization of class— Sunday-school — Number of schol- 
ars in Sunday-school — Sunday-school Superintendent — At the present 
— First Baptist church at Dunlap — Constituent members — Time the 
church building was completed — Value and cost of church building — 
Pastors from organization to the present— Number of members — First 
Baptist church at Missouri Valley— Constituent members— When organ- 
ized — First pastor — Growth of church — Present members^Sabbath- 
schools — Number of scholars at present in Sabbath-school — Present 
Superintendent of school — Value of church property — Presbyterians — 
When First Presbyterian Church was organized in Logan — Names of 
the organizing members — Who the first Minister — Time of building the 
church building — Cost of same — Number of members at present — 
Names of Elders — Thornton K. Hedges as a pioneer Minister — Minis- 
ters down to the present, etc. — Organization of the First Presbyterian 
Church at Woodbine — First members — Prosperity of the church — 
Names of pastors up to the present — When church building was .com- 
pleted — Cost of same — Number of members at present — Names of 
Elders — Sunday-school — Missouri Valley — Organization of church — 
Number of members at the time of organization — Different pastors 
from first up to the present — When church -building was completed — 
Number of members at the present — Number of Sunday-school schol- 
ers — Cost of church edifice — Christians or Disciples — First organization 
in the county — The first minister in the county — Ministers in county — 
D. R. Dungan, D. D. — A boy of the times — His joke on John Berrill — 
What pluck and energy will accomplish — Dungan's ministry — Number 
of churches in county — Organization and, lapse of part — Building of 
church at Woodbine — At Missouri Valley — At Modale— At Lo- 
gan — Number of members — First Pastors-^A pioneer church — 
VMue of church property — Organization at Modale — At Soldier — 
Preaching of Dungan the seed sown in good ground — Church of Jesus 


Christ or Latter Day Saints — When first organized in the county — num- 
ber of branches — The presidents of the different branches — Number of 
membership — The different branches— From what this church takes its 
rise — The difference between this church and the Salt Lake Mormon — 
Polygamy wholly ignored — On what founded — Polygamy a doctrine 
not sanctioned by the Prophet Joseph Smith — The same ah interpola- 
tion by bad men — The Latter Day Saints the bona fide church organ- 
ized by the Prophet Joseph Smith, Sen. — Number of members in the 
county — Number of churches — Value etc. — German Evangelical Asso- 
ciation at Magnolia — When organized^Names of organizing members 
— When church building built — Leaders in church — Number of mem- 
bers at the present — Names of pastors since organization — Value of 
church property — Salary of pastor — German Lutheran — When first 
organized at Magnolia — Constituent members — Pastors from organiza- 
tion to present — When church building was completed at Mag- 
nolia — Cost of building — Number of members at present, etc., etc. — 
Roman Catholic — Magnolia the place where first church was built — 
When completed — First members of the church — Cost of church build- 
ing — Number of members, etc., etc.— At Missouri Valley — When first 
organized — First Priest saying mass— First members — When church 
building built — Value of church building — Priests from organization to 
the present — Number of members, etc.— At Little Sioux — When first 
organized — Organizing members — First Priest officiating — when church 
building was built— Cost of same— Number of members — Priests since 
organizing churchy etc. — At Dunlap— Organizing members — First Priest 
— When first organized — When church was built — When rectory was 
built — Cost of church and rectory — Number of members— Priests since 
organization to the present— At Modale— When organization was 
affected— Organizing members— When church building was built— Cost 
of building— Number of members — Tunkers or Dunkards— When first 
organized — When— Number at the present— Names of members first 
belonging to the organization — Sabbath-schools in the county — First 
Sunday-school Missionary — Jewett, the person blazing out the way for 
Sabbath-schools — When dying — Prominent Sabbath-school workers in 
the county — Number of children in Sunday schools in the county — flom- 
parison between children of school age in county and those attending 
Sunday-school — Sunday-schoolmissionaries who have been in the 
county — Their salary — Prominent Sunday-school workers. 



The State of Iowa formerly constitutedja part of that terri- 
tory commonly called the " Louisiana Purchase." This territory 
was originally taken possession of by France. At the close of what 
is known in our history as the " oldJFrench^War," and in Europe 
as the " Seven Years War," in 1763, France ceded all the territory 
west of the Mississippi to Spain. On the 1st of October, A. D. 
1800, Spain, by treaty of St. Idlefonso, retroceded this territory 
to France, and France, by treaty of April 30, A. D. 1803, ceded 
the same to the United States, the latter paying therefor, as con- 
sideration, the sum of $11,250,000, and the further sum of 
$3,750,000 in the extinguishment of certain claims which citi- 
zens of the United States held against the French government. 

Thomas Jefferson, then being President of the United States, 
secured from the First Emperor of France, for the sum of 
$15,000,000, the wealth of a continent. For a sum scarcely 
equal to one-fifth of the private fortune of one of the American 
citizens of the present day, was surrendered to this government 
the most magnificent land ever bought with money or transmit- 
ted by inheritance. 

This land purchase was the first fruits of the reactionary influ- 
ence of the Revolutionary war. This was the first land ever pur- 
chased or peacefully acquired from a sovereign civilized power, 

in the history of the human family, for the purpose of dedica- 



tion to constitutional government, because it was so guaranteed 
in the treaty which conferred it. This triumph of diplomacy over 
a government which was proud of its Talleyrand and Marabois, 
is of itself suEBcient to immortalize the statesman who brought 
about such happy results. He who stood at the helm of govern- 
ment at this time had, prior to this, made himself immortal. 
The thought of his brain, finding exudation at the point of his 
pen, when reducing to paper the principles contained in the 
Declaration of American Independence, will immorbalize him as 
long as the English language shall last, and will assist in the 
preservation of the latter. 

On the 4th of July, 1805, under the act of Congress, approved 
March 3d,. 1805, the District of Louisiana was organized into a 
territory of the same name, with a government of its own, in 
which condition it remained until 1812. 

By act of Congress, approved June 4, 1812, the Territory of 
Louisiana was reorganized and called the " Territory of Missouri;" 
then, again, by act, March 2, 1819, "Arkansaw Territory." By 
a joint resolution, approved March 2, 1821, the State of Missouri 
was made a State and admitted into the Union, and from that 
date up to and until June 28, 1834, all of Iowa was a territorial 
orphan; this status of orphanage lasting, as above indicated, for 
the period of thirteen years, when it was taken again under 
paternal care and constituted part of the territory of Michigan. 
On the 3d of July, 1836, Wisconsin territory, embracing within 
its limits the present States of Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, 
was taken from that of Michigan and made a separate territorj-; 
and on the 3d of July, 1838, the territory of the State of Iowa, 
including the greater part of Minnesota, was constituted the 
Territory of Iowa. 

On the 28th day of December, A. D. 1846, Iowa was admitted 
into the Union, as the twenty-ninth star in the national galaxy, 
which from that day to the present has never been dimmed by 
any act of her people, but like a bright jewel in the set, beauti- 


fies and adorns, as well as being shown off to great advantage, 
by reason of the purity and brilliancy of those forming the 
other parts of the constellation. 

Harrison County was named by the Third General Assembly 
of the State of Iowa, which at that time convened at Iowa City, 
the then capital of the State, for the ninth President, William 
Henry Harrison, as will be found by reference to section No. 2, 
chapter No. 9, of the acts of the General Assembly last above 
referred to; and in which will be found the boundaries of the 
county, which is in the following words, viz. : 

"Beginning at the northwest corner of township No. 81, north 
of range 40, west, thence west on the line dividing townships 
81 and 82, to the middle of the main channel of the Missouri 
river; thence down the middle of the main channel of said river 
to the intersection of the line between townships 77 and 78; 
thence east on said township line to the southwest corner of 
township 78, north of range 40, west; thence north on the line 
dividing ranges 40 and 41 to the place of beginning." 

The action of the Legislature of the State, which gave bounds 
to this county, was approved by the Governor on the 15th day of 
January, A. D. 1851, left the county statu quo until in the 
month of January of the date of the 12th, A. D. 1853, when an 
act was passed, by which a commission of three persons, viz.: 
Abraham Fletcher of Fremont county, Charles Walcott of 
Mills county, and A. D. Jones of Pottawattamie county were 
selected to locate a " seat of justice " for Harrison county, and 
to proceed to the discharge of this duty on the first Monday of 
March of 1853, and by the same act declared the county organ- 
ized from and after the first Monday of March of the same year. 

By section No. 20 of said act, the name for this embryotic 
"seat of justice" was, at that time, given by the Legislature, 
thereby furnishing to the then generation another instance 
where a name was determined on before birth, viz.: " That the 
county seat of Harrison shall be called Magnolia." 


The boundaries of the county, then, would be as follows: Mo- 
nona and part of Crawford counties on the north, the Missouri 
river on the west, Pottawattamie county on the south, and Shelby 
county on the east, and were it not for the shortage of the town- 
ships on the west, made so by the tortuous windings and con- 
stant cutting of the Missouri river, the county would be twenty- 
four miles north and south by thirty miles east and west. 

By the latest measurements the county contains 446,056 acres, 
of which over 400,000 are under cultivation, and 42,720 native 
timber. This, and the personalty in the county, as per the 
assessment of 1885, in value amounts to the sum of $5,514,299. 

The streams which water and drain the county gain the Mis- 
souri bottoms within the county, except the Pigeon and Mos- 
quito. Beginning at the east side of the county, the first stream 
which is met is the Mosquito, then the Pigeon, Boyer, Willow, 
Allen and Steer Creeks, then the Soldier and Little Sioux rivers. 
These all take a southwesterly course until they either empty 
into the Missouri river in the county or pass the southern boun- 
dary line. 

The Mosquito is a small stream, having its rise in Washington 
and Cass townships, and can scarcely bear the name of a river ; 
but in a country where every little rivulet is misnomered " river," 
this importance has attached to this little stream, so that it is 
called Mosquito river, the named derived from the great abun- 
dance of mosquitoes which infested the place in the early days 
of the settlement. They of the settlement days of 1849, in re- 
ferring to the vastness and size, and numerical strength of the 
above named bill-posting insect, call to mind the stretch of im- 
agination of the '49 miners of California. Tradition has it that 
these mosquitos were of such ponderous size that they kept in 
their hip pockets a 14-inch file and whetstone, so that they could, 
during the heat of the day, prepare their proboscis for active 
duty as the evening and night came on. This only is given as 
per the statement of one John Q. Jolly, who was a resident on 


this stream, and whose imagination was known to be very 

The Pigeon has its origin in Douglas township, and from its 
source to the place where it crosses the south line of the county, 
measures a distance of quite sixteen miles. Why this little 
stream waS' named " Pigeon " cannot be accounted for; nor is 
there anyone who can tell the origin of the name, except as above 
given. Both of these streams last named drain large quantities 
of exceptionally good land, and afford water supplies for stock 
purposes which few localities equal. The banks of these creeks 
are somewhat precipitous, and usually rise to the height of ten 
to twenty feet, by reason of which the water is carried away 
without doing damage by overflows, except in very rare cases, 
when the rain-fall has been so extraordinary as to swell all other 
streams in the county and produce general havoc elsewhere. 

The principal water courses, are the Boyer, Willow, Soldier, 
and Little Sioux. The Boyer in its crooked windings from the 
northeast corner of the county to the place where it enters Potta- 
wattamie county, ten miles from the Missouri river and twenty 
miles from the southeast corner of the county, traverses a dis- 
tance of sixty miles by measurement of its channel, and only by 
straight line a distance of twenty-eight. Some have supposed 
that there is but very little fall to the waters in the Boyer, but 
in this supposition there is a great mistake. Take for a start- 
ing point the place where the depot is located at the town of 
Dunlap in this county, and have measurement made from 
there to the place where the railroad depot is located at the 
town of Missouri Valley, there is only lacking the small number 
of six feet of being as many feet fall as there is in the dis- 
tance from the depot building at Sioux City to the depot at 
Missouri Valley. From the depot at Dunlap to the depot at 
Missouri Valley, a distance by rail of twenty-six miles, there is 
a fall of ninety-one feet, while from the. depot building at Sioux 


City to the depot at Missouri Valley, a distance of seventy-five 
miles by rail, there is a fall of ninety-seven feet. 

Within the county there are at the present three good water 
merchant mills; on the Boyer river, one at the village of Logan 
owned by James McCoid; one near the village of Woodbine, 
owned by that old pioneer, John W. Dalley, and Mr. Kellogg; 
and one at or near the town of Dunlap, owned by Mr. Harvey 
Bishop, all in successful operation. 

All these mills above referred to, do not use over twenty feet 
of the before-named ninety-one, and as a mathematical result, 
there is a waisture of water power yet on the Boyer sufficient to 
propel ten more such mills as they that are now in successful 

Though digressing from the subject, I will take the liberty 
to state that the depot building at Missouri Valley is 418 feet 
higher than the Chicago & Northwestern railroad bridge, where 
the same spans the Mississippi river at Clinton, and that the 
surface of the railroad at Woodbine in this county is one foot 
higher than the track at New Jeiferson in Greene county. 

The Willow is the next stream westward of the Boyer and 
makes its first appearance in Crawford county, and enters this 
county in Lincoln township near the west line of section 3, 
township 81, range 42, quite six miles west of the place where 
the Boyer crosses the north line. ■ 

This handsome little stream runs in a southwesterly direction; 
keeping her distance from the one on her east; leaves Lincoln 
within one-half mile of the southwest corner thereof, visits 
Boyer township by cutting aflat-iron out of her northwest corner, 
then meanders a distance of six miles by sections, through Mag- 
nolia township, then into Calhoun township and out in a diago- 
nal course, entering the Missouri bottoms at this place, cuts a 
little slice off of Taylor, and from thence nearly south until the 
south line of the county is crossed, and thence emptying into 


the Boyer a little south of Loveland station in Pottawattamie 

Allen and Steer creeks both have their origin in Allen town- 
ship, take a southwesterly course, and after having meandered 
among the hills of Allen, Magnolia and Raglan townships, for 
a distance of eight to twelve miles, empty into what is known 
as the Gilmore or Atwood lake, at the foot of the bluffs. These 
creeks, like the larger ones above referred to, carry within their 
banks the sweetest and purest waters, and are of immeasurable 
value to stock raisers along their course. The former was named 
Allen, for one Andrew Allen, who, in 1851, squatted on this 
stream, and the latter received the not exceedingly classic name 
of " Steer," because of the miry condition of the stream at the 
place where it debouches from the highlands, three or more 
steers having mired therein while being driven across, in 1849. 

The Soldier, named because a company of United States reg- 
ulars encamped on the banks thereof in 1846, has its inception in 
Ida and Crawford counties, enters Monona county at the east side, 
north of the centre, and runs in a southwesterly direction until the 
same passes the north line of this, at which point, viz.: the north- 
east quarter of section 1, township 81, range 44, it makes a little 
zag toward the east, then winds like the trail of a serpent in a 
southwesterly direction until the farms of 0. P. Edmonds and 
James Roberts, in sections 4 and 5, in township 80, range 44, are 
reached, and there grooves the Missouri bottoms in a direct south 
course through Raglan; then turns to a southwesterly course 
through the northwest corner of Taylor, on through Clay in the 
same direction, until within one mile of the Missouri river, then 
in a direct run of five miles east empties into the Missouri river 
at the northwest corner of Cincinnati township. This stream is 
nearly the size of the Boyer in the way of volume of water, and 
drains a large- section of country from the north line of the 
county to the place where it is lost in the great Muddy. From 
the Edmonds farm in section 5, township 80, range 44, on the 


south line of Jackson township, to the mouth of this stream, there 
is but little fall, and hence the drainage is not as perfect as where 
the same meanders through the hills. 

By consulting White's Geological Reports of Iowa, volume 3, 
page 414, it will be there found that the surface of the S. C. & 
P. railroad track at Mondamin in this county is nine feet higher 
than at Modale, a distance of a little over six miles, and that there 
is a fall of ten feet from River Sioux station to Mondamin, 
having the same distance as that between Mondamin and Modale. 
This would average only a fraction over one and one-half feet 
to the mile, which, to say the least, is not indicative of the best 

The statements herein made as to the fall in the Boyer, as well as 
that of the Soldier, are not based upon guess-work, but are the 
figures furnished Prof. White, who in 1868 and 1870, was the State 
Geologist, by W. W. Walker, then Vice President and Chief 
Engineer of the C. & N. W. railroad, and that of the S. C. & P. 
railroad by L. Burnett, assistant superintendent of the latter road. 
While this beautiful, clear, pure stream winds its way in the 
high lands, the declivity is by far greater than that last above 
given, and though it affords great opportunities for water power, 
the same is only utilized at one point, and that at and near the 
centre of Jackson township, viz. : On the south line of section 
14, township 81, range 44, at which place Mr. L. Peyton has in 
continuous operation a very excellent flouring mill. 

The Little Sioux river, the father of Harrison county waters, 
makes the shortest stay in the county of any of those which are 
designated as rivers. First starting from springs on the south 
line of the State of Minnesota, and then replenished and fed by 
the little rivulets of Osceola, Dickinson, Clay, east part of O'Brien, 
west part of Buena Vista, east part of Cherokee, east part of 
Woodbury and all of Monona counties, introduces herself into 
Harrison about eighty rods west of the northeast corner of section. 
5, township 81, range 44, in Little Sioux township, and from thence 


steadily keeps a southwesterly direction until finding outlet in the 
Missouri river at the north half of the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 27, township 81, range 45, a distance of ahout two hundred 
rods west of the depot at the station of River Sioux. The entire 
mileage of this river in the county will not exceed eight, yet the 
stay heing so short, it discharges doubly more water into the 
Missouri than all other streams of the county. The bank on the 
left of the river, as to this county, is high, in many places hug- 
ging the bluffs, until it divorces itself from the company of the 
hills, so that but little overflow therefrom has ever caused any 

The Wilsey, Col. Cochran and M. Murray farms, which fit up 
to the margin of the waters of the Little Sioux on the left bank, 
are as excellently situated as ever came from the hand of the 
Creator, the gentle declivity, the broad stretch of level prairie, 
reaching from bluff to river, not afoot in waste; which at gath- 
ering time yields 100 bushels of corn in the ear, per acre, sug- 
gests an Eden worthy of the waiting, toil and good judgment 
of the worthy possessors. 

The surface of the county presents an appearance as varied as 
the tastes of man and as diversified as his conduct. So far as 
the selection of a home is concerned, all can, within the limits of 
the county, find any quality or character of place, soil or altitude 
which fancy dictates. The high, rolling upland, far beyond the 
reach of flood or malaria, the sunny cove nestling in the bluff 
and protecting the place from blizzards; the broad expanse of 
level prairie, reaching on and on as far as the eye can measure; 
the elevated lands on margin of lake or river; the home in the 
native forests, or if perchance the peculiarities of mind suggest 
a selection of unfathomable " gumbo," this county possesses all 
these in certain ratios. 

The different valleys or bottom lands are known and designa- 
ted by the names of the rivers or creeks which drain them, viz. : 
Mosquito, Pigeon, Boyer, Willow, Soldier, and Little Sioux, and 


vary in dimensions in nearly the same ratio as the streams. The 
first two last named, differ but little in extent and quality of soil. 

These valleys are from one-half to a mile in width, and now 
all improved, the handsome and tasty farm house, broad expanse 
of corn, wheat and tame-grass fields, make the same a very par- 
adise indeed. The uplands between these are beautiful rolling 
prairies, forming well defined divides from which the surface and 
spring waters are gathered by draws or slight depressions and 
discharged into small feeders which enter the valleys below. 

In nearly all of the locations, or nearly all the farms, which 
are not accommodated by spring, creek or other surface water, 
the same is attained by wells, scarcely ever exceeding a depth of 
forty feet, and the greater majority at half that depth, and these 
are so manipulated by wind-mills that the water necessary for 
the supplying of house and herd is really as abundant and 
equally cheap as those who have the privilege of spring or 

The Boyer valley is the Eden of the county, arrests the eye of 
every passer and holds the beholder spell-bound while measuring 
its extent and unsurpassed beauty and fertility. This valley is 
from one two miles in width, stretches from the northeast 
corner of the county to the place where the same merges into 
the Missouri bottom, a distance of over twenty-six miles, thereby 
furnishing excellent drainage and outlet for this and the coun- 
try northeast and east, as well as the natural outlet for trans- 
portation to and fro by rail. The miles and miles of nearly 
level fields of corn, wheat, oats, tame and wild grasses, tlap 
extensive and handsomely constructed farm houses, large barns, 
cribs and sheds, the abundance and pureness of such excellent 
water, the unprecedented productiveness and inexhaustibility of 
the soil, places this valley in the lists as equal to any within the 
states and territories of this Union. 

The writer of these hastily thrown-together thoughts well 
remembers the expression of a friend, in the person of B. F. 


Pyle, of Pittsburg, Pa., who, standing on the blu£F at the south- 
west corner of the village of Logan, which position affords the 
beholder a view of all the Boyer valley to the southwest, the 
Missouri bottoms up to and across the Missouri river, as well as 
the northeast corner of Douglas and the southeast of Washing- 
ton counties. Neb., and not only this, but the Boyer valley north 
to quite the distance of Dunlap; — who after surveying this 
matchless valley, appropriately quoted, as his sentiments and 
observation, the following stanza: 

" No fairer land the prophet viewed, 
When on the sacred mount he stood, 
And saw below transcendent shine 
The plains and groves of Palestine." 

The yield of corn on this valley per acre is from sixty to ninety 
bushels, the yield being measured by the good judgment of the 
farmer in the way of the selection of seed, the time the same is 
placed in the ground and the labor bestowed thereon at the 
proper season. The yield of wheat varies according to the 
season, which at times falls as low as twenty, but often reaches 
thirty or more bushels per acre. The tame grasses often shed 
three to four tons to the acre, and the wild or native grass, in 
good localities, two and a half to three. 

The uplands separating the Boyer from the Pigeon, as well as 
that separating the former from the Willow river, the same 
applying to all the divides in the county, are corrugated by small 
ribs extending out from the backbone or divide, usually in a 
direction southeast or southwest, as the water-shed indicates. 
These are more numerous on the north line of the county, viz.: 
in the townships of Lincoln, Allen and Jackson; yet in these, 
and all others of the upland townships, whole tracts of hundreds 
of acres of prairie have been overgrown with thrifty groves 
within the brief memory of the writer. These tracts of young 
forests add a very pleasant feature to the landscape, relieve the 
monotony of the ever present cereal or grass, and paint a green 
island on the apparent desert of prairie. 


Were any o£ the readers of these pages to stand on the cliff 
directly north of the residence of Mr. John T. Cofifman, in sec- 
tion 9, township 80, range 44, the same being in Raglan town- 
ship, and from that position in the months of June, July or 
August, look in a direction east of northwest, over Jackson town- 
ship, a landscape, such as was never painted, aye, such as is be- 
yond the power of artist to reproduce, would present itself to his 
or her vision. 

At the locus last designated, the bluffs of Jackson look like the 
waves of the ocean, when the wind is driving them fierce and 
furious, or to the writer it can be more accurately described, by 
saying that the Creator, at the time spoken of in the first chapter 
of the Book of Genesis, was a trifle short of time; that the week 
there spoken of closed and that Jackson township had only been 
poured out of the Maker's ladle and " time " was called before 
the smoothing process had been applied. 

Here the divides apparently run in every direction; the little 
scooped-out valleys seem to have been constructed without refer- 
ence to direction or symmetry, and, withal, present an appear- 
ence of such modest neglige as to captivate the beholder. 

As the years come and go the thrifty growth of young forest 
trees, springing up spontaneously in every conceiveable place, 
where protected from the ravages of fire, and to such extent as 
heretofore named, the feeling can scarcely be avoided, that the 
primitive beauty and nakedness of these bluffs are soon to receive 
a forest mantle of nature's own weaving, by which their grace- 
ful outlines, now cut so clearly against the sky, will be lost for- 

The Soldier valley is of double the width of the Willow, and 
is only the superior of the latter in area. The north or west 
side is bounded by ranges of bluffs unrivalled in variety of pic- 
turesque scenery by any similar region in the Missouri valley, and 
what is more striking and interesting, well defined terraces 


occupy a large part o£ the valley, which afford very many rural 

The valley of the Little Sioux is entirely different from any 
in the county, occasioned by reason of the same being minus any 
bluffs or highlands on the right bank. This river behaves her- 
self very handsomely in all her stay in the county, but her bad 
conduct before reaching the point where lost in the great Muddy 
creates a prejudice against her, in this, that while passing the 
boundaries of the county of Monona, in her freaks of folly, mad- 
ness and power, her banks, in the spring time, are overflowed 
and the water thus forced out on the surface of the county 
north, is driven down or onward, to such extent that the one- 
fourth of the township of Little Sioux receives a baptism from 
one to five feet of that which the county north should have 
taken care of. This, by many persons, has been interpreted as a 
source of great loss to the people in the vicinity, but a moment's 
reflection will convince the thoughtless that it is not a loss or 
judgment visited on the locality. All east of this place is quite 
barren of grass lands, and while these spring freshets cover the 
surface of this portion of the township and seemingly enjoin the 
raising of corn or other cereals, yet it brings about just such a 
condition as best meets the real wants of the farmers, in this, 
that such a superabundance of grass is grown, and so caused by 
these annual spring freshets, that all on the bluffs or high 
lands here find a superabundance of hay for the winter's use, 
which otherwise could not be had. 

The Missouri valley comprises more than one-fifth of the area 
of the county; though all appearing as of the same quality, yet 
there is such vast difference in short distances, one location may 
be of very excellent quality, while that which lies tangent thereto 
is wholly worthless. All along this valley there are draws, or 
low places, which render the same useless for agricultural pur- 
doses. These at some point or other ripen into lakes, and they 
in turn generally find outlet into the rivers which empty into 


the Big Muddy. One singular peculiarity in regard to this Mis- 
souri bottom land is, that in many places directly up against the 
bluffs the surface of the soil is lower than the surface of the 
banks on the margin of adjacent lake or river. As time passes 
away these low localities fill up by the wash and deposits from 
the hills, and in turn become the most valuable lands in the en- 
tire county. To substantiate this assertion, I will instance the 
farming lands of Mr. Charles Gilmore, in Raglan township, 
which in 1857 was so low and miry that nothing grew thereon 
but wild canes, and these to the height of ten to fifteen feet, 
and so sloshy was the soil that a saddle blanket would mire 
therein, if left over night. This same low land has been filled 
during the past thirty years to a depth of six and eight feet, 
thereby making the owner one of the best corn-producing farms 
in the entire county. This condition of natural improvemeiit 
has not been limited to this particular spot, but has been general 
at every output of stream along the entire bluffs. 

From the first settlement of the county, up to and until the 
year 1858, the entire scope of country along the bluffs, from the 
south line of the county until the Soldier river is reached, was so 
low and miry that in order to pass from the bluffs to the bottom 
lands in Cincinnati, Clay and Taylor townships, all were com- 
pelled to center at the crossing at or west of the farm now 
owned by Mr. Henry Garner, in Raglan township. This diffi- 
culty has been remedied by the constant deposits in these low 
places, as well as by a system of grading, by which every other 
section line furnishes a good highway to and from the Missouri 

I would not dismiss the reader without calling attention to 
some of the principal lakes in the county, these all being on the 
Missouri bottom. The grandest and best of these is " Smith's 
Lake," in Little Sioux township, located in section 31, township 
81, range 45, and section 6, township 80, range 44. This body 
of water is over 400 yards wide by a mile in length, and in many 


places 100 feet deep. The water in this lake is furnished by sub- 
terranean springs, except that which flows therein in the spring 
freshets from the Little Sioux river. This is the grandest body 
of water on the entire Missouri valley, and is stocked with the 
largest and gamiest kind of fish that are known to the waters of 
western Iowa. This beautiful body of water is located snugly 
up against the bluffs, in fact so closely hugging the same that 
the bluffs are apparently so precipitous that an individual could 
scarcely climb them; then on the eastern bank the same is sel- 
vaged with a magnificent growth of native timber, reaching far 
toward the south of the lake, and this seemingly reaching partly 
up the precipitous bluff, gives to the landscape such a magnificent 
background, that water, bluff and timber possess such a peculiar 
blending as to constitute a picture the admiration of all. 

The eastern bank of this lake, so nicely shaded by forest trees, 
reaching down to the very margin of the water, invites the lover 
of fun and frolic to this rustic, cool retreat in the hot summer 
monthg, to fish, sleep, dream, put up political jobs and " steal 
a while away from every cumbering care." The pinnacle of 
these bluffs which so abruptly stop at this lake, furnishes the 
grandest observatory in the west part of the county. Here the 
eye first catches, to the west and south, the six-mile selvedge of 
timber lands along,the Missouri river; this enveloped in the un- 
certain shimmering haze of a summer's day, looks like a vast 
rim; over this and to the east and north, the outline is like that 
of a hollow basin, part of which is made up of graceful, undu- 
lating prairie swells, which rise and fall, one beyond another, 
until distance blends the whole into lines of light and shadow. 

Round Lake, in the center of Morgan township, possesses no 
peculiarity, except its size and general worth lessness. This was 
at some time in the past, part and parcel of the river-bed of the 
Missouri, and by some;freak has been divorced therefrom, and at 
the present depends entirely on the swells of the Missouri, in the 
spring time, or June freshets, for existence. 


Horse Shoe Lake, in Clay, is of the same character as that of 
the one last described, except in this, that the latter is supplied 
with water from the Soldier river, and in spring or June rises of 
the Missouri, from the latter. 

Noble's Lake, partly in this and the remainder in Pottawatta- 
mie county, located in Cincinnati township, is a beautiful body 
of water, and at all seasons of the year is a resort for those who 
have piscatorial tastes. This, like the Smith lake, is well stocked 
with pickerel, bass, cat, buffalo and sun-fish. The bluffs which 
border the broad flood-plain or bottom-land of the Missouri river 
along all that part of its course which forms the western boun- 
dary of this county, are so peculiar in character and appearance 
that they cannot fail to attract the attention of every one who 
sees them for the first time. Their strangely and beautifully 
rounded summits, occasionally mingled with sharply cut ridges, 
smooth and abruptly retreating slopes, and the entire absence of 
rocky ledges, except in rare instances, when they appear only at 
their base, cause them to present a marked contrast with those 
of the Mississippi and other rivers of the eastern part of the 
state, where rocky ledges support and compose the greater part of 
their bulk. 


Some of the physical properties of this deposit are so unus- 
ual that they merit especial mention. When it is known that 
there is no rocky support to these Missouri river bluffs, although 
they are frequently so steep that a man cannot climb them, it is very 
apparent that the material composing them is different from the 
earth ordinarily met with, and which it resembles upon its 
ordinary surface. Its peculiar property, however, of standing 
securely with a precipitous front, is best shown in artificial 
excavations. For all practical purposes of building founda- 
tions, even of the most massive structures, and for all roads, etc., 
the ground it composes is as secure as any other, yet it is every- 
where easily excavated with the spade alone. Notwithstanding 


this fact it remains so unchanged by the atmosphere and frost, 
that wells dug in it require to be walled only to a point just 
above the water line; while the remainder stands securely with- 
out support of any kind, that the spade-marks remain visible upon 
it for many years. Embankments also upon sides of roads or 
other excavations, although they may be quite perpendicular, 
stand for many years without change, and show the names of 
ambitious carvers, long after an ordinary bank of earth would have 
softened and fallen away to a gentle slope. An instance: a well 
dug by Mr. Ed. Houghten in Cass township in 1857, which for 
thirty years has remained in good condition, only being walled 
with rock or brick at the bottom to a distance of ten feet, the 
depth thereof being forty-six feet, at the present remains in per- 
fect condition. Indeed, so securely does the material of this 
strange desposit remain, when excavations are made in it, and so 
easily is it excavated, that subterranean passages of many miles in 
length might be readily constructed in -it without meeting any 
impediment. Any fortifications built upon these hills, which 
form a continuous line along the greater part of the western 
border of the county, if future emergencies should ever require 
them, might be readily undermined by digging such subterra- 
nean passages; and if there were any cause or use for such 
works, catacombs might be successfully constructed in any of 
them that would rival those of ancient Rome. 

In Harrison county the post-tertiary deposits exhibit their 
usual characteristics, and besides these we have limited exposures 
of the upper coal measures which appear in the valley of the 
Boyer. The drift and bluff deposits are both well developed in 
Harrison county, where the latter attains near its maximum 
thickness. The drift deposits comprise both the glacial clays and 
the modified gravel-beda. We seldom find both these beds well 
developed at a single locality, and more often they are so atten- 
uated by denudation as to present a striking contrast to the con- 
dition they present in central Iowa. The glacial deposit is 


seldom exposed more than a few feet, and it is doubtless compara- 
tively thin throughout this section. It fills depressions in the 
subjacent formations, and in these situations it has been sub- 
jected to less extensive erosion than it has on the higher points, 
where indeed this deposit has been generally entirely swept 
away. In such places the gravel-bed attains, or retains, a thick- 
ness of several feet^perhaps at some localities as great as thirty 
feet. At other places, however, even the gravel deposit has been 
wholly denuded, or is represented by a thin sheet of pebbles and 
sand which have been converted into a quite durable concrete. 
Springs are of f reqiient occurrence along the outcrop of the 
gravel and blue clay deposits, and they always give a reliable 
horizon, showing the inequalities of the denuded drift surfaces, 
and also the line of demarcation between these deposits and the 
bluif formation. On the south side of the Boyer, on the south- 
ern borders of the county, the drift deposits rise in the base of 
the bluffs to an elevation of thirty feet above the bottoms. On 
the opposite side of the valley, in the vicinity of the Missouri 
valley, the bluff deposit constitutes the entire height of the 
bluffs, which are here two hundred feet in height above the Mis- 
souri bottoms. In the valley of the Little Sioux, in the north- 
ern side of the county, similar exposures of the drift are met 
with. Three miles above the village of Little Sioux, on the 
Wilsey farm, a tufaceous deposit is in process of formation at 
the base of the bluff deposit. It is underlaid by a gravel-bed 
which in places has been incorporated in the calcareous forma- 
tion, forming a very durable concrete layer. Similar deposits 
have been found on the Widow Vanderhoof farm in Harris Grove, 
and on the farm of Mr. Wm. Morrow in Raglan, and the con- 
crete bed is exposed at numerous localities in various parts of the 
county, as in the base of the bluffs on Smith's lak« and elsewhere. 
The bluff formation, as has been stated already, constitutes the 
bulk of the rounded divides between the streams, and in the 
bluffs on the Missouri bottoms it reaches a thickness upwards of 


two hundred and fifty feet. Owing to the tenaceous nature of 
the bluff material, landslides are of very unfrequent occurrence; 
and it is also due to the same condition of this deposit, that by 
the slow process of weathering by the action of atmospheric 
agencies, and the little rills which issue from the gravel-bed, 
these bluffs assume the varied and picturesque outlines which 
form so striking a peculiarity in the topography of the upland 
border region in this part of the state. 

The most interesting subject for study presented by this 
formation in this county are the terraces which occupy the 
valley of the Soldier river, in township 81, range 44. The lower 
benches are from thirty to fifty feet in height, and are found on 
both sides of the stream, which has at different times eroded new 
channels — the old ones existing to-day as " old river beds," or 
low meadow lands of surpassing fertility. The main terraces 
are confined to the west side of the valley, and, compared with 
similar phenomena observed elsewhere in the state, they are 
truly colossal. The benches of different elevations are often 
separated' from one another by deep, narrow ravines, or shallow 
depressions, which are more or less exaggerated expressions of 
the identical features associated with these formations in the 
drift region from which they differ, only in the nature of the 
material of which they are composed, and possibly in the date of 
their formation. They have a very gentle, regular inclination 
from the uplands toward their valley faces which are abruptly 
terminated by the steep descents peculiar to terrace formations. 
The intermediate terraces are quite regular in conformation and 
vary from sixty to one hundred feet in height. The high ter- 
races are somewhat less distinctly defined, though, varied from 
the opposite side of the valley, they present no appreciable differ- 
ence from the lower benches, their upper surface formiug gently 
undulating or nearly level plains, one hundred and fifty feet 
above the bottoms, offering a prominent contrast to the very 
irregularly weathered surface in the upland heights between the 


Soldier and the Little Sioux, which lift their furrowed crests to 
the height of two hundred to three hundred feet above the valley. 
These terraces in the bluff deposits, notwithstanding the 
fact that it is newer than any other deposit except its own 
alluvium, are certainly of the same age as the other terraces, 
of the same river, that have. been formed in the drift or any 
other formation, for they all originated from the same cause, and 
are nearly or quite simultaneous. The evidence that this deposit 
was formed as sediment in the fresh water lake, may be summed 
up thus: The material is very fine and homogeneous, such only 
as could have been deposited in comparatively still waters. It 
contains a few shells of fresh water and land mollusks, and no 
other. It does not contain any marine remains. It is, there- 
fore, not of marine origin; besides which, no inland deposit of 
marine origin is known that has, like this, occurred subsequent 
to the drift period. The material of the deposit is essentially 
the same as the sediment of the Missouri river at the present 
time. This sediment is so abundant now in that river, that if it 
were possible to throw an obstruction across its valley as high as 
its bluffs it would become rapidly filled with essentially the same 
material that it originally deposited, and subsequently in part 
swept out. This is constantly illustrated in the reservoirs of the 
St. Louis water works, which become filled with the sediment of 
the water taken from the river, so that they must be periodically 
re-excavated. The proportion of sediment contained in the 
water of the river in its earliest history, was probably somewhat 
greater than it is now, and any lake-like expansion that may 
have existed in it at that time must have become so quickly filled 
as to have occupied an insignificant part of the time-history of 
its valley, although the act was an important one in that his- 
tory. It seems probable that the broad lake that occupied a part 
of what is now Western Iowa was mainly filled with sediment 
while yet the glaciers hovered around the upper course of the 
Missouri river, and were there grinding the material which 


served for the filling. The filling was, of course, most rapid in 
the case of the muddiest rivers, and those which flowed over 
formations that are not readily disintregated could contain but little 
sediment. Therefore, their lakes are not filled. If such a river 
as Missouri had emptied into the great northern chain of lakes, 
they would have become so completely filled with its sediment 
that they would never have been known as lakes to civilized man, 
but tributaries of the St. Lawrence river would have traversed 
the region they now occupy. 


' Ascending the Missouri river, we find in Nebraska, Dakota, 
and even in Northwestern Iowa, the source from which the 
material of the blufi^ deposit was derived. Stretching from here 
far away to the Rocky mountains, and bordering the great river 
on either side, is an immense region occupied by the most friable 
formations on the continent — those of Cretaceous and Tertiary 
ages. Seeing these, we at once cease to wonder that the waters 
of the Missouri are muddy, because it is so evident that they 
could not be otherwise. The Tertiary strata are largely silicious, 
and the Cretaceous are scarcely less so, but are very nearly pure 
chalk. It is from the last named strata that the bluff deposit 
has derived its nearly ten per cent of carbonate of lime. AH 
these friable strata are even now furnishing abundant sediment 
to the streams that flow into the Missouri river, but at the close 
of the glacial epoch, flne sediment was, if possible, still more 
abundant, because then the whole region was strewn with grind- 
ings fresh from those " mills of the gods " — the glaciers. 

The soil in the upland consists of the light colored deposits 
of bluff formation and only differs from that of the bottoms in 
the finely comminuted condition of the silicious materal of 
which it is nearly composed. Both upland and bottom soil are 
derived from the same sources — that of the Missouri bottom 
being the coarser, because the finer particles are swept away by 


the current of this ceaseless flood. Year hy year, as the annual 
June rise or flood appears, vast quantities of this filling sediment 
are deposited in every place where the waters of the Missouri 
river are forced, and as a consequence, the locations where this 
annual deposit is made, are fast assuming a higher and more valu-, 
able condition. It may be truthfully said that this soil is nearly 
inexhaustible, from the fact that many tracts of land in valley 
and on the bottoms have been for the past quarter of a century 
continually planted in corn and without any nourishment to the 
soil, still yield fifty to seventy bushels per acre. Mr. Isaac 
Bedsol of Magnolia, having dug a well to the depth of sixty- 
eight feet, took of the soil from the bottom thereof, Scattered Jt 
over the surface of part of his lot, to the thickness of twelve 
inches, sowed oats thereon, and was surprised, at reaping time, 
at having a really good crop. There are bat two kinds of soil in 
the entire county, the bluff and the bottom, and as before stated, 
in these there is no difference of character except the former is 
the finer material. 

Stone is only found in two or three places in the county and 
is restricted to that of limestone. The greatest deposit of this is 
located at and adjoining the mills of Mr. James McCoid in sec- 
tion 19, township 79, range 42, at the southeast corner of the 
town of Logan. These quarries have been quite extensively 
worked and considerable quantities used for foundations for build- 
ings in the immediate vicinity, as well as being shipped for simi- 
lar purposes to Council Bluffs and elsewhere. The stone from 
this quarry was used for the foundation to the court house and 
jail at Logan. The same limestone outcrops on the right bank 
of the Boyer river, one-fourth of a mile below Logan, on the 
tract of land owned by Mr. Jas. A. Lusk, the same being in sec- 
tion 24, township 79, range 43. This last bed of lime-stone fur- 
nishes a tolerable building stone, for which purpose it was quar- 
ried and used in the old court house in Council Bluffs. The 
quarry at the McCoid Mill is covered with nearly fifteen feet of 


the following substances, viz. : eight feet irregular bedded shaly, 
impure limestone with clay partings exposed; one foot yellow, 
marley clay; two feet black carbonaceous shales; six inches yel- 
low clay; one foot blue impure limestone; 2 feet yellow, indur- 
ated clay ; fifteen feet limestone deposit. 

The deposit at the Lusk quarry is a much superior article to 
that at the McCoid mill, but owing to the vast amount of earth 
covering the same, makes the cost of quarrying so considerable 
that the same cannot be successfully operated. 

In sections 27 or 28, township 80, range 42, in Boyer town- 
ship, near the old site of Donmeyer mills, a bed of reasonably 
fair limestone of the thickness of ten or more feet is found. 
This is located on the left bank of the Boyer river, two miles 
south of Woodbine and six miles north of Logan, from which 
considerable quantities of building stone have been quarried, and 
at which place in the year 1858 one William Evans owned and 
operated a lime kiln, producing the lime from the rock, then 
gathered from the bed of the river. Unquestionably there are 
many other deposits or beds of stone in the county, which up to 
the present time remain undiscovered. At the mouth of Elk 
Grove creek, one-fourth mile northeast of Logan, quite a deposit 
of limestone is found, but at the present not sufficiently worked 
to give the quantum of deposit. 


Up to the present time no coal deposits have been discovered, 
notwithstanding at and near Logan, and six miles northeast, on the 
Boyer river, a limited outcrop of upper coal strata appears. It 
is not improbable that coal may be found by boring, but the 
productive measures lie at the depth of several hundred feet, and 
owing to the accessibility of the coal fields in the central and 
other parts of the state, it will be some time before the demand 
in this county for coal will justify risks and the great expense 
incidental to the mining at the depth of four hundred or more 


feet, which is the estimated distance from the surface to the 
deposit, if deposit there be. 


The finest growths are not very limited in their extent, and 
the distribution thereof has been governed b,y circumstances fa- 
vorable to their preservation. In the deep shaded ravines which 
crowd up into the bluffs bordering the Missouri bottoms, all along 
the smaller streams, and on the margin of the Missouri river, as 
before stated, a belt of from one to six miles in width, the most 
vigorous growth of native timber is found. Well up in the in- 
terior of the county, in Lagrange, Union and Harrison town- 
ships, is found Harris Grove, covering an area of not less than 
5,000 acres; then Twelve Mile Grove, in Douglas and Boyer 
townships, with her 1,000 acres; Bigler's Grove, in Boyer and 
Jefferson townships; Union Grove, in Union township; Spen-. 
cer's Grove, just north of Missouri Valley, of 2,000 acres;' Brown's 
Grove, in Calhoun, Taylor and Magnolia townships, the largest 
of any; Raglan Grove, in Raglan township; the Spink's Grove, 
in Magnolia and Allen townships; the Flower's Grove, in Jack- 
son township; and Warner's Grove, in Harrison township; 
together with the innumerable crystalization of excellent timber 
in divers other localities, with the artificial groves at each farm 
house, places this county, as respects timber, beyond want. 

Many of the leading farmers assert that few outlays yield a 
better income than that of growing artificial groves. Mr. W. B. 
Copeland and Mr. John Wood, in the near vicinity of Logan, 
have experimented on this, and being men of mature judgment, 
attest that, with reasonable care, a ten-acre ten-year old grove 
will furnish an abundance of timber for all practical uses of the 
ordinary farm. 

There is vastly more timber in the county at the present date 
than there was in 1852, at the time the lands in the county were 
surveyed by the government, from the fact that the owners 


thereof have kept out the prairie and forest fires, by reason of 
which the timber belts have spread out in every direction. Again, 
in the past decade, the substitution of wire fences in lieu of the 
warping, shrinking cottonwood planks, has given an armistice to 
the cottonwood and all other groves. The great demands made 
upon the timber belts on the margin of the Missouri river, and 
in the canyons along the bluffs, at the time of the building of 
the Union Pacific railroad, threatened the entire destruction of 
all this timber. But when this road was completed, nineteen 
years ago, the demand ceased ; and the substituting of wire, as 
aforesaid, for fencing, has caused these timber localities to ex- 
pand and put on a growth, which at the present time far exceeds 
the quantum at the time of the first settlement of the county. 

In the past ten years quite a market was at hand for walnut 
logs, to be shipped to Chicago and other places, by reason of 
which many of these old monardhs of the forest, four or more 
feet in diameter, were hewn down and cast upon the cars; still 
these will soon be replaced by others more numerous and thrifty. 

The rivalry in the lumber trade, facilities for shipment by rail 
to the many stations in the county, have placed the pine timber 
of the north in competition with local mills to such extent that 
the former can be had more cheaply than the latter, and the 
local mills have gone out of business. 

The coal imported out rivals the wood in cheapness, and at a 
cost of $3.50 to $4 per cord for wood, the hard and soft coal in all 
villages in the county are jpref erred. 


Has not been as yet a production of the county, unless at the 
farms of W. H. H. Wright and Mr. S. J. P. Marsh, in Harrison 
township, in the northeast corner of the county. The citizen- 
ship of the county at the present have so limited a knowledge 
in respect to this modern production of nature's great labora- 
tory, located thousands of feet below the surface, that little or 


no efforts have been made in order to ascertain its whereabouts. 
In these times, when the real is so astonishing that in many in- 
stances fiction is eclipsed, it may not be amiss to suggest that in 
less than five years there would be such finds of gas in the county 
as would wholly revolutionize the cost of steam power and the 
manner of the obtainment of fuel. Until then we will wait and 

In the matter of iron ores, there are none; and as respects the 
clay for bricks, few localities but are well supplied. Extensive 
brick manufacturing is profitably carried on at River Sioux, 
Mondamin, Missouri Valley, Logan, Woodbine, Dunlap and 


Is the chosen means of livelihood of ninety-hundredths of the 
people of the county at the present day. This, not affording the 
readiest way to financial greatness, without question, is the most 
honorable a^ well as the most certain. The wealthy men of this 
county to-day are they who have ceaselessly toiled from day to 
day for the past quarter of a century, at each returning spring 
preparing the surface of mother earth for the reception of the 
seed, intended to bring forth the golden harvest, and by careful 
application to husbandry duty, in the way of proper tillage, have 
reaped abundant harves,ts. Farming in 1888 is very different 
from the farming of 1850 and up to 1860. The little granger 
of this present age would smile at the ■ simplicity of the imple- 
ments used in the early days of settlement. Then the present 
improved fancy gang plow, the double drag, corn planter, har- 
vester and binder, mower and separator were not known in these 
parts, but in lieu thereof the old fashioned, wooden mold-board 
and bull-tongue plow, a crotch of a tree and wooden pins suf- 
ficed for drag; the corn planter was a man with double team fur- 
rowing out the rows, a man or woman to drop by hand and then 
followed boys with great nigger-hoes, or a i^an with a " go- 
devil," covering the corn as dropped. 


How many of my readers know what a go-devil is? It was 

an implement of husbandry made in the following manner, viz.: 

A straight piece of wood for a beam, three or more feet long; to 

this was attached two handles, then underneath a strong piece 

of wood ten to twelve inches in length, morticed into the beam, 

and to this was securely fastened a single shovel such as was 

formerly used on a shovel plow. A horse was hitched to this 

and the man operating the same followed along in the furrow 

just made by the man with the team, the corn being dropped as 

aforesaid; this go-devil was raised and lowered so as to strike the 

soil immediately in front of each hill, so that the same again 

being lifted covered the corn . These kinds of plows, drags, corn 

covering machines, as well as the old " Armstrong " mowers and 

grain cradles would somewhat indicate to the present farmer 

who never used such implements the difficulties under which 

farming was carried on in the early days. At that time there 

was no necessity for the improved machinery of the present day, 

because there then was only necessity for a sufficiency for local 

use, and the demands for the product of field or herd did not 

extend beyond the limits of the immediate neighborhood. The 

yield then was as great as at the present, per acre, but the 

limited quantity under cultivation served to supply all demands, 

except in and during the winter of 1856 and '57, at and during 

which time there was such an extraordinary fall of snow in the 

early days of this ever to be remembered winter, that stock could 

not subsist on the rushes along the Missouri bottoms, and there 

being little or no hay prepared for stock, the entire corn crop in 

the county was wholly inadequate to supply provender for the 

thousands of starving cattle then at the mercy of the storm, 

wolf, Indian and man. During this winter the entire corn crop 

of the county was consumed in a great measure in supplying 

feed for these starving herds, and as a sequence, in the early 

spring this " king of the slope " was readily sold at $2.50 per 

bushel. I might be permitted this remark right here: that with 


the railroad facilities which this couaty now possesses, such a 
condition of things would not happen, from the fact that relief 
could now be furnished, which under the old order of things 
could not be remedied. 

What would our young farmers think of tramping out a grist 
of wheat for milling purposes by using four or six horses, having 
them go around and around in a circle until the grain was 
separated from the straw, in order to have a biscuit for break- 
fast? How many of these young scions of farmer lineage could 
stand in front of the cylinder of an old chafF-piler and rake 
away the straw from the machine, and keep this well up for 
one or two days at a time? How kindly would they take to the 
old manner of separating the wheat from the chaff and straw, by 
working an ordinary sheet so as to produce a sufficiency of wind 
to drive the chaff and straws beyond the pure golden grains? 
This was, under the circumstances existing at that time, neces- 
sitated by reason of the fact that this was the means at hand 
for the accomplishment of the end, and they of the fifties 
accepted the conditions as readily as they of the present who 
load into the wagon the well cleaned bushels of wheat, cart 
the same to the nearest railroad station, sell the same for cash 
and then at the nearest provision store purchase the fine flour 
mauufactured at the mills at Minneapolis. Dakota or in Kansas. 
Suppose there was neither railroad nor mill within fifty or a 
hundred miles of the neighborhood — the last particle of flour or 
meal had been used for the last breakfast; how ancient would it 
appear for our people to take an old piece of tin — say six inches 
by ten inches, perforate the same by the use of some sharp 
pointed instrument and then attach this to some board or other 
substance, and this when completed, go to work and by rub- 
bing over the rough surface of this tin mill, grate a sufficient 
quantity of corn on the cob to provide for a small family of six 
or ten, and the usual amount of visitors, say half a dozen — would 
not this seem a hardship that few would like to undertake in 


these days of advancement? Such was the every day occurrence 
in this county thirty-six years ago. 

As before stated, the old plow, drag, scythe and snath, chaff- 
piler, corn grater and cradle for cutting grain, are thrown aside, 
being superseded by the single or gang sulky plow, the nicely 
constructed and efficient drag, the separator which measures into 
the half bushel the golden grain, threshed and cleaned from the 
straw, the mower, which by one man and team of horses sever 
from the surface of the meadow more grass in one day than 
four men could by the use of the old " Armstrong mower," in 
the same time, and then the harvester, which one man operates, 
doing as much labor in a day by the assistance for four horses 
attached thereto as could be accomplished by ten or twelve men 
under the old order of things; then the corn planter which now 
graces the sheds (or is suffered to stand in the fence corners) of 
nearly every farm, saves much of J;he wear and tear of muscle. 
One man, team, corn-planter and check-row, now places the 
corn in the ground more precisely than ever was done by hand, 
and gives to the farmer a chance to place his crop in the ground 
as fast as he prepares the soil, so that when done plowing, if a 
favorable season is had, the portion of the field or crop first 
planted is ready for the plow by the time the planting is finished. 

The harvest time, dreaded by all the housewives, no longer 
ushers in a season of toil, hurry, vexations and unstinted drudg- 
ery, but in fact scarcely produces any change in the quantum of 
household duties from that of other ordinary times. The farmer 
by the use of his harvester and binder quietly severs and binds 
twelve to sixteen acres of wheat or oats per day, and by the 
assistance of one or two men, the same is found in shock by the 
time the day's work is completed. The old-fashioned shovel- 
plow, which once was supposed to be the embodiment of all that 
was grand and great in uprooting the belligerent sunflower or 
glory vine, in the corn field, has been retired on full pay, and the 
more effective sulky or walking double cultivator substituted in 


its place. This implement of husbandry, in a soil like that 
in this county, enables one man, if diligent in business, fer- 
vent in spirit and constantly in the corn field, to success- 
fully farm forty or fifty acres of corn each season. The young 
farmer, whose only experience has been the sowing of "wild 
oats," would be entirely out of his latitude in shouldering a 
bushel of wheat and evenly scattering the same over the soil 
so as to feel secure of a good stand, yet while there may be 
an absence of this early art, there exists a practical knowledge 
of running a seeder, by the use of which the grain is more 
evenly distributed on the soil, and accomplished without the break- 
ing of backbone and cramping of limbs, which was the usual 
experience of those on whom fell the tasks of sowing after the 
manner of their fathers. ' 


Within the limits of this county, and not this county alone, but 
within the limits of the entire Missouri valley, and as far west 
as the corn belt reaches. By the production of this cereal, the 
farmer lives, moves and has his financial being. In the cul- 
tivation and production of corn, there is to the farmer a cer- 
tainty of livelihood such as no other character of grain affords. 
This is due to the splendid qualities of the soil for this particular 
crop. That which fits the soil within the limits of the county, as 
well as in alljother places like circumstanced, for the production of 
corn and tame grasses, without any seeming diminution from 
year to year, is the fact that the soil not only withstands pro- 
tracted drouths without perceptible lessening of production, but 
also is proof against the drowning out process, which is the curse 
of so many localities east and elsewhere. And why is this con- 
dition? Because, it is perfectly under-drained in consequence 
of the porosity and depth of the deposit of which it constitutes 
a part, and containing no clay, it never becomes "sticky" and never 
bakes in times of drouth. In the dry or drouthy time moisture 
is furnished from the constant and ever present dampness under 


the surface of the soil, and when rains come with such constancy 
and in such abundance, as is sometimes experienced, that which 
is not carried away by the natural drainage is swallowed up by 
the porosity of the soil. 

The land which in the early days of settlement was thought to 
be worthless, has proven to be the best for the production of this 
crop. Then, all that part of the county which lay tangent to the 
Missouri river was labelled worthless, but since land has become 
quite valuable in all other parts of the county, this land, which 
has been made by accretion, or such locations at places which 
formerly constituted the old Missouri river beds, being improved 
and rendered arable, has given back to the person cultivating the 
same a better yield than in any other part of the entire county. 
In the townships of Cincinnati, Clay and Morgan, that part 
thereof which during the year 1887 was planted to corn, though 
the soil was the old river beds or accretions made by the receding 
of the Missouri river from the Iftwa shore, has in many instances 
yielded eighty to ninety bushels of corn in the ear per acre ; while 
that on the prairie out east from this timber belt, falls short of 
this twenty or more bushels to the acre. 

By referring to the former census of this state, I find that in 
1860, the live stock and farm production of this county for that 
year amounted to $115,837, and that in the year of 1880 the same 
had increased to the sum of $1,277,995. By the same authority, 
the farms in the county for the year of 1860 were valued at 
$29,010, and the farming implements for the same year, at 
$25,596, and that during the next score of years the farming 
lands had increased in acreage and value, so that the same is 
returned at $4,994,438, and the value of implements used at 
farming at $250,377. 

In 1856 the number of bushels of corn raised in the county is 
reported at 2,644, while the same returns show that for the year 
1880 the county produced 4,363,991 bushels, and the year 1884, 
4,282,223, being a slight falling off from that of the year 1880, 


The quantity of wheat produced in the county for the year , 
1856 is reported at 6,786 bushels, while the census reports show 
for the year 1884, spring wheat to the number of 232,556 

The yield of corn within the limits of the county during the 
year 188T will not fall short of 6,000,000 bushels; which at the 
present price of 36 cents a bushel, gives a return to the farmers 
in clear cash of over $2,000,000. Of this, nearly 2,000,000 bush- 
els will find its way out of the county by the different railroads, 
while the balance, viz. : 4,000,000, will be consumed by the farmers' 
stock, used for purposes of food, and retained for feeding pur- 
poses for stock during the incoming year. Nearly all the farm- 
ers feed their corn crop to the pig or steer, and by this manner 
of disposing of the surplus, get better returns than by market- 
ing the entire crop; yet this business of raising hogs is attended 
with many uncertainties, which at the outset is not contem- 
plated. ' 

There were times in this county when farmers felt like flee- 
ing the country; times when the production of the vast sand 
plains northwest and west, in the form of the innumerable clouds 
of grasshoppers, visited the county, in 1858, 1867, 1871, 1875 
1876; but the festive grasshopper, in all his power of destruct- 
iveness, never caused half the loss to the farmer as the " hog 
cholera." At different times many of the most extensive farm- 
ers, they who have given hog-raising their most careful atten- 
tion, have been compelled to stand quietly by and witness their 
entire herds swept away by this dreaded disease, without being 
able to stay the wholesale destruction. 

In a country like this, where the little porker or Durham calf 
is an object of admiration to the farmer, they receive better care 
than in places where they are not used as sacks in which the 
product of the country is carried to market. 

Mr. Hog, by receiving good care, ripens at the age of ten months 
or a year, and as soon as such ripening process has taken place 


he affords the owner an opportunity, irrespective of the seasons, 
to replenish his bank account. Up to 1866 there was only one 
season in the year when hogs became ripe enough to bring cash, 
and that was at the first of the winter. This condition has un- 
dergone a radical change, for now, as above stated, he is in con- 
dition for market whenever there is ■affieient fat and size. 

This process of manufacturing corn into lard and muscle re- 
duces the amount of pounds in the way of shipments, so that in 
the hog's skin there is placed 200 pounds, which at five cents per 
pound, would amount to $10; this $10 would represent forty 
bushels of corn, at twenty-five cents a bushel; and then this corn 
at seventy pounds to the bushel, would weigh 2,800 pounds; 
hence, a blind man could readily discover a difference in the way 
of freightage to the number of 2,600 pounds. 

By conversation with the different shippers in the county, also 
aided, indirectly, by the railroad station agents in the employ of 
the three roads in the county, I find, as nearly as the facts can 
be gleaned from this source, that during the past year, com- 
mencing on the 1st day of September, 1886, and ending on the 
1st day of September, 1887. there were shipped from this county 
1,150 cars of hogs to the different markets, viz. : Chicago, Omaha, 
Council Bluffs and Sioux City. Each of these contained on an 
average sixty-five head, which, for the year last named, would 
make a showing of 74,750 head; then supposing that each an- 
imal would average 250 pounds, they altogether would sum up 
18,687,500 pounds, whicli, at four and one-half cents per pound; 
would indicate an income of $820,937.50 to the county from this 
one industry. 


The different places of shipment, during the time last named, 
make the following showing, viz. : 

Logan 210 cars. 

Dunlap 170 cars. 

Woodbine 150 cars. 

Mondamin .f 160 cars. 

Missouri Valley 100 cars. 

River Sioux 100 cars. 

Modale 80 cars. 

California Juncliion 80 cars. 

Persia ■ 80 cars. 

This statement would have been backed by the report from the 
different stations, but this could not be obtained from the rail- 
roads, from the fact that the several station agents were willing 
to furnish a statement from the books of the different offices, 
but were by the orders of the managers of the roads prohibited 
from so doing. The same is true as to all classes of shipments 
from the county, respecting the products of the county, which 
have found outlet over these different roads. Why there should 
be such reticence on the part of the railroads I cannot conjec- 
ture, unless they are not desirous that it should be known that 
from the hog industry of this county alone they are in receipt 
of the snug little sum of $57,500 per year in the matter of fur- 
nishing transportation, at the present charge of $50 per car to 

From the 1st of December, A. D. 1886, to the 1st day of Decem- 
ber, A. D. 1887, there was shipped from this county 1,535,000 
bushels of corn, generally finding consignments to Chicago. 
The following represents the number of bushels shipped from 
the different stations, viz. : 

Mondamin 240,000 

Woodbine 230,000 

Logan 190,000 

Dunlap 200,000 

River Sioux 160,000 


Modale 150,000 

Missouri Valley 120,000 

California Junction 125,000 

Persia 120,000 

And, as above stated, if the fact be true that this is carried to 
Chicago by rail at the present prices of transportation of nine- 
teen cents per hundred, from this matter of the shipment of corn 
alone from this county, the railroads would take as their share 

Mondamin, in Morgan township, bears away the palm as the 
largest corn producing neighborhood and market in the county, 
and well supports the name of " Mondamin," given it by- those 
who in the employ of the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad Co. had 
the naming of the towns along their lines. The name is taken 
from Longfellow's Hiawatha, and very properly and appropriately 
names the place. 

The raising of cattle is next in importance to that of the 
porker, but within the past three or four years has been attended 
with financial failure to those engaged therein. This has been 
occasioned in consequence of feeders paying too high a price for 
the stock fb be fed, the price of corn, the unhappy «lides in 
the market at the time of marketing, and the beef furnished by 
the extensive cattle ranges in the far West. Those who are 
conversant with the results of feeding stock here during the 
time last spoken of, can call to mind very good men who have 
gone to the wall financially, by indulging in this hazardous 
undertaking. True, many stock raisers have amassed consider- 
able fortune? in this undertaking, but they are only such as have 
raised their own stock, fed the corn produced on their own prem- 
ises, and thus in spite of any slide in the markets, have acquired 
a healthy bank account. 

The most extensive cattle shipping point in the county at the 
present, as well as that which has maintained this place in the 
past, is Dunlap. B. J. Moore and George Mooreheqd, of this 


place last named, are by far the largest cattle dealers in the 
county, and have somewhat centralized the shipments at that 

Unquestionably no man in the county has done so much to 
to improve the blood of cattle as Alfred Longman, now retired 
from the business, and residing in the town of Logan; James 
A. Lusk, B. J. Moore, of Dunlap; H. B. Cox, of Missouri Valley; 
Patrick Morrow and John T. Coffman, of Raglan ; Peter Brady 
and Stephen King, of Jefferson; and Nelson Boynton of Cal- 
houn, have all been very efficient in introducing into each respect- 
ive neighborhood, the best blood of Durhams, Devons and Here- 
fords; At the present, James McCoid and Frank Dodson, 
of Logan, are the champions of the Jerseys, yet these are used 
to a very limited extent at the present. The first to successfully 
introduce into the county the handsomely squared up Durhams, 
was William Orr, Esq., who formerly resided on the farm now 
owned by B. A . Divelbess, of Harris Grove. This gentleman, at 
one time, 1 think in 1871, collected a considerable number of the 
best bred he could obtain, as Well as chinking in many a scrub) 
with handsome form and fatty fjanks and made 'a public sale, 
and by the use of a little persuasion located near the place of 
sale, induced such a degree of competition that many of the pur- 
chasers, on calm reflection, had abundant reason to feel that 
" blooded " stock had taken a slight advance, if only for one day. 

In 1884 there were 271 Durhams, 1 Hereford, 2 Holstein, 21 
Jerseys, 5 Black Polled, and 1 Red Polled, all thoroughbred, and 
of all kinds, 10,125. 

In comparing the horned stock and hog of this date with 
that of 1856, little resemblance remains. The ox, which had his 
excellent qualities in length of horn, fleetness of foot, and the 
pointedness of posterior extremities, as well as the porker of that 
day, vfhich was considered fit for the butcher when one extrem- 
ity would balance the other, the dividing line being immediately 
back of the ears, and v^hich could climb trees, thrust his pro- 


boscis into the woodpecker holes and subsist on the eggs found 
therein, have forever passed away, and in place thereof on each 
farm is found the Durham, Devon, Hereford, Holstein, or bright- 
eyed Jersey, and for hogs, the Berkshire, Poland-China, and an 
occasional Chester White. 

John Williams of Harris Grove, Benj. Moore of Dunlap, Mr. 
Silsby of Jackson, Samuel Baird of Dunlap, Fred Luce of Logan, 
S. A. Roach of Missouri Valley, James Roberts of Lincoln, 
J. C. Briggs of Missouri Valley, are at present the representa- 
tive horsemen of the county. The small breeds in use in 1860 
have been entirely supplanted by the larger class. Mr. Williams 
has been very successful in introducing the large Norman, and 
in the sale thereof has found the business more remunerative 
than at first anticipated. 

Mr. Samuel Baird has given strict attention to the breeding of 
the Morgan trotting stock, and at present is possessed of a very 
superior trotter, which up to the present has only begun to make 
her mark. 

Mr. Silsby and Mr. C. F. Luse each possesses a very magnificent 
horse of the Cleveland Bay stock, which for beauty, far leads all 
else. These animals cost $1,000 each, and though not the 
strongest or swiftest, yet they are marvels for beauty and docility. 


In the early days of the settlement, was thought quite impossible 
from the fact that but few succeeded in the enterprise, but as 
they who have learned from experience refer back to the manner 
in which this industry was attempted by themselves or others, 
are not surprised that there was quite a total failure in the 
undertaking. The trees which then were experimented upon 
were brought from a long distance, and the means then at hand 
for transportation caused the young trees to be so exposed to the 
air that they were dead and fit for kindling wood before being 
re-set in the ground. Another mishap was that they who were 
attempting to grow an orchard, were at the same time raising a 


herd of young mules or horses, and there never yet has been an 
individual who could successfully grow an orchard and a herd of 
mules in the same enclosure. The old rule that the stronger 
subdues and roots out the weaker held good in this case, for the 
long-eared non-multiplying mule withered the blast and like 
Pharoah's lean kine, swallowed up the other. 

Mr. John A. McKinney (now deceased) who while in the flesh 
resided in Harris Grove, was the first successful apple grower in 
the county. As early as 1860 he set out an orchard of the 
healthiest young trees he could obtain, and in the care of the 
same exercised his best judgment, and demonstrated to the 
people of the west that apples could be as readily grown here as 
elsewhere. The trees transplanted by him put on an enormous 
growth each year, occasioned by the richness and porosity of 
the soil, and to remedy this extraordinary growth, the soil at and 
around the roots of each tree was packed as solid, by the use 
of maul or other instruments, as could be done, and as a sequence, 
the trees at the commencement of the cold season were so hard- 
ened, that the frost of the winter did not kill them. This mode 
of treatment also put the trees to bearing, and from that time 
on his trees bore splendidly. 

Concurrent with Mr. McKinney, in the same neighborhood, 
were Mr. William Tucker, Mr. James Henderson, Mr. James 
Rogers and Mr. William Daken, and six or ten miles to the north- 
west of these Hon. Phineas Cadwell and Elijah Palmer of Big- 
lers' Grove, Mr. Patrick Morrow, a resident of the Soldier Val- 
ley, and Josiah Crom, then residing near the old town of Mag- 
nolia. These gentlemen all had full faith in the productive quali- 
ties of this soil and climate, in the matter of the successful 
growing of fruit, and by persistent efforts demonstrated that 
this was emphatically a fruit growing country. 

In 1863 there were only 101 bearing trees and 4,424 not bear- 
ing trees in the limits of the county, and from this small show- 
ing the same territory in 1884 possessed 31,194 apple bearing 


trees, then yielding 27,410 bushels. At no time in the history of 
the county has there ever been any yield so abundant as the year 
of 1887, nor could the quality be surpassed in any place. The 
yield of apples within this county for the last year named will 
not fall short of 40,000 bushels, while the varieties and quality 
equal if not surpass any in the United States. 

At the Harrison County Fair, held at Missouri Valley in Oc- 
tober, 1887, the exhibition of apples, cherries, grapes, plums, etc., 
the production of Harrison county orchard and garden, while 
not equal in quantity to that on exhibition the same year at Des 
Moines, during the State Fair, nevertheless very many who 
compared the qualities at both places, unhesitatingly said that 
the exhibition of the product of this county surpassed any on 
exhibition at the State Fair. 

Thp successful orchardists of the county at the present- are 
Capt. Geo. S. Bacon of Magnolia, who at the present has nearly 
3,500 bearing trees; John W. Wood of the same township, with 
a magnificent young orchard in fine bearing condition; John 
Williams, James Rogers, H. V. Armstrong, James Henderson 
and William Tucker, of Harris Grove; John T. Coffman and 
numerous others, of Raglan; D. F. Eaton, J. B. Akers, Hiram 
Smith, Dr. J. H. Rice, all near Magnolia; Col. F. W. Hart, J. H. 
M. Edwards, James McCoid and Henry Reel, in the near vicinity 
of Logan; H. B. Cox, and a vast number of others, near Missouri 
Valley; Mr. Wads worth, at Calhoun; Mr. Henry DeCou and the 
Pugsley Brothers, Mr. Jas. H. Farnsworth, and an innumerable 
number of others that time forbids to mention. All produce 
a large quantity of apples per year; and the citizens of the county 
are no longer necessitated to send to Missouri or Michigan for 
this luxury. The names above given only designate the princi- 
pal apple-growers at this date, while there are hundreds of others 
who not only produce a sufificiency for their own use, but have 
parts of their crops for sale. 

During the fall of 1887, Captain Bacon shipped quite a large 


quantity of the product of his orchard to Des Moines, from the 
fact, as was stated by him, that his fruit was the finest to be 
found in the market at that place. 

The leading sorts, or varieties, of standard apple trees which 
weather the blast and land, at last in good shape, in the spring, 
are the following, viz. : 

Summer Apples — Astraehan, red; Benoni, Duchess of Olden- 
burg, Early Harvest and Pennoek, Fourth of July, Golden Sweet, 
Keswick Codlin, Red June, and Sops of Wine. 

Autumn Apples — Baily Sweet, Strawberry, Fameuse, Maiden's 
Blush, Rambo, Twenty-ounce, and Wealthy. 

Winter Apples — Dominie, English Golden Russet, Golden 
Pippin, Janet or Janeton, Jonathan, Limber Twig, Ben Davis, 
Northern Spy, Perry Russet, Utter's Large Red, Seek-no-further, 
Willow Twig and Winesap. 

,These have been well tried by the most competent orchardists 
and pronounced to be the hardiest and best varieties for this soil 
and climate. 

Of all the varieties last above named, none are as profitable to 
the grower as the Ben Davis, from the fact that this variety is a 
vigorous grower, hardy, and withal a splendid bearer. While 
it is conceded that the Ben Davis apple, when compared to the 
majority of those herein named, bears the same comparison 
thereto as does the old-fashioned, large, red Irish potatoe, to the 
Pink-eye, Early Rose, etc., yet there is a charm in the appear- 
ance of this apple which never fails to procure a purchaser. '^ 

Some of the readers may think that the above figures, of 
40,000 bushels of apples, the product of the county for the year 
1887, somewhat strained, but a moment's reflection will convince 
the most skeptical that the statement is very nearly correct, from 
the fact that one man alone, viz. : Capt. Bacon, gathered from his 
orchard 5,000 of winter and 1,000 bushels of autumn apples — 
this being one-seventh, there can be no question but that the 
remainder of the orchards in the county produce the other six- 


sevenths. These 5,000 bushels selling at |1.00 per bushel for the 
winter, and the 1,000 autumn at 75 cents per bushel, makes a 
very entertaining revenue to the owner. 

The cherry is a perfect success, and in 188i there were 3,795 
bearing trees, furnishing a yield of 1,312 bushels. 

Grapes are as easily raised as corn. What I wish to say, is 
this: that but little effort in the way of transplanting of slips is 
needed, and when once in the ground, the same care given to 
them as should be given to the corn, assures a vigorous, healthy 
growth. This county in the year 1884, produced 134,468 pounds 
of grapes, equal to 672 tons. 

Plums are natural, and make themselves at home in the soil 
here as if they had existed soon after Noah's flood. The Miner, 
Wild Goose, and divers other varieties bear splendidly. Thirty 
years last past, there could be found among the thickets of wild 
plum trees more than fifty different varieties, and of such size 
and flavor as cannot be had at this day and date. Many times 
those of the freestone quality, and as large as peaches, could be 
found, then a deep red plum, as round as an unhulled wialnut, 
and equal the latter in size. These varieties have all yielded to 
the prairie fires, or the equally unmerciful breaking plow. 


Through the politeness of Mr. Jacob T. Stern, of Logan, Iowa, 
I am furnished with a report of the average rainfall and tem- 
perature of each year, from 1860 to 1885, of this county, for 
which I at this time tender him my sincere thanks. 

In 1860, Mr. Stern, then a resident on Lynnwood farm, 
in Harris Grove, in this county, was appointed by the Smith- 
sonian Institute to keep a record of the rainfall and temperature 
of this locality and report the same to that institution, once per 
month, which Mr. Stern promptly performed until this business 
was taken out of the hands of the aforesaid institution by the 
War Department, since which time Father Stern has been con- 



tinned in position and reported as formerly, once per month, to 
the proper officer. When Mr. Stern first took upon himself this 
task, there was not another station west of Des Moines, which 
status continued for more than ten years. This business of keep- 
a record of the rainfall and temperature of each year, was done 
by Mr. Stern for his own satisfaction and the reporting thereof 
to the Smithsonian Institute and War Department, an act pro 
bono publico, and like the old gospel plan of salvation, without 
money and without price. 

I take great pride in having the privilege of inserting this 
report herein, from the fact that there is not another report of 
this character of any county west of Des Moines, nor can there 
be, because no such record was kept. 


1861—26. inchea 4S.O80 














45. 40 

47. 67 

48. 00 

49. 90 
47. '50 
45. 50 
45. 85 

45. 53 

47. 42 

48. 60 

46. 10 
46. 80 
48. 44 









18'i3— 39.9 



Av. 84.6 

inches 44.°41 

" 46. 88 

•■ 49. 41 

" 53. 80 

" 49. 89 

" 50. 55 

" 49. 77 

" 50. 48 

" 48. 53 

" 48. 80 

" 48. 00 

Av. 48.0 



It has long been supposed that this part, as well as all of Iowa, 
was inhabited by a race of people prior to the time of its occu- 
pancy by the Indian or red race. Some suppose that this people 
were the mound builders, from the fact that there exists at this day 
very many mounds in different parts of the county possessing a 
wonderful degree of preservation. These mounds have a uni- 
form diameter and all measure quite the same height, or so nearly 
so, that unless resort was had to actual measurement every be- 
holder would be compelled to say that they were all constructed 
after the same pattern. The length of time intervening since 
these were constructed is unknown to the oldest settler, for they 
who have lived in the immediate neighborhoods of these say 
that there has not been within the last thirty-seven years the 
least perceptible change in the appearance of either and that at 
the present they are the same as they were when first ,seen 
by the present whites. When built and by whom, neither 
record, memory nor tradition informs us of the present, but it is 
improbable to suppose that they are the handiwork of nature, 
from the fact there would have been some of them located in 
places not commanding the most magnificent views of the entire 
surrounding country; for be it known that not one of all these 
mounds, observatories or burial places exists, without possessing 
a most magnificent view of the surrounding country. Nature, 
in the exhibition of her freaks of fancy, would not have selected 
on each occasion these prominent bluff points. Some contend 
that these were used as observatories; others advance the opin- 
ion that they are the ruins of sodhouses, built in the long ago, and 



•were constructed in a circular form and were drawn in, layer by 
layer, until the top or orifice, at the top, left sufiScient space for 
the escape of smoke; while others, seemingly as sanguine, con- 
tend that these are the burial places of the illustrious dead of 
some Indian tribe, or some former race ante-dating the Indian. 

The two largest and most imposing groups of these are located 
as follows: The first on the farm formerly owned by Mr. Wm. 
McDonald, near the old town of Calhoun; here ttere are six 
mounds, each ninety feet in diameter and quite fifteen feet 
in height, and all in a direct line running north and south, and 
from fifteen to twenty rods apart. The oth^r bevy is on the 
farm of Mr. A. W. Locklin, north of those just mentioned, and 
located on section 7, township 79, range 43. In this row there 
are twelve of same size and of identical appearance as those on 
the McDonald farm, and are in a row north and south direct, 
having the same space intervening. These last named are the 
most imposing group in the county, for at and near this place, 
in a ravine or hollow near by, numerous stone hatchets, stone 
sledges, pieces of pottery of a make unknown at the present, as 
well as curious specimens of copper, ornamental tools or instru- 
ments, have been found at the depth of twenty-four and more 
feet from the surface of the soil. 

The specimens of pottery taken from this ravine last named 
are apparently formed by the following method, viz.: the centre 
of the same is composed of fine gravel cemented together, then 
a thin layer of earthen substance, and this, without any glazing 
process, is burned, so that the qualities of the same for preserv- 
ing fluids from escaping therefrom is in the inside of the mater- 
ial, rather than on the outside, as is the custom of the present 
day. These present the appearance of dishes, small skillets, 
drinking cups and jars. At the same place, just between the res- 
dence of Mr. H. H. Locklin and his father Mr. A. W. Locklin, 
the spring rain, freshets and atmospheric action, have excavated 
or gouged out a gully in the bill, and on the 10th day of May, 


1888, at the bottom of this washout, and twenty-five feet from 
the surface of the earth, a well preserved cedar tree was found, 
some twenty inches in diameter, and immediately over this stood 
a large white oak tree, at least four feet in diameter, not less 
than one thousand years old. Near the same cedar was a number 
of old buffalo skulls which had washed out of the banks, having 
been buried in the ground fifteen feet or more. Where did this 
cedar come from, and how long has it been taking a " Rip Van- 
Winkle" nap? ' 

The oak above referred to, without question, has made its 
growth since the burial of the cedar, and the animal skeletons 
could only have place by artificial burial, since the growth of 
the tree, or else have had place there before the growing of this 
king of the forest. A son of Mr. H. H. Locklin has in his pos- 
session the under jaw-bone of some animal of wonderful size 
found in this same place. This bone only represents the one 
side, is four feet long, with three grinding teeth and one tooth 
in front, of the tearing kind. The grinders are three inches by 
two and a half on the cap or crown, and the front tooth is quite 
three inches in width by quite one in thickness. Near the same 
place where these mounds last spoken of are located, Mr. P. R. 
Shupe, who resides adjoining the farm of Mr. Locklin, in the 
spring of 1886, while plowing in the field of Mr. Locklin, and at 
a locality quite near the mounds, thought he recognized his plow 
striking a stone or some other hard substance, and being of an 
inquiring disposition, went to the house, got a spade and dug down 
into the earth about eighteen inches and found a sort of furnace 
constructed of bricks. These bricks were six inches by six 
inches and two inches think, burned to a deep red, and hard as 
any of the hardest brick of the present age. This furnace was 
three feet by two and a half and ran up to the height of four 
feet. How did this come there, is the query of the neighbor- 
hood, from the fact that Mr. Locklin has lived upon this farm 
for the last thirty-five years, was the first settler thereon, and 


no person could have placed the same there unless the same 
would have been known to him, and besides no such bricks 
were ever manufactured in the county, unless within the last 
year, paving brick have been so manufaeted. There can be no 
question that these bricks have laid hidden in the earth at this 
place for the last forty years, and how much greater period of 
time each can guess for himself. 

An old Indian trail passed withiij twenty feet of both of these 
groups, being on the east side thereof, and so constantly had 
been the travel Ihereon, that in 1848 the little path was worn 
into the soil six to ten inches. 

There are two mounds in section 35, township 80, range 44, in 
Raglan township, which are of the same as last described; each 
in a direct line north and south, and located at the highest point 
on the bluff, which possess the grandest view of the surrounding 
country in that immediate neighborhood. Standing on either 
of these, all the country to the west, northwest and south lies 
spread out to the view of the beholder, and furnishes such a vast- 
ness of territory that the eye tires in trying to mark the swells 
of prairie, the belts of timber that intervene, until all mellow 
down into lines of light and shadow. 

It these mounds were used as places for burial, unquestionably 
some noted old warrior had signalized himself in some conspicu- 
ous battle, and had been accorded a burial like the triumphs 
given the old Roman Generals, when returning with the laurels 
of victory. The opinion which seems to find the greater support 
is this: that these mounds were ruins of sod-houses, such as were 
constructed by the Omahas, for there are yet persons residing in 
our midst who have seen the sod-houses of this tribe, and from 
their description little doubt remains as to the former use of 
these ruins, which are so nume rous and of which so little, at the 
present, is known. 

Perhaps the most noted mounds in all the neighborhoods are 
those in or upoa the farm of Mr. Jesse J, Peck, near the line of 


Harrison county on the north, in Monona county. Here are 
three separate, distinct mounds, which are situate some two hun- 
dred yards from the bluffs, on the west side or west bank of the 
Soldier river, and are of such dimensions as to eclipse any on the 
bluffs in Harrison county. At the locus of these they seem sev- 
ered from the bluff, and are so situate that it is hard to conjec- 
ture the purpose and intent of their construction. These evi- 
dently were not the handiwork of the Creator, but unquestion- 
ably give evidence of human workmanship, for at the place 
where the same are located, the Soldier bottoms are nearly one 
mile in width, three-fourths of this distance being on the right 
or west bank. These at the base, at the present, are quite two 
hundred feet in diameter and thirty feet in height, presenting 
an appearance as uniform as though the same had been made by 
the deposit of earth at these places by human hands. As in all 
other mounds in the county, they possess the finest status for 
an extended view of the country that could possibly be selected. 

On the farm of Mr. D. W. Kennedy, in section 3, township 
79, range 42, on Six Mile Creek, in Jefferson township, there is 
a large mound which has been the wonder of the people of the 
county for the last forty years. This, though the very largest 
in the county, presents, as is the case of all others, such appear- 
ances as beyond doubt convince the beholder that the same is 
not the natural condition in which the surface of the land was 
left by unseen agencies, but was the result of the labor of human 

Could men, in the rush and hurly-burly of life, spare sufficient 
time by which to explore these different mounds, much might 
be learned as to the origin thereof; but so long as the Almighty 
Dollar is the objective point, and the capture of this the entire 
business of life, there is little care as to what race of persons 
constructed this or that mound, so long as it is known that there 
is not a dollar hid beneath their surface. 

Some of the most notable implements that have fallen into 


the possession of the present residents of this county are now 
before me, and can be described as follows, viz.: Stone sledges, 
hatchets, darts of stone, spear heads, stone ripping or butchering 
knives, and stone troughs used for the purpose of pulverizing or 
mashing corn or other articles of food. Here is a stone sledge, 
weighing exactly eight pounds, and a stone hatchet, both found on 
the farm of Mr. James Henderson, a short distance from Read- 
ers' Mills. As above stated, the stone hammer weighs exactly 
eight pounds, and is as justly balanced as any made by the most 
skillful worker in iron of the present age. This is made out of 
the hard flint stone, like unto that which is seen so frequently 
on the surface of the soil in the central or eastern part of the 
State, and instead of having an eye for the helve, has a large 
groove cut entirely around it in the middle, to the width of one 
and one-half inch and to the depth of half an inch. 

This groove served the same purpose as does the eye to the 
modern sledge hammer; was the way by which the helve was 
attached to the implement; for those who have lived thirty-six 
or more years in the county say at and about the time they first 
settled here, they often found these stone hammers or hatchets, 
with the helve attached thereto, in the following manner: the 
helve nicely fitted in a groove and the smaller ends of the same 
so skillfully knotted and fastened to the helve that this handle 
was as firmly fastened to the sledge or hatchet as it could be done 
in the modern way of placing the helve in the eye. The hatchet 
is of the same material as the sledge, and is a little beauty, 
weighing six and one-fourth ounces, and polished as smoothly 
as the monument in the modern graveyard. These, just de- 
scribed, belong to a collection of Dr. J. L. Witt, of Logan. 
Three other sledges are in my possession; one presented me by 
Lehi Ellison, of Cass township; one by Mr. Snyder, ex-County 
Surveyor, and the other by Benj. Purcell, jr., of Boyer township. 
These are the same as the one last described, but vary a little in 


•weight and finish; there being two of them which indicate that 
they have seen hard service at some time in the far past. 

Mr. Henry Young, residing one mile north of Logan, presents 
me a stone hatchet vrhich he found twenty years ago in a spring 
of water, in a grove of timber near town, known as the Reel's 
Grove. This is one pound three ounces heavier than the one be- 
longing to Dr. Witt, yet, in every respect, suggests that it was 
hewn from the same rock and chipped out by the same or similar 
hands. The one last mentioned is five and one-half inches in 
length, with the groove within one-half inch of the poll, the 
sides nicely rounded and the outer parts concave. 

Prof. J. D. Hornby has called my attention to one of his col- 
lection, in all respects similar to those above named, except that 
it is a medium in size. I have in my possession sixteen speci- 
mens of the sledge and hatchet variety, all varying in size, and 
some very handsome specimens of handiwork; but the most 
peculiar and curious evidence of past conditions that has met my 
observation, is in the nature of a stone mortar found on the 
farm of Pierson Vore, in Harris Grove, in 1852. This is a cavity 
scooped out of a flint stone fifteen inches in thickness, eighteen ' 
and twenty-eight inches in length and width. This cavity is of 
the depth of six inches, being an oblong — and Ipoking a little 
like an old-time sugar trough. This has unquestionably seen 
hard service as a mortar, in which corn and other articles for 
food were cracked or pulverized by pestle or stone sledge. 

In the autumn of 1887, while workmen were excavating the 
surface of a parcel of ground preparatory to the laying of a 
foundation for a dwelling house on the very point of the bluff in 
the southwest of Logan, they at the distance of two feet from 
the surface exhumed the skeletons of six persons, whose bones 
indicated that they were of the Indian race. This place has been 
occupied by Mr. Henry Reel since 1852, and, not to his recollec- 
tion, neither to the memory of the oldest inhabitant, had ever 
any person or persons been buried at this particular place. The 


skull of the larger, as well as the skeletons of all of the six, unmis- 
takably showed that the Indian features were very pronounced. In 
this grave, or graves, at the same time was found a stone butcher 
or ripping knife, exactly six inches in length, at the widest place 
two and three-quarters inches, at no part thicker than one-fourth 
of an inch, and on the edge, nearly equidistant, two niches are 
cut so as to fasten the same to the handle. This is of the same 
flinty material as all the arrow-heads so often found in all parts 
of this county and the northern states. Whether these mounds 
were built by the Aztec, Toltec, Mound-builders or the Indian is 
not known. Each individual is left, as heretofore stated, to form 
his own conclusions. The stone sledges, hatchets and darts may 
have been the implements of war or those which were carried in 
the chase by the Indians, but of what date none can form any 
accurate opinion. The opinion finds as much credence, that the 
stone sledges were part and parcel of the Indian war club, as that 
they were only used for the purpose of mashing the corn or other 
edibles, and if used as the business end of the war club, a friend 
at my elbow thanks the good Lord that he was not born until 
the disappearance of these barbarians. 

Great doubts exist in the minds of the present residents of the 
county as to which tribe of Indians occupied these lands up to 
and until the time of the first settlement in 1847. Some claim 
that this was the hunting grounds of the Pottawattamies, others 
the Omahas, and by others, who are equally sanguine, that here 
the war-like Sioux followed the retreating deer, or woed and won 
his dusky maid. 

This county being nearer to the southwestern corner of the 
state than that of the northwestern, would be really within the 
territory belonging to the Pottawattamies, because in June of 
1846, the Pottawattamies relinquished all of their rights to their 
reservation in southwestern Iowa- and removed west of the Mis- 
souri river. 

The ever treacherous Sioux retained and occupied the north- 


western part of the state until 1853, and the Omahas on the 
west side of the Missouri river, having as their central east- 
ern border the site on which the city of Omaha is now located, 
up to and until 1854. 

At frequent intervals since 1849, disintegrated parts of the 
Omahas and Pottawattamies have hunted and fished in this 
county, and from them it is learned that at some time during the 
forties the Omahas and Pottawattamies banded together, met and 
fought a severe and protracted battle with the Sioux at and near 
the Smith lake, within two miles of the village of Little Sioux. 

The question then between these belligerent tribes, was the 
boundary question, the Pottawattamies claiming that the Little 
Sioux river was the boundary between them and the Sioux 
and that the latter had trespassed on the hunting grounds 
belonging to them, which 'resulted in the Sioux exterminating a 
party of Pottawattamie braves, whom they caught unexpectedly 
on the banks of the Soldier not far from the present residence 
of Freely Myers, near the present site of Calhoun. This so ex- 
asperated the Pottawattamies that they procured the assistance 
of the Omahas. The two tribes thus joining their* fortunes and 
strength, marched against the Sioux when the two armies met as 
above stated near the Smith Lake and fought the battle to a finish, 
in which the Sioux were badly whipped and forever relinquished 
all claim to the territory on the right bank of the Little Sioux 
river. This statement, though legendary, nevertheless finds 
confirmation in the present fact that all along the bluffs on 
the left bank of the Smith Lake, at each recurring year, numer- 
ous skeletons of the Indian, by the action of the winds and rain, 
protrude from the surface of the bluff. 

American history has no more mournful page than that of 
the gradual disappearance of the Indians, the first proprietors of 
the soil. This disappearance in civilized America is unique, uni- 
form, sorrowful and natural. This land, as before stated, was 
possessed by the Indian; the buffalo, elk and deer were his herds, 


partaking of his nature and participating in his nomadic habits. 
The bear, panther and wolf prowled around his wigwam until 
the Indian made friends with the wolf, and imparted to him a 
domestication wonderfully like his own. 

The pony, wild as the Indian, served him well in the chase. ' 
The wild apple, plum and grape, with those other fruits that 
disappear upon. the approach of the plow and other implements 
of culture, afforded to the Indian his pleasant summer sweets 
and acids, and here the wild man, the wild fruits and 
beasts lived and flourished together. But when the white 
man came, before him the enchanting dream of perpetual 
dominion fled as a vision forever. The buffalo heard the 
peculiar strange sound of the voice of the white man, and 
moved his herds as an army stampeding from an enemy. The 
Indian saw his herds retreating from him and mounted his pony — 
the reason was natural — the Indian's food was in the buffalo, 
deer and elk, and his clothing upon them. 

Everything since then is changed. The rosin-weed has given 
place to the corn-field, the natural grasses have been choked out 
by the timothy, clover and blue grass ; the crab apple has 
yielded to the Rambo, Pippin and Jonathan; the wild sour grape, 
that clambered to the pinnacle of the great trees, or grew in such 
abundance in swamps, has been supplanted by the Concord and 
Catawba ; there has been a change in the animal domestics; the 
Durham, the Devonshire, Jersey, the Alderney and the Hereford 
now peacefully graze, perchance, on the same spot where form- 
erly the buffalo grazed and rested and fatted in peace. In place 
of the diminutive mustang, the blooded Morgan, Conestoga 
and Percheron Clydesdales fill the stalls'; the herds of wander- 
ing deer are of the past, and are only reproduced by the flocks 
of the more timid harmless sheep. 

Greater has been the change in the popular habitations. The 
wigwam and lodge, the shelter of leaves and caves in the earth, 
have given away to the neatly furnished cottage and spacious 


mansions, as the abiding home oi culture and industry. A 
change also in the education, keeping step to the music of the 
times; the war-dance and the chase have been superseded by 
schools and colleges and universities. 

The religion of the first possessors, which caused the Indian 
woman to stand in dread of the medicine man and the prophet 
of her tribe, and held her child as the offspring of fate, and wor- 
shiped in the gloomy rites of the Great Spirit; now the white 
woman bears her child to the temple of the living God, and 
lays him a sacrifice upon the altar of Christ in baptism. These 
people are no longer a proud nation, with the history of their 
warriors preserved in the belt of wampum and repeated on the 
battle field, but are melting away in numbers more rapidly than 
their history is fading from recollection; nothing to perpetuate 
their memories unless a dreamy vocabulary upon which to found 
a tradition or amplify a legend. 

Nature is itself destructive, and produces only to destroy, and 
measures her power to produce by her capacity to destroy. To 
this law man is no exception to the general rule. The fish eats' 
the worm, the snake eats the fish, the swine eats the snake and 
man eats the swine. Men destroy each other until the first victim, 
the worm, eats the man, and finally the worm imitates the ex- 
ample of the man and devours each other. In this fearful circle 
of destruction, nature produces, destroys, reproduces and again 
destroys herself. When the final ending of this race will be, is 
only a conjecture, but at furthest it is not far in the future; they, 
like the herds upon which they subsisted, melt away, and will 
soon be lost forever. Now driven to the eastern base or beyond 
the " Rockies," and perhaps within the next two or three score 
of years, forced into the unfathomable wave of the placid Pacific, 
shows that but little now remains of that great, brave and war- 
like people of two and a half centuries ago. 

For full three centuries the encroachments of the white man 
upon the Indian has been aggressive and augured the extinction 


of the red race. Where the Caucasian first begged a place to 
pitch his tent, as a refuge from persecution, a system of espion- 
age and larceny and unexampled cruelty has characterized his 
every step. At first a mendicant, then an equal, then a usurper; 
and while they who took pity on the poor wanderers were being 
driven from the Hudson, from the Monongahela and the Alle- 
gheny slopes, the Mingo Flats, the Tygart Valley, the Mus- 
kingum and the Scioto, the Miami and Wabash, constantly on to 
the westward until the Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are 
reached, rivers that reach out their hands and gather up the 
waters of the lakes, hold up the snow of the mountains to the 
sun until rivers, streams and rivulets gather from the extremi- 
ties of an almost unbounded land and water, and replenish a 
country more varied and productive than the valley of the Nile 
— on, on toward the setting of the sun. Surely the grandeur, 
glory and heroism of their nation is no more. 

The Indian graves so frequently found now in the county 
were, without question the former burial place of the dead of 
both Pottawattamie and Omaha, from the fact that the Omahas 
in selecting burial places, chose the point of land affording the 
broadest expanse of observation in the neighborhood of the then 
locus of the tribe or part of tribe. This is instanced in the burial 
of Blackbird, the chief of the Omahas, at the place where Omaha 
now stands, who, prior to the time of his death, requested that 
when he died, he should be taken down to the Missouri river, 
his favorite resort, and then be taken to the pinnacle of the 
towering bluff, placed on his milk-white war horse, the horse 
being alive and there buried, as it were, by surface burial, 
so (as he expressed it) he might see the Frenchmen passing 
up and down the Missouri river in their boats. Accord- 
ing to his request, the ceremony took place in the pres- 
ence of the whole nation and several of the fur traders and 
Indian agents. The body was placed astride of the horse and the 
dead man's bow was placed in his hands, his shield and quiver 


slung, and his scalps hung from the bridle. He was provided 
with flint and steel and tinder to light his pipe, and dried meat 
for food on his journey through the happy hunting ground to 
the shades of the fathers. His head was surmounted by a head 
dress of war eagles' plumes. Then, when the funeral honors had 
been performed by the medicine men, every warrior painted the 
the palm and fingers of his right hand with vermillion and im- 
pressed them on the milk-white sides of the living horse under- 
neath the dead chief. Sods were next placed around the feet and 
legs of the horse, and then gradually up its sides, until the whole 
of its body was entombed, and even the eagle plumes of the chief 
were hidden by this manner of burial. This mound was plainly 
visible at Omaha in 1856 and 1857, and for a long time there- 
after, and the place is still known as Blackbird's grave. 

The mounds in Raglan and the burial place at the point 
of the bluff at the southwest of Logan and on the Locklin 
farm are without doubt those of the Omahas, because in the 
latter, as heretofore stated, the arrow-points, darts and toma- 
hawks, indicate the manner of burial as illustrated in the burial 
of Bluebird, the great chief of the Omahas. 

The Pottawattamies practiced tree or scaffold burial, for to the 
memory of some who are yet in the flesh in the county, as well 
as the aflBrmation of the same subject by Mr. Daniel Brown, Mr. 
Amos Chase and Robert Neely, who have in the last decade 
passed away, to their own knowledge and observation, tree and 
scaSbld burial was practiced by the Pottawattamies in 1849 
and 1850. In this character of burial, the corpse was well 
encased in buffalo robes and blankets, these bound about with 
thongs of sinews so as to prevent the robe shroud from being 
unloosened by wind or rain, and when thus enrobed the body 
was carried high up and placed in the crotch of some old mon- 
arch of the forest. 

The scaffold burial was quite the same as the former in the 
way of the preparation of the corpse, but instead of being lodged 


in tjie crotch of a tree, stout posts or poles, with forked ends, 
were set in the ground, and upon these a flooring of poles was 
laid. On this the body of the deceased was laid, and near by were 
placed buckets containing water and baskets containing food, so 
as to furnish sustenance for the departed while journeying over 
the happy hunting ground to meet the Great Spirit. These men 
have informed me, that in this rude and peculiar character of 
burial, there was as much real and genuine grief exhibited by the 
near relatives as is now manifest by those who are denominated 
the Christian and superior race. These vessels and baskets would 
be by the mother, father, brother or sister replenished from day 
to day with as great degree of earnestness and fidelity as if the 
deceased was in fact in need of the rations so regularly and copi- 
ously offered. This would continue until decomposition had 
taken place to such an extent that nothing was left remaining 
but the skeleton, and this remained until decay and time had 
wrought such changes that the entire mummy and surroundings 
returned again to earth — earth to earth and ashes to ashes. 

In the winter of 1851, at and near the school-house, where Jas. 
B. McCurley taught school in Harris Grove, there was a large 
tree, and in the forks of the same there appeared to be a large 
stick of wood, about the length of cord-wood; this, when re- 
moved from the tree, was found to be hollow, having been split 
to halves and the inside scooped out, and when finished so as to 
suit the fancy of the person making the same, these halves were 
replaced and put back into the same position as at first, with this 
exception, that in the hollow of this trunk there had been depos- 
ited the lifeless remains of some Indian mother's idol. This, 
when opened at the date last named, possessed the skeleton of a 
little child. 

It is traditioned among the Omahas, that at one period of time, 
within the memory of their old men, all that land lying and 
being between the bluffs on the Iowa side and the bluffs on the 
Nebraska side was covered with water; that at that time the 


entire Missouri bottoms were one vast lake; that the Missouri 
river then had no channel, and the Indians could pass in the 
summer season from the bluffs of the Iowa side to the bluffs on 
the Nebraska side on horseback. This, at some time in the past, 
was undoubtedly true, but whether within the limits of this 
present century may reasonably be questioned. There must have 
been a channel to the Missouri river in 1804, for at that date 
Lewis and Clark ascended the said river to its head- waters; vis- 
ited the western borders of Iowa; landed at a point a few miles 
below Sioux City, and buried at that time one of their comrades, 
Sergeant Floyd, in the bluff at that place, still possessing his 
name, Sergeant's Bluffs. 

Among the numerous bands of Winnebagoes that, for fishing 
purposes, yearly cluster around Smith's Lake, to which the read- 
er's attention has been heretofore called, there existed a belief 
that this lake was the place of incarceration of the Evil Spirit, 
and that from the bottom of this there are subterranean cause- 
ways which lead to and from the abode of the Evil One, whereby 
his Satanic majesty is at pleasure permitted to put in an appear- 
ance at such times as best suits his fancy and convenience. At 
many times these Indians have imagined that they have seen this 
monster, and immediately on such appearance they flee the 
country, telling the resident whites the cause of their violent 
and tempestuous haste. By this means the residents of the 
neighborhood have learned this tradition, and some have been 
even sufficiently credulous to believe the same, illustrating the 
old maxim, that no matter how improbable and foolish the story, 
some would be found superstitious enough to believe it. 

Apropos, this strange story coming to the ears of two young 
divines of the village, they repaired to the lake to fish, and while 
there saw some huge fish or animal playfully sporting in the 
water of the lake; they immediately left the scene and reported 
what had been seen by them, whereupon a young doctor and 
two friends from Mondamin, sought the lake so that they too 


miglit see the "spirit of hell or gobliu damned," and leaving one 
of their number on the bank on a cotton wood log to guard the 
baggage, the others took boat and cruised for sight of the mon- 
ster. While the lone sentinel was keeping watch and guard the 
monster appears to the guard on the cottonwood log, and is 
described by him as follows, as well as the manner and weapons 
he used to save his life : 

* " How long I watched and waited I do not know, but all at 
once my attention was attracted by a wonderful commotion in 
the waters of the lake. I could see by the light of the moon 
and stars a huge monster which in appearance I can only com- 
pare to one of those Enaliosaurian reptiles of Mesozoic times. 

