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Full text of "The history of Keokuk County, Iowa, containing a history of the county, its cities, towns, &c., a biographical directory of its citizens, war record of its volunteers in the late rebellion, history of the Northwest, history of Iowa, map of Keokuk County ... constitution of the state of Iowa ... &c"

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F 

K3 ^i-? 




Qpocttell Unittctattg iCihrarg 



BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE 

JACOB H. SCHIFF 

ENDOWMENT FOR THE PROMOTION 

OF STUDIES IN 

HUMAN CIVILIZATION 

1918 



Cornell University Library 
F 627K3 H67 




3 1924 028 914 145 



olln 




1^ Cornell University 
'jM Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924028914145 



THE 



HISTORY 



KEOKUK COUNTY, 



lovy^A 



CONTAINING 



A History of the County, its Cities, Towns, &c., 



A Biographical Directory of its Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers in the late Re- 
bellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent 
Men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Keokuk 
County, Constitution of the. United States, Constitution of 
the State of Iowa, Miscellaneous Matters, &c. 



IXiXiTrST3B.A.TEID. 



DES MOINES: 
UNION HISTORICAL COMPANY. 
1880. £, 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, |n/the year 1880, by 

THE UKIOlsr HISTORICAL OOMPAI^T, 

In the OfBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, B, 0. 



UILIiS A COUPAKY, 

PBIHTBBS AND STEBEOTTFEBB, 

DBS MOINES, IOWA. 



PREFACE. 



The American people axe much given to reading, but the character of the matter read is 
such that -with regard to a large proportion of them it may indeed be said that " truth is 
straoger than fiction." Especially is this the case in respect to those facts of local history 
belonging to their own immediate country and neighborhood. This, perhaps, is not so 
much the fault of the people as a neglect on the part of the book publishers. Books, as a 
rule, are made to sell, and, in order that a book may have a large sale, its matter must be 
such general character as to be applicable to general rather than special conditions — to the 
Nation or State rather than the County or Township. Thus it is that no histories heretofore 
published enterin to matters relating to county and neighborhood affairs, for such books, in 
order to have a sale over a large section of country, must necessarily be very voluminous, and 
contain much matter of no interest to the reader. The publishers, having received a liberal 
patronage from the people of Keokuk county, have endeavored to prepare a work containing 
a full and minute account of the local affairs of the county. 

The following pages constitute a history of the Northwest and a detailed account of the 
early settlement, natural resources and subsequent development of Eeokuk county, together 
with reminiscences, narratives, and biographies of the leading citizens of the county. 

The work, may not meet<the expectations of some; and this is all the more probable, see- 
ing that it falls short of our own standard of perfection: however, in size, quality of mater- 
ial and typographical appearance, it is such a book as we designed to make, and more than 
fills the conditions gfuaranteed by our prospectus. 

To the early settler, who braved the dajigers, endured the hardships and experienced the 
enjoyments of pioneer Ufe, it will be the means of recalling some of the most grateful mem- 
ories of the past; while those who are younger, or who have become citizens of the county 
in more recent times, will here find collected in a narrow compass an accurate and succinct 
account of the beginning, progress and changes incident to municipal as well as individual 
life. 

The old pioneer, in reviewing the history of the county, all of which he saw, and part of 
which he was, will find this work a valuable compendium of facts, arranged in analytical 
order, and thus will events which are gradually vanishing into the mists and confusion of 
forgetfulness be rescued from oblivion. 

The rising generation, which is just entering upon the goodly heritage bequeathed by a 
hardy and noble ancestry, will find in this work much to encourage them in days 
of despondency, and intensify the value of success when contrasted vrith the trials and com- 
pared with the triumphs of those who have gone before. 

In the preparation of this work we have been materially aided by numerous persons in 
sympathy with the enterprise and solicitous for its success: to all suck we feel ourselves un- 
der great obligations, and take this method of acknowledging the same. To S. A. James, 
Esq., especially belongs the credit for any merit the work may possess. Without his en- 



IV PEEFACE. 

couragement the work would not have been undertaken, and without his assistance it could 
not have been completed. 

In presenting this work to our many hundred patrons, we have the satisfaction of knowing 
that they are of sufficient intelligence to appreciate merit when it is found, and errors will 
be criticised with the understajiding that book-making, like all other kinds of labor, has its 
peculiar vicissitudes. 

Whatever of interest, of profit, or of recreation the reader will find in perusing the follow- 
ing pages will be a source of satisfaction, gratitude and happiness to the 

PnBUBHBBS. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

The KorthweBt Tferritory: 
Early Freudl Explorations in 

the Mississippi Valley - - 7 
' Early Settlements in the 

Northwest --..-- 14 
The Northwestern Territory 29 
The Lonisiana Furehase - - 28 
Iiidi>in Wars in the Northwest 34 
Sketches of Black Hawk and 

other Chiefs ------ 42 

Early Navigation of Western 

Bivers - - . - . . 66 
Archeology of the Northwest 59 
Sketches of Western and 

Northwestern States • - - 67 
Expedition of Lewis and 

Clarke ---...-- 86 
Sketch of Chicago - - - 96 
History of Iowa: 
Descriptive and Qeograpblcal 

Sketch 105 

Oeology of Iowa - - - 117 

Economic Geology - - - - 125 
How the Title to Iowa Landa 

is derived -.-.--. 130 
Early Settlements and Terri- 
torial Organization . - . 141 
Territory of Iowa - - - - 153 

State Organization - . . 158 
Edacational -....- 162 

State Institutions - - - 169 
Bailroads - - ■ 172 

Official Record - - 174 

The Jndldary - ----- 176 

Congressional Bepresentation 177 
State Agrionltural Society - - 178 
Centennial Awards - - - 191 
Histoiy of Keokuk County : 
Ocigiu of Name ----- 257 



_ . PAQK. 

■ Westward the Star of Empire 

takes its Way . - . . - 17 

AniDdlanCamp - . - . 33 

Indians trying a Prisoner - - 49 

A Pioneer WLiter .... 65 



HI»$TOBICALi. 

PAGE. 

Physical Geography .... 258 
Mathematical Geography - . 261 
Indians and Indian Affairs - 262 
Keokuk and Wapello - - -266 
Indian Incidents and Bemin- 

iscences - - - . 276 

Early Settlements . . 282 

First Settlers - . . - 284 
A New Departure . ... 290 
Honeer Life - - . . - 311 
Claim Clubs and Claim Laws - 317 

A Border Sketch 322 

Surveys and Land Sales - 326 
Trading Points - . - - 327 
Trapping and Hunting - - 330 
Growth of the County - - 332 
Table of Events - . - .- .335 
County Organization - - - 336 
Election Precincts - - . . 344 
First Commissioners* Court . 346 
First Grand and Petit J^urles - 347 
First Claims Allowed . . . 348 
First Tax Levy - - - . 349 
Township Organization . - 350 
First Court . . . - - . 351 
Old Records .-.---- 354 
Territorial and County Boads 358 
Old Court House - - - 360 

The Jail 364 

County Seat Contests - 368 

The Second Contest . . - 377 
The Fools' Book . - ... - 381 
Early Bemlniscences of Men 

and Things .----- 385 
The First District Judge . - 388 
. The Poor Farm . . . - 39O 
RaOways ..-.--.. 397 
The C. B. I. & P. Eailroad - 400 
The I. & W. Bailroad - - 404 

ILLUSTRATIOWS. 

PAGE. 

Lincoln Monument, Springfield, 
Ulinols . . ...... 72 

Chicago in 1320 ...... 97 

Present Site Lake Street Bridge, 
Chicago, 1833 97 



PAO^ 

Political - - - 40j . 

County Finances - . - - 42l 
Beliglous - ...... 42* 

Gold Excitement .... - 426 

John Brown's Soul and Bleed- 
ing Kansas --..-- 431 
The Great Tornado - - 434 
A Western Romance - 440 

The Skunk River War . ■ - 443 
The Eeokuk County Tigilanoe 

Committee ..---. 448 
The Press of Keokuk County 461 
Educational ....... 46O 

Old Settlers' Association . 470 
Agricultural Society - . . . 472 
County Medical Society - 47s 

Accidents and Crime - . - 474 
Prominent Citizens, Living 
and Dead -..---- 479 

War History - 487 

Sherman's Maroh to the Sea . 541 
"township Organizations: 
Bichland -.-----.643 
Jackson . - - . . . 649 
Steady Bun .--...- 655 
Benton . - . .... 557 
Warren .-.-..•-. gsg 



Lancaster 
Clear Creek - 
German - 
Sigourney . 
Van Bnren 
Washington - 
Prairie . - 
Adams . . 
English River 
Liberty . - 
Lafayette - 



- 662 

- 664 

- 667 

- 669 
. 686 

- 687 

- 688 

- 691 
. 691 

•- 694 
. 695 



PAO>. 
01d.Fort Dearborn, 1830 - . .103 
The "Old Kinzie House" 103 

A Prairie Home ...... 129 

Breaking Prairie • . 146 



EiITHOeBAPHIC FOBTBAITS. 



PAGE. 

Adams, H. C. • ..... 571 

Axsmear, J. . . . ... 643 

einbb, W. . . . - - 481 

eook, S. D., M. D. . - - . 373 
iDodge, Daniel -----. 553 

m>n, T. F. - - . - 607 

SWogln, J. L. . . . 291 

Kqgln, J. 319 

raenkle, H 663 



PAGE. 

Higgins, Warren . - - - 535 

Irons, John . . - 463 

James, S. A. . - - - 273 

Johnson, J. W. - - - . - 625 

Keck, I. A. 391 

McFarlan, Samuel ... -445 

MoFarlane, Daniel ..... S89 

McBride, Jesse O, . - ... 671 

Morgan, T. A. - - - 409 







PAOB. 


Newsome, W. W., H. 


D. 


-617 


Sherbondy, Homer - 




- -681 


Slngmaster, Samuel - 


. 


- -499 


Skillman, E. H , M. D. 


. 


- -837 


White, J. F 




-366 


Wilson, J. F. . 


- 


-427 


Woodin, G. D. 


- 


- -S09 



BIO«BAPHICAI< TOWNSHIP DIBGVTOBY. 



immOB ... . . . 802 

IWnton ....... .g|o 

'M/i^s Oraek .... .694 

English Mrer - - . . 779 
"srman ..-.-.--. 743 
I'Wkson ---... --666 



Lancaster 

Liberty - 

Lafayette 

Prairie 

Richland 

Sigourney 



FAGE. 

• . 700 
- .773 
■ - 7B3 

- 814 





PAGE. 


steady Enn - . -•- 


. . 662 


Van Buren . - 


• - . 7»3 


Warren - - . - 


- .712 


Washington . - . 


. - . 724 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



ABSTRACT OF lOTPA STATE MjA'WH. 



PAGE. 

Adoption of children - - - 203 
BiUd of ExchaDge and Promis- 
sory Notes - - - - - . 195 
Capital Punishment - . - - igg 
Commercial Terms - 208 
Damages from Trespass , 201 

Descent - 195 

Ketrays --- 201 

Exemption from Executions - 200 

Fences ----.-. _ 202 
Forms: 

Articles of Agreement - - 209 

Bills of Sale - - - 210 

Bond for Deed - 217 

Bills of Purchase ' - - 207 

Chattel Mortgage - 215 



age 



PAftB. 

Map of Keokuk County - -Front. 

Statistics - - 183 

Constitution of the State of 
Iowa ... - - - . 220 



Forms : 






ConfesBion of Judgment 




HUH 


Lease - - . - . 


- 


214 


Mortgages - - - 


UVJ 


213 


Notice to Quit 


- 


210 


Notes - - - 


m 


215 


Orders - - - 


- - 


207 


Quit-claim Deed 




•M6 


Receipts . - - . 




2118 


Wills and Codicils 


211, 


212 


Warranty Deed 




216 


Game Laws: 






Birds and Quadrupeds 




217 


Fish and Fish Ways 


- 


218 


Interest . - - - - 


. . 


195 


Jurisdiction of Courts 




198 



HIlSCKLIiAIVEOIJS. 

FAGS. 

Constitution of the United 
States - - - - 240 

Practical Rules for every-day 
use - - - 352 



Jnrsrs -----. 
Landlord and Tenant - . 
Limitation of Actions - 
Married Women - . - - 
Marks and Brands 
M-^chanics' Liens - - - . 
Purchasing Books by Subscrip- 
tion ---_-.. 
Roads and Bridges 
Surveyors and Surveys 
Support of Poor 
Taxes - - - - 
Wills and Estates - - 
Weights and Measures - 
Wolf Scalps - - . 



CASE. 
199 

m 

199. 

m 
aoii 

204 



219" 

mi 
M 
is 

19 

-20 
-20, 



Population of Iowa GitieB 
The I'ioneer ----- 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



ABSTRACT OF lOTVA STATE liAIVS. 



^ PAGE. 

Adoption iit children - - - 203 
Billa of EzcbADge and Fromls- 

Bory KoteB '---.--- 195 

Capital FnniBhment .... 199 

'Commercial Terms - - 208 

Damages from Trespass . 201 

Descent - - - . . .195 

ICBtrays ....---.-201 

Exemption from ExecutionB - 200 

I'ences ----.--..202 

Forms: 

ArtideB of Agreement . - 209 

Bills of Sale - - . . -210 

Bond for Deed - - - 21T 

Bills of Parchase '- . ■ 207 

Chattel Mortgage - 21S 



PAQE. 

Fbrms: 

Confession of Judgment - 208 

Lease - - - - - - 214 

Mortgages - - 212, 213 

Notice to Quit - - - 210 

Notes - - - 207, 216 

Orders - - - - 207 

Quit-chum Deed - 216 

Keceipts - - - - - - - 2M8 

Wills and Codicils - ■ 211, 212 

Warranty Deed - - - - 216 

Game Laws: 

Birds and Quadrupeds - 217 

Fish and Fish Ways - 218 

Interest ..---, - - 195 

Jurisdiction of Courts - 198 



Jursrs --.-... 
Landlord and Tenant . 
Lfmliation of Actions . 
Married Women - . - . 
Marhs and Brands ... 
Mf^cbanics' Liens . - . 
Purchasing Books by Subscri; 

tlon ---_... 
Boads and Bridges - . 
Surveyors and Surveys 
Support of Poor - - 
Taxes ---.... 
Wills and Estates • - . 
Weights, and Measures 
Wolf Scalps .... 



PA«E. 

Map of Keokuk County - - Front. 

Statistics 183 

Constitution of the State of 
Iowa ---.--.-- 220 



mSCEI^XiAlVEOIJS. 

PAGE. 

Constitution of the United 
States - - - - 240 

Practical Bules for every-<lay 
use 252 



Population of Iowa Cities . 
The Pioneer ...... 



The Northwest Territory. 



EAKLY FKENCH EXPLOEATIONS IN THE MISSISSIPPI 

VALLEY. 

De Soto — Le Caron — Samuel de Champlain — French Adventurers — James Marquette — Louis 
Joliet — Embarkation to Explore New Countries — Lake Michigan and Green Bay — The 
"Ouisconsin" — Indian Accounts of the Country — Discovering' the Great River — Indian 
Name of the River — Joy of the Explorers — Interview with Indians on Iowa Soil — Feast — 
Speech of an Indian Cmef — ^The Des Moines River — " Muddy Water " — The Arkansas — 
Return — Indian Nations — Marquette's Record — His Subsequent Ycfvage — La Yantum — 
Marquette's Death — Removal of His Remains — Joliet's Subsequent Explorations — Robert 
La Salle — Louis Hennepin — Chevalier de Tonti — De La Motte— Fort Crevecoeur — Henne- 
pin's Voyage — Falls of St. Anthony — Seur de Luth — Hennepin's Claims as an Explorer — 
Colonization of Louisiana— Dissensions — Murder of La Salle. 

The three great colonizing powers of the Old World first to raise the 
standard of civilization within the limits of North America were France, 
England, and Spain. The French made their earliest settlements in the 
cold and inhospitable regions of Quebec; the English at Jamestown, Yir- 
ginia, and at Plymouth, Massachusetts; and the Spaniards on the barren 
sands of Florida. To the French belongs the honor of discovering and colo- 
nizing that portion of our country known as the Valley of the Mississippi, 
including all that magnificent region watered by the tributaries of the Grea, 
Eiver. It is true that more than one hundred years earlier (1538-41) tht 
Spanish explorer, De Soto, had landed on the coast of Florida, penetrated the 
everglades and unbroken forests of the south, finally reaching the banks of 
the Great Kiver, probably near where the city of Memphis now stands. 
Crossing the river, he and his companions pursued their journey for some 
distance along the west bank, thence to the Ozark Mountains and the Hot 
Springs of Arkansas, and returning to the place of his death on the banks of 
the Mississippi. It was a perilous expedition indeed, characterized by all 
the splendor, romance and valor which usually attended Spanish adventurers 
of that age. De Soto and his companions were the first Europeans to behold 
the waters of the Mississippi, but the expedition was a failure so far as related 
to colonization. The requiem chanted by his companions as his remains 
were committed to the waters of the great river he had discovered, died 
away with- the solemn murmurs of the stream, and the white man's voice 
was not heard again in the valley for more tlian ah nndred years. De Soto 
had landed at Tampa Bay, on the coast of Florida, with a fleet of nine ves- 
sels and seven hundred men. More than half of them died, and the remainder 
made their way to Cuba, and finally back to Spain. 

Four years before the pilgrims "moored their bark on the wild New Eng- 
land shore," a French Franciscan, named Le Caron, penetrated the region of 



8 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

the great lakes of the north, then the home of the Iroquois and the Hurons, 
but a French settlement had been established at Quebec by Samuel de 
Champlain in 1608. This was followed by the establishment of various 
colonies in Canada, and the hardy French adventurers penetrated the coun- 
try by tlie way of the St. Lawrence and the lakes. In 1625 a number of 
missionaries of the Society of Jesus arrived in Canada from France, and 
during the succeeding forty years extended their missions all along the 
shores of Lake Superior. 

In 1637 a child was born at the little city of Laon, in France, whose 
destiny it was in the fullness of time to be instrumental in the hands of 
Providence in giving to the world a definite knowledge of the grandest and 
most fertile region ever opened up to civilization. That child was James 
Marquette, the descendant of a family of Celtic nobles. He entered the 
Society of Jesus when seventeen years of age, and soon conceived a desire to 
engage in the labors of a missionary among the Indians. He sailed for 
Quebec in 1666, and two years later founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie 
at the Falls of St. Mary. The winter of 1669-70 he spent at Point St. 
Ignatius, where he established another mission. Here the old town of 
Michillimackinac, afterward called Mackinaw, was founded. It was from 
Indians of the different tribes who came to this mission that he received 
some vague intimations of the great river — the father of all the rivers. He 
at once conceived a desire to penetrate to the banks of the wonderful river, 
and carry his missionary work to the tribes which he had learned inhabited 
its borders. He applied to his Superior, Claude Dablon, for permission to 
"seek new nations toward the Southern sea." The authorities at Quebec were 
equally desirous of having new regions explored, and therefore appointed 
Louis Joliet to embai-k upon a voyage of discovery. Joliet was a native of 
Quebec and had been educated in a Jesuit College. He had at the age of 
eighteen taken minor orders, but had abandoned all thoughts of the piiest- 
hood and engaged in the fur trade. He was now twenty-seven years of age, 
with a mind ripe for adventure. He left Quebec, and arriving at Mackinaw 
found Father Marquette highly delighted with the information that they 
were to be companions in a voyage which was to extend the domain of the 
King of France, as well as to carry the Gospel to new nations of people. The 
explorers, accompanied by five assistants, who were French Canadians, started 
on their journey, May 13, 1673. Marquette has himself recorded in the fol- 
lowing simple language their feelings on this occasion : " We were embark- 
ing on a voyage the character of which we could not foresee. Indian corn, 
with some dried meat, was our whole stock of provisions. With this we set 
out in two bark canoes, M. Joliet, myself and five men, firmly resolved to do 
all and suffer all for so glorious an enterprise." They coasted along the 
northern shore of Lake Michigan, entered Green Bay, and passed up the 
Fox river, carrying their canoes across the Portage to the " Ouisconsin," now 
called Wisconsin. At Lake Winnebago, before crossing the Portage, they 
stopped at an Indian village, which was the furthest outpost to whjSi Dab- 
lon and Allouez had extended their missionary work. Here they assembled 
the chiefs and old men of the village and told them of the objects of the 
voyage. Pointing to Joliet, Father Marquette said: " My friend is an envoy 
of France to discover new. countries, and I am an ambassador from God to 
enlighten them with the truths of the Gospel." The Indians furnished two 
guides to conduct them to the Wisconsin river. It is related that a tribe of 
Indians endeavored to dissuade them from pursuing their perilous journey 



THE NOKTHWEST TEERITOBT. 9 

by telling of desperate and savage tribes that they would meet; that the 
forests and the rivers were infested with frightful monsters; that there were 
great fish in the rivers that would swallow up men and canoes together, and 
of a demon who could be heard from a great distance, and who destroyed all 
who approached. Unmoved by these frightful stories, Marquette, Joliet, 
and their five brave assistants, launched their little canoeSfe on the waters of 
the Wisconsin, and moved slowly down the current. After a lapse of seven 
days, June 17th, 1673, they reached the mouth of the Wisconsin and glided 
into the current of the Mississippi, a few miles below the place now fiiown 
as Prairie du Chien. Here, and on this day, the eye of the white man for the 
first time looked upon the waters of the Upper Mississippi. Marquette called 
the river " The Broad Eiver of the Conception." The Indian name is derived 
from the Algonquin language, one of the original tongues of the continent. 
It is a compound of the words Missi, signiiying great, and Sepe, a river. 

The explorers felt the most intense joy on beholding the scene presented 
to their enraptured vision. Here was the great river whose waters somewhere 
thousands of miles away flowed into a Southern sea, and whose broad valley 
was the fairest and richest in the world, but unknown to civilized man, save 
as an almost forgotten dream or a vague romance. They had solved one of 
the great mysteries of the age in whidi they lived. As they glided down the 
stream the bold bluffs reminded Marquette of the "castled shores of his own 
beautifiil rivers in France." The far stretching prairies alternating with 
forests, on either side, were adorned in all the wild glories of June. Birds 
sang the same notes that they had sung for ages amid those "forests prime- 
val," while herds of buffalo, deer and elk were alarmed and fled to the dense 
retreats of the forest or the broad prairies beyond. Not until the 25th June 
did they discover any signs of human habitation. Then, about sixty leagues, 
as they thought, below the mouth of the Wisconsin, at a place where they 
landed on the west bank of the river, they found in the sand the foot-prints 
of man. Marquette and Joliet left their five companions in charge of the 
canoes and journeyed away from the river, Imowing that they must be near 
the habitation of men. They followed a trail leading across a prairie clothed 
in the wild luxuriance of summer for a distance of about six miles, when 
they beheld another river and on its t)anks an Indian village, with other vil- 
lages on higher land a mile and a half from the first. The Indians greeted 
the two white strangers, as far as their ability permitted, with a splendid 
ovation. They appointed four of their old men to meet the strangers in 
council. Marquette could speak their language. They informed him that 
they were "Dlini" (meaning "we are men"), and presenting the calumet of 
peace, invited them to share the hospitalities of their village. Marquette told 
them of the object of their visit, and that they had been sent by the French, 
who were their friends. He told them of the great God that the white man 
worshiped who was the same Great Spirit that they adored. In answer, one 
of the chiefs addressed them as follows: 

"I thank the Black Gown Chief (Marquette) and the Frenchman (Joliet) 
for taking so much pains to come and visit us; never has the earth been so 
beautiful, nor the sun so bright as now; never has the river been so calm, nor 
BO free from rocks, whiuh your canoes have removed as they passed; never 
has our tobacco had so fine a flavor, nor our com appeared so beautiful as we 
behold it to-day. Ask the Great Spirit to give us life and health, and come 
ye and dwell with ns." 

After these ceremonies the strangers were invited to a feast, an account of 



10 THE NOKTHWEST TEEEITOET. 

whicli is "given by Marquette. It consisted of four courses. First, theise 
was a large wooden bowel filled with tagamity, or Indian meal, boiled m 
water and seasoned with oil. The master of ceremonies, with a wooden spoon 
fed the tagamity to their guests as children are fed. The second course con- 
sisted of fish, which, after the bones were taken out, was presented to the 
mouths of the strangers as food may be fed to a bird. The third course was 
a preparation of dog meat, but learning that the strangers did not eat that it 
was at once removed. The fourth and final course was a piece of bufialb 
meat, the fattest portions of which were put into the mouths of the guests. 
The stream on whose banks took place this first interview between the 
explorers and the untutored Indians, aiter parting with their guides, was the 
Des Moines river, and the place of their landing was probably about where 
the town of Montrose is now located, in Lee county, Iowa. One of our 
sweetest American poets has rendered Marquette's narrative in verse, as 
follows: 

" Came a people 

From the distant land of Wabun; 

From the farthest realms of morning 

Came the Black Robe Chief, the Prophet, 

He the Priest of Prayer, the PaJe-face, 

With his guides and his companions. 
And the noble Hiawatha, 

With his hand aloft extended, 

Held aloft in sign of welcome, 

Cried aloud and spoke in this wise: 
' Beautiful is the sun, strangers. 

When you come so far to see US; 

All om* town in peace awaits you; 

All our doors stand open for you; 

You shall enter all our wigwams; 

For the heart's right hand we give you. 

Never bloomed the earth so gayly, 

Neyer shone the sun so'brightly. 

As to-day they shine and blossom 

When you came so far to see us.' 

And the Black Robe Chief made answer, 

Stammered in his speech a little. 

Speaking words yet unfamiliar: 
' Peace be with you, Hiawatha, 

Peace be with you and your people, 

Peace of prayer, and peace of pardon, 

Peace of Chnst, and joy of Mary ! ' 
Then the generous Hiawatha, 

Led the strangers to his wigwam. 

Seated them on skins of bison, 

Seated them on skins of ermine, 

Brought them food in bowls of bass-wood, 

Water brought in birchen dippers, 

And the calumet, the peace-pipe. 

Filled and lighted for their smoking. 

AU the wamors of the nation, 

Came to bid the strangers welcome; 
' It is well,' they said, ■ brother, 

That you came so far to see us.' " 

Marquette and Joliet remained at the Indian villages six days, and were 
then accompanied to their canoes by an escort of six hundred Indians, In- 
vitations were extended to the strangers to renew their visit, after which the 
explorers embarked in their boats and floated on down the stream, passing 
the sites of future great cities of the valley, and passing the mouths of the 
Missouri and Ohio rivers, and as far down as the mouth of the Arkansas, 



THE NOETHWEST TEKEITOET. 11 

Marquette named the Missouri river Pekitanoui, or " Muddy Water," on 
account of the now well-known character of that stream. 

After extending their voyage to the mouth of the Arkansas, where they 
found a village ot the Arkansas tribe, they ascended the Mississippi to the 
mouth of the Illinois. They ascended the latter river to its source. Along 
this stream they found many villages of the Illinois, or Illmi, a large and 
powerful tribe, who were subdivided into five smaller tribes — the Tamaroas, 
Michigamies, Kahokias, Kaskaskias, and Peorias. The country between the 
Illinois and Mississippi rivers was inhabited by the three last named tribes. 
The Michigamies resided in the country bordering on Lake Michigan, and 
the Tamaroas occupied the territoiy now included in the counties of Jersey, 
Madison and St. Clair, Illinois. Kaskaskia — also designated by the early 
explorers as " La Vantum " and " Great Illinois Town " — was the largest of 
the villages, containing, according to Marquette, seventy-five lodges. W ith- 
out the loss of a man, or any serious accident, the party reached Green Bay 
in September, and reported their discoveries. Marquette made a faithful 
record of what they had seen and the incidents of the voyage. That record 
has been preserved. The report of Joliet was unfortunately lost by the 
upsetting of his canoe while on the way to Quebec. 

At the request of the Illinois Indians, Marquette soon returned and es- 
tablished the mission of the Immaculate Conception at La Vantum. In 
the spring of 1675, on account of failing health, he started to retui^ to 
Green Bay. "While passing along the shore of Lake Michigan, conscious 
that he was nearing the end of his earthly labors, he observed an elevated 
place near the mouth of a small river. He told his companions that the 

f)lace was suitable for his . burial, and requested them to land. On that 
onely and desolate coast. May 18, 1675, at the age of thirty-eight, James 
Marquette ended his last earthly voyage, and received burial at the hands 
of his devoted companions. Two years later some Indians of the mission at 
Kaskaskia disinterred his remains, and conveyed them in a box made of 
birch bark, with a convoy of over twenty canoes, to Mackinaw, where they 
were reinterred at the mission church. The post was abandoned in 1706, 
and the church burned. The place of burial was finally lost, and remained 
lost for two hundred years. In May, 1876, the foundations of the old 
Jesuit Mission were accidentally discovered on the farm of one David 
Murray, with a number of church relics, the mouldering remains of the 
great missionary, and explorer, and a cross with his name inscribed upon it. 
Joliet, after his return to Quebec, became again a trader with the Indians. 
His services were rewarded by tha French government by the gift of the 
island of Anticosta, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Little after this is knovra 
of him. He died about 1730. 

The reports given of the discoveries of Marquette and Joliet, served to 
encourage other adventurers to engage in the eftort to extend their explora- 
tions. Kobert La Salle, a French navigator, who was bom at Rouen about 
the year 1635, had long cherished a project of seeking a route to China by 
way of the Great Lakes. Before the i-etum of Marquette and Joliet, he had 
explored Lake Ontario and visited the different Indian tribes. In 1675 he 
went to France and obtained fi'om the government a grant to a large tract 
of land about Fort Frontenac, the exclusive right of traffic with the Five 
Ifations, and also a patent of nobility. He laid before his government his 
desire to explore the Mississippi to its mouth, and take possession of all the 
regions he might visit in the name of the King of France. His plans were 



J 2 THE IfOETHWEST TEBBITOET. 

warmly approved, and he was provided with the means for carrying them 
into execution. In July, 1678, he returned to Fort Frontenac, soon afef 
established a trading house at Niagara, and visited the neighboring Indian 
tribes i»r the purpose of collecting furs. He engaged the services of thirty 
mechanics and mariners and built the first ship tor the na,vigatibn of the 
lakes. It was called the Griffin, and was a bark of sixty tons. Having 
been joined by Louis Hennepin and Chevalier de Tonti, the latter an Indian 
veteran, on the 7th of August, 1679, they launched the Griffin on Niag£^ 
river, and embarked for the valley of the Mississippi. They crossed LaJke 
Erie and Lake St. Clair, reaching Green Ba.j, September 2d. For the pur- 
pose of relieving himself of some pressing financial obligations at Montreal, 
La Salle here engaged for a time in collecting furs with which he loaded the 
Griffim, and sent it in the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors on its return 
trip, with orders to return immediately; but the vessel was never heard of 
afterward. He waited until all hope had vanished, and then, with Father 
Hennepin, Chevalier de Tonti, the Sieur de la Motte, and about thirty fol- 
lowers, began again the voyage. They ascended the St. Joseph in canoes to 
the portage, and carried their barks to the Kankakee, a distance of six miles, 
descended the Kankakee and the Illinois until they reached an Indian vil- 
lage on the latter stream, at the expansion of the same, known as Lake 
Peoria. The village was situated on the west bank of the lake, and must 
have been passed by Marquette and Joliet on their voyage up the river in 
1673, although no mention is made of it by them. La Salle, Hennepin, Tonti 
and their followers landed at Lake Peoria, January 3d, 1680. The Indians 
received them hospitably, and they remained with them for several days. 
Here a spirit of discontent began to manifest itself among the followers oi 
La Salle, and fearing trouble between his men and the Indians, they crossed 
the river and moved down about three miles, where they erected a fort, 
which La Salle named JP'ort Orevecoev/r (heart-break) a name expressive of 
La Salle's sorrow at the loss of his fortune by the disaster to the Griffin, and 
also his feelings in the fear of mutiny among his men. The party remained 
here until in February, when Tonti was placed in command of the pQst, and 
Hennipin charged with a voyage of discovery to the sources of the Missis- 
sippi. La Salle returned on foot with three companions to Fort Frontenac 
for suppKes. On his arrival he learned of the certainty of the loss of the 
Griffin, and also of the wreck of another vessel which had been sent with 
resources for him from France. 

Father Hennepin, with two companions, Picard du Gay and Michel Ako, 
on the 29th of I ebruary, 1680, embarked from Fort Crevecoeur in a canoe 
down the Illinois to its mouth, which they reached in a few days. They 
then turned up the Mississippi, reaching the mouth of the "Wisconsin, April 
11th. Above this point no European had ever ascended. They continued 
the voyage, reaching the Falls of St. Anthony, April 30, 1680. Hennepin 
so named the falls in honor of his patron Saint. When they arrived at the 
mouth of St. Francis river, in what is how the State of Minnesota, they 
traveled along its banks a distance of 180 miles, visiting the Sioux Indians, 
who inhabited that region. The river, Hennepin so named in honor of 
the founder of his order. In his account of this voyage, Hennepin claims that 
they were held in captivity by the Indians for about three months, although 
they were treated kindly by them. At the end of this time a band of 
Frenchmen, under the leadership of Seur de Luth, in pursuit of furs, had 
penetrated to this part of the country by the way of Lake Superior. The 



raE NOETHWEST TEEMTOET. 13 

Indians allowed Hennepin and his companions to return with the traders. 
They descended the Mississippi to the mouth of the Wisconsin, passing up 
that stream and do^vn the Fox river, and so on through Green Bay to Lake 
Michigan. Hennepin went to Quebec, and thence to France, where, in 1683, 
he published an account of his explorations and a description of the region 
of the Upper Mississippi. In 1697 (two years after La Salle's death) he 
published an enlarged work, in which he claimed that he had descended the 
Mississippi to its mouth. His faithlul description of the valley for a time 
gave him credit for veracity, but the impossibility of reconciling his dates, 
and other circumstances, are by the best authorities regarded as stamping 
his claim false. Before the time this work was published, as we shall see, 
La Salle had descended the Mississippi to its mouth. Hennepin explained 
his long silence as to his exploration to the mouth of the Mississippi, by 
claiming that he had feared the enmity of La Salle, who had ordered him 
to follow a diiferent course, and had also prided himself upon his own claims 
as being the first European to descend the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. Father Hennepin died in Holland, about the year 1699. 

"We now return to the further adventures of the brave and intrepid La 
Salle. He returned to Fort Orevecoeur in the latter part of the year 1680, 
to find that Tonti had been abandoned by his men, and obliged to take 
refug^ among the Pottawattamies. He spent another year in collecting his 
scattered followers, finally succeeded, and on the 6th of February, 1682, he 
had reached the mouth of the Illinois. As they passed down the Mississippi 
La Salle noted the different streams tributary thereto. They erected a fort 
near the month of the Ohio, and a cabin at the first Chickasaw bluff. On 
the 9th of April they entered the Gulf of Mexico. They reascended the 
river a short distance, founded the Fort of St. Louis, took possession of the 
whole valley in the name of France, and called it by the name of Louisiana, 
in honor of the king. 

La SaUe, having accomplished much for the glory of France, now retraced 
his steps northward. After spending one year about the great lakes, actively 
engaged in laying the foundations of French settlements in the new regions 
heliad discovered, in November, 1683, he reached Quebec, and soon after 
embarked for France. The government, with marks of great esteem, be- 
stowed upon him a commission placing under his authority all the French 
and natives of the country, from Fort St. Louis to New Biscay. An expe- 
dition, with four vessels and 280 persons, was fitted out for the colonization 
of Lousiana; it sailed August 1, 1684. Associated with La Salle, in this 
expedition, was Beanjeu, as naval commander. The mouth of the Missis- 
sippi was the objective point, but by mistake the fleet passed on northward. 
When the error was discovered La Salle desired to return, but Beaujeu per- 
sisted in advancing. Dissensions arose, and La Salle, with 230 colonists, 
disembarked. This was in February, 1685. A fortified post, which was 
called Fort St. Louis, was established, and attempts made at agriculture, but 
without success. Attempts were made to reach the Mississippi, which they 
thought near, but failed. La Salle and his followers traversed the wilderness 
toward New Mexico, and in January, 1687, by sickness and disaster, his 
party was reduced to thirty-seven. Some of these, following Beaujeu's ex- 
ample, revolted. La Salle, with sixteen men, then determined to reach the 
country of the Illinois. Two men, who had embarked their capital in the 
enterprise, were bitter in malignity toward the leader of this unsuccessful 
expedition. Their feelings found some gratification in the murder of a 



14 THE NOETHWEST TEEBTTOET. 

nephew of La Salle. The latter sought to investigate as to the, death of his 
relative, but only shared his fate, as one of them fired upon him from ambush, 
and the heroic La Salle fell, the victim of quarrels and dissensions among 
his own followers. This event happened after he had passed the basin of 
the Colorado and reached a branch of Trinity river, in Texas, 

We have thus briefly outlined the part taken by this energetic and ad- 
venturous explorer, in giving to civilization a knowledge of a region that 
was destined to constitute the richest and most productive portion of the 
American continent, if not indeed, of the world. 

EAELT SETTLEMENTS IN THE NOETHWEST. 

Early French Settlements — Indian Tribes — Mission at KaskasMa — KahoHa — Vincennes— Port 
Ponchartrain — Fort Chartres — La Belle Riviere — La SaUe — ^The English Claim "From Sea 
to Sea" — ^Treatywith Indians in 1684 — English Grants — French and Indians Attack Pick- 
awiUany — ^Treaty with the Six Nations — French and EngHsh Claims — George Washington 
— French and Indian War — Fall of Montreal — ^Treaty of Paris — Pontiac's Conspiracy- 
Detroit— Pontiac's Promissory Notes — Pontiac's Death — France Cedes Louisiana to Spaiii 
— Washington Explores the Ohio Valley — Emigration — ^Land Companies — ^The Revoluti6| 
— Colonel Clark — Surrender of French Posts in Illinois— Surrender of Vincennes— Gov. 
Hamilton Taken Prisoner — Daniel Boone — Simon Girty — ^Virginia's " Land Laws." 

As THE French were the first to explore the region known as the North- 
west, so they were the first to improve the opening thus made. The earliest 
settlements were in that part of the country east oi the Mississippi and sonSi 
of the Great Lakes, occupied chiefly by the Illinois tribes of the Great Algon- 
quin family of Indians. The Illinois were divided into the Tamaroas, Mich- 
igamies, Kakokias, Kaskaskias, and Peorias, and were sometimes designated 
as the Five Nations. The three last-named tribes occupied the country 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers; the Michigamies the region bor- 
dering on Lake Michigan, and the Tamaroas, a small tribe, in the same region 
occupied by the Kahokias, and now embraced in the counties of Jersey, Hadi- 
son, and St. Clair, in the state of Illinois. The French opened the way for 
colonization by the establishment of missions among these tribes, their efforts 
in this direction having been attended with great, success in Canada. A 
mission was founded at Kaskaskia by Father Gravier abont the year 1698. 
This at the time_ of the visit of Marquette and Joliet, in 1673, was the 
largest and most important of the Illinois villages, and contained seventji'. 
four lodges, or about fifteen hundred inhabitants. By the early explorerf it 
was called by the several names of " Kaskaskia," "La Yantum," and "Great 
niinois Town." Here, in 1675, Father Marquette had attempted to christian- 
ize the Indians by establishing the mission of the Immaculate Conception, 
For years it was nothing more than a missionary station, occupied only by 
the Nations and the missionary. About the year 1700 missions were also 
established at Kahokia and Peoria, the latter being near the site of old Fort 
Crevecoeur. Another of the early French settlements was at Vincennes en 
the Oubache (Waba, now Wabash) river. Authorities disagree as to the 
date of this settlement, but it was probably about 1702. For many years 
this was an isolated colony of French emigrants from Canada, and several 

fenerations of their descendants lived and passed away in these vast soUtudes, 
efore either they or their savage neighbors were disturbed by the encroach- 
ments of an expanding civilization. During all this time they nad maintained 
friendly relations with the natives. In July, 1701, a station was established 



THE NOETHWK8T TEEBITOKT. 15 

by De la Motte on the Detroit river, called Fort Poncliartrain, Wtile these 
attempts to colonize the Northwest were in progress, similar efforts were 
being made by France in the Southwest, but without maintaining like 
friendly relations with the natives, for in a conflict with the Chickasaws, an 
entire colony at Natchez was cut off. As these settlements in the North- 
west were isolated but little is known of their history prior to 1750. In this 
year Yivier, a missionary among the Illinois, near Fort Chartres, writes of 
five French villages, with a population of eleven hundred whites, three hun- 
dred blacks, and sixty red slaves or savages. He says there were whites, 
negroes and Indians, to say nothing of halt-breeds. They then raised wheat, 
cattle, swine and horses, and sent pork, grain and flour to New Orleans. On 
the 7th of November, 1750, the same priest writes: 

"For fifteen leagues above the mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwell- 
ings, the ground being too low to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans the 
lands are only partially occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and 
red, not more, I think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come 
all lumber, bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease; and above 
all, pork and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, 
as forty vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans 
plantations are again met with; the most considerable is a colony of Germans 
some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five leagues above 
the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five or six leagues, are 
not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues further up is the Natchez 

S)st, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners through fear of the 
hickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee they raise excellent tobacco. An- 
other hundred leagues brings Us to the Arkansas, where we have also a fort 
and a garrison for the benefit of the river traders. From the Arkansas to 
the Illinois, nearly five hundred leagues, there is not a settlement. There 
should be, however, a fort at the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which 
the English can reach the Mississippi. In the Illinois country are number- 
less mines, but no one to work them as they deserve." 

The fame of Eobert Cavelier de La Salle was not achieved alone by his 
explorations of the Valley of the Mississippi, for, in 1669, four years before 
the discovery of the Mississippi by Marquette and Joliet, La Salle discovered 
the Ohio river, or La Belle Kvoiere (Beautiful River), as the French called 
? it. Being conversant with several Indian dialects, he had learned from some 
Senecas of a*river called Ohio which rose in their country and flowed a long 
distance to the sea. La Salle then held the belief that the river flowing to 
the west emptied into the Sea of California, and longed to engage in the enter- 
prise of discovering a route across the continent. He obtained the approval 
of the government at Quebec, but no allowance to defray the expense. He 
sold his property in Canada for two thousand eight hundred dollars, and 
with the proceeas purchased canoes and the necessary supplies. With a 
party of twenty-four persons he embarked in seven canoes on the St. Law- 
rence, July 6th, 1669. Crossing over Lake Ontario, they were conducted by 
Indian guides to the Genesee, about where the city of Eochester, New York, 
is now located. The enterprise did not receive the approbation of the Indians 
at the Seneca village then situated on the bank of the Genesee at this point, 
and they refused to furnish him guides to conduct him further. After a 
month's delay he met an Indian belonging to the Iroquois tribe on Lake On- 
tario, who conducted them to their village, where they received a more 
friendly welcibme. From the chief of the fioquois at Onondaga he obtained 



16 THE NOETHWEST TEBEITOEY. 

guides who conducted the party to a river south of Lake Erie. This proved 
to be a tributary of the Ohio. They descended it, and thence down the 
Ohio to the great falls where Louisville now stands. By virtue of this dis- 
covery the French claimed the country alon^ the Ohio, and many years after 
established military and trading posts at different j)oints. One oi these was 
Fort Du Quesne, erected in 1654, which was taken from them by the Englieli 
a few years later and called Pittsburg, in honor of William Pitt, theu prime 
minister of England. 

Notwithstanding the discovery of the Ohio by the French under le, Salle 
as early as 1669, the English claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacifie on the 
ground that her sea-coast discoveries entitled her to the sovereignly of all 
me country from "sea to sea." In 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, held a treaty with Indian tribes known as the Northern Confederacy, 
to-wit: the Mohawks, Oneidas, Ouondagas, Cayugas and Sfenecas. The Tus- 
caroras being subsequently taken in, these tribes became known as the Six 
Nations, and the English assumed their protection. Thejr purchased from 
them large tracts of land and aimed to obtain a monopoly of the Indian 
trade. "Die English government made grants of land west of the AHeghanies, 
and companies were formed for their settlement. France, seeing the Eng- 
lish obtaining a foothold by planting trading posts in the Northwest, in 
1749 sent Louis Celeron with a small force of soldiers to plant in moands at 
the mouths of the principal tributaries of the Ohio, plates of lead with the 
claims of France inscribed thereon. The English, however, still continued 
to make explorations and establish trading posts. One of these grants of 
England was to a company known as the " Ohio Company," and embraced a 
tract of land on the Great Miami, described as being one hmidred and fifty 
miles above its mouth. Christopher Gist was sent by this company in 1750 
to inspect thier lands and to establish a trading post. In 1752 a sniall party 
of French soldiers, assisted by Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked tins post 
and captured the traders after a severe battle. The English called this post 
Pickawillany — the name being subsequently contracted to Pickaway or 
Piqua. The location of this post was doubtless near that of the present 
town of Piqua, on the Great Miami, about seventy-eight miles north of 
Cincinnati. Thus on the soil of what becaine a part of the state of Ohio 
was shed the first blood between.' the French and English for the possession 
of the Northwest. 

In 1744 the English had entered into a treaty with the Six Nations at 
La,ncaster, Pennsylvania, by which they acquired certain lands described as 
being within the " Colony of Virginia." The Indians subsequently com- 
plained of bad faith on the part of the English in failing to comply with 
some of the stipulations of the treaty. The Governor of Virginia appointed 
commissioners to hear the grievances of tie Indians. They met at Logs- 
town, on the north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the present 
city of Pittsburg, in the spring of 1752. Notwithstanding the complaint of 
the Indians that the English had failed to supply them with arms and am- 
munition as they had agi-eed, they succeeded in obtaining a confirmation of 
the treaty of Lancaster. 

In the meantime the French were quietly preparing' to maintain their 
claims to the country in dispute. They provided cannon and military stores j 
in anticipation of the coming conflict. The French were notified to give uj 
their posts, but they failed to comply. Governor Dinwiddle finally deter-j 
mined to learn definitely their intentions, and for this purpose selected Major 



THE NOBTHWEST TEEBITOBY. 



17 




18 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET.' 

George "Washington, then twenty^wo years of age, as a messenger. "With 
Christopher Gist as guide, and four attendants or serrants, Washington gest 
out through the wilderness on his perilous journey. He held a conferendfe 
with the ciiiefs of the Six Nations at Logstown in November, 1753. He 
learned something of the condition of the French, hut the Indians desired to 
remain neutral and were disposed to be non-committal. Washington pro- 
ceeded to Yenango, where there was a French i)ost called Fort Machault, 
Here he delivered to the French governor Dinwiddle's letter, and received 
the answer of St. Pierre, the commander of the fort, declining to giv^ up 
without a struggle. Preparations for war were made in all the English oIL 
onies while the French continued to strengthen their lines of fortifications. 

It will thus be seen that what is known as the French and Indian war had 
its origin in this dispute about the possession of what is now one of the 
fairest and richest portions of our Kepublic. It resulted, not only in Engr 
land maintaining her right to the territory in dispute, but in wresting Can- 
ada from France. It was a war of eight years duration, commencing with 
the attack of the French and Indians on the English post at Piqua in 1752, 
{j,nd virtually ending with the fall of the city of Montreal in April, 176D. 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara, and Quebec had all previously surreii- 
dered to me English, the first two without resistance. After the fall of 
Montreal the Governor of Canada signed a capitulation surrendering the 
whole of Canada to the English. One post, however, that of Detroit, still 
remained in possession of the French. Major Rogers was sent from Mqi- 
treal to demand its surrender. Beletre, the commander of the post, at first 
refused, but on the 29th of November, having heard of the defeat of the 
French arms in Canada, he also surrendered. September 29th, 1760, the 
treaty of peace between France and England, known as the treaty of Paris, 
was made, but not ratified lintil February 10th, 1763. Meantime the Northwest 
territory was entirely under English rule and settlements began to extend. The 
Indians who had been the friends and allies of the French during the wai' 
were not reconciled to the English, claiming that they had not carried out 
their promises. Under the famous Ottawa chief, Pontiao, they united in a 
general conspiracy to cut off all the English posts on the frontier. The 
Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawnese, Delawares and Mingoes, 
buried the hatchet in their local quarrels, and united to exterminate the 
English. , • 

Owing to treachery on the part of some of Pontiac's followers, he failed 
in the complete execution of his plans, but in May, 1763, several British 
posts fell, and many whites were victims of the merciless tom^ahawk. In 
the arrangement among the Indians it was agreed that Pontiac's own imme- 
diate field of action was to be the garrison at Detroit. He laid siege to the 
post May 12th, and continued it until October 12th. To obtain food for his 
warriors during this time, he issued promissory notes, drawn upon birch 
bark and signed with the figure of an otter. All these notes were faithfully 
redeemed. Being unsuccessful in reducing the garrison, the tribes generally 
sued for peace, but Pontiac remained as yet unsubdued. To Alexander 
Henry, an JEnglishman who visited Missillimacinac the next spring, he said: 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not yet 
conquered us. We are not your slaves!,' These lakes, these woods, these 
mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritanije, and we 
will part with them to none. Tour nation supposes that we, like the white 
people, cannot live without bread, and pork and beef; but you ought to 



THE NORTHWEST TEBEITOKT. 19 

know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided food for us 
upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

Pontiac still en-tertained the hope that the French would renew the war, 
and finally conquer the English, and endeavored to incite the Indians on the 
Miami, and in other parts of the West, to continue hostilities. He applied, 
but unsuccessfully, to the French commander at New Orleans. Being un- 
able to unite again those who entered so eagerly into his original conspiracy 
for destroying the English settlements, he went to the Illinois country, where 
he made a stand, and had for a time the sympathy and co-operation of the 
French fur traders in that region. Soon, however, all but his immediate 
followers deserted his cause, and he then reluctantly accepted peace on the 
terms offered by the English. Prom this time he had but little influence 
with the tribes. He was killed by an Illinois Indian, while drunk, at Ka- 
hokia, in 1769. . At the time of his death he was about fifty-seven years of 
age. 

Great Britain now held sovereignty over the entire Northwest, and to pre- 
vent Louisiana from also faUing into the hands of the English, France by 
secret treaty, in 1762, ceded it to Spain. The next year the treaty of Paris 
formally gave to England possession of the Northwestern Teiritory. The 
English now began to prepare for settlement and occupation of the country. 
In 1770 persons from Virginia and other British provinces took up the 
valuable lands on the Monongahela and along the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Little Kanawa. In October of the same year George Washington with a 
party descended the Ohio from Pittsburg to the Kenawa, which last named 
stream they ascended about fourteen miles, and marked out several large 
ti'acts of land. Buffalo were then abundant in the Ohio valley, and several 
of them were shot by Washington's party. Pittsburg was then a village of 
twenty houses, the inhabitants being mostly Indian traders. 

The British government was inclined to observe a liberal policy toward 
the French settlers in the West. In 1763 the king, by royal proclamation, 
had forbidden his subjects from making settlements beyond the sources of 
the rivers which fall into the Atlantic ; but his subjects in the colonies were 
little disposed to observe this restriction. Finally, in 1774, Governor Dun- 
more, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration to the West. A number 
of settlements were made in the Ohio valley, the settlers often coming in 
conflict with the Indians. Several battles were fought, ending in the battle 
of Kenawa, in July, when the Indians were defeated and driven across the 
Ohio. During the years following, up to 1776, several land companies were 
formed, and engaged in extensive operations. One, called the "Illinois 
Land Company," obtained from the Indians large tracts of land on the Mis- 
sissippi river, south of the Illinois. An association, styling itself the "Wa- 
bash Land Company," obtained a deed from eleven chiefs to 37,497,600 acres 
of land. The War of the Revolution interfered with these and many other 
similar schemes of speculation. The parties interested subsequently made 
«»fforts to have these land grants sanctioned by Congress, but did not succeed. 
_ In 1771, according to the best information we have, Kaskaskia contained 
eighty houses, and nearly one thousand inhabitants, white and black. Ka- 
holda contained fifty houses, with three hundred white inhabitants, and 
eighty negroes. There were a few families at Prairie du Eocher, on the 
Mississippi river, opposite St. Louis. At Detroit, there were in 1766, about 
one hundred houses. This place was founded by Antoine de la Motte Ca- 
; dillac, in 1701, and is the oldest town in the Northwest. 



20 THE NOETHWEST TEEKITOET. 

When the "War of the Revolution commenced the British held Kaskaskia, 
KahoMa, Vincennes, Detroit, and other important posts in the West. Col. 
George Eoger^ Clark, a master spirit of the frontier, who was familiar with 
all the important movements of the British in the West, and also with the 
disposition of the Indians, formed a plan unequalled in holdness, for subju- 
gating theseposts. He repaired to the capital of Yirginia, Patrick Henry 
being then Grovernor, and presented to the authorities his plan of operations, 
whidi was approved by Governor Henry. He was accordingh' fiimished 
with two sets of instructions — one secret and the other open. His open in- 
structions authorized him to enlist seven companies to go to Kentucky, sub- 
ject to his orders; and serve three months from their arrival in the West. 
The secret order authorized him to arm and equip his troops at Pittsburg, 
and proceed to subjugate the country. Col. Clark succeeded in raising bii4 
three companies, but with these and a few private volunteers, he descend^ 
the Ohio as far as the falls, in the spring of 1777. Here he fortified a small 
island, known as Corn Island, and then announced to his men their real des- 
tination. Leaving a small garrison, on the 24:th of June, during a total 
eclipse of the sun, he moved down the river. Under a burning July sun, 
with his chosen band, he marched to Kaskaslda, reaching that post on the 
evening of July ith. Without the loss of a man on either side the fort and 
village were captured. He easily induced the Indians to give their alleaif 
ance to the American cause. They accompanied him to JCahokia on ttie 
6th, and through their influence the inhabitants of that place surrendCTel* 
without resistance. The priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, hastily Joined in 
rendering all the aid he could to forward the purposes of Clark. He estab- 
lished a government for the colonies he had taken, and then made ready to 
march upon St. Yincent, or Vincennes, as it is more commonly known, 
But Gibault offered to go alone and induce the post on the " Oubache " to 
throw off the authority of England. Clark accepted the offer, and on the 
14:th of July Gibault started on his mission. On the 1st of August he re- 
turned, with intelligence of entire success, the garrison at Yincennes having 
taken the oath of allegiance to Yirginia. Col. Clark placed garrisons at 
Kaskaskia and Kahokia, and sent orders for the erection of a fort at the Falls 
of the Ohio, where the City of Louisville now stands. He also sent Koclie- 
blave, the former commander of Kaskaskia, a prisoner of war to Eichmond. 
The county of Illinois was established in October of the same year, by the 
Legislature of Yirginia. John Todd was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel and 
acting governor. Courts were established, and the colony was provided with 
a government complete. The Indians acknowledged allegiance to the new 
government. 

While Col. Clark was arranging for the government of the Illinois colo- 
nies, the British Governor, Hamilton, was planning an expedition to move 
from Detroit down the Wabash to Yincennes, intending to recapture the 
posts which had surrendered to Clark, and thence extend his operations to 
Kentucky. He knew nothing of the capitulation of Yincennes until bis 
arrival, when he found the fort in command of Capt. Helm, who had been 
sent by Col._ Clark to take charge of the garrison. Hamilton demanded the 
surrender of the fort, and being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, Gapt. 
Helm surrendered to a superior force. On the 29th of January, 1879, Clark 
received intelligence of what had transpired at Yincennes, and of the in- 
tended operations of Hamilton. Having sufficiently garrisoned Kaskaskia 
and Kahokia, and dispatched a force down the Mississippi to ascend the Ohio 



THE NOETHWEST TEBEITOBT. 21 

and operate with the land forces in that direction, on the 5th of February he 
set out himself with one hundred and twenty men on his hard march to 
Vincennes. He reached the tort on the 22d, and was joined by the re- 
mainder of his command, which had come by water. He immediately com- 
menced his attack on the fort, and on the 25th Gov. Hamilton surrendered. 
He was sent as a prisoner of war to Virginia, where he was kept in close 
confinement, and thus failed to accomplish his purpose of uniting the In- 
dian tribes against the Americans. All the important posts in the North- 
west, except Detroit, were now in the hands of the Americans. Had Clark 
received reinforcements, which had been promised, he would doubtless have 
captured Detroit also ; but Virginia and the other colonial governments at 
this time doubtless had all they could do to attend to the operations of the 
war east of the Alleghanies. The Legislature of Virginia passed resolutions 
complimenting Col. Clark and his men, and in 1781 he was promoted to 
the rank of general. Previous to this he had taken part with Steuben 
against Arnold, when the latter invaded Virginia, in 1780. Subsequently, 
Virginia gave to Gen. Clark and his men one hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of land, wherever they might choose to locate it, north of the Ohio. 
They made selection of a tract opposite the Falls of the Ohio, between New 
Albany and Jeff'ersonviUe, Indiana. Gen. Clark died near Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, February 13th, 1808. 

The years 1781 and 1782 were dark years in the history of the infant set- 
tlements of the Northwest, in consequence of the many outrages practiced 
by the Indians. Many deeds of cruelty were committed under the leader- 
ship of the outlaw, Simon Girty, occurring chiefly in the Ohio Valley. Sev- 
eral battles between the Indians and frontiersmen occurred north of the 
Ohio, while in Kentucky the famous Daniel Boone and his companions were 
engaged in protecting the frontier outposts. 

In 1783 the treaty of peace, which ended the Eevolutionary struggle, was 
concluded, and by its terms the boundaries of the West were defined as fol- 
lows : On the north, to extend along the center of the Great Lakes ; from 
the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; thence to the Lake of 
the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi river, down its center to 
the 31st parallel of latitude ; thence on that line east to the head of Appa- 
lachicola river, down its center to the junction with the Flint ; thence straight 
to the head of St. Mary's river ; and thence down along its center to the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

For some time after the cessation of hostilities, General Haldimand, the 
British commander at Detroit, refused to evacuate, on the ground, as he 
claimed, that his king had not ordered him to do so. It shortly, however, 
passed under the control of the United States, and so remained, except when 
held by the British, through the surrender of Gen. Hull, for a few weeks in 
August and September, 1812. 

The war of independence had been fought and gained, and England, as 
we have seen, had renounced her claim to the Northwest, but the Indian 
title was not yet extinguished. From 1783 to 1786 various treaties were 
made, by which the Indians relinquished their title to extensive tracts of 
territory. The individual States also held claims to the territory surrendered 
by Great Britain, and acts of cession were necessary to vest the title to the 
soil in United States ; but of this we shall treat more fully in another place. 
In 1779 Virginia had passed her "land laws," by which grants made to set- 
tlers were confirmed, and providing for selling the rest at forty cents per 



22 THE NOETHWKST TEEEITOKT. 

acre. Kentucky was included in the territory of Virginia until 1792. It 
was originally explored by Daniel Boone and his compeers about the year 
1769. Harrodsburg was founded in 1774, and Lexington a year or two 
later, when the news of the battle of Lexington was fresh in the minds of 
its founders. 

THE NOETHWESTERN TEERITOET. 

Territory held by States— Articles of Confederation— Objections of certain States— Delaware 
Resolutions— Action of Congress — Maryland— New York- Cession of Territory by States- 
Ordinance of 1787 — Territorial Organization of the Northwest — Fort Washington— Wm. 
H. Harrison. Arthur St. Clair — Early American Settlements — New England Company- 
Gen. Ruftis Putnam — John Cleves Symmes — Cincinnati Founded — Treaty with Spain- 
Division of the Northwestern Territory — Organization of the Territory of Indiana- 
Division of Indiana Territory — ^Territory of Michigan — Gov. Wm. Hull — ^Destruction of 
Detroit by Fire. 

At the time the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were pend- 
ing a number of the States held, or claimed, large tracts of territory not now 
included in those States, New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
South Carolina, JNorth Carolina and Georgia, aU held such territory. Vir- 

?inia claimed aU that vast region which now embraces the States of Ohio, 
ndiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota east of the 
Mississippi river. That State had made provision, by legislative enactment, 
to dispose of her lands to settlers. Certain States, claiming that the unoccu- 
pied western lands were rightfully the common property of all the States, in- 
sisted on limiting the area of those States claiming western territory. This 
was a subject of warm and protracted discussion in the adoption of the Arti- 
cles of Confederation. The delegates from Maryland, under instructions from 
the General Assembly of that State, declined, in the Congress of the Confed- 
eration, to sign the Articles of Confederation until provision was made for 
restricting the boundaries of the States, and vesting the soil of the western 
territories in the Confederation for the common benefit of all the settlers. 
Virginia had remonstrated against this course. On the 25th of November, 
1778, the act of New Jersey for ratifying the Articles of Confederation 
was presented in the Congress. Her delegates were directed to sign the arti- 
cles "in the firm reliance that the candour and justice of the several States 
will, in due time, remove as far as possible the inequahty which now sub- 
sists." The delegation from Delaware, after having signed the articles, 
on the 23d of February, 1779, presented sundry resolutions passed by the 
legislature of that State, among which were the following: 

'■'■ResolmA, That tliis State thinks it necessary, for the peace and safety of 
the States to be included in the Union, that a moderate extent of limits 
should be assigned for such of those States as claim to the Mississippi or 
South Sea; and that the United States in Congress assembled, should, and 
ought to, have the power of fixing the western limits. 

'■^Besol/ved, That this State consider themselves justly entitled to a right in 
common with the members of the Union, to that extensfve tract of country 
which lies westward of the frontier of the United Stales, the property of 
which was not vested in, or granted to, private individuals at the com- 
mencement of the present war. That the same hath been, or mav he, 
gained from the King of Great Britain, or the native Indians, by the blood 
and treasure of all, and ought, therefore, to be a common estate, to he 
erranted out on terms beneficial to the United States." 



THE NORTHWEST TEEKITOET. 23 

The same day, after the presentation of these resolutions, Congress passed 
the following: 

"Besohed, That the paper laid before Congress by the delegates from 
Delaware, and read, be filed; provided, that it shall never be considered as 
admitting any claim by the same set up, or intended to be set up." 

Eight States voted in favor of this resolution, and three against it. 

The State of Maryland still persisting in her refusal to ratify the Articles 
of Confederation, on the 30th of October, 1779, Congress, by a vote of eight 
States to three, and one being divided, passed the following: 

"Wheeeas, The appropriation of vacant lands by the several States, during 
the continuance of the war, will, in the opinion of Congress, be attended 
with great mischiefs: Therefore, 

"Sesolved, That it be earnestly recommended to the State of Virginia, to 
reconsider their late act of Assembly for opening their land office; and that 
it be recommended to the said State, and all other States similarly circum- 
stanced, to forbear settling or issuing warrants for unappropriated lands, or 
granting the same during the continuance of the present war." 

On the 19th of February, 1780, the Legislature of New York passed an 
act authorizing her delegates in Congress, for and on behalf of that State, 
by proper and authentic acts or instruments, "to limit and restrict the 
boundaries of the State in the western parts thereof, by such line or lines, 
and in such manner and form, as they shall judge to be expedient," and 
providing for the cession to the United States of certain " waste and uncul- 
tivated" territory. This act was fully carried into effect by her delegates 
on the 1st of March, 1781. 

On the 6th of September, 1780, Congress passed a resolution earnestly 
recommending the States having " claims to the western country, to pass 
such laws, and give their delegates in Congress such powers " as might 
effectually remove the only obstacle to a final ratification of the Articles of 
Confederation, and requesting the Legislature of Maryland to authorize her 
delegates in Congress to subscribe to the articles. 

On the 10th of October, 1780, a further resolution on this subject *was 
passed by the Congress of the Confederation, as follows: 

"Resoloed, That the unappropriated lands that may be ceded or relin- 
quished to the United States, by any particular State, pursuant to the recom- 
mendation of Congress of the 6th day of September last, shall be disposed 
of for the common benefit of the United States, and be settled and formed 
into distinct republican States, which shall become members of the Federal 
Union, and have the same rights of sovereignty, freedom and independence 
as the other States; that each State which shall be so formed shall contain a 
suitable extent of territory, not less than one hundred, nor more than one 
hundred and fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit ; 
that the necessary and reasonable expenses which any particular State shall 
liave incurred since the commencement of the present war, in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts or garrisons Avithin and for the defense, 
or in acquiring any part of the territory that may be ceded or relinquished 
to the United States, shall be re-imbursed; that the said lands shall be 
granted or settled at such times, and under such regulations, as shall here- 
after be agreed on by the United States, in Congress assembled, or any nine 
or more of them." 

In pursuance of the recommendation of Congress, of September 6th, 1780, 
several States made cessions of territory to me United States. Virginia 



24 THE NOETHWEST TBEEITOET. 

ceded her nortliwestem territory March 1st, 1784, and by an act of hg^ 
Legislature of December 30th, 1788, agreed to change the conditions of thg 
act of cession of 1784, so far as to ratify the 5th article of the ordinance of 
1787, passed by Congress for the government of the territory. The dele- 
gates in Congress from Maryland signed the Articles of Confederation 5at 
the date of the cession of territory by New York, March Ist, 1781, thus 
completing the confederation. 

On the 23d of April, 1784, Congress passed a resolution for the governs 
meut of the territory ceded by V irginia, which was superceded by tk 
famous ordinance of July 13th, 1787, entitled "An ordinance for the govern- 
ment of the territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio." 
The first part of this important enactment provides for the temporary gov- 
ernment of the territory, and concludes with six "articles of compact between 
the original States and the people and States in the said territory, and forever 
to remain unalterable, unless by common consent." The provisions of these 
six articles are of such importance as to justify their insertion here in full: 

"Aeticle 1. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly 
manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religioll 
sentiments, in the said territory. 

"Art. 2. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to 
the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate repre- 
sentation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings accord- 
ing to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless 
for capital offenses, when the proof shall be evident, or the presumption 
great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punishment 
shall be inflicted. No person shall be deprived of his liberty or property, 
but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land, and should the 
public exigencies make it necessary for the common preservation to take any 
person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation 
shall be made for the same. And, in the just preservation of rights, and 
property, it is understood and declared that no law ought ever to be made, 
or have force in the said territory, that should, in any manner whatever, in- 
terfere with or affect private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and with- 
out fraud previously formed. 

"Aet. 3. Eeligion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good gov- 
ernment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education 
shall be forever encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed 
towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from 
them without their consent; and in their property, rights, and liberty, 
they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars 
authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, 
from time to time, be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and 
for preserving peace and friendship with them. 

"Art. 4. The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, 
shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of Ame^ 
ica, subject to the Ai-ticles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein 
as shall be constitutionally made; and to all the acts and ordinances of the 
United States, in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants 
and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal 
debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses 
of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the 
same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall bo 



THE NOETHWEST TBEKITOKT. 25 

made on the other States; and the taxes for paying theii* proportion shall be 
laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the dis- 
trict or districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time 
agreed upon by the United States, in Congress assembled. The legislatures 
of those districts, or new States, shall never interfere with the primary dis- 
posal of the soil of the United States, in Congress assembled, nor with any 
regulations Congress may find necessary, for securing the title in such soil, 
to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property 
of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed 
higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into- the Mississippi 
and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be com- 
mon highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of said territory as 
to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may 
be admitted into the Confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor. 

"Aet. 5. There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three, 
nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Yir- 
ginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become 
tixed and established as follows, to-wit: the Western States in the said terri- 
tory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and Wabash rivers; a 
direct line drawn from the Wabash and JPost Yincents due north to the ter- 
ritorial line between the United States and Canada, and by the said territorial 
line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The Middle States shall be 
bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Vincents to the 
Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the 
Great Miami to the said territorial line and by the said territorial line. The 
Eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line; provided, however, and it is 
further understood and declared that the boundaries of these three States 
shall be subject so far to be altered that if Congress shall hereafter find it 
expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of 
the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of 
the said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State 
shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States 
on an equal looting with the original States, in all respects whatever; and 
shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government, 
provided the constitution and government so to be formed shall be republi- 
can, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles, and so 
far aa can be consistent with the general interests of the Confederacy, such 
admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less 
number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand. 

"Aet. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the 
the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the 
party shall be duly convicted; provided, always, that any person escaping 
into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of 
the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to 
theperson claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

These articles, sometimes knovra as the "Compact of 1787," form the 
basis of the organization of the Northwestern Territory and of the several 
States iiito which it was subsequently divided. Although the original act 
of cession was adopted by Virginia in 1784, it will be seen that it was 
three years later bei'ore Congress agreed upon a plan of government. The 



26 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

subject was one of serious and earnest discussion at various times. At one 
time a motion prevailed to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition of 
slavery. Another proposition was agreed to by which the territory was to 
be divided into States by parallels and meridian lines, making ten States 
which were to be named as follows: Sylvania, Michigania, Chersonestis, 
Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, "Washington, Polypotamia and 
Pelisipia. When this plan was submitted to the legislatures of the States 
there were serious objections made, especially by Massachusetts and Yir- 
ginia. There were objections to the category of names, but the chief diffi- 
culty was the resolution of Congress of October 10th, 1780, which fixed the 
extent of each State at not less than one hundred nor more than one hundred 
and fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances might admit. So 
the subject was again taken up in 1786, and discussed during that year aiad 
until July 12th, 1787, when the ordinance finally passed, as stated above. 

An act of territorial organization was approved August 7th, 1789. Gen. 
Arthur St. Clair was appointed Governor, and William H. Harrison Secre- 
tary. In 1788 a town had been laid out by John Cleves Symmes at Fort 
Washington, and was named Losantiville, but afterward Cincinnati. The 
place was settled by persons from the New England States and from New 
Jersey, but did not extensively improve until after Gen. Wayne's defeat of 
the Indians in 1794. This became the seat of the new territorial govern- 
ment. The election of representatives for the territory was held February 
4th, 1799. As required by the ordinance of 1787, these representatives met 
at the seat of the territorial government to nominate ten persons-, out of 
which Congress was to appoint five to serve as the territorial council. The 
following persons were commissioned: Henry Yandenburg, of Vinoennes; 
Kobert Oliver, of Marietta; James Findlay and Jacob Burnett, of Cinei*; 
nati, and David Vance, of Yanceville. The first Territorial Legislature met 
September 16th, 1799, and on the 24th both houses were duly organized, 
Henry Vandenburg being elected president of the council. On the 13th of 
October the legislature elected Wm. Henry Harrison as delegate to 
Congress. He received eleven of the votes cast, being a majority of one 
over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of the Governor. At this session 
thirty-seven acts were passed and approved. Eleven other acts were passed 
which the Governor vetoed. The greater part of the legislation of the ses- 
sion related to the organization of the militia and to revenue matters. The 
session closed December 19th, 1799. President Adams appointed Charles 
Willing Bryd as secretary of the territory to succeed Wm. Henry Harrison, 
elected to Congress, and the senate confirmed the nomination. James N. 
Yarnum, S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong were appointed to the judicial 
bench of the territory in October, 1787. 

Having^ briefly outlined the legislation which resulted in the formation of 
a Territorial government, we return to notice some of the earlier American 
settlements in the Territory. As elsewhere stated, a few French settlements 
had been made by emigrants from Canada and Louisiana, on the Ohio river 
and in the region Imown as the Illinois country, but it was not until after 
the Yirginia cession that any permanent American settlements were made. 
Then several treaties were made with the Indians, in which they relinquished 
their title to large portions of the territory. The government made several 
large grants to companies and individuals, for the purpose of colonizing the 
country. One of these was to a company from Massacnusetts and Coimecti- 
cut, called the New England Company, of a tract lying along the Ohio and 



THE NOKTUWBST TEBBITOET. 27 

Mnskingutn rivers, embracing 1,500,000 acres. Here tlie town of Marietta 
was laid out, in August, 1787, at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio 
rivers. Fort Harmar was built on the opposite, or west bank of the Mus- 
kingum, the year before. The New England Company sent its first party 
of settlers in the spring of 1788. They consisted of eight families, and 
some other persons, and aU under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Put- 
nam. The party, after a long and weary journey over the Alleghanies, and 
down the Ohio, arrived at Marietta on the 7th of April, 1788. This little 
band had the honor of being the pioneers of Ohio, uidess the Moravian 
missionaries may be so regarded. The settlement was first known as the 
" Muskingum," but on the 2d of July, 1788, at a meeting of the directors 
and agents of the company, the name was changed to Marietta, in honor ot 
Marie Antoinette. 

In 1786, John Cleves Symmes, of New Jersey, visited the country be- 
tween the Miamies, and being pleased with its appearance, made application 
to the government for the purchase of a large tract of land, to be settled on 
similar conditions with those of the New England Company. The grant 
was made to Symmes and his associates the following year. Associated with 
Symmes, was Matthias Denman, also of New Jersey, who located, among 
other tracts in the Symmes purchase, the section upon which Cincinnati 
was laid out. Denman sold to Robert Patterson and John Filson, each one- 
third of his location, retaining the other third himself In August, 1788, 
they laid out the first portion of what, in a few years, became one of the 
great cities of the West. Fort Washington was erected here in 1790, and 
was for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military govern- 
ments of the Northwestern Territory. There .were but few settlers here 
until after 1794, when settlers began to arrive rapidly. In July, 1815, the 
population was 6,500. 

In October, 1795, the treaty was signed between the United States and 
Spain, which secured to the former the free navigation of the Mississippi. 
After this the Northwest began to settle rapidly. During the next year 
settlements were made at various points along the Miami and Scioto rivers, 
including those at Piqua and ChilKcothe. In September, of the same year, 
the city of Cleveland was laid out. 

The great extent of the Northwestern Territory, and the rapid increase 
of population at the beginning of the new century, began to render the effi- 
cient action of the courts impossible ; and to remedy this evil a division of 
the Territory was proposed. A committee in Congress, to whom the mat- 
ter had been referred, on the 3d of March, 1800, reported in favor of two 
distinct territorial governments, and that the division be made by a line 
beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami river, and running directly to 
the boundary line between the United States and Canada. The report was 
accepted, and an act passed, which was approved May 7th, of the same year, 
maMng the division. It provided, among other things, that from and after 
the next 4th day of July, " aU that part of the territory of the United 
States northwest of the Ohio river, which lies to the northward of a line 
begiuning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky 
mer, and mnning thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until it shall 
intersect the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for 
the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate territory, and 
be called the Indiana Territory." The same act; provided, that until the Leg- 
islatures ol the Territories, respectively, otherwise ordered, Chillicothe, on 



28 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

the Scioto river, should be the seat of government of the Territory east of 
the line of division; and that Vincennes, on the "Wabash river, should, be 
the seat of government of the Indiana Territory. On the 3d of November, 
of that year, the Territorial Legislature met at Chillicothe. William Heniy 
Harrison was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, and entered upon 
his duties in 1801. The new Territory then embraced all that region now 
comprising the States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that 
part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi river. Nearly the whole of it 
was at that time in the possession of the Indians. Soon after the arrival of 
Governor Harrison at V incennes, he concluded several treaties with the In- 
dians, whereby large grants of land were obtained from the various tribes. 
By a treaty made at St. Louis, August 18th, 1804, he obtained a relinquish- 
ment of Indian title to over 51,000,000 of acres. The year before the gov- 
ernment had obtained Louisiana from France, by purchase, and that being 
divided, the " District of Louisiana " (the " New Northwest ") was annexea 
to Indiana Territory, thus extending Gov. Harrison's authority over a vast 
domain, occupied chiefly by savage tribes. 

By an act of Congress, of January 11th, 1805, Indiana Territoij was di- 
vided into two separate governments, and the new Territory of Michigan 
formed. William Hull was appointed Governor of the new Territory, and 
Detroit was designated as the seat of government. On the 30th of June, 
the Territorial government of Michigan was to go into operation. When 
Gov. Hull, and the other Territorial officers, reached Detroit, they found th^e 
place in ruins and the inhabitants scattered. On the 11th of that month a 
nre had destroyed almost every building in the place. Gov. Hull adopted a 
new plan for rebuilding the town, and in population and importance it soon 
regained all it had lost by the fire. 

Other changes were subsequently made in the boundaries of the Western 
Territories, as new States were from time to time admitted into the Union, 
until finally, all that vast domain originally designated as the " Northwestern ; 
Territory" became sovereign States. 

THE LOUISIANA PUEGHASE. 

Discovery of the Mouth of the Mississippi — Founding of New Orleans — ^French Grant— John 
Law — The "Mississippi Bubble" — ^Territory "West of the Mississippi— France Cedes to 
Spain — Spain Cedes Back to France — France Cedes to the United States — Eight t^i 
Navigate the Mississippi— Particulars of the Negotiations With France— Extent of the 
Territory— Possession Taken by the United States — Division of the Territory. 

That vast region of territory once known as Louisiana, came under the 
jurisdiction of civilized men by the right of discovery — a right which has 
long been known and recognized among civilized nations, though often 
necessarily followed by conquest to render it effective. For two centuries 
the Spaniards had navigatea the Gulf of Mexico, so far as we know, ignorant 
of the fact that it received the waters of one of the largest rivers of the 
world. About the year 1660 the French, who had re-established themselves 
in Canada, received some information of this great river, but did not discover 
its mouth until 1691, when, according to some authorities. La Salle succeeded 
in reaching it. Iberville founded his first colony in 1699, but it did not^ 
assume importance until 1717, when the city of New Orleans was founded. 
In 1712 Louis XIV of Franco granted to M. Crozart a charter to the wholfe 
territory of Louisiana, which was so named in honor of the king; Under 



THE NOEXnWEST TEEEITOET. 29 

the leadership of John Law, in 1716, a company was formed at Paris and 
incorporated as the "Mississippi Company," which purchased Louisiana 
from the crown. The financial disasters in France caused by Law brought 
about the failitre of his Mississippi scheme, and the explosion of what is 
known in history as the " Mississippi bubble." Louisiana was then resumed 
by the crown, and the commerce of the Mississippi was declared free. The 
French retained possession until 1762, when they ceded it to Spain, includ- 
ing the whole country to the head waters of the great river and west to the 
Rocky Mountains. The jurisdiction of France, wliich had continued for 
nearly a century, thus ended, until in 1800 Bonaparte, then first consul, 
induced the Spanish government to cede it back to France. During the 
time that Louisiana remained a Spanish dependency, that government 
claimed the exclusive right of navigating the Mississippi river. The free 
navigation of that river was essential to the prosperity and commerce of the 
United States. Spain then having jurisdiction also over the Floridas east of 
the great river, and that river for several hundred miles fiowing wholly 
through the Spanish dominions, the question of its navigation south of the 
southern boundary of the United States became a serious one to our govern- 
ment and people. The people in the western part of the United States 
especially demanded the free navigation of the river as a right. But Spanish 
military posts enforced the collection of duties on imports by way of the 
river tor the upper region. Boats descending were forced to submit to reve- 
nue exactions by Spanish authorities. These exactions were a constant 
source of trouble and disafiection, and led to a threatening state of affairs 
between the United States and Spain. Spain, however, by the treaty of 
Madrid, October 20, 1795, conceded to the United States the free navigation 
ot the river from its source to the Gulf, and also the free use of the port of 
New Orleans for three years as a port of deposit. 

The treaty of Madrid, however, did not quiet all troubles between the 
United States and Spain. In 1802, during the administration of President 
Jefferson, there was some apprehension of a war growing out of the continued 
disputes respecting the southwestern boundary. These disputes had led to 
many difficulties between the people of the United States and the Spanish 
authorities. These affairs, however, assumed a new aspect, when in the 
spring of 1802 the government of the United States received intelligence 
that, by a secret treaty made in October, 1800, Spain had ceded Louisiana to 
France. At this time Mr. Livingston was the United States Minister to 
France, and President Jefferson, soon after learning of the Spanish cession to 
France, wrote to Mr. Livingston in reference to acquiring the right to deposit 
at the port of New Orleans, and other matters which had been in dispute 
between the United States and Spain. In his annual message to Congress, 
in December of the same year, the President alluded to the subject of the 
Spanish cession to France. Congress passed resolutions asserting the right 
of navigating the Mississippi, and insisting upon the right to the use of a 
port or place of deposit. At that time it was understood in the United States 
that the Spanish cession to France included the Floridas, which, however, 
was not the case. The policy of the President was to enter into a treaty 
with France for the purchase of New Orleans and the Floridas, and with this 
view, on tho 10th of January, 1803, he appointed James Monroe minister 
plenipotentiary to France to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Mr. 
Monroe's nomination was confirmed by the senate. The instructions to the 
American ministers only asked for the cession of the city of New Orleans 



30 THE NOETHWEST TEBEITOET- 

and the Floridas, together with the free navigation of the Mississippi. The 
cession at this tinie of the entire Territory of Louisiana was not a subject ot 
discussion. Mr. Monroe sailed from New York, March 8, 1803, and arrive^ 
in Paris April 1. 

Bonaparte was then first consul, and France was on the eve of a war with 
England. He supposed the American ministers were authorized to enter 
into more extended stipulations than they really were. Marquis de Marbois 
was directed to negotiate with the American ministers. Said the first con- 
sul to his minister, as recorded by the latter: 

"Irresolution and deliberation are no longer in season. I renounce 
Louisiana. It is not only New Orleans that I will cede; it is the whole col- 
ony, without any reservation. I know the price of what I abandon, and I 
have sufficiently proved the importance that I attach to this province, since my 
first diplomatic act with Spain had for its object the recovery of it. I 
renounce it with the greatest regret. To attempt to retain it would be folly,' 
I direct you to negotiate this affair with the envoys of the United State* 
Do not even await the arrival of Mr. Monroe; have an interview this day 
with Mr. Livingston. But I require a great deal of money for this war, and 
I would not like to commence with new contributions. If I should regulate 
my terms, according to the value of these vast regions to the United States, 
the indemnity would have no limits. I will be moderate, in consideration 
of the necessity in which I am of making a sale. But keep this to yourself 
I want fifty millions francs, and for less than that sum I will not treat; 1 
would rather make a desperate attempt to keep those fine countries. To«: 
morrow you shall have full powers. Mr. Monroe is on the point of arriving. 
To this minister the President must have given secret instructions, moisi 
extensive than the ostensible authorization of Congress, for the stipulation 
of the payments to be made. Neither this minister nor his colleague is 
prepared for a decision which goes infinitely beyond anything that they are 
about to ask of us. Begin by making them the overture without any sub- 
terfuge. You will acquaint me, day by day, hour by hour, of your progress^ 
The cabinet of London is informed of the measures adopted at Washington, 
but it can have no suspicion of those which I am now taking. Observe the 
greatest secrecy, and recommend it to the American ministers; they have 
not a less interest than yourself in conforming to this counsel. You will 
correspond with M. de Talleyrand, who alone knows my intentions. If I 
attended to his advice, France would confine her atnbition to the left bank 
of the Ehine, and would only make war to protect any dismemberment of 
her possessions. But he also admits that the cession of Louisiana is not a- 
dismemberment of France. Keep him informed of the progress of this 
affair." ; 

_ On the same day that Napoleon thus confided to Marbois his determinaS 
tion, conferences began between the latter and Mr. Livingston. The Amer- 
ican minister had been in Paris about two years, endeavoring to obtain in«" 
demnities claimed by American citizens for prizes made by the FrencKI 
during peace, but so far, without result further than vague answers. Mr. 
Livingston had become distrustful of the French government, and feared^ 
the Louisiana overtures were but an artifice to gain stiU further time. Sooif 
after these preliminary discussions were entered upon, Mr. Monroe arrive! 
in Paris, and the next day began his conferences with Marbois. Eapid pi^f; 
gress was made in the negotiations, for both sides had an interest in hastei!^ 
ing the matter. Mr. Monroe was surprised to hear the first overtures made 



THE N0ETHWE8T TEEEITOET. 31 

BO frankly by the French minister, when he proposed to cede to the United 
States so vast a region of country, with the largest rivers of the world, in- 
stead of merely a town and an inconsiderable extent of territory. The offer 
embraced infinitely more than the American ministers were empowered to 
ask for, or accept. Their powers only extended to an arrangement respect- 
ing the left bank of the Mississippi, including New Orleans. But the mo- 
ment was a critical one with France, hostilities being about to commence 
with England. There was not time for further instructions from the gov- 
ernment of the United States before the opportunity would pass, perhaps 
forever. The American ministers therefore assumed the responsibility of 
treating for the purchase of the entire colony, or territory of Louisiana — an 
extent of country sufficient in itself for an empire. The terms were soon 
agreed upon. The United States was to pay lor this vast acquisition the 
sum of fifteen millions of dollars. In the treaty of October 1, 1800, be- 
tween France and Spain, the latter had reserved the right of preference in 
sase France should cede this territory to another power ; but here again 
France could not afford to wait. The treaty was concluded and subsequently 
submitted to the Spanish cabinet. They complained that no regard had 
been paid to their reserved right, and for almost a year that court delayed its 
approbation of the treaty. On the 10th of February, 1804, however, Don 
Pedro CavaUos, the Spanish minister, wrote to Mr. Pinckney, the American 
minister, that "His Catholic Majesty had thought fit to renounce his oppo- 
sition to the alienation of Louisiana made by France, notwithstanding the 
solid reasons on which it is founded, thereby giving a new proof of his be- 
uevolence and friendship to the United States." The important treaty that 
gave to the United States this vast region, with all its wonderful resources, 
was concluded on the 30th of April, 1803, and four days later the instru- 
ments, in French and English, were signed by the ministers. After affixing 
their signatures, the ministers rose and shook hands, each expressing his sat- 
isfaction with the result. Mr. Livingston said : " We have lived long, but 
this is the noblest work of our whole lives. The treaty which we have just 
signed has not been obtained by art, or dictated by force ; equally advanta- 
geous to the two contracting parties, it wiU change vast solitudes into flour- 
ishing districts. . From this day the United States take their place among 
the powers of the first rank ; the English lose all exclusive influence in the 
affairs of America." 

The first consul, who had followed the negotiation with a lively interest, 
acquiesced in the result, and said to Marbois : " It is true, the negotiation 
does not leave me anything to desire. Sixty millions [francs] for an occupa- 
tion that will not, perhaps, last for a day ! I would that France should en- 
joy this unexpected capital, and that it may be employed in works beneficial 
to the marine. This accession of territory strengthens forever the power 
of the United States ; and I have just given to England a maratime rival 
that will sooner or later humble her pride." 

On the 22d day of May, 1803, Englaiid commenced hostilities against 
France by the capture of some of her merchant vessels, and on the same 
day Bonaparte gave his formal ratification of the Louisiana treaty of cession. 
In July, the treaty was received in the United States, and on the 20th of 
October, 1803, it was ratified by the Senate, by twenty-four against seven 
votes. The country ceded by this treaty, as estimated at that time, exceeded 
a million of square miles, all occupied by savages, except a few sparse settle- 
ments, aggregating from 80,000 to 90,000 inhabitants, about 40,000 of whom 
were slaves. The whites were chiefly French, or descendants of French* 



32 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

Congress, a few days after the ratification of the treaty by the Senate, passed 
an act making provision for the occupation and temporary government of 
the territory acquired. Eleven millions of dollars were appropriated as 
payment for the purchase — the remaining four millions being reserved, ac- 
cording to a stipulation in the treaty, to indemnify citizens of the United 
States who had sustained losses at the hands of the French. The resolution 
for carrying the treaty into efiect was sustained by the House of Eepresen- 
tatives by a vote of ninety to twenty-five. 

Even before the acquisition of Louisiana, it had been a favorite object of 
President Jefferson to have an exploring expedition' sent across the continent 
to the Pacific Ocean, and in January, 1803, he had recommended an appro- 
priation for that purpose. The appropriation was made, and the enterprise 
was placed under the direction of Captains Lewis and Clarke.- The treaty 
with France, however, was ratified before the exploring expedition was ready 
to start. On the 14th of May, 1804, Captains Lewis and Clarke, with their 
companions, consisting in all of thirty persons, left the banks of the Missis- 
sippi on their long and perilous voyage of two years and three months, to 
seek out and give to their country and the world some more accurate knowl- 
edge respecting this vast region of country, of which civilization at that 
time knew so uttle. The expedition was in every way successful, and the 
report made by Captains Lewis and Clarke enabled the government and peo- 
ple of the United States to form a better judgment of the immense value 
of the country acquired. 

It will be seen that the region acquired by the Louisiana purchase, com- 
prehended not only the present State of Louisiana, but all the vast region 
between the Mississippi river and the Pacific Ocean, and as far north as tlie 
British possessions. The great States of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Ne- 
braska, Kansas, the greater part of Minnesota, and several of our great Ter- 
ritories, are but parts of this purchase. 

On the 20th of December, 1803, in pursuance of authority given by act 
of Congress, Gov. Claiborne and Gen. Wilkinson took possession of the Loui- 
siana purchase, and raised the American flag at New Orleans. The Span- 
ish authorities there objected to the transfer, but early in 1804 they acqui- 
esced and withdrew. The newly acquired territory, by authority of Con- : 
gress, was, on the first of October, 1804, divided as follows : All south of 
the 33d parallel of north latitude, was called the Territory of Orleans, and 
all north of that parallel became the District of Louisiana, and was placed 
under the authority of the officers of the then Indiana Territory. It so re- 
mained until July 4, 1805, when the District of Louisiana was given a ter 
ritorial government of its own. In 1812, the Territory of New Orleans be- 
came the State of Louisiana, and the Territory of Louisiana become the 
Territory of Missouri. On the 4th of July, 1814, Missouri- TeraitDry was 
divided— that part comprising the present State of Arkansas, and- the coun- 
try west, being organized as the Territory of Arkansas.^ In March, 1821, a 
part of Missouri Territory was organized as the State of Missouri,-and ad- 
mitted into the Union. On the 28th of June, 1834, the territory west of 
the Mississippi river and north of Missouri, was made a part of the Terri- 
tory of Michigan, so remaining until July '4th, 1836, when "Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory was organized. This embraced within its limits the present States of 
Iowa, WisconsiT , and Minnesota. An act of Congress, approved June 12, 
1838, created the Territory of Iowa, ambracing not only the present State of 
Iowa, but the greater part of the present State of Minnesota, and extending 
northward to the British Possessions. 



THE NOETHWEST TEBEITOET. 



33 




34 THE NOETHWEST TBBEITOEY.,. 

INDIAN WARS m THE NOETHWEST. 

Gen. Harmar's Defeat — Gen. St. Clair— His Defeat — Gen. Wayne — His Victory— Hia Treaties 
With the Indiana — British Posts Surrendered — Death of Wayne — Gen. Harrison— Tecum- 
seh — The Prophet — Battle of Tippecanoe — ^Tecumseh's Alliance With the British— Harri- 
son Appointed Brigadier-General — Perry's Victory — Gen. McArthur — Battle of the Thames 
— ^Teoumseh Killed — Peace With the Indians — Indian Titles Extinguished — Military Peats 
Established at Belle Point, Council Bluffs, and St. Peters — ^The Ricarees— Gen. Cass-^, 
Treaty at Port Dearborn — Fort Atkinson — Grand Council at Prairie du Chien — Indiaii 
Outragea — The MUitia Called Out — Gen. Atkinson — Policy of Removing the Indians West 
— Treaty With the Sacs and Foxes — Black Hawk — He Refuses to Comply Willi Treaties 
— Black Hawk War — ^Battle of Bad Axe — Gen. Henry Dodge — Black Hawk Captured— 
Taken to Washington — Keokuk — Black Hawk Purchase — Gen. Winfleld Scott— Treaties 
at Davenport— Antoine Le Claire — Removal of Sacs and Foxes to Iowa— Gen. Streefc- 
Wapello— Maj. Beach — Sac and Fox Villages on the Des Moines — Gov. LucasT-^to® 
Chambers — Visit of Haid-Fish to Burlington — An Incident — Speech of Keokuk. 

Almost every advance of civilization on the American continent has be^ 
made at the expense of more or less conflict and bloodshed at the hands of 
the savage tribes who were the occupants and owners of the soil prior to the 
advent of the white man. Passing over the conflicts of the colonists in the 
early settlements of the East, the later struggles of the pioneers of the " Dark 
and Bloody Ground," and the Indian wars of the South, we shall briefly 
refer, to some of the troubles with the aborigines in the Northwest. With 
the opening of the new country to white settlers it was necessary to establish 
military posts for the protection of the pioneers against the attacks of the 
Indians. In 1790, all paciflc means having failed with the tribes north of 
the Ohio, President "Washington sent Gen. Harmar with a military force 
against them. After destroying several of their villages, he was defeatedft. 
two battles near the confluence of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, aiX 
not far from the present city of Fort "Wayne, Indiana. In 1781 Gen. Arthiii 
St. Clair was promoted to the rank of major general, and was entrusted witli 
a command against the hostile Miamis. On assuming his command, the 
last admonition of "Washington was, " Beware of surprise." Gen. St. Clair 
marched with his troops to the vicinity of the Miami villages on the Mau- 
mee. On the 4th of November, 1791, he was surprised in camp on the St. 
Mary's river, and his force of 1400 ill disciplined men was cut to pieces. He 
soon after resigned his commission. In this defeat St. Clair's loss was about 
600 men. The savages were greatly emboldened by their successes, and it 
was soon found that more vigorous measures were necessary. The Indians 
continued to commit outrages against the infant settlements. In some cases, 
doubtless, the whites were the aggressors, for Washington in his annual mes- 
sage of November 6, 1792, recommended more adequate measures "for re- 
straining the commission of outrages upon the Indians, without which all 
facific plans miist prove nugatory." Attempts were made to treat with tte 
ndians, but the attempted negotiations proved unsuccessful. 

After the unsuccessful and disastrous campaigns of Generals Hannar.M| 
St. Clair, General Anthony Wayne, who had won distinguished laurels in m 
war of the Revolution, was, in April, 1792, promoted to the rank of maj^ 
general, and made commander-in-chief in the war against the western Indiani. 
In August, 1794, he^ined a signal victory over the Miamis, near the rapids 
of the Maumee, and compelled them to sue for peace. In the same year a 
fort was erected by his order on the site of the old "Twightwee Yillage'Loi 
the Miami tribe, where the city of Fort Wayne is now located. " It contiiiia 
to be a military post until 1819. 



THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 35 

After his successful campaign of 1794, Gen. Wayne was appointed sole 
commissioner to treat with the Indians, and also to take possession of the 
forts still held by the British in the Northwest. He negotiated the treaty 
of Greenville which was signed by all the principal chiefs of the Northwest. 
By this treaty the Indians relinquished their title to a large tract of country. 
That characteristic determination which, during the war of the Eevolution, 
had gained him the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony," impressed the hostile 
tribes with a dread of him which operated as a wholesome restraint. Gen. 
Wayne also took possession of the British posts in the Northwest, which 
were peaceably surrendered, in accordance with Jay's treaty, and from this 
time there was assurance of peace on the frontier. He died in the garrison 
at Presque Isle (Erie), Pa., December 14, 1796. 

From the date of Wayne's victory up to 1809 the whites maintained com- 
paratively peaceable relations with the Indians. During this year. Gen. 
Harrison, then Governor of Indiana Territory, entered into a treaty with the 
Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawattamies, Miamis, Eel Eiver Indians and 
Weas, in which these tribes relinquished their title to certain lands on the 
Wabash river. About this time the noted chief Tecumseh comes into prom- 
inence as the bitter opponent of any more grants of land being made to the 
whites. 

Tecumseh was a chief of the Shavraees, bom on the Scioto river near 
Chillicothe', about the year 1770. It was said that he was one of three 
brothers who were triplets. The other two brothers were named Kum- 
shaka and Elskwatawa. Kumshaka is believed to have died while young, 
but Elskwatawa became the Prophet who co-operated with the chief in 3x 
his plans. His father, Puckeshinwa, had risen to the rank of chief, but was 
killed at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774. In 1795 Tecumseh was de- 
clared chief at or near where Urbana, Ohio, is now located. In 1798 he 
went to White river, Indiana, and his brother, the Prophet, to a tract of 
land on the Wabash. Tecumseh, by reason of his oratory, had great influ- 
ence over the savage tribes, and his plan was to unite all of them against the 
whites in a conspiracy, similar to that of Pontiac nearly half a century before. 
For this purpose he visited all the tribes west to the Mississippi, and upon 
Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. At the same time his brother, the 
Prophet, pretended to be directed by the Great Spirit to preach against the 
influence and encroachments of the white men. Their efforts to incite the 
Indians to hostilities were successful, and they gathered a large force of war- 
riors, making their headquarters at a stream they called Tippecanoe, near the 
Wabash river. 

Meantime Gov. Harrison was watching the movements of the Indians, 
and being convinced of the existence of Tecumseh's grand conspiracy, had 
OTepared to defend the settlements. In August, 1810, Tecumseh went to 
Vincennes to confer with the Governor in relation to the grievances of the 
'Indians, but demeaned himself in such an angry manner that he was dis- 
• missed from the village. He returned to complete his plans for the conflict. 
[Tecumseh delayed his intended attack, but in the meantime he was gather- 
ing strength to his cause, and by the autumn of 1811 had a force of several 
hundred warriors at his encampment on the little river called by the Indians 
Keth-ti^pe-ce-rwmk, or Tippecanoe. Harrison, with a force of eight hun- 
*dred men, partly regulars and partly volunteers, determined to move upon 
Jthe Prophet's town, as it was called. He encamped near the village early in 
October, and on the night of the 5th of November his camp was furiously 



36 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

but unsuccessfully attacked. On the morning of the 7th he was again 
attacked by a large body of the Indians, but Tecumseh's warriors were 
completely routed, but not without a severe and hotly contested battle, and 
the loss of about 200 of Harrison's men. 

President Madison, in a special message to Congress of December 12, 
1811, speaking of this engagement, says: 

"While it is deeply lamented that so many valuable lives have been lost 
in the action which took place on the seventh iiltimo, Congress will see with 
satisfaction the dauntless spirit and fortitude victoriously displayed by eveir 
description of the troops engaged, as weU as the collected firmness which 
distinguished their commander on an occasion requiring the utmost exer- 
tions of valor and discipline. It may reasonably be expected that the good 
effects of this critical defeat and dispersion of a combination of savages, 
which appears to have been spreading to a greater extent, will be experi- 
enced, not only in the cessation of murders and depredations committed on 
our frontier, but in the prevention of any hostile excursions otherwise to 
Iiave been apprehended." 

The result of the battle of Tippecanoe utterly ruined the plans of Tecum- 
seh, for his arrangements with the different tribes were not yet matured. 
He was greatly exasperated toward the Prophet for precipitating the war. 
Had Tecumsen himself been present it is likely the attack would not have 
been made. The defeated Indians were at first inclined to sue for peace, but 
Tecumseh was not yet conquered. The breaking out of the war with Grc^t 
Britain at this time inspired him with new hope, and his next endeavor was 
to form an alliance with the English. In this he succeeded, and was ap- 

fointed a brigadier general. He was entrusted with the command of all the 
udians who co-operated with the English in the campaigns of 1812-13, and 
was in several important engagements. 

After the surrender of Detroit by Gen. Hull, August 18, 1812, Har- 
rison was appointed to the command of the Northwestern frontier, with a.J 
commission as brigadier general. As this was in September, too late in tlie : 
season for a campaign, he did not assume active operations until the next ; 
year, by which time he was promoted to the rank of major general. After 
Commodore Perry won his signal victory on Lake Erie in September, 1813, 
Harrison hastened with his command to capture Maiden. On arriving there 
late in September he found that Proctor, the British general, had retreated. 
About the same time Gen. McArthur took possession of Detroit and the 
Territory of Michigan. Pursuing the British army into the interior of Can- 
ada West, Harrison overtook Proctor at the Moravian settlements, on th« 
river Thames, on the 5th of October. The British general had an auxiliai^ 
force of two thousand Indians under the command ot Tecumseh. The battW 
was opened bj^ the American cavalry under the command of Col. Eicharl 
il. Johnson, afterward vice-president of the United States. Early in th^ 
engagement Tecumseh was killed at the head of his column of Indians, who, 
no longer hearing the voice of their chief, fled in confusion. It has beenf 
claimed by some authorities that this celebrated chief was killed by Col. 
Johnson, who fired at him with a pistol. This, however, will remain one 
of the unsolved problems of history. The result of the battle was a com- 
plete victory for the Americans, with the capture of 600 prisoners, six piep 
of cannon, and a large quantity of army stores. ■ 

This decisive victory over the combined forces of the British and Indians 
practically closed the war in the Northwest, and as a consequence peace 



THE NOBTHWEST TEEEITOET. 37 

with the Indian tribes soon followed. Other treaties were negotiated with 
the Indians by which they gave up their title to additional large tracts of 
territory. The settlement of the country progressed rapidly, and again an 
era of apparent good wiU prevailed between the whites and Indians, ^y the 
end of me year 1817, the Indian title, with some moderate reservations, had 
been extinguished to the whole of the land within the State of Ohio, to a 
great part of that in Michigan Territory, and in the State of Indiana. In 
1817 Gov. Cass, of Michigan, in conjunction with Gov. McArthur, of Ohio, 
obtained a cession of most of the remaining lands in Ohio with some adjoin- 
ing tracts in Indiana and Michigan, amounting in all to about 4,000,000 of 
acres, and in 1819 Gov. Cass met the Chippewas at Saginaw and obtained a 
cession of lands in the peninsula of Michigan to the extent of about 6,000,000 
of acres. The next year a treaty was made at Chicago, then nothing but a 
military post, called Fort Dearborn, with the Chippewas, Ottawas and Potta- 
wattamies, by which a large additional tract was obtained, which completed 
the extinguishment of the Indian title to the peninsula of Michigan south of 
the Grand river. By 1820 a namber of military posts were established far 
in the interior, and among them was one at Belle Point on the Arkansas, at 
Council Bluffs on the Missouri, at St. Peters on the Mississippi, and at Green 
Bay on the upper lakes. 

During the month of Jime, 1823, Gen. Ashley and his party, who were 
trading under a license from the government, were attacked by the Kicarees 
while trading with the Indians at their request. Several of the party were 
killed and wounded, and their property taken or destroyed. Col. Leaven- 
worth, who commanded Fort Atkinson at Council Bluffs, then the most 
western post, took immediate measures to check this hostile spirit of 
the Kicarees, fearing that it might extend to other tribes in that quarter 
and endanger the lives of traders on the Missouri. With a detachment of 
the regiment stationed at Council Bluffs, he successfully attacked the Eica- 
ree village. The hostile spirit, however, stiU continued and extended to the 
tribes on the upper Mississippi and the upper lakes. Several parties of 
citizens were plundered and murdered by those tribes during the year 1824. 
An act of Congress of May 25th of this year, made an appropriation to de- 
fray the expenses of making treaties of trade and friendship with the tribes 
west of tiie Mississippi, and another act of March 3, 1825, provided for the 
expense of treaties with the Sioux, Chippewas, Menomonees, Sacs and Foxes, 
and other tribes, and also for establishing boundaries and promoting peace 
between them. These objects were in the main accomplished, and by the 
treaties made the government secured large acquisitions of territory. Gov. 
Cass, in conjunction with Gov. Clark, of Missouri, attended a grand council 
of the tribes this year at Prairie du Chien to carry out the purposes of the 
act of Congress last mentioned. During his continuance in office as Gov- 
ernor of Michigan Territory, Gov. Cass made, or participated in the making 
of nineteen treaties with the Indians, and by them acquired lands in Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, to an amount equal to one-fourth 
of the entire area of those States. 

During the summer of 1827, when the commissioners appointed to carry 
into execution certain provisions of a treaty, made August 19th, 1825, with 
various northwestern tribes, were about to arrive at the appointed place of 
peeting, several citizens were murdered, and other acts of hostility were com- 
mitted, especially against the miners at Fever river, near Galena, by a party 



38 THE NORTHWEST TEBEITOKT. 

of the Winnebago tribe, which tribe was one of those associated in the 
treaty. To quell these outrages the governors of the State of Illinois aBd 
the Territory of Michigan, made levies of militia. These forces, with a 
corps of seven hundred United States troops, imder the command of General 
Atkinson, repaired to the scene of danger. The Indians, overawed by the ap- 
pearance of the military, surrendered the perpetrators of the murders, and 
gave assurances of future good behavior. 

