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BS186 .S43"" ""'"""" """^ 

Authorized edition of tlie Engilsh Bibie 


3 1924 029 268 708 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 





rtniltion: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

C F. CLAY, Manager 

(EuinliurBfl : loo, PRINCES STREET 

aSerlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 

ILeijijis: F. A. BROCKHAUS 

i^tto Boris: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

BominH anH dalmtta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

All rights reserved 











First published 1 884 
Re-issued 19 10 




The following pages comprise in substance a 
reprint of the author's Introduction to the Cambridge 
Paragraph Bible of 1873, with such additions and 
corrections as more recent studies have enabled him 
to make. The original work was the result of seven 
years' continuous labour, and has been generally 
recognized as the only attempt hitherto made to 
construct a critical edition of the Authorized Bible 
of 1611. 

One interesting portion of his previous work, the 
discussion of the Greek text underlying the Author- 
ized Bible and embodied in Appendix E, has been 
virtually re-written, in the hope of attaining a higher 
degree of accuracy than he or others have reached 
aforetime. The author has been blamed for stating 
that Beza, late in life, and through mere forgetfulness. 



asserted a claim to the revision of the Greek text 
which appeared in parallel columns with his Latin 
Version of 1556. Yet it is hard to put any other 
construction on the language of his Preface to his own 
latest edition, dated Calendis Augusti 1598 : 

Annus agitur quadragesimus secundus, Christiana lector, ex 
quo Novi Testament! Latinam interpretationem' emendare sum 
aggressus, Graeco contextu, non modo cum novemdecim vetus- 
tissimis qukm plurimis manuscriptis et multis passim impressis 
codicibus, sed etiam cum Syra interpretatione coUato, et qukm 
optima potui fide ac diligentia, partim cum veterum Grsecorum 
ac Latinorum .patrum scriptis, partim cum recentioribus, tum 
pietate, tum eruditione prsestantissimorum Theologorum versio- 
nibus, et variis enarrationibus comparato. 

Hendon, February, 1884. 



Preliminary explanation ....... 

Section I. History of editions of tlie Authorized Bible, 1611- 

Section II. Its marginal notes and original texts 

Section III. Its use of Italic type ... 

Section IV. Its punctuation ...... 

Section V. Its orthography and grammar . 

Section VI. Parallel references in the margin 

Section VII. Miscellaneous observations 




Appendix A. List of wrong readings of the Bible of 161 1 amend- 
ed in later editions . . . 147 

Appendix B. Variation between the two issues, both bearing the 

dateofi6n ... ..... 203 

Appendix C. List of original readings of the Bible of 161 1 re- 
stored, later alterations being withdrawn . . . .215 

Appendix D. Dr Blayney's Report to the Delegates of the 

Clarendon Press ... . ... 238 

Appendix E. The Greek text adopted in the Bible of i6ri ex- 
amined and arranged . ... 243 

Note on the Synod of Dort . . . 264 

Original Epistle of the Translators to the Reader, with notes 265 

Index of Persons and Subjects ... . 305 



A CRITICAL edition of the Authorized Version of 
the EngHsh Bible, having reference to its internal 
character rather than to its external history, and indicating 
the changes for good or ill introduced into the original text 
of 161 1 by subsequent reprints, would have been executed 
long ago, had this Version been nothing more than the 
greatest and best known of English Classics. And such a 
design has been rendered all the more necessary by the fact 
that a formal revision of the Translation itself is now in 
progress, having been undertaken about fourteen years ago 
under the auspices of the Convocation of the Province of 
Canterbury. If a judgment may be formed from previous 
experience in like cases, the revised and unrevised Versions, 
when the former shall be at length completed, are destined 
to run together a race of generous and friendly rivalry for the 
space of at least one generation, before the elder of the two 
shall be superseded in the affections of not a few devout 
persons, who, in so grave a matter as the daily use of Holy 
Scripture, shall prove slow to adopt changes which yet they 
will not doubt to be made, on the whole, for the better. With 
s. I 

2 Sect. IJ\ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

so sharp a struggle before it, it is only right that the Author- 
ized or King James's Bible should be represented, as far as 
may be, in the precise shape that it would have assumed, if 
its venerable Translators had shewn themselves more exempt 
than they were from the failings incident to human in- 
firmity; or if the same severe accuracy, which is now de- 
manded in carrying so important a volume through the 
press, had been deemed requisite or was at all usual in 
their age. The purpose of the present work is to discuss, 
within as moderate a compass as the subject will permit, 
the principles which have been adopted in editing the 
following pages, the reasons whereon they are grounded, 
and the difficulties which have been encountered in the 
prosecution of an arduous but by no means a wearisome 
task. For the reader's convenience it will be divided into 
seven Sections, the chief, contents of which are here sub- 

Section I. On the history of the text of the Authorized 
Version, from a.d. 1611 down to the present time. 

Section II. On its marginal note's ; and on the original 
texts, both Greek and Hebrew, employed by the Translators. 

Section III. On the use of the Italic type by the 
Translators, and , on the extension of their principles by 
subsequent editors. 

Section IV. On 'the system of punctuation adopted in 
i6ii, and modified in morexecent Bibles. 

Section V. On the orthography, grammatical pecu- 
liarities, and capital letters of the original, as compared 
with modern editions. 

Section VI. On the references to parallel texts of 
Scripture which are set in the margin. 

Section VII. Miscellaneous observations relating to 
the present edition, and general Conclusion. 

To this short treatise is annexed, besides several other 

History of the Text. 

Appendices, a full Catalogue of the places in which the text 
of modern Bibles differs from that of the standard of 1611, 
with the dates at which the variations were severally adopted, 
so far as by diligent care they have been ascertained. 

The Translators' address to the Reader, prefixed to the 
edition of 161 1, is reprinted at the end of this volume. 

Section I. 

On the history of the text of the Authorized Version of the 
English Bible, from a.d. 161 i down to the present time. 

Most readers will be aware that numberless and not 
inconsiderable departures from the original or standard 
edition of the Authorized Translation as pubhshed in 161 1, 
are to be found in the modern Bibles which issue from the 
press by thousands every year. Some of these differences 
must be imputed to oversight and negligence, from which 
no work of man can be entirely free ; but much the greater 
part of them are deliberate changes, introduced silently and 
without authority by men whose very names are often un- 
known. Now, if such alterations had been made invariably 
for the worse, it would have been easy in future editions to 
recall the primitive readings, and utterly to reject the later 
corruptions. This, however, is far from being the case. 
Not a few of these variations, especially those first met with 
in Cambridge folio Bibles dated 1629 and 1638, which 
must have been superintended with much critical care, 
amend manifest faults of the original Translators or editors, 
so that it would be most injudicious to remove them from 
the place they have deservedly held in all our copies for 
the last 250 years \ A full and, it may be hoped, a fairly 

^ On a question of so great made by previous editors of the 
importance as that of retaining Authorized Version, it is safe to 
changes for the better already be fortified by the judgment of so 

4 Sect. /.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

complete list of these changes-is given, in Appendix A at the 
end of this volume, to which the student is referred once 
for all: the attempt therein made to assign the period at 
which they were severally admitted into the text, although 
great pains have been bestowed upon the investigation, 
must be regarded as sometimes only approximately success- 
ful. Other copies, of an earlier date than that cited, may 
occasionally have anticipated it in making the given cor- 
rection ; but these inaccuracies will hardly affect the general 
results, or impair the conclusions to which they lead. One 
class of variations has been advisedly excluded from the 
Catalogue, as seeming rather curious than instrpctive or 
important ; namely, that arising from errors which, having 
crept into editions later than that of 161 r, after holding 
a place in a few or in many subsequent issues, . have long 
since disappeared from the Bibles npw in use. Of this 
kind is. that notorious . misprint in the Cambridge folio of 
1638, once falsely imputed to ecclesiastical bias, "whom ye 
may appoint over this business" ("ye" for "we"; Acts vi. 3; 
a blemish which obstinately maintained its ground, in some 
copies, at least as late as 1682'. The several editions of 

cautious and well-informed a writer only commend the sound judg- 
as Dr Card well: "There is only ment which, after it was generally- 
one case, perhaps, in which it, adopted, di(J not hesitate to retain 
would become the duty of the it" {Oxford Bibles, 1833, p. 2, 
privileged editor to enter into by Edward Cardwell, D.D., Prin- 
questions of criticism, without cipal of S. Alban's Hall, Oxford), 
some express authority to support 1 Hartwell Home, to whose In- 
him. If a given mistake of the traduction all English students of 
Translators had already been cor- the Bible owe more than they can 
reeled before his time, if the public ever duly acknowledge, adds an- 
opinionhad concurred, eitheravow- other instance of less importance 
edly or tacitly, in the change, he (though he does not quite know 
might reasonably hope that the its true history), which shall serve 
general acknowledgment of the as a sufficient specimen of the 
truth would relieve him from the whole class. In i Tim. iv. 16 for 
obligation of returning into error. " the doctrine " of the books from 
I say nothing of the boldness 1611 to 1630, we read " thy doc- 
which first made the alteration ; I trine" in 1629 (Camb.) down to 

History of the Text. 

the Authorized Version which have been used in the 
formation of our Catalogues and in our suggested revision 
of the text are chiefly, though not exclusively, the following, 
(i) The standard or primary one published in 1611, 
"Imprinted at London by Robert Barker, Printer to the 
Kings most Excellent Majestie." Here, however, we are 
met on the threshold of our researches by the -perplexing 
fact that at least two separate issues bear the date of 
that year, yet differ from each other in so many minute 
particulars, that we cannot help raising the question which 
is the earlier or more authoritative, and consequently the 
more suitable to be taken as the model to which subsequent 
reprints ought to be accommodated. On this subject, so 
interesting to students of the English Bible, much information 
has been imparted by Mr Fry of Bristol, whose materials 
will be thankfully used by many tha\^ feel unable to adopt 
his conclusions, and might desire a little more scholarlike 
precision in the method of his investigations'. The two 
chief issues of 161 1 may be respectively represented by 
a folio now in the British Museum (3050. g. 2), and another 
in the same Library (3050. g. i) of which Mr Fry says in a 
manuscript note that "it is every leaf correct, and may be 
taken as a standard copy of this issue." There is yet a third 
class of books, bearing date the same year, containing (some 
more, some less) sheets of six leaves or twelve pages each, or 
occasionally only two or four leaves of a sheet, which appear 
to be reprints of portions of one or the other of the afore- 
named issues, the preliminary matter being made up from 
the folio of 16 1 7 or elsewhere, a circumstance which compli- 

1762. Blayney (1769) restored Bible, i^^^, also of the editions, 

"the," but Home has seen "thy" in large folio, of the Authorized 

in Bibles of the commencement of Version of the Holy Scriptzires, 

the present century. Introduction, Printed in the years 1611, 1613, 

Vol. II. Pt. II. p. 79 note {1834). 1617, 1634, 1640. By Francis 

1 A Description of the Great Fry, F.S.A., folio, London, 1865. 

6 Sect. I.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

cates the question not a little, so that in what we have to say 
it will be advisable to exclude all considerations respecting 
these reprinted portions'. This may be done the better, 
inasmuch as Mr Fry's researches have discovered only six 
such leaves in the Pentateuch, five in the Apocrypha, none 
in the New Testament. These reprints are bound up with 
and form a complete book with portions of each issue in two 
other Bibles in the Museum (1276. 1. 4 and 3050. g. 3) re- 
spectively. The textual differences between the two original 
issues have been diligently collected below in Appendix B, 
from which only very manifest misprints of both books have 
been excluded: by a careful examination of our collation, 
in those portions where there are no known reprints, the 
student can form an independent judgment respecting the 
internal character of each of them. In preparing the 
present volume, a Bible belonging to the Syndics of the 
Cambridge University Press (A. 3. 14, wanting sheet A 
containing the Title-page, Dedication, and part of the 
Translators' Preface) has been substituted for the Museum 
book 3050. g. 2, and for 3050. g. i the Oxford reprint 
of 1833, as being a well-known publication which exactly 
resembles it in all places consulted, and was itself taken 
verbatim, with unusual care for insuring accuracy, from a 
Bible in the Library of the Delegates of the Oxford Uni- 

^ Gen. xlvi. 12 — xlix. 27; Num. — Ixiii. i; Jer. i. 7 — vii. 26; xi. 

xxi. 2 — xxvi. 65; Josh. x. 9 — xi. 12 — xv. 10; xxvi. 18 — Ezek. xiv. 

11; XV. 13 — xvii. 8; Judg. xiv. 22; xvii. 22 — xx. 44; Zech. xiv. 

18— XX. 44; Euth i. 9 — 2 Sam. ix. 9 — Mai. ii. 13; i Esdr. iy. 37 — ^v. 

13; xi. 26 — xiv. 19; XV. 31 — xvii. 26; Ecclus. xvi. 7 — xx. 17; Baruch 

14; xix. 39 — xxii. 49; I Kin. i. iii. i — iv. 28; Song, ver. 20 — Hist. 

17 — xvi. 3; xvii. 20 — xxii. 34; 2 Susanna, ver. 15: in all 244 leaves 

Kin. i. 15 — 2 Chr. xxix. 31; Ezra (but not so many in any one copy), 

Ji. 55 — ^Job xxii. 3 ; xxv. 4 — xxxi. distinguished by the comparison of 

28; xxxiv. 5— xli. 31; Ps. vi. 3 — B. M. 3050. g. 2 vrith 44 other 

Prov. vi. 35 ; ix. 14 — xiv. 28 ; xvii. copies, in respect to initial letters 

3 — Eccles. ii. 26; vi. i — Cant. vii. and minute typographical varia- 

i; Isai. i. i — ^xxxii. 13; xli. 13 tions {.^Jj/, Table 2). 

History of the Text. 

versity Press at that time in actual use. Copies of both 
issues or recensions of 1611 survive in great numbers in 
private as well as in public hands, since, when the Transla- 
tion was completed, every Church had to be furnished with 
at least one without delay. Fifteen copies of that which it 
followed, twelve of the otiier, are enumerated in the Adver- 
tisement which preceded the publication of the Oxford 
reprint (dated Jan. 14, 1834), and Mr Fry has seen at least 
seventy, although he seldom gives us information as to 
where they are severally located \ 

The question which of the two recensions is the earlier 
must be decided partly by external, partly by internal con- 
siderations. The latter will speak for themselves, and it 
may be taken for granted that no one will doubt the great 
superiority on the whole of the text of the Oxford reprint to 
the other, or hesitate to mark in it many designed improve- 
ments and corrections which betray a later hand (Appendix 
B § II.), while the instances in which the Syndics' book is 
superior or not inferior to the other (App. B § i.) are scanty, 
slight, and incapable of suggesting the converse inference ^ 

^ Besides those named above xliv. i<j, where what we call the 

the author has examined (not to first issue treats the final mem as 

mention some in private hands) if it were double; Amos vi. 7, 

resembling Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14, where the second issue corrects 

S. John's Coll. Cambridge (T. 2. the wrong number of the first; 

24); King's College (53); Jesus but i Mace. x. 47 seems conclusive. 

Coll. Cambridge (A. 7. 7 with the where our second issue, deeming 

yato date of 16 1 3 on the title-page , "true peace" too strong a ren- 

of the O. T. ) ; Lambeth Muni- dering of \b-yuiv dp-riviKw, banished 

men't Room : resembling the Ox- " |] True " into the margin. There 

ford reprint, Brit. Mus. (466. i. 6) ; are no reprints in these leaves. 

Sion College Arch. x. 3 ; Cam- It is fair to add two instances in 

bridge University Library (I. ij, App. B which we have found tend- 

16) ; Emmanuel College (B. 1. 23), ing to an opposite conclusion, in the 

and the very fine copy in the Bod- false arrangement of the margins 

leian. of Wisd. iii. 14; Mark vii. 4, 

^ A few instances are as good in the Oxford reprint. But the 

as a thousand, if only they be un- general drift of the internal evi- 

equivocal. We would press Ezek. dence sets strongly the other way. 

8 Sect. /.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

Both contain innumerable errors of the press, some peculiar 
to a single issue', not a few (including nearly all the false 
textual references in the margin, see below Sect, vi.) com- 
mon to both. It is useful to remember one characteristic 
erratum of each, which will enable us to determine at 
a glance to which recension a particular volume m our 
hands belongs. The Syndics' copy and its fellows have 
"Judas" instead of "Jesus" in Matt. xxvi. 36 ; the Oxford 
reprint and its associates read twice over the following words 
(forming three complete lines) in Ex. xiv. 10 "the children of 
Israel lift up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched 
after them, and they were sore afraid: and" the printer's eye 
wandering back from the second "the children of Israel" in 
the verse, to the first °. Yet in spite of this portentous 
blunder, the recension which contains it is decidedly the 
more correct of the two, and irresistibly forces on the mind 
of any one that has minutely studied both, that whether 
we regard emendations of the sense or comparative exemp- 
tion from typographical oversights, it had undergone re- 
vision, fitful and superficial perhaps, but not the less real on 
that account. Hence it seems not quite reasonable, in answer 
to the enquiry "Which of the two issues was first printed?" 
to say with Mr Fry, "I do not think that any evidence 
on this point can be adduced, from the existence of an error 
in one, and the absence of it in another copy" (.4 Description, 
&c. p. 23). Not certainly from noting a single error or from 
noting twenty, for such an argument is cumulative in its 
weight, and can only be appreciated by patient enquirers : 

1 In compiling a list of errata vising for the King's Printer his 

in the Syndics' copy (A. 3. 14) quarto edition of 1806. 

much aid was given by the cor- ^ It deserves notice that this 

rections made in that book by Gil- could easily be done if the type 

bert Buchanan, LL.D., of Wood- were set up fromthe Syndics' copy, 

mansterne, Surrey, in the winter _ where "the children of Israel " be- 

of 181 3— 4, when engaged in re-' gins a line in both parts of the verse. 

History of the Text. 

but if, out of two books substantially the same, one shall 
prove on examination more free than the other from 
mechanical imperfections and printers' errata, and at the 
same time full of small yet unequivocal corrections whether 
of the style or the matter of the performance, we cannot 
doubt that, in the absence of any considerable proof to the 
contrary, the common consent of mankind would pronounce 
that the better executed volume must needs be the later of 
the two. 

And what considerable proof to the contrary has Mr Fry 
been able to allege ? Direct evidence on the subject there 
is none, for never was a great enterprise like the production 
of our Authorized Version carried out with less knowledge 
handed down to posterity of the labourers, their method and 
order of working. There still remains the bibliographical 
branch of this investigation, and it will demand some 
attention. The first point we take up makes little in favour 
of Mr Fry's view of the priority of that issue which the 
Oxford reprint follows with such faithful exactness. All 
copies of the other issue, if they have a title-page at all, 
exhibit a respectable and elaborate woodcut (repeated 
before the New Testament with the necessary change in the 
printed words) that had often done duty before, notably in 
the Bishops' Bible of 1602. It represents the four Evan- 
gehsts with their proper emblems at the top and bottom of 
the cut, the tents and armorial bearings of the twelve tribes 
on the left of the letter-press, the twelve Apostles on the 
right of it, the Paschal Lamb slain on the altar beneath it, 
the Lamb Triumphant under the Incommunicable Name 
surmounting all. But in many copies of the recension to 
which the Oxford reprint belongs the title-page is of a 
totally different character. It is a very elegant copper-plate 
engraving, of whose refined beauty Mr Fry's reproduction on 
stone (Plate 34) gives but a poor idea. Here Moses stands 

10 Sect. Z] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

cornutus on the left of the letter-press title, Aaron on the 
right, the Apostles and Evangelists above and below in 
attitude and form quite different from the conventional 
manner of artists ; above, the Incommunicable Name, 
the Dove, the Lamb Triumphant; below, the Pelican 
and her young; at the foot of this masterpiece the sub- 
scription C. Boel fecit in Richmont, Cornelius Boel of 
Antwerp then working at Richmond in Surrey. Now the 
point to be noted is this. It is admitted by Mr Fry and by 
every one else that in no copy of what he calls the second 
issue is there an engraved title, whereas some copies of his 
first issue have the engraved plate, others the woodcut, a few 
possibly, though not certainly, both, prefixed to the Old Testa^ 
ment. The inference seems a natural one that BoeFs plate 
not being ready when the earUest copies of our Authorized 
Version were published, the old woodcut was made to serve 
in its place for a while, and that those copies of Mr Fry's 
first and our second issue which contain Boel's copper-plate, 
are in all probability the latest of any. If there be any 
more simple solution of the matter, it would be well to 
state it. 

But that which is most dwelt upon by such as would 
invert what internal evidence points out as the true order of 
the two issues rests on facts relating to the reprinted leaves 
which Mr Fry has demonstrated with great pains and inge- 
nuity. Out of 25 copies of his first issue which he examined, 
23 were leaf for leaf alike, agreeing entirely with each other : 
in one copy two leaves, in another six, were of the rival 
issue. Forty-five copies of this latter issue were then 
collated, of which the large number of 41 were found 
to vary from each other in some of the reprinted leaves 
supplied (see p. 6 note), and only two pairs were entirely 
identical. "I have now shewn" he proceeds to sum up 
"from the actual comparison of a very large number of the 

History of the Text. 1 1 

Bibles of 1611, as many as seventy, that one issue is 
unmixed (with the exception of eight leaves in two copies 
out of 25 examined), and that the other issue is made up in 
a very remarkable manner, not only with reprints, but that 
it is often mixed with the other issue, with the preliminary 
leaves of 1613, 1617, and 1634. Is not this conclusive 
evidence that the Bibles No. i and No. 2 before alluded to ' 
are respectively of the ist issue and of the 2nd issue°?" 
{Description, &c. p. 25.) Certainly not, if we understand 
what is meant by coticlusive evidence. The facts established 
by Mr Fry (and we can confirm many of them from our own 
experience) are sufficient to raise a strong presumption that 
not very many copies of the earliest printed issue were bound 
up at once and sent out to Parish Churches, for which 
reservation their shameful inaccuracy will abundantly ac- 
count. After the great and immediate demand was satisfied 
by that better edition which the Oxford reprint exhibits, 
and after the Translators were dispersed and had ceased to 

^ As usual, Mr Fry does not leaves supplied at the end of the 

indicate what and where are the Syndics' copy of his own book, 

copies he used. He only says just and from comparing various parts 

before, "I placed my two best of Brit. Mus. 3050. g. i and g. 2, 

copies side by side, the one with quite an opposite conclusion might 

the error of three lines in Ex. xiv. be drawn : but if the difference 

10, the No. I copy..., and the were ever so great, it would only 

other with the verse correctly prove that the lines were repaired 

printed, No. 2 copy... (p. 22), " for a new issue. It is even doubt- 

which is vague enough. He tries ful, on close inspection, whether 

also to make something of " the the same lines were used for both, 

obvious difference in the condition ^ " Because those Bibles which 

of the rules with which the black were printed and bound up before 

lines [inclosing the letter-press] are the 2nd Issue was printed (and 

printed. In No. i they are straight no doubt there were such) could 

and generally true at the corners ; have leaves of no other Issue or 

in the 2nd Issue they are not so edition inserted" (p. 22). This 

true, and are more open, shewing consideration he calls " almost ab- 

the effect of use" (p. 25). The solute proof" of his opinion. It 

difference will not appear so con- shews, of course, that his theory 

spicuous to every one who inspects is self-consistent, but nothing more, 
these early Bibles ; from the original 

12 Sect I.'] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

have any control over their work, the printer seems to have 
gradually put forth the unused sheets that had been first 
struck off and deliberately laid aside, supplemented by re- 
printed leaves and other portions of later books. 

"Why these 244 leaves were required to be printed a 
second time we can only conjecture" {ibid. p. 24). In truth 
the. difficulty presses equally upon every possible hypothesis 
that can be maintained. Almost the only real informa- 
tion available which bears even remotely on the matter 
is Dr Anthony Walker's Life of John Bois' [1560 — 1643], 
who was a member first of the fourth, afterwards of the 
second Company. Of him we are told 

" Four years he spent in this service'^, at the end thereof (the whole 
worlc being finished, and three copies of the whole Bible being sent to 
London, one from Cambridge, a second from Oxford, and a third from 
Westminster), a new choice was to be made of six in all, two out of 
each company, to review the whole work, and extract one out of all 
the three, to be committed to the press. For the despatch of this 
business Mr Downes^ and he, out of the Cambridge company^, were 

1 Harleian MS. 7053, printed seventy-two days and more," about 

also in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, two years and nine months, as 

Vol. ir. Book VIII. 1732. The Canon Westcott notes [General 

Harleian manuscript is written by Vierw of History of English Bible, 

the hand which records a list of p. 154), which The Translator 

Degrees conferred by George II. to the Reader speaks of. Else- 

at Cambridge, April 25, 1728: where Anthony Walker says of 

Peck derived his materials from Bois's labours, "Five years were 

one of the Baker papers, which spent in the Translation, which 

John Lewis also cited in 1739. makes no noise, because it carries 

The two manuscript authorities no name" (Peck, «Wj-«^«a;, p. 53). 

are independent, each preserving ^ " Though iMr Downes would 

passages not found in the other. not go, till he was either fetcht 

Both contain incidentalstatements, or threatened with a Pursuivant." 

hitherto unnoticed, which might Walker in Peck. The Harleian 

lead to the supposition that the copy does not mention this story, 

different Translators took to them- so characteristic of the times, 

.selves separate books (Harl. pp. ^ So that " two out of each com- 

104, 105), as was really the case pany," mentioned just before, must 

with the Bishops' Bible. mean two' out of each place ; and 

2 So that we need not take lite- the final Committee consisted of 

rally the " twice seven times six persons, not of twelve, as was 

History of the Text. 


sent for up to London, where meeting their four fellow-labourers, they 
went daily to Stationers' Hall, and in three quarters of a year fulfilled 
their task. Whilst they were employed in this last business, he, and 
he only, took notes of their proceedings, which he diligently kept to 
his dying day." 

Could these notes be recovered', they would solve, not 
only the problem discussed by Mr Fry, but many other 
questions of great interest. If Dr Walker can be trusted, it 
would seem that every part of each Company's task had in 
some fashion been revised by each of the rest, a statement 
which neither the time employed, nor the results obtained, 
render very likely (see Sect. vii.). At all events it is clear, 
unless we reject his evidence altogether, that the printing, 
so far as the Translators superintended it at all, must have 
been begun and ended within the short period of nine 
months, which seems wholly inadequate for the accomplish- 
ing of all they had in hand^ 

stated at the Synod of Dort (1618). 
Compare, however, Anderson, An- 
nals of the English Bible (1845), 
Vol. II. pp. 381 — 2, and my friend 
Dr John Eadie's noble and almost 
posthumous English Bible, Vol. 11. 
p. 201. Bp Miles Smith, the au- 
t hior of the Preface, and Bp Bilson 
of Winchester, "whose name does 
not appear among the revisers, 
superintended the work at press." 
See below p. 264. 

^ Harl. 7053 contains John 
Bois's will dated the year he died 
(1643), wherein he bequeaths his 
books and papers, on which he set 
great store, to his daughter, Anne 
Bois, "to her best use and com- 
modity," and requests his curate, 
John Killingworth, to be "aiding 
and helpful in the disposing " of 
the same. They were no doubt 
sold, and may yet be found in 
some private collection. 

^ A ray of fresh light has been 
thrown upon the history of the 

version by a letter referred to, so 
far as we know, for the first time 
by Mr J. H. Blunt, Anno/a/ed Bible, 
Introduction, p. xliv. notei (1878). 
The volume which contains it, the 
gift to the Bodleian (Rawlinson, 
C. 849) of Archbishop Ussher's 
grandson, James Tyrrell, consists 
of large abstracts of learned books 
in the Primate's cramped hand- 
writing, one sheet being written, 
after the poet Pope's fashion, on 
the back of the letter in question, 
which has thus been preserved 
for our use. The writer, WilUam 
Eyre, Eyers, or Ayers (the name 
being spelt each way), as the cour- 
tesy of Dr Luard, the University 
Registrary, enables me to know, 
was Fellow of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, B.A. 1595 — 6, M.A. 
1599, B.D. 1606, and afterwards 
Prebendary ofEly. Its chief purpose 
is civilly to decline a proposal made 
to him by Ussher, then Chancellor 
of S. Patrick's Cathedral, to accept 

14 Sect. I.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

Although we have not been able to resist the pressure of 
the internal evidence which assures us that the issue repre- 
sented by Synd. A. 3. 14 is the earlier of the two, yet 
the influence of our error (if any shall still judge it to be an 
error) upon the text of the present volume, as given in our 
Appendices A — C, is infinitesimally small. It is strictly 
confined within the limits indicated in Appendix B, § i, the 
great majority of which variations are either purely indif- 
ferent, or would have been received on their own merits, 
without reference to the prior claims of the copy that con- 
tains them. 

Respecting Appendix C, wherein are registered the joint 
readings of the two issues of 16 11 which in later times have 
been displaced but ought now to be restored, not a few of 
them are quite insignificant in themselves, but are re-esta- 
blished as a matter of right, and as a kind of protest against 

a Fellowship at the infant College 
in Dublin. Dating from Emmanuel 
College Dec. 5, 1608 "W. Eyre" 
writes as follows : "Sr It pleased 
God to bring us in safety to Cam- 
bridge before the last day of No- 
vember... In my absence there was 
an order taken from the King's 
Majestic by the Arch B of Cantuar 
that the translation of the Bible 
shall be finished and printed as 
soon as may be, but two of the 
entire company are chosen to re- 
vise and conform (sic) the whole 
at London. Hereupon I am ear- 
nestly requested to get again that 
copy of our part which I lent you 
for D [?] Daniel his use, for albeit 
there be two fair written copies 
cut of it ; yet there will be use of 
it because I noted in the margent 
by rashe tevoth (jJV) of the places 
which were doubted of. And tliis 
)VV p'lX [i.e. it wants conside- 
ration. Cf. Zanolini, Lex. Chald.- 
Rabbin. Patavii, 1747. Rashe 

tevoth seems to mean head marks'] 
is not in the others. Wherefore 
I am to request you so soon as 
you can after my letters come 
to your hands to send that copy 
forthwith by some that may 
either deliver it to myself, or send 
me word where I may gain it." 
The D [or G?] Daniel to whose 
judgment the revision had been 
submitted must have been William 
Daniel, Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin, 1593, translator into Irish 
of the N.T. (1602), and of the 
book of Common Prayer (1608), 
Archbishop of Tuam 1609 — 28. 
The name of Eyre is not in the 
list of translators, yet we see that 
the work of the Cambridge Com- 
pany was subjected to his criticism, 
and by him imparted to others. 
The "two of the entire company" 
who were to finish the work in 
London, leaves that point just as 
ambiguous as ever. See above, 
p. 12 note 4. 

History of the Text. i S 

the unnecessary, the almost wanton changes, in which certain 
editors of the Bible have been pleased to indulge. Examples 
of this kind will be seen in Judg. xix. 29; i Sam. xx. 5; 
2 Sam. vii. 7 marg.; i Kin. xv. 27; xvi. 19; 2 Kin. viii. 19; 
Isai. vi. 8; Hos. xiii. 3; i Esdr. viii. 75; 2 Esdr. xv. 22; 
2 Mace. viii. 33; Luke xix. 13 marg.^ 

We now proceed to describe the principal editions of the 
Authorized Bible which have appeared since 16 11, especially 
those which seem to have been prepared with some degree 
of care, or have largely influenced the text of succeeding 

(2) The Holy Bible of 161 2, copies of which are in 
the British Museum (1276. b. 6) and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge (A. 8. 5 1), is beautifully printed in a small clear 
Roman type in octavo, the woodcut of the first issue of 
16 1 1 (above, p. 9) being reproduced in a reduced size. 
On examining the collation we have made of this the 
earliest reprint of the Authorized Version (Appendices A, 
B, C below), it may be considered to depart but seldom 
from the issue represented by the Oxford reprint, except 
to correct some grave mistake (e.g. Mark vii. 4 marg.). In 
such a case it is usually followed by the edition of 1616, 
also printed in Roman type, but rarely influences the black- 
letter Bibles of 16 1 3 or 16 17. In i Kin. iii. 4; i Esdr. 
viii. 39; Rev. xx. 13 marg. this edition stands alone. The 

1 Students should be aware that sometimes the text follows our 

the representation given of the first issue, as in Matt. xiii. 4, 31, 

New Testament of 1611 in Bag- 45; xviii. 30; xxii. 24; Mark xv. 

star's Hexapla, 1841 cannot be 46; Acts iv. 27; xvi. 7, 19; xxi. 

implicitly relied upon. There are 2; xxv. i; Rom. vi. 21; x. 21; 

two issues of that book, with two xi. 22; Eph. vi. 21; i Thess. i. 9; 

several Introductions, and the James v. 4 ; 2 Pet. ii. 6 : sometimes 

stereotyped plates bear marks of that which Mr Fry counts the 

alterations in what seems the later earliest, as in Luke ii. 24; x. 36; 

(Matt. xiii. 45). Thus, for exam- John xiv. 23; Acts vi. 12; xv. 11; 

pie, in John viii. 4 "said" suits i Pet. i. 22. In Rom. x. 19 " will I 

neither form of the Bible of 161 1 : anger"Bagsterseemstostandalone. 

i6 Sect. /.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

following are examples of improvements brought into it, 
which immediate successors have overlooked : Ps. xcix. 2 ; 
2 Esdr. ii. 7 marg.; Judith xvi. 24; i Mace. v. 9; Matt. 
V. 22; Acts xiii. 19; I Cor. vii. 32; 2 Cor. v. 20. We 
reject the grammatical corrections in Dan. v. 31; John 
xi. 18 marg. 

(3) The Holy Bible of 16 13 is the more generally known 
from a collation of the smaller black-letter folio copy of it 
at the University Press at Oxford with the Oxford reprint 
of the book of 1611, annexed to that very useful publication' 
This book is readily distinguished from both issues of 161 1, 
inasmuch as it contains 72 lines of smaller type in a column, 
to tfieir 59^. It is plain that no formal revision of the text, 
italics, or margin, was attempted thus early. Out of the 412 
variations which the Oxford collation records, just 70 arise 
from the following of the Syndics' copy (A. 3. 14) in pre- 
ference to the other issue, but this includes corrections of 
some 20 evident misprints of the Oxford reprint issue. In 
about four places (Ezra iii. 5; Ezek. xxiv. 7; i Mace. iv. 29; 
2 Thess. ii. 15) we find manifest improvements on the" 
standard editions: in Dan. ix. 12 the reading of the Hebrew 
margin or keri is adopted ("word") against the other books: 

1 We have used for our own "fleshy" Oxon. In Josh. xii. 11; 

purpose a copy in the Syndics' 2 Sam. xvii. 25 ;Neh. xi. r4?«a?-^.; 

Library, Cambridge (A. 3. 13). Jt Esdr. v. 20 war^. ; Judith iii. 5 

To the variations recorded in the — ^vii. 16 (Olofernes), Proper names 

Oxford reprint we have been able are differently spelt, but the Ox- 

to add in passing Ruth iii. 15 "she ford collation does not profess to 

went" Synd. (A. 3. 14), 1613, but include these, 

"he went" Oxon.; Ps. Ixxviii. 60 ^ A few copies of what we t&- 

marg. "i Sam." Sjmd. (a reprint), gard as the first issue of 161 1 are 

161 3, " r King." Oxon. ; Jer. xl. said to bear on the Old Testament 

1 "llchains" 1613, "Hcaptaine" title-page, but not on the New, a 
Oxon.; Ezek. xvi. 16 "Of thy genuine date of 1613: that being 
garments" 1613, "And of thy no doubt the year they were bound 
garments" Oxon. ; Wisd. ix. 15 up. There was at that time no 
"earthly" 1613, "earthy" Oxon.; inducement to antedate falsely, but 

2 Cor. iii. 3 "fleshly" lOii, rather the contrary. 

History of the Text. 17 

nearly all the other variations arise from the glaring mis- 
prints of this handsome but inaccurate volume. Such are 
the omissions of clauses by reason of their having the 
same beginning or ending as those immediately preceding 
(i Kin. iii. 15; Matt. xiii. 8j xvi. 11; John xx. 25), and of two 
whole verses, Ecclus. xvi. 13, 14) as also the putting "de- 
lighted" for "defiled" Ezek. xxiiL.y, the omission of "thou" 
in Mark ix. 24, the leaving out of "not" in 2 Tim. iv. 16, 
and other errors almost as gross-. That this book was set 
up from our first issue appears likely, as well from many 
other resemblances to be seen in Appendix B, as from the 
printer's mistaking "y'" in that book for "the" in Acts 
xxi. 38. The other issue has "that Egyptian" in full'. 

The next two books were used at Tregothnan (R. 4 
and R. 7), by the kind permission of their owner. Viscount 

(4) The Holy Bible in small folio Roman type 16 16, 
with the Prayer Book and Genealogies, Map, &c. prefixed, 
the metrical Psalms with musical notes (dated 1612) and 
Private Prayers at the end, with their first leaf lost. This 
seems a somewhat rare book, not particularly intended for 
Church reading, is beautifully printed, and in a very perfect 
state. It appears to be the first edition of the Authorized 
Version which was submitted to any considerable revision. 
Its value will be seen from the study of Appendices A and 
B, and it should be remarked all along, that improvements 
brought in from time to time in Bibles of the Roman type 
seem to have had very slight influence with the printers of 
the black-letter books of 1617, 1634, 1640, who continued 
to set the press from one or the other of the issues of 161 1, 
almost regardless of subsequent changes for the better. 

^ Other copies, by no means there, and Brit. Mus. 469. g. 10, 

rare, are from S. Luke's Chapel, with Boel's frontispiece, and an 

in the Precinct, Norwicli (bought inserted title page of 161 r. 
1618), now in the Chapter Library 

i8 Sect. Z] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

Some of the corrections of 16 16 were received into the 
great foKo of 16 17, but the following, among others, were 
overlooked; Gen. xxii. 7; 2 Sam. xxiii. 20; i Kin. xx. 3; 
I Chr. i. 5, 47; vii. 13; xxvi. 5; xxvii. 33; 2 Chr. xi. 20; 
XXX. 6; xxxii. 20; Neh. viii. 10; Eccles. vii. 26; Cant. v. 12; 
Jer. XXXV. 13; Tobit iv. 12; Ecclus. li. 12; i Mace. viii. 8; 
ix. 35; xi. 34, 56; XV. 23; Matt. xvi. 19; Mark xiv. 32; 
Luke xxiii. 19; Acts iv. 17; xxvii. 18; Rom. vi. 12; vii. 1-3; 
xvi. 10. Dr Corrie, Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, 
has a rare 8vo. in Roman type, dated 1619. 

(5) The Holy Bible, large folio, black letter, 161 7, a 
much more pretentious but less valuable edition'. As its 
leaves have got much mixed with those of the other folios, 
especially of our first issue of 1611, it is proper to apply 
Mr Fry's tests before using any copy {A Description, fee- 
plates 46, 47), so far as for critical purposes it is worth 
using at all. The large paper copies may be expected to 
be pure for obvious reasons. The Tregothnan book does 
not answer Fry's tests in three leaves up to Ps. xxii^ Among 
its few original corrections are Mai. iv. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19. 
The Bible of 1617, like thjtt of 1612, usually abides by the 
issue of 16 1 1 represented by our Synd. A. 3. 14, while that 
of 1616 follows the Oxford reprint standard, even in such 
obvious errors as Hos. vi. -5. 

The public demand must have been satisfied with these 
several editions, especially of the large size, which were 
published so near each other. Some years elapsed before 
the appearance of oiher chief Bibles, whereof three several 
pairs can most conveniently be discussed according to their 

^ Other copies are numerous: (T. 6, 26); Caius Coll. (H. o. 26). 

e.g. Brit. Mus. (1272 h. 4) and = jhey are Xx 3 (Neh. vii. ir 

(3052. b.); a copy given by "Tho- — viii. 9), which is taken from our 

masHobson.Carrierof Cambridge, first issue; Zz (Job i. 17 — iv. 16), 

to Benet Parish," Trin. Coll. Cam- and Ccc 2 (Ps. xix. 2— xxii. 31), 

bridge (A. 12. 34), large paper, whence derived Mr Fry's list fails 

very fine ; S. John's Coll. Camb. to shew. 

History of the Text. 19 

relation to each other, rather than in the chronological 
order, — the two of 1629, those of 1630, 1634, 1638, 1640. 

(6) The Holy Bible, small quarto, 1629 "Imprinted 
at London by Bonham Norton and John Bill Printers to 
the King's most excellent Majestic." Also in folio with the 
same readings and the same setting up. Dr Newth tells me 
of one copy at New College, Hampstead; another is pos- 
sessed by the Rev. W. L. Manley, Vicar of Treleigh, Redruth. 

(7) The Holy Bible, also small quarto, 1630 "Im- 
printed at London by Robert Barker, Printer to the King's 
most Excellent Majestic: and by the Assignes oi John Bill." 

These two books are of the same size, have the same 
title-page, though different tail-pieces at the end of the 
Prophets, correspond with each other 'page for page, line 
for line, with the closest exactness, even to the peculiar 
shape of the letters used in the sartie places (compare, 
however, Num. xxii. 31; Ezek. xx. 37 marg.; Dan. viii. 18 
marg.), so that the type from which the two were printed off 
was, at least in my opinion, set up but once. The volume 
of 1629, however, is printed on much worse paper, and does 
not contain the Apocrypha', although APO- still remains, 
as in its fellow, below the tail-piece at the end of Malachi. 
At the end are the metrical Psalms with musical notes, and 
the date of 1630. It would never be suspected, prior to 
actual trial, that the text in these two books is not absolutely 
identical. Yet an inspection of Appendices A, B, C will 
shew that this is not the case: e.g. Gen. xlvi. 12; xlvii. 18; 
Lev. xviii. 30; xxv. 5 marg.; Num. v. 20; i Kin. xviii. 28; 

1 Thus early began the practice said, " The Apocrypha is bound 

of leaving out the Apocrypha, al- with the Bibles of all churches that 

though it had been forbidden by have been hitherto. Why should 

Archbishop Abbot in 1615 on pain we leave it out?" [Table Talk, p. 

of a year's imprisonment (C. R. 10). The copies used by me are 

Rivington, Records of Stationers' also in the Syndics' Library, A. 5, 

Company, p. 21). It was harden- 22 and 25. 
ing into fixed habit when Selden 

20 Sect. /] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

XX. 3; I Chr. i. 38; vii. 27; xxiv. 11; 2 Chr. xxvi. 18; 
Esther viii. 5 marg. (devised 1630, for the device); Ps. xxiv. 
10; Jer. xl. i; Ezek. i. 2; xvi. 59; xxxvi. 2; Dan. v. 4 
(dranke 1629, drunke 1630 after 1611); Rom. x. 21; xvi. 10; 
2 Cor. vii. 'i (y&& are 1629, you are 1630 after 1611); ix. 4 
(haply 1629, happily 1630 after 161 1); Gal. i. 6 (removen 
1629)) Eph. vi. 21, 24; I Thess. i. 9; i Pet. v. 12. Instances 
such as these help to justify Mr Fry's assertion, which to an 
inexperienced reader might appear some what .unlikely, "The 
absence of a particular error in one copy, is no proof that 
it is of a different edition from the one with the error ; for 
I have . observed many errors in one copy corrected in 
another of the same edition, in other Bibles than those here 
described" {A Description, &c. p. 23), meaning those of 
1611 and their near contemporaries. The Bible of 1630 
has some readings that seem peculiar to itself, e. g. i Mace. 
X. 20 "require of thee"; xii. ^ZM- "them" for "men." 

Thus far the. reprinting of the. Authorized Version had 
been entirely in the hands of the King's Printers. They 
had made changes in the text, slight indeed and far from 
numerous, yet enough to shew that they doubted not their 
competency to make more if they had taken the trouble. 
The italic type and textual references in the margin they 
left untouched, with, all the obvious . faults of both uncor- 
rected, only that occasionally a false quotation was set right. 
The next stage in the history of our Translation is more 
interesting, and the Cambridge University printers, Thomas 
and John Buck iii 1629, Thomas Buck and Roger Daniel 
in 1638, published two important folios which have largely 
(and on the whole beneficially) iAfluenced our Bibles to this 

(8) and (9)*. The first Cambridge editions of the Holy 

^ These editions are not at all pf 1629, Camb. University Li- 
rare. We have used for the one brary, I. 14. 12; for that of 1638, 

History of the Text. 2 1 

Bible shall be considered together, inasmuch as that of 1629, 
which is the ' smaller of the two, and has the Prayer Book 
prefixed to it, and the metrical Psalms with musical notes 
bound up at the end, inaugurated that course of systematic 
revision of the text, of the italics, and of the margin, which 
nine years afterwards was more fully and consistently carried 
out. It is not a little remarkable, that the subject of the 
internal character of our English Bible, as distinct from its 
external history, had excited so little attention for the space 
of two centuries, that the high merit of these books has 
been understood only within the last forty. years. "For this 
beautiful edition," Lea Wilson writes most truly of the elder 
of the two, "the text appears to have undergone a complete 
revision, although I can find no record of such having been 
done by authority" {List of Bibles, &c. 4to. 1845). "So far 
as I can judge" says Bp. Turton of its compeer of 1638 
"the edition was carefully superintended" {Text of the 
English Bible considered, 2nd edition, 1833, p. 35). As he 
becomes better acquainted with it, his language grows more 
decided, as well it might: "A revision of the text of 16 11... 
it is now certain, was carried into effect, from the beginning 
of the Volume to the end, at Cambridge, in 1638" (p. 126). 
"The revision indeed was a work of great labour" (p. 91), 
but he always speaks of it as commenced and carried out in 
the. same volume. What Turton did not know, but only 
regarded as possible, that it might "hereafter appear that an 
earlier revision had taken place" {ibid.), is a fact that no 
one will doubt as regards the text who shall examine the 
contents of our subjoined Appendices. The task seems to 
have been executed between the two sets of editors in no 
unequal shares. What the one party left undone, by reason 
of haste or human oversight, the others in a good measure 

Syndics' Library, A. 3. 8. Tlie page of the New Testament, 
date of the latter is on the title 

22 Sect. Z] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

supplied, by inserting words or clauses, especially in the Old 
Testament, overlooked by the editors of 1611 j by amending 
manifest errors; by rendering the italic notation at once 
more self-consistent, and more agreeable to the design of 
the original Translators (see below, Sect. iii.). What per- 
sons were concerned in the edition of 1629, as Lea Wilson 
notices, we are wholly ignorant, but if similarity of plan and 
spirit afford us any ground for conjecture, one at least of 
them must have had a share with others in preparing the 
subsequent book of 1638, and these latter, as we learn from 
a manuscript note in the Jesus College copy, in the hand- 
writing of Richard Sterne, Master of the College, and Vice- 
Chancellor that selfsame year, were Dr Goad of Hadley, Dr 
Ward (see below, p. 264), Mr Boyse', and Mr Mead': men 
whose obscure diligence in a grave and delicate work was 
doubtless rewarded with honour more excellent than fame 
can give or take away^. 

With this pair of editions began the habit of adding to 
the parallel textual references in the margin: the Bible of 
1638 admits also one or two fresh marginal notes (i Mace, 
iv. 15; ix. 36). We have seldom to hesitate about the pro- 
priety of receiving their emendations of the text (see Ap- 
pendix C, 2 Sam. xvi. 8j Ps. cxix. 42 marg.), as in the case 

^ Doubtless meaning John Bois careless printers." 
or Boys, spoken of above (p. 12, ^ Kilburne calls the book of 

&c.), and the illustrious Joseph 1638 " the Authentic corrected 

Mede (d. 1638) from whose Works Cambridge Bible, revised Man- 

(p. 767) Dean Burgon supplies the data Regio" whatever that may 

follovring curious extract : ' ' Com- mean (Dangerous Errors in several 

pare Acts ix. 7 (where it is said, lale Printed Bibles to the <n-eat 

They heard Paufs voice,) viith Acts scandal and corruption of toicnd 

xxii.p (whereitissaid, 7%y/4m?-a' and true religion. Discovered by 

not the voice of Mm that spake un- Win. Kilburne, Gent., 8vo., Fins- 

to him) and take heed here of bury, 1659, p. 6). His little 

some of our English Bibles, which pamphlet of 15 pages produced a 

have put in a {not] where it should great effect, and is full of weighty 

not bB, as they have done the like matter. A copy is in the British 

in other places. Fie upon such Museum (1214 a. 9). 

History of iJie Text. 23 

of some of their successors : their corrections command our 
assent by their simple truth. One of the changes introduced 
in 1638 it would have been better to have finally adopted, 
"and the truth" with the Greek in John xiv. 6. The "and" 
held its place beyond Blayney's revision of 1769, but has 
disappeared in Bibles from D'Oyly and Mant (1817) down- 
wards. The following errata have been noticed in these 
two admirable books, most of which blemishes have been 
perpetuated to modern times. 

1629. 2 Chr. ix. II marg.; Jer. xxxiv. 16; Ezek. xxxi. 14; Ecclus. 
xvii. 24; 2 Mace. ix. 18 (see Appendix C for all these); Judith i. 6 
("Hydaspe:'' so also 1638 [not 1744], 1762, 1769, all modems down 
to our model [below, p. 38], which restores "Hydaspes" of 1611); 
Baruch vi. 8 ("gold," all the editions just named, with 1744 added: 
here again our model restores "silver" of 1611); 2 Cor. viii. 7 ("in 
utterance," repeated in 1638, 1699, "in utterance" 1762: but 1743, 
1769 and the moderns restored "and utterance" of 161 1); i Tim. iv. 16 
(see p. 4, note). Notice also that this edition has misled every sub- 
sequent one by placing the reference to Ps. xxii. 6 in Job xxv. 6 over 
against the first "worm" instead of the second. 

1638. Neh. xii. 3 marg. (see Appendix A) ; Ezek. xviii. i ; Hos. 
xiii. 3 (see for these Appendix C) ; Acts vi. 3 (see p. 4) ; Rev. ii. 20 
("Jezabel," the Greek form, followed by 1699, 1743: but "Jezebel" 
was restored in 1762). 

In the matter of the italic type, to which much attention 
is paid in these two Bibles, one or other of them has led 
later copies wrong in the following places : 

2 Sam. xxiv. 12 do it (1629), corrected in the American (1S67) only; 
Isai. V. 9 marg. This is (1638); 25 were torn (1638) ; xxxviii. 11 from 
the thrumme (1638); Jer. xxv. 18 and the princes (1638); Ezek. xl. 4 
art thou brought (1629); Zech. vi. 3 and bay (1638); i Esdr. viii. 58 
is a vow (1639); Matt. xv. i) for doctrines 1638, for doctrines 1762, 
&c. ; Eph. V. 26 cleanse it (1629). All these are merely uncorrected 

' Professor Grote (MS. p. 36) 1637, in Trinity College Library, 
speaks of a small 410., Cambridge, "which has none of the additions 

24 Sect. /] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

The next pair comprises the black letter folios of the 
King's Printer, dated (10) 1634 [B. M. 1276 1. 5. 1—2] and 
(11) 1640 [B. M. 1276 1. 7]. The former is much mixed 
with later issues of the books of 16 11 and 16 17, and maybe 
discriminated by the use of Mr Fry's elaborate tests {A 
J)escription, &c. Plates 46, 47). The latter is at once de- 
tected by its use of Roman letters instead of italics in the 
marginal notes, nor does the type run quite line for line 
•with the earlier folios. Speaking generally, these books 
contain none of the improvements found in the two Cam- 
bridge editions, although a few changes for the better may 
be met with- here and there. Thus the edition of 1634 
anticipates the emendations of 1638 in i Chr. i. 20; John 
vii. 16 (see Appendix A) : in Hagg. i. 12 it reads "Joshuah," 
in Rev. xxi. 20 "sardonyx." In Ecclus. xxxv. 18; xlix. 4; 
Acts iv. 17; vii. ID (see Appendix A) that of 1640, but not 
the other, adopts the readings of 1629. A fuller examina- 
tion would no doubt make known a few more instances, 
equally insignificant. 

The volume of 1640 proved to be the last of the Bibles 
of its class, the Great Rebellion leaving men neither incli- 
nation nor means for costly undertakings of this nature. 
"You may well remember," writes Wilham Kilburne (see 
above, p. 22, note 2) in 1659, to the honourable and elect 
Christians whom he addresses, "the zeal and care of the late 
Bishops (especially of reverend and learned Doctor Usher) 
was such, that for the omission in one impression of the 

of Buck, 16158." From the sped- script notes of Professor Grote, 
men Bp. Lightfoot gives of its from which we shall hereafter 
reading in i Cor. xii. ^8 [On a make several extracts, though 
Fresh Revision, &c. p. 12Q, note), scarcely in a state suitable for 
it does appear to contain the publication in full, were obliging- 
changes or improvements of Cam- ly placed at my disposal by his 
bridge, 1639. Such is the case representatives, and throw much 
also in Gen. xxxix. i ; Deut. xxvi. light on the internal history of the 
I ; Job iv. 6. The valuable manu- printing of the Authorized Bible, 

History of the Text. 25 

Negative word [not] in the seventh Commandment, the 
Printer was fined ;!£'2ooo or ^£3000 in the late King's time, 
as I have heard', which happened long before the late wars 
began: in which time, through the absence of the King's 
Printers, and cessation of Bible-printing at London, many 
erroneous English Bibles were printed in and imported from 
Holland^; which being diligently compared by the late As- 
sembly of Divines were reported to the Parliament in 1643 
to be corrupt and dangerous to Religion " {Dangerous 
Errors, &c. p. 5 ^). This importation indeed was expressly 
prohibited by statute, without much good eff'ect; "More- 
over, during the time of the late Parliament great numbers 
of Bibles in a large 12° volume were imported from Holland 
in 1656 with this false title (Imprinted at London by Robert 
Barker, Anno 163 8)... being contrary to the several Acts of 
Parliament of 20° Sept. 1649 and 7 Janu. 1652 for regulating 
of Printing" {jbid. p. 12). Kilburne furnishes a really painful 

^ This notorious book, refeixed 5, folio, or 3052 b. 22, 8°. 

toby Addison (.S/frfa/o;-, No. 579), ^ While on the table before them 
was published by the King's Prin- was lying unopened a Bible 

ters, Robert Barker and Martin Ponderous, bound in leather, brass- 
Lucas, in 1632 : the real fine was studded, printed in Holland. 
;^300, to be expended on a fount Longfellow, jl/j7ej Standish, iv. 

of fair Greek type. It was inflicted But the Dutch counterfeit of 

by Archbishop Laud (whom even Field's edition, 24°, 1658 (B. M. 

on the eve of the Restoration Kil- 3051 a. 7) is clearer and (I think) 

burne does not care to name) in more correct than Field's own (B. 

the High Commission Court. The M. 1159 b. 12).' 
impression was of course called in, '^ This statement is confirmed 

but a single copy is said to survive by Whitelocke [Memorials, p. 89, 

in the Library at Wolfenbuttel. 1732): "1644, By advice of the 

Mr J. H. Blunt [Annotated Bible, Assembly of Divines, an erroneous 

Introduction, p. Ivii. , note) finds print of the English Bible at Am- 

the same error in a German Bible sterdam sent over hither, was sup- 

of about 1731. Mr Stevens (^</;i?- pressed by order of Parliament." 

nceum., June 20, 1874) speaks of si- So again (p. 167) "Aug. 19, 1645. 

milar copies dated 1632, possessed Ordered that no foreign impres- 

by Mr Lenox of New York and sions of English Bibles be vended 

by the British Museum. I do not here, without perusal of the 

find this error in B. M. 1276 k. Assembly." 

26 Sect. /.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

list of the inaccuracies of these foreign Bibles ("thirty grand 
faults in part of Genesis, a hundred in Isai. i — xxvii."), but 
shews plainly that the privileged printers, Henry Hills and 
John Field, were scarcely a whit more careful. They had, 
in truth, to pay for their privilege a bribe of ^^500 per annum 
to certain men in power, "whose names, out of respect to 
them, I forbear to mention" (ibid. p. 14), and reimbursed 
themselves for that shameful outlay by taking no measures 
for the due correction of the press. In their Bibles of 1653, 
1655 (two editions), 1656 (two editions), and 1657 (reputed 
to be the worst of all), Kilburne computes that he dis- 
covered twenty thousand faults, some (which he parti- 
cularises) being intolerably gross. On the other hand, he 
praises several editions in 8vo. and i2mo. issued "by Autho- 
rity of Parliament" in 1646, 1648, i65i,&c., by Wm. Bentley 
of Finsbury, based upon the Cambridge folio of 1638. 

Of the Bibles published during the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, that of Hills and Field, small 8vo. London, 
1660, is remarkable for certain additions to the original 
marginal notes of 1611, subsequently improved upon in a 
Cambridge quarto of 1682—3 (see Sect. 11.) bearing the 
name of John Hayes, the University Printer, who had pre- 
viously put forth a well-known edition in 1677. The later 
of Hayes's two contains a great number of fresh textual refer- 
ences, the reputed work of Dr Anthony Scattergood, and 
mostly taken from his Bible, also published at Cambridge in 
1678. But the most celebrated edition of the period was 
that undertaken on the motion of Archbishop Tenison, and 
at the alleged request of Convocation in 1699, by the 
eminently learned William Lloyd [1627 — 17 17], successively 
Bishop of S. Asaph and of Worcester, under whose superin- 
tendence appeared 

(12) The Holy Bible, large folio, 3 vol. "London, 
Printed by Charles Bill and the Executrix of TAotnas 

History of the Text. 27 

Newcomb deceased, Printers to the King's most excellent 
Majesty, 1701." 

This splendid but somewhat cumbersome book is the 
.first that contains the marginal dates (see Sect, vii.), and 
sundry marginal annotations, of doubtful merit, discussing 
chronological difficulties and imparting other information 
(Sect. II.). Annexed are Bp. Cumberland's Tables of Scrip- 
ture measures, weights, and coins (first published in 1685), 
Tables of Kindred, Time, and Offices and Conditions of 
men. The textual references also are increased, but not 
very materially, and in respect to punctuation many paren- 
theses were restored, which had been gradually removed 
from the text (see Sect. iv.). On the whole, this hasty 
labour added little to the fame of the veteran Lloyd, and in 
1703 the Lower House of Convocation made a formal 
Representation to the Upper respecting the many errors it 
contains'. Except in regard to the dates, no principal 
edition so little influenced succeeding Bibles as this, not- 
withstanding the high auspices under which it came forth. 

It was doubtless through the care of Archbishop Wake 

(who, though himself not a very powerful writer, had the 

spirit of a true scholar) that persons from whom so little 

could be expected as George I. and his great minister, were 

induced to issue four salutary Rules, dated April 24, 

1724, to the King's Printers^, with a view to the more 

^ Our authority for this state- year are incomplete. Those for 

ment must be Lewis {Complete 1703 (the year then ending on 

History of Translations of the March 24) are all preserved, and in 

Bible, 2nd ed. 17391 p. 350), in- a. long list of Gravamina, brought 

asmuch as on searching the to the Upper House on Feb. 11, 

Records of the Proceedings of one article declares " That in some 

both Houses of Convocation, now late editions of the Holy Bible, 

deposited in the Archiepiscopal and of the Liturgy of the Church 

Library at Lambeth, I can find no of England, several gross errors 

trace of synodical action about a have been committed. " If this be 

new edition of the Bible either in all, Levi^is seems to have made too 

the Registers or in the Schedules much of what actually occurred, 

for 1699, which, however, for that ^ Lewis {ubi sup-a, p. 351). 

28 Sect. I.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

effectual removal of misprints from their copies of the Au- 
thorized Version. One of these rules strikes at what was 
beyond question the root of the mischief in the evil days of 
Hills and Field, and prescribes that those employed on so 
grave a work should receive competent salaries for their 
pains and skill. In the middle of the eighteenth century 
the Bibles of the Basketts, at once the King's and Oxford 
University Printers, earned a fair name both for the beauty 
of their typography and their comparative freedom from mis- 
prints. Their quarto of 1756 is particularly commended, 
and will supply the student with a knowledge of the exact 
state of our Bibles just before the commencement of the 
kindred labours of Paris and Blayney, which yet remain to 
be described. In preparing the present work we have used 
another of their editions, in substance almost identical with 
that of 1756. 

(13 a.) The Holy Bible, quarto, with "above two hun- 
dred historys curiously engraved by J. Cole from designs of 
the best masters," "Oxford, Printed by Thomas Baskett zxA 
Robert Baskett Printers to the University 1744" (Old Testa- 
ment). For the New Testament: "London, Printed by 
Thomas Baskett and Robert Baskett, Printers to the King's 
most excellent Majesty 1743." 

(13 b.) The Holy Bible, quarto, London, "Printed by 
Thomas Baskett, Printer to the King's more excellent Ma- 
jesty, and by the Assigns of Robert Baskett," 1756 (B. M. 
464 b. 3). 

We now come to the last two considerable efforts to im- 
prove and correct our ordinary editions of Holy Scripture, 
made in 1762 by Dr Paris, Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and still commemorated in the list of the Benefactors 
of the College, and by Dr Blayney, whose labours were 
published in 1769, both anonymously. The latter, however, 
has left a very interesting account of his work and the prin- 

History of the Text. 29 

ciples upon which it was executed in a brief Report to the 
Vice-Chancellor and Delegates of the Clarendon Press, re- 
printed below (p. 238) as Appendix D, and well deserving of 
attentive perusal. Dr Paris's riame is not mentioned therein 
in such terms as might have been expected from the liberal 
use made of his materials by his successor: in fact his book 
is almost unknown even to Biblical students, although it has 
contributed more than that which appeared but seven years 
later towards bringing the text, the marginal annotations, 
the italics, and the textual references of modern Bibles into 
their actual condition. The truth is that Paris's edition had 
no real circulation, partly because it was so soon superseded 
by Blayney's, chiefly by reason of a large portion of the 
impression having been destroyed by fire in Dod's the 
publisher's warehouse'. 

(14) The Holy Bible, folio and quarto, 2 vol. Cam- 
bridge, "Printed by Joseph Bentham, Printer to the Univer^ 
sity. Sold by Benjamin Dod, Bookseller... London, 1762." 

(15) The Holy Bible, quarto and folio^ 2 vol. Oxford, 
"Printed by T. Wright ax^A W. Gill, Printers to the Uni- 
versity: 1769." With Prayer Book prefixed. 

It will be seen when we come to discuss the italic type 
(Sect. III.) that the use of it was considerably extended in 
these two Bibles, notably in the later one, by a more full 
carrying out of the system of the Translators than they 

1 " Only six copies were pre- leian, but not in that in the British 
served from a fire at the printers," Museum (1276 1. 9), the Apocry- 
MS. note in the British Museum pha is bound up so as to follow, 
folio copy. But more than six in not precede, the New Testament, 
quarto undoubtedly sui-vive, as may and the signatures to the sheets 
appear from the Catalogues of va- suggest this unusual arrangement, 
rious booksellers. The statement Those in the Old Testament end 
may be true of the large paper or with 7 T, those in the New Testa- 
folio issue. We have used Camb. ment begin on the fifth page with 
Synd. A. 4. 3^ 3° for 1762; A. 4. 7 X, whereas the signatures in the 
16 for 1769. Apocrypha extend afresh from A 

2 In the folio copy in the Bod- to O, 

3b Sect. Z] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

would probably have sanctioned themselves. The marginal 
annotations also, which had been growing in some Bibles 
since 1660 but were excluded from others (see Sect. 11.), 
were finally received into the place they have occupied ever 
since, sundry new ones being added, the great majority in 
1762. Bp. Lloyd's dates and chronological notes were also 
received and added to at the same time, and the two edi- 
tions contributed largely, in about equal proportions, to 
swell the catalogue of textual references to parallel passages 
of Scripture. An inspection of our Appendices A and C 
will shew how far each of them helped to amend or corrupt 
the Translators' text, and it cannot be doubted that these 
two editors are the great modernizers of the diction of the 
version, from what it was left in the seventeenth century, 
to the state wherein it appears in modern Bibles. Much of 
the labour described in Sect. v. has been rendered necessary 
for the undoing of their tasteless and inconsistent meddling 
with archaic words and grammatical forms. On the whole, 
Dr Paris, who has been kept so utterly out of sight, per- 
formed his task with more diligence,. exactness, and mode- 
ration than his Oxford successor. Yet, much as they left 
undone or did amiss, their editions of the Bible are monu- 
ments of genuine industry and pious zeal, all the more con- 
spicuous in an age when shallow superciliousness was too 
often made a substitute for generous criticism and scholar-- 
like precision : they might either of them have cheered the 
heart of worthy Archbishop Seeker, on whose suggestion 
Blayney's labours are believed to have been undertaken. In 
point of typographical correctness, as is already well known, 
the quarto (and to a slightly less extent the scarce folio') of 
1769 are conspicuously deficient: on one page of the Apo- 
crypha there are no less than three typographical errors 

' Here again, as in the case of at the printers or publishers de- 
the folio edition of Dr Paris, a fire stroyed most of the copies. 

History of the Text. 3 1 

(Esth. xi. 2 "Nison;" 8 "upon earth," "the" being omitted; 
xii. 6 "the eunuchs," "two" being omitted), so that the 
commonly estimated number of 116 such errata would seem 
below the truth. In Rev. xviii. 22 occurs an omission of a 
whole clause, for the same cause as was spoken of in regard 
to the Bible of 1613 (above, p. 17): "And no craftsman, of 
whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee\" 
Some of Blayney's needless changes are in Ps. cxv. 3 ; cxli. 9 ; 
2 Pet. i. 9 (see Appendix C) ; certain of a better character 
occur in Prov. vi. 19 (see App. A); Ecclus. xxix. 17 "[in 
danger]" for "in [danger]" of 161 1, &c. ; 2 Cor. iii. 3 
"fleshy" of 1611 restored, for "fleshly," which had held its 
ground since 16 13. On the other hand, in Ezek. xxiii. 4 
(his own margin) His tent should have been Her tent. In 
regard to italics, whereof at times he is somewhat lavish, he 
rightly prints in Ps. xiii. 3 "the j/i?^ (j/" death," instead of 
"the sleep of death," as from 161 1 downwards; in i John iii. 
16 "of God" is italicised for the first time: his oversights in 
this matter will be noticed hereafter (p. 34). In the Bible 
of 1762 also the following errors should be noted: 2 Kin. x. 
31 "for" instead of "for" of 1611 — 1744; xxv. 4 "oiwar 
fled" for "oi wax fled" of 1611 — 1744; Ps. Ixix. 12 "I was" 
for "/ was'' 1611 — 1744. The second and grossest is 
amended in the American Bible 1867, otherwise they 
remain untouched to this day. 

The following list of errors which we have incidentally 
detected in Dr Paris's edition of 1762 deserves the more 
notice, because they are nearly all repeated by Blayney, as 
we have indicated by adding the date 1769 within marks of 
parenthesis. They occur oftenest in the marginal annota- 
tions added in this pair of Bibles, and can be best accounted 

1 Three complete lines, as above (as has been stated) in the latter 
p. 8. The omission occurs both only, 
in the folio and in the quarto, riot 

32 Sect. /.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

for by supposing that Blayney's sheets were set up by Paris's, 
used as copy. 

Ex. xxvi. 24 marg. and xxxvi. 29 marg. twined. See Appendix B 
(1769); Num. xxvi. 13 (marg. of 1762) Zobar (1769); Deut. x. 2 
brakedst (1769); Josh. xvii. 2 (marg. of 1762) yezer (1769); Judg. iii. 
15 marg. Gemini (1769); xviii. 7 (marg. of 1^62) Leshen (Jieshem 1769)' 
I Sam. xvi. 6 (marg. of 1762) 13, called Eliku. (13. Called Elihu, 
1769); 2 Sam. vi. 2 (marg. of 1762) Baalab (1769); 2 Kin. xvi. 7 
(marg. of 1762) Tilgath-pileser (1769); i Chr. i. 51 (marg. of 1762) 
Avak (Alvah 1769) ; iii. 8 marg. Becliada {Beeliada 1769); Ps. cxxxv. 
5 "our Lord" of 1611-^1630 restored instead "our Lord" of 1629 
Camb., 1638, 1744, (1769, but moderns from Oxf. 1835 have "our 
Lord"); Prov. xxxi. 14 merchant (merchants 1769: see Appendix A); 
Jer. xl. I the word that (1769); xliv. 28 marg.; or them (1769); Ezek. 
xiii. 9 marg. council (1769); Dan. ix. 24 (marg. of 1762) Axtaxerxes (not 
1769); 27 mm-g. See Appendix A; Nahum iii. 16 fleeth (1769); Hab. 
iii. 19, see Appendix A (1769); i Esdr. ix. 22 marg. jfosadad [I'jtg); 
Baruch i. i Cliecias (1769, D'Oyly and Mant 1817, Oxf. 1835); ii. 16 
thine holy (1769, &c.); 2 Mace. iv. 41 next in hand (1769, &c.); Acts 
vii. 28 "killedst" for "diddest, " a designed but needless correction, 
rejected by 1769, &c., as also is "things strangled," Acts xxi. 25, a cor- 
rection of the same class. Blayney also refuses Paris's "he ye warned 
and be ^/^ filled," James ii. 16 ("be you warned and filled", 1611 — 1743), 
though he wrongly italicises the first "ye," which he retains. In Gal. 
ii. 6 1762 recalls from the Bible of 1683 the reading "those who," which 
had been afterwards neglected for the inferior reading of 1611, "these 
who" {Grote MS. p. 133). Paris was followed by Blayney and others 
up to a very recent period (Bagster 1846, American 1867). Our 
model (Camb. 1858) falls back upon "these who," which we would 
not disturb. 

Some Other emendations of Dr Paris are a little too bold 
(e.g. Ps. cvii. 19, see App. C below, p. 223), and one at least 
of his marginal notes is very questionable (Acts vii. 45). His 
punctuation is often good : he was the first to substitute a 
full stop and a moderate space for the colon of 1611, &c., 
at the great break in Zech. xi. 7 "And I took unto me two 
staves." For a specimen of his successor's merits in this 
respect see Sect. iv. (2 Cor. v. 2). 

History of the Text. 33 

It is now necessary to subjoin an incomplete, yet over- 
long list of the errors other than bare misprints which have 
met us in habitually consulting Blayney's quarto of 1769. 
We must not suppress the notice of faults, some of which 
have led his successors grievously wrong, through the vain 
fear of detracting from the honour of a learned and diligent 
student of Holy Writ. All accuracy is only comparative, as 
every true scholar knows well; and if we be at a loss to 
account for the unusual number of his oversights, we may 
fairly impute much to the comparatively short time — be- 
tween three and four years — spent by him in accomplishing, 
or at least in attempting, the burdensome task which his 
Report A&icrHo&'s, (Appendix D,, below p. 238). The reader 
will refer to our Appendices A and C for further details. 

Ex. vi. 21 ; Josh. xix. 2, 19; 2 Sam. xxiii. 37; i Kin. xv. 2 (marg. 
of 1769) Michaia; i Chr. ii. 47; vii. r (an error revived); 2 Chr. iv. 
12 (the second "the top of" omitted^): Job xli. 6 (see Appendix C) : 
Ps. xviii. 47 "unto" for "under'';" xxiv. 3 ; Ix. 4 "feared" for 
"fear";'' Ixxviii. 66 "part" for "parts":" so a Scotch edition (Cold- 
stream) as late as 1845; cxlviii. 8; Prov. xxv. 24; Ezek. v. 6, the 
comma placed before "and my statutes" in 1629 is removed, for want 
of looking at the Hebrew; Hab. iii. 13 (an error revived) "+by dis- 
covering" for "by t discovering;" i. Esdr. iv. 29; v. 15 marg.; 20 
"Ammidoi" for "Ammidioi^;" vii. 9 "service" for "services^;" viii. 
56 "sixty" for "fifty^" 2 Esdr..i. 15 "to you" for "for you^;" 38 
"come" for "cometh^;" iv. 2t "upon, the heavens" for "above the 
heavens^;" v. 15 "upon" for "up upon^;" 27 "of people" for "of 
peoples';" Judith ii. 20; Esther xiv. I4"help"fdr "helper^;" Wisd. 
vii. 25 marg. ; Ecclus. xvii. 5 comma removed after "seventh^;" xxvii. 

^ Report from the Select Com- 1845 under the direction of Bp. 
of the House of Commons on Turton. See below, p. 36. 

the Queen^ s Printers'' Patent, i%i;<j, ' These errata, after holding 

Mr Child's Evidence, 1859, p. 28; their place in the text of D'Oyly 

a blue-book full of most interest- and Mant (1817), Oxford 1835, 

ing information on the vfhole sub- and other Bibles, are amended in 

ject of modern Bibles. our model for the Apocrypha, 

2 These frrato held their ground Camb. 4to. 1863. See below, p. 

until they were corrected before 38. 

34 Sect. I.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

13 <'in" omitted before "the wantonness^ ; " xlv. 8 marg.; Hist, of 
Susanna, ver. 37 "was there" for "there was^;" Bel and Dragon, ver. 
3 "was spent" for "were spent^;" ver. 6 "a living God" for "a living 
god" (1611—1762), as all in ver. 24 after 1744; i Mace. ix. 68; x. 31; 
"of Jerusalem" for "at Jerusalem^;" John xi. 34; Rom. vii. 20 "Now 
if do;" xi. 23 om. "still" (thus many later Bibles, but not our model, 
Camb. 1858: see below, p. 38); i Cor. iv. 13 "the earth" for "the 
world;" 2 Cor. vii. 16 "con- 1 dence" for "confidence;" xii. 2 "about" 
for "above," repeated in later Bibles up to Bagster, 1846: but the 
American and our model restore " above ;" this change seems intentional. 
I Tim. iv. lo " the saviour ; " Rev. vii. 6, see Appendix A; Rev. xviii. 22 
(seep. 31). 

In regard to the use of italic type Blayney's edition is 
very careless, although he had evidently taken some pains 
about the subject. Some of his errors are : 

DeUt. viii. 17 "mine hand;" xv. 20 "eat it ;" I Kin. xvii. 24 "and 
that" for "and thai;" i Chr, xviii. 16 "was" 1611— 1762, but "was" 
1769; 2 Chr. XX. 34 "is mentioned;" xxiv. 26 "these are they" foi; 
"these are they" (1762); Ps. viii. 4 "What is man" for "What is 
man"of 1611 — 1762; xvii. 6 "fear my speech;" xlix. 7 "his brother" 
for f'/^j> brother" of 161 1 — 1762; Ixxv. i "is near" for "w near" of 
1611 — 1762; ver. 5 "with a stiff neck;" Prov. ix. 8 "wise man" and 
Isai. xxix. 8 "thirsty man," against his own practice, although 1638 — 
1762 italicise "man;" Eccles. viii. 11 "sentence against," but "sen- 
tence against" 1611 — 1762; Isai. xxxvi. 3 "which was" for "which 
was'' 1611 — 1762, as even 1769 in ver. 22; Jer. xxxiii. 12 "which is 
desolate" (after Camb, 1629), "which is desolate" 1611 — 1630, "which 
is desolate" 1638 — 1762; xxxvi. 19 "ye be" for "ye fe" i6ir — 1762; 
Ezek> X. I "that was above" for "that was above" 161 1 — 1762 ; Dan. 
viii. 3 [bis), 6, 20 "two horns," though the noun is dual; Hab. i. 10 
"shall be a scorn" for "shall be a scorn" 1611 — 1762; Hagg. ii. 19 
"Is the seed" for "Is the seed" 1611—1762; Judith xiii. 14 "(I say)" 
i6ii — 1762, which is the method employed in the Apocrypha for indi- 
cating what is omitted in the Greek, he regards as parenthetical, and 
accordingly the marks ( ) are removed in 1769; Matt. xxii. 10 "high- 
ways" for "highv/&ys" [odovs) of 1638— 1763; Luke xiv. 4 "let him 
go" for "let him go" of 1638— 1762; Rom. iii. 14 "is full" {y4/iei); 
I Cor. iii. 23 "ye are Christ's" for "ye are Christ's" of 1638— 1762; 
Gal. V. 10 "his judgment" for "/^ir judgment" of 1611 — 1762. 
^ Refer back to p. 33, note 3. 

History of the Text. 3 5 

Out of this whole list of blunders in regard to the italic 
type, some of them being very palpable, the American Bible 
of 1867 corrects those in Ps. xvii. 6; Ixxv. 5, Professor 
Scholefield (whose care on this point will be noticed again, 
Sect. III., p. 79, note i) the last two. Blayney is followed 
in the rest by the whole flock of moderns, without inquiry 
and without suspicion. 

For many years which followed the publication of the 
edition of 1769, even after its glaring imperfections had be- 
come in some measure known, the King's Printer and the 
two English Universities continued to reproduce what was 
in substance Dr Blayney's work, when the public attention 
was claimed in 1831 by Mr Curtis of Islington, who com- 
plained that all modern reprints of Holy Scripture departed 
widely from the original edition of 161 1, to the great dete- 
rioration of our Vernacular Translation'. It is needless to 
revive the controversy that ensued, in which the case of the 
privileged presses was successfully lilaintained by Dr Card- 
well in behalf of Oxford, by Dr Tdrten foi: Cambridge, in 
the pamphlets which haVe been already cited in this Section. 
The consequent publication of the standard text in the 
Oxford reprint of 1833, which we have found sO useful, 
virtually settled the whole debate, by shewing to the general 
reader the obvious impossibility of returning td the Bible of 
161 1, with all the defects which those who superintended 
the press had been engaged, for more than two centuries, 
in reducing to a riiore consistent and presentable shape. 
One result of the communication at that time entered upon 
between the Delegates of the Oxford and the Syndics of the 
Cambridge Presses was a letter written by Dr Cardwell 
to Dr Turton in 1839 respecting a more exact accordance 

^ The Existing Monopoly an &c. By Thomas Curtis, London, 
inadequate protection oftheAutho- 1833, 8vo. 
rized Version of the Scripture, &c., 


36 Sect. Ii\ Authorized Version of the Bible (161 1). 

between editions of the Authorized Version as published by 
the two Universities. These learned men were instructed 
to confer together on the subject, although it is not easy to 
point out any actual result of their consultation. The only 
papers at Cambridge at all bearing on the subject have 
been placed at my disposal, but they amount to very little, 
though it is to them that I am indebted, when in the 
Appendices or elsewhere I speak of an alteration as having 
been made by the direction of Bp. Turton' 

The revision of the Canonical Scriptures projected (1847 
— 1 851) by the American Bible Society was a more ambitious 
enterprise, which until lately has hardly been heard of in 
England^. A Committee of seven, on which we recognize 
the hon,o.ured name of Edward Robinson, engaging as their 
collato,];, James W. McLane, a Presbyterian minister in the 
state of New. York, superintended his comparison of a 
?tap,dard American Bible with recent copies published in 
London, Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh, as also with 
the book of 161 1. Where the four modem British volumes 
proved uniform, the new revision was conformed to them, 
or, in matters of punctuation, to any three united. Other 
rules drawn up for McLane's guidance shew laudable care 
on the part of the Committee, who felt and confessed that 
some restraint (even though a light one) was peculiarly 

'^ It would be ungrateful not to far back as 1831. 

notice tlie minute and unpretending ' ^ The only detailed account 

diligence of those who prepared which has reached England is 

■" Iter's editions of the Holy given in a scarce Tract in the 

Bible. We have consulted the Library of the British and Foreign 

miniature quarto of 1 846, wherein Bible Society (U. 4. 23): Report 

we found anticipated many a small on the History and Recent Col- 

discovery we had supposed to be lation of the English Version of the 

original. The instances cited in Bible: presented by the Committee 

Appendix A will explain what we of Versions to the Board of Mana- 

mean. The revision seems due in gers of the American Bible Society, 

the main to Wm. Greenfield, and adopted. May 1, i&ii, pp. ^1, 

F. A.S., of the British and Foreign [New York] 1851. 
Bible Society, although he died as 

History of the Text. 37 

needed by their citizens, since " the exposure to variations 
is naturally greater, wherever the printing of the Bible is at 
the option of every one who chooses to undertake it, without 
restriction and without supervision ; as in this country since 
the Revolution " {Report, p. 8). To this task the good men 
devoted themselves for three years and a half, and finally 
presented their Report and revision to the Board of Managers 
which had appointed them. Ibi omnis effusus labor: 
adopted at first, the work was rejected the very next year 
(1852) by a majority of the same body, "on the ground of 
alleged want of constitutional authority, and popular dis- 
satisfaction with a number of the changes made'." Some 
small fruits, however, of their faithful toil remain in the 
editions of the Bible published by the American Bible 
Society since i860, to which reference is frequently made in 
the course of the present treatise and its Appendices ^ It 
is not easy to persuade ourselves that very much has been 
lost by the failure of the praiseworthy effort just described, 
The plan of operation was not sufficiently thorough to pro- 
duce any considerable results. Between the five recent 
Bibles that were collated the differences would be slight and 
superficial, but when the standard of 16 11 came to be taken 
into account, it is very credible that the recorded variations, 
solely in the text and punctuation, amounted to 24,000 
{Report, p. 31). No attempt seems to have been made to 
bridge over the wide gulf between the first issues of the 
Authorized version and those of modern times by the use 
of such intermediate editions as have been examined in the 
present Section ; nor does the general tone of their Report 
encourage the belief that the previous studies of the revisers 
had lain in that direction. Hence followed of necessity, or 

^ Philip Schaff, D.D. Revision ^ The edition we have used is 

of the English Version, &c. New the beautiful Diamond Ref. 24mo. 
York, 1873, p. xxxi. note. of 1867. 

38 &<^. Z] Authorized Version of the Bible (16 11). 

at any rate in practice, so complete a postponement of 
Bibles of the seventeenth century to those of the nineteenth, 
that wheresoever the latter agreed together, their very worst 
faults, whether relating to the text or to the italic type (and 
more especially to the italics), were almost sure to escape 
detection, and nev?r did coii>e to the knowledge of the 
Committee, save by some happy accident. 

It remains to state that the model or standard copy 
adopted for th^ purposes of- the present work is the 
Cambridge 8vo edition, small pica (with marginal references) 
1858. This standard may be. pronounced to be accurately 
printed, inasmuch as close and repeated examination has 
enabled .us to npte ojily the following errata in the text or 

I Chr, iv. 24 (margin of 1762) Zoar for Zohar; 2 Chr. i. 4 Kiriath; 
Ezra i-. 7. his god (presjimably by accident, yet it looks true : compare in 
Hebrew 1 Kin. xix. 37; Dan. i. 2); Esther i. 7 gave them; Job xy. 35 
mischief; xxi. 26 worm; Ps. xxxi. 7 adversity; xlv. 11 thy lord; Hos. 
ii. I Ru-hamah; Jonah i. 4 was tlike (see Appendix C); Luke iv. 7 
marg.fall down (so Camb. nonpareil, 1857). 

Since this Bible of 1858 does not contain the Apocrypha, 
a Cambridge 4to. 1863 has been adopted for the model of 
that portion of our work. Besides correcting the mistakes 
of Blayney and his successors in the passages indicated in 
PP- 33i 34 and notes, this book alone (so far as we know) 
has the following changes for the better : 

I Esdr. V. 5 marg. "Or," set before " J oacim ;" 2 Esdr. vi. 49 
inarg. "Or," set before " Behernoth ; " Ecclus. iv. 16 "generations" 
for "generation" of 1611, &c. For Tobit iv. 10; Judith i. 6; 2 Mace. 
ix. 18, see Appendix C. 

This book contains also the following errata : 

I Esdr. v. 72 and Judith iv. 7 "straight" for "strait;" i Esdr. vi. 

22 "our Lord" for "our lord;" viii. 32 marg. " Shechanaiah" for 

" Shechaniah ;" ix. 4 "bear" for "bare;" 16 marg. Porosh for Parosh; 

X Esdr. vii. 17 "shall" for "should;" Judith x. 8 and xiu. 5; Ecclus. 