" It could not have been less than one hundred and fifty feet 
in length, and seemed to be half serpent and half lizard, with 
huge arms and hands like a man. After lashing the waters of 
the lake into a soapy foam and playing around for some time it 
swam directly for the log on which I was sitting. Its move- 
ments were very rapid. My heart stopped beating when I felt 
the monster's hot breath in my face. Grabbing for a revolver 
that I had ready, my hand first struck the quart bottle, and as I 
had no time to waste I hurled it down the monster's throat with 
all the energy that fear gives the human arm. The beast stop- 
ped, gagged, and was evidently choking, and while it seemed to 
be undergoing its death throes, sought safety in flight. In the 
morning we three went to the log expecting to find the serpent 
dead, but it was gone. We found the bottle which had been 
vomited up, and with it partly digested bologna sausage, cheese, 
sardines and watermelon seeds." 

The above article appeared in the columns of The Logan 
Observer, of date of September 1, 1887, and is inserted here 
to show on what fickle and flimsy basis tradition rests. 

On the morning of April 7th of the present year, Mr. Charles 
Smith, on going to the bank of this lake, within a few rods of his 

*The above is from the racy pen of Dr. MoFarlane of Mondamin. 


home, noticed a large, apparently bloated body lying near the bank 
and thinking that one of his yearlings had drowned, shored the 
same and found it to be the carcass of a very large fish. Its 
size far exceeded any ever seen or taken in the waters of the 
Missouri, and the presence thereof caused no little excitement in 
the neighborhood. It was of the spoon-bill-cat specie, was 
twenty inches across the forehead, six feet ten inches in length 
and would have weighed 200 pounds. This, unquestionably was 
the fish which had created so much excitement in the neighbor- 
hood, and in a few years would have been large enough to take 
in another fleeing, disobedient Jonah. 


In 1848-9, and to 1855, were well marked, and at even a later 
date, could be easily distinguished. The first of these trails to 
'which I will call attention, is one which followed up the divide 
near the old traveled road from Harris Grove to Crescent City, 
in Pottwattamie county; this, in the center of Harris Grove, was 
intersected by one which followed up the divide, reaching down 
to the farm of Joe Hills at the brow of the bluffs on the Mis- 
souri bottoms, on the north line of the county last named. This 
trail followed up Harris Grove creek on the east bank, crossing 
the little creek last named, near three-fourths of a mile east of 
the place now known as Reeder's Mills, thence in a northwest- 
erly direction to Elk Grove; then a little north of east to Six- 
mile Grove, crossing Six-mile creek a little west of the farm of 
Mr. Jason Hunt (the same on which Mr. Hunt has nearly con- 
stantly resided for the past thirty-three years); thence to a little 
grove, formerly known as Braden's Grove; thence to Twelve- 
mile Grove, crossing the farm of Mr. Matthew Hall, as well as 
the farm of old Mr. Mefibrd; thence crossing the Picayune 
creek, near or quite at the place where Mr. Samuel De Cou now 
resides and possesses so handsome a farm; rising the divide from 
the place last named, the trail parted into three directions, one 
to Bee-tree Grove, one to Coon Grove and the other direct to 


Galland's Grove, ia Shelby county. At and near the present 
location of the correction line in Harris Grove, the trail last 
spoken of branched off to the east and ran direct, by the divides 
as nearly as could be had, to the nearest point on the Nishna- 
botna, in Shelby county. Another trail followed up the brow 
of the bluffs, from Joe Hills', as herein named, crossing the Boyer 
river, at a point where the vigorous town of Missouri Valley is 
now located, then known as Mcintosh's Point; and there rising 
the bluffs to the high divide, followed on to Spencer's Grove, 
thence in a northwesterly direction, touching Reel's Grove near 
the present county seat, Logan; thence along the high di- 
vide, in a northeasterly direction, to Bigler's Grove, and from 
that location in the direction last named to what is now known 
as Weimer's Grove (then known as Dunham's Grove), on the 
north line of the county, and from there on toward Boyer 
Lake, the head of the Boyer river. An old trail came in to the 
bluffs, just west of the present handsome homestead of Mr. 
Henry Garner, in Raglan township, followed down the edge of 
the bluffs, along the bottoms until it reached the old farm origi- 
nally squatted upon and entered by Mr. Ira Perjue, about one- 
half mile northwest of the present site of old Calhoun, at which 
point it raised the back-bone or gradually elongated bluff, passed 
within fifty feet to the east of a collection of mounds, number- 
ing six in all, which, at the present writing, are as marked and 
perceptible as they were thirty years ago. To these mounds, the 
attention of the reader has been called in another part of this 
chapter. Thence in a direct north direction, passing through 
Magnolia Grove to Spink's Grove, and thence northeast on the 
divide west of Elk creek, and east of Allen until the north line 
of the county was passed. Another trail .branched from the 
main trail, which came from the Missouri river as last stated, at 
the point where Mr. Alex. .Johnson formerly resided, near the 
present residence of Mr. Henry Garner, and rising the backbone 
of the bluffs at that place, struck Raglan Grove at that place; 


thence through the last named grove nearly due north, crossing 
Steer creek, nearly at the present place of residence of S. E. 
Streeter, and from there to what is now known as the Coffman 
Grove, and from this place up the divide on the east side of the 
-Soldier to the north line of the county; having at many places 
convenient run-ways across to the trails up the Boyer, and to the 
other trails last named. 

These trails, or as we of the present age would say, highways, 
were not so nicely graded up, streams bridged and as passable as 
the highways of the present time, but were merely indentures 
made in the surface of the soil, by the tramping of the ponies' feet 
and the scratchings occasioned by the tepee-poles which were drag- 
ged by the ponies, one end of the poles being lashed to the back of 
the pony and the other end dragging on the ground. At many 
different parts of the county, farmers while plowing in their 
fields have unearthed skeletons of the superseded race, and at 
many times are led to wonder what sort of individual was the 
possessor thereof, and how many innocent, unoffending whites 
had been by each different one deprived of life and scalp. Mr. 
George Hardy in 1854 found the skeleton of one of these abori- 
gines on little promontory along Allen creek, near Magnolia. 
Porter Streeter, of Raglan, within the last two years plowed up 
one in his grain field, and had the skull bone kicking around his 
door yard as playthings for his children. I might safely say that 
within the past twenty years not less than four score of these 
skeletons have been exhumed, which by the shape of the skulls 
indicate that they were of the Indian race. 

The Indian manner of transportation of families did not possess 
the same degree of comfort as is now experienced by the traveling 
public in the nicely constructed parlor cars; but their modus suffi- 
ciently satisfied their tastes, and if their tastes were gratified, we 
of "squatter sovereignty" proclivities, should not now at this late 
day take exceptions. When the Indian families were moving 
from place to place, the pappooses were stuck into baskets and 


these baskets were tied together and thrown across some pony, and 
astride of this same pony the old " buck " or father Indian rode 
as peacefully sublime as though he was the Czar of the Russias; 
following directly in the wake of this " car " the old squaw, or 
mother, trudged along on foot, sad and silent, expecting no better 
treatment from her lord. The camp equipage was transported 
by being strapped to the backs of ponies, or by being thrown 
into a sort of receptac le constructed by tying a buffalo robe or 
blanket to two tent or tepee poles; these were fastened at one end 
to the back of a pony, the other ends left to drag on the ground; 
this blanket or robe being fastened to the tent poles nearly equi- 
distant from the respective ends, so that the seat or sack formed 
by the spreading of the poles constituted the seat or boot for the 
camp equipage or the sick of the outfit. 



There are no traces of any Indian villages now in the county, 
nor has there ever been any person in the county for the past 
thirty years who could locate any. 

The stay of the Pottawattamies in the county never was very 
protracted, from the fact that the Sioux and the Pottawatta- 
mies were constantly at war, occasioned by reason of a dispute 
as to the boundary between the two tribes, and this part of the 
territory being so near the north line of the Pottawattamies, they 
scarcely dared spend much of their time so near the Sioux. 


All residents of the county from the time the first white set- 
tler located in the county up to and until the latter part of the 
fall of 1862 were squatters, according to the definition of the 
standard authority — Webster. There is some controversy as to 
the fact of who was the first squatter in the county. Some say 
that the rough, warm-hearted grand old pioneer, Daniel Brown, 
who, for more than a quarter of a century, lived at Calhoun, and 
died there in 1873, was and is entitled to the honor; but others 
equally as confidently assert that this of right belongs to Uriah 
Hawkins, who from the 7th day of July, A. D. 1847, lived in 
Cass township, and died there ten or more years ago. 

It must be conceded that old Uncle Dan Brown was the first 
white man to select a claim in the county, but as he, soon after 
the selection, returned to Florence, Nebraska, and staid at that 
place until the following spring, and then moved his family to 
and permanently settled on the claim so selected as aforesaid, 



he, during the time of his absence, was not a squatter or settler. 
Brown's selection was made in the month of June, A. D. 1847, 
and settlement was perfected on the Tth of April, A. D. 1848. 

Mr. Uriah Hawkins, on the Tth of July, A. D. 1847, accom- 
panied by his family, permanently " squatted " on that parcel of 
land in Cass township upon which he lived for nearly thirty 
years, and upon which he died. 

It was an utter impossibility for any one to obtain title to his 
lands before the latter part of the year 1852, from the fact that 
no surveys had been completed by the government of these lands 
prior to that time. 

The county was townshipized by government surveyors dur- 
ing the year 1851, and not until the month of November, 1852, 
was the sectionizing of the county completed by the government 
surveyors, who held the contract for the sectionizing of this part 
of the state. Hence, as Webster defines a squatter as " one who 
settles on new land, particularly on public land without title," 
there being no one who held title from the government for the 
land on which they resided, all, per force of circumstances, were 

Under the above conditions the terms " squatter " and " early 
settler " are synonymous, from the fact that there were fifty or 
more families resident in the county before the government 
gave opportunity for title to the lands therein. 

Squatter sovereignty, from 1847 to the spring of 1853, and for 
a long time thereafter, was exceedingly forceful, from the fact 
that a country without laws or courts became laws and courts 
unto themselves. Those of the present day seem to scarcely 
believe that the early settlers had such unbounded hospitality, 
charity, respect and good will to each other as was manifest in 
those days of weakness and dependence. Notwithstanding the 
selfishness, hypocrisy, dishonesty and depravity of this year of 
1888, there was a time in this county, dating from 1847 to the 
date of the crystalization of the first bank in the county, in 1866, 


when there was an extreme necessity for the citizens to stay up 
the trembling hand of the overcome neighbor, to guard the 
rights of the neighbor with as much sacredness and fidelity and 
valor as they would their own castles. 

During all this time, woe be unto the man or men who would 
even attempt to "jump" another's claim. Such an outrage- 
would call for the most swift and terrible punishment; "either 
a surrender of all rights to the claim or swing by the neck to 
the first and most accessible limb," the former, I am happy to 
say, was the universal choice. 

Were any lands to be entered at the government land office at 
Council Bluffs (then Kanesville and afterwards Bluff City), a 
council of war would be called, a certain number of men would 
be selected, whose honesty and courage would meet and over- 
come any emergency, to go to the land office and either enter 
the land in the name of the " squatter " or " settler " or accom- 
pany the party thither and see that his home was secured to him. 
These trips to Council Bluffs, by the Kegulators (as they were 
called), were, as far as costs to the settler was concerned, like the 
Gospel of Salvation, '* without money and without price." Of 
course, these times somewhat ante-dated the prohibitory law, and 
the settler was expected to " set it up to the b'hoys once or twice, 
you know." 

This " claim law " was the lex non scripta of the country, and 
I have often thought that if the prohibitory law of the present 
year could be enforced with the determination and earnestness 
of purpose manifest in the enforcement of the claim law, the 
courts of the county would not be burdened by so many indict- 
ments nor the county pauperized by costs. 

The "jumping" of a neighbor's claim was not attempted 

merely for the simple amusement of the hour, neither did the 

settlers hurry together and defend the rights of the neighbor 

for the purpose of some popularity at the coming election. The 



" home," the absolute right of all, was invaded, when one was 
in peril. 

One case of " j u mping " is called to mind, which took place in the 
winter of 1855, and can be stated like this: A man — the name 
will not be given — who, being a stranger, and not understanding 
•the temper of this people, supposed that he could replenish his 
finances by taking possession of a very excellent parcel of timber 
land, lying between Magnolia andi Calhoua, thought that 
because the claimant held down a good hundred and sixty acre 
tract, that, having spread himself over this number of acres, 
that there was not enough left of the said claimant to amount 
to ,much as the additional one hundred and sixty acre claim. 
Scarcely had he deposited his traps on the premises before the 
movement was detected. Then there was a hurrying in hot haste. 
" A claim jumper!" was the cry, " rally, ye regulars!" and in less 
than half an hour forty men were in. consultation, and in double 
that time the erring one was arrested, not by an officer with a 
piece of paper, but by a score of earnest, angry men, who brought 
the offender to Magnolia and carried him to the Bates House 
to afford the jumper a " speedy trial by a jury of settlers." 
Judge Lynch was about to open his court, when some of the 
regulators more humane than others might have been, called the 
offender to one side, suggested to him the necessity of relinquish- 
ing his rights to the claim, to the proper owner in writing, which 
was speedily done, and as soon as completed a back window was 
opened, when the prisoner soon caught the suggestion and was 
on his way to a different climate, where necktie festivals and 
tight rope performances, in the middle of winter, were not fash- 
ionable. If any of the readers of these hastily written lines ever 
knew one James W. Bates, who in the latter part of the fifties, 
and up to 1862," built, owned and ran the Bates House in Mag- 
nolia, they only can form any adequate idea of the cords of oaths 
cut by Mr. Bates, when he learned that the prisoner had escaped. 
Bates was an awkward professional swearer, and up to the time of 


the close of the rebellion could distance any man in the county 
in the race of words profanely directed. But in justice to Mr. 
Bates, I must say, that no warmer-hearted man ever lived on the 
" slope;" no person ever left his door hungry, and none possessed 
a heart so easily touched by the misfortunes of others; impulsive, 
honest, and withal, generous to a fault. 

• Other occasions, where "jumping" was done, a written notice 
sent to the party transgressing the claim law, or a notice tacked 
to the door of the cabin, or on any substance by which the same 
could be seen, notifying him that if he remained in the neigh- 
borhood for one week or ten days, without relinquishing all his 
rights to the claim, transportation would at that time be given 
him, without expense, to the pearly gates of paradise; which 
suggestion received due, careful and immediate attention by the 
party to whom addressed. 

The men constituting this company of regulators, banded 
together for mutual protection, were, as nearly as the memory of 
the writer can call the same to mind, as follows: James W. 
Bates, George Blackman, Wm. T. Fallon, N. G. Wyatt, Thos. B 
Neely, James Hardy, Lucius Merchant, Joel Patch, Peter Bar- 
nett, Solomon Barnett, H. H. Locklin, A. W. Locklin, Ezra Vin- 
cent, Henry George, Horatio Caywood and two sons George and 
Frank, Tom Durman, Robert Hall, Jacob Huffman, Chester 
Staley, Capt. Chester Hamilton, Jacob Minturn, Josiah Crom, 
Benj. LaPorte, Daniel Brown, Amos Chase, Ira Perjue, — . 
Burdno, J. W. Chatburn, Stephen Mahoney, Benj. Denice, John 
Ennis, 0. M. Allen, Gay Cleveland, Eleazer Davis, etc., etc. 

As before stated, the cases for claim jumping were not prose- 
cuted for the purpose of gratifying a little petty spite, because 
at this time all were anxious that settlement should be encouraged 
as much as possible. There was more country than people, and 
the sooner the country was settled up by good industrious bona 
fide settlers, so much the more would the country develop. 

By treaty of 1830, the United States had obtained a cession of 


the southwestern part of Iowa as a reservation for the Potta- 
wattamies, and from the completion of said treaty up to and 
until 1846, in the month of June of said year, the Pottawatta- 
mie Indians held the exclusive use and occupancy thereof, at 
which time last named the said tribe by treaty with the Grovern- 
ment relinquished this reservation to the Government, and imme- 
diately thereafter removed west of the Missouri river. 

Those familiar with the history of the country at this time 
will call to mind the difficulties experienced by that sect of people 
called Mormons, at Nauvoo, in Illinois, and in the immediate 
vicinity. This sect of people, zealous in many other respects 
than good works, were by force of circumstances compelled to 
change base, and as the result of the complications in the " Sucker 
State," they made their exit from the place above named, jour- 
neying from thence toward .the setting of the sun, and while in 
that transitory state the cloud by day was removed and the pillar 
of fire by night extinguished, when the body of the vanguard 
reached Council Bluffs. Here a revelation was had from the 
headquarters of the Mormon god, that they should tarry on this 
"border of the promised -land — this Pisgah-top — until further 
directed by Brigham Young and God. (Let it be understood 
that Brigham, instead of occupying a fourth-class place in the 
adorable quadruple, was the first personage.) Reaching this 
place they immediately set about preparing for the coming win- 
ter, and this resulted in the building of Kainsville, the Mormon 
name by which this energetic city was known in baptism. This 
place was made the headquarters of the l^ormon Church; and 
as a result of the Mormon exodus from Illinois, as last stated, 
siz thousand people spread over the counties of Pottawattamie, 
Harrison, Shelby, Mills and Fremont during that fall and the 
succeeding spring. 

In the summer of 1847 the "onward to the Land of Promise" 
was promptly telephoned from the counsels of heaven to the 
great high priest, Brigham, and they who were the most worthy 


were assembled and informed of this revelation, who soon folded 
their tents and rapidly took their departure to the anticipated 
rest of the saints, in the basin of Great Salt Lake. From 1847 
to 1852 there was a sufficiency of this peculiar element left in 
the counties above named to control all elections, Harrison county 
as well as the others. 

Prior to 1850, few of these squatted on the lands west of the 
Boyer river, but through all the groves, and on the skirts of 
timber around all the groves, on that part east of the Boyer, the 
wayward Mormon was a prominent factor. The fact is, that 
from 1849 to 1852, at each year, the population of the county 
during this time was more than one-half greater than in 1853 
and 1854. The stay of this peculiar .people in this county from 
1846 to 1852 was, in the language of a " quasi lawyer " of this 
county, only for " temporary purposes " ; and when the revela- 
tion from headquarters, " onward to the Land of Promise," was 
had and received, they obeyed the order with more alacrity than 
did the Israelites in leaving the plague-stricken land of Egypt. 

At the time of this Mormon exodus from this county, the 
claims of these religious "squatters" were on the market, and 
the sale thereof was a matter determined on by the claimant. 
That they were on the "go," and "go" they would, led many 
who happened to be in this part of the State at that time to 
purchase these claims at their own ofifering. Without question, 
this location was as good as any between this and the setting of 
the sun; but religious enthusiasm prompted this people to be at 
the side and under the special teachings of their Prophet, hence, 
they, like one of old, as respects their teacher, said and acted: 
" Entreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following after 
thee, for whither thou goest I will go; and where thou lodgest 
I will lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God my 
God; where thou diest will I die, and there will I be buried." 

In the spring of 1852, thirty-three families left Harris Grove 
and journeyed towards the promised land, which was a rapid de - 


population of this part of the county. It must be remembered 
that the Mormon family, when completed, was not a " society 
family " of the present status, viz. : one child, but to be a child 
of Mormon parents was the one-fifteenth or one-twentieth of 
the family ninit. The little olive plants, or the arrows in the 
quiver of familyship, were numerous, and indicated a strict obe- 
dience to the command, " Be ye fruitful and multiply and re- 
plenish the earth." 

This vicinity, after the removal of this column, so far as set- 
tlers were concerned, appeared as though the locality had been 
swept with plague, or the inhabitants stampeded by news of an 
Indian massacre, for upon removal as last named there were only 
five Gentile families left in the entire grove, viz. : Michael Mc- 
Kenney's, John A. McKenney's, William Howard's, Tommy 
Reeder's, and a family by the name of Grander. 

The great outfitting point, to which all Mormondom centered 
before leaving behind settlement, was Florence, on the right 
bank of the Missouri river, eight miles north of Omaha. True, 
as before stated, the five counties forming the south half of the 
western line of the State, were first settled by this people, yet, 
notwithstanding this, they all crystalized at the place last named, 
prior to their final departure, and left this point in vast herds, 
scarcely knowing for what or whither they were going. That 
there was a promised land far to the west, to which they should 
journey, and when once possessed they should find rest, together 
with the ever present thought, to live under the especial guid- 
ance and teachings of their Prophet and High Priest, buoyed up 
their spirits, and caused all to take gladly to the suffering which 
must be endured in crossing the great American desert. 

In civilized America the eye of the native-born citizen has 
never been educated to the sight of beholding the mother, or 
sister harnessed in leather breast and back-straps, and pulling in 
hand-carts like beasts of burden. But this was no uncommon 
sight in the days of 1858 and '59, when there swarmed into this 


country from England, Wales, ptirts of Scotland, Holland, and 
other European countries, vast consignments of this human 
freight, destined as recuperatives for the Church at Great Salt 
Lake. At that time Iowa City was the terminus on the west as 
to railroads; these people being uncarred here, were, irrespective 
of sex, worked like beasts of burden to hand-qarts, so as to travel 
to Florence, as well as transport thither what baggage they 

All stations of society made up this conglomerated herd of 
humanity: the old sire, the old mother, both worn out by the 
toils and cares of life, halted along, sometimes at the middle, or 
in the rear of the procession; the middle-aged, full of life and 
at the meridian of manhood; the buxom lass and beardless boy, 
though oftentimes weary of the hardships and monotony of the 
journey, kept the life in the column by the joke or song, the 
fiddle, or the evening dance. 

The corner stone of this peculiar church once being laid, the 
material to complete the building had to be furnished, and to 
accomplish this end, apostles and teachers were, by the council of 
the church, sent to foreign lands, and especially instructed to 
labor with those whom they could the more easily persuade to em- 
brace this singularly curious faith. As a result the lower strata 
of society of foreign lands accepted this new doctrine with an 
alacrity far beyond the expectation of the most sanguine of 
those who were the originators of the thought. 

They rallied from the hillsides, from the plains, work-shops, 
and from every conceivable condition of society, to the belief 
and support of this new doctrine; and under the glowing ac- 
counts given them of this land of promise, in the very heart of 
America's greatest desert, would not rest content until they had 
seen the Prophet, and partaken of the vine, herd and production 
of this earthly Eden. 

Never has the pen of any writer attempted to describe the ter- 
rible sufferings of these immigrants, religious fanatics, or dupes 


of designing men, as they traveled from day to day, drawing in 
harness, like oxen; bearing the heat of the sun and sand, the 
intolerable thirst of the parched and burning plains; the weari- 
ness of limb and scarcity of food, towards the anticipated haven 
in the valley of Great Salt Lake. The 'crusades of the 11th, 12th 
and 13th centuries did not possess greater enthusiasm than that 
which permeated every muscle and fiber of those who in 1858 
and '59 measured the 1,032 miles of tTie trackless desert, step by 
step, in order to help build and worship in the Temple of the 
Mormon faith. The Israelites had a Moses to smite the rock 
and procure the water, with the Almighty at the head of the 
clothing department; but these dupes were content to transport 
the fluid to reduce their swollen, parched tongues, and ceaselessly 
march on and on with blistered and bleeding feet, without rest 
or recuperation, to Mormondom or death. 

That Daniel Brown of Calhoun was the first person to select 
a claim in the county, is now unquestioned, and that Mr. Uriah 
Hawkins of Cass township was the first person to permanently 
locate in the county, is conceded by all. Mr. Hawkins located 
on the claim on which he died, having lived there thirty years, 
during the former five of that thirty, as isolated from white 
society as Alexander Selkirk while on the Island of Juan Fer- 
nandez : " Monarch of all he surveyed, his right there was none 
to dispute," from Six Mile Grove westward to the Pacific Ocean, 
to the north pole, east nearly or quite to the present city of Dps 
Moines. This condition remained until three years had elapsed 
before there were any additions in this locality in the way of set- 
tlement, when the spring of 1850, Mr. George Mefford and his 
family located near him in Twelve Mile Grove, and away to the 
southeast some twelve or fifteen miles at the same time, Mr. 
Samuel Wood, Wm. W. Wood and Uncle Billy Cox located at 
Union Grove, in Union township. 

Daniel Brown upon settling on his claim about the 7th of 
April, '48, was not that sort of personage who permitted the affairs 


of this life to cumber his liberty to any extensive degree, and being 
the first white settler west of the Boyer river, I will take the lib- 
erty at this time to give the reader a short biographical sketch of 
this old pioneer from the time of his location here until the time of 
his death. This warm-hearted old pioneer, having quarreled with 
the Prophet, Brigham Young, in the spring of 1847, and being of 
that fearless disposition that would not brook insult from King, 
President or Prophet, at the date last named, while the Mor- 
mons were in winter quarters at Florence City just north of 
Omaha, and west of the old village of Crescent City in Potta- 
wattamie county in this state, severed his connection from this 
peculiar people and struck out his own hook to seek a new home 
for himself and family where he could enjoy greater freedom. 
To this end he and a few others started out on a tour of explora- 
tion, crossing the Missouri river at Council Bluffs and from 
there kept up the Missouri bottoms on the left bank, at which 
time not a bridge was upon any of the streams between that 
place and the north pole. 

How to cross these streams, when the same were swollen to 
the extent that they were, as full as the banks would hold, was 
the question, but the ingenuity of the pioneer is nearly always 
equal to the occasion ; so fastening a large dry log, one to each 
side of the wagon and then forcing the oxen to swim the river, 
the driver swimming by the side of the team to give proper 
direction, brought the craft safely to shore on the side required. 
In this manner the Pigeon and Boyer rivers were crossed, and 
the party shortly after their start, camped in Harrison county at 
or very near the place where now is the residence of Mr. Tim. 
O'Conner, in section 35, township 79, range 43, at the place 
where the little stream now know by the classic name of " Hog 
Creek" emerges from the bluffs and enters the Boyer bottom. 
At the time of going into camp the sun was a little more than 
an hour high, and Uncle Dan wishing to have some venison for 
supper, shouldered his rifle and passed out from camp a short 


Jistance, and ia less than one hour had killed five large fat deer, 
and as he has frequently said, " It wa'nt a very good time for 
deer neither." 

From this camp they passed up the Boyer valley and came to 
the present site of Logan, at which place they halted and ex- 
pressed themselves as never having seen so beautiful a situation 
in all their lives, but supposing that there were better than this 
jlsewhere,. they followed up the Boyer until they came to the 
lands on which Woodbine is now situated, and, being highly 
pleased with this location, thought they were getting too far 
inland; they struck across to the Willow valley and followed 
this down to the place where this stream enters the Missouri 
bottom, and there felt satisfied that they had struck the place, 
for " which they long had sought and mourned because they'd 
found it not," but having found this, were wholly satisfied that, 
bhis of all others, was the -place. 

Here Mr. Brown staked out his claim and immediately went 
bo work building a shanty, getting out rails and preparing a 
place for his family to be properly housed, when they should 
be brought to this newly discovered " Eden," in the spring fol- 

Returning to his home, he spent the following winter there, 
and early in the spring, with transportation in the form of a 
covered wagon, and the propelling power two yoke of cattle, the 
wife and children snugly stowed away under the white canvass, 
bhe old patriarch, wife, children and all effects are on this un- 
iimited highway for the "palace" on the Willow, which I 
bave stated was prepared the year previous. 

The incidents of travel across swamp, river, and over hill and 
iale, are the same as before stated, only, in this passenger car, 
bhe freight is more precious than in that of the year before, but 
30on they arrive at this beautiful spot on the table lands of what 
was once and still is Calhoun, and are now masters of their own 


situation, happier than the Czar of the Russias, the Queen o£ 
England or even the then President of the United States. 

The will power of this old pioneer was always equal to the 
occasion, hut, at this time, being thirty miles from any settle- 
ment and no neighbors but the treacherous " dusky men and 
squaws " of the western prairies, he, at times, felt a little inse- 
cure, not on his own account, but for the safety of his wife and 

The corn and potatoes are planted, the fence built, but the 
meal and flour in the barrel have become nearly exhausted and 
the last slice of bacon has been fried, and where are we to get a 
recruit of these until the harvest is come for corn and potatoes? 
Himself and two of the sons soon started for the State of Missouri, 
two hundred miles away, there to assist the people in the gather- 
ing of the harvest, which was then ripe for the sickle. Arriving 
at that place, they enter heartily into the labor of gathering and 
soon have earned enough ,to load the wagon down to the guards, 
and no sooner is the task completed, than they are all on their 
way home bringing a good supply of food for the hungry ones in 
the cabin on the Willow; but the incidents of travel caused the 
utmost vigilance, for upon arriving at one of the branches of the 
'Botna, which was bridged by a pole floor, and it having rained 
only a short time before, the team, consisting of two yoke of oxen, 
became frightened and began pushing in the yoke, when the floor 
of the bridge parted and the front yoke, or leaders, slipped through 
the bridge and hung suspended by their necks until Brown, grasp- 
ing an axe, drove the staple out of the wooden yoke, and the 
cattle thus freed, fell into the water below, a distance of thirty 
feet. Brown was so much interested in the provisions that he 
did not look after the cattle which had disappeared, and when 
the substitute for a bridge was so repaired that he could bring 
over the wheel team and load, he began to look around for his 
leaders, and to his utter astonishment, saw them quietly grazing 
on the same side of the river on which he and the commissary 


stores then were. But what was his astonishment on arriving at 
home and learning from his wife that the thieving redskins had 
visited his place and cabin, and had appropriated to their own 
nse all the' edibles and clothing belonging to him and the family, 
and that the family had been for the past three weeks living 
wholly on milk and young potatoes, the same being not larger 
than hulled walnuts. Where were the clothing and the corn 
and flour and bacon for the family during the winter to come 
from ? The freedom of frontier life was affording more freedom 
than provisions, and the future did not look very promising; yet 
out of this dilemma there yet remained a hope, and this last effort 
was yet to be made. It was this: a hunt on the Sioux river near 
the mouth thereof. So early in the fall, Brown, with a few 
others, who had come into the settlement after his return from 
Missouri, started on a hunt to the mouth of the Little Sioux 
river, and when arriving there found the game so plentiful, that 
in a day or two they had their wagons 'loaded with elk and deer 
and wild turkeys, and Brown had in addition quite two barrels 
of wild honey. A portion of this he carted to Kanesville, sold the 
same for a big price, then laid out the proceeds of this sale in cot- 
ton domestics, jeans, shoes, groceries, etc., etc., and returned to his 
home with this recruit, the happiest man in all the broad expanse 
of the United States. 

After this time the Indians were very troublesome, and greatly 
annoyed the settlement, but not until 1853 did they and the 
whites come to open hostilities ; about which the reader s atten- 
tion will be directed in other portions of this book. 

The writer hereof has oftentimes heard Mr. Brown say, that 
on his return from the Bluffs, at the time he sold the honey, he 
felt like Alexander Selkirk did while on the Island of Juan Fer- 
nandez. He was " monarch of all he surveyed, his right there 
was none to dispute." 

Here on the site selected by the subject of this sketch, in ISil, 
lived this pioneer from '48 until the time of his death, and here 


the family of two boys and four daughters developed into man 
and womanhood, all marrying at this place with the exception of 
one of the sons; yet at this date only two of the children are res- 
idents of the county, the others having gone on toward the set- 
ting of the sun, like the father, ever looking to the mighty west 
for better lands and more genial climate. Daniel Brown was a 
man of tremendous physical power, and a man upon whom nature 
had been lavish in the way of intellect. His youthful days were 
spent in his old North Carolina home without any of the 
advantages of common schools which the boys of the present 
age and place possess, yet in him was a mind far beyond many 
of those who had in early life partaken of the birch limb and 
small slices of old Kirkham, the Western Calculator and Olney's 
. Geography. And findly, he was at and during all the time of the 
late civil war one of the most uncompromising friends of the 
Union, and never could bear to hear any one, at the time the 
very life of the nation was in peril, say anything against the 
administration of the sainted Lincoln. 

Men of this cast are always needed for pioneer life. Men who 
never yield to any obstacle and finally never surrender until 
Father Time with his scythe says " 'Tis enough; this is the end." 

Following the thought as set out in the matter of the abstract 
of the life of Brown, I am compelled to trespass on the patience 
of the reader, by here presenting a few thoughts connected with 
the life of John A. Parkin, of this county, who died in the 
spring of 1887. This old pioneer was just one decade in the rear 
of the one just spoken of. Mr. Parkin was born and matured in 
the Old Dominion, and when settling here brought with him to 
this new land many of the ideas and customs of the Virginia 
state. Soon after settling in this neighborhood he was elected 
as Justice of the Peace, a position he maintained up to the time of 
his death, and in regard to his doings as a court, I am con- 
strained to say, that 'while his rulings and decisions, at many 
times, were not as polished as those of the judges of the courts 


of record, nevertheless, they fit as closely to the fact and law of 
the case. Scarcely had the subject of this sketch settled in his new 
home in the county, until he suited his wants to the then sur- 
rounding circumstances respecting his finance, for there are yet, 
in the flesh, in the neighborhood, many who very vividly remem- 
ber the peculiar construction of Squire Parkin's teams. 

Isaiah and Jim Dickinson tell me of the fright they had on 
the afternoon of the first day they arrived in the Harris Grove. 
Having struck a fire preparatory for the dinner, as it was the 
noon hour, and just as they were about to surround the table to 
partake of that kind of a meal which is indulged in with a relish, 
they heard such an unearthly noise that they felt like stamped- 
ing for Michigan; it was not like anything they had ever heard 
or seen; first, there would be a zip-rattle-te-bang-whoopadora- 
chug, then the screech, etc., etc. Jim was sent out on a tour of 
inspection, when, following the noise, in a short time he came 
to a place where there was a large quantity of crushed sorghum 
stalks, and quietly approaching, found Squire Parkin trying to 
express the juice from the sorghum stalks, by grinding them 
through a cane mill of his own manufacture, the motive power 
in this primitive manufacturing establishment being a bull and 
a cow attached separately to a long sweep, which was fastened 
to the grinder, and corn being scarce and no grease in the neigh- 
borhood, the absence of this liquid caused this unearthly screech- 
ing, and the rattle and bang being produced by the slipping of 
cogs, when the male part of the power was taken with a fit of 
masculine madness. This old pioneer lived an honest, inoffen- 
sive life, acted well his part, and at a ripe old age was gathered to 
his fathers, like a shock of corn in its season. 

Deeming it part and parcel of the history of the county, I will 
give as near as possible, the names of the most prominent of the 
early settlers from the settlement of Havvkins and Brown, the 
first in 1847 and the latter in 1848, year by year, up to and in- 
cluding the year of 1854, and possibly some of those of 1855. 


Scarcely had Brown trodden down the ta 11 prairie grass around 
his cabin door, when Amos Chase, Ezra Vincent, Dick Johnson, 
Samuel Coon, Ira Perjue and E. T. Hardin loe ated within gun- 
shot of him. At the present day the accession of a half dozen 
families to a neighborhood would create but a small ripple 
on the surface of society; but circumstances alter cases, and this 
circumstance was hailed with delight by Brown and family. 
Six additional men in a neighborhood where there is but one, all 
coming at the same time, figures up an increase of population 
not frequently met with ; and the more es pecially at a time when 
there were vast numbers of thieving redskins in the neighbor- 
hood, watching the time when the corn, calf, potatoes and pigs 
would ripen so as to furnish them a good meal. 

The following year of 1849 only two additional families were 
added to the entire county, making only ten familiea in the 
county, except such as were here for recuperative purposes, in- 
tending to pass on to Salt Lake at the first call. They who set- 
tled in the county as last stated were Jesse Wills, Charles Wills, 
Cyrus Wills, William H. Wills, John Wills, Erastus Wills and 
George W. Brigham. ' During all this time Hawkins was holding 
the fort on the east side, all alone. 

With the ushering in of the year 1850 these twelve families 
were blessed with neighbors, as follows, viz. : George Mefibrd of 
Twelve Mile Grove, together with his sons, W. G. MefFord, Lem- 
uel Mefford, and "Doc" Mefford; these settled in the. neighbor- 
hood of Uriah Hawkins. Elijah Palmer located at the same 
time in Bigler's Grove; Charles McEvers, Nathan Neely, Thos. 
B. Neely, S. W. Condit and Charles LaPontuer at and on the 
Little Sioux River, where the town of Little Sioux now is situate; 
Samuel Wood, William W. Wood and Uncle Billy Cox in Union 
Grove; David Young, Sr., David Young, Jr., Addison Young, 
Charles Young and Henry Young about two miles east of Logan; 
and Anson Belden at Calhoun. 

In the spring and early summer of 1851 the " prairie schoon- 


ers " began to land, and the following persons, some with fam- 
ilies, were added to the settler lists, viz.: James B. MeCurley, 
William Howard, W. D. Howard, James Dungan (father of David 
Dungan, D. D.), J. Z. Hunt, George White, Warren White, Jos. 
McKenney, Michael McKenney, John A. McKenney, all these 
settling in the neighborhood or near Harris Grove; Richard Mus- 
grave, Geo. Musgrave, L. D. Butler, John Jeffrey, Matthew Hall, 
Evan O'Banion and others, in the regions round about the place 
where Butler subsequently built what is known as Butler's Mills, 
near Woodbine; and then Lucius Merchant, Donald Maule, Frank 
Pierce, Dennis Streeter, and others, in and about the timber lands 
of Raglan; and last, though not least, William Dakan located 
on the farm now occupied by Mr. Joseph Culver, nearly tangent 
to the little village of St. John, and P. G. Cooper, Creed Sanders 
and W. I. Cooper at Magnolia. 

The year 1852 being, as before stated, the time of the Mormon 
exodus, brought many into the county, in (jonsequence of the 
cheapness of squatter claims then on the market, and by reason 
of the further fact that in 1851 the Government had township- 
ized the county, and were about to sectionize the same during 
the year 1852 (a job which was completed as per statement), and 
thereby afford on opportunity for the entry of the lands. The 
oldest resident, of those who settled here at that time, is Mr. 
Henry Reel, now in his 84th year, and quietly sliding down the 
sunset of life; Benjamin J. LaPorte, Henry McHenry and sons, 
Wm. H. McHenry and 0. 0. HcHenry, CM. Hunt, Peter Brady 
and sons, David L. Brady and E. H. Brady, Kirtland Card, Benj. 
H. Denice, John Ennis, " Burr " Ennis, Hiram Ennis, Samuel 
Fuller, Stephen King, Edward Houghton, W.B. Copeland, Thos. 
F. Yanderhoof, G. W. Fry, D. R. Rogers, A. W. Locklin, H. H. 
Locklin, Stephen Mahoney, J. W. Chatburn, George Blackman, 
James Hardy, Jacob Huffman, James W. Bates, Wm. T. Fallon, 
Virgil Mefford, Theodore Mahoney, Samuel Dungan, Henry 
Kanauss, and others. The greater portion of all these are yet 


alive, and remain, at this writing, residents of the county, and 
well sustain their part in the make-up of citizenship and perma- 
nency of good society. 

Eighteen hundred and fifty-three ushered in the year of the 
great rush for lands in western Iowa; and as a result, immigra- 
tion that year far exceeded all that had been in the five preced- 
ing years. At that time there was no difficulty in entering lands, 
provided the person wishing a paper blanket, signed by his Ex- 
cellency, the President of the United States, had the $1.25 per 
acre. That year there settled in the county the following named 
persons, viz.: Stephen Hester and family and Thos. A. Dennis; 
these were the first to locate in the southwestern corner of the 
county; then J. B. Lytle, Samuel Spinks, Luke Jefferson, J. W. 
Jefferson, Thomas Thompson, Alma Ellison, Calvin Ellison, M. 
A. Ellison and Levi Ellison, James H. Farnsworth and Samuel 
Farnsworth, James Henderson, P. C. Henderson, J. W. Hender- 
son, Alfred Longman, Sr., Alfred Longman, Jr., James Longman 
and Wm. Longman, Samuel McGravren and sons George and 
Scott, Ezra Perry, William, Albert T. and "Doc" Cutler, Peter 
Deal, Joe. H. Deal, John Deal, John W. Deal and Jas. E. Deal, 
Samuel Jack, Jeremiah Motz, Levi Motz, George Birchim, Wm. 
Spencer, Champion Prazier, Henry Earnest, John Earnest and 
Henry Earnest, Jr., Lowry Wilson, B. A. Divelbess, Sol Barnett, 
Peter Barnett, Frank Weatherly, and others. At this time the 
settlement of the county began to assume an air of independence, 
and during the early part of this year perfected her organization 
as a county. Those whose names are last above mentioned, came 
to stay, from the fact that there is not a name mentioned of 
those who settled here in 1853, but still remain in the county, 
or dying, left such estates that their heirs are yet in the county, 
well to do in life and honored members of society. 

The year 1854 experienced a much greater crystalization of 
permanent moneyed settlers than any two of the former years 
herein named, because many of those who had formerly located 


here had written to their relatives or acquaintances what a 
goodly land this was; and doubtless many had visited this place 
and carried back into the home-land a portion of the grape clus- 
ters, a taste of the honey, or perchance an ear of corn, sample of 
wheat, or a statement of the prodigious growth of grass, the 
everlasting qualities of the soil, and a story of the pureness of 
the water; these being rehearsed, and believed, caused the white 
canvass, sheltering the voyager from the sun and rain, to be 
spread, and the home-seekers of the far east are soon here, mak- 
ing such selections as best fit their fancy. Those coming and 
locating here at this time were, as nearly as memory serves, the 
following, viz. : Hon. Phineas Cadwell and family, S. B. Card 
and family, Sarah Hall, Jacob Kirk, James D. Rogers, David 
Gamet, Saul Garnet, David Garnet, Jr., Isaac Garnet and Gilbert 
Gamet, Dr. J. H. Rice, A. R. Cox, Jacob Cox, H. B. Cox, Wm. 
H. Branson, Logan Crawford, Wm. McDonald, John Mathews, 
Job Ross, Wm. H. Sharpneck, David Barnum, Marvin Adams 
and family, viz. : Frank, Byron, Joe, Addison, Reuben and Evilla 
(now Mrs. Gay lord of Woodbine); Isaac Childs and family, Col. 
Asher Servis, and hosts of others, whom I have not the time or 
space to name. These, though thirty-three years have passed 
and gone, are still residents of the county, save and except Mr. 
David Gamet, Mr. Marvin Adams, Mr. Wm. McDonald and Col. 
Servis, who, within the last decade, have passed the confines of 
this life, at ripe old ages, leaving behind them names respected 
by all, and exemplary lives worthy of imitation. 

Then in 1855 came William Acrea, Thomas J. Acrea, Eras- 
tus Brown, German Brown, Charles Brown and Willis Brown, 
Abe Ritchinson, James Evans and William Evans of Bigler's 
Grove, Henry Hushaw and family. Dr. Cole and family, David 
Selleck and family, James Selleck and family, and Ellises almost 
without number, viz.: Ephraim, Samuel, John, Dan, Andrew, and 
Clark; these all settling in Jackson and Little Sioux townships; 
Henry Hannaman, John Case, James Case, Jacob Case, and an 


army of Purcells, viz. : Jesse, the old father, and boys, Alexander, 
Samuel, Benjamin, Lewis and William, all locating on the Willow; 
William Martin, and William Allen on the Soldier, and last but 
not least Mr. Solomon Smith, who located on the margin of the 
lake named for him in Little Sioux township. In 1856 the settle- 
ment was increased by William Me Williams, Jacob Fulton, Isaac 
Bedsol, Sr., 0. M .Bedsol and Isaac F. Bedsol, Jr., A. H. Glea- 
son and father of Little Sioux, Jack Conyers, Patrick Morrow, 
William Morrow, George Main, Silas Rice, Rev. H. D. King, etc. ; 
time and space failing to name others. 

These men herein named as settling in the county from 1847 
to 1856, were of the true American type and the sons and 
daughters of these now with us to day are the offspring of a 
brawny stock; from men who tilled the fields, traversed the hills 
and valleys in pursuit of game, lined the banks of the streams 
with their traps, loved the companionship of the ox and horse, 
and looked upon the rifle and musket in their possession as sym- 
bols of their manhood and bulwarks of their liberties. 

The early settlers were not puny men, were not effeminate, 
were not indoor people, pale of countenance and slender of build, 
but tall, stalwart, and muscular; some perhaps awkward by reason 
of excessive development in joints and bone, yet none were 
feeble, and while the excessive culture of this day and age might 
laugh at them on the sly, nevertheless they would admire that 
which seemed to provoke their mirth. 


During the days of December, 1852, and the first half of 1853, 
were attended with many difficulties, as the following will show : 
When the days of entries arrived there was such a rush at the land 
office at Council Bluffs, that all could not be accommodated the 
same day; hence, to meet the demands, each person on arriving at 
the laud office registered his name, and by this rule was forced 
to await the serving of those who were there first in time. 


Henry Reel, Esq., who located and entered the land on which 
the site of the town of Logan is located, tells me that in order to 
get an opportunity to enter his claims here, he was com- 
pelled to wait in Council Bluffs three weeks before his name was 
called. The reader must not think that by reason of this method 
they who were first in time had the opportunity of making 
any selection they pleased, irrespective of the right of settlement 
or occupancy. Each community had its friends to watch what 
entries were being made, and one who attempted to take certifi- 
cate of entry on lands occupied by a settler was immediately 

He who had settled on lands wanted just such land only as he 
had squatted on, and when this was obtained he was content, and 
wishing his rights respected was, per force of circumstances, com- 
pelled to respect the rights of others. There never yet was a 
better measurement to human conduct than " do ye unto others 
as ye would that they should do unto you.'" The time when 
this precept will be obeyed by all has not been approximated to 
by either Millerite or Adventist, yet let me say to the legal fra- 
ternity, that when this time does come, courts of justice will be 
closed, the politician a thing of the past, and the perambulating 
minister of the gospel left without another soul to save, or the 
skeleton of another regulation chicken to denude. 

The Shylocks of this period were as numerous as they were 
covetous; for be it known that many of the early settlers were 
not men of great financial standing, so far as dollars were con- 
cerned, and when it came to the entering of the claim, the 
government never accepted a written or verbal promise to pay 
for lands. It was the cash in hand they were selling the land 
for, and to procure their homes they would permit Mr. Shylock 
to enter the land in his own name, and this when done, the settler 
would repurchase it for the money-lender, allowing and promis- 
ing him forty per cent per annum on the $200 until paid. It 
only took two years and a half until this interest had doubled 


the purchase of the land, and as a sequence, the money-lender who 
had come west with a pocket full of land warrants, which had 
cost him ninety cents an acre, if the squatter paid at the end 
of two and a half years, was getting |400 for an outlay of $144. 
That these entries would be eaten up by usury and tax was most 
evident, unless the location was of such character and worth as to 
command an immediate sale, which in the fewer instances hap- 
pened, but in the most cases, the land remained in the name of 
the party furnishing the warrants for entry. 


Of Harrison county until .two or three years after the organiza- 
tion of the county were very meager indeed, and never have the 
people of this locality made any pretensions, other than as an 
agricultural people. The field and herd are the dependence of all. 
If the field groans under the weight of the crop produced, and 
this either in turn in the form of the raw article, or when con- 
verted into hog or beef, brings a good remunerative price, the 
producer is happy and they belonging to the tradesman and mer- 
cantile or professional classes are correspondingly pleased, from 
the fact, as above stated, this is an agricultural country, and the 
hopes of the entire country depend on the cereal, either in the 
raw form or in manufactured condition as found in the hide of 
Mr. Hog or Steer. 

A woolen mill was once, I think about 1866, erected, fur- 
nished and put in operation at Dalley's mill, near Woodbine, and 
the proprietor, after repeated endeavors, closed the same, because 
he could not operate it and save himself. The most singular 
fact in regard to this experiment was, that they of our own 
vicinity would not patronize the product of this mill because 
they could purchase the goods of other mills, such as Marshall- 
town, or Cedar Rapids, and the manufacture of some other mills 
both in and out of this state, at a few cents per yard cheaper ; 
and let it be remembered that these mills put their goods upon 


the market here at quite a reduction when comparing the selling 
price of their goods, to that of the selling price of the same at 
the place of manufacturing. 

You ask, " Why did they do such a thing?" This was done 
in order to starve out the only mill on the slope, and the strategy 
succeeded as was anticipated, the result being old John W. 
Dalley could not buck against his own neighborhood and the 
combined cross lifting of the mills of the State. 

With the closing of this mill the many flocks of sheep which 
were growing up in the county and increasing from year to year 
rapidly, the natural increase as well as theindriving of hundreds of 
other flocks, were sold to the butcher or shipped to a Chicago 
market, and as a consequence there is not to-day in the entire 
county a half a thousand head of sheep. 


Only have origin from the organization of the county, from the 
fact that there were no courts in the county prior to the organiza- 
tion, except Judge Lynch's court, and that was then a court which 
might be termed a supreme or superior court by reason of the pecul- 
iar rules of practice which governed. There was no appeal allowed 
to any human tribunal when verdict was returned and sentence 
pronounced. To the honor and intelligence and humanity of 
the people of this county, it can be truthfully said that " no 
impromptu hanging bees" have ever been had. True, there have 
been occasions when it appeared to certain persons that they 
were in dangerous proximity to such taking-off recreation, but 
the calm and humane spirit which often actuates the human 
mind always found a way out of these conditions, without the 
shedding of human blood. 

" Big Jim," the over grown brute who accompanied a sort of 
perambulating show which crossed this country by teams in 
1870, and who attempted to rape a young girl at the graveyard 
at Magnolia, after being arrested and brought back, was taken 


from the officer when going from the place of examination to 
the place where the officer kept him — a rope put around his neck, 
and barely escaped being hung by reason that too many persons 
were assisting in the hanging bee. They acting without concert 
of action — no leadership. Mr. Jacob S. Fountain and some 
eight others, of Cincinnati township, acting as a court of first 
resort, in 1862, when the other boys of the county were out in 
the field, wearing the blue and doing duty at the front, organ- 
ized an impromptu court near Loveland Mills and determined 
that the defendant, a man of very pronounced '' secesh proclivi- 
ties" should ascend the golden stairs. When adjusting the rope 
around his neck and in the act of placing the same over the limb 
of a tree near by, the prisoner by a quick move released himself 
from the cord, leaped into the willows and has not been heard of 
from that date up to the present writing. 

The individual who jumped the timber claim between 
Calhoun and Magnolia in 1855, would have ended his earthly 
career had he not assigned to the lawful owner all his right and 
title to the claim and cut dirt for a foreign locality, by first 
being shown his way out by an opened window. 

Many of the peculiar rulings of the Justices' courts could be 
reproduced here at this time which would somewhat amuse, but 
as there is so little improvement on these courts since that time, 
it might cast some reflection on these by now stating what was 
done in the past ; however I will relate a few of the many wise 
rulings of these courts. 

A certain Mr. Walden being a Justice of the Peace in Calhoun 
was, in 1857, called upon to try a case of attachment. The peti- 
tion of the plaintiff, which stated the cause of action was not 
sworn to by anyone and no prayer was made for the issuance of 
the writ of attachment in the said petition ; whereupon the law- 
yers, one on each side, appeared, and the counsel for the defend- 
ant filed a motion to " quash the writ " for reasons stated in the 
motion. The motion was argued with as much force as ability, 


and when the court came to pass on the motion, he sustained 
the same, and in order to " quash the writ " he laid the piece of 
paper called the writ on the table or box in front of him and 
said — " by virtue of authority vested in me as a Justice of the 
Peace I squash ye," then striking his hand heavily on the offend- 
ing writ caught the same in his hand and tore it to fragments. 
It was "squashed." 

In the summer of 1861, after the Legislature had passed the 
act called the " dog law," which shelved for the time being so 
many politicians, and gave very many others an opportunity to 
enter the military service and win name and fame on the battle 
field, for killing a dog was tried before one Lorenzo Dow 
Pate, a Justice of Raglan, when the court, after hearing the case 
and being informed by the attorney for the defendant that there 
was no law prohibiting a man from murdering his neighbor's 
dog, took up the Code of 1851, and read about fifty pages — read 
until urged by counsel and clients for a ruling or finding, said, 
" Gentlemen, I can't find any law here but that the defendant 
had the right to kill the dorg; it can't be murder, for that must 
be the premeditated killing of a human being, etc., nor can this 
be manslaughter, but I think, to the best of my knowledge and 
belief, that this is a case of dogslaughter, and the defendant is 
hereby ordered to get another dorg for the prosecutor, a dorg a 
leetle bigger than the one he killed — provided he can get one." 

In 1865 a case was being tried before Joel H. Patch, then a 
Justice of the Peace; a jury was demanded by one of the parties 
to the action, venire was issued and the constable went eagerly 
on his errand to procure a jury, and happened to stumble on 
Joshua B. Akers, who had only a few minutes previously been 
married; served the writ on him; when the jury was soon made 
up and accepted. Of this jury, two of the number being known 
to the fact that Akers had just committed matrimony, viz.: Nor- 
man B. Hardy and George R. Brainard; the case was called, evi- 
dence introduced, argument had, and the case submitted to the 


jury by 4 o'clock p. m., but the jurors last named being instigated 
by the devil, and not haying the fear of Grod before their eyes, 
did, then and there, willfully and maliciously "hang that jury" 
all night until 8 o'clock next morning, so as to play a "goake" 
on the newly married member. It is said that Akers proposed 
to pay the plaintiff's claim and costs if the jury would agree to 
this, but Hardy said the defendant shouldn't have a penny, no 
matter who paid it, and Brainard was equally as obstinate. 

Shortly after, his Honor, James Hardy, was inducted into the 
. ofiB.ce of County Judge. In 1854, on a certain day, just as the 
business was being closed up, a young gentleman and lady en- 
tered the ofiSce of the aforesaid oflScial, when the following col- 
loquy ensued: 

Young Man — " Air you the Jedge of this ere county? " 

The Court— "Yes sir." 

Young Man — " Tobitha and me wants to — a — git married, and 
I want you to say the wurds, if ye will." 

Court — " You are both big enough and that is all that is re- 
quired at this time; are you both riddy? " 

Both answering in the afi&rmative, the Court was a little non- 
plussed, not exactly having studied his piece yet, could not 
repeat the marriage ceremony, and as the " court " was presumed 
to know everything, braced himself for the occasion and said: 

" Stand up. Join your left hands and each of you raise your 
right hand;" this being performed, the court used the following 
words, as the marriage ceremony: 

"You, and each of you, solemnly swear that you will sup- 
port the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution 
of the State of Iowa, and that you will faithfully and impar- 
tially discharge the duties of husband and wife to the best of 
your ability, and never apply for a divorce, here or elsewhere, so 
help you God— $2.50, please." 

This, though a little out of form, unquestionably was strong 
enough for all practical purposes. 


John Rogers, (not the one burned at Stnithfield) of Cass town- 
ship, being elected to the position of Justice of the Peace in 
1864, like many other persons when elected to office, determined 
to make the office and personage as exalted as possible, was at 
one time called upon by Isaiah Dungan to act as a court in the 
collection of a claim against a man by the name of Wilson, 
whose initials were not known, but whose residence was on a 
little stream called the "Pigeon." Notice was issued by the court 
and the case entitled, "Isaiah Dungan against the youngest 
Wilson on the Pigeon." The day set for trial arrived, and Court, 
to be certain that his court was convened in due and legal form, 
before proceeding with the case, passed out of the door of his 
cabin, climbed to the highest rail on his fence in front of the 
cabin, and at the top of his voice, said; " Hear ye, hear ye, the 
Honorable Court of the Hon. John Rogers will begin business 
in mighfly short meter; come if you want to." The case being thus 
called the court proceeded to hear the evidence of the plaintiff, 
when a young scion of the court came to the father and attempted 
to climb upon his knee, whereupon the court addressed the 
offending youngster, by saying: " Sonny, stand away; keep off; 
you retard the administration of justice, besides you are bother- 
ing his Honor, this ere court." The evidence being heard, the 
court entered the following judgment, viz. : " It is hereby found 
that plaintiff git of the defendant, the youngest Wilson on the 
Pigeon, the sum of ten dollars and six bits and my costs, and 
the next case is the 'dog case,' " which was a cause set for hear- 
ing the same day, in which the question to be determined was 
the value of a " puppy dog," three weeks old, which had been 
confiscated by one boy from another. 

Hon. L, R. Bolter and P. D. Mickel, at and during the first 
half of the sixties, tried a case before a county justice by the 
name of Isaiah Dungan, on the east side of the county, wherein 
the pivotal point in the case rested on the time of the happen- 
ing of a certain event. It was necessary for Mr. Bolter to show 


that such event happened at and on Christmas day, or his case 
was lost. To prove this circumstance Mr. B. put on the witness 
stand a man by the name of Draper, who testified that he knew 
the matter to have taken place before Christmas — when Mr. 
M. in cross-examination urged the witness to tell how he knew 
that the act took place before that time; to which the witness 
replied: " I know it took place before Christmas, because it took 
place on the 27th of December, and any fool knows that the 27th 
of December is just before Christmas." Mickel now thought he 
had his man, and that the backbone of plaintiff's case was broken, 
and when it came to the argument of the case to the jury, and 
when the case had been argued by Mr. B., the first sentences 
uttered by Mr. M. in opening his argument, were these, viz.: 
"Great God! Gentlemen of the Jury. How can you place any 
confidence in the statements of the witness Draper? That 
man Draper is either an unmitigated liar or else a profound 
ignoramus. Can you believe any man who is so supremely 
ignorant as not to know the day on which Jesus Christ was mur- 
dered? " This was a heroic dose dished out to the jury, and as 
a result Mr. B. won his case; but the sequel showed that Bolter 
had a willful and malicious intent towards Mickel, even after 
distancing him in the trial of this case, because he sent Mickel 
down to stay all night with Eldridge Graham, while he took up 
his evening quarters at the home of a Mr. Smith, near by, where 
the beds were good and the food eatable. On the next morning 
Mr. Bolter drove around to see how Mickel was getting along, 
and coming in sight of the Graham mansion, saw Mickel stand- 
ing a few rods from the door, and as soon as Bolter came up, 
addressed him in this language: " Bolter, you have been guilty 
of conduct unbecoming a lawyer and Democrat. You infernal 
hound, you have sent me to a place inhabited, and where the 
entire family have the itch.'''' Apologies were offered and inno- 
cence urged, whereat the parties became reconciled. 

Captain Wm. M. Hill, who for along time in the early days 


acted as clerk of the courts, had some pretensions to a knowl-. 
edge of the law, and would take cases and attempt to try them 
before what he called " prairie courts." In the trial of a case 
before Sam Sharpneck, a Justice of the Peace in and for Clay 
township, Hill appeared for the defendant, Michael Wallace, and 
Joe Smith appeared for himself; this ante-dating the present 
law permitting parties to the action testifying, the case being 
brought upon a book account. Hill, when Smith produced his 
book, and was about to testify to the correctness of the account, 
objected to Smith testifying, and based the objection on the ex- 
ceptions to the provisions of section 2388, of the Code of 1851, 
viz.: "But an Indian, negro, mulatto or black person shall not 
be allowed to give evidence in any cause wherein a white person 
is a party." "Now," says Hill, after reading the exception, 
" look at Smith and determine if the objection is not well taken." 
The court inspected the plaintiff and attorney, and sustained the 
objection; whereupon Smith hurled a copy of the Code at Hill's 
head, telling him if he would again open his face he would land, 
the Code in his stomach, and thereby he would have more law 
than he ever had. A small row was then in being, when Levi 
Motz interfered, catching each by the collar, restored order; and 
the court, without any evidence, rendered judgment for the plain- 
tiff for half the amount of the claim. 

In the selection of a jury, in the case of the State of Iowa vs. 
James Long, brought from Shelby county on change of venue, 
a long, gaunt fellow, from " Sandy Point," was called into the 
jury box and interrogated, on his voir dire, as to his qualification 
to act as a juror in said case. Among other questions put to 
him touching his competency, the following was propounded: 

Question by the attorney: '' Are you of foreign birth, or are 
you a native-born citizen?" 

Answer by juror: " No, sir; I'm a Missourian." 

The juror was by both parties excused. 

A case was being tried before a certain justice in the " Gumbo " 


district, on the south side of the county, the parties to the action 
heing Seth Chase, plaintiff, vs. Mary Case, defendant. The plain- 
tiff having introduced his evidence, and the defendant but one 
witness — the defendant having testified in her own behalf; her 
testimony being somewhat damaging to the plaintiff, the plain- 
tiff attempted to impeach her, and in this attempt called a cer- 
tain witness on the stand, and propounded the usual interroga- 
tories respecting such conditions, among which questions and 
answers the following was had, viz. : 

By the attorney : " Mr. D., are you acquainted with the defend- 
ant's reputation for truth and veracity, in the neighborhood in 
which she lives?" 

Witness: "Well, Squire, she'd tell the truth; but about her 
veracity, some say she would, and some say she wouldn't.''^ 

One more citation and I will close this already too lengthy 
subject. It is this: At a certain election a certain individual was 
elected to the exalted position of Justice of the Peace, and' be- 
tween the day of election and the first Monday in January fol- 
lowing, the time when they appeared before the county judge 
and qualified, there appeared before this "quasi" court two indi- 
viduals, a gentleman and lady, and requested the official to marry 
them. He had some compunctions of conscience at first, and 
was not really settled in his mind whether at and during this 
" ad interim " he was clothed with sufficient legal authority to 
pronounce the ceremony; but a legal friend at his elbow sug- 
gested that he could marry them ;now, and when he had " qual- 
ified " he could date the marriage certificate back, and no harm 
would be done. This counsel was accepted as a legal verity, and 
the marriage, so far as the saying of the ceremony was concerned 
by the court, and the assent of the pair uniting their destinies 
by this act, was to the satisfaction of all considered consummated, 
when the bride demanded a marriage certificate; whereupon the 
court gave one, being nearly in the words following, viz. : 


' " This is to certify that Mr. A. B. and Miss C. D. appeared 

before me this . . day of , 1858, and wanted to git married; 

whereupon I then and there properly, legally and solemnly pro- 
nounced to you the marriage ceremony, which you both gladly 
assented to. This, then, is to permit you to live in this town- 
ship and do as old folks do, until I get qualified, and when that 
occurs I will give you a certificate, and date it back to this date, 
so as to kiver accidents." 

(Signed) B....W J. P. 

Dated A. D. 1858. 


As well as mail facilities, were luxuries which the early settler 
did not anticipate, and no matter as to the anticipation, if 
anticipated, the bottom soon fell out of the anticipation on 
arriving and settling. From the date of the selecting of the first 
claim in the county, viz. : in the early spring of 1847, up to and until 
the month of June, 1855. there was not a postofiBce in the entire 
county. There were here at that time not less than one thousand 
of a population, and the nearest postoffice Kanesville, or as now 
known, Council Bluffs; and this under a Democratic administra- 
tion. From 1847 to 1855 the only means of obtaining letters 
from the far off home in the east or from the " faderland," was 
to patiently wait until the spirit moved some adventurous mind 
in the neighborhood to journey to Council Bluffs, and while there 
if perchance he thought of it, call at the office, and having ob- 
tained the letters or newspaper, carry them to the person 
addressed in the crown of his hat. The only mail sack used for 
eight years after the first settlement was the hat-crown route, 
which during the days of cheap " non-prohibition," very often 
failed to be on time and make timely connection. 

During the month of June, 1855, the Western Stage Company 
put on a daily line of hacks between Council Bluffs and Sioux 
City, which event was hailed with more delight than was the 


puffing of the locomotive as the railroad train swept grandly down 
the Boyer valley in 1866, connecting Chicago via Clinton and 
Cedar Rapids with Council Bluffs and Omaha, and the govern- 
ment, at the time of the establishment of said hack line, con- 
tracted with the stage company to supply the different places 
along the route with a daily mail. Upon the happening of the 
above there were only three postoffices in the entire county, viz. : 
Magnolia, Calhoun and Pontainebleau, the latter being the 
name of the office at the place where Col. Cochran now occupies 
as a farm, a little distance up the Little Sioux river, on the same 
side on which the village of the same name is now located. 

This Western Stage Company at this time was more arbitrary 
and dignified than the railroads of the present day, and scarcely 
had they made a dozen trips by way of Magnolia until 
Brown, Meeches, and divers other persons of Calhoun, sub- 
sidized the company, and the result was that the county seat at 
Magnolia was " star routed " and supplied by a side mail from 
her rival, Calhoun, and subsequently furnished by a by-path 
from the old " Oaks Station " at the foot of the bluffs, at the 
point where Allen creek debouches into and is lost in the Mis- 
souri bottoms. This treatment to the people of Magnolia was 
accepted as an unpardonable insult, and to make up for this 
defect, they went earnestly to work building churches, school 
houses, a court house, and by these means out rivaled their enemy ; 
for be it known, that Calhoun, though more than thirty years 
old has never possessed sufficient religious enthusiasm to have a 
church building; dispensing with this, she has fallen into inoc- 
uous desuetude; the other, though a distance of six miles from 
railroad, telegraph or telephone, still holds a hand unnerved by 
time or other adverse circumstances. 

The town of Fontainebleau, or La Ponteur's town, having been 
laid out contrary to the wishes and expectations of the original 
settlers o£ the vicinity of the place, and the obtainment of the 
postoffice at that place, precipitated the building of a bridge 


across the Little Sioux river near the site where the present bridge 
is now located at the town of Little Sioux, and as soon as this was 
completed, Hon. Thos. B. Neely, S. W. Condit, David Garnet, et 
al., all being grade Democrats, brought their united strength to 
bear upon the department at W^ashington, and had the postoffice 
changed from Fontainebleau to Little Sioux. The travel then 
turned from the foot of the bluifs across the Little Sioux river at 
Little Sioux town, and from this place on north to Ashton, then 
the county seat of Monona county. This circumstance happen- 
ing in 1857, the postoffice has remained at the latter place ever 
since. Fontainebleau lapsed back into her virgin condition and 
now constitutes a part of one of the best farms in the county. 

The town of St. Johns, on the left bank of the Boyer river, 
nearly opposite the present site of Missouri Valley, being laid out 
in the summer of 1857, soon after birth began to assume metro- 
politan airs, and by the spring of 1858 had sufficient settle- 
ment and population to be entitled to postal facilities, and then, 
as now, the inhabitants being largely of the Democratic political 
faith, demanded of the bachelor President, James Buchanan, the 
establishment of a postoffice at that place, which request, as soon 
as received, was promptly granted, and the Western Stage Com- 
pany were ordered to supply this place with mail facilities, which 
was accordingly done, until Missouri Valley swallowed up the sur- 
rounding country and made such changes that a postoffice at 
the old town was no longer needed. 

In the month of May, 1858, two additional routes were let 
and put in operation, viz.: One from Magnolia to Adel in Dallas 
county, passing through by way of Butler's Mills, Olmstead, 
thence to Galland's Grove at Shelbyville, the then seat of 
justice of Shelby county, and on east through Audubon and 
Guthrie counties to the terminus last named. At this time 
postoffices were established at Butler's Mills and Olmstead, and 
supplied semi-weekly. Several individuals of recent settlement 
in the county have inquired as to the origin of the name of the 


town of Woodbine, and why so named. In reply I will say, as 
did old Adam in the garden of Eden, when a certain question 
was propounded to him, "A woman did it." Mr. L. D. Butler 
at this time was the owner of and resided with his family at the 
Butler Mills, and in the spring of 1858, when the question was 
asked " what shall be the name of our postoffice," Mrs. Butler, 
who was born in merry old England, and had never forgotten 
the clusters of woodbine that ran up and clambered around the 
doors and windows of the old far off home, promptly requested 
that she should be permitted to name the new postoffice, and 
when assent was given, she promptly gave the same the name 
of Woodbine, in consequence of the conditions last above 
stated. This line was so changed in 1863 as to leave Wood- 
bine and Manteno off the route, and ran from Magnolia to 
Whitesboro — then a postoffice; thence to Jeddo, Jason Z.Hunt 
postmaster; thence direct to Havlan and on to Adel as above 

Henry Olmstead, who settled in the spring of 1857, at the 
place where this postoffice was established, had the place or 
office named after himself, but upon the completion of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern railroad down the Boyer, this office was 
discontinued, and the mail sent to this office was ordered to be 
sent to Dunlap. 

The other line, established in 1858, as before stated, had its 
initial point at Magnolia, and ran semi-weekly towards the west, 
to De Soto, in Washington county, Nebraska, a distance of quite 
thirty-five miles by the route then traveled, and many of the 
settlers of that time will yet remember the " carry-all " of Mr. 
Jerome Seely, who at that time was the servant of the Demo- 
cratic administration which compelled him to wade, swim or 
boat the country through from the edge of the bluffs on the 
Iowa side so as to land the United States mails safely on the 
Nebraska side at the place of destination at any bluff where 
there was sufficient dry land to afford opportunity for distribu- 


tion. These routes were continued until the running of mails on 
the cars on the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, and on the S. C. 
& Pacific railroad, a circumstance which took place in 1866-7. 

At the inception of the year 1864, the postal department 
established a post-route from Council Bluffs via Crescent 
City, Harris Grove, Reeder's Mills, Woodbine, Manteno, and 
from thence to Olmstead and then on to Ft. Dodge. The 
first contractor on this route was one James Billings, known by 
all persons as " Laughing Jim," (the music o£ whose laughter 
was more forcible than elegant), which provided for a semi- 
weekly service and continued up to 1866. 

In 1863 there was also established a weekly route from Mag- 
nolia to Smithland on the south line of Woodbury county, fur- 
nishing Preparation, Mt. Pisgah, Belvidere and Castana with 
postal facilities, which continued up to and until 1867, at the 
time the Sioux City road began the carrying of the mails. 

In the fall of 1866, at the time at which the C. & N. W. rail- 
road began her regular trips down the Boyer Valley and had 
reached Council Bluffs, the Western stage from the last named 
place to Sioux City was dispensed with so far as the Magnolia 
mail was concerned, and Magnolia was supplied with mails from 
Woodbine by a daily service run and operated by George R. 
and Orville Brainard, which service was continued up to and 
until a postoffice was established at Logan, which was in the 
fall of 1867. And here let it be remembered that the railroads, 
with all their boasted magnanimity, passed and repassed the 
town of Logan for nearly one year from the time of the first 
trip, before any mails were given off for the accommodation of 
the citizens of the community. Not until there were orders 
from the postal department of a peremptory character, did 
this neighborhood receive any benefits from this important 
factor of the Government. 

From 1867 up to the present Magnolia has been supplied with 
a daily mail from Logan, a place which is the depot of, or the 


greatest distributing point in Harrison county. From this place 
at the present, the mails for one fourth of the county, at the 
present, are separated and forwarded to the places of destination. 
Here all the mail matter for Reeder.'s Mills, Valley View, Persia, 
Needmore, Beebetown and Magnolia is sacked and forwarded to 
the respective places of destination. The Calhoun, Whitesboro, 
Jeddo, Raglan and Harris Grove postofi&ces are discontinued, 
and in lieu of the old order of things, Dunlap, Woodbine, and Mis- 
souri Valley are furnished with four mails per day, viz. : two east 
and two west, alternating morning and evening, so that no 
better accommodation could now be had either as to the times of 
mails or gentility of the postmasters. While this is a Demo- 
cratic administration, no more competent man ever filled the 
position of postmaster than Doc. Massie, the present official at 

California Junction, Modale, Mondamin, River and Little Sioux 
are equally accommodated in this respect, and all goes merry as 
a marriage bell. If the reader will pardon a little digression I 
will relate the thoughts of a few of the " gentler sex " on the 
old order of postoffices and time of getting letters as to the 
early days of western Iowa : " Why," says one, " I could never 
wait for my fellow to go thirty-five miles to a postoffice to 
obtain my letters, carry them home and then travel a distance 
of thirty-five miles more to mail the answer — think of the poor 
fellow travelling 140 miles .to hear from me and answer my let- 
ters — this life is too short for such circumlocution." The 
other said, " I would go to my male by the most direct mail route 
and stay." 


In the years 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, and up 
to 1866, was very different from that of the present day. At the 
present date, little if any difference exists between the advan- 
tages of the Slope counties and that of the most refined location 
of the most fastidious East. But do the people of the present 


for one moment think of the embarrassments, barren privileges, 
isolations from society and hardships the fathers and mothers 
were compelled to endure while this part of the country was 
merging from nature's primitive state into that of civilization, a 
crystalization of society? How many of the present generation 
would be willing to forego the pleasures and comforts of home 
and go on a pilgrimage of seventy miles to procure a half bushel 
of seed corn, so as to have something to place in Mother 
Earth, in order to have the roasting ear, or when the same 
became ripened by the lapse of time into the full-fledged ear; 
then when ripe for the sickle, to pluck the same and then return, 
either on foot or by ox team the same distance, viz. : seventy 
miles, in order to have the same crushed into meal to be used for 
corn dodger, hoe-cake or mush . 

Daniel Brown, Uriah Hawkins, E. T. Hardin, Ira Perjue, Ezra 
Vincent, Lucius Merchant, George Blackman, Amos Chase, the 
father of the Cutler boys, Jerry Motz, Levi Motz, George 
Mefford, John Jeffrey, and all others who settled in this county 
prior to 1853, were by force of circumstances compelled to go to 
Coolidge's rbill on the Pigeon, which was two miles north of the 
town of Crescent City, or to Coonsville (now known as Glenwood), 
in order to have any meal ground by the process now in opera- 
tion. A biscuit of wheaten bread was a luxury that the parents 
and children of that day and generation did not aspire to, 
and in case there were such a delicacy as a loaf of wheat bread 
or a dish of wheat biscuit set upon the table, the immediate inquiry 
from the children was. Where did this come from, or Who 
has been married ? 

Up to the year of 1855 there was not a flouring mill north of 
the Pigeon, and the only mill north of Council Bluffs at and 
during the year of 1854 was the one known as the Coolidge mill, 
just up the bluffs from Cresent City, which was in 1854 pur- 
chased of Coolidge by one William Reel, a brother to Henry 
Eeel, who is now a resident of Logan, and built and ran the mill 


near to Logan, known all through the country, for twenty years, 
as Reel's Mills. 

Mr. George Blackman, as well as all others who resided here 
prior to 1854, had quite a gala day in going and returning from 
mill. The ox team was the propelling power of transportation, 
and when the Willow, Boyer, or Pigeon was reached, there 
being at that time no bridges, the ax in the hand of the driver 
felled the tree across the unbridged stream, the oxen were 
unyoked and made to swim the river, the wagon taken in pieces 
and carried by main strength and awkwardness across on the 
impromptu bridge as well as the grist, and this modus operandi, 
ad infinitum, until the mill was reached and the return home 
was consummated. 

The covered wagon was the car of the prairie, in which the fam- 
ily and goods pertaining to household affairs were transported, and 
this was rigged with as much care as to room and comfort as the 
present palace car. Every nook, cranny or corner was utilized, 
for those who have experienced this modus of travel say that it 
is surprising into what smallness of space a small family of ten 
or fifteen can be stowed away by the experienced conductor or 
conductoress. These trains, though not traversing more than ten 
to twenty miles per day, at some time in life generally struck the 
terminus of the route, yet with all the slowness of the journey, 
many there are of the present day who would prefer to travel by 
this kind of conveyance rather than by the rapid going of the 
lightning train which measures the distances by hours rather 
than by miles. The constant change of scenery, as well as the 
independence of owning a person's own train and making out 
their own time table, possessed a charm fully appreciated by the 
old-timers of 1847 to 1866. 

The bill of fare at and during the time last named did not cover 
the space and contain the Frenchified airs of the present, for at 
that time a saddle of venison, a cup of cold water, a quarter sec- 
tion of baked squash and a good hoe-cake, filled the cup of bless- 


ings, and they who subsisted on these were as brave, whole- 
souled, brawny men as ever located in a new country, shouldered 
the rifle and built and defended the cabin. 

All settlers up to the fall of 1853 were, as just before stated, 
compelled to go to Coolidge's mill or Reel's mill, on the Pigeon, or 
if there were too many ahead of the party lately arriving, then 
there was no alternative but to push on to Coonsville (now Glen- 
wood) and there court the smiles of Dame Fortune. These trips to 
the mill scarcely ever were completed sooner than a week or ten 
days, but when the rations of corn meal or the little sack of wheat 
flour did come, it was far more appreciated than at this date. 
At and during the fall of 1853, Stephen Mahoney and Jonas 
W. Chatburn attached a kind of corn cracker to their saw 
mill, located on the Willow, and during the latter part of a cer- 
tain day began the grinding of corn. This was hailed as a 
great benefit to the country, but scarcely had they pulverized a 
half score of bushels till they were called to supper by their 
good wives and treated to a nice dish of corn bread, the first 
ground by the new mill, and as soon as the meal was completed 
they again returned to the mill to furnish meal for other families, 
who, like themselves, were anticipating a morsel of this luxury, 
when returning, to their horror, the infernal wolves had broken 
the connection between the cracker and the power, by eating the 
raw hides which had been used as belting. 

This misfortune caused many a boy to dispense with his corn 
"dodger" until such times as the proprietors of this merchant mill 
could butcher another cow and stretch and dry the hide, so as to 
make desired connection with the corn cracker and saw mill. In 
the month of December, of the same year, Mr. Henry Reel had 
his mill on the Boyer, being the same which Mr. James McCoid 
now owns and operates, in running order, and this gave to all 
the people on the east of the Boyer and north a chance to get 
meal, which at that time was run night and day to supply the 


At the time Mr. Henry Reel settled here in 1852, there was not 
another white settler between the present site of Logan town and 
the residence or tract of land on the Boyer, known as the Joe 
Hill place, in Pottawattamie county, except the location made 
by William Dakan, on what is now known as the Joe Culver 
farm, not far from the old town of St. Johns, on the east side of 
the Boyer. There was not at the time last named another settler 
on the Boyer between this location and the north pole; neither 
were the Pigeon, Boyer, Willow, Soldier or the Little Sioux 
rivers bridged except during the winter, when nature furnished 
bridges at little tax to the settlers. 

In the fall of 1856 Mr. Reel so far improved his mills as to 
grind wheat, and from that time up to the present the process of 
swimming rivers to procure milling has been dispensed with. 

In the fall of 1855 and spring of 1856 Mr. L. D. Butler and a 
Mr. Coolidge built a mill at or near Woodbine, and this, together 
with one erected and put in operation on the Willow by Mr. 
James Hardy and Jake Huffman, in 1856, placed Harrison county 
so far as milling facilities were concerned, far ahead of any of 
the sister counties of the slope. 

Away back in 1856 and 1857 it was as good as attending a 
circus to listen to Mr. L. D. Butler and Jake Huffman joke each 
other about the different ways they manipulated the grists of 
their patrons so as to leave the unfortunate owner a little of the 
grist and all of the sack. This, though only a war of words, 
would oftentimes warm up to such a degree of intensity that those 
not acquainted with the men would suppose that they were 
about to devour each other. Some one attempting to write a 
history of Harrison county has said that the saw mill of Maho- 
ney & Chatburn, at Magnolia, was the first mill in the county to 
saw a plank, but there are others who claim that the mill built 
on the Willow, near Calhoun, antedated that of Mahoney & 
Chatburn. As to this fact I will not now attempt a decision, 
from the fact that such a circumstance would not at this day 


and generation be used as a political fact in the election of a 
president or in the establishment of a church. 

In 1853 two men, by the names of Greenman and Allen, con- 
structed a mill on Allen creek, just west of Magnolia, which 
proved to be a sort of thundergust arrangement, and would only 
run for a short time after a rain, because of lack of water, and 
just below this a mill frame was put up by Jacob Huffman. 
This never was completed, but was taken down by Hardy and 
Huffman and rebuilt on the Willow as before mentioned. 

Owen Thorpe built a saw mill on Six Mile creek in 1856, and 
at the same time old Grandfather William Reeder erected one 
on the same creek thtee or four miles further down. These, 
though not manufacturing lumber with the rapidity which the 
steam mills of the present do, still for a new county the same 
served an excellent purpose. At this age these old "up and 
down " saw mills, in which the saw rose with the sun and set 
when the sun went down, would tire the patience of "Young 
America " because of the fast conditions and brevity of human 

As to the hardships of frontier life I cannot better represent 
the same, than by giving the statements, verbatim, as given me 
by Mrs. Sally Young, the oldest woman in the neighborhood of 
Logan, and who has continuously resided in the vicinity ever 
since the summer of 1850. Mrs. Young is the widow of David 
Young, deceased; and is the mother, grand-mother or great- 
grand-mother of the entire Young family: 

" We located in this county in 1850, and here found, as we 
thought, the garden of Eden, a vast prairie of beautiful flowers 
and a great abundance of wild fruits. At this time the country 
was very thinly settled, our nearest neighbors being six miles 
away; the nearest trading point Council Bluffs; nearest mill 
seventeen miles, and flour sixteen dollars per barrel and groceries 
quite as expensive. By 1851 our provisions were nearly ex- 
hausted, and the water in the Pigeon being so low they could 


not crack corn, we were compelled to grate all our meal on corn 
graters made out of old tin, but we had a large supply of meat, 
including venison, prairie hens, wild turkeys, etc., etc. 

" We were told, when moving here, that we could not keep 
horses because the flies were so bad, and we traded our horses for 
oxen, and when we arrived on the Boyer we found the state- 
ment to be true, for the flies were so numerous and so plentiful 
that we could not work the oxen in the heat of the day, when 
the flies were bad, for they would have been eaten up, and 
only escaped by hiding themselves in the thickets, and when 
night came we would have teams hitched up and do our work 
after dark. The mosquitoes were very bad, and during all of the 
summer time we were compelled to keep a smoke in the house 
from sunset until the following morning, so as to keep these 
insects away. Wolves were quite plenty and very troublesome, 
for at the middle of a certain day two attacked a yearling calf 
near our door, and one of the boys ran out with the gun and 
shot one while the rascal was trying to kill the calf. 

" I, on my way to the county, had bought a pair of chickens, 
and in the first fall after locating here a lynx came nearly to the 
house and tried to carry away the old hen, but the dog rescued 
her twice, but Mr. Lynx, at the third trial, was determined and 
finally made a Methodist supper on old ' Speckle.' 

" The deer were doubly as numerous as wolves, for I could look 
out of our door at most any time of day and see a herd of them 
peacefully grazing on the prairies. No bridges, then, on the 
Boyer; each man made his own bridge, by felling a tree across 
the stream for his own convenience. Our first home was a little 
log shanty, covered with puncheons split out of the log with the 
axe, and the chimney was made of sods. Notwithstanding all that 
I have said, I do think that these few first years we settled here 
were the happiest of our lives, because we were anxious to get 
homes and care for our families, which at times were quite numer- 


ous, and these cares took up all our time, so that we did not 
have time to think of hardships or dangers. 

" With all the deprivations of the early days, viewed from this 
standpoint of quite forty years, there was much to brighten 
and cheer the settler, from the fact that there were oceans of 
game, tons upon tons of summer and fall acids, in the shape of 
plums, grapes, early strawberries, together with a hundred 
things of which time and space prohibit present mention. 

" The thousands of deer which roamed up and down the val- 
leys, crossed from valley to vale by the very many runways, these 
to be had at the little cost of shooting and dressing, gave to the 
larder all, yea, perhaps better than is now experienced by many, 
who at the present live in this, what is now termed the land of 
plenty. Great droves of wild turkeys lined the skirts and inter- 
ior of every timber track, and honey was far more plentiful then 
than now." 

Mr. Richard Musgrave of Twelve Mile Grove, Horatio Cay- 
wood, Daniel Brown, Levi Motz, Jerry Motz, George Blackman, 
Nephi Yocum, and the Alexander boys, all tell me that at many 
times the eye taking in the landscape from some little promon- 
tory would often see as many as two or three hundred deer at a 
time; would look somewhat like unto a flock or flocks of sheep, 
all quietly grazing until some old sentinel would give the alarm, 
when the entire herd would flee with a fleetness for which 
these timid creatures are so noted. 

A turkey roast could be had as often as the appetite craved 
this luxury. In fact the palate was so often regaled by this 
magnificent diet that the same ceased to be a luxury and at 
many times became insipid by reason of its bounteousness. 

The only bear killed or seen in the county was in the winter 
of 1857 and 1858. It was killed by George Gay wood in the willows 
in Clay township. 'Tis said that George was the most thor- 
oughly frightened hunter, at the time he killed the big monster, 
that ever captured a coon or shot a deer. The circumstances of 


the killing were these : he had been out in the willows which 
abound so plentifully in that township, all the afternoon of the 
day, killing wild-cats; his hounds gave tongue, and he, supposing 
that they had a cat at bay, crept carefully up to the place indi- 
cated by the dogs, and by reason of the denseness of these willow 
glades, was within fifteen feet of Mr. Bruin, before he saw the 
game or the bear saw him. As soon as the bear saw the hunter 
he rose on his hind feet and in this erect position charged the 
hunter, when Cay wood, who was so badly frightened that he could 
scarcely hold his gun, managed to cock and bring the same to 
his face and fired. He threw down his firearm, ran like a canine 
to which a can had been attached to his " narrative " for home, a 
distance of two miles, and told the father and Frank what he 
had seen and done. The night being then well developed, they 
all waited until the morning light and then set out for the hunt- 
ing ground; when arriving at the spot they found the bear dead, 
and when drawn home it weighed something over 300 pounds. 

On inspection of the animal, it was found that Caywood had 
made a capital shot and had perforated the heart of the bear. 

Many assertions have been made in regard to the presence 
of the larger game, viz.: buffalo, elk, etc., since the organization 
of the county in 1853, and no person has hugged the truth as 
closely as George Musgrave (editor of the Logan Observer), who 
in 1851 was but a beardless boy and settled with his father, Mr. 
Uichard Musgrave, in the valley of the Boyer,in Boyer township. 

This question being under discussion, the following is from 
the able and racy pen of this veteran editor. It was produced in 
the columns of the Logan Observer of date of March 6, 1887: 

"the last BUFFALO. 

"Reference has been made in the papers to the killing of a 
buffalo in this county, which occurred about the year 1863, and 
when alluded to it is spoken of as ' the last of its species ever 
killed in Harrison county,' which is true enough. But it is also 


true that it was the first buffalo ever killed or seen by any white 
man, so far as there is any record or proof, inside of this county. 
The year 1850 is about as early as any settlement is known to 
have been made in this county, prior to which it was entirely 
uninhabited and almost unvisited by white men, and yet not one 
of these first settlers has ever been found who has ever seen or 
heard of any one claiming to have seen buffaloes here. In 1851 
there were plenty of elk and deer, with evidences of their having 
inhabited these parts for years past, their horns being thickly 
strewn over the virgin prairies everywhere, in all stages of per- 
fection and decay. But such evidence of the presence of buffalo 
was rarely found, which convinces the writer that the home of 
the king of the plains has been wholly west of the Missouri for the 
past seventy-five j'^ears at least. The one alluded to as the ' last 
ever seen here,' was first discovered near the Beyer river in Boyer 
township, a short distance north of the farm of Josiah Coe. A 
few of the neighbors got after it on horseback and gave chase in 
an easterly direction, pursuing it very closely for five or six 
miles. They chased it around the east side of Twelve Mile 
Grove, across the farms of Matthew Hall and George Mefford, 
over on to the south branch of the Picayune, where G. W. Pugs- 
ley then resided, who happened to be standing in the door of his 
cabin and saw the horsemen driving the huffalo before them 
directly towards him. Seizing his rifle he stepped out, and when 
the buffalo approached within a few rods and stopped, nearly 
exhausted, he drew a bead and fortunately brought the noble 
fellow down, when but a few seconds elapsed ere his pursuers were 
all around and on top of him. Thus the last and first buffalo 
was dispatched. The writer ate a share of the meat. At this time 
we thought the county pretty well settled. The elk had all dis- 
appeared years before and the sight of a deer had become a rare 
curiosity. Where this buffalo came from remains a mystery, but 
it had evidently strayed from the herd at least a hundred miles 
away. None were then known to approach nearer than fifty or 


seventy-five miles to the Missouri river from the western plains 
beyond, where at that time countless thousands of them roamed, 
almost unmolested." 

In numerous places in the county, even at present, large quan- 
tities of the bones of buffalo are found; usually in and near 
what were formerly marshy places, and along the little creeks 
where the banks are constantly bdng washed away by the fresh- 
ets of the country or where the banks are caving in by reason 
of the frosts and atmospheric agencies. Mr. Jacob Stern tells 
me of fishing out of a spring along some of the little branches 
in Harris Grove, about the year 1858, a very large buffalo skull, 
which from its appearance indicated that it had laid covered up 
in that place for a long time. Also Mr. William Frazier, an old 
veteran of the Mexican war, and who has been a resident of this 
county for the past thirty-three years, informs me that near his 
residence, a short distance from the place known as " Reeder's 
Mills," there is a small stream, in the banks of which the soil is 
full of bones of this animal, so much so that the attention of 
all is called to the peculiar characteristics, and wonder how this 
particular spot should contain so many bones. This undoubt- 
edly was, some time in the past, a very marshy place, and from 
the manner in which these bones are placed, would indicate that 
the animals had mired and the skeletons have remained from 
that date to the present intact. 

Plentiful as were the deer and elk at the beginning of settle- 
ment, they have faded out of existence entirely in the State of 
Iowa at the present; but up to the winter of 1856 and 1857 — a 
winter which is known by all the old settlers as the " hard win- 
ter " — they were so abundant that they were scarcely considered 
as a luxury or even a necessity as a family diet. On the 3d 
day of December, 1856, a little snow began falling in the morn- 
ing, increasing in force from minute to minute for three days, 
and to the fall of the snow was added that terrible gain twist 
that Iowa winds can produce, and this of such force that neither 


man nor beast could find the path or highway for twenty rods, 
and lasting as above stated for seventy-two hours without a par- 
ticle of intermission, heaped and drove the snow high above and 
over every obstacle, the particles of snow, frozen as hard as the 
hardest diamonds, cut and drifted into every nook, crevice and 
cranny, so that when the winds had subsided there was found to 
be quite a four foot depth of snow all over the county. This 
great snow-fall being in two or three weeks supplemented by a 
two days' drizzling rain, and this again freezing, left this surface 
so encrusted with ice that men, dogs and wolves could travel as 
readily as though upon the bare surface of Mother Earth, but 
alas for the poor deer and elk! they were left at the mercy of 
man, Indian and wolf, for every attempt to flee found them 
leaping into drifts of snow to the depths above stated, and these 
encrusted with ice so strong as to bear up a man, the icy surface 
cut their limbs so that they were wholly at the mercy of every 
foe. Hundreds of deer were butchered through pure wanton- 
ness, and nearly exterminated at this period. 


The beaver (castor, cuv), a fur bearing amphibious animal of 
the rodent or gnawing order (rodenta). The beaver has the 
head compressed, with an unbroken line of profile from occiput 
to muzzle; two large incisors and eight molars in each jaw, with 
large and powerful muscles, regulating the movements of the 
inferior jaw; eyes disproportionately small and vision of short 
range; ears very small but hearing acute; sense of smell power- 
ful; body short between the fore and hind legs, broad, heavy 
and clumsy; length when full grown, from end of nose to tip of 
tail, three feet six inches; weight from thirty to forty pounds. 
The fore feet of the beaver are digitigrade and the hinder ones 
plantigrade. The paws are small in proportion to the animal. In 
swimming they are not used and are folded under the body; but 
they are capable of some rotary movement, which enables the 


beaver to handle and carry sticks, limbs of trees, mud and stones, 
and to use his paws as hands while sitting up or walking on his 
hind legs. The hind feet are the propelling power in swim- 
ming, and the feet are fully webbed to the root of the claws. The 
most conspicuous organ, the tail, is from ten to eleven inches 
long and five and a half broad, nearly flat, straight and covered 
with black horny scales. The common error that the tail is the 
beaver's trowel is confuted by the fact that the animal always 
uses mud and soft earth as mortar, but it serves as a pounder 
to pack mud and earth in constructing lodges and dams, is 
used in swimming as a scull, assists in diving, and by striking 
a powerful blow, the report of which can be heard at a distance 
of half a mile, it gives an alarm; while the strong muscles 
enables the beaver when standing erect to use the tail as a prop. 
The female brings forth from two to six young in May and 
weans them in six weeks. 

For commercial purposes, besides its fur, the beaver furnishes 
captoreum, a secretion used in medicine as an antispasmodic, and 
its flesh is much esteemed as food by trappers and Indians. The 
beaver is social, pairs and brings up a family to maturity, and 
sometimes two or more families inhabit the same pond. The 
common supposition that beavers live in villages or colonies is 
erroneous. All the inhabitants may assist in constructing or 
repairing the common dam, but each family has its own lodge, 
and burrows and lays in its own supply of provisions for the 

As their work is carried on by night, little is actually known 
of their methods except from the examination of what they 

These peculiar, industrious and harmless animals, as far 
back as the memory of man runneth not to the contrary, were 
very numerous along all the streams in the county. The Sol- 
dier in 1856 and 1857 was an especial resort and home for them. 
At a point directly in front of the residence of Mr. Abraham 


Ritchison, in Taylor township, in 1856 and 1857, there were trees 
then standing on the left bank of the Soldier river that were 
more than two-thirds gnawed off by these little fellows, ^ome of 
the trees being sixteen inches in diameter, and the place where 
the cutting was done looked like some carpenter had tried to fell 
the trees by the use of a sort of gouge, the marks of their teeth 
being plainly seen. Here at this place and a short distance 
below, dams were constructed with as much architectural neat- 
ness as though planned and executed by the most skillful human 

Who of the readers of these thoughts ever saw a beaver slide? 
if not, they could find a reproduction thereof by visiting a 
swimming place of the boys of the period, constructed by 
them during a summer's vacation. The Willow has ever been 
the home of a family of beavers, for since the time of the 
first settlement along this stream, near the present residences 
of Michael Doyle and Dr. J. H. Rice, in Calhoun town- 
ship, each year these curious little fellows have built a dam in 
this river at this place. Cottonwood, willow and box-elder have 
been by them felled and carried into the said stream of such size 
as would astonish any person not acquainted with the habits of 
these animals. As late as 1886 a very large beaver was killed at 
the place last named, and being of such monstrous size, the 
same was shipped to Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, by young 
Mr. W. G. Rice, and when received there was, by the professors 
of that institution, skinned and mounted. It was a very handsome 
specimen and highly prized by the professors. During the past 
winter (1887) six large, healthy, full-grown ones have been cap- 
tured at this place, and still the family is not exterminated. In 
the early days of the county the beavers were so plenty that the 
skins were not so prized as at the present day, for then it was no 
uncommon sight to see a man wearing a beaver vest, cap, over- 
coat and mittens. The Butler boys at Woodbine during the 
past winter have captured more than twenty of these fur-bear- 


ing animals in the Boyer since January, and I am informed that 
there are a goodly number still along this river and its tributa- 

" A quarter of a century ago the beavers were very numerous 
along Harris Grove creek, and gave the supervisors great annoy- 
ance to the public road from being flooded by their dams, on the^ 
farm now owned by John Reed. If the dams were cut away in 
the daytime, the beavers would build them up at night. Arnold 
Divilbess and Tom Reed were two ambitious boys at that time. 
They volunteered to help the supervisors out of their beaver 
dam trouble. They constructed a hiding place on the creek and 
proposed to sit up with the beavers one night. With rifles in 
hand they kept a quiet watch, but no beavers were seen that 
night. Then the supervisor hired some old trappers to come 
and give them attention, and they made it pay well, and soon 
cleaned out the beavers. The beavers had cut down over one 
hundred willow trees at that time near the creek, some of the 
trees ten inches in diameter. I picked up a willow stick four 
feet long, something larger than a walking stick, to show the 
children the clear cut marks of the beaver's teeth. It was 
thrown aside and after a month or two it was seen to be sprout- 
ing, and was stuck in the ground near the old well. In a few 
years it grew to be a tree of large proportions, measuring five 
feet in circumference around the butt. It may yet be seen on 
the old farm at Linnwood. The beaver is not apt to cut down 
very large trees or try to dam very large streams. But a mar- 
velous story is told of their cutting a cottonwood tree on the 
banks of the Boyer, west of Longman's farm, about twenty 
inches in diameter, and it fell right across the deep river, and 
was used by neighbors as a foot-log for some time, it being three 
or four miles up or down the stream to a bridge. It was sup- 
posed the beavers intended to try and dam the river, but found 
the water too deep for them. 

" The beaver is the best fur-bearing animal in the world. The 


Dutch West India company began the trade in America in 1824. 
They exported that year 400 skins; in 1743 the Hudson Bay 
company exported 150,000 skins. During the years 1854, 1855 
and 1856, this company sold in London 627,655 skins. In order 
to protect this profitable business, a law was made that after a 
season's hunting and trapping on a given territory, no more 
hunting and trapping should be done there for five years. But 
it is not possible for the beaver to recover its former number in 
any region. The value of the beaver fur and skin may be esti- 
mated from the durability of the beaver cap. I wore one nine- 
teen winters, and it was still good for further service, and Alfred 
Longman must have worn his nearly as long. No wonder the 
Dutch used beaver skins as part of the currency in New Amster- 
dam. Nearly equal to gold and silver." 

The above is from the pen of J. T. Stern, Esq., on whom I 
have largely drawn in many matters pertaining to subjects 
herein mentioned. 


Has been a great source of sport to all who have a taste for this 
kind of amusement as well as a love for the flesh of the finny 
tribe. The county being so largely supplied with lakes and lake- 
lets, as well as being bounded on the west by the Missouri river, 
together with such streams as the Little Sioux, Boyer, Soldier 
and the Willow, the same have furnished all piscatorially inclined 
full sweep for entertainment in this rarest of good sport. The 
reader must now understand that I am not going to tell a "fish" 
story, but a true one, and it is this: 

The first large fish caught in Harrison county waters was in 
the summer of 1857, just below the mouth of the Little Sioux, 
by Mr. Henry Herring. Mr. Herring had set a "trot" line, 
using a number of bed cords for that purpose; to this he firmly 
attached a considerable number of large hooks, baiting the same 
with what in fishing parlance is called " dope," a preparation of 


flour, water and cotton. This is rolled into a ball of proper size 
and fastened to the large hooks, when the same is placed at the 
locality where the fisher thinks is the best place for fishing. 

At the time above referred to, Mr. Herring, having put out his 
lines the evening before, when morning came went to see the luck 
of the night's effort, and lo! he thought he had captured a whale 
or a big cottonwood log, for the fish seemed so large that his eyes 
bugged out at the sight of the catch. Having got his fish safely 
on shore and having weighed it, it kicked the beam at 130 pounds 
It was one of the catfish which accompanied Lewis and Clarke on 
their exploration trip up the Missouri river in 1804. 