For many years it had been the policy of the government to obtain a re- 
linquishment of the title of the Indians to all lands within the limits of the 
States, and as rapidly as possible cause the removal of the tribes to territory 
beyond the Mississippi. In 1830 the Chickasaws and Choctaws, occupying 
portions of the States of Alabama and Mississippi, agreed to remove, and 
in due time carried out their agreement in good faith. The same year, a 
treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes, by which they agreed to cede their 
lands to the United States, and remove beyond the Mississippi. The prin- 
cipal village of these united tribes was located at the mouth of Eock river, 
on the east side of the Mississippi, near where the city of Eock Island now 
stands. Here had been an Indian village, according to tradition, for one 
hundred and fifty years. These tribes had owned and occupied the country 
bordering on the Mississippi, to an extent of seven hundred miles, from the 
mouth of the "Wisconsin almost to the mouth of the Missouri. The Indians 
did not seem disposed to comply promptly with the terms of the treaty, and 
one band, under the noted chief Black Hawk {Ma-Jca-ta/i-me-sherJcia-kiali), 
evinced a determination to keep possession of their old village. John Eey- 
nolds. Governor of Illinois, construed their continued residence in the ceded 
territory as an invasion of the State, and under his authority to protect the 
State from invasion, ordered out seven hundred militia to force their re- 
moval, according to the treaty. This interference of the governor of Illi- 
nois with the duties belonging to the Federal Government, obliged the com- 
mander of United States troops in that quarter to co-operate with him, in 
order to prevent a collision between the State militia and the Indians. Fort 
Armstrong, on Eock Island, had been established as early as 1816, and when 
the Black Hawk trouble commenced, was in command of Gen. Atkinson. 
The Indians were overawed by this imposing military force, and yielding to 
necessity, crossed the Mississippi. Black Hawk, feeling exasperated at the 
harsh treatment his people had received, resolved to prosecute a predatory 
war against the white settlements. He united his band of Sacs and Foxes 
with the Winnebagoes, under the command of the Prophet "Wabo-ki-e^shiek 
(White Cloud), and in March, 1832, recrossed to the east side of the Missis- 
sippi. They murdered a number of defenseless families, and committed 
many outrages upon the settlers. The whole frontier became alarmed, and 
many of the settlers fled for safety. The governor of Illinois ordered out 
the State militia, which being joined by four hundred regular troops, con- 
stituted a force of.about one thousand, under the command of Gen. Atkin- 
son. They pursued the Indians, and after a campaign of about two months, 
during which two engagements were fought, the war was brought to an end. 
The last, and the decisive battle of the war, is known in history as the bat- 
tle of Bad Axe, being fought on a small tributary of the Wisconsin of that 
Dame. This battle took place August 2d, 1832, and the force against Black 
Hawk was commanded by Gen. Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin. The Indians 
lost forty of their braves, and Gen. Dodge one. The Indians made but little 



THE NOETHWEST TEEKJTOBY. 39 

further resistance, and Black Hawk's " British Band," as it was styled, be- 
came demoralized and fled. They reached the Mississippi and were making 
preparations for crossing when they were checked by the captain of the 
steamboat " Warrior," who discharged a six-pounder at them, although they 
had displayed a flag of truce. The next morning Gen. Atkinson arrived 
with his army, and made an attack, which the Indians were now powerless 
to resist. Black Hawk escaped, but was taken by some treacherous Winne- 
bagoes, and delivered along with the Prophet, on the 27th of August, to 
Gea. Street, at Prairie du Chien. Two of Black Hawk's sons, the Prophet 
and other leaders, were also taken, and by order of the government were con- 
veyed through the principal cities and towns on the seaboard, in order that 
th3y might be impressed with the greatness and power of the United States. 
For some time Black Hawk was held as a captive, and then through the in- 
tercession of Keokuk, who had been opposed to the war, and had not par- 
ticipated in the hostilities, he was allowed to return to Rock Island, and per- 
mitted to join his people. Treaties were made with the oflending tribes by 
which they agreed to compensate for the expense of the war, by ceding a 
valuable part of their territory on the west side of the Mississippi, and to 
immediately remove from the east side. The United States stipulated to 
pay to the three tribes annually, thirty thousand dollars for twenty-seven 
years, and also to make other provisions for their improvement. By this 
treaty the United States acquired the first territory in Iowa which was 
opened to settlement. It is what is known as the " Black Hawk Purchase," 
and embraced a strip of territory extending from the northern boundary of 
Missouri to the mouth of the IJpper Iowa river, about fifty miles in width, 
and embracing an area of about six millions of acres. This treaty was made 
on the 21st day of September, 1832, at a council held on the west bank of 
the Mississippi river, where the city of Davenport now stands. Gen. Win- 
field Scott and Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois, represented the United 
States, and on the part of the Indians there were present Keokuk, Pashe- 
paho, and about thirty other chiefs and warriors of the Sac and Fox nation. 
Within the limits of this purchase was reserved a tract of 400 square miles, 
situated on Iowa river, and including Keokuk's village. This tract was 
known as " Keokuk's Reserve," and was occupied by the Indians until 1836. 
when it was ceded to the United States. This treaty was negotiated by Gov. 
Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, and on the part of the Indians Keo- 
kuk was the leading spirit. This council was also held on the banks of the 
Mississippi, near the site of the present city of Davenport. The treaty stip- 
ulated for the removal of the Indians to another reservation on the Des 
Moines river. On this an agency was established, where the present town 
of Agency City, in Wapello county, is located. Out of the " Black Hawk 
Purchase " was conveyed to Antoine Le Claire, who was interpreter, and 
whose wife was an Indian, one section of land opposite Rock Island, and 
another at the. head of the first rapids above the Island; 

General Joseph M. Street, the agent with the Winnebagoes at Prairie du 
Chien, was transferred to the Sac and Fox agency on the Des Moines river, 
and in 1838 took meaisures for buildyig and making the necessary improve- 
ments. In April, of the next year, he removed with his family from Prairie 
du Chien. Hjb health soon began to fail, and on the 5th of May, 1840, 
Gen. Street died. Wapello, a prominent chief of the Sac and Fox nation, 
died in 1842. His remains were interred near those of Gen. Steeet. The 
stone slabs placed over their graves soon after, are inscribed as follows: 



40 THE UOBTHWEST TEEKITOET. 

In 

Memory of 

GEK JOSEPH M. STREET, 

Son of Anthomy and MolJAf Street. 

Born Oct. 18th, 1788, in Vvrgima; 

Died at the Sac and Fox Agency, 

May 5th, 181fl. 



In 

Memoet of 

WA-PEL-LO, 

Bom at 

ProA/rie du Chien, 1787 : 

Died near the Forks of Skunk, 

March 15th, 18^,2 — Sac and Fox NaOori. 

"Wapello had requested that at his death his remains be interred near those 
of Gen. Street. 

After the death of Gen. Street, Maj. John Beach, his son-in-law, received 
the appointment as agent for the Sacs and Foxes, and filled the position to 
the satisfaction of the government. Major Beach was bom at Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, Feb. 23d; 1812. After a course of study at Portsmouth 
Academy, in New Hampshire, he received at the age of sixteen, the appoint- 
ment of cadet at the West Point Military Academy, graduating in the class 
of 1832. Keceiving his commission as Second Lieutenant by brevet in the 
First IT. S. Infantry, of which Zachary Taylor was then colonel, he was or- 
dered to duty on the frontier, and was alternately stationed at Fort Arm- 
strong, Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, and Jefferson Barracks, near St. 
Louis. His hearing having partially failed, in 1838, he resigned his com- 
mission in the army, and was, at the time of his appointment as Indian 
agent, engaged in the U. S. Land Office at Dubuque. He remained at 
Agency City, engaged in mercantile and literary pursuits until his death 
which occurred August 31st, 1874. ' 

At the time of Gen. Street's death, the Indians were occupying their res- 
ervation with their permanent, or spring and summer villages, as follows : 
Upon the banks of the Des Moines, opposite the mouth of Sugar Creek, 
was the village of Keokuk, and above were those of "Wapello and Appa- 
noose. The village of Hardfish, or "Wish-e-co-me-que, as it is in the Indian 
tongue, was located in what is now the heart of Eddyville, whore J. P. Eddv 
was licensed by Maj. Beach, the agent, in the summer of 1840, to establish 
a trading post. Not far from the " Forks of Skunk " was a small village 
presided over by Kish-ke-kosh, who, though not a chief, was a man of con- 
siderable influence, Poweshiek, a Fox chief of equal rank with "Wapello, 
still had a village on the bank of Iowa river. 

It has been reimarked above that Keokuk, who was the chief next in au- 
thority and influence to Black Hawk, was opposed to the war against the 
whites, and persistentljr refused to take part in the hostilities. "When Black 
Hawk's attempt to dety the power of flie United States resulted so disas- 
trously to the Indians, and they were obliged to cede still more territory, 
his influence among his people declined, and that of Keolcuk increased. 
Black Hawk, however, retained a party of adherents, and for some time a 



THE NOETHWIST TKEEITOET. 41 

sort of rivalry existed between tlie two chiefs, and this feeling was shared 
to some extent by their respective friends in the tribes. An incident is rela- 
ted by Maj. Beach to show how the traders were ready to take advantage of 
this state of things for their own mercenary purposes. 

When Gen.Harrison became President in 1841, John Chambers, an ex- 
congressman of Kentucky, was appointed Governor of the Territory, suc- 
ceeding Gov. Eobert Lucas. The governor was ex-offido superintendent 
over the Indians and their agencies. Gov. Lucas had favored the Black 
Hawk band, whose chief was Hardfish. Accordingly when the new gov- 
ernor was appointed, both Keokuk and Hardfish felt that it would be some- 
thing of an object to gain his favor. The latter desired the new governor 
to pursue the policy of his predecessor, while Keokuk wished at least an 
impartial course. Keokuk requested the consent of the agent for him and 
his principal men to visit the governor at Burlington. As it was the policy 
of the government to discountenance such pilgrimages of the Lidians, Maj. 
Beach suggested that Gov. Chambers might see proper to visit them at the 
agency. With this expectation Keokuk chose to wait. The Hardfish band, 
iinder the influence of some of the traders, were less patient. They hast- 
ened to Burlington in a large body, and on their arrival encamped near the 
town, sending to the governor a written notice of their presence, and a 
request for supplies. The governor answered, declining to accede to their 
request, or to hold a councS with them. Hardfish and his men returned 
over their weary journey of seventy miles to the agency, very much dis- 
appointed. In the meantime the governor communicated with Major 
Beach, informing him that he would visit the agency soon, and requesting 
him to use his influence to prevent the Indians from making incursions 
through the white settlements. When the governor fixed his time to be 
present, the bands were all informed, and it was arranged that a grand coun- 
cil should be held. When the day arrived all the Indians, except the Pow- 
eshiek band of Foxes, who were so far away on the Iowa river, were en- 
camped within a convenient distance from the agency. Long before the 
hour fixed for the meeting, the Hardfish party, arrayed in all their toggery, 
and displaying their richest ornaments, came in grand procession upon the 
ground. Having dismounted from their ponies, they formed in file on foot 
and marched into the agency headquarters, where the governor was to receive 
them. Hardfish and some of his principal men shook hands with the gov- 
ernor and then sat down. 

The reader will remember that at this time the nation was in mourning 
for the sudden loss of a President by death, and that Gov. Chambers had 
been one of the warmest and most devoted friends of Gen. Harrison, a fact 
of which Keokuk was fuUy advised. Chambers had been aid-de-camp to 
Gen. Harrison in the war of 1812, and they had ever after been as father 
and son. Keokuk was shrewd enough to make the most of this. 

The appointed hour for the meeting had passed, and the governor began 
to become impatient for the appearance of Keokuk. At last the soimds of 
the approaching bands were heard faintly floating upon the breeze. After a 
time the procession marched with slow and solemn tread into view, not ar- 
rayed in gaudy feathers, ribbons and trinkets, like the Hardfish band, but 
with lances and staves wrapped around with wilted grass. No sound of 
bells responded to the tramp of their ponies, and instead of being painted 
in Vermillion, their faces presented the sombre hues produced by a kind of 
clay they were wont to use on occasions of solemnity or mourning. Their 



42 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 

appearace betokened sadness and affliction. Mr. Josiah Smart, the interjire- 
ter, informed Gov. Chambers that this was a funeral march, and that some 
one of their principal men must have died during the night. Even Hard- 
fish and his men were at a loss to account for what they saw, and wondered 
who could have died. At last Keokuk and his men dismounted and filed 
slowly and solemnly into the presence of the governor. Keokuk signed to 
the interpreter, and said : 

"Say to our new father that before I take his hand, I. will explain to him 
what all this means. We were told not long ago that our Great Father was 
dead. "We had heard of him as a great war chief, who had passed much of 
his life among the red men and knew their wants, and we believed that we 
would always have friendship and justice at his hands. His death has made 
us very sad, and as this is our first opportunity, we thought it would be 
wrong if we did not use it, to show that the hearts of his red children, as 
well as his white, know how to mourn over their great loss; and we had to 
keep our father waiting while we performed that part of our mourning fliat 
we must always attend to before we leave our lodges with our dead." 

At the conclusion of this speech, Keokuk steppped forward and extended 
his hand. The hearty grasp of the governor showed that the wily chief had 
touched the proper cord. The result was, that the Hardfish band received 
no special favors after that, at the expense of the other bands. 



SKETCHES OF BLACK HAWK AND OTHER CHIEFS. 

Black Hawk— Treaty of 1804^Black Hawk's account of the Treaty— Lieut. Pike— Ft. Ed- 
wards — Ft. Madison — Black Hawk and the British — Eeokuk recognized as Chief— Ft. 
Armstrong — Sac and Fox Villages — Black Hawk's ''British Band" — ^Black Hawk War— 
Black Hawk's old age — His death in Iowa — His remains carried away, but recovered— 
Keokuk — ^Appanoose — Wapello— Poweshiek — Pash-e-pa-ho — Wish-e-co-ma-que— CIiM- 
chun-ca — Mau-haw-gaw— Ma-has-kah — Si-dom-i-na-do-tah — Heniy Lott — ^A Tragedy in 
Humboldt County — Ink-pa-du-tah — Spirit Lake Massacre — Expedition from Ft. Dodge- 
Death of Capt. Johnston and William Burkholder. 

BLACK HAWK. 

This renowned chief, the "noblest Roman of them all," was bom at the 
Sac village on Rock river, about the year 1767. His first introduction to 
the notice of the whites seems to have been in 1804, when William Henry 
Harrison, then the Governor of Indiana Territory, concluded his treaty witib 
the Sac and Fox nation for the lands bordering on Rock river. Black "Hawk 
was then simply a chief, though not by election or inheritance, of his own 
band of Sac warriors, but from that time he was the most prominent man 
in the Sac and Fox nation. He considered the action of the four chiefs who 
represented the Indians in making this treaty as unjust and refused to con- 
sider it binding. The territory ceded embraced over fifty-one millions of 
acres, extending almost from opposite St. Louis to the Wisconsin river. 
He claimed that the chiefs or braves who made the treaty had no authority 
to make it, and that they had been sent to St. Louis, where the treaty was 
negotiated, for quite a different purpose, namely: to procure the release of 
one of their people who was held there as a prisoner on charge of killing a 
white man. The United States regarded this treaty as a bona fide transac- 
tion, claiming that the lands were sold by responsible men of the tribes, and 
that it was further ratified by a part of the tribes with Gov. Edwards and 



THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOEY. 43 

AuguBte Choteau, in September, 1815, and again with the same commis- 
sioners in 1816. They claimed that the Indians were only to occupy the 
lands at the Sac village on Kock river until they were surveyed and sold by 
the government, when they were to vacate them. The treaty of St. Louis 
was signed by five chiefs instead of four, although Black Hawk claimed that 
the latter number only were sent to St. Louis for a different purpose. One 
of these was Pash-e-pa-ho, a head chief among the Sacs. Black Hawk him- 
self thus describes the return of the chiefs to Rock Island after the treaty: 

" Quash-qua-me and party remained a long time absent. They at length 
returned, and encamped a short distance below the village, but did not come 
up that day, nor did any person approach their camp. They appeared to be 
dressed in fine coats, and had medals. From these circumstances we were 
in hopes that they had brought good news. Early the next morning the 
council lodge was crowded. Quash-qua-me came up and said that on their 
arrival in St. Louis they met their American father, and explained to him 
their business, and urged the release of their friend. The American chief told 
them he wanted land, and that they had agreed to give him some on the west 
side of the Mississippi, and some on the Illinois side, opposite the Jeffi-eon; 
that when the business was aU arranged, they expected their friend released 
to come home with them. But about the time they were ready to start, 
their friend was let out of prison, who ran a short distance, amd was shot 
dead! This was all myself or nation knew of the treaty of 1804 It has 
been explained to me since. I find, by that treaty, that all our country east 
of the Mississippi, and south of the Jeflfreon, was ceded to the United States 
for one thousand dollars a year!" 

The treaty was doubtless made in good faith on the part of the commis- 
sioners, and with the full conviction that it was by authority of the tribes. 
From this time forward Black Hawk seems to have entertained a distrust of 
the Americans. 

Although Spain had ceded the country west of the Mississippi to France 
in 1801, the former power still held possession until its transfer to the United 
States by France. Black Hawk and his band were at St. Louis at this time, 
and he was invited to be present at the ceremonies connected with the 
change qi authorities. He refused the invitation; and in giving an account 
of the transaction, said: 

" I found many sad and gloomy faces, because the United States were about 
to take possession of the town and country. Soon after the Americans came, I 
took my band and went to take leave of our Spanish father. The Americans 
came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out of one door as 
they entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for our village 
on Rock river, not liking the change any more than our friends appeared 
to at St. Louis. On arriving at our village, we gave the news that strange 
people had arrived at St. Louis, and that we should never see our Spanish 
lather again. The information made all our people sorry." 

In August, 1805, Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike ascended the river from St. 
Louis, for the purpose of holding councils with the Indians, and selecting 
sites for military posts within the coimtry recently acquired from France. 
At the mouth of Rock river he had a personal interview with Black Hawk, 
the latter being favorably impressed with the young lieutenant. Speaking 
of this interview. Black Hawk himself said: 

"A boat came up the river with a young American chief, and a small 
party of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed Salt river. 



44 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 

Some of OTir young braves watclied them every day, to see what sort of peo- 
ple he had on board. The boat at length arrived at Eock Island, and the 
young chief came on shore with his interpreter, and made a speech, and 
gave us some presents. We, in turn, presented them with meat and such 
other provisions as we had to spare. We were well pleased with the young 
chief. He gave us good advice, and said our American father would treat 
us well." 

Lieut. Pike's expedition was soon followed hj the erection of Fort Ed- 
wards and Fort Madison, the former on the site of the present town of 
"Warsaw, Elinois, and the latter on the site of the present town of Fort 
Madison, Iowa. When these forts were being erected, the Indians sent down 
delegations, headed by some of their chiefs, to have an interview with the 
Americans. Those who visited Fort Edwards returned apparently satisfied 
with what was being done. The erection of Fort Madison they claimed was 
a violation of the treaty of 1804. In that treaty the United States had 
agreed that if "any white persons should form a settlement on their lands, 
such intruders should forthwith be removed." Fort Madison was erected 
within the territory reserved for the Indians, and this they considered an intru- 
sion. Some time afterward a party under the leadership of Black Hawk 
and Pash-e-pa-ho attempted its destruction. They sent spies to watch the 
movements of the garrison. Five soldiers who came out were fired upon hy 
the Indians, and two of the soldiers were killed. They kept up the attack 
for several days. Their efforts to destroy the fort being unsuccessful, they 
returned to Eock river. 

When the war of 1812 broke out, Black Hawk and his band allied them- , 
selves with the British, which was the origin of his party, at a later date, 
being known as the "British Band." In narrating the circumstances which 
induced him to join the British, he says: 

" Several of the chiefs and head men of the Sacs and Foxes were called 
upon to go to Washington to see the Great Father. On their return they 
related what had been said and done. They said the Great Father wished 
them, in the event of a war takingjplace with England, not to interfere on 
either side, but to remain neutral. He did not want our help, but wished us to 
hunt and support our families and live in peace. He said that British traders 
would not be permitted to come on the Mississippi to furnish us with goods, 
but that we should be supplied by an American trader. Our chiefs then told 
him that the British traders always gave them credit in the fall for guns, powder 
and goods to enable us to hunt and clothe our families. He replied that the 
trader at Fort Madison would have plenty of goods; that we should go there 
in the faU, and he would supply us on credit, as the British traders had 
done." 

According to Black Hawk, this proposition pleased his people, and they 
went to Fort Madison to receive their promised outfit for the winter's hunt, 
but notwithstanding the promise of the Great Father, at Washington, the 
trader would not give them credit. In reference to their disappointment, 
Black Hawk says: 

"Few of us slept that night; all was gloom and discontent. In the morn- 
ing a canoe was seen descending the river; it soon arrived, bearing an ex- 
press, who brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Eock 
Island, with two boats loaided with goods, and requested us to come up im- 
mediately, because he had good news for us, and a variety of presents. The 
express presented us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The news ran 



THE NORTHWEST TERRITOET. 45 

tlirough onr camp like fire on a prairie. Our lodges were soon taken down, 
and afl started for Rock Island. Here ended all hopes of our remaining at 
peace, having been forced into the war by being deceived." 

Black Hawk and his band then espoused the cause of the British, who, as 
in the case of Tecumseh, gave him the title of "Gen. Black Hawk." But 
a large portion of the Sacs and Foxes, at the head of whom was Keokuk, 
chose to remain neutral, as well as to abide by the treaty of 1804. Of this 
party Keokuk was the recognized chief. The nation was divided into the 
"war party" and " peace party." Black Hawk maintained his fidelity to 
the British imtil the end of the war, and was the intimate friend and sup- 
porter of Tecumseh, until the death of the latter at the battle of the Thames. 

At the close of the war of 1812, Black Hawk returned to his village on 
Eock river, to find Keokuk still the friend of the Americans, and the recog- 
nized war chief of that portion of the Sac and Fox nation which had re- 
mained neutral. As stated elsewhere, a new treaty was concluded in Sep- 
tember, 1815, in which, among other matters, the treaty of St. Louis was rati- 
fied. This treaty was not signed by Black Hawk, or any one representing his 
band, but was signed by chiefs of both the Sacs and Foxes, who were fully author- 
ized to do so. This treaty was held at Portage des Sioux,and was a result of the 
war of 1812, with England. In May, 1816, another treaty was held at St. 
Louis, in which the St. Louis treaty of 1804 was recognized. This treaty 
was signed by Black Hawk and twenty other chiefs ana braves. The same 
year Fort Armstrong was erected upon Kock Island, a proceeding very dis- 
tasteful to the Indians. Of this Black Hawk says: 

"We did not, however, object to their building the fort on the island, but 
we were verj' sorry, as this was the best island on the Mississippi, and had 
long been the resort of our young people during the summer. It was our gar- 
den, like the white people have near their big villages, which supplied us with 
strawberries, blackberries, plums, apples and nuts of various kinds; and its 
waters supplied us with pure fish, being situated in the rapids of the river. In 
my early life, I spent many happy days on this island. A good spirit had care 
of it, who lived in a cave in the rocks, immediately under the place where 
the fort now stands, and has often been seen by our people. He was white, 
with large wings like a swan's, but ten times larger. We were particular 
not to make much noise in that part of the island which he inliabited, for 
fear of disturbing him. But the noise of the fort has since driven him away, 
and no doubt a bad spirit has since taken his place." 

The expedition which was sent ujp the river to erect a fort at or near Rock 
Island, consisted at first of the Eighth United States Infantry, and started 
from St. Louis in September, 1815, under the command Col. R. C. Nichols. 
They reached the mouth of the Des Moines, where they wintered. In April, 
1816, Gen. Thomas A. Smith arrived and took command of the expedition. 
They reached Rock Island on the 10th of May, and, after a careful exami- 
nation, the site for the fort was selected. The regiment being left under the 
command of Col. Lawrence, the work on the fort immediately commenced. 
It was named in honor of John Armstrong of New York, who had recently 
been Secretary of War. 

After the establishment of the fort and garrison at Rock Island settlements 
began to be made at and near the mouth of Rock river, on the east side of the 
Mississippi. Keokuk, as the head chief of the Foxes, with his tribe, in accord- 
ance with the treaties they had made with the United States, left in 1828 and 
established themselves on Iowa river, but Black Hawk and his "British 



46 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 

Band" of about 500 warriors remained in their village and persistently 
refused to leave. The settlers began to complain of frequent depredations at 
the hands of Black Hawk's people, and feared that the neighboring tribes of 
Kickapoos, Pottawattamies, and Winnebagoes, might be induced to join 
Black Hawk in a war of extermination. Finally, in the spring of 1831, Black 
Hawk warned the settlers to leave. These troubles culminated in the 
" Black Hawk War," and the final capture of the chief and some of his priiii. 
cipal men, as related elsewhere. The Black Hawk War ended hostihties 
with the Indians at or near JKock Island. A garrison, however, was main- 
tained there until 1836, when the troops were sent to Fort Snelling. Tlie 
fort was left in charge of Lieut. John Beach, with a few men to take care of 
the property. 

After his capture. Black Hawk and several of his principal men were 
taken to Jefferson Barracks, where they were kept until the the spring of 
1833. They were then sent to Washington, where they arrived on the 22d 
of April, and on the 26th were confined in Fortress Monroe. On the 4th of 
June, 1833, they werfe set at liberty by order of the government and per- 
mitted to return to their own country. 

In the fall of 1837 Black Hawk, accompanied by Keokuk, Wapello, Powe- 
shiek, and some forty of the principal chiefs and braves of the Sac and Fox 
nations, again visited Washington, in charge of Col. George Davenport, who 
by his influence with the Indians assisted the government in making anothori 
large purchase of territory in Iowa. This tract adjoined the " Black Hawk 
Purchase," and embraced 1,250,000 acres. 

After Black Hawk's release from captivity in 1833, he seemed unwilling 
to reside in any of the villages of the tribe. His band was broken up and 
dispersed, as stipulated in the treaty of peace, and he seemed to seek seclu- 
sion from his people. While the garrison remained at Bock Island, he 
usually lived near it, and often put up his wigwam close to the fort, where 
his vision could take in the beautiful country on the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi, which had been his home for more than half a century. But the time 
came when he must go with his people to the new reservation on the banks 
of the Des Moines. He was then in the waning years of his life, and the 
other chiefs of the nation seemed disposed to pay him but little attention. 
His family consisted of his wife, two sons and one daughter. He established 
his lodge on the east bank of the Des Moines, about three miles below the 
site of the present town of Eldon. Gen. Street presented the family witli a 
cow, which was a piece of property which exacted much solicitude and care 
at the hands of Madame Black Hawk. His lodge was near the trading post 
of Wharton McPherson ; and James Jordan, who was also at that time con- 
nected with the post, had his cabin within a few rods of Black Hawk's lodge. 
This was in the summer of 1838, and the old chief who had defied the power 
of the United States and caused the expenditure of millions of treasure to 
subdue him, was nearing his departure for a final remove beyond thei power 
of earthly governments. Near his lodge, on the bank of the river, stood a 
large elm tree, with its spreading branches overhanging the stream, and 
flowing from its ro ots was a crystal spring of pure water. Here during the 
sultry summer days of that year Black Hawk was wont to repose and dream 
over the years of his former greatness and the wrongs that his people had 
suffered. At last, on the 3d of October, 1838, death came to his relief, 
and, according to the Indian idea, his Spirit passed away to the happy hunt- 
ing grounds. 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOBT. 47 

The remains of Black Hawt were interred by his family and friends near 
his cabin on the prairie, a short distance above the old town of lowaville. 
The body was placed on a board, or slab, set up in an inclining position, with 
the feet extending into the ground some fifteen inches and the head elevated 
above the surface some three feet or more. This was enclosed by placing 
slabs around it with the ends resting on the ground and meeting at the top, 
forming a land of vault. The whole was then covered with dirt and neatly 
sodded. At the head of the grave was placed a flag-staff thirty feet high, 
from which floated the American flag until it was worn out by the wind. 
Interred with the body were a number of his prized and long-treasured 
relics, including a military suit presented by Jackson's cabinet; a sword pre- 
sented by Jackson himself; a cane presented by Henry Clay, and another 
by a British officer; and three silver medals — one presented by Jackson, one 
by John Quincy Adams, and the other by citizens of Boston. Near the 
grave a large post was set in the ground, on which were inscribed in Indian 
characters, emblems commemorating many of his heroic deeds. The 

Save and flag-staff were enclosed by a rude picket fence in circular form, 
ere the body remained until July, 1839, when it disappeared. On com- 
plaint being made by Black Hawk's family, the matter was investigated, and it 
was finally traced to one Dr. Turner, who then resided at a place called Lex- 
ington, in Van Buren county. The remains had been taken to Illinois, but 
at the earnest request of Black Hawk's relatives, Gov. Lucas interposed and 
had them sent to Burlington. The sons were informed that the remains 
were in Burlington and went to that place to obtain them. While there it 
was suggested to them that if taken away they would only be stolen again, 
and they concluded to leave them where they thought they might be more 
safely preserved. They were finally placed in a museum in that city, and 
years after, with a large collection of other valuable relics, were destroyed by 
the burning of the building. In the meantime the relatives of the renowned 
chief removed westward with the rest of the tribe, and were finally lost to 
all knowledge of the white man. 

KEOKTJK. 

Keokuk CWatchful Fox) belonged to the Sac branch of the nation, and 
was bom on Rock river, in 1780. He was an orator, but was also entitled 
to rank as a warrior, for he possessed courage and energy, but at the same 
time a cool judgment. He had an intelligent appreciation of the power and 
greatness of the United States, and saw the futility of Black Hawk's hope to 
contend successfully against the government. In his first battle, while 
young, he had killed a Sioux, and for this he was honored with a feast by 
his tribe. 

At the beginning of the Black Hawk "War an affair transpired which was 
dignified by the name of the "Battle of StiUman's Run," in which some three 
hundred volunteers under Maj. Stillman took prisoners five of Black Hawk's 
men who were approaching with a flag of truce. One of the prisoners was 
shot by StiUman's men. Black Hawk had also sent five other men to follow 
the bearers of the flag. The troops came upon these and MUed two of them. 
The other three reaped their camp and gave the alarm. Black Hawk's 
warriors then charged upon StiUman's advancing troops and completely 
routed them. This failure' to respect the flag of truce so exasperated the 
Indians that it was with great difficulty that Keokuk could restrain his war- 
riors from espousing the cause of Black Hawk. StiUman's defeat was fol- 



48 THE NOBTHWE8T TEEEITOET. 

lowed by a war-dance, in whicli Keokuk took part. After the dance he 
called a council of war, and made a speech in which he admitted the justice 
of their complaints. The blood of their brethren slain by the white men, 
while bearing a flag of truce, called loudly for vengeance. Said he: 

" I am your chiet, and it is my duty to lead you to battle, if, after fully con- 
sidering the matter, you are determined to. go. But before you decide on 
taking this important step, it is wise to inquire into the chances of succbbs. 
But if you do determine to go upon the war path, I will agree to lead you on 
one condition, viz. : that before we go we will kill all our old men and our 
wives and our children, to save them from a lingering death of starvation, 
and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on the other side of 
the Mississippi." 

Keokuk so forcibly portrayed in other parts of this speech the great 
power of the United States, and of the hopeless prospect before them, that 
his warriors at once abandoned all thought of joining Black Hawk. 

The name Keokuk signified Watchful Fox. As we have seen, he eventu- 
ally superseded Black Hawk, and was recognized by the United States as the 
principal chief of the Sac and Fox nation, which, indeed, had much to do in 
stinging the pride of the imperious Black Hawk. In person he was strong, 
graceful and commanding, with fine features and an intelligent countenance. 
He excelled in horsemanship, dancing, and all athletic exercises, He was 
courageous and skillful in war, but mild and politic in peace. He had a 
son, a fine featured, promising boy, who died at Keokuk's village on the 
Des Moines. , Keokuk himself became somewhat dissipated during the later 
years of his life in Iowa. It was reported that after his removal with his people 
to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi, he died of delAnrvumi tremens, 
Iowa has honored his memory in the name of one of her counties, and one 
of her principal cities. 

APPANOOSE. 

Appanoose was a chief who presided over a band of the Sacs. His name, 
in the language of that tribe, signified "A Chief "When a Child," indicating 
that he inherited his position. It was said he was equal in rank with Keo- 
kuk, but he did not possess the influence of the latter. He was one of the 
" peace chiefs " during the Black Hawk War. During the last occupation of 
Iowa soil by the Sacs and Foxes, Appanoose had his village near the site of the 
present city of Ottumwa. His people cultivated a portion of the OTOund on 
which that city is located. He was one of the delegation sent to Washing- 
ton in 1837, at which time he visited with the other Siiefs the city of Boston, 
where they were invited to a meeting in Fanueil Hall, On that occasion he 
made the most animated speech, both in manner and matter, that was deliv- 
ered by the chiefs. After Keokuk had spoken, Appanoose arose and said: 

" Tou have heard just now what my chief has to say. All our chiefs and 
warriors are very much gratified by our visit to this town. Last Saturday 
they were invited to a great house, and now they are in the great council- 
house. They are very much pleased with so much attention. This, we can- 
not reward you tor now, but shall not forget it, and hope the Great Spirit 
will reward you for it. This is the place which our forefathers once inhabi- 
ted. I have often heard my father and grandfather say they lived near the 
sea-coast where the white man first came. I am glad to hear all this from 
you. I suppose it is put in a book, where you learn all these things. Afl 
far as I can understand the language of the white people, it appears to me 



THE NOETHWBST TEBBITOBT. 



49 




IHDIAITS TETING A PBISONEK. 



50 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

that the Americans have attained a very high rank among the white people. 
It is the same with us, though I say it myself. Where we live beyond the 
Mississippi, I am respected by all people, and they consider me the tallest 
among them. 1 am happy that two great men meet and shake hands with 
each other." 

As Appanoose concluded his speech, he suited the action to the word by 
extending his hand to Gov. Everett, amid the shouts of applause from the 
audience, who were not a little amused at the self-complacency of the orator. 
But few of the incidents in the life of this chief have passed into history. 
His name has been perpetuated in that of one of the Iowa counties. 

WAPELLO. 

WapeUo, or "Waupellow, was one of the minor chiefs of the Sac and Fox 
iTTation. He was born at Prairie du Ohien, in 1787. At the time of the 
erection of Fort Armstrong (1816) he presided over one of the three prin- 
cipal villages in that vicinity. His village there was on the east side of the 
Mississippi, near the foot of Kock Island, and about three miles north of 
the famous Black Hawk village. In 1829 he removed his village to Musca- 
tine Slough, and then to a place at or near where the town of Wapello, in 
Louisa county, is now located. Like Keokuk, he was in favor of abiding 
by the requirements of the treaty of 1804, and opposed the hostilities in 
which Black Hawk engaged against the whites. He was one of the chiefs 
that visited Washington in 1837, and his name appears to several treaties 
relinquishing lands to the United States. He appears to have been a warm 
personal friend of Gen. Jos. M. Street, of the Sac and Fox agency, and made 
a request that at his death his remains be interred along side of those of 
Gen. Street, which request was complied with. He died near the Forks of 
Skunk river, March 15th, 1842, at the age of 55 years. His remains, with 
those of Gen. Street, repose near Agency City, in the county which honors 
his memory with its name. The two graves and the monuments have re- 
cently been repaired by parties connected with the Chicago, Burlington fe 
Quincy Kailroad, whose line passes within a few rods of them. 

POWESHIEK. 

Poweshiek was a chief of the same rank with Wapello, and near the same 
age. He also was one of the chiefs who visited Washington in 1837. When 
the greater portion of the Sac and Fox nation removed to the Des Moines 
river, he retained his village on the Iowa river, where he presided over 
what was known as the Musquawkie band of the Sacs and Foxes. In May, 
1838, when Gen. Street organized a party to examine the new purchase made 
the fall before, with a view of selecting a site for the agency, the expedition 
was accompanied by about thirty braves, under the command of Poweshiek. 
At that time the Sacs and Foxes were at war with the Sioux, and after leav% 
ing their reservation these men were very fearful that they might be sur^ 
prised and cut off by the Sioux. A small remnant of his .band make theit 
home on Iowa river, in Tama county, at this time. He also remained the 
friend of the whites during the Black Hawk war, and the people of Iowa 
have honored his memory by giving his name to one of their counties. 



THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 51 

PASH-E-PA-HO. 

Pash-e-pa-ho, called also the Stabbing Chief, at the time of the treaty of 
1804, and until after the Black Hawk war, was head chief among the Sacs. 
He was also present in St. Louis at the making of that treaty, and was even 
then well advanced in years. It has been related that he laid a plan to at- 
tack Fort Madison, not long after its erection. His plan was to gain an 
entrance to the fort with concealed arms under their blankets, under a pre- 
tense of holding a council. A squaw, however, had secretly conveyed intel- 
ligence to the commandant of the garrison of the intended attack, so that the 
troops were in readiness for them. When Pash-e-pa-ho and his warriors ad- 
vanced in a body toward the closed gate, it suddenly opened, revealing to 
the astonished savages a cannon in the passage-way, and the gunner stand- 
ing with lighted torch in hand ready to fire. Pash-e-pa-ho deemed " discre- 
tion the better part of valor ", and retreated. 

Some time alter the plot against Fort Madison, Pash-e-pa-ho made an at- 
tempt to obtain a lodgement in Fort Armstrong, though in quite a different 
way. Several of his braves had the year before, while out hunting, fell in 
with a party of their-enemies, the Sioux, and had lifted several of their scalps. 

The Sioux complained of this outrage to the Department at Washington, 
and orders were issued demanding the surrender of the culprits. They were 
accordingly brought and retained as prisoners in Fort Armstrong, where they 
had comfortable quarters and plenty to eat during the winter. Having fared 
sumptuously for several months, without effort on their part, they were re- 
leased on the payment of a small amount out of the annuities of their tribes, 
to the Sioux. The next fall Pash-e-pa-ho thought he might avoid the trouble 
of stocking his larder for the winter. So he voluntarily called on the com- 
mandant of Fort Armstrong, and informed him that while on a recent hunt 
he had unfortunately met a Sioux, and had yielded to the temptation to get 
liis scalp. He confessed that he had done a very wrongful act, and wished 
to save the Great Father at Washington the trouble of sending a letter or- 
dering his arrest; therefore he would surrender himself as a prisoner. The 
commandant saw through his scheme to obtain comfortable quarters and 
good boarding for the winter, and so told him he was an honorable Indian, 
and that his voluntary offer to surrender himself was a sufficient guarantee 
that he would appear when sent for. That was the last that was heard of 
the matter. Pash-e-pa-ho was never sent for. 

"During the first quarter of the present century the Sacs and Foxes were 
frequently at war with the lowas. The latter had one of their principal villa- 
ges on the Des Moines river, near where Black Hawk died many years af- 
terward. It was here that the last great battle was fought between these 
tribes. Pash-e-pa-ho was chief in command of the Sacs and Foxes. Black 
Hawk was also a prominent actor in this engagement, but was subject to 
his senior, Pash-e-pa-lio. Accounts conflict as to the date, but the eviden- 
ces of the conflict were plainly visible as late as 1824. The Sacs and Foxes 
surprised the lowas while the latter were engaged in running their horses 
on the prairie, and therefore unprepared to defend themselves. The result 
was that Pash-e-pa-ho achieved a decisive victory over the lowas. 

Pash-e-pa-ho was among the chiefs present at the making of the treaty 
of 1832, when the " Black Hawk Purchase " was made. He was very mucli 

fiven to intemperf^te habits whenever he could obtain liquor, and it is prob- 
le that, like Keokuk, he died a drunkard. 



52 THE NOETHWEST TEEKITOET. 



WISH-E-CO-MA-QTIE. 



Quite prominent among the Sacs and Foxes, after their removal to Iowa, 
was a man known by the name of Hardfish, or Wish-e-co-ma-qne, as it 
is in the Indian tongue. He was not a chief, but a brave who rose al- 
most to the prominence of a chief. He adhered to Black Hawk in his hos- 
tility toward the whites, and when Black Hawk died, Hardfish became the 
leaderof his band, composed mostly of those who had participated in the 
Bla,ck Hawk war. When the Sacs and Foxes occupied their reservation on 
the Des Moines river, Hardfish had his village where Eddyville is now lo- 
cated. It was quite as respectable in size as any of the other villages of the 
Sacs and Foxes. Hardfish's band was composed of people from the Sac 
branch of the Sac and Fox nation. One John Goodell was the interpreter 
for this band. The name of Hardfish was quite familiar to the frontier 
settlers of Southeastern Iowa. 

CHOS-CHUN-CA- 

AVhen, in 1834, Gen. Henry Dodge made a treaty with the Winnebagoes 
for the country occupied by them in Wisconsin, they were transferred to a 
strip of land extending west from the Mississippi, opposite Prairie du Chien, 
to the Des Moines river, being a tract forty miles in width. The chief of 
the Winnebagoes at that time was Ohos-chun-ca, or Big Wave. Soon ailter 
their removal to this reservation. they were visited by Willard Barrows, one 
of the pioneers of Davenport, who had an interview with Chos-chun-ca. 
He found liim clothed in a bufialo overcoat, and wearing a high crowned 
hat. His nose was surmounted by a pair of green spectacles. Mr. Barrows 
held his interview with the chief just south of the lower boundary of the 
reservation. Chos-chun-ca was quite reticent as to the aft'airs of his people, 
and refused permission to Mr. Barrows to explore the Winnebago reserva- 
tion, being impressed with the idea that the whites had sent him to seek out 
all the fine country, and that if their lands were found desirable, then the 
Indians would be compelled to remove again. Mr. Barrows, however, with- 
out the chief's permission, passed safely through their territory.' 

MAU-HAW-GAW. 

The greater portion of the territory embraced within the limits of Iowa, 
was once occupied by a tribe, or nation of Indians, known in history as the 
lowas (or loways), who for many years maintained an almost constant war- 
fare with the Sioux, a powerful rival who lived to the north of them. The 
lowas were originally the Pau-hoo-chee tribe, and lived in the region of the 
lakes, to the northeast, but about the year 1700 they followed their chief, 
Mau-haw-gaw, to the banks of the Mississippi, and crossing over, settled on 
the west bank of Iowa river, near its mouth, and there established a village. 
They called the river on which they established their empire, Ne-o-ho-nee, 
or "Master of Rivers." For some years they prospered and multiplied, but 
the Sioux began to envy them the prosperity which they enjoyed, and with 
no good intentions came down to visit them. Sending to ^au-haw-gaw 
the pipe of peace, with an invitation to join them in a dog feast, they maide 
great professions of friendship. The Iowa chief, having confidence in riieir 
protestations of good feeling, accepted the invitation. In the midst of tlie. 



THE NOBTHWEST TEBEnXJKT. 53 

feast the perfidious Sioux suddenly attacked and killed the unsuspecting 
Mau-haw-gaw. This outrage was never forgiven by the lowas. 

ma-haS-kah. 

One of the most noted chiefs of the lowas was Ma-has-kah (White 
Cloud), a descendant of Mau-haw-gaw. He led his warriors in eighteen 
battles against the Sioux on the north, and the Osages on the south, but 
never faued to achieve a victory. He made his home on the Des Moines 
river, about one hundred miles above the mouth, and must have been some- 
thing of a Mormon, for it is said he had seven wives. In 1824 he was one 
of a party of chiefs who visited Washington. He left his home on the Des 
Moines to go down the river on his way to join his party, and when near 
where the city of Keokuk is now located, he stopped to prepare and eat his 
venison. He had just commenced his meal when some one struck him on 
the back. Turning round, he was surprised to see one of his wives, Eant- 
che-wai-me (Female Flying Pigeon), standing with an uplifted tomahawk 
in her hand. She aceostedTiim with — " Am I your wife ? Are you my hus- 
band ? If so, I will go with you to Maw-he-hum-ne-che (the American big 
house), and see and snake the hand of In-co-ho-nee ", meaning the Great 
Father, as they called the President. Ma-has-kah answered: "Yes, you are 
my wife ; I am your husband ; I have been a long time from you ; I am 
glad to see you ; you are my pretty wife, and a brave man always loves to 
see a pretty woman." Ma-has-kah went on to Washington accompanied by 
his "pretty wife", Kant-che-wai-mie, who received many presents, but saw 
many things of which she disapproved. When she returned, she called to- 
gether the matrons and maidens of the tribe, and warned them against the 
vices and follies of their white sisters. This good Indian woman was killed 
by being thrown from her horse, some time after her return from Washing- 
ton. In 1834 Ma-has-kah was also killed about sixty miles from his home, 
on the Nodaway, by an enemy who took a cowardly advantage of him. At 
the time of his death he was fifty years of age. After his death all his sur- 
viving wives went into mourning and poverty, according to the custom ol 
the tnbe, except one named Mis-so-rah-tar-ra-haw (Female Deer that bounds 
over the prairie), who refused to the end of her life to be comforted, saying 
that her husband "was a great brave, and was killed by dogs", meaning 
low, vulgar fellows. 

Soon after the death of Ma-has-kah, his son of the same name, at the age 
of twenty-four, became the chief of the lowas. His mother was Rant-che- 
wai-me, whose tragic death is mentioned above. He also visited Washing 
ton in the winter of 1836-7, for the purpose of obtaining redress for injus- 
tice, which he claimed had been done to his people by the government, in 
failing to keep intruders from their lands, and in disregarding other stipu- 
lations of the treaty made with his father in 1825. 

SI-DOM-I-NA-DO-TAH. 

When the whites began to make settlements on the upper Des Moines, 
the region about Fort Dodge and Spirit Lake was inhabited by Sioux In- 
dians, made up principally of that division of tlie great Sioux or Dacotah 
nationknownDv the name of Sisiton Sioux. When, in 1848, the govern- 
ment surveys ol the lands purchased north of the Eaccoon Forks were in pro- 
gress, Mr. Marsh, of Dubuque, set out with his party to run the correction 



54 THE N0ETHWE8T TEKEITOEY. 

line from a point' on the Mississippi, near Dubuque, to the Missouri rivers 
In this work he was not molested until he crossed the Des Moines, when on 
the west bank of the river, he was met by a party of Sioux, under the lead- 
ership of their chief, Si-dom-i-na-do-tah, who notified Mr. Marsh and his 
farty that they should proceed no farther, as the country belonged to the 
ndians. The Sioux then left, and Mr. Marsh concluded to continue his 
work. He had not proceeded more than a mile when Si-dom-i-na-do-tali 
and his band returned and surrounded the party, robbing them of every- 
thing. They took their horses, destroyed their wagons and surveying instru- 
ments, destroyed the land-marks, and drove the surveying party back to the 
east side of the river. This, and other outrages committea on families who, 
in the fall of 1849, ventured to make claims on the upper Des Moines, led 
to the establishment of a militarypost at Fort Dodge in 1850. 

In the winter of 1846-7 one Henry Lott, an adventurous border char- 
acter, had, with his family, taken up his residence at the mouth of Boone 
river, in what is now Webster county, and within the range of Si-dom-i-na- 
do-tah's band. Lott had provided himself with some goods and a barrel oi 
whisky, expecting to trade with the Indians, and obtain their furs and rob^. 
In a short time he was waited upon by the chief and six of his braves and 
informed that he was an intruder and that he must leave within a certain time. 
The time having expired, and Lott still remaining, the Indians destroyed 
his property, shooting his stock and robbing his bee-hives. Lott and his 
step-son made their way to the nearest settlement, at Pea's Point, about 16 
miles south, and reported that his family had been murdered by the Indians, 
as he doubtless thought they would be after he left. John Pea and half a 
dozen other white men, accompanied by some friendly Indians of another 
tribe, who happened to be in that vicinity, set out with Lott for the mouth 
of Boone river. When they arrived they found that the family had not 
been tomahawked, as he had reported. One little boy, however, aged abont 
twelve years, had attempted to follow his father in his flight, by gomg down 
the Des Moines river on the ice. Being thinly clad, the little fellow, froze to 
death after traveling on the ice a distance of about twenty miles. The body 
of the child was siibsequently found. The sequel shows that Lott was de- 
termined on revenge. 

In November, 1853, Lott ventured about thirty miles north of Fort Dodge, 
where he pretended to make a claim, in what is now Humboldt county. He 
took with him several barrels of whisky and some goods, and he and his 
step-son built a cabin near what is now known as Lott's creek in that 
county. Si-dom-i-na-do-tah had his cabin on the creek about a mile west of 
Lott's. In January, 1854, Lott and his step-son went to the cabin of the 
old chief and told him that they had seen, on their way over, a drove of elk 
feeding on the bottom lands, and induced the old man to mount his pony, 
with gun in hand, to go in pursuit of the elk. Lott and his step-son fol- 
lowed, and when they had proceeded some distance they shot and killed Si- 
dom-i-na-do-tah. That same night they attacked and killed six of the chief's 
family, including his wife and two children, his aged mother, and two young 
children she had m charge — including wi th the chief, seven victim s in all. Two 
children, a boy of twelve, and a girl of ten years of age, escaped by hiding 
themselves. Some days after, the Indians reported the murders at Fort 
Dodge, thinking at first that the slaughter had been perpetrated by some of 
their Indian enemies. Investigation soon revealed the fact that Lott and his 
step-son had committed the deed. Their cabin was found burned down, and 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 65 

a sliglit snow on the ground stowed the track of their wagon in a circuitous 
route southward, avoiding Fort Dodge. Intelligence of them was received 
at various points where they had been trjdng to sell furs and other articles, 
and where the chief's pony was noticed to be in their possession. Having 
several days start, they made their way across the Missouri and took the 
plains for California, where, it was subsequently learned, Lott was killed in 
a quarrel. It is believed by many of the old settlers of Northern Iowa that 
this outrage of Henry Lott was the cause of that other tragedy, or rather 
series of tragedies, in the history of Northern Iowa, known as the " Spirit 
Lake Massacre." 

INK-PA-DU-TAH. 

Ink-pa-du-tah, it is said, was the brother, and became the successor, of the 
chief who was murdered by Henry Lott. He is known to the whites chiefly 
in connection with the horrible outrages committed at Spirit and Okoboji 
Lakes in Northern Iowa, and at Springfield in Southern Minnesota. He, 
in connection with U-tan-ka-sa-pa (Black Buflalo), headed a band of about 
eighteen lodges of Sioux, who, in the spring of 1857, robbed the settlers and 
committed the most inhuman outrages, culminating in the massacres of the 
8th and 9th of March of that year. During the year 1856 a dozen or more 
families had settled about the lakes, while along the valley of the Little Sioux 
river at Smithland, Cherokee, and Rock Rapids there were settlements. 
Ink-pa-du-tah and his band commenced their depredations at Smithland, and 
passing up the Little Sioux made hostile demonstrat^ms both at Cherokee 
and Rock Rapids, killing stock and carrying away whatever they saw proper 
to take, but committed no murders until they reached the infant settlement 
at the lakes. There, and at Springfield, a small settlement in Minnesota a 
few miles northeast, they killed forty-one, wounded three, and took with 
them as captives four women — Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Thatcher, Mrs. Marble, and 
Miss Gardner. Twelve persons were missing, some of whose remains were 
afterward found, having been killed while attempting to escape. Of the 
four women taken, captives, two were killed on their night, Mrs. Howe and 
Mrs. Thatcher. The other two, Mrs. Marble and Miss Gardner, were some 
months after, through the eftbrts of Gov. Madarie, of Minnesota, and the 
Indian agent at Laqua Parle, purchased from Ink-pa-du-tah by employing 
friendly Indians to affect the purchase. By this raid and massacre the set- 
tlement at the lakes was entirely swept away. All the houses were burned, 
and all the stock either killed or taken away. At Springfield the settlers 
were somewhat prepared to defend themselves, having heara of the slaughter 
at the lakes. Seven or eight persons, however, were Killed at Springfield. 

The winter preceding these massacres had been unusually severe, and 
snow had fallen to the depth of from one to two feet. In March all the 
ravines were filled with drifted snow, with a thick and heavy crust, so that 
travel in that region was almost impossible. For this reason those infant 
settlements were almost cut off from intercourse with the thickly inhabited 
parts of the country. It was, therefore, some time before the news of the 
massacres reached Fort Dodge, tlie nearest settlement. The messengers 
who conveyed the intelligence were Messrs. Bell and Williams, who lived on 
Little Sioux river. Messrs. Howe, Snyder and Parmenter, of Newton, who 
had attempted to relieve the inhabitants at the lakes with provisions, also 
upon arriving there found all the settlers murdered. They, too, hastened as 
rapidly as possible to Fort Dodge and reported. Messengers were at once 



56 THE JSrOKTHWEST TEEKITOET. 

sent to Webster City and Homer to request the citizens to turn out for the 
relief of the frontier, and they responded promptly. Those two places fur 
nished forty men and Fort Dodge eighty. The force of 120 men was 
formed into three companies of forty men each, under Captains G. B. 
Eichards, John F. Buncombe, and J. 0. Johnston. The battalion was 
commanded by Major "W. Williams. On the 25th of March the battalion 
started from Fort Dodge, the snow still covering the ground and all the 
ravines being so gorged with drifted snow that in places it was necessary to 
cut their way through snow-banks from ten to twenty feet deep. After 
marching thirty miles ten men had to be sent back, reducing the force to 
110 men. In the meantime a force from Fort Eidgely was approaching 
from the north. The Indians, expecting these movements, had taken their 
flight across the Big Sioux river to join the Tanktons, in what is now 
Dakota. The troops, after almost incredible hardships and sufferings for 
eighteen days and nights, being without tents, failed to get sight of a single 
hostile Indian. They found and buried the bodies of twenty-nine persons. 
A. number were burned in the houses by the savages, and their remains 
were found in the ashes. The expedition lost two valuable citizens, Captaifi 
J. C. Johnston, of Webster City, and William Burkholder, of Fort Dodge, 
the latter being a brother of Mrs. Gov. C. C. Carpenter. They were frozen 
to death on their return from the lakes. Eighteen others were more or less 
frozen, and some did not recover for a year after. Several years after his 
death the remains of young Burkholder were found on the prairie, being 
recognized by the remains or his gun and clothing. When overcome by the 
cold he was separated from his companions, and his fate was for sometime 
unlcnown. 

From this brief account of Ink-pa-du-tah, it will be conceded that there is 
no reason to cherish his memory with any degree of admiration. He was 
the leader of a band comprising even the worst element of the Sionx nation, 
the best of which is bad enough, even for savages. The germ of the band 
of which he was chief, was a family of murderers, known as Five Lodges, 
who, it was said, having murdered an aged chief, wandered away and formed 
a little tribe of their own, with whom rogues from all the other bands found 
refuge. At the time of these hostilities against the whites imder Ink-pa-du- 
tah, they numbered probably over 150 lodges. They were constantly roving 
about in parties, stealing wherever they could from trappers and settlers. 
The subsequent career of Ink-pa-du-tah has been west of the borders of Iowa 
and Minnesota. 

EAKLY NAYIGATION OF WESTEKN RIVERS. 

Navigation of the Mississippi by the Early Explorers— Plat- boats— Barges— Methods of Pro- 
pulsion — Bngs and Schooners — ^I'he first Steamboat on Western Waters — The " Orleans "— 
The "Comet"— ITie " Enterprise "—Capt. Shreve— The " Washington "—The "General 
Pike" — First Steamboat to St. Louis— The "Independence" the first Steamboat on the 
Missouri— Capt. Nelson — "Macldnaw Boats " — Navigation of the upper Mississippi— The 
" Virginia "—The "Shamrock "—Capt. James May— Navigation of^the upper Missouri— 
Steamboating on the Smaller Rivers. 

We have accounts of the navigation of the Mississippi river as early as 
1539, by De Soto, while in search of the "fountain of youth". His voyage 
ended with his life, and more than a hundred years passed away, when Mar- 
quette and Joliet again disturbed its waters with a small bark transported 



THE NOKTHWEST TEEEITOKY. 57 

from the shores of Lake Superior. At the mouth of the "Wisconsin they 
entered the Mississippi, and extended their voyage to the mouth of the 
Arkansas. Their account is the first which gave to the world any accurate 
knowledge of the great valley of the Mississippi river. Their perilous voy- 
age was made in the summer of 1673. The account was read with avidity 
by the missionaries and others about Lake Superior, and soon after a young 
Frenchman named La Salle set out with a view of adding further informa- 
tion in relation to the wonderful valley of the great river. His expedition 
was followed by other voyages of exploration on western rivers, but the nar- 
ratives of the explorers are mostly lost, so that very little of interest remains 
from the voyage of La Salle to the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
when the French, then holding Fort Du Quesne, contemplated the establish- 
ment of a line of torts which would enable them to retain possession of the 
vast territory northwest of the Ohio river. Regular navigation of the Ohio 
and Mississippi, however, was not attempted until after the Eevolution, when 
the United States had assumed control of the western waters. Trade with 
New Orleans did not begin until near the close of the century. A few flat 
boats were employed in the trade between Pittsburg and the new settlements 
along the Ohio river. The settlement of Kentucky gradually increased the 
trade on the Ohio, and caused a demand for increased facilities for convey- 
ance of freight. Boatmen soon found it profitable to extend their voyages 
to the Spanish settlements in the South. Freight and passengers were con- 
veyed in a species of boat which was sometimes called a barge, or ha/rgee by 
the French. It was usually from 75 to 100 feet long, with breadth of beam 
from 15 to 20 feet, and a capacity of 60 to 100 tons. The freight was re- 
ceived in a large covered coffer, occupying a portion of the hulk. Near the 
stem was an apartment six or eight feet in length, called "the cabin", 
where the captain and other officials of the boat quartered at night. The 
helmsman was stationed upon an elevation above the level of the deck. The 
barge usually carried one or two masts. A large square sail forward, when 
the wind was favorable, sometimes much relieved the hands. The work of 
propelling the barges usually required about fifty men to each boat. There 
were several modes of propelling the barges. At times all were engaged in 
rowing, which was often a waste of labor on such a stream as the Missis- 
sippi. Sometimes the navigators resorted to the use of the cordelle, a strong 
rope or hawser, attached to the barge, and carried along the shore or beach 
on the shoulders of the crew. In some places this method was imprac- 
ticable on account of obstructions along the shores. Then what was known 
as the "warping" process was resorted to. A coil of rope was sent out in 
the yawl, and fastented to a tree on the shore, or a "snag" in the river. 
While the hands on board were pulling up to this point, another coil was 
carried further ahead, and the "warping" process repeated. Sometimes it 
was expedient to use setting poles, but this method was used chiefly in the 
Ohio. During a period of about twenty-five years, up to 1811, the mode of 
conveyance on our western rivers was by flat-boats and barges. It required 
three or four months to make a trip from Pittsburg to New Orleans. Pass- 
engers between these points were charged from $125 to $150, and freight 
ranged from $5 to $7 per 100 pounds. It cannot be supposed that under 
Bue^ circumstances, the commerce of the West was very extensive. 

Previous to the introduction of steamers on western waters, attempts were 
made to use brigs and schooners. In 1803 several ships were built on the 
Ohio, and in 1805 the ship " Scott " was built on the Kentucky river, and 



58 THE NOETHWEST TEEETTOET. 

in tlie fall of that year made her first trip to the falls of the Ohio. While there 
two other vessels, built by Berthone & Co., arrived. All of them .were com- 
pelled to remain three months, awaiting a suflBcient rise in the river to carry 
them over the falls. In 1807 Mr. Dean built and launched a vessel at Pitts- 
burg. This vessel made a trip to Leghorn, and when making her entry at 
the custom house there, her papers were objected to on the ground that no 
such port as Pittsburg existed in the United States. The captain called the 
attention of the officer to the Mississippi river, traced it to its confluence 
with the Ohio, thence following the latter stream past Cincinnati and Mari- 
etta, to the new city in the wilderness, more than two thousand miles hj 
water from the Gulf of Mexico! All these vessels were found inadequate for 
the purpose of trading on the western rivers, and were soon abandoned. 
They could not stem the current of the Mississippi. They were transferred 
to the gulf, and the commerce of the rivers was abandoned to Mike Fink 
and his followers, remaining with them until 1811. In this year Eulton and 
Livingston opened a ship-yard at Pittsburg, and built the small propeller 
" Orleans ", which was also furnished with two masts. She was a boat of one 
hundred tons burthen, and the first steamer that was launched on western 
waters. In the winter of 1812 she made her first trip to .New Orleans in 
fourteen days. As she passed down the river, the settlers lined the banks, 
and the greatest excitement prevailed. The flat-boatmen said she never conld 
stem the current on her upward trip. After her first trip, the "Orleans" 
engaged in the Natchez and New Orleans trade, and paid her owners a 
handsome profit on their investment. The next steamer was the "Comet", 
and she was built by D. French. She carried but twenty-five tons, and 
made her first trip to New Orleans in the spring of 1814. Soon after she 
was taken to pieces, and her engine used in a cotton factoiy. The " Vesu- 
vius ", of 48 tons burthen, was launched at Fulton's ship-yard in the spring 
of 1814, made a trip to New Orleans, and on her return was grounded on a 
sand bar, where she remained until the next December. This boat remained 
on the river until 1819, when she was condemned. The "Enterprise" was 
the fourth steamboat, and was built by Mr. French, who built the " Comet." 
The " Enterprise " carried seventy-five tons, and made her first trip to New 
Orleans in the summer of 1814. When she arrived at her destination she 
was pressed into the service of the army, under Gen. Jackson, then at New 
Orleans. She was very efficient in carrying troops and army supplies from 
the city to the seat of war, a few miles below. During the battle of the 8th 
of January she was busily engaged in supplying the wants of Jftckson's 
army. On the 5th of May following she left New Orleans, and arrived at 
Louisville in twenty-five days. 

In 1816 Captain Henry Shreve built the "Washington" with many im- 
provements in construction. The boilers, which had hitherto been placed in 
the hold, were changed by Captain Shreve to the deck. In September, 1816, 
the "Washington" successfully passed the falls of the Ohio, made her tri^ 
to New Orleans, and returned in November to Louisville. On the 12th ol 
March, 1817, she departed on her second trip to New Orleans, the ice then 
running in the Ohio slightly retarding her progress. She made the trip 
successfully, and returned to the foot of the falls in forty-one days— the 
upward trip being made in twenty-five days. By this time it was generally 
conceded by the nat-boatmen that Fitch and Fulton were not visionary fools, 
but men of genius, and that their inventions could be turned to immense 
advantage on the rivers of the West. Steamboats from this time on rapidly 



THE NORTHWEST TEKEITOET. 59 

multiplied, and the occupation of the old flat-boatmen began to pass away 
On Captain Shreve's return to Louisville the citizens gave him a public re- 
ception. Toasts and speeches were made, and the "Washington" declared 
to oe the herald of a new era in the "West. Captain Shreve in his speech 
asserted that the time would come when the trip to New Orleans would be 
made in ten days. His prediction was more than verified, for as early as 
1853, the trip was made in four days and nine hours. 

While these festivities were going on in Louisville, the " General Pike " 
was stemming the current of the Mississippi for a new port in steamboat 
navigation. With a heavy load of freight and passengers she left New 
Orleans for St. Louis. On her arrival at the latter city several thousand 
people greeted her as she slowly approached the landing. 

Steam navigation commenced on the Missouri in 1819, the first boat being 
the " Independent ", commanded by Captain Nelson. She ascended as far as 
Chariton and Franklin, at which points she received a cargo of furs and 
buflalo hides, and returned with them to St. Louis. 

In 1816 Fort Armstrong was erected at the lower end of Eock Island. On 
the 10th of May of this year Col. Lawrence, with the Eighth Kegiment and 
a company of riflemen, arrived here in keel boats. Col. George Davenport 
resided near the fort and supplied the troops with provisions, and also engaged 
in trading with the Indians. Most of his goods were brought from "Macki- 
naw" through Green Bay, thence up Fox river to the "Portage", where they 
were packed across to the Wisconsin river, and carried down the Mississippi 
in what were called "Mackinaw Boats." The navigation of the upper Missis- 
sippi was confined to keel-boats until 1823, when the first steamboat — the 
"Virginia" — from Wheeling ascended with provisions to Prairie du Chien. 
This Doat was three or four days in passing the rapids at Pock Island. 
After this, up to 1827, steamboats continued to ascend the upper Mississippi 
occasionally with troops and military stores. In this year Capt. James May, 
of the steamboat "Shamrock", made the first voyage with her from Pitts- 
burg to Galena. This was the first general business trip ever made on the 
upper Mississippi by a steamboat. Capt. May continued as master of a 
steamboat on tlais part of the river until 1834. 

The first navigation of any considerable portion of the Missouri river was 
that of Captains Lewis and Clarke, when in 1804 they ascended that river in 
keel-boats, or barges, from its mouth almost to its source. Of late years 
steamboats have navigated it regularly to Fort Benton. Steamboat navi- 
gation' has also been employed on many of the smaller rivers of the West, 
including the Des Moines and Cedar rivers in Iowa. The introduction of 
railroads has superseded the necessity of depending upon the uncertain nav- 
igation of the smaller rivers for carrying purposes. The great water-courses, 
however, will doubtless always remain the indispensible commercial high- 
ways of the nation. 

ARCHiEOLOGT OF THE NORTHWEST. 

Andent Works — Conjectures — Works of the Mound Builders in Ohio — Different forms and 
Classes — Mounds at Gallipolis, Marietta, and Chillicothe — Relics Found — Ancient Fortifi- 

■ cations at Circleville and Other Places — Pre-historio Remains in Other States — In Iowa — 
Excavation of Mounds — Elongated and Round Mounds— Their Antiquity — Who were the 
Mound Builders? 

SoATTEEED all over the great Northwest are the remains of the works of an 



60 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

ancient people, who must have been infinitely more advanced in the arts 
than the Indian tribes who inhabited the country at the time of the advent 
of the European. The question as to whether the Indians are the descend- 
ants of that people, the Mound Builders, is a subject of antiquarian specula- 
tion. One thing, however, is certain, that a people once inhabited all this 
vast region who possessed some considerable knowledge of the arts and even 
the sciences; a people of whom the Indians possessed no knowledge, but 
whose works have survived the mutations of hundreds, and perhaps thous- 
ands of years, to attest that they lived, and acted, and passed away. There 
have been various conjectures of the learned concerning the time when, by 
what people, and even tor what purpose, these monuments of human ingenuity 
were erected. Their origin is deeply involved in the obscurity of remote an- 
tiquity. iNeither history, nor authentic tradition, afford any light by which 
to conduct inquiries concerning them, and it is probable that no certainty 
upon the subject will ever be attained. Brief mention of some of these 
ancient works cannot fail to interest the reader. They are found, distributed 
over the country generally from the Alleghany Mountains to the Eocky 
Mountains. They are more numerous and more remarkable, however, in 
some parts of the country than in others. 

Some of the most remarkable fortifications in Ohio are at Worthington, 
Granville, Athens, Marietta, Gallipolis, Chillicothe, and Circleville; also, on 
Paint Creek, 18 miles northwest of Chillicothe, and on a plain three miles 
northeast of the last named city. In some localities there are both mounds 
and fortifications, while in others there are mounds only. The mounds vary 
in magnitude, and also somewhat in shape. Some are conical, ending sharply 
at the summit, and as steep on the sides as the earth could be made to lie. 
Others are of the same form, except that they present a flat area on the top, 
like a cone cut off at some distance from its vortex, in a plane coincident 
with its base, or with the horizon. Others again, are of a semi-globular 
shape. Of this description was that standing in Gallipolis. The largest 
one near Worthington is of the second kind, and presents on the summit a 
level area of forty feet in diameter. There is one at Marietta of this kind, 
but the area on top does not exceed twenty feet in diameter. Its_ perpendic- 
ular height is about fifty feet, and its circumference at the base twenty rods. 
Those in Worthington and Gallipolis are each from fifteen to twenty feet in 
circumference at their bases. A large mound once stood in the heart of the 
city of Chillicothe, but was leveled forty or fifty years ago to make room for 
the erection of a block of buildings, and in its destruction a number of relies 
were exhumed. Several smaller mounds were located in the same vicinity. 
They are foimd scattered in profusion in the vallies of the Miamis, Scioto, 
Hocking and Muskingum rivers, as well as south of the Ohio river. One 
of the largest is near the Ohio river, 14 miles below Wheeling. This is 
about 33 rods in circumference, and consequently between ten and eleven 
rods in diameter at its base. Its perpendicular height is about seventy feet. 
On the summit is an area of nearly sixty feet in diameter, in the middle of 
which is a regular cavity, the cubical content of which is about 3,000 feet. 
"Within a short distance of this mound are five smaller ones, some of which 
are thirty feet in diameter. Some of the mounds mentioned, and others not 
referred to, have been excavated, either by the antiquarian or in the construc- 
tion of public works, and in most of them human bones have been discov- 
ered. Most of these bones crumble in pieces or resolve into dust shortly 
after being exposed to the air; except in some instances, wherein the teetu, 



NORTH 




XnE NORTHWEST TEKEITOET. 61 

jaw, skull, and sometimes a few other bones, bj reason of their peculiar 
solidity, resist the effects of contact with the air. From the fact of the find- 
ing human remains in them many have inferred that they were erected as 
burial places for the dead. In some of them, however, which have been ex- 
amined, no human remains have been discovered, but pieces of pottery, stone 
hatchets, and other relics, are found in nearly all. 

Many of these mounds are composed of earth of a different quality from 
that which is found in their immediate vicinity.' This circumstance would 
seem to indicate that the earth of which they were composed was transported 
some distance. A striking instance of this difference of composition was 
first noticed some sixty or seventy years ago, in a mound at Franklinton, 
near the main fork of the Scioto river. This mound was composed alto- 
gether of clay, and the brick for the court-house in that town were made of 
it at that time. In it were likewise found a much greater number of hu- 
man bones than is usually found in mounds of its size. The characteris- 
tics mentioned in connection with the mounds in Ohio apply to those gen- 
erally throughout the Northwest. 

Not so numerous as the mounds, but more remarkable as involving the 
principles of science, especially mathematics, are the fortifications, or earth 
walls, found in many places. They are commonly supposed to have been 
•forts, or military fortifications. They generally consist of a circular wall, 
composed of earth, and usually as steep on the sides as the dirt could con 
•veniently be made to lie. Sometimes, though rarely, their form is elliptical, 
or oval, and a few of them are quadrangular or square. In height they are 
■various; some of them are so low as to be scarcely perceptible ; some from 
twenty to thirty feet in height, while others again are of an intermediate 
ielevation. The wall of the same fort, however, is pretty uniformly of the 
same height all around. They are likewise equally various in the contents 
of the ground which they enclose, some containing but a few square rods of 
ground, while others contain nearly one hundred acres. The number of their 
entrances, or gateways, varies in different forts from one to eight or more, 
in proportion to the magnitude of the enclosure. The walls are mostly sin- 
gle, but in some instances these works have been found to consist of two 
parallel walls, adjacent to each other. The forts are generally located on 
comparatively elevated ground, adjoining a river or stream of water. Their 
situation is usually such as a skillful military engineer or tactician would 
have selected for military positions. This fact would seem to strengthen 
the theory that they were designed and constructed for fortifications. 

The city of Circleville, Ohio, is located on the site of one of the most re- 
markable of these fortifications, and from this circumstance takes its name. 
There are, or were, indeed, two forts at that place, one circular, and the other 
square, as represented in the diagram on the opposite page. 

In this, it will be seen that a square fort adjoins a circular one on the east, 
communicating with it by a gateway. The black points in the square fort, 
opposite the gateways, show the location of mounds, each about three feet 
higL The circular fort consists of two parallel walls, whose tops are, ap- 

Sarently, about three rods apart, the inner circle being forty-seven rods in 
iameter. Between these two walls is a fosse, excavated sufficiently deep 
and broad to have afforded earth enough for the construction of the exterior 
wall alone, and no more. From this circumstance and others, the earth for 
the construction of the inner wall is supposed to have been transported from 
a distance. The inner wall is composed of clay, and the outer one of dirt 



62 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOEY. 

and gravel of similar quality with that which composes the neighboring 
ground, which is another .circumstance quite conclusive of the correctness 
of the conjecture that the material for the inner wall was brought from a 
distance. There is but one original opening, or passage, into me circular 
fort, and that is on the east side, connecting it with the square one. The 
latter has seven avenues leading into it, exclusive of the one which connects 
with the circle. There is one at every corner, and one on each side equi-distant 
from the angular openings. These avenues are each twelve feet wide, and 
the walls on either hand rise immediately to their usual height, which is 
above twenty feet. When the town of Circleville was originally laid out, 
the trees growing upon the walls of these fortifications and the mounds 
enclosed in the square one, were apparently of equal size and age, and those 
lying down in equal stages of decay, with those in the surrounding forest, 
a circumstance proving the great antiquity of these stupendous remains of 
former labor and ingenuity. Of course, the progress of modem civiliza- 
tion in the building of a city over these ancient remains, has long since 
nearly obKterated many of their parts. The above is a description of them as 
they appeared sixty years ago, when Circleville was a mere village, and be- 
fore the hand of modern vandalism had marred or obliterated any of the 
parts. A somewhat minute description of these ancient remains is given, 
not because they are more remarkable than many others found in different 
parts of the Northwest, but as an example to show the magnitude of many 
similar works. Among others in the same State may be mentioned a re- 
markable mound near Marietta,, which is enclosed by a wall embracing an 
area 230 feet long by 215 wide. This mound is thirty feet high and ellip- 
tical in form. This mound, with the wall enclosing it, stand apart from two 
other irregular enclosures, one containing fifty and the other twenty-seven 
acres. Within the larger of these two enclosures there are four truncated 
pyramids, three of which have graded passage ways to their summits. The 
largest pyramid is 188 feet long by 132 feet wide, and is ten feet high. 
From the southern wall of this enclosure there is a graded passage way 150 
feet broad, extending 600 feet to the immediate valley of the Muskingum 
river. This passage way is guarded by embankments on either side from 
eight to ten feet high, tn the smaller square there are no pyramidal struc- 
tures, but fronting each gate-way there is a circular mound. The walls of 
these several enclosures are from twenty to thirty feet broad at the base, and 
from five to six feet high. Besides these, many similar embankments may 
be traced in the same vicinity. 

Squier and Davis, authors of that most elaborate work, entitled "The An- 
cient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley ", estimated that there were in 
Ross county, Ohio, at least one hundred enclosures and five hundred mounds. 
They give the probable number in that State at from one thousand to fifteen 
hundred enclosures, and ten thousand mounds. These estimates are quite 
likely to be far below the actual number, as their investigations were made 
many years ago, when large portions of the State were yet covered with for- 
ests, and before any general interest had been awakened on the subject of 
which they treated. Among the remarkable fortifications in Eoss county 
is one at Cedar Bank, on the east side of the Scioto river, about five miles 
north of Chillicothe. It is of a square form, enclosing an area of thirty- 
two acres. The west side of this enclosure is formed by the high bluff bor- 
dering the river at this point. There are two gate-ways opposite each other, 
one on the north and the other on the south side. Inside of the enclosure, 



ii 



f 



,! I 






=%i 



'%: :. ';■' if . ■) 111 ^ ( 










W ?'J. 









THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 63 

on- a line with the gate-ways, there is a mound 245 feet long and 150 feet 
broad. The form of this work is shown by the diagram on the opposite page. 

When this work first attracted the attention of Mr. E. G. bquier, JDr. 
Davis, and others engaged in archaeological research, it was in the midst of 
a dense forest of heavy timber. Trees of the largest growth stood on the 
embankments, and covered the entire area of ground enclosed. About a 
mile and a half below, on the same side of the Scioto, are other fortifica- 
tions, both circular and square, even more remarkable than the one last de- 
scribed, on account of the forms and combinations which the;^ exhibit. 
Another fortification in this county, in the form of a parallelogram, 2,800 
feet long by 1,800 feet wide, encloses several smaller works and mounds, 
which altogether make 3,000,000 cubic feet of embankment. 

A series of the most wonderful and most gigantic of these pre-historic 
works, is to be found in the Licking Valley, near Newark. They cover an 
area of two square miles. The works are of such vast magnitude that even 
with our labor-saving implements to construct them, would require the la- 
bor of thousands of men continued for many months. "Fort Ancient", as 
it is called, in Warren county, Ohio, has nearly four miles of embankment, 
from eighteen to twenty feet high. 

Mounds and fortifications similar to those in Ohio are found in -all the 
States of the Northwest, and indeed, throughout the entire valley of the 
Mississippi and its tributaries. In the valley of the Wabash, in Indiana, 
are many interesting remains of the works of the Mound Builders. Near 
Kahokia, Ilh'nois, there is a mound 2,000 feet in circumference, and ninety 
feet high. Many remarkable objects of interest to the antiquary are found 
in Wisconsin. Scattered over her undulating plains are earth-works, mod- 
eled after the forms of men and animals. At Aztalan, in JeflGerson county, 
is an ancient fortification 550 yards long and 275 yards wide. The 
walls are from four to five feet high, and more than twenty feet in thickness 
at the base. Near the Blue Mounds, in that State, there is another work, 
in form resembling a man in a recumbent position. It is one hundred and 
twenty feet long and thirty feet across the trunk. At Prairicville there is 
still another resembling a turtle in shape which, is fifly-six feet in length. 
At Cassville there is one whieh is said to resemble the extinct mastedon. 
In some instances these animal resemblances and forms are much defaced 
by time, while in other cases they are distinctly visible. Fragments of an- 
cient pottery are found scattered about most of them. 

Scattered over the surface of Iowa, also, are to be found many of these 
monuments of a pre-historic race. The mounds especially are numerous, 
appearing most in that portion of the State east of the Des Moines river, 
but in a few instances west of it. Groups of mounds are found along Iowa 
river, in Johnson county, presenting the same general appearance with those 
in the States east of the Mississippi. Near the mouth of this river, in Louisa 
county, are the remains of an ancient fortification, vtdth a number of mounds 
in the same vicinity, which have attracted the attention of the curious. In 
the vicinity of Ottumwa, Wapello county, are a large number of mounds, 
several of which have been examined. There is a chain of them in this last 
named county, commencing near the mouth of Sugar Creek, a small tribu- 
tary of the Des Moines, and extending twelve miles nortward, with distances 
between them in some instances as great as two miles. Two of them were 
excavated several years ago. One of them was about 45 feet in diameter, 
and situated upon the highest ground in the vicinity. The other was directly 



.64 THE NOETHWEST TEEKITOEY. 

north about one-fourth of a mile. Its diameter at the base was about 75 
feet. In the center of this last named mound, was found, at the depth of 
four feet, a layer of stone, with the appearance of baring been subjected to 
the action of fire. There were also found a mass of charcoal, a bed of ashes 
and calcined human bones. A number of relics were also found in the 
smaller mound first mentioned. These examinations were made by several 
gentlemen of Ottumwa. 

Mr. F. C. Koberts, in a Fort Madison paper, writes of the examination of 
a mound situated about six miles north of that city, a few years ago. It is 
located on the brow of a hill, is of an elliptical shape, and small in size, 
being only about 30 feet long, and fifteen teet wide; its height was about 
six feet. The mound contained a number of separate compartments, con- 
structed as follows: First, there was a floor made of limestone, which must 
have been brought a distance of several miles, as none nearer could have 
been obtained. This floor was laid regular and smooth, the best stone only 
being used. Above the floor, with an intervening space of about twenty 
inches, there was a roof, also made of limestone. The sides of this vault, if 
it may so be called, seemed to have once had stone waUs,but they were more 
or less caved in. It was also thought that the roof had originally been much 
higher. The compartments were made by partitions or walls of stone. Each 
compartment was occupied by a human skeleton, and articles of flint and 
stone, as well as some bones of animals. AU the skeletons of human origin 
were placed in a sitting position, with the knees drawn up, and the head in- 
clined forward between them. The arms were placed by the side, and some- 
times clasped around the knees.' Besides the human bones, there were those 
of some large birds and of some animal. Some of these were charred, and 
were found in connection with charcoal and ashes. There were numerous 
flint weapons, and small three cornered stones. 

In Clayton and other counties in the northeastern part of the State, the 
Mound Builders have left numerous monuments of their existence in that 
region in pre-historic times. The researches of Hon. Samuel Murdock, of 
Clayton county, have been extensive and successful in giving to the scien- 
tific and antiquarian world much information in relation to these works 
of an ancient people who once occupied our continent. He has collected 
a vast number ot relics from the mounds in that portion of the State, 
After long and thorough investigation, he gives it as his opinion that in 
Clayton county alone there are not less than one hundred thousand arti- 
ficial mounds, including the two classes, the round and the elongated, 
the latter ranging from one hundred to six himdred feet in lengtli. 
All of them, so far as examinations have been made, contain more or less 
skeletons. One which was examined near Clayton was estimated to liave 
contained over one hundred bodies. From investigations made, the infer- 
ence is drawn that the elongated moimds are of greater antiquity than tlie 
round ones. The skeletons found in the former are in a more advanced state 
of decay, and in some of them there is scarcely any trace of bones. In 
nearly all the round mounds skeletons were found in a remarkably good 
state of preservation, and can be obtained by the thousand. These tacts in- 
dicate most conclusively that the elongated mounds were the work of an 
older race of the Mound Builders, and that tliey were erected ages before tlie 
round ones were. Tlae fact that human remains have been found in nearly 
all of both classes favors the theory that they were erected as receptacles fur 
the dead. 



THE NOBTHWSST TEBBITOBT. 




A MONEBB WINTEB. 



66 THE NOPTHTHTEST TEEEITOKT; 

While workmen were excavating a mound for the foundation of a ware- 
house in the city of McGregor, in the summer of 1874, human bones were 
found, and also a stone axe weighing thirteen pounds. It was embedded 
twenty feet below the original surface. 

As stated, the work of the Mound Builders was not confined to that por- 
tion of the State embracing the Mississippi drainage. Similar remains, 
though not so numerous, are observed on the western slope of the water- sh«d 
between the two great rivers bordering the State. Some five miles below 
Denison, Crawford county, in the valley of Boyer river, there is a semi-cir- 
cular group of artificial mounds. They are situated on a plateau, risinw 
above the first, or lower bottom, and are about nine in number, each rising • 
to a height of from five to six feet above the general level of the grouna 
Another similar group is located on a second bottom, at the mouth of Para- 
dise creek, in the same county. Human remains have been found in some 
of them. 

Having noticed briefly some of the various forms in which these stupen- 
dous works of men who lived far back in the centuries, whose annals nave 
not come down to us in any written language, we can say now that the most 
learned have only been able to conjecture as to the remoteness of their an- 
tiquity. The evidences that they are of very great age are abundant and 
conclusive, hut how many h/undreds or thousands of yea/rs? This is the 
problem that many an antiquary would freely give years of study and inves- 
tigation to solve. The length of time which elapsed during which these 
works were in progesss is another of the unsolved questions connected with 
them, and yet there is abundant evidence that some of them are much older 
than others; that the process of their construction extends over a large dura- 
tion of time — a time during which the Mound Builders themselves passed 
through the changes which mark the monuments that they have left behind 
them. It is a well known fact that the manners and customs of rude nations 
isolated from intercourse and commerce with the world, pass tlirough the 
process of change and development very slowly. The semi-civilized nations 
of eastern lands, after the lapse of thousands of years, still cling to the man- 
ners and customs, and the superstitions of their ancestors, who lived at the 
early dawn of our historic period. They use the same rude implements ol 
husbandry, the same utensils in the household, the same arms in warfare, 
and practice the same styles of dress — all with but little change or modifi- 
cation. The changes are only suificiently marked to be perceptible, after 
many generations have passed away. Situated as the Moimd Builders were, 
we can but infer tliat they too passed slowly through the processes of change, 
and the works which they have left behind them thoroughly attest the truth 
of this proposition. Their older works appear to be more elaborate and 
more intricate, showing that the earlier workers were possessed of a higher 
degree of attainment in the mechanical arts than those whose works are 
more recent. The inference is that probably after long ages, th^ gradually 
retrograded, and were finally subdued or driven southwara into Mexico and 
Central America, by the ancestors of the Indians, who came upon them from 
the northwest, as the Goths and Vandals invaded and subverted the Koman 
Empire. This final subjugation may have resulted after centuries of war- 
fare, during which time these fortifications were constructed as defences 
against the enemy. That they were for military purposes is scarcely bus- 
ceptible <^f a doubt. This implies a state of warfare, and war implies au 
enemy. The struggle ended in the final subjugation of that people to whom 



THE NORTHWEST TEEEITORT. 67 

we apply the name of Mound Builders — ^tlieir conquerors and successors 
being a race of people iix whom we recognize to this day, traces of the 
Asiatic type. 

We, another race of people, after the lapse of other ages, tread to-day, in 
our turn, on the ruins of at least a limited civilization — a civilizati(m older 
than that of the Aztecs, whom Cortez found in Mexico. This great Missis- 
sippi valley was once a populous empire, millions of whose subjects repose 
in me sepulchers scattered in our valleys and over our prairies. While we 
bow at the shrine of a more intelligent Deity, and strive to build up a truer 
and better civilization, let us still remember that we tread on classic ground. 

SKEXCHES OF WESTERN AND NORTHWESTERN" STATES. 

Legislation in Regard to Ohio — Admission as a State — Description — Climate and Soil — Origin 
of Name — Seat of Government — ^Legislation in Regard to Indiana — Description — ^Lost 
River — Wyandot Cave— Seat of Government — Internal Improvements — ^Vmcennes — IIU- 
noia — Admission ae a State — ^Description — ^Productions — Towns and Cities — "Lover's 
Leap" — "Buffalo Rock" — "Cave in the Rock" — Michigan — ^The Boundary Question 
— Admission as a State — ^Description — ^History — Towns and Cities — Wisconsin — Descrip- 
tion — Climate and Productions — Ohjects of Interest — ^Towns and Cities — Sketch of Mil- 
waukee — Minnesota — Description — Lakes — Climate and Productions — ^Natural Scenery — 
Red Pipe Stone — Historical Sketch — ^Towns and Cities — Nebraska — ^Description — ^Towna 
and Cities^Missouri — Organic Legislation — ^The "Missouri Compromise "—Description — 
Early Settlement— St. Louis— Other Towns and Cities. 

OHIO. 

Omo was the first State formed out of the territory northwest of the river 
Ohio, which was ceded to the United States by the General Assembly of 
Virginia in 1783, and accepted by the Congress of the United States, March 
1,1784:. This territory was divided into two separate governments by act 
of Congress of May 7, 1800. Ohio remained a Territorial government until 
imder an act of Congress, approved April 30, 1802, it adopted a State consti- 
tution, and was allowed one representative in Congress. On the first of 
November of the same year the constitution was presented in Congress. 
The people having, on November 29, 1802, complied with the act of Con- 
gress of April 30, 1802, whereby the State became one of the United States, 
an act was passed and approved February 19, 1803, for the due execution of 
the laws of the United States within that State. 

The State embraces an area of about 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 
acres. There are no mountains, but the central portion of the State is ele- 
vated about 1000 feet above the level of the sea, while other portions are 
from 600 to 800 feet in elevation. A belt of highlands north of the middle 
of the State separates the rivers flowing north into Lake Erie from those 
flowing south into the Ohio river. Tae middle portion of the State in 
great part is an elevated plain with occasional patches of marsh land. A 
large proportion of the State when first settled was covered with forests, but 
in the central part there was some prairie. Boulders are found scattered 
over the surface, as they are generally throughout the Northwest. 

The bituminous coal-field of the State extends over an area embracing 
nearly 12,000 square miles. It occupies the eastern and southeastern part§, 
with its northern boundary running near Wooster, Newark, and Lancaster. 
There are also frequent beds of limestone, as weU as sandstone well suited for 
heavy masonry. The most important of the other mineral productions is 



68 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOEYi 

Iron, which it possesses in great abundance. This is found running through 
the counties of Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Mei^s, Vinton, Athens, and 
Hocking, in a bed 100 miles long by 12 wide. For fine castings it is not 
surpassed by that found in any other part of the United States. Salt 
springs are also frequent. 

The great river of the State is the Ohio, which forms its southern bound- 
ary, and receives the tributary volume of waters flowing from the Muskin- 
gum, Scioto, and Miami, as well as those of many smaller streams. The 
interior rivers mentioned vary in length from 110 to 200 miles. The Ohio 
is navigable by steamboats of the first-class during one-half the year to Pitts- 
burg. The Muskingum is navigable by means of dams and locks to 
Zanesville, 70 miles from its mouth, and at times 30 miles farther up to 
Coshocton. On the northern slope of the State, beginning at the northwest, 
are the Maumee, Sandusky, Huron, and Cuyahoga, all flowing into Late 
Erie, and all flowing their entire course within the State, except the Mau- 
mee, which rises in Indiana. The last-named river is navigable for lake 
steamers a distance of 18 miles. Lake Erie coasts the state about 150 miles 
on the north and northeast, afibrding several good harbors. 

The climate in the southern part of the State is mild, while in the north 
the temperature is equally as rigorous as in the same latitude near the 
Atlantic. Great droughts have occasionally prevailed, but the State is re- 
garded as one of the most productive in the Union. Indian com, wheat, 
rye, oats, and barley, are the leading cereals. All the fruits of the temperate 
latitudes are generally abundant. The forest trees are of many kinds, includ- 
ing the several varieties of oak, hickory, sugar and maple, beech, poplar, aBh, ' 
sycamore, paw-paw, buckeye, dogwood, cherry, elm, and hackberry. ' f 

The State receives its name from that of the river which forms its southern 
boundary. It is of Indian or aboriginal origin. It is not easy to determine 
its real signification in the Indian language, but some writers have claimed 
that it means handsome or beautiful. This opinion would seem to be some- 
what plausible from the fact that the early French explorers called it La, 
Belle Biviere, or the Beautiful River, having probably learned the significa- 
tion of the Indian name, and therefore gave it a French name with the 
same signification. 

Ohio was first partially settled by a few French emigrants on the Ohio 
river, while they possessed Canada and Louisiana, about the middle of the 
the last century. But these settlements were very inconsiderable until the 
year 1787 and 1788, when the Ohio Company iand others from New England 
made the settlement at Marietta. The early inhabitants were much annoyed 
by the incursions of the Indians, who had successively defeated Gen. Harmar 
and Gen. St. Clair, in 1791 and 1792, but were themselves utterly routed hy 
Gen. Wayne in August, 1794. Fort Sandusky, in the war of 1812, was suc- 
cessfully defended by Maj. Croghan, then but 21 years of age, with 160 men 
against the attack of Gen. Proctor, with 500 British regulars and as many 
Indians. Cincinnati was laid out as early as 1788, but there were only a few set- 
tlers until after Wayne's victory. It then improved rapidly, having in 1818 
a population of upward of 9,000. ChiUicothe was laid out in 1796, and in 
1818 had a population of 2,600. Columbus, the present capital, was laid 
out early in the year 1812, and in 1818 contained about 1,500 inhabitants. 
Cleveland was laid out in 1796, and about the same time a number of set- 
tlements were made along the Miami. Until the legislature met in Golitm- 
' bus, in December, 1816, Cincinnati and ChiUicothe liad alternately enjoyed 



THE NOETHWEST TEEKITOET. 



69 



the distinction of being both the Territorial and State capitals. In 1814: the 
first State-house, a plain brick building, was erected at Columbus, the per- 
manent seat of the State Government. In February, 1852, it was entirely 
consumed by fire, and was succeeded by the present fine State capitol, which 
had been commenced prior to the destruction of the old one. The conven- 
tion which formed the first constitution of the State was held in ChiUicothe, 
in November, 1802. 

The following table shows the population of Ohio at the close of each 
decade fi-om 1800 to 1870: 



YBAK. 



WHITE. 



COLOBED. 



AGGBEaATE. 



1800. 
1810. 
1820. 
1830. 
1840. 
1850. 
1860. 
1870. 



45,028 

228,861 

576,572 

928,829 

1,502,122 

1,955,050 

2,302,808 

2,601,946 



aS7 

1,899 

4,723 

9,574 

17,345 

25,279 

86.673 

63,213 



45,365 

230,760 

581,295 

937,903 

1,519,467 

1,980,329 

*2,339,511 

*2,665,260 



*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 30 enumerated as Indians, aifd the aggregate for 
1870 includes 100 enumerated as Indians." 



INDIANA. 

Indiana was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territory which 
was ceded to the United States by the Virginia. It received a separate Ter- 
ritorial form of government by act of Congress of May 7, 1800, and William 
Henry Harrison was appointed Governor. At this time it included all the 
territory west to the Mississippi river, including aU now embraced in the 
States of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of 
the Mississippi. The seat of the territorial government was established at 
Vincennes. By act of January 11, 1805, it was divided into two separate 

fovemments, and that of Michigan created. Again, February 3, 1809, that of 
Uinois was created. On the 19th of April, 1816, Congress passed an act 
to enable the people of Indiana to form a constitution and State government. 
On the 29th of June of the same year the people formed a constitution, and 
on the 11th of December, 1816, an act of Congress was approved admitting 
the State into the Union. The laws of the United States were extended to 
the State by an act of March 3, 1817. 

■Indiana is 278 miles in its greatest length from north to south, and about 
144 miles in width, and includes an area of 33,809 square miles, or 21,637,- 
760 acres. It has no mountains or great elevations, but portions south of 
White river are somewhat hilly. !North of the White and Wabash rivers 
the country is generally level or slightly undulating. The rivers are gener- 
ally bordered by rich alluvial bottom lands, sometimes extending for several 
miles in width. Some of the southeastern counties in places present a 
roc^ surface. The eastern part is generally heavily timbered, while the 
western is chiefly prairie. The State has a gradual inclination toward the 
Ohio, and most of the streams flow into that river. Lake Michigan borders 
the State on the liorthwest for a distance of about 40 miles, while the Ohio 
forms the entire southern boundary. In the northern part there are some 
small lakes. The Wabash is the largest interior river, and with its tributa- 
ries drains nearly three-fourths of the State, At high water it is navigable 



70 THE NOETHWEST TBEEITOEY. 

by steamboats as far as Covington. "Wliite river is its principal tributary. 
It rises in two branches in tbe eastern part of tbe State, the two branches 
nniting about 30 miles from the Wabash. The Maumee is formed by the 
St. Joseph's and St. Mary's in the northeastern part of the State, and passes 
off into Ohio. The Kankakee, one ol the sources of the Illinois, drains 
the northwestern part of the State. Among other streams are the Tippeca- 
noe, Mississiniwa, Whitewater, Flat Kock, and Blue rivers. 

The State yields an abundance of coal, the great deposit being in the 
southwestern portion, and embracing an area of nearly 8,000 square miles, or 
some twenty-two counties, in most of which it is profitably mined. There 
are also iron, zinc, gypsum, and lime and sandstone. Many quarries of stone 
yield excellent building material. 

Indiana is not without its natural wonders which have attracted the atten- 
tion of the curious. Among these is Lost river, in Orange county. This 
stream is about fifty feet in width. It sinks many feet under ground, and 
then rises to the surface at a distance of 11 miles. Then there is Wyandot 
Cave, in Crawford county. In beauty and magnificence it almost rivals the 
celebrated Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. It has been explored a distance 
of over twenty miles. Its greatest width is about 300 feet, and its greatest 
height 245 feet. Among its interior wonders are "Bandit's Hall," "Pluto's 
Kavine," "Monument Mountain," "Lucifer's Gorge." and "Calypso's 
Island." The interior is brilliantly sparred with pendant stalactites. 

The climate is milder than in the same latitude on the Atlantic coast, but 
somewhat subject to sudden changes. The soil is generally productive, and 
in the river bottoms very deep, well adapted to Indian corn and other kinds 
pf grain. The alluvial bottom lands of the Wabash and its tributaries are 
especially noted for their fertility. The productions are the various kinds 
of grain, vegetables, and fruits common in temperate latitudes. 

Indiana has a large variety of forest trees. Among those indigenous to 
the State are several kinds of oak, poplar, ash, walnut, hickory, elm, cheny, 
maple, buckeye, beech, locust, sycamore, Cottonwood, hackberry, mulberry, 
and some sassafras. 

Indianapolis is the capital, and is situated on the west fork of White 
river, in Marion ounty. The site was selected tor the capital in 1820, while 
the whole country for forty miles in every direction was covered with a 
dense forest. Previous to 1825 the State capital was at Corydon, but in 
that year the public offices were removed to Indianapolis. The State-house 
was erected at a cost of $60,000, and at that time was considered an elegant 
buildinw. It is now unsuited for the purposes of a great State like Indiana 
and will soon give place to a larger and more elegant structure. Indianapolis, 
in 1840,had a population of 2,692 ; in 1850 it had 8,900 ; in 1860 it had 18,611', 
and in 1870 it had 48,244. 

In works of internal improvement Indiana stands among the leading States 
of the Mississippi valley. Eailroads radiate in all directions from Indian- 
apolis, and there is scarcely a place in the State of any considerable import- 
ance that is not connected, directly or indirectly, with the larger cities. 
Among her early improvements were the Wabash and Erie Canal, connect- 
ing Evansville with Toledo, and the Whitewater Canal, connecting Cam- 
bridge City with Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio. Of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, 879 miles are within the limits of Indiana. The Whitewater Canal 
is 74 miles long. Indianapolis is the largest and most important city in 
the State, and among the principal cities may be mentioned New Albany, 



THE NOBTHWEST TEKEITOBT. 



71 



Evansville, Fort Wayne, La Fayette, Terre Haute, Madison, Laporte, Jeffer- 
Bonville, Logansport, Crawfordsville, Lawrenceburg, Sonth JBend and Michi- 
gan City. Oorydon, the former State capital, is 116 miles south of Indian- 
apolis, in Harrison county. When the seat of government was removed from 
this place to Indianapolis, in 1834, it remained stationary for a long time, 
but within a few years it has become more flourishing. V incennes, the an- 
cient seat of the Territorial government, is on the left bank of the Wabash 
river, 120 miles south of Indianapolis. It is the oldest town in the State, 
and possesses much historic interest, being first settled by the French about 
the year 1735. Many of the present inhabitants are of French descent. 
The seat of government was removed from Vincennes to Corydon in 1813. 
The following table shows the population of Indiana, at the close of each 
decade, from 1800 to 1870: 



WHITE. 



COLOBED. 



AGOBEQATE. 



1800. 
1810. 

1820. 
J830. 
1840. 
1850. 
1860. 
1870. 



2,402 

2:3,890 

145,758 

339,399 

678,688 

977,154 

1,338,710 

1,655,837 



298 

630 

1,420 

3,632 

7,168 

11,262 

11,428 

24,560 



2,517 

24,520 

147,178 

343,031 

685,866 

988,416 

*1,350,428 

*1,680,637 



*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 290 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 
1870 includes 240 enumerated as Indians. 



ILLINOIS. 

Illinois was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territory, which 
was ceded to the United States by the State of Virginia. An act for divid- 
ing the Indian Territory, was passed by Congress, and approved February 
3d, 1809. An act to enable the people of the Territory to form a constitu- 
tion and State government, and authorizing one representative in Congress, 
was passed and approved April 18th, 1818. By the same act a part of the 
Territory of Illinois was attached to the Territory of Michigan. The people 
having, on the 26th of August of the same year, formed a constitution, a 
joint resolution was passed by Congress, and approved December 3d, 1818, 
admitting the State into the Union, and on the 2d of March following, an 
act was approved to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United 
States within the State of Illinois. 

The extreme length of Illinois from north to south is about 380 miles, 
and its greatest vnldth about 200 miles. It embraces an area of 56,409 square 
miles, or 35,459,200 acres. The surface of the State is generally level, with 
a general inclination from north to south, as indicated by the course of its 
rivers. There are some elevated blufts along the Mississippi and Ulinois 
rivers, and a small tract of hilly country in the southern part of the State. 
The northwest part also contains a considerable amount of broken land. 
Some of the prairies are large, but in the early settlement of the State there 
were many small prairies, skirted with fine groves of timber. The prairies 
are generally undulating, and in their native state were clothed in a great 
variety of beautiful wild flowers. The State is weU supplied with minerals 
of great economic value. The region of Galena, in the northwest part, has 



72 



THE N0STHWE8T TEBBITOKT. 




LINCOLN MONUUENT, SPBINQEIELD, ILL. 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 73 

for many years yielded vast quantities of lead. The coal fields cover an area 
of 44,000 square miles. There are salt springs in Gallatin, Jackson and 
Vermillion counties; and medicinal springs, chiefly sulphur and chalybeate, 
have been foimd in several places. Excellent building stone for heavy ma- 
sonry, are quarried at Joliet, La Mont, Qnincy, and other places. 

Illinois possesses pre-eminent facilities for water transportation, the Missis- 
sippi river forming the entire western boundary, and the Ohio the entire 
southern, while Lake Michigan bounds it on the northeast 60 miles. The 
Illinois river is navigable for steamboats 286 miles. Eock river, though 
having obstructions near its mouth, has in times of high water been navi- 

fated for a considerable distance. Kaskaskia, Sangamon and Spoon rivers 
ave also been navigated by steamboat, but the construction of railroads has 
in a great measure superseded the necessity of this means of transportation. 
Among the rivers are the upper portion of the "Wabash, which receives from 
this State the waters of the V ermiUion, Embarras and Little "Wabash. The 
principal tributaries, or sources, of the Illinois river are Kaskaskia, Des 
Plaines and Fox rivers. Lake Peoria is an expansion of the Illinois river, 
near the middle of the State. Lake Pishtoka, in the northeast part, is a lake 
of some importance. 

Illinois, extending through five degrees of latitude, presents considerable 
variety of climate. Peaches and some other fruits, which do not succeed so 
weU in the northern part, rarely fail to yield abundantly in the southern part. 
The State has immense agricultural capabilities, unsurpassed, indeed, by any 
other State in the Union, unless it may be the younger State of Iowa. Among 
its agricultural staples are Indian corn, wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, butter and 
cheese. Stock raising on the prairies of Illinois has, for many years, been 
carried on extensively. All the fruits and vegetables common to the latitudes 
in which it is situated are successfully and abundantly produced. 

Timber is plentiful, but not very equally diffused. The bottom lands are 
supplied with fine growths of black and white walnut, ash, hackberry, elm, 
sugar maple, honey locust, sycamore, cottonwood, hickoiy, and several species 
of oak. Some of these also grow on the uplands, and in addition white oak, 
and other valuable kinds of timber. White and yellow poplar flourish in 
the southern part, and cypress on the Ohio bottom lands. 

As we have seen, Illinois did not become a member of the Federal Union 
until 1818, yet settlements were made within its limits about the same time 
that "William Penn colonized Pennsylvania, in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century. These settlements, like other French colonies, failed to in- 
crease very rapidly, and it was not until after the close of the Revolution, 
that extensive colonization commenced. 

Springfield, the capital of Illinois, was laid out in 1822. It is situated 
three mfles south of the Sangamon river, in Sangamon county, and is sur- 
rounded by rich and extensive prairies, which have been transformed into 
splendid farms. Large quantities of bituminous coal are mined in this 
vicinity. This city will ever be memorable as the home of Abraham Lincoln, 
and as the place where his remains are entombed. In 1840 it had a pop- 
ulation of 2,579; in 1850 it had 4,533; in 1860 it had 7,002; and in 1870 
it had 17,364. Since the last date the population has increased rapidly. A 
new and magnificent State capitol has been erected, and Springfield may 
now be regarded as one of the flourishing cities of Illinoig. 

Chicago, on the site of old Fort Dearborn, is now the largest interior city 
of tlie United States. It stands on the shore of Lake Michigan, with the 



■74: 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 



Chicago river flowing through it. As the great commercial emporiuni of 
the If orthwest, a special account of this city will be mven elsewhere. Among 
other large and thriving cities are Peoria, Quiney, Galena, Belleville, Alton, 
Eockford, Bloomington, Ottawa, Aurora, Lincoln, Eock Island, Galesbnrg, 
Joliet and Jacksonville. 

The internal improvements of Illinois are on a grand scale. The rail- 
roads traverse almost every county, connecting her towns and cities with her 
great commercial city on the lake, and with the markets of the East. Besides 
these, she has her great canal, from Chicago to Peru, uniting the waters of 
Lake Michigan with the Mississippi river. This canal is 100 miles long. 