History of the Text. 39 

xxxvii. 16; 1 Mace. xiv. 5 " enterprizes : " but "enterprises" in i Mace, 
i''- 55 ; Judith xvi. 11 ||witli "these," instead of with tlie first "they;" 
Wisd. i. 6 "a witness" for "witness;" v. 23 "deaIings"for "dealing;" 
vi. ir "affections" for "affection;" xiii. 11 "||a carpenter" for "a 
llcarpenter ; " Ecclus. iii. 27 "sorrow" for "sorrows;" xlvi. 7 "mur- 
murings " for " murmuring ; " Song, ver. 5 "upon us" (second); i Mace, 
iv. 20 "hosts" for "host;" 34 "above" for "about;" vii. 45 "l|Then 
they" for "Then|| they;" a. 54 "son-in-law" for "son inlaw:" Comp. 
Tobit X. 12 andch.xi. 2; xiv.27 "hight priest;" ver. 32 "the || valiant" 
for " II the valiant ;" 2 Macc.i. 23 "priest" for the second "priests;" xiii. 
23 marg. "||Or, rebelled'' over against ver. 24; ibid, "entreated" for 
"intreated" (as six times before) ; xiv. 25 " Hand " for " and||. " 

The Epistle of "The Translators to the Reader','' which 
follows the Dedication in all principal editions of the 
Authorized Version, has been illustrated in this volume by 
such notes as seemed necessary. The reputed author of 
this noble Preface (for, in spite of the quaintness of its style 
and the old fashion of its learning, it deserves no meaner 
epithet) is Dr Miles Smith of the first Oxford Company, 
who would naturally be one of the six final revisers (p. 1 2 
note 4), and became Bishop of Gloucester in 16 12. The 
Calendar and Tables of Lessons usually annexed to this 
Preface are no more a part of the Version than the Book of 
Common Prayer and the metrical Psalms which are some- 
times placed at the beginning and end of the Bible. The 
Genealogical charts, accompanied with a Map of Canaan 
and its Index, the work of John Speed, were issued 
separately in various sizes, that they might be bound up 
with the Bibles, without any option of the purchaser. 
Mr Fry prints i^A Description^ &c. p. 40) a patent granting 
to him this privilege dated in the eighth year of James I., 
to hold good "only during the term of ten years next 
ensuing," at an additional charge of not more than two 
shillings for the large folio size. 

^ See p. 265. 

40 Sect. II.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

Section II. 

On the marginal notes and the original texts of the Authorized 
Version of the English Bible. 

Besides those references to parallel texts of Scripture 
which will be spoken of elsewhere (Section vi.), the margin 
of most of our English Bibles, including the Authorized 
Version, contains certain brief annotations, the extent and 
character of which will now be described. The practice 
was begun by Tyndale, in whose earliest New Testament of 
1525, the poor fragments of whose single known copy enrich 
the Grenville Library in the British Museum, notes rather 
expository than relating to interpretation are extant in the 
margin. In some places, and yet more in his version of the 
Pentateuch (1530 and subsequent years), these notes be- 
come strongly polemical, and breathe a spirit which the 
warmest admirers of their author find it easier to excuse 
than to commend. In Coverdale's Bible (1535), which was 
put forth in hot haste to seize a fleeting opportunity, only 
five out of the eighteen notes found in the New Testament 
are explanatory, the rest having reference to the, proper 
rendering : in the earlier pages of his Bible they occur much 
more frequently. Annotations of this kind are quite a 
distinctive feature as well of the Geneva New Testament of 
1557, as of the Geneva Bible of 1560; and, mingled with 
others which are purely interpretative, are strewn somewhat 
unequally over the pages of the Bishops' Bible (1568, 1572). 
One of the most judicious of the Instructions to the Trans- 
lators laid down for their guidance by King James I., and 
acted upon by them with strict fidelity, prescribed that "No 
marginal notes at all be affixed, but only for the explanation 
of the Hebrew or Greek words, which cannot, without some 

Margiriar notes and original texts. 41 

circumlocution, so briefly and fitly be expressed in the text." 
It had by that time grown intolerable, that on the self-same 
page with the text of Holy Scripture, should stand some 
bitter pithy comment, conceived in a temper the very re- 
verse of that which befits men who profess to love God in 

In the Old Testament the marginal notes in our standard 
Bibles of 1611 amount to 6637, whereof 4111 express the 
more literal meaning of the original Hebrew or Chaldee 
(there are 77 referring to the latter language): 2156 give 
alternative renderings (indicated by the word "||0r'' prefixed 
to them) which in the opinion of the Translators are not 
very less probable than those in the text: in 63 the meaning 
of Proper Names is stated for the benefit of the unlearned 
(e.g. Gen. xi. 9; xvi. 11): in 240 (whereof 108 occur in the 
first Book of Chronicles) necessary information is given by 
way of harmonizing the text with other passages of Scripture, 
especially in regard to the orthography of Hebrew names 
(e.g. Gen. xi. 16, 20, 24): while the remaining 67 refer to 
various readings of the original, in 31 of which the marginal 
variation (technically called Keri) of the Masoretic revisers 
of the Hebrew is set in competition with the reading in 
the text (Chetiv). Of this last kind of marginal notes a list 
is subjoined, as many of them are not readily distinguish- 
able from the alternative renderings, being mostly, like them, 
preceded by "||0r". They are 

Deut. xxviii. 12. Josh. viii. 12 {Xeri in marg.); xv. 53 (ICeri in 
marg.). i Sam. vi. 18 (QX for 73X, with the Targum and Septuagint) ; 
xxvii. 8 (Keri in text). 2 Sam. xiii. 37 (Xeri in text) ; xiv. 22 (Keri in 
marg.). i Kin. xxii. 48 (JUriin text). 2 Kin. v. 12 [Keri in marg.); 
XX. 4 (Keri in text) ; xxiii. 33 [Keri in text), i Chr. i. 6; 7. 2 Chr. i. 
5. Ezra ii. 33; 46 {Keri in text); viii. 14 (Keri in marg.); a. 40'. 

'■ Strangely enough, this is the various readings, noticed by Bp. 
earliest marginal note relating to Turton in his Text of the English 

42 Sect. II.'] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

Neh. iil. 20 {Keri in marg.). Job vi. 11 {Keri in text); xxxiii. 28 
(twice as Keri in text). Ps. ix. 12 [Keri in text) ; x. 12 {Keri in text) ; 
xxiv. 6 (marg. with the Septuagint, Syriac, and Latin Vulgate) ; Ixiv. 6 ; 
Ixviii. 30; u. 3 (Keri in marg.); cii. 3; cxlvii. 19 {Keri in marg.). 
Prov. xvii. 27 {Kerii-a text); xx. 30 {Keri in marg.); xxi. 29 (/s'«?-2 in 
marg.); xxiv. 19; xxvi. 17. Cant. v. 4. Isai.x. 13 (jTct-z inmarg.?); 
xiii. 22 ; xviii. 2; xxx. 32 {Keri in marg.); xK. 24; xlix. 5 (^«-j in 
marg.) ; Ixiii. 11 (marg. with Aquila and the Vulgate) ; Ixv. 4 {Keri in 
text). Jer. ii. 20 {Kerii-a text); iii. 9 (text with the Septuagint); vii. 18 
and xliv. 17 (HDX^P? for n52'??> apparently from conjecture); xvi. 7; 
xviii. 4; xxiii. 31 (probably a conjectural reading, p^n for pH?) ; xxxiii. 
3; xlix. I and 3 (marg. with the Septuagint); 1. 9 (K' text, E' marg.); 
26 (? text, 7 marg.); Ii. 59 (marg. nj!?lD? napa SeSeWou, Septuagint). 
Ezek. vii. 11; xxiii. 42 {Keri'va marg.); xxv. 7 {Keri\a text); xxx. 18 
("E' text, "b' marg.); xxxvi. 14 (7,tJ'3 Chetiv in marg., ^DC in text, but 
Keri is quite different, viz. I^B'); ver. 23 (marg. with the Masora, 
Septuagint, and some Hebrew manuscripts, against the commonly 
printed text) ; xl. 40; xlii. 9 {Kerimxa2xg. "he that brought"). Dan. 
ix. 24 {Kei~i in text, "to make an end"). Amos iii. 12 (Hebrew manu- 
scripts varying between pK't?"! of the printed text, which is represented 
by marg., and the name of the city p^fSTl'. Zech. xi. 2 [Keri in text). 
Mai. ii. 15 (marg. TWO "excellency," being the rendering of Cover- 
dale, "an excellent spirit"). 

AVhere the variation in the reading was brought promi- 
nently into view by the Masoretic notes, it was only natural 
that the Translators should refer to it in their margin. Re- 
specting the Hebrew text which they followed, it would be 
hard to identify any particular edition, inasmuch as the dif- 
ferences between early printed Bibles are but few. The 

Bible Considered. He gives Ezra there" (p. 128, second edition). 

X. 40. Ps. cii. 3. Cant. v. 4 for But, in truth, his whole treatise is 

the Old Testament, and eight a notable example of what wary 

references to the New, adding, tact and dialectic skill may accom- 

"I will not positively affirm that plish, when wielded by one who 

no other Various Readings than does not know too much about 

the following are to be found in the matter at issue, and is fortu- 

the Margin, but the impression of nate enough to encounter oppo- 

my mind is that no others do exist nents who know considerably less. 

Marginal notes and original texts. 43 

Complutensian Polyglott, however, which aflforded them 
such important help in the Apocrypha, was of course at 
hand, and we seem to trace its influence in some places, 
e.g. in 2 Chr. i. 5, DK' "there" of the Complutensian text 
the Septuagint and Vulgate, being accorded a place in the 
margin; as also in Job xxii. 6 'T'nt? "thy brother," where 
later editors give the plural, as do the Targum, Syriac, Sep- 
tuagint, and Vulgate. Yet the Complutensian throws no 
light on the reading in many other passages, where some 
other text must have been before the Translators: e.g. 
I Chr. vi. 57 ("of Judah" added); Ps. Ixiv. 6, where the 
marginal rendering ought to be taken in preference. In 
Job XXX. II, 22 the Authorized prefers Keri to Chetiv. 

It has been sometimes alleged that the alternative ren- 
derings (introduced by "||0r") which are set in the margin 
of the Authorized English Version, are superior, on the 
whole, to those 'v& the text'. It would be indeed a con- 
spicuous instance of bad judgment on the part of the Trans- 
lators, if it could be justly alleged that where two or more 
senses of a passage were brought fairly before them, they 
mostly, or even frequently, put the worst into the body of 
their work. But no competent scholar who has carefully 
examined the matter will think that they have gone so far 
wrong. On the other hand, he will perhaps feel disposed 
to complain that so many of these marginal notes assign a 
sense to the sacred record which cannot possibly be accepted 
as true. Some of these, no doubt, are taken either from 
the text or margin of the Bishops' Bible, which had 
been read in Churches for about forty years when the 
Authorized Version was made, and which King James had 

^ "The Translators... have placed monly out-voted." Dr R. Gell's 

some different significations in the Essay toward the aviendment of 

Margent; but tliose most-what the last English Translation of the 

the better; because when truth is Bible, 1659 (Preface, p. 24). 
tryed by most voyces, it is com^ 

44 Sect. 11.'] Authorized Version of the Bible (i6ii)- 

expressly directed "to be followed, and as little altered, as 
the truth of the original will permit." But far the greater 
part must be traced to another source, to which adequate 
attention has not hitherto been directed. Of the several 
Latin translations of the Old Testament which were executed 
in the sixteenth century, that which was the joint work of 
Immanuel Tremellius [1510 — 80], a converted Jew (the 
proselyte first of Cardinal Pole, then of Peter Martyr), who 
became Professor of Divinity at Heidelberg, and of his son 
in law Francis Junius [1545 — 1602], was at once the latest 
and the most excellent. Originally published in 1575 — 9, 
and after the death of Tremellius revised in 1590 by Junius, 
who added a version of the Apocrypha of which he was 
the sole author, a large edition printed in London in 1593 
soon caused it to become very highly esteemed in this 
country for its perspicuity and general faithfulness. One 
great fault it has, a marked tendency, in passages either 
obscure in .themselves, or suggesting some degree of diffi- 
culty, to wander into new paths of interpretation, wherein it 
ought to have found few to follow or commend it. This 
version must have lain open before the Translators through- 
out the whole course of their labours : it has led them into 
some of the most conspicuous errors that occur in their text 
(2 Chr. XX. I ; Job xxxiv. 33), while as regards the margin, 
whensoever a rendering is met with violently harsh, inverted, 
or otherwise unlikely, its origin may be sought, almost with 
a moral certainty of finding it, in the pages of Tremellius 
and Junius. These statements are made with reference to 
every part of the Old Testament (e.g. Gen. xl. 13, 16, 19, 20. 
Ex. xvii. 16; xxix. 43. Judg. ix. 31. 2 Sam. i. 9, 18; xxi. 
8. Lam. iii. 35; iv. 14; 22'), but, for the sake of brevity, 

^ Dr Ginsburg [An Old Testa- margin in Lev. xviii. 18, but one 
nient Commentary for English would doubt whether they were 
Readers, 1882) would adopt their the first to propose it. The very 

Marginal notes' and original texts. 45 

the proof of them shall be drawn from one distinct portion, 
the books of the Minor Prophets. To these authorities 
solely, so far as the writer has observed, are due the supply- 
ing oi "for nought" in Mai. i. 10, and the textual rendering 
of Mai. ii. 16: as are also the following marginal notes, 
scattered among others of a widely different type : Hos. i. 6 ; 
10 {" instead of that") ; vi. 4 {"kindness"); x. 10; xii. 8 ("a// 
my labours," &c.); xiv. 2. Joel iii. 21. Amos iv. 3; v. 22; 
vii. 2; Obad. 7 {"of it"). Mic. vii. 13. Nah. i. 12; iii. 19. 
Hab. i. 7; ii. 11 (second). Zeph. iii. i. Zech. v. 3; ix. 15 
(twice); 17 {"speak"); x. 2; xi. 16 (second); xii. 5; xiv. 5; 
14 (first). Mai. i. 13; ii. 9 (but eSuo-wTretcr^e Trpoaunra 
Symmachus); 11. 

Thus far no marginal notes have been taken into con- 
sideration except those given in the primary issues of 161 1; 
but 368 others have been subsequently inserted by various 
hands, which ought to be distinguished in our Bibles from 
those of earlier date by being printed within brackets. Of 
these the Cambridge folio of 1629 contributes that on Jer. 
iii. 19; the folio of 1638 that on Ezek. xlviii. i: thirty-one 
others were inserted in the course of the century that fol- 
lowed, viz. I Kin. xxii. 41, 51. 2 Kin. i. 17; viii. 16; ix. 29; 
xiii.9, 10; xiv. 23,29; XV. 1,8, 10, 3o(fo>),37; xvii. i; xxiii. 23. 
2Chr. XX. 36; xxi. I, 3, 5, 12, 18. Jobi. i. Ps. xi. 6. Dan. i. 
21; xi. 7, 10, 25. Hos. vii. 7; xiii. 16. As many as 269 are 
due to Dr Paris (1762), and 66 to Dr Blayney (1769), who 
is usually credited with them all. Many of them are not 
destitute of a certain value (especially in such explanations 
relating to Proper Names as occur in Gen. ii. 23)', although 
a persistent resolution to set right the regnal years of the 

improbable margin in Lev. xxvii. nal notes that occurs in the Autho- 

12, also derived from Tremellius rized Bible (Gen. i. 20, +Heb. let 

and Junius, is certainly counten- fowl fly) is taken from the Geneva 

anced by 2 Kin. ix. 5. . Bible (1560), and seems as good as 

1 The first of these later margi- most of its date — 1762. 

46 Sect. II.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (i6ii). 

Jewish kings, commenced in 1701, and fully carried out in 
1762, leads on their authors to expedients which are at times 
rather daring than satisfactory : e.g. 2 Kin. xv. i, 30. The 
American revisers of 1851 (see p. 36) not unreasonably 
condemned notes like these and those on Judg. iii. 31; xi. 
29; xii. 8, II, 13; xiii. i; xv. 20 (all from the Bible of 1762), 
as "containing merely conjectural and unwarranted com- 
mentary," and expunged them accordingly from the margin 
of their book; but they all came back again with the other 
restorations which public opinion forced upon the New 
York Bible Society. In one instance (Dan. ix. 27) Dr Paris 
has ventured to substitute a marginal rendering of his own 
in the place of that of 161 1 ("Or, with the abominable 
armies"), and has been followed by all modern Bibles. 

The marginal notes appended to the Apocrypha, which 
have next to be examined, differ not inconsiderably in tone 
and character from those annexed to the text of the 
Canonical Scriptures. They are much more concerned with 
various readings, as was indeed inevitable by reason of the 
corrupt state of the Greek text of these books, which still 
await and sadly need a thorough critical revision, chiefly 
by the aid of materials that have recently come to light. 
Authorities also are sometimes cited by name in the margin, 
a practice not adopted in the Old Testament'. Such are 
Athanasius, i Esdr. iv. 36: Herodotus, Judith ii. 7: Phny's 
History, Benedicite or the Song, ver. 23 : Josephus, i Esdr. 
iv. 29. Esther xiii. i; xvi. r. i Mace. v. 54; vi. 49; vii. i; 
ix- 4, 35, 49> 50; X. I, 81; xi. 34; xii. 7, 8, 19, 28, 31! 
2 Mace. vi. 2: in the Maccabees after the example of 
Coverdale. Even Junius, the Latin translator (above, p. 44), 

^ The apparent exceptions of The reference to "Usher" in 

Josephus, quoted Gen. xxii. i ; , Kin. xv. 30 forms part of a note 

2 Kin. XIV. 8, are respectively due added in 1701. 
to the editors of 1701 and 1161. 

Marginal notes and original texts. 47 

is appealed to eight times by name: 2 Esdr. xiii. 2, 13. 
Tobit vii. 8; ix. 6; xi. 18; xiv. 10. Judith iii. 9; vii. 3. 

The texts from which the Apocryphal books were trans- 
lated can be determined with more precision than in the 
case of the Old Testament, and were not the same for 
them all. The second book of Esdras, though the style 
is redolent of a Hebrew or Aramaic origin, exists only in 
the common Latin version and in Junius' paraphrase, which 
is cited for the reading in ch. xiii. 2, 13. In this book some 
excellent Latin manuscripts to which they had access (ch. 
iv. 51 marg.), as also the Bishops' Bible, must have had 
great weight with its revisers. The Prayer of Manasses 
had to be drawn from the same source, for the Greek was 
first published in Walton's Polyglott (1657) as it appears 
in the Codex Alexandrinus, the earliest that contains it, 
which did not reach England before 1628. The first book 
of Esdras ('O UpAi as the Greeks call it), is not in the 
Complutensian Polyglott (15 17), so that Aldus's Greek 
Bible (1518) was primarily resorted to, as is evident from 
the margin of ch. ii. 12, the typographical error there de- 
scribed being that of Aldus (irapiSodrja-av d/iaa-a-dpia for 
TrapeSodr] Sava^Satrtrapa)), ' which had misled the Bishops' 
Bible. Besides this edition, our Translators had before them 
the Roman Septuagint of 1586', to which they refer, with- 
out as yet naming it, in ch. v. 25 ; viii. 2. For the remainder 
of the Apocrypha they had access also to the Compluten- 
sian, which in the books of Tobit, Judith, Wisdom and 

1 An excellent account of this sentatum:" yet both the Epistle 

edition is contained in the Prole- of Cardinal Carafa, who super- 

gomena to Tischendorfs Septua- intended it, and the Preface of 

gint, pp. xix. — xxviii. (1869). AI- his assistant, Peter Morinus, dis- 

though the work itself is not quite play an insight into the true prin- 

what it professes to be, "exemplai; ciples of textual criticism, quite 

ipsum " (the great Codex Vatica- beyond their age, 
nus) "de verbo ad verbum repre- 

48 Sect. II.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (161 1). 

Ecclesiasticus seems almost a copy of Cod. Vatican. 346 
(Cod. 248 of Parsons)', but they used with it the Aldine and 
Roman editions °: the latter "copy" they cite by name Tobit 
xiv." 5, 10; I Mace. ix. 9; xii. 37, as they also do "the Latin 
interpreters" in 2 Mace. vi. i. By means of these Greek 
authorities they were enabled to clear the text of Tobit of 
the accretions brought into the Old Latin version, which 
had been over-hastily revised by Jerome. As a small in- 
stalment of what remains to be done for the criticism of 
that noble work, two passages in Ecclesiasticus (i. 7 ; xvii. 5) 
are inclosed within brackets in the books of 16 ir. The 
former is found in no Greek text our Translators knew 
of, but only in the Latin and Bishops' Bible: the latter 
occurs complete only in some late manuscripts, though the 
Complutensian and Cod. 248 have the last two lines of 
the triplet. These preliminary statements will enable the 
reader to understand the marginal notes in the Apocrypha 
which treat of various readings. They are no less than 156 
in number, besides 13 of latter date. 

I EsDRAS i. II (to irpiiaibv Greek, Ij^a for np3) ; 12 {cum bmevo- 
lentid Vulg., i.e. iier evvolai); 24 {ip aiaSijaei. : om. Roman); ii. 12 
(above, p. 47); v. 25 (217 as Roman edition: Vulg. has 227); v. 46; 
see below, p. 198 note i ; vi. i ^n. (if this be intended for a various 

^ This manuscript contained 13; xliii. 26; xlvii. i. Bel and 

also I Esdras, if it be the same as Dragon, ver. 38. 2 Mace. i. 31 ; 

that for which Cardinal Ximenes viii. 23; xii. 36; xiv. 36. On the 

gave a bond in 1513 to the Libra- other hand the Roman is followed 

rian of the Vatican (Vercellone, rather than the Complutensian 

^ref. to Mai's Cod. Vat. Vol. 1.). and Aldine text united in i Mace. 

So that he must have designedly iii. 14, 15, 18, 28; iv. 24; v. 23, 

kept back a book which the Coun- 48; vi. 24, 43, 57; vii. 31, 37, 41 

cil of Trent afterwards refused to {bis), 45 ; viii. 10 ; ix. 9 (avowedly) ; 

declare Ca^onical.^ x. 41, 42, 78; xi. 3, 15, 22, 34, 35. 

^ Our Translation often adopts &c ; xn. 43; xiii. 22, 25; xiv. 4, 

the Aldine text in preference to 16,23,46; xv. 30; xvi. 8. 2Macc. 

those of the Complutensian and viii. 30; xv. 22. Aldus is followed 

Roman editionsjointly: e.g. Judith in preference to the Bishops' Bible 

m. 9; viii. 1. Ecclus. xvii. 31; in i Esdr. v. 14: cf. i Esdr. viii. 

XXXI. 2 ; xxxvi. 15; xxxix. 17 ; xlii. 39. 

Marginal notes and original texts. 49 

reading, no trace of it remains); 23 {t6\io% Aid., toxos Rom. Vulg. 
Bishops') ; vii. 8 (tpvXapxi^ Aid. Rom., ipvXui Old Latin, Vulg. 
Bishops'); 10 (margin as Cod. ■248, Vulg. Bishops') ;.viii. i ('Afa/jfou 
Vulg. Coverdale only) ; 2 ('Offow Rom., 'Bfiou Aid. Bishops') ; Hit/. 
(three names omitted in Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, not, in, Aid. Bishops'); 
20 (oXXa Aid. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops' : but Old Latin, Junius ciXo, 
as Ezra vii. 22 [non habet Cod. Vaticanus]) ; 29 {Aerrois Aid., 'AttoOj 
Rom., Acchus Vulg. Coverdale, Hatttis Bishops', Chartusch Junius, 
Syitan Ezra viii. 2); 34 (80 Vulg. Junius, Coverdale with Ezra viii. 8, 
against Aid. Rom. Bishops'); 35 (212 Aid. Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, 
Bishops'- 2i8 Junius, Ezra viii.' 9); 38 {'AKurav Aid. Rom. Bishops', 
Eccetan Vulg., Esechan Coverdale, Katan Junius: cf. Ezra viii. 12); 
39 (60 Junius, Ezra viii. 13 only) ; 88 (margin requires /ii) opyia-dTJs, 
for which there is no known authority) ; g6. See Appendix C ; 
ix. 20 (ayvolaj Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, reatu Junius, ajfela! Aid. 

2 ESDRAS i. 22 (margin from the Bishops' margin: so Junius, in the 
form of a conjecture); ii. 15 (columba Vulg. Junius, columna Coverdale, 
Bishops'); 16 (text as Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops', though Fritzsche's 
three Latin MSS. STD"- read in illis, the margin is from Junius); 32 
(text as Clementine Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops': but margin with 
Fritzsche's STD) ; 38 (in convivio Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops' text : ad 
convivium Junius; '^'iOx, for" Bishops' marg.); iii. 19 (text Vulg. 
Coverdale, Bishops' • margin is fashioned from Junius and Bishops' 
margin); 31 {memini Vulg., Fritzsche's STD: perceive Coverdale, 
Bishops' : venit in mentem Junius, conceive margin) ; iv. 1 1 (corruptionetn 
Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops': incorriiptionem Fritzsche's SD, but 
the whole passage is in confusion) ; 36 [Huriel Fritzsche's T only : all 
the rest Jeremiel); 51 [quid eriiYyxXg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops': but 
qtiis eril Fritzsche's STD, so that our Translators might well appeal to 
a "Manuscript" here); vi. 49 (Enoch Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops' : Be- 

' S is Codex Sangermanensis ment (ch. vii. 36 — 105) was ob- 

at Paris of the ninth century, T tained from the Bibliothique Com- 

at Turin is of the thirteenth, D at munale at Amiens (10), and a 

Dresden of the fifteenth, all col- transcript of the same passage was 

lated afresh for or by Fritzsche made from a manuscript in Spain 

(Libri Apocryphi V. T. 1871, pp. by J. Palmer, Professor of Arabic 

xxvii. xxviii.). Mr R. L. Bensly at Cambridge (1804 — rpj.anddis- 

also collated S for his Missing covered in 1877 among his papers 

Fragment of the fourth book of at S. John's College. 
Esdras (1875). This Missing Frag- 

5© Sect. II.] AutJiorized Version of the Bible (x6ii). 

hemoth Junius, Bishops' margin, Syriac and ^tliiopic in Fritzsclie) ; vii. 
30 [judiciis Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops' : iniciis Fritzsche's STD); 
37 {y^<:/4flz Vulg., Achas TD, Coverdale, Bishops': Hacan Junius, J3^ 
Josh. vii. I, &c. ; "ibl? Josh. vii. 26) ; 52 {tardi Vulg., considerate 
Junius, patient Coverdale, Bishops': but caste SD); 53 [sectiritas Vulg. 
'^■a.Tws,: freedom Coverdale, Bishops' ["Or, j-a/j'/^" Bishops' margin]: 
saturitas Fritzsche's SD); 69 {curati...contentionum Vulg. Junius, 
Coverdale, Bishops': creati...contempiionum Fritzsche's STD); viii. 8 
(quomodo Vulg., like as Coverdale: but guando Junius, quoniam 
Fritzsche's STD, when Bishops') ; ix. 9 {miserebimtur Vulg. Junius, 
Bishops' ; be in carefulness Coverdale : mirabuntur Fritzsche's STD) ; 
17 — 19 [quoniam tempus erat... mores eorutn. The whole passage is 
hopelessly corrupt, and no English version afifords even a tolerable 
sense. In ver. 19 Coverdale reads creator with Vulg., mense with 
Fritzsche's TD : creaiorum (icTicOivTav) seems a conjecture, adopted by 
the Bishops' version and our own : our margin reads messe, and so pro- 
bably the text and Bishops' seed: the Syriac must have read mensd) ; 
xii. 42 [fopulis Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops' : prophetis Fritzsche's 
SD) ; xiii. z, 13 (Junius stands alone : see above, p. 44) ; 3 [titilHbtis^vig. 
Junius, Bishops' • mibibus Fritzsche's SD, Coverdale) ; 20 [in hunc 
Vulg. , in hunc diem Junius : but in hcec Fritzsche's D, the Syriac and 
^thiopic, in hac ST, in these Coverdale, into these Bishops', set in their 
substitute for italic type) ; 45 (the margin is only a bold guess of Junius^); 
xiv. 44 (904 Fritzsche's STD : he himself reads 94 from the versions) ; 
47 [flumen all authorities. Perhaps lumen is conjectural) ; xv. 36 (text 
as sujfraginem S, suffragmen D, fragmen T : avertam Junius : but sub- 
stramen Vulg., litter Coverdale, Bishops') ; 43 (text exterreni Coverdale, 
Bishops' : but margin exterent Vulg. Junius) ; 46 [concors in spem Vulg. 
Junius [Coverdale, Bishops'] : consors specie or in jr/flrK Fritzsche's SD); 
xvi. 68 (very perplexing : fide the ydle with Idols Coverdale : cibabmit 
idolis occisos Vulg., shall slay you for meat to the idols Bishops'. Fritzsche 
notes no variation of his manuscripts). Three like marginal 

notes (the first two of importance), due to the Bible of 1762, maybe 
conveniently added in this place. 2 Esdr. xii. 32 [ventus Vulg. Cover- 
dale, Bishops' ; Spiritus Junius : Unctus Fritzsche's STD) ; xiv. g 
(consilio Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops' : >//o Fritzsche's STD); 
xvi. 46 [in captivitaiem Junius, but the margin hardly rests on his sole 

1 "Etsi quid si corrupt^ est nise. Docti viderint." Junius m 
Eretz Ararat, id est, regio Arme- loco. 

Marginal notes and original texts. 51 

TOBIT i. 1 {Kvplas Cod. 248. Compl. ; Kvdias Aid. Rom.); 5 
{Swa/xeL 248. Compl. ; Sa/ioXEt Aid. Rom., but Bahali deo Junius) ; 
7 ^ Kapav Compl. Aid. ; Aeui Rom.); 14 (^!' aYpots t^s MijSelas Aid., h 
'Payois TTjs Mt)5. Rom., itt Rages civitatem Medorum Vulg. See Ap- 
pendix A); 17 (iirX Tov reix""' Compl. Aid. ; oirlaaTOV r. Rom.); ii. 10 
(ffTpovBia LXX., hirundines Vulg., whom Coverdale and the Bishops' 
follow closely throughout Tobit); vii. 17 (aireSi^aTO LXX.; dire/jAp- 
iaro two Old Latin manuscripts in Parsons); ix. 6 (Vulg. rather favours 
the daring conjecture of Junius) ; xi. 18 (the margin is only another guess 
of Junius^); xiii. 10 {ev<j>pavri Compl. Aid., eixppavai Rom.); xiv. 5 {ch 
Tra'cras ras yeyeds tou aluvos Compl. Aid. Junius : omitted by Rom. 
Vulg.); 10 {^irij^av Comp. Aid. Junius; i-n-q^ev Rom.)^; ii {^da\j/';v 
Compl. Junius : SSatpav Aid. Rom.). The book of 1762 adds, 

ch. i. 1, Shalmaneser, from the Old Latin, Vulg. Syriac. 

Judith iii. 9 andiv. 6 (Esdrdom refers to ch. i. 8, where only LXX. 
has that form) ; iii. 9 (Awra/as LXX. Junius, Dothan Syr. : but 'louSnias 
Aid.); iv. 3 {is. t^s lovdaias 248. Compl. Aid., but Rom. omits ex); 
V. 14 [Spas 248. Compl. Aid. Junius, 6d6i> Rom., deserta Sina mantis 
Vulg.) ; vii. 3 (^Tri LXX. Vulg. : Junius alone has a) ; viii. i ['Lafi.aTfK 
Aid., J.aimkiTJK 248. Compl., 'ZaKaixiriX Rom., Salathiel Vulg., Sam- 
»2Z>/ Junius) ; 22 {(pbvov Rom., ^b^av 248. Compl. Aid.); xvi. r {Kaivbv 

Vulg., Roman edition, against Cod. Vaticanus: /cai alvov 248. Compl. 

Aid.); 13 {Kaipbv Rom. with Cod. Vaticanus, Vulg. Junius: Kal aXuov 


Esther xiv. 12 {BeCiv Aid. Rom. Vulg.: idvdv Compl. Junius); 

XV. 7 (irpoTTopevopi^i^Tjs Rom. Compl. Junius : Tropcvofj.^vT]s Aid. . went 

with her Coverdale, Bishops'). 

WiSD. iii. 14 {vaQ all authorities: cf. Isai. Ivi. 5. Whence came 

XacfJ of margin?); v. ir (StaTrrdj/ros Compl. Aid., but SuirTdvros Rom. 

Vulg. Junius) ; 14 (xoCs Rom. Coverdale's and Bishops' margins : x''"''! 

Compl. Aid. Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops') ; vii. g (rifuov 248. 

Compl. Vulg. Junius: irl/XTiTOV of margin. Aid. Rom.); IJ [diSaKei/ 

Compl. Aid. Old Latin, Vulg. Junius : Sijiv; Rom.) ; Hid. {dsdo/ihiiii' 

Rom. Junius, SiSoixivav Compl. Vulg., eiiSo/i^cwc Aid., XeYO/i^pui/ 

Fritzsche, after the Syriac and other versions, Codd. Sinaiticus and 

Alexandrinus) ; ix. 11 (Sui'ti/iei Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops' only, for Sofj;); 

XV. 6 (bpe^iv Comp. Vulg. Junius : opclSos Aid. Rom.). The text of 

1 "Hunc locum sic legendum made by Junius in ch. xiv. 10, with 
suspicor, 'AyJ,\apos o Kal Nio-- a reference to this place (Nitzba 
Pds." Junius in loco. The change for Manasses), is quite gratuitous. 


52 Sect. IIP\ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

this book is far .purer ,. than that of Ecclesiasti<;us, which is largely inter- 
polated through the, influence of the Complutensian Polyglott and its 
prototype, Cod. 248. 

EcCLUS. Prolc^, n, 1. 36 (^^oSioK , Grabe, viaticum Junius, whence 
the margin: d^oVoioy. LXX.); ch. i. 13 (eu/iTJo-fi xapai Aid. Rom.: 
fi'KoyqB'ficiTai Compl. Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops'); "vii. 26 
(fj.uroviJ.iv'Q Compl. [Aid. Rom. have not the line] Vulg. &c. No trace 
of " light, " except it be a euphemistic paraphrase) ; xiii. 8 {ei(f>po(rvv7i 
LXX. Junius: acppoaivTi Vulg. Coverdale [simpieness], Bishops'); 11 
(lircxe LXX., des operant Junius: aircxe relineas /V-alg., withdraw 
Coverdale, Bishops'); xiv. i , (irX-^to 248. Compl. Junius: Xi/thj Aid. 
Rom. Vulg., conscimce Coverdale, Bishops'); xix. 12 (icoiX/?. LXX. 
Junius: KapSiq. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'); xx. 19 (afSpmro^ dxapn, 
jxvdos ^Kaipos' both clauses are in LXX. &c.}; xxii. 9 {Tpo(p-^v 248. 
Compl., t4x''W manuscripts named by Arnald in his elaborate Critical 
Commentary on the Apocrypha, the only considerable one in English. 
In Aid. Rom. Vulg. &c. ver. 9, 10 are wanting) ; 17 (toIxov .^vmov Aid. 
Rom. with the margin: 24S. Compl. prefix ^;rJ, Vulg»z«, The render- 
ing of ^varbv as a noun is from winter house Coverdale, Bisjiops', xysti 
Junius); xxiii. 22, 23 (aXXou Compl. Junius: aXKorplov Aid. Rom. 
Vulg., but Coverdale and the Bishops' vary in the two verses) ; xxiv. 1 1 
(■qyairrni^iiri Aid. Ronj. : ■qyLacxiihv 248. Compl. Vulg. Junius, Cover- 
dale, Bishops'); 14 (^<' alyioKoii Aid. Roin. : h VaiSl 248. Compl. 
[Syr. Junius] : Cades Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops') ; xxv. 9 [amicum verum 
Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops': (ppovrjinv LXX. Junius, Bishops', margin); 
17 {craKKov Aid. Ronj.. Bishops': dpKos 248. Compl. Vulg. Junius, Co- 
verdale) ; XXX. 2 [ev(ppav07i<TCTai 248. Compl. Junius, Coverdale, Bishops': 
ivriaerai AlA. Rom.); xxxiv. 18 (Swp^juara 248. Compl. Junius, /iu/iiy- 
fiara Aid., iiaK-np-ara Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops') ; xxxvi. 14 (o/)oi 
rd Xoyia (rov Compl. Aid. Junius, dpsrdXoyias (tou Codd. Sinaiticus, 
Alexandrinus, Vaticanus [cf. Field, LXX. Collatio, p. 204], inerrabili- 
bus verbis tuis Vulg., thine unspeakable virtues Coverdale, Bishops') ; 
15 {irpo<f>ijTas 248. Compl. Vulg. Junius: Tpocprp-elas Aid. Rom. Cover- 
dale, Bishops'); 17 [olKeray Compl. Vulg. Sjriac, Junius, Coverdale, 
Bishops' : iKerwf Aid. Rom.) ; xxxvii. 20 {rpoipijs Aid. Rom., re Vulg. 
Coverdale, Bishops' : iTo<pia5 248. Compl. Junius) ; 26 [So^av 248. Compl. 
Vulg. Junius: iri(7Ti.v Aid. Rom. Coverdale^, Bishops'); xxxviii. 2 

^ It is worthy of notice how much on the Latin Vulgate, fol- 

Coyerdale {1535), whose version lows Aldus in preference in these 

of^ the Apocrypha was the first readings, 
printed in English, though leaning 

Marginal notes and original texts. 53 

(TijUTjii 248. Compl. Junius : So^ua Aid. Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'); 
22 (juou 248. Compl. Vulg., tui Junius : avroO Aid. Rom. Coverdale, 
Bishops'); xxxix. 13 (d7poO Aid. R'om. Coverdale, Bishops': iJ-ypoG 
248. Compl. [Vulg.] Junius) ; xlii. 8 (irepi iropveiai of the margin is found 
in no edition or version, and in only three unimportant manuscripts) ; 
18 {KvpLos Aid. Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops': Stpio-ros 248. Compl. 
Junius); xliii. 5 {KaTiiraua-e 248. Coiiipl. only, for Kariinrevae) ; xliv. t2 
(St avTois Rom. and all others, except /ner' avTois Compl. Aid. Junius); 
xlvii. 3 (^Traife* Aid., lusitYvlg. Coverdale, Bishops': iire^evaaev 248. 
Compl. , whence peregrimts Convcrsatits est Junius : ^■jraio'ev Rom.) ; 1 1 
(iSacriX^Mv Aid. Rom. ; /SacriXeias 248. Compl. Vulg. Junius, Coverdale, 
Bishops'); xlviii. 11 [KeKoi^jjixivoi 248. Compl. Junius; KeKocTiititUvoi 
Aid. Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'); xlix. 9 {Karupdoiae 248. Compl., 
correxit Junius : ayadanai. Aid. Rom. Coverdale, Bishops'). 

Add a various reading of 1762; ch. xlviii. 8 (thee Vulg. Junius, 
Bishops': cmriiv LXX. Coverdale). In ch. li. ri Kal of the Greek is 
rendered by Junius jitbd:''b.tnzs because 1762 marg. 

Baruch i. 5 (-fiUxovTo Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, 'Bishops': tut Compl. 
Aid. Junius add eixo^s) ; vi. 61 (xal vveuixo. of text Aid. Rom. Vulg., 
but Compl. with margin omits koX). 

Bel and Dragon, ver. 27 [tSe Compl. AH. Vulg. Junius, Cover- 
dale, Bishops': tSere Rom. with margin). 

Prayer of Manasses, line 38 (dVeo-is Cod. Alexandr. , but the Latin 
version [which is' not Jerome's] and Bishdps' Bible read respiratio, i. q. 

I Macc. i. I {x^TTieliJ, or -eicl/i 'LXX;, Chethiin Vulg., Cethim Co- 
verdale, Bishops', Cheitim Bishops'' marg.); 4 {Tvpavvtjjv Rom. Vulg. Co- 
verdale, Bishops' : rvpawLUiv Compl. Junius, rvpavviKCiv AXd.) ; ii. 2 {Ka63£s 
Rom. Junius, 'Ia55(s Compl., VaSSh Aid. Old Latin, Vulg. Coverdale, 
Bishops') ; 5 {A.vaphv Compl. Rom., 'Avapav hA&-.,Habaran Junius, Aharon 
Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'); 66 (TToXe/tTjffei Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops' : 
xo\e/xij(r€Te Compl. Aid. Junius) ; iii. 29 {(popot Codd. Sinaiticus and 
Alexandrinus, Old Latin, Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops': <l>opo\o-yoi Compl. 
Aid. Rom. Junius) ; 41 (?rat5as LXX.: tt^Sm Josephus, Ant. xii. 7, 3 
and Syriac); v. 3 ('AKpapaTrtvTjy Compl. Aid. Rom. Junius, Arabathane 
Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops') ; 26 (BoViropa Aid., Codd. Alexandrinus and 
Vaticanus: BoVopa Cod. Sinaiticus with 161 1: Boffoppa Compl. , ^3»ior 
Vulg., Barasa Coverdale, Bishops') ; ibid. (Xa!r(p(ip Rom. Vulg. Cover- 
dale: XoiTKwp Compl. Aid., Casbon Bishops'. In ver. 36, as the 
margin of 1763 notes, Xacr^wc is read by Compl. Aid. Rom., but 

54 Sect. 11.^ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

Chasbon by Vulg., Casbon by Coverdale, Bishops'); 28 (Bomppa 
Compl. Aid., Boffip Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'); vi. 38(<pa\ay^iv 
Old Latin, Vulg. Syriac, Junius, Coverdale, Bishops': cpapaj^iv Compl. 
Aid. Rom.); vii. 31 {Xa(jiap<raKaiJ.a. Rom. Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops': 
Ka<papi!-dpa/ia Compl. Aid., Capharsama Old Latin, Carphasalama 
Bishops' margin) ; ix. 2 {Galilea is a mere guess of Drusius, according 
to Cotton) ; 9 (much confusion exists in Compl. Aid. which read dXX' 
^ GUi^b3p.^v rk^ SavTwy ^uxaff. to vQv iiricTTpeif/ov. Kal ol ddeX^ol Tjfluiv 
aweppiTjcrav, Kol TrdKepLTiaoiiiv... which Junius follows: this virtually 
agrees with Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'. Our version justly professes to 
follow Rom. d\X' rj adi^wp^v ras ^avTwv ^uxa.s ro vuf, Kal iwurrp^^iafiev 
piera \ad Vulg. &c.] tQv ddeK^ojv Tjp^i^v /cat 7roXe^^a"w/iey...); 37 (Na- 
Sa^ad Aid. Rom., TSa.^aSa.6 Compl., Madaba Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops', 
Medeba'luTav.'a); 66 {'OSofiiipa, Compl. Aid., 'OSoa.apprji' Rom., Odaren 
Vulg. Coverdale, Odomeras Bishops' text, Odareb margin. Odonarkes 
has absolutely no authority, as Canon Westcott notices) ; xi. 63 (xu/jos 
Compl. Aid. Bishops' : -jifidai Rom. Old Latin, Vulg. -.from meddling 
in the realm Coverdale); xii. 37 (^?re(7e Aid. Old Latin, Vulg. Cover- 
dale, Bishops': ^710-6 Compl. Rom. Junius): xiv. 9 {de bonis terra 
Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops' only: ire/Dl ayaSu;/ LXX.) ; 34 {Gaza Cover- 
dale, Bishops' only : Gazaris Bishops' margin) ; xv. 22 ('ApiapdSri Rom. 
Junius, 'Apierj Compl. Aid., Arabe Vulg., Araba Coverdale, Bishops'); 
23 ('Zap.\jidp.ri Compl. Rom. Vulg., Samsanes Coverdale, Samsames 
Bishops', (i-a.p,\pdK7j Aid. See ten lines below, 1762); ibid, [r-qv Baa-iXel- 
Sav Cod. Alexandrinus only). 

The Cambridge Bible of 1638, which very seldom adds to the mar- 
ginal notes, in this book cites ch. iv. 15 'A.(T(7ap-qp.aB, the reading of 
Compl. Aid., and ch. ix. 36 'Ap.§pl of Compl. The Bible of 1762 adds 
(besides two rectifications of dates) ch. iv. 24 [bonus Vulg. Junius, Co- 
verdale, Bishops'); v. 13 (Tw;8iou Rom., toG piov Compl. Aid., Tubin 
Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops'); xiv. 22 (ra?s ^ovKais LXX. Vulg. Cover- 
dale, Toi! pi^XloLs one unimportant Greek manuscript, libris Junius, 
public records Bishops'); xv. 23 {Lampsacus Junius, adding "sic placuit 
legere ex conjectura."); 39 {Gedor, a like conjecture of Junius, approved 
by Grotius and Dr Paris). 

2 Macc. iii. 24 {iri'oii' [i.q. Trceu/taruj/] omitting loipios, Compl. Syr. 
Junius: Spiritus omnipotentis Dei Vulg. Coverdale, Bishops': tt^ 
[i. q. iraT^pwj/] Aid. Rom.); iv. 40 (Aupdj-ou Cod. Alexandrinus, Compl. 
Junius: Tupacrou Aid. Rom. Vulg., "tyrant" Coverdale, Bishops'); 
vi. I {'AeTjvaiop LXX. Bishops' margin: Antiochenum Old Latin, Vulg. 

Marginal notes a?id original texts. '55 

Junius, Goverdale, Bishops'); ix. 15 (Junius stands alone here in ren- 
dering Antiochenis) ; xi. 21 [AioaKopo'dlov LXX. Junius, Coverdale, 
Bishops': Dioscori Old Latin, Vulg. Syriac); 34 {midiraroi, if that 
word be meant in the margin, has no authority : these men were not 
consuls at all, but legati to overlook affairs in Syria) ; xii. 12 (if the 
margin represents a various reading, no trace of it remains) ; 39 {rpoirov 
[Aid.] Rom. ; xpovov Cod. Alexandrinus, Compl. Junius : but Vulg. 
Coverdale, Bishops' omit both words) ; xiii. 14 (KTiffrri Compl. Rom. 
Vulg. : Kvpi({! Aid. with three manuscripts only). 

The Bible of 1762 notes one various reading: ch. xii. 36 (Topytav 
Aid., fire manuscripts, Coverdale, Bishops' text : "BtrS/jic all other 
Greek, Vulg. Syriac, Junius, Bishops' margin). 

To these 156 various readings indicated by the Trans- 
lators of 1611 in the Apocrypha we must add 138 marginal 
notes, which express the exact ineaning of the Greek, and 
three of the Latin of 2 Esdras. In 505 places varied 
renderings are alleged (the word "'Or" being prefixed to 
them), many taken from Junius (besides those where he 
is expressly named, p. 46), from the Bishops' Bible and 
other Old EngHsh versions. In 174 places (167 of them 
in I Esdras) alternative forms of Proper Names are given 
for the reader's guidance, to which must be added 42 notes 
containing more or less useful information. Hence the sum 
total of the notes due to the original Translators in the 
Apocrypha appears to be 1018. Besides these, two were 
annexed in the Cambridge Bible of 1638 (see above, p. 54), 
18 in that of 1762, one (Tobit iv. 20) in 1769, in all 21. 
To these might very well be added, set within brackets, at 
Ecclus. xviii. 30; xx. 27; xxiii. 7, summaries of contents, 
extracted from the best Manuscripts, resting on authority 
quite as good and nearly identical with any in favour of 
those inserted by the Authorized version in Ecclus. xxiv. i ; 
XXX. I, 14; xxxiii. 24; xxxiv. i; xliv. i; li. i. 

We come at length to the New Testament, the marginal 

56 Sect II.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

annotations on which in the first edition amount to 767, 
so that together with the 6637 in the Old Testament, and 
the 1018 in the Apocrypha, the number in the whole Bible 
is no less than 8422. Of the 767 in the New Testament 
37 relate to various readings, and will be detailed presently 
(p. 58); 112 supply 'US with a more literal rendering of 
the Greek than was judged suitable for the text; no less 
than 582 are alternative translations, 35 are explanatory 
notes or brief expositions. Of later notes, the Bible of 1762 
added 96, that of 1769 no more than nine. Taking in 
therefore the 368 noted in the Old Testament (p. 45), 
and the 21 in ihe Apocrypha, these additional marginal 
annotations amount in all to 494, few of them of any great 
value, some even marvellously trifling, but all of them 
ought in editions of the Bible to be readily distinguished 
from the work of the original Translators by being placed 
within brackets. Those who shall look almost at random 
into the multitude of Bibles published between 1638 and 
1762 (a branch of enquiry which our plan does not lead to 
the necessity of examining very minutely), will probably 
find the germ of some of these later notes in Bibles of that 
period, put forth as it were tentatively, and withdrawn in 
later copies. Thus the later margins of Matt, xxviii. 19 
(slightly altered in 1683, 1701) and of Acts xiv. 21, first 
appeared in Field's Bible of 1660, then in the Cambridge 
edition of 1683. To the same Bibles may be traced the 
notes on Matt. x. 25; xiv. 6; xxi. 19; xxii. 26. Mark xi. 
17. Luke xxii. 42. Acts vii. 44; viii. 13. i Cor. vii. 32. 
2 Cor. viii. 2; x. 10. James iii. 6. 2 John 3. The Cam- 
bridge Bible of 1683 first gave those on Matt. i. 20. 
Mark iii. 3; vii. 22. Luke vii. 8; xi. 36; xviii. 2; xxi. 8. 
Acts ix. 2; XV. S; xvii. 3; xviii. 5. i Cor. vii. 16. Eph. ii. 
S; vi. 12. I Tim. iii. 16. 2 Tim. postscript. Heb. x. 34; 
xii. 10. James iv. 2. 2 Peter i. i, 8: many of which were. 

Marginal notes and original texts, '*' 57 

obviously the work of the same mind. Two more appear 
in Lloyd's Bible of 1701, i Cor. xii. 5. Heb. i. 6'. These 
38 notes at least must accordingly be deducted from the 96 
imputed to Dr Paris, and they are among the best of this 
class. After having been swept away from the ordinary 
Bibles whereof ours of 1743 — 4 is a type, he brought them 
back again into their former places. 

As Tremellius had special influence with the revisers of 
the Old Testament, and Junius with those of the Apocrypha, 
so Beza had considerable weight with those of the New Tes- 
tament. Some of their worst marginal renderings come from 
his Latin version, such as Mark i. 34. Luke iv. 41. Acts i. 
8. Rom. xi. 17. I Cor. iv. 9, though this last belongs to 
1762. The earlier versions also often gave rise to the 
margin. Thus 2 Cor. v. 17 is alleged to this effect by Bp. 
Turton", where the Genevan Bible of 1560 led the Trans- 
lators to insert a note in opposition to their own judgment, 
fortified as it was by Beza, and all the English translations 
save that one. Particular attention was naturally paid to 
the Bishops' Bible, which was the basis of the Authorized. 
Sometimes its renderings both in text and margin are re- 
tained unchanged, e.g. 2 Cor. viii. 22 : or the margin alone 
is kept, after the text is changed, e.g. Heb. xii. 2: or the 
Bishops' rendering, although removed from the text where 
it once stood, is retained for a margin, e.g. Gal. iii. 4. 
Eph. iv. I. 2 Thess. iii. 14. 2 Tim. iv. 5, 15. In that 
primary passage Heb. ii. 16 the text and margin are both 
virtually the Bishops', with their places reversed. It is 

1 All these particulars (a little ing of certain manuscripts of the 

revised) are derived from p. lo of Vulgate mjtis graiid, seems due to 

Professor Grote's valuable Manu- Scattergood (see p. 26), and is 

script, for vphich see above, p. -23, suggested in that portion of PoH 

note. He includes in his list Acts Synopsis of which he is the reputed 

xvii. 19, but this is as old as 161 1. author (Grote MS. p. 41). 
The note on Eph. ii. 5 "by vfhose ^ Texl of English Bible, p. 71 

grace ", taken from a various read- note. 

58 Sect. II.\ Authorized Version of the Bible (161 1). 

needless to pursue this subject further, however curious 
the questions it suggests, since, after all, every rendering 
must be judged upon its own merits, independently of the 
source from which it was drawn. 

The following marginal notes relating to various readings 
occur in the New Testament in the two issues of i6ri. 
They are nearly all derived from Beza's text or notes. 

S. Matt. i. ii; vii. 14; ix. 26 (perhaps aiiroO of Codex BezEe [D] 
is represented in the text: "the fame of this" Bishops'); xxiv. 31; 
xxvi. 26. S. Mark ix. 16 {avrovs Beza 1565, afterwards changed by 
him to aiiToiis). S. LUKE ii. 38; a. 22 (the words in the margin are 
from the Complutensian edition and Stephen's of 1550); xvii. 36. 
S. John xviii. 13 (the words of this margin, except the reference 
to ver. 24, are copied from the text of the Bishops' Bible, where 
they are printed in the old substitute for italic type).^ Acts xiii. 18; 
XXV. 6. Rom. v. ry; vii. 6; viii. 11. i Cor. xv. 31^. 2 Cor. 
xiii. 4^. Gal. iv. 15 {uii Vulg. text., tIs marg. with Greek), tizd. 17 
(i/iSs Compl. Erasm. Stepli. Beza 1565, r(/iias Beza 1589, 1598). EPH. 
vi. 9 (U|UM>' Kal air&v Compl.). i TiM. iv. 15 (om. ^j" text, with Vulg.). 
Heb. iv. 2 {crvyKeKpafj/mvs margin, with Compl. Vulg.); ix. 2 {Syia text, 
with Compl. Erasm. Beza: ayla marg. with Steph.) : see below, p. 253 ; 
xi. 4 (\a\ei text, with Erasm. Aldus, Vulg. English versions: XaXcirat 
margin, Compl., Stephen, Beza*). James ii. 18 (x<^/i's text, Colinseus 
1534, Beza's last three editions, Syr. Vulg.: ^k margin, Compl. Erasm. 
Stephen, Beza 1565, all previous English versions), i Pet. i. 4 {iinds 
Steph.); ii. 21 [v/iSiv Beza 1565, not in his later editions: this marginal 

^ It is doubtful whether even see Appendix E. 

in the Bishops' Bible the words ' But as no early edition reads 

are designed to indicate a various <t{iv, the margin may only suggest 

reading, or are a simple comment a different rendering for ei>. Beza 

on the passage, compared with says "Sed ^c pro ufo positum esse 

ver. 24. There is Syriac and some vel illud declarat, quod in proximo 

other though very slender autho- membro scriptum est aiv avrf," 

rity for inserting them, but that of and so he translates cum eo, ' iv 

Cyril alone would be known to our aOrij!. 

Translators, who doubtless took * Beza's Latin is like the Vul- 

them from Beza's Latin version gate "loquitur:" perhaps XaXe?Tai 

(■6.^6). was not regarded by him as pas- 

For the last three passages sive. 

Marginal notes and original texts. * 59 

note is also in the Bishops' Bible). 2 Pet. ii. 2 {daeKyetcus marg. 
Compl.); II (marg. as Vulg. Great Bible); 18 {6\iyov Compl. Vulg.). 
2 John 8 {elpya<rai76e . . .dTrdXa^riTe marg. Vulg.). Rev. iii. 14 (margin 
as Compl., all previous English versions); vi. 8 (ailrp margin, with 
Compl. Vulg. Bishops' Bible) ; xiii. i (6v(>iJ.ara margin, with Compl. 
Vulg. Coverdale) ; 5 (margin adds or prefixes irdXe/jLov to irot^aaL of the 
text, with Compl. Colinseus 1534, but not Erasm., Beza, Vulg. or 
English Versions) ; xiv. 1 3 (marg. dirapTi \iyei pal rb TLveO/ia with 
Compl. Colinasus) ; xvii. 5 (marg. is from Vulg. and all previous Eng- 
lish versions). 

To these 37 textual notes of 1611, the edition of 1762 
added fifteen, that of 1769 one. 

1762. S. Matt. vi. i; x. 10; 25; xii. 27 (+"Gr. Beehebul: and 
so ver. 24") now dropped. S. Luke xxii. 42 (incidentally excluding 
TrapheyKe). Acts viii. 13. 2 CoR. x. 10. Heb. x. 2 (see Appendix E); 
17 (probably from the Philoxenian Syriac version, then just becoming 
known). James iv. 2, revived from the Bible of 1683 {(pdoveire Erasm. 
1519, Luther, Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, Geneva 1557, Bishops', 
but perhaps no manuscript). 2 Pet. i. i (see Appendix E). 2 John 12 
(i5^£j' Vulg.). Rev. xv. 3 (07(01' text, after Erasm., English versions : 
the alternative readings in the margin being ^ffctDx of Compl., which is 
much the best supported, and aliivuv of the Clementine Vulgate, of some 
Vulgate manuscripts, and the later Syriac) ; xxi. 7 (margin ravra Compl. 
Vulg. rightly); xxii. 19 (marg. ^v\ov for second (SijSXfou Compl. Vulg. 

1769. S. Matt. xii. 24 taken mulatis mutandis from the marginal 
note of 1762 on ver. 27. 

In Appendix E has been brought together all that can 
throw Hght on the critical resources at the command of our 
Translators in the prosecution of their version of the New 
Testament. That these were very scanty is sufficiently 
well known, and, if for this cause only, a formal revision of 
their work has become a matter of necessity, after the lapse 
of so long a period. None of the most ancient Greek 
manuscripts had then been collated, and though Codex 
Beza (D) had been for many years deposited in England, 
little use had been made of it, and that single document, 

6o Sect. II.] Authorized Version, of the Bible (i6ir). 

from its very peculiar character, would have been more 
likely to mislead than to instruct in inexperienced hands. 
It would be unjust to allege that the Translators failed to 
take advantage of the materials which were readily acces- 
sible, nor did they lack care or discernment in the appUcation 
of them. Doubtless they rested mainly on the later editions 
of Beza's Greek Testament, whereof his fourth (1589) was 
somewhat more highly esteemed than his fifth (1598), the 
production of his extreme old age. But besides these, the 
Complutensian Polyglott, together with the several editions 
of Erasmus, and Stephen's of 1550, were constantly resorted 
to. Out of the 252 passages ' examined in Appendix E, 
wherein the differences between the texts of these books 
is sufficient to affect, however slightly, the language of the 
version, our Translators abide with Beza against Stephen in 
113 places, with Stephen against Beza in 59, with the Com- 
plutensian, Erasmus, or the Vulgate against both Stephen 
and Beza in 80. The infliience of Beza is just as per- 
ceptible in the cases of their choice between the various 
readings which have been collected above (p. 58) : the 
form approved by him is set in the text, the alternative is 
mostly banished to the margin. On certain occasions, it 
may be, the Translators yielded too much to Beza's some- 
what arbitrary decisions; but they lived at a time when his 
name was the very highest among Reformed theologians, 
when means for arriving at an independent judgment were 
few and scattered, and when the first principles of textual 
criticism had yet to be gathered from a long process of 
painful induction. His most obvious and glaring errors 
their good sense easily enabled them to avoid (cf. Matt. i. 23; 
John, xviii, 20). 

The Italic type. ♦ 6r 

Section III. 

On the use of the Italic type by the Translators, and on the 
extension of their principles by subsequent editors. 

The practice of indicating by a variation of type such 
words in a translation of the Bible as have no exact repre- 
sentatives in the original is believed to have been first 
employed by Sebastian Munster in his Latin version of the 
Old Testament published in 1534^ Five years later this di- 
versity of character ("a small letter in the text" as the editors 
describe it) was resorted to in the Great Bible, in order 
to direct attentioii to clauses rendered from the Latin Vul- 
gate which are not extant in the Hebrew or Greek originals. 
A good example of its use occurs in Matt. xxv. i where 
" {and the bride) " is added to the end of the verse from 
the Old Latin, not, from any Greek copy known in that 
age. As the readings of the Vulgate came to be less 
regarded or less familiar in England, subsequent translators 
applied the smaller type to the purpose for which Munster 
had first designed it, the rather as Theodore Eeza had so 
used it in his Latin New Testament of 1556. Thus the 
English New Testament pubhshed at Geneva in 1557, and 
the Genevan Bible of 1560, "put to that word, which lacking 
made the sentence obscure, but set it in such letters, as may 
easily be discerned from the common text^" The same 
expedient was adopted by the translators of the Bishops' 
Bible (1568, 1572), somewhat too freely indeed in parts. 

1 Bp. Turton's Text of the the italics which is only not com- 

English'Bible Considered {$.111, pletf™ „ j, j . wt 

slc6nd edition). In this branch ' To the Reader, p. 2, N.T. 

of the subject the Bishop was quite 1557. 
at home, and has given a view of 

62 Sect. III.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

It is one of the most considerable faults of this not very- 
successful version, that its authors assumed a liberty of 
running into paraphrase, the ill effects of which this very 
difference in the type tended to conceal from themselves. 
From these two preceding versions, then held in the best 
repute, the Geneva and the Bishops' Bibles, the small 
Roman as distinguished from the black letter (now and as 
early as the Bible of 161 2 respectively represented by the 
Italic and Roman type) was brought naturally enough into 
the Bible of 16 11, and forms a prominent feature of it, 
whether for good or ill. 

On this last point, namely, the wisdom or convenience 
of printing different words in the same verse or line in dif- 
ferent kinds of type, with a view to the purpose explained 
above, it is not necessary for an editor of the Authorized 
Bible to express, or even to hold, an opinion. Italics, or 
whatever corresponds with them, may possibly be dispensed 
with altogether (though in practice this abstinence will be 
found hard to maintain); orthey may be reserved for certain 
extreme cases, where marked difference in idiom between 
the two languages, or else some obscurity or corruption of 
the original text, seems to forbid a strict and literal trans- 
lation. It is enough for the present purpose to say that our 
existing version was plainly constructed on another prin- 
ciple. Those who made it saw no objection to the free use 
of a typographical device which custom had sanctioned, and 
would have doubtless given a different turn to many a sen- 
tence had they been debarred from indicating to the un- 
learned what they had felt obliged to add of their own 
to the actual words of the original; the addition being 
always either involved and implied in the Hebrew or Greek, 
or at any rate being so necessary to the sense that the 
English reader would be perplexed or go wrong without it. 
Taking for granted, therefore, the right of the Translators 

The Italic type. * 63 

thus to resort to the italic type, and the general propriety of 
their mode of exercising it, the only enquiry now open to 
us is whether they were uniform, or reasonably consistent, 
in their use of it. 

And in the face of patent and well ascertained facts it is 
impossible to answer such a question in the affirmative. 
Undue haste and scarcely venial carelessness on the part 
of the persons engaged in carrying through the press the 
issues of 16 II, which are only too visible in other matters 
(see above, p. 8), are nowhere more conspicuous than with 
regard to this difference in the type. If it be once conceded 
that the Translators must have intended to use or refrain 
from using italics in the selfsame manner in all cases that 
are absolutely identical (and the contrary supposition would 
be strange and unreasonable indeed), their whole case in 
this matter must be given up as indefensible. There is 
really no serious attempt to avoid palpable inconsistencies 
on the same page, in the same verse : and those who have 
gone over this branch of their work will be aware that even 
comparative uniformity can be secured only in one way, by 
the repeated comparison of the version with the sacred 
originals, by unflagging attention so that nothing however 
minute may pass unexamined. This close and critical ex- 
amination was evidently entered upon, with more or less 
good results, by those who prepared the Cambridge Bibles of 
1629 and more especially of 1638 (for before these appeared 
the italics of 1611, with all their glaring faults, were reprinted 
without change'), and in the next century by Dr Paris in 
1762, by Dr Blayney and his friends in 1769 (see Appendix 
D). The rules to be observed in such researches, and the 
principles on which they are grounded, must be gathered 

1 There may be more altera- not in later Bibles before 1629 
tions, but we can name only Gal. (Cambridge). 
i. 3, "be" italicised in 1613, but 

64 Sect. JII.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (161 1). 

from the study of the standard of 161 1, exclusively of sub- 
sequent changes, regard being paid to what its authors in- 
tended, rather than to their actual practice. 

The cases in which the itaHc character has been em- 
ployed by the Translators of our Authorized Bible may 
probably be brought under the following heads : — - 

(i) When words quite or nearly necessary to complete 
the sense of the sacred writers have been introduced into the 
text from parallel places of Scripture. Six such instances 
occur in the second book of Samuel : 

ch. V. 8. " And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up 
to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, 
that are hated of David's soul, he shall be chief and captain." The last 
clause is supplied from i Chr. xi. 6. 

ch. vi. 6. "And when they came to Nachon's threshing-floor, 
XJzzah put forth his hand to the ark of God." Rather '■'■his hand" 
(as in 1638) from i Chr. xiii. 9. 

ch. viii. 4. " And David took from him a thousand chariots, and 
seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen." We derive 
"chariots" from i Chr. xviii. 4. 

ibid. 18. "And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over both the 
Cherethites and the Pelethites" (was over 1629). In i Chr. xviii. 17 
"was over" (1611). 

ch. xxi. ig. " ...slifw the brotJier of Go\i!>i}ith&G'M.ite.'' In i Chr. 
XX. 5 we read "slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite." 

ch. xxiii. 8. "the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his 
spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time." i Chr. xi. 11 
supplies "he lift up, &c." 

Thus Num. xx. 26 is filled up from ver. 24; Judg. ii. 3 
from Num. xxxiii. 55 or Josh, xxiii. 13; i Kin. ix. 8 from 
2 Chr. vii. 21 ; 2 Kin. xxv. 3 from Jer. xxxix. 2 and lii. 6; 
I Chr. ix. 41 from ch. viii. 35; i Chr. xvii. 25 from 2 Sam. 
vii. 27 ; I Chr. xviii. 6 from 2 Sam. viii. 6; 2 Chr. xxv. 24 
from 2 Kin. xiv. 14; Ezra ii. 6, 59 from Neh. vii. 11, 61. In 
the Bible of 1638 Jer. vi. 14 " of the daughter" is italicised, 
as taken into the text fromch. viii. 11. This is the simplest 

The Italic type. 65 

case, for the words supplied in italics are doubtless lost in 
the one ancient text, while they are preserved in the other. 

(2) When the extreme compactness of the Hebrew 
language produces a form of expression intelligible enough 
to those who are well versed in it, yet hardly capable of 
being transformed into a modern tongue. One or two of 
Bp. Turton's (Text, &c. pp. 50, 51) examples will illustrate 
our meaning : 

Gen. xiii. 9. " Separate thyself, I pray thee, from me : if the left 
hand, then I will go to the right; or if the right hand, then I will 
go to the left." 

Ex. xiv. 20. "And it was a cloud and darkness, but it gave 
light by night." 

Every one must feel that something is wanting to render 
these verses perspicuous ; the latter indeed we should hardly 
understand, without looking closely to the context. It seems 
quite right, therefore, that supplementary words should be 
inserted in such places, and equally fit that they should be 
indicated by some contrivance which may shew that they 
form no part of the Hebrew original. In our version ac- 
cordingly the verses stand as follows, except that, in the 
former, "thou" (twice over) was not in italics before 1629; 
italicise also the second " to " : 

"If thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; 
or iiihou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left." 

"It was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night 
to these." 

To this class we may most conveniently refer the nume- 
rous cases wherein what grammarians call the apodosis (that 
is, the consequence resulting from a supposed act or con- 
dition) is implied rather than stated, yet in English requires 
something to be expressed more or less fully : such are the 
following texts : 

Gen. XXX. 27. " If I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry." 
S. 5 

66 Sect. I 11?^ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

2 Chr. ii. 3. " As thou didst deal with David my father, and didst 
send him cedars... ft'^w so deal with me." 

Dan. iii. 15. " If ye be ready that at what time ye hear the 
sound of the comet,... ye fall down and worship the image which I have 
made, well." 

Lulie xiii. 9. "And if it bear fruit, well." 

Occasionally our Translators, with happy boldness, have 
suppressed the afodosis entirely, as in the original (Ex. xxxii, 
32 ; Luke xix. 42). In some few passages the seeming 
necessity for such insertion arises from a misunderstanding 
either of the sense or the construction : such is probably the 
case in Neh. iv. 12, and unquestionably so in Matt. xv. 6; 
Mark vii. 1 1. 

(3) Just as little objection will probably be urged 
against the custom of our Translators in italicising words 
supplied to clear up the use of the grammatical figure 
known as the zeugma, whereby, in the Hebrew no less than 
in the Greek and Latin languages, an expression which 
strictly belongs to but one member of a sentence, with 
some violation of strict propriety, is made to do duty in 

Gen. iv. ia. " And Adah bare Jabal : he was the father of such 
as dwell in tents, and cattle." Supply, " of such as have cattle." 

Ex. iii. 16. "I have surely visited you, and that which is done 
to you in Egypt." Our version here, with less necessity, inserts "seen " 
after "and." 

Ex. XX. 18. " And all the people saw the thunderings, and the 
lightnings, and the noise of the tnimpet, and the mountain smoking." 
Here the order of the clauses renders it impossible to supply any single 
word which would not increase the awkwardness of the sentence : the 
passage is accordingly left as it stands in the original. Not so the 
sharper language of the parallel place : 

Deut. iv. 11. "Ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no simili- 
tude, only a voice." After "only" insert with 1611 "ye heard." 

1 Kin. xi. 12 (so ■.: Chr. xxiii. 11). "And he brought forth the 
king's son, and put the crown upon him, and the Testimony." Insert 
"gave him" before "the Testimony," 

The Italic type. * 67 

Luke i. 64. "And his mouth was opened immediately, and his 
tongue," add "-loosed." 

1 Cor. xiv. 34. "It is not permitted unto them to speak, but to be 
under obedience." After "but"insert "they are commanded.^' So ''and 
commanding^'' before " to abstain " in the exactly parallel passage, 
I Tim. iv. 3. 

The following examples, taken from the Apocrypha, 
have been neglected by all editors up to the present date : 

2 Esdr. ix. 24. "Taste no flesh, drink no wine, but eat flowers 

xii. 17, "As for the voice which thou heardest speak, and that 
thou sawest not to go out from the heads." This rendering, taken from 
the Coverdale and Bishops' Bible, is possibly incorrect. 

Ecclus. li. 3. "According to the midtitude of thy mercies and 
greatness of thy name." 

(4) Akin to the preceding is the practice of inserting 
in the Authorized Version a word or two, in order to indicate 
that abrupt transition from the oblique to the direct form of 
speech, which is so familiar to most ancient languages, but 
so foreign to our own 1 

Gen. iv. 25. "And she bare a son, and called his name Seth : for 
God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel." 

Ex. xviii. 4. "And the name of the other was Eliezer ; for the God 
of my Father, said he, taas mine help." 

2 Sam. ix. ii. "As for Mephibosheth, said the king, he shall eat 
at my table." 

Jer. xxi. 11. "And touching the house of the king of Judah, say, 
Hear ye the word of the Lord." 

Judith V. 23. "For, say they, we will not be afraid of the face of. 
the children of Israel." 

Acts i. 4. "Which, saith he, ye have heard of me." 

The inconvenience of a sudden change of person, un- 
broken by any such words supplied, may appear from Gen. 
xxxii. 30, "And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: 
for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved." 
Just as abrupt is the construction in Gen. xli. 52 (compare 

s— 2 

68 Sect. IIJ.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

ver. 51); Tobit viii. 21. In 2 Mace. vi. 24 "said he" con- 
tinued in Roman type till 1638. 

(5) Another use of italics is to indicate that a word or 
clause is of doubtful authority as a matter of textual criti- 
cism. Of this in the Authorized Version we can produce 
only one unequivocal instance in the Canonical books, i 
John ii. 23 (see Appendix E, p. 254); for it is not quite cer- 
tain that the change of type in Judg. xvi. 2 ; xx. 9, employed 
to point out words borrowed from the Septuagint, intimates 
any suspicion of a lacuna in the text. Some doubt also 
hangs over i Cor. xiv. 10 "none of them'' (see Appendix E, 
pp. 245, 251, where the italics were removed in 1638). In 
subsequent editions occur the following instances, most of 
them being due to the Cambridge edition of 1638, those 
that are not so having another date affixed to them : 

Deut. xxvU. 26 ("all"). Josh. xxii. 34 ("£d"). i Sam. ii. 16 
("Nay'' 1629 Camb.)i. 2 Kin. xix. 31 ("of hosts")"-; xx. 13 (the 
second "all" appears in most Hebrew Bibles, and we should restore the 
Roman character). 2 Chr. v. i ("a//"); xvii. 4 ("ZO^Z)"). Job x. 
20 ("cease then, and," 161 1 inconsistently : we should read with 1638, 
"cease then, and," or leave all in Roman as 1629 Camb., since both 
particles are found in Keri). Ps. xli. 2 ("Andh& shall be," Chetiv, not 
Xeri); Ixix. 32 {"arid be glad"). Prov. xx. 4 (therefore: but 1 of 
J^eri is in Symmachus and the Vulgate, so that we should restore the 
type of 1611). Jer. xiii. 16 ("and make," yet 1 of Keri is in the 
Septuagint and Vulgate). Lam. v. 7 ("and are not;" "And have." 
These two conjunctions are both wanting in Chetiv, but present in Kei-i, 
yet 1769 italicises the first, not the second). Mark viii. 14 {^' the disciples'" 

1 This is inevitable, as the ceived without italics where we 

reading is either 'h "to him" should not wish to insert them 

,^, ., .L now: e.g. Judg. XX. 13 "the chil- 

(Chetiv), or OT "Nay" (Keri), dren; " Ruth iii. 5, 17 "to me." 

not both. The two words are In ver. 37 of this chapter (2 Kin. 

confused in 18 other places, of xix.) we should italicise Keri "Aw 

which Delitzsch points out 17. sons" for the sake of consistency. 

" The addition in this passage In the parallel place Isai. xxxvii. 

and others is from the Hebrew .38 " his sons " stands in C/if^iz/, or 

Ken or margin ; but Keri is re- the text. 

The Italic type. 69 

first italicised in 1638). Mark ix. 42 (see Appendix E). John viii. 6 
(1769: see Appendix E). In Acts xxvi. 3 ^'■because I know," z-vA\h& 
first '■'and" in ver. 18, tlie italics are due to 1769. i John iii. 16 (see 
Appendix E, p. 255). 

Thus in the Apocrypha 1 629 italicises on me in Tobit xi. 1 5, jj.e being 
wanting in the Complutensiau, but we had better return to the Roman 
type. For similar cases examine Ecclus. iii. 22 (1629 and 1769); 
I Mace. iii. 18 (1638); x. 78 (1638); xi. 15 (1638, fartini recti); xiv. 
4 (1638). 

To these passages we may add 2 Chr. xv. 8 "^Oded'," 
to point out the doubt hanging over the reading or construc- 
tion in that place. Also in Ecclus. i. 7 ; xvii. 5, italics have 
been substituted, as was stated above (p. 48), in the room 
of brackets, as a mark of probable spuriousness in the lines 
so printed. The portion of i John v. 7, 8 which is now for 
the first time set in italics in the Cambridge Paragraph Bible, 
is probably no longer regarded as genuine by any one who 
is capable of forming an independent judgment on the 
state of the evidence. 

(6) The last class to which we may refer the italicised 
words in our version, is that wherein the words supplied are 
essential to the English sense, although they may very well 
be dispensed with in the Hebrew or Greek; nay more, 
although very often they could not be received into the 
original without burdening the sentence, or marring all pro- 
priety of style. This last head comprises a far greater number 
of cases than all the rest put together, and it may reasonably 
be doubted whether much advantage accrues from a change 
of type where the sense is not affected to an appreciable 
extent. Whether we say "the folk that are with me" (Gen. 

1 SUSn my nX-USni (contrast ch. xvi. 9. The Vulgate has here 
■■''•• ^ ■ ". = Azaria filii Oded, as all in ver. i. 
ch. ix. 29 ri*nX. nN-13|l"?5Jp. The xhus again in Prov. xv. 23, by 
absolute state of nN'-UJri seems italicising "they," one may in- 
connected with a break in the timate that " thoughts " is probably 
sense, such as occurs in ver. 11 ; not the real nommative to D-lpFl. 

70 Sect. III.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

xxxiii. 15) with the Bible of 1611, or "the folk that are with 
me" with the Cambridge edition of 1629, could make no 
difference whatever, except to one who was companng 
English with Hebrew idioms, and such a person would 
hardly need to carry on his studies in this fashion. One 
thing, however, is quite clear, that if it be well thus to mark 
the idiomatic or grammatical divergences between lan- 
guages, all possible care should be devoted to secure uni- 
formity of practice ; cases precisely similar should be 
treated in a similar manner. Now this is just the point at 
which our Authorized Version utterly fails us; we can never 
be sure of its consistency for two verses together. To take 
one or two instances out of a tiaousand: wliy do we find "zV 
be hid" in Levit. v. 3, 4, and "it be hidden" in ver. 2, the 
Hebrew being the same in all? Or why should the same 
Hebrew be represented by "upon all four" in Levit. xi. 20, 
but by "upon (or "on") a// four" in ver. 21, 27, 42? Even 
in graver matters there is little attempt at uniformity. Thus 
ouTos Heb. iii. 3 is "this man" in 161 1, but "this man" in 
Heb. viii. 3, a variation retained to this day; in i Pet. iv. 11 
"let hi7n speak" is italicised in 16 11, but the clause imme- 
diately following "let him do it" not before 1629. The 
foregoing gross oversights, with countless others, are set 
right by the revisers of 1629 and 1638, yet these later edi- 
tors have been found liable to introduce into the printed 
text nearly as many inconsistencies as they removed. Thus, 
for example, whereas "which were left" Lev. x. 16 ade- 
quately renders the Hebrew article with the participle 
of the Niphal conjugation, and so in 161 1 was printed 
in ordinary characters, the edition of 1638 wrongly italicises 
"which were" here, but leaves untouched "that were left" 
in ver. 12, a discrepancy which still cleaves to our modern 
Bibles. The same must be said of "ye are to pass" {"are" 
first itahcised in 1629) Deut. ii. 4 compared with "thou art 

The Italic type. • 7i 

to pass" ver. i8: ^'■even unto Azzah" ver. 23 ("i?z)«z" cor- 
rectly italicised in 1638, indeed the word is expressed in 
ver. 36), but "even unto this day'' left untouched in ver. 
22: "the slain man" {"?7ian'' first in 1629) Deut. xxi. 6, 
but "the slain man" ver. 3: "their backs" {"their" first in 
1629) Josh. vii. 12, but "their backs" ver. 8'. The reader 
will find as many instances of this nature as he cares to 
search for in any portion of our modern Bibles he may 
please to examine, and from the whole matter it is impos- 
sible to draw in the main any other conclusion than this: — 
that the changes introduced from time to time have been 
too unsystematic, too much the work of the moment, exe- 
cuted by too many hands, and on too unsettled principles, to 
hold out against hostile, or even against friendly criticism. 

Dr Blayney in his Report to the Oxford Delegates (Ap- 
pendix D) appeals to the edition of Dr Paris (1762) as 
having "made large corrections in this particular," adding 
that "there still remained many necessary alterations, which 
escaped the Doctor's notice" and had to be set right by 
himself and his friends. And it cannot be doubted that the 
two Bibles of 1762 and 1769 between them largely increased 
the number of the words printed in italics, although the 
effect was rather to add to than to diminish the manifest in- 
consistencies of earlier books. Thus Blayney (and after him 
the moderns) in Luke xvii. 29 (airavras) italicises "them" 

1 In the Bible of 1638, with ]a.te nU-lVpH (oKoKkripw, Symma- 

all its merits, we- occasionally ^^xxs: ofthesmne bigness,S{i\iofs'), 

notice a strange want of critical „^^^^„ j^ ^^^ j^^ j^^jj^^^ ^^ if ;j 

■skill. In Prov. ni. i8 our version ^^^^ ^ conjunction. In Heb. xi. 

happily changes he ot the . ^^ j.^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ without 

Bishops' version into ' every one, hesitation, the italics first used for 

to express the plural participle, to ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^,^^^^ i^^ ^g^g^ 3j„^g ^,, 

which the feminine pronoun is ^^^ ^^^-^^^ English versions were 

affixed ; yet this book, followed by jiggg^j ^ij^ c dockings: " Itcdi- 

all the rest, actually sets ''every ^^.^.^ y^j 

one" in italics. In Cant. iv. 2 . ' <= 
" even shorn" is designed to trans- 

72 Sect Iir.'\ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

before "all," yet leaves untouched "them all" ver. 27: in 
Luke xix. 22 he reads ^^thou wicked servant," retaining 
"thou good servant" in ver. 17. Nor can the correctness 
of Dr Paris be praised overmuch. In putting into Roman 
type the "good" of 161 1, Eccles. vii. i, he has been 
blindly followed by the rest, though a glance at the Hebrew 
would have set them right: yet some of his errors in italics 
were removed in 1769, e.g. "wayside" Matt. xiii. 4; Mark 
X. 46; Luke viii. 5. Hence it becomes manifest that, in pre- 
paring a critical edition of our vernacular Translation, which 
shall aim at meeting the wants and satisfying the scholarship 
of the present age, nothing less than a close and repeated 
comparison of the sacred originals, line by line, with the 
English Bible, will enable us to amend the mistakes which 
lack of time and consideration has led certain of the 
most eminent of preceding editors to pass by unnoticed, 
or even to exaggerate while attempting to remedy them. 

In the Apocrypha indeed the work would have to be 
done almost afresh, inasmuch as the Company of Trans- 
lators to whom these books were assigned took no sort of 
pains to assimilate their portion of the work to that executed 
by the others. They introduce this difference of type only 
54 times in the whole Apocrypha, in fact only three in- 
stances occur at all later than Ecclus. xlv. 4, after which 
brackets [ ], or sometimes ( ) are substituted in their room. 
No improvement worth mention seems to have been at- 
tempted before 1638, when 96 fresh instances of italics were 
added (e.g. Judith xiv. 18, but Tobit iv. 13 in 1629), and 
most of the brackets were displaced for italics, though a few 
yet survive in modern Bibles (2 Esdr. iii. 22. Wisd. xii. 
27; xvii. 2, 3, 4. Ecclus. vi. i, 2; viii. 11; xi. 30; xii. 5; 
xiv. 10 '). About ten places more were subsequently italicised 

1 In Ecclus. xliv. 22 the brack- marks of parenthesis ( ), since no 
ets [ ] can only be intended for copy omits the enclosed words. 

The Italic type. *■ 73 

(e.g. Wisd. V. 17; viii. 2. Baruch iii. 33. 2 Mace. xi. 33 
"and" all in 1769), so that the italics of modern Bibles 
are but 273 in all. Those that are employed are of much 
the same character as in the Canonical Scriptures; some for 
pointing out the zeugma (above p. 66), as i Mace. vii. ig'; 
X. 20, 24; 2 Mace. xi. 14: or for indicating a transition in 
the form of speech (Judith v. 23. Ecclus. ii. 18. i Mace. 
i. 50; xvi. 21 j so I Esdr. i. 4 in 1629, and 2 Mace. vi. 24 in 
1638): some for supplying a real or seeming grammatical 
defect (i Esdr. iv. 11. Tobit viii. 10. Ecclus. xii. 5): one 
for calling attention to uncertainty in the reading (Tobit x. 
^'\ see above, p. 68): a few for no reason that is apparent 
(Wisd. vi. 9 O kings. Ecclus. xl. 4; xlv. 4^), it would seem in 
mere error. Since our version of the Apocrypha is so imper- 
fectly revised as to resemble the Bishops' version in other 
respects more closely than we find in the inspired books, so 
does it in this over-free use of italic type by way of commen- 
tary. The interpolations in Wisd. ii. i; xvi. 10; i Mace. 
vii. 32 are derived from this source; that in Ecclus. vi. 2 
from the note of Junius {ferociens incerto et vago impetu): 
and too many others are conceived in the same spirit, e.g. 
Wisd. X. 10; xiv. 12; xix. 14. Ecclus. viii. 11; xi. 30; xlvi. 
6. I Mace. viii. 18. In i Mace. ix. 35, after Coverdale 
and the Bishops' Bible, our Translation actually brings a 
Proper Name into the text "[John]," avowedly on the 

1 But we should set in ordinary persuades even Fritzsche to adopt 
character "[have they cast out]" iri) iji\iC), from the Vulgate heu 
of 161 1 inver. 17, inasmuch as the heu me, Jili mi, at qtiid te misimus. 
elHpsis is only accidental, arising The itahc type should be changed 
from the order of the words cited into Roman, since the passage may 
from Ps. Ixxix. i, 3 in the Septua- very well stand unaltered. 

gint, and indeed in the Hebrew. ' In the original edition the 

2 In 161 1 we read "Now I first four words of Ecclus. viii. 8 
care for nothing, my son, since I are italicised by a like oversight. 
have let thee go," oiiJ.i\ei.iJ.oi.,TiKvov, They were set in Roman type m 
on actnJKo. ire, but Junius would 1629. 

have us read ot for oi (Drusius 

74 Sect. III.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

authority of Josephus, for the shght evidence now alleged 
in its favour (the Syriac and three recent Greek copies) was 
unknown to them. 