The same summer, in the Little Sioux river, just opposite the 
village of Little Sioux, Mr. David Gamett drew the lucky line 
which brought to the banks so large a catfish that he could not 
carry it up the banks of this beautiful stream. At this time 
Moses German and Mr. Perkins were operating a ferry boat at 
Little Sioux, made necessary in order to detract the travel from 
along the bluffs, so as to take the wind out of Fontainebleau. Mr. 
Gamett was setting on his ferry boat manifesting a patience such 
as only fishermen possess, the remainder of the party, Sol. 
Gamett, David Gamett, Isaac Gamett and Josiah Crom, having 
gone out on a foraging expedition to obtain something for them- 
selves, when they soon heard a terrible cry from the old gentle- 
man on the boat, and they thinking that some harm had befallen 
Mr. Gamett, rushed frantically to his assistance, and what was 
their surprise at seeing the father tugging with might and main 
to hold this "whale of a catfish," which was still in the water, 
affording the old gentleman all the amusement he could spare, 
in holding the fish. The united effort of the boys and Mr. Crom 
soon brought the fish to shore, landed safely on terra firma. 
When weighed it marked the figures of 143 pounds by the steel- 

Mr. Jas. Henderson, of Jefferson township, residing near Reed- 
er's mills, is a great lover of the sport of fishing, and though at 


present he is in his seventies, his early love for sport of this kind 
has not abated a whit in his present make up. This good old 
Democrat during the fall of each year takes a fishing tour to either 
the Missouri river, the Little Sioux, or to some of the old river 
beds tangent to the old " muddy." Though still loving the sport 
of catching catfish, he has lost all the taste for their flesh, which 
loss of taste therefor was brought about as follows: 

During the early autumn of 1867, the gentleman last named, 
Thomas Henderson, and old Uncle Wm. Tucker (all neighbor 
farmers), were on a fishing excursion to Little Sioux, and when 
selecting a place where they thought the biggest fish had set- 
tled, took up their quarters just below the Scofield dam, then in 
the Sioux river at the mill. Those having supplied themselves 
with minnows and frogs when crossing the Boyer, found plenty 
of fun and success as long as the minnows and frogs lasted, but 
as soon as these were exhausted the fish went on a strike, and 
would not pay the least attention to the bait on their hooks. 
They all being somewhat tinctured with Methodism, and recol- 
lecting how their good wives had prepared dinners for the min- 
isters, who called frequently at their homes, came to the conclu- 
sion that probably the catfish were like the ministers, somewhat 
of specialists in regard to diet, and that yellow-limbed spring 
chicken would tempt their tastes. As soon as this was deter- 
mined on in their council of war, one of their number soon had 
at the tent the requisition more than filled, and the sprightly 
forms of these young Little Sioux cockerels and pullets were 
soon transfixed to the hooks and thrown to the supposed hungry, 
scaleless finny epicureans. Here a half day was wasted, there 
not being the slightest "nibble" given, and this bevy of gran- 
gers began to be disgusted with the perversity manifested by 
the fish, as well as being smoked out by the smell of a putrid 
dog, which had been shored at a distance of two or three rods from 
the place where the lines were set. Mr. James Henderson, in 
order to free the atmosphere from the taint occasioned by this 


eighty pound decaying dog, took a stick o£ wood and rolled the 
carcass into the river. Scarcely had this mass of putridity 
floated one rod from shore, when there came to the surface of 
the water such an enormous fish that at one gulp the carcass of 
the dog was swallowed down. " What was it? Did you see it ? " 
was the quick query of all. That evening the party changed 
bait, and put on their hooks " dope " bait, and in the morning 
on taking up their lines found on one of the hooks the same 
identical fish which on the previous afternoon had swallowed 
the putrid carcass of the dog. This fishy fellow, after taking 
his dinner of dog, wanted to top off the evening meal with toast, 
not being sufficiently educated in the sciences as to have 
formed a reliable taste for spring chicken. When the party had 
shored this fish they thought it possible that he was the same 
personage which had appropriated the dog, and immediately set 
about holding an inquest, and to their astonishment, in the in- 
testines or stomach of the fish they found the dog which had 
given them such offense. This fish, when its insides were ex- 
tracted, weighed 125 pounds; but for all that, Mr. James Hen- 
derson says he has lost all appetite for catfish, so occasioned by 
reason of the detestable taste they have for dead dog. 

While the Schofield dam was in the river at Little Sioux, the 
fish from the Missouri river would ascend this stream at the time 
of the spring and June rises of the Missouri, and in the early 
autumn they would try to make their way back to the deep 
waters of the '" Big Muddy," and these returning, if the water 
in the Missouri and Little Sioux were low, they would be taken 
at and above the said dam by the wagon load. I have seen men 
stand on a tramway on this dam, at a place where there would 
be a seeming current through the brush of the dam, and having 
a spear or hayfork, catch a two-horse load of large, handsome 
pickerel, catfish and buffalo fish in a half hour. Cruelty and 
depravity ! 

In the month of February, 1857, which was during this same 


hard winter, thirteen large elk made their appearance near But- 
ler's mills, which had heen driven into the settlement by hunger, 
and when once in the beaten path, made by persons going and 
returning from the mill, followed this same path directly into the 
millyard, when the hands at work there fell upon them with 
handspikes, crowbars and axes and slaughtered nine of them 
before the others could make their escape. They that fell vic- 
tims to this butchery, were those which in attempting to flee, 
ran upon the ice near to the mill and being incapacitated easily 
yielded their lives to satiate the cruelty of those who knew no 
mercy. These animals at this time were so reduced in flesh by 
the cold and want of food, that they were scarcely able to walk. 
The saddles or hind quarters were taken for food, the skins used 
for some domestic purposes or sold, and the remainder of the 
carcasses were thrown to the dogs or wolves. These are said to be 
the last elks killed in the county, the entire herds which form- 
erly were in such great numbers, either freezing or starving to 
death, or like those that wandered to Butler's mills, yielding 
their lives for the purpose of gratifying the cruel fancy of heart- 
less man. 

The wild prairie hens, up to the year of 1870, were very 
numerous; so much so that the crops of corn left in the field 
during the winter, either on the stalk or being cut up and stand- 
ing in the shock, were eaten up by these pretty little birds. In 
1857, 1858, 1859, and during the former part of the sixties, they 
would, in the fall and winter seasons of the year, congregate in such 
huge flocks, that they would appear to cover over an entire corn 
field, and especially if the day was dark and somewhat drizzly, 
they would take positions on the fences and " paint " these 
fences by reason of their numbers, for a mile or more. These 
were caught in traps by the thousand and frequently the 
bosom part cured and stored away for summer use. Recent set- 
tlement, by which all the land in the county is farmed or at 


least enclosed, has driven out these birds and the place which 
knew them so plentifully, now knows them no more. 

Many hunting stories, which draw on the imagination, are 
told by many of the old settlers, and somewhat rival those of Arab- 
ian Nights' Entertainments, but the latter are told to be believed 
while the former are left discretionary with the reader. Mr. 
Charles Grilmore, who resides at the mouth of Steer creek, up to 
the present seems to hold the belt as the champion hunter, gaug- 
ing powers by his own statement, a few of which will be repro- 
duced here, only as a sample of what has been done. Mr G., in 
spinning the occurrences of early times, tells of a peculiar circum- 
stance which happened the first season he resided at his present 
place of residence, and is in these words: " One day I was out in 
my field cutting wheat with one of the old fashioned grain 
cradles, being the only reaper then in use. The wheat was so very 
thick on the ground and the heads and straw so large that I 
would be compelled to set the implement down and rest. The 
grain was in fact so tall and thick on the ground that old "Boze" 
and " Yaller " could run across the field on the heads of wheat, 
just as they stood before cutting, without sinking through to 
the ground, and while I was taking one of these rests I hap- 
pened to cast my eye towards the opposite bluff, and there within 
forty yards of me was the largest living buck I ever saw. I cau- 
tiously slipped along the fence corners to the place where I had 
set my rifle, and grasping it I raised it to my face, but being a 
little nervous by trying to cut the large crop of wheat, I scarcely 
sighted at all when the gun went off and the deer turned 
summersault after summersault in the grass and I supposed I 
had killed him certain; but what was my surprise when 
approaching him, he jumped up and ran towards the Missouri 
river. I waited until I put a load in my gun, when I followed, and 
Sirs, that buck ran all the way to the Missouri river with his 
back broken to get water that hot day, and I would'nt have got 


him at all had it not been for the fact that he ran out on the 
ice, and being unable to run thereon, I ran up to him with my 
big butcher knife and cut his hamstrings." 

This story in some respects resembles a statement made by a 
Kentuckian, who some years ago brought in a herd of Jerseys to 
sell in this neighborhood, and while representing the good qual- 
ities of a certain heifer, sixteen months old, stated that "this 
heifer when only three months old began giving milk; that she 
would give milk constantly and never have a calf ; that the 
peculiarities of the breed were that they never had calves, and this 
one was just like her mother, had never had a c alf, and never 
would have one." The story may be true, but there seems to be 
a lack of tying qualities, or in other words, they don't meet at 
both ends. 

Friend Gilmore tells another, though a grade lighter, still it is 
worth relating, and is as follows: " On a certain day when I 
had quit work and come into tbe house for dinner, I looked out 
toward the south, and what was my surprise at seeing a big doe 
standing not two rods from my door, looking directly into the 
house. I caught down my gun and found that the same was 
unloaded. I went to work as rapidly as I could to put a load in the 
gun, and in my hurry had put the cap on before I had put in the 
powder and ball, and while I was ramming down the ball I heard 
my wife who was just over my head in the chamber above call- 
ing me, which caused me to look upwards, and in the hurry to 
get the gun loaded I struck the cock against a bench, when 
the cap busted immediately, and the gun would have been pre- 
maturely discharged, had I not had the presence of mind to 
throw all my strength on the ramrod and keep the bullet from 
coming out of the gun, for had the bullet been permitted to have 
escaped from the gun I would have killed my wife, who was, as 
aforesaid, directly over me." 

These are reproduced here, not that I vouch for the correct- 
ness and pure unadulterated truth thereof, but to show that this 


part of the country has been repr esented in many other respects 
than farming and stock raising. 


Differed largely as compared with those which have been intro- 
duced into society within the last decade. In the early days 
there was no such a species of the man as a tramp. This pecu- 
liar make-up has been a production of a foreign country, trans- 
planted into this nation since the first settlement of this county, 
and therefore was not known until the production had spread all 
over these United States. 

The weary, way-worn traveler was never refused food or lodg- 
ing by any one. The usual size of the farm houses until the 
latter part of the sixties, scarcely ever exceeded twelve feet by 
twenty feet, and one story high, yet many were not over twelve 
by sixteen feet. There was something peculiar in the architec- 
ture of these houses, by which they could hold many more per- 
sons during a stormy night than the largest farm houses now in 
all the county, or the difference was in the size of the heart of 
the lord or lady of the manor. 

In the winter of 1856 and 1857 L. D. Butler lived at his mills 
in a little house fourteen feet by sixteen feet, and only one story 
in height; yet in this the Butler family, numbering ten or 
twelve, together with quite ten or fifteen more of those who had 
made their way through the snow-drifts for a little grist, were 
by Mrs. Butler safely stowed away in some comfortable manner 
or other in this small space. The same may very truthfully be 
said of the homes of Mr. Patrick Morrow, on the Soldier river, 
and that of old Uncle Dan Brown, of Calhoun. These places 
were constantly, night by night, filled to overflowing during all 
the winter last named. All the other homes in the county were 
ever open to the stranger and unfortunate; not the poor, unpal- 
atable crust was set before the belated or weary stranger, but 
always the very best that the larder afforded. The charities of 


the old settlers were as large as the demands of humanity, and 
their generosity measured out of their substance with an un- 
sparing hand, the larger share to the needy and unfortunate. 

Perhaps the difference in the circumstances of persons at that 
time, as compared with those of the present, accounts for the 
warm, free-heartedness then so proverbial. Neighbors then at 
the distance of fire, eight or ten miles were considered living in 
close proximity, and settling within a mile was somewhat crowd- 
ing on that of one who had settled first. There may be just as 
much benevolence, good will, charity and friendship to-day as 
there ever was, because there are so many more persons upon 
whom to bestow the same, that when once distributed it becomes 
a little "thin;" yet without hesitation I am free to assert that 
there is a thousand times more deception practiced at this time 
than ever was dreamed of by the old settlers, and such hypocrisy 
as would produce the blush on the cheek of his honor, the Devil. 


Was the event of the neighborhood — talked over for days and 
days prior to the happening of the same, and when the time had 
arrived there would be such a jovial good time that 

" Care, mad to see a man so happy, 
E'en drowned himself among the nappy; 
Kings mav be blessed, but these were glorious, 
' O'er all the ills of life victorious." 

True, there might have been a little more energy than polish 
in the manner of dancing. This was at that time pardonable, 
because heavy cowskin boots were usM in the ball room in lieu 
of the present fancy slipper, made so by reason of the puncheon 
floors and lack of slippers. Calling the attention of the reader 
to the music, on these occasions, none who were here in the fif- 
ties but well remembers the selection known as "Caywood Cross- 
ing the Bottom." The homespun dress, puncheon floors, Cay- 
wood's fiddle and all else fit in with dove tail exactness, and all 
"went merry as a marriage bell." 


The shooting matches were then quite numerous, and were 
better patronized than the Sabbath-schools or churches. The 
men of the country were then all hunters and truly crack shots; 
no fooling around with dollars to put up unless you could once 
out of three times drive a center, otherwise the person was wast- 
ing his substance in riotous living. Old Uncle Horatio Cay- 
wood, Levi Motz, John Birchim, David and Isaac Gamett, Harvey 
Rood, Bill Cooper, Tom Barnett, N. B. Hardy, Robert Hall, 
John and Tom Durman, Nat McKinimey et al., were the best 
shots of that day, and any man that got beef or turkeys on such 
occasions as these without knocking the center was playing with 
the uninitiated and not with the experienced shots of the land. 
On the east of Magnolia, in the neighborhood of Harris Grove, 
there was another team, made up of the Smith boys, Wash and 
West, Jeff. Norman, the Cases, along the Boyer, and many of 
the old settlers at and around old St. John, who were crack 
marksmen and could take the deer on the wing, or knock the 
center and take first choice in a shooting match without much 



From the passage of the boundary act giving the limits of the 
county of date of January 16, 1851, up to and until January 12, 
1853, the county remained embryotic; at which date last named, 
the Fourth General Assembly, by chapter 8, section 3', appointed 
three commissioners to "locate the seat of justice of the county 
of Harrison," viz.: Abram Fletcher, of Fremont county; Charles 
Wolcott, of Mills county, and A. D. Jones, of Pottawattamie 
county. These, by the direction of said act, were ordered to 
meet at the house of Mr. A. D. Jones, in the county of his resi- 
dence, on the first Monday of March, of 1853, and proceed to 
locate and establish a " seat of justice," as near the geograph- 
ical center of the above boundaries as might be found, hav- 
ing due regard to the present as well as the future popula- 
tion of the county, and when so selected, located and established, 
to call the name thereof Magnolia. The present boundaries of 
the county as well as the name of the " seat of justice " were not 
hewn out by pioneer minds nor unskillful hands, but wisely pro- 
vided for by the assembled wisdom of a now ninety-nine countied 
State. By the same act last named, an organizing Sherifif was 
appointed in the person of Robert McKenney, (this is a misno- 
mer, as the name was intended for Michael McKenney, father of 
Dr. E. T. McKenny) who acted as per the provision of this act, 
whose duties were to give ten days ^notice of elections, issue cer- 
tificates of election and receive the return j)f the Commissioners 
last named, when place was selected and established as the locus 
of the county seat. The commissioners above named proceeded 



to the discharge of the duties thus imposed by virtue of the 
authority to them given, and within the time therein specified; 
and as a result of their labors selected the southeast quarter of 
section 32, township 80, range 43, and then and there gave, to 
the 160 acres thus selected the name of Magnolia, and reported 
their doing to the above named McKenney, the organizing Sheriff, 
who proceeded to and did call an election on the first Monday of 
April of that year, at which time a full corps of county officers 
were elected and subsequently qualified, notwithstanding by vir- 
tue of section 8, of the act last named, the county was declared 
organized from and after the first Monday of March, 1853. 

At the time of the selection of the county seat there were 
places to which the attention of the above named Commissioners 
were directed, viz. : Magnolia (the place selected), the present 
site of the village of Calhoun, and eifher the present locus of 
Logan, or on the opposite side of the Boyer river north or north- 
east of the farm now owned by James Bead, then owned by 
James B. McCurley. These three places had their respective 
champiops, James Hardy, who was intimately acquainted with 
two of the commissioners, Mr. Walcott and Mr. Jones, and under 
the direction of the organizing act, which provided and directed 
that the location of the county seat should be as near the geo- 
graphical center as would warrant, by taking into consideration 
a due regard for the then and future population of the county, 
held that Magnolia was the proper place, and by designating 
that as the place, the commission would be more nearly com- 
plying with the intent and spirit of their duty than by locating 
the same at either of the other places. 

The Calhoun locality was championed by Mr. Daniel Brown, 
who was among the first settlers of the county, and who at that 
time claimed that the place of his choice was on the main thor- 
oughfare from Council Bluffs to Sioux City and northward, that 
the location was pleasant and sufficiently near the geographical 


center and center of population as to merit and secure the favor- 
able action of the commission. 

Messrs. John A. McKinney, Michael McKinney, S. E. Dow, 
J. B. McCurley, Wm. Dakan, Peter Bradley, Henry Reel and 
others, claimed for the location near Reel's mill, that nature had 
carved out their selection as the natural place for a town, and 
though the place they suggested was only one and one-fourth 
miles further from the geographical center of the county than 
Magnolia, and though the place then designated by them was 
not traversed then by highways to Sioux City, and while no 
public thoroughfares had yet been located, that within the next 
score of years there were probabilities for their selection that 
the other two rivals would never experience, viz.: a great 
thoroughfare for the world, and while Reel's mill was not the 
geographical center, yet the center of the then population would 
be on the east bank of the Boyer river and at and near the 
location suggested by them. 

The pros and cons being heard by the commissioners, whether 
justly or unjustly, the " seat of justice " was by them located at the 
town of Magnolia, as aforesaid, and at the present day, few only 
are left as competent judges, as to the wisdom and fidelity of 
their united judgment. 

The first election following the organization act, as before re- 
ferred to, was held on the 7th of April, 1853, at which time 
there were only two voting precincts in the entire county: 
one west of the Boyer river, at Magnolia, and the other east of 
the said river, at Owen Thorpe's, who then resided at Jeddo, at 
present owned by the Hon. L. R. Bolter. At the former place 
Organizing Sheriff Michael McKenney was not present to ad- 
minister the oath to the election board, and to supply the de- 
mands of the law, Mr. Thomas B. Neely (afterward Hon. Thos. 
B. Neely) administered to the judges and clerks an oath, that 
" they should, by virtue of the rules of the Continental Congress 
and their best knowledge of the Bible, fully and fairly perform 


their duties as such officers." Neither the records, nor does tra- 
dition, reveal the oath administered to the loyal voters on the 
east of the classic Boyer, still the presumption exists, though 
thirty-five years have elapsed, that an equally binding oath was 
taken by them, and as sacredly observed. 

This maiden vote was canvassed at the residence of Stephen 
King, at which place the poll-books for the east side of the 
Boyer was then held, and Thomas B. Neely was selected by the 
people of the west side as the bearer of returns. At that date 
there tv as no bridge on the Willow or Boyer rivers, uniting these 
two separate divisions of the county, and the party above se- 
lected had some hesitancy in bearing alone the aforesaid pre- 
cious freight; but the matter was disposed of by Mr. Jas. Hardy 
volunteering his services in accompanying Mr. Neely. These 
hardy pioneers arriving at the Boyer, and there being no bridge, 
as aforesaid, they staked out their horses, undressed and swam 
the river, carrying their wardrobe and poll-book above high 
water mark; and having dressed, proceeded on foot to the place 
of destination. 

In the canvass of this vote the following persons were elected, 
viz.: Stephen King, County Judge; P. G. Cooper, County Treas- 
urer and Recorder; Wm. Dakan, County Prosecuting Attorney; 
Chester M. Hamilton, Sheriff, and Wm. Cooper, Clerk of the 

These, then, are the frontage of the county at its birth, irre- 
spective of any embellishments which may have graced the ex- 
terior or interior of the county from that day to the present; 
yet in these there existed an honesty and fitness for the time, 
which the intervening period has not excelled. 


At the time of the organization of the county, as aforesaid, 
there were only two voting places, and these were named Mag- 
nolia and Jefferson. It is not the wish of the author to have the 


reader understand that prior to the organization of the county, 
viz.: March 14, 1853, none of the settlers who resided here prior 
to that date exercised the right of franchise, because such was 
not the case, for William Dakan, who now resides in the State 
of Kansas, and Wickliffe B. Copeland, now residing quite a mile 
south of Logan, 'the present county seat, where he has resided 
from the time of his settlement there in 1850, and S. W. Con- 
dit of Little Sioux, travelled all the distance to Council Bluffs 
to vote at the Presidential election of 1852 — a distance much 
shorter than that traversed by Mr. Copeland, and thousands of 
Iowa boys, in 1864, when they migrated to Little Rock, Arkan- 
sas, and even into the very heart of the would-be Confederacy, 
and exercised the right of casting a ballot, as well as the right 
of casting a bullet, having in view the perpetuation of good gov- 
ernment, the real object and aim of all true balloting and 

On the 4th of February, 1854, P. G. Cooper, then acting 
County Judge of this county, attempted to organize, or so dis- 
trict the county, that the same would take the form of five town- 
ships, viz.: Magnolia, Sioux, Washington, Wayne and .fefferson, 
but there was some sort of judicial miscarriage, and the three 
new townships failed to be born alive. 

Again, in March of the same year, Sioux and La Grange town- 
ships were created, the former liaving for her territory all of 
congressional townships 81-44 and 81-45, and La Grange to be 
taken from that part of Jefferson, on the south end, as might be 
designated by the organizing Sheriff, one Michael McKenney. 

Where this dividing line was established between these two 
townships by this organizing Sheriff, is not now known, and the 
records of the county are as silent upon the subject as though no 
action had ever been taken thereupon by any official, and not 
until more recent times has this line been established, as shall 
be noted herein at the proper time. Where and in what manner 
the prefix " Little " was given to Sioux township is not known. 


because at the time of ibs creatioQ and baptism the entire name 
consisted of " Sioux " — no more, no less — and whatever has 
been added since, either to enlarge or belittle, or added in the 
way of embellishments, has been the work of unofficial hands, 
and without the sanction of official authority. 

At the March term of the county court for the year of 1855, 
Calhoun township was hewn off Magnolia township, and with 
such boundaries that I need not now take the time to describe, 
because of the radical changes in the boundaries thereof since 
that time, and when the township shall be called iip in the after 
part hereof the true boundaries will be given. The county 
remained in statu quo, as far as townships were concerned, until 
the judgeship of D. E. Brainard, in 1857, when on the 19th day 
of September, of that year, the entire county was attempted to 
be re-townshiped, and formed into civil townships, by creating 
one to each congressional township, as per the following table, 
viz. : beginning at the northeast corner of the county, and nam- 
ing the townships from there to west, and then by township tiers, 
until the south line of the county was taken: 

Harrison Township, 81 Eange 41 

Madison Township, 81 Range 42 

Adams Township, 81 Range 43 

Jackson Township, 81 Raflge 44 

Sioux Township, 81 Range 45 

Marcy Township, 80 Range 41 

Boyer Township, 80 Range 42 

Magnolia Township, 80 Range 43 

Raglan Township, 80 Range 44 

Washington Township, 80 Range 45 

Cass Township, 79 Range 41 

Jefferson Township, 79 Range 42 

Calhoun Township, 79 Range 43 

Taylor Township, 79 Range 44 



Clay Township, 79 Range 45 

Webster Township, 78 Range 41 

Union Township, 78 Range 42 

La Grange Township, 78 Range 43 

Hoosier Township, 78 Range 44 

Cincinnati Township, 78 Range 45 

And that for election purposes, Harrison, Madison and Marcy 
were attached to Boyer. Madison and Marcy never had any but 
a paper existence, because the territory which was designated as 
Madison, remained as part of Boyer until the year of 1868, 
when from the same, or rather out of the same, the Board of 
Supervisors of the county made a township and gave to it the 
name of the martyr President, Lincoln. That which under the 
above abortive order was called Adams, remained under the 
paternal wing of Magnolia until the year 1872, just eighteen 
years from the time of the organization of the county, the 
length of time under our laws for females to arrive at their ma- 
jority, when the Board of Supervisors shaped it into a civil 
township and called it Allen, because the stream called Allen 
Creek (named for Andrew Allen, one of the first settlers in the 
county, and who resided on the same) had its origin in this 

The attempted " Marcy " township righteously met the same 
fate as the two last named, and in 1868, by order of the Board 
of Supervisors the same was organized in fact, and given the 
name of Douglas, in memory of Stephen A. Douglas, the Little 
Giant of Illinois. All that territory which was under the Brain- 
ard order last referred to, as being Washington township, was 
attached to Raglan for election purposes, and which never had 
had any living existence under that name, was in 1867 born 
again, and at this birth the whole township 80 of range 45 
(except the north tier) and the west tier of sections off the west 
end of Raglan, viz.: the west row of sections of township 80, 
range 44, was made to constitute the township of " Morgan," 


and so named at the suggestion of Capt. John Noyes, a grand, 
good old man, who resided in this territory from 1855, he hail- 
ing from Morgan county, Ohio, and suggested this name in 
memory of the county of his birth. 

By this same Brainard order, Clay was attached to Cincinnati 
■for election purposes, until in 1860, when she broke away from 
the restraint of the "Buckeye" township and started to keep- 
ing house on her own hook, having for its bounds township 
79, range 45. This was named for Henry Clay, Kentucky's 
favorite son. 

Taylor township being by the same authority placed under the 
protecting wing of Calhoun, remained the ward of the latter 
until the year 1861, when demanding her constitutional rights, 
she became a distinct and separate township; being township 79, 
range 44, except sections 24, 25 and 36, and so called in honor of 
•Gren. Zachary Taylor, who had been at the head of both the civil 
and military of the nation. 

Cass township being by the same authority fastened to the 
apron strings of old Jefferson, remained in that status until 1859, 
when she cut loose from her guardian, and under the banner of 
TJncle " Bubby " Servis, for a decade of years held the proud 
position of being the " banner Republican township in all the 
county," aye, as long as Uncle " Bubby " (Asher Servis, Esq.,) 
retained the place of pilot of the Republican political craft. 

By this same order. Union and Webster were fastened to 
la Grange fop political purposes, which by the way, was for all 
purposes, not being in any form a separate factor, but part and 
parcel of La Grange, yet for reasons unknown, the territory 
which upon paper designated the boundaries of Webster, was re- 
organized by the Board of Supervisors in 1872 and given the 
name of Washington, so that the name of Washington, so far 
as the name of the township was concerned, was erased from the 
county records for the space of five years, and when reinstated, 
the location was transferred from the extreme west to the ex- 
treme east side of the county. 


Some philosophical minds pretend to explain this in this 
manner: ''that the constant encroachments of the Missouri 
ri-ver on Iowa soil, might, in the future, cause the imperishahle 
name of the Father of his Country to perish from the county 
whUe, if the change could be efPected so that this name should 
be given to a township in the very southeast corner of the 
county, in the heart of the hills, the Big Muddy might rear and 
tear, exert all her strength, show all possible powers of madness, 
yet the name of Washington would remain unharmed until the 
time when the Angel Gabriel should blow his trumpet." As to 
the truthfulness of this tradition, I neither answer " yea " or 
" nay." If this be as above represented, the county power has 
used more forethought in this particular than they did when 
the county was plundered by tramp geologists in 1876 — when 
they bored the banks of the Boyer for coal and the County 
Supervisors for county warrants to the tune of $800; or sharing 
out the swamp land fund. Yet, in the former, there are exten- 
uating circumstances, from the fact that they were unprincipled 
persons attempting to seek the best interests of the county, and 
thereby recommended this ten day bore, and before the Supervis- 
ors had time to examine the report, the boring bill was hurriedly 
passed through the auditing furnace, the orders issued and the 
same (said to be) in the hands of innocent purchasers, by the time 
the County Board had met, which was in at least ten days from 
the time the report was filed, the warrants issued, and within 
half of that time after the warrants were sold and the geologist 
non est. 

Union township held her own domain, and in the summer of 
1859 took separate individuality and held her first election in 
the fall of 1859. The name of this township was given by the 
two oldest settlers in the same, viz.: Samuel Wood, Esq., and 
Mr. William B. Cox, who had the same named after ,the large 
grove of timber therein, known far and near as " Union Grove." 

These boundaries of the above named townships remain 


nearly the same as above mentioned; the only changes being as 
to Jackson, Sioux, Morgan, Raglan, Hosier (now St. John) and 
La Grange. To equalize the loss to Sioux, occasioned by the 
shortage on the west and what was being washed away by the 
current of the Missouri, the row of sections, and sections 5, 8, 
and 17 were taken from Jackson's northwest corner and added 
to Sioux, and sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 in township 80, range 45, 
and to Morgan, for like reasons, six sections were lopped off 
Raglan on the west and attached to Morgan; and Hosier, 
because she was older and stronger, kept _ the one-sixth of La 
Gange, viz. : the six sections on the west side of the latter. 

The naming of these twenty townships was done by the legal 
authorities of the county, and why so named, is only at this day 
(in part) a matter of conjecture. Magnolia took its name from 
the seat of justice, or more familiarly known to us of the present 
day, as the county Seat; and this was provided by the legislature 
of the State at the time the act was passed by which the limits 
and bounds of the county were designated, being the name of a 
very beautiful flower which grows in such luxuiiousness in the 
Gulf States, the aroma of which is so great, that it is said by 
sailors, that at the distance of ten miles or more from shore the 
sweet fragrance of this flower can be readily scented. Whether 
the assembled wisdom of the State of Iowa intended that the 
uprightness of character of those who should inhabit this em- 
bryotic flower garden, should so weave into the warp and woof 
of their lives such characteristics that the same could be known 
at the distance above designated, history fails to enlighten us. 
Jefferson was named for the second President, and Jackson to 
commemorate the name and greatness of the hero of New 
Orleans. Lincoln, as before stated, for the murdered President, 
and Cass for the Michigan statesman, Lewis Cass; Sioux for 
the magnificent river which so proudly passes through her 
center; Boyer for the Boyer river, which so mildly winds her 
tortuous course through her entire domain; Raglan, as has been 


stated by some wicked one, was named " Rag-land," on account of 
the manner of dress of the early settlers therein. This is a will- 
ful, malicious, false and wicked slander on the early settlers and 
their families; yet I assert that Raglan, thirty years ago, was 
not a land flowing with spike-tailed and Prince Albert coats^ 
nail-keg hats, paper collars, celluloid cuffs and ladies' bustles, 
tilters, bangs, high heeled shoes and silk dresses and numerous 
unpaid store accounts, but they were a people genteelly and com- 
fortably clad, wholly out of debt, no Sheriff dogging their steps 
daily, nor " buzzardly, tenth rate lawyer " camping in their door- 
yards, patiently waiting for the time to arrive that his presence 
would become so obnoxious that the head of the family would 
pay the debt in order to become rid of this nuisance, more to be 
dreaded than the yellow feyer or a funeral. The name was 
given by reason of the suggestion of Capt. John A. Danielson, 
of Calhoun, for Lord Raglan of Crimean War notoriety, who, at 
that time, was in the zenith of his military greatness, and being 
so suggested, as aforesaid, the same was adopted by his honor, 
D. E. Brainard, then County Judge, and hence the true origin of 
the name. 

Calhoun was named for the village of that name, which was 
laid out prior to the time of the organization of the township, 
in 1854. By some the impression is had that both the name of 
the village and the township were named for John C. Calhoun, 
the father of ''nullification," the man whom Gen. Jackson re- 
gretted he had not hung, but permit me to say that this impres- 
sion is without foundation, either in fact or truth. Old Uncle 
Dan Brown, who caused this village to be platted and laid out, 
held the name and conduct of this arch traitor in the utmost 
contempt and abhorrence. 

In 1854, when the village of' Calhoun was laid out, there was 
a military post on the right bank of the Missouri river, south- 
west from the place last named, known as Fort Calhoun, and 
this place in Iowa being the first inhabited place from Fort Cal- 


houn toward the east, the same was called Calhoun, simply 
dropping the prefix Fort. 

Hoosier (as it is incorrectly spelled in the records) was named 
Hosier township, from the fact that more than two-thirds of all 
the inhabitants within the township at this time were named 
either Cox, Jones or Smith, and these all hailing from good old 
Hosierdom, the land famous for honest men, hoop-poles and 
good farmers, the very material with which to open up and reduce 
the wilds of the far west so far overshadowed all others that 
the name Hosier was given to this excellent community long 
before the township was organized. 

Cincinnati took its name from the nativity of the majority 
of its citizens at the time of its organization, because in the 
spring of 1857 Mr. Jacob S. Fountain led a large number of 
persons from the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, to this land of prom- 
ise, and so submerged this locality with Buckeyes that he laid 
out a town near the present junction of the S. C. & P. R. R. with 
the P. & M. V. & Elkhorn road, and named the same Cincinnati, 
in memory of his old home, from which the township took the 
name she now so handsomely answers to. 

Harrison township was named for the mother county, and 
right here let it be truthfully said, that of all the daughters of 
this county none have excelled the one last named in the way of 
improvements, schools, morals, good government and bona fide 


Those unacquainted with the history of this State might think 
that there were only government lands in this county at the 
time of the county organization, but by reference to the land 
grants by the Government at and prior to the time of the ad- 
mission of this State into the Union of States, and those made 
by the parent government since that time, we find that the fol- 
lowing classes of land were in the county at the time of the or- 


ganization thereof, viz. : Government, swamp-land, 500,000 acre 
grant, the 16th section or school lands, and railroad lands. The 
first mentioned are those which belonged to the Government, not 
included in any of the grants above named. The 500,000 acre 
grant seems to have preceded all others as to the date of the do- 
nation of the same to this State; for by reference to the acts of 
Congress, I find that on the 4th of September, 1841, this State, 
upon her admission into the Union of States, was granted, for 
the purposes of internal improvements, 500,000 acres of land; 
but the State was admitted by act of Congress of date of De- 
cember 28, 1846, with a provision in her Constitution diverting 
these lands from the purposes of internal improvements to the 
support of common schools throughout the State. These lands 
were selected by Commissioners appointed by act of the General 
Assembly of February 25, 1854, and on September 12, 1854, 
were approved and certified to the State by the Department of 
the Interior. 

In Harrison county there was selected, reported and accepted, 
7,524.86 acres as belonging to this grant. Many of the most val- 
uable farms of this county at the present date are of this 500,000 
acre grant; as witnessed by the Peter Brady farm, the old Vincent 
farm, the property which formerly belonged to Isaac Bedsaul, 
the present farm of Isaac F. Bedsaul, the McBride farm, now 
touching the county seat, and last, but not least, the land con- 
stituting the estate of William McDonald, who (while in the 
flesh) resided tangent to the town of Calhoun. 

By act of January 25, 1855, these lands were taken from the 
control of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and placed 
under the management and custody of the School Fund Com- 
missioners of the different counties in which the same were sit- 
uated. With this condition of supervision the same remained 
until the Legislature of the State, by act of March 23, 1868, 
abolished the office of School Fund Commissioner, and empowered 
the County Judge and Township Trustees to sell the 16th sec- 


tion, but made no provision whatever as to the lands denom- 
inated the 600,000 acre grant; and as a sequence, this land re- 
mained in statu quo, without the care and superintendence of 
any one. But by act of the law-making power of the State, of 
April 3, 1860, the control of the 600,000 acre grant and the 16th 
section is given to the Board of Supervisors, and provides for 
their sale by the Clerks of the District Court of the counties in 
which the same may be situate, but this under the direction of 
the County Board, as aforesaid. 

The act of March 29, 1864, fixed the minimum price of school 
lands at |1.25 per acre; and, peculiar as it may be, this is the 
first price put upon these lands by the Legislature of the State. 

By the act of the Twelfth General Assembly, of date of April 
1, 1868, the office of County Judge is abolished, and the duties 
pertaining to that office, as well as the duties pertaining to the 
school 'lands (including the 500,000 grant), transferred the same 
to the County Auditor, which office was ere ated by the Legisla- 
ture at that session. This matter, however, did not take effect 
until the elections of the year 1868, and the qualification of the 
officers elected at that election. 

Then again, by act of March 21, 1870, the prices of school 
lands in the State were fixed at no less than $6 per acre, and 
prohibits the sale of any of the 16th section in any township, 
unless there are in that township at least twenty-five voters. 


By act of Congress of date of March 3, 1845, the State of 
Iowa acquired upon her admission into the Union, the six- 
teenth section in every township in the state. 

These lands were under the control of the School Fund Com- 
missioner and Township Trustees, until the time of the legisla- 
tion of the office of School Fund Commissioner out of existence 
in 1868,- at which time the same were placed under the superin- 
tendence of the Clerk of the District Court and Township Trus- 


tees, the same as the lands denominated as the 500,000 grant, and 
from that time to the present the said sixteenth sections have 
been under the same management and rule as the last named 
grant, to which reference is had to the few remarks thereto 
under the head of 500,000 grant. 

This county being twenty-four miles north and south by nearly 
thirty east and west, gives to the school fund of the sixteenth 
section grant 12,160 acres, which, added to the selection in the 
county under the 500,000 acre grant of 7,524.86, makes the sum 
total of school lands in this county 19,684.86 acres. 

I will not attempt to give the number of acres of land within 
the county which passed to the different railroad companies 
under the varied legislation in respect thereto, but simply remark 
that but very little of the lands in this county passed into the 
control of said corporations. 

I do not know that it would be out of place to here remark 
that there is in the State of Iowa, at the present time, $3,484,411 
as permanent school fund, the interest of which annually 
amounts to $282,902, which sum is divided among the different 
counties in the state in proportion to the number of persons 
therein, who are between the ages of five and twenty-one years. 


By act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, providing 
that all swamp and overflowed lands within the State of Arkan- 
sas and other states be transferred and patented to the several 
States in which the same might be, gave to Iowa all such character 
of lands as were within her boundaries, and the Fourth General 
Assembly of Iowa, by chapter 12, and becoming a law February 
2, 1853, ceded these lands to each of the several counties in which 
the same were situated. The legislative act declares that these 
lands, or the proceeds resulting from the sale thereof, should be 
used in the construction of " levees and drains to reclaim the 
same, and the balance, if any, to be expended in the construction 


of roads and bridges across said lands, and if any remained there- 
after, then the same to be laid out in the building of roads and 
bridges within the several counties in which the lands are 
situated." Under this act, as above stated, the County Judge on 
the 9th of January, 1854, appointed Geo. W. White as agent of 
the county, to survey, select and report all the lands of this char- 
acter. Mr. White proceeded to the discharge of his duty, and 
as a result, on July 5, 1854, reported back as lands of a swamp 
character within and belonging to the county, 120,635.93 acres. 

This land which was donated to the several states as by the pro- 
vision of act of Congress herein stated, that portion thereof which 
was within the boundaries of the State of Iowa, was by the said 
State patented to the several counties varying in time, but Harrison 
county received her patent for that so selected, reported and 
accepted, which is manifest by virtue of a written document, of 
date of October 17, 1859, and which was received and filed for 
record and recorded in the office of the Recorder of Deeds of 
Harrison county on the 24th day of January, A. D. 1860, and 
appears of record in book number 2, on pages numbers 1 to 11 

Hence, Harrison county came into the county sisterhood of 
this ninety-nine countied State with a marriage portion, all in 
the form of realty (which at least in these more degenerate days 
would develop admirers) to the extent of 120,635.93 acres, as 
aforesaid, which if sold (as it subsequently was) at the rate of 
f 1.25 per acre, equalled, in the form of dollars and cents, the 
snug sum of $150,794.91^, which amount at the present day all 
would be willing to wager an opinion that such sum would, at 
least, be a reasonable advancement for starting to keep house. 

But where is now all this vast treasure; this munificent dower? 
This land is at the present time the most valuable land in the 
county, as well as the most productive in the entire State, and 
any person not conversant with the history thereof, would not 
for a moment presume that the matchless farms all along the 


Pigeon, Boyer, Willow, Soldier, Little Sioux and Missouri rivers 
were once overflowed with water and regarded as worthless. If 
such a presumption should be for a moment indulged, it would 
be the indulgence of a fancy at the expense of fact, for the 
reason that the greater portion of these lands at the time of the 
selection thereof were then, as now, the most valuable and quite 
free from overflow; but because they were contiguous to lake, 
or subject to overflow from surface water, when there was no 
channel to carry off the same, or perhaps away back in the past 
the "Big Muddy" had so wickedly broken from all restraint as 
to inundate the entire Missouri bottoms, or that there would no 
damage result to the county where all the lands denominated 
bottom lands, and reported as overflowed and swampy, for by 
such measures the good would pay for the reclamation of the 
bad, and thus procure the earlier drainage, as well as be a means 
by which the sanitary condition of the county would be im- 

The agent of the county had, unquestionably, in view the 
maxim delineated by one of the characters in the "Hoosier School- 
master," viz.: " When you are gittin', git plenty"; but the fact 
is that up to the present time none of the citizens of the county, 
nor any person within the borders of the State, have as yet ever 
questioned the honesty and fairness of the report of the select- 
ing agent, who acted in the capacity as above designated. 

Following up the thought of this grand donation of swamp 
land to the county, our first thought is riveted on the act of the 
guardians of this splendid fund: At and about the month of Au- 
gust, 1862, at the time when the very life of the Government 
was in imminent peril; at a time when the Southern States were 
threatening, and with apparent possibility of carrying the threat 
into execution, of occupying the very Capital of the Nation; at 
a time when volunteers were greatly needed to march to the 
front, and at all hazards defend the flag and liberties so dearly 
purchased by the Fathers, and transmitted to us; to maintain 


this Union of States "one and inseparable"; in calling a meet- 
ing of the Board of Supervisors of the county (for at this time 
the care, custody, management and sale of these lands, and the 
keeping of this fund, had passed to the said board); and in re- 
membrance of the charity of the parent Government in donating 
these to the county; and by resolution passed at that time by 
them to the following effect, viz.: Resolved, That all able-bodied 
male citizens, or those not yet having become citizens, who should 
enlist in the volunteer service of the United States, and be by 
the proper authorities accepted as such volunteers, and be ac- 
credited to this county, should receive a quitclaim deed to any 
vacant eighty acres of this land in the county; or in lieu thereof, 
if they so desired, they should have a warrant on the swamp 
land fund for the sum of $100. 

The only depreciation of this fund in consequence of this 
commendable action of the board was the sum of $22,000, leav- 
ing as a balance the snug sum of $138,794.91^ for the uses and 
purposes for which the same was donated. At the present date 
not one cent of this munificent fund remains as a separate fund 
of the county. Some of the persons who resided in the county 
at the time the county became the owner in fee of all this vast 
domain, now have the recollection of the vastness thereof, and 
though thirty-five years have elapsed since the time the same was 
selected, and twenty-eight years have passed since the county 
received a patent therefor, ask (and not unreasonably) what has 
become of all our "swamp-land and swamp-land funds? " 

The lands are still here, except that portion thereof which have 
been carried away by the turbulent and unmanageable current 
of the Missouri river, and right here let it be known, that while 
" the wind bloweth where it listeth and thou hearest the sound 
thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh or whither it goeth," 
so it is with the falseness and depravity of the Missouri river. 

At certain times this unmanageable river will be on her good 
behavior, and then she will manifest such a wild and ungovern- 


able course of conduct as will compel the most unscrupulous to 
a belief in the doctrine of " total depravity " of rivers. This 
peculiar river has, within the memory of a vast number of 
the people of this county, played such " fantastic tricks," as 
made the owners of land lying on and near her banks weep for 
losses sustained by reason of their entire farms and buildings 
being carried away by her treacherous current. Then, again, 
her crazy current will make a dash for the shores of Nebraska, 
and in spite of legislative action and the blow and brag of poli- 
ticians, the banks on that side melt more rapidly than the snow 
drifts when attacked by an April thaw. Within the past thirty 
years the cuttings of this river have encroached into the Iowa 
side to the extent of two miles, and in the same period, at other 
places the foreclosure on the Nebraska side has been even 

At the present date there is but little to show, in the way of 
bridges, ditches and levees, that $138,894.91^ has been expended 
in that direction. The $22,000 righteously donated to the volun- 
teer soldier meets the full approbation of all, but as to the bal- 
ance, as above stated, echo asks, where is it? True, there are 
three or four levees in the county which furnish a means of 
travel from and to the different portions of the county, but when 
I assert that there is not, to-day, a ditch in the county, con- 
structed by funds arising from the sale of swamp lands, that is 
of any practical benefit to the lands or public, or is other than 
dry cavities, I believe I voice the honest observation of every 
observing man in the limits of the county; but they who ques- 
tion this assertion must not confound or count in the real 
ditches constructed by special tax on the adjacent owners of 
contiguous territory, where these ditches are, which have been 
constructed by the special tax. 

It is now impossible from the records or from memory to make 
a correct statement how and for what this fund had been ex- 
pended, from the fact that three decades have passed since the 


same came into being, yet let it suffice to say that the character 
of the men who had the same in charge is sufficient guarantee 
that all thereof was legally and justly laid out in the way and 
for the purposes designated by the letter and spirit of the law. 

The condition of the different porbions of the county must be 
taken into consideration when investigation is made as to the 
fairness of all outlays of this fund. Nor shouli it be forgotten 
that the principal streams and sloughs were of such make-up 
that at the early settlement of the county they were unfordable, 
and that lumber at that time was exceedingly scarce, and to pro- 
vide for the wants and necessities of the traveling public, bridges 
were to be constructed, and in providing for this contingency, 
large portions of this fund were used, and at prices which to-day 
many might think could be largely discounted, but such as 
now question this are forming opinions from the present con- 
dition of transportation, backed by railroad facilities, while the 
expenses and cost of these bridges must be calculated from a 
standpoint when there were but very few saw mills in the county, 
no railroads within three hundred miles, and prices were double 
that of the present day. 

The wisdom of this act of the government in donating her 
public domain for the purposes mentioned in the act referred to 
has been by some quite severely criticised ; however, to the ordi- 
nary, casual observer, it is fully exemplified by figures, that the 
revenue received by the government by way of taxes has long 
since over-reached the purchase price of f 1.25 per acre, besides 
carrying into efiect that which is the pride and purpose of all 
good governments, providing homes for the homeless and lands 
for the landless, thus bettering the condition of the citizen and 
at the same time largely increasing the wealth and prosperity of 
the nation. 

These lands in the condition in which they were at the time 
of the early settlement of the county, was most fortunate for the 
settler, because the same were not in the market until in 1858, 


and had the same been put up for sale, many of the citizens who 
now are in exceedingly good circumstances in a financial stand- 
point, could never have secured the homes which they now are 
possessed of. 

The Shylocks of the country at that time were ^furnishing 
money to enter lands, taking the certificates of purchase in their 
own names, and giving back to the real owner and persons for 
whom they were entering the same, a bond for a deed, which pro- 
vided that they would re-convey upon the owner repaying them 
the $200 purchase for the 160 acres, and forty per cent per year 
for the use of the money thus advanced, or in other words, they 
were furnishing $200 for one year, and at the end of that time 
would receive $280 therefor, or keep the lands thus entered. 

To remedy this usurious exaction, the guardians of these lands 
provided a way by which the settlers would be benefited, and at 
the same time the county perfectly secured, and it was this: 
every person who was a settler upon these lands, or those about 
to settle thereon, were permitted to enter the same by paying one- 
fourth down and taking a deed from the county for the same, 
and then executing back to the county a mortgage to secure the 
payment of the remainder. This remainder was evidenced by 
certain promissory notes, made by the purchaser, and these did 
not mature for ten years, though the maker paid to the county 
interest on the unpaid purchase money at the rate of ten per 
cent. Thus the settler was benefited and the county abundantly 
secured, for the reason that of all the prairie lands thus entered, 
the greater the improvements placed thereon, the better was the 
purchase money secured. 

It is a gratifying fact, that nearly all of the persons, wealthy 
in lands and stock, in the county at the present, are those who 
settled here at or about thirty years since, and in addition to 
brave hearts and strong arms, did not have in cash over $500 to 
the head of each family. 

The Fifth General Assembly, by chapter 156, passed January 


25, 1855, and becoming a law on the 31st of the same month 
and year, authorized pre-emptions on swamp lands, and this re- 
mained in force until its repeal by chapter 115, of acts of the 
Sixth General Assembly, which last became a law by operation 
of statute on the 1st of July, 1857. 

The County Judge of this county, for this interim, made cer- 
tain rules and required certain things to have been performed 
by the pre-emptor upon the land before he, in his official capac- 
ity, would issue to the applicant a certificate, showing that the 
land had been pre-empted, among which were the following: 
"A house must be built or foundation thereof laid, not less than 
10x10 feet, and in addition thereto improvements in the way of 
at least a commencement to break prairie, or the foundation for 
a dwelling house to be laid and at least twenty rods of fence 
placfed upon the land sought to be pre-empted. This only applied 
to males of voting age; the female was unprovided for, and in- 
gloriously left out in the cold, homeless and landless. 

Notwithstanding these requirements were made for the pur- 
pose of preventing frauds and impositions upon the Judge, and 
to have this inure to the benefit of the bona fide settler, still the 
sharpest ingenuity of the guardian of these lands was, ninety- 
nine times out of a hundred, nearly wholly ignored. Instead of 
iona fide actual settlement, and the requisite quantum of " im- 
provements " upon the land sought to be pre-empted, the pre- 
emptor would have at his command some individual possessed of 
an elastic conscience, who, for friendship, favor and affection, 
when properly sworn, would testify that the foundation for the 
dwelling house was laid; that twenty rods of legal fence had been 
placed thereon and the requisite quantity of breaking had been 
done, while in fact four willow fish poles constituted the foun- 
dation for the " mansion," and twenty fish poles, sixteen and 
one-half feet long ^ere placed on twenty-one willow posts, not 
larger than a walking cane; and the breaking only a path broken 
through the show. 


This evasion of the rule did not, in the end, injuriously affect 
the county or the settlement thereof, from the fact that when 
these pre-emption certificates were the most plenteous, the 
stringency of money matters struck the county and these certifi- 
cates became nearly worthless, and when the lands were 
ordered into market, they who held these were compelled to pay 
the $1.25 per acre, and failing to make payment, the pre-empt- 
ors' right to the land mentioned therein, caused the right of the 
pre-emptor to lapse back to the county, and, as a result, only 
that portion upon which actual settlement was made was 
entered under the call of the County Judge, and the certificates 
of pre-emption became worthless. 


The county being organized under the provisions of the Code 
of 1851, gave to the people the' District Court, which possessed 
criminal and civil jurisdiction in all matters, except that of pro- 
bate, and the management of the affairs of the respective coun- 
ties. In matters of probate and the management of the business 
of the county, a County Judge had original jurisdiction, which, 
with the superintendence of the business pertaining to the 
finance of the county, was the extent of his official power. 

This status of affairs lasted until the county judgeship, or, as 
some termed the same, " the one man power," became obnoxious, 
perhaps made so by the abuse of the authority vested in the 
individual exercising the powers, when the hue and cry for a 
change had ripened into legislative action, as designated by an 
act of the Legislature of date of March 22, 1860, and taking ef- ' 
feet July ith of the same year, which curtailed the powers of 
the County Judge, leaving to that office only the powers of pro- 
bate, and creating for the different counties a system of govern- 
ment by which each township in the county should be repre- 
sented by one representative. This did not take effect until the 
election and qualification of this county "legislature," which 


election took place at the fall election following, and the pre- 
tended act of " qualification " on the first Monday of January 
following. That these different persons who reported them- 
selves to be elected, appeared and. took the oath of office, none 
have ever questioned, but there have always been some doubts as 
to whether they ever qualified or not. That they took the oath 
of office is beyond perad venture of doubt; but "qualification" 
means more than the simple act of raising the right hand and 
assenting " to support the Constitution of the United States and 
the Constitution of the State of Iowa," while the party taking 
said oath scarcely could distinguish the difference between the 
Constitutions and the Declaration of Independence. And this 
brings to my mind a circumstance which took place in the very 
early days of the county. It was this: A certain young "saw- 
bones " was selected to read the Declaration of Independence on 
the 4th of July, 1857, at the Old Hub; the day arrived, and with 
it there was a meeting of nearly all the residents of the county; 
the place of meeting was at the present place of residence of Isaac 
F. Bedsaul, near the village of Magnolia. What was the con- 
sternation of a " limited few " when young " saw-bones " began 
and read the Constitution of the United States half through 
before anyone noticed the difference, when the " readist " was 
gently plucked by the coat-tail, and informed that he was off his 
eggs, and when given the proper document, and correctly started, 
did his whole duty in an admirable manner. 

The reader will please pardon this digression, as I desired to 
illustrate the " qualification " of one individual of a professional 
character, and leave the reader to judge for himself as to the possi- 
ble qualification of those who come direct from the breaking plow. 

The thought at the time of the enactment of this law, was 
that the county government thereby would be more nearly to 
the people, and therefore retrench the former seeming unneces- 
sary expenditures, as well as bar the favoritism heretofore lav- 
ishly dished to the favored ones. 


There is no doubt but that the position ot powers of the 
County Judgeship was often prostituted to further personal ends 
and favor a few who were within the ring; but that the new 
system of township representation remedied this grievance, is 
only answered by the fact that by the ending of the next decade 
there was a greater clamor for a change than there was to dispense 
with the services of the County Judge. This law giving town- 
ship representation brought to the surface an army of Black- 
stones, Cokes, Solons, Kents, Cooleys, Addisons, etc., etc., etc., 
which would have put to flight any litigant or claimant who once 
had experience in such a court. Instead of being a court it was 
a county debating society where each representative felt the 
weighty responsibility which rested oh him to be something 
equal, if not greater than the burden which rested on the 
shoulders of Atlas while supporting the earth. The most 
trivial proposition was discussed by each member making an argu- 
ment, giving his views as to the law and the constitutionality of 
the case, and then this repeated for eighteen arguments, gener- 
ally made the subject under discussion so very plain, or buried it 
so deep in the slosh of argument that it was never resurrected, 
or was passed upon some time during the day. 

Many laughable circumstances might be here related touching 
this quarterly county congress, in this county, but I will forbear 
naming individuals or subjects, but will remark that eighteen 
legislators spent nearly an entire day in discussing the allowance 
of a claim for a wolf scalp — at another time, half a day as to the 
allowance of a half dozen or more gopher scalps. 

The one man power was much preferable to this eighteen man 
power, from the fact that the Board had more of the trade and 
traffic of a political convention to i^, than the good of the people. 
"You give me my road, my ditch, my levee, my bridge, etc., etc., 
and I will support your measure," and so the trade went on, often 
regardless of the then wants of the public, but more for the per- 
sonal benefit of some straw man hid behind the wood pile. This 


county legislature was then thrown aside by act of the Thir- 
teenth General Assembly, as manifest by chapter 148, and in lieu 
thereof the present system of three or more Commissioners for 
the different counties, dependent on the population of the county. 

The office of County Judge was abolished by the Twelfth 
General Assembly, and a Circuit Judgeship created, and this in 
turn dispensed with by the acts of the Twenty-first General 

At the present time probate jurisdiction is had by the District 
Court of the county. 


From the time of their first organization, on the first Monday 
in January, 1861, which, at that time was made up of the fol- 
lowing persons, viz. : 

George H. McGavren, St. Johns township; James Hardy, 
Magnolia; Jonathan West, Cincinnati; James W. Mcintosh, 
Taylor; Asher Servis, Cass; Henry Olmstead, Harrison; George 
Harriot, Jackson; Chester M. Hamilton, Raglan; E. W. Meech, 
Calhoun; C. M. Patton, La Grange; Theodore Parcell, Clay; 
John S. Cole, Boyer; Barzillai Price, Little Sioux; Stephen 
King, Jefferson. 

Dr. George H. McGavren (then being a Democrat) was elected 
to the position of chairman of this legislative body, they, from 
the time of their organization, having but little to do except the 
auditing of claims against the county and caring for the funds 
belonging thereto; and those who comprised the above list hav- 
ing drawn straws as to who would hold for the term of two or 
one year, at the incoming of the coming year, 1862, a new board 
was organized, when the following persons constituted the 
same, viz.: 

Joseph H. Smith, Magnolia; B. F. Dilley, Cincinnati; Lorenzo 
Kellogg, Harrison; Asher Servis, Cass; George H. McGavren, St. 
Johns; B. Price, Little Sioux; Stephen King, Jefferson; Dr. J. S. 


Cole, Boyer; A. Sellers, Union; C. M. Patton, La Grange; Wil- 
liam McWilliams, Jackson; J. W. Mcintosh, Taylor; Theodore 
Parcell, Clay; W. B. Copeland, Calhoun;" Donald Maule, Raglan. 

Joe. H. Smith was elected chairman, during which time noth- 
ing of special importance occurred, other than the ordinary busi- 
ness of the board, until a special meeting was called for the 11th 
of August, 1862, the object thereof being to take some action as 
to the matter of the enlistment of soldiers on the part of the 
Federal cause. 

It will be remembered that at this date there was considerable 
need of additional enlistments from the fact that the Confederate 
cause had a little more than balanced all the accounts which 
the Federals had scored against them from the April days 
of 1861 up to that date. Furthermore, it was known to all, 
that many of the boys and men in the county, dating from the 
month of July, 1861, up to that date, had gone to obher places, viz. : 
to Council Bluffs, Omaha and divers others places to enlist; and 
up to that time there had not been a company raised in the 
same, though, as aforesaid, an hundred or more had already gone 
to the front. This was partly due to the fact that certain men 
in power in the county, though belonging to the party in power, 
whose duty it was to, at all hazards, uphold the cause of the 
Union, wished to distribute out to their especial friends the 
highest positions of company offices; and as a result, any person 
who desired in good faith to enlist, rather than go down on all 
fours to this would be " big man," chose to take a position in 
some company then being organized at the nearest point. These 
or this personage may have been acting in good faith, but at this 
day all can readily see that if the best interest of the govern- 
ment was the object of their acts, that judgment was terribly 
warped and helplessly diseased. As a result, William W. Fuller, 
Geo. S. Bacon and Joe. H. Smith persuaded the board to 
call a special meeting of that body on the 11 th day of August, 


1862, at which time the following resolutions were presented 
and adopted, viz. : 

^''Resolved, That any person who will enlist in the present 
company of Iowa volunteers now being raised in this county, 
shall receive at the time he is sworn into the service, a good and 
sufficient warranty deed for eighty acres of swamp and over- 
flowed lands in the county which at the present remains unsold, 
and which may be selected by him or his agent, and no swamp 
land shall be sold or deeded after this date until that provided for 
by this resolution has been selected, reasonable time being given 
such to select their lands. 

" Besohed, That if the person so enlisting shall select in lieu 
of the land above provided for, a warrant on the swamp land 
fund for $100, he shall have the same at the time of enlistment, 
and the same shall be payable for the lands heretofore entered 
-and be receivable either for principal or interest. 

" Resolved, That in case the person so enlisting shall prefer, 
on enlisting, the warrants, then the board hereby instructs the 
clerk to draw to such a person a warrant on the said fund for 
f 100, the same being hereby made assignable. 

" Resolved, That this board will appoint some competent per- 
son to accompany the soldiers who may enlist under these reso- 
lutions to the hospitals or battle fields. 

''Resolved, That this board will carefully provide for the 
families of any citizens of the county who will enlist and whose 
families may be ii* want during the time of said enlistment." 

All the members of the board voted in ^avor of these resolu- 
, tions, and scarcely had the same been adopted until there came 
a deluge of applicants to join the company. A meeting was set 
for the 18th of August of the same year to complete the organ- 
ization of the company, and when the day arrived there was such 
an overwhelming turning out that many who were thought by 
the younger men to be too old were compelled to return to their 
homes without " ' jining the army." 


Mr. Thomas F. Vanderhoof, Peter Brady, Jerry Motz, and a- 
whole squad of such old men were refused, because there were 
a better class of more physical young men who could, as was 
anticipated at that time, stand the roughs of army life much 
better than these last named. 

It may be safely said, and truly, too, that there never was a 
company of one hundred men raised or enlisted in so short a 
period of time from a neighborhood made up of so few able 
bodied citizens. In the making up of the company above named 
only two oi the members of the board enlisted: Wickliffe B. 
Copeland and Joe. H. Smith. The others, though earnestly pray- 
ing for the success of the Federal cause, fought the battle at a 
distance, believing that " distance lent enchantment." 

This resolution, though a little out of the direct line, and which' 
in these days of peace might be construed to be passing the Rubi- 
con of supervisor jurisdiction, yet at the time of the passage of 
the same there was no time to fool away in discussing fine dis- 
tinctions and constitutional questions. The war was upon us, 
and the fact was, somebody had to go to the front; and if I am 
not now mistaken, the thirteen who staid at home were just as 
willing that Copelaaid and Smith should enlist as any person. 
The draft clouds were hovering in the eastern horizon, and then, 
as now, there were just as many persons who would be willing 
that somebody else should be shot as to be the victims themselves. 
The act of the board in granting this bounty was subsequently 
legalized by the Legislature of this State, and up to the present 
time there has never been any " kicking " about this procedure. 
In seven days after the passage of these resolutions one hundred , 
men, the pick and choice froni the county, were enlisted for 
three years' or during the war, and has ever since that event been 
known as Company C, Twenty-ninth Regiment Iowa Volunteer 

The next question of importance which came before the board 
for adjudication, was that which was presented by those in the 


interest of a railroad company, viz.: the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad Company, and this in 1864, when it was said that un- 
less the county of Harrison donated to this corporation all the 
unsold swamp and overflowed lands in the same, they would 
build their line directly west from Denison, and Harrison county 
would be left out in the cold, so far as railroad facilities were 
concerned. This proposition barely escaped passage, only being 
defeated by a rnajority of one. Notwithstanding the assertions of 
many of the friends of the road, and the agents who sought the 
bonus, the road was built just as soon as it would have been had 
the county donated all the unsold swamp land and thrown in a 
percentage for luck. 

At the August session of 1861, being the first year of the Board 
of Supervisors, they selected for the purpose of selling and procur- 
a poor farm for the county, the following described swamp 
lands, viz.: the southwest quarter of section No. 7, township 79, 
range 44, and north half of southwest and the southeast quarter 
of the southwest quarter of lot No. 1, in section 15, township 

80, range 45, all in the county. This was disposed of between 
the day of selection and the 1st of January, 1868, and the board, 
through its committee, Robert McGavren, James L. Roberts and 
Barzillai Price, selected as a poor farm the following described 
premises, viz. : the southwest quarter of section 22, in township 

81, range 41, in Harrison township, being ap improved tract, and 
then, as yet, one of the very best one hundred and sixty acres in 
the entire county, paying to Hammer & Perbs the su m of 122.50 
per acre, amounting in all to $3,600. This was used and occu- 
pied by the county as a poor farm up to and until a time when 
old Uncle Johnny Harshbarger wished to change his "base, when 
the Board of Supervisors, through its committee, D. E. Brainard, 
J. S. Cole and Samuel DeCou, all being then members of the 
board, exchanged the poor farm last above described, with the 
said Harshbarger, for the farm now used and maintained by the 
county as a poor farm. There is not an individual in the entire 


county at the present date but would be willing to swear (and 
some use some harsh language) that the present farm now known 
as the county poor farm is the poorest farm for the purposes 
for which it is used, and for the money which it cost the county, 
in all the county. This sale, or swindle (whatever you may call 
it), was completed on the 19th of March, 1870, at a time when 
the tract at and near Dunlap was worth three times the amount 
of that given in exchange; besides, it was in a more healthy 
locality, and nearly tangent to the town of Dunlap, which place 
at that time was struggling under a very healthy boom. The 
tract now owned by the county is badly cut up by the Boyer 
river; has but a small selvedge of arable land, through which 
the Northwestern Railroad passed at the time of purchase, and 
the remainder, instead of lying, stands on its edge, and is fit 
only for observatories and bank barns. To this nearly worthless 
tract of land the different Boards of Supervisors, since the time of 
purchase as aforesaid, have paid out of the taxpayers' money, in 
the way of building a dwelling house, the sum of $4,700, and re- 
pairs yearly on the same not less than $75, as well as repairs to 
fences and out-buildings, $1,000; so that the present cost of this 
magnificent swindle to the county at this time is not less than 
$11,000, which the guardians of the county at this date lease to 
their present overseer, or steward, at the rate of $200, which he 
pays to the county in providing support to paupers at the rate 
of $3 or $3.25 per week. 

This $200 is beyond question a very small percentage on the 
$11,000, but this was county funds, and you know that if the 
county funds are a little carelessly expended, the county being 
rich, the people would not miss such a trifle. It is too late in 
the day for any body now to ask an explanation and the public will 
be left to form and carefully express their judgments as to thein 
shall seem to be in keeping with the men and times in which the 
matter took place. The poor house is a creditable building and suits 
well for the purpose for which it was built, but the same might 


just as well, so far as nearness to railroads is concerned, be in 
Allen or Union townships, as where now located. 


was attempted to be made in the late fall of 1876, at the time 
the following gentlemen were acting as a Board of Supervisors 
or as guardians of the county's interest, viz. : H. B. Cox, H. V. 
Armstrong and Amos Chase. 

A fellow by the name of W. P. Fox, a star in the geological 
firmament, of about such magnitude as the writer would be in 
the pulpit, strayed to this county from the back alleys of the 
city of Des Moines, and through the written recommendation of a 
great portion of the business men all over the county, procured 
from this Board a permit to make a geological survey of the 
county, having in view the discovery of coal. This "fox" was 
accompanied by a hack driver from Council Bluffs, and after 
prodding along the banks of the Boyer at not more than a dozen 
of places with a pole and two-inch auger for two or three weeks, 
and then making three or more tlrips to the Little Sioux saloons in 
search of " hardware," and then borrowing Joe. H. Smith's 
geological reports of the geological survey of the State of Iowa, 
together with the preparing of their minds by frequent and 
repeated drunks at the " stone church " (this was a saloon in 
Logan known by that name) a comprehensive report was made, 
by copying from the above reports, and filed in the office of the 
County Auditor, and before the January meeting of the Board in 
1877, the bill for such survey was allowed and warrants drawn 
on the county fund for $700. Through and by these means the 
county was swindled out of that sum. 

The Board of Supervisors above named were not so much to 
blame in this matter as were those who practiced a fraud on them by 
recommending such worthless tramps, but believing it would be 
benefical to the county that such survey should be made, and 
at the same time having no thought but the person recom- 


mended was competent to make a scientific survey, they con- 
sented, and with the result above stated. 

This $700 warrant being issued a little out of season, i. e., 
before auditing by the Board, was as soon as issued sold to a 
well known firm in the county at a good shave, and hence at the 
time the Board met this $700 was in the hands of " innocent 


With lightning rods, happened at a time when there was a 
"lightning rod revival" all over the county; the advance agent, 
by some means or other, having secured the written consent of 
the Board of Supervisors to rod the court house, put his " gang" 
to work at the job, and when they had finished, the entire roof, 
chimneys, cupola, etc., etc., were encased in a net work of iron 
rods, bristling with points and weather vanes. This, when com- 
pleted was followed by a bill of some $800, which so disgusted 
the Board and the County Auditor, it being so much more than 
any one had contemplated it would be, that William H. Eaton, 
who was then Auditor, paid a part of the bill himself, and Mr. 
H. B. Cox proposed to the other two members of the Board, 
that, in his opinion, the Board should pay for this themselves 
and not call on the county to put up for their want of foresight 
and discretion, and that if the other two members would each 
pay their pro rata, he would his, and the next time watch and 
not be drawn into any such financial .whirlpools: this was not 
in keeping with the opinions of the other two members and 
the county compromised with these public vampires, by paying 
them $575. 

The^e circumstances last above related, constitute nearly all 
of the mistakes of the lioard of Supervisors since the time the 
same was transformed from a " debating society" to a business 
three, and I unhesitatingly say that there is not a county in 
the entire state of Iowa, to-day, that has been as well governed 
as Harrison. 


The only indebtedness of the county at the present, is a 
bonded indebtedness of $16,500, which at the first thought can 
readily be understood. All persons who resided in the county 
in 1885 will remember that during that year the public roads 
of the county suffered more heavily by reasons of heavy rains 
and floods, than in all the past years of the county's life: that in 
all parts of the county the cry came up to these officials, " we 
must have means of egress and ingress; our highway bridges 
have been swept away by the floods, we cannot get away from 
our farms to market, neither can the officers get to our homes; 
we must have means of travel;" and the Supervisors knowing 
that these representations were true, and that these people needed 
this relief, cheerfully bonded the county at that time for $5,500, 
and again in June, 1886, bonded for $11,000 more, making in all 

It must not be understood that all of this sum last named was 
used in the building of county bridges, from the fact that a 
small portion was by the Board ordered to be used in keeping up 
the par value of county orders: because just as soon as there is a 
want of cash in the county treasury to cash county orders the 
same are thrown on the market and the party who served the 
county in any capacity or rendered any of the many services 
required, is compelled to suffer the loss of such shave as the 
money lender or merchant sees fit to allow. 

These bonds are what are known as three and ten year bonds, 
being so negotiated and worded, that the county cannot pay the 
same sooner than three years from date, and the bond holder 
cannot compel payment sooner than ten years from date. The 
interest on these bonds runs at the rate of 6 per cent per annum?^ 
which all persons in the county pay in proportion to the amount 
of their taxable property. This is infinitely better than that the 
county warrants should go begging a purchaser and be hawked 
upon the streets at such price as corners would thrust them. At 
this date I am informed by the very gentlemanly County Auditor, 


Mr. Frank Croesdale, that there is now on hand $5,000 ready for 
payment on this bonded indebtedness, which would leave the 
sum of 111,500 yet to be raised and eight years more for pay- 
ment. :, 


From what has been said in the last remarks, show that the 
same could scarcely be in better condition than they are at the 

From the organization of the county up to the year of 1866, 
being the time when Captain George S. Bacon was sworn into 
office as Treasurer, county warrants had been walloping round 
the streets, hedges and highways of the county, alternating in 
value, in proportion to the proximity of taxpaying time, and the 
opposition in the matter of procuring the same. It is well recol- 
lected, that during all the time prior to this the currency of the 
county was nearly made up by using county warrants, swamp- 
land scrip and cottonwood lumber. This condition of things 
afforded a fine opportunity for speculation in the purchase of 
these county orders, and some of the banking firms, merchants 
and others were not slow in catching on, and could to-day state 
that the stepping stone to their present wealth is due to the 
fact that county orders offered an oppprtunity for investment. 
This term, viz. : the years of 1866 and 1867, county orders were 
kept at their par value, and on the incoming of another man, 
viz.: A. W. Ford, as County Treasurer, they lapsed back to the 
old low-water mark of sixty cents on the dollar, and continued 
at that price during all of the year 1869. 

On the 1st of January, 1870, Captain Bacon came into control 
of the business of the county treasury, and immediately these 
county orders went up to par and remained in that position 
until the latter part of the year of 1871, at which time the bot- 
tom fell out of the county coffers, there being no funds to redeem 
the same, but there were several men apparently on other busi- 
ness passing through the county, yet wherever there was a 


county order found it was immediately purchased by these 
county order crystalizers, and who it was that made money out 
of this deal, is left to your own judgment and recollection. Not- 
withstanding all that may have taken place in the past, Harrison 
county, in this year of 1888, pays all her debts, dollar for dollar. 

While the subject of county finance is under consideration, I 
cannot forbear making a statement of the extent to which the 
realty of the county is blanketed with mortgages, the same 
assuming a magnitude far exceeding the thought of the most 
observing. The real value of the realty of the county is placed at 
$12,477,090, to which add the value of the personalty, 13,644,571, 
amounts to 116,121,661; on this there is a tax of $166,035.55 for 
the year of 1887. 

The mortgage indebtedness on the lands, represented to be 
worth $12,477,090, is $1,663,612, which, drawing interest at the 
rate of 8 per cent, each year amounts to the sum of $183,088, so 
that by adding the tax assessed for the year 1887 to the interest 
paid for the same year on the loans, amounts to the nice little 
sum of $299,124.51. It, at first thought, would hardly seem 
possible, that a little fraction of this great commonwealth, only 
twenty-four by twenty-seven miles, really makes and pays out, 
year by year, a fraction over a quarter of a million of dollars, , 
but the facts warrant these figures. The further fact must be 
kept in view, that very many of the farms in the county are 
wholly free of mortgage embellishments, while many persons 
have crystalized the thought that interest is much cheaper than 
the usual rents demanded by the landlords, and, hence the mort- 
gage indebtedness as aforesaid. 

Notwithstanding the appalling figures as above stated, very 
many of those on the west side of the county who, in the spring 
of 1887, were nearly mired by these loans, by reason of the 
grand yield of the corn crop of the same year as well as the good 
price which the same brought in market, applied the money 
received for the same in the extinguishment of these incumbran- 


ces, and at the present are nearly masters of the situation, and 
quite free of deht. 


Up to the year of 1857 was gold and silver, which was occasioned 
by reason of the fact that persons settling in ttie county brought 
such with them, and again, because Council Bluffs was the great 
outfitting point for California and Great Salt Lake. They who 
came to Council Bluffs by water, would purchase teams, imple- 
ments, groceries, etc., etc., at this place, sufficient to last the trip, 
and this put this class of money into circulation, and little, if 
any, paper money was used as a medium of value until the latter 
part of 1857, and this became exceedingly plentiful up to the 
time of the breaking out of the rebellion. The reader must not 
indulge in the thought that gold and silver was very plenteous 
up to 1857, and from that to the time of the beginning of the 
war, for such a condition did not exist. 

About the beginning of the year 1858 there were a great many 
saw mills located and running in the county and the timber along 
the Missouri bottoms and in many places in the groves in the up- 
lands, which occasioned a trade in this article, which the settlers, 
with this and swamp-land scrip, and now and then a county order, 
constituted the great bulk of the currency then in circulation. 
Bank bills representing money, said to have been issued by 
good, reliable banks in Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Greorgia, etc., etc., etc., with great red dogs, or deers, wild cats, 
handsome men and beauties of women pictured thereon, were at 
this time thrown broadcast all over the country, and so uncer- 
tain was the value of these that the banks, which by the detector 
and newspaper reports of yesterday were reported to be good, 
the day following would be wholly worthless. Never was there 
such uncertainty in monetary matters, and perhaps I could not 
better illustrate this uncertain condition than by telling a cir- 
cumstance, true in fact and particular, which occurred at the 
time I am now speaking of, and 'tis this: 


Old Uncle Jakey Pate and Mike Wallace kept a wood-yard at 
a place now known as Sandy Point (the same being named for 
Mike because of his terribly red hair), and one day while th^y 
were at dinner a steamboat landed at their yard, and before they 
could put in an appearance the boatmen had ten or fifteen cords 
of dry wood carried on board of the boat, and when Uncle Jakey 
came he says, " Well, well, what are ye a-doin' here at my wood- 
pile, taking it without leave or license? " To which the clerk 
of the boat replied, "We will make it right, siir — all right, sir; 
you'll take paper money, won't you? And if you accept the 
paper money, about how much will you allow us for it, eh?" 
To which Mr. Pate replied, after squirting about a quart of 
tobacco juice on the gang-plank, "Allow you? Well, let me see; 
how many cords of wood did you take?" '' Fifteen," says the 
clerk. " Well, well," says Pate, " I think we could about afford 
to take it cord for cord; what do you say, Mike? " "Yes, fif- 
teen cords of red dog, wild cat or any other good paper money 
youVe got will be all right, won't it Mike? " Payment was 
made in gold at a little less than cord for cord. 

Attacks have been made on the moneys paid into the county 
treasury at frequent intervals since the first payment was made 
of taxes in 1854. 

It will be remembered that P. G. Cooper was the first County 
Treasurer elected, and that upon the resignation of Stephen King 
in October of 1853 as County Judge, that P. G. Cooper was 
appointed Clerk of the Courts, and his brother, William V. 
Cooper, was appointed Treasurer and Recorder. During the first 
part of the year of 1854, and up to and until the 1st of Septem- 
ber of the same year, this condition continued, and what little 
taxes were paid, were received by Wm. V. Cooper. At this time 
the county records were kept in a little log house quite near to the 
spot where Mr. I. V. Stewart now resides, in Magnolia. All of 
the county officers then occupied offices in this little building, and 
while the two Coopers were holding watch and vigil over the rec- 


ords and cash of the county, during the month of September of 
the year last named, by some mysterious providence, the build- 
ing caught fire, and the building, records, cash, etc., were burned. 

It is said that Judge Cooper was full of ^'Paddy's eye- 
water," and came nearly perishing in the scorching flames, and 
while the principal part of the money then in the treasury was 
" gold," by reason of the heat of the burning building the gold 
was melted and was afterwards found in a conglomerate shape- 
less mass, nevertheless, when subjected to scientific test, provect 
to be the remains of an old brass candle-stick, which had found 
its way from Virginia and into these offices, and lastly into the 
scorching flames. The county then rubbed out all old scores 
and commenced in business de novo. 

The next ripple upon the surface of county tax deposits was 
at the March meeting of the county court of 1858, when D. E. 
Brainard, then County Judge, requested the then Treasurer, John 
W. Cooper, to make report of the status of the funds in his 
hands, he Cooper having failed to make any report to the County 
Judge. Matters passed for three successive days, at which time 
Mr. Brainard became oblivious as to accommodations and caused 
the Sheriff of the county to serve on the Treasurer a written notice 
demanding the immediate appearance of the custodian of the 
funds and the instantaneous report as provided by law. 

Mr. Cooper having used some of the funds and then being 
unable to make immediate replacement, suffered suit to be insti- 
tuted against him and his bondsmen in the district court, but 
before the same ripened into hearing, came forward with the 
proper report and cash, and the case was dismissed. 

From the date last named until the last of the year 1865, no 
crookedness in the County Treasurer's office is found of record, 
while during the year of 1865, as well as the years 1866 and 1867 
and that of 1868, the Board of Supervisors of the county for the 
year 1870 seem to have concluded that there were funds remain- 
ing in the hands of R. Yeisley for 1865, to the amount of 


1459.37; in the possession of Captain Geo. S. Bacon, for the year 
of 1866, the sum of $519.71, and for the year 1867, $753.28, and 
that A. W. Ford had failed to turn over, for the year 1868, the 
sum of $674.57, due from all former Treasurers, in all making the 
sum of $2,407.93. This searching of the records was had prior 
to and reported to the Board at the October session of 1870, at 
which time the county was represented by seventeen members, 
all of whom being present at said meeting passed the following 
resolution, which to-day stands upon the minutes of said Board, 

Wheeeas, The committee on county officers have reported to 
the Board, that they find that Reuben Yeisley has received 
$459.37 more than his salary for the year 1865 — also find that 
Geo. S. Bacon has received $519.71 more than his salary for 1866, 
and $753.28 more than his salary for the year of 1867; that A. 
W. Ford has received $674.57 more than his salary for the year 
A. D. 1868. Now therefore be it 

Resolved hy the Board of Supervisors, That said Yeisley, 
Bacon and Ford be and are hereby requested to pay the above 
amounts into the county treasury between this and the first of 
January, A. D. 1871." 

The recorded vote on this resolution was as follows, viz.: 

Yeas — Braiuard, McGavren, Meech, Harvey, DeCou, Wallace, 
Williams and Hutchison — 8. 

Nays — Goodenough, Ellis, Wills, Church, Johnson, Milliman, 
Cobb and Jed Smith — 8. 

This left the measure before the body a tie, when the chair- 
man of the Board cast his vote " Yea," and the resolution stood 
adopted. The Chairman at this time was Dr. J. S. Cole. 

This resolution was never heeded by Yeisley, Bacon or Ford, 
and the same stands to day on the records as unpaid. 

As to the merits of this finding or resolution, each reader is left 
to formulate his own conclusions as to the merits of the respec- 
tive parties; however, I am constrained to say that the persons 


who constituted this Board were of the very best talent of the 
county, and men whose judgment would not be warped by either 
fear, favor, fraud or affection. 

In justice to Messrs. Yeisley, Bacon and Ford I am in duty 
bound to state, that the seeming difficulty in these sums- arises 
by reason of .the vague and uncertain verbiage of the statute 
with reference to the fees to which the different Treasurers were 
entitled in the matter of Treasurers' tax deeds. 

On the night of the 17th of February, 1868, the County Treas- 
urer's >afe met with just such a " scald " as was experienced at 
the time the county offices, records and money ware consumed by 
fire, during the "Cooper" administration in 1854 — gutted. At 
this time there was more money in the hands of the treasurer 
than there would be at any other period of the year, so occa- 
sioned by the payment of taxes, for after the 1st of February, on 
all taxes which were not paid by or during the month of Janu- 
ary, penalty began accruing, and further, the middle of the 
month of February was just the time when the Treasurer was 
supposed to have cleared up the receipts for money paid during 
the month of January. Whoever planned the robbery set the 
job for the time when the Treasurer's safe was in the most pleth- 
oric condition, and struck it to the tune of nearly $14,000, but 
which at the present time has by the statement of some, been 
reduced to only |11,000. 

The artistic work in the manner of the breaking 'of the safe 
was most bunglingly performed; in fact so much so as to give a 
thought that the workmen were amateurs, and had it not been 
for the quantum of funds extracted, the opinion would have 
received reasonable credence. Some persons living in the immediate 
neighborhood of the old court house reported on the following 
day, or pretended to say, that they heard the noise of the pound- 
ing, but presumed that this noise arose from some horse or other 
animal which had wandered into the hall-way of this old temple 
of justice; and was stamping around there at night, to while 


away time. By 9 o'clock of the 18th the town was all agog with 
the news of the robbery, and there were as many theories as to 
the persons perpetrating the act as there were dollars stolen. 
The safe in which this money is said to have been kept was not 
blown open, but partially sprung apart by the use of iron wedges, 
and the money drawn through these crevices by using wires or 
some such appliances. 

On the 24th of the same month the Board of Supervisors con- 
vened and the result of this meeting was the appointmeut of a 
committee to ascertain the amount of money taken, and from 
what funds; the committee being the Chairman of the Board, 
D. E. Brainard; the Clerk of the Board, John W. Stocker, and 
the then Treasurer, A. W. Ford. This committee, so far as the 
records of the proceedings of the Board show, never reported 
their findings, and those who now inquire as to this matter are 
compelled to seek hearsay evidence in. lieu of record testimony. 
The committee of the Board at their report at the January 
term, 1869, when reporting on county officers, state that the fol- 
lowing sums were stolen and locate the different amounts as of 
the following funds, viz: 

Bridge Fund $1,085.64 

Teachers' Fund 1,692.42 

County School Fund 1,302.87 

School House Fund 1,245.23 

Road Fund 789.57 

District School Fund 165.70 

Insane Fund 513.98 

Poor Fund , 8.27 

State Fund 2,S62.66 

This last only being obtained from Chapter 41, acts of the 

Sixteenth General Assembly, passed on the 4th of March, 1876, 

whereby this county is credited with this amount while no part 

of the amount was ever paid. 

The balance, whatever it may have been, must have been from 


the county fund, for at this time there was not a cent left of all 
the moneys derived from the sale of the 121,000 acres of swamp 
lands ; and there could not have been much of the county fund, for 
at the time the treasury of the county was turned over to the 
then Treasurer, viz. : on the 1st of January, 1868, the amount of 
this fund so turned over to Ford by Captain Bacon, reached the 
enormous sum of two cents, besides at this same time there were 
half cords of county orders outstanding, the same hawked on the 
market at sixty cents on the dollar. 

The current of opinion seemed to center on Michael Rogers, 
and a'gang which was under his leadership, as the perpetrators 
of the robbery, while at the same time there were a few wh6 on 
this subject were like doubting Thomas, would like to have put 
their fingers into Mike's side (pockets) before being convinced' 
Rogers was indicted but never caught, and in the course of time 
the ease of " The State of Iowa v. Mike Rogers" was dropped 
from the docket and the whole transaction dismissed from the 
minds of the tax-paying public. Neither the Treasurer nor his 
sureties were ever required to make good the losses, the same 
being regarded as a public rather than a private calamity. 

This brings the reader down to the present and compels state- 
ment to be made as to the defalcation of Mr. I. P. Hill. Mr. 
Hill was elected at the fall election of 1875, and was his own 
successor during five terms, having held the office for twelve 
years, when, upon turning over the same to Mr. Lew Massie, on 
the first Monday in January, 1888, greatly startled our usually 
quiet citizens, by making the statement that there was a short- 
age of funds to the extent of $20,000 to $25,000. 

The author of these hastily crystalized thoughts has known 
Mr. Hill for a period of thirty-two years, and from this long 
acquaintance would be sluggish in forming the belief that one 
who has always been Harrison county's most trusted guardian is 
criminal. But should it appear that there is a defalcation, and 
that Mr. Hill has been the trusted friend of the county and can- 


not make a showing as to the present finance which has been paid 
him by the hard worked, and, as I might say, " over taxed peo- 
ple," then let stern justice be meted out to him without 
stint or pity. Each individual who assumes the duties and 
responsibilities of an officft should know whether or not he pos- 
sesses the proper qualification in order to discharge the duties 
thereof, and at this day when taxes assume the dignity of rent, 
it will not suffice to say, " I was iacompetent,"*more es.pecially, 
when twelve years of honesty and ability have been sounded 
through the entire county as the passport to position and trust. 
At the present, while there is an indictment pending against 
Mr. Hill, and, especially while experts are busily at work in 
examining the last half of his terms of office, I deem it impru- 
dent to say aught but this; "Let justice be done to the public 
and the defendant Mr. Hill, though the heavens fall." 


This matter was brought before the District Court of the 
State of Iowa for Harrison county, at the August term, 1879. 
The accusers were men of excellent standing in the county at 
the time of the inception of the case, and it was brought about 
through the instance and superintendence of Mr. Issacher Seho- 
field, then member of the Board of Supervisors, and a resident 
of Dunlap, who was elected to, and did at that time, represent 
the second supervisor district of this county. Mr. Schofield 
took his seat at the incoming of the year of 1879, and soon pre- 
sumed to have good reasons to believe that the accused was deal- 
ing unfairly with the people of the county, or in other words, 
was favoring a few of those to whom he was under especial 
obligations and giving the cold shoulder to very many who were 
equally entitled to share alike with the favored few last named, 
and hence the accusation against the defendant, which was in 
the following words, viz. : 


The accusers ask that the accused be removed from the office 
of Treasurer of the county, for the following reasons: 
For habitual and willf al neglect of duty in this — 

1. By failing to apportion consolidated tax each month; 

2. By failing and neglecting to report to the County Auditor 
the apportionment tax for the year 1878; 

3. By failing to keep the different funds separate; 

4. By.paying warrants drawn on one fund out of the cash of 
another and different fund; 

5. By holding $6,000 in county warrants and refusing to can- 
cel the same, as provided by law; 

6. By depositing county and other funds intrusted to his care 
in banks as his own private funds, and drawing interest thereon; 

7. By loaning out public funds for firivate purposes; 

8. By holding county warrants and refusing to cancel same, 
or permit cancellation; , 

9. By paying out county orders which had been taken in and 
paid by him ; 

10. By refusing to report to the County Auditor, weekly, the 
county orders received by him as Treasurer, and neglecting to 
endorse thereon the word " paid," as provided by law; 

11. By showing partiality in office in this, viz.: by paying to 
certain parties cash on county warrants and refusing others; 

12. By holding tax receipts and tax certificates for friends and 
not requiring the full amount at date of delivery, when no 
money had been paid thereon at the date of receipt of certifi- 

13. By holding county warrants purchased by friends at great 
discount, and paying the same out of other and different funds 
than those upon which said warrants were drawn — the fund on 
which the warrants were drawn being exhausted; 

14. By failing to produce and fully account for all public 
funds at inspection or legal settlement with the Board at the 
January meeting in 1879; 


15. By exhibiting bankers' certificates of deposit in lieu of 
the money representing the public funds, belonging to the 
county and State. 

A joinder of issues was completed on the above charges, and 
the case came to trial at the August term of the said court in 
1879, in which cause the State was represented by attorneys J. 
H. Henderson, of Marshalltown, and S. H. Cochran, of Logan, 
and the defendant by J. W. Barnhart and W. S. Shoemaker, of 
Logan, and Mr. Monk, of Onawa. 

The jury selected to determine the facts were as follows, viz.: 
William Elliott, A. Jewel, Thos. F. Vanderhoof, .Henry Weed, 
N. B. Wadsworth, D. A. McDermot, G. W. Noyes, jr., James 
Norman, J. A. Deal, John A. Reel, G. W. Smith and H. P. 
White, who, after patiently listening to the evidence introduced, 
and the argument of the representative counsel, and being 
instructed by the court, only tarried in their consultation room 
a short time when they returned into court with a verdict: 
" We the jury find the defendant not guilty." . 

Perhaps I might state that there never was a case tried in the 
courts of the county which elicited so much interest for the 
moment as this, for the fact that the prosecution was instituted 
at the latter part of the second term of office of the accused, 
who, being a personage having grown up under the eye of the 
public, the party to whom he had attached his political faith 
and worshiped with, were bitter in denouncing the accusation as 
being more for political purposes than pro bono publico, and 
again among his adherents there were numerous personages who 
had a mercenary purpose in refuting the charges, irrespective of 
guilt, for by so doing they were accommodating their own 
private and personal interests. 

Charges 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were passed over because, if the 
charges were true, the commission of these acts had been 
indulged in by former county treasurers so long back that the 
memory of man ran not to the contrary; and it was especially 


urged on trial, as a matter of justification, that when Hill's pre- 
decessor went out of officCj there were large amounts of county 
warrants, approximating nearly fll,000, turned over to him 
in settlement with Mr. Wood, or rather by the Board of Super- 
visors in settlement with Mr. Wood as cash, the same, though 
nearly four years had intervened, these remained uncancelled, 
and nothing but the full fledged honesty of the present incum- 
bent prohibited this large amount of negotiable paper from being 
again thrown upon the public as a circulating medium of value. 
That the presence of this bundle of honesty was proof positive 
of his innocence, etc. 

Specifications 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 were regarded by the 
jury as not sufficiently proven, while the charges 14 and 15 were 
not in any substantial manner relied on by the accusers. The 
greater stress in the entire case was based on those charges 
alleging that the public funds had been placed in the banks of 
the county contrary to law, and that interest had been collected 
thereon by the accused, and this interest appropriated by the 
accused to his own use. 

From the present light which has been, within the last six 
months shed on this case, there would be little hesitancy in 
saying that, had the accusers centralized their prosecution on 
the Mth and 15th charges, and pushed the case vigorously, the 
result of the verdict of the jury might have been materially 
different, yet with this opinion 1 h^ve little sympathy, for should 
the same elements now combine and foreordain that an acquittal 
should be had, the result might be a verdict of similar import as 
that copied in the foregoing remarks. 

The prosecution had no faith in maintaining charges 14 and 
15, or else they would have pushed the accused to the wall on 
the same, but in this they were like a blind steer in a forty- 
acre cornfield, simply wandering about hoping to find their way 
to a conviction. 

The present Board of Supervisors now claim that the accused, 


at the January settlement of 1879, was short of funds to the 
extent of $2,131.78; that at the June settlement of 1881 there 
was a deficit of $3,200; the same at the January settlement of 
1882; $4,000 at June of the same year; $4,800 at January, 1883, 
$5,000 at June, 1883; $7,500 at January, 1884. At the January 
meeting of 1884 all funds belonging to the county were produced 
and counted by the Board, while at the January meeting of 1883 
the $4,800 was obtained by executing a promissory note of I. P. 
Hill to the Harrison County Bank, and this note was taken up 
by the Treasurer immediately after the settlement of that month. 

The settlement of the January session of 1885 was balanced 
up by using $7,200 of checks held by the Harrison County Bank, 
which bore date of the 21st of January, and was taken up as 
shown on the 22d of the same month. 

At the June meeting of 1885 the settlement was made by 
using $1,300 of cash put in on the 17th day of June and drawn 
out on the same day by the Harrison County Bank, and $6,500 
in checks on the Harrison County Bank, these bearing date of 
the 17th day of June and drawn out on the 19th of the same 

January settlement of 1886 was a cash counting term. 

At the June settlement of 1886 the Harrison County Bank was 
represented by $10,500 in cheeks of date of the 22d of Jiine, and 
the same drawn out on the 24th of the same month. 

On the 18th day of January, 1887, I. P. Hill executed his 
promissory note to the Harrison County Bank for $9,000, and the 
same was paid by Mr. Hill three days thereafter. 

At the June session of 1887 Mr. Hill was behind in funds to the 
amount of $14,500, and the deficiency held in abeyance by 
the Board counting as funds in the hands of the Treasurer, 
$7,000 in checks held by the Harrison County Bank; $2,500 in 
certificates of deposits at the Cadwell Bank, and at the same time 
counting as cash a check held by Cadwell's Bank drawn by the 
County Treasurer on the Harrison County Bank calling for $5,000- 


Mr. P. Cadwell held on deposit at that time the sum of $2,500 
belonging to the funds of the county, and this $2,500, added to 
the check of the Treasurer on the Harrison County Bank of 
$5,000, made a showing of $7,500, from which these balances 
were made. 

There can be no question but that the Cadwell Bank acted in 
this matter with the utmost good faith and that there was no other 
thought in the mind of the Cadwell Bank but that the check of 
the Treasurer on the Harrison County Bank was in good faith and 
represented the cash as stated, viz. : so much money of the funds 
belonging to the county which had been deposited in the afore- 
said bank. 

It must also be remembered that at this time Mr. Cadwell was 
one of the bondsmen of the County Treasurer, and would not even 
squint at any crookedness on the part of the principal whom he 
was securing. 

No character of gossip every startled the people of the county 
like unto that of the statement made at the meeting of the 
Board of Supervisors in January, 1888, when it was made known 
that Mr. Hill was a defaulter in the sum of $20,000 to $25,000, 
but the reports of the Treasurer and Auditor would not balance 
by this amount above spoken of, and hence, when the outgoing 
Auditor told that Mr. I. P. Hill was lacking that amount of 
funds to come up even with the tally sheets in his ofBce, there 
was no longer any doubt as to the truth of the statement. 

It might be profitable for those who bank on the funds belong- 
ing to the county to go upon the bonds of the County Treasurer, 
yet this little escapade has settled a fact in the minds of some 
few of Harrison county's best citizens, — that if the greater share 
of the public funds are to be used by the firm not holden on the 
Treasurer's bond, the sooner relief is had from the bond the 
more wisdom the parties would manifest. 

Parties and persons may settle the thought as to where the 
deficiency first began by accommodating their own fancy, but 


this truth must not be forgotten. When the Board of Super- 
visors settled with Mr. Hill's predecessors, why was not the 
$11,000 of warrants then turned over, cancelled and placed be- 
yond the reach of ever afterwards being counted or even estimated 
as cash? 

The Boards of Supervisors who have held that position since 
the 1st day of January, 1879, are quite as much to blame as any 
party to the defalcation, in not requiring at each settlement re- 
quired by law, semi-annually, to demand even peremptorily, to 
see that the money representing each fund be brought into the 
Supervisors' court and then and there counted. While it is true 
that on the incoming of each year of a new term of office, Mr. 
Hill was promptly on hand with cash balances, yet had they 
demanded the payment of these certificates of deposit or even 
the checks, at any or all the intermediate settlements, " some 
American citizen of African descent would have been smoked 
out of the fuel pile." 

This propping arrangement would not have survived more than 
one terra, and as a result, the incompetent or dishonest would 
have been at an early day estopped in plying their game at the 
expense of confiding bondsmen. On whom rests the burden of 
guilt in this case, is left to each person to form opinions for 
himself, but this fact is fixed beyond doubt, that they who 
are the bondsmen of the subject of these remarks, have, both in 
and out of season, persistently proclaimed the honesty of Mr. 

Another fact may be stated : it is one which will bear the most 
severe ordeal, and it is this: there has never been a time in the 
political history of the county, when the banks of the county 
united on a candidate for County Treasurer, but that the person 
of their choice was elected by most handsome majorities, and the 
further fact may be truthfully stated, that Mr. Hill has been 


could not be censured for giving him a united support, unless 
this party was cognizant of the fact of his dishonesty or incom- 
petency, but there have been numerous persons in the party 
which opposed Mr. Hill, who, forgetting their own nominees, 
and for mercenary and personal purposes, have thrown^ very 
many good Republicans into political fence corners, because they 
had tried and proved Mr. Hill, and had found in him a friend 
who was ever ready to supply funds for pecuniary purposes, not- 
withstanding the funds so furijished belonged to the public. 
This incumbent had been in office since the 1st of January, 1876, 
and who would " swap " a good, well-tried trick " boss " for one 
not accustomed to the collar or even broken to lead? Hence 
the numerous political graves, freshened every odd year by party, 
suicidal, political hands. 

Xhe records now plainly show that Mr. Hill had become quite 
serviceable to a limited number of the Republican party, who 
were ever pushing him to the front, recommending his honesty and 
ability and if aught was said against him, were crying " persecu- 
tion," but these were either serving their own pecuniary purpose 
or turning the political grindstone for some one who expected to 
reap a rich promised or anticipated reward. 

At the time of the trial of the accusations of 1879, and from 
that time up to and until the 1st of January, 1888, there never 
was a time when aught derogatory to the character and standing 
of Mr. Hill was noised abroad, but all the ex-County Treasurers 
of the county (excepting Judge King and Judge Brainard) would 
shield the person of the accused by a solid embankment of body 
so and characters, that it was impossible for the spears of honest, 
well meaning accusers to touch the sacred person of the money- 
collecting friend. 

Formerly, it was said : " Not all who cry Lord ! Lord! shall 
enter the Kingdom of Heaven;" so, at the present day, it is 
not universally the case, that they who pump political wind 


with the greatest persistency, and assume a rich politico-sancti- 
fied look, have the best interests of the public at heart. 

Much has been said in regard to the investigation ordered by 
the Board of Supervisors, in June of 1879, at which time Mr. 
J. C. Milliman, of this county, and E. H. Hibben, of Marshall- 
town, were selected^ as the experts to examine and report the 
condition of the Auditor's office. 

These men, after careful examination made report to the Board 
as to tjie condition of the records of the office to which their 
attention was directed, viz. : the Auditor's, and it was impossible 
for them to make a showing as to the condition of the business 
and status of the books of the Treasurer's office, from the fact 
that they never were clothed with authority to investigate the 
status of the finance of the County Treasurer. 

The fault, if fault there be, lies largely at the door of the 
Board of Supervisors, for had they acted on the 1st of January, 
1879, and semi-monthly thereafter, as the law directed them to 
act, viz.: to count the funds in the hands of the Treasurer, and 
not take the certificates of deposits of bankers as money or con- 
sider as cash a draft drawn by the Treasurer on a bank, not even 
seeking to inquire of the bankers if such draft would be hon- 
ored if presented, the defalcation of the present would not have 
assumed the magnitude of $25,000. 

The law presumes every man to be honest until the contrary 
is proven, and the different Boards of Supervisors adopting this 
theory have been careless of duty, supposing that it would be 
sufficient time to determiine an indvidual dishonest after the act 
constituting the dishonesty was perpetrated. 

It is an old maxim, "An ounce of preventive is equal to a 
pound of cure," and had the preventive been rigidly applied, 
there would have been no necessity for any curing appliances. 



The first personage to adorn this exalted position was Mr. 
William Dakan o£ Jefferson township, he being elected at the 
first election held in the county, which occurred, as before stated, 
on the 7th day of March, 1853. 

Lawyer Dakan qualified and discharged the onerous duties of 
this position by drawing the salary provided therefor, and when 
informed that Stephen King had resigned, possessing a modesty 
worthy of imitation in these latter days, rather than take upon 
himself the duties of County Judge (for he, by reason of his 
position, was County Judge ad interim), also resigned the office 
of County Prosecuting Attorney; and as a result one Richurd 
Humphreys (called Dick Humphreys) was, on the 5th day of 
December, 1853, appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Mr. Dakan. Mr. Dakan, though not a lawyer, 
possessed, largely, the symptomsj except that he was a strict 
temperance man; but outside of this was as windy as the most 
" gassy " professional lawyer in all the State of Iowa,' not ban- 
ing the other thirty-seven States of this glorious Union. 

There is a certain peculiarity touching the first Prosecuting 
Attorney of this county, and the individual who was appointed 
to fill his unexpired term, in this : Mr. Dakan was one of the 
most liberal, enterprising, faithful and upright, uncompromising 
men of this part of the State, but to him reverses came, matters 
over which he had no control, and by reason of miscalculation, 
failed financially, to the utter astonishment of all his friends 
and neighbor^, fled from the face of his creditors, while there 
was an abundance of property to much more than satisfy his 
every debt. But the man who had moved in the highest circles 
of the county, when misfortune crossed his pathway had not 
the courage to stand faithfully at the financial helm and shore 
a craft that would have more than paid every obligation, but 
chose to let it sink without witnessing the scene. 

Richard Humphreys, who succeeded Mr. Dakan by appoint- 


ment, was a mau of reasonable legal qualifications, but there was 
a disposition in the man that he could not control, and this con- 
trolling power was manifest in the year of 1855, when he had 
migrated to the State of Missouri, and there like Zaccheus climbed 
a tree, but Zaccheus came down alive, a matter which this limb 
of the law wholly forgot, for while attached to the limb of the 
tree, there happening to be a peculiar attachment of this limb 
of the law to the limb of the tree, that unfortunately broke the 
neck of the law-limb. 

At the April election of 1854 Mr. T. B. Neely was elected to 
serve out the unexpired term of Mr. Dakan, which he did with 
credit to himself and the gratification of the entire citizenship 
of the county electing him. 