A few striking features of the natural scenery of this State may be men- 
tioned. Along the Mississippi are bold and picturesque bluffs, rising from 
.one to three hundred feet. " Starved Kock " and " Lover's Leap " are eminen- 
ces on Illinois river, "the former being a perpendicular mass of limestone, 
eight miles below Ottawa, and rising 150 feet above the river. It is so called 
from an incident in Indian warfare. A band of Illinois Indians took refuge 
on this eminence from the Pottawattamies, but being surrounded by the 
datter, they all died, it is said not of starvation, but of thirst. !Nearly oppo- 
site "Lover's Leap" is "Buffalo Eock," 100 feet high. • Here the Indians 
formerly drove the buffalo, and with shouts caused them to crowd each other 
•over the precipice. On the banks of the Ohio, in Hardin county, is " Cave 
in the Eock," the entrance to which is but little above the water. The cave 
ascends gradually from the entrance to the extreme limit, back 180 feet. In 
1797 it was the rendezvous of a band of robbers, who sallied forth to rob 
boatmen and emigrants. Other outlaws have since made it their abode. 

The following table shows the population of Illinois at the close of each 
decade, from 1800 to 1870. 



COLOBED. 



AOaSBaAOlE. 



1800. 
1810. 
1820. 
1830. 
1840. 
1850. 
1860. 
1870. 



2,275 


183 


11,501 


781 


5.3,788 


1.374 


155,061 


2,384 


472,254 


3,929 


846,034 


5,436 


1,704.291 


7,628 


2,511,096 


28,762 



2,458 

12,282 

55,162 

157,445 

476,183 

851,470 

*1,711,951 

*2,539,891 



* The above aggregate for 1860 includes 32 enumerated aa Indians, and the same number 
enumerated as Indians in 1870. 



MICHIGAN. 



Michigan was formed out of a part of the territory ceded to the United 
States by the State of Yirginia. It was detached from Indiana Territory, 
and become a separate Territorial government under an act of Congress ap- ' 
proved January 11, 1805. It remained for more tlian thirty years under a 
territorial form of government, but embraced a vast region not now inclu- 
ded in the State. During this time there was considerable legislation in 
regard to its boundaries, the most important of which was the adjustment 
of the boundary line between Michigan and the State of Ohio, in 1836. In 
Januaiy, 1833, a memorial of the Legislative Council of the Territory was 
presented in Congress, praying for admission into the Union as a State. 
The prayer of the memorial was not granted at that time, partly on account 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 75 

of the disputed boundary question. Finally, on the 15th of June, 1836, an 
act was passed " to establish the northern boundary of the State of Ohio, 
and to provide for the admission of the State of Michigan into the Union, 
upon conditions therein expressed." One of the conditions was, that if a 
convention of delegates elected by the people of Michigan for the purpose 
of giving their assent to the boundaries, as declared and established by the 
act of June 15th, 1836, should first give their assent, then Michigan was to 
be declared one of the States of the Union. This condition having been 
complied with, Congress, on the 26th of January, 1837, passed an act de- 
claring Michigan one of the United States, and admitting it into the Union 
upon an equal footing with the original States. 

Michigan occupies two peninsulas, the southern one lying between Lakes 
Erie, St. Clair and Huron on the east, and Lake Michigan on the west ; and 
the northern one between Lakes Michigan and Huron on the south, and 
Lake Superior on the north. The northern peninsula is about 320 miles in 
extreme length, from southeast to northwest, and 130 miles in its greatest 
width. The southern peninsxila is about 283 miles from north to south, and 
210 from east to west in its greatest width. The joint area of the two 
peninsulas is 56,243 square miles, or 35,595,520 acres. The northern penin- 
sula embraces about two-fifths of the total area. 

The southern peninsula is generally an undulating plain, with a few slight 
elevations. The shores of Lake Huron are often characterized by steep 
bluff's, while those of Lake Michigan are coasted by shifting sand-hills, ris- 
ing from one hundred to two hundred feet in height. In the southern part 
of this peninsula are large districts covered with thinly scattered trees, called 
"oak openings." 

The northern peninsula is in striking contrast with the southern, both as 
to soil and surface. It is rugged, with streams abounding in water-falls. 
The Wisconsin, or Porcupine Mountains, form the water-shed between Lakes 
Michigan and Superior, and attain an elevation of 2,000 feet in the northwestern 
portion of the peninsula. The shores of Lake Superior are composed of 
sandstone rock, which in places is worn by the winds and waves into many 
strange and fanciful shapes, resembling the ruins of castles, and forming 
the celebrated "Pictured Kocks." The northern peninsula of Michigan 
possesses probably the richest copper mines in the world, occupying a belt 
one hundred and twenty miles in length by from two to six miles in width. 
It is rich in minerals, but rigorous in climate and sterile in soil. Coal is 
plentiful at Corunna, one hundred miles from Detroit. 

The State is so surrounded and intersected by lakes as to fairly entitle it 
to the soubriquet of " The Lake State." There are a number of small lakes 
in the interior of the State, which add to the general variety of scenery, but 
are not important to navigation. The Straits of Mackinaw (formerly writ- 
ten Michilimackinae) divide the southern from the northern peuinsula, and 
connect the waters of Lakes Michigan and Huron by a navigable channel. 
There are a number of small rivers, the most important in the southern pe- 
ninsula being St. Joseph's, Kalamazoo, Grand, Muskegon and Manistee, all 
emptying into Lake Michigan; and An Sable and Siganaw, flowing into 
Lake Huron, and the Huron and Eaisin discharging their waters into Lake 
Erie. The principal rivers of the northern penmsula are the Menomonee, 
Montreal and Ontonagon. The shores around the lakes are indented by nu- 
merous bays. Several small islands belong to Michigan, the most impor- 
tant of which is Isle Koyale, noted for its copper mines. 



76 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

The climate of MicUgan is generally rigorous, except in proximity to the 
lakes, where the fruits ol the temperate zone succeed admirably. The north- 
em peninsula ifi favorable for winter wheat, but Indian com does not sucr 
ceed well. In the southern peninsula, Indian corn is produced abundantly, 
as well as the winter grains. This part of the State is pre-eminently agri- 
cultural.' 

Portions of the northern peninsula are heavily timbered with white pine, 
spruce, hemlock, birch, aspen, maple, ash and elm, and vast quantities of 
lumber are manufactured at the fine mill-sites afforded by the rapid streams. 
Timber is plentiful also in the southern peninsula, and consists chiefly of 
several species of oak, hickory, ash, basswood, maple, elm, linden, locust, 
dogwood, poplar, beech, sycamore, cottonwood, black and white walnut,, 
cherry, pine, tamarack, cypress, cedar and chestnut. 

■ Northern Michigan abounds in picturesque scenery, among which may 
be mentioned the " Pictured Eocks," composed of sandstone of various col- 
ors. They extend for about twelve miles, and rise 300 feet above the water. 
Sometimes cascades shoot over the precipice, so that vessels can sail between 
them and the natural wall of the rock. This portion of the State every sea- 
son attracts large numbers of excursionists and pleasure-seekers, on account 
of its charming and interesting scenery. 

The State is named for the lake which forms a part of its boundary, and 
signifies in the Indian language, " Great Water." The first white settle- 
ments were by the French, near Detroit and at Mackinaw, in the latter ball 
of the seventeenth century ; but these colonies did not progress rapidly. 
This territory, with other "French possessions in North America, came into 
possession of Great Britain at the peace of 1763. It remained under the 
dominion of Great Britain until the American Revolution, when it became 
the possession of the United States. The British, however, did not surren- 
der Detroit until 1796. This region was chiefly the scene of the exploits 
of the celebrated chief Pontiac, alter the expulsion of the French. During 
the war of 1812, Michigan became the theater of several of the battles and 
many of the incidents connected with that war. At Frenchtown, in this 
State, January 22, 1813, occurred a cruel massacre by the savages of a party of 
American prisoners of war. Gen. Harrison soon after drove the enemy out 
of the Territory, and removed the seat of war into Canada, where he fought 
and gained the battle of the Thames. 

Lansing, the capital of Michigan, is situated on Grand river, in Ingham 
county one hundred and ten miles northwest, of Detroit. It was selected for 
the seat of government in 1847, at which time it was surroimded by an al- 
most unbroken wilderness. The river here affords excellent \^rater power. 
A new and handsome State capitol has just been completed. 

Detroit, situated on the river from which it takes its name, eighteen miles 
from the head of Lake Erie, is the largest city in the State. It was the 
capital until the removal of the seat of government to Lansing, in 1850. 
Historically it is one of the most interesting cities in the "West. The French 
had here a military post as early as 1670. Three Indian tribes, the Hurons, 
Pottawattamies and Ottawas, had their villages in the vicinity. With other 
French possessions, it passed into the hands of the British at the peace of 
1763, and twenty years later it came under the jurisdiction of the United 
States, although, as stated above, it was not surrendered until. 1796. June 
11th, 1805, it was almost totally destroyed by fire. Gen. Wm. Hull, first 
governor of the Territory of Michigan, then projected the city, on a new 



TDK NOETHWEST TEEEITOKT. 



77 



phin. On the 18tli of August, 1812, this same Gren. Hull surrendered it 
into the hands of the British, but the latter evacuated it September 29th of 
the same year. In 1870 the population was 79,577, and since then has rap- 
idly increased. 

Among the other important towns and cities in the State, are Grand Eap- 
ids, Adrian, Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Jackson and Monroe. 

The following table shows the population of Michigan at the close of each 
decade, from 1800 to 1870: 



COLORED. 



AOOBESATE. 



1800. 
1810. 

1820. 
1830. 
1840. 
1850. 
1860. 
1870. 



651 

4^18 
^ 8,591 
31,346 
211,560 
395,071, 
736,142 
1,167,282 



144 

174 

293 

707 

2,583 

6,799 

11.849 



551 

4,762 

8,765 

31,659 

212,276 

397,654 

*749,113 

*1,184,059 



*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 6,172 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 includes 4,926 enumerated as Indians. 



WISCONSIN. 



Wisconsin was formed out of a portion of the Territory of Michigan, but 
was originally a part of the Northwestern Territory ceded by the State of 
Yirginia to the TJnited States. On the 12th of December, 1832, a resolution 
passed the house of representatives directing, a committee to inquire into the 
expediency of creating a Territorial government for Wisconsin out of a part 
of Michigan. On the 20th of April, 1836, an act was passed and approved 
establishing a Territorial government. On the 20th of June, 1838, an act 
was passed and approved to divide the Territory of. Wisconsin, and to estab- 
lish the Territorial government of Iowa. June 12, 1838, an act was passed 
designating the boundary line between the State of Michigan and the Terri- 
tory of Wisconsin. On the 6th of August, 1846, an act was passed and 
approved to enable the people to form a constitution and State government. 
On the 21st of January, 1847, the people adopted a constitution, and on the 
3d of March of the same year an act of Congress was passed and approved 
for the admission of the State into the Union. By act of May 29, 1848, the 
State was declared admitted into the Union, to be entitled to three represen- 
tatives in Congress after March 3, 1849. 

The extreme length of Wisconsin from north to south is about 285 miles, 
and its greatest breadth from east to west is about 255 miles. It includes 
an area of about 63,924 square miles, or 34,51 1 ,360 acres. It is generally of an 
elevated rolling surface, with a large proportion of prairie. There are no 
mountains, properly so called, though the descent toward Lake Superior is 
quite abrupt, and the rivers full of rapids and falls, which afford valuable 
mill-sites. The great lakes, Superior and Michigan, lave the northern and 
eastern borders, besides which there are a number of smaller lakes, the most 
important of which is Lake Winnebago, southeast of the middle of the State. 
It is 28 miles long and 10 miles wide, and communicates with Green Bay 
through the Fox or Neenah river. In the northwestern part are numerous 
small lakes, with clear water, gravelly or rocky bottoms, and bold picturesque 



78 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOEY. 

shores. The rivers generally flow in a southwest direction and discharge 
their waters into the Mississippi, which flows along the southwest border of 
the State for more than 200 miles. The most important interior river is the 
Wieconsin, which has a course of about 200 miles almost directly south, 
when it changes its course westwardly, and flows about 100 miles further to 
its junction with the Mississippi. At favorable stages it is navigable for 
steamboats 180 miles. The Bad Axe, Black, Chippewa, and St. Croix rivers 
are important streams for floating timber and lumber from the pine region 
in the northwest part of the State. The streams flowing into Lake Superior 
are small, but rapid, afibrding excellent mill-sites. 

The climate is severe and the winters long, but the State is free from the 
unhealthy changes which are common farther south. The south and middle 
portions form a fine agricultural region. Wheat is the great staple produc- 
tion, though all kinds of small grain and Indian com are raised successfully. 
Large portions of the State are well adapted to grazing and the dairy. The 
normern part of the State, about the head-waters of the Black and Chippewa 
rivers, and the sources of the rivers emptying into Lake Superior, has but 
limited agricultural capabilities, as in that region are many ponds and 
marshes, and also large quantities of boulders scattered over the surface. 

There are many objects of interest to the tourist and the lover of the 
picturesque. The rivers abound in rapids and falls. In St. Louis river 
there is a series of cascades which have a descent of 320 feet in 16 miles. 
The Menomonee river at Quinnesec Falls dashes down over a perpendicular 
ledge of rocks 40 feet, and has a fall of 134 feet in a mile and a half. Among 
other noted faUs are the St. Croix, Chippewa and Big Bull Falls in the "Wis- 
consin river. Along the rivers are many grand views of bluffs, rising from 
150 to 200 feet, and at one place in Eichland county on the "Wisconsin, 
where it passes through a narrow gorge, the cliffs have an elevation of from 
400 to 500 feet. On the Mississippi, in La Crosse county, the rocks rise 
500 feet perpendicularly above the water. 

The great lead region extends into the southwestern part of "Wisconsin. 
The deposit here is intermingled to some extent with copper and zinc, 
together with some silver. Copper is found in a number of places, and also 
some iron ore. The iron ores of the Lake Superior region extend into "Wis- 
consin. Beautiful varieties of marble are found on the Menomonee river and 
in other localities. 

On the upper "Wisconsin river, and other tributaries of the Mississippi, 
north of the Wisconsin, are vast forests of pine, and immense quantities are 
annually floated down the Mississippi to supply the markets in other States. 
Among other forest trees are spruce, tamarack, cedar, hemlock,' oak of sev- 
eral varieties, birch, aspen, basswood, hickory, elm, ash, poplar, sycamore and 
sugar-maple. 

Wisconsin was visited at an early period by French missionaries, and a 
settlement was made in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

Madison, the capital of the State, is situated on an isthmus between Lakes 
Mendota and Monona, 80 miles west of Milwaukee, and 132 miles northwest 
of Chicago. When the place was selected for the seat of government in 
1836, there were no buildings except a solitary log cabin. The State capitol 
is a fine looking stone building erected at a cost of $500,000, and stands on 
an elevation seventy feet above the lakes. The city overlooks a charniing 
country, diversified by a pleasing variety of scenery. It has steadily and 
rapidly increased in population. 



THE NOETHVirEST TEEBITOET. 



79 



The great city of "Wisconsin is Milwaukee (called at an early day " Mil- 
wacky 'M and next to Chicago may bo regarded as the commercial metropolis 
of the Is orthwest. It is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan, about 
90 miles north of Chicago. Milwaukee river empties into the lake at this 
point. The city is situated on both sides of the river, and has one of the 
best harbors on the whole chain of lakes. The fine water power of the Mil- 
waukee river is an important element in its prosperity. Being a port of 
entry, the government nas expended large sums in the improvements of its 
harbor, and in the erection of public buildings. 

In 1805 Jacques Vieau, a half-breed trader whose house was at Green 
Bay, visited the country at the mouth of the Milwaukee river for the pur- 
pose of trading with the Indians. This he did annually until in September, 
1818, when he brought with him a young man named Solomon Juneau, who 
became his son-in-law. The young man established friendly relations with 
the Indians, and in 1822 erected a block-house on the site of the present city 
of Milwaukee. He remained for 18 years the only permanent white resi- 
dent, being visited occasionally by fur traders to whom he sold goods. In 
1836, the village which has grown to be a large city, beg^n to appear. Jun- 
eau died in 1856, at the age of 64 years, having lived to see the place he 
founded grow to a prosperous and flourishing city. In 1836 the population 
was 275; in 1840, it was 1810 ; in 1860, it was 19,873; in I860, it was 45,286; 
in 1870, it was 71,640 ; and at the present time (1878) it is estimated at 123,- 
000. 

Among other important towns and cities of "Wisconsin are Kacine, Janes- 
ville, Oshkosh, Fond du Lac, A^atertown, Sheboygan, Beliot, Kenosha, La 
Crosse, Wauwatosa, Manitowoc, Portage City, Platteville, Sheboygan Fallsj 
Beaver Dam, "Whitewater, Port "V/asnington, Green Bay, Mineral Point, 
Shullsburg, Monroe, Prescott, and Hudson. 

The following table shows the population of "Wisconsin at the close of each 
decade from 1800 to 1870: 



TF.AR. 


WHITE. 


COLORED. 


AGGREGATE. 


1800 


115 

' 30,749 

304,756 

773,693 

1,051,351 


'196 

635 

1,171 

2,113 


115 


1810 




1820 




1830 




1840 


30 945 


1850 i 


305,391 

*775,881 

*1,054,670 


I860 


1870 



*The above aggregate for 1860 includes 1017 enumerated a3 Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 includes 1206 enumerated as Indians. ^ 

MINNESOTA. 

The eastern portion of Minnesota formed a part of the ten-itoiy surrendered 
by the French to Great Britain at the peace of 1763, and subsequently by 
the latter to the United States at the close of the Revolution. The western 
portion is a part of the territory knoMm as the Louisiana Purchase, ceded by 
France to the United States in 1803. It received a Territorial form of gov- 
ernment under an act of Congress which became a law March 3, 1849, and 
was admitted into the Union as a State May 11, 1853. 

The extreme length of Minnesota north and south is about 380 miles, arid 



80 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

in widtli is about 300 miles. It embraces an area of 81,259 square miles, oi 
52,005,760 acres. The face of tbe countiy generally presents the appearance 
of an undulating plain, although it is the most elevated tract of country 
between the Grulf of liCexico ana Hudson's Bay. There are no mountains, 
but the summits of the water-sheds rise to a height of nearly two thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. 

Minnesota is one of the best watered States in the Union, being drained by 
many rivers and dotted over with innumerable small lakes and some of con- 
siderable size. The great Mississippi has its humble origin as a mere rivulet 
in Lake Itasca. This diminutive stream, here but a few feet in width, first 
meanders in a northeasterly direction, receiving tribute as it passes from a 
number of other small lakes, when it changes its course to the south, and 
after meandering a length of six hundred miles in Minnesota, dashes its 
waters down over the Falls of St. Anthony, then flows along the border of 
the State two hundred miles further, and thence grandly pursues its course 
to the Gulf of Mexico. Several tributaries of the Mississippi drain the 
southeastern portion of the State. The Ked Eiver of the North drains the 
northern part, passing oflf into Hudson's Bay. It is the outlet of a number 
of lakes, among which are Traverse, Otter Tail, and Bed. This river also 
forms the west Doundary of the State for about two hundred miles. That 
portion of the State sloping toward Lake Superior is drained by the St. Louis 
and its tributaries. St. !reters, or Minnesota river,' has a total length of 
over four hundred miles within the State. Its principal branch is Blue 
Earth or Mankato river, which flows nearly north. The St. Beters, Crow- 
Wing and Crow rivers are tributaries of the Mississippi from the west. 

Lake Superior forms a part of the eastern boundary, and the Lake of the 
Woods, a part of the northern. Among other lakes of considerable size are 
Eainy, Bed Lake, Lake Cass, and Leech Lake. Devil Lake in the north- 
west part is about 40 miles long and 15 miles wide, and is said to have no 
visible outlet. Lake Pepin is an expansion of the Mississippi in the north- 
eastern part of the State, and is a beautiful sheet of water. The State abounds 
in small lakes which are mostly clear and beautiful. Owing to the multitude 
of lakes Minnesota seldom suffers from inundations, as they tend to oheuk 
the sudden rise and violence of the streams. 

The, climate of the northern part of Minnesota is severe, but in the 
southern part is not so rigorous as to prevent fair crops of Indian.com from 
being produced some seasons. Wheat and other winter grains succeed ad- 
mirably in nearly all parts. In the valleys of the rivers the soil is excellent, 
and even the' valley of the Bed Biver of the North is regarded as a fine 
. agricultural region. Wheat is the great staple and the facilities for manu- 
facturing flour are unsurpassed, as the water power is practically unlimited. 

A portion of the State is heavily timbered with pine, and one of the great 
industries is the manufacture of lumber. Extensive forests of pine grow on 
the Bum, St. Oroix, and Pine rivers, and on the shores of the Mississippi, 
below Pokegamin Falls. Taken, as a whole, however, Minnesota cannot be 
called a well-wooded country. The river bottoms furnish some very good 
growths of oak, aspen, soft maple, basswood, ash, birch, white walnut, linden 
and elni. In the swamps or marshy places are found tamarack, cedar, and 
cypress. 

Minnesota presents to the tourist many natural objects of interest, especially 
ih her grand and beautiful scenery along the Mississippi and around her lakes. 
St. Anthony's Falls are celebrated, not so much for their magnitude as a 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 81 

cataract, as for their geological interest and the wild scenery connected with 
them. Like Niagara, the falls are divided by an island, with the larger 
volume of water passing on the west side. This west division is 310 
yards wide. The greatest perpendicular fall of water is but 1 6^^ feet, but in- 
cluding the rapids the descent is 58 feet in 260 rods. The rivers of Minne- 
sota have numerous picturesque falls and rapids, and are in many places 
bordered with perpendicular bluffs of limestone and sandstone. 

So far as revealed by geological examination, Minnesota possesses no 
great mineral or metallic wealth. There is, however, a rich deposit of iron 
ore in that part of the State bordering on Lake Superior. A thin vein of 
lead was discovered by the geological corps of Prof. Owen on Waraju river, 
and some copper was found, but not " in place," having probably been car- 
ried thither by the drift. Stone suitable for building purposes exists in 
great abundance. In the southwest part of the State is a singular deposit 
known as " red pipestone." Of this the Indians made their pipes, and the 
place of its deposit was held in great sacredness by them. It is said that 
different tribes at enmity with each other, met here on terms of amity and 
smoked the pipe of peace. Longfellow has rendered this locality celebrated 
in " Hiawatha." It was here — 

" On the Mountains of the Prairie, 
On the great Red Pipe-stone Quarry, 
Gitche Manito, the mighty, 
He the Master of Life, descending, 
On the red crags of the quarry. 
Stood erect, and called the nations. 
Called the tribes of men together." 

The first white men who are said to have visited the country now embraced 
in Minnesota, were two fur traders in the year 1654:. They returned to Mon- 
treal two years afterward and gave a glowing account of the country. This 
was followed by the visits of trappers and missionaries, and to the latter we 
are indebted for the first printed accounts of Minnesota. In 1805 an explor- 
ing expedition under Pike traversed the country. A military post was 
established at Fort Snelling in 1819. Excepting a British settlement at 
Pembina, which was not then known to be within the limits of the United 
States, no settlements were formed in Minnesota until after 1840. 

St. Paul, the capital of Minnesota, is in Kamsey county, on the bank of 
the Mississippi, 2070 miles from its mouth, and 9 miles by land below the 
Falls of St. .Ajithony. The first settlement was made about the year 1840. 
The population has increased rapidly, and as a manufacturing, commercial 
and business place it has assumed considerable importance. Minneapolis, a 
tew miles above St. Paul, is a rapidly growing city, and is noted for its 
great water power and manufacturing resources. Among other important 
towns are Stillwater, Eed "Wing, St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, and Mankato. 

The following table shows the population of Minnesota at the close of each 
decade from 1850 to 1870: 



TEAB. 


WHITB. 


COLORED. 


AGGREGATE. 


1850 


6,038 
169,395 
438,257 


89 

259 
759 


6,077 


1860 


*172,023 
*439,706 


1870 



•The above aggregate for 1860 includes 2369 enumerated as Indians, and the aggrregate 
for 1870 ineludes C90 enumerated as Indians. 



82 THB NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 



NEBEASKA. 



Nebraska is formed out of a part of the territory ceded to the United 
States by France by the treaty of April 30, ISOi. It was erected into a 
separate Territory May 30, 1854, the limits subsequently being greatly 
reduced by the formation of Dakota Territory in 1861, a right reserved in 
the act creating the Territory of Nebraska, It was admitted into the Union 
as a State, March 1, 1867. 

Nebraska is in its extreme length from east to west about 412 miles, and 
in breadth from north to south about 208 miles, embracing an area of 75,905 
square miles, or 48,336,800 acres. The greater portion of the State is an 
elevated undulating prairie with a general inclination toward the Missouri 
river. There are no mountains or very high hills. The soil is various, but 

fenerally fertile, except in the western portion near the base of the Eocky 
lountains. The bottom lands along the rivers are not surpassed in tertihty 
by any in the United States, while the higher undulating prairie is equally 
productive with that of other western States. When the prairies are once 
broken they are easy of cultivation, the soil being light and mellow. The 
staple productions are wheat, Indian corn, oats, and other cereals common 
to the latitiide. The climate is mild, as compared with that of the same 
latitude on the Atlantic. The summers are sometimes very warm, and the 
extreme western part is occasionally deficient in rain. Taken as a whole, 
however, this is destined to become one of the foremost agricultural States 
in the Union. 

Nebraska is deficient in native timber, but the older settled portions are 
dotted over with groves of artificial or cultivated timber, which is so rapid 
in its growth as to require but a few years to produce enough for the ordinary 
wants of the settler. The rivers and streams aie generally bordered with 
groves of native trees, including oak, walnut, hickory, cotton wood and willow. 
Along the Missouri river in places are some heavy growths of cottonwood. 

The Missouri river forms the entire eastern boundary, and is navigable 
for steamboats throughout the whole extent of that boundary and for nun- 
dreds of miles above. Among^the important interior rivers are the Platte, 
the Niobrara, the Eepublican Tork of the Kansas, the Elkhorn, the Loup 
Fork of the Platte, the Big Blue and the Nemaha. These rivers are so dis- 
tributed, as, with their numerous tributaries, to afford admirable drainage to 
all parts of the State, and as a consequence it is free from marshes, conduc- 
ing to the excellent health for which Nebraska is noted. 

So far as yet revealed, the State is not rich in minerals. Coal, however, 
has recently been discovered in the southeastern part, in a vein sufiiciently 
thick for mining. Near Lincoln are some salt springs of sufficient magni- 
tude to yield large quantities of salt. On Platte river and other streams 
both limestone and sandstone are obtained of suitable quality for building 
material. 

Bapid progress has been made in the construction of railroads in Nebraska. 
Among them are the Union Pacific and its branches, the Burlington & Mis- 
souri River and its branches, and others, affording railroad advantages to a 
large portion of the State, and connecting the principa.1 towns with tlie 
main lines, east, west and south. 

Lincoln, the capital of Nebraska, is in Lancaster county, in the soutlieast- 
ern part of the State. Here are most of the State institutions. It is a 
thriving young city and is in the midst of a fine agricultural portion of the 
State. ISTear it, on a little stream known as Salt Creek, are a number of 



THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 83 

salt springs, and considerable quantities of salt liave been manufactured. 
Eailroads connect it with all the great markets of the country. 

Omaha is the leading commercial city of the State, and is located on the 
west bank of the Missouri river in Dou^as coimty. It is 18 miles by land 
above the mouth of the Platte river. The principal portion of the city is 
situated on gently rising slopes extending from the river to the bluffs. The 
elevations are crowned with fine residences, and command pleasant views of 
the river and valley, with the city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in the distance. 
Since the completion of the Union Pacific Kailroad it has grown in popula- 
tion and wealth very rapidly. A costly iron railroad bridge spans the Mis- 
souri river at this point. As a produce, shipping and general commercial 
?oint it is rapidly growing into prominence. It was the first capital of the 
'erritory and State, and takes its name from a tribe of Indians. 
Among other important towns and cities are Nebraska City, Columbus, 
Kearney, Grand Island, Hastings, Plattsmouth, Tecumseh, and Niobrara. 

The following table shows the population of Nebraska by the census of 
1860 and 1870: 



TEAR. 



WHITE. 



COLORED. 



AOGBEGATE. 



I860. 
1870. 



28,696 
122,117 



82 
789 



28,841 
122,993 



In the agrgregate for 1860, the enumeration includes 63 Indians, and in that of 1870, th6 
enumeration includes 87 Indians. 

MISSOUEI. 

Missouri was formed out of a part of the territory ceded by France to the 
United States in 1803. By an act approved March 26th, 1804, the French, 
or Louisiana purchase, was divided, that part embracing the present State 
of Missouri being at first designated as the District of Louisiana. The 
name was changed to Territory of Louisiana, by an act passed March 3d, 
1805, and again by an act of June 4, 1812, Louisiana Territory was changed 
to Missouri Territory. By an act passed March 2, 1819, the southern por- 
tion was detached and organized as the Territory of Arkansas. During the 
same year thepeople of the Territory of Missouri, throiigh their Legislative 
Council and House of Representatives, memorialized Congress for admis,- 
sion into the Union as a State. On the 6th of March following an act was 

Sssed to authorize the people of the Territory to form a State constitution, 
issouri being the first State formed wholly out of territory west of the 
Mississippi, the question of the extension of slavery came up and gave 
rise to a stormy debate in Congress while the Missouri bill, as it was 
called, was pending. The propriety and expediency of extending that in- 
stitution to the new States west of the Mississippi, was powerfully and earn- 
estly contested, and resiilted in a compromise restricting slavery to certain 
limits, and prohibiting the extension of slavery to certain territory. The 
bill, however, of March 6th, passed without restrictions. The people on the 
19th of July, 1820, adopted their constitution, which was laid before Con- 
fess November 16th of the same year. The Senate passed a joint resolu- 
tion declaring the admission of the State of Missouri into the Union. This 
was referred to a select committee in the House of Eepresentatives, and on 



84 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOET. 

the 10th of February, 1 821, Mr. Clay made a report. The House rejected 
the resolution, and on motion of Mr. Clay, a committee on the part of the 
House was appointed to join a committee on the part of the Senate to con- 
sider the subject and report. On the 26th of February, Mr. Clay, from the 
joint committee, reported a " Resolution providing for the admission of the 
State of Missouri into the Union, on a certain condition." This resolution 
was passed and approved, March 2, 1821. The condition was that Missouri, 
by its legislature, should assent to a condition that a part of the State con- 
stitution should never be construed to authorize the passage of a law by 
which any citizen of either of the States in the Union should be excluded 
from the enjoyment of any of the priviliges and immunities to which sucli 
citizen is entitled under the Constitution of the United States. What was 
known as the " Missouri Compromise," was embraced in the act of the pre- 
-vious session, which authorized the people of the State of Missouri to form a 
State constitution, and consisted of a compromise section in the bill by which 
slavery was to be forever prohibited in that part of the territory west of the 
Mississippi (except the State of Missouri), lying north of thirty-six degrees 
and thirty minutes north latitude. Thus, after fierce and stormy debates, 
running through two sessions of Congress, Missouri came into the Union, 
and the exciting question of slavery was supposed also to have been settled. 
On the 10th of August, 1821, President Monroe issued his proclamation 
declaring the admission of Missouri completed, according to law. 

Missouri in its greatest length from east to west is about 285 miles, and' 
in width from north to south, 280 miles. It embraces an area of 67,380 
square miles, or 43,123,200 acres. Tliat portion of it north of the Missouri 
river is mostly undulating prairie and timber land, while that portion south 
of the Missouri river is characterized by a great variety of siirface. In the 
southeast part, near the Mississippi, is an extensive area of marshy land. 
The region forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains is hilly and bro- 
ken. West of the Osage river is a vast expanse of prairie. The geological 
features of Missouri are exceedingly interesting. Coal, iron and several 
kinds of stone and marble for building purposes exist in great abundance. 
A vast region, in the vicinity of Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, produces 
iron of the best quality, and exists in inexhaustible quantity. It is also 
found in other parts of the State. There is also lead, which has been mined 
in considerable quantities. Copper is found throughout the mineral region, 
but is found combined with other minerals. Silver is also combined with 
the lead ore. The bituminous coal deposits are mainly on both sides of the 
Missouri river, below the mouth of the Osage, and extending forty miles up 
that river. Cannel-coal is found in Callaway county. 

Missouri possesses the advantages of two of the greatest navigable rivers in 
the United States — the Mississippi, which forms her entire eastern boundary, 
and the Missouri, which flows along her northwestern border nearly two 
hundred miles, and crosses the State in a south-easterly course to its junc- 
tion with the Mississippi. As both of these rivers are navigable for the 
largest steamers, the State has easy and ready commercial intercourse to the 
Gulf of Mexico and the Eocky Mountains, as well as up the Ohio to Pitts- 
burg. Besides the Missouri, the State has several important interior rivers, 
to-wit : Grand river and Chariton, tributaries of the Missouri river from 
the north, and the Osage and Gasconade from the south ; also. Salt river and 
Maramee, tributaries of the Mississippi. The St. Francis and White river 



THE NOETHWEST TEEBITOEY. 85 

drain the soutlieastern part, passing from the State into Arkansas. The 
Osage is navigable for steamboats about 275 miles. 

Missouri as a State has many material resources, fitting her for becoming 
one of the most wealthy and populous States in the Union. The soil is gen- 
erally excellent, producing the finest crops, while those portions not so well 
adapted to agriculture are rich in minerals. The greater portion of the State 
is well timbered. In the river bottoms are heavy growths of oak, elm, 
ash, hickory, cottonwood, siigar, and white and black walnut. On the 
uplands also are found a great variety of trees. Yarious fruits, including 
apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries and strawberries, are produced in the 
greatest abundance. Among the staple productions are Indian corn, wheat, 
oats, potatoes, hemp and tobacco. A great variety of other crops are also 
raised. 

The State has an uneven and variable climate — the winters being very cold 
and the summers excessively hot. Chills and fever are common to some 
extent along the rivers. 

The earliest settlement in Missouri seems to have been by the French, about 
the year 1719. About that time they built what was called Fort Orleans, 
near Jefferson City, and the next year worked the lead mines to some extent. 
Ste. Genevieve was settled in 1755, also by the French, and is the oldest town 
in the State. Missouri's greatest commercial metropolis, St. Louis, was first 
settled in 1764, the earliest settlers being mostly French. 

Jefferson City, the capital of the State, is situated on the right bank of the 
Missouri river, in Cole county. It is 128 miles by land, and 155 miles by 
water from St. Louis. The location being elevated, commands a fine view 
of the river, with the pleasant and picturesque scenery which is presented at 
this point on the Missouri. 

St. Louis, the great commercial city of Missouri, as well as of a large por- 
tion of the N^orthwest, is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi, 
twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 174 above the mouth of 
the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, and 1194 miles 
above New Orleans. The city enjoys many natural advantages as a com- 
mercial emporium, being situated nearly midway, between the two oceans, 
and centrally in the finest agricultural region on the globe. With the 
greatest navigable river on the continent, affording her a water highway to 
the ocean, and to many, of the large inland cities of the country, St. Louis is 
rapidly and surely going forward to a grand future. Her already great and 
constantly improving system of railways, is tending every year to open up to 
her larger fields of business and commercial intercourse. Of late years a 
strong rivaliy has sprung up between St. Louis and Chicago, in regard to 
population, etc., each claiming to be the third city in the tmion. The in- 
f rease of St. Louis since the war has been great, the ascendency being at an 
•".nnual rate of about ten per cent. At this increase she is fast earning the 
■wubriquet of the " Future Great City." 

The site on which St. Louis stands was selected February 15th, 1764, by 
Laclede, as a post possessing peculiar advantages for collecting and trading 
in furs, as well as for defense against the Indians. For many years it was 
but a frontier village, the principal trade of which was in furs, buffalo robes, 
and other collections of trappers and hunters. A great part of the popula- 
tion was absent during the hunting and trapping seasons, so that the in- 
fancy of this city was ^most a struggle for existence. As late as 1820, the 
population was but 4,598. The first brick house was erected in 1813. In 



86 THE NOETHWEST TBEEITOET, 

1822, St. Louis was chartered as a city, under the title given by Laclede in 
in honor of Louis XV of France. In 1830 the population was 6,694, an 
increase of only 2,096 in ten years. In 1840 the population had reached 
16,469; in 1850 it was 77,950, including 2,650 slaves; in 1860 the popula- 
tion was 160,773 ; and in 1870 it was 312,963. 

Kansas City, one of the rapidly advancing young cities of the State, is 
situated on the Missouri river just below the mouth of the Kansas. In 
1870 the population was 32,260. Since that time there has been a rapid in- 
crease, both in population and business. 

St. Joseph is one of the flourishing cities, and is situated on- the left, or 
east bank of the Missouri river, 496 miles by water from St. Louis. It was 
laid out in 1843, and became an important point of departure for overland 
emigration to California and Oregon. In 1870 the population was 19,560, 
but nas rapidly increased since then. 

Among the important and thriving towns and cities are Hannibal, Springs 
field, BoonviUe, Lexington, ChiUicothe, Independence, Palmyra, Canton, 
Iron Mount and Moberly. 

The following table shows the population of Missouri at the close of each 
decade, from 1810 to 1870 : 



TEAR. 



WHITB. 



COIiOBED. 



AGOREaATB. 



1810. 

1820. 
1830. 
1840., 
1860. 
1860. 
1870.. 



17,227 

55,988 

114,795 

323,888 

592,004 

1,063,489 

1,603,146 



3,618 
10,569 
25,660 
59,814 
90,040 
118,503 
118,071 



20,845 

66,557 

140,455 

383,702 

682,044 

*1,182,012 

*1,721,295 



*The aggregate for 1860 includes 20 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 187C 
includes 75 enumerated as Indians. 



EXPEDITION" OF LEWIS AND CLAKKE, 



Organization of Exploring Party — Departure — Osage Indians — Strange Tradition of the Ori- 
gin of the Osage Nation — ^The Missouris — Old French Fort— Artificial Mounds— The Ot- 
toes and Pawnees — Indian Graves — The Ayauway Indians — Council with Indians at Coun- 
cil Bluffs— Little Sioux River— Death of Sergeant Floyd— Great Sioux Rivei^Red Pipe- 
stone Quarries — Buffalo and other Animals — Mountain of the Little Spirits — Council with 
the Sioux — Indian Idols — ^The Mandans — ^Winter Quarters — White and Brown Bears- 
Antelopes— Black HiUg— First View of Rocly Mountains— Natural Scenery— The Great 
Falls of the Missouri — Shoshones — Sources of the Missouri — Columbia River— The-Tush- 
epaws — Short of Provisions — ^Pierced-Nose Indians — Down Lewis River — The Sokulks— 
Grreat Falls of the Columbia— The Echeloots— Wooden Houses— Fingers as War Tro- 
pies— Sight of the Pacific — Fort Clatsop — Return — Arrival at St. Louis. 

In January, 1803, President Jefferson, in a confidential message to Con- 
gress in regard to Indian affairs, took occasion to recommend, among other 
Slings, the organization of a party to trace the Missouri river to its source, 
and thence proceed to the Pacific ocean. The recommendation was favor- 
ably considered, and Capt. Merriwether Lewis, was, on his own application, 
appointed to take charge of the expedition. Wm. Clarke was subsequently 
associated with him, so that this celebrated expedition is known in our his- 
tory as that of Lewis and Clarke. The incidents of this long, tedious, and 
romantic journey are worthy to be related as among tlie most interesting 



THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOEY. 87 

in the annals of American adventure. At that time all that vast region 
bordering on the Upper Missouri and its tributaries, as well as the regions 
bordering on the Pacific, were unknown and unexplored by white men. By 
the latter part of the year 1803 the party comprising the expedition was 
made up and ready to start. The highest settlement of whites on the Mis- 
souri river at that time was at a place called La Charrette, sixty-eight miles 
above the mouth. At this place it had been the design of Capt. Lewis to 
winter, but the Spanish authorities of Louisiana had not yet received ofiicial 
information of the transfer of the country to the United States. For this 
reason the party remained in winter quarters at the mouth of Wood river, 
on the east side of the Mississippi. 

Besides Captains Lewis and Clarke, the party was made up nine young 
men from Kentucky, twelve soldiers of the regular army, two Frenchmen 
as watermen and interpreters, and a colored servant belonging to Captain 
Clarke — twenty-six persons in all. A corporal, six soldiers and nine water- 
men, in addition to the above, were engaged to accompany the expedition as 
far as the country of the Mandans, as there was some apprehension of at- 
tacks by the Indians between Wood river and that tribe. 

Three boats were provided for the expedition. The largest was a keel- 
boat, fifty-five feet long, drawing three feet of water, carrying one large 
square sail, and twenty-two oars. The other two were open boats, one of 
six, and the other of seven oars. 

The expedition started from the encampment at. the mouth of Wood 
river on Monday, May 14, 1804. Captain Lewis, who was at that time in 
St. Louis, joined the expedition at St. Charles, twenty-one miles up the 
Missouri, which place they reg,ched on the 16th. Here they remained until 
the 2l8t, when they proceeded on their voyage, reaching La Charrette, the 
last white settlement, on the evening of the 25th. The village consisted of 
but seven poor families. On the 1st of June they arrived at the mouth of 
the Osage, one hundred and thirty-three miles on their journey. The coun- 
try bordering on this river was inhabited by a tribe known as the Osage 
Indians. They had a remarkable tradition among them as to the origin of 
their nation. They believed that its founder was a snail passing a quiet ex- 
istence along the banks of the Osage, till a flood swept him down to the Mis- 
souri and there left him -exposed on the shore. By the heat of the sun he 
was changed to a man. The change, however, did not cause him to forget 
his native place away up on the banks of the Osage, and he immediately 
sought his old home. Being overtaken with hunger and fatigue, the Great' 
Spirit appeared, gave him a^ow and arrow, and taught him to kill deer and 
prepare its flesh for food and its skin for clothing. When he arrived at his 
original place of residence he was met by a beaver, who inquired who he 
was, and by what authority he came to disturb his possession. The Osage 
replied that he had once lived on the borders of that river and that it was 
his own home. While they were disputing the daughter of the beaver ap- 
peared, and entreated her father to be reconciled to the young stranger. The 
father yielded to her entreaties, and the Osage soon married the beaver's 
daughter. They lived happily on the banks of the Osage, and from them soon 
came the villages and nation of the Osages. Ever since they entertained a 
pious reverence for their ancestors, never killing a beaver, for by so doing they 
would slay a brother. It has been observed, however, that after the opening 
of the fur trade with the whites, the sanctity of their maternal relations was 
very much reduced. 



88 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOEY. 

The next tribe meDtioned by tbe explorers was that of the Missouris, once 
a powerful nation, but then reduced to about thirty families. They finally 
xiaited with the Osages and the Ottoea, and as a separate nation became ex- 
tinct. The Sauks, Ayauways (lowas), and the Sioux are mentioned as being 
the enemies of the Osages, and as making frequent excursions against them. 
On the 26th of June they arrived at the mouth of the Kansas, 340 miles 
from the Mississippi, where they remained two days for rest and repairs. 
Here resided the tribe of Indians of the same name, and had two villages 
not far from the mouth of the river. This tribe at that' time had been re- 
duced by the Sauks and Ayauways to only about three hundred men. The 
party at this stage of their journey, saw numerous buffalo on the prairies. 
On the 2d of Jxily the party passed Bear Medicine Island, near which were 
the remains of an old tort, built by the French, the ruins of the chimnejs 
and the general outline of the fortification being visible. On the 8th 6f 
July they reached the mouth of the J^odawa: The river is mentioned as 
navigable for boats some distance. On the 11th they landed at the mouth oi 
the S^emahaw. Mention is made of several artificial mounds on the Ne- 
mahaw, about two miles up the stream at the mouth of a small creek. 
From^ the top of the highest mound there was a fine view of the country. 
On tile 14:th they passed the Kishnahbatona river, finding it to be only three 
hundred yards from the Missouri at a distance of twelve miles from its 
mouth. Platte river and other streams, both in Iowa and Nebraska, are men- 
tioned and the country described with great accuracy. Along in this part 
of the country were the first elk they had seen. 

On the 22d of July the explorers encamped on the north (Iowa) side of 
the river, ten miles above the mouth of the Platte river, to make observa- 
tions and to hold an interview with the neighboring tribes. They remained 
here in camp until the 27th. Among the streams mentioned in this vicin- 
ity are the Papillon, Butterfly Creek and Moscheto Creek, the last named 
being a small stream near Council Bluffs. In mentioning them we use the 
orthography of the explorers, which in some instances differs from that now 
in use. The Indians who occupied the country about the mouth of Platte _ 
river at this time were the Ottoes and Pawnees. The Ottoes were much 
reduced, and formerly lived about twenty miles above the Platte on the 
Nebraska side of the river. They lived at this time under the protection 
of the Pawnees. The latter were also much dispersed and broken. One 
band of the nation formerly lived on the Republican branch of the Kanzas 
Eiver., Another band were the Pawnee Loups, or Wolf Pawnees, who re- 
sided on the "Wolf fork of the Platte. Another band 'originally resided on 
the Kanzas and Arkansaw, but in their wars with the Osages they were 
often defeated and retired to the Red river. Yarious other tribes living fur- 
ther west, are mentioned. On the 27th they continued their journey, and 
about ten leagues from their encampment, on the south (Nebraska) side of 
the river, they saw and examined a curious collection of graves, or mounds. 
They were of different heights, shapes and sizes. Some were of sand, and 
others of both earth and sand. They were supposed to indicate the position 
of the ancient village of the Ottoes before they retired to the protection of 
the Pawnees. On the 29th they passed the spot where the Ayauway Indians, 
a branch of the Ottoes, once lived, and who had emigrated from that place 
to the Des Moines. Mention is here made of an interview with one of the 
Missouri Indians who lived with the Ottoes, and the resemblance of his 
language to that of the Osages, particularly in calling a chief inoa. 



THE NOETHWEST TEEBITOET. 89 

On the 30th of July the party encamped on the south (Nebraska) side ol 
the river. At that place next to the river was a plain, and hack of it a 
wooded ridge, rising about seventy feet, above the plain. At the edge of 
tliis ridge mey formed their camp, and sent an invitation to the Indians to 
meet them. From the bluffs at this point they mention a most beautiful 
view of the river and adjoining country. The latitude of the camp was de- 
termined by observation to be 41 degrees 18 minutes and 14 seconds. The 
messenger sent to invite the Ottoes returned on the evening of the 2d of 
August, with fourteen Ottoe and Missouri Indians, accompanied by a French- 
man who resided among them, and who acted as interpreter. Lewis and Clarke 
made them presents of pork, flour and meal, and the Indians returned presents 
of watermelons. The next morning (Aug. 3d) a council was held with the 
six chiefs who were of the party of Indians; they were told of the change 
in the government, and promised protection and advised as to their future con- 
duct. All the chiefs expressed their joy at the change in the government, 
and wished to be recommended to the Great Father (the President) that 
they might obtain trade and necessaries. They asked the mediation of the 
Great Father between them and the Mahas (Omahas), with whom they were 
then at war. At the conclusion of the council medals and other presents 
were given to the chiefs, and also some presents to the other Indians who 
were with them. The grand chief of the Ottoes was not present, but to 
him was sent a flag, a medal, and some ornaments for clothing. The ex- 
plorers gave to the place where this council was held the name of Council 
Bluffs. The reader will remember, however, that it was above the present 
city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, and was on the Nebraska side of the river. 

On the afternoon of the 3d of August they resumed their journey, and on 
the 7th arrived at the mouth of a river on the north side, called by the Sioux 
Indians, Eaneahwadepon (Stone river), and by the French, Petite Riviere 
des Sioiix, or in English, Little Sioux river. The explorers were informed 
by their interpreter (M. Durion) that this river rises within about nine miles 
of the Des Moines; that within fifteen leagues of that river it passes through 
a large lake, nearly sixty miles in circumference, and divided into two parts 
by rocks, which approach each other very closely. Its width is various; it 
contains many islands, and is known by the name of Zac d' Esprit — Spirit 
Lake. The country watered by it is open and undulating, and may be visited 
ia boats up the river for some distance. The interpreter further added that 
the Des Moines was about eighty yards wide where the Little Sioux ap- 
proaches it; that it was shoally, and that one of its principal branches was 
called Cat river. The interpreter claimed to have been to the sources of the 
Little Sioux, and those who are familiar with the country about Spirit Lake, 
will concede that he described it quite accurately. The explorers speak of a 
long island two miles above the mouth of the Little Sioux, which they named 
Pelican island, from the large number of pelicans which were feeding on it, 
one of which they killed. They also killed an elk. On the 10th they passed 
the first highland near the river, after leaving their encampment at Council 
Bluffs. !Not far from this, on a high bluff, was the grave of Blackbird, one 
of the great chiefs of the Mahas, who had died of small-pox four years be- 
fore, "file grave was marked by a mound twelve feet in diameter at the base, 
and six feet high, and was on an elevation about 300 feet above the water. 
In the center of the grave was a pole eight feet high. Near this the Mahas 
had a village, and lost four hundred men of their nation, and a like proportion 
of women and children by the small-pox at the time that Blackbird died. 



90 THE NOETHWEST TBEEITOKT. 

After this dreadful scourge they burned their village, which had consisted of 
three hundred cabins. On a hill at the rear ol' the place where the village 
stood were the graves of the nation. On the evening of the 18th the ex- 
plorers were again visited at their camp by a party of Ottoes and Missouris, 
who entertained them with a dance. The professed object of their visit was 
to ask intercession for promoting peace between them and the Mahas, but 
probably the real object was to share a portion of the strangers' protisioas 
and liquors. 

The next day, August 20th, after passing a couple of islands, they landed 
on the north side of the river, under some oluffs — the first near the river on 
that side after leaving the Ayauway village. It was here that the party had 
the misfortune to lose one of their men — Sergeant Charles Floyd. He had 
the day before been siezed with a billions colic. Before his death he said to 
Captain Clarke, " I am going to leave you; I want you to write me a letter." 
Soon after making this request the brave soldier passed away. He was buried 
on the top of the bluff, with honors due to a soldier. The place of his inter- 
ment was marked by a cedar post, on which his name and the day of his 
death were inscribed. About a mile further up on the same side of the Mis- 
souri, they came to a small river, to which they gave the name of Floyd river, 
in honor of their deceased companion. The place of the burial of Sergeant 
Floyd was but a short distance below where Sioux City now stands. During 
a great freshet in the spring of 1857, the Missouri river washed away a por- 
tion of the bluff, exposing the remains of the soldier. The citizens of Sioux 
City and vicinity repaired to the place, and with appropriate ceremonies, re- 
intorred them some distance back from the river on the same bluff. The 
same cedar post planted by his companions over his grave on that summer 
day more than half a century before, remained to mark the place of inter- 
ment up to 1857, although during nearly all this time the country had been 
inhabited only by savages. 

On the 21st of August the expedition passed the site where Sioux City 
now stands, and noted in their journal the confluence of the Great Sioux 
river with the Missouri. From their interpreter, M. Durion, they received 
an account of the Great Sioux river. He stated that it was navigable for 
more than two hundred miles, to the great falls, and even beyond them. The 
reader will remember that this was before the time of steamboats on western 
waters. He mentioned a creek that emptied into the Great Sioux below the 
falls, which passed through cliffs of red rock, out of which the Indians made 
their pipes; that the necessity for procuring that article had caused the intro- 
duction of a law among the nations, by which the banks of that creek were 
lield to be sacred, and even tribes at war met at the quarries without hos- 
tility. These were what are now known as the "Ked Fipestone Quarries," 
in southwestern Minnesota. 

A few miles above the month of the Great Sioux, on the north, or Dakota 
side of the river, they killed a buffalo, a deer and a beaver. They also saw 
some elk. The place where the buffalo was killed they described as a beau- 
tiful prairie, and gave it the name of Buffalo Prairie. They mention on the 
south side of the river, a bluff of blue clay, rising to the height of 180 or 
190 feet. Several miles from this, on the south side of the river, Captains 
Lewis and Clarke, with ten of their men, went to see a mound regarded with 

freat terror by the Indians, and called by them the Mountain of the Little 
pirits. They believed it was the abode of little devils in human form, 
eighteen inches high, and having large heads; that they had sharp arrows, 



THE NOETHAVEST TEEEITOET. 91 

and were always on the watch to kill those who might approach their place 
of residence. The Sioux, Mahas and Ottoes never would visit the hill or 
mound for fear of the vengeance of the Little Spirits. The mound, though 
extraordinary in its formation, they did not regard as artificial. From its 
top they could see large herds of buffalo feeding at a distance. 

On the 26th they passed the mouth of Yankton river, and, on landing, 
were met by several Indians, who informed them that a large body of Sioux 
were encamped near. On the 30th and 31st they held a council with the 
Sioux, and smoked with them the pipe of peace. The Indians exhibited 
their skill in dancing and various other amusements to entertain their vis- 
itors. These Indians were the Yankton tribe of the Sioux nation. Their 
grand chief was "We-u-cha, or in English, Shake Hand. Speeches were 
made and presents exchanged. 

On the 1st of September the explorers passed Calumet Bluffs, and the 
next day Bonhomme Island, near which they visited some ancient earth- 
works, or fortifications, on the south, or Nebraska, side of the Missouri. 
They made a minute and careful examination of these works. They 
embraced nearly five hundred acres. A day or two after, on a hill to the 
south, near Cedar Island, they discovered the backbone of a fish, 45 feet 
long, in a perfect state of petrifaction. 

After several conferences with different tribes, and observations in regard 
to the country, its formation, and the different animals seen, on the 13th of 
October they reached a small stream on the north side, to which they gave 
the name of Idol Creek. Near its mouth were two stones resembling human 
figures, and a third like a dog. These were objects of great veneration among 
the Ricaras (Eicarees), who occupied the country in that vicinity. They had 
a legend that a young brave was deeply enamored with a girl whose parents 
refused their consent to the marriage. The young braTC went out into the 
fields to mourn his misfortunes, and a sympathy of feeling led the lady to 
the same spot. The faithful dog would not cease to follow his master. The 
lovers wandered away together with nothing to subsist on but grapes, and 
they were at last changed into stone, with the lady holding in her hands a 
bunch of grapes. When the Ricaras pass these sacred stones, they stop to 
make offerings of dress to propitiate the deities, as they regard them. Such 
was the account given to Lewis and Clai-ke, by the Ricara chief. As they 
found here a great abimdance of fine grapes, they regarded one part of the 
story as very agreeably confirmed. 

On the 19th they reached the ruins of one of the Mandan villages. It 
had been fortified. This, they were informed by the Ricara chief, was one 
of several villages once occupied \)j the Mandans until the Sioux forced them 
forty miles higher up the river. In this vicinity they counted no less than 
52 herds of buffalo, and 3 herds of elk at a single view. 

About the 1st of November, 1804, the expedition reached the country of 
the Mandans, where they went into winter quarters. These Indians had 
raised considerable com, some of which they presented to the party. During 
the winter they obtained a great deal of information in regard to the history, 
traditions, and manners and customs, not only of this peculiar and remark- 
able nation, but of other tribes. Their huts, or cabins, were all completed 
by the 20th of the month, and the place was named Fort Mandan. It was 
on the north side of the Missouri, in a grove of eottonwood. The place, as 
ascertained by observation, was in latitude 47 deg., 21 min. and 47 sec, and 
the computed distance from the mouth of the Missouri was 1600 miles. 



92 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 

During the winter they were visited by a great many Indians of the Maa- 
dan and other tribes. A few French and traders of the Northwest Pur 
Company also visited them. 

The party remained at Fort Mandan until April 7, 1805, when they 
resumed their journey. There were then thirty-two persons in the expe- 
dition, some of the party having returned to St. Louis. In this portion of 
the country they began to see numbers of white bear, antelope, and other 
animals, which they nad not seer, lower down on the rjver. On the 12th 
they arrived at the mouth of the Little Missouri, near which they found large 
quantities of small onions, about the size of a bullet, of an oval form and 
white. The iiext day they passed a smalt stream to which they gave the 
name of Onion Creek, from the great abundance of that vegetable growing 
near it. Along this part of the Missouri were large numbers of bald eagles, 
and also many geese and brant. Numerous deserted Indian lodges wei'e 
noticed, which they supposed to have belonged to the Assiniboins, as there 
were the remains of small kegs. That tribe was the only one in this region 
that then used spirituous liquors. They obtained it from the traders of the 
Hudson Bay Company, bartering their furs for it. Here many plants and 
aromatic herbs are mentioned, and some resembling in taste and smell sage, 
hys^, wormwood and juniper. On the 26th they camped at the mouth of 
the Yellowstone, where game of various kinds was very abundant. Frequent 
mention is made of the burned hills along that part of the Missouri for some 
distance above and below the Yellowstone. Among the animals killed hy 
the hunters of the expedition in this part of the voyage were several 
brown bears. On the evening of the 14th of May the men in one of the 
canoes discovered a large brown bear lying in the open grounds about three 
hundred yards from the river. Six of them, all good hunters, went to attack 
him, and, concealing themselves by a small eminence, four of them fired at 
a distance of about forty paces. Each of them lodged a ball in the bear's 
body, two of them directly through the lungs. The animal sprang up and 
ran open-mouthed toward them. As he came near, the two hunters who had 
reserved their fire, gave him two more wounds, one of which, breakifHg his 
shoulder, retarded his motion for a moment. Before they could reload he 
was so near upon them that they were obliged to run to the river, the bear 
almost overtaking them. Two of the men sprang into the canoe, and the 
others concealed themselves in some willows and fired as fast as they could 
reload, striking him several times. The shots seemed only to direct him 
toward the hunters, till at last he pursued two of them so closely that they 
threw aside their guns and pouches, and jumped twenty feet down a perpen- 
dicular bank into the river: The bear sprang after them, and was within a 
few feet of the hindmost when one of the hunters on shore shot him in the 
head, and finally killed' him. They dragged the bear to shore and found 
that eight balls had passed through his body in different directions. i 

On' the 20th of May the party reached the mouth of the MusclesheU, a 
river of considerable size from the south. They were then 2270 miles above 
the mouth of the Mississippi, in latitude 47 deg., 24 min. Mention is made 
of what the French traders called Cote JSToire, or Black Hills. On the 26th 
of May they had the first view of the Rocky Mountains, " the object," as the 
■journalist remarks, " of all our hopes, and the reward of all our ambition." 
The view was obtained from what they called one of the last ridges of the 
Black Mountains. On the 30th they had reached that part of the river 
which passes through between walls of rocks, presenting . every form of 



THE NOETHWEST TEREITOKT. 93 

sculptured ruins, and having the appearance of being the productions of art. 
Of these objects of natural scenery they give a most glowing description. 

On the 3d of June the expedition reached a junction of two branches of 
the river, when they were at a loss to determine which was the true Mis- 
souri river. Parties, one under Captain Lewis and the other under Captain 
Clarke, proceeded to explore both branches by land. The party under Cap- 
tain Lewis, on the 13th, reached the Great Falls of the Missouri on the 
southern branch, which determined the question. One of the men was 
sent to inform Captain Clarke of the discovery. The explorers give a vivid 
description of the wonderful and beautiful scenery which is here presented. 
In the vicinity of the falls they saw a herd of at least a thousand buffalo, 
one of which they shot. Here Captain Lewis himself had an encounter 
with a large brown bear, from which he escaped by plunging into the river. 
Mention is made of grasshoppers at the mouth of Medicine river, about 
twelve miles above the Great Falls, in such multitudes that the herbage on 
the plains was in part destroyed by them. At that point the Missouri is 
described as being three hundred yards wide, and Medicine river one hun- 
hundred and thirty-seven yards wide. The party remained here until the 
15th of July, examining the surrounding country, constructing canoes, and 
making general preparations for continuing the journey. On that day they 
again embarked with eight heavily loaded canoes, encountering many diflS- 
cult places for navigating, owing to the rapids. Toward the latter part of 
July they reached a point where the Missouri is formed of three branches, 
one of which they called Jefferson, one Madison, and one Gallatin. Here 
the party divide and explore the several branches, partly for the purpose of 
finding the Shoshones, the Indians that were known to inhabit that region. 
On the 11th of August they encountered a single Indian on horseback, who 

E roved to be one of that tribe or nation. Captain Lewis, who had continued 
is course up the Jefferson, or principal branch forming the sources of the 
Missouri, reached a point where it had so diminished in width that one of 
liis men in a fit of enthusiasm, with one foot on each side of the rivulet, 
thanked God that he had lived to bestride the Missouri. A few miles 
further on they reached the point where issues the remotest water — the 
hitherto hidden sources of that river, which had never before been seen by 
civilized man. They sat down by the brink of the little rivulet, and 
quenched their thrist at the chaste and icy fountain, which sends its modest 
tribute down to the great ocean thousands of miles away. Crossing over the 
the dividing line between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, at a 
distance of three-quarters of a mile, they stopped to taste for the first time 
the waters of the Columbia, here a stream of clear, cold water flowing west- 
ward. On the same day Captain Lewis succeeded in gaining a friendly in- 
terview with the Shoshones. Captain Clarke, with a part of the expedition, 
was at this time at the junction of the three branches of the Missouri, and 
Captain Lewis engaged a number of the Indians, with about thirty of their 
horses, to transport their merchandise and outfit to the Shoshone camp. 

The Shoshones are described as being a small tribe of the nation called 
the Snake Indians, an appellation which embraces the inhabitants of the 
southern parts of the Rocl^ Mountains and of the plains on either side. 
During the summer the Shoshones resided about the headwaters of the 
Columbia, where they lived chiefiy on salmon. In their journal the explorers 
give a long and interesting account of the habits, traditions, and manner of 



94 THE NORTHWEST TEJSEITOKT. 

life of this people. They found them honest, friendly, and ready to rend^ 
them all assistance in their power. 

After purchasing twenty -ninfe horses from the Shoshones, the party on the 
30th of August resumed their journey toward the Pacific. On the 4th of 
September, after many difficulties in finding a practicable route, they came 
to a large encampment of Indians who received them with great cordiality. 
The pipe of peace was introduced and a council held. They represented 
themselves as a band of a nation caEed Tushepaws, a numerous people then 
residing on the headwaters of the Missouri and Columbia rivers. The In- 
dians shaded their berries and roots with the strangers and received some 
presents. Several horses were purchased from them. On the 6th they 
reached a stream to which they gave the name of Clarke river, Captain 
Clarke being the first white man who ever visited its waters. The route 
was a rugged one, and in many places almost impracticable, and to add to 
the difficulties of the situation, snow had been falling, so that on the 16th it 
was six or eight inches deep. The difficulty of procuring game or other 
subsistence made it necessary for them to kill several of their horses on this 
part of their journey, for food. They had a little of what was called portable 
soup which they used by melting some snow. This, and about twenty 
pounds of bear's oil, was their only remaining subsistence. They were now 
in a region where their guns were of little service, for there was scarcely a 
living creature to be seen in those mountains. Captain Clarke and six 
hunters searched the mountains all day for game but found none, and at 
night encam"ped on a small stream to which they gave the name of Hungry 
Creek. Their only refreshment during the day was a little of the portable 
soup. On the 26th, Captain Clarke and his hunting party encountered three 
Indian boys, and sent them forward to the village with some presents. An 
Indian came out to meet them, and conducted them to a large tent in the 
village, which was the residence of the great chief. After some introductory 
ceremonies by signs, the Indians set before the strangers some bufialo meat, 
dried salmon, berries and several kinds of roots. This, after their long 
abstinence, was a sumptuous treat. One of the chiefs conducted them to 
another village, two miles away, where they were received with great kind- 
ness and passed the night. These Indians called themselves Chopunish, or 
Pierced-]N ose (Nez Perces). With a few articles Captain Clarke chanced to 
have in his pockets he purchased some dried salmon, roots and berries and 
sent them by one of his men and a hired Indian back to -Captain Lewis. 
The main body with Captain Lewis had been so fortunate as to kill a few 
pheasants and a prairie wolf. As soon as it was known in the villages that 
the wonderful strangers had arrived the people crowded in to see them. 
Twisted Hair, the chief, drew a chart or map of the country and streams on 
a white elk-skan, which was of great service in guiding them on their course. 
From these Indians as many provisions were purchased as could be carried 
on their horses. After proceeding down the river some distance, they 
determined to continue their journey in canoes, which they, set about con- 
structing. By the 7th of October the canoes were launched and loaded. 
The horses were branded and left with the Indians to be kept until their 
return. Accompanied by some of the Indians down Lewis river, the ex- 
pedition finally reached the Columbia on the 16th, having stopped at a 
number of villages on the way. The Columbia at the mouth of Lewis river 
they found to be 960 yards wide, and Lewis river 675 yards wide. Here 
they found themselves among a nation who called themselves Sokulks,"a 



THE KOETHWEOT TEEEITOET. 95 

people of a mild and peaceable disposition. Fish was their principal article 
of rood. On the 18th they resumed their journey down the Columbia in the 
presence of many of the Sokulks who came to witness their departure. 
They passed many different tribes who inhabited the borders of the Colum- 
bia, all of whom they visited in their villages and encampments, learning 
their condition, habits, history and mode of living. Wherever they halted 
large numbers of Indians gathered to see them, and generally manifested the 
greatest kindness and hospitality. All of them had pierced noses. 

On the 22d of October the party reached the Great Falls of the Colum- 
bia. Many Indians inhabited this portion of the country, and some of them 
assisted the party in unloading the canoes, transporting the goods around 
the falls, and in bringing down the canoes. At one place it was necessary to 
haul the canoes over a point of land to avoid a perpendicular fall of seventy 
feet. Some distance below the falls they came to a village of another tribe, 
or nation, called the Echeloots. Here they found the first wooden hoxises 
they had seen after leaving the settlements near the Mississippi. They were 
made of logs and poles, with poles for rafters and covered with white cedar, 
kept on by strands of cedar fibres. The inhabitants received the strangers 
with great kindness, invited them to their houses, and came in great num- 
bers to see them. They were surprised to find that these Indians spoke a 
language quite different from that of the tribes above the Great Falls. 
Some of their customs, however, were the same. Like the tribes they had 
recently visited, they flattened the heads of their children, and in nearly the 
same manner. Among the mountain tribes^ however, this custom was con- 
fined to the females almost exclusively, whereas the Echeloots subjected 
both sexes to the operation. On the 18th they came to another tribe where 
they saw a British musket and several brass tea-kettles which the Indians prized 
very highly. In the interview with the chief he directed his wife to hand 
him his medicine-bag, from which he drew out fourteen forefingers, which 
he said had belonged to the same number of his enemies whom he had 
killed in battle. These fingers were shown with great exultation, after which 
they were carefully replaced among the other valuable contents of the 
medicine-bag. This was the first instance in which the explorers had 
observed that any other ti'ophy than the scalp was ever carried from the 
field in Indian warfare. 

On the 2d of November the party passed the rapids which form the last 
descent of the Columbia, and tide-water commences. On this part of the 
Columbia they began to meet with tribes who had some knowledge of the 
whites, and from articles in their possession, it was observed that they had 
maintained some sort of trade or barter with the whites. The Indians here 
also began to be troublesome and were disposed to pilfer whenever an oppor- 
tunity offered, showing that in their intercourse with the whites they had con- 
tracted some vices that they are free from in the absence of such intercourse. 

On the 16th of November, 1805, the expedition encamped in full view of 
the Pacific Ocean, at Haley's Bay, as laid down by Vancouver. Their long, 
tedious and eventful journey to the Pacific having ended, they made prepa- 
rations for going into winter quarters. Some distance below the mouth of 
the Columbia, three miles above the mouth of a little river that empties into 
the bay, in a thick grove of lofty pines, they formed their winter encamp- 
ment. Game was exceedingly plenty, and during the winter they were vis- 
ited by a large mimber of the Indians inhabiting the coast region. They 
called the place Fort Clatsop, from the tribe of Indians inhabiting the imme- 



96 THE NORTHWEST TEEEITOET. 

diate vicinity. Here they remained until the 23d of March, 1806, when 
they commenced their return, by the same route. • 

liefore leaving, Captains Lewis and Clarke posted up in the fort a note 
to the following effect: 

" The object of this is, that through the medium of some civilized person, 
who may see the same, it may be made known to the world that the party con- 
sisting of the persons whose names are hereto annexed, and who were sent 
out by the government of the United States to explore the interior ot the 
continent of North America, did cross the same by the way of the Missouri 
and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific- ocean, 
where they arrived on the 14:th day of November, 1805, and dieparted the 
23d day of March, 1806, on their return to the United States, by the same 
route by which they came out." 

It is somewhat singular that this note a short time after fell into the hands 
of a Captain Hill, while on the coast near the mouth of the Columbia river. 
It was delivered to him by some Indians, and taken to Canton,, China, from 
whence it was brought to the United States in January, 1807. On the 23d 
of September, 1806, the party reached the mouth of the Missouri, and 
decended the Mississippi to St. Louis, arriving at 12 o'clock. Having fired 
a salute, they went on shore, where they " received a most, hearty and hos- 
pitable welcome from the whole village." 

This is bat a very partial and hasty review of that romantic and extraor- 
dinary expedition — the first exploration by authority of the government of 
the United States, of that wonderful region which of late years has attracted 
so much attention. It gave to the world the first authentic account of the 
upper Missouri and its tributaries, and of the rivers that flow from the west- 
ern slopes of the Rocky Mountains and seek the Pacific Ocean through the 
great Columbia. It imparted to civilized man some definite knowledge of 
the strange tribes whose homes were on the borders of those rivers; of their 
habits, traditions and modes of life; of the fauna and flora of a region hith- 
erto unknown, and of natural sceneiy not surpassed in grandeur and sub- 
limity by that of any other part of the world. Other explorers have since 
revealed a portion of the hidden treasures of that part ot OTr national do- 
main, but the pioneer expeditien of Lewis and Clarke, so successfully accom- 
plished, will always possess a peculiar and thrilling interest. 

SKETCH OP CHICAGO. 

First White Visitors — ^The Name — Jean Baptiste— John Einzie — Ft. Dearborn — Evafcnatioii— 
The Massacre — Heroic Women — Capt. Heald— Capt. Wells — Scalping tixe Wounded— Ft. 
Dearborn Re-buUfc — Illinois and Michigan Canal — Chicago Laid Out— Eemovnl of In- 
dians — City Organization — Pioneer Religious Societies — Public Improvements— Location 
of City— Gfrowth— The Great Fire — Rise of the New Chicago. 

The history of so great a city as Chicago, like that of London, or Paris, 
or New York, by reason of its commercial, financial and other relations to 
the world at large, is a history of world-vride interest. Not that Chicago 
may yet be compared in size, population or wealth with the great cities 
named, would we mention it in connection with theip, and yet, considering 
its age, it is greater than either of them. In its ratio of increase. in popu- 
lation, commerce, and general progress, it is to-day outstripping tliein. In 
what civilized part of the globe is Chicago not heard of, read ot, and known? 



THE KOBTUWJfiST TEBBITOBT. 



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OS THE NOETHWEST TEKEITOKT. 

If, 80 many centuries after the founding of Rome, mankind still feel inter- 
ested in tlie mythical story of Komulus and Eemus, may not the present 
and future generations read ■with equal interest the more authentic story of 
the founding of a great modem city? 

The Jesuit missionary and explorer, Marquette, first visited the pl^ce 
where Chicago is located, in 1673. Again, in the winter of 1674-5, he 
camped near the site of the present city, from December until near the close 
of March. Upon his arrival, in December, th6 Chicago river was frozen 
over, and the ground covered with snow. The name is of Indian origin, aiid 
was applied to the river. By the French voyageurs it is variously spelled, 
the majority rendering it Chicagou. The place is mentioned by "jBerrot in 
1770. 

In 1796, Jean Baptiste, a trader from the "West Indies, found his way to 
t& mouth of the little stream known as Chicago river, and engaged in trad- 
ing with the Indians. Here for eight years, almost alone, he maintained 
trade and intercourse with the savages, until, in 1804, Fort Dearborn was 
erected, and a trading post was established by John Kinzie, who became 
the successor of Jean Baptiste. Fort Dearborn, as first constructed, was a 
very rude and primitive stockade, which cost the government only about 
fifty dollars. It stood on the south bank of Chicago river, half a mile from 
the lake. The few soldiers sent to erect and garrison it were in charge oi 
Major Whistler. For a time, being unable to procure grain for bread, the 
soldiers were obliged to subsist in part upon acorns. The original settler, 
Jean Baptiste, or as his full name was written, Jean Baptiste Point au Sable, 
sold his cabin to Mr. Kinzie, and the latter erected on the site the building 
known to the early settlers as tlie " Kinzie House." This became a resort 
for the officers and others connected with the garrison. In 1812 the garrison 
had a force of 54 men, under the command of Capt. Nathan Hejjd, with 
Lieutenant Lenai L. Helm and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. 
The only white residents, except the officers and soldiers, at that time, were 
Mr. Kinzie and his family, the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieut. Helm, and 
a few Canadians, with their families. Nearly \ip to this time the most 
friendly relations had been maintained with the Indians — the principal tribes 
by whom they were surrounded being the Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes. 
The battle of Tippecanoe had been fought the year before, and the influence 
of Tecumseh began to be observable in the conduct of the Indians. They 
were also aware of the difficulties betw^een the United States and Great 
Britian, and had yielded to the influences brousjlit to bear by the latter. In 
April of this year, suspicious parties of Winnebagoes began to hover about 
the fort, reftiaining in the vicinity for several days. The inhabitants became 
alarmed, and the families took refuge in the fort. On the 7th of Au^st 
a Pottawattamie chief appeared at me fort with an order or dispatch trom 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, directing Capt. Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
distribute all the government proj)erty to the neighboring Indians. The 
chief who brought the dispatch advised Capt. Heald to make no distribution 
to the Indians. He told him it would be better to leave the fort and stores 
as they were, and that while the Indians were distributing tlie stores among 
themselves, the whites might escape to Fort Wayne. On the 12tli of August 
Capt. Heald held a council with the Indians, but the other officers refused to 
join him. They feared treachery on the part of the Indians, and indeed liad 
been informed that their intention was to murder tlie white people. In tlio 
council Capt. Heald had taken the precaution to open a port-hole displaying 



THE NOETHWEST TBEEITOET. 99 

a cannon directed upon the council, and probably by that means kept the 
Indians from molesting him at that time. Acting under the advice of Mr. 
Kinzie, he withheld the ammunition and arms from the Indians, throwing 
them,- together with the liquors, into the Chicago river. On that day Black 
Partridge, a friendly chief, said to Capt. Heald: "Linden birds have been 
singing in my ears to-day; be careful on the march you are going to take." 
Oh the 13th the Indians discovered the powder floating on the surface of the 
water, a discovery which had the effect to exasperate them the more, and 
they began to indulge in threats. Meantime preparations were made to 
leave the fort. 

Capt. "Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, had been adopted by the famous 
Miami warrior, Little Turtle, and had become chief of a band of Miamis. 
On the 14:th he was seen approaching with a band of his Miami warrioBB, 
coming to assist Capt. Heald in defending the fort, having at Fort Wayne 
heard of the danger which threatened the garrison and the settlers. But all 
means for defending the fort had been destroyed the night before. All, 
therefore, took up their line of march, with Capt, "Wells and his Miamis in 
the lead, followed by Capt. Heald, with his wife riding by his side. Mr, 
Kinzie had always been on the most friendly terms with the Indians, and 
still hoped that his personal efforts might influence them to allow the whites to 
leave unmolested. He determined to acconipany the expedition, leaving 
his family in a boat in the care of a friendly Indian. In case any misfor- 
tune should happen to him, his family was to be sent to the place where 
Niles, MichiCT.n, is now located, where he had another trading post. Along 
the shore of Lake Michigan slowly marched the little band ot whites, with a 
friendly escort of Pottawattamies, and Capt. Wells and his Miamis, the lat- 
ter in advance. "When they had reached what were known, as the " Sand 
Hills," the Miami advance guard came rushing back, Capt. "Wells exclaim- 
ing, "They are about to attack; form instantly." At that moment a shower 
of bullets came whistling over the sand hills, behind which the Indians 
had concealed themselves for the murderous attack. The cowardly Miamis 
were panic-stricken, and took to flight, leaving their heroic leader to his fate- 
He was at the side of his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the attack was made, and, 
after expressing to her the utter hopelessness of their situation, dashed into 
the fight. There were 54 soldiers, 12 civilians and three women, all poorly 
armed, against 500 Indian warriors. The little band had no alternative but 
to sell their lives as dearly as possible. They charged upon their murder- 
ous assailants, and drove them from their position back to the prairie. 
There the conflict continued until two-thirds of the whites were .killed and 
wounded. Mrs. Heald, Mrs Helm and Mrs. Holt, all took part in the combat. 
In a wagon were twelve children, and a painted demon tomahawked them 
all, seeing which, Capt. Wells exclaimed, " If butchering women and chil- 
dren is your game, I will kill too," and then spurred his horse toward the 
Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and papooses. He was pur- 
sued by several young warriors, who sent bullets whistling about him, killing 
his horse and wounding Capt Wells. They attempted to take him a prisoner, 
but he resolved not to be taken alive. Calling a young chief a squaw, an 
epithet which excites the fiercest resentment in an Indian warrior, the young 
cnief instantly tomahawked him. 

The three women fought as bravely as the soldiers. Mrs. Heald was an 
expert in the use of the rifle, but received several severe wounds. During 
the conflict the hand of a savage was raised to tomahawk her, when she ex- 



100 THE NORTHWEST TEEETTOBT. 

claimed in his own language, " Surely you will not kill a squaw." Her 
words had the effect to change his purpose, and her life was spared. Another 
warrior attempted to tomahawk Mrs. Helm. He struck her a glancing 
blow on the shoulder, when she sized him and attempted to wrest from him 
his scalping knife, which was in the sheath attached to his belt. At that 
moment the friendly Black Partridge dragged her from her antagonist, and 
in spite of her struggles carried her to the lake and plunged her in, at the 
same time holding her so she would not drown. By this means he .saved 
her life, as he intended. The third woman, Mrs. Holt, the wife of Sergeant 
Holt, was a large woman, and as strong and brave as an amazon. She rode 
a fine, spirited horse, which more than once the Indians tried to take from 
her. I^r husband had been disabled in the fight, and with his sword, which 
she had taken, she kept the savages at bay for some time. She was finally, 
however, taken prisoner, and remained a long time a captive among the In- 
dians, but was subsequently ransomed. 

After two-thirds ot the whites had been slain or disabled, twenty-eight 
men succeeded in gaining an eminence on the prairie, and the Indians des- 
sisted from further pursuit. The chiefs held a consultation, aad gave the 
sign that they were ready to parley. Capt. Heald went forward and met 
the chief. Blackbird, on the prairie, when terms of surrender were agreed 
upon. The whites were to deliver up their arms and become prisoners, to 
be exchanged or ransomed in the future. All were taken to the Indian 
camp near the abandoned fort, where the wounded Mrs. Helm had previ- 
ously been taken by Black Partridge. By the terms of surrender no pro- 
vision had been made as to the disposition of the wounded. It was the 
understanding of the Indians that the British general, Proctor, had offered 
a bounty for American scalps delivered at Maiden. Here there was another 
acene ol horror. Most of the wounded men were, killed and scalped. 

Such is a hasty glance at scenes that were witnessed on this then wild 
shore of Lake Michigan. Such were the experiences and the struggles oi 
the heroic men and women who ventured forth into the wilderness to plant 
the germs of civilization, and to lay the foundations of future cities and 
States. The site on which now stands a city which ranks among the great- 
est on the continent, is consecrated by the blood shed by heroes on that 
bright 15th day of August, 1812. 

Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816, under the direction of Capt. Bradley^ 
and was occupied until 1837, when, the Indians having removed from the 
country, it was abandoned. 

Congress, on the 2d of March, 1827, granted to the State of Illinois every 
alternate section of land for six miles on either side of the line of the then 
proposed Illinois and Michigan canal, to aid in its construction, from Chi- 
cago to the head of navigation of the Illinois river. The State accepted the 
grant, and on the 22d of January, 1829, organized a board of canal commis- 
sioners, with power to lay out towns along the line. Under this authoritjj 
the commissioners employed Mr. James Thompson to survey the town of 
Chicago. His first map of the town bears date August 4, 1830. In 1831 
the place contained about a dozen families, not including the ofi&cers and sol- 
diers in Fort Dearborn. On the 10th of August, 1833, it was org^ized by 
the election of five trustees — there being twenty-eight voters. On the .36th 
of September of the same year, a treaty was signed with the chiefs of the 
Pottawattamies, seven thousand of the tribe being present, and on the 1st 
of October they were removed west of the Mississippi, The first charter of , 



THE NOKTHWEST TEEEITOEY. 101 

the city was passed by the Legislature of Illinois, and approved March 4th, 
1837. Under this charter an election was held May Ist; of the same year. 
A c«nsus was taken on the Ist of July, when the entire population was 
shown to be 4,170. The city then contained four warehouses, three hundred 
and twenty-eight dwellings, twenty-nine dry goods stores, five hardware 
stores, three drug stores, nineteen provision stores, ten taverns, twenty-six 
groceries, seventeen lawyers' offices, and five churches. It then embraced 
an area of 560 acres. At this date grain and flour had to be imported from 
the East to feed the people, for the iron arteries of trade did not then stretch 
out over the prairies of Illinois, loVa, and other States. There were no ex- 
portations of produce until 1839, and not until 1842 did the exports exceed 
the imports. Grain was sold in the streets by the wagon load, the trade 
being restricted to a few neighboring farmers of Illinois. 

Of rdigious organizations the Methodists were the pioneers, being repre- 
sented in 1831, 1832 and 1833, by Eev. Jesse Walker. Their first quarterly 
meeting was held in the fall of 1833, and in the spring of the next year the 
first regular class was formed. The first Presbyterian church was organized 
June 26th, 1833, the first pastor being Kev. James Porter. It consisted at 
the time of twenty-five members from the garrison and nine from the citi- 
zens of the town. The first Baptist church was organized October 19th, 
1833 ; and the first Episcopal church, St. James, in 1834. The first Oath- 
oh"c church was built by Eev. Schofler, in 1833-4. 

The first great public improvement projected was the Illinois and Mich- 
igan canal, one hundred miles in length, and connecting Chicago with La 
Salle; at the head of navigation on the Illinois river. It was completed in 
the spring of 1848. 

To the eye of an observer, Chicago seems to be situated upon a level plain, 
but in reality the height of the natural surface above the lake varies from 
three to twenty-four feet, and the grade of the principal streets has been 
raised from two to eight feet above the original surface. A complete ajas- 
tem of sewerage has been established. The surrounding prairie for many 
miles is apparently without much variation of surface. Though it cannot 
be observed by the eye, yet the city really stands on the dividing ridge be- 
tween the two great rivers that drain half the continent, and is about six 
hundred feet above the ocean. Chicago river, before being widened, deep- 
ened, and improved, was a very small stream. It has but very little per- 
ceptible current, and for several miles is very nearly on a level with the 
lake. It is formed by two branches, one from the north and the other from 
south, which unite about a mile from the lake. From this junction the 
stream flows due east to the lake. These streams divide the city into three 
parts, familiarly known as North Side, South Side, and "West Side. Bridges 
constructed upon turn-tables, or pivots, are thrown across the streams at 
many places. By swinging the bridges round, vessels are allowed to be 
towed up and down the river by steam tugs, so that there is very little diffi- 
culty in the way of passing from one division of the city to another. The 
stream has been made navigable for several miles for sail vessels and pro- 
pliers, and immense warehouses and elevators have been constructed along 
its banks, where vessels are loaded and unloaded with great rapidity. 

We have seen that when the first census was taken in 1837, the city had 
a population of 4,170. By 1840 it had increased to only 4,470 ; in 1845 it 
was 12,088 ; in 1850 it wa!s 28,269 ; in 1855 it was 83,509. The census of 
1870 showed a population 298,977. 



103 THE NOETHWEST TEEEITOKT, 

One of the gigantic public improvements of Chicago is that for supplyijig 
the city with water. Owing to the fact that the water in the lake, near the 
■shore, was pollnted by filth from the river, in 1865 a tunnel was cut under 
the lake, extending a distance of two miles from the shore. This tunnel is 
thirty-five feet below the bed of the lake. This work is regarded as an ex- 
ample of great engineering skill, and has proved to be successful. The con- 
tract price for this work was $315,139. Another great work is the tunnel 
under the Chicago river at Washington street, cut for the purpose of dis- 
pensing with the bridge over the river, and to obviate the necessity of the 
public waiting for vessels to pass. The contract price for this great "work 
was $200,000. 

There are other great public improvements of the city, which w:ith her rail- 
roads leading out in all directions, her immense lake shipping trade, and her 
population of nearly half a million people, show the greatness that Chicago 
has attained, all within so short a time. As she has been great in her prpsper- 
ity, so also has she been great in her calamities. On the 8th and 9th of Oc- 
tober, 1871, this city was the scene of one of the greatest conflagrations 
known in the annals of the world — greater than that of London in 1666, 
when thirteen thousand buildings were burned. In Chicago twenty thou- 
sand buildings were swept away by the devouring element, with miles of 
magnificent business blocks, palatial residences, and costly ornamehtatidns 
— aSl covering an area of over five thousand acres/ In all that part of the 
city between Harrison street and the Chicago river, and on the Korth Side 
for nearly four miles to Lincoln Park, there was nothing to be seen but the 
ruins of a city that had suddenly gone down at the merciless bidding of the 
fire-fiend. It was a scene of desolation and ruin, and its announcement at 
the time thrilled a sympathetic chord which vibrated throughout the whole 
civilized world. Like the fabled Phoenix, Chicago rose again from her own 
ashes, but grander and more magnificent than she was before. Chicago is 
now, and has for some years been, the greatest pork packing and grain shipping 
market of the world. Her commerce js of immense proportions and reaches 
to all lands where American trade is known. She is the commercial metrop- 
olis of the great Northwest, and the States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wis- 
consin and Minnesota, pour their tributes of wealth over thousands of miles 
of railroads into her lap. 



THB NOBTHWIST TBEBITOBT, 



103 




OLD FOKT DEAEBOBN, 1830. 




History of Iowa. 



DESCEIPTIYE AND GEOGKAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Eitent— Surface— Rivers— Lakes — Spirit Lake — ^Lake Okoboji— Clear Lake— Timber— Cli- 
mate — ^Prairies — Soils. 

Extent. — ^lowa is about three hundred miles in length, east and west, and 
a little over two hundred miles in breadth, north and south; having nearly 
the figure of a rectangular parallelogram. Its northern boundary is the par- 
allel of 43 degrees 30 minutes, separating it from the State of Minnesota. 
Its southern limit is nearly on the line of 40 degrees 31 minutes from the 
point where this parallel crosses the Des Moines river, westward. From 
this point to the southeast comer of the State, a distance of about thirty 
miles, the Des Moines river forms the boundary line between Iowa and Mis- 
souri. The two great rivers of the North American Continent form the 
east and west boundaries, except that portion of the western boundary ad- 
joining the Territonr of Dakota. The Big Sioux river from its month, two 
miles above Sioux City, forms the western boundary up to the point where 
it intersects the parallel of 43 degrees 30 minutes. These limits embrace an 
area of 55,045 square miles; or, 35,228,800 acres. When it is understood 
that all this vast extent of surface, except that which is occupied by the riv- 
ers, and the lakes and peat beds of the northern counties, is susceptible of the 
highest cultivation, some idea may be formed of the immense agricultural re- 
sources of the State. Iowa is nearly as large as England, and twice as large 
a& Scotland; but when we consider the relative area of surface which may 
be made to yield to the wants of man, those countries of the Old World will 
bear no comparison with Iowa. 

Swtface. — ^The surface of the State is remarkably uniform, rising to nearly 
the same general altitude. There are no mountains, and yet but little of 
the surface is level or flat. The whole State presents a succession of gentle 
elevations and depressions, with some bold and picturesque bluflfs along the 
principal streams. The western portion of the State is generally more eleva- 
ted than the eastern, the northwestern part being the highest. Nature 
conld not have provided a more perfect system of drainage, and at the same 
time leave the country so completely adapted to all' the purposes of agricul- 
tm«. Looking at the map of Iowa, we see two systems of streams or rivers 
rnnning nearly at right angles with each other. The streams which dis- 
charge their waters into va.% Mississippi flow from the northwest to the 
southeast, while those of the other system flow towards the southwest, and 
empty into the Missouri. The former drain about three-fourths of the State, 
and the latter the remaining one-fourth. The water-shed dividing the two 



106 mSTOET OF IOWA. 

systems of streams, represents the highest portions of the State, and graid- 
ually descends as you tollow its course from northwest to southeast. Low- 
water mark in the Missouri river at Council Bluffs is about 425 feet above 
low-water mark in the Mississippi at Davenport. At the crossing of the 
summit, or water-shed, 245 miles west of Davenport, the elevation is about 
960 feet above the Mississippi. The Des Moines river, at the city of Des 
Moines, has an elevation of 227 feet above the Mississippi at Davenport, and 
is 198 feet lower than the Missouri at Council Bluffs. The elevation of the 
eastern border of the State at McGregor is about 624 feet above the level of 
the sea, while the highest elevation in the northwest portion of the State is 
1,400 feet above the level of the sea. In addition to the grand water-shed 
mentioned above, as dividing the waters of the Mississippi and Missouri, 
there are between the principal streams, elevations commonly called "di- 
vides," which are drained by numerous streams of a smaller size tributary to 
the rivers. The valleys along the streams have a deep, rich soil, but are 
scarcely more fertile than many portions of those undulating prairie " di- 
vides." 

Rivers. — As stated above, the rivers of Iowa are divided into two systems, 
or classes — those flowing into the Mississippi, and those flowing into the 
Missouri. The Mississippi river, the largest on the continent, and one of the 
largest in the world, washes the entire eastern border of the State, and is most 
of the year navigable for a large class of steamers. The only serious ob- 
struction to steamers of the largest size, are what are known as the Lower 
Rapids, ]'ust above the mouth of the Des Moines. The government of the 
United States has constructed a canal, or channel, a«-ound these rapids on 
the Iowa side of the river, a worjk which will prove of immense advantage 
to the commerce of Iowa for all time to come. The principal rivers which 
flow through the interior of the State, east of the water-shed, are the Des 
Moines, Skunk, Iowa, Wapsipinicon, Maquoketa, Turkey, and Upper Iowa. 
One of the largest rivers in the State is Ked Cedar, which rises in Minne- 
sota, and flowing in a southeasterly direction; joins its waters with Iowa 
river in Louisa county, only about thirty miles from its mouth, that portion 
below the junction retaining the name of Iowa river, although above the 
-junction it is really the smaller stream. 

' The Des Moines is the largest interior river of the State, and rises in a 
group or chain of lakes in Minnesota, not far from the Iowa border. It 
really has its source in two principal branches, called East and West Des 
Moines, which, after flowing about seventy miles through the northern por- 
tion of the State, converge to their junction in the southern part of Hum- 
boldt county. The Des Moines receives a number of large tributaries, 
among which are Baccoon and Three Eivers (North, South and Middle) on 
the west, and Boone river on the east. Baccoon (or 'Coon) rises in the vi- 
cinity of Storm Lake in Buena Yista county, and after receiving several 
tributaries, discharges its waters into the Des Moines river, within the lim- 
its of the city of Des Moines. This stream affords many excellent mill 
privileges, some of which have been improved. The Des Moines flows from 
northwest to southeast, not less than three hundred miles through Iowa, and 
drains over ten thousand square miles of territory. . At an early day, steam- 
boats, at certain seasons of the year, navigated this river as tar up as the 
" Raccoon Forks," and a large grant of land was made by Congress to the 
State for the purpose of improving its navigation. The land was subse- 
quently diverted to the construction of the Des Moines Yalley Railroad. 



aiSTOET OF IOWA. 107 

Before this diversion several dams were erected on the lower portion of the 
river, which aflford a vast amount of hydraulic power to that portion of the 
State. 

The next river above the Des Moines is Skunk, which has its source in 
Hamilton county, north of the center of the State. It traverses a southeast 
course, having two principal branches-^their aggregate length being about 
four hundred and fifty miles. They drain about eight thousand square miles 
of territory, and sifford many excellent mill sites. 

The next is Iowa river, which rises in several branches among the lakes 
in Hancock and Winnebago counties, in the northern part of the State. Its 
great eastern branch is Red Cedar, having its source among the lakes in 
Minnesota. The two streams, as before stated, unite and flow into the Mis- 
sissippi in Louisa county. In size. Red Cedar is the second interior river 
of the State, and both are valuable as affording immense water power. Shell 
Ilock river is a tributary of Eed Cedar, and is important to ISTorthern Iowa, 
on account of its fine water power. The aggregate length of Iowa and Red 
Cedar rivers is about five himdred miles, and tney drain about twelve thou- 
sand square miles of territory. 

The vVapsipinicon river rises in Minnesota, and flows in a southeasterly 
direction over two hundred miles through Iowa, draining, with its branches, 
a belt of territory only about twelve miles wide. This stream is usually 
called " "Wapsie " by the settlers, and is valuable as furnishing good water 
power for machinery. 

Maquoketa river, the next considerable tributary of the Mississippi, is 
about one hundred and sixty miles long, and drains about three thousand 
square miles of territory. 

Turkey river is about one hundred and thirty miles long, and drains some 
two thousand square miles. It rises in Howard county, runs southeast, and 
empties into the Mississippi near the south line of Clayton county. 

Upper Iowa river also rises in Howard county, flows nearly east, and 
empties into the Mississippi near the northeast corner of the State, passing 
through a narrow, but picturesqiie and beautiful valley. This portion of 
the State is somewhat broken, and the streams have cut their channels deeply 
into the rocks, so that in many places they are bordered by blufis fi-om three 
to four hundred feet high. They flow rapidly, and furnish ample water 
power for machinery at numerous points. 

Having mentioned the rivers which drain the eastern three-fourths of the 
State, we will now cross the great "water-shed" to the Missouri and its 
tributaries. 

The Missouri river, forming a little over two-thirds of the length of the 
western boundary line, is navigable for large sized steamboats for a distance 
of nineteen hundred and fifty miles above the point (Sioux City) where it 
first touches our western border. It is, therefore, a highway of no little im- 
.portance to the commerce of "Western Iowa. During the season of naviga- 
tion some years, over fifty steamers ascend the river above Sioux City, most 
of which are laden with stores for the mining region above Fort Benton. 
We will now refer to the larger tributaries of the Missouri, which drain the 
western portion of Iowa. 

The Big Sioux river forms about seventy miles of the western boundary 
of the State, its general course being nearly from north to south. It has 
several small tributaries draining the counties of Plymouth, Sioux, Lyon, 
Osceola, and O'Brien, in northwestern Iowa. One of the most important 



108 msTOET or iowa. 

of these is Eock river, a beautiful little stream running through the conn- 
ties of Lyon and Sioux. It is supported by springs, and affords. a volume 
of water sufficient for propelling machinery. Big Sioux river was once re- 
garded as a navigable stream, and steamboats of a small size have on sev- 
eral occasions ascended it for some distance. It is not, however, now con- 
sidered a safe stream for navigation. It empties into the Missouri, abont 
two miles above Sioux City, and some four miles below the northwest cor- 
ner of "Woodbury county. It drains about one thousand square miles of 
Iowa territory. 

Just below Sioux City, Floyd river empties into the Missouri. It is a 
small stream, but flows through a rich and beautiful valley. Its length is 
about one hundred miles, and it drains some fifteen himdred square miles of 
territory. Two or three mills have been erected on this stream, and there 
are other mill sites which will doubtless be improved in due time. 

Little Sioux river is one of the most important streams of northwestern 
Iowa. It rises in the vicinity of Spirit and Okoboji lakes, near the Minne- 
sota line, and meanders through various counties a distance of nearly three 
hundred miles to its confluence with the Missouri near the northwest corner 
of Harrison county. With its tributaries it drains not less tlian five thou- 
sand square miles. Several small mills have been erected on this stream, 
and others doubtless will be when needed. 

Boyer river is the next stream of considerable size below tlie Little Sioux. 
It rises in Sac county and flows southwest to the Missouri in Pottawattamie 
county. Its entire length is about one hundred and fifty miles, and drains 
not less than two thousand square miles of territory. It is a small stream, 
meandering through a rich and lovely valley. The Chicago and Northwest- 
em Kailroad passes down this valley some sixty miles. 

Going down the Missouri, and passing several small streams, which have 
not been dignified with the name of rivers, we come to the Nishnabotna, 
which empties into the Missouri some twenty miles below the southwest 
corner of the State. It has three principal branches, with an aggregate 
length of three hundred and fifty miles. These streams drain about five 
thousand square miles of southwestern Iowa. They flow through valleys of 
unsurpassed beauty and fertility, and famish good water power at various 
points, though, in this respect they are not equal to the streams in the north- 
eastern portion of the State. 

The southern portion of the State- is drained by several streams that flow 
into the Missouri river, in the State of Missouri. The most important of 
these are Chariton, Grand, Platte, One Hundred and Two, and the three 
Nodaways — ^East, West and Middle. All of these afford water power for 
machinery, and present splendid valleys of rich farming lands. 

We have above only mentioned the streams that have been designated as 
rivers, but there are many other streams of great importance and value to 
different portions of the State, draining the country, furnishing mill-sites, 
and adding to the variety and beauty of the scenery. So admirable is the 
natural drainage of almost the entire State, that the farmer who has not a 
stream of living water on his premises is an exception to the general ruLe.. 

LAKES OF NOETHEEN IOWA. < 

In some of the northern counties of Iowa there are many small,.but beau- 
tiful lakes, some of which we shall notice. They are a part of the system of 



niSTOET OF IOWA. 109 

lakes extending far northward into Minnesota, and Bome of them present 
many interesting features which the limits of this work will not permit us 
to give in detail. The following are among the most noted of the lakes of 
northern Iowa: Clear Lake, in Cerro Gordo county; Rice Lake, Silver Lake 
and Bright's Lake, in Worth county; Crystal Lake, Eagle Lake, Lake Ed- 
ward and Twin Lakes, in Hancock county; Owl Lake, in Humboldt county; 
Lake 'Gertrude, Elm Lake and "Wall Lake, in Wright county; Lake Caro, in 
Hamilton county; Twin Lakes, in Calhoun county; Wall Lake, in Sac 
county; Swan Lake, in Emmet county; Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county; 
and Okoboji and Spirit Lakes, in Dickinson county. Nearly all of these 
are deep and clear, abounding in many excellent varieties of fish, which are 
caught abundantly by the settlers at all proper seasons of the year. The 
name ' Wall Lake,' applied to several of these bodies of water, is derived from 
the fact that a line or ridge of boulders, extends aroimd them, giving them 
somewhat the appearance of having been walled. Most of them exhibit the 
same appearance in this respect to a e^reater or less extent. Lake Okoboji, 
Spirit Lake, Storm Lake and Clear Lake are the largest of the N^orthern 
Iowa lakes. All of them, except Storm Lake, have fine bodies of timber on 
their borders. Lake Okoboji is about fifteen miles long, and from a quarter 
of a mile to two miles wide. Spirit Lake, just north of it, embraces about 
ten square miles, the northern border extending to the Minnesota line. Storm 
Lake is in size about three miles east and west by two north and south. 
Clear Lake is about seven miles long by two miles wide. The dry rolling 
land usually extends up to the borders of the lakes, making them delightful 
resorts for excursion or fishing parties, and they are now attracting attention 
as places of resort, on account of the beauty ot their natural scenery, as well 
as the inducements which they afford to hunting and fishing parties. 

As descriptive of some of the lakes of Northern Iowa, the author would 
here introduce some former correspondence of his own on the occasion of a 
visit to Spirit and Okoboji Lakes, in Dickinson county. At that time he 
wrote in regard to Spirit Lake: 

With a party of delighted friends — seven of us in all — we made the cir- 
cle of Spirit Lake, or Mm/ne-WoMlcon as the Indians called it. Starting 
from the village of Spirit Lake early in the morning, we crossed the upper 
portion of East Okoboji on a substantial wooden bridge about three hundred 
feet in length, a half mile east of the village. Going around a farm or two, 
we proceeded up along the east shore of Spirit Lake to what is known as 
"Stony Point." Here a point of land has been gradually forming, for, we 
do not know how many years, or even centuries, but large trees have grown 
from the rocks, gravel and sand thrown together by various forces far back 
in the past. From the inner edge of the growth of timber, a ridge of rocks 
extends some forty rods into the lake, gradually lessening until, at the fur- 
ther extremity, it only affords a dry foot-way by stepping from rock to rock. 
Tliis point is said to be constantly extending and it is not improbable that 
in time, two lakes may be formed instead ot one. " Stony Point" is almost 
wholly composed of boulders of various sizes and shapes, brought together 
by the action of water, on either side. It is the resort of innumerable birds and 
water fowl of various kinds, including pelicans, black loons and gulls. When 
we approached they were holding high carnival over the remains of such un- 
fortunate fish as happened to be thrown upon the rocks by the dashing of the 
waves. Our presence, however, soon cleared the coast of its promiscuous 



110 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

gathering of feathered tenants, but after we left, they doubtless returned to 
their revelry. 

We continued our journey up the lake a mile further to the "inlet." Here 
a small stream makes its way in from the east, and, having high steep banks, 
all we had to do was to go round its mouth through the lake, the water being 
very clear, with a fine gravel bottom, and sufficiently shallow for good ford- 
ing. Just above this, a sand-beach extends for some distance, portions of 
which are covered with clumps of willows and other small trees. No heavy 
groves of timber border on the east side of the lake, but scattered trees and 
small groves extend ail the way along. The adjoining prairie land is gener- 
ally diy, rolling and well adapted to farming purposes. Several farms are in 
cultivation along the banks ot this part of the lake. 

Nearly east of the north end of the lake, we crossed the Iowa and Minne- 
sota line. Our road led us about a mile farther north, where it diverged 
westerly to the south bank of a pleasant little sheet of water, known as Loon 
Lake. This has an outlet connecting it with other small lakes, which lie 
near the head of Spirit Lake, and which were doubtless once a part of the 
same. In a pretty little grove on the shore of Loon Lake, in the sovereign 
State of Minnesota, we paused for our nooning. 

From Loon Lake the road turns southward, passing several miles through 
groves of timber that border the west shore of Spirit Lake. A number of 
clear and quiet little lakes are nestled romantically in the groves west of . 
Spirit Lake with only sufficient room in many places for a roadway between 
them and the latter. Of these charming little lakes, the three principal ones 
are Lake Augusta, Plum Lake, and Kound Lake. In the formation of the 
last named, nature has indulged in one of her most singular and interesting 
freaks. It is something over a quarter of a mile in diameter, and so nearly 
round that the eye can detect no irregularity. The bank, all around, rises 
to the uniform height of about thirty feet, sloping at an angle of forty-five 
degrees, and giving the lake the appearance of a huge basin. A dense forest 
approaches on all sides, with large trees bending over the water, which is so 
deep down in its reservoir that the wind rarely ruffles its surface. There is 
no visible inlet or outlet, but the water is always deep and clear. It is 
indeed worth a day's journey to see this charming little gem of a lake, 
reposing so quietly in the midst of its wild surroundings of lofty trees, 
tangled vines and wild flowers. 

rlum Lake is so called from the fact that there are many groves of wild 
plums around it. It lies between Lake Augusta and Round Lake, Near 
the north, end of Plum Lake is a commanding elevation called " Grandview 
Mound." From the summit of this mound there is a fine view of Spirit 
Lake, and a portion of the surrounding country. There is every appearance 
that these little lakes were once a porticm of the greater one that lies east of 
them, and they are now separated from it by a strip of land only wide enough 
in many places for a good wagon road, but it is gradually increasing in width 
from year to year. It is covered with a growth of cottonwood, soft maple, 
elm, wild plum, and other trees, with a dense profusion of wild grape vines 
clinging among the branches. ■ The beach along the edge of Spirit Lake 
here is composed of gravel, sand and shells, with a ridge of boulders, rising 
and extending up to the timber, through which, the road passes, 

Eound Lake, above mentioned, is situated in what is known as "Marble 
Grove," one of the finest bodies of timber to be found about the lakes, and is 
so named from its early occupant, who was killed by the Indians, It was in 



HISTOEY OF IOWA. Ill 

this grove, after the massacre, that the iidians peeled the bark from a tree, 
and with a dark paint, made a picture-record of what they had done. The 
killed were represented by rude drawings of persons in a prostrate position, 
corresponding with the number of victims. JPictures of cabins, with smoke 
issuing from their roofs, represented the number of houses burned. In the 
murder of Marble and his child, and the capture of Mrs. Marble, the Indians 
completed the annihilation of the settlement at the lakes, and thus left a 
record of their fiendish work. " Marble Grove " at that time was doubtless 
a scene of savage rejoicing over the perpetration of deeds which cast a gloom 
over all Northwestern Iowa, and which the lapse of years only could remove. 

