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In Exchange 

Cornell University Library 

BM157 .N27 1908 

Bustan al-ukul. bv ^athanael ibn al-Fayy 

3 1924 029 097 776 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


Vol. VI. 


By Nathanael ibn al-Fatyumi 





All rights reserved 


Copyright, 1907 
By The Columbia University Press 

Set up and electrotyped. Published, January, 1908. 


Very- little is known of the intellectual life of the Jews living 
in Southern Arabia. A good deal of their literature has per- 
ished, and their continuel struggles with poverty and oppression 
have not been favorable to the developement of literary activity. 
The only attempts we know of to produce a systematic treatise 
on Jewish theology is "The Garden of Wisdom" of Nathan'el 
al Fayyumi who lived in the twelfth century. Some years ago 
the Library of the Columbia University came into possession of 
a unique manuscript of this work, written in Yemenite Hebrew 
characters. Dr. David Levine has in the present volume edited 
the text of this work and provided the same with a translation. 

Under ordinary circumstances the editing of an Arabic work 
from a single manuscript is a hazardous undertaking. The 
pitfalls into which the editor may slip are so numerous as to 
deter any one but a most courageous scholar. In the present 
case the difficulties are enhanced by the fact that the Arabic 
is written with Hebrew characters — as was often the case when 
Jews wrote in Arabic. This use of foreign characters often does 
apparent violence to the morphology and syntax of the lang- 
uage, and makes it difficult to recognize forms in their unac- 
customed dress. The author was not a man of much literary 
ability. He writes in a somewhat slovenly style, and his scribe 
seems at times not to have understood what he wrote down, 
so that the manuscript fairly teams with errors. Both 
author and scribe were careless also of their Biblical 
quotations. These have not always been corrected, in order 
not to unduly increase the notes. Dr. Levine has worked with 
much assiduity to solve the various difficulties, though he re- 
cognizes that a number still remain unexplained. 

It must be noted that in the use of the Hebrew alphabet 
the scribe employs " Sade " for both Arabic " Dad " and 

"Tha". The letter "Gimel" without a point stands for the 
Arabic "Jim"; the same letter with a point superimposed for 
Arabic "Ghain". In order to accommodate the reader and 
to follow the practice common in printed works of this char- 
acter, the order has been reversed, the pointed "Gimel" re- 
presenting "Jim" and the unpointed representing "Ghain". 

In establishing the text and in perfecting the translation, 
both Dr. Levine and myself wish to acknowledge the assistance 
given by Mr. I. Broyde, who has put his excellent knowledge 
of this literature at our entire disposal. 



The Yemenite Jews Prior To 1175 

Jews probably settled in Yemen in Biblical times. The 
favorable position of south-western Arabia for commercial pur- 
poses must have fairly thrust itself upon the attention of a 
people who in the days of Solomon pushed their way even to 
Spain.' In the course of time the Jewish population assumed 
such proportions and their religion became so highly esteemed 
that King Abu Kariba and all his people embraced Judaism 
(500 C. E.). In 515 Abu Kariba was succeeded by his son 
Yusuf, known usually as Dhu Nuwas. The fate of this king 
and his realm is set forth as follows in the Jewish Encyclo- 
paedia : 

" His zeal for Judaism brought about his fall. Having 
heard of the persecutions of the Jews by the Byzantine em- 
perors he retaliated by putting to death some Byzantine mer- 
chants who were travelling on business through Himyara. This 
destroyed the trade of Yemen with Europe and involved Dhu 
Nuwas in a war with the heathen king Aidug whose commer- 
cial interests were injured thereby. Dhu Nuwas was defeated 
(521) but succeeded in re-establishing his kingdom. Soon, how- 
ever, he entangled himself in a new difficulty. He made war 
against the Christian city Najran, in Yemen, which was a de- 
pendency of his kingdom, and on its capitulation, in spite, it 
is said, of his promise of immunity from punishment, he oflfered 
the citizens the alternative of embracing Judaism or being put 
to death. As they refused to renounce their faith he executed 
their chief, Harith (Aretas) ibn Kaleb and three hundred and 
forty chosen men. This event caused a great stir among the 
Christians; and the Roman emperor, Justin I, requested the 
Negus Elezbaa of Ethiopia to march against the Jewish king. 
Accordingly an Ethiopian army crossed the Red Sea to Yemen. 

.' JevAsh Quarterly Review, vol. III., p. 624, 


Dhu Nuwas endeavored unsuccessfully to prevent its landing. 
The ensuing engagement terminated disastrously for Dhu 
Nuwas. His city of Zafora (Thafar), together with his queen 
and the treasure, fell into the hands of the enemy. Preferring 
death to capture, Dhu Nuwas rode into the sea and was 
drowned." ^ 

Again the Yemenite Jews appear upon the stage of history, 
when in common with their brethern elsewhere in Arabia, they 
refused to countenance the pretensions of Mohammed (575-632) 
and subjected his Kuran to a derisive criticism. They suffered 
so heavily in the ensuing conflict that they were practically lost 
to recorded history for about five hundred and fifty years.^ 

Once more the curtain rises in 11 72 revealing a community 
writhing under the cruel heel of religious persecution. The 
governor of Yemen had rebelled against Saladin, Sultan of 
Egypt, and now was in possession of the province. Being 
intensely intolerant of any faith other than Islam, he repeated 
the story of persecution enacted by Abdullah ibn Tumart in 
Barbary in 1122 and by Abdul Mumin in Andalusia in 1148. 
In his effort to obliterate the name of Israel he was aided by 
a renegade Jew, Samuel ibn Abbas, who fulminated against his 
brethern and their faith in a book written sometime between 
1165 and 1 172. The persecution was becoming acute when an 
enthusiast proclaimed himself the precursor of the Messiah 
about to appear in Yemen. The rebellion might have gotten 
beyond the stage of incipency had not the luckless Elijah paid 
for his zeal with his life. Moreover, thenceforth there was to 
he no alternative but Islam or exile. The head of Yemenite 
Jewry, Rabbi Jacob ben Nathanel ben Fayyumi, and his faithful 
followers were in utter despair. What should be done to pre- 
serve the ancient heritage of Israel? Providentiallv there was 
at hand a disciple of Maimonides, Solomon ha-Cohen, who had 
but recently arrived from Cairo. At his suggestion Rabbi Jacob 
wrote for counsel to the sage of Cordova, then physician at the 
court of Saladin.' The response of Maimonides was the famous 
Epistle to Yemen (Kitab al-Yaman or Iggereth Teman) in which 

'^■^ The leimsh Encyclopedia, vol. IV., p. 553. 
' Graetz: Geschichte der Juden, vol. VI., 296 ff. 
' Lichtenberg: Responsa of Rambam II., p. 7. 


his brethren were " consoled, assured that they were being tried 
by God, that they should by all means remain loyal to Judaism, 
that the Messiah will come but his advent cannot be calculated, 
that the Law will never be abrogated and that the Creator will 
never send another Law besides that vouchsafed to Israel. But 
Mainionides did not restrict his services to words. He turned 
his growing influence in Cairo to account, and when in 1174 
Saladin's brother assumed the reins of government in Yemen, 
the material condition of the Jews followed their spiritual con- 
dition on the road to better things. In the daily Glorification 
Prayer (Kaddish) the grateful Yemenites included a compli- 
mentary allusion to Maimonides."^ 

Yellin and Abrahams, Maimonides, p. 105. 


p. V, 1. 3 continual ; 1. 4 development ; 1. 5 attempt ; 1. 24 teems ; p. xiii, 
1. II, 1150; p. XV, 1. 33 the intensity; p. 2. 1. 28 occupies; p. 3, I. 2 intel- 
ligencies; 1. 27 sanctuary; p. 4, 1. 23 correspond; p. 5, 1. 28 matters; p. II, 
1. 25 does not contain ; p. 25, 1. 11 Tiberias ; p. 26, 1. 18 betrothal ; p. 27, 1. 32 
Sh'moa; p. 30, note 5, 1. 11 nineteen; p. 31, note 12 Sprenger ; p. 35, 1. 37 
her ; p. 37, 1. 29 knowledge, good deeds and generous hospitality. This is 
also expressed in the sentiment, p. 38, 1. 30 is six hundred; p. 41, 1. 30 of 
whom; 1. 32 following; p. 42, 1. 20 its extreme side; p. 44, 1. 8 logicians; 
p. 47, 1. II prescience; p. 52, 1. 23 reveres; p. 53, 1. 10 eschews; p. 59, 1. 14 
Shekhinah ; 1. 15 through; 1. 31 His; p. 61,1.3 iniquity; p. 63, 1. 15 wouldst ; 
it would make ; p. 64, 1. 3 of those ; p. 69, note 3 particle ; p. 76, 1. 19 compre- 
hend ; p. 81, note I wrestled; Esau; p. 89, 1. 33 embellishment; p. 90, 1. 36 
abandons ; p. 91, 1. 23 regardless ; p. 92, 1. 22 upon ;, p. 96, I. 15 but the eyes 
of the unbelievers; p. 104, 1. 36 judgments; p. 106, 1. 4 father; p. .107, 1. 9 
unto the name; 1. 11 Law; p. 109, 1. 15 al-Lat ; 1. 20 directed; p. no, 1. 10 
be apportioned; 1. 30 should come after 1. 32; p. 112, 1. 3 shall I; 1. 15 
Hallewi ; p. 119, note, male ; p. 135, 1. 13 he that walketh without blame; 
p. 138, 1. 6 we ask help. 



Nathanel and His Book 

The father of the rabbi to whom Maimonides addressed the 
Iggereth Teman was none other than the author of the Bustan 
al -Ukul, Nathanel ben al-Fayyumi. The clue to this identity 
is furnished by a poem of Ibn Gebirol (1020-1070) quoted in 
the " Bustan." In this effusion the poet laments that " Ishmael 
slew and devastated for four hundred and sixty-one years." 
Remembering that the Mohammedan era begins in the year 
622 and that the calendar of Islam, being purely lunar, loses 
eleven days for every solar year, we readily determine the date 
of the poem 622 + 461 — 14 = 1069, evidently falling in the life- 
time of Ibn Gebirol. Nathanel quotes that " Ishmael slew and 
devastated for five hundred and fifty-nine years. "^ This would 
set the date as 622+559 — 16=1165, almost a century after 
the death of the famous poet and philosopher. Hence it is 
dear that Nathanel made the substitution consciously to bring 
the poem down to his own day to which it applied with so much 
force. The " Bustan " is thus the oldest Jewish Yemenite work 

In the Iggereth Maimonides incidentally speaks of Nathanel 
as no longer living — " the highly honored master and rabbi, 
Nathanel (of blessed memory) bar Fayyumi."^ 

Since the " Bustan " was written in 11 65 and the Iggereth in 
1 1 72 our author must have died within seven years after the 
composition of his work. He probably lived in Sana'a as the 
head of the Jewish community and at his death was succeeded 
by his son, Jacob. The patronimic Al-Fayyumi would indicate 
that the family came originally from the Fayyum in Egypt, the 
birthplace of the father of Jewish philosophy, Saadiah Gaon. 

The sources of the Bustan may, for convenience, be divided 
into the Jewish and the non-Jewish. 

After the fashion of many mediaeval Jewish writers on 
philosophical and ethical subjects, Nathanel resorts to the Bible 

' Bustan, p. 71. 

' Lichtenberg: Responsa of Rambam 11. , p. i. 


not as a well-spring of science but merely for the confirination 
of philosophic views already established/ Other Jewish works 
quoted are the Talmud and Teshuboth (Responses), the poetical 
works of Shelomo Hakatan (Ibn Gebirol) and Yehudah Halewi, 
Saadiah's al-Amanat and Bachya's Hoboth Hallebaboth. There 
is no evidence to prove that Nathanel even knew of Ibn Gebi- 
rol's Fons Vitae or Joseph ibn Zaddik's Olam Katan. The 
resemblances are due to the fact that all three authors had re- 
course to the same treasure-house, the Encyclopaedia of the 
Brethren of Sincerity (Ihwan as-Safa)^ 

The non- Jewish sources are represented by the Koran, the 
utterances of numerous anonymous poets and " pious men," 
and the Encyclopaedia. With the proverbial Yemenite weak- 
ness for omitting names Nathanel never mentions the Ihwan 
as such but refers to them as " the philosophers," ^ " the 
learned," " the authors who have a firm footing in science," etc. 

Nathanel intended the " Bustan " to be a popular introduc- 
tion to Jewish theology, a " compendium for our youth and for 
any of our brethren into whose hand it may fall."* He there- 
fore strove to make it simple, studiously avoiding arguments 
profound or abstract. For the philosophic and scientific basis 
of his work he betook himself to the Encyclopaedia of the Breth- 
ren. This compilation was " the best articulated statement of 
a system that furnished a complete scheme of education, or of 
man's true relation to the universe, that enabled him that re- 
ceived it to lead a perfectly rational, aimful, and, therefore, free 
life." This system he enlisted in the service of Judaism. The 
head was to serve as the gateway to the heart. Among the 
Jews of Yemen he probably represents the last exponent of the 
doctrines of the Brethren of Sincerity. He was not the great 
master who develops a system to its highest point, leaving 
nothing for his followers to add, but he took that system as he 
found it and made it what it was intended to be — an angel of 

' For this practice of Mediaeval Jewish ethical and philosophical 
writers cf. Bacher's Bibelexegese der Religionsphilosophen vor Maimuni. 

' Ibn Zaddik, Moses ibn Ezra and Bachya did likewise : Doctor, Ibn 
Zaddik, p. 12. 

' The full text of the Ihwan as-Safa has been published in Bombay, 
1,30.3-1306 A. H. Beginning in 1865, Fr. Dieterici has published portions 
of the text in Arabic and a condensed German translation of many of the 
treatises. For details see Brockelmann, Ceschichte der Arabischen Lite- 
ratur. i. pp. 213 et seq. 

* Bustan, p. 2. 



The Yemenite Jews in the Days of Nathanel 

The political condition of the Yemenite Jews at this time 
was far from pleasant. The yoke of the Islamic rulers lay 
heavily upon them, and unceasingly did they yearn for the ad- 
vent of that scion of David who was to chastise their oppres- 
sors and restore the foot-sore tribe to its ancient power and 
glory. The Mohammedan Yemenites were wont to taunt the 
Jews that the Torah had been abrogated in favor of the Koran.^ 
Spirited arguments would ensue which, judging from the "Bus- 
tan," usually ended with a logical victory for the Jews. It was 
but a continuation of the old contest between the founder of 
Islam and " the People of the Book." 

The " Bustan," furthermore, throws some light upon the 
education of the Yemenite Jew. This education was to be no 
mere ornament, nor the acquisition thereof merely a pleasant 
pastime. " O seeker of wisdom, seize it in spite of its opposition, 
and know that the meadow of learning is divided up by streams."^ 
The processes involved in the acquisition of knowledge were 
regarded as four : attention, retention in memory, the practical 
application of one's knowledge and the diffusion thereof. Facts 
were thus to become factors. " Knowledge is a cost and a care 
to him that fails to act through it." — " Learning is the parent 
and the deed is the child." — " Learning is a tree and the deed 
is its fruit." — " Learning must be the inspiration to a deed, 
otherwise it escapes us."' The spirit of this education was 
thus in harmony with that of our own times. Under brighter 
political and social conditions the splendor of Jewish achieve- 
ments in Moorish Spain might have been rivalled by that in 
South-western Arabia. But the sun of the Andalusian Jews 
failed to rise for their brethren of Yemen. 

Some of the elements of their general education may be 
inferred from Nathanel's exhortation that we consider what 

' Bustan, p. 67. ' Bustan, p. 50. ' Bustan, p. 30. 


God has vouchsafed unto man in the way of knowledge, enabl- 
ing him to " evolve writing, the reading of books, the composi- 
tion of verses, polite literature and commentaries, the cultiva- 
tion of letter-writing and eloquence, and the study of history 
according to years, genealogies, dynasties, and the conjunction 
of the planets."^ The statement of Maimonides in his epistle 
to the Jews of Lunel that the Jews of Yemen knew " Httle of 
the Talmud, being acquainted only with the Agadic exposi- 
tion," ' is borne out by the general tenor of the Bustan when- 
ever reference is made to the Talmud. These people were not 
of the type of Rashi (1040-1150) for whom Judaism as repre- 
sented by the Bible and the Talmud was the all in all; nor of 
the type of Maimonides who would examine and interpret his 
faith in the light of Aristotle ; but devout worshippers at the 
shrine of the then dominant philosophy, the eclecticism of the 
Brethren of Sincerity. Therefore, aside from the mastery of 
the Bible, the Agadic portions of the Talmud, various Mid- 
rashim, the ceremonials of the faith, a few Jewish philosophical 
works, the writings of poets and ascetics, and the elements 
noted above, the higher education of the Yemenite Jew con- 
sisted in a thorough knowledge of the Encyclopaedia and the 
application of this knowledge to daily conduct and to the under- 
standing of the " mysteries " contained in the Scriptures. He 
sought to realize clearly that God, the One, must be uncon- 
ditionally isolated in order to obtain an ultimate unity of all 
distinctions and antitheses, in which, therefore, all difiference 
must vanish in pure simplicity of being. This simple Unity 
could not be identified with Reason, for in Reason is the 
antithesis of thought and its object. He then looked upon all 
things external to this pure Unity as a series of emanations. 
From the unconditioned, absolute One emanated the Universal 
Reason which is the final source of all existents, celestial and 
terrestial. From the over-flow of the Intellect issued forth the 
Universal Soul, the origin and goal of the partial souls which 
exist in the world of nature. From the Universal Soul there 
also emanated primal matter, and from it in turn secondary or 

• ' Bustan, p. 47. 
' Graetz : Geschichte III., p. 492. 


tri-dimensional matter, i. e. Body. Then successively, one from 
the other, appeared nature — sub-lunary and transient— the four 
elements, and lastly things or products. This streaming forth of 
the emanations was ofif-set by a streaming back of these forces 
to the primal force. This was conceived spatially as taking place 
from the middle point of the earth to the stars, i. e., through 
the minerals to plants, then to animal, man and angel. The 
abode of the last was the All-soul. The aspiration of the human 
soul appeared to be to find its way back to this source. The 
world, as it was then understood, offered ample testimony to 
the soundness of these Neoplatonic, soul-satisfying teachings. 
Under the sphere of the moon there exist minerals, plants, and 
animals. The highest type of mineral is moss which partakes 
also of the qualities of plant life. The noblest species of the 
plants is the palm which shares certain qualities with animal 
forms of life : the pollen of the male fertilizes the female, other- 
wise no fruit will be produced; and when the head is lopped 
off, the tree dies. Likewise in the animal kingdom there is 
the ape which also belongs to the same class of creatures as man. 
This transition from mineral to plant, from plant to lower 
animal, and from the last to man suggested the inference that 
in the genus man there must be a species resembling the higher 
genus, the angels. This species consists of the prophets and 
their disciples. These disciples are the learned and the wise — 
the noblest of men. In this world they are angels potentially ; 
and when God translates them to the Glorious Dwelling they 
become angels in actuality. This Glorious Dwelling is the All- 
Soul. Thus man mounted the heavens, carried thither upon 
the wings of the Arabic doctrine of evolution. " This doctrine 
hardly differs from the Darwinian except in not recognizing the 
struggle for life as an agent in the process ; the older theory 
putting instead of this the natural desire of all things to return 
to their sources. ""^ 

In imparting knowledge, a careful distinction was made be- 
tween the exoteric and the esoteric. The latter was reserved 
exclusively for the select few esteemed worthy of it and capable 

^*' Davidson, p. 448. 


of grasping it. These constituted the class known as " the 
learned, the heirs of the prophets. This designation — " the 
heirs of the prophets " — had profound significance for the 
Yemenite Jews as well as for the great body of their brethren 
throughout the world. According to the Jewish view of those 
days, all the science and philosophy then known had been 
originally taught by the prophets of old. Unfortunately, this 
knowledge had been embodied in the oral tradition which was 
to remain unwritten,^ and as a consequence it was almost 
wholly lost during the various cataclysms of Jewish history. 
This belief can be traced as far back as the Alexandrian Aristo- 
bulus. Philo Judaeus (20 B. C. 40 C. E.) and Josephus 
(37-95).° Yehudah Halevi' Maimonides* and AbarbaneP were 
of those who voiced this view in later times. Many Christian 
and Mohammedan authors did likewise. Prominent among the 
last were the Ihwan as Safa. Ibn Roshd (Averroes, 1126-1198), 
a contempary of Nathanel, is explict on this subject in his 
" Destruction of the Destruction " (Tahafut al-tahafut).' Thus 
the Yemenite Jew was taught to look with pride upon the 
extraordinary achievements and contributions of his nation. 
Translating himself by the magic of his imagination to the re- 
mote past, he beheld Socrates admitted into the treasure-house 
of Jewish lore by Achitophel and Asaph. Plato stepped forward 
either in the person of Jethro or as a converted disciple of 
Jeremiah in Egypt ; and the Stagirite was revealed sitting at 
the feet of Simon the Just. A great yearning seized upon 
the Jews to acquire and to disseminate what they believed had 
been lost to them. Especially in the works of the translators 
and writers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries we hear 
by the side of lamentations over the loss of the old, jubilation 
over the reappearance, the renascence,, of their ancient intel- 
lectual possessions. They were raising up the fallen booth of 
their wisdom. This belief was an inspiration, intensity of which 
can be approximately appreciated by considering the contribu- 

Talmud, Gittin 60b. 

Contra Apion, Bk I, ch. 22. *, Kusari I, 63; II, 66. 

Dalalal I, ch., LXXII. " Commewtary, Gen. x, I. 

Munk, Le Guide des Egares, vol. I, p. 332, note 3. 


tion of the mediaeval Jews to the literary treasures of western 
civilization. They fed their national pride upon the intellectual 
food that had been stored up in Syriac and Arabic granaries.^ 
The results of their activity were far reaching. Europe was 
stifling in the fond embrace of the Holy Church. Independent 
thought meant heresy and death; and, besides, there was little 
upon which independent thought could exert itself. The Jews 
provided the material. Men studied, pondered and breathed 
in another atmosphere. It required but time, and philosophy 
won the right to stand side by side with Church doctrine : " In 
the realm of grace the Church is supreme ; in the realm of 
nature, Aristotle." ' Then came the great Thomas Aquinas 
and effected what appeared to be a chemical combination of 
the two elements. But the union was unnatural. Men as- 
serted their God-given right to think and to believe indepen- 
dently of the dogmatic accumulations of centuries. Thus was 
prepared a royal road over which the world journeyed into the 
Reformation, the Renaissance, and the modern distinction be- 
tween Church and State with all that implies. Mankind has 
not as yet fully appreciated the role played by the Mediaeval 

Though the geographical location of the Yemenite Jews 
robbed them of the privilege of exercising as great an influence 
as their more favored Western brethren, history must recognize 
them also as heroes in the struggle for the world's emancipa- 

' D. Kaufmann: Die Sinne, p. 3 ff. 
' Summa Theologia I, Qu. I, 8. 


In the name of Him "who imparts knowledge unto man".* 
" The secret of the Lord is with those that fear him." ^ 

In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate, do I 
begin. By His words am I led aright, His ordinances will I 
follow — God thy Gracious Helper! Praised be God, yea the 
God of Israel, the First preceding every primeval thing; the 
Cause of the cause of causes; the Ancient who passeth not 
away; who is one, but not in the category of number, de- 
clared a Unity, Unequalled, Everlasting; who "beareth not nor 
was He born";^ the Absolute Unity, the One in eternity; who 
emanateth souls, originateth forms, createth and produceth 
the bodies. Great are His benevolence, honor and might. He 
is free from limitations, acting at will. His are the celestial 
sphere, wisdom and power, decreeing and disposing, laudation 
and eulogy, beneficence and munificence, dominion and perpetu- 
ity, majesty and grandeur, creation and empire, uniqueness, and 
omnipotence. He is the Living One who dieth not; the Eter- 
nal by virtue of His eternity ; the Permanent because of His 
Permanence ; the Divine Creator through His Supreine power, 
potent to do whatsoever He wishes. Nothing is like unto 
Him ; He created all things out ot nothing. Unto him we can- 
not apply definition, attribute spatiality or quality. He has no 
throne that would imply place nor a footstool that would imply 
sitting. He cannot be described as rising up or sitting down, 
as moving or as motionless, as bearing or as being born, as 
having characteristics or as in anywise defined. Before Him 
all the idols were humiliated, and all creatures bowed in adora- 
tion. He does not enter or go out, descend or ascend. He is 
far beyond the reach of the human intellect, transcending ap- 
prehension, conception, and even conjecture. His essence is 
indescribable and cannot be grasped by means of the attributes. 

' Ps. XCIV, 10. '■ Ps. XXV, 14- ' Sura CXII. 3- 


He is exalted even beyond the sublimity and the greatness 
ascribed to Him by the philosophers, as the prophet, peace 
be with Him, praised Him and said in his outburst of praise : 
" Let them bless Thy glorious Name — Thy Name be exalted 
above all blessing and praise ! " ^ And now to proceed. 

The first creation of God was the Universal Intellect — the 
origin of life, the fountain of blessings, the well-spring of hap- 
piness. It is the source of emanations — the spheres, the ele- 
ments, exalted souls, complex bodies, and the varied forms in 
the earth and in the heavens. God made it by His word and 
His will, not from anything and not in anything, not with any- 
thing and not through anything. He simply willed that it 
should be, and it issued forth a perfect intelligence, under- 
standing its essence, which was charged with all His creations 
and thus became the maker of everything made and the bearer 
of everything borne. It was in a state of rest because of its 
perfection and completeness, but began to bestir itself out of 
thanksgiving for the blessings it had received at the hands of 
its Creator. The Universal Intellect is referred to by the Holy 
Scriptures in the passage, "The Lord created me in the begin- 
ing of His way, before His works of old — in the remote past, 
the beginning; ere there were any depths I was brought forth; 
when he established the heavens, I was there." ^ Considering 
its essence the intellect ascertained that the qualities that dis- 
tinguished it must be discarded from the essence of the Creator; 
it was nevertheless filled with unbounded joy in discovering in 
it the imiversal blessing, the divine perpetuity and the eternal 
life it contained and the exalted place it occpies in the scheme 
of its Creator — sanctified be His names !' Therefore Holy Writ 
saith, " I was by him as a master workman. His daily delight 
at all times, rejoicing before Him." * Its exuberant joy and 
happiness caused an overflow, and thus there emanated from 
it the Universal Soul. 

• ' Neh. IX, S. 
' Proverbs VIII, 22, 23, 24, 27. 

• The exclamation, "Sanctified be His Names!" is Islamic. For the 
ninety-nine names of God see Hughes' Dictionary of Moliamme danism 
article "God." 

* Proverbs VIII, 30. 


Some of the learned hold that the Intellect sent forth from 
itself into the world abstract intellegences, arranged in nine de- 
grees corresponding to the nine numbers which complete the 
set of single numbers. These intelligences, together with the 
first creation, complete the decade from which the whole world 
— ^the upper and the lower — is derived. They find the con- 
firmation of this theory in the doctrine, "With ten utterances 
the world was created ; " ^ and " upon ten words the world 
stands." As for the sages, they had an authentic tradition * 
to the eflect that "Seven things were created before the world 
was created ; the Torah,^ Eden, Gehinnom, the throne of glory, 
repentance, the name of the royal Messiah and the place of the 
sanctuary,"* as they explained in the Talmud saying, the 
proof thereof can be found in Scripture : "Whence do we 
know that the Torah was created before the world? From the 
passage, "The Lord created me in the beginning of His way, 
before his works of old." '^ Whence the garden of Eden? 
From the passage, 'And the Lord God planted a garden in Eden 
of old!* Whence Gehinnom? From the passage, 'For a 
Topheth is prepared of old.' ^ Whence the throne of glory? 
From the passage, 'Before the mountains were brought forth 
Thou didst turn man to the dust and didst say, 'Repent O son 
of man.'* Whence the name of the Messiah? From the pas- 
sage, 'Before the existence of the sun his name was Yinnon." 
Whence the place of the sanctuary? From the passage. *A 
glorious high throne from the beginning is the place of our 
sanctity.'"^" Some of the learned add thereto the characteis 
of the alphabet," declaring that these were originated before 
the world of changeable things, inasmuch as every rational 
being needs them in discourse and in uttering the praise of 
God. The proof thereof is derived from the passage, " In the 

> Pirke Aboth V, I. 

•' The expression "authentic" indicates Islamic influence. The 
Mohammedan doctors of the law reduced the study of the authenticity 
of traditions to a science. 

'■ It is significant that the Jews never propounded the doctrine that 
the Torah is eternal. It is believed that the Mutazilites derived their 
doctrine of the creation of the Koran from the Jews. Cf. Schreiner's 
" Der Kalam in der Juedischen Literatur," p. 4. 

* Pesachim 54a. °" Prov. VIII, 22. " Gen. II, 8. 

' Is. XXX, 33. *' Ps. XC, 2. • Ps. LXXII, 17. 

" Jeremiah XVII, 12; Pesachim 543. " Pirke Aboth V, 9. 


beginning God created the heavens and the earth,"^ that is to 
say, the whole alphabet from aleph to tav and the first light 
that existed before the luminaries concerning which we read, 
" Let there be light." ' Both opinions are plausible. The 
proofs of these things are the ten utterances, since they bal- 
ance that degree numerically in this world ; for these utterances 
were only in instants and each one of them comprised a thing 
created by God ; but one of the utterances did not refer to time 
or place, namely the first, "Let there be light !" V/hile the rest 
referred to time or place, for it is written, "And God said, 
'Let the firmament be,''' etc. ; and God said, 'Let the waters 
be gathered ;'* and God said, 'Let the earth bring forth herbs ;'^ 
and God said, 'Let there be luminaries,'" etc. ; and God said, 
'Let the waters bring forth abundantly ;" and God said, 'Let 
the earth bring forth,'* etc. ; and God said, 'Let us make man,''* 
etc. ; and God said, 'Behold I have given, '^^ etc. ; and God 
said, 'It is not good for man to be alone/^^ and according 
to others the verse and God said unto them: Be fruitful and 
multiply."^- These ten utterances correspond to the ten numbers 
which are formed in man who is a microcosm with ten members. 
We shall treat this subject at greater length when get to it 
with the help of God. 

Thus, the first created correspond in degree to One, and 
the Universal Soul to two, and so forth. According to the 
Sages Divine Wisdom is used in the Torah as a metonymy for 
the Universal Intellect which is the first creation, and Garden 
and Eden for the Universal Soul, which is next to it. It is 
the mansion of the rewarded, the partial souls emanated from 
it into the world of nature. Similarly the other degrees, until 
thou reachest the world of the celestial spheres and the stars 
a world light of weight." In it were carved all the forms of 
that subtle world, whence they came to this coarse world by 

' Gen. I, I. ' Gen. I, 3. ' Gen. I, 6. * Idem 9. " idem 11. 

" idem 14. ' idem 20. ' idem 24 ° idem 26. " idem 29. 

" idem 18. "" idem 28. 

" We read in Na'turonschauung und Naturphilosophic, p. 49; "The 
celestial bodies are neither heavy nor light since they maintain their rel- 
ative positions." 


the power of the Wise and Mighty One as an indication of 
His wisdom and the efficiency of His providence.^ The three 
worlds correspond to and balance one another with respect to 
their density, their lightnes and their rareness, so that they are all 
inter-related, manifesting the wisdom of their Creator and prov- 
ing that it was He that made them by his perfect wisdom and that 
theyarenotself-created.Tothis theScriptures refer in the passage, 
"How great are Thy works. O Lord, in wisdom hast thou made 
them all ! '" And again, " The Lord founded the earth in 
wisdom, established the heavens with understanding." Man 
was the final creation ; he is a microcosom, and of the noblest 
degree. That subject will be treated in the chapter which fol- 
lows that coming after, please God. 

We have called this book, "The Garden of Wisdom," and 
have arranged its contents in seven chapters. 

The first chapter treats of the Unity of God ; that there is 
no God besides Him. 

The second chapter shows that man is a microcosm, cor- 
responding to the three worlds which preceded him in existence 
— the subtle, the light and the coarse. 

The third chapter treats of the necessity of obeying God 
privately and publicly, and of adoring Him outwardly and in- 

The fourth chapter treats of repentace, attentiveness to the 
work of God,humility in His presence, and other subjects, 
like continence, submission, and the preeminence of the learned 
and godly in this world and in the next. 

The fifth chapter treats of reliance upon God in all maters 
relating to both religious and worldly affairs ; our consideration 
of all things created by Him in the upper and in the lower 
world ; the evidence of His wisdom in all creatures small and 
great ; the divine provision for the nourishment of all creatures ; 
the loveliness of death ; and the like. 

' The study of the pure form — the iorm apart from matter, the eter- 
nal substance which unlike other substances suffers no change — was a part 
of theological science. Cf. Propaedeutik, p. 24 ; N aturanschauung, p. 19. 
According to Anthropologie, p. 39, the angels are forms abstracted from 

' Ps. 24. ' Proverbs III, 19. 


The sixth chapter treats of the excellencies of the Messiah 
— may he come speedily! — and the salvation of Israel — God 
hasten it; — and disproves the abrogation of the law with a 
sufficient number of arguments philosophic, theological and 
traditional, in Hebrew and Arabic. 

The seventh chapter mentions the Future World — the After 
Dwelling — that it is the end, that to it belongs Paradise, i. e., 
life and eternity, and shows that the Creator keeps all evil from 
His creatures. 



Concerning the declaration of God's unity, and that there 
is no God besides Him, amongst the first and amongst the last, 
in the heights or in the depths, according to the Scriptural 
words, " For who is God save the Lord, and who is a Rock 
besides our God?"^ Or as the philosopher expressed it, 
" Though thou art called by numerous names thou abidest in 
Thy changelessness ! Though manifested midst created things 
thou art their ancient Lord." 

Know, my brother — may God strengthen both of us with 
His spirit ! — that this gate is the foundation of the sciences, 
of religious practices, sects, and religious beliefs ; it is their 
key, their summit, their pole star.^ Through it true religious 
belief is distinguished from polytheism, religious practice is per- 
fected and faith made firm. The service of God becomes com- 
plete, unmarred by trouble, unaffected by evil. 

Know that the most eminent minds and the profoundest 
reasoning have shown that the worlds, the higher and the lower,' 
in their minute parts and in their magnitude, were originally 
non-existent, and were called into existence by another Being. 
He originated and established them just as they are at present. 
He rules and controls them with absolute power, so that they 
do not infringe upon his authority or deviate from what he has 
commanded and decreed. 

The world did not create itself since it is impossible for a 

* Ps. XVIII, 32. ' Compare Weltseele, p. 98. 

' According to Propaedeutik, p. 74, all bodies are embraced in either 
of two worlds : the world of the spheres or the world of the four ele- 
ments, the latter beinp; the world of genesis and decay. The first was 
called " the high world " and the second " the low world." " High " was 
applied to what lay near the all-surrounding sphere, " low,'' to what is 
near the centre of the earth. 


thing to create itself, to originate its own essence.' Eor if 
things created themselves they would be autonomous, perfectly 
free in their actions. They would do whatever they wished 
whenever they wished. If the sun, for instance, were the Crea- 
tor and originator of itself and there were no other Being who 
is its Creator and Ruler, it would perhaps appear at one time 
in the east and at another time in the west. It would moisten 
what it usually dries, and would dry what it usually moistens.' 
It would remain in whatever zodiacal signs it wished, would 
leave them at pleasure, would rise when it wished, and perhaps 
would determine never to set. The same may be said of the 
other stars above and the elements beneath, for the application 
of this illustration is universal. Since things, then, always 
were as we find them now — not having left the beaten path or 
shifted their characteristics or in anywise changed from what 
they were in the earliest time — we know, and know with cer- 
tainty, that they are creations, originated, governed and con- 
trolled, and that besides them there is One who originated them, 
who prescribed what their conduct shall be, controls them by 
His irreversible decree, and impressed upon them different 
characteristics, e. g., heat in the sun and cold in the moon, and 
likewise the characteristics of the stars and of the elements, 
and the courses of the various planets, as we shall partially 
mention in one of the chapters of this book, please God. 

Since it is clear that the world has a Creator and Maker 
other than itself, we set about to ascertain whether this Creator 
is one or many. We find that things, when viewed with refer- 
ence to their multitude or their causes, have antecedents less 
and less in number until we come to a single cause, and this 
cause presupposes One to whom it ov^'es its origin.' 

Thus, all things above and beneath, go back to the Cause 
of causes, and that is the first creation that the Creator — great 
should be His praise ! — has produced by His will and design not 
in time nor in place, not through anything or in anything, accord- 
ing to the prefatory remarks in the beginning of this book. 

' Bachya, Hoboth hal Lebaboih, Ch. I, Sect. S. 

' Refers to the action of the sun's heat upon snow and ice. 

■ Bachya, ch. I, Sect. 7. 


He was the Originator, the Cause of causes, the Creator, One 
and Single. He is too transcendent to be placed in the cate- 
gory of cause and efifect, or qualified with such epithets as " pro- 
ducing" and "sending out emanations.'' 

Since universal necessity establishes the existence of the 
Creator — praise to His Glory ! — seeing that things could not 
possibly have created themselves — it is made clear to us by 
the most convincing proof that the world not only has a Creator, 
but that He is one in essence and not more than one, for 
reason cannot grasp unity as less than one and not as more,' 
Among the proofs of the unity of the Divine essence is the 
argument of the opposition of desires in two beings : either one 
of them may wish what the other does not.^ If the wishes of 
both are in perfect accord then the essence is, beyond a doubt, 
single. But in case of disagreement, it would be utterly im- 
possible for two or more to create this world according to 
their differing desires, since it is perfect in its creation and 
firm in its construction.^ It contains many things contrary 
and in opposition, but all of them are perfect through the divine 
wisdom and handiwork, through the sublime unity of its Creator 
and Author, its Governor and Maker. And its Creator — May 
His Names be sanctified ! — is One in His essence,' but not the 
unity which we grasp ; wise in essence but not with the wisdom 
of mortal ; living, existing, eternal, permanent, perpetual. His 
eternity did not emanate from another being ; His life was not 
bestowed by another; His wisdom was not acquired from 
another; neither was he called into existence. He is the eternal 
the permanent, the living, the wise and the perpetual life, wis- 
dom, and perpetuity, since the original source of everything is 
His essence and He is the Living One alone. He transcends 
the attributes applied to things originated and created, such 
as first and last, substance and accident, coarseness and fineness. 
He cannot be compared to them or they to Him, for how can 

* Bachya, ch. I, Sect. 7; Propaedeutik, pp. 5 and 6. 

" Cf. Sura, 22. Had there been in the heavens or on earth gods be- 
sides Allah both (heavens and earth) would have surely gone to ruin. 

' Bachya, ch. I, Sect. 7; Naturanschatiung, p. 16,3. This is the first 
proof of the Mutakallimun : Dalalat, vol. ii, ch, LXXV. 

* Mutazilitic. 


the creature be compared to the Creator, the thing originated 
to its Originator, God is exalted far above all. We shall make 
mention of this fact in every chapter of our book, as far as 
possible and suitable, wherever we refer briefly to the subject 
of His unity, as the occasion for speaking about it permit, please 
God. For that did He command us, because of it did He 
charge us, and for the knowledge of it He created us. The 
Scriptures have taught us this doctrine in a number of passages, 
as for instance, " And thou shalt know to-day and reflect in 
thy heart that the Eternal is God, and that there is none 
else ; " ' " Hear O Israel, the Eternal is our God ; the Eternal 
is One ;"' " See now that I, even I, am He ; I put to death 
and bring to life, in order that they may know from east to 
west that there is none besides Me, — I am the Eternal ; '" 
and many such. The revealed prophetical books likewise tes- 
tify that He is one in His essence, free from all attributes, 
nothing can compare to Him : " Unto whom will ye compare 
Me and I shall be similar to him? saith the Holy One;"' 
" Unto whom will ye liken God, and what image will ye compare 
unto Him?'" "Unto whom will ye liken Me and make Me 
equal, and compare Me and we shall be similar?"" and many 

The theologians have composed a number of books on that 
subject. Rabbi Saadiah ben Joseph and others went into the 
matter as profoundly as they could and "God does not 
burden the soul beyond what it can bear,"' He being glori- 
ous, exalted, excellent, and enduring beyond the reach of 
description and qualification.' He imparts knowledge to 
the learned, righteousness to the righteous, power to the 
powerful, wisdom to the wise, being the Cause of the cause' 
of existing things, the Creator of created things, the bountiful 
Giver of generous gifts, the Bestower of existence, the Source 
of blessings and favors, and the Preserver of the order of things. 
He gives permanence to all permanent things, directs the uni- 

■ Deut. IV, 39- ' Tdem, VI, 4- ' Idem, XXXII, 39. ♦ Isaiah, 
XL, 25. • Idem XL, 18. " Idem XLI, 5. ' Sura II, 286. " Al- 
Amanat val-Itikadat, p. III. * God is here referred to as the creator 
of the Universal Reason. 


verse and knows what is concealed. He precedes all things 
originated and shall be after all terminations, manifest, secret 
and concealed. His knowledge extends over all things, and 
He is the Hearer, the Wise, the Kind, the Mighty, the Benign 
and the Merciful. Such is His power, such His will. Truly 
tongues are too dumb to describe Him, souls too feeble to 
praise Him. In this strain did a pious man commune : " O 
God, Thou art exalted beyond expression! Only anthro- 
popsychically' canst Thou be conceived by those who call 
upon Thee. Impossible is it to address Thee in any other way. 
Seek we to imagine Thee suffering change — we are void and 
bewildered. Hesitating to declare Thee either active or motion- 
less the mind is at a standstill. Verily the path between nega- 
tion and affirmation inspires fear." Praised be the Cause of 
existing things ! They are divided into excellent intellects, 
subtle souls and bodies light and heavy. These are expressed 
by primitive nouns, denominatives, adjectives and nouns quali- 
fied by adjectives. God, however is too exalted to have His 
essence fall under any one of these divisions or that imagination 
should reach Him or that the understanding should comprehend 
Him. For how can the creature conceive its Creator or the 
invention its Inventor without being related to something that 
can carry it back to Him? Nor does He belong to a class 
through which comparison may be made with Him, since time 
does contain Him and epithet cannot characterize Him. The 
essence of his unity is such that it does not presuppose con- 
tingency, neither is it open to the least suspicion thereof, since 
the Majestic One is beyond the description of those who de- 
scribe Him, the mighty beyond the epithets of those who praise 
Him, surpassing what is declared concerning Him and worthy 
of thanks far beyond what is rendered unto Him. I give thanks 
unto Him, have confidence in Him and my affairs will I 
entrust to Him, according to the words of His saint, " Loving 

' The usual translation of the Arabic term employed is "anthro- 
pomorphic." The meaning of the term in the quotation is " anthropo- 
psychic" which is the proper term to apply to the human concept of 
God. Cf. The Duke of Argyll's " The Philosophy of Belief," p. 249. 


kindness shall encompass him thai trusteth in the Lord ; " ' 
" That my trust may be in the Lord I have made known to 
thee this day, even to thee." ' The first chapter is finished. 
There follows 


This chapter shows that man is a microcosm and the 
noblest existent under the sphere of the moon.' 

They say that " since man was the last thing created and 
with him God's work was complete, it follows as a necessity 
of the divine wisdom that he should be the noblest existent in 
the world of genesis and decay." ' The Creator made him a 
microcosm corresponding to and resembling the three worlds 
which we have mentioned. He is superior to all other creatures 
and exercises authority over all that exists in the form of 
mineral, plant or animal. The Sacred Scriptures speak thereof 
in the passage, " Thou has made him but little less than divine 
and dost crown him with glory and honor. Thou causest him 
to rule over the works of Thy hand. Thou puttest all things 
under his feet: All sheep and oxen, the beasts of the field and 
the -fowl of the air, the fish of the sea and whatsoever passeth 
through the paths of the sea."° 

We shall carefully consider man with respect to all those 
characteristics, circumstantial and essential, which in the eyes 

' Ps. XXXII, 10. ' Prov. XXII, 19. 

° Logik und Psychologic, p. 19. The idea that man is a microcosm 
is very old. It was voiced in one form or another by Anaximenes, Plato, 
Aristotle, the Stoics and the Neo-platonists. Through the last it came to 
the Arabs and was presented systematically by the Ihwan as-Safa. Cf. 
Doctor's Philosophte dcs Joseph ibn Zaddik, p. ig, on the microcosm in 
Jewish literature cf. Frankel's Monatssc'irift, vol. Ill, p. 159 ff. and 197*?. 
also Guttms^nrisPhilosophie Gcbriol's, p. 117, note 3. 

* The terms genesis and decay go b:ick to Aristotle. When the 
form that is assumed by a thing is superior to the one cast off, the pro- 
cess is called genesis ; if inferior, decay. The study of genesis and 
decay was the mediaeval substitute for chemistry. Cf. Natwanschauung 
und Natur philosophte, p. 62. 

' Ps. VIII, 6-9. 


of the philosophers make him a microcosm. We must there- 
fore take into consideration and reflect upon all his qualities — 
the corporeal and the spiritual, the external and the internal — 
that we may appreciate the greatness of his Creator and Author 
— may He be exalted ! — that His grandeur may grow apace in 
our hearts and that we may render the service due Him/ 
Referring thereto Holy Writ saith m the words of Job, " From 
my flesh shall I see God." ' 

Subjecting man to examination we find him one, correspond- 
ing to the one. We note further that he is composed of two 
substances, a subtle spirit and a coarse body: corresponding 
to the two." His body has length, breadth, and depth: cor- 
responding to the three.* Similarly, the soul has three faculties. 
The first, the faculty of sensation and appetite, located in the 
liver, resembles the spirits of brutes. The second, the choleric 
facuhy located in the heart resembles the spirits of jinns." The 
third faculty, intelligence, located in the brain, resembles the 
spirits of angels.' Corresponding to the fours which are in 
the world, are the four humours : blood, phlegm, bile and 
spleen.' The nature of blood is moist-warm, corresponding 
to the nature of the atmosphere. The nature of the phlegm 
is moist-cold, corresponding to the nature of water. The nature 
of the spleen is dry-cold, corresponding to the nature of the 

' Compare Anihropotogie, p. 46. The Ihwan explain that God made 
the human being a microcosm that he might get some conception of the 
macrocosm which is too vast to be grasped directly. The Creator intended 
the world as a testimony to Himself. In the Propaedeutik, p. 21, we are 
told that according to tradition, whosoever knows himself knows God, 
and whosoever knows himself best knows God best. 

' Job. XIX, 26. ' IVelUede, pp. i and 16; Anthropologic, p. 41. 

* Propaedeutik, p. 25. 

° The jinns are wicked, corrupt souls, which formerly had bodies and 
then discarded them. They are ignorant and unpurified. They are blind 
to the truth, deaf to what is right and dumb as regards noble language. 
They roam about in the darkness of the sea of matter. Propaedeutik, 
p. 72. 

° The angels are souls entrusted with the maintenance of the world. 
They were originally in bodies and in that state purified themselves and 
acquired intelligence. After escaping from their bodies they roam about 
happily among the spheres and in the expanse of the heavens. Anthro- 
pologie, p. 8. ' Idem, p. 4; Propaedeutik, p. 4. 


earth.' Corresponding to five are his five senses : hearing, 
seeing, smelling, tasting, and feeling.' Corresponding to the 
six are his six surfaces : right and left, front and rear, above 
and below.' Corresponding to the seven are the seven aper- 
tures in his head : the ears, the eyes, the nostrils and the 
mouth. Corresponding the eight are his eight powers : attrac- 
tion, retention digestion, rejection, growth, change, pro- 
creation, and increase.' Corresponding to the nine are the 
nine substances of his body : nail, skin, hair, flesh, blood, bone, 
marrow, veins and nerves." Corresponding to the ten are his 
ten organs : the heart the brain, the liver, the lungs, the gall, 
the bladder, the spleen, the kidneys, the stomach, the intestines, 
and the testicles. 

A scholar wrote another explanation concerning man, mak- 
ing him correspond in the manner cited above in our treatise. 
According to him the soul and body correspond to the heavens 
and the earth, and to Moses and Aaron — peace be unto them 1 
— for they were like the heavens and the earth. Just as the 
earth receives what comes from the heavens so the pious Aaron 
learnt what Moses communicated to him, according to the pas- 
sage, " See I have made thee a god unto Pharaoh, and Aaron 
thy brother shall be thy prophet. And thou shalt speak," 
etc. The correspondence is extended to the two tablets, for 
their origin was earthly and their inscription Heavenly"; to 
the Torah and the Mishna, and to this world and the world 
to come. 

Now God has arranged all things in pairs' and placed in this 
world many contraries, the various creations occuring in two's. 
All that is proof that He is Absolute Unity, and not as 
the unity of things originated, which is only metaphorical 
while His is real. He — praised be He ! — is too exalted and 
too perfect to be qualified by an epithet. All that we can predi- 

^ Propaedeutik, p. 2. The old classification of the five senses was 
not native to the Jews but reached them through the -science of the Arabs. 
Saadiah could trace only four senses indicated in the Bible, and the same 
can be said of Ibn Ezra in his commentary on_Psalm CXV, 7.The Hebrew 
language even lacked the word " sense." Cf. Die Sinne, p. 35. 

' Anthropologic, p. 4. 'Idem, p. 13; Weltseele, p. 21. * Anthropologie, 
p. 4. '^ Exodus vii, i and 2. "Exodus xxxii, 16. 

• Cf. Sura Li, 40 : " And of everything we have created pairs that 
haply ye may reflect." 


cate of Him is that He is the Creator, the Single, and the One ; 
human speech is utterly at a loss how to express the thought in 
more subtle terms. 

Of those things which God placed in pairs and in opposition 
^ve instance life and death, riches and poverty, light and dark- 
ness, the first and the last, the exterior and the interior, day 
and night, heat and cold, arable lands and deserts, knowledge 
and ignorance, the sweet odor and the ill odor, heaviness and 
lightness, roughness and smoothness, hardness and softness, 
highness and lowness, gain and loss, the bound and the re- 
leased, trust and fear, peace and war, the difficult and the easy, 
grief and joy, substances and accidents, sickness and health, 
ugliness and beauty, sea and dry land, plain and mountain, un- 
happiness and happiness, separation and conjunction, poison 
and antidote, servant and master, and others whose number 
no one but Him can comprehend.^ 

Likewise, He made man's aggregate qualities consist of 
many sets of contraries. We have counted one hundred and 
forty such qualities which we shall proceed to mention : 
knowledge and ignorance, 
memory and forgetfulness, 
briskness and slowness, 
generosity and avarice, 
courage and cowardice, 
wakefulness and dormancy, 
motion and rest, 
ingress and egress, 
standing and sitting, 
speech and silence, 
mercifulness and mercilessness, 
gladness and sadness, 
mirthfulness and tearfulness, 
veracity and mendacity, 
piety and impiety, 
justice and injustice, 
humility and pride, 
loyalty and disloyalty, 
^IVeltseele, p. 2; Logik und Psychologic, p. 2. 


modesty and immodesty, 
envy and devotion, 
boastfulness and bashfulness. 
contentment and cupidity, 
strength and weakness, 
eloquence and incoherency, 
hunger and satiety, 
thirstiness and thirstlessness, 
absence and presence, 
divestment and investment, 
blameworthiness and praiseworthiness, 
obtuseness and acuteness, 
irascibiHty and forbearance, 
stupidity and sagacity, 
hastiness and tardiness, 
boldness and bashfulness, 
lust and chastity, 
extravagance and thriftiness, 
insubordination and submission, 
disobedience and obedience, 
sincerity and insincerity, 
carelessness and vigilance, 
sinfulness and sinlessness, 
enmity and amity, 
fidehty and infidelity, 
mildness and severity, 
doubtfulness and certainty, 
decency and indecency, 
timidity and tranquility, 
conjunction and disjunction, 
rectitude and obliquity 
hope and despair, 
cautiousness and impetuosity, 
forgiveness and vengeance, 
prudence and foolhardiness, 
faithfulness and treachery, 
intelligence and hebetude, 
decorousness and shamelessness. 


equity and iniquity, 
licentiousness and asceticism, 
stinginess and liberality, 
softness and hardness, 
agreeableness and disagreeableness, 
terror and equanimity, 
dutifulness and undutifulness, 
pride and humility, 
sociableness and aloofness, 
solitariness and partnership, 
confirmation and denial, 
joyousness and distraction, 
leniency and severity. 

Thus, man's qualities, good and bad, are altogether one hun- 
dred and forty. He should use them all in their proper place. 
Likewise, corresponding to the three are life, rationality and 
mortality. Three are associated in a man's birth : the Creator 
and his parents.' He corresponds to the three divisions of 
time : the past, the present and the future ; and to period, place 
and moment; to the three patriarchs — Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob. Also to three worlds which man sees : one the womb 
of his mother; one this world ; and one the world to come. And 
to the three books which are opened on high before the Holy 
One — blessed be He! — one for the righteous, one for the mid- 
dle class, and one for the wicked. That of the righteous is 
written and sealed for Paradise ; that of the wicked is written 
and sealed for Gehinnom ; and the middle class is given a respite 
until the following Rosh Hashana : if they become meritorious 
they are inscribed as meritorious ; and if guilty, they are in- 
scribed as guilty.^ To correspond to the priests, Levites and 
laymen. To correspond to the Torah, the Prophets and the 
Hagiographa. To correspond to the two extremities of the 
world and the axis thereof.^ To correspond to prophet, sage 
and king. To correspond to the Kedusha.* To correspond 

' Niddah, 31a. ' Rosh Hashana. 

•The heads of the world ("Zenith and Nadir and the regent theory (?) 
cf. Masudi's Meadows of Gold, p. 81, note. 

*The Kedushah or sanctification refers to the proclamation of God 
as thrice holy. Is. vi, 3. 


to the three kinds of science : theology, the science of bodies 
and chronology, the last named consisting of the past, the 
present and the future.' 

And similarly the four. Men are of four kinds: one is dis- 
tinguished for knowledge but not for good works; another for 
good works but not for knowledge ; a third for both knowledge 
and good works ; a fourth for neither knowledge nor good 
works.^ Concerning that one of the Arabian poets says, "There 
are four kinds of men whose states and conditions are clearly 
evident. One man enjoys this world but not the after-world; 
another has no position in this world, but there looms up be- 
fore him a future world to which God causes him to take his 
flight; a third acquires both, he is happy in this world and in 
the other ; and another weeps over both, he enjoys neither this 
world nor the next." Then there are four seasons : summer, 
autumn, spring and winter.* Also four revolutions : when the 
sun arrives respectively at the signs of Aries, Cancer, Libra 
and Capricorn, at regular intervals of time.° Time has four 
divisions : day, week, month and year. The winds are four : the 
west wind, the east wind, the north wind and the south wind.' 
Numbers are four: units, tens, hundreds, thousands.^ And 
likewise men are of four kinds : one masters the exoteric sciences 
but not the esoteric; one the esoteric but not exoteric; one 
both of them ; and one neither of them. They correspond to 
the four varieties of vegetation which God enjoined the children 
of Israel to take in connection with the Feast of Tabernacles. 
The palm branch has taste but no odor; the myrtle has odor 
but no taste ; the citron, has both taste and odor ; and the wil- 

' According to the Ihwan the three kinds of science are propaedeu- 
tical, natural and theological : Weltseeh, p. 2. Propaedeutical science 
includes the science of numbers and their computation, astronomy and 

^Vayikra Rabbah. parsha 30, sect. 12. 

' Cf. Logik und Psychologie, pp. 133 and 134. * Propaedeutik, p. 4. 

' Propaedeutik, pp. 57 and 59; Pesachim 94b. 

° Propaedeutik, p. 4. 

' Propaedeutik, p. 3 ; Logik und Psychologie, p. 39 ; Weltseele, p. 2. 
The Arabs have no word to express a number over a thousand. They 
therefore express a million as a thousand times a thousand, and so on 
with any larger number. In order to avoid mistakes they indicate at 
the end how often a thousand is to be taken or multiplied by itself. Cf. 
Masudi's Meadows of Gold, p. 173 with note. 


low has neither odor nor taste.' Men are likewise of four 
orders : th° pious man who begets a pious child, of whom it is 
said, " In the place of thy fathers shall be thy children ;'" the 
pious man who begets a wicked child, of whom it is said, " Let 
thistles grow instead of wheat ;'" the wicked man who begets 
a righteous child, of whom it is said, " instead of the hedge shall 
grow up the fir tree; " * and finally, the wicked man who begets a 
wicked child, of whom it is said, " From the wicked shall go 
forth wickedness."" Likewise there are four kinds of par- 
don : the four kinds of known atonement. The kinds of obedi- 
ence are four; and the kinds of sin four. The banned things 
are of four kinds and occur in innumerable cases : the impure 
thing that makes impure ; that which makes impure that which 
was not impure ; the impure which does not make impure ; 
and that which neither makes impure nor is impure. The clas- 
sification by four holds good also in the case of " yibbom " 
and " halizah," Thanksgiving offering oil, frankincense, obla- 
tion, and the first born for an inheritance and for the priest. 
And likewise four, there are four fires : the fire which eats and 
drinks, — the natural heat in animals ; the fire which neither eats 
nor drinks, — the fire common amdng mankind ; the fire which 
drinks but does not eat, — the heat in the bosom of the earth ; 
and the fire which consumes but does not drink, — the fire of the 
surrounding ether." 

Likewise, God gave man four characteristics reflecting the 
nature of the mineral, the vegetable, the animal and the angel. 
Genesis and decay are characteristics which he shares with 
minerals. Nutrition and growth are characteristics which he 
shares with vegetable life. Sensation and motion are char- 
acteristics which he shares with animal life. His angelic char- 
acteristics are adoration and eternal life, for when he truly 
serves God he does not die.' Likewise the divisions of phil- 
osophy are four : first, the discipHnary and propaedeutical ; sec- 
ond, natural science and anatomy; third, logic; fourth, the- 
ology.' Likewise God, when creating the world called into 
existence four simple things, which are the basis of all composi- 

' Vayikra Rabbah, parasha 30, sect. 12. ' Psalm XLV, 17. 

"Job XXXI, 40. 'Is. LV, 1.3. "I.Samuel XXIV, 14; Yoma 86a. 

'Weltseele, p. 128. '' Naturanschauunn.p, 193. ' Propaedeutik, p. 2. 


tions. These four simples are fire, air, water and earth. Their 
compounds are the minerals, the plants, the animals and man.^ 
Likewise, bodily diseases arise from imperfect mixture owing to 
the perverseness of one of the four humours in man, viz. : the 
blood, the phlegm, and the two biles.^ Their commixture 
gives rise to heat, moisture, cold and dryness. The learned 
have written medical works dealing with the use of aromatic 
roots. Their explanations are extensive and involve a science 
that is well nigh limitless. Corresponding to these humours 
are the four sources of the soul's defects. They are the origin 
of very severe, tenacious diseases which yield to treatment 
far less readily than bodily ailments, unless one resorts to the 
medicinal aromatic roots described by the prophets — God bless 
them.' In their works they explain what God revealed to them 
concerning these roots. The causes of the soul's diseases are 
accumulated ignorance, evil disposition, corrupt views and 
shameful doings.* When souls thus succumb, their excellence 
vanishes, their splendor is obscured, their vision is darkened and 
their burdens scarcely tolerable — ^from such a fate may God 
in His mercy save us ! Were we to proceed to enumerate the 
things classified by the sages as occurring in fours, we would 
have to mention very many. Of their allusions we quote the 
following : "There are those who inherit and bequeath, bequeath 
but do not inherit, inherit but do not bequeath, do not bequeath 
and do not inherit ;"' Four qualities mark those who give 
charity ;"° Four qualities mark those who go to the Beth 
Hamidrash;"' "Four should give thanks;"* and many others 
which we shall not mention seeing that they are not hard to 
understand. Then there are the four agencies in the redemp- 
tion of Israel from Egypt; the four "malchioth," which cor- 
respond to them; the four great beasts which the pious Daniel 
saw issuing out of the sea and which God caused our ancestor 
Abraham to see over against the dreadful intense darkness 
which fell upon him.* The sages have put in the same category 

^Anthropologic, p. 50; Naturanschauung, p. 141. 

' Anthropologie, p. 49; Logik, p. 106. 

'For the philosophers as physicians for the soul refer to Dugat's 
Histolre des Philosophes Musulmans, p. 236. Probably refers to al- 
gazali's Munkid. 'Anthropologie, p. 103. "Baba Bathra, Ch. VIII, I. 
' Pirke Aboth, V, 16. ' Pirke Aboth, V, 17. ' B'rachoth, 54a. ' Dan., VII, 3. 


"inflammation, bright spot, scab and a swelling;"^ the four 
streams' Gihon, Pishon, Hidekel and Euphrates;"^ and "ants, 
conies, locusts and spiders."' Likewise, the wicked suffer a 
four-fold punishment, for it is written " The Lord raineth upon 
the wicked snares, fire, brimstone and a horrible tempest."* 
In the world to come He will visit them with a four-fold punish- 
ment: an overflowing' rain, hailstones, fire and brimstone.'* 
There are moreover, the four terrible penalties : the sword, 
pestilence, famine and wild beasts.* The chariots are four,' 
and the smiths are four.' The stars are of four kinds : the 
sun shines by day ; the north stars by night but not by day ; 
the moon may be seen both by day and by night ; the stars 
round about the South pole shine neither by night nor by day 
The zodiacal signs are also of four kinds : three are of the 
nature of fire, three of air, three of water, and three of earth." 
Water is of four kinds : water that ascends from the earth to 
the atmosphere is the origin of rain ; water that descends from 
the atmosphere to the earth is the falling rain ; water in the 
heights is ice ; and the water which remains forever in the 
depths is the water of the sea, stored up according to the words, 
"He gathers together the waters of the sea in a heap."" 
Vegetation is of four kinds : the nutritive and the medicinal, 
e. g., wheat, barley, and the like ; the nutritive and non-medi- 
cinal, e. g., sugar, oils, and the like ; medicinal and non-nutritive, 
aromatic roots among the dry grasses ; and non-medicinal and 
non-nutritive, as thorns and the like. 

Similarly, the five planets correspond to the five fifths of 
the Law;^^ the five possessions which the Holy One — Blessed 
be He ! — especially appropriated to Himself in His universe ;^^ 
and the five services which occur on the Fast Day of Atone- 
ment.^^ Similarly the five senses which are in man; and the 

'Leviticus XIII, 2. "Genesis II, il, 13 and 14. 

• Prov. XXX. 24-28. * Ps. XI, 16. 

"Ezekiel XXXVIII, 22. °Tdem XIV, 21. 

'Zechariah VI, 1-8. 'Idem II, 3. 

' Propaedeutik, p. 49. '°Ps. XXX, 7. 

"The Five Books of Moses. "Pirke Aboth, VI, 10. 

"Kol Nidrei, Shaharith, Mussaph, Minha and Neila. 


five celestial provinces.^ And in five, the figure five, as also 
twenty-five, always preserves itself throughout its self multi- 
plication, and irregardless of the size of the product, does not 

Similarly, the six corresponds to the following : the six sides 
of the world;' the six colors which God created in the world, 
viz.: white, black, red, green, yellow and blue;* the six orders 
of the Mishna; and the six orders of the Tosephta; the six 
zodiacal signs which appear eternally above the earth and the 
six concealed eternally under the earth ; and the six south 
stars and the six north ;° in regions of the north six months 
are perfectly dark without any admixture of light and in the 
south six months are Ught without any admixture of darkness f 
"six days of creation ;"' "six wings to each one ;"* and like- 
Vv'ise six openings in our bodies on the right side and six on 
the left.' 

And similarly the seven. Its applications are most frequent 
and most important, due largely to the grandeur, dignity and 
sanctity of the Sabbath in the eyes of God ; for it is the 
seventh of the days, the last of them and their terminus, for 
their number closes with it. Whosoever observes the Sabbath 
as God decreed, learns to thoroughly appreciate it and its 
majesty as the law of God commands, and moreover fears God, 

' " The astrologers divide up the degrees of each sign of the zodiac 
among the five planets. The portion assigned to each planet is called 
the province of that planet since it denotes the part of the sign where 
that planet exercises its full iniluence." De Slane, Proleg II, 221, note 
I ; III 154, note 4. Does alhudud al'aluviat mean God, Universal Reason, 
Universal Soul, Nature and Things? Dieterici's Theologie, p. IX. There 
are five fundamental principles of Islam, five imams and the most eminent 
of the prophets were five. For the last named Cf. Weltseele, p. 172. The 
five chief figures mentioned by Euclid are the tetragon, cube, octahedron, 
icasahedron and dodecahedron. Propaedeutik, p. 3. 

'The Ihwan point out that if we regard one as the point, two as the 
line, three as the surface and four as the cube, then five is the sphere. 
If it be multiplied by itself ever so often the multiplicand persists: thus 
S X 5 = 25 ; 25 X 25 = 625 ; 62s X 62s = 390,62s, etc. Cf. Propaedeutik, p. a 

.' North, east, south, west, up and down. Anthropologie, p. 4. 

* Anthropologie, p. 26. 

'Propaedeutik, p. 47, has it that six of the constellations are north. 

•Idem, p. 91. 'Gen. I. 'Isaiah VI, 2. ' Naturanschauung, p. 154. 


is completely religious. But when one's religion falls short 
of that it utterly fails him. The seven finds its application to 
man in the following particulars : the soul has seven spiritual 
powers and the body seven corporeal powers. The corporeal 
are attraction, retention, digestion, rejection, growth, increase 
and imagination.^ The soul's seven spiritual powers are : hear- 
ing, seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, speaking and intel- 
ligence.^ They correspond to the seven planets. Five of the 
planets have ten mansions out of the twelve signs of the zodiac. 
The two luminaries have two mansions, the moon ruling over 
one of them : the sign Leo being for the sun and Cancer for the 
moon. Now, the ten mansions belonging to the five planets 
are as follows : to the planet Saturn belong the signs Capricorn 
and Aquarius ; to the planet Jupiter the signs Sagittarius and 
Pisces; to the planet Mars the signs Aries and Scorpion; to 
Venus the signs Taurus and Libra; and to Mercury the signs 
Gemini and Virgo.' And likewise in the body of man there 
are twelve apertures : his ears, eyes, nostrils, mouth, navel, 
breasts and his two passages.* Of these twelve openings ten 
are for five powers and two for two powers, corresponding to 
the planets and the two luminaries. The mouth corresponds to 
the sun, the navel to the moon, the ears to the mansions of 
Mercury, the eyes to the mansions of Jupiter, the nostrils to the 
mansions of Mars, and the two passages to the mansions of 
Saturn.^ Similarly his eyes are of seven strata, between each 
and every pair of strata there are gradations and powers of 
seeing which are not between the others." Similarly, God 
placed the channel of the faculty of hearing in the ears and the 
channel of the faculty of seeing in the eyes, the channel of the 
faculty of smell in the nostrils, the channel of the faculty of 
touch in the hands, the sensual taste in the mouth and in the 
private parts, the channel of the faculty of speech in the tongue 
which corresponds to the moon, and the channel of the faculty 
of intellect in the brain which corresponds to the sun.' The 
brain supplies the speech which thou employest and the ideas 

^ Anthropologie, p. 48. Vayikra Rabbah, parsha 29, sect. 11. 
■ Anthropologie, p. 48. ' Propaedeutik, p. 50; Anthropologie, p. 48. 
' Idem, p. 49. " Idem, p. 49. ° Compare Die Sinne, p. 85. 
''Anthropologic, p. 48. 


which are expressed through speech with its eight and twenty 
consonants, just as the sun supplies the light^ wherewith the 
moon shines through eight and twenty mansions from its first 
appearance until it is complete and perfect through the power 
of their Author and Creator, sanctified be His Names •? Like- 
wise, on earth there are seven climates* and eight and twenty 
regions. Eurthermore, the importance of seven in the estima- 
tion of God is indicated by the fact that He ordained that 
the seven-month child should live, but the eight-month child 
should die since a month is superfluous.* That is a mystery 
understood by God, the prophets whom He taught, and those 
versed in the sciences inherited from them, having mastered 
these sciencs through divine grace. Likewise, He made the 
heavens in seven parts" and the climates seven in number.® 
As another example of the excellence of seven in the estimation 
of God we note the characteristics of the calendar which the 
children of Israel use for their years, for the festivals and fasts 
ordained for them in the Torah, and also for the stipulation 
handed down to them in the authentic traditions of the prophets 
that Pesach must not begin on Monday, Wednesday or Friday ; 
Azereth not on Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday ; Rosh Hashana 
not on Sunday, Wednesday or Eriday ; the Day of Atonement 
not on Sunday, Tuesday or Eriday ; and Purim not on Saturday, 
Monday or Wednesday. All of this is according to the post- 
ponements indicated by the ancient sages and their intimate 
associates of blessed memory. We have found that the 
origin, the canons and the methods of the calendar are based 
on the number seven. There are twelve simple ordinary years 
and seven leap-years. This is the theory of the calendar, its 
foundation and its entire key for all times. To show this we 
shall make in the latter part of this book an astronomical table, 
wonderful and ingenious. Whosoever wishes may scrutinize it, 
please God.'' Therein are great reward for all and complete 
religious practice — God controls success in His mercy! Like- 
wise, God appointed seven shepherds to preside over His people 

^Anthropologic, p. 49: Propaedeutik, p. 131. 'Idem, p. 62. 
'Idem, 92-99; 191-19Q. * Aitthropologie, p. 72. 
' Propaedeutik, p. 46. "/dem, 92-99; 191-199. 
'This table does not appear in our manuscript. 


Israel;^ and Enoch was the seventh after Adam.^ The il- 
lustrious master Moses ben Amram — peace be uopn him! — 
was the seventh after Abraham, — the order being Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kehath, Amram, with Moses as the seventh. 
Likewise, Otsem was the sixth, and David the seventh son.' 
We further find in the Talmudic narratives that every tribe in 
Israel gave birth to seven-month children. Similarly the 
wildernesses are seven: the wilderness of Sinai, Zin, Kadmuth, 
Kadesh, Shur, Paran and Ethan. The wilderness of Sinai is 
the most famous since it was the scene of the revelation of the 
Torah. Likewise, the seas are seven : Sodom, Tibrias, Sabki, 
Aspamia, Halta, Kinnareth and the Great Sea. Likewise there 
occur seven expressions for heaven in the Bible : r'kia, ilon, 
z'bul, m'hon, m'on sh'hakim and araboth.* Likewise, the 
Biblical words for land are seven : arka, erez, heled, n'shya, 
ziyah, adamah and tebel.^ Israel was enjoined to observe 
the seven days of Niddah, the seven days of purification, the 
seven days of hymeneal rejoicing, and the seven blessings, 
God commanded Noah, " of the clean animals take by the 
sevens."" Then there are seven days of consecration,^ the 
seven pillars of the world, the seven worlds, and seven ancestors 
rest with God and corruption has no power over them.* 
Likewise, God caused the release of the pious Joseph through 
the dreams in which Pharoah saw seven beautiful cows and 
seven full ears of corn and their contraries, and his deliver- 
ance was through the interpretation thereof, as thou knowest.* 
Balaam prepared seven altars.'" Upon the menorah were 
seven sockets. '^ Pardon and forgiveness are granted in Tishri 
which is the seventh month from Nisan, and Nisan witnessed 

' Micah V, 5. In this group David was the central figure with Adam, 
Seth and Methusaleh on his right hand, and Abraham, Jacob and Moses 
on his left. Succah S2b. 

^Vayikra Rabbah, parsha 29, sect. 11. 'Idem. 

'Hagigah 12b; Aboth d'Rabbi Nathan, ch. 37; Midrash Thillim, 
Ps. CXIV. 

' Aboth d'Rabbi Nathan, ch. 37 ; Shir Hashirim Rabbah, parsha 6. 

"Gen. VII, 2. 'Levit. VIII, 23. 

' Baba Bathra 17a. The passage refers to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, 
Aaron, Miriam and Joseph. 