James W. Bates was elected at the April election of 1855, and 
drew his salary for the two years following. This gentleman 
was not a lawyer by profession, but in this matter, like the old- 
fashioned " Buckeye " when requested to attend church, replied, 
" I will either go or send a hand," and while Mr. Bates did not 
in person superintend and discharge the duties of the ofBce to 
which he was elected, he furnished a hand to do it. 

William T. Raymond, then living three miles north of Mag- 
nolia, was at the April election of 1857 elected to this position, 
and though a real good farmer, and lately hailing from the land 
of wooden nutmegs and basswood hams, discharged the duties 
of this office with ability, fairness and impartiality, which to-day 
is worthy of imitation. Here let it be said that Mr. Raymond, 
during his term of office, was frequently called upon to perform 
the functions of the office of County Judge, and ^hile so acting 
was occupying the position of D. E. Brainard, but whenever so 
administering justice or otherwise so acting, his acts were always 
such as to meet the approval of Mr. Brainard. 

The ending of the year of 1858 ended the office of County 
Prosecuting Attorney, an office having its inception not only on 


the adoption of the Code of 1851, but dating back to the time 
of the admission of this State into the Union. 

The following is a list of the Prosecuting Attorneys of this 
Judicial District: 

0. H. Howe, elected Oct. 12, 1858; Henry Ford, Oct. 14, 1862; 
Orson Rice, Oct. 9, 1866; C. H. Lewis, Oct. 11, 1870; George B. 
McCarty, Oct. 13, 1874; S. M. Marsh, Oct. 8, 1878, re-elected 
Nov. 7, 1882. 

Then the Twenty-first General Assembly, by act, determined 
that this ofBce was no longer necessary, and the courts and peo- 
ple, after an experience and trial thereof for the period of 
twenty-eight years, fell back on the early wisdom of the State, 
and rejuvenated the office of County Prosecuting Attorney, to 
which position J. A. Phillips, an attorney of Dunlap, was chosen 
at the general election of 1886, and entered on the discharge of 
his duties on the first Monday of January, 1887. 


elected at the time of the organization of the county, on the 7th 
of April, 1853, were as heretofore given, viz.: 

Stephen King, County Judge — Mr. King resigned this posi- 
tion in August of the same year, and one P. Green Cooper, 
whether by appointment or by reason of being in a position to 
hold the office ad interim, officiated as County Judge until 
August election of 1854, at which time James Hardy was elected 
to fill the vacancy. 

At the August election, 1855, James Hardy was re-elected and 
held this office until the election of D. E. Brainard in August of 
1857, the general elections being the time provided for the elec- 
tion of county officers by act of the Seventh General Assembly, 
passed March 23, 1858. D. E. Brainard was again elected at the 
general election of 1859. 

Jonas W. Chatburn, elected, 1861. 

Samuel Moore, elected, 1863. 


Jamas Harvey, elected, 1865. 

H. C. Harshbarger, elected, 1867. 

This person last named took the oath on the 1st of January, 
1868, and held the position until the taking effect of the act 
passed by the Twelfth General Assembly, which legislated all 
the County Judges in the State out of office. 

The records kept by these courts of their proceedings are 
unique, many of them as hard to interpret as the hieroglyphics on 
the pyramids or the characters on the copper plates found by 
Joe Smith; more conspicuous for what is not recorded than for 
the facts set forth. 

The laws of the State did not require the County Judge to 
reside at the seat of justice, and to that end Mr. James Harvey 
during the term of his office resided on his farm in Raglan, but 
made occasional visits to the county seat to learn if anybody had 
departed this life so that executors or an administrator would 
need be appointed, but while at his business of farming a cer- 
tain gentleman from the old Buckeye State made a trip to this 
county in order to settle up an estate which had been hanging 
fire for a considerable time, when not finding His Honor at his 
office, made search for him among the hills of Raglan, and on 
his return stated that the County Judge of Harrison County was 
precisely like a pony he owned. "Why?" was the ready question 
of a bystander. Said the stranger, " In the first place he is very 
hard to catch, and in the second place when you do catch him he 
is not worth a d — n." 


Whoever was elected to this position at the April election of 
1853 is not shown by the records, but on the 5th of December, 
1863, there being no person acting in such capacity, and there 
being a vacancy declared by the ad interim County Judge (P. 
<Jreen Cooper), Mr. W. V. Cooper was by his honor appointed 
to the position of County Treasurer and Recorder. These two 


offices were held together up to the 1st day of January, 1865, 
when they were severed by an act of the Legislature. W. V. 
Cooper held this position until the August election of 1854, at 
which time D. M. Gamett was elected to fill the vacancy. Au- 
gust, 1855, Stephen King was elected, and on the 25th of June, 
1856, resigned the office, which was accepted by the court on the 
27th of the same month, the resignation to take effect on the 1st 
day of August following. D. E. Brainard was then appointed 
to fill out the unexpired term of Stephen King. Jno. W. Cooper 
was elected August, 1857; * W. J. Boner, October, 1859: A. L. 
Harvey was elected to fill vacancy, in October, 1860; A. L. Har- 
vey was elected in October, 1861; Reuben Yiesley in October, 
1863; George S.Bacon in October, 1865; A. W. Ford in October, 
1867; George S. Bacon in October, 1869; John W. Wood in 
October, 1871 and 1873; Isaac P. Hill in October, 1875, 1877, 
1879, 1881, 1883 and 1885; L. E. Massie in November, 1887. 

The closest contest of any of the above was that of Mr. A. L. 
Harvey, who in 1860 ran for the treasurership, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by reason of the death of W. J. Boner. At this elec- 
tion the Democratic nominee was one Jas. Perley, subseqtuently 
a partner in the firm of Dalley & Perley, in the mercantile busi- 
ness in Magnolia; the vote being so close that Mr. Harvey only 
had a majority of one. This was alarmingly close, but a major- 
ity of one, when had and counted, is a terrible big one. 


Were elected as follows: P. G. Cooper elected in April, 1853; 
Wm. M. Hill in April, 1854, August, 1856, October, 1858, and 
October, 1860. In 1861, owing to certain complications regard- 
ing the governmental difficulties, Capt. Hill resigned and A. G. 
Hard was appointed in his stead. B. Price elected in October, 
1862 and A. G. Hard 1864; J. W. Stocker in October, 1866 and 

• W. J. Boner died at St. Jo., Mo., in the spring of 1860, and A. L. Harvey was appointed 
to the vacancy until the next general election. 


1868; Henry Gleason in October, 1870, 1872 and 1874; C. L. 
Hyde in October, 1876, 1878, 1880, 1882 and 1884; Thomas Arthur 
in November, 1886. 

In the matter of the resignation of Captain William M. Hill, 
as above referred to, if the reader will pardon me I will make 
such explanation as will in a great measure give reason for an 
excuse, rather than condemnatory of him. 

In the early spring of 1861, Mrs. Hill and the children had 
gone on a visit to the old home in .Virginia, and between the 
date of her landing in the Old Dominion, and time set by her for 
her return, the war broke out, and under the existing circum- 
stances she was unable to pass through the Coi^federate or Union 
lines. Here, then, was a condition by which a father was sep- 
arated from his wife and children, and by reason of the compli- 
cations, it became necessary for Captain Hill to make a trip to old 
Virginia in order to procure the return of his wife and children. 

Mr. Hill, knowing the temper of the Virginia people, and in 
good faith supposing that a letter to some of his old friends 
in that place would, in some measure, show that he was 
slightly favorable to the southern cause, and pave the way for 
the obtainment of his wife and family, was foolish enough to 
write such a letter; but the letter, instead of being sent through 
the Federal lines, was apprehended and sent to Washington and 
by the postal department at the place returned to the writer at 
Magnolia, who, at this time was on his way to Virginia, making 
the best terms he could in order to procure a permit for the 
return to Iowa of his wife, self and children. One Joe L. De 
Forest, whom Hill had taken out of the gutter and had placed in 
the Clerk's'office during this time as his deputy, receiving the 
mails for his principal, took out of the postoffice at Magnolia this 
letter which had been returned to HiH. and which had not been 
considered by the department of sufiScient importance to hold, 
and as soon as perused by him, was carried to and rehearsed in 
the ears of some of the leaders of the Republican party, which 


brought about a great hurrah, and culminated in this same 
letter being carried to Des Moines and there placed before the 
TJ. S. Grand Jury, and this jury, in term found a bill of indict- 
ment against Hill for treason. 

On the first Monday in January of 1862 he was arrested by 
" Hub " Hoxie, then U. S. Marshal for this district, and carried 
to Des Moines for trial at the January term of the U. S. Circuit 
Court, he (Hill) taking with him a score or more of witnesses 
from his home at and around Magnolia. On arriving at the 
place aforesaid he demanded trial but the U. S. District Attorney, 
instead of trying the case, entered a nolle prosequi, and Hill was 
set at liberty. This occurred during the afternoon session of 
the court and the day being so far advanced, the different per- 
sons from this county, who were in attendance as witnesses, 
could not thfen start for their homes. Early in the afternoon an 
invitation was given by one Charles Van, who had been for some 
time previously in and about Calhoun, and who at that time 
lived in West Des Moines, to all of the Harrison county men 
(except W. T. Raymond and Mr. Hill), to take supper with him 
that evening at nine o'clock. 

Scarcely had the friends of Hill left the hotel until "Hub" 
Hoxie, without warrant or authority, took Hill from his bed and 
kidnaped him, carrying him by bypaths, from pillar to post, avoid- 
ing all county seats or places where Hill could procure legal 
counsel and be released on habeas corpus, and when arriving at 
the Mississippi river, put him on board of the cars and rushed 
him through to Fort Lafayette, where he was held as a prisoner 
for six or more months, until he would sign a contract by which 
he released all claims against the government or Hoxie for 
damages for false imprisonment. Never during the history of 
the Republican party was such an egregious outrage committed 
on the rights of any citizen of the State of Iowa. The Govern- 
ment was at that time sending regiment after regiment into the 
field for the express and avowed purpose of placing the country 


in a condition by whicli the civil law could be enforced; b,ut 
here in Iowa at this time when the courts were not menaced, 
where there had been an indictment, and the supposed criminal 
had been brought before the bar for trial, and he had taken up 
the glove and was willing to try the wager of legal battle and 
the same had been refused by the courts, then to surreptitiously 
kidnap the man, was such a shame and disgrace to the party in 
power, as did in public or secret bring the blush on the cheek 
of every honest minded citizen in the State. 

After the incarceration of the old Captain, and on his return 
to his own state and family, this disgrace so wrought up his 
mind that shortly thereafter, there were indications of mental 
unsoundness, and as a sequence to the story which has been told. 
Hill in 1879 tried to suicide and soon thereafter was taken to the 
hospital for the insane at Mt. Pleasant; was discharged from 
this as an "incurable," and finally died at Mercy Hospital at Dav- 
enport, Iowa, in 1881, being so imbecile as to forget wife, chil- 
dren and all family ties. Yet they who were the authors of this 
misfortune stalk abroad, in this county at this writing, not 
seeming to think that they were the authors of so great a mis- 
fortune, outrage and wrong. This is the saddest incident in 
all the history of the county. 


Was an office which was carried along with the office of 
County Treasurer from the organization of the State up to the 
spring of 1864, at which time the Legislature of the State, by 
act of .the Tenth General Assembly, severed the offices, and as 
a result of such legislative action, the different counties in the 
State, at the general election of 1864, elected a County Recorder. 
The first Recorder elected in this county was Joe. H. Smith, who 
was elected in 1864; H. C. Harshbarger, in 1866; J. C. Milliman, 
in 1868, 1870, 1872 and 1874; A. K. Grow, in 1876, 1878 and 
1880; D. M. Hardy in 1882 and 1884; Col. French, in 1886. 



Was an office in being at the organization of the county, at 
which time an election was had, viz.: John Thompson was 
elected in April, 1853 and 1855; Dr. John H. Rice in August, 

1857, which office was legislated out of existence in 1858, and 
became in a condition of inocuous desuetude after the 1st of 
January, 1859. 


Was an office created by act of the Legislature of March 12, 

1858, and provided that on the first Monday of the April fol- 
lowing, there should be elected in every organized county, a 
County Superintendent of Common Schools, who should hold his 
office for two years or until his successor was elected and quali- 
fied; this was changed by the next session of the Legislature, 
by which the person elected on the first Monday of April, 1858, 
should only hold the office until the election and qualification 
of his successor, which successor should be elected on the second 
Tuesday of October, 1859. The first person elected to this office 
was Joe. H. Smith, in April, 1858; H. D. King, in October, 1859. 
Mr. King resigned June 1st, 1861, and George S. Bacon was 
appointed June 5th, 1861; George S. Bacon elected October, 
1861; Stephen King, in 1863; R. N. Day, in 1865; C. H. Holmes, 
in 1867; Horace McKenney, in 1869; Lemuel Gale, in 1871; G. 
H. Demon, in 1873; S. G. Rogers, in 1875; J. D. Hornby, in 
1877 and 1879; A. J. Miller, in 1881 and 1883; H. A. Kinney, 
in 1885 and 1887. 


Was an office created by Chapter 160 of the acts of the Twelfth 
General Assembly, having in view the disposing of the County 
Judge system as well as giving furlough to the old County 
Supervisor system, and providing that all County Judges then in 
office should be County Auditors, ex officio, for the term of two 


years following the first Monday of January after their election. 
This act taking effect on the 4th of July, 1868, Mr. H. C. Harsh- 
barger, then wearing the ermine, the insignia of this office, was, 
by virtue of this act, the first County Auditor: 

H. C. Harshbarger, by virtue of being County Judge, 1869; 
William H. Eaton was elected in 1869, 1871, 1873, 1875, 1877, 
and dying on May 5, 1878, the place was filled by the appoint- 
ment of L. E. Massie, who was appointed in June, 1878, to fill 
the vacancy. Almor Stern was elected" in 1878, 1879 and 1881; 
James H. McGavren was elected in 1883 and 1885; Prank Croes- 
dale was elected in 1887 for 1888 and 1889. 


The first Sheriff elected was Captain Chester M. Hamilton, at 
the August election in 1853^ who resigned on the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1854; John M. Eogers was appointed February 25, 1854; 
John M. Rogers was elected at the August election, in 1854, to 
fill vacancy; James Hutchinson was elected for the years of 
1856 and 1857; Clayton Webb, for the following term, but 
resigned October 19, 1857, and W. A. Ellis was appointed to fill 
the vacancy. W. A. Ellis was elected in October, 1858, for the 
unexpired term of Webb; W. A. Ellis was elected in October, 
for 1859, 1860, and 1861; Samuel Moore was elected for 1862 
and 1863; H. G. Vincent was elected for term of 1864 and 1865, 
but resigned March 27, 1865; George Musgrave was appointed 
April 4, 1865; John G. Downs was elected for the term of 1866 
and 1867; A. I. Cutler was elected for 1868 and 1869; J. J. Peck 
was elected in 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875; J. B. Mc- 
Arthur was elected for 1876, 1877, 1878 and 1879; Wiley Mid- 
dleton was elected for 1880, 1881, 1882 and 1883; John D. Gar- 
rison was elected for 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888 and 1889. 



George H. White was elected in August, 1853, for 1853 and 
1854 — 1854 and 1856 ; George H. White was elected in August, 
1855, for 1855 and 1856—1856 and 1857; N. M. McKimmey was 
elected in August, 1857, and held oiBce by election until 1864, 
and resigned. J. Z. Hunt was appointed to fill the vacancy. 
John A. Parkin was elected for the years of 1866 and 1867; J. 
Z. Hunt was elected for the years of 1868 and 1869; George 
Madison was elected 'for the years of 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 
1874, 1875 and 1876. Mr. Madison died in 1876, and Logan 
Crawford was appointed to fill the vacancy. W. M. Magden 
was elected for the years of 1877, 1878 and 1879; Logan Craw- 
ford was elected for the years of 1880, 1881, 1882 and 1883; 
Reuben Ballard was elected for the years of 1884 and 1885, but 
resigned in 1885, and A. Snyder was appointed to fill the 
vacancy, and was elected for the years of 1886 and 1887; John 
McCabe was elected for the years of 1888 and 1889. 


T. Butler Neely, elected m 1854, residence. Little Sioux. 
N. G. Wyatt, elected in 1856, residence, Magnolia. 
Samuel H. Cassady, elected in 1868, residence, Sioux City. 
D. M. Harris, elected in 1869, residence, Audubon county. 
William W. Fuller, elected in 1861, residence. Magnolia. 
Stephen King, elected in 1863, residence, Whitesboro. 
L. R. Bolter, elected in 1865, residence, Jeddo City. 
J. H. Smith, elected in 1867, residence. Magnolia. 
Geo. H. McGavren, elected in 1869, residence, Missouri Valley. 
P. Cadwell, elected in 1871, residence. Magnolia. 
L. R. Bolter, elected in 1873 and 1875, residence, Jeddo City. 
H. B. Lyman, elected in 1877, residence, Dunlap. 
George Richardson, elected in 1879, residence, Modale. 
L. R. Bolter, elected in 1881 and 1883, residence, Logan. 
D. M. Harris, elected in 1885, residence, Missouri Valley. 
B. F. Roberts, elected in 1887, residence, Dunlap. 


From the time of the real drawing of party lines in the county 
in 1860 up to the present, the length of time and number of 
sessions of the Legislature in which this county has been repre- 
sented, the Republican party has taken the lead, in this: that 
eight sessions have been represented by Republicans and six by 
the Democrats, viz: Fuller, King, Smith, McGavren, Cadwell, 
Lyman, Richardson and Roberts — Republicans. 

Bolter in 1865, 1873, 1876, 1881 and 1883; Karris in 1885: 
these. Democrats. . 

Mr. Bolter has served longer in the popular branch of the 
"law manufacturing" establishment of the State than any other 
man in the county, and in addition thereto, I may truthfully 
add, has ever been a good legislator, but at times has been hedged 
about by some of those questions which bother men so after 
election, viz.: the redemption of pledges made before the cast 
and count of the vote. 

William W. Fuller, in 1862, resigned his place in the Legisla- 
ture and accepted a Captaincy in the volunteer service and 
entered the army August 16th, 1862, and died at Greenwood, 
Mississippi on the lith of March, 1863. 

Legendary, 'tis said, that the Hon. T. Butler Neely was a man 
equal to every occasion, while at Iowa City, for representing a 
district, where the constituency did not wear the finest robes 
and sail in carriages, he, like the people of his district, wore the 
garb of the honest yeomanry of the western slope, and while 
there some coxcomb, thinking to make some sport, in company, 
asked Mr. Neely what county he resided in and what counties he 
represented; this being answered by Mr. Neely, this same fellow 
wanted to know of Neely what the "population of Harrison 
county was"! To which Neely replied: "Sir: there is a con- 
siderable quantity of Acer Dasycarpum, Acer saccharinum, carya 
amara,juglans nigra, negundo acerides, quercus tinctoria, tilai 
americatia, ulmus americana and ulmus fulvia : but the princi- 
pal part is Cottonwood and water elm." 


This answer being promptly reported to the Speaker, Mr. 
Neely was at once recognized as the Cincinatus of the House, 
and his views consulted on all great occasions during that and 
the extra session which convened July 22, 1856. Some, at this 
date, pretend to say that Neely started for Iowa City, prior to 
the convening of the Legislature, on foot and barefooted, having 
his shoes tied to a walking cane and this cast over his shoulder, 
and without socks. This Mr. Neely denies and says that the 
story is an indulgence of fancy at the expense of fact, for hav- 
ing a pair of socks in his pocket he did not wish to trammel 
himself by these until he arrived at his place of destination. 

Mr. Neely was a good representative man, settled in the 
county in 1850, lived here for nearly the one-third of a century, 
married at Little Sioux and at that place reared a large family 
and within the past decade removed to Port Susan Bay, Washing- 
ton Territory, at which place he now serves as an official under 
the Democratic administration, for which during his entire stay 
here he had a love bordering on adoration. 

Hon. George Richardson, like all good men, has been the vic- 
tim of misplaced confidence and the object of slander, for 
some who have not the fear of God before their eyes nor respect- 
ing the truth, have circulated the report that Mr. Richardson, 
at the time he left his home to represent his constituents, 
bought his ticket for Washington, D. C, and had his baggage 
checked for the same place, supposing that the duties of his office 
called him thither, but inquiry has been made directly of Mr. 
Richardson, and he says the same is a vile slander, and false in 
fact and particular. 


The first State Senator for this county was James D. Test, 
of Council Bluffs, who was elected in 1853; Wm. H. Pusey, of 
Council Bluffs, in 1857; John F. Duncombe, of Fort Dodge, in 
1859; G. W. Bassett, of Fort Dodge, in 1863; Addison Oliver, 
of Onawa, in 1865; Charles Atkins, of Onawa, in 1869; George 


D. Perkins, of Sioux City, in 1873; A. W. Ford, of Logan,, in 
1877; T. M. C. Logan, of Logan, in 1881; L. R. Bolter, of Logan, 
in 1885. 


The first perso;i to preside as a Judge of the District Court 
within the county was Samuel Riddle, of Council Bluffs, who 
was elected in 1854; Asahel W. Hubbard, of Sioux City, was 
elected in 1858; Isaac Pendleton, of Sioux City, in 1862; Henry 
Ford, of Magnolia, in 1866 and 1870; Charles H. Lewis, of 
Cherokee, in 1874, 1878 and 1882; Chas. H. Lewis, Geo. W. 
Wakefield and Scott McLadd, of Cherokee, in 1886. 

Judge Lewis has served more consecutive years on the bench 
than any other individual in the State -of Iowa except the Hon. 
George W. Ruddick, of Bremer county, which would indicate 
the fitness of the man and the faith which the people have in 
his integrity. 


Upon the passage of the act of the Twelfth General Assembly 
of date as hereijibefore designated, whereby the office of Circuit 
Judge was provided for, and this of date o^ April 3d, 1868, and 
taking effect the first Monday of January, 1869, except as to the 
election of the judges as provided for by said act. 

Hon. Addison Oliver, of Monona county, was elected at the 
general election of 1868, and re-elected at the general election of 
1872, and resigned in August of 1874. 

J. R. Zuver, of Magnolia, Harrison county, was appointed by 
the Governor, and at the general election of 1874, was elected to 
fill the vacancy or unexpired term of Judge Oliver. 

Judge Zuver was re-elected at the general election of 1876, 
and again re-elected at the general election of 1880. 

By reason of bodily ailments, Judge Zuver was unable to dis- 
charge the duties of the office for the last two years of his last 
term, and the result was that this end of the circuit district 


was practically without circuit court for the years of 1883 and 

Hon. George W. Wakefield, of Sioux City, was elected at the 
general election of 1884, and for the years of 1885 and 1886, 
ably discharged the duties of said office, when by act of the 
Twenty-first General Assembly, as before stated, was legislated 
out of office. 

This was the prospective ending of the Circuit Judge system, 
inaugurated in 1869, and abolished or ending with the year of 
1886, lasting seventeen years. 


At the time when settlement was first had in the county, and I 
might say up to and until after the organization thereof, were 
not taken into consideration, in the selections of homes or the 
location of great cities. 

Henry Reel, one of the oldest men in the county, ran away 
from the State of Indiana, in order to rid himself of the pres- 
ence of railroads; but scarcely had he quieted down in his new 
home on the banks of the Boyer, until the advance agents of 
theN. W. Railroad /vere knocking at his door demanding the 
price of right of away, and offering the privileges of station and 
town site. 

Mr. Reel was like the individual who had formed a great 
aversion to the Methodists, and determined that he would leave 
their presence and locate in a place where these shouting, pray- 
ing excitable fanatics did not exist; so putting family and traps 
into the "ship of the desert" started toward the setting of the 
sun. A few were found in Illinois; they were quite numerous 
in Iowa, but in Nebraska they were very scarce, but wishing to 
live in a place wholly free from these, he passed on and on until 
the shores of the Pacific were reached, and not having seen any 
human being for three or four months, supposed that he had at 
last come to that place he long had sought, and mourned because 


he had found it not, until the present; when in the evening hour he 
and family heard the echoing of a sweet, full voice far down the 
canyon; jumping to his feet he exclaims: " What's that, what's 
that? Listen!" when up through the valley is heard the voice 
of a woman singing, 

"Jesus, lover of my soul.'' 

" Well," says he to his wife, " there's no use trying to get away 
from these noisy Methodists, and I'm goin' to jine the church 
to-morrer." So, with Mr. Reel; he then thought that there was 
no use in trying to get away from the railroads, and made the 
best terms he could with them, and as a result, they located a 
station on his land, which to-day is the county seat of the county 
about which I'm trying to tell. 

At the time of the first settlement of this county, there was 
not a railroad within a thousand miles of this place, and it was 
more than three years after the organization of the county before 
there was a tie or rail laid in the State. 

The first railroad to reach the Mississippi, pointing toward the 
mighty west, was that of the Chicago & Rock Island, which 
first touched the banks of the Father of Waters in 1854, and 
in the same year the corner stone for the bridge across that 
stream was laid. How many of my readers remember with 
what energy, vim and persistency the people of St. Louis fought 
this enterprise, and how many now know that in less than 
twenty years thereafter this same people atoned for their folly 
by building a bridge of their own across the same river at and 
opposite their own city. 

The first railroad built in this State was done in 1856, when 
the Chicago & Rock Island was completed to Iowa City, and at 
that time there were three other lines looking towards the Mis- 
souri river. The first road to deliver and receive freight and 
passengers at the banks of the " Big Muddy," was the Chicago 
& Northwestern, and this was in December of 1866. 


The building of the C. & N. W. R. R. from Cedar Rapids to 
the Missouri river at Council Bluffs, was as follows: 

From Cedar Rapids to Chelsea, 40 miles, completed Decem- 
ber 1, 1861. 

From Chelsea to Marshalltown, 70 miles, completed December 
12, 1862. 

To State Centre, 85 miles, completed December 12, 1863. 

To Nevada, 100 miles west of Cedar Rapids, July 4, 1864. 

To Boone, March 1, 1865; and to Council Bluffs, a distance of 
271 miles in December, 1866. 

The Sioux City & Pacific road was built and the cars run- 
ning in the month of December, 1867. 

The Milwaukee & Chicago road caught off a corner of the 
county at the southeast in 1881. 

These three roads at the present give to the people of the 
county reasonable facilities for passengers and freight, being 
located as follows: The Northwestern entering the county at 
or about four miles from the northeast corner and running 
thence in a direction west of south until the town of Missouri 
Valley is reached, then directly south until the county line is 
reached, being a distance of 30 and 33-100 miles, assessed at 
fl0,300 per mile. 

The Sioux City & Pacific, leaves Missouri Valley and runs 
directly west for six miles and then turns an elbow and runs in 
a nearly direct line north until the north line of the county is 
passed, being a distance of from one to six miles of the Mis- 
souri river on the entire west side of the county, and reports as 
the number of miles in the county, 31 and 81-100, and reported 
at the value of $3,500 per mile. 

The Milwaukee nearly cuts the center of Washington town- 
ship north and south and furnishes this part of the county with 
outlet and inlet by which the settlement of this part of the 
county has been more rapid and marked than any other part of 
the entire county. For some reason, not known to the writer, 


this road gives better terms on freight than the other road, and 
as a consequence, produce brings a higher price than along the 
line of the Northwestern. This road reports the number of 
miles of road-bed in this county at nearly seven. 

Many of our people to-day have much to say in the way of 
" cussing" the railroads and the railroad corporations, but of 
these crazy few, scarcely one of them lived in the county prior 
to the time railroads first sent their engines screaching down the 
Boyer valley or up the Missouri bottoms; for preceding the 
time of the breaking out of the Rebellion, at a time when there 
was no means of transportation, except that upon which so 
many have harped in order to get into office, viz.: the Mis- 
souri river transportation, and as a sequence, no market, save 
local demand, the corn which during this year is bringing 40 cents 
per bushel and " the hog with the wool thereon," brings five 
cents, then did not command any price; a bushel of corn in 1860 
would scarcely purchase a pound of nails, and the hog dressed 
and ready for the eater went begging on the streets of old Mag- 
nolia, then the emporium of Harrison county markets, at one 
cent per pound. 

In the winter of 1860 I purchased of Mr. William Morrow, 
of the Soldier river, two dressed hogs (which I really did not 
need) for four dollars and fifty cents, they weighing 450 pounds. 

Reuben Gurley, who in 1857-58-69-60, resided near the pres- 
ent site of Modale, made his fences by witheing and pinning 
the fence rails to the posts. A grain sack, by a very little tailor 
work, was transformed into a pair of pants; corn would not pur- 
chase boots unless taken to L. S- Snyder's store at Magnolia, 
because this man would " swap " goods for anything that was 
brought him, from a load of sand up to cottonwood lumber or 
a consignment of plug hats. This country was all along blessed 
with a great abundance to eat, but the wearing part, or the ward- 
robe, often indicated the conditions of domestic manufacture. 

Peter Brady, at and about the last of the '50s or in 1860, 


carted a load of No. 1 wheat to Council Bluffs, and they did not 
offer him as much for the same as his expenses were in transporta- 
tion by horse enginery, and old Uncle Pete became so indignant 
that he emptied the entire load out in the street, for which 
obstruction to travel he came near being arrested, and had it 
not been for his good standing in society and a knowledge that 
he was at the time of the commission of the act so " infernal " 
mad, they would have put him in the cooler. 

In 1858 one Isaac Parrish came to this country and settled 
in the neigborhood of California Junction, and had been a Rep- 
resentative from some of the Ohio Districts in the Twenty-sixth 

One evening at the old " Bates Castle," in Magnolia, Parrish, 
in speaking of the future of this county, said: "It will not be 
ten years until there will be railroad cars running up and down 
the Boyer Valley, and when they do come they will strike Mc- 
intosh's Point (the place where Missouri Valley is now located), 
and will run directly west, cross the Missouri river at Cincinnati 
and then on and on to San Francisco, and people will be riding 
across the continent from New York City to 'Frisco in less than 
twenty years in railroad cars." 

I, among the rest of his auditors, thought the old gentleman 
was a little " loony," and that such a thing taking place in so 
short a period was an utter impossibility; others thought that 
such a condition would never come to pass by reason of what 
they termed a " fact " — that this country was only fit for the 
Injun and buffalo; that there was too much land and not enough 
people, and the country between this and the Mississippi would 
never be settled. Notwithstanding the want of faith of all the 
persons present, the iron horse was snorting up and down the 
Boyer within eight years, and the connection made by rail from 
San Francisco to New York City in eleven years from that ^ate. 

Some persons have said to me, " Good prices were here before 


the railroads," which I admit, because a temporary condition 
existed then which the railroads have made permanent. 

The outbreak of the Indians on the frontier had caused the 
Government to station at Sioux City three or more regiments of 
cavalry in 1862, and this brought about a direct demand for 
corn and other edibles at this place, during all the time the 
troops were kept there. Corn in two weeks jumped from 10 
cents per bushel to |1 per bushel, and this, and the demand at 
and toward the west, kept the prices at reasonable rates, but when 
Nebraska began raising her own crops, and the soldiers were dis- 
banded at Sioux City, had it not been for the railroads affording 
transportation, the prices would not have been any better than 
in 1859 and 1860. 

Before dismissing the subject of railroads, I must tell a cir- 
cumstance which took place at the incoming of the C & N. W. 
R. R., the subject of the sketch being a personage known by all 
the old settlers, viz. : Mr. Cornelius Dunham, who located in 
the northeast part of the county in 1851, and who was the most 
extensive cattle raiser in all the West. 

This man, watching the approach of the railroads, thought 
that when the same had struck Harrison county he would have 
some cattle so fat that he would ship them to Chicago and 
astonish the cattle buyers of that place by reason of their superi- 
ority in size and quantum of fat. To this end, in the spring of 
1864, he selected the choice of his herds, some fifty, kept them 
on tender grass during the summer — this fresh or tender grass 
being produced by successive burns of the prairie — and when 
the winter arrived put them on full feed of corn in the ear. This 
was repeated during all of the summer of 1865, as well as the 
corning process of the previous winter, and by the fall of 1866 
his stock were so fleshy that they could scarcely waddle. 

These were put on board of cars^and they and Dunham started 
for Chicago, which mode of changing localities was as new to 
Dunham as to the stock in the cars in front, and scarcely had 


the train gotten under full headway, when Dunham cried out 
at the top of his voice, having his eyes directed heavenward: 
" Farewell vain world, I'm going home." He made the stock 
yards of Chicago, notwithstanding his first fright, and when 
once there, his cattle were the wonder of the vicinity. Never 
had such cattle been seen in the Chicago market, and scarcely 
ever a man so eccentric as the owner. All persons were admir- 
ing the cattle and asking questions, " Who raised this stock?" 
" Where did this stock come from?" " Is the owner of the 
cattle here?" When Dunham, stepping up, said, " Gentlemen, 
I raised these in western Iowa, and they belong to me." Again 
he is asked, " How do you manage to put such quantities of fat 
on your cattle?" Says Dunham, " Why, I, at the fall of the 
year, have a man at my cabin whose whole business is to make 
green spectacles, and on each of my steers I put a pair of these, 
and you should see how these 'tarnal steers eat up all the old 
dry grass in the neighborhood thinking it to be fresh grass just 
shooting from the ground, and there you have th.e result." 
Dunham's cattle brought far beyond the top of the market, and 
he was, by the cattle dealers, taken to the finest hotel in the city, 
being the admired of all admirers. The Sherman Hotel was, at that 
date, the great hotel, and Dunham being desirous of seeing what 
the ladies' parlor looked like, made his way into the same, when, 
being apprehended by the clerk, who wanted to know what 
Dunham was wanting there, Dunham replied, " Sir, I want a 
fine tooth comb, and I thought if you had one in the house I 
could find it here; the fact is, I have been in Chicago four days, 
stopping at your hotel, and have become lousy." Dunham was 
a man of fine intellect, well posted on all the issues of the day, 
and while at his home as generous as eccentric. 


Was first organized in 1858, and was composed of the following 
members, viz.: Henry Olmstead, President; John G. Downs, 
Secretary, and Directors as follows: Dr. J. S. Cole, J. H. Farns- 


worth, William Dakan, Henry Eeel, Dr. Robert McGavren, 
Stephen Mahony, Lucius Merchant, William T. Raymond, John 
M. Raymond, Patrick Morrow, John Noyes, Jacob S. Fountain, 
Daniel Drown, W. S. Meech, et al. 

The fairs were held at and around the old court house, the 
latter being used as a hall for the fine arts, and place for exhi- 
bition of the cereals and vegetables. Fenced lots in the near 
proximity for places of exhibition of stock brought for display, 
and on the streets trotting and running of horses took 
place. Here these annual exhibitions took place for the 
period of eight years, at the ripening and ingathering of 
fruit, vegetable and cereal. Some of those who are young in 
years, now express themselves that it was a very short and 
unpropitious exhibition that such early days would bring forth, 
but such miscalculate the then condition of this most produc- 
tive country, because it must be understood that the soil of Har- 
rison county then produced more wonderfully than now, 
and that, at some of these old fashioned fairs, in Magnolia, 
there was a better display of vegetables and cereals than are upon 
the shelves at later fairs at Missouri Valley. True, at these 
convenings of the county farmers, the cane rack, wheel of for- 
tune, chuckaluck boards, ball and barrel hole, soap-man, pack- 
age swindle, running and trotting steals, were not yet invented 
and practiced in the west. These are useless, dangerous and 
stealing embellishments to a county fair, and are only permitted 
because of the money they bring into the society in the way of 
permits. Man is a strange being, for those who in public and 
private utterly discountenance saloons and saloon influence, 
curse high license with select words from the bitterest English, 
here for a three days' grace, silently lend their influence to the 
commission of crime by giving the same place, and are partici- 
pators in the commission of the offense. Consistency is a jewel, 
and they who could arrest the commission of crime, and will 
not, but take the blood of the boys of the county as a fee for 


shutting their eyes for a few moments, compel the belief that 
their morality in this respect is near the surface. In 1866, a 
proposition was made to the Society, that the place of holding 
the fair be determined by the liberality of such location as 
would put up the best buildings and fence, and prepare the 
best grounds, in which contest the people of Little Sioux far 
outrivaled all else, and the place of holding the exhibition was 
changed from Magnolia to the latter place in 1867. The friends 
of Little Sioux had not only built a good substantial Floral 
hall, but in addition thereto, fenced a twenty acre track, and 
had the same in reasonable condition for speeding the goers. 
For one or more years there was an attempt to unite this county 
and Monona, making a common purse of the $400, State money, 
and that with the gate receipts, sufficient would be realized to 
justify reasonable premiums. This for some cause was a fail- 
ure, prominent among which were these, that the exhibition was 
so situate, in one corner of the county, that the principal farm- 
ing portion was not in reaching distance and the Monona peo- 
ple were cautious and fearful that they would not carry home 
all the prizes, and failed to participate; hence a call for a new 
location, in which Missouri Valley was promptly at the front, 
gave good fenced grounds, an excellent location, erected spa- 
cious Fine Art halls, and put the trotting track in very superior 

In 1872 the exhibition was held at Missouri Valley, and year 
by year since, except one, in which the elements so conspired by 
a constant and continued rain for the entire period which Jonah 
was kept prisoner beneath the waves, in the bowels of the great 

During the summer of 1887 there was an excellent Floral hall 
erected, being 100x30 feet, and so constructed as to light and 
ventilation that they who had met at the old hall for the past 
decade could scarcely select enough endearing words to express 
their gratitude for this act. Nor was this needed improvement 


furnished auy too soon, from the fact that the old huilding had 
become so rickety that it was called the agricultural deadfall, 
and'they who visited the fair were compelled to purchase acci- 
dent tickets in order to be ready for the emergency. 

The new building cost $1,200, and will meet the demands of 
the fair going people for a half score of years. 

This Society has been very ably managed financially, from the 
fact that, notwithstanding a new hall has been recently added and 
all stalls and the track put in good order, the Society, after 
promptly paying rather more than ordinary premiums, is 
wholly out of debt, and has a bank account of $76.88. 

The gate money'for the past year exceeded $1,700, to which, 
adding the rentals for booths, ampitheater, use of grounds, stalls. 
State money, $200, and cash from all sources, equals the sum of 
$2,700, from which subtracting the expenses, the remainder is 
judiciously distributed as premiums for prizes awarded for goods, 
etc., on exhibition. 

The fine arts were overburdened by the display at the last 
exhibition, while the stock yards and pig-pens were quite empty. 
The horses and horned cattle made a good showing, while the 
fruit, vegetables and such like productions, were simply immense. 

The fruit stands and fruit exhibition, though only lacking in 
quantity, equalled, if not surpassed, in quality, that at the State 
Fair at Des Moines of the same year. The greatest difficulty 
experienced is, that producers do not take the trouble of exhib- 
iting the production of farm, garden, orchard and pasture fields. 
The younger portion of humanity take this as a holiday, by which 
to wear off the limbs of their lady-loves, pulverize candy, " bal- 
ance four and all hands Vound." 

Mr. Henry Olmstead acted as President of this Society for 
two years, at which time Hon. P. Cadwell was elected continu- 
ously to the same position for twenty years, except the year of 
1879, at which time Mr. G. D. Willson relieved Mr. Cadwell for 
this one year. 


In 1883 Mr. H. B. Cox was elected President and has been 
reelected to that position year by year up to the present time. 

The first Secretary was John G. Downs, who in 1862 resigned 
by entering the army; and who performed the labors of the 
Society in this respect from that to 1872, deponent saith not, at 
which year last named Mr. C. W. Oden took charge of the work 
by being elected thereto, and ably performed this task until 
1878, at which time Mr. James K. McGravren was drafted into 
the service and remained the secretary thereof until the election 
of 1883, when Mr. A. B. Hosbrook took charge of the labors 
and records, and has ably performed the arduous duties since 
then until the present. * 

Mr. Hosbrook has given universal satisfaction in the discharge 
of the duties of this office, but the four-fifths of the fair-going 
people of the county returned a verdict that the greater portion 
of the work and management of the of&ce is planned and exe- 
cuted by his amiable, efficient and accomplished wife. 

In 1872 the Society was reorganized by the following named 
persons: Phineas Cadwell, Joe H. Smith, C. W. Oden, Wm. H. 
Eaton, J. A. Brainard, J. S. Cole, Elijah Cobb, Patrick Morrow. 
Job Ross, W. S. Meech, 0. J. Goodenough, Jacob T. Stern, Geo. 
Richardson, Colonel H. Wheeler, A. L. Harvey, R. B. Terry, 
Stephen King, H. B. Cox, David Gamett, Samuel DeCou, Wm. 
Chambers and Henry Garner. 

The Directors at present are as follows: C. Willey, John 
Robinson, John T. Coffman, Wm. Kennedy, J. S. Vanderhoof, 
John Bolch, M. Murray, David Williams, J. Seddon, J. W. 
Stocker, F. W. Meyers, James Coulthard, Samuel Probasco, A. 
M. Silsbe, Henry Kirk, Wm. Cutler, E. F. James, James H. 
Farnsworth and J. C. McCabe. 

The other officers are as follows: President, H. B, Cox; Vice 
President, B. J. Moore; Secre'tary, A. B. Hosbrook; Treasurer, 
G. W. McGavren. 



Uegardless of what may be said by persons interested in other 
locations and who are desirous of changing the present location 
of the county seat, are wholly sufficient for the present wants of 
the public; in fact are superior to a majority of the public build- 
ings in counties in this State having nearly the same population 
and like property valuation . 

The court house, located in the center of the town of Logan, 
was built during the Centennial year, and hence has only been in 
use for the past eleven years, and is a good brick structure two 
stories, 70 feet by 55 feet, the first or ground floor being cut up 
and finished into six offices for the following county officials, 
viz.: Auditor, Treasurer, Clerk, Recorder, Sheriff and County 
Superintendent. In each of these, except the Superintendent's, 
a first-class fire proof safe is furnished, and in those of the Audi- 
tor, Treasurer, Recorder and Clerk there are fire proof vaults of 
the latest improved character, built by Mr. John Hammer, of 
Council Bluffs, which will preserve the county records, though 
the entire building was to be consumed by fire. The second 
floor is finished off for court and grand and petit jury rooms, 
thereby affording excellent accommodations for the public for the 
purposes intended. The court or auditorium room is perhaps 
the poorest room for public speaking of any in the State, from 
the fact that the acoustic arrangement has surprised both the 
contractors and the public. The room is 48 by 48 and 20 feet in 
heighth, with no effort to wire the same in order to stop the 
vibrations, and as a result the sound of the voice is echoed in 
such a manner as to make the same a confused conglomeration 
of sound not susceptible of being understood at any part of the 
room. This building was built by Yeisley & Stowell during the 
Centennial year and as above stated, is equal if not in advance of 
the county, and will supply the needs of the county for the pur- 
poses intended for the next ten or fifteen years. The cost of 
this building to the tax-payers of the county, outside of the 


town of Logan, was only $5,000, which amount was expended 
by the Board of Supervisors under the law, the citizens of Logan 
furnishing the remainder, as well as the entire block upon which 
the same is located. The building cost $14,000, and the block 
on which the same is located was reasonably worth, at the time 
the same was donated to the county, $2,000. 

The county jail cost about $7,000, and may be considered 
quite as safe as any of the jails in the interior counties in the 
State. This building is a two story brick, substantially con- 
structed, the second story of which is used for the residence of the 
jailor; and the first floor is occupied or contains the cells or iron 
cages for criminals, having a capacity for comfortably keeping 
eight or ten persons; more than this would crowd the unlucky 
or misguided ones. 

In 1854 the county commenced constructing a court house at 
Magnolia, from funds derived from the sale of town lots, and 
this, though at one time deemed a reasonably fair building, soon 
yielded to the ravages of time and was considered by the Board 
of Supervisbrs in 1873 as unfib for the safety of the county 
records, when they let a contract for the building of a new ofSce 
building, the same being completed in 1873, and from that time 
up to the removal of the county seat to Logan, in 1875, was 
used as offices for the different officials in the county. 

This building cost $5,000, and when no longer used for the 
purposes for which it was built, was sold by the Board of Super- 
visors to certain persons representing the M. E. Church at Mag- 
nolia, and by this denomination has been used as a church build- 
ing from that date to the present. 

The county jail, of which a description was above given, may 
be considered as safe as any in the interior of the State, and if, 
perchance, the same is mot up to the standard of those in the 
larger cities, the fault is with the Board of Supervisors, for in 
this matter they have the entire control. 

As to restraining criminals, this structure has been as efficient 


as those of any other place, and has only failed to meet the de- 
mands of justice when those who were experienced in cracking 
"cribs" were placed therein. Safe blowers and such class of 
criminals soon discover the weak points in such iron structuresi 
and in a very short time, when opportunity is had, saw or drill 
an orifice sufficiently large through which to escape. 

The first jail delivery in Logan, after the completion of the 
present " cage," was while J. B. Mc Arthur was Sheriff, and dur- 
ing his last year in office, in 1883, at which time two men 
escaped by cutting a square hole in the box which covered the 
handle by which the cell doors were fastened and unfastened, 
and no sooner had this been accomplished, than one of the pris- 
oners became suddenly very sick and had the officer run for a 
doctor, and upon the return of fche'jailor and the man of pill fame, 
the cage in the jail was as empty of prisoners as the prisoners 
were short of honesty. 

The next escapade was under the administration of J. D. Gar- 
rison in 1885, at which time there were some half dozen of des- 
perate characters lodged in the cells, who, in order to make an 
escape, either were furnished from the outside, or having on 
their persons, at the time of incarceration, drills, by the use of 
these so completely perforated the floor of the cells, that all that 
part within the circle of their drilling process lifted out and 
they were about to escajje, when a new arrival was placed in 
their company, in the person of Matlock, the bigamist, who, 
being a man of larger size than any who had labored so faith- 
fully for liberty, this last prisoner threatened to alarm the jailor 
unless they would measure him and so enlarge the undertaking 
as to permit his escape, which threat brought the artists to time, 
and, as a result, the day of liberation was postponed for nearly 
two weeks, at which time the work of drilling was completed, 
and early one morning the entire squad of seven was missing, 
having escaped by drilling through the floor of the cells and 
wooden floor of the building, then entering the sewer and fol- 


lowing that until outside of the building, and came up at a con- 
venient place unmolested. 

Within a few months after this event, and while the Sheriff 
(Garrison) was delivering to the officials at Mt. Pleasant some 
person of unsound mind, and having left Mr. Ab. Vanderhoof in 
charge of the prisoners in the jail, one day just after they had 
been served with dinner and while the deputy (Vanderhoof) was 
bearing away, or rather intending to bear away the dishes, and just 
upon his entering the corridor of the cage, one large muscular 
prisoner, having secreted himself behind a few blankets, leaped 
upon the deputy, held him fast, took the keys from him, 
unlocked the doors, and having liberated the entire posse, they 
stretched young Vanderhoof in one of the cells, a la crucifix, and 
having gagged him as well as placing a blanket beneath his feet 
to keep him from contracting cold, they then visited the resi- 
dence part, in the upper chamber and placed the hired girls in 
an adjoining cell to that of Mr. Vanderhoof, when they bade the 
frightened girls and unfortunate deputy good day and broke for 
timber west of the town. 

As part and parcel of this squad, there were two " safe, crack- 
ers" whose knowledge of the business entitled them to the posi- 
tion of experts, and-' unquestionably, there was not a jail in the 
State which would have held them, provided they were permit- 
ted to enter the same with drills and saws, or were furnished the 
same by parties from the outside. 

At this time, of the numerous crackings of the jail, there was 
a farce being perpetrated in the way of punishment of one John 
Henry, who hailed from Missouri Valley and had been sentenced 
to a term in the county jail, but instead of, being placed and 
kept in the cells as per the direction of the court in the sentence, 
this fellow was more of that which went to impress the out- 
sider, that he was an honored guest, than a criminal serving 


out a sentence of the court. The officers think the tools for 
cracking the cells were furnished by the friends of a certain 
Mr. Johnson then in jail. 

At a time while Capt. C. H. Holmes was acting as Sheriff of 
the county, as far hack as 1868, a horse thief being apprehended 
and in the interim between the finding of the indictment and the 
term for trial, he was being carried from Magnolia to Boone for 
safe keeping until trial, and while on the way from Logan to 
Boone, Mr. Prisoner, having cause to visit the closet, and being 
permitted to enter the same alone, made his escape through the 
window while the train was running at the rate of a mile in three 
minutes, so reported by the party, Mr. Holmes, who had him in 
custody. This is certain: the prisoner never reached Boone, or at 
least'he never put in an appearance and demanded trial at Mag- 
nolia or at any place in the county since, for the offense then 

Jesse J. Peck, while Sheriff, in returning one Baldwin to Port 
Madison, from which plaee he had been brought to testify in a 
case by which he was criminating others in the county for 
crookedness in the matter of horse flesh, permitted this fellow 
to take a stroll at Davenport, for while the prisoner was shack- 
ledi and while standing waiting for a passing freight train to clear 
the way, the prisoner jumped under a car in motion and in fact 
cleared the same, and made off before the train had passed so 
that the Sheriff could make any "attempt td capture him. 

A. little story might be told here, which took place in Mag- 
nolia, and transpired while John G. Downs was acting as Sheriff, 
in the year 1865, while the C. & N. W. Railroad was being built 
down the Boyer, and happened in this way: One afternoon 
while court was in session a party of the graders on this road 
wame oyer to Magnolia to have a " hoo-doo," and as at that time 
the saloon was not hedged about by the stringency of the present 


law, they became quite patriotic, and one of the party gave 
indications o £ covetousness, which being carried into effect, he 
took, stole and carried away from the store of Rudasill & Wood 
a suit of clothes. These being missed by the owners, a warrant 
was issued and the wild Irishman arrested and the goods found 
on his person, when the case was immediately reported to the 
grand jury then in session, who immediately found a bill of 
indictment against the thief, and the next day he was put upon 
trial. . 

A young limb of the law was appointed to defend him, and it 
was managed that the case should be tried at an evening session; 
trial was had, which only occupied a half hour, then followed 
the argument and instructions of the court, and the jury retired to 
make up their verdict. In twenty minutes the jury were thump- 
ing on the door demanding admission with a verdict, at which 
time the criminal for the first time interrogates his attorney as 
to what kind of verdict the jury would bring in; to which the 
attorney replied, "guilty, of course;" to which the criminal re- 
plied: "Is tliere no way for me to get off?" " Tes," says the 
attorney, " do as I tell you, and you can beat the court and jury." 
" How?" says the prisoner. " Well, sir, just as soon as the jury 
come into the court room, and just as the last man passes, when 
I give you a little push, you pull your hat down ovei? your 
eyes, break quietly for the door, and when you get that far run 
like a race horse for Nebraska, and don't stop until you put a 
mile of Missouri river ice between you and court and Sheriff." 
The Sheriff and his deputies forgot the prisoner in their admira- 
tion for a jury who could agree in twenty minutes, and while 
they were watching the jury the attorney gave the prisoner the 
push, and he leaves the court room unnoticed by any save the 
aforesaid attorney and Captain Hill, who soon was ordered to, 
button up his face. The verdict was delivered to the court and 


read, when the court asks: " Do you wish to poll the jury, Mr. 
S.?" "Yes, sir." The uames of all the jury were called con- 
secutively, and each distinctly inquired of: " Is that your ver- 
dict ?" The answer being in the affirmative — this was to give the 
wild Irishman time — when the Court waked the officer from his 
reverie, by asking: " Mr. Sheriff, where is the prisoner?" " Oh, 
sir, he was here when the jury was coming in, hut I don't 
see him now." "Find him, or I'll punish you for neglect," 
says the court, very angrily. The temple of justice was searched 
from turret to foundation stone, and no Irishman found, and 
where had he gone was the inquiry of all except Hill and S. 
,The ridiculous position of Sheriff and Court soon caused a great 
roar of laughter by the bystanders, which angered the Court and 
Sheriff, that the court ordered that the house be cleared, which 
being done and after searching under seats and in every con- 
ceivable place in the building, nothing was found of the vanished 

At this' time Judge Pendleton of Sioux City was on the bench, 
and it is said that which most mortified the court was that he 
had spent some time in the way of preparing a curtain lecture 
for Mr. Irishman, and when the bird had flown there was no 
opportunity for a display of eloquence or discourse on the hein- 
ousness of the violation of the eighth precept of the decalogue. 


This has been as healthy as that of the increase of railroads, 
to which the attention has just been called. The first census 
reported is that of 1854, which, by the way, is only a matter of 
guess work; for the first census taken in this county and reported, 
was in the year 1856, at which time we are credited with 1,900 of 
a population, and this, by the way, is nine years after the first 
settler had located in the county. Fifty voters in 1853; these 
multiplied by four, would equal the population at that time, say 


two hundred in all. This unquestionably is not putting the same 
too high, for at that time the entire population. could not be ar- 
rived at by this measurement, because, if we take the census of 
this coutity for the year 1885, and deduce a conclusion by the 
same means, we fall into an error, from the fact that at this date 
the voting population is more than one-fourth of the entire 
population, as shown by the statistics. 

In 1885 there were in this county 20,560, and of these, 5,137 
were entitled to vote, and there was at the same time 4,094 sub- 
ject to military duty. At the early stage of the settlement, while 
there were so many of the population single men, who were 
selecting homes for themselves, were the estimate to be three of , 
a population to one voter, the figures would more nearly state 
the true population of the county then. In 1856 the population 
was 1,900; in 1859, 3,132; in 1860, 3,621; in 1863, 3,663. This 
seeming stand-still in the matter of the population is readily 
accounted for; and Harrison county, like many other counties 
in this State, stands ready to give good and sufficient reasons for 
this stand-still. It will be remembered that from 1861, and 
during all the intervening time from that date until November, 
1864, Harrison county furnished nearly four hundred volunteers, 
and the greater portion of these enlisted prior to the taking of the 
census of 1863. The records will show that three hundred and 
forty-seven men had enlisted before the 4th of July, 1863, and 
of these the greater portion were married men; and no better 
comment could be made upon the chastity and fidelity of the 
virtuous wives at home, than the record shown in the census 
reports of the State, wherein the figures therefor only designate 
an increase for the three intervening years of the small sum of 
forty-two; this number is more than accounted for by the num- 
ber of those who had taken refuge here from the draft from the 
eastern part of the State, and from other States. While speak- 


ing o£ this, I am reminded that quite a goodly number of per- 
sons, now residing in this county, came here under assumed 
names, names which pronounced in their hearing to-day would 
awaken memories not pleasant to contemplate; and though 
for the past twenty years they have comported themselves as 
good, law-abiding citizens, I will not now harass their feelings 
by giving either the true or assumed name of any such. 

From 1863 to 1869 the population doubled, at the latter date 
being 5,836, and by 1873 had reached 10,348; and by the returns 
of 1885 had doubled again, which by the showing of the State 
recurns, give the figures of 20,560; and to-day, were the enumer- 
ation again taken, the same would show 24,500. 

The nativity of the present residents of the county is as varied 
as their different shades of countenance and peculiarity of likes 
and dislikes. Of this 24,500, only 1,000 were born in Iowa. 
Thirty-six of the States and six of the Territories of this Union 
are represented, as well as nearly all of the different parts of 

The following, taken from the census returns, shows the na- 
tivity of our population, which I deem it not amiss to repro- 
duce: Ohio, 1,420; New York, 1,142; Pennsylvania, 858; Wis- 
consin, 349; Nebraska, 243; Virginia, 211; Kansas, 113; Illinois, 
1,388; Indiana, 1,061; Missouri, 418; Michigan, 268; Vermont, 
223; Kentucky, 164; there being a representation from twenty- 
three other States, though not any of them reaching the number 
of one hundred, and hence not given . They who were born in 
the Gulf and the Cotton States, as well as in the far West, have 
taken permanent lodgement here, and seem as happy and con- 
tented as they of the manner born. 

The foreign element have sought and obtained homes in this 
far West; the strength thereof is manifest by the following, 
viz.: Germany, 498; Canada, 349; Denmark, 133; Scotland, 71; 
Bohemia, 21, and Holland, 5. Ireland, 436; England, 343; 
Sweden, 84; Norway, 46; Wales, 13, and France, 13. Of these, 


the Grerman seems to take the lead, and while the same is so, this 
class of settlers in any country soon build up the place and con- 
vert the prairies into a very paradise. Being conversant with 
all the proceedings of the courts in this county for the past 
thirty years, the record of the same fails to show a conviction 
of a single German in all that time. Nothing could be more 
recommendatory to any people, than such an unwritten record 
as this. 

Next in order of numbers are those of the Emerald Isle, who, 
immediately upon arrival here, select a good home, and by hon- 
esty, industry and frugality soon acquire a competence, and are 
at this date well to the front as the richest and most law-abid- 
ing citizens of the county. Were I to class England and Canada 
together these would lead all others, numerically, from the fact 
that they together would distance Germany, the same as 692 is 
greater than 498, but this would not be dealing fairly with the 

Then by the census returns of 1885, there is of foreign birth 
in this county ten per cent of all the population. This need not 
alarm any one as to the result of immigration, from the fact, 
that so long as this element, which is denominated " foreign" is 
regularly interspersed throughout the land, the second genera- 
tion become Americanized by the time they arrive at the voting 
age; made so by being in contact with the " native." But when 
this foreign element becomes clannish and builds up separate set- 
tlements of their own, have their own schools and languages 
taught, and- in every respect are the same as they were in the 
foreign, or home land, then, and only then, will there be any 
necessity to have fears as to the ultimate result of the coming 
generation. They are given the benefits of the free schools of 
Iowa, and participating in the free thought of Iowa people pro- 
duces a class of freemen (no matter as to religious thought) 
which will always benefit the land of their adoption. 

And right here let me drop a thought that may somewhat 


startle the sluggish thinker, and 'tis this: On whom must the 
United States depend for her future population? 

On the offspring of the native element? No, no. 

Let some of the brightest minds of the land take a look at 
American society as it is, with its refinements and its curses and 
tell me: How many decades from this date will it take for the 
old American stock to fade out of existence, at the present rate 
of increase? 

It is a lamentable fact that the present generation of true 
born Americans scarcely reproduce their own. Why is this? I 
can only answer, that for "prudential" purposes the olive 
branches are "nipped in the bud" and a new order of things is 
in the ascendancy. That which was once the glory of woman- 
hood and the pride of the father has been sacrificed to the 
Moloch of fashion, and childlessness and premature graves are 
the substitute for the former. The hope of the nation rests on 
the production and Americanization of the foreign element 
who settle in our land. 

From the date of the completion of the railroads, viz.: the C. 
& N. W. R. R., and the Sioux City and Pacific R. R., the settle- 
ment and improvement of the county has been rapid and cer- 
tain. These have been, in a grea^ measure, from the far East. 
The waves of emigration are ever rolling westward. 

From the fields of Palestine and Asiatic Turkey, where Nin- 
eveh, Babylon and Jerusalem once stood in magnificence and 
glory, the tide of emigration fiowed through Arabia into Africa, 
and through the regions of the present Turkish Empire into 
Europe. A nation in the East fails, and a more dazzling one 
arises in the West. Persia, once among the proudest nations of 
Asia, went down amid war and anarchy, while Greece arose from 
the darkened forests of Southern Europe, until the world stood 
amazed at its greatness. It, in turn, went down by dissensions 
and strife, to give place to its more illustrious successor, Rome. 

Greece and Rome! These were the door ways that led from 



the ancient to the modern world. They rose in power and great- 
ness until they eclipsed everything the world had ever seen. 
The tide of emigration then swept westward over Europe, and the 
shores of the Baltic and the Atlantic were reached. The Goths 
and the Vandals disappear before the march of civilization to give 
place to mighty nations. For a time the broad expanse of the 
ocean retards the march of emigration; but intelligence and edu- 
cation are coming to the rescue. Columbus dares the wave and 
a new world is found. The tide of emigration then sets west- 
ward, from the shores of the Atlantic, leveling forests and dis- 
persing the hostile savages before its steady march, climbing the 
Alleghanies, descending into the lovely valleys of the Ohio, Mis- 
sissippi and the Missouri, and rolling on to the very tide of the 
Pacific Ocean. This tide has left its track of glory and great- 
ness and will not stop until its hundreds of millions of free men 
have attained that position, high on the pinnacle of fame and 
greatness, never before reached by any people. 


There is no record of the first vote had by the county at the 
time of the organization, and anything that may be said in refer- 
ence thereto can only be traditional. The first vote which is 
now a matter of record was had at the general election of 1854, 
at which time there were 171 ballots cast, with this result, viz.: 
Democrat, 93; Whig 78. 

Greenbk. Prohib. Lab. 

1865. . 
1869. . 
1872. . 
1880. . 




























There is a significant fact shown by the reference to the above 


votes, that during all the four years of the rebellion, viz. : from 
1861 to 1865, the voting power of the Democratic party was 
experiencing a healthy growth, while it took the Republican party 
until the year of 1867 to recover from losses, following the vote 
of 1861, at which time in 1861 quite fifty of the Republican 
voters were then in the volunteer service at the front, and in 
1863, 375. 

In 1876 the Greenback party in the county had so crystalized 
as to'warrant the founders thereof to organize a separate party, 
and as a consequence cast at the fall election of that year 127 
votes, being an increase of forty-nine votes over their reported 
strength of 1872. 

The meridian of this party's power was reached at the election 
of 1877, being the year D. S. P. Michael stood for Representative 
for this district, reference being had to the State Legislature. 

At the time of the conventions much uneasiness was felt by 
the two old parties, viz.: Republican and Democratic, as to the 
output cSf this vote, and some very straight jacketed Republicans, 
at the time of the Greenback county convention, were watching 
the way popular feeling was about to turn. At the convention 
of the Greenbackers for this year, which was held in the court 
house at Logan, the most formidable competitor which Mr. 
Michael had was Mr. J. C. Milliman, who came within two votes of 
receiving the nomination for Representative, but being defeated 
in this Greenback convention, was by the next morning back in 
his old Republican stall, taking and dealing out rations after the 
old manner, as positive and serene as though there had never 
been a Greenback convention or party. 

At this election the Democratic party did not put a candidate 
in the field, but crystalized on the Greenback candidate; yet, 
regardless of this policy of " two pluck one," Mr. H. B. Lyman 
came out of the race with a splendid endorsement and carried 
the red ribbon to Des Moines. During this campaign some of 
the young Democrats were competing for their political spurs, 


among whoDi was Mr. Charles Bolter, and be it said to his credit, 
that he delivered some very excellent Greenback speeches, and 
one other Democrat, named J. C. Naylor, delivered, at many of 
the school houses in the county, some passable speeches for 
greenbacks, all in the interest of the Greenback and Democratic 

From this election, as year by year came and went, this party 
(Greenback) vacillated from personal independence to the Dem- 
ocratic camp, as by the terms of any reasonable cartel, seeming 
to^irect all the force of the organization toward the column of 
the Republican party, intending to pierce their center, capture 
the fighting force therein and gobble the camp equipage; each 
person holding all he could become possessed of without distri- 
bution to his fellows, or pay to his followers. 

This party, after having an existence in the county for quite 
one decade, in the fall of 1887 died from exhaustion and want 
of rations. 

The Prohibitionists have on different occasions attempted to 
organize a separate and distinct party in the county, but this 
force is much more conspicuous at a temperance meeting than 
in a political convention, and perhaps acting quite wisely in the 
matter, for should this party, last spoken of, be cast on its own 
strength, they could not accomplish anything, only a vacillation 
from party to partj% taking up the propositions of those who 
offered the best terms for support, or remain in inocuous desue- 

The question of prohibition is in fact not one of party, and 
never has been really a pure party measure, except that through 
this door an entry might be had to ofiBce and power. 

The Democrat as a citizen is as truly interested in the sobriety 
and good morals of the country as the Republican, and as far as 
my observation has reached, is as temperate in his habits. 

There are in the county, to-day, very many Democrats who 
detest a drunken man as well as hold in holy horror the man who 


vends the iutoxicating drinks; beside there a great number of 
Republicans who support the measure of temperance because the 
same is part and parcel of the measures of the party and because 
the supremacy of the party must be maintained; vote for the 
measure because of the strength it brings the party, and not 
because of the moral principles involved. 

Illustrative of the fact that prohibition has not been a purely 
partisan question, the vote of the county, had on the 2rth day 
June, 1882, on the amendment to the Constitution incorpor- 
ating therein prohibition, is herein copied, so that each person 
can form his ovra conclusions. The vote is given in townships 
in order that the good can have credit, leaving each person to 
determine for himself which is good. 

Township. Reu. 

AUen 21 

Boyer , 161 

Cass.. 60 

Calhoun 36 

Cincinnati 47 

Clay 39 

Douglas 53 

Harrison 240 

Jackson 39 

Jefferson 267 

La Grange 43 

Lincoln 25 

Little Sioux 91 

Magnolia 110 

Morgan 47 

Raglan 18 

St. John 218 

Taylor 91 

Union 44 

Washington 74 


































22 . 



















































Total 1724 1458 243 1701 1330 

Total vote on Constitutional Amendment 3031 

Majority for Amendment 371 

Total vote oast at the following October 3425 

So that while the vote of the following October was 4M votes 
greater than that polled on the 27th day of June of the same 
year, it can not be claimed that the 371 majority on the Consti- 
tutional Amendment was that of the Republican party, and 


further, this vote of October in the same year only giyes the 
Republicans twelve and one half votes of a majority over the 
vote cast at that time. 

Some peculiar circumstances happened which are not easily 
accounted for, and to illustrate: An editor of a very excellent 
newspaper in the county, for a long time prior to the vote on 
the submission of this Constitutional Amendment, was very 
enthusiastic in his advocacy of the prohibition doctrine, and per- 
haps at and during the time of the submission did as much in 
carrying the county by this 371 majority for the measure as any 
two men in the county, but when the case testing the constitu- 
tionality of the passage of the act granting the submission 
thereof to the people had been heard in the Supreme Court of 
this State, and the finding of this court was adverse to the con- 
stitutionality, and all the labor and prayers bestowed on the meas- 
ure were lost, he became despondent and gave to his readers the 
thought that Prohibition in Iowa was a failure; however, this 
opinion was reconsidered and D. M. Harris, the editor of the only 
Democratic org^an in the county at the fall election of 1887, 
boldly told his readers that prohibition in Iowa had come to stay. 

Prohibition in Iowa has come to stay and the sooner this fact 
is conceded the better it will be for all concerned. The princi- 
ple is right, and all great reforms never go backward; the prog- 
ress of the measure may suffer delay, but never meets a defeat. 
The reader, by looking into the past, will readily discover that 
while the opinion of the Supreme Court on this question was 
founded on former precedents, and opinions of the old time 
Republicans may .have been glanced at by the courts, neverthe- 
less, it is a fact that the opinion cost Judge Day his ofiBeial 
head, from the fact that at the first opportunity the party 
retired him and took up another man, true to the core on this 
principle, in the person of Judge Reed, and elected him in the 
place of the man who thought he was doing, and at the same 
time had the fortitude to do, his duty. 


I might give another illustration of the dealings of the party 
with their men in office: at the State convention, held by the 
Republican party in the year of 1887, the public had crystalized 
the thought that the railroads- in the State had the affection of 
the Supreme Court, and as a result, at this convention retired 
Mr. Justice Adams, because of his either real or fancied affec- 
tion for these gigantic monopolies. Judge Adams was a man 
of ripe learning in the law, and there can scarcely be any other 
interpretation for the act of the party in throwing him over- 
board and taking up a new man, than that above stated. 

The principles on which prohibition is based are right, which 
thought is crystalized in the mind of the author, both by obser- 
vation and practical experience; and the only vestige of the 
traffic now lingers on the ragged edges of " B " " B " which in 
fact is only a fancied n ame for a very poor quality of very infe- 
rior beer. 

Bates Hosbrook, Esq., Lafayette Brown, attorney at law, of 
Missouri Valley, L. D. Butler, of Woodbine, Nephi Yocum, of 
La Grange, and I might mention far beyond a score of the Old 
Hickory Democracy, who took off their coats and went into this 
prohibition fight to win, while nearly the same number of Repubt- 
licans were passive, and " sulked in their tents," until the fight 
was over and the smoke of battle had cleared away. 

In 1870 the question of prohibiting the sale of beer, ale and 
wine was submitted to the voters of the county, at which elec- 
tion, viz.: in October, the total vote cast was 1371, .and resulted 
as follows: 

For prohibition of ale, beer and wine 735 

A.gainst 636 

which yielded for prohibition a majority of 99. 

In 1868 at the fall election another sort or article of prohibi- 
tion, or I might say, question of personal liberty, was sub- 
mitted to the people for an opinion, and was this: " Shall hogs 
and sheep be permitted to '. run at large ? " " Shall hogs and 
sheep be prohibited from running at large?" 


The total vote on this proposition was 1460, and the hog retained 

his liberty by a majority o£ 306, the vote being 

For running at large 886 

Against 580 


At the October election in 1871, a proposition was submitted 
to the people of creating a county high school and having the 
same located at Magnolia, which resulted in the following vote, 
viz.: Whole number of votes cast, 2048; For, 949; against, 

1099; the proposition suffering defeat by a majority of 150. 



Since the location of the county seat at Magnolia, by A. D. 
Jones of Pottawattamie county, Abraham Fletcher of Fremont 
county and Charles Wolcott of Mills county. Commissioners 
appointed for this purpose by the Fourth General Assembly of 
the State of Iowa, by act of January 12, 1853, on the Tuesday 
following the first Monday, of March, 1853, the permanency of 
this worthless but much coveted embellishment has been ques- 
tioned and very vigorously coveted. 

Calhoun and the vicinity of Logan both being competitors 
with Magnolia at the time the latter place was selected by the 
Commissioners, never cultivated much friendship with the suc- 
cessful point, and as a matter of policy the people east of the 
Boyer would stand in with the Magnoliaites when Calhoun would 
make an effort for a re-location at the latter place. 

This question was ever uppermost in the mind of the people 
of Calhoun, and not only would this quarrel enter into the warp 
and woof of politics, but would thrust itself into all conceivable 
questions of public interest. The people along and east of the 
Boyer would prefer the seat of justice to remain at Magnolia 
rather than have the same taken to Calhoun, and as a result, 
whenever Calhoun would move on the works at Magnolia the 
east side would rally to the rescue of Magnolia. 


In the summer o£ 1864 the people of Calhoun came to the 
front with a petition praying the Board of Supervisors to submit 
this question to a vote of the people, or in other words, they cir- 
culated petitions for signatures of v oters asking the submission, 
to which petition the people of Magnolia very vigorously remon- 
strated by circulating remonstrances asking the Board to deny 
the prayer of petitioners. 

During the interim of this " see-saw " there was much crimi- 
nation and recrimination and when the washing was all cleaned 
up and settlement made, the people of Calhoun were short of 
names, and from the fact that the place requesting the vote did 
not have a majority of the names of the voters as shown by 
the last census, the submission was refused and the county seat 
question remained in statu quo until a new town was born and had 
grown to sufficient proportions to make known, its wants. 

Missouri Valley, in 1870, then being six years old, desired to 
have this coveted ornament re-located in her center, and during 
the summer of the year last named overran the county with a 
multitude of petitions praying the submission at the next gen- 
eral election. At this juncture the people of Magnolia thought 
themselves so strong that they would let the people take a vote, 
thinking that the county had so materially changed in the past 
seventeen years, had become so wholly different from its condition 
at the time of the location by the Commissioners, that the rail- 
road had woven a new material into the interest and in a great 
measure changed the natural conditions, that it would be demo- 
cratic for the people to express their preferences at the polls- 
The question was submitted, " Shall the county seat be re-located 
at Missouri Valley? Shall thecounty seatremain at Magnolia?" 

The vote being taken the whole number of votes cast at the 
election on this question was 2,048. 

For removal to Missouri Valley 949 

Against removal to Missouri Valley 1 ,099 

Majority for Magnolia 50 


This county seat war then had a rest until the April sessioi 

1873, at which time the Missouri Valleyites again presents 

the Board of Supervisors a petition praying the submission 

change to Missouri Valley, and the Magnoliaites being on 

watch, had their guns shotted to the nozzle with remonstrai 

and fired them into the face of the Board. 

The names on the petition numbered 1224 

The names on the remonstrance ■ 1538 

Majority against submission 314 

Again, at the June session of the Board, in the same y 

Missouri Valley is at the front with the same or new petiti 

for submission, but the range of her influence was exhaustei 

the last April session and at this time only had on her petil 

names to the number of 931; names on Magnolia rem 

strance, 1573, but at this same time there was a new champion 

county seat warfare entering the lists, viz. : Logan, with a sh 

ing of names on her petition to the number of 1,202. For 

first time in nine years Magnolia and Missouri Valley vi 

friends, for at this time both of these localities last named joi 

forces as remonstrators and presented to the Board their rem 

strance with the names numbering 1405, and defeated the subi 

This county seat war then lapsed back into the old condii 
and so remained until in the early summer of 1875, when 
little town of Logan wanted to be heard, and presented sue 
conditions of interests that both Magnolia and Missouri Va 
were afraid to enter the ring as remonstrators. Logan had 
balance of power and her men of brains well knew this, i 
sprung the question at a time so as to be in advance of Missc 

Had Magnolia defeated the petitions of Logan interests 
this question, this would have driven nearly all of the stren 
of this factor into the Missouri Valley camp, and in the folL 
ing year would have given Missouri Valley the desired stren. 


to carry away the prize. As a result of this three-cornered 
fight, neither Magnolia nor Missouri Valley attempted remon- 
strance, and the Loganites having secured the requisite quantum 
of signers, presented their petition to the Board and the vote 
was ordered at the coming election. 

Up to the day of the election, the stillness that pervaded these 
local atmospheres could only be likened to that which precedes 
the advent of the destructive, crushing, devastating tornado. 

The vote was cast and the destiny of the county seat, for a 
short time, presumably, settled. 

The total number of votes cast at this election, on this ques- 
tion of relocation and against relocation was, 2536. 

For relocation at Logan, 1,269 

Against relocation at Logan, 1,267 

Majority for relocation, 2 

Within the past twelve years, a third of a dozen of drunken 
men, and double that number of fools, have had the cheek to say 
in the presence of Joe. H. Smith, that he stole the county seat 
from Magnolia and delivered it to Logan. 

The Lord only knows how much time and vital energies have 
been wasted on this subject by humanity who have not the cour- 
age to say, to an individual's face, what they will gloatingly 
enlarge upon during his absence, nor does the author hereof 
think of committing suicide because he has been the target for 
these dark lantern guns. Even one whom the author has saved 
from disbarment from his profession as an attorney on account 
of professional crookednes, through envy and malice, have ped- 
dled this same stale thunder. 

Heretofore, either in public or private, I have refrained from 
talking on, or giving any explanation of this subject; but now, 
well knowing that many persons will say, " Joe, why don't you 
tell us how the county seat was taken from Magnolia to Logan?" 
and the subject, now being under discussion and a record made 


as to this event, which took place thirteen years since, I 
give a statement, both as to the outside and inside of the su 
which has laid so long, apparently dormant. 

At the time of the casting of this ballot I was a " gran 
battling with grasshoppers, hog cholera and local elements, i 
which combined were determined to make me surrender. I 
had all the little wealth I possessed invested in an around thi 
lage of Magnolia. I felt a deep interest in retaining the " s( 
justice" at the place selected by the Commissioners appo 
by the Legislature of the State, and as a consequence en 
into the local battle with all the energies of my nature, 
fighting for my home and for the continuation of values to ] 
erty for which I had paid county seat prices, for if the co 
seat should be taken from Magnolia and re-located at Los 
knew that my property must decrease in value by such rem 
and to that end I spent my money quite freely in advoc; 
this side of tlie measure. I had every reason to believe ths 
who resided in, and held property in Magnolia, at that time 
equally as much interested in retaining the county seat as m; 
but, oh! the mistakes of human judgment! Meetings were 
and this and that policy discussed, when, to my utter ar 
ment, some of the apparent leaders of Magnolia advocated 
& policy measure should be adopted, by which Logan si 
receive a pro rata of the Magnolia vote, and this propos 
meeting with a deserved and hearty reprimand, the same 
apparently dropped. 

I entered into this fight with all the ardor of my nature 
giving to the same the knowledge I had crystalized fron 
eighteen year's warfare, I spent three weeks in advocating 
retention of the county seat at Magnolia and $125 in furthc 
the cause, when the day of election had arrived, what was 
consternation in seeing four of the foremost men of the i 
advocating the " policy " measure, and as a result of their v 
and influence, 43 votes from Magnolia township were cast 


the removal of the county seat to Logan. Then I could readily 
interpret the hand writing of the " policy " dodge, and on the 
same day I learned that Mr. A. L. Harvey, Geo. S. Bacon, J. W. 
Stocker, John W. Wood, B. C. Adams, Joe Wilson, W. F. Clark, 
et al., had secretly, at a time long prior to this vote, purchased 
an interest in a corporation known as the " Logan Town Com- 
pany" and within a short time thereafter formulated the idea 
that a newspaper should be located at Logan, to advocate the 
interest of this last named place, and as a result of this thought, 
the Logan Town Company gave as a bonus $500 for the location 
of a paper as last stated, and the paper budded as per the under- 
standing. Now, at this time, viz.: this election, I could see that 
these four shepherds of the Magnolia flock had laid down in their 
tents with their boots on, and instead of doing service for the 
old •' seat " had done absolutely nothing therefor, but vice versa. 

These guns were spiked because of reasons last stated, and the 
policy dodge was now to me quite transparent, for some one 
watching the beatings of the public pulse and know'ing the rel- 
ative strength of the different sides soon learned that it would 
take 43 Magnolia votes for Logan to clear the course. This 
policy measure of standing in with Logan and giving that locus 
a complimentary vote, was to me, after the vote was made known, 
ravishingly thin, for no sooner was this status learned than I, in 
common with many others who were left out in the cold and 
had neither part nor lot in the Logan Town Company, wasted a 
profusion of select profanity respecting the perfidy of fine- 
liaired humanity, and I adjourned to my home on the farm. 

During the night I formulated the injunction plan and was 
determined to defeat the vote at all hazards, and as soon as the 
morning had come, went direct to Magnolia, and in company 
Mr. S. L-. Burkley started for and reached Council Bluffs by two 
o'clock, p. M., where I submitted the case to Montgomery and 
Scott, who at once set about drawing up the petition for a writ 
of injunction restraining the Board and County Auditor and 


other officials of the county from removing the records to Logan, 
which was done in the short space of two days. Here the case 
rested until the friends of Logan served a notice on me to appear 
before his Honor Judge Zuver at the county seat of O'Brien 
county within ten days from the date of service of the notice. 
Immediately on the happening of this I went to Missouri Valley 
and asked the men there to assist in the defraying of the 
expenses in traveling to this place, and in the obtainment of 
the necessary evidence to show that there were numerous illegal 
votes cast for Logan at the past election. To this proposition they 
laughed in my face, and said, " It was not their fight and if I 
wanted to have the county seat remain at Magnolia to go on and 
fight it and pay the fiddler myself." 

I replied, " Gentlemen, you can not afford to do this, for Mag- 
nolia can not hold the county seat beyond three years, and if you 
can get a whack at it the prize is yours." " We wont give you 
a penny; we don't care a d — n where the county seat goes," 
said they. 

I then went to Magnolia and after a day's effort in the way of 
raising funds for the fight, succeeded in obtaining $2.75 to bear 
my expenses and that of my lawyer to O'Brien county, to defeat 
the Logan motion to quash the writ and furnish affidavits. 

I was the relator and on me was the burden of the fight cast, 
and while the matter of obtaining the writ was under discussion 
the greater portion of Magnolia were heartily in favor of prompt 
legal action, but now, when I had already paid out to my attor- 
neys seventy-five dollars and still owed twenty-five dollars, and 
in addition another $100 was called fOr to try the validity for 
the foundation for the issuance of the writ, my own expenses 
as well as the cost of obtaining affidavits, I found myself as far 
from moneyed friends as if I had been dropped down in the center 
of the greatest desert. Then I could read the hand writing on the 
wall, written in the policy of the few who urged voting for 


In the matter of election, I had expended f 125, and had since 
that in the way of having the injunction issued and served, paid 
out seventy-five dollars— owed twenty-five dollars more as 
attorney's fees, besides my own time and expenses, and now 
had come to the conclusion that if I had to tread the wine 
press alone, it would be precious little tramping of grapes would 
I from that time perform; and as a result I made friends with 
persons in Logan and had them make good my expenses and out- 
lay, and from that time lapsed back into indilference, the same 
as the people of Magnolia were when I approached them for 
" chips " to carry on the fight. 

I thought then and still think that the county seat being 
located at Logan better accommodates the entire people of the 
county, than at any other place in the county. It could not at 
the time of this vote permanently remain six miles distant from 
a railroad, more especially where the railroad town was quite as 
near to the center of the county, both geographically and center 
of population. I believe this course then was best and think so 
yet. I have never repented of this act for which I have been so 
severely censured, and unless some new and more forcible reve- 
lation comes, am positive I never shall. 

I did what I did feeling that by so doing I was serving the 
best interests of the greater portion of the people of the county, 
and for my conduct I have neither tear to shed, apology to offer 
or forgiveness to ask. Under the same combinations and cir- 
cumstances I would unhesitatingly do the same act, and that 
being the present condition of my mind I have no thought of 
suiciding by reason of the sputterings of those whose entire lives 
have been given to fault findings and vituperation. 

Again in 1886, at the September sessioii of the Board, the 
friends of Missouri Valley were before this body with petitions 
praying for an order for submission of the question to the voters 
of the county but the Logan people wholly submerged them with 
such a large majority of citizens remonstrating, that the submis- 


sion was again denied. From the number of names on the peti- 
tion and remonstrance the fact was divulged that there were 
voters in this county at that time to the number of 6,600, and 
some have- playfully remarked that the Missouri Valleyites 
were possessed of the names of all the voters between that 
point and Chadron, Nebraska, and as a return to this compliment 
Logan is charged with visiting all the grave yards in the county 
and furnishing names for the remonstrances from the tomb- 
stones and monuments therein. 

And as a present " finis " to these contests, wars and jars, 
Magnolia having presented to the Board at the June term, 1887, 
a petition, praying that the question of removal of the county 
seat from Logan to the first named place be submitted at the 
coming November election, the matter of passing without the 
remonstrance on the part of the possessors, the submission was 
ordered and vote was taken which resulted in the following vote, 

Whole number of votes cast 3920 

For re-location at Magnolia 1480 

Against re-location at Magnolia 2439 

Majority against change 935 


These organizations had their origin through the instrumen- 
tality of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob T. Stern. 

This old patriarch and his good wife were of Quaker origin 
and hailed from the good old State of Pennsylvania, and set- 
tling in this county in the early part of 1857, brought with them, 
in addition to strong arms and honest hearts, some of the cus- 
toms of the " Keystone State." 

Mr. Stern, in the fall of 1864, called a meeting of a few of the 
citizens of La Grange township together for the purpose of send- 
ing to Washington and through the Representative of this district, 
procure some of the valuable seeds which, at that time, were 


being distributed throughout the country, as a means of benefit- 
ing the farmers and procuring a variety of production. 

At the time these were received Mr. Stern, William Elliott, 
P. T. Hill and David Rogers, who were of the first organization, 
called the farmers of the township last named together, and dis- 
tributed to each a pro rata of these, which it was anticipated all 
would give the same a good cultivation, and when the same had 
ripened, and was gathered and threshed, to again meet and com- 
pare notes as to what were the best producers, and in this way 
«ach benefit the other. 

Some little jealousy at that time springing up in this neigh- 
borhood, the day of meeting came and they who were instrumen- 
tal in procuring the seeds were legislated out of oflBce and new 
men elected who, in return, let the organization die for want of 

On the 5th day of March, 1866, a few neighbors having called 
and dined with Mr. and Mrs. Stern, the present Harris Grove 
Farmers' Club was at that time organized, being composed of the 
following named persons, viz. ; Jacob T. Stern and wife, Henry S. 
Milliman and wife, J. S. Vanderhoof and wife, E. W. Milliman 
and wife, David R. Rogers and wife, William Elliott and wife, 
F. T. Hill and wife, Thomas McKenney, and soon included the 
names of Jas. D. Rogers and wife, J. P. Hull and wife and D. B. 
Vanderhoof and wife, who, at the time of the organization, 
adopted a constitution and by laws, and from that time on met 
once per month, on the last Saturday in the month, with one of 
the members, where and when the women were upon the most 
perfect equality with the men in all club business, viz.: reading, 
writing, debating, voting and eating; and a more successful and 
harmonious organization has seldom been formed in any portion 
of the entire State. 

The following is a full list of all who are and have been mem- 
bers of this club: 

.J. L. Beebe, R. W. Beebe, F. F. Beebe, F. T. Hill, Wm. 


Elliott, C. T. Loveland, D. B. Vanderhoof, J. D. McKenney, 
L. P. Vanderhoof, Almor Stern, J. F. Hull, Geo. White, H. 
H. McKenny, William Eiddle, Wm. Dakan, Wm. F. Vore, 
J. D. Rogers, D. R. Rogers, J. S. Vanderhoof, Geo. Bobbitt, 
Ambrose Milliraan, J. T. Stern, A. B. Sherwood, Mr. Abel 
and Mr. Fensler. 

The meetings, as aforesaid, were held on the last Saturday of 
each month, at the home of one of the members, and discussed 
subjects of agriculture, horticulture, raising of stock, the better 
kinds, when to transplant fruit trees, plant corn, potatoes, the 
manner of preparation of the soil and the care to be given to the 
crop, etc., etc., in fact all the practical matters pertaining to suc- 
cessful farming and management thereof; when the society 
would partake of a little check, not approximating to the dig- 
nity of a meal. This continued until the society visited with 
Mr. Jas. D. Rogers, at the time of the ripening of strawberries, 
when, after the usual discussions of all subjects, Mr. and Mrs. 
Rogers led the club into the dining room and there treated them, 
not only to a dish of the aforesaid fruit, fresh and luscious, of 
scripture measure, but drowned in real cream, as well as a din- 
ner such as would have fed a wedding party. This then set a 
precedent for the cultivation of the tastes as well as the brain, 
and brought about a rivalry among the wives, constituting the 
female members of the organization, as to who was the superior 
cook, and who could load the table with the choicest and great- 
est variety of dishes. 

This condition of things had to be legislated upon by the club^ 
and when one of the members had prepared and offered a resolu- 
tion, " that whenever the club met the lady member should not 
place upon the table more than two kinds of cake or pie," Mr. 
R. W. Beebe rose and made such an excellent speech against 
the resolution that it was about to be defeated, when Mrs. J. T. 
Stern purchased the influence of Mr. Beebe by quitclaiming tO' 
him all the cake and pie which would fall to her share at each 


meeting of the club; this silenced the matter and Beebe, for the 
past twelve years, on the last Saturday in each month has, all 
to himself, four pieces of pie and an equal quantity of cake. 

This organization has been confined exclusively to those who 
are residents of La Grange township and the number of mem- 
bers is constantly kept up to the number of twelve. Great 
good has grown out of this organization, for by this interchange 
of thought much has been learned that each in turn would have 
been compelled to ascertain by individual experiment; besides 
the ambition of each member has been prompted to so recon- 
struct the farm, fences, out-buildings and home, as well as to 
keep pace with others in fruits, cereals, garden stuff and all 
things pertaining to the farm, and so making such forceful 
changes, that any person passing through the township can 
readily point out the farms of those who are members of this 
club. The home is attractive and inviting, the farm is a model 
of convenience and industry, the stock the best in the land, the 
members out of debt and masters of their own situations. 

A real good time these people have during the day of their 
meetings. The author hereof had an opportunity of visiting 
with the club at their last meeting in December, 1887, at the 
residence of Mr. and Mrs. Sherwood, and was really pleased at 
the measure of information arrived at by the different commit- 
tees in matters pertaining to agriculture, horticulture, and in 
fact many topics relative to the best interests of the farm, 
orchard, garden, pasture lot, pig pen, ballot box, and last, but 
not least, the kitchen. 


I can not better illustrate the feelings and history of this 
organization, than by giving place to a poem written by Father 
Stern and read at one of their meetings in 1887, which is as fol- 


[Written for Harris Grove Farmers' Club and published by request.] 

Ye who love the beauteous prairie, 

Love to cultivate its surface. 

Love the groves for shade and shelter. 

Listen to my simple story 

Of the change of times and seasons, 

When we settled down at Linnwood, 

Thirty years ago this season. 

We enjoyed our rude log cabin. 

Daubed with mud and roofed with elap-boards, 

Mud and sticks for fire and snioke stack, 

Then no Farmer's Club was thought of. 

The spelling school was then in order. 

And the dance upon the puncheon 

Furnished young folks with amusement. 

We have made abundant progress. 

Mental, moral, social progress. 

Now our dwellings neat and tasty. 

Rival those in famed New England. 

Trees for shade and fruit and beauty, 

Ornament our prairie homesteads. 

The Farmers' Club was algo planted, 

And it soon took root and prospered. 

Now for one and twenty seasons, 

It has held its place amongst us; 

It yields cheap, rich entertainment. 

Once a month to all its members. 

Many were the social meetings. 

Many were the questions answered. 

Each one's valued contribution 

Was a gift to all the others. 

All could thus be made the richer. 

Without any one being poorer. 

For years we flourished well and prospered, 

Not a death occurred among us, 

'Till at least a dark cloud gathered, 

And we lost dear Mother Beebee. 

She, who was so very cheery, 


Adding zest to all our meetings, 

Faithful, honest, active, lively. 

Few were missed so much when absent. 

The next to fail to answer roll call, 

Was the ever faithful *David, 

Who enjoyed our social meetings, 

And was practical in judgment. 

Next was fAmbrose M., the soldier, 

Who was sound in agriculture, 

Seldom failing to enlighten 

By his speech and fair discussion. 

Next to pass from our loved circle, 

Was the suffering Mrs. Beebee. 

Kate was patient, brave, heroic. 

Long years suffering, most intensely; 

With ambition unaliated. 

She was always at our meetings. 

And her words of earnest counsel, 

Often were a source of profit. 

Those who were the early settlers, 

And were keen of observation. 

Can compare and mark the progress 

Of improvement on and upward. 

Made upon the homes of members. 

Houses, orchards, flowers and blue grass, 

Combined taste for health and service; 

Our annual visit to each member, 

Marks a strong decided progress. 

Our loved and valued institution. 

Should take pride in noble offspring. 

Many years rolled round without them. 

But now we have two healthy children. 

One at Elk Grove, one near Dunlap, 

Each a vigorous healthy fellow. 

Indeed from present indications 

Our children may outstrip their parents. 

Our last most vigorous son named Mill Creek 

Has given us a novel lecture 

On dehorning all the bovines. 

We must watch this question 

And investigate the system, 

Or our beautiful horned bovines 

Will all turn into muleys. 


* David B. Vanderhoof. t Ambrose Milliman. 


Prom the Farmers' Club of Harris Grove, last above referred 
to, two others have taken root in the county and are located, 
one at Elk Grove, in Jefferson township, and is officered by the 
following named persons and have the membership below 
named, viz.: 

Isaac Sears, President; John Holton, Vice President; J. K. 
Deyo, Secretary. Members — Wives of the officers, J. J. Peter- 
son and wife, George Findlay and wife, J. D. Frock and wife, J. 
S. Ready and wife, Mr. Huntly and wife, Avery Howard and 
wife, Frank Peckenpaugh and wife, Chas. Children and wife, 
Chas. Safford and wife. These, together with the children of the 
parents above named, have a happy and social gathering on the 
last Saturday of each month, and in all respects conform to 
that of the parent Club of Harris Grove. 

The third club is known as the " Mill Creek" Club, in Harri- 
son township, and has the following officers and members, viz. : 

D. R. Rogers, President; Hon.B. F. Roberts, Vice President; 
G. W. Green, Secretary; Mrs. H. A. Green, Treasurer; 
and as members, the wives of the President and Vice President, 
W. H. Garrett, B. -S. Green, E. B. Mead, S. W. Morton, Peter 
Campbell, William Moore, I. D. Hull, G. W. Green, M. B. 
Ewer, I. A. Jackson, Mrs. H. Rogers, Mrs. A. A. Hull, Mrs. 
Anna Ewer, Mrs. Mary Moore, Mrs. I. A. Jackson, Mrs. H. D. 
Campbell, Mrs. E. Marton, Mrs. A. Meade, Mrs. Ellen Roberts, 
Mrs. H. A. Green and Mrs. C. A. Garrett. 

In all these clubs the members gather together at 10 o'clock, 
A. M., and discuss the subjects pertaining to matters selected for 
discussion at the former meeting; then dinner, then the young 
people declaim, read essays, have music, followed by criticisms, 
select subjects for the following meetings, etc., etc., etc. 

farmers' ALLIAlfCES, 

Have three distinct organizations in the county, one in Doug- 
las township, of 60 members, one at Magnolia and one at Mis- 
souri Valley. 



Or Egyptian locusts, have on five separate occasions visited this 
county, in such countless millions that beggars description, and 
were any one to attempt to tell in what counties myriads they 
came, provided the auditors had never witnessed their advent, they 
would at once brand the party describing the same as one rival- 
ing the stories told at the " Arabian Nights' Entertainment." 

The first grasshoppers that lit down in this county was on the 
23d of August, 1857, and when first seen by the author hereof, was 
at a time while attending the M. E. camp meeting near the 
former village of Jeddo, in this county. In the afternoon, 
near the hour of 4 o'clock, they began to light, and in their 
flight toward the ground, they seemed to drop as from the clouds, 
and in such numbers as to look very much like the falling of a 
flurry of snow. Thi^ was continued until sunset; and near all 
places where impiovements were made in the way of the culti- 
vation of the soil they were in such numbers that when crawl- 
ing upon the fence rails or fence boards for roost during the 
night, the entire fence was colored like that of a dirty lead. 
Here they tarried, were sociable, deposited their eggs and by the 
1st of October had died. 

At this date but little of the surface of the soil of this county was 
under cultivation, and of course they could not do much damage; 
but in the spring, when the eggs began to be hatched out by the 
warmth of the spring sun, they appeared in countless millions 
and were the liveliest little devils ever hatched. The first hatch- 
ing came to the surface of the ground on the 9th of March, 1858, 
and remained in the county until the 11th of July before tak- 
ing their final departure. 

Twelve years after their first lighting in the county, viz.: 
on the 27th of August, 1867, at nearly the hour of 1 o'clock, p. 
M., they again began to drop down as before stated, but much 
more numerously, and continued to fall, as it were, from the 
highest point skyward, until past the hour of sunset, and in 


such vast numbers that when alighting on the full grown 
stalks of Harrison countj' corn their united weight would either 
bend the stalk to the ground or break it off. Whole fields of 
corn were thus covered by night fall; the fences in all the 
county were painted by reason of the vastness of the " hoppers" 
crawling thereon looking for lodging, to a dark leaden hue; 
the rails on the railroad track were so thickly covered by 
them that all the sand in the county would scarcely furnish 
sufficient thickening to take away the slippery mass caused by 
the juice exuding from the pulverized grasshopper, so crushed 
by the trucks and drive-wheels of the engine. 

The wings of the " hoppers," spread for flight, when they 
were alighting, presented an appearance quite like a snow storm 
when the flakes fall in apparent patchwork, and no sooner did 
they touch terra firma than they began business by gnawing 
nearly every thing they came to. The silk at the point end of 
the ears of the corn, as well as the blades, seemed to be a favorite 
diet, and as their stay continued the fields of corn, so far as the 
blades and the silk in the ear were concerned, seemed to melt 
away before their presence. 

Their appetites were as ravenous their saw-toothed jaws were 
destructive; they spared neither the garden lot or cornfield, cab- 
bage, turnips, cornblades, corn in any shape, tobacco chews, old 
boots, fork handles and overcoats, all perished before their des- 
tructive powers and appetites. Here they lit without request 
and here they tarried without invitation, assumed such a famil- 
iarity on short acquaintance that their presence soon became 
nauseous and disgusting. 

The drier and more barren the knob, the better the location; 
and this because they were here on business and no injunction 
from earthly court could stay the progress of these thieving, 
self-willed, bad-acting marauders, for in such places as these dry 
barren localities, where the stock of the country had trodden 


the surface as hard as could he, were the places selected by the 
hoppers for depositing their eggs. 

As soon as they had destroyed the greater part of that part of 
vegetation which was green and tender, they immediately turned 
their attention to the business of providing this location with 
an over abundance of young hoppers in the following spring. 

When the time arrives for the female to deposit her eggs, the 
male, by the use of the claws of the leaping legs, burrows a hole 
in this apparent solid earth, quite a half inch in depth and then 
the female takes possession of the place prepared, when a deposit 
of some mucous is placed in the cavity so as to make the place of 
deposit water tight; the eggs are then deposited therein by the 
female and when completed the eggs or bundle of eggs are sealed 
by this same kind of mucous substance placed on top of the 
deposit, and when the same is exposed to air it hardens and all 
dampness is excluded from this nest. In each of these plum 
shaped receptacles or deposits there are usually placed from 
70 to 130 eggs, and no matter as to the severity of the 
winter in the way of constant hard freezing, or abundance of 
the rainfall, when the spring comes and the rays of the sun 
catches these places of deposit, the eggs hatch and the young 
hopper is on hand and never relinquishes his claims to earth 
until crushed by foot or has rusticated until the following Sep- 

Frosts only stiffen for a time, floods put the energies to sleep, 
only to be awakened by a bath of warm sunlight, and fire alone 
produces instant death. I have experimented on the young 
hopper by placing him in a tumbler of water and have kept him 
submerged continuously for three hours and then taken the appar- 
ent corpse from the watery grave, treated it to a half hour's sun 
bath and soon the rascal would show signs of life and in a few 
moments would hop off as lively as though fitted for a race by 
the most expert trainer. 

These, then, that alighted here as aforesaid on the 27th of 


August, 1867, remained here without any disposition of going 
further south until about the 1st of October, and then died by 
reason of old age and lack of green diet. 

On the 7th of April the hatch from the deposit of the preced- 
ing fall began to make an appearance and increased day by day 
until the middle of the following May. The hatching out pro- 
cess being dependent on the extent of heat produced by the rays 
of the sun' on the spot where the deposit was made, some 
farmers, in order to outgeneral Mr. and Mrs. Grasshopper, at the 
earliest time possible, in the spring plowed their grounds and by 
taking a deep furrow, so buried the eggs that it was quite late 
before they put in an appearance; but where the eggs were 
deposited on the southern brows of the bluffs as above stated the 
young began coming to the surface by the 7th of April, 1868. 
The young grasshopper is as hardy as a bed-bug or army body 
louse; they can be captured but they cling to life with a tenacity 
and fortitude like that of a cat. What other insect could with- 
stand the cold, freezing, snow, rain and chills of an April month of 
western Iowa? 

Sheltered under a leaf, chip, clod, corn stalk or whatever little 
protection is at hand, or none whatever, on appearance of the life 
giving qualities of a few rays of April sun, they become as frisky 
and lively as a " Sandy Point flea" in June, and immediately set 
about the business of destruction for which they appear to have 
been created. 

It is not a full fledged grasshopper that drops down in a locality 
in the fall of the year, that does the terrible damage, but the 
young chick during the time of his maturing. Though they 
were as many in numbers as the sand on the sea shore, they all 
at once seem to be acting under the same impulse, and start 
moving in the same direction, not stopped by any obstacle that 
may impede their way, but like the buffalo or wild goose, take 
a course and keep going to destination or death. 

From the time of hatching until they have lived ninety or 


more days they are wingless, but are possessed of propelling 
power in their leaping, long legs that is scarcely equalled— jump, 
jump after jump, and on and on they go, and like Sheridan's horse, 
can smell " the smoke " of a wheat field a mile away. 

During the summer of 1867 vast quantities of prairie were 
broken, and this dry, bare surface was the chosen place of 
deposit for the eggs, and this being sown to wheat in the early 
part of the following April, furnished a pasture ground for this 
hatch which made the young hoppers hale and hearty. Many of 
these were scarcely molested until the wheat was so far advanced 
as to be in the boot, when it was attacked by the hoppers and 
seemed to melt before them more rapidly than if there had been 
a dozen of reapers of the latest improvement, felling the crop to 
the earth. 

During the third week in June, 1868, 1 stood at the windward 
side of an hundred acre field of wheat, which had passed into that 
stage of growth known as " in the boot;" the grasshoppers then 
were at work with all the powers of their destructiveness, and 
the smell or taint of their cutting or sawing process filled the 
air with a smell like that of a cow's breath at the finest season of 
the year for grasses, tarn e or wild, and in four days the entire 
field seemed as if it had been swept with the besom of destruction. 