From the south end of " Marble Grove " to the village of Spirit Lake, the 
road passes over undulating prairies for some three or four miles, with 
several new farms now being improved on either side. The principal groves 
of timber about this lake are at the west side and the north end, while a 
narrow belt extends around the other portions. The water is deep, and the 
wind often dashes the waves against the banks with great violence. At 
other times the surface is smooth and placid. 

There is a legend which we give briefly, for the benefit of those who may 
be curious to know the origin of the name of Spirit Lake. Many moons 
before the white man took up his abode or built his cabin on the shores of 
tlie lake, a band of Dakota warriors brought a pale-faced maiden here, a 
captive taken in one of their expeditions against the whites who had ven- 
tured near their hunting grounds. Among the warriors was a tall young 
brave, fairer than the rest, who had been stolen from the whites in infancy 
by the wife of Um-pa-sho-ta, the chief. The pale-faced brave never knew 
his parentage or origin, but the chief's wife called him Star of Day, and he 
knew not but that she was his own mother. All the tribe expected that he 
would sometime become their chief, as no warrior had proved so brave and 
daring as he. Star of Day, only, had performed deeds which entitled him 
to succeed to the honors of the aged Um-pa-sho-ta. But all the distinctions 
or titles that his nation might bestow, possessed no attraction for him while 
lie beheld the grief of the beautiful pale-faced captive. He therefore deter- 
mined to rescue her, and also made up his mind to flee with her from the 
tribe and make her his wife. The maiden had recognized in the blue eyes 
and tair face of her lover, something which told her that he, like herself, 
was a captive. One night, while all the warriors were asleep in their lodges, 
Star of Day and the maiden slumbered not. He silently unbound the 
thongs which fastened her to the lodge frame. Only a few paces through 
the thick forest brought them to the lake shore, where, under the willows, 
his light canoe was in readiness. Soon the lovers were midway across the 
lake, but the Great Spirit who ruled in the wind and the water, as well as in the 
forest, willed that tlieir home should be together beneath the waters where 
no Dakota should henceforth ever disturb them. And so a breath of the 
Great Spirit in the wind dashed a wave over the little canoe, and it went 
down with the lovers. Since that time no Indian's canoe has ever dared to 
venture upon the lake. Only the white man's canoe is always safe, for the 
spuits of Star of Day and the maiden still abide under the water, in a 
beautiful cave of shells, guarding only the white man's canoe from danger, 
as spirits ever know their own. From that time the Dakotas called the lake 
Minne-Wcmhm, or Spirit- Water. 

Okoboji. — Okoboji is the most beautiful of all the lakes of Northwestern 
Iowa. Walter Scott could not invest the historic lakes of Scotia with more 



112 inSTOBT OF IOWA. 

of the wild beauty of scenery suggestive of poetry and romance, than we here 
find around this loveliest of Iowa lakes. 

Okoboji lies immediately south of Spirit Lake, and is of very irregular 
shape. Its whole length is at least fourteen miles, but it is nearly separated 
into two parts. The two parts are called, respectively. East and West Okoboji. 
A wooden bridge has been erected across the straits, on the road from tte 
village of Sijirit Lake to that of Okoboji, the water here being ordinarily aot 
over'a couple of hundred feet wide and about fifteen feet deep. West Oljioboji 
is much the larger body of water, stretching west and northwest of the straits 
some eight miles, and varying in width from one to two miles. As you pass 
around this lake, the scene constantly changes, and from many difierent 
points the observer obtains new views, many of which might furnish inspira- 
tion to the pencil of the artist. The water has a deep sky-blue appearance, 
and the surface is either placid or boisterous, as the weather may happen to 
be. The dry land slopes down to the margin on all sides. 

. Huge boulders are piled up around the shores several feet above the 
water, forming a complete protection against the action of the waves. 
These rocks embrace the different kinds of granite which are found scat- 
tered over the prairies, with also a large proportion of limestone, from which 
good quick-lime is manufactured. This rock protection seems to be charac- 
teristic of all that portion of the lake-shore most subject to the violent beat- 
ing of the waves. But there are several fine gravel beaches, and one on the 
north side is especially resorted to as being the most extensive and beautiful. 
Here are immense wind-rows of pebbles, I'ounded and polished by the vari- 
ous processes that nature employs, and in such variety that a single handful 
taken up at random would constitute a miniature cabinet for the geologist. 
Agates, cornelians, and other specimens of exquisite tint and beauty, are 
found in great profusion, being constantly washed up by the water. The 
east end of West Okoboji, at the straits, is some five miles south of Spirit 
Lake, but the extreme west portion extends up to a point west of Spirit 
Lake. East Okoboji is not so wide or deep as the other part, but is nearly 
as long. It extends up to within a quarter of a mile, or less, of Spirit Lake, 
and is now connected with it by a mill-race, being some four or five feet 
lower than that lake. At a narrow place near the upper end of this lake, a 
bridge some three hundred feet long has been erected on the road leading to 
Estherville. The Okoboji outlet heads at the south end of East Okoboji, 
and in its passage flows through three lakes called Upper, Middle and Lower 
Gar Lakes. These little lakes are so named because large quantities of the 
peculiar long-billed fish designated by that name, are found therein. This 
outlet has a rapid fall all the way to its junction with the Little Sioux river, 
some five miles below, and is about being turned to good account by the 
erection of machinery on it. This outlet is also the greatest of the fishing 
resorts about the lakes 

The groves around Lake Okoboji embrace over one thousand acres of good 
timber. The larger groves are found on the south side, where the prindipal 
settlement was at the time of the Indian massacre. There are two or three 
fine bodies of timber on the north side of West Okoboji, and a narrow fringe 
of timber borders nearly all the lake shore between the larger groves. On 
the north side of West Okoboji, near the west end, is a splendid grove of 
hard maple, of large size, while none of this kind of timbef is found else- 
where about the lake. On the same side in another grove, we observed 
many red cedars of large growHi. We noticed one nearly three feet in 



HISTORY OF IOWA.. 113 

diameter, and a fine crop of young cedars, from three to ten inches higli, 
have taken root along the shore. Burr oak seems to predominate among 
the various kinds of timber, and the groves on the south side are mainly 
composed of this kind, with considerable ash, elm and walnut. In many 
places the ground is covered with a dense growth of wild gooseberry and 
wild currant bushes, all now giving promise of a fine yield of fruit. Many 
plum groves are scattered about the lake, and grapes also grow in profusion. 
We noticed, however, that the wild crab-apple, so plentiful in other parts of 
the State, was wanting. 

The land rises from the lake nearly all the way round, with a gradually 
sloping bank, to the height of some thirty feet, and then stretches away in 
undulating prairie or woodland, as the case may be. In some places, the 
unbroken prairie extends to the beach without a tree or shrub. A splendid 
body of prairie, embracing several thousand acres, lies in the peninsula 
formed by Lake Okoboji with its outlet and the Little Sioux river. Between 
Okoboji and Spirit Lakes, there is also a good body of prairie with some 
well improved farms. A lake of considerable size, called Center Lake, with 
a fine body of timber surrounding it, lies between Okoboji and Spirit Lakes. 

In point of health, as well as in the beauty of its natural scenery, this 
locaHty far surpasses many others that have become fashionable and famous 
resorts. A month or two in the summer season might be spent here with 
constant change, and a pleasing variety of attractions. The invalid or 
pleasure seeker might divide the time between hunting, fishing, driving, 
bathing, rowing, sailing, rambling, and in various other ways adapted to his 
taste or fancy. He could pay homage to I^ature in her playful or her 
milder moods; for sometimes sne causes these little lakes to play the role of 
miniature seas by the wild dashing of their surges against their rocky shores, 
and then again causes them to become as calm and placid as slumbering 
infancy. 

Clea/r Za^e.'—Clea.T Lake, in Cerro Gordo county, is among the better 
known lakes of the State, on account of its easy accessibility by rail, as well 
as its many and varied attractions. It is a beautiful little sheet of water, 
and as a pleasure resort has for several years been constantly growing in 
favor. This, and Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county, as well as some 
others, are deserving of special description, but what is already given will 
afibrd some idea of the lakes of Northern Iowa. 

Timber. — One of the peculiar features of the topography of the north- 
west, is the predominance of prairies, a name of French origin, which sig- 
nifies grass-land. It has been estimated that about nine- tenths of the sur- 
face of Iowa is prairie. The timber is generally found in heavy bodies skirt- 
ing the streams, but there are also many isolated groves standing, like islands 
in the sea, far out on the prairies. The eastern half of the State contains a 
lar^r proportion of timber than the western. The following are the leading 
varieties of timber: White, black and burr oak, black walnut, butternut, 
hickory, hard and soft maple, cherry, red and white elm, ash, linn, hackberry, 
birch, honey locust, cottonwood and quaking asp. A few sycamore trees are 
found in certain localities along the streams. Groves of red cedar also pre- 
vail, especially along Iowa and Cedar rivers, and a few isolated pine trees are 
scattered aloijg the bluffs of some of the streams in the northern part of the 
State. 

Nearly all kinds of timber common to Iowa have been found to grow rap- 

8 



lU 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



idly wlien transplanted upon the prairies, or when propagated from the plant- 
ing of seeds. Only a few years and a little expense are required for the 
settler to raise a grove sufl&cient to afford him a supply of fuel. The kinds 
most easily propagated, and of rapid growth, are cottonwood, maple and wal- 
nut. All our prairie soils are adapted to their growth. 

Prof 0. E. Bessey, of the State Agricultural College, who supervised the 
collection of the different woods of Iowa for exhibition at the Centennial 
Exposition, in 1876, has given a most complete list of the native woody 
plants of the State. Below we present his list. "When not otherwise stated, 
they are trees. The average diameters are given in inches, and when the 
species is a rare one, its locality is given : 



Papaw — shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 

Moonseed— climbing shrub; J^inch. 

Basswood, Lynn or Linden — 20 inches. 

Prickly Ash — shrub; 2 inches. 

Smoom Sumach — shrub; 2 inches. 

Poison Ivy — climbing shrub; 1 inch. 

Fragrant Sumach — shrub; 2 inches. 

Frost Grape — vine; 2 inches. 

River Bank Grape — vine; 2 inches. 

Buckthorn — shrub; river bluffs; 2 to 3 inches. 

New Jersey Tea — low shrub; j^ inch. 

Red Root— low shrub; % inch. 

Bitter-sweet — climbing shrub; 1 inch. 

"Wahoo — shrub; 2 inmes. 

Bladder Nut— shrub; 2 inches. 

Buckeye — ^20 to 30 inches. 

Sugar Maple — 20 to 24 inches. 

Black Maple — 12 to 18'inches. 

Silver or Soft Maple— 20 to 30 inches. 

Box Elder — 8 to 12 inches. 

False Indigo — shrub; % incb. 

Lead Plant — ^low shrub; J^ inch. 

Red Bud — 6 to 8 inches. 

Kentucky Coffee Tree— 3 to 12 inches. 

Honey Locust — 12 to 20 inches. 

Wild Pl^m— sbrub or tree; 2 to 5 inches. 

Wild Red Cherry — shrub or tree; 2 to 6 

inches. 
Choke Cherry — shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 
Wild Black Cherry— 12 to 18 inches. 
Wine Bark — shrub; J^ inch. 
Meadow Sweet — shrub; J^ inch. 
Wild Red Raspberry — shrub; "J^ inch. 
Wild Black Raspberiy — shrubs % inch. 
Wild Blackberry — shrub; % inch. 
Dwarf Wild Rose — low shrub; % i°ch. 
Early Wild Rose — low shrub; % inch. 
Bladk Thorn — 3 to 5 inches. 
"W^hite Thorn — 3 to 5 inches. 
Downy-leaved Thorn — 2 to 3 inches. 
Wild Grab Apple — 3 to 5 inches. 
Service Berry or June Berry — 3 to 5 inches. 
Small June Berry — shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 
Prickly WUd Gooseberry — shrub; J^ inch. 
Smooui WUd Gooseberry — shrub; ^ inch. 
Wild Black Currant — shrub; J^ inch. 
Witch Hazel — shrub; 1 to 2 inches; said to 

grow in N. E. Iowa. 
EiumMnnik — shrub; 2 inches. 
Rough-leaved Dogwood — shrub; 1 to 3 

inches. 
Panicled Cornel — shrub; 2 inches. 



Alt«rnate-leaved Cornel— shrub; 2 inches. 

Wolf berry — low shrub; % inch. 

Coral Berry — low shrub; ^ inch. 

Small Wild Honeysuckle — climbing shrub; }{ 
inch. 

Blackberried Elder— shrub; 1 to 2 inches. 

Red-berried Elder — shrub; 1 to 2 inches. 
This one I have not seen, but feel quite 
sure that it is in the State. 

Sheep Berry — shrub; 2 inches. 

Downy Arrow-wood — shrub 2 inches. 

High Cranberry Bush — shrub; 1 inch. 7 

Button Bush — shrub; 1 inch. 

Black Huckleberry — low shrub; J^ inch; near 
Davenport, according to Dr. Parry. 

White Ash— 12 to 18 inches. 

Green Ash — 8 to 12 inches. There is some 
doubt as to the identity of this species. 

Black Ash — 12 to 16 inches. 

Sassafras — 3 to 18 inches. Said to grow in 
the extreme southeastern part of the 
State. 

Spice Bush — shrub; 1 inch. Said to grow in 
Northeastern Iowa. 

Leatherwood or Moosewood — shrub; 1 to 2 
inches. In Northeastern Iowa. 

Buffalo Berry — shrub; 1 to 2 inches. Possi- 
- bly this may be found on our western 
borders, as it occurs in Nebraska. 

Red Elm— 12 to 14 inches. 

White Elm— 18 to 30 inches. 

Gorky Elm — 10 to 15 inches. I have seen no 
specimens which could certainly be re- 
ferred to this species, and yet I think 
there is little doubt of ite being a native 
of this State. 

Hackberiy — 10 to 16 inches, 

Red Mulberry — 6 to 10 inches. 

Sycamore, or Buttonwood — 10 to 30 inches. 

Black Walnut— 24 to 48 inches. 

Butternut— 12 to 20 inches. 

SheE-bark Hickory— 12 to 24 inches. 

Pecan Nut— 12 to 20 inches. 

Large Hickory Nut— 18 to 24 inches. 

Pig Nut Hickory— 12 to 20 inches. 

These three last species I have nofrlS 
in the State, but from their knowttJ'^ 
tiibution, I have no doubt that th«J .aie 
to be found in the southern portions of 
the State. 

Butternut Hickory— 12 to 18 inches. 

White Oak— 20 to 30 inches. 



mOTOBY OF IOWA. 115 

BvUT Oaik— 24 to 36 inches. Petioled Willow— shrub; 2 inches. 

Chestnut-. Oak— 5 to IQ inches. Heart-leaved Willow— small tree; 3 to 4 in- 

Laurel Oak— 5 to 10 inches. ches. 

Scarlet Oak— 12 to 16 inches. Black Willow— 3 to 12 inches. 

Red Oak— 15 to 20 inches. Almond Willow— 3 to 8 inches. 

Hazel Nut — shnib; 1 inch. Long'-leaved Willow — shrub; 2 to 3 inches. 

bm Wood — 4 to 7 inches. Aspen — 6 to 12 inches. 

B^ Beech — 3 to 4 inches; Cottonwood — ^24 to 86 inches. 

Wfite Kich— S to 6 inches. Said to grow in White Pine — a few small trees grow in NorUi- 

; I , Northeastern Iowa. eastern Iowa. 

SJiecHed Alder— shrub or small tree; 2 to 3 Red Cedar — 6 to 8 inches. 

inches. Northeastern Iowa._ Ground Hemlock — trailing shrub; 1 inch. 

Prairie Willows — ^low shrub; % inch. Green Briar — climbing shrub; j4 inch. 
Glaucous Willow — small tree; 2 to 8 inches. 

Total number of species, 104; of ttese, fifty-one species are trees, while 
the remaining ones are shrubs. The wood of all the former is used for 
economic purposes, while some of the latter furnish more or less valuable 
fuel. 

CUmate. — ^Prof. Parvin, who has devoted great attention to the climatol- 
ogy of Iowa, in a series of observations made by him at Muscatine, from 1839 
to 1859, inclusive, and at Iowa City, from 1860 to 1870, inclusive, deduces 
the following general results : That the months of ^November and March 
are essentially winter months, their average temperatures rising but a few 
degrees above the freezing point. Much of the former month is indeed mild 
and pleasant, but in it usually comes the first cold spell, followed generally 
by mild weather, while in March the farmer is oft«n enabled to commence 
his spring plowing. September has usually a summer temperature, and 
proves a ripening season for the fall crops, upon which the farmer may rely 
with safety if the spring has been at all backward. May has much more 
the character of a spring month than that of summer, and " May day" is 
not often greeted with a profusion of flowers. The average temperature of 
May during thirty-two years was 59.06 degrees, while that of September 
was 63.37 degrees. Prof. Parvin states that during thirty-five years the 
mercury rose to 100 degrees only once within the region of liis observations 
in Iowa, and that was during the summer of 1870. It seldom rises above 
ninety-five degrees, or falls lower than fifteen degrees below zero. The 
highest temperature, with very few exceptions, occurs in the month of Au- 
gust, while July is the hottest month as indicated by the m^ean temperature 
of the summer months. January is the coldest month, and in this, only 
once in thirty-two years did the mercury fall to thirty degrees below zero. 
The prevailing winds are those of a westerly direction, not for the year alone, 
but for the several months of the year, except June, July, August and Sep- 
tember. August is the month in which the greatest amount of rain falls, 
and in January the least. The greatest fall of rain in any one year, was in 
1851—74.49 inches, and the least in 1854—23.35 inches. The greatest fall 
of snow for any one year, was in 1868 — 61.97 inches. The least was in 
1850 — ^7.90 inches. The earliest fall of snow during twenty-two years, from 
1848 to 1869, inclusive, was October 17th, 1859, and the latest, April 29th, 
1851. The greatest fall was December 21st, 1848 — 20.50 inches. During 
that time no snow fell during the months of May, June, July, August and 
September, but rain usually occurs in each of the winter months. 

The clear days during the time embraced in Prof. Parvin's observations), 
were thirty-two per cent; the cloudy twenty-two per cent, and the variable 
forty-six per cent. 



116 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

The year 1863 was very cold, not only in Iowa, but throughout the coun- 
try, and there was frost in every month of the year, hut it onfy once or twice 
during thirty years seriously injured the corn crop. When the spring is 
late the fall is generally lengthened, so that the crop has time to mature. 
The mean time for late spring frosts is May 4th; that of early fall frost is 
September 24th. The latest frost in the spring during thirty-one years, from 
1839 to 1869, inclusive, was May 26th, 1847; and the earliest, August 29tli, 
1863. 

Premies. — ^The character of surface imderstood by the term prairie, is not 
a feature peculiar to Iowa, but is a characteristic of the greater portion of 
the !N"orthwest. Dr. 0. A. White, late State Geologist of Iowa, in his re- 
port says : 

■ " By the word prairie we mean any considerable surface that is free from 
forest trees and shrubbery, and which is covered more or less thickly with 
grass and annual plants. This is also the popular understanding of the 
term. It is estimated that about seven-eighths of the surface of Iowa is 
prairie, or was so when the State was fii-st settled. They are not confined to 
the level surface, but are sometimes even quite hilly and broken; and it has 
just been shown that they are not confined to any particular variety of soil, 
tor they prevail equally upon Alluvial, Drift,- and Lacustral soils. Indeed, 
we sometimes find a single prairie whose surface includes all these varieties, 
portions of which may be respectively sandy, gravelly, clayey or loamy. 
Neither are they confined to the region of, nor does their character seem at 
all dependent upon, the formations which underlie them, for within the State 
of Iowa they rest upon all formations, from those of Azoic to those of Cre- 
taceous age inclusive, which embraces almost all kinds of rocks, such as 
quartzites, friable sandstone, magnesian limestone, common limestone, im- 
pure chalk, clay, clayey and sandy shales, etc. Southwestern Minnesota is 
almost one continuous prairie upon the drift which rests directly upon, not 
only the hard Sioux quartzite, biit also directly upon the granite. 

" Thus, whatever the origin of the prairies might have been, we have the 
positive assurance that their present existence in Iowa and immediate vicin- 
ity is not due to the influence of climate, the character or composition of 
the soil, nor to the character of any of the underlying formations. It now 
remains to say without the least hesitation, that the real cause of the pres- 
ent existence of prairies in Iowa, is the prevalence of the annual fires. 
If these had been prevented fifty years ago Iowa would now be a timbered 
instead of a prairie State. 

" Then arises questions like the following, not easily answered, and for 
which no answers are at present proposed: 

"When was fire first introduced upon the prairies, and how? Could any 
but human agency have introduced annual fires upon them? If they could 
have been introduced only by the agency of man why did the ibrests not 
occupy the prairies betbre man came to introduce his fires, since we see 
their great tendency to encroach upon the prairies as soon as the fires are 
made to cease ? The prairies, doubtless, existed as such almost immediately 
after the close of the Grlacial epoch. Did man then exist and possess tlie 
use of fire that he might have annually burnt the prairies of so large a part 
of the continent, and thus have constantly prevented the encroachments of 
the forests ? It may be that these questions will never be satisfactorily an- 
swered; but nothing is more evident than that the forests would soon occupy 
a very large proportion of the prairie region of North America if the prai- 



HISTOKT OF IOWA. 117 

rie fires were made to cease, and no artificial efibrts were made to prevent 
their growth and encroachment." 

iSoUs. — Dr. White has separated the soils of Iowa into three general di- 
visions, viz : the Drift, Bluff, and Alluvial. The drift soil occupies the 
greater portion of the State, the hluff next, and the alluvial the least. The 
drift is derived primarilj from the disintegration of rocks, to a considerable 
extent perhaps from those of Minnesota, which were subject to violent gla- 
cial action during the glacial epoch. This soil is excellent, and is generally 
free from coarse drift materials, especially near the surface. 

The bluff soil occupies an area estimated at about five thousand square 
miles, in the western part of the State. It has many peculiar and marked 
characteristics, and is believed to be lacustral in its origin. In some places 
the deposit is as great as two hundred feet in thickness, all portions of it 
being equal in fertility. If this soil be taken from its lowest depth, say two 
hunfi-ed feet below the surface, vegetation germinates and thrives as readily 
in it as in the surface deposit. It is of a slightly yellowish ash color, ex- 
cept when mixed with decaying vegetation. It is composed mainly of si- 
lica, but the silicious matter is so finely pulverized that the naked eye is un- 
able to perceive anything like sand in its composition. The bluffs along the 
Missouri river, in the western part of the State, are composed of this ma- 
terial. 

The alluvial soils are the " bottom " lands along the rivers and smaller 
streams. They are the washings of other soils mixed with decayed vege- 
table matter. They vary somewhat in character and fertility, but the best 
of them are regarded as the most fertile soils in the State. 

As to the localities occupied by each of these different soils, it may be 
stated that the drift forms the soil of all the higher plains and woodlands 
of the State, except a belt along the western border, which is occupied by 
the bluff soil, or bluff deposit, as it is generally called. The alluvial occu- 
pies the low lands, both prairie and timber, along the streams. It may be 
remarked that the alluvial soil composing the broad belt of " bottom " along 
the Missouri, partakes largely of the bluff soil, owing to continued wash- 
ings from the high lands or bluffs adjacent. 

GEOLOGY OF IOWA. 

Classilication of Rocks — ^Azoic System — Huronian Group — Lower Silurian System — Primordial 
Groap^Trenton Group— Uincimiati Group — Upper Silurian System — Niagara Group — 
Devonian System — Hamilton Group — Carboniferous System — Sub-Carboniferous Group — 
Kinderhook Beds — BurUngton Limestone — Keokuk Limestone — St. Louis Limestone — 
Coal-Measure Group — Cretaceous System — Nishnabotany Sandstone — Woodbury Sand- 
stones and Shales — Inoceramus Beds. 

In January, 1855, the General Assembly passed an act to provide for a 

Jeological survey of the State. Under authority given by this act, ' Prof, 
ames Hall, of New Tork, was appointed State Geologist, and Prof. J. D. 
Whitney, of Massachusetts, State Chemist. During the years 1855, 1856, 
and 1857, the work progressed, but was confined chiefly to the eastern coun- 
ties. A large volume was published in two parts, giving in detail the results 
of the survey up to the close of the season of 1857, when the work was dis- 
continued. In 1866 it was resumed under an act of the General Assembly 
passed in March of that year, and Dr. Charles A. White, of Iowa City, was 
appointed State Geologist. He continued the work, and in December, 1869, 



118 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 



submitted a report to the Goydrnor in two large volumes. From tlieBe 
reports we derive a pretty thorough knowledge of the geological character- 
istics in all portions of the State. 

In the classification of Iowa rocks, State Geologist White adopted the 
following definitions: 

The term "formation" is restricted to such assemblages of strata as have 
been formed within a geological epoch; the term "group," to such natural 
groups of formation as were not formed within a geological period; and the 
term " system," to such series of groups as were each formed within a geolog- 
ical age. 

The terms used in this arrangement may be referred to two categories — 
one applicable to geological objects, and the other to geological time. Thus: 
Formations constitute Groves,' groups constitute Systems; Epochs consti- 
tute Periods; periods constitue Ages. 

In accordance with this arrangement the classification of Iowa rocks may 
be seen at a glance in th6 following table constructed by Dr. White: 



SYSTEMS. 

AGES. 



GROUPS. 

PERIODS. 



FORMATIONS. 

EPOCHS. 

Drift 

Inoceramus bed 

Woodbury Sandstone and Shales 

Nishnabotany Sandstone 

Upper Coal Measures 

Middle Coal Measures 

Lower Coal Measures 

St. Louis Limestone 

Keokuk Limestone 

Burlington Limestone 

Kindernook beds 

Hamilton Limestone and Shales . 

Niagara Limestone 

Maquoketa Shales 

Galena Limestone 

Trenton Limestone 

St. Peter's Sandstone 

Lower Magnesian Limestone 

Potsdam Sandstone 

Sioux Quartzite 



THICKNESS. 

IH PEET. 



CietaceouB . . . . 

Carboniferous . 

Devoni^ 

Upper Silurian 



Lower Silurian . 
Azoic 



Post Tertiary. . 
Lower Cretaceous n 

Coal Measures . . ■ 
Subcarboniferous • 



Hamilton .... 

Niagara 

'Cincinnati . 

Trenton .. 



% 



Primordial 
uronian — 



10 to 200 

50 
130 
100 
200 
200 
200 

75 

90 
196 
175 
200 
350 

80 
250 
200 

80 
250 
300 

50 



AZOIO SYSTEM. 



Mv/ronicm Orowp. — The Sioux Quartzite Formation in this Group is 
found exposed in natural ledges only on a few acres in the northwest corner 
of the State. The exposures in Iowa are principally upon the banks of the 
Big Sioux river, for which reason the specific name of Sioux Quartzite is 
given. to it. It is an intensely hard rock, breaking with a splintery fracture, 
and a color varying in different localities from a bright to a deep red. 
Althomgh it is so compact and hard the grains of sand of which it was 
oariginaUy composed are yet distinctly to be seen, and even the ripple marks 
upon its bedding surfaces are sometimes found as distinct as they were when 
the rock was a mass of incoherent sand in the shallow waters in whi^h it was 
accumulated. The linies of stratification are also quite distinct, but they are 
not usually sufficiently definite to cause the mass to divide into numerous 
layers. It has, however, a great tendency to break up by vertical cracks 



BISTOBT OF IOWA. 119 

and fissures into small angular blocks. The process of metamorphism has 
been so complete throughout the whole formation that the rock is almost 
everywhere of uniform texture, and its color also being so nearly uniform 
there is no difficulty in identifying it wherever it may be seen. 

In a few rare cases this rock may be quarried readily, as the layers are 
easily separated, bat usually it is so compact throughout that it is quarried 
with the OTcatest difficulty into any forms except those into which it naturally 
cracks. It has a great tendency, however, upon its natural exposures, to 
break up by vertical fissures and cracks into angular blocks of convenient size 
for handling. Except this tendency to crack into angular pieces, the rock 
is absolutely indestructible. No trg,ce8 of fossil remains of any kind have 
been found in it. As shown by the table its exposure in Iowa is fifty feet in 
thickness. 

LOWER SILURIAN SYSTEM. 

Primordial Oro-up. — ^The Potsdam Sandstone Formation of this Group 
has a geographical range extending throughout the northern portion of the 
United States and Canada, and in Iowa reaches a known thickness of about 
300 feet, as shown in the table. It forms, however, rather an inconspicuous 
feature in the geology of Iowa. It is exposed only in a small portion of 
the northeastern part of the State, and has been brought to view there by 
the erosion of the river valleys. The base of the formation does not appear 
anywhere in Iowa, consequently its full thickness is not certainly known^ nor 
is it known certainly that it rests on the Sioux Quartzite. The rock is 
everywhere soft; usually a very friable sandstone, but sometimes containing 
some clayey material, and approaching in character a sandy shale. It is 
nearly valueless for any economic purpose, not being of sufficient hardness 
to serve even the commonest purposes of masonry. No fossils have been 
discovered in this formation in Iowa, but in Wisconsin they are found quite 
abundantly in it. 

The Lower Magnesian Limestone Formation has but little greater geo- 
graphical extent in Iowa than the Potsdam Sandstone has; because, like 
mat formation, it appears only in the bluffs and vaUey-sides of the same 
streams. It is a moi-e conspicuous formation, however; because, being a 
firm rock, it presents bold and often picturesque fronts along the valleys. 
Its thickness is about 250 feet, and is quite uniform in composition, being a 
nearly pure buff-colored dolomite. It lacks a uniformity of texture and 
stratmcation which causes it to weather into rough and sometimes grotesque 
shapes, as it stands out in bold relief upon the valleysides. It is not genei'- 
ally valuable for building purposes, owing to its lack of uniformity in texture 
and bedding. Some parts of it, however, are selected which serve for such 
uses at Lansing and McGregor. It has also been used to some extent for 
making lime, but it is not equal to the Trenton limestone, near Dubuque, 
for that purpose. The only fossils that have been found in this formation in 
Iowa, are, so far as known, a few traces of the stems of Crinoids found near 
McGregor. 

The St. Peter's Sandstone Formation is remarkably uniform in thickness 
throughout its known geographical extent. It is a clean grit, light colored, 
veiy triable rock; so pure m its silicious compostion that it is probable some 
portions of it may be found suitable for the manufacture of glass. It occu- 
pies the surface of a large portion of the north half of Allemakee county, 
immediately beneath the drift, and it is also exposed a couple of miles 



120 HISTOET OF lOTVA. 

below McGregor, where it is much colored by oxide of iron. Jt contains no 
fossils. 

Trenton Grov/p. — The lower formation of this group is known as the 
Trenton Limestone. With the exception of this all the limestones of both 
Upper and Lower Silurian age in Iowa, are magnesian limestones — nearly 
pure dolomites. The rocks of this formation also contain much magnesia, 
but a large part of it is composed of bluish compact common limestone. It 
occupies large portions of both Winneshiek and Allamakee counties, together 
with a portion of Clayton. Its thickness as seen along the bluffs of the 
Mississippi is about eighty feet, but in Winneshiek county we find the 
thickness is increased to upward of 200 feet. The greater part of this 
formation is worthless for economic purposes, but enough of it is suitable 
for building purposes and for lime to meet the wants of the inhabitants. 
The worthless portions of the formation consists of clayey shales and shaly 
limestone. Fossils are abundant in this formation. In some places the 
rock is made up of a mass of shells, corals, and fragments of trilobites, 
together with other animal remains, cemented by calcareous matter into 
compact form. ,, 

The upper portion of the Trenton Group, known as the Galena Limestone 
Formation, occupies a narrow strip of country, seldom exceeding 12 miles in 
width, but it is fully 150 miles long. It is about 250 feet thick in the 
vicinity of Dubuque, but diminishes in thickness as it extends northwest, so 
that it does not probably exceed 100 feet where it crosses the northern 
boundary of the State. The outcrop of this formation traverses portions of 
the counties of Howard, Winneshiek, Allamakee, Fayette, Clayton, Dubuque, 
and Jackson. It exhibits its greatest development in Dubuque county. It ' 
is not very uniform in texture, which causes it to decompose unequally, and 
conseqiiently to present interesting forms in the abrupt bluffs of it, which 
border the valleys. It is usually unfit for dressing, but affords good enough 
stone for common masonry. It is the source of the lead ore of the Dubuque 
lead mines. The full thickness of this formation at Dubuque is 250 feet. 
Fossils are rare in it. 

Cvncvrmati Group. — The Maquoketa Shale Formation of this group, so- 
called by Dr. White, is synonymous with the Hudson River Shales, of Prof. 
Hall. It is comprised within a long and narrow area, seldom reaching more 
than a mile or two in width, but more than a hundred miles long, in the State. 
Its most southerly exposure is in the bluffs of the Mississippi river, near 
Bellevue, in Jackson county, and the most northerly one yet recognized is in 
the western part of Winneshiek county. The whole formation is largely 
composed of bluish and brownish shales. Its economic value is very shght, 
as it is wholly composed of fragmentary materials. The fossils contained in 
this formation, together with its position in relation to the underlying and 
overlying formations, leave no doubt as to the propriety of referring it to the 
same geological period as that in which the rocks at Cincinnati, Ohio, were 
formed. Several species of fossils which characterize the Cincinnati group 
are foxmd in the Maquoketa Shales, but they contain a large number of 
species that have been found nowhere else than in these shales in Iowa, and 
it is the opinion of Dr. White that the occuiTcnce of these distinct fossils in 
the Iowa formation would seem to warrant the separation of the Maquoketa 
Sliales as a distinct formation from any others of the group, and that its true 
position is probably at the base of the Cincinnati group. 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 121 

UPPEE SILUEIAIT SYSTEM. 

Niagcvra Group. — ^The area occupied by the Niagara limestone Formation 
is nearly 160 miles from north to south, and between 40 and 50 miles wide 
in its widest part. At its narrowest part, which is near its northern limit in 
Iowa, it is not more than four or five miles wide. This formation is entirely 
magnesian limestone, with, in some places, a considerable proportion of sili- 
cioas matter in the form of chert or coarse flint. Some of the lower portions 
resemble both the Galena and Lower Magnesian Limestones, having the 
same want of uniformity of texture and bedding. It affords, however, 
a great amount of excellent quarry rock. The quarries at Anamosa, in Jones 
county, are remarkable for the imiformity ot the bedding of its strata. 
^Vherever this rock is exposed there is always an abundance of material for 
common masonry and other purposes. In some places excellent lime is 
made from it. 

DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 

Hamilton Chroup. — The Hamilton Limestone and Shales Formation occu- 
pies an area of surface as great as those occupied by all the formations of 
both Lower and Upper Silurian age in the State. The limestones of the De- 
vonian age are composed in part of magnesian strata, and in part of common 
limestone. A large part of the material of this formation is quite worthless, 
yet other portions are very valuable for several economic purposes. Having 
a very large geographical extent in Iowa, it constitutes one of the most im- 
portsmt formations. Wherever any part of this formation is exposed, the 
common limestone portions exist in sufficient quantity to furnish abundant 
material for common lime of excellent quality, as well as good stone for com- 
mon masonry. Some of the beds furnish excellent material for dressed stone, 
for all works requiring strength and durability. The most conspicuous and 
characteristic fossils of this formation are brachipod moUusks and corals. 

CARBOmFEROUS SYSTEM. 

The Suh-Ca/rbomferoita Group. — ^This group occupies a very large sur- 
face in Iowa. Its eastern border passes from the northeastern portion of 
Winnebago county in a southeasterly direction, to the northern part of Wash- 
ington county. Here it makes a Ijroad and direct bend nearly eastward, 
striking the Mississippi river at the city of Muscatine. The southern and 
western boundary of the area is to a considerable extent the same as that 
which separates it from the coalfield. From the southern part of Pocahontas 
county, it passes southeastward to Fort Dodge, thence to Webster City, 
thence to a point three or four miles northeast of Eldora, in Hardin county, 
thence southward to the middle of the north line of Jasper county, thence 
southeastward to Sigoumey in Keokuk county, thence to the northeast corner 
of Jefierson county, and thence, by sweeping a few miles eastward to the 
southeast comer or Van Buren county. The area as thus defined, is nearly 
250 miles long, and from 20 to 40 miles wide. Tlie general southerly and 
westerly dip nas carried the strata of the group beneath the lower coal- 
measure along the line last designated, but after passing beneath the latter 
strata for a distance of from 15 to 20 miles, they appear a^ain in the valley 
of the Des Moines river, where they have been bared by the erosion of that 
valley. 

The KinderhookBeds, the lowest Formation of the sub-carboniferous group. 



122 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

presents its principal exposures along the bluffs ^hich border the MissiEj'ippi 
and Skunk rivers, where they form the eastern and northern boundary of Des 
Moines county; along English river in Washington county; alonglowa riyer 
in Tama, Marshall, Hardin and Franklin counties, and along the Des Moines 
river in Humboldt county. The southern part of the formation in Iowa 
has the best development of all in distinguishing characteristics, but the 
width of area it occupies is much greater in its northern part, reaching a 
maximum width of eighty miles. The Kinderhook formation has consider- 
able economic value, particularly in the northern portion of the region it 
occupies. The stone which it furnishes is of practical value. There are no 
exposures of stone of any other kind in Pocahontas, Humboldt and some 
other counties embraced in the area occupied by it, and therefore it is of very 
great value in such places for building material. It may be manufactured 
into excellent lime. The quarries in Marshall county and at Le Grand are 
of this formation ; also the oolitic limestone in Tama county. This oolitic 
limestone is manufactured into a good quality of lime. The principal fossils 
appearing in this formation are the remains of fishes; no remains of vegeta- 
tion have as yet been detected. The fossils in this formation, so far as Iowa 
is concerned, are far more numerous in the southern than in the northern 
part. 

The Burlington Limestone is the next Formation in this group above the 
Kinderhook Beds, the latter passing gradually into ■ the Burlington Lime- 
stone. This formation consists of two distinct calcareous divisions, which 
are separated by a series of silicious beds. The existence of these silicious 
beds suggests titie propriety of regarding the Burlington Limestone as really 
two distinct formations. This is strengthened also by some well marked 
palaeontological differences, especially in the crinoidal remains. The south- 
erly dip of the Iowa rocks carries the Burlington Limestone down, so that 
it is seen for the last time in this State in the valley of Skunk river, near 
the southern boundary of Des Moines county. Northward of Burlington 
it is found frequently exposed in the bluffs of the Mississippi and Iowa riv- 
ers in the counties of Des Moines and Louisa, and along some of tlie smaller 
streams in the same region. Burlington Limestone forms a good building 
material ; good lime may also be made from it, and especially from the up- 
- per division. Geologists have given to this formation the name of Burling- 
. ton Limestone because its peculiar characteristics are best shown at the city 
of Burlington, Iowa, The great abundance and variety of its character- 
istic foasih-^crmoids — have attracted the attention of geologists and nat- 
uralists generally. The only remains of vertebrates reported as being found 
. in it are those of fishes. Remains of articulates are rare in it, and confined 
to two species of trilobites. Fossil shells are common but not so abundant 
as in some of the other formations of the Sub-Carboniferous Group. 

The Keokuk Limestone is the next Formation in this group above the 
Burlington Limestone. In Iowa it consists of about fifty feet in maximum 
thickness. It is a grayish limestone, having usually a blueish tinge. It oc- 
cupies in Iowa a more limited area than any other formation of the sub- 
carboniferous OTOup. It is well developed and largely exposed at the city 
of Keokuk. It is synonymous with the Lower Archimedes Limestone of 
Owen and other geologists. The most northerly point at which it has been 
recognized is in me northern part of Des Moines county, where it is quite 
thinned out. It is only in the counties of Lee, Yan Buren, Henry and Des 
Moines that the Keokuk Limestone is to be seen; but it rises again and is 



HISTOET OP IOWA. 123 

seen in the banks of the Mississippi river some seventy-five or eighty miles 
below Keokuk, presenting there the same characteristics that it has in Iowa. 
The upper silicions portion of this formation is known as the Geode bed. 
These geodes are more or less spherical masses of silex, usually hollow and 
lined with crystals of quartz. The Keokuk Limestone formation is of great 
economic value, as some of its layers furnish a tine quality of building ma- 
terial. The principal quarries of it are along the Mississippi from Keokuk 
to Nauvoo, a distance of about fifteen miles. The only vertebrated fossils 
in it are those of fishes, consisting both of teeth and spines. Some of these 
are of great size, indicating that their owners probably reached a length of 
twenty-five or thirty feet. Several species of articulates, moUusks and ra- 
diates are also found in this formation. Among the radiates the crinoids 
are very abundant, but are not so conspicuous as in the Burlington Lime- 
stone. A small number of Protozoans, a low form of animal life, related 
to sponges, have also been found in the Keokuk Limestone. 

Tlie next Formation in the Sub-Carboniferous Group, above the Keokuk 
Limestone, is what Dr. White calls the St. Louis Limestone, and is synon- 
ymous with the Concretionary Limestone of Prof. Owen, and the Warsaw 
Limestone of Prof. Hall. It is the upper, or highest formation of what Dr. 
White classifies as the Sub-Carboniferous Group, appearing in Iowa, where 
the lower coal-measures are usually found resting directly upon it, and where 
it forms, so to speak, a limestone floor for the coal-bearing formations. To 
this, however, there are some exceptions. It presents a marked contrast 
with the coal-bearing strata which rest upon it. This formation occupies a 
small superficial area in Iowa, because it consists of long narrow strips. 
Its extent, however, within the State is known to be very great, because it is 
found at points so distant from each other. Commencing at Keokuk, where 
it is seen resting on the geode division of the Keokuk limestone, and pro- 
ceeding northward, it is lound forming a narrow border along the edge of 
the coal-field in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jefferson, Washington, Keokuk 
and Mahaska counties. It is then lost sight of beneath the coal-measure 
strata and overlying drift until we reach Hamilton county, where it is found 
in the banks of Boone river with the coal-measures resting upon it, as they 
do in the counties just named. The next seen of the formation is in the 
banks of the Des Moines river at and near Fort Dodge. These two last 
named localities are the most northerly ones at which the formation is ex- 
posed, and they are widely isolated from the principal portion of the area it 
occupies in Iowa; between which area, however, and those northerly points, 
it appears by a small exposure near Ames, in Story county, in the valley of 
a small tributary of Skunk river. This formation as it appears in Iowa, 
consists of three quite distinct sub-divisions — ^magnisian, arenaceous and 
calcareous, consisting in the order named of the lower, middle and upper sub- 
divisions of the formation. The upper division furnishes excellent material 
for quicklime, and in places it is quarried to serve a good purpose for ma- 
sonry. The middle division is of little economic value, being usually too 
soft for practical use. The lower, or magnesian division, furnishes some ex- 
cellent stone for heavy masonry, and has proved to be very durable. This 
tormation has some well marked fossil characteristics, but they do not stand 
out with such prominence as some of those in the two preceding fonnatious. 
The vertibrates, articulates, moUusks, and radiates, are all more or less rep- 
resented in it. Some slight vegetable remains have also been detected in it. 

The Codl-measv/re Grouty. — The formations of tliis group are divided 



124 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

into the Lower, Middle, and Upper Coal-measures. Omitting particular 
reference to the other strata of the Lower Coal-measure, we refer only to 
the coal which this formation contains. Far the greater part of that indis- 
pensible element of material prosperity is contained in the strata of the 
Lower Coal-measures. Beds are now being mined in this formation that 
reach to the thickness of seven feet of solid coal. JS'atural exposures of 
this formation are few, but coal strata are being mined in a number of local- 
ities. 

The area occupied by the Middle Coal-measure is smaller than that of 
either of the others, and constitutes a narrow region between them. The 
passage of the stralta of the Lower with the Middle Coal-measure is not 
marked by any well defined line of division. 

The area occupied by the Upper Coal-measure formation in Iowa is very 

freat, comprising thirteen whole counties in the southwestern part of the 
tate, together with parts of seven or eight others adjoining. It ad- 
joins by its northern and eastern boundary the area occupied by the Middle 
Coal-measures. The western and southern limits in Iowa of the Upper 
Coal-measures are the western and southern boundaries of the State, but the 
formation extends without interruption far into the States of Missouri, Ne- 
braska and Kansas. It contains but a single bed of true coal, and that very 
thin. Its principal economic value is confined to its limestone. Wherever 
this stone is exposed it furnishes good material for masonry, and also for 
lime. The prevailing color of the limestone is light gray, with usually a 
tinge of blue. The sandstones of this formation are usually shaly, and quite 
worthless. 

OEETAOEOUS SYSTEM. 

Tlie Nishndbotamj Sandstone. — This formation is well exposed in tlip 
valley of the East Nishnabotany river, from which circumstance Dr. White 
has so named it. It is found as far east as the southeastern part of Guthrie 
county, and as far south as the southern part of Montgomery county. To 
the northwestward it passes beneath the Woodbury sandstones and shales, 
the latter in turn passing beneath the Inoceramus, or chalky beds. It 
reaches a maximum thickness in Iowa, so far as known, of about 100 feet, 
but the exposures usually show a much less thickness. It is a soft sandstone, 
and, with lew exceptions, almost valueless for economic purposes. The most 
valuable quarries in the strata of this formation, so far as known, are at 
Lewis, Cass county, and in the northeastern part of Mills county. Several 
buildings have been constructed of it at Lewis, but with some the color is 
objectionable, being of a dark brown color. A few fossils have been found 
in it, being leaves too fragmentary for identification. 

The WooATywry Sandstones arid Shales. — These are composed of alternat- 
ing sandstones and shales, as the name implies, and rest upon the Nishna- 
botany sandstone. They have not been observed outside of the limits of 
Woodbury county, but they are found there to reach a maximum of about 
150 feet. Some layers are firm and compact, but the larger part is impure 
and shaly. The best of it is suitable for only common masonry, but it fur- 
nishes the only material of that kind in that part of the State. Some slight 
fossil remains have been found in this formation. 

The Inoceramms Beds. — ^These beds constitute the upper formation, of the 
Cretaceous System in Iowa, and have a maximum thickness of about 50 feet. 
They rest directly upon the Woodbury sandstones and shales. They are 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 125 

observed nowhere in Iowa except along the bluffs of the Big Sioux river, in 
Woodbury and Plymouth counties. They are composed of calcareous mate- 
rial, but are not a true, compact limestone. The material of the upper por- 
tion is used for lime, the quality of which is equal to that of common 
limestone. No good building material is obtained from these beds. Some 
fossil fish have been found in them. 

Above all the formations above-mentioned rests the Post-Tertiary, or Drift 
deposit, which is more fully mentioned in connection with the Soils of Iowa. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

Coal — ^Peat — ^Building Stone — ^Lime — ^Lead — Gypsum — Spring and WeE Water — Clays — 
Mineral Faint. 

COAL. 

Every year is adding to our knowledge of, and attesting the importance 
and value of our vast coal deposits. In some imloiown age of the past, long 
before the history of our race began, Nature by some wise process, made a 
bountiful provision for the time when, in the order of things, it should 
become necessary for civilized man to take possession of these broad rich . 
prairies. As an equivalent for the lack of trees, she quietly stored away 
beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures for the use and 
comfort of man at the proper time. The increased demand for coal has in 
many portions of the State led to improved methods of mining, so that in 
many counties the business is becoming a lucrative and important one, 
especially where railroads furnish the means of transportation. The coal 
field of the State embraces an area of at least 20,000 square miles, and coal 
is successfully mined in about thirty counties, embracing a territory larger 
than the State of Massachusetts. Among the most important coal produc- 
ing counties may be mentioned Appanoose, Boone, Davis, Jefferson, Ma- 
haska, Marion, Monroe, Polk, Van Buren, Wapello, and Webster. Within 
the last few years many discoveries of new deposits have been made, and 
counties not previously numbered among the coal counties of the State are 
now yielding rich returns to the miner. Among these may be mentioned 
the counties of Boone, Dallas, Hamilton, Hardin, and Webster. A vein of 
coal of excellent quality, seven feet in thickness, has been opened, and is 
now being successfully worked, about five miles southeast of Fort Dodge, in 
Webster county. Large quantities of coal are shipped from that point to 
Dubuque and the towns along the line of the Dubuque and Sioux City Rail- 
road. A few years ago it was barely known that some coal existed in 
Boone county, as indicated by exposures along the Des Moines river, and 
it is only within the last few years that the coal mines of Moingona have 
fnmishea the vast supplies shipped along the Chicago and Northwestern Hail- 
road, both east and west. The great productive coal field of Iowa is embraced 
ehiefiy within the valley of the Des Moines river and its tributaries, extend- 
ing up the valley from Lee county nearly to the north line of Webster 
county. Within the coal field embraced by this valley deep mining is 
nowhere necessary. The Des Moines and its larger tributaries have gener- 
ally cut their channels down through the coal measure strata. 

The coal of Iowa is of the class known as bituminous, and is equal in 

?nality and value to coal of the same class in other parts of the world, 
he veins which have so far been worked are from three to eight feet in 



126 



HISTOEY OV IOWA. 



thickness, bnt we do not have to dig from one thousand to two thousand 
feet to reach the coal, as miners are obliged to do in some countries. But 
little coal has in this State been raised from a depth grea^^er than one hun- 
dred feet. 

Prof. Gustavus Hinrich, of the State University, who also oflBciated as 
State Chemist in the prosecution of the recent Geological Survey, gives an 
analysis showing the comparative value of Iowa coal with that of other 
countries. The following is from a table prepared by him — 100 represent- 
ing the combustible: 



KAME AND LOCALITY. 



g 



I 



^ 



I 



S 

•a 
> 



Brown coal, from Arbesan, Bohemia. . . 

Brown coal, from Bilin, Bohemia 

Bitumirious coal, from Bentheu, Silisia 
Cannel coal, from Wigan,' England . . . 

Anthracite, from Pennsylvania 

Iowa coals — average 



40 
51 
61 
94 
50 



64 
67 
49 
39 
6 
50 



3 

16 

21 

10 

2 

5 



11 
00 
5 
3 
2 
5 



114 
123 
126 
113 
104 
110 



81 
80 
87 
S6 
90 



In this table the excess of the equivalent above 100, expresses the amount 
of impurities (ashes and moisture) in the coal. The analysis shows that the 
average Iowa coals contains only ten parts of impurities for one hundred 
parts combustible (carbon and bitumen), being the purest of all the samples 
analyzed, except the Anthracite from Pennsylvania. 



PEAT. 



Extensive deposits of peat in several of the northern counties of Iowa have 
attracted considerable attention. In 1866, Dr. White, the State Geologist, 
made careful observations in some of those counties, including Fi-anHin, 
"Wright, Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Winnebago, Worth, and Kossuth. It is 
estimated that the counties above named contain an average of at least four 
thousand acres each of good peat lands. The depth of the beds are from 
four to ten feet, and the quality is but little, if any, inferior to that of Ireland. 
As yet, but little use has been made of it as a fuel, but when it is considered 
that it lies wholly beyond the coal-field, in a sparsely timbered region of the 
Sts,te, its prospective value is regarded as very great. Dr. White estimates 
that 160 acres of peat, four feet deep, will supply two hundred and thirteen 
families with fuel for upward of twenty-five years. It must not be inferred 
that the presence of these peat beds in that part of the State is in any degree 
prejiidicial to health, for such is not the case. The dry, roUing prairie land 
usually comes up to the very border of the peat marsh, and the winds, or 
breezes, which prevail through the summer season, do not allow water to 
become stagnant. !ITature seems to have designed these peat deposits to 
supj)ly the deficiency of other material for fuel. The penetration of this 
portion of the State by railroads, and the rapid growth of timber may leave 
a resort to peat for fuel as a matter of choice, and not of necessity. It there- 
fore remains to be seen of what economic value in the future the peat beds 
of Iowa may be. Peat has also been found in Muscatine, Linn, Clinton, and 
other eastern and southern counties of the State, but the fertile region of 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 127 

Koriihem Iowa, least favored with other kinds of fuel, is peculiarly the peat 
region of the State. 

BUILDING STONE. 

There is no scarcity of good building stone to he found along nearly all the 
Btreama east of the Des Moines river, and along that stream from its mouth 
up to the north line of Humboldt county. Some of the counties west of the 
Dos Moines, as Cass and Madison, as well as most of the southern counties 
of the State, are supplied with good building stone. Building stone of 
peculiarly fine quality is quarried at and near the following places: Keosau- 
qua, Yan Buren county; Mt. Pleasant, Henry county; iairfield, Jefferson 
county; Ottumwa, Wapello county; Winterset, Madison county; Ft. Dodge, 
Webster county; Springvale and Dakota, Humboldt county; Marshalltown, 
Marshall county; Orford, Tama county; Yinton, Benton county; Charles 
City, Floyd county; Mason City, Cerro G-ordo county; Mitchell and Osage, 
Mitchell county; Anamosa, Jones county; Iowa Falls, Hardin county; 
Hampton, Franklin county; and at nearly aU points along the Mississippi 
river. In some places, as in Marshall and Tama counties, several species of 
marble are found, which are susceptible of the finest finish, and are very 
beautifuL 

LIME. 

Good material for the manufacture of quick-lime is found in abundance in 
nearly all parts of the State. Even in the northwestern counties, where there 
are but few erposures of rock , " in place," limestone is found among the 
boulders scattered over the prairies and about the lakes. So abundant is 
limestone suitable for the manufacture of quick-lime, that it is needless to 
mention any particular locality as possessing superior advantages in famish- 
ing this useful building material. At the following points parties have been 
engaged somewhat extensively in the manufacture of lime, to-wit: Ft. Dodge, 
Webster county; Springvale, Humboldt county; Orford and Indiantown, 
Tama county; Iowa Falls, Hardin county; Mitchell, Mitchell county; and 
at nearly aU the towns along the streams northeast of Cedar river. 

LEAD. 

Long before the permanent settlement of Iowa by the whites lead was 
mined at Dubuque by Julien Dubuque and others, and the business is still 
carried on successfully. From four to six million pounds of ore have been 
smelted annually at the Dubuque mines, yielding from 68 to 10 per cent of 
lead. So far as known, the lead deposits of Iowa that may be profitably 
worked, are confined to a belt four or five miles in width along the Missis- 
sippi above and below the city of Dubuque. 

GTPSIJM. 

One of the finest and purest deposits of gypsum known in the world exists 
at Fort Dodge in this State. It is confined to an area of about six by three 
miles on both sides of the Des Moines river, and is found to be from twenty^ 
five to thirty feet in thickness. The main deposit is of uniform gray color, 



128 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

but large masses of Eilmost pare white (resembling alabaster) have been 
found embedded in the main deposits. The quantity of this article is prac- 
tically inexhaustible, and the time will certainly come when it will be i 
source of wealth to that part of the Statie. It has been used to a consider- 
able extent in the manufacture of Plaster-of-Paris, and has been found equal 
to the best in quality. It has also been used to a limited extent for paving 
and building purposes. 

SPEING AND WELL WATEE. 

As before stated, the surface of Iowa is generally drained by the rolling or 
undulating character of the country, and the numerous streams, large and 
small. This fact might lead some to suppose that it might be difficult to 
procure good spring or well water for domestic uses. Such, however, is not 
the case, for good pure well water is easily obtained all over the State, even 
on the highest prairies. It is rarely necessary to dig more than thirty feet 
deep to find an abundance of that most indispensible element, good water. 
Along the streams are found many springs breaking out from the banks, 
affording a constant supply of pure water. As a rule, it is necessary to dig 
deeper for well water in the timber portions of the State, than on the 
prairies. ITearly all the spring and well waters of the State contain a small 
proportion of lime, as they do in the Eastern and Middle States. There are 
some springs which contain mineral properties, similar to the springs often 
resorted to by invalids and others in other States. In Davis county there 
are some " Salt Springs," as they are commonly called, the water being found 
to contain a considerable amount of common salt, sulphuric acid, and other 
mineral ingredients. Mineral waters are found in different parts of the 
State. No one need apprehend any difficulty about finding in all parts of 
Iowa an abundant supply of good wholesome water. 

CLATS. 

In nearly all parts of the State the material suitable for the manufacture 
of brick is found in abundance. Sand is obtained in the bluffs along the 
streams and in their beds. Potter's clay, and fire-clay suitable for fire-brick, 
are found in many places. An excellent article of fire-brick is made at 
Eldora, Hardin county, where there are several extensive potteries in opera- 
tion. Fire-clay is usually found underlying the coal-seams. There are 
extensive potteries in operation in the counties of Lee, Van Buren, Des 
Moines, Wapello, Boone, Hamilton, Hardin, and perhaps others. 



MINERAL PAINT. 



In Montgomery county a fine vein of clay, containing a large proportion 
of ochre, was several years ago discovered, and has been extensively used in 
that part of the State for painting bams and out-houses. It is of a dark red 
color, and is believed to be equal in quality, if properly manufactured, to the 
mineral paints imported from other States. The use oi" it \va8.first introdaesd 
by Mr. J. B. Packard, of Ked Oak, on whose land there is an extensive de- 
posit of this material. 



HI8T0BT OF IOWA. 



129 



hi 
H 

i 




130 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

HOW THE TITLE TO IOWA LANDS IS DEEIVED. 

Eight of DiscoTeiy — ^Title of France and Spain — Cession to the United States — Territorial 
Changes — ^Treaties with the Indians — The Dubuque Grant — The Giard Grant— The Hon- 
ori Grant — ^The Half-Breed Tract — System of Public Surveys. 

The title to the soil of Iowa was, of course, primarily vested in the origi- 
naf occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery by the whites. 
But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few rights that civilized nations 
considered themselves bound to Tespect, so that when they found this coun- 
try in the possession of such a people they claimed it in the name of the 
King of France, by the right' of discovery. It remained under the juris- 
diction of France until the year 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of I^orth America was divided 
between France, England, Spain, and Eussia. France held all that portion 
of what now constitutes our national domain west of the Mississippi river, 
except Texas and the territory which we have obtained from Mexico and 
Eussia. This vast region, while under the jurisdiction of France, was 
known as the " Province of Louisiana," and embraced the present State of 
Iowa. At the close of the " Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her 
share of the continent, and Spain came into possession of the territory west 
of the Mississippi river, while Great Britain retained Canada and the 
regions northward, having obta,ined that territory by conquest in the war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced within the 
limits of Iowa remained as a part of the possession of Spain, and then jrent 
back to France by the treaty of St. Idlefonso, October 1, 1800. On., the 
80th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the United States in consideration 
of receiving $11,250,000, and the liquidation of certain claims held by citi- 
zens of the IJnited States against France, which amounted to the further 
sum of $3,750,000, and maMng a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen 
that France has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory 
embracing Iowa, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our govjern- 
raent an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved author- 
izing the President to take possession of the newly acquired territory and 
provide for it a temporary government, and another act approved March 26, 
1804, authorized the division of the " Louisiana Purchase," as it was then 
called, into two separate Territories. All that portion south of the 33d 
parallel of north latitude, was called the " Territory of Orleans," and that 
north of the said parallel was known as the "District of Louisiana," and 
was placed under the jurisdiction of what was then known as " Indiana 
Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the "District 
of Louisiana" was organized as the "Territory of Louisiana," with a Terri- 
torial government of its own, which went into operation July ith, of the 
same year, and it so remained until 1812. In this year the " Territory of 
Orleans" became the State of Louisiana, and the "Territory of Louisiana" 
was organized as the "Territory of Missouri." This change took place 
under an act of Congress approved June 4, 1812. In 1819, a portion of this 
territory^ was organized as " Arkansaw Territory," and in 1821 the State of 
Missouri was admitted, being a part of the former "Territory of Misspuri." 
This left a vast domain still to the north, including the present States of 
loWa and Minnesota, which was, in 1834, made a part of the "Territory of 



HISTOEY Off IOWA. 131 

Michigan." In July, 1836, the territory embracing the present States of 
Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin was detached from Michigan, and organized 
vsith a separate Territorial government under the name of " Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory." 

By virtue of an act of Confess, approved June 12, 1838, on the 3d of 
July of the same year, the " Territoiy of Iowa " was constituted. It em- 
braced the present State of Iowa, and the greater portion of what is now 
the State of Minnesota. 

To say nothing of the title to the soil of Iowa that may once have vested 
in the natives who claimed and occupied it, it is a matter of some interest 
to glance at the various changes of ownership and jurisdiction through 
which it has passed within the time of our historical period: 

1. It belonged to France, with other territory now belonging to our na- 
tional domain. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded with other territory from Spain back to 
France. 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by France to the 
United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by Con- 
grass for the newly acquired territoiy. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the "District of Louisiana," and 
placed under the jurisdiction of the Territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the " Territory of Louis- 
iana," then organized with a separate Territorial government. 

8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the "Territory 
of Missouri." 

9. June 28, 1834, it became part of the " Territory of Michigan." 

10. JiJy 3, 1836, it was included as a part of the newly organized "Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin." 

11. June 12, 1838, it was included in, and constituted a part of the newly 
organized "Territory of Iowa." 

12. December 28, 1846, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly the 
johcy of the government to recognize. The several changes of territorial 
jiuisdiction after the treaty with France did not aftect the title to the soil. 

Before the government of the United States could vest clear title to the 
soil in its grantees it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by pur- 
chase. The treaties vesting the Indian title to the lands within the limits 
of what is now the State of Iowa, were made at different times. The fol- 
lowing is a synopsis of the several treaties by which the Indians relinquished 
to the United States their rights in Iowa: 

1. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxe^, Aug. ^, 18^^. — ^This treaty between 
the JJnited States and the Sacs and Foxes, was made at the City of Wash- 
ington, William Clark being commissioner on the part of the United States. 
By this treaty the Sacs and Foxes relinquished their title to all lands in 
Missouri, Iowa then being a part of Missouri. In this treaty the land in 
the southeast comer of Iowa known as the "Half-Breed Tract," was re- 
Berved for the use of the half-breeds of the Sacs and Foxes, they holding 
the title to the same in the same manner as Indians. This treaty was rati- 
fiad January 18, 1825. 



IS^ HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

2. Treaty with vamous tribes, Aug. 19, 18^5.— This, treaty was also made 
at the city of Washington, by William Clark as Commissioner on the part 
of the TJnited States, with the Ohippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Menomonees, 
Winnebagoes and a portion of the Ottawas and Pottawattamies. This treaty 
was intended mainly to make peace between certain contending tribes as to 
the limits of their respective hunting grounds in Iowa. It was agreed that 
the United States should run a boundary line between the Sioux on the 
north and the Sacs and Foxes on the -south, as follows: Commencing at the 
inouth of the Upper Iowa river, on the west bank of the Mississippi, and 
ascending said Iowa river to its west fork; thence up the fork to its source; 
thence crossing the fork of Ked Cedar river in a direct line to the second or 
upper fork of the Des Moines river; thence in a direct line to the lower fork 
of the Calumet (Big Sioux) river, and down that to its junction with the 
Missouri river. 

3. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, July 15, 1830. — By this treaty the 
Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of country twenty miles 
in width lying directly south of the line designated in the treaty of Aug. 19, 
1823, and extending from the Mississippi to the Des Moines river. 

4. Treaty with the Sioux, July 15, 1830. — By this treaty was ceded to 
the United States a strip twenty miles in width, on the north of the line 
designated by the treaty of Aug. 19, 1825, and extending from the Missis- 
sippi to the Des Moines river. By these treaties made at the same date the 
United States came into possession of a strip forty miles wide from the 
Mississippi to the Des Moines river. It was known as the "Ifentral 
Ground," and the tribes on either side of it were allowed to use it in com- 
mon as a fishing and hunting ground until the government should make 
other disposition of it. 

6. Treaty with various tribes, July 15, 1830. — This was a treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, Sioux, Omahas, lowas and Missouris, by which they ceded 
to the United States a tract bounded as follows: Beginning at the upper 
fork of the Des Moines river, and passing the sources of the Little Sioux 
and Floyd rivers, to the fork of the first creek that falls into the Big Sioux, 
or Calumet river, on the east side; thence down said creek and the Calumet 
river to the Missouri river; thence down said Missouri river to the Missouri 
State line above the Kansas; thence along said line to the northeast comer 
of said State; thence to the highlands between the waters falling into the 
Missouri and Des Moines, passing to said highlands along the dividing 
ridge between the forks of the Grand river; thence along said highlands or 
ridge separating the waters of the Missouri from those of the Des Moines, 
to a point opposite the source of the Boyer river, and tlience in a direct line 
to the upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of beginning. The lands 
ceded by this treaty were to be assigned, or allotted, under the direction of 
the President of the United States, to the tribes then living thereon, or to 
such other tribes as the President might locate thereon for hunting and 
other purposes. In consideration of the land ceded by this treaty the United 
States stipulated to make certain payments to the several tribes joining in 
the treaty. The treaty took effect by proclamation, February 24, 1831. 

6. Treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sept. 15, 1832.^-TMs treaty was made at 
Fort Armstrong, by Gen. Winfield Scott, and Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois. 
By the treaty the Winnebagoes ceded to the United States all their lands on 
the east side of the Mississippi, and in part consideration therefor the United 
States granted to the Winnebagoes as a reservation the lands in Iowa kno^vn 



HI8T0ET or IOWA. |.33 

as the Neutral G-round. The exchange of the two tracts was to take place 
on or before June 1, 1833. The United States also stipulated to make pay^ 
ment to tlie Winnebagoes, beginning in September, 1873, and to continue 
for twenty-seven successiYe years, $10,000 annually in specie, and also to 
establish a school among them, with a farm and garden. There were also 
other agreements on the part of the government. 

7. l^eaty with the Sacs ami Foxes, Sept. 21, 1^32. — This was the treaty 
known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," which opened the first lands in 
Iowa for settlement by the whites. In negotiating this treaty Gen. Win- 
fiold Scott and Gov. John Keynolds represented the United States. By it 
the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States a tract of land on the eastern 
border of Iowa fifty miles wide, and extending from the northern boundary 
of Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, containing about six 
millions of acres. The United States stipulated to pay annually to the Sacs 
and Foxes $20,000 in specie, and to pay certain indebtedness o^ the Indians, 
amounting to about $50,000, due chiefly to Davenport & Famham, Indian 
traders, at Kock Island. By the terms of the treaty four hundred square 
miles on Iowa river, ineluding Keokuk's village; were reserved, for the use and 
occupancy of the Indians. This treaty was made on the ground where the 
city of Davenport is now located. The government convened in fee simple 
out of this purchase one section of land opposite Rock Island to Antoine 
LeClaire, the interpreter, and another at the head of the first rapid above 
Eock Island, being the first title to land in Iowa granted by the United 
States to an individual. 

8. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, 1836. — ^This treaty was also made on 
the banks of the Mississippi, near where the city of Davenport now stands. 
Gen. Henry Dodge, Governor of "Wisconsin Territory, represented the 
United States. By it the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States 
" Keokuk's Eeserve," as it was called, for which the government stipulated 
to pay $30,000, and an annuity of $10,000 for ten successive- years, together 
with certain indebtedness of the Indians. 

9. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, Oct. 21, 1837. — This treaty was made 
at Washington; Carey A. Harris, Conimissioner of Indian Affairs, repre- 
senting the United States. By this treaty the Sacs and Foxes relinquished 
their title to an additional tract in Iowa, described as follows: "A tract of 
country containing 1,250,000 acres, lying west and adjoining the tract con- 
veyed by them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 1832. 
It is understood that the points of termination for the present cession shall 
be the northern and southern points of said tract as fixed by the survey 
made under the authority of the United States, and, that a line shall be 
drawn between them so as to intersect a line extended westwardly from the 
angle of said tract nearly opposite to Rock Island, as laid down in the above 
survey, so far as may be necessary to include the number of acres hereby 
ceded, which last mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five 
miles." TTie tract ceded by this treaty lay directly west of the "Black 
Hawk Purchase." 

10. Treaty with Sacs and Foxes, same date. — ^At the same date the iSacs 
and Foxes ceded to the United States all their right and interest in the 
country south of the boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes and the 
Sioux, as described in the treaty of August 19, 1825, and between the Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri rivers, the United States paying for the same $160,000. 



134 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

Tlie Sacs and Foxes by tHs treaty also relinquished aU claims and interest 
under the treaties previously made with them. 

11. Treaty with the Sacs cmd Foxes, Oct. 11, 18 J^. — ^This treaty was 
made at the Sac and Fox Agency, by John Chambers, as Commissioner, on 
behalf of the United States. By it the Sacs and Foxes relinquished to the 
United States all their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any 
claim or title, and agreed to a removal from the countay, at the expiration of 
tliree years. In accordance with this treaty, a part of them were removed 
to Kansas in the fall of 1845, and the remainder in the spring of 1846. 

The treaty of 1803 with France, and these several treaties with the Indian 
tribes, vested in the United States, the title to all the lands in the State of 
Iowa — subject, however, to claims set up under certain Spanish grants, and 
also, the claim to the " Half-Breed Tract," in Lee county, which claims were 
afterward adjudicated in the courts or otherwise adjusted. The following 
is a brief explanation of the nature of these claims: 

The Dubuque Claim. — Lead had been discovered at the site of the present 
city of Dubuque as early as 1780, and in 1788 Julien Dubuque, then resid- 
ing at Prairie du Chien, obtained permission from the Fox tribe of Indians 
to engage in mining lead, on the west side of the Mississippi. Dubuque, 
with a number of other persons, was engaged in mining, and claimed a large 
tract, embracing as he supposed all the lead bearing region in that vicinity. 
At that time, it wiU be remembered, the countiy was under Spanish juris- 
diction, and embraced in the " Province of Louisiana." In 1796 Dibuque 
petitioned the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Carondelet, for a grant of 
the lands embracing the lead mines, describing in his petition a fract con- 
taining over twenty thousand acres. The' Spanish governor granted the 
petition, and the grant was confirmed by the Board of Land Commissioners 
of Louisiana. Dabuque, in 1804, transferred the larger part of his claim to 
Auguste Choteau, of St. Louis. On the 17th of May, 1805, Dubuque and 
Choteau filed their joint claims with the Board of Land Commissioners, and 
the claim was decided by them to be a clear and regular Spanish grant, hav- 
ing been made and completed prior to October 1st, 1800, and while it was 
yet Spanish territory. Dubuque died March 24, 1810. After the death of 
Dubuque the Indians resumed occupancy of the mines and engaged them- 
selves in mining to some extent, holding that Dubuque's claim was only a 
permit during ms lifetime, and in this they were sustained by the military 
authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the Land 
Commissioners. In the treaty afterward between the United States and the 
Sacs and Foxes, the Indians made no reservation of this claim, and it was 
therefore included as a part of the lands ceded by them to the United States. 
In the meantime Auguste Choteau also died, and his heirs began to look 
after their interests. They authorized their agent to lease the privilege of 
working the mines, and under this authority miners commenced operations, 
but the military authorities compelled them to abandon the work. But little 
ftirther was done in the matter until after the town of Dubuque was laid 
out, and lots had been sold and were occupied by purchasers, when Henry 
Choteau brought an action of ejectment against Patrick Malony, who held 
land under a patent from the United States, for the recovery of seven undi- 
vided eighths of the Dubuque claim, as purchased by Augiiste Choteau in 
1804. The case was decided in the United States District Court adversely 
to the plaintiff". It was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States 
on a writ of error, where the decision of the lower court was affinncd. The 



HISTOBT OF IOWA. 135 

iSupreme Court ield tliat Dubuque asked, and the Governor of Louisiana 

Cted, nothing more than peaceable possession of certain lands obtained 
, the Indians, and that Carondelet had no legal authority to make sucli 
a grant as claimed. 

Tlie Giard Clavm. — ^The Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana, in 
1795, granted to one Basil Giard 5,760 acres in what is now Clayton county. 
Giard took possession and occupied the land until after the territory passed 
into the possession of the United States, after which the government of the 
United States granted a patent to Giard, for the land which has since been 
known as the " Giard Tract." His heirs subsequently sold the whole tract 
for $300. 

The Honori Clavm. — On the 30th day of March, 1799, Zenon Trudean, 
Acting Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Honori 
a tract of land on the site of the preseat town of Montrose, as follows: "It 
is permitted to Mr. Louis (Fresson) Henori, or Louis Honori Fesson, to 
establish himself at the head of the rapids of the Eiver Des Moines, and his 
establishment once formed, notice of it shall be given to the Governor Gen- 
eral, in order to obtain for him a commission oi a space sufficient to give 
value to such establishment, and at the same time to render it liseful to the 
commerce of the peltries of this country, to watch the Indians and keep them 
in the fidelity which they owe to His Majesty." Honori retained possession 
until 1805, but in 1803 it was sold under an execution obtained by one 
Joseph Eobedoux, who became the purchaser. The tract is described as being 
" about six leagues above the Des Moines." Auguste Ohoteau, the executor 
of Eobedoux, in April, 1805, sold the Honori tract to Thomas F. Eeddeck. 
In the grant from the Spanish government it was described as being one 
league square, but the government of the United States confirmed only one 
mile square. Attempts were subsequently made to invalidate the title of 
the Eeddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by the Supreme Court of the 
United States, in 1839. 

The Half-Breed Tract. — ^By a treaty made with the Indians, August 
4, 1824, the United States acquired possession of a large tract of land 
in the northern portion of Missouri. In this same treaty 119,000 acres 
were reserved for the use of the half-breeds of the Sac and Fox nation. 
This reservation occupied the strip between the Mississippi and Des Moines 
rivers, and south of a line drawn from a point on the Des Moines river, 
about one mile below the present town of Farmington, in Van Buren county, 
east to the Mississippi river at the lower end of Fort Madison, including all 
the land between the two rivers south of this line. By the terms of the 
treaty the United States had a reversionary interest in this land, whicli de- 
prived the Indians of the power to sell. But, in 1835, Congress relinquished 
to the half-breeds this reversionary interest, vesting in fliem a fee simple 
title, and the right to sell and convey. In this law, however, the right to 
sell was not given to individuals by name, but to the half-breeds as a class, 
and in this the subsequent litigation in regard to the "Half-Breed Tract" 
originated. A door was open for innumerable frauds. The result was that 
speculators rushed in and began to buy the claims of the half-breeds, and, 
in many instances, a gun, a blanket, a pony or a few quarts of whisky was 
sufiBcient for the purchase of large estates. There was a deal of sharp prac- 
tice on both sides; Indians would often claim ownership of land by virtue 
of being half-breeds, and had no difficulty in proving their mixed blood by 
the Indians, and they would then cheat the speculators by selling land to 



136 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

which they had no rightful title. On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed land in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut dia- 
mond, until at last things became badly mixed. There were no authorized 
surveys, and no boundary lines to claims, and, as a natural result, numerous 
conflicts and quarrels ensued. To settle these difficulties, to decide the va- 
lidity of claims or sell them for the benefit of the real owners, by act of the 
Legislature of Wisconsin Territory, approved January 16, 1838, Edward 
Johnstone, Thomas S. "Wilson and "David Brigham were appointed commis- 
sioners, and clothed with power to effect these objects. The act provided 
that these commissioners should be paid six dollars a day each. The com- 
mission entered upon its duties and continued until the next session of the 
Legislature, when the act creating it was repealed, invalidating aU that had 
been done and depriving the commissioners of their pay. The repealing 
act, however, authorized the commissioners to commence action against the 
owners of the Half-Breed Tract, to receive their pay for their services, in the 
District Court of Lee county. Two judgments were obtained, and on exe- 
cution the whole of the tract was sold to Hugh T. Keid, the sheriff executing 
the deed. Mr. Keid sold portions of it to various parties, but his own title, 
was questioned arid he became involved in litigation. Decisions in favor 
of Eeid and those holding under him were made by both District and Su- 
preme Courts, but in December, 1850, these decisions were finally reversed 
by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Joseph Webster, 
plaintiff in- error, vs. Hugh T. Keid, and the judgment titles failed. About 
nine years before the "judgment titles" were finally abrogated, as above, 
another class of titles was brought into competition with them, and in the 
conflict between the two, the final decision was obtained. These were the 
titles based on the " decree of partition " issued by the United States District 
Court for the Territory of Iowa, on the 8th of May, 1841, and certified to by 
the clerk on the 2d day of June of that year. Edward Johnstone and Hugh 
T. Eeid, then law partners at Fort Madison, filed the petition for the decree 
in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, 
author of the " Star Spangled Banner," who was then attorney for the Ifew 
York Land Company, which held heavy interests in these lands, took a lead^ 
ing part in the measure, and drew up the document in which it was pre- 
sented to the court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, presided. The 
plan of partition divided the tract into 101 shares, each claimant to draw his 

{)roportion by lot,and to abide the result. The plan was agreed to and the 
ots drawn. The plat of the same was filed for record, October 6th, 1841. 
The title under this decree of partition, however, was not altogether satis- 
factory. It was finally settled by a decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, in January, 1855. 

SYSTEM OF PUBLIC LAND SUEVETS. 

In connection with the subject of land titles, an explanation of the method 
of public surveys will prove interesting to all land owners. These explana- 
tions apply, not only to Iowa, but to the Western States generally, and lo 
nearly all lands the title to which is derived from the Government. 

Soon after the organization of our government, Virginia and other 
States, ceded to the United States extensive tracts of wild land, whiqh, 
together with other lands subsequently acquired by purchase and treaty, 
constituted what is called the public lands, or public domain. Up to the 
year 1802, these lands were sold without reference to any general or uniform 



HISTOET of IOWA. 137 

plan. Each person wlio desired to purchase any portion of the public do- 
main, selected a tract in such shape as suited his fancy, designating his 
boundaries by prominent objects, such as trees, rocks, streams, the banks of 
rivers and creeks, cliffs, ravines, etc. But, ovring to the frequent indefinite- 
ness of description, titles often conflicted with each other, and in many cases 
several grants covered the same premises. 

To obviate these difficulties, in 1802, Col. Jared Mansfield, then surveyor- 
general of the Northwestern Territory, devised and adopted the present mode 
of surveying the public lands. This system was established by law, and is 
uniform in its application to all the public lands belonging to the United 
States. 

By this method, all the lines are run by the cardinal points of the com- 
pass; the north and south lines coinciding with the true meridian, and the 
east and west lines intersecting them at right angles, giving to the tracts 
thus surveyed the rectangular form. 

In the first place, certain lines are established running east and west, called 
Base Lines. Then, from noted points, such as the mouths of principal riv- 
ers, hnes are run due north and south, which are called PnncvpaL Meri- 
dwns. The £ase IAm,es and Prvncvpal Meridicms together, are called 
Staridard, Lines, as they form the basis of all the surveys made therein. 

In order to distinguish from each other the system or series of surveys thus 
formed, the several Principal Meridians are designated by progressive 
numbers. The Meridian running' north from the mouth of the Great Miami 
river, is called the First Principal Meridian ; that running north through 
the State of Indiana, the Second Principal Meridian; that running north 
from the mouth of the Ohio river through the State of Illinois, the Third 
Principal Meridian; that running north from the mouth of the Illinois 
river, through the States of Illinois and Wisconsin, the Fowrth Principal 
Meridian; and that running north from the mouth of the Arkansas river, 
through the States of Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin, the 
Fifth Principal Meridian. 

Having established the 8tanda/rd Lines as above described, the country 
was then divided into equal squares as nearly as practicable, by a system of 
parallel meridians six miles distant from each other, crossed or intersected 
by lines east and west, also six miles from each other. Thus the country 
was divided into squares, the sides of which are six miles, and each square 
containing 36 square miles. These squares are called Townships. The 
lines of the townships running north and south are called Range Lvnes; and 
the rows or tiers of townships running north and south are called Ranges; 
tiers of townships east and west are called Townships; and the lines di- 
viding these tiers are called Township Lines. Townships are numbered 
from the Base Line and the Principal Meridians. Thus the township in 
which Sioux City, Iowa, is located, is described as township I^o. 89 north, 
in range No. 47 west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. The situation of this 
township is, therefore, 528 miles (making no allowance for fractional town- 
skips) north of the BaseLme, as there are 88 townships intervening between 
it and the Base Line; and being in range No. 47, it is 276 miles west of the 
Tifth Principal Meridian, as there are 46 ranges of tovmships intervening 
between it and the said Principal Meridian. The township adjoining on the 
north of 89 in range 47, is 90 in range 47; but the township adjoining on 
the west of 89 in range 47, is numbered 89 of range 48, and the one north 
of 89 of range 48, is 90 of range 48, and so on. 



.138 



HISTOET 01" IOWA. 



Some of the townships mentioned in this illustration, being on the Mis- 
souri and Big Sioux rivers, are fractional. , 

The lines and comers of the townships being established by competent 
surveyors, under the authority of the government, the next work is to sub- 
divide the townships into sections of one square mile each, making 36 sec- 
tions in each full township, and each fall section containing 640 acres. The 
annexed diagram exhibits the 36 sections of a township: 



6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


25 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 



The sections are numbered alternately west and east, beginning at the 
northeast comer of the township, as shown by the diagram. 

The lands are sold or disposed of by the government, in tracts of 640 
acres, 320 acres, 160 acres, 80 acres and 40 acres; or by the section, hall" 
section, quarter section, half quarter section and quarter of quarter section. 
The annexed diagram wiU present a section and its sub-divisions: 



N 



W 



160 A. 


40A 


80 A 


40A 


160 A 


160 A 



The comers of the section, and the comers at N., E., S. and "W. have all 
been established and marked by the govemment surveyor in making his 
sub-division of the township, or in sectiotdsmg, as it is termed^ He does 



mSTOET OF IOWA. 139 

not establish or mark any of the mterior lines or comers. This work is 
left for the county surveyor or other competent person. Suppose the last 
diagram to represent section 25, in township 89, north of range 47 west, 
then the sub-divisions shown may be described as the northwest quarter of 
section 25 ; the southwest quarter of section 25 ; the southeast quarter of 
section 25, all in township 89 north of range 47 west of the 5th Principal 
Meridian. But these descriptions do not include any portion of the north- 
east quarter of the section. That we wish to describe in smaller sub-divis- 
ions. So we say, the east half of the northeast qymrter of section 25: the 
northwest quaHer ofths northeast mmrter of section S5, and the southwest 
quarter of the northeast quarter of section 25, all in township 89 north of 
range 47 west of the 5th Principal Meridian. The last three descriptions 
embrace all the northeast quarter of the section, but described in three 
distinct tracts, one containing 80 acres, and two containing 40 acres each. 

The Base Lines and Principal Meridians have been established by astro- 
nomical observations; but the lines of sub-divisions are run with the com- 
S)ass. The line indicated by the magnetic needle, when allowed to move 
reely about the point of support, and settle to a state of rest, is called the 
magnetic variation. This, in general, is not the Imie meridian, or north 
and south line. The angle which the magneUo meridian makes with the 
true meridian, is called the variation of the needle at that place, and is east 
or west, according as the north end of the needle lies on the east or west 
side of the true meridian. The variation of the needle is different at dif- 
ferent places, but in Iowa the magnetic needle points about 9^- degrees east 
of the true meridian. The lines of the lands are made to conform as nearly 
as practicable to the true meridian, but owing to the imperfections of instru- 
ments, topographical inequalities in the surface of the ground, and various 
other causes, it is absolutely impossible in practice to arrive at perfection; 
or, in other words, to make the townships and their sectional sub-divisions 
escactly squa/re and their lines exactly north and south and east and west. 
A detailed statement of the manner of sub-dividing a township into sec- 
tions would be too lengthy for this article. Suffice it to say, that the frac- 
tional tracts are all thrown on the north and west sides of the townships. The 
last tiers, or rows, of quarter sections on the north and west sides of a town- 
ship generally fall either below or in excess of eoen quarter sections. Where 
there is a large district of country of uniform level surface, the errors of 
measurement are not likely to be so great, and the fractions in that case 
may not vary much from even quarter sections. 

All measurements are made in chains. A chain is a measure of four 
rods, each link being the hundredth part of a chain, and is so used in the 
field notes and calculations. For convenience in practice, however, the sur- 
veyor generaly uses a half chaJm, equal to two rods, or fifty links, but the 
surveyor's reckoning is kept, and all nis calculations are made in full chains 
of four rods, and decimal parts thereof. In the measurement of lines, every 
five chains are called an " out," because at that distance, the last of the ten 
tally rods or pins, with which the forward chainman set out, has been set to 
mark the measurement. The other chainman then comes forward, counts 
and delivers to him the ten tally rods which he has taken up in the last 
"out," the forward chainman likewise counting the pins as he receives them. 
At the end of every five chains, the forward chainman as he sets the tenth 
or last tally rod, calls, " out," which is repeated by the other chainman, 
and by the marker and surveyor, each of whom keeps a tally of the " outs," 



14J0 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

sind marks the same as he calls them.' Sixteen " outs," or eighty ohain^, 
make a mile. 

■The corners of townships, sections and quarter sections, are marked in the 
following manner: 

On the exterior township lines, comer posts are set at the distance of 
every. mile and half mile from the township corner. The mile posts are for 
the comers of sections, and the half-mile posts for the corners of quarter 
sections. , They are required to be driven into the groimd to the depth of 
from fifteen to twenty inches, a'nd to be made of the most durable wood to 
be had. The sides of the posts are squared off at the top, and the angles 
of the square set to correspond with the cardinal points of the compass. 
All the mile posts on the township lines are marked with as many notches 
cut in one of the angles as they are miles distant from the township corner 
where the line commenced. But the township corner posts are notched with 
six notches on each of the four angles. The mile posts on the section lines 
are notched on the south and east angles of the square, respectively, with as 
many notches as they are miles distant from the south and east boundaries 
of the township. If it so happens that a tree is situated to supply the 
place of a corner post, it is "blazed" on four sides facing the sections to 
which it is the comer, and notched in the same manner that the corner posts 
are. At all comers in the timber, two or more bearing trees in opposite 
directions are required to be noted, and the course of each tree noted and 
recorded. The trees are "blazed" on the side facing the post, and the let- 
ters B. T. (Bearing Tree) cut in the wood below the blaze. At the qwi/rter 
section corners, the post is flattened on opposite sides, and marked "J," and 
the nearest suitable tree on each side of the section line is marked to show 
the township, range and section in which such tree is situated. More recent 
regulations require four witnesses, or bearing trees, at the township and 
section comers, and two at the quarter section corners, if within convenient 
distance. 

In the prairies, and other places where bearing trees could not be noted, 
quadrangular mounds of earth are raised around the posts, the angles of the 
mounds corresponding with the cardinal points of the compass. The 
mounds are required to be two and a-half feet high and four feet square at 
the base. The earth to form the mound at the section corner is taken from 
one place to form the pit directly south of the mound; and at the qua/rter 
section comer it is taken directly east of the mound. The posts are squared 
and notched as heretofore, described. More recent regulations require 
stones or charcoal to be buried in the mound. 

In the timber the lines are marted in the following manner: All those 
trees which the line cuts have two notches on each side of the tree where 
the line cuts it. These are called "station trees," and sometimes "Une 
trees," or " sight trees." All trees within ten or fifteen links on each side 
of the line are marked with two spots or " blazes," diagonally or quartering 
toward the line. The names and estimated diameters of all the " station 
trees," with their distances on the lines, are noted. 

In the northwest part of Iowa, where the prairie so largely predominates, 
the landmarks, of course, are chiefly mounds and pits. The original stakes 
set by the surveyors have mostly been destroyed by the fires, but occasion- 
ally one may be found. Many of the mounds and pits have also been par- 
tially obliterated, but the experienced surveyor will generally identify tnem 
with very little trouble. A person in search of the landmarks on the prai- 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 141 

rie should provide himself with a compass with which to trace the lines. A 
small one will answer the purpose of ascertaining lines approximately,, but 
for finding the sub-divisions accurately, a good compass or transit and chain 
are required. 

The field notes of the original surveys furnish primarily the material 
from wnich the plats and calculations of the public lands are made, and the 
source from whence the description and evidence of the location and boun- 
daries bf those surveys are drawn and perpetuated. The surveyors of- the 
pubKc lands were, therefore, required to keep an accurate record of the 
topography of the country, with a description of everything which might 
aflbrd useful information. The crossings of streams, lakes, ponds, sloughs, 
etc., with their location on the lines, were all required to be carefully noted. 

EAELT SETTLEMENTS, AND TEREITOEIAL ORGANIZATION. 

Julien Dubuque — Spanish Lead Mines — Early Settlement at Dubuque — Settlement at Mont- 
rose— Old Apple Trees — Fort Madison — Keokuk — First Settlement at BurHngton — First 
Settlement in Scott County — Organization of Scott GoUntj — Murder of Col. Davenport- 
Band of Outlaws broken up — Some First Things — ^Territorial Convention — Subject of 
Pre-emptions — Missouri Boundary — Question of Separate Territorial Organizatioa — Me- 
morials to Congress. 

The first white men who are known to have set their feet upon the soil of 
Iowa, were James Marquette and Louis Joliet, in 1673, as we have seen in 
a former part of this work. It was 115 years after the visit of these cele- 
brated French voyagewrs before any white man established a settlement, 
during which time several generations of the Indian tribes occupied the val- 
leys of the beautiful rivers of Iowa, or roamed over her broad prairies. Dur- 
ing all this time they doubtless kept alive among them the tradition of the 
strange Black-Robe Chief and his pale-faced companions who came in their 
canoes to see their fathers so many years before, it was likewise a French- 
man, Julien Dubuque, who had the honor of making the first permanent 
white settlement. In 1788, having obtained permission from the Indians, 
he crossed the Mississippi with a small party of miners for the purpose of 
working lead mines at the place where the city is now located which bears 
his name, the lead having been discovered a short time before by the wife 
Peosta, a Fox warrior. Dubuque was a native of France, but had emigrated 
to Canada and become an Indian trader. While engaged in that business 
he reached Prairie du Ohien about the year 1785, and with two other French- 
men, laid out a village which now constitutes the northern part of that city. 
As a trader he acquired great influence with the Sac and Fox Chiefs. Six 
years after he engaged in mining (1796), he wrote a very diplomatic peti- 
tion to the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Baron de Carondelet, to con- 
firm the Indian grant. The governor referred the petition to a merchant 
and trader named Andrew Todd, who recommended that the grant be con- 
firmed, with a restriction prohibiting Dubuque from trading with the 
Indians, without first obtaining Todd's consent in writing. With this re- 
striction the petition was granted. Dubuque, as was a common custom 
among the French traders, had married an Indian woman. He gave to the 
district embraced in his grant the name of the Mines of Spain, in 1796, in 
compliment to the Spanish governor. He remained engaged in mining, 
until his death, which occurred March 24, 1810. He was buried on a bluff 
near the present city, and at his grave was placed a cedar cross, hewn square. 



142 HISTOET OP IOWA. 

and about twelve feet high. On the arms of the cross there was, in Frencli, 
an inscription, of which the following is a translation: 

JULIEN DUBUQUE, 

MTNEE OF THE MINES OF SPAIK, 

DIED MAEOH 24™, 1810, 

AGED FOETT-FIVE AND A-HALF TEARS. 

A number of Indians were afterward buried at the same place, and among 
them the chief Kettle and his wife, who both died some eighteen years after 
Dubuque. Kettle had requested his tribe to bury him and his wife in the 
vault with Dubuque. In 1828 their bodies were on the surface of the 
ground, wrapped in buffalo robes, protected from animals by closed walls 
and a roof. The cross and vault of Dubuque, it is said, were torn down 
about the year 1854, by some thoughtless boys, or perhaps men. The vault 
was built of roughly dressed limestone taken from the edge of the bluff only 
a few feet distant. But little more than is here stated is Known of the first 
white man who settled on Iowa soil. 

At the death of Dubuque the Indians claimed that the right, or lease of 
the whites to work the mines had expired, and but little more mining seems 
to have been done there until after the Black Hawk War. When attempts 
were made to engage in mining the military authority interfered to prevent 
intrusion upon the rights of the Indians. In 1829, James L. Langworthy, 
a native of Vermont, who had been engaged in lead mining at Galena, Illi- 
nois, crossed over the river for the purpose of working the mines known 
then as the "Spanish Lead Mines." The Indians refused to give him per- 
mission, but allowed him to explore the country. With two young Indians 
as guides, he traversed the region between Maquoketa and Turkey rivers. 
When he returned to the Sac and Fox village, he secured the good will of 
the Indians, and formed his plans for operating the mines. The next year, 
with his brother, Lucius H. Langworthy, and some other miners, he crossed 
over the river and engaged in mining. In June, 1830, the miners adopted a 
code of laws or rules, reported by a committee consisting of James L. Lang- 
worthy, H. F. Lander, James McPhetres, Samuel Scales and E. M. Wreii. 
They erected an independent civil government of their own, the first gov- 
ernment established by white men in Iowa. Some time after this the War 
Department issued an order to Col. Zachary Taylor, then in command of the 
military post at Prairie du Ohien, to cause the miners to leave the west side , 
of the river. Notice was accordingly given them and the order was reluc- 
tantly obeyed, but not until a detachment of troops was sent to enforce it. 
After the close of the Black Hawk War, and the treaty went into effect which 
allowed settlement, on and after Jnile 1, 1833, the Langworthy brothers and 
some others returned and resumed their claims, and soon there was a con- 
siderable settlement at Dubuque. The first school house in Iowa was 
erected there the same year, and before the close of the year there were five 
hundred white people in the mining district. At a meeting of the settlers, 
in 1834, the place was named Dubuque. 

Except the mining settlement at Dubuque, the first traces of the 
white man in Iowa, are to be found in Lee county. On the 30th of 
March, 1799, Louis Honori Fesson obtained permission of the Span- 
ish government to establish himself at the head of the rapids of the 
river Des Moinea for the purpose of trading with the Indians. The 
place was at this time occupied by a half-breed Indian named Ked Bird, 



HISTOBT OF IOWA. 143 

but known among the whites aa Thomas Abbott. Subsequently the town 
of Montrose was located on the ground where Fesson had his trading post 
and Ked Bird his wick-e-np. Settlers of a later day have felt much interest 
in the existence here of some full grown apple trees which must have been 
planted by some hand long before the Black Hawk "War. It has been 
claimed by some that theywereplanted by Fesson as early as the beginning 
of the present century. Hon. D. W. Kilboume, one of the early settlers of 
Lee eoimty, claimed that they were planted by Eed Bird some time between 
the years 1795 and 1798- Mr. Kilboume was personally acquainted with 
Eed Bird as well as with Black Hawk and other noted Indians of the Sac 
and Fox tribes, and from them he received what he believed to be an authen- 
tic account of the origin of the " ancient apple orchard " at Montrose. It 
was tte custom of the Indians once a year to visit St. Louis for the purpose 
of obtaining supplies of blankets and other articles. The half-breed, Ked 
Bird, then a.young man, made his customary pilgrimage in the early spring, 
and on his return stopped a few days at St. Charles on the Missouri river. 
There a white man made him a present of about twenty small apple trees 
and gave him instructions how to plant them. Ked Bird carried the trees 
liome with him and planted them near his wick-e-up, placing stakes around 
them. Nearly all of them grew and remained to excite the wonder and 
cnriosity of succeeding generations of white men. 

In 1809 a military post was established where Ft. Madison is now located, 
but of course the country was not open to white settlers until after the 
" Black Hawk Purchase." In 1834 troops were stationed at the point where 
Montrose is now located, but at that time the place was called " Fort Des 
Moines." They remained until 1837, when they were removed to Fort 
Leavenworth. At first they were under the command of Lieut. Col. S- W. 
Kearney, who was afterward relieved by Col. K. B. Mason. The command 
consisted of three companies of the 1st United States Dragoons, Co. C, 
Capt. E. V. Sumner, Co. H, Capt. Isathan Boone, and Co. I, Capt. J. B. 
Browne. Capt. Browne resigned his position in the regular army in 1837, 
and rfemained a citizen of Lee county. In 1838 he was appointed by Gov. 
Lucas as Maj. Gen. of Militia. He was also elected as a member of the first 
Territorial Legslature which convened at Burlington, and had the honor of 
being the first President of the Council and afterward Speaker of the House 
of Eepresentatives. At the " Foot of The Lower Kapids " there was a place 
which, prior to 1834, was known as " Farmers' Trading Post." In Septem- 
ber of that year a meeting of half-breed Indians and their assigns was held 
in the old trading house then owned by Isaac C. Campbell. The object of 
the meeting was to petition Congress for the passage of a law granting them 
the privilege to sell and convey their respective titles to what was then 
known as the " Half-breed Keservation," according to the laws of Missouri. 
In attendance at this meeting were representatives from Prairie du Chein 
and St. Louis. At this time there were about nine families residing in the 
vicinity, and after the adjournment of the meeting the resident citizens re- 

!)aired to the saloon of John Gaines to talk over their prospects when the 
lalf-breed title should become extinct. They looked forward to the time 
when a city should grow up at that point. John Gaines called the meeting 
to order and made a speech in which he said the time had now come to 
a^ee upon a name for the town. He spoke of the chief Keokuk as the 
friend of the white man, and proposed his name for the future town. The 
proposition met with favor and the name was adopted. In the spring of 



144 msTOBT or iowa. 

1837 the town was laid out and a public sale of lots took place in June. 
Only two or three lots were sold, although many attended from St. Louis 
and other points. In 1840 the greater portion of Keokuk waa a dense for- 
est, the improvements being only a few cabins. In • 1847 a census of the 
place gave a population of t)20. During the year 1832 Oapt. James White 
made a claim on the present site of Montrose, and in the same year, soon 
after the close of thelBIack Hawk war, Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jen- 
nings, Aaron White, Augustine Horton, Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson 
and Peter Williams made claims at Ft. Madison. In 1833 these claims 
were purchased by John and Nathaniel Knapp, upon which, in 1835, they 
laid out the town. The next summer lots were sold. The lots were subse- 
quently re-surveyed and platted by the TJnited States Government. 

The first settlement made at Burlington and in the vicinily, was 
in the fall of 1832. . Daniel Tothero came with his family and settled 
on the prairie about three miles from the ■ Mississippi river. About the 
same time Samuel White, with his family, erected his cabin near the river 
at what is known as the upper bluft", within the limits of the present city 
of Burlington. This was before the extinction of the Indian title, for that 
did not take place before June 1st, 1833, when the government acquired the 
territory under what was known as the " Black Hawk Purchase." There 
was then a government military post at Eock Island, and some dragoons 
came down from that place during the next winter and drove Tothero and 
and White over the river, burning their cabins. White remained in Illinois 
until the first of the following June, when the Indians surrendered posses- 
sion of the "Black Hawk Purchase," and on that very day was on the ground 
and built his second cabin. His cabin stood on what is now Front street, 
between Court and High streets, in the city of Burlington. Soon after Mr. 
White's return his brother-in-law, Doolittle, joined him, and in 1834 they 
laid out the original town, naming it Burlington, for the town of that name 
in Vermont. The name was given at the request of John Gray, a Ver- 
monter and a friend of the proprietors. Thus White and Doolittle became 
the Komulus and Remus of one of the leading cities of Iowa. During the 
year 1833 there was considerable settlement made in the vicinity, and soon a 
mill was erected by Mr. Donnell, on Flint creek, three miles from Burling- 
ton. In 1837 Major McKell erected a saw-mill in* the town. In June, 
1834, Congress passed an act attaching the " Black Hawk Purchase " to the 
Territory of Michigan for temporary government. In September of the 
same year the Legislature of Michigan divided this purchase into two coun- 
ties, Des Moines and Dubuque. The boundary between them was a line 
. running due west from the lower end of Rock Island. They also organized 
a county court in each county, and for Des Moines county made the seat 
of justice at Burlington. The first court was held in April, 1835, in a log 
house. In 1838 Iowa was made a separate Territory and Burlington was 
made the capital and so remained until after the admission into the Union 
aa a State. The Territorial Legislature met for several years in the first 
church erected in Burlington, known as " Old Zion." In this same building 
the supreme judicial tribunal of the Territory also held its sessions, as well 
as the district court. 

The first, white man to settle permanently within the limits of Scott 
county, was Capt. B. W. Clark, a native of Virginia. He had settled and made 
some improvement on the Illinois side of the Mississippi, but in 1833 lie 
moved across the river and made a " claim and commenced an improvement 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 



145 




10 



146 HISTORY or lOW^ 

where the town of Buffalo was laid out. His nearest white neighbors on the 
west side of the Mississippi, were at Burlington and Dubuque. David H. 
Clark, a son of Capt. Clark, born April 21, 1834, was the first white child 
bom within the limits of what is now Scott county. 

Before the time, June 1, 1833, that the Indians were to give possession 
to the whites, Geo. L. Davenport had been permitted to make a claim. He 
had been a favorite with the Indians from boyhood, and for this reason he 
was permitted to go upon the lands while others were kept off. The land 
upon which a part of the city of Davenport is located, and adjoining or near 
Le Claire's reserve, was claimed by R. H. Spencer, and a man named Mc- 
Cloud. Mr. Le Claire afterward purchased their claim interest for $150. 

The project of laying out a town upon Mr. Le Claire's claim was first dis- 
cussed in the autumn of 1835, at the residence of Col. Davenport, on Eock 
Island. The persons interested in the movement were Antoine Le Claire, 
Maj. Thos. Smith, Maj. "Wm. Gordon, Phillip Hambaugh, Alexg,nder W. 
McGregor, Levi S. Colton, Capt. James May and Col. Geo. Davenport. In 
the spring of 1836, the enterprise was carried into effect by the purchase of 
the land from Mr. Le Claire, and the laying out of a town to which the 
name of Davenport was given, in honor of Col. Davenport. The survey 
was made by Maj. Gordon. Some improvement had been made iipon the 
ground by Mr. Le Claire, as early as 1833, but none of a substantial character 
until 1836. 

During this year Messrs. Le Claire and Davenport erected a building 
which was opened as a public house or tavern, by Edward Powers. During 
the same year John Litch from Newburyport, N. IL, opened the pioneer 
whisky shop in a log shanty on Front street. A ferry across the Mississippi , 
was established by Mr. Le Claire, who was also the same year appointed the ■ 
first postmaster, and carried the mails in his pocket while ferrying. The 
first white male child born in Davenport was a son of Levi S. Colton, in 
the autmnn of 1836. The child died in August, 1840, at the Indian village 
on Iowa river. The first female child was a daughter of D. 0. Eldridge. 
Alex. W. McGregor, opened the first law office in 1836. Eev A. M. Gavit, 
a Methodist minister, preached the first sermon in the house of D. 0. Eld- 
ridge. At the close of the year 1836 there were some six or seven houses 
in me town. The Indians still lingered about the place. Col. Davenport 
still kept a trading house open on Eock Island, and furnished supplies. , 

When the Sacs and Foxes removed from the lands embraced in the first 
purchase they settled for a short time on Iowa river, and after the second, 
purchase removed to the Des Moines river, where they remained until the 
last sale of their lands in Iowa when they were removed by the government 
to Kansas. 

Scott county was organized and named in honor of Gen. "Winfield Scott at 
the session of the Legislature of "Wisconsin in December, 1837. Major 
Frayer Wilson was appointed sheriff. The election for county commission-, 
ers was held on the third Monday in February, 1838, when the following 
were elected: Benj. F. Pike, Andrew W. Campbell, and Alfred Carter. On 
the 4th of July, 1838, by an aet of Congress, Iowa became a separate Ten> 
tory, and Eobert Lucas, of Ohio, was appointed the first Territorial Governor. 
He made the following appointments for Scott county: "Williard Barrows, 
notary public; Ebenezer Cook, judge of probate; Adrian H. Davenport, 
sheriff; Isaac A. Hedges and John Porter, justices of the peace. D. C. 
Eldridge received the appointment of postmaster at Davenport. The first. 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 147 

District Court met in Davenport in October, 1838, Hon. Thomas S. Wilson, 
of Dubuque, presiding. 

For two years a contest had been going on between Davenport and a place 
called Eockingham as to which should nave the honor of the county seat. 
The fourth Monday of August, 1840, was fixed for holding an election to 
decide the vexed question. It resulted favorably to Davenport, the citizens 
of the successful town building a court house and jail free of expense to the 
county. 

On the 7th of July, 1838, Andrew Logan, from Pennsylvania, arrived 
with a printing press, and on the I7th of September following issued . the 
first number of a paper called loaoa Sun cmd Davenport and Moch Iskmd 
News, the fi^-st newspaper published in the county. On the 26th day of 
August, 1841, the first number of the Davenport Weehly Gazette was issued 
by Alfred Sanders. 