•Gen. XLI. '"Numbers XXIII. "Exodus XXV, 37- 


the redemption since it is the seventh month from Tishri. In 
most of the sacrifices there were seven lambs of the first year.^ 
And hkewise there are seven characteristics of a boorish man 
and seven of a wise man,^ and seven kinds of punishment 
corne into the world for seven kinds of important transgres- 
sions.^ Likewise, God ordained that the Children of Israel 
should count seven weeks and at the expiration thereof make a 
pilgrimage to the Temple: that is the Pilgrimage of Weeks." 
He permitted them to keep their Hebrew slaves and hand- 
maids in service for six years, but these were to be set free in 
the seventh.^ He ordained that they should count, years seven 
times seven, i. e., forty-nine years ; then landed property should 
be free and return to its original possessors in the fiftieth 
year. He enjoined them to plough and sow their fields six 
years, but during the seventh year the ground is to lie fallow.* 
He enjoined upon them the recital of seven blessings in the 
Sabbath service, concerning which His favorite says, " Seven 
times a day do I bless thee." ' In the bethrothal there are 
seven blessings and seven days of huppa; and on the fast day 
seven blessings. Of all the numbers seven is most frequently 
referred to in the Scriptures. We quote a few of the many 
instances : "Seven abominations are in his heart ;"* "Seven 
evils shall not touch thee ;"° "Though the righteous fall seven 
times he shall arise ;"^" "Seven shall lodge without being 
visited by evil;" "For seven fold shall Cain be avenged."" 
The illustrious master selected seventy elders to govern the 
people.^^ There are thus many passages mentioning seven and 
its excellence. In treating the theory of religion as extensively 
as possible we shall recall in what respect that number is com- 
plete and wherein consists its pre-eminence, please God. When 
we reach the chapter dealing with the consideration of all that 
God has created, and especially the section treating of the 
seven stars and the twelve constellations, we shall enter into the 
easily intelligible aspects of the subject as far as our limited 

'Levit. XXIII, l8. 'Pirke Aboth V, lO. 'Idem V, ll. 
• Deut. XIV, 9. " Exod. XXI, 2 and 6. " Levit. XXV, 2-7. 
'Ps. CXIX, 164. 'Prov. XXVI, 25. "Job. V, 19. 
"Prov. XXIV, 16. "Gen. IV, 15. "Numbers XI, 16. 


knowledge permits, please God. Above every knowing being 
is the Omniscient, Mighty, Exalted One ! Of Him we ask the 
blessing of grace and guidance in all matters religious and 

We mention a portion of the subject here that thou mayest 
recognize that the seven stars and the twelve constellations are 
fundamental to the forces and that every prophet and lawgiver 
referred to them. As for the foundation of this world thou 
seest that there are seven stars in as many spheres and twelve 
signs of the zodiac in one sphere. Together they make up 
the nineteen foundations of time and place, according to seven 
days, — not more, not less. There are many classes of people 
in respect to language, sects and doctrines but not in respect 
to these days, for they cannot increase or diminish. Likewise, 
the twelve months persist through all times without cessation. 
Their increase or diminution would involve the destruction of 
universal harmony and the entire reversal of things, for there 
would be no stability since seven is the most faultless of the 
numbers.' The same applies to the twelve. Thus there are 
the prescribed prayers wherewith we approach the King of 
Kings, make our necessities known to Him, ask of Him 
that which we desire, confess our sins and petition Him for 
our well-being and guidance. That is put into the eighteen 
benedictions, which together with the first, the principal one, 
make up the nineteen, to correspond to the seven and the 

Much about seven and twelve that we regard as fundamental 
is concealed from the mass of the common people, but is clear 
to the noble and the wise. Instance the three portions of the 
Law, which it is incumbent upon us to read every day twice 
before the nineteen blessings are read : " Sh'ma," " V'haya im 
sh'amo'a " and " Vayomer." ^ In the whole thereof are nine- 
teen sections, after taking away one of them, which is repeated, 
viz. : the passage commencing, " U'chethabtem." It resembles 
the passages with which the Torah begins and ends, as we shall 
point out in the fifth chapter of this book. Therein we have 

^Propaedentik, pp. 7, 8 and 69. ' Deut. VI, 4-9; Deut. XI, 13-21; 
Numbers XV, 37-41. 


mentioned that instance and additional ones relating to the 
seven and the twelve. But one which we have not mentioned 
is the passage at the end of the Torah. It is the last composed 
by the pious and illustrious Moses — peace be upon him ! — " O 
the happiness of Israel,"^ etc. Concerning it the sages have 
the tradition that the letters " beth " and " caph " were used 
that the Torah might begin with the letter "beth" and end with 
the letter " caph," the world " b'reshith " being the first and 
"thidroch" the last. These sentences contain nineteen words. 
All of these things are open only to those versed both in the 
literal and in the manifestly figurative meaning of the words, for 
in them these secrets and hints point to the seven and the 
twelve. My brother, grasp these subtle mysteries and ponder 
over them with their numerous meanings and the knowledge 
that lies back of them, that thou mayest master them and 
through them attain eternal beatitude after emerging from the 
dwelling of ignorance — may God in His mercy grant both of 
us success ! 

We can cite many Scriptural sections whose length is reg^i- 
lated according to the seven and the twelve. Thus the first 
song, from "vayosha" to "hashem yimloch," numbers nineteen 
verses.^ The same applies to the verses with which the noble 
Jacob blessed his children from Reuben to Joseph ;' the total 
number of verses is nineteen. He left off with Joseph and Ben- 
jamin. In recognition of their rank he honored them on that 
occasion with another set of verses. And likewise the verses 
in the blessing of the illustrious prince Moses number nine- 
teen.* These verses extend down to the sentence beginning, 
"Who is like the God of Jeshurun?" This numerical arrange- 
ment holds good throughout the prophetical works with most 
of the allusory passages. If thou considerest the twelve minor 
prophets individually there will remain three in the later 
prophets and four in the earlier, making nineteen. By taking 
the four earlier prophets and the four later prophets and add- 
ing thereto the eleven books of the Hagiographa we have nine- 
teen. Had we wished to deal exhaustively with the Prophetical 
and Hagiographical passages constructed on the principle of 

'Deut. XXXIII, 29. = Exodus XV. 'Gen. XLIX. 'Deut. XXXIII. 


nineteen we could have done so. This brief treatment of the 
subject is intended simply to be a suggestion to the wise. Thus 
we have made clear to thee, my brother, that time is built upon 
seven, and place likewise upon seven and twelve. 

There are seven and twelve parts whose combinations I 
shall explain to thee. Now, the chief of the Arabs^ came to 
them only on account of these parts. He bound them to men- 
tion four words whose separate parts come under the seven and 
twelve in Arabic orthography. Only those versed in this sub- 
ject grasp it, but as for the ignorant they are aware neither of 
it nor its meaning. The Arabs were told, "There is no God 
but Allah."^ To this declaration they added Mohammed's 
name, as if he were a messenger of God, and believed that by 
uttering these words they could attain bliss, that by virtue of 
these words they would surely be admitted into Paradise. Had 
he intended the formula to have that meaning, not a single per- 
son of intelligence would have heeded him. It means, however, 
that after a man believes in God, he should do what is proper, 
— that which God had commanded before this prophet came to 
his people. For if it meant that one might go about stealing, 
killing, adulterizing, — in a word, committing deeds displeasing 
to God — and by uttering these words would be admitted into 
Paradise, no man of intelligence would accept such a doctrine 
or consider it sane. As a matter of fact the formula possesses 
an inner meaning involved in its orthography. Their Book 
indicates therewith the science of the seven and the twelve which 
are the fount and the fundament of all created entities. When a 
man clearly realizes the intent of the formula and acknowledges 
God's unity and transcendence he becomes worthy of admission 
to Paradise, worthy to attain eternal happiness. In noting the 
distinguishing feature of these words, we find that the number 
of the letters "La il(a)h ila All(a)h" is twelve, and the number of 
the syllables seven ; all in all nineteen. This result is due to the 
fact that " la " counts as one syllable and " ilah " as two, the' 
sum total being seven. 

Assuredly ours is the credit for these principles since our 
testimony preceded theirs. Instance the exclamation of David, 

* Mohammed. 'Sura XXXVII, 34 et passim. 


"Eor who is God besides the Lord, and who is a Rock besides 
our God !"^ Similarly we magnified His Name in many other 
passages ; "Great is the Lord and exceedingly praiseworthy ;"^ 
"Great is our Lord"/ etc., etc. We care to mention of the 
seven and twelve only that which we and the Arabs have in com- 
mon. Aside from this consideration we surely would not men- 
tion the subject merely because it is mentioned by them. 
Eurthermore, it is pre-eminent and fundamental according to 
one of their passages in another Surah which states that over 
hell there are nineteen.* One commentator explains that as 
an allusion to their religion, and holds that the seven cor- 
responds to the twelve syllables, and the twelve to the twelve 
letters of the formula of faith.= Some claim that the seven 
has reference to the Sabbath day which is the seventh. Thus, 
much is mentioned by the learned with regard to the pre- 
eminence of the seven and the twelve. They speak of it as the 
number of the vertebrae in the back.^ We also have gone 
quite deeply into the subject of the seven and the twelve. We 
shall treat the rest of this subject as extensively as we can in 

'Ps. XVIII, 32. 'Ps. CXLV, 3- 'Ps. CXLVII, 4. 'Sura LXXIV, 30. 

' The sura reads : " And what shall make thee understand what 
hell is? It leaveth not anything unconsumed, neither doth it suffer any- 
thing to escape. It scorcheth men's flesh : over the same are nineteen 
angels appointed. We have none but angels to preside over the hell-fire; 
and we have expressed the number of them only for an occasion of 
discord to the unbelievers." The Ihwan explain that these verses refer 
to the passage of the seven planets through the twelve constellations: 
Anthropologie, p. 143. NathancI appears to regard the nineteen as an 
allusion to the Mohammedan formula of faith with its seven syllables 
and twelve letters. Beidhawi, vol. II, p. 369, says : " The nineteen refers 
to ninteen angels or nineteen kinds of angels. The special reason for 
this particular number is because the disorders of human souls, in thought 
and deed, are caused by the twelve animal forces and the seven natural 
forces. Or it may mean that Gehinnom has seven degrees. Six of these 
are for the kinds of infidels. Each kind is punished for neglecting belief 
in the faith, the confession of faith and the practice of the religion with 
a certain kind of punishment which fits it. and over each kind an angel 
or kind of angel presides. One degree is for believers who sinned. They 
are punished in hell with a specific kind of punishment for neglecting the 
practice of the religion. Over this punishment an angel or kind of 
angel presides. Or because the hours are twenty-four: five of them 
employed in prayer. If during the other nineteen hours he has committed 
a sin whose penalty is one of these kinds of punishment the zahaniyat 
or hell-aneels take charge of it." 

"The Ihwan (Natitranschauung, p. 211; Weltseele. p. 173) claim that 
the spine has 28 vetebrae. According to the Talmud (Oholoth, Ch. I, 
mishna 8) the spine has eighteen vertebrae. 


its proper place in the fifth chapter, — please God, for from Him 
is help ! 

And as for the eight, behold to it there correspond the eight 
days of circumcision,' the eight days of the Festival,^ and 
the eighth day which is distinguished by being set aside by 
itself, a festival for itself, a time for itself.^ Likewise the 
eight princes and the seven shepherds with whom they are 
allied, number fifteen.* Fifteen is half the Ineffable Name, 
and with it God created the world: "For with 'fifteen' the 
Eternal formed the world",'^ and according to the passage, 
"When God created them."' Do not read b'hibbor'am but 
b'heb'ra'am, for it is written, "By the word of the Lord the 
heavens were made." ' Eight also possesses pre-eminence 
as a principal number for in the Temple they used to sound 
eight tones upon the Sheminith. Eight fathers of the pure 
correspond to the eight faculties. The prophetical books are 
likewise eight. But the most interesting of all, is this : when 
thou takest into consideration the survivors after the flood thou 
findest them eight in number, viz. : Noah and his wife, his three 
sons and their three wives.* 

As for the nine, we find that the body of man is built up of 
nine substances ; hair, nail, skin, flesh, fat, blood, marrow, bone 
and nexves." Likewise the spheres are nine: the seven that 
are well known, the sphere of the zodiacal signs and the sphere 
of darkness." Similarly the months of pregnancy are nine." 
The learned point out some wonderful characteristics of the 
nine primary numbers.'^ They are the ancient Hindoo char- 
acters from which is derived the whole science of arithmetic 

'Gen. XVII, 12. 

' Succoth or the Feast of Tabernacles (including Sh'mini Azereth). 

' Sh'mini Azereth or Eighth Day of Solemn Assemblage. 

' Micah V. The eight princes are Jesse, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephaniah, 
Zedekiah, the messiah and Elijah. Succah 52b. 

'Is. XXVI, 4. J(a)h numerically fifteen. 

' Gen. II, 4. ' Ps. XXXIII, 6. Bereeshith Rabbah, parsha 12, sect. 10. 

'Gen. VIII, 16. 'Anthropologie, p. 4. 

" Propaedeuiik, p. 47. ^'■Anthropologie, p. 72, 

" The Arabs express the zero by a dot and do not consider it a num- 
ber. In Spranger's Masudi's "Meadows of Gold," p. 157, we are told 
that the wise men of the Barahman or Indian ruler invented the nine 
figures which form the numerical system of the Hindoos. 


dealing with the minute and the great, the many and the few, 
for which purpose the nine characters are inexhaustible. They 
are the following: 1—2 — 3—4—5—6—7—8 — 9. These are 
their forms. If thou writest the following figures 5 — 4 — 3 — 2 
— I thou hast fifty-four thousand, three hundred and twenty-one. 
The tens are after the units, the hundreds after the tens, the 
thousands after the hundreds, the ten thousands after the thou- 
sands, and so on ad infinitum. As often as a figure is added 
to a number the number is increased a degree and assumes 
another aspect. And that is due to the fact that when thou 
addest them together there results the number forty-five, the 
figures by the threes amounting to fifteen or one-half the In- 
effable Name which is numerically fifteen. That is clear : 

4 + 8 + 3; 9 + 5 + 1; 2 + 7 + 6; 

every one of these three combinations amounts to fifteen. The 
Creator has been called "Fifteen" for Scripture saith, "Verily 
my strength and song is Jah"^ (Fifteen) ; and furthermore, 
"For with Jah (Fifteen) the Eternal formed the world."^ The 
Talmudists say, "With the 'he' (fifteen) He formed this world 
and the world of the future, for it is written, 'These are the 
generations of the heavens and the earth.' Do not read b'hi- 
boro'om but b'he b'ra'am.' One of the learned says, "From 
that it is seen that with nine letters death is meted out and the 
people of each generation pass away." 

Of the ten' are the ten commandments,^ and the ten ut- 
terances," the ten miracles, which were brought for our 
fathers in Egypt and the ten by the sea,' and the ten plagues 
which the Holy One — blessed be He — brought upon the 
Egyptians in Egypt.' Zimon is with ten and Kedusha 
with ten. We do not read in the Torah less than ten pas- 
sages. Ten malchioth, ten zichronoth and ten shopharoth. 

'Jer. XVII, 19. "Is. XXXVI, 4. 

* Bereshith Rabbah, parasha 12, sect. 10. 

*The Pythagoreans had called the ten "perfection," "the world," 
" the heavens " and " the all." The Arabs knew nothing of the apotheosis 
of this number. Its place was taken by the number twelve. Cf. Pro- 
paedeutik, p. 186. 

• Exodus XX, 2-17. • Pirke Aboth V, 6. 
'Idem V. s. 'Idem V, i. 


There are nine songs and the tenth refers to the future World, 
for it is written, "On that day this song will be sung."^ Nine 
sephiroth Israel counts and the tenth is for the Future World, 
as it is written, "Then the flocks shall pass again under the 
hands of Him that telleth them, saith the Lord."^ Ten kings 
ruled from one end of the world to the other. And Hkewise, 
in ten garments the Omnipotent is enveloped. One is "O 
Lord my God, thou hast become exceedingly great, with splen- 
dor and majesty has Thou clothed Thyself ;"= and the second, 
"The Lord is King, He is clothed with majesty;"* and the 
third, "The Lord hath clothed Himself, with strength. He hath 
girded Himself."" The fourth, "I saw a high throne and One 
Ancient of Days was sitting upon it, and His garments were 
as white as snow ;"" and the fifth, "He shall be clothed in right- 
eousness like Sharon."^ Tlie sixth and seventh, "And he 
donned garments of vengeance."* And the eighth and ninth, 
"Why are thy garments red?"^ And the tenth, "Who is this 
cometh from Edom — this one with his splendid garments?"^" 
And likewise Israel suffered ten exiles: four in the days of 
Sennacherib," four in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, and two 
'in the days of Titus and Vespasian. 

The world to come is indicated in Holy Writ by twelve ex- 
pressions which contain the word kallah (bride). They are 
" . . . . from Lebanon, O bride,"'^ "The sound of joy 
and the sound of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the 
voice of the bride."" "As the bridegroom rejoices over the 
bride."'* "As the bridegroom decks himself out in glory and 
the bride dons her ornaments."" 

It is thus evident that man is the noblest existent under the 
sphere of the moon ; that he is a microcosm and so constituted 
as to correspond to the macrocosm. From his thigh down to 

'Is. XXVI, I. 'Jer. XXXIII, 13. 'Ps. CIV, i. 
'Idem XCIII, I. °Idem XCIII. "Daniel VII, 9. 'Is. LX, 17. 
'Idem LIX, 7. 'Idem LXIII, 2. '"Idem LXIII, I. 
"According to Bamidbar Rabbah, (parasha 23, sect. 14), and Koheleth 
Rabbah (parsha 9, sect. 3), Sennacherib was responsible for three exiles. 
'"Songs of Songs, IV, 8. "Jer. VII, 24; XXV, 10. 
"Is. LXII, s. "Idem LXI, 10. 


the lowest part of his body he is similar to the element earth. 
The fullness of marrow which is in his bones makes him similar 
to the mines which are in the interior of the earth. His abdo- 
men makes him similar to the element water, with its various 
fish and fluctuating billows. The same may be said of the 
rattling noise in the intestines and the various intestinal worms. 
His thorax is similar to the element air, because of the con- 
stant fluttering of the lungs ; they inhale the air and flap their 
wings against the heart to equalize the heat and enable man 
to live. His head is similar to the highest element fire. More- 
over, on it are countless hairs, just as in the macrocosm there 
are countless plants. Likewise his face is cultivated, corre- 
sponding to the cultivated tracts in the macrocosm. The nape 
of the neck is a waste, corresponding to the deserts in the 
macrocosm. His trembling and the perspiration which appear 
on him correspond to the thunder and the rain in the macro- 
cosm. The palpitating of the lungs corresponds to the flut- 
tering of the birds in the macrocosm. His shoulders, elbows, 
knees, buttocks and projecting parts correspond to the moun- 
tains and the hills in the macrocosm. In him are dififerent kinds 
of fluids having a salty taste in his eyes, sweet in his mouth, 
fetid in the urinal canal, and bitter in his ears. These cor- 
respond to the fluids of the macrocosm. These things are 
as they are owing to the various wishes of the wise Creator — 
may His Names be sanctified ! Truly those wishes are wise and 
judicious. They say that the water of the sea is salty that the 
animals round about might live ; for if it were sweet the animals 
would be stricken with cholera, whereas saltiness prevents 
cholera.^ Likewise the eyes are salty because they are fat. 
Were it not for their saltiness they would become blind, since 
flesh cannot continue its existence without the aid of salt. That 
whole subject, however, is extremely subtle, too profound for 
this treatise, too wonderful, too grand. No one understands 
it but God and those who are far advanced in the sciences. 
What we do not understand about the anatomy of man's body 
exceeds that which is clear to us. How little then do we know 
of the other sciences ! The reader of this book will therefore 

^ Naturanschauuitg, p. 107. 


be indulgent with us since we have not made therein a single 
assertion of our own or advanced any theory that we have not 
heard from others. We have studied the subject and have 
written this book as a compendium for our youth and for any 
of our brethren into whose hands it may fall. We ask God's 
pardon for every misstep and error; we ask His inspiration in 
the matter of correct judgment, His aid and guidance, . . . ^ 
Man's knowledge, glory, excellence and authority, extend over 
all things, as we pointed out in our prefatory remarks upon the 
passage : "Thou causest him to rule over the work of Thy hand : 
all things hast Thou placed under His feet."^ 

God made man's soul spiritual, noble, subtle, elementary, 
living, knowing and comprehending. The Praised One desires 
to direct its attention to the treasures of His wisdom and cause 
it to testify to the absoluteness of His power and the loftiness 
of His wisdom that it may serve Him properly and be responsi- 
ble to Him, beginning with all that is due a master — servitude, 
submission, service, obedience, accountabiUty and resignation, 
— and ending with a most cheerful and voluntary submission to 
His will, and that it should cultivate correct opinion in regard 
to what He made in it manifest and concealed. And even 
though her nature rebels she must approach her Creator cheer- 
fully and rightly disposed towards Him to obtain reward and 
blessing. Holy writ speaks in reference to all these things. 
As for the creation of man according to His will and as a mani- 
festation of His Glory we have the passage, "All that is called 
by My Name for Mv glory have I created it, have formed it, 
yea, have made it."^ Referring to His intention to have them 
testify to the sublimity of His wisdom and the absoluteness of 
His power, is the passage, "Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord, 
and my servants whom I have chosen in order that ye may know 
and understand that I am He : Before Me no god was formed 
and after me there shall be none."* Referring to their re- 
sponsibility to Him for the fulfillment of their religious duties, 
even as servants are responsible to their masters, is the pas- 
sage : "As the eyes of servants are unto the hand of their mas- 
ters, and as the eyes of the handmaid unto the hand of their 

'Lacuna. 'Ps. VIII, 7. 'Is. XLIII, 7. 'Is. XLIV, 8. 


mistress, thus are our eyes unto the Lord, our God, until He 
have compassion upon us."' And as for submission to His 
command and decree and pious thoughts concerning Him even 
though He does unto us what our nature shuns, we have the 
sentiment of Job, "Though He slay me yet will I hope in 
Him."^ In his spirit the pious and saintly Hananiah, Mishael 
and Azariah cast themselves into the fire, as thou knowest.' 
That deed was beloved unto God. In His decrees He did not 
turn away from them, and they were saved. For they had 
given themselves up out of love for Him, and yielding to His 
decree with their lives gladly, willingly and freely. When He 
beheld the beauty of their faith and that their deed was dictated 
neither by the desire to obtain favor or reward nor out of fear. 
He set them free in the way He wished and reserved for them 
a rich reward, the recompense of the perfect — the possession 
of eternity. Likewise when Abraham, the Friend of God, was 
cast by the tyrant into the fire — I refer to Nimrod who cast 
him into the fire with a ballista — the most High — may His 
Names be sanctified ! — said to Gabriel, "Ask Abraham in the air 
whether thou canst assist him in something." And he asked in 
the air, "Can I be of some use to thee?" And Abraham an- 
swered, "I need some one else but not thee." And God appeared 
and set him free by saying, "O flame be thou cold and a security 
unto Abraham." And had He said "cold" and stopped, the 
cold would surely have destroyed him.* Thus our Praised 
One sets free His saints and His God-fearing ones who are 
humble before Him: "He will never sufTer the righteous to 
totter. "° It is further written, "The enemy shall not deceive 
him and the son of unrighteousness shall not retort unto 
him."" I laud Him, give thanks unto Him, and commend my 

'Ps. CXXIII, 2. 'Job. XIII, 15. 'Dan. III. 

*Cf. Sura XXI, 52-73, Targum Jonathan and Targum Jerushalmi to 
Gen. XV, 7 ; Targum Jonathan to Gen. XI, 28 ; Midrash B'reshith Rabbah, 
parsha 38, sect. 13; Baba Bathra 91a; Logik und Psychologie, p. 164. 
Rodwell, in his translation of the Kuran, p. 178, note, points out that the 
legend was accepted as a historical fact by some of the Eastern Chris- 
tians. According to the Syrian calendar the event should be commemo- 
rated on January 29th. The Abyssinian calendar has January 2Sth as 
the date. 

• Ps. LV, 23. • Ps. LXXXIX, 23. 


affairs unto Him, according to the words of the prince, "Blessed 
is the man that trusts in the Lord and whose trust is the 

Similarly, my brother, God made His most luminous religion 
after the manner of His world. Thus the reUgion is one and 
the Divine Law one, according to the utterances of the most 
High, "One Torah and One Judgment shall there be unto 

Likewise there were Scripture and Tradition, corresponding 
to the two, according to the dictum of the sages, "Two Torahs 
were given unto Israel, one written and the other unwritten."^ 
Besides, the Law was given at the hands of two men, Moses 
and Aaron ; and the ten words were brought down on the two 
Tablets of the Covenant. 

Likewise, there correspond to the three : Torah, Prophets 
and Hagiographa. The sages say, "What is meant by the ex- 
pression 'Lo, I have written unto you thirds?' They are the 
three : Torah, Prophets and Hagiographa. They were de- 
livered to three : Moses, Aaron and Miriam. Some say they 
were all delivered to Moses, for His name contains three let- 
ters corresponding to the Ineffable Name."* It is said that 
the whole of religion consists of that which is derived from 
reason, the written Law and the traditional Law. Likewise, 
the people are of three degrees : priests, Levites and laymen. 
Likewise, there are three Kedushas. The priestly blessing has 
three sections. Moreover the Torah was given by means of 
sephor, sepher and sippur.' Likewise, "By three things is the 
world preserved : by truth, by justice and by peace."' Like- 
wise, "The world is based upon three things : knowledge, good 
sentiment "Upon three things the world is based: Upon the 
Law, upon divine worship and upon deeds of kindness." Of 
the other meritorious acts they mention, "A man must say 
within his house on Sabbath eve towards dusk : 'Have ye sep- 
arated the tithe? Have ye made the erub? Kindle the Sabbath 

^Jer. XVII, 7. 'Numbers XV, 16. "Gittin, 6b. 

'M(o)s(e)h (Moses) is simply H(a)s(e)m the Ineffable Name reversed. 
' These three S's correspond to the R's : reading, writing and reckon- 
ing. Cf. Friedlander's Jewish Religion, p. 14. 
° Pirke Aboth, I, 2. 


lamp."^ We have mentioned all that we could in the third 
gate of this chapter. 

Likewise, the four. God enjoined upon the children 
of Israel to take in their hands on the Festival of Tabernacles 
four kinds of plants.^ Its mention occurs in the fourth gate 
of this chapter together with the rest of the Divine Law related 
to it and concerning the world and man. 

Likewise, the five. The Divine Law is the five-fifths of the 
Torah together with what is connected with and related to it 
of the fives with regard to the Divine Law, the world and man. 

Likewise, the six. The science of instruction has for its 
foundation the six orders of the Mishna and the six orders of the 
Tosephta with what is concerned with and related to that of 
the sixes in the case of the Divine Law, the world and man. 

Likewise, the seven. It is used most frequently in explain- 
ing religion, due to the pre-eminence of the Sabbath Day which 
the Praised One exalted above other days and enjoined the 
Children of Israel to observe and honor it and note its arrival, 
as we have explained in this chapter. As there is no need to 
repeat it here we shall not enter further into the subject. 

Likewise, the eight : Circumcision is performed eight days 
after birth, and the Festival lasts eight days when we include 
the day connected with it.' It is of the same kind as the mat- 
ters of the Divine Law, the world and man. 

Likewise, the nine. We have mentioned as much of it as we 

Likewise, the ten. The basis of the Divine Law is the ten 
commandments which embrace the precepts of obedience en- 
joined in the whole religion. These precepts occur in the con- 
tents of the Decalogue, for the number of its letters six hundred 
and thirteen, together with what is connected with the tens in 
the Divine Law, in the world and in man. 

It has become plain, my brother, that God created all things 
according to one order, marked by stability and wisdom. Dis- 
order does not enter into it and confusion does not mix with 
it, as Sacred Writ saith, "How great are thy works, O Lord ! 

'Mishna, Tractate Shabbath, ch. II, 7. 'Leviticus, XXIII, 40. 
' The seven days of Succoth and Sh'mini Azereth. 


In wisdom hast Thou made them all!"^ It is further written, 
"The Lord founded the earth in wisdom, estabhshed the heavens 
with understanding."^ Thus the Praised One is the Creator 
of all, their Author an I their Governor. I laud Him, am grate- 
ful to Him, depend upon Him, and entrust my affairs unto Him, 
according to the word of David, "The Lord is my Shepherd, I 
shall not want. In green pastures does He cause me to lie 
down; by still waters He leads me."^ Finished is the second 
chapter, "Man a Microcosm". There follows 


This chapter sets forth the duty of rendering obedience to 
God — upraised be He! 

It is maintained that the duty of rendering obedience to God 
is established when we recollect and verify the fact that man is 
the noblest existent under the sphere of the moon ; that in this 
world he is the viceregent of God,* who made him the ruler over 
all things that exist as minerals, plants and animals, and that 
God created bounteous benefits,' among which is the bringing 
forth of man from non-existence. The choicest and most com- 
plete of these benefits are two preeminent boons : one external, 
the other internal. The external consists in the perfect com- 
position of his body with all the external equipments : flesh, 
blood, veins, nerves, bones, muscles, nails, marrow, etc. ; and 
perfect with respect to hands, feet, and the organs of the ex- 
ternal senses etc. The inward gift is the noble soul which God 
has graciously bestowed upon him. It is a simple substance, 
celestial, spiritual, potentially gifted with knowledge, under- 
standing and sensation,' as described by one of the pious while 
communing with his Lord. After referring to all that God has 
created, he continued, "And after all this Thou didst form man 
for Thy glory and didst create mortal who calls upon Thy Name. 

' Ps. XXIII, I and 2. ' Prov. Ill, 20. " Ps. XXIII, i and 2. 
'Logik; 103 and 104. 

•Saadiah's al-Amanat, pp. 114 and 119, and Joseph An Zaddik s Olam 
Katon, p. 58, also make gratitude the incentive to obey God. 
• Weliseele, p. 25. 


Thou didst breathe into his nostrils a soul precious and pure, 
unblemished and clean, wise and intelligent, accepting the dis- 
cipline of wisdom, and acquiring knowledge and discretion, de- 
claring that thou hast formed it and testifying that thou didst 
create it. Through it every one wise at heart increases his intel- 
ligence and recognizes Thee, and from it mortal gets understand- 
ing and finds Thee. For Thou hast made it a sign and token for 
men of wisdom in their resolves, and a swift witness to those 
who grasp knowledge in their souls. For when the liar lies 
against Thee, or the denier denies Thee, as a stone from a wall 
does his soul cry out, and as a lion from the forest does his 
spirit answer. Therefore all who seek Thee will comprehend 
Thee in their hearts." It remains to say on this subject that, 
aside from the thanks which he should render to the Beneficent 
One — praised be He — it is obligatory for man to submit to two 
kinds of obedience, the external and the internal. 

The external consists in carrying out the law revealed to the 
prophets — peace be unto them ! — in such matters as circum- 
■cision, fasting, alms-giving, the pilgrimage, the holy war, and 
what is similar in the practice of zizith, tephilin, succah, lulab, 
mezuzoth, and the other mizvoth, which are set forth in the 
Books of the Law.^ The sum thereof amounts to six hundred 
and thirteen as Rabbi Saadiah Gaon, of blessed memory, pointed 
<out.^ He deduces them from the Decalogue, the number of 
■whose letters is six hundred and thirteen. Of these commands 
•two hundred and forty-eight, corresponding to the number of 
-members in man, are positive. Three hundred and sixty-five 
:are prohibitions, corresponding to the number of veins in man. 

The inner obedience is the inner service: the pure thought 
■and the serene, pure heart which is neither alloyed with evil 

' Bachya, pp. 3 and 4. 

' In the Talmud, Maccoth 23b, Rabbi Simlai explains that six hundred 
and thirteen commandments were communicated to Moses; three hun- 
dred and sixtj'-five are negative according to the number of days in the 
solar year, and two hundred and forty-eight positive according to the 
number of members in the human body. Rabbbi Haninah asked what 
was the scripture proof for this. The an.swer was, " Moses enjoined upon 
us the Torah' (Deut. XXXIII, 4). The numerical value of Tor(a)h 
is six hundred and eleven. This with 'I am the Lord thy God' .(Ex. XX. 
2) and 'Thou shalt have no other god besides Me' (Ex. XX, 3), which 
we heard from the Almighty Himself, makes up six hundred and thir- 


nor "affected with unsoundness."^ The Praised One enjonied 
that in a number of passages : "And thou shalt love the Lord 
thy God, with all thy heart ;"=' "And thou shalt consider in thy 

Rabbi Bachya ben Joseph ben Pakuda — may God have com- 
passion upon him — wrote a book for guidance in religious 
paths. To the extent of his ability he considered therein the 
subject of the duties of the heart,* with demonstrations drawn 
from the written and tradit'onal Laws and from the understand- 
ing. In the chapter on the Unity of God he makes the remotest 
cause the cause of causes and identifies it with the Creator. As 
he himself points out, his whole treatise is concerned with the 
exhaustive treatment of the inner service with reference to purity 
of heart and mind, and the will that seeks the favor of God. We 
have, however, searched into the doctrine of the Unity as ex- 
pounded by the philosophers' and find that they establish it 
even more firmly than did Bachya, and in connection with the 
inner service they speak of a Unity that is likewise firmly es- 
tabHshed. We shall endeavor to elucidate their view of the mat- 
ter, not with the intention to controvert the words of Bachya — 
may God have mercy upon him ! — but to confirm the doctrine of 
God's Unity and the service we must render Him, since for this 
service did He create us, for it did He bring us into existence. 
May our children derive benefit therefrom, for the knowledge 
of this doctrine is a duty incumbent upon us. 

Know my brother — may God aid both of us to rectitude and 
guide us in the right way ! — that this subject is one of the mys- 
teries of the Creator — blessed be He! — and a science of great 
value. This subject should be handled only by the pure. It 
should be expounded only to those in whom one may be sure 
that they will guard it very carefully. A learned poet wrote the 
folowing verses about the guarding of learning: "Fear the 
Merciful One, O thou who acceptest my doctrine, and do not 

'Surah, XXVI, 89. ' Deut. VI, 5- 'Idem VI, 39- 

* The distinction between the duties of the heart and those of the mem- 
bers of the body is mutazilitic. It is attributed to Abu-1-Hudyl-aI-AIaf : 
Schreiner's Der Kalam in der judischen Literatur, p. 26. 

'The Ihwan as Safa or Brethren of Sincerity. 


lose it, for God is the Witness ! Renounce not what He has be- 
stowed upon thee, for renouncement is the beginning of infidel- 
ity. He that accepts what I have taught, he who receives my 
'interpretations is perfect, and both worlds are at his service." 

Know that the philosophers well versed in science have gone 
most profoundly into the subject of cause and effect and that 
their investigations have resulted in lucid explanations about 
which there is no disagreement. They derive all things which' 
exist as mineral, vegetable and animal, from the four elements — 
earth, water, air, fire — their combinations, and the various mod- 
ifications produced by part of one element affecting a part of an- 
other. For instance, fire is the highest element and is followed 
by the element air, which is between the water and the fire. The 
nature of air is hot-moist : the moisture which is in it is due to 
the proximity of one of its sides to the water. And likewise 
water, whose nature is cold-moist ; the moisture which is in it is 
due to the proximity of one of its sides to the air ; the cold in it 
is due to the proximity of one of its sides to the earth. Fire is 
the highest of them and is hot-dry owing to the close proximity , 
of his extreme side to the movement of the sphere. The earth 
is cold-dry, since it comes after all the others and is their ter- 
mination. The four elements mentioned are caused by the 
celestial sphere, the demonstration thereof being quite extensive. 
The philosophers have treated that matter in their books in a 
number of places. Similarly the celestial sphere was caused by 
primal matter and form which emanated from the Universal 
Soul and that from the Abstract Intellects, as we have men- 
tioned in the first part of the book. These Intellects fashioned 
and formed in the spheres all that they contain in the way of 
light and happiness, motion and perpetuity. Similarly the 
spheres fashioned into the world of nature that which they had 
acquired from the Abstract Intellects. Thus the Universal Soul 
was caused by the Intellect which is the cause of causes, brought 
into existence by the Creator — praised be He ! — according to 
His wish, His will, His command, not through anything and not 
in anything, as we have mentioned in the Introduction to this 
book. The Praised One, however, is too transcedent to be de- 


scribed as cause or effect, since cause cannot exist apart from 
effect. The Creator— praised be He ! — is beyond the attributes 
"intellect" and "cause" since He brought forth the Intellect and 
bestowed upon it life, perfection, eternity (without beginning), 
perpetuity, eternity (without end), happiness and the hke in a 
single instant, without time and without place. No created thing 
preceded the creation of the Intellect and knew how it came 
about, but all was brought into existence afterwards and was 
conceived in the Intellect potentially until there came forth into 
actuahty thing after thing. The following is the explanation : 
After the Creator had brought the Universal Reason into exist- 
ence with absolute perfection, completeness, Ufe, eternity and 
perpetual happiness, it gazed upon its essence through its es- 
sence, as we have mentioned in the Introduction, and there 
emanated from it the Universal Soul, perpetual life in actuality, 
in absolute completeness and perfection. It sought to imitate 
its cause, the Intellect, by sending forth another emana- 
tion which reached the sphere, and so on. The soul thus be- 
came dual. By means of one of its portions it approaches the 
Intellect from which it derives benefits and blessings ; and by 
means of the other it bestows upon what is beneath it in degree, 
light, perpetuity, motion, eternity and happiness, just as the sun 
grants some of its light to the moon every night. In the begin- 
ning of its growth it is a new moon, and increases until the 
night of its fullness when its radiance resembles that of the sun. 
It then turns about and decreases after the manner of its in- 
crease, until its computed period is covered according to the 
decree of the Omnipotent One. Thus it is clear that God 
brought into existence the cause of causes with what he wished 
and how he wished. But He transcends every epithet, praise, 
cause and effect. This, then my brother, is an epitome of what 
our intellect has attained metaphorically concerning the Unity. 
" God does not burden the soul beyond what it can bear,'" and 
that above every wise being is the One who is All- Wise. 

The inner service is evidently in the heart, the cogitation, the 
idea, and the imagination. Whatsoever thou thinkest concern- 
ing the Creator, bear in mind, that His grandeur far exceeds 


such thoughts and imaginings, for He is the One who created 
them and sowed them in the faculty of man. How can He then 
be similar to them? If in speaking thou appliest to God the vari- 
ous names with which the prophets designated Him in their 
sacred books, recognize that necessity compelled them to do it. 
As a matter of fact, however, every name applies only to what 
is named, but whatever is named is affected, according to the 
■ views of the logicans.^ The most exalted, God, however, trans- 
cends all affection. It thus comes about, my brother, that if 
thou speakest thou corporealizest ; and if thou art silent, thou 
deniest and neglectest. And this thou art not allowed to do 
unless it be, as it has been proved by someone on this subject, 
by way of confession of powerlessness to express the Unity, 
which is by itself a declaration of Unity. Verily silence because 
of weakness is loftier than forever standing in amazement or 
resorting to subterfuges. This is indicated in the sentiment of 
the Prince, " Unto thee dumiyah is praise," ' for the meaning of 
dumiyah is " silence," from " wayyiddom Ahron " (" and Aaron 
was silent." ") It is, by thy life, a nice interpretation. 

The learned have seriously considered this matter. One of 
them said, "Be not wiser than the prophets who applied to God 
names with which they designated Him and communed with 
Him". But they knew not that the prophets had a sign under- 
stood only by themselves and the heirs to their knowledge. They 
were, by my life, exceedingly wise and learned in all that they 
spoke or wrote, and no one after them ever attained to their de- 
gree of dignity. It is allowable, however, for us to designate 
the Creator — praised and exalted be He! — with the Names 
they applied to Him. 

Some of the learned claim that these names can be inter- 
preted, but they fail to establish their theory. They do not ar- 
rive at their conclusion by lucid demonstrations but by embel- 
lished sophistry. 

Others say that the Creator spoke to men in a manner that 
their knowledge should grasp it, and called himself by meta- 

^ Logik, p. 179. Cf. also Kaufmann's Attributenlehre. p. .•?i^ and note i6a. 
' Ps. LXV, 2. " Lev. X, 3. 


phorical names according to the quality of His actions. The 
necessity to express His mercy gave rise to "The Merciful 
One ;" the necessity to express His compassion, "The Compas- 
sionate One ;" the necessity to express the idea that He grants 
us our daily support, "The Supporter;" and the necessity to ex- 
press the idea that He metes out punishment, "The Punisher;" 
The sages of blessed memory say, "The Torah speaks the lan- 
guage of men."^ And this is also a manifest excuse for the one 
who cannot investigate and examine. 

Others, again, hold that since this sacred Law was brought 
by messengers from God He is the One who designated His es- 
sence — sanctified be His Name ! — with those names and de- 
scribed it with those wise epithets in the wisdom of His Book. 
We have nothing to say against using them, but must be sat- 
isfied and resign ourselves. Thus if we commune with Him and 
apply to Him the names and attributes with which His essence 
is described at the hands of the prophets, no blame attaches to 
us. This excuse is acceptable since nobody else than He is 
meant, in spite of their great number. 

The erudite philosophers, disciplined in theology, maintain 
with arguments irrefutable that the soul is confined in the body 
as the child in the foetal membrane or the chick in the egg,^ and 
that it cannot serve its Creator as is meet and proper unless it 
recognizes Him as absolutely free of every limitation! As long 
as its condition is such, as long as it is bound to the world of 
nature — the world of genesis and decay — it cannot speak except 
with the tongue, cannot see except with the eye, and cannot hear 
except with the ear, for it is like an incarcerated man looking 
through a hole in the wall. The inner service — the conscious- 
ness that God is a true unity and transcendent — and patient en- 
durance, exist in it potentially. But when it parts with the body, 
if it is perfect and pleasing it becomes a monarch in actuality. 
It assumes the condition of seeing with its whole self, hearing 
with its whole self and speaking with its whole self, without hav- 
ing any members to use. Holy Writ describes the angels thus 

'Baba Mezia 31b. Also cf. Bachya, ch. I, sect. 19. 
' Weltseele, p. 85. 


in the passage, "And their backs were full of eyes around about 
on the four sides. "^ Then true service and praise, sanctifica- 
tion and glorification become perfect in it in common with His 
angels unto all eternity, yea for ever and ever; while in this 
mundane dwelling the soul becomes worthy of all that through 
knowledge, good works, the fear of God, and by undertaking to 
follow the teachings of the prophets publicly and privately, with- 
out doubting and without dissimulation, and without love of 
hypocrisy or flattery, but solely through love for God. This 
love for God is shown by leading a pious. God-fearing life. 

To be sure, the service that is inspired by the desire for per- 
manent happiness and by the fear of excruciating torment is 
also called service, and does not entail disappointment. There 
is hope in both kinds of service, but the one with which we are 
dealing is the more excellent and the nobler. With this in mind 
the sages of blessed memory said, "Be not like servants that 
serve their master with a view to receiving recompense, but be 
like servants that serve their master without a view to re- 
ceiving recompense ; and let the fear of Heaven be upon you."^ 
A learned man expresses this sentiment in verse : 

" My God, I desire not of Thee a ruby mansion peopled with 
girls! Or Gardens of Eden — O, my Hope! — or trees adorned 
with luscious fruit. 

My petition? Thy yearned for Countenance." 

Work zealously in this direction, for in this is real glory. 
Another says, 
"By Thv Truth, I have not looked with yearning eye to any- 
thing but to Thee, that I should see Thee." 

May both of us attain the highest degree in religion, in 
this world and in the world to come, for the Most High heark- 
ens graciously and benigfnantly to Him who calls upon Him. 
I implore forgiveness of Him, return repentant to Him, ask 
His aid, have confidence in Him, and commend my affairs 
into His care, even as His favorite communed, "The Lord is 
with me, I shall not fear. What can man do unto me?"' 
"The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. In pleasant 

»Ez. I, i8. 'Pirke Aboth I, 3. ' Ps. CXVIII, 6. 


pastures He causes me to lie down.''^ With the help of God 
and by his command we have finished the third chapter deal- 
ing with the necessity of rendering obedience to God and serv- 
ing Him. There follows it 


This chapter deals with penarrce and turning the attention 
to God, circumspection towards God, the pre-eminence of the 
learned, humility before God, and continence in worldly matters. 

Know, my brother — may God direct both of us upon the 
right path and lead us to righteousness ! — that God, anticipating 
through His presence that many men would prefer disobedi- 
ence to obedience and would therefore be deserving of severe 
punishment and rigorous chastisement, manifested His leniency 
and mercy by providing them with something wherewith to 
mollify their obduracy and turn aside from disobedience. This 
is called repentance ; it opens unto them the gates. It existed 
before creation in the primeval world. Only those well versed 
in theology attain knowledge of its inner meaning. Had the 
Torah permitted the exposition thereof, we would, through 
the favor and grace of God, explain what they knew of it. 
Verily Holy Writ speaks of that amongst the first of the created 
things, as we have mentioned in connection with the saying of 
the sages of blessed memory, "Seven things were created be- 
fore the world was created," repentance being one of them. 
The proof of that is the passage, "Before the mountains were 
brought forth . . . Thou didst turn man to contrition."^ 
We have spoken of that in the Introduction to this book. This 
subject involves a profound mystery which is attained only by 
the learned— the heirs of the prophets— and by the one who 
acquires it from them,— may God direct him aright ! We shall 

'Ps. XXIII, I and 2. 'Idem XC, 2 and 3. 


dwell on this subject in order to mention something about the 
pre-eminence wherewith God distinguishes the learned and 
something about the excellence of learning, since therein is 
great profit for us, for our youth and for all our brethren — 
may He direct all to His obedience ! After that we shall return 
to the explanation, as far as we can, of the various kinds of 
repentance, its conditions, its esoteric meaning and its adjuncts, 
please God. 

Know, my brother, that knowledge is the most excellent of 
the creations of God since through it God is known, is declared 
a unity, is served and obeyed. It preceded Reason, since God 
is described by means of it, but is not described with the term 
"Intellect." For we say that "God is knowing" but not "God 
is understanding." Moreover, everyone who knows reasons, 
but not everyone who reasons knows. God is described with 
the epithet "knowing" in a number of passages. In the To- 
rah we read, "For God knoweth that on the day you eat,"^ 
etc. ; in the Hagiographa, "The Lord knoweth the days of the 
perfect;"^ and in the Prophets, "I say, O Lord God, Thou 
knowest."' There are many other passages similar to these, 
for knowledge is the noblest of all things. Although the people 
of this world regard nothing more precious than gold and 
jewels, wisdom is described as even more precious than these, 
for it is written, "It is more precious than pearls, and all the 
delightful things do not equal it ;"* and furthermore, "I make 
man more precious than fine gold, yea more precious than the 
excellent gold of Ophir."° The passage refers to the possessors 
of wisdom. Again, the people of this world regard nothing 
sweeter than honey, but wisdom is described as nobler and 
sweeter, for we read, "And sweeter than honey and the drip- 
pings of honeycombs."" It in longer than the earth and broader 
than the sea, according to the passage, " Her measure is longer 
than the earth and broader than the sea."' And finally, wis- 
dom is described as the origin of things, not as originating 
from anything; for its nature must be referred back to its 
Creator : "Mortal knoweth not its value, and it is not to be 

"Gen. Ill, S. 'Ps- XXXVII, i8. ' Ez. XXXVII, 3. 
-Prov. Ill, IS- "Is. XIII, 12. "Ps. XIX, II. 'Job. XI, 9. 


found in the land of the Hving. God understandeth its way."^ 
Praised be the One who possesseth knowledge of things before 
their existence, during their existence and after their existence ! 

The pre-eminence of learning, my brother, is indicated by the 
fact that it is more precious than wealth. A sultan may lay 
violent hands upon thy wealth, but not upon thy learning. 
Robbers and rebels may seize a man's wealth, they cannot 
seize his learning. And again, if his ship with his wealth sink 
in the sea, his learning remaineth. When thou givest of thy 
wealth there is dimunition, but learning does not decrease in 
this wise : for when thou scatterest all thy wealth thou becomest 
poor, but when thou scatterest learning, thou dost not become 
poor but dost increase. Likewise, the treasures of wealth pass 
away but the treasures of wisdom remain. It is said concern- 
ing wisdom that were bodies to disappear their knowledge 
would nevertheless persist. We could continue with the eluci- 
dation of some of the excellencies of wisdom but these pages 
do not permit it. 

Now, my brother, true knowledge postulates a necessary 
sequent : the act inspired by it. From knowledge issues forth 
the deed which is its fruit, otherwise it will not benefit thee. 
It becomes a cost and a care to the one who does not act 
through it — from that may God in His mercy free both of us ! 
It has been pointed out that "learning involves four processes : 
attention, retention in memory, conveying into practice and the 
diffusing of it."^ Concerning that a learned poet says, "Come 
now, thou canst obtain knowledge only through six things, 
(which we mention without analyzing their significance) : quick- 
ness of understanding, eager desire, patience, a sufficiency for 
one's maintenance, the instruction of a teacher and length of 
time." There are many sayings about learning. "Learning 
is the parent and the deed is the child." "Learning is a tree 
and the deed is the fruit." If God could have given a form to 
learning it would have illuminated night and if He had given 
a form to ignorance it would have darkened the sun. "The 
learned are strangers to the thoughts of the ignorant." 

' Job XXVIII, 23. ' a. Mibhar Hapeninim, p, 5. 


"At first wisdom tastes bitter; at last, sweeter than honey." 
"O seeker of wisdom, seize it despite its opposition; and remem- 
ber that the meadow of learning is divided up by two streams." 
"Knowledge calls for deeds ; if its possessor listens to this call 
all is right, if not it vanishes." The sages say, "He who learns 
in order to practice, to him the means will be vouchsafed to 
learn, to teach and to practice."^ As for the Law, in it God 
enjoins upon us practice in many places, e. g., "And ye shall 
do them,"^ "God commanded us to do,"^ and many such in the 
Torah, the Prophets and the Hagiographa. 

Concerning the love of learning the eloquent poet Solomon 
Hakatan says, 

"How can I forsake wisdom 

Since the spirit of God has made a covenant betwixt us? 

Or how can she forsake me 

Since she is my mother and I the child of her old age?" 

Another philosophical poet says, "Learn, for no rnan is 
created learned, and the ignorant can not be a brother to the 
learned. If the chief of the people possesses not learning he 
is too insignificant that the assemblies should turn unto him. 
Turn not aside from the study of religion, but diligently strive 
to master its first principles." 

We shall now enter as far as we can into the subject of the 
pre-eminence of the learned. 

Know, my brother — God strengthen both of us in His mercy ! 
— that for every created thing the Creator set a goal which it 
reaches and where it halts. This goal is represented among 
the stones by the ruby, among the trees by the palm, among 
the animals by man, and among the jinns by the angels. But 
God Himself so far transcends comparison, similitude, repre- 
sentation, and the application of sacred numbers that he cannot 
be comprehended by the intellect be the thought ever so pro- 
found. In this sub-lunar world He created minerals, plants 
and animals. Of the non-liquefiable minerals He made a su- 
perior kind, the ruby; and of the liquefiable metals there is a 
superior kind, gold, which is very closely related to plants since 
it grows like them. Of the plants He made a noble species, 

^Pirke Aboth IV, 8. 'Deut. IV, 6, et passim. 'Idem VT, 24. 


the palm tree, which is very closely related to animals, since 
the male fertilizes the female which will otherwise not bear 
fruit; and when its top is lopped off the tree, animal-hke, it 
dies. Similarly, God placed among animals a creature of the 
same class as man, the ape. In the horse also there is sagac- 
ity superior to that of other animals ; and likewise the elephant 
accepts instruction more readily than other animals.* All 
these are lower in degree than man. Since such is the case 
it necessarily follows that there must be in the genus man a 
class resembling the angels. This class consists of the pro- 
phets and their heirs, the latter being the imams, the adminis- 
trators, the learned and th^ wise. Hence it is clear that the 
learned, the heirs of the prophets,^ are the noblest of human 
beings and in this world potentially angels, and that when 
God translates them to His Glorious Mansion they become 
angels in actuality.^ Consider, my brother, how splendid this 
arrangement is : the last member of each series is connected 
with the first of the succeeding series. It is the Praised God 
who creates, originates, forms and directs these series as He 
wishes and how he wishes, and He knows better than the 

Returning to what we were saying concerning the subject 
of repentance we note that the learned have decided the stages 
of repentance, its significance and its motives. As they ex- 
plained in their books, they assigned to it four stages : the 
abandonment of sin, regret, asking of forgiveness and the as- 
surance on the part of the offender that he will not repeat the 
sin.* They have classified the subject most carefully, but we 
shall dispense with this minute classification so as not to treat 
our subject at too great a length. They hold that if a man 
intends to repent or to act uprightly and death falls upon him 
before he repents or performs his intended good deed, God 
generously inscribes him in the book of the penitents. Like- 

^ NaluranschauuHg, pp. 179 and 182, agrees with Nathanel in making 
the palm tree the link between the vegetable and animal kingdoms, and 
in placing the ape, horse and elephant near man. The Ihwan differ, 
however, by making moss the plant-mineral and the mushroom the 
mineral-plant. 'JVeltseele, p. 139- ' Anthropologie, p. 129; Logik, 165. 

'Bachya VII, 4; Saadiah's Al-Amanat, p. 177. 


wise, when a man intends to commit a wicked deed but death 
overtakes him before he does, God in His clemency does not 
inscribe it against his name; for the Praised One is clement 
towards His servants, long suiifering, abounding in loving kind- 
ness, ever inclining to mercy. The sages of blessed memory- 
say, "Let not a man despair of mercy even though a sword 
rest upon h^s neck," for never should a man despair or be 
hopeless of the mercy of God. A learned man said, "In the 
temple of worship discordant lamentations and harmonious in- 
tentions annul what the spheres have decreed." 

The conditions of repentance and its adjuncts are humility, 
continence, discipline, fasting, charity and beseeching pardon 
for sinners. We shall mention something about each and every 
one of these classes, for even a Httle discipline benefits the noble 
soul but much does not turn aside the ignorant, as is written, 
"A reproof enters deeper into a man of sense than a hundred 
stripes into a fool."* 

The bhss of continence is indicated in the request of the 
Patriarch Jacob : "If God will be with me and give me bread 
to eat and a garment to put on."^ These things are prime 
necessities. In addition a man should wed a pious woman, 
one who guards her purity and is obedient to her Creator. A 
certain scholar said, "He who ever fears and revers his God 
and has a home that affords him comfort, a farm that supplies 
a sufficiency, and a wife that is congenial, enjoys a full measure 
of God's favor." Concerning continence an Arabian poet says. 
Shun this world, even when thou reachest its favors, for 
through them thou disdainest the religious affairs. Con- 
tinence of this world consists in thrusting it aside and yield- 
ing not to the folly of the eye." It is further said, "When the 
continent man flees from men, they seek him ; but when he seeks 
them, they flee from him." Another says, "Avoid sinning against 
God, that God may love thee. Shun what men possess that men 
may love thee." A certain scholar says, "Whosoever shuns 
this world is serene of heart and has naught to fear from the 
envious. But whosoever desires this world is forever grieved 
and numerous are his enemies." Another says, "Whosoever 

•Prov. XVII, lo. 'Gen. XXVIII, 20. 


shuns this world escapes its sins and the suffering of its people 
and need not fear punishment after death." Another says, 
whosoever seeks the world must necessarily suffer a two-fold 
misery : he envies the man who is above him and is envied by 
him who is beneath him. Another says, "If a man, seeking 
the things of the world, attains that which wearies, he leaves 
it to others ; and if he fails to attain it, he dies in sorrow." 
Another says, "How near is regret to the one who seeks the 
things of the world, and how near is peace to the one that 
eschewes them !" Another says, "Those who zealously strive 
to increase their bodies are on a plane with those who zealously 
apply themselves to the worship of idols.'' Another says, "The 
desolation of the intellect keeps pace with the cultivation of 
the body." Another says, "How foolish the man that trusts in 
this world despite the artifices it has practiced on his predeces- 
sors !" Another says, "The intelligent man is he who takes 
an example from others ere he would become an example 
to others " A pious man, when asked his opinion about this 
world, responded, "What can I say concerning a dwelling upon 
whose very threshold there is trouble, a dwelling which we must 
leave empty-handed? A strict account is kept of how we use 
its permitted tilings, and indulgence in its forbidden fruits en- 
tails punishment. When a man becomes rich in this world 
he is ill at ease ; and when he is poor, he is sad. One person 
works zealously for it, and it escapes him, while another sits 
still and it comes to him. As one regards it it regards him. 
Whosoever fixes his gaze upon it it blinds. While the pious man 
was thus blaming the world, another who was present said, "Do 
not disparage it offhand, for it is a dwelling of righteousness 
to him that lives righteously in it, a safe dwelling to the one 
that understands it, and a rich dwelling to the one that manages 
to get a bed in it. It is a place of divine Revelation, the prayer 
house of his messengers, the mosque of his prophets and the 
market-place of His favorites where they purchase Paradise, 
wherein they obtain mercy." It is also said, "Do not make 
efforts to gain this world seeing that it is permanent for no one. 
Neither do thou cast it aside seeing that the Future World is 
bestowed only through it." A pious man noticing a fellow 


strutting about conceitedly remarked, "How can be proud 
one whose return is eternal! Time is his bed-fellow, his bene- 
factor, his brother and his friend. If it is hard against him 
he will surely be crushed into the dust, and if he weakens but 
for a moment it thrusts him into the very jaws of death." 
Another said, "How can be proud one whose origin is a foul 
drop and his end a filthy carcass and in the meantime a vase 
of dirt." Another said, "The body ere it became a drop in the 
membrane slept in the blood of the bowels, a growing evil. 
Was he not near urine and ordure even though he is smeared 
with the finest of all ointments? He covers his wens with a 
pair of camisoles and envelops himself in a mantle. How are 
all his excellences brought low! Verily after his death tears 
do not follow him." Another said, "How strange it is to see 
a man proud, he who has passed through urinal passages three 
times ! How can he be proud !" There are many such senti- 
ments, but we shall not adduce further citations. One of the 
wise continent men. Rabbi Jehudah Hallewi, said, "How can 
he be arrogant who was formed in the waters of semen, in the 
waters of uncleanliness? Who is considered as a resident 
stranger and dies leaving behind all those things in which 
he delighted — e'en his food and drink — and the end of his days 
are in the waters of measure? Not a moment without accident, 
not an accident without terror ! The perfect is not perfect with- 
out price, and man is not redeemed from Sheol unless he be 
acceptable and has found grace, who having sinned confesses 
and brings near song and praise in lieu of shrine and sacrifice. 
Unto the Lord our God are mercy and pardon." 

Several learned men addressed themselves to a preacher and 
said unto him, "Counsel us, our master." To this he respond- 
ed, "It is incumbent upon you to obey God, avoid excesses 
in food and speech, and bear the pain of the world." And 
they said unto him, "What advantage is therein?" He an- 
swered, "As for obedience to God, happiness is bestowed 
through it. When the pleasure of eating is given up the desires 
die out. When the pleasure of sleep is put aside you con- 
sider the creation of the earth and of the heavens. In bearing 
the sorrows of your fellow-creatures you obtain all you wish 


and your soul becomes like a king in his garden, like a horse 
in the meadow." It is related that a certain khahf found a 
continent man standing in a House of God. The khalif, ad- 
dressing him said, "Ask something and thy demand will be 
granted." To this the continent man replied, "I show my God 
reverence. How can I be in His House and request anything 
of others?" Another said, "Oh the loving-kindness of God! 
He inspires man to obey. He increases his faith and con- 
tentment, teaches him religion, aids him^ frees him from the 
slanderer, gives him employment in His world and makes him 
the master of his desire. But it comes about that men grow 
wicked and leave this world without provision." Another said, 
"Men write the best they hear in order to retain in memory 
the best they write. They speak about the best they hear and 
practice the best they know." We are told that a good man 
was being followed and abused by an impudent fellow to whom 
he paid no attention. Whereupon the shameless fellow cried, 
"Ho there, I mean you." He rephed, "I'll have nothing to 
do with you." They say that a shameless fellow abused a 
righteous man with the words, "Your mother did so and so." 
He rephed, "If what you say is true may God pardon her. 
And if what you say is false may God pardon you." It is also 
narrated that a calumniator came to a certain pious man with 
slander, whereupon the pious man retorted, "Slander is abom- 
inable. Were your charge true verily we would search out 
what you added to it. And even if it turned out true we would 
detest you. And if it proved to be false, we would punish you. 
But if you would have us pardon you, we shall pardon you." 
And he replied 'Forgive me !' So he forgave him." It is also 
narrated that a calumniator hastened to a certain king, where- 
upon the king queried, 'Wouldst thou have us hear from thy 
rival concerning thee just as we have heard from thee concern- 
ing him?' And he answered, 'No, pardon me.' So he par- 
doned him." A certain king remarked, "Verily I esteem the 
.-weetness of forgiveness above and beyond the sweetness of 
revenge." A pious man in his comm.union with God exclaimed, 
"O God! my sin is great, my prison inaccessible, and my chain 
strong; but thou art a clement creditor." Another said, "O 


God, were it not that thou dost put me to shame because of 
my sin I would not fear thy punishment; and were it not for 
the comforting thought of Thy mercy, I would not hope for 
Thy recompense." Another says, "O God, forgive my sins, 
cover up my vices and let me attain both Dwellings, my Be- 
loved." Another says, "O God, Thou knowest my sins, put 
them to flight. Thou knowest my vices, veil them over. Thou 
knowest my needs, supply them." Says another, " O God, 
have mercy upon thy servant whom hope draws along, labor 
crushes, and death seeks." Another says, "O God, we yearn 
to obey Thee, but have fallen short of it; we are loth to dis- 
obey Thee, but have been guilty of disobedience. Do Thou 
give us our daily bread from Paradise. And if we are not 
worthy of it then at least save us from the Fire even though 
we are worthy of it." Another says, " O God have mercy upon 
Thy servant who awaits Thy recompense, who fears Thy punish- 
ment. By the truth of Thy prophets and Thy Book, place me 
among those who love Thee. Verily there is no might and no 
power save Thine." It is narrated that when a certain sinner 
was at the point of death someone present asked him, " What 
excuse wilt thou render thy Master? " Weeping, he raised 
his voice and answered, " Am I not in the presence of God ! 
Since when has He not forgiven my sin? If pardon may be 
expected from the sons of man why may I not expect it from 
my Master?" 

Since we have mentioned something about continence, dis- 
cipline and humility, we shall now refer to the excellence of 
charity and fasting. 

Know my brother — may God aid us both to His favor! — 
that the learned have encouraged the exercise of kindness in 
many dicta. Man's reason urges the necessity of showing 
kindness to those worthy of it and to those unworthy of it, 
that kindliness may become habitual to the soul. One of the 
learned says, " Perform the good deed though it be out of place ; 
for no one ever lost a good deed, no difference where he put 
it." One of the saints said, " Do good to anyone whom you 
consider worthy of it, for even if he is not worthy of it there 


is no loss." Holy Writ saith, " Cast thy bread upon the waters 
for after many days shalt thou find it." ^ 

Some of the learned esteem fasting above charity and con- 
firm their view with the saying of the sages, " This man with 
his bod-v and this man with his money." ^ The proof is that 
when the soul lacks the food with which it is usually nourished 
it turns upon the volatile substances and the blood, in lieu of 
what it has been deprived of and burns them in its fire, thereby 
nourishing its body. Because of this, fasting is superior to 

Some there are who claim that charity is superior to fasting 
inasmuch as the charitable man revives the souls of the weak 
and thereby brightens their eyes which have been darkened 
by poverty. Another holds, " The fast of the rich man is more 
meritorious than his charity, for everyone sees him give alms 
but does not see him afflict himself with fasting. On the other 
hand the charity of the poor man is more meritorious than his 
fasting for he gives alms from an afflicted soul." Both views 
are indeed admirable. 

The learned have uttered a number of dicta concerning the 
excellence of charity, and in their works have expounded it at 
some length. The Sacred Scriptures tell us that it delivereth 
from death : "Charity delivereth from death. "^ Some hold 
I that charity in secret is more excellent than charity in public ; 
others that charity in public is more excellent than charity in 
secret. Public charity is claimed to be superior since it enables 
men to take example from one another, and the poor profit 
thereby. Both views are indeed admirable. Charity in secret 
is well for the one who has never shown his face and is not 
accustomed to accept it. His reputation is protected in that 
people do not notice him. For him charity in secret is prefer- 
able. Charity in public is more excellent for him v/ho uncovers 
his face, being accustomed to taking it. It is preferable to 
pauperizing him in secret. Taking all things into consideration 
we find that each method speaks well for the giver since he 
has as his goal the countenance of God who multiplies his 

* Ecclesiastes XI, i. 'Berachot, 32b. 
'Cf. Shabbath is6b; Succah 49b. 


reward since with his charity he does not seek the thanks of 

If anyone upon whom God bestowed wealth in this world 
fails to fulfil his duty towards God and towards the weak, and 
does not use his wealth to good purpose, he is like the man 
who walks in darkness although he has olive oil. It comes 
about that his ease prompts him to live the life of the miser, 
and he must suffer the penalty incurred by the wealthy. He 
cannot escape one or the other of two misfortunes which God, 
with his Divine seal, decrees in this mundane dwelling: either 
his wealth passes to someone else, perhaps to a violent sultan, 
or is stolen, burnt or sunk in the sea, while he looks on; or 
there happens what is worse than that — ^the property is left to 
his heirs or others than his heirs. One of the learned uttered 
an apt sentiment in reference to the evil of the miser's wealth : 
" Either through accident or to his heir." * A Hebrew poet 

" Choose death and know what it is, 
But ask not a favor of the depraved." 

The sages say, " Let a man die rather than be dependent upon 
his fellow creatures " — that means upon their compassion. 
Concerning that an Arabian poet said in rhythmic strain, 

" If trifles would worry thee day by day 

Let contentment yield satisfaction and joy." 

He also says, "nothing is worse for good men than to be 

obliged to have recourse to the wicked : it is easier to face 

death than to ask them for what you need." He further says, 

" In this world generous men take the lead ; in the world to 

come, the God-fearing." Thou hast learnt what the experience 

of Prince David was when necessity compelled him to resort 

to Nabal the Carmelite, and what the outcome of that affair 

was. The following advice is offered to scholars, " Do not 

make the mistake of seeking your needs at the gates of the 

rich, for they do not betake themselves to your gates. They 

speak ignorantly of what we have, but we speak with full 

' I. e. The wealth is lost either through some mishap or goes to the 


knowledge of what they have." ^ A hero once remarked, " I 
would rather die amongst slaves and scissor-grinders than to 
receive favors from a dishonorable fellow." It is thus incum- 
bent upon thee, my brother, to do all that thou canst for thy- 

As for the charitable man, God grants him his requests. 
For it is written, "Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry?"' 
and after that, " Then shalt thou call and the Lord shall answer ; 
thou shalt cry, and He shall say. Here am I."^ There is 
special reference to the relative, for it is written, " From thy 
own flesh, do not hide thyself." * We find further that " the 
cruel man troubleth his relatives." ^ The excellence of charity 
has been emphasized by the sages in a number of instances : 
"The charitable man can stand in the presence of the Sekhinah, 
for it is written, 'Though charity shall I see Thy face. Thus 
the patriarchs earned this world and the world to come through 
the merit of charity and good works. In the case of Abraham, 
our father, it is written, 'For I know that he will command his 
sons and his house after him to observe the way of the Lord 
to do charity and justice.' In the case of Isaac it is written, 
"And Isaac sowed in that land." Now the term "sowing" is 
appHed only to charity, for it is written, " Sow unto yourselves 
charity." In the case of Jacob it is written, " I am unworthy 
(katonti) of all the kindnesses," etc. " Katonti " has reference 
only to meat (little), and meat applies only to charity, for it is 
written, " Better is a little with charity," etc. In the case of 
Moses our master, what is written? " He did the charity of the 
Lord and His judgments with Israel." What is written in the 
case of David? "Through charity shall I see Thy face !"" When 
a man opens his hand and gives charity the Holy One opens un- 
to him the treasures of Tis goodness, for it is written, " God 
will open unto thee His goodly treasures, the heavens." ' Man 

' Compare Mibhar Hapeninim. p. 5 : "A sage was asked, Who are the 
superior, the learned or the rich ?' He answered, 'The learned.' 'If that 
is so,' was the further query, 'why are the learned more frequently at 
the doors of the rich than the rich at the doors of the learned? He 
answered, 'Because the learned recognize the value of wealth ; but the 
wealthy do not recognize the value of learning.' " 

'Is. LVIII, 7- "Idem o. * Idem 7. ' Prov. XI, 17. 'Compare Yalkut 
Emor, (Yalkut Eliezer sub. Zedakah, sect. 84.) 'Deut. XXVIII, 12. 


should learn from his body, for every time he braids his hair 
he changes. Whenever the Holy One gives him possessions 
and he turns his eyes away from charity he loses one-sixth of 
his goods : they slip from him and become the possession of 
some one else. 

Similarly, my brother, the excellencies of fasting are mani- 
fest and its benefits many. It manifestly benefits by serving 
to discipline the soul in the doing of good, by slaying the desires 
and by excising the humors. The inner benefits arise from 
making all the members of the body abstain from what God 
gives so generously. That is to say, he should keep his eyes 
from looking upon what God has forbidden unto him in the 
way of people, etc.; that he should vnthdraw his hand from 
taking what God has forbidden unto him; that he should not 
do violence to the weak, resorting to violence only when abso- 
lutely necessary ; and that he should close his ears to what God 
has forbidden him to hear. Thus spoke the prophet, " He that 
walketh righteously and speaketh uprightly, that despiseth the 
gain of oppression, that shaketh his hands from holding of 
bribes, that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, and 
shutteth his eyes from seeing evil — he shall dwell on high.'" ^ 
If he hears derogatory remarks about himself he overlooks 
them, thus restraining his tongue from excess of speech, 
obscenity and insult. 

Truly the tongue is man's most potent foe. The learned 
have had much to say about controlling that which controlls 
man. They go to the utmost limit in censuring him who lets 
it go untethered. One of them said, " Better a slip of the foot 
than a slip of the tongue." " Another expressed himself in 
rhymed verse, " Guard thy tongue — oh man ! — let it not sting 
thee! It is a serpent. How many there are in the grave 
slain by the tongue, who would have prefered arrows in its 
place." The sages — peace be upon them! — ^have condemned 
the evil tongue, as thou hast learnt. They go so far as to 
compare it with the three cardinal transgressions : idolatry, 
incest and bloodshed. They vindicated their assertion in the 
following manner, "Concerning idolatry it is written, Xo, 



the erring of this people is great.' Concerning incest it is 
written, 'Lo, how can I do this great evil?' And concerning 
bloodshed it is written, 'My inquity is too great for me to bear.' 
But in the case of the evil tongue it is written, 'The Lord will 
cut off all lips of flattery, yea the tongue that speaketh arro- 
gantly." 1 What the prophets have to say about it is suffi- 
ciently summed up in their dictum, " Death and life are in the 
power of the tongue." - More praiseworthy is it for the 
tongue to abstain from talking than from tasting. 

Likewise man should withhold his feet from going to im- 
proper places and from companionship with the wicked, seeing 
that the prophet has forbidden us to associate with them, walk 
with them or sit with them, as it is written, " O the happiness 
of the man who walketh not in the counsel of the wicked ! " ^ 
Solomon — peace be unto him I — says, " My son, go not on the 
way with them — their feet are bent upon wickedness." ^ 

Likewise he should guard his private parts and his purity 
against the things which have been forbidden unto him. 
Especially should this be the case with the circumcised member 
which serves as a sign of the covenant which God made with 
our father Abraham, according to the passage, " My covenant 
shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant." '^ God 
emphasizes the importance of this covenant by mentioning it 
thirteen times. 

The same holds good with the internal members of the body. 
It is a duty incumbent upon man to restrain them from dis- 
obedience, not to think of wrongdoing or of harming any one 
unnecessarily, even as it is written in regard to the one who 
thinks of doing wrong, " He thinks upon his couch." * When 
a man realizes the whole, the greater part or even a small 
portion thereof, and in addition to this abstains from food, 
that is the fast which is truly pleasing to God. Eventually 
all his members render obedience to God, giving thanks unto 
Him, according to the passage, " All my bones shall say, 'O 
Lord, who is like unto Thee?'"' The Praised One has made 
this grand duty incumbent upon us to benefit us in His noble 

'MidrashShoher Tob, sect. 52. » Prov. XVIII, 21. ' Ps. I, i. 
*Prov. I, IS. =Gen. XVII, 13. " Ps. XXXVI, 5. 'Ps. XXXV, 10. 


mansion, for it is written, " And the Lord commanded us to do 
all these statutes for our good."^ 

The fourth chapter is finished. There follows it 


This chapter treats of reliance upon God in regard to life, 
death, our daily necessities and all other matters. 

The chapter dealing with reliance upon God in the matter 
of asking for our daily necessities ; and the like of other matters, 
religious and worldly. 

Know, my brother, that the supplying of daily necessities 
is a wonderful matter ' and that God takes care of the daily 
maintenance of His creatures from the small to the great, 
" from the horns of the reem to the eggs of the nest." It is 
more painful for the servant of God to look for his daily neces- 
sities than to die. A pious man was asked by a certain person, 
" Were I to close my gate would my daily necessities come to 
me?" He answered, " Yes." " What is thy proof ? " He an- 
swered, " It is just as clear as if thou were to lock thy gate 
and thy destined moment would come to thee." And the pious 
man added, " Had the world put their confidence in God for 
daily sustenance. He would have supplied them as He supplies 
the bird ; the birds, when they go away to look for pasture are 
famished but return sated." 

It is said that Moses, while communing with the Most High, 
asked, " O Lord, how dost Thou provide men's daily susten- 
ance? " He answered, " I cause their daily sustenance to come 
from one another." " Make that clear to me," requested Moses. 
Then God commanded that he alone of the Children of Israel 
should kindle a light. So they removed all fire from their 
midst, leaving only the torch of Moses burning in the morning. 
Then the Children of Israel undertook to light their torches 
from this torch first and some lit from others. Scarcely had 
the night set in when all their dwellings were illuminated, all 
the lamps in their dwellings having been lit. Thereupon the 

'Deut. VI, 24. 'B'reshith Rabbah, parasha 20, sect. 9. 


Praised One said to Moses, " Tiius my creatures get their daily 
support from one another." 

It is related that Solomon, the son of David^ asked the 
Creator what v/as His secret in supporting His creatures, 
whether one was forgotten. God answered, " Not one is for- 
gotten, O Solomon." Meanwhile, on that day, stones from 
huge rocks were being spHt for the Temple with saws made 
of diamond. And lo and behold within a rock they found a 
worm growing in tender herbage from which it derived nourish- 
ment. And God said unto him, " See, O Solomon, have I 
forgotten this, although it is in the belly of the rock? " 

He has made for thee only that which He saw was most fit, 
most proper and most beneficial for thee. Couldst thou see 
what is being done for thee, thy nature would shrink back, thou 
woulds feel annoyed and make thee grieve, thy heart would 
become contracted. 