These pests, when about a month or six weeks old, shed their 
coats like the locust, while many persons finding their cast-off 
skins, have mistaken these for the dead bodies of the young and 
concluded that their crops were, or would be, free from their 
ravages, but this delusion was soon dispelled by the appearance 
of the young hoppers, more numerous and livelier than ever. 

This status continues, only they grow in size, until about the 
14th to the 24th of June, at which time the little buds or cas- 
ings, which are located directly over the places where the wings 
are, become thrust off, and expose to the air or sunlight a curi- 
ous little bundle, which in time, viz.: a half a day, unfolds and 
lengthens, so that by the expiration of that period, they become 


supplied witli a pair of wings and soon begin navigating the air 
instead of creeping or jumping on the ground alone. 

Generally in less than seven days after they are furnished with 
wings, at or about 11 o'clock, A. m., they all apparently, by com- 
mon impulse, if the wind is from the north, rise and bid the local- 
ity of their hatch a final and lasting farewell. 

As soon as they are hatched, they appear to have a decided 
preference for the blades of young tender wheat, and seemingly, 
by instinct, know the location thereof; the taste of the blades of 
oats finds no favor to their palates, until the wheat is all devoured, 
when the oat fields are attacked, then corn, or anything else, ac- 
cording to the surroundings. There have been localities where 
they, in their travels toward a certain wheat field, have centered 
at certain points, by reason of a rivulet or creek, where these 
obstacles met in the bend of a river or confluence of rivulet or 
creeks, and so plentifully that they were shoe-top deep and roll- 
ing or wriggling like a seething pot, filled with dirty, boiling 

Oftentimes so numerous would they be upon the rails of the 
railroad track that the drive wheels would spin around for want of 
sufficient friction to propel the engine and train, and the engin- 
eer, in order to obviate this difficulty, would be compelled to 
affix brooms in frout of the engine to clear the track of this 

On the 24th day of June, 1868, they all, having become winged, 
at or about 11 o'clock, A. M., rose in clouds and left for other 
localities to the south. 

On the 1st day of August, 1873, in the neighborhood of Mag- 
nolia, and on the 4th day of the same month and year, at Harris 
Grove, at the hour of 11 o'clock, A. m., this plague again began 
to drop, as it were, from the skies, and by evening the entire sur- 
face of the country was covered with them, as above described, 
when they began an indiscriminate attack on the corn silks, 
blades and oats. At this time they were brought to the surface 


of the ground by a wind blowing quite strongly from the south, 
and here they remained, wind-bound, until the 20th day of the 
same month, doing great damage to the corn crop and oats. 
Those who have tried a hand at farming soon learn that when 
the silk is eaten out of the end of the ear of corn and the blades 
stripped from the stalks, that the crop is rendered nearly worth- 

After having filled themselves they immediately began deposit- 
ing their eggs, which after being buried in the ground until the 
14th of April, 1874, began to hatch, with the same result as in 
former years, with only this change: they were more numerous. 
The wheat fields and all green vegetation was soon totally 
destroyed and starvation seemed imminent to the settler by the 
30th of May. Some tried to protect their crops at this time by 
digging a trench around their wheat or corn fields, which, in 
a measure protected the same. The manner of this protection 
was this: a trench, ten inches wide by sixteen iuches deep, was 
dug, and at relays of each twenty rods, a deep hole was sunk, 
connecting the trench therewith, and the young hoppers when 
coming to this trench would tumble therein and whea once in 
they would follow the trench and fiaally fall into the deep 
hole that had been dug to catch them. These would fill up 
the hole in a day or two, depending on the quantity of the hatch 
in the immediate vicinity. As soon as these holes were filled up 
with these insects a new one would be dug and the others would 
be covered over, and it was surprising what a stench these decay- 
ing hoppers made. 

Others would attempt to destroy these invaders by scattering 
straw, hay or other combustible matter along their place of 
travel, hoping that by nightfall they would take lodging therein, 
and as soon as it was dark to set fire to the combustible matter 
and burn them up; others would go to the nearest tiu-shop 
and have a sheet-iron pan, made on the principle of a scoop, 
only much larger, say 14 feet long by 2 feet wide, and at the rear 


end 1 foot deep, and attaching to this cords at both ends, and 
after pouring therein a half gallon of kerosene oil, they would 
draw this pan along the surface of the ground at the places 
where the hoppers were the thickest, when the rascals, in 
order to avert the pan from passing over them, would jump and 
alight in the pan, where they were immediately treated to a bath 
of the oil and would soon turn up their toes, open their sickle like 
jaws, and die. On June, 24th and 28th, the wind being from the 
north, they all arose quite at the same moment and took their 
flight towards the south. 

Both in the fall of 1873 and spring of 1874 these pests were so 
numerous that they would fall in the wells at and about Magnolia 
in such numbers as to render the water therein rancid and unfit 
for use, which soon necessitated the wells to be covered over so 
as to keep these hoppers from entering the same. 

June the 14th, 1875, these same crop destroying insects again 
dropped down in the county, coming as before described, when 
at the expiration of four hours not a stalk of corn was to be seen 
in the corn fields where the recent plowing was done. At this 
time many of the farmers in the county, at the hour of noon, 
having left their fields and gone to dinner, were surprised on 
their return to the field at finding the entire crop, which had 
recently been plowed, wholly eaten up by the hoppers. The 
presence of fresh soil seemed to give the corn a seasoning and 
caused them to attack this with greater zest. These did not 
tarry to deposit their eggs, and notwithstanding the crops were 
swept away, they so recuperated that a reasonable crop of corn 
was yet had. 

August 17th, 1876, they again dropped from the sky and more 
numerous than ever, acted as before stated, deposited their eggs and 
died, and by April 10th, 1877, the new hatching was coming on 
finely, but during this season they were kept under better control 
by trench, torch and pan, so that even though the plague was 
present the farmer at this season succeeded in producing a rea- 


sonably good crop. They left by the 20th of July and from that 
date to the present the country has not been scourged by grass- 

The hoppers while in their flight do not fly, but raising on 
their wings with their heads to the wind, rise to certain height 
like a boy's kite, and when at such an altitude as suits the fancy, 
only work the wings so as keep from descending, and are carried 
along by the force of the wind. This condition of travel is kept 
up until an adverse wind strikes the serialists, when they drop to 
the ground. 

In the months of July and August of 1877, the grasshoppers 
in leaving, as well as those matured in countries to the north 
while in passing towards the south, would be so great in numbers 
that they created clouds of such density as to obscure the sun and 
looked like great masses of red dust whirling in the air, going 
with the wind and with the same rapidity. 

This flight lasted for ten days. The greater portions came from 
the sand plains far to the northwest, joined by those of Dakota 
and Iowa production, which when falling into line with them of 
the sandy plains, made as formidable an army as ever invaded a 
corn or wheat field. Since which time there have been no visita- 
tions to test the depth of religious convictions, only in another 
form, viz.: hog cholera. 


Seem to have been quite scarce and short lived in the county. 
While this county has been well cared , for by good and compe- 
tent physicians there have not been any great indications of extra- 
ordinary brotherly love for each other. 

In 1863 there was organized a Medical Association of the phy- 
sicians of the county at Magnolia, consisting of Drs. John H. 
Eice, George H. McGavren, Robert McGavren and John S. Cole 
of this county as aforesaid, and Dr. P. J. McMahon and Dr. 
Malcomb of Council Bluffs, which organization was kept alive 


until about 1865, when the same became non est by the careless- 
ness of its members. The President of this society during its 
life was Dr. Rice, and the Secretary was Dr. Geo. H. McGavren. 

Again in 1868 the society was reorganized, with the following 
membership, yiz.: Drs. J. H. Rice, O'Linn, Cole, McGavren, 
Robt. McGavren, P. R. Crosswait and at the same time admit- 
ting into membership or fraternity Dr. Kern and his two sons 
and Dr. E. T. McKenney, who were taken on the Methodistic 
plan, probation, electing for their President Dr. Geo. H. McGav- 
ren of Missouri Valley and Dr. P. R. Crosswait of Woodbine as 

This last organization died about the year of 1873 for want of 
care, since which time there has been no attempt to exhume the 
organization and put it on its legs, each physician seeming con- 
tent to run his own business in bis own way. 

The first physician to locate in the county was Dr. Rice, who 
hung out his shingle at Magnolia in 1854, unless Dr. L. T. Coon 
is classified therewith. There are many in the county at this date 
who will remember Dr. Coon and his chronic remedy, viz.: 
" Bog-hay." Then followed Dr. Cole, who settled near Wood- 
bine in 1856; then Dr. McGavren who located near the village 
of St. John -in 1857, Dr. Crosswait in 1865, Dr. O'Linn in 1867 
at Magnolia, Dr. Drake at Little Sioux in 1859, the Drs. Kern at 
Logan in 1867, Dr. McKenney at Logan in 1869. 

At present there are the following named physicians in the 
county more or less engaged in the practice: 

Logan— J. L. Witt, I. C. Wood and F. A. Comfort. 

Woodbine— T. M. Edwards, E. J. Bond, L. H. Buxton and 
W. C. Sampson. 

Missouri Valley— E. J. Chapman, G. W. Coit, G. H. McGav- 
ren, Charles W. McGavren, J. W. Huff. 

Mondamin— T. McFarlane, Wm. Steward. 

Dunlap— D. Saturlee, S. J. Patterson, G. B. Christy, C. F. 
Clark, P. Cavenaugh and D. L. Livermore. 


Persia— F. M. Hill, W. T. Brownrigg, C. B. McColm. 
Modale— I. W. Drew. 

little Sioux— Wallace & Silsby, Caldwell & Miller. 
Magnolia— J. fl. Rice, C. E. Catler. 


The first newspaper published in this county was in the 
summer of 1858, at the old town of Calhoun, by the Hon. Isaac 
Parrish, and was baptized The Harrison County Flag. It only 
lived for three issues, at which time it was brought to Magnolia 
and then purchased by Capt. W. M. Hill, who at that time was 
Clerk of the Courts. 

Mr. Hill at this time purchased the residence then known as 
the Tom Barnett property, and the paper was published in this 
building for two years and a half, and kept flying at the mast 
head the name given by Parrish at Calhoun. The Captain was 
a very voluminous writer; so much so that it took the foreman 
and assistant, A. G. Hard and Mr. John Parrish two-thirds of 
their time to decipher his hieroglyphics and bad orthography. 
During this time as above stated this paper was run in the inter- 
est of the Old Hickory Democracy, not so much with the intent of 
proselyting the Republicans as to keeping the faithful in line 
and have them all out on dress parade and at inspection on 
election day. 

As before stated this sheet was kept alive for the term of thirty 
months, at which time it collapsed a flue and died for lack of 
Democratic support, when it was sold to some parties from Fre- 
mont in the State of Missouri, and taken to that place and there 
used in the fall or summer of 1861 in pumping treason to the john- 
nies at that location. 

In the fall of 1859, Mr. D. E. Brainard purchased of the 
" House of Ephraim " (a class of people then located at the vil- 
lage called Preparation on the south line of Monona, and just 
across the north line of Harrison county) the press, type and fix- 


tures of a paper which had been for one year and a half pub- 
lished at that place then known as Jehovah's Presbytery of 
Zion, and immediately removed the same to Magnolia and then 
started a paper which was named The Magnolia Republican, and 
had for its editoral staff a Mr. Ellis and G*. R. Brainard. From 
that date to the present time (except for a short period in 1874) 
the county has not been without a Republican organ. In the 
fall of 1860, Mr. Ellis dying, left the sole management of this 
paper to Mr. Brainard, who not being possessed of a very active 
turn of mind, somewhat neglected the business of the editorial 
department, as well as not giving the strictest attention to the 
financial end thereof, the same sickened and dwindled to a simple- 
state of approximate lifelessness, when Hon. Henry Ford pur- 
chased the outfit in 1862 and continued the publication of the- 
paper until the summer of 1863, when he in turn sold out to one 
W. F. Benjamin, who advocated the Republican principles in a. 
poor weak way until the spring of 1865, when Joe. H. Smith 
purchased the outfit, restocked the same with new type, chang- 
ing the name to that of The Western Star, and in turn sold the 
entire " machine " in the summer of 1867 to Henry Cutler, who 
on the 1st of January, 1868, sold out to Mr. G. F. Waterman, 
who wielded the scissors until the summer of 1869, when Messrs. 
Musgraveand Cook purchased the good will and press, and then 
Cook sold his interest to Henry Cutler in the fall of 1870, and he 
then sold his interest to Mr. George Musgrave in 1871, at which 
time the paper was removed to Logan and published at that 
place until the fall of 1874, at which time the entire business was 
taken to Harlan by Musgrave and soon after disposed of by 
him. The Star " twinkled " for nine years and I may truthfully 
say that during all the time of its starring was never dimmed or 
gave an uncertain political light. 

The Harrisonian was born into Harrison county, being on 
the day preceding the 4th of July 1868, under the especial care 
of the Hon. D. M. Harris, who gave his readers, from the first 


issue, simon pure, unadulteratecl Democratic doctrine, until 
the year of 1872, at which time he sold the paper and press to 
one M. H. Goltry, who, on assuming the editorial management 
thereof, changed the name to that of The Missouri Valley 
Times, by which name the same is published until this date. 
Mr. Goltry sold and transferred all his interest in the same to 
Gore & Cutler in 1874, who edited and published the same as an 
independent paper until 1876, at which time Mr. Harris returned 
to Missouri Valley, repurchased the paper and began anew to 
publish the same as a Democratic sheet. From that date to the 
present there has been no uncertain sound to the political rattle 
of this paper, but it has ever been a straight, honorable Democratic 
paper. True, the editor has at times honestly differed from his 
Democratic brethren as to the party measures, on the subject of 
prohibition, and has on one or two occasions changed front to 
rear, but at the present is as sound on this measure as the purest 
Republican sheet in the State. 

In 1874 The Harrison County Courier was started at Mag- 
nolia and remained at that place until the month of September, 
1875, at which time the magnetic influence of Logan cash drew 
this paper to Logan and it fell in with the "powers," advocating 
the interest of Logan as a coutity seat point. It is peculiarly 
curious that Magnolia can heap all her deprecations on one 
individual as to the change of the county seat and not stop long 
enough to glance at the real causes of such removal. Davison, 
the e'ditor of The Courier, was furnished money by which to ship 
his press, fixtures and family from Illinois to Magnolia, and 
scarcely had he warmed the chair he occupied at that place until 
he rose, was on the wing, and lighted down in better feeding 
ground, at Logan. Here this paper was published in the inter- 
est of a certain element of the Republican party until the year 
1880, when Henry Reel,. Esq., the original proprietor of Logan, 
deeming himself and the public without a proper recognition, in 
the way of being heard through the press, sent to Chicago, pur- 


cliased a new press, type, fixtures, etc., costing -him an outlay in 
the sum of $3,000, and was about to set up a paper in which 
every man who, on a meritorious subject, wished to be heard 
through the columns of a paper, could find space for his produc- 
tion. This measure smoked Alpheus Davison out, and at the 
first effort he sold out his entire business to Mr. Eeel, who as- 
sumed the control of The Courier, through the management of 
Mr. A. G. Hard. 

In the editing of The Courier, by Davison, in the year 1879, 
many laughable incidents occurred which, by this time, possibly 
have passed from the minds of many of the people of the county, 
and perhaps never came to the knowledge of the greater part- 
It was this: at this time there were rival factions in the Eepub- 
lican ranks, and Davison, being a man who aimed to please every 
body and thereby, like all who take that shoot on public measures, 
disgusted and angered all; he would in one issue permit one side 
to be heard and perhaps the next issue would be " red-hot " for 
the opposite side, all appearing as " editorial." To the outsider, 
this cross firing was an enigma, not at first understood, but the 
modus operandi was this: that at, and while the paper was 
being run off the press, who ever could keep closest to the editor, 
and could get possession of the editorial nest, would be the per- 
son who would incubate the next week's hatching, as to his 
wrong so inflicted on the opposite faction, and hence the entire 
campaign was occupied by this Republican Kilkenny cat-figbt, 
to the disgust of good Republicans and the infinite amusetuent 
of all Democrats. They who resided at this time in Logan could 
tell the week previous what would be the tone and song of the 
next issue by the presence of such and such individual hanging 
to the elbow of this milk and water editor. 

The Courier then passing into the ownership of Mr. Reel, as 
the sequal proved, was like the man who drew an elephant in a 
lottery, and when he had it, didn't know how io feed and handle 
the animal. Although he had a great abundance of money, those 


to whom he intrusted the editing of the paper and the manage- 
ment thereof put on such a head of editorial aad financial steam 
that the running of the paper was like unto the Injun's gun; 
the cost overran the profits, so that in one year the editorial 
ambition of Mr. Reel was somewhat dampened, but being a man 
not vexed and disheartened by one failure, swapped editors, taking 
a man entirely unacquainted with the business, who, acting on 
his own convictions of certain subjects recently brought to 
light, and which has proved that his opinions were correct in 
fact and particular, became the target of those who would rule or 
ruin the the party, and as a result, the one wing of the Republi- 
can party brought to Logan another paper and had the same 
under their full control, and christened it Harrison County News. 
Mr. Reel kept The Courier alive by a constant drain on his 
bank account until the year of 1885, when he leased the same to 
Mr. George Musgrave for the period of one year, at the end of 
which time the latter surrendered the material leased to the 
owner and set up a paper of his own and called the name thereof 
The Observer, which at present is the only paper published at 
the county seat. For six months after the starting of The 
Observer, The Courier was managed and edited by one J. K. 
Davisson, who as editor did very well, but as to the management 
so manipulated the business that at the end of six months Reel 
was over $600 managered out of cash. 

Mr. Reel then shut up the shop and in 1887 sold the entire 
business, happy in the thought that for the little remainder of 
his life, he could live in peace, having dissipated |5,000 in the 
experiment of running a newspaper. 

The Woodbine Twiner came into existence at Woodbine, at 
the beginning of 1879, was edited and managed by Mr. George 
Musgrave, the present editor of The Observer, and was by him, 
for a period of five years, edited in the interest of the Greenback 
party. When silver was monetized and the persons constituting 
this party had time to think, he, with scores of others, lapsed 


back into his old party, and since then has been the very 
ablest with his pen and pages in sustaining the principles of the 
Republican faith. In 1885, this paper was sold by the founder, 
to Rev. De Tar, who was helmsman until in the spring of 1887, 
when the editorial department and management was transferred 
to A.. C. Ford, who at the present is editing a very spicy, 
newsy and able paper under the old name of Woodbine Twiner. 

The Dunlap Reporter was first founded and set on its pegs by 
Mr. George Musgrave and George R. Brainard, and while Mr. 
Brainard's name floated aloft at the masthead as editor and pro- 
prietor, the fact was that he did not possess a dollar's interest in 
press, type or fixtures, but the entire arrangement was owned by 
the former. This paper was, especially, published at Dunlap as 
an advertising medium at and during the primitive days of the 
place, and failed because of want of attention to legitimate bus- 
iness; not because the town would not furnish a sufficient sup- 
port, but languished, by reason of the attention of the editor 
being bestowed on matters of such character that neither brought 
bread to the family nor patronage to the business. 

Dunlap. from 1870 to the time the Milwaukee built the road to 
the east of the place, and when there were no railroads to the 
north, possessed such a trade as was the envy of the other parts 
of the county; but when the Maple River feeder and Milwaukee 
began running trains, and towns had sprung up along these 
lines, the place lost largely of her trade, not having that scope 
of country to draw from as formerly, and hence a decline in the 
matter of trade. Then, again, the managers of the road taking 
from this place the division, suspended the trade of all the rail- 
road employes, which to the extent of the support of such, les- 
sened the trade of the place. 

At or about 1873, the concern was sold to L. P. Cook, who 
between campaigns, and when not engaged in canvassing the 
county for a nomination for Representative, gave his attention 
to the paper, and for the period of nine years so managed the 


same that a reasonably respectable paper was given to the pat- 
rons. The success of Mr. Cook in this undertaking was much 
better than was anticipated, from the fact that he entered the 
business with limited qualifications, both as to the matter of 
editing and managing such an enterprise. 

In 1881, the last named editor sold The Reporter to Mr. 
Issacher Scofield, who, though a miller by occupation, mani- 
fested considerable entenprise and ability, but the trade winds 
from the county seat put brakes on his political aspirations; yet 
notwithstanding, much that was said and counseled by Mr. Sco- 
field has been developed into self evident truths since the time 
of his departure from this county. 

After the sale of the concern by Mr. Scofield, in 1885, the 
editing of the paper was for a while assumed by a maa by the 
name of Rogers, whose ability as an editor did not excel his 
ability in the pulpit, and at the early part of 1887, the business was 
purchased by Mr. J. H. Purcell, who, at the present, is showing 
greater ability than has ever been manifest in the editorial chair 
of The Reporter. This sheet has been, from the beginning, 
of the Republican faith, and has ever upheld the locality which 
has given it a magnificent support. 

The Harrison County News, as above stated, being put into 
existence at Logan for the purpose of smoking out The Courier, 
had its first issue at and about the first day of April, 1881, and 
had a sort of lingering existence at the place last named until 
the beginning of 1884, when it was sold to a Mr. Ballou, who 
removed the same to Missouri Valley and issued a paper by the 
same name as that first given at Logan, for the period of two 
years, at which time the entire office was purchased by the pres- 
ent editor and publisher, A. H. Sniff. This sheet has ever been 
a sound Republican paper, and sticks to the interests of the pres- 
ent locality with a zeal quite commendable. 

There are eight newspapers published in the county, and only 
the Hon. D. M. Harris, of The Times, and within the last two 


months Smith, of The Harrison County Democrat, to shout 
"Hurrah for the Old Hickory Democracy," which would sug- 
gest that Harris the old veteran would surrender at discretion to 
this educated superior force, but I heard him say at the last 
county convention, as he has said for twenty years, that if all 
others should desert from the old Democratic standard, there 
would be one left to keep it aloft as long as he lives. 

He has this consolation: that whenever he is outgeneraled he 
calls to his assistance his masked battery on the banks of the 
Little Sioux, when the combined forces get " a little more grape." 

The Independent was first published on the 1st of September, 
1880, at Mondamin, in this county, and was then named The 
Mondamin Independent by Mr. D. W. Butts, the second oldest 
typo and editor in the county. This paper was and is independ- 
ent in politics, and has shown a master mind in the matter and 
manner of handling political, religious, local and human subjects. 

In 1884, Mr. Butts, for reasons of his own, changed the locus 
of The Independent and began in the summer of that year the 
publication of this paper at the handsomely located village of 
Little Sioux, and from that date to the present has not broken a 
joint in the publication of his paper. 

This is the only newspaper in the county which has not 
changed hands, provided the same had existed for two years or 

Some rivalry exists between Mr. Musgrave, of The Observer, 
and Mr. Butts, as to the fact who has been in the business the 
greater length of time, each claiming the honor. I will not 
now attempt to decide who is the senior in command, but suffice 
it to say that both have grown grey in the service, and both 
wield a terse, trenchant and educated pen. 

Some time in the last decade, a paper was started at the Val- 
ley called The Defender, which was of such brief life that, not 
having accomplished any good, nor having caused any evil, time 
will not now be consumed in giving dates. 


The Persia Post is a sheet which comes and goes in the vast 
expanse of this eastern atmosphere, like comet visits, to-day 
seen, and to-morrow, lost sight of; and while an issue of Janu- 
ary, 1888, lies before me and exhibits taste and ability, I will 
wait until a second edition before making further comments. 

The Harrison County Democrat, now published at Logan by 
E. V. Smith, and just started, is Democratic in politics, and bids 
fair to have a reasonable support. The editor is a new man, but 
is here for the present campaign, and perhaps longer. 

This makes the eighth paper published in the county, and 
with a population of 25,000 some think it curious that all live; 
but each community appreciates the value of printer's ink, and, 
as a result, gives a good support to its individual organ. 


In the fall of 1858, Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, being candidate 
for Representative on the Republican ticket, and Judge C. C. 
Cole, the standard bearer for the same position on the Democratic 
ticket, held a joint discussion in the old court house in Magnolia. 
Among the many persons of both political parties present was 
Mr. Cornelius Dunham, a man well posted in politics and withal 
a very ecentric man. Dunham, at the time wore a suit of home- 
spun goods of the butternut cast, and while in the room where 
the discussion was being had, the afternoon being quite warm. 
Judge Cole then addressing the honest yeomanry, Dunham 
deliberately rose, took off his coat and vest and rolled these and 
his old muskrat cap in a bundle, placed them under the seat, 
rolled up his sleeves, took a fresh chew of tobacco and was about to 
seat himself, when the Judge remarked: " Sir, seeing that you are 
stripping for a fight, I'll pull my coat and be ready for you." 
To which Dunham replied, addressing Mr. Cole, " Monkeys will 
imitate sensible men." This brought down the house and the 
speaker could scarcely rally. 

At the fall election of 1860, Mr. A. L. Harvey and James 


Parley were candidates for the position of Treasurer and 
Recorder of this county; the former being the Republican candi- 
date and the latter the choice of the Democracy. The friends of 
each thought that the race would be quite close, and therefore put 
forth every effort. Near the close of the campaign, a political 
discussion was had at Olmsted, and among the candidates pres- 
ent were these worthies, when at the end of the discussion the 
Democratic candidate and a friend of his were invited to the 
home of Deacon L., some four miles from the place of the 
meeting. These gladly accepted the invitation and were soon 
found surrounding the cheerful home of their host and hostess, 
and talking over the coming election and the probabilities of 
election. The Deacon and his good wife entertained their guests 
with all warmheartedness, and the small hours of the morning 
were past before our candidate betook him to bed. In fact the 
Deacon, though a good Republican, had promised to support Mr. 
P. for the position to which he was aspiring. 

A grand good bed was furnished for the political steppers, who 
soon were sleeping as only tired and worn out politicians can, when 
their morning nap was broken by the cry of a rooster hollowing 
"murder." This was of short duration, for his decapitation 
soon took place and the corpus on the stove crisping for break- 
fast, which in quite early time was anhounced. 

The breakfast was just such a one that tempted the appetite, 
whether the party be hungry or otherwise. Breakfast being 
over the head of the family reverently took up the family Bible, 
selected and read a chapter, and then saying "let us bow in 
prayer," all but the candidate knelt, he sitting as immovable as 
a rock. Prayer being over a change came over the countenance 
of the good Deacon, who formerly was all smiles; now a cloud 
of contempt rested on his visage. The candidate and friend 
soon departed, but received a very mild good morning. 

Scarcely had the politicians started, when the candidate was 
addressed by his friend in these words: "You eternal fool, why 


in the name of Jim Buchanan didn't you get down on your 
knees at prayers; by your want of respect to that good couple 
who did all in their power to entertain us, you lost the support 
of Mr. L., and you'll find him doing all he can, reasonably, to 
defeat you." And such was the fact; the host turned his atten- 
tion to Mr. Harvey and carried with him seventeen votes, and 
thereby Harvey was elected by a majority of one. 

I have never censured the person who so kindly entertained the 
two politicians, for as in this case, the guest who would so out- 
rage the feelings of those who did all in their power to make the 
call pleasant, and would not conform to the customs of the family 
in the matter of family worship, justly merited a defeat at the 

While the electors were casting their ballots at the Whitesboro 
precinct at the fall election in 1867, John D. Dow, now of Cass 
township, was about to vote when he was gently tapped on the 
shoulder by Judge King, and requested to vote the Republican 
ticket, whereupon he was immediately approached by the Hon. 
L. R. Bolter and kindly presented with a Democratic ballot. 
Scarcely had these been received by him, when a boy delivered 
him a telegram from Boone. This being nearly the hour of 
noon, Mr. Dow made a circuit of the school house and came 
around to the polls on the other side, and slyly slipped up to the 
polls and voted, supposing that by so doing he would be unob- 
served by his political tormentors. 

Then quietly retreating to the rear of the house, began to 
cleanse his pockets, found to his dismay that he had voted the 
telegram, for he still had fhe two opposing tickets. 

As soon as the polls were opened after dinner the votist 
explained his predicament to the election board, and wanted his 
dispatch, which request being refused, our hero camped on the 
ground until the counting out of the ballots, when his dispatch 
was handed him; but now it was too late to make amends, for 
time, being the essence of the order, he had let it slip by political 


carelessness — the profits on a shipment of 500 sacks of flour had 
vanished. The moral is: vote your convictions regardless of the 
importunities of friend or foe. 

A little escapade took place at Bigler's Grove school house on 
the Saturday evening preceding the election in the fall of 1867, 
which will not be forgotten by those who were then present. 
Hon. L. R. Bolter was the Democratic candidate for Represent- 
ative, and Joe H. Smith the standard bearer for the same place 
on the Republican ticket. This was the last meeting of the 
campaign, and was considered as the " round up," for these two 
worthies had met in joint discussion in very many places in this 
and Shelby county, and the contest had been one of considerable 

The meeting at this place was one called by the friends of 
Mr. Bolter, and was intended to take Smith by surprise, and 
therefore take the pole in the race; but Smith was somewhat on 
the alert and caught the trick on the fly. Both were ji^st 
returning from Shelby county and met at Woodbine, when 
Smith was informed by a good, staunch Democratic friend that 
Mr. Bolter had made some exhibits not commendatory to Mr. 
Smith in a temperance point of view, and this exhibit being one 
in which the competitors had jointly invested, and both tried 
quite frequently to suppress. But empty bottles, like Bancho's 
ghost, will not down at every bidding, hence the charge by Mr. 
Bolter and the corroborating evidence. 

The meeting at the school house aforesaid was called to order, 
when the Hon. W. W. Wilson (now of Lincoln, Neb.), was 
called to the chair, when Mr. B. entered on the discussion by 

"Mk. Chaieman — I appear before you to-night to discuss the 
principles which divide the two great political parties. I have 
drawn, presented and filed an indictment against the Repub- 
lican party, charging this party with malfeasance and corruption 
in office. And, (addressing the chair,) Mr. Chairman, if you will 


pass me that satchel, from that I will take and read you the 
indictment to which your attention has heen so frequently 

The chairman caught up this bundle of Democratic proof and 
in attempting to pass the same to the speaker, the center of 
gravity fell beyond the base, and to the consternation of all, 
(even Mr. Bolter,) out rolled a quart of very poor whisky and 
fell at Bolter's feet, the bottle breaking into a thousand frag- 
ments and the fluid running in a stream toward the west. 

A t this the friends of Smith set up such an unearthly howl that 
even the rafters of the little building creaked and bent, saying : 
" Bolter, your indictment has busted. It is a poor article. That 
is the old argument; we have had enough of that. No reform 
in that," etc., etc, etc. 

Who ever has read of the salt statuary of Mrs. Lot and tried 
to picture in imagination the appearance thereof, can form 
a reasonable opinion of the appearance of the speaker on 
this occasion; for of the presence of the bottle in the grip- 
sack, Mr. Bolter has often assured me that he had not even the 
most remote idea of the same being there. 

Mr. Bolter was unquestionably taken by surprise, for at the 
happening of this misfortune, he stood speechless, the great drops 
of perspiration gathering on his forehead in quantities indicat- 
ing that he was taking a Turkish bath. 

Some wild persons hint that Smith, even now, knows some- 
thing as to the presence of this " Democratic indictment," but 
of course he would refuse to give any testimony convicting him- 

When Prank W. Palmer and P. Gad Bryan were competitors 
for Congress in the fall of 1868, the friends of both parties had 
set a day for a joint discussion at Magnolia, and to accommodate 
the public a booth was erected at the north side of the old court 
house. When the people had assembled, there was a vast mul- 
titude congregated to listen to the respective speakers. 


The diseussioa was opened by Mr. Palmer and the same being 
a little Ifiagtby, one of the Democratic brethren from Douglas 
became " thirsty " — adjourned to a neighboring saloon to wet his 
Democratic whistle, and on returning had a rush of blood to his 
head, and therefore was compelled to steady himself by catching 
hold of one of the pillars that held up the shedding of the 
booth, and in this condition, not noticing that Mr. Palmer had 
closed his speech, began to mutter something about the " black 
Abolitionist " in a way that resembled the groanings of a calf in 
great pain; whereupon the speaker, Mr. Bryan, stopped and 
loudly said : " I do wish some good Democrat would take the 
dogs off that Republican calf," referring to the individual hold- 
ing on for dear life to the post. Then the crowd of Republicans 
yelled back, "that's your own calf — that's your own stock, help 
him yourself." 

One more illustration, and I'm done. It is this: Of persons 
present at the National Democratic Convention, which met in 
the city of Chicago, in 188i, none felt the inspiration of the 
occasion more forcibly than Fred Kimpel, Esq., of Logan. 

Mr. Kimpel, though not a delegate from his State, became 
convinced that this great National convocation of the good Demo- 
crats might perhaps need his counsel, and hence, like thousands 
of others, was present to guide and assist the party, in case an 
emergency should arise. However, Mr. Cleveland was nomi- 
nated and elected, and the subject of this sketch still declares 
that the voice of the convention was evenly balanced until he 
threw his support for the successful candidate. 

The Convention being over, and the party intoxicated with 
excitement, was ready to take in the city. Mr. Kimpel, among 
the others of this immediate vicinity, wished to gaze on the 
noble features of Mr. " Paddy" Ryan, and to that end passed 
directly to the saloon occupied and engineered by the said 
worthy. Fred was never at a loss for words or cheek, for as 
soon as he had entered the building, he approached the retired 


pugilist and said: "Mr. Ryan, Mr. Paddy Eyan, Dear Sir: My 
name is Mr. Fred Kimpel, from Logan. I keep a creamery there 
— glad to meet you." Fred called for something to inspire, and 
then said: " Mr. Ryan, jist charge this, and when I git back to 
the creamery I'll send you a firkin of butter, you bet." This 
did not quite suit the tastes of the man of fighting qualities, and 
had it not been for the presence of some of the friends of the 
butter making, self-constituted delegate, Ryan would have been 
offered a share of the creamery. 




In the county since the first settlement made therein, while not 
as numerous as in many other places, still present a record, 
showing that the spirit which actuated Cain to kill his brother 
has been by far too often practiced. 

The first person murdered in the county, so far as the recollec- 
tion of man runneth, was one of the wives of a certain French- 
man, by the name of Charles La'Ponteur, who at the time 
referred to, viz. : 1850, resided at a place near the prosperous 
village of Little Sioux, on a tract of land which was by him 
subsequently laid off into a town, and called Fontainebleau, and 
now owned and used by Mr. Michael Murray as a cornfield. 

This mail La'Ponteur, was an Indian trader, and had married, 
previous to this time, two Omaha squaws, and both were living 
with him at the time of the occurrence of which I am about to 

The Omahas and Sioux Indians were at this time at war with 
each other, and in the spring of 1850, while these squaws or 
wives of La'Ponteur were out on a little strip of plowed ground 
planting corn, the Sioux, nunibering a score of warriors, secretly 
stole upon them, and before they were within shooting distance 
of these defenseless beings, they well knew the fate that awaited 
them. One of the wives had a daughter not quite fourteen years 
of age, and while the bloodthirsty Sioux were advancing, the 
mother of the girl told the daughter that as soon as the advanc- 
ing party would shoot, for her to fall instanter to the ground 
and feign death, and remain in that condition until an oppor- 
tunity would offer by which she could escape, and that she, the 
mother, would run for the river, and possibly might escape, " for," 



said she, " the Indians will shoot at me, and the possibility is that 
1 may only be wounded, and if you fall, they will think that 
they missed me and shot you." Scarcely had this direction been 
given, when the shots were fired, and the girl, true to the orders 
given her, fell prone to the earth, but the mother, wounded, as 
full well knew she would be, like the mother bird, when molested 
at the coveted nest, ran and partly flew so as to call the atten- 
tion of the invader to her, and save the young; but by the time 
she reached the Little Sioux river, was captured, tomahawked and 
scalped, the girl in the meantime making good her escape. 

The next Indian murdered was in the winter of 1864, in Clay 
township, in the belt of timber that skirts the Missouri river, 
and was as follows : A band of Omahas, or Pawnees, were at 
work in the timber cutting saw logs and cordwood, and this 
being so very close to the time of the brutal massacres in Minne- 
sota and Northern Iowa, the settlers had much to say con- 
cerning Indian cruelty and perfidy, which conversation was 
usually more or less had before the children of the family or 
neighborhood. In the many families in which these stories 
were constantly dwelt upon, none more fully discussed the situa- 
tion than the families of Horatio Caywood and James Mathers, 
and the latter having a step-son named William Brown, a lad of 
eighteen summers, and withal brutal as well as cowardly, being 
educated by the expressions of the home, and supposing that he 
would make himself famous, deliberately took a rifle and quietly 
stole near where a party of young Indian men were at their 
work, and without any cause or justification shot one of the 
young men aged about twenty-three, whereof he immediately 

This act of cowardice and cruelty passed quite unnoticed from 
the fact that the public mind at this time was constantly being 
fed on news from the battle-fields in the South, and the reading 
or recital of a battle, unless the killed exceeded ten or fifteen 
thousand, was scarcely worth mention. This, chinked by the 


murder of Provost and Deputy-Marshals in many parts of the 
State, to which add the Indian massacres as before stated, left 
the assessment on a poor Indian's life scarcely worth the paper 
on which the mention thereof was made by the public press. 

Then followed the cold blooded murder of an old Omaha 
Chief by the name of Yellow Smoke, at Dunlap in 1869. 

Many of the men now, who were boys in the last half of the 
'60 decade, well remember old Yellow Smoke as the old " Injun" 
who would visit the schools in the east half of the county while 
the schools were in session and ask the teacher for something to 
eat, and point at the dinner baskets of the different pupils which 
contained the commissary of the pupils, as they hung sus- 
pended on nails along the walls of the school room. 

This old beggar once or more times entering a school room 
where Prof. S. Gr. Rogers was teaching, would make his hungry 
condition known to the teacher, who would donate his dinner to 
this " dusky son of the forest," and as soon as this was eaten he 
would signify to the teacher and scholars that he had not been 
furnished half a meal, and the children, with one hand on the 
top of their heads to still keep possession of their scalps, would 
immediately donate all the commissary stores to him in order to 
save Mr. Injun the trouble of taking a patch out of the top of 
their heads, as they supposed he would, as an ornament to his 

Yellow Smoke was an expert gambler, and in the year above 
named while at Dunlap one night taking a hand in a game, and 
being somewhat more successful than they who were at the 
board with him, a quarrel arose, as is usually the case in such 
entertainments, and from a quarrel the feud ripened into mur- 
der, for on the following morning old Yellow Smoke was found 
dead near the depot grounds, his skull being broken in two or 
more places,, and every indication in the near proximity where 
the dead Indian was found showed that a fierce struggle had 
taken place, and that the old Chief had died game. 


This was an act of white men, but by whom committed, the 
Grand Jury or others never knew, and to this day the murder of 
old Yellow Smoke is still shrouded in mystery. 

Before leaving the subject of "Injuns,"! am constrained to 
relate a laughable circumstance which took place at Magnolia 
during the life of Yellow Smoke, and in which one Ike DePew, 
of that place, figured in a certain ridiculous way. It is this: 

Old Yellow Smoke and his band of forty or more bucks, at 
many times accompanied by their squaws, would make hunting 
excursions through the country, and when there would be a 
scarcity of game they would prospect all the back alleys and 
barn yards in the neighborhood for dead hogs, cows and even 
dogs and sheep, and when such carcasses came in their way they 
would confiscate the same and would have a real feast. It made 
little difference to the "Injun " how long the animal had been 
dead so long as the flesh would hold together, nor was any in- 
quiry made as to what disease produced the death. The presence 
of the carcass and the obtainment of the possession thereof was 
the all-important consideration of the forager. 

Apropos: at one of these taking up proceedings, old Yellow 
Smoke discovered three or four heads of hogs hanging on a fence 
along a back alley near where Mr. Al. Ovaitt lived, and Mr. 
DePew noticing the Injun in the act of confiscating the same, 
caught up a very large club and took after the blanketed thief, 
and in his anxiety to catch the fellow, apparently ran into a board 
fence and fell over the same, when the hungry fellow catching 
sight of the angry countenance of DePew, and seeing the large 
club he was possessed of, took to his heels and ran, when DePew 
seeing his game on the wing, took after him and chased him for 
twenty or more rods, when the Indian, to evade being clubbed, 
turned a corner of the street and ran directly in front of DePew's 
harness shop, which place the latter ran into, and gathering 
up an old gun which had neither cock or trigger, ran out into 
the street and pointing it at the fleeing Indian, halloed, " halt." 


No sooner did tbe ladian see the rifle pointed at him than he 
right about faced, tossed his red blanket off his shoulder, spilling 
more than a bushel of hogs' heads and livers, and then drawing 
his tomahawk and swinging it in the air in fanciful curves, made 
directly for DePew, beating his breast with the other hand and 
muttering all sorts of deprecations in the Indian vernacular. By 
this time the fun had taken a change of forum, and instead of 
DePew having all the fun to himself, the Indian had changed 
the deal so that DePew felt like retreating. 

There never was a man so egregiously frightened as was De 
Pew at this stage of the proceedings, but being in presence of 
those who laughed so heartily at the Indian's discomfiture, he 
could not for shame call a retreat, but stood pale and motionless, 
as the Indian advanced with uplifted tomahawk; and when the 
Indian came nearly up to his thoroughly frightened victim, they 
who were witnesses to the apparent tragedy, interfered, helped 
Mr. Indian gather together his cast off provender and sent him 
on his way rejoicing. But Ike has never tried to chase an Indian 
since, or more particularly, point an empty gun at one in order 
to see him run. Tradition has it that DePew's mind for two 
weeks was wholly occupied during his sleep by Indian dreams. 
This continued until the change of the moon. 

This is given as an illustration of the fact that a white man 
can race an Indian with a whip or club, but the moment a gun 
is drawn on one, that moment friendship ceases. 

The first term of District Court held in the county was in No- 
vember, 1855, being presided over by Samuel Riddle, of Council 
Bluffs, at which time the first grand jury in the county was em- 
paneled, the names of whom are as follows: Creed Saunders, 
James Gamet, John Conyers, Chester Staley, H. H. Locklin, 
Thomas Meadows, P. R. Shupe, Thomas Sellers, S. A. Lyman, 
Solomon Barnett, John Deal, J. H. Holton, Solomon Gamet, 
and, two others failing to appear, Silas Rice and D. E. Brainard 
were taken from the bystanders to fill up the panel. These, 


after being organized, sworn and charged by the court, remained 
in session until noon of the following day, when they reported 
to the court that there were no indictable offenses committed 
within the county, and asked to be discharged, as they accord- 
ingly were. 

The first criminal case tried was that of the State vs. Aaron 
Earnest, charged with larceny; and the first petit jury in the 
county, in a court of record, was had in this case, and were the 
following persons: Isaac Ellison, Thomas B. Neely, Jacob Min- 
turn, George W. White, H. H. Locklin, James Hendrixon, Geo. 
Thorpe, Warren White, Eli Coon, G. Peril, Andrew Allen and 
E. T. Hardin. These, after being duly sworn, and after hearing 
the evidence, argument of counsel, and being duly instructed by 
the court, retired, and in a short time returned into court with a 
verdict of " not guilty." 

The next term that convened here was on the 5th of May, 
1856, at which there was tried a cause from Woodbury county, 
entitled. The State of Iowa vs. W. B. Thompson. This man was 
charged with the murder of an Indian agent near Sioux City, by 
the name of Norwood. A jury was empaneled the first day of 
court, and in two days thereafter the farce of a trial was ended 
by the jury acquitting the defendant of the crime charged in 
the indictment. 

At the same term another case was brought to this county 
from the same place on change of venue, and entitled as follows: 
The State of Iowa vs. Elias Shook. This case was the same as the 
one last above, being that of murder, and the killing was brought 
about in this way: Shook was a man of considerable property, 
and was holding down more acres than the law allowed him for 
a claim; and the man murdered had attempted to exercise his 
rights to a portion of the land by squatting on part of that 
claimed by Shook. Shook notified him to abandon the premises 
by a week, and if the party jumping his claim did not leave by 
that time he would eject him. To this threat the party claim- 


ing the rights of settlement paid no attention, and as a sequence, 
Shook, at the expiration of the week, loaded his gun, walked 
deliberately over to the place where the party had built his 
shanty, and without word or remark coolly shot him dead. In 
the trial of the last named case the defendant admitted the facts 
as above stated; admitted that he killed the party who attempted 
to, jump what he called his claim, and his attorneys put in a 
plea of self-defense; that the defendant had the unqualified 
right to defend his property, and especially his castle. 

The attempt at this time to jump another's claim was consid- 
ered, the unpardonable sin, " the sin not to be repented of," and 
any person who would attempt to do so great a wrong to 
another was worthy of death. " Squatters' Rights " was the 
entire burden of the arguments of the defendant's counsel, and 
with results that fully warranted the plea, for scarcely had the 
jury been out a half hour when they had formulated a verdict 
and returned into open court with the old stereotyped verdict, 
" We the jury find the defendant not guilty." 

The first case tried in the county oh charge of murder com- 
mitted therein, was that of The State of Iowa vs. James E. Trip- 
lett. This was a cause which at the time of the origin and time 
of trial, perhaps caused as much comment, division or clustering 
of political lines as any one case in the entire State. 

The defendant was indicted for the murder of his wife by the 
use of poisons, administered by his own hand while she was sick 
and under the guise of medicines. Of the numerous neighbor 
women who attended her during the time of her sickness and 
all through the time that the woman was gradually dying under 
the broken doses of strychnia said to have been given her by the 
defendant, none thought or even suspected that the deceased had 
died by violence; and though fourteen months after she had 
been buried, grave suspicions, began to have being in consequence 
of the conduct of the defendant. This conduct revealed the 
facts that for a long time prior to the death of the wife, the 


defendant and the daughter of his employer, Lewis S. Snyder, 
had been practicing assignations, and that at the very time the 
wife of the defendant was dying, the victim of the defendant's 
lusts, Miss Maggie Snyder was enciente, together with other con- 
duct which I have not the time to fully set forth herein, and this 
suspicion ripening into action, was followed by the following 
named persons, viz. : Dr. J. H. Rice, Geo. G. Downs, Nathaniel 
McKimmey, Isaac Bedsaul and Joe. H. Smith repairing to the 
graveyard at Magnolia at the noon of night and exhuming the 
corpse of the deceased wife and after taking therefrom the 
stomach, placing the same in a jar and sealing the same, then 
returning the corpse back to the resting place in the grave, and 
taking the stomach to Omaha and having a chemist analyze the 
same, upon which analysis there was sufficient strychnia found 
to poison a half dozen of persons. This being reported to those 
above named, caused a warrant of arrest to be issued charging 
the defendant with the murder of his wife Phebe Triplett. The 
murdered wife had lain in the grave for fourteen months and so 
effecually had her system taken up the strychnia, that at this 
period, there was not the least noticeable decay of the body. 
The defendant after arrest was bound over to appear before the 
pfistrict Court at the following session, which convened in May, 
1864, at which term he was indicted and the trial was begun on the 
11th of said month, with the following named persons, residents 
in the county, as jurors, viz.: 

James Ervin, Elijah Hedgecock, Lysander Crane, A. N. War- 
ren, C. S. Way, Wm. N. Fonts, James S. McElroy, W. L. Jones, 
Joseph Deal, Isaac Skelton, J. T. Roberts and Sol. J. Imlay. 
The trial lasted until the fifth day, when the District Attorney 
on the morning of fhat day filed a motion to discharge the jury 
and order a new panel, based on the gound that several of the 
jury, without authority of the court aad unaccompanied by the 
attorney for the State or other person, visited the cell where the 
defendant was confined and had secretly held divers communica- 


tions with the defendant, and that one juror especially, who, on 
his voir, dire, had sworn that he neither had formed or expressed 
any opinion as to the guilt or innocence of the defendant, had, 
in fact, on numerous occasions, expressed unqualified opinions 
as to the innocence of the prisoner at the bar, and these facts 
being shown to the court to a satisfactory conclusion, the court 
sustained the aforesaid motion and discharged the jury, at the 
same time giving the offending jurors a terrible reprimand. 

A venire was issued and on the 18th of -July, 1864, the trial 
began de novo, with the following jurors, viz.: 

N. B. Smothers, 0. P. Reel, Wm. Tucker, J. W. Henderson, 
E. T. McKenney, Thomas Hunter, R. K Day, J. P. Rowe, Wm. 
Evans, Thos. McKenney, Isaac Childs and Ephraim Strauss. 

The following witnesses were examined on part of the State, 

Dr. J. H. Rice, G. P. Waterman, G. G. Downs, Isaac Bedsaul, 
Mrs. S. E. Hillas, Lizzie Mahoney, Margaret Snyder, Mr. and 
Mrs. L. S. Snyder and Harriet Scoville. These proved to any 
reasonable mind that the deceased, Phebe Triplett, came to her 
death by strychnia, administered to her by the defendant. 

In connection with the above named witnesses, the chemist 
from Omaha, in company with others, at and during the retrial, 
repaired to the cemetery and again exhumed the body of the 
deceased, and from or upon parts of the viscera, in open court, 
and as part of his evidence, made chemical analysis thereof, and 
showed to the jury and bystanders portions of strychnia, which 
he then and there collected and separated therefrom. 

Notwithstanding this pyramid of testimony, viz.: that the 
deceased had died of poison; that the defendant at and prior to 
the time of the death of decedent had been guilty of adultery 
and had very strong reasons to believe that he would be prose- 
cuted therefor, and that his paramour was then enciente; that 
he wished to marry the unfortunate girl because of her father's 
wealth, the jury, after deliberating for nearly one day, returned 


with a verdict of "not guilty," stating that there might be a 
possibility that the deceased had been given the strychnia 
through mistake. 

I will further add that the defendant having been refused the 
hand of his victim, soon remarried, and she who was his wife at 
and during the trial last named, in one decade after the happen- 
ing of the above, died as died the former wife, and that the de- 
fendant living a half score more years, from the death of the 
latter, in misery, died a terrible death, uncared for and deserted 
by all. 

The courts were not again burdened by a murder trial until 
in July, 1868, at which time a case was brought from Shelby 
county to this place on change of venue, the same being the 
somewhat notorious case of The State of Iowa vs. James M. 
Long. The defendant in this case was charged in the indict- 
ment with the murder of Adam Cuppy, at the town of Harlan, 
in said county, aboat six months previous to the time the case 
was brought here on change of venue as aforesaid. At or on the 
day prior to the time of the killing of Cuppy, a young man had 
been having a preliminary hearing before a county justice on the 
charge of horse stealing, and Cuppy having gone on the bail 
bond of the criminal, and the bond of very meager amount, and 
Cuppy having paid the bond when the prisoner had skipped the 
county, so incensed the people of the community that on the fol- 
lowing night, as before stated, Cuppy was taken out into a by 
part of the town and on the next morning was found with the 
smallest spark of life in him, having been riddled with bullets. 
The defendant Long, though the father-in-law of Bill Cuppy, 
son of the murdered man, was charged with the shooting of the 
old man Cuppy, and on the application of the defendant, the case 
was sent by the court to this county for trial. The case being 
called on the 16th of July, 1868, a jury was soon obtained, and 
consisted of the following named persons, viz.: W. B. Cope- 
land, Geo. G. Downs, Samuel Moore, Isaac Bedsaul, Sr., Orrin 


Simons, I. V. Stewart, James Boies, 0. M. Bedsaul, Charles 

Wheelock, and . Tlie case occupied the 

attention of the court until the 28th day of July, of the same 
year, when the jury retired to their room and in less than one 
hour returned into court with a verdict of not guilty. The case 
might have been adorned with a somewhat different finding by 
the jury had it not been from the fact that Cuppy was shown to 
have beeji connected with some agency in the " horse business," 
and had on repeated cases, for a long time prior to the case 
which brought about his death, shielded numerous horse thieves 
in the same manner as he did in this, and there could be no con- 
victions because of this interference by Cuppy, and who was at 
the same time a very lawless person and set at defiance all law. 
No one could from the evidence say that Long, the defendant, 
fired the fatal shot or any shot which penetrated the body of the 
deceased, but that he was in the company which unquestionably 
did shoot Cuppy none had any doubt. The defendant was one 
of the most influential men in the county and a man of excel- 
lent reputation; the jury could not find him guilty unless on the 
most positive testimony. 

The State of Iowa vs. John W. Mecham was the next case 
which came before the court for trial, the facts being as follows: 
From the time of the earliest settlement to the date of the 
killing of Geo. W. Mefford, the man killed by defendant, there was 
a custom of the country which had been indulged in so long that 
it had had become lex non scripta of every locality, and was 
this.- At the beginning of haying time any person wishing to 
cut the grass growing on speculators' land (the three-fourths of 
the land being such) would take a mowing machine or scythe 
and cut around the parcel selected, and this was notice to the 
world that such grass was taken and claimed by another, and the 
deceased having cut around a certain tract in the near proximity 
to the residence of Mecham, he would not recognize the aforesaid 
right, and when he got ready for haying, took his scythe and 


went upon this claim of Mefford's and cut a considerable quantity 
of this grass unbeknown to the Meffbrds, and they, when dis- 
covering what had been done by Mecham, went in force and 
began tossing the grass cut by the prisoner and placing the same 
in cocks. This was witnessed by Mecham, who was watching 
the doings of the Meffords, and while he was lone-handed and 
there were three of the Meffords, he, the defendant, went to his 
house, took his No. 2 Colt's navy, deliberately cleaned and oiled 
the same, and discharged one round so as to feel sure that there 
would be no failure when firing, then reloading the same, went 
deliberately to the hay field where the Meffords were putting up 
the grass which he had cut, forbade them of taking his hay, and 
soon the altercation ripened into a fight, and Geo. W. Mefford 
was shot by Mecham directly through the heart. It consumed 
two days in selecting a jury, and when accepted the following 
named persons constituted the same : W. S . Meech, Seth Palmer, 
Silas Cook, Lowry Wilson, Stephen Mahoney, E. R. Wills, P. T. 
Hill, E. H. Morton, Alex. Johnson, Curtis Baxter, John R. Clark, 
and John G. Downs. It took ten days to try this case, at the 
end of which time the evidence is all heard, arguments made and 
the jury properly instructed and placed in their room for delibera- 
tion, where remaining for the period of twelve hours, return into 
court with the stereotyped verdict of not guilty. This man 
Mecham was not an angel by any means, and without doubt 
went to the hay field with the full purpose and intent of clear- 
ing the premises, if at the cost of taking the lives of all whom 
he thought were invading his rights. 

8 Mr. Geo. W. Mefford was a promising young man, at the age 
of twenty-three, when murdered, and this unfortunate circum- 
stance fell like a crushing weight upon his parents. 

Mecham was a daredevil; had enlisted in company C of the 29th 
Iowa, had gone with the company to Sioux City at the time this 
company was ordered to that place, and on the return of the 
company and the same having gone into barracks at Council 


Bluffs, and upon the regiment being ordered South, three days 
were given each man to go home and set his business in order. 
Mecham accepted this furlough, and while on his way to or at his 
home, having tired of the military, deliberately shot off the first 
two fingers of his right hand in order to be discharged, but the 
reported accident was really too transparent, and he was ordered 
to accompany the regiment when it would start for the South. 
During all the time of his service (six months) he was of such a 
disposition that he set at defiance all orders he did not feel like 
obeying, and was constantly in trouble because of his wayward 
disposition, and finally was transferred to the invalid corps. 

The first person convicted in this county for the crime of 
bigamy was one Henry Ackerman, who in 1871 came to Mag- 
nolia and resided with wife No. 2 for nearly a year, when to 
the surprise of the good people of that vicinage, wife No. 1 
put in an appearance, had the unfaithful muchly married hus- 
band brought up on charge as before stated and convicted. The 
sentence of the court only had him forfeit for the benefit of 
the state and society, one year, which had he stolen a horse or 
had he driven away a cow of the value of twenty-one dollars, the 
sentence would have been lengthened out to three years and con- 
sidered a very mild one. This trial was had in the month of 
March, 1S72. 

The bloodiest page in the entire record of crime in this county, 
is that wherein mention is made of the murder of Stephen Ide 
by Louis W. Weirich, which took place in the town of Logan at 
the noon of day, and about the middle of the year 1872. Stephen 
Ide was a large, rough, overbearing, lawless, desperate man; had 
made a record of such character as entitled him to the position 
of an outlaw, and Weirich had already killed his man and on 
many occasions previous to the murder of Ide, had shown a dis- 
position to glory in the act of taking the life of his fellow. 
Weirich was at the time of the murder running a butcher shop 
in Logan, and on the day on which the murder took place, Ide 


came into town and the two adjourned to some neighboring hay- 
loft and engaged in a game of poker, at which sitting Ide won 
a dollar's worth of beef from Weirich. When they had arrived 
at the butcher shop of the latter, a quarrel was had over the 
weight and hot words ensued, when Ide, being a large, muscular 
man, took hold of Weirich and gave him quite a severe choking, 
whereat the parties were separated. During this armistice some 
of the bystanders knowing the disposition of Weirich, hid, as 
was supposed, all the butcher knives in the shop, and again Ide 
returning into the butcher shop, pioceeded to chastise Weirich 
the second time, and while in the act of carrying his purpose 
into execution Weirich grasped a large butcher knife which he 
had previously secreted, and thrust the same directly into the 
heart of Ide. 

Ide at the time of the stroke by Weirich with the knife as 
aforesaid, had Weirich by the throat, and when thus struck by 
Weirich, thrust the latter to the floor and fell immediately upon 
Weirich, and while the life-blood was dashing from the very 
heart of Ide into the face and nostrils of Weirich, the dying 
man never relinquished his hold until the arm was palsied by 

On March 7th, 1873, a jury was selected and accepted by both 
the State and the defendant, and in the short space of one day 
the entire evidence in the case was heard, the witnesses for the 
State being the following: George Musgrave, George M. Kerns, 
W. J. Rudd, B. P. La Porte and Thomas J. Acrea. These all 
testified to the killing; and that when they came to the place 
where the murder was committed, they found Mr. Ide still astride 
of Weirich, the nostrils and mouth of Weirich so filled with the 
blood of Mr. Ide that he was nearly strangled from the current 
that flowed directly from the heart of Ide. The jury were only 
absent deliberating for about one hour, when they returned 
into court with a verdict of: " We, the jury, find the defendant, 
Louis W. Weirich, guilty of murder as charged in the indict- 


ment." At the expiration of three days the court sentenced the 
defendant to the Penitentiary at Ft. Madison for life. 

Unquestionably, no criminal cause in the county, from the 
time of the organization of the county up to and until the pres- 
ent, has occasioned more comment than the one last named, from 
the fact that within ten years from the time the jury found the 
defendant guilty of murder in the first degree, efforts were made 
for the pardon of the defendant; and more especially from the 
fact that one of the attorneys who prosecuted the case, and the 
principal in having the defendant convicted, swung around the 
circle, so that when, being a member of the popular branch of the 
Legislature, he threw his whole soul into the effort of procuring 
a pardon for the man he had strained every effort to convict, and 
had taken a good round fee from the relatives of the murdered 
man to prosecute the case. 

Whatever may have changed the mind of the attorney so that 
he became the mouth-piece for the pardon of the man he had 
convicted, I will not attempt to say, but unquestionably there 
were many circumstances, which if urged, would in a great 
measure palliate the crime (if there could be palliation for mur- 
der). Ide was a bully, robust, lawless, vengeful, and, so far as 
physical strength was concerned, greatly the superior of Wei- 
rich; the latter wicked, stealthy, loved and lived to kill. 

About the middle of the year 1873, a perambulating show 
came to Magnolia and gave what was called a day and evening 
entertainment, the whole crew being made up of the worst and 
most desperate characters possible. After the evening entertain- 
ment was over the different persons attending the same started 
for their homes, among whom was Jerome B. Hardy, then a 
young man just blooming into manhood. He brought a young 
lady from the country to see the sights, and these, while on their 
way home, were set upon by one James A. Bonnell, alias " Big 
Jim," at the grave yard just west of the town. This fellow was 
the wagon master for the outfit and was a man of great muscu- 


lar powers, aad withal a very desperate character. He having 
noticed this young couple during the entertainment had spotted 
the girl as his victim and therefore followed them, as before 
stated, to the place last mentioned, where he attacked the young 
man and by reason of his size and bullying so effectually fright- 
ened Hardy that he, like a very coward, fled and left the 
young lady he was escorting to the cruel mercies of this most 
dastardly ruffian, but while the altercation was in being between 
this brute and Hardy, the young lady jumped over the grave 
yard fence and sought safety in flight. No sooner had Hardy 
fled when this demon followed his victim, caught up with her in 
the grave yard and from every indication of the surface of the 
soil and especially at and about a fresh grave, there was a most 
desperate struggle between the parties, the one struggling for 
that which is most highly prized by woman, the other for the 
gratification of a beastly and sensual lust. The escort of the 
young lady fled without having a bruise on his person or a hair 
ruffled and reported what had taken place. No sooner was the 
news of this dastardly act known, than an information was filed 
and a warrant issued for the arrest of the criminal, who was 
recognized by Hardy, and the warrant being at once placed in 
the hands of the Sheriff, he immediately set out for the town 
of Little Sioux, where the show was to exhibit on the following 
day. "Big Jim," as soon as he had accomplished his purpose, 
fled, leaving all his train behind, and supposing that he was not 
recognized, went directly to Little Sioux, where he, by the break- 
ing of daylight next morning, was arrested, and was at once 
brought to Magnolia for preliminary examination. Court con- 
vened at 2 o'clock, p. M., and continued in session until 9, when 
an adjournment was had until next morning. While the prisoner 
was being taken from the old court house to the Bates Hotel, 
where he was guarded, a crowd of forty or more persons forcibly 
took him from the custody of the Deputy Sheriff, threw a rope 
over his neck and ran for the nearest tree, intending to admin- 


ister justice then and there, but the lynchers being unorganized, 
and not acting in concert, the fellow, as aforesaid, being a very 
muscular man, freed his neck from the rope and gave tongue to 
the most inhuman cries possible. When the excited company who 
were dealing out justice in this speedy way returned they were 
compelled to knock the fiend down in order to readjust the rope, 
during which time the criminal gave such unearthly cries 
that it brought the citizens to his rescue and therefore saved a 
very worthless life. 

Never were such inhuman cries uttered or heard, and scarce 
did ever human arm put forth such energies for self-protection 
as did this brute on this occasion. Despair lent him a power 
equal to a score of men, and he fought with the desperation 
worthy of a much better cause. Being rescued by the citizens, 
he was at once taken to the room in the hotel where he was being 
guarded, and on arriving there presented a S'pectacle the most 
horrible, as well as the most filthy, that the imagination of man 
could possibly conjecture, for a new suit of clothes had to be 
furnished him at once, so that the guards could, with any com- 
fort, remain within protecting and restraining distance of his 
vile and filthy person. The court on the following day ordered 
that he appear before the District Court on the first day of the 
next session; and the prisoner, in default of bail, was sent to 
Boone jail for safe keeping, where he remained until in Febru- 
ary, 1874, when he was brought back, indicted, tried and con- 
victed of the offense of rape, and by the court sentenced to the 
penitentiary for the period dt ten years. The most unreasonable 
and unexplained part of this case was in the sequel which fol- 
lowed; for scarcely had the defendant been incarcerated in the 
penitentiary five years when the person outraged, as well as her 
parents, signed a petition addressed to the Governor of this State 
praying for the pardon of this miserable brute, who would have 
sacrificed life for the purpose of gratifying a hellish and damna- 
ble lust. 


Charity may cover a multitude of sins, but mercy for a villain 
who is unfit to run at large, and whose incarceration is demanded 
for the protection of society, is, to say the least, far fetched. The 
penitentiary or the rope should furnish protection in such cases, 
else the daughters of the land are not highly prized, and virtue 
without protection. 

In the summer of the year 1873, one Charley C. Clifford be- 
coming somewhat provoked at some conduct of a certain gen- 
tleman by the name of Edmondson, respecting the wife and 
sister-in-law of the former, took upon himself the enforcement 
of the law, and in manner as follows: loaded his double-barrelled 
shotgun with duck shot and went directly to the house of Ed- 
mondson, and when coming within sight of his supposed foe, he 
discharged one barrel of his gun, which took effect in the hip of 
the person last named. This brought about his arrest, indict- 
ment and conviction for assault with intent to inflict great 
bodily injury, and he was sentenced to the penitentiary at Ft. 
Madison for the term of two years. Tried and sentenced in 
February, 1874. 

The State of Iowa vs. Artemus Baker was the last murder case 
tried in the courts of this county, and was based on the killing 
of a young Mr. Crow, son of Stephen Crow, an old resident of 
the vicinity of Woodbine. The killing was accomplished by the 
use of a pistol fired by the defendant, and death was instanta- 
neous. The altercation took place in the barn of Mr. Stephen 
€row, and to the present day but one side of the affair has been 
told, from the fact that there was no person present except the 
two engaged in the quarrel. The death of the young man forever 
sealed his lips, and the murderer put the fairest coating possible 
to his statements. 

This unfortunate and unhappy ending of the promising Me 
of the murdered man took place some time in the latter part of 
the year 1875. The defendant being indicted, was tried at the 
January term of the District Court of this county in 1876, the 


trial being had in the M. E. Church building at Logan, the pres- 
ent court house at that time not being built. 

The jury in this case was composed of the following persons: 
Stephen Mahoney, B. E. Vaughn, Albert Massingal^ Lloyd Jen- 
kins, B. Parker, James Mitchell, JJames Ervin, Matthew Hall, 
George Blackman, J. Nichols, 0. W. Locklin and Peter Hender- 
son. In this case the defense was that the defendant acted in 
self-defense; and so thoroughly was this fact impressed on the 
minds of the jury, that though the case was only four days in 
being tried, the jury very promptly returned into court a verdict 
of not guilty. 

Many have passed the opinion that had Mr. Crow killed the 
defendant, and had he been permitted to have told his story, the 
verdict of the jury would have been "not guilty," even though 
submitted to the same jury for consideration and finding. 

The State of Iowa vs. William Sloan was a case wlierein the 
defendant was charged with the crime of bigamy, committed 
as follows: That at some time during the early part of the 
sixties, the defendant had married a lady by the name of Coonrod, 
in Williams county, in the State of Ohio; that from the time of 
the inter-marriage of the defendant with the said Miss Coonrod, 
there were born to these parties three children; that at and about 
the year 1868, this wife of the defendant had become blind, and 
that at and about the year 1870 the defendant had gone to Chicago, 
and from that city to Nebraska, and had after leaving Nebraska 
settled in the vicinity of Magnolia, in this county. That at and 
about the month of June, 1872, the defendant at his own 
instance, aided by his father, had procured a " patent divorce," 
through the guiles and wiles of one Goodrich, an expert divorce 
attorney of Chicago and in the courts of the place last named, 
and as stated by the wife of defendant, without her knowledge 
or consent. That the defendant at and during the former part 
of the year 1872 had married a very estimable lady in the vicinity 


of Magnolia, with whom he had lived quite happily until his 
arrest in 1879. 

In the August term of the District Court of 1879, the defend- 
ant was indicted and trial was demanded immediately, he being 
ably defended by learned counsel from Ohio, as well as securing 
the foremost members of the local board at the place where in- 
dicted. The Ohio wife was promptly on hand, and told to the 
jury the story of her desertion and wrongs, and this, together 
with the fact that she was totally blind and had the charge, 
maintenance and support of two of the children, which she had 
borne to the defendant, and that during the entire time of her 
desertion the defendant had failed to furnish her any support 
whatever, and that she had, until within a few months prior to 
the date of trial, supposed that the defendant, her husband, was 
still unmarried. To this statement the defendant, both by him- 
self and father, attempted to show that wife No. 1 was fully 
cognizant of the procurement of the Chicago divorce; that she 
had even acknowledged serviceof the notice of the commence- 
ment of the action, as well as being party to an agreement of 
separation, and had in fact taken part of the consideration on 
which the agreement of separation was based, and that she well 
knew of the pendency of the divorce proceedings and had signed 
and acknowledged a power of attorney by which she empowered 
the said Groodrich to appear for her and thereby permit the de- 
fendant to have ordered in court at Chicago a decree granting 
the divorce. This power of attorney was produced and intro- 
duced in evidence, when the prosecutrix in the way of rebuttal, 
stated that at the time the said paper was executed, if executed 
at all, she was entirely blind, and that the defendant's father had 
procured her signature thereto by fraud and misrepresentation, 
by having her believe that she was signing something else. 

This case occupied the attention of the court for more than an 
entire week, when the same was submitted to the jury, and they 
being in their room a half a day, brought into court a verdict of 


'• we, the jury, find the defendant guilty as charged in the indict- 

On Saturday, the 13th of September, 1879, the verdict last re- 
ferred to was returned into court and the day of sentence fixed 
on the followihg Tuesday. Scarcely had the sun risen on the 
Sabbath morning of the lith until there was a most unusual 
stir in the circle of the defendant's friends, caused by the pres- 
ence oE numerous petitions directed to the court, praying for the 
leniency of the court at the pronouncement of sentence. These 
all through the entire Sabbath were carried to nearly every nook 
and corner of the county and were signed by many who knew 
nothing of the merits of the case, and at the same time scarcely 
knew the defendant or either of the wives, and when the day for 
sentence arrived were tumbled in one conglomerate mass at the 
feet of the court with the hope of,' as a last resort, saving the 

Notwithstanding a verdict of " guilty," the court, whether in- 
fluenced by the petitions last named or in vindication of the 
majesty of the law, sentenced the defendant to pay a fine of 
fSOO to the county for the benefit of the school fund and be 
imprisoned in the jail of the county for the period of six months. 
An appeal was taken by the defendant to the Supreme Court by 
his attorney, and upon hearing there the case was reversed be- 
cause of an erroneous instruction of the court to the jury upon 
the doctrine of " reasonable doubt," and remanded back for an- 
other trial. The prosecutrix being of infirm health and without 
means to further carry on the case, the same died at this period 
for want of prosecution. 

The incidents that have taken place respecting the characters 
in this drama, though only nine years have intervened, are 
worthy of contemplation. Death has claimed a pro rata — others 
are scattered, and few are left of all who participated. 

The State of Iowa vs. Stephen A. Broadwell. This case, 
though having its origin in this county, was not prosecuted 


herein to final verdict. The crime charged in the indictment, 
found and reported to the court hy the Grand Jury of this 
county, in September, 1883, was that of " obtaining money under 
false pretenses" or "cheating by false pretenses." This man, 
Stephen A. Broadwell, though arriving in this village three 
years prior to the date of his indictment, penniless, unheralded, 
vrithout friends save his cheek and pen, in the incredible short 
period of three years had so ingratiated himself into the confi- 
dence of the public that he was selected at the end of the second 
year as the Chairman of the Republican delegates to the State 
Convention, and Chairman of the Republican County Central 
Committee. AH persons seemed anxious to do him homage; all 
were aware that he lived like a prince and threw his money to 
the public like a millionaire. The Grovernor of the great State 
of Iowa came from the very capital of the State to partake of 
his hospitality, honor his person and seek his advice, and not 
alon6 was His Excellency charmed by the apparent richness of 
mind of this adventurer, but very many other men of high 
standing in office and finance were captivated by the suavity of 
manners and purported financial worth of this " meteoric-" loan 
agent. Money rolled into his office seeking investment, and 
scarcely was an investment deemed safe unless he was consulted _ 
He sought to carry the political elements of the county in his vest 
pocket, and dictated terms of capitulation to the " Old Hickory " 
Democracy. The ordinary traveling car was soon deemed be- 
neath his superior dignity, and a chartered car, furnished sump- 
tuously with the choicest and rarest of the land, in edibles and 
wines, were furnished at his orders. 

A mansion, such as would have graced the frontage of Fifth 
Avenue, New York, was put up under contract for building in 
Logan and nearly approximated completion, when, to the utter 
amazement of his satellites, he took a tumble like the falling of 
a financial star of the first magnitude, lighting in the middle of 
the grand jury room in Logan, never to rise until his pride, arro- 


ganee aad dishonesty were somewhat curbed by a three years' 
discipline in the State Penitentiary at Fort Madison, Iowa. 

At first, upon the finding of the indictment, he fled, but upon 
reflection returned and surrendered his person to the officer, and 
demanded a change of venue, which, conforming to the law in 
such cases made and provided, was by the court granted, and the 
cause sent to Pottawattamie county for trial. Here the case 
lingered on the dockets of that court until the December term, 
1885, when the same was brought to trial and the defendant was 
convicted, found guilty of the ofiense charged in the indictment, 
and sentenced to the penitentiary for the term of three years. 
Then an appeal was taken by his attorneys to the Supreme Court 
of the State of Iowa, which laid in a hibernated status until in 
December, 1887, when this court of last resort affirmed the find- 
ing of the court below and sealed a three years' destiny for this 
pauper, prince and fool. 

The State of Iowa vs. Alex Smith, tried in the August term 
of 1886, being one in which the defendant was indicted for the 
crime of assault with the intent to commit rape, unquestionably 
elicited as much merriment during the hearing as any case ever 
tried in the county. 

The defendant was a young man with the animal propensities 
much more developed than the moral or intellectual, and as 
gleaned from the evidence introduced in the case the fact was 
divulged that as soon as he had approached the bedside of the 
assaulted party, she gave the alarm by crying out vigorously, 
when the defendant ran out through an adjoining door, upon 
the commons, and the time of the occurrence being the 1st of 
July and the crime being committed in the Missouri bottom, 
took place at a season of the year when the mosquitos were very 

At the time the defendant fled from ihe presence of the prose- 
cutrix, he was scantily clad, being only robed in a night shirt 
of very brief dimensions and when exposing his person to the 


tender mercies of the cruel and ever attracking mosquito, the 
punishment then was like the punshment of Cain, "greater than 
he could bear;" when he sought protection by again entering 
the house which he so recently had abandoned. 

Upon re-entering the house, he crawled stealthily to bed and 
on the following morning the husband of the prosecutrix having 
come to the house, was informed by the wife of the treatment 
. she had received at the hands of the defendant, which so angered 
the husband that he selected a nice club from the wood-box and 
on entering the room of the defendant found him under the bed 
in a semi-naked condition, and dragging him therefrom proceeded 
to administer a chastisement such as he deemed equal to the 
insult offered. At the next term of the District Court he was 
indicted for the crime above named, and when on trial his coun- 
sel, after the above facts had been elicited, attempted to show 
that in that neigborhood it was the custom of the country for 
young men at that season of the year, when the mosquitos were 
so very bad, to run out of their rooms, deshabille, in order to free 
themselves from the attacking insects, and that more especially 
on the Sabbath morning all young men in that neighborhood 
were in the habit of crawling under the bed and taking a morn- 
ing nap in order to restore the lost energies caused by the rest- 
lessness of the preceding night. However, as ingenious as was 
the defense, the jury could not see the point in that light, and 
the defendant was convicted of a simple assault and sentenced 
to the county jail for thirty days and to be fed on bread and 
water. From that day to the present the defendant has been 
more circumspect and is wholly free from somnambulistic attacks. 


Tried in the county are headed by the case of Cornelius Dunham 
vs. T. A. Dennis. This cause had its origin in the " hard " win- 
ter of 1856 and 1857, and arose out of the following circum- 
stances: During this winter the plaintiff had three or four hun- 


dred head of cattle wintering on the rushes along the Missouri 
River bottoms, and when the great snow storm, lasting three 
days in succession, had come, and the fall of snow had aggregated 
the depth of four feet, placed Dunham's cattle at the mercy of 
the storm, wolves and Indians. The snow was so deep that the 
cattle could not pass beyond their paths occasioned by the great 
depth of snow and the crust thereon, and were in fact dying by 
starvation when rescued by the defendant. The condition of 
the roads was such that it was impossible for any person for 
two or three weeks to accomplish any travel whatever, and the 
defendant taking pity on the perishing brutes, broke paths for 
them to his home, and in order to keep them from dying, fed 
them liberally on corn, which at that time was worth one dollar 
per bushel. 

Dunham, when able to pass from his home to the place where 
they had been left, found them as before stated in the custody of 
Dennis, and when so fi)und by him refused to pay for the care 
they had received and grain they had eaten, and brought replevin 
for the cattle. The case was tried in this county once and the 
jury disagreeing, the case was transferred to Cass county and 
tried there, when Dunham was cast in the case and appealed to 
the Supreme Court, and on trial there of errors, was affirmed, 
giving to the defendant the full amount claimed by him at the 
time of the demand. The loss to the plaintiff in this case was 
quite considerable, but there was no other man in the county at 
that time more able to pay an honest debt than he. 

Dunham was a great cattle man, and withal one of the most 
eccentric men in the entire State, for at and during the pendency 
of this case he, while his men were in his hay field, laboring at 
the price of $1.25 per day, would organize them into a petit jury, 
then relate to them all the evidence which he anticipated pro- 
ducing, then argue the case on his own behalf, as his own at- 
torney, give them instructions, and when the case was submitted, 
order them to proceed to the shady side of a great haystack to 


deliberate on their verdict. I may say of these moot trials, Dun- 
ham invariably won his case, irrespective of the foolish finding 
of the Cass county jury, whom he used to say did not possess 
sufficient brains to serve the purpose of his lead steers. 

The first case to be taken io the Supreme Court of this State, 
from this county, was that of Robert Hall vs. John Mathers. 
This involved the title to an eighty acre tract of land on Allen 
Creek valley. Hall having obtained a decree quieting the title 
thereto in him, gave the defendant the thought that the court 
had erred in judgment, and therefore the case found a tempo- 
rary home in the Supreme Court only until trial there which re- 
sulted in an affirmance of the decree below. 

J. R. Zuver vs. Mary I. Zuver. This case obtained as much 
' notoriety as any cause that ever had place on the docket, from 
the fact that the citizens of Missouri Valley seemed to take sides 
with the defendant, and express opinions that she was greatly 
wronged by the conduct of the plaintiff, perhaps looking to the 
separation of the husband and wife, and the disintegration of the 
entire family. 

" Cruel and inhuman treatment, such as to endanger the life 
of the husband," was the grounds of the application, which 
being referred to a referee of Missouri Valley, who, after taking 
the testimony and reporting his finding of f acb to the Court, the 
same was affirmed and the divorce granted, in which there was a 
division of the property and a semi-annual payment provided for, 
to be paid the defendant for the support of the three children 
yet so small as to be deemed by the Circuit Court unfit to pass 
from th^ mother's care. This separation tinged of the barbar- 
isms of the dark ages, for it being grounded on a few thought- 
less words, spoken on strong provocation, was adjudged to be 
sufficient to sever the family ties and send the members adrift on 
the cold charities of a heartless and unfriendly world. Soon after 


decree of divorce, application was made by plaintiff for the custody 
of the children; one of the causes being that the mother was not 
suffieientl}' educated, so as to be capable of taking charge of their 
education; and by way of illustration, charged that in writing to 
him, made use of the little "i " instead of using the capital. If 
such was the case, there was but little difference in the educa- 
tional attainments of the parties, and he who would set up such 
preposterous cause, should have been left in the condition in 
which found, for if the defendant was the embodiment of per- 
fection at the marriage altar, there certainly was but little 
change since. 

John A. Forgeus vs. Henry Herring. Damages for persona,! 
injuries. This was an action having its origin in Little Sioux, 
and had existence from the following cause, viz. : 

The defendant is a man of very considerable property, and the 
plaintiff was a tenth rate scrub justice court pettifogger, who, 
having hectored defendant by instituting numerous petty cases 
against him in these inferior courts, was about to bring another, 
which so angered defendant that when he met plaintiff, and 
plaintiff, having emptied on him a car load of the vilest language 
he could command. Herring adjourned to a little thicket near 
at hand, and cut an iron wood " gad " equal to a fishing rod in 
size, and proceeded to find the plaintiff, which, when found, 
he administered to plaintiff such a " licking " as would offset the 
trouble formerly endured, as well as leaving a balance for future 
use. The place of meeting was on the streets of Little Sioux, 
near a box-alder tree; the time, the heat of a summer's day; and 
it is said that Forgeus ran around this tree with Herring after 
him, during such period of time that the soil was worn into a 
circle, such as that made by circus steeds at the country shows, 
and that when Herring had exhausted all his energy in plying 
the " gad " to the person of Forgeus, the latter was suffering not 
only the bitterness of a defeat, but his shirt was glued to his 
person by blood which had exuded from great incisions made in 


his persou by the ironwood fish-pole, while held in the hand of 
Herring. Both these parties were cripples, the former using 
crutches, while the latter could scarcely get beyond a respectable 
walk: Porgeus at once cast his crutches to the dogs and ran as 
for life, while Herring out-generaled his foe by starting around 
the alder-bush so that his (defendant's) short leg was nearest the 
center of the circle, for, had Forgeus ran the circle in the 
opposite direction, Herring's long leg would have been on the 
inside, which, under the powerful speed he was making, would 
have caused his body to have tipped over or started off in a tan- 
gent, and could not have stopped until he had reached the bluffs 
of the Missouri river. 

After two years of visiting of courts, the plaintiff recovered a 
judgment against the defendant for the sum of one dollar and 
costs — say $100. This occurred in 1874, and trial was had during 
Centennial year at Council Bluffs. 

f Subsequent to this event, Forgeus was treated to a gratuitous 
coat of tar and feathers, while on his way from River Sioux 
to Little Sioux, at a place midway between these points, but by 
whom it is not known to this day; however, it has been stated 
that while this veneering was being removed from his person by 
case knives, that Forgeus loudly objected to the reckless and 
careless manner in which these instruments were used on certain 
parts of his person. ' 

This was the second and last person tarred and feathered 
in the county; the first being one Samuel Cokely; time, 1860, 
place. Woodbine. In the latter, the forces were under the com- 
mand of Michael Rogers, who in February, 1868, burglarized the 
county safe and fled the county. 

H. C. Gillingham vs. Maud Gillingham was an action filed 
for divorce, in the office of the Clerk of the Court preceding the 
January term. 1887, by the plaintiff, based on the ground of 
" cruel and inhuman treatment by the defendant, upon the per- 
son of plaintiff, to such a degree as to endanger his life." This 


was by the defendant denied, and in addition thereto set up a 
cross bill, alleging cruel and inhuman treatment by the plaintiff 
to the defendant; and this in turn was denied by plaintiff in 
reply. There is not time or space herein to set forth -the par- 
ticular acts minutely set forth in the pleadings in the case, nor 
do I think that if the same were so incorporated herein the book 
would be fit for reading in a moderately respectable family. This 
case came to trial at the August term of the District Court, and 
the Court after exhibiting a degree of patience worthy of a 
martyr, refused the plaintiff's prayer, and granted a divorce to 
the defendant for cruel and inhuman treatment, occasioned by 
the false, scandalous and scurrilous matter set up in the plaint- 
iff 's reply. 

This cause being wholly grounded upon the acts and conduct 
of the respective parties during their short marital life, which 
had not exceeded five months, brought to the surface those 
secrets which but few, for shame, would have even lisped to the 
truest bosom friend. 

The plaintiff seemed to glory in dealing out slanders against 
the young wife, whom, not a half year last past, he had promised 
at the marriage altar to love, cherish and maintain, both in and 
out of court, wherever he could secure an audience, whether aged 
men or boys, elders of churches or hostlers of livery barns, would 
tell in glowing speeches the imagined defects in the qualities of 
his girl wife. , The defendant, on the contrary, who was the em- 
bodiment of that which constitutes the lady, acted with a degree 
of circumspection worthy of one of much riper years and experi- 
ence, and during all the time of this terrible ordeal boee her part 
with a fortitude and wisdom scarcely Equalled. 

The plaintiff at the time of instituting this action was the 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Logan, had graduated in 
an eastern college with honors, passed the usual course of study 
in theology, and so far as a knowledge of the books were con- 
oerned, was possessed of an excellent education. In the pulpit 


he was brilliant, persuasive, convincing, terse, logical and force- 
ful, but upon the street was of bad example, boorish, scarcely 
truthful and semi-idiotic. 

Notwithstanding that last said as to the plaintiff, much should 
be permitted in the way of mitigation, for in the bringing of the 
action, he was the dupe of two designing men who so thoroughly 
poisoned his mind that where there was formerly naught but 
a love bordering on adoration, and service not less than idolatry 
for the young wife, these were, by these persons, out of desire to 
crush a family whose good will they had forfeited, transformed 
into a hate strong as the former were forceful and intense. 

The plaintiff should have been indulgent, loving, persuasive, 
generous, honest and affectionate, but instead thereof was over- 
bearing, vengeful, profane and hypocritical. The defendant soon 
discovered the transparency of plaintiff's pretensions and crystal- 
ized for him a hatred, such that she could not possibly endure his 
presence nor take him to her bosom. Hence the separation, for 
which the morals of a community were damaged, the cause of 
religion made to blush and the profession which had been 
selected by plaintiff disgraced. 

Sarah A. Pate vs. Rudolph Pate, was an action for divorce, 
and was brought by the plaintiff through the agency of her 
attorney, J. R. Zuver (subsequently a Judge of the Circuit 
Court), and based on the first subdivision of section 2534 of the 
Revision of 1860, which provided that a divorce should be granted 
when it was made to appear to the Court that the defendant at 
the time of the marriage was " impotent." 

The defendant was represented by his attorney, P. D. Mickel, 
who misconceived the proper legal interpretation of the word 
"impotent," and construed the verbiage of the section to be 
" impudent," for no sooner had the plaintiff given her testimony 
and been turned over to him for cross-examination, than he 
interrogated her, " When and where did you first discover that 
this defendant was impudent? What did he do and say that led 


you to believe lie was impudent? Is it not a fact that Eudolph 
Pate is not 'impudent' now and never was? What did the 
defendant do or say to you that led you to form the conclusion 
that he was ' impudent? ' " 

The attorney, after a somewhat more careful research, came to 
the conclusion that a simple denial that the defendant was 
"impudent" did not correspond with the true meaning and 
intent of the statute, and permitted the plaintiff to take a 
decree, because the statements in the petition of plaintiff were 
true, the defendant having been, when young, unfortunate. 

Five or ten years last past, the vicinity of Dunlap was cursed, 
or blessed (the reader can take either opinion), with the presence 
and ability of an attorney by the name of George Washington 
Makepeace (or piece), who for originality could be scarcely 
excelled in Philadelphia. This man's early education had been 
sadly neglected, and the sequence was that in his professional 
life he perpetrated many murders in the manner in which he 
slaughtered the Eaglish language. Illustrative of this, I call to 
mind an instance or two which I deem worthy of notice, viz.: 
In drawing a petition or answer in a certain cause, then being 
brought or pending in the Circuit Court of the county, he was 
necessitated to use the word "also," but ye gods! the orthogra- 
phy! for upon an inspection of the pleading, the sentence read 
as follows: "And the said defendant did ''awl sow' then and 
there," etc., etc. 

On another occasion he was consulted by a client who was a 
young married man, who having some domestic trouble, the wife, 
either as a matter of protection or to free herself of the pres- 
ence of the man she hated, took their only child and went to 
her mother's, abandoning home and husband. How can I 
recover my child? was the inquiry of the much-injured husband, 
of this limb of the law. " Just ycru wait and I'll bring that 
woman and child of yours to the front," was the response of 
the attorney. " How?" was the excited question of the client. 


" Come with me to the office o£ the Justice of the Peace, and 
I'll show you," replied the would-be lawyer. When these per- 
sons had arrived at the office of the Justice, Mr. M. sat down 
and prepared and had filed in the office of this court a petition 
in replevin, and had a writ of replevin issued commanding the 
constable to take and deliver the aforesaid child to the client. 
" But," says the Court, "how about the bond? The law requires 
you to file with me a bond not less than double the value of the 
property sought to be replevined. What is the value of this 
child?" Here was an insuperable barrier. "For," says the 
Court, " sir, since the days of universal freedom, it would be 
hard for either you or me or the client to approximate to the 
value of a child two years old, nor can I find any quotations in 
any of the market reports for such commodity ; my impression is 
that they often cost more than they are worth, and as often 
could not be purchased at any price." 

Shortly after this occurrence, a farmer living in the vicinity 
of Dunlap called on this attorney and stated a case to him and 
wished legal advice, the burden of the client's wrongs being that 
one of his neighbors and he had a dispute over the identity of a 
three-year-old colt, the property being in the possession of the 
absent party. The attorney prepared a petition such as is usu- 
ally used iu cases where prayer is made for issuance of a 
writ of habeas corpus^ and when issued orders the party who 
holds another in his custody illegally to bring up the body of 
the individual, in order that the illegal detention may be inquired 
of, and if the party is illegally restrained of his liberty to order 
his discharge. This attorney contended that the colt was ille- 
gally .restrained of his liberty, and that the statute in such cases 
applied to horses as well as human beings, provided they were 
illegally restrained. 

An attorney near Missouri Valley, on a certain occasion, after 
having defended a youth of fifteen summers for breaking into 


the shop of an old gentlemaa by the name of Carver, of Logan, 
and extracting from a safe therein the sum of forty-five dollars, 
and after a verdict of a jury of guilty as charged, drew an affida- 
vit setting forth the following facts, for the purpose of having 
the court send the prisoner to the Reform School, viz. : That the 
defendant was "a poor orphan boy, under the age of sixteen, 
and had only one father, who resided in Dakota." The court 
caught the phraseology of the affidavit, and quietly queried in 
his own mind this thought: If the prisoner at the bar had only 
one father in Dakota, where in the name of kind Providence were 
the remainder of his fathers? Notwithstanding this slip of the 
brain, the boy was regularly marked and shipped to the Reform 
School at Eldora. 

This brings to mind a circumstance which happened at the 
first or second term of court held by the Hon. Samuel Riddle, at 
Magnolia, in the year 1855 or 1856, at which time two gentle- 
men, named James M. Butler and S. J. Comfort, made applica- 
tion for examination and admission to the bar of this county. 
The motion having been filed, the court appointed a committee, 
consisting of N. Gr. Wyatt, Robert Douglas, A. C. Ford and Judge 
Street, to examine the applicants in open court. The committee 
at once set about the duty thus imposed by the court, and while 
Bob Douglas was interrogating Mr. Butler as to the different 
kinds of property, the following questions were asked and 
answered as herein stated, viz.: 

Mr. D. — Mr. Butler, how many kinds of property are there 
known to the law ? 

Mr. B. — Well, I should say about three. 

Mr. D. — Mr. B., will you tell me the different kinds of prop- 

Mr. B. — There is land, and real estate, and town lots, and 
swamp land, and seminary land, and school land, and govern- 
menb land, you know; and then there are horses and cows, and 


Mr, D.— Now, Mr. B., come right to time, and tell me the dif- 
ferent kinds of property, by the names known to the books? 

Mr. B. — There is real property. 

Mr. D.— Go on and tell me the other kinds? 

Mr. B.— Well, there is personal property, which is horses and 
cattle, and town lots and rails, and county orders and swamp- 
land scrip. 

Mr. D.— Do not the books speak of a certain kind of property 
that is known as mixed property? 

Mr. B.— Yes, sir. 

Mr. D.— Mr. B., give me the definition of mixed property? 

Mr. B.— By the Eternal, Douglas, I think you have got me 
treed this time, because I don't really know that I ever seed any 
of this kind or not. 

Mr. D. — You need not confine yourself to the very words of 
the books, but just give us a definition as your recollection best 
prompts you. 

Mr. B. — Well, Douglas, I think that mixed property is a — a — 
a — m — mules, by the Eternal, for if they are not well mixed, I 
do not know of any that is. 


The first lawyer who settled in this county was one Richard 
Humphrey, who dropped into Magnolia shortly after the " seat 
of justice " was located at that place, and remained there until 
1855, at which time he took his departure for the State of Mis- 
souri, and in two years after locating. in that State began prac- 
ticing slack and tight rope performances in public, at one of which 
entertainments he was so unsuccessful that he lost his life. The 
sequel of the story is, that about fifty men of the neighborhood 
were at one end of the rope and Mr. Humphrey at the other, and 
by reason of the disparity of numbers the motions and demurrers 
of the minority were not heard or passed upon by Judge Lynch. 

The next attorney to locate in the county was one N. G. 


Wyatt, who put in an appearance in 1856 at Magnolia and 
tarried there until in February, 1859, at which time he, in com- 
pany with many others of Harrison county, went to Pike's Peak, 
to better their financial conditions in the reported regions of 
inexhaustible fields of gold. Once there he never returned, but is 
at the present nicely located in the State of California, having 
taken to himself a wife, and is surrounded by loving wife and happy 
family. Mr. Wyatt was a Representative from this county in 
the Sixth General Assembly, and was a man of more than ordin- 
ary brain power. He made one mistake in this county which 
forever ruined his political aspirations, and it was this: In 1858, 
while he was attending the Methodist church at Magnolia, the 
church being held in a log house which was owned by him, and 
as is usual on all occasions now of a church character, the "hat" 
was passed and Wyatt failed to place the usual quarter therein, 
■saying that they might consider him as putting therein a 
half a dollar, as he would apply that or double that amount on 
the rent for the building. This was caught up as a " dun " in 
public for rent, and in the services for the afternoon, the minis- 
ter, one Mr. Guylee, took occasion to most unmercifully abuse 
friend Wyatt for making a dun in so public a manner, and after 
exhausting the force of the English language by way of denun- 
ciation, wound up by calling Wyatt a most accomplished scoun- 
drel. This coming to the ears of Wyatt on the following Mon- 
day morning, somewhat ruffled a temper which at other times 
was not easily provoked, and on meeting Mr. Guylee on tlie 
street, proceeded to and did take his change by administering to 
the fool minister such a " drubbing" as in his mind satisfied all 
damages for wrongs inflicted in his absence on the preceding Sab- 
bath. This act of lawlessness was taken up and howled at by 
every Methodist and every son of a Methodist in the entire 
county, and the result was that there was such a furore against Mr. 
Wyatt, that he deemed this climate too cool for him to try to be- 
come a millionaire in, and as a result he shook the dust of the 


county from his feet as a memorial against those who took ex- 
ceptions to his applying the rent on the Sabbath day as part and 
parcel of public donations for the support of the church. 

Joe H. Smith located in Magnolia on the 1st day of June, 
1856. He is still in the flesh, and some other person may place 
on paper his evil as well as good deeds. 

Then in 1859 came W. W. Fuller and Jno. K. L. Maynard. 
These formed a partnership, and continued to practice until in 
July of 1860, at which time a dissolution was had, and W. W. 
Fuller continued in the practice, who soon entered into a part- 
nership with Joe H. Smith, which continued until August, 1862. 

At this time Company C of the Twenty-Ninth Iowa was 
formed, both entering the service, and Captain Fuller dying at 
Greenwood, in the State of Mississippi, on the 14th of March, 
1863, surrendered back to God a life which few in all this grand 
land possessed of greater promise. 

Here permit me to digress a little, because of the unconquera- 
ble and unmeasured love I had and have for this noble specimen 
of manhood.. Fuller was an able and learned lawyer, a patriot 
beyond reach of suspicion, and a citizen above reproach, an 
honest man, and a friend whom adversity did not frighten. 
His friends increased with his years, and while time served to 
multiply their numbers, death alone could thin their ranks . The 
sunshine of life seemed to be in his keeping, and in every com- 
pany in which he formed a part, he dispensed its light and 
warmth with a hand as lavishly generous as its sources were 

In 1860, came the Hon. Henry Ford and the Hon. Alexander 
Brown. These two were the products of the Hon. George G. 
Wright, formerly one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of 
the State of Iowa. Lawyer Alexander Brown enlisted in Nov- 
ember, 18Gi; in the Fifteenth Regiment Iowa Infantry, was 
wounded in the battle of Shiloh, from which to this day he has 
never recovered, and never will as long as life shall last. Henry 


Ford remained at home, and took upon himself the duties of 
District Attorney for the Fourth Judicial District of this State* 
and after having held this position for four years, while the 
attorneys were in the field, was elected to the position of Judge 
thereof, with what credit to himself, each person knowing his 
habits is left to form his or her own conclusions. 

I should have said, heretofore, that Mr. Geo. S. Bacon was a 
lawyer at the time he settled in Iowa, in 1857, but through neg- 
lect it was not mentioned, from the fact that Captain Bacon 
never made a specialty of the law, or ever appeared in the saw 
dust before a court in the trial of a cause. The Captain found 
a more genial atmosphere in the vocation of trading in real 
estate, selling of goods and holding county office, than in the 
arena before the court, measuring intellect on intricate law 
points with an antagonist worthy of his steel. 

In 1865, Philip D. Mickel located at Magnolia, and remained 
there until the winter of 1866, at which time he removed to 
Missouri Valley, and there began the practice of law. The sub- 
ject of this sketch was a man of greater energy tjian fine dis- 
crimination; but notwithstanding his bad orthography and fre- 
quent bulges on doubtful propositions of law, succeeded well in 
the profession. His untiring energy and apparent earnestness 
more than balanced the former. He is now in Colorado, and 
succeeding in his profession. 

T. E. Brannon located in Magnolia in 1867, and in the spring 
of 1869 removed his office to Missouri Valley. Mr. Brannon was 
a brother of the Hon. William Brannon of Muscatine, Iowa, and 
a man of excellent education and of extensive learning in the 
law. Somehow he had formed an opinion by which he attached 
but little value to his life, and while in the whirlpool of legal 
foray, manifested all the superior qualities of the lawyer, fought 
his cases to a finish, ever being gentlemanly, honest, fair and 
straightforward. The conditions of bodily infirmities, the loss of 
ojie of his arms, and added to this a part of each of his feet, 


created a despondency by which he in the year of 1878 took upon 
himself the disposition of his own life, and died by his own hand 
at Missouri Valley in the year last named. Mr. Brannon was 
honorable and generous, and as brave as magnanimous, and now 
that the grave possesses all that we formerly called the embodi- 
Baent of a gentleman and scholar, I can only say, judge him with 
the same measure by which we ourselves would wish to be 

Time and space forbid that mention should here be made of 
all who belonged to the legal fraternity who have attempted to 
practice law in the county, from the fact that many have been 
birds of passage, and some scavengers. 

One Frank Wolf, who located at Woodbine, kept this part of 
the legal vineyard in a continual uproar during the time of his 
stay in the place, and finally by his rascality called down the 
Tengeance of the court upon his head and was disbarred, leaving 
this coHuty in unmagnified disgrace. 

Frank Griffin, of Dunlap, was "of the order of the gentleman 
last named as of Woodbine, and during his professional life in 
the county had his shingle floating in the breeze at the town of 
Dunlap. This person being somewhat disgusted with the prac- 
tice of the law in the county, departed hence, without giving 
his clients notice of his departure, leaving the town which had 
given him more than merited support, solitary and alone on 

G. W. Thompson, of Dunlap, was never sufficiently informed 
in the merits and philosophy of legal intricacies as to be of any 
advantage to himself or disadvantage to others; never ventured 
out into the current so as to be beyond his depth. This person- 
age left Dunlap in 1885 and since that time has been a resi- 
dent of Chattanooga, Tennessee. 

The Hon. L. R. Bolter became a member of the bar of this 
county as early as 1865, and from that date to the present has 
ever upheld the reputation and glory of the profession. With 


the exception of Joe. H. Smith, Mr. Bolter is the oldest practi- 
tioner at the bar of this county. Mr. Bolter was, in his younger 
days, a student of Hillsdale College, Michigan, and studied law 
under the Hon. Salathiel C. Coffinbury at Constantine in the 
last named State, at which place he was admitted to the bar. 
Coming to Iowa in 1865, he immediately entered the arena as a 
legal gladiator and from that to the present has studiously prose- 
cuted or defended all causes intrusted to his management, with 
a devotion worthy of the profession to which he has the honor 
to belong. 

J. W. Barnhart is the next oldest attorney in the county; he 
is now 50 years of age and a graduate of the University of Mich- 
igan. He was admitted to the bar as a practicing attorney in 
1865, in Boone county, Iowa. He was actively engaged in the 
practice of his profession at that place until 1878, when he re- 
located at Logan, and from that day to the present he has been 
among the foremost members of the bar. Mr. Barnhart is a 
man of sterling qualities and though not among the first to 
unravel the mysteries and intricacies of law to court and jury, in 
the county, yet during his stay among the people of the county 
he has won a reputation in the Supreme Court which is both 
enviable to attorneys and an honor to the profession of which 
he is an honored member. 

Major Charles MacKenzie is 44 years old, and a bachelor. He 
served for three years in the late rebellion, under the title of 
Major, in the Ninth Iowa regiment of Iowa Volunteers, and, 
when the war was over he read law under D. E. Lyon, of Du- 
buque, Iowa, and was admitted to the bar in 1867. Following his 
admission, he practiced his profession at Dubuque, Eldora, Mason 
City, Sioux City, and last, but not least, at Dunlap, in this 
county. The Major is a lawyer of ripe mind, of unquestioned 
integrity, commanding appearance, and an excellent student. 
He is in the prime of manhood as a lawyer, and merits a top 
round in the ladder of professional standing. 