One of the most exciting incidents connected with the early history of 
Davenport and Scott county was the murder of Col. George Davenport on 
Rock Island, July 4, 1845. The country on both sides of the river had been 
infested by a lawless band of freebooters, with their supposed headquarters 
at Nauvoo. They had organized themselves into bands and engaged in 
horse stealing, counterfeiting, burglary, robbery, and murder. In some 
places men in official positions and of good standing in community were 
associated with them. On the fatal 4th of July, Col. Davenport's family was 
away at Stephenson attending a celebration when three men attacked him in 
his house, one of whom shot him with a pistol through the thigh. They 
then bound him with strips of bark and blindfolded him. They then made 
a search for the key of his safe but were unable to find it. Returning to the 
wounded man, they carried him up-stairs where the safe was and compelled 
him to unlock it. The booty obtained was about $600 in money, a gold 
watch-chain and seals, a double-barrelled gun, and a few articles of minor 
value. Col. Davenport lived long enough to relate the incidents of the rob- 
bery. For several weeks no trace could be found of the murderers. Edward 
Bonney, of Lee county, Iowa, undertook to ferret out their place of conceal- 
ment. About the middle of August he went to Nauvoo where he obtained 
trace of them by representing himself as one of the gang. On the 8 th of 
September he arrested a man named Fox at Centerville, Indiana, and com- 
mitted him to jail there. On the 19th he arrested two others, Birch and 
John Long, at Sandusky, Ohio, and brought them to Eock Island by way of 
the lakes and Chicago. These three men were known at the west as leaders 
of gangs of desperadoes, but operated under different names. Three others 
were also arrested as accessories, Kichard Baxter and Aaron Long, near 
Galena, Illinois, and Granville Young, at Nauvoo. Aaron was a brother of 
John Long. On the 6th of October all of them were indicted by the grand 
jury of Eock Island county, except Fox, who had escaped from jail in Indi- 
ana on the 17th of September. On the 14th of October the two Longs were 
pat upon trial, found guilty, and sentenced to be himg on the 27th of the 
same month. Birch, the greatest villain, turned State's evidence. Baxter 
was tried separately, convicted and sentenced to be hung on the 18th of No- 
vember. Li his case a writ of error was obtained and a new trial granted, 
when he was again found guilty and sentenced to the penitentiary for life, 
where he died two years after. Birch took a change of venue to Knox 
county, and while awaiting trial escaped from jail. Upon the gallows John 
I^ng confessed all, but died a hardened wretch without sign of repentance 
or fear of death. 



148 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

, During tlie year 1834 settlements were made at various points besides 
those mentioned, in what are now the counties bordering on the Mississippi 
river, and soon other settlements began to extend to the western limit of tne 
Black Hawk Purchase. 

The first post-office in Iowa was established in Dubuque in 1833. Milo 
H. Prentice was appointed postmaster. 

The first justice of the peace was Antoine Le Claire, appointed in 1833, as 
" a very suitable person to adjust the difficulties between the white settlers 
and the Indians stiU remaining there." 

The first Methodist Society in the Territory was formed at Dubuque on 
the 18th of May, 1834, and the first class meeting was held June 1st of that 
year. 

The first church bell brought into Liwa was in March, 1834. 

The first mass of the Eoman Catholic Church in the Territory was cele- 
brated at Dubuque, in the house of Patrick Quigley, in the fall of 1833. 

The first school house in the Territory was erected by the Dubuque miners 
in 1833. 

The first Sabbath school was organized at Dubuque early in the summer 
of 1834. 

The first woman who came to this part of the Territory with a view to 
permanent residence was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the fall of 1832. 

The fii'st family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of Hosea T. Camp, 
in 1832. 

The first meeting-house was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church, at 
Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubuque Yisitor, issued May 11th, 
1836. John King, afterward Judge King, was editor, and WilUam C. 
Jones, printer. 

By the year 1836 the population had increased so that the people began 
to agitate for a separate Territorial organization. There were also several 
other matters in which they were deeply interested. In November, 1837, a 
convention was called at Burlington to take action. Some account of this 
first Iowa convention, and the action taken by it, wiU be of interest to every 
citizen of the State. 

TEEEITOEIAl CONVENTION. 

On Monday the 6th of November, 1837, a convention of delegates from the 
several counties in that portion of Wisconsin Territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river, then sometimes called Western Wisconsin, convened in the town 
of Burlington. Among the principal purposes for which this convention 
was called were: 1. To memoralize Congress for the passage of an act 
granting the right of pre-emption to actuS settlers on government lands* 
2. To memoralize Congress on the subject of the attempt then being made 
by the State of Missouri to extend her northern boundary line so as to 
embrace territory claimed as being apart of Wisconsin; 3. To memoralize 
Congress for the organization of a separate territorial government- in that 
part of the Territory of Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. m 

The following were the accredited delegates in the convention from thi 
several counties: 

Dubuque Comity.— V. H. Engle, J. T. Pales, G-. W. Harris, W. A. "War- 
ren, W. B. Watts, A. F. Eussell, W. H. Patton, J, W. Parker, J. D. Bell, and 
J. H. Kose. 

Des Movnes Oovmty. — David Eorer, Eobert Ealston, and Cyrus S. Jacobs. 



HISTOBT OF IOWA. 149 

Tcm Bur&n Cov/nfy. — Yan Caldwell, J. G. Kenner, and James HalL 

JSeivry Cownby. — ^W. H. Wallace, J. D. Payne, and J. L. Myers. 

Muscaiine Cownty. — J. E. Struthers, M. Conch, Eli Eeynolds, S. C. 
Hastings, James Davis, S. Jenner, A. Smith, and E. K. Fay. 

Jjyvma Cotmty. — J. M. Clark, "Wm. L. Toole, and J. J. Kinearson. 

Lee Govmty. — Henry Eno, John Claypool, and Hawkins Taylor. 

The officers of the convention were: President, Cyrus S. Jacobs; Vice 
Presidents, J. M. Clark, and Wm. H. Wallace; Secretaries, J. W. Parker, 
and J. E. Strathers. 

The following committees were appointed: 

To draft and report a memorial in relation to the right of pre-emption — 
Messrs. Engle, Kenner, Payne, Struthers, Patton, Eorer, and Smith. 

To draft and report a memorial on the subject of the boundary line — 
Messrs. Eno, Claypool, Kenner, Ealston, Davis, Watts, and Toole. 

To draft and report a memorial on the subject of a separate territorial 
organization — Messrs. Eorer, Hastings, Caldwell, Myers, Claypool, Einear- 
son, and Harris. 

The convention continued in session three days, and on the afternoon of the 
last day all the committees reported, and their reports were unanimously 
adopted. 

MEMOEIAl ON THE SUBJECT OF PKE-EMPTIONS. 

To the Sonorahle Senate and Mouse of JRepresentatives : 

A convention of citizens representing all the counties in that part of Wis- 
consin Territory lying west of the Mississippi river, have assembled at Bur- 
lington, the present seat of government of said Territory, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration several measures immediately affecting their in- 
terests and prosperity. Among the most important of these is the passage 
by your honorable bodies, at the session about to be commenced, of a pre- 
emption law by which the settlers on the public land shall have secured to 
them at the minimum price, the lands on which they live, which they have 
improved and cultivated without fear of molestation, or over-bidding on the 
part of the rich capitalist and speculator. It is a fact well known to your hon- 
orable bodies, that none of the land in Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, 
in what is called the " Iowa District," has yet been offered for sale by the 
government. It is equally true that that tract of country is now inhabited 
by twenty-five thousand souls, comprising a population as active, intelligent, 
and worthy as can be found in any other part of the United States. The 
enterprise of these pioneers has converted what was but yesterday a solitary 
and uncultivated waste, into thriving towns and villages, alive with the en- 
gagements of trade and commerce, and rich and smiling' farms, yielding 
their bountiful return to the labors of the husbandman. This district has 
been settled and improved with a rapidity unexampled in the history of the 
country; emigrants from all parts of the United States, and from Europe, 
are daily adding to our numbers and importance. An attempt to force these 
lands thus occupied and improved into market, to be sold to the highest bid- 
der, and to put the money thus extorted from the hard earnings of an indus- 
trions and laborious people into the coffers of the public treasury, would be 
an act of injustice to the settlers, which would scarcely receive the sanction 
of your honorable bodies. In most cases the labor of years and the accu- 
mulated capital of a whole lite has been emended in making improvements 
on the public land, under the strong and mm belief that every safeguard 
would be thrown aroimd them to prevent their property, thus dearly earned 



150 HISTORY OP IOWA* 

by years of suffering, privation arid toil, from being unjustly wrested from 
tlieir hands. Shall they be disappointed? Will Congress refuse to pass 
such laws as may be necessary to protect a large class of our citizens from 
systemized plunder and rapine? The members comprising this convention, 
representing a very large class of people, who delegated them to speak in 
their stead, do most confidently express an opinion that your honorable 
bodies will at your present session, pass some law removing us from danger 
and relieving us from fear on this subject. The members of this conven- 
tion, for themselves, and for the people whose interests they are sent here to 
represent, do most respectfully solicit that your honorable bodies will, as 
speedily as possible, pass a pre-emption law, giving to every actual settler 
on the public domain, who has made improvements sufficient to evince that 
it is honajlde his design to cultivate ana-occupy the land, the right to enter 
at the minimum government price, one-half section for that purpose, before 
it shall be offered at pablic sale. 

MEMOEIAi ON THE SITBJECT OF THE MISSOURI BOUNDARY LINE. 

To the HoTvorable, the Senate and House of Bejpresentatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled: 

The Memorial of a Convention of Delegates from the several conntieB in 
the Territory of "Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, convened at Bur- 
lington, in said Territory, November 6, 1837, respectfully represent: 

That your memorialists are desirous of asking the attention of Congress 
to the adjustment of the boundary line between the State of Missouri and 
the Territory of Western Wisconsin. Much excitement already prevails 
among the inhabitants situated in the border counties of the State and Ter- 
ritory, and it is much to be feared that, unless the speedy action of Congress 
should be had upon the subject, difficulties of a serious nature will arise, 
militating against the peace and harmony which would otherwise exist 
among them. At the last session of the legislature of Missouri, commis- 
sioners were appointed to run the northern boundary line of the State. They 
have recently been engaged in the work, and, according to the line run by 
them, there is included within the limits of the State of Missouri a consid- 
erable tract of country hitherto supposed to belong to the Territory of Wis- 
consin, and which is still believed of right to belong to it. The northern 
boundary line of Missouri was run several years ago by commissioners ap- 
pointed by the State of Missouri, and will cross the Des Moines river at a 
point about twenty-five miles from its mouth. This line, if continued on 
due east, would strike the Mississippi river near the town of Fort Madison, 
about ten miles above the rapids in said river, long since known as the Des 
Moines rapids; and this line, so run by the commissioners, has always been 
considered as the boundary Hne between the State and Territory. Tne pres- 
ent commissioners, appointed by the State of Missouri, giving a difierent 
construction to the act defining the boundary line of the State, passed up 
the Des Moines river in search of rapids, and have seen proper to find them 
some twelve or fourteen miles further up the river than the other commis- 
sioners of Missouri formerly did, and, selecting a point which they call 
the rapids in the Des Moines river, have from thence marked out a line 
which is now claimed as the northern boundary line of the State. Were 
this line extended due east, it would strike the Mississippi river at the town 
of Burlington, some thirty miles above the rapids known,- as stated above, as 
the Des Moines Eapids. : 



HISTOBT OF IOWA. 151 

Missonri was created into an independent State, and her boundary line 
defined, in June, 1820. At that time the country bordering on the Des 
Moines river was a wilderness, and little was known, except irom the Indi- 
ans who lived on its banks, of its geographical situation. There was'at that 
time no point on the river known as the Des Moines rapids, and at the 
present time between the mouth of the river and the Eaccoon forks, a dis- 
tance of two hundred mile's, fifty places can with as much propriety be desig- 
nated as the one selected by the commissioners of the State of Missouri. 

Your memorialists conceive that no action of the State of Missouri can , 
or ought to, affect the integrity of the Territory of "Wisconsin; and standing 
in the attitude they do, they must look to the general government to protect 
their rights and redress their wrongs, which, for so long a period of time, 
existed between the Territory of Michigan and the State of Ohio relative to 
their boundaries, will, it is hoped, prompt the speedy action of Congress on 
this existing subject. Confidently relying upon the wisdom of the general 
government, and its willingness to take such means as will settle this ques- 
tion, the people of "Wisconsin will peaceably submit to an extension ot the 
northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, if so be that Congress 
shall ordain it; but until such action, they will resist to the utmost extrem- 
ity any attempt made by the State of Missouri to extend her jurisdiction 
over any disputed territory. 

We, therefore, pray that Congress will appoint commissioners, whose duty 
it shall be to run the line between the State of Missouri and the Territory 
of Wisconsin according to the spirit and intention of the act defining the 
boundary lines of the State of Missouri, and to adopt such other measures 
as in their wisdom they shall deem fit and proper. 

MEMOEIAL PEATING FOR A DIVISION OF THE TEEEITOET. 

To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of a general convention of delegates, from the respective 
counties in the Territory of Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, con- 
vened at the capitol at Burlington, in said Territory, November 6, 1837, 
respectfully represents: 

That the citizens of that part of the Territory west of the Mississippi river, 
taking into consideration their remote and isolated position, and the vast 
extent of country included within the limits of the present Territory, and 
the utter impracticability of the same being governed as an entire whole, by 
the wisest and best administration of our municipal affairs, in such manner 
as to Mly secure individual right and the right of property, as well as to 
maintain domestic tranquility, and the good order of society, have by their 
respective representatives,, convened in general convention as aforesaid, tor 
availing themselves of their right of petition as free citizens, by representing 
their situation and wishes to your honorable body, and asking for the organ- 
ization of a separate Territorial government over that part of the Territory 
west of the Mississippi river. 

Without in the least designing to question the official conduct of those in 
whose hands the fate of our infant Territory has been confided, and in whose 
patriotism and wisdom we have the utmost confidence, your memorialists 
cannot refrain from the frank expression of their belief that, taking into 
consideratioil the geographical extent of her country, in connection with the 
probable population of Western Wisconsin, perliaps no Territory of the 



152 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

United States lias been so mucli neglected by tbe parent government, so illy 
protected in the political and individual rights of her citizens. 

Western Wisconsin came into the possession of our government in June, 
1833. Settlements were made, and crops grown, during the same season; 
and even then, at that early day, was the impulse given to the mighty throng 
of emigration that has subsequently filled our lovely and desirable country 
with people, intelligence, wealth and enterprise. From that period until the 
present, being a little over four years, what has been the Territory of West- 
em Wisconsin? Literally and practically a large portion of the time with- 
out a government. With a population of thousands, she has remained 
ungovemed, and has been quietly left by the pa,rent government to take care 
of herself, without the privilege on the one hand to provide a government of 
her own, and without any existing authority on the other to govern her. 

From June, 1833, until June, 1834, a period of one year, there was not 
even the shadow of government or law in all Western Wisconsin. In June, 
1334, Congress attached her to the then existing Territory of Michigan, of 
which Territory she nominally continued a part, until July, 1836, a period 
of little more than two years. During the whole of this time, the whole 
country west, sufficient of itself for a respectable State, was included in two 
counties, Dubuque and Des Moines. In each of these two counties there 
were holden, during the said term of two years, two terms of a county court 
(a court of inferior jurisdiction), as the only sources of judicial relief up to 
the passage of the act of Congress creating the Territory of Wisconsin. Tliat 
act took eifect on the third day of July, 1836, and the first judicial relief 
afforded under that act, was at the April term following, 1837, a period of 
nine months after its passage; subsequently to which time there has been a 
court holden in one solitary county in Western Wisconsin only. This, your 
memorialists are aware, has recently been owing to the unfortunate disposi- 
tion of the esteemed and meritorious judge of our district; but they are 
equally aware of the fact, that had Western Wisconsin existed under a sep- 
arate organization, we should have found relief in the services of other mem- 
bers of the judiciary, who are at present, in consequence of the great extent 
of our Territory, and the small number of judges dispersed at two great a 
distance, and too constantly engaged in the discharge of the duties of their 
own district, to be enabled to afford relief to other portions of the Territory. 
Thus, with a population of not less than twenty-five thousand now, and of 
near half that number at the organization of the Territory, it will appear 
that we have existed as a portion of an organized Territory, for sixteen 
months, with but one term of courts only. 

Tour memorialists look upon those evils as growing exclusively out of the 
immense, extent of country included within the present boundaries of the 
Territory, and express their conviction and belief, that nothing would so 
effectually remedy the evil as the organization of Western Wisconsin into a 
separate territorial government. To this your memorialists conceive them- 
selves entitled by principles of moral right — by the same obligation that 
rests upon their present government, to protect them in the free enjoyment 
of their rights, until such time as they shall be permitted to provide protec- 
tion for themselves; as well as from the uniform practice ana policy of the 
government in relation to other Territories. 

The Territory of Indiana, including the present States of Indiana, Illinois, 
and Michigan, and also much of the eastern portion of the present Territory 
of Wisconsin, was placed under one separate territorial government in the year 



HI8T0ET OF IOWA. 153 

1800, at a time that the population amounted to only five thousand six hun- 
dred and forty, or thereabouts. 

The Territory of Arkansas was erected into a distinct Territory, in 1820, 
with a population of about fourteen thousand. The Territory of Illinois was 
established in 1809, being formed by dividing the Indiana Territory. The 
exact population of Illinois Territory, at the time of her separation from In- 
diana, is not known to your memorialists, but her population in 1812, one 
year subsequent to that event, amounted to but eleven thousand five hun- 
dred and one whites, and a few blacks — in all, to less than twelve thousand 
inhabitants. 

The Territory of Michigan was formed in 1805, by again dividing the 
Indiana Territory, of which, until then, she composed a part. The popula- 
tion of Michigan, at the time of her separation from Indiana, your memo- 
rialists have been unable to ascertain, but in 1810, a period of five years sub- 
Eequent to her separate organization, her population amounted to but about 
four thousand seven hundred and sixty; and in the year 1820, to less than 
nine thousand — so that Michigan existed some fifteen years, as a distinct 
Territory, with a population of less than half of Western Wisconsin at pres- 
ent; and each of the above named Territories, now composing so many 
proud and fiourishing States, were created into separate territorial govern- 
ments, with a much less population than that of Western Wisconsin, and 
that too at a time when the parent government was burdened with a 
national debt of millions. Tour memorialists therefore pray for the organ- 
ization of a separate territorial government over that part of the Territory of 
Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. 

TEREITOET OF IOWA. 

Territorial Organization — Members of First Legislative Assembly — Its Presiding OflBcers — 
Important Acts — ^The Great Seal of the Territory — Provision for Locating Seat of Gov- 
ernment — Some Prominent Members — ^The Boundary Dispute — Its Settement— Delegate 
to Congress— Territorial Governors — Death of Wm. B. Conway — Various Incorporations. 

CoHGEESs considered the prayer of the memorial favorably, and " An Act 
to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to establish the Territorial govern- 
ment of Iowa," was approved June 12, 1838, to take effect and be in force 
on and after July 3, 1838. The new Territory embraced "all that part of 
the present Territory of Wisconsin which lies west of the Mississippi Eiver, 
and west of a line drawn due north from the head water or sources of the 
Mississippi to the territorial line." The organic act provided for a Governor 
whose term of office should be three years, and for a Secretary, Chief Jus- 
tice, two Associate Justices, and Attorney and Marshal, who should serve 
four years, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. The act also provided for the election, by the white 
male inhabitants, citizens of the United States, over twenty-one years of 
age, of a House of Kepresentatives, consisting of twenty-six members, and 
a Council, to consist of thirteen members. It also appropriated $5,000 for a 
pubhc library, and $20,000 for the erection of public buildings. President 
Van Buren appointed Ex-G-ovemor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be the first 
Governor of the new Territory. William B. Conway, of Pittsburg, was 
appointed Sera-etary of the Territory; Charles Mason, of Burlington, Chief 
Justice; and Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of 
Pennsylvania, Associate Judges of the Supreme and District Courts; Mr. 
Van Allen, of New York, Attorney; Francis Gehon, of Dubuque, Marshal; 



151 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 



Augustus C. Dodge, Eegister of the Land Office at Burlington, and, Thom- 
as McKniglit, Eeceiver of the Land Office at Dubuque. Mr. Van Al. 
len, the District Attorney, died at Eockingham, soon after his appointmeDt, 
and Col. Charles Weston was appointed to fill his vacancy. Mr. Conway, 
the Secretary, also died at Burlington, during the second session of the 
Legislature, and James Clarke, editor of the Gazette, was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. Immediately after his arrival, Governor Lucas issued a procla- 
mation for the election of members of the first Territorial Legislature, to be 
held on the 10th of September, dividing the Territory into election districts 
for that purpose, and appointing the 12th day of November for the meeting 
of the Legislature to be elected, at Burlington. 

The following were the names, county of residence, nativity, age, and 
occupation, of the members of that fij-st Territorial Legislature: 



COUNCIL. 



COUTTTT. 


NATIVITT. 


AGE. 


Van Buren. 


Vermont. 


28 


« 4* 


Virginia. 


62 


Des Moines. 


Penn. 


60 


(( u 


Ohio. 


81 


Cedar. 


New York. 


31 


Des Moines. 


Kentucky. 


S3 


Lee. 


Kentucky. 


40 


Henry. 


Tennessee. 


35 




Virginia. 


34 


Scott. 


Vermont. 


28 


Dubuque. 


Conn. 


26 


** 


Virginia. 


32 


Louisa. 


New York. 


25 



OCCUPATION. 



E. A. M. Swarzy. . . , 

J.Kieth 

A. Ingram 

Robert Ralston 

C. Whittlesey 

George Hepner 

Jesse B. Browne. . . . 

Jesse D. Payne 

L. B. Hughes' 

J. W.Parker 

Stephen Hempstead. 

Warner Lewis 

J.M.Clark 



Farmer. 

Gunsmith. 

Farmer. 

Merchant. 

Merchant. 

Farmer. ' 

Formerly in U.S.J 

Physician. 

Merchant. 

Lawyer. ' • 

Lawyer. 

Farmer. « 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 



OOTJNTT. 



NATIVITY. 



AGE, 



OCCUPATION. 



Wm. H. Wallace 
Wm. G. Coop. . . . 

A. B. Porter 

Laurel Summers . . 
Jabez Burchard . . 
James Brierly. . . . 
Wm. Patterson. . . 

H. Taylor 

Harden Nowlin. . . 
Andrew Bankston. 

Thomas Cox 

C. Swan 

C. J.Price 

J. W. Grimes .... 
.George Teinple — 
George H. Beeler. 
V. B. Delashmutt. 

Thomas Blair 

James Hall 

Samuel Parker . . . 

G.S.Bailey 

Levi Thornton. . . . 

Wm.L, Toole 

' Robert G. Roberts 
John Frierson.... 
S. C. Haatings...... 



Henry. 

4« 

Scott. 
(. 

Lee. 

4i 

44 

Dubuque. 



Lee. 
Des Moines, 



Van Buren. 



Louisa. 

(4 

Cedar. _ 
Muscatine. 



Ohio. . 

Virginia. 

Kentucky. 

Kentucky. 

Penn. 

Ohio. 

Virginia. 

Kentucky. 

Illinois. 

N. C. 

Kentucky. 

New York. 

N. G. 

N. H. 

N. H 

Virginia. 

Virginia. 

Kentucky. 

Maryland. 

Virginia. 

Kentucky. 

Penn. _ 

Virginia. 

Penn. 

Ohio. 

New York. 



27 
33 
30 
24 
34 
29 
37 
27 
34 
51 
51 
89 
37 
22 
34 
89 
37 
49 
27 
34 
27 
42 
.35 
42 
84 
25 



Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Miner. 

Farmer. 

Lawyer. 

Farmer. 

Merchant. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 



Farmer. 

Physician.' 

FarmSri 

Farmer. , 

Farmer. 

Surveyor. 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 155 

' Jesse B. Browne, of Lee county, was elected president of tlie council. He 
'Lad been an officer in the regular army, was a gentleman of dignified 
appearance and commanding stature, being six feet and seven incbes in 
height. William H. Wallace, of Henry county, was elected speaker of the 
Ilouse. Some years after he held the position of receiver at the United 
States land office located at Fairfield. He subsequently removed to Wash- 
ington Territory, and at one time served as a delegate in Congress from 
that Territory. 

Among the acts passed were those for organizing the counties of Linn, 
Jeflerson and Jones; fot changing the name of Slaughter county to Wash- 
ington; providing for the election in each county of a board of commission- 
ers, to consist of three persons, to attend to all county business, and acts 
providing for the location of the capital and the penitentiary. The Terri- 
tory was divided into three judicial districts, in each county of which court 
was to be held twice a year. The counties of Lee, Van Buren, Henry and 
Des Moines constituted the first district, to which Charles Mason, of Bur- 
lington, was assigned as judge. The counties of Louisa, Washington, John- 
Bonr, Cedar and Muscatine constituted the second district, with Joseph 
Williams, of Muscatine, as judge. The counties of Jackson, Dubuque, 
Scott and Clayton constituted the third district, with Thomas S. Wilson, of 
Dubuque, as judge. 

Among the proceedings was the passage of a resolution by the council, 
instructing Wm. B. Conway, the secretary of the Territory, to procure 
a seal, m compliance with this instruction, on the 23d of November, 
Mr. Conway submitted to the inspection of the coimcil what became the 
"great seal of the Territory of Iowa." The design was that of an eagle 
b^iringin its beak an Indian arrow, and clutching in its talons an unstrung 
bow. The seal was one inch and five-eighths in diameter, and was engraved 
by William Wagner, of York, Pennsylvania. The council passed a resolu- 
tion adopting the seal submitted by the secretary, but it does not appear 
that it was adopted by the other branch of the legislature. In his communi- 
cation to the council presenting the seal, Mr. Conway calls it the " great 
seal of the Territory of Iowa," but the word "great" did not appear upon 
it. This old territorial seal appears to have been lost in the removal from 
Iowa City to Des Moines. 

Under the act passed for the location of the capital, Chauncey Swan, of 
Dubuque county, John Konalds, of Louisa county, and Robert Ralston, of 
Des Moines county, were appointed commissioners, and were required to 
meet at the town of Napoleon, in Johnson county, on the first Monday of 
May, 1839, and proceed to locate the seat of government at the most suit- 
able point in that county. They proceeded at that time to discharge the duties 
of their trust, and procured the title to six hundred and forty acres. They 
had it surveyed into lots, and agreed upon a plan for a capitol, selecting one 
of their number, Chauncey Swan, to superintend the work of erecting the 
building. The site selected was about two miles northwest of what was 
then the town of Napoleon, a place which now is not known as a town. 
The new town was named Iowa City, and the first sale of lots took place 
August 16, 1839. In November, 1839, the second Territorial Legislature 
assembled in Burlington, and passed an act requiring the commissioners to 
adopt a plan for a building, not to exceed in cost $51,000. On the 4th day 
of July, 1840, the comer stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies, Sam- 



156 mSTOET OF IOWA. 

uel 0. Trowbridge acting as marslial of the day, and Governor Eobert Lucas 
as orator. 

This first legislative body which enacted laws for the government of the 
new Territory of Iowa held its sessions in the then unfinished Methodist 
church in Burlington, the lower stoiy or basement being built of stone, and 
the upper story of brick. It was known in later years as " Old Zion." Of 
the members of that legislature several afterward held prominent ofiBcial 
positions in the State.' Two of them, Stephen Hempstead, of Dubuque, 
and James "W. Grimes, of Burlington, held the office of Governor. The 
latter also became prominent in the United States Senate, and in the 
National Cabinet. 

"William G. Coop continued to be returned as a member of one or the other 
branch of almost every General Assembly, up to the change of parties in 
the election of James W. Grimes, as Governor. His later legislative career 
was as a member of the State Senate from Jefierson county. He was the 
Democratic candidate in that county against James F. Wilson in 1856, for 
member of the constitutional convention, but was defeated by the latter. He 
was a man of strong party attacliments, being a Democrat in the striatest 
sense, but was faithful to his constituents, and honest in his discharge of duty. 
We recognize (5ther names that were familiar in the subsequent history of the 
Territory or State, and among them, the following: Asbury B. Porter, who 
became the first colonel of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry during the KebeUion; 
Hawkins Taylor, of Lee county, who, during later years, has resided most 
of the time in Washington City; Warner Lewis, of Dubuque, who afterward 
held the position of Surveyor General for Iowa and Wisconsin ; William L. 
Toole, of Louisa county, after whom the town of Toolesboro in that county 
was named; Laurel Summers, of Scott county, and others. In the organi- 
zation of this first Territorial Legislature party ties do not seem to have 
been very strictly drawn, for General Browne, who was chosen president of 
the council without opposition, and Colonel Wallace, who was elected 
speaker of the house, with but little opposition, were both Whigs, while 
both branches of the legislature were largely Democratic. Party lines were 
not tightly drawn until the campaign of 1840, when the young Territory 
caught the enthusiasm which characterized that contest throughout the 
country. 

THE BO0NDAET DISPUTE. 

One of the exciting questions with which the Territory of Iowa had to deal 
was that in relation to the southern boundary. The constitution of Missouri 
in defining the boundaries of that State had defined her northern boundarjr to 
be the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the Des Momes 
river. In the Mississippi river, a little above the mouth of the Des Moines 
river, are the rapids, which had been known as the Des lloines Rapids, or the 
Kapids of the Des Moines river. Just below the town of Keosauqua, in Van 
Buren county, there are rapids (though very slight and inconsiderable) also 
in the Des Moines river. The Missouri authorities claimed that the latter 
rapids were referred to in the definition of her boundary, and insisted on ex- 
ercising jurisdiction over a strip of territory some eight miles in width which 
Iowa claimed as being a part of her territory. At the first court held in Far- 
mington. Van Buren county, in April, 1837, by David Irwin, Judge of the 
Second Judicial District of Wisconsin, an indictment was found against one 
David Doose for exercising the office of constable in Van Buren county 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 157 

under authority of the State of Missouri. This, and other similar acts 
by Missouri officials, were the origin of the despute which resulted in demon- 
strations of hostilities, and very nearly precipitated a border war. Governor 
Boggs, of Missouri, called out the militia of that State to enforce its claims, 
andGovemor Lucas, of Iowa, called out the militia of the Territory to main- 
tain its rights. About 1200 men were enlisted and armed. There was no 
difficulty m raising volunteers, for the war spirit ran high. At this stage, 
however, it was considered best to send peace commissioners to Missouri 
with a view of adjusting the difficulties. Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington; 
Gen. Churchman, of Dubuque, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were ap- 
pointed and proceeded to discharge the duties of their mission. When they 
arrived they found that the county commissioners of Clarke county, Mis- 
Bouri, had rescinded their order for the collection of taxes in Iowa, and the 
Governor of Missouri had sent messengers to Governor Lucas with a propo- 
sition to submit an agreed case to the Supreme Court of the United States. 
This proposition was declined, but afterward both Iowa and Missouri 
petitioned Congress to authorize a suit to settle the question. This was 
done, and the decision was adverse to the claims of Missouri. Under an 
order of the Supreme Court of the United States, WiUiam G. Miner, of 
Missouri, and Henry B. Hendershott, of Iowa, acted as commissioners to sur- 
vey and establish the boundary line. They discharged the duties assigned 
them, and peace was restored. 

In September, 1838, the election was held for delegate to Congress. 
There were four candidates in the field, to-wit: William W. Chapman 
and David Eorer, of Des Moines county; B. F. Wallace, of Henry county, 
and Peter H. Engle, of Dubuque county. William W. Chapman was elected 
by a majority of thirty-six votes over P. H. Engle. During the time that 
Iowa remained a separate Territory, from 1838 to 1846, the office of Gov- 
eraor was held successively by Eobert Lucas, John Chambers, and James 
Clarke. Robert Lucas had been one of the early Governors of Ohio, and 
was appointed the first Governor of the Territory of Iowa by President Yan 
Buren. John Chambers had been a Eepresentative in Congress from Ken- 
tnckjr, and a warm supporter of Gen. Wm. H. Harrison lor President in 
1840. After the change of the National administration he was appointed to 
succeed Governor Lucas. James Clarke had been the editor of the Gazette 
at Burlington, but at the death of Wm. B. Conway, Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, which occurred at Burlington, November 6, 1839, Mr. Clarke was ap- 
pointed his successor, and afterward succeeded John Chambers as the last 
Territorial Governor. 

The death of Wm. B. Conway, Secretary of the Territory, was an event 
which cast a gloom over the Territory. Prior to his appointment by Presi- 
dent Van Buren he had been a resident of Pittsburg, Penn. His remains 
were taken to Davenport for interment, and on the 9th of November a pub- 
lic meeting of the citizens of that place passed resolutions expressing the 
highest esteem both for his character as a citizen and as an officer of the 
Twritory. His remains were taken to St. Anthony's Church where the 
solemn services for the dead were performed by Rev. Father Pelamorgues. 
On the lltb a meeting of the members of the bar of the Territory waslield 
at Burlington, in whicm his associates in the profession also passed resolutions 
of respect for the deceased. Of this meeting Charles Mason was chairman, 
and David Rorer was appointed to present the resolutions to the Supreme 



158 HISTOET or IOWA. 

Court of the Territory, for the purpose of having thern entered on the record 
of the court. The deceased left a wife and one child. 
. The first Territorial Legislature provided by law that " no action commenced 
by a single woman, who intermarries during the pending thereof, shall abate 
on account of such marriage; secured religious toleration to all; vested the 
judiciary power in a Supreme Court, District Court, Probate Court, and 
Justices of the Peace; made real estate divisible by will, and intestate prop- 
erty to be divided equitably among heirs; made murder punishable by death, 
and provided proportionate penalties for other crimes; established a system 
of free schools, open to all classes of white children;- provided for a system 
of roads and highways; enacted a law to prevent and punish gambling, and 
in fact enacted a pretty complete code of laws, many of which stiU remain in 
force. 

Among the various institutions and associations incorporated were the fol- 
lowing: The Wapello Seminary, in Louisa county; the Bloomington and 
Cedar Kiver Canal Company; the Des Moines Mill Company, in Yan Buren 
county; the Burlington Steam Mill Company; seminaries of learning in Fort 
Madison, West Point, Burlington, Augusta, Farmington, Bentonsport, 
EocMngham, Keosauqua, Dubuque, and Davenport; the Burlington and 
Iowa River Turnpike Company; the Burlington and Des Moines Transpor- 
tation Company; the Keosauqua Lyceum, and the Iowa Mutual Fire Insnr. 
ance Company sit Burlington. 

STATE OEGANIZATION. 

First Constitution — Proposed Boundaries — Changed by Congress — Rejection of Constitution 
by the People — Congress Repeals its former Provision as to Boundaries and Fixes the 
Present Limits — ^The Second Constitution — Its Adoption by the People — Election of State 
Offiers — First General Assembly — Seat of Government — Monroe City — Fort Des Moines— 
Final Permanent Location — Removal — ^Third Constitutional Convention — New Capitol- 
Case of Attempted Bribery in First General Assembly. 

By the year 1844 the population of the Territoij had reached 75,152, and 
the people began to desire a State organization. In October of that year a 
constitutional convention was held at Iowa City, which formed a constitution 
defining the boundaries of the State as follows: 

"Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, 
.opposite the mouth of the Dos Moines river; thence up the said river Des 
Moines in the middle of the main channel thereof, to a point where it is in- 
tersected by the Old Indian Boundary Line, or line run by John C. Sullivan 
in the year 1816 ; thence westwardiy along said line to the ' Old northwest 
comer of Missouri ' ; thence due west to the middle of the- main channel of 
the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the river 
last mentioned to the mouth of the Sioux or Calumet river; thence in a 
direct line to the middle of the main channel of the St. Peter's river, where 
the Watonwan river (according to Nicollet's map) enters the same; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said river to the middle of the main 
channel of the Mississippi river; thence down the middle of the main chan- 
nel of said river to the place of beginning." 

On the 3d of March, 1845, Congress passed an act providing for the admis- 
sion of the State into the Union, but with boundaries different from those 
defined in the proposed constitution. By this act the State was to extend 
north to the parallel passing through Mankato, or Blue Earth river, in the 



" mSTOET OF IOWA. 159 

present State of Minnesota, and west to tlie meridian of IT deff. 30 min. west 
from Washington, These boundaries would have deprived the State of the 
Missouri Slope and of one of the grand rivers by which it is now bounded,, 
while in shape it would have been long and comparatively narrow. As a 
result, at an election held August 4, 1845, the people of the Territory rejected 
the constitution with the change of boundaries as proposed by Congress. 
The vote stood 7,235 for, and 7,656 against it, being a majority of 421 against 
the adoption. On the 4th of August, 1846, Congress passed an act repealing 
so much of the act of March, 3, i845, as related to the boundaries of Iowa, ana 
fixing the boundaries as now defined. On the 4th of May of that year a sec- 
ond constitutional convention had convened at Iowa City, and after a session 
of fifteen days formed the constitution which was sanctioned by the people 
at an election held August 3, 1846. The popular vote stood 9,492 for, and 
9,036 against the constitution at this election, being a majority of 456 in favor 
of it. A copy of this constitution was presented in Congress, and on the 
28th of December, 1846, an act was passed and approved for the admission 
of the State of Iowa into the Union. 

On the 26th of October, 1846, an election had been held for State officers, 
when the following Were elected: Ansel Briggs, Governor; Elisha Cutler, 
Jr:, Secretary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor, and Morgan Eeno, Treas- 
urer. At this time there were twenty-seven organized counties with a popu- 
lation, according to the census, of 96,088. 

The first General Assembly imder the State organization, convened at 
Iowa City, November 30, 1846. Thomas Baker was elected President of 
the Senate, and Jesse B. Browne, Speaker of the House of Kepresentatives. 
As the latter had been President of the first Territorial Council, so he was 
the first Speaker of the House when Iowa became a State. 

The Capitol building at Iowa City being at this time stiU in an unfinished 
condition, an appropriation of $5,500 was made to com;riete it. The boun- 
dary being so much extended west of the limits of the Territory when the 
capital was located at Iowa City, the question of removal and permanent loca- 
tion at some point further west began to be agitated, and the first General 
Assembly appointed commissioners to locate the seat of government, and to 
select five sections of laiid which had been granted by Congress for the erec- 
tion of public buildings. The commissioners in discharge of their duties 
selected the land in Jasper county, lying between the present towns of 
Prairie City and Monroe. The commissioners also surveyed and platted a 
town, to wmch they gave the name of Monroe City. Four hundred and fif- 
teen lots were sold, the cash payments yielding $1,797.43, being one-fourth 
of the price for which they sold. When the commissioners made their re- 
port to the next General Assembly, it was observed that their claim for 
services and expenses exceeded the cash received by $409.14. The report 
was reterred to a committee without instructions, but the location was never 
sanctioned by the General Assembly. The money paid by purchasers was 
mostly refimded. Meantime the question of re-location continued to be 
agitated at each session. In 1851 bills were introduced in the House for 
removal to PeUa and Fort Des Moines, but both of them failed to pass. At 
the next session a bill was introduced in the Senate for removal to Fort Des 
Moines, which was also defeated on a final vote. In January, 1855, the ef- 
fort proved successful, and on the 15th of that month the Governor ap- 
proved the biU re-locating the seat of government within two miles of the 
Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, and providing for the appointment of com- 



160 mSTOET'OF IOWA. 

missioners for that purpose. Under this act the commissioner's made selec- 
tion of the present site. A temporary building was erected by an associa- 
tion of citizens of Dos Moines, or Fort Des Moines, as it was then called. 
On the 19th of October, 1857, Governor Grimes, having been advised that 
the building was completed and ready for occupancy, issued a proclamation 
declaring the city of Des Moines the , capital of Iowa. The officers with 
the archives of the State removed during the fall and wintej-, and on the 
11th day of January, 1858, the Seventh General Assembly convened at Des 
Moines. 

Meantime a third constitutional convention had been called to frame a 
new State constitution. It convened at Iowa City, Januaij, 19, 1857, and 
adjourned March 5th of the same year. Francis Springer, of Louisa county, 
was chosen President. The constitution as adopted by this convention was 
approved by the people at an election held August 3d of the same year, the 
vote being 40,311 for, and 38, 681 against it. It took effect by proclamation 
of the Governor, September 3, 1 857. In this constitution the location of 
the seat of government at Des Moines was made a part of the fundamental 
law. In 1868 an amendment was made to this constitution, striking the 
word "white" from the clause deiining the qualification of electors. The 
whole vote cast by the people on this amendment was 186,503, with a ma- 
jority in favor of striking out, of 24,265. 

- The first capitol building erected in Des Moines being inadequate for the 
growing wants of the State, being too small and not sufliciently safe, an act 
was passed and approved April 13, 1870, providing for the erection of a 
new one. The following were constituted a Board of Commissioners to 
have charge of the erection: Grenville M. Dodge, of Pottawattamie county; 
James F. "Wilson, of Jefferson county; James Dawson, of Washington 
county; Simon G. Stein, of Muscatine county; James O. Crosby, of Clay- 
ton county; Charles Dudley, of Wapello county; John N. Dewey, of Polk 
county, and William L. Joy, of Woodbury county. The Governor was 
also constituted a member of the Board, and President ex-offido. A. E. 
Fulton was elected Secretary of the Board. It was provided in the act that 
the plan to be selected should not be for a building exceeding in cost $1,500- 
000, and the sum of $150,000 was appropriated to commence the work. 
In the fall of 1870 excavation for the foundation was commenced, 
and on the 23d of November of the next year, the ceremony of 
laying the comer stone took place. Gen. N. B. Baker was chief marshal 
of the day, and Governor Samuel Merrill delivered an appropriate address. 

The Board of commissioners experienced many difficulties in finding 
stone, especially within the limits of the State, that had been sufficiently 
tested for a building of such magnitude. The law required them to give 
preference to material obtained in the State, price and qut^lity being equal, 
and they desired to comply with the spirit of the law. As a; resiiit, how- 
ever, some material was placed in the foundation, which being exposed, dur- 
ing the next winter, was affected by the weather, and the next season it was 
neccessary to remove a portion of the foundation, involving a large addi- 
tional expense. 

The Fourteenth General Assembly convened in January, 1872j and in 
March a joint committee was authorized to examine and report upon the 
character of the material used. They reported that unfit material had been 
placed in the foundation, and recommended its reraovaL An act was 
passed at this session appropriating $100,000 for the work in 1872, and 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 161 

$125,000 to be used annually thereafter for tlie prosecution of the work, 
bat the whole cost not to exceed the limit of $1,380,000. The Board were 
required, however, to direct all their action with a view to the completion 
of the building for $1,500,000. The same act placed the work in charge 
of a Board of commissioners consisting of five members, including the 
Governor, who was also to be Pi-esident, ex-officio. The following were con- 
stituted the members of the new Board: John G. Foote, of Des Moines 
county; Maturin L. Fisher, of Clayton county; Robert S. Finkbine, and 
Peter A. Dey, of Johnson county, and the Governor, as above stated. Ed. 
Wright was appointed Secretary by the Board. This Board proceeded with 
the work in accordance with the general plan adopted by the foi'mer Board, 
and when completed Iowa will have one of the finest and most substantial 
capitol buildings in the Union. 

Having presented a brief review of the legislation in regard to seat of gov- 
ernment, which, as we have seen, was inaugurated by the first General As- 
sembly, we return to that session. Th« contest between the two political 
parties for ascendency was at that time a very earnest one, and especially in 
view of the election of U. S. Senators. The two political parties in the 
legislature were nearly equally divided. The friends of the several candidates 
■were present at the opening of the session to take part in the lobby branch, 
in behalf of their respective favorites. Keokuk county was represented in 
the House by Nelson King, a Whig, although his county at that time was 
regarded as Democratic. Gen. A. 0. Dodge, of Burlington, was the prom- 
inent Democratic candidate for Senator, and the name of J. C. Hall, also 
of Burlington, was likewise favorably mentioned. On the afternoon of 
December 9th, Mr. King, of Keokuk county, by consent of the House, rose 
in his place and made a statement to the following effect: That since he had 
presented his credentials, and taken his seat as a member, he had been ap- 

C reached by several different persons relative to the casting of his vote tor 
Tnited States Senators; that several distinct propositions for the payment of 
money and other reward had been oftered him, if he would vote for certain 
candidates, or either of them, as might be determined upon, which deter- 
mination was to be made known to him previous to casting his vote for 
United States Senator; and that the said parties offering thus to reward him 
for his vote, had promised to secure him from all blame or suspicion, by 
procnring written instructions from his constituents, urging him so to vote. 
He further stated that one Marshall had the day previously given him a five 
dollar note on the State Bank of Ohio, and told him to call on him at any 
future time, and he would give him one hundred dollars, or any amount he 
wanted. He said that Marshall had also surrendered to him two receipts 
for indebtedness — one for legal service while he (King) had resided in Lee 
county, and the other in discharge of a claim of two dollars and fifty cents, 
held against him by one William Stotts. Mr. King having concluded his 
statement, Mr. Stewart Goodrell, then a member of the House from Wash- 
ington county, moved the appointment of a committee of five to investigate 
the charges made by Mr. King. The committee was subsequently increased 
to seven, as follows: W. J. Cochran, of Lee connty; Stewart Goodrell, of 
Washington county; Alfred Hebard, of Des Moines county; Andrew 
Leech, of Davis county; Samuel Whitmore of Jefferson county; John L. 
Morton, of Henry county, and Robert Smyth, of Linn county. The com- 
mittee commenced their investigations on the same day that Mr. King made 
hie statement. Marshall was arrested, and various witnesses were com- 
11 



162 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

manded to appear before the committee to give evidence in the case, and the 
investigation which was commenced on the 9th of December, 1846j appears 
not to have ended until the 19th of January, 1847. Not until the 4&i of 
February was any report made to the House, and then it did not show that 
the committee had arrived at any conclusions. The report and testimony 
were ordered to be laid on the table, subject to the further order of the 
House. The report was never called up. On the same day that Mr. King 
made his original statement to the House of the attempted bribery, a resolu- 
tion tendering him a vote of thanks, was laid on the table. N^ear the close of 
the session (Feb. 24) this resolution was called up, and a substitute offered for 
it by Mr. Smyth, of Linn, censuring both King and Marshall. The original 
resolution and the substitute were both laid on the table, and that was the 
end of the bribery case, which excited a great deal of interest among the pol- 
iticians and people of the State at that early day in her political history. It 
should be stated that Mr. Marshall was not a member of either branch of 
the General Assembly. The develepmeuts on investigation were generally 
understood at the time to be qi^ite as damaging to the party making the 
charge as to any other person. The legislature adiourned without electing 
United States Senators at that session. The next General Assembly elected 
George "W. Jones, of Dubuque, and Augustus C. Dodge, of Burlington. A. 
Clinton Hastings, and Shepnerd Leffler, represented the State in the 29th 
Congress, 1846 to 1847, being the first Representatives in Congress from 
Iowa. 

EDUCATIO]S"AL. 

Public Schools — How Supported — State University — Its Presidents — Faculty — University 
Fund — Agricultural College — State Normal School — Other State Educational Institutions 
— Public and Private Colleges and Schools. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

We have seen that the first territorial legislature made provision for gen- 
eral education by organizing a system of common schools. The famous or- 
dinance of 1787 required that " schools and the means of education shall be 
forever encouraged," and this has been the policy of the government in the 
admission of every new State since that time, as evinced by the hberal 
grants of the public lands for educational purposes. 

The 'public schools are supported by funds arising from several different 
sources. In the first place, the sixteenth section of every congressional town- 
ship was set apart by the government for school purposes —being one thirty- 
swsth part of all the land in the State. Congress also made to the State an 
additional donation of 500,000 acres, and an appropriation of five per cent 
on aU the sales of public lands in the State. The State also gives the pro- 
ceeds of the sales of all lands which escheat to it. The money derived fiom 
these sources constitutes the permanent school fwnd, and, including the 
proceeds of the land still unsold, wiU amount to over four millions of dol- 
lars. The interest on this fund is apportioned by the State Auditor semi- 
annually to the several counties of me State, in proportion to the number 
of persons between the ages of five and twenty-one years. The counties also ■ 
levy an annual tax for school purposes, which is apportioned to the several 
district townships in the same way. A district tax is also generally levied 
for the same puqDose. The money arising from these several sources consti- 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 163 

tutes the support of the public schools, and is sufficient to enable every sub- 
district in the State to afford from six to nine months school each year. 

While Iowa is fosterii^ and building up many excellent institutions of a 
higher order, the glory of her educational work consists in her admirable 
system of common schools — ^her peoples' colleges. The superintendent of 
public instruction is the highest school officer of the State, and exercises a 

fBneral supervision over its educational interests, so far as relates to the pub- 
e schools. Each coimty has a county superintendent, who examines appli- 
cants for teachers' certificates, visits the schools, reports annually to the State 
Superintendent, and exercises a general charge over the schools of the counly. 
Each civil township constitutes what is called a district township, which is 
divided into sub-districts, and each sub-district elects a sub-director. The 
several sub-directors in the district township constitute a board of directors. 
In towns and cities there are independent districts, which elect officers to 
manage their affairs independently of the district townships. 

The common school system has recently been greatly improved by the in- 
auguration of normal institutes, under the auspices of the superintendent 
of public instruction, and also by the establishment of a permanent State 
normal school at Cedar FaUs. The total permanent school fond, November 
1, 1877, was $3,460,348.76. This is being augmented from different sources, 
and the interest only is applied toward the support of the common schools. 

STATE UNTVEESriT. 

By an act of Congress of July 20, 1840, the secretary of the treasury was 
authorized to set apart and reserve from sale not exceeding two entire town- 
ships of land in Iowa, for the use and support of a university. The consti- 
tution under which Iowa was admitted into the Union contained a provision 
requiring the General Assembly to take measures for the protection, im- 
provement, or other disposition of the land granted by Congress for the 
university, and to create from the proceeds of the same a permanent ftind 
for the use of a university. A bill was passed by the first General Assembly, 
establishing at Iowa City an institution to be called the " State University," 
with such branches as, in the opinion of the General Assembly, the public 
convenience might thereafter require. The same act also granted for the 
use of the university the public building, with ten acres of ground, at Iowa 
City, the same to be used, however, for the purposes of the State government 
nnm the removal of the capital. By acts of January 15, 1849, and January 
16, 1849, two branches of the university, located respectively at Fairfield 
and Dubuque, were established, and placed upon equal footing, " in respect 
to funds and other matters," with the university established at Iowa City by 
the act of 1847. The branch at Fairfield was organized May 6, 1849. A 
site of twenty acres of ground was purchased and a building erected, upon 
which twenty-five hundred dollars had been expended. The building was 
almost destroyed by a hurricane in 1851. No aid from the State or the 
UoiverBity fund was ever given in support of the branches. The board at 
Fairfield requested the termination of its relation to the State, and, in ac- 
cordance with this request, an act was passed January 24, 1853, severing the 
connection. The branch at Dubuque was never organized. The new con- 
stitution, which took effect September 3, 1857, provided that "the State 
CJniversity shall be established at one place, without branches at any other 
place, ana the university fund shall be applied to that institution and no 



164 HISTOET OB- IOWA. 

At a special meeting of tlie board, February 21, 1 850, it recognized the 
" College of Physicians and Surgeons of the IJpper Mississippi," au institu- 
tion at Davenport established under the laws of the State as the " College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of the State University of Iowa," but with tSe 
express stipulation that such recognition should not render the university 
liable for any pecuniary aid, nor was the board to acquire any control over 
the property or management of the medical association. Soon after this the 
medical college removed to Keokuk. This arrangement was terminated by 
the operation of the new constitution. 

In March, 1855, the University was partially opened for a term of sixteen 
weeks, and there was an attendance of from seventy-five to one hundred 
students during the term. The first regular catalogue was published for the 
year 185t5-7. At a meeting of the board, August 4, 1858, the degree of 
Bachelor of Science was conferred upon Dexter Edson Smith, being uie first 
degree conferred upon a student of the University. 

From 1860 to 1877, inclusive, the total number of ladies in the collegiate 
department was 2,994, and gentlemen 3,941 ; total number of ladies in the 
law department since its organization, 6, and gentlemen, 632; total number 
of ladies in the medical department since its organization 48, and gentlemen 
469. 

The presidents since its organization have been: 

Amos Dean, of Albany, IS. Y., elected July 16, 1855. 

Silas Totten, D. D., LL.D., elected Oct. 25, 1859. 

Professor Oliver M. Spencer, elected August 19, 1862. 

Professor Nathan R. Leonard, elected June 26, 1866, as president pro 
tern., during absence of President Spencer in Europe fifteen months by leave 
of the board. 

James Black, D.D., elected March 4, 1868. 

Eev. George Thacher, elected March 1', 1871. 

C W. Slagle, of Fairfield, elected president ^to tern., June, 1877. 

J. L. Pickard, elected in 1878. 

The faculty of the University consists of the president, nine professors in 
the collegiate department, one professor and six instructors in military sci- 
ence; chancellor, three professors and four lecturers in the law department; 
eight professor demonstrators of anatomy; professor of surgery and two 
lecturers in the medical department, and two professors in the homeopathic 
medical department. 

The law department was established in June, 1868 ; the medical depart- 
ment in 1869; the chair of miltary instruction in June, 1874, and the depart- 
ment of homeopathy in 1876. 

From 1858 to 1876, inclusive, the General Assembly has made appropria- 
tions for buildings, and for the support of the University, sums aggregating 
$264,757. The Seventeenth General Assembly, by an act approved March 
22, 1878, made an appropriation, as an endowment fund, of $20,000 annually, 
and an additional appropriation of $10,000 for repairs of buildings, fences, 
walks and other purposes. On the 30th of September, the University held 
interest bearing mortgage notes amounting to $195,423.13 ; contract notes 
amounting to $10,357.74, and a fund ImOwn as the Saline fund, amounting 
to $4,106.85. These amounts, aggregating $209,887.72, constitute a jjer- 
manent fund, the interest of which goes to the support of the University. 
There were also, September 30, 1877, remaining unsold, 2,059.70 acres of 
University lands, and 3887.10 acres of Saline lahds, makihg atotal of 5,946.80 



HISTOET OF IOWA. . 165 

acres, the proceeds of which when sold, will go to increase the permanent 
University fund. At five doUars per acre these lands will add to the perma- 
nent fdnd $29,734, which amount added to the above will give to the Uni- 
versity a permanent endowment fund of $239,621.72. 

AGEICtTLTUEAL COLLEGE. 

By an act of Congress passed in 1862, a grant of 240,000 acres of land 
was made to the State for the endowment of schools of agriculture and the 
mechanical arts. Under this act 240,000.96 acres were appropriated to the 
State; but as 35,691.66 acres were located within railroad limits, which were 
computed at the rate of two acres for one, the actual number of acres in the 
grant was 204,309.30. In addition to this grant Congress also gave its 
assent to the State to use for the same purpose the five sections of land in 
Jasper county, which had been selected for the seat of government of the 
State. There were also donated in Story and Boone counties for the use of 
the institution 921 acres, making a grand total of 208,430.30 acres. This 
last donation of 921 acres was made by citizens of Story and Boone counties. 

The Greneral Assembly passed an act which was approved March 22, 1858, 
establishing the Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm. Under this 
act a board of trustees was appointed, which at a meeting in June, 1859, 
received propositions for the location, and in July the ofifer of the present 
location in Story county, was accepted. In 1864 the General Assembly ap- 
propriated $20,000 for the erection of a College building, and in 1866 
an additional . appropriation of $91,000 was made. The building was com- 
pleted in 1868. An oflice was opened in Fort Dodge for the sale of the Col- 
lege lands, and Hon. George W. Bassett was appointed agent for their sale. 
From the establishment of this agency in August, 1865, to November 1, 
1867, the amount received on sales of lands was $68,782.81, and the amount 
of interest collected on leases for the same time was $338,931.78, making a 
total of $406,714.65, which is a permanent endowment fund. 

The courses of study in the College, as revised in 1877, are as follows: 
1 — ^The Course in Science as related to Agriculture. 2 — The Course in 
Mechanical Engineering. 3 — ^The Course in Civil Engineering. 4 — ^The 
Ladies' Course in Science. 5 — Course for Juniors and Seniors in Special 
Indnstrial Sciences. 6 — Post-graduate Courses of Study. 7 — The Prepar- 
atory Course. From 1872 to 1877, inclusive, the number of graduates of 
the College was 123. 

By the terms of the law, tuition in the Agricultural College is made for- 
ever free to pupils from the State, over sixteen years of age, who have re- 
sided in the State six months prior to their admission. Each county in the 
State has a prior right of tuition for three pupils, and additional pupils to 
the extent of the capacity of the College, are distributed by the board of 
trustees among the counties in proportion to the population. 

The following constitute the Faculty: — A. S. Welch, LL. D., President 
and Professor of Psychology and Philosophy of Science; Gen. J. L. Geddes, 
Professor of Military Tactics and Engineering; ~W. H. Wynn, A. M., Ph. 
D., Professor of English Literature; C. E. Bessey, M. S., Professor of Bot- 
any, Zoology, Entomol ogy ; A. Thompson, C E., Mechanical Engineering 
and Soperintendent of Workshops; F. E. L. Beal, B. S., Civil Engineering; 
T. E. Pope, A. M., Chemistry; M. Stalker, Agricultural and Veterinary 
Science; J. L. Budd, Horticulture; J. K. Macomber, Physics; E. W. Stan- 



166 



HISTORY OE IOWA. 



ceptress, Instructor in French and Mathematics; J. S. Lee, B. S , Assistant 
Professor of Chemistry; Mrs. M. B. "Welch, Instructor of the English Lan- 
guage, and Lecturer on Domestic Economy; J. C. Arthur, M. S., Librarian, 
and Demonstrator of Botany and Zoology. There are also instructors in 
Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The State Normal School was established by the General Assembly, at Iowa 
Falls, in 1876, and under the law the property of the Orphans' Home, at that 
place, was transferred for the use of the Normal School. The first Board of 
Directors organized June 7th, of that year. H. C. Ilemenway, was chosen 
President; J. J. Tolerton, Secretary, and E. Townsend, Treasurer. At the 
same meeting Prof. J. 0. Gilchrist, A. M., was elected Principal of the 
school. 

The following constitute the Faculty: — J. 0. Gilchrist, A. M., Professor 
of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Didactics; M. W. Bartlett, A. M., 
Professor of Languages and Natural Science; D. S. Wright, A. M., Profes- 
sor of Mathematics; Miss Frances L. "Webster, Teacher of Geography and 
History; E. W. Burnham, Professor of Music. 

During the second year 105 ladies and 50 gentlemen were in attendance, 
33 counties of Iowa being represented. By an act of the General Assem- 
bly, approved March 25, 1878, the sum of $13,500 was appropriated for the 
maintenance of the school for the next biennial period of two years, ^By 
the same act the board of directors were empowered to charge pupils a tui- 
tion fee of not exceeding six dollars per term, if necessary, in order to prop- 
erly support the school. 

COLLEGES, SEMINAEIES AND ACADEMIES. 

There are also in Iowa the following educational institutions: 
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. 



COUNTT. 



LOCATION. 



TITLE. 



Des Moines 
Fayette . . . . 
Fremont. . . 

Henry 

Henry 

Humboldt . . 
Jeifersou. . . 

Linn 

Linn 

Mahaska . . . 
Mahaska . . . 
Marion .... 

Mills 

FaGfe 

Polk...... 

Poweshiek . 

Scott 

Warren. . . . 
Winneshiek 



Burlington .... 

Fayette 

Tabor 

Mount Pleasant 

Salem 

Humboldt 

Fairfield 

Mount Vernon. . 

Western - 

Oskaloosa 

Oskaloosa 

Pella 

Malvern 

College Springs 
Des Moines.... 

Grinnell 

Davenport 

Indianola 

Decorah 



Burlington University 

Upper Iowa University 

Tabor College 

Iowa Wesleyan University. 

Whittier College 

Humboldt College 

Parson's College 

Cornell College 

Western College 

Oskaloosa College 

Penn College 

Central University of Iowa. 

Baptist College 

Amity College '. .. 

University of Des Moines . . 

Iowa College 

Giiswold College 

Simpson Centenary College. 
Luther College 



HISTOET 05" IOWA. 



\ 

ACADEMIES AND OTHER PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS. 



167 



COUNTr, 



LOCATION. 



AUamaikee .. 
AUaniakee . . 
Allamakee. . 
Appanoose.. c 
Appanoose. . . 

Benton 

Benton.. .;. 

Benton 

Benton 

Black Hawk 
Black Hawk 
Black Hawk 
Black Hawk 
Buchanan. . . 
Chickasaw . . 
Chickasaw . . 

Clarke 

Caarke 

Clayton 

Clayton 

Clayton 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Clinton..... 
Clinton..... 

Clinton 

Clinton 

Clinton 

Davis 

Davis 

Delaware. .. 
Delaware . . . 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Des Moines. 
Dubuque . . . . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . . 
Dubuque . . . , 

Dubuque 

Dnbuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . ; , 
Dubuque . ; . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dubuque . . . 
Dnbuque ... 
Dubuque.... 
Dubuque... , 
Greene. ... ;, 

Srundy 

Sutbrio , 

Hamilton . . . 
Hardin..... 



Waukon 

Lansing 

Landng 

Mouluon 

CentervUle 

Vinton 

West Irving. . . 

Blairstown 

Vinton 

Waterloo 

Waterloo 

Waterloo 

Waterloo 

Independence . . . 

Bradford 

Fredericksburg. . 

Murray 

Osceola 

Elkader 

Guttenburg 

McGregor 

Clayton Center. . 

Lyons 

Lyons 

Lyons 

Clinton 

De Witt 

OUve Township. 

Bloomfield 

Troy 

Hopldnton 

Petersburg 

Burlington 

Eossutn 

Burlington 

Burlington ..;... 

Burlington 

Burlington 

Burlington 

Burlingt-on 

Burlington 

Burlington 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dubuque 

Dyersville 

New Vienna. . . . 

Cascade 

Table Mound. . . 
Dubuque ....... 

Sherrill'B Mount. 

Bpworth 

Farley 

Jefferson........ 

Grundy Center. . 

Fanora 

Webster Ciiy... 
Ackley 



Waukon Seminary 

Sisters' School 

Mrs. Houghton's School 

Moulton Normal School 

Cent^rviUe Academy 

TUford Academy 

Irving Institute 

Blairstown Academy ^.. 

Eclectic Institute 

Conservatory of Music 

Cedar Valley Institute 

Prairie Home Seminary 

Our Lady of Victory. 

Notre Dame 

Bradford Academy 

Select School 

Graded School 

Osceola Private School .• 

Sisters' School. 

Sisters' School 

Sisters' School 

German School 

Riverside Institute 

Seminary of Our Lady of Angels 

Latin School 

Business College 

Sisters' School » 

Norwegian 

Southern Iowa Normal and Scientific Institute. 

Troy Normal and Classical Institute 

Lenox Collegiate Institute 

Petersburg Cathohc School 

Mr. Gordon's School for both sexes 

Eossuth Academy 

Graff's School 

Young Ladies' School 

German-American School 

German Evangelical Zion School 

First German Evangelical School 

St. John's Convent < 

St. Paul's School 

St. Patrick's School 

German Theological Seminary 

St. Joseph's College 

St. Joseph's Academy 

St. Mary's School 

St. Patrick's School 

Academy of Visitation 

St. Mana, (German) 

Private Primary 

Private Boarding School - 

St. Francis , 

St. Boniface 

Church School 

Church School 

Church School ' 

St. Peters' 

Epworth Seminary 

Gnurch School 

Jefferson Academy 

Grundy Center Academy 

Guthne Counly High School 

Webster City Academy 

Catholic School 



168 HISTOKT OF IOWA. 

ACADEMIES AND OTHER PRIVATE INSTIUTIONS— Co»«»«ei. 



LOCATION. 



TITLE. 



Hardin 

Hardin 

Hardin 

Henry 

Henry 

Henry. 

Henry 

Howard 

Iowa 

Iowa 

Jasper 

Jasper 

Jasper ..,. ... 

Jefferson 

Jeffei:son 

Jefferson 

Johnson 

Johnson 

Jones 

Jones 

Keokuk 

Keokuk 

Keokuk 

Kossuth 

Lee 

Linn 

Louisa 

Lucas 

Mahaska 

Mahaska 

Mahaska 

Marion 

Marshall 

Marshall 

Marshall 

Marshall 

Mills 

MitcheU 

Muscatine 

Muscatine .... 
Muscatine .... 
Pocahontas . . . . 

Polk 

Polk 

Polk 

Polk ., 

Pottawattamie . 
Pottawattamie . 
Pottawattamie . 

Scott 

Scott 

Scott 

Van Buren 

Van Buren. . . . . 

Wapello 

WapeUo 

Warren 

Washington . . . 

Webster. ., 

Webster. ...... 

Winneshiek. . . . 

Winneshiek . . . . 

Woodbury . 



Alden 

New Providence. . . 

Eldora 

Mt. Pleasant 

Mt. Pleasant 

Mt. Pleasant 

New London 

Cresco 

Marsngo. 

Lytleffity 

Lytmville 

Prairie City 

Newton 

Pleasant Plaine. . . 

Fairfield 

Fairfield 

Iowa City. 

Iowa City 

Anamosa 

Olin 

Baden 

Coal Creek 

German Township . 

Algona 

Denmark 

Cedar Rapids 

Grand View 

Chariton 

Hopewell 

Oskaloosa 

Rose Hill 

Knoxville 

Albion 

Le Grand 

Le Grand 

Stanford 

Glenwood 

Osage 

Wilton 

Muscatine 

Muscatine 

Fonda 

Des Moines 

Des Moines 

Des Moines 

MitchellviUe 

Council Bluffs 

Council Bluffs 

Council Bluffs 

DaTenport 

Davenport 

Davenport 

Birmingham 

Farmington 

Ottumwa 

(Dttomwa 

Ackworth 

Washington 

Fort Dodge 

Fort Dodge 

Decorah 

Spillville 

Sioux City. 



Private School 

New Providence Academy 

Eldora Academy 

Female Seminary, and Howe's Academy 

German College 

German Primary 

Academy. 

Private School 

Root's Winter School 

Catholic School 

Lyunville Seminary 

South Side Academy 

Hazel Dell Academy 

Pleasant Plaine Acadeiny 

Fairfield Academy, and Private School 

High School 

McClain's Academy, and St. Joseph's Institute. 

St. Agatha's Seminary 

Anamosa Academy. 

Olin High School 

Baden Select School , 

Friends' Select School .,.,, 

German Lutheran School 

Algona College ., 

Denmark Academy 

Collegiate Institute 

Eastern Iowa Normal School 

Chariton Academy 

Hopewell Academy , 

Select School 

Select School 

Knoxville Academy 

Albion Seminary 

Le Grand Christian Institute. . . • 

Le Grand Institute 

Stanford Institute 

Private School 

Cedar Valley Seminary ,. 

Wilton Seminary, and Collegiate Institute 

Sisters' School, and German School 

Business College /. 

Teachers' Normal 

St. Ambrose School. ... 

St. Mary's School, (German) 

Business College 

Mitchell Seminary ■ • 

St. Francis' Boys School 

St. Prancis' Girls' School 

German School , ■•''•' 

St. Margaret's, and Sisters' Academy ,.,:•■. 

St. Cunigtindus' : • - ■ • 

St. Anthony's, and Business College 

Birmingham Academy 

Select School • — 

Convent of St. Joseph, and Commercial College. 

Female Seminary, and Pecks' Normal 

Ackworth Seminary 

Washington Academy 

Convent of Our Lady of Lourdes • 

German School ■ • 

Decorah Institute, and Business College 

Catholic School 

German School •inu. 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 169 

STATE mSTITUTIOly'S. 

Hospitals for the Insane-College for the Blind — Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb — Or- 

flians' Homes — Asylum for Teeble-Minded Children — The Penitentiary — ^The Additional 
enitentiary — State Reform School — State Historical Society. 

HOSPITAL FOE THE INSANE, MT. PLEASANT, HENET COUNTY. 

The General Assembly,. by an act approved January 24, 1855, appropri- 
ated $4,4:25 to purchase a site for a Hospital for the Insane, and $50,000 for 
the erection of a building. Edward Johnston, of Lee county; Charles S. 
Clarke, of Henry county, and the Governor (Grimes), were appointed to se- 
lect the location and superintend the erection of a building. They made 
the location at Mt. Pleasant, Henry county, and adopted a plan with suffi- 
cient capacity to accommodate three hundred patients. Henry Winslow 
was appointed to superintend the erection of the building. The building 
was not ready for occupancy imtil March, 1861. Within the first three 
monthg about one hundred patients were admitted. Richard J. Patterson, 
M. D., of Ohio, was appinted Superintendent, and in 1865 he was succeeded 
by Dr. Mark Kanney. From the opening of the Hospital to the 1st of No- 
vember, 1877, there had been admitted 3,584 patients, of whom 1,141 had 
been discharged recovered, 505 improved, 589 unimproved, and one died. 
The total number discharged was 2,976, leaving 608 under treatment. 

HOSPITAL FOE THE INSANE, INDEPENDENCE, BUCHANAN COUNTY. 

In 1868 a bill passed the General Assembly making an appropriation of 
$125,000 for the erection of an additional Hospital for the Insane, at Inde- 
pendence, Buchanan county. A board of commissioners was appointed, 
who commenced their duties June 8, 1868. They made the location about 
•a mile from Independence, on the west side of the Wapsipinicon river, and 
about one mile from the river. The building was ready for occupancy 
April 21, 1873. On the 1st of October, 1877, the Superintendent, Albert 
Eeynolds, M. D., reported 322 patients in the hospital. 

COLLEGE FOE THE BLIND, VINTON, BENTON COUNTY. 

In August, 1852, Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself blind, established an in- 
stitution at Keokuk for the instruction of the blind. In January, 1853, the 
General Assembly passed an act by which the State adopted the institution 
at Keokuk, and on the 4th of April, of the same year, it was opened for the 
reception of pupils, at Iowa City. A board of trustees was appointed, with 
authority to receive propositions and make a permanent location. Liberal 
donations were made by citizens of Yinton, Benton county, and that place 
was selected. In October, 1862, the institution was opened at Yinton with 
twenty-four pupils. Up to 1878 about $285,000 have been expended in 
buildings and improvements connected with this institution. During the 
period of two years, ending November 6, 1877, about 135 pupils were 
in attendance. The faculty is presided over by Eev. Eobert Carothers, A. 
M., as Principal. 



170 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

INSTITUTIOir FOE THE DEAI" AOTJ DUMB, COUNCIL BLUFFS, POTTAWATTAMIE 

COUNTT. 

This institution was established first at Iowa City, by an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, approved January 24, 1855. W. E. Ijams was the first 
Principal. He resigned in 1862, and the board of trustees appointed Ben- 
jamin Talbot his successor. In 1868 commissioners were appointed to re- 
locate the institution and superintend the erection of a building, and the 
sum of $125,000 was appropriated to commence the work. It was located 
about two miles south of Council Bluffs, and connected with it is a tract ot 
about ninety acres of ground. The main building and one wing were com- 
pleted October 1, 1870, and immediately occupied. On the 25th of Feb- 
ruaiy, 1877, the main building and east wing were destroyed by fire, and 
and on the 6 th of August, of the same year, the roof of the new west wing 
was blown off and the walls partially injured by a tornado. About 150 
pupils were in attendance at the time of the fire. About half of the classes 
were dismissed, reducing the number to about seventy. The institution re- 
mains in charge of Benjamin Talbot as Superintendent. By an act of the 
General Assembly, approved March 25, 1878, the sum of $40,000 was ap- 
propriated for the purpose of rebuilding and completing in a plain and sub- 
stantial manner the main building. 

SOLDIEES' OEPHANS' HOMES, DAVENPOET, OEDAE FALLS, GLENWOOD. 

In 1866 the General Assembly passed an act establishing three Homes 
for the soldiers' orphans, as follows: located at Davenport, Cedar Falls, 
and Glenwood. This was the result of a movement inaugurated by Mrs. 
Annie Wittenmeyer, d'^ring the civil war. In October, 1863, she 
called a convention at Davenport, to devise measures for the support and 
education of the orphan children of Iowa soldiers who had fallen in the na- 
tional defense. An association was formed, and provision made for raising 
funds. A suflicient amount of funds was raised to open the Home, and 
at a meeting of the Trustees in March, 1864, they decided to commence op- 
erations at once. A large brick building in Yan Buren county was secured, 
and on the 13th of July, of the same year, the executive committee re- 
ported that they were ready to receive pupils. In little more than six 
months seventy pupils were in attendance. The Home continued to be sus- 
tained by voluntary subscriptions until 1866, when it was assumed by the 
State and the three Homes established as above stated. In 1876 the Homes 
at Cedar Falls and Glenwood were discontinued, and the pupils remaining 
in them removed to the Home at Davenport. The buildings at Cedar Falls 
were appropriated to the use of the State Normal School, and those at Glen- 
wood to the use of the Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children. September 
30, 1877, there were in attendance at the Home in Davenport 139 sol- 
diers' orphans, and forty-one indigent children, the Sixteenth General As- 
sembly having passed an act opening the Home for the admission of in- 
digent children. 

ASYLUM FOE FEEBLE-MINDED CHILDEEN, GLENWOOD, MILLS COUNTY. 

By an act approved March 17, 1876, an Asylum for Feeble-Minded 
Children was established at Glenwood, Mills county. The buildings and 
grounds for the Soldiers' Orphans' Home were by the same act transferred 



HISTOET OP IOWA. 171 

to the use of the new institution, which was placed under the management 
of three trustees, who held their first meeting at Glenwood, April 26, 1876. 
The property having been repaired, the Asylum was opened September 1, 
1876, and the school organized on the 6th with only five pupils. In Novem- 
ber, 1877, the number had increased to eighty-seven. 

THE PEinXENTIAET, FOET MADISON, LEE COUNTY. 

The Territorial Legislature by an act approved January 25, 1839, provided 
for the election by joint ballot of the Council and House of Kepresenta- 
tives of the Territory, of three directors to locate the Penitentiary within 
one mile of the public square in the town of Fort Madison, and provided 
further, limiting the cost of the Penitentiary to an amount not exceeding 
forty thousand dollars. The same act authorized the Governor to draw the 
sum of twenty thousand dollars which had been appropriated by Congress 
for the erection of public buildings in the Territory of Iowa, to pay for 
materials and work on the building. The location at Fort Madison, how- 
ever, was coupled with a proviso that the citizens of that place and Lee 
county should execute to the directors a deed for ten acres of ground. All 
the conditions were complied with, and the erection of the building was 
commenced July 9, 1839. The main building and warden's house were 
completed in the autumn of 1841. Since that time additions and other im- 
provements have been made. 

ADDITIONAL PENITENTIAEY, ANAUOSA, JONES CODNTT 

The Additional Penitentiary at Anamosa was established under an act of 
the General Assembly approved April 3, 1872. Three commissioners were 
appointed to make the location and m-ovide for the erection of the necessary 
buildings. They met at Anamosa, June 4, 1872, and made selection of a 
site donated by the citizens. Work was commenced on the building Sep- 
tember 28th of the same year, and May 13, 1873, twenty convicts were 
transferred from the Penitentiary at Fort Madison to Anamosa. The entire 
enclosure embraces fifteen acres. 

THE STATE EEFOEM SCHOOL, ELDOEA, HARDIN COUNTY. 

On the 31st of March, 1868, an act of the General Assembly was approved 
establishing a State Peform School near the town of Salem, Henry county. 
A board of trustees, consisting of one from each Congressional district, was 
appointed. A proposition was accepted for the lease of White's Iowa Man- 
ual Labor Institute at Salem, the buildings fitted up, and on the 7th of Octo- 
ber, 1868, the first inmate was received from Jasper county. In 1872, an act 
was passed and approved providing for the permanent location, and $45,000 
appropriated for erecting the necessary buildings. The permanent location 
was made at Eldora, B5,rdin county. Inmates are admitted at ages over 
seven and under sixteen years. The object of this school is the reformation 
of juvenile offenders. 

STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. 

This society was organized in 1856, under an act of the Sixth General As- 
sembly, "for the purpose of collecting, arranging and preserving books, 
pamphlets, maps, charts, manuscripts, papers, paintings, statuary, and other 



172 HISTOET OP IOWA. 

materials illustrative of the history of this State; and also to preserve the 
memory of the early pioneers of Iowa, their deeds, exploits, perils, and adven- 
tures; to secure facts relative to our Indian Tribes; to exhibit faithfully the 
, antiquities, and to mark the progress of our rapidly increasing common- 
wealth; to puijlish such of the collections of the society as it shall from time 
to time deem of value and interest; to bind such publications and other 
books, pamphlets, manuscripts and papers as they may publish or collect; 
and to aid in all respects as may be within its province, to develop the his- 
tory of this State in all its departments." At that time the sum of $3,000 
per annum for two years was appropriated. The society is under the man- 
agement of a board of Curators, consisting of one member appointed by the 
governor from each congressional district, and of nine additional members 
elected by the society. The officers consist of a president, secretary, treasurer 
and librarian. 

EAILROADS. 

In May, 1854, the first rail was laid in Iowa, at or near high water mark 
on the bank of the Mississippi, in the city of Davenport. That year the road 
was completed to Iowa City, a distance of about 64^ miles. The first loco- 
motive in Iowa was landed at Davenport in July of the same year, and was 
called the "Antoine LeClaire." The road was then called the Mississippi 
& Missouri Eailroad. The first rail was laid at Keokuk, on what was then 
called the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines & Minnesota Eailroad, on the 9th day 
of September, 1856, and in October of the same year two locomotives for the 
road were landed at Keokuk from a barge which arrived from Quincy. 
They were called the "Keoltuk" and the "Des Moines." 

In the meantime several lines of railroad had been projected to cross the 
State from points on the Mississippi. On the 15th of May, 1756, an act of 
Congress was approved making a grant of land to the State to aid in the 
construction of railroads from JBurlington to the Missouri river, near the 
mouth of Platte river; from Davenport, via Iowa City and Fort Des Moines 
to Council Bluffs; from Lyons northeasterly to a point of intersection with 
the main line of the Iowa Central Air Line Railroad, near Maquoketa 
thence on said main line, running as near as practicable on the forty-second 
parallel across the State to the Missouri river, and from Dubuque to a point on 
the Missouri river at or near Sioux City. The grant embraced 'the sections 
designated by odd numbers six miles in width on each side of the four roads 
named. Where lands had been sold the State was authorized to select other 
lands equal in quantity from alternate sections or parts of sections within 
fifteen miles of the lines located. The law provided certain conditions to be 
observed by the State in disposing jof the lands to the railroads for which 
they were granted. In consequence of this grant the governor called a spe- 
cial session of the General Assembly which convened at Iowa City in July of 
that year, and on the 14th of the same month an act was approved accepting , 
the grant, and regranting the lands to the railroads named, on certain speci- 
fied conditions. The roads, with the exception of the Iowa Central Air Line, 
accepted the several grants, and located their lines before April 1, 1857, that 
being a stipulation in the act of July 14th. The lands granted to the Iowa 
Central Air Line road were again granted to the Cedar Eapids & Missouri 
Eiver Eailroad Company. The act of Congress making, this grant named 
no companies, but designated certain lines, in aid of which they should be 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 173 

applied, leaving the State free to dispose of the lands to such companies as 
would comply with the conditions. The state granted the lands to the fol- 
lowing companies: Burlington & Missouri River Railroad Company; Mis- 
sissippi & Missonxi River Railroad Company; Cedar Rapids & Missouri 
River Railroad Company, and Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad Company. 
These became the first land grant roads in Iowa. Several subsequent acts 
of Congress modified the conditions of the first act, especially with reference 
to changes in the lines of the several roads. On the 12th of May, 1864, 
Congress made another grant of land to the State to aid in the construction 
of a railroad from Mc(3regor to Sioux City. This grant embraced every 
alternate section ten miles on each side of the proposed road, with the riglit 
to receive other lands for such as might be sold or pre-empted. 

By an act approved August 8, 1846, Congress granted to Iowa the alter- 
nate sections on each side of the Des Moines river for the purpose of improv- 
ing the, navigation of that river from the mouth to the Raccoon Fork. In 
1847 the State organized a board of public works. The board, constructed, 
or partially constructed, dams and locks at some four or five points on the 
river, when with the approval of Congress, the lands were transferred to a 
company styled the Des Moines Navigation and Railroad Company. At 
this time (1854) the board of public works had disposed of most of the lands 
below the Raccoon Fork, and 58,000 acres above it, and had incurred an 
indebtedness of $70,000 over and above the proceeds of the sales made. 
This indebtedness was assumed by the company. In the meantime there 
were difierent and conflicting rulings as to whether the lands above the 
Raccoon Fork were intended to be included in the grant. This led to a 
compromise with the Des Moines Navigation and Railroad Company. The 
company took all the land certified to tlie State prior to 1857, and paid the 
State $20,000 in addition to what they had expended, and abandoned the 
work Congress, in 1862, settled the question as to the extent of the grant 
by a definite enactment extending the grant to the north line of the State, . 
and the General Assembly granted the remainder of the lands to the Des 
Moines Valley Railroad Company to aid in building a railroad up and along 
the Des Moines valley, and thus this road also became a land grant road. 

Under the several acts of Congress there have been granted to the State 
to aid in building railroads, an aggregate of 4,394,400.63 acres of land, 
including the grant of August 8, 1846, for the Des Moines river improve- 
ment, as follows: 

Bnrhngton and Missouri River Railroad 292,806.41 

Mississippi and Missouri River (now C. R. I. & P.) 482,374.36 

Iowa Central Air Line (now Cedar Rapids & Missouri) 735,997.80 

Dubuque & Sioux City & Branch 1,232,359.15 

McGregor & Sioux City (now McGregor & Missouri River). . 137,572.27 

Sioux City & St. Paul 407,910.21 

Des Moines Yalley 1,105,380.43 

Total number of acres 4,394,400.63 

On the 1st of January, 1877, there were in Iowa 3,938 miles of railroad. 
Since that time the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, as it is now called, has 
been extended from Algona to Sheldon, and several bther lines have been 
constructed or extended, making over 4,000 miles of railroad in the State, 
with an aggregate assessed valuation of over $23,000,000. Several very 



174 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

important roads in the State have been constructed without the aid of land 
grants^ while others are projected and will be completed in due time. 

OFFICIAL EECOKD. 

TEERITOEIAL OFFICEES. 

Governors — Eobert Lucas, 1838-4:1; John Chambers, 1841-45; James 
Clarke, 1845. 

Seoretwries — ^William B. Conway, 1838, died 1839; James Clarke, 1839; 
O. H. W. StuU, 1841; Samuel J. Burr, 1843; Jesse WiUiams, 1845. 

Auditors— 3 QS&Q "Williams, 1840; Wm. L. Gilbert, 1843; Eobert M. 
Secrest, 1845. 

Treasv/rers—ThomiOTi. Bayliss, 1839; Morgan Eeno, 1840. 

Judges — Charles Mason, Chief Justice, 1838; Joseph Williams, 1838; 
Thomas S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council — Jesse B. Browne, 1838-9; Stephen Hempstead, 
1839-40; M. Bainridge, 1840-1; Jonathan W. Parker, 1841-2; John D. 
Elbert, 1842-3; Thomas Cox, 1843-4; S. Clinton Hastings, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1845-6. 

Speakers of the ^owse— William H. Wallace, 1838-9; Edward John- 
ston, 1839-40; Thomas Cox, 1840-1; Warner Lewis, 1841-2; James M.' 
Morgan, 1842-3; James P. Carleton, 1843-4; James M. Morgan, 1845; 
George W. McCleary, 1845-6. 

Fvrst Constitutional Con/vention, ISJ^Jf. — Shepherd Leffler, President; 
Geo. S. Hampton, Secretary. 

Second ConstUutional Convention, 181fi — Enos Lowe, President; Vil- 
liam Thompson, Secretary. 

OFFICEES OF THE STATE GOVBENMENT. 

Governors — Ansel Briggs, 1846 to 1850; Stephen Hempstead^ 1850 to 
1854; James W. Grimes, 1854 to 1858; Ealph P. Lowe, 1858 to 1860; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1860 to 1864; William M. Stone, 1864 to 1868;. 
Samuel Merrill, 1868 to 1872; Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1872 to 1876; Samuel 
J. Kirkwood, 1876 to 1877; Joshua G. Ifewbold, Acting, 1877 to 187«; 
John H. Gear, 1878 to . , 

Ideutenant Governors — Office created by the new Constitution Septembei 

3, 1857— Oran Faville, 1858-9; Nicholas J. Eusch, 1860-1; John E. 
IvTeedham, 1862-3; Enoch W.Eastman, 1864-5; Benjamin F. Gue, 1866- 
67; John Scott, 1868-9; M. M. Walden, 1870-1; fi. 0. Bulis, 1872-3; 
Joseph Dysart, 1874-5; Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-7; Frank T. Campbell, 
1878 to . 

Secretames of State — ^Elisha Cutler, Jr., Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 4, 1848; 
Josiah H. Bonney, Dec. 4, 1848, to Dec. 2, 1850; George W. McCleary,; 
Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 1, 1856; Elijah Sells, Dec. 1, 1856, to Jan. 6, 1863; 
James Wright, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7,. 1867; Ed. Wright, Jan, 7, 1867, to 
Jan. 6, 1873; Josiah T. Young, Jan. 6, 1873, to 1879; J. A. T. Hull, 1879 
to . 

Auditors of ^#a!{e— Joseph T. Fales, Dec. 5, 1846, to Deo. 2, 1850; 
William Pattee, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1854; Andrew J. Stevens, Dee. 

4, 1854, resigned in 1855; John Pattee, Sept. 22, 1855, to Jan. 3, 1859; 



HISXOBT OF IOWA. 175 

Jonafliaii "W. Cattell, 1859 to 1865; John A. Elliott, 1865. to 1871; John 
Russell, 1871 to 1875; Bnren K. Sherman, 1875 to . 

Treaswers of State — Morgan Eeno, Dee. 18, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850; 
Israel Ester, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1852; Martin L. Morris, Dec. 4, 
1852, to Jan. 2, 1859; John W. Jones, 1859 to 1863; William H. Holmes, 
1863 to 1867; Samuel E. Eankin, 1867 to 1873; William Christy, 1873 to 

1877; George W. Bemis, 1877 to . 

I Sv^ermtendenta of Public Instruction — Office created in 1847 — 
James Harlan, June 5, 1847 (Supreme Court decided election void); 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., May 23, 1847, to June 7, 1854; James D. Eads, 
1854-7; Joseph C. Stone, March to June, 1857; Maturin L. Fisher, 1857 
to Dec, 1858, when the office was abolished and the duties of the office de- 
volved upon the Secretary of the Board of Education. 

Secreiaries' of Board of JSducation — Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 1859- 
1863 ; Oran Faville, Jan. 1, 1 864. Board abolished March 23, 1864. 

Swperwievdents of PubUe Instruction — Office re-created March 23, 
1864— Oran Faville, March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867; D, Franklin 
Wells, March 4, 1867, to Jan., 1870; A. S. Kissell, 1870 to 1872; Alonzo 
Abemethy, 1872 to 1877; Carl W. von Coelhi, 1877 to . 

Registers of the State Land Office — ^Anson Hart, May 5, 1855, to May 
13, 1857; Theodore S. Parvin, May 13, 1857, to Jan. 3, 1859; Amos B. 
Miller, Jan. 3, 1859, to October, 1862; Edwin Mitchell, Oct. 31, 1862, to 
Jan. 5, 1863; Josiah A. Harvey, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867; Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, Jan. 7, 1867, to January, 1871; Aaron Brown, January, 1871, 
to January, 1875; David Secor, January, 1875 to 1879; J. Z. Powers, 1879 
to — -. 

State Binders — Office created Februaiy 21, 1855 — William M. Coles, 
May 1, 1855, to May 1, 1859; Frank M. Mills, 1859 to 1867; James S. 
Carter, 1867 to 1870; J. J. Smart, 1870 to 1874; H. A. Perkins, 1874 to 
1875; James J. Smart, 1875 to 1876; H. A. Perkins, 1876 to 1879; Matt. 
C. Parrott, 1879 to , 

State Printers: — Office created Jan. 3, 1840 — Garrett D. Palmer and 
George Paul, 1849; William H. Merritt, 1851 to 1853; William A. Horn- 
ish, 1853 (resigned May 16, 1853); Mahoney & Dorr, 1853 to 1855; Peter 
Moriarty, 1855 to 1857; John Teesdale, 1857 to 1861; Francis W. Palmer, 
1861 to 1869; Frank M. Mills, 1869 to 1870; G. W, Edwards, 1870 to 
1872; K. P. Clarkson, 1872 to 1879; Frank M. Mills, 1879 to . 

4djutant8 General — Daniel S. Lee, 1851-5; Geo. W. McCleary, 1855- 
7; Eujah Sells, 1857; Jesse Bowen, 1857-61; Nathaniel B. Baker, 1861 to 

1877; John H. Looby, 1877 to 1878; Noble Warwick, resigned; 

G. L Alexander, 1878 to . 

Attorneys General— Da,vid C. Cloud, 1853-56; Samuel A. Bice, 1856- 
60; Charles C. -Nourse, 1861-4; Isaafi L. Allen, 1865 (resigned January, 
1866); Frederick E. BisseU, 1866 (died June 12, 1867); Henry O'Connor, 
; 1867-72; Marsena E. Cutts, 1872-6; John F. McJunkin, 1877 to . 

Presidents of the Senate — Thomas Baker, 1846-7; Thomas Hughes, 
1848; John J. Selman, 1848-9; Enos Lowe, 1850-1: William E. Leffing- 
weU, 1852-3; Maturin L. Fisher, 1854-5; William W. Hamilton, 1856-7. 
Under the new Constitution, the Lieutenant Governor is President of the 
Senate. 

Speakers of the House — Jesse B. Browne, 1847-8; Smilgr H. Bonhan, 
1849-50; George Temple, 1851-2: James Grant, 1853-4; Reuben Noble, 



176 HISTOET or IOWA. 

1855-6; Samuel McFarland, 1856-7; Stephen B. Sheledy, 1858-9; John 
Edwards, 1860-1 ; Knsli Clark, 1862-3; Jacob Butler, 1864-5; Ed. Wright, 
1866-7; John Eussell, 1868-9; Aylett K. Cotton, 1870-1; James Wilson, 
1872-3; John H. Gear, 1874-7; John T. Stone, 1878. 

New Constitutional Convention^ 1857 — Francis Springer, President; 
Thos. J. Saunders, Secretary. 

STATE OFFICEES, 1878, 

John H. Gear, Governor ; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant Governor; Josiah 
T. Young, Secretary ot State; Buren 1^. Sheaman, Auditor of State; Geo. 
W. Bemis Treasurer of State; David Secor, Register of State Land Office; 
John H. Looby, Adjutant-General; John F. MSlunken, Attorney-General; i 
Mrs. Ada North, State Librarian ; Edward J. Holmes, Clerk Supreme Court; 
John S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme Court; Carl W. von CeoUn, Superin- 
tendent Public Instruction; Richard P. Clarkson, State Printer; Henry A. 
Perkins, State Binder; Prof. Nathan R. Leonard, Superintendent of Weights 
and Measures; William H. Fleming, Governor's Private Secretary; Fletcher 
W. Young, Deputy Secretary of State; John C. Parish, Deputy Auditor of 
State; Erastus G. Morgan, Deputy Treasurer of State; John M.Davis, 
Deputy Register Land Office; Ira C. Kling, Deputy Superintendent Puh- 
lic Instruction. 

STATE orncEKS, 1879. 

John H. Gear, Governor; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor; 
J. A. T. Hull, Secretary of State; Buren R. Sherman, Auditor of State; 
George W. Bemis, Treasurer of State; J. K. Powers, Register of State Land 
Office; G. L. Alexander, Adjutant-General; John F. McJunken, Attor- 
ney-General; Mrs. Sadie B. Maxwell, State Librarian; Edward J.Holmes, 
Clerk Supreme Court; John S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme Court; Cai-1 
W. von Ooelln, Superintendent Public Instruction ; Frank M. Mills, State 
Printer; Matt C. Parrott, State Binder. 

THE JUDICIARY. 

SUPEEME OOUET OF IOWA. 

Chief Justices. — Charles Mason, resigned in June, 1847; Joseph Wil- 
liams, Jan., 1847, to Jan., 1848; S. Clinton Hastings, Jan., 1848, to Jan., 
1849; Joseph Williams, Jan., 1849, to Jan. 11, 1855; George G. Wright, 
Jan. 11, 1855, to Jan., 1860; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan., 1860, to Jan. 1, 1862; 
Caleb Baldwin, Jan., 1862, to Jan., 1864; George G. Wright, Jan., 1864, to 
Jan., 1866; Ralph P.Lowe, Jan., 1866, to Jan., 1868; John F. Dillon, 
Jan., 1868, to Jan., 1870; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 1, 1870, to Jan. 1, 1871; 
James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871. to Jan. 1, 1872; Joseph M. Beck> Jan.l, 1872, 
to Jan. 1, 1874; Wm. E. MiUer, Jan. 1, 1874, to Jan. 1, 1876; Chester C. 
Cole, Jan. 1, 1876, to Jan. 1, 1877; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1877, to Jan. 1, 
1878; James H. Rothrock, Jan. 1, 1878. 

Associate Judges. — Joseph Williams; Thomas S. Wilson, resigned Oct.,- 
1847; John F. Kinney, Jime 12, 1847, resigned Feb. 15, 1864; George 
Greene, Nov. 1, 1847, to Jan 9, 1855; Jonathan 0. Hall, Feb. 15, 1854, to 
succeed Kinney, resigned, to Jan., 1855; William G. Woodward, Jan. 9, 
1855; Norman W. Isbell, Jan. 16, 1855, resigned 1856; LacenD. Stockton, 



HISTOET OF IOWA. 177 

June 3, 1856, to succeed Isbell, resigned, died June 9, 1860; Caleb Bald- 
win, Jan. 11, I860, to 1864; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan. 12, 1860; Geo. G. Wright, 
June 26, 1860, to succeed Stockton, deceased; elected U. S. Senator, 1870; 
John F. Dillon, Jan. 1, 1864, to succeed Baldwin, resigned, 1870; Chester 
C. Cole, March 1,1864, to 1867; Joseph M.Beck, Jan. 1, 1868; W.E. Mil- 
ler, October 11, 1864, to succeed Dillon, resigned; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 
1871, to succeed "Wright. 

SUPEEME COUET, 1879. 

Joseph M. Beck, Lee county. Chief Justice; Austin Adams, Dubuque 
county, Associate Justice; William H. Seevers, Mahaska county, Associate 
Justice; James G. Day, Fremont county. Associate Justice; Jas. H. Eoth- 
rock, Cedar county. Associate Justice. 



CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATION. 

UTNITED iSTATES 8ENATOES. 

(The first General Assembly failed to elect Senators.) 

George W. Jones, Dubuque, Dec. 1848-1858; Augustus C. Dodge, Bur- 
lington, Dec. 7, 1848-1855; James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, Jan. 6, 1855-1865; 
James W. Grimes, Burlington, Jan. 26, 1858 — died 1870 ; Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, Iowa City, elected Jan 13, 1866, to fill vacancy occasioned by resig- 
nation of James Harlan; James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, March 4, 1866-1872; 
James B. Howell, Keokuk, elected Jan. 20, 1870, to fill vacancy caused by 
the death of J. W. Grimes — term expired March 3d; George G. Wright, 
Des Moines, March 4, 1871-1877; William B. Allison, Dubuque, March 4, 
1872; Samuel J. Kirkwood, March 4, 1877. 

MEMBEES OF HOUSE OE EEPEESENTATIVES. 

Twenty^mmth Congress — 1846 to 18^7 — S. Clinton Hastings ; Shepherd 
Leffler. 

Thirtieth Congress — 18j^7 to 18^ — First District, WiUiam Thompson ; 
Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

, . . Thvrby-jvrst Congress — 181fi to 1851 — ^Firgt District, First Session, Wm. 
"Thompson; unseated by the House of Representatives on a contest, and 
election remanded to the people. First District, Second Session, Daniel F. 
Miller; Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

Thwty-second Congress — 1851 to 1853 — ^First District, Bemhart Henn ; 
Second District, Lincoln Clark. 

Thwty-thm'd Congress — 1853 to 1855 — ^First District, Bemhart Henn; 
Second District, John P. Cook. 

Thvrty-fov/rth Congress — 1855 to 1857 — First District, Augustus Hall; 
Second District, James Thorington. 

. Ihiaty-fifth Congress— 1857 to 1859— First District, Samuel R. Curtis; 
Second District, Timothy Davis. 

IMrty-sixth Congress — 1859 to 1861 — ^First District, Samuel R. Curtis; 
Second District. William Vandever. 

12 



178 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

Thvrty-s&oenth Congress — 1861 to 1863 — First District, First Session, 
Samuel E. Curtis.* First District, Second and Third Sessions, Jas. F. Wil- 
son; Second District, Wm. Vandever. 

Thwty-dghth Congress— 1863 to 1865— First District, James F. Wilson; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. AUison; Fourt{i 
District Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District, John A. Kasson; Sixth Dist,, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thwty-rmhth Congress — 1865 to 1867 — First District, James F. Wilson; 
Second District Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District John A. Kasson; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Congress— 1867 to 1869— Yirst District, James F. Wilson; Sec- 
ond District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District, William Lou^hridge; Fifth District, Grenville M. Dodge; Sixth 
District, Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Forty^rst Congress— 1869 to 1871— First District, Geo. W. McCrary; 
Second District William Smyth; Third District, William B.Allison; Fourth 
District, William Loughridge; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth 
District, Charles Pomeroy. 

Forty-seoond Congress — 1871 to 1873 — First District, George W. Mc- 
Crary; Second District, Aylett R. Cotton; Third District W. G. Donnan ; 
Fourth District, Madison M. Walden; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; 
Sixth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-thwd Congress— 1873 to 1875— First District, Geo. W. McCrary; 
Second District, Aylett E. Cotton; Third District, "William G. Donnan; 
Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson; Sixth Dis- 
trict, William Loughridge; Seventh District, John A Kasson; Eighth Dis- 
trict, James W. McDill; Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Fort/y-fowrth Congress — 1875 to 1877— -First District George W. Mc- 
Crary; Second District, John Q. Tufts; Third District, L. L. Ainswortb; 
Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth Disti-ict, James Wilson; Sixth Dis- 
trict, Ezekiel S. Sampson; Seventh District, John A. Kasson; Eighth Dis- 
trict, James W. McDill; Ninth District, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-ffth Congress— 1877 to 1879— First District, J. C. Stone; Second 
District, Hiram Price; Third District, T. W. Burdick; Fourth District, H. 
C. Deering; Fifth District, Eush Clark; Sixth District, E. S. Sampson; 
Seventh District, H. J. B. Cummings; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; Ninth 
District, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-sixth Congress — 1879 to 1881 — First District, Moses A. McOoid; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, Thomas TJpdegraff; Fourth 
District, H. C. Deering; Fifth District, Eush Clark; Sixth District, J. B. 
Weaver; Seventh District, E. H. Gillette; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; 
Ninth District, Cyrus C. Carpenter. 

STATE AGEICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

On the 14th of April, 1853, the following editorial appeared in the Fair- 
afield Ledger: 

" State Fair. — Iowa is an Agricultural State, but as yet her agricultural 
resources are but in the infancy ot their development. In some counties, 

* Vacated seat by acceptance of commission of Brigadier General, and J. P. Wilson 
chosen his successor. 



H18T0BY OF IOWA. 179 

however, some attention has been paid to the organization of societies for the 
promotion of the interests of agriculture. These several societies have had 
their annual fairs, and in this way much good has been done, but the growing 
importance of our agricultural and industrial interest now demands a more 

General and extensive arrangement. Let us then have a State Agricultural 
'air sometime in next October or November. Let some central point be 
fixed upon for an exhibition which wiU be an honor to our young State. It 
would not be expected that the first exhibition of the kind would vie with 
those of older States, where societies have long been established. But in a 
few years a well organized State Society with its annual fairs, would accom- 
plish the same good results that have attended them in other States. The 
mechanical arts, as well as the raising of stock or grain, might be brought 
to a high state of perfection. "We suggest that this matter be taken into 
consideration in time, and let there be a union of all the county societies 
that are organized, with such as may be organized, for the purpose of hold- 
ing a general Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition next ra,U." 

The suggestions of the foregoing article were heartily seconded by several 
papers of the State, and especially by the Iowa Fa/nner and Horticultwrist, 
at Burlington. 

No de&iite action was taken until the llth day of October, 1853, when 
at the close of the Second Annual Exhibiton of the Jefferson County Agri- 
cultural Society, that Society met for the election of a board of officers. 
At this meeting C. W. Slagle offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the officers of the Society be instructed to take immediate 
steps to effect the organiztion of a State Agricultural Society and use their 
influence to have said Society hold its first exhibition at Fairfield, in Octo- 
ber, 1854. 

This resolution was adopted, and on the 21st of November, a notice signed 
by P. L. Huyett, 0. Baldwin, and J. M. Shaffer, was issued to the different 
county societies, inviting them to send delegates to a meeting to be held at 
Fairfield, Daeember 23, 1853, to take part in the organization of a State 
Society. Pursuant to this call, the meeting was held, and delegates were 
present from the counties of Henry, Jefferson, Lee, Van Buren and "Wap- 
ello. Communications from officers of societies, and one from Hon. James 
W. Grimes, were read, heartily approving of the movement. D. P. Ins- 
keep, of Wapello county, was chairman of the meeting, and David Sheward, 
of Jefferson county, secretary. A committee was appointed which reported 
a constitution for the society. The society was duly organized with the fol- 
following officers: Thomas "W. Olaggett, Lee county. President; D. P. Ins- 
keep, "Wapello county, Vice President; J. M. Shaffer, Jefferson county, 
Secretary; C. "W. Slagle, Jefferson county. Corresponding Secretary, and W. 
B. Chamberlin, Des Moines county. Treasurer. 

In addition to the above officers, the foUowing were appointed a Board of 
Managers: 

Lee Cotmi/y. — Arthui- Bridgeman, Reuben Brackett, and Josiah Hinkle. 

Van Bv^en Cownty. — ^Timothy Day, Dr. Elbert, and "William Campbell. 

Henry Oovnty. — ^Thomas Siviter, Amos Lapham, and J. "W. Frazier. 

JW&rson County. — P. L. Huyett, John Andrews, and B. B. Tuttle. 

Wapello Cownl/y. — K. H. "Warden, Gen. Kamsay, and Uriah Biggs. 
_ Mahaika Comity. — ^Wm. McKinley, Sr., John White, and M. T. "Wil- 
liams. 

VolTi Cownty. — Dr. Brooks, Thomas Mitchell, and "William McKay. 



180 HISTOET OF IOWA. 

Des Movnes Cotmty. — J. F. Tallant, A. K. Avery, and G. Neely. 
LovAsa Gownty. — George Kee, Francis Springer, and Joshua Marshall, 
MusGatwhe Coimty. — J. H. Wallace, James Weed, and John A. Parvin. 
Dubuque Gownty. — W. Y. Lovel, Orlando McCraney, and L. H. Lang- 
worthy. 

Johnson Coumty. — E. H. Sylvester, LeGrand Byington, and 0. Saunders. 
SooU Gou/nty.—S. A. Burchard, James Thorington, and Laurel Summers. 

A resolution was adopted providing that the first State Fair be held at 
Fairfield, commencing "Wednesday, October 25, 1854. A resolution was 
also adopted for the appointment of a committee of five to memorialize the 
General Assembly for pecuniary aid, and the following were appointed: 
George W. McCleary, of Johnson county ; George S. Hampton, of Johnson 
county; David Eorer, of Des Moines county; Kalph P. Lowe, of Lee 
tounty, and George Gillaspy, of Wapello county. 

At this meeting the following fourteen persons aflSxed their signatures to 
the Constitution, agreeing to become members: Charles I^egus, J. M. 
Shaffer, D. P. Inskeep, Amos Lapham, J. W. Frazier, Josiah Hinkle, J. T. 
Gibson, Stephen Frazier, Evan Marshall, Thomas Siviter, John Andrews, 
B. B. Tuttle, Eli Williams, and P. L. Huyett. 