After this general survey of the whole subject, it is 
proper to state certain rules, applicable to particular cases, 
which a careful study of the Bible of 1611 will shew that 
our Translators laid down for themselves, but which haste 
or inadvertence has caused them to carry out very imper- 
fectly in practice. It will be seen that many of their omis- 
sions were supplied in one or other of those later editions . 
which display care in the matter, while almost as many 
have remained to be set right by their successors. "Whether 
the Translators, if they had foreseen and fully considered 
how far the system of italics which they adopted, when 
carried out, would lead, would have adopted it, ...may be a 
question. And whether the abundance of the italics... does 
not in a measure defeat its own purpose by withdrawing 
attention from them, is perhaps a question also. But as it 
was, the course adopted by the editors of 161 1 having been 
to mark by italics not important insertions only, but to aim 
at marking in this manner everything, even trifling pronouns 
and auxiliary verbs, not in the originals, carrying out how 
ever their intention very imperfectly : the choice for after 
editors lies between adopting a different system, and carry- 
ing out theirs to the full'." Between these alternatives few 
perhaps will censure those who have chosen the latter with- 
out much hesitation. 

The following observations, therefore, grounded on the 
practice of our Translators, will guide us in a vast number 
of doubtful cases. 

(i) The English possessive pronoun, when it renders 
the Hebrew or Greek article, should be set in italics. Com- 
pare in 16 1 1 Judg. iii. 20. 2 Sam. vi. 7; xvii. 23. 2 Kin. 
^ GroteMS. p. 24. See above, p. 23, note. 

The' Italic type. '75 

ix. 35; xiii. 3. 2 Chr. xiii. 10. Job i. 5; ii. 13. 1 Cor. i. r. 

2 Cor. i. X. Gal. v. 10. Eph. iv. 28. Phil. ii. 13, So in 
1629, Gen. xxvi. 11. Neh. xii. 42: in 1638, Matt. viii. 3; 
X. 24; xii. 10, 33; xiii. 15 {icr); xiv. 19, 31; xv. 5, Sac. passim .' 
in 1762, Matt. xii.. 46; xxi. 31; xxvi. 23, 51; xxvii. 24: in 
1769, Matt. XV. 8 J XXV. 32. Mark v. 29; x. 16, &c. 

(2) Since the definite article is only the unemphatic 
form of the demonstrative 'that,' and has itself a demon- 
strative force', it might not appear necessary to set "that" 
in italics when it represents the Greek or Hebrew article. 
In 1611, however, it is thus printed so often as to prove 
that our Translators designed to do so always with "this" 
and "that.'' For their practice compare Gen. xviii. 32. Ex. 
ix. 2"]; xxxiv. i. Num. xi. 32. Josh. iii. 4. i Sam. xiv. 8; 
xxv. 24. I Chr. xviii. 11; xxi. 22. 2 Chr. xx. 29; xxxvi. 18. 
Ezra ix. 2 ; X. 9. Eccles. vi. 12. Luke viii. 14. 2 Tim. ii. 4. 
In 1629 many more were added, e.g. Gen. xxxi. 43 {"these" 
ter); xliii. 16 {bis): in 1638, i Chr. vi. 64; vii. 21. 2 Chr. 
xxviii. 22. Ezra x. 4. Neh. viii. 10. Job xxxii. 5. Ps. Ii. 
4. Eccles. viii. 8; ix. 9. Isai. xxxvii. 30 (yet not 2 Kin. 
xix. 29). Jer. ix. 26; xxxviii. 12. Ezek. xliv. 3; xlvi. 2, 8. 
Hab. i. 6. Mark iv. 11; ix. 42. John v. 13. Acts xxiv. 22. 
Rom. xvi. 22. I Cor. ix. 12; xi. 27. 2 Cor. v. i, 4. 2 
Thess. i. 11. i Tim. vi. 7, 14. 2 Pet. i. 14: a few in 1769, 

3 Sam. xvi. 11; xviii. 32. Hos. ix. 10. Yet in the New 
Testament this rule is even now greatly neglected. 

(3) The idioms of the English and the Hebrew differ 
so widely that no attempt has been made, in the great 
majority of cases, to print the English definite article in 
italics when the Hebrew one is wanting. The only apparent 
instance of such distinction being kept up by our Translators 
occurs in i Sam. xxvi. 8, and is a mere error, the Hebrew 
article being present: hence "the" is put into Roman type 

1 Bain, English Grammar, p. 34. 

76 Sect. III.'] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

in 1638'. Occasionally, however, the sense is so much 
affected, perhaps for the worse, by the presence of the 
English article, that we should be careful to note its absence 
in the Hebrew: e.g. Ps. xlv. i. Ezek. iv. i; x. 20; xxiii. 45. 
Hos. ii. 4; viii. 7; x. 10 ; xii. 4. Joel ii. 6. Amos vii. 10. 
Jonah iv. 10 marg. Mic. v. 5. In thus dealing with the Greek 
article rather more freedom may be assumed, regard being 
always had to the anarthrous style of certain of the sacred 
writers, and to the licence which permits the omission of 
the article in certain constructions. Compare Ecclus. xliv. 
18. Rom. i. 6; ii. 14. i Cor. ix. 20. GaL iv. 31. i Thess. 
ii. 6. I Tim. ii. 5. Heb. ii. 5. i Pet. i. 12; iv. 10. i John 
ii. I. 3 John 3. Rev. xiv. 9; xv. 2; xxi. 17. The English 
indefinite article'', or none at all, would better suit most of 
these places. 

(4) Annexed to proper and common appellations of 
places the Hebrew n, the old accusative termination, is re- 
garded as denoting motion to, and its absence, or that of a 
corresponding preposition, is indicated by italics : e.g. Job 
xxx. 23; Ps. V. 7 in 1611. But n prefixed, which maybe 
the article, and sometimes accompanies n annexed (compare 
2 Sam. xiii. 10), is not so regarded. Prepositions of motion 
in English, which have no Hebrew equivalent, should be 
systematically set in italics, the rather since it is not always 
certain that the right one is employed, e.g. 1 Sam. xxiii. 25. 
2 Kin. xvi. 8. 

(s) When an article is prefixed to a participle, but not 
otherwise, and it is rendered by " which are," "that is" &c. 
("such as were" Eccles. iv. i), these words are best printed 

^ In Jobxi. 16 alsoSjTid. A. 3. meaning to italicise our indefi- 

14, B. M. 1276. 1. 4 and 3050. g. 3 nite article, as 1611 seems never 

read ^'the miseiy, " but this is to have done, but only 1638 in 

probably a misprint for ''thy Acts x. 3, and 1 762 in Acts xxi v. 

misery" of the other issue. 5. 

^ It is, of course, quite un- 

The Italic type. *77 

without italics, as in 1611 they are pretty uniformly, e.g. 
Lev. X. 16. Deut. xx. 11; xxv. 6, 18; xxix. 29'. In 1638 
italics came to be employed in some cases of this kind, e. g. 
^Hhat was built" Judg. vi. 28; '■'which is shed" Ps. Ixxix. 
10; "she that looketh" Cant. vi. 10; ''one that accuseth" 
John V. 45. In Judg. xi. 30 marg. "that which cometh 
fortV of i6ii is properly changed in 1629 into "that 
which cometh forth." 

(6) But even if the article be prefixed to an adjective, 
the correct practice is to italicise the words supplied. Thus 
in 1611 "that are wise," "that are mighty" Isai. v. 21, 22; 
"who is holy" Heb. vii. 26, in which passages there is no 
article. In Judg. viii. 15, where the article is found, we have 
"that flr.? weary" in 1611, "that are weary" 1629, "that are 
weary" 1638 correctly. This last edition is very careful on 
the point, having rightly put into italics what had previously 
been Roman in i Sam. xv. 9. Neh. iv. 14. Ps. Ixxxv. 12. 
Ezek. xxii. 5. Yet in Judg. xvii. 6; xxi. 25 and such like 
passages some adopt (not very consistently) "that which 
was right," to intimate the presence of the article, as x Sam. 
ix. 24 in 1638. 

(7) In such phrases as "and it came to pass... that," if 
the Hebrew copulative ) be not expressed at the beginning 
of the second clause, its absence is denoted by italicising 
"that," which otherwise would stand in Roman type. This 
nice distinction is observed by our Translators with as much 
consistency as they display in greater matters. Thus 1611 
in Gen. iv. 14. Ex. xxxiii. 8. Num. xvi. 7. 2 Kin. xviii. 
I. I Chr. xiv. 15. Esther v. 2. Isai. x. 12, 20, 27; xxiv. 
18. So in 1629, Ex. xxxiii. 7. Lev. ix. i. Num. xvii. 5: 
in 1638, Neh. iv. 16: in 1762, Matt. xiii. 53; xix. i. Luke 
XX. I. Compare Luke v. i, 17; vii. 12; viii. i, &c. 

1 In the concise style of poetry the absence of the article before 
we may often wiUingly overlook the present participle. 

78 Sect. III.'] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

(8) The personal pronoun, when omitted with the 
Hebrew infinitive (occasionally with some risk of ambiguity 
in the sense) should always, when supplied in the version, be 
printed in italics. This comprehensive rule is abided by in 
161 1 at Gen. vi. 19, 20 "to keep them alivej" Ex. xxx. 
12 (second case, but overlooked in the first), 15; xxxi. 13. 
Deut. xxvi. 18.' I Kin. xii. 6 ("/" overlooked by 1629 and 
later Bibles), i Chr. xxviii. 4. 2 Chr. xxxv. 6. Isai. 1. 4 
("/" again overlooked in 1629 and its successors). Thus 
also in 1629, Ex. xxviii. 28. Esther iv. 11: in 1638, Gen. 
iii. 6. Acts xii. ig. Rom. xiii. 5; in 1769, Ex. xxxv. i. 
Deut. xxix. 29. Heb. xii. 10. 

(9) Where in Hebrew the first of two nouns is in the 
state of construction, the word "of" between them is not 
italicised in English : but if the preceding noun be sus- 
ceptible of a change by reason of the state of construction, 
and yet be not so changed, "of" or its equivalent is italicised. 
Compare, for example, Ex. xxxvii. 24 with Ex. xxv. 39. 
The Masoretic points are necessarily taken for true under 
this head. 

(10) It would seem natural to italicise "own" in the 
expression "your own," "his own," &c. where the original 
has but the simple possessive pronoun. Yet in i6ri we 
find it so printed only in 2 Sam. xviii. 13. Job v. 13; ix. 20. 
Prov. i. 18 {his). Blayney has "his own'' in Gen. i. 27, and 
in no other place, as if he shrank from making about 200 
changes in respect to one word. We should itaHcise "own" 
only in Job xix. 1 7, where its presence excludes one very 
possible sense, and in Acts xxi. 11, where it is important to 
mark that koxTov is not in the text. 

(11) The Hebrew preposition \ "to," with or without 
the verb "to be*," is considered as equivalent, idiom for 
idiom, with the English verb "to have." It is so treated 
in the book of 16 11 usually (e.g. Gen. xii. 20; xvi. i), but 

The Italic type. • 79 

not always (e.g. Gen. xi. 6 "they have,'' ver. 30 *'she hacT'). 
But "pertained" in such phrases is always italicised, as Judg. 
vi. II in 1611. Hence we would not follow Scholefield', 
who reads "what have I" i Cor. v. 12. 

(12) We have adopted, with some hesitation, Mr 
Gorle's' refined distinction, confirmed by 16 11 in Jer. xH. 16, 
between 1D>? "after that" and XT'^M "after that;" not 
however with infinitives, as 2 Chr. xxvi. 2. Jer. xxxvi. 27; 
xl. I. 

(13) When in different parts of Scripture a phrase or 
expression is given with more or less fulness, it is right to 
distinguish the shorter form, by setting the missing part of 
it in italics. Examples are in 1611 "dead men" Ex. xii. 33; 
''mighty man" Ps. cxx. 4 marg. (compare Ruth ii. i. i Sam. 
xiv. 52. Jer. xli. 16, where "man" is expressed): in 1638, 
Job xvii. 8, 10. Isai. xxix. 8; xliv. 25: in 1769, Isai. xH. 2. 
Again in 1611, "fill with" Gen. xliv. i. Ps. Ixxi. 8 {bis); 
Ixxii. 1 9, a preposition being supphed after the verb (^/O) 
in Ex. xvi. 32. 2 Kin. ix. 24. Ezra ix. 11. Job xli. 7. 
Ezelc. xxxii. 6. Care, however, should be taken to put in 
italics no more than is really wanting : thus in Matt. viii. 25 
■Ti-poa-eXdovTe's ought to be "came to him;" Matt. x. i 
irpocTKaXecra.jj.evo'i "called unto him," as it is given in 1762, 
not as the same word is represented by 1769 in Matt. xv. 
32 "called unto him." This rule extends very widely, and is 
difficult to be observed with perfect consistency. 

^ In the Greek and English the Bible pubhshed since his time. 

New Testament, published at ^ The Rev. J. Gorle, Rector 

Cambridge by Professor Scholefield of Whatcote, submitted to the 

{new edition, 1836), many words Syndics of the University Press, 

were printed in italics for tlie first in or about 1864, very valuable 

time, chiefly such as bear on our and elaborate notes on the use of 

first rule, that regarding pronouns. italics in oar Bibles, which proved 

The changes he introduced evi- of great service in the preparation 

dence great care, but seem not to of the Cambridge Paragraph Bible, 
have influenced other editions of 

8o Sect. I 11?^ Authorized Version of the Bible {1611). 

(14) The verb substantive is italicised before the 
participle passive {Paiitj, to distinguish it from the Niphal 
conjugation of the verb (e.g. Gen. xxix. 31, 33 "was hated" 
in 1629 Camb.); but more Hcence has been granted to the 
auxiliaries that render the active participle {PoeP). In Num. 
X. 29 we prefer "we are journeying," though in other places 
the present "is", "are", &c. is in Roman type, but not 
"was" or " were." 

Such are the principal rules which the Translators of the 
Authorized Version designed to follow in the arrangement of 
itahcs for the standard Bible of 161 1. How httle what they 
printed was systematically reviewed and corrected in the 
preparation of later editions is evident from the numerous 
glaring errors, committed by them, which have remained un- 
detected down to this day. The reader will perceive what 
is meant by comparing the original Hebrew or Greek with 
any modern Bible in i Chr. vii. 6. 2 Chr. x. 16. Neh. v. 19. 
Job i. 5; xxii. 24; xxx. 5; xxxiv. 14; xli. 20. Ps. Iv. 21. 
Prov. XV. 26. Cant. v. 12. Isai. xxii. 18 {"like" a little 
doubtful); Jer. xi. 4, 7; xxxvi. 22; xlvi. 13. Ezek. iv. 4, 
9; xiii. 18; xxii. 20 marg.; xxxix. 11 ; xliii. 3 marg. Dan. 
i. 7; viii. 26; ix. 23 marg. Obad. 6. Hab. iii. 9. i Esdr. 
viii. 63. Tobit. iii. 3. Wisd. ii. i; xix. 14. i Mace. viii. 
i8j X. 24; xii. 37. Tit. ii. 3. 3 John 12. Indeed some 
more recent corrections are positively false, e.g. 2 Chr. 
iii. II "one wing of the one" (1638): Luke x. 30 "man" 

What Blayney intended to do and seems to have lacked 
time for (Appendix D), has been regarded as a matter of 
imperative duty by the compiler of the present work. He 
has made out a full list of all the changes with respect to 
italics, in which the Cambridge Paragraph Bible as edited 
by him differs from his standard, the Cambridge small 
pica octavo of 1858 (see above, p. 38), together with such 

TTie Punctuation. 

reasons for them as each case might require; and has de- 
posited the hst for future reference in the Library of the 
Syndics of the University Press. 

Section IV. 
On the system of punctuation adopted in 1611, and modified in 
more recent Bililes. 
"The question of punctuation," to employ the language 
of Professor Grote', "has two parts: one, respecting the 
general carrying it out for purposes of rhythm and dis- 
tinction of sentences, independent of any question as to the 
meaning of the words ; the other respecting the particular 
cases where different punctuation involves difference of 
meaning." In regard to the first of these parts, much 
variety of practice will always exist, according to the age in 
which a writer lives, or the fashion which he has adopted 
for himself Thus the edition of 16 11 abounds with paren- 
theses^ which are largely discarded in modern Bibles, 
wherein commas supply their place, unless indeed they are 
left unrepresented altogether. The note of admiration, 
which is seldom met with in the old black-letter copies 
(wherein the note of interrogation usually stands in its room : 
e.g. Prov. xix. 7) is scattered more thickly over Blayney's 
pages than the taste of the present times would approve. 
Upon the whole, while the system of recent punctuation is 
heavier and more elaborate than necessity requires, and 
might be lightened to advantage ", that of the standard of 
16 1 1 is too. scanty to afford the guidance needed by the 

1 Grote MS. p. 25. See above, nuteargumentforthe priority of the 

p. 23, note. ' Syndic's copy (see above, pp. 8, 9). 

'2 in Synd. A. 3. 14, these 3 For instance, in such expres- 

marks of parenthesis often seem to sions as "and beliold," "and lo," 

have been inserted with a pen, in "for lo;" we should omit the, 

places where the Oxford reprinthas comma set by Blayney, &c. be- 

them; thus supplying another mi- tween the two words. 

82 Sect. IV.] Authorized Version of the BiUe (1611). 

voice and eye in the act of public reading. "It is a torture 
to read aloud from, as those who have had to do it know\" 
Grote contrasts it in this particular with a Cambridge edition 
of 1683, into which more changes in the stops were admitted 
than later books cared to follow, and whose punctuation 
differs in fact but little from that in vogue in recent times. 

The case in which difference of punctuation involves 
difference of meaning cannot be thus summarily dismissed. 
Since interpretation is now concerned, rather than arbitrary 
liking or convenience, the principles laid down in the First 
Section are strictly applicable here (pp. 3, 14). The stops 
found in the original ought not to be altered unless the 
sense they assign be not merely doubtful, but manifestly 
wrong^- Modern changes, if still abided by, should be 
scrupulously recorded, and their retention can be justified 
only by the consideration that it is at once pedantic and 
improper to restore errors of the standard Bible which have 
once been banished out of sight. The following list Will be 
found to contain all divergencies of punctuation from that 
prevailing in recent editions, not being too insignificant to 
deserve special notice, which can be supposed to influence 
the sense. They naturally divide themselves into two 
classes, those which are, and those which are not, counte- 
nanced by the two issues of 161 1. 

I. The stops of 161 1 are retained in preference to those 
of later Bibles, there being no strong reason to the contrary, 

Gen. xxxi. 40. "Thus I was in the day, the drought consumed 
•me," 1611, after Masoretic stops, LXX., Vulg., against the Bishops', 
1638 — 1769, moderns, who have "Thus I was; (, 163S — 1763) in the 

^ Grote MS., ubi stipra. Dr Pusey's view seems very main- 

" Thus no stronger stop than XsxxvUole. {Book of Daniel,^. 300), 

a colon (as in 161 1) is proposed that quite another line than Zerub- 

after Jesaiah, i Chr. iii. 21, though babel's now follows. 

The Punctuation. * 83 

day the drought consumed me." [Lev. iv. -z, "{concerning things which 
ought not to be done)." Here 1769 and the moderns reject the 
parenthesis of the earlier books, which, though not found in vv. 13, 22, 
27, tends to reUeve a hard construction. Joshua iii. 16, "very far, from 
the city Adam," 1611—1630. Ii> 1629 Camb. and subsequent editions 
the comma after "far " is removed, but the other distribution is not less 
probable, i Kin. xii. 32, "and hell offered upon the altar (so did he in 
Bethel,) || sacrificing." The moderns, after 1769, punctuate "and he|| 
offered upon the altar. So did he in Bethel, || sacrificing: " against the 
Hebrew stops, Zakeph-katon standing over both "altar" and "Bethel-" 
and rendering the margin (which provides for ^U*1 being the Kal rather 
than the Hiphil conjugation) quite unintelligible, xix. 5, "behold then, 
an angel" (npnan)) : "behold, then an angel," 1769, moderns. Neh. 
ix. 4, "upon the stairs of the Levites," (D*1^n n^JJD""?!?) : "upon 
the stairs, of the Levites," 1769, moderns, ver. 5, "Jeshua and 
■ Kadmiel," (cf. Ezra ii. 40): "Jeshua, and Kadmiel," 1769, modems. 
Job xix. 28, "persecutewehim?...foundinme." 1611 — 16x7. But 1629 
Lond., 1630 place the interrogative also after "me:" 1629 Camb., 1638, 
modems, transfer the second clause into the oratio ohliqtta "persecute we 
him, ...found in me?" xxxi. 30. This verse is rightly set in a jDarenthesis 
in 1611 — 1744, which 1762 and the modems remove, xxxiii. 5, "If 
thou canst, answer me," as in ver. 32. The first comma is removed in 
T629 Camb. (not 1629 Lond., 1630) and all modern books, xl. 24 
tnarg., "or bore" 1611 : "or bore,"' 1629, 1638, Bagster 1846. But 
1744, 1762, moderns, " or, bore" quite absurdly. Psalm ii. 12, "but a 
little: Blessed," 1611 — 1744, "but a Uttle. Blessed," 1762 mod;'. 
Ixxix. 5, "wilt thou be angry, for ever?" Cf. Ps. xiii. i; Ixxxix. 46. 
The comma is removed by 1616 (not 1617, 1630), 1629 Camb., &c. ver. 
II, "come before thee. According to the greatness of thy power: 
Preserve thou." Thus i6ri — 17441 following the Hebrew punctuation: 
"come before thee; According to the greatness of thy power (, 1762 
only) Preserve thou" 1769, moderns, very boldly, though approved by 
Dean Perowne. Ixxxix. 46, "How long, Lord^, wilt thou hide thyself, 

^ The two lines of the couplet xl. 12, Rebiah has tempted 1762 

are closely connected, as the to change the comma after "head" 

parallelism shews. Here, and in into a semicolon, 1769 moderns 

some other places (notably in Ps. into a colon, where we prefer the 

iii. 5; Ixiv. 7), the Masoretic comma of 1611 — ^1744- 

punctuation is at variance with ' So read instead of "Lord?" 

the poetical structure. So in Ps. of 1769 mod, 


84 Sect. IV?[ Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

for ever?" The third comma is removed in 1629 London and Camb. 
(not 1630), 1638, 1744, 1769 mod. In 1762 this comma is strengthened 
into a semicolon. Prov. i. 27. The final colon of 161 1 — 1630 is clearly 
preferable to the full stop of 1629 Camb., moderns, xix. 1. Restore 
the comma before "sinneth", discarded in 1762: also in xxi. 28, that 
before "speaketh," removed in 1769: both these for the sake of 
perspicuity, xxx. i fin. The full stop is changed into a comma by 
1769 mod. Eccles. ii. 3, "(yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom)." 
In 1769 mod. the marks of parenthesis are rejected and a semicolon 
placed after "wisdom." Cant. vii. 9, ", For my beloved, that" 1611, 
&c. (", For my beloved that," 1629 Lond., 1630: almost preferable; 
of. Heb.): "For my beloved, that" 1769, moderns, viii. 2, ", of the 
juice" 1611— 1630: "of the juice" 1629 Camb., 1638, &c. Isai. xxiv. 
14, "they shall sing",. The comma is found only in 1611 (Oxford 
reprint, not Synd. A. 3. 14), and acknowledged by Vulg. and Field 
("y««/(i;teK/y") as representing the Hebrew ^//^Kfl/f/i. xlviii. 12, ", O 
Jacob, and Israel my called;" 1611— 1630. But 1629 Camb., 1638, 
place commas after "Israel," 1769 and the moderns join "Jacob and 
Israel," against the Hebrew stops. Lam. ii. 4, "pleasant to the eye," 
(cf. Heb. stop) : 1769 mod. remove the comma, iv. 15, ", when they 
fled away and wandered:" ( , for : in 1769 mod.). Hosea vii. 11, "a 
silly dove, without heart." In 1629 Camb. and the moderns, the 
comma (which represents the Hebrew accent) is removed, as if "without 
heart" referred exclusively to the dove. Hagg. i. i, 12, 14; ij. 2 
remove the comma of 1769 mod. after "Josedech." Cf. Zech. i. i. 

2 Esdr. viii. 39, "and the reward that they shall have." (ft 
salvationis et mercedis receptionis, Vulg., but et salutis, et recipieiida: 
mercedis Junius): but 1762 mod. place a comma after "reward," as if 
receptionis of Vulg. belonged also to salvationis. xii. 2, "and behold, 
the head that remained, and the four wings appeared no more." In 
1762 a comma is inserted after "wings:" in 1769 mod. both commas 
are removed. There is a pause in the sense after " remained," such as a 
semicolon would perhaps better represent, before the vision in ch.xi. 18, 
&c., is repeated. Judith iv. 6, "toward the open country near to 
Dothaim (/caret Trpoffonrov toO ireSlov toD TrX-qalov Aadat/j., LXX.). Here 
1629 Camb., 1630, &c., insert a comma before "near." viii. 9, lo. In 
1769 mod. the marks of parenthesis are withdrawn, to the detriment of 
perspicuity, xiv. 17, "After, he went" {xal cWijXe^v, LXX.): 1629 
Camb. (not 1630), 1638 mod. remove the necessary comma. Ecclus. 
xxxvii. 8, "(For he will counsel for himself):" 1769 mod. reject the 

The Punctuation. 85 

marks of parenthesis, setting a semicolon after "himself", ver. 11, 
" , of finishing" (irepl avirreXeias, LXX.) : 1769 mod. obscure the sense 
by rejecting the comma. Baruch vi. 40, "that they are gods?" In 
1629, &c., "gods," the interrogation being thrown upon the end of the 
verse. But compare the refrains ver. 44, 52, 56, 65, to justify our 
arrangement of the paragraph, i Mace. vi. 51, "to cast darts, and 
slings." The comma is removed in 1638 mod. 

S. Matt. ix. 20 — 22, are inclosed in a parenthesis by 161 1 — 1762, 
which 1769 rejects^. S. Mark iii. 17, and v. 41. The marks of paren- 
thesis (of which 1769 mod. make too clean a riddance) are to be restored 
from 1611 — 1762. S. John ii. 15, " and the sheep and the oxen," thus 
keeping the animals distinct from irayras ("them all... with tlie sheep 
and oxen," Bishops'). In 1630 (not 1638, 1743), 1762 mod., a comma 
intrudes after "sheep." xviii. 3, "a band of men, and officers," 1611 — 
1762, thus distinguishing the Roman cohort from the Jewish uTrij/j^rai 
(Archb. Trench). In 1769 mod. the comma is lost. Acts xi. 26, 
"taught much people, and the disciples were called," 161 1 — 1630: both 
verbs depending on i-^hero. Yet 1638 — 1743 substitute a semicolon 
for the comma, while 1762 mod. begin a new sentence after "people," 
as if the editors had never glanced at the Greek, xviii. 18, "and 
Aquila: having shorn his head"; Paul being the person referred to in 
Kupd/ieyos. By changing the colon into a semicolon, 1762 mod. render 
this more doubtful. Rom. i. 9, " , always in my prayers," i6ri, 1612, 
16x3. The first comma is removed in 1629 Camb. and London, 1630, 
&c. . the second changed into a semicolon by 1769 mod. Cf. I Thess. 
i. 2; Philem. 4. iv. i, "Abraham our father, as pertaining to the 
flesh," 1611 — 1762. In 1769 mod. the comma is transferred from after 
"father" to before "our." v. 13 — 17 were first inclosed in a paren- 
thesis by 1769, which is followed by all moderns, even by the American 
Bible of 1867, though the American revisers of 1851 (see p. 36) had 
removed it. It is worse than useless, inasmuch as it interrupts the 
course of the argument, viii. 33 Jzn. The colon of 1611 — 1762 is 
almost too great a break, yet 1769 mod. substitute a full stop. The 
semicolon of T/ie Five Clergymen is quite sufficient, xv. 7, "received 
us," 161 1 — 1743. The comma is removed in 1762 mod. i Cor. vii. 5, 
"prayer," 161 1 — 1630. But 1638 mod. substitute a semicolon for the 
comma, as if to drive us to take the various reading (rvi'ipxv<rBi of Beza 

1 The parenthesis is absent in Luke viii. 42 — 48, but we may 
from the parallel passage of S. retain it from 161 1— 1743, though 
Mark. It is not so much wanted 1762 mod. reject it. 

86 Sed. IV.] Authorized Version of the Bible {\(>i.\). 

1598 (note, hot text), and the Elzevirs, viii. 7, "with conscience of the 
idol unto this hour," 1611—1762, as if the reading im apn rod ddtiXov 
were accepted ("with the yet abiding consciousness of the idol,"), or 
cf. Phil. i. 26, and Dr Moulton's Winer, p. 584; In 1769 mod. the 
comma is deleted. 2 Cor. xiii. 2, "as if I were present the second 
time," 1611 — 1762. In 1769 mod. a comma is put in after "present," 
through an obvious misconception. Eph. iii. 2 — iv. i, "of the Lord," 
is wrongly set in a, parenthesis by 1769 mod. (not American, 1867). 
Rather connect ch. iii. i with ver. 14. Phil. i. 11, "by Jesus Christ 
unto the glory..." In 1762 mod. a comma is inserted before "unto." 
Col. ii. II, "of the flesh," the two clauses beginning withe*- tJ being 
parallel (cf. var. led.), so that 1762 mod. wrongly remove the comma 
after "flesh." i Thess. iii. 7, ", by your faith" i6ti — 1630, but 1629 
London and Camb. and all after them wrongly omit the comma. 
2 Thess. i. 8, "in flaming fire," 161 1 — 1762, connecting the words 
with ^j- TH iiroKaXi^ei, ver. 7. In 1769 mod. the comma is absent. 
Titus ii. 8, "sound speech that cannot..." The comma after "speech" 
in 1769 mod. obscures, rather than helps, the English, ver. 12, " teach- 
ing us that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts we should live..." 
Thus the sentence runs in the Oxford reprint of 1611 and in 1612, 
and this is the safest plan in such a construction, but Synd. A. 3. 14 
places a comma after "lusts," and is followed by 161 3 and the rest. In 
1629 Camb., &c. another comma is set after "us," which 1769 mod. do 
not improve upon by transposing it to after " that.'' Heb. ii. 9, "lower 
than the angels,". In 1769 mod. this comma is removed, so as to compel 
us to take 5iii rh tra.B-qjj.a. toO Bavarov with the preceding clause, to which 
it hardly seems to belong, iii. 7 — 11. Reject the marks of parenthesis 
introduced into modern Bibles in 1769. The American Bible of 1867 
has them not. x. 12, "for ever, sat down." So 1611 — 1630, plainly 
rejecting " is set down for ever " of Bishops' Bible. This arrangement is 
supported by our standard Cambridge edition of 1858, and the American 
(1867), by Bp. Christ. Wordsworth, &c., and is surely safer than "for 
ever sat down'' of 1638 — 1769 and most moderns, xii. 23. Restore the 
commaof 1611 — 30 after "assembly": see below, p. 253. xiii. 7. Restore 
the full stop of 1611 at the end of this verse, which 1762 mod. change 
to a colon. 2 Pet. ii. 14. The Greek compels us to reject the comma 
after "adultery" of 1743 and mod. Jude 7, "the cities about them, in 
like manner..." The comma after "them" is injudiciously removed by 
1638, 1699 (not 1743), while 1762 mod. increase the error by placing it 
after "in like manner.'' 

The Punctuation. *87 

It would be endless, and would answer no good purpose, 
to enumerate all the cases wherein minute but real improve- 
ments in the punctuation, introduced into editions subse- 
quent to 1611, have been universally acquiesced in (e.g. 
Jer. xvii. 3; Dan. xi. 18; Bel & Drag. ver. 10; Matt. xix. 4; 
Rom. ii. 13 — 15; I Pet. v. 13). Some very strange over- 
sights of the standard Bible, in this as in other particulars 
(see pp. 3, 4), were permitted to hold their place quite late. 
Thus in John xii. 20 "And there were certain Greeks among 
them, that came up to worship at the feast : " the intrusive 
comma lingered till 1769. The comma, which originally 
stood after "about midnight," Acts xxvii. 27, was removed 
and set after "Adria" later than 1638. In regard to 
weightier matters, the comma put by 1611 after "God" in 
Titus ii. 13 is fitly removed by 1769 mod., that "the great 
God and our Saviour" may be seen to be joint predicates of 
the same Divine Person. Luke xxiii. 32 affords us a rare 
instance of an important change in the stops subsequent to 
1769 (we have not been able to trace it up earlier than 
D'Oyly and Mant's Bible of 181 7) "And there were also two 
other malefactors," where recent editors insert a comma 
before "malefactors," in order to obviate the possibility of 
mistake in the meaning of a phrase which is rather Greek 
than English. They were rightly unwilling to adopt the 
alternative of changing the plural "other" into "others," as 
the American Bible (1867) has unfortunately done '- The 
following chief additional changes in punctuation recom- 
mended by us, like those affecting the text itself (for 

1 Luke X. I, is exactly parallel' 2 Mace. vii. 34; xi. 7, 11, 20; 

in this use of other, but that Matt, xxiii. 23; Luke xi. 16,42; 

antiquated plural is very common xviii. 9; John xix. 18; Acts xvii. 

in our version: Josh. viii. 22; xii. 9 (but others ver. 34) ; i Cor. xiv. 

19; 2 Sam. ii. 13; i Esdr. vii. 6; 29; 2 Cor. xiii. 2; Phil. i. 17; 

1 Esdr. X. 6, 57; xi. 18; xvi. 22; ii. 3;- iv. 3, most of which remam 

Tobit vi. 14; Wisd. xi. 10, 13; unchanged in modern Bibles, 

Sect. IV.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

which see Appendix A), though usually sanctioned by 
respectable authority, occasionally by some recent Bibles, 
must ultimately depend on their own merits for justifica- 

II. Passages in which the stops, as well of 161 1 as of 
most later Bibles, have been altered in the Cambridge Para- 
graph Bible. 

Ex. xi. I — 3 is placed within » parenthesis, thus referring ver. 4 to 
ch. A. 29. Josh. vi. I might well be treated in the same manner. 
Josh. XV. I, "even to the border of Edom" is better followed by a 
comma, as in 1762, than by the semicolon of 1611 — 1744: both stops 
are removed in 1769. i Kin. vii. 19, and xxi. 25, 26, should be set in 
parentheses, so as to connect closely the preceding and following 
verses in either case. xxi. 20. With 1617 (only) place a comma at the 
end of this verse, the protasis beginning with ]y' ver. 20, the apodosis 
with 'iin ver. 21, just as in ch. xx. 36. Cf. also ch. xx. 42; xxi. 29. 
2 Kin. XV. 25. Set a semicolon after "Arieh," in place of the comma of 
1611, &c. The "him" following refers to "Pekah," not to "Arieh." 
So Tremellius after Heb.^ Job iv. 6. See Appendix A. vi. 10, "Yea, 
I would harden myself in sorrow ; let him not spare : " forms one 
line in the stichometry (DelitzscK). This does not appear in 16 ir— 
1744, which set a comma after "spare," or in 1762 mod., which 
punctuate " : let him not spare." xxviii. 3. Lighten the colon of 
1611, &c., after "perfection" into a comma. "The stones" is governed 
by "searcheth out," whether we consider nvJ?"73? to be used ad- 
verbially, or no. Ps. cv. 6. "Ye children of Jacob, his chosen." 
Unless the comma be inserted, "his chosen" would not be understood 
as plural. In i Chr. xvi. 13, a comma is inserted by 1769 mod. without 
much need. Ps. cvii. 35. End in a semicolon: yet all our Bibles have 
a full stop. Ps. cviii. 5, 6. All our Bibles except that of the Tract 
Society (1861) join these two verses, which seems an impossible aiTange- 
ment [Perowne). Substitute a full stop for the colon of 161 1 (which is 

^ In Neh. xii. 24, we would a colon. It would seem from 

substitute a semicolon instead of a i Chr. ix. 15 — 17; ch. xi. 17 — ig, 

full stop at the end of the verse, that the list of the singers ends 

and perhaps ought to change the with Obadiah, that of the porters 

comma after Obadiah, ver. 25, into begins with Meshullam. 

The Punctuation. '89 

made a semicolon by 1629 Camb. and the moderns) at the end of ver. 5, 
and a semicolon for the colon after "delivered," as 1611 has in Ps. Ix. 5. 
Prov. vi. ■/. Since this verse, as well as ver. i, is plainly hypothetical 
[Bp. Christ. Wordsworth), in spite of LXX., Vulg., and Tremellius, a 
comma must take the place of the full stop of 1611, &z. after "mouth." 
viii. 2, "high places by the way." Transfer the comma of 1611 from 
after "place" to after "way." Eccles. iv. i, "and behold," 1629 
Camb. — 1762. In 1769 mod. the comma is removed though it is really 
wanted. Even the Hebrew has a distinctive mark (') here. Cant. iii. 2, 
"in the streets and in the broad ways,". So LXX., the Hebrew 
punctuation and parallelism. In 161 r, &c., the comma is transferred to 
a place after "streets," thus joining the second clause with what follows. 
Isai. xi. II, "his people, which shall be left from Assyria,". So the 
Hebrew stops, the analogy of ver. 16 (recognized by 161 1 — 1762, not 
by 1769 mod.), LXX., Vulg., Lowth, Field : "his people that shall be 
left, from Assyria" 161 1 — 1762: in 1769 mod. another comma follows 
"people." xxxii. 9. This verse is a distich, the true division of 
which after "voice" is plainer in Hebrew than in English. It is 
variously punctuated in our Bibles, but all agree in suggesting a false 
division into three lines, ending respectively at "ease," "daughters," 
".speech." xxxviii. 10, "I said,". All insert the comma in ver. 11. 
Jer. xlviii. 29. Instead of the parenthesis which encloses "he is 
exceeding proud" in all our Bibles, substitute a semicolon before, a 
colon after the words, as in Isai. xvi. 6 in 1762 mod. Ezek. v. 6, "my 
judgments, and my statutes." The comma, imperatively required by 
the Hebrew, was inserted from 1629 (both editions) to 1762, dis- 
carded in 1769 mod. xxi. 29, "that are slain of the wicked." The 
comma after "slain", apparently employed by 1611, &c. to aid the 
voice, fails to represent the status constructus of the Hebrew, xlvi. 18, 
"by oppression to thrust them out" renders a single Hebrew word 
(pfpressione deturbando eos, Trem.). Yet 1611 — 1630 separate the 
English by placing a comma after "oppression," which 1762 mod. 
restore after it had been rejected by 1629 Camb., 1744. xlviii. 30, "of 
the city:" so the Hebrew stops. The Bishops' Bible and 1611— 1630 
have a comma after "city," which 1629 Camb. and the moderns omit 
altogether (cf. Wordsworth). Hosea ix. i;, "in Gilgal:" the colon of 
i6ri and the rest is too strong for the sense and the Hebrew accent. 
xii. 10. Remove the comma of 1611 &c. after "similitudes." Cf. 
Heb. Micah vi. 5, " ; from Shittim" the inserted semicolon represent- 
ing the Hebrew Athnakh (cf. Wordsworth). The Bishops' Bible 

90 Sect. IV l\ Authorized Version of the Bible (t.6ii). 

separates these words from the preceding, though only by a 
comma ^. 

2 Esdr. ii. 15 marg. " , as a dove," with 1629 — 1744. In 1611 we 
have "as a dove:" in 1630 " , as a dove: " against the Latin. In 1762 
mod. " , as a dove" but our way seems safer, vii. 42, "is not the end, 
where..." Without the inserted comma, our version is hardly in- 
telligible; in eo sc. sceculo, not fine. Judith viii. 21, "if we be taken, 
so all..." Junius and i6ri, &c. join ourws closely to the preceding 
words. (Cf. Moulton's Winer, p. 678). Wisd. xiii. 13, "the very 
refuse among those, which served to no use," (to ik i^ airup awo^Xrifia 
eis oiSh elSxpv<'"''oy) . If, with 1611, &c., we omit the comma, "those" 
will inevitably be taken as the antecedent to "which.'' xvii. 11 — 13. 
Place these verses within a parenthesis. Prayer of Manasses, 11. 17, 18, 
" : Thou, O Lord,..." The very long English sentence is so constructed 
(differently from the Greek, this Prayer having been rendered from the 
Old Latin, see p. 47), that the apodosis does not begin before this point; 
yet 16:1 and all its successors put a full stop before "Thou." We 
adopt a colon from the Bishops' Bible, i Mace. vi. 36, "every occasion, 
wheresoever the beast was:" far preferable to "every occasion: 
wheresoever the beast was," of i6ii, &c. ix. ^4. marg. " uttderstood on 
the sabbath day'' 1629 — 1744. In 1762 mod. the false punctuation of 
1611 — 1630 is revived [^'understood, on the sabbath day"), against the 
Greek, which is not in the same order as in ver. 43. We set ver. 35 — ■ 
42 in a. parenthesis, x. i, "Antiochus, szimamed Epiphanes" 6 
eTTKpavTj!, the comma after "Antiochus" distinguishing the text from 
that of Josephus, namely toO iinrj>a,vovs, as mentioned in the margin. 
2 Mace. x. 29, "men upon horses with bridles of gold" {i<p' hiroiv 
Xpvaox<OKLvo>v avdpes). In 161 1, &c., a comma, worse than idle, is set 
after "horses." xiii. -i, "a Grecian power, of footmen, &c." In i6ii, 
&c. we have "a Grecian power of footmen^." 

S. Matt. xix. 28, "which have followed me, in the regeneration, when 

&c." So 1630 alone of our old Bibles, with Nourse {Paragraph 

.Bible, Boston, 1836), Bagster, 1846, Scholefield (English), Lachmann, 

Tischendorf, Tregelles. This is at any rate the safest course. The 

second comma is wanting in 1611, 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, 1629 

^ Tremellius seems anxious that usque, dicas..." 

no mistake should be made as ^ Yet it must be confessed that 

to his judgment, rendering thus: the Roman edition reads iirirets 

"et quid responderit ei Bilham immediately afterwards, while our 

filius Behoris ; ut agnoscens just^ punctuation represents linriav of 

facta JehovEe a Schittimis Gilgalem Codex Alexandrinus. 

The Punctuation. '91 

(London), most modern Bibles, D'Oyly and Mant (1817), Tract Society's 
(1861), Blackadder (1864), American (1867), Newberry (1870), and 
Alford. The first comma is absent in the Bishops' Bible, the books 
from 1629 (Camb.) to 1769, and Scholefield's Greek text. S. Luke i. 55, 
"(as he spake to our fathers)". Thus with Nourse, the Tract Society, 
and Blackadder [see last note), indicate by a parenthesis the change of 
construction. Ver. 70 is also parenthetic^. Acts xxiii. 8, "neither 
angel nor spirit:". Even though the true reading be |U-)7T-e...;inJre instead 
of iu), angel and spirit comprehend together one class, resurrec- 
tion the otiier, the two classes together comprising A.iJ.<p6Tepa. The 
comma after "angel "in 161 1 — 1630, abolished from 1639 (both editions) 
to r743, is restored in 1762 mod. xxvii. 18. See below, p. igo. Rom. 
viii. 20, " , in hope." We can hardly do more in this doubtful passage, 
than relax the connection of ^tt' iXTriSi with what precedes, by inserting 
'the comma before it, and lightening the stop after it from a colon to a 
comma, as in 1769 mod., thus with Mr Moule [Romans in loco) regard- 
ing "in hope" as forming a brief clause by itself, xi. 8, from "ac- 
cording" to "hear" is rightly set in a parenthesis in 1769, as ap- 
proved by the Five Clergymen, i Cor. xvi. 22. See below, p. 191, 
Appendix A. 2 Cor. i. 14, ",inthe day" i6ir. But later Bibles rightly 
omit the comma, since the clause that follows it relates only to what 
goes immediately before, v. 2, "we groan, earnestly desiring..." The 
adverb is doubtless intended to represent the intensive force of the pre- 
position in iiriTodovvTes (rendered coveting by Wicklif, but simply 
desiring by the later versions), so that this punctuation, first found by 
Prof. Grote in Field's Bible of 1660, but afterwards lost sight of, is that 
to be received, although through mere oversight, rather than with a 
view to render ingemiscinitis ai the Vulgate, the comma is placed after, 
hot before, "earnestly" in i6ri — 1762, the final correction being due to 
1769, from which the moderns adopt it. See p. 191, note-2. ver. 19, 
"God was in Christ reconciling..." All the Bibles from 1611 down- 
wards, except that of 1743, insert a comma after " Christ." Eph. iv. 12, 
"for the perfecting of the saints for the work of the ministiy, for..." 
(jr/Dos...eis... eh). The comma of 1611, &c. after "saints" would be 
tolerable if the three prepositions were truly parallel. Phil. ii. 15, "the 
sons of God without rebuke," The comma set after "God"ini6ii, &c. 
would inevitably suggest a different gender for afxaiiriTa or diiojp.a. Col. 
ii. 2, "of God and of the Father and of Christ." The Received text can 

■■ It would be well also to place regarded as S. Peter's. It is quite 
Acts i. 18, 19 within a parenthesis, possible that the citation in ver. 
even though the words be still 20 is appealed to in ver. 16. 

92 Sect. IV.'] Authorized Version of the Bible {i6ii). 

hardly stand here, but the translation (taken verbatini from the Bishops' 
Bible) is unquestionably very inferior to that of Tyndale, Coverdale, the 
Great Bible, and Geneva (1557), "of God the Father, and of Christ." 
The Bishops' and our own Bibles from 1611 downvifards, make bad 
worse by adding a comma after "God." Titus ii. 13, omit the comma 
after "God" with some moderns. Heb. iv. 6, 7, "unbelief, again..." 
The apodosis begins with' TrdXiy. This is not so apparent if with i6ri, 
&c. we set a colon after "unbelief." vii. 5, "they that are of the sons 
of Levi who receive the office of the priesthood..." The comma set 
after "Levi" by 1611, &c. might easily suggest the inference that all 
Levites were priests. 2 Pet. i. i — 5. All our Bibles, following 161 r, 
in their arrangement, place a comma at the end of ver. 2, a full stop at 
the end ofver. 4. Yet it seems evident that w. 1 , 2 form a separate 
paragraph, as Nourse, the Tract Society, Blackadder, Wordsworth, and 
Tischendorf represent them ; and if ver. 3 must be connected with ver. 5 ■ 
(Moulton's Winer, p. 771), a colon suffices at the end of ver. 4. ii. 22, 
"and, The sow " a new proverb beginning. Thus 1638 — 1762, American 
1867: but i769mod. return to "and thesow"of 1611 — 1630. Rev. viii. 
12. Remove the stop, whether colon (16 1 1 — 1630) or comma {1638 mod.), 
after "darkened," since the following verb also is governed by Xva.. 

As the result of his investigations on this subject Prof. 
Grote infers that "With respect to the punctuation in general, 
independently of its affecting the meaning of particular 
passages, it is, in the editions before 1638, comparatively 
little graduated, colons and semicolons being much fewer in 

number than commas and full stops That edition made 

the punctuation much more graduated, and introduced one 
practice not common in the earlier ones, that of a full stop in 
the middle of a verse.'' "Ths graduation of the punctuation; 
i. e. the placing of colons and semicolons, is not materially 
different in Blayney's edition (1769) from what it was in that 
of 1683 (see above, p. 82). This latter (which is pointed, 
as printers say, very loiv) improved greatly in this respect 
upon 1638, as 1638 had improved upon the earlier ones'." 

^ Grote MS. pp. 83 — 85, where mediate purpose, on the gradual 
will also be found some interesting disuse in our Bibles of what the 
matter, rather foreign to our im- writer calls "the ccesural comma. 

The Orthography and Grammar. ♦93 

Section V. 

On the orthography, grammatical peculiarities, and capital 
letters of the original, as compared with modern 

One of the salient points which distinguish the early 
editions of our Bibles from those of modern date, is their 
■wide divergency of practice in regard to modes of spelling. 
It would be nothing remarkable, but rather analogous to 
what we observe in the case of all modern and probably of 
some ancient languages, that the customary orthography, 
even of very familiar words, should vary considerably at 
different periods of their literary history. But this is not the 
phenomenon we have mainly to account for in regard to 
English books printed in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Judged by them, it would hardly be extravagant 
to assert that our ancestors had no uniform system of ortho- 
graphy whatsoever, since there are comparatively few words, 
except a few particles of perpetual occurrence, that are not 
spelt in several fashions in the same book, on the same page, 
sometimes even in the same line'. The licence extended, 

bi. comma dividing any longish the punctuation of the Epistles, in 

proposition into two balancing the course of which that earnest 

parts, and distinguishing the main student is frequently found to 

members of it from each other, as advocate a return to the practice 

the voice very frequently does, so of 1611, without being aware of the 

that the comma marks a real vocal fact. 

pause." Just as, for instance, ^ The American G. P. Marsh 

there is a comma in John v. 23 {Lectures on the English Language, 

after the second "Son" in 161 1 — Lect. xx. p. 313), ascribes the 

1743, which 1762 and the moderns variation of spelling in the same 

discard. Nor ought I to quit the line to the mere convenience of 

subject of the present Section the printer. Cardwell {Oxford 

without acknowledging my obliga- Bibles, p. 4), had taken the same 

tions to the late Rev. G. C. Waller, view before him. To Marsh's 

M.A., and R.N., for the use of example, tfjeg sfjall lie SotDtt tn- 

some acute and weighty notes on getijer, tfjcg »i)al, Isai. xlii. 17, 

94 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible (j.(>-L\). 

as is well known, even to Proper Names : men of the high- 
est culture (Shakespeare for a conspicuous example, if we 
give credit to certain of his biographers,) varying the ortho- 
graphy of their own signatures in three or four several 
ways. This circumstance affords a conclusive answer to the 
demand that has sometimes been urged by ill-informed 
persons, that our modern Bibles should be exact reprints of 
the standard of 1611 ; and it was partly to silence such a 
demand that the Oxford reprint of 1833 was undertaken (see 
above, p. 35). A glance at that volume must have con- 
vinced any reasonable person that more recent editors were 
right in the main in gradually clearing the sacred page of un- 
couth, obsolete, and variable forms, which could answer no 
purpose save to perplex the ignorant, and to offend the 
educated taste. Whether the judgment of those who are re- 
sponsible for the Bibles of 1762 and 1769 (for these were the 
great and most thorough modernizers) was always as true as 
might be wished for, we shall have to consider in the sequel. 
The general rule laid down in the preparation of the 
Cambridge Paragraph Bible is a very simple one : — whenso- 
ever an Enghsh word is spelt in the two issues of 16 11 in 
two or more different ways, to adopt in all places that 
method which may best agree with present usage, even 
though it is not so found in the majority of instances in the 
older books. Thus, though charet is the form employed in 

many might be added, e.g. tJjEtrof, note : Gifford in his Memoirs of 

tijE locfe ttnof, anS t^e m.xn%, Bm Joiison complains of the same 

Neh. iii. 3: tttall faitff s|nttting, negligence in that scholarly author, 

their gJjDiBting shall, Jer. xlviii. 33: Nor is tlie date of a writer any 

BtageiJ frnm Sjfa, anB t\jz tartfj ia safe criterion. The best manu- 

StatcB, Hagg. i. 10, without coming scripts of Chaucer, and especially 

nearer to a solution of the problem. of Gower, as also the Paston let- 

Aword is often differently spelt in ters, written about 1470, approach 

the text and margin, as in Gen. nearer our present standard of 

iii. 16, where Coverdale has spelling than the Bible of 1611 

"huszbande" in the body of his (Marsh, p. 313). ' 
version, "husbande" in the foot- 

The Orthography. '95 

the vast majority of instances, that Bible has uniformly 
taken chariot as in Ecclus. xhx. 8; i Mace. i. 17 ; viii. 6. 
Kinred is probably the correct mode of spelling, and is by 
far the most frequent in the standard Bible, yet it is best to 
abide by kindred, as it is found in Ecclus. xiv. 4; 2 Mace. v. 
9 ; I Tim. v. 8 marg. We would take caterpillar from Joel 
i. 4; elsewhere in 16 11 it is cater piller. Cieled axid deling 
are due to the Cambridge Bible of 1629, sieled and sieling 
being the form of 161 1 in all the eight places where they 
occur : possibly the American ceiled and ceiling would be 
better, as the root seems to be ccelo, not del. Again, forrest 
occurs ever)rwhere else, hnt forest Isai. xxi. 13. "S or fain, 
the ordinary form, we %t& feign in Neh. vi. 8 only. Ghest 
occurs mostly, as in Matt. xxii. 10, but guests in ver. 11. 
Iron appears in Ecclus. xxxviii. 28, instead of yron, the 
common form in 161 1. Linen is found in i Kin. x. 28; 
I Esdr. iii. 6, but linnen elsewhere. Miter is almost con- 
stant in 161 1, yet we may adopt mitre from Ex. xxxix. 31 ; 
Zech. iii. 5. We find cake Josh. xxiv. 26, elsewhere oke. 
Between burden, murder, household, and burthen, niurther, 
houshold, the usage is more divided : we prefer the former. 
Pedegree occurs thrice, but pedigree in Heb. vii. 3 marg., 
6 marg. Pelican appears in Ps. cii. 6, elsewhere /if/&a«« or 
pellican. After 16 11, in Ecclus. xxxviii. 25 we should give 
plough for the noun, but plow for the verb and its com- 
pounds in the 26 places where it occurs : the American 
(1867) \i3JS, plough always. Pray (prseda) is almost always 
used, but prey Job ix. 26. Again, surfeited, the modern 
form, occurs only Wisd. v. 7 marg, surfeiting, &c. else- 
where. We frndiprofane in Ezek. xxiii. 38, 39; i Mace. iii. 
51; 2 Mace. vi. 5; Acts xxiv. 6: elsewhere the incorrect 
prophane. Instead of renowned (Num. i. 16; Ezek. xxvi. 
17 ; I Mace. iii. 9 ; v. 63 ; vi. i) we oftener meet with 
renowmed (Ecclus. xliv. 3, &c.). Such examples might be 

96 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible {xbii). 

multiplied indefinitely. On the other hand, for the modern 
scent, we would boldly print sent, following the ordinary, if not 
the universal practice of the seventeenth century, inasmuch 
as sent is true to the etymology, and is invariably used in all 
the five places where the word occurs, Job xiv. 9 ; Isai. xi. 
3 marg.; Jer. xlviii. 11; Hos. xiv. 7; Wisd. xi. 18. For 
omitting the c in scythe we have good authority, as well as 
the practice of our Translation in the margins of Isai. ii. 4 ; 
Jer. 1. 16; Joel iii. 19 ; Mic. iv. 3. We must return to rye 
of 161 1, which occurs but twice (Ex. ix. 32; Isai. xxviii. 25), 
though rie is in both Bibles of 1629. Probably, too, lancers 
should be restored in i Kin. xviii. 28 : it came from the 
Bishops' Bible {launsers), but occurs nowhere else, and was 
not altered into lancets before 1762. For andirons Ezek. 
xl. 43 marg., which is etymologically true, 1638, 1769 and 
the moderns have endirons; end irons of 1744, 1762 is a bad 
guess. The Bishops' margin has trevets. Another word, 
used but once, is ebeny, Ezek. xxvii. 15, which is so spelt 
both in Hebrew and Greek : ebony of the modems is more 
recent than 1638. Thus too, turbant, Dan. iii. 21 marg. 
only, the form adopted by Milton and Dryden, was not 
changed into turbans before 1762. So imbers, Tobit vi. 16 
marg. Since sailer. Rev. xviii. 17, is pronounced by Johnson 
to be more analogical than sailor, and held the ground tUl 
after 1638, we may take courage to revive it. In Nahum ii. 4 
a\so Jtcstle of 16 11 may be restored, instead oi Jostle of some 
moderns. Of words met with but twice, neither alleaging 
(Wisd. xviii. 22) nor alleadging (Acts xvii. 3) can stand; am- 
baSsage Luke xiv. 32 should be adopted rather than embassage 
I Mace. xiv. 23; scrole, Isai. xxxiv. 4, is to be preferred to 
scrowle. Rev. vi. 14; but it is not possible to take either 
champion, Deut. xi. 30, or champian, Ezek. xxxvii. 2 marg.; 
either musitian, Ecclus. xxxii. 4, or musition, Rev. xviii. 22; 
or scholler, i Chr. xxv. 8; Mai. ii. 12. Nor would awid'^, bal- 

The Orthography. 97 

lance, ihreed, suit the modern eye, although they are never 
met with in what to us appears the only correct form. 

The same liberty must be taken in regard to soldier and 
vinegar, which the standard Bibles, contrary to their deriva- 
tion, invariably spell soiddier and vineger. What is spelt 
haply in five other places, in 161 1 was happily 2 Cor. ix. 4 
(ircos): though changed in both books of 1629, /zo/S^/Zy was 
brought back in 1630, but can hardly hold its ground. The 
particle of comparison than is uniformly the?i in the Bible of 
161 1, as in many books far into the seventeenth century: this 
fashion, ■ of course, could not be imitated now. Although 
saphir or saphire does not vary in the same Bibles, the 
original will not dispense with pph. Nor can we retain 
cabbins, used but once, Jer. xxxvii. 16: though we might 
venture -a^on fauchin of 1611, Judith xiii. 6; xvi. 9. The 
strange form chawes ioi Jatvs Ezek. xxix. 4, suggests a ques- 
tionable etymology. Traffique (the verb used once, the 
noun four times) and traffiqtiers Isai. xxiii. 8 must also be 
refused \ 

Those English words which, whether from custom or 
difference of origin, vary in their signification according to 
the modes in which they are severally spelt, are invariably 
confused in the standard Bible of i6ir. Travel and travail 
afford a familiar example of the fact, inasmuch as the fault 
has not yet been completely removed from modern editions, 
e.g. Num. XX. 14, where travel of 1629 (Camb.) and recent 
Bibles, though the Hebrew is i^^??'?, would just make sense, 
and has been substituted for travail oi 16 11. In Wisd. x. 
10 also the latest Bibles, after that of 1629, erroneously 
render /xo'x^ots by travels, in the room oi travails of 161 1. 

1 In regard to the spelling of of this would be to keep up 
Proper Names, absolute uniformity apparent inconsistency in , some 
need not be aimed at, but the places: e.g. Josh. xiii. 27, corn- 
Hebrew should be followed in pared with ch. xix. 35. 
each case as it arises. The result 

S. 7 

98 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bihle (161 1). 

In Lam. iii. 5 travel is given for HK^TI, as in Num. xx. 14, 
in all the books from 161 1 to the American (1867), which 
has travail: although many like errors of the original edition 
have been corrected by its successors. The case between 
twined and twinned is stated below (Appendix B, p. 207 and 
note 3). The distinction between morter (Gen. xi. 3) and 
mortar Num. xi. 8; Prov. xxvii. 22, was first taken in 1638: 
by spelling both morter, the Bible of 161 1 confounds words 
which have only an accidental resemblance. We should also 
discriminate carefully between naught (5?!i) 2 Kin. ii. 19; 
Prov. XX. 14, and nought (i.e. nothing) Gen. xxix. 15, &c.: 
they were both spelt nought previously to 1638'. In spite 
of the analogy of nought, it is probably right to spell aught in 
such places as Gen. xxxix. 6, as the American revisers have 
done. Nor should we venture on the fine distinction be- 
tween veil, an article of dress, and the Vail of the Sanctuary, 
but retain in all cases (even in Wisd. xvii. 3 ; Ecclus. 1. 5 
marg. ) vail of 1 6 1 1 in preference to veil of later editions. In 
Job xiv. 17 the great oversight of 1611 sowesi for sewest^as 
left in our Bibles till 1762. The similar error sow for sew in 
Eccles. iii. 7; Mark ii. 21, remained till 1629; in Ezek. xiii. 
18 it survived beyond 1638. Between intreat (to pray) and 
entreat (i.e. to treat) there is a broad difference of sense, pro- 
perly recognized in 1762: yet in 1611 the former is spelt 
intreated ^oh xix. 16, but entreated in the next verse; while 
in Job xxiv. 21 the second is intreateth. In Jer. xv. 11 text 
and margin, intreat and entreat actually change places in 
161 1, and are not put right until 1638. Between enquire 
and inquire, on the contrary, the choice is purely indifferent; 
the former is chiefly adopted in 16 11 (but inquired 'De.Mt. 
xvii. 4 Oxford reprint; Ps. Ixxviii. 34; Ezekiel xx. 31 bis; 

1 The spelling of 1611, &c. up 2 Esdr. ii. 33 in Synd. A. 3. 14. 
to 1638 "at naught," Luke xxiii. and 1613, not in Oxford 1611. 
1 1, is a mere error. It occurs also 

The Orthography. '99 

John iv. 52, &c. : inquiry Prov. xx. -asi), the latter is derived 
from our model (18-58: see above, p. 38) and the recent 
Cambridge Bibles. Thus also we will take informed with 
161 1 in Acts XXV. 2, rather than enformed as in 2 Mace. xiv. 
i; Acts xxiv. -i; XXV. 15: but enrolled oi 161 1 in i Mace. x. 
36 in preference to inrolled of the margins of Luke ii. i ; 
Heb. xii. 23. In Isai. v. 11 enflame is in 1611, but tjjflam- 
ing in Isai. Ivii. 5 ; modern Bibles reverse this, yet all keep 
inflamed oi 161 1 in Hist, of Susanna ver. 8. Many words, 
the exact orthography of which is quite indifferent, should 
be carefully reduced to a uniform method. Thus ankles, the 
usual modern practice, which may be taken in all five 
places, is found in 1611 only in Ps. xviii. 36 marg., but 
a7ides in 2 Sam. xxii. 37 marg.; Ezek. xlvii. 3 text and 
marg.; Acts iii. 7: in i62g ancles is set in the first place, 
ankles in the third and. fourth, later Bibles recalling this last 
correction, but bringing ankles into 2 Sam. xxii. 37 marg. 
Sometimes the later Bibles issuing from different presses 
exhibit their characteristic varieties of spelling. Instead of 
inquire, noticed above as. a peculiarity of the Cambridge 
books, those of Oxford (1857) and London or the Queen's 
Printer (1859) read enqicire: for axe (which word is thus 
spelt ten times in 161 1) these last, after the example of 
their predecessors from 1629 (Camb.) downwards, wrongly 
print ax, against the modern Cambridge editions. In 
I Kin. y. 9; 2 Chr. ii. 16; i Esdr. v. 55 we findy&to in 
1611, but recent Cambridge Bibles have needlessly changed 
it into floats. These last are again wrong in soap, which, 
after 161 1, the Oxford and London Bibles spell j-^/<? in both 
places (Jer. ii. 22; Mai. iii. 2). The truer form rasor occurs 
seven times in 1611 and the Cambridge text, while those of 
Oxford and London have razor. In Judg. ix. 53 the Oxford 
editions, with 1611, adopt scull, but the Cambridge, and 
indeed 16 n in all other places, prefer skull. The Cam- 


loo Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible {1611). 

bridge books, after 1611, have gray {greyhound Prov. xxx. 
31, rightly so spelt in 1629 Camb. and 1630, has no con- 
nection with it), the Oxford and London grey. With the 
Cambridge Bible we may also spell counseller (not counsellor 
with those of Oxford and London), as does also that of 16 11 
except in three places, where it has counsellours (Ezra viii. 
25; Prov. xii. 20; XV. 22). Council (variously spelt councill, 
cotmcel, councell in 161 1) is ordinarily distinguished from 
counsel or counsell, but the latter is put for the former in i 
Esdr. iii. 15 marg. {■)(p-r\}i.a.Ti<jTi)piia); Matt. v. 22; Markxiv. 55, 
all subsequently set right. Since ours, yours, theirs are pos- 
sessive cases plural of the personal pronouns, the apostrophe 
set before ^ in the editions of 1762 and 1769, as also in 
the London and Oxford Bibles to this day, is positively 
incorrect: hence the Cambridge practice, which never 
admitted the apostrophe, should be followed in this re- 

Again, there are forms not wholly banished from our 
modern books, though their number is diminished in later 
times, whose presence tends to lend richness and variety to 
the style. Such is marish Ezek. xlvii. 11; i Mace. ix. 42, 
45, for the more familiar marsh: the pathetic astonied, still 
standing for the more common-place astonished in Ezra ix. 
3, 4; Job xvii. 8; xviii. 20; Jer. xiv. g; Ezek. iv. 17; Dan. 
iii. 24; iv. 19; V. 9, is restored to its rightful place in the 
great passage Isai. Iii. 14, whence a false taste has removed 
it subsequently to 1638. Stablish also might be brought 
again into twelve places (e.g. Lev. xxv. 30; Deut. xix. 15) 
instead of establish of later books : grin or grinne (Job xviii. 
9; Ps. cxl. 5; cxli. 9) may be treated as a legitimate modifi- 
cation oigin or ginne (Job xl. 24 marg.; Isai. viii. 14; Amos 
iii. s), though cast out in 1762. Once only, it would appear, 
' a superficial difficulty is attempted to be concealed by a 
slight change in the spelling. In Gen. 1. 23 marg. borne, 

The Orthography. loi 

which in 1611 was equivalent to born}, was suiSciently cor- 
rect to convey no wrong impression. To ensure clearness 
the final e was dropped in 1629 (Camb.), but restored again 
in 1762, by which time it would be sure to suggest a false 

Enough has been said of those changes in orthography 
which are due to accident or the caprice of fashion. Other 
variations, more interesting, spring from grammatical inflecr 
tions common in the older stages of our language, which have 
been gradually withdrawn from later Bibles, wholly or in 
part, chiefly by those painful modernizers, Dr Paris (1762) 
and Dr Blayney (1769). Yet it is not always easy to distin- 
guish these from forms involving a mere change in speUing, 
and different persons will judge differently about them at 
times. Thus we cannot well retzm growen i Kin. xii. 8, 10, 
while we alter /5«(7z«'f;^ i Kin. xiv. 2, &c. To reject, however, 
such words as fet by substituting the modern fetched, is a 
liberty far beyond what an editor of our version ought ever 
to have assumed : hence restore fet in 2 Sam. ix. 5 ; xi. 27; 
I 'Kin. vii. 13; ix. 28; 2 Kin. xi. 4; 2 Chr. xii. 11; Jer. xxvi. 
23; xxxvi. 2 1 ; Acts xxviii. 13 : it is full as legitimate Ts&fetcht 
of 2 Sam. xiv. 2; 2 Kin. iii. 9; 2 Chr. i. 17, and even of our 
latest Bibles in Gen. xviii. 7. The editors of 1762 and 1769 
bestowed much evil diligence in clearing our English Trans- 
lation of this participle in -t, Blayney following in the steps 
of Paris and supplying many of his deficiencies, yet, with 
characteristic negligence, leaving not a few untouched. 
Thus burned is substituted by them for burnt in some 93 
places {burnt h€v!\g left untouched in 2 Kin. xvi. 4i xvii. 11, 
&c). For lift they put lifted 95 times, once (Dan. iv. 34, 
where lift is past tense indicative) with some show of reason; 
sometimes (e.g. Zech. i. 2 1, where lift up is the present), to 

1 So in I Sam. ii. 5 we read in seven," but "bom'' in modem 
i6ir "the barren hath borne Bibles. 

io2 Sect, v.] Authofiized Version of the Bible (1611). 

the detriment of the sense. Similar cases are built Neh. iii. 
I {buildedyex.-2, 16 11): dapt 2 Kin. xi. 12: clipt]ex. xlviii. 
37: fr(7^~f E2ek.- xvii. 4: crusht Num. xxii. 2'-^: deckfSxov. 
vii. 16; 2 Esdr; xv. 47; i Macc. iv. 57: dipt Lev. ix. 9; 
I Sam. xiv. 27; 2 Kin. viii. 15; Rev. xix. 13 {dipped also in 
161 1 Gen. xxxvii.- 31): girt i Sa:m, ii. 4 {girded vsr. 18 in 
1611): leapt 1 Kin. xviii. 26 {t&xt, leaped raaxg.) ; Wisd. xviii. 
15 {leaped r6ii in di. xix. 9); i Macc. xiii. 44; Acts xix. 
16: mixt Prov. xxiii. 30; Isai. i. 22 j Dan, ii. 41 {sic 1611, 
not ver. 43, the second time); 2 Esdr. xiii. xi: past 2 Cor. 
V. 27 (so even moderns in i Pet.- iv, 3; in Eph. ii. 11 we 
h3.Y& passed in i6ii, past i^Sgi): pluckt t Chr. xi. 23; Ezra 
ix. 3; Neh. xiii. 25; Job xxix. i-7;Prov. ii. 22 marg.; Dan. 
vii. 4, 8; xi. 4; Amos iv. 11; Zech. iii. 2; 2 Macc. xiv. 46 
{plucked i6ii in Gal. iv, i$): pu/t Col. ii. i& : pus/it 'Ezek. 
xxxiv. 21: ravisht Prov. v. rg, 20 {ravished t6ii in Zech. 
xiv. 2): ript 2 Kin. xv, 16; Hos. xiii. 16; Amos i. 13: slipti 
Sam. xix. 10; Ps. Ixxiii. 2; Ecclus.- xiii. 22; xiv. i: stampt 2 
Kin. xxiii. 6, 15 : j-^a^/ Tobit ii. 4 {started i'j62, but it might 
be present^ avaTnjSTycras dvuXo/jirjv) : J/iT^^ 2 Chr. xxxii. 4 
(stopped ver. 30; Zech. vii. m in 1611): j/rz})/ Ex. xxxiii. 6; 
I Sam. xViii. 4; xix. 24; 2 Chr. xx. 25; Job xix. 9; Mic. i. 8: 
watcht Ps. lix. title: wrapt 1 Sam. xxi, 9; 2 Kin. ii. 8; Job 
xl. 17; Ezek. xxi,- 15; Jonah ii. 5. These archaic preterites 
contribute to produce a pleasing variety in the style of a ver- 
sion, and are grammatically just as accurate as the modern 
forms ; which, however, is hardly the case with rent when it 
is used not as a preterite only, but as a present, as in Lev, 
xxi. 10 {sic 161 1); 2 Sam. iii. 31; i Kin. xi. 31; Eccles. iii. 
7j Isai. Ixiv. i {sic 1611); Ezek. xiii. 11, 13; xxix. 7; Hos. 
xiii. 8; Joel ii. 13; Matt, vii. 6; John xix. 24. Other anti- 
quated preterites are begun Num. xxv. i {began 161 1 in Gen. 
iv. 26): drunk Gen. xliii. 34 (text not margin); Dan. v. 4: 
shaked Ecclus. xxix. 18: sprang Gen. xli. 6 {sprung ve\. 23): 

The Orthography. 103 

stale Gen. xxxi. 20 j 2 Kin. xi. 2 (stole 2 Sam. xv. 6; 2 Chr. 
xxii. II in 1611): strooke i Sam, ii. 14; 2 Chr. xiii. 20 (w 
1 6 1 1) ; I Esdr. iv. 30 (but stroke 2 Mace. i. 1 6 ; Matt. xxvi. 5 1 j 
Luke xxii. 64; John xviii. 22, also strake 2 Sam. xii. 15 ; xx. 
10, never struck): stunk 'E-x.. vii. 21 {stank ch. viii. 14 in 
1 611): stmg Ezra iii. 11: sunk Num. xi. 2 marg. and seven 
other places {sank Ex. xv. 5, 10): swore 1 Mace vii. 35: 
wan I Mace. i. 2; xii. 33 (j-zV 1611); 2 Mace. x. 17; xii. 28 
{wok 2 Mace. XV. 9 in 161 1). Among past participles may 
be noted {wast) begot 'Ecclxxs. vii. 28; {his) hid {things) Obad. 
6; {have) sit Ecclus. xi. 5. It would be well to retain lien 
(which even modern Bibles keep in Ps. Ixviii. 13) for lain in 
Num. V. 19, 20, as also in the three places, Judg. xxi. 11; 
Job iii. 13; John xi. 17. Other verbal forms deserving 
notice are oweth Lev. xiv. 35 ; Acts xxi. 11, and ought Matt, 
xviii. 24, 28; Luke vii. 41, which were not changed into 
owneth and (7Z£/if<5? respectively till after 1638: leese {lose 1762) 
I Kin. xviii. 5. The noymfiixe {fiix 1629) was corrupted 
\utoflux in Acts xxviii. 8 as early as 1699. In Ex. xxxv. 19 
modern Bibles, after Blayney, have cloths of service, but 
cloathes of 161 1 was rightly changed into clothes as early as 
1629 Camb. and retained up to 1762 inclusive. There is a 
real distinction, as Dr Field notices, between cloths and 

It is hard to discover any intelligible principle which 
guided the editors of 1762 and 1769 in their vexatious 
changes of several particles into their cognate forms. Thus 
for amongst they print among 81 times, for tozuards they 
print toward 121 times, for besides they give beside 44 times S 
yet keep so often the forms they reject elsewhere that it is plain 

^ In Josh. xxii. 29 the change sense, as may be seen from ver, 

of besides of 1611 to beside by 19, where the Hebrew is virtually 

1620 (Lend.), 1630, 1769, moderns the same. Both forms of the 

(but not by 1629 Camb., 1638, Englishwordthen meant "except," 

1744, 1762) will not affect the which is the signification here. 

I04 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

they have no design to disuse them altogether. Such wanton, 
or perhaps merely careless, variations should be cancelled 
without mercy. Nor can there be any good ground for 
turning sith into since as does Dr Paris in Jer. xv. 7; Zech. 
iv. 10 marg.; 2 Esdr. vii. 53, and Blayney in Jer. xxiii. 38, 
the rather as sith is in our modern Bibles (Ezek. xxxv. 6) : 
sithence in 2 Esdr. x. 14 was modernized into since as early as 
16 16, so that it must have been going out of use even then. 
All our Bibles preserve whiles in 2 Mace. ix. 9; x. 36, yet in 
Ps. xlix. 18 while is printed in 1762 ; in Isai. Ixv. 24 whiles in 
1769 becomes while; whilst becomes while in Heb. iii. 15; 
ix. 17 in the books of 1629; in 2 Mace. vii. 24 whilst is 
substituted for whiles in 1629. The interchanges between 
to and unto in Gen. xxv. 33 (1629 Lond.); i Kin. xxii. 53 
(1616); I Mace. vii. 20 (1629 Camb.); Luke xx. 42 (1616); 
2 Cor. ix. 9 (1629 Camb.), are not very intelligible. Amidst 
all this unmeaning tampering with the text, the several editors,' 
especially those of 1762 and 1769, carried out to the full at 
least two things on which they had set their minds: they got 
rid of the quaint old moe for more (spelt mo in the Bible of 
1638) from the 35 places in which it occurs in the standard 
copies, and in 364 places (e.g. i Cor. xiv. 18) they'have al- 
tered the nominative pluml you into ye, besides that Blayney 
makes the opposite .change in Bicild you Num. xxxii. 24; 
Wash you Isai. i. 16; Get you Zech. vi. 7; Turn you Zech. 
ix. 12. In one particular the orthography of modern Bibles 
may well be acquiesced in. The wotd midst is often spelt 
in the Authorized Bibles as middest; about Ezekiel and 
some of the later Prophets almost constantly for a time. 
This form, however strange to our eyes, would have the 
advantage of suggesting the true character of the word as 
a superlative adjective; but the spelling varies so much 
between midst, middest, midest (Judith vi. 11), middes (Ps. 
cxvi. 19; Acts xxvii. 21; Phil, ii, 15), and mids (Jer. xxxvii. 

The Indefinite A'rticle. 105 

12; Hist, of Susanna ver. 34, 48, &c.), that it seems safer to 
fall back on our general rule of adopting that one out of 
several forms which best suits the modern usage. 

The practice of the Authorized Version with respect to 
placing the indefinite article a or an before a word beginning 
with h calls for some consideration, the rather as modern 
Bibles, with the exception of the American (see above, p. 37) 
which conforms to present usage, have made no systematic 
or important changes regarding it. It would seem indeed 
as if a were but an abridged form of an, the n being 
dropped before an initial consonant proper, and only sub- 
sequently, under certain limitations, before h aspirated. 
Thus Chaucer's use of an Jialle, an hare, an herth, is uniform, 
and the fashion maintained its ground far into the sixteenth 
century. In the earliest draft of our English Litany, con- 
tained in the King's Primer of 1545, we read, "an heart to 
love and dread thee,^' as it still remains in the Book of 
Common Prayer; and such cases as a harpe i Sam. x. 5 ; 
a hert Ecclus. xvii. 6 in Coverdale's Bible of 1535 are quite 
rare, though no doubt the custom of dropping the n had 
already begun. In the Authorized Version of 161 1 we 
mark a further step in the same direction. As a general 
rule an is there retained before the sounded h, though the 
exceptions are more numerous than some have supposed, 
and suggest to a modern editor the propriety of conforming 
the Bible to the now universal habit of the best English 
writers. The following list will shew how the matter stands 
in the original books: 

A71 habergeon Ex. xxviii. 37 ; xxxix. 23': an habit Heb. v. 14" 
viarg. : a habitation Jer. xxxiii. 12 up to 1629 Camb., 1630, but an in 8 

1 This is apparently correct, if the first syllable, by losing its 

Dean Alford's rule be true : accent, also loses some portion of 

"When the accent is on the the strength of its aspiration" 

second, or any following syllable {The Queen's English, p. 43). 
of the word, we may usea», because 

io6 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible {1611). 

places : an Hackmonite i Chr. xi. 11 : a hair i Kin. i. 52^; Luke xxi. 
18 up to 1629 Camb. and Lond., 1630, an in 3 places : a hairy Gen. 
xxvii. II, an twice: a half Ex. xxv. 10 (ist and 3rd, an in 2nd until 
1629), 17, 23; xxxvi. 21; xxxvii. i {ier), 10; Ezek. xl. 42 (2nd); 
^ Esdr. xiii. 45, but an in 16 places : a hammer ]ex. .xxiii. 29, an ham- 
mer Judg. iv. 21 : a hand Ex. xix. 13 up to 1638, but an 5 times: an 
handbreadth "] times : an handful 5 times : a handmaid Gen xxix. 24 up 
to the two editions of 1629, but an twice : an hanging thrice : a hafpy 
2 Mace. vii. 24 : a hai-d 2 Kin. ii. lo; Ps. xxxi. i8 marg. ; Ecclus. xl. 
1 5, but an 4 times : a harlot Joel iii. 3 up to 1769, but a« in 21 places : 
an harmless Wisd. xviii. 3 : a harp i Sam. x. 5 ; i Chr. xxv. 3, but an 
4 times: an hart Isai. xxxv. 6: an harvest Hos. vi. 11: an hasty 
Ecclus. xxviii. 11 (bis) : a hat 2 Mace. iv. 12 : a haven 1 Esdr. xii. 42, 
but an thrice : a haughty Ecclus. xxiii. 4, but an Prov. xvi. 18. 

An he {lamb or goat) thrice : a head Judith xiv. 1 8, an Josh. xxii. 14 ; 
ati head-tyre i Esdr. iii. 6 ; an healer Isai. iii. 7 : an healing'Da.n. iv. 27 
marg. : a heap Isai. xvii. 1 1 ; Ecclus. xi. 32, but an in 15 places : a 
hearer ViisA. i. 6; James i. 23: iz heart 1 Chr. xii. 33 marg. (bis); 
Ecclus. xiii. 26; xvii. 6; xxii. 17, but an 15 times : a hearth Zech. xii. 
6 up to 1762, an hearth Ps. cii. 3 : an heathen Matt, xviii. 17 : an heave 
(offering) 11 times: an heavenly Heb. xi. 16: a heavy Ecclus. xxv. 23 
up to 1629, but an 5 times .<«» Hebrew 10 times: an Hebrewess lex. 
xxxiv. 9 : an hedge 4 times : an heifer 9 times : an heinoiis Job xxxi. 1 1 : 
an heir 3 times, correctly by modern usage : an helmet 5 times : a help 
Ps. xliv. 26 marg.; Ecclus. xxxiv. 16 until 1762; xxxvi. 24, but an 5 
times : a helper Ps. xxii. 1 1 marg., but an thrice ; a hen Matt, xxiii. 57 ; 
Luke xiii. 34: an herald 'D&n. iii. 4: an herb Isai. Ixvi. 14 is probably 
right; an herd twice: an herdman Amos vii. 14: an heretick Tit. iii. 
10 : an hei'itage occurs 14 times, and we should retain an, regarding the 
h as mute; compare heir, herb, honest, honour, honourable, hour, 

An hidden Job iii. 16: a hiding Isai. liii. 3 marg. up to 1762, but 
an Deut. xxxii. 38 marg. ; Isai. xxxii. 2 : a high i Sam. xxii. 6 marg. ; 
Isai. XXX. 13; 2 Esdr. ii. 43, but an 32 times: a highway Isai. xix. 23; 
xl. 3, but an Isai. xi. 16; xxxv. 8 : a hill Josh. xxiv. 33; Isai. xxx. 17 
up to both Bibles of 1629, but an 5 times : an hin always (21 times): 

' Synd. A. 3. 14, not Oxford but they have all one property in 

reprint. common, in that they are Latin 

^ Of these words whose initial words coming to us through the 

h is unaspirated, humble and French, 
perhaps herb are a little doubtful ; 

The Indefinite Article. roy 

an hire Gen. xxx. i8 marg. : an hired 7 times : an hireling^ times : an 
hissing 6 times: an Hittite Ezek. xvi. 3, 45. 

An hold Judg. ix. 46; i Sam. xxiii. 14: a hole Ex. xxxix. 23 up to 
1769; 1 Kin. xii. 9; Jer. xiii. 4; Ezek. viii. 7, but an hole'Kvi. xxvili. 
32 ; 2 Mace. iv. 14 marg. : a hollow 2 Mace. i. 19 up to 1762, an hollow 
Judg. XV. 19; 2 Mace. ii. 5 : a holm tree Hist, of Susanna ver. 58) up to 
1762 : a holy Lev. xxvii. 23; Isai. xxx. 29; Wisd. xviii. 9, but an holy 
no less than 45 times ; u. home-born Jer. ii. 14 : an homer always (10 
times) : an honest 5 times, an honour thrice, an honourable 4 times, and 
rightly (see heritage above) : an honeycomb 5 times: an hoofEY.. x. 26: 
an hook 4 times: a horji Dan. viii. 5 marg., but an horn i Kin. i. 39; 
Luke i. 69: an horrible always (6 times): an horror Gen. xv. 12: « 
Iwrse 2 Mace. iii. 25 up to 1629, but an 7 times: a horseman 2 Mace, 
xii. 35, but an 2 Kin. ix. 17 : an host 15 times : an hostage I Mace. i. 
10 : an hostile Acts xii. 20 marg. : a hot Lev. xiii. 24 ; Ecclus. xxiii. 16 ; 
I Tim. iv. -i, but an hot 2 Esdr. iv. 48 : an hour 6 times, and rightly : a 
house Ex. xii. 30; Lev. xiv. 34 (not ver. 55 before 1769); 2 Sam. xx. 3 
marg. (an 1762); I Chr. xvii. 5 {an both Bibles of 1629) ; Ps. Ixviii. 6 
marg.; Ecclus. xxi. 18; i Mace. vii. 37; Mark iii. 25; Luke xi. 17 
(bis), but an hotise 84 times : an hotiseholder Matt. xiii. 52 ; xx. i : an 
howling '^ex. xxv. 36; Zeph. i. 10. 

An huckster Ecclus. xxvi. 29 : an humble Prov. xvi. 19 ; Song ver. 
16, is probably true, and is so represented in the American Bible : a 
hungry Isai. xxix. 8 up to 1762, 2 Esdr. xvi. 6 up to 1629, but an 
Ecclus. iv. 2 : a husband Ruth i. 12 (once out of 3 times, but an thrice 
in i*j62) ; Jer. xxxi. 32 Tnarg. (not text) up to 1629 Camb. ; Ecclus. iv. 
10, but an 15 times : an htisbandman Gen. ix. 20 ; Zech. xiii. 5. 

An hymn Matt. xxvi. 30 ; Mark xiv. 26 : an hypocrite Job xiii. 16 ; 
Prov. xi. 9 ; Isai. ix. 17; Ecclus. i. 29 ; xxxiii. 2 : an hypocritical Isai. x. 6. 