It is therefore necessary that thou shouldst accept it with 
thanks, for the Creator knoweth better than thou what is for 
thy good. He is surety for thee, caring for thee from thy 
inception as a drop until the completion of thy creation in the 
womb. He brought thither thy sustenance by way of a very 
narrow path when thou couldst not reach it with a created hand. 
Moreover He brought thee forth through a most difficult path 
to a pleasanter condition, and created food for thee in the 
breasts of thy mother. Thus He provides for thee at all times 
— in thy earliest growth, in the very beginning, and even until 
there comes upon thee old age and hoariness. He never ab- 
andons thee. Finally He translates thee to His noble Mansion. 
To that the prophets referred when they said, " For thou art 
He that took me out of the womb. Thou didst make me hope 
when I was upon my mother's breasts. I was cast upon Thee 
from the womb ; from the womb of my mother hast Thou been 
my God." ^ It is further written, " If my father and my mother 
forsake me then the Lord will take me up ; " ^ " Also in old 
age and hoariness He will not forsake thee." ' 

Concerning piety and reliance upon God the sage says, " In 

'Ps. XXII, 10 and ii. ' Ps, XXVII, lO. ' Ps. LXXI, iS. 


reference to those who rely upon God in their youth what does 
he say? 'Those who trust in the Lord renew their strength.' 
What does he say those who rely upon God iu their old age? 
T am He until old age and hoariness.' " Do not permit thyself 
to believe, my brother, that God after imposing a duty upon 
thee repudiates thee and forsakes thee in thy old age. Were the 
whole world to get together to whiten one of thy black hairs 
before God decreed it, — were they to dye it with all the world's 
asparagus or other dyes — it would not whiten until the time 
decreed for it by God. Likewise were they all to get together 
to increase thy sustenance by a grain or thy life by an hour 
or a minute, or to bring thee forth from the womb of thy 
mother before the appointed time by a moment, they would 
be utterly impotent to do any of these things. Verily all is 
in the hand of the Creator — praised be He ! — as it is written, 
" In whose hand is the soul of all the living and the spirit of 
the flesh of every man." ^ Whosoever relies upon God, God 
gives him a sufficiency ; and whosoever asks His help. He 
helps. One of the learned says, " Confidence insures suffici- 
ency." They also say, " Three laugh at three : death at hope^ 
power at fear, a daily sufficiency at greediness." Again. 
" Daily bread is of two kinds : the daily bread which seeks 
thee and that which thou seekest. How much better is that 
which seeks thee, for if thou dost not go to it, it cometh to thee. 
Oh how much more pleasant is that which seeks thee ! " And 
furthermore, " The world has two days : a day for thee and 
a day against thee. What is to be for thee comes upon thee 
and what is to be against thee thou canst not push off with 
all thy might and main." 

It is narrated that a pious man passed among people who 
sold portions of meat on trust for a certain length of time. 
They asked him to take a piece and offered to give him the 
same length of time to pay the price as they gave to other 
people. As he was loth fee do it they pressed him telling him 
that they had put off the payment of the price twice as long 
as people usually do. But still he refused. He said unto them, 
" I have taken counsel of my soul and it has offered to give 

'Job. XII, 10. 


me a respite from eating meat twice as long as the time you 
would postpone payment." He then proceeded on his journey. 
They say : " If thou wouldst borrow money to spend it upon 
the desires of the soul when thou art hard pressed, ask thy 
soul to borrow from the purse of her patience and wait until 
times are better. If it does it by so doing thou art rich ; but 
when it refuses, it will find all kinds of excuses, heaps of ex- 

There is a story told about a wretched beggar who came 
upon a greedy man eating his meal at dusk. The beggar made 
it plain that he was famishing and entreated him for some- 
thing wherewith to relieve his hunger. The greedy fellow, 
however, refused to give the beggar anything to eat. The latter 
thereupon went his way. Here and there amongst dry herbage 
he found some banana peels which served to satisfy his hunger. 
While he was eating the greedy fellow overtook him and thrust 
upon him a loaf ofbread.The poor man, loth to take the loaf from 
the greedy fellow, remarked, "Had God wished thee good thou 
wouldst surely have given me supper at the time I asked. Now 
I have relieved my weakness with what thou seest." 

One of the philosophers says, " Who fears God, God makes 
all things fear him ; but whosoever does not fear God, God 
makes him fear all things." Another says, " Behold God says 
to the world, 'Whosoever serves Me, do thou serve ; but whoso- 
ever serves thee, make him serve'." It is narrated of a certain 
king that he passed by a pious man who failed to rise in his 
honor. When the servants of the king berated him, he retorted, 
" I will not rise in the presence of the servant of my handmaid." 
The king thereupon stopped and asked, " How canst thou say 
that I am the servant of thy handmaid?" The servant of God 
answered, " Dost thou not know that I cast aside the world 
which thou servest, and that whosoever abandons a thing has 
power over it? Truly I have forsaken it and its pleasures, 
whereas thou servest it and its pleasures. Hence thou art 
indeed its servant." The king, recognizing that he was a 
wise man, commanded his retinue to bestow upon him gold 
and silver. The sage, however, rejoined that if the king had 
something that he was unable to buy he would not esteem it 


lightly. So the king said unto him, " I shall give thee delicious 
viands." To which the sage responded, " Wherein is the king's 
means of satisfying himself superior to those of his subjects? 
He relieves nothing but his hunger." Then the king added, 
" I will adorn thee with the most beautiful garments." To 
this sage also rejoined, " Would that thou couldst adorn the 
wise with wisdom, good works, abstinence from wordly things, 
and the fear of God in private and in public." At this remark 
the king wept and rode away. 

The prophets of blessed memory say, " Thus saith the Lord 
God, 'Behold My servant eateth but ye hunger.' " ^ The sages 
of blessed memory say, " Whosoever freeth himself from the 
yoke of the Torah must bear the yoke of the government and 
the yoke of worldly care." ^ Grace is vouchsafed unto the 
man who serves God becomingly, who sincerely aspires to 
perfect repentance and hopes for what is in the Hand of God; 
for it is written, " O the happiness of all who hope in Him." ' 

Know my brother, — may God help us both to His favor! — 
that daily sustenance is of two kinds : that of this world and 
that of the world to come. By the sustenance of this world' 
is meant a sufficiency of food for the satisfying of man's 
hunger and raiment to cover his nakedness and that of his child. 
These are prime necessities. God has appointed the food 
for all flesh from the great unto the small, as it is written, 
"He giveth food to the cattle;"* "He giveth food to all 
flesh ; " ° " Thou openest Thy Hand and satisfiest all living 
with favor." * And He — blessed be His Name ! — provideth 
food for the world, " from the horns of the reem to the eggs 
of the nests." The future world is for those considered worthy 
of it by reason of their exalted knowledge and pious works 
coupled with God's favor, mercy, leniency and beneficence. In 
return for all this grace God desires the service of the pious. 

The learned differ widely in explaining God's dispensations 
in this world : its ample sustenance, the pleasant things of its 
possessors, the prosperity of infidels and transgressors among 
the sons of man, and the feebleness of the pious and of the 

'Is. LXVI, IX 'Pirke Aboth III, 6. ' Ps. II, 12. 'Ps. CXLVII, « 
' Ps. CXXXVI, 25. • Ps. CXLV, 16. 


learned with their misery, trials, tribulations, pain, illnesses, 
and their many mishaps in this world. Some there are who 
say that God favors the infidel in this world to recompense him 
for whatever good he may have done, and gives him so much 
pleasure in this world that he has no portion in the world to 
come. The pious man suffers in this world for whatever wrong 
he has perpetrated, and then God translates him to the Dwelling 
of Life. Having already been sorely tried in this world he is 
not liable to the full measure of punishment in the Future 
World. This aspect of the prosperity of the wicked is mirrored 
in the Scriptural passage, " Those that hate Him He repayeth 
to their face, to destroy them." ^ The affliction of the righteous 
shows that God compassionates them even as a man compas- 
sionates his child when he rears him well despite the child's 
reluctance, for it is written, " And thou shalt know in thy heart 
that just as a man chasteneth his son so the Lord thy God 
chasteneth thee."* They should not suffer themselves to be 
depressed because of God's discipline : " My son, despise not 
the reproof of the Lord ; and abhor not His rebuke : for whom- 
soever the Lord loveth He chasteneth even as a father that 
delights in his son ; " ^ "I visited their transgression with 
the rod, and their iniquity with plagues." * 

Some of the learned say that God prospers the worthless 
in this world to test the heart of the pious man. Will he cling 
to his piety in the consciousness that what God has treasured 
up for him is more permanent, more exalted and more enduring 
than all such prosperity? Will he refrain from envying the 
wicked when he sees them in possession of wealth and power, 
and his own condition just the reverse of that? When he 
abides in his piety, having full confidence in his Master, and 
thereby increasing his faith through contentment with his lot, 
he becomes worthy of copious reward and great happiness. 
If he indulges in the pleasures of this world after the manner of 
the wicked and is ignorant of wisdom, God bestows upon him 
the measure of his reward, but he falls beneath the grade of 
the pious. 

^Deut. VII, 10. 'Deut. VIII, 5- "Prov. Ill, :i and 12 
*Ps. LXXXIX, 33- 


Again, there are those who say that the wicked man's pros- 
perity in this world is one of God's tests to ascertain whether 
he will repent, act righteously, and through this prosperity 
he will execute the obligations towards God and towards the 
weak. Often, however, he does not act accordingly but makes 
the prosperity vouchsafed unto him by God the occasion of 
rebellion, relying upon this prosperity as an instrument of 
rebeUion, and grows more and more wicked and perverse. His 
punishment is very severe. For such actions God upbraids 
the wicked, as it is written, "Thou didst multiply silver unto 
them and they made their gold into Baal ; " ^ "I satisfied them 
and they committed adultery."^ Eor these offenses He pun- 
ished them most severely. 

Some there are who say that God vouchsafes prosperity to 
the worthless often for the purpose of bestowing it upon the 
pious child whom God brings forth from him. When he ac- 
cumulates wealth He intends it for his pious child. They find 
the proof of this in the passage, " The wicked prepares but the 
righteous dons it." * In case he has no child his possessions 
very often go to someone else worthy of them or to the weak, 
as it is said, " He will gather it for him that pitieth the poor." * 
Wealth may be granted him in order to intensify the misfortune 
wherewith God wreaks vengeance upon him in this world, for 
it is written," Riches are preserved unto their owner to his hurt." ' 

Some of tbe learned hold that the happiness of this world's 
people has its foundation wholly in astrological conditions de- 
pending upon the spheres, the stars and the heavens in gen- 
eral." These celestial agencies decree that the one born into 
this world in the horoscope of the happy, shall be happy; the 
one born in the horoscope of sobbing, shall sob ; and so on 
for the other natal decrees of the stars. But since the activity 

^Hosea II; lo. =Jer. V, 7. "Job. XXVII, 17. *Prov. XXVIII, 8. 

•Eccl. V, 13. 

'The "learned" mentioned in this passage are the Ihwan as-Safa 
whose system of astrology is set forth in the Propaedeutik, pp. 63 — 85. 
The Mediaeval Jews entertained a diversity of views regarding astrology. 
Abraham-Ibn-Ezra, like Nathanel, was a firm believer ; Abraham-ibn-David 
and Yehudah Hallewi were conciliatory; Maimonides was bitterly opposed 
to the so-called science. Cf. Zun/s Gesammelte Schrifien, (Vol. Ill, 
pp. 93 and 95), and S. Sachs' Hajonah, (Vol. I, pp. 59 and 93). 


of the stars is limited to what their Creator has intrusted to 
them, and they do not rebel against Him nor overstep His in- 
junctions and prohibitions, it follows that this activity originates 
not with themselves but with God. For He sends them forth 
in His wisdom, directs them according to His will, and instructed 
them at the time of their creation. Every work issues 

from them but originated with Him and unto Him is its re- 
turn." ^ They are the mediators between Him and His crea- 
tion, just as trusted ministers are between the king and his 
subjects. Whatever reward or punishment is meted out to any 
of the king's subjects emanates from the king not from the 
ministers. The king is too exalted to attend to many matters 
directly : to execute murderers, cut ofif the hands^ and feet 
of robbers, lash those that come under the penal laws, and 
perform such other acts as may be necessary in the punishment 
of malefactors. The same can be said in regard to the dis- 
pensing of provisions and stipends among the kindred of the 
king, his troops and his people. The king himself is too exalted 
to manage such matters himself but puts them into the hands 
of his viziers, dignitaries, servants, and other deputies, each 
one doing that for which he is best adapted. In this wise, God 
intended that all His acts should be through the acts of the 
celestial bodies. Since human kings, whose dominions are 
earthly, limited and without permanence, and were they to 
take it into their own hands to reward or punish anyone, it 
would not' harm them in the least and, still they keepthemselves 
aloof and are too proud to directly mingle with the world, the 
more reason, that the King of Kings, the most exalted, unto 
whom the highest comparison would be fitting were he not too 
exalted and too lofty to have anything compared to Him or 
to His Essence which is too sacred, should be too exalted and 
too glorious to look after the daily sustenance of any individual 
creature or attend to any such matters. His wisdom makes 
it necessary to put this into the hands of deputies whom he has 
singled out and made the inhabitants of the heavenly* vaults 

' Kuranic. ' Sura V, 42. ' There can be no doubt that the particule to 
in the Arabic text was omitted by the negligent copyist. 
' Naturanschauung, p. 137. 


to declare His praise unto all eternity, to serve him properly, 
and, without deceiving or disobeying their Creator, to dispense 
such gifts, daily sustenance, riches and felicity as He has 
bestowed upon them for His creatures.^ Thanksgiving and 
service are due Him, not them, since He is the Creator and 
Sustainer of all things and bestows on them happiness and 
innumerable blessings. 

Since that is clear the prosperity of the infidel in this world 
and the misery of the believer are mysteries strange and subtle, 
unfathomed by any but God and those upon whom He bestowed 
the science thereof, viz.. His prophets, saints, and pious men, 
and the God-fearing philosophers who inherited their knowl- 
edge from them. Truly all the aspects of the subject treated 
by the learned are admirable. Were it not for fear of divulging 
a secret which has been confided to us on this subject by one 
who is more learned than we are, we would reveal of it 
more. Ask it, my brother, of those versed therein that thou 
mayest understand it — please God! Likewise in the matter 
of predestination and Divine Providence we find man constrain- 
ed in regard to his creation, his sustenance and the duration 
of his life in this mundane dwelling. The pen has become 
dry on that subject. 

As for obeying and disobeying the Creator and the free 
choice ^ of God's guidance, we point out that when a man 
chooses to do good God aids him, granting him a means of 
attaining his object and helping him to it, as it is written, " See 
I have placed before thee this day, life and good," * and it 
is further written, " Thou shalt choose life." * For God re- 
coils at the thought that when a man knocks at the gate it 
must be locked in his face and mercy withheld. Similarly, when 
a man chooses to do what is wrong and sinful — preferring to 
disobey rather than to obey God — God grants him a delay 
and leaves him ; for He is too exalted, too lofty and too noble 
to repudiate anyone before His gate so that he flee from it. 

^ Propaedeutik, p. 74. 

' For the Mediaeval Jewish Thinkers' solution of the problem of the 
freedom of the will consult Knollen's Problem der Willensfreiheit in der 
jiidischen Religionsphilosophie. ' Deut. XXX, 15. ' Idem 19. 


But since the man has chosen disobedience in preference to 
obedience, God deals with him rigorously and compels him to 
submit. For man is constrained with respect to his creation, 
his daily sustenance and the length of his life in this mundane 
dwelling. Nothing is bestowed upon him except what God 
has predestined for him. The pen has become dry on that 
subject, according to the Scriptural verse, " What was shall be, 
and what has been made shall be made, and there is nothing 
new under the sun." ^ 

Thus all the predictions of the astrologers and their warn- 
ings against certain things are due to predestination by God 
that they exist — and the astrologers are not able to advance 
their advent before their time by a moment or delay it for a 
moment. All that is in accordance with what the Creator has 
arranged for His transient creatures through righteousness 
from which He does not swerve, as it is written, " The Rock, 
His work is perfect, for all His ways are just." '^ And further- 
more, " For God is the judge : this one He casts down and that 
one He elevates." ' " He puts to death and bringeth to life. 
He maketh wealthy and reduceth to poverty," whom He wishes 
and how He wishes, as it is written, " I put to death and bring 
to life, I wound and I heal ; " * " The Lord putteth to death 
and restoreth to life ; " ° " The Lord maketh poor and maketh 
rich ; " « " He raiseth up the poor from the dust." ' A man 
becomes ill and is at the point of death — ^those around about 
him despair of his recovery — ^when lo God decrees him life 
among the living: the visitors die first. Similarly, the game 
is chased and gets caught in the trap, but God decrees its 
escape: the hunter dies first. An Arabian poet says, "Oft 
the man that's ill will live though hope hath vanished : some- 
one that visits him is stricken and dieth first. The grouse is 
caught and escapes sound though just about to perish: the 
first to die is the hunter." Often man comes within a thread's 
breadth of the reservoirs of death but escapes through the 
decree of God ; " He brought me up out of a horrible pit, out 

• Eccl. I, 9. = Deut. XXXII, 4- ' Ps. LXXV, 8. * Deut. XXXII, 39- 

• Sam. II, ' Idem, 7- ' Idem, 8. 


of the miry clay, and placed my foot upon the rock." ^ There 
are many such passages. An Arabian poet says, " How oft 
the vast fields are too narrow for its inmates? And sometimes 
it is possible to find an exit from amid lances." At times 
a man acquires something only to have it become the property 
of another, as it is written, " He prepares but the righteous 
dons it." ' It not unfrequently happens that the hunter catches 
game and some one else seizes it just as the Arabian poet holds, 
" O the favor of God ! He gives sustenance through His 
power : this one catches the fish and that one eats them." Like- 
wise God in creating, made this one blind and that one weak, this 
one sound and that one unsound. And as regards length of life, 
this one lives long and that one but for a brief space. The 
latter is cut off while living in ease and plenty in the best, most 
Joyous time of life. He is in that choicest period — youth, when 
•death snatches him away. 

All things, O brother, occur through the righteousness 
of God. It is the supposition of the astrologers that this is the 
work of the stars and of the spheres, whereas, my brother, they 
are controlled and constrained by the command of their Creator. 
They do not set themselves in opposition to His commands and 
perform only that which He has intrusted to them. Truly 
their works emanate from the Praised One, not from them- 
iselves. The poet says concerning them : "If thou didst indeed 
told that the stars injure and benefit what is beneath them, 
be not surprised if some one remarks, 'Behold thou hast made 
■.them associates of God.' " Everything that thou seest in this 
world, my brother, be it life or death, poverty or riches, health 
<or -sickness, is what God has decreed as the inevitable portion 
■of His creatures. This all occurs in justice, for in Him there is 
no injustice. Truly these matters are subtle secrets and sublime 
realities open only to God and to those upon whom He has 
bestowed the science thereof: the prophets. His saints and the 
heirs to their knowledge. May God in His mercy assist us 
both to good works and the attainment of the most exalted 
degree in both Dwellings! May the Praised One prepare for 
His servant an easy path to the other world — the noblest Man- 

*Ps. XLIII. 'Job. XXV, i;. 


sion, the highest degree, — offering perpetual sustenance and 
everlasting gifts never requested back and in no wise disappear- 
ing. There thou art not translated from one condition to an- 
other as in this world, wherein God has pre-ordained the daily 
sustenance and the duration of life for His creatures. Were 
these creatures eternal, verily their daily sustenance and the 
bounties He bestows would likewise last eternally. The Praised 
One is indeed the Creator of all and their Sustainer : He puts 
them to death and calls them to life again. I have confidence 
in Him and intrust my affairs to Him — the forgiving and mer- 
ciful One. 

And likewise, my brother, we must carefully consider all 
His created things and ponder over their subtleness and their 
exaltedness, their minuteness and their magnitude. Behold 
His wisdom is clear to those who consider it ; it is neither 
hidden nor veiled from them. 

This wisdom is shown in the minerals. He called into 
existence different kinds of substances : ranging from colored 
rubies to gold, silver, iron, copper and tin ; from quicksilver 
to lead ; and from bitumen to pitch, salt, hard wood and what 
is similar to these, — whose nature and whose number are com- 
prehended by God alone. 

Similarly, His wisdom is shown in plants with their different 
species, forms, leaves, flowers, fruits, colors, odors and their 
different purposes — useful and the contrary, for poison and for 
treacle — from the great cedar to the smaii dry grass which 
cleaves to the surface of the earth : whose nature, whose num- 
ber and the multitude of whose species are comprehended by 
God alone. 

Likewise, the wisdom of God is shown in the animals with 
the different combinations of their members, their structures, 
their families, their nature, their aliments and their uses ; their 
species — terrestial, aquatic, aerial and ignitic — according to their 
different forms, appearances, genera and species which cannot 
be counted or comprehended save by their Creator and Origin- 
ator, sanctified be His Names! 

Similarly, His eminent wisdom is conspicuous in the sons 
of man with their varying forms, constitution, nature, composi- 


tion, colors and appearance in the eastern and western parts of 
the earth, whose whole number and multitude cannot be esti- 
mated or comprehended save by the Creator of created things, 
their Former and Originator, Governor, Nourisher and Sup- 
porter — God, the Most High, the Omnipotent. 

And similarly, my brother, consider the glory of man's power 
and how God has bestowed upon him intellect, wisdom, under- 
standing, knowledge, magnificent conceptions and other ex- 
cellencies through which God has differentiated him from other 
animals and made him the one who commands, forbids, rewards, 
and punishes, and subdues the desires which overcome the brute. 
All this is not the case with the brutes. 

He is adorned with temperance and shines with chastity, 
ponders over the religious sciences concerning the proper ser- 
vice due His Creator, His true unity and His complete trans- 
cendence above all earthly affections, deports himself according 
to God's positive and negative commandments, observes the 
laws and thereby becomes worthy of great reward and per- 
manent happiness, — which is not the case with the brutes. 

God has moreover given him knowledge of other sciences : 
the horoscopes of the stars, their omens, decrees, and portents 
of things before they occur. Hence He measured the form of 
the sphere and its spaces most minutely, and found it possible 
to make a handy reproduction of the constellations with their 
locations and of the stars according to their kinds — the planets 
and the fixed stars — divided off according to their courses. By 
means of it he knows the truth about obscure matters, happi- 
ness, the seasons and the horoscopes of the stars, — as though 
the knowledge of it were in man's soul at the time of his birth, 
— decrees, events before their occurrence, eclipses, the ending 
of kingdoms, the succession of dynasties, the impendence of 
wars and seditions, famine and plenty, and the various other 
decrees of the stars according to the passing of time and seasons, 
which is not the case with the brutes. 

Likewise, God has imparted to him other sciences, e. g., 
the science of medicine involving the method of preparing dif- 
ferent kinds of remedies from various drugs composed of 
mineral, vegetable and animal matter, for the purpose of healing 


the body and putting an end to sickness, and that animal and 
man might therewith expell from the bodies of men and 
animals the excess of food; besides what he employs in the 
amputation of limbs, the healing of wounds, the mixing of 
different salves, the removal of cataracts from the eyes, the 
coloring of the eyelids and eyebrows with collyrium, and other 
procedures of the physicians and the surgeons, — which is not 
the case with the brutes. 

And likewise God imparted to him various arts : the science 
of geometry to build houses out of hewn rocks and beaten tiles ; 
the painting of all kinds of pictures in the temples with oils 
and pigments; the gilding and depicting of forms and figures; 
the laying out of gardens with every variety of plants ; the 
conjunction of two species that there might arise from them 
something different from either of them whether it be plant or 
animal; the method of conducting water in aqueducts; the 
devising of wonderful waterwheels for irrigation;^ the dif- 
ferent kinds of machines; water mills; hot baths and the like. 
Besides he has been granted the knowledge how to build strong 
ships with cunning tools in the firmest manner. With these 
ships he cleaves the crest of the sea and carries out his purpose 
with the aid of his Creator who guides him with the shining 
Stars. His journey depends upon favorable winds and the 
calmness of the sea. He carries wares to every land without 
paying tribute to the sea. Likewise he carries wares from 
these lands to other lands. He plunges into the sea to extract 
therefrom the precious pearl,^ the red coral, etc. He manu- 
factures the net and snare to catch fish small and great, to 
derive benefit thereby and to be fed therefrom in divers manners 
and ways. And likewise there is the great benefit he derives 
from mining quicksilver, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, rubies 
and all the different kinds of precious stones, and the smelting 
of glass from sand and tinting it with different colors and 
figures. He sets gins to catch ferocious beasts, venison and 

^Anthropologic, pp. 12 and. Arabic text, pp. 194—198. For a descrip- 
tion of the dawalib or irrigation water-wheels, consult Lane's Dictionary 
under the word. Lane's Manners and Customs 11, 26. and Wustenfeld's 

lacut V, ,33- _ 

' Masudi's Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, p. 343. 


fowl of the air. He crushes the fruit of trees to extract the 
essential oils and the like. Consider also what knowledge God 
has given him that he might evolve writing, the reading of 
books and the composition of verses, polite literature and com- 
mentaries, the cultivation of letter writing and eloquence, and 
the study of history according to years, geneologies, dynasties 
and the conjunctions of the planets.^ The brutes are far from 
the possession of all these noble qualities, not to mention the 
other excellencies which we have passed over but with which 
God has favored him above all other creatures. Furthermore, 
God endowed him with the inclination to fall in love that He 
might thereby multiply him and cause him to derive benefit in 
this world and in the world to come. 

Similarly, consider the four elements — earth, water, air and 
fire — and that God in His resplendent wisdom sowed in them 
heat and cold, moisture and dryness, the parts being affected 
by their contiguity to one another, until there results what 
God in His resplendent and Divine wisdom ordained, which 
the creatures are too feeble to describe or to comprehent. 

The same conclusion is reached when thou reiiectest, my 
brother, upon the grandeur of the plan of the heavens and their 
constitution : how there are wandering and stationary stars ; 
those which devastate and those which build^ those which are 
auspicious and those which are ill-omened; the two polar stars 
— the south and the north — and also the two knots which are 
the head and tail of the dragon, and the wisdom and power of 
the Creator which they indicate.^ The Praised One has 

'Berachya has similar passages in his Hahihhw XXII. 

'^Anthropologic, p. 49; Propaedeutik, pp. 50 and 69. The two opposite 
points at which the sun crosses the constellations in the course of its 
advance and return are called the head and the tail of the dragon. These 
points are neither stars nor bodies but " two concealed things." The fact 
that the two knots (the head and the tail of the dragon) lie in the midst 
of the constellations was regarded as a special evidence of wisdom. It 
was taken to indicate that some of the things of this world are revealed 
to the senses, while the rest are concealed, occult and beyond the reach 
of the senses. Manifest and clear are the substance and accidents of 
bodies. Concealed and occult are the substance and the states of souls. 
Manifest are the things of this world. Hidden and almost wholly veiled 
from the understanding are the things of the other world. God so ordered 
things that the manifest should open the way to the concealed and occult. 


commanded us to lift up our eyes unto them and contemplate 
them, and consider His creation and its wonderful stability, 
that His grandeur might increase in our hearts and His majesty 
in our souls, as Holy Writ saith, "Lift up on high your eyes 
and see ; " ^ " Lift up to the heavens your eyes ; " - "The 
heavens declare the glory of God . . . Day unto day uttereth 
speech ; " ' " For the sun he sets a tent among them. And 
he is like a bridegroom going forth from His chamber,* etc. 
We shall treat this subject in part as a reminder of the grandeur 
of the All-wise Creator's work. 

Know my brother, — may God strengthen both of us with 
His spirit ! — that fundamental to all the spheres and to their 
structure are the seven stars and the twelve signs of the zodiac. 
The seven planets are : Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, 
Mercury and Moon. The twelve signs of the zodiac are : Aries, 
Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn, 
Aquarius, and Pisces. ° They are the armies of God, the 
inhabitants of His heavens. His angels ever near Him, the 
mediators between Himself and His creatures. His vicegerents 
over all His creation, bestowing blessings, benefits and happi- 
ness upon those creatures for whom God has designated these 
things. ° Similarly they mete out pain, adversity, misery and 
punishment to the one for whom God has designated these 
things according to his deserts. To this the prophets refer 
when they say, " Which the Lord thy God hath divided into all 
the nations under the whole heavens." ^ In reference to the 
descent of spiritual blessings and influences from the heavens 
they say, " The Lord will open for thee His goodly treasure ; " ' 
"And it shall come to pass on that day, saith the Lord, that 
I shall answer the heavens and they shall answer the earth." ^ 
There are many such passages. They are figurative expressions 
for the descent of blessings from the heavens upon mundane 
creatures. Likewise, afflictions descend from the heavens upon 
those deserving thereof. Thus the celestial bodies battled 

' Is. XL, 26. ' Idem LI, 6. " Ps. XIX, 2 and 3. ' Idem, s and 6. 
^ Propaedeulik, pp. 46 and 47. 

° Naturanschcuung, p. 144; Propaedeutik, p. 74. Compare Shabbath 156. 
■'Deut. IV, 19. 'Idem XXVIII, 12. " Hosea 11, 23. 


against Siserah, — the reference in the Scriptural passage being 
to the angels of the stars : " From the heavens the stars fought, 
from their orbits they fought against Siserah." ^ And likewise, 
the following are some of the passages referring to the service 
and the everlasting praise which they render their Creator: 
" Praise ye the Lord from the heavens ; " * " Unto Thee the 
hosts of heaven bow down ; " = " Bless the Lord all His hosts." * 
Thus it is clear that all creation — fruits, plants and animals 
dumb and rational — utters His praises, as it is written, " All 
Thy works praise Thee."* Similarly we read in Mizmor, "Praise 
ye the Lord from the heavens," ° this being the theme from 
the beginning until the end. If this then is the case with the 
world of nature — the world of genesis and decay — the more 
reason that these spheres and the stars which are the upper 
world — a world invisible, light of weight and corporeal, a world 
loftier and nobler than this world — the inhabitants of His heav- 
ens should praise Him contini'.ally, not ceasing from His service 
for the twinkling of an eye or for even less than that ; that they 
do not disobey His order, move only at His command, and pass 
not beyond the limits prescribed by Him. They fear Him, His 
seed is immanent in them, and their nature perforce depends 
■upon Him. Just as the Exalted and Mighty has in this world 
of nature khalifs, prophets, administrators, saints and religious 
men, so it is in the world of the spheres, since it is in closer con- 
nection with the world of emanation and was formed before this 
■world. It is clear that they are God's armies, the inhabitants 
of His celestial vaults, the vicegerents of His world and the 
appointed guardians of His pious ones. He ordered them to 
shine all the time by night and by day, and empowered them 
to convey blessings to the world beneath. To that the Script- 
ures refer in the passage, " And God said, 'Let the luminaries 
be in the firmanent of the heavens'; and He said, 'They shall 
be for signs, for seasons, for days and for years." ' " And 
it is further stated, " The greater light to rule by day and the 
lesser by night, with the stars." " They explain that, " to rule 

'Judges V, 20. 'Ps. CXLVIII, I. 'Neh. IX, 6. 

•Ps. CXLVIII. 2. "Idem CXLV, lo. 'Ps. CXLVIII, i. 

'Gen. I, 14- 'Gen. I, i6. 


by day" is absolute decree. Concerning their ripening grain 
and iruits it is said, " And from the choicest fruits of the sun 
and from the choicest sprouts of the months." ^ 

God also bestowed upon them a power through which all 
things in this world grow, especially is this the case with the 
sun and its heat; for the sun is the source of all the life in 
the world, whether it be mineral, plant or animal. From it 
comes the fire which is stored up in stone, tree, earth and water. 
The fruits ripen and the trees blossom, the rain pours down and 
the streams glide on by the decree of the Omnipotent One who 
sowed this fire in the sun and bestowed the same upon it. He 
set the sun in the midst of the heavens to be as the heart which 
endows the body with motion and hfe. Thus it sheds upon 
the stars above and upon all beneath that resplendent light 
bestowed upon it by its Creator and Originator — may He be 
exalted! In this way everything on earth received something 
from its overflow, each species according to its power be it min- 
eral, plant or animal. These are some of the manifestations pat- 
ent to the senses. As to those conceived by the faculty of reflec- 
tion, they are too numerous to be mentioned in this book. Truly 
the sun does not transgress the boundaries set for it by the Cre- 
ator and cannot bestow a gift upon anyone for whom He has not 
intended it, since the sun is but one of His servants, one of 
His vicegerents in this world. The prophets in their graphic des- 
criptions used the sun figuratively to depict reward and punish- 
ment, whose science is veiled to the world. The doctrine of 
reward is briefly set forth by them in the words, " But unto you 
that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with heal- 
ing in its wings ;"^ "The wise shall shine as the brightness of 
the firmanent and they that turn many to righteousness as the 
stars forever and ever." ' They also referred to punishment 
under the figures of burningf ravs, the simoon and the plague, 
as it is written, " For behold the day cometh burning like an 
oven when the presumptous and every worker of evil shall 
be as stubble and flame. And the day that cometh shall burn 
them up, saith the Lord of Hosts, leaving them neither root 

' Deut. XXXIII, 14. ' Ma!. III. 20. ' Dan. XII, 3. 


nor branch ; " ^ " They shall be burnt with hunger and devoured 
with burning heat."'' 

Similarly the Other stars have spiritual, subtle creatures 
who journey in this world with the consent of their Creator 
and Governor. What he assigned to each and every creature 
they bestow at times prescribed, and at the fixed time of birth, 
which He alone, — magnified be His praise! — determines. In 
fact, all of them collectively cannot act contrary to His com- 
mand or prohibition and can do nothing else than that which He 
has decreed and has empowered them. Thus the moon cannot 
control the heat of the sun, its nature and its function. Similarly, 
the sun has no control over the cold of the moon, its nature 
and its function. The same holds good for all the other stars. 
The Creator has moreover ordained for each and every one a 
distinct orbit to be traversed in a designated period as long 
as the world lasts. Thus God determined the orbit of the 
moon, the planet nearest to the earth, by causing the moon's 
sphere to complete its revolution in a month. Saturn, the 
remotest plan?*, completes its orbit in thirty years. The sun, 
which is between the two, finishes its orbit in a year. The 
movements of the other stars are likewise determined in accord 
with God's decree and will. 

No one is associated with Him in His world and no one 
questions His acts, as it is written, "Who shall say unto Him, 
'What doest Thou?'"^ The world indeed bears testimony 
to His wisdom, to the obedience rendered to His decrees, and 
to the fact that we receive manifold blessings. By observing 
the motions of the heavenly bodies we have become aware of 
months, years and conjunctions to the extent reached by our 
science and attained with our understanding. Of course the 
things which are hidden from us are much more than those 
we know. Praised be the One whose creation is this creation, 
whose might is this might ! All are too feeble to attain a 
thorough knowledge of Him, just as one of the learned says, 
" When the imagination is concerned with the climbing up the 
ladder of His greatness, the way of the righteous is to aknow- 

'Mal. Ill, 19. 'Deut. XXXII, 24. 'EmI. VIII. 4. 


ledge his weakness concerning what is under him and behind 
him. All are bent upon His praise and from the refulgence 
of His light they receive light." 

It thus came about, my brother, that the ancient nations 
were misled by the acts of the stars and the influence they 
exert, and as a consequence worshiped them and offered them 
incense. They were unaware that the stars did not voluntarily 
grant them happiness and that they bestowed only what God 
destined for His creatures at their hands. In many Scriptural 
passages God has forbidden us to worship the stars. We need 
not enter further into the explanation of this subject, as it is 
well understood. Our fathers of old transgressed by making 
the image of Saturn, worshiping it and carrying its effigy in 
procession, after having learned that he was appointed to regu- 
late their affairs ; for every nation has a director whom the 
Creator has appointed to regulate its affairs,^ as he is called 
figuratively by the prophets : " The prince of the kingdom of 
Greece, the prince of the kingdom of Persia ; " ^ " The great 
prince who presideth over the children of Thy people." ^ They 
spoke figuratively of the angels who are the spirits of the 
planets and who move them through their journey in accord 
with the command of their Creator. We know that the people 
used to carry that effigy about them since the prophet 
upbraids them with the words, " And ye bear the Kaiwan " * 
of your idols and the star of your gods. The name of Saturn 
in Greek is Kaiwan.^ How very wonderful, my brother, is 
the course which God makes it take, from the west to the east, 
whereas the sphere of the constellations would force it from 
the east to the west. That is clear when the sun or the moon 
is at the end of the sign Aries and towards Taurus. And Aries 

^In Bereshith Rabbah (parashah 78, sect. 3) we are told that the being 
that wrested with Jacob was the tutelar angel of Esaw. According to 
Sh'moth Rabbah (parashah 32, sect. 7) if a man performs one good deed 
God gives him one angel to guard him; if two, two angels; and if 
many, a half a camp of angels. 

'Dan. X, 20. "Idem XII, i. 

'The Massoretic reading is Kiyun, but Nathanel like Ibn Ezra, prefers 
the reading Kaivan which in Syriac and Assyrian means "Saturn," 

'The Greek name for Saturn is not Kaivan but Chronos. 


sets — a journey perceptible to the eye and the senses — from 
the setting sign to the sign which has not yet gone down. It 
is clear that its course is from west to east, whereas the course 
of the stars is the opposite, from east to west. They compare 
it to a watermill which turns to the right while the cable above 
it turns to the left, each of these preserving its own course. 
Praised be the One who directs it and causes it to journey. 
He creates a thing and its opposite as a proof of His own unity 
and that there is not associated with Him a being like unto 
Him or of an opposite nature. It is thus clear that they do not 
spontaneously favor anyone and do not ward off harm except 
with the permission and through 'the decree of their Creator. 
They render obedience unto Him, submit to His commands, 
sanctify Him, and praise Him. All of them stand ready to 
obey His beck and call, worshiping Him and reverently bowing 
down before Him. 

The learned point to many of the sevens and the twelves 
in this world, corresponding to the celestial bodies. 

Man, who is a microcosm, has seven senses and twelve aper- 
tures, as we have explained in the second chapter of this book ; 

In time, there are seven days, twelve hours in the night 
and twelve months to the year;- 

The whole number of prayers in the Tefillah ^ is eighteen, 
not including the first prayer which is the principal one ; 

The Torah commences with seven words and ends with 
twelve : " Bereshith bara Elohim eth hashamayim we-eth ha- 
arez ; " ^ " Ulekol hayyad hahhazakah ulekol hammorah hag- 
gadol asher asah Mosheh le'ene kol Yisrael ; "^ 

When taking out the Torah and returning it to the ark 
we read seven and twelve sections : the first set begins "Wayehi 
binso'a ha'aron," and the second " Ubenuhah yomar, shubah ; "* 

' B'radioth. 

' Gen. I, I : " In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." 

' Deut. XXXIV, 12 : " And in all that mighty hand, and in all the great 
terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel." 

' Numbers X, 35 and 36 : " And it came to pass when the ark set for- 
ward that Moses said, 'Rise up, O Lord, and Thine enemies shall be 
scattered, and they that hate Thee shall flee before Thee.' And when it 
rested, he said, 'Return, O Lord, unto the ten thousands of the thousands 
of Israel.' " 


The first two verses of the poem of the illustrious and prin- 
cely Moses al-Kalim consist of seven and twelve words respect- 
ively : " Haazinu hashshamayyim waadabberah wethishma ha- 
arez imre fi ;" "Ya'arof kammatar likhi, tizzal kattal imrathi, kise- 
irim 'aley deshe wekirebibim ale eseb ; " ^ 

The sentence beginning " wezoth haberaka " has twelve 
words and that beginning " Torah ziwwah " has seven ; " 

The precious stones as arranged upon the breast of the 
High Priest were twelve in number and of twelve colors, the 
names of the twelve tribes being engraved upon them. The 
garments which he put on — which God commanded him to 
make according to the passage, " And these are the garments 
which they shall make '" — consisted of " hoshen we'efod ume'il 
wekutoneth tashbez miznefeth we'abnet ; " ^ 

The number of days of the appointed seasons are nineteen : 
Sabbath, Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur, the eight days of the 
Tabernacles, the seven days of Passover, and the Day of the 
First Fruits ; » 

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob occur in the Torah to that 
number in well known passages ; 

Prayer has nineteen designations : tephila, tehinna, rinah, 
arishah, gishah, derishah, bakkashah, rechishah, pegiah, keriah, 
sihah, 'amidah, zeakah, amirah, keriah, hishtawaya, shuah, 
widduy, perisha — that is their number;* 

When Holy Writ says, " He placed the boundaries of the 
nations according to the number of the children of Israel" ^ 
it means the twelve tribes, the four ancestresses and the three 
patriarchs ; 

^ Deut. XXXII, I and 2 : " Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak ; 
and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. My doctrine shall drop as 
rain, my speech shall distil as dew, as the small rain upon the tender 
herb, and as the showers upon the grass." 

'Deut. XXXIII, I and 4: "This is the blessing wherewith Moses, 

the man of God, blessed the Children of Israel before his death." 

" The Law which Moses commanded us is the heritage of the congrega- 
tion of Israel." 

'Exodus XXVIII, 4: "A breast-plate an ephod, a tunic, a broidered 
coat, a mitre and a girdle." 

*In Siphri (Vaethhannan, sect. 26) prayer is said to have ten desig- 

' Deut. XXXII, 8. 


It is further noted in connection with the name of Eve 
(HaWaH) who was the mother of all Hving and from whom all 
flesh has issued, that its numerical value is nineteen.* 

Thus God ordered all things according to their number, 
and made it incumbent upon them to serve Him who is above 
them, since He is the Praised One, the King over all, mighty 
over all, the Creator of all, the Sustainer of all, the Governor 
of all. All testify to this, and therefore one of the pious 
while communing exclaimed, " All is Thine, and all is from 
Thee, all is in Thy power and all is Thy possession, all is the 
work of Thy hand, and all are Thy witnesses." There is no 
God save Him. 

I serve Him, give thanks unto Him, have confidence in Him 
and commit unto Him my affairs, for He is beneficent and mer- 

We shall state what we can of the excellence of death that 
it may be retained in our memory since it is the gate of the 
Dwelling of Reward. ° 

Know, O brother — may God help both of us through His 
Spirit !— that death is the soul's separation from the body, its 
cessation from the employment of the members of the body 
and of the senses.' 

Know, my brother, that death is of two kinds. There is the 
natural death of the body, that which is decreed upon all mor- 
tals : the pious and the wicked, the plebeian and the patrician, 
the prophet and the perverse, as it is written, "All things come 
alike to all : there is one event to the righteous and to the wick- 
ed ; to the good and to the bad, to the clean and to the unclean ; 
to him that sacrificeth and to him that sacrificeth not ; the good 
is as the sinner; and he that sweareth as he that feareth an 
oath."* It has various advantages. We will mention as many 
of them as possible. The second death is that of the soul. It 
consists in ignorance of God and of His Law and failure to 
master it— let us take our flight to God from that." Such 

'H=8, V=6, H=5. 

' For the Mediaeval Jewish exposition of immortality consult Templer, 
Die Unsterblkhkeitslehre bet den jUdischen Philosophen des Mittelalters 
'Anthropologie, p. 123. *Eccl. IX, 2. "Sura LI, 50. 


die in very truth. Even if their bodies are animated by the 
senses, their souls are dark with the darkness of death owing to 
accumulated ignorance.^ According to the sages the Script- 
ures allude to this matter : " The wicked are dead in life, for 
it is written, 'As I live, saith the Lord, I do not desire the death 
of the wicked.' ^ And it is further written, 'The dead do not 
praise the Eternal. '^ The Scriptures mean the wicked who 
are called dead while yet alive and are considered as cattle, for 
it is written, 'Nevertheless man being in honor abideth not: 
he is like the beast that perisheth.' " * An Arabian poet said 
concerning that and ignorance, " Before death the ignorant is 
dead to his people : before burial his body is buried. He or- 
dained that a man who does not live with knowledge is dead, 
has no life before the resurrection. The righteous, on the other 
hand, are spoken of as living even in their death, for it is writ- 
ten, " But the soul of my lord shall be bound up in the bundle 
of life." " He means the dwelling of the future world which 
is the dwelhng of life eternal, as it is written, " I shall give thee 
places to walk among those that stand by." * It is further said 
" He that walketh in the path of perfection shall serve me ; " ' 
"Who shall sojourn in Thy tents? He that walketh in perfec- 
tion and worketh in righteousness ; " * " Who shall ascend into 
the Mount of the Lord and stand in His Holy place?" " Thus 
for the pious death is like a marriage feast. 

As for the excellence of death, my brother, behold it is one 
of the stages towards the mansion of the other world, and it 
is the occasion of translation from the dwelling of scantiness to 
the dwelling of bounteousness, from a dwelling of mortality to 
one of eternity. Were it not for death the prophet, the exe- 
cutors, the servants and the pious would have no means of 
entering the Garden, the Abode of Recompense ; and the infidels 
and the wicked would not be consigned to Gehinnom, the Abode 
of Punishment. And were there no such thing as death the 
earth would not be large enough to accomodate its inhabitants 
and possessors. They would be literally so heaped upon one an- 

"■Anthropologie. p. 124. 'Ez. XXXII, 11. ' Ps. CXV, 17. 
*Ps. XLIX, 21. 'I Sam. XV, 29. 'Zech. VII, 3- 
' Ps. CI, 6. ' Ps. XV, I. • Ps. XXIV, 3. 


other that the ancient generations would not be distinguishable 
from the ancient saints. The latter would not imitate the deeds 
of the former. Verily men would deny their Creator and would 
spurn his sovereignity. Hence it is clear that death has its 
source in Divine Wisdom, designed by the Creator for all 
His creatures, small and great, prophets and executors, infidels 
and believers. 

Since it has been asked, "What is the reason of it and 
wherein consists the preeminence of the learned over the 
ignorant, the preeminence of the one who surpasses over the 
one who is surpassed?" we shall briefly explain that matter 
by means of a lucid parable, for a constant recurrence to the 
explanation of those noble secrets and subtle meanings is im- 
possible in this book. According to this parable a king gives 
a banquet to the people of one of his provinces. They are 
made up of nobles, judges, men of eminence and plebeians. 
When they reach his city they enter the city gate all together. 
After they enter this gate the king's messenger conducts each 
individual to the residence which he is to occupy. Those con- 
sidered worthy to be near the king are placed with those who 
are near him ; and those who should be at some distance from 
him, are placed with those who are remote from him. Those 
holding the rank of emir are assigned to quarters according 
to their various relationships to the king. Likewise the vile 
among them, such as the executioners and the keepers of the 
cattle, — and in short the people of each and every grade — are 
assigned to the grades for which they are most fit. Each and 
every one of the banqueters is inseparable from his class, and 
the sons of his grade. This, my brother, is the similitude of 
this world's people. When death loosens their bonds they are 
translated from this world according to the merit of each indi- 
vidual with the sons of his class and the people of his grade : 
the good go to the good, and wicked to the wicked. The 
Scriptures refer thereto in the passage, " But the soul of my lord 
shall be bound in the bundle of life " ^ — it means the living 
who implore their Lord and do not die. And it is further writ- 
ten, " The soul of thine enemies shall he sling out as out of the 

' I Sam. XXV, 29. 


middle of a string." ^ He means the wicked, those who are 
punished in life : they cannot go up to the righteous and be of 
their assemblage, nor can they return to this world and do 
righteously. The prophets have commanded us to hate the 
one class and to love the other. As for hating we read, " Be- 
hold those that hate thee, O Lord, do I hate." ^ The sages 
say, " Warm thyself at the fire of the wise, but beware of their 
burning coals lest thou be burnt; for their bite is the bite of 
the fox, their sting the scorpion's sting, their hiss is the serpent's 
hiss, and all their words are like coals of fire." ' In fine, the 
sages go so far as to say, " The world is visited with good 
only for their sake, and with evil only for their sake." Let us 
betake ourselves, my brother, to the good and its possessors, 
to the pious and the lovers of God, that we may imitate their 
deeds and conduct ourselves according to their habits, that we 
may be of their assembly and join in their psalms. May God 
cause both of us to reach that most excellent degree and bestow 
upon us complete happiness through His grace, munificence 
and benevolence. 

In the chapter dealing with religious devotion we have al- 
ready had several narratives dealing with admirable deeds and 
people humble before God. We shall mention two additional 
stories about virtuous men. 

One of these tales is about a man who was traveling along 
the seashore where some divers had brought up a quantity of 
pearls. He urgently begged them to let him have some for his 
children. Although they could have easily complied they re- 
fused. While they were talking highwaymen came out upon 
them. The divers, seeing the robbers from afar, swallowed all 
the pearls they had. When the robbers got to the spot they 
demanded that the pearls be handed over. The divers denying 
they had any, the robbers determined to split their abdomens 
open for the pearls and take what they would find. When the 
traveler saw that the abdomens of the divers were to be split 
open and that the pearls would be found in them, he had his 
own split open for their sake. Unbeknown to the robbers he 

'■ Sam. XXV, 29. = Ps. CXXXIX, 21. " Pirke Aboth, ch. II, 15. 


said to the divers, " Come now, I shall serve you and free you 
with my life. When you are brought before the robbers pray 
them not to kill you all at one time but cast lots for one of you 
and open his body. If they find anything in him they should 
then split open the abdomens of the others ; and if not, then 
let the rest go free. If they grant you this favor you may bring 
forth the lot upon me. When they spUt my abdomen open 
they will not find any pearls in it and will set you free." So 
they did that. The robbers split open the abdomen of the 
traveler and set the others free. Reflect, my brother, upon the 
generosity of this man, the nobihty of his deed, and the liberal- 
ity of his soul towards those who were unworthy of all this 
at his hands. 

It is also narrated that a pious man met a friend another 
pious man, after a long space of time, and enquired, " How 
are you and how do you get along with the people of your 
tribe?" He answered, "As for my condition, as thou seest, 
I make peace between the four enemies who are in my ribs. 
If one of them were aroused against me he would bring about 
my death. So I always appease them by keeping aright 
my constitution, and by giving them good nourishment in 
order to be secure from their evil. When the condition is 
satisfactory, I have to deal with the blows coming from the 
nourishment : If I am satisfied I have indigestion, and if I 
am hungry I experience pain. After I have evened matters 
up I am put to the trouble of relieving myself, and after that 
must wash and purify myself. Besides I suffer from the changes 
of the seasons — first excessive heat and then extreme cold — 
and time's misfortunes which are not afar by night or by day, 
its illnesses, and the way it continually shifts its creatures from 
one condition to another so that they do not remain in any one 
state. To this I must add what I suffer from people who are 
insolent, envious, slanderous, lying, wicked and depraved, who 
if they hear good they hide it ; and if they hear evil they publish 
it ; and in case they do not hear anything, they invent lies. 
Circumstances have imposed their society and their intimacy 
upon me without any choice on my part. My relations with 
them are well indicated by the sentiment of the poet, 'It is the 


irony of fate that a man should find an enemy in him whom 
he first befriended.' If I do good unto them they repay me 
with evil; and if they do not receive any good thing from me 
they wish me well. Keeping them in repair reminds me of worn 
out clothes : when those are patched up in one place another is 
damaged. The poet says concerning that, 'Time imposed upon 
me the society of such in whom I see all the signs of bastardy ; 
all of them repay me evil for good. Whenever I try to better 
them it does not help me; it is a worn out garment; here am I 
mending it all the time, sewing it with a fine needle but it be- 
comes frayed. When one side is mended the other side becomes 
frayed. This, then, is my condition. 

" As for the way I get along with the people of my tribe, 
I have intercourse with them in sincerity, equity and probity. 
I do well unto those that act well by me, and cherish those that 
cherish me. I repay those who do good, with good ; and the 
evil-doers, with evil. I love the good and bless them; I am 
wroth with the wicked and curse them. This then is my manner 
of acting towards the people of my tribe. Now tell me how 
you are and how you get along with the people of your tribe." 

The other servant of God replied, " My condition and my 
body are in every respect like yours. But the way I conduct 
myself towards the people of my tribe is of another description. 
As far as I can I make them desire me, but do not require 
any services of them in the manner that I serve them. On the 
contrary, I do well to the one who thrusts me aside and pardon 
the one who injures me. If anyone abuses or slanders me, 
I bear with him. If his statements are false, I am not at fault ; 
if his statements are true, he is not at fault. After I gain 
peace from them — from their insolence, envy and evil — I keep 
afar from their lesser warfare ^ and betake myself to the war 
against my sensual soul with its nature and its yearnings, wishes, 
desires, corrupt views, its embelishment of falsehoods so as to 
give them the appearance of truth, and the subterfuges with 

'According to Sufi v;riters there are two jihads: al— jihadu 'I-akbar 
or "the greater warfare," which is against one's own lust; and al-jihadu 
'1-asghar "the lesser warfare," against infidels. Cf. Hughes, Dictionary 
cf Islam, p. 243. 


which it wishes to submerge me. For instance, it de- 
sires various kinds of food, and were I to obey it, I would 
become a captive slave, and my stomach would become the 
grave of lusts and the cemetery of sensual desires. If I find 
one day the food to which I am accustomed by a licit way, I 
would get it ; and if not, I would use all sorts of strategy to ob- 
tain it by an illicit way, which would cause me to incur penalties 
and ignominy, and to be dishonored before God and before men 
for the perfidy, theft, robbery, rage, deception, fraud, and simi- 
lar gifts bestowed upon man by his lusts and to which he 
becomes a slave. Similarly if I obey them by desiring copula- 
tion, there is visited upon me all that the Creator wrote 
unequivocally concerning the punishment of harlotry, accord- 
ing to its different grades, (the explanation of which is exten- 
sive). When I try to repel its desire with arguments based 
on the continence prescribed by the law and with arguments 
derived independently by the intellect, and try to implore it 
to incline towards contentment and its exercise warning it of 
the punishment that is meted out to one who gratifies his pas- 
sions, it evades me and disputes me. Then I set about to con- 
vince it of the existence of the Creator. I furnish it with the! 
proof that the whole world, in its heights and in its depths, did 
not create itself but that someone else created it, brought it 
into existence from non-existence and subdues it with death, 
makes rich whom He wishes and makes abject whom He wishes. 
For had mundane beings created themselves they would have 
made choice of eternity and wealth, and would create things 
for themselves. Hence it was another being who created them, 
who grants them life and deprives them of it, who enriches 
and pauperizes, who deals with them as He wishes. But when 
I am victorious on this point, it tries to make me deny the 
authenticity of the prophets, i. e., that God did not communicate 
a revelation to man. I then bring rational arguments proving 
the existence of prophecy, with irrefutable and irrecusable 
proofs — as we shall mention in the chapter treating of the 
Messiah, the next chapter, please God — it abandones at the mere 
mention of these arguments all the current vanity, fallacy and 
fraud fall to the ground; but begins to confront me with 


arguments to confute the doctrine of reward, punishment and 
the future life. It says to me, 'Beyond this world there is 
nothing. He that does good in it, does it in order to accomplish 
something by which he will be remembered after his death. 
Likewise with the commission of evil.' I handle this matter 
with arguments, rational and religious, urging the actuality of 
the other Dwelling and the belief in its reward and punishment, 
with arguments perfectly lucid and flawless, — as we shall briefly 
mention in the chapter dealing with the Future World, the last 
chapter of this book — and then it gives ear unto me and 
obeys my injunctions even as the big camel obeys the little boy. 
But then it begins to convince me that I am the noblest man 
of my time, the most lauded of my kindred, the most exalted 
son of my tribe. If I believe what it says and show my 
approval of it I incur the contrary : pride, neglect and arrogance ; 
and if not, I escape folly, am accustomed to the truth and 
call myself the mighty conqueror of that from whose snares 
I have escaped. I seize hold of its bridle and retain a firm 
grasp upon it through the power of God, our Benefactor, our 
Supreme Champion. As for the pious, through them I increase 
my happiness. I pray God to gather me into their company. 
As for the wicked, I pray God to forgive and guide them. I 
never found an old man or a boy, irregardless of his piety or 
wickedness, but I believed him to be a more excellent servant 
of God than I." The other asked, " How is that?" He answer- 
ed, "As for the venerable old man, truly he excels me, for he 
prayed before I was born, fasted and gave alms before I was 
created, had intimate intercourses with the good men who 
preceded me, and through experience acquired wisdom ere I 
did. Beyond a doubt he is the more excellent. As for the young 
boy, verily my sins and crimes are more numerous than his. 
When our records will be compared on the Day of Resurrec- 
tion his balance will dip deeper than mine. Beyond a doubt 
he is the more excellent. As for the pious man, verily before 
God his piety and intentions are more excellent than mine, and 
his belief is loftier. As for the wicked and rebellious one, how 
can I prove that I am better than he, how can I convince 
myself of it? He disobeys God thoughtlessly, I do so deliberate- 


ly. He is not aware of the serious consequences of his deeds; 
but I, on the other hand, am by no means in the dark in regard 
to such matters. So his excuse, my brother, is necessarily more 
acceptable in God's presence than mine." The second man 
showed himself worthier than the first, and the latter promised 
to walk in his path. 

We are told that when Alexander died his body was placed in 
a casket, and that about the bier there were ten sages each of 
whom expressed a sentiment. The first said, "O thou wrathful 
judge, thy abode is with the needy and thy tomb with the quar- 
relsome. No kinsman helps thee, no vizier frees thee." The 
second said, "This is Alexander : the grandeur of his splendor 
shone even as the rays of the sun illuminates the flowers of the 
plants." The third said, "This is Alexander, the master of cap- 
tives. To-day he finds himself a prisoner." The fourth said, 
"Behold how the dream of the sleeper has come to an end ; and 
his sorrow, how it shows itself !" The fifth said, "This man was 
wont to ask what was before him but not what was behind him." 
The sixth said, "This body came to us speaking and leaves us 
mute." The seventh said, "This body was not safe when he pos- 
sessed it." The eighth said, "We did not desire that from which 
thou hast parted and we disdained that uopn which thou gazest." 
The ninth said, "How remotely this resembles thy dwelling of 
yesterday !" And the tenth said, "This body had not as yet car- 
ried out his purpose with reference to the world when the world 
carried out its purpose with reference to him." 

Another narrator says, "It came to pass that there were ten 
sages about Alexander's bier. The first said, 'We enter this 
world ignorant, remain in it thoughtless, and leave it unwilling- 
ly.' The second said, 'This is Alexander who surveyed over the 
wide world and left it in two cubits.' The third said, 'Thou usest 
to exhort us ; but of all thy exhortations thy death is the great- 
est exhortation to us.' The fourth said, 'He owed his life to 
God but his death to himself.' The fifth said, 'Alexander never 
traveled without help and without instruments but this time.' 
The sixth said, 'This Alexander ruled over his subjects; now 
they rule over him.' The seventh said, 'Oft the timorous man 
hid from thee behind thy back ; to-day he does not fear thee to 


Ihy face.' The eighth said, 'Many a one anxious when thou wast 
dying that thou shouldst not die, to-day is anxious about thy 
speech that thou shouldst not speak.' The ninth said, 'How 
many did this man put to death in order that he should not die, 
and yet he died !' And the tenth, his treasurer, said, 'Thou didst 
command me never to be far from thee, but to-day I can not 
approach thee'." 

They say that when a certain wise man had come forth from 
a great city some one asked him, "What hast thou found among 
the inhabitants of this great city?" He answered, "I saw il- 
lusive images and transitory accidents." 

Reflect then, my brother, how very beautiful are piety and 
humility in God's presence, and confidence in Him to the end 
that He might make us of those who humble themselves before 
Him and who rely upon Him according to the word of His 
saint, "They that trust in the Lord shall be as Mount Zion 
which cannot be removed, but abideth forever." * 

The fifth chapter is finished with the help of God. There 
follows it 
'Ps. CXXV, 1. 



This chapter treats of the virtues of the Messiah — may he 
speedily appear ! — and salvation- — may God in His mercy hasten 

Know, my brother, — Gold help us both to attain His favor ! — 
that the Messiah's virtues are of noblest degree, and the knowl- 
edge thereof the most exalted science.^ That is why we wish to 
say something about his excellence and the virtues with which 
God endows him above and beyond the ancient prophets who 
have preceded him. 

Know that we have spoken in the first chapter of the bene- 
ficence of God and His special favor to the Primal Intellect, how 
he created it perfect and complete with absolute certainty and 
with the clearest intelligence. It thus became the genus generum 
and the element of elements. It is intellect, intelligent and in- 
telligible. Intellect, because it comprehended all the things be- 
stowed upon it by its Creator, the Most Exalted ; intelligent, be- 
cause it understood its own essence and discarded from its 
Creator all the attributes belonging to it ; and intelligible with 
regard to that which is beneath it in degree, viz., the Universal 
Soul which overflowed and emanated from it. Since it retains 
similarity and connection with the Universal Intellect it caused 
another emanation to overflow from the bounteousness acquired 
from the Intellect. This latter emanation was of a lower de- 
gree owing to the greater remoteness from the original source, 
the relation being that of the third to the first. And so on for 
the other gradations through which the thing passed to reach 
the sphere and after that the world of nature and what exists 
therein through the power of the Omnipresent and Omniscient 
One — minerals, plants, animals, and finally man the last crea- 

The Creator's wisdom necessitated the release of the souls of 

' For the history of the development of the Messianic idea in Judaism 
consult Schwartz's Geschichte der Entwickelung der Messianischen Idee 
des Tudcnthums. ' Weltseele, pp. 24 and 26. 


mortals from the injustice of this world of genesis and decay. 
Through the necessity of His wisdom — may His name be sanc- 
tified ! — He mercifully vouchsafed unto mortals a revelation 
from the holy world — the world of the Universal Soul — which 
originated from the overflow of its holy cause, the Universal In- 
tellect — which in turn goes back to its Originator — may He be 
exalted ! This emanation from the Universal Soul expressed 
itself in an individual man whose spirit is free from the im- 
purity of the world of nature and is disciplined in the noblest 
sciences and the purest works. From that holy effluence des- 
cending upon him became an eloquent prophet.'^ Revelation 
was vouchsafed unto him, coming unto him from the Creator. 
He prophesied concerning things before their existence, per- 
formed miracles, confounded the hinderers and rewarded the 
worthy. All that was intended to direct man and effect his de- 
liverance from the world of genesis and decay.- He who re- 
ceived that Divine Law from that prophet and acted accord- 
ingly and was directed by it, his soul was freed from the 
darkness of nature. But the man who failed to come up to the 
requirements of the Law and turned away from it, disobeyed 
that prophet and called him an imposter, darkened his own soul 
— from the misery of his condition may God in His mercy keep 
us afar ! 

This being the case, some souls of men escaped in the times 
of the prophets — peace be upon them! — and some remained; 
but God in His Goodness had promised through the m.outh of 
the prophets to set up a noble person at the end of time to save 
the rest of the world and free them as He has saved in times by- 
gone and in previous generations. Then his favor will be com- 
plete and his blessings scattered broadcast, the cause will be 
joined to its efifect, just as the disciple is taught by his teacher. 
Then the wisdom concealed in the days of the ancient prophets 
will be revealed, the secret knowledge will come to light and the 
goodness of the Creator will embrace all the creation, great and 
small, female and male; likewise a universal peace will reign 

^ For theMediaeval Jewish explanation of prophecy consult Sandler's Das 
Problem der Prophetie in der jiidischen Religionsphilosophie von Saadiah 
bis Maimuni. ' Ci. Attributenlehr^. p. 203, note 181. 


among the creatures, and in their midst there will be no malevol- 
ence, envy, or wrong so that it will not be necessary to carry 
arms. This saviour (Messiah) will not smite the wicked with the 
sword, but will invoke God against them and they will vanish. 
He will judge through God's inspiration, will not need wit- 
nesses; only equity, justice, and God's own corroboration. His 
blessing will be visible throughout the world so that none of 
his time will lack knowledge of God, since the Omniscient One 
will endow them with unalloyed blessing, all-embracing felicity, 
and good successive and continuous. From the beginning of 
his time God will bestow revelation upon the small and upon the 
great. Happy the man that lives to see.this ! 

Verily God has promised to revive the dead at the hand 
of the Messiah. They will see this and gaze upon it with their 
eyes. The eyes of the believers will be cool, but the eyes of 
those of the unbelievers will be hot. God enables the Messiah 
to perform such great miracles that no prophet before him has 
ever achieved. So that universal peace will reign even between 
the beasts of prey and those which are gentle ; they will freely 
intermingle. In his time no evil will be found neither in beast 
nor in man. War and all violence will vanish at the behest of 
the One Victorious God. We shall substantiate our statements 
by reference to the Holy Torah and to the utterances of all the 
prophets — -upon them be the most excellent peace ! — God-in- 
spired utterances concerning the advent of this noble personage 
and the succoring at his hands of this weak and afflicted people, 
the people of Israel, who are persecuted by the nations and 
despised by all the other religious sects. At his hands they 
will rejoice, for he will deliver them from their martyrdom and 
free them from persecution, this being one of the numerous 
miracles that God will send him to perform. He will remove 
the burden from this people, relieve their distress, break their 
yoke and fetters, and transform their misfortune into happiness, 
their excruciating misery into pleasure great and enduring, and 
their curse into blessing. Through him they will enjoy crescive 
prosperity, and so happy will their state be that the nations who 
used to revile them will boast by them ; those who reduced them 
to servitude will serve them, and those who upbraided them 


for their shortcomings will pardon them. God has promised all 
that and what is even grander and more complete. The early 
fulfillment of most of these promises of God is conditioned by 
our repentance ; but some of them are absolute, even if they do 
not repent, as the appearance of this noble person and the sav- 
ing of the nation through his hands. All the misfortunes and 
misery threatened by God were visited upon them, especially 
all that is threatened in the Scriptural chapters beginning, "If 
ye will walk in my statutes " ^ and " It shall come to pass when 
thou comest to the land." '^ His curse fell upon the tribes. The 
nations shattered them, sold them as man servants and maid 
servants, and scattered them broadcast over the earth. Not 
satisfied with all this the jeering nations asserted that the Law 
had been abrogated and annulled. We shall enter into that 
subject as far as possible to prove that the Torah has not been 
abrogated and never will be — please God ! — and that it will not 
be annulled or be forgotten out of the mouths of the people 
as long as the heavens and the earth last ; and furthermore, this 
people will not be pierced through, will not be destroyed, will 
not disappear. 

We shall proceed to prove all this step by step, with the help 
of God. Were we to attempt to mention all that the prophets — 
peace be upon them ! — adduce uoncerning this subject the pages 
of this book would be insufficient. But we shall quote as many 
passages as space permits, since they will satisfy the one whose 
views on this subject are not decided, the one who is opposed 
to this doctrine and the one who upholds it. God forbid that 
His promise to our nation should not be kept but his threat re- 
main ! "Far be it from God to do evil, and from the Almighty to 
act unrighteously ! " ' 

To prove that the Messiah will appear and that the people will 
be delivered at his hands, and to show from which tribe he will 
come, we cite the Scriptural passage, "He is here but not now, 
I behold him but he is not near. A star hath stepped forth from 
Jacob and a sceptre hath arisen from Isi-.iel. He smites the 
head of Moab and the crowns of all the sons of Seth," * etc. to 

'Lev. XXVI. -V 'Deut. XXVI, i. 'Job. XXXIV, lo. 
♦Numbers XXIV, 17. 


the end of the chapter. It is also said, ''The sceptre shall not 
depart from Judah or a ruler from between his feet until Shiloh 
come. And unto him shall be the submission of the nations.""- 
This passage has reference to the Messiah. 

As for the prophet Isaiah, many are his prophecies concern- 
ing the occasion of the appearance of the Messiah, his descrip- 
tion, his glory, and the peace that will reign among all creatures 
— man and beast — at his command and decree, through the in- 
spiration diffused among these creatures by their Creator. 
Many of his descriptions are very beautiful ; some we have men- 
tioned, some not. Of the latter is the passage, "A branch shall 
come out of the stock of Jesse, a scion from his roots shall 
sprout, and the spirit of the Law shall rest upon him, the spirit 
of wisdom and understanding. — And He shall inspire him with 
the fear of the Lord ; " ^ and furthermore, " The wolf shall dwell 
with the lamb."* Concerning the in-gathering of Israel in those 
days he says, "It shall come to pass on that day that the Lord 
shall stretch forth His hand a second time to acquire the rem- 
nant of His people. And a banner shall be raised over the na- 
tions. He shall gather together the outcasts of Israel." * He 
continues his description with the words, "Unto him kings are 
gathered", and "among them are those who have no book 
and whose language we do not understand. And he shall come 
up as a suckling before Him and as a root from an arid land." ' 
In reference to the outcome of that he says, "And the desire of 
the Lord shall prosper at His hands." " And further, " How 
pleasant upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger who 
proclaimeth peace, who bringeth tidings and announceth salva- 
tion, who saith unto Zion, 'Thy King reigneth ;' " ^ " Shout 
aloud, exult together ye desolate places before the eyes of all 
nations, for all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of 
our God ; " 8 " These shall come from afar, these from the north 
and from the west, and these from the land of Sinnin."* " Thus 
saith the Lord, 'Behold I raise my hand to the nations and to 
the people do I lift up my standard, and they shall bring thy chil- 
dren upon the arm and thy daughters they shall bear upon the 

'Gen. XLIX, lo. 'Is. XI, i. 'Idem XI, 6. *Idem XI, ii and 12. 
' Idem LIII. 2. " Idem LIII, lo. ' Idem LII, 7. " Idem LII, g. 
" Idem XLIX, 12. 


shoulder. And kings shall be thy attendants and their princes 
thy nurses. With their face to the ground shall they bow down 
unto thee and the dust of thy feet shall they lick;"^ "I say unto 
the north, 'Give' and to the south 'Do not destroy. Bring my 
sons from afar and my daughters from the end of the earth.' " ^ 
There are many such passages, especially in the Book of Isaiah. 
In the other prophetical books that subject is treated in numer- 
ous instances all of which we cannot quote here. We shall men- 
tion only a few: "Behold days are coming, saith the Lord, and 
I shall estabHsh unto David a righteous sprout and a king shall 
reign. And he shall be wise and do judgment and righteous- 
ness in the land. In his days Judah shall be saved and Israel 
shall dwell in security; " ^ " His majestic oil shall be from him, 
and his ruler shall go forth from his inner part, and I shall bring 
him near and approach him ;" * " Rejoice exceedingly, Q daugh- 
ter of Zion ! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem ! Behold thy 
king cometh unto thee, righteous and victorious, a poor man 
who rideth upon an ass, upon a wild ass, the colt of female 
asses." ° 

Concerning the redemption of the nation we read : "At that 
time will I bring you again, even in the time that I gather you : 
for I will make you a name and a praise," etc. ;" "And it shall 
come to pass, that as you were a curse among the heathen, O 
house of Judah, and house of Israel, so I save you, and you 
shall be a blessing: fear not, but let your hands be strong;"^ 
"And the people shall take them and bring them to their place ; 
and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the 
Lord for servants and housemaids ; and they shall take them 
captives, whose captives they were, and they shall rule over 
their oppressors." * 

Concerning the resurrection of the dead we read : "Thus saith 
the Lord God : Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, 
and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you 
into the land of Israel." " Concerning the descent of prophecy 
and inspiration upon the world we read : "And it shall come to 

' Is. XLIX, 22 and 23. 'IdemXLIII, 6. =Jer. XXIII, 6. 
* Idem XXX, 21. "Zech. IX, p. "Zeph. Ill, 29. 'Zech. VIII, 13. 
'Is. XIV, 2. "Ez. XXXVII, 12. 


pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; 
and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men 
shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions ; and also 
upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I 
pour out my spirit ;" ^ " Neither will I hide my face any more 
from them; for I have poured out my spirit upon the house of 
Israel, saith the Lord God." ^ 

As to their possessing the knowledge of God, without needing 
any instructor, we read: "But this shall be the covenant that I 
will make with the house of Israel; after those days, saith the 
Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in 
their hearts ; and will be their God and they shall be to me for a 
people ; " 3 " They shall no longer teach one another — a man his 
brother, or a man his friend — saying, 'Know the Lord,' for all 
of them shall know the Lord, from their great unto their small 
ones, saith the Lord. For I will pardon their iniquity and their 
sins will I remember no more." * 

There are also many passages of consolation and prophecy 
that require extensive explanation. Some are dependent upon 
the condition of repentance, as the resplendent prince — peace be 
unto him ! — said, "And it shall come to pass that when all these 
things come upon thee, the blessing and the curse which I place 
before you, then thou shalt consider in thy heart ;"'' "And the 
Lord thy God shall turn back thy captives and shall have mercy 
upon thee ;" ° "And he shall again gather thee from all the na- 
tions among whom the Lord thy God thrust thee ;" ^ "And the 
Lord thy God shall bring thee to the land which thy fathers in- 
herited, and thou shalt inherit it and dwell therein."' 

As to those which, although dependent upon the condition 
of repentence, must nevertheless come to pass as the direct de- 
cree of God Himself is " The minor shall be a thousand and the 
small one a mighty nation. I, the Eternal, will hasten it in its 
time." " 

The sages of blessed memory say, "The son of David will not 

come until Israel is completely righteous, for it is written, 'And 

he saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no 

'Joel II, 28 and 29. 'Ez. XXXIX, 2Q. 'Jer, XXXI, 32. 
•Idem XXX, 33. »Deut. XXX, i. 'Idem XXX, 3- 
'Idem XXX, 3. 'Idem XXX, 5- "Is. XL. 22. 


intercessor: therefore his arm wrought salvation for him; and 
his righteousness sustained him'." And they said further, "As 
soon as the Children of Israel repent they will be immediately 
redeemed and the son of David will come to them on that day, 
as it is written, If you will hearken to his voice', and if not, the 
Holy One, blessed be he, will establish over them a king whose 
decrees are as severe as those of Haman." If they repent they 
will be redeemed. If their repentance is spontaneous it will be 
specially praiseworthy and will hasten the advent of their happi- 
ness. But if we await force, trouble and afSiction will pursue 
us, for it is written, " When thou wilt be troubled, and all these 
things shall have found thee in the end of days, thou shalt re- 
turn unto the Lord thy God and shalt hearken unto His voice."^ 
We hope that that time has drawn near, please God, because 
we have read it in the explanation of "moed" "moadim" and 
"the half,"^ and they are "idan" "idanim" and "the half of idan,"' 
given by one of the best commentators. A proof of it is the 
meaning "a. conjunction, two conjunctions and a half of a con- 
junction". That applies to Saturn as the science of the stars 
demonstrates most clearly. It presides over our nation, and 
with its transition to the above mentioned conjunctions God 
will change the condition of the whole world as He promised, 
"For behold I create new heavens and a new earth. Ye shall 
not remember the first ones." * And to it the prophet alluded 
when he said, "At that time shall Michael arise, the great prince 
who presides over the children of thy people." ' 

It is incumbent upon us to obey the Creator and stand in awe 
of Him. If we do that then will it be well with us; but if not, 
it will be otherwise. To prove that the merciful Creator will 
not forsake this weak people or withdraw His hand from them, 
we cite the passages, "And also this, when they were in the 
land of their enemies I did not reject or despise them ;"' "And 
I shall remember unto them the covenant of former times."" 
Before this He says, "And I shall remember my covenant with 
Jacob, and my covenant with Isaac, and also my covenant with 
Abraham will I remember; and the land will I remember."* 

^Deut. IV, 30. 'Dan. XII, 7. 'Dan. VII. 2^. 'Is. LXV. 17. 