This meeting was held in the court house at Fairfield, and was not very 
■largely attended, for at that time there was not a mile of railroad in the 
State. 

THE FIRST STATE FATE. 

In accordance with the arrangement made at the organization of the So- 
ciety, the first annual fair was held at Fairfield, commencing October 25th, 
1854, and continued three days. The number of people in attendance was 
estimated at the time at from 7,000 to 8,000. The exhibition was consid- 
ered a grand success. All portions of the State at that time settled, were 
represented by visitors. The fair was held on the grounds which have foi' 
many years been occupied as the depot grounds of the Burlington & Mis- 
souri River Railroad. There was a fine display of stock, agricultural imple- 
ments, farm products, and articles of domestic manufacture. In the ladies' 
department there was an attractive exhibit of their handi-work. The nat- 
ural history of the State was illustrated by Dr. J. M. Shaffer's collection of 
reptiles and insects, and by a fine collection of birds shown by Mr. Moore, 
of Des Moines. The dairy was well represented, and a cheese weighing 
three hundred and sixty pounds was presented to Gov. Grimes by his Lee 
county friends. 

The most exciting incident of the fair was the equestrian exhibition by 
ten ladies. This took place on the afternoon of the second and the forenoon 
of the third day. The first prize was a gold watch, valued at one hundred 
dollars. It was awarded by the committee to Miss Turner, of Keokuk. 
One of the fair contestants was Miss Eliza J. Hodges, then only thirteen 
years of age. She rode a splendid and high-spirited horse, the property of 
Dr. J. C. Ware, of Fairfield. The daring style of her riding, and the per- 
fect control of the animal which she maintained, enlisted the favor smd 
sympathy of the throng present in her behalf. The popular verdict would 
■have awarded the prize to Miss Hodges. A purse of f 165, and some other 
presents, were immediately contributed for the " Iowa City girl," as the 
heroine of the day was called. Provision was also made for her attendance, 



HISTOKT OF IOWA, 181 

free of all charge, for tliree terms, at the Ladies' Seminary at Fairfield, and 
one term at Mt. Pleasant, all of which she gracefully accepted. 

George 0. Dixon, of Keokuk, delivered the first annual address. Thomas 
"W". Claggett was re-elected President, and Dr. J. M. Shaifer, Secretary. The 
second annual fair was appointed also to be held at Fairfield, commencing 
on the second Wednesday in October, 1855, and continuing three days. 

Such is a brief account of the humble beginning, and first exhibition 
of the Iowa State Agricultural Society, which has since grown to be one of 
the important institutions of the State, attracting to its annual exhibits 
many thousands of people, not only from all parts of Iowa, but from other 



THE FISH COMMISSION. 

The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874, passed " An act to provide for 
the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction of 
Fishways tor the protection and propagation of Fish," also " An act to pro- 
vide for famishing the rivers and lakes with fish and fish spawn." This 
act appropriated $3,000 for the purpose. In accordance with ihe provisions 
of the first act above mentioned, on the 9th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans of 
Ottumwa, Wapello county; B. F. Shaw of Jones county, and Charles 
A. Haines, of Black Hawk county were appointed to be Fish Commission- 
ers by the Governor. These Commissioners met at Des Moines, May 10, 
1874, and organized by the election of Mr. Evans, President; Mr. Shaw, 
Secretary and Superintendent, and Mr. Haines, Treasurer. During the 
fii-st year the Commissioners erected a "hatching house" near Anamosa, 
and distributed within the State 100,000 shad, 300,000 California salmon, 
10.000 bass, 80,000 Penobscot salmon, 5,000 land-locked salmon, and 20,- 
000 of other kinds. 

The next General Assembly amended the law, reducing the commission 
to one member, and B. F. Shaw was appointed. Daring the second year 
there were distributed 583,000 California salmon, and 100,000 young eels; 
in 1877, there were distributed 303,500 lake trout in the rivers and lakes 
of the State, and several hundred thousands of other species. During the 
years 1876 and 1877, the total number of diiferent kinds distributed, and 
on hand, was over five and a half million. The Seventeenth General As- 
sembly, by an act approved March 23, 1878, appropriated $6,000 for con- 
tinuing the promotion of fish culture in the State. B. F. Shaw was con- 
tinued as Commissioner. 

STATE ENCOTTEAGEMENT OF IMMIGEATION. 

The first legislative act in Iowa designed to promote immigration, was 
passed in March, 1860. The law provided for the appointment by the Gov- 
ernor of a Commissioner of Immigration to reside and keep an office in the 
city of New York, from the first of May until the first of December of 
each year. It was made the duty of the Commissioner to give to immi- 
grants information in regard to the soil and climate of the State, branches 
of business to be pursued with advantage, the cheapest and best routes by 
which to reach the State, and to protect them from imposition.'* To carry 
ont the objects of the law, the sum of $4,500 was appropriated to be ap- 
plied as follows: for the payment of the Commissioner two years, $2,400; 



182 mSTOEY OF IOWA. 

for printing documents in English, German, and such other languages aa 
the Governor might deem advisable, $1,000, and for office and office ex- 
penses for the Commissioner, $1,100. Under tliis law, Hon. N. J. Ensch, of 
Scott county, who had previously been Lieutenant Governor, was appointed 
Immigration Commissioner, and in May, 1860, established an office in New 
York. The object of the law seems to have had special reference to foreign 
immigration. The Commissioner in his report to the Governor, in Decem- 
ber, 1861, gave it as his opinion, that the establishment of an agency in 
New Tork was not the most successful method of inducing immigration to 
a particular State! He thought far more could be accomplished at less ex- 
pense by the distribution ot documents. In February, 1862, the law was 
repealed, and the office of Commissioner of Immigration was discontinued 
May 1st of that year. 

The next eifort put forth by the State to promote immigration was under 
an act passed by the Thirteenth General Assembly, in 1870. Hon. M. J. 
Eohlfs, of Scott coimty, had at the previous session introduced a bill in the 
House of Representatives for the purpose, but the measure did not then 
succeed. At the next session he renewed his eiforts with success. The law 
provided for the appointment by the Governor of a Board of Immigration, 
to consist of one member from each Congressional district, and the Gov- 
ernor, who was ex-offido President of the Board. It also provided for a 
Secretary, to be ex-qfficio Commissioner of Immigration, and td be chosen 
by the Board. Provision was also made for the appointment of agents in 
the Eastern States and in Europe, and for the publication and distribution 
of documents. To carry out its objects an appropriation of $5,000 was 
made. This was designed to pay expense of d!ocuments, salary of Secre- 
tary, and compensation of agents, the members of the Board receiving no 
compensation, except mileage for two meetings each year, to be paid out of 
the general fund, tinder this law the following persons were appointed by 
Governor Merrill : Edward Mumm, of Lee county ; M. J. Eohlfs, of Scott 
county; C. L. Clausen, of Mitchell county; C. Ehynsburger, of Marion 
county; S. F. Spoiford, of Polk county, and Marcus Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo 
county. At their first meeting, held in April, 1870, they elected A. E. 
Fulton their Secretary, and authorized him to prepare a pamphlet for dis- 
tribution, in the English, German, Holland, Swedish and Norwegian lan- 
guages. Many thousands of copies of a pamphlet entitled "Iowa: The 
Home for Immigrants," were printed in the several languages named, and 
distributed throughout the East and in European countries. Many other 
pamphlets and documents were also distributed, and several agents com- 
missioned. So successful were the effiarts of the Board that the next Gen- 
eral Assembly appropriated $10,000 for continuing the work. The amend- 
atory law, however, reduced the Board to five members, including the Gov- 
ernor. The Board, as reduced, was composed of the following members: 
M. J. Eohlfs, of Scott county; S. F. Spofibrd, of PoUc county; Marcus 
Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo county; C. V. Gardner, of Pottawattamie county, 
and the Governor. The new Board continued the former Secretary, and 
pursued its work by the distribution of documents, through agents and by 
con*espondence. After four years existence the Board of Immigration was 
discontinued, but not until it had doubtless been the means of inducing 
thoiisands to find homes within the borders of Iowa. 



Statistics. 



NUMBEE OF TEOOPS FUENISHED BY THE STATE OF IOWA 

DUELNG THE WAE OF THE EEBELLION, 

TO JAMJAEY 1, 1865 * 



No. Regiment. 



No. of 
men. 



No. Regiment. 



No. of 
men. 



Ist Iowa 

2d " 

3d '■ 

4th " 

5th " 

6th " 

7fli " 

Sth " 

9th " 

10th " 

11th '■ 

12th " 

13th " 

14th " 

15th " 

16th " 

17th " 

18th " 

19th " 

20th " 

21st " 

^d " 

23d " 

24th " 

25th " 

26th " 

27th " 

28th " 

29th " 

30Ui " 

31st " 

32d " 

33d " 

34th '• 

35th •• 

36a " 

37th " 

38th " 



Infantry . 



959 

1,247 

1,074 

1,184 

1,037 

1,013 

1^138 

1,027 

1,090 

1,027 

1,022 

981 

989 

840 

1,196 

919 

956 

875 

985 

925 

980 

1,008 

961 

979 

995 

919 

940 

956 

1,005 

978 

977 

925 

985 

953 

984 

986 

914 

910 



39th Iowa Infantry 

40th " _ " 

41st Battalion Iowa Infantry .... 
44th Infantry (lOO-days men) .... 

45th 

46th " " " .... 

47th " " " .... 

48th Battalion " " .... 

Ist Iowa Cavalry 

2d " " 

3d " " 

4th " " 

5th " " 

6th " " 

7th " " 

8th •' " 

9th " " 

Sioux City Cavalry t 

Co. A, 11th Penn. CavaJiy 

1st Battery Artillery 

2d " 

3d " " 

4th " '• 

1st Iowa African Inf 'y, 60th U. S.^ 

Dodge's Brigade Band 

Band of 2d Iowa Infantry 

Enlistments as far as reported to Jan. 
1 , '64, for the older Iowa regiments 
Bnlistments of Iowa men m regi- 
ments of other States, over. . . 



Total 

Re-enlisted Veterans for different 

regiments 

Additional enlistments 



Grand total as far as reported up to 
Jan. 1, 1865 f. 



933 

900 

294 

867 

912 

892 

884 

346 

1,478 

1,394 

1,360 

1,227 

1,245 

1,125 

562 

1,234 

1,178 

93 

87 

149 

123 

142 

152 

903 

14 

10 

2,765 

2,500 



61,653 

7,202 
6,664 



75,519 



* This does not include those Iowa men who veteranized in the regiments (^ other States, 
nor the names of men who enlisted during 1864, in regiments of other States. 

t Afterward consolidated with Seventh Cavalry. 

t Only a portion of this regiment was credited to the State. 



184: 



STATISTICS. 



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186 



STATISTICS. 



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STATISTICS. 



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188 



STATISTICS. 



TAELE. 

SHOWING THE BATE OP ORGANIZATION, AND THE POPULATION OF THE SEVERAL COUNTUig 
OF IOWA, FOR THE TEARS NAMED. 



COUNTIES. 



AGGREGATE. 



1875. 



1870. 



1860. 



1850. 



1840. 



Voters. 



Adair 

Adams 

Allamakee. . 
Appanoose. . 
Audubon. . . 

Benton 

Black Hawk 

Boone 

Bremer 

Buchanan. . 
Biiena Yista 

Butler 

Calhoun. . . . 

Carroll 

Ca=s 

Cedax 

Cerro Gordo 
Cherokee. . . 
Chickasaw. . 

Clarke 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Crawford. . . 

Dallas 

Davis 

Decatur. . . . 
Delaware. .. 
Des Moines. 
Dickinson. .. 
Dubuque. . . 
Emmett. . . . 

Favette 

Floyd 

Franklin. . . 
Fremont. . . , 

G-reene 

Grundy. . . . 

Guthrie 

Hamilton. . . 

Hancock 

Hardin 

Harrison. . . 

Henry 

Howard. . . . 
Humboldt. . 

Ida 

Iowa 

Jackson. . . . 

Jasper 

Jefferson. . . 
Johnson. . . . 
Jones 



1854 
1853 
1849 
1846 
1855 
1846 
1853 
1849 
1853 
1847 
1858 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1853 
1836 
1855 
1856 
1853 
1851 
1858 
1838 
1840 
1855 
1847 
1844 
1850 
1840 
1834 
1857 
1834 
1859 
1850 
1854 
1855 
1849 
1854 
1856 
1861 
1857 
1858 
1853 
1853 
1836 
1855 
1857 
1858 
1845 
1838 
1846 
1839 
1838 
1839 



7045 

7832 

19158 

2370 

17405 

28807 

22913 

17251 

13220 

17315 

3561 

11734 

3185 

5760 

10552 

17879 

6685 

4249 

11400 

10118 

3559 

27184 

34295 

6039 

14386 

15757 

13249 

16893 

35415 

1748 

43845 

1436 

20515 

13100 

6558 

13719 

7028 

8134 

9638 

7701 

1482 

15029 

11818 

21594 

7875 

8455 

794 

17456 

23061 

24128 

17127 

24654 

19168 



4614 

17868 

16456 

1212 

22454 

21706 

14584 

12528 

17034 

1585 

9951 

1602 

2451 

5464 

19731 

4722 

1967 

10180 

8735 

1523 

27771 

35357 

2530 

12019 

15565 

12018 

17432 

27256 

1389 

38969 

1392 

16973 

10768 

4738 

11173 

4627 

6399 

7061 

6055 

999 

13684 

8931 

21463 

6282 

2596 

226 

16644 

22619 

22116 

17839 

24898 

19731 



984 

1533 

12237 

11931 

' 454 

8496 

8244 

4232 

4915 

7906 

57 

3724 

147 

281 

1612 

12949 

940 

58 

4336 

5427 

52 

20728 

18938 

383 

5244 

13764 

8677 

11024 

19611 

180 

31164 

105 

12073 

3744 

1309 

5074 

1374 

793 

3058 

1699 

179 

5440 

3621 

18701 

3168 

332 

43 

8029 

18493 

9883 

15038 

17573 



777 
3131 



672 
135 
735 



517 



8941 



79 



3873 
2822 



854 
7264 

965 

1759 

12988 



10841 



825 



1244 



8707 



822 
7210 
1280 
9904 
4472 
8007 



1253 



1101 
821 



168 
5577 



3059 



3772 



1411 



2773 

1491 

471 



1616 
1727 
3653 

527 
3679 
4778 
4877 
3515 
2656 
3890 

817 
2698 

681 
1197 
2422 
89:^4 
1526 
1001 
2892 
2213 

868 
6272 
6569 
1244 
3170 
3448 
2882 
3662 
6654 

894 
8759 

299 
4637 
2884 
1374 
2998 
1622 
1525 
2839 
1455 

303 
3215 
2658 
4641 
1712 

695 

172 
8576 
4901 
5239 
8721 
5225 
4180 



STATISTICS. 



189 



TABLE 

BHOWIHQ THB DATE OF OBGANIZATION, AKD THE POPULATION OF THE SEVERAL COUNTIES 
OF IOWA, FOB THE TEARS NAMED. 

Continued. 





13 






AGGKEOATB. 


COUNTIES. 


1875. 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 


1840. 


Voters. 


Keokuk 


1844 
1855 
1837 
1839 
1839 
1849 
1872 
1850 
1844 
1845 
1850 
1851 
1854 
1864 
1851 
1858 
1838 
1860 
1872 
1851 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1856 
1858 
1838 
1863 
1860 
1853 
1864 
1851 
1853 
1837 
1844 
1849 
1839 
1851 
1853 
1857 
1851 
1853 
1857 
1855 


20488 

3765 

33913 

31815 

12499 

11725 

1139 

16030 

23718 

24094 

19629 

10556 

11523 

2267 

12811 

10389 

21623 

2349 

1778 

14274 

2728 

5282 

2249 

31558 

21665 

16482 

7546 

2873 

39763 

5664 

3720 

13111 

18771 

10418 

8827 

17980 

18541 

19269 

23865 

13978 

■ 13114 

24233 

2986 

8568 

4908 

3244 


19434 

3351 

38210 

28852 

12877 

10388 

221 

13884 

22508 

24436 

17676 

8718 

9682 

3654 

12724 

5934 

21688 

715 


13271 
416 
29232 
18947 
10370 
5766 


4822 




4202 




773 


Trf^» 


18861 

6444 

4939 

471 


6093 
1373 
1927 


5709 




7274 




2899 




2464 




287 




7339 

14816 

16813 

6015 

4481 

3409 

832 

8612 

1256 

16444 

8 


1179 

5989 

5482 

338 




2632 




5287 




4988 


Marshall 


4445 


jlills 


2365 


Mi'trhpll 




1 


2338 








1292 




2884 




2743 




2485 




5731 


1942 


6588 


O'Brien 


695 








498 


Page 


9975 

1336 

2199 

1446 

27857 

16893 

15581 

5691 

1411 

38699 

2540 

576 

11651 

16131 

6989 

6986 

17672 

22346 

17980 

18952 

11287 

10484 

1562 

23570 

6172 

2892 

2392 


4419 

132 

148 

103 

11625 

4968 

5668 

2923 

246 

25959 

818 

10 

4061 

6285 

3590 

2012 

17081 

14518 

10281 

14235 

6409 

2504 

168 

13942 

1119 

766 

653 


561 




3222 


Palo Alto 


556 








1136 








ARi. 


Polk- 


4613 

7828 
615 




6842 


Poti^waittfiniie. . ..*• > 


4392 




36.34 


Ringgold 


1496 






657 


Scott 


5986 


2140 


7109 


Sionx 


1084 
637 












2574 


Tama 


8 

204 




3911 




2282 




1924 




12270 
8471 

961 
4957 

340 


6146 
""i594 


3893 


Wapello 


3923 




4168 


Washington 


5346 




2947 


Webster 


3747 








4117 


Winneshiek 


546 




406 




1776 


Worth.... 






763 








694 












. . . , 1353118J 


1191792 


674913 


192214 


43112 


284657 



190 



SIATISTTCS. 



VOTE FOE GOVEKNOR, 187T, AND PRESIDENT, 1876. 







1877. 




1876. 






1877. 




1876. 






QOVKENOB. 




PBESIDENT. 






OOTBBNOB. 




PEBSIDKHT. 
















OODNTLKS. 














Bep. 


Dem. 


Gr. 


Pro. 


Bep. 


Dem. 


Bep. 


Dem. 


Gr. 


Pro. 


Kep. 


Dem. 


Adair 


982 
876 


161 
397 


681 
485 


16 
38 


1334 
1376 


693 
626 


Johnson. 

Jones 


1881 
1868 


2345 
1218 


18 
14 


273 
68 


2345 
2691 


3563 


A.dam8 


176.1 


Allamakee. .... 


1547 


1540 


69 


36 


1709 


16+6 


Keokuk 


1772 


1526 


322 


105 


236+ 


1863 


Appanoose . . . 


U65 


1049 


729 


83 


1711 


1419 


Kossuth 


463 


236 


13 


89 


638 


337 




410 


352 


26 




427 


352 


Lee 


2157 


2883 


350 


299 


3160 


S682 




U32 
178C 


712 

mi 


667 
95 


449 

244 


2901 
2979 


1356 

1592 




2.524 
1328 


2316 
817 


75 
89 


. 685 
108 


4331 
1920 


2917 


Black Hawfe... 


Louisa 


1003 


Boone 


1612 


981 


466 


10 


2018 


1305 


Lucas 


1203 


804 


103 


12 


1'478 


1044 


Bremer 


1180 


582 


196 


1 


1737 


757 


Lyon 


261 


17 


9 


14 


262 


46 


Baohanan 


1390 


769 


725 


223 


2227 


1416 


Madison 


1792 


1077 


616 


56 


2246 


1638 


BuenaTlsta... 


747 


192 


161 


20 


770 


200 


Mahaska. 


1823 


1086 


1011 


696 


3221 


1701 


Butter.., 


1453 


768 


19 


95 


18:18 


780 


Marion 


1976 


1866 


760 


95 


2736 


2,104 


Galhotm 


418 


75 


171 


74 


622 


196 


MarshaU 


1448 


837 


389 


604 


3066 


11S9 


Carroll 


633 
159J 
1315 


744 
839 
1093 


141 
116 

206 


11 
30 
446 


799 
1876 
2328 


771 
979 
1445 


MiUs 


1435 
1396 
680 


1102 
459 
119 


93 
35 
432 


28 
36 
9 


1452 
1663 
713 


1165 


Oass 


MitoheU 

Mouona 


671 


Cedar 


304 


Cerro Gordo . . 


903 


348 


72 


40 


1274 


448 


Monroe 


1034 


09K 


247 


26 


141S 


1246 


Cherokee 


662 


74 


383 


86 


864 


176 


Montgomery . . 


1122 


441 


532 


47 


1749 


759 


Chickasaw .... 


1279 


1107 


37 


94 


1574 


1090 


Muscatine 


1753 


1775 


171 


3S7 


2523 


a07.'> 


Clarke 


1054 


267 


813 


19 


1405 


816 


O'Brien 


306 


21 


201 


14 


463 


IM 


Clay 


617 
1873 


16 

1770 


20 
66 


67 
167 


567 
2662 


94 
2621 


Osceola 

Page 


295 
1166 


40 
608 


13 
348 


33 
293 


329 
2243 


69 


Clayton 


861 


Clinton 


2444 


2327 


236 


66 


3654 


3398 


Palo Alto 


311 


357 




3 


343 


333 


Crawford 


898 


651 


19 


111 


1043 


638 


Plymouth. ... 


779 


487 


77 


39 


835 


603 


Dallas 


1541 
893 


215 
1231 


1241 

803 


80 
12 


2136 
1686 


752 
1631 


Pocahoutas.... 
Polk 


370 
3171 


93 

laa^ 


44 
1363 


36 
94 


374 
4321 


141 


Davis. 


2383 


Decatur 


1269 


961 


310 


19 


1647 


1282 


Pattawattamie. 


2223 


2059 


218 


121 


2666 


2414 


Delaware 


1226 


1143 


82 


625 


2233 


1466 


Poweshiek . ,. 


1496 


882 


420 


346 


2609 


1083 


Des Hoines . . 


2315 


1384 


767 


6 


3325 


2917 


Ringgold 


964 


71 


671 


47 


1246 


422 




197 
1687 


8 
3415 


'"ioi 


12 
63 


259 
2798 


48 
4977 


Sac ! 


656 
3031 


128 
1963 


177 
309 


13 
37 


661 
3819 


166 




Scott 


2853 




213 
1933 


28 
1067 






246 
3029 


36 
1709 


Shelby. 

Sioux 


888 
436 


639 
132 


3 

49 


16 


897 
439 


631 


FayettB 


889 


27 


220 


Floyd 


1233 


208 


162 


30 


2032 


761 


Story 


1260 


344 


644 


187 


1843 


679 


Franklin 


1311 


336 


16 


10 


1178 


879 


Tama 


1426 


833 


196 


133 


2337 


1317 




1250 
1031 


1331 
215 


334 
651 


" '27 


1658 
1310 


1682 
610 




1325 
899 


293 
616 


868 
830 


""63 


1727 

lass 


676 


Greene .... 


Union 


795 


Grundy 


909 


504 




S 


1099 


417 


Van Buren...: 


1490 


1305 


301 


130 


2113 


1661 


Guthrie 


1160 


496 


SM 


21 


1434 


629 


Wapello 


1710 


102S 


1265 


296 


.2982 


2413 


Hamilton 


842 


266 


422 


57 


1187 


425 


Warren 


1726 


944 


742 


101 


2439 


1315 


Hancock 


340 


95 


29 


a 


281 


99 


Washington... 


1687 


1221 


303 


112 


246'i 


1608 


Hardin 


1492 


661 


238 


IM 


2152 


980 


Wayne 


1316 


832 


404 


3 


1692 




Harrison 


134S 


863 


52S 


19 


1557 


1386 


Webster. 


850 


127 


1421 


47 


.1299 




Henry 


1770 


424 


1041 


140 


2809 


1485 


Winnebago..,. 


644 


40 






498 


89 


Howard 


651 


647 


201 


619 


1194 


600 


Winneshiek... 


2074 


lOOS 


279 


238 


2759 


1617 


Humboldt 


882 


149 


115 


«4 


623 


183 


Woodbury . . . 


1108 


867 


226 


9 


1034 


149 


Ida 


321 
1132 
1619 


54 
1120 
1966 


104 
642 
224 


'"228 
16 


212 
1870 
2126 


57 
1348 
2486 


Worth 


62S 
391 


132 
166 


8 
U7 


14 

98 


674 


Iowa. 


Wright 


181 


Jackson 












112121 


Jasper 


1971 


1154 


1018 


268 


3376 


1804 


Totals 


121546 


79368 


34228 


10639 


171332 


Jefferson 


1396 


763 


67« 


lOi 


2166 


1449 


Majorities... 


42193 












Total vote, 


1877,2. 


16,766; 


1876 (i 


Quladii 


Ig 9,001 


Green 


back), 292,454. 















Centennial Awards. 



TO IOWA EXHIBITORS. 

TJnbee the system of awards adopted at the Centennial Exposition of 1876, 
every article exhibited was placed in one of thirty-six groups, numbering 
from 1 to 36. The examination was not of a competitive character, but 
upon the merit of the article. Each article of merit was entitled to receive 
a, diploma and a bronze medal of uniform value. The following awards 
were made to Iowa exhibitors: 

GROUP NO. I. 

Wesley Redhead and Mahaska Coal Mining Company are accredited with 
samples of coal. The committee says: "Commended as samples of bitum- 
inous coal of Iowa," 

LEAD OEE. 

John Harvey, of Dubuque. — Report says a large and instructive exhibit 
of Galena lead ores of Iowa. 

W. P. Fox, of Des Moines, — Commended for an instructive exhibit of the 
stratified deposits of the State of Iowa. 

[Note. — In this group were shown fifty-five varieties from stone quarries 
in Iowa, prepared by Donahue & McCosh, of Burlington, in blocks six by 
nine inches square; also were shown samples of building and moulding 
sands, and three specimens of glass sands, twelve of fire and potters' clay, 
six or eight samples of mineral paint, and one sample of peat; also some 
fine samples of geodes from Keokuk. Judge Murdock, of Clayton county, 
exhibited a collection of relics of the mound builders. Tlie most prom- 
inent one was his large collection of mound builders' skulls.] 

GROUP NO. IV. 

State of Iowa.— Commended as a very fine ccillection of cereals in the 
straw, beautifully cleansed; also grasses and seeds — sixty varieties — a fine 
collection beautifully arranged; also a collection of Indian corn, seventy 
varieties. 

BUTTER. 

Stewart & McMillen, of Manchester, Delaware county. Entry No. 
880. — Commended for the best samples of 200 lbs. and 30 lbs. respectively, 
made at Newberg factory, Edgewood and Hebran, 



192 CEirrENnriAL awards. 

Stewart & McMillen, Entry No. 895. — Commended for clean, sweet 
flavor, firm texture and superior excellency generally, comprising samples 
of different creameries. 

[Note. — The general report of the committee on butter puts the yield of 
the United States for 187tf at 710,000,000 lbs. Messrs. Stewart & McMil- 
len had about ninety competitors, among whom were the best butter makers 
of the world. In addition to the centennial awards, they got the golden 
medal awarded by the national butter and egg association. Iowa creamery 
butter sells in the Philadelphia market readily with the gilt edged brand. 
The butter crop in Iowa is an item of interest, and the State owes Stewart 
& McMillen a debt of gratitude for their very active exertion at the centen- 
nial in raising Iowa butter to a level with the gilt edge manufacturers of 
the eastern States. Delaware county, Iowa, is to our State what Chester 
county is to Pensylvania.] 

Bryan & Curtis' butter, Strawberry Point, Clayton county. — Commended 
for tine quality and superior skill in manufacturing. 

GEOUP NO. VI. 

Collection of woods by Prof. McAfee, Agricultural College. — Commended 
as a good State exhibit, containing 160 specimens arranged in vertical and 
transverse sections. 

J. C. Arthur, Charles City, No. 185. — Herbarium of plants. The her- 
barium contains species named and clasitied, neatly mounted, labeled and 
one in duplicate. The duplicate collection ingeniously arranged for exhi- 
bition on large sliding frames within a glass case. The whole accompan- 
ied with a printed catalogue. 

AWARDS ON COLLKCrrVB STATE EXHIBITS. 

State of Iowa, No. 11. — Commended for a large display of its minerals, 
soils, native and cultivated grasses, its pomology in large variety, and col- 
lection of woods and a valuable collection of mound buildera' relics. 



GROUP NO. XXVIII. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Board of Education, Burlington, No. 76. — Commended for * creditable 
display of the work of pupils. 

State Educational Department, No. 77. — Report good exhibit of the sta- 
tistics of State school system and work of public schools. 

Board of Education of West Des Moines, No. 78. — A creditable exhibit 
of work of pupils. 

GROUP XXII. 

PLOWS. 

Skinner Bros., Des Moines, No. 63. — Commended for excellence of ma 
terial, good workmanship and beauty of form. 



OESTESSIAL AWABDS. 193 

GEOUP IJ^O. XXIII. 

BOOK BINDING AND PAPEE INDUSTET. 

John D. Metz, Dubuque, No. 94. — ^Blank books with patent ends and 
mode of stitching. Keport an admirable made book aside from the patent 
i'uiprovement claimed. 

GEOUP XXX. 

HOESES AND CATTLE. 

Eli Elliot, West Liberty. — Short Horn bull, Baron French, TSo. 8. — ^Ee- 
port in form, quality and useful characteristics he is entitled to rank as a 
Boperior specimen of the Short Horn breed. 
• State of Iowa, Short Horn Herd, Ifo. 12. — One bull and four cows. The 
animals composing this herd, in high excellence of form, quality and useful 
characteristics, are entitled to be ranked as first-class specimens of the 
Short Horn breed. 

J. W. Jacobs, West Liberty, Wo. 13. — Two co-ws, Maid of Honor and 
Lucy Ifapier, commended for high excellence of form and useful charac- 
teristics, entitled to rank as first-class specimens of the Short Horn breed. 

E. S. Wilson, West Liberty, Wo. 35. — Heifer, Louden Mirvine, for high 
excellence in form, quality and nsefnl characteristics is entitled to rank as 
a first-class specimen of the Short Horn breed. 

E. S. Wilson, No. 36. — Emma Down and heifer calf Centennial Mine. 
In form and useful characteristics they are entitled to be ranked as first- 
class specimens of the Short Horn breed. 

GEOUP XXXVL 

Henry Avery, Burlington. — Commended for a collection of apples, 
among which Grimes' Golden Pippin, an excellent kind, is especially mer- 
itorious in size and flavor. 

David Leonard, Burlington, Wo. 16. — Commended for a valuable selec- 
tion of varieties very well grown, and especially for a seedling named 
Kobinson, which promises well for the northwest, both as respects to tree 
and fruit. 

No. 27. — Polk County, by James Smith, Des Moines. Commended for 
160 varieties of apples, and for the very large number of valuable varieties 
and for the very superior manner in which they are grown ; also for great 
care and correctness in naming. 

No. 30. — E. H. Caulkens commended for twenty varieties and their val- 
uable characteristics; also great excellence and beauty in growth. 

R. S. Willet, Malcolm. — Commended for 40 varieties of apples of gen- 
eral value and the superior manner of growth. 

No. 39, L. HoUingsworth, Montrose. — Seventy-five varieties of apples, 
commended for a large number of useful sorts and for the meritorious 
manner in which they are grown. 

No. 65, G. B. Brackett, Denmark. — Pears are Plate White Doyenne. 

13 



194 CENTENNIAL AWAEDS. 

These specimens of this old and important variety reach the highest stan- 
dard of excellence of large size and beautifully colored. 

No. 81, Wilson T. Smith, Des Moines. — Twenty varieties of pears 
commended for being well grown, and handsome collection. The Flemish 
Beauty and Beaurae Clangean being superior. 

No. 83, White Elk Vineyard, Keokuk. — Eighteen varieties, creditable 
display of pears. The Beaurae Clangean having brilliant coloring. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society wax models of fruit. No. 209. — Three 
hundred varieties of apples in wax, of perfect accuracy and beautifully dis- 
played — the work of the Iowa State Horticultural Society. 

[Note. — There were in all 1020 specimens. The fruit furnished as 
models was by various members of the State Horticultural Society, crop of 
1876, the greatest number of which was by James Smith, of Des Moines, 
and to whom the nomenclature is mainly due; 610 of the casts were made 
by Mrs. Wm. Greenland, of Des Moines, and 410 of them by Col. Gt. B. 
Brackett, of Denmark. This was the most attractive display made by . 
Iowa, and was universally admired; and in this line Iowa can boast of as 
fine talent for accuracy as to model and coloring as is found anywhere. 
Two hundred of these casts were sold to and exchanged with the Japanese 
authorities, and are now doing duty in the archives of their government.] 

Iowa State Horticultural Society, No. 217. — September collection, report 
a very good collection, containing many varieties. 

[Note. — The Horticultural Society showed in May thirty-five varieties 
of apples of late keepers, also the summer varieties were shown in their 
season. The fall display was very fine, covering seven tables 35x6, and 
numbering about 335 varieties of apples, and filling over 2,000 plates.] 

W. W. Winterbotom, Fort Madison, No. 191. — Timothy grass seed. The 
seed is remarkably clean, and every way meritorious. 

H. C. Gordon, Davis county, No. 204. — His yellow corn was of peculiar 
weight and good quality, one ear weighing one pound and thirteen ounces. 

L. T. Chute, Manchester, No. 207. — The cereals and roots in the Iowa 
collection exhibited are a well grown collection of twenty-five varieties. 
Potatoes especially meritorious. 

State of Iowa, September exhibits of the crop of 1876, No. 208. — They 
make a collection of cereals, grasses and roots, exhibiting the ability of the 
State to produce these articles in the highest degree. 

The information contained in the notes is additional to that given in the 
ofiicial reports of the Exposition, and is furnished by Dr. Alex. Shaw, of 
Des Moines, who held an official position in connection with Iowa exhibits 
up to August 18, 1876. 



Abstract of Iowa State Laws. 



BILLS OF EXCHAITGE AlilD PEOMISSOET NOTES. 

Upon negotiable bills, and notes payable in this State, grace shaU be al- 
lowed according to the law merchant. All the above mentioned paper fall- 
ing due on Sunday, New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any 
day appointed or recommended by the President of the U nited States or the 
Governor of the State, as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as 
due on the day previous. 'No defense can be made against a negotiable in- 
strument (assigned before due) in the hands of the assignee wimout notice, 
except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, due dili- 
gence must be used by suit against the maker or his representative. If otes 
payable to person named or to order, in order to absolutely transfer title, 
must be indorsed by the payee. Notes payable to bearer may be transferred 
by delivery, and when so payable, every indorser thereon is held as a guar- 
antor of payment, nnless otherwise expressed. 

la computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less than 
a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes only 
bear interest when so expressed; but after due, they draw the legal interest, 
even if not stated. 

INTEEEST. 

The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree, in writing, 
on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater than ten 
per cent is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of ten per cent to the school 
fund, and only the principal sum can be recovered. 

DESCENT. 

The personal property of the deceased (except (1) that necessary for pay- 
ment of debts and expenses of administration; (2) property set apart to 
widow, as exempt from execution ; (3) allowance by court, if necessary, of 
twelve months' support to widow, ana to children under fifteen years of age), 
including life insurance, descends as does real estate. 

One-third in value (absolutely) of all estates in real property, possessed by the 
husband at any time during marriage, which have not been sold on execution 
or other judicial sale, and to which the wife has made no relinquishment 
of her right, shall be set apart as her property, in fee simple, if she survive 
him. 

The same share shall be set apart to the surviving husband of a deceased 
wlte. 



196 ABSTEACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

The widow's share cannot be affected by any will of her husband's, unless- 
she consents, in writing thereto, within six months after notice to her of 
provisions of the will. 

The provisions of the statutes of descent apply alike to surviving husband 
or surviving wife. 

Subject to the above, the remaining estate of which the decedent died 
siezedj shall in absence of other arrangements by will, descend 

Fvrst. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts; the 
descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of their 
deceased parents in equal shares among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and no 
widow or surviving husband, then to the parents of the deceased in equal 
parts; the surviving parent, if either be dead, taking the whole ; and if there 
is no parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 
descendants. 

Thwd. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no child or 
children, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the estate shall descend 
to such widow or surviving husband, absolutely; and the other half of the 
estate shall descend as in other cases where there is no widow or surviving 
husband, or child or children, or descendants of the same. 

Fov/rth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, then to wife of intestate, or to her heirs, if dead, according 
to like rules. 

Fifth. If any intestate leaves no child, parent, brother or sister, or de- 
scendants of either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, and no 
child, parent, brother or sister (or descendant of either of them) of such 
widow or surviving husband, it snail escheat to the State. 

WILLS Airo ESTATES OF DECEASED PEESONS. 

No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at law. 
Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, and every female of the age 
of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid will; it must 
be in writing, signed by the testator, or by some one in his or her presence, 
and by his or her express direction, and attested by two or more competent 
witnesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses arfe not interested in the 
will. Inventory to be made by executor or administrator within fifteen 
days from date of letters testamentary or of administration. Executors' and 
administrators' compensation on amount of personal estate distributed, and 
for proceeds one-half per cent on overplus up to five thousand dollars, and 
one per cent of sale of real estate, five per cent for first one thousand dol- 
lars, two and one-half on overplus above five thousand dollars, with such 
additional allowance as shall be reasonable for extra services. 

"Within ten days after the receipt of letters of administration, the executor 
or administrator shall give such tbotice of appointment as the court or clerk 
shall direct. 

Claims (other than preferred) must be filed within one yea/r thereafter, or are 
forever barred, wj-Zess the clmm is pending in the District or Supreme Court, 
or vrnZess pecuUa/r circumstanoes entitle the claimant to eqi^itable reUef. 

Claims are classed anA payable in the follo^ving order: 

1. Expenses of administration. 

2. Expenses of last sickness and funeral. 



ABSTEAOT OF THB LAWS OF IOWA. ^ 197 

3. Allowance to widow and children, if made bj the court. 

4. Debts preferred under the lawg of the United States. 

5. Public rates and taxes. 

6. Claims filed within six months after tTieJirst jmbUcation of the notice 
given by the executors of their appointment. 

7. All other debts. 

8. Legacies. 

The moard, or property which must be sei apart to the widow, in her own 
right, by the executor, includes all personal property which, in the hands of 
the deceased, as head of the family, would have been exem/pt from execution. 

TAXES. 

The owners of personal property, on the first day of Jamiary of each year, 
and the owners of real property on the first day of November of each year, 
are Udble for the taxes thereon. 

The following property is exempt from taxation, viz. : 

1. The property of the United States and of this State, including uni- 
versity, agricultural, college and school lands, and all property leased to the 
State; property of a county, township, city, incorporated town or school dis- 
trict when devoted entirely to the public use and not held for pecuniary 
profit; public grounds, including all places for the burial of the dead; fire 
engines, and aU implements for extinguishing fires, with the grounds used 
exclusively for their buildings and for the meetings of the fire companies ; 
all public libraries, grounds and buildings of literary, scientific, benevolent, 
agricultural and religious institutions, and societies devoted solely to the 
appropriate objects of these institutions, not exceeding 640 acres in extent, 
and not leased or otherwise used with a view of pecuniary profit; and all 
property leased to agricultural, charitable institutions and benevolent soci- 
eties, and so devoted during the term of such lease; provided, that aU deeds, 
by which such property is held, shall be duly filed for record before the 
property therein described shall be omitted from the assessment. 

2. The books, papers and apparatus belonging to the above institutions; 
used solely for the purposes above contemplated, and the like property of 
students in any such institutions, used for their education. 

3. Money and credits belonging exclusively to such institutions and de- 
voted solely to sustaining them, but not exceeding in amount or income the 
sum prescribed by their charter. 

4. Animals not hereafter specified, the wool shorn from sheep, belonging 
to the person giving the list, his farm produce harvested witmn one year 
previous to the Ksting; private libraries not exceeding three hundred dol- 
lars in value; family pictures, kitchen furniture, beds and bedding requisite 
for each family, all wearing apparel in actual use, and all food provided for 
the family; but no person from whom a compensation for board or lodging 
is received or expected, is to be considered a member of the family within 
the intent of this clause. 

5. The polls or estates or both of persons who, by reason of age or in- 
firmity, may, in the opinion of the assessor, be unable to contribute to the 
pubKc revenue; such opinion and the fact upon which it is based being in 
all cases reported to the Board of Equalization by the Assessor or any other 
person, and subject to reversal by them. 

6. The farming utensils of any person who makes his livelihood by farm- 



198 ABSTEAOT OF THE LAWS OV IOWA. 

ing, and the tools of any mechanic, not in either case to exceed three hun- 
■ dred dollars in value. 

7. Government lands entered or located or lands purchased from this 
State, should not be taxed for the year in which the entry, location or pur- 
chase is made. 

There is also a suitable exemption, in amoant, for planting fruit trees or 
forest trees or hedges. 

Where buildings are destroyed by fire, tornado, or other unavoidable cas- 
ualty, after being assessed for the year, the Board of Supervisors may rebate 
taxes for that year on the property destroyed, if same has not been sold/or 
taxes, and if said taxes have not been delinquent for thirty days at the 
time of destruction of the property, and the rebate shall be allowed for such 
loss only as is not covered by insurance. 

All other property is subject to taxation. Every inhabitant of full age 
and sound mind shall assist the Assessor in hsting all taxable property of 
which he is the owner, or which he controls or manages, either as agent, 
guardian, father, husband, trustee, executor, accounting officer, partner, 
mortagor or lessor, mortgagee or lessee. 

Koad beds of railway corporations shall not be assessed to owners of ad- 
jacent property, but shall be considered the property of the companies for 
purposes of taxation; nor shall real estate used as a public highway be as- 
sessed and taxed as part of adjacent lands whence the same was taken for 
such public purpose. 

The property of railway, telegraph and express companies shall be listed 
and assessed for taxation as the property of an individual would be listed 
and assessed for taxation. Collection of taxes made as in the case of an in- 
dividual. 

The Township Board of Equalization shaU meet the first Monday in April 
of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

The County Board of Equalization (the Board of Supervisors) meet at 
their regular session in June of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

Taxes become delinquent February 1st of each year, payable, without in- 
terest or penalty, at any time before March 1st of each year. 

Tax sale is held on first Monday of October in each year. 

Redemption may be made at any time within three years after date of 
sale, by paying to the County Auditor the amoimt of sale, and twenty per 
centum of such amount immediately added as penalty, with ten per cent, 
interest per annum on the whole amount thus made from the day of sale, 
and also all subsequent taxes, interest and costs paid by purchaser after 
March 1st of each year, and a sixmhir periaUy of twenty per centum added 
as before, with ten- per cent interest as before. 

If notice has been given, by purchaser, of the date at which the redemp- 
tion is limited, the cost of same is added to the redemption money. Ninety 
days' notice is required, by the statute, to be published by the purchaser or 
holder of certificate, to terminate the right of redemption. 

JUEISmCTION OF COUETS. 

District Counts have jurisdiction, general and original, both civil and 
criminal, except in such cases where Circuit Courts have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion. District Courts have exclusive supervision over courts of Justices 
of the Peace and Magistrates, in criminal matters, on appeal and writs ot 
error. 



ABSTEACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA, 199 

Ci/rffwit Gowrts have jurisdiction, general and original, with the Dis- 
trict Courts, in all civil actions and special proceedings, and excVuswe ju- 
risdiction in all appeals and writs of error from inferior courts, in civil 
matters. And exclusive jtunsdiction in matters of estates and general 
probate business. 

JvMices of the Peace have jurisdiction in civil matters where $100 
or less is involved. By consent of parties, the jurisdiction may be ex- 
tended to an amount not exceeding $300. They have jurisdiction to try 
and determine all public offense less than felony, committed within their 
respective coimties, in which the fine, by law, does not exceed %100 or the 
imprisoTmient thirty days. 

LIMITATION OF ACTIONS. 

Action for injuries to the person or reputation; for a statute penalty; 
and to enforce a mechanics' lien, must be brought in two (2) years. 

Those against a public officer within three (3) years. 

Those founded on unwritten contracts; for injuries to property; for 
relief on the ground of fraud; and all other actions not provided for, 
within five (5) years. 

Those founded on written contracts; on judgments of any court (except 
those provided for in next section), and for the recovery of real property, 
within ten (10) years. 

Those founded on judgment of any court of record in the United States, 
within twenty (20) years. 

All above limits, except those for penalties and forfeitures, are extended 
in favor of minors and insane persons, untU one year after the disability is 
removed — time during which defendant is a non-resident of the State shall 
not be included in computing any of the above periods. 

Actions for the recovery of real property, sold for non-payment of taxes, 
must be brought within five years after the Treasurer's Deed is executed 
and recorded, except where a minor or convict or insane person is the 
owner, and they shall be allowed five years after disability is removed, in 
which to bring action. 

JUEOES. 

AU qualified electors of the State, of good moral character, sound judg- 
ment, and in full possession of the senses of hearing and seeing, are compe- 
tent jurors in their respective counties. 

United States officers, practicing attorneys, physicians and clergymen, 
acting professors or teachers in institutions of learning, and persons dis- 
abled by bodily infirmity or over sixty-five years of age, are exempt from 
liability to act as jurors. 

Any person may be excused from serving on a jury when his own inter- 
ests or the public's will be materially injured by his attendance, or when the 
state of his health or the death, or sickness of his family requires his ab- 
sence. 

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 

was restored by the Seventeenth Greneral Assembly, making it optional 
with the jury to inflict it or not. 



200 ABSTEAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

A MAKEIED WOMAN 

may convey or inctiinber real estate, or interest therein, belonging to her; 
may control the same or contract with reference thereto, as other persons 
may convey, encumber, control or contract. 

She may own, acquire, hold, convey and devise property, as her husband 
may. 

Her husband is not liable for civil injuries committed by her. 

She may convey property to her husband, and he may convey to her. 

She may constitute her husband her attorney in fact. 

EXEMPTIONS FEOM EXECUTION. 

A resident of the State and head of a family may hold the following 
property exempt from execution: All wearing apparel of himself and 
family kept for actual use and suitable to the condition, and the trunks or 
other receptacles necessary to contain the same; one musket or rifle and 
shot-gun; all private libraries, family Bibles, portraits, pictures, musical in- 
struments, and paintings not kept for the purpose of sale; a seat or pew 
occupied by the debtor or his family in any house of public worship; an 
interest in a public or private burying ground not exceeding one acre; two 
cows and a calf; one horse, unless a horse is exempt as hereinafter pro- 
vided ; fifty sheep and the wool therefrom, and the materials manufactured 
from said wool; six stands of bees; five hogs and all pigs under six 
months; the necessary food for exempted animals for six months; all flax 
raised from one acre of ground, and manufactures therefrom ; one bedstead 
and necessary bedding for every two in the family; all cloth manufactured 
by the defendant not exceeding one hundred yards ; household and kitchen 
furniture not exceeding two hundred dollars in value; all spinning wheels 
and looms; one sewing machine and other instruments of domestic labor 
kept for actual use; the necessary provisions and fuel for the use of the 
family for six months; the proper tools, instruments, or books of the debtor, 
if a farmer, mechanic, surveyor, clergyman, lawyer, physician, teacher or 
professor; the horse or the team, consisting of not more than two horses or 
mules, or two yokes of cattle, and the wagon or other vehicle, with the 
proper harness or tackle, by the use of which the debtor, if a physician, 
public officer, farmer, teamster or other laborer, habitually earns his living; 
and to the debtor, if a printer, there shall also be exempt a printing press 
and the types, furniture and material necessary for the use of such printing 
press, and a newspaper office to the value of twelve hundred dollars; the 
earnings of such debtor, or those of his family, at any time within ninety 
days next preceding the levy. 

Persons unmarried and not the head of a family, and non-residents, have 
exempt their own ordinary wearing apparel and trunks to contain the same. 

There is also exempt, to a head of a family, a homestead, not exceeding 
forty acres; or, if inside city limits, one-half acre with improvements, value 
not limited. The homestead is liable for all debts contracted prior to its 
acquisition as such, and is subject to mechanics' liens for work or material 
furnished for the same. 

An article, otherwise exempt, is liable, on execution, for the purchase 
money thereof. 

Where a debtor, if a head of a family, has started to leave the State, he 



ABSTEACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 201 

shall have exempt only the ordinary wearing apparel of himself and family, 
and other property in addition, as he may select, in all not exceeding seventy- 
five dollars in value. 

A policy of life insurance shall inure to the separate use of the husband 
or wife and children, entirely independent of his or her creditors. 

WOLF SCALPS. 

A bounty of one dollar is paid for wolf scalps. 

UABKS AND BRANDS. 

Any person may adopt his own mark or brand for his domestic animals, 
or have a description thereof recorded by the township clerk. 

No person shall adopt the recorded mark or brand of any person residing 
in his township. 

DAMAGES FEOM TRESPASS. 

When any person's lands are enclosed by a lawful fence, the owner of 
any domestic animal injuring said lands is liable for the damages, and the 
damages may be recovered by suit against the owner, or may be made by 
distraining the animals doing the damage; and if the party injured elects 
to recover by action against the owner, no appraisement need be made by 
the trustees, as in case of distraint. 

When trespasring animals are distrained within twenty-four hours, Sun- 
day not included, the party injured shall notify the owner of said animals, 
if known; and if the owner fails to satisfy the party within twenty-four 
hours thereafter, the party shall have the township trustees assess the dam- 
ages, and notice shall be posted up in three conspicuous places in the town- 
snip, that the stock, or part thereof, shall, on the tenth day after posting 
the notice, between the hours of 1 and 3 p. m., be sold to the highest bidder, 
to satisfy said damages, with costs. 

Appeal lies, within twenty days, from the action of the trustees to the 
circuit court. 

Where stock is restrained, by police regulation or by law, from running 
at large, any person injured in his improved or cultivated lands by any do- 
mestic animal, may, by action against the owner of such animal, or by dis- 
training such animal, recover his damages, whether the lands whereon the 
injury was done were inclosed by a lawful fence or not. 

ESTRATS. 

An unbroken animal shall not be taken up as an estray between May 1st 
and November 1st, of each year, unless the same be found within the law- 
ful enclosure of a householder, who alone can take up such animal, unless 
some other person gives him notice of the fact of such animal coming on 
liis place; and if he fails, within five days thereafter, to take up such estray; 
any other householder of the township may take up such estray and pro- 
ceed with it as if fciken on his own premises, provided he shall prove to the 
Justice of the Peace such notice, and shall make affidavit where such estray 
was taken up. 



202 ABSTBAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

Any swine, sheep, goat, horse, neat cattle or other animal distrained (for 
damage done to one's enclosure), when the owner is not known, shall be 
treated as an estray. 

"Within five days after taking up an estray, notice containing a full de- 
scription thereof, shall be posted up in three of the most public places in 
the township; and in ten days, the person taking up such estray shall go 
before a Justice of the Peace in the township and make oath as to where 
such estray was taken up, and that the marks or brands have not been al- 
tered, to his knowledge. The estray shall then be appraised, by order of 
the Justice, and the appraisement, description of the size, age, color, sex, 
marks and brands of the estray shall be entered by the Justice in a book 
kept for that purpose, and he shall, within ten days thereafter, send a certi- 
fied copy thereof to the Coimty Auditor. 

When the appraised value of an estray does not exceed five dollars, the 
Justice need not proceed further than to enter the description of the estray 
on his book, and if no owner appears witliin six months, the property shall 
vest in the finder, if he has complied with the law and paid all costs. 

"Where appraised value of estray exceeds five and is less than ten dollars, 
if no owner appears in nine months, the finder has the property, if he has 
complied with the law and paid costs. 

An estray, legally taken up, may be used or worked with care and mod- 
eration. 

If any person unlawfully take up an estray, or take up an estray and fail 
to comply with the law regarding estrays, or use or work it contrary to 
above, or work it before having it appraised, or keep such estray out of the 
county more than five days at one time, before acquiring ownership, such 
oflfender shall forfeit to the county twenty dollars, and the owner may re- 
cover double damages with costs. 

If the owner of any estray fail to claim and prove his title for one year 
after the taking np, and the tinder shall have complied with the law, a com- 
plete title vests in the tinder. 

But if the owner appear within eighteen months from the taking up, 
prove his ownership and pay all costs and expenses, the tinder shall pay him 
the appraised value of such estray, or may, at his option, deliver up the es- 
tray. 

FENCES. 

A lawful fence is fifty-four inches high, made of rails, wire or boards, 
with posts not more than ten feet apart where rails are used, and eight feet 
where boards are used, substantially built and kept in good repair; or any 
other fence, in the opinion of the fence viewers, shall be declared a lawful 
fence — ^provided the lower rail, wire or board be not more than twenty nor 
less than sixteen inches from the ground. 

The respective owners of lands enclosed with fences shall maintain parti- 
tion fences between their own and next adjoining enclosure so long as they 
improve them in equal shares, unless otherwise agreed between them. 

If any party neglect to maintain such partition fence as he should main- 
tain, the fence viewers (the township trustees), upon complaint of aggrieved 
party, may, upon due notice to both parties, examine the fence, and, if 
found insufficient, notify the delinquent party, in writing, to repair or re- 
build the same within such time as they judge reasonable. 

If the fence be not repaired or rebuilt accordingly, the complainant may 



ABSTHACT OV THE LAWS OT IOWA. 303 

do 80, and the same being adjudged suflSoient by the fence viewers, and the 
value thereof, with their fees, being ascertained and certified under their 
liands, the complainant may demand of the delinquent the sum so ascer- 
tained, and if the same be not paid in one month after demand, may recover 
it with one per cent a month interest, by action. 

In case of disputes, the fence viewers may decide as to who shall erect or 
maintain partition fences, and in what time the same shaH be done; and in 
case any party neglect to maintain or erect such part as may be assigned to 
liim, the aggrieved party may erect and maintain the same, and recover 
double damages. 

No person, not wishing his land enlosed, and not using it otherwise than 
in common, shall be compelled to maintain any partition fence; but when 
he uses or incloses his land otherwise than in common, he shall contribute 
to the partition fences. 

Where parties have had their lands inclosed in common, and one of the 
owners desire to occupy his separate and apart from the other, and the other 
refuses to divide the line or build a sufficient fence on the line when di- 
vided, the fence viewers may divide and assign, and upon neglect of the 
other to build as ordered by the viewers, the one may build the other's part 
and recover as above. 

And when one incloses land which has lain nninclosed, he must pay for 
one-half of each partition fence between himself and his neighbors. 

Where one desires to lay not less than twenty feet of his lands, adjoining 
his neighbor, out to the public to be Uoed in common, he must give his 
neighbor six months' notice thereof. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mistake, the 
owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and material 
within six months after the division line has been ascertained. Where the 
material to build such a fence has been taken from the land on which it was 
built, then, before it can be removed, the person claiming must first pay 
for such material to the owner of the land from which it was taken, nor 
shall such a fence be removed at a time when the removal will throw open 
or expose the crops of the other party; a reasonable time must be given be- 
yond the six months to remove crops. 

ADOPTION OF CHILDEEN. 

Any person competent to make a will can adopt as his own the minor 
child of another. The consent of both parents, if living and not divorced 
or separated, and if divorced or separated, or if unmarried, the consent of 
the parent lawfully having the custody of the child; or if either parent is 
dead, then the consent of the survivor, or if both parents be dead, or the 
child have been and remain abandoned by them, then the consent of the 
Mayor of the city where the child is living, or if not in the city, then of the 
Clerk of the Circuit Court of the^ county shall be given to such 
adoption by an instrument in writing, signed by parties consenting, and stat- 
ing the names of the parties, if known, the name of the child, if known, 
the name of the person adopting such child, and the residence of all, if 
known, and declaring the name by which the child is thereafter to be called 
and known, and stating, also, that such child is given to the person adopting, 
for the pm-pose of adoption as his own child. 

The person adopting shall also sign said instrument, and all the parties 



204: ABSTBAOT OF THK LAWS OF IOWA. 

shall acknowledge the same In the manner that deeds conveying lands shall 
be acknowledged. 
The instrument shall be recorded in the office of the Countj Recorder. 

SUEVETOES A20> SUEVETS. 

There is in every county elected a Surveyor known as a County Surveyor, 
who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is responsible. 
It is the duty of the County Surveyor, either by himself or his deputy, to 
make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within his county as 
soon as may be after application is made. The necessary chainmen and 
other assistance must be employed by the person requiring the same to be 
done, and to be by him paid, imless otherwise agreed; but the chainmen 
must be disinterested persons and approved by the Surveyor and sworn by 
him to measure justly and impartially. Previous to any survey, he shall 
furnish himself with a copy of the field notes of the original survey of tho 
same land, if there be any in the office of the County Auditor, and his sur- 
vey shall be made in accordance therewith. 

Their fees are three dollars per day. For certified copies of field notes, 
twenty-five cfents. 

mechanics' lieh-s. 

Every mechanic, or other person who shall do any labor upon, or fiirnish 
any materials, machinery or fixtures for any building, erection or other im- 
provement upon land, including those engaged in the construction or repair 
of any work of internal improvement, by virtue of any contract with the 
owner, his agent, trustee, contractor, or sub-contrrctor, shall have a lien, on 
complying with the forms of law, upon the building or other improvement 
for his labor done or materials furnished. 

It would take too large a space to detail the manner in which a sub-con- 
tractor secures his lien. He should file, within thirty days after the last of the 
labor was performed, or the last of the material shall have been furnished, 
with the clerk of the District Court a true account of the amount due him, 
after allowing all credits, setting forth the time when such material was fur- 
nished or labor performed, and when completed, and containing a correct 
description of the property sought to be charged with the lien, and the whole 
verified by affidavit. 

A principal contractor must file such an affidavit within ninety days, as 
above. 

Ordinarily, there are so many points to be examined in order to secure a 
mechanics' lien, that it is much better, unless one is acustomed to managing 
such liens, to consult at once an attorney. 

Remember that the proper time to file the claim is ninety days for a prin- 
cipal contractor, thirty days for a sub-contractor, as above; and that actions 
to enforce these liens must be commenced within two years, and the rest can 
much better be done with an attorney. 

EOADS AMD BRIDGES. 

Persons meeting each other on the public highways, shall give one-half of 
the same by turning to the right. All persons failing to observe this rule 
shall be liable to pay all damages resulting therefrom, together with a fine, 
not exceeding five dollars. 



A33STEACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 205 

The prosecution must be instituted on the complaint of the person 
wronged. 

Any person guilty of racing horses, or driving upon the public highway, 
in a manner likely to endanger the persons or the lives of others, shall, on 
conviction, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisoned not 
exceeding thirty days. 

It is a misdemeanor, without authority from the proper Eoad Supervisor, 
to break upon, plow or dig within, the boundary lines of any public high- 
way. 

The money tax levied ^on the property in each road district in each town- 
ship (except the general Township Fund, set apart for purchasing tools, ma- 
chinery and guide boards), whether collected by the Road Supervisor or 
County Treasurer, shall be expended for highway purposes in that district, 
and no part thereof shall be paid out or expended for the benefit of another 
district. 

The Eoad Supervisor of each district, is bound to keep the roads and 
bridges therein, in as good condition as the funds at his disposal will permit; 
to put guide boards at cross roads and forks of highways in his district; and 
when notified in writing that any portion of the public highway, or any 
bridge is unsafe, must in a reasonable time repair the same, and for this pur- 
pose may call out any or all the able bodied men in the district, but not 
more than two days at one time, without their consent. 

Also, when notified in writing, of the growth of any Canada thistles upon 
vacant or non-resident lands or vacant lots, within his district, the owner, 
lessee or agent thereof being unknown, shall cause the same to be destroyed. 

Bridges when erected and maintained by the public, are parts of the high- 
way, and must not be less than sixteen feet wide. 

A penalty is imposed upon any one who rides or drives faster than a walk 
across any such bridge. 

The manner of establishing, vacating or altering roads, etc., is so well 
known to all township officers, that it sufficient here to say that the first step 
is by petition, filed in the Auditors' office, addressed in substance as follows: 

The Board of Supervisors of County: The undersigned asks that 

a highway, commencing at and running thence and terminating 

at— , be established, vacated or altered (as the case may be). 

"When the petition is filed, all necessary and succeding steps will be shown 
and explained to the petitioners by the Auditor. 

SUPPORT OF POOB. 

The father, mother and children of any poor person who has applied for 
aid, and who is unable to maintain himself by work, shall, jointly or sev- 
erally, maintain such poor person in such manner as may be approved by 
the Township Trustees. 

In the absence or inability of nearer relatives, the same liability shall ex- 
tend to the grandparents, if of ability without personal labor, and to the 
male grandchildren who are of ability, by personal labor or otherwise. 

The Township Trustees may, upon the failure of such relatives to main- 
tain a poor person, who has made application for relief, apply to the Circuit 
Court for an order to compel the same. 

Upon ten days' notice, in writing, to the parties sought to be charged, a 
hearing may be had, and an order made for entire or partial support of the 
poor person. 



206 ABSTBAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

Appeal may be taken from such judgment as from other judgments of 
the Circuit Court. 

Wlien any person, having any estate, abandons either children, wife or 
husband, leaving them chargeable, or likely to become chargeable, upon the 
public for support, upon proof of above fact, an order may be had from the 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, or Judge, authorizing the Trustees or the Sheriff 
to take into possession such estate. 

The court may direct such personal estate to be sold, to be applied, as 
well as the rents and profits ot the real estate, if any, to the support of 
children, wife or husband. 

If the party against whom the order is issued return and support the per- 
son abandoned, or give security for the same, the order shall be discharged, 
and the property taken returned. 

The mode of relief for the poor, through the action of the Township 
Trustees, or the action of the Board of Supervisors, is so well known to 
every township ofiBcer, and the circumstances attending applications for re- 
lief are so varied, that it need now only be said that it is the duty of each 
county to provide for its poor, no matter at what place they may be. 

LANDLORD AND TENANT. 

A tenant giving notice to quit demised premises at a time named, and 
afterward holding over, and a tenant or his assignee willfully holding over 
the premises after the term, and after notice to quit, shall pay double rent. 

Any person in possession of real property, with the assent of the owner, 
is presumed to be a tenant at will until the contrary is shown. 

Thirty days' notice, in writing, is necessary to be given by either party 
before he can terminate a tenancy at will ; but when, in any case, a rent is 
reserved payable at intervals of less than thirty days, the length of notice 
need not be greater than such interval between the days of payment. In 
case of tenants occupying and cultivating farms, the notice must fix the ter- 
mination of the tenancy to take place on the 1st of March, except in cases 
of field tenants and croppers, whose leases shall be held to expire when the 
crop is harvested; provided, that in a case of a crop of corn, it shall not be 
later, than the 1st day of December, unless otherwise agreed upon. But 
when an express agreement is made, whether the same has been reduced to 
writing or not, the tenancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without 
notice. 

But where an express agreement is made, whether reduced to writing or 
not, the tanancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

If such tenant cannot be found in the county, the notices above required 
may be given to any sub-tenant or other person in possession of the prem- 
ises ; or if the premises be vacant, by aflSxing the notice to the principal door 
of the building, or on some conspicuous position on the land, if there be no 
building. 

The landlord shall have a lien for his rent upon all the crops grown on the 
premises, and upon any other personal property of the tenant used on the 
premises during the term, and not exempt from execution, for a period of 
one year after a year's rent or the rent of a shorter period claimed falls due; 
but such lien shall not continue more than six months after the expiration 
of the term. 

The lien may be effected by the commencement of an action, within the 



ABSTRACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 



207 



period abova described, for rent alone; and the landlord is entitled to a writ 
of attachment, upon filing an affidavit that the action is commenced to re- 
cover rent accrued within one year previous thereto upon the premises de- 
scribed in the affidavit. 



WEIGHTS AOTJ JTEAStTEES. 



Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or sold or 
delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to the con- 
trary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to wit: 

Apples, Peaches or Quinces 48 



Apples, reacnes or yumctss ^to 

Cnemes.Grapes, Currants or Gooseber's, 40 
Strawberries, Raspberries or Blackber's, 32 

Osage Orange Seed 32 

Mfllet Seed 45 

. Stone Coal 80 

Lime • 80 

Corn in the ear 70 

Wheat 60 

Potatoes 60 

Beans 60 

Clover Seed 60 

Onions 57 

SheEedCom 56 

Rye 56 

Flax Seed 56 

Sweet Potatoes 46 



Sand 130 

Sorgum Seed 30 

Broom Com Seed 30 

Buckwheat 52 

Salt. 



50 

Barley 48 

ComMeal 48 

Castor Beans 46 

Timothy Seed 45 

Hemp Seed 44 

Dried Peaches 33 

Oats 33 

Dried Apples 24 

Bran 20 

Blue Grass Seed 14 

Hungarian Grass Seed 45 



Penalty for giving less than the above standard is treble damages and 
costs and iive dollars addition thereto as a fine. 



NOTES. 



Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the amount 
and time of payment are mentioned: 

$100. _ Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown or order, one hun- 
dred dollars, for value received. L. D. Lowet. 

A note to be payable in anything else than money needs only the facts 
substituted for money in the above form. 



OBDEBS. 



Orders should be worded simply, thus. 
Mr. F. H, Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 



BILLS OF PUEOHASE. 



W. N. Mason, 



Salem, Illinois, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. GrEAHAM. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.50 $6 00 

2 Seamless Sacks " 30 60 



Received payment, 



A. A. Qbaham. 



$6 60 



208 ABSTEACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 



EE0EIPT3. 



ileceipts should always state when received and wtat for, thus: 
$100. Ohioago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Eeceived of J. "W. Davis, one hundred dollars, for ser- 
vices rendered in grading his Jot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Beady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 

DEFINITION OF COMMERCIAL TEEMS. 

$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or io; B) for pounds, and bbl. for barrels; ^ for per or 
hy the. Thus, Butter sells at 20@30c f fb, and Flour at $8@$12 f bbl. 

% for per cent, and tt for number. 

May 1. "Wheat sells at $1.20@$1.25, " seller June." Seller June means 
that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering it at any 
time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or stock, 
at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller has not 
the stock ou hand. It is for the interest of the person selling " short " to 
depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and till 
his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts " are termed " bears." 

Buying loncf, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, ex- 
pecting to make a profit by the rise in prices. The " longs " are termed 
" bulls," as it is for their interest to " operate " so as to " toss " the prices 
upward as mnch as possible. 



CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT. 



-, Iowa, , 18- 



after date — promises to pay to the order of , dollars, 

at , for value received, with interest at ten per cent per annum after 

until paid. Interest payable , and on interest not paid when due, 

interest at same rate and conditions. 

A failure to pay said interest, or any part thereof, within 20 days after due, shall cause the 
whole note to become due and collectible at once. 
If this note is sued, or judgment is confessed hereon, $ shall be allowed aa attorney fees. 

No.—. P.O. , . 

CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT. 



— VS. — In Court of County, Iowa, , of ■ 

County, Iowa, do hereby confess that justly indebted to , in the 

sum of dollars, and the further sum of $ as attorney fees,_with 

interest thereon at ten per cent from , and — hereby confess judg- 
ment against — ■ as defendant in favor of said , for said sum of 

$ , and $ as attorney fees, hereby authorizing the Clerk of the 

Court of said county to enter np judgment for said sum against 

with costs, and interest at 10 per cent from , the interest to be paid — . 

Said debt and judgment being for . 



ABSTBAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 209 

It is especially agreed, however, That if this judgment is paid within 

twenty days after due, no attorney fees need be paid. And hereby sell, 

convey and release all right of homestead we now occupy in favor of said 

so far as this judgment is concerned, and agree that it shall be liable 

on execution for this judgment. 

Dated , 18—. . 



The State of Iowa, ] 

County. j 

being duly sworn according to law, depose and say that the fore- 
going statement and Confession of Judgment was read over to , and 

that — understood the contents thereof, and that the statements contained 
therein are true, and that the sums therein mentioned are justly to become 

due said as aforesaid. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me and in my presence by the said 
. this day of , 18 — . , Notary Public. 

AETICLES OF AGREEMENT. 

An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunderstand- 
ings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must be 
clearly and explicitly^ stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a reason- 
able consideration. 

Oeneral Form of Agreement. — This agreement, made the second day of 
June, 1878, between John Jones, of Keokuk, county of Lee, State of Iowa, 
of the first part, and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second 
part — 

Witrvesseth: That the said John Jones, in consideration of the agreement 
of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and agrees 
to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good and 
marketable condition, at the village of Melrose, Iowa, during the month of 
November, of this year, one hundred tons of prairie hay, in the following 
lots, and at the following specified times; namely, twenty-five tons by the 
seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the fourteenth of the 
month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty-first, and the entire one hun- 
dred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt fulfill- 
ment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts to 
and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per 
ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreenient by either of the parties hereto, it is hereby 
stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the other, one 
hundred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and year first 
above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 

Agreement with Clerk for Services. — ^This agreement, made the first day 
of May, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight, between Reuben 
Stone, of Dubuque, county of Dubuque, State of Iowa, party of the first 

U 



210 ABSTEACT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

part, and George Barclay, of McGregor, county of Clayton, State of Iowa, 
party of the second part — 

Witnesseth: That the said George Barclay agrees faithfully and diligently 
to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for and during the 
space of one year from the date hereof, should both live such length of time, 
without absenting himself from his occupation; during which time he, the 
said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of Dubuque, will carefully and 
honestly attend, doing and performing all duties as clerk and salesman 
aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects as directed and desired by the 
said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said Barclay, 
the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one thousand 
dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon the last day 
of each month; provided that all dues for days of absence from business by 
said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum otherwise by the agreement 
due and payable by the said Stone to the said Barclay 

"Witness our hands. Eeuben Stone. 

George Baeclat. 
bills of sale. 

A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consideration 
to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The jpurchmer 
must take actual possession of the property, or the bill of sale must be ac- 
knowledged and recorded. 

Common Form, of Bill of Sale. — Know all men by this instrument, that 
I, Louis Clay, of Burlington, Iowa, of the first part, for and in consideration 
of five hundred and ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, 
of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, 
and by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, bis executors, administrators and assigns, my undivided half of ten 
acres of corn, now growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrell, in the town above 
mentioned; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, belonging to rae 
and in my possession at the farm aforesaid; to have and to hold the same unto 
the party of the second part, his executors and assigns forever. And I do, 
for myself and legal representatives, agree with the said party of the second 
part, and his legal representatatives, to warrant and defend the sale of the 
aforementioned property and chattels unto the said party of the second part, 
and his legal representatives, against all and any person whomsoever. 

In witness whereof, T have hereunto aflixed my hand, this tenth' day of 
October, one thousand eight hundred and s«venty-six. 

LoiTis Olat. 

NOTICE TO QUIT. 

To John Wontpay: You are hereby notified to quit the possession of 
the premises you now occupj', to-wit: 

[Insert Description.] 

on or before thirty days from the date of this notice. 

Dated January 1, 1878. Landlord. 

[Reversed for Notice to Landlord.] 



AB8TEA0T OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 211 

GENEEAL FOEM OF WILL FOE EEAL AND PEESONAL PEOPEETT. 

I, Charles Mansfield, of the town of Bellevne, county of Jackson, State of 
Iowa, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing health, but of 
sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be my last will and 
testament, in manner following, to-wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath nnto to my eldest son, Sydney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, of bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself, 
in the township of Iowa, consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, with all 
the houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging; to have and 
to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand Dollars, in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio; and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in the township of 
Fairfield, and recorded in my name in the recorder's oflSce in the county 
where such land is located. The north one hundred and sixty acres of said 
half section is devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 

Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mansfield, 
five shares of railroad stock in the Baltimore & Ohio Kailroad, and my one 
hundred and sixty acres of land, and saw-mill thereon, situated in Manistee, 
Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing, which said real estate is recorded in my name, in the county where 
situated. 

FovHh. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, aU my house- 
hold furniture, goods, chattels and personal property, about my home, not 
hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thousand Dollars of bank stock in 
the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Balti- 
more & Ohio Eailroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and 
benefit of the home farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower, to 
which she is entitled by law — said farm being my present place of residence. 
' Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the income 
from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson street, Chicago, Illinois, 
during the term of his natural life. Said building and land therewith to 
revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon the demise 
of my said father. 

Sixmth. It is also my wiU and desire that, at the death of my wife, Vic- 
toria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to relin- 
quish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may ye- 
vert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

Arid VastVy. I nominate and appoint as the executors of this, my last 
will and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest 
son, Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be 
paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Bellevue, the 
residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, 
for her use forever. 

Li witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and testa- 
ment, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, eight- 
een hundred aiid seventy-two. 

Chaeles Mansfield. 



212 ABSTEACT OT THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

Signed, and declared by Charles Mansfield, as and for his last will and 
testament, in the presence of us, who, at his request, and in his presence, 
and in the presence of each other, have subscribed our names hereunto as 
witnesses thereof. 

Petee a. Schenok, Dubuque, Iowa. 

FEAiirK E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 

CODICIL. 

Wheeeas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testament, 
1 do now, by this writing, add this codocil to my said will, to be taken as a 
part thereof. 

Wheeeas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna Louise, 
has deceased, November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three; and 
whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened Richard 
Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest and title in lands and bank stock and chattels bequeaAed to 
my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth day of 
March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. 

Chaeles Mansfield. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, Charles 
Mansfield, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testament. 
And we, at his request, and in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other, have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Feank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 

John C. Shay, Bellevue, Iowa. 



{Form No. 1.) 
satisfaction of moetgage. 



State of Iowa, , 

County, j 

I, , of the county of , State of Iowa, do hereby acknowledge 

that a certain Indenture of , bearing date the day of , A. D. 

18 — , made and executed by and , his wife, to said on 

the following described Real Estate, in the county of , and State of 

Iowa, to-wit: (here insert description) and filed for record in the office of 

the Recorder of the county of , and State of Iowa, on the day of 

, A. D. 18 — , at o'clock . M. ; and recorded in Book of 

Mortgage Records, on page , is redeemed, paid off, satisfied and dis- 
charged in full. . [seal.] 

State of Iowa, ) 

County, P^- 

Be it Remembered, That on this day of , A. D. 18—, before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared 

, to me personally known to be the identical person who executed the 

above (satisfaction of mortgage) as grantor, and acknowledged • 

signature thereto to be voluntary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and seal, the day and year last above 

written. ^ — -. 



ABSTBAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. — - 213 

ONE FOEM OF EEAL ESTATE MOETQAGE. 

Know all Men by these Presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by of 

county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

the following described premises, situated in the county of , and 

State of , to- wit: (here insert description) and do hereby covenant 

with the said that lawfully seized of said premises, that they 

are free from incumbrance, that have good right and lawful authority 

to sell and convey the same; and do hereby covenant to warrant and 

defend the same against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. To 

be void upon condition that the said shall pay the fall amount of 

principal and interest at the time therein specified, of certain promis- 
sory note for the sum of dollars. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18, — with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said Mortgagee agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied upon 
the above described premises. It is also agreed by the Mortgagor that if 
it becomes necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a reasonable amount shall 

be allowed as an attorney's fee for foreclosing. And the said hereby 

relinquishes all her right of dower and homestead in and to the above de- 
icribed premises. 
Signed this day of , A. D. 18—. 



[Acknowledge as in Form No. 1 .J 

SECOND FOEM OF EEAL ESTATE MOETGAGE. 

This Indentuee, made and executed by and between of the 

county of and State of , part of the first part, and of the 

county of and State of ^part of the second part, Witnesseth, that 

the said part of the first part, for and in consideration of the sum of 

dollars, paid by the said part of the second part, the receipt of which is 
hereby acknowledged, have granted and sold, and do by these presents, grant, 
bargain, seU, convey and confirm, unto the said party of the second part, 
heirs and assigns forever, the certain tract or parcel of real estate, sit- 
uated in the county of and State of , described as follows, to-wit: 

{Here insert description.) 

The said part of the first part represent to and covenant with the part 
of the second part, that he have good right to sell and convey said prem- 
ises, that they are free from incumbrancg, and that he will warrant and de- 
fend them against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever, and do ex- 
pressly hereby release all rights of dower in and to said premises, and relin- 
quish and convey all rights of homestead therein. 

This instrument is made, executed and delivered upon the following con- 
ditions, to-wit: 

First. Said first part agree to pay said or order 

Second. Said first part further agree as is stipulated in said note,-'that 



214 ABSTEAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 

if he shall fail to pay any of said interest when due, it shall bear interest 
at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, from the time the same becomes due, 
and this mortgage shall stand security for the same. 

Thvrd. Said first part further agree that he will pay all taxes and 
assessments levied upon said real estate before the same become delinquent, 
and if not paid the holder of this mortgage may declare the whole sum of 
money herein secured due and collectable at once, or he may elect to pay 
such taxes or assessments, and be entitled to interest on the same at the 
rate of ten per cent, per annum, and this mortgage shall stand as security 
for the amount so paid. 

Fowrih. Said first part further agree that if he fail- to pay any of 

said money, either principal or interest, within days aftCr the same 

becomes due; or fail to conform or comply with any of the foregoing con- 
ditions or agreements, the whole sum herein secured shall become due and 
payable at once, and this mortgage may thereupon be foreclosed immedi- 
ately for the whole of said money, interest and costs. 

Fifth. Said part further agree that in the event of the non-payment 
of either principal, interest or taxes when due, and upon the filing of a bill 
of foreclosure of this mortgage, an attorney's fee of dollars shall be- 
come due and payable, and shall be by the court taxed, and this mortgage 
shall stand as security therefor, and the same shall be included in the de- 
cree of foreclosure, and shall be made by the sherifi' on general or special 
execution with the other money, interest and costs, and the contract em- 
bodied in this mortgage and the note described herein, shall in all respects 

be governed, construed and adjudged by the laws of , where the 

same is made. The foregoing conditions being performed, this conveyance 
to be void, otherwise of full force and virtue. 



■■5 



[Acknowledge as in form No. l.J 

FOEM OF LEASE. 

This Article of Ageeement, Made and entered into on this day of 

-, A. D. 187-, by and between , of the county of , and 



State of Iowa, of the first part, and — ■ , of the county of 

and State of Iowa, of the second part, wicnesseth that the said party of the 
first part has this day leased unto the party of the second part the following 
described premises, to- wit: 

{Here insert description.] 

for the term of from and after the — day of , A. D. 187-, at 

the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows, to-wit : 

[S^ere insert terms.'] 

And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due and unpaid, or if 
default be made in any of the covenants herein contained, it shall then be 
lawful for the said party of the first part to re-enter said premises, or to 
destrain for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of 
forcible entry and detainer, notwithstanding tlie provision of Section 3612 
of the Code of 1873; or he may use any or all of said remedies. 

And the said party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the 
first W^ *^® ^®^* ^ above stated, except when said premises are untenable 



ABSTEAOT OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 215 

by reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party 
of the" second part, or persons family, or in employ, or by supe- 
rior force and inevitable necessity. And the said party of the second part 

covenants that will use the said premises as a , and for no other 

purposes whatever; and that especially will not use said premises, or 

permit the same to be used, for any unlawful business or purpose whatever; 

that will not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said premises without 

the written consent of the lessor, under penalty of a forfeiture of all 

rights under this lease, at the election of the party of the first part; and 

that will use all due care and diligence in guarding said property, with 

the buildings,' gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now are, or may 
at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, inevitable 
necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of the 

lessee, or persons of family, or in employ excepted; and at the 

expiration of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said 

covenants herein contained, will, without further notice of any kind, 

quit and surrender the possession and occupancy of said premises in as good 
condition as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, dam- 
ages by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, only excepted. 

In witness whereof the said parties have subscribed their names on the 
date first above written. 

In presence of 



FOEM OF HOTE. 

, 18- 



On or before the — day of , 18 — , for value received, I promise to 

pay or order, dollars, with intesest from date until paid, 

at ten per cent per annum, payable annually, at . Unpaid interest 

shall bear interest at ten per cent per annum. On failure to pay interest 
within days after due, the whole sum, principal and interest, shall be- 
come due at once 



CHATTEL MORTGAGE. 

Know all Men bt these Peesents: That of County, and 

State of^ in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , of 

County and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said the 

following described personal property, now in the possession of in the 

county, and State of , to- wit: 

[Here inseH Description.^ 

And do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 

any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
and to said property being the right of redemption as herein provided. This 
conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, for 

the Slim of— — dollars. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 



216 ABSTRACT OP THE LAWS OT IOWA. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any time any part 
or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said grantee may proceed 
by sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said 
notes, whether due or not, the grantor to pay all necessary expense of such 

foreclosure, including $ Attorney's fees, and whatever remains after 

paying off said notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of , 18 — . . 

[Acknowledged as in Form No. l.J 

WAEEAUTT DEED. 

Know all Men by these Peesents: That of County and 

State of — -, in consideration of the sum of dollars, in hand paid by 

of County, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto 

the said and to — heirs and assigns, the following described premises, 

situated in the County of , State of Iowa, to-wit: 

[Here insert Description.] 

And I do hereby covenant with the said that — lawfully seized in fee 

simple of said premises, that they are free from incumbrance; that — ha good 
right and lawful authority to sell the same, and — do hereby covenant to war- 
rant and defend the said premises and appurtenances thereto belonging, 

against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever; and the said 

hereby relinquishes all her right of dower and of homestead in and to the 
above described premises. 

Signed the day of , A. D. 18 — . 

IN PEESENCE of 



[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 

QUIT-CLAIM DEED. 

Know all Men bt these Peesents: That , of County, State 

of , in consideratiou of the sutn of dollars, to — in hand paid by 

, of County, State of , the receipt whereof — do hereby ac- 
knowledge, have bargained, sold and quit-claimed, and by these presents do 

bargain, sell and quit-claim unto the said and to — heirs and assigns 

forever, all — right, title, interest, estate, claim and demand, botli at law and 
in equity, and as well in possession as in expectancy, of, in and to the fol- 
lowing described premises, to-wit: [here insert description] with all and 
singular the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto belonging. 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18 — . 

Signed in Peesenoe or 



[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 



ABSTEAOT OF THB LAWS OF IOWA. 5J17 



BOND FOB DEBD. 



Know all Men by these Peesents: That of County, and 

State of am held and firmly bound unto of County, and 

State of , in the sum of dollars, to be paid to the said , his 

executors or assigns, for which payment well and truly to be made, I bind 
myself firmly by these presents. Signed the day of , A. D. 18 — . 

The condition of this obligation is such, that if the said obligee shall pay 
to said obligor or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at 
the time therein specified, of — promissory note of even date herewith, for 
the sum of Dollars. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ , dne , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ , dne , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

And pay all taxes accruing upon the lands herein described, then said obli- 
gor shall convey to the said obligee, or his assigns, that certain tract or par- 
cel of real estate, situated in the County of , and State of Iowa, des- 
cribed as follows, to-wit: [here insert description] by a "Warranty Deed, 
with the usual covenants, duly executed and acknowledged. 

If said obligee should fail to make the payments as above stipulated, or 
any part thereof, as the same becomes due, said obligor may at his option, 
by notice to the obligee, terminate his liability under the bond, and resume 
the possession and absolute control of said premises, time being the essence 
of this agreement. 

On the fulfillment of the above conditions, this obligation to become 
void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; unless terminated by 
the obligor as above stipulated. 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 

GAME LAWS. 

By the laws of Iowa, as amended by the Legislature of 1878, it is nnlaw- 
fiil to do any of the following acts: 

BIBDS AND QUADEUPEDS. 

1. To kill, trap, ensnare, or in any manner destroy any of the birds of 
the State, except birds of prey and game birds, during the open seasons as 
provided by law; or to destroy the eggs of such birds as are protected by 
this section — except that persons Mfling birds for scientific purposes, or 

f reservation in miiseums and cabinets, are not liable under this section, 
'enalty, $5 to $25. 

2. To shoot or kill any prairie chicken from Dec. 1 to Sept. 1, woodcock 
from Jan. 1 to July 10, pheasant, wild turkey or quail from Jan. 1 to Oct. 
1, wild duck, snipe, goose or brant from May 1 to Aug. 15, deer or elk from 
Jan. 1 to Sept. 1, beaver, mink, otter or muskrat from April 1 to Novem- 
ber. Penalty, deer or elk, $25; the others, $10. 

3. To take or attempt to take at any time with trap, net or snare any 
bird or animal mentioned in Sec. 2, or to willfully destroy the eggs or nests 
of such birds. Except that beaver, mink, otter or muskrat may be trapped 



218 ABSTEAOT OF THE LAWfe OV IOWA. 

or snared during the open season, or at any time for the protection of .pri- 
vate property. Penalty the same as in section 2. 

4. To shoot or kill any wild duck, goose or brant with any kind of gim, 
except such as is commonly shot from the shoulder, or to use medicated or 
poisoned food to capture or kill any of the birds mentioned in section 2. 
Penalty, $25, and thirty days in jail unless sooner paid. 

5. To shoot or kill for traffic any prairie chicken, snipe, woodcock, quail 
or pheasant at any time; for one person to kill during one day mote than 25 
of either kind of said birds; to ship or take out of the State any bird 
mentioned in section 2, deer or elk; to buy, sell, or have in possession any 
such bird, deer or elk during the close season, except the first five days. Pen- 
alty, deer or elk, $25 ; others, $10. 

6. For any person, firm, or corporation to have in possession, at one 
time, more than twenty-five of either prairie chicken, snipe, woodcock, quail 
or pheasant, unless lawfully received for transportation; to ship to any per- 
son in the State in one day more than one dozen of the birds mentioned in 
section 2; and in case of shipment an affidavit must be made that the birds 
have not been unlawfully killed, bought, sold, or had in possession, and are 
not . shipped for sale or profit, and giving name and address of consignee 
and number of birds shipped, and a copy of the affidavit shall accompany 
the birds, etc. .Penalty, same as in section 2. The making of a false affi- 
davit is perjury. 

7. For any common carrier, its agent or servant, to knowingly receive 
for transportation any bird or animal mentioned in section two, during the 
close season (except the first five days), or at any other time, except in the 
manner provided by law. Penalty, $100 to $300, or 30 days in jail, or 
both. 

8. The having in possession during the close season, except the. first five 
days, of any bird mentioned in section 2, deer or elk, \i prima facie evidence 
of a violation of the law. 

9. Prosecutions, except under section 1, may be brought in any county 
where the game is found, and the court shall appoint an attorney to prose- 
cute, who shall be entitled to a fee of $10; and the person filing the infor- 
mation to a fee equal to half the fine imposed on tlie defendant; both fees 
to be taxed as costs. The county is, however, in no event liable for either. 

FISH AUD FISH WATS. 

10. To catch or kill bass or wall-eyed pike from April 1 to June 1; sal- 
mon or trout from November 1 to February 1. Penalty, $5 to $25. 

11. To use any seine or net for the purpose of catching fish, except 
native minnows, and except by the fish commissioner for propagation and 

. exchange. Penalty, $5 to $50 for first offense; $20 to $50 for second. 

12. To place across any river, creek, pond or lake, any trot line, dam, 
seine, weir, fisli-dam, or other obstruction, in such manner as to prevent the 
free passage of fish, except under the direction of the fish commissioner, and 
except dams for manufacturing purposes provided with fish-ways. Penalty, 
$25 to $100, or 10 to 30 days in jail. 

13. To continue any dam or obstruction heretofore erected, for an unrea- 
sonable length of time, after the 6th day of April, 1878, without having 
fish- ways provided therein. Penalty, $5 to $50 for first offense; $20 to $50 
for the second, and the dam abated as a nuisance. 



ABSTEACrr OF THE LAWS OF IOWA. 219 

14. Persons raising or propagating fish on their own premises, or own- 
ing premises on which there are waters having no natural outlet, supplied 
with fisli, shall absolutely own said fish. No person shall take, or attempt 
to take, fish therefrom without consent of the owner. Penalty, $5 to $25, 
or 30 days in jail. 

The " close " season is when killing is forbidden ; the " open " season is 
when it is not. 



PURCHASING BOOKS BY SUBSOEIPTION. 

The business of publishing hooks hy subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not <mthorized by the publisher, in order to prevent that as'much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation sach 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the follow- 
ing statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the book 
named, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described by the pro- 
spectus and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before 
subscribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 
and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he is usually paid a commis- 
sion for each subscriber, and has no authority to cJiange or alter the con- 
ditions upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the 
publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription 
conditional, or -modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out 
by the prospectus and sample, in order to bind the principal, the sub- 
scriber should see that such condition or changes are stated over or in con- 
nectionwith his signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
otiier business, should remember that the law as written is, that they can 
not be altered, varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be 
done in writing. It is therefore important that 2M persons contemplating 
subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after the 
subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 
contract. 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
^escribed mode and have no authority to do it any other way to the pre- 
judice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
matter. They can not collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery nor hind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their business. 

It would same a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is; and if they cannot read them- 
selves call on some one disinterested who can. 



Constitution of State of Iowa. 



We, the People of the State of Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the 
blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him J or a con- 
timiation of those blessings, do ordain and establish a free and independ- 
ent government, hy the name of the State of Iowa, the boundaries whereof 
sJmLI be as follows: 

Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, 
at a point due east of the middle of the mouth of the main channel of the 
Des Moines river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said 
Des Moines river, to a point on said river where the northern boundary 
line of the State of Missouri — as established by the Constitution of that 
State, adopted June 12, 1820 — crosses the said middle of the main channel 
of the said Des Moines river; thence westwardly along the said northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established at the time aforesaid, 
until an extension of said line intersects the middle of the main channel of 
the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said 
Missouri river, to a point opposite the middle of the main channel of the Big 
Sioux river, according to Nicollett's map; thence up the main channel of 
the said Big Sioux river, according to said map, until it is intersected by the 
parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude; thence east 
along said parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, until said par- 
allel intersects the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said Mississippi river, to the place 
of beginning. 

Aeticle 1. — Bill of Eights. 

Section 1. All men are, by nature, free and equal, and have certain in- 
alienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and 
liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and 
obtaining safety and happiness. 

Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is 
instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they 
have the right, at all times, to alter or reform the same, whenever the pub- 
lic good may require it. 

Sec. 3, The General Assembly shall make no law respecting an estab- 
ment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; nor shall any per- 
son be compelled to attend any place of worship, pay tithes, taxes, or other 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 221 

rates, for building or repairing places of worship, or the maintenance of any 
minister or ministry. 

Sbo. 4. 'No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any 
ofBee of public trust, and no person shall be deprived of any of his rights, 
privileges, or capacities, or disqualified from the performance of any of his 
public or private duties, or rendered incompetent to give evidence in any 
court of law or equity, in consequence of his opinions on the subject of re- 
ligion; and any party to any judicial proceeding shall have the right to use 
as a witness, or take the testimony of any other person, not disqualified on 
acconnt of interest, who may be cognizant of any fact material to the case; 
and parties to suits may be witnesses, as provided by law. 

Sec. 5. Any citizen of this State who may hereafter be engaged either 
directly or indirectly, in a duel, either as principal or accessory before the 
fact, shall forever be disqualified from holding any office under the Consti- 
tution of this State. 

Sec. 6. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation; the 
General Assembly shall not grant to any citizen, or class of citizens, privi- 
leges or immunities, which upon the same terms shall not equally belong 
to all citizens. 

Sec. T. Every person may speak, write and publish his sentiments on 
all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right. No law shall be 
passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all 
prosecutions or indictments for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to 
the jury, and if it appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous 
was true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the 
party shall be acquitted. 

Sec. 8. Tlie right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable seizures and searches shall not be 
violated; and no warrant shall issue but on probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searciied, and 
the persons and things to be seized. 

Seo. 9. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate; but the Gen- 
eral Assembly may authorize trial by a jury of a less number than twelve 
men in inferior courts; but no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law. 

Seo. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, and in cases involving the life or 
liberty of an individual, the accused shall have a right to a speedy and pub- 
lic trial by an impartial jury; to be informed of the accusation against him ; 
to have a copy of the same when demanded; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for his own witnesses; and to 
have the assistance of counsel. 

Seo. 11. All oftenses less than felony, and in which the punishment 
does not exceed a fine of one hundred dollars, or imprisonment for thirty 
days, shall be tried summarily before a justice of the peace, or other officer 
authorized by law, on information under oath, without indictment, or the 
intervention of a grand jury, saving to the defendant the right of appeal; 
and no person shall be held to answer for a higher criminal offense, unless 
on presentment or indictment by a grand jury, except in cases arising in 
the army or navy, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war 
or public danger. 

Seo. 12. No person shall, after acquittal, be tried for the same offense. 



222 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 

All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except 
for capital offenses, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great. 

Seo. 13. The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, or refused 
when application is made as required by law, unless in the case of rebellion 
or invasion, the public safety may require it. 

Seo. 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No 
standing army shall be kept up by the State in time of peace; and in time 
of war no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than 
two years. 

Sec. 15. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house 
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war except in the manner 
prescribed by law. 

Sec. 16. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No 
person shall be convicted of treason unless on the evidence of two witnesses 
to the same overt act, or confession in open court. 

Sec. 17. Excessive bail shall not be required ; excessive fines shall not be 
imposed, and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted. 

Sec. 18. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just 
compensation first being made, or secured to be made, to the owner thereof, 
as soon as the damages shall be assessed by a jury, who shall not take into 
consideration any advantages that may result to said owner on account of 
the improvement for which it is taken. 

Sec. 19. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on 
mesne or final process, unless in case of fraud; and no person shall be im- 
prisoned for a military fine in time of peace. 

Sec. 20. The people have the right freely to assemble together to coun- 
sel for the common good ; to make known their opinions to their represen- 
tatives, and to petition for a redress of grievances. 

Sec. 21, No bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed. 

Sec. 22. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become residents of this 
State, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment, 
and descent of property, as native born citizens. 

Sec. 23. There shall be no slavery in this State; nor shall there be in- 
voluntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime. 

Sec. 24. No lease or grant of agricultural lands, reserving any rent or 
service of any kind, shall be valid for a longer period than twenty years. 

Sec. 25. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or 
deny others, retained by the people. 

Aetiole 2. — Right of Suffrage. 

Section 1. Every male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty- 
one years, who shall have been a resident of this State six months next pre- 
ceding the election, and in the county in which he claims his vote sixty 
days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or hereafter 
may be authorized by law. 

Sec. 2. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of 
the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their 
attendance at such elections, going to and returning therefrom. 



OONSTrrUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 223 

Sbo. 3. No elector shall be obliged to perform military duty on the day 
of election, except in time of war or public danger. 

Seo. 4. No person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United 
States shall be considered a resident of this State by being stationed in any 
garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station within this State, 

Seo. 5. No idiot or insane person, or person convicted of any infamous 
crime, shall be entitled to the privilege of an elector. 

Seo. 6. All elections by the people shall be by baUot. 



Article 3. — Of the Disteibution of Powees. 

Section 1. The powers of the government of Iowa shall be divided into 
three separate departments: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial; 
and no person charged with the exercis.e of powers properly belonging to one 
of these departments shall exercise any function appertaining to either of 
the others, except in cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted. 

Legislative Depaetment. 

Section 1. The legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Kepresen- 
tatives; and the style of every law shall be — "jBe it enacted iy the General 
Assembly of the State of Iowa." 

Sec. 2. The sessions of the General Assembly shall be biennial, and 
shall commence on the second Monday in January next ensuing the election 
of its members; unless the Governor of the State shall, in the meantime, 
convene the General Assembly by proclamation. 

Sec. 3. The members of the House of Ktspresentatives shall be chosen 
every second year, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on 
tiie second Tuesday in October, except the years of the Presidential elec- 
tion, when the election shall be on the Tuesday next after the first Monday 
in November; and their term of office shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election, and continue two years, and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec 4. No person shall be a member of the House of ^Representatives 
who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; be a free white 
male citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this 
State one year next preceding his election, and at the time of his election 
shall have had an actual residence of sixty days in the county or district he 
may have been chosen to represent. 

Seo. 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four yeers, at ths same 
time and place as Kepresentatives; they shall be twenty-five years of age, 
and possess the qualifications of Kepresentatives, as to residence and citi- 
zenship. 

Seo. 6. The number of Senators shall not be less than one-third, nor 
more than one-half the representative body; and shall be so classified by 
lot, that one class being as nearly one-half as possible, shall be elected every 
two years. "When the number of Senators is increased, they shall be an- 
nexed by lot to one or the other of the two classes, so as to keep them as 
nearly, equal in numbers as practicable. 



224 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 

Seo. 7. Each House shall choose its own officers, and judge of the quali- 
fication, election and return of its own members. A contested election 
sliall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law. 

Seo. 8. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to transact 
business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may 
compel the att«!ndance of absent members in such manner and under such 
penalties as each house may provide. 

Sec. 9. Each house shall sit upon its own adjournments, keep a journal 
of its proceedings, and publish the same; determine its rules of proceed- 
ings, pnnish members for disorderly behavior, and with the consent of 
two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense; and 
shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the General Assembly 
of a free and independent State. 

Sec. 10. Every member of the General Assembly shall have the liberty 
to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think 
injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent 
entered on the journals; and the yeas and nays of the members of either 
liouse, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be 
entered on the journals. 

Seo. 11. Senators and Representatives, in all cases except treason, felony, 
or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest djuring the session 
of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same. 

Sec. 12. When vacancies occur in either house, the governor, or the per- 
son exercisii^g the functions of governor, shall issue writs of election to iill 
such vacancies. 

Sec. 18. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occas- 
sions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy. 

Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn 
for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they 
may be sitting. 

Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house, and may be amended, al- 
tered, or rejected by the other; and every bill having passed both houses, 
sliall be signed by the Speaker and President of their respective houses. 

Sec. 16. Every bill which shall have passed the General Assembly, shall, 
before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor. If he approve, he 
shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to the 
house in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, it again pass 
both houses, by yeas and nays, by a majority of two-thirds of the members 
of each house, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor's objec- 
tions. If any bill shall not be returned within three days after it shall 
have been presented to him (Sunday excepted), the same shall be a law in 
like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly, by ad- 
journment, prevent such return. Any bill submitted to the Governor for 
his approval during the last three days of a session of the General Assem- 
bly, shall be deposited by him in the office of the Secretary of State within 
thirty days after the adjournment, with his approval if approved by him, 
and with his objections, if he disapproves thereof. 

Sec. 17. No bill shall be passed unless by the assent of a majority of 
all the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly, and the 
question upon the final passage shall be taken immediately upon its last 
reading, and the yeas and nays entered upon the journal. 



OONSTITTmON OF THE STATE 01" IOWA. 226 

Sec. 18. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the 
public money shall be attached to and atfd published with the laws at every 
regular session of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 19. The House of Eepresentatives shall have the sole power of 
impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When 
sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or afiSrmation ; and 
no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the 
members present. 

Sec. 20. The Governor, Judges of the Supreme and District Courts, 
and other State oflScers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor 
or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or 
profit under this State; but the party convicted or acquitted shall neverthe- 
less be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment according to law. All 
other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors and malfeasance in office, 
in such manner as the General Assembly may provide. 

Sec. 21. No Senator or Kepresentative shall, during the time for which 
he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under 
this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall 
have been increased during such term, except such offices as may be filled 
by elections by the people. 

Seo. 22. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, 
or this State, or any other power, shall be eligible to hold a seat in the 
General Assembly. But offices in the militia, to which there is attached 
no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmaster, whose 
compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, or notary 
public, shall not be deemed lucrative. 

Seo. 23. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of pub- 
lie moneys, shall have a seat in either house of the General Assembly, or 
be eligible to hold any office of trust or profit in this State, until he shall 
have accounted for and paid into the treasury all sums for which he may 
be liable. 

Sec. 24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence 
of appropriations made by law. 

Sec. 25. Each member of the first General Assembly under this consti- 
tution shall receive three dollars per diem while in session; and the further 
sum of three-dollars for every twenty miles traveled in going to and return- 
ing from the place where such session is held, by the nearest traveled route; 
after which they shall receive such compensation as shall be fixed by law; 
but no General Assembly shall have the power to increase the compensa- 
tion of its members. And when convened in extra session they shall re- 
ceive the same mileage and per diem compensation as fixed by law for the 
regular session, and none other. 

Seo. 26. No law of the General Assembly, passed at a regular session, 
of a public nature, shall take effect until the Fourth day of July next, after 
the passage thereof. Laws passed at a special session shall take effect 
' ninety days after the adjournment of the General Assembly, by which they 
were passed. If the General Assembly shall deem any law of immediate 
importance, they may provide that the same shall take effect by publication 
in newspapers in the State. 

Seo. 27. No divorce shall be granted by the General Assembly. 

15 



226 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE Off IOWA. 

Sec. 28. No lottery shall be authorized by this State; nor shall the sale 
of lottery tickets be allowed. 

Seo. 29. Every act shall embrace but one subject, and matters properly 
connected therewith ; which subject shall be expressed in the title. But if 
any subject shall be embraced in an act which shall not be expressed in the 
title, such act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be ex- 
pressed in the title. 

Seo. 30. The General Assembly shall not pass local or special laws in 
the following cases : 

For the assessment and collection of taxes for State, county, or road pur- 
poses ; 

For laying out, opening, and working roads or highways; 

For changing the names of persons; 

For the incorporation of cities and towns; 

For vacating, roads, town plats, streets, alleys, or public squares; 

For locating or changing county seats. 

In all the cases above enumerated, and in all other cases where a general 
law can be made applicable, all laws shall be general, and of uniform ope- 
ration throughout the State; and no law changing the boundary lines of 
any county shall have effect until upon being submitted to the people of 
the counties affected by the change, at a general election, it shall be ap- 
proved by a majority of the votes in each county, cast for and against it. 

Sec. 31. No extra compensation shall be made to any officer, public 
agent, or contractor, after the service shall have been rendered, or the con- 
tract entered into; nor shall any money be paid on any claim, the subject 
matter of which shall not have been provided for by pre-existing laws, and 
no public money or property shall be appropriated for local or private pur- 
poses, unless such appropriation, compensation or claim, be allowed by two- 
thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly. 

Seo. 32. Members of the General Assembly shall, before they enter 
upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following 
oath or affirmation: " I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 
that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitu- 
tion of the State of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of 
Senator (or Kepresentative, as the case may be), according to the best of 
my ability." And members of the General Assembly are hereby empow- 
ered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation. 

Seo. 33. The General Assembly shall, in the years one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-nine, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-seven, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, and one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-five, and every ten years thereafter, cause an 
enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of the State. 

Sec. 3i. The number of Senators shall, at the next session following 
each period of making such enumeration, and the next session following 
each United States Census, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the 
several counties according to the number of inhabitants in each. 

Sec. 35. The Senate shall not consist of more than fifty members, nor 
the House of Eepresentatives of more than one hundred; and they shall 
be apportioned among the several counties and representative districts of 
the State according to the number of inhabitants in each, upon ratios' to be 
fixed by law; but no representative district shall contain more than four 



OONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 227 

organized connties and each district shall be entitled to at least one Repre- 
sentative. Every county and district which shall have a number of inhabi- 
tants equal to one-half the ratio fixed by law, shall be entitled to one Kep- 
resentative; and any one county containing in addition to the ratio fixed 
by law one-half of that number, or more, shall be entitled to one additional 
Eepresentative. No floating district shall hereafter be formed. 

Sec. 36. At its first session under this Constitution, and at every subse- 
quent regular session, the General Assembly shall fix the ratio of repre- 
sentation, and also, form into repsesentative districts those counties which 
will not be entitled singly to a Representative. 

Sec. 37. When a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district 
shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirely sepa- 
rated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be 
divided in forming a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district. 

Sec. 38. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members thereof 
shall vote viva-voce; and the votes shall be entered on the journal. 

Aeticle i. — Executive Depabtment. 

Section 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested 
in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of 
Iowa. 

Seo. 2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the 
time and place of voting for members of the General Assembly, and shall 
hold his office two years, from the time of his installation, and until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. 

Seo. 3. There shall be a Lieutenant-Governor, who shall hold his office 
two years, and be elected at the same time as the Governor. In voting for 
Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, the electors shall designate for vmom 
they vote as Governor, and for whom as Lieutenant-Governor. The returns 
of every election for Governor, and Lieutenant-Governor, shall be sealed up 
and transmitted to the seat of government of the State, directed to the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall open and publish them 
in the presence of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Seo. i. The persons respectively having the highest number of votes, for 
Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, shall oe declared duly elected ; but in 
case two or more persons shall have an equal, and the highest number of 
votes for either office, the General Assembly shall, by joint vote, forthwith 
proceed to elect one of said persons Governor, or Lieutenant-Governor, as 
the case may be. 