H. H. Roadifer is an academic graduate of Mt. Vernon, Illi- 
nois. He read law in the office of Hon. T. Lyle Dickey, one of 
the Judges of the Supreme Court of Illinois. He was admitted 
to the bar in that State in the year 1875. Coming to Iowa 
immediately following his admission to the bar, he located at 
Emerson, Iowa, and was Principal of the High School at that 
place for the period of one year and a half. He afterward 
located at Logan and began to practice his profession in 1878. 

Mr. Roadifer has been among the most successful lawyers of 
this county since his location here, and has an excellent record, 
not only at the local bar of the county, but also in the Supreme 
Court, to which many of the cases in which he has been inter- 
ested have found final adjudication. 

Mr. S. I. King is nearly to the manner born, being only two 
years old at the time of the settlement of his parents in this 
county. I might say that he is as near being an Iowa lawyer as 
the present age of this State will warrant, for he informs me 
that he cannot recollect whether he was born in the State of 
Iowa or in the State of New York. Being educated in the best 
schools of the county, and, after taking a course at the State 
University, at Iowa City, he acted as Principal of the High 
School at Magnolia for the term of one year, and then being 
under the especial tutelage of the Law School of Judge C. C. 
Cole and Hon. George G. Wright, at Des Moines, and having 
received his diploma at this school, he came to Logan and began 
the practice of his profession in 1877, since which time he has 
kept up his well deserved honors and to-day stands in the front 

A. L. Harvey (the banker) was admitted to the practice in 
18&8, while Judge Ford was on the bench. Mr. Harvey does 
not give much time to the law, his whole attention being devoted 
to real estate and banking. It could not be expected that they 
who do not spend their time and entire energies in storing their , 
minds with fine distinctions, now made by our Judges, could 


successfully compete with those who make this profession their 
whole study and devote an undivided life in mastering the 
philosophy of legal principles and the rules of practice. 

Captain W. M. Magden, of Woodbine, follows as next in the 
list. This veteran, when entering the army in 1861, was the 
embodiment of physical manhood, but the rebel bullets and 
fatigue of marches, and disease of southern swamps, have only 
left a remnant of former perfection. In the business of the 
profession, the Captain keeps up his whiffletree, and by all is 
regarded as an honest lawyer. 

J. A. Phillips, our present County Attorney, is a graduate of 
Westminster College, of Lawrence county, Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Phillips resides at Dunlap, and was elected to the above named 
position at the fall election of 1886, and will hold over until the 
1st of January, 1889. The personage last named was admitted 
to the bar at Newcastle, Lawrence county, in 1873, and soon 
thereafter located at the town of Dunlap. Since that time until 
election as County Attorney, was attorney for the bank at that 
place. Mr. Phillips is a very careful, conscientious man, and a 
member of the Congregational Church at the place of his resi- 

C. R. Bolter first took lessons in educational archery under 
Prof. J. D. Hornby, at the High School at Magnolia, and from 
this last named place went to the Iowa State University at Iowa 
City, and when quitting this took up the study of law in his 
father's office, and, together with his brother, C. A., was, after a 
very severe examination by the local bar of Harrison county, in 
1883, admitted to practice. Mr. Bolter is still young, and with 
half of the energy of the father would soon stand at the front of 
the local law class. 

C. A. Bolter, the younger brother, is partly the product of Prof. 
S. G. Rogers, formerly of Logan School. After graduating in 
Logan School, he attended Tabor College, and from there to his 
father's of&ce, where, under the tutelage of the parent, after a 


rigid examination by a committee appointed by Judge Lewis, 
wa's, in 1883, given a certificate, which examination showed he 
was richly entitled to. 

Lafayette Brown, of Missouri Valley, is a graduate of the Law 
Class of 1879, of the Iowa State University. Located in Mis- 
souri Valley when first unfurling his legal banner to the breeze, 
and from that time to the present has been actively engaged in 
the practice, yet the greater part of his time is taken up now 
with real estate and agency business. 

Marcellus Holbrook, the banker at Missouri Valley, began 
the practice of his profession at Magnolia in 1865, and remained 
there until about 1873, at which time he removed to Missouri 
Valley, and began the banking business, in which he has been 
quite successful, so much so that the business of the law is by 
him left to others. 

J. S. Dewell and John S. McGavren constitute the law firm of 
Dewell & McGavren, of Missouri Valley. These are graduates 
of the Law Department of 1883. The senior member of the 
firm is a graduate of Ames College, and the latter of Tabor. 
These young men possess sterling qualities, and have met with a 
success far beyond that of young men just starting in the prac- 
tice. This succees is partly attributable to their learning in the 
law, the honesty they so rigorously practice, and the assistance 
of friends they are so fortunate to possess in such copious quan- 

S. H. Cochran, of Logan, was once a cadet at the West Point 
Military Academy, and from that place to Iowa City, where he 
graduated in the Law Department of the State University in 
1868, when in 1869 he located at Missouri Valley and began the 
practice of law. Mr. Cochran was for a term of years the law 
partner of Mr. J. C. Rhodabefek, and then formed a partnership 
with one Hart. This was soon dissolved, and then a partner- 
ship was formed of Cochran & Baily; this in turn was dispensed 
with, and Mr. Cochran moved to Logan in 1882, since which 


time he has devoted his entire energies to the practice of his pro- 
fession. Mr. Cochran is energetic and daring, and works for 
the client as long as there is hope for success for attorney or 

Cyrus Arndt, Esq., of Missouri Valley, was the law student of 
Mr. S. H. Cochran, and was addmitted to the bar prior to the 
passage of the statute requiring examination in the Supreme 
Court. Mr. Arndt has been crowned the '' great pardon lawyer " 
of the mighty West, from the fact that during the last half year 
of the administration of Buren R. Sherman as Governor of this 
State, he, by reason of his good standing with said gubernator, 
procured the free, full and unconditional pardon of all the sa- 
loonists of Missouri Valley who had been tried, found guilty and 
fined in Judge Lewis' court in this county. No other person 
had the fertility of brain to originate, nor the cheek to present, 
such a request to a Governor of a Northern State; and no other 
Executive ever lived who would have disgraced the exalted posi- 
tion of Chief Magistrate by even entertaining, much less grant- 
ing, the pardons. 

John A. Berry was the student of Mr. John V. Evans, and 
through his instrumentality was admitted to the bar at Logan, 
Iowa, in 1879. The gentleman last named, as some seem to 
think, is the protege of the court, but whether this is true, I 
have neither knowledge nor information sufficient to form a 
belief, only this far, that if partiality has been by any courts 
shown this attorney, it must have been in the absence of the 

F. M. Dance, of Missouri Valley, is a graduate of Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, of the class of 1876. He located in Missouri Valley in 
May^, 1868, and for the past twenty years has labored hard in the 
legal vineyard, with flattering reslilts, both professionally and 

Minor B. Baily, of Dunlap, is a promising young attorney, 
and will in the near future rise in the profession. His present 


knowledge of the law, coupled with his untiring energy, will not 
fail to merit the hoped-for recognition, the objective point of the 
real lawyer. 

Thomas Arthur graduated in the class of 1881 at the State 
University at Iowa City, is a young man of excellent habits, 
good education and an excellent clerk. Up to the present date, 
he has not launched out into the wide expanse of law on his own 
hook, but for the past five years, has been constantly employed 
in the Clerk's office, either as deputy or principal Clerk of the 
District Court. It is fortunate that for the past ten years this 
office has been filled by those conversant with the law and the 
legal forms of such business. This opinion would be the more 
readily formed by an inspection of some of the records now 
extant at the Clerk's office. To a casual observer twenty years 
ago, but little of the proceedings of the Courts were spread upon 
the record, and much that does so appear is so unintelligible 
that in order to obtain a translation thereof lessons must be 
taken on the hieroglyphics of the China tea chests in order to 
accomplish a faithful rendering of the matter. 

P. W. Cain, of Dunlap, now a young man of 27, bids fair to 
become a lawyer of note, some time in the near future. He 
was educated at Bloomfield, Tabor and Keokuk; when from these 
places of learning, he entered the Des Moines University, where 
he was admitted to the practice of the law in 1886, settled in 
Dunlap, where he has magnified the profession by a faithful 
adherence to legitimate business. For him, as is the case with 
all young attorneys, there is much to learn it and can only be 
accomplished by diligence and perseverance. 

Col. F. W. Hart, who is at the present time one of Gov. Larra- 
bee's staff officers, was admitted to the bar in Cedar Rapids, Linn 
county, Iowa, and located in this county in 1881, since which 
time he has devoted a greater portion of his time to the land 
and loan agency business than to the law; yet whenever he has 
sufficient time, is always at hand in court settling some estate or 


arranging for the trial of some case. The Colonel does not make 
the law a specialty, but only takes a hand when imperatively 

Mr. Linus Bassett, of Little Sioux, is a graduate of the Law 
Department of Iowa State University, does not enjoy a very 
rugged constitution, and hence does not give his undivided ener- 
gies to the practice. Mr. Bassett is of that straightforward 
school that permits no crookedness, and has a reputation for 
honesty, which is the basis for a lucrative practice. 

John A. Traver and S. E. Wilmot are both of Dunlap, are 
each young in the practice, and possessed of that material which 
in time, by proper application, will place them well to the front 
at the bar of their adopted home. 

There are twenty-two attorneys of local residence in the 
county, which if the population of the county was divided up 
equally between these, each attorney would have 1,136 and 4-11 
of a populatioa from which to draw his nourishment. 

Of these twenty-two, eight firms do nearly all the business in 
the courts, occasioned by reason of the fact that many of those 
who hold certificates of admission have studied the law more for 
their own protection than for profits arising from the practice. 
Perhaps no profession is so universally berated as that of the 
lawyer, and upon his defenseless head are emptied all the woes 
of an ignorant, selfish and prejudiced people. 

To be a lawyer is the acquirement of something that passes 
not by inheritance, or purchased alone by bank accounts or high 
social standing. A law-trained mind is a mine of wealth to the 
possessor, and obtained by him by hard, persistent, continuous 
individual effort. It is not the result of the labor of a day, 
month or year, but that of a whole life time. 

At Oxford, one hundred and thirty years ago, it was truly stated 
ia a lecture by one well informed in the law, '' that a competent 
knowledge of the laws of that society in which we live, is the 
proper accomplishment of every gentleman." How, many of 


those who so unmercifully criticise, condemn and slander the real 
lawyer, can tell what the laws of the land are in which they live? 

Right here permit me to say that those who seem to have the 
most to say against the attorneys- are those who are the first to 
call into active being the services of an attorney. 

Has the attorney ever manifested the want of ordinary discre- 
tion that many of the would-be honest farmers do, in matters 
pertaining to their ordinary business? Let a lightning rod sauad 
come into a community, or a cloth, or tree, or cultivator, or plow 
peddler, strike a community, and in less than one week, the law- 
yer's office will be flooded with disgruntled farmers, who, by the 
flattery and deceit of those last above named, have been duped 
and magnificently bled out of their honest earnings. 

The only way by which the services of an attorney can 
reasonably be dispensed with is for all men to deal justly one 
with the other, and let the promise be equally as binding as the 
written contract; for, rest assured, that as long as there is a 
determination to take advantage, to get something for nothing, 
to take advantage of the necessities of the unfortunate, to grind 
the poor by unconscionably overstepping their power to accom" 
plish and then, when the day arrives for payment, to take all the 
crystalizations of the last year's toil for a pittance, will call for 
the services of one knowing the law. 

If there were no violations of the last five precepts of the 
Decalogue, there would be no lawyers to present a cause, there 
being no cause to present; but as long as mankind dishonor 
parents, kill each other, commit adultery, steal, bear false witness 
and covet and carry into existence this coveteous disposition, so 
long will there be courts to punish criminals and lawyers to 
prosecute and defend these forbidden acts. 

A man may be a physician and not be possessed of sufficient 
professional knowledge to distinguish one disease from another, 
nor to know what remedy to apply, if the disease was properly 
guessed at, and community call him a great healer. 


The minister of the Gospel may stand in the sanctified pulpit 
from Sabbath to Sabbath, and on every sach occasion be guilty 
of plagiarism, and sell to his hearers these second class sermons, 
or give utterances to such dogmas that none but the most credu- 
lous would, for a moment think of giving place to, and he be 
called the embodiment of theology simply because there is none 
to meet him at the end and then and there refute the prop- 

Were the^doctors and ministers placed in the arena and com- 
pelled to produce the authority and philosophy of each statement, 
when the same originated and under what circumstances, together 
with the wear and tear of the same from the time of the enunci- 
ation of such doctrine down to the present, there would be some- 
what of a different judgment passed on the ability of the different 

The lawyer's position is met step by step, and every inch of 
advancement is met with a degree of earnestness and learning 
which calls for the time, place, person and all the circumstances 
by which such finding was reached, under what statute this or 
that decision was made, and the changes which may have taken 
place since the first rule, and woe be to the lawyer who cannot 
produce "thus saith the court" for a position contended for, 
unless the position is based on the uncertainties of statutes 
which neither court nor attorney can form any adequate idea as 
to the thought of the lawmaking power at the time of its crea- 
tion. The judges soon measure the depth of learning of the 
lawyer, but who are the judges for the physician and minister? 
Few of those who attend church can remember the subject of 
the sermon ten minutes after the same is delivered, and so many 
are so intently thinking of their various trades, that they never 
hear the text or the sermon. 



There are citizens of this county who have participated in 
three wars, viz. : The Mexican, Indian and the late Rebellion. 

In calling attention to those who were soldiers in the Mexican 
war, notwithstanding forty years have passed since the declara- 
tion of peace, there are at the time of this writing sixteen per- 
sons, residents of this county, who served during the greater 
part of the two years, which marks the duration thereof, viz.: 

Col. Addison Cochran, First Cavalry, Little Sioux. 

Edward Brown, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, Little Sioux. 

Joseph W. Relley, (teamster) Second Infantry, Little Sioux. 

W. A. Babb, First Indiana Infantry, Reeder's Mills. 

Edwin B. Ervin, private. First Indiana Infantry, Reeder's 

Wm. D. Frazier, private. First Indiana Infantry, Logan. 

Joseph McCallum, First Kentucky Infantry, Magnolia, Iowa. 

Edward Murphy, Ordnance Corps, Dunlap. 

D. P. McDonald, Second Regiment Ohio Infantry, Magnolia. 

Wm. Mincy, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, Woodbine. 

J. B. Baker, Sixteenth U. S. Regulars, Logan. 

Nathan Myers, Second Indiana U. S. Infantry, Logan. 

William Steele, Mormon Legion, California Junction. 

Abraham Adams, Third Ohio Infantry, Dunlap. 

S. A. Likens, Fourth Indiana Regiment, Modale. 

Samuel Vititor, Co. C, First Kentucky Regiment, Modale. 

These are all now far past their threescore years and show us 
that forty years last past, they were men of iron constitutions. 
I do not know what feeling permeates the minds of other per- 


sons, but I must confess, that for these men I have a feeling of the 
utmost respect — a feeling bordering on adoration. They appear 
to me to be the moving, living monuments of an army which knew 
no obstacle too great to surmount, no suffering too great to over- 
come and no Mexican army too numerous to attack and conquer. 
Their achievements and heroism have never been measured by the 
present generation, because of the battles fought and won dur- 
ing the four years of war in our own midst. The men in deadly 
conflict in these latter battles have so far outnumbered the 
apparent insignificant forces of the United States, sent to Mexi- 
can soil to maintain the supremacy of our arms and vindicate 
the Nation's honor, that quite few tarry long enough at the 
historic page to crystalize the truth and glean therefrom the 
real boldness, heroism and glory of that short but sanguine 

Mr. Jonathan McKee, of Persia, is reported as being a private 
in the Fifth U. S. Regulars, but in what Indian war he partici- 
pated is not stated, and hence the subject spoken of is left 
with that same uncertainty in which found. 

Hamilton's defeat 

Is the name given by the old settlers to a skirmish, or as some 
term it, a battle, had by and between the whites and a band of 
150 Omaha bucks accompanied by their squaws and families at 
or near the farm now owned by James Roberts, in Boyer town- 
ship, being on the left or east bank of the Willow river. This 
occurred at the first period of the fall hunt of 1853 and came 
about in this way: These Omaha Indians had no claim to this 
country as a hunting ground, but claimed a right generally exer- 
cised by all nations past and present, that might made right, 
and because there were so few white settlers here at this time 
and because the red men were most numerous, that therefore 
they had the unqualified right to hunt where and when they 
pleased, and somewhat like the young people of this day who go 


out on a fishing excursion, presume that they have the right to 
all the neighboring hen roosts, and by custom indulged so far 
back as the memory of man runneth not to the contrary, have 
the right to milk all the cows in a radius of two miles of camp. 
These Omahas carrying this right into execution entered the 
county at the time last named in two squads or bands, one going 
up the Willow and the other up the Boyer. This band of 
twenty or more bucks who took the Willow trail, were appre- 
hended by about twenty-five settlers, who after taking them 
prisoners, bought them a beef, fed them well and carried them 
back to the Missouri river and put them on the Nebraska side. 
But the band which was making their way up the Boyer being 
strong, having about 150 bucks as aforesaid, together with their 
squaws and children, would not consent to surrender and take 
the back track as did the smaller band, and as a result about 
twenty-five whites came up to them, and desirous of finding them 
out in small hunting parties, surprise them and thus make the 
grand rounds until all of the 150 were made prisoners, but "the 
best laid schemes of mice and men gang aft a'glee;" so with 
plan of warfare for coming up to a small squad of Indians and 
demanding a surrender: the Injuns attempted to run to camp, 
but not untilJohn Thompson had taken one gun from a "brave" 
and James W. Bates had shot another through the arm, slightly 
wounding him, and upon further reconnoitering the whites as 
aforesaid, only numbering twenty-five, withdrew their forces and 
sent for reinforcements. These coming in during the night and 
during the first half of the next day, gave the whites the thought 
that though they only had fifty men they could easily knock 
the war paint off the untutored sons of the forest. 

They who answered to roll-call at this time were, as far as the 
memory of those who took part in the battle, as follows: Capt. C. 
M. Hamilton, then Sheriff of the county, John Thompson, Daniel 
Brown, Ira Perjue, A. C. Todd, Jesse C. Wills, George Brigham, 
E. T. Hardin, Horatio Caywood, George Caywood, Frank Caywood, 


Collins I. Cutler, Levi Motz, Jerry Motz, James W. Bates, 

Shadley, David Garnet, Sol Garnet, Isaac Garnet, Thomas F. Van- 
derhoof, E. T. McKenney, Uriah Jewel, S. J. Comfort, Sam Coon, 
George White, D. R. Rogers, James Hardy, P. G. Cooper, Wm. 
V. Cooper, et al. These meeting at a rallying point as agreed 
upon, at the residence of old Solomon Oaks, then living at the 
farm which Benijah Abrams subsequently owned and upon 
which he died, listened attentively to a speech from Brown, and 
having taken counsel as to the order of battle, fell into line 
and marched for the Indians who were not more than four or 
five miles from this rendezvous. 

Of all others, Shadley, at this distance, was the bravest of the 
brave, and was determined to excel all others in the number of 
scalps that should dangle from his belt before the setting of 
another sun. Passing from this place in a northerly direction, 
they soon began to see indications of the enemy, and some one 
of the party, having but little discretion, fired at a deer that 
sprang up and ran across the trail, when, as soon as the gun 
was fired, the Indians were seen scampering for the left bank of 
the Willow river, which was in near proximity to the place 
where they were then located. As soon as possible, and in much 
quicker time than it takes to write it, the Indians, as well as all 
their ponies, were well entrenched under the banks of the stream 
and out of danger, unless a charge was made to dislodge them. 
One saucy young brave, mounted on a cream colored pony, kept 
constantly riding back and forth on the opposite blufi"s, giving 
orders to those under the banks, and, by his bravado, made him- 
self a conspicuous mark for the whites, who wasted quite a quan- 
tity of gun-powder and lead on him, but to no avail, the ranges 
of the rifles being all too brief to reach him. There was but one 
gun in the corps which would have silenced this saucy fellow, 
and that was owned by Mr. Charles Gilmore; he refused to draw 
a bead on Mr. Injun himself or let any one else use his gun, 
saying, that if they killed any of the Indians it would make 


them mad and they might hurt some of the whites. Loug 
before the whites had arrived at shooting distance of the enemy, 
Shadley, who, an hour previous, was so brave, came to the con- 
clusion that he was riding a borrowed horse, and if the horse was 
killed or wounded he would have to pay for him, so he took a 
position well in the rear, and, at the commencement of the firing 
he turned his yellow-colored blind mare and made off at the 
fastest speed possible; but he had not run over ten rods when 
the horse stumbled and fell over a gopher hill, leaving Shadley 
unhorsed, and then hearing quite a fusillade, it is said he began 
to pray, and some of the survivors of the battle say that his 
prayer was in the following words: 

" 0, Lord, bless us, bein' as ye're in the habit of doin' such 
tricks; be with us to day something similar as you was with 
Commodore Perry on Lake Erie, or Mad Anthony Wayne; 
brace up Captain Hamilton and stay his men so that I will have 
time to get this confounded old yaller mare back to her owner 
so that I will not have to pay for her; and 0, Lord, get me out 
of this scrape and I'll be dam'd if you'll ever ketch me in such 
another snap; for Jesus' sake — whoa, Cleopatra, ye old yaller 
fool — Amen! " 

Shadley soon recovered from his unfortunate condition, and 
mounting old Cleopatra, he broke for the nearest settlement. 
In his hurry he wore out the ramrod of his gun in urging the 
borrowed mare to her greatest speed. 

As before stated, the settlers had taken position on the bluffs 
on the left bank — the distance between them and the enemy 
being so great that both parties were really beyond each others' 
range, yet, notwithstanding this, now and then the bullets flew 
alarmingly close to many of them; Soon the Indians began to 
advance by quietly crawling through the tall grass and tall 
thickets of canes, and at this time quite one-half of the whites 
having skulked to the rear and mostly. on the retreat, those who 
had the " sand " and had stood their ground, deemed it impru- 


dent for them to face the enemy when they were outnumbered 
six to one, when they, too, called a retreat and broke in some 
confusion for the settlement further south. 

John Thompson and David Gamet were the last to leave the 
field, from the fact that they felt greatly angered at the conduct 
of those who were so windy before danger was experienced and 
had so small a stock of fight and fortitude when necessary. 
These last named were so closely pressed by the Indians that when 
mounting their horses, Thompson dropped his pouch of ammu- 
nition and had to tarry until the same was recovered, and Gramet 
had hitched his horse to a tree near by, and when firing was had 
the animal had tried to free herself from the danger anticipated, 
and had so tightened the halter stall, that he was compelled to 
sever the same with his knife before he could mount, and having 
discharged his gun at an Indian who had approached quite 
close to him, mounted his horse and both attempted to load 
their guns while their horses were on the full run, but in this 
act they were short of practice and as a result the powder was 
constantly spilled and could not be made to enter the barrel of 
the gun. 

Part of this fighting force on the side of the settlers were 
footmen, viz.:, Thomas F. Vanderhoof, E. T. McKenney, 
Uriah Jewell, S. J. Comfort and George White, and when the 
skedaddle of the whites became general, these last named were 
left quite at the mercy of the Indians, from the fact they were 
cut off from their fellows, and in order to save themselves, drop- 
ped into a large canebrake near at hand and remained therein 
until past midnight before attempting to reach their fellows. 
Mr. Vanderhoof relates that Jewell had a pocket full of hard 
biscuits which would have knocked the socks off of the most 
aged " hard tack " in the late Rebellion, and that the possessor 
thereof kept constantly crunching the same while they remained 
in the slough, among the canes and water, and that his constant 
grinding and crunching made so much noise that he felt sure the 


Indians could have heard the sound for half a mile. After the 
hour of midnight had passed they all emerged from their hiding 
place and made good their escape to the nearest settlement, 
and on the following day when they came to examine their 
wardrobes, those who wore buckskin pants during the battle, 
found the same in such condition that they had to be sent to 
the washerwoman for cleansing— the water in the slough having 
been so muddy, you know. 

The casualties of this battle, as furnished by one who partici- 
pated therein, is as follows, viz. : 

Killed, none. 

Wounded by bullets or war clubs, none. 

Severely frightened, 50. 

Ramrods lost in fight, 18. 

Ramrods worn out on horses in retreat, 30. 

Bruised in retreat, occasioned by want of saddles, 21. 

Full of poor whisky, 13. 

Prayer meeting in action, 1. 

From the time of the earliest settlement until 1853, the 
Indians were quite troublesome, and at frequent times acted 
with a degree of insolence and independence that merited instant 
punishment, but they like all cowards, chose their subjects and 

In 1849, six Sioux Indians came to the settlement at Calhoun, 
and boldly rode oflp six horses, two belonging to Mr. Daniel 
Brown, and four belonging to a Mr. Litz, without even thanking 
the owners for the donation. They were immediately followed 
by Brown and his son and Litz, but wherefore the madness of 
three men following six Indians, who were mounted with relays, 
and the fighting force two to one. At this time it was deemed 
much more safe to perform the farm labor with cattle, from the 
fact that this character of property was not so coveted by the 
redskins, or because they could not be so rapidly hurried out of 
the country. 


In 1848, while Brown was in Missouri, earning ilour and meal 
in the harvest iields of that State, the Indians came to his cabin 
and appropriated all the edibles and everything of value about 
the premises, and on his return, he learned that the wife and 
children had been subsisting entirely on young potatoes and 
milk for the past two weeks. 

In the fall of 1850, Amos Chase (who, in thirty years after 
the occurrence I am about to relate, was Supervisor from Little 
Sioux), was herding cattle near the mouth of the Little Sioux 
river, caught an Omaha buck in the act of dressing a good fat 
steer, which he had killed. This fellow's name was " Jim Dick," 
and this daylight larceny so angered Chase that, having his rifle 
with him, he drew a bead on the blanketed thief, and gave him 
a good shot in that part of his person where there are the fewest 
bones, and midway between terra firma and brains. This so 
supremely surprised " Jim Dick," that, after clapping his hand 
on his hip, he leaped into the air, left the carcass of the unfortu- 
nate steer, gave a whoop that would have awakened the slumber- 
ing dead, and in violent and tumultuous haste broke for the ter- 
ritory of Nebraska by the nearest and most practicable route. 

Two years after this occurrence Old Uncle Bill Martin, who 
then resided on the Soldier river, at the farm now owned hy 
Mr. James Roberts, was in Council BlujBFs, and knowing " Jim 
Dick," saw him on the street, and at the same time meeting Mr. 
Chase, just as Mr. " Injun ^' came up to Martin, Martin said, 
"Hello, Jim, is this you?" To which the "Injun" replied, by a 
big grunt, "Eugh, How ?" Martin then stepping to the door of 
the store where Chase had just entered, said: "Here, Chase, I 
want to see you; come here." Chase came at once, and seeing 
" Dick " said, " You are the dam'd thief who stole my steers, are 
you not?" The Indian jumped at once, put himself down to 
the fastest Indian time on record, and never looked back until he 
had crossed the Missouri river, and was in Omaha. 

From the time of this shooting by Chase, whenever an Indian 


came along whose appearance did not fill the fancy of any of 
the settlers, they would say, " Are you Jim Dick?" To which 
interrogatory the Indian would invariably reply: "Me good 
Injun; me no steal cow," which, if further disputed, the Injun 
would put in the plea of an alibi, and conclusively prove 
that he was not in the locality at the time of the larceny, by 
introducing in evidence that part of his person corresponding 
with that where "Dick " was shot, which I might say, was con- 

The force of the bad example set by these Indians was not 
overcome even in the latter part of the '60 decade. For illus- 
tration I am requested to mention the following circumstance-: 
W. B. Copeland and his family, in 1868, was living on the farm 
on which the old gentleman still resides, and having retired for 
the night, soon the dogs gave such a fearful howl, and appeared 
so earnestly defending some part of the property, that the eldest 
son, Joe, rose from his bed, and, taking the old musket which 
his father had carried for three years in the war, he loaded the 
same with goose shot, and, when satisfied that the "old timer" 
was in good whack, sallied forth to assist the dogs, as he sup- 
posed, in frightening away some prowling wild-cat, when he 
soon reached the place indicated by the dogs, and found them 
baying up a large coEtonwood tree which stood near the stable, 
and looking eagerly around could see nothing for the infernal 
dogs to be barking at, but before returning to the house thought 
he would fire off the old musket so as to frighten away the ani- 
mal, fowl or whatever kind of marauder was bothering the dogs; 
so, elevating his artillery, he discharged the same into the tree 
without taking any sight whatever, and no sooner had the gun 
been discharged than there came from some portion of the tree 
a mass or bundle of stuff which much resembled humanity of 
the masculine gender, and a sack full of something. The marks- 
man running to the foot of the tree was surprised to see one of 
the objects rise to its feet and run like a deer— and in running 


leap a five board fence without any apparent difficulty — it was a 
man — and the sack was full of live chickens. By the next day 
it was rumored on the streets of Logan that one or two doctors 
had a half-night's work in picking shot out of a certain man's 
hips, who had, by the careless use of his gun, discharged a full 
load into his person. Copeland's hen roost has not been molested 
since, and Joe is very glad he did'nt see the fellow or he might 
not have hit him. As corroborating the above, a certain citizen 
of Logan was crippled and wore a coat shattered and torn by 
shot at the place covering the locus where the shot was ex- 


When the seeds of discord were planted, or, I should rather 
say, consciously and helplessly left in our Federal Constitution 
by its framers, had, before the lapse of a single century of na- 
tional existence, under the forcing heat of the slavery strugglei 
burst into the blood-red flower of Civil War, no county in all of 
the ninety and nine in the State of Iowa more promptly 
responded to the call, than did Harrison. 

At first, the magnitude of the Secession monster was not real- 
ized, nor was the extent to which preparations had been made in 
the south half understood by our people.* Many of our men 
then supposed that three, or at furthest, six months, would sub- 
due the fractious natures of the Rebel hot-heads, yet, when six, 
aye, twelve and twenty-four months had elapsed, the suppression 
of this Rebel sentiment was scarcely nearer completion than 
when the first man enlisted from this county. 

There were three elements in the county which appeared, so 
far as taking part in the dangers of the tented field, march or 
battles were concerned, personally conscious, that at the 
posts last named, there were many dangers to be met, and if 
possible, hard to overcome, viz.: The rebel sympathizer, the 
windy abolitionist, and the man of wealth. When the first 


news came that war was inaugurated, the rebel sympathizer 
boldly told us we could never subdue the South, that there was 
no power in the Constitution of the United States to coerce a 
Sovereign State; and what was the most aggravating, was the 
Satanic smile which illuminated their countenances on the recep- 
tion of the news of a Federal defeat. True, the number of these 
men in our midst was not great, but more than enough to estab- 
lish the doctrine of National depravity and party bigotry. On 
the other hand, the Abolitionist took exceptions as to the man- 
ner of prosecuting the war, saying that the object of negro 
emancipation was not sufficiently prominent at the beginning, 
and unless this was made the objective point, the Union was not 
worth the saving; that it would be infinitely more preferable 
that the South should succeed in the establishment of their 
Confederacy than have a Union such as that of the past, blurred, 
disgraced, and cursed with human slavery. The men of wealth 
had worshiped the almighty dollar; the mammon of wealth 
was the shrine at which they bowed, and the deity that received 
all their sacrifices; the thought of shouldering a musket and 
lowering their cast to that of the common soldiery, and partak- 
ing of the fatigue of the march, the dangers of the battle, as 
well as being exposed to the killing malaria of the swamp or 
marsh, kept these at home slumbering in beds of down, and 
toasting their toes at the pleasant surroundings of a comforta- 
ble home. 

I call to mind an individual, who, though holding an office, 
and anticipating a better one in the near future, when the news 
came that Sumter was fired upon, said " Good; now we of the 
North have an opportunity to whale them rascally Southerners 
into line, and we'll do it." Of all who made such boasts at the 
beginning of the war, not one of them ever did more than 
encourage others to enlist, so that they would be exempt from 
draft by reason of the locality filling its quota. 

Sixteen months had passed and gone before any individual 


company was organized in the county, notwithstanding more 
than one hundred and fifty men had enlisted from the county 
prior to that time. i 

The men of the county were ripe for enlistment and were 
anxious for the opportunity, but unfortunately for the cause, 
some of those who had the ear of the Governor of the State at this 
time were anxious that some favored one who had made him- 
self or themselves notorious by reason of the quantum of politi- 
cal mud they had carried for the party, were sought to be thrust 
upon the persons enlisting as officers, men in whom the real pat- 
riot had no confidence as to integrity, bravery or patriotism. 

From the 1st of May, 1861, until May, 1864, on each Sat- 
urday, in more than a dozen of places in the county, men 
were on drill preparatory to entering the field either as cavalry, 
infantry or in battery. The outbursts of patriotism far excelled 
the hopes of the most sanguine. For country first, then party, was 
the unalloyed expression of nine-tenths of the entire arms bear- 
ing citizens. A few at the outset correctly measured the volume, 
intensity, duration and proportions of the mighty struggle being 
inaugurated; and to these a divided country presented -a panorama 
of lost National greatness, and these without respect of party or 
party love, at once gave full and unqualified allegiance to the 
Nation's cause. In 1861 very many deserted the Democratic 
party because of the want of loyalty of this party, and joined 
their fortunes with those of the party in power, which was 
straining every nerve for the maintenance of the Union. Meet- 
ings were called and the citizens of the entire county promptly 
convened and exchanged thoughts as to what should be done. 
Among those most foremost in this was Captain W. W. Fuller, 
then an a,ttorney at law, George S. Bacon and Joe H. Smith. 
Captain Fuller had methods by which he reached the heart of 
the people spontaneously, subtilely and effectively. He never 
appeared without evoking the most rapturous applause, and 
never disappointed the expectation of his auditors. His progress 


in discourse was an ovation, and carried about him an atmosphere 
that attracted and cemented men to him. No man so low but 
felt he was a brother and none so high but felt he was his peer. 
While many o^-her Democrats halted in the formation of an 
opinion as to what side they would give their allegiance, Cap- 
tain George S. Bacon, as well as Joe H. Smith yielded absolute 
and complete allegiance to the Old Flag, and never, during all 
the time of the entire struggle, thought otherwise, than at the 
end the cause of the Federals would win. These last named 
divorced themselves from the party of their early choice, and in 
common with very many others enlisted at a seasonable moment 
for the purpose of maintaining the supremacy of the Govern- 
ment. To these last named, it was sometimes quite humiliating 
to hear those who remained at safety distance during the war, to 
question the sincerity and patriotism of those of the Democratic 
party who had forsaken home, friends, lucrative practice, left the 
plow in the furrow, and the wife and children in the home, and 
shouldered the musket in defense of the right. None but 
cowards and political tricksters, men who would sacrifice prin- 
ciple, would be guilty of such contemptible depravity; yet of 
these there was a sufficiency amounting to a surplus, at this 

In 1861 Hon. B. F. Roberts, of the strictest sect of Democracy, 
as well as many others in his neighborhood, came to the reason- 
able and loyal conclusion that the better plan would be to restore 
order and good government in the South, and then when this 
was accomplished return to the home and family and vote the 
Democratic ticket as of old. This was practiced by him on one 
occasion while in the army, but he in common with many others 
soon learned to vote as they were shooting. The infernal yells 
of skulkers and copperheads at the rear were prolonging the 
war^ and while not participating in the struggle at the front, 
were rendering valuable assistance at the rear. This, together 
with many other acts and circumstances, soon drilled out of the 


Democratic soldier all love for the stay-at-home Rebel sympa- 
thizer. Some of the influeatial Republicans of this age, men 
in this county who have been elected to represent it in the halls 
of the State Legislature, never were converted and convinced of 
the fact that secession was forever wrong and the maintenance 
of the Federal Union forever right until the close of the war — 
not until that which they had predicted could never be per- 
formed was accomplished, then they soon began to yell as lustily 
as any who had been to the front and returned all covered with 
scars, or had sacrificed a limb or health for the perpetuation of 
the Union. In attending the campfires of those who have 
experienced the toils of marches, smelt the smoke of battle, 
heard the terrible roar of an hundred guns making the very 
earth quake and man as ferocious as the animal at bay, and had 
charged to the very cannon's mouth — I have witnessed those 
who remained at home during those dark and bloody days, who 
could not find sufficient words in the English vocabulary to suf- 
ficiently portray the detestation they then held for the " Lincoln 
hirelings," to strain every nerve to have a place at the head of the 
table in these feasts of " pork and beans " commemorative of the 
days of war and bloodshed. Oh, shame, for such unblushing 
hypocrisy ! 

During the first half of the winter of 1861-62 the county 
began to be tremendously aroused, for previous to that time 80 
men had actually run off to Council Bluffs and Omaha and 
enlisted, from the fact that no company organizations had been 
made at home. Company B, of the glorious old Fourth Iowa, 
had sixteen Harrison county boys defending the flag. The 
Second Iowa battery had twelve, the First Nebraska cavalry 
eight or ten, and twenty-five in the Fifth Iowa cavalry, as well 
as twenty-seven in other organizations. These writing home 
fired the hearts of those at home, when in one short week 51 of 
this county enlisted in Company H, of the Fifteenth Iowa, 


under the leadership of Captain John A. Danielson and Captain 
Logan Crawford, of Calhoun. 

This feeling of patriotism increased until the 12th of August, 
1862, when Captain George S. Bacon, Fuller and Joe H. Smith 
determined that they would take a hand in the fun, and no 
sooner was this matter determined than a company of 101 men 
was raised in one week thereafter. 

This was the first time that local bounties were offered to per- 
sons enlisting, for the Board of Supervisors at that time pledged 
themselves to give to each soldier enlisting and ■being accepted 
by the examining surgeon, 80 acres of swamp or overflowed 
lands not already entered, in the county, or in lieu thereof, f IGO 
in swamp land scrip, the same assignable. For further infor- 
mation see the acts of the Board herein set forth. 

This bonus was not very highly prized by the parties enlisting, 
from the fact that many enlisting sold their rights under this 
resolution for from |25 to $40; and the'se were gobbled up by 
the domestic land sharks, and in fact, scarcely benefited the sol- 
dier to any considerable extent. This, then, was by the Board 
extended to all persons who, prior to this time, had enlisted from 
this county and were accredited thereto. Some have questioned the 
disinterestedness of the Board in the passage of this resolution^ 
from the fact that they charge that it was done so as to have 
the county furnish her quota and then the draft would not be 
resorted to, and they be spared paying out their money in the way 
of procuring substitutes. This opinion is certainly far fetched, 
and shows that those who urge this, have sought to find cause 
against those who were acting from the purest and most patriotic 

Scarcely had the company last named designated her officers^ 
or rather before the persons forming the company had departed 
for their homes, when, at the hour of midnight, a courier from 
Sioux City entered the town with the news of an Indian massa. 
ere near Sioux City, and that the few settlers left were on a full 


rush for the settlements on to the south. When this news was 
heard arms were sent to the company at once from Council 
Bluffs, and in a day and a half the company were en route for 
the country north of Sioux City. Company C (as it was after- 
wards called) was the first company of infantry to arrive at the 
place last named, and it was truly astonishing to see the terrible 
fright that the settlers had experienced in and about Sioux City, 
and also to the north and east. In many places they had, in 
their fright and haste, abandoned every particle of property, and 
at many of the farms and farm houses the stock was left in 'the 
corral, the unbaked bread in the ovens of the stoves, and in soine 
places the dinner was left on the table untouched. Some fled 
with their families on horses, some on mules, others having no 
other means of conveyance, loaded the wife and children in ox 
carts and ox wagons and thus slowly plodded their way to sup- 
posed safety. Quite a number of the residents of Harrison 
county at once abandoned their homes and either moved to 
Council Bluffs or to the East. This was wholly unnecessary, 
from the fact that there had not been any Indians within one 
hundred and fifty miles of Sioux City at the time of the stampede. 
While the company last named were leaving Magnolia as all 
supposed, for glory or the grave, many were the ludicrous part- 
ing of husband and wife, mother and son, and last, but not least, 
" sweet-heart with sweet-heart." This expedition only proved 
to be a sort of " picnic " and in three weeks they were at home 
awaiting orders for going into camp for drill. 

Oh, the wild excitement of those days! the flaunting flag, the 
sound of preparation, the music of the boisterous drums, the 
silver voices of heroic bugles. Here are assemblages of earnest, 
excited people, dwelling on the words and thoughts of the 
speaker, and ever and anon voice his sentiments by the heroic 
shouts. The call is made for volunteers, and men with flushed 
faces rush forward to be the first to head the lists, but yonder 
is the pale cheek of the wife keenly feeling the inspiration of 


the moment, but sadly contemplating the separation and pos- 
sible widowhood of herself, and orphanage of their little ones. 

The final parting hour arrives; some are whispering the vows 
of eternal love to the maidens they adore and lingeringly part for- 
ever; others are bending over the cradle and kissing the sleeping 
babes; some are receiving the blessings of the old men; some are 
parting with mothers who hold them to their bosoms as in infancy 
and press them to their hearts and kiss and kiss them again; are 
speechless for the agony of the moment, and some are talking with 
wives, endeavoring by brave words, spoken in the old tone, to 
drive away the awful fear. They part. The wife is standing in 
the door with the babe in her arms, bathed in beautiful sun- 
light and in tears. At the turn of the street or lane the husband 
waves his hand and the wife answers by holding aloft in her 
loving arms their child. He is gone, and forever. 

Who are those stealthily following yonder by path which skirts 
the grove ? Why do they select the " hour of night's dark arch the 
key-stone?" What business calls for midnight meeting in the 
deserted cabin iu the center of that grove, far from human hab- 
itation and beyond the reach of etching ears? They are the 
" Knights of the Golden Circle," meeting in secret conclave to 
plot against the Grovernment ^ad plan the assassination of inno- 
cent and unsuspecting men. I would not attempt to limit the 
power of the Almighty, and while 1 have the greatest reverence 
for the Deity, nevertheless I am firm in the conviction that it is 
beyond his power to raise these midaight murderers and assassins 
to a status of respectable degradation in hell. 

These were as surely and effectually marked as was Cain after 
the murder of his brother, for upon the receipt of the news of a 
Federal victory their countenances were as dark and frowning as 
Erebus, and sought seclusion in the jungles; but if the reports 
were to the effect that the " Feds " had been whipped out of their 
boots, then there would be a smile on their countenances broad 
as the depth of the depravity of their hearts. 


The following are the names of all who enlisted from this 
county, and the different commands to which they belonged: 


First Lieut., Jasper W. Bonney, Little Sioux. 

Leonidas D. Chandler, wounded at Chickasaw Bayou. 

Frank 0. Danielson, residence not known. 

William H. Ennes, died in Andersonville prison, March 21, 

Frank J. S trite. 

Thomas R. Brooks, wounded at Chickasaw Bayou. 

John L. Holdskom, died Noyember 30, 1863, at Memphis. 

James W. Murphy. 

Bruce R. Purcell, killed near Dallas, Georgia. 

James Rablin, Dakota. 

John H. Reel, died in Andersonville prison, August 26, 1864. 

Jacob Stout, wounded at Chickasaw. 

Alfred W. Walcott, residence not known. 

Luther Young, wounded, and died at Louisville, Kentucky, 
February 24, 1864. 


Solomon J. Blakesly, not known. 

Julius S. Kreamer, died at St. Louis, November 18, 1861. 

Benjamin B. Loss, Logan, Iowa, 

Calvin C. Little, Logan, Iowa. 

Martin F. Little. 

Asa E. Noyes, Leadville, Colorado. 

Joel Phillips, not known. 

Jasper Reeder, Morrillville, Nebraska. 

James Reeder, Kansas. 

Thomas Reed. 

Wm. F. Schaffer. 

Wm. Tucker, Morrillville, Nebraska. 



Charles G. Scofield, (blind) Logan, Iowa. 
Wm. A. Scofield, not known. 
Moses Scofield, not known. 
W. L. Davis, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 
Hugo Holdoegel, Woodbine, Iowa. 
Isaac J. Lewis, died in 1883, at Woodbine, Iowa. 
Joseph Musgrave, died at Paducah, Kentucky, June 27, 1862. 
James Richardson, not known. 
William Richardson, not known. 
Marshall Sherman, Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
James T. Bucher, Boyer township. 

First Lieut. James W. Landon, Co. B Fifth Cavalry, Mo. 
Chester McEvers, not, known. 
Alma Patterson, wounded, not known. 
Augustine Williamson, Nebraska. 
Bruce Purcell, died December 6, 1861, St Louis. 
Christopher C. Landon, died February 28, 1864, Nashville, 

Richard Good, captured in Andersonville, 1862, Logan, Iowa. 
Thomas Wallace, captured and died in Andersonville. 


Ruf US P. Cady. 

Isaac N. Gilman. 

Wm. H. H. La Flesh. 

H. C. Harshbarger, (Q. M. S.) Woodbine, Iowa.' 

Isaac J. Lewis, dead. 


Captain John A. Danielson, wounded in the hip at the battle 
of Shiloh. 

Captain Logan W. Crawford, wounded at the battle of Corinth. 
Charles H. Crombie, died at Chattanooga. 


Warren W. Rose, Salt Lake. 

Geo. S. Perkins, died in hospital at Keokuk. 

James E. Rice, died o£ wounds, at Vicksburg, Sept. 26, 1863. 

0. M. Bedsaul, died at home. 

Alex. B. Rodgers, residence not known. 

Nelson G. Boynton, wounded at Shiloh, Missouri Valley. 

Isaac H. Brooks, died at Athens, January 7, 1864. 

William Dunfree, residence not known. 

James Tull, died at Jefferson Barracks, September 17, 1864. 

Alfred C. Barnes, died a prisoner of war 'at Andersonville 
August 1, 1864. 

Richard D. Boyd, wounded at Corinth, Modale. 

Martin Billiter. 

James Clark, wounded at Shiloh and died in 1880. 

Solomon V. Catlin. 

Peter E. Cromer, Missouri Valley. 

John jEsley, residence not known. 

Benjamin Esley, wounded at Atlanta. 

William Evans, Woodbine. 

John W. Ellis, died of wounds received at Shiloh, April 23, 

John H. Forgues, wounded at Atlanta. 

William H. Gerbrick, residence not known. 

Josiah S. Gordon, killed at Corinth, October 4, 1862. 

Philip P. Hippart, (nothing known.) 

James H. House, died at his home. 

Andrew J. Heageny, Missouri Valley. 

David Knauss, Logan. 

Elijah McClannahan, Nebraska. 

Smith McCumpsey. 

George Monin. 

Aaron McCoid, Reeder's Mills. 

James N. McMananie, California Junction. 

Benjamin Maynard. 


Patrick Murphy, wounded and died at Andersonville; 

Chester Noyes, residence not known. 

Sylvester Noyes, residence not known. 

Benjamin Ross, dead. 

Austin G. Reves, dead. 

Levi J. Streeter, wounded at Shiloh, taken prisoner and never 

Alfred L. Stone, killed before Atlanta, August 19, 1864. 

Sabin C. Stan wood, died after peace was declared. 

Hiram G*. Vincent, right leg given at Shiloh, now in Nebsaska. 

Jonathan Vincent, wounded at Atlanta, in Nebraska. 

Samuel Van Arsdale, wounded at Kenesaw Mountain. 

Stephen Foreman, wounded at Ezra Church, Georgia. 

William AUoway, wounded at Kenesaw Mountain, Pacific 

Wiley D. Lawes, residence not known. 

William W. Wills, wounded, Mondamin. 


Capt. W. W. Fuller, died at Greenwood, Mississippi, March 
14, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Geo. S. Bacon, wounded at Jenkins' Ferry 
and taken prisoner April 30, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant J. H. Smith, Logan. 

Geo. W. Hedge, (residence not known.) 

John G. Downs, Pender, Nebraska. 

Benj. H. Denice, Missouri Valley. 

George Main, Magnolia. 

John W. Stocker, promoted to First Lieutenant, Logan. 

John R. Ennes, Missouri Valley. 

Charles Wills, Missouri Valley. 

Albert Wakefield, Utah Territory. 

John A. Benjamin, wounded in leg at Jenkins' Ferry, and taken 
prisoner, carried to Tyler, Texas. Dunlap. 


William H. Bourn, wounded at Jenkins' Ferry taken to Tyler 
Texas, Modale. 

Eugene R. Scofield, Chadron, Nebraska. 

Benj. F. Roberts, elected to legislature, 1887, Dunlap. 

John M. Perkins, not known. 

John M. Rogers, died at Kansas City, 1886. 

Wm. Agens, Ute, Iowa. 

James L. Armstrong, Logan. 

Jacob Antibus, died at Little Rock, March 24, 1864. 

Thomas Anderson, Trinity Mills, Texas. 

James H. Brace, blind, Dunlap. 

James Bird, Missouri Valley. 

Joe. H. Baxter, not known. 

Henry 0. Beebe, MoSale. 

William P. Boyd, died of cancer, 1884. 

Anson F. Belden, died of wounds received in battle, July 4, 

Harrison Billiter, died at Jefferson Barracks, February 4, 1863. 

Isaac F. Bedsaul, Magnolia. 

Alexander Barr, Panama. 

Amsey Beedle, Logan. 

E. P. Brown, Dunlap. 

James H. Christian, died on steamer Henry Clay, February 4, 

Wickliffe B. Copeland, Logan. 

Wm. H. Cornine, died February 5, 1863, at Helena, Arkansas. 

0. H.P. Cook, , Kansas. 

John H. Darting, Missouri Valley. 

Michael Doyle, Magnolia. 

Lewis Detsall, wounded at Jenkins' Ferry, died 1880. 

James Davis, died at Columbus, Kentucky, January 4, 1863. 

L. M. Evans, Logan. 

A. B. M. Ellis, Missouri Valley. 

John H. Ellis, Little Sioux. 


Clark Ellis, Little Sioux. 

Peleg D. Evans, wounded July 4, and died at Helena, July 
13, 1863. 

Wm. W. Frazier, Nebraska. 

Jas. C. Frazer, died March 1, 1863, at Memphis. 

Geo. H. Fonts, died February 13, 1863, at Helena, Arkansas. 

Milton H. Greenfield, Logan. 

C. M. Hendrickson, died June 14, 1863, at Helena, Arkansas. 

Francis T. Hill, Logan. 

James W. Hester, Nebraska. 

Theodore Helmer, Soldiers' Home, Leavenworth. 

Wm. M. Hale, discharged and died on his way home. 

Wm. H. H. Hobbs, died at Helena, Ark., June 1, 1863. 

Wm. H. Jones, Missouri. 

Abraham M. Kine, died at Helena, Ark., Feb. 11, 1863. 

John M. Kinnis, died at Little Rock, July 13, 1864. 

Lyman A. Lewis, wounded in Government sawmill and died 
August 8, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 

Jacob S. Lightel, Modale, Iowa. 

John W. Mecham (right front finger mysterously shot off 
before leaving camp at Council Bluffs; sent to Invalid Corps. In 
Utah Territory. 

Wm. J. Martin, died Feb. 25, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 

Richard Morgareidge, Buffalo Gap, Dak. Territory. 

William Mahoney, died June 10, 1863, ajt Helena, Ark. 

Leon H. Mc Williams, Little Sioux, Iowa. 

Jack McCauley, died April 25, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 

Col. John H. Noyes, Mondamin, Iowa. 

Rudolph Neitzsch, died April 7, 1863, at Memphis. 

Hugh Neeley, Mapleton, Iowa. 

First Lieut. Charles W. Oden, (Acting Q. M.) Little Sioux, 

James Owens, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

Martin Potter, died at Helena, Ark., April 30, 1863. 


Wm. P. Porter, died at Helena, Ark., April 18, 1863. 
Leander P. Patch, died at Memphis, March 17, 1863. 
David Romigs, died in Nebraska in 1878. 
Henry B. Reel, died at Helena, Ark., Feb. 17, 1863. 
Henry R. Riffle, resides near Little Rock, Ark. 
James Ritehison, died April 4, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 
(Gen'l) Walter Ritehison, Mondamin, Iowa. 
Marion F. Richardson, died Feb. 17, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 
Milton Richardson, died Feb. 8, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 
Geo. A. Ross, Nebraska. 
John W. Reed, Ute, Iowa. 
Wm. H. Rinehart, Macedonia, Iowa. 
Albert F. Roberts, (dead.) 

Martin L. Spire, wounded July 4, 1863, at Helena; lives in 
John R. Sullins, Missouri. 
Calvary S. Stowell, Kingsley, Iowa. 

S. M. Tarkington, . 

Wm. B. Tarkington, died March 5, 1863, at Helena, Ark. 
John Thompson, Calhoun, Iowa. 
John Van-Arsdall, Nebraska. 
Benjamin Whorton, died March, 1888. 
Lowry Wilson, Logan, Iowa. 

Erastus Wills, . 

Warren White, died June 17, 1888. 

David W. Work. 

Charles Young, Nebraska. 

David D. Young, died Nov. 25, 1863, at St. Joe, Mo. 

Daniel Yaple, died March 5, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn. 

Jas. Tom. Barnett, Kansas. 

Thomas W. Chatburn, Nebraska. 

James. T. De Field, (deserted at Louisburg, Ark.) 

Wm. H. Eaton, died at Logan, Iowa, May 5, 1878. 


Henry George, wounded at Terra Noir Creek, April 4, 1864, 
and transferred to V. R. C, and died on his way home. 

Emmet Haryey, Dakota. 

Lloyd Jenkins, Nebraska. ' 

Charles Kreps, California. 

John Kreps, wounded at Jenkins' Ferry, and died of wounds, 
August 8, 1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Joseph Kesler, moved to Kansas, and died in 1885. 

John B. King, deserted, April 13, 1864. 

Theodore P. Kellogg, Woodbine, Iowa. 

Henry C. Morrill. 

James A. Smith, died in Tyler, Texas, March 6, 1865, of 
wounds receiTed while in battle at Jenkins' Ferry. 

John M. Wills, near Onawa, Iowa. 

William T. Wilds. 

John Welch. 


Jacob Fulton, Second Lieutenant, Pawnee, Nebraska. 

Isaac T. Lucas, died at Helena, Arkansas, June 27, 1863. 

Jacob Case, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

W. H. Cox, died September 7, 1863, Memphis. 

William H. Berry, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

James I. Brookhouser, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

Samuel Cofflet, died April 22, 1863, at Memphis. 

Thomas H. Cook, Salt Lake. 

Eli F. Deal, died February 25, 1863, at Helena, Arkansas. 

Peter R. Deal, (dead.) 

Evan T. Hardin. ^ 

John Martin, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

Andrew Mcintosh, killed at Spanish Fort, April 2, 1865. 

William G. McElroy, captured March 24, 1865. 

Welcome R. McElroy. 

Elias S. M. Mace, died November 7, 1863, at St. Louis. 


Elias Owens, Woodbine, Iowa. 

Eleazer L. Cole, died at Helena, Arkansas, July 27, 1863. 


Stephen H. Mathews, not known. 

James Clark, died in 1882. 

Samuel Mager, not known. 

General Francis Marion, captured at Terre Noir, and died in 

Christopher Snell, (this was a recruit, taking the place of Lewis 
Coon, who had enlisted and tired of the service.) 


Edward D. Mundy, not known. 

Wm. Moore, Woodbine. 

Thomas J. Perrin, Morehead. 

Charles C. Perrin, Morehead. 

Joseph U. Rilly, Little Sioux. 

Wm. H. Whitinger, Wahoo, Nebraska. 

Isaac Sweet, not known. 

Samuel Cokeley, Company E, not known. 

Anson Smith, Logan. 

Wm. Barkoph, Logan. 

Norman L. Cole, Woodbine. 

Wm. W. Chew, (dead), April 23, 1863. 

James J. Chew, Logan. 

Francis Dungan, Logan. 

Charles H. Hushaw, Woodbine. 

David Kippen, not known. 


Michael Shally, not known. 

George A. Langley, died at Memphis, June 8, 1864. 



Vincent Walters. 
Charles Whipple. 
Wm. C. Wilson. 


John L. Grossman, not known. 

Henry B. Lyman, (banker), Dunlap. 

Mathew M. Conyers, Little Sioux. 

Charles S. Brown, (merchant), Modale. 

0. 0. McHenry, Woodbine. 

Parker S. Condit, Little Sioux. 

John J. Conyers. 

George W. Conyers. 

Willis A. Flowers. 

Solomon J. Imlay, Dakota Territory. 

Henry Johnson. 

Wm. J. Livingston. 

Squire T. Lewis. 

Henry G. Myers. 

Chris. C. Landon, died at Nashville, February 28, 1864. 

Elias M. Stowe. 


The following is a list of the men drafted from Harrison 
county at the principal and supplementary draft had at Council 
Bluffs, on the 2d and 3d days of November, 1864, viz.: 

Boyer Township — Wm. H. Burkholder, and Charles J. Mira- 
cle. This man last named was a substitute for some one, at this 
time not known. 

Cincinnati Township — John H. Boyd and Hiram Blackburn. 

Calhoun Township — James Shaw. This subject never reached 
the regiment to which he was assigned. 

Clay Township — P. M. Caywood, Aaron Davis, Julius Miller 


and William H. Good. Mr. Good was a substitute for James 
Callion, the latter giving Good $1,000 to take his place. 

Jefferson Township— Jacob Holton, 0. P. Reel and W. F. 
Nelson. The last named person was a substitute for Ad. Adams, 
who gave Nelson $500 to stop rebel bullets for him. 

Jackson Township — Lewis E. Toll and Lorenzo _D. Driggs. 

La Grange Township — Frank Ervin, Samuel Jack and John 
LaPray. Mr. LaPray was a substitute for Mr. William Orr, who, 
being drafted, gave to the said LaPray $1,100 to be shot in his 

Little Sioux Township — Joshua Lane and Gilbert Garnet. 
This last named person gave Dan Murphy $700 to act as his sub- 

Raglan Township — Eli. J. Hagerman, Samuel Morgareidge, 
Henry Shaw and Alex. Johnson. 

Taylor Township — Jesse Arbaugh, Thomas F. Stewart, Charles 
Wilson and B. F. Martin. This man Wilson was a substitute 
for Mr. James W. Mcintosh, now of Kansas. 

St. John Township — Thomas J. Faith, Thomas J. Frazier, 
William N. Fouts, James Seaton and Oliver Wolcott. Mr. Wol- 
cott procured Mr. Cyrus Cole to take his place as a substitute, 
they being brothers-in-law. 

Union Township — William Reeder was drafted from this 
township and secured the services of Nelson Rider as a substi- 
tute at the cost of $900, and William H. Butler was substitute 
for some one in this township, principal not known. 

There were many curious as well as peculiar actions at and 
about the time of this draft, and immediately following the 

One Joshua Lane was drafted from Little Sioux, who, 
upon learning that he had been chosen to wield a musket or 
kock a cannon, immediately repaired to the office of a physician, 
who gave certain doses of emetics and purgatives by which sick- 
ness could be produced at will, when as soon as he was notified 


by the Deputy Provost Marshal, he swallowed these decoctions 
and suddenly became nigh unto death; this then caused his 
substitute to be called upon to fill his place, which did not fit 
the fancy of Dan Shearer, who held this unenviable position. 
As soon as Shearer learned this he had business relations in 
Nebraska and fled immediately to transact the same, and the 
Deputy Provost, not catching onto the fraud being perpetrated 
on him and Shearer by Lane, followed Shearer to Nebraska and 
brought him back to Harrison county, and when about to ship 
him to W. J. Brownell, to whom all drafted men were assigned, 
at Des Moines, Shearer then told that Lane was playing " 'pos- 
sum,'' which brought about the arrest of Lane; however Shearer 
did not become relieved until he made a trip to Des Moines and 
Lane was forwarded and accepted. 

Mr. B. C. Adams, who was at this time Deputy Provobt Mar- 
shal, dealt honorably with all these men, but woe to the man 
who attempted to skulk and hide in the Willows or Nebraska, 
for they might succeed for a little time, but they were soon fer- 
reted out and brought up standing. Those who had deserted 
and dropped down in this county supposing that they were so 
far from their commands that they would never be recognized or 
apprehended, were always surprised by the presence of this 
omniscient Deputy Provost, when being tapped on the shoulder 
and informed that their services were needed at such a place and 
in such and such regiments. Our people had never experienced 
much of the war spirit prior to this, but there was in the man- 
ner, anxiety and gait of every deserter, such a tell-tale appear- 
ance, that with a reasonable description, recognition was readily 

At the time of this drafting much uneasiness was felt by many 
of those who had no desire to be shot, or at least to forego the 
comforts of a good warm fire and feather bed, and to that end, 
at the time the drawing was to be done at Council Bluifs, were 
either at hand or had some one present so that they could have 


an " early " report, among whom was Mr. Wm. S. Meeeh, an 
old timer in the county. 

Some of the ripest Democrats were fearful that the drawing 
would not be done with fairness, and that the Republicans would 
escape, and the quota be filled with the honest Democracy, the 
portable expounders of the Federal Constitution; and to alle- 
viate this fear Mr. Wm. S. Meech was called into the room where 
the drafting was done, and blindfolded, and then by his own 
Democratic hand drew out of the box the fatal names of those 
who should doff the blue and shoulder the musket. This was a 
master piece of policy, for when completed, there was no room 
for the howl of political persecution and violation of the con- 
stitutional right of the oppressed Democratic citizen. 

Mr. Meech had a son (Harrison Meech) then just arrived at 
arms-bearing age, whom he was fearful would be selected, and 
it is said that old Uncle William, while the names were being 
read after having been handed by him to the party who could 
read, was so exercised that the traditional sweat in the far off 
garden in the east was but little superior to that experienced by 
our friend on this occasion. However this fear was not wholly 
confined to the Democracy, from the fact that there were Repub- 
licans who held the exterior of their persons in as much adora- 
tion as the others. 

Many of those who were for the Union in the early days of 
the '60s were so because of the fact that the attack on the Gov- 
ernment by the Confederates was an attack on their party, and 
while the sequence of the decision was correct, yet the reasons 
by which the opinion was reached were scarcely tenable. This 
kind of War Republicans were of the "Artemus Ward school," 
willing to sacrifice all their relations rather than see the Confed- 
erate cause win the day, and when called upon to fill the gap 
made in the ranks in tbe front, either by bullet or disease, would 
rather find an Isaac than be the Isaac sacrificed. 

About the 1st of August, 1864, Dr. J. H. Rice, of Magnolia, 


was appointed as the Special Examining Surgeon for this county, 
and in the discharge of his duties called to his assistance Dr. 
Oeorge H. McGavren, and part of the time two other well posted 
physicians— Dr. Robert McGavren and Dr. Cole, who in the 
discharge of their duties as such examining board, had occasion 
to hear the most exaggerated stories of personal deformity and 
inability that ever came to the ears of men of their profession. 
These men now all reside in the county except Dr. Cole, who has 
passed to that place from which no traveler returns. 

One person who resided at Cincinnati who wanted to be ex- 
cused for the reason that he was unable to march, walked all the 
way from that little town to Magnolia, a distance of 18 miles, 
before breakfast, to convince the examining board that he was 
unable to endure the fatigue of the march. Another, who still 
lives on the same farm on which he then resided, suddenly 
became so deaf that he could not hear it thunder, and could not 
hear words uttered in the vpry loudest tones, but when caught 
in the act of turning his own and his neighbors' cows into the 
corn field of the Hon. Phineas Cadwell, at midnight, and when 
realizing that Mr. Cadwell would prosecute him for his dastardly, 
cowardly act, he was immediately anxious to make settlement 
therefor, and could hear the most commonplace whisper — as to 
terms of settlement. This man may have been all right, but the 
fact is stated that he got away from his maker before he was fin- 
ished. Another presented himself and claimed exemption on ac- 
count of hernia, and was excused. After examination he boldly 
boasted that he could whip any man in the county. Another man, 
now a resident of Magnolia, claimed exemption for the same cause, 
but when he was examined there was not the least appearance 
of the disability claimed, and the examining board, either to tor- 
ment him, or give him all the chance possible to show his ills, 
kept him standing naked all day, in order that the deformity 
might blossom into something other than the appearance then 
present, but to the disgust of the applicant, and the infinite 


amusement of the doctors, nature would not assist the coward 
in the perpetration of such apparent fraud. There is also an- 
other who does not now reside a thousand miles fromWoodbine, 
who put in the excuse that he was wholly unable to do military- 
duty, from the fact that he was unable to work, though for ten 
years prior to that time and for twenty years since he has labored 
on his farm each day, from before the rising'of the sun until far 
into the night. 

Never was mankind so sorely aflicted with all the ills that 
flesh is heir to, as at this special time. Broken limbs came to 
the surface then which never prior to that time or since have 
been heard from; chronic cases of alleged long standing were 
dwelt upon with an eloquence bordering upon despair, but the 
most general disease at that time was weakness of the lungs, 
and they who were so afflicted acted as their own physicians, and 
prescribed for themselves the freshness and purity of the west- 
ern mountain air. This general disease was not confined to any 
one class, either political or religious. Many went to the moun- 
tains at or about tjiis time, but, the most singular features of 
this wide spread " lung complaint " was that the women were 
wholly free from the ravages thereof, and as soon as the declar- 
ation of peace was made, there was a wave of such speedy recov- 
ery as far surpassed the miracles at the time of the troubling 
of the waters by the angel of eighteen centuries- past. 

At this time nearly four hundred men, the bone and sinew of 
the county, had enlisted, many of whom were then resting in 
unknown graves in the " sunny south," or maimed and crippled 
for life, or broken in health; and that which at first had seemed 
only a sunny day's picnic, had fastened itself upon us as an egre- 
gious reality. War, with all its consequent results, was upon us, 
and the day of the outbursts of patriotism had become a thing 
of the past, made so by former unprecedented enlistments. 

Then again, the opportunity to accumulate fortunes, made so 
by war prices and the great abundance of money, could scarcely 


be yielded to the unadulterated demands of pure patriotism, in 
whicli the life of the person and the poorness of the pay, were 
the considerations for ease, comfort and security of life and prop- 
erty. Some stated that they could not enlist from the fact that 
their families required them at home to provide for their wants,- 
when the real status of the case was that the wives had for a 
long time in the past as well as from that date to the present, 
supported them. The causes for not going were as diversified 
as the human countenance, but when the time came that the 
requisite quota must be furnished, then the greater proportion 
of those drawn, without the least hesitation, obeyed the " onward 
to the front " with as much alacrity and with the same patriot- 
ism as in the early days of enlistinents. However, the end came, 
and with this the universal rejoicings of all. The soldier return- 
ing all covered over with glory, and the stay-at-home man happy 
in the thought that the ordeal was past, the Government was 
saved, and he was alive. 


With their Postoffice Address, and the Company and Regiment to which 
they formerly belonged. 

J. A. Boies, First Colorado Cavalry, Woodbine, Iowa. 
P. C. DuVal, Co. A, Magnolia. 
.J. P. Button, Third Col., Co. F, Missouri Valley. 
W. L. Reeves, Third Col. Cavalry, Co. E, Little Sioux. 
Hugh P. Morrow, Twelfth Col. Cavalry, Co. M, Magnolia. 
Maj.D wight Saterlee, Eleventh Conn. Infantry, Dunlap, Iowa. 
Capt. .J. D. Brown, Co. D, Eighteenth Conn. Infantry, Missouri 
Valley, Iowa. 

Peter Campbell, Co. D, Eighteenth Conn. Infantry, Woodbine, 


John S. Hall, Co. B, First Dak. Cavalry, Woodbine, Iowa. 
Miles Cowan, Co. B, First Dak. Cavalry, Woodbine, Iowa. 
Lewis R. Yates, Co. B, First Dak. Cavalry, Woodbine, Iowa. 


Edward Marshall, (drummer) Second Regiment, Dist. Colum- 
bia, Woodbine. 


Samuel Baird, Co. B, Eighth 111. Infantry, Dunlap, Iowa. 
. Geo. Weed (Sergeant) Co. B, Eighth 111. Infantry, Dunlap, 

First Surgeon, George B. Christy, Dunlap, Iowa. 

A. I. Cuttler, Co. M. Sixteenth 111. Cavalry, Logan, Iowa. 

W. H. Squires, (Corporal) Co. K, Seventeenth 111. Cavalry, 
Dunlap, Iowa. 

J. L. Leach, Co. H, Seventh 111. Infantry, Little Sioux, Iowa. 

L. H. Pratt, (Corporal) Co. C, Eighth 111. Infantry, Dunlap, 

Lieut, W. H. Campbell, Co. H. Eleventh 111. Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley, Iowa. 

J. B. Baker, Co. I, Thirteenth 111. Infantry, Logan, Iowa. 

Aaron C. Perry, Co. D, Fifteenth 111. Infantry, Missouri Val- 
ley, Iowa. 

J. W. Shultz, Co. G, Eighteenth 111. Infantry, Missouri Valley, 

Capt. Robert B. Hillas, Co. A, Nineteenth 111. Infantry, Dun- 
lap, Iowa. 

A. N. Ovaitt, Co. F, Twentieth 111. Infantry, Magnolia, Iowa. 

W. C. Harrah, Co. H, Twenty-second 111. Infantry, Missouri 
Valley, Iowa. 

J. N. Young, (Brigham) Co. G, Twenty-seventh 111. Infantry, 
Logan, Iowa. 

John B. Conyers, Co. B, Twenty-ninth 111. Infantry, Little 
Sioux, Iowa. 

Wm. Newfind, Co. K, Thirty-second 111. Infantry, Missouri 
Valley, Iowa. 

Joshua E. Lahman, Co. C, Thirty-fourth 111. Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

D. C. Clark, Co. H, Thirty-sixth 111. Infantry, Magnolia, Iowa. 


Anderson Adams, Co. H, Forty-sixth 111. Infantry, Dunlap, 

James Beecham, (Corporal) Co. A, Fifty-second 111. Infantry, 
Little Sioux. 

J. T. Headley, Co. D, Fifty-second 111. Infantry, Persia. 

F. A. Jennings,-Co. A, Fifty-third 111. Infantry, Dunlap. 
Henry Jennings, Co. I, Fifty-third 111. Infantry, Dunlap. 
John C. Wood, Co. A, Fifty-third 111. Infantry, Dunlap. 
Wm. G. Baldwin, Co. G, Fifty-fourth 111. Infantry, Missouri 


John F. Davis, Co. E, Fifty-fourth 111. Infantry, Missouri 

J. G. Redenbaugh (Corporal) Co. K, Fifty-eighth 111. Infantry, 
Eeeder's Mills. 

W. A. Phillips, Co. A, Sixty-second 111. Infantry, Persia. 

Lewis G. Neff, Co. I, Sixty-fourth 111. Infantry, Persia. 

Joseph Cue, Co. C, Sixty-fifth 111. Infantry, Dunlap. 

H. D. Lovelace, Co. A, Sixty-fifth 111. infantry. Woodbine. 

E. G. Henry, Co. H, Sixty-sixth 111. infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Charles Manchester, Co. H, Seventy-fourth 111. infantry, 

Willard Seaton," Co. D, Seventy-fourth 111. infantry, Missouri 
Valley. This soldier is the present mayor of Missouri Valley. 

S. C. Patrick, Co. G, Seventy-fourth 111. infantry, Dunlap. 

G. W. Chamberlain, Co. G, Seventy-fourth 111. infantry, 

0. L. French, Adjutant, Co. G, Seventy-fifth 111. infantry, 

Joseph Williams, Captain Co. G, Seventy-fifth 111. infantry, 

Geo. W. Spry, Co. H, Eighty-fourth 111. infantry, River 

Alfred J. Norman, Co. A, Eighty-sixth III. infantry, Logan. 

H. B. Kinnie, Co. A. Eighty-eighth 111. infantry, Logan. 


John Hope, Go. A, Ninetieth 111. infantry, Little Sioux. 

Edward Gilpin, Co. A, Ninety-third 111. infantry, Persia. 

W. M. Morris, Captain Co. A, Ninety-third 111. infantry, 

Dr. Josiah Giddings, Assistant Surgeon, Ninety-fifth 111. in- 
fantry. Woodbine. ' 

John Laird, Co. D, One-hundred-and-Twelfth 111. infantry, 

B. L. Jones, Co. A, One-hundred-and-Eighteenth 111. infantry, 
Little Sioux. 

Prank Goodenough, Corporal Co. A, One-hundred-and-Twen- 
ty-fourth 111. infantry, Missouri Valley. 

G. P. Bray ton, Co. B, One-hundred-and-Twenty-sixth 111. in- 
fantry, Persia. ^ 

Wm. Brayton, Co. B, One-hundred-and-Twenty-sixth 111. 
infantry, Logan. 

John Williams, Co. D, One-hundred-and-Fortieth 111. infantry, 
Missouri Valley. 

John W. Widdows, Co. K, One-hundred-and-Porty-fifth 111. 
infantry, Magnolia. 

Pred. D. Palmer, Co. A, One-hundred-and-Porty-sixth 111. in- 
fantry, Magnolia. 

Luther D. Brown, Co. I, One-hundred-and-Fifty-third 111. in- 
fantry. Magnolia. 

Richard Marshbury, Co. P., Sixth Ind. cavalry, Missouri 

T. C. Young, Co. G, Sixth Ind. cavalry, Missouri Valley. 

L. P. Mills, Co. E, Ninth Ind. cavalry, Logan. 

Cal. Beaman, Co. D, Pirst Ind. heavy artillery, Missouri Valley. 

J. li. MeCullaugh, Co. I, Pirst Ind. heavy artillery, Missouri 

C. D. Johnson, Pifth Ind. battery, Woodbine. 

John V. Walker, Co. E. Twelfth Ind. battery. Little Sioux. 


James H. Crowder, Musician, Eighteenth Ind. infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

John Huntly, Co. G, Twenty-ninth Ind. infantry, Logan. 

Amos Kellogg, Co. H, Thirty-third Ind. infantry, Logan. 

W. B. Keith, Sergeant, Co. B, Thirty-fifth Ind. infantry, Mon- 

Henry Wasson, Co. B, Thirty-fifth Ind. infantry. River Sioux. 

Elijah Ashcraft, Corporal, Co. C, Forty-second Ind. infantry, 

H. A. Shacklett, Sergeant, Co. C, Forty-second infantry, 

Wm. Comstock, Co. K, Forty-eighth Ind. infantry, Dunlap. 

John Bridgeman, Go. B, Fifty-first Ind. infantry, Missouri 

John Hodson, Co. F, Fifty-third Ind. infantry, Modale. 

Joseph Alexander, Co. E, Fifty-seventh Ind. infantry, Dunlap. 

Harvey M. Babb, Corporal, Co. C, Sixty-third Ind. infantry, 

John Hooks, Co. D, Sixty-third Ind. infantry, Dunlap. 

Albert Nicely, Corporal, Co. A, Sixty-third Ind. infantry. 
Woodbine. * 

Albert Harrold, Co. E, Seventy-fifth Ind. infantry, Reeder's 

Samuel C. Bartholomew, Musician, Eighty-third Ind. infantry, 
Little Sioux. 

Wililiam E . Ross, Co. G, Ninety-seventh Ind. infantry, Modale. 

John M. Suthers, Co. D, One-hundred-and-Fifteenth Ind. in- 
fantry. Magnolia. 

Nathan Myers, Corporal, Co. B, One-hundred-and-Thirty-third 
Ind. infantry, Logan. 

Joseph Montgomery, Co. G, One-hundred-and-Porty-seventh 
Ind. infantry. Woodbine. 

John G. Williams, Co. B, One-hundred-and-Forty-eighth Ind. 
nfantry, Missouri Valley. 


John p. Creager, Corporal, Company I, One-hundred-and 
Fifty-second Iowa Infantry, Logan. 

John Bell, Missouri Valley. 

C. H. Hushaw, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Dunlap. 

William Barkoph, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Logan. 

Anson Smith, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Logan. 

Norman L. Cole, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Woodbine. 

James J. Chew, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Logan. 

Charles H. Hushaw, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry. 

Wm. Ef. Moore, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry. 

Charles J. Perin, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, More- 

Thomas J. Perin, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Morehead. 

Joseph H. Rilley, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Little 

Frank J. Porter, First Lieutenant, Company E, Sixth Iowa 
Cavalry, Woodbine. 

L. H. Pepper, Private, Company B, Second Iowa Cavalry, 

James Scales, Private, Company C, Second Iowa Cavalry, 

J. L. Donelson, Private Company I, Third Iowa Cavalry, 

Wm. Davis, Private, Company M, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, 

W. B. George,. Private, Company L, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, 
Little Sioux. 

J. W. Rickman, Private, Company K, Fourth Iowa Cavalry. 

W. H. Rickman, Private, Company L, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, 
Missouri Valley. 

Hugo Holdoegel, Private, Company A, Fifth Iowa Cavalry, 

Alma Ratterson, Private, Company B, Fifth Iowa Cavalry, 


Charles G. Scofield, Sergeant, Company A, Fifth Iowa Cavalry, 

Charles Wheelocb, Sergeant, Company B, Fifth Iowa Cavalry, 

James J. Chew, Private, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 

Norman Cole, Private, Company E, Sixth Iowa "Cavalry, 

Wm. M. Mathis, Private, Company C, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 
died 1886, at Woodbine. 

W. H. Moore, Private, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 

G. W. Ralph, Private, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 
River Sioux. 

Joseph W. Rilley, Private, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 
Little Sioux. 

J. M. Smith, Sergeant, Company F, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 
Missouri Valley. 

Anson Smith, Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 


D. D. Jacobs, Private, Co. F, Seventh Iowa Cavalry, Magnolia. 

James Ratigan, 'Private, Co. M, Seventh Iowa Cavalry, Read- 
er's- Mills. 

T. J. Kopson, Private, Co. K, Eighth Iowa Cavalry, Missouri 

John D. Dewell, Sergeant, Co. M, Ninth Iowa Cavalry, 

B. J. Peasley, Private, Co. M, Ninth Iowa Cavalry, Little 

Albert Stuart, Private, Co. I, Ninth Iowa Cavalry, Persia. 



Benj. B. Loss, Second Iowa Battery, Logan. 

Jasper Reeder, Second Iowa Battery, Knox Co., Neb. 

Martin Little, Second Iowa Battery, Logan. 

F. M. Irvin, Third Iowa Battery, Reeder's Mills. 
Isaac Mason, Fourth Iowa Battery, Modale. 
Wm. Dapee, Fourth Iowa Battery, Persia. 


Midhael South, Co. K, Second Iowa Infantry, Little Sioux. 
Levi Crouch (Farrier) Co. A, Fourth Iowa Infantry, Modale. 
N. M. Purcy, Co. D, Fourth Iowa Infantry, Persia. 
First-Lieut. Jas. W. Bonney, Co. B, Fourth Iowa Infantry, 
Little Sioux. i 

William Barkoff, Co. E, Fifth Iowa Infantry, Logan. 

G. W. Johnson, Co. F, Fifth Iowa Infantry, Missouri Valley. 
C. R. Anderson, Co. E, Eighth Iowa Infantry, Missouri Val- 

XJ. Bitterlie, Co. B, Eighth Iowa Infantry, Magnolia. 

Sylvester MacKenzie, Co. E, Eighth Iowa Infantry, Dunlap. 

Major Charles MacKenzie, Ninth Iowa Infantry, Dunlap. 

Thomas J. Powell, (Corporal) Co. I, Ninth Iowa Infantry, 

Capt. J. E. Ainsworth, Co. F, Twelfth Iowa Infantry, Missouri 

A. L. Manning, Co. F, Twelfth Iowa Infantry, Dunlap. 

W. H. Burkholder, Co. E, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Wood- 

Joseph Duer, Co. B, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri Val- 

Wm. N. Fonts, (D) Co. C, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri 

Thos. J. Frasier, (D) Co. C, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 


E. J. Hagerman, (D) Co. F, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Mon- 

Major Jacob S. Holeten, (D) Co. F, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, 

Watson Humphrey, Co. A, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Logan. 

S. H. Morgan, Co. C, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri Val- 

Henry Shaw, Co. B, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, Mondamin. 

James Shaw, (D) (never reached Regiment) Thirteenth Iowa 
Infantry, Logan. 

Capt. Logan Crawford, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

Pete E. Cromer, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri 

Andrew M. Ellis, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Little 

Wm. Evans, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Woodbine. 

David Kanauss, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Logan. 

Aaron McCoid, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Logan. 

Thos. Marshall, Co. H, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri 

Wm. F. Wills, Co. H, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, Mondamin. 

Ethan Cole, Co. H, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri Val- 

John S. Goss, Co. H, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, Missouri 

James C. Lytle, Co. H, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, Little 

Samuel Marksbury, Co. A, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

H. N. Welch, Co. I, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, Logan. 

Amsley Clinkenhard, Co. E, Eighteenth Iowa Infantry, Mon- 

R. G. Boyd, Co. H, Eighteenth Iowa Infantry, Modale. 

362 HiSTOEY or haeeison countt. 

Emerson Parmenter, Co. H, Eighteenth Iowa Infantry, Dun- 

D. W. Bechtel, Co. P, Twenty-third Iowa Infantry, Dunlap. 
Henry Bishop, (Corporal) Co. I, Twenty-third Iowa Infantry, 

Little Sioux. 

David Henderson, (Sergt.) Co. E, Twenty-third Iowa Infantry, 
Missouri Valley. 

J. D. Hull, (Corporal) Co. E, Twenty-fourth Iowa Infantry, 

Thomas Hughes, Co. A, Twenty-fifth Iowa Infantry, Missouri 

William Raineer, Co. C, Twenty-sixth Iowa Infantry, Reeder's 

Capt. Wm. M. Magden, Co. D, Twenty-sixth Iowa Infantry, 

Henry Weed, (Corporal) Co. K, Twenty-sixth Iowa Infantry 

A. C. McYonagil, Co. H, Twenty-seventh Iowa Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

Alex. Lewis, Co E, Twenty-eighth Iowa Infantry, Reeder's 


Wm. Agens, Ute. 

Jas. L. Armstrong, Reeder's Mills. 

Capt. Geo. S. Bacon, Des Moines. 

Alex. Barr, Earling. 

Amsey Beadle, Logan. 

I. F. Bedsaul, Magnolia. 

John A. Benjamin, Dunlap. 

James Bird, Modale. 

Wm. Bourn, (Sergeant) Modale. 

J. H. Brace, (blind at this date) Dunlap. 

E. P. Brown, Dunlap. 


John H . Darting, Missouri Valley. 

B. H. Dennice, (blind at this date) Missouri Valley. 
John G. Downs, Pender, Neb. 

John H. Ellis, Little Sioux. 
Clark Ellis, Little Sioux. 
A. B. M. Ellis, Missouri Valley. 
M. H. Greenfield, Logan. 
Alex. M. Huff, Hancock. 
T. P. Kellogg, Woodbine. 
J. S. Lighten, Modale. 
Wm. Lyman, Oakland. 
Geo. Main, Magnolia. 
L. H. McWilliams, Little Sioux. 
R. Morgareidge, Buffalo Gap, Dakota. 
John H. Noyes, Mondamin. 

Chas. W. Oden, First Lieutenant and Quartermaster, Little 
James Owens, Missouri Valley. 
W. H. Rinehart, Macedonia. 
J. H. Rice, Assistant Surgeon, Magnolia. 
Walter Ritchison, Modale. 
E. R. Scofield, Chadron, Nebraska. 
Joe H. Smith, Second Lieutenant, Logan. 

C. S. Stowell, Kingsley. 

J. W. Stocker, First Lieutenant, Logan. 

John Thompson, Calhoun. 

Chas. Wills, Missouri Valley. 

John Wills, Monona County. 

Erastus Wills. 

Warren White, Logan. 

Lowry Wilson, Logan. 



E. Alexander, Missouri Valley. 

Wm. H. Berry, Missouri Valley. 

James Brookh luser, Missouri Valley. 

Jacob Case, Missouri Valley. 

Thos. H. Cook, Salt Lake. 

Domininie Hagney, Missouri Valley. 

John Martin, Missouri Valley. 

Addison Mcintosh, Woodbine. 

Elias Owens, Woodbine. 

James Robertson, Modale. 

James M. Latta, Co. B, Twenth-ninth Infantry, Logan. 

John W. Landreth, Co. D, Thirty-second Infantry, Missouri 

J. M. Hough, Sergeant Co. C, Thirty-third Iowa Infantry, 

John D. Garrison, Corporal Co. G, Thirty-eighth Iowa 
Infafitry, Woodbine. 

P. P. Rainwater, Corporal Co. B, Forty-fourth Iowa Infantry, 

John D. Hornby, Private Co. I, Forty-fifth, (100 day man) 
Logan, , 

J. J. Hancock, Co, A, Forty-sixth, (100 day man) Missouri 

Franklin W. Hart, Co. I, Forty-sixth, (100 day man) Logan. 

Augustus Koehn, Co. D, Forty-seventh, (100 day man) Mag- 

Alex. Johnson, (D) Co. F, Forty-eighth, Mondamin. 

Jacob Ernsdorf, (no record) Logan. 

John Appleman, (no record) Little Sioux. 



Josiah Russell, Co. H, Second Infantry, Dunlap. 
Wm. Radlke, Co. K, Fourth Infantry, Magnolia. 
James Emerson, Co. C, Sixth Infantry, Magnolia. 
J. A. Duncanson, Co. I, Eleventh Infantry, Woodbine. 


Austin W. Yeager, Co. M, , Missouri Valley. 

Wm. E. Yeager, Sergeant, Co. M, Missouri Valley. 

Geo. Sweany, Sergeant, Co. G, Twenty-sixth Infantry, Little 

Solomon , Deputy Sergeant, Co. M, Sixth Cavalry, Wood- 

A. S. Jewell, Co. I, Seventh Cavalry, Logan. 

W. A. Donahoo, Co. B, Second Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Henry Krieder, Co. E, Ninth Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

John Jewell, Second Lieutenant, Co. I, Eleventh Infantry, 
Reeder's Mills. 

John L. Scott, Co. G, Twenty-seventh "Infantry, Little 

D. G. Herron, Co. A, Thirty-third Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Daniel C. Shiley, Corporal, Co. A, Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
Missouri Valley. 


D. P. McDonald, Sergeant, Co. B, Sixth Cavalry, Magnolia. 
Sidney J. Allen, Private, Co. K, Ninth Cavalry, Logan. 
Thos. Erlewine, Corporal, Co. I, Eighth Infantry, Mondamin. 
C. C. Davis, Co. D, Eleventh Infantry, Dunlap. 
S. S. Coates, Co. C, Twelfth Infantry, Little Sioux. 
Wm. K. Fry, Co. H, Seventeenth Infantry, Dunlap. 
S. A. Frost, Third Mass. Battery, Little Sioux. 
G. A. Froat, Sergeant, Co. F, Mass. Infantry, Missouri Valley. 



Frank P. Eaton, Co. I, Fourth Cavalry, Dunlap. 

Chas. Rusher, Co. B, Seventeenth Cavalry, Dunlap. 

M. A. Parmenter, Co. A, Second Infantry, Dunlap. 

M. G. Cooley, Second Lieutenant, Co. A, Tenth Infantry, 
Missouri Valley. 

R. C. West, Corporal, Co. B, Eleventh Infantry, Little 

J. E. Hunt, Co. F, Twelfth Infantry, Little Sioux. 

Noble Thomas, Co. A, Twelfth Infantry, Dunlap. 

T. V. Lunderin, Corporal, Co. A, Thirteenth Infantry, Little 

C. H. Safford, Co. I, Twenty-fourth Infantry, Logan. 


H. C. Harshbarger, Sergeant, Co. I, First Cavalry, Woodbine. 
Geo. Morton, Co. D, First Cavalry, Woodbine. 
Harvey Ritchardson, Co. K, Second Cavalry, Woodbine. 
Geo. Ritchardson, Co. K, Second Cavalry, Modale. 
Jacob Smith, Co. B, Second Cavalry, Missouri Valley. 
Zach Smith, Indian Scout, Modale. 

Geo. W. Chase, Captain, Co. F, Tenth New Hampshire In- 
fantry, River Sioux. 
J. A. Pettis, Co. H, Fifth New York Infantry, Woodbine. 
S. W. Crane, Co. K, Ninth New York Infantry, Little Sioux. 
R. J. Barwell, Co. K, First New Mexico Infantry, Dunlap. 


K. C. Morehouse, Co. B, Third Cavalry, Missouri Valley. 
F. L. Davis, Co. E, Fifth Cavalry, Missoiiri Valley. 
Sidney Palm, Co. A, Twelfth Cavalry, Modale. 
M. H. Goodenough, Co. A, Twentieth Cavalry, Logan. 
Harry J. Conover, Co. A, Twenty-third Cavalry, Dunlap. 
William Gledhill, Co. M, Second Light Artillery, known as 
"Court House Billy," Logan. 


Jolm Brady, Co. A, Third Light Artillery, Dunlap. 

A. H. Livingstone, Co. F, Light Artillery, Missouri Valle:j, 
reported as Hospital Steward, Ninth Heavy Artillery. 

E. W. Milliman, Corporal, Co. D, Fourth Heavy Artillery, 

J. B. Holt, Co. D, Thirteenth Heavy Artillery, Missouri 

G. P. Shiley, Co. L, Sixteenth Heavy Artillery, Missouri Valley. 

C. K. Shoemaker, Corporal, Seventh Battery, River Sioux. 

John Clark, Co. D, Twenty-eighth Infantry, Magnolia. 

James C. Milliman, Co. E, Forty-sixth Infantry, Logan. 

Albert P. Buckley, Sergeant, Co. Gr, Forty-eighth Infantry, 

James K. Deyo, Co. C, Sixty-first Infantry, Logan. 

M. H. P. Kidder, Co. E, Sixty-ninth Infantry, Mondamin. 

W. W. Milliman, Co. D, Seventy-seventh Infantry, Logan. 

A. B. Milliman, Orderly Sergeant, Co. D, Seventy-seventh 
Infantry, died at Logan, 1886. 

A. M. Silsbey, Co. H, Eighty-third Infantry, Little Sioux. 

Peter Kirbey, Co. D, Eighty-ninth Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Alex. McNeal, Co. G, Ninety-fourth Infantry, Missouri 

Henry Morse, Sergeant, Co. I, Ninety-fifth Infantry, Wood- 

J. D. Graves, Co. 1, One-hundred-and-twelfth Infantry, 


Wm. LaSear. .Co. I, One-hundred-and-fourteenth Infantry, 


Fred. Ehlert, Co. C, One-hundred-and-sixteenth Infantry, 


W. H. Van Slyke, Co. F, One-hundred-and-sixteenth Infantry, 


Daniel Stewart, Co. H, One-hundred-and-twenty-first In- 
fantry, Logan. 


N. F. Willard, Sergeant, Co. C, One-hundred-and-twenty-third 
Itifantry, Little Sioux. 

James Mitchell, Corporal, Co. K, One-hundred-and-forty-first 
Infaatry, Logan. 

William Tuttle, Co. D, One-hundred-and-forty-fourth Infantry, 

Richard Kerr, Corporal, Co. A, One-hundred-and-eighty- 
eighth Infantry, River Sioux. 

Albert Van Dusen, Co. F, One-hundred-and-eighty-eighth 
Infantry, Logan, 


E. L. Poston, second musician Co. K, Seventh Cavalry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

H. H. Bonney, Captain, Second Battery, Little Sioux. 

Jacob Hengal, Co. K, First Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Fletcher Armstrong, Co. I, Third Infantry, Logan. 

Chas. Taylor, Corporal, Co. F, Eighth Infantry, Dunlap. 

J. B. Huddleson, Co. D, Twelfth Infantry, Modale. 

Cyrus Smith, Co. K, Sixteenth Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

CJias. Peyton, Co. D, Eighteenth Infantry, Little Sioux. 

Lewis Ruffcorn, Sergeant, Co. D, Eighteenth Infantry, 

John W. Stowell, Corporal, Co. B, Eighteenth Infantry, 

G. W. Withem, Co. C, Eighteenth Infantry, Mondamin. 

M. Bronson, Co. I, Twenty-third Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Michael W. Eshman, Co. K, Twenty-third Infantry, Dunlap. 

John Howard, Co. C, Twenty-third Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

J. C. Caley, Co. I, Twenty-seventh Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Z. Buckingham, Co. E, Thirty-first Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

James N. Yost, Co. D, Thirty-first Infantry, Little Sioux. 

Amos A. Williamson, Private, musician, Co. C, Thirty-fifth 
Infantry, Woodbine. 

G. J. Bumgartner, Co. G, Thirty-sixth Infantry, Logan. 


Barttell Johnson, Co. G, Fifty-third Infantry, Mondamin. 

John V. Hoon, Co. H, Fifty-fourth Infantry, Mondamin. 

Alex. Carpenter, Co. E, Sixty-third Infantry, Mondamin. 

L. ISr. Goodrich, Co. F, Sixty-fifth Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Dr. W. C. Sampson, Co. B, Seventy-sixth Infantry, Woodbine. 

J. M. Rogers, Co. G, Eightieth Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

M. L. Newland, Co. F, Eighty-first Infantry, Reeder's Mills. 

John W. Widdoes, Co. A, Eighty-fifth Infantry, Magnolia. 

W. A. Keller, Co. D, Eighty-eighth Infantry, River Sioux. 

Edward Pace, Co. A, Ninetieth Infantry, Woodbine. 

Charles Todd, wagon master, Ninety-sixth Infantry, Dunlap. 

Wm. Noyes, Co. C, Ninety-seventh Infantry, Mondamin. 

N. P. Underbill, corporal, Co. E, One-hundred-and-fourteenth 
Infantry, Dunlap. 

Lafe H. Noyes, Co. A, One-hundred-and-twenty-ninth In- 
fantry, Mondamin. 

Daniel Bryan, Co. D, One-hundred-and-thirty-third Infantry, 

I. D. Morris, Co. I, One-hundred-and-forty-eighth Infantry, 

W. H. Phelps, Co. G, One-hundred-and-flftieth Infantry, 
Missouri Valle)'. 

Frank McFarren, Co. G, One-hundred-and-fifty-fourth In- 
fantry, Little Sioux. 

David Johnson, Co. K, One-hundred-and-seventy-eighth In- 
fantry, Woodbine. 

James Bowie, Co. G, One-hundred-and-eighty-second Infantry, 
River Sioux. 

John Pritchard, Co. A, One-hundred-and-eighty-eighth In- 
fantry, Modale. 

Titus Bowie, Co. G, One-hundred-and-eighty-second Infantry, 
River Sioux. 

C. Bellvelle, Co. F, One-hundred-and-ninety-sixth Infantry, 


I. N. White, Co. A, One-hundred-and-ninety-eighth Infantry, 

Jolin W. Read, Confederate Cavalry, Logan. 


Archibald Cook, Co. L, Second Cavalry, Dunlap. 

Walter Marshall, Co. D, Third Cavalry, Mondamin. 

Geo. Christian, Corporal, Co. A, Twenty-first Cavalry, Missouri 

James C. Brown, Co. B, Twenty-first Cavalry, Magnolia. 

David Herring, Co. B, Twenty-first Cavalry, River Sioux. 

Milton Bassett, Co. E, First Artillery, Little Sioux. 

B. F. Crosdale, Corporal, Co. E, Third Infantry, Little Sioux. 

E. H. Treasure, Co. I, Fourteenth Infantry, Dunlap. 

D. K. Bendon, Co. A, Fifty-fifth Infantry, Persia. 

John A. Moore, Co. I, Fifty-fifth Infantry, Dunlap. 

George Smith, Co. H, One-hundred-and-seventh Infantry, 
River Sioux. 

George W. Ickes, Sergeant, Co. D, One-hundred-and-thirty- 
eighth Infantry, Persia. 

,0. W. Roders, Co. K, One-hundred-and-forty-first Infantry, 

Dr. F. M. Hill, Hospital Sergeant, One-hundred-and-forty- 
first Infantry, Persia. 

Andrew Walker, Corporal, Co. D, One-hundred-and-eighty- 
fourth Infantry, Persia. 

G. C. Walker, Co. H, One-hundred-and-sixty-sixth Infantry, 
Missouri Valley. 

James Harmon, Co. C, Two-hundred-and-second Infantry 
River Sioux. 
James McCaustland, Co. K, Third Tennessee Infantry, Persia. 
Albert Topping, Co. A, First U.^S. Eng. Corps, Logan. 
J. J. Sullivan, Bugler, Sixth U. S. Cavalry, Missouri Valley. 
W. H. Martin, Assistant Sergeant, Third U. S. Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 


Keenan E. Kusaek, Co. D, Seventh U. S. Infantry, Dunlap. 

Alfred Jennings, Co. H, Sixteenth TJ. S. Infantry, Woodbine. 

Nicholas Yocum, Co. C, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, Persia. 

J. D. Brown, Captain, Co. B, Fortieth TJ. S. Infantry, Mis- 
souri Valley. 

David Leyshom, Co. D, Second U. S. Cavalry, Logan. 

J. A. Champlin, Private, Co. H, First Virginia Infantry, 

Wm. Collins, Co. C, Second Virginia Cavalry, Woodbine. 

Geo. Ruber, Co. D, Second Virginia Cavalry, Dunlap. 


H, Gr. Myres, Co. F, Second Cavalry, Missouri Valley. 

W. Morrill, Co. I, First Infantry, Mondamin, 

Oeorge Yockey, Co. D, First Infantry, Little Sioux. 

T. McFarlane, Co. A, Second Infantry, Mondamin. 

E. F. James, Co. E, Third Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

0. D. Moore, Captain, Co. B, Fifth Infantry, Missouri Valley. 

Alvin D. Brady, Co. C, Sixth Infantry, Dunlap. 

A. Blakeman, Co. A, Tenth Infantry, Woodbine. 

Ed. Sheu, Co. E, Eleventh Infantry, River Sioux. 

W. A. Carry, Co. K, Twelfth Infantry, Persia. 

Colonel, John R. Wheeler, — , Sixteenth Infantry, Dunlap. 

Daniei Leonard, Sergeant, Co. I, Nineteenth Infantry, Mag- 

A. W. Garrison, Co. H, Twenty-first Infantry, Mondamin. 

J. M. Jeffers, Co. G, Twenty-first Infantry, Magnolia. 

Oeorge Penney, Co. G, Twenty-second Infantry, Logan. 

Wm. Rees, Co. A, Twenty-fifth Infantry, Dunlap. 

John S. Edwards, Co. I, Twenty-seventh Infantry, Dunlap. 

L. D. Smith, Co. K, Thirty-third Infantry, River Sioux. 

Thomas Hughes, Co. A, Thirty-fifth Infantry, Missouri 

C. L. Hyde, Sergeant, Co. B, Forty-first Infantry, Logan. 


E. A. Boise, Co. B, Forty-third Infaatry, Missouri Yalley. 
C. P. Miller, Co. K, Forty-fifth lafantry, Missouri Valley. 
E. B. Ely, Lieutenant, Co. B, Missouri Infantry, Reeder's 
J. H. Graham, Missouri Yalley. 
Adam Graser, Dunlap. 

U. S. NATT. 

Wm. G. Fisher, seaman, vessel " Fear Not," Little Sioux. 
David Leyshon, fireman, vessel " Kewanee," Logan. 



The county seat of Harrison county, Iowa, is located on the 
east one-half of the southwest one-fourth of the southwest one- 
fourth of section 18, and the northwest one-fourth of section 19, 
79, 42, and northeast one-fourth of section 24, 79, 43. 

This land was originally entered or purchased by Mr. Henry 
Reel, of the Government, in 1854 and 1858, the former at 
a time when there was not a bridge on the Boyer river from the 
place where the same empties into the Missouri river in Potta- 
wattamie county to the Boyer Lake, the source of the said river. 

Mr. Reel settled on the site of this town in 1852, and held the 
land as a settler until the 20th of February, 1864, before entry, 
which would cause some at this day to wonder how this could be 
done; but to those who are familiar with the early settlement the 
matter is quite plain, for at this time the fact of settlement 
furnished as good a title for the time being as though the squat- 
ter had and held the fee of the land. If a real bona fide settler's 
claim was jumped, the " jumpist " had a free passport to that 
place " where the wicked cease from troubling and the jumpers 
are at rest." In 1852 when Mr. Reel first built his cabin on the 
banks of the Boyer at the present town site of Logan, there was 
not another settler between this place and Joe Hill's, which place 
is some two miles below the present station of Loveland in Pot- 
tawattamie county. This might in 1888 be considered an 
enlarged neighborhood, but the extent of a neighborhood depends 
on the condition of settlement. If there were no neighbors 



within fifty miles, then the length and breadth of such a neigh- 
borhood would necessarily extend to such settlement. 