"Dan. XII, I. 'Lev. XXVI, 44- 'Idem XXVI. 45- "Idem XXVI, 42. 


He promises that he will not destroy, according to the passage, 
"For I, the Lord, do not change ; and ye, O children of Israel, 
shall not come to an end." ^ And it is further said, " But thou, 
my servent Jacob, do not fear ; and be not dismayed, O Israel 
For behold I am thy Saviour from afar; and thy Arm from the 
land of captivity. And Jacob shall return and be quiet and 
tranquil, and none shall terrify, for I am with thee, saith the 
Lord, to save thee. Verily, I will make an end of all the na- 
tions amongst whom I have scattered you, but of thee I will not 
make an end. I will correct thee according to thy desserts and 
will not leave thee altogether unpunished,"^ which means, "He 
will not destroy thee." And it is written, "Thus saith the Lord 
who giveth the sun for light by day and the ordinances of the 
moon and of the stars for a light by night, who divideth the sea 
when the waves thereof roar — ^the Lord of Hosts is His name ! 
'Only when these statutes shall depart from before me, saith the 
Lord, then shall thy seed cease to be a nation before me for- 
ever.' "^ "Thus, saith the Lord, If the heavens above can be 
measured and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, 
then will I reject all the seed of Israel for all that they have 
done, saith the Lord;"* "I give unto them one heart and one 
way to fear me all the days, for their good and the good of 
their children after them. And I will make an everlasting cove- 
nant with them, that I will not turn from after them but do good 
unto them, and plant them in this land, truly with all my heart 
and with all my soul ;"^ "For thus saith the Lord, 'As I 
brought upon this people all this great evil so also do I bring 
upon them all the good which I speak concerning them ;' "° 
"Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, 'If the day and the night vi- 
olate my covenant so that there be not day and night in their 
season, then shall my covenant with my servant David be brok- 
en that there be not unto him a son of a king upon thy throne 
and the Levites to minister unto me. As the hosts of the heav- 
ens cannot be counted and the sand of the sea cannot be meas- 
ured, thus shall I multiply the seed of David my servant and the 
Levites my ministers ;"'' "Thus saith the Lord, 'Had it not 

'Malachi III, 6. 'Jer. XXX. lo and ii. 'Jer. XXXI, 34 and 35. 
' Idem XXXT, 36. " Idem XXII, 39 and 41. ' Idem XXXII, 42. 
' Idem XXXIII, 20 and 22. 


been for my covenant by day and by night, the statutes of heav- 
en and earth I would not have made. Also the seed of Jacob 
and David my servant I shall not despise to take from his seed 
rulers over the seed of Isaac and Jacob; for I shall turn back 
their captivity and shall have mercy upon them.' "^ All that is 
a testimony that He neither forsakes nor destroys them. 

Likewise, their Divine Law will not be nullified, abrogated, 
altered or pass away, according to the word by the tongues 
of the truthful prophets — peace be upon them ! " 'And as for me, 
this is my covenant with them', saith the Lord, 'my spirit which 
I have put upon thee and my words which I put in thy mouth 
shall not depart from the mouth of thy seed,' saith the Lord.'"- 
And it is further written, "Were it not for my covenant by day 
and by night, the statutes of heaven I would not have made."' 
The covenant refers to the Torah. And in His perspicuous Book 
we are enjoined that "It shall not be forgotten from the mouth 
of his seed."* This alone is proof sufficient that it will not 
be annulled or abrogated. Especially is this the case in the vari- 
ous passages wherein He commanded us and our children to 
observe it for all times, not to add thereto or diminish there- 
from : "The thing which I command thee this day thou shalt ob- 
serve to do : thou shalt not add thereto or diminish there- 
from."'' Through it the penal laws are inflicted, the covenant 
is ratified, compacts are made through its observance, and con- 
duct is regulated by it, so that He says in the last oath and cove- 
nant, "Cursed be the man who doth not uphold this Torah to do 
them."° This covenant was confirmed unto us before our crea- 
tion, our fathers having made it in our behalf: "Not with you 
alone did the Lord make this covenant and this oath but with 
the one who is standing with us this day before the Lord our 
God and with the one who is not with us this day."' We shall 
not be exculpated before God if we forsake it and take upon 
ourselves another law merely because the nations deride our 
claim, saying, "For your good God has sent us a prophet who 
has abrogated your law." 

Know then, my brother, that nothing prevents God from 

•Ter. XXX, 25. 'Is. LIX, 21. 'ler. XXXIII. 2=;. "Deut. XXXI, 21. 
"Idem XIII, I. 'Idem XXVII, 26. 'Idem XXIX, 13 and 14. 


sending unto His world whomsoever He wishes whenever He 
wishes, since the world of holiness sends forth emanations un- 
ceasingly from the light world to the coarse world to liberate 
the souls from the sea of matter — the world of nature — and 
from destruction in the flames of hell. Even before the revela- 
tion of the Law He sent prophets to the nations, as our sages of 
blessed memory explain, "Seven prophets prophesied to the na- 
tions of the world before the giving of the Torah: Laban, 
Jethro, Balaam, Job, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar." And 
again after its revelation nothing prevented Him from sending 
to them whom He wished that the world might not remain 
without religion. The prophets declared that the other nations 
would serve Him from the rising of the sun to the setting there- 
of : "For from the rising of the sun to the setting thereof great 
is my name among the nations."^ And further, "For unto me 
shall every knee bend and every tongue swear fealty."^ Us He 
chose and exalted from among the nations, not because of our 
surpassing excellence but because of His regard for our fathers 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: "Not because you were more 
numerous than all the other nations did the Lord desire you and 
choose you — for you are the least among the nations — but be- 
cause of the Lord's love for you and to keep the oath which He 
swore unto your fathers ;"^ " T love you,' saith the Lord. And 
they say, 'In what respect hast thou loved us.' T loved Jacob.' "* 
God chose us, revealed unto us His laws and ordinances, and 
imposed upon us a weighty task such as He did not impose 
upon anyone before or after us, in order thereby to make our 
reward great: "And the Lord commanded us to carry out 
these statutes for our good throughout all times, to keep us 
alive, even as we are this day,"" "It shall be accounted right- 
eousness unto us to do all these statutes;'" "He declared His 
words to Jacob, His statutes and judgments to Israel. He hath 
not done so to any other nation ■'"' "And ye shall be unto me 
a peculiar treasure from among all people ;"* "For which is the 
great nation unto whom God is near?"; "For which is the 
great nation which has righteous statutes and judgment?'" 

'Malachi I, II. 'Is. XL, XXIII. ' Deut. VII, 7. 'Malachil, 2. 
' Deut. VI, 24. " Deut. VI, 24. ' Ps. XCLVII, 19 and 20. 
•Ex. XIX, S. 'Deut. IV, 8. 


And he swore by the tongues of the prophets — peace be upon 
them ! — that if we forsook His law and the duty He has imposed 
upon us that He would rule over us with force " 'As I live', 
saith the King, Lord of Hosts, 'I shall rule over you with a 
E.rong hand and with an outstretched arm.' "^ 

The Koran mentions that God favored us, that He made us 
superior to all other men : "O children of Israel, remember my 
favor wherewith I showed favor unto you ; and that to you 
above all creatures have I been bounteous ;"^ and further, "I 
have made you excellent with a settled decree, it is not a ru- 
mor." He speaks after this manner in many verses and also 
to the effect that the Torah has not been abrogated. This con- 
tradicts what they assert because of the power they exercise 
over us, because of our weakness in their eyes, and because our 
succor has been cut ofT. And concerning that he said, "As in 
my presence, and declares true what is in my presence from the 
Torah. "^ And he says, "How will they submit to thy decision 
since they have the Torah wherein is the judgment of God?"* 
The judgment of God shall never be forgotten. And it is fur- 
ther said, "Thou shalt not find any change in the ordinance of 
God."'^ He means the Torah. How can we change His tradi- 
tion and His religion which Moses brought down? Our pious 
forefathers witnessed no change in God's tradition and religion 
received from Moses His messenger. Following in their foot- 
steps we have made choice of it, and emulating their laudable 
qualities we cling fast to the Torah and the performance of 
its duties and precepts, for its exchange or alteration is for- 
bidden. It is further said, "God desireth to declare these things 
unto you and direct you according to the ordinances of those 
who have gone before you."® That indicates that Mohammed 
was a prophet to them but not to those who preceded them 
in the knowledge of God. And he said, "O People of the 
Book, He shall not accept a deed of you unless ye fulfill the 
Torah."^ And again, "If there is any doubt concerning what I 
reveal unto thee, then ask those who received my Book before 
thou didst." This indicates that He would not have command- 

'Ez. XX, 33. =Sura II, .",8 and ii6. 'Idem III, 44; LXI, 6. 
•Idem V, 47. "Idem XXXV, 42. "Idem IV, 31. 'Idem V, 72. 


ed him to ask concerning the Book had He annulled it. And 
if they say, "Lo, our Book abrogates your Book, just as your 
Book abrogates the Book of Abraham," we reply, "That is not 
true. On the contrary, we uphold the reHgion of our fatehr 
Abraham, and especially circumcision which God made incum- 
bent upon him, according to the passage, "For I know him, that 
he will command his sons and his house after him,' "' etc. 
When God sent Moses al-Kalim with the Torah to the Children 
of Israel they were six hundred thousand. And God made in- 
cumbent upon them what He had made incumbent upon Abra- 
ham, but to those duties he added what the times required. But 
He did not annul the Law of Abraham. On the contrary, in a 
number of passages Moses al-Kalim calls upon God in His 
dame and in the name of Isaac and Jacob. And all the women 
•whom they were permitted to marry were of noble lineage, be- 
cause the men were small in numbers, so that they did not need 
to marry purified daughters of Canaan. But when the people 
became numerous they went in unto them. That, however, does 
not constitute an abrogation. 

Thus He obligated the Children of Noah to observe only 
seven laws. This was because the Noachides were few in num- 
ber and because the pre-Abrahamic period could not bear more 
laws. When Abraham appeared God enjoined upon him the 
observance of various additional laws. He carried out the Law 
of Moses, taking it as a duty upon himself before it was bind- 
ing.^ Likewise, when God imposed duties upon the Children 
of Israel to be performed in the Land of Syria they assumed 
these duties before they entered the land as a mark of obedience 
to their Creator. Instance the unleavened bread, the shew 
bread, the pressed grain, the Feast of Weeks, and other com- 
mands which were to be carried out in the Land of Syria, but 
which they nevertheless observed forty years in the desert. They 
could have believed in them without doing them, but they did 
them that they might believe in them. Similarly, Adam, Noah 
and Abraham. In reference to Adam we read, "And he placed 
him in the garden of Eden to till and to guard it."' In the case 

•Gen. XVIII, 'Yoma 28b; Kiddushin 82a. 'Gen. II, 15, 


of Abraham we read, "Because Abraham has hearkened to my 
voice and observed my charge.'" Similarly, God has made in- 
cumbent upon us in the days of the Messiah all that pertains to 
sacrifices and other things, though there never appears again 
that which was explained by the tongue of the prophet Ezekiel 
concerning the offerings and the building of the Temple. And 
similarly, the gathering of all the nations unto the Messiah, ac- 
cording to the passage, "All the nations shall be gathered unto 
it, the name of the Lord.'"' When they say unto us ; "That was 
incumbent upon you in the time of Moses but not otherwise; 
when other times came ye abrogated your Low and entered into 
another", we reply, "Know that God commanded that all the 
people should serve according to the Law; and He permitted 
to every people something which he forbade to others, and He 
forbade to them something which He permitted to others, for 
He knoweth what is best for His creatures and what is adapted 
to them even as the skilled physician understands his patients, 
and even more since the physician prohibits food and nourish- 
ment to whomsoever he wishes, and permits them to whomso- 
ever he wishes, and they dare not contradict him in anything, 
because they yielded themselves up to him 'in good faith, 
sincerity and justice, the more reason that the Creator, to 
whom nothing can be compared, who is above all comparison 
or thing compared above the intelligent and the intelligi- 
ble, understands the well-being of all His creatures; their 
reckoning and their punishment are entirely in His hands. 
Whomsoever He wishes He punishes, whomsoever He wishes 
He rewards, and whomsoever He wishes He compassionates. 
No hand is above His, and neither interdict nor decree are nec- 
essary against the one whom He regards worthy of being pun- 
ished and cut off from the Divine mercy. All are in His serv- 
ice. His mercy gives them ample sustenance in this world and 
in the world to come, as it is written, "Good is the Lord to all 
and His mercies are over all His creatures."^ It is obligatory 
upon us to observe what is in our hands, that which we have 
learnt concerning Him, that we disobey not one of the Divine 
Laws and become as Holy Writ hath it, "They made me the 

'Idem XXVI, S. 'Jer. Ill, 17. ' Ps. CXLV, 9. 


keeper of the vineyards but my own vineyard have I not 
kept."^ To the service that all His creatures owe Him as He 
wishes and how He wishes there is a very nice example : A king 
required the services of the people of his city to build a palace. 
Some of them were architects, some were carpenters, some de- 
corators, some mortar mixers, and some smiths. Of these 
some zealously carried out the command of the king, some were 
lax, and some deserted the king's service. The king had main- 
tained all of them. The manner of their service was made 
known to the king and he waited until he sent for them and 
called them to account for the manner in which they had carried 
out his command. He rewarded all those who have done well 
in their trade more than they deserved, and punished all those 
who misbehaved in their trade and repentence was of no avail 
to the penitent if good works had not preceded him. Similarly, 
the Creator — magnified be His praise ! — knows the ruin of this 
world and the abode of the future world. He therefore sends 
prophets in every age and period that they might urge the 
creatures to serve Him and do the good, and that they might 
be a road-guide to righteousness. The one who was saved was 
saved through his understanding; and the one who perished 
perished with full understanding. It is incumbent, then, upon 
every people to be led aright by what has been communicated 
to them through revelation and to emulate their prophets, their 
leaders and their regents. Not one people remained without 
a law, for all of them are from one Lord and unto Him they 
all return. All call unto Him, all turn their faces unto Him, and 
every pious soul is translated to Him, as it is written, "And 
the spirit returns unto God who gave it."^ We shall follow 
this subject with the mention of the world to come in the chap- 
ter after this — please God ! — since after the Messiah there is 
nothing save that — truly God knows better and is wiser. 

Similarly, when we argue with non-Jewish disputants in re- 
gard to the nullification of our Law, we give them a silencing 
reply: "What do you say about the Law received by Moses 
al-Kalim? What distinguishes it, ignorance or wisdom?" They 
must perforce answer not "ignorance" but "wisdom." This an- 

'Song of Songs I, 6. 'Eccl. XII, 7. 


swer suffices, for wisdom is never altered, changed, abrogated 
or replaced by something else. God forbid that He should 
give a command at the hands of a prophet with signs, proofs, 
miracles and extraordinary manifestations in the heavens, and 
then should set about to abrogate and annul it. But it is His 
way to continually command whom He wishes and send whom 
He wishes to whomsoever He wishes, since all the worlds are 
His possession and in His grasp. A proof that He sends a pro- 
phet to every people according to their language is found in this 
passage of the Koran, "We sent a prophet only according to the 
language of His people." Consequently had He sent a pro- 
phet to us He would have surely been of our language, and 
again, had He been for us why did God say to him, "Lo thou 
art one of the apostles sent to warn a people whose fathers I 
have not warned."^ He meant the people who served at-Lat 
and al-Uzzah. As for us, behold our fathers were not without 
warnings throughout an extended period, and hkewise prophets 
did not fail them. But Mohammed's message was to a people 
whose fathers had not been warned and who had no Divine 
Law through which to be led aright, therefore he diretced them 
to his law since they were in need of it. And as for other peo- 
ple they had something to lead them aright. It is not proper to 
contradict those who are of another religion since their ir- 
religion and their punishment are not our concern but that of 
the Praised and Exalted One. But it is our duty to fear and 
reverence Him as He com.manded us in the Law which He de- 
livered to our prophets. Through it the covenant was assumed 
by them and by us, as we have pointed out in this treatise. 
Thus spoke one of the learned condemning the bigotry of the 
sects and their strife, "The teachings of bigotry shall not tyran- 
nize forever, for knowledge has appeared in its stead and is 
spread broadcast. Take as proof the fact that the seekers of 
knowledge are going from strength to strength although the 
ignorant multitude are not cognizant of it." Since the Creator — 
blessed and exalted be He ! — controls the record of all mankind 
according to which they receive their deserts, He brings to light 
their good and their evil deeds just as Holy Writ declares, "The 

^ Sura XIV, 4- 


end of the matter makes the whole thing understand : fear God 
and keep His commandments for this is the whole duty of man. 
For every work God bringeth in judgment with every hidden 
thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil."^ 

Know my brother — may God help us and thee to His favor 
— ^that our servile condition among the nations and the con- 
tempt which is heaped upon us by the other religions were an- 
ticipated by the prescience of the Creator — praised be He ! — in 
the beginning of the prosperity of our ancestors that misfor- 
tune vrould visit us, unhappiness be appropriated to us, the 
land consume us, and servitude destroy us ; as the Scriptures at- 
test, "Ye shall perish among the nations, and the land of your 
fathers shall consume you."^ The nations do revile us, treat 
us contemptuously and turn their hands against us, so that we 
stand among them in speechless terror as the sheep before the 
shearer, even as it is written, "As the ewe is dumb before its 
shearers."^ Because of that the Hebrew poet cries, 

"Oh how I hope unto my God ! — 

See Rachel's children fleeced like sheep ! — 

When will this awful exile cease !" 

We are like the sparrow in the hand of a child who plays with 
it until the bird is half dead — and the child has no compassion f 
There are several poems on that theme. A Hebrew poet com- 
pares us to 

"A sparrow bound to hand of child 
Who thrusts it here and thrusts it there. 
And laughs with glee to hear the bird 
Give forth its terror-laden screech." 

An Arabian poet likens us to 

About the snares of death — 

"A sparrow captive held 

By child who lets it flutter 

The child makes this his pleasure !" 

In fine, they have no pity or compassion upon us, for no one 

•Eccl. XII, 13 and 14. 'Lev. XXVI, 38. "Is. LIII, 7. 


sympathized with us in our dire distress, or as the Scriptures 
express it, "For who hath compassion upon thee, O Jerusalem, 
who pities thee or turns aside to ask after thy well-being?"^ 
Our people bewailed their lot in extended threnodies, one of 
which is the Book of Lamentations. All the prophets of blessed 
memory gave expression to that sentiment in their writings. 
Our prince David — peace be upon him ! — prophesied in Mizmor ' 
TAsaph the destruction of the Temple and the chastisement to 
be meted out to the people : "O God, nations enter into Thy 
inheritence !"- In every generation the sages of our people 
uttered elegies too numerous for tomes to contain or memory 
to retain. 

Thus in these times Shelomo Hakkatan' and Rabbi Jehu- 
dah Hallewi have written volumes of that kind. We shall quote 
two or three stanzas from their works because of their literary 
excellence and the surpassing beauty of the sentiment. The 
following is from Shelomo — may God have compassion upon 
him — 

"Our years pass in poverty and contempt. 

For light we hoped but our lot is shame and humiliation ! 

Serfs rule over us in exile ! 

Save, O Lord, for Thine is the power! 

For Thy Name's sake, O Lord, show us a propitious sign ! 

Lord, when will the wonders cease! 

Sheshech ruled o'er me, laying me prostrate ; 

1 was captive taken by Seir, Greece and Persia ; 
They scattered me through Flam, Meshech and Tyre ; 

Also Ishmael slew and devastated 
For years five hundred and fifty-nine.* 
O Lord, when will the wonders cease 1" 

Another poem of his— may God have mercy upon him !— has 
these lines : 

'Jer. XV, 5. 'Ps. LXXIX, i. 'Ibn Gebirol. 
•Refer to Translator's Introduction to the Bustan. 


"Wounded and crushed, beneath my load I sigh, 

Despised and abject, outcast, trampled low; 

How long, O Lord, shall of violence cry, 

My heart dissolve with woe? 

How many years without a gleam of light, 

Has thralldom been our lot, our portion pain ! 

With Ishmael as a lion in his might. 
And Persia as an owl of darksome night. 

Beset on either side, behold our plight 
Betwixt the twain. 

Wherefore wilt Thou forget us. Lord, for aye? 
Mercy we crave ! 

O, Lord, we hope in Thee alway, 
Our King will save !"^ 

Lines from Rabbi Jehuda Hellewi — may God have mercy 
upon him ! 

"My oaks^ are wither'd ! 
My strength doth fail ! 

Calamity has o'ertaken me ! 
My way is hedg'd about ! 

Friends have ceas'd; 
Shepherds disappear'd, 

And the wicked destroy 
The vine of Samadar. 

The wonderful secret 
No one reveals. 

Majesty goes into exile 
Amongst thorns and thistles. 

Mine enemies are lords, 
And many mine accusers ! 

They are unto me as scorpions — 
Loving kindness has vanished ! 

Woe unto me for I sojourn in Meshech, 
I dwell in the tents of Kedar !"' 

' Translation by Nina Davis, " Songs of Exile by Hebrew Poets." 
" According to Harkavy the " oaks " are probably the trees which were 

at the entrance to the Temple, mentioned in Ezek. XL and XLI. 
" Poems of Rabbi Jehudah Hallewi, edited by Harkavy ; Vol. 11, part 2, 

number 17. 


The number of such effusions is very great. Were it not that 
we have firm confidence in the promises o£ God, were it not 
for our firm conviction that He does not contradict the testi- 
mony given by the great prophets in their authentic books 
handed down to us from father to son, we would have been 
lost, we would have perished, yea every single one of us ! And 
especially have we confidence in this word of God, "And yet 
for all that, when they be in the land of their enemies I wlil 
not cast them away neither will I abhor them to destroy them 
utterly."^ Although we were beset by these terrible condi- 
tions and intense sufferings we held fast to His Divine Law 
and gave ear to His mandates, we had confidence in His cove- 
nants and therefore did not set any of them aside, as it is v/rit- 
ten, "All this is come upon us, yet have we not forgotten Thee, 
neither have we dealt falsely with Thy covenant."^ And fur- 
thermore : "Have we forgotten the Name of our God or spread 
out our hands unto a strange god? Behold God may search into 
this."^ Had any of the other nations been visited with a tenth 
of a tenth, or even less of the misfortunes suffered by us from 
the remote past down to the very present, they would abandon 
whatever religious faith they possess, they would desert their 
sects at short notice. Far be it from the Almighty God — lauded 
be His name, and exalted His Praise ! — to carry out His threat 
against us or leave His promise unfulfilled. The Truthful 
One does not blast thy hopes, as He Himself hath declared, 
"For I am the Lord — those that hope in Me shall not be put to 
shame."* A^erily such is the hope we cherish day by day. He 
makes this promise and fulfills it unto us in the time anticipated 
by His prescience, the time ordained by His power and unshak- 
able decree. Had our sins interfered with the fulfillment of the 
promise God would have allowed for it as He is aware of our 
feebleness in exile and our inability to carry out the Divine 
Law. By my life, it is our duty to be more circumspect than 
the other people with regard to religious matters. Especially is 
it our duty to fulfill certain commands, as for instance those re- 
lating to the Sabbath, circumcision, Passover, the menses, and 

' Lev. XXVI, 44. ' Ps. XLIV, 18. ' Idem XLIV, 21. * Is. XLIX, 23. 


others which we find it possible to observe, viz., "Ye 
shall not commit adultery,"^ "Ye shall not steal,"^ etc., 
so that, unlike all the other nations, we should have 
none of our people appearing in the streets as har- 
lots, idolators or murderers. If we earnestly consider 
our shortcomings even partially as m"uch as the nations 
notice them, and lay them bare in the manner the nations ex- 
pose them for us, there would be nothing against us. Thou 
knowest the story how "the Lord said because the daughters 
of Zion are haughty,"^ how the prophets reproached them, 
and the terrible punishment that was thereafter visited upon 
them, hastening the ruin of the Temple and of the whole coun- 
try. Truly He hath visited our nation with the full measure of 
calamities, as it is written, "For she hath taken double from the 
Lord for all her sins."* How many of the other nations served 
Him only with innumerable transgressions, disobedience, rob- 
bery, guile, wrath and bloodshed ! But we recognize full well 
that the Creator has imposed greater responsibilities upon us 
than upon others, and that He deals with us more severely 
than with them. Our punishment He determines, theirs not. 
In this manner God shows His love for us, by this means does 
He ennoble us, as we have explained in the early part of this 
chapter. Our Law and their Law unite in testifying to that. 
In no wise can they escape this fact, especially when God had 
promised to our ancestors Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, as indi- 
cated in the passage, "All of you stand this day before the Lord 
your God ... to enter into the covenant of the Lord . 
. . that He may raise thee this day to be unto Him a nation 
and that He may be unto thee a God, as He hath spoken unto 
thee and as He swore unto thy fathers Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob."' We shall explain that by means of an illustration. 
An expert physician visiting two patients observes that one 
of them is on the point of death, but the other has a firm hold 
on life and there is every reason to believe that he will recover. 
The physician says to their relatives: "Keep this one warm. 
Let him eat only a specific kind of food and drink, only a spe- 
cific kind of liquid and carefully weighed. Let him not take 

'Ex. XX, 14. 'Idem, IS. » Is. Ill, 16. 'Idem, XL, 2. 
'Deut. XXIX. 9, 12. 


too freely of food or drink." He here refers to the patient 
whom he expects to recover. Then he adds, "Let the other 
patient do just as he pleases : eat what he pleases and drink 
what he pleases, irregardless of weight, and withhold nothing 
from him." But this because his case is hopeless. Thus God — 
who to be sure is far exalted above any comparison — has for- 
bidden us much in the way of food, drink, garments, marriage 
and other things, but did not in like manner restrict other na- 
tions, as it is written, "He stood and measured the earth; He 
saw and bound nations."^ What He permits to one nation 
He did not impose upon others, as it is written, "He declares 
His words to Jacob, His statutes and judgments to Israel. He 
hath not done thus to any other nation."^ Likewise, He gave 
righteous statutes and judgments : He does not grant respite 
to anyone who transgresses them wilfully. Concerning that it 
is said, "Thy testimonies are exceedingly true ;"^ and again 
"The testimonies of the Lord are true."* Since He regards 
us as pre-eminent. He holds us to strict account in this present 
fleeting life, as it is written, "Only you do I know from among 
all the nations of the earth. Therefore I visit upon you all 
your iniquities."^ The full meaning of "I know" is "I know 
your superiority," e. g., "I know thee by name."^ He hastens 
to chastise us that He may purify us from our sins just as the 
intelligent and afifectionate father promptly administers bitter 
medicine to his son against the boy's will, in order to purge 
his body of deleterious waste. The father certainly knows bet- 
ter than the boy what is for his good. It is therefore incum- 
bent upon us to accept His chastisement cheerfully that ours 
may be the reward. He imposes severe penalties upon us in 
order to make our portion beautiful, for it is written, "Whom- 
soever the Lord loveth he chastiseth."^ We therefore pray 
God to cause both of us to be of His pious ones, His beloved 
prophets, His regents and His favorites, that He may make 
us rejoice through His mercy, and through His might make 
our end happy. Finished is the sixth chapter, there follows it 

' Habak. Ill, 6. ' Ps. CXLVII, 19, 20. ' Idem, XCITI, 5- 
'Idem, XIX, 8. "Amos III, 2. ° Ex. XXXIII, 17. ' Prov. Ill, 12. 



This chapter treats of the other world, the termination, to 
which belongs Paradise, the Abode of life and eternity. 

Know, my brother, — may God help both of us through His 
spirit ! — that the Creator, — may He be praised. He who is glor- 
ious and mighty 1 — gradually carries man from one state to an- 
other, each state being loftier, more exalted and nobler than 
the one preceding.^ The proof thereof is the following. Orig- 
inally a man exists not in actuality but only potentially in min- 
erals and plants and later appears as semen in the loins of his 
parent. Then God carries him, as a drop of semen, from the 
loins of his father to the womb where a natural force, bestowed 
by the Universal Soul, unites with him. That force, called 
growth, causes him to develop in the blood of the courses 
until the drop of semen finally becomes a foetus. For after 
the semen is in the womb a quantity of coagulated blood is 
gradually formed with the aid of the All-Wise and Omnipotent 
One. This blood rolls together and becomes flesh and bone. 
Through the providence of God its inherent capacity for devel- 
opment increases until its form is finished and its structure 
complete. The unborn infant then quietly awaits the divinely 
appointed time when he is to be brought forth -from his dark 
prison, by way of a very narrow path, into the air of this world. 
In that prison he did not see the sun, the moon or the stars, 
and was away from the breath of the world with its pleasant 
food, beautiful garments and numerous other pleasures. When 
going forth into the air of the world he weeps most grievously 
and breathes spasmodically at the loss of his former habitation, 
for he knows not that the Creator took him from a condition 
of imperfection to one of greatness, from low to noble degree. 
He is now endowed with another one of the natural forces 
which the Universal soul bestows so generously. This force 
is called the sensual : It makes him conscious of cold and heat, 
^ Naturanschauung, p. 162; Logik und Psychologie, p. 133. 


fatigue and pain, and enables him to find pleasure in rest, sleep 
and nutriment. The blood which served as constructive mate- 
rial, is made palatable by God that the child may suck it from 
the breasts. It is not oversvveet, loathsome, sour, salty or 
greasy. Not a single one of its ingredients is unpleasant : it 
is pure, mild, savory and not overcopious. When it flows the 
channel does not get clogged and the suction is not difficult. 
The child remains in this condition for some time. After he 
has been weaned and the four years^ of his infancy completed 
he is endowed with another force by the Universal Soul, — the 
faculty of speech. He utters words, at first with difficulty, ad- 
vancing step by step and according to the manner and method 
of the first two powers, growth and sensation. He walks upon 
his feet, eats and drinks, speaks, learns to write and to read, 
and commits to memory what he can until he attains puberty. 
Then comes the faculty of understanding, in every way su- 
perior to the first three powers. He distinguishes good from 
evil, and is duty bound to learn the laws religious and civil. 
He continues to develop along these lines until he becomes a 
man of thirty years. From that time on up to his fortieth year 
he gains in understanding and knowledge. Some time between 
his fiftieth and sixtieth years he is endowed with the force of 
spirituality, the richest and most complete of the emanatory 
forces.^ Finally there occurs his translation at the moment 
pre-ordained by God. He brings him to the Dwelling of the 
other world, to happiness or to misery, which ever his con- 
duct has earned for him in this world. All the pleasures of 
this world when compared with those of the Future World are 
not as much as a drop of water compared to the whole sea. In 
like manner, the foetus's pleasure in the womb of its mother 
is not as much as a kirat' to the one hundred million pleasures 
of this world. Consequently what we have stated above is 
perfectly clear, that God takes man from one state to another, 
each loftier than the other, and that the last is a state loftier, 

^ Naturanschauung, p. 162. 

'As regards the stages of man's physical, intellectual and spiritual dev- 
elopment Nathanel differs somewhat from the Ihwan as-Safa, but is 
manifestly influenced by them. Cf. Weltseele, p. 22; Naturanschauung, 
p. 162. °A kirat equals four grains. 


a gradation higher, a degree nobler than this world in every 
respect, beyond definition and description. Since that is so, 
men are ignorant of the nature of the A.fter-hfe and cannot 
conceive it, for they are accustomed to this world. They are 
like the foetus which is ignorant of the appearance of the world 
since it is accustomed to imprisonment in the womb. Suppose 
we could ask the foetus the appearance of the world — the foetus 
being accustomed to the womb in the abdomen of its mother : 
"Which dost thou prefer, — to remain where thou art, or to go 
forth to a very spacious place of ampler atmosphere, where 
blow the wild winds and the gentle zephyrs of the world? 
Therein are foods of divers savors, garments of every color, 
marriage, wine, covers and cushions, sun, moon, stars, min- 
erals and animals, not to mention a host of other desirable 
things." The foetus, surprised at our speech, would answer, 
"Far be it from me ! I prefer my present habitation, seeing 
that it provides more repose and better shelter than all you 
have mentioned. For I am where heat, cold, wind and rain 
cannot reach me." Were it possible, my brother, for us to 
talk thus with the foetus we could listen to its answer and ac- 
cept its explanation out of consideration for its ignorance of 
this earthly dwelling and all that is therein, and because its in- 
tellect is too limited to conceive the world. The Creator, 
knowing far better than the foetus what is for its good, trans- 
lates it from one condition to another according to the dictates 
of divine wisdom. And thus it is, my brother, with the chil- 
dren of this world. When the prophet said unto them, "Serve 
God as He should be served and be indifferent to the things 
the world prizes so highly, for He has a rich reward prepared 
for you in His Paradise wherein is that which delights the soul 
and pleases the eye," men were ignorant of the other life be- 
cause of their inability to conceive it. They desired eternal 
happiness in this earthly dwelline, not knowing that its pleas- 
ures are torment and its health illness. That was due to their 
limited knowledge of the world. Eat only a morsel of what 
it gives and make light of what it values. Look upon its 
wealthy as insignificant and its powerful as contemptible. One 
of the pious, ridiculing this world, exclaimed: "Fie upon it! 


Its sweetest eatable — honey — comes from a bee. Its finest 
material for garments — silk — comes from a worm. Its most 
fragrant perfume — musk — comes from a beast. ^ Its most 
agreeable thing — sexual intercourse — is like discharging urine 
from the bladder." In fine, my brother, if we wish to keep in 
good health we must retire regularly to an unoccupied spot and 
purge ourselves of this world. 

Men's ignorance of the Future World is indeed excusable, 
for in the search after knowledge we reach impassable limits. 
This is shown by the fact that God made men moderate in 
every respect. Note his body. It is not unwieldy like that of 
the elephant, the camel, the rhinoceros or other huge unwieldy 
animals. His prehensiles are not like theirs : his are not like 
a canine tooth, a claw, a talon, a hoof or a quadruped's foot. 
Neither is he like the smaller animals and reptiles, but is a 
creature of the most perfect symmetry in moderation. 

Likewise, God did not make his soul actually like that of 
the angels or like the souls of brutes, but the medium between 
these two extremes. Finally there is the moderation of his 
mechanism. As for the sense of sight, he can see and under- 
stand only what is near when its form and color are revealed 
by light : for when light vanishes color cannot be seen in the 
darkness. Likewise, the sense of hearing: he hears that which 
is near and gentle but with difficulty that which is distant or 
terrible, as for instance the motion of the celestial spheres, thun- 
derbolts or any frightful sound. And likewise, he cannot hear 
the walking of the ant because of its lightness.^ Similarly, the 
sense of touch : he is not able to touch fire because of its ex- 
treme heat or air because of its rareness. Similarly, the fac- 
ulty of speech : he is not able to utter two or more words at 
the same time, not to mention that he cannot bray like an ass, 
and so on. Likewise, his foods are moderate. He cannot eat 
thorns, fruit stones, dry grasses or nauseating food or drink 
nauseating water, after the manner of brutes ; neither can he 
eat wood as worms do. All his necessities are moderate in de- 
gree and manner. 

^The mall musk deer. 'Anthropologic, p. 112. 


When all this is clear, we can show that he also cannot 
know or comprehend what is beyond his power.^ The Scrip- 
tures refer to this matter in the words addressed by the Most 
Holy to Moses al-Kalim : "Thou canst not see my face, for 
man cannot behold Me and live."^ One of the commentators 
explains the passage thus, "It is impossible for thee to gaze 
upon my essence, for mortal cannot see me and live." 

Furthermore, the senses cannot attain a higher power to 
the measure of power than that which God has meted out to 
them. The faculty of speech does not trespass upon the func- 
tion of the faculty of hearing, and hearing not upon smell, touch, 
or taste. ^ This rule applies to all the faculties. The sources 
of taste are limited to nine : sweetness, bitterness, acidity, salti- 
ness, greasiness, pungency, astringency, vUeness and purity. 
There are alo many secondary tastes which no one but God 
can enumerate. The characteristics of tangible things are lim- 
ited to ten : they may be hot or cold, wet or dry, heavy or light, 
hard or soft, rough or smooth. Things visible can have six 
colors : white, black, red, green, yellow and blue. And like- 
wise things with regard to odor are either sweet-smelling or 
ill-smelling. Sounds are practically limitless in number, inas- 
much as the utterances of men vary according to the dialects 
of the Arabs, the Barbarian, the Hindoo, the Persian and oth- 
ers ; according to the sounds emitted by the different species 
of animals, birds and reptiles ; the sounds of thunder and of 
the blowing winds and the like; the sounds of trumpets, of 
cymbals, of the bare knees when knocked together, the sound 
caused by striking something earthy against something metal- 
lic, the roaring of the seas, the sounds of the floods and of the 
rains, and others which cannot be numbered except by the One 
who called them into existence — their Creator and their In- 
ceptor, — may His Glory be magnified !* 

Thus it is clear that those who attempt to describe the 
future world have no conception of its qualities or of the mag- 
nitude of its measure because their understanding is too feeble 
and their judgment inadequate for the purpose. To that world 
God translates the deserving, thus liberating them from this 

'■ Anthropologie, pp. Ill, 112. 'Ex. XXXIII, 20. ' Anthropologie, p. 38. 
"Idem, p. 26. 


world with its suffering, pain, hunger, thirst, cold, griefs, sor- 
rows, afElictions, misfortunes, misery, the artifices of its inhabi- 
tants, and delivering them from ignorance and from the num- 
berless unrighteous, corrupt, envious and wicked. 

Know, O brother, that God did not create evil, for He 
Himself declares in His perspicuous Book, "God saw all that 
He had made and behold it was very good." Evil, then, not 
being in the scheme of creation was originated by the descend- 
ants of Adam who concocted and practiced it. We shall treat 
that subject in part. 

Know, O brother, — may God strengthen both of us through 
His Spirit ! — that evil originated with the creatures of the Crea- 
tor, despite the assertion of the prophets, "He maketh peace 
and createth evil, I am the Lord who doeth all these things." 
We shall explain the matter, — in so far as we are familiar with 
it — with the aid of knowledge we have acquired from others 
by the favor of the Creator — Praise to Him ! — and by His 
goodness to us. For if we subject God's creations to a thor- 
ough examination we find them all good, notwithstanding many 
of them are mutually opposed, as for instance, night and day, 
brightness and darkness, life and death, wealth and poverty, 
etc. His unity and His wisdom are demonstrated by the fact 
that He creates things and their contraries. That, however, 
is not creating evil, although every person not versed in phil- 
osophy thinks that death, poverty, darkness, etc., are evils. 
That is due to the very little exercise he has had in the subtle 
sciences. As for death, it is unmixed good and divine wis- 
dom, as we have partially pointed out in the chapter entitled, 
"Confidence in God." Poverty^ cannot be evil but good, al- 
though those of its advantages which are hidden from us are 
much more numerous than those which the Creator has re- 
vealed. He made His servants poor because He found this 
state more beneficial and more suitable for them, even if it 
shocks them. Among other advantages of poverty is that His 
followers are constantly in need of Him, humble themselves 
before Him, and His praise does not cease from their mouths 

* Although the text has wisdom there can be no doubt that the right 
reading is " Poverty." 


by day or by night, which is not the case with the rich who arc 
powerful, arrogant, and neglectful of the mention of God. Their 
activity is Hmited to their affairs which are of no moment, even 
if they are most successful, for they will have to leave their 
wealth or their wealth will leave them. 

Similarly the poor are secure from the sultan's oppression 
and his violent treatment of the wealthy ; secure from the high- 
waymen ; from pilfering by night ; free from being overwhelmed 
with care in times of dread; from dissipating their intellectual 
energy in the effort to hold on to wealth ; from anxiously watch- 
ing the changes in the prices of goods, whether they have be- 
come cheap or dear ; free from guarding the wares in the store- 
houses, and all other things on land and sea. Concerning that 
matter one of the learned remarks, "Let us take our flight to 
God from dissipating our lives." When he was asked to what 
he had reference, he answered, "Heaping up wealth." Also the 
sages of blessed memory say, "He that increaseth wealth in- 
creaseth anxiety."^ An Arabian poet says likewise, "We in- 
crease our cares when we increase our wealth, for direr than 
all poverty is the amassing of wealth." In fine, my brother, are 
not the poor free of the characteristics of the envious, — inso- 
lence, wickedness and enviousness of the wealthy? The poor 
are above such things: they are serene in the. thought of God 
and their Return, and are indifferent to the possessions of the 
rich. The reward for this is their tranquility. It therefore 
often happens that God forgives them great sins which they 
have committed. It thus comes to pass, also, that through 
God's favor they are punished in this world as such is prefer- 
able to punishment in the Future World. If they have com- 
mitted no sin they are indeed fortunate. God visits them with 
trials to test them in this world and to discipline them in what 
is nobler, loftier and more exalted than all the wealth of the 
world. Only upon his beloved ones and his saints does He 
bring trials, as it is written, "For whomsoever the Lord loveth 
He correcteth ;"^ and again, "The Lord tryeth the righteous."' 
Thus it is clear that poverty is not evil. This subject is con- 
fessedly far more esoteric than exoteric. 

^Pirke Aboth II, 8. ^Trov. Ill, 12. "Ps. XI, S- 


The same can be said of night and darkness. But for them 
thou wouldst not know the length of years and of months and 
the conjunctions of the planets, and thou couldst not observe 
the stars that shine by night. He who recognizes the measure 
of their Creator's wisdom and grandeur is in possession of a 
clear and pure philosophy, and is exceptionally intelligent, es- 
pecially in regard to those matters which we have partially 
treated in the chapter entitled, "Confidence in God." And like- 
wise if time consisted wholly of day the bodies of living beings 
would undoubtedly break down under the strain of trouble, 
fatigue and labor which are connected with the prolongation 
of time, since under such circumstances there would be no 
repose or tranquility. Sleep is called repose, for the Bible says, 
"When I slept, I had repose."^ Night thus becomes a good 
thing. Assuredly death is not the loss of life and its annihila- 
tion, for the soul merely abandons the use of the body.^ Pov- 
erty is the absence of wealth. Night is the absence of the light 
of the sun ; the latter sets beneath the earth, and the shadow of 
the earth darkens the atmosphere.^ All this refers to the afore- 
mentioned noble mysteries and wondrous facts comprehended 
only by God. Whomsoever He favors He endows with some 
knowledge of these matters. Such favored ones were the 
prophets and after them the heirs of their learning. 

Thus it is clear that evil was not created by God, but was 
brought into this world by the sons of Adam. When God en- 
abled them to enjoy all manner of blessings they used these 
blessings for improper purposes and placed them where they 
did not belong, thereby changing the blessing into an evil. 
For instance, God gave man the power to speak of His glory 
and of His positive and negative commands, read His Book 
which He wrote with His own Hand, discourse on that which 
can benefit him, and the like, or as a pious man expressed it, 
"God mercifully designed that speech should bring man profit 
and silence bring him peace." But if after receiving this bless- 
ing he utters deceitful words, falsehoods, calumnies, frivolities. 

' Job III, 14. ' Weltseele, p. 102. 

' Propaedeutik, p. 57; Anthropologic, p. 179. 


contumely, abuse and villification of men, his speech becomes 
wholly evil. Similarly, he does violence with his hands and 
also misuses his other senses. Especially is this the case with 
the ability to have sexual connection with which God endowed 
man for the perpetuation of the human form and the preser- 
vation of the human species. In His code He enjoins men to 
legalize this intercourse by uniting with a chaste woman, such 
as our religion permits, by means of a marriage contract, in 
the presence of witnesses and with the utmost publicity. When 
he cohabits under conditions other than these he commits for- 
nication and his act becomes evil. This holds good even in the 
matter of eating and drinking. When a man indulges therein 
beyond his needs and not in proper time it brings upon him 
pain, aches, swellings and dropsy, and eventually becomes the 
cause of his death. That is wholly evil. And, likewise, all 
other things, even fire. When he does not use its light he is 
benefited with what is baked and cooked by means of it. But 
if he applies the flame too long to things he sets fire to them 
unnecessarily and without profit. That becomes evil. It is 
thus with all existing things. When he makes use of them 
for improper purposes and leaves them where they do not be- 
long, they become evil. 

This is the case even with knowledge. When a man be- 
stows it upon one for whom it was not intended — one unworthy 
of it — it becomes evil; nay, it is the greatest, the hardest and 
deserves a severe punishment from God. Concerning that the 
sages of blessed memory say, "Whosoever raiseth up a dis- 
ciple who is not fit is as culpable as if he had planted a grove 
for idolatry, for it is written, "Thou shalt not plant unto thee 
a grove of any kind of trees."^ Through such a disciple evil 
and wickedness are brought into the world, for he explains 
what he does not understand, busies himself with what he does 
not know, blunders about in darkness and goes astray. On his 
account God brings calamities upon the people of this world, 
as thou hast learnt from the story of Jereboam, son of Nebat, 
concerning whom it is written, "For the sin of Jereboam 

^Deiit. XYl. 21. 


wherein he sinned and caused Israel to sin."* The Talmud says, 
"Whosoever causes the multitude to sin, the sin of the multi- 
tude rests upon him." And especially if he raises up a disciple 
who explains the law and gives decisions — then woe unto this 
disciple and still greater woe unto the one who raised him up! 
There is nothing in all this wide world worse than that deed, 
for the sages say, "The sword cometh upon the world because 
of the perversion of justice and because of the one who teaches 
a law of the Tgrah not according to the accepted decision." If 
this disciple is leader of the congregation and does not know 
what should be sanctified, then woe unto him and greater woe 
unto the one who set him up as guide ; for the sages say, "If 
a man officiates at the reading desk and makes a mistake, it is 
a bad sign for him. If he happens to be the precentor, it is a 
bad sign for the congregation : for the representative and the 
one he represents are regarded in the same light." 

The precentor should be God-fearing, scholarly, quick of 
comprehension, thorough and fully competent to fulfill all the 
duties connected with his office : to pray, ask forgiveness, ex- 
hort, praise and glorify God, proclaim His Unity, and sanctify 
His Name ; and besides that explain the language — the mean- 
ing of words and metaphors, and accurate reading. His age 
should be twenty years or upwards and he should know how 
to argue in the Law, and be acquainted with its inner meaning, 
its commentaries and its subtleties. And it is further neces- 
sary that he should be pious and upright, and free from any 
bodily defect. But if a man without these qualities goes pre- 
sumptiously before the ark. Scripture says concerning him, 
even though his voice be pleasant, "Mine inheritance has be- 
come like a lion in the wilderness. It giveth forth its voice 
against me : therefore do I hate it."^ The sages of blessed 
memory say this refers to the congregation that sends down 
before the ark a precentor who is unfit. This applies even 
when his voice is pleasant. For sometimes conceit gets the 
upper hand of such a precentor and he says things which are 
improper, and thus removes Israel afar from their Father in 
Heaven. If the precentor is a youth possessing all the qual- 

'I Kings XVI, 21. 'Jer. XII, 8. 


ities we have mentioned, or is an adult whose house is free 
from transgression and whose youth was becoming — no evil 
report concerning his early years having gone forth against 
him — and people do not speak ill of him, is loved by God 
and desired by men, his prayer is heard before the Throne 
of Glory and renders Israel acceptable to their Father in 
Heaven. He must be beloved if the Holy One — blessed be He ! 
—is to lend a favorable ear to his entreaties. 

And likewise the Jewish community that appoints a man as 
judge must see to it that he possesses all these good qualities, 
and in addition be competent to investigate and also know 
forty-nine reasons for the pure and the impure,^ together with 
the other qualities that the sages note in scholars. And simi- 
larly the seven qualities which the sages mention in regard to 
disciples and the ways of peace and the ways of the scholar'' — 
all of them mean in effect that he should fulfill the injunction, 
"Perfect shah thou be with the Lord thy God."' The chief of 
all quahties, the first and the foremost, is the fear of Heaven, 
as it is written, "The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the 

A more detailed explanation of the qualities every precentor 
should possess occurs in the rabbinical writings. We shall give 
a clear exposition of the subject with the help of God that he 
who considers it may benefit thereby, please God. 

Said our veracious ancestors : "The rabbis have tradited, 'If 
a man has a full beard he is fit to be a precentor. The decision 
is according to the view of Rabbi who says, one is fit from the 
time he is twenty years old.' " 

We have found the following in the Responses : "If a city 
in Israel has no one experienced in descending before the ark 
except one man who is ofttimes busy with his own work, but 
there are some youths of eighteen or seventeen, whose beards 
are not yet full, what is to be done? They may be appointed 
precentors to discharge the duty of the people so that none of 
the prayers need be omitted. Hence we see that the statement 
of the sages to the efifect that if a man has a full beard he can 

' Pirke Aboth V, lo. ' Taanit, 17a. ' Deut. XVIII, 13. * Ps. CXI, 10. 


be a precentor, means that a beard is desirable, though not nec- 
essary ; and especially if the person in question has been highly 
respectable from his childhood up. Rather than omit the 
'Kadosh,' 'Baruch,' 'Yimloch,' and 'Y'he sh'me rabba,' we do 
not insist upon his being at least eighteen or seventeen years 
old : he may be only thirteen years and one day old, even 
though ordinarily he could not officiate as precentor. For 
when we say, 'It is a general rule that whosoever is not in duty 
bound to carry out an ordinance cannot discharge the duty of 
the masses. But it is quite proper to have a youth of thirteen 
years and one day or more officiate when it is impossible to 
secure someone older.'' 

We have found also the following in the Responses : "If the 
sexton of the congregation is to act as precentor, this fact is 
announced, perchance some one else can officiate instead of 
him. When this procedure is adopted and they put another in 
his place— one who will cause Israel to be favored by their 
Father in Heaven, it is imperative that this man be pious, up- 
right, and without any bodily defect whatsoever. If he is not 
such, concerning him the Scriptures say, 'Mine inheritance has 
become unto me as a Hon in the forest. It givetli forth its 
voice against me, therefore I hate it.' Mar Zutra bar Tobiah 
said in the name of Rab, 'This has reference to those that send 
down before the ark a precentor not qualified to officiate, es- 
pecially on Yom Kippur and on the other fast days.' For it is 
necessary that the precentor should have the qualities specified 
above. Rabbi Judah says, 'A man with a large family with- 
out means and obliged to toil in the field, but whose house is 
free from transgression, who has reached his majority and 
whose youth has been proper, may humbly say the blessing 
and bring the people into favor.' What is meant by the ex- 
pression 'whose youth has been proper?' Abayah says, 'It means 
that nothing disreputable is said about his character as a youth.' 
Since it is not necessary to announce who he is, so much the 
less is it necessary to replace him. A precentor's blindness 
does not disqualify him to officiate, and he should not be re- 
placed so long as his actions are proper and good." 

And still further we have found the following in the Re- 


sponses: "If the congregation wishes to have as precentor 
before the ark a man who is not thoroughly conversant with 
the Law but who has a melodious voice, and there happens to 
be present also a scholar who is an adept in the Law but whose 
voice is not melodious, which takes precedence : the scholar 
versed in the Law or he with the melodious voice who is not 
an adept and who occasionally makes incorrect statements? 
Rabbi says, 'The scholar who is an adept in the Law takes 
precedence ; but if he wishes another to take his place then he 
should select the one whose voice is melodious, provided that 
he knows that the latter will make no mistake in the service; 
otherwise the scholar must officiate.' From all this we learn 
that whenever the sexton is fit they send him down before the 
ark as the precentor who shall find favor for Israel in the eyes 
of their Heavenly Father. The congregation may replace him 
only with some one who possesses all his good qualities. We 
do not send down before the ark as precentors beardless youths 
under twenty years of age. And even in case of a man who 
has reached his majority but does not understand all connected 
with the office, the same rule holds good. This holds good all 
the more if there is at hand some one superior to him, an aged 
man more versed in the Law, for the former is not an adept. 
Especially does this proviso obtain in the case of one who is 
given to incorrect statements or who has a bad reputation : 
they do not send him down before the ark for all these reasons. 
Wherever there is a sexton fully qualified to fill the office no 
one else is preferred. But in case there is no one to descend 
before the ark and act as precentor, neither a sexton nor an- 
other qualified person, rather than omit the "Kadosh," "Ba- 
ruch" and "Y'he sh'me rabba" we may permit any of the above- 
mentioned to officiate. This applies only in a case where it is 
impossible to get anyone else, the sole condition being that 
the precentor must be thirteen years or more. For thus we 
say, "This is the general rule, 'Whosoever is not duly bound 
to carry out an ordinance cannot discharge the duty of the 
masses.' " 

Thus, my noble brother, — may God direct thee in the right 
path! — thou clearly understandest the substance of what the 


fathers of blessed memory said about the quahties of the pre- 
centor, viz., that he should be acute, penetrating, patient, gen- 
tle. God-fearing, prudent, scholarly, quick-witted and fully ac- 
quainted with those duties for the performance of which he is 
sent into the presence of God. He should be a person twenty 
years old or more and thoroughly conversant with the Law, 
its reasons and subtleties. Whatever he learns is to intensify 
his reverence for God. If it is clear that he has acquired all 
of the above excellencies and his fruits show themselves de- 
sirable and excellent — such as the Scripture speaks of, "the 
fruit of the tree of life"^ — then he is worthy to be the leader. 
There is every reason to expect that he will be successful — that 
the necessities of the congregation will through him receive 
favorable attention, according to the word of the sages, "V/e 
gain merit through the meritorious," and conversely, "blame 
through the blameworthy." If he fears God and stands in awe 
of Him, the Holy One decides the affairs of the community at 
his hands, bestows upon him whatever he desires, and carries 
out his requests, even as the saint declared, "The pleasure of 
those who fear Him He doeth."^ It is highly desirable that 
thou, my brother, belong to this class. May God enable thee 
to attain righteousness, and in His mercy and beneficence keep 
thee afar from iniquity. 

The man who bestows knowledge upon one unworthy of it 
is condemned by the learned in unmeasured terms. ^ They 
compare him to the fornicator who deposits the sperma hom- 
inis where it should not abide. But the punishment of one who 
squanders knowledge is greater. For the one who deposits the 
semen where it should not abide brings forth a corporeal being 
■who becomes a worthless fellow known as a bastard. But he 
who deposits knowledge in one unworthy of it brings forth a 
spiritual form, wastes that knowledge and injures philosophy, 
seeing that that spiritual form becomes satanic. For thus the 
wise have said, "Do not bestow knowledge upon those un- 
worthy of it, lest ye do violence to it ; and withhold it not from 
those worthy of it, lest ye do violence to them."* 

' Gen. II, 9. ' Ps. CXLV, 19. 

' Cf. Le Guide dcs Egaris, p. 127, note. Mtbhar Hapenimm, p. 6. 


The arguments advanced enable us, then, to clearly under- 
stand that it is not the Creator — blessed and exalted be He ! — 
but man that is the cause of evil. God created all man's ap- 
purtenances for good but he makes use of them for evil pur- 
poses and thus becomes wicked. From the passage, "He cre- 
ates evil (ra')"^ we are to infer that He creates evil man but 
not evil, for the expression "ra' " is used adjectively, as for 
instance you say, "An evil man," "An evil ruler," and the like. 
It must be beyond the Praised One to create evil, lies, decep- 
tion, frivolity, falsehood and calumny, seeing that He has for- 
bidden all such to us. Thus when God visits obstinate sinners 
with severe penalties, e. g., such as are mentioned in the pas- 
sage, "Behold I bring evil upon the house of Jeroboam, and 
will cut off from Jeroboam him that pisseth against the wall 
and him that is shut up and left in Israel, and will take away 
the remnant of the house of Jeroboam as a man taketh away 
dung until it is all gone. 'Him that dieth of Jeroboam shall 
the dogs eat; and him that dieth in the field shall the fowls 
of the air eat : for the Lord hath spoken it"^ — it is for the pur- 
pose of chastising. If from one point of view this is evil, from 
another it is good, since punishment is meted out to the wicked 
and the perverse for their good, to purge away their evil ; and 
it is good for others who should be warned thereby and not do 
the hke themselves. Thus God warned Israel, "All these 
abominations shall ye not do that the land may not vomit you 
forth."'' In fine, the object thereof is that those who are un- 
touched should see to it that they are warned through those 
who are punished, as it is written, "And those who are left 
shall hear and fear, and shall no more act presumptiously."* 

And if someone asks, "Why did He create serpents and rapa- 
cious beasts, which are evil?" we answer that in that act there 
is nothing detrimental ; on the contrary, they benefit man in 
various ways ; and besides, most of them are afraid of him. Of 
the manifest benefits we instance the consumption of beasts of 
prey to satisfy the demands of the stomach. Then there is 
death prevailing on the face of the earth : were it not that it 

Is. XLV, 7. 'I Kings XIV, m. 
'Lev. XVIII, 26, 28. 'Deut. XIX, 20. 


changes life and reduces places to ruin there would ensue 
plague and disease, and all the order would become destroyed. 
Similarly, God placed poison in the corners of the mouths of 
serpents to enable them to secure their food. It is also useful 
in compounding powerful treacle for expeUing poisons from 
the bodies of human beings. The learned physicians speak of 
this in their works. Likewise, the beasts of prey. God placed 
them in the world as his troops to be let loose against those 
that rebel against him, just as He did in the case of Pharaoh 
and his people. He threatened to let them loose against our 
people who had rebelled against Him, as we read, "And I shall 
send against you the beasts of the field ;"^ and furthermore, 
"Thus saith the Lord, Verily have I sent my four severe penal- 
ties : sword, famine, pestilence and wild beasts."^ They are his 
troops whom he brought into the world for a good purpose : 
that they may become righteous. Thus it is clear, my brother, 
that evil was not of God's making. 

Neither did falsehood originate with God. Concerning that 
the sages say, "We find that God created everything in His 
world except the quality of falsehood for the sons of man de- 
vise it in the heart." The majority of evils and sins follow in 
the wake of the lie, from it issue sore calamities. It is the 
origin and source of most of them. Thou hast learnt how God 
blamed the liars for persisting in their lies to the extent of 
denying Him. He says, "They have belied the Lord, and have 
said, 'He is not : evil shall not come upon us.' "^ And again, 
"They have taught their tongues to speak lies and weary them- 
selves to commit iniquity."* The sword is released on its ac- 
count, as we read, "Because of falsehood (shav) did I smite your 
children, reproof they did not accept."' The prophets of false- 
hood are likewise rebuked in a number of passages. Falsehood 
also became one of the aggregate causes of the destruction of 
the Temple, as we read, "Go about the streets of Jerusalem and 
see ... if ye can find a man . . . that seeketh the 

'Lev. XXVI, 22. 'Ez. XIV, 21. 'Jer. V, 12. *Idcn) IX, 4. 
'Idem II, 30. "Idem V, i. 


Should some one ask, "Why does God create the unright- 
eous, seeing that He knows in advance that they will prefer 
disobedience to His service, will oppress His servants and 
work havoc on His earth?' we answer that theology gives a 
number of reasons. One is that God created the wicked to be 
useful, but they disdained their usefulness and make choice of 
disobedience. Thus they injure themselves : the blame rests 
upon themselves not upon God, as we read, "From your own 
hands has this come upon you ;"^ "As for their way, upon their 
own head I have placed it, saith the Lord God,"^ in order to 
make manifest His wisdom. He created the disobedient that 
one may understand the excellence of the virtuous, that the 
obedient may be distinguished from the disobedient, and that 
man may take warning from the condition of both of them — ■ 
emulate the obedient and eschew the way of the disobedient. 
Another reason is that by means of the wicked He tests His 
pious servants in this mundane dwelling, as the sages of blessed 
memory say, "The wicked punisheth the wicked, and the Lord 
punisheth both of them." Finally there are various reasons 
why He is long suffering with them during their life time. 
One is that people may not say that had not God hastened to 
mete out punishment to a certain man but granted him a re- 
spite he surely would have repented and acted righteously. By 
granting him a respite God silences their apologies and re- 
proaches. There is another reason. If a man hastens to wreak 
vengeance upon his enemy it is because he fears that the lat- 
ter may die, become poor or that he will flee from him to an- 
other country; or he fears all this for himself, and therefore is 
prompted to act hastily and with dispatch and grants no re- 
spite. But it is otherwise with God, for He is free from such 
qualities. He does not fear death or poverty: and is not anx- 
iously concerned about the flight and escape of the one who 
rebels against Him since that man is in His hand and power, 
as it is written, "If a man hide himself in secret places shall I 
not see him? saith the Lord."' And His saint — peace be upon 
Him! — said, "Whither shall I go from Thy spirit? Whither 

•Mai. I, g. 'Ez. XI, 21. 'Jer. XXIII, 24. 


shall I flee from Thy presence? If I ascend into the heavens, 
Thou art there: if I make my bed in Sheol, behold Thou art 
there. Were I to take the wings of the dawn and alight in the 
uttermost parts of the sea, even there Thy hand would lead me 
and Thy right hand hold me. If I say, Surely darkness shall 
cover me, the night becomes light about me. Yea, the darkness 
hideth not from Thee, but the night shineth as the day : dark- 
ness and light are alike unto Thee."^ And it is further written, 
"If they hide themselves from my sight in the bottom of the 
sea, even there will I command the serpent to bite them."^ 

Verily when man does right or wrong he benefits or injures 
not God, but himself, for it is written, "If thou be wise, thou 
art wise for thyself; but if thou scornest thou alone shalt bear 
it."' i. e., thou shalt bear thine own iniquity. And it is further 
written, "If thou sinnest what dost thou against Him ; or if thy 
transgressions be multiplied, what dost thou unto Him? If 
thou be righteous what givest thou Him or what receiveth He 
of thy hand? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art; 
and thy righteousness may profit the son of Man."* 

In this connection a pious rnan uttered a beautiful senti- 
ment: "God created the wicked that He might manifest His 
generosity in pardoning them and in favoring them with for- 
giveness ; for He takes pleasure in beneficence, grace, forgive- 
ness and all manner of kindness. The wicked, however, are 
too foolish to appreciate this and are therefore delivered over 
to severe punishment. AH this accords with what the saint 
declared when describing God, "He is merciful, forgiving in- 
iquity, and does not wantonly destroy."' His prophets said, 
"Who is like unto Thee bearing with iniquity, forgiving the 
transgression of the remnant of His inheritance?"" God Him- 
self says, "For I the Lord am righteous, I will not keep anger 
iorever."^ We mention this because it is a beautiful utterance. 
Assuredly He did not form us that we should turn against Him 
but to have full confidence in Him. . . (Lacuna) . . . 
seeing that He is able tp act without anyone's interference. A 

iPs. CXXXIX, 7, 12. 'Amos IX, 3. ' Prov. IX, 12. 
'Job. XXXV, 6, 8. "Ps. LXXVIII, 38. ' Micah VII, 18. 
'Jer. Ill, 12. 


very saintly man said, "Were you not to sin verily God would 
create other people who would sin and whom he would forgive 
to exercise His clemency." Yes, my brother, even if we were 
wholly righteous it would not be proper to rely upon our right- 
eousness but upon His mercy, as it is written, "Not because of 
our righteousness do we place our supplications before Thee, 
but in reliance upon Thy abundant mercies."^ 

He who is translated from this world not lacking in knowl- 
edge and good works, agreeable qualities, pure morals, proper 
religious tenets, piety and chastity, has earned for himself the 
Dwelling of Reward and Life Eternal. One of the learned 
says, "In this world precedence is given to the generous ; in 
the world to come, to the righteous." Such a one is like the 
newborn infant which appears in the breath of this world with 
limbs, organs and mechanism all complete. But one who 
leaves this world in a state of imperfection, ignorance and sin- 
fulness is unworthy to share in the bliss of the Future and de- 
serves severe punishment. He may be likened to a newborn 
infant that appears from its mother's womb with organs, limbs 
and senses that are defective.^ And even if this were to the 
extent of only a single member it could not make that member 
perfect in this world. Similarly, it avails not the sinner to cry, 
"Let me return to the world that I may act righteously."' 

Know, my brother, — may God help us both to attain His 
favor! — that the soul is the noblest entity and that God cre- 
ated for her this splendid temple and caused her to dwell there- 
in. For her purposes He furnished it with all its organs and 
limbs, external and internal. He fashioned it for her like a 
populous city, she being like a monarch with absolute authority 
over all in the city — not a single person therein disregards what 
she commands or what she forbids.* She is disciplined in the 
term of her residence in the body, which term her Creator has 
pre-ordained and at the expiration of which He sees fit to 
translate her to His glorious Dwelling. She is translated either 
happy or unhappy, according to her deserts. It is her duty to 

' Dan. IX, i8. ' Anthropologie, p. loo. 

'Koheleth Rabbah, Parasha i, sect. 15. 'Anthropologie, p. 17. 


conduct herself according to the divine commands, be thor- 
oughly at home in philosophic discipline/ nourish herself with 
the theological sciences,^ be purified through the spiritual sci- 
ences, be alert in the service of Heaven, imitate Divinity as 
far as lies in human power, then she will inhale holy forms, and 
be attached to the universal soul, so that light will shine upon 
her and She will become like a beautifully polished mirror in a 
dwelling amidst gardens, pleasant breezes and fragrant flowers, 
and the essence of the Merciful One for immortality and per- 
fect happiness to all eternity. No power of the mind can image 
or conceive it — that which eye does not see, ear does not hear 
and which does not enter into the heart of mortal. Behold the 
prophets have said, "Eye hath not seen, O God, besides Thee 
what He hath prepared for him that waiteth for Him ;"^ "How 
great is Thy goodness which Thou hast laid up for them that 
fear Thee ; which Thou hast wrought for those that trust in 
Thee;"* "Who shall ascend the mount of the Lord and who 
shall stand in His holy place?"" "Lord who shall abide in Thy 
tabernacle, who shall dwell in Thy holy mount? He that walk- 
eth and worketh righteously and speaketh the truth in his heart. 
He that neither backbiteth with his tongue nor doeth evil to 
his neighbor;"" "Thine eyes shall see the King in His beauty;"^ 
meaning the light and the essence of the King of Kings — bless- 
ed be He ! "And they that be wise shall shine as the bright- 
ness of the firmanent; and they that turn many to righteous- 
ness, as the stars forever and ever ;"* "Thus saith the Lord, if 
thou wilt go in my way ... I will give thee companions 
of these who stand by."° 

The illustrious and authoritative prince, Moses our master, 
made frequent reference to future reward and punishment. Had 
there not been so few in his generation capable of grasping it 
he surely would have unveiled the matter. Besides, the people 
were unrighteous of heart ; for as thou hast learnt, God did not 
suiifer any of them to remain save Joshua and Caleb. Moses, 
however, made frequent allusion to the subject : "The Lord 

^ Anthropologie, p. 97. Mdem, p. 102; Weltseele, pp. 89, loi. 
'Is. LXIV, 4. *Ps. XXXI, 20. ■'Idem XXIV, 3- 'Idem XV. 
'Is. XXXIII, 17. "Dan. XII, 3- °Zech. Ill, 7. 


commanded us to do all these statutes for our good throughout 
our days, to keep us alive even as this day."^ And in many 
places it is said, "In order that you may live and it may be well 
with you."^ Furthermore, "In order that it may be well with 
thee and that thou mayest prolong thy days ;"^ "In order that 
thy days may be prolonged;"* "In order that your days and 
the days of your children may be multiplied. "° When he speaks 
of prolonged life he includes the eternal life of the Future 
World. It is also written, "And in the day of my visitation I 
shall visit their sins upon them ;"' "Is it not hidden with me, 
sealed up in my treasures?"' That is equivalent to saying that 
all his days will be spent in uninterrupted bliss or in excruciat- 
ing torment. Moses offered many such hints to our ancestors 
but they did not fully understand them. The Divine Law, the 
Torah, which Moses brought down, was adapted to all manner 
of intellects. In it are passages whose meaning is on the sur- 
face, but for the most part it consists of wondrous mysteries 
comprehensible only by the wise v/ho are few in number, al- 
though even in the generation of Moses our master there were 
people of rationality and intellect, judgment and knowledge. 
To that the Book refers in the passage, "Darda* represents the 
men of the generation of the wilderness who were men of sci- 
ence,"^ for in that generation were Bezalel, Ohaliab and men 
like them : but then they were few and moreover of various de- 
grees according to their endowments. 

The prophets also refer to the Future Life in passages which 
cannot be comprehended offhand. The like often occurs in 
the veracious traditions. We cite the following: "All of the 
prophets prophesied only with regard to the davs of the mes- 
siah. As for the Future World eye hath not seen it. God 
alone will prepare it for the one who hopeth in Him ;'' "In the 
Future World there is neither eating nor drinking, but the 
pious sit with crowns upon their heads and derive pleasure from 
the radiance of the Shechinah, as it is written, 'And they saw 

'Deut. VI, 24, 'Idem V, 30. 'Idem XXII, 7- 'Idem XI, 21. 
•Deut. XI, 21. 'Ex. XXXII, 34. 'Deut. XXXII, 34. 
' A wise man, one of the sons of Zerah ben Jehudah : I Kings V, 11. 
° Vayjkra Rabbah, Parashah 9, sect. I. 


God, and ate and drank.' " Thus, my brother, the condition of 
souls obedient to their Creator consists in heeding His com- 
mand and keeping aloof from what He has prohibited. 

Every soul that masters the whole of theory and practice, 
acquires the ways of the prophets and the pious, and treads in 
their paths, will surely achieve uninterrupted happiness unto 
all eternity. As for the wicked, the rebellious, those who turn 
against the Lord, His prophets, His saints, and His God-fear- 
ing men, who turn back from the path which leads to good 
v.'orks, abandon commendable habits and follow ruinous ones, — ■ 
such as we have mentioned in the explanation of man in the 
second chapter of this book — and are under the sway of accu- 
mulated ignorance ; the light of their soul gives way to dark- 
ness, and the beauty of their soul becomes obscured. She can 
not raise herself because of the v/eight of her burdens. She is like 
unto an uneven, dusty looking mirror which does not yield to 
the polisher. Culture in nowise benefits her. In this world such 
exist in blindness, and in darkness do they wander about, ac- 
cording to the word of the prophets, "The wicked are silent in 
darkness ;"- "They feel about in darkness, there is nq, light -'"^ 
"In darkness he comes and in darkness he goes, and with dark- 
ness his name is covered."' In the other world they are in an 
ex'^eedingly base condition, in an extremely vile dwelling, ij^ a 
most deplorable state, as it is written, "And they shall go forth 
and see the carcasses of those who transgress against me, for 
their worm does not die ;"* "With the fire and the sword of the 
Lord shall all flesh be judged, and numerous shall be the slain 
of the Lord ;"^ "For Tofteh has been prepared of old."" Such, 
then, is the fate of the lost, in so far as we are able to dwell 
upon it. 

'Had it not been for the fear that our book might fall into 
the hands of some one that can not understand it thoroughly, — 
one not versed in the divine ordinances, theology and phil- 
osoph)' — we would have given an explanation of the subject of 
reward and punishment more precise than that in this treatise, 
profounder than this exposition and more remarkable than 

' I .Sam IT, 9. ' lob. XII, 25. 'Eccl. VI, 4- ' Is- LXVI, 24. 
" Idem, 16. ° Idem XXX, 33. 


these hints, based on the knowledge vouchsafed unto US by 
God and that which we have acquired from others. For as 
previously indicated, we have not given expression in this book 
to a single word on our own authority and have not put forth 
a single opinion that is original, but have learnt it all from oth- 
ers through the favor and goodness of God. Of Him we ask 
in matters religious and worldly, — His mercy, pardon, favor 
and the gift of His wisdom, as it is written, "For the Lord giv- 
eth wisdom; from His mouth are knowledge and understand- 

The book is finished, with the help of God, just as Rabbi 
Nathanel bar Rabbi Fayyumi wrote it. 

«Prov. II, 6. 

TABLE 139 


Showing the corresponding paginations of the English 

translation and the Arabic text. 

English Arabic English Arabic 

p. P- 1- 35 21, 4 

I I, I 36 21, 21 

2 I, 16 37 22, 10 

3 2, 19 38 22, 25 

4 3, 5 39 23. 16 

5 3, 23 40 24, 4 

6 4, 14 41 24, 18 

7 4, 19 42 25, 7 

8 5, 2 43 26, I 

g 5, 22 44 26, 22 

10 6, 15 45 27, 12 

II 7, 4 46 28, 3 

12 7, 20 47 28, 19 

13 8, 12 48 29, 9 

14 8, 23 49 29, 27 

15 9, 16 50 30, 15 

16 10, 3 SI 31, 7 

17 10, II 52 31, 25 

i3 10, 25 53 32, 17 

19 II, H 54 33, 8 

20 12, 6 55 33, 26 

21 12. 25 56 34, 17 

22 13, 16 57 35. 9 

23 14, 2 58 35, 27 

24 14, 21 59 36, 16 

25 15, II 60 37, 4 

26 15, 25 61 37, 22 

27 16, 13 62 38, 12 

28 17, 4 63 39, 3 

29 17, 23 64 39, 18 

30 18, 13 65 40, 9 

31 18, 21 66 41, 2 

32 19, 8 67 41, 19 

33 19, 23 68 42, 9 

34 20, 9 69 42, 22 

140 TABLE 

English Arabic English Arabic 

70 43, 12 105 66, II 

71 44, 2 106 67, I 

72 44, 17 107 67, 18 

V3 45, 8 108 68, II 

74 46, I 109 69, 5 

75 46, 23 no ()Q, 25 

76 47, 16 III 70, II 

77 48, 4 112 71, I 

78 48, 23 113 71, 8 

79 49, 12 114 72, 2 

80 SO, S IIS 72, 19 

81 SO, 22 116 73, II 

82 51, II [17 74, 2 

83 SI, 26 118 74, 22 

84 52, 10 119 7S. IS 

8s S2, 24 120 76, II 

86 S3. 14 121 77, S 

87 54, 6 122 77, 23 

88 S4, 29 123 78, 17 

89 SS, 17 124 79, 8 

90 56, 10 I2S 79, 25 

91 57, 5 126 80, 13 

92 57, 26 127 81, 2 

93 58, 21 128 81, 18 

94 59, 3 129 82, 8 

95 59, 19 130 82, 24 

96 60, 13 131 83, 12 

97 61, 10 132 84, 2 

98 62, 2 133 84, 20 

99 62, IS 134 8s, 10 

100 63, 4 I3S 86, S 

loi 63, 19 136 86, 23 

102 64, 10 137 87, 12 

103 64, 26 138 88. s 

104 65, 17 


On account of the distance of the author from a centre of 
learning, many references could not be verified. Professor 
J. A. Joffa, of the Jewish Theological Seminary, has kindly 
supplied them. 