This variable and inconsistent practice of the Authorized 
Bible, rather concealed than remedied in later editions, will 
probably be allowed to justify the rejection of n of the in- 
definite article, whensoever modern usage shall demand it. 
In the case of the word hundred slone this can hardly be done, 
as well because that out of the 150 places or more, wherein 
hundred occurs, a is found before it only in six (Ex. xxxviii. 
9; Judg. XX. 10 once; i Kin. vii. 2; Isai. xxxvii. 36; Ecclus. 
xii. 4; I Mace. vii. 41), whereof all but Isai. xxxvii. 36 are 

io8 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

corrected- in subsequent copies, as especially because an 
hundred is still found in some recent writers conspicuous for 
purity of style. The choice between an hungred (Matt. iv. 
2; xii. I, 3; XXV. 35, 37, 42, 44; Markii. 25; Luke vi. 3) 
and a hungred, which latter does not occur in 161 1, is more 
precarious, inasmuch as here an or a is probably not the 
article at all, but a prefix expressive of a continued state, as 
" a building " 2 Chr. xvi. 6, i Esdr. vi. 20; "a coming " Luke 
ix. 42 ; "a dying" Luke viii. 42, Heb. xi. 21 ; "a fishing'' 
John xxi. 3; "a preparing" i Pet. iii. 20 (where, however, 
a might represent the prepositions at^ or o)i) ; athirst Matt. 
XXV. 44, for which thirsty is substituted in vers. 35, 37, 42, 
where the connection with an hungred is not so closed 
An is also made to precede w in three passages of the 
standard Bibles, an whole Num. x. 2 up to 1762 (but not 
in Num. xi. 20), an whore Prov. xxiii. 27 also up to 1762; 
2 Esdr. xvi. 49 altered after 1638. Such a one,yi\izrs.'iht 
sound is cognate to that of w, should be of this form if we 
acquiesce in a before whole, &c., and is adopted by our 
Translators in Gen. xli. 38; Ruth iv. i ; Ps. 1. 21 {an 1762) ; 
Ixviii. 21 (an 1762); Ecclus. xxvi. 28 [an 1638); i Cor. 
V. 5 (an 1638), II (an both books of 1629); 2 Cor. x. 11 
(an 1629 Camb.); xii. 2, 5 (an both books of 1629); Gal. 
vi. I (an 162C) Camb.); Philem. 9 (an 1762) : but such an 
one Job xiv. 3; Ecclus. vi. 14; x. 9 ; xx. 15 ; 2 Mace. vi. 

My and mine, thy and thine, should of course be used 
respectively as a and an before a consonant, or vowel, or h ; 
but neither the original Translators nor later editors have 
shown any knowledge of the fact : thus in Rom. xvi. 23 

1 As "a work," 1 Chr. ii. 18 "Poor Tom's a cold," which seems 

(Taj^nb): compare "await," exactly parallel. So " His great- 

\ ,".' ■' .., .\ ness IS a ripemnp; {Henry VIII. 

Acts IX 24 w.h Acts XX 19. Act ni. Scene 2)r ^ 

■'Dr Angus alleges Shakespeare s ' 

My or mine, dt^c. The Grammar. itig 

mine host occurs in all our Bibles. The changes introduced 
in more recent books are apparently capricious or accidental, 
being as often wrong as right. Thus if my of 1611 is turned 
into mine before integrity Job xxvii. 5 in 1762, and mine 
correctly changed into my before head by the same, Luke 
vii. 46 ; the opposite alterations of my for mijie before eye- 
lids Job xvi. 16 in 1617, of thy for thine before eyes Job xv. 
12 in 1769, and of thiite for thy before hands i Mace. xv. 7 
in 1629, prove clearly that they had no principle to guide 
them in the matter. Mutations of these forms made for the 
better in later Bibles will be seen in Deut. xvi. 15 and xviii. 
4 (1769); Isai. Ixiv. 8 (1629 Camb.); Ezek. xvi. 11 (1762); 
Zech. viii. 6 (1629 Camb.); Tobit. ii. 13 and v. 14 (1629) ; 
Wisd. viii. 17 (1629); i Mace. iL 18 (1629); Luke xiii. 12 
(1616); 2 Cor. xi. 26 (1629, both books). Those changed 
for the worse are Deut. ii. 24 and xv. 7 (1769) ; Ruth ii. 13 
(2nd) and 1 Sam. ii. 35 (1629, both books) ; Job xxxi. 7 
(1762); xl. 4 (1629 Camb.); Ps. cxvi. 16 (later than 1638); 
Eccles. iii. 18 (1629 Lond.); 2 Esdr. x. 55 and Ecclus. v. 8 
(1629); Ecclus. Ii. 2 (1629, 1630). 

The apparent solecisms also and unusual grammatical 
constructions of our standard of 16 11 should be scru- 
pulously retained, without any attempt to amend them. Such 
as they are, they comprise an integral part of the Transla- 
tion, and preserve phrases once legitimate enough, which 
have since grown obsolete. Thus "riches," which is plural 
in Ps. Ixxii. 10, retains its old use as singular in Col. i. 27 ; 
Rev. xviii. 1 7. Later editors have but ill spent their pains 
in partial attempts to remove or conceal such peculiarities. 
Some, indeed, violate the concord of the verb with its sub- 
ject, as Ex. ix. 31 "the flax and the barley was smitten,'' as 
in the Hebrew: "tidings is brought" 2 Sam. xviii. 31 marg.: 
"thou wast he that leddest" i Chr. xi. 2 : "earth and water 
was wont" Judith ii. 7 marg.: "the number of names 

no Sect. V.'] Authorized Version of the Bible {1611). 

together were" Acts i. 15': "a great company... were 
obedient" Acts vi. 7, as in the Greek. In i Cor. vii. 32, 
however, we acquiesce in "the things that belong" (see 
Appendix A), "belong" being substituted for "belongeth" 
as early as 161 2: compare also i Cor. xiv. 10, below p. 191. 
These faults may be imputed to venial carelessness, to the 
momentary relaxing of close attention which every one is 
sensible of in the course of a long task. At other times our 
version reminds the reader of some racy idiomatic expression 
which once formed a part of the spoken or even of the writ' 
ten language of our ancestors. A good example of this kind 
of archaism, which the best grammarians even now hesitate 
to condemn, is the double genitive in such cases as Gen. 
xxxi. I and the rest, given in Appendix C, p. 216 note i. 
The opposite practice of suppressing the sign of the posses- 
sive altogether, which survives in modern Bibles, Judg. iii. 16 
" of a cubit length," is found in 1611 in Lev. vii. 23; xiv. 54 
(Appendix C, p. 216); xxv. 5 "it*" own accord"; and in one 
issue at Esther i. 13 "the king manner'" (Appendix B below, 
pp. 207, 210) : it was never removed from Rev. xviii. 12 (pis). 
It may be stated here that the habit of placing the apostro- 
phe before or after s to indicate the possessive case, singular 
or plural respectively, was first adopted by the editor of 1762 
in part, more consistently by Blayney, yet with so little care 
that not very few errors in the placing of the apostrophe, 
such as one glance at the original would have detected, have 

* Thus also Rev. ix. 16 (and ^ The only place in our version 

viii. 9) in all. In i Esdr. viii. 49 where "it" occurs in the possessive 

a similar oversight should be cor- case, although much wanted in 

reeled, as also in Acts xxv. 23 Zech.iv. i. See Mr Aldis Wright's 

"was" amended into "were." full note on "It" in his Bible 

See Appendix A. In Tobit iv. 10 Word-Book, and Bain, English 

(see Appendix C),the text of 161 1 Grammar., p. 87. 

is correct. Compare also Cant. ^ So take Shakespeare's " Even 

iv. 1 with ch. vi. 6; Ecclus. xxxv. daughter welcome ", (/Is You Like 

15- It, Act V. Scene 4), 

The Grammar. in 

clung to our common Bibles to this day. These are all noted 
in Appendix A (see below, p. 152 note), and, being of mo- 
dern date, ought to be distinguished by being placed within 
brackets : e.g. i Sam. ii. 13; i Chr. vii. 2, 40. Since there 
exists no doubt that this s represents the Old English posses- 
sive ending -es or -is, it is manifest that the pronoun his 
standing after the possessive noun is a mere error. We 
should accordingly adopt the changes of 1762, "Asa's heart" 

1 Kin. XV. 14 for "Asa his heart" (Bishops'); "Mordecai's 
matters" Esther iii. 4 for " Mordecai his matters," even 
though we elsewhere retain the original form in i Esdr. ii. 
30; iii. 7, 8; Judith xiii. g; xv. 11; 2 Mace. i. 33 marg.; iv. 
38; xii. 22 (Bishops'), all in the debased style of the 
Apocrypha. The antiquated singular for plural with the 
word "year" may be kept in 2 Kin. xxiii. 36; Jer. Iii. i; 
Dan. V. 31; Amos i. i ; i Esdr. i. 39; i Mace. ix. 57; 2 Mace, 
iv. 23; Rom. iv. 19 (see App. C. in locis citatis). In like 
manner we have in 1611 "two mile" John xi. 18 marg. 
(App. C): "three pound" i Kin. x. 17; Ezra ii. 69; Neh. 
vii. 71, 72; I Mace. xiv. 24; xv. 18; John xix. 39: "thirty 
change" Judg. xiv. 12, 13 : "thirty foot" Ezek. xli. 6 marg.: 
so "an eight days" Luke ix. 28: these last have never been 
altered. The use of the cardinal for the ordinal number 
we would suppress only four times, the earliest being Gen. 
viii. 13, on which passage in Appendix A the case is stated. 
Nor need we meddle with a few manifest inaccuracies of 
other kinds, most of which the hands even of Dr Blayney 
have spared. Such are the pronouns pleonastic in " which 
pains... they slack not" 2 Esdr. xvi. 38; "Onias...he went'' 

2 Mace. iv. 4, 5; "the keeper... he drew" Acts xvi. 27': as 
also the double negatives in "shall not leave... neither name 

^ In Heb. ix. 12, though "he" dispensed with. The pleonastic zV 
before "entered " may be techni- in Isai. xxviii. 4 (see Appendix A) 
cally wrong, it could not well be mightverywell have been retained. 

TI2 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

nor..." 2 Sam. xiv. 75 "Give none offence, neither... nor... 
nor". I Cor. x. 32: but see Lev. xvii. 14 below, p. 203, 
note 2. Tlie objective in the place of the nominative in 
"him that soweth" Prov. vi. 19 was corrected in 1769; 
it is less clear that "whom" is wrong in Matt. xvi. 13, 15; 
Acts xiii. 25. The use of the adjective for the adverb is 
not unfrequent in the Authorized Version . (Eph. iv. i ; 
I Thess. ii. 12; 2 Pet. ii. 6), and may not be disturbed 
even in so extreme a case as "wonderful great" 2 Chr. ii. 9. 
Double superlatives, "moststraitest" Actsxxvi. 5; "chiefest" 
Mark x. 44, have ceased to displease by reason of their very 
familiarity. Verbs transitive and intransitive are sometimes 
confounded; e.g. "lying in wait" Acts xx. 19 compared with 
" laying await " Acts ix. 24; "to be heat" Dan. iii. 19; "shall 
ripe" 2 Esdr. xvi. 26; "will fat" Ecclus. xxvi. 13 (see Appen- 
dix G for the last three); "can white" Mark ix. 3; compare 
"did fear" Wisd. xvii. 9. The following errors of 16 11 have 
not yet been touched, the first three being imported from the 
Bishops' Version: "that we should live still in wickedness and 
to suffer, and not to know wherefore " 2 Esdr. iv. 12 ; " if any 
man knew where he were" John xi. 57; "or ever he come 
near " Acts xxiii. 15; "to have gained " (with " should " 
preceding), ibid, xxvii. 21, after Tyndale and all the rest, 
only that 1762 (not 1769) omits "to"; "if we know that 
he hear us" i John v. 15 (Bishops', after Tyndale). The 
next instance seems to have been influenced by the Greek 
(like Acts vii. 39), "she took it, and laid it on her mule; 
and made ready her carts, and laid them (auVa) thereon" 
Judith XV. II. 

A few miscellaneous observations may close this branch 
of the subject... 

The more English prefix un- in the place of im- or in- 
rhay be restored in all the eleven passages where it was given 
in 161 1 ; even modern Bibles keep unperfect, Ps. cxxxix. 16. 

The Orthography. 113 

This form comes chiefly from the Bishops' Version; and except 
in those cases cited on Matt. xvii. 20 in Appendix C (below, 
p. 233), it is found only in Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus. To set 
s after the Hebrew termination -im (Gen. iii. 24; Ex. xxv. 18 j 
xxvi. r, &c.) is a manifest inaccuracy, and if the American 
rule {Report, &c. p. 22) had been adopted of rejecting the 
s throughout, no valid objection could be raised. The 
middle course taken in recent English editions, that of 
sometimes making the required change and sometimes not, 
admits of no reasonable defence. We have simply to abide 
by the standard of 161 1 in every instance, not caring to 
adopt even such changes as that set down in Appendix C 
on Gen. xxvi. i. In regard to the interjection O or Oh, 
the American plan (see above, p. 37) looks tempting from its 
simplicity, since it limits O to the pure vocative, and em- 
ploys Oh for the optative, which practically introduces the 
latter into the great majority of places. But Oh in English 
is neither dignified nor pleasing enough for constant repeti- 
tion, and after having vainly attempted to discover the law 
observed by our Translators, it may be judged advisable to 
limit Oh to passages where the optative sense is very de- 
cided, as when it answers to the Hebrew ^\ Gen. xix. 18, 
20, or DX I Chr. iv. 10, or T\l'^ Ps. cxvi. 16, or ''in Isai. xxix. i 
inarg. : unless it be deemed better to banish Oh altogether. 
The intensive forms of certain words are occasionally put 
for the weaker, and vice versA, perhaps for euphony: thus 
bide Rom. xi. 23 becomes abide, ware in Matt. xxiv. 50 
becomes aware (see App. C in loco), both in 1762: rise be- 
comes arise i Sam. xxiv. 8 (both books of 1629, 1630); 
xxv. 42 (1629 Camb., which makes the opposite change in 
ch. xxviii. 25); 2 Sam. xix. 8 (1629 Lond.); Tobit xii. 21 
(1638); I Mace. ix. 23 (1769); Mark x. i (1629 Camb.); 
Luke viii. 24 (1616). In Gen. xi. 3 thoroughly best re- 
presents thorowly of 16 11, though the latter has thi-oughly 
s. 8 

IT4 Sect, v.] Authorized Version of the Bible (i.(iT.-i). 

in Ex. xxi. 19 (where thoroughly is found in 1762); 2 Kin. 
xi. 18; Job vi. 2. Lastly, it ought to be stated that the 
diphthongs a and a occur only in that small Roman type 
which in the Bibles of 16 11 answers to our italic, and have 
no corresponding characters in the black letter in which 
the text is printed. In this way we mark Ccesars Phil. i. 13 
marg., chxnix Rev. vi. 9 marg., the same character being 
set up in both places. In fact, a simple e represented both 
these diphthongs in the ordinary Bibles until after Blayne/s 
time, when they gradually came into use, though they are 
wanting in the latest copies for Nagge Luke iii. 25, Menan 
ver. 31, Colosse Col. i. 2, nor do they exist at all in the 
American book, except in chxnix. In 161 1 indeed they 
found more favour than afterwards, for beside the margins 
afore-mentioned, we meet with Coelosyria in i Esdr. ii. 
17, &c., Aenon John iii. 23, which double vowels, after 
having been made real diphthongs in 1630, and partly in 
both books of 1629, were converted into simple e in the 
influential edition of 1638. 

The employment of capital letters was much more free 
in the seventeenth century than at present, and in the 
Authorized Version whole classes of words that seem little 
entitled to that distinction are constantly so represented. 
Such are Altar, Ark, Court, Hanging, Mercy-seat, Noble, 
Priest, Sabbath, Statutes, Tabernacle; even Cedar-wood^ 
Shittiin-wood, &c. The tendency of later times has been 
to diminish such capitals very considerably, and in a few 
instances the moderns may have gone a little too far. 
Cherubims has a capital now only in Gen. iii. 24, and the 
Americans seem right in removing it thence. Archbishop 
Trench would restore the lost capital in " Vengeance" Acts 
xxviii. 4, which is not in the Bishops' Bible, and was with- 
drawn as early as 1629 (both editions) ; but then we must 
treat Wisd. xi. 20 in the same way, for the personification 

Capital Letters. *iis 

is just as strongly marked, though the initial v is small in 
i6ir. Ordinary words also, when pregnant with sacred 
associations, may wisely be distinguished by a capital. 
Such are Testimony Ex. xvi. 34, &c., Wittiess Num. xvii. 7, 
8, &c., especially in Acts vii. 44, where in 16 11 the w is 
small. But indeed the practice of our Translators in this 
matter is little more consistent than in certain others. Thus 
we have "the city of Salt" Josh. xv. 62, but "the valley of 
salt" 2 Sam viii. 13, in all our books from 1611 downwards. 
With Mr Gorle (see above, p. 79 note 2) we prefer no capital, 
where the character rather than the name of the region is 
designated. Sometimes an initial capital is useful to intimate 
a change of speaker, as in John iv. 9, where " For" of 16 11 
("for" 1629 Camb., &c.) shews that the woman's speech 
is already ended'. 

But what in most instances is only a matter of taste or 
propriety, becomes of real importance where the Divine 
Persons are spoken of. The familiar rule that Spirit should 
have a capital when the Holy Ghost or Spirit Himself is 
indicated, while spirit ought to be used in other cases, even 
when His power or influence is referred to, may be as safe 
as any, yet in application it gives rise to occasional per- 
plexity, which the inconsistencies of the standard and other 
editions do little to remove. Thus in Gen. xli. 38 the 
Bible of 161 1 has spirit (changed as early as 1613, though 
Spirit was not finally adopted before 1762), while in the 
precise parallel (Ex. xxxi. 3) it reads Spirit. The original 
edition is right also in 2 Chr. xxiv. 20 (^); Ps. cxxxix. 7 {s); 
Isai. xi. 2 {S once, and s three times); xxx. i {S); hx. 19 {s); 
Matt. iv. I {S); Mark i. 12 {S); Acts x. 19 {s, as in ch. xi. 12, 
28); Rom. i. 4 (^); i John v. 8 {S, as all in ver. 6), against 

^ James iv. 5 is less easy to deal ions) "The spirit " has prevailed, 
with. In 161 1 we have "the as if a quotation began at this 
spirit," but from 1629 (both edit- point, which is hardly true. 

ii6 Sect. VI.] Authorized Version of the Bible (t.(>\t.'). 

some or many later Bibles, but it wrongly has ^ in Num. xi. 
17, 25 {bis), 29. In 2 Esdr. vi. 39 Spiritus calls for the capi- 
tal, when the verse is compared with Gen. i. 2, though none 
hitherto have so printed it, whereas spiramen 2 Esdr. xvi. 62 
requires the opposite. Thus every case must be considered 
on its own merits. So again, while we admit that " Son of 
God " or " Son of man,'' wheresoever the word refers to the 
Lord Christ, should invariably have a capital letter', we 
may legitimately question its propriety in Dan. iii. 25 ; vii. 13, 
where it does not appear in 1611: only that the analogy of 
Rev. i. 13 persuades us to receive ^from the books of 1629 
(Lond.), 1630. Appellations derived from the Divine attri- 
butes should be indicated by capitals, whatever the variations 
of editions ; and we ought to be more studious of uniformity 
in such matters than of following the inconsistencies of 
editors that have preceded us. Thus, when relating to God, 
we adopt Author (Wisd. xiii. 3), Father, the Most High, the 
Holy One, Maker", Mighty One, Redeemer^, Saviour*. As 
regards Scripture, we may safely abide by the ordinary rule 
of using the capital where the whole body of Holy Writ is 
meant (e.g. John v. 39; Acts xviii. 24; 2 Tim. iii. 15, 16), 
the small s where some particular portion is referred to*. 

Section VI. 

On the references to parallel texts of Scripture which are set in 
the margin. 
A large proportion of the time and labour bestowed on 

^ Hence "Son" should stand in 11, comparing Job xix. 25. 

John viii. 36, but not in ver. 35, ^ Yet not so with 1611 in Ps. 

where the reference is general. cvi. 21, since temporal deliverance 

^ As in 161 r : but "maker" has seems to be intended : cf. Judg. iii. 

no capital in Isai. xlv. 9,11, where 9 marg. 

a contrast is intended with the ^ For the small capitals, by 

"makers" of idols. which our Translation represents 

^ So (against the standard of the Hebrew Jehovah, see Ap- 

161 1) we will read in Prov. xxiii. pendix A. 

Parallel References. ♦117 

the Cambridge Paragraph Bible has been spent upon the 
references to parallel texts which are set in the margin. 
The Authorized Version only followed the example of earlier 
English translations in providing these materials for the 
exact study of Holy Scripture by means of comparing one 
portion of it with others. In fact, more than half the refer- 
ences contained in the edition of 161 1 are derived from 
manuscript and printed copies of the Vulgate Latin Bible, 
and thus present to us the fruits of the researches of medi- 
aeval scholars and the traditional expositions of the Western 
Church. The references found in the standard of 1611, 
however, scarcely amount to a seventh part of those printed 
in modern Bibles, and have been computed not to exceed 
nine thousand'; the whole of which, inasmuch as they must 
be regarded as an integral portion of the Translators' work, 
have been scrupulously retained in all later Bibles ; except 
only a few where the reference given is hopelessly wrong. Such 
are ch. xvi. 15 in the margin of 2 Sam. xix. 19: Eccles. v. 
12 in that of Job xx. ig : Judg. xiii. 21 in that of Ps. cvi. 2: 
Judg, vii. rg in that of Ps. cvi. 6. Sometimes they appear 
to have mistaken the drift or meaning of the passage; e.g. 
I Chr. ix. set over against Neh. xii. 23, where our exist- 
ing books of the Chronicles are scarcely meant at all: 
Prov. XV. 30 as parallel to Eccles. vii. i : Ps. cxxxii. 6 as 
parallel to Jer. vii. 14 : and 2 Mace. iii. 4 referred to in 
Ecclus. 1. I, although quite a different person is meant : the 
last two have disappeared from modern Bibles. Occasionally, 
indeed, the original reference has been preserved, where it 

■■ In the Old Testament 6588, in than in the Old. These figures 

the Apocrypha 885, in the New are taken from Hewlett's Com- 

Testament 1517. Comparatively mentary. Vol. I. p. 45, 410., cited 

few additions have been made to by Hartwell Home {Introduction, 

the original parallel texts in the Vol. 11. Part 11. p. 8r, 1834), who 

Apocrypha — Blayneyhasonlyi772 computes Blayney's additions alone 

in all — and many more in pro- at 30,495 (p. 80), which is probably 

portion in the New Testament too high a sum. 

ii8 Sect VI.] Authorized Version of the Bible {idw). 

would hardly have been accepted on its own merits : such 
is the case of Ex. xxxiv. 6 in the margin of Neh. ix. 32: 
Deut. vii. i, (2) in that of Ps. cxlix. 9 : Ps. 1. 9 in that of 
Prov. xxi. 27 : Isai. liii. 3 in that of Wisd. ii. 15 : 2 Cor. iii. 
17 in that of John iv. 24 : Matt, xxviii. 19 in that of John 
XV. 16 : Mark ix. 12 (from the Vulgate) in Isai. liii. 3 : Rom. 
vii. 9 in I Thess. iii. 8 '. As we cannot praise very highly the 
typographical correctness of the Bibles of 161 1 in other 
particulars (see p. 8), so it must be stated that no other 
portion of the work is so carelessly printed as these parallel 
texts, each issue exhibiting errors peculiar to itself^, but 
few leaves indeed being exempt from some gross fault com- 
mon to them both. The references to the Psalms direct us 
constantly to the wrong verse; namely, that of the Latin 
Vulgate from which they were first derived, not to that of 
the English Bible on whose pages they stand. The marks 
of reference from the text to the margin are so often mis- 
placed, that it would be endless to enumerate glaring errors 
in regard to them which have long since been removed. 

One of the main services rendered by the revisers of 
the Cambridge folios of 1629 and 1638 was the setting 
right these vexatious inaccuracies of the earlier books, 
which toilsome duty they performed very thoroughly, leaving 
to their successors the more congenial employment of add- 
ing largely to the original texts, a liberty which seems to 
have been taken by almost every one who prepared a 

^ In Amos ii. I the reference of Chr. xxxiv. 4; xxxvi. 10; Ezra 

161 1 to 2 Kin. iii. 27 may be viii. 20: while the latter is right 

retained, because the heading to and the former wrong in Ps. xxxii. 

the latter chapter renders it plain g ; xliii. 5 ; Ixxviii. 60, ■ where it 

that our Translators supposed should be stated that the first and 

(wrongly, as it would seem) that third examples are from the revised 

the king of Ed em's son was sacri- sheets of Synd. A. 3. 14 (p. 6). 

ficed. But these are exceptional cases. 

^ Thus the copy from which the The two issues ordinarily coincide 

Oxford reprint was taken corrects in most manifest errors. 
Synd. A. 3. 14 in i Kin. ii. 11 ; 2 

Parallel References. jig 

special edition. Whensoever a reference had once found 
Its way into the margin, there it was allowed to remain, 
unchallenged and even unexamined, however frivolous or 
mistaken it might be. Moreover, in recent Bibles which 
do not contain the Apocryphal books, all references drawn 
from them by our Translators have been summarily re- 
jected, through the same unwarrantable license that led 
certain of them to expunge altogether the marginal note in 
I Chr. vii. 28 ("HCr, Adassa, i Mace. vii. 45": see below, 
p. 195 note 2), and to mutilate that on Acts xiii. 18 by 
striking out the reference to 2 Mace. vii. 27. All such texts 
from the Apocrypha, together with a few others dropped 
through apparent inadvertence, ought to be restored to their 
rightful places. The parallel references in the Apocrypha re- 
quire to be largely increased, as well for other purposes, as 
with a view to illustrate the style of the Greek New Testament 
The textual references which have been gradually ac- 
cumulating in the margins of our modern Bibles have 
been received or expunged in the Cambridge Paragraph 
Bible solely on their own merits : they have no such general 
reception to plead in their favour as those in the standard 
of 161 1. Many of them are excellent, and help much for 
the right understanding of Scripture : these, after having 
been verified more than once, as well in the original 
tongues as in the Authorized version, have of course been 
retained. Of the rest, a larger portion than might have 
been anticipated have been judged irrelevant, questionable, 
or even untrue. No editions are more open to criticism 
in this particular than those of Dr Paris (1762) and of Dr 
Blayney (1769), who between them added at least half as 
many references as they found already existing. The 
worst errors, because unlearned readers cannot discover 
or so much as suspect them, relate to parallelisms which 
are true in the English, false in the Hebrew or Greek. 

120 Sect. VL] Authorized Version of the Bible {i(>\\). 

Such are Judg. ix. 27 cited at Judg. xvi. 25 (1769): i Chr. 
V. 26 cited at i Kin. xi. 14 (1769): i Sam. xii. 21 (1762) 
and Isai. xli. 29 (1769) cited at i Kin. xvi. 13: i Sam. ix. 9 
cited at i Chr. xxi. 9 (1762): Ruth i. 21 cited at Job x. 17 
(1769): Hos. xi. 12 cited at Ps. cxxxii. 16 (1762): Ex. 
xxviii. 36; xxix. 6 ; Lev. viii. 9 cited at Zech. vi. 11 (1769): 
John xix. 40 cited at Acts v. 6 and vice versd (1762). Even 
in the Bible of 161 1 we have Gen. iv. 4 made to illustrate 
.Num. xvi. 15, although the resemblance is far less exact 
than the English might make it appear. References ob- 
jectionable on more general grounds, some few being scarcely 
intelligible, are Num. ii. 3, 10, 18, 25 to illustrate Ezek. i. 

10 (1762): the marvellous comment implied by citing John 
i. 14; Col. ii. 9 in Rev. xiii. 6, and 2 Kin. xx. 7 in Rev. xiii. 
14 (both due to 1762): the allusions to the Great Day of 
Atonement in Jer. xxxvi. 6 (1762 and 1769), whereas some 
special fast is obviously meant (ver. 9): the hopeless con- 
fusion arising from connecting Acts xx. i, 3 with i Tim. i. 3 
(1762): the tasteless quotation of i Sam. xxiv. 3 in Jonali 
i. 5 (1762). Hardly less false are John x. 23 and Acts iii. 

11 cited at i Kin. vii. 12 (1762): i Chr. xxiv. 10 and 
Luke i. 5 made parallel to Neh. xii. 4, 17 (1762): Josh. xiv. 
10 to Matt. iii. i (1762): while Ex. xxiii. 2 employed to 
explain Job xxxi. 34 (1769); Esther vii. 8 compared with 
Prov. x. 6 (1769); I Kin. v. 17, 18 with Prov. xxiv. 27 
(1769); Ps. Ixviii. 4 with Isai. xl. 3 (1762); Dan. iv. 27 
with Ecclus. xxxv. 3 (1762), will be regarded as but slender 
helps to the student of Scripture. In 2 Mace. ii. 8 the 
allusion surely is to Ex. xl. 38, not (as in 1762) to Ex. xxxiv. 
5. Finally, the note of interrogation should in fairness be 
annexed to some over bold, though not impossible, sugges- 
tions of the more recent editors, as when in Ps. cxxxiii. 3 the 
reference to Deut. iv. 48 (1762) would identify li'S with t'^'*"?'. 

We can only conjecture that the "Scotch edition" of 

Parallel References. 121 

which Dr Blayney speaks so vaguely in his Report to the 
Delegates (see Appendix D), was that of Brown of Had- 
dington, then just pubHshed. The parallel texts of Canne 
(1664, 1682), though often surprisingly wide of the mark, 
are said by those who have patiently used them to be at 
times very suggestive, and to contain more truth than might 
appear on the surface'. The editor of Bagster's Miniature 
Quarto Bible 1846, while "admitting without examination 
the references of Blayney, Scott [1822], Clarke [1810, &c.], 
and the English Version of Bagster's Polyglot..., froiri their 
acknowledged accuracy,'' held himself obliged "to verify 
all that were found in Canne, Brown, and Wilson [i. e. Crut- 
well, 1785]; the aggregate number, it is believed, being 
nearly half a million" (Preface, p. i.). It is plain that so 
numerous a host can prove little else than an encumbrance 
to the private Christian, by positively discouraging him from 
resorting to the margin at all, and that even earnest students 
will often be sensible of the danger incurred by such burden- 
some and minute commentaries, lest, "after all, the design 

■' " Canne's references are very published, on the principle of 

different in character from those of making tlae Bible its own Inter- 

the edition of 1611, being more preter. In his edition of 1682 he 

for the purpose of comment and says, " The sweetness and great 

explanation, and less for that of content that I have had all along 

scholarlike illustration. He refers in this Scripture work, hath caused 

scarcely at all to quotations. His me to account other studies and 

references are more suggestive than readings (which I formerly used) 

immediately striking. They are very low in comparison of it. It 

not numerous, but evidently care- is said of Jacob, that he served 

fully selected. In the edition I have seven years for Sachel, and tliey 

seen {Edin. 1747) they are most seemed but a few days, for the lave 

incorrectly printed." Grote MS. he had to her. I can truly speak 

p. 1 3 (see above, p. 23 note). John it, I have served the Lord in this 

Canne was a Baptist, and a prolific work more than thrice seven years, 

writer in the interest of that sect. and the time hath not seemed 

His own small octavo editions long, neither hath the work been 

bear no mark of place or printer's any way a burden to me, for the 

name, but came from Amsterdam, love I have had to it " (Preface, p. 

whither he went into exile after 1). His book was often reprinted 

the Restoration. He had prepared in the former half of the eighteenth 

a larger work, which was never century. 

122 Sed. V/.] Authorized Version of the Bible {t:.(>\t.'). 

and scope of the whole may not be understood, while the 
reader's mind stays so long in the several parts" (Bp. Patrick, 
Dedication to Paraphrase of Job). Bagster's publications 
have been so perpetually consulted in cases of difficulty for 
my purposes, that I may fairly express my regret that what 
is intrinsically valuable in them should be buried under a 
heap of irrelevant matter. Less full, but on the whole 
more profitable for study, is the collection of texts in the 
Religious Tract Society's "Annotated Paragraph Bible" of 
1861, but here too, as in Bagster's books, nearly all the 
old matter is adopted without any attempt at revision, or 
apparent consciousness of the need of it. That the additions 
made in the Cambridge Paragraph Bible to the store of 
already existing references will by many be deemed too 
copious, their compiler is painfully aware. He can only 
plead in self-defence that he has aimed at brevity through- 
out ; that no single text has been accepted as parallel which 
did not seem to him really illustrative either of the sense 
or language of Scripture ; and that all the materials, whether 
new or old, have been digested into such a shape as, it is 
hoped, will prove convenient for practical use ; while the 
form in which they are given will afford some indication as 
to their respective characters and relative values. With this 
last end in view, the reader's attention is directed to the, 
following simple rules, on which the collectiori of textual 
references in the margin of that volume has been constructed 
and arranged. 

(i) When the parallel between the passage in the text 
and that in the margin, whether it be verbal or relate to the 
general sense, is as exact as the subject allows, the Scripture 
text stands in the margin with no prefix : e. g. 2 Cor. iv. 6 
cited in the margin of Gen. i. 3. 

(2) If "So" stand before the Scripture text, it indicates 

Parallel References. 12,3 

that the parallel, although real, is less complete, or that the 
language is more or less varied in the two places : e. g. 2 Chr. 
xiii. 9 "'no gods" being exactly like Jer. v. 7, but less 
closely akin to Deut. xxxii. 21, the marginal note is thus 
expressed ""Jer. 5. 7. So Deut. 32. 21." Again, Job xi. 
10 '"shut up," being precisely identical with Lev. xiii. 4, 
while in Job xii. 14 the Hebrew verb is of a different 
conjugation, the margin runs '"Lev. 13. 4, &c. So ch. 
12. 14."' 

(3) If instead of "So," the word "Compare" or "Comp." 
be prefixed, it is intimated that the resemblance is slighter 
and less direct, or even that there is a seeming inconsistency 
between the two places : e. g. 2 Kin. ii. 1 1 in the margin of 
Gen. v. 24, where the events recorded are not in all respects 
analogous. So also "'Comp. 2 Kin. 8. 26 and ch. 21. 20" 
annexed to 2 Chr. xxii. 2, draws attention to the numerical 
difficulty. Such phrases as "Supplied from" in the margin 
of 2 Sam. xxi. 19; "Expressed in" Ex. xxiii. 2; "Expressed" 
Judg. vii. 18 will be understood at once by consulting the 
passages alleged. 

(4) Much space has been economised and the constant 
repetition of a body of texts, all bearing on the same point, 
has been avoided, by setting them down once for all in full, 
and elsewhere referring the reader to that place by means of 
the word "See." Thus "See i Chr. 29. 14" in the margin of 
2 Chr. ii. 6, directs the reader to a place where all extant 
examples of a certain idiom had already been brought to- 
gether. In Num. ix, 15, "See Ex. 13. 21" shews that the 
latter place contains a collection of the texts relating to the 
pillars of cloud and of fire. This method has been much 

1 Occasionally the reference xvi. 12 at Job xxxi. 31; Luke v. 

assumes the character of a brief 7, 10 at Job xli. 6. But this 

exposition: e.g. Heb. ix. 27 cited liberty has been taken -very spar- 

at Job xxi. 33 (after 1769); Ex. ingly. 

124 Sect. VI.] Authorized Version of the Bible i\(>T.-i). 

employed in regard to Proper Names both of places and 
persons. It should also be stated that where passages of 
the New Testament are noticed as "Cited from" the Old, 
it has been judged needless to repeat the textual references 
previously set down in the corresponding places from which . 
the citation is made : e.g. Matt. xxii. 37, 39, 44. 

(5) When the parallelism extends to a whole paragraph, 
or indeed to any portion of the sacred text exceeding a 
single verse, the fact is carefully indicated by a peculiar 
notation. Thus in the margin of Ex. xxi. i, "To ver. 17, 
Deut. 5. 6 — 21" (the name of the book being printed in 
italic type), intimates that Ex. xx. i — 17 is in substance 
identical with Deut. v. 6 — 21. Such instances occur very 
frequently, especially in the books of Samuel and Kings 
compared with Chronicles, and in the first three or Synoptic 
Gospels. Here again it has not been thought advisable to 
repeat in a later passage the textual references already given 
in an earlier passage in great measure resembling it. Such 
as are found in the second passage either belong to it alone, 
or are intended to direct attention to its divergencies from 
the first one: e.g. "Con^pfl,re 2 Sam. 10. 18" in the margin 
of I Chr. xix. 18. 

(6) The parallel is frequently a real one in the original 
tongues, although it appears faintly or not at all in the 
Authorized Version. In this case (Heb.), (Chald.), or (Gk.), 
as the case may be, is annexed to the citation, to give 
notice of the fact: e.g. Lev. xi. 17. Where several texts are 
cited, and ihis is true of two or more of them, the expression 
is varied to "in the Heb.", "in the Gk.": e.g. Deut. xxxiii. 
27, where the notation happens to relate to all the three 
places in the Psalms. Whensoever, in the margin of the 
New Testament, (Gk.) is set after a quotation from the Old, 
it is intimated that the Septuagint version agrees with the 

Parallel References. 125 

New Testament: e.g. Matt. xxvi. 12. In a few instances, 
and for special reasons, the word (Septuagint) has been 
printed at length. 

(7) If, on the contrary, the resemblance between two 
or more passages belong only to the English, and have no 
respect to the original, (Eng.) or (EngUsh) is added to the 
quotation. Such notices are designed to gather in one 
view words nearly obsolete, or otherwise to throw light 
upon the phraseology of the Authorized Version : e.g. Gen. 
xlv. 6j I Sam. ix. 5 ; i Kin. xx. 11; 2 Chr. xxvi. 14; Dan. 
vi. 3; 2 Esdr. xvi. 49; Tobit iv. 14; vi. 12; Matt. x. 10; 
xiii. 20J xiv. 8j xvii. 12, 25; xx. 11; xxiv. 48; xxvi. 67; 
xxvii. 39; Mark x. 44; Luke i. 54; vi. 32; vii. 4; viii. 23; 
xiv. 32; I Tim. ii. g. Compare Judg. xii. 14. 

(8) Lastly, as a note of interrogation (?) has been em- 
ployed to bring into question the references both of the 
standard of 16 11 and of its more recent editors (p. 120), 
so it has been occasionally employed for the same purpose 
with certain that appear in the Paragraph Bible either alone, 
or with little countenance elsewhere : e,g."iChr. 27.21" cited 
for "Iddo" in i Kin. iv. 14. Names of places and persons 
are frequently so marked, if the orthography be somewhat 
varied: e.g. "Ramah", Josh, xviii. 24. In Judg. xviii. 30, 
by illustrating "Gershom" from "Ex. 2. 22 ?& 18. 3 ?" atten- 
tion is directed to the proposed substitution of "Moses" 
instead of '-' Manasseh", a reading both probable in itself, 
and supported by weighty and varied authorities. In the 
same spirit, an attempt has frequently been made to convey 
some notion of the relative value of the marginal renderings 
(see above, pp. 41 — 59) as compared with those in the text, 
by means of passages cited to illustrate one or both of them : 
e. g. Esther vi. i : Ps. vi. 6. 

Advantage has also been taken of the same opportu- 

126 Sect. VI.] Authorized Version of the Bible {\(>\i). 

nity to insert in the margin a great number of passages 
tending to illustrate the internal connection and relative 
dates of the several books of the Old Testament, which have 
been the most subjected in modern times to criticism more 
or less sober and profound. Such references as are made to 
the Pentateuch in Judg. xix. 7, 8; 2 Sam. xiv. 7, are so 
many additional proofs that the diction of the oldest books 
of the Bible clave to the memory, and was wrought into the 
literary style even of the earliest surviving writers after the 
conquest of Canaan. Nothing short of actual collation of 
parallel texts, undertaken by the student for himself, can 
cause him to realize the extent to which the peculiar lan- 
guage of the book of Job has influenced those which fol- 
lowed it, or can do justice to its claim to the most venerable 
antiquity. Thus too the resemblances between Zech. i. — 
viii. and ix.^ — xiv. have been diligently recorded : while in 
regard to the prophecies of Isaiah it may be confidently 
affirmed that no unprejudiced scholar, who shall but faith- 
fully examine the numberless coincidences both in thought 
and expression between the first thirty-nine and last twenty- 
seven chapters of his book (coincidences which are all the 
more instructive by reason of their often being very minute 
and sometimes even lying below the surface), will ever again 
admit into his mind the faintest doubt, whether the two 
several portions of that inspired volume are the production 
of one author or of more. 

The compilation of this virtually new body of textual 
references has been greatly aided by Wetstein's only too 
copious collections from the Septuagint in the notes to his 
Greek Testament (1751- — 2), and yet more by two laborious 
volumes, to which the editor has been more largely indebted 
than he knows how to express; — Canon Wilson's accurate 
and exhaustive "English, Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon and 
Concordance" (^Second edition 1866 : he died 1873, set. 90) es- 

Bible Paragraphs. 127 

pecially valuable for the attention paid therein to the marginal 
notes; and Wigram's "Hebraist's Vade Mecum" (1867), 
which, answering as it does many of the purposes of that 
great desideratum of sacred literature, a real Hebrew Con^ 
cordance, has been his hourly companion ever since it was 
published. He has also enjoyed the benefit of using for the 
Poetical and Prophetic books, that glory of the Clarendon 
Press, the "Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt" (1867 — 
1871) of Dr Field; whose Latin version of the Hebrew 
passages cited throughout the work, by reason of its elegance 
and precision no less than from an almost instinctive per- 
ception of the true sense of the original in cases of difficulty, 
leaves us nothing to regret save its fragmentary character, 
and begets in the student an earnest longing for a continu- 
ous translation, at least of these harder portions of the Old 
Testament, from the same able and accomplished hand. 

Section VII. 

Miscellaneous observations relating to the present work, and 
general Conclusion. 

It is obvious that the practice of printing the English 
Bible in sections or paragraphs accommodated to the sense 
(the notation of the chapters and verses being set in the 
margin), which Mr Reeves the King's Printer introduced 
early in the present century, and in which he has found so 
many imitators, is in substance only a return to the fashion 
that prevailed in our early versions, before the Genevan 
New Testament of 1557 unfortunately broke up the text 
into divisions at once so minute and so arbitrary as the 
verses invented by Robert Stephen. "The subdivision of 
the books of Sacred Scripture into chapters and verses, 
without regard to the sense, and frequently to its great 
injury, has thrown a most serious obstacle in the way of 

128 Seel. VII?\ Authorized Version of the Bible (\(i\-i). 

common readers." It has given rise to "a very erroneous 
impression, that the Bible is rather a collection of apoph- 
thegms, or disconnected sentences, than composed of 
regular histories and treatises on religion, which have their 
separate topics and connexions." "It is a method peculiar 
to the Bible, and confined to translations alone. Yet the 
word of God is not deserving of such an injurious peculiarity 
as this'." Thus clearly is the case stated by an editor who 
seems to have been the first to introduce this simple plan 
into the United States of America, and who has certainly 
carried it out with singular skill and discretion. 

For indeed the division of the sacred text into sections 
suitable for general use will not be deemed an easy matter 
by any one who has essayed it. If we look only to the 
broad and prominent breaks in a Bible narrative or dis- 
course, they will usually be found too far apart for the 
reader's convenience : if the subordinate members be sepa- 
rated from each other, the result will often be a virtual return 
to the discarded verse divisions. Something between these 
two extremes is to be aimed at, and in this effort there is 
room as well for much honest difference of opinion, as for 
the exercise of careful discrimination and a subtil faculty of 
analysis. From the marks of paragraph division (II) em- 
ployed for the first time in the Authorized Version, little 
help can be derived. They are unequally and capriciously 
distributed, and in both issues of 1611 and in the Bible of 
1613 they cease altogether after Acts xx. 36: nor have they 
any perceptible connection with the headings of the chapters, 
hereafter to be mentioned. The editor of the Cambridge 
Paragraph Bible would have been glad, in the prosecution 
of this portion of his task, if he could have followed rather 

^ The Holy Bible with the text Nourse. Boston and Philadelphia, 
ofthe common Translatio7t arranged 1836. Preface, pp. i, -i. 
«z Paragrajihs, &c. By James 

Arrangement of Hebrew Poetry. 129 

than preceded the pubhcation of the new Church Lectionary 
of 1871. It is, however, with great satisfaction that on com- 
paring the paragraphs in this vokime with the beginnings 
and endings of the Lessons as appointed by the Royal 
Commissioners, he has been able to note a resemblance 
between the two which is quite remarkable, due allowance 
being always made for the motives which sometimes cause 
a Church Lesson to commence or leave off at a certain 
place, irrespective of considerations suggested by the 

The poetical portions of the Old Testament and Apo- 
crypha, as well as a very few passages of the New Testa- 
ment', have been arranged in the Paragraph Bible accord- 
ing to the principles first enunciated by Bishop Lowth, and 
modified and improved upon by his successors. The series 
of couplets or triplets of parallel lines is furthermore broken 
everywhere by divisions (similar to those in the prose books) 
suggested by the sense, which throughout Job (as repre- 
sented by Delitzsch), and in some of the Psalms (e.g. xlii., 
xliii.; Ixxxix.; cvii.) may be regarded as stanzas, often though 
by no means always of uniform length. The thirteen alpha- 
betical poems ° are distinguished by Hebrew letters at the 
proper places, so that an English reader may form some 
notion of the grounds on which the Lowthian system of 
Hebrew parallelism ultimately rests. Here again a difficulty 
often occurs which is at times unavoidable in a version made 
before the true laws of the poetry were ascertained, in that 

1 Luke i. 46 — 55; (58 — 79; ii. Matt, xxiii. (compare Luke xi.), 

14; 29 — 32. Rev. xviii. 2 — 24. have been set each in a separate 

Also, m imitation of some of the paragraph. 

earliest Greek manuscripts, the ^ Ps. ix.; x. (imperfect); xxv. ; 

Beatitudes (Matt. v. 3 — 12 ; Luke xxxiv. ; xxxvii.; cxi.; cxii.; cxix.; 

vi. 20 — 26), the short parables of cxlv. Prov. xxxi. 10 — 31. Lam. 

Matt, xiii., and the eight woes of i.; ii.; iii. ; iv. 

130 Sect. VII.] AtiiAon'zed Version 0/ tke £ii/e {i6ii). 

the order of the English, departing for good reasons from that 
of the original, forbids a correct distribution of the verse into 
its proper members. Instances may be noticed in Job xxxvn. 
13, 21. Ps. xxxi. 18; Ixviii. 23; Ixxiv. 6; Ixxv. 8; xci, 9; 
xcviii. i; cxix. 4; cxx. i; cxxix. 5; cxxxii. 12; cxxxiv. 3; 
cxxxvii. 2. Prov. viii. 2, 3; xxiv. II. Isai. xxviii. 4. Mic. iv. 8. 
Nah. iii. 3. Zeph. iii. 17. Zech. ix. i. Mal. i. 3. Ecclus. i. 2, 
3; xviii. 6; xxvi. 9; xxxiii. ig; xl. 29; xlviii. 22. Not that 
we should be over anxious to maintain an equable length 
for the lines, as Nourse too often does, dividing (for example) 
Mal. iv. 5 at the word "coming" instead of "prophet," in 
violation of the sense, and against the Masoretic points, 
which, through some happy instinct of their authors, seldom 
lead us wrong. More considerable is the perj^lexity, in 
dealing with writers that pass gradually from what might 
well be deemed poetry into rhetorical prose, and so back 
again, to determine the precise point at which the poetical 
structure should begin or terminate. This was found 
especially the case in Jeremiah and the earlier chapters of 
Zechariah, wherein another mind might easily arrive at a 
different result. Portions also of Ecclesiastes (ch. vii. i — 14; 
X. I — ^xii. 7) and 2 Esdras xvi., are imperfectly metrical, 
though printed as prose ; while on the other hand the tone 
of Zephaniah is less elevated than is usual in poetry. We 
notice a burst of poetic fervour in so prosaic a book as 
Daniel (ch. ii. 20 — 23), while the last prayer of David 
(i Chr. xxix. 10 — 19), which began in the same high strain, 
gradually sinks to a lower level. Passages of the hymn in 
Neh. ix. 5 &c., are among the latest breathings of an ex- 
piring literature of holy song. The opening of Wisdom 
again is quite as capable of being thrown into parallel lines 
as Ecclesiasticus, yet as the book proceeds (though it is the 
work of a single writer and composed on a regular plan), it 
insensibly swells into the ornate periods of the later Greek 

Ordinary 'Chapters' and Verses. • 131 

style'. How wholly unsuitable some parts of it are for re- 
duction into parallel lines may be seen in the edition of 
O. T. Fritzsche {Libri Apocryphi V. T. 187 1), yet both he 
and W. J. Deane, in his valuable edition of the Book of 
Wisdom (188 1), mostly follow the line divisions of Codex 

We are very little concerned with the chapters and verses 
of ordinary Bibles, though they should not be interfered 
with needlessly. In the Apocryphal additions to Esther, 
nothing more confused or preposterous than the 
order of the matter and the numbering of the chapters in our 
own Version, and to some extent in the Clementine Vulgate 
and earlier English Bibles. By adopting Jerome's arrange- 
ment, and omitting his explanatory notes, we have as a 
result, among other inconsistencies, the interpretation of 
Mardocheus' dream before the dream itself^ In other cases 
the divisions of chapters may be disregarded without scruple, 
whensoever they appear erroneous or unnecessary. Thus 
with the Hebrew we should join Lev. vi. i — 7 with ch. v. 
Connect also Josh. v. 15 with ch. vi. ; Isai. ii. 22 with ch. 
iii. ; Isai. x. i — 4 with ch. ix. ; Jer. xix. 14, 15 with ch. xx.; 
Ezek. XX. 45 — 50 with ch. xxi. (the parable with its solution), 
as in the Hebrew (which also rightly joins Hos. xi. 12 with 
ch. xii. ; and Nah. i. 15 with ch. ii.) ; Amos ii. i — 3, or i — 
5 with ch. i. ; Ecclus. vi. i with ch. v. 15 ; Matt. xv. 39 with 
ch. xvi. ; xix. 30 with ch. xx. ; Mark ix. i with ch. viii. ; the first 
clause of Acts viii. with ch. vii. ; i Cor. xi. i with ch. x. ; 2 Cor. 
V. I with ch. iv.; vii. i with ch. vi. ; Col. iv. i with ch. iii. ; Rev. 
viii. I with ch. vii. Nor can anything be worse than the verse 
divisions at times, especially in the Old Testament, e. g. Ps. 

^ " Grandiloqnus, cotliurnatus, SmitKs Dictionary of the Bible. 

tumidus" are Lowth's expressive Coverdale and the Bishops' Bible 

epithets. De Sacra Poesi. Free- get rid of the difficulty by omitting 

lect. XXIV. ch. A. 4 — xi. i altogether. 

2 Bp. Lord A. C. Hervey in 


132 Sect. VII.^ Authorized Version of the Bible {1611). 

Ixxviii. 30, 31; xcv. 7, 8; Isai. i. 16, 17. We may also 
notice that in the Song of the Three Holy Children the 
modern verses are from the beginning one in advance of those 
of 1611 (see Appendix A), and that the English verses in 
Luke i. 74, 75; vii. 18, 19; John i. 38,39; Acts ix. 28, 29; 
xi. 25, 26; xiii. 32, 33; xix. 40, 41; xxiv. 2, 3 ; 2 Cor. 
ii. 12, 13; v. 14, 15; xi. 8, 9; xiii. 12, 13; Eph. i. 10, 11 : 
iii. 17, 18; Phil. iii. 13, 14; i Thess. ii. 11, 12; Heb. vii. 
20, 21 (where Elzevir 1624 agrees with the Engl.); x. 22, 23 
(with Beza); i John ii. 13, 14 (in some editions); 3 John 
13, 14; Apoc. xii. 18 orxiii. i (butTomson's Geneva 1606 and 
the Bishops' of 1602 are said by Dr Hort to agree with the 
Greek); xviii. 16, 17 differ slightly from those in ordinary 
Greek Testaments \ 

As regards the headings of the chapters, as also those set 
over the several columns of the text, nothing considerable 
would be lost by their omission. The column headings of 
necessity varied more or less for every edition which did not 
(like the black-letter books of 16 17, 1634, and that of 1640 
very nearly) correspond with the standard of 161 1 page for 
page. The headings summing up the contents of each 
chapter do not much resemble those previously given either 
in the Genevan or in the Great and Bishops' Bibles (which 
two in this particular are almost identical), but seem to be 
quite original. In the early chapters of the Acts of the 
Apostles they are inordinately long. The variations between 
our present headings and those of i6ri, other than mere 
corrections of the press, are but twelve in number, that pre- 
fixed to Ps. cxlix. being the only one of importance'. Dr 

1 We hardly know how to recog- vocant, versiculos, opus dis- 
use the claim set up by Robert tinximus, id, vetustissima Greeca 
Stephen, in his Greek Testament Latinaque ipsius N. T. exemplaria 
of 1551, of being the earliest to secuti, fecimus." 
divide the sacred text into verses : 2 Where " that power which he 

Quod autem per quosdam, ut hath given to the Church to rule 

Headings of Chapters and columns. '133 

Blayney, however, for his edition of 1769, gave what may be 
called "a New Version of these headings, bearing somewhat 
of the same relation to the Old that Tate and Brady does to 
Sternhold and Hopkins. It has been stigmatized by some 
as a doctrinal depravation of them, and praised by others as 
an improvement. It is in fact a modernization or dilation 
of them, with little systematic difference of doctrine, but with 
less force of it, giving however in many cases a better account 
of the real contents of the chapters than the old'." This 
portion of his labours Blayney speaks of with complacency 
in his Report to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press (see 
below. Appendix D) ; but whatever might be its merits, it 
met with no sort of acceptance. Oxford Bibles have re- 
turned long since to the headings of 1 6 1 1 ; his changes were 
never adopted at Cambridge. It was felt, perhaps, -that 
there is much comment of this kind in the original edition 
which long prescription alone has persuaded men to tolerate, 
and his work was rejected not because it was bad, but be- 
cause it was new. 

The chronological dates placed in the margin of our 
modern Bibles are derived from that of Bishop Lloyd in 
1701 (see above, p. 26, 27) without any pretence on the 
part of any one of vouching for their correctness. They are 
in substance taken from Archbishop Ussher's Annates V. et 
N. I'estamenti (1650 — 4), and are beyond doubt sufficiently 

the consciences of men" is dis- heading of Ecclus. xxxiv. 18 the 

erectly curtailed in the edition of words ran "The offering of the 

1762 by the omission of the ancient," until Blayney substituted 

last six words, that of 1769 "unjust" for "ancient." On this 

further amending by substi- subject the editor is much in- 

tuting "his saints" for "the debted to an obliging communica- 

Church," which latter some tion from the Rev. C. K. Paul, of 

modern Bibles still retain. D'Oyly Bailie, Wimborne. 

and Mant stand to the words of ^ Grote MS. (see above, p. 23 

1611. Observe also (with Bp. note), p. 18. 
Charles Wordsworth) that in the 

134 Sect. VIIi\ Authorized Version of the Bible {jG-i.\). 

exact to be a real help to the reader, the data on which they 
are constructed being always assumed as true! In the 
history of the later kings of Judah modern researches have 
not been able to suggest a variation from them of more than 
two years. The dates according to the Greek reckoning, set 
in the Paragraph Bible under those of the Hebrew in the 
iirst six books of the Bible, are grounded upon the well- 
known differences in respect to numerals between the text 
of the Hebrew and that of the Septuagint, in the fifth and 
eleventh chapters of Genesis. Bp. Lloyd's dates have not 
been materially tampered with since they were first brought 
into our Bibles, though in some copies they are repeated 
more frequently than in others. Lloyd, and after him the 
books of 1762 and 1769, had assigned to the ninth chapter 
of Zechariah the date of B.C. 587 (being 67 years earlier 
than that of his first chapter), in accordance with an opinion, 
more plausible than solid, to which Joseph Mede first lent 
the weight of his profound learning, that the last six chapters 
of that prophecy are the composition of some earlier writer, 
who flourished about the period of the Captivity. Modern 
Bibles later than 1835 have substituted in ch. ix. the date of 
B.C. 517; in Bagster's edition of 1846 it is reduced to 
B.C. 510, in the American of 1867 to B.C. 487, which is 
much too low. A mark of interrogation may simply be 
placed after this and some other questionable dates. The year 
B.C. 79T, alleged for the eclipse referred to in Amos viii. 9, 
being now known to be incorrect, other more possible dates 
have been substituted within brackets. In Jer. xxvii. i, "b. C. 
598" is omitted altogether, as it rests on the needless sup- 
position that for "Jehoiakim'' in the text we ought to read 
"Zedekiah." The like remedy has been applied to Isai. ix. 
8 and x. i, which obviously belong to the same idyl or 
ode, and are connected by the same refraia : yet the one 
part of it is assigned to B.C. 738, the other to B.C. 713. It 

Marginal' dates. ,^35 

would be well to set a query after the date (b. c. 862) 
of the prophecy of Jonah, inasmuch as it is nearly certain 
that the Twelve Minor Prophets stand in the Canon in 
chronological order: and certainly on comparing Mic. vi. 16, 
the third chapter of that book must have been written before 
the fall of Samaria, not eleven years after it (b. c. 710). In 
the Second Prologue to Ecclesiasticus "the eight and 
thirtieth year " being seemingly that of the writer's life, not 
of the reign of Euergetes, instead of B.C. 133 we should 
probably read some earher time. The few dates added in 
the Paragraph Bible are included in brackets, and may per- 
haps be regarded as at once convenient and certain : such 
as that on Esther xi. i. It is not easy to approve of the 
boldness of the editor of 1762, who affixes to Ps. cxx. 
"cir. 1058," apparently on the authority of the chapter 
heading which assumes that Doeg is the enemy referred to, 
as indeed a comparison of ver. 4 with Ps. lii. i, renders not 

The present is scarcely a fit opportunity for discussing 
at length the merits and faults of the Authorized Version, 
which " so laborious, so generally accurate, so close, so 
abhorrent of paraphrase, so grave and weighty in word and 
rhythm, so intimately bound up with the religious convic- 
tions and associations of the English people'" will never 
yield its hard earned supremacy, save to some reverential 
and well-considered Revision of which it has been adopted 
as the basis, that shall be happy enough to retain its cha- 
racteristic excellencies, while amending its venial errors and 

1 Preface to The Gospel of S. an expression as "that that" Ezek. 

John revised by Five Clergymen, xxxvi. 36; Dan. xi. 36; Jonah, ii. 

p. VI. In regard to the rhythm 9; Zech. xi. 9 ibis), 16 — all the 

it' may be said that those can best worlc of one Company — is common 

appreciate the Translators' happy in so musical a contemporary wri- 

skill, who have tried to improve ter as Fletcher. 

upon their version. Even such 

136 Sect. VII.] Authorized Version of the Bible (idii). 

supplying its unavoidable defects. Yet it may not be im- 
proper to touch briefly on one or two particulars, which 
have not been prominently noted by others, but have im- 
pressed the writer's mind in the prosecution of his laborious, 
yet most interesting task. 

First then we mark great inequality in the execution 
of the several portions of this version. The limits of life 
and human patience would forbid the whole Bible (includ- 
ing the Apocrypha), from being committed to the care of 
a single Company, but it was surely a mistake to divide 
the whole body of Translators into six parties. The Bishops' 
Bible indeed seems to have had a fresh translator for al- 
most every book', and the inconsistencies which such a 
plan must needs engender may have been one of the causes 
which hindered that version from obtaining general accept- 
ance. No doubt it had been wisely provided by the 
King's ninth and tenth Instructions that "As any one Com- 
pany hath despatched any book..., they shall send it to 
the rest to be considered of seriously and judiciously ; for 
His Majesty is very careful in this point": as also that 
"If any Company doubt or differ upon any place... the 
difference to be compounded at the general meeting, which 
is to be of the chief persons of each company at the end 
of the work.'' But our very meagre information respecting 

^ Fourteen of the sacred books ployed nowhere appear. But even 
have appended to them the ini- in regard to the present Authorized 
tials of their translators, eight of Translation, tradition has assigned 
these being Bishops, so far as a share in the final revision to Dr 
they can be identified; but "they Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Win- 
do not indicate all the contribu- Chester, whose name appears in no 
tors." ^^^icoW, General View of list of the six Companies. Observe 
the History of the English Bible, what is said of him and of Miles 
P- 135- This last statement is Smith (see above, pp. 12 note4, 39) 
plainly true both from the manner in the Decrees of the Synod of 
inwhich the initials are distributed, Dort (below, p. 164). William 
and because the names of some Eyre's review has been mentioned 
persons known to have been em- above, p. 13 note 2. 

The six Companies of Revisers. a 37 

the progress of the Translators gives us no great reason to be- 
lieve that this wholesome device was carried out in practice 
(see above, p. 13), while internal evidence points decidedly 
to a contrary conclusion '. Certain it is that the six or twelve 
who met at Stationers' Hall during the nine months which 
immediately preceded publication had mechanical work 
enough on their hands in carrying the sheets through the 
press, without troubling themselves much about higher 
matters. The first Westminster Company undertook the 
historical books from Genesis down to the end of 2 Kings, 
and included the great names of Andrewes then Dean of 
Westminster, of Overall then Dean of S. Paul's, and of 
Adrian de Saravia, by birth a Fleming, at that time Pre- 
bendary of Westminster, but best known as the bosom 
friend and spiritual counsellor of saintlike Richard Hooker. 
Compared with other portions of Holy Scripture their share 
in the work may seem an easy one, yet the eminent suc- 
cess of the whole enterprise is largely due to the simple 
dignity of their style, and to the mingled prudence and bold- 
ness wherewith they so blended together the idioms of two 
very diverse languages, that the reader is almost tempted 
to beheve that the genius of his native tongue must have 
some subtil affinity with the Hebrew. Not inferior to theirs 
in merit, but far surpassing it in difficulty, is the work of 
the third, or first Oxford Company, the Prophets from 

1 One instance of this lack of wrongly or rightly matters not. 

consistency observable in the dif- In Ezek. xxxiii. 30 we find " still 

ferent parts of our Translation, are talking;" in Mai. iii. i6 

the more minute the better for "spake often;" three verses be- 

our purpose, will serve to lUus- fore "spoken so much," where 

trate a statement which is notori- 1629 so little understands what is 

ously true. The Oxford Com- intended as to put "jo »2w<rA" in 

pany, which revised the Prophets, italics. This Niphal form occurs 

was careful to render the Niphal only once elsewhere, Ps. cxix. 23, 

conjugation of "IHT with some where the second Company simply 

intensity of meaning, whether has " speak." 

138 Sect. VII.] Authorized Version of the Bible (\(>x\). 

Isaiah to Malachi inclusive. Tliis body was presided over 
by Dr John Harding, Regius Professor of Hebrew [1591 
— 8; 1604 — 10], in the room of the great Puritan Jolm 
Rainolds', President of Corpus Christi College [d. 1607], 
who is reputed to have first suggested the new translation 
at the Hampton Court Conference (1603 — 4), full three 
years before it was actually commenced. This party in- 
cluded Dr Richard Kilbye, Rector of Lincoln College 
[1590 — 1620], afterwards Regius Professor of Hebrew [i 610 ' 
— 1620], whose testimony tOi the anxious pains devoted to 
the version is preserved by Isaac Walton, and will be most 
readily credited by those whose privilege it has been to 
bear a part in similar conferences, directed to the same 
great end^ It needs but the comparison of a single chap- 
ter of Isaiah, for instance, as rendered by the Authorized 
Translation, with that in the Bishops' Bible which was 
adopted as the ground of their labours, to estimate very 
highly the improvements effected by this third Com- 
pany. The common notion that the Minor Prophets are 
less felicitously rendered than the four Greater, must be 
modified by the consideration that three or four of the 
twelve, as well from their pregnant brevity as from the 

^ So spelt, as Dr Newth tells the Doctor's friend's house, where 

me, on the title pages of his books, after some other conference the 

and on his monument in his Col- Doctor told him, he "might have 

lege Chapel. preached more useful doctrine, 

2 "The Doctor going to a Pa- and not have filled his auditors' 

rish Church in Derbyshire. ..found ears with needless exceptions 

the young preacher to have no against the late translation; and 

more discretion than to waste a for that word for which he offered 

great part of the hour allotted for to that poor congregation three 

his sermon in exceptions against reasons why it ought to have been 

the late translation of several translated as he said, he and others 

words (not expecting such a hearer had considered all of them, and 

as Dr Kilbye), and shewed three found thirteen more considerable 

reasons why a particular word reasons why it was translated as 

should have been otherwise trans- printed." Walton, Life of San- 

lated. When Evening Prayer was flVrm«, p. 367 (Zouch, 1807). 
ended, the preacher was invited to 

Relative merits of the Companies of Revisers. 1^9 

obscurity of their allusions, are among the very hardest 
books of the Bible in the original, whose difficulties no 
faithful translator would wish to dissemble or conceal. 
Respecting the second, or first Cambridge Company, which 
sustained irreparable loss by the death of Edward Lively, 
Regius Professor of Hebrew [1580 — 1606], before their task 
was fairly begun, his successor also, R. Spalding, appa- 
rently dying a year after, it may be confessed that its ver- 
sion of Job is very unsatisfactory, nor indeed could it well 
be otherwise before the breaking forth of that flood of 
light which Albert Schultens long afterwards (1737) shed 
upon it from the cognate languages. - A more legitimate 
subject of complaint is the prosaic tone of its translation 
of the Psalms, which, however exact and elaborate, is so 
spiritless as to be willingly used by but few that are familiar 
with the version in the Book of Common Prayer; a recen- 
sion which, though derived immediately from the Great 
Bible, is in substance the work of that consummate master 
of rhythmical prose, Bishop Miles Coverdale'. Of the 
other three Companies it will suffice to re-echo the general 
verdict, that the Epistles, entrusted to persons sitting at 
Westminster of whom little is now known, are worse done than 
any other part of the Canonical Scriptures, and bear no com- 
parison with the Gospels, the Acts (which book is especially 
good, as indeed is its prototype in the preceding version, 
from the hand of Bishop Cox of Ely), and the Apocalypse, 

^ Burnet (Sistory of the R&- unlawful let or search." We learn 
_/ii?'«a;ftra, Part III. Book 5) knows from Dr Eadie (English Bible, 
so little about Coverdale and his Vol. I. p. 432) that Queen Mary 
English style as to assert that " On released Coverdale at the earnest 
the 19th of February [1554 — 5], and renewed entreaty of Christian 
some small regard was had to II., king of Denmark, whose chap- 
Miles Coverdale, as being a fo- lain, J. M. Macalpine, was mar- 
reigner; for he was a Dane: he ried to the sister of Coverdale's 
had a passport to go to Denmark, wife, 
with two servants, without any 

140 Sect. 'VII P\ Authorized Version of the Bible (id^i). 

as revised by the second Oxford Company, on which 
served Sir Henry Savile, then the most famous Greek scho- 
lar in England. In the New Testament, as was both right 
and almost necessary, the renderings of the older Enghsh 
versions were more closely adhered to than in the Old. 
Of the performance of the fourth, or second Cambridge 
Company, to which the Apocrypha was consigned, little 
favourable can be said. It was the earliest party to com- 
plete its share, as appears from the fact that John Bois (see 
above, pp. 12, 22) was transferred to the first Cambridge 
Company after his proper task herein was completed'. A 
formal correction of the text, often so obviously corrupt, 
might have been impossible with 'the means within their 
reach ; yet it required very little critical discrimination to 
perceive the vast superiority of that which they perpetually 
appeal to as the "Roman edition" (see above, p. 47) over the 
older recensions of the Complutensian and of Aldus. For 
the rest, they are contented to leave many a rendering of 
the Bishops' Bible as they found it, when nearly any change 
must have been for the better; even where their prede- 
cessor sets them a better example they resort to undigni- 
fied, mean, almost vulgar words and phrases'^; and on the 

■^ Yet John Selden, who was translation, the rest holding in 

twenty-seven years old in i6ri, their hands some Bible, either of 

and must have had means of in- the learned tongues, or French 

formation not open to us, is repre- [Olivetan 1535, The Pastors 1588], 

sented in his Table Talk (p. 6) as Spanish [Pinel 1553, De Reyna 

speaking thus: "The translation 1569, the Valencia Bible of 1478 

in King James' time took an ex- revised by De Valei-a 1602], Ita- 

cellent way. That part of the lian [Briiccioli 1532?, or more 

Bible was given to him who was probably Diodati 1607], &c. If 

most excellent in such a tongue — they found any fault, they spoke; 

as the Apocrypha to Andrew if not, he read on." We hear no- 

Downes" [Regius Professor of thingfromhim of Luther's German 

Greek, 1585 — 1625]. He adds [i5'22, &c.], which, however, is no 

moreover this interesting piece of doubt the "Dutch" of the Trans- 

informalion, to whatever part of lators' Preface, a passage that, 

the work it may apply : " Then they Selden probably had in his mind, 

met together, and one read the '' Such are the colloquial forms, 

Purity and freedom of its style. i'4i 

whole they convey to the reader's mind the painful inv 
pression of having disparaged the importance of their own 
work, or of having imperfectly realised the truth that what 
is worth doing at all is worth doing well' 

Nor can the attentive student of the Authorized version 
fail to marvel at the perfect and easy command over the 
English language exhibited by its authors on every page. 
The fulness and variety of their diction, the raciness of 
their idiomatic resources, seem almost to defy imitation, 
while they claim our just and cheerful admiration. We 
need not extenuate that great error of judgment which is 
acknowledged to be the capital defect of the Translation, 
especially in the New Testament, in that the same foreign 
word is perpetually translated by several English ones, while 
on the other hand a single English word is made to repre- 
sent two or three in the original, and that too in the same 
context, where the cogency of the argument or the perspi- 
cuity of the narrative absolutely depends on identity in the 
rendering. But in avoiding this conspicuous fault of the 
men of 1611, some modern revisers whose efforts are already 
before the public have fallen into the opposite mistake of 
forcing the same English word to stand for the same Hebrew 

"He sticks not" i Esdr. iv. 21; relative merits of the several por- 

" Cocker thy child" Ecclus. xxx.9; tions of our version differs only in 

" a shrewd turn " Ecclus. viii. 19; one particular from that of its 

"get the day" (yet the verbal sturdy opponent Dr Robert Gell : 

play of the Greek is thus kept up) " The further we proceed in survey 

2 Mace. V. 6 ; "he is not for our of the Scripture, the Translation 

turn" Wisd. ii. 12; "sour beha- is the more faulty, as the Hagio- 

viour" 2 Mace. xiv. 30. Add the grapha more than the Historical 

mere archaisms '"brickie" Wisd. Scripture, and the Prophets more 

XV. 13; "the party" Tobit vi. 7 ; than the Hagiographa [?], and the 

"pensions" (icX^/sous) i Esdr. iv. Apccrypha most of all; and gene- 

56 (Bp.); "liberties" (opiots) I rally the New more than the Old 

Mace. X. 43 (Bp.). We find no- Testament." (An Essay toward 

thing like this elsewhere in our the Amendment of the last English 

version. Translation of the Bible, 1659. 

1 The foregoing estimate of the Preface, pp. 38, 39.) 

142 Sect. VIIP\ Authorized Version of the Bible, {xbix). 

or Greek one where there is no real need for preserving 
such slavish uniformity, thus at once impoverishing our 
native tongue vfhich is so much more copious than either of 
the others, and casting over the version an air of baldness 
very painful to a cultivated taste. Let us take for an ex- 
ample of the beautiful flexibility of their English style the 
numberless devices our Translators resort to while endea- 
vouring to convey the intensive force of the Hebrew gerun- 
dial infinitive when used with some finite form of the self- 
same verb, of which the earliest example occurs in Gen. iii. 
4, "Ye shall not surely die." The passages are cited almost 
at random and might be multiplied indefinitely. 

I Sam. ii. i6, Let them not fail to burn the fat. 2 Sam. xiv. 14, 
we must needs die (after the Bisliops'); xvii. 10, shall utterly melt; 
16, speedily pass over; xviii. -i,, I will surely go forth ; 3, if we flee 
away (with the Bishops'); 25, came apace (Bishops'); xx. 18, They 
were wont to speak (margin, They plainly sfake). 1 Kin. ii. 37, (42), 
thou shalt know for certain that thou shalt surely die ; iii. 26, 27, in 
no wise slay it (Bishops') ; ix. 6, If ye shall at all turn, i Clir. iv. 10, 
Oh that thou wouldest bless me indeed (Bishops'). Neh. i. 7, We 
have dealt very corruptly against thee ("grievously sinned," Bishops'). 
Esther iv. 14, If thou altogether holdest thy peace. Job vi. 2, Olr 
that my grief were throughly weighed ("truly weighed" Bishops'); 
xiii. 17 and x«i. 2, Hear diligently (Bishops'); xxvii. 22, he would 
fain flee. Jer. xxiii. 17, They say still; 32, profit at all; 39, utterly 
forget; xxv. 30, mightily roar ; xxxi. 20, earnestly remember; xli. 6, 
weeping all along; 1. 34, throughly plead. Ezek. i. 3, came expressly. 
Thus too both versions even in translating the Latin of 2 Esdr. iii. 33 ; 
iv. 2, 26; vii. 21, &c. In Isai. xxiv. 19 the Hebrew idiom assumes 
three different English forms: "the eartli is utterly broken down, the 
eartli is clean dissolved, the eartli is moved exceedingly." 

Yet it has been said by one who ought to know, that 
"our Translators of the Bible, in their attempt to maintain 
idiom, have sometimes sacrificed vigour^" 

"■ Dean Goulburn, Thoughts on iv. 23, where he prefers the mar- 
Ptrsmial Religion, Part lii. ch. ginal rendering to the text, 
vjii. p. 232. His example is Prov. 

The Apocryphal Books. '143 

The editor earnestly trusts that no apology is necessary 
for the labour bestowed in the Cambridge Paragraph Bible 
on the English text and marginal references of the Apocry- 
pha. So long as that very miscellaneous collection of books 
shall comprise a part of the Holy Bible in its largest form, 
or lessons shall be selected from it for the course of Divine 
service, it deserves far more regard than has been paid to it 
in recent times, even by those who have undertaken to 
reprint it. But the frequent and exact study of a large 
portion of the Apocryphal writings may be vindicated on 
higher grounds by such as most loyally accept the rule that 
"the Church doth read them for example of life and instruc- 
tion of manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish 
any doctrine." Few more conspicuous instances can be 
alleged of the tendency in man's nature to rush into extremes 
than the strong reaction to their prejudice which has set in 
since the Reformation, by way of protest against the error 
that had placed the greater part of them on a level in point 
of authority with the Canonical books of the Old Testament. 
Add to this that by some untoward accident those portions 
of the Apocrypha which deserve the least esteem had until 
recently become the best known, as in the case of the 
History of Susanna (unfit for public reading, for all its 
delicate touches of natural beauty), and of the grotesque 
story of Bel and the Dragon. Yet Ecclesiasticus and the 
first book of the Maccabees, written in the second century 
before the Christian era, are among the noblest of uninspired 
compositions; if indeed their authors, so full of faith and 
holy fear, can be regarded as entirely uninspired. The 
second book of the Maccabees also, though greatly inferior 
to the first in respect of energy, judgment, veracity, and cor- 
rect taste, abounds in passages fraught with encouragement to 
those who in every age shall be called upon to suffer for the 
truth's sake; not to add that it powerfully illustrates the 

144 Sect. VII.] Authorized Version of the Bible {i6ii). 

eleventh chapter and other parts of Daniel's prophecies. 

The Wisdom of Solomon (which was not seriously intended 

to be ascribed to the king of Israel) approximates in tone to 

the spirit of Christ more nearly than any book without tlie 

Canon; the Epistle of S. James is full of allusions to it, and 

to the first five chapters of Ecclesiasticus. Judith too is a 

fine work; grave, elevated, pious, chaste in thought and 

expression, exquisitely finished. Were it not -buried where 

it is, it would long since have attracted the admiration it 

deserves; but it is not history, and does not claim to be 

such. It is fable constructed with a moral purpose; and 

must have stirred up the heart of many a Jewish patriot in 

that heroic struggle for liberty and religion whose details fill 

the histories of the Maccabees. For the remaining books less 

can be said. Tobit, probably the oldest of them all, ejchibits 

a pleasing picture of the prosperity of a religioi]| 

in the land of their captivity: the main outlines 

though sadly defprmed by childish superstitia 

more visible in the Old Latin version foil 

Bishops' Bible, than in our own w hich adherer 

Baruch, though of course a 

cellent poetry : the Prayer ofi 

Three Children need no praj 

the precise relation of i Ei 

Ezra and Nehemiah : after a' 

we can but conclude that it' 

valuable. "The rest of the 

little for any purpose, since it 

conception of the character 

minded persons God ever em 

His Providence, and rewardi 

blessings purely temporal. Th' 

of Esdras, is a curious compos? 

the same volume as the rest, and 


1 45 

by any branch of the Church. Though extant only in Latin, 
it betrays on every page its Hebrew original; but since no 
considerable portion of it can be earlier than the second 
century after Christ, what it has in common with the Reve- 
lation and other books of the New Testament is drawn from 
them, not they from it. It can hardly be questioned that 
the fortunes of the Roman emperors during the first century 
are herein figuratively depicted. The celebrated passage 
ch. vii. 26 — 35 bears every appearance of interpolation. 

The readfer is now referred to the subjoined Appendices, 
in which, under their proper heads, the numerous variations 
found in later Bibles from the model of 1611 have been 
carefully arranged. All the more pains have been bestowed 
upon this portion of the work from the conviction that the 
task essayed in the present^volume would have been accom- 

for all, had Dr 

. aware of the 

■t an enter- 



(See above, pp. 3, 4.) 

Catalogue of the variations from the original edition of 
the Authorized Version of the Holy Bible (1611), which, 
being found in all modem editions, have been retained in 
the Cambridge Paragraph Bible. Obvious misprints and the 
peculiar orthography of the original are excluded, and the 
dates annexed are those of the editions in which the several 
variations originated, so far as these can be ascertained. 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


V. 32 ; vi. 10 ; 


Shem, 1629. 

vii. 13 



GODi, 1629. 

viu. 13 

six hundredth and one 

six hundredth and first', 

ix. 18, 23, 27; 


Japheth, 1629. 

X. I, 2, 11 

X. 14 


Philistim, 161 2 (not 
1613), 1629. 

X. 19 

Sodoma and Gomorah 

Sodom and Gomorrah, 

(Gomorrah, 1612) 


xiv. 15 


Hobah, 1638. 

XV. 7 

Caldees (Chaldees, ch. 
xi. 31) 

Chaldees, 1629. 

^ Heb. Jehovah. The words "Lord" and "God" are always 
intended to be printed in small capitals in the Authorized Version, 
when they are employed to translate that Holy Name. Adonai ye- 
hovah is represented by "Lord God" about a hundred times in Ezekiel 
alone, and Jehovah Adonai by "Lord God" only in Hab. iii. 19, itself 
corrected (perhaps vfrongly) in the Cambridge folio of 1629. See Ap- 
pendix B II. on Ps. xliv. 23. 

- In some places this bold archaism (see above, p. iii) is retained 
in the text of the Cambridge Paragraph Bible, e.g. Ezek. xliii. 27; 
2 Esdr. vii. 68; i Mace. xiii. 15 s 2 Mace. xi. 21; but not in i Kin. vi. 
I ; xvi. 8, 23. 

10 — 2 

148 Appendix AP[ Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Autliorized Bible. 


XV. 19 


Kenizzites, 1629. 

xvi. 14; XX. 1 

Cadesh (Kadesh, ch. 
xiv. 7) 

Kadesh, 1638- 

xix. 21 

this thing 

this thing also, 1638. 

xxii. 7 

and wood 

and the wood, i6i6 (not 

xxiii. 10 


gate, 1762. 

xxxiv. 3 marg. 

to her heart 

to the heart of the damsel, 

xxxvi. 33 


Bozrah, 161 3. 

xxxix. 16 

her lord 

his lord, 1638. 

xii. 40 marg. 


be armed, 1629. 


xiv. 25 marg. 


and made, 1629. 

XV. 25 

made a statute 

made for them a sta- 
tute, 1638. 

xxi. 19 marg. 


his ceasing, 1638. 

xxi, 32 


shekels of silver, 1638.. 

xxiii. 13 


name, 1769. 

xxiii. 27 marg. 

necks (so all in Josh, 
vii. 8) 

neck, 1629. 

xxvi. 8 

and the eleven 

and the eleven curtains, 

XXX. 3 marg. 

t Hebr. the roof... and 
the walls 

t Heb. roof, 1629. 

xxxiv. 25 

of Passover 

of the passover, 1762. 


and his bars 

and his boards, his 
bars, 1638. 

XXXV. 29 

hands of Moses 

hand of Moses, 1629. 

xxxvii. 19 

Three bowls made he 

Three bowls made after. 




i. 8 

in the fire 

on the fire, 1638. 

i. 9 

the inwards 

his inwards, 1638. 

n. 4 

an unleavened cake 

unleavened cakes, 1638. 

vi. 2 

in II fellowship ... t vio- 

11 in tfellowship ... vio- 


lence, 1629 (nearly). 

vi. 5 marg. 

+ Heb. the day 

tHeb. in the day, 1629. 

^. 14 

the sacrifice 

the sacrifices, 1629. 

xviii. 20 marg. 


Moloch, 1629. 

xix. 34 

shall be 

shall be unto you, 1638. 


be put 

surely be put, 1638. 

xxiii. 10 marg. 

an Omer 

omer, 1638. 

of 1611 amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


xxiii. 20 

for the priests 

for the priest, 1638. 

xxiii. 23 

the field 

thy field, 1638. 

XXV. 5 marg. 


separation, 1629 
C.\ 1630. 

XXV. 6 

the stranger 

thy stranger, 1638. 

XXV. 31 


wall, 1769. 

xxvi. 23 


reformed by me, 1638. 

xxvi. 40 

the iniquity (the ini- 

their iniquity and the 

quities, 1613) 

iniquity, 1616. 


i. z, 18, 20 


polls, 1769 (so all in 
ver. 22). 

iv. 40 


house, 1769 (so all in 
ver. 42). 

vi. 2 

II prefixed to first "se- 

1! prefixed to second 

parate. " 

"separate," 1744 
(not 1762), 1769. 

vi. 14 

and one lamb 

and one ram, 1638. 

vii. 31. 55 


charger of the weight, 
1762 (so all in ver. 

vii. 48, 53 & X. 22 


Ammihud, 1638 (so all 
in ch. i. 10). 

vii. 54, 69 & X. 23 


Pedahzur, 1638 (so all 
in ch. i. 10). 

vii. 61 

a silver bowl 

one silver bowl, 163S 
(so all in ver. 55, 

xix. II wza;-^. 


soul of man, 1638. 

xxi. 20 marg. 


the hill, 1638 (Cf. 
Deut. xxxiv. i). 

xxi. 24 


Jabbok, 1629, C. and 
L.i (so all in Gen. 
xxxii. 22, &c.). 

xxii. 31 marg. 


II Or, bowed, 1629. 

xxiv. 3 »zar^. 



xxvi. 6 


Hezron ... Hezronites, 
Bagster 1846. 

xxvi. 21 

Hesron . . . Hesronites ^ 

Hezron ... Hezronites, 

1 By 1629, with or without C. annexed, we indicate the Cambridge 
folio of that year (see above, pp. 19 — 21), but by 1629 L., the London 
quarto (ibid.). 

2 Cambr. Synd. A. 3. 14 (see above, p. 14), Brit. Mus. 1276. I. 4 (not 

150 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

IV. 25 

iv. 32 
iv. 49 

V. 29 

ix. 10 

A. 10 marg. 
XV. 11 Jin. 
xvi. 4 
xvi. 5 

xix. 6 marg. 

XX. 7 

xxvi. I 

xxviii. 5 marg. 

xxviii. 23 
xxviii. 42 

xxix. 26 text 


xxxii. 15 &xxxm. 

5, 26 
xxxiv. I marg. 

shalt have remained 

upon earth 
of this side 

my commandments 

of fire 
the land 
the gates 

third day 

in battle 

the Lord 

kneading troughs 

the heaven 

iwhom he had not 

\Hebr. divided: Or, 
who had not given 
to them any portion 



ye shall have remain- 
ed, 1762. 
upon the earth, 1629. 
on this side, 1617 (not 

1629 L., 1630), 1629 

all my commandments, 

of the fire, 1762. 
former, 1629. 
thy land, 1629. 
coast, 1762. 
thy gates, 1616 (not 

1617, 1629 L., 1630), 

1629 C. 
the third day, 161 2, 

1613 (not 1629 C. and 

L., 1630), 1638. Cf. 

ver. 4, &c. 
in the battle, 1769. 