Sec. 5. Contested elections for Governor, or Lieutenant-Governor, shall 
be determined by the General Assembly in such manner as may be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 6. 'No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor, or Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, who shall not have been a citizen of the United States; 
and a citizen of the State two years next preceding the election, and 
attained the age of thirty years at the time of said election. 

Sec. 7. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the 
army, and navy of this State. 

. Seo. 8. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of gov- 
ernment, civil and military, and may require information in writing from 



228 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF I0T7A. 

the officers of the executive department upon any subject relating to the 
duties of their respective offices. 

Sec. 9. He shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed. 

Sec. 10. Wlien any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no 
mode is provided by the Constitution and laws for filling such vacancy, the 
Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy, by granting a commission, 
which shall expire at the end of the next session of the General Assembly, 
or at the next election by the people. 

Sec. 11. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General As- 
sembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the 
purpose for which they shall have been convened. 

Sec. 12. He shall communicate, by message, to the General Assembly, 
at every regular session, the condition of the State, and recommend such 
matters as he shall deem expedient. 

Sec. 13. In case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to 
the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the 
General Assembly to such time as he may think proper; but no such ad- 
journment shall be beyond the time fixed for the regular meeting of the next 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. l^o person shall, while holding any office under the authority of 
the United States, or this State, execute the office of Governor, or Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided. 

Sec. 15. The official term of the Governor, and Lieutenant-Governor, 
shall commence on the second Monday of January next after their election, 
and continue for two years, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. The Lieutenant-Governor, while acting as Governor, shall receive the 
same pay as provided for Governor; and while presiding in the Senate shall 
receive as compensation therefor, the same mileage and double the per diem 
pay provided for a Senator, and none other. 

Sec. 16. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commuta- 
tions and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses except treason and cases 
of impeachment, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law. 
Upon conviction for treason, he shall have power to suspend the execution 
of sentence until the case shall be reported to the General Assembly at its 
next meeting, when the General Assembly shall either grant a pardon, com- 
mute the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall have power to re- 
mit fines and forfeitures, under such regulations as may be prescribed by 
law; and shall report to the General Assembly, at its next meeting, each 
case of reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted, and the reason therefor; 
and also all persons in whose favor remission of fines and forfeitures shall 
have been made, and the several amounts remitted. 

Sec. 17. In case of the death, impeachment, resignation, removal from 
office, or other disability of the governor, the powers and duties of the office 
for the residue of the term, or until he shall be acquitted, or the disability 
removed, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor. 

Sec. 18. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be president of the Senate, but 
shall only vote when the Senate is equally divided; and in case of his ab- 
sence, or impeachment, or when he shall exercise the office of Governor, the 
Senate shall choose a president pro tempore. 

Sec. 19. If the Lieutenant-Governor, while acting as Governor, shall 
be impeached, displaced, resign, or die, or otherwise become incapable of 



OONSTITtTTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 229 

performing the duties of the office, the president pro tempore of the Senate 
shall act as Governor until the vacancy is filled, or the disability removed; 
and if the president of the Senate, for any of the above causes, shall be ren- 
dered incapable of performing the duties pertaining to the office of Gover- 
nor, the same shall devolve upon the Speaker of the House of Kepresenta- 
tives. 

Sec. 20. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of 
the State of Iowa. 

Sec. 21. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the 
authority of the people of the State of Iowa, sealed with the Great Seal of 
the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of 
State. 

Sec. 22. A Secretary of State, Auditor of State, and Treasurer of State, 
shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office two 
years, and until their successors are elected and qualified ; and perform such 
duties as may be required by law. 

Aeticle 6. — Judicial Department. 

Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, 
District Court, and such other courts, inferior to the Supreme Court, as the 
General Assembly may, from time to time, establish. 

Sec. 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of three judges, two of whom 
shall constitute a quorum to hold court. 

Sec. 3. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the quali- 
fied electors of the State, and shall hold their court at such time and place as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. The judges of the Supreme Court so 
elected, shall be classified so that one judge shall go out every two years ; 
and the judge holding the shortest term of office under such classification, 
shall he Chief Justice of the court during his term, and so on in rotation. 
After the expiration of their terms of office, under such classification, the 
term of each judge of the Supreme Court shall be six years, and until his 
successor shall have been elected and qualified. The judges of the Supreme 
Court shall be ineligible to any other office in the State, during the term 
for which they have been elected. 

Sec. 4. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in 
cases in chancery, and shall constitute a court for the correction of errors at 
law, under such restrictions as the General Assembly may by law prescribe; 
and shall have power to issue all writs and process necessary to secure jus- 
tice to parties, and exercise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial 
tribunals throughout the State. 

Sec. 5. The District Court shall consist of a single judge, who shall be 
elected by the qualified electors of the district in which he resides. The 
judge of the District Court shall hold his office for the term of four years, 
and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified; and shall be 
ineligible to any other office, except that of judge of the Supreme Court, 
during the term for which he was elected. 

Sec. 6. The district Court shall be a court of law and equity, which shall 
be distinct and separate jurisdictions, and have jurisdiction in civil and 



230 CONSTITUTION OP THE STATE OF IOWA. 

criminal matters arising in their respective districts, in sucli manner as shall 
be prescribed by law. 

Seo. 7. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be conser- 
vators of the peace mroughout the State. 

Sec. 8. The style of aU process shall be " The State of Iowa," and all 
prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the 
same. 

Sec. 9. The salary of each judge of the Supreme Court shall be two 
thousand dollars per annum ; and that of each District Judge one thousand 
six hundred dollars per annum, until the year eighteen hundred and sixty; 
after which time they shall severally receive such compensation as the Gen- 
eral Assembly may, by law, prescribe; which compensation shall not be 
increased or diminished during the term for which they have been elected. 

Sec. 10. The State shall be divided into eleven judicial districts; and 
after the year eighteen hundred and sixty, the General Assembly may re-or- 
ganize the judicial districts, and increase or diminish the number of districts, 
or the number of judges of the said court, and may increase the number of 
judges of the Supreme Court; but such increase or diminution shall not be 
more than one district, or one judge of either court, at any one session; and 
no re-organization of the districts, or diminution of the judges shall have 
the effect of removing a judge from office. Such re-organization of the dis- 
tricts, or any change in the boundaries thereof, or any increase or diminution 
of the number of judges shall take place every four years thereafter, if nec- 
essary, and at no other time. 

Sec. 11. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be chosen 
at the general election; and the term of office of each judge shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after his election. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the election 
of an Attorney-General by the people, whose term of office shall be two 
years, and nntil his successor shall have been elected and qualified. 

Sec. 13. The qualified electors of each judicial district shall, at the time 
of the election of District Judge, elect a District Attorney, who shall be a 
■f-esident of the district for which he is elected, and who shall hold his office 
for the term of four years, and until his successor shall have been elected 
and qualified. 

Sec. 14. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide for the 
carrying into effect of this article, and to provide for a general system of 
practice in all the courts of this State. 



Aktiole 6. — Militia. 

Section 1. The militia of this State shall be composed of all able-bodied 
male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such 
as are or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of the United States, or of 
this State; and shall be armed, equipped, and trained, as the General Assem- 
bly may provide by law. 

Sec. 2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms 
shall be compelled to do military duty in time of peace: provided, that such 
person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemption in the same 
maimer as other citizens. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 231 

Seo. 3. AH commissioned officers of the militia (staff officers excepted) 
shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and shall be 
commissioned by the Governor. 



Aeticle 7. — State Debts. 

Section 1 The credit of the State shall not, in any manner, be given or 
loaned to, or in aid of, any individual, association, or corporation; and the 
State shall never assume, or become responsible for, the debts or liabilities 
of any individual, association, or corporation, unless incurred in time of war 
for the benefit of the State. 

Sko. 2. The State may contract debts to supply casual deficits or failures 
in revenues, or to meet expenses not otherwise provided for; but the aggre- 
gate amount of such debts, direct and contingent, whether contracted by one 
or more acts of the Greneral Assembly, or at different periods of time, shall 
never exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the 
money arising from the creation of such debts, shall be applied to the pur- 
pose for which it was obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted, and to no 
other purpose whatever. 

Seo. 3. AU losses to the permanent, school, or university fund of this 
State, which shall have been occasioned by the defalcation, mismanagement, 
or fraud of officers controlling or managing the same, shall be audited by 
the proper authorities of the State. The amount so audited shall be a per- 
manent funded debt against the State, in favor of the respective fund sus- 
taining the loss, upon which not less than six per cent annual interest shall 
be paid. The amount of liability so created shall not be counted as a part 
of the indebtedness authorized by the second section of this article. 

Seo. 4. In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, the 
State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend 
the State in war; but the money arising from the debts so contracted shall 
be applied to the piirpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, 
and to no other pm'pose whatever. , 

Seo. 6. Except the debts hereinbefore specified in this article, no debt 
shall hereafter be contracted by, or on behalf of tliis State, unless such debt 
shall be authorized by some law for some single work or object, to be dis- 
tinctly specified therein ; and such law shall impose and provide for the 
collection of a direct annual tax, sufficient to pay the interest on such debt, 
as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt, 
within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof; bnt no such 
law shall take effect until at a general election it shall have been submitted 
to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and 
against it at such election ; and all money raised by authority of such law, 
sliall be applied only fa the specific object therein stated, or the payment of 
the debt created thereby; and such law shall be published in at least one 
newspaper in each county, if one is published therein, throughout the State, 
for three months preceding the election at which it is submitted to the peo- 
ple. 

Sec. 6. The Legislature may, at any time, after the approval of such 
law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance 
thereof, repeal the same; and may, at any time, forbid the contracting of 



232 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 

any further debt, or liability under such law; but the tax imposed- by such 
law, in proportion to the debt or liability, which may have been contracted 
in pursuance thereof, shall remain in force and be irrepealable, and be an- 
nually collected, until the principal and interest are fully paid. 

Sec. 7. Every law which imposes, continues, or revives a tax, shall dis- 
tinctly state the tax, and the object to which it is to be applied; and' it shall 
not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object. 

AkTICLE 8. COEPOEATIONS. 

Section 1. No corporation shall be created by special laws; but the 
General Assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all 
corporations hereafter to be created, except as hereinafter provided. 

Sec. 2. The property of all corporations for pecuniary profit, shall be 
subject to taxation, the same as that of individuals. 

Sec. 3. The State shall not become a stockholder in any corporation, 
nor shall it assume or pay the debt or liability of any corporation, unless 
incurred in time of war for the benefit of the State. 

Sec. 4. N^o political or mimicipal corporation shall become a stock- 
holder in any b'l.nking corporation, directly or indirectly. 

Sec. 5. !N o act of the General Assembly, authorizing or creating corpo- 
rations or associations with banking powers, nor amendments thereto shall 
take effect, nor in any manner be in force, until the same shall have been 
submitted separately, to the people, at a general or special election, as pro- 
vided by law, to be held not less than three months after the passage of the 
act, and shall have been approved by a majority of all the electors voting 
for and against it at such election. 

Sec. 6. Subject to the provisions of the foregoing section, the General 
Assembly may also provide for the establishment of a State Bank with 
branches. 

Sec. 7. If a State Bank be established, it shall be founded on an actual 
specie basis, and the branches shall be mutually responsible for each others' 
liabilities upon all notes, bills, and other issues intended for circulation as 
money. 

Sec. 8. If a general banking law shall be enacted, it shall provide for 
the registry and coantersigning, oy an officer of State, of all bills, or paper 
credit designed to circulate as money, and require security to the full 
amount thereof, to be deposited with the State Treasurer, in IJnited States 
stocks, or in interest paying stocks of States in good credit and standing, to 
be rated at ten per cent below their average value in the city of New York, 
for the thirty days next preceding their deposit; and in case of a deprecia- 
tion of any portion of said stocks, to the amount of ten per cent on the 
dollar, the bank or banks owning said stocks shall be required to make up 
said deficiency by depositing additional stocks; and said law shall also pro- 
vide for the recording of the names of all stockholders in such coi-porations, 
the amount of stock held by each, the time of any transfer, and to whom. 

Sec. 9. Every stockholder in a banking corporation or institution shall 
be individually responsible and liable to its creditx)rs, over and above the 
amount of stock by him or her held, to an amount equal to liis or her re- 
spective shares so held, for all its liabilities, accruing wliile he or she re- 
mains such stockholder. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 233 

Sec. 10. In case of the insolvency of any banking institution, the bill- 
holders shall have a preference over its other creditors. 

Sec. 11. The suspension of specie payments by banking institutions 
BhaU never be permitted or sanctioned. 

Seo. ,12. Subject to the provisions of this article, the General Assembly 
shall have power to amend or repeal all laws for the organization or creation 
of corporations, or granting of special or exclusive privileges or immunities, 
by a vote of two-thirds of each branch of the General Assembly; and no 
exclusive privileges, except as in this article provided, shall ever be granted. 



Article 9. — Education and School Lands 
1 . — Education. 

Section 1. The educational interest of the State, including common 
schools and other educational institutions, shall be under the management 
of a board of education, which shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor, 
who shall be the presiding officer of the board, and have the casting vote in 
case of a tie, and one member to be elected from each judicial district in 
the State. 

Seo. 2. No person shall be eligible as a member of said board who shall 
not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and shall have been one year 
a citizen of the State. 

Sec. 3. One member of said board shall be chosen by the qualified elec- 
tors of each district, and shall hold the office for the term of four years, and 
until his successor is elected and qualified. After the first election under 
this constitution, the board shall be divided, as nearly as practicable, into 
two equal classes, and the seats of the first class shall be vacated after the 
expiration of two years; and one-half of the board shall be chosen every 
two years thereafter. 

Seo. 4. The first session of the board of education shall be held at the 
seat of government, on the first Monday of December, after their election; 
after which the General Assembly may fix the time and place of meeting. 

Seo. 5. The session of the board shall be limited to twenty days, and 
but one session shall be held in any one year, except upon extraordinary oc- 
casions, when, upon the recommendation of two-thirds of the board, the 
Goremor may order a special session. 

Sec. 6. The board of education shall appoint a secretary, who shall be 
the executive officer of the board, and perform such duties as may be im- 
posed upon him by the board, and the laws of the State. They shall keep 
a journal of their proceedings, which shall be pubHshed and distributed in 
the same manner as the journals of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. All rules and regulations made by the board shall be published 
and distributed to the several counties, townships, and school districts, as 
may be provided for by the board, and when so made, published, and dis- 
tributed, th^ shall have the force and effect of law. 

Sec. 8. The board of education shall have full power and authority to 
legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to common 
schools, and other educational institutions, that are instituted to receive aid 
from the school or university fund of this State; but all acts, rules and 



234 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 

regulations of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly; and when so altered, amended, or repealed, they shall not 
be re-enacted by the board of education. 

Seo. 9. The Governor of the State shall be, ae-offioio, a member of said 
board. 

Sec. 10. The board shall have no power to levy taxes, or make appro- 
priations of money. Their contingent expenses shall be provided for by the 
Genera] Assembly. 

Sec. 11. The State University shall be established at one place, without 
branches at any other place, and the university fund shall be applied to that 
institution, and no other. 

Sec. 12. The board of education shall provide for the education of all 
the youths of the State, through a system of common schools; and such 
schools shall be organized and kept in each school district at least three 
months in each year. Any district failing, for two consecutive ;years, to or- 
ganize and keep up a school, may be deprived of their portion of the 
school fund. 

Sec. 13. The members of the board of education shall each receive the 
same per diem during the time of their session, and mileage going to and 
returning therefrom, as members of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business, but no rule, regulation or law, for the regulation 
and government of common schools or other educational institutions, shall 
pass without the concurrence of a majority of all the members of the 
board, which shall be expressed by the yeas and nays on the final passage. 
The style of all acts of the board shall be, " Be it enacted by the board of 
education of the State of Iowa." 

Sec. 15. At any time after the year one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-three, the General Assembly shall have power to abolish or re-organize 
said board of education, and provide for the educational interest of the State 
in any other manner that to them shall seem best and proper. 

2. — School Funds and School Lands. 

Section 1. The educational and school funds and lands, shall be under 
the control and management of the General Assembly of this State. 

Sec. 2. The university lands, and the proceeds thereof, and all moneys 
belonging to said fund shall be a permanent fund for the sole use of the 
State University. The interest arising from the same shall be annually ap- 
propriated for the support and benefit of said university. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, 
the promotion o^ intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improve- 
ment. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be; 
granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which 
may have been, or shall hereafter be, sold or disposed of, and the five hun- 
dred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an act of 
Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several 
States of the Union, approved in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-one, and all estates of deceased persons who may have 
died without leaving a will or heir, and also such per cent as has been, or 
may hereafter be, granted by Congress, on the sale of lands in this State, 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 235 

shall be, and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of wMch, together with 
all rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the General As- 
eembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of 
common schools throughout the State. 

Sec. i. The money which may have been, or shall be, paid by persons 
as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds 
of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal 
laws, shall be exclusively applied, in the several counties in which such 
money is paid, or fine collected, among the several school districts of said 
counties, in proportion to the number of youths subject to enumeration in 
such districts, to the support of commen schools, or the establishment of 
libraries, as the board of education shall, from time to time, provide. 

Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, 
improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may here- 
after be reserved, or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, 
to this State, for the use of a university, and the funds accruing from the 
rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose afore- 
said, shall be, and remain, a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be 
applied to the support of said university, for the promotion of literature, 
the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. 
And it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to pro- 
vide efiectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the 
funds of said university. 

Sbo. 6. The financial agents of the school funds shall be the same, that 
by law, receive and control the State and county revenue, for other civil pur- 
poses, under such regulations as may be provided by law. 

Sec. T. The money subject to the support and maintenance of common 
schools shall be distributed to the districts in proportion to the number of 
youths, between the ages of five and twenty-one years, in such manner as 
may be provided by the General Assembly. 

Aetiole 10. — ^Amendments to the Constitution. 

Section 1. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be 
proposed in either House of the General Assembly; and if the same shall 
be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two 
houses, such proposed amendment shall be entered on their journals, with 
the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the Legislature to be cho- 
sen at the next general election, and shall be published, as provded by law, 
for three months previous to the time of making such choice; and if, in the 
General Assembly so next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or 
. amendments shall be agreed to, by a majority of all the members elected to 
each house, then it shall be the daty of the General Assembly to snbmit 
such proposed amendment or amendments to the people in such manner, 
and at such time as the General Assembly shall provide; and if the people 
shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of 
the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly, voting 
thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Consti- 
tution of this State. 

Sec. 2. If two or more amendments shall be submitted at the same 



236 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 

time, they shall be submitted in such manner that the electors shall vote for 
or against each of such amendments separately. 

Sec. 3. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy, and in each tenth year thereafter, and also at such 
time as the General Assembly, may, by law, provide, the question: " Shall 
there be a Convention to revise the Constitution and amend the same?" shall 
be decided by the electors qiialified to vote for members of the General As- 
sembly ; and in case a majority of the electors so qualified, voting at such 
election for and against such proposition, shall decide in favor of a Conven- 
tion for such purpose, the General Assembly, at its next session, shall pro- 
vide by law for the election of delegates to such Convention. 

Article 11. — ^Miscellaneous. 

Section I. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall extend in all 
cases (except cases in chancery, and cases where the question of title to 
real estate may arise), where the amount in controversy does not exceed one 
hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any 
amount not exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Sec. 2. No new county shall be hereafter created containing less than 
four hundred and thirty-two square miles; nor shall the territory of any or- 
ganized county be reduced below that area, except the county of Worth, and 
the counties west of it, along the northern boundary of the State, may be or- 
ganized without additional territory. 

Sec. 3. IS'o county, or other political or municipal corporation shall be 
allowed to become indebted in any manner, or for any purpose, to an amount 
in the aggregate exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable prop- 
arty within such county or corporation — to be ascertained by the last State 
and county tax lists, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness. 

Sec. 4. The boundaries of the State may be enlarged, with the consent 
of Congress and the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Every person elected or appointed to any office shall, before en- 
tering upon the duties thereof, take an oath or affirmation to support the 
Constitution of the United States, and of this State, and also an oath of 
office. 

Sec. 6. In all cases of elections to fill vacancies in office occurring be- 
fore the expiration of a full term, the person so elected shall hold for the 
residue of the unexpired term; and all persons appointed to fill vacancies in 
office, shall hold until the next general election, and until their successors 
are elected and qualified. 

Sec. .7. The General Assembly shall not locate any of the public lands, 
which have been, or may be granted by Congress to this State, and the lo- 
cation of which may be given to the General Assembly, upon lands actually 
settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim pi 
such occupant so exempted, shall not exceed three hundred and twenty 
acres. 

Sec. 8. The seat of government is hereby permanently established, as 
now fixed by law, at the City of Des Moines, in the county of Polk, and the 
State University at Iowa City, in the county of Johnson. 



constitution of the state of iowa. 237 

Article 12, — Schedule. 

Section 1. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the State, and 
any law inconsistent therewith shall be void. The General Assembly shall 
pass all laws necessary to carry this Constitution into effect. 

Sec. 2. All laws now in force, and not inconsistent with this Constitu- 
tion, shall remain in force until they shall expire or be repealed. 

Sec 3. All indictments, prosecutions, suits, pleas, plaints, process, and 
other proceedings pending in any of the courts, shall be prosecuted to final 
judgment and execution; and all appeals, writs of errors, certiorari, and 
injunctions, shall be carried on in the several courts, in the same manner as 
now provided by law; and all offenses, misdemeanors and crimes that may 
have been committed before the taking effect of this Constitution, shall be 
subject to indictment, trial and punishment, in the same manner as they 
would have been had not this constitution been made. 

Seo. 4:. All fines, penalties, or forfeitures due, or to become due, or ac- 
cruing to the State, or to any county therein, or to the school fund, shall 
inure so the State, county, or school fund, in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 5. All bonds executed to the State, or to any omcer in his official 
capacity, shall remain in force and inure to the use of those concerned. 

Seo. 6. The first election under this constitution shall be held on the 
second Tuesday in October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven, at which time' the electors of the State shall elect the Governor 
and Lieutenant Governor. There shall also be elected at such election, the 
successors of such State Senators as were elected at the August election, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, and members of the 
House of Kepresentatives, who shall be elected in accordance with the act 
of apportionment, enacted at the session of the General Assembly which 
commenced on the first Monday of December, one thouasnd eight hundred 
and fifty-six. 

Seo. 7. The first election for Secretary, Auditor, and Treasurer of State, 
Attorney-General, District Judges, Members of the Board of Education, 
District Attorneys, members of Congress, and such State officers as shall 
be elected at the April election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven (except the Superintendent of Public Instruction), and such 
county officers as were elected at the August election, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fiftj'-six, except Prosecuting Attorney, shall be held 
on the- second Tuesday of October, one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
eight; Provided, that the time for which any District Judge, or any other 
State or county oflicer, elected at the April election in one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty -eight, shall not extend beyond the time fixed for filling 
like oiiices at the October election in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-eight. 

Sec. 8. The first election for Judges of the Supreme Court, and such 
eoiunty officers as shall be elected at the August election, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, shall be held on the second Tuesday 
of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine. 

Sec 9. Tlie first regular session of the General Assemliily shall be lield 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, commencing on the 
second Monday of January of said year. 

Sec 10. Senators elected at tlie August election, in the year one thou- 



238 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 

sand eight hundred and fifty-six, shall continue in office until the second 
Tuesday of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, 
at which time their successors shall be elected as may be prescribed by law. 

Seo. 11. Every person elected by popular vote, by a vote of the General 
Assembly, or who may hold office by Executive appointment, which office 
is continued by this constitiition, and every person who shall be so elected 
or appointed, to any such office, before the taking effect of this constitution, 
(except as in this constitution otherwise provided) shall continue in office 
until the term for which such person has been or may be elected or ap- 
pointed shall expire; but no such person shall continue in office after the 
taking effect of this constitution, for a longer period than the term of such 
office, in this constitution prescribed. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly, at the first session under this eonstitu- 
tion, shall district the State into eleven judicial districts, for District Court 
purposes ; and shall also provide for the apportionment of the General As- 
sembly, in accordance with the provisions of this constitution. 

Sec. 13. The foregoing constitution shall be submitted to the electors of 
the State at the August, election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven, in the several election districts in this State. The ballots at such 
election shall be written or printed as follows : Those in favor of the constitu- 
tion — "New Constitution — ^Yes." Those against the constitution, "New Con- 
stitution — ISTo." The election shall be conducted in the same manner as the 
general elections of the State, and the poll-books shall be returned and can- 
vassed as provided in the twenty -fifth chapter of the Code; and abstracts 
shall be forwarded to the Secretary of State, which abstracts shall be can- 
vassed in the manner provided for the canvass of State officers. And if it 
shall appear that a majority of all the votes cast at such election for and 
against this constitution are in favor of the same, the Governor shall imme- 
diately issue his proclamation stating that fact, and such constitution shall 
be the constitution of the State of Iowa, and shall take efi'ect from and after 
the publication of' said proclamation. 

Sec. 14. At the same election that this constitution is submitted to the 
people for its adoption or rejection, a proposition to amend the same by 
striking out the word " white," from the article on the " Eight of Suffrage," 
shall be separately submitted to the electors of this State for adoption or 
rejection, in manner following, viz ; 

A separate ballot may be given by every person having a right to vote at 
said election, to be deposited in a separate box; and those given for the 
adoption of such proposition shall have the words, " Shall the word ' white ' 
be stricken out of the article on the 'Eight of Suffii-age?' — Yes." And 
those given against the proposition shall have the AVbrds, " Shall the word 
'white' be stricken out of the article on the 'Eight of Suffrage?' — No." 
And if at said election the number of ballots cast in favor of said proposi- 
tion, shall be equal to a majority of those cast for and against this constitu- 
tion, then said word " white " shall be stricken from said article and be no 
part thereof. 

Sec. 15. Until otherwise directed by law, the county of Mills shall be in 
and a part of the Sixth Judicial District of this State. 

Done in convention at Iowa City, this fifth day of March, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and of the independence 
of the United States of America, the eighty-first. 



CONSTITXITION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 



239 



In testimony whereof, we have hereimto subscribed our names : 



Timothy Day, 
S. G. Winchester, 
David Bunkee, 
D. P, Palmee, 
Geo. "W. Ells, 
J. 0. Hall, 
John H. Petees, 
"Wm. H. Waeeen, 
H. W. Geay, 

EOBT. GOWEE, 

H. D. Gibson, 
Thomas Seeley, 
A. H. Maevin, 
J. H. Emeeson, 
K. L. B. Clarke, 
James A. Young, 
D. H. Solomon, 



Attest! 
Th. J. Satindees, Secretary. 
E. N. Bates, Assistant Secretaan/. 



m. "w. eobinson, 
Lewis Todhttntee, 
John Edwaeds, 
J. 0. Teaee, 
James F. Wilson, 
Amos Haeeis, 
Jno. T. Claek, 
S. Ayees, 
Haevey J, Skiff, 
J. A. Paevin, 
W. Penn Claeke, 
Jeee. Hollingwoeth, 
Wm. Patteeson, 
D. W. Peioe, 
Alpheus Scott, 
Geoege Gillaspy, 
Edwaed Johnston. 

Francis Speingee, President. 



Constitution of United States. 



We, the people of the United States, vn, order to form a more perfect wiiion, 
establish justwe, insure domestic tra/ngwhUl/y, provide for the common 
defence, promote the general welfare, and secwre the hlessmgs of Uberty 
to owrseVves and owr posterity, do ordam and estaMish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 



Aeticle I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of 
Eepresentatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Eepresentatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors 
in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age 
of twenty -five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall 
be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective 
numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free 
persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and exclud- 
ing Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumer- 
tion shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress 
of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such 
manner as they shall by law direct. 

The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thou- 
sand, but each state shall have at least one representative, and until such 
enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to 
choose three, Massachusetts eight, Khode Island and Providence Plantations 
one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Caro- 
lina five, and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the execu- 
tive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

The House of Eepresentatives shall choose their speaker, and other officers 
and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Sen- 



AUTD ITS AMENDMENTS. 241 

ators from eacli State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be, into three classes. The 
seats of the Senators of the first dass shall be vacated at the expiration of 
the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; 
and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one-third 
may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation 
or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointments nntQ the next meeting of the 
Lemslature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty 
years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Yice-President of the United States shall be president of the Senate; 
hut shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tem- 
pore, in the absence of the Yice-President, or when he shall exercise the of- 
fice of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sit- 
ting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. "When the Pres- 
ident of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no 
person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend farther than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, 
trust or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, never- 
theless, be hable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment 
according to law. 

Seo. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Kepresentatives, shall be prescribed, in each state, by the Legislature 
thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such reg- 
ulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint 
a different day. 

Sec. 6. Each house shall be the judge of the elections returns, and quali- 
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum 
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and 
may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such 
manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
hers for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel 
a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and, from time to time, 
pnbhsh the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require 
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any ques- 
tion, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the 
journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than 
that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 
16 



242 OONSTITTTTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of 
the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach 
of the peace, be privileged from arrest" during their attendance at the sessioij 
of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and, 
for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any 
other place. 

No Senator or Kepresentative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office, under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have 
been increased during such time; and no person, holding any office under 
the United States shall be a member of either house, during his continuance 
in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Eepresentatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the Hoiise of Kepresentaties and the 
Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the 
United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, 
with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who 
shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider 
it. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass 
the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of 
that, house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both 
houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons 
voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house 
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten 
days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same 
shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by 
their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate 
and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn- 
ment), shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before 
the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by 
him shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a 
biU. 

Seo. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and'excises; to pay the debts, and 
provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; 
but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United 
States; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 
standard of weights and measures; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current 
coin of the United States; 



AND ITS AMEMDMENTS. 243 

To establish post-offices and post-roads; 

To promote tne progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited 
times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, 
and offenses against the law of nations; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con- 
cerning captures on land and water; 

To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be tor a longer term than two years; 

To provide ana maintain a navy; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval 
forces; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for 

Soveming such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
Tnited States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment ,of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia, according to the discipline 
prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district 
(not exceeding ten miles square), as may, by cession of particular States, and 
the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authorify over all places purchased by the consent 
of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of 
forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Consti- 
tution in the government of the United States, or in any department, or 
officer thereof. 

Seo. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the 
Congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax 
or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for 
each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. 

No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the 
census, or enumeration, hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No 
preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the 
ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels, bound to or from 
one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appro- 
priations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts 
and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. 

No title of nobUity shall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent 
of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind 
whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 



214 coNSTiruTioif of the TiNrrED states 

Sec. 10. !N"o State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 
grant letters of marqne and risprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make 
anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any 
bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of con- 
tracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No State sbaU, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duties 
on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing 
its inspection laws; and the net produce of aU duties and imposts, laid by 
any State on imports and exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the 
United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of 
the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. Tlie executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four 
years, and, together with the Yice-President, chosen for the same term, be 
elected as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and 
Hepresentatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no 
Senator or Eepresentative, or person holding an office of trust or profit 
under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for 
two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same 
State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted 
for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and cer- 
tify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, 
in the presence of the Senate and House of Pepresentatives, open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the 
greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a major- 
ity of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if there be more than 
one who have such ma,]'ority, and have an equal number of votes, then the 
House of Pepresentatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them 
for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest 
on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the President. But 
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representa- 
tion from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shaU ron- 
sist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority 
of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the 
choice of a President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the 
electors, shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or 
more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the 
Vice-President. 

The Congress iaay determine the time of choosing the electors, and the 
day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 



AND ITS AMENDMENTS. 245 

No person, except a natural-bom citizen, or a citizen of the United States 
at the time of the adoption of tliis Constitution, shall be eligible to the office 
of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not 
have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident 
within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resig- 
nation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office, the 
same shall devolve on the Yice-President; and the Congress may, by law, 

frovide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabiHfy, both of the 
'resident and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as Presi- 
dent, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensa- 
tion, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for 
which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period, 
any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following 
oath, or affirmation: 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, 
protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy 
of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called 
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in 
writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon 
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall 
have power to grant reprieves and pardons for ofienses against the United 
States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he 
shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall 
appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the 
Supreme Court, and aU other officers of the United States, whose appoint- 
ments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established 
by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior 
officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or 
in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen dur- 
ing the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at 
the end of their next session. 

Seo. 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of 
the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures 
as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinay occasions, 
convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between 
them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such 
time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public 
ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall 
eommission all the officers of the United States. 

Seo. 4. The President, Yice-President, and aU civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of 
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 



246 OCiNSTITOTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

Ajjtiolb III. 

Section 1. The judicial power of tte United States shall be vested in 
one Supreme Ccurt, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from 
time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, aris- 
ing under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, 
or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases alfecting ambas- 
sadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and 
maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a 
party; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citi- 
zens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens 
of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between 
a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have orig- 
inal jurisdiction. In all other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court 
shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of aU crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shaU be by jury; 
and such trials shall be held in the State where the said crime shall have 
been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall 
be at such place or places as the Congress may, by law, have directed. 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving fhem aid and com- 
fort. !N'o person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

The Congress shall have power to declare the pimishment of treason, but 
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except 
during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State, to the pub- 
lic acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Con- 
gress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records 
and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and 
immunities of citizens in the several States. 

A person charged, in any State, with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of 
the Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, 
to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, 
be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim 
of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Seo. 3. New States may be admitted, by the Congress, into this Union ; 



AND ITS AMENDMENTS. 247 

but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, 
or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States con- 
cerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make aU needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the 
United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any slaims of the United States, or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union, 
a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against 
invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when 
tlie legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

Aeticle V. 

The Congress, whenever two- thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the 
Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for pro- 
posing amendments, which in either case shall be valid to all intents and 
purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 
three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, 
as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Con- 
gress; provided that no amendment, which may be made prior to the year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first 
and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, 
without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Aeticle VL 

All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption 
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, imder this 
Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made 
in pursuance thereof, and aU treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the 
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution 
or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Kepresentatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of 
the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath, or affirm- 
ation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be re- 
quire, as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 
States. 

Article YII. 

The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the 
establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same 

Done in convention \yy the unanimous consent of the States present, the 
seventeenth day of iSeptember, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 



248 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 



hundi'ed and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States 
of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed 
our names. 

GEO. WASHINGTON, 
President and Deputy from Virginia. 



New Hwmpshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Massachusetts. 
Nathaniel Goeham, 
KuFus King. 

Comneeticut. 
Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 

EOGEK ShEEMAN. 

New Yorh. 

A LEY ANDES HAMILTON. 

New Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm, Pateeson, 
David Beeaelet, 
JoNA. Dayton. 

Pennsylvania. 
B. Feanklin, 
Eobt. Moeeis, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Cltmee, 
Jaeed Ingeesoll. 
Gouv. Moeeis. 



Delaware. 
Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Beoom, 
Gunning Bedfoed, Je., 

ElOHAED BaSSETT. 

Maryland. 
James M'Henet, 
Danl. Caeeoll, 
Dan. of St. Thos, Jenifee. 

Virginia. 
J OHN Blaie. 
James Madison, Je. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Eioh'd Dobes Spaight. 

South Carolina. 
J. Kutledge, 
Chaeles Pincknet, 
Chas. Ooteswoeth PmoKNEr, 

PlEECE BuTLEE. 

Georgia. 
William Few, 
Abe. Baldwin. 

WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary. 



AMENDMENTS 



To the Constitution of the Urdted States, ratified according to the provis- 
ions of the Fifth Article of the foregoing Constitution. 



Aetiole I. 

Confess shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of speech, 
or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to pe- 
tition the government for a redlresss of grievances. 



AND ITS AMENDMENTS. 249 

Aeticlb II. 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, 
the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. 

Aeticlb III. 

Ko soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the 
consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed 
bylaw. 

Aeticlb IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and 
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated ; 
and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the per- 
sons or things to be seized. 

Aeticlb Y, 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the mUitia, when in actual 
service, in time of war, or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same ofiense to be twice put in jeapordy of life or limb; nor shall 
be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall 
private property be taken for public use without just compensation. 

Aeticle VI. 

In aU criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy 
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accu- 
sation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compul- 
sory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance 
of counsel for his defence. 

Aeticlb VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy^ shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, 
tried by jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States, than according to the rules of common law. 

Aeticle VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
and unusual punishments inflicted. 



250 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

Article IX. 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be con- 
strued to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Aeticle X. 

The powers not delegated to the TJnited States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to 
the people. 

Aeticle XI. 

The judicial power of the United shall not be construed to extend to any 
suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign 
State. 

Article XII. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot, for 
President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves; they shall name, in their ballots, 
the person voted for as President, and, in distinct ballots, the person voted 
tor as Yice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted 
for as President and of all persons voted for as Yice-President, and of the 
niunber of votes for each, which lists they shall sim and certify, and trans- 
mit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to 
the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in pres- 
ence of the Senate and House of Eepresentatives, open all the certificates, 
and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest num- 
ber of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have 
such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not ex- 
ceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Eep- 
resentatives shall choose immediately by ballot, the j?resident. But, in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation 
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of 
a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all 
the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of JRepresenta- 
tives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve 
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice- 
President shall act as President, as in the case of the death, or other consti- 
tutional disability of the President. 

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall 
be the Vice-President, if siich number be a majority of the whole number 
of electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then, from the tw» 
highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President ; a 
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two- thirds of the whole number of 
Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 

But no person, constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President ot the United States. 



AND ITS AMENDMKNTS. 251 

AitTICLB XIII. 

1. Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within 
the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

AUTICLE XIV. 

1. All persons born, or naturalized, in the United States, and subject to 
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the States 
wherein they reside. JTo State shall make or enforce aiw law which shall 
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor 
shall any State deprive any person of life liberty, or property, without due 
process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States, ac 
cording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons 
in each State, excluding Indians not taxed; Dut whenever the right to vote 
at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President 
of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial 
officers of the State, or members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any 
of the male .inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridge, except for participation 
in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of representation shall be reduced in 
the proportion which the whole number of such male citizens shall bear to 
the whole number of male citizens, twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be Senator or Representative in Congress, or elec- 
tor of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, 
under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken 
an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or 
as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer 
of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion, against the same, or given aid and com- 
fort to the enemies thereof ; but Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of 
each house, remove sueh disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States authorized by 
law, including debts incurred for the payment of pensions and bounties for 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 
the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation 
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any 
claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but such debts, obliga- 
tions, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, 
the provisions of this article. 

Aeticle XV. 

The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 



Miscellaneous. 



PEACTICAL EULES FOR EYERY DAT USE. 

Mow to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price a/re 
given. 

EuLE. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which will 
be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost price; 
the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule — Multiply the given sum of gold, by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Rule. — Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner^ s share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 
business. 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quotient 
will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent, the result will be each 
one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 
A short and simple method fior finding the net weight, or price ofihogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note. — It is generally assumed that the gross weight of Hogs diminislied by 1-5 or 20 
per cent, of itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by }4 <" 25 per cent, 
of itself equals the gross weight. 

To fine the net weight or gross price. 

Rule. — Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Rule. — Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cupic feet by 6308, 
and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct answer in 
bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

J^or only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or by 4i 



MISCELLAKEOUS. 253 

ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the 
answer in bushels. 

Note.— In estimating com in the eax, the quality and the time it has been cribbed 
must be taken into consideration, since com mil shrink considerably during the Winter and 
Spring. This rule generally holds good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided 
it is sound and dean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

KuLE. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all in 
feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one decimal 
place — the result will be the contents in barrels of Z\\ gallons. 

Sow to find the contents of a iarrel or cash. 

KcjLE. — Under the sqnare of the mean diameter, write the length (all in 
inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the tens; multi- 
ply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point off one decimal 
place, and the result will be the answer in wirie gallons. 

How to measure hoards. 

Ktjle. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and divide 
the product by 12— the result will be the contents in sqnare feet. 

How to measure scantlings, joists, pla/nhs, sills, etc. 

KoLE. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together (the 
width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide the pro- 
duct by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the nurtiber of acres vn a body of land. 

EuLE. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the pro- 
duct by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a remain- 
der); the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, add 
them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in afioor or wall. 
KtiLE. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and divide 
the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

How to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

EuLE. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22J-. 

The number ot cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height and 
thickness (in feet) together. 

Ericks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, but 
it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required vn a roof. 

EuLE. — ^Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the shin- 
gles are exposed 4|- inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 

To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the ■ 
width of the building by .66 (hundredths); at oNE-TraED pitch, by .6 
(tenths); at two-eifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths); at one-half pitch, by 
.71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from the apex to 
the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be taken into 
consideration. 

Note.— By M or J^ jntch is meant that the apex or comb of the roof is to be ^ or J^ the 
width of the buuding mgher than the waUs or base of the rafters. 



254 MISCELLANEOUS. 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

EuLE. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, and 
remove the decimal point three places to the left. ' 

Sow to measure grain. 

KuLE. — Level the grain; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic feet; 
multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to the left. 

Note. — Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra 
bushel. 

The foregoing rale may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find the 
number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of ear corn 
to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instrum,ents. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, an 
ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on the 
average, with sufiicient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to walk 
in a straight line; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in' a line straight 
ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote; and, in walking, keep 
these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious 
contrivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct 
yard measure. 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of the 
left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the left 
arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will malce an acre, the width being 



Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. ^ 

Sow to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of 
rods being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, and 
remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 
Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

Uow to find the diameter, when the circumference is given. 
Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find how many solid feet a round stick oftimher of the same thick- _ 
ness throughout will contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply by 
the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and then 
multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 



MISCELLAHEOUS. 255 

To find the numher of feet of timber in trees with the hark on. 

Rule. — Multiply tlie square of one-fifth of the drcumference in inches, 
by twice the length, in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1-10 to 1-15 
according to the thickness of the bark. 

Eoward^s new rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — ^The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest on 
any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal point 
two places to the left; for ten times that time, remove the point one place 
to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three places to the 
left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 
Note. — ^The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting the rate; thus 3 per cent, per 
month, inverted, becomes J^ of a month, or ten days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 3-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, by 
400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 



POPULATION OF IOWA CITIES. 

The following table presents the population of thirteen of the principal 
cities of Iowa for the years 187Q, 1875 and 1878 — the population for the last 
named year being, in the main, estimated: 

Pop. in 1870. Pop. in 1875. Pop. in 1878. 

Des Moines 12,035 14,443 25,000 

Burlington 14,930* 19,987 25,000 

Davenport 20,038 21,234 26,827 

Dubuque 18,434 23,605 27,500 

Keokuk 12,766 11,841 15,000 

Cedar Eapids '. 5,940 7,179 11,350 

Iowa City 5,914 6,371 8,000 

Council Bluffs 10,020 9,287 11,000 

Clinton 6,129 7,028 9,000 

Muscatine 6,718 7,537 8,000 

Sioux City 3,401 4,290 6,000 

Ottumwa 5,214 6,326 10,000 

Marshalltown 3,288 4,384 6,416 

Fort Madison, Mt. Pleasant and Waterloo are, probably, entitled to appear 
in the above table, as each of them, doubtless, has a population of over 
six thousand. 

* Includes whole township. 



THE PIONEER 

In the heart of the grand old forest^ 

A thousand miles to the West, 
Where a stream gashed out from the hill side. 

They halted at last for rest. 
And the silence of ages listened 

To the axe-stroke loud and clear, 
Divining a kingly presence 

In the tread of the pioneer. 

He formed of the prostrate beeches 

A home that was strong and good; 
The roof was of reeds from the streamlet, 

The chimney he built of wood. 
And there by the winter fireside, 

While the flame up the chimney roared, 
He spoke of the good time coming. 

When plenty should crown their board — 

When the forest should fade like a vision, 

And over the hill-side and plain 
The orchard would spring in its beauty, 

And the fields of golden grain. 
And to-night he sits by the fireside 

In a mansion quaint and old. 
With his children's children around him, 

Having reaped a thousand-fold. 



History of Keokuk County. 



NAME. 

There is nothing in the whole realm of knowledge more important than 
the history of words, and the science of etymology affords nothing more 
interesting than the origin of proper names. In naming localities and 
streams of water the discoverers and first settlers of America originated 
the plan of adopting Indian names. As new streams of water were dis- 
covered, new territories formed, and new towns laid out this plan was ad- 
hered to. The precedent thns formed by the fathers, grew into an estab- 
lished custom, the wisdom of which has become more and more apparent 
as by use the ear becomes accustomed to the sound and the eye familiar 
with the sight of them. By following this custom our language becomes 
greatly enriched, and each successive generation is reminded of a people 
once numerous and powerful, but now so weak and abject as to be virtually 
eliminated from, the family of nations. These names have invariably a 
pleasing sound when the ear becomes accustomed to them, and their adop- 
tion is a most befitting tribute to a nation which, although savage, pos- 
sessed certain characteristics that make the story of their misfortunes the 
most remarkable to be found on the pages of history, and the most pathetic 
that has been wrought by the stern vicissitudes of time. 

Among the Aboriginies whose swift feet roamed these western prairies, 
and whose facile canoes were borne toward the great Father of Waters, long 
before the white man' claimed this goodly heritage, was a young Indian 
whose early life gave much promise of future greatness. At an early age 
he was elevated to the dignity of chief. He was a man of great personal 
courage, capable of more than ordinary physical endurance, and by reason 
of his eloquence held the first place in the council of his nation. Moreover 
he was the triend of our ancestors. His voice was always for peace, and his 
hand ever ready to defend the life and property of the wljite man when 
menaced by his savage followers, prompted by feelings of vengeance or cu- 
pidity; and this, too, when his judgment told him that the destiny of his 
own race was sealed by the coming of the pale face. He was the principal 
chief at the treaty which guaranteed to the white man a home within the 
limits of the county, the history of which we are about to narrate. During 
the Black Hawk difficulty his voice was for peace with the white man, and 
his influence contributed much to shorten the war. His name was Keokuk 
and as an honor to this chief the county bears his name. 

17 



258 HISTOJSY OF KEOKUK COUNXr. 

PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY. 

The physical geography of Keokuk county is a topic which might be 
expanded into a book. Such a book from a competent author would afford 
a most interesting and profitable study for all students of natural history. 
In its physical features this county differs in many respects from any other 
section. Each and all of these features are found in other counties, but 
nowhere else are they similarly grouped and correlated, and in this respect 
they may properly be termed distinctive and characteristic. A productive 
soil, rich mines, numerous streams and extensive belts of timber, furnish a 
diversity of natural resource ample for the employment of every phase of 
human industry. The large and productive prairies yield sure and abun- 
dant returns for the investment of agricultural skill and labor; the grazier 
is attracted by sections of graceful undulations, where all kinds of grass 
grow in luxuriant abundance, near streams which furnish an inexhaustible 
supply of living water; stone quarries supplying sufficient material for all 
kinds of building purposes are of easy access; for fuel and mechanical 
uses there is a supply of coal and timber for all time to come. The aver- 
age elevation of the county is about 814 feet above the level of the sea, or 
about 375 feet above the low water mark in the Mississippi river at Keo- 
kuk. At a point in the northeastern part of the county, near the Wash- 
ington county line, the elevation above the level of the sea is 750 feet. Be- 
ginning at this point and thence west to the highest point the rise is very 
marked, being as much as 130 feet; from this point to the public square in 
Sigourney the descent is quite marked, the difference in elevation being 91 
feet. The public square in Sigourney is a little over 800 feet above the 
level of the sea. From Sigourney to the head-waters of Steady run, in 
the south part of the county, the descent is gradual, the difference in ele- 
vation being about 75 feet. From these data it would appear that the gen- 
eral direction of the large streams should be eastward and the greater num- 
ber of tributaries should be southward; upon investigation this will be 
found to be the case. 

The county is watered by the two branches of Skunk river, running in a 
general direction from west to east through the southern part of the county, 
and by South English river from west to east through the northern part of 
the county. These streams divide the county' into six water-sheds, and 
their tributaries afford a most ample drainage to every part of the county. 
The banks of these streams abound with timber, rock, and in many places 
• bituminous coal. The water-shed south of South Skunk is for the most 
part a rolling prairie, broken at intervals by small streams skirted with 
timber, presenting a landscape of surprising beauty, and a soil unsurpassed 
in fertility. 

The divide between the Skunk rivers, though not so inviting in appear- 
ance, possesses many advantages, not only in the richness of this alluvial, 
soil, but in its abundant water power, its grazing lands, and its excellent 
timber and rock for building purposes. 

The water-shed north of JSforth Skunk is much the largest of water- 
sheds, and embraces about one-half the territory of the county. In its 
southern parts, bordering on the river, and for a few miles back, it is the 
most broken part of the county; but this apparent defect is more than 
compensated in the richness of its soil, its abundant timber, its superior 
quarries of sand and lime rock, and its exhaustless coal mines. 



HI8T0ET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 259 

. English river. — This streara enters the county near the northwest 
corner, flows a little sonth of east till it reaches a point about 
midway across the county; from there its course is north of east, 
and leaves the county near the northeast corner. It is shallow, and the 
channel narrow. It has a medium current and the bed is sandy. without 
roek. The banks are low, and consist of alluvial deposit, with neither 
stone nor gravel. On the north side there are some small tracts of bottom 
land of more than ordinary fertility. These are especially desirable, as 
"the stream seldom overflows its banks. There are no bridges of import- 
ance, as the stream can be safely forded at all seasons of the year. 

Sistmk river. — The name comes from the Indian word Checauqua, 
which means skunk, and should never have been translated. There is noth- 
ing romantic nor poetical about the name, but those who think lightly of 
this river on account of the name, should remember that the garden city 
of the West derives its origin from no better source. Chicago and Chicaqua 
are slightly different pronunciations of an Indian word, that means the same 
thing. This stream is formed by the junction of two streams, designated 
by the names North and South Skunk, the point of confluence being in the 
county, about four miles from the county line. The south fork is much 
the larger, with this exception the streams are very similar. Their general 
course is eastward, the south fork being nearly directly so, while the north 
fork makes a considerable bend toward the north, near the center of 
the county. The heads of these streams are sandy, and rock is found in 
some places. The current is in the main very sluggish, though in certain 
places the fall is sufficient to afford splendid water power, which has been 
utiUzed by the establishment of mills for the manufacture of flour and 
lumber. At some points the land slopes gradually away from the stream, 
thus permitting large portions of the bottom to be overflowed during rainy 
seasons, and making travel across the country difficult or impossible, where 
there are no good roads and bridges. At other places there are rocky 
bluffs, which preclude the possibility of an overflow at any season of the 
year. These streams are properly renowned for the fish which they contain, 
it being no unusual thing to catch tish weighing from fifteen to twenty 
pounds, while there are instances in which fish weighing as much as fifty 
pounds have been caught. IsTorth Skunk has numerous tributaries entering 
it from the north. Some of the principal ones alone will be mentioned. 
Clear creek, so called on account of the transparency of its waters; German 
creek, so named after the nationality of the early settlers of this territory; 
Bridge creek, which received its name from the fact that it was almost im- 
possible to cross it at any point without the medium of a bridge; Smith 
creek, so named after the Smith family which early settled there; Cedar 
creek and Coal creek, so named from the physical structure of the soil, and 
natural scenery. Most of these streams are characterized by lively cur- 
rents, sandy bottoms and some stone. The tributaries of South Skunk 
enter from the south. They are not as numerous and important as the others, 
the following four being all worthy of mention: Richland creek, so named 
from the first town of the county; Kock creek, which received its name 
from the abundance of rock along its banks; Steady run, which received 
its name from the gait which it travels ; and Sugar creek, which was desig- 
nated on account of the sugar maples originally found along its banks. 

Prairies. — Over four-fifths of the surface of the county originally con- 
sisted of prairie lands, with the exception of an extensive level tract in the 



260 HISTOKT OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

eastern part of the county, which wonld be improved by draining, also 
large tracts in the northwest and southeast portions of the county. The 
prairies are rolling and the natural drainage is abundantly sufficient to 
carry off the surplus water, even in the wettest seasons. There are no 
swamps or sloughs of any importance. These prairies are covered with a 
light, loamy soil of great richness, and a remarkable capacity of with- 
. standing both drouth and an excessive amount of rain. At a depth of 
about four feet there is a substratum of yellow clay. There are scarcely 
any boulders, and scarcely any stone except in the quarries, which do not 
interfere with cultivation. 

Timber. — About fifteen per cent of the county was originally timber; 
much of this has been cut off for fuel, and in the manufacture of native 
lumber. The timber which has been destroyed in this manner has been 
miore than replaced by the rearing of artificial groves. In the cultivation, 
of trees it has been found that soft and hard maple, elm and Cottonwood 
flourish with great luxuriance, and groves of remarkable beauty and impos- 
ing grandeur, are now found in various parts of the county. 

Stone. — With the exceptions of the north part of the county there is an 
abundant supply of building stone. Some of the quarries contain lime- 
stone, and others sandstone. At an early date these quarries were renowned, 
and we find some of them located on a rough plat made by Bernhart 
Henn, of the United States Land Office, as early as 1852. Many perm- 
anent improvements of other counties have had their beginnings at some 
Keokuk county stone quarry. . 

Mineral paint. — Eight miles southwest of the county seat is an extensive 
deposit of clay, which is likely to prove a very fine quality of mineral 
paint. The deposit covers an area of about thirty acres, is sixteen feet be 
neath the surface, and 'the layer is about one foot in thickness. The clay 
was found while prospecting for lead, and from certain indications it would 
seem that the mine or bank had been rbarked in early days, probably by 
the Indians, who here procured the material from which was prepared the 
paint so extensively used by the Aborigines. There are some six or seven 
distinct colors, and a building which was painted some years ago, with a 
mixture of these colors, reveals the colors in a remarkable state of preser- 
vation. There are also indications that lead exist in the same locality. 

Coal. — In the report of the Geological Survey, published in 1870, we 
find the following statement: "Although Keokuk county lies quite within 
the limits of the coal field, as defined upon the geological map, it is not 
probable that it will ever take rank among tlie more important coal coun- 
ties of Iowa. This statement should not be understood to imply that no 
important deposits of coal exists within its limits, because it is a well known 
fact, that some good mines are already opened there. The county, however, 
lies near the eastern border of the field, where the coal formation would 
naturally be expected to be thinner, besides which, the sub-carboniferous 
limestone is so exposed along the valley of Skunk river as to show that 
there cannot be in many places, any considerable development of coal meas- 
ure strata between the limestone and the drift above. Of course no coal 
need be sought for beneath that limestone." 

This paragraph sc.arcely does the coal interest of the county justice; no 
detailed examination of the county had been made at the time, and recent 
investigation goes to show that while Keokuk county does not rank as the 
first of the coal producing counties, nevertheless, it is destined to develop 



HISTOBT OF KEOKUK COtTNTT. 261 

a supply of this important mineral, which in the quantity and quality of the 
material will far exceed the most sanguine expectations of the original 
prospectors. Extensive mines have already been opened, and are now be- 
ing operated at three or four localities in various parts of the county, and 
these lack but the important item of suitable means of transportation, to 
make coal mining one of the leading industries of this section. 

Springs. — A glance at any good county map, will readily convince any- 
one that the county is well watered. But aside from the net work of streams 
which traverse the county in every direction, there are innumerable springs 
which flow the year round, and an inexhaustible supply of water may be 
produced anywhere by digging or boring a distance of twenty or thirty feet. 

Sand. — Sand for building purposes can readily be procured along any of 
the streams, and an excellent quality is found in some parts, whicn is now 
.being utilized in the manufacture of an excellent quality of glass. We shall 
treat of this very important branch of industry further on 

Geological formation. — This county is situated partly in the sub-car- 
boniferous grant, and partly in tlie middle and lower coal-measures. A 
line running from the northwestern part of the county diagonally across, 
cutting off nearly two-thirds of the county, would form a tolerably accurate 
boundary between the two; the southwestern part belongs to the latter. The 
middle and lower coal-measures, are not very distinct from each other. 
They both contain coal, the thickest being in the lower. They are des- 
cribed as being made up of beds of sandstone, shales and clay, with rarely 
a thin bed of limestone. The beds of coal lie between these beds of rock, 
just as if they were also beds of rock. There is usually a bed of shale im- 
mediately beneath the coal and clay, immediately under the shale. The 
sub-carboniferous group, in which a little more than one-third of the 
county lies is explained, after a manner, by reference to the definition of 
the term, sub-carboniferous, meaning below or under the coal. It consists 
of limestone of a greyish color, and is characterized by the presence of a 
peculiar class of fossils found therein. 

Climate. — The first two winters following the settlement of the western 
part of the county were remarkably mild, and favored the rapid develop- 
ment of the country. The winter of 1848-9 was a winter of deep snow. 
The climate of the county has always been regarded as uncommonly healthy, 
the prevalence of ague, that scourge of all new countries, being chiefly 
confined to the territory bordering on the larger streams. There have been 
seasons in which crops have suffered from an excessive amount of rain, and 
also times when they have been cut short by drouth ; also seasons which 
have been attended by an unusual amount of sickness, but the people of 
this county have, doubtless, suffered as little from these calamities as in 
any other section of the State. There have been instances in which certain 
portions of the county have been peculiarly afllicted. Such will be men- 
tioned under the appropriate head, at another place. Some of the older set- 
tlers think that there has been a marked change in the climate in the past 
quarter of a century, and this is probably the case, resulting from the 
marked change which has taken place in the physiognomy of the country. 

MATHEMATICAL GEOGEAPHY. 

Keokuk county is situated in the southeastern part of the State, it being 
in the third tier of counties, numbering from the south, and also from the 



262 HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

east boundary of the State. The center of the county is in latitude forty;; 
one degrees and twenty-five minutes, being nearly the same as l^ew York 
city, and in longitude ninety-two degrees and ten minutes west of Greenr 
wich, and fifteen degrees and ten minutes west of the ^National Capital. 
It is bounded on the north by Poweshiek and Iowa counties; on the 
east by Washington; on the south by Jefferson and Wapello; on the west 
by Mahaska. It is twenty-four miles square, and were the original surveys 
strictly accurate, it would contain 368,640 square acres of surface. In sub- 
sequent surveys, when the county was subdivided into townships, and these 
again into sections, it was found that there remained fractional quarters. 
The exact area of the county is not far from 370,000 acres. The congres- 
sional townships are sixteen in number, and there is a correspond- 
ing number of civil townships. The congressional townships are 74-^ 
75, 76 and 77 north; ranges 10, 11, 12 and 13 west. The civil 
townships are Richland, Jackson, Steady Run, Benton, Warren^ 
Lancaster, Clear Creek, Lafayette, German, Sigourney, Yan Buren, 
Washington, Prairie, Adams, English River and Liberty. This arrange- 
ment of civil townships is the one adopted in 1847, there having been 
others previously made, of which we shall speak when we treat of the 
county organization. The boundaries of the following civil townships cor- 
respond with the congressional townships: Richland, Clear Creek, La- 
fayette, Liberty, English River, Adams, Prairie and Washington. The 
area of eachis about 23,500 acres. The following, while in the main they 
follow the congressional boundaries, are somewhat smaller, Jackson con- 
taining about 20,990; Steady Run, 19,900; Warren, 19,950; Sigourney,, 
12,650; Van Buren, 19,680. Three townships are larger than the corres- 
ponding congressional township. They are Benton, containing about 
25,900 acres; Lancaster, 26,275; German, 35,280. It will be seen, by 
reference to the map, that in this location of the townships the commis- 
sioners followed natural boundaries to a large extent. From the foregoing 
figures it will be seen that German township is the largest and Sigourney 
the smallest, the former being nearly three times as large as the latter. 

INDIATSrS AND mDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Until the year 1837 the Indians held undisputed possession of the ter- 
ritory now included in Keokuk county. The Indians who dwelt in this 
particular locality were the Sac and Fox tribe. They held unquestioned 
sway across the western boundary of the Black Hawk purchase, westward to 
the Missouri river, and northward to the neutral territoKy which divided 
them from the Sioux. The eastern boundary was fifty miles this side of 
the Mississippi river and neutral ground, stretched east and west near 
where the Illinois Central railroad now extends. These Indians had no 
right to invade the territory ceded to the government at the time of the 
Black Hawk purchase, and it was certain death to be caught in the territory 
of the Sioux, and extremely hazardous to venture upon the neutral ground'. 
Few if any white people in those days ventured as far west as this, and the 
country was comparatively unknown except as reports were brought to the 
frontier by roving bands of Indians intent on barter. In the main the In- 
dians subsisted upon the wild animals then inhabiting this country. Oc- 
casional patches of Indian corn were cultivated, which furnished them 
scanty food during a portion of the year; but wild turkeys, pheasants, deer^ 



HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 263 

fish and muskrats formed the chief artfcles of diet. This was prior to the 
year 1837. In this year a new treaty was made wliereby the Indians ceded 
additional territory westward. This new territory ceded included a small 
portion of this county. Nearly all of what is now Richland township and 
small portions of Clear Creek, Jackson and Lafayette were included in it, 
As soon as this treaty went into effect the whites rushed in and the Indians 
were compelled to retire further west. It was in October, 1837, that the 
red man first parted with his title to certain lands now comprised in the 
hmits of Keokuk county, and the white man first obtained the right to 
gain a permanent foothold. By far the larger part of the comity, however, 
remained in the hands of the Indians. It was not till October, 1842, that 
the original possessors of this soil parted with their right to occupy it, and 
turned their unwilling steps to the far off and nuknown regions west of the 
Missouri. Tliis last treaty was made at the government agency, now Agency 
City, in Wapello county. 8. A. James, Esq., of Sigourney, was present at 
this treaty, and gives a very graphic description of the affair. The delib- 
erations, he says, lasted about a week. A number of chiefs were present, 
the principal of whom were Keokuk, Appanoose, Poweshiek and Panassa. 
The commissioner on behalf of the United States was the Hon. John 
Chambers, of Iowa Territory. The question of reservations was the most 
perplexing one to dispose of. The commissioner had been instructed not to 
grant any. reservation, and the Indians had coine to the council fully deter- 
mined to exact a reservation in the interests of certain heirs of Gen. J. M. 
Street, for whom they always manifested the greatest reverence, and in 
whom they had the utmost confidence, growing out of his honorable and 
liberal dealings with them while acting as government agent. It appears, 
that on the death of Gen. Street, in 1840, his family procured an air-tight 
coffin, intending to remove the body to Prairie du Chien, where some of his , 
relatives had been previously buried. The chiefs thereupon held a council 
and remonstrated, offering any part of their country which might be cho- 
sen for a burying ground, and adding that if their wishes were complied 
with, they would give to the widow of Gen. Street a section of land, and a 
half section to each of her children. Accordingly Gen Street's remains 
were interred near the Agency, and no reference was made to the land 
promise until the time of the treaty. On the evening of the second day of 
the treaty, council one of the government officials came to Gen. Street's 
son, VVm. B. Street, now of Oskaloosa, at that time employed at the 
Agency, and said: " I do not think we will sxicceed in making a treaty be- 
cause the chiefs demand the reservation of one section for Gen. Street's 
widow, and a half section for each of her ten children, and also a half sec- 
tion for each of Smart's children, who were half breeds." Mr. Street held 
a conversation with several of the chiefs, telling them he did not care for 
any reservation, and as his brothers and sisters were in another territory he 
thought they would not be particular in having the Indians carry out their 
contract. Keokuk and some others reluctantly consented, but old Powe- 
shiek remonstrated and insisted upon the reservations first demanded. Mr. 
Street portrayed the results which would follow a failure of the treaty, and 
again remarked that he did not care for the land. " Wiiat, do you decline 
the gift?" said the indignant old chief — for refusing a gift was regarded 
as a great insult among the Indians. Mr. Street says that Poweshiek re- 
fused to speak to hfm for six months thereafter, when one day Poweshiek, 



264 HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

being very merry under the influence of whisky, Street presented him with 
a pony, and thereafter they were again good friends. 

At last the Indians agreed to take a reservation of one section to be given 
Mrs. Street. The commissioner would not consent. Then old Keokuk 
arose and made a speech. Mr. James heard this speech and the impression 
which Keokuk made upon his auditors is graphically portrayed in an arti- 
cle from the pen. of Mr. James, which appeared some time ago in the local 
papers, an extract of which will be found in the life of Keokuk, farther on. 
Among other things, the speaker said, pointing to the place where Gen. 
Street was buried : " There lies the body of our father, the best white man 
that ever lived, and the best friend we ever had, and without this reserva- 
tion, this laud shall never be sold while a single one of our tribe remains." 

On the next day Governor Chambers agreed to the reservation of one sec- 
tion and directed the Indians to make a choice. They selected that upon which 
the Agency buildings were situated and including General Street's grave. 
The government had spent some $4,000 in improving this section and the 
commissioner was loth to part with the land and its improvements. Tlie 
Indians then proposed to pay for the improvements, which they finally did, 
paying therefor the sum of $2,500. Tluis was effected a treaty by the 
provisions of which the white man acquired a right to settle a tract of land 
comprising the greater portion of Iowa, and in which is included the greater 

fiortion of Keokuk county. In consideration of the land thus ceded the 
ndians were to receive $800,000 on good State stocks upon which the gov- 
ernment guaranteed the payment of five per cent interest per annum. In 
the words of the treaty, they "ceded to the United States all their lands west 
of the Mississippi river to which they had any claim or title." It was 
stipulated that they were to be removed from the country at the expiration 
of three years, and all who remained after that were to remove at their own 
expense. Part of them were removed to Kansas in the fall of 1845, and the 
remainder in the spring of 1846. 

The treaty was signed on the 11th day of October 1842, but before it was 
binding it had to be ratified by the United States Senate. After, signing 
the treaty Keokuk remarked to the commissioner that if the Senate changed 
it by (sven so much as a scratch of the pen it would not be observed by the 
Indians. It was laid before the Senate for approval or rejection. A motion 
was made to strike out the reservation clause. The Senate was reminded of 
Keokuk's remark. After some discussion the treaty was approved and its 
ratification was officially proclaimed by the President on the 23d of March, 
1843. This is said to have been the only Indian treaty ever made by the 
United States which did not subsequently undergo some alteration. The 
treaty had now been signed by the commissioner and the Indian chiefs, had 
been approved by the Senate and the proclamaton made by the President, 
and yet tlie white people had no riglit to settle on the lands as the Indians 
according to a provision of the treaty had three years in which to give pos- 
session. It was subsequently arranged that the Indians were to give pos- 
session of all that part lying east of Rod Rock, now in Marion county, on 
the 1st of May, 1843. This last date is, therefore, tlie period when the 
whole of Keokuk county was thrown open to white settlement. The ex- 
citement which prevailed along the borders during the last days of the 
preceding April, and the great rush of people across tlie boundary line, 
which occurred at midnight, furnish a chapter of amusing and thrilling in- 
cidents. They will be treated of at another place. 



HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 



265 



As a result of this peacable arrangement and the earnest efforts of the 
government to carry out, to the letter, the provisions of the treaty, the 
early settlers of Keokuk county experienced none of the hardships which 
fell to the lot of the early settlers in other parts of the country, where mis- 
understanding about the ownership of the soil gave rise to frightful mas- 
sacres and bloody wars. The Indians gave no serious difficulty, and seldom, 
if ever, disturbed the early settlers of this county after they had rightfully 
came into possession of it. 

By the various treaties made with the Sac and Fox Indians, the govern- 
ment paid these $80,000 per year by families. Mr William B. Street, of 
Oskaloosa, was disbursing clerk for John Beach, Indian agent during the 
year 1841, and still retains in his possession the receipts for the part pay- 
ment of the annuity, in his own hand-writing, and the marks of the chiefs 
in signing. We give an extract, including the names of part of the In- 
dians who were at that time living at Kish-he-kosh's village, in what is 
now the eastern part of the county, west of Keokuk county: 

"We, the chiefs, warriors, heads of families and individuals without fam- 
ilies, of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, within the same agency, acknowl- 
edge the receipt of forty thousand dollars of John Beach, United States 
Indian Agent, in the sums appended to our names, being our proportion of 
of the annuity due said tribe, for the year 1841 : 



NAMES 

Esh-ke-kosh" 

Ko-ko-ach 

Pas-sa-sa-she-ahiek . . . 

Mo-ka-qua 

Pa-ko-ka 

Ka-ke-wa-wa-te-sit 

Mnch-e-min-ne' 

Wa-pes-e-qua5 

Wa-pe-ka-kah* 

Mus-qua-kes 

And fifty-nine others. 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



4 
6 
2 
1 
4 
3 
4 
4 
6 
7 



$ 71 30 

106 95 

55 65 

17 82 

71 30 

53 47 

71 30 

71 30 

106 95 

124 78 



"We certify that we were present at the payment of the above-mentioned 
amounts, and saw the amounts paid to the several Indians, in specie, and 
that their marks were affixed in our presence this 19th day of October, 

"(Signed) JNO. BEACH, 

V. S. Indian Agent. 
THOMAS McCRATE. 

Lieut. 1st Dragoons. 
JOSIAH SMART, 

Interpreter. 

"We, the undesigned chiefs of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, ac- 
knowledge the correctness of the foregoing receipts. 

KEOKUK,« his X mark. 
P0WESHIEK,7 his X mark." 



' Kish-ke-kosh means "The man with one leg off.'' 



' Mnch-e-min-ne means " Big man. 
' Wa-pes-e-qua means "White eyes.'' 
■•Wa-pe-ka-kah means "White crow." 



s Mus-qua-ke mean "The fox." 

' Keokuk means "The watchful fox." 

'Poweshiek means "The roused bear." 



266 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

Among tlie old settlers of the sontheastern part of the coiintj who, 
prior to May 1, 1843, had the Indians for near neighbors, the names of 
Keokuk and Wapello are the most noted and familiar. These two illns-i 
trious chiefs live not only in the recollections of these early settlers, but 
in the permanent history of our common country. Short biographical 
sketches of these two noted characters, therefore, will be of great interest 
to the people of this county, and peculiarly appropriate for a work of this 
kind. To the school-boy who has frequently read of these Indians, the 
fact that they roved around on this very ground where their feet tread, and 
that iu their hunting excursions these Indians crossed the same prairies 
where now they gather the yellow eared corn, will give to these sketches 
intense interest. While the early settler who talked with Wapello and 
Keokuk, ate with them, hunted with them and fished with them, cannot 
fail to find in these brief and necessarily imperfect biographies something 
fascinating as they are thus lead back more than a quarter of a century, to 
live over again the days of other years, and witness again the scenes of 
early days when the tall prairie grass waved in the autumn breeze, and the 
country, like themselves, was younger and fresher than now. 

KEOKUK AND WAPELLO. 

Keokuk belonged to the Sac branch of the nation, and. as mentioned in 
the first part of this work, was born on Rock river, Illinois, in 1810. Ac- 
cordingly he was sixty-three years old at the time the county was thrown^ 
open to the white settler, and fifty-seven when the boundary line of 1837 
was established. The best memory of the earliest settlers cannot take them 
back to a time when Keokuk was not an old man. When in 1833 the im- 
patient feet of the white men first hastened aci'oss the Mississippi, eager 
for new conquests and fortunes, this illustrious chief was already nearing 
his three-score years, and when with longing eyes he took the last look at 
the fair lands bordei'ing on the Great Father of Waters, and turned his 
weary feet toward the west, his sun of life had already ci'ossed the meridian 
and was rapidly approaching its setting. 

Little is known concerning the early life of Keokuk, except that from 
his first battle, while yet young, he had carried home the scalp of a Sioux, 
whom he had slain in a hand-to-hand conflict, and between whose tribe and 
the tribe to which Keokuk belonged there ever existed the most deadly 
enmity. For this feat Keokuk was honored with a feast by his tribe. He 
first came into prominence among the whites at the breaking out of the 
second war with England, commonly known as the war of 1812. Most of 
the Indians at that time espoused the cause ot the English, but Keokuk, 
at the head of a large number of the Sacs and Foxes, remained faithful to 
the Americans. In 1828 Keokuk, in accordance with the terms of a treaty, 
crossed the Mississippi river with his tribe and established himself on the 
Iowa river. Here he remained in peace, and his tribe flourished till the 
breaking out of the Black Hawk war iij 1832. He seemed to have a mucK 
more intelligent insight into the great national questions which were raised' 
during these early Indian difliculties, as well as a more thorough apprecia- 
tion of the resources of the national government. He opposed the Black 
Hawk war, and seemed to fully forecast the great disasters which thereby 
befell his tribe. Although many of his warriors deserted him and followed 
Black Hawk in his reckless campaign across the Mississippi, Keokuk pre- 



HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 267 

vailed upon a majority of his tribe to remain at home. When the new& 
reached Keokuk that Black Hawk's warriors had gained a victory over 
Stillman's forces in Ogle county, Illinois, the war-spirit broke out among^ 
his followers like fire in the dry prairie grass; a war-dance was held, and 
the chief himself took part in it. He seemed for a while to move in 
sympathy with the rising storm, and at the conclusion of the war-dance he 
called a council to prepare for war. In a work entitled "Annals of Iowa," 
published in 1865, there is reported tlie substance of a speech made by 
Keokuk on this occasion. We quote: " I am your chief, and it is my duty 
to lead you to battle, if, after fully considering the matter, you are fully 
determined to go." He then represented to them the great power of the 
United States, against whom they would have to contend, and that their 
prospect of success was utterly hopeless. Then continuing, said: "But 
if you are determined to go upon the war-path, I will lead you on one con- 
dition — that before we go we kill all our old men, and our wives, and our 
children, to save them from a lingering death by starvation, and that every 
one of you determine to leave his bones on the other side of the Missis- 
sippi." This was a strong and trxithful picture of the prospect before them^ 
and was presented in such a forcible light, that it caused them to abandon 
their rash undertaking. 

After the Black Hawk war Keokuk was recognized as the head of the 
Sac and Fox nation, by the United States government, and in this capacity 
he was looked upon by his people from that time on. This honor, however,, 
was sometimes disputed b}' some of the original followers of Black Hawk. 
A gentleman of some prominence, as a writer, and who is said to have wit- 
nessed the affray, says : "A bitter feud existed in the tribe during the 
time Keokuk resided on the Des Moines river, between what was denomi- 
nated 'Keokuk's band and Black Hawk's band. ' Their distrust, and in- 
deed hatred, were smothered in their common intercourse, when sober; but 
when their blood was fired with whisky, it sometimes assumed a tragic fea- 
ture among the leaders of the respective bands. An Instance of this char- 
acter occurred on the lower part of the Des Moines river, on the return of 
a party making a visit to the 'half-breeds,' at the town of Keokuk, on the 
Mississippi. In a quarrel incited by wiiisky, Keokuk received a dangerous 
stab in the breast by a son of Black Hawk. The writer saw him conveyed 
by his friends, homeward, lying in a canoe, unable to rise." The writer 
continues: " Hardfisii (who was the pretended chief of the rival party), 
and his coadjutors, lost no occasion to find fault with Keokuk's adminis- 
tration. The payments were made in silver coins, put up in boxes, con- 
taining five hundred dollars each, and passed into Keokuk's hand's for dis- 
tribution. The several traders received each his quota according to the 
several demands against the tribes admitted by Keokuk, which invariably 
consumed the far greater portion of the amount received. The remainder 
was turned over to the chiefs and distributed among the respective bands. 
Great complaints were made of these allowances, to the traders, on the 
ground of exhorbitant prices charged on the goods actually furnished, and 
it was alleged that some o'f these accounts were spurious. In confirmation 
of this charge, over and above the character of the items exhibited in these 
accounts, an aflSdavit was filed with Governor Lucas, by an individual, to- 
which the governor gave credence, setting forth that Keokuk had proposed 
to the maker of the aiBdavit to profer a purely ficticious account against 
the tribe for the sura of $10,000, and he would admit its correctness, and 



268 HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

when paid, the money should be divided among themselves, share and 
share alike. To swell the trader's bills, items were introduced 
of a character that should brand upon their face, such as a large number of 
blankets, coats, articles which the Indians never used, and telescopes, of 
the use of which they had no knowledge. This showed the reckless man- 
ner in which these bills were swollen to the exhorbitant amounts com- 
plained of, in which Keokuk was openly charged with being in league with 
the traders to defraud the Indians." At this time the nation numbered 
about two thousand and three hundred, and it is not possible that Keokuk 
could have carried on an organized system of theft, without the fact be- 
com'ing apparent to all. As it was, however, Governor Lucas thought best 
to change the manner in which the annual payments were made. The 
matter was referred to the Indian bureau, and the mode was changed so 
that the payments were made to the iieads of families, approximating a per 
capita distribution. This method of payment did not suit the traders, and 
after a short trial the old plan was again adopted. That the Indians, then 
as now, were the victims of sharp practice, cannot be doubted, but the fact 
can be attributed to the superior tact and the unscrupulous character of 
many of the traders; this furnishes a more probable explanation, and is 
more in accord with the character of Keokuk, as known by his intimate 
friends, still living, than to attribute these swindling operations to a con- 
spiracy in which the illustrious chief was the leading actor. 

In person, Keokuk was of commanding appearance. He was tall, 
straight as an arrow, and of very graceful mien. These personal character- 
istics, together with his native fervor, and ready command of language, 
gave him great power over his people as a speaker. If, as a man of energy 
and courage, he gained the respect and obedience of his tribe, it was more 
especially as an orator that he was able to wield his people in times of 
great excitement, and in a measure shape their policy in dealing with the 
white man. As an orator rather than as a warrior, has Keokuk's claim to 
greatness been founded. 

" He was gifted by nature," says the author of the Annals, " with the ele- 
ments of an orator in an eminent degree, and as such is entitled to rank 
with Logan, Red Jacket and Tecumseh; but unfortunately for his fame 
«,mong the white people, and with posterity, he was never able to obtain an 
interpreter who could claim even a slight acquaintance with philosophy. 
With one exception, only, his interpreters were unacquainted with the ele- 
ments of the mother tongue. Of this serious hindrance to his fame 
Keokuk was well aware, and retained Frank Labashure, who had received 
a rudimental education in the French and English languages, until the 
latter died broken down by exposure and dissipation ; but during the me- 
ridian of his career among the white people, he was compelled to submit 
his speeches for translation, to uneducated men, whose range of thoughts 
fell below the flights of a gifted mind, and the fine imagery, drawn from 
nature, was beyond their power of reproduction. He had a sufficient 
knowledge of the English tongue to make him sensible of this bad render- 
ing of his thoughts, and often a feeling of mortification at the bungling 
•efforts was depicted upon his countenance while he was speaking. The 
proper place to form a proper estimate of his ability as an orator, was in 
the Indian council, where he addressed himself exclusively to those who 
understood his language, and where the electric effects of his eloquence 
could be plainly noted upon his audience. It was credibly asserted that by 



HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 269 

the force of his logic he had changed the vote of a council against the 
strongly predetermined opinions of its members." A striking instance of 
the influence of his eloquence is that one already related in which he de- 
livered a speech to his followers, who were bent on joining Black Hawk, 
after the Stillman reverse in Ogle county, Illinois. Mr. James, who has 
already been mentioned as being present at the council, at Agency City, 
when the treaty of 1842 was made, says of Keokuk: " "We heard him 
make a speech on the occasion, which, by those who understood his tongue, 
was said to be a sensible and eloquent effort. Judging from his voice and 
gestures, his former standing as an Indian orator and chieftain, we thought 
his reputation as a dignified yet gentlemanly Aboriginal had not been over- 
rated. During the Black Hawk war his voice was for peace with the white 
man, and his voice added much to the shortening of the war. As an 
honor to the chief our county bears his name." 

Keokuk, in company with Black Hawk, Poweshiek, Kish-ke-kosh, and 
some fifteen other chiefs, under the escort of Gen. J. M. Street, visited 
Washington city and different parts of the East In 1837. The party de- 
scended the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio by steamer, and thence 
up the latter to Wheeling, where they took stage across the mountains. 
When the party arrived in "Washington, at the request of some of the gov- 
ernment officials, a council was held with some chiefs of the Sioux there 
present, as the Sacs and Foxes were waging a perpetual war with the 
Sioux nation. The council was held in the Hall of Representatives. To 
the great indignation of the Sioux, Kish-ke-kosh appeared dressed in a 
buffalo hide which he had taken in war from a Sioux chief, and took his 
position in one of the large windows, with the mane and horns of the 
buffalo as a sort of a head-dress, and the tail trailing on the floor. The 
Sioux complained to the officials, claiming that this was an insult to them, 
but they were informed that the Sacs and Foxes had a right to appear in 
any kind of costume they chose to wear. The first speech was made by a 
Sioux, who complained bitterly of the wrongs they had suffered, and how 
they had been driven from their homes by the Sacs and Foxes, their war- 
riors killed and their villages burned. Then followed Keokuk, the great 
orator of his tribe, who replied at some length, an interpreter repeating 
the speech after him. There were those present who had heard "Webster, 
Calhoun, Clay and Benton in the same hall, and they declared that for the 
manner of delivery, for native eloquence, impassioned expression of coun- 
tenance, the chief surpassed them all, and this while they could not under- 
stand his words, save as they were repeated by the interpreter. From 
Washington they went to New York, where they were shown little atten- 
tion, and Gen. Street attempting to show them the city on foot, the people 
in their anxiety to see Keokuk and Black Hawk, crowded them beyond the 
point of endurance, and in order to escape the throng they were compelled 
to make their escape tlirough a store building, and reached their hotel 
through the back alleys and less frequented streets. At Boston they were 
met at the depot by a delegation of leading citizens and conveyed in car- 
riages to the hotel. The next day they were taken in open carriages, and 
with a guard of honor on foot, they were shown the whole city. During 
their stay in Boston they were the guests of the great American orator, 
Edward Everett, who made a banquet for them. "When the Indians re- 
turned and were asked about I^ew York, they only expressed their disgust. 
Boston was the only place in the United States, in their estimation, and 



270 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

their opinion has been shared in by many white people, who since that 
time have made a pilgrimage from the West to the famous shrines of the 
East. 

While residing at Ottumwah-nac, Keokuk received a message from the 
Mormon prophet, Joseph Smith, in which the latter invited Keokuk, as 
king of the Sacs and Foxes, to a royal conference at his palace at l^auvoo, 
on matters of the highest importance to their respective people. The in- 
vitation was accepted, and at the appointed time the king of the Sacs and 
Foxes, accompanied by a stately escort on ponies, wended their way to the 
appointed interview with the great apostle of the Latter Day Saints. Keo- 
kuk, as before remarked, was a man of good judgment and keen insight 
into the human character. He was not easily misled by sophistry nor be- 
guiled by flattery. The account of this interview with Smith, as given by 
the author of the "Annals," so well illustrates these traits of his character 
that we give it in full: 

" Notice had been circulated through the country of this diplomatic in- 
terview, and quite a number of spectators attended to witness the denoue- 
Tnent. The audience was given publicly in the great Mormon temple, and 
the respective chiefs were attended by their suits, the prophet by the dig- 
nitaries of the Mormon church, and the Indian potentate by the high civil 
and military functionaries of his tribe, and the Gentiles were comfortably 
seated as auditors. 

" The prophet opened the conference in a set speech of some length, giv- 
ing Keokuk a brief history of the Children of Israel, as detailed in the 
Bible, and dwelt forcibly upon the history of the lost tribes, and that he, 
the prophet of God, held a divine commission to gather them together and 
lead them to a land ' flowing with milk and honey.' After the prophet 
closed his harrangue, Keokuk 'waited for the words of his pale-faced 
brother to sink deep into his mind,' and in making his reply, assumed the 
gravest attitude and most dignified demeanor. He would not controvert 
anything his brother had said about the lost and scattered condition of his 
race and people, and if his brother was commissioned by the Great Spirit 
to collect them together and lead them to a new country it was his duty to 
do so. But he wished to inquire about some particulars his brother had 
not named, that were of the highest importance to him and his people. 
The red man were not much used to milk, and he thought they would pre- 
fer streams o"f water; and in the country tliey now were there_was a good 
supply of honey. Tlie points they wished to inquire into were, whether 
the new government would pay large annuities, and whether there was 
plenty of whisky. Joe Smith saw at once that he had met his match, and 
that Keokuk was not the proper material with which to increase his army 
■of dupes, and closed the interview in as amiable and pleasant manner as 
possible." 

Until 1836 Keokuk resided with his tribe, on a reservation of 400 square 
miles, situated on the Iowa river. His headquarters were at a village bear- 
ing his name, located on the right bank of the stream. In this year, in ac- 
cordance with the stipulations of a treaty held at Davenport, Keokuk with 
his followers removed to this territory, now comprised in the bounds of 
Keokuk, Mahaska and "Wapello counties. The agency for the Indians, 
was located at a point where is now located Agency City. At this time an 
•effort was made to civilize the red man. Farms were opened up, and two 
mills were erected, one on Soap creek, and one on Sugar creek. A salaried 



HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 271 

agent was employed to superintend these farming operations. Keokuk, 
Wapello and Appanoose, each had a large field improved and cultivated. 
Keokuk's farm was located upon what is yet known as Keokuk's Prairie, 
in what is now Wapello county. The Indians did not make much progress 
in these farming operations, and in the absence of their natural and wanted 
excitements, became idle and careless. Many of them plunged into dissi- 
pation. Keokuk himself became badly dissipated in the latter years of his 
life. Pathetic as was the condition of these savages at this time, it was but 
thelegitimate result of the treatment which they had received. They were 
confined to a fixed location, and provided with annuities by the government, 
sufficient to meet their wants from year to year. They were in this manner 
prevented from making those extensive excursions, and embarking in those 
war-like pursuits, which for time immemorial had formed the chief avenues 
lor the employment of those activities, which for centuries had claimed the 
attention of the savage mind; and the sure and regular means of subistence 
furnished by the government, took away from them the incentives for the 
employment of these activities, even had the means still existed. In addi- 
tion to this the Indian beheld his lands taken from him, and his tribe grow- 
ing smaller year by year. Possessed of an ideal and imaginative intellect 
he could not help fore-casting the future, and thus being itnpressed with the, 
thought, that in a few years, all these land would be in the possession of the 
white man, while his tribe and his name would be swept into oblivion by 
the tide of emigration, which pressed in upon him from every side. Keo- 
kuk saw all this, and seeing it, had neither the power nor inclination to pre- 
sent it. Take the best representative of the Anglo-Saxon race, and place 
him in similar circumstances, and he would do no better. Shut in by re- 
straint from all sides, relieved from all the anxieties comprehended in that 
practical question, what shall we eat and wherewithal shall we be clothed? 
and deprived of all those incentives springing from, and inspired by a lofty 
ambition, and the best of us, with all our culture and habits of industry, 
would fall into idleness and dissipation and our fall would be as great if not 
as low as was the fall of that unhappy people who formerly inhabited this 
country, and whose disappearance and gradual extinction we shall now be 
called upon to contemplate. 

Wapello, the cotemporary of Keokuk and the inferior chief, after whom 
a neighboring county and county-seat were named, died before the Indians 
were removed the State, and thus escaped the humilation of the scene. He 
like his superior chief, was a fast friend of the whites and wielded an im- 
mense influence among the individuals of his tribe. As is mentioned in a 
former chapter, he presided over three tribes in the vicinity of Fort Arm- 
strong, during the time that frontier post was being erected. In 1829 he 
removed his'village to Muscatine Swamp, and then to a place near where is 
now located the town bearing his name. Many of the early settlers of Keo- 
kuk county remember him well, as the southern part of this county was a 
favorite resort for him and many members of his tribe. It was in the lim- 
its of this county that this illustrious chief died. His favorite hunting 
ground, is that portion of the county which is now within the limits of 
Jackson township. Although he willingly united in the treaty ceding it to 
the whites, it was done with the clear coviction that the country would be 
shortly overrun and his hunting ground ruined by the advance of palefaces. 
He chose to sell rather than be robbed, and then quietly receeded with his 
band. 



272 HISTOET OF KEOKTJK COUNTY. 

Mr. Searcy relates au incident in the life of this chief which we here 
quote: " Between the Sioux, and the Sacs and the Foxes, a bitter and 
deadly hatred existed. This enmity was carried to such a bitter extent 
that it caused the establishment, by the government, of the neutral ground, 
in the north part of the territory, which was a strip of country about 
thirty miles in width, over which the tribes were not allowed to pass in 
order to slay each other. The love of revenge was so strongly marked in 
the Indian character that it was not to be suppressed by imaginary geo- 

fraphical lines, and consequently it was not a rare occurrence tor a Sac or 
'ox Indian, or a Sioux, to bite the dust, as an atonement for real or imag- 
inary wrongs. In this manner one of the sons of Wapello was cruelly 
cut down, from an ambush, in the year 1836. When the chief heard of 
the sad calamity he was on Skunk river, opposite to the mouth of Crooked 
creek. He immediately plunged into and swam across the stream. Upon 
arriving at a trading post nealr by, he gave the best pony he had for a barrel 
of whisky, and setting it out, invited his people to partake, a very unwise 
practice, which he doubtless borrowed froriithe white people, who availed 
themselves of this medium ip wbich to drown their sorrow. 

Wapello's death occured in "Keokuk county,; in March, 1844. In accord- 
ance with the provisions of the treaty- of- d 843, he had retired with his 
tribe, west of Red Rock, and it was during a temporary visit to his old 
hunting ground on Rock- creek, that he breathed his last. We quote from 
an address of Mr. Romig , the following pathetic account of the death of 
the warrior: 

" As the swallow, returns to the place where kst she, had built her nest, 
cruelly destroyed. by thjB. ruthless hands of SQme rude boy, or as a mother 
would return to the empty crib wh,erei. once had reposed herdnnocent babe, 
in the sweet embrace of sleep, and weep Jbr the treasure she had once pos- 
sessed, so Wapello; mourned for the- hunting, grounds he had been forced 
to leave behind, andllonged to roam, over the broad expanse again. It was 
in the month of March ;; heayy, Xyinter had begun to shed her mantle of 
snow ; the sun peeped forth through the fleeting clouds ; the woodchuck 
emerged from his subterranean retreat ,to greet the morning breeze, and 
all nature seemed to rejoice at the prospect of returning spring. The old 
chief felt the exhilirating influence of reviving nature, and longed again 
for the sports of his youth. He accordingly assembled a party and started 
0)1 a hunting excursion to the scenes of his former exploits. But alas, the 
poor old man was not long destined to mourn over his misfortunes. While 
traveling over the beautiful prairies, or encamped in the picturesque groves 
that he was once want to call his own, dise.ase fastened upon his vitals and 
the chief lay prostrate in his lodge. How long the burning fever 
raged and racked in hife , brain, or iifho it was that applied the cooling 
draught to his parched lips, tradition Ijas failed \to inform us; but this we 
may fairly presume: that- his trusty followers were deeply, distressed at 
the sufferings of their chief, whom they loved and administered all the 
comforts in their power to alleviate his sufferings, but all would not avail. 
Grim death had crossed his path, and touched her finger upon his brow, 
and marked him for her own. Human efforts to save could avail nothing. 
Time passed, and with it the life of Wapello'; The last word was spoken, 
the last wish expressed, the last breath drawn, and his spirit took its flight. 
The passing breeze in seolean notes chanted a requiem in the elm tops. 
The placid creek in its meandering course murmured in chorus over the 



HISTOKT OF KEOKUK OOUNTT. 276 

dead. The squirrel came forth in the bright sunshine to frisk and chirp 
in frolicsome glee, and the timid fawn approached the brook, and bathed 
her feet in the waters, but the old man heeded it not, for Manatah, his 
God, had called him home. 

"Although it is a matter of regret that we are not in possession of his 
dying words, and other particulars connected with his death, let us en- 
deavor to be content with knowing that Wapello died some time in the month 
of March, in the year 18i4, in Keokuk county, on Rock creek, in Jackson 
township, on the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter, section 21, 
township 7i, range 11 west, where a mound still marks the spot; and with 
Snowing also that his remains were thence conveyed by Mr. Samuel Har- 
desty, now of Lancaster township, accompanied by twenty-two Indians and 
three squaws, to the Indian burial ground, at Agency City, where sleeps 
the Indian agent, Gen. Street, and numbers of the Sac and Fox tribe, and 
where our informant left the remains to await the arrival of Keokuk, and 
other distinguished chiefs to be present at the interment." 

Keokuk, Appanoose, and nearly all the leading men among Indians . 
were present at the funeral, which took place toward evening of the same 
day upon which the body arrived at Agency. The usual Indian ceremonies 
preceded the interment, after which the body was buried by the body 
of Gen. Street, which was in accordance with his oft repeated request to 
be hurried by the side of his honest pale faced friend. 

In 1845 in accordance with the stipulations of the treaty, and in obedi- 
ence to the demand of the white man, whose friend he had ever been and 
whose home he had defended, both by word and act, in times of great ex- 
citement, Keokuk led his tribe west of the Missouri river, and located 
upon a reservation now comprised in the boundaries of what is now the 
State of Kansas. What must have been the emotions which swelled the 
heart of this renowned savage, and what must have been the peculiar 
thoughts which came thronging from his active brain when he turned his 
back for the last time upon the bark covered huts of his Iowa village, the 
graves of his friends, and that portion of country which, but the year be- 
fore, had been honored by his name. It was leaving everything familiar in 
life and dear to the heart. To him it was not going West to grow up with 
the country, but to lose himself and his tribe in oblivion and national an- 
nihilation. 

Keokuk lived but three years after leaving the Territory of Iowa, and we 
have no facts at our command in reference to his career at the new home 
west of the Missouri. The Keokuk Register of June 15, 1848, contained 
the following notice of his death, together with some additional sketches of 
his life: 

" The St. Louis New Era announces the death of this celebrated Indian 
chief. Poison was administered to him by one of his tribe, from the eflfecta 
of which he died. The Indian was apprehended, confessed his guilt and 
was shot. 

"Keokuk leaves a son of some prominence, but tliere is little probability 
of his succeeding the same station, as he is not looked upon by the tribe as 
inheriting the disposition and principles of his father." 

We close this sketch by appending an extract from a letter recently writ- 
ten by Judge J. M. Casey, of Fort Madison, to Hon. S. A. James, of 
Sigourney. 

18 



276 BISTOEY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

" "While Keokuk was not a Lee county man, I have often seen him liiere. 
He was an individual of distinguished mark; once seen would always be re- 
membered. It/was not necessary to be told that he was a chief, you would 
at once recognize him as such, and stop to admire his, grand deportment. 
I was quite young when I last saw him, bnt 1 yet remember his appearance 
and every lineament of his face as well as if it had been yesterday, and this 
impression was left upon every person who saw him, whether old or young. 
It is hard for us to realize that an Indian could be so great a man. But it 
is a conceded fact, by all the early settlers who knew him, that Keokuk pos- 
sessed, in a prominent degree, the elements of greatness." 

INDIAN INCIDENTS AND REMINISCENCES. 

During the visit of Keokuk, Wapello and their party at Boston, which 
has already been referred to, there was a great struggle between the man- 
agers of the two theaters of that place to obtain the presence of the Indians 
in order to "draw houses." At the Tremont, the aristocratic one, the 
famous tragedian, Forrest, was tilling an engagement. His great play, in 
which he acted the part of a gladiator, and always drew his largest audi- 
ences, had not yet come off, and the manager was disinclined to bring it 
out while the Indians were there, as their presence always insured a full 
house. General Street, who, as before remarked, was in charge of the 
party, being a strict Presbyterian, was not much in the theatrical 
line, hence Major Beach, to whom we are indebted for the facts 
of this incident, and who accompanied General Street at the time, took the 
matter in hand. He knew that this particular play would suit the Indiana 
better than those simple declamatory tragedies, in which, as they could not 
understand a word, there was no action to keep them interested, so he pre- 
vailed upon the manager to bring it out, promising that the Indians would 
be present. 

In the exciting scene, where the gladiators engage in deadly combat, the 
Indians gazed with eager, and breathless anxiety, and as Forrest, finally 
pierced through the breast with his adversary's sword, fell dying, and as 
the other drew his bloody weapon from the body, heaving in the convul- 
sions of its expiring throes, and while the curtain was descending, the whole 
Indian coitapany burst out with their fiercest war whoop. It was a fright- 
ful yell to strike suddenly upon unaccustomed ears, and was immediately 
followed by screams of terror from the more nervous among the women 
and children. For an instant the audience seemed at a loss, but soon ut- 
tered a hearty round of applause — a just tribute to both actor and Indians. 

During the same visit to Boston, Major Beach says that the Governor 
gave them a public reception at the State House. The ceremony took place 
in the spacious Hall of Eopresentatives, every inch of which was jammed 
with humanity. After the Governor had ended his eloquent and appropri- 
ate address of welcome, it devolved upon one of the chiefs to reply, and 
Appanoose, in his turn, as, at the conclusion of his "talk," advanced to 
grasp the Governor's hand, said: "It is a great day that the sun 
shines upon when two such great chiefs take each other by the hand!" 
The Governor, with a nod of approbation, controlled his facial mus- 
cles in a most courtly gravity. But the way the house came down " was 
a cavition," all of which Appanoose doubtless considered the Yankee way 
of applauding his speech. 



HISTOET OF KEOKUK COTJNTT. 277 

The Indians seldom occupied their permanent villages except during the 
time ofplanting or securing their crop, after which they would start out on 
a short hunt, if the annuity — which was usually paid within six weeks 
from the 1st of September— had not been received. Immediately after pay- 
ment, it was their custom to leave their village for the winter, hunting 
through this season by families and small parties, leading the regular 
nomad life, changing their location from lime to time, as the supply of 
game and the need — so essential to their comfort — of seeking places near 
the timbered streams best protected from the rigors of winter, would re- 
qiiire. It was, doubtless, on one of these tours through the country that 
Kish-ke-Kosh once stopped over night at the house of a white man. He 
was accompanied by several companions, who slept together on a buffalo 
hide within view of the kitchen. In the morning when he awoke Kish-ke- 
Kosh had an eye on the culinary preparations there going on. The lady of 
the house — it is possible she did it intentionally, as she was not a willing 
entertainer of such guests — neglected to wash her hands before making up 
the bread. Kish thought he would rather do without his breakfast than 
eat after such cooking, and privately signified as niuch to his followers, where- 
upon they mounted their ponies and departed, much to the relief of the 
hostess. When they arrived at a house some distance from the one they had 
left, they got their breakfast and related the circumstance. 

This Krsh-ke-kosh previous to 1837 was simply a warrior chief in the 
village of Keokuk. The warrior chief was inferior to the village chief, to 
which distinction he afterward attained. The village presided over by this 
chief is well remembered by many of the early settlers of Richland town- 
ship. It was located, some say, just over the line in what is now White 
Oak township, Mahaska county. Major Beach thus describes it: "The 
place cannot be located exactly according to our State maps, although the 
writer has.often visited it in Indian times; but somewhere out north from 
Kifkville, and probably not twelve miles distant, on the banks of Skunk 
river, not far above the Forks of Skunk, was a small village of not over fif- 
teen or twenty lodges, presided over by a man of considerable importance, 
though not a chief, named Kish-ke-kosh. The village was on the direct 
trail — in fact it was the converging point of two trails — from the Hardfish 
village, and the three villages across the river below Ottumwa, to the 
only other permanent settlement of the tribes, which was the village of 
Poweshiek, a Fox chief of equal rank with Wapello, situated upon the 
Iowa river." 

Here the squaws, after grubbing out hazel brush on the banks of the 
creeks or the edge of the timber, unaided by either plow or brave, planted 
and tended their patches of corn, surrounding them by rude fences of wil- 
low, which were renewed each year. Here the men trained their ponies, 
hunted, fished and loafed, until the 1st of May, 1843, when they bade adieu 
to their bark covered huts. The following incident is located at this point: 
Some time about 1841 Major Beach, Indian agent, in company with W. B. 
Street and others, came up from Agency City on some business with Kish- 
ke-kosh. Arriving late in the evening they encamped near the village, and 
on the following morning Kish-ke-kosh with his assistants came over to the 
camp to receive them. Tlie pipe of peace was lighted and passed around, 
and the business transacted. After the council the whites were invited to 
come over in the evening to the feast which the Indians proposed having 
in honor of their visit. The invitation was accepted, and presently the 



278 HISTOET OF KEOKTTK COUNTY. 

whites heard a great howling among the dogs, and looking in the direction 
of the village they could plainly see the preparations for the supper. A 
number of dogs were killed and stretched on stakes a few inches above the 
ground. They were then covered with dried grass, which was set on fire 
and the hair singed off, after which, after the dogs had passed through the 
scraping process, they were cut up and placed in pots along with a quantity 
of corn. The whites were promptly in attendance, but on account of their 
national prejudice they were provided with venison instead of dog meat. 
After the feast dancing was commenced: first, the Green Corn dance, then 
the Medicine dance, and closing just before morning with the Scalp dance. 
Kish-ke-kosh did not take part in this Terpsichorean performance, but sat 
with the whites, laughing, joking, and telling stories. 

On another occasion, Kish-ke-kosh and his suit, consisting of several 
prominent personages of the tribe, being then encamped on Skunk river, 
went to the house of a Mr. Micksell on a friendly visit, and he treated them 
to a feast. Besides Kish-ke-kosh and his wife, who was a very lady like 
person, this party consisted of his mother (Wyhoma), the son of Wapello, 
and his two wives; Mashaweptine, his wife, and all their children. The 
old woman on being asked how old she was, replied : " Mach-ware-renaak- 
we-kauh" (may be a hundred); and indeed her bowed form and hideously 
shriveled features would justiiy the belief that she was that old. The 
whole party were dressed in more than ordinarily becoming style; prob- 
ably out of respect for their hostess, who, knowing something of their vo- 
racious appetites, had made ample preparations for them. When the table 
was surrounded, Kish-ke-kosh, who had learned some good manners, as well 
as acquired cleanly taste, essayed to perform the etiquette of the occasion 
before eating anything himself. With an amusingly awkward imitation of 
what he had seen done among the whites, Kish-ke-kosh passed the various 
dishes to the others, showing the ladies especial attention, and helped them 
to the best of everything on the table, with much apparent disinterested- 
ness. But when he came to help himself his politeness assumed the In- 
dian phase altogether. He ate like a person with a bottomless pit inside 
of him for a stomach, taking everything within his reach, without regard 
to what should come next in the course, so only that he liked the taste of 
it. At last, after having drank some five or six cups of coffee and eaten a 
proportionate amount of solid food, his gastronomic energy began to 
abate. Seeing this, his host approached him, and with apparent concern 
for his want of appetite, said: " Why, Kish, do you not eat your dinner ? 
Have another cup of coffee and eat something." In reply to this hospita- 
ble urgency Kish-ke-kosh leaned back in his seat, lazily shook his head and 
drew his finger across his throat under his chin, to indicate how full he 
was. Of course, the others had eaten in like proportion, making the most 
of an event that did not happen every day. 

The Indians in this region had a novel way of dealing with drunken peo- 
ple. When one of them became unsafely drunk he was tied neck and 
heels, so that he could be rolled about like a hoop, which operation was- 
kept up till the fumes of liquor had vanished, when he was released. The 
sufferer would beg for mercy, but to no avail. After he was sobered off he 
showed no marks of resentment, but seemed to recognize the wisdom of 
the proceeding. 

The Sacs and Foxes, like all other Indians, were a very religious peoplej^ 
in their way, always maintaining the observance of' a good many rites. 



HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 279 

ceremonies and feasts in their worship of the Kitche Mulito or Great Spirit. 
Feasts did not seem to be prescribed in any of their missals, however, be- 
cause, perhaps, forced ones, under a scarcity of game or other eatables, 
were not of impossible occurrence among people whose creed plainly was 
to let to-morrow take care of itself. Some of the ceremonies bore such re- 
semblance to some of those laid down in the books of Moses, as to have 
justified the impression among Biblical students, that all the lost tribes of 
Israel might have found their way to this continent, and that the North 
American Indians are the remnants of them. 