P. 19, Yoma 86. Kel. i, 2, 3, 4. Conf. Midrash R. Gen., parashah 
viii, sect. ii. Mid. Shir Hashirim, parashah i, sect. 6. 

P. 20, Lev. R. ch. xxxii, sect. 5. Conf. Yerushal. Pesachim, chap. 
X, sect I. 

P. 22, Shab. 118-120; Yeb. 93a. Vayikra Rabba, parashah xxix, 
sect. II. 

P. 23, Rashi to ChulHn 5a (last line but one). 

P. 24, see Talmud Shabbath i3Sa. See Talm. Chagigah 12b. 

P. 26, Lev. xxiii, 15. Ps. cxix, 164. 

P. 30, Tal. Eerachoth, 28b. 

P. 31, Lev. xii, 3. Tal. Succah, 48a. 

P. 32, Ber. 1, 1-2. Meg., 21b. R. H., 32a. 

P. 37, Prov. xii, 2. Tan. to Yethro; Yalkut to Prov. xxii, 20. 
Aboth L 2. 

P. 38, Tal. Maccoth, 23a. Ps. civ, 24. 

P. 47, Pes., 54a. 

P. 48, I Sam. ii, 3. Talm. San., 92a. 

P. 49, see Tal. Kethuboth, 65b; Taanit, 9a; B. B., lo-ii; Pesikta Ber. 
xiv, 22. Ber. 17a; Shab. 31b. Pes., 49b. 

P. 50, Cf. Tal. Gittin, 43a. Tal Horayoth, 13b. 

P. 51, Ber., 6a. 

P. 52, Kid., 40a. Ber., 40a-b. Idem, 31b. Cf. Yeb., 63b. Cf. Er., 13b. 

P. S3, Aboth de Rabbi Nathan, ch. 28. 

P. 57, Cf. Ber., 17a. Cf. Kethuboth, 67b ; where both opinions a:e 

P. 58, Cf. Baba Bathra, loa. Cf. Eerachoth, 6b; Erubin, i8b. 

P. 59. Gen. xviii, 19. Idem xxvi, 22. Hos. x, 12. Gen. xxxii, 11. 
Prov. xvi, 8. Deut. xxxiii, 21. Ps. xvii, 15. 

P. 60. Cf. Tal. Arakin, 15-16. 

P. 61, Ex. xxxii, 31. Gen. xxxix. 9. Idem I'v, 3. Ps. xii, 4. Arakin, 
iSb. Tal. Niddah, 13a.; Shabbath, 41a. Nedarim, 31b. 

P. 62, Tal. Pesachim, Ii8b. Abodah Zarah, 36. Cf. Kethuboth, 67b. 

P. 64, Is. xlvi, 4. 

P. 66, Cf. Abodah Zarah. 3b. 

P. 67, Tal. Taanith. iia; Eerachoth, 6ib; Baba Bathra, isb. 

P. 70, Tal. Yoma, 38b. 

P. 71, I Sam. xi 6. Cf, Shabbath, 32a. 

P. 72, see Is. xxxviii, 9-19; Jonah ii, 7. 

P. 79, Tal. Pesachim, 2a. 

P. 81, Cf. Tal. Maccoth, 12a; Chullin, 92a. 

P. 83, Yalkut sect. 8,11 has 13, add to which "na," "ana" (see Ber. ga). 
this would be fifteen. 

P. 84, Is. xl, 26. Eerachoth, i8b. 

P. 85, Deut. xvii, 6; Eerachoth, i8b; Ez. xxi, 30. Eccl. ix, 5. See Tal 
Shabbath, 152b. 

P. 86, Tal, Shabbath, iS2b. 

P 87, Aboth V. i: Tal Yoma, 38b. Yoma, 87a; Sanh., 113b. 

P. ^, Tal. Succah, S2b. 


P. 100, "'complete'' or ''completely unrighteous." See Is. Ix, 21 ; Idem 
lix, 8; Tal. Sanhed., 98a. 

P. loi, Sanhed., 97b. Is. lix, 16. 

P. 104, Baba Bathra, isb (line 2). 

P. 118, Cf. Tal. Erubin, 13b. 

P. 119, Cf. Tal. Yoma, 20b. 

P. 121, Gen. i, 31. Is. xlv, 7. Tal. Shabbath, 77b. 

P. 122, Cf. Tal. Chagigah, 9a. 

P. 124, Tal. Chullin, 133a; Cf. Berachoth, 28a. In Sanhedrin 7b this 
passage refers to the appointment of an unfit judge. 

P. 125, Pirke Aboth v, 21. Cf. Tal. Sotah, 22b. Pirke Aboth v, II. 
Cf. Berachoth, 34b. Cf. Taanith, i6a. Jer. xii, 8. Taanith, i6b. 

P. 126, Erubin, 113b. Pirke Aboth vi, 8. Cf. Orach Chayim, sect, 
liii, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; also Taanith, i6a. 

P. 127, Rosh Hashanah, 29a. Orach Chayim liii, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Taanith, 

P. 128, Rosh Hashanah, 2ga. 

P. 129, Yoma, 38b ; Midrash Ruth ; Succah, s6b. 

P. 130, Shabbath, 77b. 

P. 134, Tal. Nedarim, 32b. 

P. 137, Ex. XXIV, II, 

Thiin iTins .'Ji nnsn ^lonxo Tny '•a 5)Xpi .'" i^^n mi iB'a b nx 
nIj p t ^b NJ3Kn3 Vf" IN l» «ii5^N nSi^i nslJ jx Njnnp kd aon pnNsi'N 
n"nN5>N^N Diisy^JNi fi^DiDNJ^N j;'N-it»'?N3 fxmN N^Ji nna-ij/o pn nanv 
'In jD pnN in nd 3Npy^Ki axiii^K iq NjniiK^J n"aDi>3i'N rin^nisNi 
'30 n'pha nv:H aoanaia'i'ubii nin p 3j3;ni 'jyoi'X 'In jd ycim DxbljK 5 
nin 'D D^snj ni; n:n Njonp np NJ^? ^bv njnid p n^jD^yni n3 xj'^y 
b^N ij3 Njiiip JD 'jyo n'a NJt:33nDN t<h njdsjn p rio^^ 3Nn3SN 
'D fiJiVo^N i>KDj nx'Ni NJ3 naDi>i nhba p'ain3 njnid |o nxmiiyn 
'" 's 'ip3 nosn^x n3niDi t^i'iii'Ni niaaai'xi non-ii'Ni N'jn^xi inijN 

.njuni T)Vi vac nosn in' lO 

KD3 ni^i^N t11!3 38<n3^N Sd3 

iiNjnj 31 na'i>xn3 xij? 
.i>"SI 'Dva 3-|'3 

'ni 'DID Nna ^n Ti^x nvncrSx njNai .onnpaDa pn^' ub-i ni6Dbii 

^'■'ji'N 's tK3 IK ■'^j;i r^'^p^JK Dm abpvhii t<bti xnanr xi" na'i:; pxu 
I^N-i^i .riD-iVDi 3^1 Dnsi hpii 'ri Dip Di^a'n v^v irai nt^D n^a [ks niiK 
1 rc?T •'ijyn vnt^ naiDn in ■'B'jn iIjk jJini "ipn axn^^x ta^'n 5 

'3 fniNSriD I^Ni JJD1 ^■'^p p^l DHNIDl DK'^HKl bub^l NH'S |N3 IN^J 

ab ND i^Nl •'3 N'^jN^'^i .DnjD ^^^5l b pn kd aon '^j; nsim^x 
3 "iNnD n^JXl cik;jSx ripiNS^x in35n^k •'33 finnn Nvn' 
D^i5>n ^3« n''E'Dn nia'i> n^k ixnjnj t^i) D'NUjn b^ on^xipK fya ids 
Nnn D^Jiyn li^sp i^kI^i .ii> nann^ n^'v TTiisit □\-i^n nnxn nJ) j'y Nan lo 
p'tJOJ nr tiT'CN-in i.TniiDjJi rae'v D'pnsn ^nx n^nB* N^ii nii'^N" n^ u ps 

,'^^) '3N''i '^Kn ns irn'i ob' nj''3B'n 
riWNni'N n:s<n3D xnp^Nii) riy'SD^x disj^n » niiB' 'iix x' ■'lans 

f'Njn If Ni) ^^3 ona^XDo '3 dd^di pn^xv^JNi N^ajx^x boi) nnnjxi i5 
* risn'^^jx didj^x xdxi -pm^x nmi inax^x nax ri'nnx^x rinxyo^x 
nD3j mxni nx^pnxi nx^'ljixi nxujxi 'ao n^i^x ijxy ]oi rixvy^x mp^xi 
'li'X ri^Ti^JX pxi'ixi'X nvnnxi ri^Sn^'x px^jx^x roini nxi^ii' pnD jy 
xnnasmxi axn^iix nn p ^^mbn iisaijx '3 ixdjx^x nnBTi •'3 xnxj-i3l 
fnjriDn tx p'tan d^ji xmmi -nDni xm:J o^Sxa n»3xnnD^x ^lX^x^;i^x co 
p'c' nb ■'l^x x-i2j^x fi^xli^x n\xno^x3 T'vn3 xmxTix bpf) p xnnxi3 
'3 x'Jiijx •'3 -jix^inB axixijx xn<3 yajn xi^i x^c x.tb yn^ jx ^p'o^x 
.IDT' ntj'ni D'ytni d'V x''3:x^x iiip^ iiDairr' dx^jSSx ^e>^ ]')&t xoyiix 
nou'' ID!:' T^ynai i^j'' icnai xa ■jB'na i>xpi .iix xiii i^'n ik'CD'' {jxpi 
njan ixii ixs''i 'ip3 iixn yapxi rii'TJD oodxi ri^xn oix '3 niSx^x •'si 25 
mnai 123^': "''' B'xa^xpi.'Ji nion xi) Dny^in •'2 •'a o've'ian D^cjxn 

1 the usual reading is nVT I^ISB' •\:il13n IH nt JTTni 
(n' HB'-ia nai Xlp^l). a read XIXID.s read onCJ'- *read ri-iE'iiX. 


NTHJi NmoK fihi^y njnnijx i)nx p nnx D''i'i rij^o^x 'b p y^DJ t<njni 
KB' IS ii»N '3D KrinNa xn^ mnp iiSjk xnospD nna n's fKmns 
KD3 fi-'ipB' N0N1 HTyo KDS bpmns nnDNia nxT ■'i'S Nn^jpr ;« 
ispriDni ri^viB^K noxiN^s ^a i^dd ts xn'^y ajsi^NS .nnaonas 5 
einNvei'so isrni n"nKi5xi5K Di^'vi'sa sUnm n"BD^si5X nxnx^Na 
n"ns^Nf!K niDx^sa naB'nni n^ma^JD^K fiisayiiNi Nannni i=i"jNnnSN 
nsiji iKnn^Ni nni)Ni ;s3j^n int 's n"^jDi>N ii''t<"iDiiN3 T'vni iij xn^^v 
nmi p3t<^K n3« rtcsniss nnxj?Di>Ki ncsn^K ns'n^N3 tNom^K lo 
NO n^Nl nonin iv DNmsijN ^mni miivn \v in3Sk^n r5j)n nd t''i'"'^i^>< 
nriK-i N^" t'v N'3JNi>x niiNp -IN ■iB'3 3^)? '{jy-iDi N^1 njtDD jiN N^i nsi I'J? s<i> 
ni'jjs TNn'i) njQv ib-n 13112 3t no ijxpi .1^ nanD^j ^E^'JJ'• Tn^it D''n^N 
nipo3 Dip'' 'oi " 1^3 n^v'D i^Nl SfiD '3 ^xpi .mN''mjj-i3 D'Din^ 
piv ^yiai D'on li'in T'B'np ■in3 pt^^ '» T'i'nK3 -lU'' ■'d -" i)xpi .-ji iB'np i5 
vfiu iSd iiNpi .'Ji njJT iny-ii) iiB'y N^! uc^ fiy i>J-i xii 133b nox -am 
n'nr D''i''3B'Dni ^xpi ■n-iKi:i n"3 D'aiion 'ajjo i^d "iij 'jy t^'V nrmn 
l^n ''3113 D« '" ION na f>Npi •D^'iyi' 0^33133 om 'pnvoi v'p-in imts 
irai nt^D i^id^k -i-jo^x n"D^Ni .n^sn nnoiyn ju oo^no i^ 'nnji 
Dip^N 'T D^ 1^ !'<'? Nn3Npvi niisi^N 'S 3sini's< p Tin33 niiij np rr-y 20 
ND3 3ii'p^K 'B^j 1JN3 b Qrb HBca tlNi> niiNl I'niivn'' mvy •'B n:!N 
n-i'iia nNn'iiin onh D"y miiiB 3bi ycnni i6ti nnio Np3'' d^ njx no^y 
Dvna irnvni) 'O^n ^3 1:'? y\ab n^sn D'pnn b ns niB'y^ '" iris''i xnjD 
ns-iNiii li) 3D" lyois i>Kpi -oob 31di tvnn jyofi n^ni ji'iti)o ■'b ^xpi .nrn 
iii>'iui!N -iXDys^N n1n3 ''jy ini asija •'O'l ds'd'' ht tyo^j ijxpi .d^'D'' 25 
^Npi .nnsDn Dn''i>y •'mpBi nps Dvai ^spi .fii3Ni5N Np3 ^b]i rnneoijN 
D-'yjf'N 'iiK fi»K''N p li'K'i N1D TinxiNa Dinn noy did3 sin K^jn 
n'hv fn^ «nt»-i rh'Jis noT ■|!>N'i3i .D'^n^n SNlyfis '^n ix o'po^x 


-\ven * niD3 \f''i6 s n ntrvn no TPtrs imi ^ ii> i>VE5n no '. npiv 

nn^^j) iiSan^Ni onS fi-iajn^sa nma inS'i' i'dSk^^x pht -yni on n^f>N }n 
5inK po^sS^K INI J^^D^Ni5^«1 nss^Ni niii>Ni ^isi)^ Kfins od nit6 nsv^K3 
•\D3' Dim Nim 'vn nsvi 's n"i>i 'ipa nnc^JN 3Npv!'i' ximN oruNfj ^i3N•^{) 5 
nnxET^ ytJ'D ^y nnijn \)V snj tid3 fix 'o n^aj fsxpi .01 rcnc'' n!)! pv 
naxi) i^Nl Njn3'iQ .d^iv^ nox x^ '" ':x Ton n 'vni on ^xpi .ini'm 
nnxp '30 njx ''f':)i ^ . . . . ■.^y fjsnji n^'vyj ix xjbr x^ t^ 'iij? « x'^d Dxisa 
iD3n uh 1^ pnf'XvS'Ki x'^ix^x f])2 hap npi .t ht ^'?v o'<h^ ... fiys' jk 
ii>i 'sx XI ^3 n»-i3 -inS'^ Dn^ nsn » id . . D3xid Dip? '3D n'?'?« p^iii 10 
irnipis bv i6 'ip3 nnnm i^jj; x'jx xonx^v "bv !'3nj d^ pn^xx X33 
x'jn^x ixT p ^pn:x ps .Duin Tom ^p '3 yizh irji:nn D''ii''aD unjx 
anxlD^xi nmnvi'X sxnxiixi n"in^x px^ixiixi Sovi'xi D^jj^xa xi>DX3 
xp3^xi sxiii^ix -ixnii xpnnoD tt<3 fiay^xi nipnijxi fiionfix 
n-i3x^x '21 xoDx^x x'JiS'X 'a dxj^x mxo xd^jj^x fvs i^xpi .D^xifix 15 
i>»x3 xini x'Ji^x D''d: ■'ha nn4''''i^x pjiiixs nhf\i2 tx3i x'pnx^x 
d!) x'vxjr x^nx3 xvpxj x'jnisx ;d 3i3 jxi 3''3nn^xi nxnxijxi xSyx^x 
n^nD 1X31 D''i'X^x ^aiv'?'? xpnnoD JX31 D'j>3^x n^xl \a x"t5' pnno' 
'isx 1X3 1^1 noxim n'xSvxi nnxSx xvpx: noxioap ■in4'''''i^xp33^x3 
fiipi -npi xf> isx5>i>x i^xi3 x'iiiix ixn 'a ni)D3nD'' np' xi^a nnxi liy 20 

.xnxW f>Dvx Tin X'Jiijx 'iix ■'jitvx 
DBJ^x 1X3 nx'ii •'i'X nx'xi n^j^x xjpai 'iix x'' d^vxi 
ei'iclsx ^3'n^x 'In xn^ p^3 'j?ni '3n nS^x jxi nxnijioijx ^incx 
nmxiji 10 xn'a n^xSryxi nnx^x voih anh nx'ni n^a xn:3axi 

3, read nxun. 2 read 13. ^ read 1^. * before -I1D3 B'"'xi> 

insert np'' ^T'0 no IX "b inn no npnv DX. s read 

NJOnnOD XDxi'3. e read n'lijD, 7 read pi)X3i>X. » add XB' XD. » read 
IBin. 10 delete xn'D. 


'pap jNS .D'i'cn' niTinn iLnaic ipa onp^iK axii 3K2dn 2 r6ai p nt3d 
nsni'' nnjx nnisv 'a pao npi pD^s'ii'N pbi n^^K i^nx nd {I'sp 
n^ ^ip nS-iK 'a pios'i nixay ;i»^i"i nnusD 'i^j? Knnjivi Dnn"sj?D 
Dnp^5 '3D nxa^x |k khjob .n"'''ninKi'Ki'N rioan^K p niji i^nt ''a jk 5 
-ii:J« '"i^x Dn uxna ri^sjJoi'K nNniNi nj;e:o^K imsa onyar^ 
riKT ^n^^ D3Td 'ipa od n^iiN •'^j? t^h Dnoajs "■i'V onaiiia onoajNa 
p^ja -20 nnnan iNnSNi) Dili's '" on: 'nnj DK'Nnn Dam btip) .Q^b 
•'•mvbti !D r^D^JK rxora pn^xv^s fi^^sa i"ann Tmi" psxy^K 
KnjDi ."'SNy^K i3-in^i y'Noi'Na ^prh's NDn^Ninxa dkjIjk pianvi 10 
'ipa DnSya ona m^fri k'ji^k ixn •'B pni'SS^N mNay Dna jnnD''i> 
IB Dn^ %a OD n:n Tim Drr'jB^ yns' '"1 ytno yna' vtn ^j"! on^K 
"by nbba mxa' 0^5 li" r^'sp^'x ^ip'' n^S Knjoa .rioan^K p nijii) nno^K 
jfopi n^ncKD anbu'i b■DV^ axn xoai ]N3i> nbniDK\ naipjj^sn ik^q 
njK^! nDXi p Dupniabaz -nxa' ms ps t** f<"Joi .nniDnni nmny 15 
HDaj •'bv ii'^i'' IK i5« -\bz ■'ba n:o ann-' ix ^psibn it< nioi'S .T'i'V nt^a' 
'30 nsa^Ni fiijiiD^N -j-ini n^Jxyn^Ni n-nxaa^N ^^vii'N'i n^on'e » ^Ad 
KB'ai N^i -ipa^K nSi niD^N tixa' xi) nNasSs nln to '"la n:i6 i^Nla O'i'a 
B"N inD' DK 'ipa nnSapi m' 'a njx^ * ann n^i nie nxvj? p ifiy 
Tjao n:x"i inno i^« njx D"J? r^•'^b^ bKp^ .'" dx3 ijnin nb 'jni DnnDD3 20 
G DB> .31 5 •'jn:n D^ u: 'i^ inc ''s:a nb'n -ji nns* dc d'ob' pdn dx n-i3K 
IB'n ^N laiKi Nifx ^xpi .miNO ^ narna Dva n^^^i idd tch'' n^ icn 
»Sjn .D2B'Ji K'n:n nx nivs db^ D'n ypnpa dk iiNpi /ji 'jaiE" 
'B* n^K'i p 'vr\ n^j^ D'-f' ncsji) mil nyaja kdn ix pns ;n ixDJsf'N t^ 
DK 'ipi ^T:^v turn '•a Kvn 112b •> nnx ns^i if) « nnoan noan dk 'ipa 25 

1 between 'jran and "IDIO insert D3'3a. ? read ni)oi. 8 read nfiflD. 
* read Kann xfil Knia. ^ read ijnjn 11' DB' DJ. « read DJ. 7 read 
na-cna TiK' DVa. s read n»3n. » delete nns. 


■)ni>N"i ^DNaJ'Ni ^nD^t?! alafiKi -ic^n pb iv od ntjna ni'N'i natyx n»i 
'3D n^^K jiya 'In nfis-iai .nnac" KDivn^^'itV kjkhj njs^ iNnnaiiNi 
DNpnjN^N n^Nla .nnacN ndi nn n'3d 'Jin "ipa ne* ftDpj fisvy Dip '^y 
riNvy^Ni I'oi'NSi'x ID DNpnJN^N \i6 ri nSs fini p ma ie> njN i"3n [ni 
^riD p^ys' Nf>i Dna inaw DnNioi) xn'ii DnnK'NO |"nDn!» Dni) ntS 6 
'JipNH N'pn Ni>i'Ji nuyinn b ns^a tiNnB"i''3D n^iiN i>ip3 T'<i'''K 

WlDB'i DnNCjnl 'ip p3pNVD^N3 fl-l3nV' !« 3J' pD^NoiiN IN l n^DjfiNI 
^■3 -14 n^iN-i 'B D'5> {ilpja -IB' 'HI yN3D^N1 DN'nijN pSi D^ i>ip t^a 

)DinS 'i^N fw NDxa .DNji'N ij? ria^Nii Nnmji3i Tits' ysNio xn'a lo 
N^i^a ftahn nil 'iiy n^x nnio^Ni f\'\i'?'? yN3Di)N iiaN iuioa Dnvaxjo 
noBi n^N-i ID fnD^Ni N3i^8< nfiini vSnidIin njaym ■'ihSn m^jni' ni'Nl 
'•if'N ns<"n^N psnt^K p3 'liiN dd^n od nN3i'N* i'yi li'Nisi .dnSj^jn 
3''3"in^ yBNJD N^'N NH'ai Nnn"lJN Nn3 i'lNjn!' dhnid^ T\'?'>ti unbvi 
Nnm3'i npi .-iko^n tndjn p « nNDiDoljN 'Bjij no^Sy^N nxpNnni'K is 
N'jnf'N 'a '3D nhba anbvi j)N3d^n li'N'isi .Dn3n3 ■'a n3dn^n aabv 
nysin npi nDipi pyna '^y i^nt p^dn nd3 nxvy jd 'Sj? Nnpi>D' njj^N3 
{jxpi mtyn rrin nx D33 Tini'B'ni n^ipa risvy^x a^pba ■'^y N^p^5i5L3N3 
'ji nyn n^ni -i3ii 3y'Ti 3-in D'yin 'Daty ny3iN o fin '" nox n3 n'S'n 
n3ny'' jd ■i3ny'i n5>v:' |d niivr?) T'i ahtiyhn 'a t<ni) nnNinsi mjj 'na 20 
3"i3^^ K^i np'^i^N '•a '?'it< •\tiht6 d''^ |n ''3N n' nv ipa .pnno' id pnriD'i 
moD pin iDi>iy3 n'spn n-i3 Santj' 13'SD i^nI ia i)"r 'Dsh^'n ni>xp npi 
niiB'^K rnii3 njD irunn 3l3^Ni D3i>D nniN onu din ■'jac xib* 
nd noi'y ipi .nhnb-jdi Nnmn3 ^ivn ini \nNn^N n:D yianni ^vsyD^Ni 
nnni Tin Dn3-i3 Dns nindh ndd p3'iN3f'X n3 n^^N -^31 25 
nD^ iiNpi ■':^ rijn M'bv Nun n^ii wn t6 idn"1 '"3 •iB'n3 ^xpi 
Nit5'i> "ip3 n33D3 ei'^D^'N 'prw iNi>3 niyn npts' "131 djib'5> 

3 read ri?DJ^t<31. 2 read DlDD^iK, 


tiny itn c'c ima -ba i>3D iniK piniD pK o^y-i onana viiy I'jjnoB' ■'d 
nuv n-^c nvni>i na'nn ijais nrtj' id pnb' Dipoa ^ax panj; Dnns px 
pniD li'S ^3 Km rr'DB' nh'i ^na1 B"1p p ^dud Dipo3 -ins tibi Jtn Ki> 
irKB* ija bh:>r\ nr jj^dk xpn ni^yDi mi^j? e'^c pa spni icsk abi xan 5 

.inain n'' D'ain nx k-vid irK lana a^ino 
nii)s<p ND mar jd yn nbbti istn ona^x -ix^js 2 n"N i^ nv npD 
ND'sa Ncijn xa-iKj; kj^qb x^ai 'y \ti niav mi)!?" sikvik p is"! Nas^N 
'Vn nSiiK n' ra na mpn' kdS nq-inv kdms kd^kv N"'pnD iiji Tj; r\bb 
n"'^i^Qai n^Dvnai mina \n'h'\ a^'h vivv xini NnjJNXB n:D piCT px p 10 
^'sSai>K txn npa i^kI n^ nv Nl^a .-yn nb'? N"pnD y ;x no^y kdi 
Tpa ihais jxa ilxa /ji D"n yy na "ipa na"n n^vn iKDii n^ mniNi 
^^y r'Dj^K j'Kin KSpn ini rra nir )« n^ Nj-ra mpn nx ni'x pnnos 
t<"pn» isa iKva^n n' ^y nain msai -Nat t iiy mat fb^Jo i""? 'ipa nn' 
^ipa ^f'^51D fiyo'i n'sij n'oyi nn^ '(jy j'Kin^s 'vp' "ina ni) Na'-xa n^l? 15 

.HK'yn'Nn' pv-i ■'b-iba 
nstn^K 'iix nbba lalja riam^K nln imx p pan ts "'ax n' pnsa 
'Dy p D'ii'X n'N3 No^y^K idI npi .njKDnsi nnDma nsoa^N naj^i 
NmpriDD T-J ''a natajiss hvi' •'"i^N ■'Jxr^'Ka ni^nci npnnoD T'J D^y^K 
NHJD 'i' K.-npnoD T'J "B naajijN ^yxi ]i6 na^py nSyx D^yijs yS' Sa 20 
■'f'' t^a npnnoo tj 'a D^y^K ^ysii iroo ^:vii no'^t i^v^i n^jNODi mix 
•^p^ .n":ND''B' riiiv msva fioan^s y"Si Kny"Sa n^jKnn i=i-ni( t<ni» 
Knyjon nSi Nmo^ina Kn^nx tj rioan^N loyn k5m Noanf'S n^wp 
tKD3Ni5« IS Knxja^i n^x ^'sh^x rrin p kj^ nv npa .omo^ina NnJins 
Nna ^^?^a Ni'a Knyoi nx^K n^ p^a njx b 'yni an pi'Nai'N nS ^yxa 25 
-inE'^K )kd:kSn p^Na n k"ii31 nSip "in p njn^e N-inf iNva ib'^'K "^k 
yi pD^B* yn Dis i^Jip i>nDa "inE'i'N loan yn fiiai) ]i6 iB'i'N pf'na t<i> 

1 read 'O^. 2 read ^^«'|K. 


K-13J 'inoij -lE'SNT nD3i nnaiDH p nisa -iuv n'i'B' nvni) 'ik-i ijpi xiiDnj 
K,Ti nite'i nnai mp p ^d3d Dipoa "'NII bx xpir p ^ny 'sd ti'ba 

-1313 Tino ^j'KE^ 'D i>3 ^bn nt pnoK Npn nnx n'i'B' ntryj iti-aK ^hs 5 
N'-i'iD u'-KB' miYon iib^ y^jn xh ndjjd inain n^ D'3-in n^ n^'Sid irs 
ntj-ss nH '3 •]'yn\ inn dvi njB* m^y a'b'if po i'3K )n3in n"' Dunn dn 
)''jjiD T13V n''i5t}' Nintr nojan jtn miij<B> 0131^03 u'sd 3ib'i ."■dt tsb' 
inN iD''J3n 'Km ni)NB> inx "i3T ni vnnn inx D'jsni'i x'sin^ ino innx 
"pji IB"'! pns nvrb yi-i a'pn d''de;'3E' ]r\^2ii'? '?ti-\a>'' ns hsidb' ''d vnnn 10 
Nioii ID noKi 'ji '■ni'nj •''? nn^n idik 'n3n vbv p ij'n Qki 'an bo laua 
DV3 pB* bi pjn U'KB' mi'B' n3''nn 'jd^ nnion nr 3m n'otyo ^luit: -13 
'DiKmin'"nijijB'B'iD3 KiTb* nusn'i'B' ti^'>2' nvjynn diui nmaan 
Ti3 iiac nsj ipnai ipt nn"3vn p ipn in'3i mB'3 nyr ii) c'l 1^ pxi i>SBD 
b xnB'n wniiu vt db' v^jj; ns' h'?& idis "3s hnj ip-is 'xd Dvi) nsioi i5 
HDiD lux mlje* 1 i)3K imx pp^DOB' pB* b xi) viiy \'::-\a panv irx la 

nU1B'n3 13'SD SIB-I .D'31Q1 1'jpinO VB'VDB' IDt3 iniN \''pbD12 I'NI Kin nB'3 

T'abn DB* B"i ini8 p^T" 31JJ li'ipi 2 13 P3D n3''nn 'jap mvn nus n'^jc 
ynvn 'DanTD^in onip Dno nva 3ny i^ip pxi min3 in'^i NE''i>yT'B' 'Dsn 
nnis D'Dvai p3D u'ni 313; i^ipB* 'jbd mip Kin dk min3 jn'^i NB-'i) 20 
DN1 Dnip min3 ]n'''?) NB"i'Vivn ■oarn'oi'm 'Dk mwa x^Bf Dn3T 
N^ U'NB' KinB" ynv inB* 'Dt3 3nv i^ipB* 'd vnnn inx tdvb' sin nxn 
TiiD IK'S pn B^B* iot3B' unoi) liiN b^D Dnip 'D3n Tol'n iN^ DNi nyiD 
D'DB'3B' Dnusi) i'N-iB" p3 ns-iDB> lus H'^B* iniK pB*!!;! n3''nn 'ja^ ims 
pxi tnbva nbvov 'nii inioa KinB* 'd abti vnnn nns cwni) ab^ 25 
D'lB'j; po D'ninaB' tpt 'K'i>o p'nb' Dnyj iuv 'nii'B' ns'nn 'jai) inmo 
•UDD finj/B' tpr B"N uoD einv B^B* mpD 13 b P30 irxi ^nji^BNi n:& 

1 delete i>3N. 2 read p3D IJ'N. 


DK' |D 'nn na!)n3 t6\i> minn p n^bn rtiMin hv^ \'''^ri ^u'j; bv ab^vb naz 
•Qsrha b^p^ iiiax noip pb) nb ^'li'NS onpir nd ^in' kS' ini nyNDJ^xa 
vn^ici) j;-i jd^d iuv n^'i^B' dni ^b n p'D nyoi nTnn '3b^ laij?."! b S"t 
SD^sv '3D n^^ iipno 'T t^ii^v n^^e' tixvix pi .inioa ons W ini^B-c 
issjnDNi riNJNJD p 'vn n^^N n^ p na onpn'' nd^ ns-ikj; NJpno xo'na 5 
NiTjNVoi 1 nj^x TDsn ID i^xn T":! onpni ^^^nni i^toni n^aoni niiyiD' 
ynvi KiyNsa riJD rnry pN niDj) t-i ar nd3 nxip^N innm NnnNtxJDi 
VJi IB''! p'l^ ^<.T^^• invi n^npi^i n^E^'n^aai n-DjJCjai mina in'^i NB-'i) 
my i^ip n'n i^^sx naTi.T ••ja^ mn niDJ3 -i3yi p n\T US' Dxi •'an bo lam 
ncKi .HTiNJE' p bv nb^p^ 'bv n:nj -\V'2 nnN3 'n^nj nrr'n 'DIK 'nsn vfij; lo 
D'Dj?SB' 3-ij? ■\b^p 1^3X1 )i3n irxc n^^B' ns'nn •'jaf' inion nt i)''! 'D3n 
5!KiB" ns p-imD NXOJ1 vbv inyi nnmi miB's xi'B'Dnai ioini pjn ij^kc 
p tP'i in'^i ipr IN iJ-)3tB' nnon b n e"i -iin3 n''n dni a'a^^zr dhund 
vnns pjj-iD Dyn pxi inn^^a vi dc vbv nv' Ni'B' nxj ipnai ni^ayn 
SD3 '':aS nvDfj in^ani nacb^ nnnji n^yD^JD 3inN nr ■'in D'yi Dnnns 15 
n"3pn nvnn'c n3 2 3niN NiT'E' ^nvl d''dbob' jiT'SNi' i^NiB" nnoi ni33n 
)bnr[ nuion nnon i53 u NiTb* t-iv i'N-i:*" i^y LiaiB-i ]''n T'dvdh -i31 .udd 
nxB* Dj? KDO D'ja Lj"Oi mnn d'ja I3"d vt'^i Tsni) jjit'B' tn''^jt invi 
'3-ni D'T'oi'nn 'D3n uajr nno jjaB* tiJ3i nn'ofria 'Dan udb' nnon 
nnan ^3 rum T'h^n ■" ■'ja^ d^dd nh'B' ns |in^3 'Ddh '^n ''3-ni Dii'B'n 20 
n''i'B' fixvix p nS'n 131 npi .'" nsn' nD3n n^B'Nn ob* b'ni3 q^db' hnt' 
■li5Xl3 yanri) 'vn n^^N p'aina mvjoi NmB* i^Ni p yoix in nd iuv 

.nij^iN NB- [N n^b ripi p 
■T nuv n^^B- nvnb 'ini upt nIjofij p3-i un piNvi^N si^d^n i'^p 
^B' Tj? ni^NB' nniBTia ij'sdi n''m3 anzbm hjb' DnB-y p oniB* nj) idin 25 
naxfioi inoB' oroysi nns x^x na'nn 'jd^ irb b':ry 'o na r'SB* ^xib''' 
'nhiy iBTB* ino upr xiiDnj x^i iB'y yns'i'i iB'y hjidb'!' onw na b'''1 

1 read riJ^i^X. 2 read 3inx. 


'B* nxriKi n'^y djjjk jdi 'vn n^tsK n^n xna toTT n^ riWi 'jkj?di rianB' 
'3D nxai^K t« nv ipa .nmva po Dnoijy rnin ici nujs^n p nhd^jj? jd 
Dnj3D Kab mx ■':a p n'ji^k it<T 'B ^l^n ie'^k xdjki "ib'^n P^i' D^ 

pLJi^JK p t^DJS^K pD ^ii IV n^^N jx ^^N•^ ^JKiiD .NnB* rnxsa xnT'j •■a 5 
K03 pDjn mu ana 'I^n naNna Nnp^^i n^nxui n-iDNit<ai .Tia'na pDri» 
cbn Niaj; n^^N nm fn^KV^N f-va i^ipa n^xl nats'K ndi Ni^a na ^sr 
i'tsKa^Ki isnna^Ki nit^JNi ala^x ^Nfio ■ji'Nl nya n^ana d^ids nao ik D3ja 
nB'taa-ji'X'iiai .kShd Kna* noN^a nsva nnyipi dkj^n ria^lpi Dnr^si 
'IIjn yxaiijK niip ns^<^^^5al ijiio^N 'In '^j? noxin ''psa n^KDunoKi m^a lo 
DJj fan^i ri'ina'a^K nnix^s riowpxi' indjn^x 'a w hi -iNaijx xn^yi 
KinxB' linn axnaa x^x^n n^xl ^yi' jxa nnyic "'a moNi iDnx^s 
Tij '^j? naj Nlxa f^iso^x y-iK'^x n^ xn^n' ndd rijxno nN-iaxa xnnsi 
aN^K'^^5 antn Dxyto^'N ^ax "'nn xiB'n^K'i ixvi x:it npa miK'i'K nin 
n'''?v nnnxi no^xi noanx nnpi tj '21 nnjxn pia [XDJxi'x nj?a ijix:n xlx 15 
"-pxa i^jxlai .xSno xik* i^jxIb naxSn aao jxai xponDxi Dxiixi yxiix 
XD1 xna 7at:^xi raai^xa yanri xmiSa 'ino'' d^ nx nx:Sx ^nn X''i2'x^x 
riyajD n^J^i nixn Tji) xnijyt^'n x^rx^x xna pin'' !x noyi i^xl bxc 
'3 xna^n'' xnnxni '^v xn^iixjn xix nxmim^x ynii .xnc' "i^xl nxv 
ixx npnnooi n^nx tj ''toyx 'ix a^yi'x 'nn xnc mxv xnyixia tj 20 
'Dani>x "li^xp npi .ni^l^x njy fiaipy xmjiaxi xnyaxsxi xn?a4yx ini x-ib* 
1^ yion xi) 'jc?* n-iK'x yta: i^xa jun irxc Tabn TDjJDn b li'X'i ■'a W 
lir x^ xDa 'na'a nxoai D^xy^x •>•: -iiie' njD nnn^a 01 )*y b mt^x 
•'^y a'xvD^JX naaoa n^^x ^tra ^^•'a xd^S^jx 'a DaS'i D^y d^ xoa ^oyi 
nxDH b bv n^e i>'p ili>x Daj p DyaT" fivp p noiiy xoa n^iiba bna 25 
nxian nunn nx x^Dnon ijai ^xpi .^xne" nx x'linm xcn ntyx Dyai' 
-inax navj p^i n^ i>n^xa nan"! 'nai n^D^n aif:i jx fivxai u n<i^n D-iann 
3-in ^"T 'Dani>x ^ipa n^jxl isya p -icx moxa D^jxy^jx 'by x»i 


'itivhtt fan 'a nnmaa DDpni eiis^s nxpiK •'b DiDn^Jxa dsjI^n ^5e» pi 
p^D^K fani nS>j^ki i-inljK p y^xSa^JX ikj;dk i no iiinn ''l^x apini 
n^^K3 livj "l^Nl 'a ND^v^K fya i>ip3 -ina^JNi -ai)t< iQirrNia^Kio 
Ni'N *'>Kp npi .^JNo^JN fi-ina ijNp -|i)Nl ndi n^ b^p Dz:bn pisn ]d 5 
isntJ i^Ni 'a 3-ij;i>K nyNC bap) .nJNT nano d'Osj naio b'": D'Ojnf)K 
"JK N'' ri^DJ^JNai .i-iKnsN^K -a ipa^x bi ipaisNi n:: anma Nob Non 
nl^ Dnnoaji nn-iB'i cin"ni TKonisx m»N p x-ipai^N laniK np kd 
nislsK 1313 r^UB-o n-i3a^N innnoD fv^imo i^xn jy ^tvd3 ona ^xiDNiiK 
rinsi n1n3 «E)3a .n"j3k^« oniba n^K 'a no3 pn^t nmxyo 1311 '3D lo 
ani) nonpn rio^ij? 2 ^ij^ -^^xls '3D i-iN3^k Dni> lar N03-1 ipi .on^ 
n^^x eiD^ij n-iixjjN 3Npy p Dn^ bma K''Ji^t< intq i3piy-ip inxsa 
n^^JN p rijno i^xl jkq nni) N"jna nonpno 3iJl nn^ pan ub isi Dn3 
NaiKi fiicN in N)03 KHjj; Dnviiy^ij k^ji^jk int 'a Nn3 s du-ijd' 'vn 
n''3nD N^JN jnnD' n^) bh tj; ni'i'Ni t<''jn^N 'a n^N ^nion^k p N^yxi is 

.in3'' pnx "'■' i>Npi .n''3v '" 3nK'' -ib'x nx ''3 'ip3 ns^'^iKi 
li'Niai .niriN nd p -in3N n^jxyn p xai noi ne' in D^i) jx nv npa 
N^i n^JK-ipiiNi "iin-kj'S'Ni pjD^K inNin naij? nd^ nx^i^ DNi^i^t<1 ^^{j^k 
nnD3ni nni:t<f'ii NnyjNV nD3n Mp finyi i'^f'^NS n-insi^K 33Ki3i5x mSj 
^va 'a i^Kl p xaiD * nvu kd -bv NSiSi onaxa ri-inxD^x rnnx3i>s 20 
DXDix njJtopnij siNnj ni53 ixotSx [to 1^ ^i3J<^31 .n^^s ^bv ^311ni'^5 
No^^ IKDT^K ^iD WxiriDijN feySxi 13^x1 35;n^N ijxvns ID IKVn^K 
-iNva 'ij nir rx tijb" 'ip3 nnx-i Dui^x 'dd npi .fiyni nnxn i^Njn |n3 
iiNDynDK DBJ^K inni Knonyi ha^nbn npa in D'i' niD^x is '^jji xn^i 
nnn Nn3'jDi dob'^k b -hj^x mj? ^•'^^ni ^nd^k onjj npa^Ni ddj^k 25 
-iNnoK nxjn3l nd roji' in5? 1« 'bv) KinijK '^y px^N bi D^v^a px^x 

1. read vo. 2 read K31J"i. s read mjn\ * read KJ"3. 
5 read nij. 

N^K Nmy n^Ni Nsn' ab kd nhnidj nstiDK^NJ ^vd^k hkivki iKna^x 

,ni>K^j iij Nnj113D1 KiT-INai N.T'SJ'JO 

Dnona tivii' Nrmp f\'?i6i^ Nnssu id-'H'' n^i I'DSsiiiN ]ti nv npa 
3Nly ID Nn^ijx Nn'pnnDD iipKJ njN od n'?'?ii |6s*i Knw Dnr"Dn ri^jpi 
Nnjrni nhoicji xnoioni Nmiai Nmni Nntj-LJjJi t<nyiji xno^xi N'jni'S 5 
''iiba ^HNi ^ni^x jd j'si'ai'Xi Nn^nxa Nnn^pm sn^Nin xnTNVDi 
dSj ib'^n tx ox X'' D^jvxi .xmnv xvnn x^j 'n^xnnB'^xi non^xnxDD^xi 
-iB'x b nx D'niix xn^i naxna d^hd "'B i>xp od rijxij -yn n^ijx np^ii'' 
nfjx mx •'J3 X0JX1 rip'ijiiS'x ■'s n^ Ssx xi) -ic^xanxDaiD njm nw 
rhba xjn"x 'ox x* D^yx .xsid ni'xl p -lalJDi m^ysi nuaoi nisii lo 
iixp np IX 'ijj)! OD nxa^ix np''^3 's ?vx n^ iB'i'X \n n:a m-12 "ix'xi 
xjs-ijr XD i"aja .n^x b nny '" 'jx yn xim di^e' ntj-iy x''3jx^x 
.xni) ni'Ssni xj'f'v njxnao nxn^x pa xjxid p xao^yn xdd n^xn p 
'5)^1 xnb x-1^5 xnxjniis ryi ^j r^bba p'ubi vai xjnsvn xjx n^xli 
fix'n^xi nioi'Xi DxS'Si'Xi x'Sisxi ixnj^xi Wiix ^no riinxSno xnmna ix is 
njx nnnan 'i^ri nn'jxnm 'i?!? rii'xWxi' ni'S'i nacx xonpai'Xi xjjI^xi 
rioan^xa f-xm' D^ to ix ^bv) ^ itr i^x"i is hv^ XDi mil "'B'i'X p^a' 
DnSxTiix ri^p^ i^jxIi xnnaK« xdi 'n ib' dx^S^jxi -ips^xi nio^x [x 2 D^:r 
XD ^bv ri^inx^x noam f-no i^a ins nio^JX x»xa .fiane'^x di^jj^x 'a 
xiB'iian xij ncani'xa .'3D n^^x ■'bv i'aiin^x ^xa ''b xanta n^xl id x:nai so 
nvjsi OD nxa^x xan xd p njiax nn^Sa p laa -il^x jx 'ijiJi x-fa isa 
nn^''SB pa .xn^va naxj iIji xna p'ijxi ona paix nxT xdd mxaya 
mal jJDpji xi? "inn n^ pycxa od nxa^x ^^x pixrinD naxnvx ix 
fi-iDa^xi riJDy^x p x'jjx^x n^a xd fix^a xnxnji x^^^ onnxiax p 
xspx xi5X i^si lij •'l^x n^a an xoa ^jk'^xi -yn ni'i>x ia1 ]v ni'aj^Ni 2> 
ipnxB*' tx p la xiii dhnid^ nianxn on Ix ■'B' k^ '^y Dna Dnn'ja 
I'ii p pjDX nxpaxiix ^nx -j^xlai ••'n Dnpixa sn..ix Dnnoyj 
] read XiL''. 3 read Dyt'. 3 read fiDyj^X. 


3-ip Ko siiN aba p'arr'i nva' mp' n^i -is3^k riDNnas ,T^^n^^< riDDino 

■n^^sn^x nxiSK^Ni pi'NisijK nxivx ix ibzha ^a^^ ^no ajjvi m nd 

pjjiiK rinp i^jxiai .nonj eiD^^ •'ini'K ni5Kl3i .xnmK-in dxibk^ nxj^x 
-i^Dni>jo pny ' jx >bii xbia ^^N^ pis ndd nj;d pnob pisD' nnp' i<b 
B^Kcn^Ni xuiisi nxisyx^x bx' iip' x^ ooino .Txij i>xl3i .dhtji 
ri^xniix 2 noonnD mias ba t^nn^x^ nc-j^x n^i D'xna^KS niyi^xi 

.3'mn^K ribnyo 10 
s<l5i nnpxt: "'S nd pi2 D^y -\ip'' i6 xi'X njs H n^xi nv wsob 
'^y^jx iixp Ix i^jxl ^noa axn^^x paj npi .,-iniip 'a xo pisa D^n' 
.■"m Dnxn ijxt x^ '3 ^ja nx rnxnij bin x^ D'j; 'did no^bi" xbx^x 
'JXT' -i-'p'' D'b 'nxl 'iix nijn ix p^Gnon xij jnoao^x yv2 i^xl idsi 
xn33n 'l^x xnnpxtD-np''^xbn-npn x^ dxih^jx liixiai .x'n'3''Dnx is 
nnp xn3 -\-\-\n i6 i^a^x riiipa -n^xi xid h'? thi od xnp^xi xn'a 
xna TTin x^ Dobx niipi DB'i'x rinp xnn i-nn ab vdd^x mipi yoo^x 
\ni DijJDyDn ripilo^x x^'E'x^x bx nm ^'3d^x nn •'b b^xi pii^jx rinp 
xn^i rianyi riniam riviajji riai-im rioiDii rimbi risioni finxnoi riixi'n^x 
yxijx "I noiD^D^x i^xl^i ■bi^ w niiijx x^x xn'sn' ab fwf\2 nix vna 20 
n^xiai .njv^i riJiB'^i nixiii riaxbi f^'aii ^••pni oaxn ao-n Tixai -ixn 
-;^x"i3i .■'jiiJXDDXi "lavxi liixi -lonxi tidxi f"ax 'm [xi^jx 'i fi-nSjo^x 
nxivx Ix nn tj ^^xa riiHDDo!5X iidnSx xoxi .tn:i a"D rvta fiDioB'Di'X 
."I^xi noi 'Dnxai njni 'Diyi my p onnxj^ -np '^y riai>n Jo dxjSjx 
nxiSKi xnD:i 'b ivc^x nxivxi xnoji 'ijy D'xnai'x nxivx i^xiai 25 
pxiaxisxi iSxl naB>x xni nxn^x aum niyni^x nxisxi xnoji 'b Dxn^x 
Tan .fyaa xniya n"jny»^xi rt"S-ix^x nxnax^x 'ixinvxi jux^xi 
1 read jX JV. 2 read riODino, 


num sSd5>k hkdb 'd hjd dsjn ySrio 'i^K 2-)5n in .te3 njK •'li'K ''in 
1 nDi>n3D DDxi'Di orytji'N ns^nio n'lJN .tdi N'nfiN d'dji kwSn 

TJI JKVm pNVOI 33X131 "IDpi Da{^'1 N011 Nt331 3N-|En nN3J1 INI^'N^'N 

3nN n's NJN ^l^N 'In 2 m 'tj nj j'jj^n nni) ^xpi) Ni:n^N d^jjo id i^kt 
N^i nn K^ "^N tis' Ni5 i;SiD 's 'jk^j Dm3'i nd )d '^ "insNi "'^v nnxi "^jn 5 
yiDDD pjiiiN 3Nii iN3^ ''3N N' H^Nl poN iSq nDD N^i nKn N^i nna 
l^Nl iiisn ]v n-i3S ispni n.ts » xnai x'ji^n "isna n^nj^ bapo n-iljn 
^Nn i^'N^'Kn p n^pj' ins nnf'xvD3 rtm vf\vti m n»:c< niiNisj i>j p^NiiiNi 
on'? nbnp no'? a^iihn nj3N 'sx x' n^Nl3i .nnosn naiin aa ■''?}) 
npo K''jn!'N ^isN 's nnrsi nrnxay pn nbhi^ nays 'dSn "^y * n''j;jx^n 10 

•ip'l DISJ^N li)' ND NiTD nnDN-|3 INT 'Q ^inJ^iN SNIJiijN D3i' nj?N 

lolsv' 0^)1 N'jniiN nsT IB m^3^K uoni xnjy ononD ni>pij Nnii>nja twi'N 
navon ruxs kd bxn np^ t^nb onb''?? ]V\ opD snnnsi up: snovJ }n 
f^ya NHD-i npi .bM Dnfrjn '"i>p DnT'A3 ^ uyjn nonsn njsa xo jinni 
riaxal jd ini i'oyl'K nn'si b^a kd lijN 'l^x x^jniiN^ ^ix ^spi pn^xv^N 15 
ini HDD^N NTS Dt'N ND N3lNi r^^1 p im -inn^N xn^s D3^ nd djjjni 
'3N K' riijDi^Nai ,^i3d p ^lao 3V xini nswjijs nh'b nd a^tSKi ri3NT p 
liini 1^1 NCNT NnjD r|4:ni'Ki si'ai'N ^i3t ftmba bun •<by xn'^s nj^'SS' 
xi) ND ^^5^pD '^s Diiiy^N 's indjx^n nn ]i6 nlvij rinisiiN iidn dnjIin 
BDino iNDJN^s pi>3 '3D r\bb» }« ^^sNl bum .npia ab' t<i)i nKnyn' -^ip^ 20 
7 DXDisb D'i> njN nooi « riru i^kt jea -mioK r»J "■£ iSsn^N 
DNDJxi'N !D n^JNl naCN ND1 jNisiaiiNi iiDjiiNi i)'ai>N DD3 iiriD n"aNi^N 
tl3i nnsni 3n^5oi naSi 2-: p Dnni'K ^Ao nniiN ab) nS^Nn^JS fi^axj^N 
'3 npSii b DNin^N ^?i)^ jsm^s s ^k:d i^riD nS'n ^yj xiji i^jni -i'ji 
n3''Ni>»!'N3 ni>i)N Nni>yj' d!) noa: ii'Nl3i .» rioDinD fti'n''Ba'ipniDnN 25 
NnyDiK3 ni)Nl3i .rnijxnijNia ncDino b D'snsiiN dbjk ^Ad t6\ iiyB^Na 

1 read riai'naD. 2 read ^3. » read N031. * read Ni33Ni>N. 5 read 
bvin. 8 read n"ja. '' read nNDji5X3- ^ read INJV. » read riDDIDD. 


n"Dn^K Hrb bap'' fi^hsba dbj^ik nh'^k i hSsbk xdd riyuD^K •>)p p n js 
ai'p'i NiJ^Ki DU^Ki iinsn^Na •in^''i d^jk^si 3j;ni>Ki ini'si ma^K aon^B 
pnii^K p nvno' xalj? xj3i> DrnfiK :s tK3 n^K m^x i^kI nb nbba 
TND p n'Q N^i DDT xiii n^sD K^i f DKH K^ii nijo's ms^niiK 's mso n? 
Tti in nSi ril'li'i'K nhnyoi>K fiailvijK xid N''cr nxDisD^K nxoivoiiN 5 
'bx niD ri^xni'K n'in 'ijv D''p''S pi>K n^by avv^s rnojo aipj^s n^i ^id'b 
nax rinp 1''3''n na Jinnnna fJD 'T mi ri'u-ini'K 'jd nb Dnn' dob' jx 

^bv ^11X3 i)11K DN^3l'K3 pD^B riptOKJ^N finp^N 'HI fl^ijaiiK DBjS'S lip ID 

n"Dn^Ki ri^DXi^s xDn^ys 'b pni>iiNi!K pniip^N nsjn .Dxiji'Xi JmniiN 
n3Nn3^s p n'^K ■'pba »o D^yjT'i pori 3-ir'i ^ax'i nMi 'b]i '^o-') lo 
riiip i''j''n n3 JiinnnB D^iniiK jb'' t« '^s n^l^y Tip kd f-Bmi nxiD^xi 
■iB'i'KiD -i''5i>s PD'B nsi'n^sns^iiKiiN''ipi'Ki^n ID 'i>ysi kbis n"iipj> 
'bn fiiti'l ^b« i^K'i 'B ini n"DiDKj5>.x nnn^si n'"V"iB>i'X j>i-i3i)x nDririi 
''^N 'j^si 'aba 'B i'D3"' jx 'Ijx XDi>vi xoiin nxnt's .rijD '{> p ts' ]« 
xips nnv3JD n"jxnn rinp •i-'j-n n3 nnnnnB .priD '^x mnj) 'nnr [x 15 
D'i'V^x D'an^x nisiix xmnp "Tiisx nn^pj 'in ;x 'i^x 'ip^JX I'x^ix p xbixi 
nln 'a n3Dn3X xd3 2 ipB> koki T^yo ''dx xiix^x nxn •'ba nbpys 
nvDJ pa' Di> ri-iix^x D'jJJ 'i'x nroi X'jn^x nin d'VJ mp ^Ixb .x'jtI'X 
niix rJ^^*< i^nx-i IX XD3 mDX3 nnn^x xd i^jx nD"p i1x xd nDpj3 
x'jn^x D'VJ ID fi^x ei^x ri'XD p DXTp 'in x^j hdx it23 'b x.tb ix3 20 
ri^xn •'^x fi^xn p ixdjx^sx f>pj' od ni'i'X ix xjnal xd3 i^sna .xmoxa 
x'jniix p n3m «inB'xi niii '^yxi ni>xn laix ri-iix^x 1x1 xriJD yaix 

.fiavi nn i^i ^ba riTna 1x10x3 
xnimivn'' tx mp' d^ji nnix^x iidx dx3!5X i^ni "i^xi nv xd^b 
's mx5?i x'JT^x iiivn pii'K i>n3 xd3 x'jnSsx 'b omxvi 25 
DmfjK 'b mxr x'jn^x Tivn pji5X ^xd' tx pDX i^b iu'dd Dm^x 
^y41» 'B ^B•^p1 T'i'X 3nx xd 'x ni) iixp^i nox tD3 'b 

1 read nSXBX, 2 read X'pB* XDX1 XTVD XDX. 


'?y nDiN'n mnaro ^sn tivt' canx pn 'ipa mjp tijen^ nf>JX3J^«3 
DEO Tinsi ijiiD D3ne-iE' TiVT' TDsni .DSTiiry fia ns DO'i'y npax p 

noDJ p mi's taf'Dl'N ysT3nDN!5 ■■asl'S p ma '^3? laba sn^s ana'a 
xy^y 3i'3 .riD3J n^NVoa ov^n fis-ivo p "iiisx nn^JKVoa asi'N riB-iyofji 5 
'a ipD ^eJNTj pn^ ih^Ki N3^ 3Nini)K 'T'^ dsj ria'^oa naspvi niit ^api IK 
'anci nN'pnx p ik^'NI KJ^yi' js ni)i)N* ^kdji .mav "" snx'' le^a ns 
on .nnwaT'ia «:!> ddS'I nnoma xrfij? iiD"' i«i riK'i'iKi nx'Vixi nN'ajN 

niiri'' Dixoi'K b'ishti 

IVI hi '2D nsa^K t>? n:D nna njk''ki ni>!'S inyos 'sn x' abv^ .Npa^si 
nijpj' ''■ii?N i!K^(5^5D jmni'K 1 aba ban 'Sjk ban p jndjk^x fjpj'' jn 

'D 'JD iNV Tin nx3:^Ki pxjJDijs '3 nnp^xa niiiD ri^DJ^xn onvo JX3 15 
na Annnxa om^x •'i'X ■':d nsDJ nox si's p '3D nbbti nbp:^ mijxi s^jx 
riiipfix ^^n ''DDn n"i'3i'X dbj^jx xnmxDX xdd nyoD^x riiip i^jx:;! 
.nJSo •'JD riatajfix i?n mxv 'nn noeiix at ••z i?Hin nnnsxB .n"!2xji>x 
Tin mpba ix35i5X D'3ni3X n'XJV3 imn^xB fiphv 2 mxv -[i'X'i nw dA 
ixaifix ny^x Tnpnanxnrn xn^s nnpi'x ni>ni » Dxijn 00^5 mxvi nonsx 20 
ni'pj"' IX '3D piixaiix -np ■'li'X npi^x iix''i nn"j3 onni nmiv ^oan ix '^x 
li'X'i p pnD p'Sx p ^i)XJ^ p nini-'s x'Jiiix d'dj '^x lijxjn p n'S 
l^Xl X1D xi)! Dl33 xi)! nap xi>l DDE' XT' i6 n'B 1X3 ■''i^x dI'Sd^'X D3ni>x 
''bv xniD''yj txdi riionbii xnD3xiiD"! n3'"'Di'X xrin^lixi x'Jii'X d'd: p 
nDXB:x p'Sni njtn -ifts'i ''33'' x'ljnf'X o'dj "^x n:^■^5 njya .njUB eixiriSx 25 
ribun p n!5pj x»jx 'SD p^jxi^x jx Di>v' ofii n^B 1x3 'li'x nxixo npais 
fiiip r\2 Annnn ■i''3''ns -nvsn nam •'bn nrii nsm pi fiii'i) 3 ni^xn ^bn n"jT 

1 read ''b«- " read mXV. » read XDXSyi XDn^i. 


n''!?!? NjmnpD rub nd -i''ndi m:i hdbi nf)'»i naE' niivo ^lia niivo^s 

's k::vkn Tpi^i .onpxiDx "3 ddnSn t-xd nnx^Jn' nm d'dt na'sn t"j? 
Nr^V 'ps KD^i innKin no bm xna ^!3■l^^5'5nl uyox kd fjja ^jhd "vnvd^n 5 
N»i ''3J^K Dn53i ND' lv^,• nua -.naj ■'3 ir "^ ■iot<''i nvp no^ynpi .fi^pa 

1^3^X1 Cipha 3K13 "'tis li^X-i ^NNI TIE^N 3}<pj?^X JO H^Xl lj;3 DH^NJ 

D«t,33 .„ -,,{3 ,-inp^ •'3 "ip3 3'NV0^« JD xn^jx: ND TON^K NS3 npi .ni!o:"xa 
'sxyD^xi niTsy^x id xvn'' x^ xd nmx3i> on |o fi''3D ,n''nxDn ^33 
njx: {opf'X33 ti'^x pjono x3J3i5i ndi^x iddi sSj^jxi nx^x^ii^xi pioi'Xi lo 
xa3xp:? ^yii .nnntJ'pxoo p -n3x xjcpxji xjxid ^b^ ah xd xjsb 
mtf^x p3D x»3 xjancn^ a^b njxnao nn3nt:^-i^x1i xjxid ^^y l^yj' dSi 
n.iu i^jxl lymp"' 0^)1 Dnnjj''-it'i X3nj;nK'ii5t<'i3 mne^ ^vsi^x ^iix -q 
inix D^pn ijjjo!' 'ip3 Ti V'l n3K xj'xsx^ '3D mjJi p p3D xo^ rivx3i 
xx-Q r^'no •'hv hii nnxD3'2D i'3-i3 x^no -[haib 2-\•ii^ .a'jb i^ nvn 15 
^xps .n"Dxvf'x xn3 xii^ n"p3 'Q ''p3 -i3xf)i nio^sx •<bv ^ i:no xomnx 
xSx 31E^'•' x^i 'Jx^D^x Kiiha xSx bx' x^ nn innx XDn!3nxi> 3'd^x 
fno^x 'jy "ini 3xiE:'i'Xi dxvd^x p ■'Ijnc x^i ixt'D^x3 'JiS^a^x 3x-i2'!5X 
x» ^3X"' nm''33 lix^x f-no^x •'In i3-inx nr\h i>xpi .nn"sxj? •jt' 'ISx 
nn"ExjJ p D"X ip njx^ x"t;> mj?3on xSi pi n^n xc xo 3nt;"i xe* 20 
? -i"n3 xr^i' isn hm n^ ^no" jx '■^j? ^ji x^yx^x iintD qd -iX3^x n^xl3i 
"'i'j; mvn'' D^ xo xnxiDi nsxjo^xi D3x^Di'xi 3-ixti*o^xi ^3x»^x p 
xr xo Dn^ ^nx on; nm nxi px ttid'i noy "ip3 cdx^x t-xd p xjxid 
x:xio f\by oh xod nT'n3 3 sib '3D xjDi53 li^xlsi .Dnxioi) ni^n^ d^ x!3D 
.'ji ^ij b^ 13 ni."y ah ^xib"^ vtoeroi rpn 3pv'^ V121 rm 'ipa xnisno 25 
.nnp3 xn'^s? xni?n p i'no' x^ njx D'pnv a'03K«i cpn xnxcD il^xisi 
n''^y xitrpxr ixvi .'Dxj '" nny ^xpi nx» ijoxj Tnny xnjj; iixpi 

iread X'JID. ^read ^I'jia. « read xajja. 


Divine n^^JK nem nb-i ma'psi rp 'no iy '" i dind connat;' cconi 
•3 D»n 2 ipyv "" njK "ly .ddidS' D'jinj Dvita nniM d»j;d •^f'^io D'-nni' 
5 iK'j;^ ns3 ^KyDt:'i •* dd' D33^ D»n inaoi -dd^ maiv D'ljtr hdd n? 
nfii^N nDn-" "hn mm' '-iSi '^^j'lp li) ■^ irafjo ■" .unp' nnian';' nr -Donna 
10 D'Dia D'jJT 9 inntj-i en '.hn .-nj 'msi 'iiN k3 s i^i i^s idd' '^jn ie-'3' 5 
D''3"i 'JDiD oTTri pp !"'3n!)j -nni .nMa ck i'k k^sid " Bioi'i.'nDD 
Dj; TiJOB' iB'D 'mj '3 'b ii'is -"iw noni D'aipvs '^ 12 q»3-, 1311^1 
n3 1'pftNi in: n» Keif's .ri'^nji ri'KJ iV3 '^K ii>x'i bf)i2 ^1131 -n'p 'isnx 
pi'K ^bii n-iiHEj^^K fi^5n N^ 'i^N b'^^ »y nN3"!i< ■"ysiD p nb i'ipnj?Di 
NJJ3^ nil 3K p Kr^x n^ipji2'5N riDiKvisx Dn3n3 'd n.iTiDi'K !<''3:n^}* 10 
ps3 Dnvn3 nxt dj eixi ao "153 wpiiin rixxii fiatsNp xj3^n^ kjvS ip 

b 'ipi) ni'Kl p ''tj'i' pijDStt Tj minjf3 rpftNi nofonxS ivor«i5D nrxitys 
i'si' iraa {ynDJi irn^N de' ijhsb' ds "ip'i .inn33 unpc kS ijnx3 dnt is 
TD'iiN ''t^'i>^< IN TB'yi'N nw DONtiK v'y3 b^i iSs .nw npn* D'n^x t^bn -it 
pint's p n'Q on ^?» jj? i^N'i) i^«^^< '(jn !*<»'!"< i^i^P P ^^^''^ no p 
IOC Ti3n'' mxp^N pba^bn Hs^nns .ynn ynoN 's dhshnIo ly^i^i 
TiN"i n'ii' Ni> 'liiN piNsi>N myi xps'i n"<'jj' nj'^n i'Si' in in3tj> n^yn'i 
Dpo vni iNoti ivy ijs i^txib I'^jnt tnji .'ip 16^3' ab ib'n '■•' 'jn '3 ao 'ip3 20 
nonm n-inpn3 m-ipi nnb]! p3D np 'I^n npifiN 'b nj'^n n^vioi n3 
f jsyi fjNn '30 D^y npi ■i^s'i tdnd 3iin nj31j'^ nJN3 ^\b^ p'ftii'N nonna 
nnn fys n^q !N3 np noyis 1^1 nyN-iK* Sys 'i'y NinpND nfipi nibiba ^b 

ireadm8>0 y31N1 nnNI D'B'B' nil. 2 for ipyv the usual rea- 
ding is pytN. 3 between DOn and nr insert DO' DOn '3-|p3 '33i51. * 13301 
DO' 033!! DOn omitted in other readings, 5 for icyi the usual rea- 
ding is D"IBV 6 read 1J jn. t after irip add uy W Nin US^iO ■ n. 8 read TiNI. 
8 between D'yiand inriB^ insert D'yn ISDN. JOreadjaj. l^ readniDi>' 
1,2 read D'3l 'JDItri D'3T '3'IN. 

.TS jnj Y'iba nnvc^N ix nx'in '^s ^N1N1 ni)f>N Njpai lax s' dpjjxi 

D 1J3 Dn-!3Ni 'ip3 isajjiiK Njn:BNi ns^a^N NJiibsQ a''Niji>t« wnaxsKi 
mnoKi Dnn:D^x rhi^a) mye^s x:3 n:yx^ni ds'^'in pxa D3nN n^axi 5 

nD3 '^K^ n^Nl 's 'JKnavi'K nyxB'^K ^xpi .nDiiNJ mm ':zb ^msi 'ipa 
^stD T •>£) niasw IN i)'nn niiij nitron iKnvi!?n-i3 nninirn ■J3ii!n''t< 
.n^N"*! P 1WB' ^st2^N njy ND1 iN^jn^JN •'i>Nniaxifi'N dsj ri:b2 npi na 3yi>' 
pnT p)yn nu Mssa nisv nu n-ne'p ■'JNnay^N nvNtr 'lisNi 's fixp npi lo 
e)3 'a nniavva 'JVO^n ^in 'a 2ivi>N ">VNtr ^JXpi .pUN piSNn N'ni pntr^i 
NJ^ inT ND '3^D^<3 -[ba-i voi .aj)i" ^30^5X1 mo^x fx'n im NnDiD' ^ao 
D^B'i-i< yhv bon' 'd "j 'ipa n^a in: ndd nnx sji) yiivr n^ji njoh-i'' Niji 
fiDN^N Nnnn-n nhobj rioN^s nrn npi i? mStrij iid'' ■'DI 'ib tj'' ^»i 
jmc Dnb i)"t CN'aj^Ni rTa NDa no'N lao h^n"! pa n^jiiD 'nN-ina i5 
Noai mpiiN 3X1 ja X3:n np D"1' xjt"di iniB' nd DmxaDN 'a i^Ki p 
Tiiai 'J* Tn^i^J^ um ixa tj'nbx hdn^ nioro 'a i^NSj^N (o fioN^'N ^nj 
px-iiN^N Nnyon xb ins-ID riai6n niD3n'> ba^inbn b''i b ^a ibui bm 
ItDpn noi'B' f\hn indinSn nin 'a li'Xiai .sn-uiai) iDNia^JK xn'inn xbi 
nnsbn IN t'piDa NoncijNn p laljiji n^xi iijiD 'a nxniijo 'ii>n mvT ni 20 
nii>i3 lao ij''mj6j' nij^x nam nobe" i^x'i pa .anbip 3'i;)i nnnyjs ciDi>i> 
•^2 '3 '•'' pjf'cin 3 niiiu yi 0^35? ibtr» ni^ae''! ru n:ni 2 navj iixij niSpi 
ptjitr 6ijijB>D -mxban !»? 'no ij? '" jiin nsioi) ntry '" i»b' iVDiji * nii'-'iK 
j;E>n 8 Din JV! bxvoB''' "!iy DJ1 DT'ni Tensi ^ ubwb "oyBn « Dip -icx nj; 

1 read D^y. 2 read nipi nixi> » readm^n UnJNI D '135) 'in li>B>D. 
* read Twb^tt- 5 read 'S ^BT3 *> between 015 and 'Jis'an insert 
D1B1 P'l I'VC 'Jisfi. '^ read D^J^J'S 'JIVB'i. ^ another leading is 

KB' ]N '-in iy2 'if'K f>V37X '3 HTOK^K "1313 ipH'i yanjDi .liinj itJ'K 
.Danxi c6]iii r^bbut n^Nl n^k n-k' wefaba nj?a ^^ ^^^ I»<^ 'vn nfi^K 
Dn5> Nj^p xinrit? -iDJ^ KJn^D tj id r^ixio^K sjijjxi) 'Ik ^^^5•^^^ 
ncan D« in bnia 0"V D'b^N 'did ra "dik nd 's i^ipn nd i nsoD nsij 
N^ noan^K ;« asiJ^N 'In Dnaons riosn iia 2 i)ni piiip' jk nnjao' D'^s 5 
-i»x' » txaNtJTiin' n:N od nfi^Ni T'jnn sisi ■iDJn n^i hann n^i ^iinnn 
sna' Dii NDD^N 'B TNiy pifji nNtJjJDi ;'^^!-l3^ ns^sa 'aj 't 'Sj? noKa 

f,J?3'1 KB' p -lOK' TI' IN '30 ni? ^"3 nijQS'l 1^x1 ^DJ'1 n!) 

ij'isni .nnispi n:i'?o Nni>3 dSnw^n In «»• p 'i'X nc p 

'S '1p3 Dnnjb * ^IDT Dip b 'f)N 5>D-)N 30 njN '^y 10 
l^aii wiiN ^D-l^5 |N3 liiQ noip JNd!53 N^iN ^1D1 p NjijOIN XOl iNnp^N 
ND Dip nljn^ pf)D-iDi>s p ijx nS ^xp nd^ Nriis |80 1!5 i^Niai .Njnji>3 
NDNi .nxTV^Ni nabH nsj;' 13N3 'I^n dip^n 'jy ma Dn'K3N nljx 
Vt2pjn D^ ri^Niai -iND^N i^iD p-ilJoi'N Tij Dnjn in' dS nj'X3n ins tnj 
nriB' DnvD N^i Dn'N3N Tij' oi) Dip •?« nn^NDT njN3a ^on^x Dnjy 15 
npa Dn-i'j ndni an^ba piNnno on In nnyitJ' 'i'N Dnxins Nn3 jnnn' 
•iN ^^»^N TND iinN p EiJW tf< ''^^b ton' n^is n3 'inn" n"b' ,mjy 
i>jiD3 n'pnJi naxij in nj'^jj 3i' i'3 'vni '3D njnid "ba Dn3xpjji Dn3NDn 
Dn'iiyninvi'N Nn'aiiaND^N njn'3jn ^b:i fiv^-^&aba nnv'ic 'a njidn nd 

3nNlD^N '3 3V5?niiS Dl '3 NO^JJ^N f^y3 ^Np lp^ .DN^akx P3D ND3 NJ'f)J?1 20 

HN^ip m'j 'a oi'vi'XB -NnsN njunsn nS 3V3;ni!N 'nii Nn'iiy nhNioi^Ni 
N-iB'3^N n3 ■i33n bnni p3n D^i n3^Nt30 ntv '^ba ^''hi'N I3 .NinncNi 

DIN n^l jD NmDN3 D^NUjiiN 3NDn '^IHO 'Vni inN3n 'nN3^N IN3 NDN1 
■iNli>Nl3 3n3^N npDJ ND3 Itr^NI I'sij^ Dn^VD '3 inSl DnjD N33 ND'f>JJ 

DnNH b^ nr '3 noty vniivo nNi nt D'n^xn hn vom bn -i3T f)iD n^Np 25 

3113 DN d!>V3 i'3 by 03^*03 N'3' D'ni)Nn nCVD ^3 riN 'O 

n DN1 

1 read Nn3DD N3Nli. 2 read N^JHi. » read IN3 Bnnn'. * read N^ID"). 


DnjD 'DH's i^yx^JN iijiDS -yn n^h xSne^xa inxD^K a'acijx iiD-ijma 

'■i^K 'Vm '2D p^ND^s i~im nnso i)nyi)Ki piviiNi n3K»Ki>K rh io^d np 
einyx njK i)ipvt:i ^pNVi fiinooi ^jio f>3 p 'iiyNi tiitrK ini 'tj* n^noa d'^ 5 
NC pi zpay t<& pa qd .T'Sk fiiso onaspvi Dnasom pvoiK np^Ji n^si 
njx nnx 'iiy onn^xi vop^JK ai' n^s t nr •'^y c^ji omNB'pvaNnK 
Dnyon nnomi msoy b^xs n^ijy n^isK nom p djp'' tf<i axpv^N pnno' 

.'31 h^'? '" 31D 'ip3 n-IDsSx '31 N'Jli'K '3 

ND1 KJ'T'N 's nxs np KD3 fsnnj ]k sr^y nisi^sa lo 

2 'ipa Tijs rsntri'N* tkd p i nnx njNjjj sfji n^bv xJitJ'i 
'3D nuaiiK nspniii rnia: t6 ■^b^ loia D'cian ns mtai: "':iok' 
iinK Diinnx "ifioa lijNli n''i)D iuio str fi'3 Nt? kd3 Nnj?KD5N3 nnn3^ 
P'lm^N "'S DnjDi n-iNJji'S 'D DnjDi K33^N "'B DHjos "ivp K33^ nnriD 
m»s KD 'B *nnniD 1^3 p anjoB -fiiNnn^x ^b Dnioi » nJK''Df'N 'b dhjoi is 
roJ^K '^jn lijo^N mitb t<3-iKn jso p onsDi t6r\0K) \ti2 p dhjdi i^jd^s 
DmSnK ]n ^ba on^noxB nf'oi'xs Wit' onoljy )S3i •li'D^K " nps: onjo 
^13 ^nx p iNDnN^JN ^nx xbx3b n3 nmox x»d ii>oj> so s^d Dn3Dxn''^ 
XD3 nnno ^3 ^nx p nxoxfix ^nx xbx31 m^VB xo « fix . 5x3 nnn» 
■'-iX3^x li'X'is .XT3 mp y nb n''n iTn nonj ^ mxi^x yar aba mbvsi 20 
-isy ^13 'B x'3:x^x ny3B mixSx rinxoyi x'Ji^x 3x133 rit< np nxjfi hi 
xj: p3 nxen^x '^x nnfjxi T-i^ix Wbi iinx3j)f>x3 p'x^i^x iiin-'i' txcn 
nnnn jx nox b '^y 3j'B .nj"3 iv n^n ipB 'i^n pi n:"3 jj; t<i: npB onao 
p3i D^i xnx'vixi xnriDxxi xnx'3:x3 nnpni xnni) mil xrr^x Svi xd3 
n'^x pyxT ii3i5Xi pyiin n^^xi inxi 3n p b^xB fiynB' i^iz nnx 25 
DTiijxn ^x 31EJTI rmni ip3 h'^jx ri^'pnao finiixv dbj ^31 nn^ j^n^noi 

1 read xinx. 2 read "ip. s read riJX'V^X. * read xnnnio. 
5 read npB3. « read eixySN3. ^^ read mX3i>^. 