Cf. vers. 5, 6. 
the Lord thy God, 

1629, 1637. 
kneading trough, 1762. 

Cf. Ex. viii. 3. 
thy heaven, 1638. 
locust, 1612 (not 1613 

&c.), 1629. 
IIot/zoot he had not 

t given. 
li Or, who had not given 

to them, any portion. 

+Heb. divided, 1629. 
Jeshurun, 1638 ^. 

the hill, 1638. 
Num. xxi. 20. 


3050. g. 2 or g. 3) have "Hezronites" in ver. 21, but "Hesron" in the 
same verse. Comp. also i Chr. v. 3. 

^ In Deut. xxxiii. 5 alone "Jeshurun" is read also in 1629 C and L, 
1630. In Isaiah xliv. 2 the same form is found in 16 16 alone of all our 

of 1611 amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


iii. 10 


the Girgashites, 1612 
(not 1613), 1629. 

iii. 15 

at the time 

all the time, 1638. 

vii. 14 

and the households 

and the household, 
1616, 1617, 1629 C. 
(not 1629 L., 1630). 

vii. 26 

the place 

that place, 1629. 

A. 10 & xvi. 


Beth-horon, 1629. Cf. 

3' 5 

ch. xviii. 13, &c. 

xi. 8 marg. 

burning of waters 

burnings of waters, 

xi. 17 

unto Baal- Gad 

even unto Baal-Gad, 

xii. 6 

and Gadites 

and the Gadites, 1762. 

xii. ir 


Lachish, 1613 (not 1616, 
1617), 1629 C. and 

Sharon, 1629 

xii. 18 marg. 


xiii. 27 


Cinnereth, 1629 — 1762 
(Chinnereth, 1769 
mod.). Cf. ch. xix. 

xiii. 29 

Manasseh, by 

the children of Manas- 
seh, by, 1638. 

XV. 33 


Eshtaol, 1629 (Estha- 
hol, 1630). 

XV. 38 

Dileam (Diieam 161 2, 
Diliam 1617) 

Dilean, 1629. 

XV. 42 

Lebnah (Lebanah, 

Libnah, 1638. 

XV. 43 


Jiphtah, 1638. 

XV. 49 


Kirjath-sannah, 1629. 

XV. 50 

Ashtemoth, Camb. Synd. 
A. 3. 14, but Ashte- 
moh, Oxf. 1611, 1612, 
1613, &c. 

Eshtemoh, 1638 

XV. 57 


Gibeah, 1629 C. and L., 

XV. 59 
xix. 18 


Maarath, 1629. 


Jezreel, 1629. Cf. ch. 

xvii. 16, &c. 

xix. 22 


Shahazimah, 1617. 

xix. xi, 


Chinnereth, 1769. 


xix. 38 


Beth-anath, 1629. 

Modern editions follow 1762, 1769 in omitting "of waters." 

152 Appendix 

./^.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


xix. 44 


Baalath, 1629. 

xxi. 23 ' 


Gibbethon, 1629. 

xxi. 31 


Helkath, 1629. 


i- 31 

Adizib, nor Helbath, 

of Achzib, nor of Hel- 

nor Aphilc 

bah, nor of Aphik, 
1762 (Helbah, 1629, 

i. 36 marg. 


Maaleh-, 1629. 

iv. 11 

ttoolc (first) 

+took (second), 1629. 

V. 26 text 

tsmote (first) 

+ with the hammer. 


■\JHeb. hammered 

+ Heb. she hammered, 

V. 29 »«ffir^. 


her words, 1638. 

V. 30 marg. 

\Heb. for the necks of 
the spoil 

Delet 1638. 

xi. I «irr^. 

Jefhte (Jephthah Heb. 
xi. 32) 

Jefhthae, 1629. 

xi. 2 

his wives sons 

his wife's sons, 1 762 ^ 
(wifes, 1744)- 

xi. 31 «!ar^. 

shall come forth 

which shall come forth, 


Or, I will offer 

Or, or I will offer, 

xiv. 17 

while the feast 

while their feast, 1638. 

xxi. 19 


Lebonah, 1629. 


ii. 3 »zar^. 

WCalled Math. i. 5, 

Brought up to ver. i 


marg. in 1762. 

^ The apostrophe does not appear in our Bibles (see, however, 
below, p. 235 note i) before 1762, nor constantly before 1769 (e.g. not 
in 1762, Ezra ii. 59. Neh. vii. 61. Ps. vi. 4; xxxi. 16; xliv. 26; Ixxxi. 
12 ; cvii. 27 ; cxl. 3, &c.). Through the errors of these books, it is some- 
times misplaced, as is noted in this list within brackets. Cf. i Sam. ii. 
13. I Chr. vii. 2, 40. Ezra ii. 59. Ps. Ixxxi. 12. Matt. xiv. 9. Mark 
vi. 26, in which places, unless the contrary be stated, the apostrophe 
is placed right for the first time in the Cambridge Paragraph Bible. 

of 1611 amended in. later editions. 


1 Samuel 



1. 20 text 

[ii- 13 
iv. 21 fex? 

V. 4 marg. 

vi. 7 
A. 10 

X. 23 

xiii. 1 8 

xvii. 38 marg. 

xviii. 27 

XXV. 16 

xxviii. 7 

2 Samuel 

iii. 26 
vi. 12 
viii. II 

xi. I 

xi. 3 [marg-l 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 


revelation (so 161 2, 
1613, 1629 L) 

priest's custom, 1762, 

lllchabod, saying, ||The 

II That is, where is the 

glory ? II Or, there is 

no glory 
the filthy ^parf^ 

the calves 

a company of the pro- 
the shoulders 
David arose 

keeping sheep 

And his servant said 



he had dedicate^ 

that after the year (that 

Bath-shuah, 1762, 1769 

Variation of later 


twhen, 1638. 

revolution, i5i6, 1617, 
1629, 1630: in revo- 
lution, 1638. 

priests' custom]. See 
p. 152 note. 

II Ichabod, saying. The 

II That is, where is the 
glory? or, 'there is 
no glory, 1629. 

the fishy J>art, 161 6, 

their calves, 1629. 

a company of pro- 
phets, 1629. 

his shoulders, 1638. 

Beth-horon, 1629. 

clothed David, 1638. 

David arose and went, 

keeping the sheep, 

And his servants said, 

Sirah, 1629. 

fertaineth, 1638. 

he had dedicated, 1612 

(not 1613). 
after the year, 1762. 

Bath - shua, Bagster 
1846, American 1867. 
Cf. X Ch. iii. 6. 

Jerubbesheth, 1629. 

1 That this marginal rendering of i6ti, i6r2, 1613 cannot be de- 
signed appears from the version of Tremellius and Junius, vi'hich, 
especially in the margin (see above, p. 44), our Translators closely follow; 
— qicod refirebat piscem. See Cardwell, Oxford Bibles, ■f. 16. 

' But these archaisms we have elsewhere retained : e.g. 2 Kin. xii. 18. 
See above, p. 102. Compare i Chr. xxvi. 20, Appendix C pp. 220, 221. 

154 Appendix A.^ Wrong readings of the Bible 

2 Samuel 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


xiii. 20 marg. 

set not thine heart 

set not thine heart ufon. 
So Bagster 1846. Cf. 
ch. xviii. 3 marg. 

XV. 3 marg. 

none will hear you 

none will hear thee, 

Xvi. 13 

requite good 

requite me good, 1629. 

xix. 34 marg. 

t How many 

t Heb. How many, 
1616, 1617. 

xxi. 4 marg. 

silver or gold 

silver nor gold, 1616, 

xxiii. 3-2 


Eliahba, 1629. 

xxiii. 37 


Beerothite, 1629. 

1 Kings 

iv. 10 

Heseb, marg. Ben-He- 

Hesed, marg. Ben- 


Hesed, 1629. 

vi. I 

fourscore^... a. ch. xvi. 

upon the face Cf. 2 

eightieth, 1762. 

vii. 42 marg. 

upon the face of the 

Chr. iv. 13 marg. 

pillars, 1638. 

vii. 51 ?«a?-^. 

things of David 

holy things of David, 

viii. 6i 

the Lord your God 

the Lord our God, 

ix. II 

that then Solomon 

that then king Solo- 
mon, 1638. 


Galile (Tobit i. 2) 

Galilee, 1629. Cf. C. 
and L., 1630. 

xi. I 

Sydonians Camb.Synd. 

Zidonians, 1629. Cf. 

A 3. 14 but Sidonians 

vers. 5, 33. 

Oxf. 1611, 1612 — 


xi. 5 

Amorites (Ammorites 

Ammonites, 1629. 

xi- 33 

Ashtaroth (pi. Cf. Judg. 

Ashtoreth, 1629. Cf. 

A. 6) 

ver. 5. 

xiii. 6 

was restored again 

vi'as restored him again, 

xiv. 4 TOfl?-^. 

stood for hoariness 

stood for his hoariness, 

1 But these archaisms we have elsewhere retained. See above 
p. III. 

of 1611 amended in later editions. 


1 Kings 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible 


XV. 2 \marg^ 

Michaia, 1769 

Michaiah, Bagster 1846, 
Camb. 1858, Ameri- 
can 1867. Cf. 2 Chr. 
xiii. 2. 

XV. 10 marg. 


grandmothers, 1638, 's, 

XV. 14 

Asa his heart ^ 

Asa's heart, 1762. 

XV. 19 

break the league 

break thy league, 1629 
C. and L., 1630. 

xvi. 8 

twentieth and 


twenty and sixth, 1629. 

(sixth 1613) 

Cf. vers. 10, 15. 

xvi. 23 

the thirty and ( 


the thirty and first year, 



2 Kings 

v. II marg. 

+ Heb. said 

tHeb. / said, 1617 
(not 1629 C. and L., 
1630), 1638. 

viii. 19 


promised him, 1629. 

ix. 23 

turned his hand (Vul- 

turned his hands (Heb., 


LXX.) 1629. 

xi. 10 

the Temple 

the temple of the Lord, 

xii. 19, 20 


Joash, 1629. 

xiii. 24 

Hazael the king 


Hazael king of Syria, 


1612 (not 1613), 

XV. 15 

the conspiracy 

his conspiracy, 1638. 

xviii. 8 

fenced cities 

fenced city, 1629. 

xviii. 18 

Helkiah (so ver. 


Hilkiah, 1629. 

Camb. Synd. A. 


14 alone, not being 

a reprint : see above, 
D 6) 

xix. 37 


Adrammelech, 1638. 
Cf. ch. xvii. 31. 

XX. 1 


Amoz, 1629. Cf. ch. 
xix. 2, 20. 

XX. 13 

shewed them the house 

shewed them all the 

house, 1638. 

xxi. 21 & xxii. ■!. 

all the ways 

all the way, 1629. 

xxiii. 13 


Milcom, 1638. 

"• For these archaisms see above, p. m. 

156 Appendix 

A.'\ Wrong readings of the Bible 

2 Kings 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Autiiorized Bible. 


xxiii. 21 

tliis boolc of the Cove- 

the boolc of this cove- 


nant, 1629'. 

xxiii. 31 


Hamutal, 1629. 

xxiv. 13 

and the treasure 

and the treasures, 1629. 

xxiv. 19 

Jehoiachin (Cf. LXX.) 

Jehoialiim, 1629. 

XXV. 4, 5, 10, 13, 


Chaldees, 1744. 

24, 25, 26 

1 Chronicles 

i. 9 


Seba, 1629. 

i. 20 


Hazarmaveth, 1634, 

i- 33 


Epher, 1638. 

I. 39 marg. 

Heman 1611 — 1769^ 

Hemam, Bagster 1846, 

{Hemah 1617) 

Camb. 1858, Ameri- 
can 1867. 

i. 40 »j«?g-. 


Shepho, 1629. Cf. Gen. 
xxxvi. 23. 

i. 42 


Bilhan, 1629 ... Dishan, 

i. 44 


Bozrah, 1638. Cf. Isai. 
Ixiii. 1, &c. 

ii. 10 

Aminadab bis 

Amminadab bis, 1629. 

ii. 13 marg. 


Shammah, 1629. Cf. 
I Sam. xvi. 9. 

ii. 14 


Nethaneel, 1638. 

ii. 18 


and Shobab, 1629. 

ii. 25 


Ozem, 1629. 

ii. 27 


Eker, 1638. 

ii. 42 


Mareshah, 1638. Cf. 
ch. iv. 21. 

ii. 48 

Maacha. Cf. ch. ix. 35 

Maachah, 1638. 

ii. 52 & iv. 2 


Haroeh, 1638. 


ii. 64 


Salma, 1638. Cf. ver. 51. 

iii. 2 

Maacha. . . Adoniah 

Maacha, 1638 ...Adoni- 
jah, 1629. Cf. I Kin. 
i. 6, &c. 

^ The rendering of 161 1 is quite justifiable, but the LXX. and Vul- 
gate translate as in 1629. 

" The editions of 1629 — 1769 correct the discrepancy with Gen. 
xxxvi. 22 in the wrong way, by putting "Heman" in the earlier place. 
The latter error is corrected by some (e.g. D'Oyly and Mant 181 7, Ox- 
ford 1835) that retain Heman in i Chr. i. 39 marg. 

of i6ii amended in later editions. 


1 Clironicles 

Reading of tlie 
Autliorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

iii. 3 


Shephatiah, 1629. 

lii. 5 nmrg. 


Bath-sheba, 1629. 

iii. 7 


Nogah, 1638. 

iii. 8 marg. 


Beeliada, 1 769 (Becli- 

ada, 1762). 

iii. 10 



Abijam, 1629. 

iii. II 



or, Jehoahaz, 2 Chr., 

Jehoiakim, 1629. 

iii. 15, 



iii. 15 marg. 


Jehoakaz, 162Q. 



Mattaniah, 1638 [Mat- 
tania, 1629). 

iii. IS 


Shallum, 1639. 

iii. 16 

11 Zedeliiah his son 

Zedekiah* his son', 

iii. 18 

Hosanna, Camb. Synd. 

A. 3. 14, B. M. 

1276. 1. 4 only. 
Hosama, Oxf. 161 1, 

i6i2 — 1630 

Hoshama, 1638. 

iii. 20 


Hashubah, 1629. 

iii. 22 

Semaiali, bis 

Shemaiah, bis., 1629. 

iv. 6 

Ahusam. . . Ahashtari 

Ahuzam, 1629. ..Haa- 
hashtari, 1638. 

iv. 7 


Jezoar, 1638; 

iv. 13 

Saraia (Saraiah, 1616) 

Seraiah, 1629. Cf.ver. 14. 

iv. 14 


Charashim, 1629. 

iv. 20 


Shimon, 1629. Cf. ver. 

iv. 29 

Bilha, marg. Bela 

Bilhah, 1638, marg. 
Balah, 1629. 

iv. 31 



Hazar-susah, i62g. 

JT- 34 


Amaziah, 1629. 

iv. 35 


Josibiah, 1629. ..Seraiah, 

iv. 36 

Jehohaiah.Camb. Synd. 
A. 3. 14 alone, but 
Jesohaiah, Oxf. 161 1, 
1612 — 1630 

Jeshohaiah, 1638. 

^ The references to the margin, up to 1629 L., 1630, are in hopeless 
confusion; " || Or Coniah, Jer. 22. 24" being made a marginal note to 
"Zedekiah," instead of to "Jeconiah," and "* 2 Kin. 24. 17 being his 
uncle" which is the proper note on "his son," being misplaced so as to 
stand after + Heb. Shealtiel, ver. 17. 

158 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


of the 

Variation of later 

1 Chronicles 

d Bible. 


iv. VI 


Jedaiah, 1638. 


V. 2 

cliief II rulers 

Ilchief ruler, 1629 (place 
of II changed by Bag- 
ster 1846). 

V. 6 marg. 


Hezrou, 1629. 



Tiglath-pileser, 1629. 

V. 8 

Azah (Aza, j 


Azaz, 1629. 

vi. 2, 22 marg. 


Izhar, 1629. Cf. vers. 
18, 38. 

vi. 21 marg. 


Adaiah, 1629. Cf. ver. 

vi. 40 





■vi- 57 


Libnah, 1638^ 

vi. 60 



and Anathoth, 1629. 

vi. 69 & viii. 13 


Aijalon, 1629^- 

vi. 78 marg. 

II Or, Bozor, 

yosh. xxi. 

Delet 1629. 

[vii. 2, 40 

fatlier's house, 1762, 

fathers' house], see p. 


152 note. 

vii. 18 


Ishod, 1638. 

vii. 18 {snarg.l 

Jezer, 1762, 


Jeezer, Bagster 1846, 
Camb. 1858, Amer. 
1867. Cf. Num. xxvi. 

vii. 24 



Beth-horon, 1629. 

vii. 25 


Resheph, 1638. 

vii. 26 & ix. 4 


Ammihud, 1629. 

vii. 32 


Shua, 1638. 

viii. II 


Abitub, 1629. 

viii. 14 


Jeremoth, 1638. 

viii. 31 


Gedor, 1638. Cf. ch. 
ix. 37. 

viii. 31 »«ar^. 


Zechariah, 1629. Cf. 
ch. xxiv. 25, &c. 

viii. 36 


Azraaveth, 1638. Cf. 
ch. ix. 42. 

^ He final is usually represented by h : yet not so by any edition in 
I Chr. iii. 10; v. 5 (Reaia); vi. 29. 

^ All editions retain the false form "Ajalon'' Josh. x. 12. 2 Chr. 
xxviii. 18 ; all have the true form "Aijalon" Josh. xxi. 24. Judg. i. 35. 
I Sam. xiv. 31. In Josh. xix. 42 and 2 Chr. xi. 10, 1629 makes fiie 
same change as here. 

of id 11 amended in later editions. 


1 Chronicles 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

viii. 37 


Eleasah, 1638. Cf. 
ch. ix. 43. 

ix. 12 


Maasiai, 1629. 

ix. 35 

Maacha. Cf. ch. ii. 48 

Maachah, 1629. 

IX. 44 


Ishmael, 1638. Cf. ch. 
viii. 38. 

X. 1 marg. 


Ishtii, 1629. Cf. I Sam. 

xiv. 49. 

xi. 15 

to the rock of David 

to the rock to David, 

xi- 33 


Eliahba, 1629. 

xi. 34 


Shage, 1629. 

XI. 43 


Maachah, 1638. 

XI. 46 

Zimri, marg. Zimrite 

Shimri, marg. Shim- 
rite, idit). 

xi. 46 


Elnaam, 1629. 

xii. 3 marg. 


Hasviaah, 1629. 

xii. 5 


Bealiah, 1638. 

xii. 6 


Azareel, 1638. 

xii. 7 


Jeroham, 1613 (noti6i2, 
1616, 1617, 1629 L., 
1630), 1629 C. 

xii. 10 


Mishmannah, 1638. 

xii. II 


Attai, 1629. 

xii. 20 


Jediael, 1638. 

xiii. II 



That is, 1629. 

xiv. 6 


Nogah, 1638. 

xiv. 7 


Eliphalet, 1629. 

XV. 18, 



Zechariah, 1639. 

XV. 18 

If '^^. , 

Jaaziel, 1638. 

XV. 18, 



Maaseiah, 1638. See 
2 Chr. xxiii. i. 

XV. 18, 


Eliphaleh (Eliphaleb, 

Elipheleh . . . Mikneiah, 

1612, ver. 18) ... 



XV. 18 

Jehiel (second) 

Jeiel, 1629'. 

XV. 21 


Azaziah, 1638. 

XV. 24 

Nathaneel... Zachariah 

Nethaneel ... Zechariah 

(so ch. xvi. 5) 

(so ch. xvi. 5), 1638. 

1 To distinguish hv>^\ (Jeiel) from ^S^H* (Jehiel) of ver. 20. In 
this veise and ch. xvi. 6 both names occur, and are thus distinguished 
in 1611. "Jeiel" is right in ver. 21 and in ch. v. 7 ; "Jehiel" in ch. xxiii. 
8; 2 Chr. xxi. 2; xxix. 14; xxxi. 13; xxxv. 8; Ezra viii. 9; x. %, 21, 26. 
See also 2 Chr. xx, 14; xxix. 13. 

i6o Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

1 Chronicles 

xviii. 8 marg. 
xviii. 1 6 marg. 

xxi. 7 marg. 

xxiii. lo marg. & 

ver. n 
xxiii, 19 
xxiii. 2 3 
xxiv. 6 

xxiv. 20 
XXV. 2 »2ar^. 

XXV. 4 

XXVI. I ?«fflr^. 
xxvi. 16 

xxvi. 18 iniL 
xxvii. 6 
xxvii. 20 
xxvii. 22 
xxvii. 27 

xxvii. 29 
xxvii, 33, 34 

XXIX. 29 

2 Chronicles 

iii. 10 

iv. 13 marg. 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 


+ And it was 





iy th,e hand 


Jerimoth ' 

And Parbar 




Sabdi (Zabdi 1612) the 


the silver for things 

II book of Samuel... 
tbook of Nathan 

most holy place 
upon the face 

Variation of later 

Betah, 1769. Cf. 2 Sam. 

viii. 8. 
Seraiah ... Shisha, 1629. 

Cf. 2 Sam. viii. 17 ; 

1 Kin. iv. 3. 
■fUth.Anditwas, 1616, 

Zizah, 1638. 

Jekameam, 1629. 
Jeremoth, 1629. 
Nethaneel, 1638. Cf. 

ch. xxvi. 4. 
Jehdeiah, 1629. 
by the hands, 1629. Cf. 

ver. 6. 
Eliathah, 1638. Cf. 

ver. 27. 
Jeremoth, 1638. 
Ebiasaph, 1629. 
Hosah, 1629. Cf. ver. 

10, ch. xvi. 38. 
At Parbar, 1638. 
Ammizabad, 1638. 
Azaziah, 1629. 
Azareel, 1629. 
Zabdi the Shiphmite, 

Shitrai, 1638. 
Ahithophel, 1638. Cf. 

2 Sam. XV. 12, 31, &c. 
and the silver for things, 

II book of Samuel... book 
of Nathan, 1629. 

most holy house, 1629. 

add of the pillars. So 
Eagster 1846, also 
1638 mod. in i Kin. 
vii. 42. 

^ In ver. 4 the vowel points are different, and "Jerimoth" correct. 

of i6i I amended in later editions. 


2 Chronicles 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later, . 

vi. 27 

the land 

thy land, 1638. 

xi. 8 


Mareshah, 1638. 

xi. 10 


Aijalon, 1629. See p. 
158 note 2. 

xi. 20 


Attai, 1616 (not 1617, 
1629L., 1630), 1629C. 

xi. 30 — 22 


Maachah, 1629. 

xiii. 2 


Gibeah, 1629. 

xiii. 6 

his Lord ^ 

his lord, 1629. 

xvii. 18 


Jehozabad, 1629. 

xviii. 7, 8 

Jimla (Jimlah, 1630) 

Imla, 1612, 1638. But 
cf. I Kin. xxii. 8, 0. 

XX. 14 & xxix. 13 


Jeiel, 16382. 

xxiii. I & xxvi. 11 


Maaseiah, 1638. Cf. 

& xxxiv. 8 

ch. xxviii. 7. See 
also I Chr. xv. 18, 
20; Ezra X. 18. 

xxiv. 26 


Shimeath, 1629. 


Jehoadan (Jehoiadan 

Jehoaddan, 1638. 

XXV. 23 


Jehoahaz, 1629. Cf. 
ver. 25. 

xxvii. 5 niarg. 

\Heb. fnttck 

t Heb. this, 1629. 

xxviii. II 

wrath of God 

wrath of the LORD, 

xxviii. 22 

this distress 

his distress, 1638. 

xxix. 12 

Amashai. . .Jahalelel 

Amasai, 1629, Jeha- 
lelel, 1638. 

xxix. 15 marg. 

of the Lord^ 

of the LORD, 1629. 

xxix. 27 

with the tinstruments 

with + the instruments, 
Bagster 1846. 

xxxi. 5 marg. 

brought forth 

brake forth, id-iq. 
tithe of oxen, 1638. 

xxxi. 6 

tithes of oxen 

xxxi. 14 

Immah (Immath 1612) 

Imnah, 1629. 

xxxii. 5 

prepared Millo 

repaired Millo, 1616, 

^ A strange oversight (retained up to 1630) in a matter about which 
cur Translators are usually more careful than later editors, viz. in repre- 
senting nin* by Lord (or God, see p. 147 note i) but »J^^? by " Lord" 
or "lord." In ch. xxix. 15 marg. "Lord" is a misprint, the text being 
<:orrect. "Compare also Neh. i. 11; iii. 5; viii. 10. Ps. ii. 4, and Ap- 
pend. C, p. 223 note 3. 

" See above, p. 159 note. 

S. ir 

1 62 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

2 Chronicles 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

xxxu. 20 
xxxiv. 12 

XXXV. 8 
XXXV. g 

XXX vi. 17 


111 24 marg. 
ii. 40 

ii. 50 
["• 59 

iii. 2 marg. 

iii. 5 

iv. 9 
v. 12 
vii. 4 

vii. 9 marg. 

vii. 23 marg. 

viii. 13 & X. 43 

viii. 16 

X. 18, 21, 22, 30 

For this cause 

Jehiel. . . Joshabad 


Saraiah (Saraioh, 1617) 

The children of Neto- 


Hodavia, marg. Juda 

father's, 1769 

Jostia (but Josuah, 

Hagg. i. i) 
that willingly offei-ed, 


t-Se {Hee, i6i6) was 
the foundation, 161 1, 
1612, 1613, 1616, 

+Heb. Whatsoever 


and for Jarib 


And for this (ra«j^, 1638. 
Zechariah, 161 2 (not 

1613), 1629. 
Zechariah, 1638. 
Jeiel 1, 1638 . . . Jozabad, 

Chaldees, 1638. 

Seraiah, 1629. Cf. Neh. 

vii. 7 marg. 
The men of Netophah, 

Beih-azmavtth, 1629. Cf. 

Neh. vii. 28. 
Hodaviah, marg. fudah, 

1629. Cf. Neh. vii. 

43 niarg. 
Nephusim, 1629. 
fathers']. See above, p. 

152 note. 
Joshua, 1613 (but Jo- 
suah, Hagg. i. i). 
that willingly offered, 

Apharsathchites, 1629. 
Chaldean, 1638. 
Zerahiah, 1638. Cf. ch. 

viii. 4. 
+ Heb. was the founda- 
tion, 1629 C: was the 
/., 1629 L., 1630. 

t Chald. Whatsoever, 

Bagster 1846. 
Jeiel", 1638. 
also for Joiarib, 1638. 
Maaseiah, 1638. So 

Neh. iii. 23; viii. 4, 

7,;, X. 25; xi. 5, 7; 

xii. 41, 42 in i6ii. 

See 2 Chr. xxiii. i. 

^ See above, p. 159 note. 


611 amended 

in later editions. 163 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Autliorized Bible. 


X. 23 


Kelita (K;), 1638. 

X. 2S 


Jeziah, 1638. 

X. 33 


Mattathah (PI"), 1638. 

X. 35 


Bedeiah, 1638. 


Bennui {Benui, 


Binnui, 1638. 


i. n 



Lord, Oxf. 1835, 


Camb. 1858, Amer. 
1867. See above, p. 
147 note I. 

ii. 12 

what God had 


what my God had put, 

iii. 4, ^i & X. 5 & 



xii. 3 

iii. 6, & viii. 10 


Lord, 1629. See above, 


p. 147 note I. 

iii. 6 


Besodeiah, 1638 

iii. 15 


Shallun, 1629. 

vi. 10 



Mehetabeel, 1638. 

Synd. A. 

3- 14, 

B.M. 1276.1 

4 only, 


Mehetabel, Oxf. 

1611 — 1630 

vi. 17 marg. 

multiplied letters 

multiplied their letters, 


vii. 7 


Nehum, 1638. 

vii. 24 marg. 


Jorah. Bagster 1846. 
Cf. Ezra ii. 18. 

vii. 31 
vii. 38 


Michmas, 1638. 


Senaah, 1629. Cf. Ezra 

vii. 39 


n. 35' 
Jedaiah, 1629. Cf. Ezra 
ii. 36. 

vii. 46 


Tabbaoth, 1638. Cf. 

Ezra ii. 43. 

vii. 54 
[vii. 61 


Bazlith, 1629. 

father's, 1769 

fathers']. See above, p. 

152 note. 

ix. 7 

ix. 17 


Chaldees, 1638. 

the wonders 

thy wonders, 1638. 


Micha, 1629. Cf. ch. 

xi. 17, 22. 

II 2 

164 Appendix 

• ^.]. Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


X. 18. 

Hodiah (Hodaiah, 

Hodijah, 1638. Cf. ver. 



xi. 8 


Gabbai, 1638. 

xi. 13 


Meshillemoth, 1638. 

xi. 24 


Meshezabeel, 1612 (ndt 
1613, &c.), 1638. 

xi. 27 


Hazar-shual, 1638. 

xi. 28 


Ziklag, 1612, 1613 (not 
1629 L., 1630). 

xii. 3 marg. 


Shebaniah, 1629 (not 
1638), 1744. Cf. ver. 

xii. 5 


Maadiah, 1638. 

xii. 21, 36 


Nethaneel, 1629. 

xii. 36 


Azarael, 1629. 

xii. 41 


Zechariah, 1638. 


i. 8 

for the king had ap- 

for so the king had ap- 


pointed, 1629. 

i. 9, II, 12, 15— 

Vasthi (Vulg.) 

Vashti, 1629. 

17, 19; 11. i, 4, 
i- 14 


Tarshish, 1629. 

iii. I 

Amedatha (Amm. 

Hammedatha, 1638. 

1629 C.) 

Cf. ch. viii. 5 ; ix. 10, 

iii. 10 



iii. 4 

Mordecai his matters 

Mordecai'smatters, 1 762. 
See above, p. iii. 

iv. 4 

the sackcloth 

his sackcloth, 1629. 




Chaldeans, 1638. 

iv. 6 

; the uprightness of thy 

, thy hope, and the up- 

ways (, 1616, 1617) 

rightness of thy vpays ?' 

and thy hope ? 


^ In 1629, 1637 we find "; and the uprightness of thy ways, .thy 
hope?" Though this has been noted as a mere error, the changes both 
of 1629 and 1038 (which all later editions have followed) are plainly 
intentional, and unique for their boldness. In the Paragraph Bible we 
have changed tlie comma after "hope" into a semicolon, although the 
Hebrew has only Rebia and Athnakh in the word before. Cf. Grote 
MS. pp. 130, 131. 

of i6xi amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


iv. 19 

on them that 

in them that, 1762. Cf. 
ver. 18. 

XX. 21 marg. 


meat, 1629. 

xxiv. 19 marg. 

take it 

take, 1629. 

xxiv. 22 

II and no vian 

and II no man, Bagster 

xxxiii. 22 

His soul draweth 

Yea, his soul draweth, 

xxxix. 30 

there is he 

there wshe, 1616, 1617^. 

xli. 5 

wilt thou bind 

or wilt thou bind, 1638. 

xlii. 10 marg. 

added to Job 

added all that had been 
to Job, 1638. 


ii. 6 & marg. 


Zion, 16332. Cf. Ps. 
Ixix. 35. 

xxix. 8, 9 

|| calve 

shaketh || to calve, 


xxxiv. 5 

II They looked . . . were 

They looked . . . || were 


lightened, 1629, 1638, 
Bagster 1846 only. 

xxxvii. 3 marg. 

in truth and stableness 

in truth, or stableness 
(1629), 1638. 

xxxix. 6 marg. 


an image, 1629. 

xlii. 6 


Mizar, 1629. 

xlii. 9 

God, My (my 16 12, 

God my rock. Why 


1630) rock, why 

(1629), 1638., 

xliv. title 

of Korah 

of Korah, Maschil, 1629. 

liii. 6 

Jaakob (Jakob, 1630) 

Jacob, 1629, 1638. 

lix. title marg. 

II Or, to the chief Musi-. 

WDestroy, 1638. Cf.Ps. 

cian, destroy 

Iviii. & Ixxv. titles 

Ixii. 10 

become not vain 

and become not vain, 

Ixv. 1 


Zion, Amer. 1867 only. 
See below, note 2. 

Ixv. 9 

and II waterest it 

Hand waterest it. Bag- 
ster 1846: 

1 The " eagle" should have been masculine throughout vers. 27^30, 
but after having regarded it as feminine thus far, it is too late to change 

^ So Ps. ix. II, 14; xiv. 7; XX. 2; xlviii. 2, 11, 12; 1. 2; li. 18; 
liii. 6; Ixxiv. 2; Ixxvi. 2; Ixxviii. 68; xcvii. 8. Elsewhere 1611 has 
"Zion," except in Ps. Ixv. i, where all have "Sion" except Amer. 
1867. Cf. Ps. Ixix. 35. 

1 66 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

Ixix. 32 
Ixix. 35 

Ixxv. title marg. 

[Ixxxi. 12 

Ixxxix. 4 marg. 

xcix. 2 

cv. 30 
gvii. 43 
cxix. J 01 
cxxvii. J text 


cxxxii. 6 
cxxxix. 7 

[cxl. 3 
cxliii. 9 


vi. 19 
vii. 21 
X. 23 
xi. I 

XX. 14 

seek good 

II Or, to the chief musi- 
cian destroy not (Al- 
taschith, 1616, 1617 
for [destroy noij) a 
psalm, or jo»f _/&;■ 

hearts', 1769 

to generation and gene- 
all people 

The land 
those things 
that I may keep 
thatt (llCamb. Synd. 

A. 3. 14; B. M. 

1276. 1.4 only; 1613) 

tHeb. are builders 


fly, Camb. Synd. A. 3. 
14, &B.M. 1276. 1.4 
only, 16 r2, 1630; flie, 
Oxf. 161 1, 1613 — 
1629 L. 

adders', 1769 


and him that soweth 

With much fair speech 

as a sport (a sport, 

1629 C.) 
At false 

nought bis 

seek God, 161 7. 

Zion, 1762. Cf. p. 165 

note 2. 
II Or, Destroy not. \\ Or, 

for Asaph, 1638. 


p. 152 


Deest (ver. 4 being cited 

in ver. i marg.) 1762. 
all the people, 161 2 (not 

1613, &c.), 1769. 
Their land, 1638. 
these things, 1762. 
that I might keep, 1638. 
tthat build. 

+ Heb. that are builders, 

Ephratah, 1629. Cf. 

Ruth iv. 11; Mic. v. 2. 
flee, 1629 C. Cf. Prov. 

xxviii. 17. See2Esdr. 

xiv. 15. 

adder's]. Cf. Isai. lix. 

5 marg. 
flee, 1616 (not 1617), 


and he that soweth, 

With her much fair 

speech, 1638. 
as sport, 1638. 

t A false, Bagster 1846. 
(So read.) 
naught bis, 1638. 

of idiT amended in later editions. 

16 7 


Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

[xxvi. 3 

the fool's, 1762 

the fools']. See p. 152 

xxvii. 26 

thy field 

the field, 1638. 

xxviii. 17 


flee, 161 7 (not 1629 
L., 1630), 1629. Cf. 
Ps. cxxxix. 7. 

[xxxi. 14 

merchants', 1769 (mer- 

merchant's]. Cf. ch. 

chant, 1762) 

XXX. 28. See p. 152 


i- 5 

the place 

his place, 1638. 

ii. 16 

shall be forgotten 

shall all be forgotten, 

vii. ■26 marg. 

iHe {Hee, 161 3) that 

tHeb. he that is, 1616 

is, (tHeb. that is. 

(not 1617), 1629. 

x6i2, 1629 L., 1630) 

viii. 17 

seek it out 

seek it out, yet he shall 
not find it ; 1629. 


iv. 6 

mountains of myrrh 

mountain of myrrh, 1629. 

V. 12 

rivers of water 

rivers of waters, 16 16 
(not 1617, 1629 L., 
1630), 1629. 

vi. 5 

is a flock 

is as a flock, 1616, 1617. 
Cf. ch. iv. I. 

vi. 12 OTar^. 

the chariot 

the chariots, 1629. 


viii. 8 marg. 


stretchings, 1629. 

ix. I 

Galile. See Tobit i. 2. 

Galilee, 1629. 

X. 34 


forest, 1769. 

xxiii. 13 & 


Chaldeans, 1638 (1630, 

xliii. 14 & 

ch. xlvii. 5). 

xlvii. X, 6 & 

xlviii. 14, 20 

xxviii. 4 

seeth it {it, 1638, 1744) 

seeth, 1683 (Grote MS. 
p. 93), 1762. 

xxviii. 26 OTar^. 

as God 

as his God, 1629. 

xxix. I text 

Woe... II the city 

11 Woe... 11 the city. 


God: Or, of the city 

God. II Or, ofthecity, 1 629. 

1 68 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

T ■ 1 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 


Authorized Bible. 


xxxi. 9 text 

he shall... II his strong 
(ll+his strong, i6'29) 

the shall. ..II his strong. 


II Or, his strength: Heb. 

tHeb. his rock, &c. 


Or, his strength, 1638. 

xxxiv. II 

The cormorant 

But the cormorant, 

xxxviii. 17 marg. 


my soul, 1638. 

xliv. i 


Jeshurun 161 6, Amer. 
1867, only. See p. 
150 note. 

xliv. 20 

feedeth of ashes 

feedeth on ashes, 1762. 

xlvii. 6 

the yoke 

thy yoke, 1629. 
heavens, 1629 ... the 

xlix. 13 

heaven... God 

LORD, 1638. 

liii. 6 marg. 

he hath made 

hath made, 1629. 

Ivii. 8 

made a covenant 

made thee a covenant, 
1638 1. 

[lix. s marg. 

adders^, 1769 

adder's, Bagster 1846, 
Amer. 1867]. Cf. Ps. 
cxl. 3. 

Ixii. 8 wafg'. 

if he give 

If I give, 1629. 

Ixiv. I 

rent the heavens (see p. 

rend the heavens, 1762. 

Ixvi. 9 

11 bring... cause to bring 

bring . . . || cause to bring, 


i. 13 

the face thereof roaj 

the face thereof is, 1762. 

iv. 6 


standard, 1629. 

xii. 15 

vcill bring again 

virill bring them again, 

XV. 4 iwa;-^. 

a moving 

a remcrving, 1629. 

xix. II 

no place else to bury 

no place to bury, 1629 C, 

xxi. 4, 9 


Chaldeans, 1638^. 

xxiii. 30 

my word 

my words, 1638. 

xxiv. s marg. 


the captivity, 1629. 

1 Card well (Oxford Bibles, p. 16) imputes this change to Bp. Lloyd 
in 1701. But he knew no more of Camb. 1638 than Bp. Turton did of 
Camb. 1629. See above, p. 41 note. 

^ So ch. xxii. 25; xxiv. 5; xxv. 12; xxxii. 4, 5, 24, 25, 28, 29, 43; 
xxxiii. 5; XXXV. 11; xxxvii. 5, 8 — 11, 13, 14; xxxviii. 2, 18, 19, 23; 
xl. 9, 10; xli. 3, 18; xliii. 3; 1. 1, 8, 25, 35, 45; li. 4, 54; Hi. 7, 8, 
14, 17. 

of 1611 amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

xxvi. 18 


Morasthite, 1629. Cf. 
Micah i. i. 


the high places 

as the high places, i6'29. 
Cf. Micah iii. 12. 

xxviii. 6 

the words 

thy words, 1629. 

xxxi. 14 


my goodness, 1629. 

xxxi. 18 

thou art the Lord 

for thou art the Lord, 

xxxiii. 16 



Jehovah, 1629. 

XXXV. 13 

and inhabitants 

and the inhabitants, 1616 
(not 1617), 1629. 

XXXV. 19 


Jonadab . . . +want (tshall 
not want, 1629) 

+ Jonadab. ..want. 


+Heb. there shall not a 

t Heb. There shall not be 

man be cut off from., 

cut off from Jonadab 


the son of Rechab to 
stand, &c., 1638. 

xxxvii. 14 marg. 

or, lie 

, or a lie, 1638. 

xxxviii. 16 

So the king 

So Zedekiah the king. 


xl. 1 


Ramah, 1629 C. and L. 
(not 1630), 1638. 

xl. 5 

all the cities 

the cities, 1638. 

9. 10 


ver. 9 + to serve 

ver. 10. + to serve. 


tHeb. to stand before. 

+ Heb. to stand before. 

And so verse 10^ 

1629 — 1769, Bagster 
1846, American 1867. 

xli. 1 


Elishama, 163S. 

xlii. 16 

after you in Egypt 

after you there in Egypt, 

xlviii. 36 

is perished 

are perished, 1762. 

xlix. I 

inherit God (so 1612, 

inherit Gad, 1616, 1617 


...1629 C. and L.. 

1. lO&Ii. 

24. 35 


Chaldea, 1638. 

li. 12 


watchmen, \(iT.(^. 

U. 27 

her horses 

the horses, 1638. 

li. 30 

their dwelling places 

her dwelling places, 
'^^9- , , . 

lii. 31 

Jehoiakim bis 

Jehoiachni bis (Jehoia- 
kin 1616), 1629. 

I This gross error of 161 1 — 1630, though corrected long ago, is 
revived in most modern Bibles, e.g. D'Oyly & Mant 1817, Oxford 
1835, Camb. 1858. 

1 70 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

II. 2 marg. 


i. 3 & xii. 13 & 

xxiii. 14, 23 
i. 17 

iii. 5 marg. 
iii. 6 marg. 
iii. II 

iii. 26 marg. 

V. i. 

vi. 8 

xi. 24 & 
xvi. 29 & 
xxiii. 15, 16 

xii. 19 

xxi. 30 marg. 

[xxii. 10 

xxiii. 23 
xxiii. 43 marg. 

xxiv. 5 
xxiv. 7 

xxiv. 25 marg. 
xxvi. 14 
xxvii. 6 marg. 
xxvii. 16 marg. 
xxvii. 22, 23 
xxvii. 27 marg. 

made to couch ^ 




deep of lips 
heavy language 
thy people 

II A man 

take the balances 

that he may have 


of them that dvi^ell 

cause to it to return 

fathers', 1769 


II II Her whoredoms 

let him seethe 
poured it 
of the soul 

they shall be a place 
made hatches 

withall, i5ii — 1630 
(withal, 1744) 

Variation of later 

made to 


Jehoiachins, 1629 C. 
and L. (Jehoiakims 
1617, 1630), 1638. 

Chaldeans, 1638 (1612, 
ch. i. 3). 

turned, 1769. Cf. vers. 
9, 12. 

deep of lip, 1629. 

heavy of language, 1629. 

the children of thy peo- 
ple, 1638. 

t Heb. a man, 1629. 

take thee balances, 1638. 

that ye may have, 1613. 

Chaldea, 1638 (1630, ch. 
xvi. 29). 

of all them that dwell, 

cause it to return, 1629 

C. and L. 
father's]. See above, p. 

152 note. 
Shoa, 1629. 
+ t Heb. her whoredoms, 

i62g C. & L. 
(t + Heb. whordomes, 

let them seethe, 1038. 
poured it not, 16 13. 
of their soul, 1638. 
thou shalt be aplace, 1638. 
made thy hatches, 1629. 
thy works, 1638. 
Sheba, 1638. 
with all, 1629, 1638, 


^ This rendering might possibly stand, but that Tremellius, from 
whose version our Translators mostly derived their margin in the Old 
Testament (see above, p. 44), has Heb. facit ut pertineat. Hence 
" couch^^ is a mere misprint. 


[6ii amended in later editions. 171 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

*^i^&d ^J*fcA WA 

Authorized Bible. 


xxxi. 4 

t Heb. conduits 

II Or, conduits, 1638. 
Cf. Job xxxviii. 25. 

XXxii. 22 


Asshur, 1638. 

xxxii. 25 

all her multitudes 

all her multitude, 1629. 

xxxiv. 28 

beasts of the land 

beast of the land, 1762. 

xxxiv. 31 

my flock of my pasture 

my flock the flock of my 
pasture, 1629. 

xxxvi. 2 

the enemy had said 

the enemy hath said, 
1 630 (not [629C. &L., 
1638, 1744), 1762. 

xxxvi. 15 

the nations 

thy nations, 1629. 

xxxix. II 

at that day 

in that day, 1638. 

xlii. 17 

a measuring reed 

the measuring reed, 1638. 

Cf. vers. 16, 18, 19. 
See ch. 9. 1, 5, 1769. 

xliii. 3 OTo;-^. 

See chap. 9. 2, 5 

xliv. 23 

cause men 

cause them, 1629. 

[xliv. 30 

the priest's, 1769 

the priests'], Gorle. See 
above, p. 79 note 2, 
and p. 152 note. 

xlvi. 13 marg. 

of his y tar 

a son of his year, 1638. 

xlvi. 23 

a new building 

s. tow of hiilding, 1638. 

xlviii. 8 

they shall offer 

ye shall offer, 1638. 


i. 4 


Chaldeans, 16381. 

i. 12 

give t pulse 

give us t pulse, 1629. 

ii. 5 marg. 

Cal. (2 Camb. Synd. 

Chald., i638{C/2a/.ch. ii. 

A. 3. 14) 

14, in Camb. Synd. A. 
3. 14: so 1616 in ch. 
V \ 

ii. 8 marg. 

V. 7, 9, 12, 16 


Chald., 1638. 


Chaldee, 1638. 


[ii. 41 

potters', 1769 

potter's]. Seep.i52note. 

11. 45 OTor^. 

in hand, 1611 — 1769, 

in hands, Bagster 1846, 

Oxf. 183s, 1857, 

Camb. 1858, Amer. 

Lond. 1859 

1867. Cf. ver. 34 

^ So Dan. ii. 2, 4, 5, 10 (iis); iii. 8; iv. 7 ; v. 7, 11, 30; ix. i. 

* So Cal. or Cald. (the two issues of i6ri sometimes varying between 
these forms) Dan. ii. 8, 14, 18, 25 (Ms), 28, 29, 31, 43, 44 [bis), 45 ; 
ch. iii. 4 (bis), 12, 19, 20, 22, 25, 26, 29 (ter), 30; iv. 2, 10, 14; v. 2, 6 
(ter), 20, 31; vi. 8; vii. i, 12, 15, 18, 19. 

172 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

. .. 1 

Reading of tlie 

Variation of later 


Authorized Bible. 




a fiery furnace 

a burning fiery furnace, 



thy golden image 

the golden image, 1629. 


21 marg. 

mantle... turhant 

mantles... turbants, 1629. 


17 marg. 

fee, as 

fee, Bagster 1846. - 



the captivity of the 

the children of the cap- 


tivity, E629 C. (not 
L., 1630). 


27 marg. 


Chald. Bagster 1846 


18 marg. 

i. things (in things, 

that is, things 1613 (not 


1629 L.), 1629 C. 

viii. 13 marg. 

II The numberer 

II Or, the numberer, 1744. 


13 marg. 

+ Heb. intreated the 

+ Heb. intreated we not 


the face of the. Sec, 


■26 marg. 

II Or, shall have no- 

II Or, and shall have no- 


thing, 1629. 


27 tnarg. 

II Or, with the abomin- 

II Or, and upon the battle- 

, able armies ^ 

ments shall be the idols 
of the desolator, 1762. 


13 marg. 

of times [, 1744] of 

of times [, 1769] even 


years, 1162. 


24 marg. 

peaceable or fat 

peaceable and fat, 1629. 


think thoughts 

think his thoughts, 1629. 


38 text 

But in his estate . . . 

But tin his estate... || + 

II forces 



II Or, munitions. Heb. 

+ Heb. (f otitis, II Or) as 

Mauzzin, or, as for 

for the Almighty God 

the Almighty [Al- 

...11 Or, munitions. 

viighHe 1 61 7) God 

+ Heb. Mauzzim, 1638 
(so 1744, but in the 
same order as 1611). 
To Mauzzim 1744,' 
1762, 1769 add "or, 
Gods [God's 1744, 
i-jSt) protectors." 

1 This rendering of the margin in 161 1 comes, as usual, from Tre- 
mellius (above, p. 44), "■legiones detestatidnum desolantes. Heb. alam 
detestationum desolantem : ala pro copiis metaphoricl, ut Isai. viii. 8." 
Whatever may be its value, it ought not to have been displaced by 1762 
(which 1769 and the moderns have servilely foUovired) for something not 
so very good of its own. In the Paragraph Bible, we have retained 
both. See above, p. 46. 

of i6ii amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

xii. 8 
xii. 13 

my Lord (so all 
before 1629 in ch. 
x. 16, 17, 19. Zech. 
iv. 4> 5. 13 ; vi. 4) 

in the lot 

OmylordCynt?), 1744 
only here. 

in thy lot, 1638. 


iv. 4 

vi. 9 marg. 

this people 

Sichem [Sychem, 1630) 

thy people, 1629. 

Shechem, 1629, C. (not 

fly (flie 1629, 1638) 
away, 1744. 

II Or, Chemarim (Che- 
marims, 1629 C. and 
■ L., 1630), 1629, 1638. 

dew that passeth, 1638 
(but not in ch. vi. 4). 

Hoshea, Oxf. 1835, &c. 

ix. II 

X. 5 marg. 

xiii. 3 

10 \tnarg.\ 

flee away 
II Chemarims 

dew it passeth 
Hosea, 1762, 1769 


i. 16 

iii. 13 

your eyes 

the wickedness 

our eyes, 1629. 

their wickedness, 1629. 


i. 3 marg. ■ 

i. ri 

viii. 3 

ix. 5 

he, (hee 1616, i6i'j)/or 

and kept 
songs of the Temples 

(temples, 1629)- 
all that dwellethi 

yea for four, 1629. 

and he kept, 1762. 
songs of the temple, 

all that dwell, 1629. 


i. 16 marg. 

a sacrifice . 

a sacrifice unto the Lord, 

1 So in Amos vi. 7 Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14 alone has "first that 
goeth" for "first that go" of Oxf. 1611, 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, &c. 
See Appendix B, p. 212. 

174 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 


Autliorized Bible. 


V. 2 


Beth-lehem, 1629 C. and 

his soul, 1629. 

vii. 3 marg. 

the soul 


i. I marg. 


L0RD,i6^i. See above, 
p. 147 note I. 

i. 4 


flower, 1629. See 2 
Esdr. XV. 50. 

ii. 2 marg. 

and the pride 

as the pride, 1629. 

ii. 3 marg. 

1 1 Heb./^^/ 

II 0\, fiery, 1629. 
Thy crowned, 1029. 

iii. 17 

Tlie crowned 


i. 9 marg. 

init. t Heb. 

II Or, [^before the follow- 
ing Heb.), 1638. 

iii. I text 


Shigionoth, 1762. 



Shigionoth, 1629. 

iii. 13 

tby discovering 

by + discovering, 1629 
— 1762, Bagster 1846 
(not 1769, mod.). 

iii. iQ 

LORD God 16 II— 

Lord GOD, 1629 C, 


1630, 1762, 1769, 

1638, 1744. Cf.Zeph. 


i. 7. Seep. 147 note I. 


iii. II 

mine holy 

my holy, 1629 C. & L., 
1630. Cf. marg. 


i. I, 12, 14 & 

Josuah. Cf. Ezra iii. 

Joshua, 1629 (ver. 12, 

ii. 2 

2 marg. 

1629 L.). 


i. 1, 7 


Berechiah, 1762!. 

iv. 12 marg. 

by the hand 

by the hand of, Bagster 
1846: cf. ch. vii. 7, 12 

^ Thus 1 611 reads in all the other nine places where the name 
occurs, except in i Chr. vi. 39, "Berachiah." 

of xdw amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

vii. 7 

viii. 19 marg. 

viii. 21 marg. 

XI. 'J. 

xiv. to 


m. 4 
iv. 2 

1 Esdras 
6, II 

1. 9, 12 marg. 

[i- 31 

i. 52 

ii. 8 
ii. 9 

iii. 15 marg. 

iv. 43 


V. 9 marg. 
V. 15 »;ar^. 

V. 18 marg. 
V. 19 marg. 

of the plain 
+tHeb. solemn 
the face 

all the mighty 


and shall go forth 



father's, 1762, 1769 


tribes of Benjamin 
very free 

the kingdom 
Joachim.. .Juda...?«a?-f. 
Jiida, Oxf. 161 1 



and the plain, 1638. 
II II Or, solemn, 1762. 
the face of the LORD, 

the mighty, 1638. 
Hananeel, 1762. 

offering, 1638. 
and ye shall go forth, 
1617, 1629, &c. 

Moses, 1629. 
Syelus, 1638. 
Or, prefixed to marginal 

note, 1638. So 1629, 

ch. V. 73; vi. 31; viii. 

16, 50, 61, 63. 
Pharaoh, 1629. 
fathers' (TrarpiKiJ)]. Cf. l 

Chr. xxvi. 24. 
Chaldees, 1638. So ch. 

iv. 45; vi. 15, 161 1, 

1612, 1613 : not 1629, 

tribe of Benjamin, 1769. 
very many free, 1629. 
council, 1 744 [councel, 

thy kingdom, 1629. 
Joacim, 1629, 1630... 

Judah, i62g. ..marg, 

fudaji, Camb. Synd. 

A. 3. 14, 1616, &c. 
Shephatiah, 1638. 
Ater-, 1629 (not 1630), 

Azmaveth, idiCj, 1630. 
Kiriathjarim, 1629 (not 

1630), 1638. 

^ Gk. XPVI^'"''-'^''"^?^^ ■ ^"^g- <:oncilio; Junius consilio. Similar 
confusion between the words occurs in Matt. v. 22; Mark xiv. 55. 

176 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

1 Esdras 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


V. 19 


Pira, 1629 (not 1630).- 
Aldus irlpK. 

v.. 20 


Cirama, 1629. Aldus kl- 

V. 20 marg. 


Ramah, 161 3 only. Gf. 
Ezra ii. 26. 

V. 20 marg. 


Gaba, 1613 (not 1616, 
1617, 1630), 1629. Cf. 
Neh. vii. 30. 

V. 26 marg. 


Hodaviah, iC^g. Cf. 
Ezra ii. 40. ■ ■ 

V. 30 marg. 


Gidde/, 1629. Cf. Ezra 
ii. 47. 

V. 31 marg. & 31 

Neumin. . . Asipha 

Meunim, 1629 {Mehu- 
nim, Ezra ii. 50)... 
Acipha, 1629. Aldus, 

V. 32 


Chareus, 1629. Aldus 

V- 33 


Jeeli, 1629. Aldus fe7;X/. 

V- 37 

the sons of Ban 

the son of Ban, 1629. 

V. 38 

marg. note Barz- refer- 

marg. note Barz- referred 

red to Addus 

^ffBerzelus, 1630 only. 

V. 66 


Judah, 1612 (not 1613 ,. 
1629. Cf. ver. 5. 

V. 69 marg.- 

Asar-haddon, ch. iv. 3 

Esar-haddon, Ezra iv. i, 

vi. 3 ?«ar^. 


Shethar-, 1638. Cf. Ezra 

vii. 9 wa?-^. 


"■ 3- 
Ezra, 1629. 

viii. 2 


Eleazar, 1629, 1630. Cf. 
vers. 43, 63. 

viii. 6 

of king Artaxerxes 
(Bishops' Bible) 

of Artaxerxes, 1629. 

viii. 29, 32 ?«a?-f. 


Shechaniah, 1638 (1629 
in ver. 32). 

1 This VFord is vpanting in the Roman edition (1586 — 7), the Alex- 
andrian MS., the Vulgate, and Junius. Our Translators (after the 
Bishops' Bible) followed the text of Aldus (1518) in this book, as 
plainly appears above, p. 47'. i Esdras is not contained in the Com- 
plutensian (15 17 — 22). Yet how could Junius say, in his Preface to 
the_ Apocryphal books (1592) "Hezrae libros duos me tacente evincit 
Veritas : quos neque Hebraic^ neque Graece vidi, aut fuisse visos 
memini legere"? See above, p. 44. 

of i6i I amended in later editions. 


1 Esdras 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

viu. 40 

vm. 41 marg. 
viii. 44 marg, 
viii. 45 
viii. 47 marg. 

viii. 48 marg. 

viii. 69 

ix. 4 marg. 

ix. 5 
ix. 21 

IX. 22 marg., 23 

ix. 26 marg. 

ix. 28 marg. 

ix. 30 
ix. 31 

ix. 32 

ix. 34 


ix. 49 »M?-^. 

tBago 2K text, but no 


II Or, these mens names 

Saddeus...who vras... 

the treasury 

Hashabia (referred to 
ver. 47) 


II utterly destroyed 


EUionas {iXKiovas Aid.) 

Malchuah (Malchiath, 





Josiphus (M(ri0os Aid.) 
the priest and scribe 

marg. i^Heb. 

1613, 1616, 1617. 

tHeb. Bogua, 1630. 

tHeb. Bigvai, 1629, 

1638, &c. Cf. Ezra 

viii. 14. 
Ahava, 1629. Cf. Ezra 

viii. 15. 
These men's names, 1629 

(not 1630). 
II Saddens... II who was... 

II the treasury, 1629. 
Sherebiah, 1613 (not 

1616, 1617,1630), 1629, 

&c. Cf. Ezra viii. 18. 
Hashabiah, 1630 (not 

1629, which sets the 

reference right). Cf. 

Ezra viii. 19. 
Canaanites, 1629. See 

Judith V. 9. 
Or, utterly destroyed, 

1744 only. 
Judah 1769. Cf. ch. V. 5. 
Hiereel, 1629. LXX. 

Elionas, 1629, 1630. 

LXX. {Fritzsche, 

1871), iXioipats. 
Jozabad, 1629 (1630, 

1762, &c., ver. 23 

only), 1638, 1744. Cf. 

ver. 29. 
Malchiah, 1629. Cf. 

Ezra x. 25. 
Zabad, 1629. Cf Ezra 

X. 27. 
Mani, 1629. 
Balnuus, 1629. Aldus 

Melchias, 1629. Cf. ver. 


So Aldus. 
Josephus, 1769. 
the priest the scribe, 1762. 

Cf. Neh. viii. 9. 


1 78 Appendix A?\ Wrong readings of the Bible 

2 Esdras 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

i. lo 


Pharaoh, 1629. 

■i. 13 


Moses, 1629, 1630. 

1- 31 

new moon 

new moons, 1629 (Vulg., 
Bishops' Bible). 

ii. 7 marg. 

II Sacrament 

II Or, Sacrament, 161 2, 
i6i3(noti6i6 — 1630), 

ii. 8 


Gomorrha, 1630 (Go- 
morah, 161 2. Gomor- 
rah, 1629). 

ii. 10 & X. 47 

Hierusalem. See Matt. 

Jerusalem, 1629 (1616, 

ii. 1 

in ch. X. 47). 

iii. 16 

Isahac {his) 

Isaac {bis), 1638. See 
Mark xii. 26. 

iii. i8 


depths, 1629 (Vulg.). 

iii. 19 marg. 

\\ And to all 

II Or, and to all, 1744. 

iii. 27 

the city 

thy city, 1629. 

iv. 21 marg. 

II The land 

II Or, thela7id. 

iv. 36 viarg. 

II JeremUl 

II Or, Jeremiel, 1629. 

iv. 47 

unto you 

unto thee, 1638 (tibi, 

II Or, shall be, 1638. . 

V. I marg. 

II Shall be 

V. 13 ZWfl?-^. 


directed, i62g(dirigentur, 

II Or, Behemoth, Cambr. 

vi. 49 marg. 

II Behemoth 


vii. 37 »zar^. 


Achor, 1616, 1617, &c. 

viii. 31, 32 marg. 

II Are sick \\ Be willing 

II Or, are sick. ||0r, be 
willing, 1638. 

viii. 43 

the rain 

thy rain, 1629. 

vm. 53 marg. 

II Or, grave 

llOr, the grave, 1638. 

X. 2 marg. 

countrymen [, 1630] 

countrymen, Lat. citizens. 



xiii. 14 


these wonders, 1629.. 

xiv. IS 

flie. But cf. ch. xv. 

flee, 1629^ {transmi- 

32; xvi. 4I 


XV. 41 

fleeing. Cf. Rev. xii. 14 

flying, 1629 {volantes). 

XV. 50 

as floure [sicut flos), so 

as a floure, 1613, 16J7: 


as a flowre, 1616, 
1630: as a flower, 
1629, 1638. See Nah. 
i. 4. 

1 See above, p. 38. 

^ A like variation is found in Ps. cxxxix. 7. Prov. xxviii. 17. 
Wisd. i. s. Ecclus. xi. 10. Barach vi. 55. i Mace. i. 53. 2 Mace, 
ix. 4. I Tim. vi. n. 

of i6i I amended in later editions. 


2 Esdras 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

xvi. 28 

clefts of rocks 

clefts- of the rocks, 1629. 

xvi. 42 

as he that had (qui... 

as he that hath, 1 769. 

xvi. £2 

yet a little iniquity 

yet a little, and iniquity, 
1616, 1617. 


i. -i 


Galilee, 1638. ; ■■■ ^ 

iv. 12 


Isaac, 1616 (not 1617), 
1629, 1630. 

T. 15 

the wages 

thy wages, 1629 iiroi iirl 
Tov ixiudov). 

vi. 3 OTor^. 

II Cast 

II Or, cast, 16x6. 

viii. JO 

lest he 

lest he also, 1629. 

xiii. 18 


Alleluia, 1638. Of. Rev. 
xix. I, 3, 4, 6. 

xiv. 10 marg. 


Nitzba, 1629 (kV Junius). 
See p. 51 note. 


Judith, title, 


Judith, 1744. 

ch. viii. 1 , passim 


i. 6 


Elymeans, 1629. 

i. 8 & XV. 5 


Galilee, 1638. 

i. 8 

Esdrelon (Vulg.) 

Esdrelom, 1638. Cf. ch. 
iii. 9 marg.;- iv. 6 

ii. 7 marg. 

II Or, after the manner 

11 After the manner, 1629. 

ii. 28 


Ascalon, 1629. 

V. 6, 7 


Chaldeans . . . Chaldea, 

V. 9, 10, 16 

Chanaan . . . Chanaanite 

Canaan Canaanite, 

, 1629 only (ver, 3, 
Canaan, 161 1). Cf. 
, I Esdr. viii. 69. 

V. 16 


Pherezite, 1638. 

vii. 7 


fountains, 1629. 

vii. 18 


Dothaim, 1638. Cf. ch. 
viii. 3. 

viii. 5 

on sackcloth on 

on sackcloth upon, 1629. 

1 So I Kin. ix. 1 1. Isa. ix. i. Judith i. 8; xv. 5. iMacc. x. 30; 
xii. 47 {bis); 49. Mark xv. 41; xvi. 7. Luke iv. 44. Acts xiii. 31 
(Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14). Yet 1611 often has "Galilee," e.g. seven 
times in i Mace. v. . ■ 


i8o Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


viii. 29 

all thy people 

all the people, 1629. 

X.. s marg. 

II Wrapped 

II Or, wrapped, 1638. 

xii. II 

Ebrewe (Ebrew 1612, 
1616, 1629) 

Hebrew, 1630, 1638. 

xiv. 10 

the foreskin of his flesh 

the flesh of his foreskin, 

XV. 4 


Betomasthem, 1638 

XV. 13 

before the people 

before all the people, 

xvi. 8 marg. 

t Gr. or miter 

+ Gr. mitre, i62g. 

xvi. 24 

to all them that are 

to all them that vi'ere 


nearest, 1612, 1616, 
1617, &c. 


Esther, title, 


Chaldee, 1638. 

xi. I 

Ptolomeus {ter). Cf. 
I Mace. i. 18 

Ptolemeus (ter), 1638. 


i- 5 

flie (^eujerai) 

flee, 1629I. 

xii. 12 

to be II revenged^ 

Ilto be revenged, 1629 
(not 1630), 1638 (not 
1744), 1762, 1769, 
Oxf. 183s, not D'Oyly 

[xv. 4 

painter's 1762 

painters' (a-Kiaypaipav)]. 
1-Gr., 1638. 

xvi. II marg. 

\Hebr. (tHeb. 1616— 


xvi. 29 

unfaithftil i^axaplarovf 

unthankfiil, 1629 (not 
1630), 1638. 

^ See p. 178 note 2. 

2 The errors of 161 1 and its earlier reprints in regard to these 
marginal marks are numberiess. We note only the most important, 
or those remarkable for other causes, adopting in silence the cor- 
rections made m other places, chiefly in the editions of 1629 C. and 
1638. ^ 

3 Evidently an oversight. Vulg. and Junius have "ingrati," the 
Bishops' Bible "unthankful." Cf. Luke vi. 35. 2 Tim. iii. 2. 

of z6iz amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


iv. 1 6 

his generation i5ii — 

his generations, Camb. 



xi. lo 

flying (StaSpas) 

fleeing, 1629'. 

[xiii. 19 

lion's 1762, 1769 

lions' {XeoKTMi/j^]. 

XX. 13 


II Or, lost, 1638. 

xxiii. 27 


commandments, 1629. 

xxiv. 25 


Phison, 1629. 

XXV. 9 

of him that will hear 

of them that will hear, 

xxvii. 5 


vessels, 1629. 

xxix. 6 

If he prevail 

II If he prevail, 16 13, 
1616 (not 1617), 1629. 

XXXV. 15 

Doeth not the tears 
(p. no note i) 

Do not the tears, 1638. 

XXXV. 18 

till he hath smitten 

till he have smitten, 
1629, 1640. 

xliii. 5 marg. 

tGr. he stayed 

11 Or, he stayed, 1629. 

xlv. 15 

Moises (Moyses 1616, 
1617, 1630) 

Moses, i6r3, 1629, 1638. 

xlvii. 4 


Goliath, 1629 (roXitiS). 

xlviii. 12 


Eliseus, 1638. 

xlix. 4 


Ezekias, 1613, 1616 
(noti6i7, 1630, 1634), 
1629, 1640. Cf. ch. 

xlviii. 17, 22. 

xlix. 8 


Ezekiel, 1612 (not 161^, 
1634), 1629, 1640. 

li. 12 

deliverest (^JeiXou) 

deliveredst, 1616 (not 
1617, 1634, 1640), 
1629, 1630. 


i. a 


Chaldeans, 1638. 

& Song ver. 25 
[Baruch i. 4 

king's sons 1762, 1769 

kings' sons {fia.aCKiuiv)\ 
Cf. I Mace. x. 89. 

i. 10 marg. 

a meat offering 

that is, a meat offering. 

iv. 2 

take heed 

take hold, 1629 (cTriXa- 
workmen, 1702. 

vi. 46 
VI. 55 


fly {flie 1613— 1630) 

flee, 1629 (^cu'^ocras) ^. 

1 See p. 178 note 2. , . ^ j „ j 

2 Ecclus. xxxviii. 33 judges' (1769) may stand, smce^Cod. 248 and 
the Complutensian edition read dwaarCv, against Si/coittoC of Codd. N B. 
Vulg., SuvdiTTOv of Cod. A. 

[82 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

Song . 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


Title and ver. i 

[And they 

walked in 

— ^fell down bound into 

the midst of the fire. 

, the midst of the 


God and 

burning fiery fur- 


the Lord]... 

nace [1769 adds ver. 

[Then Azarias (Aza- 

23] — ... And they 

ria 1617 

stood up] 

walked ... Then Ne- 



buchadnezzar, ver. 24. 





Oxf. 161 1, 

161 2, [616, 1630)] 

ver. 23 marg. 


(ca. 1616) 

naphtha .... ca.-^. 105, 



ver. 66 marg. 


the grave, 1744 (not 
1762), 1769. 

Hist, of 


ver. 56 


Canaan, 1629, Oster- 
vald 1808 only. See 
Judith V. 9. 

Bel and 


ver. 27 


and fat, 1629. • . 

Prayer of 


line 36 


iniquities, 1762. 

1 Maccab. 

i. 18. 

Ptolomee {bis) [Camb. 

Ptolemee, 1629. Cf. 

Synd. A. 

3- 14, Pot- 

Esther xi. i; ch. iii. 

lomee secundo loco] 

38; X. 51,' 55, 57; 

xi. 3; XV. 16. 2 

Mace. i. 10 ; iv. 41;, 


i- S3 


flee, 1629I {t^exiyaSmi- 
T'ljpliji). Cf. ch. iv. 5. 

ii. 26, 54 



Phinees, 1638. Cf. 2 

1616, & 

1630 ver. 

Esdr. i. i. 


^ See p. 178 note 2. 

of 1 6ii amended in later editions. 


1 Maccab, 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


ii. 2g marg. 

sit, abide 

sit, or abide, 1638. 

ii. 70 


sepulchres, 1629 (ra- 

iii. 28 marg. 

t Gr. or at 

+ Gk. 'at, 1629. 

iii. 38 

Ptoleme (Ptolomee 
1616, 1630) 

Ptolemee, 1629. 

iv. 9 


Pharaoh, 1629. 

iv. 18 

your enemies 

our enemies, 1629. 

iv. 29 

met with them 

met them with, 1613, 
&c. ; . 

V. 3 marg. 

II Or, Arabatkene 

II Or, Arabathane, 1629, 
Vulg., Bishops' Bible 
(-tthane, 1638, mod.). 

fin. Arabettine 

Akrabattine, 1629. 

V. 9 


Galaad, 1612. Cf. vers. 
17, 20, &c. 

V. 65 

townes thereof,, {irvp- 

towers (towres, 1638) 


thereof, 1629. 

vi. I 


Elymais, 1638. 

vi. 6 

brought in tidings 

brought him tidings, 

(d7ra77^XXc(jj' auri^) 


vii. 24 

the coast 

the coasts, 1629. 

vii. 45 

Gasera (Aldus Pacrr/pa) 

Gazera, 1638. Cf. ch. 

iv. 15- 
the place, 1629. 

viii. 4 

that place 

viii. 8 


Lydia, 1616 (not 1617), 

viii. 17 


Accos, 1629. 

viii. 26 


covenants, 1769. 

ix. 4 & 35 

Jos. {Josep. 161 1, ch. . 

Joseph. (1613, 1616, 

wza^X". & 

xi. 34) 

1630), 1629. 

X. I & 81 marg. 

ix. 36 


Nabathites, 1616 (not 
1617), 1629. Cf. ch. 
V. 25. 

ix. 49 marg. 

ant. (anti. 161 7) 

Antiq., 1762. Cf. ch. 
xi. 34. 

ix. 50 ?«ar^. 

Techea, Camb. Synd. 
A. 3. T4, &c., 1617, 
Techoa, Oxf. 1611, 
1612, 1613, 1616 

Tecoa, 1629. 

ix. 68 


travel, 1629 — 1762, not 
1769 or moderns (f0o- 
5os). See above, p. 97 

X. 30 & xii. 47 

unto him 

unto them, 1629, 1630. 


Galilee, 1638. See To- 

(M. 49 

bit i. -i. 

184 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

1 Maccab. 

X- SI, S5 

X. 57 
X. 58 

[x. 89 

xi. 3> 8, 13, 15- 

xi. 56 

xi. 62 
xi. 70 

xii. 7 marg. 

xii. 8 marg. 

Reading of the 
Autliorized Bible. 

Ptoleme (Ptolome ver. 
5S> 163°) 


gave unto him (1612 
— 1762), Camb. 

the king's blood, 1762, 

Ptolomee (Ptololmee 
ver. 8, 1612, Ptol- 
mee ver. 13, i6i6) 



the chief men 
Absolon (Absalon 

look... Ant. 

Jos. Ant. 

xii. 19 marg. 



xii. 31 
xii. 19 


xii. 28 


lib. ant. 13. 9 (Ant. lib. 
1 61 6, &c.) 

xiii. II 

Absolom (Vulg.) 

xiii. 15 marg. 
XV. 16 


Ptolome, Camb. Synd. 
A. 3. 14, &c., 1617, 

-omee, Oxf. 1611, 

xvi. II 

1612,1613, i6i6,also 

xvi. 16 

18, 21 


XV. 22 

The same thing 

XV. 23 

Sycion ... Phaseilis ... 

xvi. 10 


set fire 

xvi. 14 

seventh year 

Variation of later 

Ptolemee, 1616 (not 
1620), 1638. See 
ch.'i. 18. 

Ptolemee, 1638 (Ptole- 
me, 1629). 

he gave unto him, 1630, 
1769, Ostervald 1808, 
D'Oyly and Mant 
1817, Oxf. 1835. 

the kings' blood]. Cf. 
Baruch i. 4. 

Ptolemee, 1629, 161 7, 
ver. 4 (Oxf. 1611, 
ver. 18). 

Lydda, 1616 (not 1617 
—1630), 1638. 

Tryphon, 1616 (not 
1017), 1629. 

their chief men, 1629. 

Absalom, 1629 {'A.\j/a- 
Xw/iou). Cf. ch. xiii. ir. 

See, 1744 ... Antiq., 

Joseph. (161 3 &c.). An- 
tiq. (1638). 

Joseph., 1629. 

Oniares, 1629. 

Antiq. lib. 13. cap. 9, 

Absalom, 1613, 1629. 

offices, 1629, 1630. 

Ptolemee, 1638 (Pto- 
leme, 1629). 

Ptolemeus, 1629. 

Ptolemee, 1638 (Ptole- 
me, 1629). Cf. ch. i. 

The same things, 1629. 

Sicyon (1629) ... Phase- 
lis (1638) ... Side 

(1638) Gortyna, 

1616, 1629 (not 1617). 

set on fire, 1629. 
I seventeenth year, 1 769. 

of i6 II amended in later editions. 


2 Maccab. 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


i. 10 

hundreth^... eight 

hundred... eight, 1629. 

i. 10 & iv. 


Ptolemeus, 1629 (except 

21 & ix. 

ch. i. 10), 1638. So 

29 & X. 12 

161 1 in ch. viii. 8, 
1630 in ch. iv. 21. 
See I Mace. i. 18. 

i. 29 & ii. 4, 8, 10 

Moises (Moyses 1613 

Moses, 1629. So iflii 

& vii. 6 


in ch. vii. 30 and 161 2 
in ch. i. 29 & vii. 6. 

iv. 4 


ApoUonius, 1612, 1613, 
1616 (not 1617), &c. 

iv. 21 

Manastheus (Monas- 
theus 1630) 

Menestheus, 1629. 

iv. 30 

Tharsus (Tharsos 1629) 

Tarsus, 1638. 

iv. 40 

on Auranus 

one Auranus, 1629 
(not 1630), 1638. 

iv. 45, 46 & vi. 8 

Ptolomee (Ptolome 
1630, ch. vi. 8) 

Ptolemee, 1629. 

vi. 2 marg. 


Joseph., 1744 ... cap. 

Callisthenes, 1638. 

viii. 33 


IX. 4 

flie (Tre^uYaSeuKoTU!') 

flee, 1629, 1630. See 
2 Esdr. xiv. 15 note. 

xi, 4 

thousand {lis) 

thousands of {bis), 1629. 

xi. 9 


all together, 1629 {oji,ov 
Si iravTes). 

xii. 15 


Joshua, 1629. 

xii. 26 marg. 

i. (Or, 1613) 

That is, 1629, 1630. 

xii. 35 OTO?-^. 

II Put by his army 

II Or (1638) put by his 
arm: or, 1629 (not 
1630), 1638. 

xiv. 16 


Dessau, 1629 (Aeo-ffoou). 

XV. 3 

this most ungracious 

the most ungracious, 

^ See p. 147 note 2. But "hundreth" is only an old way of spelling 
"hundred" and is often found in 1611, as in Esther xvi. i ; Ecclus. xvi. 
10 : especially in these reckonings by the Greek era, i Mace. i. 10, 20, 54; 
ii. 70; iii. 37; iv. 52 ; vi. 16 (not vi. 20) ; vii. i ; x. 67 ; xi. 19. 2 Mace. 
xiii. I ; xiv. 4. 

1 86 Appendix A.] JVrong readings of the Bible 

S. Matthew 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

Variation of later 

i- S 

Boos {bis) 

Booz (bis), 1629. 

i- 9 

Achas {bis) 

Achaz {bis), 1629. 

ii. I 

Hierusalem passim ^ 

Jerusalem, 1629 (not 
1629 L., 1630), 1638. 

iv- 13. 15 


Nephthalim, 1638. 

V. 22 


Raca, 1638. 

V. 22 

counsell (counsel 1744) 

council, 1629 L., 1630 
(councel 1612, 1629, 
1638). See I Esdr. 
iii. 15 note. 


thy right doeth 

thy right hand doeth, 
1613 (not 1616, i6r7), 
1629, 1630. 

xii. 41 

Nineve (Ninive 1616) 

Nineveh, 1629 (not 
Luke xi. 32). 

[xiv. 9 & Mark vi. 

oath's, 1762 &c. 

oaths']. See p. 152 



xiv. 34 


Gennesaret, 1629 C., 
1638. Cf. Mark vi. 
53; Luke V. t. 

xvi. 16 

Thou art Christ 

Thou art the Christ, 
1762. Cf. ver. 20. . 

xvi. 19 

whatsoever thou shalt 

and whatsoever thou 


shalt loose, i6i6 
(1617), 1629. 

xviii. 28 marg. 

7. d. oh. Cf. ch. XX. 2 

seven pence halfpenny^ 
1616 (not 1617), 1629. 

XX. 29 


Jericho, i6i6(not 1617), 

xxvi. 75 

the words of Jesus 

the word of Jesus, 1762. 

xxvii. 22 

Pilate said 

Pilate saith, 1629. 

xxvii. 46 

(Lamm-, 1613) 

lama sabachthani, 1629. 

S. Mark 

ii. 4 

for press 

for the press, 1743. Cf. 
Luke viii. 19. 


he came 

he ran, 1638. 

vii. 3 OTa?-^. 


Theophylact, 1629. 

^ "Hierasalem" is the constant form in the N. T. except in Acts 
XXV. I (Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14, &c., 1612, 1613, 1617; not Oxf. 1611, 
16 [6). I Cor. xvi. 3. Gal. i. 17, 18; ii. i ; iv. 25, 26. Heb. xii. 22. 
See 2 Esdr. ii. ro. 

of i6i I amended in later editions. 


S. Mark 

Reading of the 

"Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


X. 18 

there is no man good, 

there is none good but 

but one 

one, 1638'. 

X. 46 

high ways side 

high-way side, 1629. Cf. 
Matt. xiii. 4. 

xi. 8 

branches of the trees 

branches off the trees, 
1638 (C(C). 

xii. 26 & 


Isaac, 1612 & 1617 

Luke XX. 37 

(Mark), 1629. So 2 

Esdr. iii. 16. 

xiv. 32 

Gethsemani (Clement- 

Gethsemane, 1616 (not 

ine Vulg,) 

1617,1630), 1638. Cf. 
Matt. xxvi. 36. 

xiv. 65 


councell, 1630, councel, 
1629 C. (not L.), 1638, 
council, 1743. See i 
Esdr. iii. 15 note. 

XV. 34 


lama sabachthani, 1629. 

XV. 41 & xvi. 



Galilee, 1629 (1612 ter). 

Luke iv. 44 & 

See Tobit i. 2 note. 

Acts xiii. 


■ ■ 

(Camb. Synd. 

A. 3. 14, &c.) 

. S. Luke 

i- 3 

understanding of things 

understanding of all 
things, 1629. 

i- 5. 7, 13. 24. 



Elisabeth, 1638. 

- 40, 41 [bis), 


i. 74 , 

out of the hands 

out of the hand, 1762. 

ii- 25, 34 


Symeon . 

iii. 21 

and it came to pass 

it came to pass, 1629. 

iii. 2S, 26 


Mattathias, 1629. 

iii. 30 


Symeon. Cf. Appendix E 

§ I, p. 244 and Acts xv. 

iii. m 

Menam (Meraia Eras- 

Menan, 1629 (Geneva N. 


mus 1 516, Aldus 

T., 1567)- 

1518, Tyndale, Great 

Bible) 2. See Appen- 

dix E, p. 244. 

1 A variation taken from Matt. xix. 17. A like change might well 
be made in some other places, e.g. Matt. xi. 27 ; ch. xiii. 32. In John 
X 28 "any," 29 "none" of 1638— 1762, are rejected by 1769 and later 
Bibles for "any man," "no man," of 1611—1630; "man" however 
being printed in italic type. ^ , , , 

2 In the same way all our books from Tyndale downwards (excep 

1 88 Appendix 

A?[ Wrong readings of the Bible 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

S. Luke 

Authorized Bible. 


iii- 35 

Phaleg (Clementine 

Phalec, 1629. 

iv. 11 


Eliseusi, 1638. 

V. I 

Genesareth (Genn — 

Gennesaret, 1762. Cf. 

1638— 1743) 

Matt. xiv. 34. 

vii. II 

Nairn (Nau/t Erasmus 

Nain, 1638 (Noe!;/ Er- 

1516, Aldus, Vulg. 

asm. 1 5 19). 

All Early English ver- 

sions Nairn, except 

Tynd. 1526 Naym) 

viii. 5 

the wayes side 

the way side, 1743. Cf. 
ver. 12. Matt. xiii. 4; 
Mark iv. 4. 

xi. 32 

Nineve. Cf. Matt. xii. 

Nineveh, 1699, Ameri- 


can 1867. 

xiii. 4 

Siloe (Silo, 1639 L., 

Siloam, 1629 (Geneva, 

1630), Tynd., Cover- 


dale, Great and 

Bishops' Bibles 

xvii. 34 

the other shall be left 

and the other shall be 
left, 1638. Cf. vers. 

35- 36. 
Zaccheus 1638 — 1769I. 

xix. 2, 5, 8 


xix. 9 

the son of Abraham 

a son of Abraham, 1762. 

XX. 12 

sent the third 

sent a third, 1762. 

xxiii. II 

at naught 

at nought, 1638. Cf. 
Acts xix. 27. 

xxiii. 1 9 

cast in prison 

cast into prison, i6i6(not 
161 7— 1638), 1743. 

xxiv. 13 


Emmaus, 161 3. 

xxiv. 18 


Cleopas, 1629. 

Coverdale and the Genevan version) read "Heber'' ver. 35 from Eras- 
mus's 'B;3c/3 (retained in Beza 1589, 1598), though " Eber" is the form 
used in the O. T. See Appendix E, p. 249. 

1 Elissceus might be preferable here, as Zacchaus is spelt in Oxf. 
1835, Camb. 1858, and some recent Bibles. An English reader can 
hardly fail to confound the three separate terminations in -etis, (i) eu 
diphthong, as Menestheus, 2 Mace. iv. 21, Nereus, Rom. xvi. 15 : 

(2) the dissyllable S-us, e being short, as Timothfius, i Thess. i. 1, &c.: 

(3) the more usual dissyllable -e-us, e being long, as here. Such are 
Aggeus, I Esdr. vi. i ; 2 Esdr. i. 40 : Asmodeus, Tobit iii. 8 : Cende- 
beus, I Mace. xv. 38 : Channuneus, i Esdr. viii. 48 : Eliseus, here : 
Hymeneus, i Tim. i. 20 : Maccabeus, i Mace. iii. i, &c. : Mardocheus, 
Esther X. 4, &c. : Ptolemeus, Esther xi. 1, &c.: Sabbatheus, i Esdr. ix. 
14 : Sabateus, ibid, ver. 48 : Timeus, Mark x. 46': Zaccheus, Luke xix. 

of i(>ii amended in later editions. 


S. John 

Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


i. 45 — 



Nathanael, 1629 {1612, 

& xxi 

. 2 

ver. 47). 

V. i8 

not only because he 

because he not only, 

vii. 1 6 

Jesus answered them, 

Jesus answered them, 
and said, 1634, 1638. 

viii. 30 

those words 

these words, 1629. 

xi. 3 

his sister 

his sisters, 1629. 

xii. 22 

told Jesus 

tell Jesus, 1762. 

XV. 20 

than the Lord (lord 
1629— 1743) 

than his lord, 1762. 

xvi. 25 

the time 

but the time, 1756, 1762, 

xxi. 17 


He said unto him 

He saith unto him, 1038. 


ii. 22 

miracles, wonders 

miracles and wonders, 

iv. 17 

no farther 

no further, 1616 (not 
1617, 1634), 1629, 
1640. Cf. ver. 21 ; 
ch. xxi. 28. 

vi. 5, 8 & vii. 59 


Stephen, 1629. 

& viii. 2 & xi. 