Here Mr. Reel liv^ed and prospered, opening up a large farm' 
built a grist and saw mill, until the breaking out of the war, 
when his son John became the very first of those who enlisted 
in Company B of the old glorious Fourth Iowa Infantry, was 
captured and yielded his young life in Anderson villa for the 
cause of the country and good government. Then in August of 
1862 the second son Henry enlisted in Company C of the Twen- 
ty-ninth Iowa, and was among the first to die of disease and 
exposure. Then again when the draft was had at Council 
Blufis in November of 1864, the last and only son, 0. P. Reel, 
was drafted and would not suffer the shame of purchasing a sub- 
stitute, and manfully entered the service as a private, at which 
time being nearly dead with that dread disease, consumption, 
soon fell a victim to exposure and died, so that this old patriarch 
and his good wife were left sonless. Passing from this to the 
time when the C. & N. W. railroad built their track down the 
Boyer valley, by some misunderstanding or quarrel between the 
said company and Reel, the cars for nearly one year passed the 
town of Logan without deigning to stop to take on or put off 
freight or passengers. 

This status continued until in 1867, when Mr. Reel applied to 
the Interior Department and had a postoffice established at this 
place, which compelled the railroad company to stop here and 
change the mails. 

Then followed the laying out of a town, which was done in 
July, 1867, and named by Mr. Reel " Logan," in remembrance of 
Gen. John A. Logan, of Illinois, for whom Mr. Reel had a respect 
and love bordering on adoration. 

Many persons have come to the conclusion that the place was 
named Logan for Mr. Thomas MacDonald Logan, .formerly of 
this place but now of River Sioux, but this is a mistake, for the 


further fact that the place was born into existence prior to the 
time of Mr. Thomas Mc Logan locating here. 

The first house or place of business iu the town was that of a 
drug store, by one Geo. F. Waterman, and was directly west of 
the present location of what is now known as the Logan House. 
Within a few weeks after this Messrs. Rudasill, Wood & Lowe, 
of Magnolia, put up the building now used as the Logan Hotel, 
and placed therein a large well selected stock of dry goods and 
groceries. Then came Messrs. Cole & Fish, who moved their 
building down from a place then known as Whitesboro, formerly 
Buena Vista, and located on the east side of the public square, 
on or adjacent to the place where the public hall is situated, and 
filled the same with dry goods and groceries. Soon after this 
came Broadwell & Gavin, removing their stock of goods from 
Reeder's Mills, having built what is now used by the Lusk Hotel 
as a sample room, and opened the third store in Logan. Mr. 
George W. White built a brick building, being part of the old 
Vore Logan house, and was the first man to keep hotel in the 
place. Mr. T. Mc Logan, in company with Judge Leach, of 
Cedar Rapids, started out in the business of grain merchants 
and vending agricultural implements, which was soon purchased 
by the former and by him sold, about 1873, to Messrs. Seekell, 
Luce & Co. The first hotel following the White House, was 
built by Mr. James A. Lusk the same as is now known far and 
near as the Lusk Hotel. 

From 1870, men and business began to multiply in Logan, and 
so continued up to the fall election of 1875, at which time the 
seat of justice was brought to the place, which occasioned quite 
a stir in business, as well as a rise in the values of town property. 
Indeed, so elated were some of the property holders at this 
time, that their property would not bring more in the market 
now than was offered for it then, notwithstanding thirteen 
years have gone the way of all the earth. 

Prom the time of the laying out of the town site by Mr. Reel 


up to and until the removal of the county seat to this place, there 
were two firms purchasing grain, viz.: Logan & Leach, and their 
successors G. B. Seekell & Co., and Vanderhoff & Co. This last 
was sold to P. J. Rudasill & Co. ; one blacksmith shop, one drug 
store by Waterman, who sold to Kelly, one lumber yard by 
Seekell; three dry good stores and numerous places furnishing 
poor whisky; one livery barn, run by the world renowned 
Yankee Robinson, whose peculiarities are remembered by many 
of the persons who first located in this place. In 1874, the bank 
of Cadwell and Fiske began business, the same as now known as 
Cadwell's Bank. I had in a measure forgotten to mention the 
name of a firm in the dry goods and clothing business who were 
the successors of Broad well and Cavin, viz. : the firm of Gavin, 
Foreman & Beno, of Council Blufis. This firm built a large, 
commodious building on the east side of the public square, and 
ran business at high pressure for a decade and then retired, sell- 
ing out to Messrs Hull & Parker Bros. 

Mr. G. B. Cadwell, the old reliable hardware man of Logan, 
has been in business in this place longer than any man of the 
town. With the exception of one year's rest, he has been behind 
his counter and at his desk for the past twenty years. 

In 1876 the town incorporated, and from that time to the 
present has maintained a city government, which, though lax at 
times, is perhaps better governed than many of the other towns 
of the county. The town is now well protected from fires by 
the water works which were built in the latter part of 1884,. at 
a cost to the property owners of the town in the sum of |8,000, 
which upon each trial has proved all that was claimed for such 
undertaking at the time they were built. The reservoir is sit- 
uated on the hill west of the town, and having more than a hun- 
dred feet of fall, throws a stream of water 74 feet high, and 
with such power as to tear away the shingles on the roofs of 
houses when the stream is directed against the same. 


A Methodist Church was built iu 1872 and dedicated in the 
month of January, 1873, costing $1,200. » 

A Baptist Church was built ia 1870, costing $1,800. These 
were the only churches built prior to the time of the removal of 
the county seat to the place. 

In 1877 the Presbyterians built a very commodious church 
building, and in 1879 Mr. Henry Reel, at his own expense, built 
the church building, known as the Regular Predestination Bap- 
tist Church. In the building of this many conjectures have been 
made, as to what caused Father Reel to build it at his own 
expense. By some 'tis said that some persous wishing the use of 
some of the church buildings in the town for the purpose of 
preaching, were denied the use of these pulpits, because their doc- 
trines were scarcely orthodox, and for this reason this building 
was built, so that no matter what ism was wanting an opportu- 
nity for hearing, this should be free to all, which has been 
bestowed free of charge to any and all persons who desired to be 
heard in Logan. Another reason has been assigned, and 'tis this: 
the thought had entered the mind of Mr. Reel that seats were 
furnished in accordance with the apparel, i. e., that those attend- 
ing church who were clad in silks and fine robes or a plug hat, 
were assigned the better seats, no respect being shown to age, 
bodily infirmities or morals. The true status of the case is, Mr. 
Reel took it into his head to build a church building, and when 
this opinion was once formed, the die was cast and of course the 
church was soon built. In this building this old patriarch wor- 
ships with a degree of satisfaction not excelled by any other per- 
son in all this broad land. 

In 1879 the Adventists built a small brick church near the 
Logan school house, at a cost of some $500. 

From this time until 1887 the church building rested, when 
the same was revived by the Latter Day Saints and Christians, 
each building neat comfortable churches, each costing, when 
seated, the sum of $1,500. 

378 HisTOET or haeeison county. 

So that Logan, while not being built on seven hills, has seven 
churches built on one hill. 

At present there are the following business firms: 

Banks — Cad well's Bank, P. Cad well; Harrison County Bank, 
A. L. Harvey, A. W. Ford. 

Dry Goods and Groceries — Burkley & Co., money in business, 
120,000; Read & Massie, money in business, $15,000; P. R. Cross- 
wait & Co., money in business, $15,000 (own building), |4,000. 

Clothing — Emil Reutlinger, money in business, $5,000. 

Groceries — Vanscoy Bros., own buildings valued at $15,000, 
money in business, $10,000; John W. Stocker, owns building, 
$7,000, money in business, $20,000; L. -J. Paul, money in busi- 
ness, $6,000; F. P. Clizbe, money in business, $1,500; Milliman 
& Co., money in business, $1,500, own building, $1,000. 

Millinery Goods — Miss Effa Adams, Mrs. Eaton, Mrs. Leyshon. 

Furniture —Henry Lenz, own building, $2,000, money in busi- 
ness, $3,000; K. E. Webber, money in business, $1,000. 

Restaurants — C. I. Hall, Mrs. Haden. 

Drug Stores — Witt & Massie, money in business, $2,500; F. 
A. Comfort, money in business, $2,000; Wm. Giddings, owns 
building, $6,000, money in business, $5,000. 

Elevators, Grain and Lumber — -Rudd & Bunton, own building, 
$6,000, money in business, $6,000; C. F. Luce & Co., own build- 
ing, $8,000, money in business, $20,000. 

Hardware — Vanduzen & Parker, own building, $1,200, money 
in business, $4,000; G. B. Cad well, owns building, $2,000, money 
in business, $4,000. Mr. Cadwell is the oldest man in business 
in the town. 

Grain Dealers— 3. W. Stocker, C. F. Luce & Co. and Rudd & 

Stock Buyers—^. W. Stocker, Adams Bros. 

Livery, Feed and Sale Barns— Geo. Curtis, F. P. Feighley. 

Harness, etc.— I. Huber, money in business, $2,000. 


Hotels — Lusk House, landlord' at present, Dr. A. White. 
Logan House, landlord at present, Wm. Davison. 

Meat Markets — Adams & Co. 

Jewelers— -yj . E. Reeves, F. Clizbe. 

Blacksmith (S/io/JS— Benj. LaPorte and Bobby Shields. 

Carpenters— Lindsay, Penrod, Kirkendall, Welsh, Cronb, etc. 

Plasterer — J. E. Townsend. 

Painters — Milliman, Hill, Iden and Crombie. 

Physicians— 3. L. Witt, P. A. Comfort and I. P. Wood. 

Lawyers — Joe H. Smith, L. R. Bolter, J. W. Barnhart, S. L 
King, H. H. Roadifer, C. R. Bolter, C. A. Bolter, J. A. Berry, L. 
J. Birdseye, S. H. Cochran, P. W. Hart and A. L. Harvey. 

Newspapers — Observer, edited by George Musgrave; Democrat, 
edited by R. V. Smith. 

Feed Store — H. A. Kinney. 

Dentist — Dr. E. Griddings. 

Wagon Shops — Dan Stewart and Geo. Hill. 

Photograph Galleries — J. P. Creager, Frank Hoyer and Charles 

Land & Loan Agents and Abstracters — Stern & Milliman. 
This firm is reliable, one of the members of the firm being a 
portable encyclopedia of all the kinks in the chains of title in 
the county. F. W. Hart, E. G. Tyler and Duren Stearns. 

Ministers— K. Thornbrue, M. E.; F. J. Bryant, Baptist; 0. A. 
Elliott, Presbyterian; J. R. Harlan, Christian; Joseph Richard- 
son, Hard Shell Baptist. 

Post Master— T. E. Massie. 

The Secret Societies in Logan, are as follows: 

I. 0. 0. R, No. 355, organized in 1878, Joe Creager, N. G., 65 

A. F. & A. M., Chrysolite Lodge, No. 420— A.. L. Harvey, W. 
M., organized in 1882, now with forty members. Of these, Mr. 
S. I. King, Mr. J. W. Barnhart, Mr. L C. Wood and Geo. Soper 
are members of Triune Chapter 81, at Missouri Valley, and 


members of Ivanhoe Commandery No. 17, at Council Bluffs* 

Iowa Legion of Honor — D. S. P. Michael, President. Num- 
ber of members, 25. 

Fuller Post, G. A. R —Organized 1878, Col. French, Com- 
mander. Number of Comrades, 43. 

Camp Stacker, Sons of Veterans — J. P. Creager, Commander. 
Number of members, 22. 

Independent Order of Good Templars — Mr. Guy Petrie, W. 
C, with 60 members. 


was for twenty-five years last past known as Mcintosh Point, 
and to the casual observer presented no distinctive features except 
that it was the place where the Boyer river debouches into the 
Missouri Bottoms. Notwithstanding the general suppression 
of the surrounding country, any person having sufficient per- 
ceptive faculties would soon arrive at the conclusion that in case 
a railroad should strike out from the Mississippi river for the 
mighty West, this place was constructed by the Maker as the 
best and most practicable route for such an undertaking. This 
fact was soon caught sight of by the railroad creators, and in 
1866 a puifing, screaching, full grown engine came snorting 
down this matchless valley and brought up at a dead halt at the 
place last named. Following this in 1867 the-Sioux City & Pa^ 
cific Railroad Company completed their road from Sioux City to 
this place, and soon thereafter the C. & N. W. Railway extended 
their road bed to Columbus, Nebraska, then on to Chadron, and 
thence onward toward the Black Hills. In 1868 the Company 
commenced the building of round houses and machine shops, 
which at the present time gives employment to over 200 men. 
Missouri Valley at the present time has over ten miles of side 
track and switches within her corporation, and as far as the 
hurry and bustle of railroad life are concerned is to-day the live- 


liest railroaci town in the county. While this place does not 
command the extent of trade in grain and stock that many other 
portions of the county possess, nevertheless the employment 
given to men in the employ of the railroad, and the money spent 
by these men in the way of the necessaries of life, give this 
locality a cash trade such as is the envy of the other rural dis- 
tricts. Eliminate from the Valley the support furnished by the 
railroad employes and the locality would fall into " inocuous 
desuetude." The junction of the roads at this place and the 
necessaries attendant on railroad enterprises, will always furnish 
employment at that place for a goodly number of men, and this 
will increase as the trade and traffic of the West increase. The 
only drawback to this will be the building of other bridges 
across the Missouri river at points higher up the stream, but 
these can only in a feeble measure affect this established trade. 
The land upon which the town is located was entered by numer- 
ous persons, among whom is Mr. Boone Mcintosh, now deceased, 
and Samuel Addis. Part of the town is located on disputed ter- 
ritory, but the question of title has been twice before the 
Supreme Court of the State, carried there by Henry Kittering- 
ham, and is now said to be on the way to the Supreme Court of 
the United States. This should not give much uneasiness to 
the property holders, from the fact that this case will be a legal 
miscarriage or else still-born when the opinion is rendered 
therein. This place is situated in sections 15 and 16, and by 
the county records shows a muchly additioned city, having only 
seven additions marked on the records — not taking into consid- 
eration the grave yards added; and was incorporated in 1872 
with a population of 759, and a present population of 2,700. 

In 1868 the following business firms stood at the head of the 
list, and are here mentioned to show what Vast changes have 
taken place during the past score of years: 

Dealers in Hardware and Agricultural Implements—^. 
McGavern & Co., D. A. Babcock. 


Drug Stores.— Kciiayren & Hull, McBride & Birchard. 

General Merchandise — H. C. Warner. 

Saddler— J. M. Riley. 

Carpenters — Smith & Cogswell. 

Attorneys atLato—T. E. Brannon, P. D. Mickel. 

Physicians—Brs. Coit and G. H. McGavren. 

The growth of this place has been steady and healthful, and 
at the present there is a population of 2,700 and with a busi- 
ness as shown by the directory hereto attached. 

Six churches, viz.: The M. E. church, Presbyterian, Chris- 
tian, Roman Catholic, Baptist and Lutheran, have all good com- 
modious buildings; and the two school buildings of the place 
far outreach any of the other towns in the county. 

The public enterprise of the place is manifest in the erection 
and completion of a building known as the Town Hall, costing 
the tax-payers of the city not less than $5,000. It is two stories 
high. In the front of the lower story is kept the fire-engine; back 
of this is the calaboose (but that is tenantless since prohibition 
came); the front room in the second story is used for a library 
room, in which 2,500 volumes of a Public Library are maintained 
for the benefit of the public and those who are literarily inclined. 
This library is a great recommendation to the intelligence and 
benevolence of the people of the place, from the fact that it 
indicates the make-up of the persons who have control of the 
business and morals of the locality. This library is under the 
immediate supervision of Mrs. Annie Shultz, and the manner in 
which it is controlled by her speaks volumes in her praise. 

Two newspapers are published at this place, viz.: The Harri- 
son County News and Missouri Valley Times, the former 
Republican and the latter Democratic. The editor of The News 
came from the school room and has only had two years experi- 
ence in wielding the shears and pen, while the editor of the lat- 
ter may claim an experience as an editor of more than a quarter 
of a century. Both these sheets are well supported by the busi- 


ness men of the place and both are non-compromising in their 
views on National matters. 

The following is a list of the present business firms of Mis- 
souri Valley, viz.: 

General Merchandise— '^'hi&Us & Massie, stock $12,000, build- 
ing owned by Shields; C. A. Walker, stock $5,000; Comiskey & 
Bloski, stock |6,000; B. Cohn, stock $8,000; G. B. Smith, suc- 
cessor of Bump & Smith, stock $18,000; M. E. Smith & Co.. 
stock $25,000. 

Jewelry — J. H. Crowder, stock $8,000. 

Hardware — Boies & Anderson, oldest firm in the town, stock 
f 12,000: Carlisle Bros., stock $12,000. 

Boots & Shoes — J. C. Caley, owns the building, stock $4,000; 
Perry & Wilkins, stock $4,000; Adlum & Hopkins, $4,000; J. J. 
Sullivan, owns his brick block, $4,000. 

Drug Stores— J. W. Huff, stock |5,000; B. A. McKay, stock 
$3,000; Shiley Bros., pioneer drug store, own building, stock 

Clothiers— Cramer Bros., stock $5,000; D. Baum, stock $1,000. 

Hotels — Cheeny House, 4 stories, 40 rooms; St. Elmo, form- 
erly known as the Sutter, or American. 

Dentistry — H. N. Warren. 

Agricultural Implements — Boies & Anderson, C. H. Deuer, 
Carlisle Bros., E. F. James. 

Groceries — W. H. Fensler, (owns building), $3,000; J. D. 
Tamasia, $2,500; Perry & Wilkins, (Kreeder's building), $4,000; 
A. G. Brown & Co., $2,000; J. C. Prater, $2,000; L. N. Good- 
rich & Co., $4,000. 

Harness Shops— A. L. Tamasia, John Crossley and R. 

Land and Loan Agencies— F. L. Davis and Dorr & Walbum. 

Merchant Tailors — D. G. Herron, owner of a fine two story 
building on Fifth and Erie, stock $2,000; M. O'Rorke & Son, 
stock $2,000. 


Butchers — Briggs & Son, also dealers in fine horses; Williams 
& Watkins, oldest market in town. 

Billiard Halls— KcQavren & Griggs, W. H. Harmon, in 
Masonic building. 

Gunsmith — J. Jordaa, old timer. 

Restaurants— i . A. George, L. Breed and J. Dooley. 

Postmaster — T. 0. Carlisle; 0. B. Walker, cigars and sta- 
tionery in postoffice building. 

Millinery Goods — Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Seely and Mrs. Bresee. 

Marble Works — J- A. Starlin. 

Lumber d: Coal — R. Newton; 0. H. Deuer, successor of Kel- 
logg & Hibbard. 

Furniture — T. Foss, owns the building, stock $5,000. 

Merchant Mills— 'Edgcomh & Kellogg, capacity 125 bbl. per 
day, and has roller process. 

Livery Stables — Pickett and Rans Beebee, at old court 
house building: Evans Bros., on Erie street. 

Lawyers — Dewell & McGavren; James S. Dewell & John 
McGavren; L. Brown; Cy Arndt; F. M. Dance. 

Physicians and Surgeons — Dr. Geo. W. Coit, Dr. E. J. Chap- 
man, Dr. George McGavren, Dr. C. W. McGavren. 

Veterinary Surgeon — H. J. Moss. 

House, Sign & Fancy Painter — G. M. Goodrich. 


Valley Lodge No. 232, A. F. and A. M., meets every Thursday 
evening on or before full moon in each month. G. W. Bur- 
bank, W. M. F. M. Dance, Secretary. 

R. A. M. — Triune Chapter No. 81, R. A. M., meets every second 
Tuesday evening. Visiting companions welcome. M. Weston, 
H: p. C. S. Hoar, Secretary. 

Valley Chapter No. 26, 0. E. S., meets first Friday evening in 
each month. Mary E. Boies, W. M. Anna Schultz, Secretary. 

Missouri Valley Lodge No. 170, \. 0. 0. F., meets every Wednes- 
day evening. F. C. Humphrey N. G. W. F. Blain, Sec'y. 


Eed Cloud Encampment No. 97, 1. 0. O.F., meets regularly 
every second and fourth Friday of each month. All Patriarchs 
are invited. Wm. Neufind, C. P. Geo. Burbank, Secretary. 

Lillian Lodge No. 20, Daughters of Rebekah, meets every first 
and third Saturday evening in each month. Mrs. W. H. Bradly, 
N. G. J. H. South, Secretary. 

Anchor Lodge No. 66, K. of P., meets every Monday evening. 
Visiting Knights always welcome. Dr. H. N. Warren, C. C. 
Dr. Warren, K. of R. and S. 

I. 0. of G. T., meets every Tuesday evening in the Good Temp- 
lars Hall. H. 0. Smith, G. T. 


Presbyterian Church — Services every Sunday morning at 11 
o'clock; Sunday evening services at 7 o'clock. Sabbath-school 
at 2 o'clock, immediately after the morning services. 

Preaching at the Christian church in Missouri Valley each 
alternate Sunday through the year. Services in the morning at 1 1, 
in the evening at 7:20. Sunday-school at 10 a. m. J. Hurd, 

Methodist Episcopal Church— Corner of Third and Superior 
streets. Preaching at 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m. Class meeting at 
12 M. ; Sunday-school session at 10 a. m. H. D. Meech, Class 
Teacher. H. B. Coe, Superintendent. Rev. J. H. Hestwood, 

St. Patrick's Church — Divine service every Sunday and Holi- 
day, except the third Sunday of each month. Rev. Father P. 
J. Morrin, Pastor. 


Is located on part of the west portion of the southwest quarter 
and on a part of the west portion of the southwest quarter of 
the northwest quarter of section 2, and on a part of the east por- 
tion of the southeast quarter and the east part of the southeast 
quarter of the northeast quarter of section 3, in township 81, 


range 41, the north line of the town site being 110 rods south of 
the north line of the county. This land was first entered from 
the Government by and came into the hands of John I. Blair, and 
by him was laid out into town lots and platted and recorded as a 

town at and about the day of' , 1866. The town site is 

one of the most beautiful in the West, is situated on a well ele- 
vated second bench, and by reason of the turn in the Boyer 
valley at this place, afibrds a magnificent view of all the Boyer 
valley for ten miles up or down the same, then to the west and 
northwest, the wavy like appearances of the bluffs suggest the 
rolling of the waves on a somewhat broken surface of the ocean; 
then far away to the east and south, the long expanse of prairie, 
so thickly dotted with farms and farm buildings, convince the 
beholder that this is a very paradise. 

Scarcely had the Blair Town Lot and Land Company placed the 
lots in market until there was a rush for property in this place, and 
by the fall of 1867 a snug little town appeared on the hill above 
the railroad. The Railroad Hotel and the Lawson House were 
in full blast, and Wheeler & Warner, as well as Coldren & 
Swart offered in the market a large, well selected line of lumber. 
At the same time the Pioneer Drug Store of Cotton & Manning 
offered their stock to the public, and J. J. Williams & Son 
opened a well selected stock of groceries, etc., etc. 

Mitchell & Bryant were the first dry goods merchants and 
Dwight Saterlee, M. D., the first physician in the place. 

Tommy McDonald's saloon, under the head of a " Respectable 
Place" was the first gin shop in the town . 

Passing from 1867 to 1877, finds Dunlap at the zenith of her 
greatness, for at that time this town had by far the largest trade 
of any town in the county, occasioned by reason of the quantum 
of territory which was dependent on her for supplies; but when 
the Maple branch of the C. & N. W. R. R. was built a great part 
of this northern trade was held at home, and also when the Chi- 
cago and Milwaukee passed east of the place, her towns spring- 


ing up every eight miles, captured another slice, and crippled the 
trade in proportion to the extent of the country cut off. 

In 1877 the old wooden buildings began to give place to and 
disappear on the approach of the large brick blocks, viz.: The 
Taylor block, the Hillas block, the Sherman building, the 
Exchange Bank, the Lehan block and the Patterson and Moore 
block. These are such buildings as do great credit to the push 
and energy of the people of the place, and though at the present, 
the town not commanding such a scope of country for trade as 
formerly, yet the more thickly settled condition of the country 
and the great improvements therein, give the town a magnifi- 
cent support. 

There is at present a stability of men and capital at Dunlap 
that makes Dunlap one of the best towns in the country for 
trade. Dunlap ships twice the amount of cattle of any one 
locality in the county, and stands third in the matter of ship- 
ment of grain. At the present Dunlap possesses the following 
conditions : — 

One Opera House, value, $10,000; M. E. Church Building, 
value, $5,000; Congregational Building, value, $6,000; Catholic 
Building, value, $5,000; Catholic Parsonage, value, $5,000; 
Baptist Church, value, $2,000; Free Methodists' Church, value 
$1,500; High School Building, value, $20,000. 

There are three resident ministers. Rev. H. H. Barton, M. E.; 
Rev. J. C. Cummings, Congregational; and Father MacCormack, 

In the Dry Goods and Grocery trade are the following: 
Barrett & Sons, buildings and cash in business, $45,000; Mr. 
M. C. Dalley, & Co., buildings and cash in business, $20,000. 

Hardware— 0. W. Taylor & Co., buildings and cash in busi- 
ness, $35,000; J. A. Moore & Co., buildings and cash in business, 

Drug Stores — D. & E. S. Saterlee, cash in business, $5,000; L. 
G. Tyler & Co., cash in business, $5,000; F. A. Dean & Co., $4,000. 


Newspapers — Dunlap Reporter, Editor, J. H. Purcell, circula- 
tion, 1,600. 

Hotels — Depot Hotel, C. L. Chapman, proprietor; City Hotel, 
Edward Murphy, Proprietor. 

Banks — Exchange Bank, Hon. H. B. Lyman, President, L. 
A. Sherman, Cashier; Dunlap Bank, Lorenzo Kellogg, President, 
S. J. Patterson, Cashier. 

Grocers — Samuel Liscomb, cash in business, $2,000; D. A. 
Mires, cash in business, $2,000; L. H. Pepper, cash in business, 
12,000; J. H. Reed & Co., cash in business, $3,000; William 
Forest, cash in business, $2,000. 

Boots and Shoes — Fox & Davelstein, cash in business, $5,000; 
Jacob Stilt, $600. 

Restaurants — J. M. Tanner, Samuel Ettenger. 

Livery — Mr. Samuel Baird, cash in business, $5,000; H. E. 
Pease, cash in business, $3,000; J. B. Frazier, cash in business, 

Agricultural Implements — A. D. Jones, cash in business, 
$3,000; all the hardware firms deal in this line. 

Millinery Goods— Mrs. L. A. Ballard, Mrs. M. A. Tyler. 

Wagon Manufactories — G. W. Pease, cash in business, $6,000; 
John Gall, cash in business, $2,500; Joseph Wettengell, $1,000; 
L. Dickson, blacksmith. 

Grain and Lumber — Col. J. R. Wheeler, cash in business, 
$50,000; A. J. McMartin, cash in business, $10,000; Benjamin 
Jackson, cash in business, $iO,000; Clement & Mace, $4,000. 

Lawyers — Major Charles McKenzie, P. W. Cain, L. S. Ams- 
den, J. A. Phillips, M..B. Baily, J. A. Travers, S. E. Wilmot. 

Dentist— B. P. Philbrook. 

Physicians—I). Saterlee, S. J. Patterson, C. F. Clark, G. B. 
Christy, P. Cavenaugh and D. L. Livermore. 

Butchers — J. M. Roskoph, Dago & Fagan. 

Furniture — S. Jenson, Charles Reiker & Son. 

Loan Agents — Reuben Ballard, W. H. Squire. 


This town is well governed, and contains a population of 1,700, 
and was incorporated in 1872 with a population of 450. 


located in the center of section 14, township 80, raage 42, was 
laid out in 1866, and was named for the old Postoffice at But- 
ler's Mills near hy. If the reader remembers, it has been form- 
erly stated that the naming of the Postoffice was the work of, 
or at the suggestion of, Mrs. L. D. Butler, and hence, indirectly, 
Woodbine was named by hqr. 

There is not a more beautiful location for a country town in 
all the United States than that of Woodbine, and it is perhaps 
the best locality for trade in the county, where such trade is 
based on the interchange of the product of the country for the 
goods of the merchant and the labor of the mechanic. 

This town got fairly on its feet during the year of 1868, at 
which time the business of the place was represented by the 

Woodbine Hotel — Gr. W. Pugsley. 

Physicians and Druggists — Cole & Crosswait. 

Woodbine Mills— J. W. Dalley. 

Lumber — Wheeler & Warner. 

Dry Goods, Groceries, etc. — Herman Bros. & Davis. 

Dry Goods and Notions — T. H. Abbott. 

Saddler and Harness Maker— D. S. Forney. 

There has been a radical change in Woodbine since that time, 
for this little village produces a very creditable showing, which 
is as follows: 

Dry Goods, Groceries, efc.— Kibler Bros., own building, $10,- 
€00, money in business, $20,000; C. D. Stevens, owns building, 
$3,000, money in business, $7,000; W. D. Crommie & Co., money 
in business, $4,000. 

Groceries and Provisions— F. A. Folts, money in business, 


Dry Goods, Boots and Shoes — L. Crane & Son, own building, 
$2,000, money in business, $2,500. 

Banks — Boyer Valley Bank, P. Cadwell, President, Wm. C. 
Cadwell, Cashier; own bank building, f 5,000, money in business, 
$10,000; Commercial Bank, Josiah Coe, President, H. M. Bost- 
wick. Cashier; own building, $3,000, money in business, $11,000. 

Drug Stores — J. Giddings & Co., own building, $2,000, money 
in business, $2,000; Wm. Sass & Co., own building, $1,000. 
money in business, $1,500. 

Lumber, Wire and Agricultural Implements — Mathews & 
Kling, own elevator, money in business, $25,000. 

Hardware — J. A. Boies, money in business, $2,500; T. J. Can- 
field; money in business, $2,500. 

Harness, etc. — S. L. Jefferson; money in business, $900. 

Boots and Shoes — Lennox & Co. ; money in business, $900. 

Furniture — N. L. Cole; money in business, $1,500. 

Jeweler — F. M. Smith; money in business, $1,500. 

Hotel — Woodbine House; proprietor, A. F. Clark. 

Attorney at Law — Wm. M. Magden. 

Physicians and Surgeons — T. M. Edwards, E. J. Bond, L. 
H. Buxton and W. C. Sampson. 

Loan and Insurance Agent — J. V. Mallory. 

Land and Insurance Agent — A. H. Williamson and L; W - 

Postmaster — L. W. White. 

Justice of the Peace — J. S. McClain and J. D. DeTar. 

Barber — A. F. Schuler. 

Auctioneer, Livery, etc. — E. R. Hefflin. 

Butcher — J. J. Weiss. 

W. J. Callender is now erecting a $2,500 building, and by the 
first of July, will have a $2,000 stock of groceries. 

In this village, during the fall of 1887, was established a Nor- 
mal School, which, from the outlook at the present, bids fair to 
become a permanent factor in the make-up of the town, and 


though at the time of the beginning it showed some signs of weak- 
ness, it has received that encouragement that indicates the staying 
qualities sufficient to warrant the prediction that this institution 
will live and greatly benefit the place, and not only this, but the 
western part of the State. In another part of this work, the 
attention of the reader has been called to the cost and the pres- 
ent prosperity of this laudable undertaking in which the whole 
county should manifest a deep and abiding interest. 

There are at the present four handsomely constructed church 
edifices in'the town, each of which, as well as the membership 
and Sunday-schools connected therewith, are favorably noted in 
the Ninth chapter hereof, to which the attention of the reader 
is now respectfully directed. 

The farming lands in the immediate locality of Woodbine, are 
of the very best quality, as is manifest by reference to the 
amount of corn marketed at this place between the 1st of 
November, 1887, and the 1st day of April, 1888, the same 
amounting to 200,000 bushels, with 100,000 of the last year's 
crop, to be sold by the 1st of July. Mondamin is closely pressed 
by Woodbine, in this particular. 


First had an existence on the records of the county on the 1st 
of October, 1855, at which time the plat of the town was filed 
and placed on record. 

The land on which this town was located was entered by S. 
W. Condit. The money necessary for the entry thereof was 
furnished by said Condit and the Hon. Thos. B. Neely. 

This village is the only place in the county which has stood 
the storms and weathered the blasts of a railroad rivalry, for it 
was the deliberate purpose and intent of the S. C. & P. R. R. Co. 
to knock the enterprise out of this place by the location of the 
tracks southwest of this town, but fortunately for the latter the 
make-up of the country was an injunction on the purpose and as 


subsequent events panned out, the location of the railroad station 
at old River Sioux, at a point so unwisely selected in the Gumbo, 
it became necessary for the railroad company to change its first 
selection and relocate the same on the left bank of River Sioux. 

Notwithstanding the railroad company has done all in its 
power to wipe out the village of Little Sioux, the place has 
grown and kept an even pace with the development of the 
surrounding country, and to-day is as lively and exhibits as much 
kicking propensity as any of those places situated on the railroad. 

Little Sioux has grown and prospered in spite of the railroads 
and will continue to exist until the present town of River Sioux 
merges and becomes part and parcel of the present town. 

In 1858 the business on Little Sioux was quite circumscribed, 
as manifest by the names of the following firms, viz.: D. M. 
Garnet, general merchandise; William Allen, Sea Foam saloon; 
Scofield & Son, flouring and saw mills; Hotel, Bonney House; 
Dr. Drake, physician and surgeon. 

Little Sioux was incorporated in 1880 with a population of 
369 and at present is possessed of 800 inhabitants. The business 
firms of the present are as follows: 

General Merchandise — Murray & McWilliams, money in bus- 
iness $12,000; G. M. Scott, money in business $5,000; Minturn 
& Bonney, money in busihess $1,500; G. H. Noyes & Co., money 
in business $2,600. 

Druggists— Ro^B Bros., money in business $2,000; Clark Ellis, 
money in business $2,000. 

Hardware— Q. L. Jones, money in business $4,000. 

Boots and ^/loes— Setchell & Son, $2,000. 

Lumber — A. M. Jones, money in business $3,000. 

Grocers— 3. W. Alton, money in business $500; T. J. Lanyon, 
money in business $1,500. 

flbfefe— Bonney House, F. M. Lanyon; City Hotel, J. E. Hunt. 

Banking— Q. F. Freeman, President; F. L. Ellis, Cashier; 
money in business $20,000. 


Graded school building cost $4,000; Catholic church building, 
$1,600; M. E. church building, $1,500; Latter Day Saints 
church building |2,00O. 

Meat Markets— John Crabb, money in business $800; Old 
Reliable, Geo. McEwen, money in business $200. 

Millinery and Dress Goods— Mrs. P. R. Long, $2,000. 

Dress Maker — Miss Laura Stewart. 

Physicians — Wallace & Silsby; Miller & Cad well. 

Attorneys — Linus Bassett. 

Livery — H. H. Bonney, 


as known at the present, is the Railroad Company's second 
addition, from the fact that the first place known by this cog- 
nomen was so located in the Willows and Gumbo that it was 
impossible for passengers and freight to make the station, and 
hence when Samuel Dewell, Esq., had purchased and laid out a 
town, which was the rival of the last named place, and had 
christened the same " Malta," the Railroad Company purchased 
his interest in the same and removed the station to its present 
site, still retaining the name of River Sioux. This was done 
in 1875. This place at the present is represented by the follow- 
ing firms, viz.: 

General Merchandise — Ed. Califf, money in business $6,000; 
Henry Herring, $6,000. 

Groceries and Drugs — G. W. Chace, money in business, $2,000. 

Hardware— B.a,rnson Driggs, money in business $2,000. 

Elevator — T. McLogan, money in business $40,000. 

At the two places last named there is in store at the present 
200,000 bushels of corn in the ear, waiting for better prices in 
the way of shipment and at the end of the roads. 



Is Harrison county's first born, for being named by the assem- 
bled wisdom of this glorious State, before birth, gave tp the 
place a vitality which, up to the present is marked and quite 
manifest. Magnolia antedated the railroads of the county thir- 
teen years, and had an acknowledged existence before there was 
a railroad within one thousand miles of the place. In the years 
of 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866 and 1867, this place, experienced her 
high tides, and were I now to say that there never was so small 
a place with as large a trade as Magnolia, during the years last 
named, I would be stating a truth which few, except those 
actually conversant with the magnitude of such trade would 
believe, but such is the fact. Clark and Yiesly, during the year 
of 1866 and 1867, commencing at the beginning of the spring 
trade of the former, and ending at the same of the latter year, 
sold $90,000 worth of goods, while at the same time the firm of 
Wood, Rudasill & Low disposed of two-thirds of that amount. 
At this place, the first postoffice in the entire county was had, 
and herein was the first dry goods store, unless the little stock 
of goods kept by Mr. LaPonteur at Fontainebleau, was to 
assume such dignity. The first church building in the county 
was erected here in the year 1858, just thirty years last past. 
The Congregationalists erected the first Congregational church 
building north of Council Bluff's. 

In 1868, the town was represented by the following business 
men, viz.: 

Dry Goods, etc. — R. Yeisley, Wood, Rudasill & Low. 

Druggists — J. Giddings and O'Linn & Brainard. 

Hardware — J. A. Boies and W. H. H. Wright. 

Harness, Saddlery, etc. — J. B. Akers. 

Conveyancer—^. C. Harshbarger. 

Furniture — J. W. Stocker. 

Land Agent, etc. — A. L. Harvey. 


Attorneys at Law — M. Holbrook, Joe H. Smitli, and Waterman 
& Dewell. 

Physicians & Surgeons — Drs. H. O'Linn and J. H. Rice. 

Editors and Proprietors of Western Star — Musgrave & Cook. 

The first bank to be established in this county had a being at 
this place in 1871, under the management of Dr. W. F. Clark, 
who soon thereafter associated with him Mr. Marcellus Hol- 
brook, who remained a member of the firm until 1873, at which 
time Holbrook removed to Missouri Valley, and began banking 
business there on his own account. 

The population of the village at present is 300, somewhat less 
than twenty years ago, but what has been lost in population has 
been more than balanced by school houses and church buildings. 
In fact. Magnolia is the banner town of the county for church 
buildings, having at the present, six first-class buildings, all well 
filled Sabbath by Sabbath. The following is the present status 
of the place, viz. : 

Bank—OXax^ & Ford. 

Notaries Public — C. H. Holmes and J. F. Minturn. 

Justice of the Peace — G. R. Brainard. 

Postoffice—J. F. Minturn, P. M.; A. M. Fyrando, assistant. 

General Merchandise — J. Dewell and J. F. Minturn & Co. 

Drugs— S. W. Clark. 

Physician — C. E. Cutler. 

Jewelry — D. F. Eaton. 

Harness — I. W. Depue. 

Hotel — Emerson House. 

Carpenters — L. R. Hatch and Isaac Shuppe. 

Masons— K. N. Oviatt and L. D. Morris. 

Blacksmiths— G. Benson & Son and W. Tovey. 

Painter— G. W. Smith. 

Public Schools— W. 0. Cummings, Principal. 

Civic Societies— k. F. & A. M., No. 126; J. F. Bedsaul, W. 
M.; 1. 0. G. T., A. M. Fyrando, W. C. T.; K. of L. and A. 0. U. W. 


Churches— Methodist, Rev. W. A. Welker, P.; Congregation- 
alists, Rev. C. P. Boardman, P.; Catholic, Father Hayes, P.; Ger- 
man Lutherans, Rev. J. M. Zellhofer; German Evangelical, Rev. 
J. F. Moffer; Latter Day Saints, Elder Chas. Derry. Catholics 
have services each alternate Sunday; all others each Sunday. 


Is situated on part of the southwest of southwest of northwest 
quarter, and part of the northwest of the northwest of south- 
west quarter of section 30, township 80, range 44, and part of 
the southeast corner of the northeast, and part of the northeast 
corner of the southeast quarter of section 25, township 80, 
range 45, in Morgan township. This land was part and parcel 
of the Swamp Land grant, and was originally entered by John 
Noyes, and coming into the ownership of John J. Blair, was 
by him in 186- laid out into town lots as per the plat of the 
town now of record in the Recorder's office. As has heretofore 
been stated herein, this town was named by those persons in the 
employ of Blair Town Lot & Land Co., and called Mondamin, by 
reason of the fact that this immediate neighborhood was the 
greatest corn producing locality on the Western slope. Name 
taken from Hiawatha, and in the Indian tongue means Corn. 

The Sioux City & Pacific Railroad Company first began operat- 
ing their road through this place a little more than twenty years 
since, and for the purpose of a few remarks, this village will be 
briefly noticed by decades. 

Captain John Noyes (now deceased) was the first to open a 
stock of dry goods and groceries at this place, which was done 
immediately on the starting of the cars, and soon the Shepard 
boys settled here, and became partners with him in the business. 
But little business in the way of shipping stock, corn, etc., was 
done at this place until ten years. had elapsed. 

Mr. Eli J. Haggeman followed in the matter of a stock of 
dry goods, and these two stores were about all that was done in 


that line until about 1872, at which time a new arrival located 
there in the person of Cheap John, or Henry Wiggs. 

This, then, brings us up to 1878, when there were three gen- 
eral stores, viz.: Z. T. Noyes, Eli J. Haggerman, and Cheap John, 
and one furniture store owned and kept by Lyman Haggerman. 

At the present there are four general dry goods stores, viz. : 

Z. T. Noyes with |15,000 capital; D. Garnet, & Co., $900; 
G. W. Noyes, $1,500; Thomas Regan, $1,500. 

L. E. Euffcorn, grocer, $500 capital; Thomas MacFarlane, 
drug store, $2,000 capital; William Stewart, drug store, $2,000 
capital ; E. J. Haggerman, owning and operating elevator, shel- 
ler, etc., $5,000 capital, with $5,000 more used in the purchase 
of corn, etc., etc. J. MacFarlane & Co., hardware, capital, $2,500. 

The hotels and owners thereof are Bonney & Noyes, and 
another kept by Mrs. J. W. Jamison. 

At the present time 150,000 bushels of corn in the ear is 
cribbed at this place, awaiting larger prices, and an outlet over 
the roads. 

Mondamin was incorporated in 1882, and had a population at 
the time of incorporation of 158; which at the present time has 
not doubled. 


is a quiet, handsomely located country town located on the S. C. 
& P. R. R., in the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter 
and the east half of the southeast quarter of the southwest 
quarter of section 30, township 79, range 44, and derives its name 
from an old postoflSce, established nearly thirty years last past, 
at the former residence of Mr. Thomas A. Dennis, now deceased. 
At the time of the application for the establishment of the post- 
office as before stated, the Department wished to know what name 
should be given when the office was established to which Mr. 
Dennis replied by writing the following word: '' Mo Dale," 
thereby intending that the "Mo" would abbreviate Missouri, 
and Dale meaning valley, which when put together would be 


Missouri Valley, but the Department mangled the intent of Mr. 
Dennis, and in naming the office spelled the word " Modale," 
and when this office was transferred to the present village the 
name of the town was named after the postoffice which was 
transferred thereto. 

The town was laid out and platted on the 26th day of March, 
1874, and was incorporated in 1882, since which time a city gov- 
ernment has been maintained so wisely that Modale is one of 
•the quietest, best governed towns in the county. 

The town is supported by a large and prosperous, highly cul- 
tivated farming community, and as I am informed, the grain 
merchants of the place have purchased since the 1st day of last 
November, being a period of five months, 160,000 bushels of corn, 
raised in the immediate neighborhood during the last crop year. 

The present business status of the place is measured by the 
following showing, viz. : 

Dry Goods and Groceries — Frank Ludwig, money in business, 
110,000; W. H. McQueen, |4,000; Deman Bros., |2,000. 

Hardware — Chas. S. Brown, money in business, $3,500. 

Drug Store — Dr. J. W. Huff, money in business $1,500. 

Hotels — Commercial Hotel, J. W. Martin; Ogden House, 
Lucy Haskins. 

Two Elevators — Ludwig; Boner & Sims. 

Livery— 0. D. Wilson; Geo. Boyd. 

Wagon Makers — Joseph Haskins. 

Blacksmith Shop — Samuel Harvey. 

Butcher Shop — John Hodson. 

Billiard Hall — A. J. Crouch. 

Physician and Surgeon — J. W. Drew. 

Justice of the Peace — W. W. Morton. 

Post Master — William M. Sharpneck. 

Catholic Church building, built in 1885; Methodist and 
Christian church building. 

One school building, a little behind the times. 



Is located on the southeast comer of the northeast quarter 
of section 15, township 78, range 45, and is the remains of the 
old towns of Cincinnati and Parrish City. These great empor- 
iums seemed to have been too previous, and like Jonah's gourd 
perished in about the same time they matured. 

The Junction is the legitimate offspring of the S. C. & P. 
railroad and while at the junction of the said road and the Fre- 
mont and Missouri Valley railroad it possesses no greater advan- 
tages by the reason thereof than the ordinary country stations, 
only as a place to ship the products of the country, and the close 
connection of travel. 

While the S. C. & P. railroad was building their bridge across 
the Missouri river at a point directly west of the station, there 
was a little ripple on the surface of local prosperity, but when 
this was completed, the place lapsed back into the- original con- 
dition, and at present is a little prosperous trading station. 

At the present time there are the following dry good stores 
doing a good business, viz.: A. N. Fountain & Bros, and Walter 
A. Smith, which supply all demands of the immediate neighbor- 

In and around this little burg there is a most magnificent 
country which can not be excelled by any other in all the States 
and Territories of this Union. 

California Junction and the surrounding neighborhood is per- 
haps the best improved part of any of the local stations in the- 
county. All the owners of the soil are men of wealth and are 
possessed of vast quantities of western push and energy so that the 
farms, farm-houses, in fact every thing pertaining to the home, 
is of the most superior make and kept in such good order as to 
arrest the eye of every observer. 

At the present writing there is neither school house nor church 
in -the place and without these no place can prosper, much less 
become a Chicago. 



Is the last birth of county as respects towns. Twenty-one paper 
towns appear on the records of this county, nine of which were 
still-born and at the present could only be discovered by reference 
to the records in the Recorder's office. 

In the summer of 1881 the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
railroad was built through Washington township in nearly a 
direct line north and south, and in the early part of 1882 the 
village of Persia was laid out by this railroad company and is 
located on the right bank near the Mosquito. 

The growth of the place has been healthy, not characterized 
by a mushroom development, but' of such character that indi- 
cates permanency. At the present time there are two good 
church buildings, one Methodist, the other Latter Day Saints, 
each cost in the neighborhood of $2,000. The school house at 
this town is a "neat, tasty and commodious structure, and speaks 
volumes in praise of the enterprise of the place'. 

The following list shows the present status of the business of 
the place, viz.: 

Dry Goods, Groceries — J. A. Burton, Joe. Seddon, J. H. Puckett. 

Hardware — Brayton Bros., M. Matson. 

Drug Store — McColm Bros. 

Hotel— G. H. Allee. 

Bank — Bank of Persia, L. W. Peasley. 

Agricultural Implements — D. Chambers, M. Matson. 

Millinery— M.ra. C. B. McColm. 

Dealers in Grain and Stock — Freeman Bros. & Walker; Rem- 
mington Bros., this firm owns an elevator; Dickman & Glass. 

Restaurant and Meat Market — George Garner. 

Livery & Feed Stables — Goff. 

Physician <& Surgeons — C. B. McColm, W. J. Brownrigg, F. 
M. Hill. 

Ministers — Methodist, Rev. Helmich; Latter Day Saints, 
David Chambers. 



The first school taught in the couaty was at Harris Grove, in 
the neighborhood of John A. and Michael McKinney's, in an 
old log Mormon cabin, during the winter of ,1851. Mr. James 
B. McCurley, now a resident of Logan, was the teacher. This 
building was so seated that the soft side of a puncheon was turned 
uppermost, backless, and rested upon five pins or legs (as then 
called), two at each end and one in the center. The large, open 
fireplace, in which was kept a huge fire, was the means of obtain- 
ing warmth, unless in the application of pig-nut hickory rods to 
the pupils. The desks for writing were not of the pattern of 
the present day, but basswood slabs affixed to the walls of the 
building, so that the pupils sat not facing the " master." In 
this primitive institution of learning Dr. B. T., Tom, Edward, 
Horace and Charley McKenney, and many others of this county, 
first acquired a taste for literature and began preparation to go 
out into the busy world as bread-winners and care for self. 
Mrs. B. F. La Parte, nee Miss Sylvia Harris, taught the first 
District School in the county in Elk Grove in the fall of 1853. 
The patrons of this school were Peter Brady, Samuel McGavren 
and David Toung. It was at this school that Addison Young 
received his first lessons and spanking. 

At that time the entire government of the pupils was not by 
" moral suasion," but by " hickory suasion," as still remembered 
by some of the pupils attending during that term, for Mr. Hor- 
ace McKenney still remembers that he received a first class 
26 (401) 


application of hickory rod suasion for the commission of an 
ofiPense which he alleges there was no intent on his part to vio- 
late any law, human or divine. Horace claims that the "'gist " 
of the crime is tjie "intent," and where there is no intent there 
can be no violation. In this rude building a school of three 
months was taught, and it is said with as good results as any 

The first school house erected in the county was one mile 
south of Magnolia, near the residence of Collins I. Cutler, and 
known as the Cutler School House, and was built by John 
Thompson in 1853. This was a hewed log house, and in its day 
was considered a model of neatness, comfort and convenience. 
This District at that time actually -put on airs, for instead of a 
dirt or puncheon floor, then common in many dwellings and fur- 
nished in all the school houses, the contractor brought all the 
lumber for the floor from Reel's saw mill on the Pigeon river in 
Pottawattamie county by ox teams, and was compelled to raft 
the same across the Boyer and swim the cattle both going and 
returning. This was not completed until the spring of 1854. 

During the winter months of 1853-54, Mr. Thomas B. Neely 
taught in Magnolia, in a little log cabin some ten or twenty rods 
west of the place where the old Bates House now stands. It is 
said that Mr. Neely's methods were quite practical, but lacked 
somewhat in force, yet when he got his " threshing machine " 
well at work, none of the scholars claimed but that there was, 
in the make-up of the teacher, sufficient force for that part of 
the profession. Then in 1856, at what is now known as Wood- 
bine, as well as at Bigler's Grove, hewed log school houses were 
built, and during the winter of that year, school was taught 

In 1857 a school house was erected in the town of Little Sioux, 
by private subscription, the greater portion of the amounts sub- 
scribed by the different persons being by them worked out in the 
way of labor in the construction of the building, or in furnish- 


ing material therefor. This was a hewed log house having a 
sawed floor; was at that time considered a very superior building, 
though the seats were made -of cottonwood slabs or planks, and 
the desks of the same material. The first school taught therein 
was by a Miss Grleason, since intermarried with B. F. Bonney, 
and a resident of Little Sioux. In the same year a school house 
was built at Calhoun and a school taught therein during the 
winter following. This was a frame building, and though not 
of the dimensions of the present buildings used for that purpose, 
in some degree provided for the then wants of the persons of 
achool-going age. ' This locality has never gotten to the front, 
either in the way of good school houses or churches. Since the 
organization of the county in 1853, but two school houses have 
been erected in the place, and at all times seem to have the 
glass broken from the windows thereof which at least indicates 
that the good people of that community have never set any sub- 
stantial store by their temple of learning; neither guarding the 
same as a thing of usefulness or as an ornament. And while this 
vicinity is the oldest settled place in the county, unless part of 
Cass township, there has never been a church built in the place. 
A moral might be learned as to this location, that a place where 
there are neither churches nor church buildings, scarcely ever, or 
I might say, never rises to a greater dignity than a country cross 
roads. , 

St. Johns, as soon as the village was laid out, went to work 
immediately .to build a school house, and, as I am informed, the 
foundation for a school house was the third foundation that 
kissed the soil of this handsomely located village. This town 
had her school building completed by the early part of April, 
1858, and school' was immediately in being, having a real 
good teacher. It would not be presumed that a detailed state- 
ment would here be given of the different dates at which the 
several school houses in the county were built, and I have only 
mentioned the above as a sort of reminder as to the time when 


schools were first introduced iu the couaty. As to the fact as to 
who were the early teachers in the county, I should have 
mentioned the name of Hon. S. King, who, without question, is 
the veteran school teacher in the county, and has wielded the 
moral suasion part and "hickory smarting part" perhaps more 
successfully than any teacher to-day in the county. I could 
name many schools that have raided the teacher and sent the 
same away in disgrace, satisfied, beyond peradventure of reason- 
able doubt, in the doctrine of " total depravity of thd trundle- 
bed population of such vicinity," where Mr. King has moved 
upon the works of these incorrigible ones, ahd'in less time than 
the reader is occupied in reading this, reduced them to proper 

Mrs. B. C. A-dams, Mrs. George Musgrave, Mrs. Richard Vin- 
ing, Mrs. Daniel Clark, Mrs. David Dungan (wife of David R. 
Dungan, D. D., of Des Moines,) Mrs. B. F. Dilley, Mrs. John 
W. Dally and James H. Warrick (now of Beaver Co., Penn.), 
Mr. A. G. Hard, .John G. Downs and Mrs. John Downs, were all 
knights of the spelling book and hickory-rod just thirty years 
ago. Under the law existing up to twenty days after the first 
Monday of April, 1858, the Board of Directors of each town- 
ship was intrusted with the examination of each teacher who 
might make application for the school, or this matter might be 
by them delegated to any person whom they might select for this 
special purpose. Up to the time of the taking effect of the act 
creating a County Superintendent of Schools, which was imme- 
diately after the first Monday of April, 1858, and even after this 
period, there was a great scarcity of teachers. Notwithstanding 
this, the schools taught by the before-named persons, gave as 
good satisfaction as those of • this present period. True, there 
was not the fuss and feathers and dress parade of the present 
day, nor was one-fourth of the time of the school taken up in 
examinations or preparatioris for worthless comic shows on the 
ending of each quarter, but the pupils then were taught to read, 


spell, grammar, and such thoughts in arithmetic as were of prac- 
tical benefit to the pupil when passing out of the school room 
into the jostle and hurry of life. 

The school taught by James B. McCurley, in the winter of 
1851 and 1852, as also the school taught by Hon. T. B. Neely, 
at Magnolia, were paid for by subscription, in fact were not pub- 
lic schools. In 1867 and 1868, a school was taught by Miss 
Hester Hillis, in the village of Magnolia, which was by sub- 
scription, in which none but the advanced ones were instructed, 
having for its object the preparation of persons for the vocation 
•of teaching. 

Other than those last named, the schools were supported by 
taxation pro rated by the value of the property of the persons 
and property in the county. By the incoming of the year of 
1860, every township in the county was well supplied with good, 
neat inviting school houses, and in the construction of the same 
the different Boards of Directors seemed to take especial pride. 

At this time, the greater portion of the land in the county 
was owned by non-residents, and the home people seemed to be 
very willing to be taxed themselves in order to make the non- 
resident land holder whack up his share for the development of 
the country, and as a result there sprang into existence a class 
■of school houses in the country, which for appearance, general 
utility and comfort could scarcely be surpassed. 

The country, after having prepared or rather furnished, good 
tasty and inviting school rooms, soon possessed applicants for the 
schools, so that there were opportunities to select from these the 
best teachers, and as a result, the county has never suffered by 
reason of the absence of talent. 

By the provisions of the act of 1858, it was compulsory on 
the different Boards of Directors of the several district town- 
ships to have taijght, in each sub-district, sixteen weeks of school 
■during the year, and in case the said number of weeks were not 
taught, then the sub-district forfeited the share of the appor- 


tionment fund that would have come to them, unless the fail- 
ure grew out of such conditions, as, when reported to the 
County Superintendent, would be by him deemed a sufficient ex- 
cuse for such a non-compliance with the requirements of the 
statute. This in part made it compulsory on the Board to fur- 
nish schools, but lacked the remaining provision of compelling 
the pupils of the sub-district to attend school. The teacher's 
presence complied with the law if there was not a pupil in at- 
tendance, but what consideration had the tax -payers for such a 
school ? 

I have ever thought that if the law compelled the payment 
of taxes for the betterment of society there should be means 
provided by which the party who parts with his money could com- 
pel the attendance at schools of those who were the most promis- 
ing candidates for the penitentiary. 

In the winter of 1869 and 1870 a high school building was 
erected at Magnolia, costing $8,000, which, when seated, etc., 
added somewhat more to this cost, and in the fall of 1870 one 
Mr. Carr taught therein until in the spring of 1871, at which 
time S. I. King, now an attorney at law in Logan, taught 
until in the fall of 1872, when Prof. J. D. Hornby assumed the 
charge thereof and maintained this position until the spring of 
1878. These men last spoken of received salaries for teaching, 
sums ranging from $800 to $1,000, for a term of ten months. 

This building was sought to be donated to the county without 
expense as a High School in 1873, but the measure was defeated 
by those who were jealous of the locality and sought to, and did, 
defeat the measure, from the fact that they supposed that any or 
all advanbements made by Magnolia would make the matter of 
the removal of the county seat from that place the harder. 

Local and personal jealousy has ever been a curse and has- very 
often been the cause of defeating measures which, if suffered to 
be passed into being, mankind would have been greatly benefited. 

Notwithstanding the county high school question suffered 


defeat, there came out of the maintenance of this Academy at 
Magnolia a good which at the present is scarcely susceptible of 
adequate measurement. The author hereof may not be as well 
informed as to other schools of the county, but this I do say, and 
challenge successful contradiction, that there are few schools in 
the county or elsewhere that have given the product for good that 
the Magnolia school has. A brief review, and the matter will be 
left with the reader, and 'tis this: of those who attended this 
school the following are lawyers, viz.: Thomas Arthur, Charles 
Bolter, John Engleman, Willie Hay ward, John Kime, Law. P. 
Smith and Charles Wood. The following are doctors, viz.: 
Frank Brainard, W. J. Brownrigg, Edgar Giddings, Thomas 
Hill, John Huff, Newton Rice, Fred. Robbins, Frank Stevens 
and Newton Silsby. Ministers and missionaries, viz.: Newill 
Hills, George Main, Walter Mills, John Newlan, Frank Min- 
turn ; as missionaries Mrs. Myra Case nee Rice, Miss Nellie Pres- 
cott and Miss Laura Harding. This latter is in a work in China, 
two in Mexico, County Officers: Thos. Arthur, Willis Stern 
and Wm. Wood. 

Druggists — Charles Adair, Harris Giddings and Gilbert Pey- 

Merchants — Sammy Berkley, Homer Crane, Mortimer Dal- 
ley, Eli Houghton, George Kellogg, Edmond Maule, David 
Maule, Chas. Roberts and Herbert Taylor. 

Loan Agents and Abstracters — Almor Stern, David Main and 
Leslie Sherman, and forty-one farmers of the following names: 
Blackmans, DeCou, Merchant, Mahoney, Ovaitt, Rice,. Ray- 
monds, Schwertly, etc. It must not be understood that all these 
finished their studies preparatory to taking up that of the dif- 
ferent professions and varied vocations in life, but that at this 
place the germ was engrafted into the warp and woof of each, 
which in time at such other places as Cornell, Iowa City, Tabor, 
etc., was made to blossom and bear the fruit at last indicated. 

During the time this school was in being from 1870 to 1877, 


there attended this school 266 different scholars, the greater por- 
tion of whom went out into the varied stations of life, some as 
professional men, others as bankers, teachers, county officers, 
and loan agents, though the greater part as farmers. All have 
succeeded well in life, and to the knowledge of the author 
hereof, not one of all the pupils who have attended this schoo 
•has ever committed an act by which a reproach has been brought 
upon his or her character, here or elsewhere. 

The first building of any superior pretensions, after that at 
Magnolia, was the one erected in Missouri Valley, about the 
year 1874, which was constructed of brick at a cost of quite 
$14,000. This building at the time the same was in process of con- 
struction, was by many of the people in that little city, and by 
men of reasonable judgment, deemed quite too large and expen- 
sive for the wants of the place; but the unexpected growth of 
this location soon convinced these of their error in judgment 
and by 1885, the Board let a contract for another building at the 
west end of the town at a cost of $9,000, which was completed 
by the spring term of 1887; this, though costing the taxpayers 
and patrons of this vicinity the sum last named, drew from the 
bondsmen of the contractor $3,000 more, which by reasonable 
equity should be paid by the Independent School District. The 
Independent School District of Missouri Valley has buildings 
costing the sum of 126,000, and are of that tasty and substan- 
tial character which recommends the judgment and foresight 
of those to whom was intrusted the business of providing for 
the wants of the locality in the way of school buildings. 

At the present time the following named persons constitute 
the School Board, viz.: J. S. Wattles, President; J. S. Dewell, 
Secretary; M. Holbrook, Treasurer; and E. Edgcomb, S. S. 
Boner, E. J. Chapman, C. P. Brandruff and C. J. Carlisle. 

The principal and teachers are as follows, viz.: E. M. Cole- 
man, Superintendent; Ida A. Mosher, teacher High School; 
Nellie Bell, Grammar Department; Elh Bell, Intermediate; Mrs. 


Sniff, Third Primary; Nellie Powers, same as last named; Rachael 
Banning Second Primary; Jennie Carpenter, primary. 

In these buildings there are ten rooms,' with ten teachers and 
the one Superintendent, for which the patrons pay the sum of 
f 7,500 per year, viz.: Superintendent $1,200, each teacher f510. 
The number of scholars enrolled therein is 575. 

This is one of the best schools in the county, and is highly 
prized by the residents of the place. 


Within the past decade experimented on a normal school, 
but for some reason, whether because of the want of ability 
and conditions of those who attempted the experiment, the 
undertaking failed, is not recorded, nevertheless, after a trial 
of over one year there was a failure, and the normal school col- 
lapsed. Yet, from this undertaking a good resulted to the town 
in the way of calling the attention of the business men of the 
locality to the real wants of the case in the way of commodious, 
tasty and comfortable buildings. It can be truthfully said that 
Dunlap has the handsomest, most commodious and best arranged 
school building of any locality in the county at the present writ- 

This building was erected in the year of 1880, and at the cost 
of, or is now valued at $20,000; is brick, two stories, centrally 
located, and in the way of teachers, Superintendent and other 
expenses, costs the Independent District per year, the sum of 
$6,000. There are at the* present time 419 pupils on the rolls of 
the school, and governed and taught by the following persons: 
M. A. Reed, Superintendent; Miss Jennie M. Clement, High 
School; Miss Lillie Christie, Grammar Department; Miss Mary 
Devitt, Second Intermediate; Miss Nellie Gilchrist, First Inter- 
mediate; Miss Grace Cowdry, Second Primary; Mrs. R. L. Childs, 
First Primary. 

The Board of Directors are as follows, viz. : G. P. Morehead, 


President; M. C. Dalley, Treasurer; E.. Ballard, Secretary; B. J. 
Moore, J. B. Patterson, L. A. Sherman and E. Barrett. 

This building, as well as the school, is an especial pride of the 
residents of this thrifty village, and if handsome school build- 
ings and good talent in the school rooms mark the taste and 
intelligence of a people, this locality, without doubt, has the esi- 
dence always at hand to prove beyond successful contradiction 
that no community in the county can surpass them. 


This Independent School District is as well to the front in the 
matter of school buildings, tastily laid out grounds and general 
conveniences as any of the other places in the county. In fact 
those who have taken upon themselves the burden of the school \ 
interests of the place have neither spared time or money to prop- 
erly, and I might say, lavishly provide for all the wants of the 
patrons of the school in the way of first class privileges. The 
school building is centrally located, has large spacious grounds 
in the very best place in the town, and has been beautified and 
adorned with fences, shubbery, sidewalks, etc., to the full capac- 
ity thereof. Ninety per cent of the pu pils attending the school 
need not step from a good, clean sidewalk on the way to or from 
the school building. There is one thing that the people of the 
town take a deep and abiding interest in, and that is in the 
appearance of their school rooms and the sidewalks leading 
thereto. The school building at Logan was erected in the Cen- 
tennial year, and cost the taxpayers of the locality the sum of 
$10,870. It is a substantial brick building, built by Mr. John 
Hammer, of Council Bluffs, is of the latest style and possessed 
of all the latest appliances and conveniences extant, and heated 
by furnaces. This school has been carefully superintended by 
some of the best minds which this State afforded, in the person 
of Professor S. G. Rogers, now of Washington, D. C, Professor 
Rogers gave directions to this school for an unbroken period of 


nine years and had a love for the same bordering on adoration, 
and as a result he entered into all the minutia of the entire 
charge with a zeal very commendable, and which during all the 
time of his employment gave such evidences of his superior skill 
that all are now compelled to admit that the subject of these 
remarks could scarcely be excelled for ability in both the matter 
of governing and teaching. The people of Logan have a great 
pride in their schools, and are so ambitious in respect thereto, 
that they are determined that while there may be some that are 
equal, none shall be superior to this. The cost of maintaining 
this school for the present year is |5,763.10, giving employment 
to one Superintendent and the following teachers: 

Professor C. S. Page, Principal; Mrs. Adele Card, Grammar 
Department; Mrs. B. L. Page, Intermediate; Mrs. Mary Mike- 
sell, Second Primary; Miss AUie MeCoid, First Primary; Miss 
Belle Wylie, Assistant First Primary; Mr. Stephen King, Inter- 
mediate and Primary. 

The number of pupils on the roll is 290. 

The present Board of Directors are as follows: 

Hon. P. Gadwell, President; George W. Wilson, Secretary; 
John W. Read, Treasurer; P. R. Crosswait, D. M. Hardy, W. B. 
Copeland, George Penney and W. W. Milliman. 


The Woodbine Normal School at Woodbine is an institution 
for the preparation of teachers and for furnishing young men 
and women a business education. The establishing of this 
school grew out of the necessity for more extended and more 
thorough work in the common branches than are furnished in 
the common and graded schools. 

In January, 1887, the plan for such a school was presented to 
the people of Woodbine by Messrs. Kinney, Matter and Riddell, 
then the school principals of this county, who proposed to estab- 
lish the school if the town would furnish a suitable building. 


The proposition was accepted and a substantial brick building 
with seven departments, heated by steam, was ready for use by 
September, costing $13,754. The curriculum embraces three 
departments, namely, a normal department, for the professional 
training of teachers; an academic department for those who 
desire to prepare to enter the higher classes in college or the 
university, and a business department where young men may 
qualify themselves for any branch of mercantile business in 
which they may wish to engage. The school has the superior 
advantage of being connected with the public schools of Wood- 
bine, in which the normal students have the privilege of teaching 
under direction of experienced instructors. The enrollment in these 
three departments has already reached 100, and with the encourage- 
ment and patronage the school merits the number will soon be 
doubled. The cost of tutition is seven dollars per term which is the 
only charge of any kind made. The instructors are, C. C. Matter, 
mathematics and book-keeping; H. A. Kinney, natural sciences 
and science of teaching; W. 0. Riddell, history, literature and rhe- 
torical studies; Marie Waldt Riddell, French and German, voice 
culture and superintendent of Kindergarten department; Causine 
Kern, instructor in instrumental music; Anna Kern, teacher of 
painting and art drawing. The location is not excelled by any 
in the state for healthfulness, purity of atmosphere and water, 
morals of the inhabitants and facilities of railroad trayel. 

This should meet the encouragement which the merits of the 
faculty suggest from the fact that the ability and experience of 
those who have undertaken this enterprise are of the first order. 
The Board of Directors of this Independent District have done 
all in their power in the way of furnishing the best and most im- 
proved buildings and under the supervision of the faculty and pres- 
ent board failure seems impossible. As before stated, not one year 
has passed since the undertaking first originated, and up to the 
present the success of the same has more than met the expectation 
of those who matured and carried into being, the plan. Those 


who are contemplating the education of their children are watch- 
ing this undertaking as it is struggling into existence, and should 
the success be such as is contemplated, the wants of the place 
will soon demand other and greater buildings than now at hand. 
This should meet the Approval of every parent in the county, 
for here there is furnished a means of education at the very 
threshold of every home, and advantages equal to that of any at 
a distance. 

Faculty— R. A. Kinney, natural science; W. 0. Riddell, liter- 
ature and rhetoric; C. C. Matter, mathematics and book keeping; 
Miss Ella Minturn, principal of practice school; Marie Waldt Rid- 
dell, French, German and voice culture; Miss Causine Kern, 
instrumental music; Miss Anna Kern, painting and art drawing. 

Board of Education — Geo. H. Kibler, President; T. L. Can- 
field, Secretary; H. M.Bostwick, Treasurer; George A. Mathews, 
J. S. Vanscoy, D. T. Lyon, Matthew Hall, Geo. H. Rathbun. 


In 1878, built a large school house, and furnished the same with 
the latest and most approved furniture which could be had, so 
that when the same was completed and furnished, no locality in 
the county was better supplied with good, tasty, comfortable 
school rooms than this place. This building cost the sum of 
$3,0Q0, to which add the cost of the furniture, would give an 
amount of $4,000. There is not in the entire county a more 
beautiful location for a school building than that at the village 
of Little Sioux, from the fact of the near proximity of the same 
to the Little Sioux River. Near the school house, the high, 
grassy and shady banks of the above-named river keep the 
waters thereof prisoner as the deep current sweeps along in 
silent grandeur, the handsomely planned, growing and thrifty 
artifical groves, together with the presence of such a volume of 
water so moistens, and cools, and softens the atmosphere that 
the burning, biting and blistering rays of the summer's hottest 
sun is scarcely perceptible. 


This village, like all others ia the county, guards the school 
interests with watchful and jealous care, and selects none but the 
best teachers for training its youth. At the present time 
there are four teachers employed and hard at work in this lauda- 
ble vocation, viz. : 

C. W. Hargens, Principal; Miss Agnes Bonney, Miss Anna 
Arthur and Miss. L. M. Garnet, Assistants. The cost of maintain- 
ing this school for the present year is $2,375. Number of pupils 
on the rolls 167. 


This place, being situated in the very center of the banner 
corn-growing part of all the West, and backed by such a farm- 
ing community, and having a trade that rivals many other 
places of greater population, has not been unmindful of the 
importance of the benefits resulting from a well-regulated school. 
In this place the school buildings have not kept pace with the 
importance and growth of the locality, but having at a time in 
the past furnished a house, it was thought that the same would 
answer the purposes for the present, atid thus at a near day in the 
future shall dispose of and substitute a new one which would far 
surpass that of any other place of like size in the county. The 
character of the patrons of the schools in this place is such 
that this opinion is not without foundation, for in the near 
future there will be such a school building in Mondamin 
as will surpass any in towns of like size in the county. This 
place, though not having the best school buildings in the 
county, has a class of teachers which is not second to any in the 
county. The progress of this school, as I am credibly informed, 
leads many others where there are greater amounts expended 
year by year in the furtherance of the cause of common school 
education. At this place they employ two teachers, and the 
schools cost the tax-payers |1,Q00 per year, and at the present 
there are two teachers, viz.: Miss S. L. Logan and Miss Maggie 
Ellis. Number of scholars enrolled, 125. 


The School Board, viz.: R. S. Walker, President; Thos. 
MacFarlane, Secretary; S. H. Noyes, Treasurer, and H. P. 


Scarcely a ten-year-old, is ambitious and has made rapid prog- 
ress in the way of schools and school facilities, from the fact 
that scarcely had the village been named and a half a score of 
residents settled there, until the subject of " schools " was upper- 
most in the minds of her people. 

In 1884 the school building was erected, and is a large, well- 
planned, commodious and comfortable structure, costing the 
sum of 12,000. The people of this beautifully located village 
have exhibited much enterprise in the establishment and main- 
tenance of their schools, and have selected and employed as 
teachers only those of excellent qualifications and ripe experience, 
vrho, in return for the expenditure, have given to the patrons of 
the school a good consideration in the way of rapidly advancing 
the pupils who have been intrusted to their care. The people of 
Persia think, and have good cause upon which to found their 
conclusions, that they have as good a school as this county pos- 
sesses, barring those that teach the higher studies. 

In this school there are employed the following teachers, viz. : 
C. L. Crow, Principal; Miss Vernia Irving, Intermediate; Miss 
Hattie Hatch, Primary; Miss Laura Brick, Music, and Miss 
Hattie Hatch, Drawing and Painting. 

Those on the school rolls number 120, and the cost of support- 
ing this school for the present year is f 1,360. 

The School Board at present is composed of the following per- 
sons, viz.: C. A Brace, President; M. Matson, Secretary; David 
Chambers, Treasurer, and W. D. BuUard. 

There is a great difference between the schools of the present 
day and those taught at the time Mr. J. B. McCurley, Thos. B. 
Neeley, Judge King and others, began teaching in the county. 
However, in regard to the progress of schools, if the same has 


kept step with all other conditions, it is as much as could be rea- 
sonably expected of any pfeople. The country was then a sea of 
flowers and prairie, nearly uninhabited, with a promising future, 
but far from civilization; no railroads within 500 miles, the mar- 
kets only those of domestic demand. At the present no locality 
is better supplied with railroad facilities, rushing, energetic, 
goaheadative and moral inhabitants, a place where every pros- 
pect pleases, and all join in the furtherance of every undertaking 
which has for its object the advancement of educational inter- 
ests. With these conditions, who could wonder at the present 
transformation? Then not a dollar of public money by which 
to maintain the schools, the county then being unorganized; now 
with $5,514,229 to tax for the support of the educational necessi- 
ties of the youth of the county, is certainly in happy contrast 
with the conditions of the beginning. This thought is learned, 
that wherever two, three or four or more families of American 
origin of the North settle, the secondary thought is how to edu- 
cate the children. If there are public funds, then so much the 
better; but in, case of the absence of this, then they readily tax 
themselves, and the common school goes on as regularly as if all 
things were furnished by the public. I have thought that, with 
the present condition of our schools, and the manner in which 
they are prized by the parent, these privileges are not appreci- 
ated by the pupils, because there is so much of this injected into 
the life of the young, unmixed with the rough, hard toil, which 
so often drives the student to double energy in the obtainment 
of an education, that the School room or place of study becomes 
distasteful and insipid, and hence there is a drag, and but little 
is accomplished. 

In 1875, the people of the county paid |9,810.66, as county 
school tax, and'the further sum of $59,712.93 district school tax, 
making a total for the schools and buildings of the county, the 
sum of $69,523. At this time the total tax of the county, for 
all purposes, was $139,470.09, so that nearly one-half of all the 


taxes paid for this year were for the purposes of supporting and 
providing for the schools therein. 

In 1876, there were in this county fifteen district townships; 
twenty-nine independent districts, seventy-three sub-districts, 
ninety-seven ungraded and seven graded schools, employing 
85 male and 128 female teachers, during which year there were 
5,052; 2,549 males, and 2,503 females of school age in the county, 
of which only 3,052 were enrolled as scholars in these schools. 
At the same time there were ninety-eight frame, six brick, and 
one log school houses, the values of all added, made the total of 
values $80,610, and value of apparatus in use at these, $2,844. 
By adding to the above the sum of $69,523, the amount that was 
paid to this county for the year of 1876, as per quota of the per- 
manent school fund, coming from the State, viz.: $2,435.35, 
tells the amount which the people of the county expended dur- 
ing that year for the support of her schools, viz.: $71,958.35, 
which for a new county is proof positive that the common 
school interest was very near the heart of the peopte. 

In 1885 the number of district townships was 15, and inde- 
pendent districts 41, with 87 sub-districts in the 15 district 
townships, in all of which there were 123 ungraded and 31 graded 
schools. During this year there were 67 males and 224 females 
employed at teaching in the county. At this time the persons 
of school age in the county were, 3,558 males and 3,516 females; 
total 7,084; of whom 5,613 were enrolled in the schools, leaving 
more than one in six that never entered the school room as 
scholars. Then there were 124 frame and 7 brick school build- 
ings of the value of $105,410, and apparatus to the value of 14,743, 
to which add 747 volumes in the different libraries. 

In 1887 there were 15 district townships, 35 independent dis- 
tricts, 123 ungraded and 10 graded schools employing 48 
male and 219 female teachers. At the same time there were 
3,751 males and 3,567 females of school age in the coanty, 
amounting to 7,318, of which 5,585 were enrolled as pupils, leav- 


ing one in every eight that did not enter the school room. At 
the same year there were 132 frame and T brick school buildings 
used and owned by the public, of the total value of $126,480, and 
school apparatus of the value of $3,355; and during the year 
there was of the public funds expended in the way of building 
school houses the sum of 113,312.44; and paid to teachers as 
their salaries $45,494.44, and as contingent expenses in main- 
taining schools the sum of $16,792.10, making the sum of 
$58,806.88 expended alone for schools, to which add the amount 
expended for building houses for the same time; the people of 
the county paid out as cash obtained by taxation during the past 
year the sum of $75,598.98. To the reader I submit the propo- 
sition: Has the income from this expenditure equalled the expec- 
tation? Not waiting for an answer, I will give it myself, by 
saying that our boys and girls of the present age so far as a 
knowledge of the elementary branches are concerned, at fifteen are 
much riper than a vast majority of voters formerly were at twenty- 
five and thirty; and historically are well advanced. In some other 
page of this book I have stated that a professional gentleman in 
Harrison county, in 1857, did not know the difference between 
the Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of In- 
dependence, but to-day there is not a school boy in this county 
but can tell the difference as soon as two lines of either are read 
in his hearing. The War of the Rebellion was a great incentive 
toward the education of the masses, and this was accomplished 
through the great educator, the Public Press, so that the intelli- 
gence of the present age should not be measured by that of the 
past. The conditions have been unequalled : i. e., incentives as well 
as opportunities. The parents have had a largeness of intelli- 
gence to hew out and build up a new country, provide for all tem- 
poral and religious and educational wants of the children, but 
the sequel remains to be written. Will our girls and boys be 
proportionately better than their parents? 

hi8t0ey of harbison ooujlity. 419 

teachers' institutes 

have had an existence in the county for the last twenty years, 
but up to 1871 but little record is found on which to found a 
beginning. At this date the full force of the pedagogue element 
was in line, which in a manner indicated the strength and abil- 
ity of this important fraction of the future, and since that date 
has convened year by year until the proportions of this element 
of society have given the index finger as to the future of the 
county and fraction of country. Since 1875 these yearly con- 
ventions of those who had selected the business of teaching as a 
vocation in life have increased in volume until there assembles 
in these yearly meetings 125 to 150 persons who interchange 
thought as to the best modes of teaching, as well as give to the 
County Superintendent an opportunity of measuring the depth 
of qualification of those who are candidates for this all-import- 
ant position. 

Since the repeal of the law making it obligatory on all teach- 
ers to attend these institutes, there has not been that attendance 
and ability of teachers that preceded this, from the fact that all 
the older teachers in the county could scarcely donate three or 
four weeks of time as well as the expense consequent, when the 
wages of the teacher at the end of the year scarcely equaled 
that of the common farm hand whose only knowledge consisted 
in the guidance of the plow and the best manner of squander- 
ing his time so as best consume the same and hurry up the day 
of payment. During the last two preceding institutes, the per- 
sons enrolled have been young candidates starting out to win 
their spurs in the teaching tournament, and many of the older 
ones have only taught so as to procure a wedding outfit or so 
replenish their finances as to pull through a collegiate educa- 
tion. The younger teachers are the ones benefited by these 
meetings. What the seniors throw off the juniors absorb. 
During these institutes much could be learned, and some do 
accept the opportunity, while many others take this as an oppor- 


tunity fq/- a good time, and at the close of the institute find but 
little benefit except in the fun furnished by the numerous escap- 
ades had and garnered during the occasion. 

During the first twenty years of the present school system 
some little difficulty was experienced in the manner in which 
the different funds were kept by the different District Township 
Treasurers. Some of these, though honest to the core, had not 
sufficient knowledge of business to keep the accounts separate 
and correct. Others had a disposition to entangle the accounts 
so that they could not be straightened by the Board of Direct- 
ors or themselves, and hence had method in their madness. 
Others reported that their houses in which they kept the school 
money had been burglarized or burned and thus the school funds 
were lost without any dishonesty on their part, and therefore the 
different districts should lose the fund and not the Treasurers. 
The question of the burglarizing of the home was brought to 
the attention of the court in the case of The District Township 
of Taylor vs. W. W. Morton, the Treasurer of that township. 
In this case the township brought action against the defendant 
for some $600 or $800 which the said Morton had drawn from 
the County Treasurer and which he kept in his house, and when 
the day of settlement came he stated to the Board that his house 
had been burglarized and this money stolen. In the courts he 
pleaded that he had used reasonable care and diligence in the 
keeping of said funds; that the same was stolen from him with- 
out any fault or negligencje on his part, and that, if he was to 
be held accountable, the plaintiff should have furnished him a 
fire and burglar-proof safe, etc. This occurred in 1871, and the 
case being heard in the District Court in 1872, was, by the defend- 
ant, appealed to the Supreme Court of the State and a decision 
rendered thereon in 1873. (See 37 Iowa, page 553.) 

As stated in the opinion of this Court, this rule is laid down: 
" At this day, when public funds in such vast amounts are com- 
mitted to the custody of such an iipmense number of officials, 


he who is to hold the money of the district, will not be relieved 
of any liahility by reason of real or fancied losses. He and his 
bondsmen must make good the amount, regardless of accident or 
loss, otherwise occasioned." 

Again, in the case of Jed. W. Smith, of Union township, the 
township brought action against him, he being a former Treas- 
urer, and when he set up the defense that his house was burned 
without any fault or carelessness on his part, and that in the 
burning of his house the money belonging to the school funds 
of the township were consumed at the same time, the case going 
to the Supreme Court, as found in 39 Iowa, pp. 9-14, the court 
affirmed the doctrine established in Taylor Township vs. Morton. 
Since that time no effort has been made, either by burglars or 
fire, to take away the funds raised by taxation for the education 
of the children of school age in the county. In nearly all the 
townships of the county there are now Treasurers who are com- 
petent and honest, but I am sorry to say that in some of the 
townships some of these officials have not kept their accounts in 
such a manner as to be intelligible to themselves or others. 




There is some difficulty in determining what locality in this 
county had the first church organization, but when all facts and 
statements are heard and determined, the conclusion is reached 
that Harris Grove organized the first church. The first place 
where preaching was had was at the residence of Mr. Kirtland 
Card, at which place in the spring of 1853 a class was organized 
with the following members: Mr. Thomas Reeder and wife, Mr. 
William Howard and wife; however preceding this a certain 
individual who was styled by the people of the neighborhood as 
" Crazy Higgins," attempted to preach to the settlers of this 
neighborhood, but in the effort did not accomplish anything in 
consequence of the rattled condition of his intellect. This 
church organization was effected under the superintendence of 
Rev. H. A. Tarkington, who in a few weeks thereafter organized 
a class at the county seat, Magnolia, composed of the following 
named persons, viz. : Josiah Crom and wife, Mrs. David Young, 
Mr. Peter Barnet and wife and Miss Sylvia Harris. This last 
was soon suffered to break into fragments, or rather lapse back 
into former conditions, occasioned by some malfeasance in 
morals, practiced or- attempted to be perpetrated by the minister, 
Mr. Tarkington. These classes last spoken of were under the 
guidance of the M. E. Church, and were not suffered to remain in 
this shepherdless condition longer than the first conference, for 
in the fall of the year of 1855, Rev. William Scott, a M. E. min- 



ister, took up the work as it was left by the former slandered, 
misguided or injured pastor, and immediately reorganized the 
class at the place last named by the ingathering of the follow- 
ing persons in addition to those last named, viz.: Mrs. D. E. 
Brainard, Mr. Jacob Fulton and wife, Mrs. Isaac Bedsaul, et al. 

In 1857, a M. E. minister by the name of Rusk took up the 
labor as left by Rev. Scott and continued until in 1858, when he 
was relieved by the Rev. Jas. S. Rand. 

In the month of May, 1857, occurred the organization of the 
first Methodist class in the neighborhood of Woodbine, where 
the meetings were held in the school house, then located near 
the residence of Dr. Cole. The first class consisted of the 
following named persons, viz.: Dr. J. S. Cole and wife, (now Mrs. 
Snyder) Mr. Henry Hushaw and wife, Mr. E. P. Mendenhall 
and wife, and Mrs. Johnson and Hiram Moore and wife. 

Mr. Hiram Moore was at this time possessor of a certificate by 
which he was licensed to preach, and became the local minister 
of the place under the superintendence of Messrs. Rusk, Rand, 
Farlow, Conrad and following ministers. 

In 1858, a class was organized near Little Sioux of the follow- 
ing persons: Solomon J. Smith and wife, George Main and wife 
and some three or more persons. 

This was the beginning of Methodism in Harrison county and 
well do the history and statistics of the present warrant the 
hope indulged in by these old fathers and mothers of the early 
days. The entire M. E. Church was furnished spiritual food by 
only one minister, and the entire county could not furnish him 
with a reasonable support, for in the records of the church it is 
divulged that Rev. Scott received $175 per year. Rev. Rusk flOO 
Rev. James S. Rand $75 per year, as appropriations from the 
mission fund for mission labor in this county. 

In 1858, the Harris Grove class was divided, part thereof still 
retaining the name and being reinforced by Mr. William Tucker 
and wife, Mr. H. V. Armstrong and wife, Mr. James Henderson 


and wife, Mr. William Dakan and wife and Mr. Ed Ervin and 
wife, became one of the strongest classes in the county, the 
other fraction going to a place then called Buena Vista, subse- 
quently called Whitesboro, and now the remains of former 
greatness, where a class was composed of Mr. S. King and his 
(then) wife, Mr. George White and wife, and the family known 
by the name of the Littles, Mr. J. Z. Hunt and wife, Kirtland 
Card and wife and Shadrack Card and wife. 

A class was organized on the south line of the county near 
St. John, and was composed of Mr. Berry and wife, Mr. Jacob 
Fulton and wife. Father Colver and Mother Colver, Mr. Joseph 
Colver, and numerous other persons whose names are now gone 
from memory. 

The early Methodists will well remember the following Pre- 
siding Elders, who have labored in this county, viz.: Rev. S. 
Guylee, in 1858; Rev. Arthur Bradley, in 1860; Rev. Bennett 
Mitchell, in 1862, 1863 and 1864; Rev. E. M. H. Flemming, in 
1865, 1866, 1867 and 1868; Rev. Joseph Knotts, in 1869, 1870 
and 1871; Rev. Benj. Shinn, 1873-1875; B. F. W. Crozier, 
1876; J. Hestwood and Thos. Barnhart, 1879; Rev. W. S. Hooker, 
until 1883, and the Rev. W. T. Smith until the present. The 
itinerant ministers were usually men of great zeal, full of vital 
piety, and practiced the given precept, viz. : " Ask abundantly 
that ye may receive." 

On the ending of the year of 1858, the church became self- 
sustaining, and has grown with a growth far surpassing the 
hopes of the most sanguine. 

In 1867 the first M. E. Church building in the county was 
completed at Magnolia, and though digressing a little from the 
subject, the Methodist people of the county felt greatly elated 
at having a church building of their own in which to worship. 
This was not alone built by the people of Magnolia, but was the 
joint effort of all those of this distinct persuasion in the county. 
The itinerant has been present with the formation of every 
settlement, to give the people the Gospel, and thus lay the 



foundations which constitute the prosperity and greatness of 
county or commonwealth. Oh, the strides of the last quarter of 
a century! but the church has kept her position with them all. 

Some few of the present age exultingly tell us of the purity, 
greatness and power of the former days, and lament the degen- 
eracy of the present. Such only are capable of measuring the 
past in its infantile condition, and do not take the time to prop- 
erly measure that which exists at the present; but with all this 
distrust and want of thought, the world is getting better, and 
the church is marching on with rapid strides. To fasten the 
above thought, the following official figures are given, viz.: 

For the pastorate year of 1886 and 1887, for the county of 
Harrison, the herein named M. E. charges in the county con- 
tributed the following amounts to the Missionary fund, viz. : 

Logan, 1100; Woodbine, |120; Persia, $62; Magnolia, $70; 
Beebetown, $114; Dunlap, $60; Missouri Valley, $104; Little 
Sioux, $86. Total, $715. 

And instead of the entire county being one charge, now it is 
divided into eight, each supporting a minister, and contributing 
in turn to the mission fund as above stated. 

The following table shows the condition of this church at 
present in the county: 

Pastors in Charge in 






Value of 







No. of Sab- 

Rev. A. Thornbrue 

Rev. H. H. Barton 

Rev. D. M. Helmick. . . . 

Rev. Wilber Pisk 

Rev. W. A. Wilker 

Rev. J. Hesfcwood 

Rev. P. H. Hai-vey 

Rev. M. A. Wright 



Beebetown. . 
Little Sioux. 
Magnolia . . . 
Mo. Valley . . 


Woodbine . . 
Valley City.. 


$ 1,200 




$ 1,200 







Nine Mininsters 



$ 16,600 


$ 5,900 


This, then, represents the whole of Methodism in this county 
at present. 



The first organization of the above named Christian denomina- 
tion, in this county, was perfected in the month of April, A. D., 
1855, at Magnolia. There were only three persons constituting 
the same whose names are as follows, viz. : Dr. J. H. Rice, John 
Danielson and Rev. W. W. Luddon. Mr. Luddon was a man 
of ripe education, of excellent character, though not fluent of 
speech. In the early spring of 1856 this church received addi- 
tions to their strength by the following persons uniting there- 
with, viz. : Mr. Silas Rice and wife, Mr. S . E. Hillis and wife, 
Miss Julia Hopkins, and Mrs. Irish, a sister of Mr. Silas Rice. 
In the early fall of this same year, Mr. Luddon resigned his place 
in the pulpit, and the Rev. H. D. King, of Trumbull county, 
Ohio, asumed charge of this part of the moral vineyard. Here 
this branch of the church hopefully and earnestly labored for 
the good of the Master, worshiping in such houses as could be 
had, which, at the present day would appear very primitive, but 
their hearts and souls were in the work, as well as a determina- 
tion to succeed, the foundation of their every thought. 
Mr. King and his estimable wife were a very God-send to many 
of the people of that place, for it is not the eloquent manner in 
which words are spoken that always reaches the conscience and 
works a change of heart, because, more frequently, the kind act, 
the word fitly spoken, the kindly advice, the unassuming, real 
bona fide interest in the moral welfare of others, works a deeper 
conviction than all the flowery, high-gauged eloquence, studied 
and dealt out for an especial occasion. So it was with Mr. and 
Mrs. King; they practiced none of the subtleties of the hypo- 
crite, but out of the real happiness they possessed and antici- 
pated, wished, and prayed, and acted so that others might enjoy, 
possess and have a hope for a like measure. Though one-third 
of a century has passed since the arrival of these persons, the 
minister and his good wife, at Magnolia, and though twenty-five 
years have elapsed since their return to their native State, how 


very many of those who formed their acquaintance while in the 
little village of Magnolia, can call up, in imagination, the forms 
and kind acts of this most godly pair? In 1859 Mrs. Caroline 
Cutler, Mrs. Joe. H. Smith, Mr. William Cutler, Mrs. Geo. G. 
Downs, Mr. John G. Downs, and Miss Hattie Lawrence, since 
Mrs. John G. Downs, and Miss Mary Downs, Harris Day and 
Mrs. Harriet Day, and many others united with this church; 
and during the same year there was completed the first church 
building in Harrison county at the village of Magnolia. This 
church was dedicated in the fall of 1859 by Rev. John Todd, of 
Tabor, Iowa, preaching the dedication sermon, and real well can 
the author of these hastily written thoughts remember the great 
satisfaction experienced by very many on this occasion, by reason 
of the fact that they were now so circumstanced that they had a 
house in which they and their children could comfortably worship. 

After the resignation of Mr. King, which was occasioned by 
the loss of health, one W. S. Black became the shepherd of this 
flock, and so remained until he was caught in an act which was 
thought of such disreputable character that warranted the Asso- 
ciation in silencing him, which was accordingly done. 

Rev. Mr. Morley was chosen in place of the latter, when he 
resigned, the Rev. Mr. Hayward filled the pulpit and from that 
on to the present, the same has been at times possessing the 
utmost prosperity, then some hitch in the machinery would occur 
and despondency would for a time be experienced, yet out of the 
most severe trials the good of the church has risen triumphant 
over all and at the present is one of the strongest branches in 
the county. 

In 1876, a new church edifice was built, costing $3,500 when 
completed. It is handsomely located and very comfortably fur- 
nished. The minister now in charge is Rev. C. P. Boardman, 
who divides his time between this place and Soldier River. This 
church at Magnolia has a membership of 83, and a Sabbath- 
school the glory and pride of a community. 



First had its origin at what was formerly the village of Olmsted, 
in the year 1858, at which time the following named persons 
organized a branch of this church, viz. : Mr. T. P. Kellogg and 
wife, Mr. James L. Roberts and wife, Mr. H. B. Lyman and 
wife, Mr. P. D. Kellogg, Miss Mary G. Roberts and Miss Jane 
M. Lyman, being nine persons, which organization was under 
the superintendence of the Rev. H. D. King, spoken of in con- 
nection with the Magnolia charge. At this place this organiza- 
tion was well sustained. Scarcely in the history of a new set- 
tlement was there greater effort to maintain a church organiza- 
tion, and in no place in the west has there been better results. 
Here in a little cluster of settlers, quite isolated from settle- 
ments, the first business of the people is to build up, and have 
the advantages of church and schools, and though at the time 
of the said organization, there was no expectation that the Boyer 
Valley would become the foundation of one of the greatest 
arteries of National Commerce, these determined few never felt 
but that great good would grow out of their united efforts. In 
October, 1866, the place of worship was changed to the,town of 
Dunlap, and in 1867 a house for worship was erected, at which 
place at the present, this branch has one of the neatest as well 
as the most commodious and costly church buildings in the 
county, costing when built, the sum of $6,000. From 1868 to 
1866, Rev. H. D. King, Rev. W. S. Black and Rev. Hitchcock 
supplied the pulpit; then Rev. J. B. Lowry to 1867; Rev. Free- 
man the last half of 1867; Rev. C. N. Lyman, 1868 to 1870; 
Rev. McDermot, to 1874; Rev. Copeland, to 1877; Rev. Mills, to 
1883; Rev. Rogers, to 1887, and the person at present occupy- 
ing the pulpit is Rev. J. M. Cummings. At present, there are 
125 members, paying their minister the sum of $900 per year, 
and parsonage free, which, by the way, is a great change from 
that of the last thirty years. Since the time of the crystaliza- 
tion of the above named handful of earnest Christians, of those 


■who subsequedt to that time have become members thereof, 
the following have peacefully and triumphantly passed to the 
better world, viz.: Mrs. Julia Olmstead, Mrs. Hattie Hatch, 
Mrs. Mary Ettinger, Mr. Henry W. Gleason, Mrs. Sarah M. 
Hyde, Mrs. Eliza Johnson, Mrs. Helen E. Liscomb, Mrs. Mattie 
M. Mitchell, Mrs. Eleanor Herd, Mrs. Ella Moore, Mrs. Esteila 
M. Richardson, Mrs. Marcia Roberts, Mr. William Roberts, Mrs. 
Edith Sherman and Mrs. Phoebe Smith. 


Mondamin in 1877 organized a class and during the same year 
erected a church building, costing $1,200. This building, while 
not very large, is neat and commodious, and at the time of build- 
ing, perhaps drew quite largely on the purses of those at whose 
expense the same was constructed. The following are a portion 
of the names of those constituting the first membership: P. C. 
Spooner and wife, Alfonso Spooner, Mr. Nat. Shepard and wife, 
and Mrs. Dr. Jamison. The minister in charge of this place at 
the present, is Rev. C. N. Lyman of Onawa, and the membership 
numbers 23. In connection with this church is a very interest- 
ing, well conducted Sabbath-school. 


Soldier River Charge was organized in 1885 and a church 
building erected the same year. Tlie persons who constituted 
the organizing class were: Charles S. Brown and wife, Frank 
Land and wife, E. H. Mosier and wife, J. B. Warren and wife, et 
al. This charge has at the present some 20 members and have 
for their minister Rev. C. P. Boardman of Magnolia. The church 
building cost $1,200 and is a neat, handsome structure, fully 
supplying the present wants of the neighborhood. The mem- 
bership of this denomination, in the county, at the present, num- 
bers 251 and have places of worship costing $11,600. 



The first organization of the Presbyterian Church at this place 
was completed on the 28th day of August, 1869, bj- Rev. Geo. H. 
Carroll, and consisted of the following named persons, viz.: 
Mr. Andrew Barr, Mr. and Mrs. C. N. Cadwell, Mr. and Mrs. J. 

D. Rogers, Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Rugg, at which time the fol- 
lowing named Elders were elected: Mr. C. N. Cadwell and Mr. 

E. L. Rugg. Immediately following the organization, this 
branch of the church acted with considerable zeal, kept their 
organization in a healthy, lively status, which soon resulted in 
bringing many persons into the fold, among whom were the fol- 
lowing, viz.: Mr. and Mrs. William Riddle, Mr. and Mrs. 
Thomas P. Vanderhoof, Mrs. Dorcas Vanderhoof, Mr. and Mrs. 
James M. Latta, etc. Rev. Thornton K. Hedges, who located in 
this county in 1870 and died at Logan in 1881, was the first resi- 
dent pastor of this people; and very acceptably served this 
branch of the church for five years. During the year 1876 a 
large, handsome, commodious church building was completed in 
Logan, and when furnished had cost the church and those con- 
tributing, the sum of $3,000. Following the ministry of Rev. 
T. K. Hedges, the pulpit was filled by the Rev. J. B. Welty, and 
when he resigned, by Rev. Geo. R. Carroll, and Mr. Carroll by 
Rev. H. C. Gillingham, and Mr. Gillingham by Rev. 0. A. 
Elliott, the present incumbent. Rev. Thornton K. Hedges was 
a good, true man, earnest, zealous, learned and eloquent, but by 
reason of disease contracted by him while acting as Chaplain in a 
Federal'regiment, during the late Rebellion, an active, useful life 
was materially shortened, a wife widowed and children made 
fatherless. The eldership of this church at the present are as 
follows: Mr. J. M. Latta, William Riddle, J. D. Rogers, T. F. 
Vanderhoof and A. W. Ford. The membership is 60 and the 
church has an excellent Sabbath-school numbering 125 pupils. 
The yearly salary of the pastor is, at the present time, $800. 



On the 28tli day of March, 1880, the following named persons, 
viz.: Mr. C. M. Gilky, Mrs. S. M. Gilky, Mr. W. H. DeCou and 
Mrs. Georgia DeCou, Mr. L. D. Willett and Mrs. Frances E. 
Willett, Mrs. Nettie Pugsley, Mr. John Mann, Sr., Mr. John 
Mann, Jr., Mrs. Sarah Mann, Mr. Thomas Thompson and Mrs. 
Agnes Thompson, Miss Eva Thompson, Mrs. Laura Donaldson, 
Mrs. James S. Bostwick, Mrs. Marea Chaffee, Mr. A. Donaldson 
and Mrs. Sarah Sharp; 18 in all, organized a Presbyterian 
Church at the above named place, under the auspices of the Rev. 
J. B. Welty. At this place Mr. Welty acted as pastor for this 
organization until about the 23d of April, 1881, at which time 
and from that date until about the 1st of January, 1884, the 
pulpit was occupied by the Rev. George R. Carroll, the same 
minister spoken of in connection with the Presbyterian Church 
of Logan. Rev. R. M. Coulter was the first installed pastor 
of this church, and in an able and satisfactory manner per- 
formed the duties of this position until the 1st of October, 1887, 
when the present pastor in charge, viz.: Rev. D. W. Cassett 
removed to Woodbine and was installed on the 28th day of said 
month of October 1887. From the date of organization this 
branch of the church has increased with a steady, healthy, nat- 
ural growth, as shown by the records of the church, winch desig- 
nates a membership of 60, and, at the present, worship in a very 
tasty, neat commodious church building, costing at the time of 
completion the sum of $2,000, to which might be added the sum 
of $600 in the way of furnishing the same.^ It might be truth- 
fully said that there is scarcely a locality in Harrison county, 
which has been as successful in the selection, ability, piety and 
general good qualities of her ministers as Woodbine. Mr. Welty 
was a man learned, eloquent and zealous. Mr. Carroll, the em- 
bodiment of goodness and gentleness, recommended his cause 
quite as much by good example as while in the pulpit. Mr. 
Coulter, learned, logical, fearless for the right, and generous; 


and the present, Rev. Mr. Cassett, witli the recommendations by 
him presented, his unassuming manners, his experience in the 
ministry and his undoubted ability, learning and real goodness 
can not fail to maintain the good record of the three who pre- 
ceded him at this place. The elders of this church at the present 
time are as follows: Mr. L. D. Willett, Mr. A. A. Williamson, 
Mr. Charles E. Baldwin and Mr. J. B. Lowry. A Sunday-school 
is maintained by this church and has upon the rolls thereof 117 
scholars. Pastor in charge, JRev. D. W. Cassett. No. of mem- 
bers 60. Sunday-school scholars 117. 