3Nn3 D33Nn3 IDJ SD3 D33Kn3 IDJ NJ3Kn3 |« I^Kp t^S .nSDJ Ip 

1 xrK3K hba 't>y po^po im ^"3 n^nvD li'S'i D-iij Dni) mbp D'nsnax 
ntfK tvo^ vnvT '3 'ips n'fiy NnSinsK 'I^k njsns^K 's nxs3i D'ns-i3K 
nN"iin3 D'b^K 'DID '3D nfi^iN n3J3 HKhs -01 v-inK in'3 nsi V33 nK niv' 5 
m^ '^y pnnBK kd D.Ti^y ni>i)K fnnass eifix fi'KD no iJX3i noK 'J3 
nj)nE> ^D3' ni'i i?ifi np'ha 3jik nd^j D"y D'nxnax f"'sia '^v nsn 
'B 'j)n nis^N 'isN 'V^i pnDK3i n3 2 ^Dirr D"y D''bi'K 'did i«3 ijs D'ns-i3N 
N^i 'nn Qno^vb ina' issN p babn nnyKoi nxi3Ki>s nJK3i vvxiD rnv 
D'i5i DiT^y n4n riDK^JK mnssn NoSa -iKyjs nNJ3tDrDipnD^KiMn' 10 
^onn' npi^N -^ nin nnn^p^ j>'t5iB wd hj 'J3 '^jv y-iB'iSNl3i .idj i^nI 
i>Dyi 'MB' * f-'K-ia n''5'y pax nisiix ixti D"V 'N-i3s< nj in » k^h i^nt tj 
B f"N-ia '-IDN '•n ■'bit nhha fnnaN nd3 nhjis i>3p NnDini'Ni 'did ny'-iE'3 
^jiD nn'-iN3f' riVND sniDtn^NS xmijiT nsj^oi'i dsb'^'N pxsijDyn 
TiiiN f 'Nna^x ID nxiDi yssDNiix ini ina^si niiD^s ni^Ni tdb^n 15 
-I'j Nn3 i'JDiD Dm n"n3i'N 'a n:D 'D iDspsa DstyiiN -062 'a isDvn 
^spnpi .Dn-i3W mi onx i^Nlai .Nn3 udv^ Dm3vn ^"3 Nn3;'i'DNj) 
3pV n'a bap '■13N 'a i^n-i31 .rnDtyiii msyi" pv p3 inn'n din 'a '3D 
j"N-iaijN '3D aybv f^-inax nd31 'J1 tiidb^ -idb"i 'i'ip3 Dm3N vdc nB'N 
mntyD ND iinD3 niiS' nxy d^i n'B^n niD' 'a nhnidi i'3Nip p ii3n 'ISn 20 
•\bH■^:>^ .ry^zbii nj31 pxip p mab'itibti 'q d"D i>NpTn"3ji'K ind!) '^y 
Nnpi> D'un b "^ vi'N npji "ipi) « D"y h'std^n 't>N DDNi>N V'Di DN'ni>N 

tin Ni 'iNB TJ «!> 'DID npi 'B D3Dti" I^N-I JSO Nj!) lf>Np 'iNB 

-iDN '^n nbbn )« iDi>VN Dni> mbp N^3^<i5^« 'a oniiini D^nr^t5> » ddsdj 25 
Din'i |'n3t<i>N •'by noinN n'sj' Dip bi) ^n'l riynca Dip ^"3 i3yn' in 

1 read NJ3N. 2readi>Xin'.8read'iiN.4readNS'N"ia.5reads<S'NiB. 
8 delete D"J?. '^ read rri^iN. s read nin' Dt?^. » read nSDJ. 


DJ?Dn DHK O D33 nn^'l D33 '" ptrn 'DJ?n ii3D D331» »'? "IP3 'Vl 'V^ 

D3'ni3K5> V2m nirx njnsE'n ns noi^Di D3nK '" nanxo '3 d'dvh ^3d 
.3pj?in« 3nNi 'ji i:n3nK n»3iDKi ■" -ids D3nK ^nanx ^xpi /ji 
D^ riD'Sv 1 ei^ ^S3B^31 nj^'x-ici njxnin tivbti '?\:t<^ nbba N:-iNn3KQ 5 
'" irivi ip3 NnNin nfjxis bri'b xjnv3 p k^i Kjbp p inx Knsb' 
npnvi i)Npi ,ntn avn irnvn^ o'D^n b iji> aiof) 2 n^xn D'pnn nx niK'p^ 
vpn apvfi in3T tjd nbun D'pnn ^13 nx nwy^ iob'j ■'3 i:!? n^n 
D'Dpn ^30 n^ijD ■•i> DTT^ni iiNpi .'3i •'U i'3i> p ntyj? i6 b«-\z>'h vdsjj^v 
i>n3 'u 'o '3 ^spi .'31 vi5« D''3i-ip n^nhn ii> ncs iinj '\i 'o •'3 ^Npi .'J^ 10 

1^1 NJK D"J? nN'a^N |D^ ■'by DDpXI .'J1 D'pnX D'DDB'DI D'pH 1^ llfK 

"" i^DH DNJ 'JN ''n 'ip3 nnp^K3 N33^D^ njs nabi nnvntj' p N:nan 
anyiiK nriB' npts: npi .D3''i)V iiisos iTitii jn-iT3i nptn t3 k^ dk 'av 
ii'NnoK 'jn Ki ips DmDX3 I'd^w^ik 'bv od sj^Sbi sr^v dj?5« "'I^'KH 

'ipS .Dn-|DK3 J^D^NV^K •'bv DSniiVB 'JNI 03'!)^ nttVJS TI^N 'riDJJJ i"i3ns 15 
tiAD3 fiT'AS n^'N 'D nptOJ -1^X131 .133 in D'i) N"SpD Dnn D3n^i3 "'JXI 

Nji) DncxySnoKi Kiwi's? onmnajs iDvr kd3 nio: so rinin^N ik31 Kin 

P ''T p NDi> pnVIDI "T r3 N03 isNp "|i'Nl pS KJnnUD VKt2pJS1 

nbba D3ni ni)i)N D3n xnie ri^iin^K omjvi laiosn"' no ^Npi .fi-'mn^N 
^iim 5i''3s .rimn^K "'jy im K^'inn ni)^N rijoi) nin i^ji isspi ■^<^3^? tjor n^ 20 
i)''inn NJ'toN p rv^ao^x kt OS'S n"j) 'did ns nhn '■^ba nj^i nnJD 
^nn»:i sn'sripj DniKiiK "by injs ni>iDi 'Die ij; l3n»i>x n:ni n^iiK riJD 
t6s KHDwnKi KnS'KnBS ^ovi'Ni ri'nini'N mt^i riniDnoijK Dni>KinK3 
pi^K pD Dsnn'i D3i> pa'^" ni)i>N in'' fjNpi .nij'inn sin i^ixi ^nan iii' 

3Nn3^K i>nN N' ?Kp1 .Dnbp p '-i^K xi) Dn'iiK IslDT niS hs 035)3? p 25 

^T3K N» p IB* 'B n33 jKi i>t<pi .n"nini)N iD'pn 'nn s^jey D33» bzp' \b 

1 read Na^3. 2 between ni>Nn and 3113^ insert riK nK^ii 


3 f>j?'ip3 t'irn K^i {'iinnxi'iiDjn t6\ onnynt^tiDan «i> ■|^N'i3VDn''3a'' k^i 
T-Ijv icn 'nn ■" 'DK dhik Tina nxr 'jki cy fpnKsiiN KUJxi'N iKoij 
{? 6 'Ki 'oc nipin n^'i'i dov 'nna i6 an bap^i .'ii TS3 'nDB-ncK nam 
ij)-ir 'SD nacn i6 '3 natsna oano •>£: '?»?) -min^N '•!'« nna^^a •'jy ini 5 
XD riXNiii'Si f)Q3n i6\ iojn n!) NnjN3 t)'Kh5'N nln p inxn nsji 

iiDETi inix Dvn niXD '3JN iB'K "i3nn nx 'ip3 khsd vp^^ '^^'' "^'^J' 
sn''i5y n3Ni inniiK xn'^j; DKpK nd31 .udd vnan t6-\ vhv ^o^n ah nisrvi' 
ninvl'Xi ts<»''N^« 13K 's ^spinn xna ^dvIsni xniana p^nsio^Ki niny^K lo 
nrby nssi .oniN niwiriNtn minn nairiK dv «^ it^K e^kh nnK 
8 '11 ma 2 Danai5 oanx n^ji "ipa xr^ax njjv nnxyi p^aj ]» bip imvha 
'" 'jsf) Dvn noiy udj; na ijb" t^« nx o nsrn niixn nsi nnan ns 
Nix 'Vm on n'^x xjily xoa .ovn udj? na uj^'xnts'x nxnrn^x 
jiva tp Kib liixpi ^i)x■^3 DDxisx xjivnpx xnxioa xmmi'xi xnxjain 15 

.Danv-iB' 'iDJ npi nanya p ^ uj xj-'i'X niji>x 
XK> ID noisxy 'iix Jiya' }x yjno' d^ 'yni 'an n^^x tx 'ax x' D^vna 
^a''^l^'i'X rinxD^JXi ycpjD n^j nnxino D'xt Dip^x D^xy ps lx xb» ■'no 
nna p Diajiix }'xf>a^ no'XT ei>nai>x df>xyi>x 'fix fi''t3^i'X n^xy^x p 
np '30 n:xi D'ni^x nxji Tuobtt 'a nai)n5)x pi nyaoSx oiixyi •'ijvni'X 20 
nyaB' '?"i -an^x liixp x»a n"-iini)X fjitJ bp p x'a:x noxiix 'iix iny3 
3VN oybi nn' pi) t" i^«i 'Tiin tno mv of'Wfi nioixi) ix3inj D'X'33 
xpa'' x^i xnisiTJ nya xe* p nn'ijx nya' tx yjno' abs lavi nnii3i ts''i>xi 
■'iix DDC^x p^B•D p lay 'ao njxa x^ajxi>x npoj npi .p x^a obxy^x 
/Ji D''ija 1DB' i>nj 1X30 iyi t^r){^' mroo 'a 'ipa Doxiix txd 'a xnanjo 25 
xisnen xjnxnax '3D naaij pB-i" b yacn -p2 b ynan 'i> 'a i>xpi 

1. read •''py, 3 Insert ''ajx between n"l3 and Danai". 8 delete "". 
* read X'aj. 


I'nsiai'K Diij^N Dxanx p Dspxi ^06 "i^Nii ]ii-ip ivji pjx-ipi ]t«.-\p 
ma'i •'l^x jK-ip!'N ''i'f? n^Npn:K lojji njti^jd ''Sj? "'tinoD^K n:s< ^•••'■\p'pii 

K'nn nya -ipa '^j^n K33s njjn mjicsin njnsm n^ nnn psi D''Enn 
nsa^N rijJKD NJ''^yaJ''a .01 ^^D5; 'ja iij? loiyn ^njn ncn ^Kaimcv 5 

abin^ n^i nnDm p ria^vS^N noa'^K nin ii>3' Ni> 'vni '3D nN3f)N ]n3 
'ji wrhvi i6'i D'noxD t^i? DiTS'ik pN3 Dnvn3 nsr dj (ixi "ip3 Nnjj? 
ns fiKi 3pyi ■'nn3 nx "rnsri i^xi ^3p ^Npi .d''jic'n-i nns Dni> Tnan 
Dn-JB" ab njN ^spi -ji -i3tN px.-ii nsrx Dn-i3N ■'nn3 na ^ixi pni"' ^1^3 10 
NTn bn nnxi ^xpi .arr^a ab bn-\^^ ''J3 ddni •'jT'jb' ab "''' ''js •'a 'ipa 
aci DOE' pKD iji-it riNi piniD lyeno ''jjn •'a i'^ne'' nnn bn) 3pj>^ "'135? 
iias n^a hb'vk o ivb^h^ '" dkj 'jk nnx 'a nnno )''ni pxc^'1 tapBO apj)' 
npji azimh ■i''n-iD''i nb ncvx xi) inx in dc iwvsn iij'x D''iJn b3 

ItriD'' DN DOV IIN^ ETDC IHIJ '" 1DN Ha ^Npi .1 n^JB N^) ''X IpJN «!) 15 

.■;i nva'n ^a 'jsi) *u nvno inae" t<i> V"ir o: '" dh: 'jb^d ni'Nn D'pnn 
D^?DS 'JN D3 ntDD^D pN noiD •npn-'i n^jyo^D D'ok* nD' '" 'dn na ^xpi 
nnx TiTi nns a^ on^ 'nn:i ^npi .'" dnj iw ie'N b by ba-tv vnt ^aa 
-iB'K D^iy nna dh^ Tiiai nnnnx on^ja^i unb y\cb d'dn-i ^53 'nix nNi'i> 
b3i '3^) ba nDN3 nxm px3 dtijjdji Dnix 3'D''n^ nnnnxo 3it:'x x^ 20 
r\bmn nynn b nx ntn oyn ^x ''nx3n icxa '" nox na "a i)xpi /cb: 
'DN na i>xpi .OiT'^j? nan 13JN ie'X naion b nx on'^j? x^ao •'a:N p nxtn 
nWi DDV nvn Tibi' ni)'i>n Tina nxi Dvn Tina nx iibd dx '3V '" 
Tne^ Dn^n nxi ■'xoa {>]? li'B p 1^ nrno n3y nx nam mna dj onya 
nxi nay nn yir nx nanx p D'n Sn no' x^ji d'dejti x3V ibd'' xi) ib'n 25 
xi) pxi D'Dt' nipin ni)'^i Dor mns x^j dx '" idx n3 ^xpi ."niB'o D^iSn 
pnx' yit i>x D''i'tyD lyitD nnpo dxox xi) n3y mi spy yii dji inoB' 

1 read -|''JBX. 


nmsB'i'i Dnayf' '" n»nx by ^xib'i nu i nn^njnm Doipo fjK DiN''3m 

riDix ^N Danx 'nxani •'oy DaTinapo Danx Ti'f'yni DaTinap ns nnis 
•■nn nx tisck p nnx n^m iixp D^'Ky^K-'Sy 'm^Ki nnaji'K Wn 'si-iiKiB" 
nijvtn Danina pDi^m mni^n D3'2pt caTimi D3'J3 ixa^ji nt^a 5)3 f>y 5 
blip^ .">■• DK3 nann D'ou "■nn nx hibk'x ninetrn ^jji Dnnyn ^y dji int 
.Dn!5S '" DX3 iisiB" nn ^y *nn ns< ■'ciasB' ntys ono 'jd Tiy iinoK n^ji 
-iB'K nnan nxr 'a iixp D^jyo '^k piKnno Tsa 'j?n n^i) pD-ixy onjiaai 
oa^ i>yi Da^p3 'nmn ns ^nn: '" dkj nonn D'on i'K-iE'i nu nx max 
vnxnx B"K nij? noi)'' t6 i'KpvDvi' '^ vn' nam DTii'X^ anb wm nninax lo 
'a '" DK3 D3Dp w taiinja '" ns w D^a 'a '" n« ij;t nax^ inyn ns b'''si 
.Nnmc ^113' niTnyiiKi niani^K p Tnai my niatN tib DnxDnfji d Jiiyi) nfjoK 
o HTii n"y T':ai!« i^d^k isxp xaa riain^K Dnc5'3 pi^ya in sa Krijas 
'" atyi 'Ji n^ais iix maB'.-ii n^^jpni nanan ni)Nn onann i3aT^yiK3' 
nBtJ> T^^^ '" "'i^ iB*^* Q'^vn ba -X3pi an "jami ^n1ai^' nx T'"'^'< i^ 
ssaxi .n3 n3r'i nrmn'iTniax "ib^' nt^spxH^K ^n^x '"nxoni oi 
ei^x^ H'n'' ppn '-ip ix-i 'yni '3D nm nnn in fis cics piiya in '•i^N 
ny X3nni3 I'x '?"^ on^xiiixpi .njE:'''nx nnya '"'jx DisyuijTyvni 
i^ynniyjDDi''x ■'a DainB'''i b'''X px 'a xti '3Sf nmoj n'pnv ^x^E» vn^B' 
)''^xj: jn T'a naicn j^ny ^xib» ax ^"t i^jxpi .innaao x-in inptsi lynr 20 
Tay H'opn ixi> dxi lyaari '^153 dk Dvn 'Jb* diu 13 xiai nn pi 
l^xi ixa i^a j'^xjji naiB-n r^'iy |ni jana nicp itht'MB' n^ajn'^y 
xjnamx xja nxnaSxa ixa ;xi finxyoisx ijiap^ ynoxi Hsx ixa iXTiaxa 
nnnxa n^xn onann b nixvai i? iva 3xnai'X '?^p'? nxaiyvijxi pixiy^jx 

.iiiip3 nyan ynba '" ny n3B'i D'B'n 25 
nyia Tosn ''by xjspi np \i6 -yn nbb« xc jx i^xn 3np np )x liiji 
n^xl "'i'y ixm3i t6'ishti f'y3^n''S' ^bs) pjTy p^y jni 'vni onyia 

1 read Dl^Jninni. 


b "ipipi 3X1D \nNQ y^D^ 'Hft^ t:3B' Dpi 2pro 3313 inn ai-ip Niji ij-iics 
mi.TD t23B' 11D'' Ki> kS'x ^Npi .nljxjn Dxb^K i^Kl DNoni nv •<:2 
miias n'VB''' 'aj^t* ndni .1 n"y n''B'o^N ■'^n •■dv ini -ji v^jt jud ppinoi 
p rpiSioi^K V'DJ i'3 riDK^'D^x poi nn^xisji noKVisi naao '■a nniuj 
TJiai ^''xnnljN pn 'vn pi)x5i5N p DKni'si'sa noam moKa D'snai ind:s 5 
itsn NVT D"V 'ip i^Nl pa ."islj ni) nddi NJian ndd morh naxviN p 
nxiu innni nrai nosn mi '"' nn vbv nnji ma"' vb'-iej'd ivji ■'B" vn» 
'" fi'DV Kinn Diu n''ni ^xp nnpi "a rioxljK y»j 'ai .'31 traa djj 2xr nji '" 
's ^spi .'31 ^NitJ" 'mj eiDNi n''U^ D3 Ktr:i idj? nNtr nx nupij it n^:^ 
lyoE' i6 ne'Ki int oni) -lao nb ib'k on'a d''3^d ivsp' vbv Ni'K navi 10 
nu '" pm ^Kp n^Kl apy ■•ai .n"x pso Enwai v:3^ p:v2 Vi ujnnn 
1D1N 31D nB'3D Di^Ej' jj'OB'D ntj-ao i^in Dnnn bv iin3 no i)xpi .n^JS' 
"■ry^ itnp jniTDK '" » non D-'i'E'iT' nmn 2 un mva ."iti^n i^d jw^j 
iNn' pimo n^K Sxpi .ij'h^k nyiB" nx ps ■'dbk b ixii * D'^ovn b 
n- D'u ^s KB'K njn '" idk na ^«pi .D^ro pxn hIjni d'di pavo n^Ni 15 
DniniiEn tjoik d'ai'D vm iispi .'J1 pimo I'ja iNuni ^dj onx d-dj? fiKi 
'sbn ^K p'n^i 'jn tiasi) -idk ^spi ,'3i i^ iinni2>' ps? D-'ax ^nip'ro 
riVK5 n^yc" leo 'a i^kt p rnii pxn nvpo 'nijai pimo y:2 'Non 
.Dnnii33 ■'a nmncri' nmna Nvn' n^j nd dn^ h^jnI •'a i^ajisN ■'ptA2b^ 
•\bi2 1^01 pnv n»v nn^ Tiicpm -" dkj D''xa O'D'' njn -ip ^f)x1 pa 20 
.'ji ncai? pt^' ^NiB'^i mm' ycnn vca psa npnvi caEW nwi f>''aB'ni 
na "Tin jvv na nxa •'^'3 nS^x iixpi .NvnaipD li'K^iiJDDiTiK rrni 
-|i"'y ^j)i -lion ^y aani 'jy xin ynji pns -j^ Niai la^o njn D^im' 
nanx ''xap ni?3i oanx "ax x^nn npa nox^K ^-xb ■'a ^xpi ,niJin« la 
mini D'ai iix-ir' n'a D''ij3 nbbp Dn"n iB'xa nMi i>Npi .'ji niinn^ii Dtyi) 25 
D''»y 5 onnp^i ^xpi .nan'' njptnn ix-i'n ba nana nn^ni oanx rcix p 

1 delete n "V. ^ between i:j-| and niacin insert lin'. » read (jB'n. 
4 read D'Un. b read Dinp^l. 


iTin niiKJNi f\''-)vbn pe'^x '•in nospx jd n.TfiK na '3D nb'pa xnix 

nn' 't>y khj-id ^jji'i ^^d^n t'ND lu ana PiSnoo DDxi'N ju pnirnDD 
l^Kii ^N3J^K ID rr-Q 'n ndd KrT'ij'i asiD^N jd n^z \t kdd Knx^j''s 
NmiK riDN^N nln )v i'n^B 'j?ni on n^^N nnv 'li)N nnxiiVD ^ n^DJ jd 5 
n's njK3 KD ]D snSiyi amapi iir6i6:ti Nnjj? ^a'1 Nnaia Nnjy jis'i 

D"'PD^K D''DJi'N D'yj^K "'^« D't-xiiX Npcl'N JD1 niVD^'K '^N Dinj^JX p 

nsD'lsN ^^■^n1 K"-ini>s ^ba Nniii'K jd NnB'j;j''i riaiaiix ''bif hiv^ba pi 
Nna i3-iN3n'' umivb-' ijn3 "'l!'S ddn^k n^v 'nn D''Dji)K tj^jni o^'iyfiK 

f\bo ND NHJinDNDn'' KHJITT 1JK3 ''li'NI KHJIOnaDD' 1JK3 ''1^X1 10 

. DnjD 
T'fia OD riT'vxiD JN •'^VJi'nNi hjd sain in xoni i^jnI rcja od nj'i npi 
ninSa onn od htpkid p -n nisNi ^'iyni nainiiK onsya pi)j;D nhjd 
nTpsiD v'DJa lain'' Db •\b^ onn nn' ''bv noK^s j-isi eincfiN pg'ijN i-in 
n'ni ■'B1 '•npna dn 'a nsK3 na ornvKin nd yoii Npci'Ni si^jaljK p qd 15 
Dna 1DDP' 2 QDpi aivB'i'K 'a fijj?^ nxxi Dnsaxii ona ^n Nian 'a 

DDS^K N33 ND1 flS^K ISDpS 'B mai NDN^iNI lOjiiKa iy"ai DCX^N 

'B na-iJDi .ni>D3si naoj np DnnynB* pisip'i DnjiTiy 'nn on^a iSxla 
t6 'yn n^i5X xC IN Kias ioon N^ii naoj nd ri'mni^N ix3 pox nd -[bn'i 
.^t6ti^ nsiNDDi'N n»NT nd ftovha nNias p sojn xiii i>D3n 20 
ni>N'i VDJ ^'N^na » •'nxi'B .sjan sisiTan Ni>najn sf) nDxiiN ^^^«131 
N'aJN^N na nsi nd VDina'i: NjaiiD ii>i -ao nis^N pva ^fiiiNB {jiin 
n'B •!« pDS Noa 'nKj nj3^ ps-iiN^N nnj/Di nd^ ni>Ni 'b DNi>Di5N Dn'i>j; 
fiDK^'N ■'BKr m^yi n'' t^^ 'j?n n^iiN Ntrxna bpi nyai f\)t:ti pb fi'SBaiiN 
n'Bnsi'N iinS 'a i'^i'ni'N ndxb .^jidd nt^i ytriD {jn!) nis'lin mj?i xpa'i 25 
nny »b^ iJsnN 'na^x iiNp i^nI 'bi mvy •<&■] nn' '^5? fiONf'N fxfiai 5 n"y 

1 read n^Di. 2 read NDDpl. « read'nNji'B. * perhaps n^hk k^hk, 
B delete n"J?. 



njKnao nxai's dkj?jk p pao txa ipi Kp3 p xpai j'i'an p DxiiD^K 
INDIAN -i3K 'a HnB'f)K j'itJ'iiN fioxpNa nnnjolsN ^hv ^y1 np n:« mi:i 
Tim^xi nai)ND^K ixdtn^x p NiJ p si: k»3 Dns?5ji D^Kvijs 'psn j'xi'ji) 
Nn^i^jjoa nhv^H pn^m ao nnaia ijoETii nnnyj i'rn nnna nmpno^x 
niiriDD nJND n^t; nD3ni)« l^rn f^K-ajna ^^^?nDKa i'D^nl'N im'' •'dd lo 
h'isi ^Dtyi njuao^N Di^vi'K inSni pmpnD^N x'njNi'K tn^jin nxpix 'a 
.mail ''njKi 2 i^jd 'I'S -lua p li'na^x voi '^y njNonKi '3D ■'-niiha 
sill nE53J K^i non Dnj''3 xps'' xi^i ppi^^D^'N j'3 n»K!5D^N i^ocn i^nIsi 
ei''D^N3 d^ikS^jn 315' tt.h KS'K T wi nN^JD lion^ pixnn' n^ inn ri^ix 
^ji Ty n^^N p pKn^siiK3 pisi^jx i''3 ddh^i in''3''B pn^Ki^x '^j? ivT' b i5 
iiDcni QD n"-iN3 n1"X' n^x n"xn^xi rixvjx^xi Snjj^xa ^3 nintr -iiJ3 
D''iivn ''i'x ixnno mvj? iinx p inx xp3'' ah 'nn n-iDX3 D^jxy^x nn3-i3 
nxanaiix on^^y f-'S'i xn-iDX3 D'i'vi'x nhba dhtb' xdd od ni'^xsnaiyo 
nhbn ra'i ricxn^x nxnnxmD^x nxio^xi rii'DXB'^x dvj^xi ni>DX3^x 
wxj)! npn^ix pi) X3iai xaioa .DnT33i DnT'js msj; ^ix ^^jy 'm^x ';d 20 
nnnxB'''i mrxva xmDi>x nn' n^bv "n'' njx3 '3D ni^bx ivi ip ix 'i^vi 
ni>^x njSD'inrvnjiD n3 3I3D 1x3 pi nrv rnp pio impi onjD pa 
nox^x fiix' 'nn nbp '33 n^jio ■'nx' ob nx33ijx nxriyo^x ^ya3 'vn 
pj;3^x ofini'i o-ineDijx -i^ji D-insoSx txvn^ix p3 x4'x fiox^D^'X p33 
piini'X fiD3ni DXJ^xi jxvn^x f3 fmz -itr nnpi 'S xp3' x^i fj?3i3X3 25 
xjnal XD "'Sj? i'''x^^3 tixjdi .nnxpisx nnxi^x rhbn rimpa nniy^xi 
XDD Dx^Di>x f\iafii nn'^y Dny^oi x^ajxi^x i^ipxi riDipoijx n'mnlix p 
1 read pi, 2 read TJV. 3 read riaij/D. 


n^^K pva -nha f^sai'N nn .at^' a'?)]}'? t2iD^ Ki> ivv ina '"3 D^noian D"y 

mbn' 3D 

einc ^SD^JK Kin tK nxSn •'^k ik'ni niii^K Njpsi '3k n' nbya .nnoma 5 
fi^^'Sa p NQ-io ■13'i: )s inj i^tsli Di^y^s ^5k p ^na^vo1 nxnpDi'K 
KUiN^JK ID nonpn p ''^y i>'K*B!5K p na n^^N nv3 ip ndi n-'B^oS'S 
'3D rh^K "T^i 'i3'i3 3Nn3!'6< iiTis 's n:d^k3 np ti<3 d^VK .pp3XD^s 
fi'NJ KaiK "'Sy XDKD k^»N3 nK'K nj?xn3K3 ^JiiN^K ^pv^s ''bv nDSV^NI 
.ijipyoi ^pxyi ^py ina -ivkjv^'K ivjvi DS'Jis^K d:3 nsva ri'Nnj absi lo 
nin3D 1 NHN'ri msas '-iSjk k'-cj'k^k ro5 nia n^pwK no^ ^py kokb 
•a NnsT 'IIjk riKBV^N voi tv nri3o ntJi nnx-i hpv sdS i>pKJ)i n^sisi ^3 
nSxa Ti^K fi"bi)s Da:i'x 'm n3m^K 'a run poi nsiD p ^ipy»i nn^'i 
Nmij p nSxax n3 pinfiissi n3 n3E'n^K n3f>D KD^a .njy nnysani njo 
5*pKJ 'n nnSNSK 'l^x f^a^s li'Kl t^3a nix xS^a nj» nsDnax iI^jk is 
nnsil'N p niisi'iif'K n3D33 ijiiN^s yKn3N^K p nn3DJ nysi) KnriNSnT ti* 
nysDiiK D^xy myai i^a^x '^ik ■'tr^K Knn:Ktx ^'ihti 3mi'X 'p'<3 "i^kIsi 
JS3 t»< '^x IKi^ni nN33i pnvK) p D'3n!5N ny^K ftmps n-'a pun noi 
0!):^ p "irai'X maj |'N^3 '3D ''-iN3i5K 2 n»3n naiisa ijoy^s iSk jxdjsIjk 
nauy nnom tx h'sdok nonpn nnesn 33i»p jwa nsDB^si pa^x D^jxy 20 
n3Dn3K KDD h>''?:i'?ii dsi3'?k nijsy in '•ii'K dip^k Dhay p xnoa oniisy 
nri3» KHX^K rriKBN NDD ''Sa^N hpvha 'n Tii'K fiDipD^'X Knni'y f^a p 
fly'3t3f)S D^sy 113 p nnn navn ip 1t^•3^K pats' p » pB* ni'Ki'i ^i 
iiiip^s niri n'f'X mDB ri^arSs iiKDyx^Ki aanB'f'S Di^y^sa f^mw 
bp p npiD'i ■'mf'K n'^K!5V' spoxj ^uj-issansiinnnxi n^onpSN 25 
p-ifii riKtiyD^N ^ys p nj30''i khju i53p N"'B'sf'S3 nuj^a 'ao p^sa^x 
D^sy p nnriKJJi nsayisK a^'^nni' n33d ■j^N'i ^sa jN^yx^K ^api pixiySx 

1 read KnK'K. 2 read fioan. » read NX3t?. * read N'aj. 


'jNiiiiN .naxy^N jDnnDNEi rifixno n^'jd niiax dIj^k njj/ ^upD ^5n n' 
'3 HDDJ hvi "nj3DNi>K 'SID ND^i ^vi-nnpntD 'a rjSo'ij mnKyi n^Ki hjd 

nnSin np -njaoN^'N nn 'jKjiijN iixpi .ilpr t'Ii n^ji yriv riaxT px^a 5 
■nwDK^'K 'In 'jisN i>Npi -nxaj^N inr Dncy^K j;Nj)tJ' nSnn kdd nn jna i mnt 

ijND'' ptr^N 'In tN3 np DDNi^K ^Npl .N^'JJN ei'3 OwSOJ^JK '^N1 KitpJK t\'2 

apoic iDi^K '-in NJ'^y l-\^ DnNDiix fjxpi .mya ndj? ^kdi n^i nbp N»y 
i)Npi .nipno' aah idj^k 'In ps jno xd yaxo^x i^spi .xnoxs am "nvi lo 
nyax ko 'Di>K i>«pi .nj'Nj; Noy Njiiajxinp-iNa no 'a Kjanx nd -ni^x 
i>Npi .DOK^xa n'a njo 'I^jn i:k3D p nri'S xn'a djx 'l^x qjtoa naB* 
.njD nnan N'jni'N nSp 'nn x'jn^x p nnen nDji>N 'In 'ip' n^j -iB'wi'K 
'^K KJjni ^iiK^is i'spa nnusn uy nS'k i^sn xoan 'i ;« nix 'ixi i)Npi 
Kin 'aiiK ^Kpi .fmsD Knxjp-iNSi ]'<bs»i xn'a Kjopxa I'^nxj N'jiijx 15 
nj3 np 'J^x fixpi .fyxil 'a xnjo Nit:a ni'-iy^x N'jn^K xio mjaox^x 
nnx'n njto n^x i>Kpi .insai p fjriK nSvioa siniyi ndi Niryxi xj^ 
t6'\ py xb^-iBD -njaoxiix naxD' xD-ni^x ^xpi .noajii nnxai njxai n'p'? 
n-ixxa n"yi^x 'ijy oan' ixa nnjaoxiix xin s -i ^xpi .'in mao xid ni>x 
-[ttHi" i6 Dvb» W3"ix-ii p ^3xnr ixa li) a'xn m 't^x ^xpi .n'i'y Dsnn 20 
'pv r"*" Dv^x 'ni pon x^ t« i:«D '^y r^" ^t 'nljx i)xpi nmSna 
ipi niD'xi) 'nn oajijx'in nxDx D3 't3^xi>xpi -nijann x^ixnoxb 
-\:V iy«3nx x^ t« ':m»x rua nnjxia anxv ixai iB'xyi'x ^xpi .nxD 
fya)D Snxaini xoi'yi'K f-ya^xD ?'pi -i^d ijii>x '^y-iipxxi> dv^xi 
nxatyx n'KT pkps no'sy^x rirno^x i>nx ttxt fi'a n^ ^'pa nxaa^jx po^x 25 
n'T i'3 yiia^Ni n^i'K Nipn tonx xd 'ax x' Tijxa .ri^'ST f xiyxi ni"xn 
n"i)i iiipa n'^y I'binoi'xi n'^x t'JanDDi'x p xj^yi' ix -ao n'^y i-ain^xi 

1 read ri-int, 2 read XiSD. » read i^jx iiXpl. 


'^K NmN KD '3D nbba INI N'^JN^N 2''i2T\ 's 'jDiJNn i!>N'i3 Dnnj^s ''•iNB 
NioNi N"S-pD Nonn fiiuj^N |«3 n^^pySs iinisKa Kn'i>y JiNnNS ntJ'n^N 

Nnj>N»nDN n:j? '?^D'>ti^ n'loni'Ki f^DNa^N p Nm' no tspo's -n^^N nc in 
f>ipni n-i3N^N ixni nxpy^Ni nxiii^'N pa ^'ts^n 'S -i'm '•jbNpns ^^Ni 5 
NiTS NHJD Npi'"' nbv'? t3 Nn^s fjDV pa aon N'n^K nln k^n DJi nd '•!» 
i3n^N3 N.T'i'j? jNnnxD n-ib* ^ys p n^xlai nnssi lya na lal' N^t? 
NH'B nxpv^Ni nxini'N p'pnni nniN^'N nxi nTivn 'd n^jntJ'i'Ni n^i'pv^N 
I've 's i^Nl p Nsno -lalJD nd3 ^iiii Nni>fiNT nSji ti3 xnaiB" n^ ijna 
Vtani "ijN lapm •i^ynsi axm^x Nin 'a Wa "i3n in iii>N miN^x la-i lo 
'JN I'j'n 'jnjina 2 t'jdS'n ••nxi'x j?d 1 ■i''33i>Ki '^ashtx nxpr nd3 noN 
njonnoNi xnnpiNV ;nb 'DJi n33n hm nvy nj3n nSaxi nm bna f]ttytt 
pon^N p niJ3 nps n^ni nVs^'Ni inoi^Ni -i33f'N3 D2vb» "isj; ^in Nni>NpD 
N»3 -ibS^ni nDSj?f'N3 s riNjanoNi piv^x3 riDJNnDNi pnx^N3nDJNnDNi 
Njs^io 'j?nv3n n^ijN nnnp3 xpnii'N riny!)N3n3DDnDNi NnnTNSoty 'rj:' is 
jN '3D n^^JN '^N xriNi nt33J DHi nxntN nnjo pnlsNV^N li'N'isi .^oiI^n djjji 
Dnnn')NiDn^ lar tNni>^N*N^NDn^ijnNrni>NBf'Ni onni'Di 'a-'j-icm 

N^N Nn^ND DN )N3 KnfjNV N"3V DN JN3 N3'&* DHiD NinX n'p'? NO 'JN 

TSs^N I'-B'Sn ndn ^Np i^N-i fi''3i n5> bttp 'JD i)4BN3 ni)i)N n3j) njx mpnyNi 

-|N''3Ni>N It^NVI P^3N IN bp N3n DNV1 if'SN '?3p ni^V niNij 'JD ^SBNa 20 

NDN1 -'JD ^*BN ity a'? ina ^bp 3nNjni5N3 Spyi^N 3Dn3Ni 'bp pDnpno^N 
nSnyNlNB nnx^NO p nn3N '•nN'NDi n3ij'i niiSN ■'313'i tNi>a TJvi'N ''3V^n 
.'JO fjSBNiB' N^) ina "JNT'D p miN n5Nro IN3 riDN'p^N Dv 3NDn^N 'B nyo 
mNpnvNi nn": p n^SN n^^N i^jn nn"3 hvh^ nnt6i6s onm nfjNV^N noni 
n"^]? "Tiis'Sra )"3n no hnh 'na isnjj^n n^ND^JN ndni nNpnvN p ^Sbn 25 
D^ini lovn ]V n'xys njni ihd jy n'pha 'vy njN ii'N'^31 "nf> Nmne'N noi 
mlva n^iNi p N^c "^v 3tv' Ni> NJNinN'Di'Np n'bv onp' no D'Sy D^r 

1 read li33^N. 2 read TJS^N. » read DJSnDNI. * read >'?». 


jfD TiTD nina .dh'^j? mxi ixityNisK f J3ki Dn^ lynxi -i«'5x^x 3nsi 

nsy 'pna jjo 'n-i'D'oxi nid^k3 NiD"ini'KnDD''DDiT'n^Nn xdk-i5n!5K 
eiVJTiDN N^i n^hv ^^p« k»3 "iDDi p Dnoajs 'jk ^^N11 nasi tij ■'i'VS 
'jynp i»i /:d^S py idjjni 2 >jd. n p 'i^x IDhn ^2 Dnssjx no ^JiD dhod 5 
'T I« K»xi I'^y nsji Kiss N^iDsa ip 'T' jn ndn pnjii? nni^DnnN 'J3D1 
Dn"n pi DnjD TiDNiiD njj3 I^nI lyai n^iji; nxji n^s wpiNS ni)Np no 
n"DnSN 'Da: isrij ■'^k 3 iJoxiiN Dmsni p fj-ivj^ nmti'i Dmom 
NnnsiNinyxi nnoNafjN nhn-ini Nnmx-iNi NnriNWi «nNini xnynoa 
'JHJN i^N-i ^liD Nn3 'jp-unDn ]« inn 'nfiN nx^xno^Ni nxn'ienl'xa 10 
"li'ODi'N nav^tca nr]b mv onnviND kIxd nsi'iaNai'N yxus ''bv xnB'nn 
'"iisN ^f!^<1 Nlj aov rniijxa nxjNvn^i) lanoi nxin^'^N^ lup 'j^a -ixvi 
m5i p ri^^n p 033 n^i^v n^nnN n^ni nn^xjn i>N^n nji p nna^s ip 
'3D n!ji5N njv nno^K * tinni nn''vai'Ni nN3ipv^N 3Nun 'a '':vpin mn^N 
TJi -130^3X1 j;i3^xi 343^X1 n"vis^^Ni npno^Ni fij^^'i^N 1^3 Dti^ba iJjfi is 
NnnyiNQ tx 1^x13 .xni) n3y^t<3 !N31 nnKinc^ ndj;n p h^nj' ndd ni^Nl 
nN3^N n3n3 kdd xaiNi i^nI p ifiSN n.ijd n'?: na^iba ^ nine 3N3 'a 
.nniB' bw NOD DnnNp3xt: fiN^niN abv nwti'N nN3ipj? p Dsno 'a ao 
n^Nl D34 •'a in"^pj;^Ni ri^ntJ-^N ri'nnrijni iJni5N3 Nnnonxs n1ni 
V3nN p Dpj Nnn-i3li Nnl5ND;?nDNi riysjp^x •'ha b^aba 'S Nnn33-ii 2u 
'3n pi'Ni^.x nxl 'a 'jjJNnn ^bv ni53pNi n' tu l^rn norruN nnine' 
nt6vi< n-iDN3 D^NyijN nioN Nnmiixa n3 ^'oyn^N 'si 'pni 
mjf^N p nyi3Ki np^3 htj |ni noaj p^ji' d^ njN3 n^aoNi 
D^wi'N 1JN3 liia ne' jd Hni nk* p njjni niDi>N3 d^n;)^n inpi niji^N '!>« 
•'li'N Dm'J p^J DnDajxi' i^ya'i njj^'NI Np3i5N •nxni'' iJN3i> onoiaj ip^3 25 
.KB' ti'3 KB* nd Dn3 ^j?ai DmpBNi DnNjjKi DnnNONi DnN^nxa anpbi 

1 read 'jn33Na. 2 read 'jonn- ^ read IJVN^N". * read "]nni, 
5 read riin^ 


Kf>si p'pf*^^'^ ^^i^« ''P^ i^f'S '<"t^ '"'''S nil |NS naii ipB'"'i D3JD nnxi ''5'V 
Di>'jL)3ipB'''iNa s<"i)j; riyipfjK Dni^3snoi'1»VJK•'•^KS j^pxa^x U"d 
.ppNai'N ivisnni h^nd^k fjii ipe-a n^sl il^yas D3ipi>DK i 'c .T'B ni' 
nil 'li^K 'N^in^ noaja nnmom npi)ii torn hhbi^ '•in mno ''3N n^ -liJKa 
nf) pnv2 xpniiK 2^axy i>j-i t^ "an n^Niai .hjd niss-i ii>nxnD' •\:)y 5 
NDN ni) baps ^^i•y ^ns jjd s nnTD ii>Kn fi''3 n^xoa .ni>''iD riiD nj>3 naxj? 
jKnjNa nnnNino 'jjn^Sk pa k-ij;k * nvaiNi) 'nn^KSD Kin Noas ti^kh 
fioirii iNTD^K n'ijvna nnii fit2Ni5D nd'xt xato ':a^nK dhjd nnxi "iij? 
Nlj^jx 5 J^D^NSD ia mv i'Nni'N Hi's slxa .nme' p pti \n '''pn nIj^jk 
f'lan nsDxpD 'a ms n^sl nhv nxa .no^N nysi im noin nyaB' )« lo 
jNDt^K isiva nsDKpD |D ^^N1 ij;ai .fi''Sjn^t<i ^djSjni nju ina^JKi N^a^x 
it<nji)Ki h'ba '3 T niDn •'I^k njinsim Tfta « |XDr nyai -rns in p 
ND j;d fnnni ri'pun ''?v dw t6^ ij^n ^ba bun p nfinxa na^pni nisiDKi 
JK p^»< iN'Dai -inK'^Ni ala^Ki rio'Oji'Ni noniixi ■'ja^x bna p 'oxps 
'ja b ipi ulai:>0D'Di> IK1 mvNiK nib' WDDNisnmna xTia ij;dd is 
iiipa Dnyo ■'{'jiD ikvi ix^'naN Tja nnn^asiDi DnniE'KaD ind^x 
na nnpiKSD nd jd nf> ny ^5T \tt no^N ■'i'V im^N aiv pi .-lyxB'i'K 
msi riDK^D^Na 'Sy ua uon' dS) [ni lE^'^xa ^jiasa dh'^k njonx isa 
.lax yiiD njD xnnn » ySio nvpT Nix'-i^x Arno^N p^a^to Dnaxijnx 
it<b)« nnai6v NIK p mcv dn-n^n ^jabn i^xl 'a ivxK'i'N ^xp npi 20 
'jy 'jj' ob nn'ax^n xab lo^jxa iNonNiiN 'bv 'J'axa' ^T^ 'nb N:ti>« 
maxa 'n^axii jNnri'N !j>*d n:>p-iD wansi aov jiiAno^'N p^jafiN in \TSNi>n 
NDN1 'nt>xn nlna /n^axja mnn '^ba ajNJ^s p ajxj nv Ncb ta''taii 
pnx p 'ba pna injri'Ni fiNVjNijKi pn^jxa Dmcwsa nsy imNyo 'm'D 
ncisNa -t\t>bt< I'nNi i^aij^a i'ai)N ^ns ^aNasi "{>« 'dn p 'i)N 'dni 'i^x 25 

1 read k^b>. 2 read Nl-aj? Ki)j-|. s read -in-I'DI. * read hvy\t6- 
3 read fiDIN^ns. « read ma. t read mDD nb 'I^N. 8 read niona. 
9 read kj;4i»- 


nnpaaa pnb ip jkq'S^k jonnsibs ^na np'si'i'K ^nnpan ''pa fipaa ^3 
DnnnxDa noba bn •'Ik N-jn^x hna baho "'5s n"' Nisna noji snsi 
"ba 1X'r:Ni5K nnp3D ^HKI HDJi X23«3 XPIJO inNi b pn^j snjD i^pnjKi 
csj nn'ni -ipa an3!>N nl^sla npDJ npi in-ics^'N •'^x in-ib'k^ni -isosijs 
iiKpi .iniD'' N^i Dnan iNiia nn ■'•i^s N'nxi'S ■'jy D^nn iiiva minv •'jhs 5 
nx'nfjK •'s an rl!)N pnijNDljN vo 'a vbpn fp ^"3 ^^^bp' yi'^a t^-sj nxi 
nniy^K tip'ta' N^icnn^DJ puia^s T'S'5'iN'i'«"'''l'^^T"'"'P'' '^^T^'^J'" 
yt6)n anai i Dniyna n^^jx^n mrox npi snxW pWa x^jn^x ixt 'ba 
iicpiN nj:3 DDnna ''in on^x i^xpi xjtrx ■'''' T'XJtya x^n "ipi j^jan xoxa 
«l•l{^• riB'-'n!' inB'''ni3i e'hj ns'tj-j \nya':K^ man xdsj' tn^njo T'nt ■'im 'Ddh lo 
naiD px i^xp IX ■'^x -aan^x « rrji t'x '^nw nnnn 5)21 aipv ns^pp invv^i 

'^K ''5X X' XJ3 Disns l^''3E'3 X>X HXa nVT I'XI ]f)''3B'3 x^x ni'ij?^' nx3 

niiDJi Dnm"'D3 'nnpif) 'vn n^i'X 3X3nxi pnSxsi'Xi n^nxi -\'ib« 
b'isiti nx'xi n^i5x xjjij3 onmor ■'S lE'nji nnn^Di p |i33i Dnnxp-it:3 

.nsts^i ncnsi nj03nxnxyD^x-iDix-ix''xi xj^ixaxi nx5-n^x i5 
p nx'x3n fj;3 m^ba 3X3 's xji) mpn ix3 npi 
rn'X3n -131: in:i od n^!> vSxin^x 3xni'xi rijon^x px^ix^x 
■in3^x isnxD '^y s n-XD bit ]ii 131 njx xomnxa x^iaSx ^^3^1 
'B'3 moxi'' IX Dnisxoa i5'i^!'x p ■'B'a y-i3 np fsxij nips lxi 
''s Dnxr3i!33;a xDa-i^D'"L"3ii5i Dn'ljj? n^xa nn" nnmx^ixi? ii5i^^x p 20 
rxDp^x "ba psxu^x lij njj?a on'<bv linii pntsi'X j?X!3p3 "ixi dx^s^x 
yxopi^x nniaxi xo^jd i^ji^^jx p onva 1x3 xd V'oJ V^n3x i'V2 p 
DHJitia pc^ ''by lotva 'b' onyo xd [n nnix •i^ii'^x D'^on nnii'XD 
"•^x IX n"XDf>x ^Jni'xi^xl xxi xoi^a xn^a njni'' xo rtix^i xnicna^i? 
"s fvxuiji) ^xps dmva p^ n:t:3 ix liii^^x xn''3 "p^i psxiJ^x 1103 npcx 25 
pmpnn D3jx n^jxli •'mis nas^iixi dstbx n^n yxtapl^x p -id^x 
hyipbn inTi" i33 rinnxi fiyan Dajiirip' nb 1x3 nn^tx pviSrini yxispi^x 

1 read DnSys. f*J33 2 read inill. 3 read XH'XD t6:-\. 


D"'vc^3 laiD 'nan aba n^ "f^hn^ dtidh t6 'nai vsnn ni»n fienx dn '" 

i)ap n^ D''^a n^o ai'yi'fo "m n^ nos iki .^"i^p -lUpi^N bp onoKDiNs 
'jnx vsi nrrni otj' D"n D'unp: jrin'oa i^'sn D-ip^xn nai .picj nitroi'K 5 
'ipa fto'sn^K nN''ni'K nxn ■■n Tii'K mSs^N nxn ''iv n^nn inva mnx 
'ipi /jmtj''' Kin D''Dn Tnaifjin i>Npi -rhan Dnoiyn ]u ooiinD if) 'nnji 
Dip' •'foi "'1 ina rhv 'd ^spi .pnx i>jnsi D'»n ifnn -ipi .n^nsa iir "'O 
niitJD nj« 'jN K'' niD^K ^ n^'Ss pi D"iyi>N3 n'? ni'Nsi'x niDi -lenp Dipioa 
nK'ixS't; nNT ^bii inik^h ikt jo fhpihn aao njNi nnasijs ^txjd p lo 
nwajj^xi N'siK^Ni N^ajN^i^ jsa so nsiiiiis .spa^N int 'tis kjb^s nxn i»i 
KpnD pn^ND^xi p-iQNaiiii s<i>i 3Niii^N nxT njii>s 'iis spntj pnisxv^Ki 
Nn^nxi t<n:K3Da f^nx^s nyonx NDi> nt6'6') iHpvha int njnj '!>« 
nDnpnoSjN* ij^'iN^s bna fiir jsa noi fw onSva '!)» dn:^s iDaNnniii 
nnplsxaa dnjI^k naa jIn^i DnT''Da trinp' t6i (vSkd^k j'n^xviss p 15 
'ao p^xS^x X1XD n'Tiinxi'X naan nm^xtx nxnpa ri^aianSxiynxi 
xlxa Dnj?'!20i amaxai dn^sii Dn"ia:i cm^aai onT'JV p'x^a^x y'»5 pa 
iiSxa^xi 1^x1 'a ^nxj^x ■^bv abavba ni'''Sa ^^^i'^<1 l^f'T 's aao^x xd !>'? 
nxj? |x '^vi 3 inxi^nD nia a-iSji nana n^sxl ■'d 2 p''3ai5xi5ai'i'iaoi5X''i)y 
n'B xnnxS'x axnafix tonn'' xt riann fist-'ab 'jxvdi fisnB'nx-iDX-^xli) 20 
DiTa D-'S'xpxtx YV2 ^nx p Dipi> riex'S bc]i^i?ti jx -j^x-i 'a ^jAd^'X |x isipii 
axa p onjD y'Dj^x tai 5 nnrxo 'ba liivi xota V'Sii yaii 'jxii 'i>xj; 
'^N DnoD nnxi isaa i^oi^x Sdt iSd nnxi axa p nn^iin njva njnoiix 
pnnDx pi naipa ixa -j^d^x anpa onjo ^ jx pnnox p n^nx np ni>T3D 
pix^Tiax ^bv DnjD t^a xnox^x D3xj pi nyax^xa ixa hjd XTjja y jx 25 
imxi axnisx noxDi p'i'yxB'oi'xa nnjo epotx n^x-iai -n^o^x n"t:>xn 

J read n^i'SB. 2 readpiaj. ^xijixtia s read XinxCj. vhf\0 * read 

taiiD. 5 read nn:nD. 


3"^ p Niin 2'" hrii ]n "nx iq i-iSn nmsSx fi-iKjn nSo n^jxlai .mv mini 

ptJTi nansi ^'voi niQxi tt^n wv ib'n nnnn n^si 'ipa n5) Nn^oyn 
TIS331 njB'n CKii natj' '•m D'"' Dnjno^N dk^n mj? n^Klai .tajasi nsjso 
IS 'j;^i 'v nmax i^K'iai i Di-iisan dii noan "■»' nyacn jnn ■'D'' naiDBn 5 
n^an kddk D'" ris^xiis 'q ^^N■^3l .nai-iyo p'owa •'b srmva min^K 
2 .TT'DV nn't? nxnp ny'ja nt^'m nrpa ntrm ncJ nsris n:"i njnn 
npi .Nmnyn i^xla nK'na ■'ITi nint? n^inntrn nyna s mios npyt npjn; 
nwDK yaiKi Dae y-' ^jjc ^xnc" 'ja -laDois wav ni^uj av asna^s i5Np 

IK'a^N V'Di KHJDI 'n ^3 DK Tl n^iX Hin DDK J3? n3'i 1p1 .nUK HK'iiBn 10 

vai '3D nsa^x jpnss .d'"" i?tiiQ -n i -n t2"i ^by -n^iba •'s 'inno 
nnxpi 5)3^K 1^)0 * xnao in ix Kn:n pnai;'' js pnx ma Nnmya ^''B^f'N 
KOD i^JKln nnxtf ni) i>3^Ki bi5X -laioi b^bn prsni ^3i)^? p^Nii SaisN 
bni ij'jp i)3ni 1111^-13 ^3n"i -jnxD ^3ni ^!) bn ^xpi j'ni'xxi'N f^j?3 nsjKJ 
piaxi n''i>y i'3inKi maBw mapN in n^k n.tihn i6 ywb^m y-f nwo is 
N-iS3'in \\y'? pDN KD nio^K n^'Sa p 131:1 .Dim nxif njN n''^s now 

.3siin^N nsn ^ba 3S3!sk in Ik N:f> 
5 np-ixao in nioisK ik njo ni-i3 kjn-'KI n^i^N it"n 13s x' oiipN 
'ix N' d^j?k .DNinijNi mKiiisK isKojjriDK Kn3nni noj^K p oeifiK 
n^KV p yoj ncnfiN '■^j? 'SpofiK mi ^jkodj 'yao mo jKniD niD^s }k 20 
ait3i> jjBn^i pn's'? nnx mpabi'-iB'sa 'ips •'Xivaai 'vsii 'dkjh nfjxDi 
N-)' jnat^ ne'M yaB':n xtaina ait33 nair irx ie'n^i nairlji kdd^i iinci^i 
n^^xa ^njfiK ini 'jKoaj mo -ai^x nio^xi .pox xd lalJD ■'nt;>«S''xiexi5i 
DnoxDJx nJX3 |xi np'pn^xa '^ niDX one nbbaz -^"ji n^nxai nny-itrai 
.TOaxnnni'K ii^xnjijxa nn"D nnna rtDijSo DnoBJxa noxon nsinno 25 
DX3 '3N 'n 'jc Dn"na dtid D"'j?tnn oniix 'ip3 niixia axnafjx pDJ npi 

1 read Dniaan. 2 read m-'OX- ^ read nTDV. ^ read n:xn30. 
read npnXBD. " read ^''Xiai'XI, "> read ri'D^'K. 


ni3i>DnB> 'ip 'D -l^S-i tJ? S'33S^K n33K SD3 Nina '3D '-\Hj?ii n!531 -1310 

.snjj? nj3s yav '33 i>y naivn i5njn leri iispi Disnia^D na'P' 
NmoN ND n^n Nn3 riTNoi'K 8<ni> nainDiiN DnnsnK \t 'niiN n3'>K^»i)«a 5 
''noi'K Dn33"i KD3 -j^Ni ^'nKDD nnvD i^»n> usaa nJNnsD Knpiisj 
n""':Njv^K3 ijnr^K ddni D3m^s 3213 nxi D3''D^x i^a ns djikb'ji ijKpi 

"■^K 31JDi'K ID '3D pi)K3^K NnT"D ■'I^S NHT'DD 'ilS K' 3JVK KDS .;»V3 

^ njN3 •'•^N 'liiN'i iN»3l 3iJDi>« ''!'« pitjTs^s p smnp :^\■^2hn n^ai piBia^N 
'ns 3nNJ^N in ijonisNi iini'K '!>« i)Dn^K in niiK 's idp^'K in DO&ba 10 
nsB 31J' nsjr th "I^n insiiK 't'N 3-inj^x iiohn p oniiNi pj;i5N3 htsd 

p-\tlKi'?ti p i?tA-i Ti3 33N13i5N TiDDI pIB^jisN '^N 3njD!'N P Sm^DD IS 

'tj? "inn snpiD 2 ni>DJi pc^'N ''^y inn n3inxD3 mn3e'Q 3-i3d^n ''i>s 
Nm3nD '3DS nn3N]i Nni'DO 's '^,i'ni fin2tfh nht'dd 's n^na i'SOB'^N 
i6\ii nb D'iijx ■'^yi nn'^jNim ■'hv fi'?t6'ibi6 mSi •'cf'K pijNii Nm^DDi is 
t6K "n4 njv yain n^i Nms'n3K3 nyaja nnNij 3^in khjn nxa .Ti 
NHD'inpni moNi) Npins'pjNi nf> Nnnvstsi mnpni Nnp^ss fixs 
fiysNT i=njND it!5N Knj?NDJN3 nniiWD ni) Nnn'3Dni n^ 

'B i^Nl pa NnNt»N3 3"'i 't ti!'Nyf)K 'B ND p N-fiia 10-11? npi 20 

'3^N i>XB^N 'B NjrU ND ^hv «3p3 3"''1 DXIH 'T » T5D D^NP IHI IXDJN^N 

Nnnty 3"''i i!''5>i>N 'B fivND 3"''i DN'N 't ]«mhn 'B i^iNiai asHsfiN '"in p 
.DN^N 'n iNB rii'iiNi'K tj n'" ni>Bni'N Nnb xmnw ii>N"i3i .fiJDf'N^ 
•nptnn im bi)i n'trsns nni 3'"' Nn-i3«i sn^iix nsob 't n-iinf>N lijNlai 
V1DJ3 'm NDni 3"nT r^SB nKnp3 iiik^jn in Nnmsysi NnisniN ^^N•^^1 ?« 
n"D^N Nn3 nnnsK ^'i^N nrtj'i'N i>iiK n^N'i3i ■nsiE' ids' nnmi tn^'n 
n3-i3n nsnSiiN ni>Ki3i .f\i)r irtsn a'^i 't D"» n^!)N D'b 'did tjd^k 

I read njN3. 2 read n^DJI. » read I'JV. 


i?Npi iT'Ei:33 Nanoi npnv b^ej- i "'kt' ds^ nmn lijspi na iniii>3 ^K1n^^? 
3Npj/i'N «DW .nyi D^'ivi' 2 D'^aian 'pn^oi jcp-in -inira iT'nf D'^'3Kt)ni 
N3 Dv njn •'3 'ip3 NHjo jinsn^Ki dikd^sni xnnyNye' ]v na kS^k iniii>s 
ticn nsinisi nj?n vd ^xpi .oni)! cp njJCT nmv isai nr b vni Tijna "ijra 5 
D^wf'K ia non ti''ND^i nN"JKnn nhS aaxiaiiN ••pto li'N'iai .'3i 
nxpiK 'a npbi p kb* p i^k m»N ko Win '3D xmaiDi snpiiKii lisa 
■npn ^5^ s<nvojK3 Ma nsjA iij hkid sn-np"' t6 rinpiiD t^kioi noi^yo 
•iTisv Knoi'Di snjD Nnj3Di n!5 mnp np ko 'ei n\nj k^i nnoK fi^Kiin 
ni'8<l3i xnijyai Knyam doc^k smxin '^j? tip'' ab inp^K [k -j^nI iixjio lo 
IS 'nn -[bn'i2 asNisijN 'pf'^i sn^jyai Nnvaoi iDpiis rinna 'i>v -npn t6 
Dnpi>K3 npi p nasisN i'dd tj * tdd nhjd nnsi ^ai) mp qd pi'Kai'N 
•puba •'ba Nna-ips ini nopiiK tdd i^yi od hjn -j^NlvDisw^K 'ipji ik '^jk 
njD 6 '3 ^^D^K ynpi KnK^jywS ini bmba^ "inc ■'S njcoi n^ai)N j?Dp' 
«li>n3D aaxu^s "'ew 'p^^i rijo 'a ^i'ai5^? vtapn NnooiN im ddc^ni lo 
nS noi'Nj? 'D nns naisB'' n^ii nmKnw qd ni)^K mnp sai) iKipo^s 
nnoan 'i>v KJi" nne' np b nwn no ii) nos'' 'di "ip3 '2d i'ye'' kd jy ^sd^ 
liiN-i p Njanjn njKDns p n^b^x nxTai'S wi) ni'snKi nmnp "iaxji 
Njona n'iiK Nnrusi Kjoiiy ji^a so nin nwxnpi'Ni pabu') nine^K tdd^n 
ninp^K nlni nnpiia rip^a^K nin p -aoa .kinidk ^^jkI eiKjJiK 'aj ^^^ibti^ 20 
Dn 'Is 5 -30 Koiiy^N f-ya iit<p nd3 nnanyo nja ]y tJxj) iiaiiKi nrmp 
biiKa^iTxiinjnptiy^NpnNva-ii nsnaa ixijiD 'I'n inviiKa oni^s 
DDNi>N p inJN p injx 'iiN N' n^Nlai .poasp mu f"3 pi |"dd man p 
snjK tDbv ob'i »nb naai Nnnava xnTjiNn'' aasiaiiN tiNvaNa nai5KDi>K 
DnTK ''by arh niip »o nba orfbt^ iiyin nIji DmKiD''i'j? DmysDn nb 25 
K-mne^ Nnmc Tin: ni'Jia j)4io 'b ni>Nl yn:5 iv od nii^K Kjsn: nxpi 

I, between \ST and rOt? ins«rt 'Dtr. ^ read 0^33133 D'ann 'pnsOI. 
8, read niKin. * read KTDO. ^ delete '3D. ^ read n'Snil. 

'a 'n •'thti aaxiaiiNi D^Kvi>N nK^a«i>s nin iiiKi nnsa nxoa^Ni pa^s 

NDS pj? nana nmxajj p pnna' k^ nd^ni n^ iinao'' nriNiNDD t«3D nns 
HDDT p inyiT' N^Ji nnyst: -a nha painrc Niji moN pvr xiji liiK-i p i)ps 
riV'^tJ^N oh»]i 'a tjn ^i xoai naJ^Ka iTiiv dhvidi on^a mm rh onimii 5 
irrisinWi'N li'N'i 'a TiJKVinss K''pnKiN''W n''S1K1 nujni xa^a 
nx npa .d^nvSn '•in '^y pafjxa paow VKnas^K dI^kv 'fjn riaoa anpx 
'i'jj n'biDi noijNjf n'Nai>3i nnxiNDD psacK ik3di od n^i>N nui dhjk 

\Ti D'nijK nDsci i'Np -IK lisN-ia asna^N pt33 npi .Dn''S'K nxTa^N i)S2rNa lo 
troK'n ns '?i<p^ D'J6?i d''D''^i nnyioi'i niniKi) rm isNpi D'DK'n ypna nniND 
Dva iiiB^ii iljxpi Dnaian nxi i n^'iia ni>B«Di> m'.T nxi Dva ni){WD^ 
1JDD1 tree' niNian niDoi nasia^si nN^j^i) onnN^SK •'a i)Kpi jftDxp Dnn 
D^s?j)^s •'a snjD naj' ndd od anpiixa DmsaN n»d i^Kiai .dtit' cni 
•'bti \Mi)ji2 p mDK3 D^sy^N 2 n^in aao ■•n n^s Nnmsnm DD&ba nvxai is 
niiji s<Di5xi 3KnnijNi -liB'i'Ki njniix '■a ikj^jn xnjD njoai ixvm n^aj 
-iNnjsijx mil -isDDK^K rhao) miani nsJcsi'K mnrxi ixDJixi'x 
^i'^ilN DDi '3 Nni>j;ji NmsBKi N.T'a mia "'•ii'N nxaiiix rty^K nnpna 
Nnpia p Tan >n ni'N'ia riK'niiKi na-in!5S m^a'' ■'iSx noiiiK 'a ai'pi'Ka 
NiT't^jDi NnpiiKii NmsaN nod -inNa^K luiiN s xnjn pi aaNiaijs p 20 
nniip 'a nd aona djj ^a Nn'i''3 p bp fnt^^jx ^a nd b i^iN-iai .niiNiij i)i 
.DnisNij rhnsS^K Kn^iNyas fva 'Ina tKi''ni>xi nxaj^Ni ps^Vo^K p 
axnai'N NnvD' in p ■iinaN3 * nmvai'K niipi)Na nanno^x xniiNvaN sow 
'Dpn Tipn N^i 'yn od Nn^nsa nh-'^jn nSiia nd Nivn «!> amti 'i'jn 
'a na's^a p n3'^i)i msay p nay Nnjsf) Nni>ap p ri^nj; ni> mp' vh p 25 
asiJi^K waB' DnjN snavi 'a n"y N'UJNi'N na nsi t5DDi .noiiKy 

1 read rhf&Dc'? \Qpr\ "IISDn nsi DVH ni>K'DDi> ^njH niNDH DK 

n5>'i'n. 2 read risin. » add p. * read n'nvaijN. 


nnasjii'Xi mK''Di'x ddnu^s jd n^s kdi naonni i^sha nTnn nbi6i 
"'baciobti) 'aujiiK paopiiKi Dim^xi ^1JJDi'^?1 n^Jxa^Ni n3i'p:oi'xi 

xnjNpnx a'-iin ^nnpiji ^a nsani'Ni .tIik nvji^sa od njidx 'ipi .nSjJi 
1K11 D3'j"'j? QTiD IKS' 'ip3 xjDisj '3 ^na^^1 Nm^p 's nnoiy isntn^ 5 
nv!) nr 3n nua onsDO D'OB-n ^Kpi D3''ry 'Di^n ijx ine^ kv^s ^xpi 
^^■^:^^ .insina svv )nn3 Kim ona ijnN dc fm^b hnp^ idix vu' 
^j Don^s jJJNvi'S riVJV n^xSi^ rnxD-in y'? snnxi nsid i^nI ]» 

nn":ai i^s^k yoi Jjvk ]« n:a nnn nj^'xi d^j^s ^T'■'K 'is n-i nbva lo 
-iDpi'tsiTixDyi ni.nt^xi ddb'^xi inoiiNi nnew^si iim i j-i3 o'l 33.si3 'f 
ni)3JD^Ki iDsi'Ni jKDiD^Ni «tij^xi nin^JKi ijDnijK inai'S a-'^^xi .aon 
n^^N ni:5 xnvoiKa khjxi .aon nini'Ki ih^Ki nj^xi nnpjj^xi int'd^ni 
np^ja pai nra nDDSi^K I'aipoi'K nna'xtei rinsixoD jKaoi od 
''5'N mNVolsKi nx-i-ii'Si nxa-ia^x pijyioi'K fvoix np'xf'Da pbiiD^JX 15 
''ba riDpj^Ni xps'i'Xi Dni5Ki axly^JK pijvv i^K'iai .n''n3i'X to '3D mp p 
niisp Ik •]'?ii-i2 x"3JKi>s nptij ipi .pKpnnDN^fc{3 -[ba-^ '3d n^i^N -np p 
NnnsT'nxni nnK"JKm-i NOD^xpriKD-is^Ni'itJSiDniKTni'X'" p^n ncj's 
DN njvK "" DKJ Ninn av2 .Tm iixpi .3iDn iisik nx i? '" nna'' ^xp 
.KODK^'x to ^''Nnsf'K ''?« hntdI'k ini !V n3 t<:3'' ^^N^ hm TJi^i D'DE;'n 20 
Nno'D 2n3-iKnD Tin Kn''pnnDD ^bv ndd^x p3''ksd^x tiii n^slai 

Dnii)''DDD DUDWn lOn^J D'OB'tO '1p^33t<13^NnK''''JNnn''^S 3 Kn3D. 

"ip pa ND'KT n!) Knn'3Dni Knp^xais NnmN3y i^k-idi .nid'd ny idh^j: 
riN m3 ^Npi .n''innt5« i^ D''Dt5'n n3vi k^'k htip) D'DB'n p "1 nx -hhn 
ptswi noNV tKvm nK3Ji iKDii p Nny^oi p's^a^x [n ns npi .VK3i' b '" 25 
'" riK ^'?'?n "iiora 'a "ip n^JSlDi ■i^B'ya ^3 ">' nnv "ip; mDn3 in3D' 
^^NV njjuB^'K niisy ■'sni'xl ■••iKa .miK 'iiK ni^nK p D''De'n p 

1 add -'?K 338<13^N 'T^XI. 2- read n3-lNnD. » read Nn3DJ. 


JNiij Nna jjcp'i dnSj jpriK 'bv njpno^N nx^N^xa nsoanDi'K idd^k 
aaKia^sa n^nsm iTn^ai npiiKa p'sina mivpD xna i'vi' ixna^x 

pjM 4 nxiD '^N NHJD a^i'' n^Klai KiTS nD''i) s einni y'NSa nxb b lo 
aaTi i^Ni "I'Ji iNiiDiiNi riniiNB^x -m^N snjD inano-'i' nNn3ii«3 

3n'ibKi p3''i^N JN-ianoK p nvsr kd n^Nlai -nvNiJNi nauB PiNiriaK '^j? 
''?}} nnxij^JKi ri'-pKvi'Ni r'V»i'i< p fNViiisi inniiNi Dxnji5Ki nSai>w 
na^inaD niiisi kjxi^k nj3Si iiDiiiN p iai^H poi Nnj)Ni:s eiKi>niiK 15 
niSJtJ'Ni'K nsjn Nini)N p nviDiiKi riNJKrni'Ki vx3d!3K TTh iNaa^K 3vai 
ix-i3nD><^ na-iyoi!N p ^ji rj? nbbti npr^ ndi hkidi iKmNi^N ixnanDsii 
NK'jKi -i^DKan^Ni aKiK^JNi iKVB'K^N dSji anaiiN nxnpi Dioa^K 
i>in^t«i axDJiX^N^j pjoiiNis 'inNin^K f-am nKJKi>3i'Ni nN3nNaD^s 
TJ NniJDJNa rianB'ijN ba^iiha .Tin jd '?ivo ]v D''Nn3^K xoa nsjN-ipi'Ni 20 
H'l^iioi'N TKO ^bv sna ^ ji tj? n^i^s nva •'liis jsd jn^ik i^Kia p malj d^) ko 
ntsnosiiN 'a li'slai « .nnSsi {{•'jt nvaj'iii ^^K•^3 n-ina'i> i^isa^i' nSijn 
nnnana an^s '3D -it3 kdi iKjiiKi nmha^ i^vhn) axiniss m TiiiK jJ3-is<i's< 
tlsiDN n^KnnoNi fiDU'iiKi n3it3nf's<i nTna^Ki n-ixnn^K p nnnN3^K 
n"nNi>K^K n-inK3i>K nnoana 'ao nmp kd Knjo qn 'nn f-ya 'iiN xnSya 25 
••a '3n n' maan 'Ik i^JNlai snnja nsnns jyi .xnasi jy piia^N iris' •<'i'?s 

1 read nDljn^X fioan. 2 read fixjai. » read NSnn KyxSa. 
4 read KnNID- 5 read NnK3ai KnKJV- « read riliK^KI {<'jni)N3. 