19 & 

xxii. 20 

vi. 5 


Parmenas, 1629. 

vii. 10, 



Pharaoh, 1629, 1630 
(1640, ver. 10). Cf. 
ver. 21. 

vii. 16 

Sichem (to)...Emor 

Sychem (Us) 1638.., 


Emmor, 1629. 

Tynd., Great and 

Bishops' Bibles, &c.) 

™. 35 

by the hands 

by the hand, 1762. 

viii. 32 

the shearer 

his shearer, 1629. 

xiii. 18 



^Tpo<po<pop7)(xev bore, or 
fed them, 1743^. 

xiii. 42 marg. 

II Or, in the week 

+ Gr. in the week, 1629. 

2, 5, 8. So also in i Esdr. ix. 21, 23, 30, 32 {bis), 33. These all repre- 
sent the termination -aios. In i Mace. xii. 7 marg., 20, "Apeips should 
be rendered Arius, not Areus. 

1 After Deut. i. 31 in this marginal note modern Bibles which do 
not contain the Apocrypha (e.g. Camb. 1858) unwarrantably omit the 
reference to 2 Mace. vii. 27. See above, p. 119. 

190 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


XV. 14 


Syraeon. Cf. Luke iii. 30. 

xvii. 22 marg. 

II Or, court 

11 Or, t/ie court,. i6%i. 

xxi. 28 & xxiv. 4 

farther, Cf. ch. iv. 17 

further, 1699, 1762 (ch. 
xxiv. 4, 1629— 1743). 

xxiv. 24 

which was a Jew 

which was a Jewess, 
1629. Cf. ch. xvi. I. 

xxiv. 27 


Porcius, 1638. 

xxvii. s 


Lycia, 1629. Cf. i Mace. 
XV. 23. 

xxvii. 7 


Cnidus, 1638. 

xxvii. 18 

And being exceedingly 

And we being exceed- 

tossed with a tem- 

ingly tossed with a 

pest the next day, 

tempest, the next day 


iii. 24 

Jesus Christ (So Beza's 
Latin only) 

Christ Jesus, 1762. 

iv. 12 

but also walk 

but who also walk, 1762. 

vi. 12 

reign therefore 

therefore reign, 1616 (not 
1617), 1629. 

vii. 13 

Was that then 

Was then that, 1616 (not 
1617), 1629. 

ix. 29 

Sabboth (Sabbath 1629 

sabaoth,i629 — 1 762 (Sa- 

L., 1630) 

baoth2, 1769). 

x. 16 text 

our II t report 

tour Ijreport. 

marg. . 

II Or, before t Gr. 

+ Gr. before ||0r, 1629 
(not 1629 L., 1630), 

xi. 28 

for your sake 

for your sakes, 1762. 

xii. ,2 

that acceptable 

and acceptable, 1639. 

xiv. 6 

regardeth.a day 

regardeth the day, 1629. 

xiv. 10 

we shall all stand 

for we shall all stand, 

xvi. 10 


Apelles, 1616 (not 1617, 
1630), 1629 C. and L. 

^ In 1616 (not 1617) — 1630 the stop is transferred, but ■fip.av is still 

^ In James v. 4 Sabbaoth, Camb. SyncJ. A. 3. 14, &c., 1613, 1617, 
1629 L., 1630; Sabaoth, Oxf. 161 1, 1612, 1616; sabaoth, 1629 C, 
1638, &C. 

of i6ii amended in later editions. 



Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


i. 12 & iii. 4 — 6, 


ApoUos, 1638. 

11 & iv. 6 

vii. 32 

things that belongeth 

things that belong, 161 2 
(not 1613), 1616, &c. 
See p. 1 10. 

ix. 9 & X. 2 


Moses, 1629 (1612, ch. 
ix. 9). 


The earth is 

For the earth is, 1638. 

xii. 28 

helps in governments 

helps.governments, 1 629. 

xiv. 10 

none of them are 

none of them is, 1638. 
Cf. pp. 109, no. 

xiv. 23 

some place 

one place, 1629. 

XV. 6 

And that 

After that, 1616 (not 
1617), 1629 C. &.L. 
Cf. ver. 7. 

XV. 41 

another of the moon 

and another glory of the 
moon, 1629. 

XV. 48 

such are they that are 

such are they also that 


are earthy, 1638. 

xvi. 22 

Anathema Maranatha 

anathema, Maranatha, 

2 Cor. 

1629— 1743I. 

i. 19 


Silvanus, 1613 (not 1616, 

1617), 1629 C. (not 

1629 L., 1630). Cf. 

I Peter v. 12. 

V. 2 

earnestly, desiring 

, earnestly desiring, 1769 

V. 20 

that ye be (that be ye 

be ye reconciled, 16.12, 

Oxf. 1611) reconciled 

i6i6(not 1613), 1617, 

viii. 21 

but in the sight 

but also in the sight, 

ix. g 

not of covetousness 

and not as of covetous- 
ness, 1638. 

ix. 6 

sparingly. . .bountifully 

also sparingly ... also 
bountifully, 1638. 

xi. 26 


journeyings, 1762. 

1 But 1762 and American 1867 have Anathema, Maran-atha, and 
1760 even removes the necessary comma between the words ; and so 
D'Oyly and Mant 1817, Oxf. 1835, Camb. 1858, and other moderns. 

2 Professor Grote (MS. p. :6. See above, p. 23 note states that this 
punctuation was adopted in a small 8vo. Bible by Field m 1660 but 
that in Field's i2mo. N. T. of the same year, and m all later editions 
of that period, the change was revoked. See above, p. 9 1 . 

192 Appendix A.\ Wrong readings of the Bible 

2 Cor. 

XI. 32 



iii. 13 


iv. 24 
vi. 24 


iv. 2 
iv. 6 

2 Thess. 

ii. 14 
ii. 15 


1. 4 

vi. II 


2 Tim. 

i- 1 
ii. 19 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

the city 

on tree (Tynd Bi- 
shops ') 

that new man 



the Lord Jesus Christ 
or our epistle 

flie {(pevye) 

Pacaciana (Bishops' 

of love 
the seal 

Variation of later 

the city of the Damas- 
cenes, 1629. 
Philippi, 1629. 

on a tree, 1629. 

the nevif man, 1616 (not 
1617), 1629 C. 

sincerity. Amen, 1616, 
1617 (not 1629 L.), 
1629, 1630. See Ap- 
pendix E, p. 263. 

Syntyche, 1629, 1638 

(not 1699), &c. 
requests, 1029. 

our Lord Jesus Christ, 

or by our epistle, 1613 

godly edifying, 1638 

(Tynd.— Bps'). 
flee, 1613 (not 1616, 

1617), 1629 C. & L. 

Cf. 2 Esdr. xiv. 15 

Pacatiana, 1629. 

and of love, 1638. 
this seal, 1617, 1629 C. 
& L., 1630. 

of \(j\\ amended in later editions. 


2 Tim. 

iv. 8 

iv. 13 


111. 10 
iv. 8 mm 
viii. 8 









1 Peter 

"• 5 
ii. 6 

1 John 

ii. 16 

V. 12 

Reading of the 
Authorized Bible. 

unto them also 
bring with thee. 

their hearts 


and the house of Judah 


and they (thy, 1617) 

not afraid 
Gideon . . . Jephthah 

unto the race 


evil speakings 

the lust of the eyes 
hath not the Son ■^ 

Variation of later 

unto all them also, 1629. 

bring with thee, and the 
books, 1616, 1617, 
1629 C. & L., 1630. 

their heart, 1638. 

Joshua, 1638. 

and with the house of 

Judah, 1638. 
Cain, 1638. Cf. i John 

iii. 12; Jude ii. 
and they were not afraid, 

Gedeon ... lephthae, 

1629. Cf. Judg. xi. 

I marg. 
the race, 1629 C. & L., 


are motheaten, 1638. 

all evil speakings, 1629 C. 
sacrifices, 1629. 
Wherefore also, 1638. 
Silvanus, 1629 C. S'L. 

(not 1630), 1638. Cf. 

2 Cor. i. 19. 

and the lust of the eyes, 

hath not the Son of God, 

1629 C. (not 1629 L., 

1630), 1638^. 

^ The Book of Common Prayer (Epistle for the First Sunday after 
Easter) follows the reading of 1611, as does the Gospel for Palm Sunday 
in Matt, xxvii. 52, "of saints which slept," not "the saints," as in 1762 
and later Bibles. See Cardwell, Oxford Bibles, p. 14. 

^ Even after 1638 this variation continued: "of God" is omitted 

s. 13 

1 94 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of the 

Variation of later 

Authorized Bible. 


.ver. II 


Cain, 1630, 1638. See 
Heb. xi. 4. 

ver. 25 

now and ever 

both now and ever, 1638. 


i. 4 

Churches in Asia 

Churches which are in 
Asia, 1638. 

i. II 


unto Philadelphia, 1638. 

V- '3 

honour, glory, 

and honour, and glory, 

vii. s 


Reuben, 1616 (not 1617), 
1629 C. & L., 1630. 

vii. 6 

Nepthali (Nephthali, 

Nephthalim, 1638 — 

1629 C.) 

1762, Amer. 1867I. 
Cf. Matt. iv. 13, 15. 

ix. 17 & xxi. 20 


jacinth, 1762. 

xii. 14 

flee (TT^T/rai). Cf. 2 

fly (flie, 1629 — 1699), 

Esdr. XV. 41 

1743, 1762. 

xiii. 6 

them that dwelt 

them that dwell, 1629. 

xiii. 16 marg. 

to give 

to give them, 1 769. 

xviii. 12 

Thine (Thyne 1629 L.) 

thyine, 1629 C. 

XX. 13 marg. 

II Or, hell (II Or, well. 

II Or, grave, 1613 — 


1630: II Or, the grave, 

xxi. 19 

saphir '' 

sapphire, 1638. 

xxi. 20 

sardonix (even 1699)... 

sardonyx 1634, 1640 


topaz, 1629. 



THE END, 1762. 

by 1640—39, 1659 (fol.), 1677 (Camb.), 1678, 1679 (fol.), 1681 ; the 
words are returned by 1658 (Field) and its Dutch counterfeit (see above, 
p. 25 note 2), 1674, 1677 (4°), 1682, 1701, and by all later Bibles. 

^ 1769, followed by our standard (Camb. 1858) and all other 
moderns we know of, reads "Nepthalim." 

2 Elsewhere the forms employed in 1611 are saphire and saphyre. 
See above, p. 97. 

N.B. All variations in the foregoing list, except those 
relating to the apostrophe, have been introduced into at least 
one previous edition. The changes described in the subjoined 
list (which relates chiefly to the Apocrypha) are peculiar to the 
Cambridge Paragraph Bible, and must justify themselves. 

of 1611 amended in later editions. 



Reading of 161 1 
later editions. 


Correction made in the 
Paragraph Bible. 

i. 20 
ji. 16 

creature tliat hath tlife 
Girgasite (Gergasite 

t creature that hath life. 
Girgashite, passim. 


xxvi. 58 


Korahites. Cf. i Chr. 
ix. ig^. (Gorle.) 

2 Samuel 

xvii. 25 [mai'g.] 

Isniaelite, 1762 

Ishmeelite. Cf. i Chr. 
ii. 17. 

2 Kings 

iii. 9 

xvi. 7 [mar^^l 

tthat followed 
tHeb. Tilgath-pileser, 

that + followed. 

t Heb. Tiglaih-pdeser. 

1 Chronicles 

vii. 28 

unto II Gaza 

II unto Gaza^. 



ix. 8 

a t little space 

a little t space. Cf. Isai. 
xxvi. 20. 


iii. 12 

Halloesh, 161 1 — T630 
(Haloesh, 1616; Ha- 
lohesh, 1638, &c.) 

Hallohesh. Cf. ch. x. 

^ Less palpable is the error in i Chr. xxvi. 19 (cf. ver. i), where 
Kore (Nl'pJ is put for Korhite I^VTSp^. 

^ The annexed marginal note (omitted in Bibles which do not con- 
tain the Apocrypha, see above, p. 119) is almost unintelligible as it 
stands in 161 1, &c. Inasmuch as the border of Ephraim did not 
reach to Gaza (Josh. xv. 47), our Translators suggest that ilW'iy may 
possibly mean Adassa, the 'ASacrii of i Mace. vii. 40, 45. 


196 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


viu. 5 


xxxii. 6 marg. 


i. 4 & X3 

& xliv. 2( 
cxxxvi. 8 marg. 

vi. 4 & xxxi. 16 
& xliv. 26 


iv. -L 


XI. 14 

xxvii. 8 marg. 
xxix. I marg. 
xliv. 14 


iii. 20 
xxxviii. 17 

Reading of i6ri and 
later editions. 

+ the letters devised 
(the + 1. d. Bagster 
1846; in 1630 marg. 
devised for the device) 

I feared {feared, 1638, 

for thy mercies (mer- 
cies', 1769) 

every one bear (bare, 
1629 L., 1630) 

Hear ye || indeed 
(lit 1629) 

II Or, without ceasing, 
Ss'c. ffeb. hear ye 
in hearing, &^c. 

tand the children 

removeth it 

ctit off the heads 

he II strengtheneth 

f righteousness primo 

by the hands (Bagster 

1846 adds of) 

Correction made in the 
Paragraph Bible. 

the letters + devised. 

I feared to. 

for thy mercy's 

(: ?i;3Dn) \ 

ruli7ig. Compare ver. 
9 (Heb.). 

every one beareth. Cf. 
ch. vi. 6. 

t Hear ye || indeed. 

t Heb. precedes |i Or, 

Aliter sanat Bagster 

and t the children. 
remffveth it with, 
cut off the heads of. 
II he strengtheneth (marg. 

from Tremellius, qnce 

fortificai se) . 

t righteousness secundo 

by the hand of. Cf. i 

Kin. xvi. 12. 

1 The noun in patcsd is no doubt singular, and so LXX., Vulg. have 
it in Ps. vi. 4; xxxi. 16. Our translators may have meant "mercies" 

of i6ii amended in later editions. 



Reading of 161 1 and 

Correction made in the 

later editions. 

Paragraph Bible. 


. 26 text 

but not for himself: 

* but not for himself: 

11 and the people 

II and the people. 


II Or, and \the Jews\ 

* Or, and [the Jews']... 

they shall be no more 

ch. II. 17. 

his people^ ch. 11. 17, 

II Or, and the prince's 

or, and the princess 

[Messiah's ver. i.i\ fu- 

[Messiah's, vet. 25] 

ture people. 

future people, 1762 




1 Esdras 

11 ye offer 

F^ 11 offer 1. 


12 marg: 

Shash-bazar, Greek (Gr. 

f Sheshbazzar, Ezra i. 

Shashbazar : [638), 

8. _ Greek, (Ezra i. 8, 


being brought up from 
the end of the mar- 
ginal note). 


. 14 niarg^ 

tHeb. is of force 

i* Gk. is offeree (^trxiJet). 


5 marg. 

Joachim ... Joachim ... 

Joacim ... Joacim ... Je- 





Reesaias {fiericralov, 

Resaias ('PTjcraiou, LXX.) 


13 marg. 

Asgad (Asgar, 1769, 

^z^arf (Ezra ii. 12 ; Neh. 


vii. 17). 


21 marg. 

Maghbis {Magbis, 1744 

Magbish (Ezra n. 30). 


24 marg. 


Immer (Ezra ii. 37 ; Neh. 
vii. 40). 


26 marg. 

Cadmeel [Cadmiel, 

Kadmiel (Ezra ii. 40; 


Neh. vii. 43). 


29 marg. 


Ziha (Ezra ii. 43; Neh. 
vii. 46). 


31 marg. 

Necodah ... Gazam ... 

Nekoda... Gazzam...Ne- 

Nephusin . . . Hacupa 

phtisim . . . Hakupha 
(Ezra ii. 48, 50, 51 ; 
Neh. vii. 62). 


32 »«fl?-^. 

Barcos. . . Thamai 

Barkos...Thamah (Ezra 
ii- 63)- 

to be singular, as they so spell " mercy" about four times out of ten. In 
that case 1769 would be the first to go wrong. See p. 152 note. 

1 The marginal "bring unto" (b not B, 161 1— 1638) cannot be 
meant for the imperative, but renders differentes super of Tremellius. 

198 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 

1 Esdras 

Reading of 161 1 and 

Correction made in the 

later editions. 

Paragraph 'Bible. 

V. 33 mdrg. 


Darkon (Ezra ii. 56 f 
Neh. vii. 58). 

V. 34 marg. 

Haiti... Phoceroth (-eth, 

Hat til. . . Fochereth (Ezra 


ii. 57; Neh. vii. 59). 

V. 37 marg. 

Necodah. Cf. ver. 31 

Nekoda (Ezra ii. da; 


Neh. vii. 62) 

V. 38 marg. 

Hobaiah [Hoboiah 

Habaiah . . . Koz . . . Bar- 

1612) ... C(?J ... .53?-- 

zillai (Ezra ii. 6i ; 


Neh. vii. 63). 

V. 47 

of the II first gate (first 
II gate, 1629, &c.) 

II of the first gate^. 

vii. 9 marg. & viii. 

\Hebr. ■^Heb. 

t Chald. 

23 »2fl?-^. 

viii. 2 

II Ozias {text), \\ Azarias 

t Ozias {text) t Ezias 

(marg.), [|| Ezias 

{marg!) : ittov Aldus. 

[text), II Ozias [marg.) 

and Bishops' Bible. 

1629, llOziaz (t/iarg.) 


viii. 20 2'^ar^ 

II cors... other things 

II cors... II other things. 


II Or, measures or salt 

11 Or, measures. || Or, 

viii. 23 OTor^. 

of those that 

of all those that (Ezra 
vii. 25). 

viii. 29 ?«a?-^. 


Pharosh (Ezra viii. 3). 

viii. 39 ??/a?-^. 


Shemaiah (Ezra viii. 13). 

viii. 44 


Joribus (ch. ix. 19). ..Mo- 
soUamus. Cf; ch. ix. 

viii. 49 

catalogue of whose 

catalogue of whose 

names were. (See 

names was. Cf. Acts 

above, p. rionote i) 

XXV. 23. 

viii. 54 marg. 

Serebias and Hassi- 

II Or, Sherebiah and Ha- 


shabiah (Ezra viii. 24). 

viii. 62 ??!ar^. 


Meremoth (Ezra viii. 33). 

ix. 19 ffzar^. 


Maaseiah (Ezra x. 18, 

ix. 21 marg. & 43 




ix. 23 ?«a?y. • 


Kelita (Ezra x. 23). 

ix. 26 marg. 

Jesaiah [fesiah, 1629) 

Jeziah (Ezra x. 25). 

ix. 29 


Jozabad. CIwf.-LXX.). 

^ The margin notes the various reading upheld by Vulg. and Junius, 
irph roO for roO irptorov. 

2 So Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14, &c., 1613, 1617, &c.: but Serenias, 
Oxf. i6ir, 1612, 1616. See below, p. 205. 

of i6ii amended in later editions. 


1 Esdras 

Reading of 161 1 and 
later editions. 

Correction made in the 
Paragraph Bible. 

ix. 33 marg. 

Mattithiah (Mati- 
Camb. Synd. A. 3. 
14. 1617) 

Mattathah. Cf. Ezra x. 
33: above, p. 163. 

2 Esdras 

ii. 23 marg. 
iii. 31 text 

ix. 17, 18 text 

ix. 19 mar^. 
X. 13 marg. 


II I do not remember 

II Or, / conceive 

: for it was the time of 

the world. || And 
^And now... 
II But when 
WBzit the earth... 

fLat. signing. 

I do not jlremember^. 

II Or, conceive. 

: II for it was the time of 

the world. And 
II Or, And now... 
ii Or, but when 
llOr, but the earth.... 


i. 14 

V. iS marg. 

II at Rages a city of 

II Z^;^ not (no Camb. 

Synd. A. 3. 14) 


at Rages Ha city of Me- 
II Gk. Let not money. 


xiv. 16 »za?-j'. 
xvi. II marg. 

II Then 

ii The Assyrians 

II Or, Then (xai). 
iiThat is, the Assyrians. 


xiii. 18 

XV. 5 

most + earnestly 

and very || amiable (and 
II very amiable, 1629) 

+ most earnestly (4| 

l<rX^°^ o.iitGiv). 
Hand very amiable (ws 



V. 14 

a thin froth .'.. the 
II smoke 

II a thin froth (iraxv-ri) . , . 
the smoke. 

1 This must be the intention of the Translators, since Vulg. has 
Nihil memini of the text, Junius Nihil venit in mentem of the margin, 
the Bishops' Bible " I cannot perceive." 

2 So Fritzsche's text of the LXX. : Vulg. has avitatem. But the. 
arrangement of i6ri might very well stand, as the margin exactly repre- 
sents the reading of Aldus, iv aypoh t^s UriSelas. See above, p. 51. 

200 Appendix A.] Wrong readings of the Bible 


Reading of 161 1 and 
later editions. 

Correction made in the 
Paragraph Bible. 

xii. 12 

to II stand against thee 

II to stand against thee 

(to stand || against 

(ds KaraaTaa-Lv aoi). 

thee, 1629) 

xiv. 2 marg. 

II Or, vessel 

II That is, vessel (iKeho). 

xiv, 21 marg* 

\\of God ii\ Or, of God, 

II That is, of God (i. no- 

1612, 1629, &c., not 

men Dei, Junius). 

D'Oyly and Mant 


xvi. 5 marg. 

\\0i, thy people 

II That is, thy people. 

xvi. 21 iwa?-^. 

II Or, manna 

II That is, manna. 


viii. II 

to II entrap thee in thy 

to entrap thee ||in thy 

words (II to entrap. 


1629, &c.) 

X. 21 

II the obtaining of au- 

the obtaining of ||autho- 



xiv. 8 

trich garments 

rich + garments. 

xlvii. II 

of kings.. .11 of glory 

||of kings. ..of glory. 

xlix. 9 marg. 

II did good 

'^did good unto (Bps' 

I directed my soul... 

li. 20 

II I directed my soul... 

I have had my heart 

II I have had my heart. 


iii. 2 


Canaan. Cf. Judith v. 
9: above, p. 179. 



in the Hebrew 

in the Chaldee. 

1 Maccabees 

ii. 2 marg. 

II Gaddis 

II Or, Gaddis. 

ii. 35 OTffl?-^. 

II Gr. the Jews (|| Or, 

'fih.aXKs, the Jews.- Cf. 

the yews, 1629) 

Wisd. xvi. 5, 21. 

ii. 42 & vii. 13 


Asideans (1630, ch. vii. 
13 ; 1611, 2 Mace. xiv. 

1 This must be the proper arrangement even if for -uph X'^i/'ews apx?s 
be read ivph Xrj^eas dpxh with the Complutensian, or TrpoX^^eus dpxh 
with Cod. 106, or irpb XijfeMs apxv^ with Grabe. The verse is wanting 
in the best manuscripts and the Aldine edition. 

of i6ii amended in later editions. 

1 Maccabees 

Reading of 161 1 and 
later editions. 

Correction made in the 
Paragraph Bible. 

V. 4 marg. 

Haran (Haron, 1630; 

Akan. Cf. Gen. xxxvi. 

Hakan, 1629, 1638) 


V. 23 marg. 

II Or, captive Jews 

11 That is, captive Jews. 

V. 26 

Bosora, cf. ver. 28 

Bossora, LXX. (Com- 
plut., Fritzsche). See 
above, p. 53. 

V. 27 marg. 

II Or, the heathen, 
(D'Oyly and Mant 
omit 1 81 7 Or) 

11 That is, the heathen. 

V. 30 marg. 

11 The heathen (|| Or, 
the heathen, 1629, 
&c., not D'Oyly and 
Mant 1817) 

11 That is, the heathen. 

V. 44 ?«a?-^. 

11 Jadas and 

11 That is, Judas and. 

V. 54 OTffl?-^. 

Antiq. 12. 12 

Antiq. lib. 12, cap. 12. 
Cf. ch. vii. I, &c. 

vi. 49 

llpeace city, (1638 

and the moderns set 
II after "peace," in- 
serting they before 
yielded in the margin) 

peace cityH. 

vi. 52 & vii. 45 

11 Or, the Jews 

11 That is, the Jews. 

& ix. II 

ix. 24 marg. 

Bacchides and 

II That is, Bacchides and. 

ix. 63 marg. 

II Or, to such of 

II That is, tostichof. 

xiii. 15 »23>y. 

that he had... for (that 
he had, or, 1629, 

that he had, 01, for. 

2 Maccabees 

ii. 17 »«flr^. 


heritage to all. 

iv. 14 

the game of || Discus 

lithe game of Discus. 

V. 8 

an open || enemy 

an II open enemy. 

xi. 6 viarg. 
xii. 20 OTffl?-^. 

II Maccabeus 

II Or, Maccabeus. 

11 Dositheus ajtd. . . 

II That is, Dositheus, and. 

xiii. 23 

confounded (t!vv€x\i6-ii) 

was confounded [i. e. 
Eupator, CottonX 

S. Matthew 

xxiii. 24 

strain at a gnat 

strain out a gnat^. 

1 So all the early versions from Tyndale to the Bishops' Bible, and 
even T. Baskett's 8vo. edition of the Authorized, London, 8vo. 1754, 
Brit. Mus. 1411. f. 5- 

2 02 Appendix A.'\ Wrong readings of earlier Bibles amended. 

S. Mark 

Reading of 161 1 and 
later editions. 

Correction made in the 
Paragraph Bible. 

vi. 53 

Genesareth (Gennesa- 
ret, 1638— 1769) 

Genesaret. Cf. Matt, 
xiv. 34 ; Luke v. i. 

S. Luke 

i. 78 marg. 

Malach. iv. 2 ; follows 
Isai. xi. I 

Mai. iv. I, follows stm- 

S. John 

A. 25 

and ye believed not 

and ye believe not. 


vii. 1 1 & xiii. 19 


Canaan (1612 only, ch. 
xiii. 19). See Judith 

xxi. I 
XXV. 23 

Choos (Coos, 1638, 

was entered (Bishops' 

Bible). Cf. I Esdr. 

viii. 49 

V. 9. 
Cos. Cf. I Mace. XV. 


were entered (Tyndale, 
Great Bible, Geneva 
1557)- See above, p. 
no note I. 


xvi. 9 




ii. 7, 8 

II likeness of men... 
fashion as a man 

likeness of men 

II fashion as a man^ 


i. 6 

viii. 8 

A. 23 

II And again, 1762, 

whose margin it is 


And II again. 

Juda. Cf. Matt. ii. 6; 

ch. vii. 14; Rev. v. 5. 

So Camb. 1863 in 

Ecclus. xlix. 4. 
hope. See Appendix 
E, p. 247. 

^ That the margin, " Or, habit" refers to cxw"", not to oMoiUyUOTi, 
is plain enough in itself, not to add that for crxwari the Vulg. has 
habitu, Tyndale, Coverdale, and the Great Bible apparel. 


(See above, pp. 5 — 7.) 

Catalogue of variations (not being very manifest mis- 
prints') between the two issues of the Authorized version 
of 161 1, represented by Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14 and the 
Oxford reprint of 1833 respectively. Wheresoever the con- 
trary is not stated, the British Museum copies, 3050. g. 2, 
3050. g. 3, and 1276. 1. 4, have been ascertained to agree 
with Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14. 

N.B. Bp. denotes the Bishops' Bible (1572), Synd. our 
Cambridge, Oxf. our Oxford model, Anier. the New York 
Bible, diamond, 24mo. 1867 ^ 

§ I. The readings of Camb. Synd. A. 3. 14 have been 
preferred in forming the text of the Cambridge Paragraph 
Bible in the following places : 

Gen. X. 16 Amorite 1617, 1634, 1640, 1769, moderns. 

■^ Such, and nothing more, are the following errors, noticed by Dr 
Schaff (Companion to the Greek Testament, p. 3'24). Ex. ix. 13 "serve 
thee" Synd., B. M. 1276. 1. 4, 3050. g. 1 and 3 for "serve me" Oxf., 
B. M. 3050. g. 1. On the other hand Oxf., 3050. g. i are wrong and 
Synd., B. M. 1276. 1. 4, 3050. g. 2 and 3 are right in Lev. xiii. 56 
"plaine" for " plague" and in Lev. xvii. 14 " ye shall not" for "ye 
shall": but see above, p. 112, for this last. 

^ The readings of the Bishops' Bible are added in some places, in 
case that any should think that light may be thrown upon the origin of 
these variations by the Bible from which, as it would seem, our own 
version was set up for the press. Inferences thus drawn seem to the 
Editor for the most part too slight to be relied on. 

204 Appendix £.] Variations between the two issues of 

Amer. (Emorite [^/.] Oxf. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1629 L. & C, 
1630, 1638, 1744, 1762, here only), xlvi. 17 Ishui 1617 
(Isui Oxf. 1612, 1613, &c.). xlvii. 27 possessions [with B. 
M. 1276. 1. 4 only] (possessions Bp. Oxf. 1612, 1613, &c.). 
ExOD. xxxviii. 11 the hooks (hoopes Oxf. 1612, but not 
ver. 10) of the pillars 1613, &c., cf. Bp. vers. 10, 11' Lev. 
xviii. 30 ye shall 1630 (shall ye ^. Oxf. 1612, 1613, 1629 
L. & C, &c.). Num. x. 2 thou shalt (shalt thou Bp. Oxf. 
1612, 1613, &c.). xxvi. 21 Hezronites [with B. M. 1276. 
1. 4 only] (Hesronites Bp. Oxf. 1612, 1613, &c.). Deut. 
viii. 7 the valleys (valleys Bp. Oxf. 1612, 1613, &c.). xvii. 4 
it zj- true' (it i5« true ^/. Oxf. 1612, 1613, &c.). xxxii. 15 
Thou art waxed 1617 (Thou art waxen Oxf^\6x2, 1613, &c.). 
2 Sam. xvii. 25 AbigaP 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (Abigail^. 
Oxf. 1629 C. and L., &c., as in i Chr. ii. 16). i Kin. iii. 20 
rose [with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only] 1613 (arose Bp. Oxf. 1612, 
1616, 1617, &c.). ix. 22 bondman 1613 (bondmen Bp. 
Oxf, B. M. 3050. g. 3, 1612, 1616, 1617, &c.). Job xix. 15 
maidens Bp. 1613 (maides Oxf. \(i\2,, i6r6, &c.). Prov. 
xi. 20 unto the Lord 1613 (to the Lord Oxf, B. M. 3050. 
g. 3, 1612, 1616, 1617, &c.). Cant. ii. 7 till he please 
(so all known editions except Oxf* till she please, here 
only, not in ch. iii. 5; viii. 4). Isai. xlix. i from afar 1613, 

^ Since Bp. has "hoops" in both verses (lo, 11), though for the 
word rendered " fillets" in 1611, it is not unlikely that Oxf. was set up 
from a copy of Bp., and the same inference might be drawn from other 
places where Bp. and Oxf. minutely coincide. 

^ The copy in S. John's College, Cambridge (T. 6. 26) and B. M. 
3050. g. 3 must be earlier on this leaf, since they read "it it true". See 
above, p. 8. 

^ Thus dispensing with the marginal note of 1762 "tHeb. Abigal." 
But B. M. 3050. g. I and 466. i. 6 have Abigal, against Oxf. 

* So B.M. 466. i. 6 "she," but not 3050. g. i which is almost 
identical with it. Bp. has " till she be content her self" in all these 
places. The original American revise of 185 1 (see above, p. 36) reads 
" she" uniformly in all, but Amer. 1867 returned to " he." 

the Authorized Bible, both bearing the date of 1611. 2*05 

1617 (from far Ox/. 1612, 1616, 1629 C. and L., &c.). 
ver. 20 strait 1613, 1617 (straight Oxf. 1612, 1616). 
lix. 21 thy seed 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (the seed Ox/.). 
Jer. v. 24 latter 1612, 1613, 1617 (later Ox/ 1616, not in ch. 
iii. 3). EzEK. XX. 37 marg. delivering 1613, 1630 [a deliring 
Ox/: so 1612, 1616, 1617, 1629 C. & L., &c.). xxxi. 18 
with the sword Bp. 1617 (by the sword Ox/ 161 2, 1613, 
1616). Cf. ver. 17; ch. xxxii. 28, or ch. xxxii. 20, 21, 25, 
26, 29, 30. xxxix. 9 wzar^. ^or them}, 1617 (0/ them Ox/. 
1612, 1613, 1616, &c.). Dan. ii. 14 wza^^. Chald. [Cald. 
Ox/ 1612 — 1630). ver. 34 in pieces 1617, 1630 (to pieces 
Bp. Ox/ 1612, 1613, 1616, &c.), c£ ver. 40 bis, 44, 45, or 
ver. 35. Hos. vi. 5 hewed 1612, 1613, 1617, &c. (shewed 
Oxf. 1616). Nah. i. 10 while they be drunken 161 7 (while 
they are drunken Oxf. 161 2, 161 3, 161 6, &c.). 

I EsDR. V. 5 marg. Judah 1612, 1616, 1617, &c. {Juda 
Ox/ 16 1 3). ver. 15 marg. hezekiah 161 7, 1629, &c. ihezekia 
Ox/ 1612, 1613, 1616, 1630). ver. 16 marg. Bezai 1617, 
1629 [Besai Oxf. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1630). ver. 26 Bannas 
[Bawov] (Banua Bp., Banuas Oxf. 1612, 1613, moderns). 
vi. 23 Ecbatane Bp. 1617 (Ecbatana Ox/ 1612, 1613, 1616, 
moderns). Cf Tobit iii. 7, &c. viii. 54 marg. Serebias, 1613, 
1617, &c. {Serenias, Ox/ 1612, Sereuias 1616). See Ap- 
pendix A, p. 198. ToBlTxi. 14 thy holy 161 7 (thine holy 0.r/; 
1612, 1613, 1616, &c.). See above, p. 108. Judith iii.5 — vii. 
i6 01ofernes 1612, 1613, 1617, 1629, 1630, &LC.,passi}n,-s.6i6 
in ch. vii. 16 (Holophernes Bp. Ox/ 1616). See App. C, p. 
229. WiSD. iii. 14 text 'in the Temple : marg. Or, amongst 
the people 1612, 1613, &c. {text in the Temple: marg., or 
amongst the people after chosen, in the previous note, Ox/). 
EcCLUS. xxi. 24 with disgrace (with the disgrace Ox/ 161 2, 

1 Dna: of them, is no alternative rendering to the text. 

20 6 Appendix B.] Variations between the two issues of 

1613, &c.). xxiii. 4 marg. 'Or, gia7it like 1612, 1617 ("Or, 
a giant like m Oxf. 1613, 1616, 1630: aliter sanat 1629). 
xliv. 5 recited 1612, 1613, &c. (rejected Oxf). Song ver. 4 
are (rather are) truth (truth Oxf. 1612, 1613, &c.). i Macc. 
vii. I marg., lib. 12. 1617, 1630, &c. {lib. 10, 12. Oxf. 1612, 
1613, 1616). X. 47 true peace 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, &c. 
(text "peace, marg. '^Hrue, Oxf). See above, p. 7 note 2. 
2 Macc. iv. 13 not high priest 1612, 1616, 1617, 1629 — 
1762 (no high priest Oxf. 161 3, 1630, 1769 moderns). 

S. Matt. xiii. 4 way side 1613, 1617, 1743 [way-side 
1762], 1769 (wayes sideO^ 1612, 1616, 1629 C. & L., 1630, 
&c.), as all in ver. 19; Mark iv. 4; Luke viii. 12; xviii. 35. 
Cf. Mark x. 46; Luke viii. 5 (see Appendix A, p. 188), where 
Synd. Oxf. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, have "ways,'' but 1629 
C. & L., 1630, 1638 vary between the two: 1744, 1762, 1769 
have "way" consistently throughout, xiii. 31 like unto a 
grain 1613, 1617, 1629 L., 1630 (like to a grain Bp. Oxf. 
1612, 1616, 1629 C, &c.), as all (including £p.) in ver. 33, 
44, 45, 47, 52. S. Mark vii. 4 Oxf. alone transposes the 
marginal notes, placing ' Or beds, before ' Sextarius. Acts 
xxi. 2 Phenicia 1617, 1629, &c. (Phenicea Oxf. 1612, 1613, 
1616, 1629 L., 1630). XXV. I Jerusalem 1612, 1613, 1617, 
1629 C, &c. (Hierusalem Oxf. 1616, 1629 L., 1630): cf. 
ver. 3, and Appendix A, p. 186 and note. Rom. vi. 21 
had you 1617 (had ye Oxf. 1612, 1613, 1616, &c.). x. 21 
have I stretched Bp. 1613, 1617, 1629 L. (I have stretched 
Oxf. 1612, 1616, 1629 C, 1630, 8z:c.). xi. 22 toward 1613, 
1769 (towards Bp. Oxf. 1612, 1616 — 1762). i Pet. ii. 7 
marg. "he is precious 1617 (he is 'precious Oxf. 1612, 1613, 
1616, 1629 L. & C, 1630: but 1638, &c. retain ' before 
" precious," and omit " he is " in the margin). 

the Authorized Bible, both bearing the date 0/1611. 207 

§ II. List of variations between the two issues of 161 1, 
wherein the readings of the Oxford reprint have been pre- 
ferred in the Cambridge Paragraph Bible. 

Gen. xvi. 6 But Abram Bj>. 1612, 1613 (And Abram 
Synd.). xxvi. 34 Bashemath 1612, 1613 (Bashemah Synd.). 
xxxi. 3olongedst 1612, 1629 C. & L., 1630 (longest.^. Synd. 
1613, 1617, 1634, 1640). xxxvi. 10 Bashemath 1612, 1613 
(Bashamath Synd.). xlvi. 34 an abomination^/. 1612, 1613 
(abomination Synd.). Ex. xi. 8 all these, 1612, 1613 (also 
these Synd.). xix. 4 eagles wings BJ>. 161 2, 1613 (eagle 
wings Synd.Y- xxi. 26, 27 let him go 1629 C. (let them go 
Bp. Synd. [1612, 1613, 1629 L., 1630 in ver. 26], 1616, 
I6I7)^ xxxvi. 29 marg., twinned 1629 C. & L.^ {twined, Synd. 
1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, 1630, 1634, 1640). Lev. i. 16 marg., 
thereof 1612, 1613 {there Synd.). xxv. 28 until the year Bp. 

1612, 1613 (unto the year Synd.). Num. i. 47 tribe 16 12, 

1613, 1629 C. & L. (tribes Bp. Synd. 1617). xvi. 34 said 
Bp. 1612, 1613 (say Synd.). xxi. 18 direction 1612, 1613 
{directions, Synd. with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), xxxiv. 2 this 
is the land Bp. 1612, 1613 (that is the land Synd.). Cf. 
ver. 13. ver. 11 go down Bp. 161 2, 1613 (come down 
Synd.). Cf ver. 12. Deut. i. 18 all the things Bp. 16 12, 
1613 (all things Synd 1617). ix. 10 spake with you 1612, 

1 Yet " eagle wings'' though antiquated is not incorrect. Marsh 
(English Language, p. 278) cites from Wyclif "unkil doughter" Gen. 
xxix. 10. So Num. xxiv. 6 {161 1); Esther i. 13 (Svnd.). Even 
modern Bibles retain " a cubit length" Judg. iii. 16. See above, p. no. 

" Several copies of the issue represented by Ox/., agreeing with 
1611, 1613, 1629 and 1630, have "let them go" in ver. 26. Such are 
Brit. Mus. 466. i. 6 (not 3050. g. i): Camb. University Libr. x. 15: 
Emmanuel Coll. B. i. 23: and one belonging to Mr James North of 

3 So Synd. ch. xxvi. 24 marg., though 1612, 1613, 1630 have 
"twined" there also, and so even 1629 L. in the earlier place. After 
the error was corrected in 1629 — 1744, the Bibles of 1762, 1769 went 
wrong again, misleading moderns (even Bagster 1846), till twinned yizs, 
restored in Camb. 1858, Amer. 1867. 

2o8 Appendix £.] Variations between the two issues of 

1613 (spake unto you Synd. 16 17). xii. 26 thy holy things 
Bp. 1612, 1613 (the holy things Synd. 1640). xiv. 29 widow 
Bp. 1612, 1613 (widows Synd.). xvi. 14 thy maidservant 

1612, 1613 (the maidservant ^;zt?.). xxxiv. i plains 1612, 
1613 (plaint/. Synd). Josh. v. 8 they abode Bp. 1612, 
1 6 13 (all abode Synd). viii. 32 the stones 161 2, 1613 (the 
stone Synd.). xv. 50. See Appendix A, p. 151. xvi. 6 
Taanath [so also B. M. 3050. g. 3], 1613 (Taanah Synd. 
161 2). xviii. 22 Betharabah Bp. 161 2, 1613 (Bethabarah 
Synd). xix. 5 Hazar- 1612, 1613, 1629 C. & L., 1630 (Hasar- 
Synd. 1 6 16, 16 17, 1634, 1640). Cf. i Chr. iv. 31 marg. 
Ruth ii. 11 thou knewest Bp. [B. M. 3050. g. 2], 1612, 1613 
(thou knowest Synd). iii. 8 marg. took hold on [B. M. 3050. 
g. 2], 161 2 {Synd. 16 1 3 add him), ver. 15 he went' (she 
went^?z^. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, 1629 C.&L., 1630, 1634, 
1638, 1640, 1744, 1762, 1769, all moderns), i Sam. vii. i 
Kirjath- [B. M. 3050. g. 2], 1612, 1613, &c. (Kiriah- ^«rf.). 
2 Sam. vi. 9 ark of the Lord Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (ark of 
God Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), ver. .16 city of 
David Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (house of David Synd., with B. M. 
1276. 1. 4 only), xviii. 31 all them that rose Bp. 1612, 

1613, &c. (all that rose Synd). Cf. ver. 32 (Heb.). xxiii. 20 
a valiant man, of Kabzeel, 1612, 1616, 1629 C. & L., &c. 
(a valiant man of Kabzeel Synd. 1613, 1617). Cf. Heb. 
I Kin. xi. i. See Appendix A, p. 154. xx. 3 the goodliest 
1612, 1616, 1629 L. & C. (thy goodliest Synd. 1613, 1617, 
1630). xxi. 2 my house^. 1612, 1613, 1616 (mine house 
Synd. 1617). 2 Kin. v. 12 turned Bp. 1612, 1616, 1617 
(returned Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, 1613). xvii. 6 
Halah 1612, 1613, 1616, 1629 (Halath [rr] Synd. 1617, 
1629 L., 1630). ver. 35 commandment Bp. [B. M. 3050. 

1 American Report, p. 19. Yet Amer. restored "she" of the 
Vulgate in 1867. See above, p. 37 and note 1. 

the Authorized Bible, both bearing the date of 1611. 209 

g. 3], 1612, 1613, 1616, &c. (commandments Synd. 1617). 
xix. 15 before the Lord JSp. [B. M. 3050. g. 3], 161 2, 1613, 
&c. (unto the Lord Synd.). xxiv. 2 Chaldees £p. 161 2, 
1630, 1744 (Caldees Synd. 1613 — 1638). i Chr. i. 5 
Meshech 1612, 1613, 1616, &c. (Mesech £p. Synd. 1617). 
vers. 47, 48 Samlah [B. M. 3050. g. 3], 1612, 1616 semel, 
1629, &c. (Shamlah Synd. 1613, 1616 semel, 1617). ii. 49 
Sheua 1612, 1613, &c. (Shua Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 
only), iii. 18 Hosama Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. {Ylosa-rma. Synd., 
with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). Cf! Appendix A, p. 157. ver. 
2^ marg. Hiskijah \Hiskijahu Amer.], 1612, 1613, &c. {His- 
kiah Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), iv. 30 and at 
Hormah Bp. 1612, 1616, 1617, &c. (and Hormah Synd., 
with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, 1613). ver. 36 Jesohaiah 16 12, 
1613, &c. (Jehohaiah Synd.). Cf. Appendix A, p. 157. vi. 74 
Mashal 1612, 1613, &c. (Machal Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 
only), vii. 13 ]eze.v Bp. 1612, 1616, &c. (Gezer Synd., with 
B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, 1613, 1617). ver. 36 Suah Bp. 

1612, 1629 C. & L. (Shuah Synd.,V!i\h B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, 

1613, 1616, 1617). xxvi. 5 Issachar Bp. 1612, 1616 (Isachar 
Synd. 1613, 1617). ver. 25 Jeshaiah 1612, 1613 (Jeshiaiah 
Synd.). Cf ch. xxv. 3. xxvii. 33 Hushai [B. M. 3050. g. 
3], 1612, 1616 (Hushi Synd. 1613, 1617). 2 Chr. vi. 5 my 
people Israel Bp. 161 2, 161 6, 1617 (my people of Israel Synd. 
1613). xvi. T fin. Judah [B. M. 3050. g. 3], 1612, 1616, 
1617 (Juda Bp. Synd. 1613). xxi. 15 disease of thy bowels 
Bp. 1612, 1613 (diseases of the bowels Synd., with B. M. 
1276. 1. 4 only). XXX. 6 his princes 161 2, 1616, 1629 C, 
1630 (the princes Synd. 1613, 1617). xxxii. 20 Amoz 1612, 
1616 (Amos Bp. Synd. 1613, 1617). Cf ver. 32. xxxiv. 
21 for them that are left Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (of them that 
are left Synd.). Ezra ii. 28 two hundred, twenty Bp. 1612, 
1613, 1616 (two hundred and twenty Synd. 1617). ver. 33 
Hadid 1612, 16x3, &c. (Haddid Synd). ix. 2 hath been 

s. 14 

2IO Appendix B?[ Variations between the two issues of 

chief 1612, 1616, 1617 (Have been chief Synd. 1613). 
Nehem. vi. 10 Mehetabel 1612, 1613 (Mehetable Synd., 
with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). Cf. Appendix A, p. 163. viii. 
10 unto our Lord Bp. 161 2, 1616 (unto the Lord Synd. 
1613, 1617). ix. 14 thy holy sabbath Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. 
(the holy sabbath Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), x. i 
those that sealed 1612, 1613, 1616, &c. (these that sealed 
Synd. 1617). ver. 16 Biguai Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (Bigui 
Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), xi. 11 Hilkiah 1612, 
.1613 (Helkiah Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). Cf. ch. 
xii. 7, 21. Esther i. 13 king's manner Bp. 161 2, 1613, 
&c. (king manner Syad., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). See 
above, p. no. ix. 6, 11 Shushan 161 2, 1613 (Sushan Synd. 
here only). Job ix. 9 marg. Cesil\Ji. M. 3050. g. 2], 1612, 
1616, 1617, &c. [Cecil Synd. 1613). xi. 16 thy raistry Bp. 
[B. M. 3050. g. 2], 1612, 1616, 1617, &c. (i"^!? misery Synd. 
1613). Psalm xxiv. 8 Who is this king 1612, 1613, 1617 
(Who is the king Bp. Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, 
1 616, so 1630 even in ver. 10). xxxiii. 7 gathereth Bp. 
161 2, 1 613, &c. (gathered Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 
only). XXXV. 27 yea let them say Bp. -lQiiz, 1613, &c. (yet 
let them say Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), xliv. 23 
Lord 1612, 1616 — 1744, Oxf. 1835, Camb. 1858, Amer. 
1867 (O Lord Synd. 1613, 1762, 1769, even D'Oyly and 
Mant 1817, Bagster 1846). See above, p. 147 note i. ha. 
6 gather [B. M. 3050. g. 3], 1612, 1613, &c. (gathered 
Synd.). Ixxiv. 23 rise up 1612, 1616, &c. (arise up Synd., 
with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, 1613, 1617). Ixxx. 9 preparedst 
1612, 1613, &c. (preparest Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), 
civ. 4 his angels Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (the angels Synd., 
with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). Prov. viii. 27 marg. a circle 
i6i2, 1616, &c. {circle Syttd. 1613). xxiii. 31 upon the 
wine Bp. [B. M. 3050. g. 3], 1612, 1613, &c. (among the 
wine Synd.). Eccles. i. 17 spirit 1612, 1613, 1616, &c. 

the Authorized Bible, both bearing the date 0/1611. 211 

(the spirit Synd. 1617, here only), xii. i thy Creator 1612, 
1613, &c. (the Creator Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). 
Isaiah i. 9 Gomorrah 161 3, 161 6, 1617 (Gomorah Synd., 
with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only, not in ver. 10: 1612 in both), ix. 
18 smoke 1612, 1616, 161 7 (the smoke 5vw</., with B. M. 1276. 
1. 4 only, 1613). X. I'^i as if it were 1612, 1613,1616, 1617 {as 
it were Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only), ver. 19 ''with few 

1612, 1616, 1617 l^with write Synd., with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 
only, 1613). xiii. i Amoz 1612, 1629 C, 1630 (Amos Synd. 

1613, 1616, 1617, 1629 L.). xix. 5 the river 1612, 1616, 
1629 C. & L., 1630 (the rivers BJ>. Synd., with B. M. 1276. 
1. 4 only, 1613, 1617). xxiii. 12 have no rest Bp. 1612, 
1613, 1616, 1617 (take no rest Synd., with B. M. 1276. 
1. 4 only), ver. 13 founded 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (found 
Synd. with B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). Ivii. 10 wearied [B. M. 
3050. g. 3], 1612, 1616, 16x7, 1629 C. & L. (weary Bp. 
Synd. 1613). lix. 14 afar off [B. M. 3050. g. 3], 1612, 1613, 
1616, 1617 (far o{{ Bp. Synd.). Ix. 4 from far Bp. [B. M. 
3050. g. 3], 1612 (from afar Sy7td. 1613). Cf. ver. 9. Ixi. 
10 and as a bride Bp. 1612, 1616, 1617, 1629 C. & L. (as a 
bride Synd. 1613). Ixv. 2 my hands Oxf. 1612, 1613, 1616 
(mine hands Synd 1617). See Jer. xxv. 15. Jerem. v. 15 
upon you Bp. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (upon thee Sy7id.). 
xii. 7 hand 1612, 1613, 1616 (hands Sytid. 1617). xxv. 15, 
my hand Bp. Oxf. 1612, 1616, 1617, 1629, &c. (mine hand 
Synd. 1613). See above, p. 108 and Isai. Ixv. 2 ; Ezek. 
vi. 14. xxvi. 20 Kiriath- 1612, 1613, 1616 (Kiriah- Synd. 
1617). xl. 12 of all places Bp. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 
(of the places Synd.). xlviii. 34 Elealeh 1612, 1613, 
1616, i6r7 (Elealeth Synd., ^ith. B. M. 1276. 1. 4 only). 
Ezek. v. 5 This is Jerusalem 1612, 1616, 1617, 1629 
C. & L. (Thus is Jerusalem Synd., with B. M. 305°- g- 
3, 1613). vi. 14 my hand Oxf. 1612, 1616, 1617, 1629, 
&c. (mine hand Bp. Synd., 3050. g. 3 only). See Jer. 

14 — 2 

212 Appendix £.] Variations between the two issues of 

XXV. 15. xvi. 16 And of thy garments 1612, 1616, 1617, 
1629 C. & L. (And thy garments Synd., Of thy garments 
1613). ver. 59 hast despised Bp. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, 
1629 C. & L. (hath despised Synd. 1630). xxvii. 10 thy men 
of war 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (the men of war Synd.). 
xxix. 18, 19 Nebuchadrezzar 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (Ne- 
buchadnezzar Synd.). xxxi. 4 the field Bp. 1612, 1613, 
1616, 1617 (the fields Synd.). xxxv. 10 mine Bp. 1612, 
1613, 1616, 1617 (thine Synd.). xxxvi. 10 the wastes 1612, 
1613, 1616 (the waste Synd. 16 17). xlii. 12 directly Bp. 

1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (directed Synd.). xliv. 29 the 
trespass offering 161 2, 161 3, 161 6, 1617 (their trespass 
offering Synd.). Dan. xi. 6 she shall be given up 1612, 

1613, 1616, 1617 {he. ..Synd.). ver. 10 sons 1612, 1613, 
1616, 1617 (son Synd.). Hosea xiv. 3 Asshur Bp. 1612, 
1613, 1616 (Ashur 'Synd. 1617). Amos vi. 7 that go cap- 
tive Bp. 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (that goeth captive Synd.). 
Obad. ver. 7 thy confederacy Bp. 1612, 1613, 1616 (the 
confederacy ^y/z;/. 1617). Micah i. 5 for the sins 1612, 
1613, 1616, 1617 (the sins Bp. Synd.). Hab. ii. 15 that 
puttest 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (thou puttest Synd.). Zeph. 
i. 7 hath bid 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617 (had bid Synd.). 
Zech. iii. 7 marg-., walks 1612, 1613, 1616 {walk, Synd. 1617). 
X. 3 his goodly 161 2, 161 3, 161 6, 1617 (the goodly Synd>). 

I Esdras i. 23 his Lord 161 2, 1613 (the Lord Synd.). 
ver. 29 king Josias 1612, 1613 (Josias Synd.). 2 Esdr. ii. 
33 at nought 1612, 1616, 1629, 1630 (at naught Syjid. 1613, 
1617). Cf ch. iv. 23. vii. 40 Sennacherib Bp. 1612, 1613, 
1616 (Sannacherib Synd. 1617). xiv. 12 the tenth. Bp. 1612, 
1613, 1616 (a tenth Synd. 1617). Tobit v. 18 marg. Lei 
not 1612, 1613 {Let no, Synd.). Judith xvi. 4 stopped 
1612, 1613, 1616, &c. (stoppeth Synd. 1617). Ecclus. 
xxiii. 19 eyes of men Bp. 1612, 1613 (eyes of man Synd.). 
Baruch vi. 40 Chaldeans 1612, 1616, 1630 (Caldeans 

the Authorized Bible, both bearing the date 0/1611. 213 

1613, 1617, 1629 C). Prayer of Manasses 1. 3 their 
righteous 1612, 1613, 1616, 1629 (the righteous Bf. Synd. 
1617). I Macc. xii. 47 marg., left 1612, 1613 {let, Synd.). 

Matt. xiii. 45 goodly pearls Bp. 1612, 1613, 1616, &c. 
(good pearls ^Sj'^a?. 1617). xviii. 30 wtnt Bp. 1612, 1616, 
16 1 7, &c. (went out Sy7id. 16 13). Cf. ver. 28 (Gk.). xxii. 
24 a man Bp. 1612, 1616, 1629 C. & L. (any man Synd. 
1613, 1617, 1630)'. Mark xv. 46 unto the door Bp. 1612, 
1613, &c. (upon the door Synd.). Luke ii. 24 offer a 
sacrifice 1612, 1613, &c. (offer sacrifice Synd.). x. 36 
among the thieves Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (among thieves 
Synd.). John xiv. 23 a man Bp. 1612, 1616, &c. (any 
man Synd. 1613)'. Acts iv. 27 thy holy child Bp. 1612, 
1613, &c. (the holy child Synd.). vi. 12 came upon Bp. 
i6i2, 1616, &c. (came unto Synd. 1613). Cf. Luke xx. i; 
ch. iv. 1. XV. II the Lord Bp. 1612, 1616, 1629 C. & L. 
(our Lord Synd. 1613, 1617). xvi. 7 suffered them Bp. 

1612, 1613 (suffered him Synd.). ver. 19 drew them into 
Bp. 1612, 1613, &c. (drew them unto Synd.). Rom. xvi. 
Subscription, of the Church Bp. 161 2, 1616, &c. (to the 
Church Synd. 16 13). Eph. vi. 21 ye also may Bp. 1612, 

1613, 1616, 1629 C. & L. (ye may also Synd. 1617, 1630). 
I Thess. Title, Paul the Apostle 1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, 
&c. (the Apostle Paul Synd. here only), ch. i. 9 turned Bp. 

1612, 1613, 1616, 1617, 1630, &c. (returned Syjid. 1629 L.). 
James v. 4 Sabaoth 1612, 1616, 1629 C. (Sabbaoth Sytid. 

1613, 1617, 1630). I Pet. i. 22 your souls Bp. 1612, 1616, 
1629, &c. (your selves Synd. 1613, 1617). 2 Pet. ii. 6 
Gomorrha 1612, r6i6, 1629 L., 1630, 1638 (Gomorrah 
Synd. \(>-Li, 1630; Gomorra 1629 C). 

^ The context must decide which form is preferable, since the practice 
varies in rendering m: e.g. John xv. 13 "a man;" John xvi. 30 "any 

214 Appendix Bi\ Note. 

Note. Between the two copies in the British Museum which 
resemble the Oxford reprint (3050. g. i and 466. i. 6) the only dif- 
ferences in any of the passages , cited in the foregoing lists § I. and § 11. 
occur in Ex. xxi. 26 ; Cant. ii. 7. Of the other issue, B. M. 3050. g. 2 
being regarded as the standard, and 3050. g. 3, 1276. 1. 4, and Synd. 
A. 3. 14 mixed copies, the Syndics' nowhere agrees with 3050. g. 1 
against the other two, but with 3050. g. 3 alone in Ezek. v. 5 ; with 
3050. g. 2 and 1276. 1. 4 against 3050. g. 3 in 15 places; with 3050. g. 
3 and 1276. 1. 4 against 3050. g. i in 5 places; with 1276. 1. 4 alone 
(which is a fine tall volume, once the property of Lea Wilson) in no less 
than 34 places. Not one of the four is ever left without one of the 
other copies to countenance it, except Synd. in 2 Kin. xviii. 37; i Chr. 
iv. 36. Hence it is plain that Synd. A. 3. 14 and B. M. 1276. 1. 4 were 
among the earliest and least revised of the copies printed off. See Sect. 
I. pp. 5—13. 


(See above, p. 14.) 

List of passages in which the readings of the edition of 
the Authorized Bible of 161 1 have been restored in the 
Cambridge Paragraph Bible. The date annexed is that of 
the later edition in which each change is supposed to have 

N.B. Variations relating only to English orthography 
or grammatical inflexions are not often admitted into the 
following list, since they have been sufficiently described in 
Section v. pp. 93 — 105. 


?. 26 

vii. 1 

xix. 11 

XXV. 4 

xxvi. I, 8, 14, 15, 

Reading of 161 1 

marg. t Heb. Lemcch 

+ by sevens 

concerning this thing 


Variation of later 

omitted 1629, transfer- 
red to ver. 25, 1638. 

by tsevens, 1629. 

Sabtecah, 1762, Sabte- 
chah, 1769. 

concerning this thing 
also, 1638'. 

Abidah, 1629^. 

Philistines, 1629 C. 
(1613 bis, 1629 L- 

1 This change, however, might have been acquiesced in: cf. 

2 So all have the word in i Chr. i. 33, and the final Ain is not 
usually represented by A: cf. 2 Sam. v. 14. i Chr. xxiv. 11. See how- 
ever h final in Gen. x.\xv. 27; xxxviii. 2 (but not i Chr. ii. 3); Josh. 
xxi. II. 

2 1 5 Appendix C] Original readings 0/1611 


Reading of 16 11 

xxxi. I 
xxxvi. 14 

which was of cur fa- 
daughter of Zibeon 

xxxvii. 36 

Medanites, 1612 — 1630 

xxxix. I 


xlvi. 12 


xlvii. 6 
xlvii. 18 

any man [better than 

"any man"] 
also had our herds. Cf. 

ver. 22 


vi. 2r 

xxiii. 23 


the Hivites, 1612, 1613, 
1617, 1629 L., 1769^ 

xxix. 26 

consecrations (as ver. 
34; Lev. viii. 28, 31), 



V. 10 

had sinned 

vii. 23 & xiv. 54.^ 


xi. 3 

cheweth cud 

xi. 10 

nor scales (as ver. 12) 

Variation of later 

which was our fathers, 

the daughter of Zibeon, 

Midianites, 1616, 1629 

C. Cf. ch. XXV. 2. 
hands, 1629 C. and L., 

1630, 1637. 
Zarah, 1769 (Serah, 

any men, 1762: any 

men, 1769. 
also hath our herds, 1629 

C. (had also. ..1630). 

Zithri, 17693. 

and the Hivites, 1616, 

1629 C. — 1762 [and, 

1638 — 1762). 
consecration, 1762 (as 

vers. 22, 27, 31 ; Lev. 

viii. 33). 

hath sinned, 1762. Cf. 

ver. 6. 
manner of, 1762 (as ch. 

vii. 26, 27, &c.). 
cheweth the cud, 1629 

(as vers. 4 — 6). 
and scales, 1 769. 

^ Cf. Lev. xxii. 10. Deut. xxiii. 25. i Cor. x. 29. This double 
possessive is sometimes retained even in modern Bibles: e.g. 2 Kin. 
xxii. 12. i Chr. ii. 13; xxxiv. 20. Matt. xxvi. 51 (not so Mark xiv. 
47; Luke xxii. 50). Luke xv. 17. See above, p. no. 

^ Yet so even 1611 in ch. xxxviii. 30 on account of the Hebrew 

* Corrected in the Scotch and American (1867) Bibles only. 

^ The re-correction of 1769 is followed by D'Oyly and Mant 1817, 
Oxford 8vo. 1835, Bagster 1846, Oxford 4to. 1857, London 8vo. 1859, 
American 1867, but not by our standard (Cambr. 8vo. 1858) and some 
modern Bibles. 

' See above, p. no. 

restored, later correctiotis bein^ withdrawn. 



Reading of 16 


Variation of later 

xii. 6 marg. 

son of his year 

a son of his year, i62g. 
Cf. Gen. xvii. 12. 

xiii. 39 

hath a plague 

have a plague, 1769. 
Cf. ver. 38. 

XV. 33 

which is unclean 

that is unclean, 1769. 

xxii. 10 

a sojourner of 


a sojourner of the priest, 



XXV. 5 

it own accord 

Its own accord, 1744^ 

XXV. 23 

were strangers, 


are strangers, 1616, 1629 


C. and L., 1630. 


iii. 13 

they shall be 

shall they be, 1 769. 

iii- 35 


northward, 1629. Cf. 
vers. 23, 29, 38. 

V. 19, 20 

hath lien' (lain, i 


have lien, 1629 L. (lain. 

1613 — 1762 

1769}- ^ , . 

ix. ]8 

in the tents 

in their tents, 1709 (as in 
vers. 17, 2c, 22). 

XX. 5 

or vines 

or of vines, 1769. 

xxiv. 6 

the river side, 


the rivers (river's, 1762) 


side, 1616, 1629 C. 
and L., 1630. 

xxiv. 20 marg. 

II The first of the nations 

II Or, the first of the na- 

tions, 1744. 

XXX. 8 


disallowed, 1769. 

xxxvi. 3 

whereinto. Cf. cl 

1. xiv. 

whereunto, 1629. 


xxii. 9 marg. 

the seed 

thy seed, 1629. 

xxiii. 25 

the standing corn 

of thy 

the standing corn of thy 



neighbour, 1769^. 

xxiv. 15 marg. 

he lifteth 

lifteth, 1638. 

xxvii. 12 


Gerizim, 1769. Cf. ch. 
xi. 29. 

xxviii. 29 

noon days 

noon-day, 1762. 

^ See note i p. 216. 

^ See above, p. 1 10 note 2. 

Mr Aldis Wright finds "its" in Bibles of 
about 1681, but' only to be dropped again. In Ben Jonson's Silent 
Woman, acted in 1609, the expression "it knighthood" several times 
occurs as an affected archaism, as though it had already grown obsolete 
in common speech. 

^ On this participial form see above, p. 103. 

■> See Appendix B, p. 207, note on Ex. xix. 4. 

2i8 Appendix C] Original readings of idri 


Reading of 1611 

Variation of later 

iii. II 

even the Lord, 1612 — 

of the Lord, 1,629 (LXX., 



A- I, 3 

Adoni-zedek (-ck, 1629 
L., ver. i) 

Adoni-zedec, 1769. 

xi. 2 & xii. 3 


Chinneroth, 1769. Cf. 
ch. xiii. 27 (Appendix 
A, p. 151); xix. 35. 

xii. i 

river of Arnon [of, 

river Arnon, 1638. 

xiii. i8 

Tahazah. Cf. ch. xxi. 

Jahaza, 1629 C. and L., 



xiii. 23 

villages, 161 2, 1613, 

the villages, 1617, 1629 

1616, 1629 L., 1630 

c. ; 

xix. -1. 

or Sheba, 1612, 1613. 

and Sheba, 1616 — 1762, 

Cf. Gen. xxvi. 33 

Sheba, 1769I. 

xix. 19 


Haphraim, 1769. 


Shion, 1612,1613,1616, 
1629 C. and L., 1630 

Shihon, 161 7, 1638., 

xix. 42 


Ajalon, t629C. (notL.). 
See p. 158 note 1. 

xxi. 1 1 fejtr/ & 

Arbah, 161 2 — 1630 

Arba, 1638. 


(text). Cf. Gen. xxxv. 


iii. 15 marg. 

Jemini. Cf. i Sam. ix. i 

Gemini, 1762^. 

vi. 1 5 & ix. 9 

II II Or, 1612-1630 

+ tHeb. (1629 C, ch. 
vi. 15), 1638. 

xix. 29 


coast, 1 769, Bagster 1846: 
not Oxf. 1857, Lond. 
1859, American 1867. 

1 Samuel 

ii. 20 marg. 

he as^ed 

slie asked, 1638. 

iv. 7 ?«or^. 

or the third, 1612, 1613, 

or the third, 16 16, 1629 

1617, 1629 C, 1638, 

L., 1630: or, the third. 


1744, 1762, modems. 

xvii. 20 inarg. 

battle ray 

battle array, 1744. 

1 Modern Bibles are divided between the tvfo wrong renderings of 
1616, 1769. The American alone follows 161 1. 

'^ This gross error is corrected in Bagster 1846, Camb. 1858, 
Speaker's Commentary 1872. 

' So Oxf. 1835, Bagster 1846, Speaker's Commentary 1872. 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. 


1 Samuel 

Reading of i6n 

Variation of later 

xviii. I 

vi'hen he made 

when he had made, 

XX. 5 

in the fields 

in the field, 1638. 

xxxi. 2 

Malchishua. Cf. i Chr. 

Melchishua, 1769. Cf. 

viii. 33; ix. 39; J., -i 

ch. xiv. 49. 

2 Samuel 

ii. 9 

he made him 

made him, 1762. 

iv. 4 

feet, andvios 

feet. He was, 1763. 

V. 14 


Shammuah, 1638. 

vii. 7 marg. 

II In the I Chr. xvii. 6, 

II I Chr. xvii. 6, any of the 

any of the jtidges 

judges, 1638. 

xvi. 8 

to thy mischief^ 

in thy mischief, 1629. 

xxi. 21 


Shimeah, 1769. 

xxiii. 20 marg. 

lion. Cf. marg. of Isai. 
xxix. I ; Ezek. xliii. 

lions, 1638. 

xxiii. 37 


Nahari, 1769. 

1 Kings 

iii. 4 

offer up on, 1613, 1617 

offeron, i6i2:offerupon, 
1616, 1629 C. and 
L., &c. 

iii. 12 

thy word (LXX.) 

thy words (Vulg.), 1629 

his sons came^, 1616, 

xiii. II 

his son came 

1617, &c. 

XV. s 

Urijah (as 1638, &c. 

Uriah, 1629 C. (not L.), 

Neh. iii. 4) 

as 1611 in Ezra viii. 
3j ; Neh. iii. 4. 

XV. 27 


belonged, 1762. 

^ See p. 215 note 2, Gen, xxv. 4. Ain is not represented in ver. 15 
his, 16 bis. 

2 Vulg. has fremunt te mala tua. The Translators give what they 
hold to be the general sense in the text, reserving a more literal render- 
ing for the margin. 

3 The reading of the Kei-i and of i Chr. xx. 7. The correction of 
1769 will not .<:uit the form in the Chetiv and the Vatican Septuagint 
(Ceyaeei). Yet " Shimeah" is correct in ch. xiii. 3. 

^ A very needless change, though upheld by LXX. and Vulg. Cf. 
Cardwell, Oxford Bibles, p. 16. In 1762, &c. we find the marginal 
note t Heb. son. 


Appendix C] Original readings of \6\\ 

1 "^i^ 

Keading of 1611 

Variation of later 

1 Kings 



xvi. 19 

to make Israel sin 

to make Israel to sin, 

xviii. 28 

cried loud, 16 12, 161 3, 

cried aloud, i6r6, 1629 

1617, 1630 

C. and L. 

xxii. -L 

on the third year 

in the third year, 1629 

+ Heb. u, chamber in. 

xxii. 25 

marg. & 

t Heb. chamber in 

2 Chr. 

xviii. 24 



2 Kings 

iv. 35 

neesed. Cf. Jobxli. 18 

sneezed, 1762. 

viii. 19 

to give to him 

to give him, 1629 C. 

xii. 18 

had dedicate 

had dedicated, 1762. Cf. 
App. A, p. 153. 

xix. 2 

Esai, 1612, 1613, 1617 

Isaiah (transferring to 

(Esay, 1616, 1629 L., 

ver. 2 the marginal 


note of 1611 on ver, 
6), 1629 C. 

XX. 17 

unto Babylon 

into Babylon, 1629 C. 

xxiii. 36 

twenty and five yearold. 

tvifenty and five years old. 

Cf. I Esdr. i. 39 

1629 C. See above, 
p. III. 

1 Chronicles 

i- 25 


Reu, 1638. Cf. Gen. xi. 
18, 19I. 

i. 38 

Ezer. Cf. ver. 42. Gen. 

Ezar, 1629 C. and L, 

xxxvi. 21, 27 

(not 1630). 

ii. 47 


Gesham, 1769. 

ii. 49 

Achsah. Cf. Josh, xv, 
17; Judg. i. 13 

Achsa, 1638. 

iii. 19 

and the son of Zerub- 

and the sons of Zerab- 


babel, 1629 C. and 
L., 1630. 

iii. 23 marg. 

Hiskijah. Cf. Appen- 

Hizkijahu, 1629 — 1744, 

dix B, p. 209. 

Hiskijahu, 1762, &c. 

V. II 

Salchah. Cf. Deut. iii. 10 

Salcah, 1629. 

1 Ain final is usually mute (see p. 215 note 2), but in the middle of 
a word the practice is less fixed. 

^ In ver. 21 the first "sons'' is also singular in Hebrew, so that 
161 1 is inconsistent in the matter. Cf. ch. vii. 35. 

restored, later corredmis being 

withdrawn. 221 

1 Cliromcles 

Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

V. IS 

of t valiant men 

tof valiant men, 1629^ 

vii. 1 


Shimrom, 1629 C. and 
L., 1630 (not 1638 — 
1762), 1769. 

vii. 5 

men of might 

valiant men of might, 
1638. Cf. ver. 2. 

vii. 1 9 


Shemidah, 1762. 

vii. 27 

Jehoshua^. Cf. Num. 
xiii. 16 

Jehoshuah, 1630, 1762. 

vii- 35 

And llie son. Cf. ch. iii. 

And the sons, 1 744. 

xii. 5 


Eluzai, 1629 C. 

t (II 1762) -f Heb. shook, 

xiii. 9 

li II Or, shook 

1762, &c. 

xiii. I [ marg. 

II Hebr. (That is, 1629) 

II That is. The breach, 



xviii. 3 marg. & 

Badadezer in 

Hadadezer, 1769. 

ver. 16 marg. 

A himelech in . . . Saraia 

A himelech ... Seraiah, 


1744. But cf. App. 
A, p. 160. 

xxiii. 20 

Jfichah. Cf. ch. xxiv. 
^4. 25 

Micah, 1629. 

xxiv. II 

Jeshua. Cf. Ezraii. 36 

Jeshuah, 1629 C. and L. 
(not 1630). 

xxvi. 20, 26 & 

dedicate things 

dedicated things, 1762. 

xxviii.i2. 2Chr. 

Compare App. A, 

xxiv. 7 & xxxi. 

p. 153 and note 2. 

12. Ezek. xliv. 

xxix. 6 

rulers over the lying's 

rulers of the king's work, 



xxix. 1 7 7«a?-^. 

+ Heb. fotmd. Cf. 
Judg. XX. 48 

II Ox, found, 1638. 

2 Chronicles 

ix. II marg. 

stairs {slaires) 

(states, 1629 C, stayes, 
1638), stays, ITU— 

1 Corrected only in Bagster 1846 of the moderns. 

'■' See note i p. 219. 

" This mere typographical error, whose adoption may have been 
helped by "stayes" ver. 18, remains in D'Oyly and Mant 1817, 
Bagster 1846, and some modern Bibles, but is corrected in Oxford 
1835 Cambridge 1858, American 1867, Speaker's Commentary 1872. 

222 Appendix C] Original readings of \(i\^ 

2 Chronicles 

Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

xvi. 6 

was a building. See 
above, p. 108. 

was building, 1769. 

XX. 36 

Ezion-geber (sic legen- 

Ezion-gaber, 1638 (in 

duai). Cf. I Kin. xxii. 

pausd). Cf. Num. 


xxxiii. 35, 36 ; Deut. 
ii. 8. 
fiirze-hush, I'jSi: furze 

XXV. 18 inarg. 

fumhish (fur, 16 12, 

16 1 3, 1630, 1744) 

bush, 1769. 

xxvi. 18 

pertainetli, 1612, 1O13, 

appirtainetk, 1616, 1629 

1617, 1630 

C. and L. 

xxix. 23 

and laid 

and they laid, 1629. 

xxxii. 6 marg. 

he spake 

spaie, 1638. 

xxxiii. 19 

all his sin 

all his sins, 1762. 

xxxiv. 10 

mend. Cf. ch. xxiv. 12 

amend, 1769. 

XXXV. 10 

Carchemish. Cf. Isai. 
X. g ; Jer. xlvi. s. 

Charchemish, 1762. 


ii. 1 


Mizpar, 1744. 

iii. 1 marg. 

Matt. i. 12 and Luke 

Called Zorobabel, Matt. 

iii. 27, called Zoro- 

i. 12; Luke iii. 27, 



iv. 10 

Asnappar, 1612, 1613, 

Asnapper, 1617, 1629 

1616, 1629 C. — 1744 

L., 1630, 1762, 1769, 

iv. 24 

house of the God whicli 

house of God which, 
1616, &C.1 

vii. 18 

the silver and gold 

. the silver and the gold, 
Ahava, the river of, 1 762 . 

viii. ■21 

the river Ahava (Heb. 

not as ver. 31) 


vii. 30 

Geba (Gaba, Ezra ii. 26) 

Gaba, 1638 (inpatisd). 

vii. J 9 

Pochereth (, 1629 L.) 

Pochereth of Zebaim, 


1629-C. Cf. Ezraii. 

^ This seems to be an attempt on the part of the Translators (after- 
wards given over, as in ch. vii. 18) to represent, whensoever it might 
be possible, the status emphaticus of the Chaldee. 

^ The passage is too obscure to be worth altering. The Vulgate 
has_;f/« Phochercth, qrn erat ortus ex Sabaimfilio Avion. 

restored, later corrections hein^ withdrawn. 



Reading of 1611 

Variation of later 



iii. 8 marg. 


a leviathan 1659 (Field), 
1674, 1677, 1679, 
1701 — 6g. 

\. 10 

craddled (cradled, 161 3) 

cnrdled, 1762. 

xviii. 9 

grinne, i6i'2 — 1630 : 

gin, 1762. See Ps. cxl. 

grin, 1629 C. 

5, and above, p. 100. 

XX. 25 


glittering, 1762. Cf. 
Deut. xxxii. 41. 

xxviii. 17 marg. 


vessels, 1744. 

xxviii. 37 marg. 

did number 

number, 1638. 

xxix. 17 marg. 

I cast 

cast, 1638. 

XXX. 5 


fleeing, 1629 (LXX.). 

XXX. 6 


cliffs, 1762. 

xli. 6 

the companions' 

thy companions, 1769. 

xli. 30 marg. 

of the potsherd 

of potsherd, 1762. 


ii. 4 

the Lord, 1612 — 1630, 

the Lord, 1629 C— 

1762, 1769 


xxiv. 3 

and who shall stand 

or who shall stand, 1 769. 

xlv. II 

thy Lord. Cf. Isai. 

thy lord, Camb. 8vo. 

It. 22 

1858 (our standard) 
only. See above, p. 38. 

Ixxxi. II marg. 


imaginations, i'/62. 

cvii. 19 

he saveth 

and he suveth, 1762. So 

cxiii. 9 

to be a joyful 

and to be a joyful, 1 629. 

cxv. 3 

whatsoever he pleased 

whatsoever he hath 
pleased, 1769. 

cxix. 42 OTflr^. 


rep-oacheth, 1638. 

cxxxii. 12 

also shall sit [Cf. Heb.] 

shall also sit, 1762. 

^ In 2 Chr. XX. 16 "cliffe" of 1611 represents another Hebrew 
■word. " Clift " in Ex. xxxiii. 22 ; Isai. Ivii. 5 is left unaltered in 1762 
and the moderns, the general sense, though not the Hebrew words, being 
the same as here. 

2 That is, the partners in the fishery (Luke v. 7, 10). Blayney's 
variation hardly looks accidental, and lingers in many later Bibles, e.g. 
Ostervald 1808, Oxford 8vo. 1813, D'Oyly and Mant 1817, even in 
Bagster 1846. 

^ The present text is Adonai, but Jehovah is read in at least 85 
Hebrew manuscripts and five early editions, so that the Translators (who 
seldom err in this matter) probably intended to use capitals. Since 
Oxf. 8vo. 1835, as also by Bp Turton's direction (Sect. I., above, p. 36), 
the capitals have been again withdrawn, but not in Bagster 1 846. 

2 24 Appendix C] Original readings of idw 


Reading of 1611 

Variation of later 

cxl. 5 & cxli. 9 

cxli. 9 

cxliii. 9 marg. 

cxlviii. 8 


XXV. 24 


viii. 8 marg. 

vm. 17 


viii. 4 marg. 


vi. 8 
viii. 6 

X. 26 

xiv. 9 text 

xiv. 17 marg. 
xviii. 7 marg. 

xix. 14 marg. 
xxii. 1 7 .marg. 

grinnes (grins, 1613 
semel, 1638, &c. to). 
Seejobxviii.p, p. 223 
from the snare 
/( id me, 1613 — 1744 

vapour {so American, 

a corner. Cf. ch. xxi. 9 

casting of 

further. Cf. ch. xii. 12 

stir up, or (, 161 2) why 

I said 

For so much (Forso- 

much, 1629) 
rock, Oreb. Cf. Judg. 

vii. 25 

f chief ones 

t Heb. leaders, or great 

polished. &c. {polished, 

&.C. 1612, i6i6, 1629 

L., 1630) 
V. 18. shall surely, 

gins, 1762. 

from the snares, 1769. 
hide me, i6r2, 1630, 

1762, 1769 
vapours, 1769. 

the comer, 1769. 

casting off'-, 1629 C, 
1638 (not 1744), 1762, 

farther, 1762. 

stir up, or, why, 1 744. 

said I, 1629. 
Forasmuch, 1762. 

rock of Oreb, 1629 C. 

and L. (not 1630), 

t II chief ones. 
+ Heb. leaders. II Or, 

great goals, 1629. 
homewards, 1762. 
polished. 1613, 1629 C, 

1638, 1744; but ^0- 

lished: 1762, &c. 
perversejiess, 1762. 
shall surely, &c. ver. 18, 


■^ Nee est dimissio in bello. Field. The sense given by 1629 C. and 
the moderns may be as good as that of 161 1, but is not identical with it. 
For "off" see 161 1 in Gen. xxxviii. 14; Ex. iii. 5. 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. 



Reading of 1611 

Variation of later 

xxvni. II marg. 
li. 16 

Ixiii. 19 marg. 


xvi. 2 
xxxiv. II & 

xlvi. 26 
xxxiv. 16 

xxxvu. 9 

xl. I 

xliv. 38 marg. 

lii. I 


and have covered 

1 1 Heb. 

nor daughters 

whom ye had set 

your + selves 

The word which 

or from them {men 

1 61 6) 
one and twenty year, 

1612 — 1638. See 

above, p. 11 1 


vii. II text 

II theirs (|| their multi- 

tude, 1611)^ 


II Or, their tiimtdtiimis 

persons. Heb. tu- 


X. 5 

utter court 

xi. »4 

in vision 

xiii. Q marg. 


xvm. I 

And the word 

xxiii. 23 

all the Assyrians 

xxvii. 16 marg. 

II II Or, chrysoprase 

(Chrysophrase 1616). 

Cf. ch. xxvui. 13 

XXX. 17 


lips, 1638. 

and I have covered, 

t (II 1744). II Or, 1638, 

or daughters, 1769. 
afterward, 1769. 

whom he had set, 1629 

C, 1638, moderns. 
+ yourselves, 1762. 
The word that, 1762. 
or them, 1762. 

one and twenty years, 
1630, 1744. 

their || multitude 

II theirs. 
II Or, tumult. II Or, their 

tumultuous persons, 

outer court, 1762^. Cf. 

1 Mace. xiv. 41. 
in a vision, 1769. 
council, 1762. 
The word, 1638. 
and {and, 1638) all the 

Assyrians, 1616 (not 

1617), 1629. 
tll(t 1744) +Heb. ^,^0/- 

soprase, 1638, 1744. 

Pi-beseth, 1762. 

1 The error of 161 1, &c., which misplaces the reference mark in he 
text (as it so often does), led to the hopeless confusion of 1629 and the 
moderns. Our Translators merely wish to give, as an alternative ren- 
dering for " theirs," Tremellius' ex Thrasombiistpsorum. 

2 In 14 other places in Ezekiel " utter" is left unchanged. 


2 26 Appendix C. ] Original readings of 16 ii 


Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

xxxi. 14 

II their trees 

their trees ||, 1629-'. 

xxxvi. 3 marg: 

come up on 

come upon, 1612, 1616 
(not 1613, 1617), 1629. 

xliii. 27 

eight day. See above, 

eighth day, 1629 C, 

p. Ill 


xlvii. 3 

t the waters 

the fwaters, 1629. 

xlviii. 28 

II II Or, Meribah 

tt Heb. Meribah, 1638. 


ii. 27 


astrologers, 1638. 

iii. ig 

to be heat. See above, 
p. 112 

to be heated, 1762. 

V, 31 

two year. See above, 

two years, 161 2 (not 

p. HI 

1613, 1616, 1617), 
1629 L., 1630 (not 
1629 C, 1638), 1744. 

xi. 38 marg. 

or, as for the Almighty 

+ Heb. as for the Al- 

(or, as for the Al- 

mighty, 1638, 1762, 

mighty, 1629 C, 

mod. Cf. Appendix 


A, p. 172. 


xiii. 3 

a whirlwind 

the whirlwind, 1638. 


i. I 

two year. See above. 

two years, 161 6, 1630 

p, in 

(not 1612, 1613, 1617, 
&c., 1629 C. and L., 
1638), 1744. 

ii. 'i 

Kerioth. Cf.Jer. xlviii. 

Kirioth, 1629 C. and 


L., 1630. Kerioh, 


i. 4 

t was like 

wast like, Bagster 1846, 
Camb. 8vo. 1 858, Ame- 
rican 1867. 

1 The correctors of 1629 failed to perceive that the margin (following 
Tremellius, conquiescant in se ipsis altitudine sttd) translates by "upon 
themselves" the word rendered "their trees" by the Bishops' and 
Authorized versions. 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. 227 


Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

iii. 16 

flieth. Cf. Hab. i. 8 

fleeth, 1762. 


iv. 3 

which vifere l^ere, 1629) 

which are upon, 1762. 


i. 14 marg. 


II II Or, 1629. 

ii. % 

and will 'curse 

and I will curse, 1616 
(not 1617), 1629. 

1 Esdras 

i. 9 


Jeconias, 1629. 

1. 28, 32, 47, 57 

Jeremie. Cf. 2 Esdr. 

Jeremy, 1762 (1612, 

&ii. I 

ii. 18 ; Ecclus. xlix. 

1613, 1616, 1629, &c. 

6; 2 Mace. ii. 1, 5, 


7 ; Matt. ii. 17 

i- 39 

twenty year old. See 

twenty years old, 1612 

above, p. iii 

(not 1613, &c.), 1629, 
1630. Cf. 2 Kin. 
XKiii. 36. 

i- 55 

brake down. ..set fire 

and break down, 1769... 
and set fire, 1762. 

iii. II 

strongest, 1612 — 1630, 

the strongest, 1629 — 



iv. 31 

He sticks. See above, 

He sticketh, 1769. Cf. 

p. 140 note 2 

Ecclus. xliv. 12. 

iv. 29 OTa;-^. 


TAemasiis, 1769^. 

V. 14 

Adonican (Aldus) ,1612, 

Adonicam, Bf., 1613 — ■ 


1744 : -kam, 1762, 
1769, moderns. Cf. 
ch. viii. 39. 