During the few years previous to the treaty of 1842, when the boundary 
line between the white settlements and the reservation ran across the south- 
eastern corner of the county, it was not of unfrequent occurrence for 
whites to come across the line and "squat" on the forbidden ground. Un- 
der these circumstances, it became necessary for the Indian Agent to drive 
them back and burn their dwellings. Major Beach, to whose published 
notes we are indebted for many of the foregoing incidents, relates the fol- 
lowing: "A proclamation had been issued by the Governor of the Territory 
to remove by military force all tresspassers, who having received a reasona- 
ble notice had not retired by a certain day. Such military expeditions 
would of course abound with incidents sometimes amusing, sometimes ex- 
citing and sometimes disagreeable and embarrassing. We would fre- 
quently find the men gone and the premises in charge of the women and 
children, under the belief that they would in some way or other get over 
the trouble. Excuses would be various, mostly of wagons broken in the 
very act of starting, or of oxen strayed or horses lost or stolen just a day too 
Boon; sometimes of sickness, although we failed of observing signs of it. 
On oue accasion, a soldier over-lieard a well grown girl tell a bright-eyed 
Junior one not to cry, for 'Pap' was just gone down the branch, and Would 
come back as soon as the soldiers were gone. And sure enough when the 
smoke of the burning cabin curled above his hiding place, convincing him 
that his plan had proved abortive, 'Pap' came rushing around a point of 
the grove, apparently out of breath, with a long story of his strayed horses 
that he had hunted till the last day, and then gone to some kindred, some 
six or eight miles across the line, who were then on the road with their 
wagons; and that he having heard the bugle, had left them, that in order, 
by short cuts across the timber and hollows, to get home in time to save 
his 'plunder'. Well, the Lieutenant told him, that it was all safe, the sol- 
diers had set it out carefully, without giving his family any trouble to help 
them; and if only he- had time, he would be glad to remain till his friends 
arrived and help him load up. The mansion being now burned beyond sal- 
vation, the bugle sounded to mount and the troop resumed its march. 

" The next amusing incident was in our encounter, soon after the troop 
had resumed its march, with an old fellow whom we met coming up the 
somewhat dim road, just along the edge of the timber, on this side of the 
river. The troop was of between thirty and forty men, with a lieutenant, 
the captain having stayed at the agency, with the rest of his company, to 
take care of his supplies in camp. The lieutenant and writer were comfort- 
ably walking their nags along the said road, the troops at some distance in 
the rear, following the same easy gait, with their two six-mule wagons be- 
hind, when we espied a wagon coming around the point of the road not 
far ahead of us. The team soon showed itself to be a span of black sleek 
horses, and the entire outfit indicated that the old chap in charge of it was 



280 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

not as hard np as his personal look would have lead one to believe. He 
was for giving us the entire right-of-way, but as we turned ofl" to face him 
as if we intended to collide, bowed to him, he reined up. 

"According to his story he was out for just a pastime drive up the 
the ridge, without much object or motive of any kind; but he liad a scythe 
to cut grass, a good lot of oats and shelled corn in sacks, an extra wagon 
sheet that would have improvised a tolerably comfortable tent in short, 
order, a plentiful supply of 'grub' for himself and a boy he had with 
him, thirteen or fourteen years old, and a forty gallon empty barrel, all 
suggestive of a contemplated raid upon the bee trees. After some parly, 
the lieutenant turned him over to the sergeant, who had, in the meantime 
come up with his Tnen, who in his tarn placed him with a file of troopers 
as a guard of honor between the two baggage wagons. The old fellow 
soon got the hang of what was' up, from the soldiers, and as misery loves 
company, he soon seemed to lose sight of his own disgust in contemplating 
that of the inmates of the two squatters' cabins we had yet to visit. We 
soon reached the nearest one and found it abandoned, though very recently, 
as all signs pi-oved. Stopping long enough to burn the cabin, we then 
kept on our way to the only remaining trespasser who had put up his cabin 
on that side of the ridge we were descending. As we turned off to cross 
the ridge our former captive, whom we now released, seemed for awhile a» 
if disposed to relieve himself from the engagement of our society as soon 
as possible. But in a short time he changed his mind, for long before he 
had traveled the half mile across the ridge we saw that he had turned off' 
and was in pursuit of us. He reached the house almost as soon as we did, 
and in full time to say to the lieutenant and myself what could not have 
been less than an unpleasant feeling of personal sympathy for the family 
we were about to dislodge. As in several previous instances, the man had 
gone off, leaving the woman to give reasons and offer excuses for his ab- 
sence. It was very near night and not less than five mites to the nearest 
house in the direction in which the woman desired to go. Slie had several 
children, of whom not the largest even was 3'et of an age to be other than 
an encumbrance at such a time; nor was there team, wagon, or other means 
of transportation to be seen. While she was bitterly complaining of her 
cruel fate in thus being turned out of her house to see it consumed, with 
herself, children and chattels all night under the open heavens, our lately 
made acquaintance came to a halt among us, the expression of his features, 
indicating a much more enjoyable expectation of witnessing the scene 
ahead than was ever felt by any among us whose duty it was to bring it 
into action. 

"We accordingly concluded to press him into service, soothing by that 
proposal much of the distress of the materfamilias, who appeared to be a. 
person rather superior to the ordinary grade of squatters. The soldiers set 
about the work of removing her property from the house, and loading such 
portions of it as she was least disposed to abandon for the night into the 
old fellow's wagon, and comfortably stowing herself and children on the 
load, we started him off as soon as she was ready to leave, after having 
placed the . rest of her effects in as secure a condition as we could. To 
guard against any possible treachery on the part of the old bee hunter, aS 
well as in view of any break dDwn before he could strike a smoother road, 
the lieutenant took the precaution to detach a corporal with a half dozen 



HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 281 

men to act as an escort over the three miles or so to tlie Indian boundary, 
beyond which our jurisdiction ceased. 

' The bouse with its combustible appendages having been set on fire,, we 
continued our march to a point a mile or two within the civilized part of 
Iowa Territory, where a well fixed, thrifty settler supplied our commissa- 
riat, as well as our forage department, with sundry items that a three days 
expedition through the brush had made acceptable, if not actually needful. 
Night had fairly set in. The corporal had rejoined the command, and re- 
ported the bee-hunter and his cargo to be making satisfactory and appar- 
ently friendly progress at the point lie was ordered to leave them. Our 
camp fires were soon blazing and the tents pitched, and in a short time a 
good supper increased the contentment which the lieutenant and agent 
could not fail to enjoy over the final conclusion of a most unpleasant duty. 
An early reveille, and the next day at noon found us at the agency." 

Some years ago Mr. A. C. Komig delivered an address before the Sigour- 
ney Literary and Historical Society, in which he gave an account, by Mr. 
William Scearcy of a drunken revel he once witnessed among the Indians 
who resided in his neigborhood: 

"The village consisted of about forty wigwams or lodges, built of poles 
and bark, and contained about seven hundred inhabitants — Indian squaws, 
pappooses, dogs and all, under, the chieftainship of the memoi-able Wapello. 
This band of Indians lived, as Indians usually do, by hunting, fishing, and 
cultivating a few acres of corn, or Indian maize, rudely enclosed by a 
miserable excuse of a fence, consisting of stakes driven into the ground 
and light poles secured by bark. Their flimsy enclosures were a poor pro- 
tection, and offered but little resistance to the cattle and stock of the neigh- 
boring white settlers, that continually broke into their fields and destroyed 
their crops. The natural result of all this was to embitter the feelings and 
excite the hatred of the savages, whose natural, thirst to revenge their 
wrongs, either real or imaginary, was not ameliorated in the least; but on 
the contrary it was vastly increased and irritated by the use of ardent spir- 
its, which they obtained a short distance down the river at a mill, and which 
they used to great excess. 

"I have been a frequent witness," continues Mr. Scearcy, "of their drunk- 
en carousals, and saw at one time not less than five hundred drunken In- 
dians and squaws upon the ground at once, presenting a scene, of squalid 
wretchedness, and human degradation painful to behold. There, a squad of ' 
stalwart Indians, drinking, carousing, quarreling and fighting, while close at 
hand were a squad of fiftj', perhaps a hundred, squaws in alike unenviable con- 
dition, chattering, drinking, quarreling and pulling each other's hair, scratch- 
ing, biting, gouging, crying, laughing, yelling, and making all sorts of hide- 
ous noises — the scene relieved occasionally by a member of the sterner sex 
pitching in to display his superior qualities, while to add comicality to the 
affray the dusky mother might be seen with pappooses strapped upon their 
backs, and safely screened by some friendly tree, or other shelter, quietly, 
contemplating the scene, but, like Falstafi", taking good care to keep out of 
harm's way. We stood and gazed in mute amazement upon this living, re- 
volving, squirming mass of human flesh and hair, utterly unconscious of 
any danger to ourself until approached by the chief, Wapello, and admon- 
ished by the friendly word, puck-a-chee, which signifies you had better 



282 HISTOKT OF KEOKUK COITNTT. 

leave, and then deeming discretion the better part of valor we gave them 
' French leave' and turned aiir faces homeward." 

During sickness there was usually great attention given to tlie comfort of 
the Indians, and diligent efforts to cure the patient, but when it became 
apparent that recovery was impossible, the patient, while still alive,, was 
dressed in his best attire and painted according to the fancy of the relatives 
present, ornamented with all the trinkets, jewels and badges, dressed in his 
best attire, and then placed upon a mat or a platform to die. The guns, 
bows, arrows, axes, knives and other weapons, were all carried away from 
the house or lodge and concealed. Tliey alleged that these preparations 
were necessary to evince their respect to the Great Spirit who, at the mo- 
ment of death, visits the body of the dying, receives the spirit, and carries 
it with Him to Paradise, while the concealment of all warlike implements 
shows their humble submission to, and non-resistance of, the Divine will. 

Dead bodies were sometimes deposited in graves; others placed in a sit- 
ting posture, reclining against a rock or tree; others, again, were deposited 
in boxes, baskets, or cases of skins, and suspended in the branches of trees, 
or upon scaffolds erected for the purpose. Elevated parcels of dry ground 
were usually selected as burial places, and not so much re^gard was had for 
the cardinal points of the compass as to the relative position of some neigh- 
boring object. The graves were arranged usually with reference to some 
river, lake or mountain. Where it was convenient, the grave when enclosed, 
was covered with stones and under other circumstances it was enclosed 
with wooden slabs, upon which were painted with red paint certain signs 
or symbols commemorative of the decea,sed's virtues. The death of a near 
relative was lamented with violent demonstrations of grief. Widows vis- 
ited the graves of their deceased husbands with hair disheveled, carrying a 
bundle composed of one or more of the deceased's garments, and to this 
representative of her departed husband she addressed her expressions of 
grief and assurances of. undying affection, and extreme anxiety for the 
comfort and well being of the departed. 

EAELY SETTLEMENTS. 

Every nation does not possess an authentic account of its origin, neither 
do all communities have the correct data whereby it is possible to accu- 
rately predicate the condition of their first beginnings. Nevertheless, to 
be intensely interested in such things is characteristic of the race, and it is 
particularly the province of the historian to deal with first causes. Should 
these facts, as is often the case, be lost in the mythical tradition of the past, 
the chronicler invades the realm of the ideal, and compels his imagination 
to paint the missing picture. The patriotic Eoinan, was not content till he 
had found the "First Settlers", and then he was satisfied, although they 
were found in the very undesirable company of a she bear, and located on a 
drift, which the receeding waters of the Tiber had permitted them to pre- 
empt. 

One of the advantages pertaining to a residence in a new country, and 
the one possibly least appreciated, is the fact that we can go back to the 
first beginnings. We are thus enabled not only to trace results to their 
causes but also to grasp the facts which have contributed to form and mould 
these causes. We observe that a State or county has attained a certain po- 
sition, and we at once try to trace out the reasons for this position in its 



HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTT. 283 

«arly settlement and surroundings,in the class of men by whom it was peo- 
pled and in the many chances and changes which have wrought out results 
in ali the recorded deeds of mankind. In the history of Keokuk county, we 
may trace its early settlers to their homes in the Eastern States and in the 
countries of the Old World. We may follow the course of the hardy wood- 
man of the "Buckeye" or the "Hoosier" State on his way west to "grow up 
up with the country," trusting only to his strong arm and his willing heart 
to work out his ambition of a home for himself and wife, and a competence 
for his children. Yet again, we may seethe path worn by the Missourian in his 
new experience in a land which to him was a land of progress, far in advance 
of that southern soil upon which he had made his temporary home, in his ef- 
fort to adapt himself to new conditions. We may see here the growth which 
came with knowledge, and the progress which grew upon him with progress 
around him, and how his better side developed. The pride of Kentucky 
blood, or the vain glorying of the YirginiaF. F. V's, was here seen in an 
early day only to be modified in its advent from the crucible of democracy 
when servitude was eliminated from the solution. Yet others have been 
animated with the impulse to "move on," after making themselves part of the 
community, and have sought the newer parts of the extreme West, where 
civilization had not penetrated, or return to their native soil. We shall 
find little of that distictive New England character which has contributed 
80 many men and women to other portions of our State and the West, but 
we shall find many an industrious native of Germany or the British Isles, 
and a few of the industrious and economical French — all of whom have 
contributed to modify types of men already existing here. With confidence 
that general results will prove that there is much of good in everything, 
and that a justice almost poetic has been meted put to the faults and follies, 
to the tbibles and the virtues of the early settlers of this county, we may 
now enter upon their story. 

As before stated, prior to October 21, 1838, the whites were not allowed 
to settle in any part of the territory now embraced in the boundaries of 
Keokuk county. At that time the United States came into possession of 
territory before held by the Indians; this new territory embraced within 
its bounds a small portion of what is now Keokuk county, including nearly 
all of the southeastern (Kichland) township, and about half of the first, 
and a small portion of the secona townships north of it. Upon this 
" strip," as has already been shown, the whites were then entitled to set- 
tle. This, however, cannot be taken as the date of first settlement; prior 
to that time a number of claims had been made and improvements com- 
menced. The treaty had been made, and although, theoretically, this was 
forbidden ground, and the pioneers could at best but take a position on 
the border line and view at a distance the promised land, yet, practically, 
the country was open for exploration some months sooner, and the more 
adventuresome land-viewers and claim-seekers crossed over, looking at the 
country and marking the best localities, in order that they might be the 
better prepared to make an intelligent selection before settling a perma- 
nent claim. Early in the spring of this year a claim had been taken and a 
permanent settlement began. From this time, therefore, must be traced 
the history of Keokuk county, and at that time must be dated the "first 
settlement." 



284: HisTOBr OF keokuk county. 

THE FIRST SETTLERS. 

In some counties there is great uncertainty as to who was the veritable 
"First Settler." In Keokuk county no such dispute is likely ever to oc- 
cur. All accounts agree in attributing this distinction to Mr. Aaron Mil- 
ler, who, together with his son, John Miller, took claims and settled in the 
immediate vicinity of the present site of Richland. The first habitation 
erected was a cabin built by Mr. Miller, near the present residence of Mr. 
Isaac Davis. Mr. Miller is now dead ; so is his son, John Miller, but his 
son-in-law "Wm. Scearcy, still lives in an adjoining township. 

In the fall of the same year a few others came, and in the spring of 183ft 
Robert Pringle, James Higginbotham, Wm. Lewis, Wm. Bristow, John 
Wasson, Mitchell Gill and James M. Smith, came from the same neighbor-i 
hood in Indiana, and settled near to and east of the present site of Rich- 
land. Some of these still live near where they originally settled; some are 
dead, while others, after remaining a number of years, again fell in with, 
the tide of emigration and have been borne westward. 

Mr. Bristow is the oldest settler in the county who still resides on hia 
original claim. He knows all that is comprehended in the meaning of the 
word " Pioneer," and has experienced all the trials and hardships incident 
to frontier life. ISTotwithstanding this, Mr. Bristow is still robust and 
healthy, and thanks to a more thaii ordinarily vigorous constitution, has 
not known a day during the past forty years when he was not able to attend 
to his aifairs of business. 

Mr. Smith was prominently identified with the organization of the 
county, and became a member of the first board of county commissioners. 

Prominent among those who came during the years 1839-40 were the 
following: Joseph Kellum, Joab Bennett, five brotliers by the name of 
Brown, to-wit: Jerry, Bowzier. William, Talton and Monroe; Jerry- Keui 
dall, James Roy, Henry Hardin, Peter Perry, James Miller, Wm. Miller, 
Elijah Searc}', ]3avid Myers, Richard Quinton, Horace Bagley, Wm. Lew- 
man, James Lewraan, Elias Whetston, Theodore Cox; and three brothers: 
William, John, and Ross Franklin; and four brothers: Henry, Thomas, 
Joel, and Pleasant Pringle; S. P. Bristow, Cyrus Jordan, Jacob Wimer, 
Mr. Troxel, Ed. Faj^es, Robert Blacker, J. O. Casterline, and J. J. 
Franklin. 

Mr. Kellum became the first Probate Judge of the county. Mr. Quin- 
ton was one of the delegates, to the first constitutional convention; and 
others of the afore-mentioned gentlemen became, in one way and another, 
prominently associated in the early development and organization of the 
county. 

Prominent among those on the north side of the river were Harvey Ste- 
vens and the Hendersons, Dr.Worthington, Dr. Mealy, William Grimsley,. 
Wm. Shockley, John Baker, Wesley Goss, James Junkin, E. B. Holmes, 
Robert Alexander, John Crill, Sr., Ed. Cooley, and Michael Hornish. 

Not many of the settlers of the spring of 1839 came early enough to 
raise a crop that season. A few, however, with their long team of oxen, 
and wooden mould-board plows, turned the sod and raised some sod corn, 
which helped them much in getting their stock through the winter. Most 
of the people, however, had to depend on prairie hay for feed for their 
stock which they had driven from the States, and which were by the long 
journey reduced to great poverty. The result was that mnch of this stock 



HI8TOKY OP KEOKUK COUNTY. 285 

died during the winter, arid the teams with which they were compelled to 
begin the spring work were not in a condition to do the vast amount of 
work consequent upon the opening of farms. Their bread was made of 
cornmeal and water. Their meat was such as they were able to procure by 
the use of their trusty rifles. Flour was scarce and dear, and they had to 
go to Burlington to procure it. 

Two of these early settlers deserve to be especially mentioned: William 
Scearoy and Jacob Wimer. The former still resides in the county. AU 
tbongh he is now quite aged, and his life one of trial and hardship, yet his- 
step is still elastic and his mind clear and memory reliable. A short sketch 
of his early life will be interesting to the reader and eminently proper ia 
this place. We will let him tell his own story : 

" My father, Robert Scearcy, was born in Virginia in the year 1782, and 
died and was buried in this township April 18, 1857. My mother's name 
was Mary Spivey. They were married in North Carolina, and were the 
parents of thirteen children: ten girls and three boys, 1 being the fifth 
child. 

I was born in Buncombe county, Nortii Carolina, in the year 1813. When 
quite young my parents moved to Warren county. Tennessee, where we re- 
mained until the fall of 1829, when we started for Indiana, but owing to 
sickness we did not reaeh our destination until the spring of 1830; stayed 
a while in Morgan county, Indiana, and from there to Sangamon county,. 
Illinois, where I was married April 7, 1836, to Sarah Miller (daughter of 
Aaron Miller, who was the first settler in this county, and died several 
years ago in this township). The same spring after I was married, myself 
and wife, in company with two brother-in-laws, John and James Miller and 
their families, started for Iowa, and being the first emigrants with teams 
that came west farther than Lockridge, we followed the township line from 
there by the marks on the trees in the timber, and the stakes and mounds 
on the prairies, until we reached what is now known as Pleasant Plain, in 
Jefferson county. The land at that time had not been surveyed out in smaller 
subdivisions than townships, and was not yet in market. I purchased a 
claim of 160 acres and adjoining my claim I laid out that town, consisting 
of 300 lots. The town of Brighton, in Washington county, was located 
the same fall. I broke about twelve acres of prairie that spring, during 
which time we lived in a tent. The greater part of the summer we spent 
in breaking prairie on the north side of Skunk river. A great many emi- 
grants came in without families, would take claims and hired us to break a 
few acres — -just sufficient to hold their claims until they should return in 
the fall, agreeing to pay us for the work when they returnd; but they did 
did not come back, and we found that we had done our work for nothing — 
lost it all. 

"While on the north side of the river we lived in an Indian 'wigwam' 
made of bark. Here is where Wapello and his tribe lived at that time. 
They had quite a town, and some of them had small patches of ground 
that they cultivated, raising some corn and a few vegetables. It was a 
great sight to the Indians to see the prairie plow turning the sod over. 
The little fellows would follow us day after day, watching the plowing pro- 
cess. The Indians, as a general thing, treated us kindly enough, but seemed 
to look upon us with a kind of jealousy. They were great fellow's for whisky 
■ at all times, but on special occasions they made whisky a special resort. 



286 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

On the occasion of the death of one of Wapello's sons, the old chief him- 
self swam across the river, procured a barrel of whisky, floated it across 
the river, and such a time as they had .1 never witnessed before or since. 
Men, women and children beastly drunk for several days, some shouting the 
war whoop, some crying and wailing, and some sleeping — one continuous 
uproar as long as the whisky lasted. 

" After laying out the town of Pleasant Plain, I made a sale of lots and 
sold about five hundred dollars worth, some desirable ones going as high 
as forty dollars. The land not yet being in market, I could make no deeds, 
but gave bonds for deeds to be made as soon as I should get deeds from the 
government, taking their notes, to be paid when they received the deeds. 

"The only ferries we had to cross the river was our wagons; we had no 
other means of crossing except by swimming the teams, wagons and all. 
In the fall we went back to Sangammon county. 111., expecting to return in 
the spring, as our provisions were all gone, and no means of securing a sup- 
ply for the winter, as we had no money and could not have bought supplies 
if we had money. Owing to sickness in my family, I did not return to 
Iowa until the spring of 1839. When I came to Pleasant Plain I found the 
Quakers had taken advantage of my absence and 'jumped' my claim, 
town and all, and as I could not legally hold it, they would not give it up 
nor pay me anything for what I had done. So I came on west and settlea 
in Richland township, where Moses Mendenhall now lives. David MyerS' 
took a claim adjoining on the south, and although there was not a solitary 
house between him and Fairfield, yet he had not room enough. He 
crowded me out, and I abandoned that claim and settled another, the one 
•which J. 0. Johnson now lives on. I lived around in that vicinity until the 
spring of 1843. On the 30th day of April I moved into Jackson town- 
ehip, although, according to the treaty, we were not allowed to settle on 
this purchase until the first day of May. I commenced staking out my 
claim early the next morning. William Brown, who was then living at 
Blue Point, tried to frighten me away from the claim, threatening to mob 
me; but having actual possession first, I held the claim, on which I have 
lived ever since. The first year I fenced forty acres, broke out thirty acres 
■of sod and put it in corn, on which I raised a good crop — plenty to do me 
and some to sell. I raised as good potatoes and cabbage as I have ever 
raised since. I planted the corn before I fenced the ground, made the rails 
and fenced it during the summer. I laid out in my corn many nights with 
a sod for a pillow, watching the cattle off my crop, and this barefooted, 
when rattlesnakes were as numerous as the grasshoppers and squirrels — 
and have actually killed thetn in the dark. I lived in a tent that summer, 
and in the fall I built a cabin. 

"A great deal of trouble was caused to settlers on account of 'claim 
jumping;' when the land came into market there were a great many poor 
men who had not money to pay for their land, and others more able would 
enter the land at the office, and had it not been for a kind of club law got- 
ten up by the settlers for their own protection, probably much more dis- 
tress would have been than really was. 

"The first church organization in this county was by Andrew P. Tanne- 
hill, building on Spainshower's foundation, in the fall of 184.3; organized 
the Baptist church. 

" The first school taught in the township was by a man by the name of 
Brown, in a log cabin near where John Dare now lives. 



HISTORY OF KEOKTJK COUNTY. 28T 

"I have raised a family of ten children: six boys and four girls, all of 
whom are still living; and they are all here, except one daughter who live& 
in Kansas. 

t, "I professed religion in the year 1819 and joined the Baptist church, of 
which I have been a member ever since. 

"Politically, I am a Democrat, alway have been, and always expect to be; 
my first vote being cast for Martin Yan Bnren for President. 

" In looking over the county now, and contrasting its appearance with 
thirty-five years ago, what a remarkable change we discover: then a vast 
ocean of prairie, upon miles and miles of which nothing could be seen but 
the native grass, interspersed with groves, belts of timber, rivulets and 
streams, inhabited only by the red skins and wild animals. Now, how dif- 
ferent! The white man has made his mark here. All over this country, 
what was then one vast wild prairie, we see, we might say, one continuous 
farm, separated only by roads and fences. In looking over those few yeara 
past, it seems that such a change could not have taken place in so short a 
time. Then we had our log cabin school-houses, with split logs or fence 
rails for seats. Then we had preaching in our log cabins, and people were 
not ashamed to ride in an ox wagon four or five miles to meeting, and if 
they were not able to wear shoes they did not hesitate to go barefoot and 
without any coat. They went to meeting for the enjoyment of true relig- 
ion, and had no fears of being insulted by Mr. Etiquette or Madame Fash- 



Jacob "Wimer settled in the vicinity of Kichland in the year 1839. He 
proved to be the most valuable accession which had, up to this time, been 
made to the little colony. He was a man of the most invincible energy, 
possessed of other striking traits of character, and, moreover, a practical 
mill-wright. No one man did more to advance the interests of the early 
settlers, and to develop the resources of the county, than he. Soon after 
arriving, Mr. "Wimer set about the work of mill-building. The first mill 
in the county was commenced by him in June, 1842, and located on South 
Skunk river, near the confluence of the two streams. It was completed in 
the following February. The mill was built about five rods west of the- 
boundary line of the original Black Hawk purchase. In selecting the site 
he found that he could not erect the mill to advantage unless he put it on 
the Indian side of the line. The trespass was but a few steps, and he sup- 
posed that it would work no injury to the red man. But the red man 
came and pointed out to him the line between Che-mo-keman and Mus- 
qua-ke. Mr. Wimer was apparently too dull of comprehension to under- 
stand the import of the Indians' protestations, and went on with his milL 
The red skins had learned too much of freedom in their own wild forests 
to be thus encroached upon, and regarded in a diplomatic manner a tres- 
pass of fifty yards as equal to the inundation of the whites to the very 
center ot their hunting grounds. The consequence was that they appealed 
to the United States authorities, and a troop of dragoons was dispatched 
to drive Mr. "Weimer off the forbidden ground and burn his. buildings. 
One morning, shortly after the completion of the mill, these epauletted 
gentlemen bore down upon Mr. Wimer. This gentleman, however, was 
not altogether taken by surprise, as he had certain intimations of the raid 
upon his premises. He had, accordingly, prior to the arrival of the dra- 
goons, removed all vestiges of the boundary line, for several miles on 



■288 HISTORY OF KEOKUK OOTTNTT. 

■either side of the river. * When the dragoons arrived they rode up to the 
side of the stream on the south bank of the river, and there hitched their 
(horses. Thereupon the whole squad crossed upon the ice, each man having 
girted at his side an immense sword, which trailed on the ground, at his 
side. The oflScer, in a very pompous style, started up to Mr. Wimer and 
said: 

"Do you know, sir, where you are?" Mr. Wimer met his gaze firmly, 
■and in a very decided manner replied: "I think I do, sir." 

The officer then stated to Mr. Wimer that the mill was on the Indian's 
land, and his instructions were to destroy it, and his imperative duty was 
to obey. This was a critical moment for the millwright. He had invested 
■all his means in the mill, and looking at the building and then at the 
■officer, scarcely knew what to say. He could not for a moment entertain 
■the thought that years of toil and labor should be in vain, and that 
this structure which represented that toil and labor should be demolished 
merely to satisfy the caprices of a few savages, and that too at a time when 
it was known that they would, as they did, sell out as soon as a treaty 
could be concluded. After exhibiting his machinery to the party, and 
making himself as agreeable as his unsafe condition would permit, he 
cooly requested the dragoons to accompany him about one hundred yards 
west of the mill, where, pointing to each side of the river, he called atten- 
tion to marks and notches on the trees, and turning to the commander re- 
marked : 

" You see, sir, I knew where I was, and we need not disturb one another," 
•at the same time he gave him a look which seemed to say: " Do you com- 
prehend my meaning?" 

Whether the dragoon captain believed this to be the true line or not, at 
least he pretended that he did, and venting a few oaths upon the swarthy 
faCes for causing them a cold and needless ride, called off his men and de- 
parted, to the great relief of the mill owner. 

Soon after this circumstance Mr. Wimer sold the mill to Mr. L. B. 
Hughes, and removed to a mill-site on North Skunk river, where he began 
the erection of what was afterward known as the " Whisler Mills." After 
Ihese mills were nearly completed, he sold an interest in them to Mr. J. B. 
Whisler. Shortly after the mills were completed he sold the remainder of 
his interest to Mr. Whisler, and removed to Mahaska county, where he 
commenced the erection of the Union Mills, on North Skunk, finishing 
them about two years afterward. Some time having elapsed, he sold this 
mill, and returned to Keokuk county, and built what was known as the 
Wimer Mill, on South 'Skunk. A sawing attachment was put up in this 
mill by Mr. Abrams soon after. Mr. Harvey Ray, of Burlington, who, up 
to this time, had furnished burrs for most of the mills in southeastern 
Iowa, said that this mill was the best grist-mill in the State. 

In 1857 Mr. Wimer moved to Eay county, Missouri, and erected another 
large grist and saw-mill, and also conducted a large farm. In 1859 he again 
returned to Keokuk county, having sold out in Missouri, and this time pur- 
chased the Goodheart mill, on North Skunk, about one mile from Lancas- 
ter. After Mr. Wimer bought this mill he repaired it and remodeled its 
machinery, and then sold it to Mr. Austin Jacobs. He then moved to a 
farm near Lancaster, declaring his intention of retiring from the milling 
business, but subsequently removed to Oregon, where he was at last ao- 
■counts following Ms old business. 



HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 289 

Mr. Wimer was a man of great benevolence, and many still living in 
the county have reason to remember him with feelings of gratitude. In 
1^11 public enterprises, whether for a charitable object, a church building, a 
bridge, or any other thing to enhance the general good, Mr. Wimer was 
always among the most liberal; and yet modest, not taking one-half the 
alms he gave to keep the other half sounding. Soon after he purchased 
the last mill there was a great scarcity of breadstuffs; just preceding the 
harvest many of the best prepared farmers were closely pushed to obtain 
the staif of life. During this time Mr. Wimer freely distributed to the 
more necessitous class all the toll and other grain he could control. It is 
gratifying to know that Mr. Wimer is but one representative of a large 
class of men who lived in this county at an early day, and who did so much 
to mould the character of the people and develop the resources of the 
country. 

We have been th.us concise and yet explicit in the account of these rep- 
resentative men because we deem it important, and the reader can judge 
from the history of one of them, so graphically and intelligently given in 
his own language, what manner of men they were. It will be observed 
that we have here no rude adventurers, driven out from their fellows by 
crime or melancholy; nor hunters or fishermen, too indolent to work; but 
we see intelligent, industrious men, who felt the lack of all those blessings 
which adhere to older civilization, yet strong enough to break away from 
them. Men who were ambitious to make their own future, and thus make 
the future of the country in which they settled. It will be perceived from 
what has been said of them, that they immediately upon their arrival pro- 
ceeded to work; that they broke prairie, built mills, erected houses, exter- 
minated noxious animals — in short, they were the forerunners of that thrift 
and industry and content which have made the county great and populous 
and wealthy, as well as intelligent and progressive in all the arts of higher 
civilization. The first settlers of Keokuk county were, therefore, men who 
were worthy to be among her citizens of to-day. The forerunners who car- 
ried civilization into the wilderness were of such a cast, of such a nature, 
of such strength and industry, of such ability and such a character, that 
the best of to-day might yet follow where they would lead, confident that 
they would work for the upbuilding of the county, and that nothing of dis- 
honor would come to them through their leaders. 

It would be interesting could we but go back, even in fancy, to the con- 
dition of affairs when these men first saw this county in 1839. Could we 
but have seen the sublimity of this great and fertile region, where but few, 
even of the red men, were then living; could we but imagine what were 
the thoughts, hopes, ambitions, purposes of these pioneers, as they recalled 
the rocky hills and mountains of their native States, and compared them 
with these prairies, waving with naught but the luxuriant growth of wild 
grasses, the noble forests, of these water-courses, all fulfilling the natural 
conditions of comfort and wealth for man, and only waiting his.advent to 
blossom as the rose with the productions of a civilized race, we might have 
seen, as they saw, that here, " wild in woods, the noble savage ran," with 
•11 that there could be of nobility in his «ntanght, or rather ill-taught, and 
treacherous nature, and that suddenly the face of the white man was seen 
in the forest, surveying its unimpi'oved wealth, and preparing the way for 
» mightier and greater people. The taciturn, grunting savage heard the 
unwonted sound of laughter in regious where that meloay might not have 



290 HISTOKY OF KEOKTJK OOUNTT. 

been heard since the'long-forgotten days of the mound builders, and he pre- 
pared to move further aiield, away from his aggressive and more powerful 
brother. The sound of the ax and the crash of falling timber spoke of 
new life and animation. For the new-comer in all this wild region there 
was in every bubbling spring a music sweet as the voices of children. The 
ripples of the lonely river, flashing against its sides, gave prophecy of towns 
to spring up amid the sterner sounds of daily toil for a rich reward, iu 
which all natural forces must become tributary to man's well-being. 

The first white child born in the limits of Keokuk ■county was probably 
J. F. Searcy, who was born December 15, 1840. An older son of Mr. Win. 
Searcy was but three months old when brought to the county. 

A NEW DEPAKTUKE. 

From the time of the first settlement of the county in the vicinity of 
Richland, there was a steady and continuous growth, and what is com- 
monly known as the " old strip," became well settled for those days. Ifot 
all the land was taken up by any means; not even a large part of the best 
land was secured, but such portions as offered the greatest inducement to 
settlers were pre-empted; and all along the boundary line here, as else- 
where, were gathered many prospectors, who impatiently awaited the night 
of April 30, 1843, when they would have a right to pass over and possess 
the land. 

Those expecting to make settlements on the " new purchase " were for- 
bidden to come to the reserve until tlie time of its delivery into the hands 
of the government by, the Indians, May 1, 1843. Dragoons were stationed 
all along the border, whose. duty it was, to keep the whites out of the coun- 
try till th^appointed time. For some .weeks previous to the date assigned, 
settlers came up into the- new country,, prospecting for homes, and were 
quietly permitted to cross the border and look around, so long as they were 
unaeco^jcipanied by wagon, and carried no ax. This latter weapon was 
sometimes placed, without a handle, in the knapsack of the traveler, and 
an impromptu |iand]e fitted in by a penknife when necessity called for 
its use. During the lalst few days of April the dragoons relaxed their strict 
discipline, and an occasional wagon slipped in through the brush. The 
night of April 30 found some scores of new-comers on the ground, who 
had been prospecting the country, who had decided mentally what claims 
they would make, and had various agreements among themselves. These 
settlers were mostly along or near the river, it then being thought that 
prairie land was not half so desirable as the river and timber country. 

As it neared midnight on the morning of May 1, settler after settler 
took his place upon the border of his claim with his bunch of sharpened 
stakes and lantern, or his blazing torch, and when it was thought twelve 
o'clock had arrived, there was some lively surveying by amateur engineers 
in the dark. The claims were paced oflF, .and strange to say there were few 
cases of dispute, the matter having been pretty generally understood on 
the preceding day. Some of the claims, were pretty large, more, in fact, 
than the law sufi'ered the claimants to hold, some of whom were not un- 
mindful of the wholesome advice of a mother in Hoosierdom, who possibly 
lived in a later day, but who counseled, "git a plenty while you're gittin,'^ 
to which the settler added, " and git the best." 

The memorable midnight of that " last day " of April, 1843, dark as it 



HISTOEY OF KEOKUK COUNTT. 293 

may have been, opened to the welcome dawning of a glorious " May day " 
in the prosperity of this heaven-favored land as the crowds of anxious em- 
igrants, so long held in check by the old boundaries, began to cross the line 
in multitudes and press forward to " possess the land " and secure their 
claims of 320 acres each in goodly heritage. It was a rapid, successful 
movement in the advancement of emigration and civilization, which gave 
evident and assuring proof of the wisdom of the government in promptly 
securing the title to this valuable territory. It is estimated that before the 
nightfall of May 1, 1843, there were nearly one thousand of such claims 
occupied by pioneers, and including in the count the families and attend- 
ants of these, in so short a time an aggregate population of about four 
thousand souls, had crossed the old limits to find homes in the new posses- 
sions, and convert the Indian's hunting ground into the white man's earthly 
Eden. 

Thus had come at last the much desired day, bringing to the unsettled 
pioneer the welcome privilege to choose, from all the goodly land before 
him, his future home. When the last barrier of restraint was 
thus removed, the tide of emigration so long held in check be- 
gan to come in at a rapid rate over these prairies, and thus has it continued 
to roll, wave after wave, in rapid succession, until it has reached the West- 
em shore, carrying with it the energy and talents and enterprise of nations, 
and washing to the surface the gold from the mountains and valleys on the 
Pacific slope, it has enveloped our land in the mighty main of enterprise 
and civilization. 

After the way had thus been opened by that memorable treaty, emigra- 
tion began at once to pour in and spread especially along the river; claim 
after claim was taken, cabin after cabin was erected, settlement after settle- 
ment was made, and the enterprising sound of the white man's ax was 
heard echoing from every side, as with busy stroke he felled the trees, and 
prepared logs for his humble cabin home. 

Before many days had passed the curling smoke was seen rising through 
the tree tops from many such hopeful, happy pioneer homes in the west- 
em wild; and within these rustic walls were found thankful hearts, cheer- 
ful faces, welcome voices and liberal hospitality, which displayed on every 
side an air of prosperity and contentment, and made " assurance doubly 
sure " that the great work of the settlement and cultivation of this fertile 
land was actually begun by the white pioneer, even within the present ter- 
ritory of Keokuk county, and that it would be thoroughly carried on to 
the western territory. 

In order to the improvement of a pioneer home in the West, in those 
days, timber for fuel and fencing and shelter was considered the material 
thing in importance, second only to the " staff of life," and therefore the 
timber lands and tracts of prairie adjoining were almost invariably taken 
first, since these were considered by the early settlers to be the cream of 
the country. 

But in this regard, experience, the effectual teacher, soon worked a radi- 
cal change in the minds of men. When they began to test the fertility 
and richness of the prairie soil, they soon found that it was much easier 
and cheaper to haul timber and prepare shelter and dwell in the fresh, pure 
air on the bleak, yet fertile prairie, feeling sure of an abundant crop with 
less labor from a large acreage, than it was to have the best advantages of 

19 



294 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTr. 

a timber location, and spend time, labor and money in clearing and grub' 
bing and fertilizing, and then fall short in the yield per a,ore, and be con- 
fined to a limited area of farming land. 

The timber settlers slowly but surely' became convinced of the fact, and 
began to reach ont and secure, in some cases, large tracts of the prairie 
land adjoining them, thus combining these two important elements in one 
large estate, and securing some of the very finest farms in the country. 
While, on the other hand, very many of the first settlers on timber claims, 
from want of means or fear of failure in speculation, did not become awake 
to the real importance of this until the best sections adjoining them were 
all taken, and they were compelled either to go out, perhaps miles from 
their homes, to secure more farming land for their increasing families, or 
to remain shut in upon their original claims. 

In difi^erent localities throughout our State, many of the first settlers, 
and best of men, have thus been compelled to sell their comfortable, hard- 
earned homes when " the boys grow up," and " move out west for more 
land," or they have found out at last, perhaps, that they are " timber poor," 
with limited income, and meagre support in return for the faithful, ardu- 
ous labors, while many of their wealthy prairie neighbors, who only a few 
years before were the hired hands working by the month or the day for 
small wages, are now prosperous and independent on their large prairie 
farms, which yield them bountiful incomes. 

Others, again, soon discovering their mistake in choosing river or timber 
locations for agricultural pursuits, disposed of the claims as soon as possible 
at reasonable profits, to their adjoining neighbors, or later arrivals, and 
moved on toward the front, better prepared by experience to make new and 
more judicious selections. 

In treating of the early settlements of the county, the reader must bear 
in mind that at that time none of the present artificial organizations of 
townships, or even of the county itself, were then in existence. Geograph- 
ical distinctions, after the removal of the Indian boundary line of 1837, 
were only such as were made by such natural boundaries as rivers. The 
township organization, as it now exists, was not made till 184:7, and such 
distinctions as are made by reference to township lines cannot be spoken of 
till further on. 

From the older settlements in the southeastern part of the county, the 
work of permanent improvement spread west and north. South of South 
Skunk river we find some of the first settlers of Richland taking the best 
claims. The Eock creek district, now in the bounds of Jackson town- 
ship, had the reputation of being a goodly land ; and there, especially, was 
a speedy increase of settlement during the fall of 1843. Among the early 
settlers in that neighborhood we notice the names of such as Aaron Miller, 
"William Scearcy, Eobt. Blacker, William Webb and Richard Quinton, most 
of whom had come over from the Richland settlement, on the night of May 
1st, while at least one of them, Mr. Scearcy, who had a good many things to 
move, and to be sure that he would be in time had started a day or two be- 
forehand. Settlements still further west were made the same day that legal 
possession was given. Among some of these settlers we mention the names 
of William Hutton, G. W. Hayes, Christopher M. Wood, and a Mr. Mo- 
Nutt, who was the first white man buried in that section. Still further 
west, at a later period, claims were taken and settlements made by D. P. 
Helm and J. W. Palmer. 



HISTOKY OF KBOKtJK COUNTY. 2^5 

Among the first settlers in these neighborhoods south of the river, there 
was manifested a spirit of enterprise and a desire for the establishment of 
all branches of industry, as well as the foundation and maintenance of re- 
ligious and educational institutions. 

We have already spoken of the mill erected by Mr. Wimer, near the 
forks of the river, and completed in February, 1843. Farther west, some time 
afterward, Cornelius Hurley and Benjamin Hollingsworth erected a flour- 
ing mill. It was started with one run of burrs, in the spring of 1846, and 
is now known as the old " Clapboard Mill." A tannery was erected, in 
1845, by E. B. Whitted. The first mercantile enterprise started was in 
Eichland, some time in 1843, by L. J. Smith, the merchandise consisting 
of groceries and liquors. The first dry goods store was opened by 
Beriah Haworth, in the year 1844; followed by "William A. Jordan, who 
established a dry goods and grocery store the following year. Mr. Wil- 
liams was the first postmaster, followed by William Tingle, who, it seems, 
was a doctor, and the first one to locate in the county. He — that is, the 
doctor — was followed by Drs. Jones, Fidler, Efner, etc. Farther west, in 
1852, a post-office was established by the name of Olean. It was kept at 
the house of Samuel Bowman, who was the first postmaster. Previous to 
this time, the nearest post-office was at Eichland, or Fairfield. The office 
of Olean was removed to loka six years later. As is the case of other 
times and other places, schools and churches followed, but in a different or- 
der from that in which we find them elsewhere. It is usual for 'school- 
houses to be erected first, and here the people meet for public worship until 
they are able to erect church buildings. The early settlers in the neighbor- 
hoods now referred to established their church buildings and organized 
churches before they built school-houses and organized schools. "For sev- 
eral years the schools were taught in the houses of public worship, or in 
private dwellings," is the account which the chronicler gives of early 
school matters in those parts. In 1851 John Davis erected a school build- 
ing in Eichland, which was known by the name of " The Seminary.' ' 
•Zachariah Trueblood and John Callet taught the first school in this build- 
ing. Since then " The Seminary " has had quite a career of usefulness, 
to which we allude more fully further on. In the Eock creek neighbor- 
hood,the first school taught was by a teacher of the name of Brown, in a 
cabin near where John Dare afterward resided. As we shall refer to 
church buildings and church organizations at length under a special topic,- 
snfiice it to say here tliat churches were erected as early as 1848, and organ- 
izations were formed long before that time. Among the early pioneer 
preachers we mention the names of Andrew P. Tannehill, Elder Kirkpat- 
rick, Elder Gilmore, and Elder Hutton. 

North of the river we find that quite a settlement had been formed prior 
to May 1, 1843; after that date settlements spread rapidly north and west. 
In taking up these claims, some very exciting contests took place between 
parties whose rights to the same claims interfered. We give the following 
account of one of the most exciting incidents growing out of one of these 
contests : 

A valuable water-power had been found on the Indian side of the line, 
on Forth Skunk river, about two miles above its mouth. The settlers ob- 
served this, and two of them, each having his adherents, intended to claim 
and occupy it as soon as they could be entitled to cross over into the new 
territory. One of these men, L. B. Holmes, as early as February, 1843, 



296 HI8T0BT OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

built a cabin at the mill-site and moved into it with his family, although 
the' whites were not legally entitled to settle before the first day of May! 
The other party, composed of the Messrs. Hendersons, arrived on the 
ground at dark on the evening of April 30th, and proceeded without delay 
to smoke out Mr. Holmes. This resulted in the burning of the cabin. 
Mr. Holmes, then, apparently defenseless with his family, suggested that 
they should all wait till morning, and then decide who should hold the 
claim, the other party agreeing to wait till midnight. After that hour, the 
first claim made was the legal one, according to the rules of the settlers, 
and the other party, finding that they had force enough to keep Mr. Holmes 
a prisoner and make the claim. too, agreed to an armistice for a few hours. 
They were totally unaware that Mr. Holmes had a choice squad of friends 
concealed, who were quietly noting all that was being done. His direction 
to these men before night was : " Keep quiet till twelve o'clock ;. after that 
make the claim as soon as possible. If you are pushed for time, close your 
lines inside of theirs and make the claim good if you don't get more than 
ten acres." 

At 12 o'clock, the Henderson party started with their torches, leaving a 
guard with Mr. Holmes. The party, having the advantage of the lights, 
kept ahead, and by a signal agreed upon announced that they had sur- 
rounded the claim. Mr. Holmes cried out, " Boys, have you closed your 
lines ? " " "We have," was responded with a whoop, and the new party 
now made their first appearance. The guard lost no time in informing his 
comrades, who returned without so much as closing their lines, saying they 
were resolved to have the claim. Mr. Holmes proposed to settle the dis- 
pute by paying or receiving $280, which the other party agreed to take 
and quit-claim the premises. In the fall of the same year Mr. Holmes 
sold the property to Mr. Cooley. Mr. Cooley put up a dwelling house and 
mill, surveyed lots and called the place Eochester. In the spring of 184:5 
Eochester contained the families of Cooley, A. H. Haskell, and Charles 
Frisbie. 

Frisbie was from the town of Eichland, and brought witli him an old 
bachelor by the name of L. J. Smith, who sold whisky and tobacco. The 
lands were not yet in market but were subject to pre-emption, and Smith 
and Frisbie thought to make a good thing of it by pre-empting the mill 
tract, as they resided on it, and which they actually did. Information of 
• this fact was soon received from Fairfield, and the country for miles around 
turned out to have Cooley reinstated in his title to the claim. Smith and 
Frisbie fied to Eichland, where the company forthwith marched. On 
hearing of their approach. Smith took his gun and made for the brush. 
The company soon surrounded the spot. Smith was induced to surrender, 
and, with Frisbie, was escorted by the company back to the mill. On the 
route, Frisbie complained of feeling faint and wanted to get ofi' his horse, 
but the company only regarded it as a ruse to get away, when Holmes, 
upon looking closely, saw blood on his clothes and inquired, " why, Fris- 
bie, have you stabbed yourself?" "Yes," said Frisbie, "and a mortal 
wound, too ; and I am dying a perjured man." The company came to a 
halt. The wound was examined and found to be a dangerous thrust in the 
side, near the region of the heart ; it was dressed as well as the circum- 
stances would permit, and the wounded man made a full statement of the 
Tilliany by which he and Smith had pre-empted the mill. His knife was 
then taken from him, and a litter was constructed, on which he was carried 



HI8T0ET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 29T 

to the mill. Upon arriving there, Mr. Holmes, who had been selected as 
captain, addressing Frisbie, said : 

"Mr. Frisbie, your guilty conscience has prompted you to an act quite 
as severe as the committee had intended to inflict upon you. Should you 
survive the effects of your self-inflicted wound, you are expected to leave 
the territory within three days." 

Then, turning to Mr. Smith, Holmes continued in the blandest manner : 

" Now, Mr. Smith, be good enough to take off your hat." Smith com- 
plied. 

"Now, Mr. Smith, be good enough to take off your coat." Smith 
again complied. 

"Now, Mr. Smith, take off your shirt." 

Mr. Smith was good enough to do this also without hesitation. He was 
then infornaed that he could retain .his pantaloons if he desired to do so. 

"Now," continued Mr. Holmes, " Mr. Smith, we have a duty to perform 
and I want you to act the man while Mr. Goodheart is discharging his 
duty. Mr. Goodheart, will you be good enough now to invest Mr, Smith 
with the regalia of his oflSce ? " 

Whereupon Mr. Goodheart emptied about half the contents of a bucket 
of tar over the defenceless head, shoulders and arms of Smith. A feather 
pillow which had been provided was then opened and the contents placed in 
profusion over Smith, after which the remainder of the tar was applied 
over the feathers, when he was informed that he was at liberty to leave the 
territory as soon as Frisbie, but advised not to take Frisbie's route to the 
next world until he should be better prepared. 

Smith then thanked the company from the bottom of his heart ; was as 
polite as possible for a man in his garb, and said that he had expected to be 
burned alive; that in the "multiplicity of business" he had got into this 
unjust speculation, and now politely backed out. It is not known what be- 
came ot Smith. Frisbie died some two years later, in Missouri, from the 
effects of his wound. It may be added that Frisbie also expected nothing 
less than being hung or tortured to death by the company, the fear of 
which led him to attempt suicide. 

We are next led to consider the early settlement of the country lying 
between the two forks of Skunk river. In this section the primitive set- 
tlements were made by Obadiah Tharp, John W. Snelson, Presley Doggett, 
Wm. Trneblood, James Robinson," B. F. Ohastain, William McGrew, James 
M. Mitts, Jesse B. Mitts, George Wimer, J. B. Whisler, Amos Hollow- 
way, David Stout, and J. G. Dement. Farther west, a settlement was made 
on the 3d day of May, 1843, in what has always been known as the Mc- 
Nabb neighborhood. 

Mr. Snelson located on a claim which afterward became the home of 
Corbin Utterbach. For some time Mr. Snelson maintained a ferry across 
North Skunk at that point. A cabin was erected here, where Mr. J. B. 
Whisler commenced selling goods in 1844. Mr. Holloway was known as 
the great " bee hunter." We are indebted to Mr. S. A. James for the fol- 
lowing account of this pioneer : 

" Wild bees at that time were plenty, and were generally found in the 
trunk or limb of a tree, twenty, and sometimes thirty, feet from the ground. 
Mr. Holloway would start out with a yoke of oxen, a wagon, two, or three 
«mpty barrels, provisions and conveniences for camping. He would camp 
out at night, and would generally be gone from three to four weeks on one 



298 HISTOET OF KEOKUK OOUHTT. 

expedition. At the end of that time he would usually return with his bar- 
rels full of a delicious sweet which no Yankee patent receipt has yet been' 
able to equal. Whether any philosopher ever contemplated a barrel of 
honey with other than gustative reflections we are unable to say ; our own 
reflections upon an ox load of this commodity was that the million little 
laborers whose industry had gathered the store, and then had their homes 
despoiled and robbed, were in no worse condition than many of our fellow- 
beings in despotic countries, whose labors enrich the rulers and whose sting 
is only felt when too closely pressed, but whose minds remain ignorant of 
their true remedy. The process of finding a bee-tree was to place a small 
vessel, with some substance which emitted a sweet odor, near the forest. 
A few bees finding this would sip satisfaction, and then invariably make a 
* bee-line,' or straight fly, to their tree of deposit. ' At this point con- 
sisted the greatest skill of the hunter, and it grew into a settled quotation! 
that Hollb way ' could see a bee plumb a mile.' "When the bee-tree wa» 
found, it was felled to the ground and the bees driven away from the honey 
by fumes of brimstone." 

J. B. Whisler afterward removed to the town of Lancaster, where he' 
sold goods, and at his mills, four miles west of the town. Although the 
river has since swept away nearly all the improvements, the site continiies'' 
to be known as the " Old Whisler Mill." He was a persevering man at 
whatever he engaged, possessed a large amount of patience and good 
humor, and made fast friends of all his acquaintances. His business pros-' 
pared and enabled him to assist many persons in securing their homes. 
He sold the settlers Mexican bounty warrants on time, making it advan- 
tageous to both parties. The settler who could not secure a sufficient 
amount of money to " enter " his claim, and many could not, were at any 
time liable to be entered out by some speculator in warrants, who conld 
snap his finger at club laws and remain beyond the jurisdiction of Judge 
Lypch. Scores of worthy settlers, in the absence of a homestead law, thus-' 
secured their lands and continued to enjoy their homes in prosperity. On 
coming to the county, he was supposed to be an unmarried man, although 
he never alluded to his domestic afikirs. Some five years after settling, he 
was married to a lady of the neighborhood, with whom he lived happily 
till his death, which occurred in 1852. Some time after the death ot Mr.' 
Whisler, a woman from Pennsylvania appeared in the county, who claimed 
to be his wife, and, moreover, came prepared with evidence to prove the^ 
relation. She instituted suit for the possession of Mr. Whisler's estate, 
which, through the industry and business sagacity of that gentleman, had 
grown to be very valuable. The courts decided that the Pennsylvania lady 
was the rightful wife and heir to the property, the second wife receiving 
but common wages during the time she had lived with the deceased, which 
extended through a period of about five years and amounted to about 
$1,000. While living with his second wife, there was born to Mr. Whisler 
one child, a daughter, who is married and living at this time in the county.; 
Mrs. Whisler was married a second time and is now living in the county. 

Among the first settlers in the McNabb neighborhood were A. J. Mc- 
Nabb and T. J. Hicklin. The former located on section 2 and the latter 
on section 3. McNabb plowed the first furrow in that neighborhood and 
planted potatoes. He still lives on his first claim. 

On the 7th day of May, 1843, Maxon JRandall located a claim, where he ' 
resided until recently, when he removed to the county seat. Mr. Eandall' 



HISTOKT OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 299 

describes the first house he lived in as a cabin one and a half stories high, 
size 16x20, built of round logs; puncheon floors, covered with clap- 
boards; containing two rooms, one below, and one above, to which they 
ascended by means of a ladder. Mr. Randall says that in early days they 
were very much troubled with wolves. He and his neighbor, McNabb, 
bought traps, but did not succeed in capturing many. Finally they bought 
a bottle of strychnine and prepared a repast for the intruders. The next 
morning Mr. Randall says there were four dead wolves in sight of his sheep 
pen and afterward found seventeen more. He and Mr. McNab exterminat- 
ed in this way over one hundred of the wolves, and after that were troubled 
no more. In the spring of 1844 Jacob Kansler began the erection of a 
saw and grist-mill on North Skunk, west of range 12. The people erected 
a school-house in this neighborhood the same year. The same year John 
Hasty, John Scott and E. Sampson located claims in this neighborhood, 
the latter being the father of the Hon. E. S. Sampson, who for two terms 
represented this district in Congress. 

The first marriage solemnized in this neighborhood was that of Eobt, 
Mann to Miss L. Pence, by John Ellis, Esq. The license was obtained at 
Washington, Iowa. This marriage was soon followed by three or four 
others in quick succession. Mr. Thos. J. Hicklin was chosen to be the 
father of, and to provide food and clothing for, the first child born in that 
locality. 

Gen. James A. Williamson, at present Commissioner of the General Land 
Office, at Washington, D. C, was one of the early settlers of the McNabh 
neighborhood. After an absence of twenty-three years he returned to de- 
liver an address before the annual meeting of the Old Settlers' Assoeia^ 
tion. We take the liberty of quoting liberally from such parts of the ad- 
dress as refer to the early settement of the country : 

" After a long and wearisome march from the central portion of the 
State of Indiana, keeping time to the slow tread of the gentle, patient ox 
team, which it had been my business to guide and goad through the bad 
roads of the Hoosier State, and the almost trackless prairies of Illinois and 
Eastern Iowa, you may imagine with what feelings of delight I laid down 
the implement of ray continuous warfare with the noble bovines which had 
drawn that rare specimen of the architecture of N^ortli Carolina known in 
the West at that time as a prairie schooner (a very large projecting top 
wagon), upon my arrival in what was then known as the McNabb settle- 
ment — since more familiarly known to old settlers as 'Zion's Lane,' ow- 
ing, as I suppose, to the piety of us early settlers in that vicinity. 

" Some small portion of the southeastern part of the county was em- 
braced in what was then known as the ' Old Purchase,' and save in that 
part there was but little or no settlement in the county made prior to the 
year 1844. 

" I think the first crops grown in Warren township, and perhaps in all other 
parts of the county, except the part embraced in the old purchase, were 
planted in 1844. The first I saw was in 1845. During that year, before 
the maturity of the crops, many had the misfortune of going hungry to 
bed, contenting ourselves with dreams of the fullness and fatness which 
should follow the harvest. 

"At the appointed time the harvest came, and with it a corporeal increase 
in the physique of most of the old settlers with whom I was then 



300 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

acquainted. The dreams of the harvest had not beeii as potent in produc- 
ing muscle, tissue and avoirdupois as its realization. 

" I see many of my friends here to-day who were then my nearest neigh^ 
bors. You will not, perhaps, give full faith and credit to the statement 
that I feel, for truth's sake, compelled to make concerning them. These 
persons were so slender as to make them almost incapable of casting shad- 
ows, and they tightened their girdles another hole with the buckles instead 
of taking their dinners until after their early potatoes and green corn were 
suflBciently matured for food. 

" In the fall of that year when our little ' sod crops ' had ripened, mil- 
lions of prairie chickens came to feed upon them. This was providential, 
though it threatened destruction of our crops, .for we shot and trapped 
thetn by thousands, thus supplementing our bill of fare with that most 
excellent game. The quails and the manna were not more needed and 
appreciated by the Hebrew hosts wlio followed Moses in his slow and cir- 
cuitous marches beyond the Red Sea than were the corn bread and grouse 
to the sturdy but hungry pilgrims who spent the winter of 1845 in this _ 
now most rich, productive and beautifnl country. The early settlers of thifi " 
county were strong, sturdy and determined men and women, otherwise they 
tvould not have been here in those early days. 

" Having heard of this, fair land of promise while cultivating the poorer 
soil of their native States, they, with the energy and bravery so character- 
istic of their natures, and so necessary to the settlement and development 
of a new country, resolved upon the trans- Mississippi journey of many 
hundreds of weary miles of overland travel. Upon arriving at their points- 
of destination, most of those hardy and determined men found themselves 
possessed of little or nothing except their strong arms and brave hearts — 
their wives and little ones — a small quantity of household furniture and 
Wearing apparel, a few nide farming implements with which they tilled 
the soil in States farther east, which were wholly unadapted to the cultiva- 
tion of the soil of Iowa. 

" I have seen many men on their arrival in this county drive their teams 
upon the places which were to be the sites of their dwelling houses and their 
future homes, descend from their wagons and tenderly assist, with their 
strong arms, their wearied wives and children to the ground which they 
hoped to some day call their own. 

" After arriving at their destination, the iirst thing to be done was to 
'stake off' a claim of 160 acres, which each head of a family might hold 
under the local ' claim laws ' then or thereafter to be made, and in addition 
to this, a small timber lot, not exceeding forty acres, might be taken and held. 
This being done, our hardy pioneers immediately set about building a log 
house, which was the only kind possible, as there were no saw-mills or 
lumber within reach. If two or three or more families, as was often the 
case, moved in company and made their claims adjoining, they would 
Unite their force and build one house, which would serve for a time as a 
home for all. 

" In the meantime, while the house was building, the good, patient and 
loving wives — Grod bless them — had been cooking their frugal meals by tiie 
fires built upon the ground, and in unpacking and airing their goods, 
washing and mending the clothing, and preparing generally for the grand 
good time which they were to have on the occasion of tlie 'house warm- 



HISTOBT OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 301 

ing,' which was to take place as soon as the mansion ot one room, not 
more than 16x16 feet, should be completed. 

" It would be diflScult to convince the younger children and later genera- 
tions of those same early settlers how much comfort and happiness was 
found in one of those humble dwellings, which first suggested the feeling 
of home and ownership to their fathers and mothers, who had borne the 
hardships and privations of the long move or march into the Territory, 
and had finally succeeded in getting a home, however humble, which they 
could call their own. 

" The settler who, by priority of a few weeks in his settlement, had suc- 
ceeded in getting his house built, stood upon his threshold, his face beam- 
ing with joy and his heart swelling with pride as he welcomed the 
emigrant, who, a few days or weeks later came along in search of a loca- 
tion, into his hospitable mansion, assuring him thdt there was room and 
plenty for all. I shall never cease to be astonished when I reflect upon 
the holding capacity of some of those log cabins which were built by the 
first settlers of this county. It was no uncommon thing for four or five 
families to occupy for a time a room not more than 16 or 18 feet square. 

" The hospitality of the settlers in those early days Taiew no hounds / a 
house was never full, and a larder never empty. As long as it contained 
one morsel of food, so long would the generous hearted housewife set it be- 
fore the home or claim hunter, and bid him eat, without a thought of re- 
ward or compensation. If such boundless hospitality existed to-day, when 
the people are so able to entertain and to give, I fear that it would have at 
least one bad result, viz.: that of increasing the number of tramps. 

" The difliculties of settling any portion of the territory of the United 
States at the present day are nothing when compared with those of settling 
this county thirty-five years ago. Then the nearest railroad was many 
hundreds of miles away ; but little, if any, was then built west of the 
State of Ohio. Now, railroads, under the munificent policy of the gen- 
eral government in aiding in their construction, are built in advance of the 
settlement, so there is, in reality, no frontier for the agricultural settler ; 
no place is so far away from 'another as Iowa was from the Ohio river in, 
those days. Then there were no telegraph wires, no stage coaches, no lines 
or means of public conveyance anywhere within hundreds of miles, save an 
occasional steamer upon the Mississippi river, almost a hundred miles dis- 
tant from our settlement. The transportation of mails was slow, and for 
many years all we received was carried from or near the Mississippi river 
on horseback. The postage was twenty-five cents on a single letter, and we 
had no money with which to pay it. Now all these conditions are changed. 
All the appliances and results of a high civilization are found almost 
equally in all parts of the countrj, North and West. 

" The improved plows, mowers, reapers, and indeed all other improved 
machinery, precede the agricultural settler to his new home. 

" It is hard to find a place where a daily mail is not received ; letter post- 
age is only one-eighth now of what it was then. I well remember 
the first letter which I received through the Sigourney post-oflSce. It was 
in the year 1845. My friend, S. A. James, was postmaster, or, if not, he 
was acting for that official. I heard that there was a letter in the post- 
office for me, and knowing that it would require twenty-five cents to pay 
the postage, the problem of getting that sum of money taxed my energy 
and financial ability to the utmost for many days. None of my neighbors 



302 _ HISTOKT OF KEOKUK OOUNTT. 

were in such affluent circumstances as to be able to ' do my paper ' for that 
sum. Suspecting that the letter might be from my little sweetheart, from 
whom I had reluctantly parted some time before, I w'as exceedingly anxious- 
to break the wafer seal of that letter, but the ransom for.it 1 could not 
procure, and I was about despairing of being able to pay the postage, when 
I heard of a kind-hearted man (since dead, peace to his ashes), living, in the 
western part of the county, some miles from where Idid, who was reported 
to have received twenty-five dollars some time before from the East. It 
was also alleged that he had loaned the sum of twenty-five cents to each, of 
several persons in the McNabb settlement with which to pay postage. 
This news gave me new hope and courage. I started early one «aorning 
to find the capitalist, and negotiate with him for the loan of ' a quarter,^ 
which, with some difficulty, I accomplished; and then, with hastening 
steps and palpitating heart, walked to Sigourney and procured the letter, 
and returned home tlie same day, after a walk of something over twenty 
miles. Whether that letter was from my sweetheart or not, and what she 
said if it was from her, I will never tell. 

" Then the public lands were offered for sale to the highest bidder sooa 
after the same were surveyed, and the settler had no right or advantagiei 
over the speculator except such as was given him by the pre-emption laws.' 
of that time, and' the still more effefctive claim laws,- framed and adopted by> 
the settlers themselves for their mutual protection. An infraction of these 
claim laws by speculators was sometimes punished by a well-aimed shot 
from the rifle of some one of the law-makers. 

" Now, in nearly all parts of theconntr}', the public lands are withheldl 
from market for actual settlement under the homestead and pre-emption 
laws. The lands are now freely given to any citizen, or to any person who 
has declared his intention to become such, if he will only settle upon and 
cultivate the same for a period of five years. If the homestead law of the 
present time had been in force in Iowa in 1843, and since, it is safe to say 
that this State would contain one million of inhabitants more than it does 
to-day. 

" Only think of the Herculean task of earrting and saving two hundred 
dollars, with which to pay for the 160 acres of land in those days, when it 
is remembered with what difficulty twenty-five cents was procured by an 
enterprising young man to pay the postage on a single letter. No more> 
equitable thing could be done by the general government than to restore 
every dollar that was paid for land actually settled vpon and cultivated 
iy the early settlers in this and other Northwestern States and Territories j"^ 
and if ever lam in a position where my voice will be potential in urging 
this measure, I shall not fail to do it. There would be far more justice ia 
doing that than in taking money out of the treasury to pay for losses in- 
curred by citizens of the Southern States during the late war for the pres- 
ervation of the Union. 

" In those early days when the farms were to be broken or plowed for 
the first time, and the rails were to be made and hauled from the timber 
land to fence them, the manual labor necessary to do this was a sort of 
legal-tender for nearly all kinds of indebtedness. The doctor who wantedl 
to make a farm would give his physic when yow were sick, and you might 
make fence rails for him when you regained your health and strength, if 
you were so fortunate. The manufacture of about one hundred fence rails,, 
or the cutting of one cord of wood, would pay for one small portion of jalap 



HISTOBT OF KEOKUK COUNTT. 303^ 

and calomel, which was the standard remedy in those good old times of 
allopathie practice, before President Lincoln liad been, interviewed and ex- 
pressed his terse opinion as to the virtue and efficacy of homoepathic 
system of medical practice. The settler who came the year before would 
give to the settler who came the year after one bushel of corn for making' 
one hundred fence rails, or for one day's work at other labor, which was 
considered an equivalent and legal-tender therefor. The shoemaker and 
blacksmith of the village or settlement would perform labor of their kind,, 
and take in exchange for it the less skilled labor of the rail-splitter or the- 
wood-chopper. 

" I know how this was by experience, having bartered in the exchange of the- 
. above named commodities, exchanging as I did the unskilled for the skilled 
article, submitting to an immense discount on what I had to offer. 

" Within two miles and less of the place where we are now standing, for 
many weary days and months when I was a boy, and not a very strong one,. 
I wielded the ax, the. maul and the mattock, for more than ten hours a day,, 
receiving therefor the liberal wages of ten dollars a month in 'store pay*^ 
— this I did when the mercury ranged from twenty degrees below zero in 
January to ninety jibove in July. I trust that your present able represent- 
ative in congress, -who hajs won renown on the battle field, who has wora 
with honor the judicial ermine, and won an enviable reputation in the hallfr 
, of Congress will not be offended with me for stating in this public manner 
that I knew him when he was isngaged in the same kind of labor that fell 
to my lot, and that he performed them well. 

"I do not mention this in the belief that it will ever materially aid either 
of us in being President, as the same kind of labor, perhaps, did the most 
illustrious man of modern times, in procuring that office. I only mentioft 
it to show that honest toil of the rudest and hardest kind will not prevent 
a man from rising to an equality with those who were more favored with for- 
tune in early life. 

" In those days, as is well known, and perhaps regretfully remembered by 
us old settlers, we had absolutely no money, and whatever could not be pro- 
cured for labor in the first year or two, and after that for several years, for 
labor and farm products, could not be procured at all. People were edu- 
cated to this view of life and its realization. This was not so great acalam- 
' ity as it may now appear to the young, or to those who cannot realize the 
fiitnation in consequence of not having been forced to learn it, as we were> 

" The daily labor of a strong man was rated at and paid for with a com- 
modity or produce which the owner would willingly sell for from twenty- 
five to fifty cents in cash. The price of all kinds of merchandise was. 
exceedingly high as compared with the price at the present day; the pur- 
chasing power of a dollar, which cost at the very least, two days of labor, 
was not then nearly so great as the purchasing power of a dollar now,, 
which does not cost more than one day of labor and often not so much as 
that. 

" It would be hard to deduce from tlie foregoing statement of facts a reason 
why in those early days of hard times and cheap labor in the history of our 
old county, and indeed of the territory and State, why every man seemed 
intent upon laboring for himself or for others — intent upon earning by 
honest industry all that he desired or expected to enjoy or call his own,, 
why there were no vagabond tramps endangering the lives and property of 
honest men who had acquired their substance by faithful honest toil, or 



304 HISTORY OF KEOKUK COUNTT. 

why the reverse of all this is the true situation of the case to-day, not' only 
in this country and in this State, but throughout our whole common coun- 

" I have dwelt sufficiently long upon what we suffered, and think it but 
right that some reference should be made to the joys which come as a com- 
pensation for the suffering and self denial. 

" The kind and generous soil which you secured by being here at an early 
■day has yielded you rich rewards for the labor bestowed. You have lived 
in affluence and comfort, rearing healthful, stalwart children, deeply imbn- 
. ing them with a love of freedom, home and country, educating them un- 
der the auspices of the noblest free school system ever inaugurated and 
maintained by man. These results achieved, life may be said to have been 
well spent and rewarded. 

" Many of you who were the first to settle in this county as young mar- 
ried men and women, are still young and strong, with much yet to be en- 
joyed. Many who started.in the race with you have fallen ; some who have gone 
lived to see the fruition of their hoipes; others fell early in the struggle 
with the hard life of the pioneer. 1 remember, with pleasure for having 
known them, and with deep regret for their loss, many settlers who have 
passed over; a few of whom I shall name in the order in which their names 
■occur to me: 

" J . B. Whisler, J. G. Crocker, P. B. Shawhan, George Shawhan, Judge 
Pinkerton (and I think all of his family), Wm. A. Jordan, Joseph Knox, 
Samuel Johnston, Jacob Goodheart, Thomas Hendryx, Ezekiel Sampson, 
James L. Hogin, J.T. Axtell, Judge Baker, William Landers, B. S. McOoy, 
John C. McNablj, Sanford Leathers, Austin Jacobs, Wm. Jacobs, and last 
but not least, the gallant General Marcellus M. Crocker — 

'He was a man, take him all in all, 
We shall not look upon his like again. ' 

"Many of you remember the fact, if not the circumstances, connected with 
the warm and almost more than brotherly friendship between Gen'l Crocker 
and myself. We became acquainted when we were boys, and that friend- 
ship grew and strengthened with increasing years, until the end ef his life. 
The last letter I ever received from him, written but a short time before 
his death, and when he knew that his life was fast drawing to a close, was 
■one in which he poured out his soul to me in such words as he only, of all 
the men I ever knew, could utter, referring'to the friendship which was the 
result of our mutual struggles in early life to maintain our lives and 
those dependent upon us. Plis great indomitable soul was called from 
•earth all to soon. 

"I hope I may be pardoned, and not thought vain or immodest, when I 
refer to the fact that of the general officers in the late war who achieved dis- 
tinction, and whose acts during the war became a part of the history of the 
Kepublic, no less than three were pioneer settlers in this county, though all 
had removed from the county before the war commenced. My friend 
<jreneral Crocker, was one of the number, and I do hope and believe that 
the old settlers of Keokuk county still cherish and love his memory, and 
feel a just pride in the fact that his boyhood days, and a part of the ' 
of his early manhood were spent among you. 

" I have not referred to the record of Keokuk county soldiers during 1 



HI8T0EY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. SOS- 

late struggle for the nation's life. I have not had at my command the roll 
of honor, and cannot remember the history of many of the brave men who- 
offered their lives that the Union might live, yet I should not hesitate to 
assert before all the world that the soldiers wJhom this county sent to the 
army were loyal, brave and fearless, and helped to create and fully sustain 
the high reputation borne by Iowa soldiers throughout the Republic. I can 
at this moment only recall the history of one private soldier of the county 
who fell in the late war. "When I was myself a boy, a very young man, I 
knew a fair young boy, many years my junior. I loved this beautiful boy 
for his intelligence and gentleness. Years rolled by; I grew into manhood 
and went away from among you while he was still a young boy of great 
promise. The cruel, wicked war came on, and I heard that my young^ 
friend had enlisted. Later on I learned the number of his regiment, and 
also in what portion of the army it was serving. Bearing this in mind, I 
visited his brigade commander, on the first opportunity, and asked him ta 
send for the young soldier. That gallant, great hearted soldier, General 
Wm.W. Belknap, told me, while tears streamed from his eyes, that I was too 
late. He told me that my gallant young friend had fought his last battle 
— had laid down his young life for the salvation of the nation — that he had 
fallen in the face of the enemy on Kenesaw's rugged embattled front. That 
young hero was Robert Lowe. He also stated, if I remember aright, that 
my young friend had been appointed a cadet at West Point, and was to- 
, have left in a few days for that place." 

Prior to the summer of 1843 very little progress had been made in the 
settlement of the country west and north of North Skunk river. It was at 
this time there appeared in this part of the coiinty a man, who, probably 
more than any other, contributed to the future prosperity, development and 
good name of the county. Energetic in manner, upright of character, 

Erompt and accurate in business matters, his fellow citizens long and often 
onored him with the most important office in the county. His name is S. 
A. James. We have frequently referred to him as authority heretofore, an^ 
shall hereafter refer to him possibly still more frequently. There is 
nothing which we could say as appropriate and relevant, at this period of 
the history of the county, as the following so aptly said in this gentleman's- 
own language. 

"About the first of June, 1843, I left the town of Washington, Iowa, in- 
tending to make a claim in Keoknk county. 1 went in the company of 
Ardra Clemons and family, who had a yoke of oxen and lamber wagon, 
with which they hauled some provisions and a very small amount of house- 
hold plunder. Mr. Clemons had, before that time, been up to Keokuk 
county, made him a claim, and had built on it a small log cabin at the 
grove on the present (1879) John Holzworth farm, about a mile north of 
Harper. Staying with Mr. Clemons the first night, at his cabin, I set out 
early next morning to find a couple of friends who were improving a claim,, 
lately known as the Jack Lightfoot farm, but now owned by Mr. Detchon 
and Mr. Renfro, about three miles northwest of Sigourney. 

At this time there was not, besides Mr. Clemons, a single inhabitant in 
the northeast fourth of the county. Taking the landmarks with which I 
had been furnished, I struck out, as stated, to find my two friends. But I 
bore off too much southwest, crossed over the prairie where Sigourney now 
stands, and first learned I was too far south by finding one Robert Linder 
and some others cutting logs for a cabin where Mr. John M. Brunt now 



306 HISTOEY OF FSIOKUK COUNTY. 

lives. Tliey could give irie no tidings or directions to find my friends, and 
I eomraenced to retrace my steps. At the close of th'e day I found myself 
alone in the small elm grove where Joel Long now resides, about three 
miles northeast of Sigourney, and finding a bark cover beside a large log, 
where some one had previously camped, I determined to make a night of 
it there, which I did, after making supper on two or three cold biscuit I 
had with me. 

" The next morning when I awoke at sunrise, my ears were greeted with 
the songs of birds, and the calls of numerous turkeys, not fifty yards from 
me. I had no gun, or any arms larger than a penknife, and, perforce, I stood 
•and gazed at tlae large gobblers as they strutted by. 

" I then struck northward, visiting every grove, to find some settler. In 
this way I continued my search till i came to the timber of South English 
river, on the outskirts of which was a pretty well beaten road, made by the 
bee hunters. I was now satisfied I could not find my friends without a 
better direction and equipment, so I went down this bee hunters' road till I 
^ame in. sight of the upper timber of Crooked creek, for which I aimed, 
and spent ray third night out from Washington at David Delong's, some 
-eight or nine miles northwest of that town. 

" The next day I returned to Washington, rested a day or two, obtained 
better directions, a rifle, an ax, a pint of salt, a few more biscuit, and' 
vSgain started out in search of my two Keokuk county friends. It had been, 
meantime, raining very much, and in many places the prairie was three to 
six-ipches deep in water, especially on the bottoms. I found my ax of ser- 
vice, in crossing small streams, by felling saplings, and finally made my 
■destination about dark, all O. K, but oh! so tired. 

" I soon after made me a claim four miles north of Sigourney (where 
Leander Delong now lives), and after assisting my friends in their improve- 
ments for a month or two, we all returned to Washington to spend the 
winter. On this return trip we found a Mr. Schnakenberg had settled on 
-German creek. We reached his cabin at dark. The family were about to 
take mush and milk for ther supper, but gave us the first table. I know 
the family must have thought our stomachs were made of India rubber. 
We were so hungry, and it was so palatable! The next day we got to 
Washington. And this was my first trip to Keokuk county." 

Eichard Schnakenberg, mentioned in the foregoing sketch, together with 
five or six others, had formed the first settlement in that neighborhood. May 
1, J843. Among others who came about this time, or shortly afterward, 
were Casper Klett and John Beinhart, wiio are both now dead, the latter dy- 
ing shortly after arriving. These gentlemen, as well as a large majority of 
the people who afterward settled in that neighborhood, were Germans, and 
upon the organization of the county, the township was called German 
from that fact. The people in that settlement, have always been noted 
for their industry and thrift, and have fully contributed their share toward 
the development of the material resources of the county. 

Shortly after locating upon his claim, Mr. Schnakenberg, in company with 
an old gentlemen by the name of Seaba, visited the place where Sigour.ney 
is now located. The latter was by no means enthusiastic over the -pros- 
-pects of the present county-seat, and remarked that there never could be 
any market here, and that he would return to Cincinnati and make a living 
by doing " days' work." Mr. Seaba, however, did not go back to Gincin- 
nati, but settled down and lived long enough in the county to surround 



HISTORY OF EEOKTJK COUHTY. 307 

himself with all the comforts of life, and died at a, very advanced a^e, re- 
spected by all his neighbors as one of the most intelligent and enterpris- 
^.citizens of German township. Mr. Klett. was always noted for his lib- 
erality. It is said that he would divide his last pancake with a neighbor, 
iwonld lend anything he had, and was very accommodating in various ways. 
He did a great deal of freighting with horses and oxen to and from Keo- 
tuk and Burlington. On one of these trips the roads were so bad that it 
tooli two days to go four miles. He always kept the best of horses, and 
(plenty of them, and when their was a boiler or anything particularly heavy 
to move, Mr. Klett was generally called on to perform the work. 

Farther west, in the neighborhood of what was destined to become the 
metropolis ot the county, and the center of trade, there had been very little 
4dohe in the way of settlement as early as the summer of 1844. About this 
time S. A. James, who had recently been appointed county clerk, came into 
this neighborhood looking for the county-seat, which had just been located. 
Upon reaching the place he found a stout pole planted in the ground, the 
etake of the commissioners, but nothing else to disturb the ramblings of 
1;he grey wolf or the cooings of the wild grouse. The eye swept the cir- 
«le of vision to rest on one single habitation, that of Jacob Shaver, who 
had located in the grove southwest, now known as " Skillman's Grove." 
Mr. Shaver had made his claim and erected his cabin the previous season, 
and early that spring had moved his family upon the premises. William 
Shaver, John Shaver and Robt. Linder located about the same time, one 
mile southwest of Jacob Shaver. This constituted the whole of the settfe- 
ment in the neighborhood of the present county-seat. East, west, and 
north, the whole county for miles lay unclaimed, and remained so for some 
time. 

Upon arriving at the seat of justice, Mr. James forthwith set to work 
erecting a cabin. This cabin was erected in short order. Considering the 
■speed with which this bulling was erected, the total absence of all building 
material and the complicated plans which necessarily entered into the erec- 
tion of a building which was to subserve such a variety of purposes, we 
hesitate not in saying that one would search in vain to find it surpassed in 
the whole annals of public improvements. This remarkable edifice was 
12x16, floored with puncheons and covered with clapboards put on with 
nails purchased in Washington. Here were the county offices and the public 
'reeords; the judge's room and the jury-room; indictments filed and suits 
tried; the county's cash hoarded and its criminals incarcerated; here, , 
also, the county officials ate, lodged and slept. 

Later in the fall another cabin was erected, and the following spring the 
population was augmented by the arrival of a lawyer by the name of Mair, 
who for a while had a monopoly of the criminal as well as the civil business 
in the courts of the county. Mr. Blair was soon followed by a representa- 
tive of the medical profession. Dr. B. P. Weeks, who was succeeded by Dr. 
E. H. Skillman, who for several years was the only physician in that part 
of the country, his professional visits leading him to the various settlements 
scattered around throughout the county. During this time there were the 
following arrivals : G. B. Cook, A. Covey, Joseph Adams, E. Shugart, 
Wm. Basey, James Shields, Josiah Crawford, W. Hulbert and B. F. Ed- 
Wards. The nearest settlements were as follows : The Eosecrans neigh- 
borhoood, three miles northwest ; the German creek neighborhood, six 
railes east, and the Smith settlement on Smith creek, fi^ve miles west. 



308 HI8T0EY OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

During this summer James Shields erected a cabin a'nd stood behind k 
rough counter offering groceries for sale. Mr. Crawford reared a pole 
shanty or house, and placed therein a very fair law library. It was prob- 
ably the best the county afforded, and Mr. Crawford was studying law. At 
the July term of the District Court, that year, he applied for license to 
practice law, the committee reported adversely to his admission, whereupon 
he arose and made a speech to the court in which the bar, and especially 
the committee, were severely handled : his practice would not leave them 
much to do; they were jealous of his abilities, jealous of his library, and 
he intended to rise yet head and shoulders above them. He closed his 
speech by announcing that he intended to emigrate from the judicial dis- 
trict, which he accordingly did. 

Schools and churches were not organized till some time later; the first 
church, the Methodist, being organized and a building erected the follow* 
ing year. There was a post-oflBce established, and the first mail received on 
the 7th of February, 1846 ; the mail was carried on horseback from 
Washington to Oskaloosa by Mr. J. H. Bragg, the contractor, once every two 
weeks. Mr. James was the first postmaster. This was the only post-office 
in the whole section of the country at that time, and as there was but one 
mail every two weeks, mail day was a very important occasion. 

Before the close of the next year several new business enterprises had 
been started. Joseph Knox began to sell dry goods ; Martin Grimsley 
and J. G. Crocker sold groceries ; Joseph, Adams started a blacksmith shop, 
Kob't Linder a harness shop, Jacob Shaver a cooper shop, and Haskell & 
Burgess a shop for. manufacturing, fanning mills. B. F. Edwards erected 
a log building where he displayed quite a creditable assortment of general 
merchandise for sale. 

At that time there were but seven families residing along English river. 
One hot summer day while Edwards was rubbing his hands for a customer, 
a man from that part of the country came in and inquired the price of bees- 
wax. He was informed that he could have twenty-five cents a pound in 
trade. He produced a small quantity tied up in a pocket handkerchief, 
which upon being weighed proved to amount to a half-pound. Upon being 
asked what he would have for it he surveyed the shelves for a few minutea 
in silence and then. replied that his wife would be in town in a few weeks 
and he believed that he would prefer to have her " take up the goods." 
' The first settlements made in the vicinity of English river were in the 
neighborhood of the present site of South English, in 1845. The first set- 
tlers were Jas. Mahaffa, James Thomas and John Houston. Thomas took a 
claim on the northwest quarter of section 22 ; Houston on section 24, and 
his place was for many years known as "Houston's Point." Afterward 
came James, Chambers and H. H. Hodman, who located on section 30. 
John Duke and John Ballard made settlements farther west. Some later 
Thomas Morgan came. Chambers Kodman froze to death some few years 
after he located in the county. 

Churches were organized in this neighborhood shortly after its settle- 
ment. They were organized in the following order : first came the Metho- 
dist, then the Baptist, Christian and Congregational. The first school was 
taught by S. M. Glandon in a school-house which had no windows in it. 
The first store was kept by Ethan Post, and it is said by the old settlers 
that he could generally be found at his post, fast asleep. 

Mr. Arora Clemmons, in 1842, took a claim and began a settlement south- 




-^^U^2<ri;v-J^ 



HISTOET OF KEOKUK OOTJNTT. 311 

east of South English, near what is now known as Holsworth's- Grove. 
Although the land in that vicinity is not excelled by any other tract in the 
State for its beauty and the fertility of the soil, on account of the scarcity 
of timber it was not settled till some time after the other parts of the 
county where timber was more abundant. We quote from the centennial 
address delivered at Keota, July 4, 1876, by Hon. Isaac Farley: 
. " In fact, our most beautiful prairies were shunned by early settlers. In- 
habitants of to-day whilst contemplating our broad prairies, dotted with 
neat, commodious dwellings, barns, orchards and artificial groves, look back 
with surprise at the choice of the first settlers. The uninviting features 
of our Western prairies remind me of a poem descriptive of them which I 
used to read in my boyhood days. The poem was doubtless written by some 
New England pedagogue after returning from a flying visit to some. such a 
country as this was in early days : 

" 'Oh, lonesome, windy, grassy place. 

Where buffalo and snakes prevail; 
The first with dreadful looking face, 

The last with dreadful sounding tail. 
I'd rather Kve on camel hump 

And be a Yankee doodle beggar, 
Than where I never see a stump 

And shake to death with fever 'n' agr.' " 

Fortunately for the settlers of this locality, owing to its high and dry 
surface, they were seldom afflicted with malarial diseases and fever and ague 
have been almost unknown. In 1843 came J. J. Kreamer and J. P. 
Ereamer and settled on Clear creek. This was prior to the time the land 
was put into the market, consequently settlers at that time were called 
squatters. Six of the first settfers, to-wit. : the Kreamers, Newton, Gil- 
bert, Keeley and Carris, still live upon the land they first entered. 

PIONEEE LIFE. 

The account of early settlements as has already been narrated extends 
from the time of the first settlement, in the spring of the year 1839, to the 
time of the admission of the State into the Union, in the autumn of 1846. 
The account therefore embraces a period of less than eight years from the 
first settlement on the " old strip," and less than four years from the 
time when authority was first given to settle that portion of the county 
west. 

During these years the first settlement of Keokuk county was in the 
earliest stage of pioneer life. All that can be known of this period must 
be drawn chiefly from tradition. 

In those days the people took no care to preserve,history — they were too 
bnsily engaged in making it. Historically speaking, those were the most 
important years of the county, for it was then the foundation and corner- 
stones of all the county's hist'^ and prosperity were laid. Yet this 
period was not remarkable for ing events. It was, however, a time of 
self-reliance and brave, perseve .ng toil; of privations cheerfully endured 
through faith in a good time ling. The experience of one settler was 
just about the same as that o ners. They were almost invariably poor, 
they faced the same hardshipt .jd stood generally on an equal footing. 



312 aiSTOET OP KEOKUK OOfNTr. 

All the experience of the early pioneers of this county goes far to con- 
firm the theory that, after all, happiness is pretty evenly balanced in this 
world. They had their privations and harships, but they had also their 
own peculiar joys. If they were poor they were free from the burden of 
pride and vanity; free, also, from the anxiety and care that always attend 
the possession of wealth. Other people's eyes cost them nothing. If they 
had few neighbors, they were on the best of terms with those they had. 
Envy, jealousy and strife had not crept in. A common interest and a 
common sympathy bound them together with the strongest ties. They 
were a little world to themselves, and the good feeling that prevailed was 
all the stronger because they were so far removed from the great world of 
the East. 

There was a peculiar sort of free-masonry among the . pioneers. New- 
comers were made welcome, and ready hands assisted them in building 
their homes. Neighbors did not even wait for an invitation or request to 
help one another. Was a settler's cabin burned or blown down ? No sooner 
was the fact known throughout the neighborhood than the settlers assem- 
bled to assist the unfortunate one to rebuild his home. They came with as 
little hesitation, and with as much alacrity, as though they were all mem- 
bers of the same family, and bound together by ties of blood. One man's 
interest was every other man's interest also. Now this general state of 
feeling among the pioneers was by no means peculiar to this county, al- 
though it was strongly illustrated here. It prevailed generally throughout 
the West during the time of the early settlement. The very nature of 
things taught the settlers the necessity of dwelling together in this spirit. 
It was their only protection. They had come far away from the well-estab- 
lished reign of law and entered a new country where the civil authority 
was still feeble, and totally unable to afford protection and redress griev- 
ances. Here in Keokuk county the settlers lived for quite a time before 
there was a single officer of the law in the county. Each man's protection 
was in the good will and friendship of those about him, and the thing any 
man might well dread was the ill will of the community. It was more 
terrible than the law. It was no uncommon thing in the early times for 
hardened men, who had no fears of jails or penitentiaries, to stand in great 
fear of the indignation of a pioneer community. 

Owing to the fact that one of the early settlers was an energetic mill- 
wright, he employed all his energy and what means he possessed in erect- 
ting mills at a few of the favorable mill-sites, which abound in the county, 
yet going to mill in those days, when there were no roads, no bridges, no 
ferry-boats, and scarcely any convenience far traveling, was no small task, 
where so many rivers and treacherous streams were to be crossed, and such 
a trip was often attended with great danger to the traveler when these 
streams were swollen beyond their banks. But even under these circum- 
stances some of the more adventurous and ingenious ones, in cases of emer-, 
gency, found the way and means by which to cross the swollen streams and 
succeed in making the trip. At other times, again, all attempts failed' 
them, and they were compelled to remain at home until the waters subsided,; 
and depend on the generosity of their fortunate neighbors. 

An interesting comparison might be drawn between the conveniences 
which now make the life of the farmer a comparatively easy bne, and the 
almost total lack of such conveniences in early days. A brief description 
of the accommodations possessed by the first tillers of this soil will be riow 



HISTOKT OF KEOKtTK COFNTT. 3113 

given. Let the children of such illustrious sires draw their own compar- 
isons, and may the results of these comparisons silence the voice of com- 
plaint which so often is heard in the land. 

The only plows they had at first were what they styled "bull plows." 
The mould-boards were generally of wood, but in some cases they were 
half wood and half iron. The man who had one of the latter description 
was looked upon as something of an aristocrat. But these old " bull plows " 
did good service, and they must be awarded the honor of first stirring the 
soil of Keokuk county. 

It was quite a time after the first settlement before there was a single 
store in the county. Kude fire-places were built in the cabin chimneys, 
and they served for warmth, cooking and ventilation. 

The first buildings in the county were not just like the log cabins that 
immediately succeeded them. These latter required some help and a good 
deal of labor to build. The very first buildings constructed were a cross 
between " hoop cabins " and Indian bark huts. As soon as enough men 
could be got together for a " cabin raising ' ' then log cabins were in style. 
Many a pioneer can remember the happiest time of his life as that when 
he lived in one of these homely bnt comfortable and profitable old cabins. 

A window with sash and glass was a rarity, and was an evidence of 
wealth and aristocracy which but few could support. They were often 
made with greased paper put over the window, which admitted a little 
light, but more often there was nothing whatever over it, or the cracks be- 
tween the logs, without either chinking or daubing, was the dependence for 
light and air. 

The doors were fastened with old-fashioned wooden latches, and for a 
Iriend or neighbor or traveler the string always hung out, for the pioneers 
of the west were hospitable, and entertained visitors to the best of their 
ability. 

It is noticeable with what afiection the pioneers speak of their old log 
cabins. . It may be doubted whether palaces ever sheltered happier hearts 
than those homely cabins. The following is a good description of these 
old land-marks, but few of which now remain : 

" These were of round logs notched together at the comers, ribbed with 
poles and covered with boards split from a tree. A puncheon floor was 
then laid down, a hole cut out in the end and a stick chimney run up. A 
clapboard door is made, a window is opened by cutting out a hole in the 
side or end about two feet square, and it is finished without glass or trans- 
parency. The house is then 'chinked' and 'daubed' with mud made of 
the top soil. 

" The cabin is now ready to go into. The household and kitchen furni- 
ture is adjusted, and life on the frontier is begun in earnest. 

" The one-legged bedstead, now a piece of the furniture of the past, was 
made by cutting a stick the proper length, boring holes at one end one and 
a-half inches in diameter, at right angles, and the same sized holes corres- 
ponding with these in the logs of the cabin the length and breadth desired 
for the bed, in which are inserted poles. 

"Upon these poles .clapboards are laid, or lind bark is interwoven con- 
aecntively from pole to pole. Upon this primitive structure the bed is laid. 
The convenience of a cook stove was not thought of then, but instead the 
{Cooking was done by the faithful housewife in pots, kettles and skillets, on 
and about the big fireplace, and very frequently over and around,, too,, the 



314 HISTOET OF KEOKTTK COTINTT. 

distended pedal extremities of the legal sovereigns of the household, while 
the latter were indulging in the luxury of a cob pipe, and discussing the 

?robable results of a contemplated elk hunt up and about "Walled Lake." 
base log cabins were really not so bad, after all. 

The living in those days was not such as to tempt the epicure to leave 
his comfortable luxuries, or even necessities, in the East in order to add to 
the population of the country. Flour was at first unknown and meal was 
scarce. 

They had corn bread in those days " as was corn bread," such as many a 
resident of the county of this day knows nothing of ; and the pone made 
by the grandmothers of the young people of the present day was some- 
thing for pride. 

Before the country became supplied with mills which were of easy 
access, and even in some instances afterward, hominy-blocks were used ; 
these now exist only in the memory of the oldest settlers, but as relics of the 
"long ago" a description of them will not be uninteresting: 

A tree of suitable size, say from eighteen inches to two feet in diameter, 
was selected in the forest and felled to the ground. If a cross-cut saw 
happened to be convenient, the tree was "butted "—that is, the kerf end 
was sawed off so that it would stand steady when ready for use. If there 
were no cross-cut saw in the neighborhood strong arms and sharp axes were 
ready to do the work. Then the proper length, from four to five feet, was 
measured off and sawed or cut square. When this was done the block was 
raised on end and the work of cutting out a hollow in one of the ends 
was commenced. This was generally done with a common chopping ax. 
Sometimes a smaller one was used. When the cavity was judged to be 
large enough, a fire was kindled in it and carefully watched till the ragged 
edges were burned away. When completed the hominy-block somewhat 
resembled a druggist's mortar. Then a pestle or something to crush the 
corn was necessary. This was usually made from a suitably sized piece of 
timber- with an iron wedge attached, the large end down. This completed 
the machinery and the block was ready for use. Sometimes one hominy- 
block accommodated an entire neighborhood and was the means of staying 
the hunger of many mouths. 

It is sometimes remarked that there were no places for public entertain- 
ment till later years. The fact is there were many such places; in fact, 
every cabin was a place of entertainment and these hotels were sometimes 
crowded to their utmost capacity. On such an occasion, when bed-time 
came, the first family would take the back part of the cabin and so con- 
tinue filling up by families until the limit was reached. The young men 
slept in the wagons outside. In the morning those nearest the door arose 
first and went outside to dress. Meals were served on the hind end of a 
wagon, and consisted of corn bread, buttermilk and fat pork, and occasion- 
ally coffee to take away the morning chill. On Sundays, for a change, 
they had bread made of wheat " tread out " by horses on the ground, 
cleaned with a sheet and pounded by hand. This was the best the most 
fastidious could obtain, and this only one day in seven. 

Not a moment of time was lost. It was necessary that they should raise 
enough sod corn to take them through the coming winter, and also get as 
much breaking done as possible. They brought with them enough corn to 
give the horses an occasional feed in order to keep them able for hard work, 



HISTOKT OF KEOKTTK COUNTY. 315 

bnt in the main they had to live on prairie grass. The cattle got nothing 
else than grass. 

In giving the bill of fare above we should have added meat, for of this 
they had plenty. Deer would be seen daily trooping over the prairie in 
droves of from twelve to twenty, and sometimes as many as fifty would be 
seen grazing together. Elk were also found, and .wild turkeys and prairie 
chickens without number. Bears were not unknown. Music of the natural 
order was not wanting, and every night the pioneers were lulled to rest by 
:the screeching of panthers and the howling of wolves. When the dogs 
ventured too far out from the cabins at night they would be driven back 
by the wolves, chasing them up to the very cabin doors. Trapping wolves 
became quite a profitable business after the State began to pay a bounty 
for wolf scalps. 

One of the peculiar circumstances that suri-ounded the early life of the 
pioneers was a strange lonliness. The solitude seemed almost to oppress 
them. Months would pass during which they would see scarcely a human 
face outside their own families. The isolation of these early days worked 
apon some of the settlers an effect that has never passed away. Some ot 
them say that they lived in such a lonely way when they first came here 
that afterward, when the county began to fill up, they always found them- 
selves bashful and constrained in the presence of strangers. But when the 
people were once started in this way the long pent-up feelings of joviality 
.and sociability fairly boiled over, and their meetings frequently became 
enthusiastic and jovial in the highest degree. It seems singular to note 
bashfnlness as one of the characteristics of the strong, stalwart settlers, but 
we are assured by the old settlei'S themselves that this was a prominent 
characteristic of the pioneers. And some of them declare that this feeling 
became so strong during the early years of isolation and lonliness that 
they have never since been able to shake it off. 

But there were certainly some occasions when , the settlers were not in 
the least degree affected by anything in the nature of bashfulness. When 
their rights were threatened or invaded they had " muscles of iron and 
hearts of flint." It was only when brought together for merely social pur- 
poses that they seemed ill at ease. If any emergency arose, or any business 
was to be attended to, they were always equal to the occasion. 

On occasions of special interest, such as elections, holiday celebrations or 
camp-meetings, it was nothing unusual for a few settlers who lived in the 
immediate neighborhood of the meeting to entertain scores of those who 
had come from a distance. There was a grove on Mr. Scearcy's claim, and ; 
this was a favorite place for holding camp-meetings. It was no unusual 
thing for Mr. Scearcy and his estimable lady to feed hundreds for days in 
succession during the progress of these meetings, free of charge. This cir- 
cumstance is given to illustrate the boundless generosity which prevailed in 
those days. Scores of other instances could be adduced, showing that at 
least in this particular we live in degenerate days. 

Rough and rude though the surroundings may have been, the pioneers 
were none the less honest, sincere, hospitable and kind in their relations. 
It is true as a rule, and of universal application, that there is a greater de- 
gree of real humanity among the pioneers of any country than there is 
when the country becomes older and richer. If there is an absence of re- 
ifinement that absence is more than compensated in the presence of gener- 
ous hearts and truthful lives. They are bold, courageous, industriouSj en- 



316 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COUNTY. 

terprising and energietio. Generally speaking, they are earnest thinkerB 
and possessed of a diversified fund of useful, practical information. As a 
rule they do not arrive at a conclusion by means of a course of rational 
reasoning, but nevertheless have a queer way of getting at the facts. They 
hate cowards and shams of every kind, and above all things falsehood and 
deception, and cultivate an integrity which seldom permits them to prosti- 
tute themselves to a narrow policy of imposture. 

Such were the characteristics of the men and women who pioneered the 
way to the country of the Sac and Fox' Indians. Those who visited them 
in their homes in a social- capacity were made as welcome as if they were 
the members of the same household. To tender them pay in return for 
their hospitality was only to insult the better feelings of their natui;e. If 
a neighbor fell sick and needed care or attention the whole neighborhood 
was interested. If a house vfas to be raised every man " turned out," and 
often the women too, and while the men piled up the logs that fashioned 
the primitive dwelling-place the women prepared the dinner. Sometimes 
it was cooked by big log fires near the site where the cabin was building. 
In other cases it was prepared at the nearest cabin and at the proper hour 
was carried to where the men were at work. If one man in the neighbor- 
hood killed a beef, a pig, or a deer, every other family in the neighborhood 
was sure to receive a piece. One of the few remaining pioneers has re- 
marked: 

" In tliose days we were neighbors in a true sense. We were all on an 
equality. Aristocratic feelings were unknown and would not have been 
tolerated. Wiiat one had we all had, and that was the happiest period of 
my life. But to-day, if yoii lean against a neighbor's shade tree he will 
charge you for it. If you are poor and fall sick you may lie and suffer 
almost unnoticed and unattended, and probably go to the poor-house ; and 
just as like as not the man who would report you to the authorities as a 
subject of county care would charge the county for making the report." 

Of the old settlers some are still living in the county, in the enjoyment 
of the fortunes they founded in the early times, " having reaped a hundred- 
fold." Others have passed away, and many of them will not long survive. 
Several of them have gone to the far West, and are still playing the part 
of pioneers. But wherever they may be, and whatever fate may betide 
them, it is but truth to say that they were excellent men as a class, and have 
left a deep and enduring impression upon Keokuk county and the State. 
" They builded better than they knew." They were, of course, men of ac- 
tivity and energy or they would never have decided to face the trials of 
pioneer life. They were almost invariably poor, but the lessons taught them 
in the early days were of such a character that few of them have remained 
so. They made their mistakes in business pursuits like other men. Scarcely 
one of them but allowed golden opportunities, for pecuniary profit at least, 
to pass by unheeded. What are now some of the choicest farms in Keokuk 
county were not taken up by the pioneers, who preferred land of very 
much less value. They have seen many of their prophecies fulfilled and 
others teome to naught. Whether they have attained the success they de- 
sired their own hearts can tell. 

To one looking back over the situation at that time from the present 
standpoint of progress and comfort, it certainly does not seem very 
cheering; and yet, from the testimony of some ot these same old 



SISTOET or KEOKUK COTTNTT. 317 

settlers themselves, it was the most independent and happy period of 
their lives. 

At that time it certainly would have been much more diflScult for those 
old settlers to understand how it could be possible that thirty-two years 
hence the citizens at the present stage of the county's progress would 
be complaining of hard times and destitution, and that they themselves, 
perhaps, would be among that number, than it is now for us to appre- 
ciate how they could feel so cheerful and contented with their meager 
means and humble lot of hardship and deprivation during those early 
pioneer days. 

The secret, doubtless, was that they lived within their means, however 
limited, not coveting more of luxury and comfort than their income would 
afford, and the natural result was prosperity and contentment, with always 
room for one more stranger at the fireside, and a cordial welcome to a place 
at their table for even the most hungry guest. 

During the first three years, and perhaps not until some time afterward, 
there was not a public highway established and worked on which they could 
travel; and as the settlers were generally far apart, and mills and trading 
points were at great distances, going from place to place was not only very 
tedious bnt attended sometimes with great danger. Not a railroad had yet 
entered Chicago, and there was scarcely a thought in the minds of the peo- 
ple here of such a thing ever reaching the wild West; and if thought of, 
people had no conception of what a revolution a railroad and telegraph 
through here would cause in the progress of the country. Then there were 
less than 5,000 miles of railroad in the United States, and not a mile of 
track laid this side of Ohio, while now there are over ] 00,000 miles of 
railroads extending their trunks and branches in every direction over our 
land. 

Supplies in those days came to this Western country entirely by river 
and wagon transportation. Mail was carried to and fro in the same w y, 
and telegraph dispatches were transmitted by the memory and lijjs of emi- 
grants coming in or strangers passing through. 

In the autumn of 1846, when Iowa ceased to be a territory and became a 
State, Keokuk county likewise was entering upon a new career. Koads 
were being laid out and worked and temporary bridges constructed in dif- 
ferent localities for the convenience of travel. Schools and school-houses 
were rapidly increasing, and conveniences of public worship multiplied. 
Manufactories of various kinds began to be talked of by the more enter- 
prising men of some capital, and the general work of improvement and 
civilization progressed most encouragingly. 

The emigration to the unsettled regions further west made a good market 
for all kinds of farm produce at the very doors of the settlers. Mills as 
well as markets had come to the very doors of the pioneers of Keokuk 
county, and the county may be said to have entered upon its career of per- 
manent prosperity. But the distinctively pioneer times had gone. With 
all their hardships and all their joys, they were a thing of the past. 

CLAIM CLUBS AND CLUB LAWS. 

During the early settlement of all this portion of country, while the dif- 
ferent lands were being claimed and taken np, the greater part of the first 
settlers banded themselves together for mutual protection in organizations 



318 HISTOET OF KEOKUK COITNTT. 

called " claim clubs," to prevent the encroachment of land speculators, pro- 
fessional "claim-jumpers," and various kinds of intruders who had no in- 
tention of settling here and enduring their share of the hardships and labor 
involved in opening up and improving a new country. 

It was a perilous act for any one outside of these claim clubs to take a 
claim in any of the more desirable parts of the county, lest he should settle 
upon or interfere with some club member's previous claim or interest, and 
if such a thing did occur, no matter how innocent he may have been as to 
his intentions of intruding, in all such cases the non-