This church was organized on the 13th day of February, 
1869, and had for its organizing membership the following 
persons: J. S. Wattles, Jane M. Wattles, Dr. Geo. W. Coit, 
Anna A. Coit, Caroline M. Carroll, Mollie " A. Ellis, Carrie Du 
Boies, L. A. Simons and Hattie C. Justice. Following this organ- 
ization, they struggled along as best they could, when in the 
summer of 1870 a neat, cosy and comfortable church was erected 
at a cost of $1,200. In the sumnier of 1887 a parsonage was 
added to the church property, costing $1,100. The same per- 
sons who were elected as Elders at the time of the organization, 
nineteen years ago, still serve this church in that capacity, viz. : 
J. S. Wattles and Dr. Geo. W. Coit. The membership at the 
present, numbers forty-one, and though not so great in numbers 
as many other branches of religious denominations, still, they 
exert a good influence in the community, which cannot be meas- 
ured at the present. A healthy, well organized Sabbath-school 
is had in connection with the church, the scholars attending the 
same numbering not less than eighty. The ministers who have 
occupied the pulpit are as follows: 

Rev. Wm. M. Pelan, frdm March, 1869, to 1872. 

Rev. H. A. Barclay, from November, 1872, to November, 


Rev. R. S. McCune, from March, 1873, to December, 1874. 
Rev. A. N. Darley, from May, 1874, to March, 1875. 
Rev. J. B. Welty, from fall of 1876, to August, 1878. 
Rev. C. C. Wellen-, from fall of 1880, to December, 1881. 
Rev. S. N. Vail, from May, 1882, to April, 1885. 
Rev. N. Chesnut, from November, 1885, to September, 1887. 
Rev. P. S. Davis, from April 20th, 1888, and is at present 
ministering to the spiritual wants of the people of that vicinity. 


Which by some, are perhaps known as Campbellites, have taken 
a strong hold on the people of the county, as is manifest by 
their progress and present number of membership and church 
buildings. The first branch of this church was organized in this 
country on the 1st day of December, 1854, at the residence 
of Rev. James Dungan, in Elk Grove, near the place now 
known as Reeder's/ Mills, in Jefferson township. The charter 
members, viz.: Samuel Dungan and wife, James Dungan, 
Mary Ann Dungan, Jane Dungan, Israel Evans and wife, 
and Miss Clement Evans. Rev. James Dungan was the first 
minister of this denomination who preaphed in the county, and 
though at that time engaged in farming, found time to study 
his sermons while following the plow. Father Dungan was 
quite talented, and was very zealous in the work of reformation, 
as harmless as honest, and set an example which to the 
present is felt in the community where he resided. In this class 
just spoken of, were the following named individuals, as now 
best recollected by those present, viz. : Father Israel Evans and 
his family, James Briggs (noW deceased) and family, Mrs. Marion 
Richison (now Mrs. Scofield), Mrs. William D. Frazier, etc. 
Following this, a branch was organized at* the Dr. Cole school 
house, at the place now known as Woodbine, which first came 
into existence in 1856, and continued in successful operation 
until 1858, at which time the removal of the greater portion of 


the class so weakened the branch, that it remained somewhat 
dormant for a time. Those who constituted this iirst organiza- 
tion at Woodbine, were as follows, viz.: C. A. Kinnis, Dan N. 
Kinnis, Miss Jessie Kinnis (now Mrs. Josiah Coe), Miss Mary 
Kinnis (now Mrs. David R. Dungan, of Des Moines,) Mr. Nich- 
olas Francis and family, and the Johnson family, together with 
many others. About this time, March 31, 1858, David R. 
Dungan, D. D., son of the Rev. James Dungan, and brother to 
Mrs. Thos. P. Vanderhoof, began his ministry in this county, 
and while to-day he is one of the brainy men of this State, yet 
when a boy, was very much like the boys of the present. I will 
relate an anecdote which took place in this county at an early 
day at a camp meeting, in which this embryotic D. D. figured 
quite conspicuously, and played a good joke on an unsuspecting 
victim, who at the time was a seeker after religion; and 'tis this: 
While a protracted meeting was being held in the neighborhood 
of Elk Grove, among those who felt like repenting and find- 
■ ing forgiveness for their sins, was Mr. John Berrill, who having 
gone to the altar, soon had young Dungan at his side, the latter 
then not feeling religiously inclined, and while at the side of the 
unsuspecting Berrill, cautiously and secretly placed a deck of 
cards in his pocket, expecting that when Berrill would begin to 
feel real sorry, he would turn on the water works, and therefore 
would need his handkerchief, and hence placed the cards in the 
same pocket where the handkerchief was kept. 

The plan was well laid, and as successfully executed, for soon 
Berrill began to shed copious quantities of tears, and when 
drawing his handkerchief, scattered a deck of cards in every 
direction, to the consternation of all '' meetin' folks " and the 
infinite amusement of those who loved harmless fun. The 
father feeling indignant at the reported conduct of the son, 
would not believe the accusation, and called the future Divine, 
and asked, " Be these things so?" to which the son replied much 
after the fashion of one, who a long time ago was asked a ques- 


tion and answered the same by asking another. David said: 
" Father, do you think that I would be guilty of such infamous 
conduct?" The father having faith in the son's innocence, dis- 
missed his informant by saying, " I do not think David guilty.' 
The efforts of Mr. D. R. Dungan were especially blessed and 
in a marvelous degree successful, for though thirty years have 
rolled into the past since the above occurrence there are here at 
present many old gray headed veterans of the Cross, that date their 
change of heart to the preaching of the subject of which refer- 
ence is here made, none of whom are more enthusiastic than Mr. 
Josiah Tuffly of Modale. As illustrative of what perseverance, 
industry and determination will accomplish, I will say that the 
boy who, in Harrison county in 1856 and 1857, was the captain 
commanding a breaking plow, has for the past eight years been 
and still is the first personage in the Drake University at Des 
Moines, Iowa. Rev, C. P. Evans, son of Israel Evans of Elk 
Grove, as well as liindley M. Evans, were among the pioneer 
preachers of this vicinity, and somewhat antedated the preach- 
ing of Rev. D. R. Dungan. From 1858 to 1860, branches had 
been organized at Calhoun and divers other localities in the 
county which during the next score of years were" suffered to die 
out, occasioned more by the location and building of the rail- 
roads in the county, than by want of religious zeal of members. 
This fact is not strange, for it is the history of railroads to make 
and break country towns. Places where there is a stabilty and 
a permanent and fixed place of trade compel the roads to 
approach; but not so with country towns. There is not a town 
in Harrison county to-day, with but one exception, but has been 
torn to fragments, like the destruction of a cyclone, by the rail- 
roads. Those who formed the Calhoun branch drifted to Mis- 
souri Valley and at the present belong to this branch. The 
early members of this locality were Mr. Champion Frazier and 
family of which sons and daughters being married formed quite 
an assembly, together with the Dartings and a host of others 


make a healthy branch at the Valley at present. The first 
organization in Clay township was in 1858, under the preaching 
of D. R. Dungan, the names of those first on the church rolls 
at this place being Mr. Josiah Tuffly and wife, Mr. Thompson 
and wife and family and a family by the name of Fredrickson. 
This branch has been transferred to Modale and is at the present 
in excellent condition. A good church of sixty members and a 
magnificent Sabbath-school. Mondamin organized in 1878 with 
the following named members, viz.: Jacob Beaman and wife 
John Beaman and wife, Calvin Beaman and wife, Jacob Stine and 
wife. At the present this denomination have seventy members, a 
good church building costing $1,000, and a Sabbath-school of 
forty -seven. 

All the church organizations of this denomination were in a 
chaotic state for a decade preceding 1881, at which time a re-or- 
ganization of the entire county was effected, and from that time 
summarizing and stating the present conditions, the same may 
be stated as follows: There are the following branches in this 
county: Woodbine, with a good church building; Logan, with 
a new church building erected and completed in 1887, especially 
by the efforts of Archie Johnson, Wm. Logan, Clayborn John- 
son, Charles Scofield and wife, Mrs. Briggs, James Moreland, 
Mrs. Owens, Mrs. Michael Doyle and Mrs. Willson (mother of 
George Willson), costing when completed, $2,000; Missouri Val- 
ley, a good commodious church; Mondamin, with a good healthy 
membership, and a good church building, and Modale, headed 
by Josiah Tuffley, and a class of as earnest workers as ever 
graced an undertaking. This particular denomination in the 
county sustains five distinct branches, with good commodious 
church buildings, together with as many more different local 
branches which are not able financially to erect churches for 
worship. In 1884 these different branches formed a co-operat- 
ive association, holding meetings semi-annually at the different 
churches, of which association B. W. Crewdsen is President and 


Mareellus Pugsley, Secretary. The value of church property at 
the different places herein named is placed by those belonging 
at $9,000, and the number of members at 517. At neither of 
the principal places of worship, nor at any of the little branches, 
IS the Sabbath-school .work neglected by these people. Scarcely 
a more healthy condition exists, as to the prosecution of the 
moral work in the county, than that manifest by the Disciples, 
■or Christian Church of Harrison county. 

Woodbine is now supplied by non-resident ministry. Mis- 
souri Valley, Modale and Mondamiu are furnished spiritual food 
by Rev. J. Hardman, and Logan by Rev. J. R. Harlem. 


The first and only church of this denomination in the county 
was .organized at Magnolia during the former part of the year 
1858, the first members being as follows: Fred W. Hauff, 
Jr., and wife, Casper Hauff, Henry Hannaman and wife, 
George Niece and wife, Peter Smith and wife, Henry Lawrence 
and wife et al. For seven years this little band of Christians 
worshiped as best they could, without a public building, when 
•during the year of 1867 they erected a very commodious church 
building at Magnolia at a cost of $1,200. From that date to the 
present they have increased in numbers and wealth, so that at 
the present time few individual religious organizations in the 
■county possess a more healthy tone. At the church at the place 
last designated, religious service is had each Sabbath, where 
assemble a membership of 115, with a very excellent Sunday- 
school of 80 scholars. During the first year of their organ- 
ization, Rev. J. F. Scheiber occupied the pulpit in 1859 to 1860; 
Rev. H. Kleinsorge, 1861 and 1862; Rev. J. F. Beener, 1863 and 
1864; Rev. H. Bunce, 1865; Anton Hulster, 1866; Rev. H. 
Bunce, 1867, 1868 and 1869; Rev. L. Scheurer, 1870; Rev. Otto 
Rail, 1871; Rev. H. Kohl, 1872; Rev. G. Gunner, 1873; Rev. H. 
Stellrecht, 1874 and 1875; Rev. H. Witte, 1876 and 1877; Rev. 


H. Stellrecht, 1878, 1879 and 1880; Rev. J. Pflaum, 1881 and 
1882; Rev. H. Bunte, 1883, 1884 and 1885; Rev. G. Koehn, and 
1886 and 1887, Rev. J. M. Zellhoefer who at the present date is 
the shepherd of this flock. In 1870 this class purchased a par- 
sonage at a considerable cost and have their minister residing in. 
their midst. The present class leaders are as follows: Glass 
number one, G. F. Reinhart; class number two, John Lentz; 
class nnmber three, F. W. Hauff, Jr. ; class number four, Charles- 
Fisher. Church Trustees at present, are F. W. Hauff, Jr., G. F. 
Reinhart, H. Unmach, John Steffon and John Alter. 



The first organization of the above named religious denomina- 
tion which became permanent, was effected at the village of 
Magnolia in the early part of the year 1872, and consisted of the 
following named persons: Mr. Charles Michael and wife; Mr. 
Fred Michael and wife; Mr. Charles Platband wife; Mr. Charles 
Dane and wife, and Mr. Herman Plath. These people kept- 
their organization well in hand, worshiping at school houses and 
at private families until the year of 1884, at which time having 
increased the membership, and by their frugality and almost 
unparalleled industry, they had become sufiiciently wealthy 
so as to build a church building, which was accordingly done at- 
Magnolia in the year last-named, 1884. This building is a com- 
modious, handsome and well-arranged church, and cost these 
people f2,000, in which thej' worship Sabbath to Sabbath, and 
have the services of a very able minister in the person of the 
Rev. Mr. Newoffer. The membership at the present is fifty-five 
and the class is in excellent condition both financially and spirit- 
ually. In 1870, at the town of Dunlap, a temporary organiza- 
tion was had, under the efforts of a Rev. Ludwig, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, one Mr. Charles Dux being the President or Chairman,. 
Mr. Fred Kimpel of the same place. Secretary, and numbering 


thirty-two members, but by reason of the " tastes" of the greater 
, portion of the above membership, the minister came to the con- 
clusion that he was casting his pearls before a disobedient and 
over reckless class, and as a consequence, played a trick on them 
which the devil has never done, i. e., left them. As soon as the 
minister abandoned the locality, the class disintegrated, and up 
to the present date has never been reorganized. 


Or Dunkards, as they are often called, have had an organization 
in the county for the past twenty years, but up to the present, 
have never become sufficiently strong to build a church. 
Perhaps this class do not number beyond twenty-five at the 
present, and even the names of all these cannot now be 
learned, unless more time be taken to collect the same from the 
records of the Church. Most prominent among these are Mr. 
Lewis S. Snyder, who at times acts as the minister, and Mr. 
Jeremiah Motz and family, Mr. Isaac Teeter, Levi Miller and 
wife, 1. 1. Stevens and wife, A. Plynn et al. 


The first church building erected and completed, dedicated by 
the Baptists of the county, was at the town of Logan. Perhaps 
none in the entire county took more interest in the undertaking 
than did Mr. and Mrs. P. J. Rudasill, though Mr. Stephen Crow, 
Mr. John W. Wood and many others were very willing workers 
in this laudable enterprise. That which tended more to bring 
about the erection of a church building, the organization of a 
class of this denomination at the time and place about which I 
am relating, was the fact that, at this time there was not a Bap- 
tist organization in the entire county. An organization was 
effected on the 14th day of July, A. D., 1867, at which time the 
following named persons constituted the constituent members 

Mr. P. J. Rudasill and wife, Mr. Stephen Crow and wife, 


Elizabeth Crow, Franklin Crow, M. D. S. Crow and Mr. John 
W. Wood and wife. Soon very many were added to the above 
list, among whom were Mr. W. B. Copeland and wife, Mr. and 
Mrs. L. J. Paul, etc., and the church was able to stand alone. As 
soon as there was the faintest probability of ability to build a 
church building, the same was agitated, and many, though not 
belonging to this particular denomination, assisted in this laud- 
able enterprise, which resulted in the building of the present 
Baptist Church of Logan, and the completion thereof by the 
24th day of December, A. D., 1867. 

This building cost, at the time it was constructed, the sum of 
11,800, and was used by. many other denominations for a decade 
after completion, for the reason that the same preceded any 
other church building in Logan by five years. A very substan- 
tial parsonage has been added to this church property since the 
building of the church, costing $900, and withal, places the Bap- 
tists of Logan well to the front in religious work and liberality. 

The first Baptist minister at this place, and perhaps one that 
did as much as any one in the crystalization of this class, was 
Rev. George Scott; then followed Rev. J. E. Lockwood, Rev. E. 
G. 0. Groat, Rev. Sanders, Rev. J. C. Carter and, finally, Rev. 
F. J. Bryant. 

This church has one hundred and fifteen members, and a Sab- 
bath-school of the same number, viz. : one hundred and fifteen. 
Value of church property, $2,700. Members, one hundred and 
fifteen. Sabbath-school scholars one hundred and fifteen. 


The First Baptist Church of Woodbine, was built and dedi- 
cated, free from debt, on the 29th day of October, 1882. This 
organization dates back to the 29th of January, 1870, at which 
time the organization was effected, the following named persons 
being the constituent membership, viz. : Mr. Stephen Crow and 
wife, Elizabeth Crow, Mr. Edmond Benton, Mr. John, Benton, 


Thomas Butler, Frauklin Crow, Marquis D. S. Crow, Byrou 
Crow, Joseph N. Chapman, Lucius E. Eecleson, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Chapman, Mrs. Rosanna E. Eecleson and Lucinda Foster. This 
meeting was presided over by Rev. E. Gr. 0. Groat as Moderator 
and Rev. J . E. Rockwell, Clerk, at which time and place articles 
of faith were adopted and the above class was recognized as a 
regular Baptist Church. This branch of the church, through 
great perseverance and self-sacrifice, has built at the place desig- 
nated a neat, handsome, well-constructed brick church and fur- 
nished the same in a very comfortable manner, at a cost of 
$1,400. In the matter of providing funds for the above enter- 
prise. Rev. Ira E. Kinney not only contributed of his own funds 
to the amount of f 100, but at a time when the class was so weak 
that they could not afford the necessary means for paying their 
minister, served them very acceptably as pastor. Deacon 
Stephen Crow and Mr. S. Pelton, both members of the church, 
as well as Mr. David Barnum, the latter though not a member, 
gave liberally, even beyond expectation, toward the payments 
for the material necessary for the proper completion of this 
building. Since the organization the following named persons 
have occupied the pulpit, viz.: Rev. J. E. Rockwell, Rev. E. G. 
0. Groat, Rev. Ira E. Kenney, Rev. A. J. De Lano, Rev. J. C. 
Carter, Rev. T. P. Thickstun and the present incumbent Rev. W. 
P. Gray. The following persons served the church as Deacons, 
viz.: Mr. Stephen Crow, Mr. Joseph N. Chapman and T. J. 
Berkley. The present membership is 46; and the charge is in a 
flourishing condition at the present, both financially and spirit- 
ually, and has in successful operation a first-class Sabbath-school, 
under the management of young Mr. S. L. Berkley, with a 
membership of 63. 



Following the organization of the Baptist church at Wood- 
bine, Dunlap fell into line and on the 27th day of July, 1872, 
the First Baptist Church of Dunlap was organized, having for 
their constituent members the following named persons, viz.: 
Eev. E. G. 0. Groat and Bros. J. A. Ostrom and wife, Mrs. M. 
J. Ostrom, Mrs. Pickett, S. J. Kelley and Mrs. G. W. Chamber- 
lain. From 1872 up to and until the year 1879, this class, like 
all church organizations made the best of conditions and had 
worship at places as best suited the conveniences and surround- 
ings, at which time, viz.: 1879, they completed a church build- 
ing within the town of Dunlap, at a cost of $2,000. This caused 
considerable sacrifice on the part of the membership, from the 
fact that they were not very numerous, but on account of the 
zeal of those who were the members of this denomination, they 
were the more determined, and as a consequence the building 
was completed at the cost above stated. This denomination 
were very earnest in their work and have built up a very pros- 
perous crystalization, but at the present are without a pastor, 
which is only temporary. Scarcely any community in all the 
West has been more devoted to reform than this branch of the 
church, and all join in the hope of this organization, that the 
good influences so shed abroad by both members and ministers 
may be blessed an hundred fold in the moral reclamation of 
fallen humanity. No. of members 43. Sunday-school scholars 59. 


Was organized at that, place on the lith day of October, 1887, 
the constituent members being Mr. E. J. Cobleigh, Mrs. E. A. 
Cann, Mr. T. J. Berkley and Mrs. N. D. Berkley, Mr. M. H. Goul- 
try, Mr. Charles Berkley (now deceased), Mrs. Hattie Chapman, 
Mrs. Laura Blake, Mrs. E. Augusta Levingston, Mrs. T. C. Berk- 
ley, Mrs. S. Z. Hileman, Miss Jennie Berkley (now Mrs. Miles), 
Miss M. L. Berkley (now Mrs. Cheever). The first pastor at 


this place was Rev. William Sears, who in turn was followed 
by Rev. J. M. Bay; then Rev. W. E. Randall, then Rev. Taylor, 
then Rev. T. F. Thickstun and finally Rev. J. B. Murch. In 
the spring o£ 1883 a church building was put under contract, 
completed by the first of July, and dedicated on the 8th of the 
same month, which building cost the good people of Missouri 
Valley the sum of $1,000. This church at present numbers 
twenty-six members, all wide awake, active, earnest working 
persons whose efforts are more telling than in many other 
church organizations where the numerical strength is double 
that number. The present minister's salary is $800, barely suf- 
ficient to keep the wants of any reasonable family in moderate 
ordinary working condition. The first Sabbath-school was 
organized under the immediate superintendence at this place, on 
the 28th day of May, 1876, with the following roll of officers, 
viz.: E. J. Cobleigh, Superintendent; Mrs. M. Holbrook, 
Assistant Superintendent; F. M. Dance, Secretary; Mrs. E. A. 
Leviugston, Treasurer, and Miss Addie Hobbs Librarian, and at 
the present time, Mr. Ed Sherwood is the Superintendent, with 
a good corps of teachers and 57 scholars. 

Value of church property $1,100 

No. of members , 230 

Sunday-schools 4 

Sunday-school scholars 294 


The people styling themselves Latter Day Saints are among 
the strongest religious societies of Harrison county. They claim 
to be the rightful and only legitimate successors of the church 
founded by Joseph Smith, at Palmyra, New York, in 1830. The 
persecutions following Smith's death at Carthage, Illinois, in 
1844, compelled his adherents, then many thousands in number, 
in Hancock county, Illinois, and the adjacent territory in Illi- 
nois, Missouri and Iowa, to seek new locations on which to settle. 


Brigham Young, as subsequent events proved, turned his eyes 
to California, then a Mexican Province, doubtless v?ith an eye 
to the establishment of his peculiar doctrines with reference to 
polygamy and kindred iniquitous ideas, beyond the bounds of 
the Federal Government. But rigorous weather overtook them 
on the way and they went into winter quarters at Council Bluffs, 
in 1846. Thousands had refused to follow Brigham Young on 
his Western journey, and dispersed themselves at once from 
their Illinois rendezvous through nearly every State East of the 
Rocky mountains, to await the coming one in whom they could 
repose confidence as being the legitimate successor of their late 
lamented leader. Thousands more whose acquired habits of 
obedience to priestcraft had yet control of their judgment, fol- 
lowed Young to these winter quarters, but time and opportunity 
to observe, coupled with a growing lack of confidence, combined 
to cause hundreds to abandon him at the breaking up of camp 
in the spring of 1847. These naturally dispersed themselves 
into all the counties adjacent to Council Bluffs. In this manner 
was the seed sown from which has sprung the many prosper- 
ous churches of Western Iowa and Eastern Nebraska. These 
old adherents oE Smith and the early church all unite in 
saying that polygamy was never openly, at least, taught as a 
religious tenet prior to Young's settlement in Utah. They deny 
that it was ever countenanced in the least degree by the church 
authorities prior to the prophet's death; that Young's promulga- 
tion of this and kindred evil doctrines constituted him and his 
adherents apiostates from the true church, and that Joseph Smith, 
the son of the original prophet, is alone the legal successor of 
his father and the original church, and as a distinguishing mark, 
they style themselves the Reorganized Church of Latter Day 
Saints. The first branch to organize was at Union Grove, which 
organization has had a somewhat checkered career — sometimes 
being very prosperous and at other times in an almost disorgan- 
ized condition. This branch claims the distinction of being the 


only branch in Harrison county with which the General Confer- 
ence of the church has ever met. This branch is now in a very 
flourishing condition, with a membership of 33. Thomas Thomp- 
son, President, and P. C. Kimmish, Clerk. 

The next branch to organize in the county was at Little Sioux, 
which though more than one quarter of a century has passed 
away since the first organization, is still in a lively condition, 
having a membership of 207, amd a commodious church build- 
ing, costing $1,200. Rev. J. P. McDowel is President, and Wm. 
Stewart, Clerk. 

In the early part of the sixties, the Raglan branch was organ- 
ized and maintained an active existence, but became disorganized 
on the 3d day of June, 1871, its members at that time uniting 
with the Magnolia charge. On the 23d day of February, 1863, 
a branch was organized at Bigler's Grove, under the name of the 
Bigler's Grove Branch, and on the 27th of April, 1865, the 
name was changed to the Morning Star branch, and this faded 
out of existence in December, of 1872, its members like the 
Raglan branch uniting with the Saints at Magnolia. A branch 
was organized at Twelve Mile Grove, April 24, 1864, and contin- 
ued for ten years, when the charge became disorganized by the 
members thereof uniting with the branch at Six Mile Grove. 
The Magnolia branch was organized on the 17th day of March, 
1870, and still flourishes with an active, energetic membership 
of 167. At this place, these people worship in a large commo- 
dious church building costing $1,600. Donald Maule, President 
and Clerk. The Six Mile Grove branch was organized on the 
3d day of April, 1870, and continued for fifteen years, and was 
discontinued on the 5th day of December, 1885. An organiza- 
tion was effected at Reeder's Mills in 1870, which continued 
until May, of 1874, when the same lapsed by reason of removals 
and lack of interest. Spring Creek branch, now known as the 
Persia church, was organized on the 18th day of October, 1876, 
and within the last five years has erected a large, handsome and 


commodious church building, costing f 1,800, at which place, at 
the present, there is a wide awake active membership of 90. 
David Chambers, President and Clerk. 

October 14, 1877, the Whitesboro branch was organized under 
the name of Buena Vista charge, and only kept up this organi- 
zation until the 13th of July, 1879, when by reason of removals 
the charge was disbanded. 

Sometime in the spring of 1878, a branch was organized in 
Raglan, with the name of Pleasant View, but being within a 
few miles of Magnolia, the larger crystalized this and it became 
non est in 1883. The Evening Star branch, of Morgan town- 
ship, was organized on the 26th day of March, 1872, and by rea- 
son of weakness caused by removals, was discontinued in 1882. 
On the 13th day of February, 1887, a branch was started on 
the Willow, in Magnolia township, known as the Willow 
branch. This is now in a healthy condition, with a member- 
ship of 48. John Hunt, President, and Henry C. Purcell, Clerk. 
The last branch of the Latter Day Saints organized in this 
county was had at Logan on the 20th day of February, 1887, 
and the membership, in order to manifest their zeal for the 
cause which they had espoused, immediately set to work to build a 
house in which to worship, which undertaking was accomplished 
by the 10th of December, 1888, the same costing |1,600. At 
present there are 59 of a membership, and an excellent Sabbath- 
school Sabbath by Sabbath. Hon. P. Cad well, President; Wm. 
R. Davison, Clerk. 

The following is a recapitulation of that which has been 
stated, which shows the strength of the different branches: 


Little Sioux 207 

Union Grove 33 

Magnolia 167 

Spring Creek 90 

Willow Valley 48 

Logan 59 

Total 604 


There is unquestionably enough in this country who are of- 
the belief, though not attached to the church in the way of 
having their names on the records of the church, to biing the 
menjbership up to 650. Rev. J. C. Crabb is now District Presi- 
dent, and Mr. William C. Cadwell, of Woodbine, District Sec- 
retary, the latter having continuously served in that capacity for 
the eight years last past. Very many of the oldest residents of 
this county are of this religious faith, and if I was required to select 
men whose every day life was to be the gauge for moral worth, 
I would be free at the present to say that I could find none in 
the county superior to the following, viz.: Mr. George Black- 
man, Mr. Lucius Merchant, Mr. A. W. Locklin, Mr, Donald 
Maule, Hon. P. Cadwell, Mr. David Chambers. 

Of this religious faith was Mr. David Garnet, Stephen 
Mahoney, Marvin Adams, etc., etc. These all lived active, useful 
and blameless lives, have been gathered to their fathers like a 
shock of corn in its season, and left to all an example of honor, 
honesty and fidelity worthy of imitation, and a consolation in the 
hour of death. 


From the time of the early settlement of the county up to 
1865, there were numerous persons in the county who were 
members of the above church, but not until that time did they 
feel that they were financially able to erect a building in which 
to worship, hence, in the early spring of the year last named, the 
following named persons, viz.: Mr. William Kennedy, wife and 
family; Mr; James Kennedy, wife and family; Mr. William 
Ferguson, wife and family; Mr. Patrick Morrow, wife and 
family; Mr. William Morrow, wife and family; David Morrow, 
Joseph Morrow, Mr. Timothy O'Connor, wife and family; and 
numerous others of the county, formed an organization in the 
year last named, and built at Magnolia, the first Catholic 
Church ever built in the county. This building cost, at the time 
the same was completed, the sum of |1,300. The first priest to 


minister to these people was Father Kelley, who was followed by- 
Father Dexiker, and at present, religious services are held at this 
place three Sabbaths of each month, by the priest in charge, 
viz.: Father Hayes. The present membership is 125. « 

Dunlap was the next to follow, from the fact that the com- 
pletion of the railroad to this place, and the establishment of a 
division of the road ab Dunlap, brought many persons of this 
religious faith as settlers into the neighborhood and as citizens of 
the town. Dunlap is perhaps the wealthiest organization of this 
belief in the county, and few neighborhoods can boast of better 
or more law abiding citizen's. Here, in 1872, the following 
named persons, viz.: Michael Barrett, Jacob Barrett, Ed. Lehan, 
Mrs. R. B. Hillas, James Cormmie, S. J. P. Marsh, the McNalleys, 
etc., etc., etc., contributed of their means so freely, that in the 
year last aboved named, a Catholic chapel was completed, cost- 
ing |5,000, to which was soon added a rectory costing a like 
$5,000. They of this denomination have contributed at this 
locality with a liberal hand in the matter of providing a place 
of worship, as well as comfortable rooms for the priest. Since 
the time of the first organization here, the Church has made a 
splendid growth and at the present stands as above stated, first 
in the county as to this denomination, having a membership of 
190. The first priest stationed at Dunlap was Father Annan, 
followed by Father Gennahan, then Father Moran, then Father 
Lynch, then Father MacCormack, the present incumbent. 

The Little Sioux Catholic Church was built at or near the 
year of 1883. The building of this place for worship was occas- 
ioned by reason of the distance many of the members were from 
any other place where such privileges were enjoyed, and hence, 
in order to keep pace with the times, this class built for their use 
a very neat church costing |1,000. Number of membership 46. 

Modale also is graced by a Catholic Church building, which 
came into being during the year 1883, and though not of the 
greatness in size which is cause for boasting in many denom- 


inations, still possesses as true and faithful a membership as evei 
met for worship in any building. The flock at this plade is 
.cared for by the same Priest that preaches to the church at 
Magnolia, viz.: Father Hayes. The .church cost when built 
$1,000. Number of membership 37. 


By the time this town was one year old there was a church 
building of the above denominational character eVected in the 
place costing the sum of $2,500. Prior to this time religious 
services were had at this place, at which the Rev. Father John 
Dexiker offici9,ted, and since the completion of said building the 
following named Priests have filled the pulpit, viz.: Father 
Eagan, Father McMamamie, Father Lynch, Father JDunn, Father 
Urbay, Father Garrahan and Father P. J. Morrin, who at pre- 
sent is officiating. 

Those who constituted the first membership of this part of the 
Missouri Valley parish, were Mr. Edward Burke and family, Mr. 
John Tamassia, Mr. J. D. Tamassia, Messrs. John and Locklin 
Moreton, Michael Doyle, Mr. J. Dayton, Mr. William Kennedy 
and family, Mr. James Kennedy and family, Mr. James Dough- 
erty and family, Mr. Patrick Snyder, et al. Soon after the con- 
struction of the church building, a parsonage was purchased at 
a cost of $1,800 and donated to the church, and then a bell was 
purchased for the church building and placed in position, which 
up to the present is the largest . church bell in the county, the 
weight thereof being 2,700 pounds. It can be distinctly heard 
for a distance of fifteen miles on a reasonably favorable day. 
This church numbers 300 members, and unless Dunlap is in the 
advance, is the preferable charge in the county of this denom- 
ination. As a summary, then, of the value of church property of 
this religious denomination in this county at the present, the 
same equals $17,800, and, a membership of 698. It might not 
be out of place to here state that the membership of the above 
29 *' 


denomination includes those of the children of parents belong- 
ing to this church who have been confirmed. Were those of 
the other religious denominations in the county to include in the 
number of their membership the children of religious parents, 
who are members of the church, it would make quite a differ- 
ence in the numbers herein given. 


which in this county had their origin at Magnolia at the time of 
the organization of the Methodist and Congregational churches 
at that place, have grown to such importance in the county at 
the present time that Harrison stands nearly at the front as to 
Sunday-school work in the State. It may be said (not in the 
way of boasting) that Harrison county was the first county 
in the State" to have and sustain a Sunday-school mission- 
ary, which was inaugurated in the spring of 1882, at which 
time a young man of Chicago, by the name of F. H. 
Jewett, came as aforesaid and labored for nearly two years as a 
Sunday-school missionary, within the boundaries of this county, 
the success of which undertaking far surpassed the hopes of the 
most sanguine, for in the incredibly short space of time in which 
this young hero labored among this people, a purer and more 
moral atmosphere permeated the entire county, and set in motion 
a work, which, being ably seconded by his successors, D. W. 
Gomstock, R. A. Shaw and John A. Howard, calls together on 
each Sabbath 78 schools, with a force of teachers to the number 
of 351, and an attendance in the way of pupils to the number 
of 3,952, Sabbath by Sabbath. In calling attention to the 
undertaking and success of this work of love, I cannot forbear 
making favorable mention of this Mr. Jewett, who blazed out 
the by-paths to the different localities in the county, where he 
established or organized these schools, for be it known that in 
very many other vocations in life his mental and moral qualities 
would have commanded much greater remuneration, and by far 
less hardships, but he, feeling thai duty called him to the work, 


labored with such diligence, faith, love and earnestness, that his 
labors were abundantly rewarded by the unprecedented gather- 
ing of the youths of the land into the Sunday-schools, as well as a 
goodly number into the different churches. Two years of hard, 
unremitting toil in this field of labor and success, so under- 
mined a constitution not very rugged, that at the end of that 
period, he yielded his young life a sacrifice for the good of others. 
In the middle of 1884, Rev. D. W. Comstock took charge of the 
field made vacant by the death of Mr. Jewett and he in turn was 
followed by Rev. R. A. Shaw, who took charge of the work on 
May 20, 1885. On April 1, 1888, he was relieved by John A. 
Howard of XJnionburg, Harrison county, Iowa, who is at the 
present time in charge. 

The following table will show the Sabbath-schools in the 
county by townships: 

Allen Township— No. of schools 4, teachers 11, scholars 111. 

Boyer Township— Schools 9, teachers 40, scholars 415. 

Cass Township — Schools — , teachers 4, scholars 114. 

Clay Township — Schools 3, teachers 10, scholars 120. 

Cincinnati Township — Schools 2, teachers 7, scholars 80. 

Douglas Township — Schools 5, teachers 19, scholars 186. 

Harrison Township — Schools 4, teachers 21, scholars 387. 

Jackson Township — Schools 2, teachers 9, scholars 119. 

Jefferson Township — Schools 9, teachers 50, scholars 508. 

Lagrange Township — Schools 3, teachers 11, scholars 83. 

Lincoln Township — Schools 3, teachers 10, scholars 86. 

Magnolia Township — Schools 10, teachers 44, scholars 574. 

Morgan Township — Schools 3, teachers 25, scholars 175. 

Taylctr Township — Schools 1, teachers 6, scholars 86. 

St. John Township — Schools 4, teachers 19, scholars 224. 

Union Township — Schools 4, teachers 24, scholars 246. 

Washington Township — Schools 3, teachers 13, scholars 163. 

Calhoun Township — Schools 1, teachers 4, scholars 39. 

Raglan Township — Schools 1, teachers 4, scholars 58. 


The different denbminations, as to these schools, as well as the 
names and postoffice address of the Superintendents are as fol- 
io ws, viz.; 

Congregational— I) . Saterlee, Dunlap; N. S. Lawrence, Mag- 
nolia; C. P. Spooner, Mondamin; J. B. Warren, Modale. 

Methodist— Br. P. R. Crosswait, Logan; Dr. C. Clark, Dunlap; 
Rev. J. T. De Tar, Woodbine; W. B. Donn, Woodbine; 

Missouri Valley; H. D. Meech, Missouri Valley; J. 

Losh, Missouri Valley; Mrs. Davis, River Sioux; G. H-. Gibson, 
Little Sioux; Mr. Fisher, Little Sioux; Mrs. Ellen Main, Mag- 
nolia; J. L. Beebe, Beebetown; John Williams, Reeder's Mills; 
L. M. Dakan, Reeder's Mills; W. S. Grosbeck, Persia. 

Presbyterian — Rev. Cassett, Woodbine; A. W, Ford, Logan. 

Baptist — W. H. Garrett, Dunlap; Rev. Gray, Woodbine; 0. 
P. Copeland, Logan ; F. R. Coit, Missouri Valley. 

Non-Denominational or Union Schools — T. P. Kellogg, Levi 
Stewart, Mrs. W. H. H. Wright and James E. Evans, Dunlap; 
J. Holeton, Hattie Witters, J. Smith, T. J. Powell, George 
Abrams, Henry DeCou and Mrs. G. W. Selleck, Woodbine; L J. 
Paul, J Z. Hunt, George Finley and C. Children, Logan; Wm. 
Bassier, Cal. Junction; George Green, Missouri Valley; Wm. 
Dixon, Cal. Junction; W. W. Morton and A. D. Hutchison, 
Modale; E. R. Thomas, Mondamin; R. Moss, River Sioux; Miss 
Mary Raymond, George Tuffley and George Reinhart, Magnolia; 
J. A. Howard, Washington township; C. S. Greenfield, Cass 
township; J. W. Plummer, Persia, and Rev. J. K. Jackson, 
Valley View. 

These are nearly all in the neighborhood of the different 
addresses, and are country schools. 

Latter Day Saints— B.on. P. Cadwell, Logan; C. P. Kimmish, 
Unionburg; David Chambers, Persia; Rev. J. P. McDowell, 
Little Sioux; J. F. Minturn, Magnolia. There are three or more 
schools in the county that do not keep up during the winter 
seasons that are not included in the above report. 


The Sabbath-school missionary is supported by the donations 
of the people interested in the Sabbath-school work in the 
county, and receives a salary of $600 per year for his services, 
but if this sum is not raised ia the county then the mission pays 
the difference. This personage is ably assisted in the' work and 
labor of love by very many good people within the county; fore- 
most among these are Mr. Casper Cadwell of Logan, Miss Mary 
Kaymond, of Magnolia, etc., etc., as well as all the mininsters of 
the different denominations located in the county. 

While every reasonable effort has been made to build up the 
morals of the different communities where Sunday-schools have 
been organized or attempted by visiting families, circulating 
religious literature, urging all, young and old to attend and 
assist in the maintenance and crystalization of this labor of love, 
many have remained wholly indifferent as to the good resulting 
therefrom and as a consequence, nearly one-half of the children 
of school age in the county have never entered a Sabbath-school. 

The question suggests itself to each reader, would it not be in 
keeping, and especially in harmony with scriptural teachings, for 
the good people of the county to direct the attention to the 
real wants of our own immediate neighborhoods, rather than to be 
constantly soliciting funds for the purpose of sending mission- 
aries to China and other foreign fields and particularly when half 
the crop of humanity at home remaips unharvested? 


DAY, AUG. 8, 1885. 



From the Harrison County Courier, Aug. 13, 1885. 
There was a strict observance of memorial services through- 
out Harrison county on Saturday last, sacred to the memory of 
the late deeply lamented Ulysses S. Grant, in whose departure 
the Nation mourns the loss of one to whom, more than all 
others, its existence as a united and happy Republic is due. At 
Dunlap, Woodbine, Logan, Missouri Valley, Modale, Mondamin, 
Little Sioux, Magnolia and Persia, the day was appropriately 
observed. At the county seat our people were astir with prepar- 
ations at an early hour. Stores, dwellings and public buildings 
were suitably draped and decorated. The city park was prepared 
with seats, platform, etc., in the inviting shade of its overhang- 
ing trees, and by ten o'clock .a large gathering was in attendance 
to listen to the exercises, which were opened by Marshal-of-the 
Day Hon. P. Cadwell, who announced the programme and intro- 
duced the speakers. Music was furnished by the cornet band 
and glee club. The services opened and closed with prayer by 
Rev. J. C. Carter. Five minute addresses were delivered by our 
gifted fellow citizens, Joe H. Smith, F. W. Hart, J. D. Hornby, 



H. H. Roadifer, A. W. Clyde and S. I. King, all of which we 
report in full, as follows: 



Mr. President and Fellow Citizens: — Death is the only impar- 
tial power we know of. From the beginning and in all ages his 
step has been unfettered. There is but one agency to whom he 
has ever yielded homage, and at whose fiat he has relaxed his 
grasp. And so effectually does he close his door of egress that 
no word from his victim ever returns. All we can do is to stand 
without, and in grief and sorrow gaze through the eye of faith. 
Naught but the blood on the .door post (and that a temporary 
check) has ever turned aside his entrance from cottage or palace. 
Such has been the observation of all ages. Horace, two thou- 
sand years ago, in a Latin ode to his friend Sestimus, wrote: 
" Pale death, with impartial step, knocks at cottages of the poor 
and the palaces of kings. The short sum total of life, happy 
Sestimus, forbids that we should form remote expectations." In 
presence of this power we are helpless; and instinctively we turn 
to the individual friend, to the family circle, to the society or 
organization, to the tribe, to the state or nation, for sympathy. 
Individual sympathy has not been wanting. 

The news of the death of U. S. Grant brought to my mind 
the musical and poetical composition of P. P. Bliss, in memory 
of William B. Bradbury. The genius of Bradbury had filled 
our land with song, whom none appreciated more than Bliss. 
List to his beautiful tribute : 

"He's gone, he's gone, 

Gone to the silent land, 
Over the river of death, 

Into the silent land. 
Glad are the heavenly choirs; 

Sad is our pilgrim band." 

The amount of tribute bestowed has almost universally been 
commensurate with the good done. He whose death we deplore 


to-day, on account of having been an almost universal bene- 
factor, is mourned by all. His knovfledge of the governments 
of the world made him attached to his own. The seat of the 
crowned monarch was not loftier thah the presidential chair, 
surrounded on the same plain by fiftj' millions of people. This 
explains why a nation in thousands of gatherings do reverence 
to his memory. 

The tribute to Bradbury, the composer and songster, above 
referred to, contains these thrilling words: 

"Close to the great white throne, 
Thousands of children stand." 

When we consider the position held by Grant in this country, 
and the peculiar and trying crisis through which he passed, how 
appropriate this tribute by the change of a single word. 

"Close by the great white throne, 
Thousands of soldiers stand; ■ 
' Welcome, oh, welcome, they sing, 

Home to the beautiful land." 

" Marching along on our way, 

Pilgrims and strangers we roam, 
Soon shall we join the glad throng, 

Soon shall be resting at home." 


Ladies and Gentlemen: — It is seldom an entire nation mouijis 
the loss of a single man as we do to-day. But few have ever 
had such a funeral procession as that which to-day follows the 
remains of U. S. Grant to the final resting place". Fifty-five mil- 
lion people in mind and sympathy, are in that grand procession. 
Why is this ? Young as I am I can well remember when the 
name of Grant was unknown. Even in Illinois, the State of his 
residence, outside of the immediate vicinity of his home, no one 
had ever heard of him. Twenty-five years ago, had a list of the 
great men of this country been made, U. S. Grant's name 
would not have been found in that list. Had a list of the rising, 
promising men been made, his name would not have been found 


even in that list. He was then unknown. He had but few 
if any influential friends to assist him. He was not born to 
greatness, neither had he greatness thrust upon him. Yet at 
the time of his death no man on either continent was so well 
known and so highly honored throughout the entire civilized 
world as he. What name and fame he had he acquired by his 
own genius and personal exertion. In less than five years from 
the time he was commissioned colonel and placed in command 
of a regiment, he was commander-in-chief of one of the largest 
armies of modern times. His advancement and success in every 
position in which he was placed was truly wonderful. His 
military career is familiar to us all, — no need to repeat it here. 
We all feel proud of, and admire him for his brilliant record as 
a general. 

But there was something grander and nobler in him than 
merely a successful general. He was a true man, just to his 
friends and generous to his enemies. While he did much for his 
country as a general, I apprehend he did equally as much by his 
unselfish, generous conduct at the close of, and after the war. 
Find if you can a higher type of manhood than that displayed by 
him at Appomattox. Eealizing that the war was over, his only 
thought seemed to be how he could best make those who had so 
recently been his enemies feel at home with us once more; how 
he could best blot out every ill feeling; not even allowing his own 
army to celebrate the victory, lest he might unnecessarily wound 
the feelings of those to whom he was willing to extend the hand 
of friendship, and greet as his countrymen. Friends, had we of 
the North and they of the South aided with the same unselfish, 
generous spirit that he did, much of the sectional strife of the 
last twenty years might have been avoided. By his conduct he 
builded better than he knew. And by reason of the treatment 
extended to his conquered foe, the people north and south, those 
who fought in the gray as well as those who fought in the blue, 
to-day unite in honoring his memory. And while we meet here 


to do honor to his memory, let us realize that in no way can we 
so well perpetuate it as by imitating his actions toward a con- 
quered foe; realize that through him and his patriotic army, this 
is an undivided country; realize that we of the North and they 
of the South are all citizens of this great republic; be united in 
fact and in spirit as we are in name, — then we will profit not 
only by what he did, as a warrior, but as well by his example. And 
in conclusion, let us ever hold dear the memory of the man 
whom we to-day consign to his last earthly resting place. Let 
us remember him, not only as the greatest of generals, not only 
as a statesman, but above all, let it not be forgotten that he was 
one of America's truest, noblest men, one who was charitable to 
all and held malice toward none. Peace to his ashes. 


Commander and Friends: — Respect for the dead is a pervad- 
ing instinct of our common humanity. To honor the memory 
of the departed is regarded as ,a sacred trust. To the. faithful 
discharge of affection and friendship we are irrevocably com- 

Nor is the good name, fame and memory of him whose name 
is being to-day pronounced by every American tongue, left to 
the guardianship of those alone who knew and loved him in 

There is something in the silent helplessness of the coffin and 
sepulchre that appeals with peculiar and pathetic force to the 
chivalry of our human nature. The discord of party passion, 
the conflict of individual interest, the fierce rivalry of personal 
ambition, and all that is base and unworthy in the eager struggle 
for precedence and supremacy, retire in silence from that presence 
whose majesty over the combined forces of nature is attested by 
the unnumbered dead of all nations. 

If these proceedings to-day were but meaningless ceremony, 
if public business has been suspended that we might take part 


in mere empty pageant, we should do scant honor to the mem- 
ory of him whose death is the theme of the occasion. Brought 
face to face to the sum and end of human hopes, so far as they 
center in this life, who shall say that the contemplation of that 
result may not guide us to loftier heights of purpose and effort 
by inspiring us with fresh zeal and devotion, make us fitter for 
the time when we, too, in an humble way, shall be the text for 
funeral discourse? Death has brought rest and tranquillity to a 
busy, restless soul, and changed duty on earth to higher duties 
in realms above. 

Of the subject, for which a nation is in tears, it can be said, 
there was no Levitical blood lodged in his veins. He was the 
same in camp, battle, at the pinnacle of military glory, at the top 
round of political greatness, as when in, the humblest walks of 
life. In each capacity there was a grandeur and honesty of pur- 
pose that shed over each station a halo of glory and sublimity 
which is without parallel and challenges the admiration of all. 

Upon the acceptance of each trust in the military, he main- 
tained his exalted position with a grandeur, glory, reticence, and 
sublimity worthy of the man; maintained his place on the 
apex, wrapped in the thought of his own originality and the 
consummation of his wise purposes, with that unflinching fidel- 
ity and honesty of purpose which challenges the admiration of 
all for his originality and prophetic vision, for his far-seeing 
intellect, which all now know was the " sesame " that opened the 
door of the American heart to a realization of his worth and 

His whole soul was in the cause of a united and unsevered 
country, and those whom the exigencies of events thrust into 
thd foreground as owners in fee of their own bodies and souls, 
will, and must ever look back to him for whom the nation to-day 
mourns, as co-equal to him who caused the consummation, in this 
our land " of God's great purpose, the equality of race and broth- 
erhood of man." These labors have borne fruits, which have 


ripened ia the sunshine of human progress and have been gar- 
nered by a progressive, busy, prosperous nation. 

From the " tanner's vat " to the plains of Mexico, from Mex- 
ico to the woodman of St. Louis, and from thence to the carn- 
age of Belmont, Fort Henry, Donelson, Shiloh, and ah unpre- 
cedented career to Appomattox, he bore the banner with the 
strange device, "Excelsior." 

Let us not blame him for it: Ambition is one of God's best 
gifts to man. 

It forces them out of low surroundings, out of ignorance and 
sloth, into the higher sunlight of the hills. It has its victims : 
DeLong dying in the snows, Gordon going to the rescue alone 
of an outlying post, Stanley permeating the wilds of Africa, 
Greely amid his dying qpmpahions in the frigid regions of the 
everlasting ice and snow of the north; not less, but greater than 
these, are those who from religious duty permeate the untrodden 
paths of uncivilization and surrender their lives as an offering 
on the altar, for the betterment of the race. But the world is 
better for them. It raises and builds temples to their memory, 
sacred places wherein to worship and give thanks, that patience, 
heroism and high aspirations are still omnipotent in the soul of 

While the nation to-day is draped in mourning, no respect 
being had to former differences, all, like 'twas said of Csesar, 
" beg a hair of him in memory, to bequeath it as a rich legacy 
unto their issue," or as was said of Maribeau, "the people 
crowd around the house of their tribune, as if to catch inspira- 
tion from his coffin," reveals to our limited vision and compre- 
hension the fact that greater and more abiding is the love of the 
American people for the fallen chieftain than the ancient 
columns or colossal monuments reared in memory of their 
illustrious dead. The memory of Gen. Grant, which to-day 
lives in the hearts of 55,000,000 of Americans, educated and 
enlightened, permeated as they are with a love of liberty as 


sacred as each individual life, casts up a monument' high as the 
very heavens, and broad as the portals of the universe. 

Once the royal American eye looked to him for hope and sal- 
vation with the same strange devotion and faith as did the 
weary pilgrim to Mecca, for scarcely had the army of the North 
crossed the Rapidan, till hope and fear mingling, caused each 
cheek to be blanched with fear, and every heart to be almost 
frozen in despair until hope, intermixed with fact, brought to 
all a full fruition of success, which forever set at rest all fear as 
to the ultimate result. 

Magnanimous as brave, for when the sword of that well be- 
loved leader of the South was tendered him, with a magnanimity 
co-equal to the occasion and the relation of the former foe, 
waives the formality of surrender and ameliorates the humility 
of his former citizen and friend. 

Two decades go by, the honors of state are his, but no bribe 
ever sullied his hand, or a thought of illicit gain dimmed or 
scarred his pure, upright manhood. 

At the ripe age of 63 he dies at the altar of his country and 
not at its portals. Lived and acted well his part, at a time 
which tried men's souls, and gave his manhood and genius to 
the solving of the greatest of problems, viz.: " Man's capability 
of self government," and died in the bosom of a sorrowing 
family, honored and respected by all, and his grave baptized by 
the tears gratefully shed by more than one hundred million of 
American eyes. 

"Comrade! Rest in peace! 

Nor wreck, nor change, nor -winter's flight 

Nor Time's remorseless doom, 
Shall mar one ray of Glory's light, 

That gilds, thy deathless tomb." 

In life, we were proud of him. As an American citizen, the 


homage paid to him at the courts of foreign nations, was an 
honor to us. Dead, we honor and revere his memory. 

"Suoli-was he, hia work is done, 
But while the races of mankind endure, 

Let his great example stand 

Colossal, seen of every land. 
And keep the soldier firm, the statesman pure, 

'Till in all lands and thro' all story 

The path of duty be the way to glory." 


This day recalls to mind two other days when all true hearts 
throughout this nation united as one family of mourners at the 
grave of a fallen chief. 

There were signs of a keener sorrow when the body of Lin- 
coln was committed to its last resting place. There was the 
hush of a deeper pathos on the spirit of his countrymen when 
Garfield was followed to the tomb. For their lives went out 
amid the flames of civil strife, with their work unfinished. 
They were victims of contending passion, and the dread of an 
awful tragedy weighed down every mind with its menacing 

Unlike them. Grant bade farewell to earthly scenes in the ripe- 
ness of years and honors, in the tranquillity of home, surrounded 
by the tenderest care that love can bestow. The regretful assem- 
blage of to-day in every part of this broad land is therefore the 
more remarkable as a feeling tribute to the greatness of the man. 
And it tells in language more eloquent than words that his great- 
ness was not of a kind that removes its possessor away from 
other men, but of a kind more worthy of admiration that 
draws him near to their hearts. It is testimony unimpeachable 
that his unparalleled success was not achieved for himself, but 
for his countrymen; that he wrought for the safety of their 
homes and their most cherished institutions; that his cause was 
their cause, and that his greatness is therefore esteemed as their 
priceless heritage and common glory. 


This is true of his success in arms. To those who know of 
his triumphs only from the printed reports or view them in the 
perspective of time wij;h all the difficulties which surrounded 
him, brought into full relief, his success is a wonder and a mys- 
tery whose secret is untold, while to those who marched in his 
campaigns and fought in his battles, it sometimes appears to be 
a matter of course without any very remarkable features. 
Neither is the correct view. Both leave out of sight a most 
important fact which is even yet but half understood. Although 
educated in the profession of arms, Grant was no carpet knight, 
but essentially a man of the people. With him war was not 
merely a trade. He resumed the sword long cast aside in the 
same spirit that summoned the boys in blue everywhere from 
peaceful homes to the dangers of camp and field. He appre- 
ciated the difference between a citizen soldiery and a regular 
army. He alone of all who rose to high command seemed to 
comprehend fully the strength and steadfastness of the patriotic 
spirit that animated the volunteers. He alone seemed to fore- 
see clearly the energy of action and the certainty of achieve- 
ment that lay in the encouragement and employment of that 
masterful impulse. So out of the hosts who came to put down 
the rebellion, rose one who had the wisdom, and the courage and 
the ability to employ and direct them according to their wish in 
putting down the rebellion. And he became their commander 
by becoming their leader. To this appreciation of his soldiers 
he united a wonderful quickness of perception in discovering the 
weak point in his adversary's position. There he arrayed his 
battle without hesitation or delay, and there dealt the conquer- 
ing blow. He relied on the patriotic spirit of his army with the 
faith that dared to lead on to victory. It repaid him with a kin- 
dred confidence and an ardor and devotion that never failed him 
in the hour of sorest need. The bracing tonic pervaded its ranks 
and imparted a steadiness of nerve against which the utmost 


desperatidu of his enemy, stimulated by whisky and gunpowder, 
dashed out its spasmodic force in vain. 

So while others were content to blockade the way of the enemy 
toward the north. Grant seized the gateways to the south. While 
others were hesitating and calling for help, or staggering under 
the enemy's blows, he went on conquering. While the army 
of the Potomac was disputing the advance of Lee from Rich- 
mond to Grettysburg, his army of the Tennessee cleaved the Con- 
federacy in twain, received the surrender of the enemy's last 
stronghold on the Mississippi, joined hands with the beleaguered 
army of the Cumberland, and hurled the concentrated forces of 
the enemy from Mission Ridge back into the mountains of 

So strong was the bond of mutual confidence thus welded 
between Grant and his victorious armies, that when he was sum- 
moned to answer Lee's knocking at the gates of Washington, 
there was only one harassing doubt in the minds of the soldiery 
of the West. Around a thousand camp-fires it was the daily 
theme of debate, until one day the cry of the newsboy rang out 
that " Grant was across the Rapidan.'" Then a cheer rose in a 
hundred thousand electrified throats, but it was only half uttered. 
For again came that anxious doubt: " Will the Army of the 
Potomac fight on southern soil ? Will it stand true to its new 
commander?" And the wish was unanimous that Grant had his 
old army there. Then two days of excitement over, the reports 
of that terrific battle in the wilderness. Then the result. Grant 
on the march toward Richmond. All doubt is dispelled. The 
cheer rings forth in full chorus over valley and hill. 

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat. 

Our Grant is marching on. ' 

And with this inspiring thought the old army strode forth to 
sweep its enemy from the mountains, " from Atlantic to the 
sea," and then on to meet its old commander on the James. 

Grant had indeed become master of the situation by his first 


move. He trusted the patriotic spirit of the Army of the 
Potomac as he had trusted the conquering armies of the West. 
He arrayed it against his great enemy with like confidence and 
celerity. And under the new inspiration, that army repaid him 
by rising in a moment superior to all discouragement and dis- 
aster to go on its conquering way until the end. 

But the more remarkable evidence that his greatness sprung 
from his appreciation of his countrymen, from his sympathy 
with their higher impulses, from his faith in their fidelity and 
intelligence, and from his desire for their common advancement 
father than his own, is to be found in his moderation and mag- 
nanimity toward the conquered, in his desire to see them return 
reunited under the peaceful folds of the old flag; and in his con- 
duct during the crisis brought on by the murder of Lincoln. 

It will never be forgotten by a grateful people how in the 
hour of that dreadful calamity, which seemed about to drag down 
the pillars of state at the moment of apparent triumph into the 
vortex of the expiring Confederacy,. all eyes were instinctively 
turned upon the chief of the conquering armies, with a helpless- 
ness of appeal for rescue, seen only when dismay paralyzes the 
hearts of men; how some there were who, in momentary despair, 
see him seize the occasion like Caesar, draw to him those armies, 
mount the rein of free government and rule the land by the 
sword — how they quickly put away the dream as unworthy of 
the man, and took heart with the great majority, who looked to 
see him 

" Bid the rising tumult cease, 
Calm the storm and hush to peace." 

How the people of the conquered South as instinctively looked 
to see him interpose to stay the wrath of vengeance which their 
fear saw ready to burst upon their defenseless heads in expia- 
tion of the crime, and how calmly and completely, in that crown- 
ing emergency, he met the expectations of both friend and foe, 
and added to his splendid success in arms a mightier, and more 


enduring triumph achieved over the hearts of all men, both con- 
quered and conquerers, by invoking their better impulses. 

Although he has been called away, the virtues which he made 
resplendent remain conspicuous in the character of the Ameri- 
can people, adorning the humblest as well as the highest posi- 
tions, and while cherished will ever prove the steadfast guardians 
of the free government under which they have grown so great. 


We stand to-day in the shadow of a great sorrow. 
He, who a few days ago was honored as the foremost citizen 
of the Republic, is now no more, and the nation mourns. From 
all sections of this country, and from every civilized nation of 
the globe, come testimonials of universal sympathy in this, the 
nation's hour of deep bereavement. The press everywhere vie 
with each other in expressions of their appreciation and the 
worth of our fallen chieftain. The London Globe alone refuses 
to render the need of praise where praise is due, and seeks to 
dim the luster that encircles his brow. It tauntingly, yea, in- 
sultingly, remarks that " Grant was neither a Wellington nor a 
Napoleon." How different are the facts of history. With her 
Majesty's press, comparisons with America are odious, whenever 
by such comparison she is likely to be humiliated. 

The future historian will, in my judgment, accord Gen. Grant 
a place among the heroes of the world second to none other 
since the days of Csesar. Of his illustrious achievements on 
the field of battle, where his marshalled hosts outnumbered far 
the boasted forces of a Wellington or Napoleon, I will not at- 
tempt to speak, but confine myself to the unfolding of some of 
his noble traits of character. Of his early life and mature years 
we are all familiar. 

His birth was of humble origin. His life " in low -estate be- 
gan, and on a simple village green." 

He was not rocked in the cradle of luxury, but was early filled 


with a spirit of noble daring, which was both a prophecy and 
promise of the future man. He made his own destiny, he 
carved his own monument. From the humblest walk in life he 
attained the highest pinnacle of fame, and "from the topmost 
round of fame's ladder, he stepped to the skies." 

When the dark cloud of war had passed, and the roar of 
musketry and cannon died away across mountain and plain, with 
the shout of victory on the lips of all, came the ever memorable 
declaration from the hero of battles: "Let us have peace." 
Peace hath its victories as well as war, and the grandest victory 
of modern times, greater than the achievements of war, was the 
peaceful arbitration at the Geneva convention. At this conven- 
tion questions of momentous import were adjusted without a 
resort to the arbitrament of the sword. Peace triumphed and 
nation's honor was maintained. 

The South will ever hold in grateful remembrance the name 
of Gen. Grant for the magnaminity and consideration shown by 
him to a fallen foe. This was notably so at Appomattox, at the 
fall of Yicksburg, and at Donelson. At the surrender of the 
latter named place. Gen. Buekner charged Gen. Grant with be- 
ing uachivalrous, which was untrue. 

After the lapse of twenty years and more, it is pleasant to 
reflect that at the bedside of the dying hero, at Mt. McGregor, 
Gen. Buekner hastened to correct his mistake, and make proof 
of his high esteem and consideration. 

A spirit of amicable relationship was ever cultivated by Gen. 
Grant towards the South. He gave tangible proof of his 
friendship by sending to the people of Virginia his compliments 
with $500 inclosed, to aid in building a home for the aged and 
infirm Confederate soldiery. 

Gen. Grant was not only a man of generous impulses, but 
was also a man of religious convictions. While not a pro- 
nounced Christian, yet the whole tenor of his life was in har- 
mony with the Golden Rule, which bids us " do unto others as 


we would have others do unto us." He also was a strict observer 
of the Christian's Sabbath, which he knew from the history of 
Athens and Rome was the bulwark of a nation's existence. 

When in Paris, Gen. Grant was invited by Marshal McMa^ 
hon, the President of the French Republic, to participate in 
some base amusement on the Sabbath. The General declined, 
and with his declination stated that as an American citizen he 
could not desecrate the American Sabbath. Another commend- 
able trait of his character was his entire freedom from all pro- 
fanity and obscenity. What a noble example for all to follow. 

Into the sacred precincts of the General's home we will not 
intrude. It could have been none other than the abode of peace 
and love, the sweetest of all boons to mortals given, endeared by 
affections, and hallowed by the associations • of happy by-gone 
years spent within its sacred shrine. 

The fragrance of such an influence will be ever known and 
felt in all the homes of this broad land of ours. 

But he is gone, and the brevity of life forces the conviction 

" The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, 
And all that beauty, all that wealth 'ere gave, 

Await alike the inevitable hour, 
The paths of glory lead but to the grave." 

We devise our plans and enter upon our life-work in joyful 
anticipations of the unfolding beauties of future years, when 
suddenly, perhaps, our lives are required of ^us, and the brilliant 
hopes of former years fade away in the nothingness of death. 
But to the good man, death is not the end. 

Bulwer has feelingly expressed: 

"There is no death. The stars go down 

To rise upon some fairer shore, 
And bright in heaven's jeweled crown, 

They shine forevermore." 

Gen. Grant rests in the beautiful park on the classic Hudson, 
near the shadow of his late home, surrounded by those he loved 


and served so well. The night of slumber will be short, when 
the morn of eternity's dawn shall awake him to an eternal day. 
Upon^the hearts of all should be impressed the sentiments of 
the poet Bonner, that, 

" Beyond the smiling and the weepins. 

We shall be soon. 
Beyond the waking and the sleeping, 
Beyond the sowing and the reaping, 

We shall be soon. 

Love, rest and home! Sweet home! 
Lord, tarry not but come. 

Beyond the blooming and the fading. 

We shall be soon. 
Beyond the shining and the shading, 
Beyond the hoping and the dreading, 

We shall be soon. 

Beyond the parting and the meeting. 

We shall be soon. 
Beyond the farewell and the greeting, 
Beyond the pulse's fever beating, 

We shall be soon. 

Beyond the frost-chain and the fever. 

We shall be soon. 
Beyond the rock-waste and the river. 
Beyond the ever and the never. 

We shall be soon. 
Love, rest and home; sweet home! 

Lord, tarry not, bat come." 

S. L. KING. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — Our duty, afflicted fellow citizens, on 
this occasion, is dictated by the dignity, wonderful achievements 
and resplendent virtue of the beloved man whose death we 

We assemble to pay a debt to departed merit, to present to 
departed excellence an oblation of gratitude and respect. In this 
let there be sincerity in our grief, and consideration in our effu- 
sions of gratitude. 

Well may we mourn the loss of a man, who, in time of peace 
is inflexible, in war invincible, calm in defeat, and in victory 
magnanimous. With these characteristics associate the public 


services and grand achievements of the departed, and it can be 
truly said that General Grant belongs to his whole country. 

Must we, then, realize that Grant is no more ? Must the sod, 
not yet scarcely more than cemented on the tomb of Garfield, 
still moist with our tears, be so soon disturbed to admit his 
beloved companion, the partner of his dangers? Insatiable 
death ! 

It is decreed that General Grant shall die, but that his death 
shall be worthy of his life. Whilst we confide in his arm, and 
are marshalling our warriors to march under his banners, the 
God of Armies, whose counsels are beyond the scrutiny of man, 
prepares for us the test of our submission to his chastening rod. 

The rapid disease which is selected as the instrument of his 
dissolution, instantaneously seizes him. Possibly his humanity 
delays the immediate aid to whi,ch it alone might have yielded. " 

At length science flies to save him. Alas, what avail its skill 
against the mandates of heaven? It comes too late. It is fin- 

' ' For him no more the blazing hearth shall burn, 

Or tender consort wait with anxious care; 
No children run to lisp their sire's return, 

Or climb hia knees, the envied kiss to share." 

The universal sorrow manifested in every part of this broad 
land is an unequivocal testimonial of the opinion of the worth of 
this great man. The place of his residence is overspread with 
gloom, which bespeaks the presence of a public calamity, while 
the prejudices of party are absorbed in the overflowing tide of 
national grief. 

That he was dear in thehearts of all his countrymen is demon- 
strated by the universal expressions of sympathy during his last 
sickness and the unity of sentiment manifest in this general and 
popular observance of these last sad rites. 

To observe that such a man was dear to his family would be 
superfluous; to describe how dear, impossible. 

Come, then, warriors, statesmen, philosophers, citizens, assera- 


Ue around the tomb of this favorite son, with all the luxury of 
sorrow, recollect the important events of his life, and partake of 
the greatest legacy which a mortal could bequeath you, in the 
contemplation of his example. Whilst we solemnize this act, 
his disembodied spirit, if it be permitted to retrace the scenes of 
its terrestrial existence, will smile with approbation on the in- 
structive rite. 

Remember the time when Providence directed to his appoint- 
ment as the commander-in-chief of our Federal army. Perhaps 
some of you, my fellow townsmen, were then languishing under 
the fetters of tyranny, or were imprisoned within the joyless 
confines of Libby or Anderson ville. Your hope was fixed on 
him. A veteran army lay under his eye, strongly fortified. Yet 
did his victorious sword relieve you. 

To trace the life of General Grant from the time of his ap- 
pointment as commander-in-chief of the Federal army, to the 
surrender of Lee at Appomattox would be to name the varying 
history of the war of the rebellion for that period. 

It is not our purpose to recount the career of this, the greatest 
of military captains, nor enter into a dissertation upon his ser- 
vices as chief executive of this great nation. Sufficient is it to say, 
that in official life, and as an honored private citizen, his work 
was well and faithfully performed. Then, 

" Peace — let the sad procession go — 
While cannon boom, and bells toll slow; 
And go, thou sacred car, 
Bearing our woe afar. 

" Gro, darkly borne, from place to place, 
Whose loyal, sorrowing cities wait 
To honor, all they can. 
The dust of that good man. 

" Go, grandly borne, with such a train 
As greatest kings might die to gain: 
The just, the wise, the brave, 
Attend thee to the grave. 

" And you, the s&ldiers of the wars. 
Bronzed veterans, grim with noble scarg, 
Salute him once again, 
Your late commander. " 



n The following address was delivered at Logan, May 22, 1886, 
by Capt. Joe H. Smith, on the occasion of the annual meeting 
of the Veterans of the Mexican War, and was published in The 
Missouri Valley Times by request: 

^* Mr. Chairman and Ex-Soldiers of the Mexican War: Two 
score years have passed sin'ce the time of the happening of the 
events for the commemoration of which you are- assembled here 
to-day. The circumstances and causes therefor are fresh in the 
memories of but few in this intelligent audience; other matters 
of greater or less importance have crowded out of sight the 
stirring events of forty years ago. Diversified as were the 
opinions then, of the American people as to the cause, origin 
and justness of that war, the same has not been as yet settled 
and solved by those who have come upon the stage of action 
since. The great question in certain parts of the country then 
was the extension of territory and to extend the territory would be 
the extension of the national curse of slavery. Others opposed 
the war for the reason last stated, viz. : the extension of slavery 
. — that slavery could, and of right should not exist in the terri- 
tories, that existing at all must and could only so exist in that 
part of the States where it was recognized at the time of the 
confederation. But say they, who were the men in favor of 
war measures? The Mexican republic is owing us seven and one- 
quarter millions of dollars, and they have neglected to pay us 
the same, and this debt must be paid; that by act of Congress 
Texas had been annexed as one of the States of this Union, and 
therefore we, as a government, must at all hazards protect its 
citizens and territory. To this the others reply by saying that 
Texas has not been legally annexed, for the reason that the 
Republic of Texas, at the time she accepted the terms of 
annexation, was a part of the Republic of Mexico, had never 


been by the parent government acknowledged as a republic, 
and that acceptance of the terms of annexation the same 
should have been accepted by Mexico instead of Texas. And 
besides, they say, what are the boundaries of your Texan re- 
public—the Neuces or Rio Grande? And besides, by adopting 
the policy and position that the Rio Grande is the boundary 
between the two Republics, rather than the Neuces, we are, by 
adopting the latter, by only the right of superior force, wrest- 
ing this territory from weak and helpless Mexico. Hence, then 
the causes of that war were, first, failure to pay a national debt; 
second, pretended protectioli of property either belonging or not 
belonging to the United States; third, to possess ourselves of 
this territory either by rightful or wrongful means. All this' 
domain lying and being between these disputed lines was 
coveted by the administration then in power, a land of genial 
sunshine and never failing flowers; a land where "every pros- 
pect pleases and only man is vile." Our good government, like 
historic Ahab, determined to take possession of this " Naboth " 
plot, and at once proceeded to carry into execution that determi- 
nation by the use of men, cannon and muskets. 

It is not my object to-day to discuss the causes of the war, but 
content myself by calling to mind the bravery and glory of those 
who were the soldiery in that sanguinary contest. Before me I 
see a little band of the remaining ones who so materially assisted 
in establishing the valor, bravery and glory of the American 
soldiery; here is E. E. Ervin, Nathan Myers, J. B. Baker, Wil- 
liam Frazier, D. P. McDonald, Elon A. Sample, Samuel Purcell, 
Samuel Vititbe, James Muncy, James Munroe, Babb, Baggs, 
Daken, William Spencer, E. Patridge et al, many of whom, at a 
more recent day, when the government was imperiled, without 
home or comfort, were the first to again fall into the ranks with 
regard to shouldered muskets and maintain inviolate, not only 
this sunny land above conquered, but the entire Union, one 
and indivisible. 


That which elicits our admiration most in all the battles of the 
Mexican war, is the fact that in each and every battle, in every 
engagement, be the same great or small, the American soldier 
was more than master when pitted against the foe, though that 
foe was two or three to one. Take, for instance, the first battle 
of the war, viz.: Palo Alto, a little place near the mouth of the 
Rio Grande, that grand old hero. Gen Taylor, with a little hand- 
ful of men numbering 2,300, everlastingly put to flight Aristas, 
with a force of over 6,000, put the Mexican forces to utter rout 
on their own chosen battle ground, (but to-day when we read 
the account of this battle, as it was 'then called, it sinks into 
utter insignificance, as compared to some of the little skirmishes 
of the late rebellion, and would not be a breakfast appetizer.) 
From here to Resaca de la Palma 1,700 Americans whip 7,000 
Mexicans out of their boots, supply and succor a besieged garrison, 
and then soon cross the Mexican Rubicon, the Rio Grande, and 
carry the war into the very heart of the latter's country. 

On the bights of Monterey the invincible Yankee, with only 
6,000 regulars and volunteers, wrap in a girdle of grape and 
bayonets a fortified city of 15,000, and defended by 10,000 Mexi- 
can soldiers; here again, by the bravery and valor of the Yankee, 
the " eagle of the prickley pear and snake is captured by the 
eagle of the olive branch and arrows." * 

Pass with me if you please to the greatest prodigy of that 
memorable contest, viz. : to the battle of Buena Vista. After the 
battle of Monterey, the grand army of veterans, who had won for 
themselves and their country so signal a victory, was depleted 
and called away by Gen. Scott to open a new path of glory from 
Vera Cruz to the capital of the Montezumas. But 4,073 men were 
left,»and these instead of remaining pent up in the citadeled 
safety of Monterey — without infantry, only artillery and horse, 
go to the furtherest out-posts of Anga Neuva to watch the 
designs of the wily Santa Anna, who was in command of 20,000 
men. This apparently deserted army, among the Mexican 


mountains, many long and weary miles from Monterey, and far 
from the Rio Grande, fearless and brave, apparently retreats, falls 
back behind the Sierra Madre mountains, into a little pass — a 
Thermopylae, is attacked by Santa Anna, the first day's battle is 
closed, the little, though gallant, army is only at bay — night and 
darkness close around them, there in the shadows of the moun- 
tain peaks and on the verge of deep gorges, not a man is driven 
from his post, not a man unemployed save those in the cold 
embrace of death. The second day is the repeating of the first, 
and as they witness the closing of this, exhausted but ever 
courageous, they fling themselves under their cannon's mouth for 
rest, expecting the morrow to usher in the scenes of the two days 
last past, but when the morrow's sun rose over mountain crag 
and flowery plain, the Mexican army had fled, leaving alike 
exposed his dead, wounded and rear of his army, to the mercy of 
the brave invaders. 

Pass from here if you please, and for a few moments contem- 
plate what is taking place in another part of the Republic. 
There is Gen. Scott at Vera Cruz, disembarking his troops — only 
10,000, against a nation of seven to eight millions of inhabit- 
ants. Now he captures the city with 5,000 prisoners; then on 
to Contreras, and from there to Cherubusco; this taken, he is 
thundering his cannon within the shadow of the Nation's Capi- 

Here let me give you a specimen of the bravery and pluck of 
the usual American volunteer, a story that is related by a no less 
personage than Gen. Grant. The place is Molino del Rey; the 
actors are Grant, a volunteer, and a score of Mexican soldiers sit- 
uated on the top of the building captured. Grant was looking 
upward, and happened to notice a score of Mexican soldiers on 
the top of the building, and determining to capture them, he 
improvised a ladder by backing up a cart to the wall and then 
ascending by climbing the shafts, when on the roof, there found 
this private soldier, having already captured this entire gang, 


and was then standing guard over them. From Molino del Rey 
thence to Chepultapec and then to the Capital of the Nation — 
they capture it and take up their abode in the Palaces of Axyacatl 
and Montezuma. 

In all these engagements the Americans were outnumbered 
from three to five, but the intrepidity and perseverance of brave 
boys at each occasion was equal to the task be the way over 
mountain crag, through deep defile, morass or summer's trop- 
ical hottest gun; ever the same brave and determined boys. I 
can truthfully say that in Gen. Scott's first three battles he cap- 
tured more men than constituted his entire army. 

February 1848, after nearly two years a treaty was signed, and 
the war with Mexico was a matter of the past — had gone into 
history, but the cost thereof was a matter of uncertain compu- 
tation. In the matter of dollars and cents the government paid 
Mexico fifteen millions; to this add the 5i millions due this gov- 
ernment for claims allowed, the cost of the war 120 millions and 
25,000 soldiers' lives; then again, add to this the 10 millions that 
the government paid Texas in the settlement of boundaries. 
What is the consideration this government receives in return for 
this 150 millions of dollars? 

The present State of California and the territory of New 
Mexico — the former extending along the Pacific coast for 750 
miles, and reaching into the interior 250 miles — now having a 
population of over one million, and the wealth at the present is 
beyond the conception of the human mind. 

At the time of this treaty and the payment thereof, many of 
the statesmen of that day called this vast extent of territory 
wholly worthless, and no less a personage than the great Thomas 
Benton, more familiarly known as " Old Bullion," de'clared that 
it would be impossible to ever utilize the same, and the land was 
without value whatever; but how short-sighted are many of our 
wisest men on many of the new subjects that come to the surface 
in this day and age of American politics and American policy? 


The State o£ California of to-day is of untold value to this 
Union. What outlet would this great Nation have on the west 
were it not that we had access to the Pacific coast, together with 
her magnificent bays? Through this great national artery 
pours in and out the commerce, of not only this nation, but the ' 
commerce of the world. See the great, grand cities which have 
spiung up as if by magic since the discovery of gold in Califor- 
nia—since the treaty of peace, called the " Treaty of Guadalupe 
Hidalgo" in February of 1848. 

Never had it entered the mind of any of those who were so 
in favor of the war, that a city like San Francisco would rise on 
the margin of the bay of that name, which in two score years 
would rival the great city of New York? Never did it enter 
into the conception of those of the South, that in two years 
after the treaty of peace between this and the Mexican govern- 
ment, that Upper California, with a sufficient population, would 
be knocking at the doors of Congress' and be admitted into the 
sisterhood of States as one of the free States ? That which was 
then declared as utterly impossible, viz.:. The building of a 
railroad across the Sierra Nevada mountains, connecting the far 
west with the home east, was in a few years, (say 20) to the 
astonishment of the old fogy, performed, and Palmer, in 1881, 
swept across the continent in. his palace car with the swiftness 
of the falcon when pursuing his prey. 

California is in fact to-day the key of the west just as truly 

as the city of New York is of the east. Farther up inland, sits 

Sacramento, grand and beautiful, a fairy queen, fanned by the 

health inyigorating breeze from the placid waters of the mighty 

Pacific, and hedged around by an ocean of flowers and 

superabundance of fruit — truly a land flowing with milk and 


" No fairer land the prophet viewed 
When on the sacred mount he stood, 
And saw below, transcendent shine 
The groves and plains of Palestine." 


Galifornia with her 120 million acres of land is no small 
part in the great domain of this government; and when you 
add to this the acreage of the territory of New Mexico as origi- 
nally bounded, comprising all of the present territory of the 
present New Mexico and all of the territory of Arizona with 
their 165 millions of acres of land, we have, as an increased 
domain, to the amount of 285 million acres of land, the value 
thereof can never be fully estimated so far as the same is of 
value to this government. 

This, then, is the real product of the war with Mexico. I can 
safely assert that ia no war was there ever that value resulting 
from the same as in this, when we come to compare or determine 
the value of the same now to this people as a nation. What 
think you of the area of all this vast domain as compared to 
that of the old world, viz: England, France, etc. Again let 
me ask what have the soldiers of this war received from the 
hands of this government for the sacrifices and sufferings en- 
dured during this two years war? Their treatment has been, 
and is, a burning sljame and disgrace to the nation which has 
reaped the reward and benefit of their bravery and hardships. 

A few have been pensioned at a very late day, but these 
were only the few who could prove away back in the past forty 
years, that the pains and aches, the halting of the step or the 
sleeplessness by night and pains by the day were the direct result 
of wounds or disease contracted while in the line of duty in the 
service, aud this must be additionally supported by evidence that 
this disability did not exist at the time of entering the service, 
and to do this made the case an utter impossibility, for the men 
of forty years ago are not all, but are nearly all passed away. 
The galley slave at the oar or the convict in the mine has nearly 
received the same amount of assistance as has the good, brave, 
enduring and uncomplaining soldier of the Mexican war. 

Why not pension one and all? Their conduct and hardships, 
and the vast and valuable domain resulting to this government 


through their acts, richly merits aud demands the protection and 
bounty of this Nation. 

While millions of dollars— the income of this war, are yearly 
being thrown away, or frittered out in needless expenditures, they 
who brought these captives home to Rome pass down to their 
graves unnoticed, unhouored, unwept, unpaid and unsung. 

Shame to the government that will thus neglect her bene- 
factors—that will permit her brave defenders to pass to the poor 
house and a pauper's grave. 

This vast domain, annexed and purchased, is of such magnitude 
that seven such States as that from which hails the Great Chief 
of our now enlarged Union could be easily constructed. Seven 
States as large as the Empire State. 

And with this, a free, untrammeled inlet and outlet from the 
West to the East, from the Golden Gate on the west to Hell Gate 
on the east, a highway of not only this but of all nations, a 
wealth of cereal, fruit, flower, fish, herd, mine, which, added to 
what was formerly possessed, makes these thirty-eight States and 
nine territories the most varied, healthful and wealthy of any of 
the nations of the earth. 

What would be the result if the boundaries of this republic 
were shortened on the west to what they were at the inaugura- 
tion of the war in 1846 ?' 

What would be the result if the sixteen iron bands that bind 
the Atlantic to the Pacific were now severed, and all trans-con- 
tinental trade, traffic and travel forever suspended? 

Infinitely better for us who reside in Iowa, that the mouth of 
the grand Mississippi, the " father of waters," should be dried up. 
Infinitely better for the East that the great outlet, viz. : water to 
the gulf, should be under tribute, than that the four Pacific rail, 
roads should be destroyed and discontinued forever. 

Such, then, my Mexican army friends, are some of the great 
benefits that you, in your day, have been instrumental in })ring- 
into being: You should have. a just, a glorious pride in thus 


benefiting the government that has received the reward of your 
noble and heroic deeds, while suffering you to starve and die in 
poverty and neglect. 


Delivered by Joe H. Smith on Memorial Day, 1S86, at Dunlap, 


{Editor Harrison County News : — We, the undersigned, com- 
rades of Shields Post, G. A. R., of Dunlap, Iowa, would respect- 
fully request the publication of the address delivered by Joe H. 
Smith, of Logan, on last Memorial Day, to the comrades of 
Shields Post and the citizens of Dunlap, firmly believing that 
the perusal of the same would not only be instructive, but highly 
entertaining, as the same breathes the spirit of true patriotism. 
Signed by S. P. Patterson, Charles Taylor, J . B. Patterson, P. P. 
Eaton, W. H. Dedrick, Samuel Baird, W. H. Squire, P. JB. Wiles, 
S. L. Manning, Charles Mackenzie.] 

Happy is the people who know of war only through the bloom 
of Decoration Day. They halt not through life with crippled 
limb, so made by the bullet's furrow or disease of swamp; scarcely 
ever in this beautiful land of sunshine and plenty do they feel 
the gnawings of hunger, nor wear away the live-long night 
with sleepless eye, to lull to softness the pain of severed limb or 
broken bone or aching muscle. 

They hear not the tolling of the funeral bell, which for a 
score and more years has followed along the lonely way of that 
widow, so made by war and battle's carnage; each stroke upon 
the brim thereof seems to her to be the restoration of that time 
when her hope, support and heart had fled at the news of death 
of him who was the idol of her life. Many a biWe-hearted 
woman, whose hands have been hardened by labor and roughest 
toil, that but for bloody strife, all would have been lovingly done 
for her by those stronger hands which, during all this time, have 


been lying folded beneath the Southern sod. And let it be the 
earnest prayer of us all that the generation now coming upon 
the stage of action may know nothing of the suffering, carnage 
and desolation of war except by report. Twenty-six years this 
month, while standing on this identical spot where your pleas- 
ant village is now situated, viewing the beautiful flowery car- 
peted prairies, and speculating in my own mind as to the proba^ 
ble future of this matchless valley, little did I then think, little 
did you who were my comrades in arms, little did you who were 
civilians at home looking after the wants and necessities of the 
helpless at home, for a moment suppose that in less than one 
year would this great Government be surging in the vortex of 
internecine war. Yet unexpected and awful as the change, the 
same was thrust upon us. 

Those opposed to and entertaining opinions foreign to our 
Government, predicted that the weakness of this form, viz.: the 
total lack of standing armies, would cause the same to crumble 
into dust at the first approach of internal dissension; that man 
was incapable of self government, and that all the bright hopes 
of the " fathers " would vanish at the approach of civil dis'sen- 
sion as does thedew before the morning sun. What has been 
the sequel? At the first sound of the tocsin, the minister 
invokes God's richest blessing on his flock, his support in the 
maintenance of this Government and the assisting power to 
break in pieces the shackles which held four millions of human 
beings in involuntary servitude — to forever wipe out of statute 
books that blackest and foulest blot on this free land, the mart 
and traffic in human flesh — then leaves the pulpit for the tented 
field; the farmer leaves his plow in the furrow, his crops ungath- 
ered, his home unfinished; the lawyer hastily shelves his books, 
the causes so carefully briefed are stowed away, the case is left 
untried, the high and worthy ambition for legal fame and 
renown is laid aside; the merchant closes his place of merchan- 
dise, hastily casts up his accounts, leaves a pittance with his 

482 HiSTOET or haeeison cotinty. 

wife, so that for a time the wolf of hunger would not haunt 
her door; the physician turns his patients over to less skillful 
hands; the mechanic with hurried excitement casts his planes, 
saws, square and hammer aside; the anvil no longer rings out 
the merry sound of home, peace and plenty; they of the hum- 
bler walk and condition of life are all alike akin to the former; 
all catch the contagion of love of country; the secular affairs of 
life become matters of little or no importance when compared to 
that one great thought of love of country and the permanency 
of Government — the scream of the ear-piercing fife, the blare 
of trumpets, and the roll of drums were our matins and vespers. 
The great heart of the Nation was beating with unwonted rapid- 
ity, and the universal impulse was akin to that which moved 
men when they cried out " What shall we do to be saved." The 
inheritance which was purchased by the blood of the fathers 
was imperiled; all zealously and fearlessly_ left these homes of 
comfort and care for the time, expecting that sometime in the 
future when this fratricidal rebellion was trampled into the dust, 
they would again return to that home with a Government the 
mor« strongly and the more firmly knit and cemented together 
by suffering and blood, thereby transmitting to their children 
that inheritance bequeathed them by the patriot fathers. 

What was the condition of this fair and formerly peaceful 
land at that time? Courts of justice were closed; schools, the 
nursery of the nation, were unattended; the temple of "Janus" 
had every aperture thrown wide open, every cheek was blanched 
with fear, every heart was frozen in despair, and all over the 
whole land the hand of infuriated passion, prejudice and crime 
was waving with a vulture's scream for blood. What prompted 
this unparalleled rising of the loyal strength? Was it love of 


country? Yes. Well and truly did the sweetest Scottish poet 

" Breathes there a man with soul so dead 

Whenever to himself hath said: ' 

This is my own, my native land? 

If such there breathe, go, mark him well- 

For him no minstrel raptures swell. ' 

High though his place, proud his name; 

Boundless his wealth as wish can claim; 

Despite that wealth, power and pelf, 

The wretch concentered all in self. 

Living shall forfeit fair renown, 
•And doubly dying, shall go down 

To the vile dust from which he sprung, 

Unwept, vmhonored and unsung." 

Who were those who then were seeking to destroy the life of 
the nation? They were those who were sworn to support the 
Constitution of our land— those who were holding offices of 
trust and responsibility therein — they who had been nurtured 
and fed under the very shadow of the capitol — they who were 
nutured and fed at the expense of the Grovernraent they were 
now attempting to destroy. 

Who are those which constitute that vast loyal soldiery, pour- 
ing down from the loyal North to the sunny, seceding, erring 
South ? The old man, grey-headed, bent and worn with the ser- 
vitude to which he is unequal, is there. The young boy, fair, 
golden-haired, with the farewell kiss of a mother's lips yet warm 
upon his forehead, is there; and the strong man, in all the pride 
and glory of his lusty manhood, is there; they all marched to the 
brink of life — stepping into the awful chasm to death. This is 
the material upon which is encircled the laurel wreath of fame, 
which crowns the victorious brow of war. Hardly had the head 
of the column entered the rebellious States — hardly had the keel 
of the war ships cut the southern waters, when the roll of the 
dead was begun. Henceforward it lengthened year by year 
through four years of warfare. Dead on the slippery decks; 
dead by the campfires of the night; dead in the smoke-clouded 
battle; dead in the murderous prison pens. Time, which has 
hidden the trenches under the green, and plowed over the track 


of the heavy guns, has softened the first violence of mourning 
into gentle sadness, and is healing a nation's wounds. But 
wherever loyal men and true comrades are to-day, a people 
brings its offering with which to garland the graves of their 
dead heroes. 

The 300,000 graves filled by this war with the most loyal and 
the best of this land, to-day, from their bright repose, call us 
and our thoughts to the cause for which they sacrificed life and 
all. We pause by these graves, imagining that" we are there, 
comrades and citizens, for a parting service. We could not find 
all the graves to-day. You know where they are. The waters 
are the restless graves of some; the bluifs of the quiet rivers 
cover some; the thronged burial place, where drooping captives 
mustered strength to bury the starved dead, hold some in end- 
less captivity. So, now you have decked the graves of those who 
sleep at home, pause and here honor the graves of those who 
sleep afar off. 

This is no time for many words. Sometimes words are help- 
less, because the great idea disdains the bondage of language. 
The men whom we remember were not men of words, but deeds. 
All their words were written with their bayonets. With their 
sabres they shaped the destiny of their land. " They died in 
defense of their country." What is more eloquent than the 
majestic simplicity of that phrase — " their country ?" Let not 
him try to measure the length and breadth of these words, who 
thinks of his country only as a place to buy and sell and get 
gain; let him not try to sound the depth of these words, whose 
idea of his country is only that therein he shall get public office 
and honor and profit; let him not aspire to the heighth of these 
words, who thinks that peace is better than righteousness, safety 
better than manhood. They who endured hardship and daunt- 
lessly met the fiery storm, and poured out their blood, and lay 
with their white faces upturned to God, they knew — in their 
life-time knew — what " our country " means. They, in their 


graves, tell us that no country can live without law and liberty 
and true manhood, and because they saw in the flag the soul of 
the great Republic, with strong hearts and chivalric daring they 
planted themselves by the Stars and Stripes, and now sleep 
'til the reveille of the resurrection morn. 

This service which we all witness to-day is peculiarly under 
the auspices of the Grand Army of the Republic — the rem- 
nants of that mighty army which swept along from Atlanta to 
the sea, from Washington to Richmond and to Appomattox, 
from St. Joseph, Mo., to the Gulf, and thence to the heads of 
all the tributaries of the Great Father of Waters. 

This service says that the old soldiery do not forget their com- 
rades. Fresh in memory are those who were once with us in 
march and battle. True men do not forget those with whom 
they stood shoulder to shoulder in the greatest, hardest times 
this land ever saw. The fellowship of the living, wedded in 
fire, still endures. Some men look angrily on the great brother- 
hood of former soldiery which now covers the loyal land. They 
afiect to feel danger from the hundreds of thousands who link 
their hands under the leadership of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. But pause and think you — you who frown — are the 
fellowships of the battlefields, made in love of the flag, sworn 
to on the altar of death, to fall asunder like blades of grass 
mown down? Think you that men who rested together on the 
hard ground, stood in the same line, followed the same flag) 
charged together when death was in every step; men who were 
deprived of home, and had no friend but each other, and closed 
up as the dying fell — do you ask that they shall throw aside 
these ties of life and death? Can you not instinctively feel 
that they cannot do it— that they cannot abandon their needy 
and often friendless comrades and the widows and orphans of 
the dead— that they cannot dishonor themselves by destroying 
the sympathies of a glorious cause? Bear with us, we pray you, 
in this thing. Think not hard of us for our soldierly care of 


comrades. If it be a weakness in us to cherish old memories, 
yet deal tenderly with us, and grant us this one little boon, for 
once you needed us, and then nothing was too much to promise 
us when you asked us to encounter death. We did it. When 
we ask you to let us keep fresh the ties of death, will you not 
do it? Be not jealous because we remember each other. Dan- 
gerous ! Yes, once dangerous to the traitor and rebel. But not 
now. Men who periled life for law may be trusted in peace. 
Dangerous only to those who are the law breakers. See, only 
the color guard carry muskets, and the muzzles are filled only 
with flowers. There is no danger in these flowers, no bullets 
hid under them. Peacefully, loyally and reverently we lay the 
flowers on the graves of our dead. 

The Grand Army of the Republic is wholly different from all 
other military organizations. No accessions to its ranks but 
those who have had service in the Federal cause, and who are 
possessed of honorable discharge; even the sons of these veterans 
cannot keep step with their illustrious sires; no recent, con- 
versions to the Union cause can break bread with them; patriotic 
service and honorable discharge is the sesame that opens the great 
door to their temples. They jog along with crippled step, and 
each year at roll call they find their ranks melting away like the 
roll call of the " Light Brigade after the charge of Balaklava." 
When they fall out of the ranks it is to take a rest forever, from 
which no blare of bugle call, nor roll of drum will ever summon 
them again. Seventeen thousand were by the Great Captain 
mustered out during the past year, and 40,000 must respond to 
the same inexorable order the present year. 

We of the Grand Army would not claim, nor would we garner 
for ourselves, all the glory and laurels won in the late National 
conflict. Many, very many, acts of bravery, hardship, privation 
and pure devotion to the cause were daily enacted at the home, 
which challenge the admiration of all, and outstrip the abandon 
of the van man in the forlorn hope. See that wife and little ones 


left to her care, while the husband, father and patriot is at the 
front. The last particle of meal in the measure is exhausted; 
the last drop of oil in the cruse has been used; the monthly pay 
of the husband and father has by some means been delayed; not 
a dime of "fractional currency" in her once well-filled purse; 
the larder is wholly depleted, and nothing to replenish the same; 
the children and herself are pinched with hunger and chilled with 
cold; the desire to provide for children and self drives her forth 
for food; hunger, want and desperation nerve her sinking self; 
the pittance grudgingly dealt out by miser hand wounds more 
the heart than stays the self; with the last expiring effort she 
reaches home; faint and weary, unattended, she sinks on her own 
threshold— dies— in a land of plenty— dies of utter want. The 
nqon of her life, the meridian of her ambition, hope and joy — 
her very life, is as much a sacrifice as though she sank in the 
forefront of battle. All honor to the brave and loyal women of 
our land. It was they who sent to us the well filled letters of such 
encouragement — these more potent for good than all the medi- 
cines of the surgeon's chest. It was they who petitioned the 
Throne of Grace for the protecting care of hti'sband by Him who 
holds the destiny of nations in His hand — by Him who will not 
even let the sparrow fall to the ground without His notice. 
Who bnt those offering, or they like circumstanced, or even 
Deity, could measure the intensity and earnestness of that prayer? 
What has been the consideration for all this suffering — death — 
this expenditure of blood and treasure? 

To-day we who are in the flesh enjoy the blessings of a Gov- 
ernment, not only free in form but free in fact; a Government 
where the vast natural boundaries mark our national lines; a 
Government where all love and revere the grand, beautiful Stars 
and Stripes. Beautiful? That flag is always beautiful, whether 
it be fresh from the hands of loyal, loving women, or bleached 
by storm, or torn in shreds by whistling bullets and shrieking 
shells. Beautiful, because it is the emblem of liberty, for which 


sixty millions of free people are ready to fight and, if necessary, 
die. Beautiful, because our forefathers fought under it and con- 
quered our independence. Beautiful, because from 1861 to 1865 
it was carried from battle field to battle field through the blood- 
iest war the world ever saw. Beautiful, because more than a 
quarter of a million of loyal lives were freely given in its defense. 
Beautiful, because to-day it floats triumphantly over our whole 
country, loved by every American citizen and respected by the 
whole world. 

Was the cause for which those whose graves we to-day deck 
with choicest flowers — those who willingly yielded life therefor 
— a just one? More easy would it be for the child's hand to 
pluck up Lookout Mountain by its rocky raots, or dry up the 
Mississippi with its infantile breath, than for us to change the 
irreversible verdict of mankind, " the wae foe the Uition' was 


True, he who was the head center of that rebellion, may gather 
a few lingering lovers of the " lost cause " around him at Mont- 
gomery, yet they lack crystalization; they perish before the flag; 
they melt into nothingness before the righteous indignation of 
an outraged people, like the foreign anarchists at the Chicago 
Haymarket before the officers of the law. 

It was the old Jewish legend that Nimrod, the mighty hunter, 
took Abraham and cast him into a furnace of fire. But, lo! its 
flames all turned into roses, and the old patriarch lay down oA a 
bed of flowers. The fierce fires of our afiliction have already 
been turned into flowers of peace and memory and joy and hope. 
The rain which descends upon the swelling turf above our dead 
is not the iron rain of death, falling amid the crash of destruc- 
tion and the thunder of battle, but tiie rain that brings from the 
bosom of the earth her fairest floral gifts. The torn hem and 
jagged fibre of every tattered and smoke-begrimed flag speak 
the praise of these illustrious dead. Every remembrance of these 
patriotic dead is an arsenal: every cemetery is a fort. Like the 


chariots of fire and the horses of fire ahout that ancient moun- 
tain, are these invisible, but living and resistless, defenders 
around the mountain of our liberties. The dear form of Lib- 
erty, 'with the wounds she may yet have to receive, when asked, 
"What are these wounds in thine hands?" shall never again 
among us reply: "These are they with which I was wounded 
in the house of my friends." Her hands, her heart, may bleed 
again, but only when she leads a united people, at the command 
of the God of Freedom, to the immediate and universal emanci- 
pation of the race. 

A word retrospectively and then I've done. The past rises 
before me like a dream. Again we are in the great struggle for 
National existence. We hear the sound of preparation, the 
music of boisterous drums, the silver voice of heroic bugles. 
We see thousands of assemblages, and hear the appeal of orators. 
We see the pale cheeks of women and the flushed faces of men, 
and in those assemblages we see all the dead whose dust we have* 
covered with flowers. We lose sight of them no more. We 
are with them when they enlist in the great army of freedom. 
We see them part from those they love. Some are walking for 
the last tijne in the quiet woody places with the maid they adore. 
We hear the whisperings and the sweet vows of eternal love as 
they lingeringly part forever. Others are bending over cradles, 
kissing the sleeping babes. Some are receiving the blessings of 
old men. Some are parting with mothers who hold them and 
press them to their hearts again and again, and say nothing. 
Kisses and tears, and tears and kisses— divine commingling of 
agony and love. And some are talking with wives, and endeav- 
oring with brave words, spoken in the old tone, to drive away 
the awful fear. We see them part. We see the wife standing 
in the door with the babe in her arms, standing in the sunlight, 
sobbing. At the turn of the lane a hand waves. She answers 
by holding high in her loving arms the child. He is gone, and 


We see them as they march proudly away under the flaunting 
flags, keeping time to the grand wild music of war, marching- 
down the streets of the great cities, through the townsand 
across the prairies, down to the fields of glory, to do and to die 
for the eternal right. 

We go with them, one and all, by their sides in the gory fields, 
in all their weary marches. We stand guard with them in the 
wild storm and under the quiet stars. We are with them in the 
ravines running with blood, in the furrows of the fields. We 
are with them between contending hosts, unable to move, wild 
with thirst, the life ebbing slowly away among the withered 
pines. We see them pierced by balls and torn with shells, in 
trenches, by forts, and in the whirlwind of the charge, where 
men become iron with nerves of steel. We are with them in 
the prison pens — and here language fails me. We are at home 
when the news comes that they are dead. We see the silvered 
head of the old man bowed down with his last and greatest 

The past rises before me and we see four millions of human 
beings governed by the lash; we see them bound hand and foot; 
we hear the crack of whips; we see the hounds tracking women 
and men through the swamps; we see the babes sold from the 
breasts of mothers. Cruelty unspeakable. Outrage infinite. 

The past rises before me. We hear the roar and shriek of 
the bursting shell. The broken fetters fall. These heroes die. 
We look: instead of slaves, we see men, women and children. 
The wand of progress touches the auction block, the slave pen, 
the whipping post, and we see homes, and firesides, and schools, 
and books; and where all was want, crime, cruelty and fear, we 
see the faces of the free. 

These heroes are dead. They died for us. They died for 
liberty. They are at rest. They sleep jn the land they made 
free, under the flag they rendered stainless, under the solemn 
pines, by the sad hemlock, the weeping willows and embracing 


vines. They sleep beneath the shadows of the clouds, careless 
alike of sunshine or storm, each in the windowless palace of 
rest. Earth may run red with other wars — they are at rest. In 
the midst of battle, in the roar of conflict, they found the 
serenity of death. 

Soldier, rest; thy warfare o'er; 

Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking, 
Dream of battlefields no more. 

Days of danger, nights of waking. 
In our isle's enchanted hall, 

Hands unseen thy couch are strewing, 
Fairy strains of music faU 

Every sense in slumber dewing. 

Soldier, rest; thy warftire o'er; 
Dream of fighting fields no more. 
Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking, 
Morn of toil, nor night of waking.