V. 39 OTar^. 


Agaba, 1629. Cf Neh. 
vii. 48. 

V- 34 

Sabie {2a(3ii LXX.) 

Saby, 1629; Sabi, 1744. 


Sidon. Cf. 2 Esdr. i. 
11; I Mace. v. 15 

Zidon, 1769. 

' Most moderns here, with our standard (see above, p. 38), omit 
"the." Ostervald (1808) reads it consistently in vers. 11, 12. 

^ Blayney in the very same note corrects the false reference to Jo- 
sephus of i6ri — 1762 from cap. 4. to cap. 3. 


228 Appendix C^^ Original readings of xdii 

1 Esdras 

Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

V. 69 

Asbazareth (1630) 

Azbazareth, 1629. 

vii. 6 

and other that were 

and others that were, 
1762 1. 

viii. 2 

Memeroth (Aldus) 

Meremoth, 1762. 

viii. 39 

Adonicam (Aldus here) ' 

Adonican, 161 2: Adoni- 
kam, 1762. 

viii. 75 marg. 

+ t Greek 

ttdlll 1638) Or, 1629. 

viii. 96 wa^y. 

and of all Israel 

andall IsraeP, 1629. 

ix. 19 ;«ar^. 

Maas- . . . Jarib . . . Geda- 

1629 prefixes "Or," to 



ix. 48 

Sabateus, 1612, 1613, 

Sabatteas, 1629 — 1762: 

1630 (SajSraios, Vat. 

Sabateas, 1 769 (Sa- 

MS. [ Vercellone'], Sa- 

(iaTTalas, Aldus). 

/SttT-aios, Rom. edit.) 

2 Esdras 

i. 40 

Zacharie. . . Malachie 

Zachary Malachy, 

1762 (1616, &c. par- 

ii. 18 

I will send...Jeremie 

will I send, 1629. ..Je- 
remy, 1744. 

iii. 17 

Sina. Cf. Acts vii. 30, 

Sinai, 1762. Cf. ch. 


xiv. 4; Gal. iv. 24, 25. 

iii- 35 

hath so kept 

have so kept, 1769. 

vii. 68 

the ten thousand part 

the ten thousandth part. 



xiii. 12 

saw I, 1612 — 1630, 

I saw, 1629 — 1762, Os- 

1769, D'Oyly and 

tervald 1808, Cnmb. 

Manti8i7, Oxf. 1835 

4to. 1863. See above, 
p. 38. 

xiv. 43 

and held 

and I held, 1629. 

xiv. 47 


fountain, 1629, Vulg., 
Bishops', Junius. 

XV. 22 

upon earth. Cf. ver. 29 

upon the earth, 1629. 

XV. 53 

alway. Cf. ch. xvi. 20 

(alwaies, 1629), always, 

xvi. 26 

shall ripe. See above, 
p. 112 

shall ripen, 1638. 

xvi. 30 

or, when as 

or as when, 1638. 

1 See above, p. 87 and note. 

^ The correction of 1629 represents cl omnem Israel [iravra top 
'I(r/)ai)X) of the Vulgate and (virtually) of Junius. Our Translators 
seem to have read somewhere Kai Travros tov 'l<rpari\, but Aldus, with 
the Vatican and Alexandrian MSS., has no Kai. 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. 



Reading of i6ti 

Variation of later 




I start (aj'aTTT^STjtras) 

1 started, 1762. 

iii. 17 

belongeth {im^aXKei) 

belonged, 1629. 

iv. 10 

alms doth deliver... 

alms do deliver, 1629 


...suffer, Camb. 410. 
1863, after Bp Turton 
(see above, p. 36)^- 

vli. I 

after that they had 

after they had, 1629. 

vii. 3 

Nephthali. Cf. ch. i. 

Nephthalim, 1638 (not 

I, -J, &c. 

.1744), 1762, &c. 


ii. 4, passim 

Olofernes. See Ap- 

■Holofernes, 163S, Vulg. ; 

pendix B, p. 205 

Holophernes, Junius, 
A great number, 1 769.. 

ii. 20 

A great multitude 

"■ 3 

Canaan. Cf. Appen- 
dix A (p. 179) 1629, 
in vers. 9, 10, 16 

Chanaan, 1638. 

vii. 3 

Esdraelon, Bishops', 


Aldus ifiri), LXX. 

Aid. {/iic), LXX. 

(Fritzsche), Vulg. 

(Rom., &c.). 

viii. 6 

the eves of the sabbath 

the eves of the sabbaths, 

XV. 5 


Chobai, 1638. Cf. ver. 



unperfect, Bishops'. 
See above, p. 112 

imperfect, 1762. 

V. 16 marg. 


improperly, 1744. 

vii. 25 marg. 

stream {aTroppoLa) 

dream, Oxf. 1835, Camb. 
1863, not D'Oyly and 
Mant 18 [7. 

X. 10 

travails. Cf. ch. vi. 14 

travels, 1612 (not 1613), 
1629 (not 1630), 1638, 
&c. See above, p. 97. 

1 Yet "alms" is left as a singular noun in ver. 11; ch. xii. 9;Ecclu5. 
xvii. 22 ; Acts iii. 3, as in Shakespeare and the purest later writers. 

= Both the Aldine and Roman editions of the Septuagint, which our 
Translators much used (see above, pp. 47, 48) have the same variation 
in vers. 4, 5. 

230 Appendix Cr^ Original readings of t()\i 


Reading of i6n 

Variation of later 

xii. I 

uncorruptible, Bishops' 

incorruptible, 1762. Cf. 
ch. xviii. 4 marg. 

XV. 13 

brickie. Seep.i4onote 2 
sometimes {irort) 

brittle, 1762. 

xvi. 18 

sometime, 1629. See 

Col. i. 21 (below. 

p. 236 note). 

xviii. 9 

alike {o/wlas) 

like, 1629 (not 1630, 
1744). 1638, 1762. &C. 

xviii. 18 

here, another 

here, and another, 1638. 


vi. 15 


invaluable, 1762. 

vii. 24 

have care 

have a care, 1629. 

xi. 25 

no remembrance 

no more remembrance, 

xvii. 1-3, 


Afterwards, 1629. 

xvii. 24 

those that fail {ixXei- 

those that failed, 1629. 

xix. 8 

to friend, 1612 — 1630, 

to a friend, 1629, 1638, 

1744, D'Oyly and 

1762, &c., Ostervald 

Mant 1817, Camb. 

1808, Oxf. 1835. 


xxiii. 13 

untemperate (unho- 
nest. Bishops') 

intemperate, 1744. 

XXV. .22 

impudencie (impu- 
dency, 1638) 

impudence, 1762. 

xxvi. 13 

will fat. Seeabove,p.ii 2 

will fatten, 1762. 

xxvi. 15,25 &xxxii. 


shamefaced, 1744. 

10 & xli. 16, 24 

xxvii. 12 

undiscreet. Bishops' 

indiscreet, 1744. 

XXX. 15 

state of body (eue|ia) 

estate of body, 1629. 

xxxii. I 

(of the feast) 

(of a feast), 1629 (not 
1630), 1638. 

xli. 16 

shamefastness. See ch. 

shamefacedness, i744. 

xxvi. 15 

Cf. I Tim. ii. 9. 

xlii. 24 

unperfect (unperfit, 


imperfect, 1744. 

xliii. 5 marg. 

stayeth, 1769^. 

xliv. 12 

stands fast 

standeth fast, 1769. 

^ Blayney wishes to render the Complutensian reading Kariwavire, 
which the margin represents, in the same tense as KaTiairevjcp is 
translated in the text, without perceiving that the marginal sense 
refers to Josh. x. 13. 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. 



xlv. 8 marg. 

xlvii. 33 
xlviii. 8 

xlix. 6 marg. & 
Baruch vi. Tiite, 


iii. 23 
vi.g, 21 


ver. 17 

Hist, of 

ver. 22 

Bel & Dragon 

33—35. 37. 39 

1 Mace. 

iii. 16, 24 & vii. 

39 & ix. 50 
V. 25 

V. 26 
ix- 37 

Reading of 161 1 


Nabat, LXX., Bishops' 

Jeremie. See i Esdr. 
i. 28 

loves. ..comes 

burnt offering 

in Hebrevif 
I am straited 


Bethoron {BaiOapHv) 

in peaceable manner. 

Cf. ver. 48 
in Alema (et in, Vulg.) 


Variation of later 

Heb. 1769, Oxf. 1835, 
ly and Mant 1817. 

Nebat, 1629, 1630. 

anointedst, 1762. Cf. 
vers. 7, 9, and ver. 8 

Jeremy, 1744 (1629, se- 

Meran'^, 163.8 (not 1744), 

loveth... Cometh, 1769. 

burnt offerings^, 1629. 

in the Hebrew, 1638. 
I am straitened (strait- 
ned, 1744), 1762. 

Habbacuc, 1629 (A/t- 
fiaKov^ij LXX.). 

Bethhoron, r769 
(Beth-h., 1762 bis). 

in a peaceable manner, 

and Alema, 1029 (not 
1630), 1638. 

Chanaan, :638. 

1 lAilipav Aldine and Roman editions, M.ipav Complutensian. 

2 oXoKavTwaet Vulg., Bishops', Roman edition: oXo/coin-w/iairi Aid., 
Compl., Fritzsche.. 

232 Appendix C-l Original readings of 161% 

1 Mace, 

Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

ix- 57 

two year. See above, 

two years, 1629 (not 

p. Ill 

1630), 1638. 

X. 29 

I do free 

do I free, 1629, &c. (I 
free, 1744). 


for building (second) 

for the building, 1629 
(not 1630), 1638. Cf. 
vers. 44, 45. 

X. 52 & xiv. 29 


Forasmuch, 1629 (ch. 
xiv.'29, 1744). 

xi. 6 


Joppe, 1638 (as else- 

xiii. SI 

seventy and one year 

seventy and first year, 

xiii. S3 

, and dwelt ' 

, and he dwelt, 1762 
(; 1769). 

2 Mace. 

i. 36 

as much to say as 

as much as (1629 om. 
as) to say, 1638. 

ii- '. S, 7 


Jeremy, 1744 (ver. 7, 
1613). See I Esdr. 
i. 28 (above, p. 227). 

iii. 12 

such wrong 

such wrongs, 1629 (not 
1630), 1638. 

iv. 2 

tendred (K-qSeixova) 

tendered, 1638. 

iv. 21 

unto Egypt. Cf. ver. 

into Egypt, 1638. 

iv. 23 

Three year . . . foresaid. 

Three years, 1630 (not 

See above, p. i [ i 

1629, 1638) ...afore- 
said, 1629 (not 1630), 

iv. 50 

in power 

of power, 1629 (not 
1630, 1744), 1638, 

the adversity, 1639 (not 

V. 20 

the adversities 

1630), 1638. 

viii. 33 

who was fled {-Tre^eu- 

who had fled, 1769. 

ix. 3 


Ecbatane, 1762. Cf. To- 
bit iii. 7. 

' The comma is from Synd. A. 3. 14 (only) and 1613, not Oxf. 
1611 and 1612. Notwithstanding ch. xvi. i, Simon, not John, is in- 
tended by the Translators to be the subject of " dwelt." 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. f33 

2 Mace. 

Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

ix. 1 8 

the letter, 1612 — 1630, 

the letters, r629, 1638, 

Camb. 1863 


xi. 21 

eight-' and forty year, 

eight and fortieth year, 

the four and twenty ' 

the four and twentieth 


day, 1638. 

xi. 21 marg 


(Dioscores, 1630), Dios- 
corus, 1762. 

xii. 42 

for the sin, LXX. 

for the sins, Vulg., 1629 
(not 1630), 1638. 

xiv. 6 

Asideans. Cf. i Mace. 

Assideans, 1629 (not 

ii. 42 (above, p. 200). 

1630), 1638. 

xiv. 41 

utter door 

outer door, 1762. See 
Ezek. X. 5. 


The end of Apocrypha 

The end of the Apo- 
crypha, 1638. 

S. Matthew 

ii. 17 & xxvii. 9 


Jeremy, 1699 (1639, in 

ch. xxvii. 9). See 

I Esdr. i. 28. 

iii. 12 

but will burn up 

buthe will burn up, 1629. 

iX' 34 

casteth out the devils 

casteth out devils, r762. 

xii. 23 

Is this the son 

Is not this the son, 1638^. 

xiii. 6 

had not root. Cf. ver. 2 1 

had no root, 1762. 

xvii. 20 & 

xix. 26 

unpossible (Bishops'). 

impossible, 1743. Cf. 

& Luke 

i- 37; 

See above, p. 112 

Mark x. 27. 

xviii. 27 

Matt. xxiv. 

50 & 

ware. Cf. Acts xiv. 6; 

aware, 1762. See above. 

Luke xii. 


2 Tim. iv. 15 

p. 113. 

Matt. xxvi. 

39 & 


farther, 1702, moderns 

Mark i. i 



(not American 1867). 

Matt, xxvii. 

bodies of saints which 

bodies of the saints which 


slept, r762^. 

1 In ver. 33 "eight" of i5ii — 1630 (not 1629) maybe regarded as 
another mode of spelling the ordinal, as 161 1 has it in Lev. xiv. 10, 23 ; 
Luke XV. 8 marg. Compare also 2 Kin. xv. 8 and Ezek. xliii. 27, p. 226. 

2 So, though wrongly, nearly all the moderns, but not Scholefield, 
in the Cambridge Greek and English N.T. (above, p. 79 note i), and 
the Tract Society's Bible 1868. Archbishop Trench contrasts the in- 
sertion of "not" in John iv. 29 with its omission in John viii. 22; 
xviii. 35 ; Acts vii. 42 ; x. 47. Compare also John vii. 26, 31. 

3 This change has not been imported into the Gospel for Palm 
Sunday in the Book of Common Prayer. Cf. i John v. 12 in Appendix 
A (p. 193), and i Cor. xiii. 2 below, where in modern Prayer-Eooks we 

234 Appendix C] Original readings of 1611 

S. Mark 

Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

vi. 7 

he calleth 

he called, 1769. 

xiv. 36 

not tliat I will, but 

not what I will, but what. 



S. Luke 

viii. 8 

when he said {\lyav) 

when he had said, 1629. 

xi. 16 & xviii. 9 

other. Cf. ver. 42 ; ch. 

others, 1744 (ch. xviii. 

xxiii. 32. See above, 

9 in 1629). 

p. 87 note 

xii. 20 marg. 


II II Or, 1629. 

xix. 13 marg. 

two shillings sixpence 

two shillings and six- 
pence, 1769. 

S. John 

xi. 18 marg. 

two mile, 161 3, 1617, 

two miles, 1612, 1616, 

1629 L. See above, 

1629 C, 1630. 

p. Ill 

xi. 34 

They say unto him 

They said unto him, 
1769, moderns (not 


American 1867). 

V- 34 

a doctor of law 

a doctor of the law, 
1762. Cf Lukev. 17. 

x. 9 

upon the house (SiG^a) 

upon the house top, 1629. 
Cf. Matt. xxiv. 17I. 

xvii. 31 

II hath given 

hath II given, 1629 C. 
(notL., 1630), 1638. 

xviii. 5 

pressed in spirit 

pressed in the spirit, 1 769. 
Cf ver. 25. 

xix. 19 

also of them 

of them also, 1769. 

xxiv. 14 

and the prophets, 

and in the prophets, 1762. 



XXV. 6 

sitting in the judgment 

sitting on the judgment 

seat, Bishops' (but 

seat, 1762. 

both read " on," ver. 

'7l . . 

xxviii. 8 

flixe (flix, 1029) 

flux, 1699. ^^^ above. 


The end of the Acts 
of the Apostles 

p. 103. 
omitted, 1629. 

read "not" in the Epistle for Quinquagesima Sunday. So in John 
iii. 13, in the Gospel for Trinity Sunday, "which" of 1611 and all 
the rest is changed into "who." 

^ In Acts XV. 14 some modern editions have "Symeon," but 
" Simeon " is the form used from i6ii to 1769 and its imitators. Cf. 
Appendix A (p. 187), Luke iii. 30. 

restored, later corrections being withdrawn. *35 


IV. 19 

ib. & ix. 9 

vii. 3 
xi. 23 


iv. 9 
X. 29 

XIV. 15 
xiv. 18 

2 Cor. 

V. I 


V. IS 

i. 9 

Reading of 161 1 

an hundred year, 161 2 
— 1699. See above, 
p. Ill 

Saras', 1629,1638,1743 
(chap. iv. 19, Saraes, 
1611-1630). Cf.Heb. 
xi. II ; I Pet. iii. 6 

lavjr of the husband 


approved to 
1612, 1613 


of the other's (others, 

161I — 1743), TOV 

have no charity 

and will pray 
than [then : see above, 
p. 97] you all 

made vifith hand 

take heed ye be not 

Variation of later 

had purposed 

an hundred years, 1630, 
1743, &c. 

Sarah's, 1762 (so 1743 
in I Pet. iii. 6 only). 

law of her husband, 
i6r6 (not 1617, 1629 
L., 1630), 1629 C, Ac. 

abide, 1762. See above, 
p. 113. 

appointed to death ^ 
i6i6, 1617, 1629 C. 
and L., &c. 

of the other, 1762, 1769. 

have not charity, 1762. 

See p. 233 note 3. 
and I will pray, 1638. 
than ye all. 

made with hands, 161 2 
(not 1613, 1616, 1617), 

take heed that ye be not, 

hath purposed, 1629. 

^ So always in the Apocrypha. In Rom. iv. 19, and not elsewhere, 
so far as we know, 1701 has " Sara's ". See above, p. 152 note. 

'■' A deliberate but needless correction, derived from Tyndale's, 
r Coverdale's, the Great, and the Bishops' Bibles. The Geneva (1557), 
has " destinate to death." 

236 Appendix Ci\ Original readings of idw 


Reading of i 


Variation of later 

i. ^i 


sometime, Bp., 1629'. 

1 Timothy 

ii. 9 


shamefacedness, 1 743 
(shamefac'dness, 1674, 
1683, 1699). Cf. Ec- 
clus. xli. 16. 

iv. 16 

the doctrine, 


thy doctrine, 1629 C, 

1630, 1769, moderns 

1638, 1699, 1743, 
1762. See above, p. 4 


2 Timothy 

i. 12 

and I am persuaded 

and am persuaded, 1 762. 


V. 4 

which have 


who have reaped down, 

1 Peter 

V. 10 

called us into 

called us unto, 1638. 

2 Peter 

i. 9 

see far off 

see afar off, 1769. 


ii. 29 

which doetli 


that doeth (doth, 1629 

1612, 1613, 


C), 1629 C. and L., 

iii. 17 

hath need 

have need, 1629 C. 
(not 1629 L., 1630), 

' So Wisd. xvi. 18, where the Bishops' renders vaTk "sometimes" 
and "sometime" in consecutive verses. The modern distinction be- 
tween the two words did not exist when these versions were made. 
Hence all our Bibles have "sometimes" Eph. ii. 13; v. 8; Titus iii. 3: 
all "sometime" Col. iii. 7; i Pet. iii. 20, the Greek being always 

restored, later corrections being 

withdrawn. ^3? 


Reading of 161 1 

Variation of later 

ii. 6, 15 


Nicolaitanes, 1638 (not 
1743). 1762. 

vii. 7 


Issachar, 1629 C. and 
L., 1630 (not 1638 

—1743). 1762. 

xvii. 1 

inhabiters. Cf. ch. viii. 
13; xii. 12 

inhabitants, 1762. 

xvil. 4 

precious stone 

precious stones, 1630 
(not 1629 C. and L., 
l743)^ 1762. Cf. ch. 
xviii. 12, 16; xxi. 19. 

xxi. 20 

chrysolite. Cf. Ezek. 
xxviii. 13 marg. 

chrysolyte, 1762. 

xxii. -i 

of either side 

on either- side, 1762. 


(See above, p. 28). 

To the Rev. the Vice- Chancellor, and the other Delegates 
of the Clarendon Press. 

The Editor of the two editions of the Bible lately- 
printed at -the Clarendon Press thinks it his duty, now that 
he has completed the whole in a course of between three 
and four years' close application, to make his report to the 
Delegates of the manner in which that work has been 
executed ; and hopes for their approbation. ' 

In the first place, according to the instructions he re- 
ceived, the folio edition of 1611, that of 1701, published 
under the direction of Bishop Lloyd [see above, p. 26], and 
two Cambridge editions of a late date, one in quarto, the 
other in octavo, have been carefully collated, whereby many- 
errors that were found in former editions have been corrected, 
and the text reformed to such a standard of purity, as, it 
is presumed, is not to be met with in any other edition 
hitherto extant. 

The punctuation has been carefully attended to, not 
only with a view to preserve the true sense, but also to 
uniformity, as far as was possible. 

Frequent recourse has been had to the Hebrew and 
Greek Originals; and as on other occasions, so with a special 
regard to the words not expressed in the Original Language, 
but which our Translators have thought fit to insert in Italics, 
in order to make out the sense after the English idiom, or to 
preserve the connexion. And though Dr Paris [see above, 
p. 28] made large corrections in this particular in an edition 

Dr Blaynefs Report, 1769. I39 

published at Cambridge, there still remained many necessary- 
alterations, which escaped the Doctor's notice ; in making 
which the Editor chose not to rely on his own judgment 
singly, but submitted them all to the previous examination 
of the Select Committee, and particularly of the Principal 
of Hertford College', and Mr Professor Wheeler. A list of 
the above alterations was intended to have been given in 
to the Vice-Chancellor at this time, but the Editor has not 
yet found time to make it completely out. 

Considerable alterations have been made in the Heads 
or Contents prefixed to the Chapters, as will appear on 
inspection; and though the Editor is unwilling to enlarge 
upon the labour bestowed by himself in this particular, he 
cannot avoid taking notice of the peculiar obligations, which 
both himself and the public lie under to the Principal of 
Hertford College, Mr Griffith of Pembroke College, Mr 
Wheeler, Poetry Professor", and the late Warden of New 
College^ so long as he lived to bear a part in it; who 
with a prodigious expence of time, and inexpressible fatigue 
to themselves, judiciously corrected and improved the rude 
and imperfect Draughts of the Editor. 

The running titles at the top of the columns in each 
page, how trifling a circumstance soever it may appear, 
required no small degree of thought and attention. 

Many of the proper names being left untranslated, 
whose etymology was necessary to be known, in order to 
a more perfect comprehension of the allusions in the text, 
the translation of them, under the inspection of the above 
named Committee, has been for the benefit of the unlearned 
supplied in the margin. 

1 David Durell, D.D., i757— 1775- 

2 ij66— 1776; Regius Professor of Divinity, 1776— 1783. 
= Thomas Bayward, 1764— 1768. 

240 Appendix D-l Dr Blayney's Report, i-jbt). 

Some obvious and material errors in the chronology 
have been considered and rectified. 

The marginal references, even in Bishop Lloyd's Bible, 
had in many places suffered by the inaccuracy of the Press; 
subsequent editions had copied those Errata, and added 
many others of their own; so that it became absolutely 
necessary to turn to and compare the several passages; 
which has been done in every single instance, and by this 
precaution several false references brought to light, which 
would otherwise have passed unsuspected. It has been 
the care of the Editor to rectify these, as far as he could, 
by critical conjecture, where the copies universally failed 
him, as they did in most of the errors discovered in 
Bishop Lloyd's edition. In some few instances he con- 
fesses himself to have been at a loss in finding out the 
true reference, though the corruption was manifest in 
the want of any the most distant resemblance between the 
passages compared together. Cases of this sort indeed 
did not often occur; so that a very small number only of 
the old references are, with the sanction of the Committee, 
omitted, and their places more usefully supplied. 

It had been suggested by the late Archbishop of Can- 
terbury', that an improvement might be made in the 
present editions of the Bible, by taking in a number of 
additional references, of which many useful ones, as he 
supposed, might be furnished from other editions referred 
to by him, and particularly from a Scotch edition^, of which 
the present Vice-Chancellor was kind enough to lend a 

^ Thomas Seeker, bom 1693; Bishop of Bristol, 1735; of Oxford, 
1737; Archbishop of Car)terbury, 1758 — 1768. 

2 In the absence of a date it seems impossible to identify this 
"Scotch edition," unless it be Brown's or one of Canne's (see above, 
p. 121 note). Dr Eadie (English Bible, Vol. 11. p. 320) names one 
printed at Edinburgh in 1760 which omits "not," Heb. ii. 16. 

Dr Blaynefs Report, 1769. 241 

Copy. The references found in it, which were indeed very 
numerous, having been severally turned to and examined, 
such of them were selected as the Editor judged most 
pertinent, together with others that occurred from his own 
reading and observation. In doing this he has endeavoured 
to keep clear of mere fanciful allusions, of which too many 
presented themselves in the before named Scotch edition j 
and to adhere as near as possible to the plan marked out 
in the former collection made by Bishop Lloyd ; pointing 
out such passages chiefly, where the same history or the 
same name was introduced, the same matter treated of, 
or sentiment expressed, or at least where parallels might 
fairly be drawn ; and sometimes where a similar use of a 
particular word or expression tended to illustrate the appli- 
cation of it on another occasion. The number of Re- 
ferences being thus augmented considerably, the Collection 
upon the whole will, it is hoped, be regarded as useful in 
the light of a Concordance, material as well as verbal, 
always at hand. 

In this state the quarto Copy was sent to press; and 
the first proofs carefully collated with the Copy both text 
and margin ; after which the second proofs were again read, 
and generally speaking, the third likewise ; not to mention 
the frequent revisions of proofs besides, which are common 
in correcting the press. This proved indeed a very tire- 
some and tedious task; but was not more than was abso- 
lutely necessary in order to attain the degree of accuracy 
that was wished. A particular attention was required with 
respect to the figures belonging to the marginal References, 
where errors were continually creeping in after a manner 
that would appear highly astonishing to those, who have 
never been concerned in correcting multitudes of figures, 
as they came from the press. 

When the quarto Sheets were printed off, the Forms 


242 Appendix DI\ Dr Biayney's Report, 1769. 

were lengthened out in order to make up the folio 
edition ; in doing which the parts were often so jumbled 
together, and such Confusion introduced by misplacing the 
References and mistaking the Chronology, that nothing else 
would suffice than a fresh Collation of the whole with the 
quarto Copy, and a repetition of almost the same trouble 
and care in the revisal, and in making up the running Titles 
anew, as had been used before. But the Editor thinks he 
has just reason to congratulate himself on the opportunity 
hereby given him of discovering and correcting some few 
trivial inaccuracies, which in spite of all his vigilance had 
escaped his notice in the quarto edition. So that the 
folio edition is rendered by this somewhat the more 
perfect of the two, and therefore more fit to be recom- 
mended for a standard Copy. 

The Editor humbly hopes this Account of his pro- 
ceedings will not be unacceptable to the Board; and will 
think his time and pains not ill bestowed, if he shall have 
succeeded in his desire of giving satisfaction to those who 
honoured him with the employment, and of contributing in 
any wise to God's honour, and the public utility. 

B. Blayney'. 
Hertford College, 
Oct. 25, 1769. 

1 Benjamin Blayney, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew, 1787— 

This Report is reprinted from the Gentleman's Magazine iot 1769 
(Vol. XXXIX. p. 517), to which periodical the writer seems to have sent 
It. Crutwell republished it in 1785 in his edition of the Holy Bible 
witli Bp Wilson's notes. 


(See above, pp. 59 — 60.) 

The Greek text adopted by the Translators of the Authorized 
Version of the New Testament. 

N.B. In forming this list, that of Scrivener (Supplement 
to English Version, 1845, pp. 7, 8), that of Canon Westcott 
{SmitK s Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. 11. p. 524 note), and that 
of Professor Abbot of Harvard University (1872) as given by 
Dr Philip Schaff [Revision of English Version, 1877, p. xxix), 
have been compared throughout, their errors corrected, and 
defects supplied. Compl. indicates the Complutensian 
Polyglott (1514 — 1522); Erasm. the editions of Erasmus 
(1516, 1519, 1522, 1527, 1535) i Aid. that of Aldus (1518). 

§ I. Passages wherein the text of the Authorized 
Version differs from those of Stephen (155°) and of Beza 
(1589 and 1598) jointly. 

S. Matt. ii. 11. elSov (for evpov) Compl., Bishops', 
ix. 18. apx'ui' "s Compl., Vulg. 
X. 10. pdphov; Compl, Stephen 1546, 1549- 
X. 25. Be£X^e^oi)j8 Compl. {hie tantum), Vulg. 
xi. 21. BTj^a-a'iSa Compl., Vulg. 

xiii. 24. o-irupavTi Compl., Colinseus 1534, Stephen 1549, 

S. Mark iv. 18. The second ovtol eto-iv omitted in Compl. 
v. 38. Kal KAatovras Erasm., Aid., Vulg. 
vi. 45 and viii. 22. Biyi^o-aiSa Compl., Vulg. 

16 — 2 

244 Appendix E^ Passages wherein the text of the 

S. Mark vi. 53. Vivr]a-a.plB Erasm., Vulg. (Clementine). 

ix. 42. rmv [LiKpw/ TovTuiv CompL, Vulg. ("these" 
161 1, tAese 1638). 

xiii. 9. dxdv<rea-6e Erasm., Aid., Col., Tynd. 

XV. 3. To the end auros SI oijSei' o.Tre.KpivaTo added by 
Compl., Stephen 1546, 1549, Bishops'. 

S. Luke iii. 30. 2t/u.€(uv Erasm. : but Sv/Aeui/ Stephen, 
Beza, Vulg. Cf. 2 Pet. i. i. 

iii. 31. Meva/i Erasm., Aid., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great 
Bible, Bishops', Authorized before 1629 (Cambridge). See 
Appendix A, p. 187. 

vi. 37. init. Kttl omitted by Erasm., Aid., Col., Vulg., 

viii. 37. irapeKaXovv Erasm., Vulg., Beza's Latin, Tynd. 

xii. 56. ToC oijjDavoi! Koi ttj's yijg CompL, Vulg. (Clem- 
entine), Coverdale, Great Bible, Bishops' : but the reverse 
order is found in Erasm., Tyndale, Geneva 1557, &c. 

xvii. 35. Erasm., Aid., Col., Tynd. and all English prefix 
7; to [J.La. 

XX. 31. KOL is inserted before ov KareXiTrov by Erasm. and 
all English. 

xxii. 42. Aid., Vulg., Tynd., all English read irapiveyKe, 

S. John viii. 6. To the end /utJ irpoairoiovfjisvo^ added by 
Compl., Stephen 1546, 1549, Bishops' ("as though he heard 
them not" itahcised not earlier than 1769). 

viii. 42. Erasm., Aid., Col., Stephen 1546, 1549, Tynd. 
omit ovv. 

xvi. 25. Erasm., Aid., Vulg., Tynd. all English except 
Coverdale up to 1762 omit dX.\d. 

xviii. I. Tov Ke'Spco;' apparently. (Vulg. Cedron.) 

xviii. 15. Erasm., Aid., Col., Tynd. prefix o to aAAos. 

xix. 31. Erasm., Aid., Col., Vulg., Tynd., all English 
set £iret Trapao-KEuiJ ^v after 'loitSaioi, not after cra/3|8aTai. 

Authorized Bible differs fro)7i Stephen^ s and Beza^s jointly. 245 

Acts iii. 3. CompL, Erasm. 1516, Aid., Stephen 1546, 
1549 omit XttySeii/. 

vii. 16. 'E/xd|0 Erasm., Aid., Tyndale, Great Bible, 
Geneva, Bishops', Authorized before 1629 (Camb.). See 
Appendix A, p. 189. 

vii. 44. Erasm., Aid., Col, Vulg., Tyndale omit .the 
first ev. 

viii. 13. SwdfieL'S Koi (rrjp.eta yivofxeva Erasm., Aid., 
(S-ui/ajU,et9 Kol crqiLeta. jXiyaXa yivoji^va CompL), Tyndale, 
(Coverdale), Great Bible, Bishops'. The marginal reading 
is due to 1762. 

xxi. 4. Totj? before /xa^ijya? is omitted by Complut., 
Erasm., Aid., Col, Stephen 1546, 1549, Tynd. 

xxi. 8. fikdojxev CompL, Vulg., Beza's Latin. 

xxvi. 20. a7n;yyeXA.ov Compl., Yulg. 

xxvii. 3. T01JS set before <^tXo,-us CompL, Erasm., Aid., 
Col. is perhaps a little refined. 

xxvii. 29. eKTrcVto/iev Compl., Stephen 1546, 1549, 
Vulg., Tyndale, Bishops'. 

I Cor. xi. 27. It does not appear whence Coverdale 
and Geneva 1557 render rj mvy as though it were koI ttlvt]. 

xiv. 10. Col., Vulg. omit auriuv. See above, p. 68 
and below, p. 251. 

Phil. iv. 12. koI (not Se) before Tawuvova-Oai. CompL, 
Erasm., Aid., CoL, Stephen 1546, 1549, Vulg., Tynd. 

I Thess. i. 9. CompL, Erasm., CoL, Stephen 1546, 
Vulg., Tynd. read co-xo/xev. 

I Tim. i. 2. "Irjo-od Xpio-rov Erasm., Aid., Tynd. The same 
inversion is made by Tyndale and the Authorized Version, 
apparently through inadvertence, in Rom. vi. 3 (but not in 
Tynd. 1526), 11 ; i Cor. i. 4; GaL iL 16 (second); iiu 14. 

Philem. 7. x'^P"" CompL, Vulg., all English : x«P"' 
Erasm., Stephen, Beza. 

246 Appendix E?\ Passages wherein the text of the 

Heb. xii. 24. TO 'A^eX Erasm. (not his Latin), Aid. 
{quam sanguis Abel Erasm. Lat., and English versions up 
to the Bishops' : "that of" 161 1, not italicised before 1638). 

James ii. 24. Aid., Col., Tynd. end the verse with a full 
stop, not with the interrogative mark. 

iv. 15. t,ri<jojx,(.v Stephen 1546 only. S6e below, p. 253. 

V. 9. Compl., Erasm., Aid., Col, Stephen 1546, 1549, 
prefix o to KpiTiji. 

2 Peter i. i. %ifj.a>v Compl., Vulg., all Enghsh except 
Tyndale 1526, Geneva 1557 ("Simeon"): but 5v/t€wv 
Erasm., &c. 

i. 21. Compl. ayioL without ot. 

ii. 9. Compl. 7reipacr/X(3i/. 

I John i. 5. ayyeXta CoL, Vulg., all Enghsh (" tidings"). 

JuDE 12. vfilv added after crwevoi-xov/xevoL by Compl., 
Geneva 1557, Beza's Latin, Bishops'. 

Rev. i. 11. Compl, Col., Vulg., Beza's Latin, prefix eTrm 
to iKKXrjaiaL';. 

vii. 2. dva^atvovra CompL, Vulg. 

vii. 14. Compl, Vulg., Tynd. have awas for o-roXas 

viii. 6. Compl, Vulg., Tynd. prefix ol to lxo'''r«- 

ix. 19. y yap liovcrLa avTwv (tcoi/ tV-jreov Compl, Vulg.) 
iv T<3 (TTO/xaTi avTwv icrn, koI iv rats ovpai'i avTwv Compl, 
Vulg., Tynd., against Erasm., &c. 

ix. 20. OTJ /xcrevoi^o-av (not ovre) Compl, Erasm. 15 16, 

xi. 4. at prefixed to Svo Xvxvml Compl [So perhaps 
vi. 14 d ovpavos ; ix. 16 tw a-TparevfidTrnv; x. 8 rov 
ayyiXov ; xi. 8 T^s TToXeMS j xiii. 8 To5 i(r4>ayfjLevov; XV. 3 
Tov 8ov\ov; xvi. 14 ToV WXcyuor; xvii. 8 to OripCov, all with 

Authorized Bible differs from SiepHerCs and JBeza's jointly. 247 

Rev. xvii. 4. r/v (for 17) 7repi^6y8A.7)/i€i/iy Compl., Vulg., 
all English. 

xviii. I. aXXov prefixed to ayyeXov Compl., Erasm., Aid., 
Vulg., all English. ' 

xviii. 5. iKoW-qOridav (for riKokov6y]crav) Compl. ("per- 
venerunt" Vulg., "are gone up" Tyndale, Coverdale, Great 
Bible, Bishops': "are commen " Geneva 1557; "have 
reached" Authorized). 

xix. 14. TO. prefixed to iv ra ovpavw Compl., Vulg., 

xix. 16. TO omitted before 6Vo/xa Compl., Tynd. 1534. 

xix. 18. re added after IXevOipwv Compl. ("both" 
italicised 1769). 

XX. 4. Compl., Erasm., Aid., Col., Stephen 1546, 1549 
omit Ta before yLXia. 

xxi. 13 is perhaps doubtful: koI otto Poppa. ..koI dm 
voTou. ..Kttt aTTo Svcr/xcui/ Compl., Vulg., Tyndale, Coverdale, 
Great Bible, Bishops' : koI diro ^oppS. Geneva 1557 : «"' 
airo Sucr/Amv Geneva 1557, Authorized. Total 80. 

The variation in Heb. x. 23 "faith" for "hope" is not 
included, since it is a mere oversight of our Translators 
{Tregelles' Home, Vol. iv. p. 227 note). Too precarious 
to be insisted on are Mark ix. 38 where Iv of Erasm., Aid., 
Col, Steph. 1546, 1549, Vulg., Tyndale, and the Authorized 
is omitted by Compl, Steph. 1550, 1551, Beza, Geneva 
1557 ("by"). Luke ii. 39 iavrav Compl, Vulg. xx. 32 
where Erasm., Tynd. and all English omit Ik. xxii. 45 
Erasm., (Aid.), Col, and all English add avrov to /xa^ijras. 
John V. S Kat oV™ Erasm., Aid., Vulg. vii. 12 Compl, 
Tynd., all English omit U. In Acts ix. 29 eXaXei re 
might seem omitted, but "spake boldly" is adopted after 
''spake frankly" of Geneva 1557, as adequately rendering 
■Ka.pp-r\(yia.tpii.e.VQ'i...i^oXu re. 

248 Apfendix ^.] Passages wherein the text of the 

§ II. Passages wherein the text . of the Authorized 
version agrees with Beza (1589 and 1598)' agaiiist Stephen 

S. Matt. ix. 33. on omitted^ Compl., Erasm. 

x.\i. 7. iTreKaOurav. 

xxiii. 13, 14 are transposed by Compl., Stephen. 

S. Mark vi. 9. cvSwacr^ai Erasm. 

vi. 29, iv [to Steph.] /xvyjixcLif . 

viii. 14. 01 fLadyjTal inserted after iTreXddoTTo. The 
italics of modern Bibles are not earlier than 1638. 

viii. 24. oTt and 6p<£ omitted in Compl., against Erasm. 
and the earlier English versions. 

ix. 40. tjV"" [I'V^v Compl., Steph., Beza 1565, "Vuig.] 
twice, Erasm., Aid., all EngUsh except Tyndale^ 

X. 25. SieXSetv (after pa(/)tSos) with Vulg. 

xii. 20. ovv added after iirra; so Coverdale, Geneva 

xiii. 28. iK4>vr], not iKcpvy. 

S. Luke i. 35. Ik aov added after yevvm'/xevov in Compl., 
Erasm. (1516 only). Aid., Vulg. (editions), with Coverdale 
"(of the)," Geneva 1557. 

ii. 22. auT^s (for avTwv) Compl. 

1 Although Beza, late in life, reckoned the edition of 155$, wherein 
his Latin version first appeared, as the earliest in wliicl\ he revised the 
Greek text, and so calls that of 1565 his second, it is evident that the 
Greek text of 1556 is nearly identical with that of Stephen 1551, and 
that (excluding reprints, some without authority) his principal editions 
are but four, those of 1565, 1582, T589, and 1598. 

^ This is one of Canon Westcott's examples, but he sees how 
precarious it is. In fact oti. is untranslated in ver. 18; ch. vi. 5, 16; 
X. 7, and numberless other places. 

^ All the English have "a tomb," or "a grave," but they are so 
careless in respect of the definite article, that, but for Canon Westcott's 
authority, this instance too would have been withheld. Luke vii. 12; 
A. 6; xvi. 8; xvii. 35; xx. 47; Rev. xiii. 3 (all given below) are also 
not a little doubtful. 

Authorized Bible agrees witlt Bcza's against Stephen's. 249 

S. Luke ii. 25, 34. St/^ewv Erasm. (not in ver. 34, Beza 


iii. 23. 'HXi Erasm., Vulg., not 'HA.i: HA.t Beza 1565. 

iii. 35. ''E/3ep Erasm., Beza 1589, 1598, Tyndale, Great 
Bible, Bishops'. See Appendix A, p. 187 note 2. 

vii. 12. iKavos ■r]V. 

viii. 24. ■n-aprjYye.Lkf. Erasm. 

X. 6. o inserted before vloi {qiiisfiam Beza's Latin). 

X. 22. KoX (TTpatj^^l's Trpos TOtis fjLadrjra.^ eiTre omitted. 

XV. 26. TratScov (without aijToC) Compl., Vulg., Coverdale, 
Geneva 1557. Erasm. reads auTov. 

xvi. 8. Beza alone omits the second ttjv. 

xvii. 35. 7] fj-M Erasm., all English. 

xvii. 36. This verse, extant in CompL, the Great Bible 
(though within brackets and in another type), and the 
-Bishops', is omitted by Erasm., Vulg., and the other English 

XX. 47. /xaKpa, not fJ-aKpa with Erasm., Stephen. 

S. John iv. 37. The second 6 is omitted with Vulg., Tynd., 
English, and Erasmus' Latin, against Compl. and Erasmus' 

vi. 28. TroLSfia/ CompL, Vulg., Tynd.: ■n-oiovjj.e.v Erasm. 

viii. 25. o Tt (oTt CompL, Erasm., Steph.). 

xiii. 30, 31. rjv Se vvt ore ovv {^v Se ivi on CompL, 
Steph.) Erasm., Aid., Vulg., Engl.' 

xvi. 33. c^ere, for which there is very little authority, is 
a false correction by Beza of a typographical error of 
Stephen 1550^ Even Tyndale (not Coverdale), the Great 
Bible, and Geneva 1557 have the future, after Vulg. 

1 But ovv is not rendered by Tyndale or Coverdale, though they 
pause after j-iif. , ri.- 

■ ' 2 i^^re, which Stephen himself corrects into Ixere at the end of his 
volume. Erasm., Stephen 1546, i549 ^^"'^ ^^^'^^- 

250 Appendix E^ Passages wherein the text of the 

S. John xviii. 24. ovv added after aVco-TetXtv, so Geneva 
1557, Bishops' Bible: "And Annas'' Tyndale, Coverdale, 
Great Bible, after Vulg. 

Acts i. 4. In Beza's editions of 1582, 1589, 1598 (not 
1565) |U,eT-' aiiTav follows crwaXt^o/iEvos, being doubtless 
derived from his own celebrated manuscript, Codex D. 
The itahcs in "with them" belong to 1769: no other 
English have " with." 

i. 24. ov Iva. (see Beza's note) for tva. tv. Compare 
Erasm., T3'nd. ; though the order of the other words is 

vii. 16. Stx^/* twice with the Clementine Vulgate. See 
above, p. 189. 

ix. 35. a-apava. with Geneva 1557 for dcrcrdpaiva of 
Erasm., a-apiovav of Compl., Stephen. 

xvii. 25. Kttt TCI TrdvTa Vulg. So Geneva alone of pre- 
ceding English versions, which have " every where." 

xix. 33. ■n-po^aWovTwv CompL, Vulg., Erasmus' Latin 
and all English except Wicklif and Coverdale: Trpo^aXovTwv 
Erasmus' Greek, Stephen. 

xxii. 25. TTpoeTcti/ai/ Compl., Beza 1589, 1598 (not 1565, 
1582), Vulg., the other Enghsh; against Erasm., Stephen, 
Coverdale irpoeTcivev. 

xxiv. 13. Trapaarrja-ai (Erasm., Steph. add fhi) Compl. 

xxiv. 18. Ttves (Erasm., Steph., Vulg., Tyndale, Cover- 
dale, Great Bible, Bishops' add Se) Compl. 

xxiv. 19. eSct Vulg., Geneva 1557: but Sei Compl., 
Erasm., Steph., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, Bishops'. 

xxv. 5. The Authorized is rather loose, but seems to 
read aroTtov after Jcttiv, as do Compl., Bishops' after tou'tco, 
and Vulg., Tynd., Great Bible, Geneva for tou'tco. 

xxvi. 3. Beza 1598 (not 1565) adds etScos after o-e : 
"because I know" was not itahcised in the Authorized 
before 1769. 

Authorized Bible agrees wiih Beza's against Stephen's. 251 

Acts xxvi. 18. koI for tov after liricrTpixl/ai Beza only. 
In the Authorized "and" was not italicised before 1769. 
xxvii. 12. Beza stands alone in omitting Kara, before 

xxvii. 13. acrcrov Erasm. (but his Latin Assan, as Steph. 
1550, i55i,Vulg.,Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, Bishops'), 
Steph. 1546 : but aaa-ov Steph. 1549, Beza {propius Latin), 
"nearer" Geneva 1557. 

Rom. vii. 6. aTro^avovi-os, on no known authority except 
Chrysostom as alleged by Erasmus. So Tomson 1576. 

viii. II. Sia rov evoiKovvTO's avrov ■rrvivfj.aTO'S Compl. : but 
Sia TO ivoiKovv a-UToC 7rv€UyU,a Erasm., Aid., Steph., Vulg., all 

xii. II. Kvpta Compl. (Erasm. 15 16 Kvpiov), Vulg., 
Geneva 1557, Bishops': but KaipS Erasm. 1519 (and Latin 
of 1516), 1535, Steph., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible. 

xvi. 2 o. 'Afx^v only in Bishops' : omitted in other English, 
after Compl, Erasm., Steph., Vulg. 

xvi. 27. Omits m with Compl. against Erasm. 

1 Cor. v. II. y TTo'pvos Erasm. (Latin), Vulg., all Eng- 
lish. ^ TTo'pvos Erasm. (Greek), Steph. 

xiv. 10. o/the/n is placed in the type representing italics 
in the Bishops' Bible and in ours of 1611, in deference to 
Beza, who, after Colina;us (1534) and Vulg., would fain 
omit avTwv. See above, pp. 68, 245. 

XV. 31. v,x.erepo.v Compl., Beza 1598, Vulg., Geneva 
1557: but Tjixeripav Erasm. and his Latin, Steph. (even Beza 
1565 against his own version), Tyndale, Coverdale, Great 
Bible, Bishops'. 

2 Cor. iii. i. v M XPI?^"/^^" ^^^za 1598, Vulg., Cover- 
dale, Bishops', for ^i lu-v xp. of Compl., Erasm., Steph., 
Beza 1565. 

252 Appendix £.] Passages wherein the text of the 

2 Cor. v. 4. l^ <S "for that" CompL, Vulg., Geneva 
1557 ("wherein whiles we are"), but eTretS?? Erasm., Steph. ; 
"for" Tyndale, Coverdale; "because" Great Bible, Bishops'. 

vi. 15. BeXiaX CompL, Erasm. (Lat), Vulg., all Eng- 
lish: BeXiap Erasm. (Greek), Steph. 

vii. 12. T-qv a-irovSrjv y/xiov ttjv VTrep vfj.wv Compl., Vulg., 
Tyndale, Geneva 1557: but rrji/ a~irov8-^v v/j-iSv t-^v vTtlp 
iQjxmv Erasm., Steph., Coverdale, Great Bible, Bishops'. 

vii. 16. x^-'P™ °"'' Geneva 1557: dvv is omitted by 
Compl., Erasm., Aid., Steph., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great 
Bible, Bishops'. 

X. 10. ^acrt Beza 1582 — 98, Vulg., Dr Paris 1762, 
marg. <l>rjcrl Compl., Erasm., Steph., Beza 1565. 

xi. 10. cr<^payi'creTat (for KJ^payqaeTai) is a mere error of 
Steph. only. 

xiii. 4. KOi yap Kol. The second kol only in Vulg., 
Wicldif, the Rhemish, but not in Tynd., Coverdale, Great 
Bible, Geneya 1557. 

Eph. i. 3. iv Xpia-TM Compl., Vulg., Geneva 1557, 
Bishops': but Erasm., Aid., Steph. omit iv ("by Christ," 
Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible). 

vi. 7. cos follows SovXeuovre^ in CompL, Beza's three 
last editions, Vulg., Tyndale 1526 ("even as though ye 
served the lorde"), but not in Erasm., Steph., Beza 1565, 
Tyndale 1534 or the subsequent Enghsh versions. 

Col. i. 2. KoXoero-ats in nearly all: KoAacrcrats Erasm., 

i. 24. OS is set before vvv -^aipin in Beza's last three 
editions (not in 1565, though his Latin has qui), Vulg., and 
our Authorized version only among the English. 

ii. 13. vplv Vulg., Geneva 1557 (Bishops'): but -qplv 
Compl., Erasm., Steph., other English versions. 

Authorized Bible agrees with Bezds against Stephen's, 253 

Col. iv, 10. Bapvafia Beza 1565, 1598, no English 
except the Authorized. 

I Thess. ii. 15. ryfias all except Steph., which has 

I Tim. i. 4. oucoSo/xtai/ Erasm., Aid., Vulg., all Englishj 
but otKoyo/xtav CompL, Steph. 

Titus ii. 10. lyfifiv all except Steph., who reads vfiwv. 

Heb. ix. I. cTKrivi] omitted by Erasm., Aid., Beza (even 
in 1565), Vulg. ("Testament" Great Bible, ^^ covenant" Geneva 
1557, Bishops', Authorized), but Compl., Tyndale, Coverdale 
have it. 

ix. 2. ayta CompL, Erasm. 1516, 1519, Geneva: ayta 
Erasm. 1522 — 1535, Steph., Vulg., Tynd., Great Bible. See 
above, p. 58. 

x. 10. Compl., Erasm., Steph., but apparently no Eng- 
hsh version, prefix ol to 8ta. 

xii. 22, 23. Compl., Erasm., Steph., Vulg., with all the 
Enghsh versions before the Authorized, and most modern 
editors, join ■]yvpu with ver. 22. See above, p. 86. 

James ii. 18. See above, p. 58. 

iy. 13. ^7 avptov Compl., Vulg., Geneva 1557: Kaia{l/)tov 
Erasm., Steph., Tynd., Great Bible, Bishops'. 

iv. 13, 15. The four verbs in ver. 13 and iroLtjaoficv in 
ver. 15 are futures in Vulg., Geneva 1557 (the Authorized, 
as stated above, p. 246, stands alone in reading with Stephen 
1549' i-ijaoiJiev ver. 15), but they are aorists subjunctive 
in Compl., Erasm., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, 

1 Canon Westcott considers ^rimixev a conjecture of our Translators: 
if so, it was a happy one, being the reading of the three great manu- 
scripts NAB. 

254 Appendix £!.] Passages wherein the text of ike 

James v. 12. eis vttokplo-iv of CompL, Erasm., Steph., 
Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, was corrected into vtto 
Kpia-iv by Beza 1565 &c., Geneva 1557, Bishops' ("sub 
judicio " Vulg.). 

I Pet. i. 4. ets tJ/aSs CompL, Erasm., Beza 1598, Vulg., 
but eZs 'qjj.S.'i Staph., Beza 1565. 

i. 8. tSdvTcs Beza 1589, 1598 (see his note), Vulg., but 
eiSoVes Compl., Erasm., Col., Steph., Beza 1565. 

ii. 21. Beza (not 1565) after Compl. prefixes koX to 

iii. 21. inii. (S Compl., Aid., Geneva 1557, Bishops': 
but o Erasm., Steph., Vulg., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great 

2 Pet. i. i. Beza 1565 — 98 adds tJ/auj' after o-ur^pos. 

ii. 18. Iv aVcA-yetais of Beza is certainly the reading of 
the Authorized ("through" was not italicised before 1769), 
possibly of Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, Geneva 1557: 
but the Bishops' ("they entice through lusts with the bait of 
wantonness of the flesh") after Compl., Erasm., Steph., 
rightly omits Iv. 

iii. 7. TO) quVm Xoyo) Vulg., Tyndale, Geneva 1557, but 
auTo-u \6yw Compl., Erasm., Steph., Coverdale, Great Bible, 

I John i. 4. x'^P"- i^V"" ^ft^^r Erasm. is rendered in all 
Enghsh versions except Tyndale 1534, but ly/Acuv in CompL, 
Steph., Vulg. 

ii. 23. o o/ioXoyMi' Tov v'wv KOii Tov TTarepa e^u is the 
well-known clause inserted in italics in our own and the 
Bishops' versions, to indicate thereby a doubtful reading 
(see above, p. 68). Though not in Compl., Erasm., Steph., 
or even in Beza 1565, Tyndale, Coverdale, Geneva 1557, it 
was brought in within brackets and italicised in the Great 
Bible, doubtless from the Vulgate, and rightly forms a part 

Authorized Bible agrees with Bezds against Stephen's. #55 

of the text in Beza's last three editions. Wicklif alone 
prefaces the clause by "but." 

1 John iii. 16. After dyainjv Compl., Beza 1589, 1598 
(not 1565) add tov ®e.ov: "of God" was italicised as late as 
1769 in the Authorized Bible. See above, p. 69. 

V. 14. v/xmv is a mere erratum of Stephen. 

2 John i, 13. ckXckt^, ekXckt-^s Erasm., but 'EKA.€KTij, 
'EkXekt^s Steph., Vulg. 

3. v^juQiv Compl., all English except the Great Bible: 
i;/imi' Erasm., Steph., Vulg. (manuscripts, not Clementine 

5. ypdcjxa Erasm., Steph. only: ypdcfxnv Compl. 

3 John 7. avrov after oVo/xaros of Compl., Vulg. (Cle- 
mentine), Enghsh versions, is omitted in Erasm., Steph., 
Vulg. manuscripts. 

JUDE 19. eauToiJs is added after aVoStopi'^ovres in Vulg., 
Beza, and our own Version, against Compl., Erasm., and 
the other English ("makers of sects"): compare Beza's 

24. v/ids Vulg., English versions, but avVo-us Compl, 
Erasm., Steph. 

Rev. ii. 14. tov BaXciK Compl., Vulg., but iv to Ba- 
Xa.K Erasm., Steph.' 

ii. 24. Kol Tots Xoi.TTOL's Bcza 1598, Xoiirots Beza 1565 
(see his note), koI Xoittois Steph. 

iii. I. eTTTci is prefixed to irvevfiara in Compl., Vulg., 
all Enghsh except Tyndale ("the spirit"); but not in Erasm., 
Steph., Luther. 

1 The marked inferiority of Stephen's text in the Apocalypse will be 
seen to arise from his following Erasmus in preference to the Complu- 
tensian throughout that book. 

256 Appendix £.] Passages whej-ein the text of the 

Rev. v. II. Erasm., Steph. omit Kat r]v 6 dpiO/xo? avriSv 
/uvptaSes fj-vpiaSoiv with Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, 
Bishops': iJ.vpLo.Se'; /j-vpiaSuiv is omitted in Vulg., Geneva, 
1557. But Compl. and the Authorized have the whole 

vii. 3. atjipayta-ui/jLsv Compl., English versions: a^payi- 
t,u>jj.ev Erasm., Steph. 

vii. 10. T<3 6e& Tj/xcui/ to! Kadrj/jilvw IttLtov Opovov Compl., 
Vulg., Geneva 1557: but tm Ka.6r)fi.evw kin rov Opovov toC 
Oe.ov -qp-utv Erasm., Steph., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible, 

viii. 6. ot c^ovres Compl., Vulg., all English : but 
Erasm., Steph. omit 01. 

viii. 1 1, rmv ■i'&a.Tuiv after to rptVov is omitted by Tyndale, 
Great Bible, Bishops'; but not by Compl., Vulg., Coverdale, 
Geneva 1557. 

xi. I. Kttl d ayyeXos eio-Tr/K£t before Xiymv is omitted by 
Erasm., Steph., Vulg., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great Bible: 
the words are found, less correctly, in Compl., Geneva 
ISS7, Bishops'. 

xi. 2. l^md^v (before tov va.ov) Compl., Vulg., Geneva 
1557, Bishops'; but ea-adev Erasm., Steph., Tyndale, Cover- 
dale, Great Bible. 

xi. 14. Kat iSov Beza 1598 (not 1565, see his note), 
Vulg. The italics in the Authorized are not earlier than 

xiii. 3. cdavfjiaa-cv 0A.1J 7; y^ CompL, Vulg., all English: 
kOa.vp.a.crOy) ev oX-rj ttJ yjj Erasm., Steph. 

xiv. 18. To-iis /Sdrpvas T-^s d/x7reA.ov Compl., Vulg., Geneva 
1557, Bishops': but 7-75 a.p.Trekov is omitted in Erasm. (yet 
not in his Latin of 1516), Steph., Tyndale, Coverdale, Great 

xvi. 5. 6crd/A€vos (for oo-ibs), a bold variation of Beza's 

Authorized Bible agrees with Stephen's against Beza's. 2 157 

last three editions (not of that dated 1565: see his note), is 
adopted in the Authorized Version and the Elzevir text of 

Rev. xvi. 14. a cKTropcu'erat CompL, Vulg. (Clementine) : 
but iKiropsvea-Bat of Erasm., Steph,, all English versions 
before the Authorized, is perhaps preferable. 

xix. 14. TCI is prefixed to iv tw ovpavio in Compl., Vulg., 
all English versions ("which were" not being italicised in 
the Authorized before 1769) : but ra is omitted by Erasm., 
Steph. Total 113. 

§ III. Passages in which the text of the Authorized 
version agrees with that of Stephen (1550) against Beza 
(1589 and 1598). 

S. MaIT. i. 23. KaXea-ova-L all English. Peza's KaXea^is 
must be derived from the edition of 1556 containing 
Beza's Latin version: it is countenanced by Codex D (Greek, 
but its Latin version vocabit), which in 1565 had been in his 
possession about three years, and has little other support. 

XX. 15. €t o o(/)(9aA,/ios uov CompL, Erasm., Vulg., English 
versions, but ■17" (for ei) Beza. 

S. Mark i. 21. Beza (1565 — 98) omits tiJv before <jvv- 

xvi. 14. Beza adds 8e after wcrrepov. 

xvi. 20 fin. 'AfjLTJv of Compl., Vulg. (manuscripts), is 
omitted by Erasm., Vulg. (Clementine), and all English 
versions except the Authorized. 

S. Luke vii. 12. avrn] rjv xopa Erasm., Aid., Vulg., all 
English except Geneva 1557 : but avTYj x>ipa Compl. 

vii. 45. darrjXdev Beza 1589, 1598 (see his note), Vulg. 
only, with the Peshito, but not the Curetonian Syriac. 

viii. 5. o [j,ev Beza, for o fj-ev. 

ix. 15. airavTS's Beza 1589, 1598 only. 

xii. I. For irpSrov, TJpocrexere of Compl., Erasm., Aid., 

s. 17 

258 Appendix Ei\ Passages ■wherein the text of the 

Col, Steph. 1546 — 50, we have TifiSnov Trpoo-ix^Ti in Steph. 
155 1, Baza, Tynd. 

S. John iv. 5. Svxap CompL, Erasm., Vulg., Bishops', 
but StX"P other English. 

ix. 10. aov Compl., Erasm., all English: croi Vulg. 

xii. 17. ore CompL, Erasm., Aid, Col., Steph., Vulg., 
Tynd., but ort Beza. 

xviii. 20. Travres of Erasm., Vulg., Tyndale, Coverdale, 
Great Bible, Geneva 1557, Bishops', is the true reading: 
our Authorized version derives TrdvTore from CompL, Steph. : 
■jravToB^v seems a mere conjecture of Beza. 

xxi. 12. Xpio-ro9 for K-uptos Beza, but not his Latin 

AcTSii. 36. /cat Kjipiov CompL, Erasm., Vulg., Geneva 
1557, Bishops': rat, not rendered by Tyndale, Coverdale, 
Great Bible, is omitted by Beza. 

iv. 25. Beza (but not in 1565), Vulg., insert nvev/ian 
'Ayto) before Sta. 

iv. 27. Iv Trj TToXei TavTTj is added after lir dXrjOua's only 
in Stephen's 1546, 1549, Beza's last three editions (not 1565), 
the Vulgate, and Great Bible, but there in other type and 
within brackets. 

iv. 36. 'loio-rjcj} Beza (not 1565), Vulg. 

vii. 2. vjxwv Beza 1565 — 98 (but not his Latin) {oryjfiav. 

xvi. 7. Beza (but not in 1565), Vulg., add 'Irjcrov to 
Tiviv/jia, against Erasm., CompL, Steph. 

xvi. 17. T^/xlv CompL, Erasm., Beza 1565, all English: 
viuv Beza 1582 — 98, Vulg., &c. 

xxi. 3. ava<^amvT£s Erasm., Steph. 1550, 1551, perhaps 
Vulg., but am^aveVres CompL, Aid., (CoL), Steph. 1546, 
1549, Beza. 

xxi. II. Beza alone in 1565 — 98 (not his Latin) omits 
re avTov. 

Authorized Bible agrees with SteJ>hen's against Beza's. 259 

Acts xxiv. 8. Beza similarly omits tovtuiv. 

xxiv. 14. Tois ■n-pot^rjTa.Li (without iv) Compl., Erasm., 
Vulg., all English except Coverdale. The word "in" before 
"the prophets" in modern Bibles is as late as 1762. See 
above, p. 234. 

XXV. 6. Beza (1582 — 98, not 1565), Vulg., Geneva, with 
the margin of the Authorized, insert ov before ■TrA.ei'ous. 

xxvi. 8. Tt airicrTov Compl., Erasm., all English, rather 
than Tt; a-maTov of Beza. 

Rom. i. 29. kolklo., Tropveia, irovrjpLa, TrXeove^ia Beza (not 
1565), also Vulg., Tynd. partly. 

v. 17. ™ ivl for T(3 Tov ei/os Beza (not 1565), margin 
of Authorized. 

viii. 20. i-TT cXttiSi' oTt Compl., Erasm. 1522 — 35, Aid., 
Col., Steph., Tynd., but . iw eXiriSi. oti. Erasm. 1516, 1519, 
Beza. See above, p. 91. 

xi. 28. Col., Beza 1582 — 98 (not 1565), Vulg. add ovv 

to [ 

1 Cor. ii. 11. elSev twice for olStv Beza 1565, 1582, 

1589, 1598- 

iii. 3. yfuv for vfuu, Beza 1589, 1598 (not Beza's Latin). 

vii. 29. Ktttpos a-vvedTaKjxivo'i' to Xolttov Io-tlv (omit- 
ting OTt before o Kaipo^) Compl, Erasm., Vulg., Tyndale, 
Coverdale, Great Bible (the Bishops' renders otl " because"): 
but OTt d Kaipo's o-weo-TttA/AeVos to Koiirov Icttlv' Geneva 1557 
with Beza. 

xi. 22. ij/xas Iv tou'to);' ovk livaww Compl., Geneva 1557 - 
but vfj.o.'s; iv TovTif ovK i-n-acviS Erasm., Beza, Tyndale, Cover- 
dale, Great Bible, Bishops'. 

2 Cor. i. 6. Beza (not 1565) sets eure wapaKakovn.i6a, 
VTrlp T^s vjiiiv irapaKX-ija-ew'S (omitting the SecOnd Kol o-OiTTj- 
pCas) before ttJ<; ivepyovfJ.ivyj'S. 

17 2 

26o Appendix El] Passages wherein the text of the 

2 Cor. ii. 5. Beza alone, and that not in his Latin, 
punctuates Iva. /j-rj iTn/3ap<S as if the clause were parenthetic. 

iii. 14. o Ti Erasm. 1519, Beza 1565, all English: but 
oTi Compl., Erasm. 1516, Beza 1598, Vulg. (Compl., Erasm. 
have in their Latin quhd). 

viii. 24. KoX ek TrpocTMTrov Erasm., Beza 1565, Coverdale, 
with the Authorized : Koi is omitted in Compl., Beza's last 
three editions, Vulg., and the other English versions. 

X. 6. T] before viraKo-i] omitted by Steph. 1551, Beza. 

xi. I. Try dcjipoa-uvr] Compl., Erasm., Aid., all our English : 
Tt T^s d(f)po(Tvvqi Beza, Vulg. ("some little of my folly" 

Gal. iv. 17. The second v/ia? becomes ly/iaj in Beza 
(see his note) and in the margin of the Authorized Bible. 

Phil. i. 23. ttoXXS Compl., Erasm., Vulg., all English: 
Beza, &c. add yap. 

ii. 24. Beza (not 1565), Vulg., add irpo's vp.S.'s to iXev- 

iii. 20. Beza 1589, 1598 (not 1565, see his note), Vulg., 
Tynd. have 8e for yap with the Syriac. 

Col. i. 2. Beza (not 1565), Vulg., add '1-qa-ov to Xptcrra. 

I Thess. i. 4. The comma stands after rjyaTrqfLivoi in 
the later editions of Erasm., in Stephen, and in Beza 1565, 
1582 with the Authorized, but after OeoS in Compl., Beza 
1589, 1598, and Tynd. 

1 Tim. vi. 15. Beza (not 1565) reads oV for ^v. 

2 Tim. ii. 22. Beza and his Latin version read Xpto-rov 
for Kvpiov. 

Titus ii. 7. dtfidapa-Lav of Compl., Bishops', Autho- 
rized, is omitted by Erasm., Aid., Vulg., and the other 
English versions. 

Heb. ix. 28. Beza (not 1565) with Compl., Erasm., Aid., 
Col., Steph. 1546, 1549, Vulg., Tynd. adds koI to ovria. 

Authorized Bible agrees with Stephen^ s against Beza's. 261 

Heb. X. 2. ovK av lirava-avTO irpo(T^e.p6jj,iva.L; Erasm., Aid., 
Col., Vulg. MSS., Tyndale, Great Bible, Geneva 1557, Beza 
1565, Bishops': av rrpocrcfyepofjLevai, Compl., Beza, 
Clementine Vulg., Coverdale. 

James iii. 6. To rrys yEvecrews Beza 1589, 1598, Vulg. 
add ij/id)!'. 

1 Pet. V, 10. Compl, Beza 1589, 1598 read -J/ias after 
Kokicra^, but Erasm., Aid., Col., Steph., Beza 1565, 1582, 
Vulg., have 77/ias. 

2 John 9. Beza (1565 — 98) omits r-fj before StSa^g- 

Rev. ii. 23. Beza (1565 — 98) omits 6 before ipevviov. 

vi. 12. The same editions, after Vulg., add 0A.77 to 

xxii. 20. For the second vat Beza has koI and his Latin 
igitur (see his note). Total 59. 

The following variations of the Greek could scarcely be 
represented in our English versions : 

Acts vii. 26 & XV. 32. re Compl., Erasm., Steph. Se 

xix. 27. ixiXXeiv SI Compl., Erasm. 1516, Steph., but 
fjiiXXeiv re Erasm. 1519, Beza. 

1 Cor. vii. 5. a-vvipxn<^6€ Compl., Erasm., Steph., Beza 
1565, 1589: o-vvipx^<^6^ Beza 1598 (note and punctuation, 
not text), Vulg., Tyndale 1534 (perhaps also 1526), Great 
Bible, Geneva 1557, Bishops'. 

2 Thess. ii. 4. " all that is called God " is the rendering 
of all our versions from Tyndale downwards, or it might be 
thought to represent Beza's conjectural reading Trav to for 

262 Appendix E?\ Passages wherein the text of the 

Rev. iv. 10. Since all read ■Kicxohna.i, no stress can be 
laid in the variation between the present and future in the 
verbs that follow. 

X. 7. TeX^a-Orj CompL, Erasm., Steph., Beza 1565 : "shall 
be finished " other English versions after Vulg. But Beza's 
last three editions have TeXecrSijcreTat, which ill suits "should 
be finished " of the Authorized. 

It may be useful to subjoin a list, probably quite an 
incomplete one, of places in which the Translators of 161 1 
have apparently followed the Latin Vulgate, mostly after 
the example of Tyndale, sometimes of Versions later than 
his, especially of the Rhemish of 1582, whereof the Epistle 
of the Translators to the Reader speaks so contemptuously 
(see below, p. 302). It is probable that at least some of 
the passages collected in the first section of the present 
Appendix, wherein the text of the Authorized Version is 
supported by CompL, Vulg. only, were derived from the 
Vulgate rather than from the Complutensian. In i Cor. 
xiv. 10; I John i. 5, where Cohnasus (1534) and the Vulgate 
alone favour the rendering of 16 11, the Vulgate is almost 
certainly their authority, not Colinffius. 

Matt. xii. 24, 27; Mark iii. 22; Luke xi. 15, 18, 19, 
Beelzebub. So Tynd. (So also CompL in Matt. x. 25). Mark 
xiii. 370 quod. xiv. 43 om. <ui/. So Tynd. Luke i. 35 nas- 
cetur. So Tynd. i. 49 /xeyaAa magna. So Tynd. xx. 35 
habebuntur. So Tynd. xxiii. 34 sortes: but sortem Matt, 
xxvii. 35; Mark xv. 24; John xix. 24, the English versions 
having lots in all the four places, save that Wickhf alone 
keeps up the distinction of Vulg. xxiii. 46. TrapaTiOefiai com- 
mendo. So Tynd. John vii. 9 om. Sc. So Tynd. x. 16 unum 
ovile Vulg. So Great Bible and Geneva 1557. xii. 26 om. 
Kttt after torat. So Rhemish Version 1582^. xviii. i tov 

Authorized Bible seems to follow the Latin Vulgate. 263 

KeSpotv, Cedron. So Tynd. Acts ii. 22 approbatum. SoTynd. 
iv. 32 cor ununi Vulg. Clementine. So Tynd. vi. 3 Karaa-r-q- 
oru> constituamus. So Tynd. vii. 26 a-vvi^XXaa-crev recon- 
ciliabat. So Tynd. vii. 44 om. d: loquens. So Tynd. x. 20 
itaque [dXXa). So Tynd. xiii. i Simeon (S,ijxu>v Er. : Simon 
Vulg. in ch. XV. 14). xiii. 15 eirts si quis. So Tynd. xvii. 30 
hujus ignoraniim. SoTynd. xix. 20 ®iov jDeiYvilg.Clejnentine. 
SoTynd. ■x.yim. i^ aliqztid certius {om. to). SoTynd. xxiv. 
25 tremefactus Vulg. Clementine. So Tynd. xxvi. 6 7raTepa<s 
-Tjii-Zv patres nostros. So Tynd. Rom. xiv. 2 alius enim. So 
Rhemish 1582. xvi. 4 .fM«.f cervices. So Tynd. i Cor. xiii. 
welut CBS sonans. SoTynd. xvi. 2^ domini nostri. So Geneva 
1557. Gal. iv. 15 text: ubi. So Rhemish 1582. Eph. vi. 
24 om. 'kixrjv. Vulg. MSS. (A. V. 161 1): not Vulg. Clemen- 
tine {Pl.'V. 1616). Phil. ii. 21 TijcroS Xpto-roC y^esu Christi. 
So Tynd. Col. i. 4 quam habetis. So Tynd. nearly, i. 24. 
qui nunc. So Rhemish 1582. i Thess. ii. 12 qui vocavit. 
So Tynd. ii. 13 oij;i( cJ? Aoyov «ot z/^ verbum. So Tynd. 
ii. 16 enim. So Tynd. iv. i ut quemadmodmn. So Rhemish 
1582. I Tim. i. 17 immortali. So Tynd. iii. 15 oporteat 
te. So Tynd. iv. 15 ^7«. iv. manifestus sit omnibus (A. V. 
marg. in all things). 2 Tim. i. 18 Si-rjKovTjo-e jxol ministravit 
mihi Vulg. Clementine. So Tynd. James iii. 14 cordibus 
vestris. So Tynd. i Pet. ii. 13 om. ovv. So Tynd. i John 
iii. 200m. oTi secund. So Tynd. v. 8 hi tres Vulg. Clemen- 
tine. So Tynd. 2 John 3 eo-rw sit. So Tynd. Rev. xiii. 10 
qui in captivitatem duxerit, in captivitatem vadet. Vulg. 
Clementine. So Tynd. xvi. 11 om. Ik secund. So Tynd. 
xvii. 9 et hie. So Tynd. xviii. 23 ^aVg lucebit. So Geneva 



(See above, p. 12 note.) 

In that dreary folio Acta Synodi Nationalis...Dordedi 
hahitae (1620) we read (pp. 19, 20) that the seventh Session 
of the Synod was spent in considering a written Report 
from the English Delegates (Carleton, Bp of Llandaff, the 
illustrious Joseph Hall, afterwards Bp of Norwich, Dr 
Davenant, afterwards Bp of Salisbury, and Dr Ward, Master 
of Sidney Sussex College, 1609 — 43') on the method em- 
ployed in executing our Authorized Bible, wherein are made 
the following statements : " Post peractum a singulis pen- 
sum, ex hisce omnibus duodecim selecti viri in unum locum 
convocati integrum opus recognoverunt ac recensuerunt." 
" Postremo, Reverendissimus Episcopus Wintoniensis, Bilso- 
nus, una cum Doctore Smitho, nunc Episcopo Glocestriensi, 
viro eximio et ab initio in toto hoc opere versatissimo, 
omnibus mature pensitatis et examinatis, extremam manum 
huic operi imposuerunt." 

None of these Delegates had any share in the Trans- 
lation of 1611, but as seven years had elapsed since its 
publication, it is wonderful that they had not found out by 
that time how very carelessly the last revise had been carried 
through the press. 

^ Dr Ward was one of the revisers of the Cambridge Bible of 1638 : 
see above, p. 22. 





(See above, p. 39.) 

"y EAL to promote the common good, whether it be The best 

by devising any thing ourselves, or revising that LeTcaium- 
which hath been laboured by others, deserveth cer- ""'"''^' 
tainly much respect and esteem, but yet findeth but 
cold entertainment in the world. It is welcomed 
with suspicion instead of love, and with emulation in- 
stead of thanks : and if there be any hole left for 
cavil to enter, (and cavil, if it do not find a hole, will 
make one) it is sure to be misconstrued, and in 
danger to be condemned. This will easily be granted 
by .as many as know story, or have any experience. 
For was there ever any thing projected, that savoured 
any way of newness or renewing, but the same en- 
dured many a storm of gainsaying or opposition? 
A man would think that civility, wholesome laws, 
learning and eloquence, synods, and Church-main- 

1 The text of the original edition has been restored, except 
where later books have corrected manifest errors. The marginal 
references set within brackets (chiefly derived from Migne's 
Patrolugia), as also the short foot-notes, are added in the present 
work: the rest are in the Bible of 161 r. The quotations from 
Scripture are somewhat too loosely given, but in test passages 
(e.g. I Kin. xii. 4; Neh. iv. 2, 3; i Cor. xiv. 11) the writer 
comes very near the Genevan version of 1560: sometimes he 
uses the Authorized, never the Bishops' Bible. 

2 88 The Translators to the Reader. 

tenance, (that we speak of no more things of this 
1 ifu;3e\ovs. kind) should be as safe as a sanctuary, and ||out of 
mKn,>e- ' shot, as they say, that no man would lift up the heel, 
no, nor dog move his tongue against the motioners of 
them. For by the first we are distinguished from 
brute beasts led with' sensuality : by the second we 
are bridled andi restrained from outrageous behaviour, 
and from doing of injuries, whether by fraud or by 
violence : by the third we are enabled to inform and 
reform others by the light and feeling that we have 
attained unto ourselves : briefly, by the fourth, being 
brought together to a parle face to face, we sooner 
compose our differences than by writings, which are 
endless : and lastly, that the Church be sufficiently 
provided for is so agreeable to good reason and 
conscience, that those mothers are holden to be less 
cruel, that kill their children as soon as they are born, 
than those nursing fathers and mothers (wheresoever 
they be) that withdraw from them who hang upon 
their breasts (and upon whose breasts again them- 
selves do hang to receive the spiritual and sincere 
milk of the word) livelihood and support fit for their 
estates. Thus it is apparent, that these things which 
we speak of are of most necessary use, and therefore 
that none, either without absurdity can speak against 
them, or without note of wickedness can spurn against 
Anacharsis Yct for all that, the learned know that certain 
=6], with. ' worthy men have been brought to untimely death for 
none other fault, but for seeking to reduce their 
Locri. countrymen to good order and discipline : and that in 

some Commonweals it was made a capital crime, 
once to motion the making of a new law for the 
abrogating of an old, though the same were most 

The Translators to the Reader. * 269 

pernicious : And that certain, which would be count- Cato the 


ed pillars of the State, and patterns of virtue and 
prudence, could not be brought for a long time to 
give way to good letters and refined speech; but 
bare themselves as averse from them, as from rocks 
or boxes of poison : And fourthly, that he was no Gregory tiu 

r 1 / T • • • Diuine [6 

babe, but a great clerk, that gave forth, (and m writing ©tdAovoi, 

, . . 1 , 1 ,_ of Nazian- 

to remam to posterity) m passion peradventure, \m.t zus -. i-x^^iLkv 
yet he gave forth. That he had not seen any profit TA^e'es'wl'- 
to come by any synod or meeting of the Clergy, but ^Z',^VA. 
rather the contrary : And lastly, against Church- ^{XJko^Jv'" 
maintenance and allowance, in such sort as the am- °"^^a''„t'^"" 
bassadors and messengers of the great King of kings ]^^°^^^°'' 
should be furnished, it is not unknown what a fiction ^^jfi^^X 
or fable (so it is esteemed, and for no better by the '^^J^F' 
reporter himself, though superstitious) was devised : g^?^''^^ 
namely. That at such time as the professors and ^j°^^^J'?^ 
teachers of Christianity in the Church of Rome, then 124] 
a true Church, were liberally endowed, a voice for- [clronZ 
sooth was heard from heaven, saying. Now is poison p"^""]/"* 
poured down into the Church, &c. Thus not only 
as oft as we speak, as one saith, but also as oft as we 
do any thing of note or consequence, we subject our- 
selves to every one's censure, and happy is he that is 
least tossed upon tongues ; for utterly to escape the 
snatch of them it is impossible. If any man conceit 
that this is the lot and portion of the meaner sort 
only, and that princes are privileged by their high 
estate he is deceived. As the sword devoureth as well » Sam. n. 
one as another, as it is in Samuel; nay, as the great 
commander charged his soldiers in a certain battle 
to strike at no part of the enemy, but at the face ; 
and as the king of Syria commanded his chief captains 
to fight neither with small nor great, save only against i.-&:^. 22.31. 

2 70 The Translators to the Reader. 

the king of Israel: so it is too true, that envy striketh 
most spitefully at the fairest, and at the chiefest. 
David was a worthy prince, and no man to be com- 
pared to him for his first deeds ; and yet for as worthy 
= Sam. 6. is. an act as ever he did, even for bringing back the ark 
of God in solemnity, he was scorned and scoffed at 
by his own wife. Solomon was greater than David, 
though not in virtue, yet in power; and by his power 
and wisdom he built a temple to the Lord, such a one 
as was the glory of the land of Israel, and the wonder 
of the whole world. But was that his magnificence 
liked of by all ? • We doubt of it. Otherwise why do 
they lay it in his son's dish, and call unto him for 
to-ei<r«x- teasing of the burden? Make, say they, the grievous 
Thesauri ' Servitude of thy father, and his sore yoke, lighter. Be- 
l°s\' '' ^' like he had charged them with some levies, and 
I Km. 12. 4. {•yQ^]2lg(J them with some carriages ; hereupon they 
raise up a tragedy, and wish in their heart the temple 
had never been built. So hard a thing it is to please 
all, even when we please God best, and do seek to 
approve ourselves to every one's conscience. 
The highest If wc wiU dcscend to later times, we shall find 
have°befr many the like examples of such kind, or rather un- 
c'tean'*' kind, acceptance. The first Roman Emperor did 
Plutarch nevcr do a more pleasing deed to the learned, nor 

\cat. 59]. -^ ° ' 

more profitable to posterity, for conserving the record 
of times in true supputation, than when he corrected 
the Calendar, and ordered the year according to the 
course of the sun : and yet this was imputed to him 
for novelty and arrogancy, and procured to him great 
Constantine obloqu)'. So the first Christened Emperor, (at the 
—35].^°^ leastwise, that openly professed the faith himself, and 
allowed others to do the like) for strengthening the 
empire at his great charges, and providing for the 

The Translators to the Reader. * 271 

Church, as he did, got for his labour the name Pu- ^urei. vict. 
pillus, as who would say, a wasteful Prince, that had j6]. 
need of a guardian or overseer. So the best Chris- Theodosius 

1 -i-i [a,d. 379 

tened Emperor, for the love that he bare unto peace, —95]. 
thereby to enrich both himself and his subjects, and 
because he did not seek war, but find it, was judged Zosimus 
to be no man at arms, (though in deed he excelled in i^i^ dwuneiy 
feats of chivalry, and shewed so much when he was f«i'x"'!, 'H- 
provoked) and condemned for giving himself to his ' 
ease, and to his pleasure. To be short, the most 
learned Emperor of former times, (at the least, the 5''«'"'m« 

7 . [a.d. 527 

greatest politician) what thanks had he for cutting off —^sl 
the superfluities of the laws, and digesting them into 
some order and method? This, that he hath been 
blotted by some to be an Epitomist, that is, one that 
extinguished worthy whole volumes, to bring his 
abridgments into request. This is the measure that 
hath been rendered to excellent Princes in former 
times, even, cum bene facerent, male audire, for their 
good deeds to be evil spoken of Neither is there 
any likelihood that envy and malignity died and were 
buried with the ancient. No, no, the reproof of Moses 
taketh hold of most ages. You are risen up in your Numb. 32. 
fathers^ stead, an increase of sinful men. What is that Ecdes. i. 9. 
that hath been done? that which shall be done: and 
there is no new thing imder the sun, saith the wise 
man. And St. Stephen, As your fathers did, so do ye. Acts 7. 51. 
This, and more to this purpose, his Majesty that now ,^J|^^J=^" 
reigneth (and long and long may he reign, and his =^?^^yj "j°;'' 
offspring for ever, Himself and children and childreji's caiumnia- 
children always*) knew full well, according to the surveyor the 
singular wisdom given unto him by God, and the rare translations. 
learning and experience that he hath attained unto ; lUt^J' 
namely, that whosoever attempteth any thing for the llf^^SX 

272 The Translators to the Reader. 

mme?'" publick, (specially if it pertain to religion, and to the 

^osi' ^^' opening and clearing of the word of God) the same 

setteth himself upon a stage to be gloated upon by 

every evil eye ; yea, he casteth himself headlong upon 

pikes, to , be gored by every sharp tongue. For he 

that meddleth with men's religion in any part meddleth 

with their custom, nay, with their freehold ; and though 

they End no content in that which they have, yet they 

cannot abide to hear of altering. Notwithstanding 

Suida!. his royal heart was not daunted or discouraged for 

oVSpia's oVe-_ this or that colour, but stood resolute, as a statue 

a/cfuai-oiniAa- iinmovcaMe, and an anvil not easy to be beaten into 


plates, as one saith; he knew who had chosen him 
to be a soldier, or rather a captain ; and being assured 
, that the course which he intended made much for 
the glory of God, and the building up of his Church, 
he would not suffer it to be broken off for whatsoever 
speeches or practices. It doth certainly belong unto 
kings, yea, it doth specially belong unto them, to 
have care of religion, yea, to know it aright, yea, to 
profess it zealously, yea, to promote it to the utter- 
most of their power. This is their glory before all 
nations which mean well, and this will bring unto 
them a far most excellent weight of glory in the day 
of the Lord Jesus. For the Scripture saith not in 
I Sam. -i. 30. vain, Them that honour me I will honour • neither 
esonipsia. was it a vain word that Eusebius delivered long ago, 

BtisebUis , . 1 ^ , o o J 

[Hist. Ecci-\ 1 hat piety towards God was the weapon, and the only 

lib.xo.cap.Z. i t i ■, ^ 

weapon, that both preserved Constantine's person, and 
avenged him of his enemies. 

SfnoTy"'^ ^^^ "°^ ^^^' Pi^'y without truth? What truth. 