ND Nna-iNJiDi f-nx^jx npnNBns 's dnx-iNi cnjKi^Ni nnyaini onrNntsi 
P'N^Sf'N p^ts*3 K^JN Nvoi i?ti-i2 to'-n'' aby miiai mny Ksn'' ah 
sii^y 'j)ni 30 Nn^fiN3i Nnptxii Kmanoi sn''''B'JDi KnnNni 

■]in rhba nNt3y^? ndi ikdjk^k -^ip f6i6i masn ■'Ik •'sk k' i^K^iai 5 
'■i^K ^'NS3i>K T'KDi ^tttba nniii na-iyo^Ni n2t2Bi5i<i rioani^Ni hpvba p 
NapNyo N2NnD N"njD ktidnd nbvJi iKvn^N -cxd ^hs xna nij^N nvniK 

1 mN3y •'Q nx'jn!5K ni^vi'S 's iSn fisy^Na -inNin-'i J;1l^^53 ^djit ixs 
maxiN 's i^D'i nnnxn pn nnrri nT'nin pn mnvi nrnxaj; pn od nnxa lo 
D^'Dii'K nsiniix i^Nla pnno'a fi^DiDSjiiK i-nnhm nv'i ^i' 'oa .thnui 
ni'ynf'x p nt>i>s nn:D ndi D'xna^x •'a n^Nla D'^ nd ci^'po^'X d^vj^ni 
mxp KHjinNim NnosonNi nh^jnisxi Diijf'K v^xidi Di^yi'K t'sd!' 
nxiD noaj^ jxdi i^jv nxnpD •'a n-nspoi ^pshii fiTiv -np n:K Tin nm^N 
nnasn^xi n^nNj^N [d sn-i'iNvn i^y dijj^xi NnnK^na jna^s nh'q rianp is 
tNDTK^Ni nNnt<VD!5Ni p^'Npii'N p'N'pn t<na fiiya Kn""iKiD •'bv rioiDpo 
NnJKianDNi T^sKiD^Ka nna-iyo oaj^JK 'a xnjNa dijj^k 2 jj^kidIiki 
eixiriaNi 8i> ^xiti nNaioaijxi snjia iiap niK^n^Ni nNDianiiw 
'i)]? dijjIjn Dxans tsdi vas'^Ki pii^xi inaijNi aiiniiK nnm li'DD^'K 
.D''Kna^K ■'a i^Nla n' Q^ ^° nmiiNi imdt^n -itid 'i)!? * xnji . a eix^nax 20 
xnaoim ii^ns^K nK^xiaDbK-iiDtsa fianyo^N jd nbba hnhk nd n^slai 
fls^niiK ^b]) n"JKvni!Ki n"nsaj^Ni n"jnj»»i'K na^nao^K I'pKpDi'K p 
^iva Kna "'aj'i f KnoNi>N xna ^n'l DNOixiiK Nna 'ae^i) Nnyasjoi ^njua 
^KDai tiiyabb vt^pba p rhvs'' ndi jxvn^xi dxj^'K jKnax^x ;s? b^5i'S< 
^snaiiNa xniinai p'y^K mpi nKe!5n5o^K nxnofiN a''a-ini nNnx-ij^K 25 
■■a T ab ND ivns-ij^Ni ^ ivyxatjiiN n^ya' kcd rj^xl tji ria^naoi'S 

1 read mttZ^- 2 read JJ^N'.DI- 3 read ^im^K. ^ read NnjIJB. 
6 read K3t2X^K. 


nSn Diij^iN JK avm nj3 jx ni'N'i •'b lyNB'i'K 'pup ipi .xnjD n^ ripnxs 
VDiD .Nnna-icx niiiiKa hjn i)Np \a ''py nnnyn k^s Knnnn nd yB:m 
DpDi rinsi WJi ipai niDi finTi p n^s nissj/^x kdd riK-in nd ■'jk n' 
..TS iij n!) iiiya nxi nn''n3 'a qd 'iKa^NTipn nyoiKa ^^N•^ jks 
KHD^ya rr^y dvjx pi in k^k Nnoir k^ 'JWDI nana' ikidk^ ni'N'ii 5 
J/D-IS1 nxT'ji'K •'i'K iK'Ni n^j^N Njpai Dnoi'j; nmn joi nx''^iKi nx-'ajN jd 
■'i'N p-ia'?H mN3vi' "ID" 1 p 'Nnaoa nnnnia roi pKnisK 'a nNJ-niiN 
n"Dvi>Ni ''psa^x pni'Ki am^JX i6vi^^ ^txjd^n siib'k 'n ti^jk n-ii)Ki5S 
'ba n'pan p bpmn n^i Tan ^'>^ ^noSn n^i i-iriDn i6 ■•li'K no'NniiK 
n"PNanjNa i^a an^jxi Dnp^ntcKiTa Dni'n^i'Nnip''n^N N'jnijfo fi^sn lo 
Dnri'DDi Dnprx-ii b^K p^xa aoa nnt<''KtDyi QripwiK noNni) hd^kt 
OK N'' li'N'iai .D'm maj njx ni^s noK j^iibni ni^y binx Dn^nDi 
smoai Km^jsi Nni>'l3ji Knpipn 'a nasniiNi nnNpi^ao v'oJa nsanvK^JK 
ah) D.-ija n"aN3 tj an'^ba rriniba ri^sap ri-inNt -ao nnoan jkb 
'ijN rijiiijD n^KV P na^nao nnmi snjiiani n Wei's p 'na dhji; fi-inojo i5 
tupbti •'i'X LiBJ^K iDi anoK^s ^ba pa't^x p j'nxii Dsmi nnni rival ani 
.OD in N^K mnj; n^i noiiy •'inni t6 nd nijx'i iid kd •'i'x at^aiixi n^o^si 
NnpKiisi xnij6<aB>Ni snjuB tiN^nasi nNaji>N ■'b nnoan ii>Klai 
2 mstoi fia^naD^s nvasjoi n^N^sl njNiijNi xniNDnNi sn-iNntNi 
s-i'jdI'N K'■•li^'^^x '!>« -raa^s nK^JN p ps<nnS8< 'isNi dd^n '^k 20 
in aba nysuN ninai nmyi nnanve Nvm xi? kd f-iN^x ni\b ptabKibti 
NniTJai Kn'N'iryK a^ain eisi'naKi nsjNvn^x is bi nnoan i^xnai .ijji ty 
ri^NoiiKi n'"'axnn^s Nnvsusi xnyasjei Knn^iJxi NnvsaDi Knnijsi 
Wi:i KDJi KDJi ^5nn''nNl Nn^sae's six^niis •'bv n'nxji'Ki n"Nin^x 
.n'NDDN nonpn Nn''E>jDi xnpijKi k^jn xna tjin' n^i xnivn' x^ nd njju 25 
Dnn"jai on^Nacx tiN^nax 'bs mx •'ja 'b iinnxaiis nnoan iinij ni'N'iai 

1 read pb KnaDB. 2 read ftslriaD^K NnVBJDl NnnXIKl XnjKlijNl 
NmsSDV 3 read n^Ji'^JX. 


n^^JN 'vn Nn''^j; nnni'S nnysD •'i'j? nn"vj)D -invi njo mnn naxa nay^N 

n'nc no "ipa i^Nln D^p^N «! j npi n^j od nbha nmp nd n^x n^sr ndi 
lE'a' NO ^3S •B'DB'n nnn tnn fis jiki ■■ibtb' xin ntryjB' noi n-'n-'Sf Nin 5 
nj^a ii^jjj' tmp'' xi) fxa ao nxa^x -\ip \v hjnd hjv i-iln'i pdjodI'N na 
"li'N'i ^D nin^n iTb fxa •'if'N npil'X tv nniv n^ji rivnisa hjnin ^ap 
D'on Tivn "ipa n's ti^n^ •'ISn ^nv^'xa 'ind nn^na 's nxaSx rioana 
n"'0' Dn' nn ^■'se" nr pnv dsib' dti^'N 'a bnpi ddb« va-n !>a 'a i^ya 
Tisno n^noi ri'DN 'jn ipa xt? ejiai nk' Noa ips'i 'jvi ■'SE"! fno'i "mi lo 

npl .fiT -ISVO DVe T'B'yDI B"11D '" ijNpi H'-nOI D'OD '" ^Xpi NDIN ''JN1 

ni>i)N mp'B ysp ''s TviTxi'NisDV'Tpi^xnai .iNw!'Nin^D'iiiB>'ra 
N3jn DN'N nj?3iD i^^v^N E'Tnp aiy^'N ijjnk'Snpi .nN'vSN nici riNjjf'N 
■tpi ■nx^'V^N -[Sn'i iN^n^N lya nd^I'd iji's xop^x nxon nxiy^x li'.Ti 15 
'r^Vi 'ao n^^x ri-npa ijra DX''iiNi'N ddi niDijN f'X''n '^x ixDixiix jfia' 
aiyfjx lyxE' ^xpi .n^xl jd i^iiai ■'^n J)^d iij? np^i jrn a^aa pxB' iud 
tXDJX^x aoa' npi fijiao rijoxi^x pa to pcxi ni>nxa xss^x pxi xoan^i 
xn^x 1XDSX xoa-i^ nx'vi'X ix Tin K'a^' pnvi iia' 'ipa m^j^ t'^'d i 't? 
■'Ini Tiv xln nn^'na x1 prr nii^x p xsto^ a-iyi>x nvxtr i>ipa ht'J niaxi 20 
nnismnv nmimo ■'Ini xnyx xin p!5a' npisa^x 's nl^xlai -xaoD^x Sax' 
einno s BupD laxi T-sp -icj? 'Ini ^'lo nDj? ''in c-y nxDyxi'Xi n^nv tj 
niD^x nsona'' nauB'i'X to T xd [onxi rix^n njnxi C'V a^D 's n^^y djjjo 
l^jxl jx {'DiJD^x * }XDj?r ps wi 'an nxa^x p iiiy^xa 'ax x" hohasi 
xnpijxa iDX nnn niiajD rimnpo 'ax x' 'na ^xSJax^X1 aa^so^x iixvaxp 25 
'30 njD xnljxyaxa xn'snaaT xd x^x hvsn xiii mox 'vj?n xi' 'j?ni ar 

] read K'B>. 2 read NH'nV 'im XjniD 'iHI. » read yijpo. 

4 read p DyT pa. 


TKDi mi)^Ni fiam^xi: n-itiI'N n'« % ni'Nl ^yi's nosja nnae'N ndi 
DnnyKJv^ nnvxjv b nhba bm npi njon^i na p'b' kd 's i j^a d'sdi^ik 5 
"h Dn:x '^jji n^ Dxn i6 jJDpJD •'k^jt i^d nna^ci ms 'ja ii^o t^a ■'Iks 
•naani DnosjK ijnvs n"b> i^K"i Dm* nupsy jd in nu'Ji' p ntrso 
i>ii»5>s< nf> ni'X niiNiij iij ti^o^n i^a mJKi nnNS D^xvi'X niK'Nao \v 
maani ns-iBTii nonpn nnNl in hm na ijniD' jx p ahvai bin mi ■'i'yNi'N 
naJiND N-'E'Ni'N TND ja nxioa in pna p''Ni'a^N p nnx -icxan in tV lo 
Nao Dn^yji DnsanoN ip d'ndi 'T'n ■^bv i^Ni ^vi' jn w nnoan 
nmNay pn njnavi p^k^k 13« mona iinaD'^ nod^n pxaNON 

T'ja npi)3 '^N nNlNyoi'NI PNTIN^iNI X^Ntiy^N (D DmNSN N» pi'SI'l 

unb ah 'j?n ni> fiaixi riiNayi'Ni laB'i'NS .od Dn"iN3^ fisiiNSa n^ji riJN-'a 

.NHJISm N^J '''i^N nNT-a^NI DJ?jf>N Dn'DVDI DnpTNII VDJ^JN p^Na 'n In 15 

nann 'jNjJof) pio^N npe'I N'jni'N 's iSNai'N riovja n^Ni nx •'Ins 
Nnnairoa rr'^y djjjn pi tjn hi rbhn t6ti Nno^r n^) riene' iNnoNi 

jiaON-I^N PpnO^N ND^jy^N p DHttisj? nillDI HN^pHNI HN'^INI HN'aiN p 

N^ii^i riJonriDD ii>N"i "'B ND^yijN Nnnal 'I^n pUji^n vdj in 'fiyi d^v^n '•s 
riaiD NJSK'ai' njd d^vn in [d p ipn'i 'a nNJjninDNiD''^3;fiia^N 20 
-laif'N •'3 n^N-iai nii^JN nc in na'vn n^nN p 'aN n' na^t2N i?n'i p 
f\i ipi N'jnfjN ^N^ •'a ^iN^Ni pn^Ni np^a 'b niaio iNDJNijN inb np^xi 
iNTiaN^Na ri^vvD^Ni N^yni on nNai)^ nj?ND!5N nonb .n^N-ia D5>pi>N 
rh naaoi nhha npai i^i^N ^ya iNnaN p^ rvi Si nijiiN p p-ain^'N pn yo 
^Npi aitan nNi D"nn nN Dvn yjaij 'nnj nNi aNnaiiN i5ipa n^by njNVNi 25 
ajmi nnii 'a pij^a naNa i:iyh» jnp' t** XE'Kn -ao njN^ D"na mnai 
'bv nij^iN n"vj?D ijivi 'VNyoiiKi -\iffhfi bvsi iNna^ p ni^Nlai -njjj nnom 

1 read ^nb^. 


^p2^ nvT' p nn 3K31 n^av '" anN' icn tin ■'3 inn3ina ppn Ijxi dndd 

D^syi nnNW'i'P spa'' ^n n^sv^s a^pinno'^ N'jn^'x nsn •'s pDNsisN > n»yj 
ND '^v d^nS^k non'' s^i n^si )d dhni kbini spax r6 ni>^t< t 'd •'•ii'S ]» 
nns^s ^^5? 'pa ''Isb ni>Nl nS ii>j; nos: nti t nnoai ^^5D'' p ht 'a xt 5 
asiJif'S pnnos iitsaj mav K»a srp'' na nsnTNi nai 'iij? n^jsiin npi 
N'jniss Dyj jD pD^NiiiN n^N •'B hnt' soa -inasisi ^•'5'ii'S D^'pi'Ni ^vj^s 
njin p nniiT noani mis aon i^xl 'a nhhti nstJVN rioan^s ^jnii 
n^iis p ni; n:nD s^jn^K int •'b ntiNta^x rioyj in iixp p dhjdi -i^n^NS^N 
pipm njxnao nbba pipn noyjiiN-i^n p jni'i I'ibti i'va'-i am' ril'vi' '3D lo 
nn^woi' 2 330 .T'iij? yn rhba novJ i'yj''i "ll'sl ^ya' soan ^p1 sayS^s 
ncN tv'b njN'jDi npoa 'a nxnt'i nn^vyo 'ijy dvjd^x fiowa pvnD'a 
ann Dn^ Ti'a-in tiD3i "ip3 i^Ni ^lio ''^v rposai'X n^f>t< -131 ipi .naspyi) 
DnjDi .T'lB'^Na 3Npj;^x lya onapsya ia wi oniN wtrsi ^jspi i'jJaij icy 
n:o nhba n^er nf)NV n^i^ qn ix xoan pdnb^n 'iiy h^^jn rioyj ix iixp p is 
nb 1X1 .K'3^' pnsi 'ipaifiiriDxi n^xviixn^i^xi^xl^ xnij,Ti x.iyoi' ma 
D'^T pin ipa 'ayi^ ix nxio pnno"' p^ n^jxl t^a xoan^a n^i^x n^ Wm 
^1aB' -iny 'ipa x'ji^x 'b xna nm n^j^x npny ris'so Diy^ •'x iJV3p' 
xn^vx xn-iDX3 x'jii'X i>nx oyj ix i)xp p xD^y^x pi .inyi^ vbs^ 
Dijxy^x p lb) p |X3 iDam ri"ixoD iidxi n"oijj nxsnxi fi^a^a t^jxid 20 
Dii:^x DX3nx txdi dhj dihj^x y^xiD 'b ib) pi tvd Dvobn y^xia ^a 
■ix '30 xnpijxi xn'B iTa s n^x ^jyan nnpn xi> Dijj^x [x "'bi ■T'^xidSx ■'B 
njxf) xnjD Xi5 30 hjd xnijxyax ^vxb n'nji n-iDX xnyn x^i n^syn xi) 'n 
xn:y "nv ^ya b 'a nnyjS3 xnoam mxnx3 xn-i3ii noan3 xnxiSx 
nxpA^x maiixa npi^a pi nr3 b^xdi tiitixi T^xmxv n3Db!'XB25 
"[babtt ri^yn p nnx3 i'Sn'' 3xpy ix 3xi)i be n"y-ii5X p3i iSd^jx p 
noBja n^ixl fi-u>'X3» p iii' n^joiix ix^ onsiix p xi) nfioisx p in * xd jxb 

1 read rioyj. ^ read XaaO, ^ add KD, * read KDJXB. 


13"TN n^Df>x rh btips .niDJN np nyii 'n ndjx nin in p >hv i>rh« yaB' 
'a nnt^Ni ^dv^ki d^p^jk nd^p^'k nj'T ik d-dh^k nnxiKa aK'fti'N iiiato 
ii>Npi .r\iv nivisi li'D^'N N33a snnji kid nij^i ipni>s dnj^k n'K 'a tn: 5 
'Dan^s i^spi .ujnn onxi ^ax' nny njn n^nijN -" -iok na D"J? k'-ijkI'K 
NDiDS .pK TIT i)ijn nniiD iiij? vbv rjnu min iiiy i:»d pnian b f'"T 
'3 NDi> Niii'Ni nii>N fi3ini>N3 n'''':i>N j'f'axi nmsay pn hIj^k nay pi) 

."f? •'Din b "'iB'x "ipa OD nn' 
pnispn pni't? i j. nxSn 'i>N is'w ni55)N Kjpai 'ax n' d^'J^ni lo 

nriDi njnj noi nip jo indjn^k xaa nd ^''^ni'S pna .nniNiis pni «^:ib« 
"I'aa p ntraiss nip '3D pSssS'S pS npi .njo na sf) n» Kin n:3xi 2 n^y 
y365«i TT' ns nnis ipi -le-a isa!5 nn^ jni3 * 'onals Dn^ jnu 'ip3 » t'Jd '•i'S 
KDK1 .cja •'s-'a nvi d''d-i 'JipD ci^ivn nt< jt ioe' Tisn' sini pn ''n f>ai5 
p'sin v» nnijxv^K ^sovnSni nane-fss DiijvijNa Kn'pnnDDi) 'n fiias^K 15 
SDN1 .pnljKvf'K nnxay p kb" ho '^y n^*ani naniii nnomi '3D n^i>K 
pa3i'K oyji Nnf>ns D''yji nyosi^K NnpsnKi K'jn^s x'scy 
Dn3XJi Dnayni nnspe'i ND^y^Ni pni'ss^s t p'Si onx 'ja p j"Jst2i3Ki 
ND^yfis n'a la^niK ipa .^tb anbtiy hd yoji onysiixi DnDi>Ki sn^a 
N'lj'ii'K 'a "lawa^s ■<'?]} nyj' od nN3^K ]« hup p onjoe •'nc' nji 'ijy 20 
ni> Kpa' n5j 'nn t<''jni'X 'a Diyj!)K n^sia nsaxaa n'? nonpn np njDn5> 
NniD niipj'i Nn''3 331k K»a K"'jni'K 'a n^Nvfix oisn nn3Ki>K d'ya •'a a'lVJ 
iSnnDNi KijDxa nniK^x axun pnno'' O'^ xn^a nxno npi fiK'n^K nxn 'i>N 
n'ssni" vja ^s vx^cii d^cj'di 3sn3f>N i>ip3 niiiiN ^Ina I'nijKD^N cy: '^y 
no^N paK" ND3 Dn'f'y % ty nfii^K p npatj'a r\:« Yrhtti^H d^k ii>yi 'i^ 25 
{^••K no'" nts'Na 'a naai> ny nyrii ipa njD n"n"ia '^y nanvi m^i t6v 
'?« 'oa '" noiD '3D fianx p niSn jk Dni> ai' x^a .tid'o Tini)N "" m nx 

I read !«. 2 read nny. » read -|iJV. * read non^i nDnai> iniJ. 


ilnSsa -npi^Ki i^Ds^sn iij^isK -n inin 'J Sxpi Nsan fjain kio!'j;^k 
n^x JDHN t<a nzban pni I3i5!3' pn txpn pni'K fixpi .pn^xa pnx^xi 
DV \t<DV x'Jii'K iixpi ."la^D' •'l^x xjnx XD3 ixriK nTixn n!' t«a naiiD' 
'jm .iniipa nyann x^b T'^j? ind ndi iNnx i? ik3 ndd I'^y on i? 
mbaoa 1 NOK npi "bt^ ri^no^so on^ xtjk iva' Dip '^V lay xijixa xisiT ]« 5 
mas nxiD i^nos 11I5N mDi^s li^n ■'i'x nnD''p3 mi'iiD-'i siri iis"' |k 
DKJ^N li'nD'' xo fivSr nD''pi'K3 m^.nD'' nnjx ni? inali n''!'!? ij^kd -\'>tx^ 
njiax Dn^^x i^ax p 2 ij^non 'n n^xp 'ds: mixc np on^ ^xpi mas 
xpBJO i'xci'X fnpnon jx jt'B' ''Ix b^p^ .5 pj , . , xi * x:xj)Sx » D3 , . . . p 
D''3 p f xnpDDxiix nosj ^xDxs "iDv^x ixDiijx "Q Dsj^jx nxinB* 'fjj? 10 
bs nax txi ijjijx nja n^va jxs t'd''^x }xd6x "^x ^xnoxi xrr^v xmas 
ii'ia iiin ■'^y -135? « ii'XD «i"'ySrix xS"'x on i^xl3i .-ilv^x yoxi xnTi3;3 ■'jvo 
rh ppm niiaxi "'B'3 n'-oxv jx n^xDS mvp npi ini xdxj?d ^ax' ini 
xica ^"XD^x ov^" tx ^03^x X3xa njo nixj^x ''bii ni j^3 np yii^x ix 
niDi njo ^3X3 'DID naSx nB'p p x^'e* ^3x1d^x f jf3 'a 'p^s npnn ■'3 15 
ni>yani ixjn 'iix npn^j npH3^x ^j-ii5X3 ■'Ixa i'sx' nxrsa-ns nnyii 
i>xpi pP^JX i?ni i'oai'X ^^x1 p 13X' jx ei'vi^x X3xa Dxyai'X p ''' ytp 
'JD nvJp np DBJ •'^D pi> ''i'XiD npi 'a ijn''DVX^ xno 13 n^^x nxnx 1^1 
D^ pi ■'B' ib ni)^x njD 51113 n^^x fiX3 p xd^v^x f V3 ^xpi .nxnn xd3 
btip '3D h^Sjx jx xoi'yi'X YV2 ^xpi .''2' '?:> p n^J^x naiii nij^x ^1x31 20 
jxi ^1i'D^x f-va |x i'''pi .n^enfinDxa "ims pi n-nonii 'jDnii p x'jn^xi" 
Dipx D'i' iixps ite^x T'3U nnnsnoxa nnii ^a Dip'' D^ ijJxa '?:-\ "'?:} 
nsy 'JX 1^ ns f^o n^ ^xpi n^xoi i^d^x DxpnDxa '•maj; nsj? nil 's 
xnonxi) n:x 'i^x x^'jni'X nSan 'jx nD^jy xdx n3xjj^x n^ ^xpa -[m^v 
n:x xnnDnii xix^'nax xjx xnn3in xob n^'^j; -nnpx npa x^ty Tin pi 52 
f'aii nnanv ni>xDi D'3n njx n^D^x d^jjb xi3y xn^ p3n jx 35"' x-ix''n3x 

1 read KD. ^ read -J^HDn. * read DSn^HD XD. * read XBXViX, 
B read nnSJXI. « read Ki'''XD XB'Vir. ^ read XVIp. 

;d nS'd ndd f-va p 5id' onSyai iniNlss ■-d ^iinSk JKioisN n^sl p mjj? 

niNT ps iND''^D ts i'Ti -yv^ nniya p 'p^i pnx •'Isn •'Dio^ njNnao 
i>Nps pni'X JD nnx Nor i>ni npi^ii psn^ "'s nmno ci'-s pi'Ki^x hao D"V 
nui> finNJn ppE^' dv^n n^Ni nsraa jSD^i'D n' nina tio:tA i6 nh 5 
'3 nil "IK DND^Ka riopi'D In^j's fix t'B'njd3 riD'Sv niiiv p oipaba 
'3D p^NJ^N ni? btipz snjD '-irun rinSii fiaiDi ri^OKJ rinn n-if)vi>N 
ND K^JN la b'B'' ^<D^ 2 n-iiDiiK fiii ''s "'-1 nin rroj bn txD''^D 1 k . . . jk 
-issr 12 b^vsK)bii hi!sh« i^N"i n'sn liii vsjni i^ aivxi la t^ix nsT 
'3D np^xa t^a ijupa niixn jx T^y 33xi^xa ninv p"S^i * ■i-ijd''1 » ^v . d 10 
^XD3 •'i'X riaoo inxcj (jiix p 12 ■'jnyoi la ^aDnoi ito in^xvm eiiyx 
T ni)vn »'? n'Fi pnts p^Sx •'^v ipn "ix:n •'t'xiisix'i Dm^x''D-inp''b 
"nji •'B pjn^x -]h 33D1 ^xn no'x 'iij; pno apvx p ninix i^xlai .pi^io 
xi" ins 3'ty^xi mnijx Txnxjx"'^xi>iix la^iix ^nxe'J "'Q -^xlai ."lox 
■ix li'Xla x''33x!5X r\pa: npi .nnaxia -ixt i^x i^pr jx i^jx xi3x 13"D' is 
"■DX J123D Dn-iD Tia^B'n I'^v 'OX nB> ^j? 'n'lssa id3d ■'nu nnx 'a niixp 
:vn i'X 5 naiK-i njpt -ijn '':bdx' '"1 'juty 'oxi ''3X -3 iixpi -nnx •'ba 
'" "ipi -iDix in no innjjja n'iiy ^ainoljxi ni'i' ''pnoi'X ■'St Don^jx ^xpi 
x' inan xi>a .-ji na-'K' nvi xin •'jx njpt nj>i idix xin no ini:pT3 ns la-'i'n' 
n-iDxa D^ixyiix j;on5xii>aiD-)nia-3"D''i<5-]-ijD''B"iQb"3Dni5i!Xtx3'iix 20 
'B xo ba xniDor lij i^ixl -ao n^j^jx mp'- bp xiid rnvB* ijd iD"a' 
n5)f)X n-np ''■ii>x npii>x xn^nx' Tin nS'ax xo J3xv ix t inxaox p x'jnfjx 
nj/xoqnaj? 'a ix ftiiTia npn •'B iTrt« l^^J'»^8<a1yDnix1i'^i>x^31 .'3D 
'B* •'i'V mp x»i) iivnb ■npoi'X npii>x iiap ^ox pa p iiiia' ix fiinb ix 
mil •'n b K'BJ n'a icx 'ipa njxnao pbatha t 'b iiaiix bi ^i'x1 voj p 25 
f va i'X? *ipi .njxyx na ixvnox pi nxB3 n^jiixs i>3in ps .b"x nB'3 b 

1 read X' ISJX, a read nias^JX. » read 1^315. ^ read ^nJS'V 
B insert D'ni'X between nS'Bn and i>X. <' read -^-iK. ^ read JJXBDI. 


Dnnoi'KJD^ DnmiKtroi nnnTNOD ]v lajiis kjkhj ip js 'bv^ ^x^t^'Ni5t^ 
i?n ^N '33 iT'yiv^y HD^B' i'Npi .D'jfB'Tnsva n^in k^ ib'k K'''Nn ne's 'ipa 
•''i^s Dsin^x tJ? nn"3Tni nj-iL hjn's i^nIsi oi n^ dIjjt 01 ddx ^^^3 
n^i)N Nmnij? ti^n 2 r\' . , ^jk ',-n rijNniijx iSvisx •'In 'b nvKiii ■T'Sj? Din 
■■£5 i>xsis oisij? nnai) nsntyaa 3 nn'm "ipa n"V omax U'dk v» '3D s 
KnD'ir'' IN n'ljj? 3i' njt:N3i'N nniNij i^Ni^i ma J"' nnai^N nsn Nnnis'Ss 
■ip3 nn''"iN 3jn Ni) p ft"lN n^ji n"i-yo i'oy 's -i3sn' abst ■'•mvoba p 
IK "liiNl yoi iNDJs<^i> nv iInb -i^^btd bv 3B'n'' n^xi •'Q naan' to 's 
mnvi'N DivisN in sins dnjjo^x nniNJ i^nt vo * iddxi nSw in nmns 
'ip3 nb n-isNtr n^i) riv'DD n"N:ifj)N vai Tsni '3D n^^N n3 xiT' ■'li'N 10 
ni'''^j^N f'xnsi'N nin Kr^y pnsx p '3Da -nsos 'd "" njiDNnTnovj? ^3 
bv2 -nljNn D'pnn ^3 nx niB'yl' '" ■'jnvi ip3 nnoxis int •'q {<jj;aj'i> 

3N3 .-iiDN^N yoSi pnijNi nioi'Ni ^^5"^i^^< iq nij^JN 'i^y i'sun^x •'S 15 

ri^jni'N niDN^N tsd p nNiDi pn^jx 3^50 's '3D npijx •'i>y biin^N 
iiasno 'yni '3n nii^JN t'^i '"i^'jj? pNnxi'NtN '3n x'' n^yx .n^iX-jn^Ni 
nt^x pn^x 1x1 D'-js 's'3 iv D'on ''jipo ■i"'33 'isx I'js p npisj pxnx3 
npi^JX ■'3X 1^5 i>xD^x nb isxpi iixD j^nijxv^x f-ys jxi n^ix p nny^^ n3!50 
x»3 nb bap {'•'h^x xdi iixo^x ba? oyj ni? i^xpa v^ 'J'"'*'' I^^ ^'i '3X3 20 
''bv piisiin' Di5xyi>x jx li) n^xs^xi>xpi ni5:sixnxi3X3np^JX-iJXii>i 
b''p^ .x:xD3 j)iini xvxo5 mon t'id^x pn'' xd3 onpni? nbm pn nij^ix 
X' ^xpi n^ nnxixjD 's -yni ■3n •'S'vxi'x •'i3xyi^x ^xd D"y □•'bi'x loia ix 
moxB 1^x1 'iin bap pji nnvya p nnpxnx 33dx i^xp pnn fjo 3t 
DHTX lu p ixj^ix nyaiB in xi'x xnxj noa '22 p xinx bi}^'' ab [x 25 
p nniiD liiD' 'idx "'J3 n^xl ny3 noya nnxi nx3vx mjy 'p^i nonyi 

3 delete V^y. 2 read n''n3^X. ^ between nnMl and Dai'^jaa insert 
^1^3. * read 1XDDX1. 


nipnv -na no n ntr»3 .npnxa djjd nits 'its' npis n^k t2j;» rxi dv» h'^h 
DiNnc DEj'31 ."I'JD ntnK pis3 'js 'na na nna -'ib'"' dj? vdbe^i nw "" 
i? '•'•' nns'' 'jcr U1D nnviK i^j nnia n'opn la npi^ jnui it' nnia 
nanoD Nine |ori'3B'iaiJD din niD^f>nnxi.D''OK'nnK3ii3n i-ixiktik 
r^Jtsu npnvn [» vyy d'^vdi cdsj li) tnia irapnc bi fj^finD Kin nye* 5 
DiviiN 3 n^'ia '3X n^ i^xlai .ntii D'owji nra D'dj D'oa: [d k'B' udd 

'na fijiDxa^x nyawn ndni DNi55x!5N rupni nswB'bx » nnsDxi Ti^N 
ID n'ry vop'' |N* i^Nl ix'a .od n^^s * .io'' ndp xniia mNiifiK D'lvn 
liK ]]i 5 m: iDO'i NHNiDi DNJ^x p n'ijj/ 'ao nhba mn n» n^x nSj^s lo 
^i'^«1^^ .na cDa^x ai'' n^ soai NBvS^xa E'Da^x tj)i rt'^'py nbba mni n» 
l^Jin "ip ■'3 ''a:^N Sxp npi /ao n^'^j; .n^^N onn nd yNDnD^? p n^'Jlx Di"i 
i:tn ddin nne'a niona it- -iyi3 nipcya yxaa dnid Dne^o -lam nipnv 
njND^ 1D13N1 ^Dnnx n''lN' nd vod i^i yia niNiD v:-v -\mn D''m yiDtra 
npi .n^j nv laax njNo^a DN:i>N 'a riy'ipi'Ni « naiiiN [vi DNbi>N ^iSs IJ) 15 
ID Dl '3 '^ VNJi |NDJx^^5 psDnDN ND NHDava iDNiiNa ND^jp^N mnaN 
fans -iVE' JT'a nax ^spi txoi'ijx niir n^ji mpfiN nbi anSva "ipa Nnp^JD' 
^'np p "laxpo^N ■'3 Da ■'jNayjilsN njN lyo^'' nIj 'jndjn^n i^xdIj 
vnn prij Dl 'a o'-y nd^'V^n li'spi ."JNnps^N njNao asnn njsai injsDii 
^Na^i'^5 nn'av^N 'iha Nt'sa niDNp Dn:N oniDN ''nn no^y ip nd 20 
Njx 'na f'jja ^Npi i^nI •'bv umai d''dt nia''3Bn nvnj? 'i^ji r"i? ^^ "riiiK 
nisnin nynn ne-yx ^ni -na niny 'lisjai n^nj nxcn nrn nyn xDn 
nipi'n TisB' b '"nna^ 'na yin pc^ bx nik'jd ■'jiy ^nj -na 'dt ma'SB-ai 
D"ni did i^sp Ix xnaxi -a x^ajx^x na vx3 xd -jaDm .ni^nj mano ]w'? 
n^jxlai .DXVD^'X ID xnaxDDX p xaix Dxbijx ij? xnaxDDxa pci? -jia 25 
riTXDD ivi nbi' x^j '"ii'X y^aba •'i'x ■'B'd ijj n''i>jn ixDJNi>x DaS' 

1 read hb^'iti. * read nSXn. » read nnXSXI. * read k5d\ 
5 read HT. <• perhaps Da3?X. '' read iKJi and the same in line 24. 


eii-ijJD njo yjcv' cif)i KBjJ^^K pm od n^i^iN pn njo ina' n^i s'jni'S 
n3 v'V n^i^j? nsc^N n^xl -i^vn dn^ ^s •'do' im m r\-iiji \a bna ni^jiDS 

'Isx ni>Ko -!»' IK K»K '3D nii^N i J. Dnn^s3 s'jni'N ikt ^d n^^y nbbti 
nc'N in ic IN n'j'ya -iSr Nini pij in pnn in pio in nnNp ixialjD p htj 5 
Nin ■'D NoSyiiN fw iiNp npi .nnnNi T'jIj in njinNi^ ^n»^n xpa^i nD» 
iiNpi .Ainu 2 Ni>Ni ftnxna ndn ^'ia^N ^jno itJ'a nn'IjD noSa "jyofiN 

li>Np1 .D"'!'3Jn p n^NB' ^NBTI ^N1 3 HD Vll DID ina •'JN-I3J>^N IVNC'fiN 

'B aivfiN nyNcr Snpi .nnoma i^nI mna!5 intDV i'xi mN niD'' ij"! on^N 

^NP N'N-ll NJ?3B' nj?K3p^N "|nS3 DN'N^N fl^lN "inDN^K NiN -\V^ HU ■jijN'i 10 

niD^NS iNnK'N^iN if)N fijNna -iNnDSN^N p ne'N -in"'3n^« ''bv «» s^S'x 
'SI N^Jl^N^Q n"3dnSn DNJ^N mND NS'N ^Npi .fiJNn DnSmpN p ID^N 
nJ^N Nois n"y nn n^o^N nvp p jNa nd noi'jj '^p^ .N"'pnNf'N n-iaN^N 
nb NttSjJ^ij S'pi -n^Ni fiapNj? 1N3 NOT ''^Dnan S33 i^n niNn3 n-inifjN 
"•btt Daijy i^N pW' n!> nm n^j^n^jn snun ■'^s oai^Nin lu^nn p^in 15 
f-ya Snpi .nmjj; Noa Njnsijro^i n:i:j? nd3 arhnih "ht^p D33ni3N 
nj» "i^y b-i^bab y in p n:DN^Ni nipN^N pa ■'i:v pnx ni»^N ^Ntoax^N 
.Ttar fipnsfjN 3nNvin3?DnDN nd yoj^N ^ys3''3NN''T^jfD ,i=i:»i^:iD 
ruy '"1 N-ipn TN mya Sxpi 01 nonij ayi^ Dia t6n ip3 * nf'NiD n^Sx 
'B iiNpi nisynn n^ tic3D1 -ipa fi3Nnpi5N ■'bv n:fN3^N3i 'jjn -idn^i yicn 20 
Nnaxi ifl iNi ^"T '»3n^N in ripnv^N ^ n^^SB pi .•'-iT3n nNB* -laiyi i^jnI 
■TJB ntnN pnva 13N -:«' n3''3t;' ijb ^'ap n^ n3t' npnsn ^y3i ySxio nny 'b 
DuiD D''B'yoi npix ni3T3 N3n 'ly^i ntn n^iy!> i3r D^rcN-in ni3N i3i 
iiDE'i v-inN in"'3 nNi vja hn mv ib'n iy»^ vnyT "la '03 uun DmaNa 
npnv NjjNynrpNiN'nn pN3 pnv ynt^i tsN'V^a .DSErai npnsniE'yi' '"T"' 25 
TiJop pNi-DNH i>3oi DHDnn^aD 'njDp'na no 3py'a .npi-ib naf) irij 'jb' 

1. read p. 2 read NDN1. =1 after HD insert Nin. * read ni>N1D. 
B read ftf)''SB. 


t6 Pi'aa ms •'ja p aiv isyi^K 'aji ■•!> nsr a'? no ''f'K 'nn 

•un t»niinK 
fiysa tK^K na-iJ^a yisin^Ni 2iOH ^xi inr^x [d ''tj> fya xj-iai np Ins 
np anhiibti \t< riKSn 'iiN hk^'NI n'?'?ti NJpai 'is k' D^yx .Dvsba^ fipisba 5 
VD sii-ij«35't< i>j?a naiiN np inpyiiNi Dnii'iNps? yoj 's tij^in ^ys i '!»« i;in 
iIji ij'Dji>N yi Dniya ^xpi .NyNats dibj^n^ ni'N'i \)y'? nbna nij yoi nfriN 
sinyDiiK yjXN s<ii5iNi>N f-ya ijNpi .2 Ny4i nd ft* n^i'dj yS' oija ny*iD tj 'a 
Itsnh tihe^ fioipaba anaSx n^spi .yi' d^js nisnx p 'T ois ixa niinx yo 
ripiviiN ■'bv Div^N ^Sa jD Nofiy^N pa .WNVon D'D'n ans 'a D''Dn»''ja bv 10 
nonx ''■ix oaj^x jx jxmaai uiooa nti laua nri i'"r 'eanlsx iiipa hnoxi 
xnnonyx np njxa 'liix Qibt^i Dxtri'X '^x nnani'X na 'Irun xU^ix 
•fipnv^x p ^sSsx Divi>x n^ixla -ixva xncoj na nlJi xmua xonnpinxa 
xaySf'X D1S3 "H' xnanxv txi> dis^x p b'isa np-ntha \ii ^xp p Dn:Di 
'jjIix div IX nax f)xpi .* npaSx p no^ix np ''•ii>x onjvy xna 3 tjji i5 
fipnv 1x1 D1S3 nDBJ ayn' xIji ripixa pnsn' njx xt njx^ nnpiv p f>iax 
.p"i fn'^D pi'ipi'X xbi dbj p'i p pixn' njxf> n»iv p ^Sax ej'ySi'X 
nne-a lisx-i ijxaxi ripnvfix « n^'Sa 'a ^'ixpx riny xoiiy^x niixp npi 
npnsi "ipa niD^x p 'ijn xnjxa nonpDi'X ana^x nptiji anana 'a ni>'it3 
ri^jxi'yi'X 'a npnvi>x p ijiax -id^x 'a ftpivi'X |x iIjxpi .didd ii''vn 20 
"iD^x ^B ftpis^x p ^Sax n^jx^yiix '•a ripis^x [x i)xp p nnSyai 
xi>ai si'yS^x yajriDM f-ya oniya d DXii^x ^Ano'' 'nn^ xaix n^jxiiyi'xi 
nxnyx xIji nnii B'na'' op dS ph pnn noijx ripiva .fn^nv pn'^D j'f>ip^x 
!>Ssx fi'^y iD^JX npiSB naoxj^x tioi'y' xi) fiyiix ninoD ini xrriax 
■iDi>x3 n'XDyx p iiSBx xnlax nxnyxi nnii eiB'a pii n^jxiiyfix npnvi 25 
■inaxi -yn nis^ix nil na nvp 'ix nisyxa p T'i b^x jx ni>Dii5X ^i)yi 
nixn '•a nxo' niiSx njao p i>aa Dxalsx nac na 'jna' n^ '"ix naxiA^ 

1, read '^jy. 2 read yjl. 3 read Tn. 4 read ipa^iX, ^ read riS'SB . 


p DBTini* NJK mtiiba ni? 'paps aavn baon ns'ija^x '?apz rh'?t< i m. 
fijjsti^s non^s NTi na n'pba lis ^spi .ni'j a^JOKi nnu 's p3s f|'3 'ai 
ni)jn ^sdjS'S n:o DDii npaii jnisK ^es mvai nj?N:pi'Si t'p'i>K m^n 
'>tip^ ."Mil I'n s'lji^K p jni)'"! ixnv^x D^i' nxvs nxin i^y nbii HKijna 
iijs poljari'i pans'' kd mix pian'i5 py»D' kd tijn pana' dkj^n ids 5 
na^JDi •'B^'' 1X3 tibisbn ?d Ki>JT tx iiv^ •P'^^J'' *<» ti^« ;'>^»3'''1 pyoD"' nd 
nan^K iTbd^jk nij ij^pa n^^s nani5K n^i na nan^' oi'a none' .tbd 
n^ ^Npi 2 ^ise ^JT DHB' Nn''DD t« b^p) pyx ijyi n^ bnp 'jjjn i^'xa 
IK3 1X1 xnnoND'' nh'pnQ xpnxx -lijip 1X3 )x ^xp •'lai •'•13 nijva "'•ii'X n»N 
nixyD3 pn^xsiix fya 'ha 'nx x'yxD ]x is'pi •inoxD'' rhbasi X3lx3 nijip lo 
rbvi XD 15? Jnn33 xjax^ nn'ns njxa i^i nn'3p n>xj?D^x nijxsijx nb isxps 
l^'Pi tx 'nneri jxi ix^apxv xisDxa 'i"' txi ixjnpo xn'nv y ]hs> na 
^xpa T^'Dbx f-va ^ijx xj?D x'j?xd ix ^'•pi .n^xpxa ■':i'px ni> ^xpa ixj^px 
x!) baps n'-a ijo xjyoD xd bm yz ijdv3 p vddj jx 'nncn i^d^x n5> 
p ncx 3 lajj^xi) nixi^n DSi>x^ •'jx nil^oS^x fV2 iixpi .n^xpxa 'j^px ^3 15 
i3:t |X Dn^isx ^nmf'nnxJxjD'apnf'xv^x j>v3i)xpi .Dxpnjx^x f\y\t6n 
iJHDB'n x^i"? IX * nxi:x 13X ^xpi . p'ati' Dnj -lixi) p'fii n^pi pvn 'oam D'Sj? 
i5x Sxpi -nsxin niJT xoi) iriDma "'ji ton t6^'?^ laxpj? nai xd^ 'a:1 jo 
an^i'X -lix Ijxpi .'mano pnxnijx 'a ■'jjbi ''nvy -inoxi 'ai:l najx nnij^JK 
.xn'Spxa 'j'xina nisxjn xmnoxa ^avva oi'xjn xmaxa ^aijla d^xv hjx 20 
.fijx^x n3i>Di i'Dvi'X nnxai !>dxS'X mi •'•^ba niay omx Dn^i5X lax ^xpi 
txi nn'^xya ^ f-iaj, xnjj; xjnvp npi nnyxD anj xjx nn^iix nax ^xpi 
ixjfix i» xjiSiai xnfinx p p33 d^ 1x1 rijj^x xnjy xjpnxa xnxjasmx 
laxiJi^ •'jx-ii'X iiij? nmx anbba lax i^xpi .xnxjaiinox ip X33 jxi 
niip xi>i bm nhs laxanx p 'ji5j?ix naxnai t'^j pnaa laxpvf" 3nxn^x 25 
f»3 n5) f)xpa K3Jlo JX31 nxeifix nm4n dxj^x pw tx i>'pi -la xi)K 

5 read nV3. " read K^JiNa X^3l. » read IBVi'X, * read Dnt'i'X. 
5 read KjSjaV 


3spy Knos-im axon kh^k^h N:a Nn-iasi Kjy nn^iiK nxT 's ^ipx kd 
nnriKi nyp pi nnnNS nhwhd p ttn kh's ipD pi jna sn-'Ei KjjnoK p 
«{> tisps noNip noKi Nnn-is nnoys Nn'-i'X -iv3k pi nmv3 xna iva pi 
nxni KHjy Dna pi) risij ikii Knpnxv pb pnv ikt ^^^ nioiiKa Nno-in 
niDDi nK'ajK nSoDi nna'si'D n^ixoi nij^JK 'ni xnno sn^a mm pi" njj 5 
span t6 s'jii'M i»nnn t6 k^» btip) .rtDmbu sna fijiba nh's ns^isiK 
npirniiKi^K j>wi)Npi .sna k^ik Snjh si) n-iiiKi>K jsa sniiann t6'\ int6 
-imijN xnas nyit p inr' ir-a h'b baps nosja inr ini 'e^' jsojsi'K •'st 
^njK 1S1 nvnx ne* nIj ins ■T'i'jf avxnoK jkb ny'Sni n^axi hjd ini nyii 
masi nniD ristsj ni)iiK p inr cjia ki^'x i>8<pi .fivno nieiii' n«jns nps lo 
^B fiBDj nsv ■'bti QDibti -i3s« btip^ .fl•(^ilbi6 tan nsj'a ini riTip nB'j 
a''t3 p "'i'ta ii>i t3S''Ji i)ia eiitD ^ba in iini "KOjnB' KB'nxi'S Dia noj no^BW 
nnn •'tpi' fi''3B "kit ^ixdb'ni j"Dp i .ta nnsini mno lasiji "k^ib ^22 
k-i3d 'b Kij pij sajy n' nas ^spi .2 "KBa Dsp' nS) pno' nya mi) nnax 
'DanfiN nsnt fya '?Hp\ Ma: tf!? nijK'i iina ^nai int' f\->2 naven 'i b^^bti 15 
•^ib acnj IK'S .ma 'oi nata "'oa nan ntrx naj» ^ki i>"r 'ii>n mw n ini 5i"t 
•■^a wn I'Ni .mD 'Da vd' fpi vcd dji vdjjljdi man t62 )h '\'?^'^ atj'in 
nns bx maj i^iNtra ij«k psi .d'dt 'b D'an fxi mnn xb wa fsi yja 
'"{> .ninarai pnx mpa ninacnm t-cj' mpi minni xan ncx Nva jm 
X' KjSy ni> liisp nabiibit fya js f'jfKief>$< pi .nin^bni n'amn irn^ix 20 
p inteiisi DsyaljK p ijiiaiiK innai -ao rhbtt 'ipna na'ijy iixpa kjt'd 
sax iisp ^i)^«•^ Stkb sai n^j li^sp DXJsi'S p fi^lK^JX s isannxi Dsbi'N 
nxinB'ijK man osyaba p i>iSa $s nnnai nKnKj?Di>K p5>Njn ni'i'K 'ipna 
p-iaann DKoei>s p f>iSai>KnnnainNaNi'KptiaiiDn nxi'ai'NiiiiBnnnai 
vaj pabn DSJsi)K p n"-is5>x isxennxai nKisDDijsi pSsiN^x pbi 'b 25 
'Q D-iBi>«3i tsnoaiix 'B n^ia^Ka D3dbj« Txna n^<^N^D5>K 
p n'3 'B * f\pit) nnxt f)JT v^ Kshihti p»a f)Npi .jKTDi>N 

1 read iI3. 2 read '"K33, 3 read i)NannS1. * read KBpNI NnnW Nfsjl. 


DIN yjD' !jn fi"i 'Dan^K i^spi non 'sb ntso NinB' non 

Nofiy^K f-ya 'ptip) .Kn^o Dip' n^i od r6'?« nam )d d''V js 

ySsin^N Nnpnxi^i rinin^K diib' pi •ik^sn^'K nnmax ^^o 
3K3 b p nalj^s i^tsNi^N jJNjriDNi npiv^si Div^xi ' rnxn^smm^Ni 5 
's Tm a'? -\•'f\2^ rianK'ijK Dajij}* 'a yar ais^s ^"■^pa naits i^nI p 
KD3a nnr ^jn pn aiotis .nso ii'oa niano faoa mw nnn 'ipa n^nKji^K 
nj2i '?^2t6 en'? •'b jriJi noj? d'-h^k n^n' dk K"'n v^v npv n"DSx !'xp 
Knjna^ rirss Nna-ii) n"pn» ns-iDS jxit vo ^312 12 ab no nn mzhh 

'?t\o 'a ^Npi .n''^3J n^^x dj?j ncn npa n^riNin hn-idni n'san njJ^Si n^iN' 
p innr •]K:na njo^k ni>j 'is n^jiSk 'a nntx 3-ij?^n s-iyc' fw "i^nI 
'■is ii'pi .fviis riaj?N3 nusi 2 nxn»T 'In N'jnijN 'a nnti^ND p^s iidk 
intN lis ^spi .njD annsa onnf'tj 'Ini n3i5DNa dnj^s p inNt^s mn 
^spi .DSJ^N nun' Dwi'N 'Tx 'a N03 nntxi ^i>^^? 13^ n^^x » n"vj?o 'a 15 
'a 3J1 pi mxon 3i^pi n3^p ns-iriDX n^nba 'a inr p xo^y^x fif3 
p nxinox x'Jii'X 'a nnr p lix ijxpi .niny -ijiai njrn fjxQ x'jn^x 
p -)3X ^xpi •Xl■^p^aD ij?3 n3pxy^x ^iio pi unbna nxDXpD pi Nnx'XJJ 
htip^ .njn p mon'i npia p non' * jxni'i p n3 n^ y th x'ji^x af'tD 
.nnvj3 nxD ^xr ni? 1x1 n-i'jfj nann Sax xd i>xj jx x'jnSx 3^0 p nix 20 
.xnann pb J^Gnhoba 3-ipx x»i x'jnSx 3i'D pS nDxnjfjx 3-ipx xd i^xpi 
.DxJVxSx 5 mxay 'iij? tiiayi'xa DXDixSx n"3nn ■<b]i fjiayiix lax Sxpi 
iixpi ,x3x-i3 bipiibti mxnrx xjxidv oxoixiix mxnrx xd «i'3 -lax Sxpi 
i>xpi .nDipn p3 xnanvn xt ini x'':ni'X •'ba f^ot^' p bnia xd nix 
ijKp x'jiijx ]v SxD xdJi 8 . . . may tt '?2p n-i'n ■i3nyx p bp^vba lax 25 

1 read anxSxi nntSxi. 2 read XnnDI. » read n"SXD. * read pnxi>3. 
5 read niX3y, ^ lacuna of about half a line. 


DiK ini iN3SKf)N3 ficNnsiiK p? riDnpoi'K iKnvKi>Ni SsaB's^Ni nsiJX^Ki 
jxvnijNi nxaj^JNi psyD^K iDpljN n^s nnn oi'KP^K 'in 's p^iEi -iKnDKi5S 
pi 3Dn nipN'iiN Nim s tins' DJi niDKi^x p^J'o^'' P '^° ^J'^° -^ ^°" ^ 
nxaj^x "liiN riaoj aipx imnon nnl^K ini fine DJi n^s^D^K P^Vb^'K 
''ba fiiDj 3-ip>? njK^ 'piiba ini fine djj nK3:f)K p fiyii n^no nar n3Kf> 
fibiibii DK-i j?Dp 'Ini idA' ah k^jxi lal^s p kAjn^'N npb' njs^ invh^jk 
lNDJ^<^^? pi53 DJNi' * p^jj |Nvn^N 'bi^n-i ^n» ao ^v3i -t^vn^N i'JiD nriKO 
^up p nS'n ii's^N 'SI iNvn^x p nsiD 'd xin d'^ on disc's 'D1 Tip^N im 10 
IN3 N0^Q.iNDJX^Nn3mpnNni>3 n-ini ts<v^l5Kp^^51D 's D'i) no D'^yni>N 
N'aiN^'X Dm fia'siiD^N naxB" nd jkdjn^'X DJi 's 'T js aii li'N'ia i^nt 
NDi'yi'X IN n^iN"^ p'ans XDanisNi nd^'V^ni n'vinI'NI ^ nDxijN p nnrni pi 
niipijNa na'xijo N'iii'N 'a nna oxjIsn I'n I'piijioijN fines n"3jn5'N ninni 
'3N N' -iSjsa .^ya^N3 hyaha iins nnDN-i3 int 'i>N n^i^N oni'pj '■isa is 
'3^K fiami'N i>iiN3 ^vno nam b nix 'li's 3'mni'N 'In pnn kd 
D^N ini Ne fi'3i Ne nd3 n'-ixai mmni n"e3Di ^p^^53 iNnaoa 


nnn nnn "^p nd^jv^n jn fjipji nain^x nios p n'a nj3 no '^jn nijjj 
Dnana 'a « ^r'a nd '^5^ nnn n snij liivji xnassDNi Nn"jNy»i f\2^^hti 20 
nav^N n'l' xi> jn jxD'it'Ni njj? nsejnDNi'Ni n'^jy nnj^xi ajl^N nnn nissli 
.nne^N fjiD' Ni'^nn3'i |jj 'jjddj nd3 n'a u^soi "ii>N'i uja npa .nniisr 
nKixai rijDn isnj?' in riain^N tJUN 'In nnjJ^N in '3d nbbti Dn3 p in ii'pi 
1'3N 'n^N iNi'n 'a r^bba nans njon^N ^^n bi^y in 3in' in bp niD^N 
p IN3 NnW IN bp niDi>N nNiNDi fi'ND bvs navJiN NUN '-IN nfjNnsi 25 
am D'aN inN nnNaya ei'Df)i>N '3DS .n'i>y nsns' n!) in od 'nN3i>N tiisi) 

1 read NH'^N. " read N3Dn. » read NB'ne NDJJ and SO in the two 
following lines. * read NpijS. ^ read rJD'N^N. " read 1J"a. 


iiNiaiixi psi'^K-iijN'iai ^D^y asnr ■np"' d^ ibaKi asnJN ■'Ixi ino^d^x [k 
njisD npnj ■'Ik ^^^<■^^1 .no^j? iliNi js mp'' ni) t'*^:^^^ buo nix 'Ik 
.fpj' KD nlsy^Ki }'pj njD nam 'Ix hHohn'i ^pai nn^ya inafiK 's h^kdi 
^3 npnan d^ nnpis 'I^n D^yi>Ki mpnsx nroi nnp-ia nx i>K»^Ki 5 
njso INI u'^abii b^p) .npao^y^s pntoi n:D ^niok^k yn^i li'K'iai -nxHrn 
obi'N ^'xSa f'ya sivi '^K Njnn-i i^i nniiiD nnDiijjja nnipaio nxDixiiK 
na i>DybK ini nil^x ixrinn lax inp n^ 'is k' pt6^ px-iiK^JN nnyoi xofs 
ni>^N NJKB3 na iior n^ p 'bn K^xai 'isKJ -I'vi ivsj' t<% k^ki nmoni 
i'lDV^'Ni nism nvKDDK xini k'ck n D^yiiN Sxp npi .nnoma iIjnI ik'ki lo 
i6ii D'pvha hmn i6 pax i^nI 'a -lyxtriiN xoi'vl'X f j?a i>Npi .mc'Ji na 
D'^j?ni fij^ai 1 nxatavKi pni xa-i 'jxyoa n^'ixn ij; ■i"'a:jD x'B'x finoa 
bovba^ nnJB' oi'V^x i>'pni^iDi5Dv^xi ibn.) ahv^K ^'pi-^'axDr^itDnxnox 
'?-'p\ .DDE'^x n»i''irxi' 'pniha iiiv i^i ij'^^x xSx!5 d^jj^x iiii; 1^51 l^'pi 'iion 
mix pxi>i nopxiD no n^nx oiju^x i>'pi i>nii5X s n-iiiaai) xaij xd^v^x 15 
n*n |x Di5yxa .mjxya p nia d^j;^x a^XD x' b'p) .* ^bovbH p xIjhx 
^nmx xf^xi naxjx jx ^ovi'xa einn' D^y^x h'p) nnjijxa npe-x ^p D^vi'X 
.niK'vi'i no^^i iioi'f' iTa fp^aoe ^ in^^ njo ^y lo^n D'oan^x i^xpi 
nnix nn'B'yi ^iio xmiia 'a ^oy^xa -yn n^^x xjxsixa n-iin^x 'a xdxi 
8nanD 'si .a'ix'a:i!'Xi Duina^xi mini'X lanl'X'i p Tto niw^ "" irivi 20 
nma ^x m-ii noan aityx I'x ppn hd^b' pxa^x lyxE'^x ^xp D^y^x 
nix lyxt? ^xpi •n'-jipr nS' 'jxi '^ Dxa 'ni 'nix airyn in nj'ai 'j'a nna 
^nxj tf<a p fia D^jxy xax D'iji xD^xy pija' iof>x D'i'a di>yn xoi'ySx p 
f-iyn x!)i iiaxno'^x n'fjy nan^x ^ba Tiv mjy oSy xi) ciip^x -caa ix 
XD XD^y^x f\-\& "la'ij^i ^'xixisx nnonp i^y 'a ^a''SJ y ^a '^ jna o^y^x p 25 
b^j bi 'yn phuibn ]ii nnoma xjx'xi nij^ix n^'x 'ax x' c^yx .pox 

1 read nK2t3VX1. 2 read JKOT. » read nnasi?. 4 read 5'Dyl'X. ^ read 
nwvh- « lead riano. ^ read [na. 


cinf) nriBi fi2)rf?tt s»d> 'SNyo^N to na 1vj^nD^1 dhS^j xna linno' 

'3 fs"t D'oaniiN ^ip 's N3i3'i SD3 np'^ii^K ^iis 's i^N"i 1133 rimpoi'K 5 
i'''h!'Ki .DmnK n3ini'« nj«3i D^iyn Niajc mip in-i3:b' nnai nyats' 
n^xl Njn3"i npi .'31 K3T ny bijx at^n k*''ni 'J1 ni'V cinn moa ni'K'i '^y 
nfisni t<D^y^K n^ik n'b iix' s^i D^Sy no 'jyo^K ■''iniji 3Nn3SK ^iis 'S 
t<''E' i3lJ Tin mhi ]n Krxni n^i'K npsii dhjd noiiyn id is kiujk^k 
nyajD i^jnI -is -ix D^y^js fi^^'Sa p 1 'n od nh^H Dnv3 'ifjK onis'xSa p 10 
ipii'i lyz iiyji nnysD 'Jik y'oif>K pai sjNias^i NJiN^iNiji »:'? no^iy 
NE' f* KnpnNiji ^?^J13a1 KnmiB'i ri3ini>K p^s ;d n-l^y ^^p3 nd mc '^s 

n'pbti fjny na ]i6 -yn n^^s p^js p h-isat Dba'pa !« 'is «' oi'yx 
sjvi' D^i n3 eivi '3D ni>^x t^^^ ^PV^** P Dips* '■'^'<i yi<t5si inyi ^^11 '3D is 
abav ^3 IX xS'xi .bpay nhhn i'xp'' d'^ji Dbt^it ni>^x i'xp"' n:xi5 i!pyi>vS3 
•■a ySxiD niv 'a D5'y^x3 '3D vhba nvi npi .Di5Ny S'sy b c^i iipxy 
'D' '" ynv D''3in3i)N 'a isxpi 'Ji D3i53N DV3 ''3 D'nfix yiv '3 finin^x 
'in f)jiD 1^:131 nyTi nnx d^^i>K '" noixi D^x'3ji'x 'a Sxpi D'con 
ejiE'x N'jnf'X ^nx ijy o'i) xnn xnyaixa x-icx^jx tiiB'x D^jy^xa .nnx3t}'xi 20 
f>3i D'rjBD x'n mp' 'ip3 njo tjicx n:x D^y^x eisia .inxiil'xi anliix p 
D^y^x hna 'jy Taix ddsd mxi ra» cnjx Tpix ^xpi -na iib" x^i ^van 
Ni>nxi tincx n:x oiiyisx sivia nnc^x p x^nx x'Jii'X f)nx njy XD^^xia 
8 fix^x p f'-iyxi nn3i!x p ^itjx ini -D'aiv naui ato D'pinDi 'p3 njo 
x''B'xi'x nnax D^ySx sixi fi'xa 'a ipi c 'jd n3mi mo pxo n3nx ipi) 25 
t6^ T\2-\]i m:« yr x!) ip3 '3ni -ao pi>x3i>x '^x mi nan xd:x 'b'p xi> 
xniia tiap x'trxiixa D^xy^x jxnaD .nam pan D'niiK n^nn pxa xxcn 

J. read X't?, ' read "in3i>K p fnyxi flX^X p iiltJX. 


ft3''NijD5'N 3t<n3^N ^1^1 ipi .Kn^DjfnDn nijK TJ p Kni>33 pt3jni xnba 
Knjo nxn -i'j'm DnwiNij a^ao n''j''y hikSd onuji ^sp 1x niixl ijAo 
}n3K n3K ranpo^K j?d i>''i)nni'Ni Dnpni5Ni n^aDniiKi n"p'pni>K nixav^K 
i>Dyi>Ki abv'pia k'JiI'K int 'ej dbj^k nnpnnox liiKli jnm^N imi 5 
an N^i sn k^i its' tJ3 i KJtstonKixb t<''ajKi>x na nxi ^!^^ DNtn^si 
Npn'i KB'3'' 2 1K1 an' p ims Ik nnsll' od ni'i'N 'b riano ^53 mh n'?^ nvoa 
ciiKiiN aslpiiK p n3n-i^Ni d'pd^k o'Vi'^a 'S n3J-ii'Ni> rinxsv^K in 'bm 
Kran •'liss nin pi> nj-i {<n3 inasvi'i'i a''^'' k^ji nv^k nnN3j; nddo np 
riK ptJ^B'Dn D''i3y3 vnn ^s i^sl 's b"i nabv^H ni^Np ipi .nbini ^Sdk 10 
K^'E'^njoiiy 3^n na fEyDB^n Dn3y3 vn k^jkoib ^ap^ njoi'pa-in 
nttha nsuK i^nt "b No^visN f'j?3 ^^pi .oa'^'y D''Dt;' kiid •'n''i ons iiapij 
Kill "JST N' nv nxJJ K^Ji Mt^ihn Nnjao' nips'i'N p pNi ijo 'xm kd 
liiKl 'bs na njB '^inid ^iDNDiis * ini. ps^i -iKoii^K khj't piB* 
K3N1N 'nn n3nD pva nsnid "bti nTiJ si> ipm -lax bnpi -ixansN^K 15 
njN NisiK^isi nnaxijsi s^jn^xi pi)K ''s nsinn^K NfsvK dsk^ki kjj^ 
i>3inKi n3 fynoKi n'^x 3inKi niiiiN lajnoK naob'i njo3 sriSx yoxD 
nBT no KT'K Kb •'b '" iispi D"y n^in nxixj nd3 h'^k nox fiiBxi ni^ij? 
ni'S'N py3 'jSkWb^n nn .''jv'3t kbh niw3 ions si) 'vt '" f>spi ms'f) 

m^n' nmN3j?i niji) liysti^K DNmSx 'b od h-ioki 20 
ibn b'isbit 
KDi'vi'K5n^''VBi n'^K nx3n3K^Ki 'vn ni)^K ■'i'K n3ini>K 'b 
t6» iK'si ni)^K NjpBi "I3K s' Df>yK s'jn^K ''B ^^r^^?1 qd niji" ySNinbNi 
Tn3 \H nobs 'B pao Noi> 'vn^ on n^iiK js nxtn^K ''bn NJNnm isid^k 
3xp5;i)Ki D'iiKiiN 3Klj?f>N ppnncB nnvKts '-!)» nn"syo injir dkj^'S p 25 
K'B' Dn5> i)yi njN on^ nnomi Dn3 vm on nBts^ p ik3b ii>Kl3 nne'f'K 

1 read K3t3K31 KinKfi). 2 read p3. 8 read n:D bs wi'B'. ♦ read "jnil. 
Sread nij'SBI. 


n^DH 1^ n"j? ■'hI'K ^ip3 hnoKs ^NinN!5S aKams t6^ firnha mv p|ipi^K 
NDfiyisN rriNi ipi .n'i?» nil '\iav'? mi pnx Dn^i p niDV n^en idsi ni>nn 

Dnij H'2:tihii \ti MDhv D^i Nnn nijsji sna niDD ip '1^« nddk^s3 
D^VKi fi"ivs ''"loy^ Dni Dno^y mriT' p ix on t6ti uriEnr ^i) fnstJ'K 
'DD3 }s* N:i' ni's Dnnf5rjD •'^ki Dnn5-n '^k ^sj nxy obz nooi i^jxp k»3 
riK^iiNn NDDN^N nini) ]« isKp p aahvhn pi .ni»D n»3 wi -an phuiba 
.Nt2f'^?JJ^1 in'iDnsijK n^nv jNmaa n^^x inx x^i i^xp xd innr ^jsv»i lo 
Drh NDDDi DnDi5j? lb Ji''n to dsj^sk 3Dx5 '3D nN3^« }t< bap p nniai 
Dim 8 nn».. "^k 2 ..arhti ijps 'pni an n!'^?J^SK -^ip 'bv ri^txio kddk3 
iSsp .3pNy» nnsipy 'bui ptXT npn ■'^si p:n nrun ^Sk nisnisx niyi 
mp' sij pfi nxKi Tiy kStk 'ini mx 'J3 ptj'b min n-i3n ^j"! 'oan^x 
TV nhbaw bn^s snansi iivnB'^N n-in ;« f'Np p oniei .B'nD''i nn3' 15 
ipn^ xnaTii nddn^n i^sna h^xodk riDipn nnsl x»d ^■^ba ini ^ii 
Di^n^Ni Nti^N NiiK xji) Dxb K^ nasna Dsno 's iioanoi'S nxax^N 
'iiy nnx'i Nn3 sivi ti^jn nKsvi>si n»dk5'K3 nxisxii od nwjNj tsa 
'B D''^ "ix DnjD bpi Tiy ''Ini xri^v nxii xiia nxujx n'x 

.nxiD xnvDi 20 
i^Npa n"nxi>N^N Difjyi>x3 p'iNmo^x fiaoxf'ai'X noby xoxa 
IS nD''B'ni'X3n^if'xa loibm nD3n-iD oaiiix jx naoo 3X3Ji naao nxiiaa 
pn nnt:n x^x nrnx3j? pn od xn''nx3 n33Jn "npn o^bs n4''3i>x3 ^-^shas 
paiix D^xj? fij;'3D^x d^jxv ■'^v rit23mD fiijxn^x nin •'t'j; xmxjn nnnxu 
N^x pDon xisi pya x^x nxan x^i ixob x^jx pajn -npn xfj-ina ixoaijxi 25 
ft:DX3^x nix3j>f'x mxva .xia5)X p v^tano Di3noa * nnjxi) |1x3 
noi^x npnxa niipf>N3 xn^a pijio nisini'Xi nnjniixi ''p''pn^N n'mnisxi 

1 read Kn'IDn. 2 read fiJNn^X. * read nnom. * read XTUx!). 


'3D nxa^Ki Knf>if>yD pissn a*? ri'?])'?ti ]i6 %]K)2 ik n^ya fivv ik tv '3D 
i'NCoi'Si fin'nbii niBVDi i^xl jnao in nx ri^viiKi i>py^t< i nsv IJ? ntJD 
N^i lN»r xb rinnNi rivsT il'Ki t'JI rinxyo^Ni DNni)Ni xpa^xi ^tNiiKi 
nisKi na:) ?io d^td ^py^K vsnaK yo pi^jo!) nn^i>K ^K3^ Dnpn kdi ik3d 

'a 'j?ni 'an nxai^K njnax nd^j i'pyi>N t« i^kt js'^ .'t? nva ''B' ^VS^n 
"ha nvj ri'nasi'S nnNyoiiKi no'sn^K nN'niiNi axon^Ki i'NDsi'N ri^w 
n^'b^s Dsj^s njD nnwjxa nxna^x imx is k:i31 kd3 nnsla nnxi 
KHniiva nsB'ni'K nn^Ds ^ndd^'KI Dxon^x ri'SJ 's i>vs^Na fiD'^p lis-n 
mDNa-i^si'K liis KnnJN jx liis 2 nix J^'s khjd Jivajxa ^pyisxin •'if'K 10 
nsTii^x n:D non ^jpy^N 'I^k na ^apn ffta psiD nxl dsj^'s ruxaa 
Kpa^si lU^K p nam^s 's xnjn jxa s<d na i»n fiiDi nsoia^xi 
i)3 xniiSp DDB^N men '•'ii>« iDpiiK iino rtiNVD^JXi nsn^Ni fia-in^si 
iQ Nn''DKn''i ni^Noa ri^'^ ^s ^oa' jk ^^k iix^n nnxcj ^iik p » ■'tj' n5>''i' 
t'TV^K -inpna naxon 'DinD' nd^^k nNnr [sa so isjio j'psjn' yii'i iS^k 15 
iv ntJD ini Nc ei^ai nb' Noa ti^y^K ri^y vnax -ao nxa^N ik nv npa /ao 
p NJonD jiia 'lisx laK k' ■'Ins ^i^voi nhv^ nnoi fisi 5)3 
'1 !)a pisi KnjJDi K^N * Dsj nbbn «i^a ndi rsjixa T'nini'N 

ntisa^Ni las^Ki aijp^K 's s<njs nv jk njDKai'K rinxajj^K noxi 20 

iij n:pTii oijvxs -yn pi'sai'S i^jnt 's 5 nsn-iasn nd^ ixq ^"an^Ni 
mip IS Komrai Nanpija niix njN^ ^"an^xi nias^s i^mS nisK^ji 

'iisK NODX^N TXD3 OD « nNlT-aDI fipDJ 1X1 DnnaC'' fl'as tXDJX^N 

"l^jxl '^x ajin nini^x [x nisyxs n"j?-iB'^x onana 's x'ajx^x nnoD 
pDJoiix bna 'kt ••'pv bivsio xodd ijai xodd '^j? xfjx yp' xi) ddx ^a pxf)! 25 
nriDV jxi riDDj npDJ !*< '^x x' nnss x-iua xiifji? ii)xl ij? nii^jx -yn 

3 read nsV. ^ read KniK kS'S XHM jiSVajXa. » read K'B». * read 
KDBJ. 5 read Knmasn. " read nn-OD. 