Scriptures, what Saving truth, without the word of God? What 

word of God, whereof we may be sure, without the 

Scripture? The Scriptures we are commanded to 

The Translators to the Reader. *2 73 

search. John 5. 39. Isaiah 8. 20. They are com- 
mended that searched and studied them. Acts 17. 11. 
and 8.. 28, 29. They are reproved that were unskilful 
in them, or slow to believe them. Matth. 22. 29. 
Luke 24. 25. They can make us wise unto salvation. 
2 Tim. 3. 15. If we be ignorant, they will instruct 
us ; if out of the way, they will bring us home ; if 
out of order, they will reform us ; if in heaviness, 
comfort us ; if dull, quicken us ; if cold, inflame us. 
Tolle, lege; tolle, lege; Take up and read, take up and •^^ ^^g^t. 

J , P, . , ^ Confess, lib. 

read the bcnptures, (for unto them was the direction) 8. cap. 12. 
it was said unto S. Augustine by a supernatural voice. 
Whatsoever is in the Scriptures, believe me, saith the -y- ^u^ist 
same S. Augustine, is high and divine; there is verily credaidu 
truth, and a doctrine most fit for the refreshing and 
renewing of men's minds, and truly so teinpered, that 
every one may draw from thence that which is sufficient 
for him, if he come to draw with a devout and pious 
mind, as true religion requireth. Thus St. Augustine. 
And S. Hierome, Ama Scripturas, et amabit te sapientia, s. Hiero- 
&c. Love the Scriptures, and wisdom will love thee, metkad. 
And S. Cyrill against Julian, Even boys that are bred 's. Cy°m. -f 
up in the Scriptures, become most religious, &c. But ^fonh-a 
what mention we three or four uses of the Scripture, "m^^tr" 
whereas whatsoever is to be believed, or practised, f'"-™?' 
or hoped for, is contained in them ? or three or four '•eSpoffieVa 


sentences of the Fathers, since whosoever is worthy Tf™"" ""„ 

^ evdvi TtSv 071 

the name of a Father, from Christ's time downward, m^^'itto 
hath likewise written not only of the riches, but also ™w- 
of the perfection of the Scripture ? / adore the fulness adv^s. 
of the Scripture, saith Tertullian against Hermogenes."^"""'^""^' 
And again, to Apelles a heretick of the like stamp he ^^'''«^- Oe 
saith, I do not admit that which thou bringest in (or chnst. 

^ lcaj>. 7]. 

concludest) of thine own (head or store, de tuo) with- 
s. 18 

2 74 The Translators to the Reader. 

Justin. out Scripture. So Saint Justin Martyr before him ; 

TrpOTpeTTT. . 

irpbi'EAAiji/. We must know by all means (saith he) that it is not 
icaj>. -fifin.i lawful (or possible) to learn (any thing) of God or of 
right piety., save only otd of the Prophets, who teach us 
s. Basil. hy divine inspiration. So Saint Basil after Teriullian, 
[cap.i,p. It is a manifest falling away from the faith, and a 

224J, _ 

'YTTep-i)^ai>Cai fault of presumption, either to reject any of those things 

that are written, or to bring in (upon the head of them, 

eTrettrayetv) any of those things that are not written. 

We omit to cite to the same effect S. Cyrill, Bishop 

of Jerusalem in his 4. Cateches. Saint Hierome against 

Helvidius, Saint Augustine in his third book against 

the letters of Fetilian, and in very many other places 

of his works. Also we forbear to descend to latter 

Fathers, because we will not weary the reader. The 

Scriptures then being acknowledged to be so full and 

so perfect, how can we excuse ourselves of neghgence, 

if we do not study them? of curiosity, if we be not 

Elp€l7la!^^, content with them? Men talk much of dpitriiorq, 

"Zxnima^'l how many sweet and goodly things it had hanging 

M?™X' JOTO-- on it ; of the Philosopher's stone, -that it turneth 

ol?,'&c'°'"" copper into gold; of Cornu-copia, that it had all 

teugh^° things necessary for food in it ; of Panaces the herb, 

rStwith ^'^'^ i' was good for all diseases; of Catholicon the 

wool, where 


^J"=- drug, that it is instead of all purges ; of Vulcan's 
aS^bread, armour, that it was an armour of proof against all 
|"p'^oJ;™X° thrusts and all blows, S^c. Well, that which they 
"'• falsely or vainly attributed to these things for bodily 

good, we may justly and with full measure ascribe 
unto the Scripture for spiritual. It is not only an 
armour, but also a whole armoury of weapons, both 
offensive and defensive ; whereby we may save our- 
selves, and put the enemy to flight. It is not an 
[Rev. 22. =.] herb, but a tree, or rather a whole paradise of trees 

The Translators to the Reader. 


of life, which bring forth fruit every month, and the 
fruit thereof is for meat, and the leaves for medicine. 
It is not a pot of Manna or a cruse of oil, which 
were for memory only, or for a meal's meat or two ; 
but as it were a shower of heavenly bread sufficient 
for a whole host, be it never so great, and as it were 
a whole cellar full of oil vessels ; whereby all our 
necessities may be provided for, and our debts dis- 
charged. In a word, it is a panary of wholesome 
food against fenowed^ traditions; a physician's shop Koii/iu- lu- 
(Saint Basil calleth it) of preservatives against poisoned ^s's^dsU. in 
heresies; a pandect of profitable laws against rebellious mum 
spirits; a treasury of most costly jewels against beg- ^^^'■*"'^- 
garly rudiments ; finally, a fountain of most pure water 
springing up unto everlasting life. And what marvel? 
the original thereof being from heaven, not from 
earth; the author being God, not man; the inditer, 
the Holy Spirit, not the wit of the Apostles or Pro- 
phets; the penmen, such as were sanctified from the 
womb, and endued with a principal portion of God's 
Spirit; the matter, verity, piety, purity, uprightness; 
the form, God's word, God's testimony, God's oracles, 
the word of truth, the word of salvation, &=c.: the 
effects, light of understanding, stableness of persuasion, 
repentance from dead works, newness of life, hohness, 
peace, joy in the Holy Ghost; lastly, the end and 
reward of the study thereof, fellowship with the saints, 
participation of the heavenly nature, fruition of an 
inheritance immortal, undefiled, and that never shall 
fadeaway: Happy is the man that dehghteth in the 

1 "Fenowed," i.e. mouldy. Richardson quotes Dr Favour, 
Triumph over Nmelty (1619), " The foisty and fenowed festival, " 
the word being chosen perhaps for the sake of alliteration. 


276 The Translators to the Reader. 

Scripture, and thrice happy that meditateth in it day 

^nd night. 

Translation But how shall men meditate in that which they 

necessary. ^^.^^^^ Understand ? How shall they understand that 

which is kept close in an unknown tongue? as it is 

iCor.i4[ii]. written, Except I know the power of the voice, I shall 

be to him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh 

shall be a barbarian to me. The Apostle excepteth 

no tongue ; not Hebrew the ancientest, not Greek the 

most copious, not Latin the finest. Nature taught a 

natural man to confess, that all of us in those tongues 

which we do not understand are plainly deaf; we 

Clem. Alex, may turn the deaf ear unto them. The Scythian 

[cap. XVI.' counted the Athenian, whom he did not understand, 

^' '^^ ■ barbarous : so the Roman did the Syrian and the 

i'. Hie- Jew: (even S. Hierome himself calleth the Hebrew 

Damaso. tongue barbarous ; belike, because it was strange to 

Michael. SO many:) so the Emperor of Constantinople calleth 

fii. ^ ' the Latin tongue barbarous, though Pope Nicolas do 

^Condi. ex storm at it : so the Jews long before Christ called all 

"crah^"*"' other nations Lognazim^, which is little better than 

barbarous. Therefore as one complaineth that always 

Cicero 5. De in the Senate of Rome there was one or other that 

icaj,. XXIX. called for an interpreter; so, lest the Church be driven 

' ' to the like exigent, it is necessary to have translations 

in a readiness. Translation it is that openeth the 

window, to let in the light; that breaketh the shell, 

that we may eat the kernel; that putteth aside the 

curtain, that we may look into the most holy place ; 

that removeth the cover of the well, that we may 

Gen. 29. 10. come by the water ; even as Jacob rolled away the 

stone from the mouth of the well, by which means 

1 D»Tyi^, from tV^ Ps. cxiv. 1. 

The Translators to the Reader. * 277 

the flocks of Laban were watered. Indeed without 

translation into the vulgar tongue, the unlearned are 

but hke children at Jacob's well (which was deep) john 4. n. 

without a bucket or something to draw with : or as 

that person mentioned by Esay, to whom when a sealed 

book was delivered with this motion, Read this, I pray isai. 29. h, 

thee, he was fain to make this answer, I cannot, for 

it is sealed. 

While God would be known only in Jacob, and The transia- 
have his name great in Israel, and in none other old Tes'^^- 
place; while the dew lay on Gideon's fleece only, SrHebrew 
and all the earth besides was dry ; then for one and "'" ^'^'''• 
the same people, which spake all of them the Ian- See 5-. au- 
guage of Canaan, that is, Hebrew, one and the same contra 
original in Hebrew was sufficient. But when the ful- -i^^ ' '"'^' 
ness of time drew near, that the Sun of righteousness, 
the Son of God, should come into the world, whom 
God ordained to be a reconciliation through faith in 
his blood, not of ^z Jew only, but also of the Greek, 
yea, of all them that were scattered abroad; then lo, it 
pleased the Lord to stir up the spirit of a Greek Prince, 
{Greek for descent and language) even of Ptolemy 
Fhiladelph king oi Egypt, to procure the translating 
of the book of God out of Hebrew into Greek. This 
is the translation of the Seventy interpreters, commonly 
so called, which prepared the way for our Saviour 
among the Gentiles by written preaching, as ^i&vatjohn 
Baptist did among the Jews by vocal. For the 
Grecians, being desirous of learning, were not wont to 
suffer books of worth to lie moulding in kings' Ubra- 
ries, but had many of their servants, ready scribes, 
to copy them out, and so they were dispersed and 
made common. Again, the Greek tongue was well 
known and made familiar to most inhabitants in Asia 

278 The Translators to the Reader. 

by reason of the conquest that there the Grecians had 
made, as also by the colonies which thither they had 
sent. For the same causes also it was well understood 
in many places of Europe, yea, and of Africk too. 
Therefore the word of God being set forth in Greek, 
becometh hereby like a candle set upon a candlestick, 
which giveth light to all that are in the house; or 
like a proclamation sounded forth in the market-place, 
which most men presently take knowledge of; and 
therefore that language was fittest to contain the 
Scriptures, both for the first preachers of the Gospel 
to appeal unto for witness, and for the learners also of 
those times to make search and trial by. It is cer- 
tain, that that translation was not so sound and so 
perfect, but that it needed in many places correction ; 
and who had been so sufficient for this work as the 
Apostles or apostolic men? Yet it seemed good to 
the Holy Ghost and to them to take that which they 
found, (the same being for the greatest part true and 
sufficient) rather than by making a new, in that new 
world and green age of the Church, to expose them- 
selves to many exceptions and cavillations, as though 
they made a translation to serve their own turn, and 
therefore bearing witness to themselves, their witness 
not to be regarded. This may be supposed to be 
some cause, why the translation of the Seventy was 
allowed to pass for current. Notwithstanding, though 
it was commended generally, yet it did not fully con- 
tent the learned, no not of the Jews. P'or not long 
after Christ, Aquila fell in hand with a new trans- 
lation, and after him Theodotion, and after him Sym- 
machus: yea, there was a fifth and a sixth edition, the 
authors whereof were not known. These with the 
Seventy made up the Hexapla, and were worthily and 

The Translators to the Reader. • 279 

to great purpose compiled together by Origen. How- 
beit the edition of the Seventy went away with the 
credit, and therefore not only was placed in the midst 
by Orisen, (for the worth and excellency thereof above -s/2>>'4««--o« 

mensuris ei 

the rest, as Epiphanius gathereth) but also was w&zA. inn^d^rH-us 
by the Greek Fathers for the ground and foundation gee ^. Au- 
of their commentaries. Yea, Epiphanius above-named ^aoctriJ?' 
doth attribute so much unto it, that he holdeth \}i^^chrhtian. 
authors thereof not only for interpreters, but also for 
prophets in some respect: zxid Justinian the Emperor, Novel, dia- 
enjoining the Jews his subjects to use specially the 
Translation of the Seventy, rendereth this reason there- npo^ijn/cijg 
of, Because they were, as it were, enlightened with rot mpiAof*- 
prophetical grace. Yet for all that, as the Egyptians toxI;. 
are said of the Prophet to be men and not God, and '^""^ ^'' ^' 
their horses flesh and not spirit : so it is evident, 
(and Saint Hierome affirmeth as much) that the Seventy 5;^J;X'' 
were interpreters, they were not prophets. They did %"J^l"J^(^ 
many things well, as learned men; but yet as men ^''■'»"""«- 

they stumbled and fell, one while through oversight, l^'^-^JJ^"'^ 
another while through ignorance; yea, sometimes they ™S;.";^^f 
may be noted to add to the original, and sometimes esse. Apoi 
to take from it : which made the Apostles to leave ub u. mj. 


them many times, when they left the Hebrew, and to 
deliver the sense thereof according to the truth of the 
word, as the Spirit gave them utterance. This may 
suffice touching the Greek translations of the Old 

There were also within a few hundred years after Translation 

f. out of He- 

Christ translations many into the Latin tongue : tor brew and 

, - -, Greek into 

this tongue also was very fit to convey the law and Latin, 
the Gospel by, because in those times very many, 
countries of the West, yea of the South, East, and 
North, spake or understood Latin, being made pro- 

2 8o The Translators to the Reader. 

vinces to the Romans. But now the Latin translations 

were too many to be all good, for they were infinite ; 

s. August. {Latini interpretes nullo modo numerari possunt, saith S. 

ch,ZtKb. Augustine.) Again, they were not out of the Hebrew 

2. caf. ir. fQmjj^jjj^ ^\^g gpg^jj of ^^^Q j^cifi.^ translations of the 

Old Testament) but out of the Greek stream; therefore 
the Greek being not altogether clear, the Latin .de- 
rived from it must needs be muddy. This moved 
S. Hierome, a most learned Father, and the best lin- 
guist without controversy of his age, or of any that 
went before him, to undertake the translating of the 
Old Testament out of the very fountains themselves; 
which he performed with that evidence of great learn- 
ing, judgment, industry, and faithfulness, that he hath 
for ever bound the Church unto him in a debt of 
special remembrance and thankfulness. 
The transiat- Now though the Church were thus furnished with 
Scripture Greek and Latin translations, even before the faith of 
gar tongues! Christ was generally embraced in the Empire : (for 
6'. Hieron. the learned know that even in S. Hierome' s time the 
nus] Mar- Consul of Rome and his wife were both Ethmcks, and 
Zasim. about the same time the greatest part of the Senate 
also) yet for all that the godly learned were not con- 
tent to have the Scriptures in the language which 
2 Kin. 7. 9. themselves understood, Greek and Latin, (as the good 
lepers were not content to fare well themselves, but 
acquainted their neighbours with the store that God 
had sent, that they also might provide for themselves) 
but also for the behoof and edifying of the unlearned 
which hungered and thirsted after righteousness, and 
had souls to be saved as well as they, tbey provided 
translations into the vulgar for their countrymen, inso- 
much that most nations under heaven did shortly 
after their conversion hear Christ speaking unto them 

The Translators to the Reader. * 281 

in their mother tongue, not by the voice of their minis- 
ter only, but also by the written word translated. If 
any doubt hereof, he may be satisfied by examples 
enough, if enough will serve the turn. First, S. Hie- s- H^'yt- 

' '^ Prsf. in. 4. 

rome saith, Multarum gentium Unguis Serif tura ante Evangel, 
translata docet falsa esse qua addiia sunt, &c. i. e. The 
Scripture being translated before in the language of many 
nations doth shew that those things that were added (by 
Lucian or Hesychius) are false. So S. Hierome in that 
place. The same Hierome elsewhere affirmeth that he, s. meron. 
the time was, had set forth the translation of the 
Seventy, sucb linguce hominibus ; i. e. for his country- 
men of Dalmatia. Which words not only Erasmus 
doth understand to purport, that S. Hierome translated 
the Scripture into the Dabnatian tongue ; but also six. Sen. 
Sixtus Senensis, and Alphonsus a Castro, (that we \iJhon. a 
speak of no more) men not to be excepted against by '^'^Jll'lt' 
them of Rome, do ingenuously confess as much. So ^ ckrysast. 
S. Chrysostome, that lived in S. Hierome' s time, giveth ''Zp.Th^^. i 
evidence with him : The doctrine of S. John (saith he) 1^^ ^^' 
did not in such sort (as the Philosophers did) vanish 
away: but the Syrians, Egyptians, Indians, Persians, 
Ethiopians, and infinite other nations, being barbarous 
people, translated it into their (mother) tongue, and have 
learned to be {true) Philosophers, he meaneth Christians. 
To this may be added Theodoret, as next unto him Theodor. 
both for antiquity, and for learning. His words be rZ^peut. 
these. Every country that is under the sun is full ^^.4;^ ^ 
these words (of the Apostles and Prophets) and the 
Hebrew tongue (he meaning the Scriptures in the He- 
brew tongue) is turned not only into the language of 
the Grecians, but also of the Romans, and Egyptians, 
and Persians, and Indians, and Armenians, and Scy- 
thians, and Sauromatians, and, briefly, into all the 

282 The Translators to the Reader. 

languages which any nation useth. So he. In like 
p. Diacon. manner Ulpilas is reported by Paulus Diaconus and 
isid. in Isidore, and before them by Sozomen, to have trans- 
Sozort^. lib. ' lated the Scriptures into the Gothic tongue : John 
v^fetain Bishop of Sevil by Vasseus, to have turned them into 
Hhpan. Arabick about the year of our Lord 717: Beda by 

Cistertiensis, to have turned a great part of them into 
Poiydor. SaxoH : Efuard by Trithemius, to have abridged the 
iorf'Angio- French Psalter (as Beda had done the Hebrew) about 
idem de the year 800 : King Alured by the said Cistertiensis, to 
no^tn. have turned the Psalter into Saxon: Methodius by 
lib't"' Aventinus (printed at Ingolstad) to have turned the 
\circaa71- Scriptures into Sclavonian^: Valdo Bishop of Prising 

nu7n goo. ^ . 

B. Rhenan. 'by Beatus Rhenanus, to have caused about that time 

rentm Ger- 
man, lib. 2. the Gospels to be translated into Dutch rhythme, yet 

extant in the library of Corbinian^ : Valdus by divers, 

to have turned them himself, or to have gotten them 

turned into French about the year 1160 : Charles the 

fifth of that name, surnamed The wise, to have caused 

them to be turned into French, about 200 years after 

Valdus his time ; of which translation there be many 

Beroaid. copies yet extant, as writnesseth Beroaldus. Much 
about that time, even in our King Richard the second's 

[«><;« 1387.] A3.ys,John Trevisa' translated them into English, and 
many English Bibles in written hand are yet to be 
seen with divers; translated, as it is very probable, in 
that age. So the Syrian translation of the New Testa- 

[1555-] ment is in most learned men's libraries, of Widmin- 
stadius his setting forth ; and the Psalter in Arabick is 

[1516.] •v^fith many, of Augustinus Nebiensis' setting forth. So 

^ S. Corbinian's Library at Freising on the Isar. See 
Ussher, Historia Dogniatica, a.d. 890. 

^ John Trevisa, the Cornishman's claim, as a Translator of 
the Bible, is roughly treated by Dr Eadie [English Bible, Vol. 
I. p. 60). 

The Translators to the Reader. • 283 

Foster aiErmeth, that in his travel he saw the Gospels 
in the Ethiopian tongue : And Ambrose Theshis alleg- 
eth the Psalter of the Indians, which he testifieth to [Aethbpic] 
have been set forth by Potken in Syrian characters''. 
So that to have the Scriptures in the mother tongue is [1513] 
not a quaint conceit lately taken up, either by the 
Lord Cromwell in Endand. or by the Lord Radevil in f'saS-J 
Polonie, or by the Lord Ungnadius in the Emperor's 
dominion, but hath been thought upon, and put in 
practice of old, even from the first times of the con- 
version of any nation ; no doubt, because it was es- 
teemed most profitable to cause faith to grow in men's 
hearts the sooner, and to make them to be able to 
say with the words of the Psalm, As we have heard, so ps. 48. s. 
we have seen. 

Now the Church of Roine would seem at the The unwiii- 
lengthto bear a motherly affection towards her chil- our chief ad- 
dren, and to allow them the Scriptures in their mother that the 
tongue : but indeed it is a gift, not deserving to be shoSd'wi- 
called a gift*, an unprofitable gift: they must first ^"'tte-'" ""^ 
get a license in writing before they may use them ; i°^|^^^ fj^-. 
and to get that, they must approve themselves to p°^™"" °'^'- 
their Confessor, that is, to be such as are, if not g^^^f=^,, 
frozen in the dregs, yet soured with the leaven ofsss^l-^J^ 
their superstition. Howbeit, it seemed too much to °^llY„li^ly 
Clement the eighth that there should be any hcense ^tSyf" 
granted to have them in the vulgar tongue, and uponjh^^^th 
therefore he overruleth and friistrateth the grant of^=^1^^^= 
Pius the fourth. So much are they afraid of the light SeSi 

lib. profLib. 
fag. 15. 

vnr. 5. 

' If the reference is to the Linguarum duodecim characteribus 
differentium Alphabetum (1538) of *« voluminous mystic W. 
Postel [1510—1581], the fact here named is rather imphed than 
stated in sheet F, de Indica lingua. 

2 Walton, Prolegomena, xiv. 19, ill. 

284 The Translators to the Reader. 

Tertui. de of the Scripture, (LucifugcB Scripturarum, as Tertul- 

resitr, car- r ' \ ^ o r ^ 

nis [cap. 47]. lian speaketh) that they will not trust the people with 
it, no not as it is set forth by their own sworn men, 
no not with the license of their own Bishops and 
Inquisitors. Yea, so unwilling they are to commu- 
nicate the Scriptures to the people's understanding in 
any sort, that they are not ashamed to confess that 
we forced them to translate it into English against 
their wills. This seemeth to argue a bad cause, or 
a. bad conscience, or both. Sure we are, that it is 
not he that hath good gold, that is afraid to bring 
it to the touchstone, but he that hath the counterfeit; 
neither is it the true man that shunneth the Hght, 
John 3. 20. but the malefactor, lest his deeds should be reproved ; 
neither is it the plain-dealing merchant that is un- 
willing to have the weights, or the meteyard, brought 
in place, but he that useth deceit. But we will let 
them alone for this fault, and return to translation. 
The speeches Many men's mouths have been open a good while 
both'^^four' (and yet are not stopped) with speeches about the 
andoFoir translation so long in hand, or rather perusa,ls of 
aglfnsrthTs' translations made before: and ask what may be the 
^°' ' reason, what the necessity, of the employment. Hath 

the Church been deceived, say they, all this while? 
Hath her sweet bread been mingled with leaven, her 
silver with dross, her wine with water, her milk with 
J', iren. lib. lime? {lade gypsum mali miscetur, saith S. Ireney.) 
lea/', xvii. We hoped that we had been in the right way, that 
'^^ ■ yfQ had had the oracles of God delivered unto us, and 
that though all the world had cause to be offended, 
and to complain, yet that we had none. Hath the 
nurse holden out the breast, and nothing but wind 
in it ? Hath the bread been delivered by the Fathers 
of the Church, and the same proved to be lapidosus, 

The Translators to the Reader. * 285 

as Seneca speaketh? What is it to handle the word 
of God deceitfully, if this be not? Thus certain 
brethren. Also the adversaries of Judah and Hie- 
rusalem, like Sanballat in Nehemiah, mock, as we 
hear, both at the work and workmen, saying, What Neh. 4. 2, 3. 
do these weak Jews, &c. will they make the stones whole 
again out of the heaps of dust which are burnt 1 
Although they build, yet if a fox go up, he shall even 
break down their stony wall. Was their translation 
good before? Why do they now mend it? Was it 
not good? Why then was it obtruded to the people? 
Yea, why did the Catholicks (meaning Popish Roman- 
ists) always go in jeopardy for refusing to go to hear 
it ? Nay, if it must be translated into English, Catho- 
licks are fittest to do it. They have learning, and 
they know when a thing is well, they can manum de 
tabulA. We will answer them both briefly: and the 
former, being brethren, thus with St. Hierome, Dam- s. Hieron. 
namus veteres 1 Minimi, sed post priorum studia in virs^Ruffin 
domo Domini quod possumus laboramus. That is. Do asVMigne, 
we condemn th^ ancient 1 In no case: but after the ''™-"-5^°J- 
endeavours of them that were before us, we take the best 
pains we can in the house of God. As if he said. 
Being provoked by the example of the learned that 
lived before my time, I have thought it my duty to 
assay whether my talent in the knowledge of the 
tongues may be profitable in any measure to God's 
Church, lest I should seem to have laboured in them 
in vain, and lest I should be thought to glory in men 
(although ancient) above that which was in them. 
Thus S. Hierome may be thought to speak. 

And to the same effect say we, that we are so a satisfac- 

, , tion to our 

far off from condemning any of their labours that brethren, 
travailed before us in this kind, either in this land, 

286 The Translators to the Reader. 

or beyond sea, either in King Henry's time, or King 
Edward's, (if there were any translation, or correction 
of a translation, in his time) or Queen Elizabeth's of 
ever renowned memory, that we acknowledge Ihem 
to have been raised up of God for the building and 
furnishing of his Church, and that they deserve to be 
had of us and of posterity in everlasting-remembrance. 
The judgment of Aristotle is worthy and well known : 
Arht.^ 1 If Timotheus had not been, we had not had much sweet 
ixaTTov-]^ ^° musick : But if Phrynis {Timotheus his master) had 
cJp!'x [§'3'.] not been, we had not had Timotheus. Therefore bless- 
ed be they, and most honoured be their name, that 
break the ice, and give the onset upon that which 
helpeth forward to the saving of souls. Now what 
can be more available thereto, than to deliver God's 
book unto God's people in a tongue which they un- 
j Epij>han. derstand ? Since of an hidden treasure, and of a 
^itatf^ fountain that is sealed, there is no profit, as Ptolemy 
[p. 279]. Philadelph wrote to the Rabbins or masters of the 
^^I^^P^f'^- Jews, as witnesseth Epiphanius : and as S. Augustine 
civit. Dei, saith, A man had rather be with his dog than with 

cap. 7. " 

a stranger (whose tongue is strange unto him). Yet 
for all that, as nothing is begun and perfected at the 
same time, and the latter thoughts are thought to be 
the wiser: so, if we building upon their foundation 
that went, before us, and being holpen by their labours, 
do endeavour to make that better which they left 
so good; no man, we are sure, hath cause to mislike 
us; they, we persuade ourselves, if they were alive, 
would thank us. The vintage of Abiezer, that strake 
the stroke ; yet the gleaning of grapes of Ephraim 

judg. 8. .<. was not to be despised. See Judges viii. verse 2. 

2 Kin. 13. 18, joash the king of Israel did not satisfy himself till 
he had smitten the ground three times ; and yet he 

The Translators to the Reader. * 287 

offended the Prophet for giving over then. Aquila, 
of whom we spake before, translated the Bible as 
carefully and as skilfully as he could ; and yet he 
thought good to go over it again, and then it got 
the credit with the Tews to be called Kara aKoiBuav, s. Hiemi. 

■' . , inEzech. 

that is, accurately done, as St. Hierome witnesseth. m^i. 3 \ver. 
How many books of profane learning have been 
gone over again and again, by the same translators, 
by others ? Of one and the same book of Aristotle's 
Ethics there are extant not so few as six or seven 
several translations. Now if this cost may be bestow- 
ed upon the gourd, which affordeth us a little shade, 
and which to-day flourisheth, but to-morrow is cut 
down; what may we bestow, nay, what ought we not 
to bestow, upon the vine, the fruit whereof maketh 
glad the conscience of man, and the stem whereof 
abideth for ever? And this is the word of God, 
which we translate. What is the chaff to the wheat 1 jer. 23. 28. 
saith the Lord. Tanti vitreum, quanti verum mar- 
saritum (saith Tertullian.) if a toy of glass be of that {cat.\\ 

1 1 it. 4. Si tanti vi- 

reckoning with us, how ought we to value tne true ussimum 
pearl? Therefore let no man's eye be evil, because '"gnanti'tre- 
his Majesty's is good ; neither let any be grieved, that Ma^ga'^r" 
we have a Prince that seeketh the increase of the '"oZ'ad"' 
spiritual wealth of Israel; (let Sanballats and Tobiahs ^^I'f;;^^''''- 
do so, which therefore do bear their just reproof) but [Neh. 4. 
let us rather bless God from the ground of our heart 
for working this religious care in him to have the 
translations of the Bible maturely considered of and 
examined. For by this means it cometh to pass, 
that whatsoever is sound already, (and all is sound 
for substance in one or other of our editions, and the 
worst of ours far better than their authentick Vulgar) 
the same will shine as gold more brightly, being 

The Translators to the Reader. 

rubbed and polished ; also, if any thing be halting, 
or superfluous, or not so agreeable to the original, the 
same may be corrected, and the truth set in place. 
And what can the King command to be done, that 
will bring him more true honour than this ? And 
wherein could they that have been set a work approve 
their duty to the King, yea, their obedience to God, 
and love to his Saints, more, than by yielding their 
service, and all that is within them, for the furnishing 
of the work? But besides all this, they were the 
principal motives of it, and therefore ought least to 
quarrel it. For the very historical truth is, that upon 
the importunate petitions of the Puritans at his 
Majesty's coming to this crown, the conference at 
Hampton Court having been appointed for hearing 
their complaints, when by force of reason they were 
put from all other grounds, they had recourse at the 
last to this shift, that they could not with good 
conscience subscribe to the Communion book, since 
it maintained the Bible as it was there translated, 
which was, as they said, a most corrupted translation. 
And although this was judged to be but a very poor 
and empty shift, yet even hereupon did his Majesty 
begin to bethink himself of the good that might ensue 
by a new translation, and presently after gave order 
for this translation which is now presented unto thee. 
Thus much to satisfy our scrupulous brethren. 
An answer to Now to the latter we answer, that we do not deny, 

the imputa- _^ , 

tionsofour nay, we affirm and avow, that the very meanest trans- 
lation of the Bible in English set forth by men of our 
profession (for we have seen none of theirs of the 
whole Bible as yet') containeth the word of God, nay, 

^ The Holy Bible faithfully translated into English out of 
the Authaitical Latin: Douay, 1609 — 16x0, 2 vols. 410. The 

The Translators to the Reader. 289 

is the word of God : as the King's speech which he 
uttered in Parliament, being translated into French, 
Dutch, Italian, and Latin, is still the King's speech, 
though it be not interpreted by every translator with 
the like grace, nor peradventure so fitly for phrase, 
nor so expressly for sense, every where. For it is 
confessed, that things are to take their denomination 
of the greater part; and a natural man could say, 
Verum ttbi inulta nitent in carmine, non ego paucis Horace, 
offendor maculis, Szc. A man may be counted a vir- p£^s" 
tuous man, though he have made many slips in his ^"' ^^' 
life, (else there were none virtuous, for in many things James 3. 2. 
•we offend all.) also a comely man and lovely, though 
he have some warts upon his hand, yea, not only 
freckles upon his face, but also scars. No cause 
therefore why the word translated should be denied to 
be the word, or forbidden to be current, notwithstand- 
ing that some imperfections and blemishes may be 
noted in the setting forth of it. For whatever was 
perfect under the sun, where Apostles or apostolick 
men, that is, men endued with an extraordinary mea- 
sure of God's Spirit, and privileged with the privilege 
of infallibility, had not their hand ? The Romanists 
therefore in refusing to hear, and daring to burn the 
word translated, did no less than despite the Spirit of 
grace, from whom originally it proceeded, and whose 
sense and meaning, as well as man's weakness would 
enable, it did express. Judge by an example or two. ^f^f^^liAtb 
Plutarch writeth, that after that Rome had been «'^' Terapav- 

. , _ [i.e.Vt\V TOtS 

burnt by the Gauls, they fell soon to build it again : ^e.-utoJikoI 
but doing it in haste, they did not cast the streets, m,»>7- raJs 

avijyayov ttJv 

writer must have seen the first volume of the Douay Bible, ""fsl^Ll 
since neither tunike nor rational (see p. 302) occur m the Ta^ous. m>. 
Rhemish New Testament. 32]- 

s. 19 , 

290 The Translators to the Reader. 

nor proportion the houses, in such comely fashion, as 
had been most sightly and convenient. Was Catiline 
therefore an honest man, or a good patriot, that 
sought to bring it to a combustion ? or Nero a good 
Ezra 3. 12. Prince, that did indeed set it on fire ? So by the 
story of Ezra and the prophecy of Haggai it may be 
gathered, that the temple built by 2xrubbabel after the 
return from Babylon was by no means to be com- 
pared to the former built by Solomon : (for they that 
remembered the former wept when they considered 
the latter) notwithstanding might this latter either 
have been abhorred and forsaken by the Jews, or 
profaned by the Greeksl The like we are to think of 
translations. The translation of the Seventy dissenteth 
from the Original in many places, neither doth it 
come near it for perspicuity, gravity, majesty; yet 
which of the Apostles did condemn it? Condemn it? 
Nay, they used it, (as it is apparent, and as Saint 
Hierome and most learned men do confess) which 
they would not have done, nor by their example of 
using of it so grace and commend it to the Church, 
if it had been unworthy the appellation and name of 
the word of God. And whereas they urge for their 
second defence of their vilifying and abusing of the 
English Bibles, or some pieces thereof, which they 
meet with, for that Hereticks forsooth were the au- 
thors of the translations : (Hereticks they call us by 
the same right that they call themselves Catholicks, 
. both being wrong) we marvel what divinity taught them SO. We are sure Tertullian was of another 
contra ' mind : Ex personis prohamus fidem, an ex fide pa-- 
{cap. 3]. sonas 7 Do we try men's faith by their persons ? We 
should try their persons by their faith. Also S. Au- 
gustine was of another mind : for he, lighting upon 

The Translators to the Reader. * 291 

certain rules made by Tychonius a Donatist for the 
better understanding of the Word, was not ashamed 
to make use of them, yea, to insert them into his own 
book, with giving commendation to them so far 
forth as they were worthy to be commended, as is to 
be seen in St. Augustine's third book De Doctrind, s. August. 
Christian^. To be short, Origen, and tlie whole Christ, cap. 
Church of God for certain hundred years, were of 
another mind : for they were so far from treading 
under foot (much more from burning) the translation 
of Aquila a proselyte, that is, one that had turned 
Jew, of Symmachus, and Theodotion, both Ebionites, 
that is, most vile hereticks, that they joined them 
together with the Hebrew original, and the trans- 
lation of the Seventy, (as hath been before signified 
out of Epiphanius) and set them forth openly to be 
considered of and perused by all. But we weary the 
unlearned, who need not know so much ; and trouble 
the learned, who know it already. 

Yet before we end, we must answer a third cavil 
and objection of theirs against us, for altering and 
amending our Translations so oft ; wherein truly they 
deal hardly and strangely with us. For to whom ever 
was it imputed for a fault (by such as were wise) to 
go over that which he had done, and to amend it 
where he saw cause? Saint Augustine was not afraid ^. August 

Epzst. g. 

to exhort S. Hierome to a Paltnodia or recantation. 
The same S. Augustine was not ashamed to retractate, i-. August 
we might say, revoke, many thmgs that had passed at 
him and doth even glory that he seeth his infirmities, interdum 

' o ^ . , vitia TTiea, 

If we will be sons of the truth, we must consider what 5-. Aug,cst 
it speaketh, and trample upon our own credit, yea, 
and upon other men's too, if either be any way a 
hinderance to it. This to the cause. Then to the 

rg — 2 

292 The Translators to the Reader. 

persons we say, that of all men they ought to be most 
silent in this case. For what varieties have they, 
and what alterations have they made, not only of 
their service books, portesses\ and breviaries, but 
also of their Latin translation? The service book 
supposed to be made by S. Ambrose (Officium Am- 
brosianum) was a great while in special use and 
Dumnd. ui. request : but Pope Adrian, calling a council with the 
5. cat. 2. g^j J ^£- Qf^^fig^ tjjg Emperor, abolished it, yea, burnt 

it, and commanded the service book of Saint Gregory 
universally to be used. Well, Officium Gregorianum 
gets by this means to be in credit; but doth it con- 
tinue without change or altering? No, the very 
Roman service was of two fashions ; the new fashion, 
and the old, the one used in one Church, the other 
in another ; as is to be seen in Pamelius a Romanist 
his preface before Micrologus. The same Pamelius 
reporteth out of Radulphus de Rivo, that about the 
year of our Lord 1277 Pope Nicolas the third re- 
moved out of the churches of Rome the more ancient 
books (of service) and brought into use the missals of 
the Friers Minorites, and commanded them to be 
observed there ; insomuch that about an hundred 
years after, when the above named Radulphus hap- 
pened to be at Rorne, he found all the books to be 
new, of the new stamp. Neither was there this chop- 
ping and changing in the more ancient times only, 
but also of late. Pius Quintus himself confesseth, 
that every bishoprick almost had a peculiar kind of 
service, most unKke to that which others had ; which 

1 "Portesses," i.e. manuals of devotion. Spelt s\so portace, 
portus, &c. 

"And in his hand his portesse still he bare." 

Spenser, F. Q. i. 4. 

The Translators to the Reader. 293 

moved him to abolish all other breviaries, though 
never so ancient, and privileged and published by 
Bishops in their Dioceses, and to establish and ratify 
that only which was of his own setting forth in the 
year 1568. Now when the Father of their Church, 
who gladly would heal the sore of the daughter of his 
people softly and slightly, and make the best of it, 
findeth so great fault with them for their odds and 
jarring ; we hope the children have no great cause to 
vaunt of their uniformity. But the difference that 
appeareth between our translations, and our often 
correcting of them, is the thing that we are specially 
charged with ; let us see therefore whether they them- 
selves be without fault this way, (if it be to be 
counted a fault to correct) and whether they be fit 
men to throw stones at us : O tandem major parcas Horat. 
insane minori : they that are less sound themselves wr. 326]. ' 
ought not to object infirmities to others. If we 
should tell them that Valla, Stapulensis, Erasmus, 
and Vives, found fault with their vulgar translation, 
and consequently wished the same to be mended, 
or a new one to be made ; they would answer per- 
adventure, that we produced their enemies for wit- 
nesses against them; albeit they were in no other 
sort enemies, than as S. Paul was to the Galatians, oai. 4. 16. 
for telling them the truth : and it were to be wished, 
that they had dared to tell it them plainlier and 
oftener. But what will they say to this. That Pope 
Leo the tenth allowed Erasmus's translation of the 
New Testament, so much different from the Vulgar, 
by his apostolick letter and bull ? That the same Leo sixtm Se- 
exhorted Pagnine to translate the whole Bible, and 
bare whatsoever charges was necessary for the work? 
Surely, as the Aposde reasoneth to the Hebrews, that 

294 The Translators to the Reader. 

Heb. 7. II. if the former Law and Testament had been sufficient, 

& 8. 7. "^ 

there had been no need of the latter : so we may say, 
that if the old Vulgar had been at all points allow- 
able, to small purpose had labour and charges 
been undergone about framing of a new. If they 
say, it was one Pope's private opinion, and that he 
consulted only himself ; then we are able to go further 
with them, and to aver, that more of their chief men 
of all sorts, even their own Trent champions, Paiva 
and Vega, and their own Inquisitors, Hieronymus ab 
Oleastro, and their own Bishop Isidorus Clartus, and 
their own Cardinal Thomas a Vio Cajetan, do either 
make new translations themselves, or follow new ones 
of other men's making, or note the Vulgar interpreter 
for halting, none of them fear to dissent from him, 
nor yet to except against him. And call they this an 
uniform tenor of text and judgment about the text, 
so many of their worthies disclaiming the now re- 
ceived conceit? Nay, we will yet come nearer the 
[1588—40] quick. Doth not their Paris edition differ from the 
[1547] Lovaine, and Hentenius his from them both, and yet 

all of them allowed by authority? Nay, doth not 
Sixt-usy. Sixtus Qtdntus confess, that certain Catholicks (he 

fixa Bibiiis meancth certain of his own side) were in such a humour 
[1590]. . ' 

of translatmg the Scriptures into Latin, that Satan 

taking occasion by them, though they thought no such 

matter, did strive what he could, out of so uncertain 

and manifold a variety of translations, so to mingle 

all things, that nothing might seem to be left certain 

and firm in them ? Sic Nay further, did not the 

same Sixtus ordain by an inviolable decree, and that 

with the counsel and consent of his Cardinals, that 

the Latin edition of the Old and New Testament, 

which the Council of Trent would have to be authen- 

The Translators to the Reader. » 295 

tick, is the same without controversy which he then 
set forth, being diligently corrected and printed in 
the printinghouse of Vatican? Thus Sixtus in his 
Preface before his Bible. And yet Clement the eighth, 
his immediate successor, published another edition of [159=] 
.[iS92]the Bible, containing in it infinite differences from 
that of Sixtus, and many of them weighty and ma- 
terial ; and yet this must be authentick by all means. 
What is to have the faith of our glorious Lord Jesus 
■Christ with yea and nay, if this be not? Again, 
what is sweet harmony and consent, if this be ? There- 
fore, as Demaratus of Corinth advised 'a great King, [Diodoms, 
before he talked of the dissensions among the Grecians, ^^'' ®' 
to compose his domestick broils ; (for at that time 
his queen and his son and heir were at deadly feud 
with him) so all the while that our adversaries do 
make so many and so various editions themselves, 
and do jar so much about the worth and authority of 
them, they can with no show of equity challenge us 
for changing and correcting. 

But it is high time to leave them, and to shew The purpose 
in brief what we proposed to ourselves, and what ktors, wkh^" 
course we held, in this our perusal and survey of the h^T,^i- 
Bible. Truly, good Christian Reader, we never &"' °"^' 
thought from the beginning that we should need to 
make a new translation, nor yet to make of a bad one 
a good one ; (for then the imputation of Sixtus had 
been true in some sort, that our people had been 
fed with gall of dragons instead of wine, with whey 
instead of milk;) but to make a good one better, or 
out of many good ones one principal good one, not 
justly to be excepted against; that hath been our 
endeavour, that our mark. To that purpose there 
^ Xerxes. 

296 I'he Translators to the Reader. 

were many chosen, that were greater in other men's 
eyes than in their own, and that sought the truth rather 
than their own praise. Again, they came, or were 
thought to come, to the work, not exercendi causa, 
(as one saith) but exercitati, that is, learned, not to 
learn : For the chief overseer and ep-yoStwKTijs under 
his Majesty, to whom not only we, but also our whole 
Church was much bound \ knew by his wisdom, which 
Nazianzen. thing also Nazianzcn taught so long ago, that it is a 
Trapouk ' preposterous order to teach first, and to learn after, 
caj>. i']. yea that to iv -nLQui Kepa/xtW iinvQavuv, to learn and 
At^hget. practise together, is neither commendable for the work- 
cap"'^yi' man, nor safe for the work. Therefore such were 
thought upon, as could say modestly with S. Hierome, 
Et HebrcBum sermonem ex parte didicimus, et in Latino 
penl ab ipsis incunabulis, &c. defriti sumus; Both we 
have learned the Hebrew tongue in part, and in the 
Latin we have been exercised almost from our very 
cradle. S. Hierome maketh no mention of the Greek 
tongue^ wherein yet he did excel ; because he trans- 
lated not the Old Testament out of Greek, but out of 
Hebrew. And in what sort did these assemble ? In 
the trust of their own knowledge, or of their sharpness 
of wit, or deepness of judgment, as it were in an arm 
of flesh ? At no hand. They trusted in him that 
[Rev. 3. ;.] hath the key of David, opening, and no man shutting; 
they prayed to the Lord, the Father of our Lord, to 
s. Aug. lib. the effect that St. Augustine did ; O let thy Scriptures 

Ti. Confess. , . ^ 

cap. 2. be my pure dehght ; let me not be deceived m them, 

neither let me deceive by them. In this confidence, and 
with this devotion, did they assemble together ; not 
too many, lest one should trouble another ; and yet 

' Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, died Nov. 
1, i6io. 

The Translators to the Reader. ' 297 

many, lest many things haply might escape them. If 
you ask what they had before them, truly it was the 
Hebre^v text of the Old Testament, the Greek of the 
New. These are the two golden pipes, or rather 
conduits, wherethrough the olive branches empty them- [Zech. iv. 
selves into the gold. Saint Augustine calleth them ^s^August.-i. 
precedent, or original, tongues; Saint Hierome, foun- g_*^'^'-- ^- 3, 
tains. The same Saint Hierome affirmeth, and Gratian S-Hieron. 

' ad Suniam 

hath not spared to put it into his decree. That as the^^^ff^f^^^ 
credit of the old books (he meaneth of the Old Testa- akuicini- 
ment) is to be tried by the Hebrew volumes ; so of the ut vetemm. 
New by the Greek tongue, he meaneth by the original 
Greek. If truth be to be tried by these tongues, then 
whence should a translation be made, but out of them? 
These tongues therefore (the Scriptures, we say, in 
those tongues) we set before us to translate, being 
the tongues wherein God was pleased to speak to 
his Church by his Prophets and Apostles. Neither 
did we run over the work with that posting haste that 
the Septuagint did, if that be true which is reported of Joseph. 
them, that they finished it in seventy two days ; neither la. 12. 
were we barred or hindered from going over it again, 
having once done it, like St Hierome, if that be true 5-. meron. 
which himself reporteth, that he could no sooner ^toS^. 
write any thing, but presently it was caught from him, y^nian. 
and published, and he could not have leave to mend 
it : neither, to be short, were we the first that fell in ffpiuToireipoi. 
hand with translating the Scripture into English, and Thesa^r. 
consequently destitute of former helps, as it is written j/jj" '"' ^' 
of Origen, that he was the first in a manner, that put 
his hand to write commentaries upon the Scriptures, 
and therefore no marvel if he overshot himself many 
times. None of these things : the work hath not 
been huddled up in seventy two days, but hath cost 

298 The Translators to the Reader. 

the workmen, as light as it seemeth, the pains of twice 
*t\erY<«p»«- seven times seventy two days, and more. Matters of 
dpijp TTfaa- such weight and consequence are to be speeded with 
Sop/wci. in maturity : for in a business of moment a man feareth 

Elect. . . . . 

[ver. 320]. not the blame of convenient slackness. Neither did 
we think much to consult the translators or commen- 
tators, Chaldee, Hebrew, Syrian, Greek, or Latin; no, 
nor the Spanish, French, Italian, or Dutch^ ; neither 
did we disdain to revise that which we had done, and 
to bring back to the anvil that which we had hammer- 
ed : but having and using as great helps as were need- 
ful, and fearing no reproach for slowness, nor coveting 
praise for expedition, we have at the length, through 
the good hand of the Lord upon us, brought the work 
to that pass that you see. 

Reasons Some peradventure would have no variety of 

moving us to , , , • ,, • , , , . 

set diversity scnscs to be sct in the margin, lest the authority of 
the margin, the Scriptures for deciding of controversies by that 
'i^S^^^"'' ^^°^ °f uncertainty should somewhat be shaken. But 
for each!'^ ^^ hold their judgment not to be so sound in this 
irivTo. to! point. For though whatsoever things are necessary are 
Srj\a. manifest, as b. Chrysostome saith; and, as ^.Augustine, 

in ■2. Thai ' in those things that are plainly set down in the Scrip- 
"^s Aug. 2. litres all such matters are found that concern faith, hope, 
'chrTst'.'cap. and charity: yet for all that it cannot be dissembled, 
'■ that partly to exercise and whet our wits, partly to 

wean the curious from loathing of them for their 
every where plainness, partly also to stir up our de- 
votion to crave the assistance of God's Spirit by 
prayer, and lastly, that we might be forward to seek 
aid of our brethren by conference, and never scorn 
those that be not in all respects so complete as they 
should be, being to seek in many things ourselves, 
^ See above, p. 140 note. 

The Translators to the Reader. * 299 

it hath pleased God in his Divine Providence here 

and there to scatter words and sentences of tliat 

difficulty and doubtfulness, not in doctrinal points 

that concern salvation, (for in such it hath been 

vouched that the Scriptures are plain) but in matters 

of less moment, that fearfulness would better beseem 

us than confidence, and if we will resolve, to resolve 

upon modesty with S. Augustine, (though not in this same s. Augusi. 

case altogether, yet upon the same ground) Melius est nes. aduter. 

capt 5. 

dubitare de occultis, quant litigare de incertis : It is 
better to make doubt of those things which are secret, 
' than to strive about those things that are uncertain. 
There be many words in the Scriptures which be i-rai Acyo- 
never found there but once, (having neither brother 
nor neighbour, as the Hebrews speak) so that 
we cannot be holpen by conference of places. 
Again, there be many rare names of certain birds, 
beasts, and precious stones, &c. concerning which 
the Hebrews themselves are so divided among them- 
selves for judgment, that they may seem to have 
defined this or that, rather because they would say 
something, than because they were sure of that which 
they said, as S. Hierome somewhere saith of the Sep- 
tuagint. Now in such a case doth not a margin do 
well to admonish the Reader to seek further, and not 
to conclude or dogmatize upon this or that perempto- 
rily? For as it is a fault of incredulity, to doubt of 
those things that are evident; so to determine of 
such things as the Spirit of God hath left (even in the 
judgment of the judicious) questionable, can be no 
less than presumption. Therefore as S. Augustine s^Au^^^o. 
saith that variety of translations is profitable for ■ the christian. 
finding out of the sense of the Scriptures : so diver- 
sity of signification and sense in the margin, where 


The Translators to the Reader, 

Plat, in 
Paulo se- 

the text is not so clear, must needs do good ; yea, is 
sixtusY. necessary, as we are persuaded. We know that 
Sixtus Quintus expressly forbiddeth that any variety 
of readings of their Vulgar edition should be put in 
the margin'; (which though it be not altogether the 
same thing to that we have in hand, yet it looketh 
that way;) but we think he hath not all of his own 
side his favqurers for this conceit. They that are 
wise had rather have their judgments at liberty in 
differences of readings, than to be captivated to one, 
when it may be the other. If they were sure that 
their high priest had all laws shut up in his breast, as 
Paul the second bragged, and that he were as free 
from error by special privilege, as the dictators of 
Rome were made by law inviolable, it were another 
matter ; then his word were an oracle, his opinion a 
decision. But the eyes of the world are now open, 
God be thanked, and have been a great while ; they 
find that he is subject to the same affections and 
infirmities that others be, that his skin is penetrable, 
and therefore so much as he proveth, not as much as 
he claimeth, they grant and embrace. 

Another thing we think good to admonish thee of, 
gentle Reader, that we have not tied ourselves to an 
uniformity of phrasing, or to an identity of words, as 
some peradventure would wish that we had done, 
because they observe, that some learned men some- 
where have been as exact as they could that way. 
Truly, that we might not vary from the sense of that 


TpwTO? y ot 
yptos ^tTTt. 
' [Compare 
Iliad XXI. 

Reasons in- 
ducing us not 
to stand curi- 
ously upon 
an identity 
of phrasing. 

^ So that even Vercellone, as late as i860, when publishing 
his collection of Varim Lectiones Vulg. Lot, BibL, probably 
was prevented by this rule from printing the text with them, 
" and so deprived them of a great deal of their value" (Canon 
Wordsworth, Gospel froin the St German MS, (g), Introduction, 
p. XVI. note 3). 

The Translators to the Reader. * 301 

which we had translated before, if the word signified 
the same thing in both places, (for there be some iroXvcrrina. 
words that be not of the same sense every where) 
we were especially careful, and made a conscience, 
according to our duty. But that we should express 
the same notion in the same particular word; as for 
example, if we translate the Hebrew' or Greek word 
once \ij purpose, never to call it intent ; if one where 
journeying, never travelling; if one where think, never 
suppose ; if one where pain, never ache ; if one where 
joy, never gladness, &lc. thus to mince the matter, we 
thought to savour more of curiosity than wisdom, 
and that rather it would breed scorn in the atheist, 
than bring profit to the godly reader. For is the 
kingdom of God become words or syllables? Why 
should we be in bondage to them, if we may be free ? 
use one precisely, when we may use another no less 
fit as commodiously ? A godly Father in the primi- 
tive time shewed himself greatly moved, that one of 
newfangleness called Kpa/S^aTov, o-Kt'/ATrov?, though the a bed. 
difference be little or none; and another reporteth, Caiist.'m. 
that he was much abused for turning cucurbita (to s'TiJZi. 
which reading the people had been used) into hedera. |"e'/Xi-. 
Now if this happen in better times, and upon so "^f- '°- 
small occasions, we might justly fear hard censure, 
if generally we should make verbal and unnecessary 
changings. We might also be charged (by scoffers) 
with some unequal dealing towards a great number 
of good English words. For as it is written of a cer- 
tain great Philosopher, that he should say, that those 
logs were happy that were made images to be wor- 
shipped; for their fellows, as good as they, lay for 
blocks behind the fire: so if we should say, as it 
were, unto certain words. Stand up higher, have a 

302 The Translators to the Reader. 

place in the Bible always ; and to others of like qua- 
lity, Get ye hence, be banished for ever; we might 
[James 2. 4.] be taxed peradventure with S. James his words, 
namely, To be partial in ourselves, and judges of evil 
xeirToKoyCct. thoughts. Add hereunto, that niceness in words was 
dSo\e<xxia. always counted the next step to trifling; and so was 
eiri ov6^La.iri. to DC curious aDout names too : also that we cannot 
irpolapa^KEu. follow a better pattern for elocution than God him- 
piauiuf self; therefore he using divers words in his holy writ, 
and indifferently for one thing in nature ; we, if we 
will not be superstitious, may use the same liberty in 
our English versions out of Hebrew and Greek, for 
that copy or store that he hath given us. Lastly, we 
have on the one side avoided the scrupulosity of the 
Puritans, who leave the old Ecclesiastical words, and 
betake them to other, as when they put washing for 
Baptism, and Congregation instead of Church : as also 
on the other side we have shunned the obscurity of 
the Papists, in their Azimes, Tunike, Rational, Holo- 
causts, PrcRpuce, Pasche, and a number of such like, 
[isai. 19, 18.] whereof their late translation ' is full, and that of pur- 
pose to darken the sense, that since they must needs 
translate the Bible, yet by the language thereof it may 
be kept from being understood. But we desire that 
the Scripture may speak like itself, as in the language 
of Canaan, that it may be understood even of the 
very vulgar. 

Many other things we might give thee warning of, 
gentle Reader, if we had not exceeded the measure 
of a preface already. It remaineth that we commend 
thee to God, and to the Spirit of his grace, which is 

1 The New Testament... translated faithfully into English out 
of the aulhentical Latin. Rheims, 1580, 4to. See also p. 288 
note. ' ' 

The Translators to the Reader. • 303 

able to build further than we can ask or think. He 
removeth the scales from our eyes, the vail from our 
hearts, opening our wits that we may understand his 
word, enlarging our hearts, yea, correcting our affec- 
tions, that we may love it above gold and silver, yea, 
that we may love it to the end. Ye are brought 
unto fountains of living water which ye digged not; 
do not cast earth into them, with the Philistines, Gen. 26. 15. 
neither prefer broken pits before them, with the J"- ''■ '3- 
wicked Jews. Others have laboured, and you may ° " ■*■ 3 ■ 
enter into their labours. O receive not so great 
things in vain : O despise not so great salvation. Be 
not like swine to tread under foot so precious things, 
neither yet like dogs to tear and abuse holy things. [Matt. ^. e.] 
Say not to our Saviour with the Gergesites, Depart out Matt. 8. 34. 
of our coasts; neither yet with £sau sell your birth- Heb. 12. 16. 
right for a mess of pottage. If light be come into 
the world, love not darkness more than light : if food, 
if clothing, be offered, go not naked, starve not your- 
selves. Remember the advice of Nazianzene, It is a Nazianz. 
grievous thing (or dangerous) to neglect a great fair, /Sairr. [brat. 
and to seek to make markets afterwards : also the A.iX ' 
encouragement of S. Chrysostome, It is altogether im- J^^a^Merr, 
possible, that he that is sober (and watchful) should at Tp"Zlrt^v 
any time be neglected: lastly, the admonition and me- '{s alry^ost. 
nacing of S. Augustine, They that despise God's -wiir'^^i'lf^t 
inviting them shall feel God's will taking veiigeance of^'e^;^;.ff_" 
them. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of ^°^?*°: 
the living God ; but a blessed thing it is, and will J°'':|„^„^. 
bring us to everlasting blessedness in the end, ^"^^"^ }i^:%f^ 
God speaketh unto us, to hearken; when he setteth ^^'^ is.^^ 
his word before us, to read it; when he stretcheth 
out his hand and calleth, to answer. Here am I, here 
we are to do thy will, O God. The Lord work a 

3°4 The Translators to the Reader. 

care and conscience in us to know him and serve 
him, that we may be acknowledged of him at the 
appearing of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, to whom 
with the Holy Ghost be all praise and thanksgiving. 



N.B.— A.V. denotes the Authorized Bible {i6u). 


Abbot, Ezra, Prof. 243 

Abbot, (?., Archp 19 n. 

Accuracy only comparative 33 

Addison, jfos 25 n. i 

Adjectives used for adverbs 112 

Adonai Jehovah, how represented 

in A.V 147 n. i 

.^/^Kj, Greelc Bible {1518) 47, 

48 and n. 2, 52 n., 140, 176 n., 
199 n. 2, 300 n., 229 n. 2 

Alford, H., Dean 91, 105 n. 

Alternative renderings ("||0r") al- 
leged superior to those in the 

Text 43 

American failure of attempt at re- 
vision of A.V. (i85i)...36andn. 2, 
37-8, 46, 113, 114, 208 n. 

Anderson, Chr. X2 n, 4 

Andrewes, Lancelot, Bp .-••137 

Angus, Joseph, Dr 108 n. 2 

Antedating books, fraud of ...16 n. 2 
.^^OfT^-j^/^a, omitted in Bibles ...rg 
and n. 

signatures and order as 

bound in 1769 29 n. 2 

mode of representing 

italic type in A.V 34; 7^ 

• Tremellius' Latin ver- 
sion of _ 44 

marginal notes in... 46 — 55 

Text used in translation 

Of 47-8 



Apocrypha, first printed in English 
by Coverdale 52 n. 

resembles Bishops' ver- 
sion more closely than Canonical 
Books 73 

parallel refs. to, ex- 
punged 119, 195 n. 2 

Translators of 140 

Apodosis suppressed in orig. texts, 
how treated in A.V 65-6 

Apostrophe, before j in poss. cases 
plur. of pers. pronouns 100 

before or after s to in- 
dicate poss. case sing, or plural 
iio> 152 n., 196 n., 23s n. i 

Appendices (A — E) of this work... 3, 
6, 7, 14) 15. 17' ip! 21, 22, 23, 
24. 29> 3°) 3i> 32. 33> 36 and n. i, 
38, 49> 51, 58 n. 2, 59, 63, 68, e^, 
71, 80, 88, 91, 98, no and n. i, 
III and n., 113, 132, 133, 145, 
153 n. 2, i6r n. i, 173 n., 187, 
202, 205, 217 n. 4, 233 n. 3, 
234 n. 

Ai'chaic style of A.V. corrected... 30, 
94, lOI 

Arnald, Richard 52 

Article in original Texts, how repre- 
sented in A.V 74-7 

Assembly of Divines 25 and n. 3 

Athanasius, quoted in' margin of 
Apocrypha 46 



Index of persons and subjects. 

Bagster's Hexapla 15 n. 

■ ; — Polyglott (1828) 121 

Bain, Eiig. Grammar, 75, iion. 2 

Baker papers 12 n. i 

Bancroft, Rich., Archp 13 11.2, 

296 n. 
Basketts, the, their Bibles (1744 — 56) 
...28, 201 n. 

Bayward, Thomas 239 and n. 3 

Bensly, R. L 49 n. i 

Bentley, Wm., his correct Bibles 

(1646 — 51) 26 

Beza, Theodore, influence of, on Re- 
visers of N.T....57, 60; 58 nn. 3 
and 4 

his Greek Testaments 60, 

243, 248 and n. i, 257 

his Latin N.T. (1556). ..6i, 

248 n. I 

Bibles: English 

A.V. {1611) 1 passim, 5 — 15 

Bishops' (1568 — 72). ..9, 12 n. i, 

4°. 43. 47> 48 and n. 2, 55, 57, 

. 58n. 1,61,73,89, 113, 131 n. 2, 

132, 136, 140, 144, 176 n., 

203 n. 2, 267 n. 

Coverdale's (i535) 4°, 5^ n., 

73, 92, 93 n., 105, 131 n. 2 

Douay {1609 — 10) 288 n. 

Geneva (1557 N.T., 1560) ...40, 
45"., 57. 61, 62, 92, 127, 132, 
267 n. 
Great (i539)---5 "-. 6'. 9^. 132. 

Recent (or modern) 2,3 

Revised (1871) i 

Rhemish (1582). ..262, 288 n., 

302 n. 
Tyndale's(i625— 34)...40, 92, 262 
Wicklif's (about 1380?). ..207 n. 1, 
250. 252, 255, 262 
French, R. P. Olivetan's (Geneva, 

1535) 140 n. 

The Pastors' (1588)... 140 u. 

German, Luther's (1522) 140 n. 

C«e^, Aldus (15 18)... 47, 48 and n..!, 
£2 n., 140, 176 n., 199 n. -z, 200 n., 
229 n. 2 

Elzevir (1624) 132 

Italian, Bruccioli's (1532) ...140 n. 

Diodati's (1607) 140 n. 

Spanish (Valencia, 1478) 140 n. 

Pinel (Ferrara, 1553) ... 

140 n. 

C. de Reyna's (1569) ... 

140 n. 

De Valera's revision of Va- 
lencia, 1478 (Amsterdam, 1602) ... 

140 n. 
Bilson, Thomas, Bp 12 n. 4, 

136 n., 264 
Blayney, B....^n., 23, 28—35, 38, 

45. 71. 80, loi, 117 n., 121, 133, 

145, 242 n. , 

his Report to the Delegates 

of the Oxford Press. ..28, 71, 121, 
133. 238—42 

Blunt, J. H. 13 n./, 25 n. 1 

Bodleian MSS. 13 n. 2 

Boel, Corn 10, 1 7 n. 

Bois, Anne 13 n. t 

Bois (or Boyse or Boys), f. ...12, 13 

and nn., 22 and n. i, 540 

Brady, Nicholas 133 

British and Foreign Bible Society . . . 

36 nn. I and 2 

British Museum, copies of A.V. 

there 5, 203, 214 

of later editions 

...25 n. 1, 201 n. 
Grenville Library 

in 40 

Brown, J. (of Haddington), his 

Bible 121 

Btichanan, Gilb 8 n. i 

Burgon, J. W., Dean 22 n. i 

Burnet, Gilb., Bp 139 n. 

" Caesural comma" 92 n. 

Calendar and Tables of Lessons no 

part of A.V 39 

Cambridge University Press 6 

editions of A.V., their 

merits 20-2 

Canne, John... 17.1 and n., 240 n. 2 

Capital letters, employment of. . . i, 
114 — 6 

intimating change of 

speaker 115 and n. 

— ^ representing JEHO- 
VAH, ..116 n. 5, 147 n. I, 161 n., 
163, 168, 174, 210, 223 n. 3 

Index of persons and subjects. 



Carafa, John Peter, Cardinal (Pope 

Paul IV.) 47 n. 

Cardinal numbers used for ordinal. . . 

Ill, 147 n. -i, 185 n., 233 n. i 

Cardwell, Edw 3 n., 35, 93 n., 

168 n. I, 193 n. 1, 219 n. 4 

Carletoii, G., Bp 264 

Changes (later) for the better from 

A.V. should be retained... 3, 4, 94 

Chaucer, Geoffrey 9,^ n., 105 

Chetvu or Hebrew text 41-2, 

68 and nn. i and 2, 219 n. 3 
Child, John, his evidence before a 

Parliamentary Committee 33 n. i 
Christian //. of Denraa.!]^ ...139 n. 
Chronology of Jewish Kings, attempt 

to set right 45-6, 134 

Clarke, Adam 121 

Classics, English i 

Codex Alexandrinus -.47, 90 n. -i, 

131, 176 n. 

Bezae 59.250.257 

— — Sangermanensis 49 n. 

Vaticanus...47 n., 48 and n. i, 


Common Prayer Book sometimes 
bound up with A.V. ...17, 21, 39 

Complutensian Polyglott (i5[7)...43, 
47, 48 and n. 2, 52, 60, 140, I76n., 
200 n., 255 n. 

Convocation of Province of Canter- 
bury I, 26, 27 and n. i 

Copies of A. v., where deposited. .,5, 

■ 6, 7 and n. t, 203, 214 

of later editions 15, 

16 and n. i, 17 n., 18 n., 19 n., 
20 n., 22, 23 n., 25 n. 1, 201 u., 
207 n. i 

copulative, absence of Hebr., how 

noted by Translators 77 

Corbinian, S 282 n. i 

Corrie, G. E 18 

Coverdale's Bible (i535)--4°. 5^ n., 
93 n., 131 n. 2, 139 and n. 

Cox, Richard, Bp i39 

Critical edition of Authorized Bible 


resources of Translators of 

N.T. very scanty 59 

Crutwell'se.iX\o-a. 121, 242 n. 

CMnberland,R., Bp, his Tables... 2 7 


Curtis, Th 35 and n. 

Dandolini, Lexicon 1 3 n. 2 

Daniel, Win., Archp 13 n.2 

/5afej in margin of Bibles ...27, 30, 
45-6, 133-5, 240 

Davenant, John, Bp 264 

Deane, W.J 131 

Delegates of Oxford University Press 
■■'6, 29, 35 

Delitzsch, F. 68 n. i, 88, 129 

Departures of modern Bibles from 


■ OS and 33 in A.V. ...114 
Divisioji of this work into sec- 
tions i 

of the Bible into chapters 

and verses 127, 132 n. 

marks of paragraph (If) 

in A.V 128 

Dod, B., publisher 29 and n. i 

Dort, Synod of 12 n. 4, 264 

Doubtful authority, words or clauses 

of, how indicated in A.V 68, 

73. 254 
Downes, And....j2 and n. 3, 140 n. 

Dresden, Latin MS. at 49 n. i 

Drusius 73 n. 2 

Dryden, Joht 96 

Durell, David. 239 and n. 1 

Eadie, John 12 n. 4, 

139 n., 240 n. -z, 282 n. 2 
Editions (later) of A. V. (1611)... 

dated 161 2 8vo 15 

1613 fol 16,63 

1616 8vo 17 

1 61 7 fol 18 

1619 8vo 18 

1629410 19 

1630 4to 19 

Cambridge 1629 fol. ...3, 

21, 45, 63, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73 n. 3, 
75, 118, 149 n. I, 164 n., 264 n. 
Cambridge 1637 4to 

23 n. 

Cambridge 1638 fol. ...3, 

21, 22 n. 2, 26, 45, 54, 55, 63, 64, 
68, 6<^, 70, 71 andn., 72, 77, 92, 
1 14, 118, 164 n. 


Index of persons and subjects. 

Editions, dated 163450! 24 

• 1640 fol 24 

Cambridge 1683 56, 

82, 92 

Large folio of 1 701 ....26 

Basketts'(i744 — 56). ..28, 

201 n. 

Paris, Cambridge 1762 ... 

29> 45, 54> 55, 56, 59> 63, 7i, 94, 
103, 104, no, 119, 132 n. 2, 134, 
135, 172 H', 238 

Blayney, Oxford 1769... 

29, 45, 55, 56, 59, 63, 68, 69, 71, 
78, 79, 81, 92, 94, 103, 104, no, 
n7n., no, 13211.2, 133, 134 

D*0yly and Mant's 4to. 

1817...23, 32, 87, 91, 132 n. 2, 
156 n. 2 

Oxford reprint, 1833 ... 

6, 7, 16, 18, 35, 86, 94, 203 
1835 32,33 

Coldstream 1845 33 

Bagster 1846 32, 

34, 36 n- I, 90, 121, 134 

American 1867 23, 

31, 'i'^^ 36, 37 and n. 2, 87, 91, 92, 
105. 134 

Cambridge nonpareil 1857 

Cambridge 1858, our mo- 
del .,.32, 38, 69, 79 n. 2, 80, 86, 
88, 94, ij<)-i 117, 119, 122, 128, 
129, 134, 135, 143, 147 andn.2, 
164 n. , 172 n., 194, 215 

Cambridge 1863 4to., our 

model for Apocrypha 33 n. 3 

"Scotch Edition," ...120, 

121 n., 240 and n. 2, 241 

Canne (Edin. 1747) 

121 n. 
Amsterdam, Svo. ...121 n. 

Nourse's Paragraph Bible 

(Boston 1836) 90, 

91, 92, 128 n., 130 

Relig. Tract Society's 

"Annotated Parag. Bible" 1861 
...88, 91, 92, 122 

Blackadder 1864 ...91, 92 

Newberiyi870 91 

Erasmus, editions of Greek Test. 
...60, 255 n. 

Ellifsis, in original texts, how 
treated in A. V 64,79 

Errors, notable in typography of 

A. V. (i6n) 8 

and of later editions 4 

and n. i, 17, 22 n. i, 23, 25 n. 

r, 3°-!' 32, 33-4, 38-9 
■ in the seventh command- 
ment (1632) , 25 and n. i 

many due to Tremellius' 

Version 44 

-eus, terminations in 1 88 n. 

Eyre {or Eyers ox Ayers), W. ...13 
n. 2, 136 n. 

Falmouth, Vise 17 

Favour, Dr 275n. 

"Fenowed" 275n. 

Field's Bibles shamefully inaccurate 

25 n. 2, 26, 2^. See Hills. 

...56, 91, 191 n. -i, 193 n. 2 

F.,!)! ....103,127 

Fine inflicted for misprint in Bible 

... 25 n. r 

"Five Clergymen" , Revision of the 

■•• 85,91, 135 n. 

Fletcher, John 135 n. 

Fritzsche, O. T. 49 n., 

73 n. 2, 131, 199 n. 2 
Fry, Francis 5 — 

n and nn., r3, 15 n., 18 and n., 

20, 24, 39 

Gell, Robt., Dr 43 n., 141 n. 

Genealogical charts, maps, &c. at- 
tached to A.V 39 

Genitive, double no, 

216 n. I, 217 

sign of, suppressed 

no and n. 2, 207 n. i, 217 n. 2 

George I., his four rules to secure 
an accurate Bible 27 

George II. , degrees conferred by . . . 
12 n. 1 

Gerimdial Infinitive of Hebrew, 
different methods of rendering in 
A.V 142 

Gijford, William 93 n. 

Ginsiurg, C. £>., Dr 44n. 

Goad, y., Dr 22 

Gorle, y 79 and n. 2, 115 

Index of persons and subjects. 


Goulbum, E. M., Dean 142 n. 

Gcnuer^John 9311. 

Grabe, J. E. 20011. 

Graduation of punctuation 92 

Grammatical peculiarities 2,30, 

109 — 12 

inflections, old ...loi 

Gravamina of Convoca,tion ...27 n. 

Greenfield, Wm. 360.1 

Griffith, Mr, Pemb. Coll. Oxon. 239 
Grote,j., his MS. cited 23 n., 

32, 57 n. i, 74, 81, 82, 91, 92 and 

n., 121 n., 133, 191 n. 2 

h initial, use of a or an before, in 

A.V 105— 8 

Hall, Joseph, Bp 264 

Hampton Court Conference (1603-4) 

Harding, John, Dr 138 

Harleian MSS. 12 

nn. ,1 and 3, 13 n. i 
Hayes, John, his Cambridge Bibles, 

1677—83 26 

Headings of columns and chapters. . . 

132. 239 

Hebrew Text used in A. V 42 

compactness of, how treated 

in A.V 65 

old accus. termination in, 

how treated in A. V 76 

Herodotus, quoted iii margin of Apo- 
crypha 46 

Hervey, Lord yi. C, Bp ...131 n. ■.= 

Hewlett's Commentary 7170. 

High Co7?imission Court 25 n. i 

Hills and Field bought their privi- 
lege by a bribe 26 

their Bibles of 1653-7 

very inaccurate ...25 n. 2, 26, 28 
History of text of A. V. ... 2, 3—39 

Hobson, Th iSn. 

Holland, producer of misprinted 

Bibles 25 and nn. 2 and 3 

Hooker, Richard i37 

Hopkins, John i33 

Home, T. H \ri., 117 n. 

Hort,F.7.A.,V'[oi. 132 

Importation of Bibles forbidden by 
statute 26 and n. 3 

Intensive forms 113 

Isaiah, single authorship of prophe- 
cies of 126 

Issues of A.V. (1611) two extant... 
6—12, 15 

relative value and priority of 

each 7 and n. 2 — 12 

Italic type of Authorized Bible ...2, 

23. 29. 3i> 38 
very defectively represented... 


useof, by Translators... 61 — 81 

fames I. curtails marginal notes in 
A.V 40 

orders the Bishops' Bible 

to be closely followed 43-4 

\ai Instructions ...ifl, i%(i 

Jehovah, Hebr., how represented 

in A. V 116 

n. 5, 147 n. I, 161 n. i, 223 n. 3 
feliovah Adonai, how represented 

in A.V 147 n. i 

ferome's Latin Version 48, 131 

fertisalem, the form "Hierusalem" 

...186 n. 

fob, book of, influence of its diction 

upon its successors 126 

unsatisfactory rendering 

of, inA.V 139 

Johnson, Samiiel 96 

Jonson, Ben 93 n-i 217 n. 2 

Josephus quoted in margin of A.V. 

...46 and n., 227 n. 2; 74, 90 

funius, Francis 44, 

46; 47, son., 51 n., 55, 57, 73 

andn. 2, 153 n. i, 1760., 1980. i, 

199 n. I 

Keri, or Hebrew margin ;i6, 

41-3, 68 and nn. i and 2, 219 n. 3 
Kilbur7ie, Wm 22 

n. i, 2^, 25 and n. 1, 26 
Kilbye, Ricliard, Dr 138 

and n. 2 

Killingworth, fohn 13 n. i 

King fames' s Bible i 

Kin^s Printers ...5, 20, 25, 27, 28, 

35. "7 

Latin MSS 49 n. i 


Index of persons and subjects. 

Latin translation of O. T. by Im- 

manuel Tremellius 44, 

57, go.n. 1, 15311. J, 17011., 17211. 

_ by Sebastian Mun- 

ster (1534) 61 

of Apocrypha by 

Francis Junius , 44 

of N. T. by Theo- 
dore Beza (1556) 57, 248 n. I 

. Version, Old ...47, 48, 90, 


Laud, PVm., Archy 25 n. i 

Lectionary, New Church 129 

Lenox, Mr 25 n. i 

Lewis, yoKn 1 2 

n. I, 27 nn. i and 2 

Lightfoot, y.B., Bp 2311. 

Litany, English 105 

Lively, Edward 139 

Lloyd, Win., Bp 26-7, 

3°: 67' 133. 134' 168 n. i, 238, 240 

Longfellow, H. W. 25 n. 2 

Lowth, Robfri, Bp 129, 13 in. 1 

Luard, H. R 13 n. 2 

pine, y. M. i39n- 

Manley, W. L 19 

Marginal dates 27, 30, 

45-6, 133-5, 240 

marks of A.V., errors in... 

180 n. i 

notes of A. V •1,27, 

31, 40—60 

notes, additional 26, 

27> 45 
their number and 

character in O. T 41-6 

in Apocrypha ...46 


inN. T. ...55—60 

textual references of A. V. 

...2, 8, 26, 27, 30, 116 — 27 
in Epistle of "Trans- 
lators to the Reader" 267 n. 

Marsh, G. P. 93 n., 207 p. i 

Mary, Queen I39n- 

Masoretic revisers of Hebrew text 

points 78, 130 

notes 42 

McLane, J. W. 36 

Mead (ox Mede), yos 22 

and n. i, 134 

Milton, yohn 96 

Misprints, see Rrrors. 

Missing fragment of 4th book of 

Esdras 49 n- 

Models of Cambridge Paragraph 

Bible 32, 38, 80, 86, ^^ 

Modernizers of diction of A. V 

30, 94, loi, 133 

Morinus, Peter 47n- 

Moses cornutus 9 

Moule,H. C. G 91 

Moulton^ W. F. 90, 92 

Munster, Sebastian 61 

Negative, archaic double in 

Newth, .5"., Dr 19, i38n. i 

New York Bible Society, 46 

North, yames 207 n. 2 

Number of final Committee on A. V. 
...12 and n. 4, 13 n. 2, 39, 264 

and Oh, distinction between ... 

Objective case used for nominative 

Omissions through same beginning 
of clauses 17 

Origen's Hexapla, Dr Field's edition 
of 127 

Original texts from which A. V. was 
rendered 2, 42, 47, 57, 60 

" II Or" the word prefixed to alter- 
native renderings 41, 55 

Orthography i, 93 — 109 

Overall, y0kn,lSp 137 

" own," use of in A. V. representing 
simple poss. pron. of original 
text 78 

Oxford University Press 6, 28, 

29. 35.. 127' 133. 238 
'— Bibles, see Editions. 

Palmer, y. Prof. 49 n. 

Paragrap/is, custom of printing the 

Bible in 127 

marks (IT) of division 

into, in A.V 128 

Parentheses, replaced by commas in 

modern Bibles 81 

Index of persons and subjects. 



Paris, Dr, 28—35, 45. 46, 67. 72, 

loi, 238 
Participles past, archaic forms of. . . 
103, 217 and n.3 
Particles, various forms of. .. 103 & n. 

Paston letters (1470) 93 n. 

Patrick^ Shnon, Bp 122 

Paul, C. K. 13211.2 

Peck, Francis, "desiderata curiosa" 
...12 nn. I — 3 

Permune, J. J. ^. , Dean 83, 88 

Philoxenian Syriac version 59 

Pleonastic pronouns in and n. 

Pliny, quoted in margin of Apo- 
crypha 46 

Plural, archaic 87 and n., 

228 and n. i 

regarded as sing. ...229 and 

n. I 
Poetical portions of Bible, arrange- 
ment of, in Camb. Par. Bible ...129 

Polyglott, Bagster's (1828) I2i 

Complutensian (1517) ... 

43, 47, 48 and n. 2, 52, 60, 140, 
176 n., 200 n., 255 n. 

. Walton's (1657). ..47, 283 


" Portesses" 292 n. 

Pope, Alex 13 n.^ 

Pastel, William 283 n. i 

Preterite, archaic 101-3 

Prooioun pers., omission of with 
Hebr. infin. , how indicated by 

Translators ; -.78 

Proper Names explained in the ad- 
ditional marginal notes ...45, 239 
alternative forms of 

•••55. 94 

introduced into A.V. 

on authority of Josephus 73 

. absolute uniformity 

in spelling of, not to be aiined at 
...97 n. 
. parallel references re- 
lating to, in Camb. Par. Bible ... 
Psalms, Pr.-Book version Df ...139 
PtmctuationoiA.Y..,.i, 27, 81—92 
Pursuivant fetcht to a reviser of 

A.V i^ "■ 3 

Ptisey, E. B., Canon 82 n. 2 

Rainolds, John, Dr 138 and n. i 

Rashe tevoth 13 n. z 

Reeves, John 127 

References, parallel ir6 — 27 

Rep-inted leaves (244) in A.V. 

Bibles 5, 6 and n., 10,12 

Revised version of the Bible r 

Rheims, Vulgate N.T. of (1582) ... 
262, 288 n., 302 n. 

Richardson, Charles 275 n. 

Rivalry, generous between English 

versions i 

Rivington, C. R 19 n. 

Robinson, Ed. 36 

Rtdes laid down by Translators but 

not carried out 74 

the four, of George 1 27 

s after Hebrew termination -im ...113 

Saravia, Adrian de 137 

Savile, Sir Henry 140 

Scattergood, A7it., Dr 26, 57 n. i 

Schaff, Phil. ...37 n. r, 203 n. i, 243 

Scholefield, James, Prof. 35, 79 

n. I, 90, 91, 233 n. 2 

Schultens, Albert 139 

Scott, Thomas 121 

Seeker, 7%., Archp 30, 240 n. 

Sections, this work divided into 

seven ^ 

Selden, John 19 n., 140 n. i 

Septuagint Greek version of Old 

Test 41, 68 

Roman (1586) ...47 and 

li., 48 and n. z, 90 n. 2, 140, 
176 n., 229 n. 2 
Shakespeare, different ways of spell- 
ing his name 94 

quoted 108 n. 2, 

no n.3; 229 n. I 
Singular, archaic use of, for plural 
... [I [ 

Smith, Miles, Bp i2n. 4, 39, 

136 n., 264 

Spalding, R 139 

Speed, yo., his patent for genea- 
logical charts, &c 39 

Spenser, Edmtmd 292 n. 

Standard copies Qi A.Y . (i6n) ...6 
of Cambridge Para- 
graph Bible , 38 


Index of persons and subjects. 


Status Emfhatims of Chaldee 

222 n.i 
Stephen, Robert, his Greek Test. . . . 60, 

243, 248 and n. i, 255 n., 257 
■ — ■■ division into verses 

invented by 127, 132 n.i 

Sterne, Rich 22 

Sternhold, Thomas 133 

Stevens, H. 25 n. i 

Superlative, dotthle 112 

Syndics of the Cambridge University 

Press 6, 35, 79n.2 

Tables of Scripture Measures, &c.... 


of Kindred, Time, Offices, 

&c 27 

Targum, or Chaldee paraphrase. ..41 

Tate, Nahum 133 

Tenison, Th., Archp 20 

Texts, original, used for A. V. ... 2, 42 , 

47. 57. 60 

of Scripture, parallel in A.V. 

...2, 116 — 27 

Time spent in translating A.V 

1 2 and n. 2 
Tischendorf, Aen. F. C, his Septua- 

gint...i,'j n. ; 90, 92 

Tomson, Lawr 132, 251 

Transition from oraiio obliqua to 0. 

directa in Hebr., how indicated 

in A.V 67, 73 

Translators to the Reader ...12 n. 2, 

39, 262, 267—304 

Tregelles, S. P., Dr 90 

Tremellius, Immanuel 44, 57, 

90 n. I, 153 n. T, 170 n., 172 n. 
Trench, R. C., Archp 85, 114, 

233 n.2 

Trevisa, John 282 n. 2 

Turin, Latin MS. at 49 n. 1 

Turton, T'., Bp 21, 33 n.2, 

35-6, 41 n., 57, 61 n. I, 65, 168 

n.i, 223 n.3 
Type, variation of in Bible, method 

of and reasons for employment . . . 

fix, 62 

Tyrrell, jfames 130.2 

tin- prefix in place of /ot- or /«-... 1 1 2 

Unequal execution of A. V 136 

Uniformity of practice in marking 
grammatical divergences not fol- 
lowed in A.V 70 

Ussher (or Usher), James, Archp.... 
13 n.2, 24, 4fi n., 133, 282 n.i 

Verbs, transitive and intransitive 
confounded 112 

Vercellone, C 300 n. 

Vulgate ...52 n., 61, 69 n., 73 n.2, 
117, 118, 176 n., 262, 300 n. 

Wake, W; Archp., his care for an 
accurate Bible 27 

Walker, Ant., Dr 12 and nn.2 

and 3, 13 

Waller, G. C. 92 n. 

Walpole, Sir R 27 

Walton, Brian, Bp, his Polyglott 

(1657) 47, 283 n.-^ 

Walton, Isaac 138 and n.2 

Ward, S. Dr 22, 264 and n. 

Westcott, B. F., Canon 12 n.2, 

136 n., 243, 248 nn.2 and 3,-2S3n. 

Wetstein, j. J 126 

Wheeler, Prof 239 and n.2 

Whitelocke, Buls 25 n. 3 

Wicklif, John ...207 n.i, 250, 252, 

255, 262 
Wigrani's "Hebr. Vade Mecum" 

Wilson, Lea 21, 22, 214 

Thj}mas,')&^ ...121, 242 n. 

William,, Canon 126 

Winer, G. B go, 92 

Wolfenbuttel Bible 25 n.i 

Wordsworth, Chr., Bp ...86, 89, 92 

John, Canon... 300 n. 

Charles, Bp ... 1 3 2 n. 2 

Wright, W. Aldis 1 10 n. 2, 

217 n.2 

Ximenes, Francisco de Cisneros, Car- 
dinal 48 n. I 

Zeugma, Hebraic use of, how treated 
in A.V 66, 73