'ks -jK^Ni NJNnni nsiD^N •'f'x n:k'«i n^i'N ipsi '3K n' oi'VK .onn xrby 
ij^iji D^Vi Wi TiN3n nN3i5N -iNnDS i» -ID asD^'S "In ts nxEn^'K 

's iVE'i'X ND^r^N fV3 i'Kp ipi .fiJX''i6s ri''W nSsn'i njiv hjk nn piiv 
man si5i *»^v bn: p n'' isomi'N «i3 -ijjb' nx^as nSani n^y^s nj>?''X 
ninjf>N -laa^x ^iiss nsriN nd •'S ikoh-i^k na nnjn siii iTnciiK rbbm 
aabvbti 1N3 oi'jJN ."noy inij pD^Nyi^Ni khsn moa ^■ibn bui pa 
Nnj-i:Na ^i^yo^si ftbvbn ]V fina^JX fi'W KJiina np d^v^n ■'a jiaDNi^K lO 
p nsiJiD^JN i^^jy Dn:N n^sli xn^a lalsnas nd nn''nv "jsjjd •'bn nnox^a 
'iniiNi NDi'Ni 3K-inf'K M 'D^JK riKnoN^K n '^K iNvm nsaji p^?Jn^ 
l^sl fjNfiD f V3 "'{js NnssitiK f^j?3 n^KHriDsai KnnxJKmoKai •tmbat 
nNji'Xi KoiiK ju DDintti'S ■'in^s iv:y xm^iT'i xnsijvs tsj^n i« 
nann nmixJo p n''a ti^n 2 iiiKin^K 1 njsaa n3DT rinsn nnraoa 15 
p n'a 'n^K naiDiijKa aoT tin3 nnyuts KDi)}? n^Nlai •ND^'i' lax^K 
naK^N na-ii2 nmisio p rra •'l^s nTn3i'Ni "'inSi' nnnKiiiN naiD nmiNJD 
nain^ NnmiNiD p nDaN' fi-isn \ni khxIivn "inj^k njsaa as-ini'Ki' 
.KnirNnji jj'oj^s p Km3;3f' nD3K'' i'iTiK3 fis^si -njo snaipi n^ai^N 
n^Kl snns'^ypnKna^Nin^ai'Kan^i^J'o nnialD^N nKnDNi5K nba njsaa 20 
l^jeSs ^SK■^21 .j?Skid rhv "'S nnana 'a nd^jv^k Nnna-i ipi .snmtiJ i>iB' 
nTi5»i'« bipy^N p n^sli ri"^a^N dbj^'N p niiajK rniv^Ki N^vn!>K3 ^ii>vo 
Ko nxi'asi'K ■'B miixi ne'pj ^ipv^N n^n }ki axna^s bt^a •'a t<:-ial ■'■i^K 
KDD ntfpj nx^BN^K niisiai .Kpai fianm rinxyDi mj^N p Nn'B in 
n"bi'S db:^k * mxvB njcanisN d^kv 'b /innJDf)K fsipyfsK p nnaonaK 25 
nn^twa nittnao nxafjN nynax -iiiK f'^yi'N nSy in 'i^N ^jpv^ki ainisvD 
mjnB •axna^'K b'f\» "s Nnai kd 'f'y "& 'b Ki>i 't5^ xi) moxi nrnxiKi 

1 read n3K3B. 2 read ^31B^i'K. ^ read finX. * read mXVa. 


lia'Da i=innii ini n^hv sna dj?3n ■'i^N fione'^N oaji'K fijDNni'S ncyj^Ni 
fV3 ii5x1 fjvi N03 noxon rijs-n niip^xa riDNijy ri^jsm-i n"iN»D 
Nnpisi 'i^N p'xiji^x V'OJ'i' nssi tj>3 iiNpa naii) nnxiNJD ^a fnissv^K 

moi^i nD3n idid i np^in nbcoi noono nam nar mai mp"' noB-'j lasn 5 
Dan ^33 ^'3^''' na nnxia nnx •'3 m'voi nms'' nnx '3 mJD no^TDi nri 
naio^i mab nnDE» nnx '3 invo-'I njun n^N pun'' njoDi ■it'3'i 2b 
12 212'' DN u Dnican jno ■'jud^ -inoD ivf) nnn^i Dpinn 33^ •'^'inh 
pb inn njjjn fyo T'a33i inocj pysn T'pD 13«3 B'n3D la cna' ix 3T3D 
•i3B'^x ni?3 tNDJNljs 'bv ibn'i p b'ipbi^ 'pN3i T'fp3D ^3 "11^32" Dnnb 10 
^dvSn nnnxi^xa n3DN3 niiN^'Xi nnnsS xon-inN fnysD od oyjoi'i' 
mvSxi rinxna^x i)nD ni^e-n on^'^y 2 xii3k^x xna khio^n nynK-iiKa 
nntDi ai'if'i n3iDi pij'am rT'V'S boy p i^xl ^snb' noi nsnii im rissi^si 
li'xl n^Di DV'' ^nba y^nK^x 3n3 ■'B nne'D in xdd mvD^x i^xdi 
jnn ni-i3nn me'v 'a xny-isi ^"vr jikj nnyo n NnniB' nd3 riynt;' rin 15 
'ni noE' xnjDi -idk \ni jNOix^xa d''-i3''S mya ho-i KnjD xmnyD eiin 
nn3a^xa rijosa rinxaj; njDK3^« nyso^xi [ndjn^n pnv mya \-ij 
'i'Vi ^^3 ni)3NTi N^ii ma naiB" ab ^l^x j'K^a^xi d''^d^n* aijp^xi risi'Xi^K 
Tniix '" nx nanxi 'ip isjia ySxiD liiy 'a m3li i^xn pnsx np an ix 

.133P ^X ni3B'm 133^) ^3 20 

n^xin^ix 3XP3 'vn n^^x nom mipa p f\DV p •'''n3 3-1 ii^x npi 
fjipyo^xi i3ipjoi5Xi 3in3D^x p xn!3'xh3 3i^p^x f 'xna^x -i3i n'a pm 
njN ^xpi ^^y^x fi^y ^ba n^mn^x 's 'ivp^x 3 ri^xy^x ^y5i n^b "np xoa 
'3 noxb xvpxi n:D yDiS'x n3xn3 'a -i3l xd '^y 'yni '3n p^xi^x 
■yni '3D nbba niii) ri^j^xi idS^xi 3f'p^x )'x^3^x '•!'x n^oxa^x n-iX3yi'X 25 
'a S'pi xS'x liixl p 131X Tmn nn^j xjniia naoxi'ai'X n^mn "a x^iinaa 
xi) pox XD n^xi p niij IX X-1JI ."i^xi p naix Tmn ri:t3X3i'X riixay^N 

1 read nnpli>. 2 read X"3:X^X. » read ri^y^X. 


nK-ci njsjn niD 'i n^vN ppisniiN oi^j/ ■■)'pn ni'X'iDi .tND3Ni>Ni ni'Nyi'Ni 
yiB'^N ■'D nxDiDo^s ID nDJNj''i ■ji'Nl ''!'« sinSj' nd yo NnsDin mo 

nSan jrinaxi dk^n^s txd '^y n:NnaD n'jba n^Sa 'I^n nao^iN dii 
••jjnDJ ND3 ^vaisN •'In la ti:m& nd3 ti'^nox 'ja 'i)!? nriiani nDNiaw 
NO v» 'nil jnni 'ni> ni)'»n 'ni>N li'N'iai -mci'x i'lD'' N^i) njh nmNVN ]]i 
•aba 1^x131 -ixdoxSni D^JNy^Ni vib'^k iiDt? id nDJNi'-i i^nI 'bii sixSr 
iVDJn 'HI nnmn niB'jJ ns'i'X i'VN '"'i'S ifiNlsi .pDN nd ^5^JD Njnal np lo 
iiy ]H 'nn t<n"D 'a li^sl ^inM piiiK ni>DJ 'a fiSnaDiiN rianvD^s 3 n"V 
oi'Nyi'Ni v^^ba ''a nxnB'VD^N p ^t'SJ'' *<» yo ^ain inn snann 

njpriD inxi dnSj 'ba xnb N'B'Ni'N p^i n^^s [s 'iiN n' nv nps 

'ip3 nDnpoi'X ana^x npej soa ma xnaic" siji ij^a Kn^ini ab noanD is 
/na 'DB* '13 pN ID'' noana "" biip^ n^E'V riDana oSia "i'' ya>v^ ia-i no 
f^iaxi ni^'y ijaiinxi matJ'Ni monN maiDi ni''B':D biji* p^xa njNnaoa 
nimjD •'D bv ''jvuT' XBH niNja iDnx nb ''yn ""' n"y nn b^p2 n^ba nDs 
niiri'' * TJo D^JNy iNDJN^N Wa aisN ^saisN ijoa .^jimy 

'J^K i'Vai'N 20 

}nd3k!'N in NjmaN-iD3 nv nab ms ^s<p -ao ni'i' riyND^N Qitmba ''a 
nasi HD^sy ■'a od niiiiN ris^iia nisi -mpba i^ia nnn nNiiiDiix ^Sas< 
'aon^^x IKi jNvn^Ni nxaji'NiJnNyDi'N p nNnijiDi5N yoj 'bv hd^d 
pnoyj NHNaixi NnsSs pi riDnj? ij?a nsis mNi^N NnjD fiis'^ii ny: yjv 
iiDxa HDDJ a''3-in ^^nN4i'N^ rijosa nixi'Ni mnxSr nnnsii'N pn^'xa 25 
Tji "iDi navi nx^syi Dxiyi avyi pnyi mi Dni^ p nnnsiiix nnNl5« yoia 
.li)K'i I'Ji nnnNiai)N DNinijN nxi>Ni iijixi n^x p riNnK^iK i'ONa n^xi 

3 read oi'Xyi'X. ^ read ri^i^'S-ji). » read n"V1. ■»• read TJV. 


i>NDS fisnnj!) n'NDDs noipn xi'yxi's •'i'Nyi'x ^xps p^^ijo^xa ixj^k 
fijxn lii ^n xin^x •'S h^kds ni) KiTiSpn rijxn nh bn Kin^x ''s D\nKi3K 5 
N' ^Npi ns^ai OD sijina yba nb itj '^n ^jKn^N^!3i;xp^^ n.tSPN 
'3Da "Miba n::bnt6 nooxi NTia bap •hs nax '^j? i dn^jdi "na ••Jia iw 
N'tr ab ^Kpi pnsi> tiio d^iv^ trr n^ n^^x p^noD^x nx^pnxi nN''^ix ■'ho 
nni n"^i flips n'fjx nox fniBxi macxi monx ^2:v^' t6 n^iy pi u a'-ix 

.inD2D "'•' n'ni '"2 nnai hk'x lajn lo 
.no^xy bf\a ^^vinxt^x inxn inxa^x nn n^fjx i^jji "'ix n' n^'xlai 
nnx nsB^i nnx min w n^ipl5 nnxi jjne'i'xi nnxi p^x ix ^^x1 idq 
'nK* fi"T 'D3ni5X 'ip^ a^x xrxa ^ipjoi ainso ixv n^xl3i .oai) ,n'n' 
TJiix n' 'i'V i^jxi ynen nnaa x^e" nnxi anaa nnx i5X-iB"^ ion: nnin 
min 'J^x xrxa i^xiii nnan nimf' 'jca nnan^x n^t:xi pnxi nms is 
mm 'i ''ixn D''B>''^Er i^ ''n3n3x^ni5"n noi b""! 'oan^x i^pi D^ainai D'x>aj 
HB^i) nooj li^ia ti-iDix E'^i Dnoi pnxi ncD nK>bti>b tidoj D^'amai D'x''aj 
ainaoi ^ipyo jjie'^x n^oi xi^x t*< i''pi •CitJ'i"' iJ33 nvnix b'^b' ide'B' 
niBmp 'J 1^x131 .D''i>xnB'''i D"i!5 D'jna anxio -j liDxiix n^jxlai ,^ipjoi 
n^jxlai .nia'Di isdi laoa n:no n-iini^x i^xlai .D''piD''D 'i n^jna nanai 20 
D^xv^x ii>xl3i -Di^tyn i>j;i 2 ncxn bv^ I'ln ^y D"p D^ivn nnai na'i'B' i^j? 
Dnan ntj'i'B' by np im nxfj^xi lo^x xip^xi ^oyiixi oiiy^x -n nan' 
i^xp niiSD ■ixB' pi .mon nii'-'aj bin muvn i)vi niinn bv noiy ofnyn 
nx ip'hn onny omB'y na^tj-n ny natj' aiy in'a nina iDii? onx inv 

n^X 3X3 'B ^i>X•^31 .pDX XD ■'In iilffi^X p oi^X 3X3 "'Q XJ131 ipi .lin 25 

vxux T ^xtoijx Tj? 's Dn'Txa laoc tx nox 'iS 'iij/ n^i^x pnax 
eixSjx XD yo iivD^x '-in p niix ax3i5X 'a ma-i mpmp nitj'l'X p 

1 reed XOxfjOl Xnn3. 2 read |nn isyi nOXH bV- 


IP 1 ,i^Sa Njf) in* ND p -ijiaK jnd3n^n ddj nntj'n p xjd '3J •'I^'NI 
N:L33:nDS kd njn'^j? asna^N •'In nsp wnlri'S .di^jj^n 'psi ^ nsivo 
rjf'Nl Njanai nN3»^vn b njtj p nvoo: 'jvo k^i ^^J^3y P nob n^s 5 
n^NDj n'pbii) .xjNiiK p nTi ■'S ypip^i kjin^ik!) Ta-ini'K ^•'SD 'iiy 
s . . . p-'Sini'Ni riJiVD^Ki 3Nis^K inj oxn^NiiNi n"D3i ri^r ^a p n-iajDf>K 
NO '3 DKb^^? aipn ■'03 ^''B'Ki'K vK>i ■'hv ntsiiDi miii nonai nnosn 
noa: ^yji .v^j-i nnn nne' b tt ncvoa in^j^B^n 'ip3 n3 N:i)innDK 
'3D nxiNB risN-n fiof)Ky fi^n riD''D3 ii^-inii ria'D^' rianB'* nn^JNnn 10 
m3yn!' nnoDn ^^sjn nnnp -issj ••i'y Nmnt^i no^y tnoI ■'^jj xnyists'' jk 
ib'ahii p rnN33; n^ n^j^ix Hno6'' ]ii T'T xd v'd5 n^ DTnirii nmN3y pn 
nx'in •'hK iK^p:i6ii-\ d-'Sdh^'NI xii^Ni riVKD^xi fiois^Ni ri'Ti3j(^xi p-\'?ti^ 
Nnv3t: -isxji tso 1^1 Nn:DN3i NmnxS Nn3 n^ya' t<»3 1* pm 3^p N5n3 
npDj npi .sn^ ^31 xnij 3inN '-i-i? sni-iN33 ji-pm nhjd x4n3 ni53pn si'a 15 
nmNiN^ tNDJsi5S npbi kdkb .rtDipD^'N 3n3^N i^nI roi i^jy nhxlsNa 
vn^m fix vmr vnxi3 nusij 'Dan xipjn b 'ip3 '3D nois isn^si 
nsyi "II D1X3 nil Dnx "ip3 nrmp laxji nnosn '^xj? 'i)!? DmnB'''^ x»xi 
.nTTi xi) nnxi ^x ivij t6 'jai) xin 'jx 13 wsni lyin jyo^ ''mn3 ncx 
'ry3 'ip3 DnxSi»!'T33?^xiDm^' xo3 n3ixii5X pipni>x n^iiam^'^ x»xi 20 
.'C'vc IV '" ^x ":'$? p nm3j t i>x nnaB> 'jiysi on^inx t i>x Dn3V 
naxy XD3 X33 hvs '\h^ n3 tiiix pm n'xSpi mDxi> DxisDriDx^x xdxi 
I'n^jxxijx nixoisx i^jja x»3i ^mx 1^ •':^t3p' p d"J? 3Vx fjxp xns xjMtJ 
n^xla riD^j? x»3 nx:^x 'a nnoiaj imts 'l^x nnrjJi i>XB»o rrjjn bn'<yi 
n3nD '3D n!5 onoiaj um i^s iv^3n^ dhjd n35-i xS n'xSp 's '3D n^ii riants 25 
pn Dn:D '3D d^j; xd^q f\)i'?iii ri^Ji n3"t3 Dia:3 nwSp!? DxiiDnDxi n^a 

1 read kSSD- 5" read iiaiVO. » lacuna of about tow lines. 

* read n"jsnn. 


'n^si nena^n Dpj nn t^a^M 'tijKi 'i^w jv-ib'3 npnv B'3i>''i -nisxi iin 
^:)N'^^1 icna^a -inn nr 'Ji onso sa nr •'» "i'Ni y^^b'? ms yno 'DfiKi 
Diets 'ca -ai -ixjiaui 'D'a ni ai-rnjo •'D''3 "\ ^s-ib" i^j nvijj "> 
1 , . . i^sii n^a ni5a \-i I'i^'N kods a""ia waij n^nj?^ nyi DirosDNi 5 

T- T- 

entTDi 'Ji 2 ...nb ^ip inn Isip nnoB' Sip tib'B' Sip ni>a luaSo 
.■i^ nSaai isa pa' jnna nSa Sy inn 
dSvs njNi iDpSs iSa nnn nNniiioSs ^ . . , x ikdjnSx in ns nps 
3DKJD Sbdn 'Sn n'lis ps TaaSx dSnvSn 's n» Nt''N3 n^a ;ni * i'Jd 
's iISn n'^J'o^''^ n3DNJD hdnSj? ^s ■'ISx ixaosSsi .3N-inSN yiiv'? 10 
nsSsniiDl'N iddSn p n''a ND3 ^^»S^? is:yS 3dnjd n3D3i .{hN^K iDsa 
.naSnanSs isinSsi nayva 'a inSKnipipSN "iSn13 n3iD'toSN SnidnSni 
NinSx pB'jnon acta nn"T ^ na-ia"i3 nihSn nv:j;S 3dnjd n-nvi 
HDN-ii .ikdjnSn c-'V'i nn-iKin SnvnS sSpSx "'Sy Nnnnjiss tinaiDi 
'a xea mny Nsm nS nyc n^a nSNi3i .h-'SnvSk -injSn -ivjyS 3ds<:» i5 
N'jnSs 'a ^iSx n-iNoySs Nt''N3 lONp nnii -1^x131 .Nxm nS nN3J dSnvSn 
pnySsi B'syniNSs ■|Sx'i3i .psSs ^a nSx iNapisN Nr'N3 3ni3 nxapi 
n^-iSs tspaai dSnvSn 'b •'ihn inodnSni niynSx st^xa am ■ini'' ■'ISn 
n'n'f'Xi n''n33-ii npasnoi ni33JDi DSNyS^? 'a iiSn -ii-cisN ispai xrN3 
.dSnvSn ■'3 ''■^S^? Sx^nSNi SN3iSx Nrxa n'e -iSx n"nNjSN yiNioi'Ni 20 
fijnjDi noa •'B riiSni r\>ys 'a nnSsD niytsSN naSnao n'dn n''B -jSnIsi 
iSkI 113 SSyi dSnpSn n'on nt''N3 hSn-ii fi-iN^N "'a nioi SuSn S'aD ■'O 
no3n anmb n'soDX noipn D''3nSN vjnvSn « msiN fiB^nsD iSsla 
iSn 183 iS n:N!> n-iSNin iNvn^x k'^vS ■in3SN nd '^ nniSo in S''pi nopno 
nniSo 1^x131 Naii)N Tion nnmSo pxS NaiSx in jNvnSN n!in»i' 25 
anS^N inS n'»j?S Ncn-'B fimSoSN nSiSb pnone' NonjNS pj^'V^K 

1 lacuna of a line and a half. 2 lacuna of half a line, a read piDK. 
* read n<JV, « read rianoia. « read ilKtX. 7 read rin^ND. 


Klx HJN ^3i>K [Dns^ 'n ci''K''3ji'N ]» ^^K•^^1 'ipi>N ■n!'^ NfNa dnwDn 
'Ji n'j2 'Ji nniiti nj ens 'n i^nI nin jNSits^K ij/a •'pano^K manVK 
•)V&'?ii 'ni nnsij fiyDn p na ■'J3 ind:x5'K ddj jn 'tsijK pi .n^aa riiDJ 
ifiN-iDi .asy^Ki DSy^xi 'iDi'Ki di^ki Dne'i'Ki nnij^iKi n^J^Ni idS^ki 5 
'Bnn n^snai .oijiijN ^^31 jna^x n^ai nai-ivof'K 'T^k xnjo iNiisKfiN 
tK i^Nl ps ND^ivi'S Knmal nax a''Njy nNnj?si'N'Df'K"'ai.'t2n5'''n 
np'PT n^Di aKDnijx d^j? xna j-ianD' ■'l^x nin:ni>K rionpiiK f\'\-\rkti 
9 8 7 654 3 2 1 nin 'ni cinn 'ta nb n''Knj si) kd 'Sk rh^bp^ ni'iia nWii 
'1 n^}5-i3 5 4 3 2 1 'ni niivi>K nin iiisn nni i?ti•^ bhc nhiiiv nine lo 
98765432 'j!>N3 b^K ^ ni>Klai pntyyi nnsii fiiND 'Ji !ii>s< 'Ji 
nNE';!N!5N" nva r^a^si ntsns^K nva istj'VKijN p J^a kd 5 4 3 21 
n'Nni N^ ND '^K li'S'iai siii>N^« ij/a fii^'xi'S ■^^?E'J;N1 j"D^t< nya sjiiiK^si 
Ki5« mil KHjo jnanoNi nam nnyi'N nst nils mD^JS nst xd ^a rh 
V'B DB-n 'sn ini va ^nn o b -di ti anm a: unrhniH NiN Nn:K i^jnIi 15 
iiip^ l^K-iai^Nj^K ••DD ipi ve NHJD 'J b i^NlaVta knc im n^sl [N'a 
D'D^ij? -iiv '" n'a 13 fiKpi '" .T mon vy o iiNpi rr mon ny o axna^N 
D'DB'n nn^in nba 'vo san D^iiyni ntn xhs^v, -ix' 'na niofinK 5>nN i^jspi 
Kl p Noi'vi'X fva ijKpi Dsna Tia s^k Dxnana xnpn i>s Ds-iana psni 
mcsn nnann nw '^^n pi .undt br\^ nsDi sjo^x i>N: finn -ea nsa 20 
K'an maD -m Q'n i>y niB'jn nn^ma ijiniaNi) ib'w d^dj me-j? nnoND 
mina X'^y;? i'n niB'va ncmpi mwa jioni nnvoa onvon i>v n"apn 
Nmsy "iiKi niTt}' 'Oi nnsiB* "i nunat "i nvaiiD "i fpiD^a r\-\m'o ninaa 
"i^si W-\^ uoi niTSD '131 nm t-bti -leni Kinn ova 'jb' nu^ tdj?^ 
iaf)DE> DiaiiD mcyi '" '»« niio ni isj? jNvn nnavn niy ot? sia^ ttij;!' 25 
'hSn '"nnxii'K nmp^K Nnoai)' D'tyiai> mtj'j? n^s'iai isid njji 'lyn ejiDO 
nrunn nji '" caii 'ji>Ni ca^ nixj n^D '" 'af>Ki nt5'ai> inni iin nso niina 

1 read n3«3. 


wSn rhhn nfiN mSa t6 http p orf? btip in t^? ini NnKjyo ^6) Kmsnjr 
nn )Ki f-Ns^N^N r\nn2 itks ip jxa npnvi Sidi njto neoN nh'^n 
^ipv^x 'I'i P n^'i'j? ^^^? npasD no^ li'Nii' ^isK-i mxp jxa i^ji fiji^N 1^5^ 

i)np'i piD' 'Stj'' nnsi jto jnd noip •'^x nuj h^T •'ba na hIj^n -ion 5 
nbp' •'•in D'^B fijj^K anz biT" '>■ ynsha b^p'i nbha ^<n^ i6 nd bm''^ •'Jfi 
Ttf^" Dnasnai nnni ••a amy •'jnj'd t<ni) psis jonnoi ab) nbtii bpav 
DNDN1 nwavD^N iiivs in Tii'S 3"•'^^?1 nyao^N ^ ns-iyo •'^jn lijNla 
i'iiT' ]H pnnoN n?:i nmi nsijn i^N"i indjn^^ nx •'•ind nxniiioi'K 
Tij? isD f-KsfiNisN n-inn jrii^i nd ndkd .D^Kn^K D'-vj^n "'^n* t'V'I ftji^x lo 
l^s-ii C'l ni'X'is 't snoii is sn^'sriN mvi a''^" nij^JN n^n hnIjn ab «Tnn 
inB'j tnji .Niijv li'J<1 ^ivn }n ••^jji 't i^ti'^ ints piti ns^si xri t6 )« 
-iiv iei '11 nviiDD ni^N io 13 Di^t?n vbv in ^ip ^ria on^ap n^N^i i)JiD3 
iniJi iND ^!>in»i 11 b^i ip nSin ddx^n naai nd IjAdi .ijih^n in^ii 
H3n:y y'b^) '6^ pawv nd aba "laiJ in ^<J'i^J di^ji .li's^i iiJi ir:nN 15 
i>iNSS Niiii) NfiN Dmjjj -lUlD njN 'bv nsj-ial n»^ nijxl n^ji^ Dmjj;i 
li'Nl i'lpi Dn^ivai t5"i Dnifij? jx •ipo is onjj; niiD niN iq nn^ "ipa ^ivxi 
iiipii nin 3"i s<rN3 y'bti) apaiba 'ti'N Nrxn 'T^n b^p'^ rioKi'N i^n i»i in 
y^bit^ 't^iN nl'i'iB nd^jv^n id iijia na'i npi 't^JN 'n n^N nao^N dv in 
Nma"! IS nSin jnj KjjjnsN npi -inSisN iq ini^N nNnxpa^x my la nali 20 
nij^N s<B> IN DDNi^N iisaiiN p nyiiD 13 ipanoi'N p pan nd snjD -la^ijoi 

.piain^N n^i5N3i w 
inSani Jnn i^i -ni n^iD idi 'n xniTNV no p nii iNa -n^N noNi 
njiDC? ^^N1^1 iDvy 1333 pr idxj? ij33 bit losy 1333 iivi I'ii'N i^dw 
DK'n isn in vdIsni vd ni3 oiyn ny3B' 'ba raN'SD on 'li'N qi^idj 2ff 
K-ipn iiN DN-i3n3 ipfii D'D^'iy 11V '" nu 13 ip3 abayba n^isN piiii n3i 
jK^ini iiiiiSa s^JiK 'nf)Ni>i .ie'j;: o'vy '" ^1313 'sc dni3 in3 n^n DNiana 

i read NSNa^JN. 2 read naiyo. 


?ivai Kn'BQ -iDK^ii vt2& DK n'mi voz> ■<m tj"' b» Kipn ik bp r^J'ST 

015 'i^Ki y'^'?m 'tiis p ni'x m^ji ^x^^ i^x'i njial np kjks asna^K 

'n p f\\-inhit h'bi tx '^rha naix nai 'Wi (jkib" tik-x im n"y nc^ 
n'tys-a ini eixa eiina nonii nu einna monox rinin^x jx in oi a 
j«3 Ti xDJx nioxiix xin ro5i noija ts'" n^s fXEi nixi'X imni ^iix^x 
ix-iDx^x rrin xn'a jxd nnnxS^x 'jxyoiixi fxa^x^jxa D^xyi'xi' xnooa 
nxnoxlsx n-in '•a -lasni psxi 'ix x' [.Tixa y^bn'^ '6ti '^x nxnxcx^xi lo 
D'VJ^x i5xjni tianii siixyo jd xnnnn xdi xn"jxy» id nnsxi ria^D^^x 
XJX'xi 3xisi>xa rhhn ipai ri^xnj^x riTxn p iiSni D'xi^x 

nT'B'i'X ^Jie xn^iD^ 3"''i5Xi 't^x paxin xcd riT'na x'tf x xjiai npi 
'iisx p''Dxia^x iiftDi D"i niiiD'' '" 'i)X VB'vi |D xnp'DxiQ ny ''ii'X ri^nxiix is 
o« xnnijDi p''dxib3 «idv •'^x pixn p mxfjix apy' i^d^'X xna iixa 
nix p'DXia i>ix ixaaiix n^xi 'a xnnam p txai .pD'jai eiDvi) inni 
ID {X33 .n"D 'T HK-Ki tjdS'X T'dSx xna nnx3 \'<'i'?ii p'DXiaiix i'J^»1 
x^naxi'x xru nnx Ti^x p'Dxiai>x p TiJiai D'" ints'N pica •'iix xnn^ai 
<B 'J xp3' xmm -)Dj) nn mon "'•ix jxa ^x^Dx^x i ^»ii nxixcxi 20 
mix ni n^iix n nn^j?J ''ixi .O'"' li'X'ia niivixi'X 'a ni ri-iixijx D'xuji'X 
-i3l3 ii'iDnfix xjTix i^Ji ,0'"" nijx"ia omna ibd x"' i^xi •'^x naix 
■ixvnaxis xj-ixp ic^^b ni xj'nxf) ts'"' paxr xdd d'3in3i d''X''33''a p'oxia 
)X3D^xi 't 'b ''J3D ixot^jx jx 'iix X' 1^) xj"3 ipa htpvha ■"t'ih nu:n^x 
ND 3nv^x 3nxs 'nm n'iiy 33n ^nDi)yx1 riT'M 3"''i -n 3"''i 'i ^hv xi'x 25 
3"ii 'T ''i'j? xnyna 'innni f^xaiix n "i3'i3 Dm"pi on Am p x^x onxnx 
«i>B i>Nnji>x XDxi xnjD XDijyijx xiix ^i'x'I '^x p'>a"' x^a anyijx oia 

1 read ^loia. 


Kn:n'vi psi'S p niiD^K ipi^^'i njo D"a pan jjundk 'T rJD^»< 
DnSsn irnni ik omoKi poDi n:D 'a p^juk^jx xn^nx '^x 
nao^js riii'V •'s d.t^j? pai -6^ r\:obii 's - nhuo'i pjo "i Nnmt'i 
nam ''D' 'ti nma 't onyi's •'ai ynhbri diu jfae- n^iii ^ip'' xnw nuia t 5 
nyiiN am pa p kvisj nyac jy na -jaN nodi nia-ia -t n'ovnl^x ^ai 
n 13 yy iih yatrai -pi la^a niayin yat^ "ip ^jio T'lia m^oan jk3 i^i 
T'oiiKi pp Dp^ DTiyac •'3 j?-i npa'' ^a p^'< van i^xpi Dpi pnx l^ia' vaK' 'a 
■lal '3 i^Ki i>AD T'jiai hdn^x nDK^D!? D'jpr D'-yae' nxnas T'JDi'K 
nnjfi'N niiv kd 'b mn:i po>? nd pi^s " Di>Ky •'a naljoi .nni'^Sai -ri'K lo 
nsanyN^s lai i^n Kjxnnjx n:yi nj^nao h^j^n nc ix * sjjxnDJ xd '-ai 
^^x^ p iD^n ^5D0 iia^s a'^i'Si 't^x aaxiai^x axa 'a nalj ppi^ao^xa 
bi^ ty n^^xi D'^y oisy n ^a piai xjnanyn nxp nnp '^y n^ijx xb* tx 
xjnn liixl p lalJi .nnoma xyoj x'ji^xi pn^x 'a p^'aini'x pn nbaoi 
b nxB'X xn'^xi ■'ipi'X dxdx 'n jna^x a-^isxi nyao^x tx D^yn!? xanD is 
'6ii IX xin xoaa D^jxy^jx •'in dxdx tx xoxa .riyiB' anxvi x'aj 
nnxi i^a xnva' ■''ii'x ina^x a'-'i'xi li^s xn:D aaia ^a pa' n^x aaxia^x 
iiai ppr x^Ji IT xi) dx'x -i •''?v ixao^xi jxori'X dxdx D'" ^a^x T'V'a 
xi) Dnjxa DX'x^x nnn ia x^x xixiixi anxlD^xi nxj^iix •'a p^xi^a^x 
bbi xisa piaxijx lax ''it3:n 'ni nntj-^x a'^^x n^jxlai ivp:'' a'?) •\T'r mpi 20 
nvx 't^x \i6 nan' d^ji Dayjxi nxij^x ids'? v ppj ix n'a t"? ii>i 
n^D '^N anpj xna li^x nxi5x!5S xji) noDi lijxiai a'-'^x i^xlai nxnyxisx 
a^BJi xjaijla npji xjSx-ijx niixDJi xji'xin n'T" pajijji ii^d^x 
xna Dx^x 'n 'ni'X rii'iix^xi nana n-" -j^xl ^yja xjp'aim x:nx^s njD 
NJijy in xoD a'^^xi 'T^x p TJiai a"'i 'ii> -txiD ifixna D"' xai 25 
'?no rianye^x finxi pxia^i) nnSi Dxiy^xi ninDj!5X \v xdjd 1.-11 dxdx 
Dvi>3 'a xnnxnp notxi" xj'^y 'niix rinini'X p 'n^x i>isai'K ':'?« 

J read p'JXiayijX. 2 read XHinaD^I. »• read D^y. * read C|3XnDX. 


UN ah) njcn f sn itn n^i msj? rril n^ noa m t^b tJitra O'-y s"3JsiiK 
nsnNi NDip^N DnD3Nn p hdid-id nvm^iK nya onia "nf k^i Dnia^a 5 
niDica t'jD 'ta rt ^bv mnnni njioxpi n^s-i ijss njijis .^"T nspnisK 
iiDyjDi nb nm^Nf) riv'Di n^anoi nWsi "lu^yn niD nij^n nnaiyo -n 
Dcni'Di'S nDDni''D fwi'^ba eini a^jy ^ni i^a-ib asna^N Nin n5x »s 
•'b^ r\bbi<i p^s dnddi yoii'K^ ctby njx li'K'i 'aa ao nbba nc |k 
iDj? ^v cyn 't riDKpxa od ni-lsK ivi nisxlai .ao nnoma p^amiiN lo 
amax [d -t n"5? didv [3 ntjns tjd^x T'd^k jn31 msi> 1 luna 'ie''' 
in "'tJ''B'n DV1N "i^xisi 'yac* nK>D anaj? nnp iif) ti 'S' n3N nfsN-ii 
DHJD nnxi ^53 -ih\ D"y dn3dn^n t** Tio^n^x "in33n 'a xt'N bnp) 'yae' 
13101 nimp -13101 1's -131D1 'ro 1310 am 't rm3nD^N i^nIsi nntyN 'rf> 
.H'a n^tJ ri-iini'N jx^ anHas in iro -13101 pxa i3ioi iie* 13101 E>ip is 
D"'! niJ3i xntrii n'obdn '33di nnsoi ano in3 am -r iNn3^N nf'K'isi 
.ni3ii?i B''pnB' pvDi I1301 Si3ri p^'Ki v'pi oni 't nNixooi^N i?ti■i2^ .bmn 
nn^by pai ^3n nois n"s n^e'j i^n pKi spix am -t rSxisi'N -\b!A•^2^ 
KJ10K 1N31 ni3i3 'ti neini) nnoB' •'C nj?3n B"pj 'o' nv3Bn nu 'O' 't 
niD^iV 'ti n^ivn nioj? 11 Q'H'ho 'O' 'ti ft i? npn mintsn nDn3n p 20 
n^isK 33D -i^JN-iai noi Bn3 .iD^cr xiii ai)ij?n 11333 133B' m3K 'ti 
riKips 't nyia nhni '''ii'N nK0NJ0^s«3 b"l f\av ii'd^jn yabi '3D 
IP ND '-^y i^Ni i''Dani' nss^s ;N3a inixiSxi nsoiS nxi53jD 'ti ison 
ni^na ni3''noi nn'^oi n'niu 't niuon bv^ ninsto 't "iiy Bj;i'3i no^j? 

D'B'33 't tUXIp^S 1li3N 'Bl nBTli' 't KIIB' H^INJ 13 JD^JI p'J^ 'T NIHB' 25 

"■au 'f ^y B''X3 nvjyiia 'ro 71 .10203 'I1 ainn Bn3i 't i^iN-isi hje' ^n 
uy lin'i JJUXDK 't iiv' in idn '« 'b '3D niiiiN finaN -j^N-iai nii'3y 
Dm'3p loiiinD"' JN amoNi yaNDsisN in Dipo^JN nu •'i'st an^Noa 


naiyi -id n^^x idx xd3 naDfix f-sn to i^sa mjy smnj? fipii NnsnnJDi 
njn i>D3 ipa ao niiisx 'ipn vd rivnB'i'K mox n»3 n-iNpx nnaiyo pn 
INoaN^sa n^ifiDD t»a moxa jn^ix nnxs npa i^kI tv ti^in pi nf) 
fialxj^s n^jDDji'xa .ri"ix»DJ 'ip 'T DD5^i5i .n"3Kni-i 'ip -r Dai^xi) 
'1^X1 iiniisai'Si ri"3-ioi'Xi n"DNji5Ni nj;aNi5'Ki noisn^xi riaDKoi'Xi 5 
np'xii'Xi nDxt:'^xi nivxa^xi riyoxD^'X \ii n"jxnn 'ip 'i osib'? 
mi'innD^x aaxn^x -ri^x xr'xa nni nispxv^xi ripDXJ^xi noox^^xi 
nop^x 'i''' x»a inxi^x pira jn^j^xi'i i-^zba p nra "' ni^nno^x 'n^xijD 
nvn" m"nnD!5X fiocj^x^i top^x^ [xo-id^xi DCE^x^nox^x x»ni 
3"ipy^xi i'Dni'X ino^^i nin^xi Dipfix nncTS^x^i il^nisxi ni^x ^mfia lO 
D3i 'a i^JXlDi rii53:D^xi xnj^x Tixoy^i [xfo^xi -nn^x nnntijxi'i 
ni'Xii'e n'i5^2Di n^njii nmoi noai nnijoi .tjIx •'ni apj n"' |xd:x^x 
DOB'i'x^ DaSx tn"j^xa aaxiai'X xt'xa fmip^ oi 'ip i1^ "i xnjo apj a'"* 
njjD^xi nntro^x 'nu t'j''y^xi tixdj? 'n^a pjIxSxi -iDpij^ moi'Xi 
naiDT pnpaD ^a fa nxpau -t n^yv ^i'x1al ^nr Tfa f^uoi'Xi tidI'X 'n'a i5 
nnpi5X xiJD njxnao ni'i'X i^vi i^xiai pmax^x pa no'^ nva^x p riiipi 
niipi'X xnioi fry^x 'a riivxa^x riiip^jx xiinipjix^x 'a nyoxDi5X 
fiiipiix x-i5oi p'^x •'3 riDDX^^x riiipijx xnJDi piJD^x •'a rioxB'^x 
jXD^^x 'a ripDXJ^x rinp^x xijdi jiaisxi naijx 'a ri^jxinc'^x rip'xi^x 
non DDK'^x xr^xa 'm jxon^x 's rii^py^x rtiip^x xiioi lopi'x xrxa 'ni 20 
xoa xann n"a nxiia^x tv Xiia lanyn il^x ':xyof>xi pojn ripoxj^'X 
xSx nnxB'j fiiix p n^tJO oi -n 'a na 'i"' nopi5X -ii:^x DOtr^x non 
l^xlai .n^xDox nonpn on^-ixai dh^b'jd ri-npa npxpnnDxi n^xoa 
n^^x i3j; jjao^x i n^'Sa p li'X'iai nvpa -ai 'ni D^^xpx 'r pxiix 'a 
njx '^jn .niD' 'n^x pxi B'T "ihb'x riyao^ ni'ioi'x ^ao^x bvi -ao 25 
'l^x nx'ajx IX -ao nbhn x^x xnoir xi) -ixnDxi5 i^xli inc' n^xr 
.T^ix xnipan nnjy xmnnxin nt'X mi>yi'X 'a iiaox-i^xi nnx-x onDijjjK 

1 read hb^iS. 


nri nini avii "lani ann dti D''Da6r nj?3-ixi nnsj^ tyx t!'''3J^K "':3N1 

aoNuisN 'ni nKHJ^JKa si" ^'■i't'sa khjdi dok'^'K 'm nxnjl5N3 inS'' 

ani '1 ••bv nNajijNi .D^^ 'd nja dj« 'ipa inao -inai'K kd ini nd^'xt 
n!? nU in ND snjDi .N»n^3Nt5" N»i ■i"'yB'i'Ni nojni'so xni nIj khjo 10 
i^'^n^jxa KlJ kIj nh in nd ^njDi Dn^Ktr ndi iNms^Ki nao^jo an 
HNiB'sSio Nij t6^ Nil K^i K'"'NK'ni'S ''S •'■iha •^'ptipvba tkdi najcn is'Si 
n-)in 't^in ntwn wxai .nT'''nnD^s aasia^x 'n^x I^kIoi .Nnnae''' ndi 
riNii'xi's 'nha Kt'Nai .loi'wa n'opn njpB' D'ji'jp neiDn si^'xai 
nnn bn) jsdjn^n 'a •'l^x Dsin^x 'nba i^jxiai Dnisa dis dv 's Tii'S 15 
NOV "i^Jnn sill ^pnjn sij nNnj/NisN 's 'n^ix fiiiv js nisDi^xai n"it'j;i'N 
riD^N xr'-Na nnoks i^xlai j^a nd jiia nst Noa 01 'n ■'s ^fio nij^j/ 'n 
DiiNU^N 'a OD nis^x xnp^a il^x ini^n^n 'ii>x sfsai niiw^N nxni 
xrxai .''jiJJNDDNkxi rinavl^Ni fi-iSa^Ni rinon^xi nsiD^xi fs'^-a^x 'ni 
f-ixljN pie xnax rijj^xo ina 'I Nrxai .naoin ■'mo ntJ'E'i njtyo mo n^'C 20 
fi^nx: •'ai n"^N»K' rinoi ri^aui rtnoi px^K nnn snas fiaiw nnoi 
N^'N Dip'' auj^N ^ai N"'i xnta^Nj' n^i nne-x 'I Dx^sijN Dip'' ^ndb'^n 
tiffin " Di5Kj;^N nxni noi nK-vcn ''»'' nre'i dn^S nD^sS' xi>i inK-x 'I n-'S^n 
ajNi^N 's rinoi id^n^n ajsii's *a DNOJNi'N ''a pna 'I i^slai mab D'aja 
naoiiK DV f]-\&b nsNa^xai mc DSjfxi liiaN Nnjsa 't^x i^xlai no'Ni'X 25 
Kmaxi DX'x^N j?axD ninb nx^x nonpni nb nanBTii 'vn nij^jx tijt 

1 between n"^XDB'i>X and xnjDI insert ^J'^^xa ini'' XD xnJDI 

mpbif ini ixnj^xai. 2 delete D^xy5>x nxn: noi. 


jnNVDijN nN33-lD^N1 .3N-inl5K1 «D^t<1 'IH^JNI INJ^JK nii'Da^NE) •N'B'S 'T 5 

ID p rnnn dkdjn^n {'NnDN msv i^nIsi .D^^J^^5'l ;Nvni>Ni nsDJ^Ni 

ns^NB .HDU'^JKi riina^Ki riniLni'Ni rinN-iniiN nnS jtxddIjn pmo^xi 
yon'i NnniEj' i'lD' I'pxpj; ^Noynox^K '3 n"3D ana kd^jj^n li'Nl^ 

D!<DiNi5t< n3 |D 3j;i'K Nnii-;3i 8<n:D Ki3n tx iN3n si) xni n3ys )>K^DK 
N"3JNi'N xnnsl'K "niiK ri^'n^^N I'pxpy^K i'SDvriDX3 xiss n^w i;>3 •'^n 
am xmopK onsns 's xnin-iB'i dsjn^n n3Ds< on ti^x Dn'^y nb'pti x^v 
'na Diaj^x f-xiox b'pv'? "ti^ix ^ivx^jx xdxi .'3d nbbit \k> an^'ba 
^xoifx^xi nnoxa^x xnx^xi ii"XD^x px^3xi>xi riD3x-inD^x nx^xnj^x i5 
eiDsni xniTi DijiM xmnii xnr Diaj^x "'^v nrnn 'Ixa .nn''3pi5x 
l^xi n^i>x xjxa3 xnnxna 'ppnon |x p''Dn xi^i xmxnx Spnni xnm''S3 
in3i' n^x p ^"t 'O^rha lajx xo t)Vi '^x x^ni liii .nnDm3 -jx^xi 
I'^m: riinij xbi p^'njo p^^n:Di ^bm: e>' 'ip ^ho nevi xd iiXLii ijjxi 
y3-ix .npns 'jnm nno y3-ix "ip i>nDi -rhm: xi>i pij^njo xi) pij^mo t6i 20 
xn'n3 i^xl ^JXiiDXi nnin^ t'snv nv3-ix .Bmon nuij 'sijinsrinD 
n bhv\ nn^iDD ^xnc" i^xjjtr ni^ixa -n ijiioi nmnB-i) n^xl x:3in xj3i> 
n"D;x xnx-i nisx xo' p ip^jd 13-13-) rin n ^noi xnxt'X3 n^x nio^o 
.ni>aij n^nj n3tyn nox xrx3ir3x Dn-i3x ni)i>x x-nxn^JX^.T-v^x^JT 
lin'3 nnnj y3-ixi nxen nnaen mn3i n3-ix xi'X i>n» ^"t 'osn^x li'Vii 25 
V3-1X ni>xi3i .n'D!3D naix D'jac D'^'on xniuim .mai hpim iib^bi 
mil nnaJi b'x D''na o'l;'^ ^y '" iqd' 'Jti* D'ytnn i)v nix3 nvjjnia 
tlDiB' DE'J Dm nray-iia y3-ix3 one vis' Kui* n'nyi> ' bi niaj;^: 


fhnK* fira dn^Ninxi nnnro dkj^k 'sn nips kivb' f-ya i^s"i3 
a-iBKi n-i5x na^5 pi K'Jia d'^) nnsii n-i3« n^ D''i'i nosip ns^Ji nnsis 
NDnsfja '^v '32' 13K1 n-iSsi'K 'Qi k'"^s 's tvo Nons^a rxn niisi 
niBipn 'T nS'si .Nnci vaii ^'i^i ti's iiivs n i^xlai .rhix vhi k'JT si) 
n jKotf'Ki •iXDti'K niiD '^y ''^i^^51 I'^T'o^ki indid^si harha ^i^n 's 'ni 5 

.31Ji^N1 i'KDB'^KI NnS^KlimiiN T il"inKi>K1 .fiJDI int/l j;i3DN1 DV 

]D cinjs 3i-i4 n '^y dn:^k li'^lai .fii^Ni j^di iKtrysi nsnK n ^K^J?N^^•1 

3^3' di) ID DnjDi NDnsisa jb p nnjDi n-inNS55S ■'iiy eip' n^i njDKai5N 
'by ni'i'K f-insN 'if'S ri'TiNaj^JN vkun^sk '^ fix sT'sa ona .xdiT'n '^k lo 
nf) D'h Dj)D ni> p NHJOi iiNto^JX T'y nN!5V 's NniDDD' Ssnos 'J3 
nb ND snjDi Di6ii2 Dj?D ni) D'iji rin'NT nb p nhjoi baj^s 'Ins nn'NT 
.siNVSvbt53 Dj?t2 sisi nn'NT t6 nb D'f> p Nnjoi j:nnKbK3 dvdi ^^"^5^ 
nnn n's bap snissv nijv nbs«s nnjo nKp3t3 n '^jj? okj^sn n^'n i^xiai 
n^Km mn ns' hdh nnn n'B bnp i ni'XD ibv rh^n y:2 vn' ^nux is 
n'B iisp s<ni)Nt3 nbv rhna) m3 nisy pxvjn nnn n's btip 2 nfj^s nijr 
n-iS3 'pibn nv3nK 'm n nxjsisj^s 3iTi ■jl's-iai .ven ks' d^jjcid 
K^ XD iixvi 'T nNJKDinf'Ni 'T 'VNyo^iK 3nSi n nysDijN 31-151 nsnvD^K 

n!5Kl31 .DJJ Hbt D3j?3 nIiI DJJD N^JI DJJI D3j N^ DJJDI DJJ' D5j bn»3 KSn' 

n^K-isi .jnaiji nbmb 11331 noji njn^Ji » njun pe* i^x'iai .ns'l^m du' 's 20 
•^»3^ iNi'n^K 'd 'li>K n'TiJ^x riiNiniiK 'ni 3-iB'ni i>3Nn inj n jxtj^k 
fjaxn t6) 3-iE>n nxji okj^jk 1'3 ni>»KB'i'K ikj^s 'ni siB'n siii b^an t6 
iNjisx 'ni 3-iE'n i6) bxn isji f^-ix^x pK3 'd 'I^k ri-iKnni'N 'ni 
pNVD^N j?3o p x'cs 'T jxdjsIjx 's nij^js fjyj ^iJt<■^^1 .chd^ik tjik^jn 
nxyo^K bn» nKDBi>si tu^K pKyoijK pa na'x^Df'Ki {NvniiNi nxajijNi 25 
bno nN3"inl5Ni Dni5S« t^^vn^s pi nsoi^K bho idj^ini n-ij^jk nK33i>K pi 
pn nbf>N n3j? 'isa i=iD'Nni5N nx'nfjsi finnav^s naiN^DijK pi tsvnijK 

I read K'n^ND. 2 read Nni>KS. ^ read nnJD, 


D'-ian^Ki pnv^Ni nm^ni pnSi>Ni pn^Ni maf>xi nixop^xi n»n-if>Ki 
njK'ii^Ni njxDNf>{<i naani'Ki j;St<inf)Ki iiji^Ki ^ny^xi o^i^Ki npn^xi 
mtf^Ni nvxjpi)Ni N^n^N-i si^s^xi mN3yf>Ni idh^ni nnp^xi nsyi^xi 
Ki-ii'Si K-DV^Ni yacSNi yijf-Ni yxDpjxfjNi nnxva^Ki nv'pn) riiip^Ni 

P2tybii ti'n'pii) nx-ijijK rixjN^Ni bivbn hjnds^xi rinxb^K N^nl^Ni 
NSi^K rijfNBijNi n^svalsK f-an^Ni ^"SnijN njx^vijNi dbi^n ria^j^t^i 
IND'Kf)K npxnvi'Ki fiiNiv^N axixi^Ni naiha CTn^Ni pxnn^x ninji^xi 

isy^K nin^xi ^NonnN^K dn^Ijni Niii^x xijIjni iB»-ii3N ny^Dp^Ni r.b-^a lo 
nsDl5Ki nnsnf'K ay^JKi ai^iaN ij'j^ni nn'Vji>K pon^Ni "iph^n DNpruNi^xi 

mNDpi>Ni rii^K -ijs^xi -lE^af-x iNnnis^Ni -iNnpKi>N rio^i^xi rii^ni^M 
p^3 ^oyno' -np' iKDJK^i) p^3 D"p i^Nia p^aiis [om p^j^x id nijoifiNi is 

.nnisKTi '3D pi>X3(5x N3-1B' 'J n^ai n"D pDNo 'n 'j5jn NT'^a i^JNlai 
KrNm.npiijNi ixaoi^Ki ixDr^JNi bpnooi iiNni 'ixD -j imi'N Nrsai 
10S 'yoa nnx nxn mNc nioi'iy 'j nt'N31 apri pns' Dmas max 'j 
'jaf) D1-ID3 n"'nnaJE5' Dnao o srNai .xan Di)ij?n nnxi ntn ohyn nnNi 20 
D'3n3J D'pnv ^B> d'j;b'"i bt^ inxi n^jijia ije* inNi D'pnv ^b* nnx n"3pn 
nv fnii r^in q^jiju ^cn ojnji) fonnji psnaj D'ytn ^cn pv P^ D'onmi 
D'jna NrK3i .jniK p^no i3"nnj dki jniN paro pait dn nxan ruB'n s?nt 
.m3nDi D^wfiK NDin Kr^ioi .nuinai d''xi3j min kpk3i .d''^n-ib'ii D^if" 
tK'iN^K D^y 'j^N Di!5j;^K t<r''K3i .nitjmp Nr'N3i .i^jdi oam 8<''3j Nt'^ai 25 
"]'>K i^Kl3i .bpDDOi •'ixpi iSkd ino6ki iNDtxfiN D^yi iNiaN^N ofjin 
nf> Diin ^Dy nis p Dn:oi iiDj? n^ cfji d^j? n^ p nnjca 31-1* -n ifiv dkjIjk 
i)Np npi b^v N^i D^j? n!) n^ t6 p dhjdi ^ov^ni ci'V^s nb p dhjoi Df>y 

NT^N3 nDN-i3 pn3 'T n'B n^xl3i .nnni pisi v^^ii Dsnpi Skdb^ td' nm "i^s 

nnfsieiiNi riaiNJ^JNi n"DXJ^Ni fiysNiisKi noSsnisKi naosD^'Ni fialsi^K 
Dibti) Dnis^Ni •\wbti) •^b!hi<^ isS^n dhi -d^n Kt'sn inNii -d n^si ri^anoSNi 

l^N-iai .pjiJNi'Ni kvdkI'NI niyo^si jwiia^Ni ^JsnoiiNi mNnDiiNi n"-i!'Ni 
pao np ND3 NfKa n^yia iNDJsijK «s •\itt 2 nntrn nd^v^n fya ^ijv ip 
pnNi ntro N^foi fnN^Ni nod^n wxa ddj^ni dbj^n bvii .aab^ha 
K0D^^5 p n-n am pK^Ni kdd^n ^lio ^?o^^n» ]i6 aahohti ^ an^by 
HNT ip3 nsw: n3 tii nd aphn' pnx n"D^s is i^Nla pN^.x nnpni'S 10 
f-iK^N |D Non^N tK^ nim^n 'jc? srsai "lann nnsi njna^ D'n^s Tnnj 
.fi-iixijNi K'jnijx KfKni njtroi min NT'xai tiKiohH p Ko.T'a naxna^Ki 
ri-nsSriD riT'na n'B'n k^ji^n "is bvi'\ fiit 'c i^a '3D n'?'?iA bvi ^]hti^^:>^ 
nnsi^JNa w od rip^pni'sa ^^N1 njs 'i'V '?^b'i li'Nl i'oi .pfts pi's ^2 p 
rjvi'' IX p NSJNi ahva '3D .rip^'pn n^j ft^tNiD rra riim^x pn"'nDi'N p 15 
fpbti^ pay IN poj^N pes K»a nnsif^Ni ftinifjN pi^Ni im nax3 

•l^NT p 

ni»^xi nN''n^N i>iiDa imsinDfjNi p:nN;!N p od ^vi nd nons 

•im ^"^1 "iNHji pN3i -inxSi nJNi b'wa) nti'?'i'pti^ -lufj^i ipa iixi njj^ni 

n3N!)Si r^i nJiB'31 nB3i hpfw }nji 3'di fj^nji No^yi nN'3i rnm m3i 20 

■ID'I •\DV^ 3-irTI ftDK^iDI Pll5l INDNI iani 03-11 1*! yaji fjBDnijyi niNill 

ijHDi -131 -in3i iDm n:iNDDi ftnsi DpDi f-N-iyxi nnsiii rivoi p'Sn jiai ftne^ 
I^N-i -I'Ji Di-iiiDi DiNii pNnni ddi yNonJsi ripnai fhsyoi onji ivii 
S-iisSno pfjiN fiijDj iNajNiiN ^a ^jfi i^jnIsi .od in si^N n3 d^h' n^ kdd 
bmihat dJ'xjjSn \-ii Nm3ljf!3 Npi-i D"p nhjo nrvns< ipi nij n-rjia 25 

fiSp'i'NIpji'NI ftyKJB6Kli)33i>N1 D"13^N1 ^.DsijNI tiB'jf>N1 JXIDJ^NI fSH^KI 

niev^'Ni Dxbi'Nniyp^Ni dk^p^ni i^1i<?K) i>i3if>Ni ii3d!>ni ns-ini^Ni du^ki 

1 add Nt'N3. 2 read ^^^''■lt^'n. a read NDn'i>jr. 

ps^K D^NV '3 nxniJiof's* Site's' ixxi n^ns^x^x rioDn^x 2ii03 
D^Niy^K Ji^n^x^ 2dk:d 2 -i^jd Dijxi? -yni an nxD^x nbis nxoa^'xi 5 
jj'oi '^s? HD^Di p^x^jj^x jj'DJ i^j? n^vai xn^ ^axnoi x:-i3l '•ii'X 
"ipa rionpo^x ana^x i^xla npoj ipi t^vni nxnii nxni jd nxni5i»i>x 
.0^13 D-'si'Xi njs 'ji in' nK'Voa ^nh'zn^n dti^xd di?o imonni 
xo^vi'x nioyr xa yoJa miDxi n^xinxi ixdjx^jx xjtanyxi 
n":xDDi^x xnyoJ npx^ixa 1x3:1 -laariJ jx xr^y 35''3 ^i^jd o^xy 10 
ni'B'jDi nyjxv n^x^i fiiv:^ riJDxa^xi xn:a rnnxv^x ri"jxD3j^xi 
3n3^x npD3 npi .nmxay pn mayji^i X33i^p 'a nnoiy nxruni) 'jm 
"li'X'i tj? x:nna xoi'S .ni^x ninx ncoDi avx ^ipa rionprtx 
m pm3^x p 5 2310 nxjnjii nnxii'X xr^xa -^nnxi |xdjx^x xonii 
'j^x xrxn p^av f-ij; ^'lo ncDJi .fiiixi'x xrxa fi^'fij naii n't^^ i^ 
xnj3Do Tiks ninB'iixi on^x rinp xmnxia xnp 'j dbj^x i^xisi 
'n^x n"3VJ^x rinpiix a^jxi .D''xnai5X nxnx Djxi'' \ni naa^jx 
ri^pxj;^x npDXJ^JX rinpi^x o^jxi .jj^'X nxnx DJXJn '•ni a^p^x xnjaoD 
xrxa i^xiai .n3''xf'D':'x nxnx Djxjn 'ni jxan^x xn^aoo 'n^x 
xiev^ixi Djb^xi m!5X ■'ni dx^5x t n^a n^xivi'X 'a n^x n^x 20 
DJ^a^x nv'aoi .xiniix ny^ao xi^xa aan ixn Di^x nv^aoa .xnioiixi 
xi^xa noax' ritxn xnav^x nu^aoi .xo^xnvao xrxa aoi mxa 
.axnn^x njJUD xfxa noax' "mxa xnioi'X ny^aoi nxjiix nvau 
ivaks* nom vaoi'X ncKn \ni ■ni'X xrxa Dxin -n n'a li'siai 
xrxa nxni 'I ni) i^xlai ,dd^^x rioxm pniix rioxm Dc-iix rioxm 25 

1 read TJV. 2 read Xl'JV Xoi'XJ?. ■'' read XT'JV XofiXV- * read XtnXI. 
5 read xaaiO. 

chvtiy tiiviDi nav ^a p nsisi tiiB>w '^yxi i'JN 3D "ins .Nnyoi 

D^xjn ijaSs nmai dnh^k "'paoi dn^j^k fsxn nx-i^ii'xi ^'sia^K 
'B' b 'ijj? IDN31 ID inNS xnn:s b^ nSxi sinax ^3^ ^iik 3"'ji5K 5 
IDtsn3Da .D^n-i^s fi^athn t'33^n ^i^'D^^s d'^^p^k tod^k mi no^j? 
Ij; p^K^x nb npa .nn^t:^ n^tra^x nlm nnmp ri-npijs nln 
Dn^^s fnijNvijx f j?3 nsifjj "'D3 nmon ndv dibj^k ntiyi i navn^o 
^sp' ^<i> jx j?3no''i Kn3E'» trynoi'NS nons p n'' ^xp'' jx isi' |d x' 
nain^x fs nnii^xi cinvo 'f'j? ijd -i3a^x3 xn»jji i6^avr\ ys p x' lo 
niix od .fiiiJD :nx3nxi>xi 'sji'x ju xo pnoiixi fiipiD |13D^xi 
na'af) dxijxi ns^ah oajxi nantJ' 2 ^ipy^ix i^x rioDpjo nxiiJiD^x 
jy rhha 'yna nxaixiD^xi nxav^xi nx^DDofixi xddx^xi na^na dxdjxi 
nxnixfix n3-nn }x ix DXDpx^x nin p ••b' nnanvo n:3 3 i)xr }x 
nj)nn3D3 vinaoijx'i nv"i3D3 ynao^x ona'' ci'iai nxnax^x n3 D''nn ix 15 
mw xf>a iT'i'j? xn3 oixin fiDJxiD ix n^'pti npion fi3DXJ» tj p 
xf> JX1 nvpi oniD'' xi> jx m^nin naaa r\v: r\2 cm i6i npi 
i^j? xnon xnona jTiyxj^x nj;^ jy ryi psvxi^x fisi tv ^^ Q^"'' 
rr'^j? iiaiinxi macj'x n3 dj?jx 'i^y xiaa* mac^i n3 fxax xo 
nvrib ^xpi * njaaio^ nDn nanm -dj? n"!)! f>ip3 n^isx nox j>iiaxi 20 

.nnx D3 Dvn TiTijnin inasD -"a 
nii'n''i ^iixi'X i!sai)XDn 

1 read flBSn X»y. 2 read filDB. 8 read inNJn'. * "IDH 'HS nB13nl 


'3*>K "s nn«nNi>t< f-pxan aao i» fiinxi nxl noipo^s n"nN^Ni>K 

pa naiinfie njN3 jni ninxi ic «b riNlijNa ri'iinoo 
\«6 onrmna f\ii6ni»'? Q^Kvi>K ip^j niiax in j'jns^N ]« '?Hna'pti 5 
nnnsino nn'na x-t^k iTbi n"j3i>N oano nj?jvi>x jpno Dijw^ 
'^KW n"3>«3ii>N JiVJxi'Ni fi"nNf'Ni'N nD3niiN3 Jpno '?:>'>»■) naisnaoi 
n'KDDN noipn nyjKV iw n"nx3i m3n»i r\^a^:o^ r\p'?i n"j«nrn 
'pta '^fN niiia 'n N»3nij>u «i>nnN"i^ D'3mNnNi>N3 Ni) nnxli' nnsi 
KmsariDN nx^n Ki>i nxio p xn'^^aK n^ijtN ■t'J p nijilsK d'nt lo 
't3j(D in i>3 miiN,njiD in i3n D''3n p ^ NnonaN nD3n n^i my p 
noxi nnNlis b^N njHj In DNii'i>Ni nosniiNi ns'n^Ni Np3f>Ni i>rN^N 
riNpiSso^Ni nNny33»!'Ni nNrmioijN sinvin p nrani'N mjo5'N 'ni»N 
Nnnstr i6 Nna'-oiii Nna^nai xniiyi Nmniii NmaNi sn^iN 
rh'?t< 'vn njn303 jruo i>Ni npijNia piijioiiN natj"' f\■'2^ nn3t?n n^i is 

'"i^N JfSlDt>N 'S pN^I p»N N03 N:3Nn3 p fiSS b "S 131:01 

n5>i>N NE' }N DKbi>K p jJiiD^'N nl^ann' nd •<'?v Tnin^N p -13130 
Njaiy npi .nj'B'jn nnaiyo^i nj'vin 2x33031 n3-i»n i^Ni3 1« 
'31 nstrni Dvn nvT'i 'ip i^nI ;o3 yixio rinj? 's 3Kn3f>« i^sia 20 
'ipi .n^nxi rr'DN •'SN Kin ''3N '3« •'3 nnj? isn ipi .htnz^ poE' i>spi 
n^Nl p -i''n3i '" ''3N njjb oax '3 naivo ny mtOD m' tVoS 
nKaviiN ly na n»<:^b» *inNi ao n3Na nntj'n hb^obti it"ia3f'N ana^tx 
|vmn ''D Sni ipi ..emp idn' mcNi 'jvonn ■'o ^ni ip3 'tr nae" k^ 
noiNi ''3i?''BiDni nitTNi "i3i''Dnn 'd Sn ipi .li" laipn mm noi iiN'ss 
pnnpD T ei3V ana nny n^Nl 'a nd^v^jn lasv^pi -i^nI 10 Tjiai 

K!>KNDB3n^f'«:i!>3' 0^1 n'f>N lisXIl n'i>J? mp ND ■''JV nT31 «1D1' 
^ read Nn3Dn3N. ^ read naaoai. 


nJN3 "lisa nriKl pis'"! nosj pi's' "B'^k !« ^khd^'K jd |kS xnosj npi'S 
K» iivari snf'jJB ■•s rn^in Nnosj hd^kd n:f53^ xnoa: np^a n''E>k!'k 
Nnnxl naiiDi xnoaj np^jj nJN3 liiDDci'XtKn^Kl ^JiD-Kcn KonjvsB'n 
p finxn -inSn sd3t maJ? Nmnpi i^jso k^)! xnxiD p^xa s<n^ o'' Di5i 5 
n:s3 t;<D fiaini KBt^:n njs3 xd iia 3D-ini aiJci'K p niKni pntj^^x 
ySDnin3nsnp"i''«nNjn to^'SDninans iiin^x 'k 'a Ji3»ni namn 
33Ki3^s ■T'ND nf'Kl3i Nn3x 3njn N^ ]» msniN KD3ni5i nans Tits 
n3N3 Ko^a .inxi n^3 i n^sla iinD^Ka ii'-'f'aDi'K riNriDN^si n"ii>vi'K 

npto NHjx KJjpTii !<:»!'y txmi'K onp to n'hv •'n nd iP n^^nn 
smnpi sn-i"Di snfnns ■'li'N nnvi jki nninpD n3i^DD rirnnD 
DOB'^'X "'a niK-inb na^nsDljx yxaDi'K p nn-'Si jj3di ■i3ii'K3 
ns^DN^^? r^aDi 33S13^k v'san |d i^jkI nac'' kdi nopiiK 'a rhnabw 
SvB ■'a i^Nl to na-io lalao nd 'i'V njonn^JK fia^nao^K aasiaS'K T'DCI is 

..yn n^i'N ti& ]ix asnaSs '■in 

'ppa NnriK^v i« xmna "i^jj x'U'KijN Njniia niias is inNi in hn 

I^isVK^x xnb N''B'Ni'N i^Nl3i nsnaoi nsc:D nm ••■ihn nnxi 20 
nxa^JN njnas j>nao iiiiK ini ^isp^x ftbv '•i's nir r^ijao^xi 
N^i ^^'? t6'\ tK30 •'a N^i JNDT •'a K^J nmsnsi nn"K'Di nxjjn ^3 

^Vn '3D V13Di5K 1N3B ,3Kn3^N ^1"1K 'B DsbiiN Dipn KD ''^J? iB>3 

iK-ipKijK ■'^K fv''?2'?ii n-ii-)4^K 3 ni^x NDi53 .jixyajx ik j?>5nas nwa 25 
NJ^ ns KnoBJ •'n j?jsn ch n^b-k^x nwnax li-'n p nbi6i '?i wsviixa 

1 read ^IjkIS. 2 read KHHT'D tO. * ""ead n331X. 


^:i3 px no' nnana "••> ^spi 121 ■" ^j'b'vo im no "ipa nonpo^jx anafiN 
n'^a'a -idxi tjo d^kv ini riN^JusD^N nix ixdjn^x |Nai .njuna d'oe* 
Kin NroDTpi .'j?n n^ij^ NE't'<''''"'J'riS>< '''^'i^ '^xn^x ^sb^n iq li'S'i 
^iiK^K ^vbSks ^ivs nyao •'■in xjaxna N:i'y: npi ^ipv^JX ixnoa aNnstx 
IXDJN^N IS'D •ai'K Wb^xi .ins^s nxi'X k^ ■'I^k od n^jisK Tnin ''b khjd 5 
ei''B3i'Ni fT'ol'^N ini tiaiixa nnonpn ■'i^K d^niv^s o^s irxr t'JD dS^xv 
n"J8<^j?^xi iD^JS ''B 'j?ni an nb rivsti^K Dxtn^x 'B oi'si'sa^Ni .fi'naisKi 
hi\ IV nbx ^hii n3w!5N nai ''b -n^jx ^vb^ki .|dx21 inNS nmsoy 3nj'ki 

n^iis ''I'j) ^Diin^N •'B 'nha ^xs^ki .nnisisNi N^jn^s -b ^Dvi'Ni oi'jji'N ^ns 10 
nnxpi^SD voia -isanyN^xi h^n'-jt^ki fi^jn^N iicxi'X v^ci ''B fjii ij? 
p^'Ni'ii'K VDi 13 nnoan i-nsi Isbdn^'S n^xyi^Ni ■'^vx^s Di5^<v^^5 ■'B n^K 
.li>s1 T'Ji nio^K ni'^iB -ioni pvo^x p^'s^ii^N pxtiNi unhM^ anp^pt 
btrtiff^h njJiC'^K nail mnoi xa^ h'k^^k !5's<vq -isi ■'S i^n WbSj?i 
n''''5nB'i'K'i ni''i!pj)^K ^■'N^nijxa ri"-nn^x "idj ^xnnx 'si ^ii tv n^i>K xn^jy 15 
-131 'B 't^K ^VB^si .niKB3 n'B SD3 ri^anv^Ki n":xn3V^xi n^yDD^'Ni 
im KiSD^N Nn^iiKi Nnn:N^K ^^ Tii'S r^^3t<i5^< ixi in •'i^N N3n n^ivn 
.Nn-iDxa nnB'ijN fip^3 \v od pi^si^x rrun ''BI xps^xi nx^nisx 
'B in N^x nvha i6 an njxi -yni 'an nij^x T'mn •'S ^iix^x ^sb^^xb 
nvbo m^x ^jx •'d 'a 3xn3^x 'ip3 p^BDxi'Xi i"^jjxbxi inix^xi piiiix^x 20 
n^xn 'Sv ini DDX b3 xDon p x' D'an^x tipB irn^x ^n^iniVDV" 
ni)i!N^^"x •'5x x' niiyx .nnpiixDnx^iDnjxi x^xna^xoi'xyBn-in'iD'po 
3nxlD!5Xi txnx^xi Di^y^x Wx in 3X3^x •'In jx nja nnn xjx'xi 
intj^x p tx»''x^x Txn:' nai xnatapi xnji:pi xnnnxBDi nsnxpnyxijxi 
xni53XTxi)m3 xnaiB" t6 rin'nv ftix3j>^x 'sni fp'^x nan'iini^x ^03^1 25 
D^jxiv^x IXB nn3n np ris'Cii'i'X xix^jxi risne'^x i'lpvS'X txa D^yxi .bhi 
xmiiibprionya nax3 xn^'^ii xnp^T xn^BDxi xnx^yx xnvDJ 
Knobo'i jx^x n'b "n xd ■'^j; xnanm xnxio xn:ii3i xni'J xmjixa 


'jc n''Bt)n ^!)o ^E> IOC DiK ''J3 1318? noxni n3T ny enjx ncn n^v wm^ 
Dno nna nd3 ot? t"jD Knpon mpa ioe» pj' KTDtf ■'jsji) D!>iyi> loc 'n' 

ft5>'h ijyji n2DD !)3 n3Di pDNJ^ia pD3 snalK ysiasf'N 05585? bp ninza 
p f6a2bH f\)-\rhii 'k pj<n dni D''DE>n riN d'nijK xna rci^Kna n^'K'i •'i'V 5 
QT^n noxn n''a ^jxpil^x nKT^J^K ^ap '•if'K i>iiNijs« nui'Ni isn ■'^s ei^N 
nnoND niB'ya ■'n i-iisN t's^jix ^'xh nJK3 ;s« r^ip'^'^ pi^ip^Na niK »n' 
nnbXD n-iE'v''8 jx^ ni'Ny^x •'in 'a fV'myl'S 3n-i^K i?n irsin nt kd5« 
8^3 NiiJOQ '3D nN3^N np^3 ■'•E' t»vn''8n:D nnt<vij3i riNysT ■'D 'n xdjn 
'p3 18301 t^or "s Kn"ps<2i lis 'ni d'h^x -idk-'I t<n^ii« ini jk3d n^i isdt 10 
.y-itin KBnn dm^'S "idn''1 .o^on iip' D'n^x los'i .yp"" '''1' '^''ni'K idn'i 
KVin D'n^K "iDK''i .D'on ivib" D\n5'K iDX-'i .nniND 'rr' ch^jn iok'i 
31D t6 O'rbtt "iDK''i 'nnj n:n D'n^K-iDK''i .ms ntfw d'h^k noK'i .pxn 
'"in IS "'■in tTxinnlns .um na cn^K idk'i hjk i>ipi .na? mxn nvn 
WKnnjK ny3 ni^si isIjdi li'K'i ttxin k*j?k "> tjd abttv '-iisx ;NDiKi>« 15 

.'3D rbbn pw n'ii« 
n"i>3Vs< DBjf'to nnxiiiK n3m 's ^ii«^k jn30^N t^^^a 
'D3n^ Nn3 133K ftnini'K ^a i^xls 3mi'K 'p^^i 'sfiN n3m "'a 
oaj^s IJ? Nn3 ^x^aax pjfi pi ^iixi'K jfNi3Ki'K mi fi^nK^x^x nosnijn j» 
nnrii'x dbjn!5k Dn ■'li'x p^NJio^K iinn 'm i'pyl'Kf' a^i^Nn^x ft^bisK 20 
nnnjx jx '^x smiix "ipxs nx'i3i fiysoi'K diaxy 'a xnjo nn3jx ''ii'K 
niw^x yoj n'a ne'pnjxa ei''a3 n^xy ini Dijjf'xi ixbxi'X abav "'i»K 
D'sn^K mnp3 v\''mbii aiixvijx 'f^x mo ni'Di'Dni ci'd^j^x D^ixyiix ^^x'^ 
'iba nJtxini nbxpna nmnp Ixaoi nnosn '<'?v f^xni^xij ii>xli mxp^K- 
■'f'j? Hi xnjD yoji'X n3DXjn Tin xna^oisi xna^aii xna-jis p oi'Xiyi'N 25 
npD^ipi .xnoai nvjx xoi rtipno ftD3n3 xnvJX njx xnvjKS- rioan 

1 reed 1J3K. 


.ni>nni nana ^13 '?y DDinoi iiDa d::* laia-'i ^spi D"V nnao «03 kt'm 
■■•i^K ^b^ba bpiibuB wi on nxa^x nnax no ^iin ]^?Q ^ya nan. 

mDN3 ao n^^N nsa^N nvnax .riNixDD^Ni i''Sn-is<^n 'a nsa^niDi'K 5 

IN '3D KB' b^ 'tya N^l 'E^ JfO N^l ''tJ'^ N^l ''B' ''Q t6) ''B' p xij nn"B^1 

bivs^o b^i xfjaN^ nriNjrNnniNai abpav nnNifji n^djo xiipv txaa 'y 

DNDD^NI iiN»3^N3 NIHOK fl"'n ]12 NJaNDINSS N^iDNn i'lDnO ^lah N^JJKS 

anaiiN nptsj n^JNlai DNyjxIjN p njnao p n^^x ijvi acb xiat^ Tinnoi 

CSID D^IJJO TND V^VBO Dip lain IT'C^'NT ''Jjp "'i '1p3 HDipD^N 10 

ntj nriNl '^s nni nd^2 /jn dc D-'ot:' irana inf)f)in nioinn j^xa 'J1 
Ninoi xms xiriDxi nnxi ^a Nm5i niiN nxev^N yoj jy od nriao 
noiD^s Np3f'^?1 n"^3S8< nsT'aijN p nnxi 'a 'nt ndi Kiiani K^iIJi 
npi .n^NDDN DDipn njnao uj? nnam ifjjn fiD-'sn^x r.^'n^xi 
Dv D'jntJ'yK' iTHxi pox ii>xx n\ixi 'ipa nonpo^x nna^x Tj^xia nptaj 15 
n:» niiwjxi iinniixi nnof'x ifixi p fxea .ny ba vis>b npnc^s dv 
nnnio ^ipv Dhavba "is njo nyajx njx nyt p xof'jj^x pi .n"b^x oej^x 
nijoai ixnx^x xnnjx P^x ixnyxf'x 'aba xr'xa anxio yon namni 
nxiijjx D^ixyfix 3;''0j inini xnjo ms tiSx mi fiiw ^iix^x yxnax^xa 
-IK*!) f>j?i Df>ij?n xnaj ninoxo mwa "i^'xi *^v nn^'h i^vJi n^aoxi 20 
Dnan nyac pnxs^x laa^x tv i^xps '^n^K 'o^ii .D^iymiovni-imn 
nawni niaan xoai djh-'JI pv Pi "iin t^ i^'*'' "'J''"' ^^'^^^^ Qi^P i'*"^^^ 
anaSx p i"xh i^xl ■'i'y laxii mpon Dipoi n'tran ite ^e- ion 
D'E'XT 'jjp '11 i"jD min i^xpi ^niD^n iq i^xi iniE' xoa rionpo^x 
'3^ DJinj Dipo n5'3 P D'n^K '" yti'i 'i^ W P '«o ri'yao Dip la-n 25 
Dioa 'JB* xaitfn txo nxoa paj 'jc niaan xoa nnan ijionxo ^1-ly o 

« read nNDJX^JXI, 2 read ^'X^a 1^X1 '^V IXJI. » per- 
haps p-iioiri. 

-irnoba inv^sa nS) insiijN fisr ^h n'pn wipha i'^yi'K niij? '?vo ^nx 
n^ijrNiiKa -ns^s np'pni)X3 nnsi^si niiv xisi n^'- n^j ■'li'K ids^n na^jx 

niii^Ni kjA^ni lonfiNi T-mn^Ni n'iphn.'i nnpn^si dan^x ni> .nn"' sa!? 
niaiiDisNi jJxias^Ni x^nas^xi x»S3;i5Ki xpa^xi i^o^ni ndv^ki 
D''Kii'N nn"i'rs3 ^'?ii6i( niD'' k^ ■'li'K ^rha mi .riinajiiKi rnml^jii 
n^jiaa d'-^ ^■iha nej- ko '^jf -nxp^xi nn^auna nsajjNi nn^Diona 10 
EnyisK t6 ei'3 x^i A''n ah^ sjvi siji in n^ c'? ''& n.'p p v^jn nb':k /b' 

K^l DK*p3 eixr t6 p .Dli'if'S i>3p p "'DIsi'K N^l }S3D^S bp p H^ 

.nnn» x^i siivio k^i ni!5i»3 nSi n^jxia x^i niain i6^ riDina n^ji nippa 
jni) N^i ^i3T n^ ^?i31 iiiD^xa p''N^ji'N voi nv*3i lui'a I33 n^ ^1 p 
-I'j DsniNi>Ni nnxiJ^Ki DsnaxisNi ^ipj?^s nn mir\ jn'p n^i ^itj xfji 15 
Kiii>y po^sy^K ^ip' NO jy '3D 'vn nmst'ihti^ y^io ^6^ nsli't* ' Aiwd 

.1 read jllSD. 2 read mWD. 


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